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or THE 











COPYRIGHT, 13i>3, 


Tn thE people nf my first pastorate, -the Congregation 
al churches of Stoughton and Cooksville, and the Fresby- 
tsrian church of Cambridge, Wisconsin, this narrative is 
inscribed with grateful remembrance, 




Legendary history of the Muh-he-ka-ne-ok. Visit to the 

Stockbridge reservation.- Origin of this monograph.. . . vii-xiv 


Mission to the "River Indians." John Sergeant. Settlement 
of Stockbridge, Massachusetts. Prohibitory liquor-law. 
- David Brainerd 1-11 


Jonathan Edwards. Stephen West. Stockbridges in the 
war of the Revolution. Removal to New York. The 
Brothertowns 12-16 


Samson Occum. Stockbridge delegation visits President 

Washington "White heathen." War of 1812 17-21 


Removal of part of the tribe to Indiana, thence to the Green 
Bay region. --Northern Missionary Society (absorbed in 
to the United Foreign Missionary Society as that was 
later into the American Board). Jedidiah Morse visits 
what is now Wisconsin. First Protestant sermon here. 
John Metoxen (same nam e probably as that once written 
Mtocksin). First temperance work in this region 21-23 


Removal from New York to Statesburg (South Kaukauna). 
Rev. Jesse Miner, the first Presbyterian or Congrega 
tional minister to make a home in Wisconsin. First 
school mistress here. Calvin Colton s narrative. Work 


for the Sioux. Chauncey Hall s letter. Removal to 
Stockbridge, Wisconsin 24-34 


Evils attending removal. Mr. Marsh s report of a trans-Mis 
sissippi trip. Death for witchcraft 34-38 


Munsees. Stockbridge church joins the Convention. Polit 
ical divisions. Methodist services. Jeremiah Slinger- 
land. Condition of the tribe in 1848. The old mission- 
house. Removal to Shawano county. Later pastorates. 38 - 45 


Stockbridge and Munsee council. Constitution of the t nited 

Tribe 48-52 


Inscription in the Ayscouth Bible. Gideon Hawley. Time 
of certain removals. Denomination of Stockbridge In 
dian church. Mr. and Mrs. Slingerland. Miss Electa 
W. Quinney. First school master here. Fugitive slaves. 
"Six wars." Gregorian calendar. A shameful de 
ceitErrata. York money Index 53-58 


The point of view from which this narrative has been prepared 
is that of one writing the history of certain Wisconsin churches,--- 
those that are or have been in connection with the ecclesiastical 
body organized 1839, January 17th, as the Presbytery of Wiscon 
sin, and re-organized 1840, October 6th, as the Presbyterian and 
Congregational Convention of Wisconsin. First of these chrono 
logically, and in certain other respects as well, was that among the 
Stockbridge Indians. But the history of this church could not be 
adequately given without telling that also of its people. Thus 
what was designed to be a chapter has become a little book, a 

"I am a true Native American, descended from one of those 
characters whose memory every true American reveres. My grand 
father, David Nau-nau-neek-nuk, was a warrior, and he assisted 
your fathers in their struggle for liberty." 

Thus Waun-nau-con, alias John W. Quinney, began a memorial 
to the Congress of the United States, dated at Washington 1852, 
April 12th. f He was asking for citizenship and a home. As 
legend comes before authentic history we will let him tell, as he 
did in a Fourth of July speech J some of the traditions of his 
people : 

"About the year 1645, and when King Ben (the last of the 
hereditary chiefs of the Muh-he-con-new Nation) was in his prime, 
a Grand Council was convened of the Muh-he-con-new tribe, for the 
purpose of conveying from the old to the young men, a knowledge 
of the past. Councils, for this object especially, had ever, at stated 
periods, been held. Here for the space of two moons, the stores of 
memory were dispensed; corrections and comparisons made, and 

t NOTE. What seems to be an older form of this name is Quinequaunt. 
The W probably stands for the Indian name preceding. 
J NOTE. At Reids ville, New York, 1854. 


the results committed to faithful breasts, to be transmitted again 
to succeeding posterity. 

"Many years after, another, and a last Council of this kind was 
held; and the traditions reduced to writing, by two of our young 
men, who had been taught to read and write, in the school of the 
Rev. John Sergeant, of Stockbridge, Massachusetts. They w r ere 
obtained, in some way, by a white man, for publication, who ; soon 
after, dying all trace of them became lost. The traditions of the 
tribe, however, have mainly been preserved; of which I give you 
substantially the following : 

** 4 A great people came from the North- West: crossed over the 
gait-waters, and after long and weary pilgrimages, (planting many 
colonies on their track,) took possession, and built their fires upon 
the Atlantic coast, extending from the Delaware on the south, to 
the Penobscot on the north. They became, in process of time, 
divided into different tribes and interests ; all, however, speaking 
one common dialect. This great confederacy, comprising Dela- 
wares, Munsees, Mohegans, Narragansetts, Pequots, Penobscots, 
and many others, (of whom a few are now scattered among the dis 
tant wilds of the Westothers supporting a weak, tottering exist 
ence; while, by far, a larger remainder have passed that bourne 
to which their brethren are tending,) held its Council once a year, 
to deliberate on the general welfare. Patriarchial delegates from 
each tribe attended, assisted by priests and wise men, who commu 
nicated the will, and invoked the blessing, of the Great and Good 
Spirit. The policy and decisions of this Council were every where 
respected, and inviolably observed. Thus contentment smiled up 
on their existence, and they were happy. Their religion, communi 
cated by priests and prophets, was simple and true. The manner 
of worship is imperfectly transmitted; but their reverence for a 
Great and Good Spirit (whom they referred to by looking or 
pointing upwards,) the observance of feasts and fasts, in each year; 
the offering of beasts in thanksgiving and for atonement, is clearly 
expressed. They believed the soul to be immortal; in the existence 
of a happy land beyond the view, inhabited by those whose lives 
had been bJameless: while for the wicked had been a region of mis 
ery reserved, covered with thorns and thistles, where comfort and 
pleasure were unknown. Time was divided into years and seasons; 


twelve moons for a year, and a number of years by so many win 

"The tribe, to which your speaker belongs, and of which there 
were many bands, occupied and possessed the country from the 
sea-shore, at Manhattan, to Lake Champlain. Having found an 
ebb and flow of the tide, they said: This is Muh-he-con-new, 
like our waters, which are never still, From this expression, and 
by this name, they were afterwards known, until their removal to 
Stockbridge, in the year 1730. flousatonic Kiver Indians, Mohe- 
gans, Manhattas, were all names of bands in different localities, but 
bound together, as one family, by blood, marriage and descent, 

"Where are the twenty-five thousand in number, and the four 
thousand warriors, who constituted the power and population of 
the great Muh- he-con-new Nation in 1604? They have been vic 
tims to vice and disease, which the white man imported. The 
small-pox, measles, and "strong waters" have done the work of an 


"What are the treaties of the general government? How often, 
and when, has its plighted faith been kept? Indian occupation 
forever, is, next year, or by the next Commissioner, more wise than 
his predecessor, re-purchased. One removal follows another, and 
thus your sympathies and justices are evinced in speedily fulfilling 
the terrible destinies of our race. 

"My friends, your holy book, the Bible, teaches us that indi 
vidual offences are punished in an existence, when time shall be no 
more. And the annals of the earth are equally instructive, that 
national wrongs are avenged, and national crimes atoned for in 
this world, to which alone the conformations of existence adapt 

"These events are above our comprehension, and for wise pur- 
poses. For myself and for my tribe, I ask for justice I believe it 
will sooner or later occur and may the Great and Good Spirit en 
able me to die in hope. 

WANNUAUCON, the Muh-he-con-new." 

Mr. Quinney seems to have selected such of the tribal tradi 
tions as he himself believed. My ignorance of his subject forbids 


me to do more than to raise the question whether or not his con 
cept of the ancient religious observances of his people was affected 
by his own Christian training and belief. This plea for his people 
was perhaps his last public effort. He died 1855, July 21st. 

From legend we pass to history. Here there is abundant ma 
terial. The story of the Muh-he-ka-ne-ok is one that in former 
years has given hope to the philanthropist and joy to the Christian. 
Parts of it have often been told. If the narrative of this later time 
and the account of the present condition of the tribe are of a kind 
that can not please, we are to remember the surroundings in which 
we have placed these people, and the neglect with which we have 
treated them. 

On the evening of the first of June of this year I came to the 
present Stockbridge reservation. The road led from the hamlet of 
Gresham, a Bavarian settlement, a place prettily situated, but foul 
with beer. Thither through rain I had come by a drive of fourteen 
miles from Shawano, the nearest railway station. Beds of corduroy 
crossing wide marshes made the road thence passable and the jour 
ney unpleasant. The mail-carrier with whom I had come spoke poor 
German and much worse English. My only fellow-passenger was 
the son of a Norwegian mother, but on his father s side one of the 
the tribe I had come to visit. Like most other young men of this 
people he is a logger. His education had been neglected. In his 
boyhood he was turned from school by Mr. Slingerland, f he said, 
and this because bis parents were of the "citizens party." How 
full of hate was the struggle between this party and its opponents 
this incident, which seemed to me to be truthfully told, helps to 

I was glad to turn from Gresham, a place of temptation to the 
Indians, and through the still falling rain to walk into the Indian 
country. The swollen Red River, then dashing over its granite 
bed, runs there almost on the line of the reservation. It and the 
larger Wolf to which it is tributary, have floated off to the great saw 
mills of Oshkosh and elsewhere, the best of the logs that once 
stood on the Indians land. Some great trees, however, are left, and 
most of the reservation is covered with second-growth forest. In 
deed, the area surrendered to bush and tree seems to be encroaching 

t NOTE A teacher and pastor of whom we shall hear later. 


upon that given to the plow. Scattered houses of logs upon "clear 
ings" or small farms are the homes of the people. I doubt that 
they live in as much of comfort as their fathers did on the east side 
of Lake Winnebago, when fifty years ago their pastor, Rev. Cut 
ting Marsh, would have had his people remain where they were and 
advised them to become citizens. 

Now the old question is up again. It seems that the land of 
the reservation is likely to be allotted in severalty. The prospect 
of getting a share was, about the time of my visit, bringing thither 
all who had any claims whatever to tribal relationship and some 
who perhaps had none at all. Already there were new-comers on 
the reservation who had no more intention of making homes there 
than I had. They had come because there was a chance of their 
getting a piece of land which, if secured, would be sold as soon as 

A tedious drive by another road, somewhat shorter, but rather 
worse, brought me again to Shawano. The Presbyterian pastor 
there, Rev. Jacob Van Rensslaer Hughes, is by virtue of his faith 
fulness bishop also of the church at Stockbridge. For the old 
name has been given to a second Wisconsin village, if village that 
can be called which consists of little more than a blacksmith shop, 
a manse and a church. The last is used also as a school. It is in 
poor condition and ought to be replaced. 

The story of later pastorates will be found in due order. At 
present Mr. Hughes serves these people as he can, and sees to it 
that a good teacher is found for the school which the United States 
government maintains among them. 

There is no post-office on the Stockbridge reservation. There 
is one, Keshena, on that belonging to the Meuomonees. There and 
at Gresham the Stockbridges get their mail. 

Years ago Horace Bushnell, preaching before the American 
Home Missionary society, said, "Emigration tends to barbarism." 
He might have added, "Isolation tends to barbarism." What can 
be expected of a people thrust a generation ago into a wilderness 
so dense that civilization has scarcely reached it even yet? On one 
side their nearest neighbors are peasants, European in habits and 
dialect, on another, the Menomonee Indians, rather less advanced 
in civilization than themselves and divided religiously into pagans 


and members of the church of Rome. The logging camps, where 
most of the young Indians of both tribes spend the long winters 
and the delayed springs of northern Wisconsin, are poor schools for 
the development of right character, or even for training in habits of 
steady industry. 

Some families have left the reservation and made homes at 
Shawano. Into some of these I was received, and I found therein 
cleanliness and comfort. In character and intelligence these peo 
ple will compare favorably with their neighbors of the more favored 
race. Nor should it be forgotten that on the reservation also there 
are those who are true to the better traditions of a people who num 
ber John Sergeant and Jonathan Edwards among their spiritual 

With a story to tell that embraces part of the biography of men 
like these whom I have just named, that covers the history of a 
tribe unique in its good will and practical services to our colonial 
forefathers and to us their descendants (according to the flesh, to 
the spirit, or to both) : a story that brings us again into the light of 
early days in Wisconsin, with such a subject as this if I*do not 
interest those who care for these things, it must be because my 
work has been ill done. If so, the reason may be that the labor 
has been one of intervals, and has always been subordinated to the 
duties of busy pastorates. 

Out of the material gathered when there was opportunity for 
such work, two papers have been prepared and published: "Missions 
on the Chequamegon Bay," in volume XII. of the Wisconsin His 
torical Collections, and "Negro Slavery in Wisconsin." The sub 
stance of the former was presented as an address at the Northwest 
Educational Conference held at La Pointe on Madeline Island, 
1892, July 12th and 13th, under the auspices of the Lake Superior 
Congregational Club. The latter was an address before the State 
Historical Society at its annual meeting, December 8th of the same 
year. Various articles also have appeared in "Our Church Work," 
"The Southern Congregationalist," "The Milwaukee Sentinel," "The 
Northwestern Congregationalist" and other papers. 

If in the forms of the Muh-he-ka-ne-ew dialect John Sergeant 
and the younger Edwards made errors, these it is probable can not 
be corrected by any one now living. Some of the older members 


of the tribe understand the vernacular of their fathers and can 
speak it. But their knowledge thereof is neither authoritative nor 
scientific. Information given me by one of these, Tau-tau-yah- 
com-mo-wah, (Talker to the point; or, Speaker to the point), [ have 
incorporated into the first note in the chapter on the "Church in 
the Wilderness." \ 

It can not be said that there is a fixed standard for the spelling 
of Indian words. These appear accordingly on the following pages 
as they are used by writers whom I have laid under contribution 
to the making of this narrative. 

The tribal Constitution, Thomas Coram s inscription in the 
Ayscouth Bible, some added notes and errata, will be found in the 

It would be ungrateful not to speak of the favors shown me 
in the library of the State Historical Society J by Secretary Reuben 
Gold Thwaites, the late librarian Daniel Steele Durrie, his succes 
sor Isaac S. Bradley, and their assistants. Nor do I forget the 
help I have found in the library of Beloit college, my own alma 
mater, and the encouragement that my former instructors have 
given me. For help in proof reading and the slavish work of mak 
ing an index, meant to be reasonably full, I owe thanks to my 
sister, Orpha E. Leavitt, A. B., instructor, formerly in Downer col 
lege, Fox Lake, and now in Doane college, Crete, Nebraska. 

As already stated, this little monograph was originally de 
signed to be but part of a history of the churches that are or 
have been in connection with the Presbyterian and Congregational 
Convention of Wisconsin, and of that body itself. "Professor 
Blaisdell," say the minutes of the convention for 1891, "called 
attention to an extended history of our churches being prepared 
by Rev. J. N. Davidson, of Stoughton. It was voted that a com 
mittee of five be appointed to review the work, take charge of 

t NOTE. These translations are his own. He is commonly known as 
Dennis Turkey. He recognizes his Indian name by writing between his inter 
esting English appellatives an initial T. 

t NOTE. I do not doubt that there are many well-informed citizens of 
Wisconsin who do not know that this library is believed, with reason, to rank 
third in the United States in fullness of collections pertaining to American 

NOTE. Fond clu Lac, September 30th. 


its publication and bring it to the attention of the churches; the 
committee to consist of Prof. J. J. Blaisdell, Rev. J. Porter, Rev. C. 
W. Csmp, Rev. Luther Clapp and Rev. S. P. Wilder." 

All of these gentlemen have shown much more than a mere 
kindly interest. I am sure that I shall not seem to make an invid 
ious distinction when I say that the eldest member of the commit 
tee, Jeremiah Porter, D. D., and the brother next to him in years, 
Rev. Luther C app, have placed me under peculiar obligations. 
Even as these pages were passing through the press our beloved 
Father Porter was not, for God took him. 

Associated with his name is that of his Andover classmate, 
Rev. Cutting Marsh. His, in greater part than those pages can 
show, was the good work done among the Stockbridges in Wiscon 
sin. That he was not longer upheld in his labor among them 
seems to have been partly their own fault and partly a mistake of 
the American Board in giving up the ancient mission among his 
misguided people. 

Whom may a covenant-keeping God save and bless ! 

Two Rivers, ttliscansin, 

IB 93, September 5th, 



Through the Stockbridge Indian church our Wisconsin eccle 
siastical history is directly connected with that of Massachusetts. 
The Muh-he-ka-ne-ok, or Housatonics (often called the River Indi 
ans), f and perhaps other closely allied tribes or sub-tribes were 
living, 1722, in the valley of the Housatonic river, western Massa 
chusetts. On the 30th of June (llth of July, new style) of that 
year, the General Court (legislature) of the colony granted to some 
whites two townships of land in that vicinity. This gift was made 
subject to the rights of the Indians. A chief named Konkapot 
(Conkepot) and twenty others of his tribe signed the deed, 1724, 
April 25th (May 6th). The consideration was "460, three barrels 
of sider, thirty quarts of rum." The Indians kept two small reser 
vations, Skatekook, now in Sheffield, and Wnahktukook, ten miles 
north. Konkapot, the. principal person at Wnahktukook, was soon 
discovered to be a worthy, industrious man and favorably inclined 
toward Christianity. Through Rev. Samuel Hopkins of West 
Springfield, whose nephew Mrs. Stowe has made famous in "The 
Minister s Wooing," the Board of Commissioners for Indian Af- 

t NOTE. According to President Edwards the younger (of Union college), 
the name of these people is Muh-he-ka-ne-ew, with a plural form Muh-he-ka-ne- 
ok . The elder President Dwight of Yale gives the forms Muh-he-ka-ne-uw, sin 
gular, and Muh-he-a-kun-nuk, plural. Edwards ought to be good authority, 
for his boyhood from his seventh year until he was nearly thirteen was spent 
among them. He tells us that he was more familiar at one time with the In 
dian language than with the English. He thought and dreamed in Indian. 
This is more easily understood when we remember that owing to a difficulty 
with his eyes he did not learn to read until comparatively late. The forms 
ending in k are probably all plurals, with the very doubtful exception of Muh- 
he-con-nuk, which strictly denotes the place of residence. It would be tedioua 
to give all the varieties of spelling. In the published volumes of the Wiscon 
sin Historical Collections we have the redundant plurals, Mo-he-kun-nucks, 
Mohickanucks, Moheakunnuks. 

One of the few members of the tribe who still retain a knowledge of the 
language calls his people the Mah-e-con-news. Making allowance for the evi 
dently English form of ths plural and for the blending into one of the last two 
syllables of the name as given by President Edwards, we find that these forms 
are substantially the same. The ew in both is an attempt to represent the long 
sound of M as heard in the first syllable of beauty. For slight modifications of 


fairs, of whom Governor Jonathan Belcher was one, and who were 
agents in Boston of what Jonathan Edwards calls "the honorable 
society in Scotland for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge,** 
heard of the willingness of the "River Indians," as they were then 
commonly called, to receive Christian instruction. A favorable 
opportunity to meet them soon arose. The tribe had aided the 
colonists in their struggle with the French. In recognition of ser 
vices rendered, Konkapot and another chief named Umpachene 
were summoned by the governor to come to Springfield in May, 
1734, to receive, the former the title of captain and the latter that of 
lieutenant in the British army. To persuade these chiefs to per 
mit the establishment of a mission among their people, the Com 
missioners had appointed deputies: Mr. Hopkins, the projector 
and afterward historian of the mission, and Stephen Williams, D. D., 
of Longmeadow, of whose distant kinsman, Eleazar Williams, we 
often hear in the early history of Green Bay in our own state. In so 
important a matter the newly made captain and lieutenant wished to 
have the approval of their people. Accordingly a tribal meeting 
was held 1734, July 8th (19th), in what is ^now the town of Great 
Barrington, Berkshire county, Massachusetts. A four days con 
sultation and discussion took place. Dutch traders from New 
York who had been accustomed to furnish the Indians with liquor 

these spellings and lor the name which the tribe chose for the reservation, or 
district, which it now occupies, see the tribal constitution as printed in the 

Translations also vary. David Dudley Field, for many years pastor at 
Stockbiidge, Massachusetts, gives : "The people of the great waters continu 
ally in motion." Miss Electa Jones, historian of the town, prefers the render 
ing, "The people of the continually flowing waters." The reference is prob 
ably to tidal movement. 

The language, a dialect of the Algonkin tongue, is called Mohegan by 
President Edwards the elder. Of this word another spelling is Mohican. It is 
probably a shortened and corrupted form of the tribal name. 

There was a legend among "the people of the waters that are never still" 
that their ancestors came from a country very far to the northwest of their 
Massachusetts home, "having crossed the great water at the place where this 
and the other country are nearly connected." They came to a great river, and 
noticing the ebb and flow of its waters, said : "This is Muh-he-con-nuk," and 
there they made their home. This river, beside which the Muh-he-ka-ne-ok lived 
until after the coming of the white men, to this country, was known to the Del 
aware Indians as the Mahecanittuck (or Mohicannettuck), though its Mohegan 
name is Chalemuc and the Iroquois called it Cohahatatea. It is our Hudson, 
called by the member of the tribe of whom I have spoken above, Muh-e-con-took. 
It is from this stream that the Stockbridges got their name the "River Indians." 


naturally opposed the movement. But under the leadership of 
Konapot, who must have been a man of great ability as well as of 
signal worth, the tribe became unanimous in giving a welcome to 
the proposed mission. 

Meanwhile the heart of John Sergeant, tutor in Yale college, 
had been moved to undertake just such work. 4> I should be 
ashamed to call myself a Christian or even a man," said he, "and 
yet refuse to do what lay in my power, to cultivate humanity 
among a people naturally ingenious enough, but who, for want of 
instruction, live so much below the dignity of human nature, and 
to promote the salvation of souls perishing in the dark when yet 
the light of life is so near them." In October, 1734, Mr. Sergeant 
came to visit the people among whom he purposed to dwell. He 
was accompanied by one of the nearest resident pastors, Rev. Ne- 
hemiah Bull of Westfield, who, in place of Mr. Hopkins kept away 
by illness, had attended with Mr. AYilliams the conference of the 
preceding July. Mr. Sergeant and his friend spent one night in 
the woods without fire or shelter. On Sunday the 13th (24th) of 
October, the day after their arrival, thay gathered a congregation 
in which were twenty adults.. All gave good heed to what w T as 
said but it was noticed that Konkapot and family were among the 
most attentive listeners. Then or soon thereafter, the interpreter, 
Ebeneezer Poohpoonuc desired to be baptized. Having obtained 
from him among other declarations the statement that he would 
rather burn in the fire than deny the truth, Mr. Bull baptized him, 
Thursday the 18th (29th) of October, 1734, as the first fruits of the 
mis3ion. The meeting was held at the dwelling of Lieutenant 
Umpachene, a wigwam which is said to have been fifty or sixty 
feet long. Perhaps candidates for church-membership are not ex 
amined any more carefully now than was faithful E^eneezer Pooh 
poonuc (or Poo-poo- nah) more than a century and half ago. 

The mission was first established in what is now the town of 
Great Barrington. Here on the 21st October (1st November), was 
begun the erection of a building which was to serve for church and 
school. So rapidly was the work pushed forward that the school 
itself was opened Tuesday, 5th (16th) of November. Mr. Sergeant 
himself was the teacher. Think of the Yale tutor teaching Indian 
children the very rudiments of book knowledge! But his mission 
ary duties involved a visit to Albany to inquire about the Mohawks. 


He left on the 25th of November and returned on the 30th (6th 
and llth of December respectively). During his absence Mr. Hop 
kins procured for him a helper, Mr. Timothy Woodbridge, to whom 
was committed the care of the mission on Mr. Sergeant s departure 
for New Haven which took place Monday, 9th (20th) of December, 
1734. He had the last of a three years tutorship at Yale to finish. 
Almost his last act before leaving was to counteract the evil influ 
ence of some liquor-sellers. In this he was so successful as to be 
able to take with him to New Haven a son of Konkapot and also 
one of Umpachene. This was done that these boys might learn 
English and himself learn their vernacular. In the following May 
Mr. Sergeant visited his people. What occurred later is well told 
in a letter by an unknown writer. It was dated at "Indian Town, 
November 3rd, 1735." In it we have an instance of the old- 
time connection between church and state. We notice also that 
the church of JStockbridge (which continues to this day) had its be 
ginning in nothing more formal than the baptism of one converted 
Indian. Some of our ministers who are so fond of "organizing" 
churches without reference to what has been done by their prede 
cessors on the same field may well make a note of this. It will be 
remembered that new-style dates may be found by adding to those 
given eleven days. "Mahaiwe" should be "Nehhaiwe," "place 
down stream." 

"My well beloved Christian Friend: I have just returned 
from Mahaiwe where I spent the Sabbath with our most worthy 
missionary, Rev. John Sergeant. It is only two weeks since the 
return of Mr. Sergeant from New Jersey, whither he went after his 
ordination at Deerfield. He was ordained on the 31st of August 
last. The same took place in the presence of Governor Belcher, 
and a large committee of the Council and House of Representa 

"The Governor and his associates had spent the week previous 
in arranging a treaty with the Indians, and exchanging pledges. 
On Sunday, August 31st, the Rev. Mr. Williams of Hatfield, ad 
dressed Governor Belcher in the church, and humbly asked if it 
were his excellency s pleasure that the pastors then convened 
should set apart Rev. John Sergeant for the work of the salvation 
of the heathen. The Governor responded affirmatively. 



"Mr. Williams then asked Mr. Sergeant if he would take upon 
himself that work. Mr. Sergeant gave his assent. The Indians, 
of whom a large delegation was present, were then asked, throjugh 
an interpreter, if they would receive Mr. Sergeant as their teacher. 
They manifested their approval by rising in a body. The services 
of ordination were then performed. 

"The church consisted of but one member, Ebenezer Poopoo- 
nah, who is the interpreter. Yesterday Captain Konkapot was 
added together with his wife and daughter. They were baptized. 
Captain K. received the name of John, his wife the name of Mary, 
and his daughter the name of Catherine. There was a large at 
tendance of Indians and whites, the latter being principally Dutch 
men, who have settled on the valley of the river. Lieutenant Um- 
pachene and wife are to be baptized next Sunday, and then Cap 
tain Konkapot will be married according to the rites of the Chris 
tian religion. He has lived with his squaw many years and has a 
large family, but he nevertheless now wishes to be married. If 
the missionary can keep the Indians away from the Dutch settlers, 
who furnish them with fire-water, he may succeed, but unless he 
can I fear the Indians will need many ceremonies before they will 
abide. I translate the vow which Captain, now John, Konkapot 
took in presence of the large masses of Indians gathered. 

" Through the goodness of God toward me in bringing me into 
the way of the knowledge of the gospel, I am convinced of the 
truth of the Christian religion, and that it is the only way that 
leads to salvation and happiness. I therefore freely and heartily 
forsake heathenish darkness, and embrace the light of the gospel 
and the way of holiness, and do, in the presence of Almighty God, 
the searcher of hearts, and before many witnesses, sincerely and 
solemnly take the Lord Jehovah to be my God and portion; Jesus 
Christ His Son, to be my Lord and Redeemer, and the Holy Ghost 
to be my sanctifier and teacher. And I do covenant and promise 
by the help of divine grace, that I will cleave to the Lord, with 
purpose of heart, believing his revealed truths as far as I can gain 
a knowledge of them, obeying his commands, both those that mark 
out my duty and those that forbid sin, sincerely and uprightly to 
the end of my life. 


"Konkapot is a man of fine presence, and the solemn manner 
in which, with deep guttural tones, he pronounced the above, visi 
bly affected the whole audience. 

Thine sincerely/ 

Soon Mr. Sergeant had baptized fifty and the work and influ 
ence of the mission were otherwise manifest. About December, 
1733, the Indians passed a resolution to have "no trading in rum." 
In this matter who of their time did better than these poor men 
scarcely yet come into the light of Christian truth? 

A town six miles square was laid out in 1736 as a home for the 
Indians. It was incorporated in 1739 and named probably after 
Stockbridge in England winch it is said to resemble, In later 
years this town has produced many well known men, among them 
Cyrus W. Field, of ocean-cable fame, and his illustrious brothers, 
one of whom is an associate justice of the supreme court of the 
United States. The Indians, who had previously been dispersed 
in three different localities, settled here in May, 1736. f By Mr. 
Sergeant s labors so great a change was wrought that the Indians 
themselves expressed it by such metaphors as infancy and man 
hood, dreaming and waking, darkness and light. The colonial 
government built them a church and a school-house. The former 
was dedicated Thanksgiving, 29th November, 1739. 

Mr. Sergeant who, the Indians said, came to know their lan 
guage better than they did themselves, translated for their use 
nearly all the New Testament and a great part of the Old, besides 
prayers, a catechism and a marriage service. He usually preached 
every week two sermons in the language of the Indians and two in 
English, J besides holding what would now be called a Sunday- 

t NOTE. Rev. John W. Harding of Longmeadow, Massachusetts, recalls 
"the missionary efforts of the Moravians under the lead of Nicolaus Ladwig, 
Count von Zinzendorf, to Christianize the Mohigans at Shekomeko, New York, 
and Patchgatcock, Connecticut, near the present town of Kent." These Mohi 
cans, says James Wood in Scharfs History of Wee-tchester county, New York, 
"removed to Stockbridge, which became the headquarters of the tribe." This 
statement is true probably of few rather than of many. "Some of them," says 
Mr. Harding, "went to Pennsylvania." The Moravian missions, however, 
were begun later than Mr. Sergeant s for Zinzendorf did not come to America 
until 1740. 

t NOTE.- The English service was not simply to accustom the natives to 
the use of that language, but also to provide for the spiritual wants of four 


school. He desired to take Indian children from their surround 
ings and find homes for them in civilized parts of the country and 
in families where they could be properly trained. This, through 
the generosity of Rev. Isaac Hollis, a wealthy Baptist minister of 
London, f he was able to do in the case first of twelve, then of 
twenty-four, and lastly of thirty-six boys. But this was not 
enough. He established a school which for that time and among 
that people did in a measure the work that Carlisle and Hampton 
are now doing for our Indians. To this were removed the boys 
whom Mr. Hollis was supporting, and thus the school was main 
tained in large part by his gifts. But many others contributed to it, 
among theft the Prince of Wales J (father of George III.) and his 
brother, the Duke of Cumberland, victor at Colloden. Dr. Watts, 
the famous hymn-writer, took up a collection among a few friends 
and sent 70 or more. ^^^ 

or more colonial families who, by invitation, settled at Stockbridge to be, in 
a sense, models to their Indian neighbors. Among these settlers was Colonel 
Ephraim Williams whose son of the same name made by will a gift for the 
establishment of a free school, now Williams College. 

t NOTE. Nephew of Thomas Hollis, the benefactor of Harvard. 
t NOTE. This was the Prince Frederick for whom, Thackery tells us, the 
following epitaph was proposed : 

Here lies Fred, 

Who was alive, and is dead. 

Had it been his father, 
I had much rather. 
Had it been his brother, 
Still better than another. 
Had it been his sister, 
No one would have missed her. 
Had it been the whole generation, 
Still better for the nation. 
But since tis only Fred, 
Who was alive, and is dead, 
There s no more to be said. 

His "clerk of the closet" (chaplain) gave a two-volume Oxford Bible 
which Rev. Calvin Colton thought worthy of special description in his "Tour 
ot the American Lakes," published in London, 1833. This old Bible is still 
preserved with religious veneration. Upon each volume is the inscription : 

THE . GIFT . OF . 

TO . THE . 





We go back in order of time to notice that in 1739, the year of 
the dedication of the church, the Indians, at the suggestion of the 
missionaries, laid a penalty of 40 York money (perhaps $100 or 
$120) upon any person who should bring rum into Stockbridge for 
sale. Inn-keepers were the liquor- sellers of that day, and those in 
the vicinity were remonstrated with upon the sin of selling spirits 
to Indians, inclined to excessive drinking. But these efforts the evil- 
disposed endeavored to turn to the harm of the poor Indians by telling 
them that the missionaries infringed upon their liberties, that they 
were used worse than dogs and slaves and would soon be reduced 
openly to bondage. From this it would seem that the "personal 
liberty" argument in the temperance discussion is not altogether 

To Stockbridge came, 31st of March (llth of April), 1743, 
David Brainerd, one of the uncanonized saints of our American 
churches. He was on his way to establish a mission at Kaunau- 
meek, now Lebanon, New York. His new home was twenty miles 
from Stockbridge, on the road to Albany. Many a time during the 
following winter did Mr. Brainerd traverse the weary miles that lay 
between him and his friend, for we find this recorded in his diary 
under date of November 29th (10th December): "Began to study 
the Indian tongue with Mr. Sergeant at Stockbridge." *He had al 
ready established a school in which he placed as teacher his inter 
preter, John Wauvvaumpequunnaut, who was among those educat 
ed by Mr. Hollis s generosity. So that for the training of his asso 
ciate and for his own knowledge of the language Mr. Brainerd was 
indebted to the Stockbridge pastor. In the spring or summer of 
1744, by Mr. Brainerd s advice, the Indians of his charge, being 
few in number, removed to Stockbridge to live under Mr. Ser 
geant s ministry. 

In Brainerd s diary for that year we have this record of his 
last public service at Kaunaumeek: "Lord s day, March 11 (22). 
My soul was in some measure strengthened in God in morning de 
votion; so that I was released from trembling fear and distress. 
Preached to my people from the parable of the sower. Matt. 13, and 
enjoyed some assistance both parts of the day; had some freedom, 
affection, and fervency in addressing my poor people; Jonged that 
God should take hold of their hearts, and make them spiritually 


alive. And indeed I had so much to say to them, that I knew not 
how to leave off speaking." 

Mr. Brainerd s work at Kaunaumeek f thus characteristically 
ended, was, in a sense supplementary to that done by Mr. Ser 
geant, who had preached there before him. The missionary zeal 
of both now looked to more distant fields. Proposals were made 
to the Delawares J for the establishment of a mission among them. 
They gave consent, and Brainerd turned from calls to pleasant pas 
torates among people of his own race to life in the wilderness that 
then covered the regions about the "Forks of the Delaware" and 
those on the upper Susquehanna. He labored also among scattered 
Indians that were then left in New Jersey. "Indeed, I had no idea 
of joy from this world," he wrote, "I cared not where or how I 
lived or what hardships I might have to endure, if I might only 
gain souls to Christ." What wonder that xvith such a spirit he won 
many to his Master s service? But his mortal life, with all its 
courage, zeal and devotion, was soon to end. He returned to his 
native New England, and there, 1747, October 9th (20th) in the 
home of Jonathan Edwards at Northampton, he passed away. 

Meamvhile Mr. Sergeant continued his abundant labors among 
the Muh-he-ka-ne-ok. The school for which the gifts already 
mentioned (and many others) were made I! could not be established 

t NOTE.- Sometimes the u is left out of one syllable and sometimes out 
of the other. 

t NOTE. The late E. W. B. Canning of Stockbridge, Massachusetts, says 
to the Shawnees also, and adds that these refused the offen 

NOTE. Brainerd s mother was dead, and the last weeks of his lingering 
illness, he died of consumption, he was cared for by his affianced wife, a 
daughter of Mr. Edwards. "Dear Jerusha," he asked her a few days before his 
death, "are you quite willing to part with me?* She wa^ a true Edwards and 
replied : "I am quite willing to part \vith you : 1 am willing to part with all 
my friends : I am willing to part with my dear brother John, although I love 
him the best of any creature living ; I have committed him and all my friends 
to God, and can leave them with God." But, girl-like, she continued, "Though 
if I thought I should not see you and be happy with you in another world, I 
could not bear to part with you. But we shall spend a happy eternity to* 
gether!" Dear saints and blessed lovers, they were not long separate. Miss 
Edwards died 1748, February Hth (25th). Slie had not completed her eighteenth 

|| NOTE. Thus the Indians themselves gave a fartn^site of two hundred 


until 1747. f This was for boys, to whom alone Mr. Hollis s favors 
were extended. But if it should prove successful, Mr. Sergeant 
had in mind an institution of like sort for girls. He purposed also 
to go to the Iroquois (Six Nations) in New York, and try to induce 
them to send young people to Stockbridge for training in civiliza 
tion and Christianity. But the carrying out of these projects was 
prevented by his death which, to human sight, came all too soon. 
He was taken from his people 1749, July 27th (August 7th), in the 
thirty-ninth year of his age. 

To appreciate even in part the work done by this extraordinary 
man, we must remember that "up to the second decade of the last 
century the western border of our state" [Massachusetts] "seems to 
have been as little known as are the regions about Hudson Bay at 
the present time. The boundary between Massachusetts and New 
York was still undetermined, and the country a wilderness except 
where a few Dutchmen had made clearings under the grant of the 
Livingstone manor lying beyond." J 

We have good reason to believe that but for the unifying work 
of its mission the Stockbridge nation would long since have been 
extinct. We may then regard Mr. Sergeant as the preserver of the 
distinctive life of the people among whom he labored. At their re 
moval from Great Barrington to Stockbridge they numbered, as 
nearly as can be ascertained, twenty families and about ninety in 
dividuals; in 1740 they had increased to one hundred twenty, and 
in the year of Mr. Sergeant s death, to two hundred eighteen, com 
prised in fifty-three families. The improvement in their manner 

t NOTE. This, it will be remembered, Avas something entirely different 
from the mission day-school taught by Mr. Woodbridg*. In the latter, all the 
children of the settlement, white and Indian, received instruction. The board 
ing or "charity" school Avas designed to train its pupils in useful occupations 
as well as in book knowledge. It was a continuation of the work supported 
by Mr. Hollis, begun In Mr. Sergeant s own home and continued in the 
home of a Captain Kellogg of Newington, Connecticut. 

Those who are so ill-informed as to think that training for usefulness in 
the present life is commonly neglected in mission work may be surprised to 
learn that as far back as 1738 the missionary society made an appropriation of 
money to buy agricultural implements for the Indians at Stockbridge. 

I NOTE. E. W. B. Canning (lately deceased) of Stockbridge, Massachu 

NOTE. E. W. B. Canning. The number of white families had also in 
creased to twelve or thirteen. 


of living was more noticeable than the increase in their number. 
He found them living in "miserable huts," "bark wigwams,"- 
"much dispersed and often moving from place to place." f When 
he died "twenty of the fifty-three families liyed in frame houses, 
and more than that number cultivated, to a greater or less extent, 
productive farms," 

Of the Indians living at Stockbridge when Mr. Sergeant died, 
forty-two were members of the church and one hundred twenty- 
nine had received baptism. In all Mr. Sergeant baptized one hun 
dred eighty- two. 

Apparently it was this faithful pastor who reduced to writing 
the language of the people whom he made his own. To learn it 
was a more arduous task, he thought, than to acquire all the learned 
languages usually taught in the schools. Of his abundant labors 
in translation we have already learned. J We have seen that in 
Indian education he anticipated what seem to be the best methods 
of our own time. In temperance legislation he led whither many 
fear to follow even yet. And of this work a great part was done 
in the midst of the alarms of war. He was "a man of such singu 
lar worth and such various excellence that his equal is rarely met 
with in the church of Christ." 

t NOTE. Historical Memoirs by Samuel Hopkins of Longmeadow. 

| NOTE. While at Kaunaumeek Mr. Brainerd translated several forms ot 
prayer and some of the Psalms into the language of the natives. Apparently 
these Psalms were translated into metrical form, for he taught his people to 
sing them. The Muh-he-ka ne-ok have always been fond of singing. 

NOTE .-Samuel Hopkins of Longmeadow. 



After Mr. Sergeant/s death the charge of the mission devolved 
for a time upon Mr. Woodbridge, but in July, 1751, Jonathan Ed 
wards became pastor of the Stockbridge church, f Few New Eng 
land churches would, at that time, have offered him their pulpit. J. 
During his pastorate the French and Indian war was at its hight. 
Friends thought that Mr. Edwards was in danger and advised him 
to seek a safer place than Stockbridge. But he declined to leave 
his flock. His people were steadfast friends of the colonists and 
the English. Almost every man among them r capable of bearing 
arms, went with Governor Shirley in 1755 on his expedition 
against Niagara, They rendered most efficient service. For the 
protection of the settlers of western Massachusetts, the little Indian 
settlement at Stockbridge was better than a fort. 

t NOTE. The place had been offered to his former pupil in theology, the 
younger Samuel Hopkins, of (what is now) Great Harrington, a parish almost 
equally exposed to the dangers ot war. The larger salary at Stockbridge (paid 
by the Scotch Society) was, perhaps, a reason why Hopkins declined the posi 
tion and urged the choice of Mr. Edwards. 

t NOTE. It would require a special treatise to explain just why, and do 
justice to both parties. Edwards was a metaphysician much inclined to mis 
take the results of his own subtile and abstract reasonings for theology. In 
personal piety lie was a mystic. Both these facts seem to have led him to in 
sist upon evidence of consciousness of the change by which one becomes a 
Christian. In this respect, and in others, his work was like that of Wesley and 
VVhitefield. Yet we hasten to add, for writing on these subjects is like walk- 
Ing on eggs without breaking them, that none of these great revivalists 
meant to keep out of the church any one who was really a Christian, whether 
or not he could tell how he became one. Naturally, Edwards s views brought 
him into conflict with a large number of persons who stood related to the 
church by what was called the "half-way covenant." These, though not com 
municants, were of Christian belief, correct life, had themselves been baptized 
in infancy, and desired that ordinance for their children. However, Edwards s 
difficulties at Northampton, whence he was dismissed, were in large part of a 
practical sort, and belong, properly, to the history of the parish and to his 
own biography. 


Not only were there "fightings without" while Mr. Edwards 
was at Stockbridge; there was something worse than "fears with 
in." There was an "Indian ring" there. Of this Ephraim Wil 
liams (senior) was head and purse. To understand the mischief 
done we must return to the history of Mr. Sergeant s "charity" 
school. It flourished, notwithstanding the death of its founder. 
It was the means of bringing to Stockbridge Oneidas, Mohawks, 
and a few Tuscaroras, to educate their children. But Williams 
quarreled with their teacher, Mr. Hawley, (also with Mr. Wood- 
bridge) and usurped the management of the school. In disgust 
the Oneidas withdrew their children and returned to New York. 
Meanwhile rumors reached the commissioners of the mischief that 
was doing, and Mr. Edwards was summoned to meet them at Bos 
ton. This man "whose mind was so abstracted from temporalities 
as to be unable to tell the number of his cows," nevertheless was 
successful in vanquishing the Williams "ring," and soon thereafter 
the chief evil-doer removed from Stockbridge. f But the "mis 
chief done was irreparable. The Oneida pupils had gone and re 
fused to return; the Mohawks lingered a little longer and then left 
also. Mr. Hawley followed them and renewed his labors on the 
New York reservation until the outbreak of the Revolutionary 
war." I Thus the school, which in 1750 enrolled sixty pupils, 
seems to have been broken up. At least we hear again of boys who 
had been sent from home to be taught. || 

The Indian parishioners of Mr. Edwards became greatly at 
tached to him and his family and he to them. But though he 
made their language the subject of a treatise/" he never learned to 
preach in it. Those who have heard in a polyglot assembly an ad 
dress delivered in one language and translated into another, will 
know how greatly the effectiveness of his work must have been les- 

t NOTE. "He died under a dense cloud," wrote Professor Arthur Latham 
Perry of Williams college, under date of 10th July, 18t)3. 

} NOTE. E. W. B. Canning. 

NOTE. Including, probably, the thirty-six supported by Mr. Hollis. 
The expression on page seven is at fault in its implication that this maximum 
number was reached during Mr. Sergeant s life. Apparently only twelve 
were then thus maintained. 

|| NOTE. Under date of 1756, May 31st, (old style), the famous theologian 
of Bethlem, Connecticut, Joseph Bellamy, reports to Mr. Edwards concerning 
some Indian boys in his own family. 



sened. But, true to his great character, he was faithful to his 
humble charge, and would not leave it, even at the invitation to be 
come president of the college of New Jersey (Princeton) until ad 
vised by what was practically a council of ministers that it was his 
duty to do so. \ Seldom did he shed tears in the presence of 
others. But when this decision of his friends was made known to 
him he wept. Scarcely had he assumed the duties of his new office 
when he died, 22nd of March, 1758. 

No doubt Edwards found the retirement of Stockbridge favor 
able for his theological and metaphysical studies. There he pro 
duced four of his treatises, one of which is his best known work, 
"The Freedom of the Human Will." J 

Stephen West, afterwards doctor of divinity, the title meant 
something then, succeeded President Edwards. He was intro 
duced to the town" November, 1758, and ordained on the 13th of 
June, 1759. Not many years afterward the story of the camel that 
got his nose into the tent found in the case of the Muh-he-ka-ne- 
ok another application. The white population of Stockbridge be- 

t NOTE. Edwards s letter to the trustees of the college is a curious bit of 
reading and gives the impression that the writer of it was sadly deficient in a 
sense of the humorous. He seems to have lacked also, what very few men do 
lack, a sufficiently high estimate of himself. Thus he says : "My defects unfit 
me tor such an undertaking, many of which are generally known, besides 
others of which my heart is conscious. I have a constitution, in many re 
spects, peculiarly unhappy, attended with flaccid solids, scarce fluids, and a 
low tide of spirits, often occasioning a kind of childish weakness and con- 
temptibleness of speech, presence and demeanour.with a disagreeable dulness 
and stiffness, much unfitting me for conversation, but more especially for the 
government of a college." 
t NOTE. 

In the church of the wilderness Edwards wrought, 

Shaping his creed at the forge of thought : 

And with Thor s own hammer welded and bent 

The iron links of his argument, 

Which strove to grasp in its mighty span 

The purpose of God and the fate of man! 

Yet faithful still, in his daily round 

To the weak, and the poor, and the sin-sick found, 

The schoolman s lore and the casuist s art 

Drew warmth and life from his fervent heart. 

Had he not seen in the solitudes 

Of his deep and dark Northampton woods 

A vision of love about him fall ? 

Whittier, in " The Preacher." 


came more numerous than the Indian, f In 1775 Dr. West intrust 
ed the care of the Indian portion of his flock to Mr. John Sergeant, 
son of the original founder of the settlement. 

This was the time of the American Revolution. The Stock- 
bridges took sides with our ancestors. On the 30th of June of this 
same year (1775) letters and speeches from the Stockbridge In 
dians were laid before Congress and read. The committee on In 
dian affairs was directed to prepare "proper talks" to the different 
tribes of Indians. It was also resolved "that the securing and 
preserving the friendship of the Indian nations appears to be a 
subject of the utmost moment to the colonies." In the memorable 
year 1776, August 7th, Washington wrote to Timothy Edwards, 
then commissioner for Indian affairs, on the subject of employing 
the Stockbridges in the service of the United States, Some of 
them "fought through all the war, threaded the wilderness with 
Arnold to Canada, aided in compelling the surrender of Burgoyne 
and made the Jersey campaigns with Washington." "The Stock- 
bridges," says the British Lieutenant- Colonel Simcoe, writing of 
an affair in which more than thirty of them lost their lives, "about 
sixty in number, excellent marksmen, had just joined Mr. Wash 
ington s army." They were under command of one of their num 
ber, Daniel (or Abraham) Ninham, who fell with his men. This 
skirmish or, rather, slaughter, took place 1778, August 31st, near 
White Plains, New York, where "Mr." Washington was then com 

Thus the Stockbridges did not content themselves with send 
ing speeches to Congress nor with addressing the Massachusetts 
legislature as one of their chiefs did in 1779. A large proportion 
of their most promising young men were killed in battle. J Per- 

t NOTE. Very possibly, also, the "Indian ring" already mentioned, had 
sought, even years before, to bring about the removal of the Indians from 

J NOTE. Our Wisconsin state historical society possesses a collection 
called partly in irony and partly in hope an art gallery. In the catalogue 
thereof we find the following: 

"98. Moshuebee. 

"A very aged woman of the Stockbridge tribe who died about 1867, sup 
posed to have been one hundred and twenty-five years of age. She is said to 
have had three sons engaged in the Revolutionary -war, one of whom lost his 


haps the tribe has never recovered from losses of men, homes and 
character then suffered. We should remember this if we are in 
clined to think of its present condition almost with contempt. Nor 
should we forget that too often then, as in later yeais, drunkenness 
was made easy for them. At the close of the war, apparently after 
the warriors had returned home, a barbecue was prepared for them 
by command of Washington. Whisky was furnished, we are sorry to 
add, even though their pastor presided at one of their tables. This 
suggestion of what camp and social life then was, prepares us for 
the sorrowful statement that many of those who survived the dan 
gers of war fell victims to the habits of idleness and intemperance. 
In these ways many got into debt to their white neighbors and lost 
their lands. So the tribe sought a new home. They removed to 
a tract of land in New York, part of which is now in Madison coun 
ty and part in Oneida. Hither they came at the invitation of the 
Oneidas whom, it is said, they had once saved from a powerful 
enemy. This place was secured to them, perhaps/Vhen, 1774, 
October 24th, the Oneidas gave land f also to fragments of 
various tribes J who, 1775, October 20th, organized a new "nation" 
called the Brothertowns. In this westward movement these pre 
ceded the Muh-he-ka-ne-ok who did not come until after the Rev 
olution. Then the little band of ninety, with whom the elder Ser 
geant began his missionary labor, had increased to four hundred 
or four hundred twenty. || A very few remained at Stockbridge, no 
longer the home of the Muh-he-ka-ne-ok, though it had been their^ 
for almost half a century. 

f NOTE. Fourteen miles south of where the city of TJtica, New York, now 

J NOTE. Narragansetts, Pequots, Montauks, Mohegans and Nn,nticoke9 
(Nahanticks). Thomas Commuck, one of the Brothertowns, adds to this list 
the Farmingtons, wherever they were. See Wisconsin Historical Collections, 
volume IV, page 292. 

NOTE. According to Mr. Canning. 

|| NOTE. The number given by a local historian as of those who re 
moved to New York. See, however, the statement on page 18 in regard to the 
population of New Stockbridge. 



Near the Brothertown settlement and about one hundred sixty 
miles from their former home, the Muh-he-ka-ne-ok built a village 
which they named New Stockbridge. f Thither the tribe removed 
in 1785-6, says Miss Jones. More likely the movement began in 
1783 and continued until 1788. But it was in 1785, before their de 
parture from the Massachusetts home, that sixteen Indian members 
of the old IStockbridge church formed a new one which removed 
first to New York and years later to Wisconsin. Mr. Sergeant hes^ 
itated to go with his people but went the next year. Then he 
found that Rev. Samson Occum J had gained favor with many of 
the Stockbridges. Mr. Occum died 1792, July 14th, and the 
division which followed Mr. Sergeant s coming was healed. The 
"Honorable Society in Scotland* which had generously paid arrear 
ages incurred during the war, again helped in the support of the 
pastor. Some aid from this source was continued until after the 
tribe removed to Wisconsin and the church was under the care of 
our own Rev. Cutting Marsh, 

In 1792 the Stockbridges and their neighbors, the Six Nations, 
were invited to Philadelphia by President Washington "that meas- 

life in the service, and she was a camp-follower of the patriot army." 

Unfortunately the catalogue does not tell who indulged the supposition 
concerning the woman s age, nor who made the statement about her sons. 
[Continued from page 15.J 

t NOTE. In the town where they made their settlement there was born, 
1836, October 10th, to a Methodist clergyman, a son, William Dempster Hoard, 
lately governor of Wisconsin, and more honored in his defeat in 1890 than two 
years before in his election. 

| NOTE. This Indian minister Occum was a man of such power as a 
preacher that he was once seat to Great Britain to solicit funds for More 8 
Charity School, an institution since developed into Dartmouth college. While 
in England he had the honor of preaching before King George III. More, per- 
haps, than to any other one man the credit of organizing the Brothertown 
"nation" is due to Occum. 


ures might be concerted to impart such of the blessings of civiliza 
tion as might suit their condition." The interview between their 
representatives and the President seems to have been mutually 

In 1796 they had a visit from Dr. Jedidiah Moi-se, f then one 
of the trustees of the still existing (Boston) society for Propagating 
the Gospel among the Indians. J At that time the population of 
New Stockbridge was about three hundred, a number soon increas 
ed. None were professed pagans though only about thirty were 
members of the church. About two-thirds of the men and nine- 
tenths of the women were considered industrious. In this year a 
white man was convicted of bringing liquor into the "nation," an 
act contrary to tribal law. Soon after, through Mr. Sergeant s in 
fluence, the legislature of New York passed an act forbidding the sale 
of liquor to these Indians. For his action in this matter the worthy 
pastor was bitterly persecuted. A term, "white heathen/ which he 
uses more than once, probably acquired vivid significance at this 
time. His people were tempted and ill-treated. While Indians 
sought to keep the Sabbath, white men violated it. Articles would 
be pressed upon the Indians in the way of sale, and later those 
who supposed themselves to be honest purchasers would be arrest 
ed as thieves and the possession of what they had bought would 
be used as evidence against them. It may be, as old President 
Dwight of Yale noted in his journal of "travels," 1798, September 
20th, when he visited their former home in Massachusetts, "the 
body of them have, in many respects, sustained a very imperfect 
character." However, when we remember the good man s high 
standard of character, and read his other statement, that "several 
of them have been eminent for their understanding and more for 
their piety," we do not doubt that they compared favorably with 
their white neighbors. 

There occurred in 1798 a remarkable admission to the church. 
One of the Munsee tribe, seeking knowledge of the true God, bad 

t NOTE. Father of the inventor of the telegraph. 

t NOTE. The organization, in 1787, of this society, which now co-operates 
with the American Missionary Association, is one of the evidences of the vi 
tality of our churches in that unhappy time. 

NOTE.- A branch of the Delawares (Leni-Lennappes) . The Munsees seem 
to have been scattered in consequence of having taken sides against the colo- 


left wife and home and come among the Stockbridges, He 
baptized by the appropriate name of Abraham. 

In 1802 the Stockbridges sent a delegation to the Delawares, 
whom, after an Indian fashion, they called their grandfathers, and 
to some other tribes, to urge them to receive the gospel. Of this 
Mr. Sergeant writes: 

"A council was held at Wappecommehkoke on the banks of 
the White river, by Delawares and the delegates of the Moheakun- 
nuk nation. The former then accepted all the proposals made by 
the latter, among which was civilization, of which, said the chief 
(Tatepahqsect), we take hold with both hands. " 

The Stockbridges brought to New York the Puritan institution 
of Thanksgiving. For the most part, while there they taught and 
sustained their own schools. Several of their young people were 
sent from home for higher instruction. One of these, a pupil in a 
"select school" kept by Miss Nancy Royce of Clinton, New York, 
became the first school-mistress in Wisconsin. 

Though at first the Indians in this new settlement, owing to 
the distance from the whites/ alas, that we have to say so! were 
less exposed than before to temptation, and though the^ and Mr. 
Sergeant fought hard against their great enemy, strong drink, the 
better men of the younger generation came to feel the need of an 
other removal. In this movement Solomon U. Hendrick, John Me- 
toxen and perhaps Austin E. Quinney, were leaders. To free their 
tribe from the allurements of the white man s grog-shop, and foi 
other reasons, they urged removal to Indiana where a tract of land 
on White river had been given by the Miamis more than a century 
before to the Stockbridges and their kinsmen, the unfortunate Del 
awares. Here for many years there had been of the latter tribe a 
settlement which about 1818 numbered eight hundred souls. The 
title of the Stockbridges to this land was, in a carefully guarded 
manner, attested by President Jefferson, 1808, December 21st. 

In 1810 and for some years later, one of the Stockbridges, 
Hendrick Aupaumut, a soldier in the American army at the time of 
Burgoyne s surrender, was in the White river country where he was 

nists in the American Revolution. From homes in New York, Canada and per 
haps Indiana and elsewhere, some came in later years to Wisconsin, where 
they have united with the Stockbridges. 


one of the most effective opponents of Teeumseh and his brother 
Elskwatawa, the "prophet," in the war in which General (after 
ward President) Harrison won his millitary reputation. In the 
war of 1812 which, to that part of the West, was merely a continu 
ance of one already existing, Aupaumut, who dropped his Indian 
surname for Hendrick, took the American side, and became, if he 
were not already, an officer in our army, f His son Solomon, 
named above, about 1817 succeeded the father, once a worthy man 
but in his later years a victim of drunkenness, as chief of the tribe, 
but dying, was in turn followed by John Metoxen. 

In the spring of 1817 the Stockbridges were made uneasy by 
the report that the land to which they had a claim, had been sold 
by the Delawares. But these, in answer to a letter of inquiry, de 
nied the charge, adding: "When we rise in the morning, we have 
our eyes fixed toward the way you are to come, in expectation of 
seeing you coming to sit down by us as a nation." 

Accordingly, some of the Stockbridges prepared for removal. 
Two or three families went that year. In June, 1818, Mr. Sergeant 
thus wrote to Dr. Morse: "About five families of my people will 
start for White river in three weeks. But they are still troubled 
by reports that the state government of Indiana intends to purchase 
the Indian lands." J 

Others were added to the number of those proposing to emi 
grate. Mr. Sergeant collected the whole tribe on Friday, 24th of 
July, of that year, "with the view to have them present at the 
forming of a church from their tribe" of those "who, with a num- 

f NOTE. Rev. Cutting Marsh, who at Statesburg (South Kaukaxina) in 
the summer of 1830 stood by the dying bed of Aupaumut, speaks of him as "cap 
tain" and says that his commission was signed by Washington. But it does 
not appear that Mr. Marsh saw the document and the old warrior s name is 
not to be found in the list of Revolutionary officers at the Department of State. 
Yet President Jefferson, in the attestation ot the land-title mentioned above, 
calls him "captain." 

\ NOTE. In 1813 the state of New York bought of the Stockbridge tribe a 
tract comprising four thousand live hundred acres. Other purchases were 
made in 1822, 23, 25, 26, 29 and 30. The cost of removal was thus provided 
for. As late as 1842 and 47 agreements were executed by the New York land 
commissioners and the Stockbridges, then in Wisconsin. 

A visible memorial of the Stockbridges in New York for many years, if 
not at the present time, was their old church, built under the pastorate of John 
Sergeant, which, removed from its original site, was used as a house of wor 
ship as late as 1872 by the Baptist church of Cook s Corners, Madison county. 


ber of others of the tribe, were about to remove and form a new 
settlement." On that day or the following a church of eleven 
members was duly organized. It was apparently Congregational 
and, if so, was probably the first of that denomination in Indiana, 
as it certainly was in Wisconsin. But in accordance with the 
"plan of union" between Presbyterians and Oongregationalists, it 
was commended to the Presbytery of Ohio. J 



But this Pilgrim church was not to find an end of its wander 
ing as soon as it had hoped for. In September we read in the 
"Panoplist" f of their receiving the Sacrament of the Lord s Sup 
per with white brethren in Ohio. In December Mr. Sergeant wrote : 
"The families left in August, consisting of a third part of my 
church-members, and a quarter part of the tribes, in all from six 
ty to seventy souls from Oneida. They did not set out on their 
journey so soon by a month as they intended; and when they ar 
rived the lands had all been sold. The poor Delawares had been 
forced to sell their lands." This news reached the emigrants while 
on their way. Thereupon some turned back, but John Metoxen 
and others, perhaps forty in number, pushed on and made their 
home in Ohio and Indiana for somewhat less than five years. 
While here they showed the vigor of their religious training by hold 
ing meetings on Sundays, in which the reading of Scott s commen 
tary took the place of sermons. We learn that in May, 1819, our emi 
grants were so near Piqua, Ohio, that the (Presbyterian?) pastor 
there often preached to them. As white men would be, under like 
circumstances, they were sadly divided as to what was best to be 
done. "At length it was determined to unite at White river, and 

t NOTE. Now the "Missionary Herald." 
J NOTE. Miss Electa Jones. 


endeavor to regain the land by application to the government. But 
their efforts were unavailing, and sickness wasted both their num 
bers and their spirits." 

Soon, no doubt, they turned their eyes to Green Bay. It is 
said the Stockbridges had a century- old invitation from their kin 
dred tribes there to come and dwell with them. Of much more 
practical worth than this were the efforts then making in their be 
half by Dr. Morse and others, f With the delegation of 1822, some 
of the Stockbridges of New York had come as immigrants. These 
settled that autumn at Grand Kaukaulin (now South Kaukauna). 
To this place John Metoxen and his party from Indiana came that 
year, or, according to A. G. Ellis, in 1823. In this statement Mr. 
Ellis probably made an error which he himself helps to correct in 
volume II. of the Wisconsin Historical Collections, where he tells us 
that "the small immigrant party of some [about] fifty of the Stock- 
bridges, which came on this year, located late in the fall at 
Grand Kakalin." But these apparently did not come with the 
delegation mentioned above. It is my opinion that they 
came from Indiana, not from New York, and Mr. Ellis gives the 
year of their arrival as 1822. The homeless wanderers in the 
W hite river country would be anxious enough to come to a place 
which they could call their own. That having been secured, it is 
not likely that they would long delay their coming. Thus it is 
probable, that with its attendant company in which, it may be, 
were at least some of the Munsees, the church of the pilgrimage 
under the leadership of John Metoxen came from Indiana to the 
Fox river country, in the autumn of 1822. On their way, 
after reaching Lake Michigan, these poor emigrants went in part 
by canoes upon the water and in part on foot upon the land. 

t NOTE. linger commission from John C. Calhoun, then secretary of war, 
find also under the auspices of the Northern Missionary Society of New York, 
Jedidiah Morse, D. D., a Congregational minister then of New Haven, Connec 
ticut, a steadfast friend of the Muh he-ka-ne-ok, came west in the sum 
mer of 1^20. He preached at Fort Howard, July 9th, the first Protestant 
sermon in (what is now) Wisconsin. One of his objects was to find here, it 
possible, a home for the Stockbridges. These are to be counted among the 
"New York Indians" who in 1821 and 1.S22 sent hither delegations to secure 
from the Winnebagos and the Menomoneos places for homes. After a long 
time, much negotiation and considerable pressure in their behalf, from the 
United States government, the "New York Indians" finally secured land on 
and near Fox river and Lake Winnebago. 


"They drove their cattle along the shore, camping where night 
overtook them. They swam their cattle across the streams. They 
had great difficulty in getting them to cross the river at Chicago, 
but finally one large animal, bolder than the rest, plunged in and 
the others followed." f It would be a bold ox that would swim 
the Chicago river in these days ! 

Thus came to Wisconsin its first Puritan church. There w r as 
here neither minister nor priest. But these spiritual children of 
Sergeant and Edwards did not, in the wilderness, forget their God. 
"They kept up their meetings here also." 

They had a worthy leader in Metoxen whose knowledge of 
Scripture is shown in a letter written, 1823, December 2nd, from 
; Cades, Green Bay" (probably Grand Kaukaulin), to John Ser 
geant, his old pastor. Mentioning the arrival of a new band he 
says : "Our brethren appear to be quite different from what they 
were when I first saw them. I trust that some of them are choos 
ing God for their portion, remembering that he is the only source 
of true happiness for the immortal soul, and grieving because they 
had forsaken the only King of the universe. * * * * 
It is true, indeed, that the soul was made for God, it came from 
God and can never be happy but in returning to him again. Thus 
we may have reason to believe that the Spirit of the Lord is mov 
ing upon them, saying, Arise ye and depart, for this is not your 
rest, [f ye then be risen with Christ, seek those things which are 
above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God. " 

Special significance is given to this letter by the remark : "He 
and Mrs. Metoxen found their backsliding brethren in deep waters. 
They had exposed themselves to err by the use of ardent spirits."! 
What temperance w r ork in Wisconsin is of earlier date than that of 
these Indian Puritans, John Metoxen and his wife? With them 
the struggle against intoxicants was part of the gospel. 

t NOTE. Miss Helen C. Storm, of Stockbridge, Wisconsin. 

J NOTE Even some of the delegation of 1821 were guilty of drunkenness. 



We take up the story of those who had been left behind in 
New York. In 1822, as we have seen, the removal westward began. 
"In 1825," says one, writing of Kaukauna, "the Stockbridge and 
Munsee Indians were occupying the south side of the Fox river at 
this point." But the removal was not completed until 1829. In 
that year John W. Quinney gathered together the last, about thirty 
of the poor, and brought them to the new home of their people. 

After Mr. Sergeant s death, Rev. Jesse Miner became pastor of 
the New Stockbridge church, as we learn from the third report of 
the "United Domestic Missionary Society." At the meeting 
of this body, the immediate predecessor of the American, now 
the Congregational, Home Missionary Society, held "Fri 
day evening, May 13th, 1825," in New York city, Governor 
DeWitt Clinton and Chancellor James Kent appear as mem 
bers. Aid was granted to the New Stockbridge church. 
In July, 1827, Mr. Miner came west under the auspices 
of the American Board, to visit the Stockbridge Christians 
and spent some weeks among them. In the new home of each, the 
church of the pilgrimage and the mother church from New York, 
became one again. To this re-united church Mr. Miner administer 
ed the sacrament and admitted members. Thus began the first 
pastorate over an organized Protestant church in what is now Wis 

In the following year, 1828, he returned, bringing his family, 
to make a home with his people at what was then called Statesburg, 
now South Kaukauna. J In the "Missionary Herald" for June, 

I NOTE. "This missson was known as Moheakunnuk, and opened June 
20th, 1828." Thus wrote Dr. H. B. Tanner under date of 1892, January 12th. The 
date he gives may be that of the coming of Mr. Miner and family. 


1829, a letter from him reports a revival and several additions to 
the church. "Twenty-five added since my arrival, fifteen others 
indulging hopes," But the hand that sent the glad tidings was 
even then forever still. His pastorate had ended with his life on 
the 22nd of the preceding March. Near where he labored in life 
his people made his grave. "I am sorry," writes Mr. Miner s 
daughter, f "that I can tell you so little of my father. An old In 
dian woman whom I met six years ago, who had belonged to his 
church, said that he was like a father to the Indians, and they loved 
him much. They gave him an Indian name, Wah-nuh- wan-meet, 
which means Very true man. J He died at the age of forty-seven. 
The Indians had these words placed on his tombstone : He shall 
gather the outcasts of Israel together. He had translated many 
of our hymns into their language, forming quite a hymn-book, from 
which they sang at his funeral. My father lies buried in the cem 
etery at Kaukauna, to which he was removed from the old mission 
burying-ground. Metoxen was loved of my father and revered of 
my elder brothers." 

Under Mr. Miner s pastorate, perhaps the summer of his first 
arrival, the Stockbridge people erected the first Protestant church 
on Wisconsin soil. Preceding Mr. Miner s second arrival at Green 
Bay in 1828, came thither May 18th of that year, John Y. Smith 
who afterward filled a large and honorable place in the history of 
our state. Employed by Mr. Miner, Mr. Smith came "to erect or 
work upon the mission buildings." Thus it is possible that the 
church (of which we shall hear again) was not built until 1828. 

t NOTE. Mrs. M. A. Whitney, Grand Crossing, Illinois, 26th of May, 1891. 

J NOTE. Without doubt Mrs. Whitney is in error. Jt is probable that 
what she sought to transliterate is the Muh-he-ka-ne-ew term "Wah-weh-nuh^ 
maht," "This true man." Literally it may be "This true one,* for the word for 
"man" is "mon-naow." 

NOTE. The stone now at the gra\ T e bears the inscription (with errors) ; 



BORN SEPT. 26, 1781. 


AT THIS PLACE, JUNE 20, 1828. 

DIED MARCH 22, 1829, 
AGED 49. 


Even in that case, it was, for a time, the only one in what was soon 
to be Wisconsin, for the combination "church-and-school" which 
the Roman Catholics begun at Shantytown in 1823 had been 

I am inclined to the opinion that the first Statesburg church, 
which was a structure of the kind that our Indians learned to build r 
had been put up before Mr. Smith came thither, and that his first 
work in the place was to erect the missionary residence. This 
may have been the second framed house in what is now Wiscon 
sin, f It was a story and a half building and stood, according to 
the recollection of Mr. James Madison Boyd, near where is now the 
round-house of the (Lake Shore) Chicago & Northwestern railway 
company. Another living witness J thinks that the church was 
about three-fourths of a mile from Mr. Miner s house. 

The "Winnebago war" of June, 1827, gave the Stockbridges 
and Oneidas an opportunity of showing their allegiance to the 
United States. Sixty- two of them joined a company raised by 
"General" William Dickinson and "Colonel" Ebenezer Childs. 
The "war" was scarcely more than several atrocious murders in the 
vicinity of Prairie du Chien. There is reason to fear that associa 
tion with "Colonel" Childs would offset much teaching on the 
subject of temperance and almost every other virtue. Those who 
wonder that Christianity has accomplished no more for the Indians 
should remember that in its work for them it has had to contend 
with the vices of civilization as well as with those of savagery. 

There probably never was a genuine Puritan church without a 
school close at hand. At Statesburg the schoolmaster soon follow 
ed the minister. On Tuesday, 4th of November, 1828, Augustus T. 
Ambler arrived at Statesburg. He came to establish a mission 
school but the state of his health prevented his doing so. A 
change of field did not long preserve his life. Going southward, 

t NOTE. 8ee Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. VII. page 453. The 
account there seems to be somewhat confused. The language seems to indi 
cate that he worked on a mission-house that was not at Kaukauna. If so, it 
must have been on a building belonging to the Episcopal mission. But as he 
had been employed by Mr. Miner, who was about to bring hither a large fam 
ily and would certainly need a house for them, it seems probable that his first 
work was done on the missionary home at Kaukauna. 

| NOTE. George Thomas Bennett, born at Cedar Hill, Albany count y, New 
York, 22nd of August, 1823. 


he died in 1831 at one of the missions among the Choctaws, His 
place as teacher was taken by Miss Electa Wuh-weh-wee-nee-meew f 
Quinney, Wisconsin s first schoolmistress. J Before this there had 
been schools at Prairie du Chien and Green Bay, but Miss Quin- 
ney s was probably the first free school within the present limits of 
our state. In it the Bible had an honored place. The next winter, 
that of 1829-30, Mr. Jedidiah I) wight Stevens was teacher. Prob 
ably he served also as pastor of the church, for Rev. Cutting 
Marsh, who had been appointed in 1829 as Mr. Miner s successor, 
was unable, on account of the early closing of navigation, to reach 
his field that autumn. "My father," writes Miss S. E. Marsh, "ar 
rived among the Stockbridges on the first day of May, 1830, and 
preached his first sermon to them the next day, it being Sunday." 
Some time during the summer he stood at the dying bed of the old 
revolutionary soldier, Hendrick Aupaumut. 

In his "Tour of the American Lakes," published in London in 
1833, Rev. Calvin Colton, afterwards professor in Trinity college, 
Hartford, Connecticut, writing under date of August 16th, 1830, 
gives a most entertaining account of the Stockbridge settlement on 
Fox river, at "Grande Kawkawlin" as he calls it. He explains that 
"Kawkawlin" means "falls" or "rapids," adding that "Grande" is 
French and needs no explanation. "I am now writing," he says, 
"from the mission house of the American Board. The Stock- 
bridges number about three hundred fifty souls, and have probably 
made greater attainments in the English language and manners, 
and in the useful arts of civilized life, and also in the Christian re 
ligion, than any other tribe of the aboriginees on the continent; 
except that the Brotherton Indians have so long used English as 
to have lost their mother tongue. But in the moral state of society 
and in general improvement the Brothertons are far behind the 
Stockbridges." He then, as already noted, describes Dr. Ays- 

t NOTE. Or, "Wow-weh-wee-nee-meew." 

J NOTE Miss Quinney s school has been called the first in Wisconsin. 
But according to tho information available, the firt-t Wisconsin school teacher 
was Jean Baptiste Jacobs. He was an English Jew and came to Green Bay in 
100, having lost all his property in Canada through the perfidy of his brother. 
He attempted to regain fortune in the fur trade, but in this he was not success* 
ful, and opened a school at Green Bay about 1803. 

NOTE. -Then a Congregationalist or Presbyterian. In 1885 he entered 
the Episcopal ministry. 


couth s gift, f It was kept "in a kind of an ark/ suggestive to 
Mr. Colton of the ark of the covenant among the Hebrews-, The 
day before was Sunday and he had attended service. Amid over 
hanging trees there was a well-built log church, used also as a 
school. It would seat a congregation of three hundred. There 
was- a Sunday-school with Indian teachers and a white superinten 
dent (probably J. D. Stevens), All the congregation were "neatly 
dressed in a costume about half way between the European habit 
and that of the wild tribes," This, to Mr. Colton s mind, suggest 
ed the degree of their civilization. "The mea seldom wear hats." 
There were differences in dress indicating, as among whites^ "social, 
standing, degree of respectability, and domestic wealth," The af 
ternoon sermon was "interpreted for the benefit of the small portion 
of the tribe who do not understand English." The singing is high 
ly praised. 

"The staff and office of parish beadle" particularly interested 
our traveler. He thinks it probable that the office with its pecu 
liar duties originated in the time of John Sergeant, and makes no 
mention of the probability that it was merely a transference to an 
Indian church of a custom, that of choosing a tithing-man, existing 
at that time among their white neighbors. "The staff in the pres 
ent instance was a green switch about ten feet long which the 
functionary had cut from the wood as be came to church." This 
was used with such vigor about the ears of at least one disorderly 
boy that they must have burned, Mr. Colton thinks, the rest of the- 
day. A sleeping adult was roused by hitting, with the heavy end 
of the "switch," the stove-pipe until it rang, the beadle meanwhile 
crying out in Indian, "Wake up there!" This official is spoken of 
as severely and strictly impartial, and our traveler does not doubt 
that even a stranger would be duly admonished if there should be 

f NOTE. A venerable German stadthalter(?) was so much interested in Mr. 
Colton s narrative that he sent the Stockbridges twelve of the finest Bibles to 
be had in London. 

"There were also twelve Bibles given the tribe August 3rd, 1835, by 
Charles, Landgrave of Hesse Denmark. The people were allowed to give 
away to destitute tribes, and now only four are in possession and only one fit 
for the pulpit," Mrs. Sarah J. SHngerland, 1891, May 26th. 

What the good lady (widow of Jeremiah Slingerland) means by "Hesse 
Denmark" I don t know. A first thought is of Hesse Darmstadt. But its rulers 
are grand dukes and in 35 Louis II. was reigning (1830-48). 


need. Good order has always been noted as a characteristic of the 
religious meetings of these people. On this particular occasion the 
preacher was manifestly disturbed though the congregation re 
mained unmoved, taking the whole preceding as a matter of 
course. The drowsy one gave good heed to the rest of the sermon, 
and the fact is noted that the congregation were very attentive. 

Another thing that especially interested Mr. Colton was the 
fact that after the benediction the congregation sat down, givino- 
those nearest the door an opportunity to retire. Others then fol 
lowed without confusion. 

It may also be mentioned here that when these people first 
came to Wisconsin, and for years thereafter, they followed the old 
New England custom of beginning the Sabbath at sunset Saturday 

Writing under date of 1831, January llth, Mr. Stevens gives 
the number of the tribe as two hundred twenty-five. Thus it is 
probable that Mr. Colton s "three hundred fifty" was an over-esti 
mate. There were in the church fifteen men, twenty-seven women, 
It is pleasant to read in a later communication from him that "on 
the last Sabbath in January, 1832, Rev. Kichard F. Cadle, super 
intendent of the Episcopal mission at Green Bay, administered the 
sacrament." Mr. Cadle s worth redeemed the mission which he had 
in charge from the reproach which the mendacious Eleazar Wil 
liams had brought upon it. In the autumn of 1833 Mr. and Mrs. 
Stevens left Statesburg. Soon they began work among the Sioux, 
and in 1835 established a mission at Lake Harriet, within the pres 
ent limits of Minneapolis. This was part of the beginning of the great 
work which has practically changed the character of that tribe, known 
from the time of Marquette as ferocious and dangerous enemies; a 
work which, begun on the upper Mississippi, has place now in Ne 
braska and the Dakotas by the turbid waters of the Missouri, f 

t NOTE.- Work was done for the Sioux within the present limits of out- 
own state. Two men, perhaps from the St. Crishona seminary though more 
probably from the mission training school (both) at beautiful Basel in Switzer 
land, where the swift Rhine turns northward on its course from the Alps t 
the sea, came to the upper Mississippi region. Amid the mountain-like bluffs 
near the present village ot Trempeauleau, not far from where Nicholas Perrot 
spent the winter of 1685-6, i f not on the very spot, one of these men , Rev Daniel 
Gavin, with an associate, Louis Straum, whom he found at Prairie da Chien 


Soon the whites wanted Statesburg. To be sure the Indians 
had made farms there and begun to improve its famous water- 
power by building a saw-mill and beginning a grist-mill, destined 
never to be finished. But they were compelled to move again. 
Part of our story is told in extracts frcm a pathetic letter dated 

1833, October Mth, f and addresssd to the American Board: 

"We wish to tell you that our hearts are glad, that we are 
thankful, first to God for giving us the gospel, the Bible and teach 
ers, and next to you for sending them to us. The good people be 
yond the great waters first found us when we were blind and ignor 
ant and wicked. We had no teachers, no Bible, no God. no Christ. 
We worshipped the bad spirit. They sent us the good book and 
teachers about one hundred years ago. * * But we were 
very dull to learn: many of us followed after strong drink. * * 
As a tribe we were nigh to ruin. Then we came to this country. 
Here you kindly sent us teachers who have done much 
for us. * * Nearly the whole tribe have become temper 
ate and far more industrious than before. * * Until re 
cently it has never been believed by us that the whole tribe could 
be converted to Christianity, but now we are fully convinced and 
do firmly believe that the whole tribe can, not only be fully civil 
ized but brought to embrace the Christian religion. * * We 
expect soon to leave our present settlement and again 

to commence anew in the wilderness. Hard as this is we have en- 
mad ethe first mortem settlement within the limits of Trempeaulean county. 
His Swiss colleague, Rev. Samuel Denton, in the spring of 1835, established a 
mission where is now the village of Red Wing, Minnesota. Rev. Alfred Brun- 
son, who saw both these missionaries on his first trip up the river above 
Prairie du Chien (1837) thinks that the Red Wing establishment was founded in 

1834. Both movements were unsuccessful, as was also an attempt by Rev. J. D. 
Stevens to found a mission at Wah-pa-sha s village, now Winona. The chief 
named was hostile to all these missionary efforts, and as they were neither 
French nor Romanist the traders gave them no favor. In 1837 the Sioux trans 
ferred to the United States government the land on which stood the Trern- 
peauleau mission, and in the following year Mr. Gavin abandoned the field. 
He then joined his colleague who had married Miss Persis Skinner of the 
Mackinaw mission. He himself in 1839 married Miss Lucy C. Stevens, niece of 
J. D. Stevens, and this missionary quaternion found other homes among the 
Sioux and, in connection with missionaries of the American Board, continued 
labor with them. 

t NOTE. It was signed by Jacob Cheekthaukon, John Metoxen, Austin E. 
Quinney, Thomas T. Hendrick, Andrew Miller, Timothy T. Jourdan, Cornelius 
S. Charles, John W. Quinney, Samuel A. Miller and Josiah W. Miller. 


deavored to reconcile our minds to it. Still we can 

not avoid feeling much solicitude on the subject. 

u The Sacs and Fox and Delaware tribes of Indians are our 
friends and relatives, and a delegation from our people intend vis 
iting them next season. Can we not tell them the great benefits 
we have received from being taught the gospel? Can we not tell 
them that your society is ready to send them teachers if they are 
willing to receive them? Can you not appoint a missionary to ac 
company us? Fathers, if you think there is any way we can do 
good in our visit to our poor brethren beyond the Mississippi, we 
wish you would give us some instructions," 

The narrative is continued in a letter by Chauncey Hall, dated 
1834, July 2nd, at Statesburg, but postmarked "Grand Cakalin." 
It was addressed to Mr. Edmund F. Ely of the Ojibway mission at 
Sandy Lake, in what is now Minnesota. The postage, eighteen 
and three-fourths cents, reminds us that certainly in some things 
the former days were not better than these. 

"When Rev. Mr. Green was at Mackinaw last summer, an ar 
rangement was made for my future labors which made it probable 
that I should in the course of the coming fall or early in the spring 
leave Mackinaw for the place from which I am now writing. This 
station was occupied by the Eev. Mr. Marsh and Mr. and Mrs. 
Stevens. Mr. Stevens and wife left last fall, but it was not consis 
tent for me to leave till spring. We [himself and 
wife] left Mackinaw on the 21st of May at 2 o clock P. M., Mon 
day, and arrived at Green Bay on Wednesday evening. Our pas 
sage was in the steamboat Oliver Newbury f and, though we were 
detained by fogs, was very pleasant. 

"We left Green Bay on Friday at 12 o clock, and proceeded up 
the Fox river. We reached the mission-house at 3 P. 

M., had time to get our baggage, etc., from the landing (one and 
one-half miles distant in consequence of the rapids) and get very 
comfortably settled before evening. Rev. Mr. Marsh gave us a very 
cordial reception. He has been alone since last fall, much of the 
time without any one to attend to his domestic concerns, and he 
was truly glad to receive fellow-laborers. We found in him what 

t NOTE. Oliver Newbury of Detroit, Michigan, was a steamboat owner. 
But Mr. J. M. Boyd thinks that there was no boat bearing his name. 


we expected, a kind and warm-hearted Christian, much devoted to 
his work, and enjoying to a great degree the love and confidence 
of the people for whom he labors. * * The condition of 
the Indians among whom we dwell presents much that is truly en 
couraging to the missionary, and methinks a view of them as they 
collect together for the worship of God, or talk of His love in 
their dwellings, would make the heart of one destined to labor 
among the uncivilized Indians, where no gospel has extended its 
benign influence, to rejoice in view of what the Lord has done, and 
encourage him to pursue his labors assured that He who has done 
so much for these Indians is able also to extend the work and will 
do it through the instrumentality of His children. The church 
among the Stockbridge Indians consists of sixty or seventy mem 
bers. Most of them adorn their profession. Several who had wan 
dered from the path of duty have recently returned with apparent 
penitence, and, as far as I know, their lives give evidence that it is 
sincere. The church is a temperance church, agreeing to abstain 
from the use of all strong drink, not excepting wine, strong beer 
and cider. Most of the tribe are members of a temperance society 
which exerts a salutary influence. At their last annual meeting, a 
few weeks since, they resolved to give up the use of wine, strong 
beer and cider. (The resolution had before existed but in the 

"Perhaps from what I write, you will conclude that we are 
among a people so civilized that we have nothing to remind us that 
we are on missionary ground. Truly we are among those for 
whom the Lord has done great things. Yet bad I time and room 
I could tell you with all that seems to be cheering much that would 
lead you to feel that, if we are not in the midst of heathenism, 
we have enough to remind us of heathen wretchedness, enough 
to call forth the compassion of feeling hearts, enough to call 
forth our unwearied labors and to lead us to ask with sincerity 
for an interest in your prayers. 

"I mentioned the absence of the Rev. Mr. Marsh. He left 
with five of the principal Indians on the 12th of June. In the 
Missionary Herald for April, 1834, is a letter from the chief man 
of the Stockbridge Indians which will explain to you the object 
of this journey. Much interest has been and is still manifested 


by the Indians in the mission to their benighted neighbors. On the 
Sabbath previous to their departure, Mr. John Metoxen, the head 
chief of the tribe, addressed his people at the evening meeting. 
He was one of the delegation, and he reminded his friends in a 
feeling and dignified manner, that they were soon to be separated : 
that perhaps this was their last meeting upon earth. Then he 
spoke of the contemplated journey to their neighbors west of the 
Mississippi, and he appeared deeply to feel the importance of the 
errand on which they were going. 

"He said it was the first time their people had undertaken to 
tell the glad tidings to their brethren in darkness. He expressed 
his sense of the blessings which had been conferred on them 
through the gospel; of the preciousness of their privileges, and the 
obligation which rested upon them to improve them, as well as to 
discharge their duty to their wretched brethren. With much feeling 
he spoke of the condition of the heathen, and particularly of the In 
dians, while destitute of the gospel. His heart seemed to feel for 
their wretchedness in this life, but the burden of his sorrows seemed 
to be the hopelessness of their condition in the future world while 
destitute of a saving knowledge of Jesus. He assured them of his at 
tachment to home and his desire to return, but expressed the 
most cheerful resignation of the will of his Heavenly Father re 
specting this. His counsel to his people who were to remain was 
faithful and affectionate, earnestly desiring their prayers for a 
blessing upon this embassy. 

"The absence of Mr. Marsh and the chief men takes from the 
Indians those who have been their counselors, and we are not with 
out our fears respecting the effect, particularly as this will be a sea 
son of much temptation, as the Indians are to receive their money 
for their improvements and are much unsettled in consequence of re 
moving. Our hope is that He who has promised that they who water 
shall be watered will watch over us. We have had cheering indi 
cations that the Lord was with us for two or more weeks past. 
Christians have been evidently revived, and two or three individuals 
have publicly expressed anxiety for the salvation of their souls, and 
asked for the counsels and the prayers of Christians. Our meet 
ings are well attended and our Sunday school is interesting. About 
half the people have removed to the new station about twenty miles 


from us and forty from Green Bay, the nearest white settlement. 
We expect to remove there in a few months as well as the remain 
der of the people; have yet to remove the timber and erect a dwel 

To the "new station" was given the old name Stockbridge. 
Thither in this same month, July, 1834, came Rev. Abel Lester 
Barber, driven from Mackinaw by the failure of his health. Thus, 
in trying a climate more remote from the lakes, he was added to 
the mission force at Stockbridge. We shall hear of him later at 
Fort Winnebago and Milwaukee. \ At the latter place he had the 
first commission which the American Home Missionary society is 
sued for Wisconsin. 

t NOTE. In the winter of 1^34-35, Mr. Barber gathered a church at Fort 
Winnebago, and in the following July or August removed to Milwaukee. 
Apparently he was the second clergyman to hold service in that place and the 
first to make his home there. 



Mr. Hall s fear that the summer of 1834 would be "a season of 
temptation" to the Indians was abundantly verified as is evident 
from the report of the mission piesented in September at the an 
nual meeting of the Board: 

"During the past year the Indians of this band have continued 
in nearly the same unsettled state in which they were last year; 
and being sometimes on their old lands and sometimes on their 
new, they have enjoyed but irregularly the advantages of Chris 
tian instruction or of th^ school. The religious meetings and the 


school have been small and fluctuating. It is hoped, however, that 
the Indians will all become settled in their new homes during the 
present autumn. Numbers of them have cleared and fenced large 
fields for themselves, have erected comfortable houses, and are la 
boring industriously on their new lands. A good building for the 
school and for religious meetings has also been erected, princi 
pally by themselves. The mission premises on their former reser 
vation were appraised at two thousand dollars; and the amount has 
been paid over to the Board by the United States. A new mission 
house has been built at the new town, and the mission family re 
moved to it last fall. The school and the religious meetings have 
been held there since that time. 

"Intoxicating drinks have been introduced among these In 
dians in great quantities, and oftentimes urged upon them gra- 
tuitiously, for the sole purpose, apparently, of enticing them to sin. 
Many of the irreligious Indians have given themselves up to drink 
ing; and its consequences, quarreling and fighting, have prevailed 
to a lamentable extent. Some of the church members have also 
fallen into sin, under similar temptation, while many others hold 
on their w r ay, and give increasing evidence that they are sealed with 
the Holy Spirit. Three or four members of the church are under 
censure; one young man has been received to church fellowship, 
and one had died in the faith." 

In a letter dated at Stockbridge, 1835, March 25th, Mr. Marsh 
makes a report of the trans-Mississippi trip which he made with 
Metoxen and others. We subjoin the more important parts: 

"Set out on the 12th of June (1834). Upon the 14th encamped 
for the Sabbath, having in full view to our right the Big Buttes 
des Morte, which had taken its name from the slaughter of an en 
tire Sac village by the French and Menominees about one hundred 
years ago. As we pursued our journey we occasionally saw lodges 
of Winnebagoes along upon the banks but no corn fields or vegeta 
bles of any kind which they had growing. Whenever they saw us 
coming they would * * beg as if half starved. Col. Cutler 
informed me that * * they were the most indolent, thiev 
ing tribe that he knew of. He had known as many as three or 
four hundred drunk at one time. * * The Cumberland 
Presbyterians have a mission among them near Prairie du Chien. 


The Catholics are making some effort to proselyte them and num 
bers are Catholics at the present time. 

"The second Sabbath, June 22nd, we passed at a place called 
the Pine Bend on the Wisconsin, about sixty miles from Portage., 
where was a small settlement. A few Indians were present and at 
tended religious worship with us. We arrived at Prairie du Chein 
on the 25th and finding that Dr. Williamson had left we made no 
tarry. Saturday evening, the 28th, we arrived at Rock Island. 
Dr. Williamson had left this place also the day previously. 

Mr. Metoxen had an interview with Black Hawk who was re 
turning from Rock Island to his village, which Mr. Metoxen had 
just been to visit, 

"Black Hawk went on to tell how kindly he was treated by the 
white people w^herever he went when on his tour. In no place, 
nays he, did I see white men and white equaws drinking together 
the same as our people do. When I passed through your place it 
was just so, and I want to have my people just like those good 
white people, for I see where they do not drink they do better and 
live better. Now what do 3 r ou think is best about receiving mission 
aries? By all means receive them, I replied, says Mr. Metox 
en, for they will do you good. Black Hawk: But the trader, 
Mr. Davenport, told me not to have anything to do with them for 
they would only make you worse. f 


"Our attempt to establish a mission amongst the Sacs and 
Foxes entirely failed of success. 

"I went to visit old Ke-o-kuck s village soon after my arrival. 
He told my interpreter that he knew what I had come for but he 
wanted to learn nothing about it. J The head chief, called the 
Stabber/ said the same thing to my interpreter when I went to 
his lodge. As they had no previous notice of my visit, and inas 
much as their mode of treating the subject was so contrary to the 

t NOTE. Mr. Metoxen tells of his difficulties not only because the traders 
were opposed but because the United States interpreter, besides being con 
nected with the American Fur Company, was a Romanist. 

| NOTE. Ke-o-kuk continued to be so much of a heathen that, during or 
about 1840, he had a squaw put to death for the alleged reason that she be 
witched one of his children. 


rules of Indian etiquette. I do not hesitate to say that they had.par- 
ticular instructions previously. 

"After a few days the Stockbridges met with the Stabber, 
who is considered by the Sacs as the head chief, but not by the 
white people. They proposed to the Stabber to make the intended 
visit to his people. At first he objected, but consented after they 
had told him that they had provisions of their own. They went 
and stayed about five days, but having no interpreter could con 
verse but little with the Sacs and so the latter understood little of 
the object of the visit. Still I had reason to believe from what I 
afterwards ascertained, that a favorable impression was made on the 
minds of the Sacs by the visit. After this the Stockbridges set their 
faces towards home. I had gone down the river to visit one of the 
most remote bands upon the river Des Moines. 

"The deportment of the Stockbridge delegation during the 
whole tour was such as to do honor to themselves and to the cause 
of missions. Many white people where they went had never seen 
a civilized or Christian Indian before. Often the most singular in 
quiries would be made, as Do they belong to the church? Can 
they speak English? etc. On their return they were of course 
alone and they came by land part of the way. In the mining 
country, not far from Galena the Sabbath overtook them and there 
they stopped until it was passed. I returned the same way and 
heard it remarked by some of the people that they sang hymns 
all Sabbath day. This seemed not only new but strange to those 
who make no distinction bet\ven one day and another when travel 

"The appearance of John Metoxen, his conversation, etc., were 
universally spoken of with admiration, particularly by Christians. 

"My connection with Dr. Williamson was short. Together we 
visited Appenoose s village one hundred twenty-five miles from the 
mouth of the Des Moines. After Dr. Williamson left to return to 
his friends in Ohio I was attacked with dysentery. I returned 
about one hundred miles down the Des Moines river to the house 
of a trader, Mr. William Phelps, where I was sick one week. 

"Mr. Phelps, though a professed infidel in sentiment, still was 
friendly to my object. He declared that if something were not 
done soon for the Sacs, etc., they would all be swept off. He treat- 


ed me with great hospitality. He and a brother of his are trading 
in opposition to the American Fur Company and it rather operates 
to our advantage than otherwise." 

"A tour by land and water of over 1,300 miles;" "absence of 
three months and some days," are among Mr. Marsh s comments 
on his journey. 



Scarcely were the Stockbridges settled in their new homes when 
another removal was proposed. "Even now," says the annual re 
port to the Board for 1836, "when the Indians have hardly put up 
their houses and cleared and enclosed their fields, the proposal has 
been made to take them from their homes again, and transport 
them to a country west of the Mississippi river, Their minds are 
beginning to be agitated on the subject. The perplexity and dis 
couragement to which the missionaries are subjected from this 
source are very great; but not to be compared with the dishearten 
ing and deteriorating influence exerted on the Indians by being so 
often obliged to abandon the houses and fields which they were- 
just beginning to enjoy, and to prepare for themselves other homes 
of which they may be despoiled as soon." Of their condition other 
wise at that time the narrative adds, "Temperance, industry and 
attention to religious instruction, have been more general than for 
the preceding two or three years. Temptatations have beset the 
people from the white settlers who are crowding in around them. 
Some painful cases of defection have occurred. Others have resist 
ed temptation so as to excite the admiration of unprincipled men. 
Mr. Marsh has assisted in organizing a church at Green Bay. He 


preaches there occasionally." A second school had been started 
in the Indian settlement. 

The purpose to remove the Indians west of the Mississippi 
was abandoned, and for some years the tribe had peace. Of this 
time Rev. L. P. Norcross f writes: "Their palmy days were dur 
ing the reign of the Quinney or tribal party." Probably he should 
have said that their palmy days were before the division into tribal 
and citizens parties began. "Quinney," he adds, "was a man of 
character, ability and a Christian." Doubtless John W. Quinney 
is meant. Another writer says: "He was to his people what Clay 
and Webster were to the whites. In 1833 he framed a constitution 
as a basis of the tribal government." J During these years the 
principal events seem to have been the coming in the spring of 
1837 of some Munsees from Canada, and the removal in 1838 of a 
part of the Stock bridge tribe beyond the Missouri. A place seems 
to have been provided through the agency of the Ogden Land Com 
pany of New York. After a few years most of those left alive 
were glad to return though some of the younger people remained. 
In the autumn of 1838, when the American Board felt most keenly 
the financial stringency of the time, Mr. and Mrs. Hall left the mis 
sion. We shall hear of Mr. Hall again as representative of the 
Green Bay church when the Presbyterian and Congregational 
Convention of Wisconsin was organized. The Stockbridge Indian 
church was the first one not of the original number to join this 
body. It was received at a session held 1841, January 2nd, for the 
purpose of installing Rev. Jeremiah Porter as pastor at Green Bay. 
John Metoxen was delegate. During this winter, as in 1837, there 
w r as a revival in the Stockbridge church. The school during 1841 
was under the direction of the Indians. 

But evil was brewing. The "Missionary Herald" for January, 
1840, speaks of political divisions. One party desired citizenship, 

t NOTE. Pastor of the existing church at Steckbridge, Wisconsin, from 
May, 1869, to January, 1870. 

| NOTE. Probably the constitution found in the appendix is substantial 
ly the same as the one drawn up by Mr. Quinney. 

NOTE. This company was eager to get possession of the New York 
lands that belonged to the remnants of the Iroquois or Six Nations. So they 
sought to get reservations in what is now Kansas for them and for such of 
their brethren as had removed to Wisconsin. 


the other preferred to remain in the tribal condition. The ill-feel 
ing thus engendered proved to be a veritable Pandora s box of evils. 
Because of it the tribe is worse off, probably in every respect, than 
it was fifty years ago. However, citizenship was bestowed by an 
act of Congress approved 1843, March 3rd. This measure had Mr. 
Marsh s support, but many of the tribe, and apparently some of the 
better portion of it, opposed the change. There is report of strife in 
1844. Death and emigration had diminished the tribe which num 
bered not many more than two hundred. The church had fifty 
members, only five more than it had in 1830, though meanwhile it 
had received sixty-eight. The report for 1845 states that "in tem 
perance, industry, healthfulness and comfortable living, the tribe 
appear to be making some progress." The Sabbath was generally 

In this year, 1845, probably April, Methodist services were es 
tablished among these people by the Kev. W. Gr. Miller, from 
whose autobiography we have an account of the movement. 
"There had been," he says, "a Congregational mission among the 
Stockbridge nation for many years, but its condition was not very 
promising." He speaks of "Dr." Marsh as "a gentleman of educa 
tion and ability," but adds, "he divided his time, however, between 
the ministerial and medical professions, and the spiritual interests 
necessarily languished." It may be that good Mr. Miller wrote 
thus seeking to justify action which was certainly divisive, and 
probably unwise. Meetings were held in "Father Chick s" barn. 
Mr. Miller speaks of him as "the head chief " which he was not. 
But he was a leader of the citizens party. 

The gift of citizenship was withdrawn in 1846 from those who 
did not desire it. In January, 1847, one of their number, of mixed 
blood, Jeremiah Slingerland, educated at Bangor theological sem 
inary, is especially mentioned in the "Herald." He had been "la 
boring among them acceptably and usefully as preacher and teach 
er." He became the successor of Rev. Cutting Marsh who ended 
his long pastorate at Stockbridge in the spring or summer of 1848. 
In the same year the Stockbridge tribe, avowedly for the purpose 
of ridding themselves of further trouble, sold their lands at Win- 
nebago lake. 

But this act itself gave occasion for fresh dispute. It would 


seem that an attempt was made to keep from all share in tribal gov 
ernment and coiitrol of tribal property those, seventy-one in num 
ber, who had accepted citizenship. These, it was alleged, had re 
ceived, on becoming citizens, allotments of land that were the 
equivalent of their share of the property, the land of the reserva 
tion that had been held by the tribe in common. It is not my office 
to pronounce judgment. 

The faithful memory of one still among the living f has preserved 
for us a picture of the condition of the Muh-he-ka-ne-ok at this time 
of the impending and hurtful change. Nearly all the homes of the 
people were of logs, but there were a few frame houses. For years 
Mrs. Marsh had been a teacher of good house-keeping to the women 
and many followed, at least in some measure, her example. But 
there was a considerable number who did not properly guard 
against dirt and vermin. Naturally there were sneers for those 
who tried to fashion their apparel after the manners of the whites. 
The women of the progressive party wore at church and other 
public places beaver hats shaped somewhat like the silk hats so 
commonly worn by gentlemen. The other women wore neither hat 
nor bonnet. Men and women alike to the number of perhaps half 
or more of the tribe, wore "blankets." These were commonly of 
blue broadcloth, and were worn in public. The men all wore pan- 
.taloons and shirts. But the order in which were worn the parts of 
these garments that are next to each other does not accord with our 
ideas of propriety. The want of suspenders was manifest by the 
constant "hitching" needed to keep the pantaloons in place. The 
women did most of the work, even of that in the field. Yet there 
were men who had accepted enough of Christian teaching to know 
that this kind of work was especially their duty and to act accord 
ingly. Some of the families lived at a considerable distance from 
the school but all the children received therein more or less train 
ing. Nearly all the tribe attended church. Their Sabbath, as in 
former years, began at sunset on Saturday evening. Mrs. Benson 
heard or saw nothing of the "elegantly festooned whip" that Mr. 
Norcross speaks of but she remembers a peeJed stick used for the 
same purpose. There were still so many of the tribe who under- 

t NOTE. Sabra Howes Adams, now the wife of Rev. H. H. Benson, of Wau- 
watosa, Wisconsin. 


stood Indian that Mr. Slingerland occasionally preached in it. 
This Mr. Marsh did not think necessary. Some of the young men 
had been educated in. Eastern colleges. These, with the possible 
exception of Mr. Slingerland, did no credit to their training. They 
married half-civilized women and lapsed into something worse than 
their former mode of life. Mrs. Benson s work among the people, 
like that of Mr. Marsh, came to an end in 1848. Then the Ameri 
can Board gave up its mission. This seems now and is judged 
by Mrs. Benson to have been a serious mistake. 

Now that both these men are in their graves, it may be said 
that Mr. Marsh had no confidence in his successor,- or supplanter. 
He left Stockbridge with a feeling of despair regarding the future 
of the church to which he had so long ministered. His distrust of 
Mr. Slingerland was shared by some of the clearest headed of the In 
dians themselves. Yet it does not become us to reproach the mem 
ory of the dead who has left none of his name to defend him. f 

During the gloomy years that followed the sale of the Lake 
Winnebago reservation, the Stockbridges wer not entirely neglected. 
At the meeting of -our state Presbyterian and Congregational Con 
vention in 1854, their delegate, S. Miller, presented their case, and 
a committee was appointed "to memorialize the proper department 
of the Government, in our name, in behalf of the Stockbridge tribe, 
setting forth their grievances, and petitioning for the restoration to 
them of their lands." The Convention also resolved that "we feel 
it incumbent upon us to endeavor to procure for them the stated 
ministration of the gospel." Mr. Slingerland s service seems to 
have ended before 1853, for in that year a name, O. P. Clinton, late 
ly added to the number of the dead, (1890, June 17th), appears as 
pastor. In 1854 and in 1859 we find him in the same office, which 
was held in two of the intervening years, 1856 and 1857, by J. P. 
Jones. During these pastorates whites worshiped with the In 
dians in the old mission house, erected in 1834. J "Indian church 

t NOTE. While this work has been in preparation his widow, a white 
woman, always faithful to him and to his memory, and honored by all who 
knew her, has passed away. 

\ NOTE. This old "meeting-house," still standing though degraded, is 
worthy of an historic monograph. It suggests the fact that Stockbridge, more, 
probably, than any other place in Wisconsin, reproduced some of the features 
of a New England town of the eighteenth centurj . Their "meeting-house" was 


nearly extinct/ say our minutes of 1859, "church of whites about 
to be organized." It is to be regretted that they did not unite with 
their Indian brethren in Christian covenant, and thus formally as 
well as really continue the life of the old church organized, as we 
have seen, at Stockbridge, Massachusetts, in 1785. Its records 
were lost in the removal to Shawano which took place between 1856 
and 1859. By far the greater part of the tribe made this change. 
A few, however, remained. In this number were "quiet, unostenta 
tious, sincere Christians," as they were described years afterwards. 
Uniting with their white brethren these kept the life of the old 
church unbroken. 

Whether or not the "memorial" proposed in the Convention of 
1854 was ever presented, I do not know. It was too late for the 
tribe to recover its lands on Lake Winnebago. Indeed, if any In 
dian tribe has ever recovered from the United States government 
lands once alienated I have never heard of the fact. 1856, February 
5th, a treaty was made assigning to the tribe the present Stock- 
ridge reservation in Shawano county, and this treaty all were allowed 
to sign, whether citizens or members of the tribe. Removal to 
the new home began in that year. Some came in October. I have 
been told that most of the tribe made the change in 1857. The 

used, not only for religious service but for other public gatherings*. This oM 
building, after serving sis a Congregational church until 1*569, December 
19th, became successively a school, a printing office and a blacksmith shop. 
It has had in it, probably, more silver money than has been at one time in any 
other house of worship in Wisconsin, making no exception for Sundays when 
special collections haA e been taken for missions either home or foreign! At 
one government .payment the Indians received therein eighty thousand or more 
silver half dollars. The use of the same building for purposes both of church 
and state, merely different aspects of the same Christian commonwealth, 
was judged right by the Puritan, and did not imply any unbecoming use of the 
house wherein he worshiped God. He had little use for the term "secular . 
in its present meaning. It is probable that the tribal meetings of the Stock- 
bridges, like the town meetings of the olden time and some of the present, in 
New England, were opened with prayer. 

Two tithing men or "beadles," to use Mr. Colton s term, were chost-n at 
the annual church meeting to keep good order during service. We may sup 
pose that this included the prevention of "gazing about, sleeping, smiling and 
all other indecent behavior," the words on this subject of the Presbyterian 
Directory for Public Worship. The switch of the time f Mr. Colton s visit 
was, according to Rev. L. P. Norcross, succeeded later by a whip. "This mean* 
of grace was elegantly mounted," he says, and the lash was "festooned in cur 
ious style." 


journey was across Lake Wiunebago and up the Fox and Wolf rivers. 
A tributary of the latter, called the Red river, flows through the 
reservation then occupied and still held. I have been told that 
some Indians from New York, Senecas, Onondagoes and Cayugas. 
about eighty in all, joined the Muh-he-ka-ne-ok at the time of this 
last removal. 

What wonder that the Indians left Stockbridge unwillingly? 
We are glad that the leaders in the Wisconsin-ward migration 
were not called upon to abandon the home to which they had led 
their people. John W. Quinney died 1855, July 21st. tpon a 
marble slab, now grown mossy, in the old Indian cemetery by the 
lakeside, is the legend, "John Metoxen, died April 8th, 1858, aged 
87 years." We have a right to claim as our own this son of Massa 
chusetts. Let his name stand first in the list of Wisconsin s hon 
ored laymen. Aside from Dr. Morse, he was probably the first to 
hold public worship on Wisconsin soil according to the simple rites 
of the Puritan. And he was the first, after the departure of the 
early French Jesuits (who are so much overpraised and whose work 
is so much overvalued by sentimentalists and sectarians) to main 
tain here regularly the public worship of Almighty God. 

During our late war, not less than thirty-eight men, more than 
one-tenth of the entire tribe, enlisted in the Union army. Heavy 
were their losses by disease. But not one deserted. This tak 
ing of men from the infant settlement must have greatly retarded 
its development. 

Deprived of their leaders and neglected by our ministers and 
missionary societies, the Indians suffered their old church organ 
ization to lapse. A Methodist church took its place and Mr. Sling- 
erland, who was teaching the government school, became a local 
preacher of that denomination. "But the old faithful ones," writes 
his widow, "could not feel at home." Mr. Slingerland s preferences 
were for a Presbyterian church, and one was organized in Septem 
ber, 1867, to which he ministered until his death in 1884. Christian 
work was steadily maintained though the church was pastorless 
until October, 1887, when Rev. A. W. Williams began a year s ser 
vice. In April, 1889, Rev. Thomas Knox Fisher bagan his labors. 
"The work," he wrote, "is certainly very encouraging." But he re 
mained only two years. He was succeeded, probably in July, 1891, 


by Thomas H, Haug. He was ill-adapted to his field and left in 
or about February, 1892. Rev. Jacob Van Kensslaer Hughes, Pres 
byterian pastor of Shawano, now shepherds these people as he can 
amid other duties of a faithful pastorate. 

In 1871 some of the families renounced the tribal condition 
and became citizens, A movement is now on foot to break up the 
reservation system and allot land in severalty. It would seem that 
this might better have been done half a century ago. 

Doubtless these people are somewhat broken in spirit. But 
their history is an inspiration. And if this story of their past shall 
help to make better the present and the future, he who has written 
this imperfect sketch will be glad. 

In closing the story of these people we remember that they 
have been served in the pastorate by men of as eminent piety and 
as great ability as America, or perhaps the world, has yet pro 
duced, that repeatedly they have carried the light of Christian civ 
ilization into the wilderness, that theirs was the first evangelical 
church in what is now Wisconsin, and that from their humble mis 
sion went light to the region round about and to tribes in the dark 
ness of heathenism. When the Romanists had here no resident 
priest, when no Methodist itinerant had yet penetrated this wilder 
ness, and in it the Episcopalians had neither church nor minister, 
these Christian Indians came hither as an organized church, and 
this church before any other was organized here, God blessed with 
a revival. The first free school in Wisconsin was theirs, and the 
first of the great company of women who here publish the divine 
word of education was of Stockbridge blood. As years went on 
they aided, through their pastor, in establishing churches among 
the whites. Fugitives from slavery found shelter in their settle 
ment. Better than their service in six wars for our country, is the 
fact that wherever they lived there are now churches and schools 
which they helped to found and homes which they helped to make. 
Surely these Muh-he-ka-ne-ok, "the people of the waters that are 
never still," have a claim upon the grateful remembrance of all who 
love our Lord Christ. 






A council was called and held by the males of the Moh-he-con- 
news (commonly called the Stockbridge and Munsee tribe) r at Aaron 
Konkaput s house at our new homes near the southern boundary 
of the Menomonee Reservation, in the State of Wisconsin, this 30th 
day of December, A, D., 1856. 

Resolved, That John N. Chicks, Timothy Jourdan and Ziba 
T. Peters be a committee to form a Constitution similar to that 
heretofore adopted by the tribe and to present the same week from 
to-day for adoption. 

Resolved, That the tract of land granted to the united nation 
of the Stockbridge and Munsee Indians and is located in the State 
of Wisconsin, near on the north side of the southern boundary line 
of the Menomonee Reservation and west from Wolf Eiver, shall 
hereafter be called or named, Moh-he-con-nuck, and by this name 
the place aforesaid shall ever hereafter be designated in all public 
acts and documents whereinsoever it may be named. 

Resolved, That the council now adjourn until one week from 
to-day, when there shall be an election of national officers, and that 
Ziba T. Peters, the Sachem , be authorized to provide victuals for 
the people on the expense of the nation. 

Entered of record by Pou-poon-hout, alias 


Pursuant to adjournment, the males of said tribe held a 
general council at the dwelling house of John Yoccum, this 
6th day of January, A. D. 1857. The committee reported the fol- 


lowing articles of Constitution, which were read and adopted and 
are in the following words, to-wit: 


Whereas, The Great Spirit has made His mighty arm bare in 
the preservation and establishment of a part of the Moh- he-con - 
neew (known as the Stockbridge and Munsee tribe), on the western 
part of the Wolf River, on the north side of the southern boundary 
line of the Menomonee Reservation, in the State of Wisconsin. 

Therefore, We, the Chiefs, Braves and Warriors of the Stock- 
bridge and Munsee tribe, being assembled at one new fire place at 
Moh-he-con-nuk, in the State of Wisconsin, this 6th day of Janu 
ary, A. D. 1857, having considered t^at our peculiar situation high 
ly demands combined efforts in order the more efficiently to exe 
cute our best intentions and purposes hereinafter enumerated, do 
hereby voluntarily make, ordain and declare, that the following ar 
ticles shall be considered as articles of our union and confedera 
tions, which shall remain unalterable unless by common consent. 

Article I. 

There shall be no distinction made of the united tribe of Stock- 
bridge and Munsee Indians on account of descent or birth (saving 
where character and qualification shall render any person ineligible 
for any post of trust or honor), but all shall alike be entitled to en 
joy the rights, privileges and advantages of the nation. 

Article II. 

That all such of the Stock bridges and Munsees, whether they 
are now residing in the State of New York or Wisconsin, or any 
where in the United States, who were not provided for either in 
land or money, shall at least have the privilege of coming and tak 
ing up lots of land on the tract given to the Stockbridges and Mun 
sees, by the treaty of February 5th, 1856. 

Article III. 

Every male of the age of twenty-one years or upwards (or un 
der twenty-one years if legally married, in which case he shall be 
admitted on an equal footing with those of the age aforesaid), shall 
be entitled to vote for national officers herein elective. 


Article IV. 

Schools and the means of education shall ever be encouraged. 
Article V. 

No person or any assembly of people, met for the worship of 
God on the Lord s day or at any other time, shall be disturbed. 

Article VI. 

There shall be a Sachem elected for the term of three years, 
and five Counsellors for the term of one year. One of the Counsel 
lors shall be chosen by the Sachem and Counsellors a Secretary, 
whose duty it shall be to keep all the acts and proceedings of the 
Councils, and generally do such writing of a public nature as be 
required by the Sachem and Counsellors; and in consequence of 
the death, resignation or necessary absence of the Sachem, one of 
the Counsellors who received the highest number of votes, shall ex 
ecute all the power and perform all the duties of the Sachem, dur 
ing the vacancy occasioned by the resignation , death or necessary 
absence of the said Sachem. "And in case of the death or resigna 
tion of a Counsellor, the Sachem shall by notice, either in writing" 
or otherwise, appoint a time and place to elect another in his stead 
to serve for the residue of the term. The Sachem and the two 
others who had received the highest number of votes for Counsel 
lors, shall constitute the high court of the nation. 

Article VII. 

A Treasurer, two Peace makers, two Path Masters and one 
Sheriff, shall be elected annually on the day of election, and their 
powers and duties shall be prescribed by law. 

Article VIII. 

The general election shall be held on the first Tuesday of Jan 
uary annually, and it shall be the duty of the Secretary to give no 
tice of the day of election, by posting up notices in two or three of 
the most public places of the town at least six days before the day 
of election. 

Article IX. 

The election shall be by ballot. 

Article X. 

The election shall be opened between the hours of nine and 
ten o clock in the forenoon and shall be kept open until four 
o clock in the afternoon. 


Article XI. 

The Legislative Council and High Court of the Nation shall 
be held at such time as shall be provided by law. 

Article XII. 

The Sachem and the five Counsellors or a majority of them, shall 
adopt such of their original laws, criminal and civil, as may be 
necessary and best suited to the circumstances of the tribe. They 
also shall have the authority to make other laws in all cases for the 
good government of the tribe, not repugnant to any of the articles 
herein enumerated. 

Article XIII- 

Bill of Righite, 

SECTION 1. All men are born equally free and independent". 
All power is inherent in, and all government of right originates 
with the people, is founded in their authority and instituted for 
their peace, safety and happiness. 

SECTION 2. The people shall at all times have the right in a 
peaceable manner to assemble together to consult for the common 

SECTION 3. Excessive bail shall not be required. Excessive 
fines shall not be imposed and cruel and unjust punishment shall 
not be inflicted. 

SECTION 4.- No person shall be deprived of his liberty or prop 
erty, but by the judgment of his part or the law of the Nation; 
should the public exigencies make it necessary for the common 
preservation, to take any person s property or to demand his par 
ticular services, full compensation shall be made for the same. 

Article XIV. 

The Sachem, Counsellors, Treasurer, Peace Makers, Path Mas 
ters and Sheriff shall, before they enter upon the duties of their re 
spective offices, take and subscribe the following affirmation : I do 
solemnly affirm that I will support the constitution and laws of this 
nation and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of the office 
of - according to the best of my ability. 
Article XV. 

Immediately after the signing of the articles herein enumerat 
ed, the Council will proceed to elect two or three inspectors for the 
election of such officers as are required in the foregoing articles by 



ballot, and who shall act in that capacity to all intents and pur 
poses therein, during the term in which they are elected. 

As witness our names and marks, the day and year above 





[Of course the attempt has been made to reproduce faithfully 
the transcript of the constitution given me. This accounts for the 
two spellings of the name declared to be that of the reservation,- - 
a name seldom used but worthy of practical adoption. The "s" in 
"confederations" in the preamble may be a mis-reading. 

The government established by this constitution has lapsed. 
In reality "Mohheconnuk" is governed by the United States Indian 
agent. The practical socialism of the system which he administers 
seems to be a failure.] 


The Bible of which mention is made oa page seven contains 
the following inscription: 

This with another volume, containing the Holy Bible, is the 
pious gift of the Reverend Doct. Francis Ayscouth, [Clerk of the 
Closet to His Royal Highness Frederick, Prince of Wales ), 

To the use of the Congregation of Indians, at or near Housa- 
tonic, in a vast wilderness, part of New England 5 who are, at pres 
ent, the voluntary Care, and Instruction, of the Learned and Relig 
ious Mr. John Sergeant, and is to remain to the use of the Success 
ors of those Indians from generation to generation; as a testimony 
of the said Doctor s Great Regard for the Salvation of their souls 
and is over and above other Benefits, which he most cheerfully ob 
tained for the encouragement of said Mr. Sergeant, and in favor of 
the said Indians, 

At the Request of their hearty Friend and Weil Wisher, 

London, the 31st day of December, 1745. 

It is my impression that Captain Coram was in England as so 
liciting agent for the Stockbridge "charity school." Accordingly I 
cherish his memory with feelings of mournful and sympathetic in 
terest. Then as now the greater part of the money needed to es 
tablish institutions of higher education must needs be provided by 
the lobbyist or the solicitor. 

Gideon Hawley, whose name occurs on page thirteen deserves 
somewhat more of mention than is there given him. He graduated 
at Yale in 1749. He dated his service at Stockbridge from the 5th 
of February, 1752. His work there seems for the most part to have 
been among Mohawks, Oneidas and Tuscaroras from Kanajohar- 
ry and Onohoghwage." He preached to them and taught their 


children. In September, 1752, he visited the Iroquois in New 
York. Apparently he determined to establish a mission among 
them. Of his second departure from Stockbridge to New York he 
writes: "It was on Tuesday, May 22nd, 1753, when Mr. Wood- 
bridge, myself and company set out from Stockbridge for the In 
dian country. Our departure upon so great an errand as the plant 
ing of Christianity in the wilderness about an hundred miles be 
yond any settlement of Christian people drew the attention of the 
whole town. And the Rev. Mr. Edwards, his wife and others ac 
companied us a considerable distance into the words toward Kin- 
derhook." The end of their journey seems to have been Onoh- 
quaga f on the Susquehannna. 

These men found among the Indians a wish for a prohibitory 
liquor-law. Mr. Woodbridge represents J Indians as desiring to 
say to the governor, "My brother, I would have you tell the great 
men at Albany, Skenectetee and Skohary not to bring us any 
more rum." 

Mr. Hawley s stay in New York could not have been a long 
one. "I was ordained in the Old South meeting-house (Boston) 
81st Juty, 1754." Immediately thereafter he removed again to 
Stockbridge. After he was driven from this place by Colonel Wil- 
liams s machinations he labored, according to E. W. B. Canning, 
among the Indians in New York until the outbreak of the Revolu 
tionary War. Then he served as chaplain in the colonial army. 
Died at the age of eighty years, 1807, October 3d. 

As Jonathan Edwards has been again mentioned, we may here 
give the date of the dismissing council at Northampton : 1750, 
JUmuiy "Qtti.f TTi. was installed at Stockbridge 8th of August, 
1751. The council by which he was advised to go to Princeton 
met 1758, January 4th. 

Under date of 1890, July 3d, Miss Sarah E. Marsh expressly 
states, doubtless from information derived through her father, that 
Metoxen and his party from Indiana came to Green Bay in 1822. 

f NOTE. Doubtless the "Onohoghwage" named above. 
| NOTE. In a letter to Governor Sir William Johnson, dated at Albany, 
1753, June 26th. 

NOTE. Schenectady and Skoharie. 


She mentions also a Mimsee pagan family who- came from New 
York that same year. It is not likely that they came alone. We 
may conclude then that, as M r. Ellis says, a party of emigrants did 
come from New York that autumn, f The family that Miss Marsh 
mentions became Christians. They took the name of Scott. After 
the early death of their son Cosen, who was converted in 1837, Mr. 
Marsh, deeply moved by the young man s religious experience, 
made it the subject of a published narrative. 

It may have been noticed that the Indian church and mission of 
early years in Wisconsin are sometimes spoken of as Congregation 
al and sometimes as Presbyterian. Doubtless the church was orig 
inally Congregational. In New York it may have become con 
nected, according to the "plan of union" with some presbytery. We 
have seen what was its relationship here. It was successively con 
nected with the Madison and Winnebago local conventions. At 
the organization of the former, 1846, November 17th, it was repre 
sented by Austin E. Quinney as delegate. Rev. Jesse Miner is 
spoken of as a Presbyterian by his daughter, and such was Mr. 
Marsh s denominational preference also. For he was one of those 
who in the autumn of 1851 helped organize the (new school) pres 
bytery of Columbus. 

Of the removal to the present Stockbridge reservation Mrs, 
Slingerland wrote (1891, January 6th): "My husband and I came 
here in 1857, in February. We were on the road with sleighs two 
days, the 14th and 15th. The rest of the tribe came as they could. 
The last came two years after the treaty was made. From dates 
which I have we had been here some six or seven years before the 
Methodist church was organized, in 1863-4. But from the time we 
came we met together for Sabbath services every Sabbath and for 
Thursday prayer meetings. * * * * The Methodist 
church continued until th* present Presbyterian church was organ 

Mr. Slingerland was ordained by the presbytery of Winnebago 
probably about the time the church was reorganized under the 
present form. "For thirty years," his wife wrote, "we enjoyed the 

t See page twenty-two. , 


training of the children, not only in the sciences but in moral and 
religious principles. Mr. Slingerland would teach the school from 
New Year s day to the last of April, Then I would take the school 
until Christmas." Thus Mrs. Slingerland wrote under date of 1890 r 
September 19th. 

Mr. Slingerland was born, 181 8 T February 6th. His father was 
a white man, his mother a Muh-he-ka-ne-ew. The son was educat 
ed at Dartmouth, Owing to the fact that he was an Indian he pro 
bably received, both there and at Bangor, more attention than was 
good for him. It is said that he was somewhat of a- ladies pet. 
At the time of his marriage in 1852, himself and wife were members 
of the church of Neenah. f Whether or not he ever made that 
place his home 1 do not know. Were his good wife living, she 
died last year in Minnesota, it would perhaps grieve her to have 
me leave unsaid some of the things she so sincerely believed con 
cerning him. And 1 dare not say that she did not have good rea 
sons for her belief. Mr. Slingerland died 1884, June 5th, 

Miss Quinney, Wisconsin s first school mistress, J was ed 
ucated at Clinton, New York, and at Cornwall, Connecticut. At 
the latter place she spent six years. It was in 1828 that she began 
to teach the mission school at Statesburg, probably, as I have 
said, the first free school in Wisconsin. 

"The Hon. E. S. Miner of Necedah, one of her pupils, says 
that she was a better teacher than the average of teachers to-day. 
Her methods, many of them, were similar to those of the present 
day. The pupils were mostly Indian children, but the language 
used was English. Daboll and Smith s arithmetic, Webster s 
spelling book, the old English reader, Columbian orator and Wood- 
bridge s geography were her text books. There was no Wisconsin 
then, all Michigan on both sides of the lake. The Indians were 
poor in mathematics, but excelled in penmanship. She rarely 

t NOTE. Congregational at first, now Presbyterian. 

t NOTE. In this same year, according to Secretary R. G. Thwaites, a Miss 
Caroline Russell taught at Shanty town, an early settlement whose site is near 
the present city of Green Bay. 

NOTE. Son ef Rev. Jesse Miner and member (1871-2) of the Wisconsin 


whipped; opened her school with prayer. It was modeled after 
the best public schools of New England at that time. The school 
was in connection with a Presbyterian mission. She refused to 
marry the sheriff of Brown county; too proud to marry a w*hite man, 
she married an Indian minister, and lived to a good old age in Wis 
consin. Sixty-three years finds great improvements in the school 
system of Wisconsin, but whether a child at present gets any bet 
ter knowledge of the elementary branches during the first ten years 
of his life than he did then is doubted." 

To the above, from the <; Door county Advocate," may be add 
ed paragraphs from an article f by Superintendent Henry 
Severin of New Ho] stein, Calumet county: 

"Miss Quinney was highly respected by the whites, and moved 
in their best society at Fort Howard. She married Daniel 
Adams, a Methodist clergyman. Mr. Adams was a Mohawk In 
dian, and at that time a missionary to the Oneidas, and is spoken 
of as a pious and intelligent man. With him she removed to Mis 
souri, where he became pastor to a band of Senecas. After his 
death she became the wife of a Cherokee editor, with whom, after 
some years, she returned to her farm in Stockbridge, which her son J 
has lately sacrificed in order to push a claim that his kinsmen be 
lieve they have against the United States. Here she died about 
eight years ago. 

"About one mile north of the little village of Stockbridge on the 
east shore of Lake Winnebago, is a small graveyard. In the midst 
of monuments telling of sachems and other notables of the Stock- 
bridges, is a little mound of turf with a few scanty flower bushes 
upon it: it covers the remains of Electa Quinney, Wisconsin s First 

In connection with this subject of early schools the second note 
on page twenty-seven contains certain errors. Thomas S. Johnson 
of Onondago, New York, was probably the first man who taught 
school at Green Bay and so the first to teach within the present 

t NOTE. Wisconsin Journal of Education, December, 189h 

t NOTE. John Clark Adams. 

NOTE. "She was born," Mr. Severin says, "about eighty-seven years 
ago. * * * * First taught school among the Indians in New 


limits of Wisconsin. His agreement with those who became his 
patrons was "to teach reading, writing, arithmetic and the English 
language, during the space of nine months from this date" (the 
10th of November, 1817 ).f 

The slaves whom the writer had in mind were brought by a 
Mr. Goodell to Green Bay and hidden there in the belfry of the 
church by Pastor and Mrs. Porter. That was probably in 1855. 
See page forty-five. 

The "six wars" were Queen Anne s, King George s, the French 
and Indian, the Revolution, the second war with Britain and the 
pro-slavery rebellion. See page forty-five. 

The use of the Gregorian calendar was legally established in 
Great Britain and her colonies by enacting that the day following 
the 2nd of September, 1752, should be accounted the 14th of that 
month. In speaking of Dr. Bellamy s letter I should have said 
that the date thereof is probably new style, not old. J 

A story told by Mrs. Benson needs no comment : An Indian, 
having been refused credit for whisky, filled his jug with water 
and rowed past where Mr. Marsh was standing on the lake shore. 
The good missionary entreated the Indian to pour out the (suppos 
ed) whisky, and finally offered him a dollar if he would do so. 
This the Indian did and, as the water had not taken the smell of 
whisky from the jug, Mr. Marsh was deceived and paid the dollar. 
With the money the Indian returned to the saloon keeper and got 
for cash what he could not get on credit. 

t NOTE. Of Jacobs or, rather, "J. Bte. S. Jacobs," as he wrote his name, 
the "S." being for Ste., or St., I feel certain of little save that morally and oth 
erwise he was totally unfitted to be a teacher. 

J NOTE. Other errata should be mentioned : "These" for "those," intro 
duction, page xiv, twelfth line ;"Thackeray" for the mis spelling on page seven; 
"whoever" for "wherever," page sixteen, second note; and the corrected 
possessive "Chicks s" on page forty. "York money," says Professor A. L. 
Perry, "was issued at an avowed discount of twenty-five per cent." Seepage 



Abraham (a Mimsee), 19 

Adams, Daniel 57 

Adams, John Clark 57 

Adams, Sabra Howes 41 

Albany, 3, 8, 54 

Albany county, 26 

Algonkin, 2 

Alps, 29 

Ambler, Augustas T. 26 

America, 45 
American Board, 

xiv, 30, 34, 35 ? 42 


Bangor seminary, 40, 56 

Barber, Abel Lester 34 

Basel, 29 

Bellamy, Joseph 13, 58 

Belcher, Governor Jonathan 2, 4 
Beloit college, xiii 

Bennett, George Thomas 26 
Benson, Rev. H. H. 41 

Benson, Mrs. H. H. 42, 58 

Berkshire county, 2 

Bethlem, 13 

Black Hawk, 36 

Blaisdell, Prof. J. J. xiii, xiv 
Board of Commissioners for 
Indian Affairs, 1 


Cades, 23 

Cadle, Rev. Richard Fish 29 
Calhoun, John Caldwell 22 
Camp, Rev. C. W. xiv 

Canada, 15, 19, 27, 39 

Canning, E. W. B. 


American Board, Mission 

house of the 27 

American Missionary Asso 
ciation, 18 
Appenoose, 37 
Andover seminary, xiv 
Ark of the Covenant, 28 
Army, Union 44 
Arnold, Benedict 15 
Aupaumut, Hendrick 19, 20, 27 
Ayscouth, Rev. Dr. Francis 

xiii, 7, 27, 53 

Boston, 2, 13 

Boyd, James Madison 26, 31 
Bradley, Isaac S. xiii 

Brainerd, David 8, 9, 11 

Brothertown settlement, 17 

Brothertowns, 16, 27 

Brown county, 57 

Brunson, Rev. Alfred 30 

Bull, Rev. Nehemiah 3 

Burgoyne, 15 

Burgoyne s surrender, 19 

Bushnell, Horace ^ xi 

Buttes de Morte, 35 

Carlisle, 7 

Cayugas, 44 

Cedar Hill, 26 

Chalemuc, 2 

Charles, Cornelius S. 30 
"Charles, Landgrave of 

Hesse, Denmark/ 28 



Champlain, Lake ix 

Cheekthaukon, Jacob 30 

Chequamegon Bay, xii 

Cherokee editor, 57 

Chicago, 23 

Chicks, J. N. 40, 48, 58 

Childs, "Colonel" Ebenezer 26 
Choctaws, 26 

Christianity, obstacles to 26 
Clapp, Rev. Luther xiv 

Clay, 39 

Clinton, 19, 56 

Clinton, Governor De Witt 24 
Clinton, Rev. O. P. 42 

Cohahatatea, 2 

Congregation alists, 21 

Congregational mission , 40 
Cook s Corners, Baptist 

church of 20 

Constitution of Stockbvidge 

and Munsee tribe 48, 49 


Colloden, 7 

Colton, Rev. Calvin 

7, 27, 28, 29, 43 

Columbus, presbytery of 22 
Commissioners, Board of, for 

Indian Affairs 1 

Comnmck, Thomas 16 

Congress, vii, 40 

Congress, Continental 15 

Conkepot, 1 

Connecticut, 6, 10, 13, 22, 27 
Convention, Presbyterian and 


vii, xiii, 39, 42. 43. 
Coram, Thomas, xiii, 53 

Cornwall, 56 

Crete, Nebraska, xiii 

Cumberland, Duke of 7 

Cumberland Presbyterians 35 
Cutler, Colonel (Captain 

Enos?) 35 

Dakotahs, 29 

Dartmouth college, 17, 56 

Davidson, J. N. xiii 

Davenport, Mr. 36 

Deerfield. 4 
Delaware Indians, 

viii, 2, 9, 18, 19, 20, 21, 31 

Delaware river, viii, 9 

Denton, Rev. Samuel 30 
Des Moines river, 

Detroit, 31 

Dickinson, "General" Wil 
liam 26 
Doane college, xiii 
"Door County Advocate" 58 
Downer college, xiii 
Durrie, Daniel Steele xiii 
Dutch traders, 2 
Dutch settlers, 5, 10 
D wight, President Timothy 
(the elder) of Yale, 1, 18 

Education, Wisconsin Jour 
nal of 57 

Edwards, Jerusha 9 

Edwards, Jonathan (the el 
der) xii, 2, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15,23, 54 

Edwards, Jonathan (the 
younger) xii, 1 

Edwards, Timothy 15 

Ellis, A. G. 22, 55 

EJskwatawa, 19 

Ely, Edward F. 31 

England, 17 

English (and colonists) 12 

Episcopal mission, 26, 29 

Episcopalians 45 




Field, Cyrus VV. 

Field, David Dudley, D. D. 

Field, Justice Stephen J. 

Fisher, Rev. Thomas Knox 

Fond du Lac, 

Fort Howard, 

Fox river, 

Fox tribe, 



22, 58 

22, 24, 27, 44 


Foxes 36 

Freedom of the Human Will, 

treatise on 14 

Frederick, Prince of Wales 7, 53 
French and Indian war, 12, 58 
French, the 2, 35 

Fugitive slaves, 45. 58 

Fur company, American 36, 38 

Galena, 37 

Gavin. Rev. Daniel 29, 30 

George II., 58 

George III., 7, 17 

Goodell, Mr. 58 

Grand Cakalin, 31 

Grand Crossing, 25 

Grand Kaukaulin, 22, 23 

Grand Kakalin, 22 

Grande Kawkawlin, 27 

Great Barrington, 2, 3, 10, 12 
Great Britain, 17, 58 

Green Bay, 2, 22, 23, 25, 27, 29, 
Green Bay church, 39 

Greene. Secretary David 31 
Gregorian calendar, 58 

Gresham, x 

Hall, Chauncey 31, 34, 39 

Hampton, 7 

Harding, Rev. John W. 6 

Harrison, General W. H. 20 

Hartford, 27 

Harvard college, 7 

Hatfield, 4 

Haug, Thomas H. 45 

Hawley, Rev. Gideon 13, 53 

Hendrick, (Aupaumut) 20 

Hendrick, Solomon U. 19, 20 

Hendrick, Thomas T. 30 

Hesse Darmstadt 28 

Hoard, William Dempster 17 
Hollis, Rev. Isaac 7, 8, 10, 13 
Hollis, Thomas 7 

Hopkins, Rev. Samuel 

Hopkins, Rev. Samuel (the 

younger) 12 

Housatonic, 7, 53 

Housatonic riyer, 1 

Housatonics, 1 

Hudson Bay, 10 

Hudson river, 2 

Hughes, J. V. xi, 45 

Illinois, 25 

Indiana; 19,20,21,22,54 

Indians, New York act for 
bidding sale of liquor to 18 
Indians (Boston) society for 
propagating the Gospel 
among 18 

Indian church, 
"Indian Town," 
"Indian ring," 


2, 10, 39, 54 




Jacobs, Jean Baptiste 27, 58 

Jefferson, President 19, 20 

Jersey campaigns, 15 

Jesuits, French 44 

Johnson, Thomas S. 57 

Johnson, Sir William 
Jones, J. P. 
Jones, Miss Electa 
Jourdan, Timothy T. 


Kananjohary, 53 

Kansas, 39 

Kaukauna, 25, 26 
Kaunaumeek, 8, 9, 11 
Kellogg, Captain Martin 10 

Kent, 6 

Kent, Chancellor James 24 

Ke-o : kuck (Ke-o-kuk) 36 




2, 17 21 


Keshena, xi 

Kinderhook, 54 

King Ben, vii 

Konkapot, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 

Konkapot , Catherine 5 

Konkapot, Mary 5 

Konkaput, Aaron 48 

La Pointe, xii 
Ladwig, Nicolaus 6 
Lake Harriet, 29 
Lake Superior Congregation 
al Club, xii 
Land company (Ogden), 39 
Leavitt, Orpha E. xiii 

Lebanon, 8 

Livingstone manor, 10 

London, 7, 27, 28 

Longmeadow, 2, 6, 11 

Louis II., 28 


Mackinaw, 30, 31, 34 

Madison convention, 55 

Madison county, 16, 20 

Madeline Island, xii 

Mahal we, 4 

Mahecanittuck, 2 

Manhattan, ix 

Manhattas, ix 

Marquette, 29 

Marsh, Miss S. E. 27, 54, 55 
Marsh, Mrs. 41 

Marsh, Rev. Cutting xi, xiv, 17, 
20, 27, 31. 32, 33, 35, 38, 40, 42, 

Massachusetts, 1, 2, 6, 9, 10, 12, 
15, 17, 18, 44 

Menomonee reservation, 48, 49 
Menomonees, xi, 22, 35 

Methodist church, 44, 55 

Methodist services, 40 

Metoxen, John 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 

25, 30, 33, 35, 36, 37, 39, 44, 54 
Miamis, 19 

Michigan, 31, 56 

Michigan, Lake 22 

Miller, Andrew 30 

Miller, Josiah W. 30 

Miller, Samuel A. 30, 42 

Miller, W. G. 40 

Milwaukee, 34 

Milwaukee Lake Shore and 

Western railway, 26 

"Milwaukee Sentinel," xii 

Miner, E. S. 56 

Miner, Rev. Jesse 

24, 25, 26, 27, 55, 56 
Minnesota, 30, 31, 56 

"Missionary Herald," 

21, 24, 32, 39, 40 
Missionary Society, United 

Domestic 24 

Missionary Society, Ameri 
can Home xi, 24, 34 
Missionary Society, Congre 
gational Home 24 
"Missions on Cnequamegon 

Bay," xii 

Mississippi, 31, 33, 35, 38, 39 
Mississippi, Upper 29 

Missouri, 29, 39 

Mohawks, 3, 13, 53, 57 

Moheakunnuk, 19, 24 

Mohegans, viii, ix, 16 

Mohegan or Mohican, 2 

Mohigans or Mohicans, 6 

Moh-he-con-neew, 49 












More s charity school, 

Morse, Jedidiah, D. D. 

18, 20, 22, 44 

Moshuebee, 15 

Muh-he-con-new, ix 

Muh-he-con-nuk, 1,2,9, 16,48,49 
Muh- he-k a- ne-ew, 

vii, xii, 1, 25, 56 

Muh-he-ka-ne-ok, x, 1,2, 11, 14, 
17, 22, 41, 44, 45 
(Different forms of the 

above name) 1 

Muh-he-ka-ne-uw, 1 

Mimsee, 19, 49, 55 

Munsees, viii, 22, 24, 39, 49 


Nanticokes (Nahanticks) 16 

Narragansetts, viii, 16 

Nau-nau-neek-nuk, David vii 
Nebraska, xiii, 29 

Necedah, 56 

Neenah, 56 

"Negro Slavery in Wisconsin" xii 
Nehaiwe, 4 

Newbury, Oliver 31 

New England, 7, 9, 12, 29, 57 
New Haven, 4, 22 

New Holstein, 57 

New Jersey, 4, 9, 14 

New Stockbridge, 16, 17, 18 
New Stockbridgo church, 24 

New York, 2, 6, 8, 10, 13, 15, 16, 

17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 26, 39, 44, 

49, 54, 55, 57 

New York city, 24 

"New York Indians," 22 

Newington, 10 

Niagara, 12 

Ninham, Daniel (or Abra 

ham) 15 

Norcross, Rev. L. P. 39, 41, 43 
Northampton, 9, 12, 14 

Northern Missionary Society, 22 
"Northwestern Congrega- 

tionalist," xii 

Norwegian mother, x 


Occum Rev. Samson 17 

Ogden Land company. 39 

Ohio, 37 

Ohio, presbytery of 21 
Old South meeting-house, 54 

Oliver Newbury (boat) 31 

Ojibway mission, 21 

Oneida, 21 

Oneidas, 13, 16, 26, 53, 57 

Oueida county, 16 

Onohoghwage, 53, 54 

Onondago, 57 

Onondagoes, 44 

Oshkosh, x 

"Our Church Work," xii 



"Panoplist," The 






Perrot, Nicholas 





Perry, Professor Arthur La 
tham 13, 58 
Peters, Ziba T. 48 
Phelps, William . 37 
Philadelphia, 17 
Pine Bend, 36 
Piqua, 21 
Pooh-poo-ntic (Poo-poo-nah) 3, 5 
Pon-poon-haut, 48 


Portage. 36 

Porter, Rev. Jeremiah, I). D. 

xiv, 39 
Prairie du Chien, 

26, 27, 29, 30, 35, 36 
Preacher, The 14 

Presbyterians, 21 

Presbyterian church, 44, 55 

Presbyterian mission, 57 

Protestant sermon, first in 

Wisconsin 22 

Protestant church-building ; 

first in Wisconsin, 25 

Princeton, 14, 54 

Puritan church, 26 

Puritan, 44 

Queen Anne, 59 

Quinney, Austin E. 19, 30, 55 
Quinney, Miss Electa W. 

27, 56, 57 

Quinney, John W. 

vii, ix, 24, 30, 39, 44 

Red River, x, 44 

Red Wing, 30 

Reidsville, vii 

Revolution, American 15, 16, 19 
Revolutionary war, 13 

Rhine, 29 

River Indians, xi, 1, 2 

Rock Island, 36 

Romanists, 25 

Rome, church of xii 

Royce, Miss Nancy 19 

Russell, Caroline 56 

Sac village, 35 

Sacs, 31, 36, 37 

Sandy Lake, 31 

Schenectady, 54 

Schoolmistress, first in Wis 
consin, 27 
Scott s commentary, 21 
Scott, Cosen 55 
Scharfs History, J. Thomas 6 
Scotland, honorable society 2, 17 
Senecas, 44, 57 
Sergeant, John (elder) viii, xii, 3, 

Sergeant, John (younger) 15, 17. 
18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24 
Severin, H. 57 

Shantytown, 26, 56 

Shawano, x, xi, xii 

Shawano county, 43 

JShawnees, 9 

Sheffield, 1 

Shekomeko, 6 

Shirley, Governor William, 

of Massachusetts 12 

Signers of constitution, 52 

Sincoe, Lieut.-Col. 15 



J age. 

Six Nations, 10, 17, 39 

Sioux, 29 

Skatekook, 1 

Skoharie, 54 

Slaves, fugitive 45, 58 

Sliugerland, Rev. Jeremiah 

28, 40, 41, 42, 44, 55, 56 
Slingerland, Mrs. Sarah J. 

28, 55, 56 

Smith, John Y. 25, 26 

Society in Scotland, for the 
propagation of Christian 
knowledge, 2 

South Kaukauna, 20, 22, 24 
"Southern Congregational- 

ist," xii 

Springfield, 2 

"Stabber," The 36, 37 


20, 24, 26. 29, 30, 31. 56 
St. Chrishona, 29 

St. Jacobs, J. B. 58 


Straum, Louis 29 

Stevens, Rev. Jedidiah Dvvight 

27, 28, 29, 30, 31 

Stevens, Miss Lucy C. 30 

Stockbridges, vii, xi, 2, 15, 17, 

19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 32, 
37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 45, 48, 49 
Stockbridge, church of vii, 17 
Stockbridge Indian church, 

1, 12. 39, 54 

Stockbridge, England, 6 

Stockbridge, Massachusetts, 

viii, ix, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 
12, 13, 14, 16, 43, 53, 54 
Stockbridge, Wisconsin, 

x, xi, 23, 34, 35, 40, 42, 44, 55, 57 
Storm, Miss Helen C. 23 

Stoughton, xiii 

Susquehannah, 9, 54 

Stowe, Mrs. Harriet Beecher 1 
Switzerland, 29 


Tanner, Dr. H. B. 24 
Tatepahqsect, 19 
Tau-taii-yah-com-iiK> wah, xiii 
Tecurnseh, 19 
Thackeray, William Make 
peace, 7 
Thanksgiving, institution of 19 
Thor s hammer, 14 

Thwaites, R. G. xiii, 56 

Trempealeau, 29 

Trempealeau county, 30 

Trinity college, 27 

Turkey, Dennis xiii 

Tuscaroras, 13, 53 

Two Rivers, xiv 

Umpachene, 2, 4, 5 

Union army, 44 

Union college. 1 

United States, xiii. 15, 26, 49, 57 

United States government, 

22, 30, 35 

United States, Congress of vii 
Utica, 16 


Wah ntih-wah-iiKH t. 25 

Wah-pa-sha, 30 

Wah-weh-wee-nee-meew, 27 

Wappecomrnehkoke, 19 

Washington (city), vii 

Washington, General 15, 16 
Washington, I tvsidcnt IT. 18,20 

Watts, Dr. Isaac 7 

V\ aun-nau-con, vii, ix 

Wauwatosa, 41 
Wauvvaumpequunnant, John S 

Webster, 39 

Wesley, John 12 

Westfield, 3 



West, Rev. Dr. Stephen 14, 15 
West Springfield, 
Westchester county. 6 

Whitefield, Rev. Geo. 12 

Whitney, Mrs. M. A. 25 

Whittier, John Greenleaf 14 
White Plains, 15 

White River, 19, 20 ; 21, 22 

Wilder, Rev. S. P. xiv 

Wiffiams, A. W. 44 

W T illiams college, 7, 13 

Williams, Col. Ephraim, 

(senior) 7,13,54 

Williams, Eleazar 2, 29 

Williams, Stephen D. D. 

2, 3, 4, 5 

Williamson, Thomas S. 36, 37 
Winnebago convention, 55 

do Fort 34 

do Lake 

xi, 22, 40, 43, 44, 57 


Winnebago, presbytery of 55 

Winnebago Reservation, 42 

Winnebagoes, 22, 35 

Winoua, 30 

Wisconsin, vii, xi, xii, xiii, 1, 17, 

19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 

26, 27, 29, 34. 36, 39, 43, 

48, 49, 55, 57, 58 

do State Historical 

Collections, Vol. II. 22 

do do Vol. IV. 16 

do do Vol. VII. (p. 453) 26 

do do Vol. XII. xii 

do State Historical 

Society, xii, 15 

do presbytery of vii 

Wnahktukook, 1 

Wood, James 6 

Woodbridge, Timothy 

4, 10, 12, 13, 54 
Wolf River, x, 44, 48, 49 

Yale college, 
Yoccum, John 

3, 4 I York money, 



Zinzendorf, Count von 

<TB R A R >- 

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