UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
A HISTORY OF THE
C UNIVERSITY }
J. N. DAVIDSON, A. M.
PUBLISHED BY SILAS CHAPMAN.
A HISTORY OF THE
J. N. DAVIDSON. A. M
I FRLISHKD BY SILAS CHAPMAN.
J. N. DAVIDSON.
Tn thE people nf my first pastorate, -the Congregation
al churches of Stoughton and Cooksville, and the Fresby-
tsrian church of Cambridge, Wisconsin, this narrative is
inscribed with grateful remembrance,
Legendary history of the Muh-he-ka-ne-ok. Visit to the
Stockbridge reservation.- Origin of this monograph.. . . vii-xiv
Mission to the "River Indians." John Sergeant. Settlement
of Stockbridge, Massachusetts. Prohibitory liquor-law.
- David Brainerd 1-11
CHAPTER I I.
Jonathan Edwards. Stephen West. Stockbridges in the
war of the Revolution. Removal to New York. The
CHAPTER I I I.
Samson Occum. Stockbridge delegation visits President
Washington "White heathen." War of 1812 17-21
Removal of part of the tribe to Indiana, thence to the Green
Bay region. --Northern Missionary Society (absorbed in
to the United Foreign Missionary Society as that was
later into the American Board). Jedidiah Morse visits
what is now Wisconsin. First Protestant sermon here.
John Metoxen (same nam e probably as that once written
Mtocksin). First temperance work in this region 21-23
Removal from New York to Statesburg (South Kaukauna).
Rev. Jesse Miner, the first Presbyterian or Congrega
tional minister to make a home in Wisconsin. First
school mistress here. Calvin Colton s narrative. Work
for the Sioux. Chauncey Hall s letter. Removal to
Stockbridge, Wisconsin 24-34
CHAPTER V I.
Evils attending removal. Mr. Marsh s report of a trans-Mis
sissippi trip. Death for witchcraft 34-38
CHAPTER VI I.
Munsees. Stockbridge church joins the Convention. Polit
ical divisions. Methodist services. Jeremiah Slinger-
land. Condition of the tribe in 1848. The old mission-
house. Removal to Shawano county. Later pastorates. 38 - 45
Stockbridge and Munsee council. Constitution of the t nited
Inscription in the Ayscouth Bible. Gideon Hawley. Time
of certain removals. Denomination of Stockbridge In
dian church. Mr. and Mrs. Slingerland. Miss Electa
W. Quinney. First school master here. Fugitive slaves.
"Six wars." Gregorian calendar. A shameful de
ceitErrata. York money Index 53-58
The point of view from which this narrative has been prepared
is that of one writing the history of certain Wisconsin churches,---
those that are or have been in connection with the ecclesiastical
body organized 1839, January 17th, as the Presbytery of Wiscon
sin, and re-organized 1840, October 6th, as the Presbyterian and
Congregational Convention of Wisconsin. First of these chrono
logically, and in certain other respects as well, was that among the
Stockbridge Indians. But the history of this church could not be
adequately given without telling that also of its people. Thus
what was designed to be a chapter has become a little book, a
"I am a true Native American, descended from one of those
characters whose memory every true American reveres. My grand
father, David Nau-nau-neek-nuk, was a warrior, and he assisted
your fathers in their struggle for liberty."
Thus Waun-nau-con, alias John W. Quinney, began a memorial
to the Congress of the United States, dated at Washington 1852,
April 12th. f He was asking for citizenship and a home. As
legend comes before authentic history we will let him tell, as he
did in a Fourth of July speech J some of the traditions of his
"About the year 1645, and when King Ben (the last of the
hereditary chiefs of the Muh-he-con-new Nation) was in his prime,
a Grand Council was convened of the Muh-he-con-new tribe, for the
purpose of conveying from the old to the young men, a knowledge
of the past. Councils, for this object especially, had ever, at stated
periods, been held. Here for the space of two moons, the stores of
memory were dispensed; corrections and comparisons made, and
t NOTE. What seems to be an older form of this name is Quinequaunt.
The W probably stands for the Indian name preceding.
J NOTE. At Reids ville, New York, 1854.
vlii IN TROD UCTION.
the results committed to faithful breasts, to be transmitted again
to succeeding posterity.
"Many years after, another, and a last Council of this kind was
held; and the traditions reduced to writing, by two of our young
men, who had been taught to read and write, in the school of the
Rev. John Sergeant, of Stockbridge, Massachusetts. They w r ere
obtained, in some way, by a white man, for publication, who ; soon
after, dying all trace of them became lost. The traditions of the
tribe, however, have mainly been preserved; of which I give you
substantially the following :
** 4 A great people came from the North- West: crossed over the
gait-waters, and after long and weary pilgrimages, (planting many
colonies on their track,) took possession, and built their fires upon
the Atlantic coast, extending from the Delaware on the south, to
the Penobscot on the north. They became, in process of time,
divided into different tribes and interests ; all, however, speaking
one common dialect. This great confederacy, comprising Dela-
wares, Munsees, Mohegans, Narragansetts, Pequots, Penobscots,
and many others, (of whom a few are now scattered among the dis
tant wilds of the Westothers supporting a weak, tottering exist
ence; while, by far, a larger remainder have passed that bourne
to which their brethren are tending,) held its Council once a year,
to deliberate on the general welfare. Patriarchial delegates from
each tribe attended, assisted by priests and wise men, who commu
nicated the will, and invoked the blessing, of the Great and Good
Spirit. The policy and decisions of this Council were every where
respected, and inviolably observed. Thus contentment smiled up
on their existence, and they were happy. Their religion, communi
cated by priests and prophets, was simple and true. The manner
of worship is imperfectly transmitted; but their reverence for a
Great and Good Spirit (whom they referred to by looking or
pointing upwards,) the observance of feasts and fasts, in each year;
the offering of beasts in thanksgiving and for atonement, is clearly
expressed. They believed the soul to be immortal; in the existence
of a happy land beyond the view, inhabited by those whose lives
had been bJameless: while for the wicked had been a region of mis
ery reserved, covered with thorns and thistles, where comfort and
pleasure were unknown. Time was divided into years and seasons;
twelve moons for a year, and a number of years by so many win
"The tribe, to which your speaker belongs, and of which there
were many bands, occupied and possessed the country from the
sea-shore, at Manhattan, to Lake Champlain. Having found an
ebb and flow of the tide, they said: This is Muh-he-con-new,
like our waters, which are never still, From this expression, and
by this name, they were afterwards known, until their removal to
Stockbridge, in the year 1730. flousatonic Kiver Indians, Mohe-
gans, Manhattas, were all names of bands in different localities, but
bound together, as one family, by blood, marriage and descent,
"Where are the twenty-five thousand in number, and the four
thousand warriors, who constituted the power and population of
the great Muh- he-con-new Nation in 1604? They have been vic
tims to vice and disease, which the white man imported. The
small-pox, measles, and "strong waters" have done the work of an
"What are the treaties of the general government? How often,
and when, has its plighted faith been kept? Indian occupation
forever, is, next year, or by the next Commissioner, more wise than
his predecessor, re-purchased. One removal follows another, and
thus your sympathies and justices are evinced in speedily fulfilling
the terrible destinies of our race.
"My friends, your holy book, the Bible, teaches us that indi
vidual offences are punished in an existence, when time shall be no
more. And the annals of the earth are equally instructive, that
national wrongs are avenged, and national crimes atoned for in
this world, to which alone the conformations of existence adapt
"These events are above our comprehension, and for wise pur-
poses. For myself and for my tribe, I ask for justice I believe it
will sooner or later occur and may the Great and Good Spirit en
able me to die in hope.
WANNUAUCON, the Muh-he-con-new."
Mr. Quinney seems to have selected such of the tribal tradi
tions as he himself believed. My ignorance of his subject forbids
me to do more than to raise the question whether or not his con
cept of the ancient religious observances of his people was affected
by his own Christian training and belief. This plea for his people
was perhaps his last public effort. He died 1855, July 21st.
From legend we pass to history. Here there is abundant ma
terial. The story of the Muh-he-ka-ne-ok is one that in former
years has given hope to the philanthropist and joy to the Christian.
Parts of it have often been told. If the narrative of this later time
and the account of the present condition of the tribe are of a kind
that can not please, we are to remember the surroundings in which
we have placed these people, and the neglect with which we have
On the evening of the first of June of this year I came to the
present Stockbridge reservation. The road led from the hamlet of
Gresham, a Bavarian settlement, a place prettily situated, but foul
with beer. Thither through rain I had come by a drive of fourteen
miles from Shawano, the nearest railway station. Beds of corduroy
crossing wide marshes made the road thence passable and the jour
ney unpleasant. The mail-carrier with whom I had come spoke poor
German and much worse English. My only fellow-passenger was
the son of a Norwegian mother, but on his father s side one of the
the tribe I had come to visit. Like most other young men of this
people he is a logger. His education had been neglected. In his
boyhood he was turned from school by Mr. Slingerland, f he said,
and this because bis parents were of the "citizens party." How
full of hate was the struggle between this party and its opponents
this incident, which seemed to me to be truthfully told, helps to
I was glad to turn from Gresham, a place of temptation to the
Indians, and through the still falling rain to walk into the Indian
country. The swollen Red River, then dashing over its granite
bed, runs there almost on the line of the reservation. It and the
larger Wolf to which it is tributary, have floated off to the great saw
mills of Oshkosh and elsewhere, the best of the logs that once
stood on the Indians land. Some great trees, however, are left, and
most of the reservation is covered with second-growth forest. In
deed, the area surrendered to bush and tree seems to be encroaching
t NOTE A teacher and pastor of whom we shall hear later.
upon that given to the plow. Scattered houses of logs upon "clear
ings" or small farms are the homes of the people. I doubt that
they live in as much of comfort as their fathers did on the east side
of Lake Winnebago, when fifty years ago their pastor, Rev. Cut
ting Marsh, would have had his people remain where they were and
advised them to become citizens.
Now the old question is up again. It seems that the land of
the reservation is likely to be allotted in severalty. The prospect
of getting a share was, about the time of my visit, bringing thither
all who had any claims whatever to tribal relationship and some
who perhaps had none at all. Already there were new-comers on
the reservation who had no more intention of making homes there
than I had. They had come because there was a chance of their
getting a piece of land which, if secured, would be sold as soon as
A tedious drive by another road, somewhat shorter, but rather
worse, brought me again to Shawano. The Presbyterian pastor
there, Rev. Jacob Van Rensslaer Hughes, is by virtue of his faith
fulness bishop also of the church at Stockbridge. For the old
name has been given to a second Wisconsin village, if village that
can be called which consists of little more than a blacksmith shop,
a manse and a church. The last is used also as a school. It is in
poor condition and ought to be replaced.
The story of later pastorates will be found in due order. At
present Mr. Hughes serves these people as he can, and sees to it
that a good teacher is found for the school which the United States
government maintains among them.
There is no post-office on the Stockbridge reservation. There
is one, Keshena, on that belonging to the Meuomonees. There and
at Gresham the Stockbridges get their mail.
Years ago Horace Bushnell, preaching before the American
Home Missionary society, said, "Emigration tends to barbarism."
He might have added, "Isolation tends to barbarism." What can
be expected of a people thrust a generation ago into a wilderness
so dense that civilization has scarcely reached it even yet? On one
side their nearest neighbors are peasants, European in habits and
dialect, on another, the Menomonee Indians, rather less advanced
in civilization than themselves and divided religiously into pagans
and members of the church of Rome. The logging camps, where
most of the young Indians of both tribes spend the long winters
and the delayed springs of northern Wisconsin, are poor schools for
the development of right character, or even for training in habits of
Some families have left the reservation and made homes at
Shawano. Into some of these I was received, and I found therein
cleanliness and comfort. In character and intelligence these peo
ple will compare favorably with their neighbors of the more favored
race. Nor should it be forgotten that on the reservation also there
are those who are true to the better traditions of a people who num
ber John Sergeant and Jonathan Edwards among their spiritual
With a story to tell that embraces part of the biography of men
like these whom I have just named, that covers the history of a
tribe unique in its good will and practical services to our colonial
forefathers and to us their descendants (according to the flesh, to
the spirit, or to both) : a story that brings us again into the light of
early days in Wisconsin, with such a subject as this if I*do not
interest those who care for these things, it must be because my
work has been ill done. If so, the reason may be that the labor
has been one of intervals, and has always been subordinated to the
duties of busy pastorates.
Out of the material gathered when there was opportunity for
such work, two papers have been prepared and published: "Missions
on the Chequamegon Bay," in volume XII. of the Wisconsin His
torical Collections, and "Negro Slavery in Wisconsin." The sub
stance of the former was presented as an address at the Northwest
Educational Conference held at La Pointe on Madeline Island,
1892, July 12th and 13th, under the auspices of the Lake Superior
Congregational Club. The latter was an address before the State
Historical Society at its annual meeting, December 8th of the same
year. Various articles also have appeared in "Our Church Work,"
"The Southern Congregationalist," "The Milwaukee Sentinel," "The
Northwestern Congregationalist" and other papers.
If in the forms of the Muh-he-ka-ne-ew dialect John Sergeant
and the younger Edwards made errors, these it is probable can not
be corrected by any one now living. Some of the older members
of the tribe understand the vernacular of their fathers and can
speak it. But their knowledge thereof is neither authoritative nor
scientific. Information given me by one of these, Tau-tau-yah-
com-mo-wah, (Talker to the point; or, Speaker to the point), [ have
incorporated into the first note in the chapter on the "Church in
the Wilderness." \
It can not be said that there is a fixed standard for the spelling
of Indian words. These appear accordingly on the following pages
as they are used by writers whom I have laid under contribution
to the making of this narrative.
The tribal Constitution, Thomas Coram s inscription in the
Ayscouth Bible, some added notes and errata, will be found in the
It would be ungrateful not to speak of the favors shown me
in the library of the State Historical Society J by Secretary Reuben
Gold Thwaites, the late librarian Daniel Steele Durrie, his succes
sor Isaac S. Bradley, and their assistants. Nor do I forget the
help I have found in the library of Beloit college, my own alma
mater, and the encouragement that my former instructors have
given me. For help in proof reading and the slavish work of mak
ing an index, meant to be reasonably full, I owe thanks to my
sister, Orpha E. Leavitt, A. B., instructor, formerly in Downer col
lege, Fox Lake, and now in Doane college, Crete, Nebraska.
As already stated, this little monograph was originally de
signed to be but part of a history of the churches that are or
have been in connection with the Presbyterian and Congregational
Convention of Wisconsin, and of that body itself. "Professor
Blaisdell," say the minutes of the convention for 1891, "called
attention to an extended history of our churches being prepared
by Rev. J. N. Davidson, of Stoughton. It was voted that a com
mittee of five be appointed to review the work, take charge of
t NOTE. These translations are his own. He is commonly known as
Dennis Turkey. He recognizes his Indian name by writing between his inter
esting English appellatives an initial T.
t NOTE. I do not doubt that there are many well-informed citizens of
Wisconsin who do not know that this library is believed, with reason, to rank
third in the United States in fullness of collections pertaining to American
NOTE. Fond clu Lac, September 30th.
its publication and bring it to the attention of the churches; the
committee to consist of Prof. J. J. Blaisdell, Rev. J. Porter, Rev. C.
W. Csmp, Rev. Luther Clapp and Rev. S. P. Wilder."
All of these gentlemen have shown much more than a mere
kindly interest. I am sure that I shall not seem to make an invid
ious distinction when I say that the eldest member of the commit
tee, Jeremiah Porter, D. D., and the brother next to him in years,
Rev. Luther C app, have placed me under peculiar obligations.
Even as these pages were passing through the press our beloved
Father Porter was not, for God took him.
Associated with his name is that of his Andover classmate,
Rev. Cutting Marsh. His, in greater part than those pages can
show, was the good work done among the Stockbridges in Wiscon
sin. That he was not longer upheld in his labor among them
seems to have been partly their own fault and partly a mistake of
the American Board in giving up the ancient mission among his
Whom may a covenant-keeping God save and bless !
Two Rivers, ttliscansin,
IB 93, September 5th,
THE CHURCH IN THE WILDERNESS.
Through the Stockbridge Indian church our Wisconsin eccle
siastical history is directly connected with that of Massachusetts.
The Muh-he-ka-ne-ok, or Housatonics (often called the River Indi
ans), f and perhaps other closely allied tribes or sub-tribes were
living, 1722, in the valley of the Housatonic river, western Massa
chusetts. On the 30th of June (llth of July, new style) of that
year, the General Court (legislature) of the colony granted to some
whites two townships of land in that vicinity. This gift was made
subject to the rights of the Indians. A chief named Konkapot
(Conkepot) and twenty others of his tribe signed the deed, 1724,
April 25th (May 6th). The consideration was "460, three barrels
of sider, thirty quarts of rum." The Indians kept two small reser
vations, Skatekook, now in Sheffield, and Wnahktukook, ten miles
north. Konkapot, the. principal person at Wnahktukook, was soon
discovered to be a worthy, industrious man and favorably inclined
toward Christianity. Through Rev. Samuel Hopkins of West
Springfield, whose nephew Mrs. Stowe has made famous in "The
Minister s Wooing," the Board of Commissioners for Indian Af-
t NOTE. According to President Edwards the younger (of Union college),
the name of these people is Muh-he-ka-ne-ew, with a plural form Muh-he-ka-ne-
ok . The elder President Dwight of Yale gives the forms Muh-he-ka-ne-uw, sin
gular, and Muh-he-a-kun-nuk, plural. Edwards ought to be good authority,
for his boyhood from his seventh year until he was nearly thirteen was spent
among them. He tells us that he was more familiar at one time with the In
dian language than with the English. He thought and dreamed in Indian.
This is more easily understood when we remember that owing to a difficulty
with his eyes he did not learn to read until comparatively late. The forms
ending in k are probably all plurals, with the very doubtful exception of Muh-
he-con-nuk, which strictly denotes the place of residence. It would be tedioua
to give all the varieties of spelling. In the published volumes of the Wiscon
sin Historical Collections we have the redundant plurals, Mo-he-kun-nucks,
One of the few members of the tribe who still retain a knowledge of the
language calls his people the Mah-e-con-news. Making allowance for the evi
dently English form of ths plural and for the blending into one of the last two
syllables of the name as given by President Edwards, we find that these forms
are substantially the same. The ew in both is an attempt to represent the long
sound of M as heard in the first syllable of beauty. For slight modifications of
2 THE CHURCH IN THE WILDERNESS.
fairs, of whom Governor Jonathan Belcher was one, and who were
agents in Boston of what Jonathan Edwards calls "the honorable
society in Scotland for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge,**
heard of the willingness of the "River Indians," as they were then
commonly called, to receive Christian instruction. A favorable
opportunity to meet them soon arose. The tribe had aided the
colonists in their struggle with the French. In recognition of ser
vices rendered, Konkapot and another chief named Umpachene
were summoned by the governor to come to Springfield in May,
1734, to receive, the former the title of captain and the latter that of
lieutenant in the British army. To persuade these chiefs to per
mit the establishment of a mission among their people, the Com
missioners had appointed deputies: Mr. Hopkins, the projector
and afterward historian of the mission, and Stephen Williams, D. D.,
of Longmeadow, of whose distant kinsman, Eleazar Williams, we
often hear in the early history of Green Bay in our own state. In so
important a matter the newly made captain and lieutenant wished to
have the approval of their people. Accordingly a tribal meeting
was held 1734, July 8th (19th), in what is ^now the town of Great
Barrington, Berkshire county, Massachusetts. A four days con
sultation and discussion took place. Dutch traders from New
York who had been accustomed to furnish the Indians with liquor
these spellings and lor the name which the tribe chose for the reservation, or
district, which it now occupies, see the tribal constitution as printed in the
Translations also vary. David Dudley Field, for many years pastor at
Stockbiidge, Massachusetts, gives : "The people of the great waters continu
ally in motion." Miss Electa Jones, historian of the town, prefers the render
ing, "The people of the continually flowing waters." The reference is prob
ably to tidal movement.
The language, a dialect of the Algonkin tongue, is called Mohegan by
President Edwards the elder. Of this word another spelling is Mohican. It is
probably a shortened and corrupted form of the tribal name.
There was a legend among "the people of the waters that are never still"
that their ancestors came from a country very far to the northwest of their
Massachusetts home, "having crossed the great water at the place where this
and the other country are nearly connected." They came to a great river, and
noticing the ebb and flow of its waters, said : "This is Muh-he-con-nuk," and
there they made their home. This river, beside which the Muh-he-ka-ne-ok lived
until after the coming of the white men, to this country, was known to the Del
aware Indians as the Mahecanittuck (or Mohicannettuck), though its Mohegan
name is Chalemuc and the Iroquois called it Cohahatatea. It is our Hudson,
called by the member of the tribe of whom I have spoken above, Muh-e-con-took.
It is from this stream that the Stockbridges got their name the "River Indians."
THE CHURCH IN THE WILDERNESS. 3
naturally opposed the movement. But under the leadership of
Konapot, who must have been a man of great ability as well as of
signal worth, the tribe became unanimous in giving a welcome to
the proposed mission.
Meanwhile the heart of John Sergeant, tutor in Yale college,
had been moved to undertake just such work. 4> I should be
ashamed to call myself a Christian or even a man," said he, "and
yet refuse to do what lay in my power, to cultivate humanity
among a people naturally ingenious enough, but who, for want of
instruction, live so much below the dignity of human nature, and
to promote the salvation of souls perishing in the dark when yet
the light of life is so near them." In October, 1734, Mr. Sergeant
came to visit the people among whom he purposed to dwell. He
was accompanied by one of the nearest resident pastors, Rev. Ne-
hemiah Bull of Westfield, who, in place of Mr. Hopkins kept away
by illness, had attended with Mr. AYilliams the conference of the
preceding July. Mr. Sergeant and his friend spent one night in
the woods without fire or shelter. On Sunday the 13th (24th) of
October, the day after their arrival, thay gathered a congregation
in which were twenty adults.. All gave good heed to what w T as
said but it was noticed that Konkapot and family were among the
most attentive listeners. Then or soon thereafter, the interpreter,
Ebeneezer Poohpoonuc desired to be baptized. Having obtained
from him among other declarations the statement that he would
rather burn in the fire than deny the truth, Mr. Bull baptized him,
Thursday the 18th (29th) of October, 1734, as the first fruits of the
mis3ion. The meeting was held at the dwelling of Lieutenant
Umpachene, a wigwam which is said to have been fifty or sixty
feet long. Perhaps candidates for church-membership are not ex
amined any more carefully now than was faithful E^eneezer Pooh
poonuc (or Poo-poo- nah) more than a century and half ago.
The mission was first established in what is now the town of
Great Barrington. Here on the 21st October (1st November), was
begun the erection of a building which was to serve for church and
school. So rapidly was the work pushed forward that the school
itself was opened Tuesday, 5th (16th) of November. Mr. Sergeant
himself was the teacher. Think of the Yale tutor teaching Indian
children the very rudiments of book knowledge! But his mission
ary duties involved a visit to Albany to inquire about the Mohawks.
4 THE CHURCH IN THE WILDERNESS.
He left on the 25th of November and returned on the 30th (6th
and llth of December respectively). During his absence Mr. Hop
kins procured for him a helper, Mr. Timothy Woodbridge, to whom
was committed the care of the mission on Mr. Sergeant s departure
for New Haven which took place Monday, 9th (20th) of December,
1734. He had the last of a three years tutorship at Yale to finish.
Almost his last act before leaving was to counteract the evil influ
ence of some liquor-sellers. In this he was so successful as to be
able to take with him to New Haven a son of Konkapot and also
one of Umpachene. This was done that these boys might learn
English and himself learn their vernacular. In the following May
Mr. Sergeant visited his people. What occurred later is well told
in a letter by an unknown writer. It was dated at "Indian Town,
November 3rd, 1735." In it we have an instance of the old-
time connection between church and state. We notice also that
the church of JStockbridge (which continues to this day) had its be
ginning in nothing more formal than the baptism of one converted
Indian. Some of our ministers who are so fond of "organizing"
churches without reference to what has been done by their prede
cessors on the same field may well make a note of this. It will be
remembered that new-style dates may be found by adding to those
given eleven days. "Mahaiwe" should be "Nehhaiwe," "place
"My well beloved Christian Friend: I have just returned
from Mahaiwe where I spent the Sabbath with our most worthy
missionary, Rev. John Sergeant. It is only two weeks since the
return of Mr. Sergeant from New Jersey, whither he went after his
ordination at Deerfield. He was ordained on the 31st of August
last. The same took place in the presence of Governor Belcher,
and a large committee of the Council and House of Representa
"The Governor and his associates had spent the week previous
in arranging a treaty with the Indians, and exchanging pledges.
On Sunday, August 31st, the Rev. Mr. Williams of Hatfield, ad
dressed Governor Belcher in the church, and humbly asked if it
were his excellency s pleasure that the pastors then convened
should set apart Rev. John Sergeant for the work of the salvation
of the heathen. The Governor responded affirmatively.
THE CHURCH IN THE WILDERNESS. 5
"Mr. Williams then asked Mr. Sergeant if he would take upon
himself that work. Mr. Sergeant gave his assent. The Indians,
of whom a large delegation was present, were then asked, throjugh
an interpreter, if they would receive Mr. Sergeant as their teacher.
They manifested their approval by rising in a body. The services
of ordination were then performed.
"The church consisted of but one member, Ebenezer Poopoo-
nah, who is the interpreter. Yesterday Captain Konkapot was
added together with his wife and daughter. They were baptized.
Captain K. received the name of John, his wife the name of Mary,
and his daughter the name of Catherine. There was a large at
tendance of Indians and whites, the latter being principally Dutch
men, who have settled on the valley of the river. Lieutenant Um-
pachene and wife are to be baptized next Sunday, and then Cap
tain Konkapot will be married according to the rites of the Chris
tian religion. He has lived with his squaw many years and has a
large family, but he nevertheless now wishes to be married. If
the missionary can keep the Indians away from the Dutch settlers,
who furnish them with fire-water, he may succeed, but unless he
can I fear the Indians will need many ceremonies before they will
abide. I translate the vow which Captain, now John, Konkapot
took in presence of the large masses of Indians gathered.
" Through the goodness of God toward me in bringing me into
the way of the knowledge of the gospel, I am convinced of the
truth of the Christian religion, and that it is the only way that
leads to salvation and happiness. I therefore freely and heartily
forsake heathenish darkness, and embrace the light of the gospel
and the way of holiness, and do, in the presence of Almighty God,
the searcher of hearts, and before many witnesses, sincerely and
solemnly take the Lord Jehovah to be my God and portion; Jesus
Christ His Son, to be my Lord and Redeemer, and the Holy Ghost
to be my sanctifier and teacher. And I do covenant and promise
by the help of divine grace, that I will cleave to the Lord, with
purpose of heart, believing his revealed truths as far as I can gain
a knowledge of them, obeying his commands, both those that mark
out my duty and those that forbid sin, sincerely and uprightly to
the end of my life.
6 THE CHURCH IN THE WILDERNESS.
"Konkapot is a man of fine presence, and the solemn manner
in which, with deep guttural tones, he pronounced the above, visi
bly affected the whole audience.
Soon Mr. Sergeant had baptized fifty and the work and influ
ence of the mission were otherwise manifest. About December,
1733, the Indians passed a resolution to have "no trading in rum."
In this matter who of their time did better than these poor men
scarcely yet come into the light of Christian truth?
A town six miles square was laid out in 1736 as a home for the
Indians. It was incorporated in 1739 and named probably after
Stockbridge in England winch it is said to resemble, In later
years this town has produced many well known men, among them
Cyrus W. Field, of ocean-cable fame, and his illustrious brothers,
one of whom is an associate justice of the supreme court of the
United States. The Indians, who had previously been dispersed
in three different localities, settled here in May, 1736. f By Mr.
Sergeant s labors so great a change was wrought that the Indians
themselves expressed it by such metaphors as infancy and man
hood, dreaming and waking, darkness and light. The colonial
government built them a church and a school-house. The former
was dedicated Thanksgiving, 29th November, 1739.
Mr. Sergeant who, the Indians said, came to know their lan
guage better than they did themselves, translated for their use
nearly all the New Testament and a great part of the Old, besides
prayers, a catechism and a marriage service. He usually preached
every week two sermons in the language of the Indians and two in
English, J besides holding what would now be called a Sunday-
t NOTE. Rev. John W. Harding of Longmeadow, Massachusetts, recalls
"the missionary efforts of the Moravians under the lead of Nicolaus Ladwig,
Count von Zinzendorf, to Christianize the Mohigans at Shekomeko, New York,
and Patchgatcock, Connecticut, near the present town of Kent." These Mohi
cans, says James Wood in Scharfs History of Wee-tchester county, New York,
"removed to Stockbridge, which became the headquarters of the tribe." This
statement is true probably of few rather than of many. "Some of them," says
Mr. Harding, "went to Pennsylvania." The Moravian missions, however,
were begun later than Mr. Sergeant s for Zinzendorf did not come to America
t NOTE.- The English service was not simply to accustom the natives to
the use of that language, but also to provide for the spiritual wants of four
THE CHURCH IN THE WILDERNESS. 7
school. He desired to take Indian children from their surround
ings and find homes for them in civilized parts of the country and
in families where they could be properly trained. This, through
the generosity of Rev. Isaac Hollis, a wealthy Baptist minister of
London, f he was able to do in the case first of twelve, then of
twenty-four, and lastly of thirty-six boys. But this was not
enough. He established a school which for that time and among
that people did in a measure the work that Carlisle and Hampton
are now doing for our Indians. To this were removed the boys
whom Mr. Hollis was supporting, and thus the school was main
tained in large part by his gifts. But many others contributed to it,
among theft the Prince of Wales J (father of George III.) and his
brother, the Duke of Cumberland, victor at Colloden. Dr. Watts,
the famous hymn-writer, took up a collection among a few friends
and sent 70 or more. ^^^
or more colonial families who, by invitation, settled at Stockbridge to be, in
a sense, models to their Indian neighbors. Among these settlers was Colonel
Ephraim Williams whose son of the same name made by will a gift for the
establishment of a free school, now Williams College.
t NOTE. Nephew of Thomas Hollis, the benefactor of Harvard.
t NOTE. This was the Prince Frederick for whom, Thackery tells us, the
following epitaph was proposed :
Here lies Fred,
Who was alive, and is dead.
Had it been his father,
I had much rather.
Had it been his brother,
Still better than another.
Had it been his sister,
No one would have missed her.
Had it been the whole generation,
Still better for the nation.
But since tis only Fred,
Who was alive, and is dead,
There s no more to be said.
His "clerk of the closet" (chaplain) gave a two-volume Oxford Bible
which Rev. Calvin Colton thought worthy of special description in his "Tour
ot the American Lakes," published in London, 1833. This old Bible is still
preserved with religious veneration. Upon each volume is the inscription :
THE . GIFT . OF .
THE . REV . DR . FRANCIS . AYSCOUTH .
TO . THE .
INDIAN . CONGREGATION . AT . HOUSATONIC .
IN . NEW . ENGLAND .
8 THE CHURCH IN THE WILDERNESS.
We go back in order of time to notice that in 1739, the year of
the dedication of the church, the Indians, at the suggestion of the
missionaries, laid a penalty of 40 York money (perhaps $100 or
$120) upon any person who should bring rum into Stockbridge for
sale. Inn-keepers were the liquor- sellers of that day, and those in
the vicinity were remonstrated with upon the sin of selling spirits
to Indians, inclined to excessive drinking. But these efforts the evil-
disposed endeavored to turn to the harm of the poor Indians by telling
them that the missionaries infringed upon their liberties, that they
were used worse than dogs and slaves and would soon be reduced
openly to bondage. From this it would seem that the "personal
liberty" argument in the temperance discussion is not altogether
To Stockbridge came, 31st of March (llth of April), 1743,
David Brainerd, one of the uncanonized saints of our American
churches. He was on his way to establish a mission at Kaunau-
meek, now Lebanon, New York. His new home was twenty miles
from Stockbridge, on the road to Albany. Many a time during the
following winter did Mr. Brainerd traverse the weary miles that lay
between him and his friend, for we find this recorded in his diary
under date of November 29th (10th December): "Began to study
the Indian tongue with Mr. Sergeant at Stockbridge." *He had al
ready established a school in which he placed as teacher his inter
preter, John Wauvvaumpequunnaut, who was among those educat
ed by Mr. Hollis s generosity. So that for the training of his asso
ciate and for his own knowledge of the language Mr. Brainerd was
indebted to the Stockbridge pastor. In the spring or summer of
1744, by Mr. Brainerd s advice, the Indians of his charge, being
few in number, removed to Stockbridge to live under Mr. Ser
geant s ministry.
In Brainerd s diary for that year we have this record of his
last public service at Kaunaumeek: "Lord s day, March 11 (22).
My soul was in some measure strengthened in God in morning de
votion; so that I was released from trembling fear and distress.
Preached to my people from the parable of the sower. Matt. 13, and
enjoyed some assistance both parts of the day; had some freedom,
affection, and fervency in addressing my poor people; Jonged that
God should take hold of their hearts, and make them spiritually
THE CHURCH IN THE WILDERNESS. 9
alive. And indeed I had so much to say to them, that I knew not
how to leave off speaking."
Mr. Brainerd s work at Kaunaumeek f thus characteristically
ended, was, in a sense supplementary to that done by Mr. Ser
geant, who had preached there before him. The missionary zeal
of both now looked to more distant fields. Proposals were made
to the Delawares J for the establishment of a mission among them.
They gave consent, and Brainerd turned from calls to pleasant pas
torates among people of his own race to life in the wilderness that
then covered the regions about the "Forks of the Delaware" and
those on the upper Susquehanna. He labored also among scattered
Indians that were then left in New Jersey. "Indeed, I had no idea
of joy from this world," he wrote, "I cared not where or how I
lived or what hardships I might have to endure, if I might only
gain souls to Christ." What wonder that xvith such a spirit he won
many to his Master s service? But his mortal life, with all its
courage, zeal and devotion, was soon to end. He returned to his
native New England, and there, 1747, October 9th (20th) in the
home of Jonathan Edwards at Northampton, he passed away.
Meamvhile Mr. Sergeant continued his abundant labors among
the Muh-he-ka-ne-ok. The school for which the gifts already
mentioned (and many others) were made I! could not be established
t NOTE.- Sometimes the u is left out of one syllable and sometimes out
of the other.
t NOTE. The late E. W. B. Canning of Stockbridge, Massachusetts, says
to the Shawnees also, and adds that these refused the offen
NOTE. Brainerd s mother was dead, and the last weeks of his lingering
illness, he died of consumption, he was cared for by his affianced wife, a
daughter of Mr. Edwards. "Dear Jerusha," he asked her a few days before his
death, "are you quite willing to part with me?* She wa^ a true Edwards and
replied : "I am quite willing to part \vith you : 1 am willing to part with all
my friends : I am willing to part with my dear brother John, although I love
him the best of any creature living ; I have committed him and all my friends
to God, and can leave them with God." But, girl-like, she continued, "Though
if I thought I should not see you and be happy with you in another world, I
could not bear to part with you. But we shall spend a happy eternity to*
gether!" Dear saints and blessed lovers, they were not long separate. Miss
Edwards died 1748, February Hth (25th). Slie had not completed her eighteenth
|| NOTE. Thus the Indians themselves gave a fartn^site of two hundred
10 THE CHURCH IN THE WILDERNESS.
until 1747. f This was for boys, to whom alone Mr. Hollis s favors
were extended. But if it should prove successful, Mr. Sergeant
had in mind an institution of like sort for girls. He purposed also
to go to the Iroquois (Six Nations) in New York, and try to induce
them to send young people to Stockbridge for training in civiliza
tion and Christianity. But the carrying out of these projects was
prevented by his death which, to human sight, came all too soon.
He was taken from his people 1749, July 27th (August 7th), in the
thirty-ninth year of his age.
To appreciate even in part the work done by this extraordinary
man, we must remember that "up to the second decade of the last
century the western border of our state" [Massachusetts] "seems to
have been as little known as are the regions about Hudson Bay at
the present time. The boundary between Massachusetts and New
York was still undetermined, and the country a wilderness except
where a few Dutchmen had made clearings under the grant of the
Livingstone manor lying beyond." J
We have good reason to believe that but for the unifying work
of its mission the Stockbridge nation would long since have been
extinct. We may then regard Mr. Sergeant as the preserver of the
distinctive life of the people among whom he labored. At their re
moval from Great Barrington to Stockbridge they numbered, as
nearly as can be ascertained, twenty families and about ninety in
dividuals; in 1740 they had increased to one hundred twenty, and
in the year of Mr. Sergeant s death, to two hundred eighteen, com
prised in fifty-three families. The improvement in their manner
t NOTE. This, it will be remembered, Avas something entirely different
from the mission day-school taught by Mr. Woodbridg*. In the latter, all the
children of the settlement, white and Indian, received instruction. The board
ing or "charity" school Avas designed to train its pupils in useful occupations
as well as in book knowledge. It was a continuation of the work supported
by Mr. Hollis, begun In Mr. Sergeant s own home and continued in the
home of a Captain Kellogg of Newington, Connecticut.
Those who are so ill-informed as to think that training for usefulness in
the present life is commonly neglected in mission work may be surprised to
learn that as far back as 1738 the missionary society made an appropriation of
money to buy agricultural implements for the Indians at Stockbridge.
I NOTE. E. W. B. Canning (lately deceased) of Stockbridge, Massachu
NOTE. E. W. B. Canning. The number of white families had also in
creased to twelve or thirteen.
THE CHURCH IN THE WILDERNESS. 11
of living was more noticeable than the increase in their number.
He found them living in "miserable huts," "bark wigwams,"-
"much dispersed and often moving from place to place." f When
he died "twenty of the fifty-three families liyed in frame houses,
and more than that number cultivated, to a greater or less extent,
Of the Indians living at Stockbridge when Mr. Sergeant died,
forty-two were members of the church and one hundred twenty-
nine had received baptism. In all Mr. Sergeant baptized one hun
dred eighty- two.
Apparently it was this faithful pastor who reduced to writing
the language of the people whom he made his own. To learn it
was a more arduous task, he thought, than to acquire all the learned
languages usually taught in the schools. Of his abundant labors
in translation we have already learned. J We have seen that in
Indian education he anticipated what seem to be the best methods
of our own time. In temperance legislation he led whither many
fear to follow even yet. And of this work a great part was done
in the midst of the alarms of war. He was "a man of such singu
lar worth and such various excellence that his equal is rarely met
with in the church of Christ."
t NOTE. Historical Memoirs by Samuel Hopkins of Longmeadow.
| NOTE. While at Kaunaumeek Mr. Brainerd translated several forms ot
prayer and some of the Psalms into the language of the natives. Apparently
these Psalms were translated into metrical form, for he taught his people to
sing them. The Muh-he-ka ne-ok have always been fond of singing.
NOTE .-Samuel Hopkins of Longmeadow.
LOSS OF THE NEW ENGLAND HOME.
After Mr. Sergeant/s death the charge of the mission devolved
for a time upon Mr. Woodbridge, but in July, 1751, Jonathan Ed
wards became pastor of the Stockbridge church, f Few New Eng
land churches would, at that time, have offered him their pulpit. J.
During his pastorate the French and Indian war was at its hight.
Friends thought that Mr. Edwards was in danger and advised him
to seek a safer place than Stockbridge. But he declined to leave
his flock. His people were steadfast friends of the colonists and
the English. Almost every man among them r capable of bearing
arms, went with Governor Shirley in 1755 on his expedition
against Niagara, They rendered most efficient service. For the
protection of the settlers of western Massachusetts, the little Indian
settlement at Stockbridge was better than a fort.
t NOTE. The place had been offered to his former pupil in theology, the
younger Samuel Hopkins, of (what is now) Great Harrington, a parish almost
equally exposed to the dangers ot war. The larger salary at Stockbridge (paid
by the Scotch Society) was, perhaps, a reason why Hopkins declined the posi
tion and urged the choice of Mr. Edwards.
t NOTE. It would require a special treatise to explain just why, and do
justice to both parties. Edwards was a metaphysician much inclined to mis
take the results of his own subtile and abstract reasonings for theology. In
personal piety lie was a mystic. Both these facts seem to have led him to in
sist upon evidence of consciousness of the change by which one becomes a
Christian. In this respect, and in others, his work was like that of Wesley and
VVhitefield. Yet we hasten to add, for writing on these subjects is like walk-
Ing on eggs without breaking them, that none of these great revivalists
meant to keep out of the church any one who was really a Christian, whether
or not he could tell how he became one. Naturally, Edwards s views brought
him into conflict with a large number of persons who stood related to the
church by what was called the "half-way covenant." These, though not com
municants, were of Christian belief, correct life, had themselves been baptized
in infancy, and desired that ordinance for their children. However, Edwards s
difficulties at Northampton, whence he was dismissed, were in large part of a
practical sort, and belong, properly, to the history of the parish and to his
LOSS OF THE NEW ENGLAND HOME. 13
Not only were there "fightings without" while Mr. Edwards
was at Stockbridge; there was something worse than "fears with
in." There was an "Indian ring" there. Of this Ephraim Wil
liams (senior) was head and purse. To understand the mischief
done we must return to the history of Mr. Sergeant s "charity"
school. It flourished, notwithstanding the death of its founder.
It was the means of bringing to Stockbridge Oneidas, Mohawks,
and a few Tuscaroras, to educate their children. But Williams
quarreled with their teacher, Mr. Hawley, (also with Mr. Wood-
bridge) and usurped the management of the school. In disgust
the Oneidas withdrew their children and returned to New York.
Meanwhile rumors reached the commissioners of the mischief that
was doing, and Mr. Edwards was summoned to meet them at Bos
ton. This man "whose mind was so abstracted from temporalities
as to be unable to tell the number of his cows," nevertheless was
successful in vanquishing the Williams "ring," and soon thereafter
the chief evil-doer removed from Stockbridge. f But the "mis
chief done was irreparable. The Oneida pupils had gone and re
fused to return; the Mohawks lingered a little longer and then left
also. Mr. Hawley followed them and renewed his labors on the
New York reservation until the outbreak of the Revolutionary
war." I Thus the school, which in 1750 enrolled sixty pupils,
seems to have been broken up. At least we hear again of boys who
had been sent from home to be taught. ||
The Indian parishioners of Mr. Edwards became greatly at
tached to him and his family and he to them. But though he
made their language the subject of a treatise/" he never learned to
preach in it. Those who have heard in a polyglot assembly an ad
dress delivered in one language and translated into another, will
know how greatly the effectiveness of his work must have been les-
t NOTE. "He died under a dense cloud," wrote Professor Arthur Latham
Perry of Williams college, under date of 10th July, 18t)3.
} NOTE. E. W. B. Canning.
NOTE. Including, probably, the thirty-six supported by Mr. Hollis.
The expression on page seven is at fault in its implication that this maximum
number was reached during Mr. Sergeant s life. Apparently only twelve
were then thus maintained.
|| NOTE. Under date of 1756, May 31st, (old style), the famous theologian
of Bethlem, Connecticut, Joseph Bellamy, reports to Mr. Edwards concerning
some Indian boys in his own family.
14 LOSS OF THE NEW ENGLAND HOME.
sened. But, true to his great character, he was faithful to his
humble charge, and would not leave it, even at the invitation to be
come president of the college of New Jersey (Princeton) until ad
vised by what was practically a council of ministers that it was his
duty to do so. \ Seldom did he shed tears in the presence of
others. But when this decision of his friends was made known to
him he wept. Scarcely had he assumed the duties of his new office
when he died, 22nd of March, 1758.
No doubt Edwards found the retirement of Stockbridge favor
able for his theological and metaphysical studies. There he pro
duced four of his treatises, one of which is his best known work,
"The Freedom of the Human Will." J
Stephen West, afterwards doctor of divinity, the title meant
something then, succeeded President Edwards. He was intro
duced to the town" November, 1758, and ordained on the 13th of
June, 1759. Not many years afterward the story of the camel that
got his nose into the tent found in the case of the Muh-he-ka-ne-
ok another application. The white population of Stockbridge be-
t NOTE. Edwards s letter to the trustees of the college is a curious bit of
reading and gives the impression that the writer of it was sadly deficient in a
sense of the humorous. He seems to have lacked also, what very few men do
lack, a sufficiently high estimate of himself. Thus he says : "My defects unfit
me tor such an undertaking, many of which are generally known, besides
others of which my heart is conscious. I have a constitution, in many re
spects, peculiarly unhappy, attended with flaccid solids, scarce fluids, and a
low tide of spirits, often occasioning a kind of childish weakness and con-
temptibleness of speech, presence and demeanour.with a disagreeable dulness
and stiffness, much unfitting me for conversation, but more especially for the
government of a college."
In the church of the wilderness Edwards wrought,
Shaping his creed at the forge of thought :
And with Thor s own hammer welded and bent
The iron links of his argument,
Which strove to grasp in its mighty span
The purpose of God and the fate of man!
Yet faithful still, in his daily round
To the weak, and the poor, and the sin-sick found,
The schoolman s lore and the casuist s art
Drew warmth and life from his fervent heart.
Had he not seen in the solitudes
Of his deep and dark Northampton woods
A vision of love about him fall ?
Whittier, in " The Preacher."
LOSS OF THE NEW ENGLAND HOME. 15
came more numerous than the Indian, f In 1775 Dr. West intrust
ed the care of the Indian portion of his flock to Mr. John Sergeant,
son of the original founder of the settlement.
This was the time of the American Revolution. The Stock-
bridges took sides with our ancestors. On the 30th of June of this
same year (1775) letters and speeches from the Stockbridge In
dians were laid before Congress and read. The committee on In
dian affairs was directed to prepare "proper talks" to the different
tribes of Indians. It was also resolved "that the securing and
preserving the friendship of the Indian nations appears to be a
subject of the utmost moment to the colonies." In the memorable
year 1776, August 7th, Washington wrote to Timothy Edwards,
then commissioner for Indian affairs, on the subject of employing
the Stockbridges in the service of the United States, Some of
them "fought through all the war, threaded the wilderness with
Arnold to Canada, aided in compelling the surrender of Burgoyne
and made the Jersey campaigns with Washington." "The Stock-
bridges," says the British Lieutenant- Colonel Simcoe, writing of
an affair in which more than thirty of them lost their lives, "about
sixty in number, excellent marksmen, had just joined Mr. Wash
ington s army." They were under command of one of their num
ber, Daniel (or Abraham) Ninham, who fell with his men. This
skirmish or, rather, slaughter, took place 1778, August 31st, near
White Plains, New York, where "Mr." Washington was then com
Thus the Stockbridges did not content themselves with send
ing speeches to Congress nor with addressing the Massachusetts
legislature as one of their chiefs did in 1779. A large proportion
of their most promising young men were killed in battle. J Per-
t NOTE. Very possibly, also, the "Indian ring" already mentioned, had
sought, even years before, to bring about the removal of the Indians from
J NOTE. Our Wisconsin state historical society possesses a collection
called partly in irony and partly in hope an art gallery. In the catalogue
thereof we find the following:
"A very aged woman of the Stockbridge tribe who died about 1867, sup
posed to have been one hundred and twenty-five years of age. She is said to
have had three sons engaged in the Revolutionary -war, one of whom lost his
16 LOSS OF THE NEW ENGLAND HOME.
haps the tribe has never recovered from losses of men, homes and
character then suffered. We should remember this if we are in
clined to think of its present condition almost with contempt. Nor
should we forget that too often then, as in later yeais, drunkenness
was made easy for them. At the close of the war, apparently after
the warriors had returned home, a barbecue was prepared for them
by command of Washington. Whisky was furnished, we are sorry to
add, even though their pastor presided at one of their tables. This
suggestion of what camp and social life then was, prepares us for
the sorrowful statement that many of those who survived the dan
gers of war fell victims to the habits of idleness and intemperance.
In these ways many got into debt to their white neighbors and lost
their lands. So the tribe sought a new home. They removed to
a tract of land in New York, part of which is now in Madison coun
ty and part in Oneida. Hither they came at the invitation of the
Oneidas whom, it is said, they had once saved from a powerful
enemy. This place was secured to them, perhaps/Vhen, 1774,
October 24th, the Oneidas gave land f also to fragments of
various tribes J who, 1775, October 20th, organized a new "nation"
called the Brothertowns. In this westward movement these pre
ceded the Muh-he-ka-ne-ok who did not come until after the Rev
olution. Then the little band of ninety, with whom the elder Ser
geant began his missionary labor, had increased to four hundred
or four hundred twenty. || A very few remained at Stockbridge, no
longer the home of the Muh-he-ka-ne-ok, though it had been their^
for almost half a century.
f NOTE. Fourteen miles south of where the city of TJtica, New York, now
J NOTE. Narragansetts, Pequots, Montauks, Mohegans and Nn,nticoke9
(Nahanticks). Thomas Commuck, one of the Brothertowns, adds to this list
the Farmingtons, wherever they were. See Wisconsin Historical Collections,
volume IV, page 292.
NOTE. According to Mr. Canning.
|| NOTE. The number given by a local historian as of those who re
moved to New York. See, however, the statement on page 18 in regard to the
population of New Stockbridge.
NEW STOCKBRIDGE AND A SECOND REMOVAL,
Near the Brothertown settlement and about one hundred sixty
miles from their former home, the Muh-he-ka-ne-ok built a village
which they named New Stockbridge. f Thither the tribe removed
in 1785-6, says Miss Jones. More likely the movement began in
1783 and continued until 1788. But it was in 1785, before their de
parture from the Massachusetts home, that sixteen Indian members
of the old IStockbridge church formed a new one which removed
first to New York and years later to Wisconsin. Mr. Sergeant hes^
itated to go with his people but went the next year. Then he
found that Rev. Samson Occum J had gained favor with many of
the Stockbridges. Mr. Occum died 1792, July 14th, and the
division which followed Mr. Sergeant s coming was healed. The
"Honorable Society in Scotland* which had generously paid arrear
ages incurred during the war, again helped in the support of the
pastor. Some aid from this source was continued until after the
tribe removed to Wisconsin and the church was under the care of
our own Rev. Cutting Marsh,
In 1792 the Stockbridges and their neighbors, the Six Nations,
were invited to Philadelphia by President Washington "that meas-
life in the service, and she was a camp-follower of the patriot army."
Unfortunately the catalogue does not tell who indulged the supposition
concerning the woman s age, nor who made the statement about her sons.
[Continued from page 15.J
t NOTE. In the town where they made their settlement there was born,
1836, October 10th, to a Methodist clergyman, a son, William Dempster Hoard,
lately governor of Wisconsin, and more honored in his defeat in 1890 than two
years before in his election.
| NOTE. This Indian minister Occum was a man of such power as a
preacher that he was once seat to Great Britain to solicit funds for More 8
Charity School, an institution since developed into Dartmouth college. While
in England he had the honor of preaching before King George III. More, per-
haps, than to any other one man the credit of organizing the Brothertown
"nation" is due to Occum.
18 NEW STOCKBRIDGE
ures might be concerted to impart such of the blessings of civiliza
tion as might suit their condition." The interview between their
representatives and the President seems to have been mutually
In 1796 they had a visit from Dr. Jedidiah Moi-se, f then one
of the trustees of the still existing (Boston) society for Propagating
the Gospel among the Indians. J At that time the population of
New Stockbridge was about three hundred, a number soon increas
ed. None were professed pagans though only about thirty were
members of the church. About two-thirds of the men and nine-
tenths of the women were considered industrious. In this year a
white man was convicted of bringing liquor into the "nation," an
act contrary to tribal law. Soon after, through Mr. Sergeant s in
fluence, the legislature of New York passed an act forbidding the sale
of liquor to these Indians. For his action in this matter the worthy
pastor was bitterly persecuted. A term, "white heathen/ which he
uses more than once, probably acquired vivid significance at this
time. His people were tempted and ill-treated. While Indians
sought to keep the Sabbath, white men violated it. Articles would
be pressed upon the Indians in the way of sale, and later those
who supposed themselves to be honest purchasers would be arrest
ed as thieves and the possession of what they had bought would
be used as evidence against them. It may be, as old President
Dwight of Yale noted in his journal of "travels," 1798, September
20th, when he visited their former home in Massachusetts, "the
body of them have, in many respects, sustained a very imperfect
character." However, when we remember the good man s high
standard of character, and read his other statement, that "several
of them have been eminent for their understanding and more for
their piety," we do not doubt that they compared favorably with
their white neighbors.
There occurred in 1798 a remarkable admission to the church.
One of the Munsee tribe, seeking knowledge of the true God, bad
t NOTE. Father of the inventor of the telegraph.
t NOTE. The organization, in 1787, of this society, which now co-operates
with the American Missionary Association, is one of the evidences of the vi
tality of our churches in that unhappy time.
NOTE.- A branch of the Delawares (Leni-Lennappes) . The Munsees seem
to have been scattered in consequence of having taken sides against the colo-
AND A SECOND REMOVAL. 19
left wife and home and come among the Stockbridges, He
baptized by the appropriate name of Abraham.
In 1802 the Stockbridges sent a delegation to the Delawares,
whom, after an Indian fashion, they called their grandfathers, and
to some other tribes, to urge them to receive the gospel. Of this
Mr. Sergeant writes:
"A council was held at Wappecommehkoke on the banks of
the White river, by Delawares and the delegates of the Moheakun-
nuk nation. The former then accepted all the proposals made by
the latter, among which was civilization, of which, said the chief
(Tatepahqsect), we take hold with both hands. "
The Stockbridges brought to New York the Puritan institution
of Thanksgiving. For the most part, while there they taught and
sustained their own schools. Several of their young people were
sent from home for higher instruction. One of these, a pupil in a
"select school" kept by Miss Nancy Royce of Clinton, New York,
became the first school-mistress in Wisconsin.
Though at first the Indians in this new settlement, owing to
the distance from the whites/ alas, that we have to say so! were
less exposed than before to temptation, and though the^ and Mr.
Sergeant fought hard against their great enemy, strong drink, the
better men of the younger generation came to feel the need of an
other removal. In this movement Solomon U. Hendrick, John Me-
toxen and perhaps Austin E. Quinney, were leaders. To free their
tribe from the allurements of the white man s grog-shop, and foi
other reasons, they urged removal to Indiana where a tract of land
on White river had been given by the Miamis more than a century
before to the Stockbridges and their kinsmen, the unfortunate Del
awares. Here for many years there had been of the latter tribe a
settlement which about 1818 numbered eight hundred souls. The
title of the Stockbridges to this land was, in a carefully guarded
manner, attested by President Jefferson, 1808, December 21st.
In 1810 and for some years later, one of the Stockbridges,
Hendrick Aupaumut, a soldier in the American army at the time of
Burgoyne s surrender, was in the White river country where he was
nists in the American Revolution. From homes in New York, Canada and per
haps Indiana and elsewhere, some came in later years to Wisconsin, where
they have united with the Stockbridges.
20 NEW STOCKBRIDGE
one of the most effective opponents of Teeumseh and his brother
Elskwatawa, the "prophet," in the war in which General (after
ward President) Harrison won his millitary reputation. In the
war of 1812 which, to that part of the West, was merely a continu
ance of one already existing, Aupaumut, who dropped his Indian
surname for Hendrick, took the American side, and became, if he
were not already, an officer in our army, f His son Solomon,
named above, about 1817 succeeded the father, once a worthy man
but in his later years a victim of drunkenness, as chief of the tribe,
but dying, was in turn followed by John Metoxen.
In the spring of 1817 the Stockbridges were made uneasy by
the report that the land to which they had a claim, had been sold
by the Delawares. But these, in answer to a letter of inquiry, de
nied the charge, adding: "When we rise in the morning, we have
our eyes fixed toward the way you are to come, in expectation of
seeing you coming to sit down by us as a nation."
Accordingly, some of the Stockbridges prepared for removal.
Two or three families went that year. In June, 1818, Mr. Sergeant
thus wrote to Dr. Morse: "About five families of my people will
start for White river in three weeks. But they are still troubled
by reports that the state government of Indiana intends to purchase
the Indian lands." J
Others were added to the number of those proposing to emi
grate. Mr. Sergeant collected the whole tribe on Friday, 24th of
July, of that year, "with the view to have them present at the
forming of a church from their tribe" of those "who, with a num-
f NOTE. Rev. Cutting Marsh, who at Statesburg (South Kaukaxina) in
the summer of 1830 stood by the dying bed of Aupaumut, speaks of him as "cap
tain" and says that his commission was signed by Washington. But it does
not appear that Mr. Marsh saw the document and the old warrior s name is
not to be found in the list of Revolutionary officers at the Department of State.
Yet President Jefferson, in the attestation ot the land-title mentioned above,
calls him "captain."
\ NOTE. In 1813 the state of New York bought of the Stockbridge tribe a
tract comprising four thousand live hundred acres. Other purchases were
made in 1822, 23, 25, 26, 29 and 30. The cost of removal was thus provided
for. As late as 1842 and 47 agreements were executed by the New York land
commissioners and the Stockbridges, then in Wisconsin.
A visible memorial of the Stockbridges in New York for many years, if
not at the present time, was their old church, built under the pastorate of John
Sergeant, which, removed from its original site, was used as a house of wor
ship as late as 1872 by the Baptist church of Cook s Corners, Madison county.
AND A SECOND REMOVAL. ~2l
ber of others of the tribe, were about to remove and form a new
settlement." On that day or the following a church of eleven
members was duly organized. It was apparently Congregational
and, if so, was probably the first of that denomination in Indiana,
as it certainly was in Wisconsin. But in accordance with the
"plan of union" between Presbyterians and Oongregationalists, it
was commended to the Presbytery of Ohio. J
CH APTER I V
THE CHURCH OF THE PILGRIMAGE.
But this Pilgrim church was not to find an end of its wander
ing as soon as it had hoped for. In September we read in the
"Panoplist" f of their receiving the Sacrament of the Lord s Sup
per with white brethren in Ohio. In December Mr. Sergeant wrote :
"The families left in August, consisting of a third part of my
church-members, and a quarter part of the tribes, in all from six
ty to seventy souls from Oneida. They did not set out on their
journey so soon by a month as they intended; and when they ar
rived the lands had all been sold. The poor Delawares had been
forced to sell their lands." This news reached the emigrants while
on their way. Thereupon some turned back, but John Metoxen
and others, perhaps forty in number, pushed on and made their
home in Ohio and Indiana for somewhat less than five years.
While here they showed the vigor of their religious training by hold
ing meetings on Sundays, in which the reading of Scott s commen
tary took the place of sermons. We learn that in May, 1819, our emi
grants were so near Piqua, Ohio, that the (Presbyterian?) pastor
there often preached to them. As white men would be, under like
circumstances, they were sadly divided as to what was best to be
done. "At length it was determined to unite at White river, and
t NOTE. Now the "Missionary Herald."
J NOTE. Miss Electa Jones.
22 THE CHURCH OF THE PILGRIMAGE.
endeavor to regain the land by application to the government. But
their efforts were unavailing, and sickness wasted both their num
bers and their spirits."
Soon, no doubt, they turned their eyes to Green Bay. It is
said the Stockbridges had a century- old invitation from their kin
dred tribes there to come and dwell with them. Of much more
practical worth than this were the efforts then making in their be
half by Dr. Morse and others, f With the delegation of 1822, some
of the Stockbridges of New York had come as immigrants. These
settled that autumn at Grand Kaukaulin (now South Kaukauna).
To this place John Metoxen and his party from Indiana came that
year, or, according to A. G. Ellis, in 1823. In this statement Mr.
Ellis probably made an error which he himself helps to correct in
volume II. of the Wisconsin Historical Collections, where he tells us
that "the small immigrant party of some [about] fifty of the Stock-
bridges, which came on this year, located late in the fall at
Grand Kakalin." But these apparently did not come with the
delegation mentioned above. It is my opinion that they
came from Indiana, not from New York, and Mr. Ellis gives the
year of their arrival as 1822. The homeless wanderers in the
W hite river country would be anxious enough to come to a place
which they could call their own. That having been secured, it is
not likely that they would long delay their coming. Thus it is
probable, that with its attendant company in which, it may be,
were at least some of the Munsees, the church of the pilgrimage
under the leadership of John Metoxen came from Indiana to the
Fox river country, in the autumn of 1822. On their way,
after reaching Lake Michigan, these poor emigrants went in part
by canoes upon the water and in part on foot upon the land.
t NOTE. linger commission from John C. Calhoun, then secretary of war,
find also under the auspices of the Northern Missionary Society of New York,
Jedidiah Morse, D. D., a Congregational minister then of New Haven, Connec
ticut, a steadfast friend of the Muh he-ka-ne-ok, came west in the sum
mer of 1^20. He preached at Fort Howard, July 9th, the first Protestant
sermon in (what is now) Wisconsin. One of his objects was to find here, it
possible, a home for the Stockbridges. These are to be counted among the
"New York Indians" who in 1821 and 1.S22 sent hither delegations to secure
from the Winnebagos and the Menomoneos places for homes. After a long
time, much negotiation and considerable pressure in their behalf, from the
United States government, the "New York Indians" finally secured land on
and near Fox river and Lake Winnebago.
THE CHURCH OF THE PILGRIMAGE. 23
"They drove their cattle along the shore, camping where night
overtook them. They swam their cattle across the streams. They
had great difficulty in getting them to cross the river at Chicago,
but finally one large animal, bolder than the rest, plunged in and
the others followed." f It would be a bold ox that would swim
the Chicago river in these days !
Thus came to Wisconsin its first Puritan church. There w r as
here neither minister nor priest. But these spiritual children of
Sergeant and Edwards did not, in the wilderness, forget their God.
"They kept up their meetings here also."
They had a worthy leader in Metoxen whose knowledge of
Scripture is shown in a letter written, 1823, December 2nd, from
; Cades, Green Bay" (probably Grand Kaukaulin), to John Ser
geant, his old pastor. Mentioning the arrival of a new band he
says : "Our brethren appear to be quite different from what they
were when I first saw them. I trust that some of them are choos
ing God for their portion, remembering that he is the only source
of true happiness for the immortal soul, and grieving because they
had forsaken the only King of the universe. * * * *
It is true, indeed, that the soul was made for God, it came from
God and can never be happy but in returning to him again. Thus
we may have reason to believe that the Spirit of the Lord is mov
ing upon them, saying, Arise ye and depart, for this is not your
rest, [f ye then be risen with Christ, seek those things which are
above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God. "
Special significance is given to this letter by the remark : "He
and Mrs. Metoxen found their backsliding brethren in deep waters.
They had exposed themselves to err by the use of ardent spirits."!
What temperance w r ork in Wisconsin is of earlier date than that of
these Indian Puritans, John Metoxen and his wife? With them
the struggle against intoxicants was part of the gospel.
t NOTE. Miss Helen C. Storm, of Stockbridge, Wisconsin.
J NOTE Even some of the delegation of 1821 were guilty of drunkenness.
CH A PT E V
IN UNNAMED WISCONSIN.
We take up the story of those who had been left behind in
New York. In 1822, as we have seen, the removal westward began.
"In 1825," says one, writing of Kaukauna, "the Stockbridge and
Munsee Indians were occupying the south side of the Fox river at
this point." But the removal was not completed until 1829. In
that year John W. Quinney gathered together the last, about thirty
of the poor, and brought them to the new home of their people.
After Mr. Sergeant s death, Rev. Jesse Miner became pastor of
the New Stockbridge church, as we learn from the third report of
the "United Domestic Missionary Society." At the meeting
of this body, the immediate predecessor of the American, now
the Congregational, Home Missionary Society, held "Fri
day evening, May 13th, 1825," in New York city, Governor
DeWitt Clinton and Chancellor James Kent appear as mem
bers. Aid was granted to the New Stockbridge church.
In July, 1827, Mr. Miner came west under the auspices
of the American Board, to visit the Stockbridge Christians
and spent some weeks among them. In the new home of each, the
church of the pilgrimage and the mother church from New York,
became one again. To this re-united church Mr. Miner administer
ed the sacrament and admitted members. Thus began the first
pastorate over an organized Protestant church in what is now Wis
In the following year, 1828, he returned, bringing his family,
to make a home with his people at what was then called Statesburg,
now South Kaukauna. J In the "Missionary Herald" for June,
I NOTE. "This missson was known as Moheakunnuk, and opened June
20th, 1828." Thus wrote Dr. H. B. Tanner under date of 1892, January 12th. The
date he gives may be that of the coming of Mr. Miner and family.
IN UNNAMED WISCONSIN. 2&
1829, a letter from him reports a revival and several additions to
the church. "Twenty-five added since my arrival, fifteen others
indulging hopes," But the hand that sent the glad tidings was
even then forever still. His pastorate had ended with his life on
the 22nd of the preceding March. Near where he labored in life
his people made his grave. "I am sorry," writes Mr. Miner s
daughter, f "that I can tell you so little of my father. An old In
dian woman whom I met six years ago, who had belonged to his
church, said that he was like a father to the Indians, and they loved
him much. They gave him an Indian name, Wah-nuh- wan-meet,
which means Very true man. J He died at the age of forty-seven.
The Indians had these words placed on his tombstone : He shall
gather the outcasts of Israel together. He had translated many
of our hymns into their language, forming quite a hymn-book, from
which they sang at his funeral. My father lies buried in the cem
etery at Kaukauna, to which he was removed from the old mission
burying-ground. Metoxen was loved of my father and revered of
my elder brothers."
Under Mr. Miner s pastorate, perhaps the summer of his first
arrival, the Stockbridge people erected the first Protestant church
on Wisconsin soil. Preceding Mr. Miner s second arrival at Green
Bay in 1828, came thither May 18th of that year, John Y. Smith
who afterward filled a large and honorable place in the history of
our state. Employed by Mr. Miner, Mr. Smith came "to erect or
work upon the mission buildings." Thus it is possible that the
church (of which we shall hear again) was not built until 1828.
t NOTE. Mrs. M. A. Whitney, Grand Crossing, Illinois, 26th of May, 1891.
J NOTE. Without doubt Mrs. Whitney is in error. Jt is probable that
what she sought to transliterate is the Muh-he-ka-ne-ew term "Wah-weh-nuh^
maht," "This true man." Literally it may be "This true one,* for the word for
"man" is "mon-naow."
NOTE. The stone now at the gra\ T e bears the inscription (with errors) ;
IN MEMORY or
BORN SEPT. 26, 1781.
COMMENCED THE MOHEAKUMUK MISSION
AT THIS PLACE, JUNE 20, 1828.
DIED MARCH 22, 1829,
26 IN UNNAMED WISCONSIN.
Even in that case, it was, for a time, the only one in what was soon
to be Wisconsin, for the combination "church-and-school" which
the Roman Catholics begun at Shantytown in 1823 had been
I am inclined to the opinion that the first Statesburg church,
which was a structure of the kind that our Indians learned to build r
had been put up before Mr. Smith came thither, and that his first
work in the place was to erect the missionary residence. This
may have been the second framed house in what is now Wiscon
sin, f It was a story and a half building and stood, according to
the recollection of Mr. James Madison Boyd, near where is now the
round-house of the (Lake Shore) Chicago & Northwestern railway
company. Another living witness J thinks that the church was
about three-fourths of a mile from Mr. Miner s house.
The "Winnebago war" of June, 1827, gave the Stockbridges
and Oneidas an opportunity of showing their allegiance to the
United States. Sixty- two of them joined a company raised by
"General" William Dickinson and "Colonel" Ebenezer Childs.
The "war" was scarcely more than several atrocious murders in the
vicinity of Prairie du Chien. There is reason to fear that associa
tion with "Colonel" Childs would offset much teaching on the
subject of temperance and almost every other virtue. Those who
wonder that Christianity has accomplished no more for the Indians
should remember that in its work for them it has had to contend
with the vices of civilization as well as with those of savagery.
There probably never was a genuine Puritan church without a
school close at hand. At Statesburg the schoolmaster soon follow
ed the minister. On Tuesday, 4th of November, 1828, Augustus T.
Ambler arrived at Statesburg. He came to establish a mission
school but the state of his health prevented his doing so. A
change of field did not long preserve his life. Going southward,
t NOTE. 8ee Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. VII. page 453. The
account there seems to be somewhat confused. The language seems to indi
cate that he worked on a mission-house that was not at Kaukauna. If so, it
must have been on a building belonging to the Episcopal mission. But as he
had been employed by Mr. Miner, who was about to bring hither a large fam
ily and would certainly need a house for them, it seems probable that his first
work was done on the missionary home at Kaukauna.
| NOTE. George Thomas Bennett, born at Cedar Hill, Albany count y, New
York, 22nd of August, 1823.
IN UNNAMED WISCONSIN. 27
he died in 1831 at one of the missions among the Choctaws, His
place as teacher was taken by Miss Electa Wuh-weh-wee-nee-meew f
Quinney, Wisconsin s first schoolmistress. J Before this there had
been schools at Prairie du Chien and Green Bay, but Miss Quin-
ney s was probably the first free school within the present limits of
our state. In it the Bible had an honored place. The next winter,
that of 1829-30, Mr. Jedidiah I) wight Stevens was teacher. Prob
ably he served also as pastor of the church, for Rev. Cutting
Marsh, who had been appointed in 1829 as Mr. Miner s successor,
was unable, on account of the early closing of navigation, to reach
his field that autumn. "My father," writes Miss S. E. Marsh, "ar
rived among the Stockbridges on the first day of May, 1830, and
preached his first sermon to them the next day, it being Sunday."
Some time during the summer he stood at the dying bed of the old
revolutionary soldier, Hendrick Aupaumut.
In his "Tour of the American Lakes," published in London in
1833, Rev. Calvin Colton, afterwards professor in Trinity college,
Hartford, Connecticut, writing under date of August 16th, 1830,
gives a most entertaining account of the Stockbridge settlement on
Fox river, at "Grande Kawkawlin" as he calls it. He explains that
"Kawkawlin" means "falls" or "rapids," adding that "Grande" is
French and needs no explanation. "I am now writing," he says,
"from the mission house of the American Board. The Stock-
bridges number about three hundred fifty souls, and have probably
made greater attainments in the English language and manners,
and in the useful arts of civilized life, and also in the Christian re
ligion, than any other tribe of the aboriginees on the continent;
except that the Brotherton Indians have so long used English as
to have lost their mother tongue. But in the moral state of society
and in general improvement the Brothertons are far behind the
Stockbridges." He then, as already noted, describes Dr. Ays-
t NOTE. Or, "Wow-weh-wee-nee-meew."
J NOTE Miss Quinney s school has been called the first in Wisconsin.
But according to tho information available, the firt-t Wisconsin school teacher
was Jean Baptiste Jacobs. He was an English Jew and came to Green Bay in
100, having lost all his property in Canada through the perfidy of his brother.
He attempted to regain fortune in the fur trade, but in this he was not success*
ful, and opened a school at Green Bay about 1803.
NOTE. -Then a Congregationalist or Presbyterian. In 1885 he entered
the Episcopal ministry.
28- IN UNNAMED WISCONSIN.
couth s gift, f It was kept "in a kind of an ark/ suggestive to
Mr. Colton of the ark of the covenant among the Hebrews-, The
day before was Sunday and he had attended service. Amid over
hanging trees there was a well-built log church, used also as a
school. It would seat a congregation of three hundred. There
was- a Sunday-school with Indian teachers and a white superinten
dent (probably J. D. Stevens), All the congregation were "neatly
dressed in a costume about half way between the European habit
and that of the wild tribes," This, to Mr. Colton s mind, suggest
ed the degree of their civilization. "The mea seldom wear hats."
There were differences in dress indicating, as among whites^ "social,
standing, degree of respectability, and domestic wealth," The af
ternoon sermon was "interpreted for the benefit of the small portion
of the tribe who do not understand English." The singing is high
"The staff and office of parish beadle" particularly interested
our traveler. He thinks it probable that the office with its pecu
liar duties originated in the time of John Sergeant, and makes no
mention of the probability that it was merely a transference to an
Indian church of a custom, that of choosing a tithing-man, existing
at that time among their white neighbors. "The staff in the pres
ent instance was a green switch about ten feet long which the
functionary had cut from the wood as be came to church." This
was used with such vigor about the ears of at least one disorderly
boy that they must have burned, Mr. Colton thinks, the rest of the-
day. A sleeping adult was roused by hitting, with the heavy end
of the "switch," the stove-pipe until it rang, the beadle meanwhile
crying out in Indian, "Wake up there!" This official is spoken of
as severely and strictly impartial, and our traveler does not doubt
that even a stranger would be duly admonished if there should be
f NOTE. A venerable German stadthalter(?) was so much interested in Mr.
Colton s narrative that he sent the Stockbridges twelve of the finest Bibles to
be had in London.
"There were also twelve Bibles given the tribe August 3rd, 1835, by
Charles, Landgrave of Hesse Denmark. The people were allowed to give
away to destitute tribes, and now only four are in possession and only one fit
for the pulpit," Mrs. Sarah J. SHngerland, 1891, May 26th.
What the good lady (widow of Jeremiah Slingerland) means by "Hesse
Denmark" I don t know. A first thought is of Hesse Darmstadt. But its rulers
are grand dukes and in 35 Louis II. was reigning (1830-48).
IN UNNAMED WISCONSIN. 29
need. Good order has always been noted as a characteristic of the
religious meetings of these people. On this particular occasion the
preacher was manifestly disturbed though the congregation re
mained unmoved, taking the whole preceding as a matter of
course. The drowsy one gave good heed to the rest of the sermon,
and the fact is noted that the congregation were very attentive.
Another thing that especially interested Mr. Colton was the
fact that after the benediction the congregation sat down, givino-
those nearest the door an opportunity to retire. Others then fol
lowed without confusion.
It may also be mentioned here that when these people first
came to Wisconsin, and for years thereafter, they followed the old
New England custom of beginning the Sabbath at sunset Saturday
Writing under date of 1831, January llth, Mr. Stevens gives
the number of the tribe as two hundred twenty-five. Thus it is
probable that Mr. Colton s "three hundred fifty" was an over-esti
mate. There were in the church fifteen men, twenty-seven women,
It is pleasant to read in a later communication from him that "on
the last Sabbath in January, 1832, Rev. Kichard F. Cadle, super
intendent of the Episcopal mission at Green Bay, administered the
sacrament." Mr. Cadle s worth redeemed the mission which he had
in charge from the reproach which the mendacious Eleazar Wil
liams had brought upon it. In the autumn of 1833 Mr. and Mrs.
Stevens left Statesburg. Soon they began work among the Sioux,
and in 1835 established a mission at Lake Harriet, within the pres
ent limits of Minneapolis. This was part of the beginning of the great
work which has practically changed the character of that tribe, known
from the time of Marquette as ferocious and dangerous enemies; a
work which, begun on the upper Mississippi, has place now in Ne
braska and the Dakotas by the turbid waters of the Missouri, f
t NOTE.- Work was done for the Sioux within the present limits of out-
own state. Two men, perhaps from the St. Crishona seminary though more
probably from the mission training school (both) at beautiful Basel in Switzer
land, where the swift Rhine turns northward on its course from the Alps t
the sea, came to the upper Mississippi region. Amid the mountain-like bluffs
near the present village ot Trempeauleau, not far from where Nicholas Perrot
spent the winter of 1685-6, i f not on the very spot, one of these men , Rev Daniel
Gavin, with an associate, Louis Straum, whom he found at Prairie da Chien
30 IN UNNAMED WISCONSIN.
Soon the whites wanted Statesburg. To be sure the Indians
had made farms there and begun to improve its famous water-
power by building a saw-mill and beginning a grist-mill, destined
never to be finished. But they were compelled to move again.
Part of our story is told in extracts frcm a pathetic letter dated
1833, October Mth, f and addresssd to the American Board:
"We wish to tell you that our hearts are glad, that we are
thankful, first to God for giving us the gospel, the Bible and teach
ers, and next to you for sending them to us. The good people be
yond the great waters first found us when we were blind and ignor
ant and wicked. We had no teachers, no Bible, no God. no Christ.
We worshipped the bad spirit. They sent us the good book and
teachers about one hundred years ago. * * But we were
very dull to learn: many of us followed after strong drink. * *
As a tribe we were nigh to ruin. Then we came to this country.
Here you kindly sent us teachers who have done much
for us. * * Nearly the whole tribe have become temper
ate and far more industrious than before. * * Until re
cently it has never been believed by us that the whole tribe could
be converted to Christianity, but now we are fully convinced and
do firmly believe that the whole tribe can, not only be fully civil
ized but brought to embrace the Christian religion. * * We
expect soon to leave our present settlement and again
to commence anew in the wilderness. Hard as this is we have en-
mad ethe first mortem settlement within the limits of Trempeaulean county.
His Swiss colleague, Rev. Samuel Denton, in the spring of 1835, established a
mission where is now the village of Red Wing, Minnesota. Rev. Alfred Brun-
son, who saw both these missionaries on his first trip up the river above
Prairie du Chien (1837) thinks that the Red Wing establishment was founded in
1834. Both movements were unsuccessful, as was also an attempt by Rev. J. D.
Stevens to found a mission at Wah-pa-sha s village, now Winona. The chief
named was hostile to all these missionary efforts, and as they were neither
French nor Romanist the traders gave them no favor. In 1837 the Sioux trans
ferred to the United States government the land on which stood the Trern-
peauleau mission, and in the following year Mr. Gavin abandoned the field.
He then joined his colleague who had married Miss Persis Skinner of the
Mackinaw mission. He himself in 1839 married Miss Lucy C. Stevens, niece of
J. D. Stevens, and this missionary quaternion found other homes among the
Sioux and, in connection with missionaries of the American Board, continued
labor with them.
t NOTE. It was signed by Jacob Cheekthaukon, John Metoxen, Austin E.
Quinney, Thomas T. Hendrick, Andrew Miller, Timothy T. Jourdan, Cornelius
S. Charles, John W. Quinney, Samuel A. Miller and Josiah W. Miller.
IN UNNAMED WISCONSIN. 31
deavored to reconcile our minds to it. Still we can
not avoid feeling much solicitude on the subject.
u The Sacs and Fox and Delaware tribes of Indians are our
friends and relatives, and a delegation from our people intend vis
iting them next season. Can we not tell them the great benefits
we have received from being taught the gospel? Can we not tell
them that your society is ready to send them teachers if they are
willing to receive them? Can you not appoint a missionary to ac
company us? Fathers, if you think there is any way we can do
good in our visit to our poor brethren beyond the Mississippi, we
wish you would give us some instructions,"
The narrative is continued in a letter by Chauncey Hall, dated
1834, July 2nd, at Statesburg, but postmarked "Grand Cakalin."
It was addressed to Mr. Edmund F. Ely of the Ojibway mission at
Sandy Lake, in what is now Minnesota. The postage, eighteen
and three-fourths cents, reminds us that certainly in some things
the former days were not better than these.
"When Rev. Mr. Green was at Mackinaw last summer, an ar
rangement was made for my future labors which made it probable
that I should in the course of the coming fall or early in the spring
leave Mackinaw for the place from which I am now writing. This
station was occupied by the Eev. Mr. Marsh and Mr. and Mrs.
Stevens. Mr. Stevens and wife left last fall, but it was not consis
tent for me to leave till spring. We [himself and
wife] left Mackinaw on the 21st of May at 2 o clock P. M., Mon
day, and arrived at Green Bay on Wednesday evening. Our pas
sage was in the steamboat Oliver Newbury f and, though we were
detained by fogs, was very pleasant.
"We left Green Bay on Friday at 12 o clock, and proceeded up
the Fox river. We reached the mission-house at 3 P.
M., had time to get our baggage, etc., from the landing (one and
one-half miles distant in consequence of the rapids) and get very
comfortably settled before evening. Rev. Mr. Marsh gave us a very
cordial reception. He has been alone since last fall, much of the
time without any one to attend to his domestic concerns, and he
was truly glad to receive fellow-laborers. We found in him what
t NOTE. Oliver Newbury of Detroit, Michigan, was a steamboat owner.
But Mr. J. M. Boyd thinks that there was no boat bearing his name.
32 IN UNNAMED WISCONSIN.
we expected, a kind and warm-hearted Christian, much devoted to
his work, and enjoying to a great degree the love and confidence
of the people for whom he labors. * * The condition of
the Indians among whom we dwell presents much that is truly en
couraging to the missionary, and methinks a view of them as they
collect together for the worship of God, or talk of His love in
their dwellings, would make the heart of one destined to labor
among the uncivilized Indians, where no gospel has extended its
benign influence, to rejoice in view of what the Lord has done, and
encourage him to pursue his labors assured that He who has done
so much for these Indians is able also to extend the work and will
do it through the instrumentality of His children. The church
among the Stockbridge Indians consists of sixty or seventy mem
bers. Most of them adorn their profession. Several who had wan
dered from the path of duty have recently returned with apparent
penitence, and, as far as I know, their lives give evidence that it is
sincere. The church is a temperance church, agreeing to abstain
from the use of all strong drink, not excepting wine, strong beer
and cider. Most of the tribe are members of a temperance society
which exerts a salutary influence. At their last annual meeting, a
few weeks since, they resolved to give up the use of wine, strong
beer and cider. (The resolution had before existed but in the
"Perhaps from what I write, you will conclude that we are
among a people so civilized that we have nothing to remind us that
we are on missionary ground. Truly we are among those for
whom the Lord has done great things. Yet bad I time and room
I could tell you with all that seems to be cheering much that would
lead you to feel that, if we are not in the midst of heathenism,
we have enough to remind us of heathen wretchedness, enough
to call forth the compassion of feeling hearts, enough to call
forth our unwearied labors and to lead us to ask with sincerity
for an interest in your prayers.
"I mentioned the absence of the Rev. Mr. Marsh. He left
with five of the principal Indians on the 12th of June. In the
Missionary Herald for April, 1834, is a letter from the chief man
of the Stockbridge Indians which will explain to you the object
of this journey. Much interest has been and is still manifested
IN UNNAMED WISCONSIN. 33
by the Indians in the mission to their benighted neighbors. On the
Sabbath previous to their departure, Mr. John Metoxen, the head
chief of the tribe, addressed his people at the evening meeting.
He was one of the delegation, and he reminded his friends in a
feeling and dignified manner, that they were soon to be separated :
that perhaps this was their last meeting upon earth. Then he
spoke of the contemplated journey to their neighbors west of the
Mississippi, and he appeared deeply to feel the importance of the
errand on which they were going.
"He said it was the first time their people had undertaken to
tell the glad tidings to their brethren in darkness. He expressed
his sense of the blessings which had been conferred on them
through the gospel; of the preciousness of their privileges, and the
obligation which rested upon them to improve them, as well as to
discharge their duty to their wretched brethren. With much feeling
he spoke of the condition of the heathen, and particularly of the In
dians, while destitute of the gospel. His heart seemed to feel for
their wretchedness in this life, but the burden of his sorrows seemed
to be the hopelessness of their condition in the future world while
destitute of a saving knowledge of Jesus. He assured them of his at
tachment to home and his desire to return, but expressed the
most cheerful resignation of the will of his Heavenly Father re
specting this. His counsel to his people who were to remain was
faithful and affectionate, earnestly desiring their prayers for a
blessing upon this embassy.
"The absence of Mr. Marsh and the chief men takes from the
Indians those who have been their counselors, and we are not with
out our fears respecting the effect, particularly as this will be a sea
son of much temptation, as the Indians are to receive their money
for their improvements and are much unsettled in consequence of re
moving. Our hope is that He who has promised that they who water
shall be watered will watch over us. We have had cheering indi
cations that the Lord was with us for two or more weeks past.
Christians have been evidently revived, and two or three individuals
have publicly expressed anxiety for the salvation of their souls, and
asked for the counsels and the prayers of Christians. Our meet
ings are well attended and our Sunday school is interesting. About
half the people have removed to the new station about twenty miles
34 ANOTHER &TOCKBRIDGE
from us and forty from Green Bay, the nearest white settlement.
We expect to remove there in a few months as well as the remain
der of the people; have yet to remove the timber and erect a dwel
To the "new station" was given the old name Stockbridge.
Thither in this same month, July, 1834, came Rev. Abel Lester
Barber, driven from Mackinaw by the failure of his health. Thus,
in trying a climate more remote from the lakes, he was added to
the mission force at Stockbridge. We shall hear of him later at
Fort Winnebago and Milwaukee. \ At the latter place he had the
first commission which the American Home Missionary society is
sued for Wisconsin.
t NOTE. In the winter of 1^34-35, Mr. Barber gathered a church at Fort
Winnebago, and in the following July or August removed to Milwaukee.
Apparently he was the second clergyman to hold service in that place and the
first to make his home there.
CH APTE VI.
ANOTHER STOCKBRIDGE AND A FOURTH
Mr. Hall s fear that the summer of 1834 would be "a season of
temptation" to the Indians was abundantly verified as is evident
from the report of the mission piesented in September at the an
nual meeting of the Board:
"During the past year the Indians of this band have continued
in nearly the same unsettled state in which they were last year;
and being sometimes on their old lands and sometimes on their
new, they have enjoyed but irregularly the advantages of Chris
tian instruction or of th^ school. The religious meetings and the
AND A FOURTH REMOVAL, 35
school have been small and fluctuating. It is hoped, however, that
the Indians will all become settled in their new homes during the
present autumn. Numbers of them have cleared and fenced large
fields for themselves, have erected comfortable houses, and are la
boring industriously on their new lands. A good building for the
school and for religious meetings has also been erected, princi
pally by themselves. The mission premises on their former reser
vation were appraised at two thousand dollars; and the amount has
been paid over to the Board by the United States. A new mission
house has been built at the new town, and the mission family re
moved to it last fall. The school and the religious meetings have
been held there since that time.
"Intoxicating drinks have been introduced among these In
dians in great quantities, and oftentimes urged upon them gra-
tuitiously, for the sole purpose, apparently, of enticing them to sin.
Many of the irreligious Indians have given themselves up to drink
ing; and its consequences, quarreling and fighting, have prevailed
to a lamentable extent. Some of the church members have also
fallen into sin, under similar temptation, while many others hold
on their w r ay, and give increasing evidence that they are sealed with
the Holy Spirit. Three or four members of the church are under
censure; one young man has been received to church fellowship,
and one had died in the faith."
In a letter dated at Stockbridge, 1835, March 25th, Mr. Marsh
makes a report of the trans-Mississippi trip which he made with
Metoxen and others. We subjoin the more important parts:
"Set out on the 12th of June (1834). Upon the 14th encamped
for the Sabbath, having in full view to our right the Big Buttes
des Morte, which had taken its name from the slaughter of an en
tire Sac village by the French and Menominees about one hundred
years ago. As we pursued our journey we occasionally saw lodges
of Winnebagoes along upon the banks but no corn fields or vegeta
bles of any kind which they had growing. Whenever they saw us
coming they would * * beg as if half starved. Col. Cutler
informed me that * * they were the most indolent, thiev
ing tribe that he knew of. He had known as many as three or
four hundred drunk at one time. * * The Cumberland
Presbyterians have a mission among them near Prairie du Chien.
36 ANOTHER STOCKBRIDGE
The Catholics are making some effort to proselyte them and num
bers are Catholics at the present time.
"The second Sabbath, June 22nd, we passed at a place called
the Pine Bend on the Wisconsin, about sixty miles from Portage.,
where was a small settlement. A few Indians were present and at
tended religious worship with us. We arrived at Prairie du Chein
on the 25th and finding that Dr. Williamson had left we made no
tarry. Saturday evening, the 28th, we arrived at Rock Island.
Dr. Williamson had left this place also the day previously.
Mr. Metoxen had an interview with Black Hawk who was re
turning from Rock Island to his village, which Mr. Metoxen had
just been to visit,
"Black Hawk went on to tell how kindly he was treated by the
white people w^herever he went when on his tour. In no place,
nays he, did I see white men and white equaws drinking together
the same as our people do. When I passed through your place it
was just so, and I want to have my people just like those good
white people, for I see where they do not drink they do better and
live better. Now what do 3 r ou think is best about receiving mission
aries? By all means receive them, I replied, says Mr. Metox
en, for they will do you good. Black Hawk: But the trader,
Mr. Davenport, told me not to have anything to do with them for
they would only make you worse. f
"Our attempt to establish a mission amongst the Sacs and
Foxes entirely failed of success.
"I went to visit old Ke-o-kuck s village soon after my arrival.
He told my interpreter that he knew what I had come for but he
wanted to learn nothing about it. J The head chief, called the
Stabber/ said the same thing to my interpreter when I went to
his lodge. As they had no previous notice of my visit, and inas
much as their mode of treating the subject was so contrary to the
t NOTE. Mr. Metoxen tells of his difficulties not only because the traders
were opposed but because the United States interpreter, besides being con
nected with the American Fur Company, was a Romanist.
| NOTE. Ke-o-kuk continued to be so much of a heathen that, during or
about 1840, he had a squaw put to death for the alleged reason that she be
witched one of his children.
AND A FO&flTH REMOVAL. 37
rules of Indian etiquette. I do not hesitate to say that they had.par-
ticular instructions previously.
"After a few days the Stockbridges met with the Stabber,
who is considered by the Sacs as the head chief, but not by the
white people. They proposed to the Stabber to make the intended
visit to his people. At first he objected, but consented after they
had told him that they had provisions of their own. They went
and stayed about five days, but having no interpreter could con
verse but little with the Sacs and so the latter understood little of
the object of the visit. Still I had reason to believe from what I
afterwards ascertained, that a favorable impression was made on the
minds of the Sacs by the visit. After this the Stockbridges set their
faces towards home. I had gone down the river to visit one of the
most remote bands upon the river Des Moines.
"The deportment of the Stockbridge delegation during the
whole tour was such as to do honor to themselves and to the cause
of missions. Many white people where they went had never seen
a civilized or Christian Indian before. Often the most singular in
quiries would be made, as Do they belong to the church? Can
they speak English? etc. On their return they were of course
alone and they came by land part of the way. In the mining
country, not far from Galena the Sabbath overtook them and there
they stopped until it was passed. I returned the same way and
heard it remarked by some of the people that they sang hymns
all Sabbath day. This seemed not only new but strange to those
who make no distinction bet\ven one day and another when travel
"The appearance of John Metoxen, his conversation, etc., were
universally spoken of with admiration, particularly by Christians.
"My connection with Dr. Williamson was short. Together we
visited Appenoose s village one hundred twenty-five miles from the
mouth of the Des Moines. After Dr. Williamson left to return to
his friends in Ohio I was attacked with dysentery. I returned
about one hundred miles down the Des Moines river to the house
of a trader, Mr. William Phelps, where I was sick one week.
"Mr. Phelps, though a professed infidel in sentiment, still was
friendly to my object. He declared that if something were not
done soon for the Sacs, etc., they would all be swept off. He treat-
38 AT STOCKBRIDGEAND AWAY!
ed me with great hospitality. He and a brother of his are trading
in opposition to the American Fur Company and it rather operates
to our advantage than otherwise."
"A tour by land and water of over 1,300 miles;" "absence of
three months and some days," are among Mr. Marsh s comments
on his journey.
AT STOCKBRIDGE, AND AWAY!
Scarcely were the Stockbridges settled in their new homes when
another removal was proposed. "Even now," says the annual re
port to the Board for 1836, "when the Indians have hardly put up
their houses and cleared and enclosed their fields, the proposal has
been made to take them from their homes again, and transport
them to a country west of the Mississippi river, Their minds are
beginning to be agitated on the subject. The perplexity and dis
couragement to which the missionaries are subjected from this
source are very great; but not to be compared with the dishearten
ing and deteriorating influence exerted on the Indians by being so
often obliged to abandon the houses and fields which they were-
just beginning to enjoy, and to prepare for themselves other homes
of which they may be despoiled as soon." Of their condition other
wise at that time the narrative adds, "Temperance, industry and
attention to religious instruction, have been more general than for
the preceding two or three years. Temptatations have beset the
people from the white settlers who are crowding in around them.
Some painful cases of defection have occurred. Others have resist
ed temptation so as to excite the admiration of unprincipled men.
Mr. Marsh has assisted in organizing a church at Green Bay. He
AT STOCKBRIDGE AND AWAY! 39
preaches there occasionally." A second school had been started
in the Indian settlement.
The purpose to remove the Indians west of the Mississippi
was abandoned, and for some years the tribe had peace. Of this
time Rev. L. P. Norcross f writes: "Their palmy days were dur
ing the reign of the Quinney or tribal party." Probably he should
have said that their palmy days were before the division into tribal
and citizens parties began. "Quinney," he adds, "was a man of
character, ability and a Christian." Doubtless John W. Quinney
is meant. Another writer says: "He was to his people what Clay
and Webster were to the whites. In 1833 he framed a constitution
as a basis of the tribal government." J During these years the
principal events seem to have been the coming in the spring of
1837 of some Munsees from Canada, and the removal in 1838 of a
part of the Stock bridge tribe beyond the Missouri. A place seems
to have been provided through the agency of the Ogden Land Com
pany of New York. After a few years most of those left alive
were glad to return though some of the younger people remained.
In the autumn of 1838, when the American Board felt most keenly
the financial stringency of the time, Mr. and Mrs. Hall left the mis
sion. We shall hear of Mr. Hall again as representative of the
Green Bay church when the Presbyterian and Congregational
Convention of Wisconsin was organized. The Stockbridge Indian
church was the first one not of the original number to join this
body. It was received at a session held 1841, January 2nd, for the
purpose of installing Rev. Jeremiah Porter as pastor at Green Bay.
John Metoxen was delegate. During this winter, as in 1837, there
w r as a revival in the Stockbridge church. The school during 1841
was under the direction of the Indians.
But evil was brewing. The "Missionary Herald" for January,
1840, speaks of political divisions. One party desired citizenship,
t NOTE. Pastor of the existing church at Steckbridge, Wisconsin, from
May, 1869, to January, 1870.
| NOTE. Probably the constitution found in the appendix is substantial
ly the same as the one drawn up by Mr. Quinney.
NOTE. This company was eager to get possession of the New York
lands that belonged to the remnants of the Iroquois or Six Nations. So they
sought to get reservations in what is now Kansas for them and for such of
their brethren as had removed to Wisconsin.
40 AT STOCKBRIDGE AND AWAY!
the other preferred to remain in the tribal condition. The ill-feel
ing thus engendered proved to be a veritable Pandora s box of evils.
Because of it the tribe is worse off, probably in every respect, than
it was fifty years ago. However, citizenship was bestowed by an
act of Congress approved 1843, March 3rd. This measure had Mr.
Marsh s support, but many of the tribe, and apparently some of the
better portion of it, opposed the change. There is report of strife in
1844. Death and emigration had diminished the tribe which num
bered not many more than two hundred. The church had fifty
members, only five more than it had in 1830, though meanwhile it
had received sixty-eight. The report for 1845 states that "in tem
perance, industry, healthfulness and comfortable living, the tribe
appear to be making some progress." The Sabbath was generally
In this year, 1845, probably April, Methodist services were es
tablished among these people by the Kev. W. Gr. Miller, from
whose autobiography we have an account of the movement.
"There had been," he says, "a Congregational mission among the
Stockbridge nation for many years, but its condition was not very
promising." He speaks of "Dr." Marsh as "a gentleman of educa
tion and ability," but adds, "he divided his time, however, between
the ministerial and medical professions, and the spiritual interests
necessarily languished." It may be that good Mr. Miller wrote
thus seeking to justify action which was certainly divisive, and
probably unwise. Meetings were held in "Father Chick s" barn.
Mr. Miller speaks of him as "the head chief " which he was not.
But he was a leader of the citizens party.
The gift of citizenship was withdrawn in 1846 from those who
did not desire it. In January, 1847, one of their number, of mixed
blood, Jeremiah Slingerland, educated at Bangor theological sem
inary, is especially mentioned in the "Herald." He had been "la
boring among them acceptably and usefully as preacher and teach
er." He became the successor of Rev. Cutting Marsh who ended
his long pastorate at Stockbridge in the spring or summer of 1848.
In the same year the Stockbridge tribe, avowedly for the purpose
of ridding themselves of further trouble, sold their lands at Win-
But this act itself gave occasion for fresh dispute. It would
AT STOCRBRIDGEAND AWAY! 41
seem that an attempt was made to keep from all share in tribal gov
ernment and coiitrol of tribal property those, seventy-one in num
ber, who had accepted citizenship. These, it was alleged, had re
ceived, on becoming citizens, allotments of land that were the
equivalent of their share of the property, the land of the reserva
tion that had been held by the tribe in common. It is not my office
to pronounce judgment.
The faithful memory of one still among the living f has preserved
for us a picture of the condition of the Muh-he-ka-ne-ok at this time
of the impending and hurtful change. Nearly all the homes of the
people were of logs, but there were a few frame houses. For years
Mrs. Marsh had been a teacher of good house-keeping to the women
and many followed, at least in some measure, her example. But
there was a considerable number who did not properly guard
against dirt and vermin. Naturally there were sneers for those
who tried to fashion their apparel after the manners of the whites.
The women of the progressive party wore at church and other
public places beaver hats shaped somewhat like the silk hats so
commonly worn by gentlemen. The other women wore neither hat
nor bonnet. Men and women alike to the number of perhaps half
or more of the tribe, wore "blankets." These were commonly of
blue broadcloth, and were worn in public. The men all wore pan-
.taloons and shirts. But the order in which were worn the parts of
these garments that are next to each other does not accord with our
ideas of propriety. The want of suspenders was manifest by the
constant "hitching" needed to keep the pantaloons in place. The
women did most of the work, even of that in the field. Yet there
were men who had accepted enough of Christian teaching to know
that this kind of work was especially their duty and to act accord
ingly. Some of the families lived at a considerable distance from
the school but all the children received therein more or less train
ing. Nearly all the tribe attended church. Their Sabbath, as in
former years, began at sunset on Saturday evening. Mrs. Benson
heard or saw nothing of the "elegantly festooned whip" that Mr.
Norcross speaks of but she remembers a peeJed stick used for the
same purpose. There were still so many of the tribe who under-
t NOTE. Sabra Howes Adams, now the wife of Rev. H. H. Benson, of Wau-
42 AT STOCKBRIDGE AND AWAY!
stood Indian that Mr. Slingerland occasionally preached in it.
This Mr. Marsh did not think necessary. Some of the young men
had been educated in. Eastern colleges. These, with the possible
exception of Mr. Slingerland, did no credit to their training. They
married half-civilized women and lapsed into something worse than
their former mode of life. Mrs. Benson s work among the people,
like that of Mr. Marsh, came to an end in 1848. Then the Ameri
can Board gave up its mission. This seems now and is judged
by Mrs. Benson to have been a serious mistake.
Now that both these men are in their graves, it may be said
that Mr. Marsh had no confidence in his successor,- or supplanter.
He left Stockbridge with a feeling of despair regarding the future
of the church to which he had so long ministered. His distrust of
Mr. Slingerland was shared by some of the clearest headed of the In
dians themselves. Yet it does not become us to reproach the mem
ory of the dead who has left none of his name to defend him. f
During the gloomy years that followed the sale of the Lake
Winnebago reservation, the Stockbridges wer not entirely neglected.
At the meeting of -our state Presbyterian and Congregational Con
vention in 1854, their delegate, S. Miller, presented their case, and
a committee was appointed "to memorialize the proper department
of the Government, in our name, in behalf of the Stockbridge tribe,
setting forth their grievances, and petitioning for the restoration to
them of their lands." The Convention also resolved that "we feel
it incumbent upon us to endeavor to procure for them the stated
ministration of the gospel." Mr. Slingerland s service seems to
have ended before 1853, for in that year a name, O. P. Clinton, late
ly added to the number of the dead, (1890, June 17th), appears as
pastor. In 1854 and in 1859 we find him in the same office, which
was held in two of the intervening years, 1856 and 1857, by J. P.
Jones. During these pastorates whites worshiped with the In
dians in the old mission house, erected in 1834. J "Indian church
t NOTE. While this work has been in preparation his widow, a white
woman, always faithful to him and to his memory, and honored by all who
knew her, has passed away.
\ NOTE. This old "meeting-house," still standing though degraded, is
worthy of an historic monograph. It suggests the fact that Stockbridge, more,
probably, than any other place in Wisconsin, reproduced some of the features
of a New England town of the eighteenth centurj . Their "meeting-house" was
AT STOCKBRIDGEAND AWAY! 43
nearly extinct/ say our minutes of 1859, "church of whites about
to be organized." It is to be regretted that they did not unite with
their Indian brethren in Christian covenant, and thus formally as
well as really continue the life of the old church organized, as we
have seen, at Stockbridge, Massachusetts, in 1785. Its records
were lost in the removal to Shawano which took place between 1856
and 1859. By far the greater part of the tribe made this change.
A few, however, remained. In this number were "quiet, unostenta
tious, sincere Christians," as they were described years afterwards.
Uniting with their white brethren these kept the life of the old
Whether or not the "memorial" proposed in the Convention of
1854 was ever presented, I do not know. It was too late for the
tribe to recover its lands on Lake Winnebago. Indeed, if any In
dian tribe has ever recovered from the United States government
lands once alienated I have never heard of the fact. 1856, February
5th, a treaty was made assigning to the tribe the present Stock-
ridge reservation in Shawano county, and this treaty all were allowed
to sign, whether citizens or members of the tribe. Removal to
the new home began in that year. Some came in October. I have
been told that most of the tribe made the change in 1857. The
used, not only for religious service but for other public gatherings*. This oM
building, after serving sis a Congregational church until 1*569, December
19th, became successively a school, a printing office and a blacksmith shop.
It has had in it, probably, more silver money than has been at one time in any
other house of worship in Wisconsin, making no exception for Sundays when
special collections haA e been taken for missions either home or foreign! At
one government .payment the Indians received therein eighty thousand or more
silver half dollars. The use of the same building for purposes both of church
and state, merely different aspects of the same Christian commonwealth,
was judged right by the Puritan, and did not imply any unbecoming use of the
house wherein he worshiped God. He had little use for the term "secular .
in its present meaning. It is probable that the tribal meetings of the Stock-
bridges, like the town meetings of the olden time and some of the present, in
New England, were opened with prayer.
Two tithing men or "beadles," to use Mr. Colton s term, were chost-n at
the annual church meeting to keep good order during service. We may sup
pose that this included the prevention of "gazing about, sleeping, smiling and
all other indecent behavior," the words on this subject of the Presbyterian
Directory for Public Worship. The switch of the time f Mr. Colton s visit
was, according to Rev. L. P. Norcross, succeeded later by a whip. "This mean*
of grace was elegantly mounted," he says, and the lash was "festooned in cur
44 AT STOCKBRIDGEAND AWAY!
journey was across Lake Wiunebago and up the Fox and Wolf rivers.
A tributary of the latter, called the Red river, flows through the
reservation then occupied and still held. I have been told that
some Indians from New York, Senecas, Onondagoes and Cayugas.
about eighty in all, joined the Muh-he-ka-ne-ok at the time of this
What wonder that the Indians left Stockbridge unwillingly?
We are glad that the leaders in the Wisconsin-ward migration
were not called upon to abandon the home to which they had led
their people. John W. Quinney died 1855, July 21st. tpon a
marble slab, now grown mossy, in the old Indian cemetery by the
lakeside, is the legend, "John Metoxen, died April 8th, 1858, aged
87 years." We have a right to claim as our own this son of Massa
chusetts. Let his name stand first in the list of Wisconsin s hon
ored laymen. Aside from Dr. Morse, he was probably the first to
hold public worship on Wisconsin soil according to the simple rites
of the Puritan. And he was the first, after the departure of the
early French Jesuits (who are so much overpraised and whose work
is so much overvalued by sentimentalists and sectarians) to main
tain here regularly the public worship of Almighty God.
During our late war, not less than thirty-eight men, more than
one-tenth of the entire tribe, enlisted in the Union army. Heavy
were their losses by disease. But not one deserted. This tak
ing of men from the infant settlement must have greatly retarded
Deprived of their leaders and neglected by our ministers and
missionary societies, the Indians suffered their old church organ
ization to lapse. A Methodist church took its place and Mr. Sling-
erland, who was teaching the government school, became a local
preacher of that denomination. "But the old faithful ones," writes
his widow, "could not feel at home." Mr. Slingerland s preferences
were for a Presbyterian church, and one was organized in Septem
ber, 1867, to which he ministered until his death in 1884. Christian
work was steadily maintained though the church was pastorless
until October, 1887, when Rev. A. W. Williams began a year s ser
vice. In April, 1889, Rev. Thomas Knox Fisher bagan his labors.
"The work," he wrote, "is certainly very encouraging." But he re
mained only two years. He was succeeded, probably in July, 1891,
AT STOCKBRIDGE.--AND AWAY! 45
by Thomas H, Haug. He was ill-adapted to his field and left in
or about February, 1892. Rev. Jacob Van Kensslaer Hughes, Pres
byterian pastor of Shawano, now shepherds these people as he can
amid other duties of a faithful pastorate.
In 1871 some of the families renounced the tribal condition
and became citizens, A movement is now on foot to break up the
reservation system and allot land in severalty. It would seem that
this might better have been done half a century ago.
Doubtless these people are somewhat broken in spirit. But
their history is an inspiration. And if this story of their past shall
help to make better the present and the future, he who has written
this imperfect sketch will be glad.
In closing the story of these people we remember that they
have been served in the pastorate by men of as eminent piety and
as great ability as America, or perhaps the world, has yet pro
duced, that repeatedly they have carried the light of Christian civ
ilization into the wilderness, that theirs was the first evangelical
church in what is now Wisconsin, and that from their humble mis
sion went light to the region round about and to tribes in the dark
ness of heathenism. When the Romanists had here no resident
priest, when no Methodist itinerant had yet penetrated this wilder
ness, and in it the Episcopalians had neither church nor minister,
these Christian Indians came hither as an organized church, and
this church before any other was organized here, God blessed with
a revival. The first free school in Wisconsin was theirs, and the
first of the great company of women who here publish the divine
word of education was of Stockbridge blood. As years went on
they aided, through their pastor, in establishing churches among
the whites. Fugitives from slavery found shelter in their settle
ment. Better than their service in six wars for our country, is the
fact that wherever they lived there are now churches and schools
which they helped to found and homes which they helped to make.
Surely these Muh-he-ka-ne-ok, "the people of the waters that are
never still," have a claim upon the grateful remembrance of all who
love our Lord Christ.
STOCKBRIDGE AND MUNSEE TRIBE
A council was called and held by the males of the Moh-he-con-
news (commonly called the Stockbridge and Munsee tribe) r at Aaron
Konkaput s house at our new homes near the southern boundary
of the Menomonee Reservation, in the State of Wisconsin, this 30th
day of December, A, D., 1856.
Resolved, That John N. Chicks, Timothy Jourdan and Ziba
T. Peters be a committee to form a Constitution similar to that
heretofore adopted by the tribe and to present the same week from
to-day for adoption.
Resolved, That the tract of land granted to the united nation
of the Stockbridge and Munsee Indians and is located in the State
of Wisconsin, near on the north side of the southern boundary line
of the Menomonee Reservation and west from Wolf Eiver, shall
hereafter be called or named, Moh-he-con-nuck, and by this name
the place aforesaid shall ever hereafter be designated in all public
acts and documents whereinsoever it may be named.
Resolved, That the council now adjourn until one week from
to-day, when there shall be an election of national officers, and that
Ziba T. Peters, the Sachem , be authorized to provide victuals for
the people on the expense of the nation.
Entered of record by Pou-poon-hout, alias
JOHN N. CHICKS.
Pursuant to adjournment, the males of said tribe held a
general council at the dwelling house of John Yoccum, this
6th day of January, A. D. 1857. The committee reported the fol-
THE CONSTITUTION. 49
lowing articles of Constitution, which were read and adopted and
are in the following words, to-wit:
Whereas, The Great Spirit has made His mighty arm bare in
the preservation and establishment of a part of the Moh- he-con -
neew (known as the Stockbridge and Munsee tribe), on the western
part of the Wolf River, on the north side of the southern boundary
line of the Menomonee Reservation, in the State of Wisconsin.
Therefore, We, the Chiefs, Braves and Warriors of the Stock-
bridge and Munsee tribe, being assembled at one new fire place at
Moh-he-con-nuk, in the State of Wisconsin, this 6th day of Janu
ary, A. D. 1857, having considered t^at our peculiar situation high
ly demands combined efforts in order the more efficiently to exe
cute our best intentions and purposes hereinafter enumerated, do
hereby voluntarily make, ordain and declare, that the following ar
ticles shall be considered as articles of our union and confedera
tions, which shall remain unalterable unless by common consent.
There shall be no distinction made of the united tribe of Stock-
bridge and Munsee Indians on account of descent or birth (saving
where character and qualification shall render any person ineligible
for any post of trust or honor), but all shall alike be entitled to en
joy the rights, privileges and advantages of the nation.
That all such of the Stock bridges and Munsees, whether they
are now residing in the State of New York or Wisconsin, or any
where in the United States, who were not provided for either in
land or money, shall at least have the privilege of coming and tak
ing up lots of land on the tract given to the Stockbridges and Mun
sees, by the treaty of February 5th, 1856.
Every male of the age of twenty-one years or upwards (or un
der twenty-one years if legally married, in which case he shall be
admitted on an equal footing with those of the age aforesaid), shall
be entitled to vote for national officers herein elective.
50 THE CONSTITUTION.
Schools and the means of education shall ever be encouraged.
No person or any assembly of people, met for the worship of
God on the Lord s day or at any other time, shall be disturbed.
There shall be a Sachem elected for the term of three years,
and five Counsellors for the term of one year. One of the Counsel
lors shall be chosen by the Sachem and Counsellors a Secretary,
whose duty it shall be to keep all the acts and proceedings of the
Councils, and generally do such writing of a public nature as be
required by the Sachem and Counsellors; and in consequence of
the death, resignation or necessary absence of the Sachem, one of
the Counsellors who received the highest number of votes, shall ex
ecute all the power and perform all the duties of the Sachem, dur
ing the vacancy occasioned by the resignation , death or necessary
absence of the said Sachem. "And in case of the death or resigna
tion of a Counsellor, the Sachem shall by notice, either in writing"
or otherwise, appoint a time and place to elect another in his stead
to serve for the residue of the term. The Sachem and the two
others who had received the highest number of votes for Counsel
lors, shall constitute the high court of the nation.
A Treasurer, two Peace makers, two Path Masters and one
Sheriff, shall be elected annually on the day of election, and their
powers and duties shall be prescribed by law.
The general election shall be held on the first Tuesday of Jan
uary annually, and it shall be the duty of the Secretary to give no
tice of the day of election, by posting up notices in two or three of
the most public places of the town at least six days before the day
The election shall be by ballot.
The election shall be opened between the hours of nine and
ten o clock in the forenoon and shall be kept open until four
o clock in the afternoon.
THE CONSTITUTION. 51
The Legislative Council and High Court of the Nation shall
be held at such time as shall be provided by law.
The Sachem and the five Counsellors or a majority of them, shall
adopt such of their original laws, criminal and civil, as may be
necessary and best suited to the circumstances of the tribe. They
also shall have the authority to make other laws in all cases for the
good government of the tribe, not repugnant to any of the articles
Bill of Righite,
SECTION 1. All men are born equally free and independent".
All power is inherent in, and all government of right originates
with the people, is founded in their authority and instituted for
their peace, safety and happiness.
SECTION 2. The people shall at all times have the right in a
peaceable manner to assemble together to consult for the common
SECTION 3. Excessive bail shall not be required. Excessive
fines shall not be imposed and cruel and unjust punishment shall
not be inflicted.
SECTION 4.- No person shall be deprived of his liberty or prop
erty, but by the judgment of his part or the law of the Nation;
should the public exigencies make it necessary for the common
preservation, to take any person s property or to demand his par
ticular services, full compensation shall be made for the same.
The Sachem, Counsellors, Treasurer, Peace Makers, Path Mas
ters and Sheriff shall, before they enter upon the duties of their re
spective offices, take and subscribe the following affirmation : I do
solemnly affirm that I will support the constitution and laws of this
nation and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of the office
of - according to the best of my ability.
Immediately after the signing of the articles herein enumerat
ed, the Council will proceed to elect two or three inspectors for the
election of such officers as are required in the foregoing articles by
ballot, and who shall act in that capacity to all intents and pur
poses therein, during the term in which they are elected.
As witness our names and marks, the day and year above
JOHN W. QUINNEY, JR.
ZIBA T. PETERS.
JOHN (X) YOCCUM.
CORNELIUS M. ANTHONY.
DANIEL (X) GARDNER.
JACOB (X) KONKAPOT.
TIMOTHY (X) JOURDEN.
HARVEY (X) JOHNSON.
JOHN P. HENDRICKS.
CORNELIUS (X) YOCCUM.
GEORGE T. BENNETT.
ALEXANDER (X) \VILBER.
JOHN W. QUINNEY, JR.
MOSES (X) SMITH.
JASPER (X) BENNETT.
BENJAMIN (X) PYE, THIRD.
PAUL W. QUINNEY.
LEVI S. (X) KONKAPOT.
LEVI (X) HALF TOWN.
JEFFERSON (X) HALF TOWN.
DOC. X) BIG DEER.
JESSE M. JOURDON.
JOSEPH L. CHICKS.
JOHN N. CHICKS.
EDWARD (X| BOWMAN.
JONATHAN (X) WATERMAN
P. D. LITTLEMAN.
DENNIS T. TURKEY.
JOHN (X) LEWIS.
WILLIAM (X) HIGH FLY.
[Of course the attempt has been made to reproduce faithfully
the transcript of the constitution given me. This accounts for the
two spellings of the name declared to be that of the reservation,- -
a name seldom used but worthy of practical adoption. The "s" in
"confederations" in the preamble may be a mis-reading.
The government established by this constitution has lapsed.
In reality "Mohheconnuk" is governed by the United States Indian
agent. The practical socialism of the system which he administers
seems to be a failure.]
The Bible of which mention is made oa page seven contains
the following inscription:
This with another volume, containing the Holy Bible, is the
pious gift of the Reverend Doct. Francis Ayscouth, [Clerk of the
Closet to His Royal Highness Frederick, Prince of Wales ),
To the use of the Congregation of Indians, at or near Housa-
tonic, in a vast wilderness, part of New England 5 who are, at pres
ent, the voluntary Care, and Instruction, of the Learned and Relig
ious Mr. John Sergeant, and is to remain to the use of the Success
ors of those Indians from generation to generation; as a testimony
of the said Doctor s Great Regard for the Salvation of their souls
and is over and above other Benefits, which he most cheerfully ob
tained for the encouragement of said Mr. Sergeant, and in favor of
the said Indians,
At the Request of their hearty Friend and Weil Wisher,
London, the 31st day of December, 1745.
It is my impression that Captain Coram was in England as so
liciting agent for the Stockbridge "charity school." Accordingly I
cherish his memory with feelings of mournful and sympathetic in
terest. Then as now the greater part of the money needed to es
tablish institutions of higher education must needs be provided by
the lobbyist or the solicitor.
Gideon Hawley, whose name occurs on page thirteen deserves
somewhat more of mention than is there given him. He graduated
at Yale in 1749. He dated his service at Stockbridge from the 5th
of February, 1752. His work there seems for the most part to have
been among Mohawks, Oneidas and Tuscaroras from Kanajohar-
ry and Onohoghwage." He preached to them and taught their
children. In September, 1752, he visited the Iroquois in New
York. Apparently he determined to establish a mission among
them. Of his second departure from Stockbridge to New York he
writes: "It was on Tuesday, May 22nd, 1753, when Mr. Wood-
bridge, myself and company set out from Stockbridge for the In
dian country. Our departure upon so great an errand as the plant
ing of Christianity in the wilderness about an hundred miles be
yond any settlement of Christian people drew the attention of the
whole town. And the Rev. Mr. Edwards, his wife and others ac
companied us a considerable distance into the words toward Kin-
derhook." The end of their journey seems to have been Onoh-
quaga f on the Susquehannna.
These men found among the Indians a wish for a prohibitory
liquor-law. Mr. Woodbridge represents J Indians as desiring to
say to the governor, "My brother, I would have you tell the great
men at Albany, Skenectetee and Skohary not to bring us any
Mr. Hawley s stay in New York could not have been a long
one. "I was ordained in the Old South meeting-house (Boston)
81st Juty, 1754." Immediately thereafter he removed again to
Stockbridge. After he was driven from this place by Colonel Wil-
liams s machinations he labored, according to E. W. B. Canning,
among the Indians in New York until the outbreak of the Revolu
tionary War. Then he served as chaplain in the colonial army.
Died at the age of eighty years, 1807, October 3d.
As Jonathan Edwards has been again mentioned, we may here
give the date of the dismissing council at Northampton : 1750,
JUmuiy "Qtti.f TTi. was installed at Stockbridge 8th of August,
1751. The council by which he was advised to go to Princeton
met 1758, January 4th.
Under date of 1890, July 3d, Miss Sarah E. Marsh expressly
states, doubtless from information derived through her father, that
Metoxen and his party from Indiana came to Green Bay in 1822.
f NOTE. Doubtless the "Onohoghwage" named above.
| NOTE. In a letter to Governor Sir William Johnson, dated at Albany,
1753, June 26th.
NOTE. Schenectady and Skoharie.
She mentions also a Mimsee pagan family who- came from New
York that same year. It is not likely that they came alone. We
may conclude then that, as M r. Ellis says, a party of emigrants did
come from New York that autumn, f The family that Miss Marsh
mentions became Christians. They took the name of Scott. After
the early death of their son Cosen, who was converted in 1837, Mr.
Marsh, deeply moved by the young man s religious experience,
made it the subject of a published narrative.
It may have been noticed that the Indian church and mission of
early years in Wisconsin are sometimes spoken of as Congregation
al and sometimes as Presbyterian. Doubtless the church was orig
inally Congregational. In New York it may have become con
nected, according to the "plan of union" with some presbytery. We
have seen what was its relationship here. It was successively con
nected with the Madison and Winnebago local conventions. At
the organization of the former, 1846, November 17th, it was repre
sented by Austin E. Quinney as delegate. Rev. Jesse Miner is
spoken of as a Presbyterian by his daughter, and such was Mr.
Marsh s denominational preference also. For he was one of those
who in the autumn of 1851 helped organize the (new school) pres
bytery of Columbus.
Of the removal to the present Stockbridge reservation Mrs,
Slingerland wrote (1891, January 6th): "My husband and I came
here in 1857, in February. We were on the road with sleighs two
days, the 14th and 15th. The rest of the tribe came as they could.
The last came two years after the treaty was made. From dates
which I have we had been here some six or seven years before the
Methodist church was organized, in 1863-4. But from the time we
came we met together for Sabbath services every Sabbath and for
Thursday prayer meetings. * * * * The Methodist
church continued until th* present Presbyterian church was organ
Mr. Slingerland was ordained by the presbytery of Winnebago
probably about the time the church was reorganized under the
present form. "For thirty years," his wife wrote, "we enjoyed the
t See page twenty-two. ,
training of the children, not only in the sciences but in moral and
religious principles. Mr. Slingerland would teach the school from
New Year s day to the last of April, Then I would take the school
until Christmas." Thus Mrs. Slingerland wrote under date of 1890 r
Mr. Slingerland was born, 181 8 T February 6th. His father was
a white man, his mother a Muh-he-ka-ne-ew. The son was educat
ed at Dartmouth, Owing to the fact that he was an Indian he pro
bably received, both there and at Bangor, more attention than was
good for him. It is said that he was somewhat of a- ladies pet.
At the time of his marriage in 1852, himself and wife were members
of the church of Neenah. f Whether or not he ever made that
place his home 1 do not know. Were his good wife living, she
died last year in Minnesota, it would perhaps grieve her to have
me leave unsaid some of the things she so sincerely believed con
cerning him. And 1 dare not say that she did not have good rea
sons for her belief. Mr. Slingerland died 1884, June 5th,
Miss Quinney, Wisconsin s first school mistress, J was ed
ucated at Clinton, New York, and at Cornwall, Connecticut. At
the latter place she spent six years. It was in 1828 that she began
to teach the mission school at Statesburg, probably, as I have
said, the first free school in Wisconsin.
"The Hon. E. S. Miner of Necedah, one of her pupils, says
that she was a better teacher than the average of teachers to-day.
Her methods, many of them, were similar to those of the present
day. The pupils were mostly Indian children, but the language
used was English. Daboll and Smith s arithmetic, Webster s
spelling book, the old English reader, Columbian orator and Wood-
bridge s geography were her text books. There was no Wisconsin
then, all Michigan on both sides of the lake. The Indians were
poor in mathematics, but excelled in penmanship. She rarely
t NOTE. Congregational at first, now Presbyterian.
t NOTE. In this same year, according to Secretary R. G. Thwaites, a Miss
Caroline Russell taught at Shanty town, an early settlement whose site is near
the present city of Green Bay.
NOTE. Son ef Rev. Jesse Miner and member (1871-2) of the Wisconsin
whipped; opened her school with prayer. It was modeled after
the best public schools of New England at that time. The school
was in connection with a Presbyterian mission. She refused to
marry the sheriff of Brown county; too proud to marry a w*hite man,
she married an Indian minister, and lived to a good old age in Wis
consin. Sixty-three years finds great improvements in the school
system of Wisconsin, but whether a child at present gets any bet
ter knowledge of the elementary branches during the first ten years
of his life than he did then is doubted."
To the above, from the <; Door county Advocate," may be add
ed paragraphs from an article f by Superintendent Henry
Severin of New Ho] stein, Calumet county:
"Miss Quinney was highly respected by the whites, and moved
in their best society at Fort Howard. She married Daniel
Adams, a Methodist clergyman. Mr. Adams was a Mohawk In
dian, and at that time a missionary to the Oneidas, and is spoken
of as a pious and intelligent man. With him she removed to Mis
souri, where he became pastor to a band of Senecas. After his
death she became the wife of a Cherokee editor, with whom, after
some years, she returned to her farm in Stockbridge, which her son J
has lately sacrificed in order to push a claim that his kinsmen be
lieve they have against the United States. Here she died about
eight years ago.
"About one mile north of the little village of Stockbridge on the
east shore of Lake Winnebago, is a small graveyard. In the midst
of monuments telling of sachems and other notables of the Stock-
bridges, is a little mound of turf with a few scanty flower bushes
upon it: it covers the remains of Electa Quinney, Wisconsin s First
In connection with this subject of early schools the second note
on page twenty-seven contains certain errors. Thomas S. Johnson
of Onondago, New York, was probably the first man who taught
school at Green Bay and so the first to teach within the present
t NOTE. Wisconsin Journal of Education, December, 189h
t NOTE. John Clark Adams.
NOTE. "She was born," Mr. Severin says, "about eighty-seven years
ago. * * * * First taught school among the Indians in New
limits of Wisconsin. His agreement with those who became his
patrons was "to teach reading, writing, arithmetic and the English
language, during the space of nine months from this date" (the
10th of November, 1817 ).f
The slaves whom the writer had in mind were brought by a
Mr. Goodell to Green Bay and hidden there in the belfry of the
church by Pastor and Mrs. Porter. That was probably in 1855.
See page forty-five.
The "six wars" were Queen Anne s, King George s, the French
and Indian, the Revolution, the second war with Britain and the
pro-slavery rebellion. See page forty-five.
The use of the Gregorian calendar was legally established in
Great Britain and her colonies by enacting that the day following
the 2nd of September, 1752, should be accounted the 14th of that
month. In speaking of Dr. Bellamy s letter I should have said
that the date thereof is probably new style, not old. J
A story told by Mrs. Benson needs no comment : An Indian,
having been refused credit for whisky, filled his jug with water
and rowed past where Mr. Marsh was standing on the lake shore.
The good missionary entreated the Indian to pour out the (suppos
ed) whisky, and finally offered him a dollar if he would do so.
This the Indian did and, as the water had not taken the smell of
whisky from the jug, Mr. Marsh was deceived and paid the dollar.
With the money the Indian returned to the saloon keeper and got
for cash what he could not get on credit.
t NOTE. Of Jacobs or, rather, "J. Bte. S. Jacobs," as he wrote his name,
the "S." being for Ste., or St., I feel certain of little save that morally and oth
erwise he was totally unfitted to be a teacher.
J NOTE. Other errata should be mentioned : "These" for "those," intro
duction, page xiv, twelfth line ;"Thackeray" for the mis spelling on page seven;
"whoever" for "wherever," page sixteen, second note; and the corrected
possessive "Chicks s" on page forty. "York money," says Professor A. L.
Perry, "was issued at an avowed discount of twenty-five per cent." Seepage
Abraham (a Mimsee), 19
Adams, Daniel 57
Adams, John Clark 57
Adams, Sabra Howes 41
Albany, 3, 8, 54
Albany county, 26
Ambler, Augustas T. 26
xiv, 30, 34, 35 ? 42
Bangor seminary, 40, 56
Barber, Abel Lester 34
Bellamy, Joseph 13, 58
Belcher, Governor Jonathan 2, 4
Beloit college, xiii
Bennett, George Thomas 26
Benson, Rev. H. H. 41
Benson, Mrs. H. H. 42, 58
Berkshire county, 2
Black Hawk, 36
Blaisdell, Prof. J. J. xiii, xiv
Board of Commissioners for
Indian Affairs, 1
Cadle, Rev. Richard Fish 29
Calhoun, John Caldwell 22
Camp, Rev. C. W. xiv
Canada, 15, 19, 27, 39
Canning, E. W. B.
American Board, Mission
house of the 27
American Missionary Asso
Andover seminary, xiv
Ark of the Covenant, 28
Army, Union 44
Arnold, Benedict 15
Aupaumut, Hendrick 19, 20, 27
Ayscouth, Rev. Dr. Francis
xiii, 7, 27, 53
Boston, 2, 13
Boyd, James Madison 26, 31
Bradley, Isaac S. xiii
Brainerd, David 8, 9, 11
Brothertown settlement, 17
Brothertowns, 16, 27
Brown county, 57
Brunson, Rev. Alfred 30
Bull, Rev. Nehemiah 3
Burgoyne s surrender, 19
Bushnell, Horace ^ xi
Buttes de Morte, 35
Cedar Hill, 26
Charles, Cornelius S. 30
"Charles, Landgrave of
Hesse, Denmark/ 28
Champlain, Lake ix
Cheekthaukon, Jacob 30
Chequamegon Bay, xii
Cherokee editor, 57
Chicks, J. N. 40, 48, 58
Childs, "Colonel" Ebenezer 26
Christianity, obstacles to 26
Clapp, Rev. Luther xiv
Clinton, 19, 56
Clinton, Governor De Witt 24
Clinton, Rev. O. P. 42
Congregation alists, 21
Congregational mission , 40
Cook s Corners, Baptist
church of 20
Constitution of Stockbvidge
and Munsee tribe 48, 49
Colton, Rev. Calvin
7, 27, 28, 29, 43
Columbus, presbytery of 22
Commissioners, Board of, for
Indian Affairs 1
Comnmck, Thomas 16
Congress, vii, 40
Congress, Continental 15
Connecticut, 6, 10, 13, 22, 27
Convention, Presbyterian and
vii, xiii, 39, 42. 43.
Coram, Thomas, xiii, 53
Crete, Nebraska, xiii
Cumberland, Duke of 7
Cumberland Presbyterians 35
Cutler, Colonel (Captain
Dartmouth college, 17, 56
Davidson, J. N. xiii
Davenport, Mr. 36
viii, 2, 9, 18, 19, 20, 21, 31
Delaware river, viii, 9
Denton, Rev. Samuel 30
Des Moines river,
Dickinson, "General" Wil
Doane college, xiii
"Door County Advocate" 58
Downer college, xiii
Durrie, Daniel Steele xiii
Dutch traders, 2
Dutch settlers, 5, 10
D wight, President Timothy
(the elder) of Yale, 1, 18
Education, Wisconsin Jour
nal of 57
Edwards, Jerusha 9
Edwards, Jonathan (the el
der) xii, 2, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15,23, 54
Edwards, Jonathan (the
younger) xii, 1
Edwards, Timothy 15
Ellis, A. G. 22, 55
Ely, Edward F. 31
English (and colonists) 12
Episcopal mission, 26, 29
Field, Cyrus VV.
Field, David Dudley, D. D.
Field, Justice Stephen J.
Fisher, Rev. Thomas Knox
Fond du Lac,
22, 24, 27, 44
Freedom of the Human Will,
treatise on 14
Frederick, Prince of Wales 7, 53
French and Indian war, 12, 58
French, the 2, 35
Fugitive slaves, 45. 58
Fur company, American 36, 38
Gavin. Rev. Daniel 29, 30
George II., 58
George III., 7, 17
Goodell, Mr. 58
Grand Cakalin, 31
Grand Crossing, 25
Grand Kaukaulin, 22, 23
Grand Kakalin, 22
Grande Kawkawlin, 27
Great Barrington, 2, 3, 10, 12
Great Britain, 17, 58
Green Bay, 2, 22, 23, 25, 27, 29,
Green Bay church, 39
Greene. Secretary David 31
Gregorian calendar, 58
Hall, Chauncey 31, 34, 39
Harding, Rev. John W. 6
Harrison, General W. H. 20
Harvard college, 7
Haug, Thomas H. 45
Hawley, Rev. Gideon 13, 53
Hendrick, (Aupaumut) 20
Hendrick, Solomon U. 19, 20
Hendrick, Thomas T. 30
Hesse Darmstadt 28
Hoard, William Dempster 17
Hollis, Rev. Isaac 7, 8, 10, 13
Hollis, Thomas 7
Hopkins, Rev. Samuel
Hopkins, Rev. Samuel (the
Housatonic, 7, 53
Housatonic riyer, 1
Hudson Bay, 10
Hudson river, 2
Hughes, J. V. xi, 45
Indians, New York act for
bidding sale of liquor to 18
Indians (Boston) society for
propagating the Gospel
2, 10, 39, 54
Jacobs, Jean Baptiste 27, 58
Jefferson, President 19, 20
Jersey campaigns, 15
Jesuits, French 44
Johnson, Thomas S. 57
Johnson, Sir William
Jones, J. P.
Jones, Miss Electa
Jourdan, Timothy T.
Kaukauna, 25, 26
Kaunaumeek, 8, 9, 11
Kellogg, Captain Martin 10
Kent, Chancellor James 24
Ke-o : kuck (Ke-o-kuk) 36
2, 17 21
King Ben, vii
Konkapot, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Konkapot , Catherine 5
Konkapot, Mary 5
Konkaput, Aaron 48
La Pointe, xii
Ladwig, Nicolaus 6
Lake Harriet, 29
Lake Superior Congregation
al Club, xii
Land company (Ogden), 39
Leavitt, Orpha E. xiii
Livingstone manor, 10
London, 7, 27, 28
Longmeadow, 2, 6, 11
Louis II., 28
Mackinaw, 30, 31, 34
Madison convention, 55
Madison county, 16, 20
Madeline Island, xii
Mahal we, 4
Marsh, Miss S. E. 27, 54, 55
Marsh, Mrs. 41
Marsh, Rev. Cutting xi, xiv, 17,
20, 27, 31. 32, 33, 35, 38, 40, 42,
Massachusetts, 1, 2, 6, 9, 10, 12,
15, 17, 18, 44
Menomonee reservation, 48, 49
Menomonees, xi, 22, 35
Methodist church, 44, 55
Methodist services, 40
Metoxen, John 19, 20, 21, 22, 23,
25, 30, 33, 35, 36, 37, 39, 44, 54
Michigan, 31, 56
Michigan, Lake 22
Miller, Andrew 30
Miller, Josiah W. 30
Miller, Samuel A. 30, 42
Miller, W. G. 40
Milwaukee Lake Shore and
Western railway, 26
"Milwaukee Sentinel," xii
Miner, E. S. 56
Miner, Rev. Jesse
24, 25, 26, 27, 55, 56
Minnesota, 30, 31, 56
21, 24, 32, 39, 40
Missionary Society, United
Missionary Society, Ameri
can Home xi, 24, 34
Missionary Society, Congre
gational Home 24
"Missions on Cnequamegon
Mississippi, 31, 33, 35, 38, 39
Mississippi, Upper 29
Missouri, 29, 39
Mohawks, 3, 13, 53, 57
Moheakunnuk, 19, 24
Mohegans, viii, ix, 16
Mohegan or Mohican, 2
Mohigans or Mohicans, 6
More s charity school,
Morse, Jedidiah, D. D.
18, 20, 22, 44
Muh-he-con-nuk, 1,2,9, 16,48,49
Muh- he-k a- ne-ew,
vii, xii, 1, 25, 56
Muh-he-ka-ne-ok, x, 1,2, 11, 14,
17, 22, 41, 44, 45
(Different forms of the
above name) 1
Mimsee, 19, 49, 55
Munsees, viii, 22, 24, 39, 49
Nanticokes (Nahanticks) 16
Narragansetts, viii, 16
Nau-nau-neek-nuk, David vii
Nebraska, xiii, 29
"Negro Slavery in Wisconsin" xii
Newbury, Oliver 31
New England, 7, 9, 12, 29, 57
New Haven, 4, 22
New Holstein, 57
New Jersey, 4, 9, 14
New Stockbridge, 16, 17, 18
New Stockbridgo church, 24
New York, 2, 6, 8, 10, 13, 15, 16,
17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 26, 39, 44,
49, 54, 55, 57
New York city, 24
"New York Indians," 22
Ninham, Daniel (or Abra
Norcross, Rev. L. P. 39, 41, 43
Northampton, 9, 12, 14
Northern Missionary Society, 22
Norwegian mother, x
Occum Rev. Samson 17
Ogden Land company. 39
Ohio, presbytery of 21
Old South meeting-house, 54
Oliver Newbury (boat) 31
Ojibway mission, 21
Oneidas, 13, 16, 26, 53, 57
Oueida county, 16
Onohoghwage, 53, 54
"Our Church Work," xii
Perry, Professor Arthur La
tham 13, 58
Peters, Ziba T. 48
Phelps, William . 37
Pine Bend, 36
Pooh-poo-ntic (Poo-poo-nah) 3, 5
Porter, Rev. Jeremiah, I). D.
Prairie du Chien,
26, 27, 29, 30, 35, 36
Preacher, The 14
Presbyterian church, 44, 55
Presbyterian mission, 57
Protestant sermon, first in
Protestant church-building ;
first in Wisconsin, 25
Princeton, 14, 54
Puritan church, 26
Queen Anne, 59
Quinney, Austin E. 19, 30, 55
Quinney, Miss Electa W.
27, 56, 57
Quinney, John W.
vii, ix, 24, 30, 39, 44
Red River, x, 44
Red Wing, 30
Revolution, American 15, 16, 19
Revolutionary war, 13
River Indians, xi, 1, 2
Rock Island, 36
Rome, church of xii
Royce, Miss Nancy 19
Russell, Caroline 56
Sac village, 35
Sacs, 31, 36, 37
Sandy Lake, 31
Schoolmistress, first in Wis
Scott s commentary, 21
Scott, Cosen 55
Scharfs History, J. Thomas 6
Scotland, honorable society 2, 17
Senecas, 44, 57
Sergeant, John (elder) viii, xii, 3,
Sergeant, John (younger) 15, 17.
18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24
Severin, H. 57
Shantytown, 26, 56
Shawano, x, xi, xii
Shawano county, 43
Shirley, Governor William,
of Massachusetts 12
Signers of constitution, 52
Sincoe, Lieut.-Col. 15
Six Nations, 10, 17, 39
Slaves, fugitive 45, 58
Sliugerland, Rev. Jeremiah
28, 40, 41, 42, 44, 55, 56
Slingerland, Mrs. Sarah J.
28, 55, 56
Smith, John Y. 25, 26
Society in Scotland, for the
propagation of Christian
South Kaukauna, 20, 22, 24
"Stabber," The 36, 37
20, 24, 26. 29, 30, 31. 56
St. Chrishona, 29
St. Jacobs, J. B. 58
Straum, Louis 29
Stevens, Rev. Jedidiah Dvvight
27, 28, 29, 30, 31
Stevens, Miss Lucy C. 30
Stockbridges, vii, xi, 2, 15, 17,
19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 32,
37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 45, 48, 49
Stockbridge, church of vii, 17
Stockbridge Indian church,
1, 12. 39, 54
Stockbridge, England, 6
viii, ix, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,
12, 13, 14, 16, 43, 53, 54
x, xi, 23, 34, 35, 40, 42, 44, 55, 57
Storm, Miss Helen C. 23
Susquehannah, 9, 54
Stowe, Mrs. Harriet Beecher 1
Tanner, Dr. H. B. 24
Tau-taii-yah-com-iiK> wah, xiii
Thackeray, William Make
Thanksgiving, institution of 19
Thor s hammer, 14
Thwaites, R. G. xiii, 56
Trempealeau county, 30
Trinity college, 27
Turkey, Dennis xiii
Tuscaroras, 13, 53
Two Rivers, xiv
Umpachene, 2, 4, 5
Union army, 44
Union college. 1
United States, xiii. 15, 26, 49, 57
United States government,
22, 30, 35
United States, Congress of vii
Wah ntih-wah-iiKH t. 25
Washington (city), vii
Washington, General 15, 16
Washington, I tvsidcnt IT. 18,20
Watts, Dr. Isaac 7
V\ aun-nau-con, vii, ix
Wauvvaumpequunnant, John S
Wesley, John 12
West, Rev. Dr. Stephen 14, 15
Westchester county. 6
Whitefield, Rev. Geo. 12
Whitney, Mrs. M. A. 25
Whittier, John Greenleaf 14
White Plains, 15
White River, 19, 20 ; 21, 22
Wilder, Rev. S. P. xiv
Wiffiams, A. W. 44
W T illiams college, 7, 13
Williams, Col. Ephraim,
Williams, Eleazar 2, 29
Williams, Stephen D. D.
2, 3, 4, 5
Williamson, Thomas S. 36, 37
Winnebago convention, 55
do Fort 34
xi, 22, 40, 43, 44, 57
Winnebago, presbytery of 55
Winnebago Reservation, 42
Winnebagoes, 22, 35
Wisconsin, vii, xi, xii, xiii, 1, 17,
19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 29, 34. 36, 39, 43,
48, 49, 55, 57, 58
do State Historical
Collections, Vol. II. 22
do do Vol. IV. 16
do do Vol. VII. (p. 453) 26
do do Vol. XII. xii
do State Historical
Society, xii, 15
do presbytery of vii
Wood, James 6
4, 10, 12, 13, 54
Wolf River, x, 44, 48, 49
3, 4 I York money,
Zinzendorf, Count von
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