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Full text of "Municipal engineering, Volume 26"

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Municipal engineering 



Sci 1520.537 



LIBRARY 



LAWRENCE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL, 
Engineering Department. 



OCT 



^0 1904 



SCIENCE CENTER LIBRARY 
HARVARD COLLEGE 



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^^WlCIPAL ENGINEERI^ 



INDEX 



January— June, 1904. 



VOLUME XXVI 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING COMPANY 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 



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J^ci 1520.537 



^ 



INDEX 



Municipal Engineering. 



VOLUME XXVI. JANUARY— JUNE, 1904. 



Acceptance of Work by City— L 418 

Acetylene Gas Refuse In Sewer— Q 24S 

Administration as a Business, City 356 

Advertising, The Value of— M 213 

American Park and Improvement So- 
ciety 440 

Apportionment— L , 418 

Asbury Park, Greater— 1 193 

Ashes and Refuse and the Cost, How 
Many Cities Remove— 1 181 

Asphalt and Automobiles— E 314 

Asphalt Company of America Assessed 
124.000,000, Stockholders of— 1 44 

Asphalt Company's Annual Report, 
The General 429 

Asphalt, Cost of Municipal Laying 
of-B 16 

Asphalt Deposits, American Capital 
After Italian— 1 45 

Asphalt, Detroit's Bids for Furnish- 
ing-1 193 

Asphalt for Street Pavements. Arti- 
ficial— M 373 

Asphalt, Kentucky Rock, for Floors 
and Pavements-*-M 65 

Asphalt Lake Suit Decided, Venezue- 
lan— L 175 

Asphalt Pavement, Cost of— Q 102 

Asphalt Pavement Maintenance— F. O. 
Blake, Cincinnati, Ohio 155 

Asphalt Pavements in Various Cities. 
Cost of Brick and— 1 263 

Asphalt Pavements, Specifications 
for— I 360 

Asphalt Paving Estimates at Detroit, 
Mich.. Criticisms of— W. F. Ray- 
mond, Indianapolis, Ind 100 

Asphalt Paving, Modern Methods in— 
F. O. Blake, Cincinnati, Ohio 303 

Asphalts and Cements, Rights and 
Duties of the Washington Inspector 
of-E 314 

Asphalt for Repair Work, Method of 
Preparing 428 

Asphalt Specifications in New York 
City, Changes in 430 

Asphalt Streets, Municipal Repair 
of-Q 408 

Assess— Court's Power to— L 176 

Assessment Affirmed, Logansport 
Street— L 37 

Assessment, City Sewer, Debt Lim- 
it-L 174 

Assessment — Confirmation— Collateral 
Attack— L 248 

Assessment Defense, Time for— L 36 

Assessment. Equal Rate of— Reassess- 
ing Benefits— L 174 



Assessment. Fraud Defined— L 105 

Assessment, Front- foot Rule— L .... 105 
Assessment Law Upheld, Indiana 

Form of Front Foot— L 37 

Assessment of Coal Right Under 
Street for Its Pavement is Re- 
fused—I 360 

Assessment of Part Owner as sole 

Owner— L 248 

Assessments— L 418, 417 

Assessment, Improvements, Setting 

Aside— L 419 

Assessment— Part Payment Estopped, 

Objection Later— L 326 

Asses.sment Roll— Sufficiency- L 826 

Assessment, School Property— L 249 

Assessment, Special— Notice of Hear- 

Ing— L 326 

Assessment Warrant Must Be PaiJ 

-L 36 

Assessments— L 35,106 

Assessments — Avoidance Because 

Debt Limit is Exceeded— L 248 

Assessments — Benefits — Front-Foot 

Rulo— L 105 

Assessments— Description of Work— L. 105 
Assessments for Sidewalks and Inter- 
sections— L 106 

Assessments — Hearing — Front-Foot 

Rule— L 105 

Assessments of Railroad Rlght-of- 

Way— L... 35, 106 

Assessments, Original Construction— L 103 
Assessments, Sidewalks, Grades and, 

Publication of Correction- L 174 

Assessments, Special, Equalization— L. 249 

Assessments, Validity— L 249 

Attorney Liable for Opinion Corruptly 
Auto Traveling, How Fast Was That? 

— M 282 

Automobile. Development of the— M.. 205 

Automobiles. Asphalt and— E 314 

Avenue of Art and History, The Ger- 
man; The Sieges- AUee— Frederick 
Stymetz Lamb, President of the 
Architectural League of America, 
New York City 79 

Bitullthlc Contracts, Upheld by Su- 
preme Court, St. Louis— M 205 

ment of— L 176 

Bitullthlc Patents, Suit for Infring- 

Influenced. City— L 331 

Bitullthlc Pavement the— W. A. Hoyt. 117 
Bitullthlc Pavement at Cohoes, N 
Y.. the-M 205 



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INDEX. 



m 



Bitulithic Pavement for Country 
Roads— 1 45 

Bitulithic Pavement for Shreveport. 

La.—M 373 

Bitulithic Pavement in New York 

aty— 1 45 

Bituminous Macadam Contracts in St. 

Louis Upheld by Supreme Court— I.. 265 
Book, A Perpetual Memorandum— M.. 134 
Brick and Asphalt Pavements in Va- 
rious Cities. Cost of-1 263 

Brick of Cement and Sand— Q 414 

Brick, Cement Paving— I 275 

Brick. Makers of Sand and Cement— 

Q ;. 241 

Brick of the Future, The F. H. 

Doreraus, Kingston, N. Y 84 

Brick Pavement. Concrete Foundation 
and Cement Filler for. O. L. Gear- 
hart. City Engineer. Champaign, 111. 183 
Brick Pavement, Foundation for— Q.. 102 
Brick Pavement. Shell Road as Foun- 
dation for— Q 172 

Brick Pavements, Book on— Q 172 

Brick Paving, Inspection of— Q 244 

Brick Paving in New England— Q 407 

Brick Roads in Rural Districts— Q.... 173 

Bridges, Book on Concrete— Q 166 

Bridges Obstruct Navigation. lUinoU 

River-1 47 

Bridge of the Illinois Central Railroad 
Over the Big Muddy River, the Con- 
crete , J&2 

Bridge Members, Formula for Size 

of-Q 411 

Building Construction. Incompetence 

in-E 239 

Buildings, Fire-Proof— E 166 

Caliper, a Pocket Rope— M 270 

Canal. End of Illinois and Michigan - 

I. ..: 177 

Cement and Lime Mortar. Tests of— I. J29 
Cement Block Construction in Pltts- 

burg— 1 353 

Cement Block Machine. A Portable— 

M *^ 

Cement Block Machine. The Stewart 

-M 2-39 

Cement Block Manufacturers, of In- 
terest to— Q 222 

Cement Block. A Sand Bed for Cur- 

ing^M 134 

Cement Block Wall. Cracks In-Q .... 243 
Cement Blocks and Posts, Machinery 

for-M 200 

Cement Blocks Made Under Pres- 
sure— M 372 

Cement Blocks. White— Q 413 

Cement Brick. Makers of Sand and— Q 241 

Cement Brick for Chimney— Q 413 

Cement Building Block, A Pioneer— M 211 
Cement Chemists and Engineers— Q.. 19 

Cement Company, The Alma— Q 318 

Cement Company, The Edison Porr- 
land— Q 323 



Cement Filler for Brick Pavement, 
Concrete Foundation and. O. L. 
Qearhart, City Engineer, Cham- 
paign, 111 183 

Cement Floor Tiling— Q 823 

Cement for Sidewalk Purposes, Price 

of— Q 248 

Cement, Grinding Mills for— Q 320 

Cement Industries, The Directory of 

American— 1 56, 279 

Cement Lining for Reservoirs— Q 413 

Cement, Magazines Devoted to— Q 167 

Cement Manufacture, Portland- E. O. 
Eckel, U. S. Geological Survey, 

Washington, D. C 227 

Cement Manufacturers, The Associa- 
tion of Portland— 1 59 

Cement Manufacturers* Building at 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 

Portland 129 

Cement Manufacturers, Exhibit of the 

Portland— I 274 

Cement Manufacturers, List of— Q ..14,22 
Cement Mortar and Concrete, Strength 

of— Q 416 

Cement Paving Brick- I 275 

Cement Pipe, Machine for Making— Q.. 317 
Cement Pipe, The Manufacture of 

M 372 

Cement i'ipe. Molds for Making— Q... 21 
Cement Pipes, A Press for Making— M. 65 
Cement Pipe for Water Works— Q .. 412 

Cement Pipe Machinery— Q 416 

Cement Plant, Cost of Building and 
Operating a Portland, Bollleau and 

Lyon 391 

Cement Plant, The Proposed Govern- 

ment— E 239 

Cement Post, An Everlasting— M 213 

Cement Posts, Effect of Frost on-Q.. 241 

Cement Posts, Pratt's 449 

Cement, Price of 426 

Cement, Quality of— Q 22 

Cement Required for Wet Concrete— 

Q 20 

Cement Roofing Tile and Building 

Blocks— M 870 

Cement with the Rotary Kiln, Early 

Manufacture of Portland— Q 412 

Cement and Sand Bricks, Strength of 426 
Cement Sewer Pipe, A Practical Mold 

for Making 446 

Cement Sidewalks, About— Q 19 

Cement Sidewalks, Cause of Checking 

and Eflflorescence on— Q , 19 

Cement, Sieves for Testing— Q 320 

Cement, Silexold Portland— Q 21 

Cement Situation. The 149 

Cement. Specifications for— 1 350 

Cement Statistics— I 128 

Cement Statistics— Q 416, 417 

Cement Trade, The Outlook for the— 

E 88 

Cement Trade. The Transportation 
Question In the— E 17 



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INDEX. 



Cement Walks, How to Make LUht- 

Colored— Q 20 

Cement, What Brand of. Was It?— Q.. 321 
Cement for Wheelways of Country 

Road8-Q 415 

Cement. White Portland— Q 322 

Cement Workers, Makers of Tools 

for— Q 318 

Cements, Rlgrhts and Duties of the 
* Washington Inspector of Asphalts 

and-E 314 

Chains and Chain Transmission— I. 

Charles H. HillA. Indianapolis 864 

Charges for Professional Services— E.. 92 
Charter of Frederick, Mfi., ProvlslonB 

of New— 1 867 

Chicago Public Work in— C. B. Maug- 
ham 439 

Cities, Condition of Municipal Public 

Works in Large— Q 108 

City Beautiful, A— 1 128 

City— Powers— Water Works— L 106 

Civic Week at the St. Louis Exposi- 
tion-! 277 

Civil Service Examinations— 1 277 

Civil Service Examinations. New 

York— Q 172 

Civil Service Examinations— U S 443 

Civil Service Examinations. U. S.— 1..195 
Concrete, Articles on Reinforced— Q... 167 

Concrete Base for Fence— Q 242 

Concrete. Best Proportions of Ma- 
terials in— I •.... 351 

Concrete Block Manufacture 389 

Concrete Blocks. Strength of 426 

Concrete Block Architecture— E 313 

Concrete Block Houses— Q 22 

Concrete Block Houses, Plans for— Q.. 323 
Concrete Blocks. Another System of 

Hollow— M 281 

Concrete Blocks, Cost of— Q 317 

Concrete Block. Cracks in— Q 319 

Concrete Block for Manholes— 1 354 

Cor'^-ete Blocks in Waterloo. la.. 

Paimer Hollow 371 

Concrete Blocks. Patents on 

Hollow— Q 20 

Concrete Building Block, The Best— Q 416 
Concrete. S. B. Newberry. San- 
Dusky, Olifo 187 

Concrete for Lining Mine Shafts Aii 

Concrete. Sea Water for Mixing- Q — 413 
Concrete Standplpe. The Mllford .... 428 
Concrete Blocks, Plastering on 

Hollow— Q 19 

Concrete Blocks. Weathering of— Q... 247 

Concrete Brf^'ges. Book on— Q 168 

Concrete Bridge of the Illinois Central 
Railroad Over the Big Muddy River, 

The 162 

Concrete Building Blocks. Information 
About— Q 242 



Concrete Floor for Engine House— Q.. 21 
Concrete Foundation and Cement Fill- 
ers for Brick Pavement. O. L. Gear- 
hart. City Engineer, Champaigrn, HL 188 

Concrete, Impervious— 1 852 

Concrete In the Baltimore Fire— 1 192 

Concrete in Baltimore Fire— E 405 

Concrete Masonry, With SpecialRefer- 
erence to the Use of Natural Bank 
Gravel. George S. Plerson. Kala- 
mazoo. Mich 186 

Concrete Mixer, A Prismatic Drum— 

M 209 

Concrete Mixer. The Stanley— M £81 

Concrete Piers, Specifications for— Q.. 242 

Concrete Sewer, Cost of— Q 169 

Concrete, Special Chemical Treatment 

of— Q r 325 

Concrete Standplpe at Mllford, O., The 162 
Concrete Steel Construction of the In- 
gals Building, Cincinnati, The, H. C. 

Bru baker. Indianapolis. Ind 272 

Concrete Steel Construction. Regula- 
tions of New York City for— 1 272 

Concrete-Steel Standpipe— 1 48 

Concrete Walk With Natural Cement 
in Base and Portland Cement in 

Top— Q 168, 248 

Concrete Walk With Two Kinds of 

Cement— Q 321 

Concrete Wall for Well— Q 817 

Concrete. Wash or Paint foi^-Q 167 

Concrete W«rk, Books on— Q 24C 

Concrete Work in Cuba and Yuca- 
tan. C. E. McDowell, Newark, N. 

J 228 

Conduit. A Bitumlnl'ed Flbe'— M .. 371 

Conduit. A Vitrified Electric— M 371 

Conduits for Electric Wires 811 

Conduits for Underground Wires— Q . . 412 

Construction News. Chicago— 1 47 

Contract. A Suit for Forfeit for De- .. 

lay in Completing— L 109 

Contract. Duluth Property Owners Not 

Relieved from Invalid— L 421 

Contract Without Valid Petition is 

Vold-L ^ 

Contracts. Louisville Council Need Not 

Approve— L 421 

Contractor for Delays. Pittsburg Not 

Liable to— I ^22 

Contractors, Names of— Q 408, 409 

Cremation. T|ie fanitarv ulsposj^l of 
Municipal and Institutional Waste 

by .... 28 

Culverti. Plans for Concrete— Q 20 

Curb at St. Louis Exposition, Bedell's 449 

Dam and Obstruction to Navigation- L 420 
Damage Suits Against Chicago. Mil- 
lions in— I IW 

rioKf TJT«1t rhloQcrn'a—T. 177 



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INDEX. 



Electrtc Oub, The-1 276 

Electric Cpmpapi^s Contested, Merger 

of Denver— L 329 

Electric Light Schedules of Cities— Q.. 104 
:^lectric Light, Prices Charged for Gas 

and— Q 460 

Electric Power for New York Central 

' Railroad— I ; 194 

Electric Shoclc from a Fire Stream— I. 128 
Electric Shocks from Fire Streams— I. 54 
^Electric Wires, Construction and 

Maintenance of— 1 125 

Electrical Conduit System, in Erif. 

Pa.. Municipal-I 54 

"Electrical Survey of Rochester, N. Y., 

Method of Making 396 

Electrolysis ir. "Jchmond, Va.— 1 127 

Electrolysis Not a Necessity. A. Ross 

G^*y, Bradford, Pa 2S2 

:Electrolysis of •• Pipes, Some Ex- 
amples of— 1 133 

2:ngine, AUis-Chalmers Companj * 
New Standard Reynolds-Corliss— M. . 64 

Engineer, Books for a City— Q 171 

Engineer Earns His Salary, Fargo* s 

City— I > 62 

Engineer, What Is a Civil?— B 164 

Engineering Building, The— 1 276 

Engineering Congress, The Interna- 
tional— I 276 

Engineering Costs, Guesswork Esti- 
mates in— 1 860 

Engineering, Illinois University Col- 
lege of— 1 196 

^pglneering Schools, Professors for— I 62 
Engineering Society, Indiana— I.. 62,131 

EngineeriaflT Society, Ohio— I 130 

Snglneersw American Society of Civil 

-L 18^ 

Engineera'. Club,. .The Scranion— I 62 

Filters. Sand, for Water Supplies— Q.. Slit 

SUtan. Versus Contact Beds in Sewaire 
PuriflcaUon— W. S. Shields, O. E, 
Chicago. Ill m 

Fire Loss, Liability of Water Com * 
pany for— Q 316 

Fire -Loss, Water Company Not Lia- 
ble- for— L 250 

"Front'Foot Rule, Alabama Supreme 

Court on— L 421 

F*ullers* Earth— Q 410 

-Garbage Collection and Destruction, 

Books on— Q .. « 

Garbage Collection and Disposal, City 

Practices in— I 18!' 

Garbage Contract Ordinance Invalid, 

Cincinnati's £bcclusive^I LS2 

Garbage Crematories, Makers of— Q.. 98 
Garbage Disposal, Best Methods of— Q 179 

Garbage Disposal, Methods of— E 23S 

Gas; Chicago Cannot Have 76*cent— L. 176 
Gas Company, Duties of tne Bay 

State— L 1«» 

Gas Company's Reorganization Trou- 
bles, Bay State— L 176 

Cas-in Chicago. Final Decision on 

76-cent— L 321 

Gas and Electric Light, Prices 

Charged for— Q 410 

Gas Explosion in a Newark Conduit.. 432 
Gas Lighting . Over Electricity, Ad- 
vantages of. Modern 432 



Gas- Machines; Makers of Acetylene— 
Q 241 

Gas Mains, Suit to Prevent Laying 
of— Q.*-..,, > 106 

Gas Works, Muncipal Ownership of— 
Q.s 828 

Grade Crossings on Dequlndre-st., De- 
troit— I 192 

Grade- Crossings. P- 
a Million Dollars to Abolish— I 46 

Grade, Damage from Changing— L ... 175 

Grades end Assessments, Sidew:alk8— 
Publication of Corrections— L ' 174 

Grndlns: by Owner— Damages— Bstop- 
pel-L l<y' 

Granite Screenings for Mosaic Work 
-^ 415 

Gutters, Grass In— Q.. '. 26 

Heating from a Central Station, 

Steam^F. B. Hofft 1^5 

Highway Commission is at Work, Illi- 

nois-I ..... ...... ^ «) 

Highways, Widening not Opening— L. 46 

Hose Nozzle, A Manageable— M 446 

House Numbering Ordinance, En- 
forcement of— Q 171 

Houses, Plates for Numbertng— Q » 

Hydrant Rental fot Lack of Pressure, 

Deductions from— Q 2a 

Hydrant Rentals and Services, Fire 
Q 315 

Improvement. Definite Description of 
Character of-L 418. ^ 

Improvement — Invalid Supplemental 
Contract— L.. ^^ 

Improvement Resolution, Modification 
of-Publk? Hearing-L 173 

Iniprovements— AbutUng Owners— L.. 249 

Improvements— Contracts— Validity— L. 249 

Improvements Enjoined, Payment for 
Anderson, Ind.— L 1<» 

Improvements in Oshkosh, Wis.— L.., 46 

Improvements, Local— Front Foot 
Rule-Collateral Attack-L 174 

Improvements, Pennsylvania School 
Property Not Assessable for— 1 122 

Improvements, PetUton.for Local— L.. 86 

Improvements— Sufficiency of Notice- 
Meaning of Repairs— L......... 249 

Intersection of Two Streets Belong, 
To Which Street Does the-«:j......... 248 

Irrfgatioh, Books on— Q 24 

Lighting Contracts— L W 

Lighting Plant, ■ JOpIl'n; M6:;' May 

Build Its Own— L 86 

Lighting Plantff Is Constitutional in 

Connecticut, Municipal Ownership 

of-L ; 329 

Light Plant, Tullahoma, Tenn, Water 

and— Granberry Jackson— I 337 

Lime. Amount of. Required in Build- 

ing-Q ;. ^ 

Limestone In a Cord— Q 25 

Luminometer, The— Q 823 

Macadam Roads, Improvements of— Q MO 

Manholes, Concrete Blocks for- 1 364 

Materials, Ownership of Old, Di9plaoed 

by New Construction— Q 24 

Materials. Plans for Drying— M 186 

Merger Decision, The Northern Pa- 

clflo-L 250 



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VI 



INDEX. 



Meter and Its Record, City ResiDonsl- 
ble tor Defective— L :08 

Meters Recommended for Lestershlre 
—I ^ ^ 

Municipal Ene^eeringr, Bindinflr* for^Q 245 
Municipal Engineerlngr, Index to— Q.. 172 
Municipal Bnirineering, Index to— Q.. 247 
Municipal League, Conference of Le- 

iBlators with Iowa— I IM 

Municipal Officials, Names of Con- 
tractors and— Q 408 

Municipal Ownership In Chlcagro— I.... 855 
Municipal Ownership of Oas Works— Q 828 
Municipal Ownership of Ldghtlnff 
Plants Is Constitutional In Con- 
necticut— L 229 

Municipal Program, The— E ! ifis" 

Municipal Reports .... 59, 180, 196. 279, 488 
Municipal Societies, Convention of 
Michigan— I , 201 

National Municipal League, Conven- 

tlon of 440 

New Publications 197,'866!484 

Oil on Roads in D. C 428 

Ordinance for Contracted Improve- 
ment Is Unreasonable, Second— L .. 418 

Ordinance Invalid, Unreasonable— De- 
stroying Street Improvement— L 174 

Ordinance— Resolution— Certainty— L. . . 248 

Park Extension, Plans for Chicago— 
C. B. Maugham, Chicago, lU 307 

Park Fund Cannot Be Spent for Street 
Improyem«nt— L 413 

Park for Water Works StaUon, City 
Enjoined ftom Using— L 176 

Park, plans for City— Q 171 

Parks for Chicago, Small— 1 194 

Pavements, Artificial Asphalt for 
Street— M 373 

Pavements in New York, BUI to Per- 
mit Bids on Patented— 1 264 

Pavement. Street— Louis M. Pfelffer, 
Denver, Colo 258 

Pavement Guaranties— Q 407 

Pavement Proposed, Ordinance Must 
State Kind of— L 420 

Pavements, The Economic Designing 
of— I 49 

Paving Blocks, Slag— Q -244,321 

Paving Block, Slag— Q 821 

Paving for Driveway, Stone Block— Q. 824 
Paving, InJuncUon Granted, New 

York— 1 122 

Paving, Who Can Sign Remonstrances 

Against, and When— L 108 

Personal Notes 68, 188, 203; 278, 868, 448 

Pipe in Trench. Pressure of Earth on 

— Q 816 

Pipe, Machine for Making Cement— 

Q 217 



Property, Village Board Indicted for 
Destroying Public— L 177 

Pumps, Classlflcatloe of Bids for. Up- 
held by Court— L 260 

Railroad Crossing, Planking Between 

Tracks— L 06 

Reassessment— Allen Labor Clause— L. 107 

Recent Inventions 890 

Refuse and the Cost, How Many 

Cities Remove Ashes and— I m. 

Refuse Destruction in Burnley, Eng- 
land^I 268 

Rehearing. New Plan at Less Cost Not 

Subject to— L 419 

Reservoirs. Water-Tlght— Q 288 

Road Act Void, Saginaw County, 
Mich.— L .^ lOB 

Road at Weetfleld, N. J.. Oil on— I.... 264 
Road Building Proposed in Ohio, State 

Aid for— 1 264 

Road Improvement, State Aid of— E.. 90 
Road Law, Indiana Farmers Want 

Better— 1 49 

Road Law Is Constitutional, Indiana's 

Gravel— L 86 

Road Making in Buxton, England- 
John Hatton, Assistant Town Sur- 
veyor 1B7 

Road Materials Proposed in Indiana, 

Convict Labor on— 1 193 

Road, New Gravel, for Clinton County, 

Indiana— 1 121 

Road Roller Company, The Ameri- 
can— M §4 

Roads, Bltullthlc Pavement for Coun- 

ty-1 45 

Roads Convention, Good— 1 276 

Roads Convention at St. Louis, Good. 441 

Roads, How to Make Gktod- E 406 

Roads, New Jersey Public 86 

Roads, Success of California Oiled— I.. 193 

St Louis Landmcurk— A 446 

Scmd Lime Bricks. Strength of .... 426 

Seaman's Brick Machlnev The 446 

Septic Tank, Bacteria and the— 1 267 

Septic Tank for the Treatment of 
Sewage at the Soldiers' Home near 
Santa Monica, Cal., The. By James 
D/ Schuyler, Consulting Engineer, 

Los Angeles, Cal i 

Septic Tanks, ClUes Having— Q 409 

Sewage, Cities Pumping— Q 170 

Sewage Disposal at Bedford. Ind.. 
Sewerage and— G. C. Houston, City 

Engineer 109 

Sewage Disposal Plants, Location 
of— Q 824 



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INDEX. 



Tii 



Sewage. The Septic Tank for tiie 
Treatment of. at the Boldieni' Home 
Near Santa Monica, CoL, By James 
D. Schuyler, Conenltlnc Snffineer, 

Los Anselee, Cal 1 

Sewerage^ Books on— Q 409 

Beweraye and Sewage Disposal' at 
Bedford, l£d. O. C. Houston, City 

Snglneer 109 

Sewer, Acetylene Oas Refuse In— Q.... MS 
Sewer-Cleaning, A Vexatious Ques- 

Uon-M ,.... 264 

Sewer Commissioners, A Pn^^tosed 
New York State Board of Water 

and-I ISO 

Sewer Construction; Variation from 

Speciflcations— L 826 

Sewer, Cost of Concrete— Q ISI 

Sewer, laghtest Gradient for Pipe-Q.. 216 

Sewer, Machine for making— Q 418 

Sewers, Preventing Tree Roots from 

Entering 484 

Sewers, Roots of Trees in— Q 86 

Sidewalk Construction- L 86 

Sidewalk Grades— L 86 

Sidewalk Purposes, Price of Cement 

for— Q 243 

Sidewalks, About Cement— Q 19 

Sidewalks— Advertisement — Right of 

Lien-L 248 

Sidewalks, Assessments for, at Street 

Intersections— Q 25 

Sidewalks, Cause of Checking and Ef- 
florescence on Cement— Q 820 

Sidewalks. Grades and Assessments- 
Publication of Corrections— L W4 

Sidewalks, Streets and Contracts— L. . S27 

Sieges-Allee, The German Avenue ot 

Art and History. Frederick Stymets- 

Lamb, President of the Agricultural 

League of America. New York City.. 79 

Sparks from Locomotives, Prevention 

of Sparks fronn-Q 400 

Specifications for Cast Iron Pipe— Q.. 317 
Sprinkling Tax, Louisville Must Levy 

-L 420 

Steel Beams, Where to Purchase— Q.. 20 

Steel Concrete Beams, Tests of 427 

Steel Tape, Expansion and Sag of— Q. 170 

Stone, An EngUsh Artificial 426 

Stone. Art-M ^^ 

Stone Block Paving for Driveway— Q.. 324 

Stone Drinking Fountains— Q 817 

Stone Making, Artificial— M 208 

Stone Making by the Lake Process— M 207 

Stone, Stevens Cast— M 211. 

Stream Pollution b" Wood Pulp Mills, 

Investigation of— 1 129 

Stream Pollution Prohibited in Min- 
nesota—I ISO 

Street. Assesssment for Improving One 

Side of— L 418 

Street Assessment, Liability of Rear 

Lots for-L 418 

Street Construction, A New Reason 

For Withholding Payment for— I .. 47 
Street Grades. Form of Ordinance Es- 
tablishing 480 

Street Imnrovprnent Asssessment by 



Street Improvement Law, The Indiana 
— C. A. Kenyon, Indianapolis, Ind.... 286 

Street Improvement— Assessment, Ten- 
Year Plan— L 827 

Street Improvements, Designation of 
Materials— Details— L K7 

Street Improvements— Remonstrance— *-' 
Effect of Withdrawing Same— L 249 

Street, LiabiUty of Lots not AbutUng 
on — L 176 

Street Oiling SpeciflcaUons at Bakers- 
field, Cal-1 68 

Street Paving Assessment Validity— L 419 

Street Paving, Defects in Procedure 
— L ' 827 

Street Railway Track, Best Rail for 
-^ 100 

Street Sprinklers, A Large Shipment 

of-M 284 

Streets and Sidewalks— Contracts— L. . 327 

Streets, Opening— L 826 

Streets of Somerville, Mass., The 14 

Streets — Remonstrances — Front Foot 

Rule-L ^ 

Streets, Revocation of Permission to 

Use-L l** 

Streets, Lighting, Etc, Powers— L.... 107 
Streets, Removal of Snow from— Q.... 178 
Streets Under Control of Legislature 

-L ^ 

Streets, Vacation of— L 176 

Street Water and Refuse, A New Sys- 
tem of Removal of— M 872 

Street Work in Kansas City-I « 

Syphons. Books on Inverted— Q 98 

Tanks. Makers of Small— Q 216 

Tax Bills, Special— Limitations of— L.. 107 
Tax for Bridge Not on Highway, No 

Power to Levy— L 419 

Technical Meetings.. 62, 128, 202. 277, 367, 442 

Telemeter, A.— Q 824 

Testing Laboratory of the City of In- 
dianapolis, The Municipal, Walter 
Buehler, AasistsAt CUy Engineer.... 849 
Track Elevation In Chicago, Progress 

of-I « 

Track ElevaUon. Joliet— I 49 

Trade Journals, Paper— Q 409 

Trade Notes 67, 135, 213, 286. 374, 461 

Trade Publications 

66. 135, 213, 285, 873, 450 

Trade Publications in Stone, Lumber 

and Building Materials-Q «8 

Trench Excavator, The Chicago— Q.... 98 
Trenches. Refilling, Ernest McCul- 
lough. Engineer Municipal Engineer- 
ing and Contracting Co.. Chicago, 

111 304 

Trenching Machine, A— Q ITO 

Tunnel. Progress on the New York 
Rapid Transit— I ^63 

University Education for Business 
Life-E *>* 

Vehicles at the Exposition 447 

-Wantt* bv Cremation. The Sanitary 



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INDEX. 



Water and Sewer Commissioners. A 
Proposed New York State Board of 

-I 180 

Water at Cincinnati, The Clarlflcation 

of Ohio River— 1 41 

Water by Compressed Air, The Rais- 
ing of— I 345 

Water Company's Difficulties, East 

Chicago— L. 107 

Water Company Subject to MechatJcs' 

Lien— L il9 

Water Department, Finances of New 

York— I 43 

Water Filtration Contracts, The Wil- 
mington, Del.— I Z3 

Water Filtration Plants, Some De- 
tails of the Philadelphia 82 

Water in Toledo, O., Consumption of 

-I 127 

Water Main, Joint for Submerged— Q.. 315 

Water Mains, Laying Large— Q 244 

Water Meters. Testmg— Q 171 

Waterphone, The— Q 410 

Water Pipe and Specials, Makers of 

and Dealers in Cast Iron— 24 

Water Pipes, Electrically Thawing 

Out Frozen— I 335 

Water Plant, Gardner. Mass.. Must 

Pay for— L 249 

Water Plam, Sioux Falls May Com- 
plete Its— L 88 

Water Purification at Quincy, 111.— I.. ZSo 
Watfer Rates, Cicero, Must be Same as 

Chicago's— L 176 

Water R&tes Must Be Adopted, Reas- 
onable— L 250 

Water Rentals— Taxing Powe!>-L 249 

Water Supply— L » 249 

Water Supply, Extension of New 

York's— I 40 

Water Supply In Fort Wayne, Dam- 
ages Sought for Contaminated— L. . 177 

Water Supply, Cambridge, Maiss 432 

Water Supply— Monopoly-<?ity Liable 

for Water When Furnished— L 327 

Water Supply, Ukiah City Cannot Col- 

. • lect Damages for Defective— L 177 

Wafer Supply, Water Company Must 
Pajr Fire Loss Caused by Cutting 
Off- L 107 



Water Supplies, Sand Filters For- Q.. 318 

Water Supplies, The DutV of the State 
in Protection of— E 94 

Water Works Association, New Eng- 
land— I , 132 

Water Works, Ballot Is Illegal, Dual 
— L 419 

Water Works Bond Issue Valid, Cin- 
cinnati's Supplemental— L 106 

Water Works— City— Powers— L 106 

Water Works Consolidation, New Al- 
bany— L 329 

Water Works Construction Enjoined, 
Houston— L i 37 

Water Works Contract in Court, A 
Cincinnati— L 381 

Water Works— Damage to Land— L... 107 

Water Works— Debt Limit— Bonds— L. 327 

Water Works Declared Invalid, Bond 
Ordinance for Purchasing, Leaven- 
worth- L 328 

Water Works Purchase Cases Dis- 
missed by U. S. Court. Newbury- 
port and Gloucester— L 329 

Water Works Rentals, Collection of 
L 36 

Water Works Station, City Enjoined 
from Using Park for— L 176 

Watdr Worka Tunnel Decided, Suits 
for Extras on Chicago— L 87 

Wood Fibre Machine Makers— Q 243 

Work, Defective— Right of Taxpayer 
-L 106 

Work In Duluth, Minn., Public— 1 196 

Work In Nashville,' Tenn.. Public— I.. 19S 

IMPROVBMBNT AND CONTRACTING NBW8. 

Paving 70, 139, 217, 291, 379. 454 

Sewers 73. 142, 220, 295. 383. 459 

Water- Works 74, 144, 222, 298, 386. 461 

Bridges 76, 146, 224, 300. 387, 463 

Street Lighting .... 78, 147, 225, 301, 388, 464 

Public Parks ..' 78, 147, 302, 388 

Garbage Disposal. Street Cleaning and 

Sprinkling 78, 148, 226, 302, 388, 464 

Too Late for Classification .. 148, 302, 464 
Fire Apparatus 148, 226, 302 




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Municipal Engineering 



VOLUME XXVI 



JANUARY. NINETEEN HUNDRED FOUR 



NUMBER ONE 



THE SEPTIC TANK FOR THE TREATMENT OF SEWAGE AT THE 
SOLDIERS' HOME NEAR SANTA MONICA, CAL. 

By James D, Schuyler^ Consulting Engineer^ Los Angeles^ CaL 



In the summer of lfi99 the question of 
sewage disposal at the Soldiers' Home 
became a serious one because of com- 
plaints by neighboring farmers living to 
leeward, of the odors arising from the 
sewage irrigated fields. Threats of in- 
junction and suits for damage caused 
action to be taken by the Board of Man- 
agers of the Home, and the writer was 
employed to report upon the situation. 
Strong pressure was brought to bear on 
the management to induce them to con- 
nect their sewers with the sewerage 
system of Santa Monica, and dump theh 
sewage into the ocean, four miles dis- 
tant This would have cost $20,000 for the 
necessary pipes and |800 a year for use 
of the outfall. The sewage had always 
been used for irrigating the vegetable 
garden at the Home, and had added 
greatly to its fertility. The supply of 
other water for irrigation is scanty, and 
expensive to procure The sewage was 
needed, and its waste was manifestly im- 
proper and unwise. The writer recom- 
mended the construction of a septic tank 
for the liquefying of the solids of the 
sewage, and the continued use of the 
sewage for irrigation on the grounds ot 
the Home. Later he was employed to 
prepare plans for the tank, his recom- 
mendation having been approved, and a 
contract was let for its construction on 
Nov. 7. ISOO, at a total cost of $2,585.06. 

The work was completed Jan. 30, 1901, 
and the tank was put in service March 
18 following. The contractor carried 
out his obligations faithfully, but suf- 
fered a loss of nearly $500, chiefly due to 



The tank is 80 feet long, 20 feet wide, 
10 feet deep, with a center wall, dividing 
it lengthwise into two compartments. 
These walls and the floor are of concrete. 
It is sunken entirely below the surface 
in an orchard of walnut trees and is 
covered with a roof of asphalt and 
gravel. It has been built In entire con- 
formity with the plans, copy of which 
accompanies. 

When the tank was flrst put in opera- 
tion and daring the last days of March 
the odor arising from the raw sewage 
in the tank was very offensive. This 
graducdly decreased, and within a month 
or two became scarcely noticeable. Since 
then the operation of the tank has given 
entire satisfaction, and no complaints 
have been made. It has been cleaned out 
but once since it was put into service, 
and that was about a year after its use 
began. The writer was not present on 
this occasion, but the Chief Bnglneer 
of the Home stated that he found but 
a few inches of sandy or ashy sediment 
in the bottom. 

The Home authorities are so well 
pleased with the action of the tank that 
they have made a requisition for another 
one for the treatment of the sewage 
from the Hospital, whose discharge was 
at too low an elevation to enter the 
present tank. 

The only offensive odors which can now 
be detected arise from the ditches '^here 
the water is conveyed to the fields, and . 
this is confined to a distance of a few 
hundred feet below the discharge end ot 
the pipe. Sufficient attention is not al- 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



summer of 1901 by Samuel Storr'ow, C. E. 
of this city, the associate of the writer 
In the construction of the tank, by an 
automatic registering device, with the 
following result: 

From 6 p. m. to 6 a. m. ... 27,»7 gallons 
From 6. a. m. to 6. p. m. ... 66,743 gallons 

Total for 24 hours of 94,050 gallons 
This was an Increase of about 20,000 
gallons dally over the gaugings made by 
the writer In May 1899. The volume of 
sewage has further increased In the past 
two years, as the population of the Home 
is steadily Increasing, but no measure- 
ment has recently been made. It may 
now reach an average of 125,000 gallons 
daily, although this is merely an esti- 
mate. 

Mr. Storrow also measured the flow 
from the hospital sewer for 68 hours, 
from July 26th to 29th, 1901, and found 
it fluctuating through such a wide range 
as to require a provision for handling 
75,000 gallons dally, or an Increase of 50 
per cent over the maximum rate of dis- 
charge. Because of the desirability of 
destroying pathogenic germs existing In 
the hospital sewage, a special treatment 
has been recommended in addition to the 
septic tank for purifying the effluent by 
intermittent filtration. 

The accompanying photographs illus- 
trate the construction of the tank. 

The tank has been inspected by many 
visitors, and Its operation is universally 
conceded to be successful, and all that 
could be expected from a septic tank 
short of complete clarification and puri- 
fication. The effluent has a cloudy, mi'ky 
appearance, with flocculent black specks, 
carried in suspension. 

Following are extracts from the 
specifications under which the construc- 
tion of the septic tank was 'Jone. 

The general size of the tank, inside 
measurement, is that of two paifcllel 
tanks, each ten feet wide by eighty feet 
long; nine feet deep at one end and nine 
and one-half feet deep at the other Wlh 
a sand box at the deeper end. The ranks 
are built separated by a center wall In ft 
are built throughout as one piece of 



When there is ' cause t6 measure the 
brickwork It shall be counted by actual 
kiln count and not by measure. 

All brickwork must be laid up with 
good hard-burned or the best mercantile 
bricks, acceptable to the engineer, laid 
in mortar with shove Joints. 

All bricks shall be well wet before 
laying. Each brick shall be laid with a 
shove Joint in a full bed of cement, all 
the interstices being thoroughly filled. 
Every fourth course shall consist of a 
heading course 'of whole brick, extending 
through the entire thickness of the wall. 
All courses of brickwork shall be kept 
level and bonds shall be carefully pre- 
served. When necessary to bring any 
course to the required hight, clipped 
courses shall be formed, a^ in no case 
shall any Joints finish more than one- 
half inch thick. Al! brickwork shall be 
laid to the lines and all walls must be 
built firm, true, plumb, out of wind and 
square. Tops of walls must be carefully 
built up around the roof Joints. All 
grooves In the masonry shalJ be filled up 
snugly around the cross partitions, which 
are to be put In place as the work pro- 
gresses. 

All brick work shall be laid in a mortar 
composed of one part by measure of fresh 
cement and 2% parts by measure clean, 
sharp sand, properly screened, and mixed 
with suflflcient water to render the mix- 
ture of proper consistency. Care must 
be taken to thoroughly mix the sand and 
cement dry in the proper proportions be- 
fore adding the water. The mortar shall 
be mixed In small quantities only and In 
no case shall mortar that has commenced 
to set or stood over night be used. 

The masonry work shall be erected by 
first excavating the material to the full 
cube of the completed structure, and then 
building the walls of the tank to their 
full hight, establishing these walls on a 
firm and well-set footing, as shown In the 
sections and drawings. After the cement 
in the walls has become well set and 
hard, the fioor shall be laid with a grade 
of six inches from the sides to the center 
of each fioor. The man-hole in the center 
of the tank shall be built upward with 



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'— N 




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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



shall receive a coating of California 
silicate compound, to be composed of 
69 parts of clean sand, small enough to 
pass through a 20 mesh screen, and thirty 
parts of pure sulphur, and one-third part 
each of sal ammoniac, litharge and whit- 
ing, all to be melted and mixed together 
at a heat of not less than 550 degrees Far- 
enheit; then allowed to cool, and then 
against brought to the melting point 
under a steady heat and held there by a 
constant fire. This preparation shall be 
applied to the walls with a bru3h in not 
less than two coats, and a third coat 
when necessary to bring the total thick- 
ness of the coating to not less than three- 
eighths of an inch, care being 
taken in heating and applying the 
material so that there i^all be no blow- 
holes or bubbles in the finished work, 
and that the coatings shall be even and 
well brushed down. 

The contractor is to set all iron work 
shown in the drawings or specified in 
such a way that it shall be firmly cement- 
ed into masonry, and the frame of the 
sluice gates in the discbarge box shall 
be set in the masonry in such a way as 
to make a strong and water-tight con- 
nection. The 10-inch slotted discharge 
pipes shall be 10-inch cast-iron pipes one- 
half inch thick, with two holes, each one 
inch In diameter, bored in line and ten 
feet apart and with a slot mil'ed through 
the pipe connecting these holes but not 
passing out the end of the pipe; when 
set in place these pipes shall have their 
bell ends imbedded In the masonry. The 
two ten-inch blow-ofC valves and the two 
ten-inch entrance valves shall be leaded 
onto a piece of ten-Inch cast iron pipe, 
and this pipe shall be bedded in the mas- 
onry so as to make a strong and firm con- 
nection. 

The weir in the discharge box shall be 
made up out of one-eighth-inch Iron with 
a horizontal crest and vertical sides, pro- 
jecting at least two inches clear of the 
masonry. 

The 12-inch vitrified discharge and the 
10-inch vitrified blowoff pipe shall be fur- 
nished and laid with cement Joints in a 
trench excavated to the depth shown In 
the drawing and back-filled, all by the 
contractor, all on a uniform grade. The 
manhole shall be set with a cast-iron 
grating cover set in a cast-iron ring of 
standard sewer manhole pattern as used 
by the city of Los Angeles and approved 
by the engineer. The tour 10-inch valves 
shall be set in two boxes made of two- 
inch redwood lumber with a cover set six 
inches above the ground. 

The two iron sluice gates in the dis- 
charge chamber shall be of a good and 



substantial pattern, moving in a guide 
frame which shall be built into masonry. 
The slotted pipe shall be a H-inch thick 
10-inch cast-iron water-pipe, having a 
slot one inch wide by ten feet long 
milled out of two of the three sections of 
pipe and it shall be so set in the ma- 
sonry that this slot shall come at the 
bottom and so that the bell ends shall 
be imbedded in the masonry. The roof- 
stringers shall be steadied by 2x4-inch 
cross-bracing cut in over the two center 
cross partitions and two square manholes 
shall be left In the roof near the dis- 
charge end fitted with tight wooden cov- 
ers similar to skylight covers. The whole 
roof shall then be covered with a roof- 
ing paper, tar and gravel, or such an 
equivalent as shall be previously accepted 
by the engineer. 

All concrete shall be mixed in the pro- 
portion of one of cement, three of clean 
sharp sand, and five parts of gravel, all 
measured, well screened and washed; the 
gravel to be of all sizes from pea size up 
to dimensions that will pass through a 
two-inch ring. The mixing shall be done 
on a tight platform and the materials 
shall be thoroughly mixed dry. before ap- 
plying water. They shall be turned over 
by hand not less than three times dry. 
and three times after wetting. If the 
management accepts bids for' concrete 
walls Instead of brick all the walls must 
be molded true, plumb, out of wind, and 
of uniform thickness, and so thoroughly 
rammed as to leave no spaces or holes 
when the molds are removed. The con- 
crete must be spread in layers of not 
more than six inches in thickness and 
evenly and thoroughly tamped so as to 
avoid bridging of materials over hollow 
spaces and so as to secure a perfect mon- 
olithic structure. If any portion of the 
wall has become set hard on the surface 
before completion, the surface shall be 
cleaned and coated with a wash of oure 
cement before the next layer Is applied 
in order to secure a perfect bond. The 
work must be kept shaded from the sun 
and frequently mo'stened for ten days 
after setting. The concrete in the floor 
must be thoroughly tamped and troweled 
to a smooth and uniform surface at the 
one operation. 

Cement— The contractor will be required 
to furnish the engineer with certified 
copies of the manufacturers' tests ^* 
each batch of ten barrels of the cement 
proposed to be furnished for the work 
and permit him to take such samples 
free of charge as he may dealre for test- 
ing. All cement used shall conform to 



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Sidewalls and Manhole Compl**ted. Furnis for Middle Wall in Place. 



Tank Completed Except Cover. 
SEPTIC TANK, SOLDIERS' HOME, SANTA MONICA, CAL. 



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6 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



the requirements as to tensile strength 
and fineness, time of setting, etc., re- 
quired in the specifications of the City v'« 
Los Angeles for the cement used in the 
Third-firt. and Broadway tunnels, and b? 
equal In every respect to the best cement 
manufactured by the Colton Cement 
Company. Any cement delivered at the 
site of the work which falls to meet the?e 
requirements and tests shall be removed 
at once from the premises and not used 
in any part of the work. 

Gravel Roof— The roof is to be com- 
pooS JO spjBoq dufd qoui auo jo pasod 
quality, surfaced on one side sufficiently 
to ensure a uniform thickness through- 
out and avoid any Irregularity of top 
surface. The boards shall be closely l.xid 
and securely nailed to all the stringers 
and project a uniform distance of two 
inches beyond the walls all around. The 
boards are then to be covered with P. & 
B. mastic composition asphalt :ind 
gravel roofing, consisting of three Hyers 
of two-ply P. & B. waterproof felt 
smoothly spread upon the boaids but 
not nailed thereto. Between each of the 
layers of the felt a heavy coating of hot 
refined asphalt will be spread with mops, 
and the top surface will be uoodel with 
a hot coating of refined asphn't heavily 
mopped on. While still hot. thero must 
be imbedded in this coating of asphalt 
a layer of forty-hich burlap, tiijhtly 
stretched over the entire roof suffuce. 
The surface of the burlap thus prepared 
shall then be treated to two heavy coat- 



ings of refined asphaltum, to be poured 
on hot and spread evenly with mops; the 
first spreading of the mop to fill all 
the pores of the burlap and the second 
coating, to be put on immediately after- 
ward, must entirely fiood the surface, 
after which the whole surface of the root 
shall receive an application of clean, dry, 
well screened gravel of pea size, swept on 
uniformly &nd evenly while the last 
asphalt coating is still hot, the gravel to 
be thoroughly dry and warm. The edges 
of the roofing shall be tacked to the edges 
of the boards, and trimmed to the outer 
edge, and a margin shall be formed with 
a strip of No. 18 galvanized iron bent 
to proper form, lapping two inches on 
top and one and one-half inches dpwn the 
side, with a folded projection above to a 
level with the fiush top of the finished 
roof. A neat, tight connection shall be 
made to all openings in the top of the 
roof. The contractor will be required to 
guarantee the water-tightness of the root 
for a period of five years, giving an ac- 
ceptable bond to perform all reps^Irs 
needed within that period promptly on 
notification that the roof requires repair. 

A tight connection shall be made all 
around between the roof and the walls, 
and all spaces so thoroughly filled with 
mortar as to make the tank practically 
air tight and prevent the leakage of gas 

Backfilling— All the excavation outside 
of the tank, below the fioor, and else- 
where, must be refilled with good ma- 
terial well tamped and wet down. 



PORTLAND CEMENT MANUFACTURE.* 

Burning the Mixture. 

By Edwin C. Eckel y U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, I). C. 



After the cement mixture has been carc^- 
fully prepared, as described in preceding 
papers of this series. It must be burned 
with equal care. In the early history of 
the Portland cement industry various 
types of kilns were In use at different 
plants, patented continuous kilns of sev- 
eral styles being particularly favored in 
European mills, but, at present, practice 
in burning at the different American 



almost invariably of the rotary type, the 
rotary process, which Is essentially Amer- 
ican in its development, being based upon 
the substitution of machines for hand la- 
bor wherever possible. A brief summary 
of the process will first be given, after 
which certain subjects of interest will 
be taken up in more detail. 

Summary of Burning: Process— As at 
present used the rotary kiln is a steel 



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PORTLAND CEMENT MANUFACTURE. 



This cylinder la set fn a slightly In- 
clined position, the Inclination being ap- 
proximately one-half Inch to the foot. 
The kiln Is lined, except near the upper 
end, with very resistant Are brick, to 
withstand both the high temperature to 
which its inner surface is subjected and 
also the destructive action of the molten 
clinker. 

The cement mixture Is fed in at the 
upper end of the kiln, while fuel which 
may be either powdered coal, oil or gas 
—Is injected at its lower end. The kiln, 
which rests upon geared bearings, is 
slowly revolved about its axis. This 
revolution, in connection with the 
Inclination at whicn the cylinder 
Is set, gradually carries the ce- 
ment mixture to the lower end of the 
kiln. In the course of this journey the 
intense heat generated by the burning 
fuel first drives off the water and carbon 
dioxide from the mixture and thon causes 
the lime, silica, alumina and Iron to com- 
bine chemically to form the partially 
fused mass known as "cement clinker." 
This clinker drops out of the lower end 
of the kiln. Is cooled so as to prevent 
Injury to the grinding machinery, and Is 
then sent to the grinding mills. 

theoretical Fuel Heoulrements— As a 
preliminary to a discussion of actual 
practice in the matter of fuel. It will be 
of interest to determine the heat units 
and fuel theoretically required In the 
manufacture of Portland cement from a 
dry mixture of normal composition. 

In burning such a mixture to a clinker, 
practically all of the heat consumed In 
the operation will be that required for the 
dissociation of the lime carbonate present 
into lime oxide and carbon dioxide. Driv- 
ing off the water of combination that 
la chemically held by the clay or shale, 
and decomposing any calcium sulphate 
(gypsum) that may be present In the 
raw materials, will require a small ad- 
ditional amount of heat. The amount in- 
quired tor these r^rposes is not accurate- 
ly known, however, but is probably bO 
small that It will be more or less entirely 
ofTset by the heat which will be liberated 
during the combination of the lime with 
the silica and alumina. We may, there 
tore, without seriSlble error, regard the 
total heat theoretically required ;or the 
production of a barrel of Portland cement 
as being that which Is necessary for the 
dissociation of 450 pounds of lime car- 
bonate. With coal of a thermal value 
of 13,500 B. T. U., burned with only the 
air supply demanded by theory, this dis- 
sociation will require 26% pounds of coal 



per barrel of cement, a fuel consumption 
of only 6.6 per cent. 

Losses of Heat in Practice— In practice 
with the rotary kiln, however, there are 
a number of distinct sources of loss of 
heat, which result in a fuel consumption 
Immensely greater than the theoretical 
requirements given above. The more Im- 
portant of these sources of loss are the 
following: 

1. The kiln gases are discharged at a 
temperature much above that of the at- 
mosphere, ranging from 30O F. to 2,000 
F., according to the type of materials 
u«ed and the length of the kiln. 

2. The clinker Is discharged at a tem- 
perature varying from 300 F. to 2.'>00 1'., 
the range depending as before on mate- 
rials and length of the kiln. 

3. The air supply Injected into the 
kiln is always greater, and usually very 
much greater, than that required for 
the perfect combustion of the fuel; and 
the available heating power of the fuel is 
thereby reduced. 

4. Heat Is lost by radiation from the 
ends and exposed surfaces of the kiln. 

5. The mixture. In plants using a wet 
process, carries a high percentage of 
water, which must be driven off. ^ 

It Is evident, t'nerefore, that present-day 
working conditions serve to increase 
greatly the amount of fuel actually nec- 
essary for the production of a barrel of 
cement above that required by theory. 

Actual Fuel iRequirements and Output- 
Rotary kilns are nominally rated at o 
production of 200 barrels per day per kiln. 
Even on dry and easily cllnkered ma- 
terials and with good coal, however, such 
an output Is rarely attained. Normally, a 
kiln working on a dry mixture will pro- 
duce from 140 to 180 barrels of cement per 
day of twenty-four hours. In doing this, 
If good coal Is used, Its fuel consumption 
will commonly be from 120 to 140 pound* 
of coal per barrel of cement, though it 
may range as high as 160 pounds, and, on 
the other hand, has fallen as low as 90 
pounds. An output of 160 barrels per day, 
with a coal consumption of 130 pounds per 
barrel, may therefore be considered as 
representing the results of fairly good 
practice on dry materials. In dealing 
with a wet mixture, which may carry 
anywhere from 30 to 70 per cent, of water, 
the results are more variable, though al- 
ways worse than with dry materials. In 
working a sixty-foot kiln on a wet 
material, the output may range from 80 
to 140 barrels per day, with a fuel con- 
sumption of from 150 to 230 pounds pet 
barrel. Using a longer kiln, partly drying 



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the mix, and utilizing waste heat will, oi 
course, improve these figures materially. 
When oil is used for kiln fuel, it may be 
considered that one gallon of oil Is 
equivalent in the kiln to about ten pounds 
of coal. The fuel consumption, using dry 
materials, will range between 11 and 14 
gallons of oil per barrel of cement; but 
the output per day is always somewhat 
less with oil fuel than where coal is used. 
Natural gas, in the kiln, may be com- 
pared with good Pennsylvania coal by al- 
lowing about 20,000 cubic feet of gas as 
equivalent to a ton of coal. This esti- 
mate is, however, based upon too little 
data to be as close as those above given 
for oil or coal. 

Effect of Composition on Burning— The 
differences in composition between Port- 
land cement mixtures are very slight If 
compared, for example, to the differences 
between various natural cement rocks. 
But even such slight differences as do 
exist exercise a very appreciable effect on 
the burning of the mixture. Other things 
being equal, any increase in the percent- 
age of lime in the mixture will necessi- 
tate a higher temperature in order to get 
an equally sound cement A mixture 
which will give a cement carrying 68 per 
cent, of lime, for example, will require 
much less through burning than would 
a mixture designed to give a cement with 
64 per cent, of lime. 

With equal lime percentages, the ce- 
ment carrying high silica and low alum- 
ina and iron will require a higher tem- 
perature than If it were lower in silica 
and higher in alumina and iron. But, 
on the other hand, if the alumina and 
iron are ccurrled too high, the clinker 
will ball up in the kiln, forming sticky 
and unmanageable masses. 

Character of Kiln Coal— The fuel most 
commonly used in modern rotary kiln 
practice is bituminous coai, pulverized 
very finely. Coal for this purpose should 
be high in volatile matter, and as low in 
ash and sulphur as possible. Russell 
gives the following analyses of West Vir- 
ginia and Pennsylvania coals used at 
present at various cement plants in Mich- 
igan. 

—Analyses of Kiln Coals- 
Fixed carbon 66.15 56.33 55.82 51.69 

Volatile matter 36.41 35.26 39.37 39.52 

j\8h 6.36 7.06 3.81 6.13 

Moisture 2.08 1.35 1.00 i.40 

Sulphur 1.30 1.34 0.42 1.46 

The coal as usually bought is either 
"slack" or "run of mine." In the latter 
case it is necessary to crush the lumps 
before proceeding further with the prep- 



aration of the coal, but with slack this 
preliminary crushing is not necessary, 
and the material can go directly to the 
dryer. 

Drying Coal— Coal as bought may carry 
as high as 15 per cent, of water in win- 
ter or wet season. Usually It will run 
from 3 to 8 per cent. To secure good re- 
sults from the crushing machinery it is 
necessary that this water should be 
driven off. For coal drying, as for the 
drying of raw materials, the rotary dryer 
seems best adapted to American condi- 
tions. It should be said, however, that In 
drying coal it Is usually considered Inad- 
visable to allow the products of combus- 
tion to pass through the cylinder In which 
the coal is being dried. This restriction 
serves to decrease slightly the possible 
economy of the dryer, but an evapora- 
tion of 6 to 8 pounds of water per pound 
of fuel coal can still b«9 counted on with 
any good dryer. The fuel cost of dry- 
ing coal containing 8 per cent, of moist- 
ure, allowing $2 per ton for the eoal 
used as fuel, will therefore be about 8 
to 4 cents per ton of dried product. 

Pulverising Coal— Though apparently 
brittle enough when In large lumps, coal 
is a dlflElcult material to pulverise finely. 
For cement kiln use, the fineness of re- 
duction is very variable. The finer the 
coal is pulverised, the better results will 
be obtained from It in the kiln; and the 
poorer the quality of the coal, the finer 
it is necessary to pulverize It. The fine- 
ness attained in practice may therefore 
vary from 85 per cent, through a 100 mesh 
sieve, to 95 per cent, or more through the 
same. At one plant a very poor bat 
cheap coal is pulverized to pass 98 per 
cent, through a 100 mesh sieve, and in 
consequence gives very good results In 
the kiln. 

Coal pulverizing Is usually carried on 
in two stages, the material being first 
crushed to 20 to 30 mesh In a Williams 
mill or ball mill, and finally reduced in 
a tube mill. At many plants, however, 
the entire reduction takes pace In one 
stage. Griffin or Huntingdon mills being 
used. 

Total Cost of Coal Preparation- The 
total cost of crushing (if necessary), dry- 
ing and pulverizing coal, and of convey- 
ing and feeding the product to the kiln, 
together with fair allowances for re- 
placements and repairs, and for Interest 
on the plant, will probably range from 
about 20 cents to 30 cents per ton of 
dried coal, for a four-kiln plant. This 
will be equivalent to a cost of from 8 to 
5 cents per barrel of cement. While this 
may seem a heavy addition to the cost 



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PROSPECT HILL PARKWAY, 80MERVILLE, MASS. 



PROSPECT HILL PARK DRIVE, SOMERVILLE. MASS. 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



of cement manufacture, it should be re- use much poorer— and therefore cheaper 
membered that careful drying and fine — g^rades of coal than could otherwise be 
pulverizing enable the manufacturer to utilized. 



CRITICISMS OF ASPHALT PAVING ESTIMATES AT DETROIT, MICH. 
By W. F. Raymond, Indianapolia, Ind, 



On page 435 of the December issue of 
Municipal Engineering, under the head- 
ing of "Asphalt Paving Estimates in 
Detroit." there is given the synopsis of a 
report by Mr. C. A. Proctor to the Coun- 
cil Committee on streets for the c<ty of 
Detroit. Mich., under date of Nov. 17 last. 

There is much of vaiue in the report, 
much worthy of commendation, but from 
the synopsis it is very inaccurate and in- 
complete and very misleading. Following 
the items as reported, take first 

Plant and Maintenance— Primarily the 
appropriation of $10,000 for installation of 
a plapt. capable of suqh capacity as fig- 
ured upon is insufficient to meet the re- 
quirements of modern improved and con- 
stantly improving methods In plant con- 
struction and devices; $12,500 to $15,003 
would undoubtedly be needed. 

Secondly, but one roller is figured on at 
a less cost than $2,500. What becomes of 
surface rclllng on new and re-surface 
work? And If done by hand-rollers what 
allowance has been made for the extra 
men required on the street to manipulate 
the hand-roller? 

Modern methods and those conceded 
best do not admit of surface rolling with 
a hand roller, but require one of at least 
2% tons (steam); this, therefore, would 
mean an additional outlay for a second 
steam roller. Another point is that one 
roller cannot properly do surface and fin- 
ish work for 1,500 square yard.^ of paving: 
in a day, hence another necessity for two 
rollers. The other figures for cost of 
plant submitted in the report are quite 
fair, though from the above It will be 
seen that interest and maintenance cost 
must be brought higher becau?e a greater 
principal is required. 

Cost of Binder and Labor— In binder 
Items the report shows plant labor costs 
in excess of that of street labor. This 
should accurately apply to new work 
alone. Where binder U used for repairs 
the cost of labor on the street exceeds 
by far the labor cost at the plant. To 



for the plant (new work and repairs;) 
second, for street labor, using binder and 
top, both on new work and repairs; these 
figures are based on some years experi- 
ence with work under normal average 
economical conditions. 

PLANT LABOR— NEW WORK— BIND- 
ER OR TOP. 

1 Foreman $ 4.00 

1 Engineer 3.50 

1 Assistant E3nglneer 2.60 

1 Mlxerman 2.0o 

1 Dust Man 1.75 

2 Drum Firemen 3.50 

1 Tank Man 1.75 

1 Utility Man l.To 

1 Office Boy 1.00 

1 Water Boy 75 

1 Watchman 1.50 

10 Laborers 15.00 

Total $39.00 

PLANT LABOR-REPAIR WORK. 

1 Foreman $ 4.00 

2 Engineers 3.50 

1 Assistant Engineer 2.50 

1 Mixer Man 2.00 

1 Utility Man 1.75 

2 Firemen 3.50 

1 Dust Man 1.75 

1 Tank Man 1.75 

1 Office Boy 1.00 

1 Water Boy 75 

1 Watchman 1.50 

6 Laborers 9.00 

Total $33.00 

STREET LABOR— BINDER— NEW 
WORK. 

1 Foreman $ 4.00 

1 Timekeeper 2.00 

1 Engineer 3.50 

1 Helper 1.50 

3 Rakers 6.75 

2 Tampers 4.00 

1 Joint Painter 1.50 

2 Wagon Dumpers 3.50 

1 Utility Man 1.75 

•5 shovelers 8.75 

1 Watchman 1.50 

Total $38.75 

• Smnnfhprs Jirt. ii«xiifi11v iiqa.-I as chrkxrAl. 



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STONE AVENUE EXTENSION, SOMERVILLE, MASS. 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



STREET LABOR— TOP— NEW WORK. 

1 Foreman % 4.00 

1 Timekeeper 2.00 

1 Engineer 8.50 

1 £n«:ineer 8.00 

8 Raners 6.76 

(a) 2 Tampers 4.00 

2 Smoothers 4.00 

1 Painter 1.60 

(b) 1 UUlity Man 1.75 

2 Wagon Dumpers 3.50 

4 Sbovelers 7.00 

1 Watchman 1.60 

Total $42.50 

(a) In case of work between street car 
rails two more tampers and one more 
ehoveler would be needed making cost 
15.75 a day more or a total of $48.25. 

(b) Used chiefly as cement sweeper. 

In figuring for binder and top for re- 
pairs and cut holes, the distribution of 
charges cannot be much more fairly made 
than by assigning one-third to binder and 
two- thirds to top. For this reason but one 
list for labor required is given, and the 
cost may be distributed accordingly. The 
holes must be made ready, the dirt and 
old material cleaned up, so a truly accu- 
rate distribution of binder cost and top 
cost is next to impossible. The labor 
needed on asphalt repairs, whether laid 
with or without binder, follows: 

STREET LABOR— REPAIRS. 

1 Foreman $i00 

1 Timekeeper 2.00 

a) 2 EJngineers 650 

O) 8 Tampers 6.00 

2 Smoothers 4.00 

1 Joint Painter 1.50 

1 Water-boy 1.00 

3 Shovelers E.26 

1 Utility man (sweeper) 1.75 

2 Men cleaning up 300 

8 Joint Cutters 5.25 

8 Men breaking out 4.60 

1 Man cleaning out holes 1.50 

1 Watchman 1.50 

(8) 2 Teams cleaning up 7.00 

Total $54.75 

(1) On patches over four or five feet 
square surface rolling is necessary. Two 
rollers should therefore be usea. 

(2) Oftentimes where the patches are 
many and small four tampers are neces- 
sary to keep up with the rakers. 

(3) If haul to dump is at all long, two 
teams will be needed to clean up, though 
sometimes one will do, if on the last turn 



nearly accurate dally average of yardage, 
especially where binder is used, would be 
from 400 to 600 square yards. Let us see 
what this would mean in cost, including 
material, plant and street labor, with 
maintenance and repairs left out. The 
following table is based on 500 square 
yards of paving laid in one ten-hour day, 
three-inch wearing surface, one-inch 
binder, two-inch top. 

TOTAL REPAIR COST. 

Street pay-roll $ .'■; To 

Plant pay-roll 33 00 

46 boxes binder 99 84 

84 boxes top 318 22 

Coal and fuel (plant) 30 00 

Coal and fuel (street) 4 50 

Hauling, five teams at $4.50 22 50 

Total $562 81 

Cost per yard $1 12 

Between these figures and those of Mr. 
Proctor at 67c a square yard, on 500 
square yards of repair work, including 
asphalt and binder, there is a difference of 
$107.81 on a very good day's work. Some 
consideration must be given, however, to 
the fact that in these estimates Mr. Proc- 
tor's figures for fuel, for stone, for teams 
and asphalt have been given, the remain- 
ing items being figured from prices ruling 
in Indiana, and more especially Indianap- 
olis. 

In the estimate of forty-six boxes of 
binder the amount of asphalt cement re- 
quired was figured at a minimum, and 
very clear lime stone would be necessary 
to keep within this estimate. In the 
eighty-six boxes of top allowance was 
made for each ten-foot box of surface 
mixture to lay practically six (6) square 
yards of pavement; in binder each ten- 
foot box to lay a little more than ten (10) 
square yards, though it should run 
eleven or a little more, especially in re- 
pairs at one-inch tliickness. Further, in 
the asphalt charges the stone dust al- 
lowance was liberal, but not too great by 
many cents, dependent greatly on freight 
rates and whether ground at the plant of 
the user or received ready for use. 

Now as to new work, if 1,500 square 
yards of two-inch asphalt was laid in a 
day the total plant and street labor plus 
the cost of materials, but less the cost 



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HANCOCK STREET, SOMERVILLE, MASS. 
Before Improvement. 



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as the discount could apply only to ma- 
terials. 

The estimates for new work- by Mr. 
Proctor are quite too low for another 
reason, since he makes no allowance for 
stormy days, for daya or even hours when 
the plant or one of the rollers breaks 
down and he must pay many of his men 
full or at least half time in order to re- 
tain the class of skilled labor which the 
proper laying of asphalt demands. 

Data and figures covering many pages 
could be written on thi3 subject, showing 
cost prices under varying conditions, but 
it must ever be borne in mind that vast 
differences exist between new and repair 
work; also, that the use of binder on any 
work makes a vast difference In cost, 
thickness of the asphalt surface, too, be- 
ing all important in figuring. Were it 
possible to lay 1.500 square yard3 of 2 in. 
top six days a week, and every week from 
April to November, then one could say 
that 67c a square yard was a good price 



for municipalities, but taking all things 
Into consideration a contractor should 
hesitate a long time before he slg^ied a 
contract for any kind of asphalt work for 
less than tl per square yard. 

Theoretically, 67c per sq. yard is very 
attractive to the municipality in quest of 
good streets at the lowest possible cost; 
practically, over II per sq. yard would 
be found to be the nearest approximate 
average cost. Should a municipality have 
thousands of yards of new work to lay 
and many of repairs no doubt it could 
save money by doing Its own work, cost 
of plant not considered, for on days and 
in seasons when new work should not 
be done for satisfactory results many re- 
pairs could properly be made. The idea 
is a good one and should be tried, but 
only after most thorough investigation, 
and under the direct management of a 
hustling, competent man of long and suc- 
cessful experience. 



THE STREETS OF SOMERVILLE, MASS. 



The pictures In the reports of Mr. John 



JOHN P. PBICHARD, 
Street CommiseioQer, Somerville, Mass. 

P. Prlchard, who is Street Commissioner 
and a member of the Board of Public 



Works of Somervllle, Mass., show the 
quality of the work done under his de- 
partment even better than the text. All 
the work is done by day labor and nearly 
all the street construction is macadam. 
The pictures show the road rollers, of 
which the city has one fifteen-ton, one 
twelve-ton and a five-ton asphalt roller. 
The streets reconstructed in 1902, three- 
fourths of them wholly, measured 26,788 
feet in length and the total cost was 
I21.33S.53. 

Two of the pictures show the brown- 
tail moth and the process of removing it 
from the trees. The street commissioner 
is wagring vigorous war against the pest, 
and says the city is not yet free. The 
work of removal cost $6,092.07 in 1902. 
With these explanations and the tiHes 
under the pictures they will speak for 
themselves. 



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REMOVING BROWN TAIL MOTHS, SOMERVILLE, MASS. 



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EDITORIAL 
COMMENT 




Cost of Municipal Laying 
of Asphalt. 

The Transportation Question 
In the Cement Trade. 

Has He Gone to New York. 



COST OF MUNICIPAL LAYING OF 
ASPHALT. 

In the December number of Municipal 
En^neerlnflT, page 436» was an estimate 
by Mr. Proctor of the cost of laying as- 
phalt in a municipal plant, which com- 
puted the actual cost of laying asphall 
at 67 cents, including three items, top- 
ping at 44 cents, binder at 20 cents and 
maintenance at 3 cents. The maintenance 
charge is for maintenance of plant, not 
of pavement, and includes interest, de- 
preciation, repairs and insurance, rent, 
and taxes. 

Mr. Raymond, in an article elsewhere 
in this number, points out the fact thai 
these estimates assume constant em- 
ployment, or, rather, no expense for 
plant or labor when work is not in prog- 
ress, and justly claims that this asump^ 
tion is without sufficient basis. 

In the November number of Municipal 
Engineering will be found some figures 
from the municipal asphalt plant at Win- 
nipeg, Manitoba, which clearly show the 
difCerence between cost with this as- 
sumption and under everyday working 
conditions. The figures for cost of ma- 
terials are larger than those given by 
either Mr. Proctor or Mr. Raymond, and 
the final assessments against property 
owners show how much they must be 
increased that the city may come out 
\ even. 

Mr. Proctor thinks 67 cents is enough 
to allow for cost of laying binder and 
top, as stated above. Mr. Raymond thinks 
this might be all right for constant 
work, but that the actual cost with due 
allowance for lost time and labor and 
without allowance for profit would be 
more than $1. The authorities at Winni- 
peg, in computing the assessments to be 
made against property owners for asphali 
pavements laid assign to the items in- 
cluded in the figures of the two gentle- 
men, named the following cost prices: 

Binder, 1% inches, at plant 18^ 

Binder labor on street 06 

Surface, 1% inches, at plant 46 

Surface labor on street, teaming, 

etc 15 

Plant charges 06 

Other charges 08 

Making a total of 94H 



The charge for labor is undoubtedly very 
high for continuous work, and showb 
the erreat allowance that must be made 
for lost time. 

It is evident from these figures that 
Mr. Raymond's plea for careful investi- 
gation and for full consideration of all 
the circumstances has a good bcuris. De- 
troit has been paying from $1.12 to $1.23 
for surface repairs, according to Mr. 
Proctor, and he estimates that, with a 
cost of 67 cents in a municipal plant the 
city would save over $60,000 a year with 
the amount of work done the past year. 
Evidently, were the asphalt laying the 
straight work of laying new pavement 
which was done In Winnipeg, the cost 
will be nearly 60 per cent, more and the 
saving consequently nearly cut in two. 
This cuts down the profit which the oon- 
traotor is making under present condi- 
tions very materially. But, as Mr. Ray- 
mond points out, the cost of repairing Is 
much greater than the cost of laying new 
pavement, so far as the labor item is 
concerned, at least. This is evident from 
a consideration of the facta that the 
patch must be cleaned out, the old ma- 
terial removed, a good surfcfcce for juno- 
tiofi with the new material formed and a 
tar coat applied, all in addition to any- 
thing required In laying new pavement; 
also that the patches are more or less 
scattered, and there is lots of time in 
moving men and machinery from one 
patch to another and In unloading mate- 
rial. The labor on the street, according 
to the Winnipeg experience, costs 28 cents 
a square yard. An increase in labor cost 
of 60 per cent, is perhaps not excessive, 
which would IncrecMe the total cost of 
laying repairs per square yard by 11^ 
cents, making it $1.06. With Detroit prices 
this leaves only 6 to 17 cents a yard, or 
5H to 16 per cent, for the contractors' 
contingent fund and his profits. This does 
not seem to be exorbitant. 

A report of the New York Commis- 
sioner of Public Works made In Novem- 
ber, 1903, on the subject of a repair plant 
for asphalt pavements for the Borough 
of Manhattan contains an estimate by 
Dr. J. C. Bayles of the cost of repair ma- 
terials and labor as follows per square 
yard of pavement: 



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EDITORIAL COMMENT. 



17 



Asphalt cement 80 

Sand, stone, oil, etc *.. .16 

MixlnfiT, cartlnjr and laylnjr Zo 

Total 80 

The items do not agree very closely 
with those In either Wlnnipejr or Detroit 
or as given by Mr. Raymond, partly be- 
cause the form of the pavement is differ- 
ent, but, when plant charges and general 
supervision are added, the total will ap- 
proximate that given for Winnipeg. The 
present contract rates for repairs in Man- 
hattan are for binder. 11.62, and for wear- 
ing surface, 46 cents a square yard. 

The contractor may have one advan- 
tage over the city in being able to ob- 
tain asphalt at a lower price than that 
paid by Winnipeg, but this is a quesUon 
quite aside from that under considera- 
tion and does not change the fact that 
the city must pay the prices named. 

Facts are sometimes hard things for 
theories to overcome, and it is not safe 
for a city to enter the asphalt paving 
and repair field without more careful 
consideration of all the conditions than 
seems to be shown In the Detroit report 
under discussion. 

Such portable apparatus as is now of- 
fered for small repairs of asphalt streets 
and for putting them in shape before the 
actual time for repair arrives, do not 
come properly into this consideration, as 
they have their own place, and can often 
be used profitably by city or contractor 
when there is a regular contract for re- 
pairs of the customary nature, making 
certain classes of repair more econom- 
ically than they can be done with the 
ordinary asphalt plant. 

^- 

THE TRANSPORTATION QUESTION 
IN THE CEMENT TRADE. 

The third edition of the "Directory of 
American Cement Industries" is now in 
active preparation for issue early in 1904. 
It shows a vast increase in capacity for 
production of cement during the year, 
and an almost equal Increase in con- 
sumption. The demand would, apparently, 
have exceeded the supply throughout the 
year as it did early in the reason, if 
strikes and financial fiurries, especially 
the former, had not curtailed building 
operations. 

The cement factories are now so widely 
distributed that the question of freight 
rates is becoming one of great import- 
ance. This condition was recognized 
three years ago or so by some of the 
larger companies, and their extensions to 
keep up with their rapidly growing trade 



have been made in the form of new mills 
located in new regions. Factories of 
Pennsylvania companies are now located 
In Ohio. Indiana and Missouri, as well as 
in the home state, and there is at leaat 
one group of capitaUsts who are estab- 
lishing works in various parts of the 
United States and Canada. Independent 
in form, but under the same financial 
control. 

A controlling rea;s5on for this tendency 
is found in such facts as the following: 
Some bids for work were called for and 
cement prices clustered about $2.06 to 
12.10. One contractor proposed to a near- 
by factory to purchase at the factory for 
the same price that he was offered for 
equally good cement at a distant factory. 
For illustration we will take the freight 
rate from the Lehigh region to Cindn- 
naU. 16 cents a hundred pounds, and 
from Michigan points. 7 cents. The differ- 
ence, about 30 cents a barrel, is a very 
satisfactory increase of the contractor's 
profits. When cement stocks are large 
and money is wanted by the manufac- 
turers, contractors can pick up numerous 
bargains of this sort. 

Cement has been quoted in New York 
at about 90 cents in large lots, and there 
has been nearly the same condition in 
Chicago when there was any large busi- 
ness to do. But in San Francisco cement 
in car load lots will bring about $1.75. An 
exaggerated case is found in the bids 
for cement for the Touto basin dam in 
Arizona, where the price of cement was 
19 a barrel, due largely to the long rail- 
road and wagon haul. This is an excep- 
tional case and the government engineers 
have determined that a large sum of 
money can be ^aved by building a Port- 
land cement plant on the ground for the 
sole purpose of making the cement for 
this structure. As shown more in detail 
in another department of this number of 
Municipal Engineering, bids will now be 
asked for cement delivered on the ground 
and for cement made on the spot by the 
machinery already purchased. 

Though an exaggerated case, this dem- 
onstrates the theory that the location of 
new cement plants must be based large- 
ly on the matter of freight rates, assum- 
ing a local demand, actual or prospec- 
tive, and proper materials. 

The enormous fiuctuatlons In price of 
cement recently are due largely to the 
Inability of the mills to suppi/ the legl- 
^mate demand for cement, as detailed in 
this department in the November num- 
ber, but when temporary checks 
to building operations fill up /ne slock 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINBERING. 



houses, the anomalies of freight charges 
and the resulting competition ft local 
factories with over-loaded factories in 
other districts exaggerate the variations 
and result in such peculiar conditioni as 
a factory shipping all the cement It can 
make at a price which would llidicate a 
complete stagnation of the trade. 

While it is necessary to shut down fac- 
tories for repairs, any long continued 
stoppage of all factories would put them 
next season in the same condition they 
were the past season, unable to fill orders 
and helping to bring on a stagnation In 
business by restricting building opera- 
tions or necessitating substitution of 
other materials. When the cement plants 
are able to All the regular demand, and 
are better distributed, cement rates will 
reach a state of comparative uniformity, 
if not artificially manipulated, but in the 
meantime, such pronounced action as 
seems to be contemplated by the large 
manufacturers, as detailed elsewhere, 
will only exaggerate the unfortunate con- 
ditions under which we are laboring in 
the present stage of development of the 
industry. 

That many persons have confidence in 
the reality of a demand for cement next 
season in excess of the supply, especially 
if the mills are shut down for a large 
part of the winter, is indicated by the 
fact that money is being borrowed with 
which to invest in cement at pr o —nt 
prices, ,with the expectation of making 
large profits next season, notwithstand- 
ing extra freight and storage charges. 

A comparison of capacity and demand 
will be attempted in an early number of 
this magazine based on the data gather- 
ed for the new edition of the "Directory 
of American Cement Industries." 



HAS HE GONE TO NEW YORK? 

Our readers of some years' standing 
may remember the methods of certain 
journals in Louisville and later in Cin- 



cinnati in working up their circulation. 
They purported to be industrial papers 
circulating In the South and asked for ap- 
proval of laudatory articles concerning 
men or machinery, and proposed to sell 
copies of the number containing the no- 
tice. 

A notice recently received by a reader 
of this magasine from the "Financial 
Review*' of New York City suggests the 
possibility that the same writer has re- 
moved to that city. The notice Is as fol- 
lows: 

For those who are interested in the 
matter of municipal reform. In the beauti- 
fying of our large cities from an artistic 
standpoint and. In fact, the promotion of 
better government in all departments, 
parks included, the recent convention of 
the American Society of Municipal Im- 
provement, which was held in Indianapo- 
lis, will no doubt have an interest, for this 
association has proved useful in the past 
and has a bright future. The election of 

Mr. of as has been 

commented upon from different stand- 
points naturally enough, but in no case 
has the comment been of an unfavorable 
character. His own work in an official 
way has been not only competent but haa 
afforded evidence that he is heart and 
soul in favor of anything calculated to 
promote improvement in his own city.. 

Mr. has a host of friends both in 

and outside of the organization referred 

to and in so his election was logl- 

caL As a man of affairs, also, he stands 
high in the business world. 

A slip in the name of the city shows 
that the notice is sent to all the officers 
of the society in the same wording. There 
must be a monotony in the columns of the 
paper which would discourage the plac- 
ing of a |6 subscription, If a sample copy 
could be seen before making the reply 
which the following letter, accompanying 
the notice, is intended to bring: 

We inclose an item which, with your 
permission, will appear ra our next Issue. 
We would like to receive your subscrip- 
tion, in which event wo would send yon 
twenty copies gratis. Trusting we shall 
hear from you we remain. 



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THE QUEiTION 
DEPARTMENT 



PLASTERING ON HOLLOW CON- 
CRETE BLOCKS. 
I have a house nearly finished with hol- 
low concrete blocks. It Is a good looking 
house and many admire it. I would like 
to know if we can plaster on the blocks 
or will it be better to lath against the 
blocks. Some think the blocks will sweat 
and color the paper. 

R. B. CLEMENT, 
Walkerton, Ont. 

One of the points made by the adyocates 
of hollow cement block construction is 
that the plastering 'for the Inside of the 
house can be applied directly to the 
blocks without any studding and lath. 
The hollow wall is expected to keep the 
inside surface dry and warm. The Joints 
must be well filled and the proper Junc- 
tions made according to the designs of 
the blocks. Most of the blocks break the 
Joints so that moisture will find it yery 
difficult to follow them through to the 
inner wall surface, and some go so far as 
to put Joints only half way through the 
wall, the blocks being made so as to 
oyerlap. Any of the methods in common 
use promise success in keeping the inner 
wall surface dry. 

The blocks should be thoroughly ^et and 
dried before the plaster is put on, other- 
wise there might be a slight absorption 
by the plaster of any free water used in 
the construction or absorbed from ex- 
posure, with a consequent discoloration. 
This can be entirely preyented by proper 
curing of the blocks and drying of the 
walls before plastering. 



square foot to 20 cents or sof according 
to specifications, cost of cement, kind and 
cost of other materials, labor conditions, 
diflnculty of work, etc. 



ABOUT CEMENT SIDEWALKS. 

Do you know of a good form for speci- 
fications to ^lay cement sidewalks? Can 
you give me approximate cost per square 
yard to lay cement walk, grading done by 
owner? Can you give me any other facts 
as to cement sidewalks? 

J. DICKINSON CONDICT, 
Madison, N. J. 

The "Handbook for Cement Users" (IR) 



CEMENT CHEMISTS AND ENGI- 
NEESRS. 

I have some rock which I would like 
to have analyzed for cement and would 
like to be referred to some one who can 
do the work. Please also refer me to some 
one as to the cost of a cement plant and 
cement machinery. 

One rock is a black porous lava, of 
which there is a large solid body on the 
railroad, with side tracks, water and fuel 
accessible. It is being used for concrete, 
fire-proofing and some kinds of ornamen- 
tal work. Tests have been made on it for 
slag cement with favorable results. An- 
other rock is a gray volcanic tufa, also on 
the railroad, with water and fuel. 

G. R., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Who can furnish estimates on cement 
plants? 

W. C. B., Toronto, Ont. 

Reference should be made to the "Busi- 
ness Directory" in the advertising depart- 
ment of Municipal Engineering, under the 
heading of "Cement Plant Desfgners;" 
also to the list of "Engineers Who De- 
sign Cement Plants" in the "Directory of 
American Cement Industries" dS). 

With reference to the first questions it 
might be said that similar materials have 
been used with fair success since the days 
of the ancient Romans, and are now In 
use at San Giovanni a Teducdo, near 
Naples, Italy. The questtons of quality of 
product, cheapness of freight on raw ma- 
terials and supplies and proximity and 
size of market for the cement are matters 
which must be specially considered, event 
if the chemists' reports concerning the 
value of the material are favorable. UiU- 
formlty in composition of the raw ma>- 
terials and proximity of* any corrective 
material which may be necessary to pro- 
duce the best cement are also essential 



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20 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



PLANS FOR CONCRETE CULVERTS- 

WHERE TO PURCHASE STEEL 

BEAMS. 

1. Where can we gret plans and speci- 
fications for concrete culverts and 
bridges? 

2. Where can we gret Iron and steel I- 
beama by the carload? 

K. & CO., Tecumseh, Neb. 

The best place to get specifications for 
concrete culverts and bridges is in the 
''Handbook for Cement Users" (|3). Val- 
uable information will also be found in 
the back numbers of Municipal Engineer- 
ing. Plans should be prepared by an 
engineer of experience in this class of 
work who can have an opportunity to 
make himself familiar with the local con-, 
ditions which must be met. such as span, 
foundation, protection from flood, possi- 
bility of settlement, possible loadings, 
etc. Reference may be made to the 
"Business Directory" in our advertising 
pages under the headings "Civil Engi- 
neers" and "Bridges." Lists of names 
of Engineers using concrete will also be 
found in the "Directory of American Ce- 
ment Industries" ($5). 

2, The nearest manufacturer of struc- 
tural steel is probably the Colorado Fuel 
and Iron Company, Denver, Colo. Other 
makers are the Cambria Steel Company, 
Chicago office, 188 Jackson Boulevard; 
Carnegie Steel Company, Chicago office 
204 Dearborn-st.; IlUnois Steel Company, 
The Rookery, Chicago. 



CEJMBNT REQUIRED FOR WET CON- 
CRETE. 

Being an appreciative subscriber ot 
your magazine I would be pleased to have 
you answer the following question, as 
from the data at hand I cannot figure it 
out. We are now making what is called 
dry concrete and tamping it, and the 
molds that we are using make it rathei 
difficult lo tamp without expending much 
time. We do not care about the outside 
finish, i. e., we do not care whether it 
looks like cut stone or not. We are using 
one part Portland cement, two parts sand 
and four and one-half parts gravel pass- 
ing a three-fourth-inch screen and the 
sand screened from it. What we want 
to know is how much more cement we 
will have to add to have practically the 
same strength concrete by the wet con- 
crete process, 1. e., wet enough so we 
can pour it into the mold. 

F. A. SICKLESTEEL, 
North Branch, Mich. 

The claim made for wet concrete is 
that it produces a stone of greater 
strength with the same proportion of ce- 
ment. If the mixture Is properly made 
this is probably true, since the stone will 
be somewhat more dense. The mortar 



must not be so wet that the heavier 
stones will settle to the bottom and the 
water will collect on the top, and still 
it must be wet enough so that the mix- 
ture will fiow into all corners and re- 
cesses of the mol<Sl and leave no vacan- 
cies bridged over by the stones wedging 
together. The mixture must be thorough- 
ly well made before and after the water 
is added so that the cement will be uni- 
formly distributed through the mass, 
and in such manner that the water will 
not wash it out With care a stronger 
mixture will result than when the con- 
crete Is made with as little water as pos- 
sible and tamped in the ordinary way, 
though thoroughly tamped stone is shown 
by some experiments to be equal if not 
slightly superior in strength. 

It must be remembered that the wet 
concrete must be left in the molds fur 
several days, two or more, to set. while 
the dry tamped concrete can be removed 
immediately if properly handled. 



HOW TO MAKE LIGHT-COLORED CE- 
MENT WALKS. 

I would like to know what method is 
adopted to obtain light-colored walks. It 
there any process by which cement walks 
can be bleached out white after the 
troweling and floating Is done? 

J. H. OTTERSTATTER, 
TltusviUe. Pa. 

Each cement has a fairly definite color 
which cannot be changed. This color does 
not appear always when the surface Is 
first finished and will usually be some- 
what lighter after the cement has fully 
set and the surplus water has evaporated. 

Walks can be whitened in color by us- 
ing white materials In finishing. The use 
of marble dust Is described In Municipal 
Engineering, vol. xxv., pp. 260 and 419, 
the latter article giving specifications for 
sidewalk construction. 

Most persons desire darker walks rather 
than lighter, but the use of marble or 
limestone dust of light color will make 
the color as light as it can be ma^le. 

There are no successful processes for 
whitening cement work after It has been 
laid. 

• 

PATENTS ON HOLLOW CONCRETE 
BLOCKS. 

Can you inform me as to whether there 
Is any patent now pending or in force 
upon the manufacture of hollow concrete 
blocks for building or upon the manu- 
facture of the molds? 

F. A. v., Ellsworth, Kas. 

The subject of patents on hollow con- 
crete blocks was quite fully discussed 



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THE QUESTION DEPARTMENT. 



21 



In Municipal Engineering, vol. xxlv, p. 
436, and a list of the earlier patents on 
blocks of various forms and for various 
purposes Is there given. 

There are also a number of patents on 
machines for making the blocks. 

Among the articles in Municipal En- 
gineering describing blocks, machines for 
making them and processes, the follow- 
ing may be mentioned, some of them 
containing references to the patents 
covering the apparatus, process or pro- 
duct: 

•'Concrete Building Blocks," vol. xxii, 
pp. 13, 161. 163. xxiil, p. 392. 

"H. S. Palmer's Method of Concrete 
Building," vol. xxlU, p. 482. 

"Machines and Methods for Making 
Hollow Building Blocks," vol. zzlv, p. 
191, describing the machines and pro- 
cesses patented by H. S. Palmer, N. F. 
Palmer, the Cement Machinery Com- 
pany (Normandln), Seamans, Stevens, 
and the Standard Stone Company. 

Tlie Seamans machine is described in 
vol. xxlv. pp. 234, 393, and vol. xxv, p. 
375, with patent specifications. 

Some information regarding suits on 
patents will be found in vol. xxlv, p. 393, 
463. 

The blocks of the American Hydraulic 
Stone Company are described In vol. 
xxlv, p. 457. 

The Miracle pressed concrete block 
machine is described in vol. xxv., p. 53. 

The Normandln machine is described in 
vol. xxv, p. 54. 

The Winget machine and block are de- 
scribed in vol. xxv, pp. 129. £90. 

Dykema's molds and their product 
are described in vol. xxv, p. 464. 

Reference may be made also to our ad- 
vertising columns, as the prominent 
makers of machines and blocks are rep- 
resented there. Fisher's hydraulic stone 
system is one of the latest. 

New patents are Issued at frequent In- 
tervals and if watch is kept on the list 
of "Recent Inventions" in the depart- 
ment of "Machinery and Trade," in Mu- 
nicipal Engineering each month, the gen- 
eral character of these patents and their 
numbers and claimants can be learned. 



SILEXOID PORTLAND CEMENT. 

Can you tell me what Is Sllexold Port- 
land cement, which is on the market, 
and who makes it? 

J. D., Kankakee, 111. 

The Sllexold Portland Cement Company 
is a corporation whose main office is at 
Union City, Mich. It succeeds the Calu- 
met Portland Cement Company and has 
its works at Thlrty-nlnth-st. and Lowe- 



ave., Chicago, III., where it makes Its 
"Improved Portland" cement by grinding 
up together Portland cement and crushed 
limestone exceedingly fine. It Is thus 
similar to silica Portland cement, which 
shows excellent qualities, substituting, 
however, limestone for sand In the mix- 
ture. Tests of the cement are not at 
hand, but It is probable that they show 
high results, especially when the cement 
is tested neat. Neither Is any informa- 
tion at hand regarding its durability In 
various kinds of construction. 



CONCRETE FLOOR FOR BNOINB 
HOUSE. 
We would like to know if a board floor 
two Inches thick could be covered with 
expanded metal or wire netting and a 
coating of cement two Inches thick, made 
of 2 parts sand and 1 purt cement, placed 
on this metal would make a good job. 
Would it be sufficiently strong for a floor 
in a fire engine house which Is not used 
a great deal? We presume that the floor 
Is solid to start with. 

ILIFF BROTHERS. Cedarville. O. 

This question cannot be answered 
definitely without a personal knowledge 
of the present fioor and Its supports, but 
it is almost certain that the present floor 
is not strong enough to carry the weight 
of the cement floor In addition to its pres- 
sent load, and unless the concrete floor 
is weir anchored to the foundations on all 
sides, and these are strong enough to 
stand the strain, a failure of the present 
floor would result in a failure of the 
concrete floor. Such a floor as that pro- 
posed is sufficient If the supports and the 
anchorage to supports and walls are suffi- 
cient, but its construction should not be 
attempted without full directions from a 
competent architect or engineer with ex- 
perience In concrete construction. 



MOLD FOR MAKING CEMENT PIPE. 
I will thank you if you will give me 
the address of the American representa- 
tive of the German Kielberg press for 
making cement pipe, mentioned on page 
426 of the December number. In the same 
article you refer to the abandonment of 
a plant in Brooklyn using the Sherman 
machine. Will you kindly tell me 
whether this abandonment was caused 
by a failure in introducing the article or 
was the machine a failure? 

W. C. HUMPHREYS, 
Norfolk, Va. 

The address of H. Schebye, C. E., Is 848 
Carolina-st, Pittsburg, Pa., and his ad- 
vertisement of the Kielberg molding 
press for making pipes will be found in 
our advertising pages. 

There does not seem to have been any 



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22 



MUNICIPAL BNGINEEBINO. 



great effort to Introduce the Sherman 
machine. Reports Indicate that It was 
used In making cement sewer pipe for 
use in Brooklyn* but that no machines 
have been used elsewhere, and now the 
use of cement pipe has been practically- 
abandoned In Brooklyn. There seems to 
be no special reason for all this, although 
there were occasional complaints some 
years ago, when the methods of manu- 
facture were less fully understood* of de- 
terioration of cement sewer pipes In use. 
It cannot be said that the reported aban- 
donment of the Brooklyn machine was 
due to defects in the machine, and It 
would not be proper to condemn sewer 
pipe made with the better knowledge of 
mixtures and methods of treating them 
of the present time on account of rather 
indefinite statements of occasional fail- 
ures o'f pipe many years ago. 

Some description of the Klelberg ma- 
chine will be found in the department of 
"Machinery and Trade" in this number. 



OP INTEREST TO CEMENT BLOCK 
MANUFACTURERS. 

Kindly advise me if there are any back 
numbers of Municipal Engineering that 
would be of particular interest to cement 
block manufacturers. P. T. C, 

Ft. Dodge, la. 

Reference should be made to the article 
in this department under the heading 
"Concrete Block Machines" for a full list 
of articles upon cement blocks. There are 
doubtless many more articles of Interest 
to makers of such blocks among the 
many upon cement and concrete in the 
successive numbers of the magazine. 



LIST OP CEMENT MANUFACTURERS. 

Kindly send me that copy of* your 
magazine which embraces the list of 
cement mills in the United States, with 
their output, etc. Also if you know of any 
corrections to be made to the list which 
you can make easily, I should be glad to 
have you advise me what they are. Also 
I should like to know wnen you expect to 
publish a new, revised and up-to date 
list E. D. KIMBALL, 

Wichita, Kas. 

The best list in print, giving all the in- 
formation asked for above and much 
more, is to be found in the "Directory of 
American Cement Industries and Hand- 
book for Cement Users" (|6). A list of 
new companies, since the last issue of the 
Directory, in operation and under con- 
struction, will be found in Municipal En- 
gineering for October, 1908, vol. xxv, p. 
261. 

The third edition of the "Directory of 
American Cement Industries" is now In 



active preparation for issue early in 1904 
and will have the latest revised list of 
cement manufacturers, giving officers, 
capitalisation, capacity, brands, sales 
agents and descriptions of works, besides 
much other information and other direc- 
tory lists as is set forth more In detail 
elsewhere in this numner in an article 
describing the book. 



QUALITY OF CBMBNT-CONCRBTB 
BLOCK HOUSES. 

Mr. R. B. Clement of Walkerton, Ont, 
in writing about accidental wetting of 
cement, as reported in Municipal Engi- 
neering, vol xxv, p. 872, says he has 
"no doubt it was good cement and if it 
had got plenty of water on it for two 
or three days it would have stood hard 
pounding." He has had similar experi- 
ence. He continues as follows: "I am 
delighted with the last number of Munic- 
ipal Engineering and think that all ce- 
ment contractors should tell you the 
worth of it in their business." 

Mr. Clement has Just completed a hol- 
low block concrete house doing the work 
himself with the help of a man at ItS 
a day, while masons receive $3 a day. 
The man alone laid three chimneys in 
one day at a saving of $60 over brlok 
chlnmeya. The house cost about the 
same as brick, owing to the high price of 
cement when the blocks were made. 
With low prices for cement, such as 
those this winter, he can build cheaper 
than with either brick or wood, and give 
better satisfaction. The blocks are 
rock face. The cellar is successfully 
grouted with 1 part sand to. 10 parts of 
sand and gravel. 



AMOUNT OF LIME REQUIRED IN 
BUILDING. 
Our water company makes a charge of 
three cents a bushel of lime for building 
purposes and I would like to know if 
you have any books that would be of as- 
sistance in figuring the number of bush- 
els required in any building. 

WII^I.IAM L. GIBB. 
Ocean City, N. J. 

Perhaps some of our readers can give 
rules which they have found convenient. 
It would be interesting to know the 
origin of such peculiar rates as this. 
Trautwlne's "Engineers' Pocketbook" (|6) 
contains the data desired. It would ap- 
parently be simplest to require presenta- 
tion of the bills for the materials actual- 
ly furnished. In the absence of this defi- 
nite information an estimate of the num- 
ber of bricks must be made. Trautwine 
gives the number of standard size re- 



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THE QUESTION DEPARTMENT. 



qtitr«d per square foot of wall of dlfterent 
thlckneeats, fnmi which the total num- 
ber of bricks can be obtained if the num- 
ber of square feet of wall of each thick- 
ness is obtained from the plans of the 
buildinff. He also gives the quantity of 
mortar required per thousand brick with 
various thicknesses of joints and allow- 
anoe for waste^ and the quantity erf lime 
required for this mortar. There are evi- 
dently many chances for inaccuracy in 
these computations so that the result can 
be considered as only roughly approxi- 
mate. 



WATBJR-TIGHT RESBRVOIRS. 
With reference to water-tight reservoirs 
J. EL Salflsberg A Ck>. of Aurora, 111., re- 
port their experience m withstanding 
water pressure from without. The bottom 
of the basin was about two feet below the 
river level and about thirty feet from the 
river bank. In construction they were 
bothered considerably with the permea- 
tion of water from the rrver and from 
springs underneath the nasin. An 8-inch 
concrete floor was put m, but it heaved 
up in the center and 10 mches more of 
concrete was added to make it safe. In 
response to their inquiry the address of 
the Thayer School of Engmeering is 
given as Dartmouth College, Hanover, 
N. H. 



DEDUCTIONS FROM HYDRANT 
RENTAL. FOR LACK OF 
PRESSURE. 
A dty claims to have the right to de- 
duct from the hydrant rental a certain 
amount on account of the water com- 
pany in case of a fire not having pres- 
sure enough to give the fire company 
ample water for fire protection. If you 
know of any cases of the above descrip- 
tion will you refer me to the decisions? 
JUDD DECKER, 
Superintendent of Water Works, Sterling, 
HL 

Leaving out of consideration any con- 
tract provisions which might settle the 
matter, the following decisions among 
the many which have been rendered may 
be referred to. Those regarding damages 
for fire loss on account of lack of water 
pressure are given as throwing a side 
light upon the question asked. 

A contract requiring the water com- 
pany to repair pipe within forty-eight 
hours or town will not be liable for 
water rents and company will be liable 
for individual losses caused by the con- 
dition of the pipes is not a bar to all re- 
covery as for a breach of contract, be- 
cause of occasional bursting of pipes, 
Grand Junction Water Company vs. Cit5 



of Grand Junction, Colorado. Vol. 00, 
Pacific Reporter, page 196. 

A water company which uncondition- 
ally contracts to supply a constimer witb 
water and fire pressure Is liable for dam- 
ages for failure of fire p re ss u re, even 
though the break in pipes is not the 
water company's fault. Knappman Whlt- 
inir Co. VB. Middlesex Water Co. Vol. 46. 
Atlantic Reporter (K. J. ), page 082. 

Pleas of insufliclent pressure are insuf- 
ficient as complete defense to a suit for 
hydrant rentals, and demurrers thereto 
are properly sustained. Greenville, Ala., 
vs. Greenville Water Works Co. South- 
em Reporter, May 80, 1900. 

A contract to furnish an ample supply 
of water is severable and the borough is 
liable for the actual service rendered in 
good faith under such contract, though 
at times the supply was inadequate. 
Hsmdman Water Company vs. Borough 
of Hyndman, Pa. Vol 7, Pennsylvania 
Superior Court, page 19L 

Where a water company has contracted 
to supply fire protection in quantity and 
force, a failure will entitle the city to 
treat the contract as terminated even 
though no actual damage occurred. 
Light, Heat and Power Company of 
Jackson vs. City of Jackson, Miss. Vol. 
19. Southern Reporter, p. 771. 

A c6ntract for fire protection between 
a city and a water company does not 
give a water consumer a right to dam- 
ages from the company for fire loss 
due to failure of water supply in quan- 
tity or presure. Akron Water Company 
vs. Brownless, Am. Dig. August, 1896. 
Also House vs. Houston Water Works 
Company (Tex.). Am. Dig. June, 1896. 
Also Buch vs. Artesian Hot and Cold 
Water Company, Idaho. Am. Dig. Janu- 
ary, 1890; and Miss. Supreme Court, Dec. 
4, 1900. See Municipal Engineering, vol. 
XX, p. 89. 

A city is liable to a patron of the city's 
public water works for loss by fire on 
account of negligence in permitting sys- 
tem to get out. of repair. Lenzen vs. 
New Braunfels, Tex. 86 S. W. Rep. 8IL 

On the contrary, neither water com- 
pany nor city owning water works is 
liable for damages of consumer by fire, 
according to Eaton vs. Falrbury (Neb.) 
Water Works Company, 66 N. W. Rep., 
201 and Municipal Engineering, vol. vi. 
p. 171. Also, a citizen cannot recover 
from the city for fire loss, the fire 
pressure and supply being defective, ac- 
cording to Butterworth vs. City of Hen- 
rietta, Tex.. 61 S. W. Rep., p. 975, and 
Municipal Engineering, vol. xx, 362. 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



Ukiah, California, obtained a judgrment 
In a Jury trial against the Uklah Water 
and Improvement Company in 1S90 for 
1370 fire damages to city property on ac- 
count of defective water supply. Munici- 
pal Engineering, vol. xix. p. 418. 

With the exception of the contradiction 
in Texas, in which the court seems to 
have reversed itself, the general tendency 
of the decisions is to reduce the re- 
sponsibility of the water company for 
failure to supply flre service to the actual 
duration of the defective service, the 
company being able to collect for all 
service actually rendered in good faith, 
though it did fail at critical times, and 
to take oft all liabllfty for damages for 
actual fire loss on account of such fail- 
ures. 

# 

BOOKS ON IRRIGATION. 

What is the best work on irrigation 
and where can I secure it? 

SUBSCRIBER. Havre, Mont. 

The best book upon the technical 
features of irrigation engineering is Wil- 
son's "Irrigation Engineering" (|4), the 
fourth edition of which has Just been 
Issued, revised and enlarged. Neweirs 
"Irrigation" (|2), is a discussion of the 
subject from the economic standpoint 
and also contains much which is of direct 
value to the engineer. Mead's "Irriga- 
tion Institutions" ($1.25), is a valuable 
treatise upon the legal aspects of irriga- 
tion questions showing the need of some 
central authority in state or nation. 

A review of Mead's book will be found 
in Municipal Engineering, vol. xxv, p. 270 
and one of Newell' s book in vol. xxiii. 
p. 294. A review of Wilson's book will 
appear later. 

» 

OWNERSHIP OP OLD MATERIAL43 
DISPLACED BY NEW CON- 
STRUCTION. 

I am the contractor for a "court" ditch 
in the town of Boswell. It Is a common 
tile drain on the line of an old county 
ditch and I am liifting the old tile. Do 
they belong to me or to the town or to 
the people who paid for them when they 
were laid? There Is about a hundred 
rods of the old 12-inch tile. The con- 
tract says nothing about the old tile. 
Boswell Is an incorporated town. 

The line goes under the railroad track. 
Can the railroad company make me fur- 
nish anything but the common drain tile 
that the plans call for? 

B. F. DIMMICK. Boswell, Ind. 

Detailed answer to these questions can 
only be made by an attorney who has 
carefully examined the provisions of the 
contract and knows the law governing 



ihls kind of work. A few general ob- 
servations may not be out of place, how- 
ever. If Boswell Is an Incorporated town 
the old materials would belong to the 
town in case nothing was said about 
them in the contract The contractor Is 
probably to some extra expense in re- 
moving them, which should be a claim 
against them, partly offsetting their 
value. If the contratjt Is with a drain- 
age district, the old materials would 
probably be considered as belonging to 
the district. They could probably not be 
claimed by Individuals who paid the as- 
F.essments levied for the construction of 
the old drain. In that case their value 
to the contractor after removal, duo al- 
lowance being made for their condition 
and the extra e.-ipense of removal, might 
well be made a charge against the con- 
tractor, or they ijnlght be sold and the 
money turned in to reduce ihc aaspss- 
ment for the new drain. The attorney 
could give the legal steps necessary. 

The railroad company probably has the 
right to prescribe the kind of construc- 
tion which It will require under Its tracks 
and right-of-way, provided It does not af- 
fect the main purpose of the drain. Un- 
less the matter of extra expense In cross- 
ing the right-of-way is settled on the con- 
tractor by some provision of the con- 
tract, this extra work an3 extra expense 
for different material wculd probably be 
chargeable to the drainage district or the 
town as an extra, over and above the 
contract price. The railroad doubtless 
pays an assesment for the drain, but this 
would be independent of the question of 
the cost of making the crossing. Snme 
roads insist upon doing the work on th<»ir 
own rights-of-way under their own of- 
ficials and occasionally by their own men. 
It may be quite a complicated matter for 
settlement which would require direct as- 
sistance from the legal profession. 



MAKERS OF AND DEALERS IN CAST 
IRON WATER PIPE AND SPECIALS. 

Will you kindly give me the names and 
addresses of some cast Iron water pipe 
and casting makers in Chicago, St. Paul 
and other middle west points? 

W. N., Windsor, Ont. 

There Is but little cast iron pipe man- 
ufactured in the district named. The fol- 
lowing firms have offices in Chicago, viz.: 
James B. Clow & Sons and the U. S. Cast 
Iron Pipe and Foundry Company, 217 La 
Salle-st., the latter having foundries lo- 
cated In many places. 

William B. Scaife & Sons. Pittoburg. 



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THE QUESTION DEPARTMENT. 



25 



Pa., make riveted steel pipe as shown by 
their advertisement In this magazine. 

The American Car and Foundry Com- 
pany has offices at 706 Chestnut-st, St. 
Ix»ui8, Mo.t and the Colorado Fuel and 
Iron Company. Denver, Colo, makes pipe 
from three to twenty-four Inches in diam- 
eter. 

Nearly all the pipe foundries are located 
south and east of Ohio. 



INFORMATION ON DREDGES. 

Is there any book on the use of dredges 
in cutting drainage ditches? 

H. G. P., Moline. 111. 

There seems to be no book on the mar- 
ket discussing this subject. The only 
sources of information open are the en- 
gineering and drainage publications and 
the proceedings of societies. The old 
« "Drainage Journal," now combined with 
the "Clay worker" at Indianapolis, Ind., 
has in its back numbers some interesting 
information upon this particular class 
of dredging. 

Can our readers refer us to publications 
on this subject, either books or periodi- 
cals? 

» 

ASSESSMENTS FOR SIDEWALKS AT 
STREET INTERSECTIONS. 

Will you inform me as to general prac- 
tice in assessing cost of sidewalk con- 
struction at street intersections? Is it 
customary to charge comer lots with that 
part of the sidewalk extending from the 
property line to the cross-walk or cross- 
ing? For instance, a street is 80 feet in 
width and divided as follows: A 9-foot 
grass plat next to property line, a 6-foot 
sidewalk and an 8-foot grass plat between 
walk and curb, with 34-foot roadway. This 
plan requires 40 feet of walk at each cor- 
ner. Should this be a charge against cor- 
ner lots or apportioned to all lots within 
the block or borne by the city as a gen- 
eral expense? Cases of this kind some- 
times arise when all lots within the blQck 
affected have previously constructed the 
walk abutting their property, excepting 
the comers. 

S., Havre, Mont 

The older custom Is for the sidewalks 
to be considered practically the private 
property of the property-owner, and in 



Where the town exercises a little con- 
trol over the kind and cost of sidewalks, 
largely by sufferance, it is most likely 
to pay the expense of these extensions. 

Many cities pay a share of the cost to 
induce property owners to put down a 
better class of walks. Thus the north- 
ern cities which are desirous of displac- 
ing the old wooden sidewalks wtih cement 
or trick offer to pay out of the city 
treasury a certain proportion of the cosi 
of the better walk, which may or may not 
make it cost less than the plank walk. In 
such cases the city's contribution is like- 
ly to be considered payment in full of its 
share and the remainder- of the cost is as- 
sessed in the way in vogue in the city, 
though, even here, if the cost of the bet- 
ter walk is greater to the property own- 
ers than that of the cheap one the city 
may pay for these excess walks at the 
street intersections. 

It is hardly equitable to require the cor- 
ner lot to pay the cost of the forty feet 
of walk referred to, and in case the pri- 
vate ownership idea prevails, this part of 
the walk might well be considered the 
property of the city and be paid for as 
such out of the city treasury. This is per- 
haps the most satisfactory method under 
such conditions. 

The most modern idea, however, and 
that which gives the most satisfaction 
when it is once in vogue, is to consider 
sidewalk improvements as upon exactly 
the same basis as street improvements. 
In that case the sidewalks at the inter- 
sections of streets would be paid for in 
the same way that pavement of the road- 
ways of the intersections is paid for. In 
Indiana cities, for example, where the 
proi^erty owners pay all the cost of the 
pavements, the cost of the entire side- 
walk would be assessed against the ag- 
gregate frontage and the cost of the in- 
tersections would thus be distributed over 
the entire frontage on the walk. In case 
some walks are already constructed, the 
cost of the intersections may be com- 
puted separately and property not com- 
ing under the assessment for walk abut- 
ting it would receive a small assessment 
for these intersections. In another class of 
cities, where the city can or must pay a 



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26 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



LIMBSTONB IN A CORD— GRABS IN 
GUTTBRS. 
Will you kindly Inform me as to the 
number of pounds of limestone thst it 
takes to make a cord? Also the best way 
to prevent grass from growing through 
cobblestone gutters. 

FRSD T. WILLIAMS. 
City Engineer, Petoskey, Mich. 

A cord of stooe is presumably the same 
as a cord of wood. 4 by 4 by 8 feet or U8 
cubic feet If the Umestone. quarried in 
Irregular fragments, is piled in cord form 
1 cubic yard of the solid stone in the 
quarry will make about 1% cubic yards 
in the pile, according to Trautwine. and 
the pile will weigh 96 pounds per cubic 
foot, as against 168 pounds for the solid 
rock. This would make a piled cord of 
limestone weigh 128x96. or 12.288 pounds. 

The only way known to the writer to 
keep the grass permanently out of the 
cobblestone gutters is to All the spaces 
between them completely. ThL« can be 
done by laying them In a bed of concrete 
or mortar, or if they are already laid, 
by cleaning out the Joints and niUng 
them with Portland cement mortar. Per- 
haps some of our readers will report their 
experience. 

■ » 

CITIES PUMPING S9WAGB. 

Mr. N. S. Frost. City Engineer of Peta- 
luma, Cal.. makes the following addition 
to our information about cities which are 
obliged to pump their sewage: 

In reply to your inquiry on page 178 of 
the September Number of your magasine, 
in regard to cities that have sewer pump- 
ing plants. I would say that Santa Crus. 
Cal. (population in 1900, 5,668) pumps near- 
ly all its sewage over a bluff into the Pa- 
cific Ocean. I do not think It possible to 
ascertain the cost, as the same power is 
used for pumping and to run the lights 
and whatever may be the system now. at 
the time I was City Engineer, (during the 
early 908.) no separate accounts were kept. 
I know that the cost of operating the 
station was considerable. 



The main portion of the town Ues in a 
basin, and the only outlet to the ocean 
is at the foot of the Main street, too close 
to the bathing beach to permit the dis- 
charge of sewage. Hie sewage of that 
portion of the town is collected in a res- 
ervoir and pumped over the hknSL at a 
point where the current carries it ams» 
The lift from the bottom of tbe rmmt 
voir is about sixty feet No storm water 
or roof water is allowed to enter the 
sewers, but the last thousand feet or so 
of the pipe runs through a swamp and 
the leakage through defective Joints adds 
a great deal to tbe quantity to be pump- 
ed, and of course to the expeaes. 

The dty of San Rafael. Cat (population 
8.879) also had at one time a pumping 
plant, but I believe that they have aban- 
doned it on account of the expense and 
constructed a gravity outfall in place of 
it 



PLATES FOR NUMBERING HOUSES. 

I am in need of various kinds of num- 
ber plates for numbering Of houses, so 
that property owners can have a choice 
of styles, as I have a contract to renum- 
ber the city. Please give me the adresses 
of Manufacturers in stamped and cast 
metals, nickel plated, etc 

W. P. B. , C3ku 

Perhaps the FrankUn Rolling MiU and 
Foundry Company of FrankUI^ Pa., 
whose advertisement of street signs will 
be found in our Mvertislng pages, can 
furnish house numbers also. 

If not the following may be referred to: 

Arcade Mfg. Co. brass and aluminum 
house numbers, Freeport, 111. r 

Trevor F. Jones A Co.. 874 W. Broad- 
way, New York City. 

Nicol A Co.. B7 W. Washington, C^hl- 
cago, m. 

Enameled Iron Company, Beaver 
Falls. Pa. 

Dayton Stencil Company, Dayton, O. 

Wadsworth Engraving Company, 
Springfield, O. 



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1. MORSE-BOULGEB DESTRUCTOR AND GREEN'S ECONOMIZER IN LIT BROS.* 
DEPARTMENT STORE, PHILADELPHIA' 




2. MORSB-BOULGER DESTRUCTOR, STANDARD No. 1. 



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GARBAGE DliPOJAL 



The Sanitary Disposal of Municipal 

and institutional Waste by 

Cremation. 

The following selections from a paper 
by W. P. Morse, sanitary engineer, read 
at the recent meeting of the American 
Public Health Association, give a clear 
statement of the principal reasons for the 
success in garbage destruction in Eng- 
land and the practical failure in this coun- 
try. 

A review of the work accomplished In 
the field of disposal of city waste by cre- 



radical changes in methods of business, in 
design, material and construction. 

Tet not all the skill and experience ob- 
tained from years of work in this line 
has been lost, or allowea to remain un-' 
productive. Distinct advances have been 
made in the direction of the sanitary de- 
struction of the waste of great business 
establishments, public and private insti- 
tutions, and in certain departments of the 
government. 

In the basement of several large depart- 
ment stores have been placed destructor 
furnaces connected witn the upper sto- 



3. MORSE-BOULGEB DESTRUCTOR, 
St. Luke's Hospital, New York City, After Ten Years' Use. 



mation will show that in three years a 
number of furnaces have been put in op- 
eration which' for various reasons have 
been retired from service, abandoned or 
suppressed. 

It would be a hopeless task to enumer- 
ate in detail the various mstances of fail- 
ure, or to explain the causes of the un- 
satisfactory results that have been at- 



ries of the building by a chute which car- 
ries the waste to a room where it is 
sorted over by men in charge of the 
operation of the plant, the valuable por- 
tions recovered for market and the re- 
mainder used as fuel for the destructor. 

This method of dealing with department 
stores waste is expeditious, sanitary and 
inexpensive. The heat produced by the 



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4. MOKSE-HOULGEK DKSlRUCTOR, 
Disposal SlatioD Kings Coanty Institutions, Brooklyn. 



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30 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



of the establishment. This means a sav- 
ins of from three to four tons of coal 
per day during the time that the waste 
is used. The plan of the destructor is 
shown more clearly in the perspective 
drawing, Fig. 2. 

In another case the heat from a de- 
structor furnace is introduced under the 
Are boxes of a boiler of a very large ca- 
pacity and is used as auxiliary for the 
production of steam power. Again, in an- 
other instance, a steam boiler is attached 
to the destructor placed in the basement 
of a large hotel which has a daily ca- 
pacity of upwards of four tons of gar- 
bage. 



the emplo3rment of destructor furnace* 
which the experience of four years has 
shown to be a factor for sanitation and 
economy in the administration of the 
municipal government. 

This form of disposal of city waste has 
been carried farther by the installation 
of a Refuse Utilization station in Bos- 
ton, views of the exterior and interior of 
which are shown in Figs. 5 and 6. , 

The city of Buffalo is about to construct 
a similar plant which will recover a large 
proportion of the valuable parts of the 
city refuse and consume the remainder In 
a destructor, the heat from which will be 
utilized to pump the sewage of a large 



6. THE MOBSB-BOULGER DESTRUCTOR. INTERIOR REFUSE UTILIZATION 

STATION, BOSTON. 



Among the first in the country to recog- 
nize the value of destructor furnaces were 
the sanitariums, hospitals and similar 
public and private institutions, and for 
more than twelve years m some of the 
large cities of the country the waste of 
hospitals and institutions has been de- 
stroyed without unsanitary results and 
with perfect economy and efficiency. Fig. 
3 shows the Morse-Bouiger destructor In 
St, Luke's Hospital, New Yorlc City, 



section of the city containing nearly 
200.000 of the population. 

There Is no place in the world where 
the destruction of municipal waste is or 
more importance than In the tropics, 
since ^e rapid decay which seizes upon 
all rejected animal and vegetable sub- 
stances requires swift and efficient meth- 
od of disposal. 

When Manila was taken possession of by 
the American troops it was found that 



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7. THE MORSB-BOULGER DESTRUCTOR AT MANILA, 
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 




8. MELDRUM TOP-FEED "SIMPLEX. 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING, 



city. It is one of the largest single plants 
in operation in the United States. Re- 
ports from there indicate that there is 
destroyed by this furnace a larger amount 
of waste than was stipulated for in the 
contract, which was to be upwards of 
120 tons daily. 

The secret of. the rapid and complete 
combustion of this waste is a matter 
which has heretofore baffled most Ameri- 
can crematory builders. When garbage 
is destroyed in the ordinary American 
crematory by natural chimney draft the 
heat rarely rises to a temperature above 
800 to 1,000 degrees. The proportion of 40 
to 60 degrees of moisture in the garbage 
delays ignition and comDustion, and the 
use of fuel for the e>apui*ation of this 
water is necessary. But if combustion is 



sanitarian, Lord Kelvin, when he said 
that the waste of any city when properly 
consumed and the heat applied to the 
production of electric power, would be 
sufficient to furnish a light of eight 
candle power for every individual in the 
city during the three hours when light is 
necessary. At the time when this state- 
ment was made it appeared to present a 
fanciful and impossible idea, but it has 
been more than realized by the results of 
practical work. Within four or five years 
there has developed in England a olass of 
destructor which will consume every kind 
of municipal waste without nuisance, will 
developed steam power in the proportion 
of one and one-half to two pounds of 
water evaporated for every pound of 
waste consumed, and will produce a resi- 



9. CROSS-SECTION MELDRUM DESTRUCTOR. 



stimulated by forced draft in the ashpit 
of the fire boxes, and the manipulation 
and charging of the furnace are so man- 
aged as to dry a portion of the garbage 
for use as fuel, combustion is not only 
maintained but is raised to a higher tem- 
perature than it is possible to attain by 
natural draft. This is the principle upon 



duum useful for many kinds of municipal 
work. 

Reports received from the latest instal- 
lations of this powerful apparatus shotr 
that the actual results are overwhelming- 
ly in support of the statement made by 
Lord Kelvin. 

A paper read by Mr. W. F. GkK>drich, 



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10. LONGITUDINAL SECTION BEAMAN St DBAS DESTRUCTOR, 
With Steam Boiler, Air Blast, etc. 



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34 MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 

innovation, onlyi some five or six years refuse will £^enerate a similar quantity of 

in use, is the really vita: Mnprovement in high pressure steam. 

furnace construction. By this means the Of the 180 towns in Great Britain where 

temperature has been raised from 500 de- destructors are installed sixty-three com- 

greee in 1S96 at Hull before the adoption bine these with electricity works for the 

of forced draft to 3,000 degrees in 1902 at lighting of the streets, and in forty towns 

Walker-on-Tyne. these destructors are combined with the ^ 

It has led to the use of powerful steam sewage works. From one ton of town's 

boilers developing one-horse power of refuse 40 B. T. electrical units are gener- 



ic. MAP OF ENGLAND AND WALES, 
Indicating Number of Destructor Furnaces in Use. 

steam from the combustion of ten poimds a ted at Nelson, the average being 80 units 
of "town's refuse"— corresponding to our per ton, equivalent to 40 h. p. hours of 



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[MUNICIPAL MATTERS IN COURT. 



35 



to the minimum. They are placed in close 
proximity to pubUc offices, scbools and 
all claaaes of buildings, wHbout objection- 
able results such as noxious fumes or 
offensive odors. 

In three cases the destructors are com- 
bined with waterworks, and the city 
thus delivers its water supply by the 
destruction of its waste. 

T)ier« are 1,660 destructor cells in oper- 
ation or in course of construction in Great 
Britain, with 300 steam boilers employed. 

Figs 8, 9 and 10 show sections of prom- 
inent successful furnaces used in England 
and Fig. 11 is a photograph of the Bea- 
man and Deas Destructor In use at Dar- 
wen. England. Fig. 12 is a map showing 
the location of refuse destructors In Eng- 
land and Wales and shows In the clearest 
possible manner the extent of the devel- 
opment in twenty-five years, much of it 
having taken place in the last six or 
eight years. 

Destructors have been built after tho 
same plans in Australia, New Zealand, 



South Africa, Germany. France, Belgium 
and South America, which destroy the 
miscellaneous city waste of every class, 
employing the steam power for various 
purposes, and operating in the same effi- 
cient, sanitary and entrrery satisfactory 
manner that has been so well demon- 
strated by the work performed In Eng- 
lish cities and towns. 

This, then, is the successful result w» 
should look forward to In this country. 
There is no radical difference in tho 
character of the people and the manner 
of living, or in the nature of the waste 
elements discharged from the life of the 
people. With the .same agencies acting 
under similar conditions, employed upon 
the s&me class of work, it Is as certain 
as daylight that equally profitable results 
are to be attained. It is only a matter of 
a clear understanding of the results 
achieved abroad, and of opportunity for 
the application of the same methods in 
this country. 



MUNICIPAL riATTERi 
IN COURT 



Higher Courts—JopUn Ughting Plant -Indiana Gravel Road Law— Front Foot 
Assessments— Extras on Contract— Logansport Street Assessments- 
Houston Water- Works— Sioux Palls Water Plant. 



Abstract* from Decisions of the High- 
er Courts. 

Assessments of Railroad Rigrht-of-Way 
—B.. 3. 1£88 sec. 120, provides that 
a railroad right-of-way shall he 
taxed as personalty, and that such 
right-of-way gives the company only an 
easement in the land. It was held, how- 
ever, that the company was liable for an 
assessment for the improvement of such 
road bed as for any other real estate. 
But in determining the amount of the as- 
sessment the commissioners may not 
adopt the valuation placed upon the road 
bed and right-of-way by the corporation 
commission, because the railroad com- 
missioners In their determination of value 
consider elements other than the value of 
the land and the improvements thereon. 
In determining the amount of the assess- 
ments only these elements of value may 



be considered.— Cheatham County Com- 
missioners vs. Seaboard, etc., 45 S. E. 
Rep. (N. C.) 606. 

Assessments— The statute provides that 
cities of the third class shall pay for 
paving and curbing streets, which they 
have previously graded, by a special as- 
sessment. The ordinance may Include the 
cost of grading In this special assess- 
ment, if in the Judgment of the council, 
this general fund of the city does not 
warrant such an expense, providing such 
ordinance declares the general fund in- 
sufficient. In this case the ordinance did 
not declare the general fund to be in- 
sufficient to pay the expense of grading 
and the contractor was not permitted to 
I'ecover against the abutting property 
owners on tax bills issued to him.— City 
of Sedalia, etc. vs. Abell et al. 76 s w. 
rep. (Mo.) 497. 



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36 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



Assessment Warrant, Must Be Paid— 
This was an action to enforce an 
apportionment warrant for the construc- 
tion of a sidewalk. The work was done 
under section 3706, st. 1899, which does not 
require the town trustees to permit the 
property-owner to do his own work. How- 
ever, the trustees did g\ ve defendant such 
privilege. It was then discovered that the 
ordinance as passed did not justify the 
privilege granted, and the defendant wa& 
compelled to pay the warrant. It was also 
held that after the work has been ac- 
cepted by the council the defendant will 
not be heard to say that the street grade 
was not properly fixed. Eversole vs. 
Walsh. 16 S. W. Rep. (Ky.) 358. 

Time for Assessment Defense— This was 
a suit for a delinquent special assess- 
ment. In relation to the different ques- 
tions raised the court found— 1, that where 
a judgment has been entered confirming 
a special assessment under an ordinance 
which has been subsequently repealed, 
the property-owner may Interpose this 
judgment as a defense In the proceedings 
for the making an assessment .for the 
same Improvement authorized by a sub- 
sequent ordinance, but— 2, this defense 
may not be made (sec. 48, c 23, Hurd56 
R. S. 1899) to an application for judgment 
for sale for delinquency. It must be made 
at a proper ilme. People ex-rel. Raymond 
et al. vs. Fuller. 69 N. E. Rep. (111.) 371. 

Collection of Water Works Rantals— 
The unanimous vote of the city council 
to accept offered terms authorizes the In- 
stallation of water works but dot»3 not 
authorize the Mayor to. sign a contract 
for water and silence of Council upor. his 
report is not ratification of it. The city 
may assess more than five mills on the 
dollar for payment of water rentals. Tht 
city cannot defeat recovery of rentals 
when it has recognized plaintiff as owner 
of works by showing that it has not 
consented to the assignment of the 
original contract to the plaintiff. Marlon 
Water Company vs. City of Marlon. 96 
N. W. Rep. (Iowa) 883. 

Lighting Contracts— The charter of 
the city of St. Paul provides that the 
acceptance of bid for the lighting of city 
streets, pursuant to a notice and accord- 
ing to plans and specifications, is a pro- 
ceeding to be taken only by resolution, 
ordinance or by-law. An action by the 
Council whereby It accepted such a bid 
by motion is void. Broderlck vs. City of 
St. Paul et al., 97 N. W. Rep. (Minn.), 118. 

Sldewa'.k Construction— The statute pro- 
vides that a sidewalk ordinance may re- 
quire all abutlng property owners to con- 
struct sidewalks upon their abutting prop- 
erty, etc., and court held that may shall 



be read shall. When the council deter- 
mines that certain sidewalks shall be con- 
structed and paid for by special taxation, 
this is finding that such walks are need- 
ed and t*iat the property will be benefit- 
ted to the amount of the taxation. This 
finding will not be Interfered with In 
the absence of an abuse of discretion, 
Plerson vs. People, ex rel Walter, 68, N. 
E. Rep. (111.) 383. 

Sidewalk Grades— Grades of streets 
may be established for the building of 
sidewalks by ordinance and not by 
resolution. An ordinance prescribes a 
permanent rule of. conduct of govern- 
ment, while ^ a resolution is of a special 
and temporary character. It was held 
that an ordinance providing that there 
should be an excavation of earth four 
inches below the established grade, "ex- 
cept where it would be better, on account 
of drainage, to excavate less or grade 
up at low places," was defective in fall- 
ing to show a grade with sufficient cer- 
tainty.— McDowell vs. People ex rel. Mar- 
tin, etc. 68 N. E. Rep. (111.), 879. 

Petition for Local Improvements— The 
statute provides "that when any ten resi- 
dent owners" of real property in any city 
etc., shall petition the City Council for 
any local Improvement, such Council shall 
lay out the entire city or part thereof, as 
the case may be. Into improvement dis- 
tricts. A petitioner must not only be an 
owner of real estate in a given district, 
but a resident thereof; and the provisions 
of this statute are mandatory and juris- 
dictional. Board etc., No. 60 vs. Cotter, 
76 S. W. Rep. (Ark.) 552. 



Joplin, Mo., May Build Its Own Light- 
ing Plant. 

The United States Supreme Court ren- 
dered a decision recently in the case of 
the city of Joplln, Mo., vs. the Southwest 
Missouri Light Company, in favor of the 
city. The right of the city to erect a 
municipal electric light plant to be oper- 
ated in competition with those of the 
present light company was involved. 



Indiana's Gravel Road Law Is Consti- 
tutional. 

The Indiana Supreme Court has de- 
clared constitutional the gravel road law 
enacted last spring. Suit was brought by 
Melvin L. Bowlin to prevent the con- 
struction of a road in Tlptoh county and 
the collection of assessments for Its cost. 
He claimed that the title was defective 
and provided for taking property without 
due process of law; also that it conferred 
class privileges. 



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MUNICIPAL MATTERS IN COURT. 



37 



Indiana Form of Front Foot Asseta- 
ment Law Upheld. 

The Indiana law for the assessment of 
the cost of street Improvements was up- 
held in an opinion handed down by the 
United States Supreme Court at Wash- 
ington, Nov. 90. 

A property owner in Irvlngton, Indiana, 
was assessed over 16,000 for street 
Improvements. She resisted payment and 
the contractor foreclosed and obtained 
Judgment. She appealed to the United 
States Supreme Court, alleging that the 
act of the Indiana Legislature, under 
which the assessment was made, is un- 
constitutional, in that it provides for an 
assessment by the front foot. She also 
alleged that no hearing was had before 
the Board of Town Trustees to deter- 
mine the actual benefits; that all of the 
members of the board were residents of 
the town and taxpayers, and that two of 
them were interested parties because they 
owned lots abutting on the improvement 
and that its acts were therefore nuga- 
tory. The United States Supreme Court 
holds that an arbitrary assessment by the 
front foot would be unconstitutional, but 
it explains that, under the Indiana law, 
the front foot assessment is subject to 
alteration or review by the Board of 
County Commissioners or the Board of 
Town TrtHiteee, upon a basis of special 
benefits and that, if the commissioners or 
trustees refuse to consider the question 
of special benefits, the property holder's 
remedy is by mandamus or injunction to 
compel a bearing as to the amount of as- 
sessment on each lot, and, further, that 
a lot owner cannot waive such a remedy 
and make a denial of a hearing available 
as a defense in an action to collect an as- 
sessment. The Supreme Court says it 
finds nothing in the law repugnant to the 
constitution of the United States and 
therefore it is upheld. 

The argument that two members of the 
town board were Interested property own- 
ers is disposed of as follows: 

Although it might have been more 
seemly for those two members, if they 
recollected the fact of such ownership, 
to have refused to act In the matter, yet 
there is nothing to show their attention 
was called to the fact. 

The judgment of the Indiana Supreme 
Court is affirmed and the costs are 
charged against the plaintiff. 



McKechney contracts on the northwest 
land tunnel of the Chicago water works. 
The contractors sued the city of Chi- 
cago for extras on their tunnel work 
which the city had refused to pay. The 
city claimed that the contractors had not 
fulfilled their contract on their section 
of the underground construction; also, 
that they had used material of a kind 
which was not specified in the contract. 
The amount at stake with interest was 
al>out 1700,000. 



Logansport Street Attetsment Af- 
firmed. 

The Indiana Supreme Court handed 
down a decision Dec. 11 sustaining the 
judgment of the Cass County Circuit 
Court in a case filed against the Central 
Bermudez Company by Lizzie W. Brown 
et al., at Logansport, Ind. The plaintiff 
asked that the assessment against her 
property for paving Market-st. with as- 
phalt, be paid by the city or charged 
against the account of the Asphalt Com- 
pany. The complaint set forth that the 
improvement was ordered when 81 per 
cent, of the property-owners wer§ against 
the improvement and that the council 
passed the order without a two-thirds 
vote, which waa specified by 'aw. The 
decision of the Supreme Court is as fol- 
lows: 

(1) A stipulation that all matters bear- 
ing on the rights of the parties may be 
proved and considered under the plead- 
ings, as they theh are, waives prior ex- 
ceptions to rulings on demurrers. (2) 
Where a city council proceeds under sec- 
tion 4,292, Burns, to pave a street at the 
expense of abutting owners, without a 
preliminary petition for the improvement. 
It Is not essential to jurisdiction that two- 
thirds of the council shall vote In the firdt 
instance for an order that the Imorbve- 
ment be made and that the clerk shall 
advertise for bids, if -the necessary two- 
thirds vote in favor of entering into a 
contract with the successful bidder. If 
such vote is cast, and the proceedings 
thereafter until the assessments are con- 
firmed be regrular, such assessments are 
proof against a collateral attack on the 
ground that a bare majority first ordered 
the Improvement. (3) The preliminary 
acts of the council are ministerial only. 



Suit for Extras on Chicago Water 

Works Tunnel Decided. 

The Illinois Supreme Court refused a 
hearing in the Weir, McKechney & Co. 
case, Dec. 16, which case grew out of the 



Houston Water Works Construction 

Enjoined. 

A recent decision by Judge Waller T. 
Burns of the United States Courts for 
the southern district of Texas, completely 
ties up the city of Houston on the water 
works proposition until a hearing can be 
had at the next term of the Federal 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



Court, which convenes in February. The 
city could resort to filing a motion to 
dissolve the temporary restraining oider 
continued in force by the decision of 
Judge Burns, thereby securing a disso- 
lution of the order prior to that time. 
Judge Burns continued in force the tem- 
porary restraining order granted by Cir- 
cuit Judge McCormick at Ft. Worth. The 
city did not file an answer in the case, 
but simply a pleading denying the Juris- 
diction of the Federal Court over thlff 
case. The court holds as follows : 

1. That the plea of the city to the 
jurisdiction of the court be overruled. 

2. That the injunctions heretofore 
granted by Judge McCormick be con- 
tinued. 

3. That the city be required to remove 
the sanitary sewers emptying into Buf- 
falo bayou above the water company's 
dam. and also to remove and abate the 
polluting nuisance complained of in the 
plaintirs bill. 

4. That the city be enjoined from ad- 
vertising for bids, or attempting to enter 
into any contract, in derogation of ltd 
contract with the water company, for 
supplying to the city water for flre 
hydrants and public purposes and from 

'otherwise attempting to enforce the ordi- 
nance of Oct 6, 1903, declaring the fran- 
chise of the water company forfeited 
and its contract with the city terminated. 

5. That the city be enjoined from en- 
forcing any reduction of rates for water 
furnished to private citizens. 

6. That the city be enjoined from tak- 
ing water from the water company and 
using same without paying for it. or pro- 
viding for the payment thereof, in a man- 
ner satisfactory to the water company. 



Sioux Falls May Complete Its Water 

Plant. 

In a decision rendered by Judge John 
E. Carland of the Federal Court, Nov. 
12. he refused to issue a temporary In^ 
junction restraining the citty of Sioux 
Falls. 8. D., from proceeding further 
in the construction of a new water 
plant. The South Dakota Water Works 
Company has sought to impede, step by 
step, the work of the city. The cohi- 
pany has always met with defeat in the 
state and federal courts. Judge Carland 
holds that the issue of $210,000 water 
works bonds is valid. The decision Is as 
follows: 

The application for a temporary in- 
junction is addressed to the sound dis- 



as true. Taking them as true, a case 
for a temporary Injunction is stated, if 
•there are not other facts appearing 
which must control the discretion of the 
court. This action, speaking now of the 
original bill and cross-bill, has been a 
continuing menace to the peaceful con- 
struction of a S3'stem of water works by 
the city of Sioux Falls, ever since Nov. 
30. 1901, and will continue to be until 
Its merits are finally decided by an ap- 
pellate court. Notwithstanding the pend- 
ency of this action, it appears from the 
undisputed statement of the mayor of the 
city, uncler oath, that the city of Sioux 
Falls is now engaged in building and con- 
structing a system of water works for do- 
mestic uses. That said city has already 
purchased pipe for entire system, about 
ten miles of which have already been laid 
in the ground, and the balance of naid 
pipe is on the ground ready to be laid 
and is being laid daily by the contrac- 
tors. That said city has already pur- 
chased necessary engines, boilers, pump- 
ing plant, pumping station and all other 
machinery necessary to complete the 
same. .That some of the machinery tht^t 
has been ordered in special work and 
manufactured especially for said plant. 
That the money already actually paid out 
for material and labor in the construe* 
tion of said plant, and the machinery, 
material and work already done, all of 
which has been purchased or let by con- 
tract, amount to about $190,600. That 
everything needed for the building and 
construction of said water works system, 
ready for use, with the exception of one 
or two items, has already been purchased 
or contracted for. The city in so doing 
has assumed the risk of an advei'se de- 
cision in this case, but that is not the 
question now before the court. 

The question now is: What riffht or 
property of the South Dakota Water 
Company will be injured prior to the 
hearing of this case on the merits, by re- 
fusing a temporary Injunction? It is diffi- 
cult to see any injury at all. On the other 
hand, what Inconvenience and damage . 
might result to the city if the temporary 
writ should Issue? The damage to the city 
If It shall finally be successful In this 
litigation would be great and irreparable. 
It would be nearly impossible to fix with 
intelligence the amount of the bond that 
would be necessary to protect the city in 
case the temporary writ should issue and 
be finally dissolved. 

The court, therefore, bearing in mind 
that courts of equity, should be very 
cautious In the use of the writ of Injunc- 
tion prior to the hearing on the merits, 
and In the exercise of a sound discretion, 
will balance the inconvenience and dam- 
age which the city might suffer by the 
issuance of the writ as against any in- 
jury that the water company ndght suffer 
therehv. and in so dnine the court flnd^ 



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Wttminston Filtration Contracts— Exten 5 loa of New York 5uppl\ ^Purifica- 
tion of Cincinnati Water Supply— Finances of New York Water 
Department— Concrete- Steel 5tandplpe. 



The Wilmington, Del., Water FIKration 
Contracts. 

The city of Wilmington, Del., is a city 
large enough to keep out of difficulties 
•due to failure to obtain independent ex- 
pert technical advice into which small 
cities so often fall, but it has not learned 
from its own past experience and is now 
In trouble over a contract for a new filter 
plant for Its waterworks, proposed to 
take the place of an old plant on which 
the city authorities did not take disin- 
terested advice, and which has proven in- 
adequate. 

The Water Board of the city made a 
contract in March, 1903, with the United 
States Sand Filtration Company for the 
preparation of plans for the proposed fll- 
' ter, the use of patent rights and the 
prospective supervision of construction in 
which were the following provisions, 
stated as briefly as possible: 

The company agrees to present prelim- 
inary plans for the entire plant within 
30 days, to receive the city's modifica- 
tions within 30 days, and to complete the 
plans in 90 days more, for which it is to 
receive 2% per cent, of the estimated 
cost of the works on completion of plans 
and an additional 2% per cent, of the con- 
tract price on letting the contract, pro- 
vided that is within the next three 
months, otherwise this second payment is 
to be the same as the first. The city >s 
given the right to use certain patents on 
•details, and any future patents of the 
company on payment of 10 per cent, of 
the estimated cost or the contract 
price, computed under the same 
conditions as the fee for plans- 
The company is to be free to 
bid on the construction and In case it 
receive the contract agrees to bond itself 
for HOO.OOO to $125,000 to construct accord- 
ing to contract, and that the plant will 
filter 4.000,000 gallons an acre per day. the 
filtrate to contain not more than 40 bac- 
teria per cubic centimeter on a three 
moBtlMr average: the company te make 
at its own expense any change necessary 
to produce this efllciency. In case the 
company obtains the contract it will re- 
ceive nothing for pRns and supervision. 



An arbitration board is provided for in 
case of disputes, the expense to be di- 
vided between city and company, one 
member to be chosen by each and the 
third by these two, or in case of failure to 
agree, to be chosen from three names 
given by the president of the American 
Society of Mining Engineers, the city to 
reject one, the company the second and 
leaving the third to serve. 

It is estimated in Wilmington that the 
15 per cent, of the contract might amount 
to 1187,500. 

It seems that when Mr. P. J. Ford be- 
came a member of the Water Board, 
some time after the making of the con- 
tract, he objected to its provisions and 
when the time came for the first pay- 
ment under It he procured large conces- 
sions from the company, whereby the 
company is to receive $65,000 In lieu of the 
sum computed as above, the company to 
give a bond of $150,000 for the efficiency 
of the plant and to defend the patents. 
Mr. L. K. Davis of the company was to 
receive $10,000 for services as consulting 
engineer. Mr. Ford considers this con- 
tract acceptable only because it is a 
great improvement over the first one— 
perhaps as great as could be obtained at 
that time. 

Mayor Bird refused to approve this con- 
tract and demanded the resignations of 
the other two members of the board, one 
of which was received. Upon the refusal 
of the other to resign he was removed 
by the City Council, and Mayor Bird 
asked Mr. Ford to select his two coK 
leagues to succeed them. 

The company has entered suit for the 
$20,000 under the new agreement and also 
a suit for $100,000 damages for breach of 
contract. 

The latest news from the city intimates 
the cancellation of the first contract by 
the Water Board if it is not already void 
on account of irregularities in its adop- 
tion, such as failure to secure the ap- 
proval of the city solicitor, as required 
by law; also that Mr. Davis will not be 
retained as consulting engineer. 

The sufficiency of the i>\pa3 and th6 
efficiency of the filtration /ystem have . 



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40 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



not been called in question, but the trou- 
bles of the Water Board are due to lack 
of proper consultation with the legal ad- 
visers of the city and also to a consider- 
able extent to lack of proper engineering 
advice. 

The moral is easily drawn, but its ap- 
plication to any particular case is not 
likely to be made under the present 
method of government of most American 
municipalities. 



Extension of New York's Water 
Supply. 

The final report of the special commis- 
sioners appointed by Mayor Low of New 
York City to advise regarding the ex- 
tension of the city's water supply was 
submitted to the board of estimate Dec. 
18. The commission recommends the im-« 
mediate construction of a filtration plant 
for the Croton water supply. The Housa- 
tonic, Wallkill and the Ten Mile rivers 
are discarded as possible sources of sup- 
ply because they flow Into anotAbi* state 
and to select them would be to invite 
litigation. These rivers had been regard- 
ed as some of the most likely sources 
for an additional supply. The commis- 
sion, which is composed of Messrs. John 
R. Freeman, Prof. William A. Burr and 
Rudolph Herlng, in reference to Brook- 
lyn and Long Island says: 

It has loQjg been known that both the 
shallow and deep lying sands of Long 
Island are saturated with water so as to 
fo'rm a great storage volume for that por- 
tion of the rainfall finding its way into 
the sub-surface sands. A large part of 
the commission's work has been devoted 
to investigating this question in order to 
determine, if practicable, what volume of 
water may be found In these sub-surface 
sands and to devise the best means of se- 
curing it. The Borough of Queens is 
pressingly In need of additional water, 
and the Borough of Brooklyn has also 
reached that point where It must have ad- 
ditional water of good quality. It has 
already begun to filter Its present sur- 
face supplies, which are more or less pol- 
luted by the increasing population of the 
southern portion of Nassau County. 
It is not generally known that ground 
• water constitutes one of the best posMblo 



this gn*eat underground storage on Long 
Island for the boroughs of Brooklyn and 
Queens, have prompted the Commission 
to make an exhaustive Investigation of 
that source. A large force under the 
Commission's direction was engaged in 
making observations upon the elevation 
of this ground water In nearly 1,500 wells, 
the greater part of which are the usual 
open country wel's and the remainder 
small driven wells made by the forces of 
the Commission. These investigations 
were extended over about 1,000 square 
miles of territory on Long Island, em-, 
bracing Queens Borough, Nassau County, 
and a portion of Suffolk County. These 
saturated sands, constituting this great 
underground storage volume, reach near- 
ly or quite to the surface at some points; 
but in the higher portions of the island 
they may be more than 100 feet below the 
surface. These investigations disclosed 
such a large volume of underground 
water that the Commission recommends 
extensions of the supplies for the Bor- 
oughs of Brooklyn and Queens In the di- 
rection of developing means for securing 
as puch as possible of it. At the same 
time the 500,000,000 gallon supply from the 
north is tc be made available for the 
same boroughs when desired, by suitable 
pipe ilnea extending across Bast river 
from the new high-service distributing 
reservoir north of the dty. 

The general recommendations are about 
as follows: 

It is recommended that works be imme- 
. diately begun for the filtration of the Cro- 
ton supply, and that all the new supplies 
be filtered. It Is also recommended that 
the reservoirs in Central Park be cleaned 
and that they be covered as soon as the 
Crotcn supply is filtered. 

The waste of water has been investi- 
gated and found largely due to defective 
plumbing and fixtures. The leakage from 
street mains is found to be less than here- 
tofore supposed. This problem of the 
amount of distribution of the water waste 
is an extremely difficult one, and it is 
recommended that these investigations be 
continued and extended by permanently 
districting the city for this purpose and 
ascertaining the infiow and outfiow for 
each district, and that the cause of ♦:he 
large night flow be more fully investi- 
gated. 






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otUt^V *f\* 



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WATER AND SEWERS. 



41 



opinion that notwithstanding the greatest 
possible reduction of waste a large addi- 
tional supply of water is imperative. 

It is foUhd that all boroughs of the dty 
of New York are in need of an Increased 
supply of water. The present supply Is 
already drawn upon to an extent that 
might lead to a dangerous shortage in a 
year of drought 

The cost is estimated at 189,000,000. 

♦ 

The Clarification of Qhio River Water 

at Cincinnati. 

The following paper by Frank J. Kel- 
ley before the Central States Water 
Works Association gives a brief and in- 
teresting account of the methods of puri- 
fication of Ohio river water to be used 
in the works now under construction at 
Cincinnati: 

As an employe of the Cincinnati water 
works. I have charge of the hydrant 
branches, meter and pipe extensions. One 
of the disturbers of my sleep and peace 
of mind is mud. Often I have been awak- 
ened at night to help some consumer out 
of his trouble, because of stoppage of his 
pipe or meter by mud. 

For the information of those who are 
not acquainted with the conditions of 
Cincinnati, it is necessary to state that 
the water of the Ohio river is delivered 
almost directly to the consumer, the res- 
ervoir capacity being so small that com- 
plete settlement of the water cannot take 
place. 

To give you an idea of the amount of 
mud handled by the pumps of the main 
pumping station of our water works, It 
is only necessary to examine the experi- 
ments made in 1896 under the direction 
of the Board of Trustees of the new 
water works. 

These exi>eriment8 show the followinfc 
facts: 

liaximum amount of mud 
per million gallons 2,833 gallons 

Minimum amount of mud per 
million gallons 24 gallons 

Normal amount of mud per 

million gallons 280 gallons 

Our last annual report gives the con- 
sumption of water to be as follows: 

Maximum daily consump- 
tion 57,803,675 gallons 

Minimum daily consump- , 
tion 28.647,087 gallons 

Average daily consump- 
tion 48,083.081 gallons 

Assuming for the sake of illustration 
that the greatest amount of mud was 
contained in the water on the day of 
least consumption, we have 66,168 gallons 



of mud delivered to the reservoirs on 
that day. 

Or take the normal amount of mud and 
the average daily consumption and we 
find that there is pumped 3.612.524 gallons 
of mud during the year. This put into 
one chunk would weigh 26.000 tons, or 
formed into a cube it would measure 
seventy-nine feet in every direction. So 
that you see my disturber is a very for- 
midable object. 

Tou can also see that to get rid of 
this mud becomes a very serious matter, 
and I have asked Mr. Bouscaren, the 
chief engineer of our new water works, 
how he was going to change our water, 
which is not alone rich in color but also 
in substance, into a clear water. He has 
taken great interest in explaining the 
plans to me and I repeat the explanation 
to you. 

For* a better understanding of the filter 
system, it will be necessary to give you 
a brief description of how the water 
from the Ohio river is delivered to it. 

The pumping station is situated on the 
north bank of the Ohio river about one- 
half mile above the Little Miami river. 
The Ohio here forms a pool, the depth 
of water being no less than twenty feet 
when the river is at the lowest stage. 

The intake tower is on the south bank 
of the river in Kentucky, close to the 
pumping stations of the cities of New- 
port and Covington. A tunnel, seven feet 
in diameter, sixty feet below the bottom 
of the river, connects the intake with the 
pump pit. The water is then pumped to 
the settling basins, located in the hiUs 
back of the pumping station. These 
reservoirs, of which there are two, have 
an available capacity of 350,000,000 gallons, 
I say available, because their contents 
are considerably greater, but the extra 
capacity is used to hold the sediment 
deposited during the settlement of the 
water. The depths of the reservoirs vary 
from 31 to 50 feet, the greatest depth 
being at the dams where a thirty-inch 
outlet is provided for the purpose of 
draining and cleaning them. 

The valve closing the outlet is located 
near the dam in the deepest portion of 
the reservoir and will be opened and 
closed by hydraulic power. The bottom of 
the reservoir descends from all points to 
this valve, thus enabling the cleaning to 
be done quickly, experience proving that 
this work should be performed at least 
once a year. 

The water will remain in these basins 
from 48 to 72 hours, depending upon the 
condition of the water In the river, and 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



during this time depositing about 75 per 
cent, of its impurities. 

The settled water can be delivered to 
the mixing basins from the reservoir at 
any depth. This Is done by means of a 
floating tube, which can be raised or low- 
ered through a vertical distance of thli-ty 
feet by chains operated through a wind- 
lass on the dam. The water from the set- 
tling basins is discharged into a well and 
this is connected with the mixing basins. 
There are two of these basins, one hav- 
ing a capacity of 20,000,000 and the other 
a capacity of 2,000,000 gallons of water, 
which will be used at different times, tie- 
pending upon the condition of the water 
in the river; the larger one being used 
when the river is muddy. 

As the water flows from the well It 
passes through a grating made of per- 
forated pipes into a large pipe connected 
at regular intervals with smaller pipes, 
which in turn discharge into the mixing 
bsusln. 

The water as it passes the grating is 
mixed with diluted alum in portions of 
one to four grains of alum per gallon, 
the average being 1V& grains, the amount 
of the alum depending upon the condition 
of the water. The alum is introduced 
through the perforated pipes forming the 
grating. From the mixing basins the 
water flows on through the Altering beds, 
where it receives its final treatment. 

The Altering beds will be enclosed and 
"the building can be heated by steam. 
They will be thirty-six in number and 
each will be about 50 feet long, 26 feet 
wide and 8 feet deep. They will be con- 
structed of concrete and the top will be 
surrounded by a trough, the bottom will 
be perforated so as to permit the Al- 
tered water to be discharged Into a pipe 
and from, it to the tunnel leading to an- 
other pumping station In the city, about 
four miles west. 

The flltering material, beginning ac the 
bottom, will consist of a bed of gravel 
eight inches in thickness, the gravel be- 
ing graded from the size of a walnut to 
the size of a buckshot, the larger s*.ze be- 
ing at the bottom. On top of this will be 

a layer of washed river sand three feet 
in depth. The water will be kept at a 
depth of about three feet. 

£:ach filter will have a dally capacity 

of from 2,500,000 to' 3,000,000 gallons. The 
total capacity will be from 80.000,000 to 
108,000.000 gallons daily. 
The water as It leaves 'the mixing ba- 



in the water. This film being a mechan- 
ical one, is formed at once and forms a 
coating on the surface of the sand. It 
is this film which arrests and holds most 
of such suspended matter which has hot 
combined with the alum and thus com- 
pletes the purification of the water. So 
well does It do its work that the ef- 
fluent will be 99 per cent. 

The rapJdity of the filtration makes it 
necessary to clean the filters every eight 
hours. This operation will consume about 
fifteen minutes. .The cleaning will be 
accomplished by draining the filter and 
forcing filtered water and air by means 
of a pump from the bottom to the top 
of the filter, the wash water running 
through the trough surrounding the filter 
and from the trough the water fiows Into 
the sewer. Five per cent, of the filtered 
water will be used in cleaning the filters. 

The amount of the alum to be used will 
be determined by a careful examination 
of the water as it comes on to the filter 
and as it leaves it. This can be quickly 
done by an examination for turbidity. 

The plans here described are based on 
extensive experiments made in ISfti. 

The expert engineers* commission of 1896 
recommended the English Fnter System. 
Owing to the fact that our water for 
half the time differs materially in Its 
character from the waters where thld 
method of purifloatlon has been success- 
ful it was recommended by the Board of 
Expert Engineers of 1897 as well as by 
Mr. Bouscaren and the consulting engi- 
neers of the present board, that before 
proceeding further sufficient reliable data 
should be obtained with reference to the 
local conditions. In accordance with the 
above recommendation an extensive ex- 
perimental plant was erected capable of 
handling 400.COO gallons per day, and after 
an expenditure of $40,000 and experiments 
extending over a period of nearly a year 
the following general results were found 
to be true: 

That settling for moris than seventy- 
two hours would not be practicable be- 
cause: First, the fine particles remain- 
ing a£ter seventy-two hours' settlement 
settle very slowly, the percentage of de- 
crease per day being seldom more than 
5 per cent, of the original for the fourth 
day and steadily decreasing thereafter; 
and second, the cost would be excessive; 
that even after settling the water for 
seventy- two hours and removing seventy- 
five per cent, of the mud, English filters 



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43 



enty-two hours, followed by treatment 
with alum varying from one to four errains 
per gallon, the desired purification can be 
obtained, filtration being at the rate of 
125,000,000 gallons per acre per day; that 
the amount of water required for washing 
the filter is about five per cent, of that 
filtered; that if ordinary care be used 
the amount of acid or alum in the fil- 
tered water will be so insignificant as to 
be harmless. 

» 

Finances of New York Water De- 
partment. 

Mayor Low of New York City indorses 
the report of the water supply commis- 
sion. Ho says in part the following: 

The report of the commission contem- 
plates an ultimate enlargement of tho 
city's supply, from the north, to the ex- 
tent of an additional 500.000.000 gallons 
per day. It is estimated that this sup- 
ply, with all necessary aqueducts, cser- 
voirs. filtering basins and pumps, can be 
procured for HOO.OOO.OOO and that It will 
asufflce to supply tho needs of the city for 
the next twenty-five or thirty years. 

As bearing upon the possibility of 
financing this large improvement, I ask 
your atten>tion to the fact that a consti- 
tutional amendment is to be voted upon 
next November which, if it be adopted, 
will exempt all water bonds of the city 
issued after Jan. 1. 1904. from the 10 
per oent. debt limitation of the state con- 
stitution. The necessity for this exemp- 
tion was foreseen by Comptroller Coler, 
and it is due to his efforts, as I under- 
stand, that the porposed amendment re- 
ceived the necessary assent of the first 
Legislature. 

When it came up for adoption the jiec- 
ond time by the Legislature of last win- 
ter, in accordance with the state consti- 
tution, it came into direct confiict with 
another provision of that instrument 
which provides that whenever any ques- 
tion of expenditure for the enlargement 
of canals is to be submitted to popular 
vote no constitutional amendment shall 
'be pending. When the Legislature ordered 
the submission of the canal question to 
the voters this year it was at first 
thought that the pending water debt 
amendment must fail. A happy sugges- 
tion of Corporation Counsel Rives, how- 
ever, saved the day and averted the ne- 
cessity of commencing again the tedious 
process of securing the submission to the 
people of the amendment desired by the 
city. He pointed out that the Legislature 
was entirely at liberty, in approving the 
proposed amendment, lo order tts sub- 
mis^on at any election which it pleased. 
The last legislature, therefore, gave its 
approval tc the amendment, and ordered 
it to be .submitted to the people In No- 



vember, 1904. I need scarcely point out 
to the city the Importance of securing fa- 
vorable action upon this amendment 
when it is submitted to the popular vote. 
The present annual income from water 
revenues for the whole city is substan- 
tially 19,000.000. The cost of maintenance 
is subsUnUally 12,000,000; interest, 12,600.- 
000; total, 16,200.000, showing a balance of 
18,800.000. There are outstanding, in round 
numbers, 177,000,000 of water bonds, for 
all parts of the city. Assuming a sinking 
fund of 1 per cent, for 50-year bonds, the 
amount anually required for this purpose 
would be $770,000. This shows a net profit 
from the present water works of some- 
thing over three millions of dollars, on 
the basis of present earnings. If it be as- 
sumed that the money necessary' for th,* 
new water works can be bororwed at 3% 
per cent., and that 1 per cent, is neces- 
sary to provide a sinking fund, a supply 
more than equal to that now available 
for Manhattan and The Bronx can be had 
for an annual charge of $2 o;.0.roo. The Ar- 
ures are: Interest on $60,000,000 at 3% per 
cent., $1,950,000; sinking fund provision, 
$60,000,000, at 1 per cent., $600,000; total, 
$2,550,000. In other words, the profit, on 
present earnings from water revenues, 
would more than pay for the new en- 
largement up to the extent of 32 million 
gallons. 

The income from water revenues has 
increased, during the last two years, at 
the rate of $450,00a to $500,000 per annum. 
There seems to be no reason why the 
water revenues should not increase at 
the rate of $450,000 annually, until the 
maximum supply is distributed. Every 
such Increase would be largely net profit. 
It may, therefore, be safely assumed 
that the new water supply will pay for 
itself as easily as the present water sup- 
ply does. It will not only do this, but 
it will pay, as the present supply would, 
for the cost of filtration. The commission 
have not had time to go into these 
fiflTures as regards the present Cnron 
supply; but the cost of the filter p'Ruts 
is included in the cost of increasing the 
present supply by the amount of 320 
million gallons daily, vis., $60,000,000. 

I conclude, therefore, tnat not only is 
the need for the enlarged supply im- 
mediate and urgent, but al»o that the 
new system will be more than self-sup- 
porting. 

» 

Concrete-Steel Standpipe. 

A steel concrete standpipe has just 
been completed for the water work* at 
MUford. O., which is regarded as novel. 
It has an 8-Inch wall at base. 5-Inch at 
top, 81 feet of water space in hlght and 
is 14 feet in diameter. The standpJpe was 
construoted by J. L. H. Barr of Batavla. 
Ohio. 



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PA VINO AND PA VINO 
riATERIALi 



Asphalt Company of Anerica— lUlian Asphalt— Bitullthic for County Roads-- 

BItullthIc in New York City— IllinoU Highway Commission— Oshkosh 

Improvements — Philadelphia Grade Crossings — Illinois River 

Bridges— Withholding Payment for Construction— Chitfsgo 

Construction News— Chicago Track Elevation— Joliet 

Track Elevation— Kansas City Work— Farmers 

Want Better Roads— Economk Design of 

Pavements-Street Oiling Specifications. 



Stockhoiders of Asphalt Company of 
America Assessed $24,000,000. 

The larsevt stock assessment order 
known to the court records of this coun- 
try was signed at Newark, N. J., Dec. 22 
by Judge Andrew Klrkpatrlck of the Uni- 
ted States District Court. This order pro- 
vides for a levy of 124,000,000 upon the 
stockholders of the Asphalt Company of 
America. The right of levy Is given to 
Henry J. Tatnall, receiver of the Ameri- 
can Asphalt Company, empowering him to 
collect from each stockholder 80, per cent, 
of the par value of the stock. 

When the company started in business 
the holders of its $30,000,000 stock paid 
only 20 per cent, upon their shares of 
$60 par value e&ch. Judge BJrkpa trick's 
order provides for the collection of the 
unpaid 80 per cent. 

The order threatens disaster to promi- 
nent Philadelphia capitalists who figured 
prominently In the promotion of the com- 
pany and menaces hundreds of smaller 
stockholders who were led Into invest- 
ment by statements of the company's 
enormous assets and secure monopoly. 
These assets were grossly exaggerated, 
while the monopoly was soon broken by 
ruinous competition. 

The successful carrying out of Judge 
Klrkpatrlck' s order will mean the loss of 
millions to P. A. B. Wldener, George W. 
Elklns, George D. Wldener, William H. 
Crocker and the estates of W. L. Elklns 
and Ludwig S. Filbert. Some of these 
men were heavy holders of American 
Asphalt Company stock. 

Many of the stockholders of the old 
company are Insolvent and Receiver Tat- 
nail's campaign will doubtless be direct- 
ed against the promoters and original 
stockholders. 



The present record of stockholders nuin- 
bers only ten men and the National As- 
phalt Company, which is alone credited 
with 688.862 shares. Among these ten men 
are Gen. Greene with twenty shares and 
Avery D. Andrews with nine shares. All 
told, the holdings of those ten men foot 
up a total of bat 1,148 shares, which would 
make it appear that Receiver Tatnall 
could call in only $45,920 upon Judge Klrk- 
patrick's order. 

But the receiver Intends to prove that 
the sale of the Asphalt Company of 
America to the National Asphalt 
Company was the result of fraud 
and conspiracy. With this fact le- 
gally established the weight of Judge 
Kirkp^^rick's order will fall upon the 
original stockholders. 

Judge KIrkpatrick's decree goes fur- 
ther than the mere authorization of the 
$24,000,000 levy. It directs that if the re- 
ceiver shall find among the stockholders 
any who are insolvent and unable to pay, 
and that if he believes any former stock- 
holder may in Justice be liable for the 
stock he shall proceed against such 
stockholder, using the funds of the estate 
In his hands in an endeavor to collect. 
This part of the decree covers the 698,862 
shares of stock now outstanding in the 
name of the National Asphalt Company. 

The decree provides further that should 
the receiver be advised by counsel that 
such recovery cannot be made he shall 
proceed with such suits upon being in- 
demnified by any interested party for 
costs and expenses. This opens the way 
for suits against the stockholders who 
assigned to the National Company, <)ither 
by the receiver on his own motion or 
through him at the request of any Inter- 
ested party. 

By this arrangement it Is possible for 



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45 



the Individual stockholders who have 
been vainly seeking to intervene in pend- 
ing suits to proceed now through the re- 
ceiver. 

According to exhibits filed in the Chan- 
cellor's Court of New Jersey P. A. B. 
Wldener is named for 1,296 shares of the ^ 
American Company stock; William L. El- 
kins, 7,811 shares; George Elkins, 14,621; 
George D. Widener, 8,700; Sidney F. Tay- 
los. 6,600; George A. Hubn & Co., 29,460; 
W. J. Latta, 26,086; Frank A. Bamett, 
22.900; Amsi L. Barber, 20,082; Rodman 
Wanamaker, 88,012; Francis V. Greene, 
1,000. and C. C. Harrison, 1,000. 

This order is issued because the Land 
Title and Trust Company asserts that the 
deficiency due to the trust company as 
trustee for holders of collateral gold cer- 
Uficates on June 3, 1908. was 129,155,833.36. 

If the suits begun against the promoters 
of the Asphalt Company of America to 
recover profits aggregating $8,699,220.50 are 
successful there would yet remain a de- 
ficiency of more than $24,000,000. 

There is no way, it declared, for the 
Asphalt Company of America to meet 
this deficiency but by a call on the stock- 
holders for their unpaid subscriptions. 



fact that the mines in two districts alone, 
namely, in Santo Spirito and Piano del 
Monaci, are said to contain at least 2,000,- 
000 tons of the valuable material. 



American Capital After Italian Asphalt 
Deposits. 

It was recently reported from Rome 
that American representatives were mak- 
ing strenuous efforts to buy the famous 
asphalt um mines, situated in the neigh- 
borhood of San Valentino, in the Mazella 
mountains. 

These deposits of natural bitumen are 
said to be the largest of this kind in 
the world. Some ten years ago the mines 
were bought up by a German syndicate. 
Which since has installed modem machin- 
ery and also connected the various mines 
by means of a narrow-guage railway with 
the station of San Valentino, on the trunk 
line Rome-Castellamare Adriatlco. 

At present six mines in the Mazella 
mountains are being exploited; the as- 
phaltum appears in the form of rock 
asphaltum, and the quality is said to be 
the best known. The annual output of 
the mines. In which some 500 hands are 
employed, averages 60,000 tons, the bulk 
of which is shipped to various countries 
of Europe, to the United States and to 
South Africa. 

At the station of San Valentino a plant 
of large capacity, installed with up-to- 
date machiner>', has been erected, where 
the asphaltum rock is ground into powder 
or pressed into blocks. The magnitude of 
the deposits may be gathered from the 



Bitulithic Pavement for County Roads. 

The Highway Commissioners of Fulton 
County, Georgia, in which Atlanta is sit- 
uated, have contracted with Warren 
Brothers Company for about two miles of 
bitulithic pavement bn county roads in 
Atlanta. They have rented a plant and 
purchased bitumen, patent rights and ex- 
pert advice from Warren Brothers Com- 
pany, and will do the work chiefly with 
convict labor. 

♦ 

Bitulithic Pavement In New York City. 

In the spring of 1903, when Mayor Low 
took up the administration of New York 
City, the attention of the officials was 
brought to the bitulithic pavement, and 
it was first investigated by President 
Cantor of the Borough of Manhattan di- 
recting his engineer of highways, Mr. 
George R. Olney, to investigate the pave- 
ment in cities where it had been laid. 
His fftvorable report was followed by the 
investigation of the presidents of other 
boroughs comprising Greater New York, 
through their engineers, the reports of all 
of whom were favorable to the bitulithic 
pavement, and led the Board of Estimate 
and Apportionment, composed of Mayor 
Low and the president of each borough, 
the comptroller and the president of the 
Board of Aldenoen. to adopt the pave- 
ment unanimously for several principal 
boulevards of New York City, including 
Seven th-ave., Riverside-drive and St 
Nicholas-ave. 

Representative associations of road 
users, including the Automobile Club of 
America, the New York Truck Owners' 
Association, the Road Drivers' Associa- 
tion of New York, the Associated Cycle 
Clubs of New York, the National Associa- 
tion of Automobile Manufacturers, the 
Associated Cycling Clubs of Long Island, 
the League of American Wheelmen and 
others, investigated the pavement and 
they unanimously approved of its adop- 
tion. 

The first act in obstruction was the ap- 
pearance before the Board of Estimate 
and Apportionment of persons claiming 
that the bitulithic pavement was inferior 
to asphalt, and that, being a patented 
pavement, it could not be legally specified 
under the peculiar clause of the New 
York charter, as follows: 

"Except for repairs, no patented pave- 
ment shall be laid, and no patented artl- 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



cle shall be advertised for, contracted for 
or purchased, except under such circum- 
stances that there can be a fair and 
reasonable opportunity for competition, 
the conditions to secure which shall be 
prescribed by the Board of Estimate and 
Apportionment. ' ' 

Although this provision, which is in no 
other municipal charter in the United 
States, has been in the charter of New 
York City for more than a quarter of a 
century, it has never until this time been 
adjudicated, and it offered an unusual op- 
portunity for pressing obstructive tactics. 

Specifications for the bltulithic pave- 
ment were unanimously adopted by the 
Board of Estimate and Apportionment for 
the paving of Seventh-ave. boulevard. 
The asphalt interests obtained an injunc- 
tion restraining the award of the con- 
tract and the Appellate Court rendered a 
decision to the effect that patented pave- 
ments are not barred out under this pro- 
vision of the charter. 

The Park Department of New York 
City, desiring to adopt the best form of 
pavement for paving Seventy-second-st. 
from Central Park west to Riverside- 
drive, a street seventy-five feet in 
width, covering an area of 18.000 
square yards, advertised for bids 
for paving the street, taking bids 
for sheet asphalt and asphalt blocks as 
well as for bltulithic. The bid of War- 
ren Brothers Company for its bltu- 
lithic pavement was 12.40 per square yard, 
while the lowest bid for asphalt was the 
ridiculously low price of $1.15. this price 
having evidently been made as a final 
effort to further delay the laying of bl- 
tulithic in New York aty. 

The Park Department, however, did not 
consider sheet asphalt to be the pavement 
for this boulevard and recommended to 
the Board of Estimate and Apportion- 
ment the award of the contract to War- 
ren Brothers Company. The Board of Es- 
timate and Apportionment unanimously 
approved this award, and this result, after 
two years' stubborn opposition and the 
bringing of three independent injunction 
suits in the name of the Barber Asphalt 
Paving Company as an injured taxpayer, 
with all delays known to the law in each, 
probably ends the obstructive tactics 
which can be employed to prevent the 



yard ; sheet asphalt. Barber Asphalt Com- 
pany, 11.16; Century Construction Com- 
pany, 12.20; Sicilian Asphalt Company. 
$1.80; Warren's bltulithic, $2.40 a square 
yard. 

* Illinois Highway Commission Is at 
Work. 

The Illinois Good Roads Commission is 
sending to all the highway commissioners 
of that state a* circular letter accompa- 
nied by a list of questions. These ques- 
tions are designed to elicit information re- 
garding the highways of the state, with 
a view to determining the best and jnost 
economical methods for their Improve- 
ment. The Good Roads Commission was 
created by an act of tne last General 
Assembly for the purpose of Investigat- 
ing "the various problems of road build- 
ing In Illinois, such as the best and most 
economical native materials, the best sys- 
tem of road drainage, the best and most 
practicable methods by which the burden 
of cost may be equitably distributed 
among all the people, such as federal, 
state and county aid, convict labor, etc" 

The act provides that the results of the 
studies of the commission shall be embod- 
ied in a report to the next General As- 
sembly with recommendations for legisla- 
tion on the subject, and It Is believed that 
the latter and list of questions now being 
sent out will furnish valuable statistical 
information which will materially aid the 
commission In Its work. The commission 
Is composed of the following: Chairman, 
DeWitt S. Smith of Springfield; Harold 
U. Wallace, Chicago; Robert D. Clark. 
Peoria. The members serve without com- 
pensation. 

— • 

Improvements In Oahkoeh, Wis. 
A statement has been prepared by G. 
H. Randall, city engineer at Oshkosh. 
Wis., showing that about $123,000 has been 
expended during the year on streets, 
bridges and parks. The amount expended 
on street repairs was about $15,000, which 
Is In addition to that expended for new 
streets. 

• 

Philadelphia Wants a Million Dollars 



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nel. To Mayor Weaver Is accredited the 
new item to aboUah grade crossings. The 
loan bill will be voted on in February. 



Illinois River Bridges Obstruct Navi- 
gation. 

AH of the bridges across the Illinois 
river with the single exception ot the 
one at Lacon have been declared nui- 
sances by the War Department. This 
criticism Is the result of an inspection by 
one of its corps of engineers, in which it 
developed that the piers on which the 
draw spans rest are constructed in so 
faulty a manner as to stand as an ob- 
struction to navigation. Included in this 
are two city bridges and two railroad 
bridges at Peoria and eleven others that 
span the river at other points. The gov- 
ernment recommends that lines of piling 
be driven on both sides of each pier in 
the shape of a double wedge so that 
steamboats striking them snail be deflect- 
ed into the channel. Complaints against 
the changes ordered will be heard by 
Capt. Ritchie of the engineering depart- 
ment ot the government, at Chicago on 

Jan. 4. 

e 

A New Reason for Withholding Pay- 
ment for Street Construction. 

Application was made to the New York 
Supreme Court Dec. 4 by the Barber As- 
phalt Company for an order compelling 
Comptroller Grout to pay $14,000 fpr pav- 
ing Lexington-ave. near One Hundred and 
Twenty-ninth-st. Comptroller Grout re- 
fused to authorize the pajrment on the 
ground that a citizen had served notice 
on him that she had suffered severe inju- 
ries by a fall due to the faulty construc- 
tion of the pavement and she intended 
suing the city for damages. As the Bar- 
ber Asphalt Paving Company had given 
bond for only 17,000, this sum would be In- 
sufficient to protect the city from loss if 
she should receive a large amount of 
damages. Justice Scott reserved decision. 



Chicago Construction News. 

The year clones with the cement mar- 
ket somewhat demoralized. Prices are 
nominally from $1.25 to $1.60. but there 
is very little business at any figure. It 
Is expected that the action of the Asso- 
ciation of Portland Cement Manufactur- 
ers in deciding to close down for bIx 
"Weeks or more some time netween Jan. 
1 and April 1 will put up -the price of 
the eastern cement, but the feeling also 



prevails that the western manufacturers 
outside of the association will continue 
to market their product at present prices 
and some even anticipate that the fig- 
ures on the western product will go still 
lower. 

Meacham & Wright have secured the 
contract from Joseph J. Duflfy for sup- 
plying IBO.OOO to 170,000 barrels of cement 
for the work of the firm at Lockport 
The price at which the contract was 
taken was not made public. 

The South Park Commission of Chicago 
has purchased a fifty-acre tract and an- 
other of ten acres for $32,820, which will 
be used for small parks In the southern 
part of Chicago. 

The local board of improvements Is 
pushing asphalt paving for State-st., be- 
tween Thirty-ninth and Sixty-third-sts., 
together with a new system of sewers on 
both sides of that street. The work will 
cost about $600,000. The cost of sewers to 
the front foot of property is estimated 
at $3.60. and of asphalt paving at $6 to $7. 
The corporation counsel of Chicago has 
rendered an opinion to the City Council 
holding that a gas company or any 
other public service corporation has no 
right to tear up any street that has been 
paved and is in good condition. It Is 
proposed to notify the gas company of 
each improvement and If it wants to lay 
pipes In the tlioroughfare It must do so 
before the improvement Is made. If It 
does not take advantage of such notifica- 
tion the company must lay its pipes 
under the parkway on either side of the 
street or else under the sidewalk. 

The Municipal Art League recommended 
at a recent meeting that beauty In lamp- 
posts should be encouraged by offering 
prizes for designers, and suggested a com- 
petition for fountains and other sculptural 
decorations intended to adorn street cor- 
ners. The league also decided to urge 
more artistic electric light signs for stores 
and other establishments in the down- 
town business districts. 

Gen. Henry Strong Is preparing to erect 
at the southeast comer of State and 
Adams-sts.. a building to be practiccdly 
fourteen streets, one above the other, 
lined with stores, a retail shopping dis- 
trict with the blocks set one upon the 
other. He seeks to accommodate retail 
shopkeepers who want stores on State- 
st., but cannot pay the present high 
rents. Through the center of each floor 
will be wide arches, and retail stores will 
face on these, making each floor practic- 
ally a street one block long. The bulld^ 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



ing will be 100 by 145 feet, with caisson 
foundations and steel work to support 
seventeen stories if it is decided to add 
more floors. 

At the annual meeting of the Chicago 
Drainage Board in December the follow- 
ing oflacers were elected: President, Zina 
R. Carter; vice-president, William G. Leg- 
ner. With- the cash on hand, the amount 
of bonds that can still be issued and the 
unpaid taxes the district has a working 
capital for the coming year of $5,175,000. 
The board has adopted plans for the 
improvement of the north branch of the 
Chicago river and contracts for the work 
will be let sometime in January. 

Stone dealers have asked the local 
Board of Improvements to specify that 
concrete foundations may be of crushed 
stone, cement and crushed stone screen- 
ings. 

• • 

ProgreM of Track Elevation in Chi- 
cago. 

More work was accomplished in Chi> 
cago during 1903 in railroad track eleva- 
tion than in any previous year. In a re- 
port to the City Council on Dec. 20 John 
O'Neill, the city's track elevation expert^ 
stated that 8.25 miles of main track have 
been elevated, 66.5 miles of other trdcks 
and forty-one subways constructed, and 
18,166,260 expended during the year. He 
says: 

The different railroad companies com- 
menced the work of elevation this year 
in the month of May, and since that time 
have placed upon theii right-of-way over 
2,000,000 cubic yards of sand filling and, 
built over 84,600 cubic yards of retaining 
and abutment walls of concrete masonry. 
They have eliminated forty-one grade 
crossings, all of which are open to tmfilc 
though not fully completed. When com- 
pleted these forty-one subways will be 
spanned by over 284 iron bridges sixty - 
six feet in lengrth and weighing obout 
1,700 pounds per running foot The work 
of track elevation has given )n all its 
ramifications employment to over 15,000 
men this year, all the expense of which 
has been borne by the railroad compa- 
nies. The amount paid by the city has 
been only the expense of the department 



considered the most important work of 
the year. Regarding; this he says: 

This elevation was commenced on May 
14 last and since that time they have 
placed under the seven tracks from 150 
to 170 loads of sand daily, averaging thir- 
ty cubic yards to the car, or nearly 760,- 
000 cubic yards of sand. The embank- 
ments composing this elevation are sup- 
ported on the sides of the right-of-way 
by heavy retaining walls of concrete 
masonry. This company has also elevated 
its freight yards between Sixty-fourth 
and 8ixty-sixth-sts., a distance of 1,820 
feet, and between the west line of the 
right-of-way and Armour-ave. At Six- 
ty-third-st. it has constructed a stone 
depot, which is reached by carriages on 
a terraced driveway running from the 
north line of Sixty-fourth-st. up to the 
elevation of the depot This piece of 
elevation is not quite completed, but will 
be nearly completed before the end of the 
year. Under this ordinance the company 
has elevated two miles of main tracks 
and about seventeen miles of other tracks, 
eliminatincr seventeen grade crossings by 
subways, at an estimated cost of about 
$2,000,000, 1325,000 of which was expended 
In 1000 in the construction of retaining 
walls and foundations for the abutments. 

Ordinances have been passed and ac- 
cepted by the different railway and rail- 
road companies this year for the eleva- 
tion of their roadbeds and tracks as fol- 
lows: 

Miles of main tracks 6.0 

Miles of other tracks 26.5 

Subways to be constructed 44 

Estimated cost of entire work 
when completed $2,400,000 

Work of elevation done this year was 
as follows: 

Miles of main tracks elevated .... 8.25 

Miles of other tracks elevated 66.u 

Subways constructed 44 

Cost of entire work $8,166,260 

Ordinances passed by the City Council 
and accepted by the railroad companies 
for the elevation of their tracks from May 
23, 1892, to Dec. 31, 1903, cover the follow- 
ing amount of work: 

Miles of main tracks to be ele- 
vated 138.10 

Miles of other tracks to be 



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Joliet Track Elevation. 

The City Council at Joliet, 111., bac 
directed City Attorney McKeown to 
prosecute all suits against al) railroads 
for violations of the track elevation ordi- 
nance. 

» 

Street Work in Kansas City. 

The report of Emmet King, secretary of 
the Board of Public Works at Kansas 
City, Mo., shows that during the three 
months ending Oct. 20, 153 contracts for 
grading, paving, curbing, sidewalks and 
sewers have been completed at a total 
cost of 1324,157.85. The distribution of ex- 
penditures was as follows: 

Miles. Cost. 

Street paving 2.86 | 83,ei4.40 

Paving alleys 0.18 2,997.34 

Asphalt repairs 4.20 10,822.01 

Street grading 6.38 40,483.66 

Grading alleys 0.99 1,600.29 

Artificial stone curbing 6.11 12,668.74 

Curbing and guttering 1.31 5,668.66 

Artificial stone sidewalks.... 8.02 33.836.40 

Natural stone sidewalks 0.08 453.90 

Brick sidewalks 0.18 579.84 

District sewers 3.24 127,086.29 

■Repairs, sidewalks and 

curbing 274.75 

Work paid by vouchers 798.63 

Work paid by appropria- 
tions 324,157.85 

» 

Indiana Farmers Want Better Road 

Law. 

A resolution was adopted at the Allen 
County Farmers' Institute, which was 
held at Ft. Wayne, Ind., Dec. 2, declar- 
ing that the farmers of Allen County 
favor **8uch a revision of our present 
road laws as. will secure the construction 
of permanent macadamizing." Also, that 
the Senators and Representatives of 
Allen County be requested to give the 
matter the attention necessary to se- 
cure the proper legislation. 

The Economic Designing of Pave- 
ments. 

By A. W. Dow, Engineer Department, 
District of Columbia. 

(A paper before the League of Ameri- 
can Municipalities at Its convention In 
Baltimore.) 

In presenting to you a paper on Paving, 
I am impressed with the fact that there 
is less known about this branch of 
municipal engineering than of any other. 
or I put this differently and say that 
we have still more to learn about this 
branch than any other. We are really 



only now finishing the foundation of our 
education In this Industry. Strange as 
this may soimd to you In the light of the 
enormous amount of paving that has 
been done In this country In the past 
fifteen years, yet It Is so, for our pres- 
ent method of paving Is nearly entirely 
lacking In system and science. We make 
little or no study of the conditions that 
the pavement has to meet In Its exist- 
ence, and do not make suflFlclent distinc- 
tion In the class of pavements for dif- 
ferent streets and different localities. 

Before going further I would beg your 
indulgence for following the much-used 
path pursued by writers on this subject, 
that is, of making some remarks on the 
ancient history of the subject, and call 
your attention to the pavements or roads 
built by the ancient Egyptians, Cartha- 
genlans and Romans. It Is not, though, 
for the purpose of presenting these old 
pavements as examples, or of extolling 
the methods employed In their construe-* 
tion. but only for the purpose of illustrat- 
ing more forcibly the character of the 
problems in this industry that we have 
to deal with at the present day. Our at- 
tention is often called to these ancient 
roads, to their marvelous life and en- 
durance, and by some, to the fine engin- 
eering displayed in their construction. 
But in the light of Intelligent engineering 
this last is greatly overdrawn, as there 
is jio good engineering displayed In the 
construction of these pavements, and 
they they are only monuments to an ex- 
travagant waste of labor and material 
and examples of methods that we want 
to avoid. It does not require an engineer 
to build a structure that will endure it 
the builder Is allowed an unlimited 
amount of material and labor. The skill- 
fully constructed work is that which is 
an economic combination of good proper- 
ties supported by a strength having a 
sufficient factor of safety. 

There Is nothing that better Illustrates 
the difference between the ancient and 
the modern pavements than a compari- 
son of the ancient and modern civiliza- 
tion. In the early day of civillzaition the 
welfare of man was entirely dependent 
upon his strength, his capacity to over- 
come and resist things with brute force. 
The successful man in those days was 
the one 'that could wield the heaviest club 
or sword and bear the heaviest armor. 
All other qualities were sacrificed to the 
building up of strength and endurance, 
and so It is with the ancient pavement 
const rucled of huge stones or masses of 
masonry, m many cases six feet in thick- 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



ness, built solely far the purpose of en- 
durance and resisting traffic through its 
brute strength, built with no purpose in 
view other than that of resisting. In 
our modern times the man with strength 
alone counts for little. The most suc- 
cessful man is the one in which various 
desirable traits are governed by a good 
Intellect, and the whole frame supported 
by a sufflclertt bodily strength to insure 
health, even under an excessive strain 
of mental energy. And so It should be 
with the modem pavement. It should be 
an economic combination of many gcod 
properties, sustained by a strength suf- 
ficient to maintain it under the maxi- 
mum strain to which it may be sub- 
jected during Its existence. As the train- 
ing of the modern man is studied and 
planned so as 'to produce a combination 
of faculties that will serve him best In 
the profession he Is to follow, so should 
the pavement be studied that Is to pave 
•a certain street. 

We must free ourselves from the bar- 
baric methods of building pavements, 
that Is, of putting down some material 
that we think will be the most durable, 
irrespective of whether It answers any 
other purpose or not, and also of n meth- 
od 80 much in use today of paving every 
street with the same class of pavement, 
irrespective of whether the conditions of 
the street are suited to that pavement, or 
even suitable to the materials used In its 
construction. This last practice we can- 
not hope to do away with until we have 
abandoned our present method of select- 
ing pavements from the bargain coun- 
ter of competitive bidding. This method 
of selecting pavements that Is now In 
vogue with the majority of muncipall- 
tles, would not be countenanced in any 
other business, and until we have learned 
how to select pavements that will best 
meet the requirements of the street to be 
paved, we cannot hope to pave our 
streets economically and well. What 
would we think of a firm who made a 
business of the use of sheet metals for 



A A^..1. 



Can anyone consider that an economic 
way of doing business? That the select- 
ing the kind of pavement and even the 
kind of material to use in the same class 
of pavement is necessary Is demonstrated 
each day to anyone who makes a careful 
study of the wearing of dlfCerent pave- 
ments. It Is a common occurrence to find 
two pavements laid at Identically the 
same time, under the same specifications* 
and with the same materials, and with 
apparently the same amount of traffic on 
both streets— one pavement gives a most 
excellent surface, costing practically 
nothing for repairs for over ten years. 
The second pavement begins to act poorly 
in two or three years, and by five years 
it is in need of extensive repairs. What 
has caused the difference in these two 
pavements, both laid in identically the 
same manner? It Is evident that this dif- 
ference is the result of some physical con- 
dition existing in the second pavement 
that does not exist in the other, and that 
if it Is possible by any means to change 
the conditions so that they will }ye Identi- 
cal In both pavements the one will last 
as long as the other. If, on the other 
hand, It is found that the conditions can- 
not be changed economically. It shows 
conclusively that another class of pave- 
ment not Injuriously affected by that con- 
dition should be selected for the paving of 
that particular street. 

In other words we mu3t learn to study 
thoroughly the characteristics of the 
various paving materials, and classes of 
pavements, what physical conditions In 
the streets act detrimentally on one 
clas3 and not on another, and what phy- 
sical properties It is desirable for the 
pavement to have to be the best suited 
for the class of traffic and the comfort 
of the property owners of the street un- 
der consideration. We should treat the 
paving of streeta in a similar manner 
to the educating of men. We must 
study their adaptability and endeavor 
to develop them In the line which, after 
careful study, we conclude they will 
best be adapted to. As some men will 
make utter failures in some professions, 
and be most successful in others, so it 



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PAVING AND PAVING MATERIALS. 



51 



other with a view of determlnlnur the 
difference In the conditions that were 
responsible for the success and the 
failure. It Is owinar to this that we have 
some cities going so far as to pass or- 
dinances prohibiting the use. of certain 
•clasees of pavement, whfie others are 
using the same wfth marked success and 
economy. This has done much to retard 
progress in paving. 

The necessity of a study of conditions 
and factors is well appreciated and rec- 
ognized by such authorities on paving as 
Tillson and Baker, as both these authors 
^ive tables In which they assign figures 
to represent the value of different factors 
such as cheapness, durability, ease of 
cleaning, ease of traction, foothold, ease 
of maintalnance, favorableness to travel, 
sanltarlness, etc., but these tables and 
•their discussions are principally adapted 
to differentiating between the different 
•classes of pavements, and do liot empha- 
size the necessity of studying the effects 
of existing physical conditions on the dif- 
ferent materials entering into the com- 
position of the pavement, and also upon 
Its physical construction. Such factors 
should be discussed under the heading 
of durability. Their existence is recog- 
nized by Tillson, for he says " Durabil- 
ity, too, is affected by so many varied 
conditions that it is discussed with dif- 
-flculty." But pavements should not 
alone be studied during their manufac- 
ture and laying, but should be watched 
oarefully during their entire life, and 
•careful record kept of all failure and the 
probable cause. 

The question now naturally arises as to 
what Is the most satisfactory and eco- 
nomical result in paving. The methods 
of contracting for paving that are in 
general use at the present day, and 
especially that branch of the contract 
that relates to the guarantee have been 
■so ably discussed before the Amerlt/in 
Society of Civil Engineers by Messrs. 
Hazelhurst, Whinery, Lewis an^ others 
that it would only be repetition on rny 
part to undertake to discuss in full these 
methods, so I will only call your atten- 
tion to a few essential points, and advise 
all who are at all interestod in paving to 
read these most instructive papers is the 
transactions of the American Society of 
<:ivii Engineers, Dec. 1902. 

The method in most general use today 
is to draft speciflcatlons going conslder- 



guarantee all work and keep same in re- 
pair without expense to the municipality 
for a stipulated term of years, the most 
common period being five years. The 
method adopted by cities for protecting 
guarantee is to retain a ceretain sum of 
money, say 10 per cent., from the original 
cost of the pavement. 

Another method is to have the contrac- 
tor give bond, guaranteeing the fulfill- 
ment of the guarantee. Possibly the 
most serious objecHon that has been 
pointed out In such specifications is re- 
quiring the contractor to guarantee that 
his pavements be kept in good repair for 
a certain term of years. As has been 
Justly remarked on this poiiiF, where are 
we to draw the line between the paying 
for the pavement and the keeping of it in 
repair? Would not the property-owners 
in such a contract be justified in com- 
plaining that they were paying for main- 
tenance of the pavement when such work 
is chargeable to the city, and, as pointed 
out by Mr. Whinery, is it justice for 
property-owners on a heavily traveled 
street to pay more for the Identical pave- 
ment than property-owners are paying on 
a lightly traveled street? With a time 
guarantee even as short as five years 
there is the danger that the paving com- 
pany or its bond.S'men may fail to make 
good the guarantee, and the pavement 
be left in a poor coiidition with repairs 
necessary at the expense of the city. 

Another objection which applies to any 
guarantee system is the question In what 
condition should a city expect its pave- 
ments at the expiration of its guarantee? 
This will always be a bone of contention 
between the city and a close contractor. 
An objection to the present method of 
operation under this class of specifica- 
tions is that considerable detail la given 
as to the m^^thods of laying the pavement, 
and of producing materials, and that as 
yet there Is hardly a city that has such 
an inspection as to know whether these 
specifications are carried out. Under 
these circumstances the entire perform- 
ance of the work on the pavement is left 
to the contractor, and is largely depend- 
ent on the foreman he employs, both in 
the manufacture of the pavement and 
the laying- of it. Such reliance without a 
thorough inspection is dangerous, and in 
a number of cases has proved disastrous 



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52 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



the laying: of the pavement, and his ex- 
perience has taught him that good re- 
sults are often obtained by cheaper and 
quicker methods than those In the speci- 
fications. He Is naturally led to believe 
from this that such great care as Is spec- 
ified Is not necessary for the production 
of geod work, and he will then make 
such changes In the manipulation as he 
thinks win either be a saving to his em- 
ployer, or produce a good record for him- 
self of laying more pavement with less 
expenditure of money. But let me add 
that he is often justified in following his 
own methods, as those of many specifica- 
tions if clos^ely followed would result in 
poor work. 

Another objection that may be raised 
to the technical part of such specifica- 
tions Is that the same class of pavement 
is asked for for every street. The con- 
tractor and possibly even the cRy is not 
aware of the physical conditions exist- 
ing on these streets, and yet the contrac- 
tor bids and guarantees to lay the same 
pavement on every street alike. 

Another method of letting contracts 
that is in use by some cities and which 
especially does away wtth the objections 
which are raised to the long-time guar- 
antee is that the city pay a certain sum 
for the pavement, and require in the 
specifications that after five years the 
contractor Is to keep the pavement In 
repair for a certain period, for which 
he will be paid a stipulated sum per 
square yard. This likely in some cases 
Is an advantage over the first method 
mentioned of contracting for paving, but 
It, too, i3 open to objections, which have 
already been reviewed and discussed in 
the papers ^jefore mentioned. 

Some cities at the present time are 
undertaking to do their paving on the 
municipal plan. This, I believe, in some 
cases, will prove very advantageous and 
economical to the municipality, but a 
careful study should be made of condi- 
tions before a city adopts this method of 
paving. In the first place they should 
consider whether the amount of paving 
which they do in a year is sufficient to 
warrant their erecting a plant; for how 
long each year this plant will be working, 
and if not constantly, will It be econom- 
ical to retain the men employed in its 
««t««.o Tf tv»o mf^n are discharged at 



keep its one plant well employed, Is that 
after the city has invested In its paving 
outfit, and its force has been trained, St 
will naturally be restricted to only that 
class of pavement for which they have 
been equipped. Another objection which 
a number rai^ to municipal construction 
is that it will give an opportunity to poli- 
ticians to secure places for their constitu- 
ents, irrespective of their suitability for 
such positions, and such men are not 
likely to produce good work. It appears, 
however, that all serious objections to 
municipal construction are dependent up- 
on conditions and without doubt many 
cities could devise methods that would 
be economical whether these methods be 
entirely or partially carried on by the 
municipality. 

There are three methods which I be- 
lieve might' prove desirable for munici- 
palities to construct pavements. One of 
these, which I have just discussed, is 
that of municipal construction. If a city 
does sufficient paving during a year to 
keep- a plant and pavers occupied, either 
at laying new pavement or repairing, old, 
and their government is such that poli- 
ticians will not enter into the selection of 
the skilled laborers necessary to the per- 
formance of this work, paving can, with- 
out doubt, be done very economically. 
Before a city adopts this plan it should 
be sure that it has a man in charge of 
the work who is not only competent to 
lay good pavements, but of being able to 
study the different factors and physical 
character of the street to be paved. 

Another modification of the method 
would be for cities to hire a paving plant 
and gangs of men from contractors, the 
city furnishing all or part of the mater- 
ial to be used in the production of the 
pavement. Of course this plan is open to 
many modifications depending on how 
much work the city would do, and how 
much material they would furnish or re- 
quire the contractor to furnish. By lay- 
ing pavements under the municipal plan, 
or by the modification just suggested, the 
city has the advantage of being able to 
discriminate between different materials 
to meet the conditions of the various 
streets under construction. 

The method which I believe would be 
the most generally advantageous Is for 
a city to employ a man who Is compe- 
tent to take entire charge of all branches 



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PAVING AND PAVING MATERIALS. 



53 



where conditions require a change from 
the detail of the speciflcations. The con- 
tract should only require that the pave- 
ment be guaranteed for two yeara. by 
specifying that any defective workman- 
ship or material which might develop 
during the guarantee period should be 
immediately made good by the contrac- 
tor. By this means the objection made 
to to the 5, 10 and 15-year contract 
system, especially when paving is paid 
by assessing the abutting property-own- 
ers, that the property-owner is not a'one 
paying for the construction of the pave- 
ment but for its malntalnance, would lya 
overcome. 

Such a system would make possible a 
thorough examination of the character of 
all streets to be paved and the selection 
and use of only that class of pavement 
that Is best suited to the conditions of 
the several streets. It, of course, goes 
without saying that with a thorough in- 
spection the city will obtain far better 
work in paving and besides it will cor- 
rect an evil that Is so prevalent in the 
paving business today, which is responsi- 
ble for much bad paving and for which 
many cities will have to pay dearly fcr 
in repairs and defaulted contracts In the 
future. I am speaking here of the com- 
petitive bidding that Is carried to such a 
pass that It Is hardly possible for a con- 
tractor to make any money if he is held 
to the requirements of the specifications. 

I will not attempt any detailed de- 
scription of how such a method 
could be carried out In a paper 
such as this and then it is more 
than likely that the detail would vary 
with the conditions met with in different 
cities, but I believe they will be found to 
be the simplest of any of the systems in 
vogue at the present time. 

It is evident that whether the paving be 
done by municipal construction or by the 
two-year guarantee system, the work 
must be In charge of a competent man. 
one who Is especially tralnod tn this line. 
It is to be regretted that there are so 
few such men, and that ihe science of 
paving Is so overlooked and neglected by 
our technical institutions. Should there 
be a demand for men making a specialty 
of this subject our institutions would not 
be long in giving cour.ses, which would 
meet the demand. 

It has ^een my object in this paper 
to noint out lo vou how lax cur present 



to be so lightly treated may be the bet- 
ter appreciated when you consider tliat 
In the twenty-five years preceding -the 
year 1900, 120 cities spent approximately 
S75.000,000 in first cost of asphalt pave- 
ments alone. True, this class of pave- 
ment has been the most popular, but »t 
would be safe tc estimate from these fig- 
ures that during the time there was 
much over $100,000,000 spent for all classes 
of so-called Improved pavements. It is 
estimated that New York City alone will 
spend over $4,000,000 per annum to keep 
the present paved streets of the city in 
condition. I do not oelleve tthat I am 
far from right in saying that there will 
be over 8,000.000 square yards of pave- 
ments laid this year in the United States 
at a cost of $15,000,000, and how much 
study and forethought is given to all this 
work, and to what extent are the specl- 
floatlona being adhered to? 

That we are not getting today what our 
specifications call for in all cases is evi- 
denced by the low prices some cities are 
pajing for pavements. It Is certain that 
If a contractor is to be paid a price less 
than what it will cost him to lay a pave- 
ment under a specification he will shirk 
his work in some way so as to make 
some profit, for he is not in the business 
for philanthrophlc motives. It is Just a 
year ago that this society was addressed 
on the subject of paving by Mr. Fendall 
of this city, when he advised a combina- 
tion of the different cities for the purpose 
of reducing the price of pavements, but I 
believe a more advisable plan would be to 
combine more for the purpose of regulat- 
ing the prices to pay for pavements 
rather than to lower It. A contractor i» 
surely entitled to a price that will Insure 
him under average conditions a fair profit. 
The lesson must be learned that a cheap 
pavement Is not generally the most eco- 
nomical, and only by a reconstruction of 
our present methods can we hope to se- 
cure a satisfactory system of paving. 



Street Oiling Specifications at Bakers- 
field, Cal. 

The city ot Bakersfleld has adopted the 
following specifications covering the con- 
struction of oiled streets: 

First— The street, after being graded in 
accordance with specifications for grading 
streets in city of Bakersfield. will be 
ready to receive the oil. 

Second— The quantity of crude mineral 



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M 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



cent, of water and heated to a tempera- 
ture of not less than 200 degrees Fahren- 
heit when being applied. 

Fourth— The oil shall be applied as fol- 
lows: The street shall be plowed to a 
depth of six inches, then be coated with 
oil at the rate of one gallon of oil per 
square yard of area: then the oil shall be 
plowed under to a depth of four inches 
and then harrowed with a disc harrow, or 
rolled with a Fitzgerald spike roller; 
then a second coating of oil shall be ap- 
plied at the rate of one-half gallon of oil 
per square yard of surface area of street. 
The street shall then be harrowed or 
rolled with the Fitzgerald spike roller till 
the oil becomes thoroughly incorporated 
with the surface material of the street. 
Then the street shall be rolled till suf- 
ficiently compacted to withstand ordinary 
traffic without rutting. 



Fifth— When accepted the street shalT 
be on the established grade, having a 
true and even surface and crown. 

Sixth— The contractor shall furnish alt 
material and appliances necessary for 
the prosecution of the work to complex 
tion in a thorough and workmanship 
manner. 

Seventh— Bids shall state price per 
barrel (42 gallons) of oil app'ied on 
street according to the method pre- 
scribed in these specifications. 

Eighth— The work ©haU be performed 
under the superintendence and to the 
satisfaction of the street superintendent 
and city engineer. 

Ninth— The Board of Trustees reserve 
the right to reject any and all bids. 

The specifications were adopted as pre- 
pared by City Engineer Evans. 



ELECTRICITY 



Erie ilunlcipal Conduits— Electric Ught Statistics— Electric Shocks from Rre 
Streams— Construction and flalntenance of Electric Wires. 



Municipal Electrical ConduK System 
in Erie, Pa. 

During 1898-9 the city of Erie, Pa., 
constructed 137,300 linear feet of ducts 
for electric wires underground and ban 
since added 22,083 feet, making a- total at 
this time of 159,383 feet constructed and 
in use. The total cost, including the ex- 
pense of connections, poles, cross-arms, 
guy wires, iron pipe on poles, manholes 
and castings therefor, repairing over 
trenches on paved streets, etc., complete 
was 118.066.75. 

Of the space in the ducts 19,372.5 linear 
feet is occupied by the N. Y. & Pa. Tel- 
ephone and Telegraph Company, 18,633 
feet by the Mutual Telephone Company, 
10,131 feet by the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company and 8,296 feet by the city 
fire and police signal system. 

The revenue derived from the use ot 
the conduit for the year ending April 3, 
1903, was 12,378.41. The total revenue re- 
ceived to Sept. 26, 1903. was 16,738.71. 

We are indebted to B. E. Briggs, City 
Engineer, for this information. 



Electric Shocks from Fire Streams. 

One of the objections to the erection of 
electric wires on poles in cities is the hin- 
drance which such wires offer to free 



access to a burning building by means 
of ladders and Are towers. It is at times 
also necessary to cut such wires to afford 
access to a burning building— a work 
which is not highly appreciated by the 
fire fighters. Another difficulty presents 
itself also, namely, the danger to the fire- 
men from electric shocks due to currents 
carried to the nozzle by the stream of 
water when it comes in contact with live 
wires. Such shocks have more than once 
been of sufficient strength to disable fire- 
men for a time, but, so far as is known, 
no fatalities due to this cause have oc- 
curred. In order to ascertain to what ex- 
tent firemen are subject to risk of life, if 
at all, when the stream of water thrown 
from the hose strikes against live wires 
a series of experiments were recently un- 
dertaken in Germany. They were made 
with pressure of 6,000 volts alternating cur- 
rent and 650 volts direct current. The 
stream of water was directed against a 
portion of the wires from which the in- 
sulation had been previously removed. 
With the 6,000 volts pressure It was found 
that the resistance of about one foot of 
ordinary hydrant water reduced the po- 
tential of the current to a point when it 
was not dangerous, but the effects were 
not pleasant. When the resistance of the 
water was lowered by the addition of 0.06 



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STATISTICS ELECTRIC LIGHT OF SIXTYFOUR SMALL CITIES. 
Compiled by M, W. Mix, Mayor of Afishawaka, Ind. 





i 


1 

d 
z 


1' 


i 



1 


s. 
1 


T 


1 




Illinois. 
Belvidere 


7,000 
8,000 
8,979 
5.000 
.1.375 
9.662 
8.252 
6,000 
6.105 
8.460 
5,728 


106 
72 
75 
96 
§114 
132 
107 
.52 
102 
108 
74 


$65 00 
72.00 
80.00 
60.00 

48.00 
66.00 
65.00 

65.00 
75.00 


M. L. 
M. L. 
M. L. 

M. L. 
A. N. 
M. L. 
A.N. 

M.L. 
M. L. 


20c 

20c 
10c 

lie 

20c 


25^ 

25^ 
20jt 

25 to 50^ 


P 
P 
P 
P 
P 
M 
P 
P 
M 
P 
P 




Centralia 




Dixon 




Harvey 




Macomb 

MattooD 


$25,000.00 


Moomoatb 




Mt. Vernon 




Paris 


25,00000 


Pekin 




Urbana 








Indiana. 
Alexandria 


7.300 
6,115 
7,000 
8,000 

10.000 
6,836 
6.649 
7,100 
5.700 
6,789 

11,000 

10,960 
5, .560 
7.000 
9.000 
8.618 

10.000 


1 • 

53 

70 

73 

101 

83 

90 

14S 

121 

87 

120 

127 

119 

76 

74 

87 

28 

144 


90.00 , A. N. 

80.00 > A. N. 


8c 

None 

10c 

15c 

12Hc 

7Hto20c 

None 

ICc 

10 & 12c 
lie 

12. 10 A 8c 
None 


None 

None 

*' 
None 


P 
P 
P 
P 
M 
P 

P 
P 
P 
P 
M 
P 

^ 

M 




Bedford 




Bioomin^rton 


80.00 
62.40 
46.50 
75.00 
60.00 
60.00 
75.00 
80.00 
46&54 
70.00 
65.00 
60.75 

76.00 
70.75 


A.N. 
M.L. 
M.L. 
A. N. 
A. N. 
A.N. 
M.L. 

A.N. 
A.N. 
M.L. 
A.N. 
A. N. 
A.N. 
M.L. 




Brazil... r. 




Colambus 


10,000.00 


Connersville 

Crawfordsville 


100,000.00 


Frankfort 


75.000.00 


Oreensbnrcr 




Hartford City 




JeflforsonTiUe 




Kokomo 




Mishawaka 




Mt. Vernon 




Pern 


60,000.00 


Wabash 




Washington. 


75,000.00 






Michigan. 
Adrian 


9.654 
6..532 
6,216 
7,790 
5,000 
9,705 


•112 

♦50 
81 
64 
60 
63 
49 
86 
tl20 
136 
120 


64.80 
72.00 
60.00 

75.00 

65.00 
51.00 
6.5<fc95 
57.60 
29.80 


A.N. 

M.L. 
A. N. 
M.L. 
M.L. 
M.L. 
A.N. 

M.L. 
!iM. L. 


14c 
14c 

lOHc 

8c 

8c 

150 
15c 


None 

5to50< 

10,15&a))< 

5l< 
5l< 


P 
P 
M 
M 
P 
P 
P 
M 

? 

M 




Benton Harbor 




Coldwater. 


45,194.88 


Holland 


80,000.00 


Ionia 




Iron wood 




Ludington 

Monroe 


7,166 
6,200 

8.986 
11,000 
7.000 


25,268.00 


Owosso 

Pontiac 

YpsUanti 


18,000.00 


Ohio. 
Bellefontaine 


6,649 
8,000 

9,qpo 

7,282 
5,432 
5.5.58 
5,501 
6,8.52 
8,991 
9.215 
6,663 
7,490 
7,074 
5,859 
5,688 
10,9vH9 


90 

80 
134 
109 

65 

42 
100 
110 
105 
111 ' 
110 1 
•66 
105 

73 

75 
160 

70 
100 
113 


75.00 
77.00 
72.00 
64.50 
82.92 
78.00 
75.00 
85.00 
84.00 
69.00 
75.00 
70.00 
.50.00 
75.00 
80.00 
76.55 
70.00 
63.00 


D. H. 
M.L. 
A.N. 
A. N. 
A.N. 

In. 

A.N. 

San 
A.N. 
D. H. 
Mid. 
M.L. 
A.N. 
A.N. 
M.L. 
M.L. 
M.L. 


•8«c 

lOc 

10c 

Not used 

None 

15c 
10 to 25c 

10to20c 

None 

10c 

12fc 

10 to 15c 

9c 

10c 
15c 


None 
5!< 

NonA 


P 
M 
P 
P 
P 
M 
P 
P 
P 

¥ 

M 

P 
P 
P 
M 
P 


20,000.00 


Defiance 




Delaware 




Oalfpn. 






42.000.00 


Gain polls 

Glenville 




Greenville 




Kenton 


125,000.00 


Lancaster 




Middletown 


io:< 

None 

10^ 

None 

None 




Mt. Vernon 




Niles 


70,000.00 


Norwalk 




St. Marys 

Sidney 


33,500.00 


Tiffin 




Van Wert 


6.422 
8,045 
8.696 




Wellston 

Xenia 


40,000.00 






Kentdcky. 
Bellevue 


6.6;« 

10,000 
11.464 


62 
90 
lOK 


75.00 
50.00 


M.L. 

A.N. 






P 
M 
P 




Bowling Qreen 


25,000.00 


Frankforr 





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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



per cent, of soda, the minimum safe 
length of the stream was Increased to 
about 40 inches. With 550 volts direct cur- 
rent a dangerous voltage was not reached 
with pure hydrant water, but with the 
same percentage of soda in the water 
harmful potentials were indicated by the 
volt meters used in the tests when the 
stream of water was only three inches 
long. On the whole the results of the 



experiments showed that the danger to 
firemen from the contact of water from 
the hose with live wires carrying high po- 
tentials is not ordinarily so great as has 
been generally supposed hitherto. This, 
however, is no reason for lessening the 
precautions looking to the safety and best 
interests of all concerned In this mat- 
ter.— Cassier's Magazine. 



THE DIRECTORY OF AMERI- 
CAN CEMENT INDUrTRlEi 



The rapid and great development of the 
cement industries demands a third edi- 
tion of the "Directory of American Ce- 
ment Industries," which will be Issued 
early in 1904. It is the only complete 
representative of the cement trade in all 
its branches, and consequently there is an 
increasing demand for it which makes 
frequent editions necessary. Advantage 
is taken of the opportunity to revise and 
improve the book each time and these im- 
provements will be specially notable in 
this third edition. 

The expansion of the directory features 
has been so great that the Hand-Book Is 
now bound separately and can be ob- 
tained either separately or in combina- 
tion with the Directory or with Munici- 
pal Engineering Magazine. 

The enormous expansion of the manu- 
facture and use of cement shows itself 
In every department of the Directory. 

Thus in the list of Descriptions of 
Works, the second edition had 240 en- 
tries, while the third edition will have 
about 360 entries, an expansion of 50 per 
cent. 

The new works which are in operation 
are fully described, which makes a con- 
siderable addition to this mo^t valuable 
section of the book. There have been so 
many additions to the older factories, so 
many of them have been rebuilt, and 
they have added so many new plants to 
their existing works, that this whole 
chapter has been rewritten, scarcely a 
single description remaining the same in 



Is of direct benefit to the reputation of 
their brands of cement, so that a few 
who have heretofore withheld informa- 
tion are now ready to supply It in full. 

As a consequence of this rapid develop- 
ment of the Industry there have been 
many abortive attempts to organize com- 
panies, there have been many combina- 
tions, and there have been some aban- 
donments of old-fashioned plants. The 
list Is therefore divided into two parts, 
the first giving the names and descrip- 
tions of existing plants, of those under 
construction, and of those companies 
which are In process of establishment or 
of formation. The second part of the list 
gives all the names which at the date of 
issue have dropped out of the business 
world, either from change of name, from 
absorption by other companies, from 
failure and liquidation or from abandon- 
ment before actual construction had be- 
gun. This second list will be of consid- 
erable value) though not havin,«? the in- 
dispensable nature of the first list. 

•Following the descriptions of works will 
be given the list of companies which are 
in existence with locations of ofllces and 
works, names of all officers and directors, 
and sales agents, capitalization, capacity, 
names of brands of cement manufactured 
and their kind and the Iransportatlon 
routes available. For convenience of 
users of the book this list Is separated 
from the list of descriptions of works and 
will be found to be a full and concise 
business directory of iill the manufactur- 



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THE DIRECTORY OF AMERICAN CEMENT INDUSTRIES. 



57 



list are collected in a separate list, ar- 
rangred alphabetically as names of brands, 
each name accompanied by a statement oC 
the kind of cement, the name of the man- 
ufacturer and of the general sales agents 
handling it, thus giving in a convenient 
form Just the information about a cement 
brand which is wanted and referring to 
the lists of cement manufacturers and 
descriptions of works for grreater detail. 

The names of general sales agents are 
also collected from the list of manufac- 
turers into an alphabetical list, giving 
names and addresses of agents, names of 
companies for which they act and of 
brands they handle. 

The importance of the import trade dur- 
ing the past year and the slowly growing 
importance of the export trade lead to a 
considerable improvement in the section 
devoted to the foreign cement trade, In 
which .will be found the names and ad- 
dresses of the principal manufacturers 
of cement In foreign countries and of the 
brands of cement which they manufac- 
ture. The Improvement In this list, es- 
pecially as regards German and French 
manufacturers, is marked and it gives 
all the Information which Is called for by 
our correspondents at this time ui»on the 
subject of foreign cements. A few de- 
Bcriptioivs of foreign cement works are 
given to show the differences in processes 
of manufacture from those which have 
been developed so recently and so origi- 
nally in America. Like all ih^ other de- 
partments in the Directory this one aims 
at giving all the comnicro'al information 
which can be desired at this stage of the 
development of the com^'nt trade, and, 
in fact, more than !s roaune 1. 

The list of dealers in cement Is consid- 
erably increased, and has been thorough- 
ly revised so that It rei:>resents completely 
the cement trade In all cities In the Uni- 
ted States of 2,000 population or more and 
of some others, very few cities indeed 
having failed to respond to our requests 
for the latest information. The manufac- 
turers of and sales agents for cement are 
listed under their appropriate postoiUce 
addresses so that this list serves also as 
a geographical list of factories and dis- 
tributing points. 

The rapid extension of the use of ce- 
ment has caused a large addition to the 
number of contractors using cement. Al- 
though there are many cha'hges each year 
in the contractors and it is necessary to 
eliminate many names of those who have 
failed or who were in the business but 
temporarily, there is a very large increase 
in this list, which is estimated at 50 per 
cent., though all the returns are not yet 
in. The list includes all contractors. 



workers in cement and large users who do 
their own purchasing of cement. The 
value of the rating feature, Introduced In 
the second edition, has been recognized 
and it is now possible to tell from the list 
how much cement within certain defined 
limits a contractor uses. Practically all 
of those not showing the rating for ce- 
ment used consumed less than 500 barrels 
a year. 

There is a considerable addition to the 
list of engineers, architects and other 
supervisors of the use of cement, for the 
same reason given for the Increase in 
number of contractors. These men make 
the specifications for the use of cement 
and have considerable advisory power 
over the selection of brands of cement 
to be used on their work. 

The list of laboratories and engineers 
making analyses and tests of cement and 
cement materials , and of engineers who 
design cement plants has been thorough- 
ly revised, and so have the lists of mak- 
ers of and dealers In machinery and sup- 
plies for cement plant.i and for cement 
users. 

The valuable credit rating feature in- 
troduced in the second edition has been 
improved and exten<?ed for the third edi- 
tion. The recognition of its value has led 
many more to respond to requests for in- 
formation upon which to base the ratings 
quoted and they will be found fuller and 
quite as reliable as those given In the 
first edition. The feature is one which 
was expected to be. of slow growth and 
the publishers of the Directory are much 
gratified at the rapidity with which it has 
received recogrnitlon and the alacrity with 
which information is furnished. 

The table of freight rates has been re- 
vised and extended to suit the increase 
in the factories in operation and is still 
worth many times the cost of the book to 
those purchasing or selling quantities of 
cement large or small. The evidences 
of saving in money on account of intelli- 
gent consultation of this table come to 
hand frequently. 

A new feature of the book is an outline 
map of the United States showing by ap- 
propriate marks the location of cement 
plants in operation or proposed, the dif- 
ference being shown by differences In 
symbols. This Is an Interesting exhibit, 
especially to those who are considering 
the establishment of new cement plants. 

In conclusion It may be said that the 
third edition of the "Direcory of Ameri- 
can Cement Industries" will be a mate- 
rial Improvement and extension of the 
previous editions and that it will continue 
to represent the enormous advance in the 
trade as completely as its predecessors. 



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municipal and technical 
literature: 

Municipal Reports. 



Municipal Reports. 

Receipts and ExpendKures of Ordinary 

Revenue of Boston, Mass., 1898-1902. 

Special Publication No. 9. Statistics 

Department. 

This Is one of the occasional publica- 
tions additional to the regular monthly 
bulletin of the Boston City, Department 
of ^taitistics, and shows the receipts and 
expenditures of the city for the years 
named, so separated and arranged that 
comparisons can be made of various 
items from year to year. Analyses are 
made by d«ipartmettts and by funds un- 
der each department, so that almost any 
desired detail short of individual vouch- 
ers can be found. If more cities made 
such publications as this there would be 
greater economy in many sdepartments, 
for leaks could be more readily traced. 

Appendices give the financial state- 
ments of the last two or three years In 
the uniform form proposed by the Na- 
tional Municipal League, and .show the 
advanitages of this form of making an- 
nual reports. 

A Repair Plant for Asphalt Pavements 
for the Borough of Manhattan. Recom- 
mended by George Livingston. Commis- 
sioner of Public Works. With an ap- 
pendix embodying the result of an ex- 
pert investigation by James C. Bayles. 
Made to Jacob A. Cantor, President of 
Borough of Manhattan, New York 
City. 

This report outlines a plan for munici- 
pal plants for repairing asphalt streets, 
including seven section stations in Man- 
hattan. The recent grand Jury recom- 
mendation of an asphalt repair plant 
owned by the municipality is set forth in 
detail, with tables of number, length and 
area of street openings each year, ag- 
gregating nearly fifty miles of trench. 
Arguments are made against the present 
system and for the direct responsibility 
of the city for present jondltlon.s, clos' 
ing with a recommendation of ^^hj ap 
propriatlon of $100,000 for :i municipal as- 
phalt plant. 



present repair contract by which concrete 
costs 16 a cubic yard, binder costs I1.&2 
a square yard and wearing surface costs 
45 cents a square yard. He favors a short 
period of guaranty, only sufficient to de- 
velop bad materials used In construction 
or errors In manipulation. He shows that 
there are now no trade secrets ir asphalt 
manlulation, that there are plenty of men 
of skill and experience to be secured, 
that machinery and tools are on the mar- 
ket, that there are many Independent 
sources of suitable asphalt and that ther<> 
are no basic patents on asphalt mixtures. 
He believes that the cost of the work un- 
der municipal operation will compare fa- 
vorably with that by contract. 

The estimates of cost of plants are given 
in detail, amounting to about $30,000 for 
fhe central station on the river front for 
receiving and preparing materials for use 
and $2,500 each for steam rollers and tools 
for seven section stations, making near- 
ly $50,000 for the equipment of the plants, 
not including ground and building?. The 
annual fixed charges Including I'^terest, 
superintendent and assistant and eight 
foremen are estimated at $16,900. Tlie cost 
of laying the repairs Is estimated at 80 
cents a square yard, 30 cents being for 
the asphalt, 15 cents for the other materi- 
als and 35 cents for mixing, carting and 
laying. He thinks the utilization of old 
material might reduce the cost a I limes 
to 50 cents a square yard. 

Annual Report of the Board of Public 
Works of the City of Milwaukee, V/ls.. 
for 1902. Charles J. Foetsch, City En- 
gineer. 

The main Items in the report are the 
following: 

In the Water Department the total re- 
ceipts were $579,032.48, an increase over 
the previous year of about 8 per cent. 
The disbursements were $168,238.17 for op- 
erating expenses, of which $21,000 was re- 
turned for taps, etc., made; $105,060.35 for 
extensions of water mains, of which 
about one- third was assessed as benefits 



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ORGANIZATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS. 



5» 



withstanding the much-discussed reduc- 
tions in water rates, there is a consider- 
able profit from the works above all 
chargres except depreciation. Nearly 11 
miles of new mains were laid. 

The sewerage department laid 16,000 feet 
of bilck sewer and 23,000 feet of pipe at a 
total cost of 1202.776, of which sum less 
than one-fifth was paid by special assess- 
ment. About $41,000 of this amount was 
for cleaning and repairing sewers and 
catch basins. The Jones Island sewage 
pumping plant lifted nineteen billion gal- 
lons of sewage and river water at a cost 
of $17,832. The plant also furnishes light 
and power to- operate the garbage plant. 
The Milwaukee river flushing works 
forced over seventeen billion gallons from 
the lake into the river to flush it, at a 
cost of $18,8S7. A flushing tunnel of the 
same sort for the Kinnicklnnic river is 
under construction. 

The mileage of streets and alleys im- 
proved is 19^ at a cost of $466,280, a trifle 
less than half of which is assessed on the 



abutting property. New sidewalks were 
8H miles long, of which nearly 4 miles- 
were cement. 

Street sprinkling cost $64,569. Street 
cleaning cost $98,000, alley cleaning $21,000, ^ 
and removal of ashes and rubbish $125,000. 

The board also constructed several 
school houses, five engine houses, a 
natatorium and public library station and 
a garbage plant. 

The garbage plant cost $80,630, of which 
$12,500 was for the right to use the proc* 
esses. 

Three natatoriums were maintained at 
a total cost of about $14,000 and were used 
by about 650,000 persons. Two of them 
were run all the year round and one for 
three summer months. 

The new Grand-ave. draw bridge was 
constructed at a total cost of $87,522. 

An ordinance has been passed and ac- 
cepted providing for the depression of the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railroad in the 
Eighteenth ward, and bridges over the 
tracks at the street crossings. 



OR^OANIZATIONi 
AND INDIVIDUAL! 



Portland Cement Manufacturers— Pargo City Engineer— Professors for Engi-^ 

neering Schools— Indiana Engineering Society— Scranton Engineers' 

Club— Technical Meetings— Personal Notes. 



The Association of Portland Cement 
Manufacturers. 

Questions of importance to the cement 
trade were settled at the second annual 
meeting- of the Association of Portland 
Cement Manufacturers, held Doc. 8 in 
New York. Forty- two companies were 
represented, being a large percentage of 
the $350,000,000 capital invested in the busi- 
ness. The meeting was held to enable the 
members to exchange views as to the best 
methods of manufacturing cement and of 
extending and developing the business; to 
consider the reports of committees, and 
to elect officers for the ensuing year. 

A number of the members represented 
to the association that because of the 
enormous demand for cement during the 
last two years they have been compiUed 



to keep their mills in continuous opera- 
tion day and night, and it had been im- 
possible to make repairs. In view of this 
fact a resolution was adopted that the 
members of the association should close 
their mills for six weeks or more between 
Dec. 1 and April 1, to enable tho necessary 
repairs to be made. 

It was the consensus of opinion that, 
with prices as they are at present, the 
imports of foreign cement, amounting to 
about $2,000,000 in 1903, would be decreased 
considerably during the coming year. The 
amount of cement on hand at the various 
mills on Dec. 1 was found to be light, and 
much lower than had been anticipated. 
The association will erect a building at 
the St. Louis Exposition at a cost of be- 
tween $35,000 and $50,000. 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



Robert W. Lesley of the American Ce- 
ment Company retired from the office of 
president and was succeeded by J. B. 
Lober of the Vulcanite Portland Cement 
Company; A. F. Gerstell of the Alpha 
Portland Cement Company, formerly 
secretary, was elected vice-president; E. 
M. Young of the Lehigh Portland Cement 
Company, formerly treasurer, was elected 
secretary, and E. R. Ackerman of the 
Lawrence Cement Company becomes 
treasurer. The new executive committee 
consists of H. W. Maxwell. W. H. Hard- 
ing, R. W. Lesley, W. R. Warren, George 
E. Bartol. E. M. Hager and S. B. New- 
berry. 

A banquet was given by the association 
at Sherry's at night, at which a silver 
loving cup was presented to R W. Les- 
ley, the retiring president. 

The companies represented at the meet- 
ing were as follows: 

Alpena, John Monaghan; Alpha, A. F. 
Qerstell; Alsens. W. S. Sinclair. Mr. Bab- 
son; American, R. W. Lesley, J. W. Eck- 
ert, Wallace King, George Norris, C. M. 
Camm, H. B. Warner; Atlas. Howard W. 
Maxwell; Bonneville, W. H. Harding; 
Castalla, W. J. Prentiss; Catsklll. J. W. 
Kittrell; Cayuga Lake, M. E. Calkins; 
Central, R. E. Griffith; Chicago, Norman 

D. Fraser; Coplay, J. T. Brady, Gabriel 
Blum. J. L. Berg, R. L. Morrell. James 
Butler; Dexter, G. E. Bartol. J. Brobston, 
G. A. Schneebele; Edison, W. S. Mallory, 
Lovell H. Carr. W. S. Pilling; Elk Rapids. 
Mr. Sly; Empire, C. A. Lockard, Mr. 
Kingsbur>'; German-American, O. C. 
Prussing; Glens Falls. W. W. Maclay, 
Byron Lapham; Helderljerg. T. H. Du- 
mary, Mr. Farrell; Hudson, L. C. Smith, 

E. Bra vender, Mr. Bernard; Illinois, E. 
M. Hager. Morris Metcalf; Lawrence*. E. 
R. Ackerman. M. S. Ackerman* L. V. 
Clark; Lehigh, E. M. Young; Martins 
Creek, J. B. Wight; Thomas Milleii Com- 
pany, . Millen; Nazareth, P. H. Hamp 
son, M. J. Warner; Newaygo, B. T. Breck 
er; Northampton, Mr. Dunn; Peerless, J. 
R. Patterson; Peninsular, J. W. Shooe 
Phoenix, J. Turner, Mr. ZIpperlein: St 
Louis, J. C. Robinson, E. E. Para more, 
A. J. Craney, jr.; Sandusky. S. B. New 
berry, P. B. Beery; Virginia, W. R. War 
ren, F. H. Lewis, F. W. White, D. ^ 
RIanhard; Vulcanite, J. B. Lober. B. F 
Stradley, W. D. Lober. W. R. Dunn. H 
A. Shaffer, Albert Meyer; Wayland, V, 
T. Whitmore; WTiltehall, W. B. Whitney 
Thomas M. Rlghter. W. E. Erdell; Wol 
verine, L. M. Wing; C. H. Wood; Stand 
ard, W. G. Henshaw of California. 

The extracts given herewith from the 
report of the executive committee will 
show the progress which has been made 



by this committee and sub-committees 
toward the settlement of many questions 
of great interest to both makers and 
users of cement. In this connection it 
may be suggested that the third edition 
of the Directory of American Cement In- 
dustries will be issued in 1904 and will 
contain the latest and fullest information 
about the cement factories of this country 
and the latest and fullest Information 
available upon the production of and the 
demand for cement for domestic con- 
sumption and exportation. 

The report of the executive committee, 
of which R. W. Lesley of the American 
Cement Company, was chairman, reads in 
part as follows: 

The executive committee beg to report 
as follows: 

Your association grew out of a call, 
signed by twenty-three companies, t:or a 
meeting at Sherry's, Forty-fourth-st end 
Fifth-ave., New York, on Sept. U, 1902. 

The subject of the call was stated to be 
as follows: 

"The HAderslgned, manufacturers of 
Portland cement, recognizing the fact 
that the pr*^.sent methods of handling of 
•sacks' are almost universally unsatls- 
factorj', and believing that the question 
ran be profitably be discussed and a sat- 
isfactory plan evolved at a meeting of 
the eastern mills, hereby pledge them- 
selves to attend such meeting." 

Prior to the meeting, the gentlemen in 
attendance enjoyed a very charming 
lunch and during the course o£ the in- 
formal speeches, the thought of such an 
association as we now have, was brought 
forward. The thought was father to the 
deed, and- our association was formed 
with twenty members signing the consti- 
tution. 

At the first annual meeting of the asso- 
ciation there was submitted to the asso- 
ciation, which wau composed of reorescn- 
tativo.s of eastern mills only, a su5f?«»ytl::n 
on behalf of the Central Association of 
Cement Manufacturers. composed of 
western mills exclusively, that the two 
associations should co-operate. This im- 
portant suggestion met with the full ap- 
proval of your association, and at the 
quarterly meeting on March 10, 1903, ten 
companies, members of the Central Ce- 
ment Association, were present, and ull 
became members of our association, thus 
making the Association of Portland Ce- 
ment Manufacturers no longer local, but 
a National Association. The membership 
has now grown from twenty to forty-six, 
representing manufacturers from the At- 
lantic to the Pacific Coast. The esti- 
mated output of Portland cement which 
Is now represented In our body being from 
90 per cent, to 95 per cent, of the total 
product of the TTnlted States. 

During the year there were brought 
forward many questions involving freight 
rates and also other transportation ques- 
tions. The most Important of these and 
the settlement of which was brought 
about by co-operation between our asso- 



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ORGANIZATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS. 



61 



elation and the railroads, was a vmlform 
method vecarding: the letum of empty 
bass* Tliis action resulted in the Issu- 
ance of uniform circulars by all the 
the member of our association to their 
respective customers, and, similar no- 
tices by all the railroads to their freight 
aerents, resulting in a uniform method for 
the return of bags and the payment of 
freight thereon. 

In the fall there was also a reduction 
of freight to Chicago and western points 
not taking the 60 per cent, rates; another 
lesult of the work of our transportation 
committee. 

Under similar linos of co-operation, a 
committee was appointed by your asso- 
ciation to confer with representative 
manufacturers, members of the Iron and 
Steel Association, in the matter of test- 
ing and standards for concrete steel con- 
struction. This suggestion, which had 
root in our association, has extended from 
the two associations originally contem- 
plated to the American Society of Civil 
Engineers, which will bring up the matter 
at Its next annual meeting in January. 
190i and to the American Society for 
Testing Materials, which has appointed a 
committee to act in unison with those al- 
ready referred to. The effect of this will 
be that by standard methods in this Im- 
portant form of construction the possible 
danger to the cement industry by im- 
proper and careless construction of con- 
crete steel bridges, buildings, etc., will be 
entirely obviated. 

The importance of a standard specifica- 
tion for cement has certainly been recog- 
nized by all of those connected with ce- 
ment, either as engineers, consumers or 
manufacturers. Certainly, no class recog- 
nizes it more fully than the members of 
our association. To do away with th^ 
many hundreds of varying specifications 
which come to the mills during the course 
of the year, and to substitute for them a 
single specification, well thought out, well 
considered and well adjusted, would be 
of great value. 

Following the line of co-operation al- 
ready referred to as part of the business 
of this association, your cement commit- 
tee has been represented upon a joint 
committee of the American Society for 
Testing Materials. This society is seek- 
ing to find a field as a general clearing 
house for the making of specifications in 
the interest of consumers, engineers and 
producers. The committee to which this 
matter of uniform cement specificaticms 
has been referred is composed of engi- 
neers connected with the drafting of the 
iTnlted States army specifications, of the 
entire committee of the American Society 
of Civil Engineers on the manipulation 
a.nd testing of cements, of representatives 
of the engineering departments of the 
Kew York Central, Baltimore & Ohio. Il- 
linois Central and Pennsylvania railroads, 
of representatives of the Cement Commit- 
tee of the American Railway Engineer- 
ing and Maintenance of Way Association. 
The Institute of Architects has been in- 
vited also to be represented on the ce- 
rnent committee of your association. 



The methods of manipulation adopted in 
the progress report of the American So- 
ciety of Civil Engineers, were made the 
standard for the purposes referred to, and 
samples of some eight different cements 
were sent to some thirty-odd laboratories 
to be tested in accordance with the meth- 
ods described. These tests have been 
completed and a summary has been made 
of them, and from this summary a sug- 
gested specification has been laid before 
the committee of the American Society 
for Testing Materials, and has now been 
sent for final examination and approval 
to all its members, with the object of 
having replies by February 1, 1904, at 
which time a meeting will be held for the 
final adoption of the specification. 

It is needless to say that a standard 
specification, which has grown from the 
intelligent work of the American Society 
of Civil Engineers' committee, coupled 
with the thought of the United States 
army engineers, the American Railway 
Engineers and Maintenance of Way As- 
sociation, the American Society for Test- 
ing Materials and your own association, 
and practically determined in the labora- 
tories to which the samples were sent, 
will, when adopted, command the regard 
and respect of all engineers, .consumers 
and producers of cement. 

Further in the line of co-operation with 
sister societies may also be mentioned 
the meeting held in New York on Dec. 1, 
1908, between your committee on uniform 
contracts and a committee appointed by 
the National Builders' Supply Associa- 
tion to confer with us on the subject 
named. This was the first meeting be- 
tween the manufacturers of, and the 
dealers in, cement, and it may be stated 
that the best of feeling and co-operation 
marked the meeting, and that it was 
thought highly advisable by both parties 
that many similar meetings should be 
held during the course of every business 
year, and the National Builders' Supply 
Association havea emphasized their views 
on the subject by extending to our asso- 
ciation an invitation to Join the annual 
meeting of the National Builders' Supply 
Association, to be held at Buffalo, N. Y., 
on Feb. 3, 1904. 

The manufacture of Portland cement by 
the United States government, on the site 
of the Tonto Dam, in Arizona, was 
brought before your executive committee 
by representatives of mills on the Pacific 
coast, and in connection with these gen- 
tlemen who have now become members 
of our association, an effective argument 
was addressed to the Secretary of the 
Interior. After a hearing of several hours 
in which the matter was fully gone over, 
a decision was rendered giving the vic- 
tory to the cement men, the government 
deciding not to make cement on the site 
of the dam, but to advertise for bids for 
cement under either of the two following 
methods, viz.: 

First— Cement manufactured elsewhere 
and shipped to Phoenix or Globe by rail, 
and then hauled to the dam site. 

Second— The government to furnish a 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



250-barrel-per-day mill at the site with 
power to operate It, and the contractor 
to manufacture It there. 



Fargo'8 City Engineer Earns His Sal- 
ary. 
Mr. Sam F. Crabbe, city engineer at 
Fargo, N. D., recently asked the City 
Council to reduce his salary 50 per cent, 
during the winter months, as his time Is 
only about half employed during that 
-season. After recovering from their sur- 
prise the Aldermen decided to allow Mr. 
■Crabbe to earn all this salary during the 
busy months, but to continue paying his 
■salary as heretofore. 



Professors for Engineering 8oho9!s. 

One of the problems to which engineer- 
ing schools ought to give Immediate and 
-serious consideration has grown out of 
the practice of obtaining professors by 
"In-breedlng," as It has been character- 
ized, meaning by this the recruiting of 
the young teachers, soon to be developed 
Into full-fledged professors, from among 
recent graduates, with little more than 
their school experience to their credit. 
This species of selection has become an 
increasing fashion within the past ten 
years, or perhaps better put, an Increas- 
ing necessity, due to the cramped financial 
<:ondltIons ruling with most of the 
schools, and the result has undoubtedly 
t>een a nar/owed degree of usefulness of 
Instructors and professors, and a more 
•closely circumscribed value in the eu- 
^neerlng market of the young graduates 
forced Into It. In a few instances, ft is 
true, prominent engineers, actively en- 
gaged In professional work, have be?n in- 
duced to lecture occasionally at such 
schools, thus vitalizing the college atmos- 
phere with the spirit of actual engineering 
and through such lectures some »cood has 
been accomplished. In several -ecent in- 
stances, also, men fresh from engineering 
fields have been secured as the heads of 
engineering school departments, and aa 
such aCTord admirable Ulustiations o' a 
policy which Is to be much commended. 



Indiana Engineering Society. 

The Indiana Engineering Society pre- 
sents a program for its convention at 
Indianapolis Jan. 14, 15 and 16. 1904. which 
promises to be more than usually inter- 
esting and valuable. It Indicates that the 
society is endeavoring to Include all 
branches of engineering in its interet'.ts. 
The program Includes among others the 
following: 

"The Indiana Assessment Law," by C. 
A. Kenyon, Indianapolis. 

"The Indianapolis Municipal Testing 
Laboratory," by Walter Buehler, Assist- 
ant City Engineer. 

"Computing Machines," by Prof. C. B. 
Veal, Purdue University. 

"Structural Timber," by Prof. W. IC 
Hatt. Purdue University. 

"Bridge Abutments and Piers," by Prof. 
W. D. Pence, Purdue University. 

"More Light on the Theory of Con- 
crete," by S. B. Newberry, Sandusky 
Portland Cement Company. 

"Stream Pollution In Indiana, with Spe- 
cial Reference to the Purification of 
Strawboard Refuse," by M. O. Lelghton, 
United States Oeologlcal Survey. 

"The Sewer System of Connersvllle," by 
Karl L. Hanson, City Engineer. 

"Sewerage and Sewage Disposal at Bed- 
ford," by G. C. Houston, City Engineer. 

"The Septic Tank and Filter Bed of the 
Eastern Hospital for the Insane," by 
Prof. R. L. Sackett, Earlham College. 

"Filters vs. Contact Beds In Sewag^a 
Purification," by W. S. Shields, City En- 
gineer, Chicago, 111. 

"The New Centralized Power and Heat- 
ing Plant of Purdue University," by Prof. 
J. D. Hoffman. 

"Steam Heating from Central Station," 
by Fred B. Hofft, Indianapolis. 

"A New Automatic Stationary Engine," 
by F. F. Shandler, Indianapolis. 

"Power Chains and Their Use," by 
Charles H. Hills, Indianapolis. 

"Smoke Prevention." by R. P. King, In- 
dianapolis. 

"Cost Keeping." by Harry B. Marsh. 
Indianapolis. 

"Locomotive Testing at St. Louis Expo- 
sition." by Prof. W. F. M. Goss, Pur- 
due University. 

"Surveys for Electric Railway Con- 
struction," by Charles L. Sellers. Peru. 

"Interurban Railways In Small Cities/' 
by John W. Fulwlder, Lebanon. 
"Some Special Street Railway Work." 



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63 



neer's Club, held at Philadelphia Nov. 21, 
"Cement and its Uses" was the topic of 
discussion. 

The annual meetiner of the Iowa Brick 
and Tile Association will be held in Ma- 
3on City, la.. Jan. 20 and 21. 

The annual convention of the Illinois 
Clayworkers' Association will be held at 
Danville, 111., Jan. 5 and 6. 

The Wisconsin Clayworkers* Associa- 
tion will hold its fourth annual meeting 
s,t Portage, Wis., and the dates as now 
proposed are March 1, 2 and 8. 

The midwinter good roads meeting of 
the National Good Roads Association will 
be held at Ormond Beach, Fla., Jan. 28 
and 29. 

At the annual convention of the League 
of California Municipalities at Stockton, 
•Cal., Dec. 9, the subject of oil for good 
roads was discussed. A. T. Lightner, trus- 
tee at Bakersfleld. stated that his city 
has thirty miles of oiled street^; that last 
year 11,000 barrels were applied at a cost 
of 60 cents per barrel, ninety barrels be- 
ing used In the first application on each 
3S0-foot block, the width of all streets 
being fifty-one feet. C. B. Seeley of Napa 
said that oil had been tried on twenty-five 
miles of macadam with satisfactory re- 
sults. Considerable attention was also 
given to the litigation whereby the In- 
ventors of machines for applying oil are 
■attempting to recover damages. The use 
of salt water for street sprinkling was 
thoroughly discussed. 

The December meeting of the New Eng- 
land Waterworks Association was held 
in Boston Dec. 9; A paper on "Notes on 
the Building of a Storage Reservoir" by 
Walter H. Richards and one "Rainfall 
and RunofT from Catchment Areas" by 
Lewis M. Hastings, C. E. of Cambridge. 
Mass., were read. W. R. Grace, superin- 
tendent of waterworks at Rockland, 
^ass., urged the desirability of making 
water rates a lien on the property occu- 
pied by the consumer and moved the ap- 
pointment of a committee of three to look 
Into the matter and report at the January 
meeting. The matter carried and the 
president stated that he would appoint 
the committee later. 



Personal Notes. 



W. J. Harsett has been elected mayor 
;at Sacramento, Cal. 
USttL JBL S. Sduaits has been re-elected 



Charles E. Phelps, .Jr., has been reap- 
pointed chief engineer of the municipal 
subways of Baltimore, Md. 

Peter J. Ford has been elected presi- 
dent of the drainage board and William 
G. Legner vice-president, at Chicago. 

John R. Hardin has been appointed park 
commissioner at Newark, N. J., to suc- 
ceed Howard W. Hayes, who died Nov. 26. 

John C. Brackenridge, M. Am. Soc. C. 
E., has been appointed commissioner of 
public works of the borough of Brooklyn. 

N. L. Taylor, who gave up the office of 
city engineer at Tacoma, Wash., Dec. 81, 
1908. has established an ofi^ce at 801 N. 
I-st., Tacoma. 

W. A. Cattell, M. Am. Soc. C. E., con- 
suiting engineer, has removed his offices 
In New York City from 42 Broadway to 
the Park Row Bldg. 

Hon. C. C. Dlgby, mayor of Charleston, 
111., visited Indianapolis. Ind., Dec. 12 to 
obtain some information re;?ardlng street 
cars and interurban roads. 

C. H. Danenhower, conduit engineer of 
the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company, 
Cincinnati, O., was appointed general en- 
gineer of that company Dec."!. 

Mr. Thomas Cyprian Prenyear, sales 
manager of» the new Canadian Westing- 
house Company, died of typhoid fever at 
Ft. William, Canada, on Dec. 10. 

Henry Burton has been elected superin- 
tendent and consulting engineer, and 
Thomas Riddle, jr., chief engineer to the 
Water Board at Port Huron, Mich. 

Williams & Whitman, civil and sani- 
tary engineers, have removed from 702 
Fuller Bldg.. New York City, to 908 
Whitehall Bldg., Battery Park Place. 

O. Perry Salle, C E., 146 Westmlnster- 
st., Providence. R. I., has been appointed 
engineers of waterworks and sewers at 
Hickory. N. C. Edward W. Shedd will 
be associated with him. 

Messrs. Fred J. Potters, Samuel B. 
Bower, William A. Shreve, Joseph L. 
Caughlln and David R. Brown have been 
appointed members of the water commis- 
sion at Bordentown, N. J. 

Oliver N. EUer has resigned as supers 
Intendent of the municipal electric light 
and waterworks plants at Portland. Ind.. 
to accept a position with the S. M. Smith 
Company at Noblesvllle, Ind. 

W. H. Hall of Birmingham. Ala., has 
been appointed superintendent of public 
works at Columbus, Ga., to succeed Rob- 
ert I^. Johnson, who was killed by the 
caving In of a trench Sept. 30. 

John D. Allen has been appointed vice- 
president and general manager of the 
AlUs-Chalmers Company. Mr. Allen has 
been associated with the company for 
more than twenty-five years. 

Gen. Francis V. Greene, commissioner 
of police. New York City, has tendered 
his resignation to take effect on Dec. 81. 
to become general manager of the Nlag- 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



troit, Mich., Nov. .29, aged sixty-three 
years. Mr. Merdian was a paving con- 
tractor, his business being conducted un- 
der the name. of the Henry Merdian Com- 
pany. 

Charles Baillarge has resigned the du- 
ties of city engineer at Quebec and has 
been succeeded by his son, W. D. Ball- 
large, who has the title of acting city en- 
gineer. Mr. BaJUarge has filled the posi- 
tion of city engineer for a number of 
years. 

Hon. Alen C. Pobes, newly-elected 
Mayor at Syracuse, N. Y., has appointed 
heads of departments under his adminis- 
tration as follows: Ralph S. Bowen, com- 
missioner of public safety; Aaron R. 
Thompson, commissioner of public works; 
corporation counsel, Walter W. Magel; 



city engineer, Frank J. Schnauber, reap- 
pointed. 

Frederick W. Cappelen, former city en- 
gineer of Minneapolis, Minn., has been 
engaged by the special council committee 
of that city to assist in determining the 
cost of producing electric power In that 
city and to secure comparative figures of 
the cost of electric lighting and power in 
the various cities of the United States 
under similar conditions. 

Robert Grimes, prominent in bridge 
building, died at Elmira, N. Y., Dec. 8. He 
was for years connected with the Union 
Bridge Company. Among the bridges he 
built are the first iron pier at Coney Is- 
land, the cantilever bridq^o at Louisville, 
the viaduct from the Harlem river to ihe 
Grand Central Station in New York City. 



MACHINERY AND TRADE 






The American Road Roller Company. 

The American Road Roller Company is 
a new corporation, of which William 
Churchill Oastler, Asso. Am. Soc. C. E., 
is president and Jay Con<;er is treasurer. 
It is the successor to the business of Wm. 
Churchill Oastler and a'lso to that of the 
Conger Manufacturing* Company. The 
principal offices of the company are at 15C 
Fifth -ave., New York, and the works are 
at Groton, New York. Mr. Oastler has 
carried on a business in steam and road 
rollers and street and street cleaning and 
construction machinery for over twenty- 
five years and his machines are widely 
and favorably known. The Conger works 
at Groton were completed just before the 
combination was made and the new com- 
pany starts out with better facilities than 
the old and with the prestige of the 
reputation of both of them. 



A Ills-Chalmers Company's New Stand- 
ard Reynolds Corliss Engine. 

We illustrate herewith a new Corliss 



represents the experience of twenty-six 
years in building of Corliss engines and 
combines all of the desirable elements of 
the best designs. 

Engines of the type illustrated are being 
built in seven sizes, ranging from 50 to 
500 horse-power, and are designed for 
steam pressures up to 150 lbs. They are 
built of somewhat shorter strokes than 
have heretofore been customary in Cor- 
liss engines, with the idea of economiz- 
ing in space and making the construction 
more rigid. The speeds are also some- 
what higher than usual, ranging from HO 
to 150 revolutions per minute, although 
these speeds are not higher than those 
at which the Reynolds-Corliss engines of 
older deslgrn are frequently operated. 

The frame is cast in one piece with the 
slide, the construction being of the box 
type, resting on the foundation for its 
entire length. The main bearing shells 
are bored into the frame, thus insuring 
a solid bearing and also permitting the 
easy removal of the shells by rolling them 
out around the shaft. 

The slide Is of the barrel type with 



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MACHINERY AND TRADE. 



65 



cast-iron base plate, which extends under 
the valve erear, serving as a drip pan. 

The valve gear is of the usual Rey- 
nolds Corliss type, the wrist plate being 
of skeleton pattern and fitted with a new 
type of disconnecting device which, while 
clamping the hook rod firmly, is very 
easily detached by iiand. 

The dash pots are cf differential plunger 
type without leathers or packing of any 
kind. 

The regulator is of the high-speed 
weighted t3l>e, designed to control the en- 
gine within narrow limits of speed varia- 
tion. 

The connecting rod is of steel with solid 
forged ends, fitted with bronze boxes, 
babbitt-lined on the crank pin ends, the 
boxes being adjustable by means of screw 
actuated wedges. 

The crank pin is of plain type, polished 



formerly laid, have opened a New York 
office at 32 Broadway, under the man- 
agement of Mr. T. Hugh Boorman. 

They are now selling quantities of their 
mastic to contractors throughout the 
country and there is a special call for it 
for brewery floors. 

This mastic contains nothing but pure 
material, viz.: Silica, carbonate of lime 
and bitumen, free from residuum oils or 
earthen or vegetable matter, which no 
imported mastic can claim. 

The company is also preparing to de- 
liver rock asphalt powder ready for use 
by municipalities for repairs and are per- 
fecting plans for moderate cost machin- 
ery of improved construction, which will 
be much appreciated by city engineers 
and commissioners of public works. 



NEW CORLISS ENGINE OF ALLIS-CHALMERS CO. 



on the face, and is protected by a plan- 
ished steel oil guard (not shown in cut). 

The onflTlnes are fitted oither with belt 
flywheels, as shown, or with square rim 
wheels where used with direct connected 
electric generators. The crank and cross- 
head pins and main Journals are of a size 
ordinarily used with heavy duty engines. 

In brief, the engine is strong, simple 
and compact, and while nothing has been 
added for ornamentation, nothing con- 
tributing to economy or durability has 
been omitted, and the machine should 
find a large sale among power users who 
appreciate quality. 

♦ 

Kentucky Rock Asphalt for Floors and 
Pavements. 

The Wadsworth Stone and Paving Com- 
pany of Pittsburg, owners of rock asphalt 
mines on Green river, Kentucky, who for 
the past two years have been using 
American rock asphalt which they had 



A Press for Making Cement Pipes. 

The Kielberg molding press has been 
used for some years in Europe for mak- 
ing cement pipes and Is now being intro- 
duced in this country by H. Schebye, 
C. E. 

The machine uses a cylindrical mold. 
Inside of which works a mandrel, which 
serves the double purpose of forming 
the inner surface of the pipe and of com- 
pacting the cement paste or mortar of 
which the pipe is made. The mold is 
made In two semi-cyllndrical halves 
which are clamped together by a self • 
locking band. Flanges or sockets are 
made as desired. 

To mold a length of pipe one of the 
cylindrical molds is set up concentric 
with the ring. The mandrel is then low- 
ered into it until the helical thread is 
nearly in contact with the bottom ring. 
Enough cement to form the pipe socket 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



Is ithen placed inside the mold and the 
mandrel is rotated by means of gear- 
ing. Tlie effect of this rotation is to 
cause the helical threaii to force the ce- 
ment downward and fill the socket. The 
rotation is then continued, more cement 
being added at intervals and the man- 
drel being gradually moved upward, until 
the moid Is fillM to the top. The man- 
drel is then withdrawn from the mold 
and the latter with its contents and base 
plate is by means of an especial form 
of car removed to the store-room, where 
the iron foot of the mold is exchanged 
for a wooden one. This done, the pipe Is 
placed uprght and the mold taken away 
whilst the pipe is left to harden. 

The capacity of one machine is stated 
to be as follows per hour: 



6 


9 


12 


15 


18 


20 


24 


Inches. 


10 


11 


8 


7 


5 


5 


4 


Pieces 8 
ft. long 



The pipes made by this machine are 
very smooth internally, and being molded 
under pressure, the concrete after hard- 
ening is very strong. The- figures in the 
accompanying table below represent the 
breaking loads on pipes of different sizes, 
three months old. These tests were made 
by Dr. Toepffer, Finkenwalde, Gt?rmany. 
The pipes were laid fiat and loaded on tfie 
upper surface. 

Table showing results of tests of cement 
pipe, 3.28 feet long and of various diam- 
eters: 



Composition of Mortar. 




1 


UD 

.2 


Cem- 
ent. 


Sand. 


SmaU 
stones. 


11 




8 

3 

2 

1% 

1 

8 

3 

4 

3 


""i"'" 

1 


Inch. 

7.87 
9.84 
9.84 
9.84 
9.84 
9.84 
11.02 
11.02 
19.78 


Inch. 
1.03 
1.10 
1.10 
1.10 
1.10 
1.10 
1.18 
1.18 
1.57 


Lbs. 
6,455 
6,305 
7,059 
5,855 
5.324 
5,789 
5.216 
5,027 
5,247 



Other tests made by the Royal Tech- 
nical Academy, Stockholm, Swedep, 
showed that the cement pipes were 
stronger than those of glazed earthen- 



water level had sunk 23mm. in the ce- 
ment pipes and 150mm. in the earthen- 
v/are pipes. 

» « 

Art Stone. 

The first book written on the artificial 
stone and hollow concrete building block 
subject makes its appearance Jan. 1. It 
was written by F. W. Hagloch, Rose 
Building. Cleveland O., and gives plain 
instructions in easily understood lan- 
guage for the making of artificial stone 
and hollow concrete blocks in all its uses. 
It also gives much information as to 
making colored artificial stone ornaments 
of all kinds. The author is a practical 
civil engineer who has devoted many 
years to the subject of concrete and in 
recent years has devoted his entire time 
to the artificial stone industry. In this 
work he describes all hand and machine 
methods and has taken great care in de- 
scribing every detail so that, he believes, 
any one of common school education and 
ordinary mechanical ability can by use 
of this book make all kinds of artificial 
stone successfully, special attention being 
given to the materials and devices most 
suitable for this line of work. A cate- 
chism of over 100 questions and answers 
gives a full review of the subject. The 
appendix consists of a glossary defining 
the unfamiliar terms used by the trade. 
It is an instructor for the beginner and a 
ready help for the most experienced. It 
is neatly bound in cloth and can be had 
by sending $1.50 to the author. 

Trade Publlcat'ons. 

Jeffrey coal washing machinery is 
shown in catalogue 52 of the Jeffrey Mfg. 
Co. of Columbus, O. 

Jeffrey Screening Machinery is Illus- 
trated and described in catalogue 69 of 
the Jeffrey Manufacturing Company, of 
Columbus, O. 

The Cement Machinery Company, 
Jackson, Mich., sends a large card illus- 
trating and describing the new 32-inch 
Normandin concrete block machine. 

Circular No. 73 of the Jeffrey Manu- 
facturing Company, Columbus, O., gives 
a general illustrated list of the various 
manufactures of this company in 
pocket book form handy for consulta- 
tion. 

The Engineering Company of America, 



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MACHINERY AND TRADE. 



67 



The Medina Quarry Company, 150 Nas- 
eau-8t.. New York, issue "to archlteot?, 
<x>ntractors, owners, and other interested 
persons" a handsomely illustrated book- 
let describing: the product of their 
<iuarries at Albion, New York, and its 
U3e in buildings and pavements. 

Julian Scholl & Co., 126 Liberty-st., New 
York, issue a catalogue of their Reliance 
steel stone crushers and portable stone 
crushing plants, including folding ele- 
Tator, revolving screens, portable bins 
and road-roller or other portable engine. 
^— 

Trade Notes. 

ASPHALT. 

The Ada Asphalt Company, Ada, Ind. 
Ter., is developing asphalt fields at that 
place. 

The asphalt plant of Brayer Bros, near 
the city limits of Auburn, N. Y., was dt- 
•stroyed by flre Dec. 18. 

A fire in the plant of the Barber As- 
phalt Paving Company at Long Island 
City Nov. iJ6 caused a loss of about $oOO. 

The purchase of an asphalt plant to re- 
pair the asphalt streets in A!le^eny, Pa., 
Is recommended by E. J. Mcllvain, direc- 
tor of public works. 

The Boston Oil and Asphalt Company, 
Washington, D. C. has been incorporatwl 
by R. S. Donaldson, B. W. McCormick 
and James P. Shepperson. 

A two-foot vein of asphalt was found 
recently on IT. G. Leevey's farm near 
Robinson, Kas., while digging a well. 
Samples have been submitted for analy- 
sis and if a favorable report is rendered 
the deposits will be developed. 

Capitalists of Beaumont, Tex., will de- 
velop asphalt deposits in the AYolf Creek 
valley in Pike County, Arkansas. J. E. 
Blackburn, president of the Texas Crude 
Oil and Mining Company, Beaumont, has 
secured 1,500 acres in fee simple, a lease 
on 1,000 more acres and an option on .W- 
OCO which are supposed to contain one 
of the finest beds of asphalt in the coun- 
try. 

An attachment was served on the Fed- 
eral Asphalt Company at Black Rock, 
Grayson County, Ky., Dec. 3. The at- 
tachment was sworn out by the Central 
■Coal and Iron Company at Central City 
for $1,063. The Federal Asphalt Company 
was incorporated In West Virginia. Its 
miues are located three miles from Big 
Cilfty. Another attachment for $4,800 has 
been sued for at Ft. Wayne, Ind. Presi- 
dent Coffeen has not yet made a state- 
ment of the affairs of the company, but 
promises to do so in a few days. 

BRICK. 

The clay at Oak I'ark, Minn., is adapted 
to the manufacture of paving brick, r/C- 
cording to press reports, and a plant wi!! 
be established. 

The Clarinda Mining and Manufactur- 
ing Company, Clarinda, la., will erect a 
plant and engage in the manufacture of 
pressed and paving brick. 



The erection of a large paving brick 
plant at New Albany, is contemplated by 
McCann, Fitch & Converse of Chicago. 
111. 

The Staten Island Brick and Tile Man- 
ufacturing Company, Washii;igton, D. C, 
has been Incorporated by George Lodgo, 
Walter Bevans and Charles M. Mac- 
Go wan. 

Ike A. Chase, Memphis, Tenn., desires 
to correspond with parties who would be 
interested in a site for the establishment 
of a fire brick and sewer pipe plant. 

H. Huennekes & Company, 114 Liberty- 
st., New York, show many highly com- 
mendatory letters from those who have 
purchased plants of them and those who 
have investigated the qualities of their 
product, sand lime brick. 

CEMENT. 

The Consumers' Gypsum Company. 
Port Clinton, O., has been Incorporated. 

The plant of the Aetna Cement <Com- 
pany, Fenton, Mich., is being Improved. 

The Cumberland Cement and Paving 
Company, Cumberland City, Tenn., has 
been incorporated. 

Plans are being discussed by the Di- 
rectors at Detroit, Mich., for reorganiz- 
ing the Hecla Portland Cement Com- 
pany. 

The construction of Immense Cement 
works near Laverty, Indian Territory, 
10 mis. west of Chlckasha, Is contem- 
plated. 

Balfour, Guthrie & Company, of Lon- 
don, will engage In the manufacture of 
cement near Whatcom, Wash., according 
to press reports. 

The Galveston, Houston & Northern 
delivered to W. L. Macatee & Sons of 
Houston, Tex., Jan. 11, 8,000 sacks of 
cement of 95 pounds each. 

The Carbutt Gypsum Company, Roches- 
ter, N. Y., has been Incorporated to mine 
gypsum, by John D. Lynn, Smith O'Brien 
and Carroll A. Thompson. 

The National Portland Cement Com- 
pany, First National Bank building, Eas- 
ton. Pa., will have a new 16-klln plant 
in operation in the spring. 

The Wyandotte Cement Company has 
been Incorporated by George B. Morely. 
of Saginaw; Standford T. Crapo, John B. 
Ford, Harry J. Baxton and Benjamin F. 
Berry of Detroit. 

The Redfield Cement. Brick & Tllo 
Manufacturing Company, Redfield, S D., 
has Its new machinery In running order 
and will begin making cement bricks and 
building blocks in the spring. 

A Boston company has purchased, of 
Hon. J. F. Wllkhouse of Orvillo, Ala., 
cement rights on 1,000 acres of land at 
West Dallas. Ala. and will erect a large 
plant for manufacturing Portland ce- 
ment. 

The pla^t of the Ft. Scott Hydraulic 
Cement Company. Ft. Scott, Kas., 
was entirely destroyed by fire Dec. IL 
The plant was principally owned by 
Walter Halliwell and D. P. Thomas of 
Kansas City. 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



The plants of the Glens Falls Portland 
Cement Company, with the exception of 
one have been closed for a short time on 
account of a fire. 

The Bronson Portland Cement Com- 
pany, Bronson, Mich., has been 
closed for the purpose of beingr put in 
good condition for an early renewal of 
business. 

Valuable beds of cement extending 
over an area of several miles SQuare 
and directly adjoining Anadarko, O. T., 
have been located, according to press re- 
ports from^Andarko. 

The Bronson Portland Cement Com- 
pany has acquired some of the property 
of the Kalamazoo Cement Company, Kal- 
amazoo, Mich. The company has also in- 
creased Its capital stock from $500,000 to 
. $1,000,000. 

P. F. Haley and Q. Q. Hough, mana- 
gers of the Bridger coal mine, Bridger, 
Mont., have found another deposH of 
gypsum one and one-fourth miles from 
the railroad. Where exposed the ledge is 
eight feet thick- 

The Gypsum fields around Watonga, 
Ok., aro pronounced by G. P. Grimsby, 
secretary of the Kansas Academy of 
Science, among the richest In the United 
States. Mr. Grimsby has been Investi- 
gating the deposits for Oklahoma City 
and El Reno investors. 

The repairs being made to the plant of 
the Alpena Portland Cement Company, 
Alpena, Mich., will be completed early In 
January. At a recent meeting of the di- 
rectors they unanimously voted to change 
from the wet to the dry process, which 
will require about three and a half 
months and will cost between $50,000 and 
$60,000. Herman Besser, president. 

The Standard Portland Cement Com- 
pany, Detroit, Mich., filed amended arti- 
cles of association Nov. 27. converting 
$900,000 of common stock into preferred 
stock. The company is building a railroad 
from its property in Benzie County to 
Lake Michigan, where it has a large pier. 
The construction of the plant will be 
commenced In the spring. Fred H. Ald- 
rlch, secretary. 

The Consolidated Cement Company has 
made a proposition to the county board 
at Milwaukee, Wis., to sell Its White- 
fish Bay property for prison use. The 
Whiteflsh Bay property conaists of 75% 
acres and is fully equipped with all th€ 
Improvements necessary for furnishing 
an output of 1,000 barrels a day. W. 
Bollow, agent. 

The Kentucky Portland Cement Com- 
pany, of Delaware, has been reorganized 
by Detroit capitalists who have taken 
over the holdings of the company and 
will begin at once the construction of a 
large cement plant at Marengo, Ind. 
Congressman F. L. Wheeler is president 
and John Lokie Is secretary and treasur- 
er of the new company. Both gentle- 
men are residents of Detroit. The Ken- 
tucky Portland Cement Company was 
organized In Louisville. Ky., in 1902 with 
C. J. Meddin as president and C. B. Nor- 



deman as secretary and treasurer. Plans 
for a plant at Marengo will be made at 
once by C H. Todge. The new company 
will be known as the Marengo Portland 
Cement Company. 

The Wentx Engineering Company of 
Nazareth, Pa., wiU begin Jan. 2, the 
construction ot\ a 1,000-barrel cement 
plant at Edgewater, Benzie County. 
Mich., for the Standard Portland Ce- 
ment Company. The Standard PorUand 
Cement Company is composed of F. H. 
Aldrich, 813 Hammond Building, Detroit; 
S. C. Symons, Saginaw; Wm. J. Corn- 
well, Cadillac; Edwin Fellows, Frank- 
fort. 

The Cement Tile Works, Sac City. la., 
is manufacturing drain tile out of cement 
concrete and will manufacture building 
blocks after molding dies invented by C 
S. Larimer, manager of the company. 
The company will engage in sidewalk 
construction and will retail cemen^. A 
steam heat plant has been put in and op- 
erations will continue during winter and 
summer. The officers of the company 
are: President, George Glass; manager C. 
S. Larimer; secretary, Henry Barent. 

U. R. Loranger, former secretary and 
manager of the Hecla Portland Cement 
A Coal Company, Bay City, Mich., filed 
in the United States Court Dec. 9, a 
sworn petition asking the court to par- 
mlt him to intervene in the foreclosure 
suit brought against the Hecla Com- 
pany by the Detroit 'a rust Company. 
The former secretary claims that the 
company's troubles are the result of a 
deliberate attempt to wreck the com- 
pany in order that the properties might 
be secured at less than their actual 
value, he and others being principal 
creditors. 

The Cement Workers and Heli^rs' 
Union at Springfield, III., has elected offi- 
cers for the ensuing six months as fol- 
lows: President, W. Fifield (re-elected); 
vice-president, Joe Bostick; recording 
secretary, Clifford Fifield (re-elected); 
financial secretary, Alfred Overton (re- 
elected); treasurer, George Slfkln; war- 
den, Pete DufCy; guide, Noah Roe. Trus- 
tees— C. Fifield, R. Lovejoy, F. Mclnem. 
Delegates to S. F. of Labor— W. Fifield, 
R. Lovejoy, C. Fifield. This is the fourth 
consecutive term that Clifford Fifield, the 
present recording secretary, has been 
unanimously elected to office. 

The Alma Cement Company, which 
purchased the property of the Alma Port- 
land Cement Company at Wellston, O., 
is rebuilding the plant and will be ready 
for operation about Jan. 1. 1903. The 
company does not expect to place cement 
on the market before March 1, however, 
as it desires its product to be properly 
aged before it goes out. The company's 
offices are In the Betz Building, Phila- 
delphia, and its officers are as follows: 
President. B. B. Lathbury; vice-presi- 
dent, Frederick Strau.ss; secretary and 
treasurer, Mark T. Cox. William J. Don- 
aldson in charge of sales department. 



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MACHINERY AND TRADE. 



LIGHTING AND POWER. 

The McClure Lighting Company, Minne- 
apolis, Minn., has been incorporated by 
F. D. Clark, Edward Stump and W. M. 
Bruger. 

The General Lighting Supply Company, 
Philadelphia, Pa., has been incorporated 
to furnish light, heat and uower and man- 
ufacture and sell lighting supplies. 

The American Gas Machine Company, 
Albert Lea, Minn., has been Incorporated 
by Ferdinand Larson, N. P. Chrlstenson, 
J. P. Jensen, C. A. Ranson, Edward Olson, 
Geo. Hurd, E. W. Knatvold and others, 
all of Albert Lea. 

The Saginaw United Electric Company 
and Bay City United Electric Company 
have been capitalized by Philadelphia 
capitalists, who will engage in electric 
lighting. 

The Allgemeine and Union Elektricl- 
tats companies, Berlin, Germany, decided 
Dec. 5, to consolidate. Tho Union Com- 
pany's 24,000,000 shares will be trans- 
formed into 16,000.000 shares of the Alle- 
meine, making the capital of the 
latter $19,000,000. 

A merger of electric and power plants 
In the coke regions and the Pittsburg, 
McKeesport & Connellsvllle railway sys- 
tem has been effected and applications 
for a charter for the combined Interests 
will be made at Harrlsburg, Dec. 31. The 
new company will be known as the West- 
ern Pennsylvania Railroad Company and 
will be in control of the entire lighting, 
power and street railway systems of 
Westmoreland and Fayette Counties and 
part of the trolley system of Allegheny 
County. 

MI8CBLLANEOU8. 

The works of the American Bridge Com- 
pany at Ambridge, Pa., will be started 
Jan. 4. 

The Plymouth Paving Co., Minneapolis, 
Minn., will manufacture sidewalk blocks 
this winter at Aitken, Minn. 

One of the largest stone crushing plants 
In southern Minnesota has recently been 
completed by Fowler & Pay of Mankato. 
Minn. 

The Canton Concrete Company, Canton, 
C, has been incorporated by J. N. Mc- 
Queen, Peter Schlsler, P. H. Weber, John 
Floom and A. O. Stentz. 

The Pleasant Hill Sewer Company, Tup- 
per Lake, N. Y., has been incorporated 
by Louis De Laucett. W. J. Devendorf 
and Barney Seigel of Tupper Lake. 

The Nashville Roofing & Paving Com- 
pany of Nashville, Tenn., will build a 
plant at Birmingham. Ala., for the man- 
ufacture of bituminous macadam. 

The Wagner Stone Company. Sandusky, 
O.. has been incorporated by Michael 
Wagner, Leo E. Wagner, Albert E. Wag- 
ner. Emil W. Wagner and Joseph F. 
Wagner. 

The Ohio Paving Company has been In- 
corporated at Indianapolis, acknowledg- 
ing to Interests in Indiana worth $5,000. 
John Kerlin, Montpeller, Ind., state rep- 
resentative. 



The Powers Manufacturing Company, 
Clarinda, la., has been incorporated to 
manufacture well-boring and rock-drill- 
ing machinery and general well and 
water supply tools. 

The Building Block Manufacturing 
Company, Minneapolis. Minn., has 
erected a large plant near Lake Calhoun 
for the manufacture of hollow concrete 
blocks for structural purposes. 

Lewlnson & Just, 452 Fifth-ave.. New 
York City, have dissolved partnership and 
George A. Just will conduct the business 
of consulting and contracting engineers 
under the firm name of .George A. Just 
& Co. 

C. M. and John J. Murphy, formerly of 
the Fuller Construction Company have 
organized and Incorporated the Murphy 
Construction Company, with offices at 112 
and 114 W. Forty-thlrd-st., New York 
City. 

The Howard Hydraulic Cement Com- 
pany,, Cement, Ga., desires to correspond 
with tile companies or parties who make 
tile for sidewalks, etc. Also with par- 
ties making tools for this walk. J. H. 
Warner, prest. & treas. 

Mayer Bros., Mankato, Minn., have 
been incorporated to manufacture trip 
hammers, boilers, gasoline and steam en- 
gines, structural steel and iron, etc., with 
oflftcers as follows: President. Louis 
Mayer; vice-president, H. F. Mayer; sec- 
retary and treasurer. Lorenz L. Mayer. 

Mr. W. N. Thornburg has been elected 
vice-president of the Ohio Quarries Com- 
pany. His offices will be in the Marquette 
building. 204 Dearborn-st., Chicago. Mr. 
Thornburgh has been connected with the 
sandstone trade for many years. 

The Altoona Concrete Construction & 
Supply Company of Butler, Pa., has been 
Incorporated under Delaware laws to 
manufacture the H. S. Palmer hollow 
concrete building block and Cochrane ce- 
ment sand brick. The incorporators are 
Chas. C. Reeder. Butler. Pa.; S. P. Zetul- 

Mr. F. S. Dickinson has been appointed 
sales agent of the Bedford Quarries Com- 
pany with offices in the Flatiron building, 
949 Broadway. New York City. Mr. 
Dickinson will have charge of the east- 
ern sales of this company, which Is th« 
largest producer of Oolitic limestone in 
the world. 

J. W. Sanderson of the Normandin Ce- 
ment Building Block Machinery Company, 
Burlington, la., has sold cement block 
machines as follows: A company at 
Cedar Rapids, la., composed of William 
King. T. C. Munger and J. W. Sanderson; 
to Roney & Sheehan of Independence, la. ; 
to Webster Cement Products Company, 
Webster City, la.; Rockford Concrete 
Construction Company, Rockford, 111.; 
company at Oskaloosa, la., composed of 
G. H. Carlon & Sons and G. H. Carlon; 
Chris Riemer & Co., Marshalltown, la. 
The Normandin Cement block machine is 
in operation in 22 plants in Iowa. 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



The Buffalo Litholite Company has been 
Incorporated to manufacture an artificial 
st6ne Invented by C. W. Stevens of Har- 
vey, 111. The officers of the company are: 
President, Uriah Cummings. Akron, N. 
Y.r vice-president, Chas. H. Lockard, 
Syracuse; secretary and treasurer, Chas. 
Barnum. Buffalo. 

Lewinson & Co. was recently Incorpor- 
ated with offices at 128 W. iPorty-second- 
st., New York City, to conduct business 
as consulting engineers and* contractors. 
MacMilian Lewinson, who is president of 
the company, has been, for a number of 
years a member of the recently dissolved 
iirm of Lewinson & Just. D. B. Rich- 
ardson is secretary and treasurer of the 
company. 



"We pull for Leschens" Is what you 
read on the large leather collars of the 
horses attached to the wagons of A. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Company in St. 
Louis, New York, Chicago and Denver. 
These are the wagons in which they de- 
liver their reels and coils of Hercules and 
patent flattened strand and all other 
kinds of wire rope. A. Leschen & Sons 
Rope Company also manufactures and 
erects aerial wire rope tramwajs of 
every description; likewise underground 
and surface wire rope haulage plants. 
Their engineers in charge of the differ- 
ent departments have had years of ex- 
perience and are thoroughly competent. 
920 to 932 N. First-st., St. Louts, Mb., is 
the home office of A. Leschen & Sons 
Rope Company. 



mPROVEriENT AND 
CONTRACTING NEWi 



RAVING. 

Davenport, la.— The Allen Paving case 
will come up on appeal In the United 
States Circuit Court on Jan. 11. 

St. Joseph, Mo.— A sample block of pav- 
ing will be constructed on Elghth-st.. 
between Felix and Francis-sts., by 
Rackliffe & Gibson, using Purington 
block, which is manufactured at Gales- 
burg, 111. 

Akron, O.— The property owners on 
Rhodes-ave. have been granted an in- 
punction restraining the County Treasur- 
er from collecting the assessments for im- 
proving that street, o.- the sale of their 
property as delinquents on their refusal 
to pay. They claim that the resolution 
providing for the improvement was il- 
legal. 

CONTEMPLATED WORK. 

Frankford. Pa.— Paving is contemplated 
for various streets. 

Hazleton. Pa.— An ordinance has beeu 
passed to pave Wyoming-st. 

Scranton, Pa.— Cedar-ave. will be paved. 
Aleck T. Connell, mayor. 

Pasadena. Cal.— Marengo-ave. will be 
paved its entire length. 2\ miles. 

Boston. Mass.— The question of widen- 



New York City- The property owners 
on lower Park-row have petitioned for 
asphalt paving. 

Albany, N. Y.— An ordinance has been 
approved by Mayor Gaus for paving 
Sherman-st. with asphalt. 

Dallas, Tex.— The Dallas county comrs. 
will engage a civil engineer to preparo 
plans for county roads. 

Nashua, N. H.— The bd. of pub. wks. 
contemplates paving Main-st., from City 
Hall to the Worcester tracks. 

Fairvlew, Mich.— This village voted Dec. 
12 to issue $36,000 bonds for paving, sew- 
ers and water mains. 

Houghton, Mich.— (Special.)— W. V. Sa- 
cicki, vll. engr., says this village contem- 
plates paving Sheldon-st. 

Newport News, Va.— A bill has passed 
the Senate approving the Issue of |66,00(^ 
bonds for street pavements. 

Cedar Rapids, la.— The city council is 
considering a petition for the improve- 
ment of the Welchheimer road. 

Los Angeles, Cal.— Petitions have been 
submitted to the city council asking for 
about 4 mis. o? asphalt paving. 

Little Falls, N. Y.— The question of pav- 
ing all the pilncipal streets is being con- 
sidered. Cy. Engr. Lansing. 

Walla Wtlla. Wash.— Tiie necessity of 



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Hays. Kas.— An ordinance has been ap- 
proved for constructing sidewalks on 
various streets. W. H. Cakrick. cy. elk. 

Atlanta, Ga.— The question of paving 
Marietta-ave.. from Peach Tree-st. to a 
point near the {government building with 
asphalt Is under discussion. 

Paris, 111— Ordinances will be passed In 
January for paving S. Central, N. Cen- 
tral and Pralrie-st9. Cy. Engi\ St/wyer. 

Mobilfi, Ala.— The board of public works 
will present the plan for the third pav- 
ing contract to the general Council dur- 
ing January. 

Atchison, Kas.— A resolutioh has been 
passed' to pave 7.800 square yards of 
Parallel-st. with brick. Fred Giddings, 
cy. engr. 

Atlantic City, N. J.— The property-own- 
ers on lowa-ave., from Pacific to Arctlc- 
aves., have petitioned for asphalt or 
bituiithio pavement. 

New York City— The board of esti- 
mates appropriated $1,750,000 for the com- 
pletion of the Riverside Drive extension, 
One Hundred and Thirty-fifth to "Or.o 
Hundred and Flfty-fllth-sts. 

Philadelphia, Pa.- A boulevard frovn 
City Hall to the Green-st. entrance to 
Park Is proposed. Macadam or asphal': 
paving will be usod. 

Marshalltown. la.— A resolution will bo 
considered by the City Council Jan. 4 pro- 
viding for paving Second, Third, Fourth 
and Fifth-sts., six blocks. 

Greece, N. Y.— The town board has 
decided to construct about 6 miles of 
roads. Bids will be asked as soon as 
plans and speclficn lions can be prepared. 

Rushville, Ind.— The county commis- 
sioners have approved the report of the 
viewers for constructing 12 mis. of the 
Gcwdy, Moscow arid St. Paul pike. 

Akron, O.— Ordinances have been ap- 
proved for paving Upson and Docust- 
st?. with brick, and macadamizing 
South and Bill-fets. Chas. W. Kempel, 
mayor. 

Decatur, Ind.— A oetitlon has been sub- 
mitted to the county auditor asking for 
the construction of a macadam road in 
Monroe township. Abe Boch, co. audt. 

Frankfort. Ind.— About 20 mis. of new 
gravel roads will be built, as a result of 
the recent decision of the Supreme Court 
holding the gravel law to be constitu- 
tional. 

Norwood, O.— Resolutions have been 
passed by the city council providing for 
the construction of macadam paving on 
Lawrence and Walton-aves. John 
Meyer, prest. cy. coun. 

Washington, la.— A resolution was ap- 
proved Dec. 7 for paving Iowa. Marion, 
Main and Washington-st*. with brick 
blocks. Objections will be heard Jan. 6. 
A. N. Alberson. mayor. 



supvrs. to construct a state road 2 mis. 
long from Stottsville to this place, and 
one 1-ml long from Chatham to Chat- 
ham Center. 

Ashland, Wis.- The committee appoint- 
ed by Mayor Williams to report upon 
street Improvements for next year favor 
macadam paving for W. Second and 
Thlrd-sts. and Prentice and Vaughn- 
aves. with asphalt for Seventh and El- 
lis-aves. and Second-st. 

rONTRACTS TO BE LET. 

Ottawa, O.— Bids are asked untr. Jan. 
28 lor 7^ miles of stone road work. O. C. 
Talbot, CO. surv. 

Paoll, Ind.— Bids are asked until Jan. 

5 for building ^ mis. and 1.548 ft. oJ.' road. 
Geo. W. Tegarden, co. audt. 

Cleveland, O.— Bids are asked until Jan. 

6 for paving a number of streets with as- 
phalt. A. R. Callow, secy B. P. 3. 

Lafayette, Ind.— Bids are asked until 10 
a. m. Jan. 11 for constructing the E. B. 
Steeley et al. gravel road. Bd. comrs. 

I^ Mars. la.— Bids are asked until Jan. 
16 for paving Sixth, Seventh and Main- 
sts. with vitrified brick. O. L. Louden- 
slager. elk. 

Houston, Tex.— Sealed bids are asked 
until 12 m. Jan. 4 for constructing 32 mis. 
of gravel pavements. O. T. Holt, mayor; 
D. D. Bryan, secy. 

Omaha, Neb.— Bids are asked until Jan. 
22, according to local press reports, for 
building permanent sidewalks and for 
grading Flfteenth-st. and an alley. 

Cincinnati, O.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Jan. 14 for paving McMillan-st. 
from May-st. to Auburn-ave. with as- 
phalt. Geo. F. Holmes, elk. B. P. S. 

Toms River. N. J.— Sealed bids are 
asked until Feb. 9 for building a gravel 
road in Union twp. 3.25 miles In length. 
Jas. E. Otis. dir. bd. freeholders. 

New London. Conn.— Bids are asked un- 
til Jan. 14 for constructing a macadam- 
ized road between Ft. Mansfield and 
Watch Hill. R. I. Address Q. M., 27 
Granlte-st. 

Bloomfield. Ind.— Bids are asked until 1 
p. m.. Jan. 5. for building 2 mis. of gravel 
roads In Smith twp. and % mi. of gravel 
road In Center twp. Bd. comrs. 

Sullivan. Ind.— Sealed bids are asked 
until 11 a. m., Jan. 4, for building 4 mis. 
of stone roads In Haddon twp. Joseph 
Asbury. chmn. bd. comrs.; J. M. Lang, 
CO. audt. 

Port Townsend. Wash.— Bids are asked 
until Jan. 13, for building granolithio 
walks as approaches to buildings at 
Forts Worden and Casey. Geo. H. Pen- 
rose. Q. M.. V. S. A. 

Columbus. Ind.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Jan. 7 for 9,325 sq. yJs. of brick pav- 
ing on Washington-st., and 7.000 sq. yds. 
on FIfth-st. W. H. Rights, cy. engr.; 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



Crookston, Minn.— Sealed bi-ds are asked 
until 8 p. m., Jan. 12, for granite ma- 
cadam pavingr, granite or sandstone curb- 
ing and granolithic gutter on Broad wa>, 
Main, Fletcher and Third-sts. W. H. 
Graver, cy. elk. 

Belleville. 111.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Jan. 20, 1904, for paving W. Main 
and S. Illlnois-sts. with brick, with stone 
curbing; paving Race, Second and Third- 
sts. with asphalt, with combined granit- 
oid Tiurb and gutter. Fred J. Kern, prest. 
B. L. I. 

Toledo, O.— Bids are asked until Jan. 4, 
for brick paving as follows: John-st., 
647 sq. yds.; Ostrich Lane, 1,005 sq. y^s.; 
Prouty-ave., 1,650 sq. yds. Bids are a.sked 
until Jan. 18 for 1,690 sq. yds. of brick 
paving on Elm-st.. and 5,930 sq. yds. on 
Auburn-ave. Harry S. Jones, secy. B. 
P. S. 

CONTRACTS AWARDED. 

Ardmore, I. T.— The contract for paving 
Main-st. with asphalt was awarded to J. 
B. Downard. 

Cincinnati, O.— The contract for paving 
Fourth-st. with asphalt was awarded to 
the Kirchner Construction Company. 

Atlanta, Ga.— The contract for paving 
N. Pryor-st., /rom Peachtree to Alabama, 
with asphalt, was awarded to Venabl«i 
Bros. 

Springfield, Mass.— The contract for 
constructing the Depot road was awarded 
to John Polcaro of Plttsfield for $22,608. 

Chester, Pa.— W. E. Reilly was awarded 
the contract for relaying the sidewalks 
on Fifth and Lloyd-sts. at 55 cents a sq. 

yd. 

Far Hills, N. Y.— The contract for mac- 
adam paving to the Morris county line 
was awarded to Augustus Munson & 
Company for I'i2,8u9. 

Lexington, Mo.— The contract for pav- 
ing Main-st.. from Eighth to Thirteenth, 
was awarded, Dec. 10, to Ihe Ft. Scott 
Stone & Const. Company for $1.74 a sq. 
yd. 

St. Paul. Minn.—The contract for mac- 
adam paving on W. Seventh-st., from 
Tuscarora to Fort Snelilng was awarded 
to Fielding & Shepley for $69,872. 

Benton Harbor, Mich. — The Cleveland 
Asphalt and Paving Company, Cleveland, 
O., was awarded the contract for paving 
three streets at $1.87 a sq. yd. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.— Paving contracts 
were awarded Dec. 13 as follows: B. 
First South-st., J. P. Moran. $21,711.2^; 
cement sidewalks, R. S. Blome Company 
of Chicago, $29,696. 

Bound Brook, N. J.— Bids have been re- 

rtAlvAil fftr mat*ai\am r\a-v\r\cr t\r\ Tlffmntoin. 



HoUoway, 8.8 cts. *: sq. ft.; Grading, curb 
and gutter in Carlton-avo., Charles Mush- 
rush, 65 cts. a ca. yd. for grading, 20 cts. 
a lin. ft. for curb and 13 cts. for gutter. 
Pleasant-st., E. J. Hart, sidewalks, S.izS 
cts.; grading, 29 cts.; curb, 20 cts. and 
gutter, 18 cts. 

Kansas City, Mo.— The contract for re- 
surfacing Westport-ave. from Main-st. to 
Shawnee-ave., was awarded to the Baroer 
Asphalt Paving Company at $1.85 a s^j. 
yd. Other contracts for asphalt paving 
were awarded as follows: 40th-st., from 
Main to Oak, Parker- Washington Com- 
pany, $7,243.35; 23d St., from Indiana lo 
Cleveland, Gllsonite Company, $10,225.40; 
brick sidewalk. 25th-st.. from Michigan n> 
Cleveland, Missouri Sidewalk Company, 
$284.70; curbing Locust-st., from 20th-Bt. 
to Belt line tracks, Kansas City Sidewalk 
Company, $185.25. 

Buffalo, N. Y.— Bids have been received 
for paving as follows: Repavlng Wal- 
den-ave., German Rock Asphalt Com- 
pany, asphalt, $12,065; paving Hartman- 
place. Eastern Construction Company, 
asphalt, S6,300. F. V. E. Bardol bla th'^ 
same sum for brick; repavlng Tona- 
v/anda-st.. German Rock Asphalt Com- 
pany, asphalt, $36,048; L. H. Gipp, brick. 
$30,500. 

Cadillac, Mich.— Bids were submitted 
Dec. S for paving the principal streets 
as follows: Cleveland Trinidad Asphalt 
Company of Ohio, asphalt, lO-yoar guar- 
antee, $33,020; Central Bitulithlc Company 
of Detroit, bituUtliic, 10-year, $34,786; 5- 
year, $32,433; Barber Asphalt Pax'lnflr 
Company, Detroi't, bitulithlc, 10-year, $32.- 
666; Trinidad. 10-year, $32,500; Trinidad 
Lake asphalt. 10-year, $33,293; A. Prange. 
Grand Rapids. Canton brick, 10-year, $3L- 
686; Dean & Connors. Albion. Mich., 10- 
year, $81,214; 5-year, $80,976. 

Philadelphia. Pa.— Bids were received 
Dec. 17 for repairing streets, maintaining 
macadamized roads, etc., as follows: Re- 
pair streets, except asphalt and grano- 
lithic. Mack Paving Company. $144,200. 
Maintaining macadamized and improved 
roads, D&vid Peoples. $175,000; Edward 
H. Vare, $122,000; David McMahon. $180.- 
000; James R. Shanley, $170,000. For re- 
surfacing macadamized roads with 
broken stone, David McMahon, 91 cenfta 
per square yard; Edward H. Vare, 80 
cents; David Peoples. 95 cents, ■ and 
James R. Shanley, 90 cents. 

Syracuse, N. Y.— Bids have been sub- 
mitted for paving S. Sallna-st. as fol- 
lows: John W. Bustln. 405 W. Onon- 
daga-st.. Syracuse brick, $22,370;» and 
sandstone between railway tracks, $24.- 



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IMPROVEMENT AND CONTRACTING NEWS. 



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sandstone between tracks, ;26.003; Empire 
Contracting: Company, 112 E. Jefferson- 
st., Trinidad asphalt, $28,921, and sand- 
stone between tracks, $27,177. 



SEWERS. 



Columbus, O.— Mayor Jeffrey Is oppose<2 
to the exi)endlture of $50,000 for the con- 
struction of a temporary or experimental 
sewage disposal plant. 

CONTEMPLATKD WOKK. 

Evansvlllo, Ind.— A main sewer is con- 
templated. 

Marden Rock, Wis.— Plans for a sewer 
arc under consideration. 

Chamborsburg, Pa.— A 24-in. pipe sewer 
to the creek is proposed. 

Croton, Conn.— The question of sew- 
age disposal is being discussed. 

Hutchinson, Kas.— The extension of the 
sewerage system is contemplated. 

Falrvlew, Mich.- This village voted to 
issue bonds for building sewers. 

Lamberts vlUe, N. J.— The construction 
of a system of sewers is contemplated. 

Monasha, Wis.— A sewer in Manltowor- 
st. is contemplated. S. S. Little, cy. elk. 

Rockford, 111.— The city engineer is pre- 
paring plans for a new sewer in Pralrio- 
st. 

Red Wing, Minn.— I'lans have been de- 
cided upon for a sewerage system in 
East Red Wing. 

Vt. Wayne, Ind.— A resolution has been 
adopted for a system of sewers in South 
Wayne territory. 

Houlton, Me.— An engineer will be en- 
gaged to make a survey for the exten- 
sion of the sewerage system. 

Fltchburg, Mass.— Plans have been pre 
pared for building a sewerage system. 
David A. Hartwell, cy engr. 

Bellevile. 111.— An ordinance has been 
adopted to build intercepting sewers and 
a ?eptlc tank. Mayor Kern. 

Edwardsville, 111.— Bids may be asked 
In February for constructing 20 to .30-in. 
pipe sewers and a septic tank. 

Hagerstown, Md.— Mayor Holzappcl. jr., 
advocates the construction of eight to 
ten underground drains to cost about 
$8,000. 

Baltimore, Md.— The sewerage commis- 
sion has finally placed the oost of the pro- 
posed sewerage system at $12,000,000. 

Grand Rapids, Mich.— Estimates have 
been prepared for building sewers in 
Baldwin and N. Unlon-sts. and Ellsworth 
and Morris-aves. 

Binghamton. N. Y.— S. E. Monroe, cy. 
engr., estimates the cost of the proposed 
Fourth Ward trunk sewer at $85,000 with- 
out the laterals. 



will be asked for the construction of a 
trunk sewer In Noble-ave. and the exten- 
sion of the trunk sewer In Maln-st 

Niagara Palls, N. Y.— A sewer is pro* 
posed from the disposal works in Echota 
to the tunnel trunk sewer. Bids will be 
asked for building a sewer In Beech-ave. 

Buffalo, N. Y.— The Business Men and 
Taxpayers' Association of West Seneca 
has appointed a committee to report on 
the matter of Installing a modern sewer- 
age system. 

Janesvllle, Wis.— The special committee 
has recommended the construction of 
sewers and storm sewers In a large num- 
ber of streets on the west side of the 
river. 

Johnstown. Pa.— Resolutions have been 
introduced providing for a trunk sewer 
to take care of the first, second and third 
ward sewage and for a permanent Sow* 
erage system. 

Sebring, O.— Plans have been accepted 
for the proposed sewerage system. Plans 
and specifications for a new sewage dis- 
posal plant will be submitted to the 
State Board of Health. 

HyattsvIUe, Md.— A preliminary survey 
of the torwn Is being made by T. Chalk- 
ley Hatton of Wilmington, Del., prepara- 
tory to making estimates of the cost of 
installing a sewerage system. 

The construction of sewerage systems 
Is contemplated at the following places: 
Coldwater, Mich.; Saxonvllle, Mass.; 
Lakevlfle, Conn.; Newton, N. J.; Ben- 
nettsviile, S. C; Louisiana, Mo.; San- 
tiago, Chili. 

CONTSACT8 TO BE LET. 

Clinton, la.— Bids are asked until Jan. 
12 for 63G0 ft. of brick sower. H. E. Gates, 
elk. 

Crookston, Minn.— Bids are asked un- 
til Jan. 8 for constructing ditch No. 49. 
N. A. HofTard, co. audt. 

Cannellton, Ind.— Bids are asked until 
10 a. m. Jan. 4 for constructing a public 
ditch. Bd. CO. corors. 

Alexandria, Minn.— Bids are asked until 
Jan 11 for constructing ditch No. S. E. 
P. Wright, CO. audt. 

Vinlta, Ind. Ter.— Bids are asked until 
Jan. 6 for building a sewerage system. F. 
J. Barrett,^ recorder. 

Anderson', Ind.— Bids are asked until 
Jan. 2 for constructing 7 mis. of open 
ditch. Morton H. Downey, co. surv. 

Decatur, Ind.— Sealed bids are asked un- 
til 7 p. m. Jan. 5 for a 10 in. tile sewer 
In Marshall-st. D. M. Hower, cy. elk. 

St Paul, Minn.— Bids are asked until 
2 p. m., Jan. 4 for building a sewer on 
Falrfield-ave. from Wabash to Custer- 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



. HaWklnsville, Ga.— Sealed bids are ask- 
ed until Jan. 21 for furnished and laying 
19,500 feet of 6 to 15-in. sewer pipe, in) 
manholes and 10 flush tanks. T. J. Hol- 
der, cy. elk. 

Omaha, Neb.— Bids are asked, accord- 
ing to press reports, for constructing the 
Saddle Creek sewer, from Hamilton to 
California-sts. and sewers in Llncoln- 
ave. and Thirteenth and Cass-sts. 

New Orlean.?, La.— Sealed bids are ask- 
ed until Feb. 2 for constructing 66 mis. 
of sewers and appurtenances, including 
700 manholes and oOO flush tanks. F. S. 
Shields secy, sewerage and water bd. 

CONTRACTS AWAKDBD. 

Tacoma, Wash.— Carlson & Swanson se- 
cured the contract Deo. 15 for building 
sewers !n dist. No. 2i for $2,925. 

Wabash, Ind.— The contract for con- 
structing a ditch 7 mis. long was awarded 
to A. M. Jones of Syracuse for $10,000. 

Burlington. la.— The contract for 
building the Hawkeye sewer was award- 
ed to the Burlington Const. Company for 
$20,000. 

Oakland, Cal.— The contract for building 
a main outlet sewer was awarded to E. 6. 
& A.L. Stone for $136,511.10. 

Kansas City, Mo.— The contract for 
constructing a sewer in district 218 was 
awarded to W. C. Mulllns for $204,812.83. 

Salt Lake City, Utah— The contract for 
constructing sewers was awarded Dec. 12 
to Jaa. Kennedy & Co. of Fargo, N. D., 
for $18,801. 

Baston. Pa.— The contract for building a 
sewer from Second-st. to the Delaware 
river was awarded to John McQueriiey, 
city, for $2,516. 

National Park. N. J.— The contract for 
constructing sewerage system was award- 
ed Dec. 1 to H. A. Miller of Wilmington 
for $5,387.54. 

Steubenville, O.— John O. Bates was 
awarded the contract for building a 20-ln. 
sewer on S. Seven th-st., from South to 
Slack-sts., for $1,488.80. 

Greensboro. N. C— The contract for 
building 13% nils, of lateral sewers warf 
awarded to Guild & Co. of Chattanooga. 
Tenn.. for $34,529. 

Harrisburg. Pa.— Henry Opperman was 
the lowest bidder, Dec. 19, for construct- 
ing the Second-st. sewer extension from 
Muench to Kelker for $671. 

Saginaw, Mich.— Sewer contracts have 
been awarded as follows: State-st.. from 
Merchon to Bay-sts., Z. & J. Lalonde; 
Mackinaw-st.. from Center to Llnden- 
sts.. B. F. Brucker & Co. 



$25,000; Wm. H. Achuff, $16,900; Jas. M. 
West, $14,400; B. E. Minaghan. $15,876; Da- 
vid Peoples, $29,000. 

East S>'racuse, N. Y.— The contract for 
building a sewerage system was awarded, 
Dec. 4, as follows: South Section, M. 
O'Hearn & Co., Pittsburg. $22,686.30; north 
section, De Nallo & Klingsburg of Kings- 
ton. $24,562.20. 

Mishawka, Ind.— The Elkhart Construc- 
tion Company was awarded the contract, 
Dec. 7. for building Joseph-st. sewer No. 
3 for $1,430.68. Fred Rankert was awarded 
the contract for the Calhoun, Charlotte 
and Joseph-st. trunk sewer for $22,539.96. 

Guttenberg, N. J.— Bids for building the 
main outlet sewer have been submitted 
as follows: George Horung. $33,669; Rob- 
ert J. Emmer, $37,338; Palisade Construc- 
tion Company. Jersey City, $40,998.72; Au- 
gust Theit, $36,602; Capone & Frost, $35,- 
022; Michael J. Curley, Jersey City, $40,- 
267. 

Milwaukee, Wis.— The contract for com- 
pleting the Kinnickinnic river flushing 
tunnel was awarded Dec. 22 to R. J. Mick- 
ey at $38 a lin. ft. R. W. Forrestal, who 
had the contract for the complete work 
and was released from the contract, had 
completed all but 385 feet of the work. 

St. Paul, Minn.— Edward J. Kirkland 
submitted the lowest bid Dec. 14 for con- 
structing the first three-fourths mile of 
the St. Anthony Park .<«ewer system. His 
bid aggregated $59,122, which was $500 le«w 
than the city engineer's estimate. The 
sewer will be built of brick and stone or 
concrete and steel. 

Centralia, 111.— The contract for con- 
structing a sewerage system was awarded 
Dec. 10 to Engel & Carpenter of West 
Pullman, Chicago, for $38,283.18. The work 
consists of 23.920 ft. 8 in., 10.165 ft. 10 in., 
7.205 ft. 12 in.. 1 880 ft. 15 in. and 3,575 ft 
18 in. pipe sewers. 75 manholes and 21 
flush tanks. Iowa Engineering Company, 
Clinton, la., Engrs. in charge. 



WA TSR'WORKS, 

Chicago, 111.— George Mayer was ap- 
pointed receiver of the East Chicago 
Water Works Company, Dej. 8, by Judge 
Kavanaugh. 

Columbia, Mo.— The city council de- 
cided. Dec. 16, to purchase the water 
and light plant of the Columbia Water 
and Light Company. 

Camden, N. J.— The Wilmington Water 
and Light Company has been incorpor- 



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75 



of the city's water supply. The water 
department has knowledge of about 500 
cases of pollution, about 150 of which are 
technical, but not actual, inasmuch as 
they are within the limit set by law pro- 
hibitingr the existence of nuisances near 
streams tributary to the water supply, 
and yet do not drain into the stre.ims. 
Of the remaining number many consist 
of barnyards and pig pens and about 100 
nuisances, all due to dwellings. 

Indianapolis, Ind.— Suit was brought 
In the Federal court Dec. 17 by Frank H. 
Cooper of New York City, asking for a 
receiver for the Lake City Water Com- 
pany, at Hammond, Ind., and asking for 
an Injunction against that city to pre- 
vent it from cutting the company's con- 
nection with the city's mains. He 
claims that the city owes the company 
$15,000 for water rentals and is arrang- 
ing to cut off the company's mains and 
8ui>ply citizens with water from other 
sources. Mr. Cooper is owner of 60 
bonds of an Issue of $197,000 authorised by 
the city of Hammond In 1901 to build a 
water works system. 

Bristol, Tenn.— A temporary Injunc- 
tion restraining this city from putting in- 
to effect the deal by which the city was 
to become owner of the water works of 
the Bristol-Goodson Water Company, the 
King and Preston Springs, was granted 
by Chancellor H. H. Haynes, Dec. 12. The 
oily had closed deal foi these properties 
at $112,500. The citizens seeking the in- 
junction, stated in their petition to the 
court that the city has no legal right to 
purchase and operate the plant of anoth- 
er corporation; that the city has no right 
to contract for rights-of-way and to con- 
struct a pipe line In Virginia which 
would be necessary to reach the Preston 
Springs, the proposed source of supply; 
that the price agreed upon is exorbitant. 
The petitioners propose the purchase of 
the Bristol-Goodson wat-er works at a 
* lower price, and the construction of a 
pipe line to the Holston River at Damas- 
cus, a distance of 15 miles. 

CONTEMPLATED WORK. 

Newton, N. J.— A storage reservoir is 
proposed. 

Springfield, O. — The extension of the 
water mains is proposed. 

Marquette, Mich.— The extension of the 
Intake pipe is proposed. 

Waldron. Ind.— A company has been or- 
ganized to build a water works. 

Fairvlew, Mich.— The village voted to 
Issue bonds for water mains. 

Auburn. N. Y.— The Water Board has 
decided to lay about 5 mis. of water 
mains during 1904. 

Lancaster, Pa.— A committee has been 
appointed to Investigate and report on a 
nitration plant. 

Sheboygan, Wis.— Plans are being made 
for municipal water works. George C. 
Morgan, Chicago, engr. 

Harrisburg, Pa.— The contract for con- 
structing the filter plant will probably 
be let in February. 



Waltham, Mass. — The Improvement of 
the water supply will be taken up by the 
new city government. 

Downers Grove. III.— The water mains 
will be exftended on Rogers and Elm-sts. 
and Prairle-ave. 

The question of issuing water works 
bonds will be voted on at the following 
places: Waverly, Minn.; Caro, Mich. 

Pueblo. Colo.— An ordinance has been 
oassed providing for the issue of $150,000 
bonds for the North Side water works. 
Gadsden, Ala.— The question of the city 
owning and operating Us own wa>ter 
works system will be voted on Jan. 4. 

Houghton, Mich. (Special)— W. V. Sa- 
vickl, vil. engr., says this village con- 
templates enlarging its water works sys- 
tem. 

Rockford, 111.— A revolution was passed 
Dec. 7 favoring the installation of wa- 
ter meters in many of the large build- 
ings. 

Nevada, Mo. (Special)— James M. Clack, 
cy. engr., says this city voted to Issue 
$90,000 for a new municipal water plant. 
The question of Issuing water works 
bonds nas been favorably voted on as 
follows: Cedar Bluffs, Neb.; Saugatuck, 
Mich.; Phoenix, Ariz. 

Sayviile. N. T.- The establishment of 
water works is contemplated by the Say- 
viile Electric Light Company In connec- 
tion with Its electric plant. 

Shenandoah, Pa.— The question of in- 
creasing the borough debt $50,000 for se- 
curing a more plentiful water supply will 
be voted on In Februar>\ 

Yankton, S. D.— The estimated cost of 
Improving the water works system includ- 
ing a standpipe, filtration plant and new 
mains Is $77,000. 

Columbus, Ga.— J. L. Ludlow, cons, 
engr., Winston, N. C, has submitted es- 
timate of the cost of water works for 
this city. T. E. Golden, chmn. water 
comrs. 

Brockton, Mass.— An ordinance has been 
passed providing for a loan of $150,000 for 
completing the Silver Lake Water Sup- 
ply system. Horace Kingman, supt. 
w. w. 

Springfield, Mass.— Mayor Stone and the 
Board of Water Commissioners have pe- 
titioned the legislature for authority to 
secure a water supply from the Westfield 
river. 

Wheeling, W. Va.— This city has au- 
thorized an expenditure of $75,000 for a 
new 30-in. supply main from the pump- 
ing station to the reservoir. C. B. 
Cooke, cy, engrr. 

Philadelphia. Pa.— The loan bill pro- 
^vldlng for a bond issue of $16,000,000 for 
filtration, sewers, bridges, paving, build- 
ing, etc., has been passed over the 
mayor's veto. 

Delphi. Ind.— C^'. engr. Shields recom- 
mends the plan of taking water from 
the mill race on Deer Creek and filtering 
It. as a means of securing an increased 
water supply. 
La Cra?se, Wis.— A plan has been 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



formulated subject to the approval of 
the citizens, for the Immediate construc- 
tion of a filtration plant at a cost of 
180,000 to $100,000. 

Trenton, N. J.— The council finance 
committee contemplates emp!oylns an 
engineer to report upon the feasibility of 
auxiliary high pressure water mains for 
the center of this city. 

Chehalls, Wash.— This city has pur- 
chased the plant of the Chehalls Water 
Company. A gravity water system and 
the Improvement of the source of supply 
Is now proposed. Francis Donahue, 
mayor. 

The construction of water work.9 sys- 
tems is contemplated at the following 
places: Elberton, Ga.; Tahlequah, Ind. 
Ter.; MIlo. Me.; Prospect, N. Y.; Gar- 
field, N. J.; Winchester, 111.; Murray, O.; 
Onawa, la. 

CONTRACTS TO BB LIT. 

HawltlnsvUle. Ga.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Jan. 21 for a water works system. 
T. J. Holden, cy. elk. 

New Orleans, La.— Sealed bids are 
asked until Feb. 2 for laying 2.7 mis. of 
water mains. F. S. Shields, secy, sewer- 
age and water bd. 

Ithaca, N. Y.— Bids are asked until Jan. 
4 for constructing artesian wells to in- 
take well at the pumping station. John 
Miller, secy, water bd. 

Portland, Me.— Bids are asked until Jan. 
22 for constructing a pumping and storage 
plant at Ft. McKinley, Me. Capt. A. W. 
Gates, Q. M. U. S. A. 

San Antonio, Tex.— Bids are asked until 
Jan. 5 for the erection of a 50.000-gal. steel 
tank on 50 ft. trestle at Ft. Brown, Tex., 
T. B. True, C. Q. M. 

Washington, D. C— Sealed bids are 
asked until Jan. 7 for constructing a wa- 
ter tank and tower at the Mt. Pleasant 
School, Mich. W. A. Jones, comr. Indian 
AfTalrs. 

Dayton. O.— Sealed bld« are asked until 
Jan. 20 for furnishing and delivering 800 
%-in., 20 %-in., 15 1-In., 5 l^-in. and 5 2-In. 
water meters. Louis Haas. prest. 
B. P. L. 

Milwaukee. Wis.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Feb. 1 for furnishing a pumping 
engine, boileiB and auxiliary machinery 
for the Klnnicklnnlc river flushing tun- 
nel. Chas. J. Poetsch, chmn. comrs. pub. 
wks. 

Prophetstown, 111.— Bids will be received 
Jan. 19 for a .steel tower and tank, two 
miles of mains, pumping station, gasoline 
engine, and triplex pump. Iowa Engineer- 
ing Company, engrs., Clinton, la. 

Minneapolis. Minn.— Bids are asked un- 
til Jan. 8 for furnlshinfi: 815 tons of 6. S. 12 
and 16-in. c. 1. pipe; 64 6-ln.; 3 8-ln. and 
4 12-in. valves; 103 hydrants; 25 tons spe- 
cial casting. L. A. Lyrard, cy. elk.; An- 
drew Rinker. cy. encr. 

St. Paul. Minn.— Blf^.s are n.^^ked ir^ti! 
Jan. 11 for furnishing 4 to 16-ln. water 
gates; 10,000 ft. 6-in., 4,000 ft. 12-in.. 7.200 
ft. 16-ln. water pipe with privilege of ad- 
ditional pipe hydrants: 1,000 ston boxes; 
4 to 16-in. valve boxes; cast Iron spe- 
cials. John Caulfleld, secy, water comrs. 



Washington, D. C- Sealed bids are 
asked until Jan. 7 for constructing 18 mis. 
of canal, pressure pipes and tunnels, to- 
gether with headworks, spillways and 
gates for the diversion anJ conduction of 
about 200 cu. ft. of water per second 
from Salt river, about 25 mis. north of 
Globe. Ariz., for power purposes. E. A, 
Hitchcock, secy. int. 

CONTRACTS AWARHRD. 

Chickasha, Ind. Ter.- The contract for 
building the waterworks system was 
awarded to Bums & McDonnel of Kansas 
City. 

Seattle, Wash.— The Pacific Coast Pipe 
Company wa.s awarded the contract Dec. 
5 for 8-in. banded wooden pipe with iron 
couplings for 166,792. 

Regina, N. W. T.— The contract for a 
new waterworks system was awarded to 
Dobson, Jackson & Fry. 

Clinton. Mass.— The contract for con- 
structing the south dike of the Wachusett 
reservoir was awarded to Nawn & Brock 
of Boston for $128,015. 

Riverside, Cal.— The contract for con- 
structing water mains -in 14th-8t., 47th- 
ave., 13th-st. and I3th-place was awarded 
to James J. Lynch for $2,628.40. 

Newark. N. J. — The Board of Works 
adopted the water contract Dec. 17 pre- 
sented by the Borough Council of East 
Newark for a term of five years at $60 
per 1.000,000 gallons. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.— The contract for 
watter mains extension was awarded, Dec. 
12 to James Kennedy & Company of Far- 
go. N. D.. for $24,486. 

National Park. N. J.— The contract for 
constructing a water works plant was 
awarded, Dec. 2. to H. A. Miller of Wil- 
mington. Del., for $4,134.60. 

Aurora. Neb.— The contract for a new 
boiler and pumping machinery for the 
water works was awarded to Joseph 
Burns of Lincoln. Neb., for $5,288. 

Helena, Mont.— The contract for build- 
ing a municipal water works system was 
awarded. Dec. 14, to the Congress Con- 
struction Company of Chicago for $579,000. 
The bids were opened Nov. 25. 
. Biasdell, N. Y.— Special)— The contract 
for 492 tons of 4 and 6-In. c. I. pipe and 1% 
tons of special castings was awarded to 
Wm. V. Briggs of New York City for 
$13,851; valves, hydrants and gate boxes, 
Eddy Valve Company, $2,300. 

Marshalltown, la.— Contracts for the 
improvement of the water supply were 
awarded. Dec. 4, as follows: Construct- 
ing reservoir and pumping well and lay- 
ing connecting pipe. Elzy & Dunn of Mar- 
shalltown, $17,200; c. 1. pipe. U. S. Cast 
Iron Pipe & Foundry Con^pany. Chicago. 
$26.25 per ton; valves. Rensselaer Mfg. 
Company, Troy, N. Y. 



BRioaes. 

Morrlsville. N. J.— A new bridge over 
the canal at Brldge-at. is proposed. 

Carlisle, Ind.— The construction of an 
Iron bridge In the city is contemplated 
by the co. comrs. 



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Utlca, N. Y.— The estimated cost of re- 
building Schuyler-st bridge over Mo- 
hawk river is 17,000. 

Midland, Mich.— Bids are aslced until 
Jan. 4 for repairlnsr upper bridge. H. D. 
Holden, elk. B. P. W. 

Walpole, N. H.— A bridge over Con- 
necticut river at North Walpole is con- 
templated by the selectmen. 

Manitowoc, Wis.— Plans for a new tooi 
bridge across the Manitowoc river ha\e 
been submitted to council. 

Rensselaer, N. Y.- The question of a 
bridge over Hudson river north of LIv- 
in^ston-ave. is being agitated. 

Creston, La.— Bids are asked until Jan. 
4 for all bridges to be built during 1904. 
Q^6. Brotberton, co. audt. 

Grand Rapids, Mich.— Bids will be 
asked In January for ihe Wealthy-ave. 
bridge. L. W. Anderson, cy. engr. 

Stockport, N. Y.— This town voted Dec. 
15 to appropriate t%500 foi building a foot 
bridge over Kinderhook creek. 

Little Falls, N. Y.— The construction of 
a bridge across the creek in^E. Mill-st. is 
contemplated. Cy. Engr. Lansing. 

Portland, Ore.— Plans have been com- 
pleted for a steel bridge across Balch 
Gulch at Thurman-st. Cy. Engr. Elliott. 

Hastings, Neb.— Sealed bids are asked 
until 9 a. m. Jan. 4 for building bridges 
in Adams County. W. H. Davis, co. elk. 

Wayne, Neb.— Bids are asked until Jan. 
12 for building and repairing county 
bridges during 1904. Bert Brown, co. elk. 

Chicago, III.— A bridge over the south 
fork of the south branch of the Chicago 
river at Thlrty-flrst-st. is proposed dur- 
ing 1904. 

Redding, Cal.— Bids will be asked at 
once for building a .brick bridge across 
Calaboose creek at Yuba-st. Cy. Engr. 
Burson. 

Dallas, Tex.— The City Council con- 
templates establishing a system of perm- 
anent bridges to be built of masonry and 
steeL 

Centerville, Md.— Bids are asked until 
Jan. 12 for building a steel drawbridge 
over Kent Island Narrows. Joseph M. 
Parvis, elk. 

Central Falls, R. I.— This city has ap- 
propriated 122,500 as its share of the 
bridge to be erected at Cross-st. jointly 
with Pawtucket. 

Saginaw, Mich.— This city will apply to 
the county board of supervisors Jan. 11 
for authority to construct a highway 
bridge across Saginaw river. 

Bridgeport, Conn.— The joint construc- 
tion of a concrete bridge over Ash creek 
Is contemplated by this city and Fair- 
field. H. G. Schofleld, cy. engr. 

Colville, Wash.— Bids are asked until 
Jan. 4 for building a Howe truss bridge 
over Kettle River at station of Barstow, 
8 mis. north of Marcus. Co. comrs. 

Davenport, Wash.— Bids are asked until 
Jan. 4 for building a combination wagon 
bridge over Spokane river, near the town 
of Reardon. A. 8. Brown, co. audt. 

Hempstead, L. I.— The town board pass- 



ed a resolution Dec. 14 to build an iron 
bridge over a creek on the Mill road, 
south of the village of Freeport. 

Olivia, Minn.— Sealed bids are asked un- 
til Jan. 5 for building a steel bridge across 
the Minnesota River, near the village of 
Franklin. H. J. Lee, co. audt. 

Streator, 111.— The council has adopted 
plans for the proposed Marie-st. bridge. 
The plans provide for a steel bridge on 
concrete abutments and piers. 

San. Jose, Cal.— Sealed bids are asked 
until 10 a. m. Jan 5 for a concrete bridge 
over Calabasas Creek on the Stevens 
Creek road. Henry A. Pflster, co. elk. 

Rushville, Ind.— The contract for build- 
ing a joint arch bridge between Fayette 
and Rush Counties was awarded to the 
National Bridge Company of Indianap- 
olis for 11,040. 

Eudora, Kas.— Bids are asked until Jan. 
5 for a bridge over Kansas river at this 
place. Geo. A. Flory, elk. joint bd. comrs. 
Douglas and Leavenworth Cos. at Law- 
rence. 

Boston, Mass.— Sealed bids are asked 
until 12 m. Jan. 16 for building the steel 
superstructure for Cambridge bridge. 
Patrick A. Collins, ehmn. Cambridge 
Bridge Comn., City Hall, Boston. 

Chicago, m.— Sealed bids are asked un- 
til Jan. 27 for constructing the substruc- 
ture and superstructure of a bride across 
the Chicago river. Thos. A. Smyth, prest. 
bd. trustees sanitary dist. 

Stroudsburg, Pa.^Bids are asked until 
Jan. 14 for rebuilding substructure and su- 
perstructure of a bridge over Broadheads 
creek. John E. Scott, secy. com. on bldgs. 
and grounds, Hanrisburg. 

Charlotte, N. Y.— The committee ap- 
pointed to investigate the matter of 
building a bridge across Genesee river has 
reported to the board of supvrs. recom- 
mending the Bridge Road site. The coun- 
ty engineer has been directed to prepare 
plans. 

Toledo, O.— Bids are asked until Jan. 20 
for building abutments and approaches to 
the bridge in Keener road, Wonclora 
twp., and at Strickney-ave., Washington 
twp.; building a 40-ft. bridge over Cedar 
creek, in Jerusalem twp.; bridge and 
abutments on Lecor-tve., Washington 
twp. David T. David, jr., co. audt. 

Los Angeles, Cal.— Bids are asked until 
Jan. 5 for constructing the Fourth-st. 
bridge, consisting of ^ spans, combina- 
tion *wood and steel, supported by steel 
towers and concrete-steel cylinders; 
Macy-st. bridge, combination wood snd 
steel supported by concrete steel cylin- 
ders and concrete abutments. H. F. Staf- 
ford, cy. engr. 

Dayton, ©.—(Special)— F. M. Turner, cy. 
engr., says bids were submitted Dec. 22 
for constructing a concrete steel arch 
bridge across the Great Miami river at 
Thlrd-st. as follows: Charles Hoglen, 
Dayton, $179,000; Moore-Mansfield Constr. 
Company. Indianapolis, two bids, $192.- 
870 and $196,070; J. O. Shoup, Dayton, |202.- 
000; W. T. Gawne Company. Cleveland, 
$204,797; Adams Bros., Zanesville. $212,000; 
The Ferro Concrete Constr. Company, 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



Cincinnati, $213,500; R. L. Fosburgh & 
Sons, Boston. $214,000; King Bridge Com- 
pany. Cleveland, $219,500. T. A. Gillespie 
Company, Pittsburg, $220.0C0: G. H. Fath 
A Son Constr. Company, Cleveland, $247,- 
561; H. E. Talbott & Co.. Dayton, $248,- 
■640; M. Rabbitt & Sons Company, Tole- 
do. $340,000. 



^AmKS. 



Syracuse, N. Y.— The purchase of Kirk 
Park for public park purposes is pro- 
proposed. 

Bangor. Me. — A proposition is being 
<!onsidered by this city providing for mak- 
ing MaplewQOd Park public. 

Atlantic City, N. J.—An ordinance has 
passed second reading providing for the 
purchase of several squares of property 
in the Gardner tract for a public park. 



STRBBT UQHTINQ. 

Glastonbury, Conn. — A new electric 
power plant is proposed. 

Waverly, Minn.— The question of issuing 
bonds for wi electri/5 light plant will be 
voted on. 

Dallas, Tex.—The question of a muni- 
-cipal light and power plant for this city 
is being agitated. 

Beloit. Wis.— Plans have been prepared 
for a new municipal electric light plant. 
Robert, Caldwell, cy. engr. 

Mechanicsburg, O.— The Meehanicsburg 
Light and Power Company contemplates 
the construction of an electric light plant. 

Girard, Kas.— Plans arid specifications 
hav3 been adopted for an eiecLric light 
plant. J. B. Grantham, cy. elk. 

Buffalo, N.* Y.— The (trustees ;f the 
ciiy and county hall hsve asked the 
county supervisors to install an electric 
light plant. 

Kewanee, 111.— The city council aban- 
doned Deo. 23 the proposed plan of build- 
ing and opera.ting a municipal electric 
lighting plant. 

Irvlngton, N. J.— The Are and water 
com. was directed Dec. 22 to solicit esti- 
mates on the probable cost of a munici- 
pal lighting plant. 

Hancock, Mich.— A three-yodr ccntrac". 
has been awarded the Hou«:hton County 
Eleotrl? Light Company to f-.irnlsh street 
lights at $68 per lamp per yeai. 

St. Paul, Minn.— The contract lor street 
lighting during 1904 v/as awrirdec to the 
<Jleveland Vapor Lit;ht Company, Clcve- 



Joplin, Mo.; Rosalia, Wash.; Downe>% 
Cal. 

Yankton, S. D.— John J. Flatcher, who 
was engaged to examine the electric 
light plant which the city contemplates 
purchasing, reports that the value of 
tne plant is $14,755. 

Jeffersonville, Ind.— The suit of the 
United Gas and Electric<^ompany against 
this city, Involving the lighting contract, 
will be settled by compromise, accord- 
ing to prejs reports. 

Addington, Pa.— The citizens of this 
town, Kershaw's Bank, Garrettford and 
Fernwood, and the towns in Upper 
Darby twp, are considering the ques- 
tion of street lighting for the entire 
township. 

• Bay City, Mich.— A resolution was 
adopted Dec. 21, directing city attorney 
Orr to prepare an ordinance empower- 
ing this city to engage in commercial 
lighting and furnish heat and power 
supply from electrical sources. 



QAmBAQM DISPOSAL, STREET 
OLBANiNQ AND SPRINKUNQ. 

Calgary, Alberta— (Special)— This city 
desif^es to correspond with makers or 
builders of garbage crematories. F. W. 
Thorold, cy. engr. 

St. Louis, Mo.— David R. Francis, prest. 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, has 
authorized the erection of a garbage and 
light plant on the World's Fair grounds. 

Charleston. W. Va.— The contract for 
erecting a crematory was awarded Dec. 
17 to the Public Utilities Company. 15 
Willlam-st., New York City for $8,077 for 
a twenty-ton incinerator. 

Harrisburg. Pa.— The sanitary commit- 
tee approved Dec. 14. specifications for 
garbage collection, and bids will be re- 
ceived Jan. 7 for collecting garbage for 
periods of one to ten years. 

Philadelphia, Pa.— Mayor Wearer is re- 
ported as considering a proposition made 
by John Pessano & Co. who offer to 
erect a garbage crematory for $1,500,000 
if a thirty-year contract Is given them. 

New York City— Bids for the removal of 
snow and Ice in Boro of Bronx were re- 
ceived Dec. 22 as loHows: Rawling & 
Farley, 19 cents a cubic yard; William 
Bradley, 16 cents.; Thomas Crummlns, 20 
cents; Holland Bros., 21 cents. 

Jersey City, N. J.— The contract for 
street cleaning and garbage removal for 
the fiscal year beginning Dec, 1 was 
awarded to Henry Byrne as follows: 
Sweeping about 2,950 stone-paved streets. 



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VOLUME XXVI 



FEBRUARY, NINETEEN HUNDRED FOUR 



NUMBER TWO 



THE SIEGES- ALLfiE : THE GERMAN AVENUE OF ART AND HISTORY. 

By Frederick Stymetz Lamby President of the Architectural Leagite 
of America^ New York City, 



"How much good sculpture Is wasted In 
New York,'* is a remark which has been 
recently made. New York possesses some 
of the finest sculpture, yet from the poor 
provision made for it the public at large 
Is hardly aware of its existence. The 
subjects have been selected at random 
and the statues are located without ref- 
erence to any general plan In the city's 
development. 

The criticism made of New York is 
equally true of other cities. Good w'orks 
have been created, but the results when 
completed have little or no effect owing 
to their haphazard location. It is true 
that within the last decade a serious ef- 
fort has been made in the Public Library 
at Boston, in the Congressional Library 
at Washington, in the Appellate Court of 
New York to carry out a logical scheme 
of subjects suitably executed, either in 
painting or sculpture, but these few build- 
ings are insufficient to redeem our work 
as a whole from the criticism of being 
spasmodic and haphazard. Even when 
plans have been started, such as the se- 
ries of statues in the Mall at Central 
Park, or the portrait statues of National 
Heroes at Washington, they have not 
been adhered to with any degree of con- 
sistency. The scale of the figures is often 
changed and minor details so modified 
as to defeat the original purpose. 

No field offers a better opportunity for 
Individual effort. Great groups of build- 
ings have been projected, like the Leland 
Stanford University and the University 
of California, and even in part completed, 
but up to the present time no effort has 
been made in either painting or sculpture 
adequate to the growth and progress of 
the country. ^__^ 

It is interesting to compare what we 
have achieved with work in foreign coun- 
tries. It is needless to say that the great 
cathedrals of Burope teem with Matues 
and sculptured panels, and that even 



the minor churches are so enriched as 
to compel admiration. The smallest de- 
tails of the architecture are so carefully 
studied and so deftly executed as to 
leave nothing to be desired. Legend after 
legend, story after story, is recorded with 
a truth and inspiration that have been 
the wonder of the present age. The state 
buildings, the city halls, the court 
houses, even the museums, have their 
historical records In permanent form 
where both sculptor and painter can find 
inspiration. The portrait statue is the 
same the world over, historical groups 
hardly differ enough to call for compari- 
son, but one example exists which in the 
ability of its execution and the grandeur 
of the effect obtained shows what can be 
accomplished by individual effort. 

The German Emperor on the Sieges 
Allee has* placed before his people not 
only a record of the great rulers of his 
country, but a work of art which must 
command the attention of his people and 
for all time act as an inspiration to their 
patriotism. From the Koenlgs Platz to 
the Kaemper Platz, he has placed on 
.either side of the avenue a series of 
statues which not only portray the prin- 
cipal rulers of the country, but recall 
the important epochs of its history. The 
Emperor In presenting this gift said; 
"One quarter of o. century has nearly 
passed since the union of the different 
German provinces to resist foreign ag- 
gression and to build up the new Ger- 
man empire. My capital city, Berlin, has 
so nobly performed her part that I want 
to give her something as a mark of es- 
teem and respect. This gift is to repre- 
sent the building up of the empire from 
the beginning to the present time, and 
especially to record the work of the 
Province of Brandenburg. My sugges- 
tion Is to have an avenue lined with stat- 
ues of the Margraves, Kings and Empe- 



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rors, who from the time of Albrecht the 
Bear to the Emptor William the First 
have contributed to the honor and glory 
of their country, as well as the portraits 
of the soldiers, statesmen and citizens 
who have aided In obtaining this result." 
The expense of this noble work was de- 
frayed by the Emperor from his private 
purse, and it stands as a most notable 
example of the Judicious expenditure- of 
private funds for the public benefit. 

Beginning with Margrave Albrecht the 
Bear and ending with King William the 
First, this series includes thirty-two of 
the Important rulers who have contrib- 
uted to the success and prosperity of 
their country. Each statue is placed on 



each age and its environment. Each of 
the statues is happily placed against a 
background of green foliage. They are 
located directly opposite each other and 
at equally distant points, making the ef- 
fect of the avenue, as a whole, one of 
exquisite, beauty. The Emperor has not 
only enriched the Thiergarten of Berlin, 
but has placed there a work of art which 
is representative of the age and which 
will be famous for years to come. 

The same scale has been retained 
throughout, and the details, while modi- 
fied to give individual character, are so 
placed as to retain the decorative effect 
desired. While no less than thirty dif- 
ferent sculptors have been employed, the 



THE SIEGES-ALL^, BERLIN, GERMANY. 



a dignified pedestal in the center of a 
semi-circular seat, in the detail of which 
it Is endeavored to carry out the spirit 
of the time. Portraits of two important 
men of each reign, usually the leading 
warrior and the most important states 
man, complete the composition, and aia 



work has a unity which is surprising, and 
shows the controlling force of the mind 
which projected the scheme. 

We are repeatedly told in these mod- 
ern days that gre^t works are not possi- 
ble because of tho short time allowed for 
their execution, and chat the greatest 



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improved, but the effect of the, completed 
work as it stands today has never been 
surpassed; for it combines not only the 
dignity of composition and the charm of 
artistic treatment, but appeals to the 
patriotism of all who behold it. 

Here the history of Germany may be 
traced from the first Mar^aves of Bran- 
denburg to King Karl the Fourth, the 
first of the kings, and on through that 
long series of rulers to the Emperor Wil- 
liam the Great. The personality of the 
conquerors seems to speak in the statute; 
the charming plctuDe of Johann First and 
Otto Third, twin brothers, ruling for 
thirty years in perfect amity, is placed 
before us, and one cannot walk through 
this beautiful avenue without feeling re- 
freshed, uplifted and inspired with re- 
newed respect for the past of the coun- 
try and its present ideals. 



Why should Germany be the only 
country to thus fitUngly immortalize her 
rulers? Are there not in this land do- 
nors sufficiently generous to be fired with 
emulation at the example set by the Em- 
peror, or is there not sufficient public 
spirit to induce the government to place 
a similar record for the benefit of the 
people? 

The accompanying photograph shows 
one side of the avenue and makes clear 
both the general design and the common 
plan for the details of each group. The 
semi-circular niches sei in a background 
of foliage, the principal statue in each 
group representing the ruler, the portrait 
busts of warriors and statesmen and the 
general style of their setting and orna- 
mentation will be readily i-ecognlzed, and 
an idea of the artistic effect as a whole 
and in detail Is clearly formed. 



SOME DETAILS OF THE PHILADELPHIA WATER 
FILTRATION PLANTS. 



Several descriptions of the plans for 
water filtration in Philadelphia and of 
the methods of construction have ap- 
peared in Municipal Engineering. We 
present this month some views of details 
of construction and operation which will 
be of interest, the photographs being fur- 
nished by the Bonneville Portland Ce- 
ment Company, whose Star brand ot 
Portland cement has been largely used 
in the work. 

Plate I gives a view of the unfinished 
filter beds at Upper Roxborough, taken 
from a point about 75 feet above the 
ground. The dimensions of the separate 
beds and their grouping are readily seen. 
Those on the left are in the earlier 
stages of construction. Those further to 
the right have the roof pillars in, one 
of them showing the placing of the cen- 
tering for the construction of the roof. 
Those at the extreme right are receiving 
the concrete roof, part of which is com- 
pleted. 

The floors, piers, walls and roofs are 
made of Portland cement concrete in the 
proportions of one part cement, three 
parts of sand and five parts of broken 
stone. The pillars are monoliths, the 
walls are built in monolithic sections with 



covering the sections between the rows 
of pillars shown in the beds in plate I. 
The openings in the roof for some ot 
these ventilators will be seen in plate V. 

Some of the details of the sand washing 
apparatus are shown in plates III, IV 
and V. A view of the ejector for re- 
moving dirty sand from the filter and a 
description of its operation will be founa 
in Municipal Engineering, vol. xxv, pp. 
153 and 154. Plate III shows the opening 
in the roof of a filter at Lower Roxbor- 
ough for the sand incline, through which 
the sand is passed. Plate IV shows the 
sand Incline in Beln-.on* filter No. 9, from 
below, supported on steel beams imbed 
ded in the roof pillars. On the fioor will 
be seen the main collector for filterea 
water, the filtering material not being in 
place when this photograph was taken. 
Plate V gives a side view of the sand in- 
cline in Belmont filter No. 8, near Us 
lower end. It al^o shows clearly the 
vaulting in the roof, the method of sup- 
porting the roof*on the pillars and the 
location of the ventilators- 
Plate VI shows a rear view of the mas- 
sive concrete gate chamber of the reser- 
voir at the Belmont filter plant under 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



series of tests of compressive strength of 
concrete cubes ever undertaken is in- 
cluded. The pubHcation of the entire set 
of results is awaited with much Interest. 
Some of them have already been pub- 



lished. The Bonneville Portland Cement 
Company pubHshea full notes of many 
tests upon its Star brand sho^^ing: the 
results of the tests and the action of the 
teat blocks \r the machine. 



THE BRICK OF THE FUTURE. 



B^ F, H, Doremus, Kingston j N. Y, 



In every large building center between 
our coast lines the attention of architects 
and buildings has lately been focused on 
an important structural material, com- 
paratively new to the states, and called 
variously "sand brick," "mortar brick, ** 
or "sand-lime brick." To those out of 
touch with the trend of architectural de- 
velopments, apd the production and sale 
of building supplies, the use of these 
new brick will seem to have sprung up in 
a liight, but the truth is that they have 
had an evolution covering more tlian 
thirty years. In central Germany, where 
the sand-lime brick had their inception, 
stone and clay brick for building pur- 
poses are not plentiful, and necessity has 
been the spur that has driven the pro- 
cess of making bricks from lime and 
sand toward perfection. When the dis- 
covery was made that it was possible to 
harden the freshly pressed brick under 
steam pressure (they had previously been 
hardened by exposure to the air for a 
period of three or four months), the in- 
dustry grew with great rapidity. The 
sand-lime brick are now manufactured 
extensively in England and France. 

Oddly enough, these new brick, of a 
beautiful appearance, beside which the 
ordinary red brick look crude and com- 
mon, have met with a reception In Amer- 
ica less appreciative than the circum- 
stances seem to warrant, and that, too. 
In a country proverbially eager to utilize 
every innovation that promises to be an 
improvement over old ways and means. 
The new brick people have chanted the 
praises of their several systems enthusi- 
astically and insistently, but investors 
have assumed a waiting attitude difficult 
to explain. "We can make you a brick 
more durable than sandstone Itself, be- 
cause natural sandstone is liable to 
strata of inferior substances which yield 
readily to decay when exposed to the ele- 
ments," declare the sponsors for the now 
brick. "We can make them of any de- 
sirable color, perfect in form, uniform 
in weight, smooth as polished stone, With 
strong, clean-cut corners, make them one 
day ready to be laid in the wall the next. 



make them In winter as well as in sum- 
mer, and make them of materials so 
plentiful as to be found almost anywhere 
—merely sand and lime. We claim that 
our brick will not absorb more than a 
fourth as much water as the ordinary 
building brick, and will, therefore, make 
a dryer wall, that they will wlthstano 
a crushing strain exceeding that of any 
other pressed brick in any market, and 
that exposure to the elements Increases 
their hardness. But what is better than 
all this, we claim that we can manufac- 
ture this high-grade face-brick at a cost 
that will compare favorably with the 
cost of making common red brick!" 

Of course, all this sounds alluring— 
suspiciously so. If there are any obstacles 
to be set aside— and, doubtless, there will 
prove to be a few— the brick companies 
all claim to be 'unaware of the fact. It is 
hardly surprising that investors have 
been tempted to remind themselves that 
they have heard of "ropes of sand," and 
even "golc" bricks," as well as some other 
things too good to be true, and esi>ecially 
designed for the undoing of the guileless, 
and naturally prefer to wait and se^ 
what others are going to do about the 
'matter. 

Though the intervening time since the 
introduction of sand-lime brick into this 
country has been a time of comparing, 
testing and observing, there is certainly 
no denying that these brick have rendered 
an exceedingly satisfactory account of 
themselves. A number of factories have 
been established in various parts of the 
country and these have served as valu- 
able object lessons to the public at large, 
while the analyses of experts of ability 
and veracity have gone far toward re- 
assuring those essentially interested. The 
writer himself has gone to some trouble 
to investigate the claims of two repre- 
sentative companies. The tests in both 
cases were excellent and beyond all cavil, 
especially the tests for tensile and com- 
pressive strength. 

The period of rigid Investigation over, 
there seems no legitimate reason why 
these new brick should not win the con- 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



fldence of the building world. The pro- 
cess of manufacture is so simple that one 
cannot but wonder why It has not come 
Into vogue long ago. and the fact 
that the raw materials are so generally 
available should contribute to their popu- 
larity. The sand-lime bricRs are really 
blocks of artificial sandstone In a con- 
venient form for handling; but when one 
considers the time, labor and expense re- 
quired to quarry and dress similar bloclcs 
of natural sandstone to a corresponding 
perfection the great utility of these new 
brick becomes at onco apparent. The 
moderate cost of production will, at the 
same time, make them a formidable rival 
to clay brick. 

We are told that this new artificial 
sandstone may be pressed into 
many shapes beside the usual parallele- 
piped form— in fact, inco an infinite va- 
riety of shapes, mouldings, cornices. 



newels, corbels and pillars of every 
known order, from base to fillet, and thac 
the natural adaptability of the material 
will lend itself most readily to archi- 
tectural ornamentation. The colonial 
architecture of our ancestors was as dis- 
tinctly characteristic of our national life 
as the Taj Mahal is an expression of 
Hindu artistic ideas. After a long and 
fearful wrestle with the ubiquitous 
"Queen Anne," our notions of home build- 
ing have reverted to the simple and dig- 
nified architecture of our early days. The 
colonial era under way Is one that is 
glorified by a quickened artistic percep- 
tion and influenced by the best the Old 
World has had to teach. And, seemingly, 
in answer to the need of this new-old 
phase in our architectural history, these 
new gray brick have come, and seem to 
have been especially designed. 



NEW JERSEY PUBLIC ROADS. 



The state of New Jersey is proceeding 
with its road improvements at an in- 
creasing rate, the number of miles con- 
structed in 1902 being nearly 50 per cent, 
more than in any preceding year. The • 
state has now paid $1,265,000 in aiding the 
construction of 797 miles of road. The 
state helped pay for 155 miles of the 201 
miles of road built in 1902. We are In- 
debted to Henry 1. Budd, Commissioner 
of Public Roads, for the opportunity to 
present the accompanying illustrations of 
the effects of some of the improvements 
which have been made. 

The first pair of pictures shows one of 
the deep cuts on the Holmdel and Marl- 
boro road in Monmouth County, during 
and after improvement. This road is but 
3.43 miles long, but the grading is so 
heavy, on account of deep cuts and high 
fills, that it has required two years for 
construction. The grading and under- 
draining cost $7,848.06, or $2,288 a mile. It 
was macadamized 14 feet wide and 6 
Inches thick at a jost oi $21,834 72, or 
$6,365 a mile. The total cost was $8,742 a 
mile. The maximum grade was reduced 
from 4.92 per cent, to 3.6 per cent. 

The second pair of cu'^a .=hows the Stoy's 
Landing road in Camden County before 
and after improvement. This road Is 1.42 



for grading, and the extra foundation 
costing less than $160. The cost per mile, 
with macadam 12 feet wide and 8 inches 
deep, was $7,756 a mile. 

The third pair of pictures shows the 
South Plainfield road, in Middlesex coun- 
ty, before and after improvement. This 
road is 1.34 miles long ana the maximum 
grade was reduced from 3.6 to 2.25 per 
cent. The macadam Is 12 feet wide and 
8 inches thick. The soil is sandy loam. 
The cost of the road wns $5,913.88, or 
$4,413 a mile, about 10 per cent, of which 
seems to be chargeable to grading. This 
is hardly half the cost of macadamizing 
the other roads mentioned in this article. 
The reason is that the contract for ma- 
cadam was let at 48% cents a square 
yard, as compared with 89 cents for the 
Stoy's Landing road of the same width 
and depth. 

The fourth and fifth pairs of pictures 
show the River road in Camden county 
before and after improvement. This road 
is 3.21 miles long and has also been diflH- 
cult to grade because it crosses many 
deep ravines. The soil Is sand and clay- 
gravel. The macadan* is 15 feet wide and 
10 Inches thick. The maximum grade was 
reduced from 9.18 per cent, to 4.81 per 
cent. The total cost of the road was $34,- 
156.15. or $10,640 a mile. Ot this about $2,280 



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EDITORIAL 
COMMENT 




The Outlook for the Cement 
Trade. 

State Aid of Road Improve- 
ment. 

Charges for Professional 
Services. 

The Duty of the SUte in 
Protecting Water Supplies. 



THE OUTLOOK FOR THE CEMENT 
TRADE. 

The collection of data regarding the 
cement trade in 1903 for the third edition 
of the "Directory of American Cement 
Industries." now In the hands of the 
printer, is not completed in time for a 
full study of the conditions of last year 
and the prospects for this year In this 
February number of Municipal En- 
gineering, but some general statements 
may be made which are preliminary to 
the fuller data to be presented in the 
"Directory" and summarized in later 
'numbers of this magazine. 

The report of the United States Geologi- 
cal Survey on the production of cement 
In 1902 was issued early in January, 1904, 
and it will be interesting to compare its 
data with the estimates made in an arti- 
cle in Municipal Engflneering in February, 
1903. on "The Cement Industry and Its 
Prospects for 1908" as a basis for further 
predictions. 

The article referred to estimated that 
60 Portland cement works were in oper- 
ation in 1902. prouucing 14,400,000 barrels. 
The offlclal returns show 66 works In 
operation at the date of making reports* 
and that the total production was 17,23u," 
644. This figure is about 400,000 barrels 
greater than the department's prelimi- 
nary estimate Issued in June, 1908. It is 
evident that this magazine's estimate of 
the production was conservative, as 
stated when It was made. 

The Increase in production in 1902 over 
1901 was 4,519,419 barrels, or 36.6 per cent, 
while the increases for each, of the six 
preceding years were 50 per cent, or more, 
except 1898, which was 88 per cent; but 
1897 offset this by a percentage of In- 



the last six months of 1902 and continued 
during the first six months of 1903. 

Some details of the Geological Survey's 
report will be found elsewhere in this 
number of Municipal Engineering. 

The article referred to estimated that 
there would be 72 Portland cement fac- 
tories In operation in 1903, producing 19,- 
440,000 barrels. The accuracy of this esti- 
mate will be tested shortly when the 
present compilation of data for the "Di- 
rectory of American Cement Industries" 
is completed and published in that book. 
The labor troubles of the year in the 
East and the consequent cessation of 
building operations reduced the demand 
for cement and consequently the produc- 
tion of the eastern mills for the latter 
part of the year. The' effect was not so 
marked upon the western mills, some of 
which were running full time upon the 
low prices set by the overstocked eastern 
mills. It is probable, therefore, that the 
effect upon the total production of the 
country was not so serious as it appeared 
to be upon a study of the drop in prices, 
and that the estimate of 19,440,000 total 
production in 1903 Is a conservative one. 

As to the prospect for 1904 it may now 
be said that It Is favorable with one or 
two rather prominent "ifs." The legiti- 
mate demand for cement is increasing 
quite as rapidly as the supply and with 
normal financial and labor conditions will 
tax the productive capacity of the mills 
now in operation and construction, and 
possibly demand some importation. This 
means good prices for the product and 
good profits for the mills which do not 
need to ship long distances by rail. The 
action of the large manufacturers in clos- 
ing their mills "for much needed re- 



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increased each ye«r. If this happens the 
supply will be nearer the demand. Last 
year the labor troubles were localized, 
and while the largest markets were ser- 
iously affected, they were but few In 
iinmber and the general demand for <e- 
ment was gooo. What they will be this 
year cannot be predicted. 

At this time there is some financial 
stringency, but it seems to be the general 
opinion that this is due to over-capitaliza- 
tion and to the results of speculation in 
such diluted stocks, and if this be true it 
will be temporary and may pass over in 
time to permit the fullest expansion of 
legitimate enterprises involving construc- 
tion next year. This can be more safely 
estimated than can th^ effect* of labor 
agitations. 

The large eastern manufacturers are 
certainly on the safe side in restricting 
production If the smaller field of view is 
covered and the safety of individual cor- 
porations Is the only consideration. If, 
however, as seems very proba1;>le, the con- 
ditions will approach the normal this 
year, the restriction will have an un- 
fortunate effect upon the stain lity and 
continuity of progress In the cement 
trade, which was considered in this de- 
partment on page 17 of the January num- 
ber 



STATE AID OF ROAD IMPROVE- 
MENT. 

The State ESngineer and Surveyor of the 
State of New York has issued a bulletin 
showing the progress in the improvement 
of the roads of that state since the state 
aid law has been in operation. The show- 
ing is very satisfactory so far as i. goes, 
and is under discussion at the annual 
Supervisors' Highway Convention at Al- 
bany as this magazine goes to press. It 
can be and doubtless will be used effect- 
ively In the campaign before the Legis- 
lature to secure funds for more work In 
the future. 

The law provides for the payment by 
the state of half the cost of roads peti- 
tioned for which the counties have 
adopted and for which they have appro- 
priated the other half of the cost. The 
difference between the appropriations by 
th<» counties and hv th«» stnfp is v^rv 



counties and appropriate^ for would have 
been increased if there had be^ any 
prospect of early construction of the 
roads. As the case now stands, the coun- 
ties have appropriated 15,540,587 and the 
state but |2,0^,u00 in the six yearv since 
the law went Into effect. This leaves the 
state about $3,500,000 behlnl, and at the 
present rate of annual appropriations it 
would require about six years for the 
state to provide Its share of the neces- 
sary funds. 

A neat showing of these facts Is made 
In the bulletin referred to, in the form of 
a statement showing the roads which 
have been petitioned for and appropriated 
for so far as the county's half Is con- 
cerned, arranged In the order of filing 
and In the order In which they must be 
constructed under the state aid law. In 
the margin Is shown at intervals the 
amount of appropriation which must be 
made to cover the roads In the list down 
to the point marked, thus showing whnt 
sums from $200,000 to $8,558,000 will ac- 
complish and making it to the interest of 
each member of the Legislature to cover 
as many of the items of direct bearing on 
his constituents as possible. 

There does not seem to be any record - 
of the mileage of roads built in the state 
without state aid, but if the state can- 
not keep up its end It would seem neces- 
sary for some localities to construct their 
own roads. The fact that their neighbors 
have received state aid doubtless delays 
the undertaking of this work. 

The state of New Jersey has a state aid 
law under which the state pays one-third 
the cost of the roads adopted by the 
Commissioner of Public Roads up to $250,- 
000 a year. In 1902 155.365 miles of roads 
were constructed at a cost of $750,000, and 
In addition 45.964 miles were built which 
were not paid for by the state in that 
year. The cost of roads In New Jersey 
Is less than that In New York. Figures 
for the former state, given In an article 
elsewhere In this number of Municipal 
Engineering, may be compared with 
some for the latter state In vol. xxlv, p. 
409. Since 1893 New Jersey has con- 
structed 796.8 miles of road at an ex- 
pense to the state of $1,366,168, or a total 
cost of $3,795.5(H. Since 1S98 New York 
nas constructed 298 miles with stat(» an- 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



broken stone roads, which have cost 
about |24,«)0,000. They have been con- 
structed under the county or district sys- 
tem, and the rate of construction has 
been far more rapid than In the states 
where state aid Is In vogue, (ndlana is 
greatly favored by wide dlstrlbutlbn of 
reasonably good road materials, but much 
of the difference In cost Is due to cheaper 
construction. Is It not good economy to 
build many of the cheaper roads at first 
rather than a few excellent roads? The 
development of the country with the Im- 
provement In roads makes It better able 
to pay for the better roads when the 
first construction wears out. There is a 
rivalry among districts to get the larg- 
est number of good roads rather than a 
rivalry to get the largest proportion of 
the state appropriation. It results In 
such feats as a hundred miles of new 
road put under construction In a single 
county In a year and In 500 or 600 miles 
of rejwonably good roads In each of a 
number of counties. 

For the newer states, especially if road 
material is abundant, the dlstHct system 
seems most satisfactory. New York and 
New Jersey may perhaps be considered 
to have passed that stage In road build- 
ing and to be ready for the better roads 
which it is now securing. Indiana Is 
rapidly coming to the same stage and 
will soon be ready for a state aid law. 

Theoretically, the state should pay 
some proportion of the cost of main 
roads, though one-half or even one- third 
seems excessive, and It is aifllcult to 
draw the line between roads which 
should receive state aid and those not 
deserving It 

There Is conslderauie agitation lA some 
quarters of the proposition of national 
aid in the building of good roads. This 
Is an entirely tilfferent proposition. The 
reasons for state aid do not apply to the 
national aid proposition and no others 
have been presented which are any more 
satisfactory. Paternalism and socialism 
are neither of them elements of our form 
of government and all the arguments are 
based on one or the other or are the 
politicians' bid for votes. 



CHARGES FOR PROFESSIONAL 
SERVICES. 

The American Institute of Architects 



and gives rise to several questions, such 
as Its effect uopn architects and their 
clients, the possible effect of a similar 
schedule upon the clients * of various 
classes of engineers, the relative value 
and propriety of such schedules for 
architects and for engineers. Does the- 
existence of such a schedule have any 
appreciable effect upon the professional 
fees of architects In general, especially 
those of architects who have not yet at- 
tained to high standing or the reputation- 
with the public to which they are en- 
titled by reason of their abilities? Would 
it have any effect upon the receipts for 
professional services of engineers of any 
grade? 

Is it not true that the public in general 
has no adequate idea of the value of en- 
gineering services and consequently has 
a deep-seated aversion to paying what 
such- services are worth? Would not such 
schedules as this, if adopted by the en- 
gineering profession generally through its 
societies, from the national organizations 
down to local associations, be well worth- 
while, simply as a standard to which to 
point, and an educator of the public and 
private client, particularly of the mu- 
nicipal official? The fact that any 
schedule mus;^ be modified somewhat to- 
suit special cases does not materially af- 
fect the answers to these questions. What 
probably prevents thr^ discussion and pos- 
sibly the adoption of such schedules Is ap- 
parently the fact that the national socle- 
ties, which must first present the mat- 
ter if it is to meet with any large meas- 
ure of success, are in the control of 
those whose business connections or pro- 
fessional standing are such that their 
dealings are with clients who more fully 
recognize the value of professional ser- 
vices an<l are often willing to pay more 
than the profession at large would feel 
Justified in fixing as schedule charges. 
Perhaps they fear that a schedule of 
minimum charges would reduce the ideas 
of their clients regarding their own com- 
pensation. They evidently differ from* 
members of all other professions In think- 
ing schedules of charges somewhat be- 
neath their professional dignity. 

The circular of the American Institute 
of Architects ie as follows: 

The architect's professional services 
consist in making the necessary prelim- 
inary studies, working drawings, specl- 



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After ImprovemeDt, 

NEW JERSEY PUBLIC ROADS. 

Deep Cat on Holmdel and Marlboro Road in Monmouth County. 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



HO.OOO. and for furniture, monuments, 
decorative and cabinet work, it is usual 
and proper to charsre a special fee in ex- 
cess of the above. ' 

For alterations and additions to exist- 
ing buildings, the fee is 10 per cent, upon 
the cost of the work. 

Consultation fees for professional ad- 
vice are to be paid in proportion to the 
importance of the questions involved. 

None of the charges above enumerated 
covers alterations and additions to con- 
tracts, drawings and specifications, nor 
professional or legal services incidental 
to negotiations for site, disputed party 
walls, right of light, measur«nnent of 
work, or failure of contractors. When 
such services become necessary, they 
shall be charged for according to the 
time and trouble Involved. 

Where heating, ventilating, mechanical, 
electrical and sanitary problems in a 
building are of such a nature as to re- 
quire the assistance of a specialist, the 
owner is to pay for such assistance. 
Chemical and mechanical tests, when re- 
quired, are to be pcdd for by the owner. 

Necessary traveling expenses are to be 
paid by the owner. 

Drawings and specifications, as instru- 
ments of service, are the property of the 
architect. 

The architect's payments are due as his 
work progresses in the following order: 
Upon completion of the preliminary 
sketches, one-flfth of the entire fee; upon 
completion of working drawings and 
specifications, two-fifths; the remaining 
two-fifths being due from time to time in 
proportion to the amount of work done 
by the architect in his oflSce .and at the 
building. 

Until an actual estimate is received, the 
charges are based upon the proposed cost 
of the work, and payments are received 
as installments of the entire fee, which 
is based upon the actual cost to the 
owner of the building or other work, 
when completed, including all fixtures 
necessary to render It fit for occupation. 
The architect is entitled to extra com- 
pensation for furniture or other articles 
purchased under his direction. 

If any material or work used in the 
construction of the building be already 
upon the ground or come into the owner's 
possession without expense to him, its 
vft)ue Is to be added to the sum actually 
expended upon the building before the 
architect's commission is computed. 

In case of the abandonment or suspen^ 
sion of the work, the basis of settlement 
is as follows: Preliminary studies, a fee 
In accordance with the character and 
magnitude of the work: preliminary 
studies, working drawings and specifica- 
tions, three-fifths of the fee for complete 
services. 

The supervision of an architect (as dis- 
tinguished from the continuous personal 
superintendence which may be secured by 
the employment of a clerk of the works) 
means such inspection by the architect, 
or his deputy, of work in studios and 



shops, or of a building or other work in 
process of erection, completion or altera- 
tion, as he finds necessary to ascertain 
whether it is being executed in conform- 
ity with his drawings and specifications 
or directions. He Is to act In construc- 
tive emergencies, to order necessary 
changes and to define the true intent and 
meaning of the drawings and specifica- 
tions, and he has authority to stop the 
progress of the work and order its re- 
moval when not in accordance with 
them. 

On buildings where the constant ser- 
vices of a superintendent are required, 
a clerk of the works shall be employed by 
the architect at the owner's expense. 



THE DUTY JF THE STATE IN 

PROTECTldN OF WATER 

SUPPLIES. 

The question of the purity of water 
supplies lias been one of much prom- 
inence recently and the defects of exist- 
ing laws and methods of treatment of 
the subject have been clearly shown by 
several occurrences. The state of In- 
diana has the most defective laws which 
have been tested in the courts, and it is 
only by good fortune that it has not been 
subject to such epidemics of tjrphoid 
fever as those which have occurred very 
recently at Ithaca. N. Y.. and Butler, 
Pa. The secretary of the State Board of 
Health is doihg all in his power to edu- 
cate the sentiment of the public and to 
overcome the legal and financial difficul- 
ties in the way of a proper protection cf 
the streams of the state, which is impos- 
sible without direct legislation, for the 
lower courts of the state have decided In 
more than one case that the streams of 
the state are naturally the recipients of 
sewage and that its discharge into the 
streams will not be prevented by them. 
• It is also very difficult, if not impossible, 
to prove damages from such use of 
streams sufficient to justify the courts in 
giving judgments in favor of plaintiffs 
suing for their rights. 

Each year th3 State Board of Health 
holds a school of health officers, In which 
lectures on their various duties are de- 
.-/ered by men of experience in them. At 
the last school Mr. Charles Csu-roll 
Brown, M. Am. Soc. C. E., gave a dis- 
cussion of the subject of stream pollu- 
tion by sewage in which he called atten- 
tion to the fact that the streams of the 
state of Indiana are absolutely without 
protection. He mentioned the smaller 
water supplies, such as that of Blooming- 
ton, drawn from a watershed but a few 
hundred acres In area with a few scat- 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



tered houses, in which there was no at- 
tention paid to the sanitary condition of 
their drainage to the reservoir and no 
method of requirinsr such attention either 
with or without expense to the city own- 
iner the water supply. He also instanced 
such supplies as that at Seymour, on the 
east fork of White rirer, a larger stream 
with comparatively little pollution of a 
dangerous character, but likely to have 
large Increase in the pollution from sew- 
age by the construction and extension of 
sewerage systems in the cities on Its 
watershed. The effect of the sewage of 
Indianapolis upon the west fork of the 
same river was also described. At low 
stages of the river the 'sewage is not suf- 
ficiently diluted and the deposits of sew- 
age show to a serious extent for several 
miles down the river. The decomposition 
of the solids puts the stream in very bad 
condition, which becomes progressively 
worse until a rise in the water carries off 
the deposits. No fish life is possible. Be- 
fore the Indiana Engineering Society, Dr. 
J. N. Hurty, the secretary of the State 
Board of Health, described an occurrence 
showing the effect of this poisonous mat- 
ter upon fish. A report reached his of- 
fice of the destruction of many thousand 
fish at Waverley, a few miles below the 
city. Upon investigation he found that 
the fish were either Idlled or were driven 
ashore by a slight rise in the river which 
floated out of the pools nearer the city 
the products of the sewage decomposition 
and the water which had lost its oxygen 
on this account. The fish were driven ap 
the small streams and into bayous in 
search of air and were left there by the 
lowering of the water level, either killed 
by the poisonous water or left to die on 
the bare beds of the bayous. This river 
is used as a source of water supply many 
miles below. 

The epidemic of typhoid fever at 
Ithaca was described by Mr. Brown, and 
the fact that it was due to a careless and 
accidental pollution of the immediate 
watershed of the reservoir of the city 



water supply, was brought out. The epl« 
demic at Butler, Pa., then raging, warn 
also attributed to similar pollution of the- 
water su'>ply. Dr. Soper's Investigations 
and those of the Pennsylvania Stale Board 
of Health have shown this to be true, 
and also that the temporary failure ot 
the filtration system aggravated the dan- 
ger. 

The state of New York has machinery 
which can be put in operation to protect 
any public water supply, but it does not 
seem to have been applied in the case 
of Ithaca before the epidemic. The state 
of Pennsylvania has some legal control 
over the purity of water supplies, 
though not so complete as that possible 
in New York. The state of Indiana has 
no control whatever by legislative enact- 
ment, and court decisions have taken 
away any possibility of control under any 
circumstances. 

The occurrences at Ithaca and Butler 
show negligence which, in the former 
case at least, in the face of the possibili- 
ties of control, was Almost criminal, and 
show that good laws are of no avail 
without intelligent supervision of their 
enforcement by the responsible local 
authorities. The authorities in the state 
of Indiana can now do nothing. They 
have no protective laws and their cases 
are thrown out of court. 

The Indiana Engineering Society, at its 
recent convention, recognised these facta- 
and passed resolutions calling attention 
to them and lo the need of prompt ac- 
tion by the Legislature. It also recom- 
mended the filtration of all water sup- 
plies liable to accidental pollutijpn of a 
dangerous character. 

Possibly other states are in nearly as 
bad condition as Indiana. It is hardly 
possible that any state is quite so fkr 
down Ir the scale. If so. they should 
take lessons from the recent and more 
distant evidences of the serious effects 
of stream pollution and recClfy their er- 
rors of omission and commision sm^ 
promptly as possible. 



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NEW JERSEY PUBLIC ROADS. 

River Road, Camden County. 



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THE QUEiTION 
DEPARTMENT 



RCMDTS OF TREES IN SEWERS. 

I have been requested by the Board to 
write and ask If you know of some rem- 
edy that Is a sure preventive of roots 
of trees, particularly elm trees, forcing 
their way into sewers. 

JOHN A. WEDDBLL, 
City Clerk. Tarboro, N. C. 

This question has been discussed In 
Municipal Engineering in the Question 
Department and elsewhere in vol. xviii, 
pp. 109, 171, 248; xxil, 155. 303; xxiv. 431, to 
which reference may be made for details. 
The conclusion seems to be that tight 
joints are the only salvation and that 
deep-socket pipe, say three inches, and 
gaskets and well rammed Portland ce- 
ment joint filling are recommended for 
making them. Methods of removal of 
tree roots are also described. 



BOOKS ON INVERTED SYPHONS. 
Do you publish any works which treat 
of inverted syphons, or can you refer me 
to any book which treats of them? 

P. E. MEYERS, 
Canton, Ohio. 

Fol well's "Sewerage" ($3) has the full- 
est treatment of this subject. See also 
Farnham's article on the Newton syph- 
ons in Municipal Engineering, Vol. 
XXV, p. 410 and two answers to ques- 
tions in Vol. xxli. pp. 93 and 168. 



THE CHICAGO TRENCH EXCAVATOR. 

In the December, 1903. number of Pop- 
ular Mechanics there is an article on the 
"Chicago Excavator," with photo. Can 
you tell me where this machine can be 
seen working? Will it work in sticky 
clay or quicksand? Where has any city 
work been done by it? 

JAMES H. TURNER, 
Zion City, 111. 

The machine referred to is one used by 



clay, but, on account of the difficulty in 
sheeting the trench along the few feet 
between the lower end of the scraper and 
elevator and the surface of the ground, 
it would probably not operate In quick- 
sand. The owners of the machine can 
give lists of places where it is used and 
methods of overcoming difficulties with 
special classes of materials. The possi- 
ble capacity is much greater than that 
stated as observed with the machine at 
work in Indianapolis In the article re- 
ferred to. 



BOOKS ON GARBAGE COLLECTION 
AND DESTRUCTION. 

I wish a work, the latest and best, on 
garbage collection and destruction. 

B. N. WOODRUFF, 
Mayor, Peoria, 111. 

Goodrich's "Economic Disposal of 
Town's Refuse," ($3.50), is an English 
book and the only one which gives any- 
thing like an adequate discussion of this 
subject. The English cities seem to be 
more successful than those in America, 
part of the reason for which may perhaps 
be found in the article on "Garbage Dis- 
posal," on page 28 of the January number 
of Municipal Engineering. Chapin's 
"Municipal Sanitation In the United 
States" ($5), has some good chapters on 
garbage collection and disposal, though 
too short. 



MAKERS OF GARBAGE CRE- 
MATORIES. 

Will you kindly give me the addresses 
of several firms making d'ematories, that 
is. devices for disposing of the garbage 
of cities? 

F. P. ANDERSON. . Ky. 

The Morse-Boulger Destructor Com- 

^»^.. on /^^~4-i»..j ^* 'KT^.M -xr^wmi^ r^t*.-... 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



BEST RATI. FOR STREET RAILWAY 
TRACK. 

Can you iclve me Information as to 
what kind of a rail is considered best 
from the municipal point of view for a 
street railway track on a street paved 
with brick? The street railway running 
through our street is using a 60-pound 
T-rail 4% Inches high. The street is about 
to be paved with brick and the question 
presents itself whether It would be better 
to require the street railway company 
to put in a girder rail. 

W. V. SAVICKI. 
Village Engineer, Houghton, Mich. 

For the integrity of tlie pavement it 
Is quite necessary to have a rail of suf- 
flclerit weight and depth to keep Its po- 
sition and not bend under the weight of 
the cars more than is required for elas- 
ticity of roadway, and to have these rails 
«o supported that they will not settle 
or sink under the weight of cars at the 
points of support. 

The Indianapolis Traction and Termi- 
nal Company has made a close study of 
this subject and many experiments have 
been tried with various pavements, foun- 
dations and rails. Their standard con- 
struction for tracks to be used by heavy 
interurban cars is described in Municipal 
Engineering, vol. xxv, p. 342, in a paper 
by Thos. B. McMath, the engineer of the 
company. It Includes a 7-1 nch Shanghai 
T-rail on ties spaced two feet apart bal- 
lasted with six Inches of concrete under 
the ties and between and above them to a 
level five Inches below the top of the rail, 
an inch of sand cushion, special shaped 
nose brick next the rail to form a groove 
for the wheel flanges, and brick pavement 
between the tracks and for eighteen 
Inches outside. This may be accepted 
as flrst-class construction for street rail- 
way in brick street. Even this construc- 
tion gives some trouble from occasional 
settlement, looseness of rail Joints, etc., 
which permit some movement of the rail 
vertically under the cars and a lifting of 
the bricks by the friction of the rail as 
it resumes its normal position, which 
finally displaces some of them. Any less 
complete construction will give more 
trouble and the choice must be made be- 
tween the cost of first construction and 
cost of repalrb. 

The subject is discussed in other arti- 
cles in Municipal Engineering, some of 



ments," vol. xil, p. 7, and xviU, p. 320; 
also in the Transactlomr of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, 18»7. 

An answer to a similar question fron* 
a correspondent in the same town goes 
into some details not here considered. It 
will be found In vol. xvlii. p. 249. 

There is an excellent report on "The 
Construction of Surface Railroad Tracks 
in Paved Streets" in vol. xv, p. 348, which 
gives the practice in various cities and 
the reasons for many of the differences. 

Perhaps the fullest discussion of the 
questions involved will be found in an 
article on "How to Lay Interurban Track 
In ClUes" In vol. xxlv, p. 172. 

Some track laid in Columbus, O., Is de- 
scribed in an article on "Columbus Inter- 
urban Railway Construction," in vol. xxi, 
p. 69. 

Methods of construction of street rail- 
ways are given in some detail In an ar- 
ticle in vol. xvi, p. 139. 

Paving next to street railway tracks is 
descrtbed in an article on "Brick Paving 
from Start to Finish," In vol. x, p. 154. 

The necessity of good foundation is 
shown in an article on "Street Railway 
Tracks on Paved Streets." vol. v, p. 271. 



IMPROVEMBNTfl ON MACADAM 
ROADS. 

Our city Is about to take up the matter 
of building about a half mile of macadam 
roadway. The plans and spedflcations 
have not yet been made, and it has oc- 
curred to some of us that perhaps there 
might be a much better road which could 
be had for very little more expense than 
the old-fashioned rock road. Heretofore 
we have made our streets of brick, but 
as this road is to be built at the public 
expense Instead of by assessments 
against the property, and as it will pass 
through the outer part of the city, we 
do not care to make it too expensive. 
Our old macadam roads were simply a 
lot of crushed stone thrown on the sur- 
face of the earth after the ground had 
been leveled off a little. Is there not an 
Improvement on that system? I under- 
stand that now in some places they put 
in drain tile and large stone on the bot- 
tom and then spread on the macadam. 

Please advise as to where we can learn 
about the improved roads and also get 
an idea as to their cost. 

D. D., : , 111. 

Tt Is hardlv nroner to call a road made 



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NEW JERSEY PUBLIC ROADS. 

River Road, Camden County. 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



grade should be thorouKhly compacted 
by rolling and soft places should be dug 
out and replaced by good materlaL On 
top of this foundation a proper thickness 
of broken stone should be placed, and It 
is customary to place the larger sizes at 
the bottom, finishing the wearing sur- 
face with fine material thoroughly wcushed 
and rolled in so that the surface will be 
as nearly waterproof as possible. 

In some places the bottom layer of 
stone is of large enough size to lay by 
hand in the form of a rough pavement, 
and enough of the finer broken stone or 
gravel is laid on top to make a good 
wearing surface, which can be renewed 
as it wears out. This is called telford 
pavement, or telford macadam. Novacu- 
lite can be used for the wearing surface. 

Bxperience with macadam roads in Illi- 
nois, in one case of novaculite, shows that 
there is great danger that the sticky 
mud from the unpaved road at the end 
or intersecting the macadam road will 
stick to the wagon wheels and pick up 
the stones from the macadam and carry 
them away, thus destroying considerable 
sections of the road within a few weeks 
or months. Unless the macadam is thor- 
oughly compacted this is almost certain 
to happen with the sticky clay of the 
nilnois prairies and is possible with the 
best construction. 

Some material to hold the stones in 
place is needed to overcome this action 
of the mud, and bituminous macadam is 
suggested for consideration in case this 
trouble may be expected. 

The construction of macadam roads and 
pavements is considered at length in Mu- 
nicipal Engineering, vol. xxiii, pp. 372, 
874, 375 and 383, and of bituminous ma- 
cadam on p. 877. Specifications for tel- 
ford macadam will be found in vol. x, p. 
406. Specifications for macadam roads 
will be found in vol. xviii, p. 168. 

Figures as to cost will be found in vol. 
ix, p. 107; xlv, p. 222; xvil, p. 80; xxl, p. 
150, which also gives a list .of previous 
articles on the subject of macadam. 

The bituminous macadam or bltullthlc 
pavement is fully described in vol. xxv, 
pp. 99 and 326. Further information, and 
lists of articles on the subject, will be 
found In vol. xxv. pp. 27 and 377. 

Books giving treatment of the subject 
of macadam pavement are Baker's 
"Roads and Pavements" ($6), Judson's 
"City Roads and Pavements" ($2), Alt- 



FOUNDATION FOR BRICK PAVE- 
MENT. 
A^ communication from the Shinn Slag 
Sand Company, Pittsburg, Pa., calls at- 
tention to the statement regarding the 
use of sand for cushion under brick 
wearing surface in Municipal Engineer- 
ing, vol. xxiv, p. 861, which says, "It 
is especially so if any of the sand Is 
likely to leak into the foundation, for 
the less the thickness of cushion the less 
unevenness in brick surface from its 
disappearance." The communication 

calls attention to slag sand as a material 
for the sand cushion because "when com- 
mon sand is used for this purpose it will 
flow into the crevices between the gravel 
and stone when the sand is either dry. 
or supersaturated, leaving the brick un- 
supported," "one of the prime causes of 
failure in brick paving," while slag sand 
will not flow under either of these con- 
ditions, but will set into a sort of con- 
crete adhering to sub-foundation and to 
brick, and hardening into a part of the 
superstructure. 



COST OF ASPHALT PAVEMENT. 
I would like to learn the cost of asphalt 
pavement in the different large cities of 
the United States. Can you refer me to 
the soiu'ces of such information? 

HENRY C. WRIGHT, 
Cincinnati, O. 

The volumes of Municipal Engineer- 
ing are the best sources of this informa- 
tion. Beginning with the latest, the fol- 
lowing articles wl^ich have appeared in 
the past six years will give the fullest 
and best information. There are many 
shorter articles giving special figures for 
particular times and places. 

Articles in vol. xxvi, pp. 10 and 16 and 
vol. xxv. p. 435, give a discussion of some 
estimates of cost for a municipal plant 
and figures of actual cost. In vol. xxlil, 
p. 117. will be found some bids from 
Philadelphia. In vol. xxli. pp. 150 and 176 
are figures of cost under municipal con- 
struction in Winnipeg; on p. 401 are data 
regarding cost of asphalt pavements In 
Iowa cities. In vol. xx, p. 132. is a large 
table carefully prepared by City Engin- 
eer Bardol of Buffalo giving cost of pave- 
ments in many large cities, the table 
being editorially discussed on page 146. 
The cost in Newark N. J., is given in vol. 
xix, p. 297. A large table prepare! by 
City Engineer Gray of Providence, R. I., 



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THE QUESTION DEPARTMENT. 



103 



prepared by a committee of the American 
Society of Municipal Improvements will 
be found In vol. zlv, p. 18 and another 
report from the same society in brief in 
vol. xlii, p. 866. The cost of asphalt re- 
pairs is griven in many short articles in- 
cludincr vol. XX. p. 97, regarding BuflCalOp 
p. 129 regarding Chattanooga and in vol. 
xvii regarding several cities. 



Honest and fair statements will be 
found in the annual volumes of proceed- 
ings of the American Society of Munici- 
pal Improvements, the National Munici- 
pal League and the League of American 
Municipalities. There is scarcely a num- 
ber of Municipal Engineering which does 
not contain some information concern- 
ing several cities of the size identioned. 



NEW JERSEY PUBLIC ROADS. 
River Boad in Camden County After Improvement, Showing Cribbing on Both Sides. 



CONDITION OF MUNICIPAL PUBLIC 
WORKS IN LARGE CITIES. 
Where can I get full and recent le o ts 
concerning the actual condition in cities 
of over one hundred thousand population 
of pavements, street cleaning, water 
works and other public works? I desire 
to get all possible information concerning 
any failures and shortcomings in these 
departments. F. L. INKS. 

Mounc Vernon, la. 

The papers and reports which are de- 
voted to the shortcomings of municipal 
departments are too often written for a 
special purpose and are biased by the de- 
sire to make some point such as our cor- 

.nrlAnf annarAni'lv tvlaViAci ff\ TTlfllrA 



A study of the annuui reports of the 
various departments by one who is 
familiar with good and bad practice Is 
the best method of selecting the places 
where improvements might be made, but 
even then personal investigation on the* 
spot may change one's opinion. 

Our correspondent is to debate a ques- 
tion which in short is a resolution that 
cities of the size named should own and 
operate their water works, lighting plants 
and street railways. Some will draw the 
line of ownership inside this list, some 
one side and some the other. Discussions 
of the place to draw the line will be found 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERINQ. 



ELECTRIC LIGHT SCHEDULES OP 
CITIES. 

What cities between 150.000 and 200.000 
population pay for electric lighting on all- 
night schedules? 

FRANK S. FISHBACK, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Of the five cities of the size mentioned 
Providence, R. I.; Rochester, N. Y., and 
Si. Paul. Minn., have all-night schedules 
for electric lighting and Kansas City. 
Mo., and Indianapolis, Ind., do not. 



LIST OP CEBfENT MANUFACTUR- 
ERS. 
I would most respectfully request you 
to be so kind as to furnish me with a list 
of a few good cement manufacturerSi, as 
I expect to go into business in a few 
months. L. J. K., BuflCalo. N. Y. 

The "Directory of American Cement In- 
dustries'* ($6) contains a full list, giving 
all the present and prospective manufact- 
urers of cement whose companies have 
1>een organised. The list gives the rat- 
ings of the companies as to capital and 
<:redit, the number of barrels of cement 
manufactured, the capacity of mills, the 
kinds of cement manufactured, the pro- 
<:esses used in the manufacture, brief yet 
full descriptions of works, names of 
brands, and sales agents, in short, every- 
thing that would be necessary to enable 
one to select a satisfactory list for the 
purpose for which our correspondent de- 
sires it. 

Thje third edition is now in the printer's 
hands and will be pushed through the 
press as rapidly as possible, being issued, 
probably in March. 



THE BEST CONCRETE BUILDINQ 
BLOCK MACHINE. 

Lime and Plaster, describing methods 
of manufacture. 

Freight Rates on Cement, giving rates 
from factories to principal distributing 
points throughout the country. 

Descriptions of Works ana of Processes 
for the Manufacture of Cement, giving 
brief but comprehensive statements of 
the processes and machinery used in each 
cement factory in operation in the United 
States and Canada. 

The book is thus seen to be the most 

Could you tell me who makes the best 
concrete building block machine? 

F. G. S. St. Marys. Pa. 

It is hardly possible for this magazine 
to select the best machine for any partic- 
ular user's purposes. The most promi- 
nent machines have been quite fully de- 
scribed in Municipal Engineering from 
time to time, A list of the articles con- 



taining these descriptions will be found 
on page 21 of the January number. 

References may also be made ti> our ad- 
vertising pages. All of those represented 
with which the writer is acquainted have 
their points of special value and one who 
wishes to go into the business of making 
and selling blocks or who wishes to pur- 
chase for his own use should determine 
what he wants and select the machine 
according to his needs and desires or the 
conditions of the trade which he must 
meet 

» 

THE HANDBOOK FOR CEMENT 
USERS. 
Kindly let me know if your "Handbook 
for Cement Users" contains any informa- 
tion on the design of cement concrete- 
steel construction, the determination of 
stresses and proportioning of the parts, 
etc. Kindly let me know the price and 
send table of contents if possible. 
J. DE BRUYN KOP8, 

Sa annah, Oa. 

The "Handbook for Cement Users'* (|8) 
does not contcdn a discussion of the sub- 
ject of the design of concrete-steel con- 
struction from the standpoint of the com- 
puter of stresses and of dimensions. In 
fact there is no book in English upon 
this subject. Various engineers connected 
with firms introducing methods of steel 
reinforcements have published papers up- 
on various phases of the subject, some of 
them as presented to engineering soci- 
eties and some as prepared for the ad- 
vertising literature of their companies. 
There are as yet but few tests of con- 
struction to determine the correctness of 
the formulae deduced and no one has yet 
taken up the question in an unbiased 
way. How© in his "Arches" (M) and Cain 
in his "Concrete-Steel Arches" (50 cents) 
have given theoretical consideration to 
this particular form of concrete-steel. 

The "Handbook for Cement Users" is 
now published separately from the "Di- 
rectory of American Cement Industries" 
($6) and the former can now be obtained 
for $3. It coiitains the following chapters: 

Introduction, giving a review of the de- 
velopment of cement manufacture and 
statistics of production, price, etc. 

Testing of Cement, giving the methods 
recommended by the American Society of 
Civil Engineers, the Corps of Engineers, 
U. S. A., etc.. including chemical analysis. 

Specifications for Cement, giving many 
sample specification by the United States 
Engineers, various railroads and cities, 
and for many special uses. 

The Uses of Cement, describing methods 
of designing mixtures of cement for vari- 
ous uses and the results in strength and 
cost, as well as many special methods 



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MUNICIPAL MATTERS IN COURT. 



105 



of constructing foundations, pavements, 
sewers, arches, reservoir linings, piers, 
dams, etc., including coloring and special 
treatments. 

Specifications for the Use of Cement, 
giving specifications used by contractors, 
cities, railroads, government engineers, 
and others for arches, piers, foundations^ 
conduits, reservoirs and linings, walks, 
curb, pavements, floors, sewers., buildings, 
cisterns, plastering, masonry, etc. 



Data for Estimates of Cement Work, 
both quantities of materials and cost. 

Cement Laboratories, describing typical 
private, municipal and college labora- 
tories. 

complete yet published upon the practical 
use of cement, and the clearest guide to 
t^e construction of specifications for 
concrete work. It is not a book upon the 
design of structures, but it is a full guide 
to the use of cement and concrete in such 
structures. 



MUNICIPAL MATTERS 
IN COURT 



Higher Courts— Water Comimny Pays Fire Loss— Bast Chicago Water 

Company— Defective /leter— Water Bond Issue— Remoastraoces— 

flichigan Road Act— Anderson Improvements Enjoined— 

Forfeit for Delay— Bay State Gas Company* 



Abstract from Decisions of the IHiglv 

er Courts on Matters Relating 

to Municipal improvements. 

Prepared by Russell T. Byers, LL. B., 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Assessments— Benefits— Front-Foot Rule 
The validity of an assessment must 
be determined by a rererence to the 
law in force at the ame the im- 
provement was ordered. The Ctouncll's 
Judgment as to what property is benefited 
is conclusive In the absence of fraud or 
gross mistake. The adoption of the front- 
age rule In determining the amount of the 
assessments does not vitiate the assess- 
ment. Where the plaintiffs do not own 
the property Improved they can not at- 
taclc the validity of the assessment on 
the ground that the city is not the owner. 
Beck et al. vs. Holland et al., 74 Pac. R. 
<Mon.) 410. 

Assessment— Front-Foot Rule— The stat- 
ute providing that tne amount of 
an assessment shall be -determined by 
the front-foot rule is not unconstitution- 
al as a taking of private property with- 
out due process of law. Deane et al. vs. 
Indiana Machine and Construction Com- 
pany, 68 N. B. Rep. (Ind.), 686. 

Assessments — Description of Work— 
An improvement resolution must "In- 
form the citizens, substantially of the 



kind and character of improvement." The 
statute also makes it imperative that the 
resolution of the council shall set out 
where the grade line is to be. It Is also 
necessary, before any contract is let, that 
an estimate of the cost of the contem- 
plated improvement shall be made by the 
city engineer. City of KirksviUe ex rel. 
Fleming, etc., vs. Coleman, 77 S. W. Rep. 
(Mo.), lao. 

Assessments— Hearing— Front-Foot Rule 
—The City Council In providing that 
a hearing should be given after an 
improvement was ordered, to receive 
objections to the assessments, also 
for an appeal from the decision at such 
hearing, complied with the statutes. The 
frontage rule Is a reasonable basis for 
determining the amount of an assessment 
in the absence of a showing that the 
property is not benefited to the extent of 
the assessment. Adams vs. City of 
Roanoke, 45 S. E. Rep. (Va.) 881. 

Assessment— Fraud Defined— When an 
Improvement has been regularly ap- 
proved by the common council such ap- 
proval, in the absence of fraud, is con- 
clusive upon the abutting property own- 
ers. What is fraud under such circum- 
stances is considered in this decision. 
Lux etc., vs. Donaldsoon et al. 68 N. K,. 
Rep. (Ind.) 1,014. 

Assessments — Original Construction — 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



Where repairs are made on that por- 
tion of an old turnpike road which 
lias been brought into a city by the 
extension of its limits, these repairs do 
not constitute such an original construc- 
tion as to relieve abutting propertj'-own- 
ers from an assessment for a subsequent 
improvement. The council had the pow- 
er to determine the manner of assessing 
the cost. Where a street which was to be 
improved had been previously imprced 
along part of its distance by original 
construction the city has a right to pay 
out of the funds of the city for that por- 
tion which they reimprove. Wymond et 
al. vs. Barber Asphalt Paving Company. 
77 S. W. Rep. (Ky.) 203. 

Assessments of Railroad Right-of-Way 
—A strip of land taken by a railroad 
company, under its right of eminent do- 
main, and used as a right-of-way, which 
is a "lot" within the statute governing 
street improvements, is liable for an as- 
sessment for a street improvement. 
Louisville & Chicago Railway Company, 
vs. Barker, etc.. 76 8. W. Rep. (Ky.) 1097. 

Assessments— In an action to restrain 
the city from collecting the second 
installment for local assessment, the 
first having been paid, it was held 
that the failure to include an item- 
ized engineer's estimate in the ordi- 
nance is a jurisdictional question, and- 
under the statute, should have been 
raised and determined at the time of the 
payment of the first installment. Treat 
vs. City of Chicago, et al., 126 Fed. Rep. 
(111.) 644. 

Assements for Sidewalks and Inter- 
sections — In determining the amount 
of the assessment for certain side- 
walks, the linear foot rule was 
adopted. Property-owners had the priv- 
ilege of building their own walks, in 
which event they should be liable to as- 
sessment only for their pro rata of the 
cost of the intersections. Held— That the 
construction by the property-owner of 
the intersections did not relieve him from 
such assessment. Herman Construction 
Company vs. McManus, 77 8. W. Rep. 
(Mo.) 810. 

City— Powers— Water Works— 8ec. 3,541, 
Burns' R. S., 1901, provides that a 
city may become a stockholder in a 
water works corporation by subscribing 
to its capital stock and may borrow 
money to pay its stock subscription. Pur- 

nnrtlnsr fr^ Ant imdAr thifi Annrtrnpnt nf 



that the water company, previously in- 
corporated, should be permitted to oper- 
ate a water works system for twenty-one 
years; that the city should pur- 
chase 30.000.000 gallons of water 
per month, etc., etc.; should fur- 
nish the steam to operate the 
plant; that it should "pledge the income 
and revenues of its water works system 
for the payment of water rentals, and 
levy a tax sufficient to amply supple- 
ment said incomes and revenues." It 
also provided that in the event 
the city should issue bonds that 
it should pay the said water 
rentals to trustees to secure said bonds. 
The court held that municipal corpora- 
tions may exercise only such powers as 
they are invested with by the Legislature, 
and such other implied powers as are 
reasonably necessary for the carrying out 
of the powers expressly conferred. The 
court also held that the power to contract 
for 21 years to pay for 30,000,000 gallons 
of water per month, whether used or not, 
to furnish the motive power for the plant, 
and to pay rentals to trustees, in the 
event of the issue of bonds, was the exer- 
cising of powers' not expressly grranted 
or reasonably implied. 8uch provisions 
render the city practically a guarantor of 
the water company. The court intimates 
strongly, however, that in Indiana a city 
may install a water plant for the benefit 
of the public generally, and that it may 
aid to a reasonable extent a private 
corporation to furnish water to the in- 
habitants. 8cott et al. vs. City of La- 
porte, 68 N. E. Rep. (Ind.) 278. 

Defective Work— Right of Taxpayer— 
The plaintiffs are citizens and own- 
ers of real estate abutting upon 
Sprague-st. The suit was brought to 
prevent the city from paying for or ac- 
cepting certain paving done upon Sprague- 
st. for the reason that the work did not 
conform to the contract between the dty 
and the paving company, and because the 
materials used were of inferior quality. 
It was held that the specifications and 
the written contract are the evidences of 
the agreement of the parties and the 
work must conform to them. The work 
in this case did not come up to the re- 
quirements of the contract and the In- 
junction of the citizens was made per- 
petual. Pleasants et al. vs. City of 
Shreveport et al., 36 So. Rep. (La.). 283. 

Gas Mains— Suit to Pi*event Laying of 



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MUNICIPAL MATTERS IN COURT. 



107 



Grading By Owner— Damages— Estoppel 
An owner of property on both sides 
of the street secured permission to 
pave the street in conformity to the 
grade line, etc. After completing the 
grading he sued the city because he had 
been compelled to conform his pavement 
to the grade line, which was higher than 
the natural surface. The court held that 
he was not compelled to construct the 
pavement at all, and that the permission 
was granted for plaintiffs benefit and 
upon condition that he conform to 
the line. Having accepted the condition 
he is bound. Devlin vs. City of Philadel- 
phia. 56 Atl. Rep. (Penn-), a. 

Powers—Lighting Streets, Etc.— A city 
has implied power to light its pub- 
lic streets and public buildings and 
places. When a city has the power to 
provide for public heating and lighting 
it may do so by the erection of plants. 
The cost of the construction of water and 
electric light plants, is a "necessary ex- 
pense" within the meaning of the consti- 
tution, art. 7. sec. 7. Fawcett et al. 
vs. .Town of Mt. Airy, 45 S. B. Rep. 
(N. C.) 1029. 

Improvement — Invalid Supplemental 
Contract— Quantum Meruit— Where a con- 
tractor acting under an invalid sup- 
plemental contract, constructs certain 
public improvements, the city is lia- 
ble for the reasonable value of the 
additional benefits conferred. City of 
Chicago vs. McKechney et al., 68 N. 
E. Rep. (111.) 954. 

Reassessment— Alien lAbor Clause— A 
void ordinance cannot serve as a 
basis for a new ordinance calling 
for a new assessment. A statute which 
provides that contractors shall not em- 
ploy aliens is void as being an interfer- 
ence with the right to contract. City of 
Chicago vs. Hulbert et al.. 68 N. B. Rep., 
(III.) 786. 

Special Tax Bills — Limitations of — 
I'nder the Kansas City charter, art. 
9, sec. 23, though a default in the pay- 
ment of any Installment of a special tax 
bill may mature the entire bill, yet the 
statutory limitation of ' one year, during 
which time the bill is a lien, does not be- 
gin to run until one year after the last 
installment becomes due, as Indicated 
upon the face of the bill. Barber Asphalt 
Paving Company vs. Meservey. 77 S. W. 
Rep. (Mo.) 137. 

Water Works— Damage to Land— The 
petitioner sought to recover for dam- 
ages to property not taken but in- 
jured by the acts of Metropolitan Wa- 
ter Board. In this case part of the real 
estate damaged was within and part 
without the prescribed boundaries. Held 



that the statute Intended to afCect only 
the property within the prescribed boun- 
daries; also, that the draining of a well, 
which lay without the boundaries, is a 
damage that may be compensated for un- 
der certain sections of the act McNam- 
ara vs. Commonwealth. 68 N. B. Rep. 
(Mass.) 332. 

♦ 

Water Company Must Pay Fire Loss 

Caused by Cutting Off Water 

Supply. 

A jury verdict returned Jan. 13 awarded 
the Buchanan & Smock Lumber Com- 
pany of Asbury Park, N. J., $31,000. The 
company brought suit against the Fast 
Jersey Coast Water Company for $42,000 
damages resulting from the failure of its 
hydrants to feed the hose at a fire which 
practically wiped out the lumber yard in 
October, 1902. The lumber company, be- 
fore it was incorporated, made a con- 
tract with the Bast Jersey Company for 
the rental of two hydrants near its yards, 
with the provision that the plugs should 
be supplied by the company with water 
for use in case of fire. On Oct. 30, 1902, 
a fire occurred and the plugs were found 
quite dry, and the damage that followed 
was estimated at $42,000. Owing to a dis- 
agreement with another patron over the 
payment of a bill, the water company had 
shut off the main which supplied him, 
and in doing so had also deprived the 
lumber company of its expected supply. 
The water company alleged that the fire- 
men did not know how to operate the 
hydrants and that the plaintiff corpora- 
tion had recovnred its fire loss through 
the payment to it of insurance money. 
Justice Fort ruled, however, for the bene- 
fit of the Jury, that this point in no way 
affected the principle of liability at issue. 
Before the case went to the jury the 
plaintiff company announced that the 
amount of damages demanded had been 
reduced from $42,000 to $86,000, the deduc- 
tion being for the $7,000 insurance which 
had been recovered. 

The attorneys for the Bast Jersey 
Coast Water Company Immediately gave 
notice of appeal. 



East Chicago Water Company's Diffi- 
culties. 

Judge Anderson of the Federal Court 
at Indianapolis on Jan. 6 ordered the 
city of Bast Chicago, Ind., to pay to the 
receiver for the Bast Chicago Water 
Works Company, dating from Nov. 12, 
1903. $66 a year for each of the 163 fire hy- 



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108 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



drants used In that city, and $92.80 for 
each of the 66 arc lights. In addition all 
money received for the private consump- 
tion of water and light since the receiver 
was appointed must be accounted for to 
the receiver. Judge Anderson ordered the 
costs of the appearance and decree of 
the court adjudged against E. W. Wick- 
ey, city attorney of East Chicago. 



under valid, the supplementary act an<S 
the issue thereunder must also bd held 
valid. The Circuit Court dismissed the 
petition on appeal from .this decision, af- 
firming it as correct. 



City Responsible for Defective Meter 
and Its Record. 

The Appellate division of the New 
York Supreme Court handed down a de- 
cision, Jan. 15, affirming the Judgment of 
the lower court in granting Thomas J. 
Healey an Injunction restraining the city 
of New York from cutting oft his water 
supply because of his refusal to pay a 
water bill presented by the city. The evi- 
dence submitted showed that the water 
inspectors examined the meter in Healy's 
place and broke the official seal, which 
they found Intact. They discovered that 
the teeth of a cog wheel attached to the. 
dial had been so filed down that the meter 
only registered one-flftb of the actual 
amount of water consumed. The Appel- 
late division holds that since there is no 
proof that Healy had anything to do with 
the fraud in the meter the city is bound 
by the figures on the meter dial, be they 
right or wrong. The dismissal of the 
city's suit to recover the bill is also af- 
firmed. 

• 

Cincinnnati's Supplemental Water 

Works Bond Issue Valid. 

An oral decision issued by the Circuit 
Court at Cincinnati, O., January 8, up- 
holds the position of Judge S. W. Smith 
that the supplemental issue of water 
works bonds is valid. The suit was 
brought by City Solicitor Hunt on request 
of Theodore Horstman, who sues as a 
taxpayer, and who attacks as unconsti- 
tutional the issue of 12,000.000 bonds sup- 
plemental to the issue of original con- 
struction bonds. He alleged that it was 
special legislation; that the act providing 
for the construction of water works 



Who Can Sign Remonstrances Against 
Paving and When. 

The Court of Appeals at Kansas City, 
Mo., handed down a decision Jan. 4, in 
the case of the city of Sedalia vs. Jennie- 
R. Scott. The suit Is based on a special 
tax bill for street paving, In which a 
majority of the property owners filed a 
remonstrance with the city clerk against 
the paving of a street within ten days 
after the publication of the resolution, 
proposing the work. After the remon- 
strance had been filed, however, several 
of the remonstrants withdrew their 
names, leaving, apparently a minority 
remonstrance petition. Judge Ellison de- 
cides that after a remonstrance has beeik 
filed with the city clerk no name may be 
withdrawn. He points out, however, that 
a name upon a petition inay be with- 
drawn before the instrument is filed with 
the city clerk. The tax bills are, there- 
fore, declared Invalid. The court decides^ 
in the same opinion, that administrators^ 
. have no right to sign remonstrances and 
petitions for estates in street Improve- 
ment work. 

♦ 

Saginaw County Mich., Road Act Void.^ 

An opinion handed down by Judge 
Snow of the Circuit Court at Saginaw, 
Mich., holds the county road act void. 
The opinion was rendered in the case 
of the Board of SupervisOTS vs. John G. 
Hubinger, supervisor of the township of 
Frankenmuth, asking that he be com- 
pelled to spread the road tax on the rolls 
of that township, as provided by local 
road act of 1899. The refusal of Franken- 
muth township to recognize the Saginaw 
County ix)ad act as applicable to it has 
caused considerable friction. The con- 
tention of the township is that it is ex- 
empt under the county act, having estab- 
lished a road law of its own under pre- 



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SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



109- 



Council from settling finally with the 
contractors for making improvements on 
Sherman-st. until they are completed, ac- 
cording to specifications. When the mat- 
ter came up in Council interested prop- 
erty owners remonstrated, claiming that 
the work hawl not been properly done. The 
work will now have to be done over. 



A Suit for Forfeit for Delay in Com< 
pleting Contract. 

An answer has been filed in the Fed- 
eral Court by the city of SaJt Lake* 
Utah, in the suit brought by the Alcatras 
Asphalt Paving Company, in which judg- 
ment against the city in the amount of 
17,860 is asked on account of an alleged 
balance due on a paving contract. Vari- 
ous amounts were paid at different 
times on the contract for grading, curb- 
ing and paving Second South-st.. from 
First West to Sixth West, and Third 
South-st.. from State to West Temple-st. 
Upon the comt)letion of the work, on Nov. 
22, 1902. there was a balance due the com- 
pany, it alleges, of |23,784.2L In making 
the settlement, however, council retained 
out of the total contract price the sum 
of $7,850 as a forfeit for 167 days' delay In 
completing the work, and it is for the 



recovery of this forfeit that the paving 
company brought suit. In its answer the 
city makes denial of all allegations in the^ 
complaint which attack the right to re- 
tain the forfeit money. 



Duties of the Bay State Gas Company- 

The Delaware Supreme Court has ren- 
dered two decisions connected with the 
Bay State Gas Company. In one case the 
court decided against the appeal of the 
Bay State Oas Company in the suit 
brought by Henry and Walter Content of 
New York City, who are stockholders, and 
tried to gain access to the books of th«» 
company at Wilmington. They secured a 
writ of mandamus^ J. Edward Addicks, 
president of the Bay State QaB Company, 
appealed to the Supreme Court, which de- 
cided against him. 

In the second case the Bay State Gar 
Company refused to file with the Secre- 
tary of the Sta;te of Delaware a certificate 
stating the condition of the company. 
The court sustained the company in this- 
case on the ground that it waa chartered 
under a special law prior to the enact- 
ment of the present general corporation 
laws, which require such statement to be 
filed. 



vSEWERAOE AND iEWAOE 
DliPOJAL 



Bedford Sewerage— Filters and Contact Beds— Minnesota Stream PoUutlon- 
Puip niii Pollution— New York State Water and Sewer Board- 
Exclusive Qarbage Contract. 



Sewerage and Sewage Disposal at 

Bedford, Ind.* 

By G. C. Houston, City Engineer. 

Some years ago, shortly after assum- 
ing the duties of City Civil Engineer of 
Bedford, Ind., it became apparent that a 
system of sewers was fast becoming an 
absolute necessity. 

The place was fast growing from a 
straggling country village to a little city 
of several thousand inhabitants and the 
crude methods then in use for disposing 



of wastes were found to be no longer 
sufficient. Epidemics of typhoid fever, 
diphtheria and other diseases began to- 
make the people realize the necessity of 
getting the city into a better state of 
cleanliness. 

Various plans were proposed and some 
investigations were made, but for some- 
time nothing definite was arrived at It 
was finally decided that a system of 
strictly sanitary sewers should be con- 
structed. The city, some time before, had 
built sewers for carrying off the storm* 



*From a i>aper before the Indiana Engl neerlng Society. 



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110 



MUNICIPAL BNQINEERINO. 



water a( such places as were at that 
time needed so that there was no neces^ 
sity for conveying surface water Into 
the sewers built for conveying away foul 
sewage. 

Surveys were made of the streets and 
alleys and profiles made showing the 
surface of the ground and the grade of 
the flow line of the sewers; also location 
of street and alley Intersections. A map 
was also prepared showing the territory 
proposed to be drained. This map showed 
the street and alley lines, the location and 
diameter of the proposed sewers and tb« 
location of all manholes, flush tanks and 
Junctions. 

Owing to the hilly surface on which 
Bedford stands only a part of the city 
could be made to drain into any one sys- 
tem of sewers. The part selected for 
the present system embraces nearly all 
the northeastern portion of the city. The 
public square and the streets leading east, 
west and south, and the twrltory lying 
between the Monon railway and Spider 
creek, embracing about half of the area 
of the city and perhaps two-thirds of the 
population. This territory Is known of- 
ficially as sewer district Ko. 1. 

Starting at the outlet at the south line 
of the corporation the main sewer runs 
in a northerly direction over private 
ground and various streets and alleys to 
the intersection of K-st. with the alley 
between Sixteenth and Seventeenth-sts. 
This main is fifteen inches in diameter. 
At the point spoken of the main divides 
into two mains each twelve inches in 
diameter. One branch going west on 
the alley above mentioned to its Inter- 
section with M-st., thence north on M-st. 
to the alley between Fourteenth and Fif- 
teenth-sts., where it decreases to tea 
inches in diameter and continues north 
on M-st. to the alley between Twelfth 
and Thlrteenth-sts., where it branches 
into three laterals. 

The other branch goes east on the alley 
between Sixteenth and Seventeenth-sts. 
to J-st., thence north on J-st. to the man- 
hole at Thirteenth, where it enters a cast 
iron riveted siphon which extends about 
800 feet to a point near the southwest cor- 
ner of the Southern Indiana Railway Sta- 
tion, where It enters a 10-inch terra cotta 
pipe and runs east to I-st., thence north 
to Ninth-st., where it branches into two 
laterals which extend north to the cor- 
porate limits of the city. 

Laterals connect with these mains and 
extend as far as the nature of the ground 
will permit. 

Altogether there were laid 27,740 lineal 
feet of 8-inch terra cotta pipe, 2,350 lineal 



feet of 10-inch terra cotta pipe, 2,720 lineal 
feet of 12-inch terra cotta pipe, 1,240 lineal 
feet of 15-inch terra cotta pipe, 800 ilneat 
feet of 8-inch cast iron pipe and ^220 
lineal feet of 10-inch cast iron pipe. There 
are nineteen flush tanks and eighty-siz. 
manholes. Wye junctions were placed so 
as to provide connection for each piece of 
property and to provide for contingencies. 

The prnciple laid down by the late 
George E. Waring, jr., were in the main 
followed, except in the use of eight-inclx 
in place of six-inch laterals and in the 
more 'extensive use of manholes. These 
changes, were deemed advisable from per- 
sonal experience some years ago a*^ 
Pueblo, Colo., also by correspondence 
with public works oflSclals at San Diego, 
Cal., and other places. Col. Waring him-> 
self admits that t^ere is no objection to 
the use of 8-inch pipe except the cost. 

The inverted siphon spoken of abov^ 
was put in to bring the sewer across £l 
ravine near the Southern Indiana station. 
The sewer on leaving the manhole enters 
an 8 cast-iron pipe at an elevation o't 
274 above return and runs 370 feet to 
a gate valve at an elevation of 24S, 
thence 480 feet to the manhole at Thir- 
teonth-st at an elevation of 269.54, wher^ 
it re-enters the terra cotta pipe on J-s€. 
The gate valve is placed at the low poin^ 
to provide for flushing in case of stop- 
page. 

Great care was taken with the grad« 
and alignment so as to have no crooks 
or depressions. Stakes were driven at 
every fifty feet or half station on the 
surface and the cuts from the top of the 
stakes marked. When the cut was nearly 
completed finishing stakes were driven 
to the grade of the flow line at distances 
varying from ten to fifteen feet, accord- 
ing to circumstances. 

The flush tanks made by the Pacific 
Flush Tank Company of Chicago were 
used. Wherever possible the Standard 
Miller tanks were put in, but in some 
places, owing to light cuts, special de- 
signs adapted to shallow depths were 
used 

Bedford is situated about three miles 
from the east fork of White river and is 
about two hundred and fifty feet above 
low water In that stream. A high stone 
ridge lies immediately south of the cor- 
poration line and between the city and 
the river, making It practically impossible 
for the sewer to have an outlet in that 
direction, even if it had been so desired. 
It was suggested that an outlet might be 
had by cutting through to Leatherwood 
creek on the east or to Spider creek on 
the west for an outlet, but as those 
streams are scarcely more than a succes- 



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SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



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sion of pools In dry weather the conse- 
quence of emptying ^ne foul sewage of a 
city of eight thousand people may well be 
Imagined. 

White River and Its various branches 
above Bedford receive the drainage from 
Brownstown, Seymour, Columbus, 

Greensburg, Vernon, North Vernon, 
Scottsburg, Franklin, Edlnburg, Shelby- 
ville, Rushvllle, Knlghtstown, New 
Castle, Carthage and Greenfield, besides 
numerous smaller towns. Some of these 
places contain factories of various kinds 
such as strawboard works, tanneries, 
etc.. which empty their refuse Into the 
river. Some of them are places of sev- 
eral thousand people, and have sewers 
that empty their filthy contents Into the 
river without any purification, whatever, 
converting that which the Almighty 
made pure Into deadly poison. The 
writer once stood on the bank of the 
river at Columbus and watched the sew- 
age of that city discharge Into the water. 
He had never believed that water run- 
ning two miles would purify Itself, and 
the sight of that filthy sewer confirmed 
him more fully in his belief that the 
emptying of filth into the streams was 
wrong and that something ought to be 
done to cause it to be discontinued. 

The water supply for the city of Bed- 
ford is taken from the river below the 
city and should the sewage by any 
means be carried to the river It would 
of necessity empty above the intake of 
the water works, but with the refuse of 
the towns above mentioned fiowlng Into 
the river It was taken for granted that 
the water In the stream was already suf- 
ficiently charged with filth and bacteria 
for all practical purposes. 

It was, therefore, decided that the sew- 
age should be purified before being turned 
loose on the people living below town, and 
the well-known firm of Alvord & Shields 
of Chicago was employed to design a 
sytem cf purification works. Upon their 
advice a septic tank was located on the 
bank of a small stream near the south 
line of the corporation Just east of tE© 
Monon Railway. At this point there is a 
group of sink holes. This stream re- 
ceives the surface water falling on the 
central and a portion of the western parts 
of the city, and empties its waters Into 
the sink holes Just north of the high 
ridge above spoken of. 

The tank is seventy-six feet long and 
twenty-one feet wide on the outside. The 
lower part to a short distance above the 
water line Is built of concrete, while the 
upper part is built of brick and covered 
with galvanized steel. On top of the 



roof a ventilator extends about two- 
thirds the length of the bxilldlng. Four 
windows «re placed on each side while 
each end is provided with an ordinary 
door. The interior Is provided with four 
concrete baflle walls and two concrete 
gutters. These walls and gutters are 
supported by Iron rods extending Into 
the concrete side walls and securely an- 
chored. A sludge valve Is placed about 
six feet from the upper end of the tank, 
to be opened only when the tank requires 
cleaning. An outlet is provided at about 
two-thirds of the way from the inlet end 
and another one at the lower or outlet 
end. A wooden walk extends the full 
length of the tank on the west side 

The sewage coming toward the tank en- 
ters a diversion manhole near the upper 
end of the tank under 8ufi9cient pressure 
to force the sewage into the tank. 

It passes under the first three baffie 
walls and a part of It passes Into the 
concrete gutter and leaves the tank 
through a ten-inch opening. The remain- 
der passes under the fourth or last baffle 
wall and passes into another gutter and 
leaves the tank near the south- 
west corner. The sewage thus 
treated passes into one of the sink 
holes mentioned above. What becomes of 
it after passing Into the sink hole Is a 
problem that is as yet unsolved, but most 
likely it passes deep Into the earth. Time 
will no doubt demonstrate what finally 
becomes of it. The city owns ample 
grounds on the west side of the tank for 
the building of filter beds and should the 
working of the tank not prove satisfac- 
tory the beds will be built later on as the 
occasion may require. 

When this work was commenced there 
was no plant of like character in Indiana 
and I believe even now it is the third one 
in the state, and to some extent it is an 
experiment. I am convinced that we have 
begun to move In the right direction and 
hope that the day Is close at hand when 
cities and factories will no longer be al- 
lowed to send foul sewage into tlit* 
streams to spread disease and death on 
the Inhabitants of places lower down. 



Filters Versus Contact Beds In Sew- 
age Purification.* 

By W. S. Shields, C. E., Chicago, 111. 
There has been so much written about 
the septic tank that I only note as in- 
troducing my subject that there Is much 
about them that Is unknown. Its use is 
now universally admitted to be essential 
in the present practice of bacterial puri- 
fication, although when men like Douglas 
Archibald of England present such for- 



•From a paper before the Indiana Engineering Society. 



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112 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



midable arguments backed by actual re- 
sults in favor of chemical precipitation 
a^ a preliminary treatment to titration 
where large quantities must be handled, 
his claims must and will receive consid- 
eration. The preponderance of opinion, 
however, is in favor of the tank for liqui- 
fying the solids and preparing the sewage 
for final nitrification. 

Grenerally speaking, our knowledge of 
these vegetable growths, or bacteria, is 
that there are three general classes which 
bring about the purification of organic 
waste; first, the anaerobic or liquifying 
bacteria which in the presence of oxy- 
der conditions where oxygen does not ex- 
ist; second, the aerobic or noa- iq ufying 
becteria which in the presence of oxy- 
gen produce decomposition, and third, the 
facultative bacteria which may be either 
anaerobic or aerobic in their nature. Each 
of these classes is composed ot different 
species, each having its specific func- 
tions and operating on the different com- 
ponent parts of the sewage. It is from 
a close study of these classes and their 
species that we can hope to Improve upon 
or get the greatest efficiency from the 
septic tank and it is to the bacteriologist 
that we must look for advice in this di- 
rection. 

Tne r^nglisn practice is to build links 
with a capacity of from 1 to 1% times the 
daily fiow and expect the effluent to con- 
tain less than one part of albuminoid 
ammonia, while the American engineers 
design their tanks for from % to 1 times 
the dally flow. 

The treatment of the sepMc tank ef- 
fluent is the most interesting feature at 
the present stage of the science, and it is 
receiving a very careful study from ex- 
perts who will Ir a few years be able to 
give us reliable information and data on 
this part of the work. Until then, we 
must be guided by the experience and re- 
sults obtained by those who have care- 
fully and methodically designed works 
which have been put into operation, and 
who are able and willing to give results 
secured, or If failures are encountered 
the reasons for such, that others may 
avoid like disaster. 

The result to be obtained is to take the 
septic tank effluent and to further purify 
it by oxidation and nitrification so that 
there may be no nuisance created or 
damage done by discharging it Into the 
most available water course. 

In some cases where sufficient running 
water i« nvnilnhle thp pffliient mav hA 



most generally, however, such streams 
are not available and some artificial 
means must be adopted, and this in the 
present practice, means either contact 
beds or some type of filters; and it s 
particularly this feature of the problem 
that I wish to call attention to. 

The English engineers who were the 
first to recognize and adopt the bacterial 
process as such, have had a much wider 
and more varied experience with the dif- 
ferent forms of filters and bacterial beds- 
than we have had; consequently much 
importance must be given to the results 
which ' they have been able to obtain. 
With them the contact bed originated, as 
well as a number of the different forms 
of bacterial filters which are now being 
used. 

The contact bed, which was the first 
form of anaerobic treatment. Is perhaps ^ 
the best known of their methods. A 
large number of plants have been 
equipped with these beds and even in 
America, we have quite a number of 
plants designed after the same jgreneral 
principles first adopted in England. Ex- 
perience and a more thorough knowledge 
of the principles involved have resulted 
in Improved methods until at the present 
time the contact beds are losing their 
popularity and are being crowded to the 
background in favor of other forms of"^ 
filters in which more positive aerobic ac- 
tion can l>e secured and at a less expense. 

It is interesting to note that at a recent 
meeting of the Sanitary Institute fat 
Birmingham, England, a great majority 
of the speakers expressed themselves as 
being against the adoption of contact 
beds; some of them even pronouncing 
them back numbers and out of date. It 
is not strange, however, that this should 
be »9o, as it is expected that the first 
methods adopted to accomplish a certain 
result are subject to improvements and if 
the contact beds have only been a step- 
ping stone to something better, they have 
accomplished useful resu'ts. 

The present English practice is now 
running largely to open filters, variously 
termed percolating, aerating, intermit- 
tent, streaming filters, etc., all much aUke 
in general character and differing mostly 
In their construction and method of ap- 
plication. 

The "contact bed requires practically 
water-tight tanks, which are quite ex- 
pensive, and to get best results there 



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114 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



Acuities with the beds Is that their capac- 
ity decreases rapidly by the filling up of 
the Interstices of the material by a vege- 
table growth, thus reducing the original 
capacity as much as 4 per cent, in two 
years. It is found, too. that they require 
more skilled care than was at first an- 
ticipated, and, further, that the filtering 
medium m-ust be removed and cleahed if 
worked at maximum rates. 

The form of filters most popular at the 
present time Is open percolating fi'ters 
built upon a hard floor well drained; they 
vary from 4 to 8 feet in depth and are 
composed of any hard material that will 
not disintegrate by the action of the air 
and water. In experiments made with 
coke, coal, broken brick, cinder and brok- 
en stone, coal gave best results, and from 
many tests as to the best size, that broken 
to pieces varying from ^ to % inch gave 
much the best results. 

There are many patented devices and 
appliances for distributing the fewage 
over the beds, and this feature is of great 
importance. Revolving arms are used in 
circular beds. Sprays and Jets from per- 
forated pi pea give good results, but cre- 
ate much odor. A good septic effluent 
can, they say, be purified by one of these 
filters at rates of from 400 to 600 gallons 
per square yard per day. 

My own experience and observation 
with contact beda though limited, is far 
from satisfactory, and I have given most 
attention to fi.ters, principally sand filters, 
operated intermittently and automatically. 
Some six of these plants are now in suc- 
cessful operation. 

An interesting plant was built for the 
Allis-Chalmbers Company, at their new 
works in West Allls. Early in 1902, the 
company advertised for propositions for 
constructing a sewage purification plant 
with a capacity sufllcient to purify the 
sewage from factories where 3,500 men 
were to be employed. The requirements 
so far as purification was concerned, stip- 
ulated that the "effluent from the plant 
shall be without odor and in such condi- 
tion that no further purification shall oc- 
cur. In particular, the effluent water 
shall be at all times unobjectionable in 
flowing through the course of natural 
drainage into which it is discharged be- 
yond the limits of the property of the 
company." 

The writer submitted a proposition on 
plans similar to the one later constructed 
for the County of Milwaukee in which 
sand filters were to be used for final 
treatment. At the suzzestion of their 



structlon substituted therefor. The plant 
was designed for a capacity of 80,000 gal- 
lons of sewage per day. It consists of 
a septic tank provided with a grit cham- 
ber and an anaerobic filter connected 
with the tank and the final 
treatment through an open percolating 
filter. Thf plant was constructed on a 
hillside; the tank is built of concrete and 
covered with a gable roof resting on top 
of the concrete walls with a plank walk 
through its center supported by the raft- 
ers. The tank is divided by a central 
partition into two long tanks, each 10 feei 
by 58 feet with 7.5 feet depth of watei 
or a total fluid capacity of 68,000 gallons. 
Controlling valves are placed at the open- 
ings leading to a bypass pipe which will 
enable the sewage to be discharged 
through the grit chambers into the outlet, 
or it may be discharged Into the outlet 
after leaving either the septic tank or 
the anaerobic filter. These openings are 
all provided with coffin shear sewer 
valves with two additional ones in the 
bottom of the tanks to permit the sludge 
or contents of either the tank chambers 
to be discharged into the outlet. 

Each compartment of the tank has a 
separate discharge opening into the 
anaerobic filter; these are provided with 
floating weirs similar in construction to 
those used by Messrs. Snow & Barbour 
in their plant at Mansfield, O. There is 
several feet fall between the level of the 
water in the septic tank and that in the 
anaerobic filter so that a certain amount 
of air is admitted at this point by two 
falls. The anaerobic filter is 21 feet wide 
by 33 feet long, being a continuation of 
the tank itself. It has a drain outlet Into 
the main bypass or outlet pipe also sup- 
plied by a shear valve and an 8-incb 
concrete trap and wall at the entrance 
and where the sewage must pass down 
underneath this wall into the filter and 
pass upward through the filtering ma- 
terial and over a weir the full length of 
the chamber into a concrete trough, 
thence to the distributing siphons. This 
filter is composed of lines of 4-iiich tile 
conduit pipe, laid upon a concrete floor; 
they are rpacod 4 inches apart with open- 
ing at each section of several inches be- 
tween pieces. The entire floor is covered 
in this way, the end of the tile projecting 
through beneath the trap wall; on top 
of this tile are placed large pieces of coal 
clinkers so laid by hand that the finer 
material cannot get down to clog the 
drains. On top of these large pieces la 



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SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



115 



on top of this is 6 inches of a still flner 
grade of the same material, leaving a 6- 
Inch depth of water over the entire sur- 
face when it is flooded. 

A bypass is provided through which the 
effluent from the septic tank can be car* 
ried around this anaerobic Alter and into 
the distributing chambers. 

At the outlet end of the building and at 
the end of the anaerobic filter are three 
concrete siphon chambers each 3 by 5 feet 
into which the eflluent passes when leav- 
ing the anaerobic filter; each chamber is 
supplied with a 12-inch wide weir notch 



are concrete gutters which collect the 
effluent and discharge it through tile pipe 
into an open ditch below the works. On 
top of the floor are placed parallel lines 
of 4-inch conduit pipe sloping from the 
center to the sides for the purpose of ad- 
mitting air to the interior of the filter. 
These tile are laid a few inches apart 
over the entire surface and on top of 
these is placed the filtering material 
which in this case is composed of coal 
cinders a-^d clinkers varying in size from 
% to V4 Inch in diameter. The outside 
was built of large clinkers laid carefully 




S£CTI0M 
AMACIfffBIC riLTtm 



9CCTtOII 
3CPTIC TAflU 



WEST ALLIS SEWAGE DISPOSAL PLANT. CROSS SECTIONS. 
Anaerobic filter bed. Aerobic filter bed. Septic tank. 



in the edge of the side trough that re- 
ceives the flow, distributing it equally to 
the three chambers. These chambers are 
supplied with 6-inch automatic siphons 
which discharge the contents of the 
aerobic filter and work independent of 
each other. 

The object of the anaerobic filter Is to 
produce conditions under which the 
facultative bacteria can do their work 
and prepare the effluent for more rapid 
nitrification in the aerobic filter. 

The aerobic filter is an open filter con- 
structed on a concrete floor or founda- 
tion; this floor Is 40 by 60 feet in dimen- 
sions and has a slope of 6 Inches from the 
center to the outside. Along the outside 



with a slight batter. The fllter has a 
hight of 8 feet at the sides and 7% feet 
in the center and a top area of 30x54 feet. 
Across the top of this filter Is placed the 
distributing system, which Is composed 
of three parallel lines of plank troughs 
constructed of 2-inch pine plank, making 
a trough 12 Inches wide by 10 inches 
high. Into each of these troughs an 8- 
inch iron pipe leading from the siphons 
is connected In such a manner that each 
siphon feeds one-third of the bed. Across 
and at right angles to these troughs and 
spaced 3 feet centers are feed troughs. 
These are of lumber and are 9 feet long, 
projecting 4 feet on each side of the 
main trough. They are built of 12-lnch 



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116 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



wide boards 9 feet long resting upon a 
wall of clinkers and elevated some 12 
inches above the top of the bed. These 
walls were built of selected pieces, are 
wide at the bottom and narrowed to IG 
Inches at the top. On these walls aro 
placed the bottom boards of the distrib- 
uting troughs; these troughs are 4 inches 
wide and 5 inches high; they were con- 
structed by taking a 4x1 inch strip of 
dressed lumber with two side pieces S 
Inches wide nailed to its edges; then at 
a distance of 8 inches apait, notches V* 
inch wide were cut through the lower 
two inches of the sides and half way 
through the bottom. These boxes wei-e 
nailed to the 12-inch board and the ends 
closed; they were then fastened with 



no experience with this class of filter was 
available to determine the effect of ex- 
treme cold weather upon it. 

The plant was constructed very careful- 
ly and was put into operation about Feb. 
1, 1903, and has operated continuously up 
to the present time, and during this time 
it has given entire satisfaction. The final 
effluent is bright, clear and without odor. 

The operation of this plant has devel- 
oped the following facts: 

1. That our estimate of 80,000 gallons 
per day was far too small, as the actual 
flow ranges during at least twelve hours 
of the twenty-four from a rate of 250,(W 
to -. /U Om a lons per aa . ivera 

probably being 320,000 gallons, and con- 
tains a large amount of oil and hot wa- 
ter from engine and machinery. 



WEST ALLIS SEPTIC TANK AND SEWAGE FILTER. 
Aerobic bed in front, septic tank and anaerobic bed in rear. 



cleats to the sides of the main trough, 
in each side of which is a 2 by 2-inch 
opening through which the water dis- 
charges into the feed troughs; these 
openings are provided with hand slides 
so that the amount of water can be reg- 
ulated in order to get a uniform distribu- 
tion over the entire area fed by one 
main trough. 

The filter is protected by a wooden roof 
supported on brick piers and above the 
top of the filter it is closed in, while be- 
low the sides and the ends of the filter 



2. That ordinary coal cinders, when 
carefully screened, will disintegrate ander 
conditions here found, indicating that a 
harder material should be used for con- 
structing filters. 

3. That the outside of such filters 
should be constructed of square open tile 
laid in mortar or dry rubble masonry in- 
stead of the large clinkers, which disin- 
tegrate under action of the water and al- 
low slides to take place. 

4. That there is not so much danger 
from freezing In extreme cold weather as 
might naturally be expected; consequent- 
ly the covering might be omitted en- 



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ROADS AND PAVEMENTS. 



117 



.good septic tank effluent a Alter of this 
kind may be depended upon for a capa- 
city of from 750 to 1,000 gallons of effluent 
per sq. yard of surface. 

This filter has during the past six 
months, been operated continuously at a 
rate of at least l,Ou^t gallons per sq. yard 
during twelve hours each day and as at 
least part of the plant is operated during 
the night, it gets but little rest during 
that period. I have no knowledge of the 
night flow. 

Since the plant has been operating sev- 
eral changes have been made. The aero- 
bic Alter has been surrounded with a 
brick wall laid dry. and tho distributing 
system has been suspended from trusses 
resting upon brick piers and is now sup- 
ported independent of the filtering me- 
dium and some fifteen inches above it. 
The system, however, proves very satis- 
factory and the distribution is even 
throughout the whole surface. The notch- 



es in the bottom of the troughs fill up 
with fine cinders washed from the an- 
aerobic bed and a fungus growth, which 
requires that the slots be raked 0];>en 
once each week. 

Temperature readings taken at different 
points through this plant during cold 
weather indicate very slight changes in 
the water. A typical set of readings In- 
dicate the following: Outside atmos- 
phere, -13. Atmosphere Inside septic tank 
with door open, 24. Atmosphere over fil- 
ter bea with winter shutters in place, 44. 
Sewage entering plant, 60. Water leaving 
septic tank, 60. Water in siphon cham- 
bers, 54. Final effluent below the plant, 
52. with outside atmosphere. 22. Readings 
show a loss of but 2 degrees In passing 
the" entire plant, and In this, as Well as a 
number of other readings, the water In 
leaving the septic tank is 1 degree higher 
than when it entered. 



ROADvS AND PAVEMENTS 



The Bitulithic Pavement— Indiana aravel Roads— Delays of Contract— 
Bitullthic Pavement Injunction— School Property not assessable. 



The Bitulithic Pavement.* 
By W. A. Hoyt. 

A thorough exposition of the bitulithic 
pavement is not attempted in this paper. 
I therefore^ give some observations and 
conclusions which I have gathered in su- 
perintending the construction of about 
65,000 square yards of this pavement dur- 
ing the past summer for the cities of Kal- 
amazoo and Manistee. Mich., in a ►^nort 
correspondence with others who have had 
a similar or a greater opportunity for ob- 
servation and in a study of available lit- 
erature upon the subject. 

I wish to say at the outset that 1 am 
not Interested In the promotion of any 
kind of pavement whatsoever, except the 
-one, which by merit alone, proves its 
right to promotion. The purpose of the 
paper Is to bring out weak points as 
well as strong ones. If I err in my judg- 
ments it Is because of the lack of acu- 
men and not because of the lack of spirit 
of inquiry. 

The legitimate predecessor of the 
bltuUthlic pavement, and with which the 
public so naturally confuses It, is the 
coal tar pavement. The hlHory of this 
pavement is very erratic, with peculiar 
successes and disastrous failure?. Tar 



macadam pavements were used In Part* 
in 1854 and they have been used in other 
European countries for many years. 
They began to be used in this country 
about 1866. Mr. Tlllson. In his "Pavements 
and Paving Materials," speaks of a few 
of these pavements in Brooklyn and 
elsewhere, which have lasted for over 
twenty years. The experience of Wash- 
ington, D. C, affords the best opportun- 
ity for the study of coal tar pavement?. 
From 1871 to 1888 there was laid 864,400 
sq. yds. of this pavement, all essentially 
the 5ame, In the use of the broken stone 
base coated with tar, a wearing sur- 
face, of varying thfcckness and composl- 
tion, depending upon the patent under 
which it was constructed. In all the 
pavements coal tar was used either crude 
or partly refined, and either alone or 
mixed with sawdust, sulphur, sulphuric 
acid, slacked lime or eisphalt, or a com- 
bination of several of these materials. 
Of these pavements something like 20 
per cent, of the total yardage failed In 
two or three years, about 50 per cent, in 
seven years, and 91 per cent. In 15 yoara. 
While 4.9 per cent. Ip^ted for 26 years and 
1.2 for 30 years. The average annual cost 
for repairing those streets which have 



*From a paper before the Michigan Engineering Society. 



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118 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



lasted for thirty years and over, Is very 
low— about 2.2 cents per sq. yd. The 
method of construction was very crude. 
At first the tar and stone were mixed 
cold and later were mixed hot, the stone 
was heated on a drying floor and the 
tar in kettles, and 'mixed with shoveU as 
concrete. Still later, when mechanical 
mixers were used, there was no uni- 
formity in the tar or attempted en^ada- 
tlon of the stone. Mr. A. W. Dow, 
Government Inspector of Asphalt? anu 
Cements, says that in all pavements of 
"this cla&9 which lasted well, no mater- 
ial except refined coal tar waB used a? 
the cementing agent, with, in some In- 
stances, the addition of a little a?ph«it; 
and those pavements in existence today 
were all laid with straight refined coal 
tar." He further says that the long life 
of these old pavements "can only be 
looked upon as a lucky aocident," and 
for this reason "it is a remarkable* il- 
lustration of what coal tar bitumen can 
do by chance." 

Despite these failures, coal tar pave- 
ments continue to be used and In the 
last few years have become quite popular 
in Canada. Some of the places repeated 
the same mistakes as were made at 
Washington. Hamilton and Toronto have 
been using it in increasing amounts for 
several years. These pavements appear 
to give satisfaction in many cases and 
cost from 40 cents to $1.25 per square 
yard. 

The unusual wearing qualities of some 
of these old pavements attracted the at- 
tention of men interested in the paving 
business. While at the same timo the 
conditions of the asphalt trade, and some 
difficult features connected with that con- 
struction, caused men to seek for some 
other form of pavement. 

Mr. S. Whinery, M. Am. See. C. E., for 
several years in the asphalt paving busi- 
ness, advocated in 1901 an asphalt macad- 
am pavement which would combine the 
low cost and non-slippery features of the' 
macadam with the smooth hard surface, 
noiselessness and sanitary features of the 
asphalt pavement. Thus ne thought to 
obtain a. pavement which would not be 
dusty and "ravel" as macadam, and 
would not be slippery and crack and shift 
and "scale" as asphalt. He considered 
the combination more durable than as- 



pavement based on the same general line 
of reasoning. He had made a study of 
the old coal tar pavement and proposed 
to use a coal tar pitoh for the binder and 
a graded stone for the metaL 

Method of Construction.— The subgrade 
and foundation will not be taken up In 
detail, as the work Is nearly identical 
with that of the macadam i>avement. 
with which all are familiar, except only, 
to mention a matter which caused great 
consternation amongst the "curbstone 
engineers." The sand came through the 
stone so badly that we began the use of 
a light sprinkling of coarse hay upon the 
subgrade. This hay, in large quantities 
would help the rolling of the subgrade, 
and a light layer being left, it kept the 
sand down considerably. It was not per- 
mitted in bunches or upon questionably 
spongy soil. 

Usually a six-inch macadam base 's 
used, the stone varying in sixe from that 
which will pass a three-inch ring to that 
held on a one-inch ring. This should be 
thoroughly rolled so as not to ridge or 
shift under a fifteen ton roller. If neces- 
sary to bind the stone, a light coat of 
smaller sizes should be used. Smooth 
places caused by the concentration of fine 
stone and dust are not desirable. If sand, 
mud or clay works up through it should 
be cut out, replaced with stone and 
rolled until solid. When the rolling is 
finished the surface should have a uni- 
form grade, the thickness of the wearing 
coat below finished grade, over the entire 
surface. This point should be watched 
and a variation of one half inch should 
be the maximum. The spreader in 
chargQ of forming the surface should 
have two eyes and a Judgment and know 
how to use them. 

Upon this foundation is spread a light 
sprinkling of what is called Warren's No. 
1 Puritan Brand Semi-LIquld Bituminous 
Cement. Upon this is then uniformly 
spread a coating of No. 24 bituminous 
cement. To coat the stone entirely it 
requires about one gallon per sq. yd., 
which amount Is stipulated in the speci- 
fications. 

The wearing surface is ordinarily two 
inches thick after compression; it is com- 
posed of granite or hard field stone, vary- 
ing in size from 1% inches to an impalpa- 
ble powder, with stone dust or hydraulic 



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hauled to the street. When this Is shov- 
eled from the platform, upon which it Is 
dumped, and spread upon the street, it 
should not be thrown, but deposited 
where wanted as concrete. Much de- 
pends upon the rakers who spread the 
material after it Is deposited in place by 
the shovelers. to keep uniformity in the 
mixture and to get a uniform surface by 
filling up irregularities left in the founda- 
tion or caused by subseouent settlement 
In rolling the surface. The rolling 
should follow closely upon the spreading 
of the material. 

Upon this wearing surface is then 
spread a thin flush coat of bituminous 
:iement, Just sufficient and no more, to 
All all honey comb which may exist. The 
amount required varies with the irregu- 
larities of the surface and the amount of 
the rolling it gets before cooling. Too 
much, especially in cold weather, is 
worse than not enough. Over this is 
spread a light coat of stone chips of a 
size depending upon the roughness of 
surface desired, and rolled in. These 
successive layers should follow sufficient- 
ly close upon each other to allow the sur- 
face to receive Its full amount of roll- 
ing before it becomes cold. This 
time will vary greatly depen'Jlng 
upon the conditions of the weath- 
er. Much depends upon the roll- 
ing to make the surface dense by 
wedging the stone together and by forc- 
ing out air bubbles. The first rolling or 
the wearing surface should be length- 
wise of the street, but it should be gone 
over diagonally before the rolling is fin- 
ished. The weight of the roller should 
not be less than fifteen tons, with a 20-In, 
rear wheel.which gives a compression ot 
460 lbs. per in. width of wheel. Loads oi 
1.000 lbs. are frequent and they sometimes 
run up to twice that amount. 

All the bituminous material from the 
first that Is applied to the last sprink- 
ling of stone chips should be heated, and 
all, except the No. 1 bituminous composi- 
tion, should be applied to the street at 
between 200 degrees and 250 degrees F., 
but none, not even the stone chips, should 
be heated over 275 degrees F. 

Each layer should be kept free from 
dirt and moisture. It is best to suspena 
work during wet weather, and to stop 
work when the thermometer reaches 25 
or 30 degrees F. 

Difficulties encountered in the founda- 
tion work are those common to macadam 
pavements. Sand and mud must not be 
permitted to fill the voids in the founda- 
tion stone. The only real difficulty that 1 



experienced, and I find the same difficulty 
with others, was in getting a uniform 
surface. If the crown is low (less than 
5 inches for a 30 foot street or 6 inches 
for a 40 foot street) or the grades are 
flat (less than 0.33 per cent.) great care 
must be taken to avoid small pools of 
water and to make the gutters drain. 
Under the repeated rolling, slight set- 
tlements may take place. An appar- 
ently solid subgrade may get wet and 
"churn up and make the surface spongy 
and uneven, which may necessitate cut- 
ting out the pavement or burning down 
and building up the surface. Slightly 
spongy spots tighten up after a few 
days and appear to be satisfactory. Small 
depressions should be kept less than % 
of an Inch under a four-foot straight 
edge and long swells, aside from the 
gutters, within % of an Inch from estab- 
lished grade. 

Stone for the base Is selected on the 
same principle as for macadam. It should 
be sound, hard stone, not friable under 
the roller. The scare, which some would- 
he wise heads sometimes succeed in cre- 
ating about limestone dlsintegraUng In 
the foundation Is entirely unfounded. The 
effect of frost upon a porous stone In tho 
foundation would be extremely small, as 
there is ample room for drainage and ex- 
pansion. Of course, it is better to hiwe 
a hard stone, so it will last for severs? 
resurfacings. 

The wearing surface must have three 
chief properties, which have long been 
recognized as essential to a good road 
material. They are hardness, or "the re- 
sistance which a material ofters to the 
displacement of its particles by friction"; 
toughness, or "the power possessed by a 
material to resist fracture under im- 
pact," and cementing or binding power. 
The latter property is furnished by the 
bitumen, therefore a harder and tougher 
stone, not suited to a macadam pave- 
ment, can be used. A hard, tough gran- 
ite or field stone fulfilling the above con- 
ditions Is ess«-ntial— limestones are not 
suitable. 

The Bituminous Cemep* used must fur- 
nirh tWs cementing oi binding yower. 
According to the specifications furnished 
by the patentee of tMs pavement, the 
bitumen or pitch sha*l be free from 
water, petro'eum oil, naphthalene, and 
other crystalline matter, susceptible to 
atmospheric influences. 

As this pitch is surrounded with so 
much mystery, and is the chief point of 
attack, an attempt was made to get 
some definite information upon the sub- 
ject. Expert chemists were unwilling to 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



commit themaelves, and any general in- 
formaUon was hard to find. It Is. how- 
ever, manufactured from coal tar by a 
process of dinillatlon, unknown to the 
public. (The paper gave a rather lengrthy 
technical discussion of coa) tar and Its 
manufacture.) 

A coal tar pitch, in its normal con- 
ditions \3 a bright, black, lustrous sub- 
stantce, sometimes with a grayish tint, 
and breaking with a conchoidal fracture. 
Some English requirements of the pitch 
of commerce are. that the sample must 
"twlH fairly after ^n Immersion for two 
minutes in water at 140 degrees P., but 
not under 120 degrees." and must con- 
tain at least 53 per cent, of "volatile or- 
ganic matter." 

Mr. A. W. Dow of Washington, whj is 
undoubtedly the best authority In the 
United Statei?, recommends the following 
tests: 

The ductility and fluidity are detex- 
mined by ascertaining the distance at 
which a piece of the cement may be 
drawn out before breaking, at tempera- 
tures of 20 degrees and 70 degrees P. 
The one that is the man ductile is the 
most perfect fluid and Is therefore the 
best. 

The rate of softening is determined by 
finding its consistency at 32, 77, 100 and 
115 degrees F. 

Tht heat effect, in the manufacture of 
the pavement. Is determined by taking 
a sample cf known consistency at 77 de- 
grees P., and raising it to 300 degree3 P. 
for eight hours, then finding the con- 
sistency at 77 degrees P. 

Aging is brought about in two ways, 
that is, by surface hardening and body 
hardening. The first is due to the oxida- 
tion and volatilization of light oils. The 
second is apparently due to condemnation 
of molecules. The aging is determined 
by taking a shmple, exposing It to air 
away from dust and finding Its consist- 
ency at 77 degrees P. at different periods, 
until the sample appears to have har- 
dened, then a long slanting cut is made 
through the sample, and penetration Is 



ency is determined by the penetration of 
a certain sized wire under a definite load. 

As cements are not of the same de- 
gree of purity, it is necessary for compari- 
son to make these tests on a basis of the 
puve bitumen. After a relation between 
these physical tests and the bitumen has 
been established, tests can be made on a 
new cement and an allowance made for 
impurities. Chemical tests are. there- 
fore, necessary for this comparison and 
also because upon the amount of bitumen 
depends the cementing power of the mix- 
ture. 

The foundation of this pavement is 
patterned after that of the old tar maca- 
dam pavements, which proved to be so 
very durable. Some recommend a con- 
crete base, with the surface laid directly 
upon it, f.nd others a concrete base with 
three or four inches of stone upon the 
concrete. The first does not obviate 
any of the difllcultles of the sheet 
asphalt, and the latter would appear un- 
necessarily expensive, I am of the opin- 
ion that a broken stone base, thorougnly 
rolled and compacted is the best. It 
gives ample drainage, and more body to 
the pavement, as the wearing surface 
and base are monolithic. It will not be 
so easily resurfaced, but this is not of 
great importance. I think the claim 
made by some of the promoteis, that itie 
stone are rolled with a heavy roller, while 
the concrete is only tamped in place; 
and therefore, the stone is better, is not 
a good one. The stone base makes the 
pavement more elastic in its application. 
For in many places, where stone are 
dear, other material could be used, and in 
other places where travel is light and 
there is a well-compacted gravel road- 
way, a base of three inches of stone 
would appear sufficient. Thus by pay- 
ing more attention to the subgrade the 
base could be made to suit local condi- 
tions. When the surface becomes worn. 
care should be taken to prevent water 
soaking through to the foundation. If 
there Is not adequate supervision of the 
backfilling of the trenches cut through 



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trated loads will not shear or shift the 
material. 

2. It must have cohesion, so as not to 
■easily grind up or wear out under travel 

3. It must be elastic to allow for ex- 
pansion anS contraction. 

4. It must have a sufficient range of 
flexibility, so as not to become sticky or 
shift in summer or to crumble and crack 
In winter. 

5. It must be impervious to water. 

6. It must not disintegrate under 
water. 

7. And it must contain the foregoing 
properties sufficiently long to allow a 
nearly even and uniform wear of the 
pavement. 

The question whether asphalt or coal 
tar pitch would best fulfill these re- 
<iuirement8 Is a question for the special- 
ist. The fact that the patent under 
which the bitulithic pavement is laid, 
permits the use of "coal tar. coal tar 
pitch, asphalt, or a mixture of them or 
other equivalent bituminous material.' 
together with the fact that asphalt is 
cheaper than the pitch, would Indicate 
that the manufacturers of the pavement 
liave more confidence in the coal tar dis- 
tillate. 

Municipal Engineering assigns values to 
the bitulithic pavement as follows: 

Ideal. Bitulithic. Asphalt. Brick. 
Tillson's 

table ...100 82 76 67 

leaker's 

table ...100 88 77 70 

These values could be altered slightly 
perhaps, but in general, as far as I am 
sible to determine, they appear correct. 
Xt is of course understood that these ra- 
tios are not absolute, but that they must 
"vary to suit local coiMitions, and these 
local conditions should be studied with 
the knowledge of the advantages pos- 
sessed by various paving material to suit 
different conditions. 

The at^ve requirements from one to six 
Inclusive, have already received a thor- 
ough test In actual practice. More time 
is yet required to demonstrate the sev- 
enth condition. The sixth, an important 
factor, is fully secured in the coal t ir 
pitch; as it appears to be a well-known 
fact of chemistry that *'it is wholly in- 
soluble in water." And because it has 
this property it ^111 be less pervious to 
water. But the lower temperatures or 
manufacture of the* bitumen w(» il 1 v 
haps give It more volatile matter and 
thus counteract the above effect. 

The claim that the gradation In the 
sizes of stone gives the metal aggregat^^ 
Inherent stability, and thus permits thf 



use of a softer and therefore more dura- 
ble bitumen, ia unquestionably a good 
one. The softer bitumen would give great- 
er adhesion, cohesion, elasticity and 
range of flexibility than a hard one. This 
gradation in the stone> reducing the voids 
to 10 or 12 per cent., gives much less area 
of stone to be coated, therefore less of, 
the surface of cement exposed, than with 
the sand mixture. And If the same 
amount of pitch were used, which I see 
no reason for doing, the film of pitch 
would be much thicker around the stone 
and therefore better. It appears to be 
true of asphalt pavements that those 
with well graded sand are more durable. 
And also that the softer the bitumen 
used the better the pavement. 

If any city wishes to do its own work 
arrangements can be made with the Bi- 
tulithic Paving Company to furnish the 
patent pitch at a cost of $1 per square 
yard. This includes the expert advice 
necessary In its use and in proportioning 
the mixtures. The cost of dolhg the 
work would depend upon a great m.an 
things, such as: The proximity of suit- 
able stone, in mass or crushed; the 
amount of work to be done, and local la- 
bor facilities. The class of labor re- 
quired Is higher than that required for 
macadam pavements. The cost of labor 
per sq. yd. on the street and at the plant, 
for mixing surface material, exclusive of 
hauling and excavating, is about 12 or 
13 cents. Thus if the stone costs 38 cents 
per sq. yd. on the street for an eight-Inch 
pavement, the total cost exclusive of 
plant and tools would be about 50 cents 
per sq. yd. This does not take into ac- 
count delays from bad weather or brtnik- 
downs or cost and deterioration of tools 
and plant. 

In conclusion I wish to say that I be- 
gan my correspondence with different 
cities, with the expectation of finding 
some dissatisfaction with the pavement; 
but there appears to be general, and in 
many cases enthusiastic, approval. Con 
servatism Is a commendable attribute, 
but when a method of construction re- 
ceives such universal approval from prac- 
tice and profession alike, conservatism 
must give way to commendation. 

New Gravel Road for Clinton County, 
Indiana. 

A number of farmers of Clinton County. 
Infllana. who recently petitioned lor n« w 
gravel roads, appeared berore the Board 
of County Cc^missloners Jan. 4 at 
Frankfort and asked for permission to 



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MUNICIPAL ENQINEERINQ. 



withdraw their names, claiming that the 
expense would be too heavy and that 
their taxes would be increased more than 
they had counted upon. The board of 
commissioners ruled, however, that the 
matter had gone too far to be stopped 
now and the roads will be constructed. 



Pittsburg Not Liable to Contractor for 
Delays. 
An opinion handed down by Judge R. S. 
Frazer at Pittsburg, Pa., Jan. 18, holding 
that the city of Pittsburg is not liable to 
Wemeberg, Sheehan & Co. in the sum of 
1134,727.64 on the Grant boulevard con- 
tract. The above firm brought suit 
against the city for 1384.944.07 on the con- 
tract for the paving of the street, claim- 
ing the amount to be on the final estimate 
and for extras ordered. Most of the 
items were based upon an alleged failure 
of Director E. M. Bigelow of the depart- 
ment of public works to procure the nec- 
essary rights of way for the boulevard, 
thereby preventing the contractors from 
completing their work \p. the time speci- 
fied by the contract. The lower court 
rendered a verdict for the plaintiffs in 
the sum of 1134.727.64 with a question of 
law reserved as to the right of the con- 
tractors to recover anything. Judge 
Frazer' s decision was rendered on a mo- 
tion for a new trial by the plaintiff and 
a motion by the city for judgment In its 
favor, notwithstanding the verdict. 



New York Paving Injunction Granted. 

The appellate division of the New York 
Supreme Court handed down a decision 
January 22 reversing an order of the 
special term denying a motion for a tem- 
porary injunction asked for by the Bar- 
ber Asphalt Paving Company against 
William R. Wilcox, John E. Eustis, and 
Richard Young, as commissioners of 
parks. The proceeding was a taxpayers' 
action to enjoin an alleged illegal award 
of a contract for furnishing and setting 
new curbstones and paving with War- 
ren Brothers' bitulithic pavement. The 
commissioners advertised for bids and 



with such deflniteness <ind precision as 
to prevent competition. The specifica- 
tions should be of a more general nature. 
In the present case the plaintiff alleges, 
and it Is not denied, that the defendants 
intended to accept the proposal for the 
patent pavement. The law does not for- 
bid the use of a patented pavement, but 
it does prohibit the award of a contract 
unless the proposals are invited under 
circumstances which afford a fair and 
reasonable opportunity for competitiO!i. 
The order is reversed, with HO costs and 
disbursements, and motion for injunctiuii 
granted, with |10 costs. 



Pennsylvania School Property Not As- 
sessable for Improvements. 

A. decision was rendered by Judge Kelly 
Jan. 19 in the suit of the City of Scran- 
ton, Pa., aganist the school district of 
that city. The city sought to ascertain 
whether or not it can collect sewer as- 
sessments from the school district for 
sewers constructed In front of the schools. 
The opinion, which is in favor of the de- 
fendant, Is as follows: 

The only question in this case is wheth- 
er the real estate of a school district used 
for school purposes is liable to assessfent 
for school purposes is liable to assessment 
front of it. This question has been so re- 
cently decided by the Supreme Court that 
a discussion of it would be idle. Mr. Jus- 
tice Mestrezat, In a very exhaustive opin- 
ion, in Pittsburg vs. Sub-District School, 
204 Pa., 635, has covered the whole ques- 
tion, and in that case the point is de- 
cided In favor of the school district. Aft- 
er a review of the authorities Mr. Justice 
Mestrezat says: "These authorities con- 
clusively show that statutes Imposing as- 
sessments for local Improvements are 
enacted In the exercise of the taxing pow- 
er of the legislature. They, therefore, 
notwithstanding the generality of the 
enumeration of the property affected, do 
not apply or relate to property held or 
used for public purposes by the state or 
any of Its political subdivisions. The rea- 
sons given for this rule given in the au- 



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WATER, LIGHT AND HEAT. 



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relieves the public from the necessity of 
contributing to the cost or expense of the 
improvement. If public property pur- 
chased by funds raised by taxation is 



subjected to assessment, it is the public 
paying the public, which clearly discloses 
the absurdity of the proposition." Fur- 
ther comment is unnecesary. 



WATER, LIGHT AND HEAT 



Steam Heating from Central Station— Regulations for Electric Wires- 
Toledo Water Consumption— Electrolysis in Richmond- 
Electric Shock from Fire Stream. 



ap- 
It is 
little 
indi- 



Steam Heating from a Central 8ta 

tion.' 

By F. B. Hofft. 

Heating from central station 
proaches very nearly the ideal, 
clean, even, pleasant and sanitary; 
if any more expensive than the 
vidual plant, and with none of its difficul- 
ties. It is undoubtedly the best known 
cure for the smoke nuisance outside of 
manufacturing districts. It has so many 
advantages and with practically no trou- 
ble or care to the consumer, that its suc- 
cess, when installed and operated prop- 
erly, has been instantaneous and com- 
plete. 

Central station heating is the result of 
the outcome of several conditions of 
prime causes; namely the demand of the 
public, following, particularly in this 
state, failure of the natural gas, the un- 
certainty of the coal supply, and the just 
complaint of the public against the smoke 
nuisance. Second, and probably the 
more important cause is the endeavor of 
the manager of the local electric light and 
power company to increase the earning 
power of his plant; to get some revenue 
out of what might be called waste energy, 
namely, exhaust steam. 

The time was when the manager was 
content, if hl^ cost per kw. per hour 
compared favorably with the average of 
his class. The price per ton of his coal, 
together with his revenue, and not the 
small percentage of heat units delivered 
at the switch board, was the criterion by 
which he Judged of his economical opera- 
tion. 

And even in this day of the high ef- 
ficiency engine, generators, boilers, stok- 
ers, etc., when we are approaching the 
limits of efficiency we are only turning 



into revenue earning energy about 7 per 
cent, of the coal shoveled on the grates 
To this 93 per cent, loss and how to de- 
crease it, or turn it into a source of rev- 
enue, have been given the best thought 
and endeavor of the up-to-date manager 
and engineer, and he has found In the 
heating plant a practical method of re- 
deeming a large portion of this waste. 

Central Station heating may be divided 
into two clasess— hot water and steam; 
steam may then be divided into two 
classes, first the ^raight heating plant, 
both high and low pressure; second the 
low pressure or exhaust steam plant. 
This latter class may again be divided 
into two classes, namely the return sys- 
tem, or where the condensation is re- 
turned to the power house, and the one- 
pipe system where the condensation, 
after being cooled, Is discharged into the 
sewer and is a loss. 

This paper will be confined to the latter 
class, and more particularly to the plant 
of the Merchants' Heat and Light Com- 
pany of Indianapolis, together, with its 
operation. 

A brief history of the plant would read 
as follows: Simultaneously with the fail- 
ure of natural gas, the uncertainty of 
the coal supply, together with smoke 
and the Inconvenience of the individual 
plant, and a demand for cheaper elec- 
tric light, a movement was set on foot 
by the Merchants' Association of Indian- 
apolis, looking to the overcoming of these 
and many other difficulties, and the log- 
ical solution was central station heat. 

Mr. W. H. Schott, who later designed 
and installed the plant, was called in, 
plans and estimates were furnished and 
active steps taken toward getting things 
started. A franchise, covering the busi- 
ness section of the city for steam heating 



•A paper read before the Indiana Engineering Society. 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



and electric light was secured on July 
29, 1902, and by the following January 
steam was being carried through a long 
system of mains and several buildings 
were being heated. Since then to the 
present day, or practically one year, the 
plant has given entire satisfaction, which 
is confirmed by the fact that about one 
hundred and twenty-flve of the largest 
business buildings, making a total of 
nearly 200,000 square feet of steam radia- 
tion, are being supplied by exhaust steam. 

The following short description of the 
plant will give a fair Idea of its make-up. 
The plant was designed to run condens- 
ing or straight electric during summer 
months, and with a back pressure of 
from one to seven pounds during the 
heating seaaon. The capacity of the pow- 
er house at present It but one-third of Its 
ultimate size. It Is equipped with seven 
250 hp. Wickes water tube boilers, with 
Roney stokers designed for the burning 
of slack coal. In the engrine room are 
three 500 hp. and one 350 hp. Ideal 
compound engines, designed to run con- 
densing on 18 pounds of steam per 'hp. 
per hour and 27 pounds of steam when 
running with a back pressure' of five 
pounds. The engines are directly con- 
nected with three 350 kw. and one 250 
kw. Western Electric direct current 
250 volt generators, two 1,000 ampere com- 
pensators, one 2,000 hp. Cochrane-Sorge 
heater and purifier and one 2000 hp. 
Worthlngton jet condenser and cooling 
tower complete. A twenty-inch Davis 
back pressure valve is Installed on the 
open air exhaust. There is also a ten- 
inch live steam line connected to the 
heating main through an automatic re- 
ducing valve to furnish live steam if 
there should be an insufficient exhaust 
to maintain the required heating pressjre. 

The system of street mains was laid 
out to supply 500,000 square feet of radia- 
tion with a power-house pressure of five 
pounds; and at present there are Installed 
16,885 feet of mains, varying in size from 
eight-Inch to twenty-inch pipe. The great- 
est distance this exhaust steam Is carried 
is 4,840 feet, and at this point there Is a 
building requiring 7,500 square feet of ra- 
diation. The most of the underground in- 
sulation was special design and built up 
of two-Inch hemlock lumber, set stag- 
gered, with two dead air cells between 
the layers of lumber, filled with a special 
hair felt. The space between the pipe 
and the Insulation Is filled with soft-wood 



placed about 160 feet apart In man-holes,- 
pipe resting on rollers, giving free travel; 
services are taken off from up-turned 
tees and given considerable swing to al- 
low slight travel of the. main. Service- 
connections are not made within thirty 
feet of an expan.5lon joint. Anchors are- 
placed about midway between expansion 
joints, thus giving a maximum travel of 
any service connection of about six- 
tenths of an Inch. Line condensation is 
collected at the low points and discharged 
through traps into dry-wells. 

Connection to the building Is made to a 
suitable point In the consumer's system. 
A trap Is set on the return and conden- 
sation sent through what Is called a 
cooling coll. which Is water radiation set 
to heat the basement, or boxed up and 
used as Indirect radiation on flr^t floor 
through a floor register. From the soiling 
cell or water radiation the water Is dis- 
charged Into the sewer at about IbO de- 
grees. In many instances this condensa- 
tion Is used to heat water for domestic 
purposes by means of a range boilei 

Probably the most Important feature of 
the entire system, from a satisfactory 
and economical operating standpoint, is- 
the automatic building temperature reg- 
ulation. Its value as a steam saver can 
be placed at 40 per cent., while Its value 
considering the even temperature, can 
hardly be estimated. Without tempera- 
ture regulation,, central station heating 
would not be the success It Is today. 
Regulation on this system Is obtained 
by means of thermostatic control of a 
regulating valve on the steam supply. 
This Is operated by compressed air from 
the power house of fifteen pounds press- 
ure. The valve is sneak feed and gives 
a regulation not varying over two de- 
grees. A small valved by-pass Is con- 
nected around the regulator and the 
valve slightly cracked. This keeps the 
main warm during such time as the 
regulator is entirely closed for a consid- 
erable period, and prevents the regulator 
opening into a cold main keeps the 
air out of the main and gives a more 
rapid circulation of steam. 

Let us now consider the operation of 
the plant under heating conditions. Since 
it is exhaust steam that is used we wll! 
consider the heating as a by-product of 
the electric light plant. To do this we 
must charge up to lighting only that por- 
tion of the operating expenses required 
under the best oneratlnsr conditions, 1. e.. 



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WATER, LIGHT AND HEAT. 



125^ 



costs of each, leavlngr out the factors 
that remain constant. 

Let us assume an electric load of 750 
kw. as average for twenty-four hours, 
and consider the plant first as a straight 
electric light plant. As above mentioned 
the engines are to be run on eighteen 
pounds of steam per hp. hour. This will 
make a total of 432,000 pounds of steam 
during the twenty-four hours. The 
running of the condenser pumps con- 
sumes say 40 hp. at eighty pounds of 
steam per hp. hour, making a total of 
67,200 pounds. The running of the cool- 
ing tower fan, say twenty hp. electric 
motor, would take in steam value about 
twenty-one pounds per hp. hour, a total 
of 10.080 pounds of steam. The boiler 
feed pumps will average about fifteen hp. 
at eighty pounds of steam per hp. hour, 
a total of 28,000 pounds. Thus we have 
an approximate value of steam con- 
sumption for twenty-four hours running 
as condensing plant, 638,080 pounds of 
steam. 

Now let us change the conditions to 
heating. The average outside temperature 
for the city of Indianapolis for the 
seven heating months is 29 degrees. With 
this outside temperature, and 200,000 
square feet of radiation connected, the 
power house pressure required will be 
three and one-half pounds. This would 
mean a back pressure on the engines of 
three and one-half pounds, and the steam 
consumption would increase from 
eighteen pounds to twenty-six pounds 
per hp, hour. Going back to our electric 
load of 750 kw. under these conditions we 
will have an engine consumption for the 
twenty-four hours of 624,000 pounds ^f 
steam. The boiler feed pumps will in- 
crease to say twenty hp. at eighty 
pounds, a total of 33.600. The deep well 
pump will Increase due to the loss of 
condensation, about five hp. This is 
driven by electric motor, and placing its 
steam value at twenty-one pounds per 
hp. hour it will require 2.520 pounds of 
steam. Adding this up we will get a total 
of 661.120 pounds of steam. This will, to- 
gether with its condensation, take care 
of 183.000 square feet of radiation. Since 
we are figuring on 200,000 square feet, 
there will be live steam required for 
17.000, or about 69,600 pounds of live steam. 
We thus, have a total steam consump- 
tion, when operating heating and light- 
ing, of 729,720 pounds of steam. 

There are other conditions entering, 
which must be balanced in heat units, for 
example, when operating under heating 
conditions the boiler feed must be heated 
from the well temperature to 210 de- 
grees. The raising in temperature of 



729,720 pounds of water from say 50 to 210 
degrees will requlie about 117,165,200 heat 
units. Now to balance this feed water 
heating charge, we will charge aganist 
the electric light plant the heat units re- 
quired to raise the water from a hot well 
temperature of 90 degrees to 210 degrees, 
This would be 538,000 pounds of water, 120 
degrees, or 64.569,600 B. T. U. or difference 
to be charged against the heating depart- 
ment of 62.585,600 B. T. U. Reducing this 
to steam at 150 pounds pressure, since no 
deduction was made from the steam 
available for heating, and charging it 
aganist the heating department we have 
40.000 pounds of steam. 

From the above figures we get, from the 
condition assumed, a total steam con- 
sumption, when running as a straight 
electric plant. 538,080 pounds of steam 
and a total consumption of steam when 
running as both electric and heating, of 
729,720, plus 40,000 equal to 769,720, or a 
difference in steam consumption of 271.640 
pounds of steam for the twenty-four 
hours. 

This 271,640 pounds of steam, which is 
about one third of the total steam con- 
sumption, together with the additional 
labor represents the cost of operatioii 
treating the heating as a by-product of 
the electric light plant. 



Construction and Maintenance of 
Electric Wires. 

The following regulations for the use 
and maintenance of electric wires were 
given in a paper by A. S. Hatch of the 
Detroit Electric Light Commission before 
the American Society of Municipal Im- 
provements: 

Wires are divided into two classes. 

1. Those for telegraph, telephone and 
signalling purposes. 

2. Those for electric light and power 
purposes. 

These are classified as overhead and 
underground. 

1. Two pole lines bearing the same 
class of wires shall not be erected In the 
same street, avenue or alley, nor shall 
two pole lines of either class be erected 
on the same side of any street, avenue or 
alley. Whenever possible, all pole lines 
shall be built in alleys. 

2. Poles shall be set near to and within 
the curb and not nearer than ten feet 
from any hydrant. They must be at 
least five feet in the ground for a thirty 
foot pole, and not less than one-seventh 
of their length for longer poles. Where 
pole lines intersect, there must be a 



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126 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



pole used In common, when so required, 
unless otherwise specified in the permit. 

3. All poles now standing, or hereafter 
erected, shall be branded or stamped with 
the name or initials of the company 
owning: them. Each grouji of cross arms, 
or where necessary the support of a 
single wire of different ownership must 
be distinguished by some characteristic 
mark or fastening, otherwise the owner 
of the pole will be held responsible. 

4. All poles erected in conspicious 
places must be of such weight and di- 
mensions and be painted such a color as 
may be approved by the Public X^lghting 
Commission. 

5. Each line of poles must run on one 
side of the street only unless special per- 
mission Is given to cross. 

6. Cross arms must be at least twenty- 
four inches apart, strengthened by braces 
and designated by some characteristic 
mark if belonging to a company other 
than the one owning the poles. In class 
1, pins must be at least twelve inches 
apart and inside pins twenty-eight inches; 
in class 2, inside pins thirty inches, all 
others fourteen Inches. Where wires un- 
der class 2 are taken from the main line 
at any angle, the outside pins must be 
steel or cored, or an Iron guard placed 
between the outside pin and the end of 
the arm. 

7. All wires must be fastened upon 
poles or other fixtures with glass, porce- 
lain or other Insulators approved by the 
commission, stretched properly and fas- 
tened with a tie of the same kind of 
wire or other fastening approved by the 
commission. Lines of wires at intersec- 
tions must not pass through each other, 
but must be either above or below, pre- 
ferably class 2 above that of class 1. 
Upon all poles the lowest point in the 
wires suspended from them shall nut be 
less than twenty-five feet from the 
ground. 

All wires which would naturally pass 
within four inches of any pole, building 
or other object must be attached to the 
same and Insulated therefrom. All wires 
strung on house tops must be at least 
seven feet from flat and one foot from 



proportion to the strain and not smaller 
than No. 8 Birmingham wire gauge and 
all angles must be guyed, tne guys insu- 
lated, and where there are more than 
four wires In the line, head guys must be 
used. 

10. Every line, pole or fixture must be 
kept in thorough order and repair, in con- 
formity with these rules and regulations 
in every case, where possible, under the 
general permit for repairs (rule 16), upon 
penalty of forfeiture of all permits not 
acted upon and a refusal to grant new 
permits until the rule is complied with, 
but no additional poles or wires can be 
erected under cover of repairs nor shall 
any route or location be changed without 
a permit. 

11. All wires or current carying conduc- 
tors, polos, guys or apparatus belonging 
to any person, firm or corporation that 
may be found dangerous to life or prop- 
erty or intruding on "the rights of citi- 
zens or other corporations must be rem- 
edied by the owners thereof when noti- 
fied. This applies to any damage to 
sewers, conduits, cables, gas or water- 
pipes by electrolysis or otherwise. 

12. All wires of class 2 must be se- 
cured to insulating fastenings and cov- 
ered with an insulation easily abraded 
and waterproof approved by the commis- 
sion. Whenever the insulation becomes 
impaired it must be renewed Immedi- 
ately. 

13. All connections with pole lines for 
service in either class must be made at 
right angles to the line wnere possible, 
and connections to buildings shall be run 
straight across to buildings, where pos- 
sible, and then down and the insulation 
must be preserved throughout the entire 
circuit. 

14. No electrical conductor shall be 
erected, maintained or placed overhead or 
underground without a permit in writing 
therefor being first obtained ffom the 
Public Lighting Commission, and before 
such permit Is issued the person, corpo- 
ration or company wishing to place or 
maintam said wires shall make applica- 
tion to said commission in writing stat- 
ing the size of said wire. :the purpose for 



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WATER, LIGHT AND HEAT. 



127 



ency repairs may be made without per- 
mit, but a report of such repairs Is to be 
forwarded within twenty-four (24) hours 
after the making: of the repairs and a 
regrular parmlt taken out at that time. 

16. Where notice has been given of un- 
der§rround accommodations and the no- 
tice of time required by law has elapsefd, 
companies owning or operating overhead 
lines are not authorized to make any re- 
pairs or connections, or to go upon the 
poles bearing such. wires for any purpose 
whatever except to remove said lines in 
conformity with the direction of said 
Commission. 

17. The amount of wire allowed for 
service connection from a pole to a build- 
ing Shan not exceed 130 feet between sup« 
ports, except by special permit. 

18. The person, firm or corporation 
owning or controlling poles In any street, 
alley or public place in the City of De- 
troit must allow the same to be used by 
other persons, firms or corporations oper- 
ating wires, cables or conductors for 
electrical service when authorized to do so 
by the Commission on tender of proper 
compensation to be determined by agrree- 
ment between the parties interested. If 
the present capacity Is not sufficient for 
both lines and unless otherwise agreed 
upon between them the party desiring ac- 
commodation may rebuild the line of 
poles and rent contracts to the owners of 
the previously existing lines at terms to 
be agreed upon between the parties, tn 
default of any agreement between the 
parties interested, the matter may be re- 
ferred to the Public Lighting Commission 
for arbitration and their decision is to 
be final. 

19. Any person, firm or corporation in 
accepting any permit from the Public 
Lighting Commission hereby binds him- 
self or themselves to the acceptance of 
any provisions specified in any rule es- 
tablished or to be established by the 
Commission, unless It Is specifically ex- 
cepted in the permit The Public Light- 
ing Commission reserves the right to al- 
ter or add to these rules as they may de- 
sire at any time. 

20. It shall be the duty of the Public 
Lightmg Commission to turn all money 
received under this ordinance Into the 
Public Lighting fund of the City of De- 
troit, 

21. No person, firm or corporation shall 
train wires, erect poles, build conduits. 
manholes, hand-holes or make any alter- 
ations whatever in electric line equip- 
ment without first notifying this Commis- 



sion in writing giving a description with 
diagram of the proposed work, allowing 
ample opportunity for Inspection, and re* 
ceiving from said Commission a written 
permit to do the work described. All 
such work, equipment, alteration or ad- 
dition shall be done under the supervision 
of and subject to the inspection of said 
Commission upon finding the work to be 
done according to such rules and reg- 
ulations, the Commission shall certify 
and place the record thereof on its bock«. 
maps, cards or diagrams; but no such 
equipment shall be used by anyone until 
such certificate shall have been given by 
said Commission in conformity therewith. 

22. Any firm or corporation who shall 
make contact to poles or other property 
of the Public Lighting Commission. Police 
or Fire Commissions without having ob- 
tained a permit for the same from tho 
Public Lighting Commission shkll pay 
a fine of three dollars for each such un- 
authorized contact and no further ppr. 
mits shall be granted to said person, firm 
or corporation until the aforesaid fine or 
fines are paid. 

23. Owners of lines of poles or of 
buildings shall remove therefrom all 
dead wire or wires fastened thereto In 
violation of these rules, when notified to 
do so by the Public Lighting Commission 
within a reasonable time to be «*xprt8sed 
in the notice; on failure to do so the Pub- 
lic Lighting Commission will nroceed to 
remove tha same. 

Many details can be added to ineso 
rules, if necessary to fit local conji lon^. 



Consumption of Water in Toledo. O 

The annual report of E. D. Locke, chief 
engineer of water works at Toledo, O., 
shows that from April 1 to Dec. 31, 1903. 
2,715,167.000 gallons of water was pumped, 
making an average of 9.873,335 gallons per 
day. During 1902 the pumpage for the 
same period was 2,493.707,710 gallons, an 
average of 10,068.829 gallons per day. The 
pumpage during the last nine months 
shows an Increase therefore of 804,506 
gallons per day. 



Electrolysis In Richmond, Va. 

The city water committee of Richmond, 
Va.. has decided that the Passenger and 
Power Company must pay the city dam- 
ages for injury to the city pipes by elec- 
trolysis before the city passes upon and 
approves a system that will be non-de- 
structive. The company had Its tracks 
bonded, but It is now feared that It will 
be compelled to install either a double 



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128 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



wire or an underground system, which 
would cost In either case 1250.000 to 
$300,000. 



Electric Shock from A Fire Stream. 

In a communication from L. W. Mat- 
thewson C. E., of Cincinnati, in which he 
refers to the article that appeared on page 
54 of the January number of Municipal 
Engineering, entitled "Electric Shocks 
from Fire Streams," he sends a brief de- 
scription of a fire that occurred at a dis- 
tillery in that city Jan. 19. The water 



tower was run up to a position of ad- 
vantage and the water turned on the 
flames, when suddenly a sheet of white 
flame shot out and spread itself from the 
edge of the pavement to the building and 
the tower. Capt. Charles Burk, who was 
working the nozzle, was hurled from his 
elevated position horizontally into the air 
and fell to the street. As the stream 
from the water tower nozzle shot out <t 
crosed with all Its force the electrically 
charged wires that interlaced the eleva- 
tion In front of the burning building and 
produced the electrical phenomena ob- 
served. 



CEMENT AND LIME 



Cement Statistics— Cement and Lime Mortar— Cement at 
St. Louis Exposition. 



Cement Statistics. 

The report of the United States Geolog- 
ical Survey on the production of cement 
in the United States In 1902 was Issued 
early in January. For 1901 and 1902 the 
totals are as follows, the exports being 
taken from Treasury Department re- 
ports: 

1901. 1902. 

Natural cement, brls.. 7,084.823 8,044,305 
Portland cement, brls.. 12,711,225 17.230,644 

Puzzolan, brls 272,689 478,555 

Total domestic prod'n.. 20,068,737 25,753,504 

Imports, bris.., 939,330 1,961,013 

Exports and re-exports 419,819 375,130 
Total net domestic con- 

sumpUon 20,588,248 27,339.387 

The increases in items and the per- 
centages of increase as derived from this 
table are as follows: 

Per 

Barrels. Cent. 

Increase in natural cement 959,482 13.5 

Portland cement 4.519,419 35.6 

Puzzolan 205,866 75.5 

Domestic production 5,684.767 28.3 



The effect of the labor troubles is con- 
sidered in the editorial department. 

The true state of the case is still more 
clearly indicated if the Imports for the 
year ending June, 1903, are taken for 
comparison. The grreat increase in Im- 
ports began in July and August, 1902, ana 
continued for a little more than a year. 
The Treasury Department's fiscal year 
nearly covers this period and shows an 
Importation of over 2,770,000 barrels ot 
cement, or 50 per cent, more than is 
shown in the calendar year 1902. The 
overstocking due to the labor troubles 
then shut off importations which have 
again been small since the autumn of 
1903. However, the imports for the year 
ending with November, 1903, were over 
2.400.000 barrels. 

The Increase In production of Portland 
cement was distributed as follows New 
York. 540,000 barrels; Pennsylvania, 2.200,- 
000 barrels; Michigan, 500,000 barrels; 
other sections to make up the balance. 



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CEMENT AND LIME. 



glnla (including Alabama and Georgia), 
each over 300,000; California (includUig 
Utah) and Illinois, from 150.000 to 250.000 
each; while Colorado, Ohio and Texas 
show losses, the former of 500,000 and the 
others 125,000 and 30,000, respectively. 

An interesting section of the report Is 
the review of the industry in each state. 
Those wishing greater detail can And it 
in the study of the descriptions of ce- 
ment plants in the "Directory of Ameri- 
can Cement Industries." third edition, 
shortly to be Issued. 



— ♦- 



Tests of Cement and Lime Mortar. 

In Municipal Engineering, vol. xxlv. p. 
217, were published Pome tests of mor- 
tar made of limold and Nazareth Port- 
land cement, showing the results at 7 
and 28 days and 3 months age on bri- 
quettes. We now have results for a full 
year, and for purposes of comparison the 
averages of all the results are given. 
Full details of the tests will be found in 
the article above referred to. 

1 year 265 220 284 266 210 

254 243 800 290 240 
250 224 288 282 230 
222 236 276 270 222 
232 220 294 298 216 



Average .... 245 



288 281 224 



Averages of tests of mortar of limold 
and Nazareth Portland cement 

Seven Days— liy4 limold. 1 part Nazareth, 
SI pounds,- 1*4 limold, 1 part Nazareth, 101 
pounds; % limoid, 1 part Nazareth. 119 
pounds; ^ limold, 1 part Nazareth, 129 
pounds; 1 part limold, 1 part Nazareth 
(special), 137 pounds. 

Twenty-eight Days— 1% limoid, 1 part 
Nazareth. 134 pounds; 1^ limold. 1 part 
Nazareth. 144 pounds; % limold, 1 part 
Naeareth. 173 pounds; % limoid. 1 part 
Nazareth, 179 pounds; 1 part limoid, 1 
part Nazareth (special), 169 pounds. 

Eighty-eight Days— 1% limold, 1 part 
Nazareth, 148 pounds; 1%, limoid, 1 part 
Nazareth, 154 pounds; % limoid. 1 part 
Nazareth, 217 pounds; % limoid, 1 part 
Nazareth, 181 pounds; 1 part limold, 1 
part Nazareth (special), 1*^4 pounds. 

One Year— 1% limold, 1 part Nazareth, 
246 pounds; VA limold, 1 part Nazareth, m 



Portland Cement Manufacturers Build- 
ing at Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition. 

The Association of Portland Cement 
Manufacturers of the United States is 
erecting a building on the grounds of the 
Louisiana Purchase Fair to Illustrate the 
possibilities of cement and concrete con- 
struction. In addition to an exhibit ha'l 
and testing laboratory, a hall has been 
set apart as a meeting place for en- 
gineers visiting ihe fair who are Inter- 
ested in cement construction. In this 
room general cement literature will be 
kept on file. 



investigation of Stream Pollution by 
Wood Pulp Mills. 

An investigation of the waters of Lake 
Champlain and of the rivers emptying 
into it has been commenced by Col. Wil- 
liam S. Stanton, of the United States 
Corps of Engineers, who Is acting under 
orders from Secretary Root. M. O. 
Leighton. chief of the Division of Hydro- 
economics of the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey, of the Department of the Interior, 
has asked for funds to build a laboratory 
on the lake so that the matter of its 
pollution by pulp mills may be thorough- 
ly investigated. Maj. C. L. Woodbury 
and assistants under orders from Col. 
Stanton, have taken up quarters on the 
lake and have begun chemical tests. 
Visits to the Au Sable and Boquet rivers 
and Tlconderoga Creek, on which the 
pulp mills are located, have developed 
amazing results caused by the refuse 
from the mills. 



A City Beautiful. 

The plan which the American Institute 
for Social Service was invited to submit 
for the carrying out of the CarnegJe- 
Dumferllne trust, has been made public. 
It provides for a regional museum, a dis- 
trict for a city beautiful, a social center, 
a department of civics, boys' and grirls* 
flower gardens, children's playgrounds 
and out-door gymnastics, holiday tours 
and historic pilgrimages, get-together 
ciubs, and a system of awards and pnzo.^ 
The general outline of a city beiutlful 



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MUNICIPAL LITERATURE 



Grand Rapids Annual Report. 

Thirtieth annual report of the Board of 
Public Works of Grand Rapids, Mich., 
for the year ending April 30. 1903. W. 
Millard Palmer, mayor; Joseph Emmer, 
president; L. W. Anderson, city engr. 
Like too many city reports, this one ap- 
pears a long time after its date. The re- 
port is apparently transmitted to the 
Council May 1, 1903, and it would seem 
possible to print the seventy pages 
which it contains in less than eight 
months. 

The board manages the water and light 
plants and constructs the street and 
sewer improvements. 

The total receipts of the water works 
were $135,540. including $20,180 from the 
city funds. The disbursements were 
$132,272, maintenance and operatfon tak- 
ing $55,694, construction $37,219. and inter- 
est $39,206. The average amount of wa*"- 
pumped was 12,216,000 gallons # day. The 
number of hydrants In use is 1,371, mak- 
ing the cost to the city, based on the ap- 
propriation to the works for general pur- 
poses, only $13 each per year, certainly 
a reasonable amount. 

The city lighting plant now operates 599 
lamps. The cost of operating would have 



been about $1.25 a lamp a year less, ex- 
cept for the high price of coal, which In- 
creased the cost $3.65 over the year be- 
fore. Operation of the plant cost $24,958.20, 
which is $43.40 per lamp per year. In- 
terest and repairs to towers increase the 
cost to $31,290, or $54.40 per lamp per 
year. Adding $10,000 for depreciation (5 
per cent, on $200,000) makes the cost 
$71.80 per lamp per year. The fhterest is 
computed only on the $125,000 of indebted- 
ness and the "lost taxes" are not consid- 
ered. 

During the year about three-flfths of a 
mile of asphalt was laid at a cost of 
about 135,000; about three-fourths of a 
mile of brick, costing nearly $32,000; 634 
feet of Portland cement concrete street, 
eighteen feet wide, at a cost of $2,000. The 
former concrete streets are reported in 
good condition except that the joints are 
a weak spot and should be reduced to a 
minimum. About 4.58 miles of S to 24- 
Inch pipe sewers were constructed at a 
cost of $29,976. The total payments* dur- 
ing the year for public improvements, 
some having been completed the previous 
year, was $196,579, including streets, sew- 
ers, bridge repairs, new bridges, water 
mains and a Are department house. 



OR^OANIZATIONi 
AND INDIVIDUAL! 



Ohio and Indiana Engineering Societies— New England Water. Works 
Association— American Society of Civil Engineers- 
Technical Meetings— Personal Notes. 



Ohio Engineering Society. 

The twenty-fifth annual meeting of the 
Ohio Society of Surveyors and Clivl En- 
gineers was held in Columbus, Jan. 12 to 
14. Owing to the death of the Secretary, 
Mr. B. H. Flynn, the affairs of the so- 
ciety were In a somewhat unsatisfactory 
condition and no program had been pre- 
pared. The meeting, therefore, assuming 
the nature of an informal discussion of 
the needs of the society and of the pro- 



fession throughout the state. Mr. J. H. 
Turner presented a paper on the "County 
Surveyor/' Mr. B A. Kemmler read a 
short paper on "The Welfare of the So- 
ciety." The society was entertained by 
the Columbus Engineers' Club and an 
interesting description of the water puri- 
fication plant of the East Jersey "Water 
company, illustrated with stereopticon 
views, was given by Mr. R. H.. Gregory. 
Fourteen new members were admittea 



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ORGANIZATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS. 



131 



and the following officers elected for the 
coming year: 

President, J. W. Payne, Akron, O.; vice- 
president, J. H. Turner, Jackson. O.; sec- 
retary and treasurer, E. G. Bradbury, 
Columbus, O. ; trustees, J. H. Asher, Lon- 
don. O.; A. F. Cole. Marietta, O.; H. J. 
Walker, Troy, O.; J. M. Harper, Cincin- 
nati, O., and P. R. Murray, New Phila- 
delphia, O. 

A committee was appointed to confer 
with members of the State Legislature In 
regard to the present unsatisfactory 
statutory provisions. The question of a 
tri-state meeting with the societies of 
Michigan and Indiana was considered, 
and the president and secretary were in- 
structed to correspond with these organi- 
zations in regard to the same. 



Indiana Engineering Society. 

The twenty-fourth annual convention of 
the Indiana Engineering Society was held 
at Indianapolis Jan. 14. 15 and 16. The 
advisability of the Indiana Society join- 
ing the National Association was dis- 
cussed and It was decided not to do so 
this year. R. L. Sackett of Richmond de- 
livered the annual address, which was on 
the "Evolution of Engineering." He said 
that while the constructing engineer has 
always been a factor In the progress of 
the race, he is, In his present character, 
a recent product of conditions. In the be- 
ginning he was but a hewer of wood and 
a drawer of water; now he does these 
same things, but on a gigantic scale. 
High ability to design seems only limited 
by the capital of the financier. He is now 
the servant of humanity, providing rapid 
and safe transportation and building 
great bridges which have been important 
factors In the unification of our country. 
Not one of the superb structures which 
now span the Ohio and Mississippi existed 
at the opening of the civil war. In refer- 
ring to sanitary engineering he said that 
it was saving thousands from the ravages 
of disease, and that the purification of 
water and sewage are prolonging the life 
and promoting the happiness of the 
people. 

Prof. William D. Pence presented a 
paper on "The Relation of the Railway 
Profile to Locomotive Power," in which 
he said: 

The difference between the operating 
profile and the actual profile is very com- 
monly ignored by railway civil engineers. 
This is in part due to the fact that the 
civil engineer is frequently unfamiliar 



with the fundamentals connected with 
the operation of locomotives and trains 
over the line which he locates and builds, 
and perhaps maintains, and which he is 
called upon to revise and Improve. The 
trouble Is that the civil engineer has often 
been so occupied with the construction or 
'pick and shovel" part of the problem, 
that the operation or "locomotive" part 
of it receives little attention. In other 
words, the "haul" that he has in mind In 
locating and building the line is that of 
earthwork yardage from cut to fill, rather 
than that of trains over the finished 
line. But the civil engineer who locates 
and builds the road and improves Its 
grades should have more than a mere 
superficial knowledge as to the operating 
ability of the locomotives which are to 
haul trains over the line. The entire 
practicability, as well as the business 
sense, in natural co-operation of this sort 
is fully evidenced by the splendid econo- 
mies accomplished on some roads under 
such a system. 

The term "operating profile" may refer 
to either freight or passenger service. 
Generally, however, the ruling or critical 
conditions, are imposed by freight service, 
and it is customary to discuss the pro- 
file first on that basis; afterward test- 
ing doubtful portlors, perhaps, with ref- 
erence to passsenffer train conditions. 
Two general steps are Involved: 1. The 
determination of the tonnage of the train 
which the given locomotive can steadily 
pull up an assumed or prescribed maxi- 
mum grade of Indefinite length, fit a 
maximum speed of say seven or ten milQS 
an hour, which speed Is intended to glvo 
a slight margin above the stalling condi- 
tions. 2. To test the operation of this 
train under all conditions of service, 
from starting at stations or elsewhere, to 
the maximum speeds in sags and on large 
grades. 

The report of the committee on stream 
pollution was submitted by A. J. Ham- 
mond, in which the statement was made 
that farmers had won suits where 
refuse has rendered water unfit for ani- 
mals to drink. This tends to keep the 
subject alive and to force the govern- 
ment and the factory owners to realize 
that the problem of abating the nui- 
sance must be met. Special studies will 
be made at Lafayette of the water from 
Wabash River before and after the start- 
ing of a strawboard factory, and studies 
will also be made as to the effects of sew- 
age pollution. 

A paper was then read from M. O. 



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132 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



Leighton of the United States Geological 
Survey on "Stream Pollution in Indi- 
ana, with Special Reference to the Puri- 
fication of Strawboard Refuse," in which 
he favors a policy of persuasion and edu- 
cation of the strawboard Interests, and 
claimed that the practical results of this 
policy during the last year have been far 
greater than the results obtained by years 
of hostile litigation. 

The discussion of the report and paper 
was opened by Prof. Hoffman, who re- 
called the case at Anderson, where the 
river is polluted by strawboard refuse, 
slaughter-house refuse and the waste 
acids from the tin-plate and rod mills. 
Comparatively little importance is at- 
tached to these acids, however. Dr. J. N. 
Hurty, secretary of the State Board of 
Health, spoke and while he scored the 
strawboard interests for * polluting th<» 
streams, he cited other serious offend- 
ers. He stated that the city of Indianap- 
olis is the worst of these, and the condi- 
tion ot the river at this city is inde- 
scribably foul, as well as very danger- 
ous. The river has a series of pools and 
shcals, or "ripples," and these holes con- 
tain thick beds of sewage, being, in fact, 
a series of septic tanks, with the result 
that in many places fish cannot live in 
the water. Dr. Hurty favors government 
action to compel the establishment of im- 
proved methods, as he did not think the 
city would ever undertake any improve- 
ment without such outside pressure. The 
farmers are also largely responsible for 
pollution, and particularly for the spread 
of hog cholera. 

The number of members of the society 
is now 111. The next meeting will be held 
in Indianapolis, Jan. 12. 13 and 14. Offi- 
cers were elected as follows: President, 
R. Li. Sackett. Richmond; vice-president, 
J. B. Nelson, Indianapolis; trustees, R. P. 
Woods and J. W. Ful wider; secretary, C. 
C. Brown. 



New England Water Works Associa- 
tion. 

The annual meeting of the New Eng- 
land Water Works Association was held 
in Boston, Jan. 13. The annual report 
of Secretary Willard Kent showed that 
the membership is now 528, three hono- 
rary members and flfty-flve associates, 
making a total of 686. This is one less 
than the association had one year ago. 
Officers were filpntpd ns followH* PrAsi- 



agent, R. J. Thomas. Among the papers 
submitted was one by W. C. Hawley on 
"Some Notes on the Cost of Waterproof- 
ing Concrete Lining of Reservoirs," in 
which he referred to the recent use by the 
United States government of two coats 
of linseed oil applied to the concrete sur- 
face as an expensive process, still in an 
experimental stage as to permanency of 
results. He then took the Sylvester 
process and modifications thereof. In this 
process a wash of soap is followed, after 
an Interval, with a wash of alum In solu- 
tion. Under the direction of Edward 
Cunningham, assistant engrineer, the 
Apollo Water Works Company recently 
plastered a leaky clear-water well with 
a cement mortar containing soap and 
alum with good results. The Pennsylva- 
nia Water Company used washes of soap 
and alum to stop leaks in a concrete res- 
ervoir lining back of Braddock, Pa. In 
building a new reservoir near Wilmer- 
ding. Pa., a concrete lining has been 
made waterproof by mixing caustic pot- 
ash and alum with the finishing coat of 
cement mortar. William Lyman Under- 
wood read a paper on "Mosquitoes, With 
Suggestions for their Extermination," in 
which he described the life and habits of 
mosquitoes and explained the efficiency 
of drainage and petroleum films aa ex- 
terminators. He also alluded to the use 
of pyrethrum powder burned to mitigate 
the mosquito nuisance In a closed room 
or on a piazza. Freeman C. Coffin, C. 
M. Saville, Frank E. Merrill, Patrick 
Kieran and H. V. Mackey were ap- 
pointed a committee to collect data on 
the subject of meter rates. 



American Society of Civil Engineers. 

The annual business meeting of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers was 
held Jan. 20 at the Carnegie Lyceum. The 
report of the Board of Direction on the 
subject of joint building for the various 
engineering societies was presented and 
its discussion occupied the greater part 
of the meet!ng. The only definite re- 
sult of the discussion was the passage 
of two resolutions, as follows: "1. Re- 
solved. That the Board of Direction be 
instructed to Issue a letter-ballot, to be 
canvassed at the meeting of the society, 
March 2, 1904, on the question whether 
this society shall become one of the con- 
stiuent societie.i in the occupancy and 
/»rtnfrnl nf tViA nronoppd An&rinf^f^rins: build- 



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ORGANIZATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS. 



133 



proceed In the matter, provided the ex- 
emption from taxation of the proposed 
buildlncr is assured and the Interests of the 
society are otherwise fully safeguarded." 
Officers were elected as follows: Presi- 
dent, Chailes Hermany; vice-presidents, 
F. S. Curtis and S. L. F. Deyo; treas- 
urer, Joseph M. Knap; directors, Charles 
S. Gowen, N. P. Lewis, John W. Ellis, 
Georgfc S. Webster, Ralph Modjeskl 
and C. D. Marx. 



Teshnl:al Meetings. 

The Wisconsin Clay Workers* Associa- 
tion will hold its fourth annual meeting 
at Portage, Wis., March 1, 2 and 3. 

The eleventh annual meeting of the 
Michigan Gas Association will be held in 
Saginaw Feb. 17 and 18. Papers will be 
read as follows: "A Few Notes on Am- 
monia," F. E. Sheriff, Battle Creek, 
Mich.; "The Laying of High and Low 
Pressure River Gas Lines," H. C. Morris, 
Bay City, Mich.; "The Laying of Maim 
and Services and Recording of Same," 
John Hellen, Grand Rapids, Mich.; "Care 
of Benches and Results Therefrom," 
Thomas J. Whalen, Jackson, Mich.; "Ad- 
vertising: As Advantageous to the Gas 
Business," A. P. Ewing, Detroit, Mich.; 
"A Report of Progress on the Study of 
Naphthaline," Samuel Ball, University Of 
Michigan. 

The convention of the Minnesota Mu- 
nicipal and Commercial League will be 
held at St. Paul Feb. 17 and 18. L. A. 
Rosing of Cannon Falls is president. 

The annual meeting of the St. Paul 
Civil Engineers' Society was held Jan. 11. 
New Officers were re-elected as follows: 
President, A. R. Starkey; vice-president, 
Oscar Claussen; secretary, A. L. Annan; 
treasurer, L. P. Wolff; librarian, C. L. 
Winfilow. 

At the annual meeting of the Municipal 
Art Society Jan. 13, at Baltimore, Md., 
Frederick Law Olmstead of Boston de- 
livered an address, accompanied by stere- 
optlcon views. Daniel C. Oilman, Michael 
Jenkins, John N. Steele and J. B. Noel 
were re-elected directors of the society. 

The Twenty-flfth annual meeting of the 
Michigan Engineering Society was held 
at Lansing Jan. 12, 13 and 14. Papers were 
read as follows: "Choice of a Water Sup^- 
ply," by Mr. W. W. Brigden; "An Elec- 
tric Driven Pumping Plant." by Mr. J. 
De Young; "Pure Water Supply," by Mr. 
F. Q. Frlnk; "Bitullthlc Pavement," by 
Mr. W. A. Hoyt: •'Proi)Tgation of Hot and 
Cold Waves Down Into the Earth," by 
Mr. A. C. Lane; "P/actlcal Heating Tests 
of Coal," by Mr. F. B. Piatt; "The Hot 
Air Furnace," by Mr. John R. Allen; 



"Building a City," by Mr H. K. Whitney; 
"County Surveyors' Records," by Mr. B. 
F. Dorr; "Gas Engines," by Mr. W. H. 
Patton; "Engineering Experiences." by 
Mr. B. E. Parks; "Some Rivers of the 
Upper Peninsula," by Mr. Charles Cum- 
mings; "Sewerage Laws in the Last Leg- 
islature," by Mr. H. E. Baker; "Concrete- 
Steel Bridge Construction," by Mr. P. A. 
Courtright. 

Committee reports were submitted on 
the following: The Relation of Sewerage 
and Water Supply to the Public Health; 
Forestry; Englnering Features of Munic- 
ipal Work to be Protected by Ordinance; 
Roads and Paving; Questions of Land 
Surveying; Electric Railway; Topograph- 
ical Survey of the State. 

Officers were elected as follows: Preat- 
dent. Dorr Skeels of Grand Rapids; vi^e- 
president. Prof. H. C. Vedd.-r of Michigan 
Agricultural College; secretary -treasurer, 
F. Hodgman of Climax. 

The annual meeting of the Massachu- 
setts highway association will be held 
at Bostoii February 9. A. B. Fletcher, 
secy., 20 Pemberton Square, Boston. 



Personal Notes. 



W. J. Olwell was inaugurated mayor of 
Davenport, Wash., Jan. 13. 

F. P. Cobb has been reappointed city 
engineer at Chicopee, Mass. 

L. E. Farnham has been reappointoa 
city engineer at Camden, N. J. 

Henry L. Haines has been elected city 
surveyor at Burllngion, N. J. 

Julius F. Frehsee has been reappointed 
city engineer at Lockport, N. Y. 

Winslow L. Webber has been re-elected 
city engineer at Gloucester, Mass. 

W. H. Thome has been appointed su- 
perintendent of streets at Brockton. 
Mass. 

David M. Earle, jr., has been appointed 
assistant city engineer at Worcester, 

Alfred L. Black has been elected first 
Mayor of the new city of Bellingham, 
Wash. 

Edward L. Arundel has been elected 
president of the water board at Law- 
rence, Mass. 

Harry S. Scull has been re-elected pres- 
ident of the City Council at Ventnor, 
New Jersey. 

Andrew J. Klrwln has been re-elected 
chief engineer of the fire department at 
Newport, R. L 

George T. Ingersoll has resigned as su- 
perintendent of the water department it 
Schenectady, N. Y. 

J. Walter Ackerman was reappointed 
city engineer at Auburn, N. Y., Jan. 4 
by the common council. 

Frank Ward has been elected city clerk 
at New Brunswick, N. J., to succeed 
George H. Denizer, resigned. 

William Hamilton has been re-elected 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



street commissioner and William H. Law- 
, ton city engineer at Newport, R. I. 

Walter E. Hassem has been 'elected 
street commissioner at Worcester, Mass., 
to succeed Wright S. Prior, resigned. 

John P. Murphy has been elected may- 
or at Knoxville, Tenn., to fill out the un- 
expired term of the late J. T. McTeer. 

John C. Wait has resigned his position 
as assistant corporation counsel in New 
York City and entered on the practice ot 
law at 220 Broadway. Ne^w York City. 

Robert G. Post has been appointed 
president of the water department at 
Oswego, N. Y., to succeed Eliot B. Mott. 

S. E. Monroe has resigned as city en- 
gineer of Binghamton. N. Y., which of- 
fice he has held for twelve years. Mr. 
Monroe will be succeeded by S. M. Bainl. 

Samuel J. Prescott & Co., removed their 
offices to the northwest corner of Thir- 
teenth and G streets, N. W., Washington, 
D. C. 

Dr. Philip H. Grier, who was mayor of 
Elizabeth, N. J., from 186-' to 1871 died at 
Trenton, N. J., Jan. 2, aged about 74 
years. 

J. H. Gregory has been appointed as- 
sistant to Julian Griggs, city engineer 
at Columbus, Ohio, in charge of designs 
for sewage disposal works and a large 
storage dam. 

Presidents of water commissions have 
been elected as follows: F. O. Tomp- 
kins, Middletown, N. Y.; Edward L. 
Arundel, Lawrence, Ma^s. ; Patrick Con- 
very. Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Hon. Joseph T. McTeer, mayor of 
Knoxville T-^nn., died In New York City 
Jan. 6, where he hBd oeen for several 
months under a surgeon's care. 

James Thompson has been elected may- 
or at Walhalla. Wash. J. R. Veal, W. 
L. Verner, D. H. Rowland, W. D. Moss 



and John F. Craig were elected alder- 
men. 

C. B. Helmick has resigned as city en- 
gineer of Hannibal, Mo., and chief en- 
gineer of the plants of the Atlas Port- 
land Cement Company, to accept a posi- 
tion in the governmental service at Chey- 
enne, Wyo. 

L. A. Nicholson has been appointed city 
engineer at Tacoma, Wash., to succeed 
Norton L. Taylor, whose term expired 
Jan. 1. Mr. Nicholson Is a member of tho 
firm of Nicholson & Bullard. civil engi- 
neers and architects. 

Mr. Dabney H. Maury, Consulting En- 
gineer, while still retaining his connection 
with the Peoria Water Works Company 
as its engineer and superintendent, as 
well as his office for private practice at 
129 N. JeCferson-ave., Peoria, 111., has re- 
cently opened another engineering office 
at 126 Llberty-st.. New York City. 

Mr. Irving H. Reynolds, formerly with 
the Allis-Chalmers Company and for 
many years in charge of their pumping 
engine department has accepted a posi- 
tion with the William Tod <7ompany of 
Youngstown as consulting engineer and 
is in charge of the department devoted 
to the building of large high duty crank 
and flywheel pumps, giving most of his 
attention to this branch of the business. 

The Hon. George B. McClellan was in- 
augurated Mayor of New York City Jan. 
1 and has made appointments as follows: 
Park commissioners, John J. Pallas for 
Manhattan, William P. Schmitt for the 
Bronx, Michael J. Kennedy for Brook- 
lyn and Queens; bridge commissioner, 
George E. Best; commissioner of water 
supply, gas and electricity, John T. Oak- 
ley; street commissioner, John McGaw 
Woodbury. 



MACHINERY AND TRADE 






A Sand Bed for Curing Cement Block. 

The Fisher Hydraulic Stone System 
new includes a wet bed of sand on which 



A Perpetual Memorandum Book. 

All persons engaged in construction 
work, engineers, architects, contractors. 



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MACHINERY AND TRADE. 



135 



er*s name in gold on the cover at a low 
price. A full description of the book 
will be found in their advertisement In 
this number of Municipal Engineering. 
The cover is handsome and durable and 
the pads can be renewed as often as nec- 
essary or exchanged when different rul- 
ings are needed. Municipalities and firms 
frequently supply the books to their of- 
flclils and employes and customers. Sam- 
ples of the rulings used show that any 
ordinary use for such a book can be met 
by choosing a suitable design from those 
presented. 

• 

Plans for Drying Materials. 

The United States Drying Engineering 
Company, 66 Beaver-st., New York City, 
is a firm of engineers that prepares plans 
for dryers for all purposes and gives at- 
tention to the particular requirements of 
each case, including such products as ce- 
ment, clay, marl, slag, coal, peat, etc. 
Not being interested in any particular 
dryer, the firm recommends at all times 
that which is best suited to the case un- 
der consideration. Specifications and 
data win be furnished on receipt of par- 
ticulars of operation. 



Trade Publications. 

The American Hydraulic Stone Com- 
pany, Denver, Colo., issues an illustrated 
pamphlet on the "Revolution in Build- 
ing," describing its machinery and meth- 
ods for making artificial stone, and show- 
ing a number of buildings constructed 
therewith. 

The Pope Bicycle Dally Memoranda 
Calendar has again made its appearance, 
showing that A. A. Pope is again at the 
head of the bicycle business so long con- 
ducted by him. The corporation is 
known as the Pope Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Hartford, Conn. 

Port Huron road-building machinery is 
iliustrated in the new catalogue of the 
Port Huron Engine nad Thresher Com- 
pany of Port Huron, Mich. 

The F. W. Dodge Com^^ny, 2S9 Fourth- 
ave.. New York City, has published the 
"Buildiing and Engineering Trades Direc- 
tory" for 1904, containing lists of archi- 
tects, engineers, builders, contractors and 
others interested in construction in the 
city of New York. Further notice will be 
given the book later. 

Industrial Railways are shown in all 
their details in the new catalogue of the 
Hoshor- Piatt Company, 120 Liberty-st., 
New York City. 

The Spaulding Print Paper Company, 
Boston, Mass., issues a catalogue of its 



Federal blue-printing machines for print-/ 
Ing by electric light. 

The Charles Warner Company, Wilming- 
ton, Del., sends a handsome picture with 
a birds-eye view of the Cedar Hollow and 
Whiteland lime plants with the sur- 
rounding country. 

Tonindustrie-Kalender, 1904, is a con- 
venient pocket calendar, with a second 
part which is a book of nearly 800 pages 
full of Information about the various ma- 
chinery and processes used In the clay 
d.nd cement industries and lists of the 
prominent German manufacturers. 

Catalogue No. 1,018 of the Atlas Car and 
Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, O., 
describes their mine and ore cars, and 
dump cars of every description, and the 
apparatus for operating them. 

The Jeffrey grab bucket for handling 
ore, coal, broken stone, gravel, sand, etc., 
is fully illustrated and described in cir- 
cular No. 77 of the Jeffrey Manufacturing 
Company of Columbus, O. 

Catalogue No. 9 of the C. O. Bartlett & 
Snow Co., Cleveland, O., illustrates their 
interlocking shoulder bearing chain belts 
for use in cement mills, rolling mills, 
mines, etc. 

• 

TRADE NOTES. 

ASPHALT. 

The Lake Erie Asphalt Block Company 
resumed operations at its plant in Iron- 
ville, Jan, 6. The plant has been shut 
down since last November on account of 
a .Ksarcity of material. 

The Lake Erie Asphalt Block Company 
of Toledo, O., has elected ofl!lcers for the 
ensuing year as follows: President, C. 
H. Burchinal; vice-president, J. B. Bat- 
telle; treasurer, H. C. Burchinal; secre- 
tary, Arthur Weller. 

About 2,100 acres of asphalt lands in the 
Tlshimlngo quadrangle In Indian Terri- 
tory, are for sale, and the folio, w.-iich is 
No. 98 In the series, may be obtained for 
25 cents on application to the director 
of the United States Geological Survey. 
Washington. D. C. 

The Federal Asphalt Company of 
Chicago has filed 9 mortgage at Eliza- 
bethtown, Ky., of $500,000 to the American 
Trust and Savings Company of that city, 
on its asphalt lands in Hardin and 
nearby counties. The company will be- 
gin at once to develop its property. 

A press report from Galveston, Tex., 
states that a stratum of asphalt has 
been discovered by the United States 
dredge boat, General Comstock, off the 
mouth of the Jetties, and that the dis- 
covery confirms the belief that a vast 
bed of asphaltum underli<»s the coast be- 
tween Galveston and Sabine Piss. 

Press reports from Tamplco, Tex., state 
that A. L. Barber of New York City, for- 
merly of the Barber Asphalt Company, 
accompanied by experts, has just finished 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



fin investigation of the deposits of as- 
phalt In the v'.cinlty of Tuxpan, near the 
Gulf coast, ai«d has purchased about 800,- 
000 acres of land upon which these depos- 
its are found. The field is said to be the 
most extensive in asphalt deposits in the 
world. 

Major George H. Walton, stastistical 
expert of the State Department of Agri- 
culture, Austin, Tex., has made an inves- 
tigation of the underground asphalt lake 
situated near St. Joe, Tex., and stales 
that liquid asphalt is oozing from the 
ground In several places. He believes 
that the lake exists at a depth of about 
150 feet, and says that hundreds of tons 
of solidified asphalt lie on the surface 
of the ground. 

A supp'emental contract has been made 
with Hetherington & Berner of Indlan- 
spolis for an asphalt plant for the city 
of Detroit, Mich. The supplemental con- 
tract settles the suit brought against the 
city and provides for the taking of the 
plant under the contract made by that 
firm with the city, according to local 
pres9 reports. The plant will have a ca- 
pacity of 2,000 sq. yds. daily and will cost 
$15,500. 

Henry Tatnall. receiver of the Asphalt 
Company of America, has caused an at- 
tachment to be issued against Harry 
C. Splnks, fixing ball in the sum of $40,- 
000 and summoning the Land Title and 
Trust Company ass garnishees. Thi9 ac- 
tion is exp'alned by the fact that the 
property of Mr. Spinks. valued at $40,- 
UOO, is said to be held by the Land Title 
and Trun Company, and that an at- 
tempt will be made to recover this for a 
sum which Mr. Spinks did not pay when 
the court's call for $40 per share on as- 
phalt stock w.-'H made. Mr. Spinks held 
1.000 shares. 

BRICK. 

Fred H. Shelton, Pennsylvania Building. 
Philadelphia, Pa., desires the names and 
addresses of firms making briquette ma- 
chinery. 

The Anniston Brick, Tile and Pottr^ry 
Company, Anniston, Ala., Is to be organ- 
ized, with E. P. Helfner of Atlanta, Ga., 
at its head. 

The American Process Company has 
just installed a direct heat sand dryer for 
the Granite Brick Company at Glens 
Falls, N. Y. They are manufacturers of 
brick under the Huennekes system. 

The Southern Hydraulic Brick Com- 
pany, Charleston, S. C, began opera- 
tions Jan. 8. E. H. Jahnz is president 
and W. F. Sauls Is superintendent of the 
plant. Paving brick will be manufac- 
tured also. 

The Delaware Cement Brick Company 
is enlarging its plant at South Wilming- 
ton. DaI. Th«> aililltion is hAlne- nnr\~ 



pressed brick and drain tile. A number 
of local men will be associated with Mr. 
Stiver. 

CJEMBNT. 

The Aetna Cement Company, Fenton. 
Mich., contemplates enlarging its plant 
by the installation of new rotarles. 

W. H. Oliver of Stephensburg, Ky.. 
contemplates the manufacture of Port- 
land cement from deposits in that com- 
munity. 

The Portland Cement Works, six miles 
west of Florence, Colo., will resume oper- 
ations about Feb. 1, according to press 
reports. 

The ofllce, drafting-room and labora- 
tory of the Pennsylvania Cement C-om- 
pany, near Bath, Pa., were destroyed by 
fire Jan. 14. Loss. $20,000. 

H. A. Mayo and others of Walhalla, N. 
D., are interested in the proposed estab- 
lishment of a plant to manufacture ce- 
ment, hollow brick, tiling, pressed brick, 
etc. 

A petition in bankruptcy was filed In 
New York City Jan. 3 by Sears, Humbert 
& Co., cement manufacturers, showing 
liabilities of $204,577 and assets of $160,- 
960. 

The Ajax Portland Cement Company, 
Trenton, N. J., was incorporated Jan. 8 
by Hiram C. Bennett and Edward H. 
Bennett of New York City and H. B. 
Starrett of Bayonne, N. J. 

Edward A. Kingsbury. Syracuse. N. 1r.. 
has severed his connection with the Em- 
pire Portland Cement Company at War- 
ner. N. Y.. to accept a position with the 
Hu-'son Portland Cement Company. 

Bankruptcy proceedings have been in- 
stituted against the Texas Portland Ce- 
ment and Lime Company at Galveston, 
Tex. The total of the liabilities is $200,- 
321 and the assets amount to $295,098. 

The machine shops of the Alabama 
Portland Cement Company at Deraopolis, 
Ala., were burned recently. Involving a 
loss of $3,500. The shops will be rebuilt 
and equipped with new machinery. 

The Cement Products Company, Blng- 
hamton. N. Y.. has been incorporated by 
John Hull. jr.. Mark S. Hotchkiss, Oscar 
Heller. William H. Lockwood. Harry W. 
Edson. Benjamin F. Welden and Fred 
Matthews. 

Samuel Horner of Philadelphia. Pa., 
has purcha.^d 816 a^res of land near 
Louisville, Ky., and will establish a ce- 
ment plant costing $1,000,000. The plans 
include the establishment of a new town 
for the employes. 

The Shreveport Sand and Cement Com- 
pany, Shreveport, La., is ready to com- 
mence business. The company deals in 
sand and cement and will make estimates 
on concrete sidewalks. C. W. Lane is 



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MACHINERY AND TRADE. 



137 



construction company, organized the ce- 
ment company. 

H. R. Van Wagoner of Linden, Mich., 
has purchased 500 acres of marl land near 
Cohoctah and will erect a cement plant 
within the next year. Detroit and other 
capitalists are interested. Mr. Van Wag- 
oner is of the opinion that a good quality 
of marl also exists In the Big Swamp in 
Davison township, Genesee County. 

The Cement Construction, Floor and 
Sidewalk Layers' Union, Local No. I, 
Chicago, has elected officers as follows: 
President, Geo. Cease; vice-president, 
Fred Hirt; recording secretary, Martin 
Nolan; treasurer, fid ward Olson; trus- 
tees. Otto Wallin, James Mclntyre, and 
P. Mackin; business agent, P. H. Malloy. 

The plant of the Edison Portland Ce- 
ment Company, near Washington, N. J., 
will not begin operations Feb.. 1 as 
planned, but has fixed June 1 as the time 
for starting its works. The plant was 
erected last year at a cost of more than 
$3,000,000. and its manufacturing has, so 
far, been principally experimental. 
Thomas A. Edison is at the head of the 
company. 

W. H. Harrison, Laverty, O. T., says 
that no company has yet been formed to 
work the cement beds, but it Is thought 
that one will be organized soon. An un- 
limited supply of cement, adjacent to 
the Frisco Railroad, exists there and the 
farmers in the vicinity are very anxious 
for a cement plant to be located. Mr. 
Harrison desires to communicate with 
any person or company who would care 
to investigate the matter. 

Thomas Pray, Jr., Boston, Mass., as 
trustee, has for sale about 750 acres of 
land, located on the Illinois Central Rail- 
road, between sixty and ' seventy miles 
southwest of Louisville, Ky., on which 
large quantities of clay, limestone, etc., 
all the factors for making first-class 
Portland cement, exist. The property is 
within a mile of a town, has water for 
all steam and other purposes, and the I. 
C. Railroad runs for a mile through the 
property. Address Thomas Pray, Jr., P. 
O. Box 2809. Boston. 

A petition was filed in the United 
States Court at Bay City, Mich., Jan. 12, 
by U. R. Loranger, asking that the De- 
troit Trust Company and the Hecla Port- 
land Cement and Coal Company be re- 
quired to deposit the books in court for 
examination. It is alleged that the Hecla 
Portland Cement Company has failed to 
defend the suit against it to foreclose the 
1750,000 mortgage; that Mr. Loranger was 
permitted by the United States Court on 
Dec. 21, 1902. to make the defense which 
the directors of the company were ne- 
glecting to make, and that in order lo 
prepare for such defense it Is necessary 
that the books be gone over by experts. 
The petitioners are Reeves Bros.' Com- 
pany of Alliance, O., whose claim 
amounts to 127,280; Fulton Bag and Cotton 
Mills Company, New York City, and W. 
M. Fink Company of Detroit. 



CONCRBTE BLOCKS. 

The Saal Concrete Company, Pekin, 
111., is preparing to manufacture con- 
crete building blocks. 

The Aberdeen Artificial Stone Com- 
pany, Aberdeen, Wash., has been or- 
ganized to manufacture building b ocks. 

The Frost Concrete Stone Company, 
Downs' la., has been organized to manu- 
facture building blocks under patents of 
R. T. Frost. 

A plant is being erected at Escanaba, 
Mich., for the manufacture of cement 
blocks for building purposes, according 
to press reports. 

Henry J. Dei-ter of New York City will 
locate a .plant In New Albany. Jnd.. for 
the manufacture of building block from 
shale, cement and other materials. 

A plant for the manufacture of hollow 
concrete building blocks will be estab- 
lished In Jollet. 111. Charles L. Wallace 
is interested in the proposed new indus- 
try. 

The Duluth Hollow Concrete Building 
Block Company, Duluth, Minn., has been 
incorporated by Frank McCormack, 
Napoleon Grignon, William Clifford and 
Thomas H. Mackle. 

The Stevens Cast Stone Company, 
manufacturers of litholite, Chicago, 111., 
has received word from it? company in 
Toronto, Ont., stating that two Carne- 
gie libraries and several bank buildings 
have been built entirely of its stone. 
Several plants have been established in 
New York state by Charles H. Lockard 
of Syracuse. 

The Miracle Pressed Stone Company, 
manufacturers of pressed concrete build- 
ing blocks and machinery, Sioux Falls, 
S. D., has opened a general office at 602- 
603 Northwestern Block, Minneapolis, 
Minn., and will handle the company's 
business from that point. O. U. Miracle, 
president, R. O. Miracle, secretary and 
treasury. 

The Granillte Manufacturing Company. 
Kansas City, Mo., has been incorporated 
to manufacture a general line of cement 
products, including hollow building 
blocks, ornamental work, roof tiles, bur- 
ial cases, posts, etc. The company will 
also do a general contracting business 
in paving, curbing, steps and porch work. 
The officers of the company are: Presi- 
dent, L. W. Bigs; Vice-President, A. D. 
Burrows; Secretary and Treasurer, 
Homer B. Mann; General Manager, B. L. 
Simpson; Superintendent of Construction, 
J. W. Cable. The company's temporary 
address will be 406 K. C. Life Building. 

LIGHTING AND POWER. 

The Sangane Electrical Company ,ot 
Springfield, O.. will open a factory in the 
White Block at Windsor, Ont., for the 
manufacture of electric motors. 

The Parker Engine Company, 1041 
Drexel Building, Philadelphia, Pa., has 
Just equipped thf Philadelphia Rapid 
Transit Company, at Second and Wyom- 
ing-sts., with six 641 horse-power boilers 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



and are building two 871 horse-power for 
another plant. 

Newly Incorporated lighting companies 
Standard Light & Heat Company. Jersey 
City, N. J.; Gillet Light Company, Chi- 
cago, 111.; Triumph Light Company, 
Brooklyn, N. Y.; Shelby ville Water, 
Light & Heat Company. Shelbyville, 111., 
Detroit Electric Light Company, Detroit, 
Tex. 

The Moline Incandescent Light Com- 
pany has been organized at Moline, 111., 
with officers as follows: President, C. H. 
Deere; vice-president, E. E. Morgan; sec- 
retary, and treasurer, C F. Grantz; gen- 
eral manager. A, H. Kreitler. The re- 
moval of the plant from Owensboro, Ky., 
will begin at once and it will be In opera- 
tion by the middle of February. 

The Hudson River Electric Power 
Company, Queensbury N. Y., has been in- 
corporated. The company's interests will 
be identical with the Hudson River 
Water Power Company, the Hudson Riv- 
er Electric Company, and the Hudson 
River Power and Transmission Company, 
in all of which Eugene V. . Ashley, of 
Glens Falls, is actively Interested. 

The HolthofC Machinery Company or 
Cudahy, near Milwaukee, Wis., and the 
Loomls Pettibone Gas Machinery Compa- 
ny of New York, will consolidate and will 
conduct the business under the name oi 
the Power & Mining Machinery Company. 
The company's specialty will be gas en- 
gines. Benjamin Guggenheim, of JSew 
York will be president; H. C. Holthoff, 
vice-president; B. T. Leuzander. secre- 
tary and treasurer. 

MIBCSLLANS0U8. 

J. M. Williamson, Bloomington, 111., has 
sold his concrete walk and curb plant to 
George L. Bozath. 

The Number Eight Reservoir Co., Ft. 
Collins, Colo., haa been incorporated by 
Benjamin H. Eaton, Bruce G. Eaton and 
Ellis Smith. 

L. L. Leslie, Cleveland, S. D., contem- 
plates building a plant in Sioux Falls 
next spring for the manufacture of ce- 
ment fence posts. 

James F. Connelly, city clerk of New- 
ark, N. J., and John H. McLeod have 
Jointly invented a device to be used In 
connection with voting machines. 

The National Valve Company, Sandus- 
ky, O., is belnsL incorporated to take over 
the Vincent Valve Company. John G. 
Schurtz, president; William E. Guerin, 
Jr., secretary. 

Bridge contractors will be Interested in 
the desire of Peoria to build a new bridge 
across the Illinois river at Bridge-st. and 
may be able to help the city finance the 
proposition. 

Russell Clark of New York and Charles 



of the same place, are now in the field 
soliciting orders for high-grade malleable 
castings. 

The Plymouth Rock Granite Company, 
St. Cloud, Minn., has been Incorporated 
by Homer J. Brooks and Joseph F. Da- 
vis of St. Cloud; Fred A. Mlchler, Au- 
gust Brief and Albin Anderson of Per- 
ham. Minn. 

The Valley Stone Company, Schenec- 
tady, N. Y., has been incorporated to 
construct public works by J. W. Potter 
of Marcy, F. E. Swanoott of Utlca, Au- 
gust, John and Alanson Roblson of Sche- 
nectady and Alonzo S'rhaupp of Albany. 
The Republic Creosotlng Company of 
Minneapolis, Minn., has been Incorpor- 
ated to manufacture paving materials 
and wood preservatives by Peter C. Reilly 
and James Broden of Indianapolis, and 
Alexander W. Van Hofften of Minne- 
apolis. 

Sealed proposals will be received by the 
Cienfuegos, Palmyra & Cruces Electric 
Power and Railway Company, Havana, 
Cuba, until March 15, for furnishing 4.400 
tons of steel tee rails, 1,200 kegs of spikes, 
14,100 electric rail bonds, 105,000 creosoted 
railroad ties, 4,100 trolley poles, 15,000 bar- 
rels Portland cement. 

Patent on a new cement shingle, Which 
It Is claimed will ultimately displace 
wooden shingles, has been granted George 
C. Zwerk of Saginaw, Mich. 

The F. D. Cummer & Son Company of 
Cleveland, O., since Nov. 15, 1903. has re- 
ceived orders for twelve of its Cummer 
dryers, nine of which are to be used In 
the United States; three go to foreign 
countries. 

United States Drying Engineering Com- 
pany has closed a contract with the Pro- 
vincial Chemical Fertilizer Company of 
St. John, N. B., for the Installation of a 
complete plant for the reduction of 50 
tons of dog fish and fish offal per day. 
plant to be located In the Bay of Fundy. 
on an Island near DIgby, Nova Scotia. 
Construction to be commenced March 1. 

Those Interested can address the United 
States Drying Engineering Company, 66 
Beavcr"-st., New York City. 

The C. O. Bartlett and Snow Company. 
Cleveland, O., has received an ordw from 
the Dakota Pressed Brick Company, 
Dead wood, S. D., for a rotary dryer for 
drying fifty tons of sand a day. and aUo 
for conveying machinery. The company 
has also received orders for elevating and 
conveying macTiinery as follows: Iro- 
quois Portland Cement Company, Cale- 
donia, N. Y.; the Elk Rapids Portland 
Cement Company. Elk Rapids, Mich.; the 
Grasselli Chemical Company. Cleveland. 
O.; the Struthers Furnace Company. 
Struthers. O.; the Sandusky Portland Ce- 
ment Company. Sandusky, O.: the Sher- 



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IMPROVEMENT AND 
CONTRACTING NEWi 



RAVING. 

Ft. Leavenworth, Kas.—About |1U,000 
worth of road machinery has been 
shipped here fiom Wtishlngton, D. C, 
and all of the government roads will be 
put in flrst-class condition. 

RUzville, Wash.— The constitutionality 
of the road law passed by the Ijeglsla- 
ture of 1903, wherein it sought to 
abolish the system of electing a road su- 
pervisor xor every district in the county 
and place the matter in the hands of the 
County Commissioners with power to di- 
vide the county into four districts and 
appoint four supervisors at a salarj' of 
$4 per day, will be tested. 

Camden, N. J.— Application was made 
to the Supreme Court, Jan. 18, for a rule 
to show cause why a certiorari should 
not be issued to review the action of the 
City Council of Atlantic City in awarding 
a contract for the paving of a number of 
streets to the Delaware River Quarry 
Construction Company. The complain- 
ants are Dlxey, Marsh & Lane, who al- 
lege that the Delaware River Quarry 
Construction Company offered five bids 
for the work when the proposals only 
called for one, and the contract was 
awarded to the company for J197,000; that 
the city can only be bonded for $48,000 
for this improvement aiid the total aggre- 
gate of the contract would amount to 
1200,000. being an excess of $150,000 over its 
bonded indebtedness. The rule was al- 
lowed and was made returnable Feb. 1. 

CONTEMPLATED WORK. 

Danville, 111.— Paving is contemplatod 
for College-st. 

Wellston, O.— Brick paving is contem- 
plated for three streets. 

Stoneham. Mass.— The Board of Select- 
men has been authorized to rebuild 
Franklin-st. 

Elgin, 111.— The property-owners of S. 
State-st. favor asphalt paving. Mayor 
Hubbard. 

Brookville, Ind.— A resolution has been 
passed to pave Main-st. with vitrified 
brick. 

Little Falls, Minn.— Paving is contem- 
plated for the business streets. 

Pomona, Cal.— The City Trustees have 
passed resolutions for paving a number 
of streets. 

Spring City, Pa.— The Town Council has 
decided to pave Main-st. from New to 
Hall this spring. 

LaCrosse, Wis. — Brick paving is pro- 
posed for Fourth-st. from King to Mor- 
mon Coulee road. 

Plqua. O.— Paving is proposed for Wood- 
st. J. A. Miles, elk. Joun. 



Superior, Wis.— Paving is proposed for 
Twelfth-st. to the East End. 

Atlanta, Ga.— Asphalt paving has been 
decided upon for Forsyth, Decatur and 
Mitchell-sts. 

Stoneham, Mass.— The macadamizing of 
Franklin-st. has been authorized. 

Alton, 111.— The City Council reported on 
the proposed paving of several streets 
adjacent to Henry-st. 

Atlantic, la.— The City Council has or- 
dered the construction hereafter of stone, 
brick or cement sidewalks. 

Harrisburg. Pa.— Mayor McCormick has 
recommended the paving of Cameron-st. 

Ft. Smith, Ark.— The ordinance for pav- 
ing Sixth-st. with vitrified brick was de- 
feated. Mayor Kuper. 

Freeport, 111.— The property-owners on 
Stephenson-st. are in favor of brick pav- 
ing. 

South Haven, Mich.— This town voted, 
Jan. 20, to issue bonds for public im- 
provements. 

Duluth, . Minn.— The bd. of pub. wks. 
contemplates paving portions of Seventh 
and First-aves. and Dingrwell, Superior 
and Seconds-sts. 

Beverley, N. J.— Brick paving is con- 
template for % ml. of a street. J. D. 
Fish, mayor. 

Portsmouth, O.— Petitions are being cir- 
culated for paving Fourth-st. with brick 
and asphalt. 

Kansas City, Mo.— A resolution has been 
adopted to pave Hammond-place, from 
Cleveland to Myrtle-aves. Baxter Brown, 
cy. elk. 

Oldham, S. D.— The construction of ^sev- 
eral miles of new sidewalks during' 1904 
is contemplated. 

Bay City, Mich.— Council has adopted 
estimates f'^r paving Johnson-st., from 
Center-ave. to Second-st. 

Mansfield, O.— Brick, block, asphalt and 
macadam paving is recommended for a 
number of streets. 

Canandaigua, N. Y.— The property-own- 
ers on five streets have petitioned for 
paving. W. E. Martin, vil. elk. 

North Adams, Mass.— The exclusive use 
of granolithic walks Is recommended by 
F. B. Locke, cy. engr. 

Fall River, Mass.— The highway dept. 
has asked the council for $380,000 for high- 
ways, curbing and paving. 

Hartford Conn.— The bd. of pub. wks. 
has recommended the macadamizing of 
Mather-st., from Garden to Vine. Philip 
Hansling, jr., supt. sts. 

Indianapolis, Ind.— The property-owners 
on Sixteenth -St.. from L. E. & W. tracks 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



to R(Kksevelt-ave., have petitioned for 
flint rock macadam. 

West Bay City, Mich.— Plans are being 
proposed providing for paving Washing- 
ton, Litchfleld. S. Henry and Walnut- 
sts. Cy Engr. Thompson. 

Freeport, 111.— An ordinance has been 
passed providing for brick paving on Wil- 
liam, Chicago, Oak-place and Van Buren- 
sts. Mayor T>lttmar. 

Qrand Haplds, Mich.— Brick paving on 
concrete base is proposed for W. Leonard- 
st., from Alpine-ave. to the city limits, 
at a cost of $44,610. 

Covington, Ky.— The reconstruction of a 
number of streets during 1904 with creo- 
soted block and brick is contemplated. W. 
B. Qunn, cy. engr. 

Livingston, Mont.— Bids will be received, 
according to press reoorts for construct- 
ing cement walks and crossings during 
1904. Cy. elk. 

Ogden, Utah.— A. F. Parker, cy. engr., 
has been authorized to prepare plans for 
ten blocks of concrete curb and gutter. 

Louisville, Ky.— Ordinances were ap- 
proved, Jan. 8, for paving and repavlng 
the sidewalks on Gray, Washington and 
Preston -sts. with brick. Paul C. BartH; 
mayor. 

Fort Smith, Ark.— Resolutions were 
adopted Jan. 20 for curbing v/ith stone or 
cement and constructing flag walks on a 
number of streets. Henry Kupjer, Jr., 
mayor; D. B. Sparks, cy. elk. 

Bay City, Mich.— Plans and speciflca- 
tions have been adopted for paving JohU' 
son-st.. from Center-ave. to Second-st., 
with vitrlfled brick on concrete base, 
with artiflclal stone curbing, at a total 
cost of $9,181.96. M. J. O'Malley, chm. 
B. P. W. 

Marion. O.— (Special).— Geo. E. Dwyer, 
cy. engr., says that bids will be asked 
for about March 30 for 12.000 sq. yds. of 
asphalt block paving and March 1 for 
9,000 sq. yds. of brick paving. 

Newark. N. J.— The Hudson and Essex 
freeholders joint bridge committee decid- 
ed. Jan. 21, to replace the wornout as- 
phalt paving on the Fourth-st. bridge 
across the Passaic with wooden paving 
blocks. 

Ithaca. N. Y.— A decision handed down 
by the court of appeals, Jan. 20, sustains 
all previous decisions regarding the im- 
provement of E. Lawn-ave. and flnds 
that it is a necessity. The road wiU now 
be built. 

Mobile, Ala.— The cy. coun. adopted, 
Jan. 6, a new paving proposition which 
will include 30,382 sq. yds. of asphalt, 
51.823 sq. yds. of brick, 29,746 sq. yds. of 
granite, and 11,578 sq. yds. of rectangu- 
lar wooden blocks. 

New Bedford, Mass.— Mayor Chas. A. 
Ashley recommends, in his annual roes- 






Little Rock, Ark.— (Special.)— Gerhard 
Morgner, supt. pub. wks., says that 10 
blocks of asphalt paving on W. Thlrd-sc 
and 8 blocks of Intersecting streets Is con- 
contemplated. Speciflcations have been 
prepared, but the time for receiving bids 
has not yet been determined upon. About 
30 blocks of gravel streets will also be 
built by the city. The county proposes 
to build 19 blocks of macadam p?vlng on 
Chester-st.. but no contract wi.U be le.. 

New Britain, Conn.— Bids will be asked 
soon for building 5,000 ft. of macadam 
road on East-st. W. H. Cadwell, cy. 
engr. 

Utlca, N. Y.— Resolutions have been in- 
troduced asking for the paving of Scott, 
Dakln, Steuben, Miller and Mortimer-sts. 
and other streets and avenues. 

Sprlngfleld, Mass.— A. A. Adams, supt. 
St. dept. recommends the repavlng t f 
Main-st. from Hampden to State-sts. 

Davenport. la.— Council adopted a new 
paving list Jan. 19, providing for the pav- 
ing during 1904 of a large number of 
streets. 

Sprlngfleld, O.— The residents will again 
agitate the question of paving Main-st. 
from Yellow Springs-st. to Western-ave. 

Woonsocket, R. I.— A resolution has 
been Introduced providing for an appro- 
priation of $45,000 for paving Main and 
Cumberland-sts. 

St. Joseph, Mo.— Paving is contemplated 
for Fourth-st., leading from the business 
section of the city to the stock yards 
district. Brick will probably be the ma- 
terial used. 

Toledo, O.— An ordinance has been ap- 
proved providing for paving Virglnla-st. 
from Lawrence to Detrolt-ave. and an al- 
ley between Huron and Erie-sts. from 
Washington to Monroe-sts. 

Orlando, Fla.— The county board decid- 
ed Jan. 7 to purchase 100.000 paving brick 
of the Clarcona Brick Company and ex- 
periment In paving the county roads. 

Denver, Colo.— The paving contemplated 
for 1904 embraces a large number of 
streets and includes asphalt, crushed ba- 
salt, disintegrated granite and side- 
walks. 

Albany, N. Y.— Ordinances are pending 
providing for paving as follows: Dalllus- 
st. from Madison-ave. to S. Ferry-st., 
granite blocks; Unlon-st. from Madison to 
Hudson-aves., vitrlfled brick. 

Clarlnda, La.— Final action will be taken 
Feb. 2 on a resolution to pave Main, 
Washington, Fifteenth and Slxteenth-sts. 
with vitrlfled paving brick on a concrete 
base. C. W. Foster, mayor; C. W. Stuart, 
cy. elk. 

Rosedale, Kas.— (Special)— George Ger- 
ner, cy. elk., says that flfteen blocks of 
asphalt paving on concrete and ten 
blocks of brick paving on concrete are 
contemplated. 

Dubuque, la.— A petition is being cir- 
culated in East Dubuque requesting the 



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IMPROVEMENT AND CONTRACTING NEWS. 



141 



Gate Park and a road around the bay- 
shore is proposed. 

Cohoes, N. Y.— Bids will be received 
at a meetingr to be held Feb. 10, according 
to local press reports, for paving Willow, 
Mangam, High, Vliet and Ontarlo-sts. 
and Younglove-ave. 

CONTBACTB TO BE LET. 

Paoli, Ind.— Bids are asked until 2 p. m. 
Feb. 5 for building gravel roads. George 
W. Teagarden, co. audt. 

Jeffersonville, Ind.— Bids are asked un- 
til Feb. n for constructing 39 miles of 
county roads. George B. Parks, co. audt. 

Lakewood. O.— Bids are asked until 
Feb. 2 for stone flagging and cement 
walks on Clifton Boulevard. H. J. Sen- 
sel, vil. elk. 

Walla Walla, Wash.— Bids are asked 
until 3 p. m. Feb. 2 for grading and side- 
walks at Oak and E. Oak-sts. R. P. 
Reynolds, cy. elk. 

Bethlehem, Conn.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Feb. 16 for constructing a section 
of gravel road. F. P. Hayes, chmn. bd. 
selectmen. 

Bellefontaine, O.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Feb. 4 for grading and macadamiz- 
ing Horton Pike No. 2. James E. Shaw, 
chmn. CO. comrs. 

Rushville, Ind.— Sealed bids are asked 
until 2 p. m. Feb. 1 for building a ma- 
cadam road in Richland twp. Marquis 
L. Sisson, chmn. co. comrs. 

Harrisburg, Pa.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Feb. 10 for constructing 1,935 feet 
of road in Castanea twp., Clinton co. 
Penn. State Highway Dept. 

Detroit, Mich.— Sealed bids are asked 
until 10 a. m. Feb. 1 for furnishing 1,500 
tons of refined sheet asphalt. Wm. H. 
Maybury, comr. pub. wks. 

Brownstown, Ind.— Bids are asked un- 
til Feb. 2 and 3, according to press re- 
ports, for constructing gravel roads. As- 
bury M. Manuel, co. audt. 

Chattanooga, Tenn.— Sealed bids are, 
asked until Feb. 15 for grading and con-, 
structing walks and roads at Chica- 
mauga Park, Ga. H. W. French, Capt. 
Q. M. 

Toms River, N. J.— Sealed bids are 
asked until Feb. 9 for building a gravel 
road in Union twp. 3.25 mis. long. James 
E. Otis, bd. chosen freeholders. 

Chicago, 111.— Sealed bids are asked un- 
til Feb. 3 for constructing cinder walks 
in a large number of streets. A. M. 
Lynch, prest. bd. local imprvts. 

Greensburg, Ind.— Sealed bids are asked 
until* Feb. 1 for building free macadam- 
ized roads in Clay, Sandcreek and Jack- 
son twps. Frank E. Ryan, co. audt. 

FIndlay, O.^Bids are asked until Feb. 
2 for vitrified brick or block paving on 
Elm-st., and block paving on W. Craw- 
ford-st. Frank C. Ray, cy. elk. 

St. Bernard, O.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Feb. 11 for macadamizing Albert-st. 
from Bertus to Leonard, and construct- 
ing cement curbs and gutters. George 
Meyer, vil. elk. 

Washington, la.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Feb. 9 for paving lowa-st. from 



Main to Railroad-sto. with vitrified brick 
on concrete base. Hugh H. McCleery, 
cy. elk. 

Santiago, Chill— Public bids will be 
opened July 1 for constructing pave- 
ments. Address Chilean Legation In 
Washington, D. C, or Chilean Consulate 
General, 135 W. Eleventh-st., New York 
aty. 

Spencer, Ind.— Sealed bids are asked un- 
til Feb. 1 for reletting Jefferson twp. 
pike contract. Bids will also be received 
at the same time for improving various 
other highways. Geo. O. Mitten. 

Peoria, 111.— Sealed bids are asked un- 
til 2 p. m., Feb. I, for paving Washlng- 
ton-st. with brick, requiring 10,052 sq. 
yds of paving, excavation, stone curb 
and protection curb. R. W. Schuch, 
chmn. bd. local impvts. 

Canal Dover, O.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Feb 16 for about 16.500 sq. yds. ol 
brick paving on Factory and Tbird-sts., 
and alternate bids on about 10,000 sq. yds. 
of brick or asphalt block paving on 
Thlrd-st. B. P. S.; Paul R. Murray, 
engr., New Philadelphia, O. 

CONTRACTS AWARDED. 

Ne .v Orleans, La.— The contract for con- 
structing Srhillinger 'sidewalks ai.>und 
Lee Circle was awarded, Jan. 11, to Fritz. 
Jahncke. 

Cleveland, O.— The Cleveland Trinidad 
Paving Company was awarded the con- 
tract for paving the Breckfvllle road for 
1109.000. 

West Hoboken, N. J.— Bids were sub- 
mitted, Jan. 13, for paving Hill and Hlgh- 
sts., by Henry M. Schneider, M. Curley 
and Callery & Murphy. 

Houston, Tex.— The contract for paving 
WlUow-st., San Jacinto and Llberty-aves 
was awarded, Jan. 13, to Fitzgerald & 
Ray for $13,000. 

Paoli, Ind.— The contract for building 
38,548 ft. of gravel roads was awarded, 
Jan. 5, to E. Stout of Paoli for J14,277. 

Lafayette, Ind.— The contract for con- 
structing free gravel roads was awarded, 
Jan. 11, to Chas. J. Murphy of Brookston, 
Ind., for $9,724. 

St. Louis, Mo.— The contract for paving 
Chestnut-st., from Broadway to Twen- 
tieth, with bituminous macadam was 
awarded, Jan. 20, to the Granite Bitu- 
minous Paving Company for $51,334.50. 

Riverside, Cal. — Bids for paving 
Twelfth-st. were received as follows: H. 
E. Branch, $6,019; Robert Fltzslmmons; 
$5,714; Zeno de Moss, $5,790. 

Le Mars, la.— The contract for brick 
paving was awarded to SnoulTer & Ford 
of Cedar Rapids, Jan. 18, at $2.02 a sq. yd. 
for Purlngton brick. 

Indianapolis, Ind.— The contract for 
building cement walks in Linwood-st, 
Garfield-ave. and Gladstone-ave., from 
Washington to Michigan-sts., was award- 
ed, Jan. 20, to J. W. Baxter. 

Toledo, O.— The contract for paving has 
been awarded to H. P. Strelcher as fol- 
lows: Ostrich Lane, $2,138; John-st., $2,602: 
Prouty-ave., $3,098. 

Marlon, 0.—(SpecIal.)— George E. Dwyer, 
cy. engr., says that the contract for 12,- 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



500 sq. yds. of paving was awarded to 
Scoflcld & Fairbanks of Marion. 

Decatur, Ind.— Contracts for building 3 
miles of gravel roads have been awarded 
as follows: East Washington road, Julius 
Haugh, $4,016; Calvin Miller, two West 
Washington roads, $3,437 and $3,837. 

New York City— Bids for asphalt paving 
for the Manhattan approach of the Wil- 
liamsburg bridge were submitted Jan. 5 
as follows: Barber Asphalt Paving Com- 
pany, $5,411; Sicilian Asphalt Paving 
Company, $5,319. 

Jeffersonvllle, Ind.— The contract for 
furnishing brick for paving the walks 
outside of the penitentiary was awarded 
to the Indiana Paving Brick Company 
at $12 per thousand, and the contract for 
furnishing curbing to George W. Cox of 
Osgood at 32 cents per lln. ft. 

Crookston, Minn.— P. McDonnell of Du- 
luth was the only bidder Jan. 12 for mac- 
adam paving on several streets, as fol- 
lows: Granite macadam, $1.68 a sq. yd.; 
granite and sandstone macadam, $1.86; 
granite curb, $1.25 a lln. ft.; sandstone 
curb, 78 cents a lln. ft. 

Galveston, Tex.— Brown & Dabney of 
Ft. Worth submitted a bid for paving 
Market-st.-as follows: Vitrified brick on 
sand base, $1.60 a sq yd.; on concrete 
base, between street car tracks, $2.£0; ex- 
tra concreting, $6 a cu. yd.; extra filling, 
40 cts. a cu. yd. 

Columbus, Ind.— Bids were received Jan. 
7 for 9,325 sq. yds. of brick paving on 
Washington-st. and 7,000 sq. yds. on 
Fifth-st. The contract has not been 
awarded, however, according to press re- 
ports, and the question of asphalt pav- 
ing for the streets is stated to be undor 
consideration for the streets. 



SBWERS. 



Bloomington, 111.— Maps, blue prints, 
etc., have been secured for the proposed 
drainage system and construction of a 
14-mi. levee along the Illinois river in 
the Spring Lake district, and work will 
begin in the spring. 

CONTEMPLATED WORK. 

Madison, 111.— A sewerage system is 
proposed. 

Danielson, Conn.— A sewerage system is 
contemplated. 

Putnam, Conn.— The Mayor recommends 
a sewerage system. 

Billings, Mont.— A new sewerage dis- 
trict will be created. 

Aberdeen, Wash.— Mayor West urges 



of a sewer in the Fourth. Ward is $85,- 
000. 

Franklin, Ind.— The construction of a 
sewerage system next summer is con- 
templated. 

Sumpter, Ore.— The construction of a 
sewerage system is favored by McCal- 
loch. 

Piqua, O.— Special— J. A. Miles, elk. of 
council, says there is some talk of build- 
ing sewers. 

Stamford, Conn.— The construction of a 
sewerage system is contemplated. Paul 
Nash, city engr. 

Carbondale, 111.— An ordinance has been 
passed to build a sewer in Poplar-st. and 
an alley. 

Pittsburg, Pa.— Plans for rebuilding the 
sewerage system in the downtown dis- 
trict ^re being prepared. 

Eldorado, Kas.— Plans have been com- 
pleted and bids will be asked for con- 
structing about 5Vi miles of sewers. 

Springfield, O.— W. H. Seiverling, cy, 
engr., has been directed to prepare plan.*; 
for a new sewerage system. 

Hyattsville, Md.— The Legislature will 
be asked for authority to issue $30,000 for 
building a sewerage system. 

Brainerd, Minn.— Plans and specifica- 
tions for a new sewerage systenn. have 
been prepared by City Engineer Wool- 
man. 

Spring Grove, Pa.— The question of issu- 
ing $7,000 for building a sewerage system 
will be voted on in February. 

Atchison, Kas.— Plans for the northwest 
district sewerage system will be pre- 
pared by Fred Giddings, cy. engr. 

McKeesport, Pa.— A sewer for the 
Crooked Run district is being considered 
by council. Thomas W. White, cy. engr. 

Youngstown, O.— Petitions have been 
submitted for building sewers in Glen- 
wood-ave. and Thomas, McGuffey and 
Foster-sts. 

Ensley, Ala.— Sewer bonds have been 
sold and the work of construction on the 
proposed sewerage system will begin soon. 

Janesville, Wis.— City J'Sngineer Kerch is 
making plans for a sewerage system 
which will involve the laying of 6 mis. 
of pipe. 

Los Angeles, Cal.-r-The immediate con- 
struction of a new outfall sewer is 
recommended by Mayor Snyder in his 
annual message. 

Columbus, Ga.— W. H. Hall, supt. pub. 
wks., desires Information regrarding small 
septic tanks, including plans, estimates, 
etc. 

Denver, Colo.— Means for the disposal of 
its sewage are being considered by the 
directors of the State Home for De- 
pendent Children. 



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Weehawken, N. J.— The construction of 
a Joint outlet sewer for this place and 
West Hoboken Is approved by the town- 
ship committee. Clerk Carrol. 

Duluth, Minn.— City Engineer Patton 
estimates the cost of buildlns: sewers on 
Fifty-fourth and Grand aves. and Ellnor- 
st.. West Duluth, at $11,239.47. 

Guttenberg:, N. J.— An ordinance has 
been approved providing for an 18-ln. 
vitrified pipe sewer on Franklln-ave. and 
for a sewer In Hudson-boulevard. 

Muskegon, Mich.— A sewerage system 
win be constructed In the southeastern 
part of the city after plans prep tred by 
George S. Plerson of Kalamazoo. 

Macon, Ga.— Plans for a sewerago sys- 
tem for Vlnevllle, Pleasant Hill and Hu- 
guenln Heights have been submitted by J. 
W. Wilcox, cy. engr. 

Little Rock, Ark.— Special — Gerhard 
Morgner, supt. pub. wks., says the con- 
struction of sewer extensions is talked of 
but nothing is assured yet. 

Kansas City, Mo.— The bd. of pub. wks. 
approved Jan. 18 the plans prepared by 
Cy. Eng. Pike for the proposed Intercept- 
ing sewer to drain O. K. creek. 

New York City— A petition has been 
submitted to Congress for an appropria- 
tion of $1,250,000 for Improvements to El- 
lis Island, which Include the construction 
of a new sewerage system. 

South Orange, N. J.— Bids for lurnlsh- 
ing materials and constructing section >* 
and 5 of the proposed lateral sewers will 
be received after the bonds are disposed 
of. S. H. Rolllnson, cham. com. 

Northampton, Mass.— Bids for the con- 
struction of main sewers through the 
Meadows into Connecticut River, at :i 
cost of about 1100.000, will be asked for as 
soon as the land question at the outlet is 
settled. 

Galesburg, 111.— The estimated cost of 
constructing the sewerage system and 
purification works is as follows: Main In- 
terceptor, 1302.425; Fulton-st. branch. $ « - 
8S8; Railroad Creek branch, $43,538; N. 
Henderson-st. branch, $44,438; N. West-st. 
branch. $56,550; Main-st. branch, $9,700. 
purification works. $43,000. 

Reading. Pa.— In his annual message, 
Mayor Yeager recommends the construc- 
tion of a storm water sewer In Franklln- 
st., the construction of sewers In Rose 
Valley Creek and Canal and Windsor-sts., 
extension of present house sewer system, 
reconstruction and Installation of sewage 
disposal plant to meet not only present 
but all future needs. 

CONTRACTS TO BS LST. 

Glencoe, Minn.— Bids are asked until 
Feb. 5 for constructing ditches Nos. 3 and 
4. P. D. Stocking, co. audt. 

Alexandria, Minn.— Bids are asked un- 
til March 7 for constructing ditch No. 8 
and branches. E. P. Wright, co. audt. 

Center City, Minn.- Bids are asked un- 
til April 22 for constructing ditches Nos. 
3 and 4. A. B. Slattengren, co. audt. 

Berwick, Pa.— Seale<f bids are asked 
until Feb. 4 for constructing brick and 
pipe sewers. J. N. Harry, chmn. st. 
com. 



Rosedale, Kas.— Sealed bids are asked 
until 5 p. m. Feb. 4 for building sewers 
on Oak-st. and Rosedale-ave. Geo. Ger- 
ner, cy. elk. 

St. Paul, Minn.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Feb. 2 for constructing a sewer 
system at Ft. SnelUng. R. M. Schofield, 
const. Q. M. 

Washington. D. C— Sealed bids are 
asked imtll Feb. 20 for constructing sew- 
ers In the District of Columbia. H. B. 
P. MacFarland/ chmn. district comrs. 

New Orleans. La.— Sealed bids are 
asked until Feb. 2 for constructing 66 
miles of sewers and appurtenances. F. 
S. Shields, secy, sewerage and water bd. 

Scranton, Pa.— Sealed bids are asked 
until 2 p. m. Feb. 4 for constructing sew- 
ers in sections "E," "G" and "H" of the 
Nineteenth Ward. B. T. Jayne, dir. dept. 
pub. wk& 

Washington, D. C.T-Blds are asked un- 
til March 5 for erecting sewerage screens, t 
machinery and apparatus at sewerage 
pumping station. H. B. F. MacFarland, 
chmn. dlst. comrs. 

Santiago, Chile— Public bids will be 
opened July 1 for constructing sewerage. 
Address Chilean Legation, Washington, 
D. C, or Chilean Consulate-General, 135 
W. Eleventh-st.. N. Y. City. 

Saginaw. Mich.— Sealed bids are asked 
until 7:30 p. m. Feb. 11 for furnishing 
Portland and natural cement, drain tile, 
sewer pipe, sewer basin and sewer and 
water manhole castings. W. H. Barton, 
elk. B. P. W. 

Flndlay, O.— Bids are asked until Feb. 
2 for constructing combined local sewer 
No. 2 on W. Front-st., Including man- 
holes, fiush tanks and catch-basins; also 
a sewer In E. Llncoln-st. Frank C. Ray, 
elk. 

Vallsburgh, N. J.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Feb. 10 for 2,981 ft. 12-ln., 11,000 ft. 
10-in. and 27,863 ft. 8-in. pipe sewers. 122 
manholes, 82 fiushtanks and 4,000 cu. yds. 
rock excavation. John Henry Theberath, 
acting mayor; Andrew R. Fitzslmons, 
elk.; Eugene Murray, ch. engr. 

BufTalo, N. Y.— Bids will be received 
Feb. 2 for furnishing and erecting 3 hor- 
izontal centrifugal sewage pumps, 3 en- 
gines and auxiliary machinery to drive 
them and 4 125-HP boilers with auxiliar- 
ies for a sewage pumping plant on Main 
and Hamburg Canal strip near Hamburg- 
st. Francis G. Ward, comr. pub. wks. 

C0NTKACT8 AWARDED. 

Joplln, Mo.— The contract for a sewer 
was awarded to J. F. McCarthy for $6,000. 

St. Paul, Minn.— The contract for build- 
ing the St. Anthony Park sewer has been 
awarded to E. J. Kirkland for $50,122.99. 

Seattle, Wash.— T. I. Peterson . secured 
the contracts for sewer systems in the 
Brooklyn ana Latonia districts for $58,- 
050. 

Grand Junction, Colo.— The contract for 
constructing a sewerage system at the 
Teller Indian Institute was awarded to 
D. J. Tirsway of Denver for $16,000 to 
$17,000. 



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Lancaster, Pa.— Contracts for building 
two sewers have been awarded to Stone, 
Jordan & Co., Philadelphia, for 1180,000. 

Clinton, la.— The contract for construct- 
ing a sewer in Pearl-st. was awarded to 
George M. King of Des Moines for $6,895. 

Mishawaka, Ind.— The contract for con- 
structing the W. Joseph-st. sewer was 
awarded to the Elkhart Construction Co. 
of Elkhart, Ind. 

Vlnlta, Ind. Ter.— The contract for con- 
structing a sewerage system was awarded 
Jan. 5 to the Allan Black Co. of St. Paul 
for 118.600. 

Youngstown, O.— Sherman De Groodt se- 
cured the contract for a seWer on W. 
Federal-st. and Rochford & Comisky for 
a sewer on E. Woodland -ave. 

Delray, Mich.— The contract for build- 
ing a sewer In McGregor-ave. was award- 
ed to the Elkhart Construction Co. of 
Elkhart, Ind., for 123,000. 

Athens, Ala.— The Nashville Plumbing 
Co. of Nashville, Tenn., was awarded the 
contract Jan. 14 for constructing a sew- 
erage system here for $11,736. 

Los Angeles, Cal.— The contract for fur- 
nishing 20.000,000 brlc!i for the outfall 
sewer and storm drains was awarded Jan. 
19 to Charles Forrester at $6.40 per thou- 
sand. 

Niagara Falls. N. Y.— The contract for 
extending the tunnel trunk sewer in the 
eastern part of this city has been award- 
ed to James D. Casey of Rochester for 
about $90,000. 

Petaluma. Cal.— Special— N. S. Frost, 
cy. engr.. says the contract for a 6-ln. 
pipe sewer on Tlfft-st. was awarded to 
J. R. Nesbitt at 50 cents a lin. ft and 
$1.50 for lampholes. 

Buffalo, N. Y.— Bids were submitted. 
Jan. 19, on three sewers as follows: Her- 
tel-ave.. Miller & Franklin. $18,900; Angle 
and Heath-sts., C. G. Stein wocks, $7,590; 
Merrimac-st., H. P. Burgard, $6,000. 

Toledo, O.— Sewer contracts have been 
awarded as follows: No. 910 In Western- 
aye., John McMahon, $2,011.80; ^o. 920 In 
an alley. John McMahon, $1,478.88; No. 917 
in alley, A. Lewandoskl, $823. 

Boston, Masa— Contracts for the con- 
struction of high level sewers were 
awarded, Jan. 5, as follows: Talbot-ave., 
circular brick sewer, section 2, Coleman 
Bros., $14,882.50; section 3, Coleman Bros., 
$13,987. Dorchester high level circular 
brick sewer, section 1. D. F. O'Connell, 
$14,176.96; section 2, H. A. Hanscom Com- 
pany, $12,042.20. 

Beaver Falls, Pa.— Bids were submitted, 



WATBR'WORKS. 

Bloomfleld, N. J.— This borough voted,. 
Jan. 19, to purchase the plant of the 
Orange Water Company for $90,000. 

Marquette. Mich.— The Federal Trust 
Company ol Boston has applied xor a re- 
ceiver for the Ironwood Water Company 
on the ground of wasteful management. 

New Cumberland, Pa.— The Falriiew 
Township Water Company has b«en in- 
corporated to supply water for this place 
by T. Russ, J. Relff and George H. Kctll. 

Wmthrop Harbor, 111.— The Wlnthrop 
Harbor Water and Supply Company has 
been incorporated to construct v/ater 
works, light, heat and power plants by 
G. A. Truesdale, R. R. Cowie and S. M. 
Swanson. 

CONTBMPLATSD WORK. 

Saugatuck, Mich.— Plans are being pre- 
pared for a new water works system. 

Toledo, O.— A submerged 20-in. water 
main across the Maumee River Is pro- 
posed. 

Cotter, Ark.— A company has been 
formed to establish and operate a water 
works system. 

Mayfleld, Cal.— Bids will probably not 
be received for constructing water works 
before April. 

Pawtucket, R. I.— The purchase of a 
new pumping engine is contemplated. S. 
H. Roberts, cy. elk. 

Pittsburg, Pa.— The compulsory Instal- 
lation of water meters Is recommended 
by Dlr. E. M. Bigelow. 

Hoi yoke, Mass.— The purchase of a 
large meter to be placed at the source 
of water supply is proposed. 

Waltham, Mass.— Le Roy Brown, supt. 
w. w., favors replacing 9 mis. of cement 
mains with cast-Iron pipes. 

Salt Lake City, Utah— The establish- 
ment of a permanent water supply is 
urged by the Commercial Club. 

Montreal, Que.— Plans are being made 
for a complete filtration system for the- 
Montreal Water and Power Company. 

Barbeiton, O.— Plans and specifications - 
for the proposed new water works sys- 
tem have been approved. 

Canton, O.— (Special.)— Phil H. Weber, 
cy. engr., says a new pumping station, 
a 12,000.000 gal. pump and three 200- hp. 
boller.s. 

Delhi, O.— A water works system to 
supply this town. Home City, Fernbank, 
Addyston, North Bend and Cleves Is con- 
templated. 

Newark, N. J.— The estimated cost of 
an auxiliary water main from Campbel''s 
Pond to this city Is $100,000 or $123,000. 



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Philadelphia, Pa.— The names of firms 
manufacturing gas and water pipe are de- 
sired by Samuel P. Yoe, C. E., 1861 Frank- 
ford-ave. 

Luvlington, Mich.— The bd. of pub. wks. 
has asked the City Council to call a 
special election to vote on the improve- 
ment of the water works system by ex- 
tending the intake pipe 1,000 ft. .^urther 
Into the lake. 

Shenandoah, Pa.— The question of in- 
creasing the borough debt $50,000 for se- 
curing a more plentiful water supply will 
be voted on In February. 

Evansville, Ind.— The estimated cost of 
repairing the damage caused at the new 
water works by the breaking of the In- 
take pipe is 150,000 to $100,000. 

Cambridge, Mass.— The water board has 
asked for an appropriation of $500,000 for 
constrjcting a new main from Hobbs 
Brook basin to Fresh Pond. E. C. Brooks, 
SUIJt, w. w. 

Pittston, Pa.— The stockholders of the 
Monongahela Water Company voted to 
increasd its capital stock for the con- 
struction of new pipe line extensions, 
boiler, tanks, pumping machinery and 
other permanent improvements. 

The construction of water works syH 
tems is contemplated at the following 
places: Hampton, Neb.; Kensington. 
Minn.; Maiden Rock, Wis.; Prattsville 
N. Y.; Chambersburg, Pa.; Ashtabula, 
O.; Olendale, Wash.; Mt. Jackson, Va ; 
Adams, Ore. 

Springfield, O.— A 'resolution has been 
adopted by the B. P. S. to ask for bids 
for engaging a hydraulic engineer to pre- 
pare plans and specifications for the pur- 
chase of a 10,000,000 gallon pumping en- 
gine and all necessary equipment. 

St Paul, Minn. — In his annual 
report City Engineer Rundlett rec- 
ommends the Improvement of Vad- 
nais and Pleasant lakes by the 
construction of a deep well, 2,400-foot en- 
closed conduit between Vadnais and 
Pleasant lakes and the protection of the 
shores of Centervllle Lake. 

Monaca, Pa.— Council decided, Jan. 13, 
to ask the Secretary of War for permis- 
sion for this borough to erect a crib in 
the Ohio River In front of the pumplni; 
station for the purpose of improving the 
water supply and protecting the pumping 
station. 

Washington, D. C— The colonial govern- 
ment of the Island of Bermuda is investi- 
gating the question of a pure water sur- 
ply for the citizens of that Island, and 
has called upon the experts of the United 
States Geological Survey to furnish infor- 
mation regarding the possibility of find- 
ing a large and continuous supply of 
fresh water by sinking artesian wells. 

COKTRACT8 TO BB LET. 

Jacksonville. 111.— Bids are asked until 
Feb. 10 for a pumping plant. Merdosia 
Lake. Drainage and Levee DIst. 

Santa Barbara, Cal.— Bids will be re- 
ceived until Feb. 23 for constructing a 
tunnel 19.560 ft. long. Comrs. W. W. 
dept. 

New Orleans. La.— Sealed bids are 



asked until Feb. 2 for laying 2.7 mis. of 
water mains. F. S. Shields, secy, sewer- 
age and water bd. 

Dalles City, Ore-Sealed bids are asked 
until Feb. 10 for constructing a wat^r 
works system. T. J. Seuoert, prest. wa- 
ter comrs. 

St. Paul. Minn.-Sealed bids are asked 
until 11 a. m. Feb. 2 for construcUng a 
water system at Fort Snelling. R. M. 
Schoffleld, Const. Q. M. 

St. Louis. Mo.-Sealed bids are adked 
until Feb. 18 for a 150.000 gal. steel tank 
with trestle at Jefferson Barracks. Maj 
Thomas Cruse, Depot Q. M. 

Ligonler, Ind.— Sealed bids are asked 
until March 9 for improvements to tne 
water works system. Fred H. Green, 
mayor; H. Jeanneret, cy. elk. 

Kansas City, Mo.— Bids will be received 
until March 9 for improvements to the 
48-ln. steel water flow line from Kaw 
Point to Turkey creek. B. P. W. 

Saginaw, Mich.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Feb. 11 for furnishing the cast Iron 
water pipe and special castings required 
during the year. W. H. Barton, elk. 
B. P. W. 

Oil City, Pa.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Feb. 15 for 1 triple expansion con- 
densing crank and fiywheel pumping en- 
gine of 3,500,000 gals. P. C. Porter, elk. 
bd comrs. water and light 

Milwaukee, Wis.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Feb. 1 for furnishing a pumping 
engine, boilers and auxiliary machinery 
for the Kinnlckinnick river flushing tun- 
nel. Chas. J. Poetsch, chmn. B. P. W. 

Santiago. Chile.— Public bids are asked 
until July 1 for improvinr the water sup- 
ply of this city. Address Chilean Lega« 
tlon. Washington. D. C, or Chilean Con- 
sulate-General. 135 W. Eleventh-st., New 
York City. 

Cienfuegos, Cuba— Bids are asked until 
April 2 for furnishing material for the 
water works as follows: 10,441 ft. e. 1. 
pipe. 185 tons special castings, 279 valves. 
130 hydrants. 345 tons structural steel, 
11.135 sq. yds. expanded metal. 330,000 lbs. 
lead. C. C. Vermeule. cons. engr.. 20S: 
Broadway, New York City; F. W. Ben- 
nett, ch. engr., San Carlos 128. Cien- 
fuegos. 

CONTRACTS AWARDED. 

Kansas City, Mo.— The contract for a 
pumping engine for Quindaro Station was 
awarded to tha Allls-Chalmers Company 
for $79,400. 

Peoria, 7.11.— The contract for piping the 
new water system of the Bartonville 
asylum was awarded to Charles O'Neill 
& Sons for $3,600. * 

VInlta, Ind. Ter.— The contract for con- 
structing a water works system was 
awarlod to Allen. Black & Co. of Minne- 
apolis, Minn., for $78,465. 

Shawnee. Okla.— The contract for a new 
water works system was awarded to 
Henry C. Ulen, Jr., of Oklahoma City for 
ri 22,000. 

Port Angeles, Wash.— H. A. Lengenbrlnk 
of St. Louis, Mo., has been granted a 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



60-year franchise for water and power 
privileeres in this city. 

La Cro3se, Wis.— The contract for in- 
stalling new boilers at the pump house 
was awarded to F. Freeman Sons & Co. 
of Racine for 19,484. 

' Heflin, Ala.— A franchise has been 
granted to F. F. Taylor and W. B. Mer- 
rill for constructing and maintaining a 
•»7ater works and electric light plant. 

Danville, Va.— The contract for con- 
structing the new intakes for the new 
municipal pumping station was awarded, 
Jan. 8, to Charles Orchard for about 
$3,000. 

Kansas City, Mo.— The contract for con- 
structing a submerged pipe line under the 
Kaw river was awarded, Jan. 18, to Kah- 
mann & McMurry of this city for $24,000. 

Salt Lake City, Utah— The contract for 
water mains and sewer work curing 1904 
was awarded to James Kennedy & Co. of 
Fargo, N. D., for $24,486 and $20,301, re- 
spectively. 

St. Paul, Minn.— Contracts for laying a 
main in W. Seventh-st. were awarded, 
Jan. Uf as follows: Laying msSn, P. H. 
Thornton, $L89 a ft.; furnishing pipe. Din- 
wick Pipe Company of Birmingham, Ala. ; 
$23.35 per ton; hauling, Charles Forrestal 
& Co.; valves and service boxes. Crane & 
Ordway, $2,000; special castings, hydrants 
and cast iron pipe. South Park Foundry 
and Machine Company. 

Dayton, O.— Bids were submitted Jan. 19 
for furnishing %-in. water meters to this 
city. Henry W. Worthington of New 
York City furnished the lowest bid at 
$5.60 each. The Pittsburg Meter Com- 
pany, which has been furnishing the city 
with meters at $6.50 each, bid $6.25. The 
bids were as follows: 

Union • Meter Company, Worcester, 
Mass.— %-in. meters, $6.10 each; %, $10.90 
1-in., $19.15: 1%. $29.65; 2-in.. $44.90. 

M. J. Gibbons, Dayton— %. $6.45; %, $9.45 
1-in., $12.50; l^-in., $24; 2-in., $30. 

Pittsburg Meter Company, Pittaburg, 
Pa.-%. $6.25; %. $11.30; 1-in., $15.30; 1%, 
$27; 2-in., $45. 

Hersey Manufacturing Company, Bos 
ton-%. $8; %, $12; 1-in., $16; 1%, $30; 2-in. 
$50. 

Neptune Meter Company, New Tork 
City— %, $8.40; %. $12.50; 1-ln., $16.75; 1%. 
$35; 2-in., $55. 

Henrv R. Worthington. New York City 
-%, $5.60; %. $9; 1-ln., $13; 1%, $25. 

National Meter Company, New York 
City-%, $10.40; %. $15.60; 1-in., $20.80; 1%, 
$40; 2-in., $60. 

The BulTalo Meter Company of BulTalo, 
N. Y., bid on bulk lots as follows: 800 
(%-in. meters), $6,809.40; 20 (%-in. mete:s), 
$5,148.90. 



BRIDQMS, 

Linden. Tenn.— The county court has 



23, according to press reports, for building 
a bridge. 

Los Angeles, Cal.— Plans have been sub- 
mitted for constructing three bridges 
across the Los Angeles river. 

BoonviUe, Ind.— Bids are asked until 
March 7 for constructing an iron bridge. 
R. D. O. Moore, co. audt. 

Iowa City, la.— Plans and specifications 
are being prepared for a proposed con- 
crete viaduct on lowa-ave. 

Portland, Ore.— Bids are asked until 
Feb. 19 for a steel bridge at Thurman-st, 
Thos. C. Devlin, cy. audt. 

Kansas City, Kas.— Sealed bids are 
asked until 12 m. Feb. 1 for building two 
steel bridges. Frank Holcomb, co. elk. 

Cohoes, N. Y.— Plans have been pre- 
pared by City Engineer Van Auken for a 
bridge across the western branch of the 
Mohawk. 

Fargo, N. D.— A bill has been introduced 
asking for authority to build a bridge 
across the Missouri river at this place. 

Richmond, Ind.— City Engineer Weber 
has submitted several different plans for 
the proposer South Side bridge. 

Oshkosh, V/is.— Plans are being con- 
sidered for building a new bridge to re- 
place the one now crossing the river at 
Main-st. 

Dillon, Mont.— Bids are asked until Feb. 
15 for constructing a bridge across Big 
Hole river at Melrose. W. M. Oliver, 
chmn. CO. comrs. 

Somerset, Ky.— The county court has 
decided to build a modern steel bridge 
over the south fork of Cumberland river 
at Burnside. 

Neosho, Mo.— Bids are asked until Feb. 
5 for two bridges, one across Shoal creek 
and one across Capps creek. R. Fred 
Jones, rd. and br. comr. 

Crookston, Minn.- The county commis- 
sioners decided, Jan. 9, to build a new 
steel arch bridge across Red river, on 
Robert-st., in this city. 

Redding. Cal.— The contract for the big 
brick bridge over Calaboose creek, at 
Yuba-st., was awarded to Frank Thomp- 
son and Chris Stabler, for $628. 

Fall River, Mass.— A bill has been in- 
troduced appropriating $100,000 for build- 
ing a bridge across the Seaconnet river, 
between Tiverton and Portsmouth. 

Walpole, N. H.— The question of erect- 
ing a bridge over the Connecticut river, 
between North Walpole and Bellows 
Falls, is being discussed by the select- 
men. 

South Bend, Ind.— The contract for 
erecting a 700-ft. bridge across St. Joe 
river was awarded to the Lafayette En- 
gineering Company of Lafayette for $79.- 
200. 

Dayton, O.— Special— F. M. Turner, cy. 
engr., says that the contract for the 
Third-st. bridge was awarded to Charles 
H. Hoglen of this city. 

Houston. Tex.— Sealed bids are asked 



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the substructure for a new bridge on 
Evan-st, over Erie Canal. Francis G. 
Ward, comrs. pub. wks. 

Kankakee, 111.— Plans have been ac- 
cepted, according to press reports, for 
a concrete steel bridge across Kankakee 
river at Washington-st. J. E. Smith, 
chmn. com. pub. wks. 

Bloomfleld, Ind.— Bids are asked until 
Feb. 2 for constructing iron bridges in 
Jackson, Taylor and Stockton twps., and 
stone arches in Richland and Washing- 
ton twps. Co. comrs. 

Beaufort, S. C— The county comrs. will 
call for bids, according to press reports, 
to be received at April term of court, for 
building bridges , over Coosawhatchle 
river and Bee's creek. 

Atlanta, Ga.— A steel bridge will be 
constructed soon across the Chattahoo- 
chee river at the Mason and Turner 
Ferry, about nine miles from this city. 
Judge E. B. Rosser, chmn. com. on rds. 
and bridges. 

Washington. D. C— Sealed bids are 
asked until Feb. 16 for constructing a 7- 
span masonry bridge across the Rock 
Creek Valley, on the line of Connectlcut- 
ave. H. B. F. MacFarland, chmn. DIst. 
Comrs. 

Lyndon. Kas.— Bids are asked until 
Feb. 2 for constructing superstructure and 
reconstructing abutments and two piers 
for Wilden bridge over Marais des 
Cygnes River. Chas. F. Hobbs, co. elk. 

Buffalo, N. Y.— Special.— The D., L. & 
W. R. R. Co. has made application to 
the canal board of the state of New 
York for permission to elevate its track 
and to construct a stationary bridge over 
the Ohio Basin slip. 

Kansas City, Mo.— An ordinance was 
passed Jan. 18 authorizing the city en- 
gineer to prepare plans and speciflcatlons 
for an overhead viaduct and approaches 
to and over the tracks of the Kansas City 
Belt Line Railway Company on Broad- 
way. 

Cincinnati. O.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Feb. 6 for substructure and ap- 
proaches to bridge over Jordan creek on 
Jordan creek road; substructure of bridge 
across Great Miami river at Elizabeth- 
town; superstructure of Ellzabethtown 
bridge. E. L. Lewis, co. audt. 

Everett, Wash.— Cy. Engr. Barkhuff re- 
ceived word from the War Department, 
Jan. 13, stating that this city may pro- 
ceed with the construction of the pro- 
posed new bridge over the Snobhomish 
river, according to the plans submittM. 



RARK3. 



Peoria, 111.— The park board is consid- 
ering an offer that has been made it for 
establishing a park on the river front. 
B. F. Cartwright, secy. 

New York City— A large park has been 
dedicated to this city by James Gordon 
Bennett. It lies between the boulevard, 
Lafayette and Broadway, north of One 
Hundred and Eighty-second-st. 

Baltimore, Md. — City Solicitor Bruce 
will prepare a separate act for the pro- 
posed boulevard connecting the parks of 
this city. 



South Haven, Mich.— This village voted 
to Issue bonds for a new city park. 
Topeka, Kas. — This city will expend 



STRBBT UGHTINQ, 

Topeka, Kas.— Improvements to the ek-c- 
tric light plant are contemplated. 

Cripple Creek, Colo.— Mayor Shockey 
advises the erection of an electric light 
plant. 

Newport, Ky.— Mayor Helmbold advo- 
cates municipal ownership of an electric 
light plant. 

Churchville, N. Y.— The contract for 
street lighting has been awarded to Wil- 
liam Kates. 

Tallahassee, Fla.— This city voted to is- 
sue bonds for enlarging the electric light 
plant. 

Canton, Mo.— Bids are asked until Feb. 
3 for constructing an electric light plant. 
Town elk. 

Conyers, Ga.— This city has voted to is- 
sue 110,000 bonds for constructing an 
electric light plant. 

Pittsburg, Pa. — An ordinance was 
passed Jan. 11 authorizing a contract for 
street lighting for 1904. 

Hannibal, Mo.— This city voted Jan. 11 
to issue $100,000 bonds for constructing an 
electric light plant. 

Winston-Salem, N. C— W. T. Brown 
has been appointed to investigate the 
feasibility of an electric light plant. 

Shell Lake, Wis.— This town voted Jan. 
12 to borrow $10,000 to establish and equip 
an electric light plant. 

Oconomowoc, Wis.- The committee on 
electric lighting is considering four plans 
for Improving the electric light plant. 

Savannah, Ga.— In his annual report the 
director of public works recommends mu- 
nicipal ownership of an elertric light 
plant. 

Ft. Wayne, Ind.— Messrs. Schnitker and 
Clark of the town of New Haven are ag- 
itating the question of an electric light 
plant. 

Geneseo. 111.— The City Council voted 
Jan. 21 to cancel the contract with the 
Electric Light Company for lighting the 
streets. 

Lockport. N. Y.— The office, test-room 
and pipe-room of the Lockport Gas and 
Electric Light Company w.ere wrecked by 
an explosion Jan. 8. 

Columbus, Ind.— The contract for a new 
electrical light plant was awarded to the 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



Omaha, Neb.— This cicy Is considering: 
a proposition of the electric light com- 
pany to replace 388 gasoline lamps now 
in use with 32-c. p. incandescent lamps. 

Braddock, Pa.— The borough council 
adopted a resolution, Jan. 4, provldng for 
the appointment of a committee to in- 
quire into the cost of an electric light 
plant. 

Buffalo, N. Y.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Feb. 3 for electric work to be done 
at the Buffalo State Hospital. Carroll F. 
Smith, acting sec'y. State Comn. in 
Lunacy. 

Lansing. Mich.— The question of grant- 
ing a franchise for the operation of a 
heating and electrical power plant to 
John H. Chase and William L. Haag will 
be voted on Feb. 1. 

Cheyenne, Wyo.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Feb. 13 for wiring buildings and 
grounds, installing fixtures, arc lights, 
etc., at post of Fort D. A. Russell, Wyo. 
Capt. W. S. Scott, Q. M. 

Eau Claire, Wis.— The Trades and La- 
bor Council adopted a resolution Jan. 14 
against awarding the city lighting con- 
tract to the Eau Claire Light and Power 
Company, and in favor of municipal own- 
ership of a light plant. 

Beaver, Pa.— The citizens have appoint- 
ed John H. Eaton chairman and Aaron 
B. McGrew secretary of a committee to 
take action regarding the formation of a 
corporation to furnish electric light for 
the streets and houses. 

Alhambra, Cal.— Sealed bids are asked 
until Feb. 9 for a franchise to erect poles, 
string wires and construct underground 
conduits, and to maintain and operate 
same for 50 years for transmitting elec- 
tricity for light, heat and power. A. A. 
Clapp, Sr., cy. elk. 

Bufftilo, N. Y.—(SpecIal.)— Mayor Knight 
has signed the contract passed by the 
city council awarding to the Buffalo Gas 
Company the contract to light the city 
for 5 years, as follows: 1st yr., 79 cts. per 
1.000; 2nd yr., 78 cts.; 3rd yr., 77 cis.; 4th 
yr., 76 cts.; 5th yr., 75 cts. The city may 
use such burners and lamp heads as de- 
sired, and also pay gas company for 
lighting and extlnguishinfir and cleaning. 
17 cts. per lamp per month. 



1904 was awarded to the Indianapolis 
Street Sweeping Co. at 13.9 cts. per 
10,000 sq. ft. for each sweeping. 

BufTalo. N. Y.-(Special.)-Mayor Knight 
has signed the resolution passed by the 
common council to enter Into a contract 
with the Buffalo Sanitary Co. for clean- 
ing the streets of this city for five years 
for $450,000. 

Grand Rapids, Mich.— A council com- 
mittee has been appointed to investigate 
a report on the advisability of a munici- 
pal system of garbage collection. Secre- 
tary Brown of the board of health has 
sent letters to 21 cities asking for in- 
formation. 

Philadelphia. Pa.— The contracts for 
cleaning the city streets this year were 
awarded to E. H. Vare. Daniel Dooley, 
J. H. Hinckle & Co., David McMahon 
and Daniel J. McMahon. Under these 
contracts the city will pay $292.43 a mile 
more for street cleaning than it paid last 
year. 



QARBAQM DISR08AL, STRBBT 
::OLBANtNQ AND SPRINKLING. 

Harrisburg. Pa.— The contract for col- 
lecting garbage for 10 years was awarded 
to the Harrisburg Sanitary Co. at $28,080 
per year. 

Marlon, O.— (Special.)— George E. Dwyer, 
city engineer, says the city council and 
B. P. S. will build a garbage disposal 
plant this summer. 

St. Louis. Mo.— J. A. Worthlngton rep- 
resents a Denver syndicate which has 



FIRB ARRARATUS. 

Kensington, Minn.— The purchase of a 
chemical fire engine Is proposed. 

Rochester, Minn. — The purchase of a 
chemical Are extinguisher for the county 
poor farm is proposed. 

Ashland, Wis. — Bids are asked until 
Feb. 5 for a hose wagon and 2,000 feet of 
hose. W. W. Fisher, cy. elk 

Piqua, O.— (Special.)— J. A. Miles, clerk 
of Council, says the Central Fire Depart- 
ment and the sub-station is contemplated. 

East Grand ^ork, Minn.— Bids are asked, 
until 8 p. m., Feb 2. for 1,000 ft of wax 
and gum-treated lined cotton fire hoso. 
E. R. Jacobi, City Recorder. 

Belleville, N. J. — The Board of Fire 
Commissioners is considering the instal- 
lation, maintenance and operation of a 
Gamewell fire alarm system. 



TOO LATB FOR OLASSIFIOATION 

Toledo, O.— Resolutions were approved 
Jan. 20 for repaving eleven streets. 

Belleville, 111.— The Commercial Club Is 
In favor of paving the public square. 

Kansa.s City, Mo.— The property-owners 
on McGee-st.. from Eighth to Admiral 
boulevard, have petitioned for gi^unite 
block paving. 

Hancock, Mich.— The extension of the 
asphalt pavement on Quincy-st. about 
four or five blocks is contemplated for 
this spring. 

Mexico, Mo.— About nine blocks of 
vitrified brick or block paving in the 
business section of this city is contem- 
plated. 

Ogden City, Utah.— A resolution ha» 
been adopted \o repave Twenty-fifth-st, 
from Washington ir Wall-aves., with as- 
phalt. W. J. Crltchlow, cy. recorder. 



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Municipal Engineering 



VOLUME XXVI 



MARCH, NINBTBEN HUNDRED FOUR 



NUNBER THREE 



THE CEMENT SITUATION. 



The data gathered for the third edition 
of the "Directory of American Cement 
Industries" now in press and to be is- 
sued shortly, show conclusively the 
healthy condition of the cement trade 
and the good prospects for further rapid 
development, provided financial and la- 
bor troubles do not delay investment in 
construction of the many public and 
private v^orkii which are now necessary 
or will be in the liear future. 

The invasion of new fields of construc- 
tion and the more thorough covering of 
the old ones by cement promise some 
years of Increase in the demand which 
will tax the facilities of the existing 
companies and encourage the formation 
of new ones. The following tables will 
give a birdseye view of the past and a 
basis for some idea of what the imme- 
diate future will be. 

The first table gives the number of 
works, the product in barrels and the 
value of the cement in bulk for each year 
since 1895. The figures for 1903 are es- 
timates. The 63 in the column of "No. 
of Works" Is the number of the compa- 
nies manufacturing cement, and to be on 
the same basis as the other figures in 
the column should be increased by the 
number of plants operated by companies 
in addition to their original plans. This 
does not affect the total production, bui 
explains the discrepancy in number of 
plants. The product for 1903 is estimated 
at 1,000,000 barrels higher than the esti- 
mate made in February, 1903, ana 
is probably as conservative as the 
estimates made in the article on page 
83 of Municipal Engineering of that 
date. The great fluctuation in prices in 
1903 makes the assumption of an average 
price of bulk cement at the mill difficult. 
That assumed, $1.10 a barrel, may differ 
from the official report, as that may be 
Influenced by the date the reports are 
made. 



PRODUCTION AND VALUE OF PORT- 
LAND CEMENT IN THE 
UNITED STATES. 

No. of Product. 

Year. Works. Barrels. Value. 

1895 22 990.824 $1,586,880 

1896 26 1.543,028 2.424,012 

1897 29 2,677,775 4.816,8911 

1898 31 3,692,284 5,970,778 

1899 36 5,652.266 8,074,871 

1900 50 8,482,020 9,280,525 

1901 56 12,711,226 12.582,86(» 

1902 68 17.280.644 20,684.078 

1908 •eS 120.700,000 !22,77a000 

^Number of manufacturing companies. 
! Estimated. 

A t the close of 1903 there were 68 differ- 
ent companies manufacturing Portland 
cement in the United States, the number 
of works at different locations on the 
basis of the U. S. Qeoxoglcal Survey 
reports being larger by some 6 or 8. The 
maximum capacity of these companies, 
as taken from their reports to the Direc- 
tory, assuming 300 days as the length of 
the operating year, was 40.000,000 barrels 
a year. The estimated production of these 
companies was almost exactly half this 
capacity. Comparison of reported figtires 
for 1903 shows very nearly the same re- 
lation of capacity and actual production. 
There are several reasons for the differ- 
ence. Few plants can operate all their 
machinery fully 300 days a year. Many 
sections of plants have recently been 
thrown out of use for considerable 
periods to make changes in machinery 
or its arrangement or for the purpose of 
enlargement. Some companies have been 
In financial difficulties rrom faults of 
management or otherwise. Some have 
had difficulty in disposing of their prod- 
uct on account of local overstocking of 
market, deftotlve quality, etc. Some give 
the maximum capacity under forced 
speed which cannot be malntcdned con- 
tinuously. The labor troubles, as last 
year, cause general overstocking. The 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



sum of these effects cuts down the total 
production to about half the capacity. 

The reports indicate that there will bo 
8 or 10 new mills put in operation during 
1904. which will increase the capacity 
some 10 or 12 per cent. The average ca- 
pacity of the mills in operation is not 
quite 2,000 barrels a day. The average pro • 
duction, with figures for former years 
for comparison, Is given m the following 
table: 

AVERAGE PRODUCT PER MILL AND 
VALUE OP PORTLAND CEMENT. 

Av. Product Av. Value 

of Each Mill at Mill 

Year. Brls. a Day. Per Brl. 

1895 150 $1 60 

1896 197 1 67 

1897 308 1 61 

1898 397 1 62 

1899 523 1 43 

1900 565 1 09 

1901 757 99 

1902 912 1 21 

1903 •958 n 10 

•Estimated. 

For 1903 the average product is per com- 
pany.: that per mill would probably be 
about 900 barrels. The limit of increase 
in production per mill seems to be very 
nearly reached. The average capacity of 
the mills likely to go into operation in 

1904 is perhaps 100 barrels a day less than 
the average of those now in operation, 
and the aCverago production per mill, un- 
less there is a great demand for cemenC. 
in 1904 to crowd the mills, will not be 
greater than in 1903. 

There are very many companies listed 
in the Directory of American Cement In- 
dustries as projected, some being under 
construction. There are about thirty-five 
of these which state the proposed capac- 
ity of their mills, and, if constructed 
they would increase the total capacity of 
mills about 40 per cent. Very few, if any, 
of these will be completed in 1904 and but 
few more in 1905. Judging from the list 
of discontinued names of cement com- 
panies given in the directory, many of 
them will fall by the wayside. Some of 
the most promising pro.lects have not yet 
been put into official form and therefore 
do not appear In the lists. 

The foliowing table gives the data re- 
garding the actual consumption of ce- 
ment In the United States. The fig- 
ures for imported cement have been 
corrected for the years 1900 to 1902, de- 
ducting the amount of cement re-ex- 



tual domestic consumption and not the 
production and importation. Assuming 
the consumption of domestic Portland ce- 
ment to be 20,400,000 barrels In 1903, it 
will be seen that the increase in the use 
of domestic Portland cement has been 
very nearly 4,000,000 barrels each year 
since 1900. The increase in capacity ' by 
addition of new mills for 1904 Is but little 
more than four million barrels and the 
actual production will be somewhat less. 
The new works will therefore scarcely be 
able to take care of the Increase If it is 
equal in amount to that of the recent 
years. 

TOTAL CONSUMPTION OF CEMENT IN THE 
UNITED STATES. 



Year. 


Natural. 


I 


To 1880 


00 




1880 


00 




1881 


00 




1882 


00 




1883 


00 




1884 


00 




1885 


00 




1886 


52 




1887 


44 




1888 


95 




1889 


76 




1890 


04 




1891 


35 




1892 


81 




1893 


15 




1894 


88 




1895 


77 




1896 


50 




1897 


88 




1898 


24 




1899 


79 




1900 


19 




1901 


23 




1902 


05 




1903 


00 





233,000 
365,611 
272,689 
478,555 
1600,000 



fEstimated. 

The increase in the amount of imported, 
natural and puzzoian cements from 1901 
to 1902 Is about 2,200,000 barrels, of which 
1,000,000 barrels is in foreign cements. The 
increase in use of domestic Portland ce- 
ments from 1901 to 1902 of 4.500,000 barrels, 
shows a total increase In cement con- 
sumption of 6,700,000 barrels and Indicates 
the inability of the domestic plants to 
meet all the demands in 1902. 

The estimated increase in domestic use 
of domestic Portland cement from 1902 
to 1903 Is a little less than 4,000,000 bar- 
rels. The actual domestic consumption 
of foreign cements was practically the 
same as In 1902. The figures for con* 
sumption of natural cement are not avail- 
able, but expert estimates of one district 
indicate that the production for 1903 was 



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MUNICIPAL ENQINEERINQ, 



bor and flnancial troubles on the one 
hand, or by concerted restriction In pro- 
duction on the other, it seems probable 
that the plants in operation in 1904 will 
be practically equal to the demands made 
upon them. An increase in demand 
beyond that estimated is probable under 
favorable conditions and must be 
met, if it occurs, by importation 
largely. A decrease in demand, on 
account of decrease in construction, 
must be met by a restriction of 
production. Although this is a presiden- 
tial year the prospects for a good season 
in construction lines are excellent, and 
an increase in demand is more probable 
than a decrease. 

The following table gives the Increcise 
in the consumption of cement per capita 
in the United States: 

CONSUMPTION OP CEMENT IN 

UNITED STATES PER CAPITA 

OP POPULATION. 

Consumption, 
Pounds per Capita. 
Tear. Population. Portland. All Kinds. 

1880 50.155,783 1.7 13.1 

1890 62.622,250 13.8 45.5 

1900 75,559.258 54.7 87.8 

1902 78,611,628» 91.0 . 121.6 

'Estimated. 

There is still some room for displace- 
ment of natural cement by Port- 
land cement, though It is prob- 



able that the present use. of 
natural cement will not be very 
greatly diminished. The statement that 
Germany produced In 1900 136 barrels of 
Portland cement per capital indicates a 
chance for considerable expansion in Its 
use in this country. Germany uses 
cement largely for many purposes for 
which this country as yet uses only small 
quantities. On the other hand, this coun- 
try has extended some uses far beyond 
their application in other countries. It Is 
probable, therefore, that the per capita 
consumption of cement In this country 
will ultimately exceed that in Germany. 
Our export trade is but Just beginning 
and probably only requires cultivation to 
take a considerable percentage of our 
production. Until we can take care of 
the domestic demand It is not probable 
that much time and effort will b^ spent 
upon the foreign trade. 

The growth In the manufacture of 
puzzolan cement Is interesting. The 
capacity of the plants which will be in 
operation at some time during 1904 is fuUy 
1,600,000 barrels a year and the actual pro- 
duction will probably be materially 
greater than that estimated for 1908. 

The natural hydraulic cement mills 
have an actual capacity of approximately 
25.000,000 barrels a year. Their annual 
production is about 30 per cent of their 
capacity, as compared with 50 per cent 
for Portland cement plants. 



THE CONCRETE BRIDGE OF THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD 
OVER THE BIG MUDDY RIVER. 



In May, 1903, the Illinois Central Rail- 
road completed a bridge across the Big 
Muddy river in southern Illinois, made of 
concrete after designs and under the su- 
pervision of H. W. Parkhurst, Its engi- 
neer of bridges and buildings, which has 
some very interesting features. The 
bridge consists of three arches, each or 
140 feet span, resting on abutments at 
the ends 31 feet thick and two piers each 
21.5 feet thick. The piers and abutments 
were built around old stone structures 
which carried the former iron truss bridge, 



main arch was built in sections so as to 
form voussoirs, similar to the stones in a 
masonry arch, except that each one ex- 
tends the full width of the bridge. The 
order in which they were built was ar- 
ranged to load the centering symmetric- 
ally, and when half through to show al- 
ternate blocks completed. The first pair 
of blocks made were the skew backs, the 
second at the quarters, the third each 
side the keystone, the fourth and fifth 
pairs divided the spaces between those 
already laid, the sixth, seventh and eicrhth 



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CONCRETE BRIDGE OF THE I. C. R. OVER BIG MUDDY RIVER. 153 



ly 20 tons for each of the piles support- 
ing it. The photograph shows the projec- 
tion of the false work outside the face of 
the arch on which to support the forms 
for depositing the concrete and the plat- 
form for the workmen. Rather wet Port- 
land cement concrete, requiring little 
tamping, was used, and a facing about 
1^ inches thick of Portland cement mor- 
tar was deposited next the form at the 
same time. 

The second photograph shows one arch 
with the arch forms still in place and 
one with the arch forms removed and 



of the roadbed. They a. e covered by the 
extension upward of the abutment and 
pier ends. The space for expansion is 
filled with several thicknesses of corru- 
gated asbestos board which will compress 
and expand so as to keep foreign matter 
out, and sliding surfaces between the 
spandrel arch structure and the pier or 
abutment recess, in which the Joint is 
constructed, are provided, also pro- 
tected by asbestos board. The top 
of the Joint is '* covered by a 
lead plate with its edges set in 
the concrete some inches back from each 



II. • BIG MUDDY CONCRETE BRIDGE, ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD, 

Showing Concrete Mixing Platform to Which Derrick Delivered Materials. Concrete Was 
Wheeled From Platform to Place on Pier Shown Under Constmction. 



the forms for the spandrel arches in 
place. 

The base of the roadbed is about two 
feet above the highest point in the arch. 
The space between the level of the road- 
bed and the outer surface of the arch is 
filled in with spandrel arches as shown 
in the third view. This structure is a 
steel frame, a part of which is shown in 
the fourth view, surrounded with con- 
crete. It is made as flexible as possl- 



side of the Joint. The plate is folded 
down into the Joint two inches, forming a 
channel, which is filled with an asphalt 
composition, extending out to cover the 
entire lead plate. Observations showed 
a maximum movement at these expan- 
sion Joints of 0.012 feet for a 140-foot span 
between January and May, divided al- 
most equally between the two ends of 
the span. 
The spandrel arches are true arches 



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IIL BIG MUDDY CONCRETE BRIDGE, ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD. 

Showing Completed Maiu Arch and Completed End of Spandrel Arches of North Span« and 

Arch Vonssoir Molds in Place on Center Span. 



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ASPHALT PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE. 



156 



though the depth of the keystone is but 
five feet. 

The roadbed was raised about five feet 
and the old bridsre was raised to carry 
trains during the construction of the new 
one. This made it possible to construci 
the main arches completely in one oper- 
ation. The spandrel arches for half the 
width of the bridge were then completed 
and trains run over that half. The old 
trusses were then removed and the 
spandrel arches were completed. This is 
seen in the fourth view. 

The fifth view shows the east side of 
the bridge with the main arches com- 
pleted. The general plan of the center- 
ing is shown in the nearby span: though 
much of it has been removed. The cen- 
tering for the center span is shown sup- 
ported on plate girders of 60 feet span 
over th^i water in the stream. There 
were 10 of these girders. At the time 
this picture was taken the spandrel 
arches of the west half of the bridgi 



were completed and" nearly ready for the 
passage of trains. 

The total cost of the bridge was $126. OOb 
The railroad company furnished and 
drove the piles, raised the old bridge and 
removed it. removed the falsework and 
cleaned up. laid the temporary track on 
the west half of the bridge «vnd did many 
odd Jobs at a cost of 134.402. under the 
unfavorable conditions of railroad work. 
The steel cost 14.461, crushed stone 17,200. 
$6,700 Was allowed for engineering and 
sundries and the concrete contractor was 
paid $72,128. The cost of details is re- 
ported as follows: 5.000 cubic yards of 
excavation for fundations at 76 cents; 
12,000 cubic yards of concrete at $4 to $10 
a yard, averaging $5.43; 300,000 pounds of 
steel at 1.2 cents a pound and 0.61 cents 
for handling fitting and erecting. 

We are indebted to Mr. H. W. Park- 
hurst for information and to the G^er- 
man- American Portland Cement Com- 
pany, whose "Owlcement" was used ex- 
clusively, for the accompanying illustra- 
tions. 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE. 



By F. O. Blake, Cincinnati^ Ohio. 



Now that we have induced the property 
owners in our American cities to pay 
over $100,000,000 for asphalt paving, and 
as the period for which the contractor 
agreed to maintain it has expired on a 
large percentage of it, we are confronted 
with a new problem, that of maintaining 
it properly. This is a business proposi- 
tion and must be met fqirly and squarely 
by the city officers chargeable with 
such responsibilities, and much depends 
upon the result of their efforts. 

The system thus far commonly used 
has been to contract with paving contract- 
ors to make repairs after holes have worn 
into the pavement, limiting the work, as 
near as possible, to the size of the hole, 
and to pay for the work performed 
by the square yard. There are many se- 
rious objections to this system. It is the 
wrong time to make a repair after a hole 
has developed, for it will then require 



is apt to reduce the amount of asphalt 
used in the mixture or to adulterate 
what he does use. 

The contractor must make it pay or go 
to the wall. An asphalt mixture can be 
produced for $2 per ton or it may cost 
$10 per ton, depending on the material 
used. It is a temptation for a contrac- 
tor to use the $2 mixture in repair work, 
especially when he is not held responsible 
for the results; when it is to his interest 
to have the pavement go to pieces that he 
may reconstruct it. There are honest 
paving contractors, but human nature is 
weak and we are apt to consider our own 
selfish Interests first when there Is a 
conflict. This is not said to reflect on the 
Integrity of the contractor, but to show 
that it is not to his interest to have a 
pavement everlasting and that his and 
the taxpayers* interests are not identical. 

Along this line of reasoning can be 



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ROAD MAKING IN BUXTON, ENGLAND. 



157 



structed and the property owner is aeraln 
called on to pay the bill. This system is 
wroniTt and the political party in power 
must be held i^esponsible for its continu- 
ance. Pavement should be maintained to 
a certain standard; it should be free from 
holes, waves, cracks or other defects; it 
should be as smooth as a billiard table. 
This condition is not possible under the 
present system of making: repairs. Some 
system of constant renewal and of mak- 
ing repairs at the proper time must be 
adopted; the repair must be made when It 
is possible to make it with ten pounds in- 
stead of waiting until It requires two 
hundred and fifty pounds per square yard. 
By such a system it will b^ easy to main- 
tain a pavement in perfect condition at 
less than half its present cost of main- 
tenance. 

I think the best results are to be had 
by adopting one of two methods; one is 
for the city to own and operate its 
asphalt mixing and maintenance plant, 
the other is to contract with competent 
parties to do the work by "force ac- 
count." 

The municipal ownership proposition 
has some good and many poor features. 
One advantage is that you are certain to 
get the material you pay for and as much 
as you mfifi. and, more Important than 
all other considerations, you can make 
the repair early and the pavement can be 
maintained to any standard desired. Such 
a policy will have the support of the 
property-owner and the public at large, 
but the opposition of the contractor 
whose interest it is to reconstruct. One 
objection to the municipal ownership 
proposition is that it requires skilled 



labor to operate it, one man of whom 
should be an expert and able to make 
chemical analyses and physical tests of 
the asphalt. Such men command large 
annual salaries and but a few cities have 
enough work to warrant the expense. 
Another bad feature about the municipal 
ownership plan is, that it is apt to be- 
come a political machine and be loaded 
down with political pensioners. Such a 
condition will give worse results than 
the present very poor system. 

The advantages named above all apply 
to the second or "force account" propo- 
sition and it is free from the objections 
named. The "force account" proposition 
contemplates that the contractor shall 
furnish all machinery, tools, appliances, 
and the skilled labor necessary to do the 
work; the city pays all material and la- 
bor bills and the contractor is paid _a 
reasonable per cent, on the gross amount 
for the use of his appliances and for su- 
pervision. By this proposition the city 
has no money tied up in machinery or 
tools, and receives the benefit of the ex- 
pert labor without having to maintain 
a large salary roll. Asphalt pavement 
maintenance is now as much of a special- 
ty as any other branch of municipal en- 
gineering and calls for a high class of 
ability and technical knowledge in this 
line. 

Under this "force account" proposition, 
the city has complete control of the work, 
as much so as if it owned the plant. It 
pays for what it gets and no more. It is 
Just to all parties. It is in the interest of 
the taxpayer and all others. It Is one 
solution of the asphalt pav^nent main- 
tenance problem. 



ROAD MAKING IN BUXTON, ENGLAND. 



By John ffatton, Mem. San. InsL, Assistant Town Surveyor. 



Tarred macadam is attracting increased 
attention by reason of its hygienic prop- 
erties, non-absorbent surface and low 
cost. Good roads are appreciated every- 
'where but perhaps nowhere more than 
in a health or pleasure resort. Buxton, 
the famous English Spa, early adopted 
tarred macadam. Situated In the heart of 
a limestone district the best possible 
rock is ready to hand. Tarred macadam 
Is eminently adapted for the light busi- 
ness and carriage traffic of a non-manu- 
facturing town. The even surface se- 
cures smooth running of vehicles, it is 
much quieter than ordinary dry ma- 
cadam, wears longer, malces little dust 
and mud and if well laid does not form 



into caps and hollows. A tarred ma- 
cadam roadway can be easily cleaned 
with horse brush and hose or water van; 
as a healthy road surface it competes 
closely with natural asphalt and. in that 
it is far less slippery during rain or fog, 
scores a point over the more costly road- 
way—but even tarred macadam is barely 
safe on a steeper grade than 1 in 20. 

Tarred macadam presents good features 
for sidewalks. In roads overhung wk.* 
trees its use avoids the unsightly and 
sometimes dangerous channels caused by 
water dropping from the branches. 
Water, whether from clouds or trees, 
runs off tarred macadam, and leaves it 
clean and fresh. 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



Limestone is one of the best rocks for 
tarred macadam. Granite is certainly a 
harder stone, but it does not absorb the 
tar to the same extent. An experimenUil 
length of roadway will soon show wheth- 
er the right rock has been selected. Clean 
stone is essential to success. Clay, earth 
or even quarry sap proves fatal to good 
work and leads to rapid decay. The stone 
must be dry before being tarred and if 
slightly warm requires less labor in mix- 
ing and can be more evenly coated with 
tar mixture. Too great a heat, however, 
partially disintegrates the stone and ren- 
ders it useless. 

In Buxton direct labor is employed in 
all municipal departments. The tarred 
macadam works are under the control of 
Town Sui-veyor William Hedley Grieves, 
Hon. Fel. Inst. San. Engrs., Mem. 
San. Inst., etc.. and produce by the sale 
of material a handsome profit for High- 
ways Department. 

The rock is quarried by gelignite blast- 
ing sjid run on an overhead tramroad to 
the crusher platform, where it Is dumped. 
The crusher, driven by a water wheel, is 
fed from the platform and, after crush- 
ing, the stone is automatically screened 
into separate compartments. Nothing is 
wasted; the dust is used in place of sand 
in making concrete and for veneering 
tarred macadam sidewalks. From the 
screening bins the stone and gravel are 
harrowed to the drying shed, there to be 
thoroughly dried and slightly warmed on 
the hot iron floor. Even drying through- 
out a large heap of stone or gravel may 
be obtained by occasionally turning the 
mass over, but a greater depth on the 
drying floor than one foot is not econom- 
ical. The drying shed floor is built of iron 
plates laid on low brick walls. All the 
plates are removable for cleaning and the 
spaces between the low walls form flues 
conveying heat to dry the stone above. 
A tar boiler, fed from the store tank, is 
under the same roof as the drying floor. 
Great care is necessary in boiling the tar 
to the right consistency. Unless the light 
oils are all expelled the macadam is soft 
and wears badly; If the heavy oils are 
also driven off bv too lonir boilintr the 



rowed to the mixing plates, 4 feet by 4 
feet sheet iron plates, laid in f^ ont of the 
store shed. One man brings a barrow of 
stone or gravel and dumps it on the plate, 
the tar man then pours a bucket of hot 
tar mixture over the heap and two mix- 
ers immediately follow and by repeated 
shovelings mix the stuff until every lit- 
tle stone is coated. The tarred macadam 
is then thrown to the store heap and 
kept in stock for three weeks or longer 
to allow the stone to become thoroughly 
saturated with the mixture. At the side 
of each mixing plate is a small coke fire, 
in which the shovels are heated from time 
to time. This prevents the tar sticking 
and lessens labor. The store shed floor 
may be either concrete, tarred macadam 
or iron plates, the latter in preference. 

Power-driven machine mixers are de- 
sirable for very large consumers, but the 
method of hand-mixing described will be 
found economical for towns of moderate 
size. 

Roadways are formed on solid rubble 
foundation leveled up to a true cross sec- 
tion and rolled. A 4-inch layer of tarred 
IH-lnch stone is laid on the rubble, raked 
even and rolled and this is followed by a 
1-inch coating of tarred H-lnch gravel, 
and the surface is Anally rolled. A 10- 
ton roller is sufficiently heavy for tarred 
macadam carriage roads. 

Sidewalks are laid in a similar manner, 
except that the surface is finished with 
a ^inch coating of tarred ^-inch gravel 
laid on top of the H-lnch stuff. Each 
layer is rolled separately and the whole 
rolled finally with a one-ton manual 
roller. The dark appearance of sidewalks 
may be partly avoided by sprinkling the 
top coat before the final rolling with 
white or colored dry gravel, but this 
must be done sparingly or the advantage 
of tarred macadam will, in a great meas- 
ure, be lost. 

When the sidewalk gets worn slippery 
the surface should be thoroughly cleaned, 
fioated with boiling tar mixture and 
sprinkled with limestone dust and traf- 
fic kept off until the tar has set. The 
mixture for veneering is the same as that 
used for making tar macadam. This 



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FL/JQ nOLO 







FIG. 1. MOLD POR CONCRETE SIDEWALK FLAGS, BUXTON, ENG. 



COnCRETE I^ERB nOLD 



T ii Tuf ■ i f '^ 




FIG. 2. MOLD FOR CONCRETE CURB. BUXTON. ENG. 



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100 



MUNICIPAL ENQINEERINQ. 



Ing. Rain, great heat or frost during lay- 
ing Is fatal to permanent work. A fairly 
wcu*m spell with slight wind Is the best 
time for laying tarred macadam. 
Thorough rolling Is essential and If the 
material sticks to the roller water must 
not be used to get It off. A dry scraper 
gives the best results, although some en- 
gineers uso creosote. Lastly, trafllc 
should be kept ofT the road until the sur- 
face has set. Too early use leads to the 
formation of ridges and consequent rapid 
wear. Should the roadway be much cut 
up by the first few days' traffic it will 
pay to send the roller to smooth all down 
again before the surface has set quite 
hard. 

Cost will naturally vary to a great ex- 
text in different districts. The tables 
below are taken from some recent cost 
sheets from the Buxton Works. Road- 
ways average about half a dollar per 
square yard to form, exclusive of rubble 
foundation, and to relay the whole sur- 
face from 24 cents per square yard. Foot- 
ways cost practically the same amount. 

Cost of tarred %-lnch gravel at works: 

6 men working half hour |0.26 

9.75 gallons tar mixture 18 

1 ton %-lnch limestone gravel 74 

IL12 
Cost of Veneering Footpaths: 

Manual labor, 80 hours 18.20 

Team labor, 10 hours 2.40 

7.78 tons limestone dust, at .72 5.60 

228.21 gallons tar mixture, at .07 15.96 

Cost of veneering 1,000 sq. yds. .$32.16 
Only Just over tb^ee cents per square 
yard. 

Concrete Sidewalks. Sidewalks In the 
main business streets of Buxton Are 
paved with artificial flags manufactured 
by the Town Council employes. Finding 
natural flags costly and in some respects 
unsatisfactory. Town Surveyor William 
Hedley Grieves experimented with lime- 
stone gravel and Portland cement and* 
proving that a pavement of smooth sur- 
face, hard wear and about one-third the 
cost of York flag could be produced, ad- 
vised his Council to adopt artificial flags 
for sidewalks. This paving is less slippery 
than natural stone and much more pleas- 
ant to walk upon. The flags were so 
RAtlRfnotnrv Afl tn noon lead to the adon- 



now the paving in front of important 
public buildings and in mam business 
thoroughfares is chiefly laid in this ma- 
terial. 

Cab ranks, unless well paved and fre- 
quently swilled with a deodorant, are a 
proliflc source of complaint. The many 
stands in Buxton are paved with imperv- 
ious concrete block, manufactured in the 
same way as the flags, and can be easily 
kept clean and free from odor. The 
blocks are made fifteen inches square by 
three inches thick and cross-grooved on 
the surface to afford a good foothold for 
horses. 

Limestone, from an adjoining quarry, 
is used entirely for the aggregate and 
Portland cement of flrst-class quality 
for the matrix. The crusher screen Is 
arranged to give ^-inch gravel and dust 
together, which is harrowed to the pav- 
ing shop and mixed in the proportion of 
three of aggregate to one of Portland ce- 
ment by measure. The molds are laid 
on a smooth floor, preferably of iron 
plates, sprinkled with limestone dust to 
prevent sticking and hand fllled with 
concrete which is well worked down and 
the surface struck off and floated smooth. 
After setting for 24 aouts the molds are 
taken off and used again. The flag re- 
mains on the floor for another day. It 
is then taken to the open stone yard and 
allowed to become thoroughly hard by 
maturing for six months. 

The flags are made from 2 feet to 3 feet, 
by 1 foot 6 Inches, by 2^ and 3 inches 
thick, and the curb 9* inch by 7-inch sec- 
tion in 2 feet to 3 feet lengths. 

The molds are made in 3-inch pine with 
wrought iron straps across each end. 
Figs. 1 and 2 show molds for flag and 
curb. 

All the sections are made in the same 
manner, thicker blocks requiring a pro- 
portionately longer time to dry and ma- 
• ture. 

Figs. 3 and 4 show the construction of 
roadways and sidewalks in Buxton. Cab 
rank blocks are laid on 6 inches of lias 
lime concrete. Both sidewalks and cab 
ranks have the Joints made in Portlanvl 
cement. 

The cost at the shop works out at 
about half a dollar per square yard for 
2U.inch flasr and the same sum per lineal 



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4 



3! 

'ft 
!5 



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1G2 MUNICIPAL ENGINEEBINQ. 



THE CONCRETE STANDPIPE AT MILFORD, OHIO. 

The accompanying cuts ate taken from ries that thickness for thirty feet, when It 

photographs of the Mllford, O., stand- is reduced to seven Inches and again at 

pipe which was recently constructed by flfty-flve feet It Is reduced to five inches. 

Mr. J. L. H. Barr of Batavia, O., of the reduction being made on the Inside 

steel concrete, under the Weber system. each time. 

The standplpe Is eighty-one feet from The wall is reinforced with steel "tees" 

the base to the roof. The roof has a 1 Inch by l\i Inches set about three inches 

spring of three feet, making a total hight from the outer circumference of the wall, 

of eighty-four feet. The outside diam- being placed both horizontally and per- 

eter Is fifteen and a half feet. The wall pendlcularly, thus forming a net work 

Is nine Inches thick at the base and car- of the steel. The horizontal tees are 



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THE CONCRETE STANDPIPE AT MILFORD, OHIO. 



163 



placed <:lo8er at the bottom than at the 
top. 

The intake pipe extends eighteen inches 
above the bottom of the tank, and the 
overflow pipe to within eighteen inches of 
the top, giving seventy-eight feet of 
available water space. 

These pipes as well as the washout 
pipe are imbedded in the concrete foun- 
dation, which is six feet deep, of octagon 
shape with an inscribed diameter of 
twenty feet. The top of the base is 
troweled smooth and the standpipe pro- 
per is washed with neat cement. 

The foundation is ma4e of concrete in 
proportions one part cement to seven 
parts gravel. And the wall is one part 
cement to three parts clean sharp sand. 

The forms were made of 1^-lnch floor- 
ing three inches wide and cut to three 
feet in length for staves, and nailed to 



ribs 4x4 inches. The top rib extended 
one inch above the top of the staves 
forming a rabbet to receive the bottom 
of the next form when placed on top of 
it. Three sets of forms were used, each 
set consisting of an outer and an inner 
form, and each divided into eight sections 
for convenience in handling. These sec- 
tions are held together by specially pre- 
pared latches. 

A ladder extends from the bottom of 
the tank on the inside to the top and 
down again on the outside to within ten 
feet of the base. 

The structure was completed without a 
pause or an accident of any kind. 

This class of construction will evidently 
supersede steel for the same purpose, as 
the cost is about the same and they are 
practically indestructible. 




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EDITORIAL 
COMMENT 




What is a Civil En^neer? 
nunidpal Pra8:raiii. 
Fireproof Buildings. 



WHAT 18 A CIVIL ENGINEER? 

The discussion over the Union Engin- 
eering Building and the apparent objec- 
tion of many members of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers to leaving 
their present home for the new house to 
be occupied by the principal national so- 
cieties, has brought into prominence the 
definition of Civil Engineering. The prin- 
cipal reason for this is the adherence of 
prominent engineers to the comprehensive 
Tredgold definition of seventy-five years 
ago, as the art of directing the great 
sources of power in nature for the use 
and convenience of man. 

The name civil engineering was first 
assumed to distinguish it from military 
engineering, which was the first field to 
which the term engineering was applied. 
Military engineering may also be, said to 
be included in the Tredgold definition, so 
that the Institution of Civil Engineers 
and the American Society of Civil Engin- 
eers are right in admitting military en- 
gineers to membership. In this country 
of peace most of the work of engineers 
of the War Department is strictly civil 
engineering in its classification. 

In its early history all branches of 
engineering work then known were as- 
sumed by the civil engineer. One man 
could learn all that was known and have 
time to put in practice what he knew 
and add to the sum of knowledge. After 
a time the work of the civil engineers 
developed a class of men who operated 
the machines made necessary to aid him, 
and they in turn developed new appli- 
cations of machinery and a special de- 
partment of mechanical engineering 
which concerned itself mamly with the 
problen^s of machinery. These expert 
mechanicians and the engineern devel- 
oped in the same special field became 
numerous enough to form a guild ^f their 
own and the profession of mechanical en- 
gineering was established. When elec- 



the gas engineers, the sanitary engineers, 
the municipal engineers, the* bridge en- 
gineers, in some coilntry or another have 
their separate organizations, most of 
them having special organizations in this 
country. The architect originally was a 
combination of architect and engineer. 
There has been a strong tendency to em- 
phasize the artist In the combination to 
the detriment of the engineer, but modem 
architecture is emphasizing the engineer- 
ing side, sometimes, unfortunately, to 
the exclusion of the artistic. 

Each of these subordinate divisions of 
the engineering profession contains with- 
in its membership true engineers under 
the definition of civil engineering given, 
and also many experts in the technical de- 
tails of the profession who are mechan- 
icians, electricians, plumbers, draftsmen.' 
surveyors, 1. e., artisans, expert Indeed, 
and thoroughly well informed, but not 
engineers, any mord than the expert 
stone cutter who does the manual labor 
upon a statue Is a sculptor. 

There is room for a term which shall 
designate the true engineers in all these 
various professions, so-called, and will 
distinguish them from the great numbers 
of subordinate workers with which they 
are associated in their special lines. The 
time-honored term is civil engineering, 
and, while there might be a better, it is 
appropriate and may well be retained. 
The American. Society of Civil Engineers 
followed the British InsUtuUon of Civil 
Engineers in this fundamental definition 
and should retain .it. Its constitution 
makes the engineers in all the fields of 
mechanics, electricity, shipbuilding, mines, 
architecture, army and navy, eligible to 
membership. The mechanicians, electri- 
cians, ship carpenters, mine bosses, 
draftsmen, surveyors, drill masters and 
sailing masters have a proper place with 
the engineers in their various fields in the 
societies rep/'esenting these various 
branches of engineering, but they 



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EDITORIAL COMMENT. 



165 

\ 



American Society of Civil Engineers Is 
founded. If the society has departed 
therefrom In any degree it Is because It 
hap had a tendency to accept the forma- 
tion of the societies in the special 
branches of engineering activity as com 
plete and permanent separations from 
what is really the parent body. Its true 
position Is that of central organ 'zation 
containing the master minds in all the 
other societies and aiding and fostering 
the development of each and all of them. 

It represents the entire engineering pro- 
fessions, not what is left after electrical, 
mechanical, mining, military, water- 
works, gas, sanitary and bridge engineers 
have been taken away. 

These various branches of engineering, 
and others yet to come, form their spe- 
cial societies when they And the need of 
them, for a comparatively sm^all num- 
ber of the members are eligible to mem- 
bership in the Society of Engineers and 
the new society Is necessary to the fur- 
ther advancement of the profession. It 
does not mean separation from the par- 
ent society, but, on tiie other hand, 
should mean co-operation with it and 
extension of its influence and work. 

The engineering profession began In a 
unity due to ix lack of know-ledge; it is 
now passing through a stage of aiverslty 
owing to the vast Increase in knowledge 
and the opening possibJllties of still great- 
er advance; there are signs that it will 
return within a reasonable time to the 
unity brought about by a clearer under- 
standing of the true meaning and value 
of the Tredgold definition. 



THE MUNICIPAL PROGRAM. 

One of the most important subjects 
which the National Municipal League has 
under consideration is what it styles the 
municipal program, and much of its most 
valuable work has been done ii* .- 
ucating the public up to the advisability 
of the adoption of a well considered plan 
for municipal improveiA.en.s. mat the cm- 
glneerlng features may be properly taken 
care of, that the artistic aide of the in- 
dividual structures may be fully devel- 
oped and, what is still more extent! i. i 
more likely to be neglected, that a well 
designed whole may be put up as the 
ultimate goal to be reached, so that all 
individual structures may be in accord- 
ance therewith and the full effect of all 
details be secured through their con- 
formity to the organic whole. 

The arguments for the municipal pro 
gram are not wholly those of enhanced 
beauty of the city, though these argu- 
ments are certainly very weighty. In al- 



most every case the argument drawn 
from cold cash Is even stronger. The only 
difficulties in secu-lng the acceptance of 
this argument have been the lack of 
knowledge of history by the ordinary mu- 
nicipal officials, and the necessity of pay- 
ing for the preparation of the great plan. 
Though slight in comparison with the 
savings it will insure, the proximity of 
this expense and the fact that it usually 
does not apply directly to the construc- 
tion of some immediate improvement con- 
ceal the greater benefits in the future. 
The penny-wise and pound-foolish prov- 
erb and the dollar concealing the sun are 
directly applicable. 

Two recent disasters on very different 
scales give opportunity for the adoption 
of two municipal programs, and may 
serve as examples of the very different 
ways in which the principles may be ap- 
plied, thus suggesting to other cities the 
possibilities in their own cases and the 
opportunities for originality in their pro- 
grams and in the methods of carrying 
them out. 

The first, and greatest. Is the Balti- 
more fire. The city of Baltimore has 
been hampered In Its development, as 
was the city of Boston, by the narrow- 
ness of the plan on which It was origln- 
allly laid out. Moreover. It has been 
veiy backward in the adoption of such 
Improvements as sanitary sewers, mod- 
ern pavements, electric wire conduits 
and transportation facilities. The wip- 
ing out of the business portion of the 
city with the exception of the handfnl 
of fire-proof buildings, gives an oppor- 
tunity for the adoption of a comprehen- 
sive municipal program which has not 
been possible in any of the older cities 
since the Boston fire. The street plan 
can now be revised In the burnt district, 
which was the most congested business 
district. In accordance with the most 
modern ideas. There are no sewers nor 
pavements worthy the name which will 
interfere. The new sewer system, which 
has been so long under consideration, 
can easily be changed to fit the new plan, 
and the new streets can be paved with 
the best materials for their respective 
uses. At the same time it is possible to 
put in the new plan for the streets, the 
sewers, the conduits, and to follow them 
promptly with the pavements. The op- 
portunity for making a new Baltimore is 
wonderful and questions of present ex- 
pense and comparatively slight delay 
should not be permitted to stand in the 
way of the preparation of such a plan by 
experts In these lines. A general man- 
ifestation of public spirit equal to that 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



of a few of Its -citizens will insure vast 
future benefits to the city, the opportun- 
ity for which may otherwise be lost 
forever. 

On a far smaller scale, the wholesale 
wrecking of bridges in Indianapolis by 
the spring floods has given that city an 
opportunity at far less expense, and with 
far less restriction on account of neces- 
sity for immediate rebuilding, to prepare 
and put up as a model to which to ap- 
proximate, a comprehensive plan for 
bridges over the streams in the city and 
for the protection and beautification of 
their beds and banks. The division of re- 
sponsibility for these improvements is 
greater in this case than in the much 
greater problem befor*) Baltimore, and 
the education of the public at large la 
therefore still more necessary. 

The newly formed Indianapolis Civic 
Improvement Association has taken the 
matter up, and, through its committee 
on bridges, has shown the desirability of 
a general plan for the improvements 
mentioned, and the ultimate economy of 
working to such a plan. The division of 
responsibility concerning the conatruction 
of a few bridges which are needed at 
the earliest possible moment may prevent 
the full consummation of the associa- 
tion's wishes, but the agitation is a popu- 
lar one and will have a favorable effect 
upon such constructions as are now in 
contemplation. 

There is scarcely a city which cannot 
form a municipal program upon some 
line between that of reform of municipal 
government on the plans of the National 
Municipal Licague, revising and rebuild- 
ing of the city, fortunately on a smaller 



scale than Baltimore finds necessary, im- 
proving and beautifying the city's water- 
ways and their crossings as Indianapolis 
proposes, with great advantage to its ap- 
pearance and nearly always with equal 
advantage to its munldpea treasury. 



FIRE-PROOF BUILDINGS. 

The newspaper reports that fire- 
proof buildings burned in the Bal- 
timore fire as readily as any 
others led to some investigation of 
the question, and while all the results 
have not been received at this date, 
enough have come to hand to show that 
th» fire-proof buildings have come 
through the furnace lu a condition far 
better than might have been expected. 
There were but six o> eight such fire- 
proof buildings in the bume<i dlstrSct, and 
they stand as strong evidence of the 
value of this method of construction. A 
few more such as those which passed 
through the fire with the loss of every- 
thing combustible in them and with com- 
paratively little damage to the buildings 
themselves, and like the court house and 
postofilce, which, with the open spaces 
about them, prevented the spread of the 
fire in their direction, would have made 
a different story. This subject will be con- 
sidered more In detail nereafter. It is 
desirable, at tills time and at all times, 
that the practical s«jccess of fire-proof 
construction In such a fire be emphasised, 
and that the misstatements of the dally 
press with reference to them be corrected 
as promptly ajid as vigorously as possi- 
ble. 




THE QUESTION 
DEPARTMENT 



BOOKS ON STEIEL CONCRETE CON- 
STRUCTION. 

Will you kindly give us a list of books 
published that treat on concrete con- 
struction in connection with steel and 
expanded metal? 



Researches on Reinforced Concrete" (|2> 
is a translation from the French of Con- 
sidere which has recently been pub- 
lished. 

There are many papers in the proceed- 
ings of various societies uoon the sublect 



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THE QUESTION DEPARTMENT. 



167 



suit the list under the heading, "Con- 
crete-Steel Arch Bridges, " in the "Busi- 
ness Directory" elsewhere In this num- 
ber of Municipal Engineering. See the 
list of "Articles on Reinforced Concrete" 
in the answer to C. H. Sonn tag's ques- 
tion. 

♦ ' 

ARTICLES ON REINFORCED 
CONCRETE. 

As we have had several inquiries re- 
cently with reference to the application 
of reinforced concrete and the calcula- 
tion of its strength, we should be pleased 
to receive a list of articles which have 
appeared in your magazine on this sub- 
ject. C. H. SONNTAQ. 
Castalia, O. 

The principal articles on the subject of 
concrete-steel construction which have 
appeared in Municipal Engineering are 
the following: 

"Westvale Concrete Bridge," vol. xxil, 
p. 137; "Comparison of Stone and Con- 
crete Arch Bridges," vol. xxli, p. 150; "Me- 
lan Arches in Indianapolis," vol. xx, p. 68; 
"Highway Bridges of Concrete," vol. xix, 
p. 388; in vol. xxiii, "Concrete and Me- 
lan Arches," p. 108; ''Tests of Reinforced 
Concrete Beams," p. 126; "Concrete-Steel 
Bridges," p. 155; "Dimensions of Concrete 
Arches," p. 199; "A Small Concrete 
Arch," p. 477; in vol. xxlv, "Concrete 
Building Construction," p. 88; "Concrete- 
Steel Arch Bridges," p. 127; "A Few Ap- 
plications of doncrete Steel in Building," 
p. 128; "The Melan Arch Patent," p. 191; 
"Concrete Sewers," p. 253; "An Applica- 
tion of Concrete-Steel Construction to Re- 
taining Walls," p. 287; "Some Uses of 
Concrete," p. 422; in vol. xxv, "The Con- 
crete Sewer on North western-ave., Indian- 
apolis," p. 182; "The Construction of the 
Sixty-inch Reinforced Conduits of New- 
ark, N. J.;" in vol. xxvi. "Some Details 
of the Philadelphia Water Filtration 
Plants," p. 82. 

There are many more articles on ce- 
ment and on concrete without reinforce- 
ment. 

. » 

WASH OR PAINT FOR CONCRETE. 

I would like to know the best wash or 
paint to cover concrete wont. Give me the 
proportions and kind of material. 

1 F. B. PARKS, 

Valparaiso, Ind. 

The answer to thi« question will depend 
upon the necessity i*or the coating. A sim- 
ple coat of whitewash, of lime with a 
little cement added, mlgnt answer for 
some purposes. The concrete may be 
painted the same as wood or iron if it is 
a front of a building or is the wall of a 
room. If a waterproof coating is desired 



and the wall was not finished with a 
coat of water-tight mortar when it was 
constructed, Sylvester's process may be 
used, applying first a coat of % pound of 
castlle soap to 1 gallon of water as Lot 
as possible, rubbing to a lather with a 
stiff brush, and after 2S4 nours a second 
coat of ^ pound of alum to 4 gallons of 
water. Three applications of each coating 
alternately at intervals of 24 hours should 
make any surface waterproof. If none of 
these suggestions meet the case, the 
exact 'reason for the coat should be 
stated. 



EFFECT OF OIL ON CONCRETE 
FLOOR. 

I should very much like to know what 
effect lubricating dH has on cement con- 
crete floors in machine shops, from some 
one who has had actual experience, to- 
gether with the name and location of the 
shop. H. J. C. Cincinnati, O. 

This question is referred to our readers. 
There are certainly many floors in ma- 
chine shops and some' of our subscribers 
can report their observations. The only 
report in Municipal Engineering is in voL 
xxiil, p. 81, where tallow on a concrete 
floor made the surface quite porous. The 
top coat was made 1 cement to 1^ sand 
and a damp covering- was kept on the 
concrete for a week after it was laid. 



MAGAZINES DEVOTED TO CEMENT. 

Can you give the addresses of maga- 
zines devoted to the work and materials 
of cement? J. H. HOOK, 

Lancaster^ Fa. 

The principal magazines devoted to ce- 
ment are first "Municipal Engineering" 
($2). of Indianapolis and New York, 
whose publishers also issue frequent edi- 
tions of the "Handbook for Cement Us- 
ers" (18). and the "Directory of Amei-ican 
Cement Industries" ($5.) 

"Cement," bi-monthly. New York. 

"Cement and Engineering News," 
monthly, Chicago. 

•T,e Ciment," monthly, Paris, France. 

"Cement und Beton," monthly, Berlin, 
Oermany. 

Others devoting a portion of their space 
to cement are: 

"Rock Products," monthly, Louisvillew 
Ky. 

"Ceinent and Slate," monthly, ^Mien- 
town, Pa. 

"Thonindustrie-Zeitung," weekly, Ber- 
lin, Germany. 

The American publications cover dif- 
ferent parts of the field and there Is none 
which attempts to cover It all. This 
magazine devotes the portion of its time 



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168 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



and space occupied by this subject to the 
practical use of cement in its various 
combinations and In the various classfs 
of structures in which it is incorporated 



BOOK ON CONCRETE BRIDGES. 

Will you kindly let me know if the 
"Directory of American Cement Indus- 
tries" for 1904 gives directions how to 
build bridges and other works of a similar 
nature? If not, what book would you 
recommend for giving such instructions, 
as I want to get a book on such worka 
with specifications for the same. 

JAMES WARREN, 
Walkerton, Ont. 

There is no American book on the sub- 
ject of concrete bridges, which is as- 
sumed to be the subject of this question. 
The third edition of the "Directory of 
American Cement Industries" (|5), for 
1904, does not include the handbook for 
cement users of former editions. It is 
omitted because it did not need imme- 
diate revision, and because the rapid ex- 
pansion of the cement industry has g^reat- 
ly increased the size of the Directory. 
The "Handbook for Cement Users" is 
now published separately at a price of 
$3, and is the nearest what is asked for 
of any book now published. It gives the 
specifications for arch bridges of various 
kinds in concrete and in concrete steel, 
and is a guide to the construction of such 
bridges, but does not consider the 
methods of determining the size and 
strength of the structures. 

Many articles on the subject of arch 
bridges In concrete and in concrete-steel 
will be found in Municipal Engineeriog, 
some of which give Instructions in de- 
tail for construction. All of the liter- 
ature In English upon this subject is 
now in society proceedings and technical 
periodicals. 

The design of concrete arches does not 
differ materially from that of masonry 
arches and the construction does not 
differ materially from that of any other 
concrete structure, so that there Is noth- 
ing particularly new or strange to be 
met. The introducers of various methods 
of constructing concrete-steel arches and 
bridges present their own methods of de- 
sign and construction in the advertising 
literature which they issue, and most de- 
signers of such structures follow their 
methods more or less closely. The list 



HOW TO BUILD CONCRETE 
CHIMNEY. 
I have a concrete chimney to build, 85 
feet high, 3 feet of flue on the inside and 
walls 9 Inches thick at top. 8 feet square 
at bottom, walls 18 Inches thick, a square 
chimney. Can you give me any Infor- 
mation regarding system of centering and 
construction? 

B. V. H., London, Ont. 

Reference may be made to the descrip- 
tion of the construction of the concrete 
standpipe at Miltord, O., elsewhere in 
this number of Municipal Engineering. 
The method of placing the concrete, and 
the method of putting up and removing 
forms can be used, whatever system of 
reinforcing or If concrete alone Is used. 



CONCRETE WALK WITH NATURAL 
CEIMENT IN BASE AND PORT- 
LAND CEMENT IN TOP. 

I have just completed 18,000 square feet 
of cement floors, government work, under 
the following specifications: Base, three 
inches thick, one part natural cement, 
two parts sand and four parts gravel; 
top, one inch thick, one part Portland 
cemen*. and one and one-half parts sand. 
Both the natural and Portland cements 
were tested and were accepted. The 
work was done according to specifications 
and to the satisfaction of the sup^n- 
tendent in charge. Now the top i& be- 
ginning to separate from the base and 
the superintendent has condemned It and 
ordered it replaced. I have protested, as 
I contend that a bond cannot be formed 
between natural and Portland cements, 
owing to their different properties and 
manner of setting. (None of the work 
was frozen.) I protested before begin- 
ning the work, but you may know how 
useless that is under government speci- 
fications. I cannot give the scientific 
reasons why natural and Portland ce- 
ments will not bond together, but I know 
by an experience of eighteen years In the 
business that they will not. I have also 
made inquiries of several contractors and 
they are all of the same opinion. I wish 
to show to the government superinten- 
dent the reasons why they will not bond 
together. If you can secure for me any 
Information along this line It will be ap- 
preciated. 

C. W. H., Omaha. Neb. 

There are several very good reasons 
why a Portland cement top for a cement 
walk or fioor cannot be gruaranteed to 
keep its connection with a base made 



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THE QUESTION DEPARTMENT. 



1G9 



have largre amounts of masrnesla. The 
action of these substances is detrimental 
to Portland cement, and accounts for the 
inability of natural cement concrete to 
stand exposure to the weather. In ca^e 
the natural cements are of this nature, a 
layer, perhaps exceedingly thin, of weak 
and granular concrete is likely to form 
between the top and the base. This pre- 
vents the intimate union of the two 
which is an absolute essential to a per- 
manent walk, for the greater expansion 
of the top with an increase in tempera- 
ture will soon separate the two on this 
plane of weakness. The swelling of the 
natural cement concrete from the action 
of the free lime, magnesia, etc., has an 
early tendency to disintegrate a thin slab 
such as a sidewalk or floor is, and this 
would have the same effect in separating 
the Portland cement top from it. 

The two kinds of cement require ma- 
terially different proportions of water, 
and natural cement is usually very quick 
setting as compared with good Portland 
cements suitable for sidewalk work. It 
is extremely dlfl[lcult, and in some cases 
it is impossible, to get the top in place 
promptly enough to permit the base and 
top to set together, which is essential m 
the integrity of the walk. 

It Is sometimes claimed that the differ- 
ence in the coefficient of expansion of 
natural and Portland cement concretes 
is the cause for the separation, but this 
troublesome difference in expansion is 
rather that between the top of the walk, 
which is oper to the great changes of 
temperature from direct sun and heavy 
frost, and the base, which is protected 
from sudden changes in temperature and 
therefore expands and contracts much 
less and far more slowly. The same 
trouble in separation of top from base 
is found in walks and floors made entire- 
ly with Portland cement in case the base 
Is permitted to set before the top is put 
on, or there is not complete combination 
of the two layers from any other cause. 

The difference in chemical action of the 
two kinds of cement, the tendency of 
some natural cements to disintegration 
from chemical actions i^hlch are careful- 
ly provided against in the manufacture of 
Portland cement, the absolute neces- 
sity of a perfect bond between the two 
layers of the walk and an equality In 
fheir strength, are the true reasons for 
the very general failures of walks and 
floors made according to the method de- 
scribed in the question. 

It may be suggested that the base and 



top of a Portland cement walk are not of 
equal strength on account of the differ- 
ences in proportions of cement and sand, 
but many experiments have shown that 
there is much less difference in strength, 
especially under compression, than tlv* 
differences In proportions would indi- 
cate, and what difference there is is far 
less than that between the natural ce- 
ment concrete In the base described and 
the Portland cement concrete in the top. 

It will probably not be possible to put 
a new top on the old base which will 
keep Its place, because the exposure of 
the natural cement concrete has still 
further weakened it, and because it is 
almost Impossible to put a top on a base 
which has set, so that it will keep its 
place. The chemical actions in the ce- 
ment have probably been completed suf- 
ficiently not to interfere. , 

There are a few cases In which walks 
under such a specification have been suc- 
cessful, according to reports, though the 
writer has never seen a well authenti- 
cated case. The detrimental chemical 
actions were undoubtedly absent in these 
cases, the two la:yers happened to be we.. 
Joined and probably the exposure of the , 
walk or floor has been slight, so that the 
tendency to separation of the two layers 
has been smal. The word "happened" 
is used purposely, for the number of suc- 
cesses is so small and the reasons for 
them are so little known that the term is 
properly applied. The f am€ may be said 
of successful attempts to put a new top 
on an old base. 



COST OF CONCRETE SEWER. 
We would like to know the approximate 
cost of a concrete sewer 6 feet in diameter 
with an average cut of 13 feet. Gravel 
costs $1 a cubic yard and Portland cement 
$1.50 a barrel on the line of the ditch and 
labor $1.76 a day. The trench is in hard 
clay, with very large boulders in the line. 
J. M., Erie, Pa. 

Perhaps our readers can give some idea 
of the cost of such a sewer from their 
own experience. Some figures from 
Washington, D. C, give the cost of ex- 
cavation at 60 to 70 cents a cubic yar-i 
and concrete sewer complete at $7.50 a 
cubic yard in place. The cubic yards of 
excavation per linear foot of sewer are 
easily computed, and if the thickness of 
the concrete is given, the cubic yards per 
foot of sewer can be computed quite as 
readily. There is considerable variation 
in the bids on various Washington sewers 
on account of differences in conditions 
and in contractors, the bids for excava- 



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170 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



tion varying: from 30 cents to $1.10 a cubic 
yard and for Portland cement concrete 
from $6.41 to 19.50. Cement cost $1.40 to 
$1.50 a barrel. 



A TRENCHING MACHINE. 

Can you gWe me the address of the 
manufacturer of the trenching machihe 
described on page 275 of vol. xvlll of 
Municipal Engineering. I have eight 
miles of farm drains to construct from 
8 feet to 10 feet In depth and am looking 
for an excavator which will not mire in 
the soft ground. C. C, Danville, 111. 

The machine refered to was operated by 
John A. McGarry & Co., 189 Racine-ave., 
Chicago, m. Possibly the manufacturers 
named under the heading "Trenching Ma- 
chines" in the "Business Directory*' can 
supply a machine which will do the work. 
The revolving wheel machine of the Mu- 
nicipal Engineering and Contracting 
Company, used for digging water pipft 
trenches might be adapted to this work. 
Can our readers suggest any machines 
which they have found successful for 
this class of work? 



CITIES PUMPING SEWAGE. 

Our city is desirous of collecting In- 
formation regarding pumping sewage 
from low levels Into the gravity mains, 
and would be pleased to know the names 
of any cities which have pumping sta- 
tions installed in connection with their 
system of sewerage. 

C. H. TOPP. 
City Engineer, Victoria, B. C. 

In Municipal Engineering, vol. xxv, p. 
178 and vol. xxvl, p. 26, will be found a 
partial answer to this question. Including 
Boston, Chicago, a large New Jersey 
drainage district, New Orleans, Provi- 
dence, Madison, Wis., Plttsfleld, Salem, 
Webster, Swampscott, and others in 
Massachusetts, Santa Cruz, and at one 
time, San Rafael, Cal. We will add to this 
list the names of other towns and cities 
In the United States or elsewhere which 
are sent us by our readers. 



ments are really such. Tho article on 
page 28 of the January number of Mu- 
nicipal Engineering is very favorable to 
the Incineration process, but there are 
equally pronounced opinions in favor of 
reduction processes. The fact is that, 
like many other engineering questions, 
each problem must be solved for Itself, 
and the process to be adopted for a given 
city must be chosen with due reference 
to the methods of collection of garbage, 
the customs as to separation of garbage 
and refuse, the danger of producing nuis- 
ance in the operation of the plant, the 
composition of the refuse and garbage, 
the possibilities of profit from the prod- 
uct of the works, etc., all of which are 
variables requiring special study for the 
determination of their prdbable values in 
any particular case. 

The fact that the reduction works are 
all in the hands of private companies 
which seem to be operating profitably un- 
der their contracts with cities, suggests 
the value of these processes. The great- 
er freedom from nuisance of many in- 
cineration plants is an argument in their 
favor. These are only two sample ar- 
guments, of which there are many on 
both sides. 

Unfortunately the question of the prop- 
er disposal of garbage has never been 
considered to be an engineering question, 
which it really is, and there are very 
few instances in this country of ade- 
quate studies of the problem and 
thoroughly good plants well designed to 
fit the local conditions. 



BEST METHOD OF GARBAGE DIS- 
POSAL. 



EXPANSION AND SAG OF STEEL 
TAPE. 

What IS the co-efflcient of linear expan- 
sion for a surveyor's steel tape for each 
degree of Increase or decrease in tem- 
perature. Fahrenheit, as recognized by 
the U. S. government as standard? 

When dynamometer Is used to compen- 
sate for sag in 100-foot steel tape, what Is 
the necessary stress In pounds to be ap- 
plied on dynamometer to correct for sag? 
SUBSCRIBER, Seattle, Wash. 

These questions are considered in de- 
tail in Johnson's "Surveying" ($4) In the 



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THE QUESTION DEPARTMENT. 



171 



be determined when the tape is officially 
tested. 

The proper tension to be used on a 
steel tape is such that the stretch due to 
it will equal the shortening due to the 
sag. The weight and length of the tape 
and distances between points of support 
are quantities which must be known in 
order to determine this tension. To deter- 
mine the working tension, the pull when 
the length of the tape was tested must 
also be known. Prof. Johnson gives, as 
an example of the use of the tables and 
diagram which he has computed, the case 
of a 50-foot tape weighing 6 ounces on 
which the pull when tested for length 
was 5 pounds, and determines the pull to 
which the tape should be subjected as 9^ 
pounds. In the case of a 100-foot tape 
weighing 12 ounces, with same pull at 
test, the working tension will be found 
from the diagram to be about 9% pounds. 
Errors from weights greater will be less 
than those for less weights. The chapter 
on geodetiq surveying gives methods of 
correcting measured lengths when the 
tern perat lores and tensions are measured, 
there being no attempt to make them ex- 
actly what they should be to produce the 
exact proper length of tape at time of 
measurement 

♦ 

PLANS FOR CITY PARK. 

You will greatly oblige me by sending 
me some plans for a city park 300 feet 
square, or the address of some one who 
can give the information. 

J. L. N., Mitchell, S. D. 

Municipal Engineering has not pub- 
lished any plans for such a park. Our 
correspondent Is referred to the civil en- 
gineers whose names will be found under 
that heading In the "Business Directory" 
alsewhere in this number. Several of the 
engineers whose cards are in the adver- 
tising pages mention parks as one of their 
specialties. 

BOOKS FOR A CITY ENGINEER. 

Please give me names of books on esti- 
mates and report on street paving, sani- 
tary sewers and road building. 

W. H. GAINEY, 
Valdosta. Ga. 
Can you send me the titles of two or 
three of the best text books for city en- 
gineers, touching on his varied duties, 
and especially on the manner of con- 
structing the work, the best materials, 
etc? CLAY STACKER, 

Clarksville, Tenn. 

There is no single book covering the 
ground desired. McCullough's "Municipal 
Public Works" (50 cents) is an excellent 
little discussion of the problems coming 



under its title, but it is necessary to go 
for detail to books devoted to paving, 
sewerage, bridges and other sx>ecial 
branches. Quite a full list of books under 
each subdivision of the city engineer's 
work in an article entitled "A City En- 
gineer's Library" in this department, in 
vol. xxiv, p. 277. 



ENFORCEMENT OF HOUSE NUM- 
BERING ORDINANCE. 

Our city has passed in due form and 
regular enactment an ordinance for the 
numbering of the buildings, providing as 
follows: 

"Sec. 3. The owner or owners of all 
improved and occupied lots or parts of 
lots shall have posted in a conspicuous 
place on some building thereon such 
numerals as correspond with the number 
of such lot or part of lot. and as shall be 
furnished them by the City Engineer. 

"Sec. 4. Any person neglecting fpr 
sixty days after having been notified i>y 
the City Engineer or City Marshal of the 
numerals to be placed upon his or her 
property, shall upon conviction be liable 
for a fine in any sum not exceeding |10, 
and moreover, the city may place upon 
his or her property such numerals as 
required, and file an' itemized cost of 
same with the County Clerk, and such 
shall be added to the levy as a special 
tax, and shall be a lien upon the proper- 
ty collectable as any other tax." 

I do not find anything in the statutes 
of Nebraska authorizing such a law. and 
the question Is: Can It be enforced? 

J. P. HAZARI>. 
Alliance, Neb. 

The numbering of houses is a police 
regulation. It Is a necessary regulation 
for cities and can be enforced as other 
police regulations duly established by 
ordinance are enforced. 

Possibly the courts would take cogrniz- 
ance of any unreasonableness in such an 
ordinance and require modification on 
this account, but the principle of the or- 
dinance would undoubtedly be upheld. 



TESTING WATER METERS. 

Will you please give me some Informa- 
tion through your question department 
about testing water meters? 

JOHN J. WEIR, 
New Glasgow, N. S. 

In the Journal of the New England 
Water Works Association for Dec, 1908, 
will be found an article on testing some 
6-Inch water meters which probably gives 
the information desired. The tests were 
made: 

First. To determine the loss of head or 
retardation of flow by the passage 
through them of varying quantities of 
water, say from 25 cubic feet per minute 



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172 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



to as larire an amount as would flow 
under the conditions resulting, possibly 
as high as 300 to 400 cubic feet per min- 
ute in some types of meters. 

Second. To determine how small a 
stream each meter would register, and 
with what per cent, of slip or leakage, or, 
In other words, what the unrecorded flow 
will amount to on various discharges, 
from the smallest stream possible to reg- 
ister, as well as their accuracy on va- 
rious-sized streams up to their capacity. 

Since the meters were large, special ar- 
rangements were made for getUng rid of 
the water. The ordinary Are hose nozzle 
was used to measure the amount of water 
passed, using Freeman's tables of pres- 
sures and discharges. Pressure gauges 
on each side of the water showed the loss 
In pressure In passing through the meter. 
This varied greatly with different meters 
and the results are shown In detail in the 
paper. 

For the second class of experiments the 
water passing the meter was weighed 
and the volume thus obtained was com- 
pared with the meter reading to de- 
termine the>error In the meter. 

Mr. John W. Hill has a paper on a 
comparison of water meters In the trans- 
actions of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers for 1899 which has some valu- 
able Information on the subject. If our 
correspondent will be a little more 
definite as to his wants they can probably 
be filled to his satisfaction. 



pense if it Is wanted. It is open to sub- 
scription and win be printed If any rea- 
sonable number of responses are made to 
this call. 



INDEX TO MUNICIPAL ENGINEER- 
ING. 
I have not the liberty to make a 
card index to Munclpal Engineering, 
which would make the files more avail- 
able. Are there not many subscribers in 
the same position? Why cannot you make 
and publish an index of all the volumes 
to date and then issue supplements every 
five or ten years? I think it would meet 
with ready sale. If you do not care to 
venture on the experiment, a note In the 
magazine that such an index would be Is- 
sued If a sufllclent number would sub- 
scribe for it would determine what is the 
desire for It. 

J. WALTER ACKERMAN. 
Auburn, N. Y. 



BOOK ON BRICK PAVEMENTS. 
What is the best book you have on 
brick pavements, Including formulae for 
estimating on such work? 

U. G. STOCKWBLL, 

Albany, N. Y. 

Baker's "Roads and Pavements" (|5) 

has the best treatment of the subject of 

brick pavements and Includes data for 

making estimates of quanUtles and coat. 

» 

NEW YORK CIVIL SERVICE EXAM- 
INATIONS. 
In your September number of 1903 there 
is a notice of New York City civil service 
examinations for Inspectors of municipal 
work. I should like very much to get a 
copy of these examination papers. Can 
you tell me how to secure them? 

JAMES H. TURNER. 
ZIon City, IlL 
A letter addressed to the secretary of 
the Board of City Civil Service Com- 
missioners, New York City, would prob- 
ably secure copies of sets of examina- 
tion questions which have been used. 



SHELL ROAD AS FOUNDATION FOR 
BRICK PAVEMENT. 
Will you please give me, through the 
columns of Municipal Engineering, your 
opinion as to whether shell streets are 
a good foundation for brick pavements in 
a town of six or seven thousand Inha? 
Itants. It has been said by some authori- 
ties that these shell streets will make a 
good foundation for brick pavements by 
putting a coat of sand on the shells and 
filling In the joints with brick. These 
shell streets are very uneven and In or- 
der to have the sand of uniform thick- 
ness It would be necessary to do quite a 
great deal of leveling, which would be 
very hard to do. and the places filled In 
would, of course, be much softer than 
those that are not disturbed, and it seems 
to me that this might be a serious objec- 
tion. It has also been said that In case 
that proves an objection that the streets 
might be plowed up and rolled, but I 



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THE QUESTION DEPARTMENT. 



173 



the shell road. The latter may not oc- 
cur, since the road may be worn down to 
a reasonable crown for a brick street. 

A roller will be necessary in getting the 
roadway Into shape for the brick and In 
settling the brick. Spikes may be set in 
the rim of the large wheel, which will 
loosen up the surface of the street and 
picks can then get hold of it. A scarifier 
is advertised by Julian Scholl & Co. 
which would seem to be the proper In- 
strument for removing the unevenness of 
the street. It tears up the surface just 
enough for this purpose. It can be hauled 
by the steam roller and used either with 
or without the spikes on the roller 
wheels, as seems to be necessary. The 
.loosened material can then be spread 
with pick and shovel and objectionable 
parts removed, the surface again rolled 
to uniformity and the sand cushion and 
bri:k then put In place. 



REMOVAL OF SNOW FROM STREETS. 
Can you give me any references to ma- 
chines for melting snow In the streets? 
G. W. BORTON. Philadelphia, Pa. 

The dally press had some notice of a 
machine for melting snow from city 
streets, but It seems to have disappeared. 
A little computation of the heat which 
would be necessary to remove any appre- 
icable amount of snow, and a considera- 
tion of the difficulty of getting the water 
Into the sewers before it could freeze, 
gives an Idea of the difficulties In the 
way and of the reasons for. failure of any- 
chance apparatus for this purpose. 

A more feasible suggestion is that made 
by a correspondent in Municipal Engin- 
eering, vol. vi, p. 53. He would lay steam 
pipes under the gutters which would be 
of material not Injured by the heat. The 
snow in the gutters would melt and run 
to the catch-basins and the snow could 
be scraped from the street Into the gut- 
ters as rapidly as it disappeared from 
them. The large amount of h'eat required 



would make this a slow process, but it 
would be more rapid than the machine 
and would keep the melted water run- 
ning to the sewer. 

Detroit dumps snow into the nearest 
sewer manhole or large sewer, as de- 
scribed in vol. xxii, p. 44. The removal of 
snow from New York streets by carts Is 
described in vol. xii, p. 38. 

BRICK ROADS IN RURAL. DISTRICTS. 

Can you give me any Information as to 
construction of brick roads in rural dis- 
tricts? We would like to find out where 
such roads have been laid and construc- 
tion of same; also how they are wearing, 
and what kind of satisfaction they are 
giving. 

A. M. COBBE, 
Jamestown, N. Y. 

In the proceedings of the Ohio Society 
of Surveyors and Civil Engineers for 1902 
will be found a paper on "Paving a Coun- 
try Road," by Sam Huston, C. E., of Steu- 
benvIUe, O., who describes a road 10 feet 
wide laid on one- half a roadway, leaving 
the other half for use in good weather. 
The roadbed is thoroughly drained with 
all the necessary transverse and longi- 
tudinal drain tile. A curb of vitrified 
clay is set at each edge of the brick and 
flush with its surface. The drain trenches 
were filled with 2H-inch fragments of vit- 
rified clay, waste from tile factories, and 
a 6-inch layer served as foundation for 
the brick. The sand cushion was one 
inch thick. The itemised cost was as 
follows for 6,479 feet, slightly over one 
mile: 

ExcavaUon, 10,334 cu, yds $1,240.08 

Overhaul, 47,490 cu. yds 474.90 

Grubbing trees, 18 18.00 

4-inch sewer pipe, 8,012 ft 480.72 

Curbing, 10,784 ft 2,156.80 

Foundation, 3.413 cu. yds 750.86 

Paving, 6,243 sq. yds 3.246.36 

Total $8,367.72 

. Can our readers give other examples in 
detail of this class of work? 



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MUNICIPAL MATTERS 
IN COURT 



Higher Courts— Cicero Water Rates— Venezuelan Asphalt Suit— Non-Abutting 
Lx>t Assessments— Parle for Water- Works— Bay State Qas Co.— Bitu- 
iithic Infringement Suits— Chicago's 75-cent Qas— Defective Water 
Supply— Chicago Debt Umit— Contaminated Water Supply- 
Destroying Public Property— Illinois and flichigan Canal. 



Abstracts from Decisions of the Higli- 
er Cciurts on Matters Reiating 
to Municipai Improvements. 

Prepared by Russell T. Byers, LL. B., 
Indianapolis. Ind. 

Assessments— Validity— In Duluth» pe- 
tition for local Improvements must con- 
tain the names of a majority of the 
property-owners to be affected. This pro- 
' vision is jurisdictional and until com- 
plied with confers no authority upon the 
Council to act.— Hawkins vs. Horton et al. 
97 N. W. Rep. (Minn.) 1063. . 

Reassessing Benefits— Equal Rate of 
Assessment- The Portland City charter 
provides that the Council may reassess 
benefits on an equitable basis when the 
origrinal assessment is invalid. This sec- 
tion is retroactive in effect. The state 
constitution, Art. 9, Sec. 1, requiriner an 
equal rate of assessment and taxation 
does not apply to the assessment of prop- 
erty for local improvements.— Kadderly 
et al. vs. City of Portland et al. 74 Pac. 
Rep. (Oregron) 710. 

Local Improvements— Front Foot Rule 
—Collateral Attack— Though a resolution 
to make improvements be not passed by 
a two-thirds vote of the Council, if the 
requisite number vote to enter into the 
contract for that 'specific Improvement 
and the assessment be duly confirmed, 
the assessment is not open to collateral 
attack in a suit brought for the collec- 
tion of the assessment. The application 



er, and at the time of entering into the, 
contract for the same the borough's In- 
debtedness was less than the 2 per cent, 
limit. The contnr :t imposed no liability 
on the borough, but viewers afterward as- 
sessed a p&rt of the cost against the city. 
Subsequently, and before the bonds to 
pay for the sewer had been issued, ordi- 
nances were passed authorizing other ex- 
penditures and bonds to pay for same. 
These, with the original indebtedness and 
the cost of building the sewer, exceeded 
the 2 per cent. limit. Held, that the mere 
passage of the subsequent ordinance did 
not create an indebtedness, that the obliga- 
tion for the sewer was prior to any aris- 
ing under such subsequent ordinances 
and that the indebtedness incident to the 
construction of sewer did not increase 
the debt beyond the 2 per cent, limit 
Redding et al. vs. Esplen Borough et al.. 
56 Atl. Rep. (Penn.), 431. 

Sidewalks, Grades and Assessments- 
Publication of Corrections— When the or- 
dinance providing for a sidewalk declares 
that it shall be constructed on a grade 
established by an ordinance then on file, 
and such grade establishing ordinance 
was really passed and approved the same 
day as the sidewalk ordinance, there is 
no such in6onsistency as will avoid the 
assessment, the grade ordinance being 
sufficiently identified to give notice of the 
grade. The fact that an ordinance does 
not provide what shall be the exact num- 



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MUNICIPAL MATTERS IN COURT. 



175 



city has 8:eneral power to legislate on a 
given subject, an ordinance relating to 
such subject, if unreasonable, unjust or 
oppressive, is Invalid. Where a macadam 
pavement has been in place less than four 
years, is in good condition and there is no 
reason for removing it, an ordinance re- 
quiring it to be torn up is void. City of 
Chidago vs. Brown et al., 69 N. E. Rep. 
an.), 65. 

Council's Power to Assess— Council does 
not have power to assess property not as- 
sessed by the commissioners. Spring Steel 
& Co. vs. City of Anderson et al., 69 N. 
E. Rep. (Ind.) 404. 

Damage ftom Changing Grade— In an 
action for damages, incident to a change 
of the street grade, Is is no de- 
fense that the plaintiff bought the prop- 
erty with knowledge that the improve- 
ment had been ordered. One of the items 
of damage is the reasonable cost of grad- 
ing plaintifTs front lot as being an Item 
of special damage. Improvements made 
by neighbors are not Items of special 
benefits. Pickles vs. City of Ansonia, 66 
Atl. Rep. (Conn.), G52. 

Modification of Improvement Resolution 
—Public Hearing— Voting to abandon the 
improvement provided for in the first res- 
olution and directing the engineer to pre- 
pare a second estimate which was subse- 
quently modified by substituting a differ- 
ent material and a cheaper method of 
construction, is not such an abandonment 
as to make a second hearing necessary. 
McChesney et al. vs. City of Chicago, 69 
N. E. Rep. (111.) 82. 

Revocation of Permission to Use Streets 
—Where the right to revoke permission to 
use city streets for laying electric light 
conduits exists, by virtue of reservations 
In ordinances, it may be exercised by the 
legislature. Boston Electric & Co. vs. 
Boston & Co., 69 N. B. Rep. (Mass.) 346. 

Vacation of Streets— The town council 
had power to vacate a public street, 
but only for the public benefit. An 
ordinance providing for vacation of a 
street for the benefit of a private indi- 
vidual Is void. An ordinance of a town 
council ordering In general words, the 
reduction In the width of a street from 
forty to fifteen feet Is void for uncertain- 
ty. Pence vs. Bryant et al., 46 S. E. Rep. 
(W Va.) 275. 

Vacation of Streets— The statute relat- 
ing to vacation of streets Is applicable 
to the vacation of one side of a street. 
Where such vacation takes place over the 
objection of property owners It Is void 
and subject to collateral attack. Lowe 
et al. vs. Lawrenceburg et al.. 69 N. E. 
Rep. (Ind.) 148. 



Cicero Water Rates Must 3e Same as 

Chicago's. 

The Supreme Court of Illinois rendered 
a decision Feb. 17 in the case of the town 
of Cicero vs. Chicago, in which if held 
that under the sanitary district act Cicero 
is entitled to pure water at the same rate 
Chicago pays. The town filed a petition 
in the Circuit Court of Cook county for i 
writ of mandamus to compel the city of 
Chicago to furnish the 'people of Cicero 
with pure water at the rates prevailing in 
Chicago. The town set up the sanitary 
district, claiming it was a part of the dis- 
trict and had paid its share of the taxes 
to construct and maintain the canal, the 
object of which was to furnish pure water 
to the people of the district. Among other 
things the court holds that the Lieglsla- 
ture had no right to change the boun- 
daries of the sanitary district so it would 
take in additional territory. 



Venezuelan Asphalt Lake Suit De- 
cided. 

The Federal High Court at Caracas, 
Vene2uela. has handed down a decision 
holding that the claim of Warner & Quln- 
lan of Syracuse, N. T., to possession of 
the Fellcldad asphalt mine, a portion of 
the asphalt lake in the State of Ber- 
mudez, claimed also by the New York and 
Bermudez Asphalt Company, which holds 
a concession to work the lake, Is null and 
void. The court bases Its opinion on the 
argument that, while the concession of 
the .Bermudez Company was valid, no 
claim to the Fellcldad mine could be 
granted. The Fellcldad mine was bought 
in 1898 by Warner &Quinlan. 



Liability of Lots Not Abutting on 
Street. 

The meaning of that section of the 
Barrett law which provides for assessing 
the cost of a street improvement against 
the property lying back from the street, 
but within 150 feet of It, in case the 
abutting property does not sell for en- 
enough to pay the expense, was argued 
before the Indiana Supreme Court, at In- 
dianapolis, February 17. The suit came 
from Kokomo. William H. Voris sued 
the Pittsburg Plate Glass Ck>mpany on 
some street improvement bonds that were 
issued ten years ago and purchased by 
him. No assessment was levied on the 
company's property, and it was not until 
after Voris had forclosed his lien on the 
abutting property and it has been solcl 
chat he set up a claim to the property 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



lying behind it. The attorneys for Mr. 
Vorls rely on the construction which 
they give to a clause in the statute- pro- 
viding that if the abutting land does not 
sell for enough to pay an assessment all 
land within 150 feet of the street shall 
be subject to sale. The appellee's at- 
torneys insist, however, that this applies 
only in case immediate steps are taken 
by the contractor to enforce payment.- 
and an assessment is duly levied on the 
ba<:k property. "^ 

In this case no assessment was made 
against any property except the abutting 
lots. The attorneys also insist that Bar- 
rett law bonds can only be issued after 
a final assessment has been made and 
after the owner of the property assessed 
has signed a personal undertaking to pay 
the assessment, whether the assessment 
is legal or not. They argue, therefore, 
that the purchaser of bonds must be re- 
garded as having taken the personal ob- 
ligation of the abutting lot owner, se- 
cured by a lien on his property, and is 
not in the same situation as the con- 
tractor was before bonds were issued. 



City Enjoined from Using Parl< for 
Water Works Station. 

A decision was rendered recently, by 
Judge Joseph A. Gill of the United States 
Court at Vinita, Ind., Ter.. on the ques- 
tion of the right of an incorporated town 
or city in the Indian Territory to use its 
parks for public works. The attempt of 
the municipal authorities to erect a stand- 
pipe, reservoir, power house, tanks, etc.. 
in the North Park of the city of Vinita 
for the purpose of constructing a water 
works plant and a sewerage system 
brought out the decision. The city had 
awarded the contract for constructing the 
water works plant and the contractors 
were ready to go to work when property- 
owners facing the park where the plant 
was to be erected filed an application for 
an injunction against the city and the 
contractors to prevent them from using 
the park for that purpose. The decision 
sustained the property-owners in their 
contention. 



Bay State Gas Company of New Jersey, 
a co-plaintiff in a suit now pending In 
the supreme judicial court of Massa- 
chusetts, wherein Mr. Pepper seeks to set 
aside the sale of $11,000,000 worth of bonds 
made last July upon the reorganization 
of the New Jersey corporation. The 
court allowed Mr. Hallock, however, to be 
made a party defendant in the suit in 
order that he might defend his action In 
bringing about the reorganization and the 
subsequent sale of the bonds. It was 
agreed that this act should not be con- 
sidered in any way as casting discredit 
upon Mr. Hallock's action as receiver of 
the New Jersey corporation. Bir. Hal- 
lock's counsel opposed the application on 
the grounds that his client had acted in 
good faith in all his acts as receiver and 
any sales that he made or brought about 
were solely in the interests of the stock- 
holders. The counsel for the New Jersey 
corporation declared that the purpose of 
the application was only to harass the 
local corporation and its receiver. He 
contended that the application to make 
the receiver for ttie New Jersey corpora- 
tion a co-plaintiff in the suit would, if 
granted, not only bring discredit upon the 
receiver himself, but upon the court ks 
well, for Mr. Hallock had been ap- 
pointed by him. 

• 

Suit for Infringment of Bitulithic 
Patents. 
Warren Brothers Company of Boston, 
Mass., have instituted suit in the United 
States Court at Grand Rapids, Mich., 
against the city of Muskegon, Mich., to 
recover damages, alleging that a bitu- 
minous macadam pavement recently com- 
pleted in that city by the Barber Asphalt 
Paving Company is an infringement of 
patents. A similar action is pending 
against the city of Owosso. 



Bay State Gas Company's Reorganiza- 
tion Troubles. 

Judge Kirkpatrick of the United States 
Circuit Court denied, Feb. 9, the applica- 



Chicago Cannot IHave 75-Cent Gat. 

A decision was rendered by Judge 
Grosscup of the United States Circuit 
Court at Chicago, Jan. 25, against the 
city of Chicago in the 75-cent gas cases. 
He declares that the state did not dele- 
gate the city the power to regulate the 
price of gas. The decision was. rendered 
in the case of D. O. Mills, as stockholder 
in the People's Gas Light and Coke Com- 
pany, and Frank G. Jones, as stockhold- 
er in the Northwestern Coal and Coke 



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MUNICIPAL MATTERS IN COURT. 



177 



Ukiah City Cannot Collect Damages 
for Defective Water Supply. 

The Supreme Court of California Ten- 
dered a decision Feb. 11 holdlngr that 
Ukiah City is not entitled to damages 
from the Ukiah Water and Improvement 
Company by reason of the losses sus- 
tained by the former af a fire where the 
water supply did not prove adequate. 
The municipal authorities allege that the 
corporation was under contract to furnish 
a sufficient supply of water for fire-figrht- 
ing purposes. The Supreme Court holds 
that there was no express covenant in the 
contract providing for any special quan- 
tity or pressure of water, and cited 
numerous cases similar to this one show- 
ing that no damages may be obtained un- 
less the terms of the contract specially 
provide for services which are not given 
in the emergencies where losses are sus- 
tained. A Jury in the lower court 
rendered a verdict In favor of the town, 
but the Judge granted a new trial and an 
appeal was taken from his order by the 
plaintifT. The Supreme Court sustains the 
judge of the lower court. 



Chicago's Debt Limit. 

The Illinois Supreme Court has ren- 
dered a decision giving the city of Chicago 
the power to issue bonds up to $20,550,000, 
which Is 6 per cent, of the assessed val- 
uation of the city— the debt which the 
city can assume under its constitution. 
World's Pair bonds of $4,511,000 are heia 
to be outside of the city's bonded indebt- 
edness, and the sinking fund reserve is 
$1,049,000, and is by the court credited 
against the bonded debt, reducing it by 
that amount. The special assessment 
debt for public improvements, amounting 
to $2,000,000, is not included In the bonded 
Indebtedness. The city, therefore, has the 
right to immediately issue bonds to the 
amount of $20,550,000 foi any corporate 
purpose. The entire indebtedness of the 
city at the present time Is $15,980,000 ana 
the outstanding Judgments not provided 
for amount to $4,871,182. As soon as the 
bonds are issued these bonds will be paid 
in full and the debt paid. 



the city water when the company pumps 
are out of order, forgot to turn the valve 
and pumped 'river water on high pressure 
Into the city mains through a secret con- 
nection which was made during an'^ther 
administration. 



Village Board indicted for Destroying 
Public Property. 

The members of the village board of 
Harmon, 111., were arrested recently on 
warrants sworn out by property-owners 
on charges of destroying public property. 
The board had built a cement walk be- 
fore the store of George and John Swartz. 
The firm refused to pay for the walk, and 
it was torn up by order of the board. A 
man conducting a saloon In the Swartz 
building petitioned. the board for an ex- 
tension of license. On the ground that 
he was occupying the Swartz building the 
board refused the llcen.se and proceeding}] 
were then instituted against it. 



Damages Sought for Contaminated 

Water Supply in Ft. Wayne. 

The grand Jury at Ft. Wayne found 
contaminated water In the mains recently 
and Indicted three water works trustees 
and the Pennsylvania Railroad Company 
on the charge of committing public nui- 
sance. The Pennsylvania Company, which 
gets its water from the river, but uses 



End of Illinois ard Michigan Canal. 

The Illinois Supreme Court handed down 
a decision Feb. 17 directing the Sangamon 
County Circuit Court to enjoin the canal 
commissioners from drawing any part ot 
the last appropriation of the General As- 
sembly. Representatives L. Y. Sherman 
and Richard E. Burke of Chicago made a 
fight in the last General Assembly 
against a bill appropriating $152,950 for 
maintaining the canal and operating the 
Bridgeport pumping station. Mr. Burke's 
contention was that such an appropriation 
was in direct violation of a provision ot 
the state constitution which prohibits ap- 
propriation of public moneys for the 
maintenance of railroads and canals. He 
was granted a temporary Injunction In 
the Circuit Court, but on hearing Judge 
Crelghton dissolved the Injunction. The 
Supreme Court's decision sustains Mr. 
Burke at every point. The opinion sets 
out in detail its answer to the conten- 
tions of the appellees, as follows: 

The court gathers that the constitu- 
tional content of the provision relating tc 
the canal was that the power to sell or 
lease the water way should remain with 
the people, and the management, if that 
shall seem wise and best, should be pos- 
sessed by the i-eglslature, to which power 
of managemett there was attached an -"n- 
hlbltlon against the application of the 
public moneys to any of the ourpos s ot 
the canal. The constitutional mtenr was 
and Is. the court says, that the .pnal 
shall be self-supporting and that the p'^o- 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



pie of the state shall not be taxed to aid 
it in any way. 

After reviewing at some length the de- 
bates of members of the constitutional 
convention, as aiding to a correct deter- 
mination of the intent of the framers of 
the instrument, the court says: 

Though it does not aid to the deter- 
mination of the question of power of the 
Legislature to make the appropriation in 
question it is not Inappropriaate to re- 
mark that the fears entertained by mem- 
bers of the constitutional convention that 
more modem and more speedy means of 
.transporting passengers and commodities 
would soon supplant the canal and divert 
traffic from it and the canal would be- 
come practically of no use as a waterway* 
or highway of traffic and commerce and 
would cease to produce an income suffi- 
cient to pay the expenses connected with 
its management and* would, unless re- 
strained by the constitution, become a 
regular applicant at the door of the 
state tpe€«ury for appropriation of money 



of the taxpayers of the state, have been 
verified. 

In 1876 the tolls received for the use of 
the canal aggregated $113,293, but since 
that year there has been a marked and 
substantially gradual decrease In such re- 
ceipts. In 1900, so little demand was 
there for the canal as a highway or 
waterway for {he transportation of 
person or' property that but $13.86/ 
was paid as tolls. In 1901 the use 
of the canal for pur];>o8e of trade or com- 
merce was so little availed of that but 
$8,120 was collected from tolls. In addition 
to all receipts, of every character, during 
these years heavy appropriations fronv 
the treasury of the state, amounting to 
something more than $500,000, have been 
asked to meet the deficiences arising from 
the management. and operation of the 
canal. The canal has practically fallen in- 
to disuse for any of the purposes of trans- 
portation of either persons or property 
and has been perverted to mere commer- 
cial purposes of supplsrlng water power to 
those along its banks and selling privi- 
leges to cut ice from its pools. It Is no 
longer a higghway of commerce. 



iEWAOE AND GARBAGE 



Sewer Purification at East Haven, lad.— Stream Pollution in ninnesota- 

New Yoric Sewer and Water Commission— Practice in Removing 

Refuse— Qarbase Collection and Disposal— Evdusive 

Garbage Contract Void. 



The Sewage Purification Riant at the 
Eastern Hospital for the Insane.* 

By Prof. R. L. Sackett, C. E. 

The Eastern Indiana Hospital for the 
Insane has at present a population of 
about 800 and uses 100 gallons of water 
per individual per twenty-four hours by 
tank measurement. The buildings are 
situated about twenty-flve feet above 
and 1,500 feet distant from Cedar Creek, 
into which the sewage was formerly dis- 
charged. The dry weather flow was only 
about 100.000 to :dOO,000 gallons per day and 
the dilution was wholly insufficient. The 



large amount of laundry and bath water, 
roof water, a little surface and no ground 
water. 

The use of disinfectants and the cloth- 
ing which the inmates destroy and stufT 
in closets are disturbing factors requiring 
special attention in the design 

The old main sewer of 18-inch cement 
tile was tapped near the Duildlngs. In 
the manhole an emergency overflow was 
constructed so that an extraordinary 
storm could not choke the intercepting 
sewer. The latter consisted of a l(V-inch 
line of vitrified pipe 1,100 It. long. 



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SEWAGE AND GARBAGE. 



179 



feet loner, 16 feet wide and may be ope- 
rated under a head from 6 to 8 feet. 

Various valves are provided by which 
the chambers may be cleaned and the 
sludfire discharged on the surface of the 
ground for irrigation purposes. The 
structure, excepting the slate roof, is of 
concrete. 

An 8-foot weir leads from the tank to 
the dosing chamber holding from 4,000 to 
6.000 gallons, depending upon the depth. 

This quantity is discharged automatical- 
ly, at regulajr intervals of about thirty 
minutes, when the dose Is 4,000 gallons. 

The apparatus, manufactured by Mr. 
Shields of Chicago, operates four 12-inch 
valves leading to sewer pipe lines which 
conduct the sewage to the four filter 



the inner third of the wall at all cor- 
ners and into all cross walls. 

The structure, which is 67 feet long, 20 
feet wide and 10 feet high, has no ex- 
pansion joints and has developed no 
cracks except one on each side caused by 
the soil under one end of the structure 
being soaked with sewage and settling 
slightly. This settling reached its limit 
very soon and the filled joint has given 
no trouble. 

From the sewer lines, the efliuent 
passes to the four filter beds, each of 
which is 100 feet square. To each bed 
there are three cypress troughs w*th 
side openings which distribute the sew- 
age over the bed. 



SEWAGE DISPOSAL PLANT. 
Eastern Indiana Hospital for Insane. 



beds. These valves are mechanically ope- 
rated in turn by compressed air, the air 
bein^r confined in a dome under water* 
pressure. 

The foundation and walls are of Port- 
land cement concrete In the proportions 
of 1 of cement to 7 of an excellent quality 
of bank sand and gravel. 

The floor is 6 inches thick and the 
edde walls taper from 18 inches to 12 
inches In a hight of 9 feet, the total hlght 
being 10 feet. The gables are carried out 
In brick. 

In order to render the walls water 



The sewage as it goes on the beds shows 
only a slight milkiness in color, and the 
the solids are not visible to the naked 
Ave. 

The ground was graded to proper form 
and a grillage of farm tile was laid, lead- 
ing to a 12-inch trunk, which discharges 
into Clear Creek about 150 feet distant. 

On the <tlle a 6-inch layer of coarse 
gravel was placed, obtained by screening 
a portion of the top material. Three feet 
of bank gnravel, practically unscreened, 
but very uniform in quality, and only 600 
feet distant, conapieted the filters. 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



Ing to nitrites and nitrates, ^he process 
Is blologrical, not chemical, and the mate- 
rial of the Alter Is not Important so 
long as It is insoluble ajid maintains a 
porous condition. More than one micro- 
organism has the power to take oxygen 
from the air and combine it with the am- 
moniacal fluid from the tank, thus pro- 
ducing water and nitrates. 

If the process were perfect only pure 
water and harmless gases would be left. 
To maintain the efflctency, the supply of 
air to the filter must be about three times 
the quantity of nitrogen. Tests have 
shown that a quantity of air equal to 
from five to nine times the volume of 
sewage was flowing through the pores 
of the sand. Tests of the air coming 
from filter drains show that the oxygen 
Is reduced, while carbon dioxide and 
nitrogen are increased, showing conclu- 
sively that the predicted action has taken 
place. (Bacterial Purification of Sewage 
by Barwise, page 38.) 

The plant was put In operation Dec. 4 
last and the effluent was soon very satis- 
factory to the eye. 

When 5 degrees below zero, Fahrenheit, 
the temperature of the sewage thawed 
the frozen ground slowly, and at no time 
was the operation Interfered with by 
freezing, even when the temperature was 
20 degrees below zero. 

As scientific data are lacking, it is pro- 
posed to make tests of three months' du- 
ration on various periods of septic action 
and the effect of large and small doses 
on the filters. 

Analyses will be made of the stwage, 
effluent and filtrate, together with tem- 
perature, chemical, microscopic and bio- 
logical analyses. In this manner the most 
efflcient conditions under which to run 
this plant will be determined. It is only 
by providing for a change In the septic 
period and by experiment that the high- 
est efficiency can be obtained, as the tank 
is so sensitive to local conditions that no 
rule of thumb will give the best results. 

Extravagant claims have been -made for 
the new processes of sewage purification, 
and they have not always been realized. 
Bacteriological processes require the very 
greatest care in weighing local ana 
peculiar conditions and in adapting the 
requisite means to the end. 

EFFECT OF EAST HAVEN FILTER 
ON SEWAGE. 



Stream Pollution Prohibited in Minne- 
sota. 

The Minnesota State Board of Health 
has declared the discharge of sewage by 
any village, city or other municipality 
by means of artificial drains or a sew- 
erage system Into any well, pond, lake, 
stream or river in Minnesota to be a pub- 
»llc nuisance, and it will be prohibited 
unless such sewage is first passed through 
a septic tank or filter bed. A year is al- 
lowed for the installation of septic tanks 
or filter beds. The general enforcement 
of this resolution would mean Immense 
expenditures to the larger cities In the 
state, particularly St. Paul and Minneap- 
olis. The sewage and surface drainage 
of both these cities are carried through 
the same pipes to the river. If the in- 
stallation of filter beds Is required it 
will mean the construction of entire new 
sewerage systems. The resolution ap- 
plies to rivers within the state, and -at 
St. Paul and Minneapolis the Mississippi 
River is such a river, but at Winona It 
it a boundary line between two states, 
and It is believed that the resolution 
would not be applicable to that city. 



A Proposed New York State Board of 

Water and Sewer Commissioners. 

A bill has been introduced in the New 
York Legislature providing for the plac- 
ing of the water supply and sewer sys- 
tems of the various cities and towns of 
that state under the control of a state 
board, similar in makeup and powers to 
the state railroad commission. The pur- 
pose of the bill is to create "The State 
Board of Water and Sewer Commission- 
ers, to consist of three competent per- 
sons, who shall be appointed by the Gov- 
ernor by and with the consent of the 
Senate for a term of five years. One 
shall be a competent civil and hydraulic 
engineer and one a competent sanitary 
engineer and bacterlollgist." 

The salary of each commissioner Is to 
be $8,000 and the board Is to have a secre- 
tary at $3,500 and a marshal at $1,500, to- 
gether with clerical force, inspectors, bac- 
teriologists and chemists at a gross ex- 
pense for salaries not to exceed $15,000 a 
year. The bill appropriates $75,000 to car- 
out the provisions of the act. 

To this commission is given almost ab- 



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SEWAGE AND GARBAGE. 



181 



How Many Cities Remove Ashes and 
Refuse and tiie Cost. 

Street Commissioner Pierson ofWilmlug- 
ton. Del., has been collecting compara- 
tive data of methods and cost of collect- 
ing ashes and rubbish in other cities. He 
recently sent letters to some of the prin- 
cipal cities and has received replies from 
twenty-eight of them giving the desired 
information. Data compiled from these 
letters, which included the practice fol- 
lowed In Wilmington, are as follows: 

Wilmington— Population. 76,508. The city 
removes rubbish incidental to housekeep- 
ing, paper if tied up In bundles, but does 
not remove factory ashes. The carts are 
owned by the city and horses are hired by 
the day. The collections are made from 
the curb, once a week. The cost is |8,- 
2C9.46 per annum, based on last year's 
cost, or 10 cents per capita. 

Baltimore, Md.— Population. 508,957. The 
city removes the ashes and all house- 
hold waste, Including paper from dwell- 
ing and apartment houses. This does not 
Include the ashes from factories, baker- 
ies and steam boilers. The work is done 
by contract, and the collections are made 
from both yard and streets, three times 
a week. The cost for removing ashes and 
garbage is $195,800 per annum, or 32 cents 
per capita. 

Boston, Mass.— Population, 560,892. The 
city removes all rubbish incidental to 
housekeeping and newspapers if tied in 
bundles; 10 cents per barrel extra being 
charged for removing ashes from factor- 
ies, etc. The city owns most of the teams, 
but the work in the suburbs is done by 
contract. Collections are made only from 
yards; twice a week in winter and once a 
week in summer. The cost is $384,018.45 
per annum, a per capita of 68 cents. 

Buffalo. N. Y.— Population, 352.219. The 
city removes general household refuse 
and newspapers if the latter are kept 
separate. It does not remove factory 
ashes. The work is done by contract and 
is gathered from yards, if necessary. Col- 
lections are made twice a week from May 
to November and once a week from No- 
vember until May. Collections are made 
in business sections daily. The cost is 
181,706.34. or 21 cents per capita. 

Cincinnati, O.— Population, 325,902. The 
city removes the ashes from dwellings, 
but does not r«»move factory ashes. The 
work is done by contract and the ashes 
are removed from streets and alleys two 
and three times per week at a cost of 
$103,000. 

Columbus, O.— Population, 125,560. The 
city does not remove ashes, rubbish or 
paper. 



Cleveland, O.— Population, 381,768. The 
city does not remove ashes or rubbish. 

Chicago, 111.— Population. 1.698,595. The 
ashes and household rubbish, outside of 
garbage, are removed by the city. Only 
such papers as are thrown out with other 
rubbish are taken. Factory ashes are re- 
moved at owner's expense. The city hires 
teams by the day, and collects from both 
yards and streets, weekly, semi-weekly 
and tri-weekly; business sections, daily. 
For ashes and garbage the cost is $645,000, 
which is 32 cents per capita. 

Detroit, Mich.— Population, 285,704. The 
city collects all rubbish incidental to 
housekeeping, including newspapers. It 
does not remove factory ashes. The city 
hires teams by the day, ant gathers from 
alleys or lanes which run between the 
streets. The collections are made in the 
residence sections twice yearly, and in 
the business and rooming-house sections 
as often as they beomce a nuisance. The 
expense is paid out of the street cleaning 
fund and is not made a separate acocunt. 

Elizabeth. N. J.— Population, 52,130. The 
collection af ashes is made by the city 
by contract. The ashes and rubbish* are 
taken from the sidewalks weekly at a 
cost of $7,100. 

Hartford, Conn.— Population, 79,850. The 
city removes the ashes and rubbish, which 
includes general household rubbish ana 
paper tied in bundles; does not remove 
factory ashes. The work is done by con- 
tract, and the collections are made from 
the sidewalks, onec a week In resldenec 
sections and twice a week In business sec- 
tions. For ashes and garbage the annual 
cost is $20,547. 

Indianapolis, Ind.— Population. 169,164. 
The city does not remove the ashes. 

Newark, N. J.— Population, 246,070. The 
city removes the ashes sind rubbish, in- 
cluding paper. It does not remove fac- 
tory ashes. The work is done by con- 
tract, the collections being made from 
sidewalks. The cost for removing ashes 
and garbage is $79,164 per annum. 

New York City, N. Y.— Population, 
3,437,202. The city removes the ashes and 
rubbish. By hanging out special cards 
the city calls for household refuse and re- 
moves same in special wagons. It re- 
moves bundles of paper and sells it, but 
does not remove factory ashes. The work 
is done by contract. 

Philadelphia, Pa.— Population, 1,293,697. 
The city removes ashes and household 
waste; also newspapers. The work is 
done by contract, the collections are 
made from the streets weekly, and costs, 
including the cleaning of the streets, 
$693,850. 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



Paterson, N. J.— Population. 106,171. The 
city removes household rubbish and a, 
limited amount of waste paper; but does 
not remove factory ashes. The work Is 
done by contract; collections are made 
from the curb weekly. The collection of 
ashes and garbage costs $30,000. 

Richmond, Va.— Population, 85,000. The 
city removes rubbish of every description, 
including waste paper; but only a few 
newspapers are taken. The work is done 
by contract and collections are made 
from two to three times weekly from 
streets and alleys. Street cleaning, ashes 
and garbage cost $69,066, which is 69 cents 
per capita. 

Rochester. N. Y.— Population, 162,435. 
The city removes all rubbish, all kinds of 
waste paper and factory ashes. Private 
teams are hired, paid per load for four 
yards, according to distance. The ashes 
are collected from yards, daily, semi- 
weekly and weekly. The cost is $80,000. 

Syracuse, N. Y.— Population, 108,374. The 
city removes all household rubbish, 
newspapers in small bundles, but does 
not remove factory ashes. The city hires 
teams and collections are made from the 
streets every day in the centre of the 
city and every week in outlying districts. 
The cost Is $20,000, which Is 17 cents per 
capita. 

Trenton, N. J.—Population, 73,307. The 
city removes houshold rubbish and waste 
paper, but does not remove factory ashes. 
The work Is done by contract and col- 
lections are made from streets and alleys 
every other day. The cost is $20,000. 

Washington, D. C— Population 278,718. 
The district removes miscellaneous refuse 
and waste paper, but does not remove 
factory ashes. The work is done by con- 
tract. Rubbish is kept on premises until 
called for by contractor once a week. 
The cost is as follows. As-es, $29,979; re- 
fuse, $8,000; total, $39,979, which is 14 cents 
per capita. 

Albany. N. Y., 94,151 population; Co- 
lumbus, O., 125,560; C eveland, O., 381^768; 
Indianapolis, Ind., 169,164; New Haven, 
Conn., 108,027; Providence. R. I., 176,597; 
Reading, Pa., 78,961; St. Louis, Mo., 575,- 
238;Toledo, O., 131,822; Scranton, Pa., 102,- 
026; and Pittsburg, Pa., 321.606;, do not re- 
move the ashes. In Pittsburg natural gas 
forms the greatest part of fuel, and, con- 



joint garbage committees of the Council 
and Board of Health at Grand Rapids, 
Mich., brought forth considerable inter- 
esting and valuable information on gar- 
bage collection llrom fifteen cities. In 
twelve cities the garbage Is collected In 
wagons, two in barrels, one in boxes and 
none in cans. I:i nine of the cities the 
garbage is collected by contract, and the 
city collects It in the other six cities. 
Householders own their own cans in 
twelve cities, ard no statement Is made 
regarding this hi the other three. Dis- 
posal of garbage by cremation is followed 
by five cities, including Minneapolis, 
Syracuse, N. Y. ; Columbus, O., and Mil- 
waukee. Reduction is used in Utica. N. 
Y., population 56,383; Buffalo, N. Y., 352,- 
387; Detroit, Mich., 286,704. 

In Worcester, M€iss., whose population 
is 125,000, the garbage Is collected from 
the entire city in wagons by contract, 
and is hauled to the poor farm, where it 
Is fed to the hogs owned by the city. 
The following statement for 1903 Is given: 

Cost of collection $18,140 57 

Receipts from pork . .- 11.941 55 

Net expense 6,199 02 

Other cities with populations given, re- 
port the following receipts in 1901 from 
the sale of garbage: 

Lowell H969 $2,833 40 

Cambridge 91.886 8,016 17 

Lynn 68.513 3.788 82 

Springfield 62,059 1.333 53 

Toledo, 131,822, and Syracuse, 108,374, 
collect the garbage by the city, from 20.- 
000 houses in each city at a cost of $14,- 
000 and $20,000 respectively. 

» 

Cincinnati's Exclusive Garbage Con- 

tract Ordinance Invalid. 

A decision was rendered by the Circuit 
Court at Cincinnati, Jan. 19. declaring in- 
valid the ordinance regarding the haul- 
ing of garbage through the streets. The 
decision was rendered in the habeas cor- 
pus proceedings of David Bauer against 
James Casey, Inspector of police, and 
others. The plaintiff was arrested on the 
charge of hauling garbage through the 
streets, and was fined $50 and costs in 
Police Court. He attacked the validity 
of the ordinance and the lower courts 



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CEMENT AND CONCRETE. 



183 



circuit Court, and there they won their 
contention that the lower court had no 
right or authority to seperate the ordi- 
nance. The Circuit Court took this view 
of the case and held that the assump- 



tion of the lower court that the Board of 
Legrislation had omitted unintentionally 
a vital part of the ordinance, was unten- 
able. The ordinance is, therefore, de- 
clared Invalid. 



CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



Concrete Foundation and Cement Filler for Brick Pavement— Concrete 
riasonry— Concrete— Cinder Concrete in Baltimore Fire. 



Concrete Foundation and Cement Fil- 
ler for Brick Pavement.* 
By. O. L. Gearhart, City Engineer, Cham- 
paign, 111. 

In this paper it is proposed to discuss 
the economic relations between concrete 
foundations of different compositions and 
cement filler. 

The Concrete.— About a year ago the 
writer made a series of experiments to 
deternilne the variation in the strength 
and cost of concrete d ue to a variation in 
the kind of cement and In the proportions 
of the Ingredients. The former practice 
was to use a natural cement concrete for 
the pavement foundation, but on one oc- 
casion the Portland cement concrete, con- 
sisting of one part Portland cement and 
nine parts fine gravel, was used with ex- 
cellent result. This led the writer to give 
the matter of Portland cement concrete 
further study. 

The numbers of specimens made were 
about as follows : Tfrenty-flve 8-inch 
cubes, twenty-flve 6-Inch cubes and 
twenty-five 6x6x21%-inch beams. Eleven 
different proportions with Portland 
cement and one proportion with natural 
cement were used. One each of the two 
cubes and one beam were tested at the 
two different ages, viz.: 80 days and 90 
days. Owing to other matters that were 
occupying the writer's attention at that 
time the age for breaking specimens in- 
tended for the 90-day teats varies some- 
what, but the difference is not enough to 
materially change the results. The dif- 
ferent specimens were made by the wril^r 
at the Champaign City Laboratory, and 
through the kindness of Professor A. N. 
Talbot were tested on the machines be- 
longing to the Department of Applied 
Mechanics at the University of Illinois. 



Only details essential to the understand- 
ing of the results will be mentioned here. 

Materials.— The materials used were At- 
las Portland cement, Clark's Utica ce- 
ment, gravel from a pit northwest of 
Urbana, 111., send from a bank in the 
same locality and broken stone from a 
quarry at Kankakee, 111. The sand was 
a fair quality of building sand contain- 
ing some clay and having about 35 per 
cent, of voids. Of the gravel 23 per cent, 
was retained on a No. 4 sieve, 53 per cent, 
on a No. 10 sieve, 71 per cent, on a No. 20 
sieve and 29 per cent, passed a No. 20 
sieve. This material contained 21 per 
cent, voids. It will be seen that the grav- 
el contained but litMe coarse material. 
The broken stone was a good quality of 
stratified limestone, crushed so that all 
of the particles would pass a screen of 
two-inch mesh and be retained on & 
screen of one-half-inch mesh. This ma- 
terial contained 4 per cent, voids. The- 
stone is bought by weight, and as thu 
freight is quite an item it is found to be 
cheaper In Champaign to buy screened 
stone and fill the voids with a larger 
amount of gravel than would otherwise 
be necessary. 

The cement was taken from bags: 
shipped to this city for the retail mar- 
ket and was not a special cement for 
testing purposes. It will be seen that 
the UtIca cement is a very high grade 
of natural cement and that the Atlas 
cement Is a good quality of Portland. The 
fineness of the cement Is as follows: 

Utlca. Atlas. 
Per cent, passing slevt. No. 60. .97.4 99.6 
Per cent, passing sieve No. 100. .80.5 92.5 

The activity of the cement is as fol- 
lows: 

Utica. Atlas. 
Time from mixing to initial set.. :32 1.5G 
Time from mixing to final set 3:20 5:16 



•A paper before the Illinois Society of Engineers and Surveyors. 



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184 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



The tensile strength of the cement m 
pounds per square inch is as follows: 



Cement. 


Percent, 
of Water. 


A«e. 


Utica 

Atlas 


81 
17 


24hrs. 

80 

266 


7d8. 

181 
710 


30 ds. 
2!» 



Mixing and Testing.— The cement and 
gravel were thoroughly mixed dry, then 
wetted and mixed into a stiff mortar, 
after which the dampened stone was add- 
ed and the whole was turned several 
times. The mixture was then tamped 
into the molds by means of an eleven- 
I)Ound tamper, having a face area of nine 
square inches. About two or three inches 
of loose material was placed in the molds 
at a time and tamped. During the opera- 
tion a square-ended trowel was worked 
up and down between the concrete and 
form, thus bringing the mortar to the 
sides and corners of the specimen and 
making it homogenous throughout. In 
every case only enough water was used 
to cause a film of water to come to the 
surface after considerable tamping. The 
cubes were left in the molds for twenty- 
four hours with a damp cloth over them, 
after which time the molds were care- 
fully removed and the specimens were 



stored under cloths, which were damp- 
ened from time to time until the cubes 
were tested. The concrete beams were 
made and stored in the same manner as 
the cubes. 

In crushing the cubes and breaking 
the beams, the direction of the force ap- 
plied was perpendicular to the tamped 
surface. Immediately before crushing the 
cubes the two faces to which the force 
was applied were plastered with a thin 
coat of plaster of Paris and a self-ad- 
justing plate was used to distribute the 
pressure over the entire surface of the 
cube. 

Costs.— In arriving at the cost of the 
concrete, gravel and sand were taken at 
90 cents per cubic yard, broken stone at 
11.40, Utica cement at 65 cents per bar- 
rel, Portland cement at )2, and labor for 
measuring, mixing, placing, grrading and 
tamping a six-inch layer of concrete was 
taken at 6 cents per square yard. 

Results.— Table I shows the strength of 
the cubes and beams and also gives the 
yield of rammed concrete In terms of the 
sum of the volumes of the gravel and 
broken stone. This table also shows the 
cost per square yard of a six-inch layer 
of concrete of the different compositions. 

Conclusions.— From the tests given In 
tabe I, it is believed that the following 
conclusions may be drawn: 



Table I. 
STRENGTH AND COST OF CONCRETE OF DIFFERENT COMPOSITIONS. 





NATURAL CBMBNl 














Yield in terms of 
volumes of fH'av- 
el and broken 
stone. 


Age, 
days. 


Load on 
cubes, lbs. 
per sq. in. 


lit 


6"x6"xl8" beams. 






Load at 

center, 

lbs. 

1280 
1270 


Modulus 
of rup- 
ture, lbs. 
persq.in. 


)n 

9. 


8" 


6" 


111 






30 
90 


610 

870 


540 
470 


575 
670 


160 
159 






77 i 


49 



PORTLAND CEMENT. 



3 
4 






6 


5 
5 

4 

4 

6 

6 

5 

5 

8 

8 

6 

6 

8 

8 

7 

7 

8 

8 
10 
10 
10 

"s" 





80.45 


30 
90 
80 
90 
30 
90 
30 
90 
30 

105 
SO 
90 
30 

115 
30 
90 
30 

108 
30 

118 

102 
30 

107 


1750 

1770 

1.500 

2210 

1180 

1260 

2250 

1850 

890 

88:^ 

1290 

1510 

965 

1425 

1240 

1190 

1010 

1050 

530 

585 

'1236' 
1720 


1565 

1990 

1365 

1780 

1170 

1430 

1545 

2050 

840 

1230 

895 

980 

570 

860 

i:«5 

1425 
990 

1030 
600 

■ m 

♦780 


1657 
1880 
1432 
1995 
1175 
1345 
1897 
1950 

865 
1056 
1092 
1220 

767 
1142 
1302 
1307 
1000 
1040 

565 


2700 
3060 
2440 
5360 
1800 
1620 
2800 
3280 
1650 
2500 
2560 
3060 
1750 
1700 
2100 
2820 
1600 
1930 
1010 
1220 


388 
882 
805 
670 
225 
203 
350 
410 
206 
313 
319 
383 
219 
218 
263 
853 
200 
241 
126 
153 


77.5 


5 


4 
4 
4 
4 
5 
5 
4 
4 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
8 
8 
10 
10 
10 
6 
6 
16 


74 1i 


74.6 


7 
8 


70.7?6 


68.6 


9 
10 


74.4J< 


66.1 


11 
1? 


72.8?6 


57 


13 
14 


76 Jt 


64 


15 
16 


74 H 


56.8 


17 

18 


74 ?6 


56.6 


19 
20 


73 *5t" 


51.4 


21 
22 


71.5^ 


50.3 


?3 






24 




1230 
1627 


i786 
2410 


223 
301 




25 






26 


170 a 




si 






1 











* Defective and omitted from average, f Assumed. 



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CEMENT AND CONCRETE. 



185 



1. From numbers 2 and 20 in table I, 
we see that the cost ot Portland cement 
concrete Is about 4 per cent, more than 
natural cement concrete, while the former 
is 50 per cent, stronger. 

2. By comparing numbers 2 with 23 
and 24. it is seen that the strengths of con- 
crete composed of 1 part natural cement, 
3 parts gravel and 3 parts broken stone, 
and concrete composed of 1 part Portland 
cement, 10 parts gravel and 10 parts brok- 
en stone, are nearly equal. 

3. By comparing experiment number 4 
with number 10, it Is seen that the addi- 
tion of broken stone in amount equal to 
the gravel, without increasing the quanti- 
ty of cement, materially increases the 
strength and decreases the cost of the 
concrete. 

4. Numbers 12, 16 and 20 show that the 
increase of the broken stone from four 
parts to eight parts does not materially 
change the strength o.' the concrete, but 
reduces the cost. 



Table II shows the result obtained by 
supporting the beams on knife edges 24 
Inches apart and applying the load at 
the center. 

By comparing number 2 and number 20 
in Table I with number 3 in Table II it 
will be seen that a brick beam four inches 
in depth is 50 per cent, stronger than a 
concrete beam consisting of one part nat- 
ural cement, three parts gravel, and three 
parts broken stone, and is also a little 
stronger than a beam consisting of one 
part Portland cement, eight parts gravel, 
and eight parts broken stone. This fact 
suggests the idea whether it may not be 
economical to employ the cemeht as 4 
filler between the brick rather than using 
it in the concrete foundation. 

The cost of the cement and labor for 
a six-inch layer of concrete composed of 



Tablb II. 
MODULUS OF RUPTURE OF BRICK BEAMS WITH CEMENT FILLER. 





Filler. 


Name of Bnck. 


Age 
Days. 


Dimensions of Beam 
in Inches. 


i 
J5 


Id 


1- 

a oS 


rS 


No. 


^ 


1 


i 


i 


1 




1 
2 

a 

4 
5 






Clinton. 

Culver. 
Poston. 


80 
30 
90 
30 
122 




lOH 

lOX 

lQ9i 

11 

11 


24 
24 
24 
24 
24 


1640 
2160 
2660 
2670 
2210 


3S1 
452 
657 
526 
452 


1248 
1607 
1981 
1870 
1607 


8 to 12 

•« 
•• 



5. By comparing numbers 18 with 26, it 
is seen that the increase of the broken 
stone from eight parts to sixteen parts 
does not materially change the cost of 
the concrete. 

6. About half a mile of pavement hav- 
ing a very lean Portland concrete was 
laid during the past season under the 
writer's direction. It was found, much to 
the surprise of the writer, and also to the 
contractor, that not only the very lean 
concrete was more easily mixed, but It 
was more uniform than the very rich 
natural cement concrete, heretofore used. 

In all respects the Portland cement 
concrete is superior to the natural ce- 
ment concrete. 

Brick Beams.— The writer made a num- 
ber of brick beams by taking paving brick 
and cementing them together with a ce- 
ment filler. The beams were three bricks 
long, three bricks wide and four inches 
deep. They were formed by laying the 
brick side by side as in the pavement, 
and the Interstices were filled with grout 
consisting of one part Portland cement 
and one part sand. 



one part Portland cement, eight parts 
gravel, and eight parts broken stone If? 
about twenty-four cents per square yard 
more than that of a compacted layer of 
gravel or broken stone; and the cost of 
the cement filler Is about six to ten centu 
per square yard more than sand filler. 
Therefore a brick pavement with cement 
filler on a foundation of broken stone or 
gravel without any cement In It Is from 
14 to 18 cents per square yard cheaper 
than brick pavement with a sand filler 
and with a concrete foundation; and fur- 
ther, the two forms of construction are 
of equal strength. 

For a pavement on a street which has 
been cut up with trenches and where the 
filler adds very much to the strength and 
to the life of the improvement, the 
added expenditure for the filler is money 
well invested. In residence districts, 
where the traffic Is not so heavy or con- 
stant, a brick pavement with cement fil- 
ler and a gravel foundation may be con- 
structed with advantage and the cost of 



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186 



MUNICIPAL ENQINEERI 



the improvement be considerably less 
than if a concrete foundation and sand 
filler be used. 

As far as the writer knows, attention 
has not before been called to the 
strengrth produced by the cement filler, 
nor the fact that the brick thus filled 
makes th'e beam 50 per cent, stronger 
than the use of concrete foundation; and 
in view of what has been said concern- 
ing strength of the cement filler, to use 
it in pavement construction is clearly an 
economical advantage. 

For several valuable suggestions, the 
write gratefully acknowledges his in- 
debtedness to Prof. A. N. Talbott and 
Prof. I. O. Baker. 



Concrete Masonry with Special Ref- 
erence to the Use of Natural 
Bank Gravel/ 

By George S. Pierson, M. Am. Soc. C. E., 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 

The varied uses to which concrete is 
put demand different mixtures. In some 
cases, a concrete with but a small pro- 
portion of cement and which requires no 
surface finish will answer the purpose. In 
other cases strength Is the important con- 
sideration, in others a smooth surface 



finish, and 
abrasion; b 
concrete is 
suits shouh 

One of tl 
concrete ma 
igan has mi 
and sand f 
may be ma 
found near 
the very e: 
the structui 
cur containi 
proportions 
times the m 
better and 
concrete th; 
apeciflcatior 
i.*ause in tl 
material w£ 
lated in a 
compact an 
tion of void 
be improvec 
considerablj 
proportion c 
or of coars 
and considt 
saved with 
of masonry 

The write 



MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF NATURAL B; 





No. 1. 


No. 


2. 




Screen. 

IH inch 

1 inch 


Eet'd. 
8.0 
21.7 
31.7 
44.0 
S9.4 
68.8 
70.8 
79.6 
96.4 
99.0 


Diff. 

8.0 

13.7 ' 
10.0 
12.3 
15.4 

9.4 

2.0 

8.8 
16.8 

2.6 

1.0 


Bet'd. 

4.9 
9.5 
15.3 
27.5 
88.1 
41.4 
61.8 
95.5 
97.6 


Diff. 

4.9 
4.6 
5.8 
12.2 
10.6 
8.8 
20.4 
33.7 
2.1 
2.4 


Re 

IC 


% inch 


14 


mncb 


n 


^ inch 


31 


% inch 


44 


^ inch 


41 


^Q inch 


at 


■Clinch 

^ inch 


9{ 








IQO.H 




lOO.lf 





VrtiHa. Irwian 



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CEMENT AND CONCRETE. 



187 



and construction of a concrete waste 
weir last season, and as the price of ce- 
ment was high at the time and the mate- 
rial for the aggregate must be brought 
from a distance. It soemed worth while 
to make a more than usually careful ex- 
amination of material which could be 
secured for an aggregate. Samples 

were taken from several deposits and 
analyzed with the result shown below. 

It is difficult to secure a fair sample 
from the face of a pit where the gravel 
Is Ploughing and running down the face, 
as the coarser particles are separated and 
carried farther down the slope. The ma- 
terial also varies in composition as it lies 
in most pits and must vary somewhat as 
it is delivered for use on the work. This 
objection is not peculiar to natural bank 
gravel, however. The same objection may 
be urged against the crushed atone often 
used aik an ingredient of the^ aggregate, 
and against the sand used with it. Al- 
though it is improbable that the analyses 
represent precisely the conditions of the 
aggregate as it is received on the work, 
a comparison of the analyses with each 
other and with the samples to which they 
refer appears to be of considerable assist- 
ance in deciding the relative value of ma- 
terial from different deposits, and in de- 
tecting variations in the quality of ma- 
terial as it is delivered. 

Sample No. 1 contains excellent material, 
but the sample indicates that the addi- 
tion of quite a proportion of coarse sand 
would result In a stronger and more im- 
pervious concrete, a smoother finish and 
saving in cement. 

Sample No. 2 is poorest of all. It con- 
tains too small a proportion of large par- 
ticles, too great a proportion of fine sand, 
and some clay. The voids in it are 
greater than in any of the others and the 
w^eight per cubic foot and also the specific 
gravity of the particles, less than in any 
of the other samples. 

Sample No. 3 contains too small a pro- 
portion of coarse particles for economy. 

Sample No. 4 contains a larger propor- 
tion of particles from one-eighth-inch to 
one-half-inch than any of the other sam- 
ples. Probably a larger proportion of 
sizes three-fourths Inch to one inch would 
be desirable In massive work and require 
less cement, though probably not as 
smooth a finish could be obtained. The 
voids In this sample were less than in 
any of the others examined, the weight 
per cubic foot greatest, and the specific 
gravity of the partlcleiT highest. This 
material was fairly accessible. Tests 
of the material were made fre- 
quently during construction and It was 



found that the addition of a small pro- 
portion of a rather fine, gray sand, which 
was found in the excavation, slightly re- 
duced the voids and made a smoother fin- 
ish next the forms. 

The voids In all the samples were 
measured with the material dry and 
loose. As placed In the work the voids 
would, of course, be much less. 

A convenient rule for determining ap- 
proximately the voids in gravels, ond 
which can be conveniently applied In the 
field, is the following: I have found that 
the natural gravels In this vicinity have 
an average specific gravity of about 2.65. 
This corresponds to a weight per cubic 
foot. If there were no voids, of 166 
pounds. If a known measure of gravel 
be weighed and Its actual weight per 
cubic foot ascertained, then the voids In 
the condition In which It was weighed 
will be: Per cent, of voids equals 166, 
minus weight per cubic foot, divider! by 
166. 

Gravels differ considerably In the char- 
acter of the particles. Some are made up 
of well-rounded and smooth particles, and 
In some the particles are more angular 
and the surface rougher, which Is advan- 
tageous. 

Under a compound microscope with one- 
Inch objective the sand and fine gravel In 
sample No. 4 seems sharper than in any 
other of the samples, with No. 1, No. 3 
and No. 2 following In the order named. 
The gravel in sample No. 3 seems rough- 
ened by fine sand particles which adhere 
to the surface, and this would probably 
give a better adhesion to the matrix. 

Probably natural bank gravels as they 
are taken from the pit or mixed with 
small proportions of fine or coarse mater- 
ial as a corrective, can be used In con- 
crete to better advantage than they usu- 
ally are. This material can be selected 
or mixed so as to adapt the concrete to a 
wide range of uses, from rough and mas- 
sive work to work which is light and 
finished in mould which require sharp 
and perfect details. The labor which can 
be Judiciously spent in selecting or bal- 
ancing the aggregate will be determined 
by the current price of cement and the 
use to which the concrete is put. 



Concrete/ 
By S. B. Newberry, Sandusky. O. 
Concrete Is a compact mass composed of 
sand and broken stone or gravel, united 
by cement. 

Hydraulic cement concrete has been 
known since an early period of history. 
It is, however, only since Portland cement 



has bc^n cheaply produced and greatly 
•From a paper before the Indiai^a Engineering Society. 



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188 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



Improved in quality and uniformity that 
concrete construction has attracted the 
attention of engineers. At the present 
day Portland cement concrete is being 
adopted with astonishing rapidity in all 
kinds of constructions in place of stone, 
brick, wood and iron. Portland cement 
is the essence of rock in portable form. 
When Judiciously used it will convert 
many times its volume of loose sand, 
gravel and waste btone into a solid 
brick or monolith, of any desired shape, 
equal in strength and durability to the 
best rock from the quarry. It is not sur- 
prising that a material which will do this 
should be in great demand. 

Materials. — Sand should be clean 
and sharp. The sands which give the 
highest tests with cement are those show- 
ing rounded grains with a dull surface. 
A mixed size of grain, from fine to coarse, 
is better than a grain of uniform size. 
The presence of a small amount of clay, 
up to 4 or 5 per cent., does not harni It 
concrete be thoroughly mixed and suf- 
ficiently wet. 

Gravel and broken stone should be hard 
and sharp, and as free as possible from 
soft particles. The harder the stone the 
better the concrete will be; trap rock ov 
crushed flint or quartz are superior to 
soft limestone or sandstone. As in the 
case of sand, a mixed mate;rial, fine to 
coarse, is preferable, and screening is 
generally injurious. It was formerly sup- 
posed that the presence of fine dust in 
the materials was objectionable. This is 
not the case If the mixing be thorough. 
It Is quite possible that with imperfect 
mixing a film of clay or stone-dust might 
coat the stone or gravel and pre- 
vent adhesion of the cement. If the mix- 
ing be thorough, however, these fine ma- 
terials will help to fill the voids and in- 
crease the strength. The most compe- 
tent engineers now use crushed stone 
without screening, containing all the dust 
from the crusher. 

Many engineers consider broken stone 
superior to gravel for concrete. With 
this view the writer does not agree. 
Good quartz gravel is harder than any 
broken stone except trao or ouartzite. 



gravel show that where good, coarse 
gravel is abundant there Is no need of 
going to a distance for a supply of costly 
crushed stone. 

Proportions. — The xihlef object in 
compounding concrete is to produce a 
compact maa?, as free as possible from 
pores or open spaces; In short to Imitate 
solid rock as closely as possible. To 
produce a compact mass from fragmen- 
tary materials the voids must be filled. 
Imagine a box holding one cubic foot. 
If this were filled with spheres of uni- 
form size, the voids or open spaces would 
be 25.95 per cent, of the total volume. 
With spheres of various sizes, as, for ex- 
ample, from large marbles down to small 
shot, the voids would be much less, and 
it would theoretically be possible, by the 
use of spheres of graded sizes, from the 
largest down to dust of infinite fineness, 
to fill the box completely, so that there 
should be no voids whatever. In prac- 
tice it is well known that the use of 
materials of varying fineness gives the 
best concrete, since the voids are much 
less than in materials composed of pieces 
of uniform size. Hence the common prac- 
tice of making concrete wltti cement, 
sand and broken stone. Instead of stone 
only. The sand fills the voids of the 
stone, the cement fills the voids of the 
sa*hd, and If the proportions are correct 
a practically solid mass results. As an 
example of this, the writer found that 
briquettes of cement with three parts 
sand and four parts gravel showed higher 
tensile strength at twenty-eight days 
than those made with three parts sand 
only. 

The determination of the percentage of 
voids In the gravel or broKen stone to be 
used is of the greatest Importance. This 
determination is most easily made by 
the use of a metal box of exactly 1 cubic 
foot (or a known part of a cubic foot; 
capacity. This is weighed, filled with the 
material, well shaken down, and again 
weighed. Now, quartz sand or limestone 
(carbonate of lime) has a specific gravity 
of 2.65. One cubic foot of solid quartz or 
limestone, free from voids or pores, would 
therefore weigh 2.65 times as much as a 



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CEMENT AND CONCRETE. 



189 



Per cent. 
Sandusky Bay sand, not screened — 32.2 
Sandusky Bay sand, througrh 20 mesh. 38.5 

Sandusky Bay. 20-30 mesh 40.7 

Gravel, >4 to H inch 42.4 

Gravel, ^, to 1-20 inch 36.9 

Marblebead broken stont., about egg 
size 47.0 

Comparison of the three different grades 
of Sandusky Bay sand shows how great- 
ly the percentage of voids varies with the 
proportion of fine and coarse grains pres- 
ent. The first is the natural sand, not 
screened, as pumped up by the sand- 
sucker from the bottom of the bay, and 
contains a large amount of fine grravel. / 
The second is the same, passed through 
a 20- mesh screen to remove the coarse 
particles. It will be seen that this opera- 
tion increases the proportion of voids 
from 32 to 38 per cent. The third is the 
same sand, passing a 20-mesh and re- 
tained on a 30-mesh screen, thus brought 
to the fineness of the "standard sand" 
used in cement testing. This shows 40.7 
per cent, of voids, owing to the uniform 
size of the grains. The same relation is 
seen in the two grades of gravel given 
in the table, that containing finer grains 
showing much the lower percentage of 
voids. These figures illustrate the im- 
prudence of screening any of the ma- 
terials used in making concrete. 

As an aid in determining the voids in 
concrete materials, the writer has pre- 
pared the following table, in which the 
percentages of voids corresponding to 
various weights per cubic foot may be 
seen at a glance. The figures given in 
this table are calculated on the assump- 
tion that the specific gravity of sand, 
gravel and stone Is 2.65. 

Table showing weight per cubic foot and 
per cent, voids in sand, gravel and brok- 
en stone. 

Wt. Per Wt. Per Wt. Per . 

per cent. per cent. per cent, 

cu. ft. voids, cu. ft. voids, cu. ft. voids. 
165.4 0.00 135 18.38 105 36.52 

164 .85 134 18.98 104 37.12 

163 1.45 133 19.58 103 37.73 

162 2.06 132 20.19 102 38.33 

161 2.66 131 20.80 101 38.94 

160 3.26 130 21.40 100 39.54 

159 3.87 129 22.01 99 40.15 

158 4.47 128 22.61 98 40.75 

157 5.08 127 23.22 97 41.35 

156 5.68 126 23.82 96 41.% 

155 6.29 125 24.43 95 42.56 

154 6.89 124 25.03 94 43.17 

153 7.50 123 26.63 93 43.77 

152 8.10 122 26.24 92 44.38 

151 8.71 121 26.84 91 44.98 

150 9.31 120 27.45 90 45.59 

1^ 9.92 119 28.06 89 46.19 

14S 10.52 118 28.66 88 46.80 

147 11.13 117 29.26 87 47.40 



Wt. 


Per 


Wt. 


Per 


Wt. 


Per 


per 


cent. 


per 


cent. 


per 


cent. 


cu.ft. 


voids. 


cu. ft. 


voids. 


cu. ft. 


voids. 


146 


11.73 


116 


29.87 


86 


48.00 


145 


12.33 


115 


30.47 


85 


48.61 


144 


12.94 


114 


31.06 


84 


49.21 


143 


13.54 


113 


31.68 


83 


49.82 


142 


14.15 


112 


32.28 


82 


50.42 


141 


14.75 


111 


32.89 


81 


51.08 


140 


15.36 


110 


33.49 


80 


51.63 


139 


15.96 


109 


34.10 


79 


52.24 


138 


16.67 


106 


34.70 


78 


62.84 


137 


17.17 


107 


35.31 


77 


63.45 


136 


17.78 


106 


36.91 


76 


54.05 



Having determined the voids in the 
sand and gravel and stone, let us next 
4nquire how we shall calculate the pro- 
portions in which the materials are to be 
used. At first glance it might be sup- 
posed that the larger the proportion of ce- 
ment a concrete contains, the stronger 
it will be.- This is by no means neces- 
sarily the case, as the following table, 
taken from a paper by Dykerhoff, clear- 
ly shows. Thds table gives the crushing 
strength of various concretes, determined 
by tests of 2%-inch cubes after 1 day in 
air and 27 daya in water. 



Proportions by Measure. 


Strength un- 
der com- 
pression. 
Pounds per 
sq. inch. 


Portland 
Cement. 


Sand. 


Gravel. 




2 
2 
2 




2,125 




3 
5 
5 


2,747 
2.387 

978 




3 
.3 
3 
4 

4 
4 


1.388 




5 
6H 


1.682 
1,515 
1,053 




5 

8H 


1.278 
1.204 



These figures prove that mixtures of 
cement and sand are strengthened 
rather than weakened, by the addition of 
a suitable quantity of gravel. It will b« 
noticed that the mixture— cement 1, sand 
2, gravel 6— is actually stronger than 
cement 1, sand 2, without gravel. The 
same is shown in the mixtures 1 to 3 
and 1 to 4. Again, the list mixture. 1:4: 
S^^, containing only 7.4 per cent, cement 
is stronger than the mixture 1:4, contain- 
ing 20 per cent, cement. One barrel of 
cement, judiciously mixed with sand 
and gravel, is therefore as good as 3 bar- 
rels used with .sand only. 

As to the proportion in which the n.a- 
terials are to be mixed to give the best re- 
suit, Mr. Wm. B, Fuller (Proc. Am. Soc. 
Civil Engrs. Dec. 1899) points out that 
"there is one proportion, and only one, in 
which a given sand and stone can be 
mixed and give the minimum of voids; 



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190 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



this Is the proportion In which they This will vary considerably with different 

should always be mixed, whether a rich materials, but those materials are cer- 

or poor concrete be desired." talnly best which when mixed in the most 

Mr. Fullers rule is: favorable proportions grlve the greatest 

"Mix the sand and stone (or gravel) in weight per cubic foot. Any good gravel 

a definite fixed quantity for the material and sand, rightly proportloneJ, will show 

In use, and add cement as economy die- at least 130 pounds; the besi result the 

tates, possibly up to 10 per cent, in excess writer has ever oMained ^as 139 pound?!, 

of the voids in the combined material." corresponding to io per cent, voids. Bro- 

To determine the practical value of this ken limestone and sand give less densit> . 

rule, the writer made experiments with rarely more than 125 pounds per foot. A 

the following materials: few trials with available materials will 

Wt. Per Per Ct. enable an engineer to specify a minimum 

^ 1 ^ . , . . . ^"- '^' Voids. weight per cubic foot for materials to be 

Gravel, about 1 in. in size.. 101.2 lbs. 38.V ^aed In a elven niece of work 

Sand. 20 to 40 mesh 106.8 " 35 9 ^ ^ 

Cement. Medusa H4 5 " Proportion of Cement.— Mr. Ful- 

The weights of these materials were de' ^^^'^ ^"^^' "'^^.^ f ^^"' *«//; "^^^^/^^^^^ 

termined by filling a metal cylinder of a **» economy dictates possibly up to 10 per 

m*>««nr*»^ f..o«n«« ^# „ w« * ^ Cent. In excess of the voids in the com- 

measured fraction of a cubic foot capa- . , , ^^ , ^ 

city bined material." The lowest proportion 

Since the grave- contains 38.7 per cent. ^^ ''^^^^ obtained with the gravel and 

voids, we shall require 38.7 per cent of r **"*^ "«^^ *" ^^^ ^^""^ experiments was 

cubic foot of sand to fill these voids. If ^'^ P®'* *^^"*- Addition of this propor- 

the materials could be perfectly mixed **^" ^^ cement would give a very rich 

the sand would exactly fill the voids in *"^ expensive concrete; about 1 to 5, 

the gravei. and the mixture would weigh '«^ ^^^^"^ anything that could be re- 

142.1 lbs. per cubic foot, and would contain ^"*''^<^ ^^^ ^^^ "*® ®*^^P^ water-tight 

38.7 times ^.9 divided by 100. or 13.9 per ^^'**^' ^" ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^' *' ^ volume of 

cent, of voids. cement equal to the calculated voids in 

Mixtures in this proportion, and with ^^^ mixture,-13.9 per cent.,-be taken, 

greater quantity of sand, were made ^^ shall have 1:7 concrete, of abundant 

and the volume-weight determined strength for engine foundations or other 

with following results: Important uses. Mixtures much poorer In 

Wt. Per Per Ct. cement, containing 10 per cent. '^'* ever 

Cu. ft. Voids. 7 per cent, may safely be used for foun- 

Gravel. ^7 per cent. sand.... 133.5 19.2 ditions. filling of abutmenU. etc. If the 

oAlt ^ Z Ten!: Tntr^l ^:J -^-^-^« -^-^ -" -^-^^<^ -<^ --r;^ 

proportioned these poor concretes will be 

It will be noted that increase of the found to have surprising strength, and 

sand from the calculated volume. 38.7 often to be superior to rich mixtures in- 

per cent, to 50 per cent., makes practical- judiciously combined. 

ly no difference In the density, while fur- ^^ , * . . * * ^u «• 

♦»!*».. «»/«*^oo^ ♦^ CA * . ... Many series of tests of strength ot 

ther increase to 60 per cent. Increases the ^ ._ ^..t.^i_.. 

voids and injures the mixture. concrete have been published, but dn none 

Further tests of the same materials «' ^*^^'"' ^^ '*'' ^^ "^^ *'"^''- ^^""^ ^*** 

were made, with the addition of the vol- influence of proportions on density and 

ume of cement neces.sary to fill the calcu- density on strength, been clearly stated, 

lated voids In the mixed sand and gravel. ^^^^ ^ series of experiments, consisting 

The results were: ^^ crushing tests of 6 cubes of concrete 

___^_ is now In progress under the writer's di- 

Wt. per rection. and results will be published as 

ca. ft. ^ Voids soon as complete. It is believed that the 

Orayel +30^ sand + 13.9^ cement,. 137. 9 16.5 strength of concrete will be found to be 

.. -f.^^*" +18.S..*.V.*.' .'..140.7 14 8 ""^^^ ®*" ^^^ closely proporUonal to the 

. — — ratio of percentage of cement to voids. 

These figures show strikingly that the *"^ ^^^^ mixtures In which the voids are 

calculated proportion of sand gives great- ^"^<^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ degree will be approxi- 

A«> ^^r^t,^^xT tKo^ « r,^^«»«« «.. i^«„ «^ * matelv eaual In strensrth. There Is. how- 



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CEMBNT AND CONCRETE. 



191 



It Is probably chiefly for this reason that 
coarse materials give greater strength 
than fine materials. 

To sum up the foregoing reasoning in 
regard to the composition of concrete, we 
may formulate the following rule for ob- 
taining the best practical results. This is 
simply an extension of Mr. Fuller's in- 
structions: 

Determine carefully the voids in the • 
gravel or broken stone which it is pro- 
posed to uso, add finer material in the 
proportion necessary to fill the voids, also 
in greater and ?ess proportions, and adopc 
the mixture giving the greatest weight 
per unit of volume. Add cement m 
amount depending on desired strength 
and admissible cost, from a minimum of 
perhaps 7 per cent, to a maximum equal 
to the total volume, of voids in the mixed 
materials. 

Proportion of Water.— It was formerly 
supposed that the best concrete was ob- 
tained by using very little water, and en- 
gineers generallv specified that the con- 
sistency of the mixture should be that of 
moist garden earth, and that no water 
should show until thoroughly tamped. 
Recently it has been shown that the use 
of more water— at least enough to make 
the mass decidedly plastic— grlves better 
results. A paper by Irving Hitz (J. of 
Western Soc. of Engineers. January. 
1901), describes experiments on this 
point by engineers of the C, M. 
& St. P. Railway. Three-foot cubes 
of cement, gravel and stone were 
prepared, using water to the amount of 
44 per cent, and 82 per cent, of the vol- 
ume of the cement, respectively. The 
first mixture was merely damp, and was 
compacted in the box by tamping. The 
second mixture was liquid, and was 
poured into the mold without tamping. 
After thirty days the wet cube was found 
to be 9.7 per cent, heavier than the dry, 
and was smooth and dense on the sur- 
face, while the dryer cube was rough and 
porous. On splitting the blocks the wet 
cube proved to be much harder, and most 
of the stones were broken along the line 
of fracture. The dry block, on the other 
hand, gave an irregular break, most of 
the stones remaining whole, and the 
mass showed distinct layers correspond- 
ing to the different batches of material. 

Another valuable paper on this subject 
Is that by Parkhurst, chief engineer Illi- 
nois Central Railroad, in J. West. Soc. 
Engrs., June, 1902. Dry concrete was found 
to weigh 136.2 lbs. per cu. ft., medium ISl.b 
lbs., and wet, 161.4 lbs. The dry blocks 
easily crumbled In handling. On split- 
ting, the medium and wet blocks were 



found to be excellent; the dry block poor 
and not well compacted. Mr, Parkhurst 
recommends a medium proportion of 
water, such that the concrete shall quake 
when strongly rammed, but states that 
excess of water is better than deficiency. 

In the discussion following Mr. 
Rafter's paper on the theory of concrete, 
(Proc. Am. Soc. Civil Engineers, Dec. 
1899), Mr. Herman Conrow stated that 
he had found the cost of a wet concrete, 
laid in place, to be $4.13 per yard, and 
of dry concrete of the same composition 
$5.13 per yard. The use of a liberal pro- 
. portion of water thus effected a saving 
of 24 per cent. 

Mixing and Laying Concrete.— En- 
gineecs appear to be generally con 
vinced of the advantage of using a suit- 
able concrete-mixer, instead of hand 
labor. Where large amounts of concrete 
are to be mixed the saving b> using a 
power mixer is very great, and there can 
be no doubt that the danger of imper- 
fect and careless mixing is avoided by 
use of a suitable machine. The writer 
has successfully used mixers of the pug- 
mill type, consisting of a trough with 
revolving blades. Several excellent ma- 
chines of the revolving-drum type are in 
ude, and give excellent satisfaction. An 
Ingenious horse-power machine is the 
"Dromedary mixer," made by the Fisher 
& Saxton Company of Washington, D. C. 
This consists of a drum mounted on 
wagon-wheels, in which the concrete Is 
mixed while being tra»^sported to the 
place of use. For cement mortar, con- 
taining nothing coarser than fine grave?, 
to be thoroughly mixed In batches, the 
phosphate mixer, made by the Elliot & 
Walker Company of Wilmington, Del., 
may well be recommended. This is a 
revolving pan provided with rotating 
stirrers; it is very convenient and re- 
quires but little power. 

In mixing concrete the sand and ce- 
ment should first be mixed, dry, then the 
water added, and finally the stone or 
gravel, previously well wetted, is intro- 
duced and the whole thoroughly mixed 
together. 

Large masses of concrete should be 
laid continuously, by day and night work 
If necessary, to avoid partings between 
set and fresh work. If the laying must 
be interrupted the set surface should be 
thoroughly wetted and dusted with ce- 
ment before fresh concrete is applied. 
This method should also be used in plas- 
tering the surface of concrete with ce- 
ment mortar. A break in a cement floor 
or sidewalk may be successfully patched 
in the came manner. 



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192 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



Concrete in Freezing Weather.— 
Freezing does no harm to Portlana 
cement after the mass has fully set. Tho 
hardening of the cement is interrupted 
by freezing, but proceeds again without 
hindrance after thawing takes place. 
Damage from frost is to be feared before 
the setting, especially if excess of water 
is used. When work in extreme cold can 
not be avoided, the sand and water 
should be warmed and the proportion of 
water reduced to a minimum. After put- 
ting in place the work should be covered 
with straw or other non-conductor to 
protect it from frost. Mortar for use in 
freezing weather is often made with the ' 
addition of salt (about one pound to one 
gallon of water) and appears to give good 
result. Cement plastering in ei^treme 
cold weather should not be attempted. 



Concrete in the Baltimore Fire. 

An engineer engaged in concrete con- 
struction reports to Municipal Engineer- 
ing that the behavior of concrete in the 
Baltimore fire was in general very satis- 
factory. The flre-proof buildings, of 
which there were, under a strict classifi- 
cation, but six or eight, came through 
the fire practically intact and with com- 
paratively little injury to contents. About 
as many incombustible buildings came 
through without serious injury, aside 
from wooden trimmings and partitions. 



but lost all their combustible contents, 
in some cases even those in vaults. Ap- 
parently most of these buildings had tile 
floors of some sort, but there were a few 
floors of reinforced cinder concrete. 
Nearly all the floors of both descriptions 
successfully withstood the fire. In sev- 
eral instances the tile floors were broken 
through by falling safes and other debris, 
but no failures of the concrete floors on 
this account were reported by our in- 
formant. In fact, the concrete roof of 
one three-story building successfully 
withstood the shock and weight of the 
falling walls of the adjoining higher 
building, and concrete floors In other 
buildings developed similar strength. The 
Commercial and Farmers' National Bank 
building was a notable instance of the 
efficacy of a concrete floor. The banking 
room on the. grround floor, which had con- 
crete floor and ceiling, was protected 
from injury although the roof and two 
upper floors of wooden construction were 
destroyed and the debris, including a safe 
which was on the fourth floor, fell on the 
concrete floor. 

.Reports of failures Of concrete floors 
have not yet been reported, but the suc- 
cesses noted prove deflnitely the value of 
cinder concrete floors constructed accord- 
ing' to the best designs. Their work shows 
them fully equal to tile floor in resisting 
Are and superior in strength to resist both 
shock and the weight of debris. 



METHODvS AND REiULTi 



Grade Crossings in Detroit— Asphalt Bids for Detroit —Calif omia Oiled Roads— 
. Convict Labor on Road riaterials— Greater Asbury Park— Electric 
Power for N. Y. C. Railroad— Legislators and Iowa Munici- 
pal League -Small Parks for Chicago— Illinois En- 
gineering School— Civil Service Examinations. 



Grade Crossings on Dequlndre-St. 
Detroit. 

Plans providing for separating the 



heavy grade of the railroad tracks on 
Dequindre-st. and the hight of some of 
the streets present great difliculties. The 



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METHODS AND RESULTS. 



193 



sides of Dequindre-st. As nearly all of 
the subways will run to Orleans-st. or 
beyond, there will not only be depressions 
in the cross streets, but Orleans-st., the 
parallel street, will have to be depressed 
from 2H to 3^ feet nearly the whole dis- 
tance from Gratiot -a ve. to Port-st. Al- 
thou£:ht the damages will be enormous, 
the committee, the city engineer and the 
railroad men feel that it is not only the 
sole practicable plan of grade separation, 
but that it is cheaper than it would be 
to depress the tracks and bridge the 
streets. 

♦ 

Detroit's Bids for Furnishing Asphalt. 
The city of Detroit, Mich., received bids 
from nine firms, Feb. 1, for furnishing 
1,500 tons of refined asphalt. The Barber 
Asphalt Paving Company offered to de- 
liver Trinidad lake asphalt at $26, and the 
Venezuela at $23.90 a ton, which is the 
lowest pricej_ it is claimed, ever submit- 
ted on these two brands. Otto Quelich of- 
fered a Turkish asphalt, which is con- 
trolled by a French syndicate, at $25 a 
^on. Los Angeles asphalt was offered at 
$20 a ton. The Trindad Asphalt Manu- 
facturing Company of St. Louis bid on the 
crude material at $15,98 a ton, and in- 
cluded five grades of the refined material 
in its bids, varying from $18.98 to $27.98 a 
ton. The American Asphalt Rubber Com- 
pany of Chicago offered asphalt which 
is 99 per cent, pure and will go 50 per cent, 
further than the Trinidad asphalt, at 

$23.50. 

♦ 

Success of California Oiled Roads. 

A communication has been received by 
Clark Alberti, secretary of the depart- 
ment of highways at Sacramento, Cal., 
from Robert H. Reaney, district and road 
engineer at Wanganui, near Auckland, 
New Zealand, in which he states that his 
attention has been drawn to the success- 
ful experiments carried out in California 
in the construction of permanent road 
surfaces by the use of oil, and asking for 
detailed Information as to the methods 
used, and any other facts which would 
be of service In establishing a similar 
system of oiled highways in New Zea- 
land. 

Secretary Alberti has been engaged for 
some time in compiling the latest avail- 
able practical information on the con- 
struction and maintenance of oiled roads. 
Communications received from the su- 
pervisors of every county In California 
indicate that there will be 9 large in- 
crease in the mileage of oiled roads and 
streets during 1904. The California De- 



partment of Highways will later issue 
this matter in printed form and supply 
all the road ofllcials in the state. 



Convict Labor on Road Materials Pro- 
posed in Indiana. 

In a recent address before the Farmers' 
State Congress of Indiana State Geologist 
Blatchley severely criticised the contract 
labor system now in force In the st^te 
prisons. His subject was, "The Utility of 
Convict Labor in Making Road Material/' 
which he discussed, in part, as follows: 

The contract labor system is a system 
which often leads to debauchery and cor- 
ruption of public officers. It is a system 
that robs labor, destroys factories and 
turns over to private Individuals an asset 
of labor which should be used for the ben- 
efit of the people. The law-breaker owes 
a debt to the community and any profits 
accruing from his labor should go to the 
community. 

In order to abolish the evils in the con- 
tract system and to Improve the roads 
of Indiana, he advocates the using r^ the 
undeveloped deposits of shale and fire-clay 
which are found in vast quantities and 
which have been tested and found suit- 
able for making the best paving brick. 
He favors the purchase of an extensive 
bed of shale in western Indiana and the 
erection of a modern brick plant. He 
would equip the plant with convict labor 
and put several hundred additional con- 
victs to breaking stone for foundations 
and cutting it for curbing. This brick 
and stone could then be furnished at the 
plant at less than one-sixth of the present 
prices to the counties devoid of other 
road material, or, if they are unwilling to 
buy it, the material could be given to 
them. 

Mr. Blatohley does not give the esti- 
mates on which he bases these low 
figures of cost, but, though the cost may 
be underestimated, the employment of the 
convicts will be worth what the excess of 
expenditure over Income may be, even 
though the road materials are donated to 
the counties. 



Greater Asbury Park. 

The residents of the various New Jersey 
municipalities affected by the proposed 
plan of consolidation with the Greater 
Asbury Park will probably vote on the 
matter March 8. A bill will be introduced 
by Senator Brown early In March. As 
submitted, the boundary lines begin at 
Wesley Lake; thence westerly through 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



the center of the street to Main street. 
The lines follow Main street south to the 
northerly boundary line of Bradley 
Beach; thence easterly to the ocean, thus 
excluding Ocean Grove. South they go to 
the Sharic River; thence westerly through 
the north branch of the Musquash Creek 
to Reynolds bridge; then back again north 
along Corliss avenue to Sprlngdale avenue 
on to West Asbury, to the westerly line 
cf Ivy place In West Allenhurst; thence 
easterly again along Deal Lake to the 
southerly boundary line of Allenhurst 
to the ocean. 



Electric Power for New York Central 
Railroad. 

Plans for the entire reconstruction of 
the New York Central roadbed for a dis- 
tance of thirty-five miles from the city 
of New York northward and the elimina- 
tion of all grade-crossings on the Hudson 
River and the Harlem divisions have been 
made and have been submitted to the 
local authorities of Yonkers, Mount Ver- 
non, Irvington, Tarrytown and Ossining. 
The work of reconstruction will begin as 
soon as the necessary consents and agree- 
ments of the municipal villages and 
county officers are obtained. The work 
will include the laying of an electrical 
third rail system over and under all the 
streets, grounds and highways now 
crossed at grade. Electrical engines, sup- 
plied from the power-houses at Yonkers 
and Fort Morris, will take the place of 
steam power. 

• 

Conference of Legislators w.th Iowa 
Municipal League. 

Members of the Iowa League of Mu- 
nicipalities met with joint legislative com- 
mittees recntly and asked for an appro- 
priation of 15.000 for furthering the work 
of the league. It also recommended sev- 
eral different matters of legislation rela- 
tive to the government of municipalities, 
particularly along the line of municipal 
ownership, to which the members, as a 
whole, are favorable. The appropriation 
of $5,000 would be used for the collection 
of afnfiafirs r<>liitivft to Water worka. srafl. 



salary paid all others. An additional al- 
lowance is to be griven under the pro- 
visions of the proposed bill for service on 
the board of review. Legislation provid- 
ing for a uniform accounting system in 
cities and for the annual examination of 
the accounts of cities and towns by the 
State Auditor, is also proposed. 



Small Parks for Chicago. 

In discussing the accepted plans of 
Olmstead Bros, of Boston for the small 
parks to be established on the South Side 
in Chicago, 111., President Foreman of 
the South Park system recently said: 

The new parks will be the best pre- 
ventive of crime that possibly could be 
found. Environnient is everything in the 
development of a child, and the children 
who grow up in the sight of green grass 
and trees and flowers, and with opportu- 
nities to expend their energies in healthy 
sports and amusements, will not become 
vicious men and women. The lack of re- 
fining infiuences sends young men into 
paths of crime. To provide such influ- 
ences is to provide the foundation of 
good morals and good morals make good 
citizenship. 

In developing the plans for this sys- 
tem of small parks we have also had the 
idea of applying the social settlement 
idea to public institutions. What the 
social settlement, through the devotion of 
noble Individuals, has accomplished for 
the people of certain neighborhoods we 
purpose bringing about through public 
funds and public agencies. Places where 
mothers and children can find rest and 
inspiration for the duties of life, gymna- 
siums where bodies can be developed into 
strength and symmetry, and public meet- 
ing places where the social instinct &hall 
be developed— these are the things we 
mean to build. 

The fourteen parks that we are about 
to construct will have swimming pools, 
gymnastic apparatus of all kinds, ball 
ground?, boating facilities, sand piles and 
many other opportunities for exercising 
young muscles and young activities. One 
of the chief features will be public meet- 
ing halls, where people can get together 
to hear lectures and hold discussions. 
This feature alone will be a great help 
toward bettering the conditions of our 
congested districts. I am anxious also 
to have music In the small parks, and 
provision Is being made for this great 
educational factor of human development 
in the Diann. 



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to open some of them on the second an- 
niversary. 

The small parks have been selected on 
scientific principles. We made popula- 
tion maps, showing: the Congested dis- 
tricts, and located the parks where they 
were most needed along the lines of fu- 
ture development of residence districts. 
Further, we have placed them so that 
they can eventually be adjacent to an 
extension of the boulevard ^stem. They 
will thus be of Immediate and future ben- 
efit. The largest of the parks, between 
Blxty-seventh, Seventy-flrst-sts. and Cal- 
ifornia and Central Park-ave., will bo as 
large as Washington Park, and nearer 
to the center of population of the town 
of Lake than was Washington Park ten 
years ago. 

Grant Park will be a beautiful setting 
for a beautiful gem, the Field Columbian 
Museum. Though the building will be 
the most consplclous feature of it, there 
will be delightful lawns, trees and views 
out over the lake, and a superb drive. 
It will be one of the greatest panoramas 
in the world. In two years we expect 
to have the filling for this park com- 
pleted. There is money enough on hand 
for all our work, and we shall not build 
beyond our means. It will be a question 
af only a little time before this park is 
connected with Jackson Park with a 
boulevard along the lake. 



Illinois University College of. Engin- 
eering. 

The President of the University of Illi- 
nois and the board of trustees have 
reached a decision concerning the disposi- 
tion of the appropriation of $150,000 made 
by the state of Illinois for the equipment 
of the College of Englneermg. The sum 
of 130,000 is to be reserved to extend the 
present equipment for the use of the un- 
dergraduate classes. The remainder, after 
full consideration of the best means of 
providing opportunities for advanced re- 
search and for furthering the Interests of 
the engineering professions and other 
public afEairs, largely managed by en- 
irinecrs and particularly to materially ele- 



vate engineering education, will be used 
to establish an engineering experiment 
station, which will *^e the first ever In- 
stituted in connection with any state unl- 
vArnlt.v In this country Two tniildlngs ot 
simple construction will be built as fol- 
lows: 

1. A foundry, costing $10,000, to permit 
the present forge and machine shops to 
be enlarged enough to receive the stu- 
dents now In attendance. 

2. A steam engineering laboratory, 
costing $20,000, to contain machines and 
apparatus for advanced experiments on 
steam engines and boilers, gas engrlnes. 
gasoline motors, compressed air, etc. 



U. S. Civil Service Examinations. 

An important examination will be held 
ApHl 1, 1904, by the United States Civil 
Service Commission to secure construct- 
ing engineers on the reclamation service 
of the United States Geological Survey at 
salaries of $3,600 to $4,800 a year. The 
subjects for examination will be the ap- 
plicant's education and training, count- 
ing 10 points; his professional experience 
In general engineering, counting 20 points;, 
his professional experience In construc- 
tion, counting 50 points, and a technical 
description In detail of the most Import- 
ant piece of engineering work done under 
the applicant's supervision, counting 20 
points. Personal attendance is not neces- 
sary, the papers being sent to Washing- 
ton. The commissioners expect to have 
the assistance of a board of eminent en- 
grineers in rating the papers. 

This form of examination for this class 
of work is eminently proper and appar- 
ently complies with the requirements of 
the law. 

An examination for engineer draftsmen 
in the supervising architect's office at 
$1,400 and $1,600 a year will be held at the 
usual places on April 6. 7 and 8, 1904. 



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MUNICIPAL AND TECHNICAL 
LITERATURE 



Chicago Damage Suits— Duluth and Nasiiville Public Work- 
New Publications— Municipal Reports. 



Miiiions in Damage Suits Against 
Cliicago. 

A report was made public Jan. 31 by 
John W. Smulskl, city* attorney of Chi- 
cago, in which he states that suits for 
personal Injuries, amounting to $38,666,352. 
are pending against that city. The ma- 
jority of the suits result from injuries re- 
ceived from sidewallts. An appeal for re- 
lief is made to the council, the legisla- 
ture and finally to the people. Mr. Smul- 
skl says in his report that the interests 
combining to loot the city In this way 
amount practically to an organisation. 
The names of lawyers, mostly young 
men, and doctors, occur with great fre- 
quency in the lists of suits. He says the 
piling up of suiU will inevitably con- 
tinue for some years, even should the city 
at once begin to tear up every wood side- 
walk. He says the main cause of this 
condition is the deplorable state of ihe 
city's finances, which makes it impossible 
to care properly for Its streets and side- 
walks. The remedy lies In a new city 
charter, and he points out the many 
judgments awarded against the city and 
says that unless favorable action is taken 
in regard to a new city charter inevitable 
bankruptcy will result. 



Pubiic Work in Duluth, Minn. 

The annual report of City Engineer 
Patton of Duluth. Minn., which has been 
filed with the City Clerk, states that the 
street improvements recommended for 
last year amounted to $2,187,626.12, but it 
was Impossible to accomplish more than 
30 per cent, of the work. Mr. Patton rec- 
ommends the establishment of street 
monuments in West Duluth, urging that 



be restored and states that the depart- 
ment was unable to do this work last 
year owing to the lack of funds. Last 
year a sum of $13,333.30 was appropriated 
for the engineering department out of the 
public fund. The value of contract work 
begun by the city and the estimated value 
of improvements made by private parties 
under direction of the department for the 
year was $226,581.31, diyided as follows: 

Building-j $11,295.35 

Street Improvements, paving 135,747.03 

Sidewalks 46,53222 

Bridges 11.36'/.02 

Sewers 21,639.69 

Mr. Patton s;iys that It is the custom 
to retain a certain per cent, of the esti- 
mate from the contractor to guarantee 
that the work will be kept in order for 
five years. During the year 17 miles of 
sidewalks were built, consisting of 13.93 
miles of wooden and 3.6 miles of cement 
and tile walks. 



Public Work in Nasliviiie, Tenn. 

The annual report for the year 1903 has 
been submitted to the board of public 
works at Nashville, Tenn., by W. W. 
Southgate, city engineer. During the 
year the city has expended for special 
street work, $119,370.08, of which $73,393.92 
was contributed by the city, $45,976.16 by 
the street railway company, and $6,0U0 by 
property owners for paving Broad-st 
and West End-ave. Street work other 
than special street work during the year 
cost $56,397.25, and during the year the 
total expenditures for special and other 
street work amounted to $175,767.33. Bi- 
tullthic paving was laid on Broad and 
Woodland-sts. and West End-ave.. 



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MUNICIPAL AND TECHNICAL LITERATURE. 



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by 337 acres; the length of the streets 
by 9 35-100 miles; the length of the alleys 
3 miles, which was occasioned by the an- 
nexation of the new territory in prox- 
imity to Centennial Park, known as the 
Twenty-flfth ward. The total lengrth 
of streets graded and macadamized dur- 
ing the year was 2 8-10 miles. The total 
length of both trunk and lateral r ewers 
constructed during the year under the 
supervision of the engineering depart- 
ment was 8 miles. This makes the total 
length of all sewers in the city, up to 
January 1, 1904. 67.2 miles. Mr. South- 
gate says: 

If the present policy of the board in 
extending the lateral sewers, in so far 
as funds are available, and as rapidly 
as trunk sewers are afforded, and in 
such manner as to carry out a compre- 
hensive system, accommodating entire 
neighborhoods at one time is pursued, 
it will not be a great while until the 
city will be accommodated with a sewer 
system the equal of any In the coun- 
try. 

The city is frequently put to an un- 
necesrt&ry expense to clear lateral sew- 
ers that, have become clogged by rea- 
son of water closets emptying Into the 
sewer, either without any, or without 
adequate water fixtures for properly 
flushing the closets, the result being 
that the soil lodges in the sewer. I 
would suggest that the board request 
the Mayor and City Council to so 
amend the ordinances governing sewer 
connections as to forbid that any wa- 
ter closets remain connected to a sewer 
without adequate water connection to 
properly flush the closets and sewer 
out, and flxlng a proper penalty for the 
violation of such a requirement. It 
would also be well to request the Mayor 
and City Council to require by ordinance 
that all closets or privies within a cer- 
tain specified distance— say 250 feet— of 
an available city sewer, shall be directly 
connected therewith by a proper water 
closet arrangement 



New Publications. 



The Testing of Road Materials, includ- 
ing the methods used and the results 
obtained in the Road Material Labora- 
tory incollaboratlon with the Office of 
Public Road Inquiries. By Logan Wal- 
ter Page, Chief and Allerton 8. Cush- 
man. Chemist Road-Material Labora- 
tory, XJ. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 

The road material laboratory is now 
nearly three years old and Its methods 
of work have begun to take form, and 
their present state Is shown In this pam- 
phlet. W^ooden blocks, brick, stone and 



gravel are tested for hardness, absorp- 
tion, abrasion, toughness, cross break- 
ing and tensile strength, specific grav- 
ity and weight, and cement Is tested 
both chemically and physically. Methods 
and machinery for all these tests are set 
forth and many results are given. Forms 
for making reports and forms for re- 
cording street traffic are given. The 
publication should be valuable in In- 
ducing uniformity In testing methods 
and In making known the facilities for 
and conditions of public testing In thlA 
laboratory. 

Critical Review of the Second Series of 
Analysis of Materials for the Portland 
Cement Industry, Made Under the 
Auspices of the New York Section of 
the Society of Chemical Industry. By 
W. F. Hlllebrand. 

This paper is a reprint from the Jour- 
nal of the American Chemical Society, 
and is of much interest at this time on 
account of the active work which is in 
progress toward uniformity in methods 
of analysis and test of cements. It is 
too technical for abstract, but can doubt- 
less be obtained In full on application to 
Mr. Hlllebrand or to the society. 

L' Etude des Eaux de Sources. La Flevre 
Typhoid a Auxerre en 1902. Sources de 
in Dhuis. Choix de T Emplacement des 
Cimitieres. Les Cavemes Penetrables a 
r Homme. By Max le Couppey de la 
Forest, Secretary of the Commission 
for Study of the Water Supplies of 
Paris, FYance. 

The first four of these pamphlets are 
reports of sanitary investigations made 
by M. de la Forest in the line of his du- 
ties. The first and third are studies of 
spring water and of river sources and the 
second of a typhoid fever epidemic. The 
last describes some caves of greater or 
less extent. M. de la Forest has recently 
completed a tour of th^ United States for 
the purpose of obtaining additional In- 
formation regarding all these lines and 
the report of his visit Is awaited with 
much Interest. 

Water Supply and Irrigation Papers, U. 

S. Geological Survey, Washington, 

D. C. 

The papers In this series Issued since 
March, 1908, are as follows: 

No. 77, on the water resources of Molo- 
kal, Hawaiian Islands, by Waldemar 
Llndgren. 

No. 78, a preliminary report on artesian 
basins in southwestern Idaho and south- 
western Oregon, by I. C. RusseL 

No. 79, on normal and polluted water in 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEEBING. 



northeastern United States, by M. O. 
Leighton. 

No. 80, on the relation of rainfall to 
run-off, by G. W. Rafter. 

No. 81, on California hydrography, by 
J. B. Llppincott. 

Nos. 82, 83, and 84, report of progress of 
stream measurements for 1902, by F. H. 
Newell. 

These titles serve to show to some ex- 
tent the breadth of the work of the sur- 
vey and the examination of the pamph- 
lets makes known this practical char- 
acter, though the preliminary nature of 
some of them is mainly indicative of 
what may be expected of the later full 
reports. Those interested in the subjects 
treated can obtain copies of the various 
papers on application to their Congress- 
men or in some cases to the Director of 
the U. S. Geological Survey. 

Ii'Etat Actuel de I'Blectroculture. By 
M. E. GuarinI, 70 Bvd Charlemagne, 
Bruxelles, Belgium. 

This little pamphlet gives the results 
of some experiments with 'the culture of 
vegetables under electric currents, show- 
ing the beneficial effects of certain cur- 
rents and the methods of applying them. 

Index of the Technical Press. Asso- 
ciation de la Presse Technique, Brux- 
elles, Belgium. 

The monthly numbers of this valuable 
publication show constant improvement, 
and though scarcely a year old £u:e now 
quite four times the size of those at the 
beginning. The editors cover the period- 
icals which they index more thoroughly 
than any similar publication and give 
full representation to all branches of en- 
gineering. A large number of American 
and foreign periodicals is now on the list 
and the price of subscription. 5 shillings 
(11.26) a year Is no indication of Its value. 
Only a large circulation can make so low 
a price possible. 

Merchants' Association Review, vol. vil, 
to September, 1903. Merchants' Asso- 
ciation, San Francisco, Cal. 
The collection of the monthly numbei-s 
of the publication of the San Francisco 
Merchants' Association shows clearly the 
value of the work done by this public- 
spirited body, to which the city of San 
Francisco Is most largely indebted for 



and a field for the discussion of public 
problema and the formation of public 
opinion. The public-spirited business men 
of other cities may well study the meth- 
ods of this active club and can attain 
to some measure of its success if they 
will put into their efforts the same busi- 
ness ability and push. 

Nine Feet from Pittsburg to Cairo. By 
Albert Bettlnger. CIncinati. O.. 16 pp. 
and map. 

This pamphlet contcdns a speech by the 
Hon. Albert Bettlnger of Cincinnati be- 
fore the ninth annual convention of the 
Ohio Valley Improvement Association at 
Evansvile. Ind., in October, 1908, and gives 
the arguments in favor of a nine-foot 
stage of water from Pittsburg to Cairo. 
It is full of facts and figures and should 
have a favorable effect upon public opin- 
ion In this direction. 

Proceedings of the Twenty-third Annual 
Convention of the American Water 
Works Association. Held at Detroit, 
Mich., June. 1903. John M. Diven, Sec- 
retary, Elmlra, N. Y. 
This volume contains 724 pages without 
counting the advertising pages, is printed 
in large and readable type and is well 
illustrated with a photograph of Presi- 
dent L. N. Case and numerous drawings 
and photographs illustrating the various 
papers which were presented. 

Many of the papers are of much value 
and the discussions as well an the other 
proceedings of the convention are given 
in full. 

An arrangement has been made by 
which the proceedings can be obtained of 
the secretary, the amount paid for them 
being credited on his membership fee if 
the purchaser makes application for 
membership during the year. 

The association is in a flourishing con- 
dition and about 350 members and their 
families attended the convention. The 
next meeting will be held in St. Louis. 

Free-hand Lettering: Being a treatise 
on plain lettering from the practical 
standpoint for use in engineering 
schools and colleges. By Victor T. Wil- 
son, M. E. 106 pp., 13 plates. Cloth. $1. 
John Wiley & Sons. New York City. 
Mr. Wilson has prepared a very satis- 
factory little book for the beginner on 
simple lettering. He rightly assumes 



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MUNICIPAL AND TECHNICAL LITERATURE. 



199 



If combined with Brown's "Letters and 
Lettering," which was reviewed In Mu- 
nicipal Engineering some months ago* the 
two books cover the whole field of letter- 
ing very satisfactorily. 

Hendricks' Commercial Register of the 
United States, for buyers and sellers. 
Especially devoted to the interests of 
the architectural, mechanical, engineer- 
ing, contracting, electrical, railroad, 
iron, steel, mining, mill, quarrying and 
kindred industries. 1.326 pp. Cloth, |6. 
Samuel C. Hendricks Company, 76 Elm- 
St., New York City. 

This Is the edition for the year be- 
ginning Nov. 1, 1903, of the standard 
directory of manufacturers, dealers, en- 
gineers, architects and all other interested 
in any sort of construction or in materials 
and apparatus for construction. The book 
increases In size each year, an Indication 
that it is keeping up with the develop- 
ments in business. A measure of this in- 
crease Is found in the index which, in the 
last edition ocupied 138 columns, and in 
this edition requires 168 columns. A little 
circular of question and answers, which 
can be had for the asking, shows what 
the scope of the book is and some of the 
many uses to which it can be put. 

The Mechanical Engineer's Reference 
Book, by Henry H. Suplee, Member oi 
the American Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers. 

This book is published by J. B. Lippln- 
cott Company, Philadelphia, Pa. The de- 
mand for the book has be^n so large that 
a second printing was required before the 
date of publication of the book, and the 
publishers are now prepared to fill all 
orders. The work contains 800 pages, 450 
illustrations, and is furnished with a very 
complete index. It is of pocket size, 
bound In limp leather, and can also be 
supplied with a thumb subject-index for 
60 cents additional to the regular price, 
which is $5 net. Fuller notice will be 
given later. 



Munfcfpal and State Reports. 

Eighth Annual Report of the Board of 
Water Commissioners of Atlantic City, 
N. J., for year ending September 1, 1903. 
Kenneth Allen, Engineer and Superin- 
tendent. 

Under Mr. Allen the works, which were 
recently acquired by the city, have been 
considerably Improved and recommenda- 
tions for further Improvements are made 
in the report. The summary of statistics 
is made on the standard form. 

The cost of the works has been $1,302,402 
and the bonded Indebtedness is $1,250,500. 
The sinking fund now amounts to 131,500. 



Receipts from water rates have been $52,- 
211 and from bond issue $85,000. Mainten- 
ance cost $69,176, Interest $57,643 and the 
sinking fund took $36,211. Construction 
cost $46,993. 

The estimated city population on the 
lines of pipe is 36,500, but the summer 
population is more than this by 100,000 
to 225,000 persons, ordinarily 150,000. This 
causes some peculiarities in the consump- 
tion. Thus the average dally conBump- 
tlon for the year is 3,967,546 gallons and 
the average during the summer on the 
basis of 150,000 additional population is 
5.656,336 gallons. The average consump- 
tion per Inhabitant computed in the usual 
way is HO gallons. The summer consump- 
tion is 38 gallons and the winter con- 
sumption is 94 gallons, computed on the 
average population for the two seasons. 

Monthly analyses of the water are 
made, both chemical and bacteriological. 
The water In the Absecon Canal, the 
source of supply, comes from cedar 
swamps and there is salt from the sea 
spray blown Inland in storms, which 
make the ordinary chemical indications 
of little value. Bacteriologlcally the wa- 
ter shows well, there being seldom more 
than 300 bacteria per cubic centimeter, 
and bacillus coll communis seldom show- 
ing a sample of one cubic centimeter, 
though they always show in quantities of 
10 and 20 centimeters. The removal of 
barns and barnyards on the banks of the 
reservoir and canal is recommended to 
Insure safety from accidental pollution 
of a dangerous character. 

Fifty-first annual report of the Railroad 
Commissioners of Connecticut, with sta- 
tistical tables of steam and street rail- 
ways. W. F*. Wlllcox, W. O. Seymour 
and O. R. Fyler, Commissioners, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

The railroad statistics are of great 
value and Interest, but room can only be 
made for a few. The length of road re- 
porting is 4.438 miles, 1,861 miles being in 
Connecticut. The average cost of the 
roads was $78,056 a mile, the average 
capitalization is $78,062 and the average 
funded debt is $24,567. Gross earnings are 
$20,748 per mile of road operated, net 
earnings $5,302 and operating expenses 
$16,295. The summaries in the report go 
into detail on maintenance of way and 
equipment, transportation, traffic and 
freight, fuel, employes, equipment, acci- 
dents, grade crossings, etc. The net 
earnings are 7.6 per cent, of the total cap- 
ital stock and indebtedness. Still greater 
detail is given regarding each individual 
road, the same for both steam and elec- 
tric lines. 



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The street railways show an average 
cost of construction and equipment of 
$80,773 a mile of road owned and $66,939 a 
mile of road operated. Capital stock per 
mile of road owned is $46,122, and bonds 
are $34,931 per mile, including sidings. The 
gross earnings are $6,798. the net earn- 
ings $2,021 and the operating expenses 
$4,777 per mile operated. 

An appendix gives the state laws regu- 
lating railroads of cdl kinds and the 
powers and duties of the Railroad Com- 
mission. 

Third Report on the Highways of Mary- 
land, by A. N. Johnson, Highway En- 
gineer. Maryland Geological Survey, 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 
Md. 

Aside from the reports of the small 
amount of road improvement done under 
the present laws, the report contains some 
valuable woili, such as an outline of a 
county road law prepared at the request 
of the grand jury in one county. This 
provides for a board of road commis- 
sioners, a roads engineer, supervisors of 
districts, methods of making appropria- 
tions and keeping accounts. 

Some tests of paving bricks, comparing 
the use of old cast-iron shot, new cast-iron 
shot and chilled steel shot are given, 
showing percentages of loss in the rattler 
of 16.2, 17.9 and 20.7 with the three kinds 
respectively, with a hard brick, and 24.2, 
24.5 and 28.3 with a soft brick. The shape 
of the shot is said to exercise little in- 
fluence, and the hardness of the brick, 
in comparison with the difference in 
. equisility of material of which the shot is 
made. 

Some tests of concrete bars 6 by 6 by 
24 to 80 inches are reported, also some 
tests on the tensile strength of cement. 
The latter were made on rings which 
were pulled apart by exerting air pres- 
sure on the inner surface of the rings. 
The data are not suflfldent in ntim- 
ber to warrant conclusions as to the 
comparison of this method with the ordi- 
nary briquette method. 

Mayor's Annual Message and the twenty- 
seventh annual report of the Depart- 



shows the reasons for the poverty of the 
city in low valuations and favoritism of 
officials fixing the valuations and tax 
rates. The street question is well handled. 
A compliment is paid to creosoted wood 
blocks and a municipal creosoting plant 
at the house of correction is suggested. 
City work is said to com];>are favorably 
with contract work, and contractors' 
combinations are blamed for high prices, 
so that it is claimed the only solution of 
the present difficulties Is a municipal de- 
partment of construction. The work done 
in removing garbage is commended in 
this connection. The city has completed 
by day labor contracts on a land tunnel 
of the water works and one of the tunnels 
under the lake which had been abandoned 
by the contractors and has also con- 
structed by day labor two water pipe 
tunnels and is now building a lateral in- 
tercepting sewer. In all these cases the 
Mayor gives comparisons showing the 
superior results of the municipal con- 
struction, and especially the saving in 
cost. The civil service is commended. 
Track elevation, subways, pneumatic 
tubes, strikes and social problems have 
their full measure of attention. 

Fifth Annual Report of the Board of 
Water and Light Commissioners. 
Duluth, Minn., 1903. L. N. Case, Man- 
ager and Secretary. 

The earnings of the department for 1903 
exceeded the expenditures for operation, 
maintenance and interest chargres by 
$32,000. The accumulated earnings of the 
department are $90,000, nearly all of which 
has been applied on construction. The 
demands for extensions are greater than 
can be met in this way and $60,000 addi- 
tional is desired, which would be added to 
the bonded indebtedness. Extensions arc 
only made when the guaranteed income 
from them will pay 8 per cent, on the 
cost, but the cost is computed at $1.60 a 
foot, that of pipe for local service, and 
when the necessities of the distribution 
service require larger pipe, the board 
considers the additional cost properly a 
charge upon the system at large. Rock 
excavations sometimes make a similar 



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201 



consumers $2,648, or a total profit of more 
than 110,000. 

A new pump is one of the necessities of 
the immediate future. 

The board also operate:^ the city gas 
works, which earned $4,584 of the surplus 
given. 

A contract has been made with the 
Zenith Furnace Company to furnish gas 
to the city for Its distribution, at a price 
slightly less than the cost of making gas 
in the city's own plant. The surplus is 
$3,000 greater than for the year before, al- 
though the higher price of coal added 
$3,572 to expenses and the reduction in 



rates from $1.16 to $1 made a reduction in 
receipts of $6,272. 

A court decision has established the 
power of the board to install water 
meters wherever it suspects waste of 
water. 

An interesting table gives the cost of 
making gas and the amount of gas lost 
and unaccounted for. The monthly aver- 
ages of cost of gas actually made range 
from 37H to 60 cents per 1,000 cubic feet, 
and the g&s not acounted for varies from 
3^ to 18 2-3 per cent, of the amount made. 



OICOANIZATIONi 
AND INDIVIDUALi 

Michigan Municipal Societies— Electric Clul>— Technical Club— Personal Notes. 



Convention of Michigan Municipal 
Societies. 

The Michigan Political Science Asso- 
ciation and the League of Michigan 
Municipalities held a Joint convention In 
Ann Arbor, Mich., Feb. 11 and 12. at 
which there was earnest and careful dis- 
cussion of some Important municipal 
problems. 

Municipal ownership of public utilities 
was discussed pro and con by F. F. In- 
gram and C. A. Kent of Detroit. 

Prof. Kent is the president of the Po- 
litical Science Association. He took a 
decided stand against the public owner- 
ship, on the ground that the interest of 
the workers is destroyed if they are em- 
ployes of a government. 

Private enterprise safeguards itself at 
every step along lines of economy and ef- 
ficiency, but in governmental affairs 
these precautions are sensibly relaxed. 
"Even if the public officials are honest and 
well meaning, private affairs and the ne- 
cessity of maintaining their political 
standing interfere very greatly with their 
administration of their public duties. 

Another argument is that public own-> 
ership tends to an increase of taxation, 
by removing taxable enterprises ftom the 
field. 

Thirdly, public ownership tends to make 



the government all powerful, which is 
contrary to our 9nglo-Saxon principles. 

The advocates of public ownership of 
public utilities, are obliged to go to 
Great Britain for example of their theory, 
and then the question is still subject to 
debate. In Glasgow the most striking 
example, the taxes have increased great- 
ly during the past decade. 

Municipalities are popularly supposed to 
treat their working men better than do 
private enterprises, and their argument 
naturally appeals to the poor. 
. One who would radically change the 
great machinery of society had better 
look carefully to what he does. At what 
stage in the process of acquiring wealth 
does a nobleman worry his fellows? He 
works himself up from the bottom by or- 
ganizing and developing enterprises that 
give employment to workmen. The 
poverty of the multitude is a great evil, 
but in this country at least its main cause 
is the willingness to live -on a bare sub- 
sistence. For the mass of the poor the 
only real help is the instilling of new 
wants and the creating in them of the 
industry necessary to gratify these wants. 
Business seems doomed to vibrate be- 
tween too great competition and too great 
combination. The extreme of socialism 
is unthinkable, but the scope of govern- 
ment may be greatly increased. 

There is a limit to the amount of tax- 
ation, as people cannot pay taxes unless 
their income is enough larger to allow 
them to live on the difference. Contests 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



as to wages are really contests between 
different classes of workers, as the con- 
sumer pays for any increase in the cost 
of production. Combinations of capital 
under government would have the same 
evils as the trusts. 

Mr. Elmer Swarthout of the Grand 
llapids city council, read an interesting 
paper on "Some Requisites of a Good 
C--y Charter." The first part of this was 
a discussion of the place which should 
be given to the council in the scheme of 
municipal organization. After consider- 
ing the plans for centralizing all power 
in the hands of the mayor and for estab- 
lishing bicameral councils, Mr. Swarthout 
disapproved of both. He believed in a 
single council with large power. This 
would be niore economical than the bi- 
cameral system, would fix responsibility 
and would avoid the confusion which ex- 
ists where the ordinance power is dis- 
tributed among various boards and offi- 
cials. This would be following the same 
plan as private corporations, where the 
board of directors is the general policy 
determining power. At the same time the 
council should not have executive or ad- 
ministrative powers; but these should be 
centered in the control of the mayor. 

The latter part of the paper discussed 
charter provisions in reference to fran- 
chises and street improvements. On both 
subjects the provisions of the Grand 
Rapids charter were critlsed, and those 
of the recent charter of Portland, Ore., 
were cited aprovingly. lu reference to 
franchises, these limit the terms of 
franchises to twenty-five years, require 
public notice and a twb-thirds vote of 
the council to grant a franchise, provide 
for public reports from the franchise 
company, authorize a referendum on all 
franchises on the petition of 15 per cent, 
of the voters, and empower the city to 
own and operate public utilities. Mn. 
Swarthout did not favor municipal owner- 
ship of street railways, but legal author- 
ity to do so, as a means of controlling 
the franchise corporations. 

He did approve, however, of cities own- 
ing and leasing the street railway road- 
beds. 

Papers were read on "Public Works in 
Detroit," bv Commissioner W. H. May- 
bury and on "The Separate System of 
Sewers for Small Cities," by Mayor E. 



Jection. It is free from any of the more 
Important objections that are urged 
against its application to larger and dif- 
ferently constituted communities. It is 
sound in theory and has proved effective 
in practice. Still better results may be 
expected as the weaknesses of the law ap- 
pear through repeated application and are 
remedied. For my own part I am confi- 
dent that It will do more to reform our 
municipal governments than any other 
change suggested or projected. The re- 
form in the nominating system is a fun- 
damental reform, for nearly all public Ills 
may be traced to the initial step In the 
choice of public servants. 

The Ohio Municipal Code was explained 
by M. G. Denman, city solicitor of Toledo. 
The progress toward uniformity in 
municipal accounting was recounted by 
Charles Carroll Brown of Indianapolis, 
editor of Municipal Engineering, special 
attention being given to the new Ohio 
law. The work of the Wisconsin league 
was described by Prof. S. E. Sparling, its 
secretary. 

The social features were not neglected. 
Such meetings as this are ftruitful of re- 
sults beneficial to the government of the 
municipalities of the state and country. 
Prof. J. A. Fairlie, the secretary of both 
organizations, was largely responsible for 
the high character of the papers pre- 
sented and for the general success of the 

convention. 

« 

Technical Meetings. 

The fourth annual meeting of the Wis- 
consin Clay Workers' Association will be 
held at Portage, Wis., March 1, 2 and 3. 

The twenty-sixth annual convention of 
the Illinois Clay Workers' Association 
was held at Danville, 111., January 5 and 
6. Among the papers presented were the 
following: "Civic Improvements," D. H. 
Jansen, Pekin, 111.; "Necessary Sizes of 
Drain Tiles," L. R. Whitney. Teri« 
Haute, Ind.; "Road Construction," F. 8. 
Selley, Danville, 111.; "Power Generation 
. for Brick Plants," John T. Thompson. 
Chicago. Officers for the ensuing year 
were elected as follow: president, Frank 
W. Butterworth, Danville, 111.; vice-presi- 
dent, O. W. Dunlap, Bloomington. 111.; 
secretary, George H. Hartwell, Chicago; 



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ORGANIZATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS. 



203 



boards of supervisors of the state of New 
Tork was held at Albany, N. Y., January 
26 and 27. Officers were elected as follows: 
chairman, Hon. Eugene L. Burnette, On- 
tario county; secretary, H. E. Cook, 
Lewis county; vice-presidents— Peter 
Walker, Albany county; Una A. Pollard^ 
Broome; F. E. Whitmore, Cortland; Geo. 
H. Butterfleld, Chenango; James A. 
"Woodward, Erie; E. V. Decker. Herki- 
mer; A. Bickelhaupt, Jefferson; Adam 
Kotary, Lewis; J. T. McCUntock, Monroe; 
T. R. Staley, Montgomery; F. E. Swan- 
cott. Oneida; John Schumann, Jr., Rens- 
selaer; Joseph S. Barnes, Seneca; Phillip 
Shautz, Ulster; Dr. Wm. C. Smith, St. 
Lawrence. 

The next annual convention of the Na- 
tional Good Roads Association will be held 
In St. Louis, May 19, 20 and 21. Practical 
demonstrations of road making methods 
will be given during the convention. 

The twelfth annual convention of the 
Northwestern Electrical Associatian was 
beld in Milwaukee, January zO, 21 and 22. 
Officers for the ensuing ye6r were elected 
as follows: president, T. F. Grover, Fond 
du Lac, Wis.; vice-presidents, George H. 
Lukes, Evanston and F. A. Daniel, Me- 
nominee; secretary- treasurer, Thomas R. 
Mercein, Milwaukee. 

The eighteenth annual convention of 
the National Brick Manufacturers' As- 
sociation was held at Cincinnati, O., Feb. 
1 to 13 inclusive. Among the papers 
presented were: "Neglected D etails In 
Brick Pavement Construction," Prof. I. 
O. Baker, Champaign, 111. and "Brick 
Pavements, or the Permanent Improve- 
ment of City Streets," W. E. Gunn, C. E., 
Covington, Ky. 

The nineteenth annual meeting of the 
Illinois Society of Civil Engineers and 
Surveyors was held at Champaign, 111., 
Jan. 20, 21 and 22. Prof. Ira O. Baker 
opened the meeting with an address of 
welcome to which President John W. Al- 
vord responded. An address was then 
delivered by Dean N. C. Ricker on the 
College of Engineering of the University 
of Illinois. The annual address of Pres- 
ident Alvord, on "Harnessing the Forces 
of Nature for the Use of Man," followed. 
In the absence of F. E. Herdman, his 
paper on "Municipally Owned Water, Gas 
and Electric Light Plants," was read 
by the secretary, and the methods em- 
ployed by Winnetka to furnish its resi- 
dents with light and water were de- 
scribed. The practical uses of concrete 
on the farm were described by L. Z. Jones. 
O. L. Gearheart submitted a paper on 
'•Concrete Foundations for Pavements." 



The sixteenth annual meeting of the 
Iowa Engineering Soc*ety was held in 
Des Moines, January 20, 21 and 22. A 
paper on "Nishnabotna River Improve- 
ments" was read by Seth Dean of Green- 
wood; "Street Grades" by Prof. L. Hig- 
glns of Des Moines; "Experiences of a 
County Surveyor," I. W. Hoffman of Car- 
roll; "The New Melan Arch Bridge at 
Waterloo," W. L. Newton; "Sanitary 
Engineering," Prof. C. S. Magowan of 
Iowa City; "Official Methods in Struc- 
tural Iron Works," Prof. L. E. Ashbaugh 
of Ames; "Railway Construction from 
the Resident Engineer's Standpoint," 
Prof F. C. French of Ames; "Electric 
Power for Railways," Prof. B. S. Lamp- 
hear of Ames. 

The Engineers' Club of Columbus, O., 
elected officers February 6 ab follows; 
President, W. F. McGruder; vice-presi- 
dents, W. T. Guy and W. K. Danman; 
secretary, H. M. Gates; treasurer, Wm. 
Michael. 

The Engineers' Club of Philadelphia, 
held a meeting February 20 and a paper 
on "Reinforced Concrete in Building 
ConstrucUon." was read by E. G. Per- 

rott. 

« — 

Personal Notes. 

, John E. Reynolds has been elected 
Mayor at Meadville. Pa. 

J. W. Barnett has been reappointed 
city engineer at Athens, Ga. 

T. J. Moreland has been re-elected city 
engineer at Knoxvllle, Tenn. 

J. P. Ogden has resigned as first as- 
sistant city engineer at Cleveland, O. 

Edward Lynch has been reappointed 
fire commissioner at Fall River, Mass. 

Hon. John A. Roche, former mayor of 
Chicago, 111., died suddenly February 10. 

William Gavlii Taylor has been reap- 
pointed city engineer at Medford, Mass. 

Robert Hoffman has been appointed 
first assistant city engineer at Cleveland, 
O. 

Robert Clark, Jr.. has resigned as a 
member of the council at North Plalnfield. 
N. J. 

Daniel Phillips has been appointed coun- 
cilman, to succeed C. U. Davis, at Glen- 
vllle, O. 

Walter W. Crosby has accepted the gen- 
eral superlntendency of parks at Balti- 
more,- Md. 

John F. Sprenkle has been elected su- 
perintendent of the Lehigh Waf-r Com- 
pany, at Easton, Pa. 

Park Woodward has been re-elected 
general manager of the water-works de- 
partment at Atlanta, Ga. 

William Mayer, alderman and chairman 
of the finance committee of city council 
at Chicago, 111., died February 12 of apo- 
plexy. 



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David Hoover has been re-elected su- 
perintendent of the Waynesboro Water 
Company at Waynesboro, Pa. 

J. S. O'Conneli has been appointed 
chairman of the Board of Water Com- 
missioners at Marlboro. Mass. 

George Dwyer has been appointed city 
engrineer and Thomas J. Schoenlaub as- 
sistant city engineer at Marion. O. 

Rufus Benye has been reappointed a 
member bf the water commission f^r a 
term of three years at Atlantic City, N. J. 

Arthur J. Cox, secretary and treasurer 
of the Iowa Engineering Company, Clin- 
ton, la., will have his office at Iowa City, 
la. 

Christopher Harrison has been reap- 
pointed city engineer at Everett, Mass. 
This is Mr. H£u:rison's seventh consecu- 
tive term. 

David A. Hartwell has been re-elected 
city engineer at Fitchburg, Mass. Mr. 
Hartwell has held this position for thir- 
teen years. 

J. O. Magruder has been elected city 
engineer and Frank Talbott superintend- 
ent of water works and electric lighting 
at Danville, Vr. 

Mr. Edward B. Bllicott, city electrician 
of Chicago, has been appointed chief elec- 
trician and mechanical engineer of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 

George H. Boughman has been re-elect- 
ed city engineer and James L. Zeigler 
and William E. Snyder first and second 
assistants, respectively, at Wilmington, 
Del. 

Bertram Brewer has been reappointed 
city engineer, Richard A. Jones superin- 
tendent of streets a!hd Leroy Brown su- 
perintendent of water-works at Waltham, 
Mass. 

O. C. Simonds, landscape engineer, of 
Chicago, 111., addressed the Woman's 
Club of Moline, HI., February 15, on 
"Town Improvement or Beautiful Sur- 
roundings." 

Asa B. Prichard has been appointed 
commissioner of streets at Somerville, 
Mass., to succeed his father John P. 
Prichard. who has held the position for 
nearly eight years. 

John H. Kelman has resigned his posi- 
tion as superintendent of the Stanley 
Electric Company of Pittsfleld, Mass., to 
accept a position with the Allis-Chalm- 
ers Company of Chicago, 111. 

George A. Clark of East Boston has 
been appointed engineer for Simpson 
Bros. Corporation, 106 Devonshire-st., 



Boston, to conduct the business of its 
steel-concrete construction department. 

Russell L. Dunn has been appointed 
special assistant engineer for the Board 
of Public Works at San Francisco, Cal., 
in an investigation for fixing the water 
rates of the Spring Valley Water Com- 
pany. 

C. F. Berger, formerly with the San- 
dusky Portland Cement Company, is now 
the Chicago - sales agent of the Atlas 
Portland Cement Company, with offices 
in the Marquette building. 

John Geist has established an office 
as consulting engineer at 38 Exchange 
Building, Milwaukee, Wis. Mr. Geist 
has been acting as engineer of the Mil- 
waukee plant of the American Bridge 
Company. 

T. Chalkley Hatton, M. Am. Soc. C. E., 
has resigned as consulting engineer to 
the sewer department of Wilmington, 
Del., and will devote all his t'me to pri- 
vate practice. 

Arthur W. Tldd has accepted a position 
as assistant engineer with the Charles 
River Basin Commission. Mr. Tidd has 
been recently engaged in work for the 
commission on additional water supply 
for New York City. 

Frederick A. Waldron, formerly super- 
intendent of power and plant at the 
works of the Yale & Towne Manufactur- 
ing Company, at Stamford, Conn., has 
established himself as a consulting engi- 
neer in power plant construction. 

Mazyck Ravenel has been sent to 
Charleston, S. C, by the American Pipe 
Company to make an analysis of 
Goose Creek water, and as soon as com- 
pleted the result of his Investigation will 
be reported to that company. 

Albert E. Greene, a practicing engineer 
and the son of the late dean of the en- 
gineering department of the University 
of Michigan, Charles E. Greene, has been 
appointed as assistant professor of civil 
engineering to take charge of the class 
work formerly done by his father. A suc- 
cessor to the deanship has not yet been 
appointed. 

Dr. Kiosaburo Futami, professor of civil 
engineering in the Kyoio Imperial Uni- 
versity, Japan, arrived m Boston, Mass., 
February 2. He will siutty certain 
branches of civil engineering, and par- 
ticularly tho bridges of the largest cities, 
while in this country. Dr. Futami is mak- 
ing his headquarters with the American 
Society of Civil Engineers In New York 
City while here. 



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MACHINERY AND TRADE 






St. Louis Bitulithic Contracts Upheld 
by Supreme Court. 

The Missouri Supreme Court rendered 
a decision on Feb. 24 upholding the 
Board of Public Improvements of St. 
Louis in the matter of paving W. Pine- 
boulevard with bituminous macadam. 

William F. Swift, one of the property- 
holders along the way of the proposed im- 
provements, sought to Invalidate the 
special tax bills because the city au- 
thorities specified Warren's bituminous 
macadams The court holds that the 
Board of Public Improvements had au- 
thority, under the. charter of the city, to 
so specify. 

The decision sustained the judgment of 
Circuit Judge Wood, who, in giving his 
decision, said: "The testimony strongly 
tends to show *.hat there are no manufac- 
turers In the United States manufactur- 
ing coal tar cement for street paving pur- 
poses other than that manufactured by 
the Warren Bros." This statement the 
Board of Public Improvements quoted in 
their answer to the request by the House 
of Delegates for a statement in regard to 
why certain Warren's materials were 
specified in street bills In preference to 
other materials, which. It was claimed, 
barred competition on street work. War- 
ren's waterproof cement, which Is used 
in mixing the ingredients of bituminous 
macadam, is patented by the Warren 
Bros., and, according to the board mem- 
bers, is the best waterproof material ever 
submitted for paving purposes, and there- 
fore had been recommended by them In 
construction work, where the board's dis- 
cretion had been called upon. 

Judge Gantt wrote the decision. 

A report of the decision of the lower 
court, which Is now affirmed by the Su- 
preme Court, will be found in Municipal 
Engineering, vol. xxiv, p. 284. 



Development of the Automobile. 
The rapid and progressive growth of 
the automobile industry within the past 
ten years has had great Infiuence on en« 
gineering problems. These vehicles are 
and have been one of the factors helpful 
to the movement for better roads and 
paved streets. The Industry ha^ opened 



a new industrial field for manufacturers 
and mechanical men. The problems that 
have been solved In connection with the 
automobile as a pleasure conveyance are 
now being adopted for every day, prac- 
tical use. The plow, lawnmower, truck, 
reaper, fire-engine, street-sweeper, street- 
sprinkler, and many other horse-drawn 
vehicles have been the medium for appli- 
cation of power for self-propulsion. 

The two great automobile shows of the 
year have been held at New York and 
Chicago, each of them giving a splendid 
idea of the advancement of the industry. 
Neither show exhibited anything radical' 
ly new, although many builders and de- 
signers have changed their methods of 
construction. Foreign Ideas are bein^' 
taken by Americans and blended with oui 
own methods, with the consequent in- 
crease in strength and utility. 

The present tendency is toward the in- 
crease of power and the decreasing of 
weight In ratios that add strength, 
power and speed to machines. All manu- 
facturers are endeavoring to bring the 
weights of their machines within the 
limits of one horse-power for every hun- 
dred pounds of weight or less. 

The Chicago show emphasized the fact 
that the two-cylinder crouble opposed, 
and three and four-cylinder vertical mo- 
tors are being universally recognised. 
The single cylinder engine has been dis- 
carded on all machines with the exception 
of runabouts, the main objection to if 
being Its excessive vibration and the in- 
ability satisfactorily to construct single 
cylinder motors of over eight to nine- 
horse power, although the style Is sim- 
ple to operate and gives little trouble. 
The two-cylinder double opposed engine 
is especially well adapted to hilly coun- 
try and bad, rocky roads, where large 
power is desired, but not great speeds 
This type gives very little vibration and 
propels a machine very smoothly. Many 
prominent firms exhibited cars with this 
style motor at Chicago. Among whom 
were such firms as the Wlnton Company, 
Haynes-Apperson Company, Steams 
Bros.. Kirk Manufacturing Company, 
Apperson Bros., and the Ford Company. 
It was a noticeable fact at Chicago that 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



many new companies were following the 
lead of these older concerns and building 
cars with this same type of motor. 

Quite a number of Arms exhibited two- 
cylinder vertical engrines. This is an 
economical engine and gives very good 
service, but it has been found exceedingly 
difficult to attain perfect balance for the 
reason that the cranks are necessarily 
opposed, while the cylinders and pistons 
are not, both being vertical. The posi- 
tions of cranks and pistons consequently 
give the engine irregular impulses when 
an explosion occurs. 

One of the newest and most thoroughly 
built cars and one that in all probability 
was surrounded more continually than 
others by mechanical engineers and en- 
thusiasts was a three-cylinder ma- 
chine. Although several American 
Arms have been rather unsuccess- 
ful with this style of motor 
'others have proved it is entirely practical 
and very serviceable. Prominent foreign 
manufacturers, such as the Panhard- 



THE THOMA8INE. 

Instantly Convertible Into Inclosed or Open Car 

Without Alighting. 

Levassor Company, are making a special 
feature of their three-cylinder motors. 
This engine gives almost perfect balance, 
with one-third less of wearmg parts than 
a four-cylinder, is one-third less compli- 
cated and bums one-third less fuel, to 
say nothing of the decrease in trouble 
with valves, ignition, lubrication, bearings 
and coolings. Above all, and perhaps one 
of the most important features, it is less 
expensive than the four-cylinder motor, 
which gives the same results in regard 
to power and balance, but with the addi- 
tional drawbacks mentioned. The three- 
cylinder motor was exhibited in such 
numbers at Paris that it was pronounced 



cal construction and have at the same 
time provided for the safety and com- 
fort of the tourist. Their three-cylinder 
motor develops twenty-four horse power 
at a normal speed of 900 revolutions per 
minute. The cylinders are cast individu- 
ally, facilitating ease of repair in case of 
necessity. The power Is transmitted 
through a very neat sliding gear trans- 
mission, with three speeds forward and 
one reverse, the drive being direct on the 
high gear, with no gears meshed. A 
countershaft, bevel geared to the trans- 
• mission, then carries the power to the 
rear wheels through two side chains. 
Safety devices are numerous throughout 
the car, making It simple and safe for 
the most careless chauffeur. Three brakes 
are provided, one on the differential shaft 
and two on the rear wheels attached to 
drums. All brakes may be applied, the 
clutch disengaged and the throttle re- 
leased by applying the emergency brake. 
Another feature that appeals to drivers 
in hilly countri is the device that abso- 
lutely locks the rear wheels if through 
any. mishap the car should begin to trav- 
el backward on a steep and treacherous 
incline. This is accomplished through 
the use of a pawl and ratchet in each 
brake drum on the rear wheels. 

The Thomas people seem to have solved 
the problem of winter and summer tour- 
ing with the introduction of their new 
six-passenger limousine body. This body 
is of beautiful design, resembling the 
usual canopy topped car, but the tonneau 
is very ingeniously inclosed in plate 
glass that may be taken out or put in 
with little trouble. A hot water pipe is 
run through the tonneau for the comfort 
of the occupants in cold weather. A 
plate glass is placed in front of the 
chauffeur and side curtams 'are provided 
for his protection. • 

With all of these features the car aver- 
ages eighty-three pounds of weight for 
every horse power, thus making it one of 
the lightest of the high-power machines 
at the shew. 

Many "ars were equipped with four- 
cylinder engines, ranging from sixteen to 
sixty horse-power. In fact, the general 
tendency seems to be toward four-cylin- 
der motors. They give very little vibra- 
tion with light power but are necessarily 



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207 



movinsT machine comes from the chains 
and transmission. 

Foreign manufacturers are using th*i 
four-cylinder engine to a great extent 
and the American designs are following 
their lead. R. F. 



A Successful Type of Dump Wagon. 
The accompanying cut shows the 
Hoosier dump wagon, which is manu- 
factured by the Studebaker Brothers' 
Manufacturing Company of South Bend, 
Ind. The cut shows most of the points 
of interest In the wagon, with its latest 
improvements, including the turn-under 
front gear and the levers and chains by 
which the dri>er can operate the dump- 



used without tooling, or can be tooled 
In any manner desired. The special fea- 
ture of the method is the filling of the 
mold partially with water before putting 
in the concrete mixture for making the 
stone. The mixture may be fed in dry 
or of desired consistency, and as it is 
deposited the water rises In the mold 
and when the stone is finished the water 
stands a fraction of an inch deep upon 
the surface. After about twenty-four hours 
the water has nearly disappeared, the 
mold can be removed and the stone is 
cured for any desired period before using. 
The claims for the stone made in this 
way are that it is nearer the natural 
stone in appearance and color, that it is 
close grained enough to be waterproof, 



THE STUDEBAKER DUMP WAGON. 



Ing mechanism without leaving his seat. 
The Studebaker gruaranty goes with this 
wagon, as it goes with all their vehicles. 
The company can furnish on the shortest 
notice any description of dump wagons, 
•contractors' carts, garbage wagons, street 
sprinklers, street sweepers or other mu- 
nicipal vehicles of any sort. It has the 
reputation of keeping all its vehicles up- 
to date, equipping them with all the 
latest improvements. 



^tone Making by the Lake Process. 

Three patents have recently been Is- 
sued to Mr. Albert Lake for molding ar- 
tificial stone, which are the result of 
:8ome years of exper.'.once in molding such 
Atone and embody the ideas which he 
has developed as a result of this ex- 
perience. One of these patents, No. 
743,525, dated November 10, 1908, describes 
a method Intended to produce a stone 
free from craze or surface cracks and 
iiaving a smooth surface which can be 



that it can be cut or ornamented like 
stone, has greater tensile strength than 
stone and is otherwise much stronger. 

Blocks are made solid or hollow of any 
desired shape or reasonable size and with 
all sorts of ornamentation of face. 

The wet pToce»H is used so that no 
tamping is necessary, and no acid^ are 
used. The process is simple and inexpen- 
sive and the product as stated above is 
claimed to be superior. Crushed stone 
and Portland cement are used and hollow 
blocks, plain or tooled face, are made for 
foundations and walls of plain buildings. 
Heavier and finer blocks with rock or 
tooled face are made for higher class 
building walls. Blocks of any size or 
shape, solid or hollow are made to suit 
any class of buildings for trimmings or 
for walls. The price of the common 
foundation blocks is low enough to per- 
mit competition with common brick. The 
walls of a building can be furnished com- 
plete from bottom of foundation to roof, 
or any part, including window and door 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



sills and lintels, belt courses and cornices 
frieze, columns, capitals, pilasters, balus- 
trades, posts, steps, caps, coping, chim- 
ney caps, as well as any oramental or 
useful objects usually made of stone of 
iron, terra cotta and other materials. 

Montfort and Weaver, 45 Clinton-st., 
Newark, N. J., are the general sales 
agents for territory and appliances for 
operating under the Lake patents. 



Artiffciai Stone Making. 

In the rush to make a machine that 
would produce- concrete building blocks, 
the most essential feature, that of pro- 



1 inch high and 4 inches wide an the 
under side of each block, thus connecting 
all vertical air spaces a^ well as forming 
a convenient hand-hold for the mason in 
laying the wall. 

This form of hollow block is made in aU 
sizes and shapes desired in building con- 
struction with one machine, a great sav- 
ing in first cost to a concrete block manu- 
facturer. The machine is built of Iron 
and steel in a most thorough manner and 
has no complicated mechanism. It has 
few parts and a large range of adjust- 
ments. All width blocks are made with 
one size pallet, which ' feature alone is a 
great saving in the purchase price of a 



CONCRETE BLOCK MACHINE 
Of the Standard Sand and Machine Co., Cleveland, O. 



ducing a sound, correctly-formed block 
has often been overlooked. The Standard 
Sand and Machine Company, Cleveland, 
C, instead of rushing on the market last 
season put in the year in developing a 
block that is pronounced correct by en- 



machine. Newly-made blocks are deliv- 
ered upon the side, thus seasoning them 
without a single crack or break in the 
withes (bonds). Face designs are made 
with a simple interchangeable panel de- 
vice requiring but a few moments. They 



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MACHINBRY AND TRADE. 



209 



many plans of rnbdn? plants installed 
by this firm. 

♦ 

A Prismatic Drum Concrete Mixer. 

Tbe Stanley Prismatic Drum Concrete 
Mixer is a new candidate ror popular fa- 
vor, put on the market hy the Contract- 
ors' Plant Company of 37 Pittsburg-st., 
Boston, Mass. This is a batch mixer 
adapted to steam, gasoline or electricity 
for motive power. It is driven from both 
sides with considerable aavmg in power 
and in wear and tear, and is said to be 
the only concrete mixer so driven. The 
drum is an octagonal prism with the cir- 
cular driving gears at the ends. De- 
flectors are attached to the plates of the 
machine in such way that the concrete 
mass is not only turned over by the revo- 
lution of the prisnp on its axis, but is 
thrown from side to side, thus giving the 
same effect as a cubical box swung from 
two opposite corners. 

Barrows dump the material into one 
end of the machine. At the other end of 
the machine is a chute which in one posi- 
tion keeps the material m the drum, but 
by throwing a lever it drops into position 
to receive the materisa as it comes to its 
upper end and discharges it into a barrow 
or pile outside. The water is fed by auto- 
matic measurement. The drum continues 
its revolution without stop either for 
loading or discharging. 

The capacity of this mixer is rated ac- 
cording to the product turned out. not ac- 
cording to the amount of materials put 
in. Thus a mixture of 5 cubic feet of 
cement. WA of sand and 2« of stone make 
43% cubic feet of materials, which is used 
as the measure of capacity of some ma- 
chines. These materials make but 27 cubic 
feet of concrete or one cubic yard, and 
this is the rating of the Stanley mixer. 
The half-yard machine will hold materials 
enough to turn out 18% cubic feet of con- 
crete in one batch. 

The machine is lighter than similar ma- 
chines.* but this lightness 5s not secured 
at the expense of strength. The drum 
runs so easily that, when empty, it can 
be revolved by one hand. 

This company also manufactures a 
very satisfactory gravity concrete mixer. 

• 

The Stewart Cement Block Machine. 

One of the simplest machines for mak- 
ing cement blocks is that put on the m£u:- 
ket by the Stewart Cement Block Ma- 
chine Company of the Lafayette Building, 
Waterloo, Iowa. 

The whole machine is operated with on4* 
lever. Throwing this lever down lowers 



the core, opens the sides and ends and 
raises the block out of the machine ready 
to be taken away. Throwmg the lever 
back to place sets the machine ready to 
make another block. One movement is 
all that is necessary for each of these 
operations, for the machine is self-lock- 
ing. The machine has no hopper, but is 
provided with an adjustable table level 
with the top of the box, which opens out 
of the way by the same motion which 
opens the mold or box. It is said that 
three men will make from 250 to 300 blocks 
a day with this machine. 

Full-sized blocks of 8 by 24-inch face 
and 8, 10 and 12-lnch wldtn can be made, 
also fractional blocks 4, 8, 12 and 16 
inches long. 

The rapidity of action of the machine 
and the small number of men needed are 
said to make it possible to turn out blocks 
at lower cost than has heretofore been 
thought possible. 

• 

Machinery for Cement Blocks and 
Posts. 

The Cement Machinery and Manufac- 
turing Company of Burlington, la., is an 
organization formed to supply the rapidly 
growing demand for machinery for mak- 
ing various kinds of cement and concrete 
blocks, posts, etc. 

The Chicago block machine of this com- 
pany will make hollow or solid blocks 
and is adjustable for any sizes of blocks 
up to 48 inches long, 18 inches wide and 
12 Inches high. It will also make comer, 
pier, flue, circle and octagon blocks. Any 
desired design of face can be used. 

Their Burlington rotary block machine 
will do the same work and it automatic- 
ally releases the block from the mold, 
loads it on a car and runs the car, so 
that one man can operate the machine. 
The only handling necessary is to stack 
the cured blocks. 

The Burlington rotary post machine has 
the same car system as the block ma- 
chine. It makes fence posts, which can 
be reinforced with any ntimber of wires, 
the clips being placed at any desired dis- 
tance apart. One man can make from 
100 to 150 posts a day 7 feet long and 4x4 
and 2x4-inch dimensions at the two ends. 
The cuts on page 210 show the three ma- 
chines mentioned. 

The company also has a sidewalk block 
machine adjustable for any thickness of 
block up to six inches and any sise from 
16 inches to 86 inches square. This ma- 
chine can also be used for pier and flue 
blocks. 

With the Burlington brick machine 



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The BorUa^toa Rotary Post Machine. 



The Burlinffton Botary Block]Machine. 



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MACHINERY AND TBADE. 



211 



from 16,000 to 20,000 bricks of standard size 
can be made in a day, it is said. 

The Burlington sewer tile molds are of 
heavy sheet steel reinforced with band 
iron and have heavy cast caps and bases. 
They are made in stock sizes for pipe of 
6 to 30 inches diameter, but can be made 
of any size desired. Tank molds designed 
on like principles can be furnished of any 
desired diameter. 

The company also manufactures a so- 
lution which is said to make cement stone 
impervious to water. It can be applied 
by brush or sprayer. 

The business of the company also in- 
cludes the sale of engines, concrete mix- 
ers, Portland cement and other necessai'y 
machinery and materials. 



Eo much to develop. There were many 
difficulties and great prejudices to over- 
come in manipulation and in the cheap- 
ening of the product, and the users of the 
machines in very many cases were igno- 
rant of the methods to be used. Mr. 
Palmer's efforts have aided greatly in 
overcoming these difficulties and this ig- 
norance, and with the cheapening in the 
cost due to the lower price of cement, the 
business of making cement blocks ha^ <).d- 
vanced with amazing strides since inter- 
est was first strongly awakened in it, 
for which this magazine claims a fair 
share of credit, since the beginning of the 
rapid extension of the business coincided 
with the notice made in Its pages of the 



LAW EXCHANGE, JACKSONVILLE, FLA. 
Built of H. S. Palmer Hollow Blocks. 



A Pioneer Cement Building Bloclc. 

The use of cement building blocks as a 
successful substitute for wood, brick, ter- 
ra cotta and stone, as a real factor in the 
building world, is of most recent growth, 
though the crude idea is many years old. 
Durability is conceded, provided the 
blocks are made right by right people ot 
right material by right machines and 
methods. It is clear that, when a manu- 
facturer of cement block machines sells 
a machine he does not provide brains or 
common sense for the buyer. The maker 
of blocks must know something about ce- 
ment, its qualities and methods of man- 
ipulation. 

Harmon S. Palmer of Washington, D. 
C, may well be termed the pioneer In the 
field of cement block construction and 
use. His first cement block building was 
erected about sixteen years ago and is 
today one of the best evidences of the 
practicability of the method he has done 



new applicant for favor in concrete con- 
struction. The extensive sale of the ma- 
chine shows its popularity, based on its 
adaptability to the conditions. 

Mr. Palmer has just completed a large 
apartment building constructed of his 
blocks on Mount Pleasant Heights, N. W. 
Washington, D. C, on the lower floor of 
which are his offices and also his resi- 
dence. 

The accompanying illustration shows 
the Law Exchange, erected at Jackson- 
ville, Fla., of the Palmer block. The title 
of Mr. Palmer's company is The Palmer 
Hollow Concrete Building Block Com- 
pany, Washington, D. C. 

■ ♦ 

Stevens Cast Stone. 

In the multiplicity of machinery and 
methods for making cement blocks and 
artificial stone the earliest method of 
casting artificial stone, should not be lost 
sight of. This is the Stevens method, 



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The Post. 
Section of Post. 
Trussed Core of Post. 



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MACHINERY AND TRADE. 



213 



using sand molds and concrete wet 
enough to pour Into the molds and fill 
them properly. The development of thU 
method whereby sand cores are used In 
making blocks, makes it possible to use a 
minimum of expensive forms. Metal 
cylinders or prisms surround the sand 
cores during the process of forming the 
stone, and they can be removed as soon 
as the stone is finished, leaving the sand 
in place to support the concrete until it 
has set. The Stevens Cast Stone Com- 
pany, 808 Chamber of Commerce, Chicago, 
111., controls this method. It also claims 
a patent covering its most popular form 
of block, which is two slabs connected 
by posts or piers of concrete, all 
made at the same time and of the same 
material. 

• 

A Portable Cement Block Machine. 

Pettljohn Brothers of Terre Haute, Ind., 
have put on the market a new machine 
for making cement concrete blocks for 
which they claim several advantages, 
such as making the blocks on the floor, 
quick changes of face plate, absence of 
springs, levers, cogs or gears. The blocks 
are made on the spot where they are to 
remain for curing and the machine is 
taken away from tho completed block 
and set up in position for the next block. 
Iron pallets or planks for moving the 
blocks are therefore not necessary. The 
machine is simple, light and easily 
moved. 

# 

An Everlasting Cement Post. 
A new cement post is put on the market 
by Leverett A. Pratt of Bay City, Mich., 
which has some points of interest The 
core of the post is a strip of wood 
trussed with No. 8 galvanized wire which 
has projecting loops at proper intervals 
to s^rve as fastener's for the wire or 
boards used for fencing material. This 
core, with its attached wire, is held in 
proper position in the galvanized Iron 
mold, which is set on end. Concrete of 
cement, sand and gravel or broken stone 
Is mixed wet enough to pour and the 
mold Is then filled, making a firm, non- 
porous stone post with a smoothly fin- 
ished surface. The flask is then hung 
up until the post is cured ready for ihe 
market A wire fence may be attached 
directly to the wire loops projecting from 
one surface of the post. A board fence 
may be similarly attached or a nailing 
strip can be attached to the post to which 
the fence boards may be nailed. Con- 



crete posts do tiot rot burn or corrode, 
and can be set so that they wUl not be 
lifted by the frost. The cuts on the op- 
posite page show the construction of the 
post. 



The Value of Advertising. 

The Noyes F. Palmer Manufacturing 
Company put on the market one of the 
earlier machines for making concrete 
building blocks, which it claims as the 
original adjustable mold press for mak- 
ing hollow or solid blocks. After a year's 
use of the advertising pages of Municipal 
Engineering Mr. N. F. Palmer says that 
he knows of no publication giving so 
much space to the subject and he gives 
the magaalne a great share of the credit 
for his monthly rush of correspondence, 
which has now come from nearly eight 
hundred different localities. The results 
of the advertisements and the corre- 
spondence seem to be equally satisfactory 
to buyer and seller of machines. 



Trade Publications. 

The Universal Safety Tread Company, 
45 Broadway, New York, describes In a 
catalogue their method of giving a lead 
surface for travel on steps for cars, 
stairways, ladders, etc. 

Worthington meters are listed In a little 
descriptive catalogue of Henry R. Worth- 
ington, 114 Liberty-st, New York. 

The latest catalogue of the Jeffrey 
Manufacturing Company, Columbus, O., 
is No. 57A, describing their machinery for 
the sawmills, lumber and wood-working 
industries. 

The Pope Manufacturing Company, 
Hartford, Conn., sends a valentine as a 
reminder of the coming season for its 
wares. 

Calendars have been received from the 
National Electric Company, Milwaukee, 
Wis.; the American Cement Company. 
Philadelphia, Pa.; F. L. Smidth & Co.. 
New York City; Troy Public Works Com- 
pany, Utica, N. Y. 

Julian Scholl & Co.. 126 Liberty-st., New 
York City, send circulars regarding their 
reversible horse rollers and the Babcock 
hardpan plow. 

# 

TRADE NOTES. 

ASPHALT. 

The Whippell heirs of Kentucky have 
made application for the appointment ot 
a receiver for the Federal Asphalt Com- 
pany, claiming that the company has not 



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214 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



a clear title to the land on wliich the 
rock asphalt is mined. The claims aggre- 
gate $15,000. 

Judge Kohlsaat appointed the Chicago 
Title & Trust Company receiver in bank- 
ruptcy of the assets of the Federal As- 
phalt Company, Feb. 29. The petition for 
a receiver alleges that the company has 
been insolvent for more than four months, 
and sets forth several acts in balfkruptcy 
as having been committed by members of 
the company, one of which is that the 
company paid a bill to the Central Coal 
& Iron Company, preferring that com- 
pany over other creditors. It is also al- 
leged that the corporation's liabilities arc 
between $325,000 and $475,000, and that the 
assets are considerably below this mark; 
that Joseph Huftaker and William L. 
Breyfogle claim to own a first mortgage 
on the property of the asphalt company 
for $100,000. and that other liabilities 
reach a total of more than $300,000. The 
assets of the company are said to include 
a large tract of land in Kentucky, where 
the concern's principal holdings are lo- 
cated, sundry stores containing merchan- 
dise, and accounts and bills receivable to 
the amount of $40,000. 

The C. A. Brockett Cement Co.. Kansas 
City, Mo., has attached the tools and 
equipment of the Federal Asphalt Com- 
pan> of Chicago on a claim of $1,000.75 for 
cement furnished that company. 

BRICK. 

The Winamac Cement Pressed Brick 
Company of Winamac, Ind., has been in- 
corporated to manufacture cement-sand 
building blocks, and other articles which 
can be made from a combination of ce- 
ment and sand. The incorporators are 
Samuel A. March. George T. Bouslog, 
Milo E. Bond, Mont M. Hathaway and 
Charles L. Weeks. 

The Amsler Engineering Company, Em- 
pire Building, Pitsburg. Pa., has been 
Incorporated under the laws of Pennsyl- 
vania to build blast, open hearth, heating 
and melting furnaces, and to conduct a 
general contracting business In brick and 
concrete. The company lias secured a 
contract from the American Steel and 
Wire Company to erect one furnace and 
four hot olast stovoes at Cleveland. O. 
W. O. Amsler, president; A. C. Davis, 
treasurer. 

A plant for the manufacture of sand 
brick will be constructed at Ft. Smith, 
Ark., under the direction of J. T. Rabb, 
a millwright of Bonham. Tex. 

A vitrified brick and sewer plant Is said 
to be needed at Paris, Tex. 

CEMENT. 

The Guarantee Cement and Stone Com- 
pany, northwestern sales agents for the 
cement department of the Illino !s Steel 
Company of Chicago have moved to 704 
New York Life building, Minneapolis, 
Minn. 

The Milwaukee Crushed Stone Com- 
pany, Milwaukee, Wis., has been Incor- 



porated to manufacture, buy and sell 
stone, lime and cement by Carl F. Grell- 
fuss. Joseph V. Quarles, jr., and Arthur 
Wenz. 

The Western Cement Company was 
awarded the contract for furnishing the 
city of Detroit. Mich . with natural ce- 
ment during the year at 62 cents per bar- 
rel. 

The American Cement Post Company 
has been organized at Marshall. Mich., 
and will be licensed by trustees of basic 
patents on fence and other posts of ce- 
ment to manufacture such products 
throughout the United State.s. The first 
plant will be established at Grand Rapids. 
Mich. The officers of the company are: 
President, S. F, Dobbins. Marshall; vice- 
president. F. A. Stewart. Marshall; sec- 
retary and manager, M. Gray, Mar- 
shall, 

The A.lax Portland Cement Company. 
recently incorporated by Edward H. and 
Hiram C. Bennett of New York City and 
Harry H. Starntt of Bayonne, N. J., has 
purchased the Tice-McCray estate, one 
mile west of Pattenburg, N. J., and will 
open a quarry and establish a cement 
plant. 

The Cincinnati Cement and Blacking 
Company, Cincinnati, O.. has been incor- 
porated by H. H. Patton. F. S. Fatten, 
A. F. Ryan, W. Hughes and J. A. Carr. 

The Logan Portland Cament Company 
is preparing to build a cement plant at 
Fenton, Mich., according to press re- 
ports. 

The Portland Cement Conetruction 
Company, Milwaukee, Wis., has besn in- 
corporated by Charles Becker, William 
Grell and Charles B. Frick. 

The Anadarko Plaster and Cement 
Company, Anadarko. Okla.. has been in- 
corporated by Homer W. Dunbar, H. G. 
R. GilUtte. J. D. Thompson, James F. 
Stick. T. B. Page. J. G. Gallagher. George 
Baker, J. E. Tarrington. J. D. Nicholson. 
W. J. Lacy and A. W. Koorilz. 

The Gulf States Portland Cement Com- 
pany, Huron, S. D., has been Incorporated. 

Wo are a<lvlsed by the Edison Portland 
Cement Company that the works at New 
Village, N. J., which have been for some 
time past under construction, are now 
completed and in operation. The plant 
was designed and built under the direct 
supervision of Thomas A. Edison, the 
well-known Inventor, and contains many 
novel and ingenious appliances, resulting 
in great economies in the handling of 
material, and in uniformity, fineness and 
product of exceedingly Mgh grade. Owing 
to superior scientific methods employed, 
the company is in position to guarantee 
unusually fine grinding, over 85 per cent. 
passing 200 mesh and 98 per cent, passing 
100 mesh. The present capacity of the 
plant is 1,500 barrels daily. Much of the 
equipment, however, is on basis of 10,000 
barrels daily, and by June 1 it will have 
a capacity of 3,000 barrels daily. The 
plant will gradually be increased by ad- 
ditional units representing 1,500 barrels 



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MACHINERY AND TRADE. 



215 



dally capacity until the ultimate limit of 
10,000 barrels dally will be reached. 

The charter of the lola Portland Cement 
Company of Dallas, Tex., was filed Jan. 
30, at Austin, by Edwin M. Reardon. Jas. 
C. Duke, of Dallas; Sheldon H. Bassett, 
St. Louis; Edgrar H. Ryan, Davenport.Ia.; 
Chas. H. Pope, Moline, 111., the company 
having acquired 'the properties of the 
Texas Portland Cement Company. 

The contract for furnishing 4,300 barrels 
of Portland Cement for use in the exten- 
sion of the concrete breakwater at Mar- 
quette, Mich., was awarded to F. B. 
Spear & Sons, at $1.79 a barrel. 

A new cement company has been or- 
ganized, according to pre&s reports, to 
build a plant one-half mile north of the 
Om*^ga Company, in Scipio, Mich. The 
new company will be known as the Dei- 
ta Cement Company. The officers of the 
company are as follows:' President, Wes- 
ley Sears. Jackson, Mich.; vice-president. 
Prof. D. E. Haskins, Scipio, secretary and 
treasurer. Dr. E. R. Espio, Jonesville. 

In the United States Circuit Court at 
Baltimore. Md., February 5, the Carolina 
Portland Cement Company obtained a 
verdict for $4,000, and Ira C. Hutchinson 
for $2,000 damages against the Maryland 
Cement Company. The Carolina Portland 
Cement Company alleged a breach of con- 
tract for the delivery of 25.000 barrels of 
cement in 1902. The amount claimed was 
$18.0*»0. The Maryland Cement Company 
claimed that it could not comply with the 
contract because of inability to secure the 
necessary slag to make the cement. The 
verdict of the jury was for the difference 
of 40 cents a barrel, which it was com- 
I)elled to pay on 10.000 barrels of cement. 
Ira C. Hutchinson, In the Second suit, 
claimed $5,000 commission on the cement 
In the first suit and other sales. The first 
ease was tried before a jury, and the lat- 
ter before a Judge .without a jury. 

Pre.ss reports from Galveston, Tex., 
that Judge S. W. Jones, referee In bank- 
ruptcy, has received from Jens Moller, 
trustee in bankruptcy of the Texas Port- 
land Cement & Lime Company, a re- 
port of the sale to Edgar H. Ryan, of 
Davenport, la.. In behalf of the lola Port, 
land Cement Company for $250,000, of the 
total assets of the bankrupt company. 
A majority of the creditors, representing 
$177,322 out of a total of $193,973 joined In a 
request for speedy confirmation of the 
sale. The purchaser Is to pay the sum of 
$223,513 clear of all Incumbrances on said 
properties upon the following terms: $100.- 
000 thereof in ready money upon the de- 
livery of the properties to the purchaser; 
$15,000 in cash within 30 days thereafter, 
and ■ the residue within 30 days there- 
after; deed to be held In escrow until 
all the purchase money shall have been 
paid. The purchaser has also assumed 
$26,486 worth of liens, which makes the to- 
tal sale aggregate $250,000. Judge Jones 
says that the bankrupt company will pay 
its indebtedness dollar for dollar with in- 
terest, and will leave from $25,000 to $40,000 
to be distributed as surplus among Its 
stockholders. He had approved the trus- 
tee's report of sale, and as soon as the 



trustee reports to him the expenses of 
the first dividend of at least 60 per cent, 
will be declared. Judge Jones is gratified 
at the outlook for the stockholders owing 
to the splendid physical condition of the 
plant and the satisfactory terms of sale, 
and says that he has never known a 
bankrupt concern to exhibit a better 
financial showing. 

CONCRETE BLOCKS. 

A cement company is being organized 
at Watertown, S. D., and the names of 
two or three foremen and the same num- 
ber of finishers for sidewalk construction 
are de.'^Ired. Lee Stover. 

The American Concrete Construction 
Company of Cincinnati, O., has been in- 
corporated by Charles H. Davidson, 
George P. Walker. J. H. Crawford, C. M. 
Foster and Charles H. Urban. 

The Building Block Manufacturing 
Company, Minneapolis, Minn., has been 
incorporated to manufacture hollow con- 
crete building blocks by Samuel Whaley, . 
William F. Porten and Charles W. 
Buechner of St. Paul and James W. 
Cooper of Minneapolis. 

I. Hawk, EsthervUle. la., contem- 
plates erecting building for the manufac- 
ture of cement building blocks. 

Charles Atkinson has purchased the 
Interest of I. S. BInford in the Brook- 
ings Cement Block Company, Brookings, 
S. D. 

Cement sidewalk blocks will be manu- 
factured by Adams Bros, at Little Falls, 
Minn. 

The Cement Products Company, Web- 
ster City, la., manufacturers of hollow 
concrete building blocks, will add ce- 
ment posts to their product this year. 

The Building Material Manufacturlngr 
Company, Warriw, Ind., has purchased 
an outfit from the Miracle Pressed Stone- 
Company of Minneapolis, Minn., and will 
mnaufacture concrete building blocks. 
The plant will be installed on Winona: 
Lake, 3 miles east of Warsaw. F. F- 
Lehew will be superintendent. 

Russell Brothers, Waverly, la., have 
completed arrangements with the Miracle 
Pressed Stone Company for an outfit to 
manufacture the Miracle hollow concrete 
building block, and have purchased the 
exclusive right for Butler and Bremer 
Counties. 

The Wapakoneta Cement Block Com- 
pany, Wapakoneta, O., has been Incor- 
porated to manufacture hollow concrete 
blocks for building purposes. 

A. J. Stacer of Chicago has purchased 
the patent for a cement mold to be used 
in manufacturing building blocks, and 
two engines of Charles E. Shumway of 
Albion, Mich. 

The Cement Building Block and Stone 
Company, Springfield, O., has been or- 
ganized by Joseph Bolan, Philip Beninger 
and James Powers, and will establish a 
plant for the manufacture of cement 
building blocks. 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



The Utopian Concrete Block Company. 
Denever, Colo., has been Incorporated by 
A. C. Haffner, Thomas A. McMurtrle and 
Charles D. Baker. 

Tl^e Freeport Concrete Construction 
Company, 302 Wllcoxen Building, Free- 
port, 111., has been organized to manu- 
facture hollow concrete building blocks, 
by W. H. Shones, J. A. Gale and C. K. 
Meyers. 

A cement brick-making machine is be- 
ing made for the Delaware Cement Pro- 
ducts Company of South Wilmington. 
Del., by Charles Helnel. 

A company has been Incornorated at 
Waterloo, la., for the manufacture of 
cement blocks, with J. H. Stewart as 
president; George L. Dixon, vice-presi- 
dent; W. M. Law, secretary. 

LIGHTING AND POWER. 

The Safety Automatic Gas Light Cut- 
off Company, Kaukauna, Wis., has been 
incorporated by A. G. Koch, J. M. Jan- 
sen, C. A. Walquist and Peter Rnde- 
macher. 

The United Light & Traction Company, 
Camden, N. J., has been incorporated to 
generate electricity for light and power, 
by M. Leon Berry, Norman Grey and W. 
B. Walcott. 

The National Gas. Electric Light & 
Power Company, 15 Exchange Place, Jer- 
sey City, N. J., has been incorporated 
to acquire, lease, construct, develop, im- 
prove, maintain, operate and deal In 
lights and franchises of or relating to 
any and all public utilities. The incor- 
porators are James T. Lynn, Frank K 
Pelton and Kenneth K. McLaren. 

The Massachusetts Electric Supplies 
Company, Portland, Mass., has been or- 
ganized to manufacture and deal in elec- 
trical apparatus, by Charles J. Nichols 
and Edward H. Lounsbury. 

Newly incorporated lighting companies: 
Municipal Electric & Construction Com- 
pany. St. Louis, Mo.— Chas. G. 
DIemunsch, William Gottlieb and Joseph 
Block; The City Gas Company, Wash- 
ington. Ind.— Bascom Parker, Jules Dick 
and E. T. Taylor; Monterey Light & 
Power Company, Jersey City, N. J.— Ken- 
neth K McLaren, Robt. L. Hogust and 
Roger H. Williams; Vlrden Electric 
Light Company, Vlrden, 111.— J. N. Hair- 
grove, U. G. Tucker and C. W. Cam; 
Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Electric Light, 
Heat & Power Company, Aurora, III.— E. 
C. Faber, J. T. Huntington and W. P. 
Harvey. 



XT/»r»»»c«4' 



Prtmnorv hn« rp- 



of Michigan, the northwestern part of 
Ohio and the northeastern part of Indi- 
ana. 

MISCBLLANEOU8. 

George M. Pierce, who has for the last 
three years been secretary and treasurer 
of the Duplex Manufacturing Company 
of Cleveland, O., has severed his connec- 
tion with that company and Is now asso- 
ciated with the Pierce Supply Company, 
American Trust Building, Cleveland, O. 
The new company manufactures a full 
line of cast-iron goods for street improve- 
ments. 

The Decatur Hydraulic Stone and Hard 
Plaster Company, Decatur, 111., has been 
Incorporated to manufacture artificial 
stone and hard plaster, b^ George Ferre, 
John Or en and B. F. Stanley. 

The Pressed Stone Manufacturing Com- 
pany, St. Paul, Minn., has been incor- 
porated by George W. Oakes, W. S. 
Darby and B. S. Oakes. 

The Northwestern Artificial Stone 
Works, Huron, S. D., has been Incor- 
porated. 

The construction of a plant for the 
manufacture of artificial stone Is contem- 
plated at New Decatur, Ala., by parties 
from Birmingham and Decatur. 

The Nelson Bros.' Paving and Con- 
struction Company, Minneapolis. Minn., 
has been Incorporated by John A. Nelson, 
N. J. Nelson and Harvey V. Smith. 

The Universal Stone Machine Company, 
Jersey City, N. J., has been incorporated 
by Albert Crockel, S. E. Atwater and 
John W. Walker. 

At the annual meeUng of the Acme 
Road Machinery Company held at 
the offices of the 'Corporation at Frank- 
fort.N. Y. on Thursday, January 28. 1904, 
the following directors were elected for 
the ensuing year: W. A. Cook, D. B. 
Cook, James Dempsey, T. G. Ingersoll, J. 
W. Jones, Philander Pollock, Alonzo 
Schaupp. At a subsequent meeting 
of the directors of the company the 
following officers were elected: President, 
Philander Pollock; vice-president, A. 
Schaupp; secretary and treasurer, James 
W. Jones; general manager, W. A. Cook. 

8BWBR PIPB. 

Pittsburg capitalists have purchased 20 
acres of the McGrew farm, according to 
press reports and will locate thereon a 
sewer pipe plant. 

The Mexican Sewer Pipe Company, 
Cleveland, O., has been incorporated by J. 
E. Morley, E. A. Foote. C. H. Gale. L. H. 



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IMPROVEMENT AND 
CONTRACTING NEWi 



RAVIN Q, 

South Bend, Ind.— The Barber Asphalt 
Pavingr Company has dismissed Us suit 
against this city In the United States 
District Court. The original basis of the 
action was a claim against the city for 
$3,000 on the ground of services rendered 
In the paving of street and alley cross- 
ings. The company had given the city a 
receipt In full for the work, but after- 
ward decided that It was entitled to in- 
terest in amounts ranging from $150 to 
$200. 

CONTEMPLATED WORK. 

Athens, Ga.— Paving Is proposed for 
Barber-st. 

Baclne. Wis. — Douglas-ave. may be 
paved. Mayor Nelson. 

Terre Haute, Ind.— Brick paving Is con- 
templated for Lafayette-ave. 

Asheville, N. C— Macadam paving is 
contemplated for Haywood road. 

Wichita, Kas.— An ordinance has been 
passed for paving WUllam-st. 

ThomasvUle, Ga.— Estimates are desired 
for constructing brick paving. 

Monterey, Cal.— About 3 mis. of grading, 
paving and sidewalks is contemplated. 

South Bend, Ind.— The residents on 
Ohlo-st. have petitioned for brick paving. 
Ottumwa, la.— S. Green and Marion-sts. 
are to be paved with brick on concrete. 

Fairbanks, Ind.— This township voted to 
construct about 9 mis. of gravel roads. 

MUlville, N. J.— Bids will be asked In 
May for street paving. George F. Payne, 
mayor. 

Galveston, Tex.— Brick paving is con- 
plated for Avenues E and F and Twenty- 
first and Twenty-fourth-sts. 

Ida, Kas.— A resolution has been adopt- 
ed recommending the paving of the alley 
in block 59. 

East St. Louis, 111.— Paving is contem- 
plated for Nineteenth-st., from State-st. 
to St. Clair-ave. 

Pana, 111.— (Special).— Bids will be asked 
for brick paving on concrete base early 
this spring. 

Trenton, N. J.— A resolution has been 
introduced asking for Federal co-opera- 
tion in road building. 

Oshkosh, Wis.— Asphalt paving is fa- 
vored for Jackson-st., according to local 
press reports. 

Paris, Ky.— This city is preparing to 
pave Main-st., from First to Tenth, with 
aBphalt or concrete. 

Chattanooga, Tenn.— This city and Jas- 
per will be connected by a macadamized 
road before next winter. 
Anaheim, Cal.— Bids will be asked for in 



April for constructing cement walks and 
curb. E. B. Merritt, cy. elk. 

Mankato, Minn.— The county board will 
take action March 22 on the proposed 
Strand's ravine road matter. 

Bay City, Mich.— An ordinance has been 
passed regulating the construction of 
stone, cement and brick sidewalks. 

Allentown. Pa.— Ordinances have been 
passed and $20,000 appropriated for street 
paving. H. F. Bascom, cy. engr. 

Mollne, 111.— The village council of East 
Moline voted, Feb. 15, to construct 10,- 
000 ft. of plank sidewalks. 

Hancock, Mich.- Plans and specifica' 
tlons have been received for the exten- 
sion of the asphalt paving on Qulncy-st 

Covington, Ky.— Scott-st. will be paved 
with Kreodone block, and Bankllck and 
several other streets with brick. 

Red Bluff. Cal.— The town trustees have 
ordered constructed cement sidewalks on 
both sides of Walnut-st. from Maln-st. to 
the depot. 

HuntsvlUe, Mo.— The citizens are in 
favor of bonding for $10,000 or $20,000 for 
the purpose of macadamizing the prin- 
cipal streets. 

Sherman, Tex.— (Special.)— Charles E. 
Hayden, cy. engr., says about 4,150 sq. 
yds. of brick paving, on broken stone 
foundation, is contemplated. 

Chicago, 111.— New sidewalk ordinances, 
covering 6 mis., are being prepared. The 
material will be c^nent. cinder or stone. 

Augusta, Ga.— The question of paving 
Broad-st. with asphalt, vitrified brick or 
bitulithic paven?«nt Is being considered. 
Mayor Allen. 

Richmond. Ind.— A resolution has been 
passed for constructing cement curb and 
gutters on N. Thirteenth and N. Fif- 
teenth-sts. Cy. engr., Weber. 

Mooresville, Ind. — (Special.) — D. E. 
Dolen. town elk., says that contracts will 
be let about April 1, for about 15,000 sq. 
ft. of cement walks. 

Massillon, O.— Estimates have been 
prepared for paving as follows: Factory, 
Canal and Cherry-sts., brick, $9,013; East 
and Hill-sts., $8,611. 

Cincinnati. O.— An ordinance has been 
passed for paving Schoedlnger-ave., from 
Jonte-ave. to Llerman-ave. with brick. H. 
L. Gordon, prest. coun. 

Kansas City, Mo.-rAbout two and a half 
miles of asphalt and macadam paving Is 
contemplated on Independence-ave., from 
Topping-ave. to Blue River. D. W. 
Pike, cy. engr. 

Ashland. Wis.- Council has decided to 
pave Third-st. and Seventh-ave with 
macadam. In accordance with the wishes 



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218 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



of the property owners. W. W. Fisher, 
cy. elk. 

Denver. Colo.— Surveys and estimates 
have been completed for Rradinsr and pav- 
ing about four mis. of streets and boule- 
vards In Montclair, with disintegrated 
Kranlte. 

San Francisco. Cal.— A resolution has 
been passed for constructing artificial 
stone sidewalks on Point Lobos-ave. from 
Wllliamson-st. to FIrst-ave. 

Albany. N. Y.— An ordinance was 
pass.d. Feb. 15, over the protes'3 of the 
property owners, for paving Tnion-st.. 
between Madison and Hudson-aves.. with 
granite block. 

Springfield, O.— City engineer Sievcrling 
has been directed to prepare plans and 
specifications for paving portions of Cen- 
ter. Fisher, Columbia. Main and Pleas- 
ant-sts. 

Oakland, Cal.— A bond issue of $3,500,000 
Is favored, and among the improvements 
propo.^ed is $230,000 for boulevards and 
$100,000 for cross-walks and culverts. 

Ashland, Ky.— (Speclal).-Chas. D. Bog- 
gess. cy. engr.. says that bids will be 
received about March 1 for 35.600 sq. yds. 
of brick paving on 6-in. concrete base. 
W. A. GInn, Mayor. 

Washington, la.— Resolutions have been 
approved for paving Main, Washington. 
Marion and lowa-sts. and certain alleys 
with vitrified brick. A. N. Alberson, 
Mayor; Hugh H. McCreery, cy. elk. 

La Crosse, Wis.— Resolutions have been 
passed authorizing brick paving on Jay 
and Mill-sts., and macadam paving on 
Avon, St. James, Market. Ninth, Elev- 
enth and Jackson-sts., West-ave. and 
certain alleys. 

St. Joseph. Mo.— The Barber Asphalt 
Paving Company, which had the con- 
tracts for resurfacing 4 streets in the 
business district, has cancelled its con- 
tracts, and the work will be re-adver- 
ti.^ed. 

Hancock, Mich.— (Special).— Hon. A. J. 
Scott, Mayor, .says that this city will 
pave about 8,000 .sq. yds. of Quincy-st. 
with asphalt. The date for receiving 
bids has not yet been fixed, but will be 
about May 1. 

Louisville. Ky.— The Fiscal Court de- 
cided, Feb. 9. to ask for bids for the re- 
construction of the Shelby vllle and 
Bardstown pikes with bitullthlc pave- 
ment for a distance of 1 mile each from 
the city limits. 

Cleveland, O.— An ordinance has been 
passed providing for vitrified brick pav- 
ing on Atwater-st. from Miles-ave. to 
Pratt-st., and dressed block Medina 
stone paving on Flint-st. from Detroit 
to Washlngton-sts. Peter Witt, cy, elk. 

Ashland, Wis.— (Special).— W. W. Fisher, 
cy, elk., says that about 25.000 sq. yds. 
of asphalt paving and about 2 miles of 
macadam paving is contemplated. Bids 
have not yet been advertised, as the 
plans and specifications are not com- 
pleted. 

Charlotte, Mlch.-(SpecIal).— Murl H. De- 
Foe, cy. elk., says that Rlggs & Sherman 
of Toledo, O., have been engaged to pre- 



pare plans and specifications for paving, 
but the material or time for receiving 
bids has not yet been determined upon, 
but will be at an early date. 

Harrisburg, Pa.— (Special).— About 100.- 
000 sq. yds. of paving, which may be sheet 
asphalt, asphalt block, brick and War- 
ren's bitullthic pavement, is contemplated. 
With the exception of Warren Bros, 
bitullthic macadam these pavements will 
be laid on concrete base. M. B. Cow- 
den, cy. ergr. 

Menominee. Mich.— Albert Hass. cy. 
engr., has prepared estimates for street 
paving as follows: Grand-ave.— brick. 
$28,372.85; bitullthic, $26,091.60; macadam. 
$15,054.10: as})halt. $28,372.85. State-st.- 

brick. $19,96(1.95; bitullthic. $18,193.90; mac- 
adam. $10.4:0.20; asphalt, $19.9«;o.65; Spies- 
ave., Macadam, $2,204.75; Michlgan-ave., 
macadam, $6,271.50; Jenkins-st., macadam. 
$2,899.75; Pine-st. and Wells-ave., maca- 
dam, $1,832.50; Dunlap-ave., macadam, 
$1,933.75; Wllliams-ave.. macadam. $1.- 
^•95.50. Bids will be received in March 
for the work. 

La Salle. lll.-(Sptcial).-C. M. Rickard, 
cy. engr., says estimates for brick pav- 
ing and stone curb for 1904 are as fol- 
lows: Crosiit-st., lo,.802 sq. yds., $22,499.94; 
St. VIncent-st., 10,706 sq yds.. $22,499.94; 
Fourth-st.. 7.826 sq. yd.s., $15,460.14; Tontl- 
st., 8.593 sq. yds., $16,470.91; Ninth-st, 15.- 
285 sq yds.. $-9,285.41; Chartres-st., 6.611 
aq. yds.. $13,601.02; Joliet-st.. 18.041 sq. 
yds., $34,490.20; total, $153,448.58. 

CONTRACTS TO BB LBT. 

Mt. Holly. N. J.— Bids are asked until 
March 1 for one-third mile of macadam 
street paving. W. N. Stewart, cy. elk. 

Greensburg. Ind.— Bids are asked until 

I p. m. March 7 for constructing a gravel 
road. Frank E. Ryan. co. audt. 

Port Huron, Mich.— Bids are asked until 

II a. m. March 7 for repaving Butler, 
Broad and S. Milltary-sts. 

Steubenvllle. O.— Bids are asked until 
March 10 for grading and macadamizing 
Neel free turnpike. R, S. Neel. 

Muncle, Ind. — Bids are asked until 
March 1 for paving Jackson-st. with 
crushed stone. J. E. Mitchell, town elk. 

Cincinnati. O. — Bids are asked until 
March 12 for Improving Bloome road, in 
Sycamore township. E. L. Lewis, co. 
audt. 

Brownstown, Ind.— Bids are asked until 
March 7 for constructing 2 miles and 4Slo 
feet of gravel roads. Bd. co. comrs. 

Lawrence, Kas.— Bids are asked until 
March 7 for grading, curbing and pavin? 
New Hampshire-8t. Samuel P. Moore, 
cy. elk. 

Sidney. O.— Sealed bids are asked until 
12 m. March 5 for ♦he Bodey pike im- 
provement in Van Buren twp. Charles 
Counts, CO. engr. 

.Hartford City. Ind.— Bids are asked un- 
til 8 p. m. March 3 for paving High, Main 
and Jefferson-sts. with brick. William 
Harley. cy. engr. 

Versailles. Ind.— Bids are asked until 
12 m. March 8 for building 9 miles anl 
2126 feet of macadamized roads. Nicholas 
Volz. CO. audt. 



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IMPROVEMENT AND CONTRACTING NEWS. 



219 



Louisville, Ky.— Bids are asked until 
March 15 for constructing 2^ miles of 
bitulithic or tar macadam road. R. H. 
Young. CO. surv. 

Amsterdam, N. Y.— Bids are asked until 
March 5 for further improvement of Mo- 
hawk River turnpike. No. 108. Edward 
A. Bond, state engr., Albany. 

North Yakima, Wash.— Bids are asked 
until March 7 for grading and graveling 
1 mile of road in Moxee Valley. W. I. 
Lince, chmn. bd. co. comrs. 

Lawrenceburg, Ind. — Sealed bids are 
asked until 12 m. March 7 for construct- 
ing a tree macadamized road in Clay 
township. Charles M. Beinkamp, co. 
audt. 

Crown Point, Ind.— Bids are asked until 
March 7 for constructing about 6 miles of 
gravel roads. Michael Gimmer, co. audt. 

Logansport, Ind.— Sealed bids are asked 
until 2 p. m. March 10 for constructln.^ 
gravel roads in Deer township. Terrence 
A. McGovern, chmn. bd. c6mrs. 

Ottawa, Kas. — Bids are asked until 
March 2 for grading, concrete curbing 
and 50,000 sq. yds of vitrified brick pav- 
ing. John C. Quin. cy. elk. 

Washington, la.— Bids will be received 
imtll March 3 for paving N. Marion-ave. 
from the public square to Railroad-st. 
A. N. Alberson,. mayor; Hugh H. Mc- 
Cleery, cy. elk. 

Brownstown, Ind.— Blds^ are asked until 
March 7 for constructing a gravel road 
on the township line between Jackson, 
Brownstown and Washington twps. As- 
bury H. ManueU co. audt. ' 

Washington. Ind.— Bids are asked until 
March 8 for constructing and improving 
certain roads in the towns of Montgom- 
ery and Elnora. W. H. McCarte, chmn. 
CO. comrs. 

Winamac. Ind.— Sealed bids are asked 
until 12 m. March 8 for improving 31,708 
ft. of the Telephone road, and 31,710 ft. 
of the W^inamac and MedaryviUe road. 
P. A. Folln>ar, chmn. co. comrs. 

Muscatine, la.— Sealed bids are asked 
until 7:30 p. m. March 3 for 31,300 sq. 
yds. of brick paving in impvt. dlst. No. 
22, and 27.39) sq. yds. in dlst. No. 21. James 
J. Ryan, cy. engr. 

Mt. Clemens, Mich.— Sealed bids are 
asked until 6 p. m. March 7 for regrad- 
ing and repaving Cass-ave. and Walnut 
and Grand-aves. with brick, asphalt and 
bituminous macadam. William F. Kracht, 
cy. elk. 

Ottumwa. la.— Sealed bids are asked un- 
til 7:30 p. m. March 7 for lepaving and 
reconstructing Main-st. from Jefferson to 
Washington with vitrified repressed pav- 
ing brick or blocks. H. P. Keyhoe. chmn. 
St. com. 

Geneva, N. Y.— Sealed bids are asked 
until 10 a. m. March 3 for 10,500 sq. yds. 
of asphalt, asphalt block and brick pav- 
ing on concrete, macadam, tar macadam 
and asphaltic bituminous macadam pav- 
ing:. W. S. Wood, secy B. P. W. 

Mansfield, O.— Sealed bids are asked un- 
til March 2 for constructing 15.480 lln. ft. 
of combination cement sidewalk, curb 
and gutter. 730 lin. ft. separate cement 
curbing, 5.330 ft. separate cement walk, 



800 lin. ft. cement curb and gutter. Brlggs 
Real Estate Company. Also 19.280 sq. 
yds. of macadam paving. 

Shereveport, La.— Sealed bids are asked 
until 7 p. m. March 21 for paving twenty- 
nine streets with brick, asphalt and War- 
ren Bros.' bithullthic pavement, or simi- 
lar pavements. Each street is to be bid 
on separately. C. G. Rives, compt. 

Portsmouth. O.— Bids are asked until 
March 8 for 55,517 sq. yds of paving, 22,765 
lin. ft. curbing. 2.658 ft. edging, twenty- 
five manholes, 19,805 ft. sidewalks relald, 
on Fourth, Market. N. Waller and Clay- 
sts. Filmore Musser, cy. audt. 

CONTRACTS AWARDED. 

Decatur, Ind.— The contract for ma- 
cadamizing Thirteenth-st. v/as awarded 
to Fred Hoffman for |4,515. 

Toledo, O.— The contract for paving 
Wakeman-st. with Ma&sn:on block was 
awarded to Bodette & Sheehah for $5,384. 

Atchison, Kan.— S. M. Missmer & Co.. 
city, secured the contract for paving 
Mound-st. with brick for $12,828. 

Duluth, Minn.~The contk-act for paving 
N. Twelfth-st., from Banks to Ofden- 
ave.. was awarded to Warren Bros, of 
Boston. 

Marion, Ind.— The contract for con- 
r.tiucting the B.^own and Sanderman roads 
was awarded to Nathan P. Medlin for 
$9,999. 

Elwood, Ind.— The contract for con- 
structing the Hanshaw gravel road has 
been awarded to Crall & Daniels for $26.- 
747. 

Los Angeles, Cal.— The contract for pav- 
ing W. Citrus-ave. and W. State-st. was 
awarded to the Barber Asphalt Paving 
Company. 

Rushville. Ind.— Philip Wilk was award- 
ed the contract for macadamizing 3% mis. 
of pike in Richmond twp. for $12,775. 

C'lookston, Minn.— P. 'McDonnell of Du- 
luth has been awarded the contract for 
paving several streets in tnis city with 
macadam. 

Nashville, Tenn.— The contract for fur- 
nishing granite paving blocks was award- 
ed Feb. 10 to Frincls Jones & Co. at 
$45 per 1.000. 

St. Paul. Minn.— L. G. Washington was 
awarded the contract for all stone and 
cement sidewalks to be built during 1904 
for $40.;»6. 

Crookston, Minn.- The contract for pav- 
ing several streets with macadam was 
awarded to P. McDonnell of Duluth at 
$1.68 a sq. yd. 

Downers Grove, 111.— The lowest bidd 
submitted for paving Main-st. with brick 
was that of A. E. Rutledge of Rockford 
for $12,593.94. 

Savannah. Ga.— The contract for fur- 
nishing 40.000 sq. yds. of vitrified brick 
was awarded to the Georgia Brick and 
Clay Company of Augusta, for approxi- 
mately $40,000. 

Normal, 111.— The contiact for 3,700 sq 
yds. of brick block paving was awarded 
to Geo. W. Bansom of Amboy at $2.05 a 
sq. yd.; 1.760 lin. ft. cement curb, 34 cts.; 
totai, $7,800. 



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220 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



Toms River, N. J.— The contract for 
constructing 3*4 mis. of gravel road In 
Union twp. was awarded Feb. 9 to E. 
King of Parkertown and Daniel T. 
Cranim of New Gretna fo 19,164. 

Newark, N. J.— Tlie contract for repav- 
Ing the roadway of the Jackson-st. bridge 
with creo-resinate wood block pavement 
was awarded Feb. 118 to David E. Olds, 
103 Grafton-st.. city, for 18,250. 

St. Paul, Minn.— The contract for con- 
structing and repairing cement sidewalka 
during 1904 was awarded to J. G. Wash- 
ington for $40,396. The James Forrestal 
Company will build woooden walks for 
115,010. 

gravel road extensions have been award- 
Washington, la.— The contract for 6,300 
sq. yds. of brick paving on N. lowa-ave. 
was awarded, Feb. 9, to the Mc'Jirthv- 
Stone Company at $1.49^ a sq. yd. The 
work will requir* about 2,000 ft. of curb- 
ing and gutter. 

Harrisburg, Pa.— The first contract for 
the reconstruction of a road under the 
new road law was awarded, Feb. U, to 
Frederick Robinson of Meadville for $11,- 
540.20. The road will extend from Titus- 
ville to Hydetown, a distance of 7,708 ft. 

Vigo, Ind.— Contracts for constructing 
the L. W. Bailey and George Sanders 
ed to George J. Singer for $3,866, and Cook 
& Brocksmith for $6,266 respectively. 

Brownstown, Ind.— Contracts have been 
awarded for 6 mis. of macadam road in 
Grassy Fork, Washington and Brown- 
town twps. as follows: De Golyer & 
Moritz, Seymour, $1,622; Samuel Small- 
wood, Ewing. $4,066; Wm. H. Shields, Sey- 
mour, $1,468. 

Peoria, 111.— M. E. Case was awarded 
tho contract for 10,152 sq. yds. of brick 
paving on Washington-st., at $1.24 a sq. 
yd.; exca., 24 cts, a cu. yd.; protection 
curb, 30 cts.; stone curb, 5x22, 74 cts. a lin. 
ft. ; total, $16,356. 

Bay City, Mich.— The stone road com- 
mission awarded contracts for supplies, 
Feb. 20, as follows: Gravel. Peter Mal- 
colm of Saginaw, $1.15 a cu. yd.; crushed 
hard heads, Legg & Harvey of Oakley, 
$2.06 a cu. yd.; Bayport limestone, Wal- 
lace Stone and .Lime Company of Bay- 
port, $1.40 a cu. yd. 

Kalamazoo, Mich.— Bids were submitted 
Feb. 15 for paving South and Park-sts. 
and Park-place, from W. W. Hatch & 
Son of Goshen, Ind., and J. E. Conly, on 
brick; Central Bitulithic Company and 
Barber Asphalt Paving Campany. on bi- 



aBWBRa. 

Plainfleld, N. J.— The Cameron Septic 
Tank Company has filed suit against this 
city for infringements of that company's 
patents in the local sewage dispocal 
plant. 

CONTEMPLATED WORK. 

Brainerd, Minn.— A sewer is desired in 
the Second ward. 

Gulf port, Miss.— A sewerage system will 
be established. 

Liverpool, O.— The extension of the san- 
itary sewers is contemplated. 

Celina, O.— The question of a sewerage 
system is again being agitated. 

Michigan City Ind.— A three-foot brick 
sewer on Franklin-st is contemplated. 

Bellefontaine, O.— The question of a 
sewerage system will be considered soon. 

Dallas, Ore.- Plans and specifications 
for a sewerage system will be prepared. 

Centerville, la.— A complete sewerage 
system is proposed. T. W. Meers, cy. 
elk. 

Waukesha, Wis.— Council has decided 
to build a sewer on Rosemary-st. Mayor 
Harding. 

Los Angeles, Cal.— Bids will be asked at 
once for constructing a storm drain on 
Hill-st. 

Saugerties, N. Y.— The question of a 
sewerage system will probably be . voted 
on this spring. 

Mainistee, Mich.— Pipe sewers will be 
constructed' in Fllen, Washington, Han- 
cock and Sixth-sts. 

Seneca Falls, N. Y.— The question of 
building a sewerage system will be voted 
on in March. 

Grantville, Ga.— The construction of 
sewers is contemplated this spring. F. 
T. Meacham, Mayor. 

Naperville, 111.— A resolution has been 
passed favoring the construction of a 
sewerage system. 

Los Angeles, Cal.— Bids are to be asked 
for constructing the outfall sewer. H. 
H. Stafford, cy. engr. 

Elmwood, O.— The city engr. has been 
directed to prepare plans and specifi- 
cations for a sewerage system. 

Covington, Ky.— The Willow Run Sew- 
er will be continued from Sixteenth-st. 
to the south corporation line. 

Hamilton, O.— About 8 miles of sani- 
tary and storm sewers Is contemplated, 
according to press reports. 

West Hartford, Conn.— Bids will be 
asked in March for constructing the 



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IMPROVEMENT AND CONTRACTING NEWS. 



221 



mate has been prepared for a sewer on 
Thomas. Ocean, Oneida, Fauquier and 
Slnnen-sts. 

La Crosse, Wis.— The council com. 
recommends the construction of twenty- 
four blocks of sewers on the North Side. 
Brooklnss, S. D.— Plans and specifica- 
tions have been filed at the city clerk's 
office for a sewerage system. 

Glenvllle. O.— A storm water sewer on 
Ethel-st. and a sanitary sswer on Lake 
Shore-boulevard is contemplated. 

MIshawaka, Ind.— A resolution has been 
adopted for the .construction of a trunk 
sewer on Logan-st M. W. Mix. mayor. 

Longmont, Colo.— Bids will be asked 
soon for constructing fourteen and one- 
half mis. of eight to eighteeen-in. sew- 
ers. C. C. Catkins, cy. engr. 

Lenox. Tenn.— J. W. Winkler is chair- 
man of a com. to investigate the con- 
struction of a sewerage system. R. J. 
Rawlings, mayor. 

Cloverdale. Cal.— W. T. Brush and 
Charles E. Humbert are members of a 
■com. appointed to secure preliminary 
plans for a sewerage system. 

Philadelphia. Pa.— The board of survey 
has approved plans for the construction 
of branch "ewers in different sections of 
the city. 

Oakland Cal.— The bond com of council 
thinks $70,000 will be necessary for recon- 
structing the western end' of the Main 
Lake sewer. 

Alton. 111.— An ordinance has been 
adopted to construct sewers on Sprlng-st. 
from Union to Sixth, and from Fourth 
to Second. Mayor Brueggeman. 

West. Duluth, Minn.— Enough petitions 
have been filed, according to local press 
reports, to secure a sewerage system for 
West Duluth. 

Hartford, Conn.— A resolution has been 
favorably reported by the bd. of alder* 
men appropriating $30,000 for the exten- 
sion of intercepting sewers. 

Perth Amboy. N. J.— New York capi- 
talists have made a proposition to pro- 
vide a sewer system and a water-works 
and electric light plant for South Am- 
boy. 

Urbana, 111.— A resolution has been 
passed authorizing the bd. of local 
impvts. to secure an engineer to investi- 
gate the proposed general sewer exten- 
sions. 

Waukegan, 111.— Plans for the comple- 
tion of the North Side sewer system are 
being discussed. A public hearing will be 
given on the matter March 15. 

Sackville. N. B., Canada— (Special.)— 
Thomas R. Anderson, chmn. water and 
sewerage com. of count., says this town 
contemplates the extension of the sewer- 
age system. 



also been authorized to prepare plans for 
the Illinois, B and C-st. sewers. 

Palataka, Fla.— (Special.)— This city de- 
sires to secure the services of an expert 
sanitary engineer to come here and plat 
the city for a sewerage system. Addres* 
J. M. Black well, cy. elk. 

San Jose, Cal.— The city engr. will be 
directed to prepare plans and estimates 
for constructing sewers, with manholes, 
storm water Inlets, catch basins, etc., in 
Broadway-st. and San Pablo-ave. 

Columbus, O.— An ordinance has been 
introduced authorizing an appropriation 
of $46,000 from the sewage disposal plant 
fund to be used in the construction of an 
experimental plant south of Moler road. 

Newark, N. J.— Surveys will be made 
for a sewerage system in and around 
Newfoundland. The proposed plan in- 
cludes the erection of a septic tank dis- 
posal plant below the Macopin intake, 
and it is believed that such a system 
would effectually prevent pollution of the 
water supply. 

CONTRACTS TO BB LBT. 

Sumpter. Ore. — Bids are asked until 
April 1 for constructing a sewerage sys- 
tem. S. S. Start, cy. recorder. 

Windom, Minn. — Bids are asked until 
March 14 for constructing a ditch near 
Mountain Lake. J. A. Brown, cc. audt. 

Atlantic, la.— Bids will be received until 
March 3 for constructing 3 miles of sew- 
ers. Iowa Engineering Company, engrs. 

Alexandria, Minn.— Bids are asked until 
10 a. m. March 7 for constructing ditch 
No. 3. E. P. Wright, co. audt. 

Green Valley, 111.— Sealed bids are asked 
until March 8 for constructing an open 
ditch. D. S. Fisher, chmn. drainage 
comrs. 

Butler. Mo.— Bids are asked until March 
7 for constructing a sewage disposal plant 
and a sewerage system. J. L. Stanley, 
cy. elk. 

York, Pa.— Sealed bids are asked until 
7 p. m. March 1 for constructing a system 
of sanitary sewers. R. E. Cochran, prest. 
B. P. W. 

Portsmouth, O. — Bids are asked uhtll 
March 8 for the construction of brick and 
pipe sewers with twenty-five manholes. 
Fllmore Musser, cy. iiudt. 

Port Arthur Ont.— Bids are asked until 
March 28 for constructing about 7,000 feet 
of storm sewers and 15,500 feet of sanitary 
sewers. James McTelgue. town elk. 

Washington, D. C. — Sealed bids are 
asked until Mirch 25 for furnishing and 
erecting sluice gates at the sewage pump- 
ing station. H. B. F. MacFarland, chmn. 
Dist. Comrs. 

Henderson. N. C— Bids are asked until 
March 10 for constructing a seweraj?o 
system, consisting of 8 miles of 8 to IS- 
inch pipe sew6rs. H. T. Powell, secy. bd. 

ir»t«arnal Imnvts 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



March 2 for constructing a sewer through 
the northern porton of Dyker Beach Par-c 
consisting of 2,525 lin. ft. of 36, 90. 102 
and 120-inch brick sewers; 11 manholes. 
2,480 lin. ft. 12-ln. vitrified stoneware pipe 
subdraln. Martin Littleton, boro. prest. 
Dolgeville. N Y.— Sealed bids are asked 
. until 7:30 p. m. March 28 for 31.000 feet 
6 to 18-in. sewer, with flushtanks, man- 
holes and lampholes; also for a large 
septic tank disposal plant for the systerp 
and a small disposal plant for factory, 
with gate house, gates, pipes and pumps 
complete. Julius Breckwoldt, prest. bd. 
sewer comrs. 

Shreveport,, Da.— Sealed bids are asked 
until 7 p. m. March 21 for constructing 
756-ft. 18-In., and 690-ft. 24-in. vitrified 
piper sewer; 279-ft. 30-In., 363-ft. 42-ln. and 
373-ft. 54-In. circular brick or concrete 
sewer; 40-ft. 72-in. brick or concrete sewer 
with manholes, catchbaslns and connec- 
tions complete. C. G. Rives, comt. 

Marshall. Tex.— Sealed bids are asked 
until March 8 for constructing a system 
of sanitary sewers, consisting of 3.950-ft. 
24-in.. 5,020-ft. 18-In., 10,105- ft. 16-in., 5.320- 
ft. 12-In., 5.430-ft. 10-In.. 19.293-ft. 8-In., 
64,985-ft. 6-In. pipe, 280 anholes, 78 
fiushtanks, 35 tons of c. I. pipe laid with 
lead joints. M. S. Rice, sec'y.; J. W. 
Maxcy, con. engr., Houston 

CONTRACTS AWARDED. 

Red Oak. la.— The contrait for a sew- 
erage system was awarded to Shepard & 
Hanrahan of Des Moines, for $6,300. 

San Francisco. Cal.— The contract for 
building a sewer In Cedar-st. was award- 
ed to Fred Lefler. at $1.65 a lin. ft. 

Belleville. 111.— Brauch & Co. was 
awarded the contract, Feb. 10. for con- 
structing a s-wer on Pennsylvanla-ave. 
for $1,700. 

Bayonne, Pa.— The contract for a sewer 
on W. Thirtieth-st.. from Avenue C to 
Avenue A. was award id, Feb. 16, to D. 
Donovan, for $6,098.50. 

Grafton. I*a.— The contract for con- 
structing a sewer on Chartiers-ave. was 
awarded, Feb. 11. to V. Di Glorno & Co. 
of Pittsburg, for $18.:;80. 

Berwick. Pa—The contract for con- 
structing a sewerage system has been 
awarded to Hurd, Sherman & Co. of 
Syracuse, N. Y., for $46.953.7t. 

Youngstown. O.-J. P. McCarron was 
awarded the contract for a sewer In Gar- 
land-ave., and Rochford & Comlsky for 
sewers In Rigby and Pearl-sts. 

Milwaukee, Wis.-The contract for ma- 
chinery for the flushing tunnel works 
was awarded. Feb. 11. to the Allls-Chalm- 
ers Company, of Chicago, for $28 600 

Hawklnsville. Ga.-The contract for 
constructing a sewerage system was 
awarded to Hallanhan & Costcllo. of 
Augusta, and for furnLshlne dIdp to w 



St. Paul, Minn.— Sewer contracts were 
awareded. Feb. 15. as follows: P. J. Ryan. 
P:ato-st.. $800: Van Buren-st.. $1,248; Earl- 
st.. $676; Mendota-st.. $8^3. D. W. Moore. 
George-st., $399. and Cherokee-ave.. $1.- 
987. 

Long Island City, N. Y.— Contracts for 
constructing sewers were awarded. Feb. 
1. as follows: John Herle. Seventh-st.. 
in Elmhurst, $6,702. Gabrtel Hill, Sixth- 
ave.. Elmhurst, $3,604; Fourth-st., Elm- 
hurst. $2,665; Eleventb-st., Elmhurst, 
$1,877; Victor-place. Elmhurst, $1,265; 
Academy-st., Long Island. $1,917. Queens 
Borough Censt. Co., Ninth and Tenth- 
sts., $4,586. F. Welch, Lawrence-st., $763. 

New Orleans. La.— Contracts for con- 
structing sixty-five mis. of sewers were 
awarded, Feb. 13, as follows: Irwin 
Bros., contract "L," $61,447; contrac- 
"M." $119,164.50; contract *'0," $131,487" 
total. $311,977.50. A. L. Patterson & Co., 
contract "J." $63,306.50; contract "K." $91.- 
184.85: contract "N," $95,961.80; total. $280,- 
532.15. U. S. Cast Iron Pipe and Foundrv 
Company, $73,465.25. These bids were re- 
ceived Feb. 2. 



WATBR-WORKS, 

Decatur. Tex.— The water works system 
of this city has been sold to J. J. Per- 
kins. 

Los Angeles, Cal.— The Inglewood Do- 
mestic Water Company has been incoi- 
porated by Chas. Lloyd, H. L. Martin, L. 
R. Garrett, J. Cook, W. Rodman, B. P. 
Garrett of Los Angeles and Frank W. 
Phelps of Inglewood. 

Arcade, N. Y.— The question of munic- 
ipal water works will be voted on 
March 15. 

Richmond, Ind.— The question of watei 
main extension Is being considered. C>-. 
Engr. Weber. 

Puyallup, Wash.— The question of a mu- 
nicipal water plant Is again being agi- 
tated. . 

Houghton, Mich.— The question of 
water works improvemmis will be tp.ken 
up during March. 

Oswego, N. Y.— Plans are being pre- 
pared for obtaining the city water sup- 
ply from Lake Ontario. 

Covington, O.— The construction of 
water works Is contemplated. J. G. Waq 
ner. secy. B. P. A. 

Atlantic City, N. J.— In his annual mes- 
sage Mayor Stoy urges a reserve water 
supply and larger mains. 

Fargo, N. D.— The question of purchas- 
ing a pump for ine water works system 
will be voted on April 4. 

Beaumont, Tex.— The purchase of two 
complete pumping plants Is contem- 
plated. W. A. Ward, secy. Orange Co. 
Irrigation Company. 



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Kansas City, Mo.— Additional ordi- 
nances have been passed authorizing the 
laying of water mains and Installation ot 
Are hydrants. 

Tiffin, O.— The citizens have asked coun- 
cil to employ an engineer to prepare 
plans and specifications for a new water- 
works system. 

Trenton, N. J.— The adoption of an ordi- 
nance providing for the installation of 
$100,000 worth of new water mains has 
been recommended. 

Bridgeport, Conn.— The establishment 
of a filtration system is contemplated by 
the Bridgeport Hydraulic Co., of which 
Chas. P. Senior is supt. 

Hartford. Conn.— The bd. of water 
conifs. contemrkaes building another res- 
ervoir on West Hartford shed, and en- 
larging the river pumping station. 

Jarr.estown, N. Y.— Chief engineer Han- 
cock thinlis it would be advisable to re- 
place the five boilers at the pumping sta- 
lio?. with new ones this summer. 

Blnjfhamion, N. Y.-John Anderson, 
supt., has hi^on directed to i re pa re e|k*cI- 
ficatlons and ask for bids for a new 
pumping engine of 12,000,000 gals, capac- 
ity, 

Sackvllle, N. B., Canada.— (Special.)— 
Thomas R. Anderson, chmn. Water and 
Sewerage com. of coun. says this town 
contemplates the extension of the water 
works system. 

Grunge, N. J. --City engr. Crane has been 
dlrt^cted to prepare plans for the con- 
struction of a new water main from the 
reservoir to this city. 

Harrisburg, Pa.— (Special.)— M. B. Cow- 
den, cy. engr. says that bids will prob- 
ably be received within a month for a 
filtration plant. Address B. P. W'., 26 S. 
Second-sC. 

Co.icord, Mass.— This town has asked 
the legislature for permission to issue 
$100,000 water bonds for the extension of 
the wit**r works system. Wm. Wheeler, 
w. w. comr. 

Perth Amboy, N. J.— A proposition has 
been made by Now Vor»i capitalists to 
put in an independent water and electric 
light plant and sewer system for South 
Amboy. 

Cliarlotte, N. C— Preparations will begin 
at once for establishing a water works 
system west of this city on Irwin's Creek. 
A new pump, engines anr. boiler will bo 
Installerl at once. 

0:i?iland, Cal.— The bond committee has 
recommended that provision be made for 
an .loproprlalion of $140,000 for the instal- 
l.'ition of water meters. In anticipation of 
the city's owning its water works sys- 
tem. 

The quostion of issuing bonds for the 
construction of water works systems will 
be voted on as follows: Arcadia, Fla., 
Mar. 7; Brookside, Ala., Mar. 8; Alpena, 
Mieh.: Mlllington, Mich.; Hawkeye, la. 

Plttsfield. Mass.— A new supply reser- 
voir to be built above the present distri- 
l>iTtlrg n^servoir has been recommended 
by the bd, of pub. wks. The more general 
uKe of water meters is nlso recommended. 
Taooma, Wash —The Mt. Tacoma Water 



Supply Company has asked council to ap- 
point a committee to investigate its water 
with a view of enteiing into a contract 
with the company for furnish' ng this city 
with water. 

Port Townsen'*', Wash.— The city coun- 
cil has recommended the passage of an 
ordinance calling for a special election 
to vote bonds for building a municipal 
water works system. The matter will be 
voted on Mar. 12. 

Columbus, O.— The council com. on w. 
w. and finance has decided to recommend 
t'le ..doption of a resolution to submit a 
proposition to iFSue $1,500,000 bonds for a 
water purification and softening plant to 
a vote of the people this spring. 

Sherman, Tex.— (Special)— Charles E. 
Hayden, cy. engr., s<ays that bids will 
probably be received March 7 for con- 
structing a standplpe and exter.ding the 
mains, plans for which are not yet com- 
plete. Some water works machinery is 
also to be purchased soon, but this Is 
dependent on the water supply now be- 
ing sought. 

The construction of water works sys- 
tems is contemplated at the following 
places: High Springs, Fla.; Salem, 111.; 
Arion. la.; Glasgow, Mont.; Lyndon, 
Wash.; Bron&on, Mich.; Kensington, 
Minn.; Louisa, Ky. ; Seaside, Ore.; Milton, 
N. H.; Northfield, Vt.; Charlottesville, N. 
Y.: Millville. N. J.; Toccoa, Ga.; Ft. 
Gaines. Ga.; Vermillion, O.; Cedar Bluffs, 
Neb.; Granite, Okla. 

CONTRACTS TO BS LET. 

Key West Barracks, Fla.— Bids are 
asked until ^ March lii foi installing a 
water main. 'Address Q. M. 

Bardstown, Ky.— Bids are asked until 
March 8 for constructing a water works 
system. W. T. Eid^on, cy. elk. 

Belzoni, Miss.— Bids are asked until 
April 5 for constiucting a. water works 
system. S. Castleman, mttyor. 

Osceola, la.— Sealed bids are asked un- 
til March 8 for constructing a water 
works s>'stom. W. N. Temple, cy. elk. 

Murray City, O.— Sealed bids are asked 
until 'March 15 for constructing a water 
works system. Harry Frazee, vll. elk. 

Durant, Ind. T.— Sealed t.ds are asked 
until 8 p. m., March 2, for constructing a 
water works system and standplpe. W. L. 
Poole, mayor. 

Ligonier, Ind.— Bids are asked until 
March 9 for rebuilding the water works 
and purchasing pumps and boilers. Mr. 
H. Jeanneret, cy. elk. 

East Orange, N. J.— Sealed bids are 
asked until March 7 tor constructing a 
reinforced concrete reservoir at South 
Orange. Stephen M. Long. cy. elk. 

Atlantic City, N. J.— Sealed bids are 
asked until March 8 for laying 300 ft. of 
12-in. submerged main. Louis Kuehnle;, 
rhmn. bd. water comrs. 

Bremerton, Wash.— Bids are asked un- 
til March 26 for installing a water sys- 
tem at Puget Sound Navy Yard here. 
Mordecai T. Endlcott, ch. bureau yards 
and docks. 

Cambridge. O.- Bldi» are asked until 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



March 2 for constructing extensions to 
the water works system, includingr pipe, 
hydrants, valves, etc. Chas. F. Blair, 
secy. B. P. S. 

St. Paul, Minn.— Bids are asked until 
March 5 for constriictlrf pump hous^^ 
and equipment, includlni? pumps and 
boilers complete at Ft. 'Missoula. Mont, 
J. McE. Hyde, Q. M. 

Detroit, Mich.— Sealed bids are asked 
until March 23 for constructiner an intake 
crib, crib house, river shaft and 3,185 lin. 
ft. trick tunnel. Edward W. Pendleton, 
prest. bd. water comrs. 

Frankfort, Ind.— Sealed bids will be 
asked until 12 m. March 15 for construct- 
ing and establishing a water works plant 
and supply of water to city for both pub- 
lic and private use. Otto Wolf, cy. elk. 

Chickamauga Park, Ga.— Bids are asked 
until March 10 for constructing a pumping 
plant, Including pump and boiler house, 
pumping machinery and connectlonc to 
wells and reservoir at new military post 
here. Capt. H. W. French, Q. M., Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn. 

Columbus, O. — Bids are asked until 
March 8 for furnishing a full and ade- 
quate supply of pure water to school 
buildings and school library by means of 
Alters, drilled wells, boiled water, or any 
other methoi' J. A. Williams, elk. t)d. 
of education, 

Lethbridge, Alberta, N. W. T.— Bids are 
asked until March 31 for work and ma- 
chinery, Including masonry foundation, 
pumping machinery, boilers, well, gal- 
leries and pump-house. C. B. Bowman, 
secy.-treas. ; Willis Chipman, ch. engr., 
Toronto, Ont. 

Cienfuegos. Cuba.— Sealed bl^s are asked 
until April 2 for furnishing 10,441 feet of 
of 24 to 4-inch c. 1. pipe; 185 tons special 
castings; 279 24 to 4-inch valves; 130 hy- 
drants; 345 tons structural steel; 11,135 
sq. yds. expanded metal; 330,000 lbs lead. 
F. W. Bennett, ch. engr., San Carlos 128. 
C. C. Vermuele, New York City. 

CONTRACTS AWARDED. 

Milton, Ore.— The contract for remodel- 
ing the water works system was awarded 
to the Washington Pipe Foundry Com- 
panv of Tacoma for $3,500. 

Roosevelt, Okla. - (Special.)-Guy A. 
Parker, cy. elk., says that the contract 
for a tank and tower and laying two 
blocks of water mains has been awarded 
to E. S. Perkins & Co. of this city. 

Auburn, N. Y.— The contract for fur- 
nishing 20.000 to 25,000 of 12-in. pipe has 
been awarded to the Warren Foundry and 
Machine Company of New York City at 
$22.60 a ton. and specials at 2Vi cts. a lb. 

Buffalo, N. Y.— The contract for new 
boilers, stokers, coal conveyors and other 
machinery for the water works pumping 
station have been awarded as follows: 



boilers and 9 engines, John W. Danforth, 
Buffalo, $10,760. 

New Orleans, La.— The contract for fur- 
nishing pipe, specials, etc., was awarded 
to the United States Cast Iron Pipe and 
Foundry Company, New York City, as 
follows: For 2,600 tons straight pipe, 
$23.67 per ton; 42 tons of 20 and 36-in. 
flexible Joint pipe, $65 per ton; 15 tons 
special castings, $65 per ton, and valves. 
$4,468; total bid, $73,465. The only other 
bid received was that of the Camden 
Iron works, Camden, N. J., which bid for 
straight pipe, 1,650 tons 48 and 36-in., 
$24.87; 660 tons 20, 18, 16 and 12-in., $25; 150 
tons 6 and 4-in., $26.60, and for 42 tons 20 
and 26-in. flexible Joint pipe, $34 per ton; 
15 tons special castings, $58 per ton; 60 
tons special castings, $(», and for valv**. 
$2,388; total bid, $75,516. 



Angola, Ind.— Bids are asked until 
March 8 for three iron bridges. Bd» co. 
comrs. 

Winchester. Ind.— Bids will be received 
until March 8 for building 16 new bridges. 

South Bend, Ind.— Bids are asked until 
March 9 for building two iron bridges. 
John W. Harbon, co. audt. 

St. Joseph, Mo.— Petitions for building 
eight steel bridges are being considered 
by the Pettis County Court. 

Asbury Park, N. J.— Bids are to be 
asked for building a bridge at north side 
of Toms River at Main-st. 

Scranton, Pa.— Bids are asked until 
March 12 for building several small coun- 
ty bridges. E. A. Jones, co. compt. 

Boonville, Ind.— Bids are asked until 2 
p. m., March 7, for constructing an iron 
bridge. R. D. O. Moore, co. audt. 

Sacramento, Cal.— Bids are asked until 
March 7 for a trestle over water course 
14-mi. south of Walsh's Station. 

Chicago, 111.— Bids are asked until April 
13 for a new bascule bridge over the Chi- 
cago river at Harrison-st. Drainage bd. 

Versailles, Ind.— Bids are naked until 12 
m. March 8 for constructing 2 wagon 
bridges and abutments for 2 wagon 
bridges. Nicholas Volz, co. audt. 

Virginia City, Mont —Bids are a.sked 
until March 11 for building a 2-span iron 
or steel flat truss bridge over Big Hole 
River. Bd. co. comrs. 

Greensburg, Ind.— Bids are asked until 
March 7 for building an arch bridge over 
Clifty Creek. Separate bids will be re- 
ceived on stone or concrete bridge. 

Butte, Neb.— Bids are asked until March 
7 for building 5 combination steel bridges 
over Ponca Creek, and 1 over Kaya Paha 
River. D. A. Sinclair, co. elk. 

Atlanta. Ga.— Capt, R. M. Clayton, cy. 



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Battle Creek. Mich.— Council has 
adopted a resolution authorizlngr the cy. 
engr. to prepare plans and specifications 
for a bridge at McCamly-st. C. A. Jack- 
son, Chmn. bridge com. 

Atlanta, Ga.— Bids are asked until 
March 31 for building a bridge over 
Chattahoochee Rlv^r between Fulton and 
Cobb Counties. H. E. W. Palmer, 
chmn. comrs. roads & revenue of Fulton 
County. 

Cleveland, O. — Bids are asked until 
March 2 for coTXStructing steel superstruc- 
ture for bridge on Town line roal be- 
tween Brecksville and Royalton. Ba. co. 
comrs. William H. Evers Engrg. Co., 
engrs., 237 Arcade Bldg. 

Salem, Ind.— Bids are asked until March 
7 for building a steel bridge over High- 
land Creek at Quarry Ford, In Washing- 
ton twp. Separate bids will also be re- 
ceived for stone work, fills, approaches 
and steel work. Frank E. Morris, co. 
audt. 

Brookville, Ind.— Sealed bids are asked 
until 12 m. March 7 for refloorlng two 
bridges and building a beam truss bridge 
and stone superstructure across Bull Fork 
at the crossing of the Clarksburg road, 
in Salt Creek twp. Charles A. Miller, co. 
audt. 

Chicago, 111. — City Engineer Spengler 
has asked the finance com. of Council for 
appropriations of $40,000 to begin work on 
the proposed bridge across the river at 
Archer-ave., and 150,000 with which to 
make plans and specifications for ten 
other bridges. 

Belle Plaine, Minn.— Bids are asked for 
building stone piers or abutments of the 
Raven Stream bridge, town to furnish 
cement and sand. A. J. Irwiu, town elk. 
Bids are also asked for constructing the 
steel work and material for wagon 
bridge on stone abutments. A. J. IrwiV., 
town elk, , ^ 

Indianapolis. Ind.— Sealed l?ids are asked 
until 10 a. m. March 14 for building a 
bridge on White River and Fall Creek 
road, Washington twp.; over Buck Creek, 
sec. 2, Perry twp.; over Buck Creek sec. 
11 Ferry twp.; over Buck Creek, bet. 
Perry and Franklin twps.; over Bean 
Creek, Center twp. John E. McGaughey. 
chmn. CO. comrs. 



STRMBT UQHTINQ. 

South Norrldgewock, Me.— An electric 
light plant is proposed. 

Logan, Utah.-This city voted to build 
a municipal electric light plant. 

Sparta, Wis.— The question of building 
a municipal gas plant will be voted on. 

Beloit, Wis.— Bids will be asked soon for 
plans for a municipal lighting plant. 

Santa Cruz, Cal.— The construction of 
another electric light plant is proposed. 

Neenah. HI.— The business men are con- 
sidering the construction of an electric 
light plant. 

Valatle, N. T.— The question of estab- 
lishing a municipal lighting and pumping 
station win be voted on soon. 

Newcastle, Pa.— Council has authorized 



the preparing of plans for a $65,000 mu- 
nicipal electric light plant. 

Walnut, la.— Bids are asked until March 
1 for an electric light and power plant. 
A. R. Longnecker, town elk. 

Watseka, 111.— Bids are asked until 
March 15 for an electric street lighting 
contract. C. L. Abell, cy. elk. 

Omro, Wis.— The Omro Electric Light 
Co. has been Incorporated by John Chal- 
loner, L. S. Lighten and S. Lighten. 

Belzona, Miss.— Sealed bids are asked 
until April 5 for building an electric light 
plant. S. Castleman, mayor. 

Columbia. Tenn.— Bids are desired for 
building and equipping an electric light 
plant. W. A. Dale, chmn. light commit- 
tee. 

Mt. Clemens, Mich.— The street llghtlni^ 
was awarded Feb. 15 to the Mt. Clemens 
Electric Co., for 5-yrs. at $58.12 per light 
per year. 

Bay City, Mich.— The question of issu- 
ing $50,000 bonds for making additional 
city electric lighting plant will be voted 
on April 4. 

Des Moines, la.— Sealed bids are asked 
until March 16 for an electric light sys- 
tem at Ft. Des Moines. MaJ. R. B. Tur- 
ner, Q. M. 

Burlington^ la.— Council has appointed 
a committee of four to investigate the 
feasibility of buUdJng a municipal elec- 
tric light plant. 

Newport News, Va.— A bill has been in- 
troduced authorizing this city to Issue 
$100,000 bonds for the construction of an 
electric light plant. 

Waycross, Ga.— Harding Johnson, a 
New York capitalist, and others have ap- 
plied to the City Council for a fran- 
chise to establish a $100,000 gas plant. 

Kemps Creek, Ala.— Plans and specifi- 
cations for an electric light plant will be 
desired about March 15, by Frank F, 
Taylor, who secured a frajichise here. 

Benton Harbor, Mich.— The contract for 
125 arc lights for five years wa/< awarded 
to the Benton Harbor and St. Joseph 
Electric Light Company at $47 per light 
per year. 

Baton Rouge, La.— An ordinance has 
been Introduced authorizng the organiza- 
tion of a new electric light company. 
Prof. Henry Kretz and Edward Weick 
are Interested. 

Brooklyn, N. Y.— A resolution has been 
introduced asking for the. appointment of 
a committee of five to investigate the 
question of establishing a municipal gas 
plant. 

Lincoln. Neb.— The City Council has 
passed an ordinance to submit to the 
voters the question of issuing $65,000 bonds 
to erect a municipal electric light plant 

St. Paul, Minn.— The contract for an 
electric lighting system at Ft. D. A. 
Russell. Wyo., was awarded to the Mc- 
Brlde-Downlng Electric Company of this 
city for $23,965. 

Aurora, Ind.— The contract for lighting 
this city was awarded Feb. 22 to the Sun 
Vapor Street Lighting Company of Can- 
ton. O.. at $20 per lamp for 100 gasoline 
street lamps. 



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Richmond. Va.— Sealed bids are asked 
until March 8 for installing a lighting 
and healing plant in the new cell build- 
ings of the Virginia State Penitentiary-. 
W. \V. Baker, chmn. Pen. Bidg. Com. 

The question of issuing bonds for con- 
struction of electiic lignt plants has been 
fa vol ably voted on at the following 
places: Jonesboro, Ga.; Mason City, la.; 
Sweetwater, Tenn.; Attalia, Ala.; New 
Haven, Ind. ; Jackson, Miss. 

Cleveland, O.— The American Lighting 
Company of Wilmington, Del., has' been 
awarded the contract for lighting Incan- 
descent vapor lamps In this city for one 
year at t'lZ.ho for each lamp now erected, • 
$:;1).85 for each additional vapor lamp, $2.00 
for each post set or reset. 

The question of l.*<.sulng bonds for tho 
construction of electric light plants will 
be voted on at the following places: Hop- 
kins. Mo.. Cicero, Ind.; Penn Yan. N. Y.; 
Mooresvllle, N. C. ; Ashland, O. ; Monti- 
cello. Wi.s.; South Stillwater, Minn.; 
Lincoln, Neb.; Beaver, i'tah; West End, 
Ala.; Ithaca, Mich.; Stoughton, Wis.; 
Thomasville. Ga. 

Indianapolis, Ind.— The contract for 
public lighting for ten years was awarded 
Feb. 24 to the Indianapolis Light & Pow- 
er Company at $75 a year for each light 
on both direct and alternating current 
enclosed arc lamps, and $74 on direct cur- 
rent open arc lamps; $35 a year on 50 c. 
p. Incandescent lamps. Under the old 
contract this company received $85 a year 
for each light on a moonlight schedule. 
Other bidders were George E. Fisher of 
Detroit and Ernest C. Bruckman of New 
York City, who represented foreign cap- 
ital. 



QARBAQM DISPOSAL, STREET 
OUEANINQ AND SPRINKUNQ. 

Kalamazoo. Mich.— The Domestic Gar- 
bage Company has been incorporated. 

Plalntield, N. J.— The question of mu- 
nicipal collection of garbage Is being agi- 
tated. O. L. Jenkins, mayor. 

Atlanta. Ga.— Bids are asked until 
Mach 25 for constructing a garbage 
plant. Address C. W. Strickler, 326 Em- 
pire bldg. 

Oakland, Cal.— The garbage contract 
has been awarded to the Pacltlc Inciner- 
ating Company for a term of twenty 
years. 

Harrisburg, Pa.— N. B. Cowden. ry. 
engr., says bids have been opened for gar- 
bage disposal, but contract has not yet 
been awarded. 

Perth Amboy, N. J.— Sealed bids are 
asked until March 7 for the gathering and 



and other refuse for terms of 1. 5, 10 and 
15 ytars. Frank E. Moores, mayor. 

Dayton. O.— The Dayton Reduction 
Company has been incorporated by 
Charles Michael. W. C. Wulchet, George 
Wuichet. Walter Wulchet and William 
Chapman. The company has the contract 
for disposing of the city's garbage. 



FIRE ARRARATUS. 

llouston. Tex.— Estimates of the cost of 
new flre alarm system pj-e desired. Mayor 
Holt. 

Trenton, N. J.— The purchase oi three 
new steam flre engines, one new flre 
house and the Installation of a flre com- 
pany has been recommended to the com- 
mon council. 

Sackvllle, N. B., Canada.— (Special.)— 
Thomas R. Anderson, chmn. water and 
sewerage com. of coun., says this town 
contemplates establishing an electric flre 
alarm system, but has not yet decided 
what system to adopt. An inexpensive 
and eflUcient system Is desired. 

Knoxvllle, Tenn.— The purchase of one 
second-class flre engine. 5,000 feet of hose, 
two cellar pipes and the equipment of a 
hook and ladder truck is recommended. 
The rewiring of the fire alarm system 
and several additional flre alarm boxes 
are recommended In the report of Herman 
Schenk, city electrician. 

SHREVEPORT, LA., SEWER CONSTRUCTI ON. 

(1) Sealed proposals will be received at the office 
of the City Comptroller until 7 p. m., March 21, 1904, 
for constructing the following sewers : 

756 feet of 18-inch vitrified pipe sewer, 

690 feet of 24-inch vitrified pipe sewer. 

279 feet of aO-inch circular sewer, brick or con- 
crete. 

* 363 feet of 42-inch circular sewer, brick or con- 
crete. 

873 feet of 54-inch circular sewer, brick or con- 
crete. 

40 feet of 72-inoh circular sewer, brick or concrete 
with manholes, catch-basins and connections com- 
plete. 

(2) Plans and specifications may be seen and 
blank proposals obtained at the office of the City 
Engineer. 

(3) A certified check equal to 10 per cent, of esti- 
mated amount of contract, payable to the Comp- 
troller of the city, must accompany each bid as a 
guarantee that if the bid is accepted a contract will 
be entered into. A bond equal to 50 per cent, of the 
amount of the contract will be required for the 
faithful completion of the work and as surety 
against all claims for material and labor. 

The city reserves the right to reject any and all 
bids. C. G. RIVES. 

Comptroller. 

NOTICE TO CONTRACTORS. 

Notice is hereby given that the Common Coancil 
of the City of Frankfort will receive sealed bids, at 
the City Clerk's office of said city, up to 12 o'clock 



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VOLUME XXVI 



APRIL, NINETEEN HUNDRED FOUR 



NUNBER POUR 



PORTLAND CEMENT MANUFACTURE.* 



Clinker Grinding. Gypsum. 



By E. C. Eckel, U. S, Geological Survey ^ Washington, D. C. 



Clinker Grinding— The power and ma- 
chinery required, for pulverizing the 
•clinker at a Portland cement plant using 
the dry process of manufacture Is very 
closely the same as that required for 
pulverizing the raw materials for the 
same output. This may seem, at first 
sight, improbable, for Portland cement 
clinker Is much harder to grind than' any 
possible combination of raw materials; 
but it must be recollected that for ev- 
ery barrel of cement produced about 600 
pounds of raw materials must be pulver- 
ized, while only a scant 400 pounds of 
clinker will be treated and that the large 
crushers required for some raw materials 
can be dispensed with In crushing clinker. 
With this exception, the raw material 
side and the clinker side of a dry-process 
Portland cement plant are usually almost 
or exactly duplIc|Ltes. 

The difficulty and In consequence the ex- 
pense of grinding clinker will depend In 
large part on the chemical composition 
of the clinker and on the temperature at 
which it has been burned. The difficulty 
of grinding, for example, increases with 
the perci^ntage of lime carried by the 
clinker: and a clinker containing 64 per 
cent of lime will be very noticeably more 
resistant to pulverizing than one carry- 
ing 62 per cent of lime. So far as re- 
K£Lrds burning, it may be said In general 
that the more thoroughly burned the 
clinker, the more difficult It will be to 
grind, assuming that its chemical com- 
position remains the same. 

The tendency among engineers at pres- 
ent-Is to demand more finely ground ce- 
ment. While this demand Is doubtless 
Justified by the results of comparative 
tests of finely and coarsely ground ce- 
ments. It must be borne In mind that 

♦Published by permission of the Director. 



any increase in fineness of grinding 
means a decrease in the product per hour 
of the grinding mills employed^; and a 
consequent increase In the cost of cement. 
At some point in the process, therefore, 
the gain In strength due to fineness of 
grinding will be counterbalanced by the 
Increased cost of manufacturing the more 
finely ground product. 

The Increase In the required fineness 
has been gradual but steady, during re- 
cent years. Most specifications now re- 
quire at least 90 per cent to pass a 100 
mesh sieve; a number require 92 per cent; 
while a few Important specifications re- 
quire 95 per cent. Within a few years It 
is probable that almost all specifications 
will go as high as this. 

Addition of Gypsum— The cement pro- 
duced by the rotary kiln is invariably 
naturally so quick-setting as to require 
the addition of sulphate of lime. This 
substance when added in quantities up to 
2% or 3 per cent retards the rate of set 
of the cement proportionately, and ap- 
pears to exert no Injurious Influence on 
the strength of the cement. In amounts 
over 3 per cent, however, Its retarding 
Influence seems to become at least doubt- 
ful, while a decided weakening of the ce- 
ment is noticeable. 

Sulphate of lime may be added In one 
of two forms: Either as crude gypsum or 
as burned plaster. Crude gypsum is a 
natural hydrous lime sulphate, contain- 
ing about 80 per cent of lime sulphate 
and 20 per cent of water. When gypsum 
is calcined at temperatures not exceed- 
ing 400 degrees F., most of Its contained 
water Is driven off. The "plaster" re- 
maining carries about 93 per cent of lime 
sulphate, with only 7 per cent of water. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 



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In Portland cement manufacture either 
srypsum or burned plaster may be used 
to retard the set of the cement. As a 
matter of fact, .gypsum is the form al- 
most universally employed in the United 
States. This Is merely a question of cost. 
It is true that, to secure the same amount 
of retardation of set, it will be necessary 
to add a little more of gypsum than if 
burned plaster were used; but, on the 
other hand, gypsum is much cheaper 
than burned plaster. 



The addition of the gypsum to the 
clinker is usually made' before It has 
passed into the ball mill, kommlnuter or 
whatever mill is#in use for preliminary 
grinding. Adding it at this point secures 
much more thorough mixing and pulver^ 
izing than if the mixture were made later 
in the process. At some of the few plants 
which use plaster Instead of gypsum, the 
finely ground plaster Is not added until 
the clinker has received its final grinding 
and is ready for storage or packing. 



CONCRETE WORK IN CUBA AND YUCATAN. 



By C. E, McDowell, Newark, N. J, 



Concrete construction of buildings in 
tropical countries has Existed for cen- 
turies, but took the form of adobe rather 
than the scientific processes of today. The 
native rock, as well as the sand used, 
was of 'a limestone nature. When put in 
one and two story buildings, erected and 
left undisturbed, they would last for cen- 
turies. We show in our sketches concrete 
work in Havana, Cuba, and street work 
in Merida, Yocatan. There is but one ce- 
ment factory in Cuba. This is situate^d 
on the Almendares River, some five miles 
from Havana on the west. The cement is 
a Portland made from rock found at 
Regla, across the bay from Havana. 
American cements like the Atlas, Alpha, 
Iiehlgh, Vulcanite, Oiant, Universal and 
other well-known brands, demand the 
trade for first-class work. The Cuban en- 
gineer and builder, clannish to a high de- 
gree, uses the Almendares brand to a 
large extent. Most of the improvements 
during the time of the United States 
army of Intervention in Cuba were made • 
with American cement. These repre- 
sented a large expenditure of money and 
as great care was used in the construc- 
tion, the work as a whole was very satis- 
factory. 

The first view shows Campo Florida 
station, fifteen miles from Havana on the 
United Railway of Havana running to 
Matanzas. It is a sample of concrete sta- 
tions proposed for this line and was built 
in 1900. The material, used in the pro- 



is a very important one, being in the 
midst of a large dairy and agricultural 
district near Havana. 

Venta Springs are said to be the 
greatest springs in the world, supplying 
as they do the City of Havana with 40,- 
000,000 gallons of the purest water daUy. 
They are ten miles south of Havana and 
reservoir and aqueduct lines to the city 
were most carefully guarded by the Span- 
iards during the last war. The source of 
supply consists of some 400 springs cor- 
raled In the reservoir, shown in the sec- 
and view, and carried through a brick 
masonry oval-shaped aqueduct six miles 
long to the reservoir and gate house, 
shown in the third view. Meagre descrip- 
tion as to the receiving reservoir at Venta 
Springs is to be had. It is a solid ma- 
sonry and concrete basin some 150 feet 
square and 40 feet deep, faced with a 
sand-lime coating, whlth has stood se- 
cure since its completion in 1872, when It 
was connected by the aqueduct to the old 
city system. The records say that up to 
1887 the work had cost 13,500,000. 

The third sketch shows the Palatlno 
reservoir and gate house. In 1889. thirty 
years after Its inception, the new reser- 
voir and gate house at PalaUno, near 
Havana, was instituted by American en- 
gineers and pushed to completion In 1893, 
when the inauguration of the same took 
place by the Captain General of Cuba and 
Bishop of Havana. The reservoir and 
gate house are all of heavy masonry and 



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CONCRETE WORK IN CUBA AND YUCATAN. 



reservoir Is one foot thick, laid In two 
courses of six inches each. This formed a 
volume of concrete. In all about 5,500 
cubic yards, to be spread in so thin a sheet 
on so large an area, and great care was 
necessary In preparing the ground for its 
reception. The specified thickness was 
obligatory and on the other hand no extra 
thickness would be paid for. 

The stone mostly used for this concrete 
was in every respect admirably Adapted 
for the purpose, being an exceedingly 
hard crystalline limestone breaking read- 
ily in a crusher with a sharp conchoidal 
fracture. The sand was calcareous, there 
being no silicious sand procurable. It was 
sharp, very clean and gave excellent re- 



The fourth sketch shows the top of tha 
main tower of Mme. Rosalie de Abreiux's 
concrete chateau at the Klna de Delicias 
on the Palatino road, some three miles 
from Havana. A Are destroyed her home 
in 1900 and so a contract was made with 
the Cuba Supply Company to erect a con- 
crete building on the Ransome system to 
cost 1100,000. The method of construction 
can be stated in a general way by saying 
that the walls inside and out, all floors 
and towers, are built under the Ransome 
system. The concrete used was very rich 
and consisted of the imported American 
cements, Alpha and Atlas; beach sand, 
(calcareous) from Bacharhanoa; and 
broken limestone from the Cuban Quarry 



I. CAMPO FLORIDA STATION, NEAR HAVANA, CUBA. CONCRETE. 



suits. The keeping of the concrete thor- 
oughly wet for long periods of time after 
being placed was inflexibly insisted upon. 
The precaution was doubly necessary In 
such a climate as that of Cuba and was 
enforced for all classes of masonry. 

The inside faces of .the reservoir walls 
were plastered with one part cement, one 
part sand and one part lime. It stood 



Company's quarry at Jesus Del Monte 
near Havana. All of the concrete was 
kept thoroughly wet for thirty days while 
setting and so no cracks appeared. The 
main tower is 80 feet high with 12-inch 
walls at the base and 8 inches at top. 
The location is an Ideal one, situated as 
it is on high groun-d in the midst of a 
beautiful tropical garden at the end of 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



tan block from Canton, O. They are 
laid on a 5-inch concrete base made in 
proportion of 1, 3, 7, and finished with 
pitch Joints. The stone used in the con- 
crete Is the native limestone, fairly hard 
and broken flne, 14 inch to 1% inches. The 
sand is calcareous in nature and comes 
from the beach at Progresso, 25 miles 
away. Giant cement was used in com- 
pleting the mixture and the result was 
very satisfactory. In the sidewalks the 
same material was used, but in propor- 
tion of 1, 2, 5, and the top finished one 
to one, with a rough surface, and bound 
on the curb front with an iron face set 
in the concrete, under the Wainwright 
system. The sidewalks were laid in ad- 
vance of the street work and are very 
irregular in width, covering as they .do 
from the curb line to the fronts of the 
adobe houses, of which the whole city of 



Merida, Yucatan, is built. The effect of all 
this street work is to change the appear- 
ance of this 400-year-old city and to ad- 
vance it along the line of civilization and 
progress a hundred years. 

In all our sketches improved American 
cements have been largely used and the 
demands are constantly increasing. Mod- 
ern American contruction is the ideal 
form for all of these southern countries. 
Some day a good native Portland cement 
rock will be found that will help construc- 
tion work. In the meantime American 
engineers, architects and build- 

ers, are looking southward for business 
opportunities where brains and capital 
are needed to bring out flrst-class con- 
crete construction work. The examples, 
of work shown are evidence that the ten- 
dency is toward good work, equal to 
most of that in the United States. 



WASTE UTILIZATION. 



The title of this article suggests the 
treatment of municipal waste in such 
manner as to utilize the product of the 
process and thus save the valuable ele- 
ments. An excellent system of reduction 
by cremation was described in the Janu- 
ary number of Municipal Engineering, 
and some description of an English in- 
stallation upon the same principle will be 
found elsewhere in this number. There 
are many reduction plants in this country 
which extract from the garbage all kinds 
of valuable products, and which seem to 
be operated at a good profit under the 
contracts of their owners with the respec- 
tive municipalities. 

There is in operation one system which 
is a combination of the cremation and re- 
duction processes. Mr. F. G. Wiselogel, 
the inventor of the process, describes the 
plant and the method of operailon ii. a 
paper from which the following abstract 
is taken: 

By this system all material, dead ani- 
mals, etc., is taken to the top lloor of the 
plant, the hides are taken off the d«-fid 
animals In a room especially prepared for 
this purpose and provided with a power- 
ful fan to exhaust the air constantly, thus 
insuring an inward draft. The air from 
this room is blown into the boiler furnnce 



»»«»j i.1... 



draft to the tank as long as the dx^or is 
left open. When the tank is full the door 
is closed and bolted and its contents 
cooked under vacuum. When sufficiently 
cooked the mass; is allowed to settle and 
the grease is drawn off. This done, the 
tankage is subjected to a special treat- 
ment to extract the balance of the grease 
still mixed with it. The tankage is then 
dumped through a suitable pipe into the 
dryer below, without being exposed to 
the air or sight and is dried under 
vacuum with steam heat. When dry it 
Is dropped into a conveyor, which con- 
veys it to an elevator, which in turn de- 
livers it into a revolving screen, from 
which the fine particles are spouted or 
conveyed into the shipping room, whilo 
the coarser parts that will pass through 
the coarse part of the screen fall into 
the mill to be ground to proper fineness, 
and are spouted into the conveyor, ele- 
vator and screen to land in the shipping 
room. 

The large parts, bones, hoofs, tin cans, 
rags, etc.. go out at the end of the screen 
as tailings and drop throi\gh a spout into 
a suitable bin. 

The garbage, kitchen slops, butchers* 
offal, decayed vegetable or animal mat- 
ter, etc., are hauled to the top floor and 



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II. VENTA SPRING3. HAVANA WATER SUPPLY. CONCRETE, BRICK AND SAND-LIBiB. 



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all the vapors and gases emanating from 
the material in process of reduction and 
drying through proper condensers that 
condense alt the vapors and pass the ef- 
fluent through a sanitary filter bed into a 
cistern or sewer. The uncondensed foul 
air or gas is led in iron pipes into cast 
Iron retorts walled In the boiler furnace 
and is there burned. 

The dry waste, such as paper, paper 
boxes, rags, etc., is received in a room 
set apart for this purpose, where the 
different grades are separated and balea 
for shipment, while the other waste, such 
as floor sweepings, shavings, di*y stable 
manure, yard cleanings, tree trimmings, 
wood, etc., is burned in a patented fur- 
nace attached to the boilers to help in 
generating the steam required to operate 
the plant. 

The night soil, cesspool matter, wet 
manure and all kinds of foecal, animal or 
vegetable matter are taken to the top 
floor and thrown into the digester, then 
treated to a proper amount of acid to 
destroy any disease germs that may be 
in the mass, which is then dried under 
vacuum with steam heat at 350 degrees F. 
Th6 digesters; like the tanks, are pro- 
vided with air pumps, condensers and gas 
separators, connected with the filter bed 
and gas retorts in the boiler furnace. 

The coal ashes are received on the top 
floor and thrown Into poppers connecting 
with suitable screens and separators. The 
ash goes into a suitable room to be mixed 
with cement and pressed into brick or 
used in plastering. The clinkers, mixed 
with cement, make excellent concrete, 
while unbumt coal or coke Is used for 
fuel to make the steam to operate the 
plant. 

All the floors, except the shipping room 
floor, are of concrete, pitched to a cen- 



ter drain. The inner sides of the walla and 
partitions are coated with an adaman- 
tine paint so there can be no absorption 
of bad odors. Plenty of water must be 
used to keep the floors, walls and ap- 
paratus thoroughly washed and clean to 
insure its sanitary condition at all times. 

The products, such as grease, oil, hides, 
bones, tankage or fertilizer stock, paper 
stock, cement brick, clinkers, etc., flnd 
ready si».le, while the unbumt coal, mixed 
with the other waste burned in the Im- 
proved furnace, makes more steam than 
is required to operate the plant. 
- All material being received on the top 
floor, it flows by gravity to the bottom 
in. the process of reduction and drying 
and lands in the shipping room an odor- 
less and absolutely sterile product ready 
for the market. The apparatus, being pow- 
erful and especially designed for this 
business, makes the sorting of the garb- 
age and consequent exposure in the 
plant unnecessary, as tlie tin cans, etc., 
are taken out by the machine automatic- 
ally and dumped into the proper bin. 

Thlc is a concise description of the 
Wiseloger system of waste utilization, 
which is the result of nearly thirty years 
of study and experience in construction 
and operation of plants and many costly 
experiments. It has advanced by slow de- 
grees and, owing to the flrst cost of for- 
mer plants, it has been kept out of the 
general market except in large clUes. Re- 
cent inventions and improvements have 
reduced the flrst cost of plant one-third 
and the cost of operation and reduction 
one- half, and it can be made profitable 
in small cities of 12,000 inhabitants as is 
shown by the latest plant of this system, 
the Star Tankage and Fertilizer Works 
of Vincennes, Ind. 



ELECTROLYSIS NOT A NECESSITY. 
By A, R088 Gray, Bradford, Pa. 



The protection of water works dis- 
tributing systems from destruction by 
electrolytic action has never received the 
careful attention which the importance 
of the question demands. In all our cities 
thA «rAt(>r nlnf^R ArA helnsr dflmAfirf^d in a. 



low at some future time if the trouble is 
not remedied, but In no case, I believe, 
has the engineer making such report of- 
fered any satisfactory method for the 
complete elimination of the trouble. 
ThA thftorv is cnmstAntlv advanrad bv 



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IV. TOWER OF MADAME ABREUX'S HOUSE, HAVANA. CONCRETE. 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



agreed so generally upon this theory for 
two reasons principally: The first that 
the destruction of piping systems by elec- 
trclytlc action is comi) ritivoiv a new 
phenomenon, the protection of piping 
systems from It a new problem and one 
with which a large majority of the en- 
gineers are not familiar except in a theo- 
retical way, having no occasion to make 
a careful study of the problem under ac- 
tual conditions; the second, that the prin- 
cipal employers of engineers meeting 
these difllcultles are the street railway 
and power companies. The piping system 
of any city offers a convenient return for 
the current of a street lailwiv and as long 
as It remains a good return is the means 
of saving the railway company large 
amounts of money which otherwise would 
of necessity be Investerl in copper returns, 
and which copper If .instnlleii would not 
return the current as well as the piping 
system does. This Is especially true in 
cases where the water department of a 
city has been led to believe that, If the 
piping system were connected to the 
track returns of the railway company or 
to the negative bus bar at the power sta- 
tion by a return feeder, all trouble from 
electrolysis would be at an end. Such 
connections are of grreat advantage to 
the railway company, because they re- 
duce the resistance offered to the current 
by the grround between the pipes and the 
power station, and by reducing such re- 
sistance secure a larger flow of current 
on the pipes than could otherwise be ob- 
tained. Such connections are, however, 
the means of increasing the electrolytic 
action on the piping system a hundred 
fold. 

It Is maintained by many that the cur- 
rent is all taken from the pipes by means 
of such connection and that when this is 
the case no electrolytic action takes place. 
If the current were all taken from the 
pipes by such connections it is undoubted- 
ly true that no action would result, but 
unfortunately the current is not all car- 
ried off by the connections. If the cross 
sectional area of iron in an entire piping 
system is calculated and compared with 
the cross sectional area of copper which 
is installed by the railway to take current 
from the pipe, making due allowance for 
the difference in the conductivity of the 
two metals, it will readily be seen that 
all of the current carried by the pipes 
cannot be taken off by copper returns as 
they are usually installed in such cases. 



true, is it logical to suppose that the* 
adoption of a plan whereby the amount 
of current flow is increased 100 per cent 
is the only means of protection which 
should be considered for a piping system T 
Does it not seem that such method of 
protection is a benefit to the street rail- 
way rather than to the piping system?" 
Yet our water ^ distributing systems are 
being daily connected by return feeders 
to tracks and to power stations. Does It 
look reasonable to expect to reduce the 
damage by increasing the cause of it? 
Yet this is the result of connecting pipes 
to a return feeder of any description. 

Does ft not seem reasonable to maintain 
that the only logical means to do away 
with the trouble is to eliminate the 
cause? In other words, deal with that 
which produces the trouble, instead of 
trying to deal with its effect? ' If it is 
true that the extent of electrolytic action 
is due to the amount of current flow, why 
not adopt a plan whereby this amount is 
decreased instead "of Increased? If such 
a plan is possible why do electrical en- 
gineers and the street railway companies 
not adopt It? Simply because for every 
ampere of current which is prevented 
from returning over a piping system the 
railway must invest in copper to supply 
a return of its own, and if the entire pip- 
ing system of a city is so treated that It 
will not carry current the street railway 
company must invest thousands of dollars 
for copper to do the work which the 
piping systems are now doing. The use of 
return feeders has been tried times with- 
out number and the case is yet to be 
found where the electrolytic action has 
been lessened to any extent. 

Tne almost universally accepted theory, 
which originated when we knew a great 
deal less about electrolysis than we de 
now, and which is being constantly harped 
upon by the railways today, viz: That 
electrolysis as affecting piping systems 
cannot be stopped and that the damage 
must go on, is a fallacy. Electrolytic 
action can be entirely eliminated in any 
underground piping system by the intel- 
ligent use of insulating Joints placed at 
intervals in the pipes. The writer has 
had the supervision of the Installation of 
insulating Joints in numerous entire pip- 
ing systems, containing from 25 to 300- 
miles of pipe, some of them in localities 
'where the conditions were the worst that 
could be met. The result obtained in 



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THE INDIANA STREET IMPROVEMENT LAW. 



23& 



obtained are there to show for them- 
selves. 

If some radical change is not made by 
our cities in their method of dealing with 
this problem, during the next ten years 
will be noted the serious impairment of 
whole plants, necessitating the recon- 
struction of distributing systems at a 
cost many times greater than would be 
necessary to secure ample protection if 
applied before the damage becomes too 
serious. 



It Is of vital importance that piping 
systems in localities where street rail- 
ways are operated should be thoroughly 
investigated to determine how severe the 
conditions are and that immediate steps 
be taken to secure adequate means of 
protection before the damage reaches a 
serious point. It is not safe to wait until 
the destruction that is going on becomes 
all too evident by the giving out of pipes 
during a critical time as that occasioned 
by a bad fire. 



THE INDIANA STREET IMPROVEMENT LAW. 



By C A. Kenyan, Indianapolis, Ind. 



The rapid growth of our towns and cit- 
ies may be attributed to the progressive 
thought and restless energy of the Ameri- 
can citizen. The progressive man wants 
to see his home town enjoy electric light,* 
sewers, pavements, a police force, a fire 
department, during his lifetime. He is 
not content to say I will help build the 
sewers, and my children will help pave 
and their children will help pay for lights 
and Are protection. On the other hand 
there is a very active and noisy minority 
who do not want to pay taxes, do not 
want improvements. 

The present constitution of the State 
of Indiana prohibits municipalities going 
Into debt in excess of 2 per cent of the 
assessed valuation of the property within 
the municipality. This clause is a great 
restraint to the ambitions of the progres- 
sive class, and often Is a distinct hin- 
drance to the advance of a rapidly grow- 
ing town or city. Again it has some ad- 
vantages in that it will prevent public 
officials from indulging in ruthless extrav- 
agance. The 2 per cent limit is, however, 
so low that nearly every town and city 
In the State of any size is close to or 
beyond its legal limit of indebtedness, 
from sheer necessity. 

Many people believe in and still advo- 
cate the old system of making public im- 
provements, namely; pay for them out 
of funds raised by general taxation. Under 
our constitution, if this were the law 
there would be practically no improve- 
ments. 

* To meet the progressive idea the mod- 
ern street improvement laws were de- 
vised, under which th« 20st of the im- 
provements, sewers and pavements 
are paid for by the property 
l>eneftted, in ten annual installments, rep- 
resented by street improvement bonds, 
which bonds are not a part of the munici- 



pal indebtedness and hence not subject to- 
the 2 per cent limit rule. 

What is known as the Barrett Law 
was passed in 1889 by the Indiana Legis- 
lature, and under it the cities and towns 
of the State made such rapid progress 
that other States rapidly passed similar 
laws, with similar results. When the 
United States Supreme Court, a few years 
ago, decided the case of the village of 
Norwood against Baker, many lawyers 
thought it invalidated the Barrett law, 
and the Legislature of 1931 hastened to 
repeal it as to cities, by passing what is 
known as the Artman law. which was 
vastly inferior to the Barrett law In 
many vital respects, and It is to some of 
the defects of the Artman law that I 
desire to call attention. 

1. An Ideal street improvement law 
should be so simple and clear that an 
ordinary mind could understand it. The 
Artman law is so involved and com- 
plicated that no two lawyers construe it 
alike. 

2. The property-owner whose land is to- 
be taxed to pay for the improvement 
should have a right to be effectively 
heard, and if enough of his fellow owners 
should join in insisting that no improve- 
ment should be made then their protest 
should be effective, unless some urgent 
public demand or necessity for the im- 
provement exists. 

3. When it shall be decided to do the 
work, and its nature and character are 
determined, then all contests should be 
at an end. These applications should be 
carefully and accurately drawr\, so that 
contractors may know exactly what they 
are bidding on and that when their work 
is completed they will surely get their 
pay without discount, delay, hold-up or 
quibble. There should be no chance at 
this time for the property-owner to con- 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



test the matter except on one s^round, to- 
wlt, that the work was not done accord- 
ing to contract; and even this should be 
raised while the work Is In progrress. 

If contractors know that they will get 
their pay as soon as the work i« done ac- 
cording to contract in cash, or bonds that 
are at once as good as cash, they are in a 
position to offer very much lower prices, 
and competition will be sharper. On the 
other hand, If the contractor is filled with 
doubts as to when he will get. his pay, as 
to whether he will ever get his pay, as to 
whether he can sell his street improve- 
ment bonds when he gets them or must 
sell at a ridiculously low price on account 
of some foolish provision that in no way 
benefits the property-owner, so that all 
his profit is gone, and a loss is entailed, 
the result is that the next time he bids 
much higher to provide for these things. 

In my opinion the Artman law has 
about all of these defects. There Is no 
serious objection to the advertisement 
and letting of the contract, although the 
property-owner could be given more 
rights. It is after the contractor has 
•completed his work that his trouble be- 
gins. 

The engineer measures up the work, 
finds It all right, computes the total 
amount due the contractor, and reports it 
to the Council; the law does not say 
when, but he usually does it in a reason- 
able time. 

Then the Council can dally with the es- 
timate as long as they see fit, without 
the contractor being able to help himself. 
I have frequently known it to be more 
than a month. 

They then accept it, and refer It to the 
city commissioners, fixing a day for them 
to meet, and the city marshal notifies 
the city commissioners. They may take 
fifteen days to decide the names of the 
owners and the p/operty that will be 
benefited by the Improvement. (One day 
would be enough.) 

They then report this to the Council, 
(what for no one has ever been able to 
definitely find out), who may let one or a 
dozen meetings elapse before acting on it, 
then only to report It bnck to the city com- 
missioners, fixing a day and place for 
them to meet and notifying the property 
owners by advertisement that they may 
go before the commissioners on that day 



another day fixed they may have another 
hearing before the Council. 

That hearing ended, the Council may 
take It under advisement indefinitely be- 
fore confirming the assessment. 

Finally they confirm the assessment, but 
after th^t anv propertv owner who con- 
siders himself aggrieved may within 
twenty days appeal the whole matter to 
the Circuit court, where it may drag 
from three months to a year, the poor 
contractor out of his money and paying 
interest on his loans, being pressed oy 
his banker, and no interest accruing on 
the amount due him. 

Finally, if not entirely defeated on some 
technicality, the assessment is made, 
whether appealed from or not, and the 
assessment roll goes to the treasurer. 

The property owners may at once pay 
in cash, which, by the way, few of them 
do. And then the Council must pass a 
bond ordinance. The lawyers do not 
agree as to how this should be drawn, 
and the contractor has to take his 
chances. At any rate after a time it is 
passed and bonds are issued and given to 
the contractor. Seldom does he get them 
within four months and frequently a year 
elapses from the time he finished his 
work according to contract They are 
issued to him at par. 

The city Is through, but the contractor 
goes to his banker, who does not want 
them. 

1. Because they only bear 5 per cent in- 
terest when he can keep his money loaned 
on short time paper at from 6 to 8 per 
cent. 

2. One-tenth Is payable each year and 
any property-owner may pay his entire 
assessment at any time without notice. 

.3 If any property-owner on the entire 
improvement falls to pay his installment 
of Interest or principal promptly each 
year as It falls due, the bondholder finds 
such coupons returned to him unpaid anal 
he must go and look up the delinquent 
party and institute a foreclosure suit to 
get his money. 

4. He must pay taxes on them while 
city bonds escape taxation. 

The contractor finds he cannot sell them 
or If he does he must make the large dis- 



/«minf fViA Ki'i-kV'ai* i^vonfa 



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THE INDIANA STREET IMPROVEMENT LAW. 



237 



has cost the people in the short time it 
has been in operation hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars, by reason of extra cost 
of work, and this is increasing. 

Can anyone suggest the use of all those 
notices and references back and forth be- 
tween the Council and the City Commis- 
sioners, with the numerous publications, 
all of which have to be paid for by the 
property-owners ? 

If a property-owner stands by and sees 
an improvement completed in front of 
his property, why should he afterwards 
be heard to say it is illegal, he will not 
pay for it, yet he will keep the improve- 
ment? 

In no State in the Union have street 
improvement bonds, that only bear 5 per 



cent interest, such as are issued under 
the present law, been sold at par. 

The option to pay the entire bond off at 
any time should also be abolished- 

The law should specifically exempt these 
bonds from taxation. They are a greater 
burden on the taxpayer than genera] 
bonds. They are a tax, and to tax them 
again is a tax on a tax. 

Everything that can be done to make 
these securities desirable should be done 
in the interest of the taxpayer. The more 
desirsCble these bonds are and the greater 
market there is for them, the lower the 
taxes for public improvements are. These 
bonds are in the nature of a statutory 
mortgage on real estate, and hence should 
be available as reserves required by law 
for insurance and surety companies. 



A NEW JERSEY GOOD ROAD. 



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EDITORIAL 
COMMENT 




Methods of Oarbage Disposal.. 

The Proposed Qovernmeot 
Cement PUint. 

Incompetence in Building 
Construction. 



METHODS OF GARBAGE DISPOSAL. 

The appearance In this and other •num- 
bers of Municipal Engineering^ of ar- 
ticles upon various methods of garbag^e 
disposal suggests a few words upon the 
adv.sability of a thorough study of all 
the methods in determining what msthol 
shall be used for a given place. In, this 
country, at least, the disposal of garbage 
has not been -considered as an engineering 
question, with the exception of a very few 
cases. 

In a few instances the matter has been 
turned over to the health authorities with 
some success, but the tendency of that 
department is to consider the sanitary 
features to the exclusion of a 1 others, so 
that it is possible to pass by meritorious 
processes from the sanitary point of view 
because they have other components 
which complicate the view of them. 

In the great majority of cases, how- 
ever, the matter is in the hands of a 
council committee or board, whose mem- 
bers do not claim to be expert either in 
sanitation or engineering, and who are 
only anxious to get through with a .dis- 
agreeable matter as promptly and - as 
•cheaply as possible. 

The consequence is that the ordinary 
garbage disposal plant is more or less of 
a failure. The process costs too much, the 
plant Is too smal', the delivery of gar- 
bage to it produces nuisance, the process 
Is odorous, the product is valueless, the 
plant is not durable, it is not well lo- 
cated. The list of troubles can be in- 
definitely extended. 

It Is not to be expected that the ordi- 
nary city official shall be an expert in 
such matters as this. The fact is, there 
are very few experts upon the subject in 
the country. The technical nature of the 



that our readers may have a record on 
their desks for reference of the latest 
and best upon this Important subject. 



THE PROPOSED GOVERNMENT 
CEMENT PLANT. 

The engineers who estimated the cost 
of the great Tonto basin dam for irriga- 
tion purposes near Globe. Arizona, added 
to the local price of cement at Globe the 
cost of hauling it by wagon to the site 
of the dam, and thus made the cost of 
the cement J9 a barrel on the work. Mr. 
E. Duryee, an expert cement manufac- 
turer, now an engineer on the reclama- 
tion service, estimated the cost of a ce- 
ment plant at the dam, where suitable 
materials for making cement are found. 
He estimated the cost of making cement 
in this plant at $2 a barrel, under the 
difllculties regarding fuel at that locality. 
The cost of making the 150,000 barrels or 
so of cement needed in the dam, includ- 
ing the total cost of the plant consid- 
ered as scrap at the close of the work, 
would approximate $3 a barrel. This 
shows an apparent saving over the engi- 
neer's estimate of $6 a barrel, or, say 
fSOO.OOO. It was therefore decided that a 
cement plant should be erected for the 
purpose of making the cement needed in 
the dam, and the machinery has been 
purchased for the mill. 

The cement companies, upon learning 
these facts, protested against the action 
of the government on two principal 
grounds, one that the government should 
not go Into competition with private cor- 
porations in the manufacture of any 
needed commodity, and the other, that 



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EDITORIAL COMMENT. 



may not be necessary to consider It 
farther In this connection. 

The second objection seems to have 
been well taken and was met by a call 
for bids from cement nianufacturers, by 
which it developed that cement could be 
delivered at the dam at a cost of $4.81 
s. barrel, or $4.52 if the grovernment did 
not retain the usual 20 per cent of the 
price until the completion and acceptance 
of the whole of the material. This re- 
duces the estimated saving to about $1.80 
a barrel, but this sum, amounting to 
^0.000 is well worth looking after. 

Bids were received from very few com- 
panies. There are, in fact, very few 
companies near enough to compete, the 
two in Colorado and Southern California 
being the nearest and two others. In the 
vicinity of San Francisco being the only 
other probable competitors. 

Much capital has been made in some 
quarters of a claim that there is a ce- 
ment trust which fixes the prices. The 
fact Is, however, that there has been a 
cut-throat competition In the business, 
which has not been overcome, though it 
lias been mitigated by recent conferences 
among the larger manufacturers. The 
companies have been put to it to do their 
best in reducing the price at the works 
and and in securing the best possible 
freight rates, so that the government's 
course has undoubtedly reduced the bid 
price a dollar or two below what it would 
have been had bids been called for in 
the beginning. Prom this point of view 
the purchase of the machinery has been 
fully Justified even should it never be 
used. 

The cement manufacturers propose a 
solution of the problem whldh seems on 
its face to be very satisfactory. Bids 
Are to be received from the manufacturers 
to furnish cement on the work either 
from their own plants or from the govern- 
ment plant on the ground. The govern- 
ment may still hold itself in readiness 
to operate the plant if satisfactory bids 
Are not obtained. The lowest bidder, if 
accepted, can then use the government 
plant with electric power from the gov- 
ernment water power. 

These bids will check Mr. Duryee's esti- 
mate of the cost of making cement, will 
Increase the competition by extending the 
number of manufacturers who can reach 
the work, and, apparently, will give the 
government all the advantages of the 
ownership of the cement plant without 
the risk of depending upon the accuracy 
of the engineer's estimates of the cost of 
operating It. His estimate is more th^in 
•double the usual cost of making cement 
i)y the dry process. 



An important fact is emphasized by 
this discussion of prices, namely, the ef- 
fect of freight rates In restricting com- 
petit'.on and in fixing the price of cement. 
This is an exaggerated case, both because 
the long railroad haul and the wagon 
haul add a large amount to the factory 
price of the cement, and because the 
isolated condition of the work reduces 
the possibility of competition to a very 
small number of plants, say two, or at 
most. four. 

The same factors enter into the fixing 
of rates in any case, but their effect Is 
usually very successfully concealed. Un- 
der ordinary conditions of healthy com- 
petition, where plants are prosperous and 
do not need to cut below profitable fac- 
tory prices, these factors operate first to 
restrict the competition to those factories 
where the cost of manufacture plus the 
freight charges are v4ry nearly equal. 
Thus at A, cement from B, costing $1 to 
make and twenty cents for freight, 
will meet on equal ground cement from 
C. costing eighty cents to make and forty 
cents for freight. Any plant coming 
within this $1.20 limit has an equal 
chance. 

The actual price of cement at A will de- 
pend upon many other Items. If the de- 
mand is greater than' the supply from 
these millF*. the price will go up until a 
figure is reached at which plants with a 
higher cout but a smaller local demand 
can ship in their product. Thus the prices 
will fluctuate with the supply and de- 
mand in a healthy way. 

If A happens to be so situated that . 
two or three plants have a considerable 
advantage over any others, it is easy to 
arrange a combination which will raise 
the price nearly to that at which others 
can ship in profitably. If twenty or 
thirty is read for two or three and the 
combination extends to the restriction of 
production, we are as near a cement 
trust as we have ever attained in the 
American cement trade. 

This illustration suggests one of the 
uses which may be made of the table of 
freight rates in the Directory of Amer- 
ican Cement Industries. It could readily 
be carried much further if space per- 
mitted. 

1 « - .. 

INCOMPETENCE IN BUILDING 

CONSTRUCTION. 

A correspondent sends a list of failures 
of concrete construction in buildings 
which he says are used as examples of 
the inadequacy of this material for use in 
floors and walls and as flre-resisting pro- 
tection for the supporting framework of 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



steel skeleton buildings. Most of these 
cases of failure have been fully described 
in the public press, many of them in 
technical Journals, and in every case 
which has been fully investigated it has 
been shown that there has been some in- 
competence or dishonesty in the desigrn 
or construction, more than sufficient to 
account for the failure. In one instance, 
concrete beams were built which de- 
pended upon ordinary brick walls as 
anchors, and when the beams were loaded 
with but a part of the weight intended 
for them, their deflection, on account of 
insufficient area of cross-section and error 
in its design, pulled the walls of the 
building down. In other cases the thrust 
of the cement arches spread the beams or 
the walls sufficiently to permit the con- 
crete to fall through. In other cases the 
proportions of materials, methods of mix- 
ture or methods of putting in place were 
so defective that the concrete developed 
only a small fraction of the strength 
which it might haVe if properly made. 
Partial loading or merely the removal of 
the centering caused collapse in these 
cases. 

The Darlington building in New York is 
the most recent instance of the collapse 
of a steel frame for a building. The 
exact cause for this failure has not yet 
been determined definitely, but it is un- 
doubtedly due either to defective design, 
overloading of the frame with structural 
materials on the way to their places, or 
defects in the construction. The suffi- 
ciency of the design is presumed to have 
been assured by the approval of the plans 
by the city's building inspector, so that, 
until the report of the official investiga- 
tion is made, the building contractor will 
bear the greater part of the blame. 



Whatever the cause, it is due to in- 
competency or dishonesty of some sort 
The city's department is presumed to 
have done its duty when it guarantees 
the sufficiency of the plans, but In view 
of the serious calamities oaused by the 
collapse of buildings during or imme- 
diately after construction, it seems to be 
the part of wisdom to extend the au- 
thority of the department over the super- 
vision of the actual work of construction. 

Some of the friends of concrete con- 
struction fear that the attaclcs made upon 
the failures in such construction will 
weaken the public confidence in the ma- 
terial for buildings. It may possibly delay 
the recognition of its value In some In- 
stances, but rabid attacks are always 
very largely their own refutation and the 
rapidly increasing number of excellent 
constructions in concrete will soon extend 
the knowledge of its successes and the 
reasons for its failures so that the latter 
will be less frequent and the former will 
be more numerous. 

The failure of the Darlington building 
should not destroy the public confidence 
in the steel frame methods of construc- 
tion. Neither should the occasional col- 
lapse of a badly designed or constructed 
concrete floor or brick wall condemn con- 
crete or br*ck as building materlsLls. The 
effect will rather be to enforce closer in- 
spection of the processes of construction 
as well as of the designs upon which they 
are based. 

Concrete, especially cinder concrete, 
offered an additional proof of its value as 
a building material by successfully with- 
standing the great heat of the Baltimore 
fire. In the words of one engineer on tlie 
ground, "Concrete appears to have stood 
the fire better than anything else." 



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THE QUEiTION 
DEPARTMENT 



COST OF MAKING SLAG CEMENT. 

Can you give me an Idea of about the 
cost of a slag-cement plant of say 200 
barrels per day, the class or makes of 
machinery required? We would like 
something like the Illinois Steel Com- 
pany's north works plant on a smaller 
scale. Can you also give me data as to 
cost of producing slag cement In the bar- 
rel? D. D. G. Chicago. 

If the slag is granulated at the blast 
furnace, where only it can be done prop- 
erly, the only machinery necessary is 
that for drying the llmo and the slag 
sand, a preliminary grinding of th^ latter, 
grinding the lime and slag sand together, 
elevators and conveyors, and packing 
machinery. The cost of this machinery 
will depend upon the kind of grinding 
machine selected. Griffin mills, made by 
the Bradley Pulveriier Company, tube 
mills such as those made by F. L. 
Smidth & Co. and the Bonnot Comi>any, 
closed pebble mills or ball mills, and Kent 
mills are used in various plants, most of 
which make a preliminary reduction of 
the slag in one mill and the final grind- 
ing of the slag and lime in another. There 
are several dryers on the market. 
Reference may be made to the "Business 
Directory" under the headings "Dryers," 
"Cement Machinery," "Cement Plant 
Designers," "Tube Mills," etc., for names 
of manufacturers and dealers in cement 
machinery and experts in designing 
plants. They can give full information 
on cost when full details are known re- 
garding materials and local conditions. 

No definite figures are at hand regard- 
ing the actual cost of making slag ce- 
ment. Estimates have l)een made vary- 
ing from about forty cents up to sixty 
cents a barrel, the range showing the ef- 
fect of local conditions and also the 
conservatism of the estimators. 



BiAKERS OF SAND AND CEMENT 
BRICK. 

Can you give me the names and ad- 
dresses of the different firms in the 
United States making sand and cement 
brick? W. J. M., Toronto, Ont. 

The new edition of the "Directory of 
American Cement Industries" (|6), now 
nearly through the press, has a special 



list of the makers of stone and brick 
using cement and lime, in which will be 
found the names and addresses desired. 
Reference should also be made to the 
VBusiness Directory" elsewhere in this 
number under the heading "Cement 
Brick." 



MAKERS OF ACETYLENE GAS 
MACHINES. 

WUl you please send us a list of the 
principal acetylene gas machine com-' 
panics In the United States? 

M. Marquette, Mich. 

Hendricks's "Commercial Register" (|6) 
gives a Hst of about 150 makers and 
dealers In acetylene gas machines. Some 
of those in the vicinity of Michigan are 
the Abner Acetylene Gas Co., 36 LaSalle- 
st., Chicago, ni.; Acetylene Apparatus 
Mfg. Co., 167 Michlgan-ave., Chicago, 111.; 
Alexander Furnace and Mfg. Co.. I^n- 
sing, Mich.; American Acetylene Lighting 
Co., Battle Creek, Mich.; Briscoe Mfg. 
Co., 1427 Woodward-ave., Detroit,; Ran- 
som Gas Machine Co., 872 E. Water-st., 
Milwaukee, Wis. 



EFFECT OF FROST ON CEMENT 
POSTS. 
We have commenced the manufacture 
of concrete fence posts at this place and 
and yve would. like to have your opinion 
as to whether frost would have any dam- 
aging effect wliorc ihey enter the ground. 
We are making posts with five parts sand 
and gnivcl and one part Portlaind cement, 
mixed into a slush, and when the posts 
are about four davs old we give ihem a 
dip into a solution of cement and water 
to close up the pores so as to make them 
non-absorptive. We have tried placing 
the posts in water and letting them freese 
up solid and then have thawed them out, 
and to all appearance they were as good 
as they were before they were frozen. 
GRIFFIN AND LOW, 

Lake City, Iowa. 

The amount of effect of frost upon con- 
crete posts would depend upon the 
amount of water which could be absorbed 
by them. It is possible to make cement 
concrete which is practically waterproof, 
the proportion of cement to be used de- 
pending upon the amount of voids in the 
sand and gravel. This can be determined 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



for the sand and gravel used by measur- 
ing the amount of water necessary to fill 
a box already containing a known amount 
of the sand and gravel. Ii> practice a lit- 
tle more cement is used to allow for de- 
fects in mixing the concrete. The propor- 
tions named are about the minimum for 
close-grained concrete. It is quite prob- 
able that experiment would show the ad- 
visability of using a little more cement. 

Posts set in wet ground would need to 
be more impervious than those in well- 
-draiued soil. 

If well done the process of dipping the 
post should aid somewhat In making its 
surface Impervious, but it should not be 
depended upon as a complete correction 
ior errors in mixing the concrete. 

Concrete of the proportions named is 
less porous than many kinds of stone, 
And it would be less affected by frost than 
-anj' but the densest and strongest stone. 
The tensile strength of concrete is greater 
than that of stone and the action of 
frost in bursting the post would have 
much greater resistance than it would 
have in a stone post similarly situated. 
Alternations in freezing and thawing 
posts porous enough to absorb an appre- 
■ciable amount of water will result in a 
sort of granulation of the surface and 
the separation of these grains rather than 
in the spalling which often happens to 
-stone under the same conditions. The life 
■of a concrete post, well made except as 
to porosity, is therefore likely to be much 
longer than that of most stone under the 
-same conditions. It is not difficult to re- 
duce the porosity to a very small pro- 
. portion with corresponding advantage. 
Whether the added life is sufficient to 
compensate for the greater cost will de- 
pend upon the amount of the excess of 
cost. The whole ma«ik^r Is a refinement 
which needs but little consideration in 
practice. 

« 

INFORMATION ABOUT CONCRETE 
BUILDING BLOCKS. 

Does your monthly magazine tell all 
about concrete building block making and 
the machine? We will use the cheapest 
and best me*hod of building concrete 
walls, cornices, floors, sills and steps for 
•cottages we can get hold of; a plan that 
can be used without skilled labor. We 
can get sand, gravel, fuel and limestone 



cement block machines. Since the de- 
velopment of this method of construction 
began, but little more than two years ago, 
this magazine has given everything of 
importance on the subject. The list of 
articles is too long to reproduce here, for 
nearly every number contains articles on 
the blocks and their use and the machines 
for making them. 



CONTENTS OF A BAG OF CEMENT. 
One local dealer will put out only 
three sacks of Lehigh cement to the 
barrel and other cements are delivered 
four sacks to the barrel, so I will be un- 
der obligations to you if you will kindly 
tell me how many sacks constitute one 
barrel of Lehigh cement 

J. W. BURNEY, Bainbrldge, Ga. 

The dealer referred to is apparently in 
error. The Lehigh Portland Cement C >ni- 
pany conforms to the usual custom of 
putting 95 pounds net of cement in a 
sack, which Is four sacks to a barrel. He 
Is possibly confusing Portland with nat- 
ural cement, the latter being delivered 
In paper sacks of about the same weight, 
but only three to the barrel, since natural 
cement weighs less than Portland. 



SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONCRET^E 
PIERS. 

Will you please inform me where I can 
get specifications for concrete abutments 
and piers for railroad work. Or refer me 
to a book on railroading containing such 
specifications. A. W. FISHBAUGH. 

Cellna, O. 

The "Hand-Book for Cement Users" ($S) 
gives the specifications desired. 



CONCRETE BASE FOR FENCE. 

We are about to construct a fence 
600 feet long, the base of which will be 
made of concrete blocks 7 feet long by 
about 18 inches square, with the upper 
edges beveled. 

Any information which you can give 
us regarding the best way to proceed to 
do this work will be appreciated. 

M. & C. Philadelphia, Pa. 

The laying of concrete blocks is a sim- 
ple operation. The foundation being prop- 
erly prepared (a very essential matter), 
the molds can be staked or braced in 
place, filled with the concrete mixture, 



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THE QUESTION DEPARTMENT. 



S43 



CRACKS IN CEMENT BLOCK WALL. 

I have a building constructed of hol- 
low cement blocks, placed on a frost- 
proof foundaUon. The wall is cracked 
half-way up the building and it was not 
caused by a blow or anything of that 
sort. The foundation did not crack or 
settle and the cracks referred to were In 
the blocks only. What was the reason? 
D. Z., Hanover, Ont. 

This can hardly be answered without 
an inspection of the building. As the 
question reads, the crack is due to some 
movement of the wall. Are the blocks 
cracked or does the crack in the wall 
follow the Joints between the blocks? In 
either case setUement of the wall, ex- 
pansion or contraction, or bulging of the. 
wall by frost or some other force, which 
may be slight and soon disappear, might 
account for it. P\irther information Is 
necessaiT to determine whether the fault 
Is in the design or the construction of the 
wall. 



PRICE OF CEMENT FOR SIDEWALK 
PURPOSES. 

Please give me the prices on cement 
for sidewalk purposes. There will be 
some sidewalks put down here this year. 
F. R., Fayette, Iowa. 

Some recent bids run from 11.29 to $1.66 
■a barrel for cement in sacks on cars at 
the mill, to which freight must be added. 
The table of freight rates in the "Hand 
Book for Cement Users" (|3) and In the 
'•Directory of American Cement Indus- 
tries" (15) give much help m determining 
the additional cost due to shipping 
•charges. 



CONCRETE WALK WITH NATURAL 
CEMENT IN BASE AND PORT- 
LAND CEMENT IN TOP. 

We note a very Interesting discussion in 
your last issue regarding the adhesion of 
a natural cement base with a Portland 
cement top. We think your explanation 
Is very good and covers the subject care- 
fully. We, however, would ll^e to add, 
as perhaps of some benefit to the party 
making the inquiry, that the specific 
gravity of a true Portland cement is at 
all times over 3. thereby being the heav- 
iest hydraulic material known to the 



water is added to Portland cement a 
chemical change takes place. In theory, 
all of the water up to 20 per cent is crys- 
tallsed and this will take place with or 
without air. Portland cement will set 
und«r water or in a vacuum and all of 
its characteristics are so enth-ely different 
from a natural cement that they cannot 
In anywise be classed together. 

These facts, together with the differ- 
ence in contraction and expansion, we be- 
lieve will explain why a Portland cement 
and a natural cement should not be used 
together. 

HOUSTON BROTHERS CO. 
Pittsburg, Pa, 

The writer does not agree with all ths 
statements, regarding the chemical action 
of natural cements stated above, but 
does agree with the proposition that the 
differences In the chemical actions are 
usually such that the two cements can- 
not be used safely In the combination 
under discussion. 



TO WHICH STREET DOES THE IN- 
TERSECTION OF TWO STREETS 
BELONG? 
Will you kindly Inform me as to the 
solution of the following problem? Thir- 
teenth street, running north and south, 
crosses South street (44 feet wide), which 
Is paved east of the easternmost line of 
Thirteenth street. North of South street. 
Thirteenth street is 60 feet wide. South of 
South street it Is 40 feet wide and its east- 
• ern line is opposite the western line of 
Thirteenth street north of South street, 
I. e., there is an offset in Thirteenth 
street equal to Its width north of South 
street. An ordinance proposes to pave 
Thirteenth street from Its north end "to 
the south line of South street." Is the 
part of this description in the Intersection 
a part of Thirteenth street or Is it a part 
of South street, and should any part of 
its cost be assessed on the block on the 
southeast corner of the Intersection? 
J. A. WILSON, Lexington, Mo. 

This is a problem for attorneys versed 
in Missouri law to wrestle with. The 
council has evidently described this inter- 
section as belonging to Thirteenth street. 
Tne end of the improvement abuts on 60 
feet of the north side of the block on the 
southeast corner and in most States this 
would authorize an assessment uoon this 



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244 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



sons would probably agree that the inter- 
flections in this particular case belong to 
South street, but in law the definition of 
the crdinance or custom may govern. The 
mi/st equitable form of assessment should 
be chosen by the engineer and the modi- 
fications necessary to make this conform 
vitb th» statutes may be left to the legal 
aaviff'/s of the city. 



INSPECTION OF BRICK PAVING. 
A correspondent states that he proposed 
the method of Inspection of a completed 
brick pavement outlined in Municipal En- 
gineering, vol. XXV, p. 425, and was met 
with the objection from the contractor 
that no engineer has done this; that it is 
unheard of, unfair, etc. On the other 
hand the taxpayers observe that the 
pavement has a very uneven, undulating 
surface and will not be satisfied until the 
work is fully inspected and made right. 

In too many instances pavements are 
laid, especially in the smaller cities, with- 
out inspection by any competent city 
authority, or with so little, owing to the 
multiplicity of the city engineer's duties, 
that it practically amounts to nothing. 
The nature of the contract will govern 
the force of the inspection, but well-made 
contracts usually contain a provision that 
the discovery of defects at any time will 
lead to reconstruction of the defective 
sections, even though passed by an in- 
spector. This is a salutary provision 
which is no hardship on an honest con- 
tractor, for the courts will protect him 
against any injustice which may be 
forced upon him, but will uphold the au- 
thorities in demanding reconstruction of 
work passed by Incompetent or dishonest 
inspectors. 

In case there is no inspection during 
construction, it is difficult to see how the 
condition of a brick pavement can be de- 
termined without cutting into it. Even 
the areas which show up well on the sur- 
face may be defective underneath and in 
worse condition than the areas whlqji 
show greater defects to the eye. Such an 
inspection by an unprejudiced person can 
have no terrors for the contractor who 



manner described in the article referred 
to, the points ifor examination being 
selected by the taxpayers who had ap- 
pointed themselves as inspectors. For- 
tunately for the contractor, these cuts 
showed his substantial compliance with 
the terms of the contract. 

Undoubtedly our readers can cite similar 
instances from their own practice and we 
will publish the results if they are sent 
in, with or without reference to names 
and places as may be preferred. 



SLAG PAVING BLOCKS. 

Will you kindly advise me whether 
paving blocks are being made from blast 
furnace sUg In this country at the pres- 
ent time and, further, whether blocks of 
this character make entirely satisfactory 
pavements? 

R. L. H., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Slag is used for paving purposes and is 
furnished by the Vulcanite Paving Co. 
of Philadelphia, Pa. So far as the writer 
knows there is no use of slag paving 
blocks in this country on a commercial 
scale. Can our readers give any informa- 
tion on the subject? 



LAYING LARGE WATER MAJNS. 

Norfolk is about to install a SO-inch 
water main, five miles long, to supersede 
one of smaller bore. The council resolu- 
tion providing for the main restricts the 
bidding upon it to local contractors and 
plumbers. 

This restriction has aroused much criti- 
cism. It is objected that no local con- 
tractor is equipped with the machinery 
necessary for handling such large pipe; 
that none has had any experience in 
caulking pipe of this size, and that unless 
the city, therefore, modifies its resolution, 
it is likely to pay two profits for the 
work. 

It is saia on the other side that local 
contractors can easily buy what appa- 
ratus they need for the work, and some 
declare that no special appliances are de- 
manded for it. 

Kindly tell i'3 what special faclliUes, if 
any. are required for laying and caulking 
pipe of this size in the most eftective way 
and under the cheapest and most favor- 
able circumstances. 



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THE QUESTION DEPARTMENT. 



245 



such contractors there may be several. 
The smaller the number of possible bid- 
ders, the greater the possibility of a com- 
bination of bidders and an increase in 
price. If the work is somewhat unusual 
and but few. if any, have had any ex- 
perience in it. this possibility is still fur- 
ther increased, for those who have not 
had experience may feel some hesitancy 
in taklngr risks with K and will increase 
their bids to cover the risk due to their 
lack of knowledge, or. as in some in- 
stances, when there are one or two bid- 
ders whose experience will enable them 
to bid low enough to Insure the contract 
going to them, may bring about a com- 
bination which wiU put them on an 
equality. 

Criticisms similar to this are easily 
made, and the bids, when received, may 
or may not show that they are well 
founded. Bids can almost always be re- 
jected if too high. 

In this particular case it may l?e said 
that the 30-inch pipe can be laid without 
any very special appliances. Heavier der- 
ricks will be necessary to handle It suc- 
cessfully^ and there are specicU appli- 
ances for supplying lead and running it 
into the Joints, as well as for caulking 
which matertally aid in the work and 
consequently reduce its cost. These ap- 
pliances can probably be rented if the 
work is not extensive enough to warrant 
their purchase and contractors desire to 
avail themselves of them. 

A restriction of bidders to local contrac- 
tors is not very common in the larger 
cities and if it is made on ordinary con- 
tracts it is likely to be omitted when 
competition would be too greatly re- 
stricted. Whether such a restriction is 
advisable In this case is a local question 
wflich cannot be answered without full 
knowledge of all facts. 



BINDING FOR MUNICIPAL. 
ENGINEERING. 

WTiat would be your price for binding 
Municipal Engineering? 

CARL MAUGHMER. 
City Engineer, Nampa, Idaho. 

Tlie Simplex binder can be obtained at 
this office of proper size for Municipal 
Engineering for 60 cents, each binder suf- 
ficient for one volume of six numbers. 
To the first order for binders should be 
added 30 cents for a stapler and a box 
of steel staples which are used in at- 
tachiner the number to the back. Vol- 
umes Trill be bound for subscribers for 
11,60 eacli, in half morocco, six numbers 
in a volume, the loose numbers being 



sent for the purpose. New bound vol- 
umes, including the six numbers and the 
binding, are sold for $2.50. 



MAKERS OF SMALL TANKS. 
Will you kindly give us the names of 
some of the manufacturers of small 
tanks made up in either copper or gal- 
vanized iron or both? The principal 
sizes will be such as are used by doctors* 
for instance, as supply tanks, with av- 
erage pressure of 40 lbs. per square inch. 
Other sizes would range up to about 10 
cubic feet capacity, with correspondingly 
higher pressures; for instance, tanks to 
be used in connection with gas engine 
starters. 

F. W. S.. Indianapolis. 

William E. Scaife & Sons' Co.. 221 
First-ave., Pittsburg, Pa., can doubtless 
supply the tanks desired. 

The Pressed Steel Tank Co.. Milwau- 
kee. Wis.; Ironclad Mfg. Co.. New York 
City; Holthoft Machinery Co.. Cudahy, 
Wis.; Randolph-Clowes Co.. Waterbury, 
Conn., are other makers of copper op 
galvanized iron tanks and boilers who 
may be able to meet the requirements. 



LIGHTEST GRADIENT FOR PIPE 
SEWER. 

What, in your opinion. Is the lightest 
gradient that should be used for an 
eight or nine inch vitrified pipe sewer, 
that is. in extreme cases. 

SUBSCRIBER, , Mont. 

Some discussion of this question will be 
found in Municipal Engineering, vol. 
xxil, p. 382. It requires a fall of one foot 
in 250 in an eight-inch pipe or of one foot . 
in 900 in a nine-inch pipe to produce a 
velocity of two feet a second, running 
full or half-full, assumed to be a self- 
cleaning velocity, according to Kutter's 
formula. Latham's tables give one in 400 
and one 450 as the gradients producing 
this velocity. If the sewer does not run 
half full the velocity will be less. If it 
is necessary to run the sewer on fiatter 
grade or, as is ordinarily the case, it does 
not run half full, special means must be 
taken to keep the, sewer clean. It is 
possible to run a sewer on a level line, 
but to keep it clean one must run water 
through it under pressure at intervals or 
must run cleaning tools through it The 
gradients named are ordinarily given as 
the minima, but are not always possible, 
and when they are not. fiush-tanks. fiush- 
Ing manholes, water pipe connections, or 
special appliances for cleaning must be 
supplied and used freely. 



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246 



MUNICIPAIi ENGINEERING. 



HOW TO LAY CEMENT WALKS AND 
FLOORS. 

Mr. G. S. Neff of Rochester, N. Y., 
refers to the article In this department 
In the number of Municipal Engineering 
for December, 1903, vol. xxv, p. 419, on 
specifications for laying cement side- 
walks, and makes some criticisms of it. 

He objects to the digging of a trench 
15 to 18 inches in depth to be filled with 
cinders or other porous material on the 
ground that this trench will fill with 
water which will freeze and throw the 
walk out of shape. This would be true 
were the trench dug in an Impervious 
soil and proper provision for drainage 
were not made. The porous cinder, 
gravel or broken stone foundation is in- 
tended to remove any accumula- 
tions of water as far from the walk as 
possible and to leave the moisture in this 
foundation as much room to expand in 
freezing as possible so that it will not lift 
the walk. Were it possible to make a- 
foundation which would at all times be 
impervious to water, it would be ideal. 
The soil cannot expand from freezing if 
there is no water to crystallize. But since 
few, if any, contractors have ever been 
able to obtain such a continuously im- 
pervious foundation, the next best thing 
is to have one so porous and so deep and 
so well drained that there shall be no ac- 
cumulations of water enough to fill it full 
and with so much vacant space well dis- 
tributed through it that any moisture 
clinging to the solid particles may have 
ample space in which to expand in freez- 
ing without crowding these particles out 
of place. Mr. Neft says: 

Now, why not lay your walk on the 
earth as you find it and see to it that the 
water along your walk can drain off 
and also cut your flags well through at 
the Joints so that they can give when the 
flags begin to heave and you will have 
less broken flags and also less settlement 
when the frost gets out of the ground. 
The article also gives the quantity of 
cement, sand, gravel and stone; viz., 1 
to 3 to 5, making one part of cement to 
eight parts of sand and stone, which will 
make 45 square feet of finished walk. 
Now, at 1 to 8 cement and broken stone 
will make at least 60 square feet of walk; 
1 to 5 will make 60 square feet of walk 
with 3 inches of 1 to 5 and one inch of 1 to 



The article also gives formula for lay- 
ing cellar and basement fioor, in which 
it states that 1 part of cement to 5 parts 
of sand and 10 parts of gpravel or broken 
stone gives good results. Whew! That 
may do to look at, but not to use. That's 
like giving a Clydesdale horse a cupful of 
oats for a meal. You may think it suflA- 
cient for the horse, but it is only a ques- 
tion of time when the horse will die from 
overfeeding. ' To sum it up, you cannot 
expect to do good work and durable un- 
less you usfe enough cement, and that 
good cement. 

Now my way of building a walk is as 
follows: I never use a shovel full of 
ashes, cinders or clinkers. If I have to 
fill and get earth I use sand. I place my 
stringers; make my concrete 5 to 1 and 
the top 2 to 1, the concrete Just moist 
enough to ball well in the hand; fill the 
frame level full; then pound down one 
inch. When I wish to make or cut my 
Joints I place a 2x4 cross piece, of which 
I have three. I make my flags five feet 
square. I place a cross piece at every 
flve-foot mark on the outside of the 
stringer and All up at least Ave or six. 
remove the 2x4 crosspieces and fill the 
joints with sifted concrete and ram down 
well. When I have the five or six squares 
and the Joints filled in, I proceed to put 
on the top. If the weather is warm and 
the occasion demands it. I sprinkle water 
on the concrete before putting on the 
top. I strike it with a straight edge, then 
let it set for a few minutes or until the 
surface will bear fioating. then finish 
with trowel and as I go along cut the 
Joints through the sifted concrete, top 
and all, open up the cut with the Jointer 
and finish with trowel. 

This laying every other fiag one day 
and then the spaces between the next is 
a back number. I never use paper. By 
cutting as above you will have Just 
enough space for expansion and you will 
have no double Joints, but you must 
pound the Joints well. 

I have given guarantees for six years 
and in no instance have I been called up- 
on to make good. 

I have made one flag 13 feet long, four 
feet wide, all in one piece, four inches 
thick; also two flags seven by e'ght feet, 
four inches thick. They have been laid 
eight years. 

All that is necessary is to see that the 
water can run off, not under the walk. 
Then your flags will raise even and will 
settle down again when the frost leaves. 



BOOKS ON CONCRETE WORK. 



-trill ..^,, 



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THE QUESTION DEPARTMENT. 



247 



Crete" (|3), It is one of the older books, 
but is excellent, and when it is brougrht 
down to date by additional study of the 
"Hand-Book for Cement Users" (|3) will 
be found a valuable guide. Many things 
about concrete can only be learned by 
experience. 

A new book. Gillette's "Earthwork and 
Its Cost," is the most complete book 6n 
this subject. Experience may not bear 
out all its statements, but on the whole 
it is a good treatment of the subject. 



INDEX TO MUNICIPAL ENGI- 
NEERING. 

In response to the request for expres- 
sions of desire for a printed index to the 
back volumes of Municipal Engineering, 
made in the March number, a few addi- 
tional subscriptions have been received. 
Are there others who will purchase the 
index if it is printed? If enough advance 
promises are made the index will be 
published. 



WEATHERING OP CONCRETE 
BLOCKS. 

For something more than a year we 
have been manufacturing stone from 
cement and sand. The bulding stone put 
out by us has so far .proven satisfac- 
tory. We have foundations which are 
now stand^g the second winter and the 
stone is apparently better and harder 
than when put into the wall. We do not 
use cement enough to till all the voids in 
the s&nd, and our stone readily absorbs 
water. We have taken our stone and 
placed it under a hydrant and let it 
stand constant dripping, and in winter, 
freezing and thawing, with no apparent 
effect upon it, and the stone so used ab- 
sorbs water freely. We have in the 
face of pretty general disapproval of our 
product by stone masons, made very en- 
couraging progress in its introduction. 
Still the stonemasons insist that in the 
course of two or three years the stone 
will very perceptibly show signs of dis- 
integration and say they have read that 
Is the course of stone of this nature, and 
some say they have seen It. So far we 
have never been able to get anyone to 
point out a specific instance. The writer 
has Just recently completed a new house 
in which he used the regular stone from 
our plant in the foundation, and without 
any misgivings as to the outcome. Can 
you give us some information as to the 
experience of those who have used stone 
of the kind usually made in the plants 
scattered over the country? We have 
made stones of various proportions, and 
all the way from 3 per cent of sand to 
1 per cent of cement to 30 per cent of 
sand to 1 per cent of cement, but the 
stone we place on the market is uni- 



formly 8 to 1. The other stones were for 
experimental purposes. The 80 to 1 rubs 
oflp easily, but seems to stand the effect 
of freezing and thawing as well as any 
and shows remarkable strength. 

P., , Kan. 

Reference should be made to the answer 
in another place to the question about 
the freezing of cement posts. One finds 
many small stone spalls at the foot of 
walls made of some c'asses of stone, 
which are apparently separated from the 
stone faces by frost, chemical action or 
the action of heat and cold in expanding 
and contracting the outer surfaces. The 
same spalls are not found at the foot of 
a concrete wall, partly because the con- 
crete is not In so pronounced layers as 
the stone and partly because it has a 
much greater tensile strength and itft 
surface is not so easily broken by the ac- 
tion of frost or temperature changes. 
The poorer mixtures of concrete may ulti- 
mately act as the 30 to 1 mixture re- 
ferred to, so that the outer surfaces will 
rub off, and in that case fine dust or sand 
will be found at the base of a wall left 
undisturbed for some time. The richer 
mixtures do not have this difficulty and 
any mixture which makes a hard, homo- 
geneoiis, smooth surface, such as 8 to 1 
and stronger mixtures can be made to 
have, will not show this action, if one 
may Judge by comparison with similai* 
but not identical samples of concrete con- 
struction. Mixtures even weaker than 8 
to 1 are often entirely satisfactory from 
this point of view. 

The records on this subject are very 
meager and our readers are Invited to 
add to them. We will publish all that may 
be sent to us for that purpose. 



ADDRESSES OP CEMENT COM- 
PANIES. 

Will you kindly send us the addresses 
of the following cement manufacturers: 
Dexter, Phoenix, Reading, Vulcanite. 
F. P. R., Johnstown, Pa. 

From the "Directory of American Ce- 
ment Industries" (|5) these addresses can 
be ascertained with full information re- 
garding the products of ttielr works, the 
offices and agents, brands manufactured, 
etc. The addresses are as follows: 

Dexter Portland Cement Co., Naza- 
reth, Pa.; Samuel H. French & Co.. sole 
agents, York-ave., Fourth and Callow- 
hlll-sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Phoenix Cement Co., Nazareth, Pa.; 
William G. Hartranft Cement Co., Sole 
selling agents Philadelphia, Pa. 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



Readingr Cement Co., Reading, Pa. 

Vulcanite Portland Cement Co., offices 
Philadelphia. Pa.; works, Vulcanite 
(postofflce PhllUpsburg), N. J. 



WOOD FIBER MACHINE MAKERS. 

I am In the market for a wood fiber 
and wood pulp machine and thought you 
could possibly Inform me where to get 
the best one In the market. 

W. B. T., PLASTERER, 
Charlerol, Pa. 

Hendricks's "Commercial Register" ($6) 
gives the following names of makers of 
fiber machinery: Joseph C. Todd, 203 
Broadway. New York; J. W. Voglesong, 
Elyrla. O.; "Wtood Fiber Machinery Co.. 
Sandusky, O. Wood pulp grinders can 
be obtained of several manufactures, the 



nearest one to the Inquirer being Pusey 
& Jones Co., Wilmington, Del. Wood 
pulp knives are sold by Coes, Lorlng & 
Co., Worcester, Mass. 



ACETYLENE GAS REFUSE IN SEWER. 

We have several persons In town using 
acetylene g&a plants. These people wish 
to run the wash and slaked carbide into 
the sewer. Can you furnish any Informa- 
tion as to whether same will settle or fill 
up the pipes. B. B. M., , Me. 

Can our readers give any results of ob- 
servation? The character of the refuse 
seems to be that of finely divided rather 
light materials and it would seem that it 
would give no more trouble than other 
fine material, such as fine sand or clay. 
Is there a tendency to harden in mass 
if left undisturbed? 



MUNICIPAL MATTERS 
IN COURT 



Higher Courts— Gardner Water Plant— Liability of Water Company for Fire 
Loss— Classification of Bids— Reasonable Rates-^Northem Pacific Merger. 



Abstracts of Decisions of the Higher 

Courts on Matters Relating to 

MunlclpaJtIes. 

Prei>ared by Russell T. Byers, LL. B., 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Assessments— Avoidance Because Debt 
l^lmlt is Exceeded— The owner of property 
knowing of a street improvement and 
acting under the advice of an attorney, 
made no objection until the improvement 
had been assessed. He is not entitled to 
have such assessment set aside, the as- 
sessment being equitable and fair, on the 
ground that the company, a foreign cor- 
poration, doing the work had not com- 
plied with the laws of the State relating 
to foreign corporations or for the reason 
that the contract was void because the 



of the cost of such improvement, even 
though notice Is served upon him as sole 
owner, and is not served upon the other 
owners. City of Louisiana vs. McAllister, 
78 S. W. Rep (Mo.) 314. 
. Assessment — Confirmation — Collateral 
Attack— It is too late to urge the failure to 
make an Itemized estimate of the cost of 
an improvement a part of the record as 
a defense to an application for Judgment 
for delinquent assessments. This objec- 
tion should have been urged to the con- 
firmation of the assessment The general 
rule is that no objection (save lack ot 
jurisdiction and that must appear on the 
record itself), which could have been 
made to the confirmation of the assess- 
ment will be heard when suit is brought 
for the delinquent assessments. The fact 



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MUNICIPAL MATTERS IN COURT. 



249 



Improvements — Abutting Owners — 
Where the expense of constructiner Im- 
provements Is met by abutting: property 
Owners, they are parties so interested as 
entitles them to Insist that all proceed- 
ings should conform to law. Under the 
8ta.tutes, where the board of public works 
declares the sidewalk of a property owner 
living on a non-graded street defective, 
such property owner is entitled to ten 
days' notice before the city will be Justi- 
fied In letting a contract for the improve- 
ment.— City of Waukesha vs. Randies et 
al. 96 N. W. Rep. (Wis.) 237. 

Impiovl'ments — Contracts - Validity— 
Though the specification of a contract for 
public improvements contains a so-called 
alien labor clause, since declared Invalid, 
It is competent to show that this Item 
was not made a part of the contract, 
thus increasing the cost of the improve- 
ment. Where the contract contained such 
an invalid clause, which was disregarded 
by all parties, the contract was not void 
in toto as against public policy.— Doyle et 
al. vs. People ex rel. Hanberg. 69 N. E. 
Rep. an.) 689. 

Improvements— Suflaclency of Notice- 
Meaning of Repairs— Under the statute 
providing for the publication of a pro- 
posed ordinance for a street improve- 
ment, the fifth consecutive day may fall 
on Sunday and be included in the com- 
putation of time. Held, certain improve- 
ments were not repairs under Sec. 6,6S1, 
which provides that the cost of all re- 
pairs shall be paid out of the general 
revenue fund.— Barber Asphalt Paving 
Co. v. Muchenberger et al., 78 S. W. Rep. 
(Mo.), 280. 

Ordinance — Resolution — Certainty — 
Under the statutes the description pro- 
vided for in the resolution of the Board 
of Public ^Improvements need > not be so 
detailed as that provided for in the ordi- 
nance authorizing the improvement. De- 
scription held sufficient.- Gage vs. CJity 
of Chicago. 69 N. E. R. (111.), 688. 

School Property Assessment. — The 
State constitution and code do not ex- 
empt lots donated by Congress, title to 
which is in Board . of Education, from 
taxation for local improvements. Such 
an expenditure is foi the benefit ^t 
schools. Such lots may not be sold to 
enforce collection of assessments, but 
this is no objection to the levying of the 
assessment, nor does the fact that said 
lots are occupied and unused exempt 
them from such taxation. City of Chi- 
cago vs. City of Chicago, 69 N. E. Rep. 
(111.), 580. 

Sidewalks — Advertisement — Right of 
Uen.— Under proceedings provided for in 



the statutes a sidewalk was constructed 
in front of the real estate In question. 
The advertisement for bids referred for 
the specifications to a particular ordi- 
nance which did not provide for this 
particular improvement. Held, no lieii 
attached. City of Louisiana vs. ShafTner. 
78 S. W. Rep. (Mo.), 287. 

Special Assessments — Equalization— A 
finding that the property is "specially 
benefited and shall be assessed for the 
full cost of construction of said sewers 
according to their foot frontage" is 
equivalent to finding that the benefits are 
equal and uniform and Is not subject to 
collatoral attack.John V. Connell et al. 9S 
N. W. Rep. (Neb.) 467. 

Street Improvements— Remonstrance- 
Effect of Withdrawing Same— Under the 
law when a remonstrance, signed by ft 
majority of the abutting property-owners. 
Is filed, remonstrating against a given 
improvement, the Jurisdiction of the 
council is ousted and It can not be recon- 
firmed by a portion of the remonstrants 
withdrawing their objections. C.ty of 
Sedalia vs. Scott, 78 S. W. R^p. (Mo.). 
27C. 

Water Rentals— Taxing Power— The 
statutes limit cities, with a population of 
less than 5,000, to a seven mill taxation 
for hydrant rentals. This is a limitation 
on the taxing power, and such cities will 
not be permitted to levy an additional 
tax to pay a Judgment secured In an ac- 
tion to recover unpaid rentals In excess of 
such limit. State, ex rel. Young vs. 
Royse. Mayor et al. 98 N. W. Rep. (Neb), 
4 l«. 

Water Supply— Where a civil district 
having no authority to contract for water 
for fire piotection enterb Into such a corn- 
tract the district Is not liable oh the con- 
tract.— South Covington vs. Kenton Wa- 
ter Company, 78 S. W. Rep. (Ky.), 420. 



Gardner, Mass., Must Pay for Water 
Plant. 

The decision of the Supreme Court of 
Massachusetts In the appeal of the town 
of Gardner, Mass., against the decision 
of the special water commission, makes it 
obligatory for the town to pay the Gtejrd- 
ner Water Company $274,000 and interest 
at 6 per cent, from July 1, 1902. The only 
I)oint in the commission's decision to 
which objection was made was the award 
of $90,000 for water rights in Crystal lake. 
The town contended that the water rights 
in the lake could not be considered as an 
asset that should be paid for. 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



Water Company Not Liable for Fire 

Loss. 

The Supreme Court of California has 
rendered a decision which Involves the 
question of whether a water company is 
liable for the value of town property de- 
stroyed by fire, where at the time of the 
fire the supply of water was deficient. A 
fire occurred at Uklah, and througrh a 
breakdown of the pumping plant of the 
Uklah Water Company there was no 
water in the town hydrants at the time. 
The fire destroyed much property beloner- 
ing to individuals, and also a portion of 
the city hall and a lot of fire apparatus 
belonsriner to the town. The town sued the 
water company for damages, and a Jury 
gave a verdict in favor of the city for 
the value of the property destroyed by 
the fire. The Supreme Court holds that a 
water company under the laws of the 
State of California does not by its charter 
undertake to pay for property destroyed 
by fire, although it may be negligent in 
supplying water at the time, and that 
neither a municipality nor an individual 
whose property is destroyed by fire has 
any right of action against a water com- 
pany for damages. 



Classification of Bids for Pumps Up- 
held by Court. 

Justice Fort of the New Jersey Su- 
preme Court handed down a decision 
March 3 in the case of the Marine En- 
gine & Machine Co. of New York against 
the city of Bast Orange. The Marine 
Engine & Machine Co. filed an application 
for a writ of certiorari, claiming that It 
was the lowest bidder for pumps and 
' engines to be erected at White Oak Ridge 
for the new water supply of East Orange. 
It cited that the contract for the work 
was awarded to the Snow Company for 
148,060. which was about 110,000 higher 
than its bid. The contract was awarded 
for two 4,000,000-gallon pumps and three 
large boilers. The company held that the 
bids were classified as A., B. and C, and 
that on advice of the city counsel, Phile- 
mon Woodruff, the Common Council re- 
jected the bids in class A. and C. and ac- 
cepted the lowest bid in class B.. that of 
the Snow Company. It was claimed in 
the application that the pumps and boil- 
ers of the Marine Company were Just as 



class A. than in class B. Also, that the 
engines of class B. were more durable 
and ran slower than those of class C, 
thus lasting longer. 

In his decision Justice Fort decided In 
favor of the city on the ground that it 
^ad awarded the bid to the lowest bid- 
der in class B. and rejected all bids In 
classes A. and C, and that all formalities 
had been observed. On the authority of 
four cases in the Supreme Court, no 
fraud having been charged against the 
East Orange officials, the court stated 
that it would not interfere with the ex- 
ercise of discretion vested by the law in 
the city officers. 

The decision upholds the principle that 
bids can be obtained in classes and that 
a municipality is not compelled to award 
the contract to the lowest of all the bids, 
but only to the lowest in any one set, 
rejecting all others. 



Reasonable Water Rates Must Be 
Adopteid. 

In compliance with a decision of the 
United States Supreme Court, Justice 
Morrow of San Francisco dismissed 
March 2, without prejudice, the bill of 
complaint in the suit of the San Joaquin 
and Kings River Canal and Irrigation 
Company against the county of Stanis- 
laus, awarding costs to the defendants. 
The Supreme Court's decision was as fol- 
lows: 

That hereafter, in case the counties of 
Merced and Fresno shall fix rates in such 
a manner that, taken as a whole, the 
rates In the three counties of Stanislaus, 
Merced and Fresno would not Insure an 
Income of at least 6 per cent, the com- 
plainant would not be bound to accept 
such rates, and this court would not 
bind it in regard to the propriety of rates 
for the future. 



I-Vl/^BA f\f f-VkA 



The tJorthern Pacific Merger Decision. 

Justice Harlan of t|ie United States Su- 
preme Court handed down a decision, 
March 14, in the merger of the Northern 
Pacific and the Great Northern Railroad 
Companies. The decision, which affirms 
the opinion of the Circuit Court for the 
district of Minnesota, is in favor of the 
government and the effect Is to sustain 
the contention that the Sherman anti- 



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MUNICIPAL MATTERS IN COURT. 



251 



dissolving the merger of the two roads, 
which the United States claimed had been 
created by the creation of a holding com- 
pany, the Securities Company. This con- 
soUdation was c'aimed to be in violation 
of the Sherman anti-trust law. It was 
claimed on the behalf of the government 
that this consolidation was in effect a 
pool, created to promote the interests, 
not of one system at the expense of the 
other, but of both at the expense of the 
public. The railroads claimed that the 
transfer of the stock of the two companies 
to the Sacuritles Company was ih the na- 
ture of a sale and perfectly legitimate. 
Justice Harlan said that in the merger of 
the two roads the stockholders disap- 
peared and reappeared In the Securities 
Company, the two thus becoming practi- 
cally consolidated in a holding company, 
the principal object being to prevent com- 
petition. He said: 

"No scheme ©r device could certainly 
more effectively come within the prohi- 
bition of the anti-trust law, and it is 
within the meaning of the act a trust." 
^In reviewing the contentions of the Se- 
curities Company, Justice Harlan quoted 
the various opinions involving the trust 
question, saying that from them it is to 
be gathered that all contracts In re- 
straint of trade, reasonable or unreason- 
able, are prohibited by the Sherman law, 
and that Congress has the power to estab- 
lish such regulations as are laid down in 
that law. Congress had power to enact 
the statute. Replying in detail to the 
points made for the Securities Company, 
Justice Harlan adds that the contention 
that the law is an interference with the 
rights of the individual States by which 
the companies are incorporated was not 
well founded. In such cases, he said, the 
authority of Congress is supreme. He also 
declared it to be unnecessary to determine 
the right of owners of railroad stock to 
sell their property nor was it true that 
the right of the Securities Company to 
own and hold railroad stock is the on'y 
question involved. Such contentions are 
wide of the mark— mere men of straw. All 
that the government complains of is the 
existence of a corporation to repress com- 
merce, and is not concerned with the 
otlier points. 

Justice Harlan said that in this day 
tlkere should be no doubt of the complete 



power of Congress to control interstate 
commerce, all appropriate means might be 
resorted to for that purpose. All the prior 
trust cases were in support of that con- 
tention. Whether free and unrestrained 
competition was wise, he said,- was an 
economic question with which the court 
need not concern itself, the question was 
that of statutory law. 

He asserted the power of Congress over 
interstate commerce to be as complete as 
the power of a state over domestic com- 
merce. 

Coming to the plea of the railroads that 
the anti-trust law should be declared un- 
constitutional, he said that the court 
could not see Its way to that end. "If 
the Securities Company's contentions are 
sound why may not all the railroads of 
the United States enter into a combifa- 
tlon and by the device of a holding cor- 
poration control rates throughout the 
country In defiance of Congress?" 

Continuing he said that there had been 
nothing In the securities company's cer- 
tificate of Incorporation to indicate its 
purpose to be that of destroying com- 
merce, and he therefore absolved the 
State of New Jersey from any charge of 
such knowledge in advance. It might be 
true that a Federal Court has no power 
to dissolve a corporation of a State, but 
this circumstance could not be an indi- 
cation of powerlessness to enforce the 
law, than which no corporation is strong- 
er. No device could suffice to prevent 
this enforcement of the national statutes. 

The courts had in deed consistently held 
to the supremacy of the national laws in 
case of conflict between those laws and 
the lawM of the State.**. So long as Con- 
gress confined Itself to Its prescribed 
functions, he said, there could be no 
danger. At any rate the error, if any, 
was with Congress and it was for Con- 
gress to supply the remedy, and not for 
the courts. 

In his Judgment the evidence fully sus- 
tains the material allegations of the bill 
and shows a violation of the act of Con- 
gress, in so far as it declares illegal 
every combination or conspiracy in re- 
straint of commerce among the several 
States and wlthiprelgn nations, and for- 
bids attempts to monopolize such com- 
merce. 



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ELECTRIC LIGHT 



Improvements In Electric Arc Street one of the best lighted streeU 

Liahtina • *" ***® world. Either day or night, 

^ ^' it Is representative of the best practice 

By H. W. HlUman, Schenectady, N. T. ^^ich the advancement of the art per- 

Durlng the past few years, the manu- mlts. The New York Edison Company 

facturers of electric street lighting ma- owns the poles and lamps; also fur- 



FIG. 1-ORNAMENTAL POLE, BOSTON, MASS. 

4 

terial, and the electric lighting companies nishes current for lighting. The policy of 



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ELECTRIC LIGHT. 



time, It represents a municipal im- 
provement in connection with which the 
Njew (York Edison Company Reserves 
much credit. 

Those acquainted with New York City 
will remember the "Isle of Safety." 
How easy It would have been to 
arrange the arc lighting system so as to . 
thwart the artist's design of beauty. On 
the contrary, it is entirely a work of art, 
completed by the englneertng skill of the 
New York Edison Company. Incidentally 



EIQ. a— OLD STYLE HOOD AND CUT-OUT.. 

it was necessary to turn the lamp upside 
down and equip it with a new and latest 
design of mechanism; but the grand point 
of the entire scheme was when the artist 
and the engineer came together and, with 
one accord, effected that design, which 
will stand for all time as a monument, 
in honor of paunicipal improvements. 

Not desiring to dwell at length on New 
York City lighting, I do wish to call your 
attention to another illustrat ion of 
the determined desire on the part of the 
electrical industry to advance electric 
street illumination only as it harmonizes 



with the attractive and ornamental ap- 
pearance of other street requirements. 
Where the lamps are installed on bridges 
a careful inspection will show some of 
the prettiest designs of ornamental poles, 
especially, considered in connection with 
the trimmings on the bridge, and partic- 
ularly designed as a part of the bridge. 
In this installation I claim the utmost 
degree of engineering skill in behalf of 
municipal improvements. 

The city of Boston has been highly 
favored in respect to ornamental electric 
arc street lighting. Everywhere through- 
out the city and suburbs of Boston will 
be found the so-called "Boston Orna- 
mental Poles." Upward of 7,000 electric 
arcs illuminate this city, each and every 
arc being suspended on an ornamental 
pole. The Boston Edison Illuminating 
Company has made itself world famous 
by the Installation of the electric inclosed 
arc street lighting system. It was not an 
easy problem for them ta change their 
several thousand arc lamps and install a 
system entirely different from that which 
had been so extensively adopted and ap- 
proved during the previous years. Not- 
withstanding, their efforts met with 
grand success, and this association can 
well afford to follow me in my en- 
deavors to present the many features of 
this inclosed arc system which represent 
municipal improvements of a high order. 
.XSee Fig. 1.) 

There are 8.760 hours during the year. 
Allowing 3,700 hours for darkness, there 
remain approximately 5,000 hours of day- 
light, when arc lamps and poles are on 
exhibition before the citizens of our com- 
munities. Fig. 2 shows an old-style hood 
and cut-out. The new style ornamental 



FIG. 3-MODERN CUT-OUT. 



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FIG. 4-ENCLOSED ARC LAMP WITH REFLECTOR. 



FIG. 5-OLD STYLE OPEN ARC LAMP WITH HOOD. 



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ELECTRIC LIGHT. 



255 



pole is equipped with a cut-out concealed 
within the pole, and the lamp is made 
weatherproof, so as to require no hood 
protection. When ornamental poles are 
not available. Fig. 3 illustrates a modern 
cut-out of ornamental design. 

The new system includes a very at- 
tractive light reflector, its under surface 
being finished in white enamel. This will 
not rust or be subject to injury from the 
elements. It will therefore retain a white 
flossy appearance, with frequent atten- 
tion from the attendant trimming the 
lamp. Its shape is symmetrical and in 



FIG. 6-ENCLOSED ARC LAMP. 

harmony with the size of the lamp. 
<Flg. 4.) 

The globes of the new system offer a 
marked improvement over the old style. 
Vig. 5 shows an exterior construction of 
the lamp, the globe being open at the top. 
Ample opportunity was afforded for the 
wind to blow the arc, and occasionally 
chunks of carbon would drop down into 
the globe. Dust and dirt accumulated 
there, which could not be easily brushed 
out. As a result, the globes easily became 
•dirty and presented a bad appearance. 

Fig. 6 illustrates a new enclosed lamp. 



Its Inner globe prevents the carbon from 
dropping Into the outer globe. The lamp 
casing rests snugly against the outer 
globe, and at all times insures a clean ap- 
pearance. 

Fig. 7, shows you an up-to-date wash- 
room )or cleaning globes. Each week the 
inner globes on the new lamps are 
changed and clean ones substituted. 

Fig 8 shows one of the new carriages 
of the Buffalo General Electric Company, 
which is used for trimming the lamps, 
carrying carbons, inner and outer globes, 
etc. 

It gives me much pleasure to illustrate 
this carriage, as it suggests a strong 
argument in favor of municipal improve- 
ments. In past years, the old style lamps 
required trimming each day, an^ it was 
not uncommon to see an old express 
wagon stop across the electric car tracks, 
holding up flfty or one hundred merchants 
on their way to business in the street 
cars, while the arc lamp was being low- 
ered, trimmed and raised again into 
place. Municipal improvements are surely 
favored today, when a rubber-tired buggy 
of attractive design is driven to a lamp 
once a week and the lamp does not have 
to be raised and lowered in the street for 
trimming*. 

In a recent conversation with an elec- 
tric lighting manager in the Pennsylvania 
territory, he stated that it was as much 
as a trimmer's position was worth to 
leave a broken globe on a lamp more than 
twenty-four hours. Surely such systematic 
efforts are co-operative with your own 
advanced ideas on municipal improve- 
ments. 

Modern ideas regarding ornamental 
features have not injured the operating 
end of the arc lighting business. 

On the contrary there never was a time 
in the history of arc lighting when the 
regulation was as good as it Is today. 

Fig. 9 shows a chart of the current 
variation on an enclosed arc .street sys- 
tem, which is nearly a straight line with- 
out any variation. As a result, the 3,700 
hours of darkness during the year are 
protected by a system so steady in oper- 
ation as to have been commented upon 
by the most prominent electrical engineers 
of the country. The distribution of light 
has been improved, and the new system 
is the result of a new patented device 
known as the Street Luminometer. (See 
Fig. 10.) This Instrument is considered 
to be a very valuable device. It is an 
easy and excellent method of proving to 
city authorities the comparative value of 
light distribution of the old and new sys- 
tems. 



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FIG. 7-WASH ROOM FOR GLOBE CLEANING. 



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FIG. 9-RECORD CHART SHOWING REGULATION OF CONSTANTiCURRENT 

TRANSFORMER. 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



The engineeringr Improvements in hang- 
ars and cut-offs have minimized the 
danger of handling arc lighting circuits. 
This is a point which can be appreciated 
by everybody, regardless of the degree of 
technical education with which one may 
be favored. 

Fig. 11 shows a style of ornamental 
poles used in Buffalo, N. Y. 

After all, interruption of service is what 
the citizens wish to avoid. Some of the 
systems have decreased the number of 
interruptions and outages to such an ex- 
tent as to amount to less than one-half 
of 1 per cent per night. This is a won- 
derful record, and could be attained only 
by reason of the improvements which 
have been effected in electric arc street 
lighting. 

The members may well ask at this 
point to what extent have these improve- 
ments been carried out. In New England 
territory practically 70 per cent of the 
street lamps installed represent the en- 
closed arc system. In the New York ter- 
ritory, the figure is nearly as high. 
Through the entire United States the en- 
•closed arc system is being installed at the 
rate of 50,000 arc lamps annually, and 
there are already installed upwards of 
150,000 enclosed street arcs in all sizes of 
cities and towns in this country. 

I do not hesitate to claim that the 
methods of the electrical companies for 
disseminating new ideas are second to 
none. To illustrate, the New York Edi- 
son Company issues a monthly bulletin to 
its customers. This bulletin reaches all 
•classes. In connection with residence 
lighting, the families read the electrical 



news. In connection with the various 
classes of mercantile work, the pro- 
prietors of large and small stores alike, 
read this bulletin. It is one of the most 
widely published pamphlets issued, and« 
as if in honor of your association's meet- 
ing today, their last bulletin was par- 
ticularly devoted to ornamental street 
llghtin. I claim that the electri- 
cal Industry has attained an envi- 
able position when almost every 
man, woman and child In the 
residential district, and nearly every pro- 
prietor, clerk and boy in the commercial 
days, to erad the most advanced ideas in 
district, has an opportunity, every thirty 
connection with electrical improvements. 
If, in the future, such methods of dis- 
seminating new ideas In connection with 
the electrical industry shall continue, the 
cause of ornamental street lighting will 
be greatly advanced, and Municipal Im- 
provement Associations will have reason 
to rejoice 

Further, regarding the method of pro- 
mulgating advanced ideas on municipal 
Improvements In connection with electric 
street lighting, one of the largest manu- 
facturers of arc lighting material In the 
world has issued. In the past few years, 
hundreds of thousands of pamphlets, pro- 
fusely illustrated and recommending 
most modern arc lighting practice to the 
electric lighting companies throughout 
the country. This company will issue 
upwards of 50.000 of such pamphlets dur- 
ing the lighting season, which . will be 
representative of hearty co-operation 
along the lines of municipal Improve- 
ments. 



ROADJ AND PAVEMENTS 



Street Pavements— Cost of Brick and Asphalt— New York Rapid Transit — 

Oil on New Jersey Road— Bid« on Patented Pavements— State Aid 

in Ohio— Bitulitbic Contracts in St. Louis. 



Street Pavements.* 

By Louis M. Pfeiffer. Denver, Col. 
A street pavement is strictly speaking 



ticular one of these materials Is best 
suited to the requirements, and, second, 
having decided upon the material, which 



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FIG. 11-ORNAMENTAL POLES IN BUFFALO, N. Y. 



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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



brittle and friable and the edges are lia- 
ble to be broken by the blows of horses' 
feet. A great Improvement has been made 
In the burning of brick In the last twenty 
years, but at the best the pavement id 
noisy and slippery and Is objectionable 
for these reasons. 

Wood, as a paving material, has been 
widely used for some thirty-five years, 
and its good and bad qualities are well- 
known. The recent processes of forcing 
creosote, rosin and other materials into 
the fiber of wood blocks have undoubtedly 
increased their life, but add materially 
to their sllpperlness. 

Stone Is the oldest of paving materials 
and In one form or another has always 
been used to a greater extent than all 
other known pavements. Roman roads 
were paved with blocks of hard stone 
about one foot square and eight inches in 
depth. Broadway In New York was once 
similarly paved. 

Round cobble was the next form of stone 
pavement. This possessed the merit of 
cheapness and afforded good foothold, biit 
had the de-merlt of roughness and noisi- 
ness. Baltimore today enjoys the pre- 
eminence of being the only city that has 
recently laid this form of pavement and 
she Is now fast abandoning It. Philadel- 
phia In 1883 had 530 miles of cobble stone 
pavements, while Brooklyn still has large 
areas of cobble, which, as In Philadelphia, 
is fast being replaced with other forms 
of pavement. 

The next form of stone used was five- 
Inch cubes of hard trap. This was first 
laid in Brussels, then Imported to Paris 
and from there to America, where it has 
become widely known as the Belgian 
block. This block had the objection of 
having too many longitudinal joints 
which wore into ruts. Tne next step was 
to lengthen and narrow the blocks so as 
to decrease the number of longitudinal 
joints, which gives the present standard 
block pavement. Such pavements are the 
most durable known. The very best of 
them are rough and noiay. 

In the form of macadam with or with- 
out the Telford foundation of large 
stones, stone has been used as a road 
covering In Europe and America for near- 
ly a century. 

John Macadam In 1816 discovered the 
value of wedging the large stones togeth- 
er by heavy pressure. He realized that 
this gave rigidity but not density. Wa- 






Telford in 1820 on discovering that the 
water soaked thnmgh John Macadams 
surface* and wet the foundation, often 
making it boggy and permitting the 
pavement to settle. Invented what Is 
known as the Telford base. 

The students of the macadam pave- 
ment from the time of Telford and Mac- 
adam have done little to Improve Its 
condition. Macadam has been worked 
with by nearly all the civilized nations on 
the globe and thousands of miles of fine 
road are the result, more In area than 
that of all other pavements combined, 
but with the exception of a little more 
care In the selection of the stone, the 
use of much heavier rollers together with 
a better system of maintenance, macad- 
am is the same now chat It was seventy- 
five years ago. 

Good road builders, however, have 
learned that the Telford foundation ir 
not necessary to prevent the foundation 
from softening and settling. Large steam 
rollers are used to compact the ground 
and better dralopge Is offered to carry 
off most of the surface water, and It Is 
very seldom today that we hear of a 
macadam road falling .because of settle- 
ment. 

The mines of asphalt rock In the Val de 
Travers, Canton of Neufchatel. Switzer- 
land, were discovered in 1721, but It was 
not- until 1849 that the utility of the ma- 
terial as a road covering was noticed. The 
rock was then being mined for the pur- 
pose of extracting the bitumen con- 
tained in it for use In medicines and the 
arts. It was observed that the pieces of 
rock which fell from the wagons were 
crushed \yy the wheels and, under the 
combined Influences of the trafllc and heai 
of the sun, a fair road surface was p''o- 
duced. A macadam road of asphalt rocK 
was then made and gave fair results ano 
finally In 1854 a portion of one of the 
boulevards In Paris was laid with pressed 
asphalt on a concrete foundation. From 
Paris its use extended to London in 1889. 
and it has been used to a considerable 
extent in Berlin. The success V)f the as- 
phalt pavements in Europe led American 
Inventors to seek to manufacture a ma- 
terial which should have similar quali- 
ties, and the first idea was to utilize the 
tar produced at gas works." The result 
was twelve or fifteen different compounds, 
and all essentially composed of sand and 



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ROADS AND PAVEMENTS. 



261 



ly unsuitable for roadway construction. 
The work was done at ridiculously low 
prices by contractors who had no previ- 
ous familiarity with the construction of 
bituminous pavements or Incentive to Im- 
prove; in fact, at the time the pave- 
ments were laid no one In this country 
or Europe had anv accurate knowled^:- 
of the requirements necessary to produce 
good work. A few of these pavements, 
however, are In use today, even on road- 
ways, and have been in use much longer 
than any asphalt pavement In existence 
in this country or Europe. 

All failures can be traced to the use of 
Inferior grades of coal tar and improper 
methods of preparing the cement, and 
the use of improper sand In the wrong 
proportions. 

The early failure of the coal tar compo- 
sition pavements put them almost entirely 
out of use In roadway construction. A 
German chemist. Prof. DeSmedt. had se- 
cured a patent on a formula for making 
an asphalt surface, using natural asphalt 
as a cementing material. Experiments 
were made with Mexican. Cuban and 
Trinidad asphalt. The so-called Albertlte, 
Gils^onite and other bitumens found in 
this country were also tried, but gener- 
ally without success. 

Samples of the Trinidad Lake asphalt 
pavements were laid in Newark about 
1870 and New York City In 1873, respec- 
tive:y, but it was not until 1876 that a 
pavement was laid on a large scale. 

In 1876 Pennsylvania-ave., in Washing- 
ton, was in an almost impassable condi- 
tion, being covered with rotten wooden 
pavement. Congress directed its repaving 
and appointed a commission consisting 
of Gen. H. G. Wright and Q. A. Gilmore 
of the corps of engineers, and Edward 
Clark, architect, to have supervision of 
the work. The terms of the law diieoted 
them to lay the best known pavements. 
They advertised for proposals, making np 
restrictions as to materials. They re- 
ceived forty-one proposals for every va- 
riety of stone, wood, macadam and bi- 
tuminous pavements. Out of them all 
the commission selected two and laid 
these respectively on two-flfths and three- 
fifths of the avenue. These were the 
natural rock arphalt from Neufchatel 
and the Trinidad Lake asphalt mixture. 
Both pavements were completed in the 
spring of 1877. The Neufchatel pavement 
lived a life of about ten years, while the 
Trinidad Lake mixture is still In use 
after much repair and two complete new 
surfaces. 

Prof. A. W. Dow, inspector of asphalts 
and cements for the District of Columbia, 
recently certified that a pavement com- 



posed of coal tar cement manufactured 
by E. B. Warren & Co. of Washington 
had been In successful use on Massa- 
chusetts-ave., Washington, for thirty 
years and the expense of maintenance 
has been less than one cent per sq. yd. 
a year during that whole time. 

Referring again to the old pavements. 
Prof. Dow said: "In fact the long life of 
this and other old pavements can only be 
looked upon as a lucky accident and it 
Is a remarkable illustration of what coal 
tar bitumen can be even under unfavor- 
able circumstances. The many failures 
of the past Indicate how they can be 
avoided in the future, and the valuable 
lessons learned from these failures, to- 
gether with the scientific methods em- 
ployed in the construction of the Warren 
pavements, insure uniform success for 
the future." 

It seems to be a fact that the early 
asphalt pavements caused as much an- 
noyance to the promoters as did the 
early coal tar pavements, but they were 
generally laid at a good margin of profit, 
under a guarantee system which justified 
and encouraged the most careful methods 
and immediate repairs to defects. 

The business has developed from one of 
insignificant proportions to an industry 
carried on in about 100 cities In the 
United States. The meriU and demerits 
of the pavement are well understood. 
When the asphalt pavement was first in- 
troduced it was considered to offer more 
advantages than any other pavement 
then in the field. Probably the most suc- 
cessful form of asphalt pavements has 
been that of the Trinidad variety, but 
this is partly because they have generally 
been laid with greater care and under 
scientific advice. 

Asphalt is a name applied to a certain- 
form of bitumen found in nature, and is. 
generally a mixture of sand, dirt, clay., 
shells or limestone with natural bitumen. 
It is manufactured Into cement by mixing^ 
It with other forms of bitumen, and this 
cement Is In turn used to bind together 
particles of sand and fine or pulverized 
limestone as in the modern Trinidad 
asphalt pavements. No two asphalts are 
alike, and the life of the pavement de- 
pends somewhat upon the crude material., 
but more upon the skill in its manufac- 
ture Into asphalt cement, and more still 
upon the proper proportioning and mix- 
ing of the cement with the sand and 
dust and In the selection of the mineral 
matter. It requires a large amount of ex- 
perience to know how to combine the ma- 
terial. When the Trinidad asphalt pave- 
ment was first Introduced no bitumen had 



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been known up to that time which was 
not waterproof and unaffected by water, 
and It was presumed that the Trinidad 
asphalt had these qualities. The greatest 
cause of failure in the Trinidad asphalt 
pavement is owing to the fact that the 
asphalt rots in water, and any minute 
sections of the thickness surrounding the 
sand particles in the asphalt pavement, 
will disintegrate in water. This weak- 
ness of the Trinidad asphalt was not 
thoroughly understood until very recent 
years, and the best road builders were at 
a loss to understand why the surfaces 
were so liable to disintegrate. Only when 
the mixture of sand used is so fine that 
water cannot penetrate the mixture, does 
the pavement show lasting qualities when 
subjected to moisture. At the introduc- 
tion of the asphalt pavements, the proper 
rolling of foundations was not in vogue 
with any form of pavement, and en- 
gineers Jumped to the conclusion that 
the hydraulic concrete foundation was 
essential. 

The smooth surface of the hydraulic 
concrete has no union with the wearing 
surface of the asphalt pavement, and the 
tendency was for the surfaces to slide 
on the foundation, thus forming depres- 
sions or cups which would hold water, 
and this water standing on the asphalt 
had the effect of rotting or disintegrating 
and separating it from the sand, and a 
hole would soon follow. In an asphalt 
pavement composed of sand and asphalt 
It is impossible to use a sufficient amount 
of the asphalt cement to make a thor- 
oughly water-tight roadway. This is be- 
cause sand contains 27 to 45 per cent of 
voids or air spaces. Asphalt cement suit- 
able for binding this sand together must 
be flexible material, and if a sufficient 
quantity of the asphalt is mixed with 
the sand to thoroughly fill the air spaces, 
the surface is sure to shift and roll un- 
less the asphalt is tempered so hard that 
it will surely crack and crumble in 
winter, which would be objectionable. As 
It is, the saturation of water into the 
surface of the asphalt pavement is the 
most common cause of deterioration, dis- 
integration and ultimate failure. 

When well built and kept In good condi- 
tion the macadam pavement furnished 
one of the most pleasing roads, and if it 
could be kept In perfect condition would 



stone, it binds better, but wears rapidly. 
If the roadway is kept moist, not wet and 
not dry, the natural paste or mortar 
holds the stone in place fairly well; if the 
surface is wet the binding material is 
converted to mud and washes away as is 
the case with excessive rains; If the sur- 
face Is dry the binding material Is con- 
verted into dust and blows away. This 
uneven surface induces more wear and 
more binding material is provided and the 
process continues, and the absence of 
binding material causes the stone to be- 
come dislodged and holes occur. The re- 
sult Is a roadway expensive to main- 
tain; expensive to keep clean and one 
which is dusty or muddy a large part of 
the time and one which, but for improper 
binding material for the wearing sur- 
face, would be the ideal roadway. 

In the bitulithlc pavement a binding 
material for hard trap rock Is used 
which does Its work at all times and un- 
der all conditions and which will last as 
long as the stone, when properly held in 
place, will wear under traffic and thus the 
longest possible wear of the stone itself 
is secured. Ordinary sand has no firmness 
in Itself, and such fine matter has .from 
27 to 45 per cent of voids. The firmness 
of an asphalt pavement must be secured 
by cementing together the particles of 
sand with the rsphalt, forming an as- 
phalt mortar. The sand and the asphalt 
cement are mixed in a heated condition 
and then spread on the street and rolled, 
and on cooling the asphalt mortar is set 
The difference between asphalt which \a 
too hard so that the pavement will crack 
and be brittle when cold in winter and 
one which is too soft so that the pave- 
ment will shift or roll in summer is very 
slight. 

In the bitulithlc process we are en- 
abled to overcome the errors which occur 
In the pavements referred to. 

First— By using only the best quality of 
coal tar and by properly refining the 
same, securing an absolutely uniform 
cement such as was not and could not be 
procured when the earlier coal tar pave- 
ments were laid, we have a cement which 
Is much more adhesive to mineral mat- 
ter and one which Is absolutely unaffected 
by water. 

Second— By using coarse stone, which In 



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ROADS AND PAVEMENTS. 



263 



be used at a temperature where there Is 
no tendency to destroy It by overheating 
during the process of mixins: the wear- 
ing surface. 

Third— We reduce the voids by separat- 
ing crushed stone into six or more sizes 
and using exact proportions of the vary- 
ing sizes, using as much of the coarsest 
size as would bt used if none other were 
present and adding in the materials of 
receding sizes in such proportions as to 
fill the spaces -between the coarsest sizes, 
and thereby accomplish a mineral mix- 
ture before the bituminous cement is 
added, which is 91 per cent solid stone, 
so that the voids do not exceed 9 per cent 
and the bituminous material used is suf- 
ficient to thoroughly fill all the voids 
and coat all the stone and thus the bi- 
tumen is not minutely subdivided and ex- 
posed to the weather as in the asphalt 
mixture. On account of the inherent 
stability of the mixture, its greater den- 
sity and the greater softness of the ce- 
ment, the cement itself has greater life 
than was possible in former mixtures. 
The durability of such a roadway de- 
pends upon the amount of actual abra- 
sion of traffic, which the stone used in 
the mixture will sustain when properly 
held in place. The bituminous mortar 
used between the stones supplies a cush- 
ion which reduces the wear on the stone, 
makes it absolutely waterproof and pro- 
tects the stone froin softening infiuence 
of water. Among the greatest advant- 
ages of the pavement in addition to its 
great durability is that it is the least 
slippery of any pavement which has yet 
been constructed, and it is in successful 
use on 13 per cent grrades. 

The foundation for the pavement should 
always be thoroughly rolled with a heavy 
roller and after proper rolling has been 
accomplished, the bituminous concrete 
foundation used with the bitulithic pave- 
ment offers many advantages over the 
hydraulic concrete foundation used with 
the asphalt pavement. After the stone in 
the foundation is thoroughly rolled with 
heavy rollers, the bituminous cement is 
poured ov6r the same for the purpose of 
binding it together. Into this foundation 
the wearing surface is .rolled and is 
welded into it. and there is no danger of 
slipping or sliding of the surface as is an 
asphalt pavement. After the wearing 
surface has been compacted with a fifteen- 
ton three-wheel road roller, having sev- 
eral times as much compression to the 
runninfiT inch as the ordinary aspnalt rol- 
ler, the whole surface is thoroughly 
coated with bituminous cement for the 
purpose of closing up any honeycomb or 
surface voids which may appear between 
the coarse particles of stone, and Into this 



cement is thoroughly rolled trap rock 
chips adhering to the cement and present- 
ing a gritty surface to the wear of traffic. 



Cost of Brick and Asphalt Pavements 
in Various Cities. 

An investigation of the cost of brick 
paving In Chicago by the Chicago Inter- 
Ocean brings out the fact that the aver- 
age cost is 13.50 a sq. yd. In order to 
make a comparison the city has written 
to 100 municipalities asking for figures, 
and has received a number of replies. 
These show that in the cities of Indiana 
the cost of vitrified brick paving varies 
from 11.25 to $1.45 a sq. yd. In Iowa the 
prices range from $1.20 in Keokuk to $1.50 
In Dubuque. In Ohio, from sixty cents 
in Zanesville to $1.40 in Columbus. In 
Michigan, from $1.32 in Saginaw, famed 
for its brick pavements, to $1.60 in Grand 
Rapids. In Illinois, exclusive of Chi- 
cago, from $1.10 to $1.50. Brick paving in 
Evanston costs from $1.35 to $1.50. In 
Philadelphia it costs $1.40 and In St. Ptful 
11.90 a sq. yd. Richmond, Va., whose pav- 
ing is done entirely at the city's ex- 
pense, pays $2.20 a sq. yd. 

The cost of asphalt paving in other 
cities is also being investigated. Colum- 
bus, O., pays the most, $2.75 a sq. yd., and 
Richmond, Va., is second at $2.70. Most 
of the cities pay from $1.75 to $2 a sq. yd., 
and about six cities pay as low as $1.53. 
Until very recently Chicago- paid $3.60 to 
$4 a sq. yd. for asphalt paving, but the 
price has been reduced to $3 a sq. yd. 
This reduction is said to be the result of 
private parties Inducing outside contrac- 
tors to enter into competition In the city's 
work. 



Progress on the New York Rapid Tran- 
sit Tunnel. 

The Rapid Transit Subway in New 
York City will, in all probability, be 
opened in June, the date not having been 
determined as yet. If it is found, how- 
ever, that the subway cannot be com- 
pleted—the situation depends entirely on 
labor complications— the opening will take 
place later in the summer. Up to date 
the tunnel has cost the city $31,089,900, 
with $2,312,000 for extra work. The con- 
tractor. John B. McDonald, is ultiihately 
to receive $6,500,000 for the tunnel work 
proper. The extra work and the pur- 
chase of real estate for terminals and 
the acquirement of easements will make 
the city's tunnel bill about $40,000,000 by 
the time the road is fully running. 



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264 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEEKING. 



Oil on Road at Westfield, N. J. 

An experiment is being made at West- 
field, N. J., In the use of tar sprinkled 
over a macadamized roadbed to abolish 
dust and mud. An ordinary country road 
sixteen fiet wide and in two sections of 
about 1,000 feet each, was selected for the 
experiment. On one the tar was run over 
the roadbed with the dust and screenings 
Just as they lay. On the other the road 
was swept to the hard surface and then 
the tar applied. The result, in both In- 
stances,, seemed to meet with the ap- 
proval of the roadmaking experts pres- 
ent. The tar was applied in a very crude 
manner, being put on by hand from a big 
watering can. After being on the road 
only three hours It had penetrated nearly 
an inch, and in a short time after It was 
laid there was no tracking on It, and it 
did not spatter on wheels driven over it. 
The cost of treating a road in this way 
is estimated at 1400 to |500 a mile for a 
road sixteen feet wide. This would re- 
quire 3,000 gallons of tar to the mile. 
Owners of automobiles and the driving 
public are watching the experiment with 
considerable interest. 

■ The scheme has been very successfully 
tried In Prance for some time and has 
given much satisfaction to automoblllsts. 



Bill to Permit Bids on Patented Pave- 
ments in New York. 

A bill was Introduced In the New York 
Legislature March 16 providing that no 
patented pavement shall be laid In New 
York City unless the borough president or 
other officer having authority to contract 
to lay the same, shall In his notice to 
bidders ask for bids on some other form 
of pavement in addition to the patented 
pavement, and no contract shall be 
awarded for a patented pavement un- 
less bids have been received for 
some other form of pavement. In the 
event the bid for the patented pavement 
shall not be the lowest bid, a contract 
shall not be awarded for said patented 
pavement unless the board of estimate 
and apportionment shall authorize the of- 
ficer receiving the bid to accept it. The bill 
was introduced by Assemblyman Bost- 



missloiier Willcox was advised to Ignore 
the charter and advertise for bids for an 
asphalt pavement In which the speciflca- 
tions were not the same as vhe charter 
provided for. The Barber Asphalt Com- 
pany objected and the matter was taken 
into the courts, where the contention of 
the company was upheld. The only way 
to get around the matter, therefore, was 
to have the charter repealed. Mr. 
Bostwick's bill permits bids to be received 
for pavements where the articles are 
patented. 



State Aid for Road Building Proposed 

in Ohio. 

A bill has been Introduced in the Ohio 
Legislature providing that any roads, 
not in an incorporated municipality, the 
plans and estimates for which have been 
properly made by the County Surveyor 
on petition of the property-owners along 
the road and the township trustee, may 
be constructed by the County Commis- 
sioners. The plans are filed with the 
State Board of Public Works. When the 
work Is completed, as certified by the 
Surveyor, the County Commissioners 
make requisition, endorsed by the State 
Board of Public Works, for 40 per cent of 
the cost upon the State Treasurer; 40 per 
cent Is paid by the County Treasurer 
from the county road fund, on order of 
the County Commissioners, and 20 per 
cent is paid by the Township Trustees, 
which portion may be collected from the 
abutting property owners under proced- 
ure laid down. 

The roads are divided into four classes, 
national highways, to be improved 16 to 
24 feet wide; State roads. 12 to 20 feet 
wide; county pikes, 9 to 17 feet wide, and 
township roads, 6 to 10 feet wide. 

The Township Trustees can be com- 
pelled to construct bits of roa4 less than 
one mile in length required to connect 
State aid roads previously constructed. 

Road machinery, supervisors, dissemi- 
nation of information, precedence of 
roads in the same township, and annual 
appropriation of $220,000, not more than 
$2,600 to go to any one county in a year, 
reoalr of roads hv Townshin Trustee un- 



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ROADS AND PAVEMENTS. 



•265 



•Bituminous Matadam Contracts in St. 
Louis Upheld by Supreme Court. 

The decision of the Circuit Court In 
the case of William H. Swift against the 
City of St. Louis, involving the validity 
of contract for Warren's bituUthlc pave- 
ment, will be found in brief In Municipal 
Engineering, vol. xxlv, p. 284. 

The decision of the Supreme Court on 
appeal was Indicated in vol. xxvl, p. 205. 
The full text of the decision has now 
been received and is of sufflcknt inter- 
est to warrant a rather full abstract. 

The suit was one !n equity against the 
city and the Board of Public Improve- 
ments to enjoin the said board from mak- 
ing a contract for the pavement of W. 
Pine-boulevard with ''bituminous ma!cad- 
am" under city ordinance No. 20,822. This 
suit Is based upon the alleged invalidity 
of said ordinance providing for said 
pavement 

Section 27 forbids the assembly to di- 
rectly contract for such work or improve- 
ments contemplated by the charter, or to 
fix the price or rate therefor, but In all 
cases, except in cases of emergency work 
or necessary repairs, the board shall pre- 
pare and submit to the assembly ordi- 
nances with an estimate of cost thereof 
emctotrsed thereon, authorizing the doing 
of any proposed work and under the dl- 
Kctlon of such ordinance shall advertise 
for bids in the papers doing the city 
printing three times, the last publication 
to be at least ten days before the day ap- 
pointed for the opening of the bids, stat- 
ing the general nature of the work to be 
done and time and place when the bids 
shall be reclved. and shall let the con- 
tract to the lowest responsible bidder 
Any other mode of letting out or con- 
tracting for work shall be held Illegal and 
void. 

On June 3, 1902, the said board at a 
regular meeting selected "bituminous 
macadam" as the material for the recon- 
struction of said street, and recommended 
to the Municipal Assembly an ordinance 
therefor. 

Among the specifications of material to 
be used for the reconstruction of the 
street it was required that the pavement 
should be of certain compositions pre- 
pared by one Warren, and known as 
"Warren's No. 1 Bituminous Seml-Liquld 
Composition." "Warren's Brand." and 
Warren's No. 24 Puritan Brand," and 
"Warren 's quick drying bituminous 
flush-coat composition." 

The specifications are then briefly put 
forth. In the published notices no ref- 
-erence is made to the Warren mixture. 

The petition alleges that the ordinance 
was void for the following specific rea- 
sons : 

First— That It arbitrarily dieprived the 
land owners of the benefit of competition, 
in that bituminous macadam was not an 
original composition, but a well-known 
composition of an original material made 
up of broken stone and any bltumlno!ls 
-substance used as a cement or binder; 



that the Warren materials specified were 
n-)t patented articles, and were nothing 
but certain grades of coal-tar branded 
with Warren's name, and that the speci- 
fications thereof precluded competition 
and designated Warren and his associates 
as the sole bidders, and that this arbi- 
trary specification was in violation of the 
rule of competition prescribed by the' 
charter. 

Second— The ordinance did not specify 
all the materlFl with which said bitumi- 
nous macadam should be composed, nor 
did it fix the manner andi general rv2gu- 
latlons under which It should be con- 
structed, as required by the charter, but 
left the entire composition thereof, oth- 
er than the arbitrary selection as afore- 
said of the Warren mixtures, to the dis- 
cretion of the Street Commissioner, and 
thus unlawfully delegated the power and 
authority of the Board to the Street 
Commissioner. 

Third— That the public notice did not 
state or warn the property owners that 
the bituminous substance to be used as 
a cement should be those produced and 
controlled by Warren, designating the 
pavement simply as "bituminous macad- 
am," which name did not imply or sug- 
gest the designation of any specific man- 
ufacturers' brand of binding material. 

The petition also alleged that bitumin- 
ous macadam was an untried experiment, 
and had never been demonstrated by effi- 
cient use for a series of years that such 
pavement would constitute an efficient 
wearing surface under city trafllc. That 
the board had advertised for bids for a 
contract under the ordinance and would 
enter into a contract and Issue special 
tax bills against plaintiff's property un- 
less restrained by the court. 

The answer admitted the ordinance and 
their proposed making of a contract 
thereunder as alleged and that said pro- 
ceedings were In all things regular; that 
there was only one pure waterproof mac- 
adam which had been tried or tested and 
that this was a pavement composed of 
the Warren mixtures, that the specifica- 
tions were as full and complete as the 
nature of the subject would admit. 

1. It Is conceded by the learned coun- 
sel for the plaintiff that this court in 
Asphalt Company vs. Hunt. 100 Mo., 22, 
held that the City of St. Louis, under its 
charter, was not prohibited from let- 
ting a contract for paving a street with 
materials covered by letters patent; that 
to hold otherwise would be to deprive the 
city of the right to enjoy the benefits of 
modern Invention. When that question 
was again raised In Verdin vs. the City 
of St. Louis, 131 Mo., 26, the Hunt case 
was reaffirmed and the doctrine as to 
patented material was extended to a ma- 
terial whereof the owner had a monop- 
oly by reason of his exclusive owner- 
ship of the natural supply of such ma- 
terial. 

As was said !ii the latter of those two 
cases, so many contracts had been en- 
tered Into on the faith of the decision of 
this court In the Hunt case, that it had 



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practically become a rule of property and 
that it was too late to disturb that rul- 
ing. But it is insisted that those cases 
went too far, and while the court might 
not disturb them on the principle of stare 
decisis they ought not to be extended be- 
cause to do so would strike down the 
last protection of the abutting property 
owners against discrimination and favor- 
itism in contracts for public improve- 
ments which are made a charge in in- 
vitum against the private citizen. The 
insistence is that the facts of this ccuse 
do not bring it within either the princi- 
ple of a government patent nor yet with- 
in the Verdin case, a monopoly based 
upon the ownership of the only source of 
supply of a natural product, but it is a 
designation by the Board of Public Im- 
provements and ratified In the ordinance 
by the Municipal Assembly, of certain 
brands of a certain manufacturer of a 
well-known mi^rcantHe article, prepara- 
tions of coal tar, and in so doing the 
board and the Municipal Assembly de- 
prived the tax-payers of all the benefit 
of competition which the charter se- 
cured to them in the letting of public 
work. 

On the other hand the city maintains 
that its Board of Public Improvements 
and its Municipal ABsembly are vested 
with the power to determine the char- 
acter of street improvements and the 
courts will not undertake to interfere 
with the discretionary powers of its of- 
ficers within legal bounds; that when a 
city In the prosecution of a public work 
finds an article or material which in its 
judgment is best adapted to such work it 
is not debarred from availing itself of it 
because such materisa is controlled by one 
party. The Circuit Court dismissed the 
bill and held that the city authorities 
were authorized to specify Warren's 
brands of coal tar cement as the binding 
material in the construction of a bitumin- 
ous macadam pavement. 

After a careful reading of this record 
we gather that for many years pavements 
have been made of coal tar and coal tar 
productions, but the difllculty encountered 
was the inability of the tar preparations, 
and we think the burden of the proof was 
that coal tar cement properly made is a 
most excellent binding for macadam; 
that it resists water when properly made. 
A notable case is of a pavement laid in 
Washington City thirty years ago and 
which is still in excellent condition, but it 
had been discontinued by contractors be- 



There was. then, this condition con- 
fronting the Board of Public Improve- 
ments and Municipal Assembly when they 
came to decide what material they 
should adopt for the reconstruction of 
W. Pine-boulevard. The bituminous 
macadam had the advantage over asphalt 
pavement in that horses were not liable 
to slip and fall on it, especially in cold 
weather. It was sufllclently strong owing 
to the rock in its composition to carry 
great weight and the coal tar cement 
was impervious to water and would make 
an enduring pavement. A large number 
of other cities were using it to advantage. 
They were desirous of testing it, but they 
were advised that the only proper bind- 
ing for the macadam known up to that 
time was the Warren's cement, and ac- 
cordingly they required that cement in 
the specifications submitted. 

The main contention of plaintiff is that 
by so specifying Warren's brand they 
have prevented competition and thus vio- 
lated the charter. This question is by 
no means a new one. While the learned 
counsel for plaintiff urges that coal tar 
is a common article of merchandise and 
that the specifications should not have 
been limited to Warren's brands of coal 
tar cement, we think the proofs demon- 
strate that up to this time there was only 
one such cement so made as to be equal 
and uniform. How, then, can it be said 
that in adopting the only proper cement 
known for the binding in a bituminous 
macadam pavement the board exceeded 
its authority any more than it wduld 
have done if it had adopted an asphalt 
pavement and specified Trinidad Lake 
asphalt as the material? 

This court approved the Trinidad Lake 
asphalt specification in the Verdin case 
because the monopoly therein resulted 
from the ownership of the whole natural 
supply of that article. Can it make any 
material difference that that supply in 
this case is the result of a long and per- 
sistent effort to produce a uniform ce- 
ment? In each case the owner has the 
only material which the city desires to 
use. Having held, as this court has in 
the Hunt case. 100 Mo., 22, and in the 
Verdin case. 131 Mo., 22, that the city is 
not precluded from using the best ma- 
terial because it is a patented article or a 
monopoly which denied competition, how 
can it be consistently ruled that it can- 
not use a desirable article because only 
one firm manufactures it? It is not an- 
swered by saying other persons might 



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REFUSE AND SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



267 



erly so, too, that they might as well have 
specified Warren's brands directly as to 
have done so by indirection? 

In the case of Schoenberg, vs. Field 95 
Mo. A 241, it was properly ruled that 
when the Board of Public Improvements 
arbitrarily selected vitrified brick of a 
certain make, when the Board's own 
records disclosed that other manufactur- 
ers made brick of the approved standard, 
it was a denial of competition and void. 
In this case we find from the evidence 
that there was but one known manufac- 
turer of coal tar cement of equal uni- 
form quality and that was made by War- 
ren Brothers. Had the evidence disclosed 
that other manufacturers made a coal 
tar cement suitable for binding the rook 
in the macadam, we think it would have 
been the duty of the Board to select a 
standard of such cement and require bid- 
ders to conform to that standard and 
provided proper tests, but where, as in 
this case, the whole supply is owned by 
one individual and it is the only suitable 
article for the public improvement, we 
see no reason for denying the city the 
right to avail itself of it if we are to 
adhere to our former decisions permit- 



ting the city to use patented articles and 
materials in which one party has a mon- 
opoly by the ownership of the material 
supply. 

II. As to the objection that the specifi- 
cations did not call for coal tar cement in 
so many words, but' named Warren's 
Puritan Brands, the evidence clearly indi- 
cates that all the contractors understood 
fully that these brands were coal tar 
cements. 

III. The notice to the property owners 
to consider the improvement we think was 
a substantial compliance with the Char- 
ter, referring as it did to the specifica- 
tions on file in the ofllce of the board and 
street commissioner. Nor was the ordi- 
nance void because it left certain details 
to the discretion of the proper city ofll- 
cials. The evidence disclosed that such 
details amounted to an infinitesimal pro- 
portion of the work. 

In consideration of the whole record 
we think the judgment should be and it 
is afllrmed. 

The fact that the bituminous madaccam 
pavement (s patented was not mentioned 
in connection with this case and it is 
therefore not touched in the decision. 



REFUiE AND lEWAOE 
DliPOJAL 

Bacteria and the Septic Tanic— Refuse Destniction in Burnley. 



Bacteria and the Septic Tank. 

In an interesting article on methods of 
sewage disposal for Baltimore, written 
for the Baltimore Sun, the following con- 
cerning the methods of operation and the 
operators in a septic tank appears: 

The fourth method of sewage disposal 
is by means of the septic tank, in con- 
nection with small filtering beds com- 
posed of layers of sand, gravel, and stone 
or coke. This Id the latest development 
in sewage purification and perhaps the 
most efficient, if not the cheapest. The 
bacteria are given special facilities to do 
their work— to eat up the organic mat- 
ter in the sewage and then eat each oth- 
er. It is called the "natural method," 
since it frankly turns the whole work 
over to the natural agents, first of pu- 
trescence, then of ordinary innocuous de- 
composition. 

In one cubic Inch of sewage there have 
been found 17,000,000 bacteria that work 



without air (anaerobic), 6,000,000 of thess 
having the power to liquefy solids. The 
same cubic inch had eighty-five more 
millions of bacteria that work or feed 
only where they can get air (aerobic), and 
of these about 8,000,000 could liquefy sol- 
ids. Those which work without air pro- 
duce putrefaction, resolving organic mat- 
ter into carbonic oxide, marsh gas and 
sulphuretted hydrocren, inflammable and 
poisonous gases of ill odor. They do not 
reduce organic matter into ita simplest 
forms, but into these objectionable com- 
pounds. The aerobic bacteria, on the oth- 
er hand, carry the dissolution to its low- 
est terms and produce innocent products 
which have no smell. 

One cubic inch of sewage such as is 
found in our cesspools contains some- 
times as many as 510,000,000 of bacteria. 
These are of various species, the inno- 
cent bacterium coll commune (from the 
human body) being very abundant. Dis- 



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268 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING. 



ease-producing bacteria are compara- 
tively rare, being found only when a 
typhoid patient or other patient' suffer- 
ing from an Infectious disease has re- 
cently contributed to the contents of the 
cesspool. It Is a fact of capital Impor- 
tance that of the 440 known kinds of bac- 
teria 190 kinds liquefy gelatine upon 
which they are placed and some of them 
do a useful work In liquefying the solid 
•organic matter of sewage. 

According to BuJIvid, 800,000,000 bacteHa 
would weigh one-sixty-sixth part of a 
grain and 289,000,000,000 one pound. They 
multiply with amazing rapidity by divid- 
ing, each half being as much father as 
son. If, as supposed, the division takes 
place as often as once every hour, then 
In twenty-four hours one bacterium will 
reckon his posterity at 16.500,000, and in 
one week he will require flfty-one figures 
to give their number. After five days his 
posterity would equal in volume the en- 
tire ocean. But bacteria are kept within 
limits by want of moist food and by their 
cannibalistic way of eating each other, to 
say nothing of enemies and the unfavor- 
able conditions they find and make for 
themselves. 

The bacteria which produce fever are 
said to be rather delicately constituted 
and fall a pre