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Full text of "Municipal history of Essex County in Massachusetts"

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MUNICIPAL HISTORY 

OF 

ESSEX COUNTY 

IN 

MASSACHUSETTS 

TERCENTENARY EDITION 



A classified work, devoted to the County's remarkable 

growth in all lines of human endeavor; 

more especially to within a 

period of fifty years 



BENJ. F. ARRINGTON 
Editor-in-Chief 



VOLUME II. 



1922 

LEWIS HISTORICAL PUBLISHING COMPANY 

NEW YORK 




COPYRIGHT 

LEWIS HISTORICAL PUBLISHING CO. 

1922 



ESSEX COUNTY 



THE NEW 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

ASTOR, LFNOX 
TILDEK FOUNDATIONS 




HANNAH DUSTIN MONUMENT, HAVERHILL 

Taken prisoner in Indian raid, March 15, 1697. Slew 

nine of her captors in camp at night, and 

returned to her people in Haverhill 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

HAVERHILL 

The story of an old New England town like Haverhill, rich in tra- 
ditions, events, history and active participation in great historical move- 
ments, can be told within the limits of this article only by selection from 
its records, and not in full detail. It was the sixth Essex plantation to 
be established, Salem (1626), Lynn (1629), Ipswich (1633), Newbury 
(1635), and Rowley (1639) being settled earlier. The exact list of the 
first settlers and the exact date of its settlement, whether 1640 or 1641, 
are unknown, since records of the very earliest years either were not kept 
or were lost. We know, however, that in response to the request of the 
Rev. Nathaniel Ward and his son-in-law, Giles Firman, both of Ipswich, 
the General Court on May 13, 1640, made grant to "Mr. Ward and New- 
berry men" of a new plantation on the Merrimack, giving them choice of 
location at Pentucket (later Haverhill) or Cochichewick (later Andover), 
"provided they return ansv/er within three weeks from the 21st present, 
& that they build there before the next Courte." Evidently they return- 
ed answer, selecting Pentucket, and made a beginning of building in the 
surmner of 1640 ; for at the next General Court, meeting October 7, 1640, 
commissioners were appointed to view the bounds between "Mr. Ward's 
plantation" and Colchester (later Salisbury). A similar order by the 
General Court, June 2, 1641, appointed a committee "to set out the 
bounds between Salisbury & Pantucket, ali: Haverhill. They are to 
determine the bounds which Mr. Ward &, his company are to enjoy as a 
town or village if they have 6 houses up by the next General Court in the 
8th m, (October)." This order contains the first mention of the name 
chosen for the new settlement, Haverhill, and marks the desire of the 
Rev. Mr. Ward to perpetuate in the Nev/ World the name of the old town 
in England whence he came and where generations of his family had 
lived. It is probable that the number of settlers in the new plantation 
was very small and the houses very few in the summer of 1641, for the 
order contains the condition "if they have 6 houses up by the next Gen- 
eral Court." Nathaniel Ward had sought the establishment of this settle- 
ment, not for himself, but in the interests of his son-in-law, Giles Firman, 
a physician, and of his son, John Ward, a clergyman. Firman did not 
remove to Haverhill, but the Rev. John Ward, accompanied by John 
Fawn and Hugh Sherratt, went from Ipswich to Haverhill in 1641. Of 
the early settlers it is possible that James Davis, John Robinson, Abra- 
ham Tyler and Joseph Merrie settled in Haverhill in 1640 ; it is, probable 
that in addition to John Ward, John Fawn and Hugh Sherratt, Job Clem- 
ents, William White, Samuel Guile and Richard Littlehale became set- 
tlers in 1641 ; and it is certain that in addition to these, Robert Clements, 
Tristram Coffjoi and Thomas Davis were dwellers here in 1642. 

When the first settlers came from Newbury and Ipswich up the 
Merrimack river to the site of the Indian village of Pentucket, no red 
man dwelt there and no wigwam stood there. Doubtless the place had 
been desolated by that fatal epidemic of 1616-17, under which whole 
Indian villages wasted away and the New England tribes were reduced 
to feeble remnants of their fonner strength. Traces of their settlement 

Note — This excellent narrative, closing on page 481, is contributed. 



452 ESSEX COUNTY 

in Pentucket existed in stone arrow heads and the fragments of stone 
tools, the bones of their dead, and, so tradition says, a single abandoned 
wigwam in the East meadow. But though no Indians occupied the local- 
ity or disputed their possession, the Colonists recognized the proprietary 
rights as belonging to Passaconaway's tribe, and as soon as they could 
meet the representatives of the great chief, they bought the territory 
comprised in their plantation. This deed, called the Indian deed, dated 
November 15, 1642, conveyed to the settlers a tract of land along the 
Menimack, extending eight miles west from Little River and six miles 
east from the same bound, and six miles north, for three pounds and ten 
shillings — a great triangle of land, from which Methuen (including the 
present territory of Lawrence north of the Merrimack) was set off by 
the General Court, December 8, 1729, and a very large tract, now em- 
braced in the New Hampshire towns of Salem, Hampstead, Plaistow and 
Atkinson, containing nearly one-third of the population, property and 
population of Haverhill, was separated by the establishment of the boun- 
dary line between Massachusetts and New Hampshire by decree of the 
King in Council, August 5, 1740. 

When the first adventurous settlers from Newbury and Ipswich 
came up the river to establish their new homes at Pentucket, they 
moored their pinnace where a brook — Mill Brook, now lost to sight, but 
its location marked by Mill street that lay west of it — came purling down 
to join the Merrimack ; and they chose the land close by, stretching west 
along the river from the present location of Pentucket Cemetery, for their 
dwellings. These homes were doubtless rude houses of logs, with the 
crevices filled with clay, and each had about it a lot of a few acres, where- 
in they planted their orchards and made their gardens. The Blackstone 
and russet apples grew there, and the dear English flowers, heartsease 
and mignonette, rue and rosemary, for all these were brought from the 
Old England to the New in the sailing vessels that brought the Colonists. 

There were apportioned to each settler grass lands and grazing lands 
remote from their homes and often very widely separated. Daniel Ladd's 
"accommodations," for instance, were scattered from East meadow, near 
the Whittier homestead, to the Spicket meadows in the present confines 
of Methuen. The courage, energy, perseverance and strong will of 
these earliest settlers should never be forgotten, for they planted a 
colony where the wilderness had to be conquered and the soil made to 
yield a living, and the necessary "accommodations" could be reached only 
through roadless forests and across bridgeless streams, while packs of 
roaming wolves, eager to attack the solitary settler or his flocks, and the 
savage Indians, more cunning and less merciful than the wild beasts, 
created conditions of constant danger and fear. 

The first winter in the new settlement, 1640-1641, was one of ter- 
rible severity. The depth of snow was very great, and so cold was it 
that Boston Harbor was frozen over, and for six weeks passable for 
oxen and loaded carts. The hardships of those earliest years in the 
little hamlet are pathetically told in the death of thirteen children before 
the year 1644, and of twenty-seven other children and seven adults be- 
fore the year 1633. And yet the colony grew — 

"Nor fire, nor frost, nor foe could kill 
The Saxon energy of will." 

Stem in their religious faith, the Colonists worshipped under the 
leadership of their "Learned, Ingenuous and Religious" minister, John 



HAVERHILL 453 

Ward, at first under a great spreading oak or in the houses of the settle- 
ment. In the same year (1645) in which Haverhill was incorporated 
into a town — the twenty-third town in the colony — the first church was 
formed with a membership of fourteen members, eight men and six wo- 
men. Three years later, in 1648, the first meeting house was built, "on 
the lower end of the Mill lot," a tiny log structure twenty-six feet long 
and twenty wide. On the front of this house the heads of slain maraud- 
ing wolves were often nailed, and on its doors the laws and public notices 
were always posted. In it, after the services, there followed the trial 
of offenders, and there were heard the penitent confessions of those who 
had transgressed. 

While the settlers doubtless from the first transacted public business 
by assembling together, the first recorded such meeting was held in 
1643. In that year the General Court divided the colony into four coun- 
ties, Norfolk, Essex, Middlesex and Suffolk. Haverhill, lying north of 
the Merrimack, was grouped with Salisbury, Hampton, Exeter, Dover 
and Portsmouth (Strawberry Bank), in forming Norfolk county. It 
was transferred to Essex county by an order of the General Court, Feb- 
ruary 4, 1680. The first "clerk of the writs" and "town Recorder" 
(1643) was Richard Littlehale. The first birth and the first death in the 
town was that of the infant, John Robinson (1641), whose brief life lasted 
but three weeks. The first recorded marriage was that of Job Clement 
and Margaret Dummer, December 25, 1645. The first selectmen, chosen 
October 29, 1646, were Thomas Hale, Henry Palmer, Thomas Davis, 
James Davis and William White. 

The settlement grew steadily in numbers and became organized in 
the first ten years of its existence (1640 to 1650), and at the end of that 
period it had a considerable population, with possessions of cattle and 
horses and cultivated fields, with a town organization and a church, 
whose minister was a revered and influential leader. Much of the rec- 
ords of the early years has to do with the apportioning of land and its 
changing ownership, and into them are written, too, the efforts to bring 
into the town men skilled in the industries needed in the community: 
John Hoitt, a brick maker, comes from Ipswich to Haverhill (1650), the 
town granting him three-fourths of an acre of land and thq clay pits (in 
the West Parish) in consideration that he become a resident; Isaac 
Cousins is offered "a six acre house lot, with all accommodations propor- 
tionable (Dec. 16, 1651), provided he live in the town five years, fol- 
lowing his trade of a smith." John Webster is offered the same (July 4, 
1653), provided that he follow the trade of a blacksmith "in doing the 
town's work when they have occasion" ; his brother, Stephen, a tailor, is 
induced to remove here from Newbury at about the same time. A ferry 
across the Merrimack was established in 1648, the place being just west 
of the present fire station on Water street (nearly opposite Kent street) , 
the ferryman, Thomas Hale, and the rates "one penny for a passenger, 
two pence for cattel under two years old, and four pence for such as were 
over that age." In 1660 it was ordered in the November town meeting 
that the land "behind the meeting house should be reserved for a burial 
ground", the land now in the central part of Pentucket Cemetery. In 
the same year, probably, the first public school in the town was estab- 
lished, the teacher being Thomas Wasse, and his salary ten pounds a 
year. He held this place for fully thirteen years, but his later services 
were given to Newbury, where he died. May 18, 1691. 

But while the foundations of the settlement were being made with 



454 ESSEX COUNTY 

care and zeal, and there was the promise of a prosperous town in a 
location so admirably chosen, there was one deterrent, the fear of attack 
by the merciless Indian. During the first seventy years of its existence, 
Haverhill was a frontier settlement, the clearings in which its few houses 
were set, — no more than thirty in the village, and several, more venture- 
some, lying scattered within a mile or two of the village — were bounded 
on the north by an unbroken forest that reached even to the St. Francis 
river in Canada, one hundred and fifty miles away. And this so vast 
forest, harbored and protected, was swiftly traversed by a foe steal- 
thier, more treacherous and more cruel than the beasts of prey. Un- 
doubtedly the fear of the savages dwelt ever in the hearts of the Colon- 
ists. A stockade was built around the meeting house, and the men set 
sentinels to watch, and carried their muskets to the church as well as to 
the field. Yet within the first thirty-five years of the life of the settle- 
ment (1640-1675) there were no signs of Indian hostilities, and so appre- 
hension became dulled, the watch was less constant — the stockade was 
suffered to fall into decay. This period of safety and calm drew to a 
close with increasing troubles in the Colony between the English and 
the Indians and signs of hostility by the red men, and the outbreak of 
King Philip's War, opening with the butchering of the men of Swanzey, 
as they were returning from church on Sunday, June 24, 1675, followed 
by attacks on isolated places and homes as widely separated as Hadley 
and Deerfield and Saco and Wells, kindled into new and stronger life the 
fear of the Indians. Although in this war, which ended in 1678, no at- 
tack was made on Haverhill, rumors and reports created constant appre- 
hension, and the town was kept active and guarded, and by order of the 
Court one-fifth of the men were continually on scout duty. On May 2, 
1676, Ephraim Kingsbury was killed by the Indians, the first person in 
Haverhill to be thus slain, and on the following day Thomas Kimball 
was killed while defending his home on the road leading from South 
Groveland to Boxford, and his wife and five children were taken captive. 
In 1688 war broke out afresh on the frontiers, the Indians charging that 
the English had not kept the treaty of 1678, and terror spread her dark 
wings over the isolated settlement on the Merrimack. In August 13, 
1689, a party of Indians made their swift appearance in the northern part 
of the town and killed Daniel Bradley, near where the Atkinson depot 
now is. In the same attack they shot Daniel Singletary, living nearby, 
and captured his son. In the following October, Indians again appeared 
in the same part of the town, and wounded unto death Ezra Rolfe, who 
lived near the site of the present North Parish Meeting House. So ter- 
rified were the inhabitants of Haverhill that in the next town meeting, 
March 24, 1690, they seriously considered abandoning the settlement 
and withdrawing to some place less remote from protection. The select- 
men made provision for six garrisons and four houses of refuge, separa- 
ting these so widely that each part of the town was provided for. The 
stories of those days have come down the years on the lips of tradition, 
notably the youthful bravery of the boy captives, Isaac Bradley and 
Joseph Whittaker; the prowess of John Keezar; the mysterious fate of 
the boys, Thomas and Jonathan Haynes, and the thrilling fortunes of the 
twice-captured little Joseph Haynes and young Daniel Ladd, the "marked 
man" ; the heroism of Hannah Duston and Mary Neff ; the awful experi- 
ences of the brave Hannah Bradley ; and the attack and massacre in the 
very centre of the settlement on August 29, 1708. These stories should 
be read in fuller detail than the limits of this article permits them to be 



HAVERHILL 455 

written, in order that we may know by what courage and endurance and 
suffering and sacrifices the town was held in those dread days when 

"A yell the dead might wake to hear 
Swelled on the night air, far and clear; 
Then smote the Indian tomahawk 
On crashing door and shattering lock;" 

and neither compassion nor mercy stayed the hands of the cruel foe. 

The attack on Haverhill on March 15, 1697, made memorable by 
the story of one of the captives, Hannah Duston, was made by a small 
party of Indians, numbering no more than twenty, but the swiftness of 
the savages, the paralyzing fear that their cries and appearance caused, 
and the isolation of the houses attacked, made their v/ork bloody and de- 
structive. Nine houses were burned, twenty-seven persons, of whom 
thirteen were children, were killed, and thirteen prisoners were borne 
away. 

Two miles northwest from the centre of the village was the fann of 
Thomas Duston. Here, probably where Eudora street now is, he had 
built a cottage in 1677, to which he brought his bride, Hannah Emerson, 
whom he had man-ied in December of that year. Twenty years later, be- 
cause the little house seemed too small for his growing family, — there 
were seven children living then, and four had died previously, — selecting 
a site still farther west, he began to build a larger and stronger house of 
brick. On the eighth of March, 1697, a twelfth child was bom to Mrs. 
Duston, and to care for the mother and the infant, Mrs. Mary Neif , whose 
home was a mile nearer the village, had come to act as nurse. 

It was the fifteenth of March. The wood fire on the hearth threw 
its glow over the simple fuiTiishings of the humble home. It flickered 
over the bed on which Mrs. Duston lay, weak and ill ; it gave faint color 
to the piece of linen still in the loom, which she had been weaving be- 
fore her illness ; it shone on the week-old baby in her anns, to whom she 
had given the name Martha. With no apprehension of danger, Thomas 
Duston had started to go on horseback to a distant part of his farm. 
He had gone but a little distance when, with horror, he saw stealing 
forth from the woods on the north a band of Indians, moving stealthily 
but swiftly towards his house. He turned his horse, galloped back, 
shouted to his children to flee, and tried to get his wife from bed, that 
he might aid her to escape. There was not time. Urged by his wife to 
save the children, he seized his musket, leaped on his horse and rode to 
overtake them. At first, thinking that it v/as impossible to save all, he 
planned to seize one or two from the group and ride rapidly away. But 
when he came to his children, the father's heart could make no choice, 
and he resolved to defend all and bring them to safety, or die with them. 
Dismounting, he placed his horse between his children and the enemy, 
rested his musket across the back of the animal, and bringing it swiftly to 
bear on any Indian who came into the open — for they skulked behind 
trees — he kept the foe at bay and brought all to the gariison: house of 
Onesiphorus Marsh, a mile from his home. 

In the Duston home the nurse, Mary Neff, had hastily cut the woven 
cloth from the loom and wrapped the infant in it, and was starting in 
flight when the Indians reached the door. They seized her and the child, 
dragged Mrs. Duston from the bed, set fire to the house with fagots 
from, the hearth, and started immediately, with the captives, in retreat. 
The baby cried, and the mother saw a savage snatch it from the arms of 



456 ESSEX COUNTY 

the nurse and dash it to death against a tree. Her eyes were dry, but 
in her heart grief for her child was rivalled by hatred for its murderers. 
With the Indians to whom these captives were given was an English boy, 
Samuel Leonardson, who had been captured in Worcester in the autumn 
of 1695, and who had learned the language and customs of the Indians. 
Through him Mrs. Duston learned what the fate of herself and Mrs. Neff 
was to be — that they were to be made to run the gauntlet, naked, and then 
sold into captivity. Cool and undaunted, they planned a different fate. 
Under their directions, the boy asked of the unsuspecting savages how 
they struck to kill at a single blow, and how they took the scalp lock. 
While they were encamped on a small island in the Merrimack, a few 
miles above Concord, on the night of March 30, just before dawn, and 
while the sleep of the camp was soundest, the three captives arose and 
gliding among their enemies killed ten of them by striking them as the 
boy had been taught. A wounded squaw escaped, and an Indian boy 
was spared. The three captives gathered what provisions were in the 
wigwam, scuttled all the canoes save one, and in that embarked on the 
freshet-swelled waters of the river. Hardly had they pushed off from 
land when Mrs. Duston bethought herself that the story of so remark- 
able a deed might not be believed without proof. So they turned back, 
scalped the Indians whom they had slain, wrapped these grim proofs of 
their deed in the piece of linen that had been about the infant when it 
was killed, and once more pushed out into the river. The frail canoe 
brought the captives safely down the river to Haverhill, and they landed 
where Bradley's brook joins the Merrimack. After waiting a few days, 
to rest and gain strength, Mrs. Duston, accompanied by her husband, 
Mrs. Neff and the captive boy, journeyed to Boston. They went to peti- 
tion aid from the Provincial Government, and they carried in proof of 
their story the scalps which they had brought away from the wigwam. 
The House of Representatives voted on June 8 "that Thomas Duston in 
behalf of his wife shall be allowed out of the publick treasury Tv/enty 
Five pounds ; and Mary Neff the sum of Twelve pounds Ten shillings, and 
the young man concerned in the same action the like sum of Twelve 
pounds Ten shillings." Mrs. Duston lived long after this adventure, 
dying in 1736, at the age of seventy-nine. In her letter to the church, 
asking admission, she quaintly says: "I am Thankful for my Cap- 
tivity ; 'twas the Comfortablest time I ever had," meaning that God made 
His word and His promises then to be of most comfort to her. She died 
at the home of her son, near where the monumental boulder on Monu- 
ment street now stands, but of her place of burial there is neither record 
nor tradition. 

The last and most disastrous attack on Haverhill was made on 
August 29, 1708, just before sunrise. In the hostilities of Queen Anne's 
War, an attack was planned by the French in Canada on New England. 
It was the intention to destroy Portsmouth first, and then to spread deso- 
lation over the whole frontier. The English were warned, scouts and 
soldiers Vv^ere set to protect the New Hampshire towns, and the original 
plan was frustrated. Then the French and Indians, two hundred or more 
in number, turned their plans to an attack on Haverhill, a hamlet of less 
than thirty houses, and defended by very few soldiers. On this August 
morning, just as the first flushings of light shone in the east, John Keezar, 
an eccentric man, a great walker and leaper— it was told that he had 
walked to Boston and back in a night, and that with a heavy pail of milk 
in_each hand he could leap over a cart, — returning from Amesbury, saw 



HAVERHILL 457 

the savages emerging from the woods close by the village, and near 
where the Soldiers' Monument now stands. At full speed he rushed 
down the hill to the heart of the village, shouting the alarm, and at the 
meeting house on the Common he discharged his musket to alarm the 
town. The people were asleep and unguarded. Awakened by Keezar's 
shouting and the report of his musket, they heard immediately follow- 
ing it the terrific yell of the foe. Hideous in their war paint, and with 
demoniac shrieks, they came, dividing and scattering, as was their cus- 
tom, that they might at one time make many attacks. One party rushed 
to the house of the minister, Benjamin Rolfe, standing where the High 
School building now is. Three soldiers formed the garrison of this 
house, but they were craven and useful through fear. Rolfe leaped from 
his bed to defend his home, but a shot through the door wounded him 
in the elbow. The door yielded, and the foe, pursuing him through the 
house, killed the minister by the well at the back door. The three sol- 
diers, with Mrs. Rolfe and her youngest child, were victims of the toma- 
hawks of the Indians. Two other children, however, were saved by the 
quickness and wit of Hagar, a servant, who carried them to the cellar 
and concealed them beneath two tubs, while she herself hid behind a 
barrel. The Indians pillaged the cellar, and even trod on the foot of 
one of the children, but without discovering them. Anne Whitaker, who 
was staying in the house, hid herself in an apple-chest and escaped. 

West of the meeting house stood the home of Thomas Hartshome. 
The foe attacked this, killed Mr. Hartshome and his two sons as they 
ran out, seized an infant that was in the attic and threw it from the win- 
dow, but failed to find Mrs. Hartshome and the other children, who had 
concealed themselves in the cellar. 

One party of the Indians rushed down the hill to Water street, and 
surprised Lieutenant John Johnson as he stood at the door of his cottage, 
where the Exchange building now is, his wife behind him, with a little 
babe in her arms. He was in his seventy-sixth year and his wife in her 
seventieth, and the little babe, Lydia, was his great-granddaughter. 
Johnson was shot. His wife fled through the house and into the garden 
and was caught and killed where the Osgood Block on Main street now 
stands. By some happy chance the child was spared, and when, later, 
the villagers sought the dead, they found the infant, unharmed, clasped 
in the protecting arms of its murdered step-great grandmother. 

The watch house on the Common was attacked, but successfully de- 
fended. The Indians then sought to bum the meeting house on the 
Common, standing nearly opposite the present site of the Hotel Bartlett, 
but before they had succeeded in this attempt the rallying of the villagers 
and the approach of the soldiers caused them to desist and retreat. 
Elisha Davis, a man of courage and audacity, by a ruse frightened the 
enemy. He went to the rear of the Rolfe bam and with a stentorian 
voice gave orders to an imaginary body of soldiers. "Hurry, my men! 
Come on, come on ! Now after them !" he cried, striking the reverberating 
bam with a great club. The savages, still busy in the Rolfe house, ran 
out, crying to their party, "The English have come ! the soldiers are upon 
us!" and immediately the red foe scurried to retreat, but carrying their 
booty and taking along the captives whom they had seized. Davis and 
his party extinguished the fire that they had set at the Rolfe house and 
the blaze at the meeting house. The villagers were gathering, the militia 
under Captain Turner arrived, and the pursuit of the Indians was begun. 



458 ESSEX COUNTY 

The militia, reinforced by the villagers under the command of Captain 
Samuel Ayer and his son, joined with the Indians in fierce combat on the 
southeast slope of Long Hill, between the present Hilldale avenue and 
North Broadway, and after an hour of bloody conflict the savages were 
routed, and made a hurried retreat. Nine of their number were killed, 
including Hertel de Chambly, the French leader. 

The whole attack, the retreat, the skirmish, and the battle had taken 
but a few of the morning hours, and the sun, midway in its course, poured 
its hot rays upon the scenes of carnage, the dead, and the exhausted de- 
fenders. The heat made immediate burial necessary, and the struggle 
and the nei'vous strain left the men too vv^eary to dig separate graves, 
and so the most of the dead were buried at once in a single grave in the 
old burying gi'ound. There, also, on the second day after, the bodies of 
the minister, Rolfe, his wife and child, and Captain Simon Wainwright, 
were buried together. 

This attack, so severe in loss of life and property, was the last made 
by the Indians upon the town. Lurking savages were occasionally seen 
in the outskirts of the town, but no harm was done by them, and gradual- 
ly fear and apprehension died av/ay, and new problems occupied the atten- 
tion of the citizens. 

The township of Haverhill as laid out in a sui-vey of 1666 was a 
triangular tract of land, the irregular line of the Merrimack river form- 
ing the base, and the sides, one drawn from Holt's rocks and the other 
from a point three-and-a-half miles above the present Lawrence dam, 
meeting in an apex in the northwestern part of the town of Hampstead. 
In the spring of 1724 certain residents in the western part of the town, 
dissatisfied with the provisions made for school and church there, peti- 
tioned the General Court to be set off as a new town, and, despite the 
opposition of the other citizens, this petition was granted, and the large 
tract of land southwest from Hawkes' Meadow brook along the Merri- 
mack and embracing the water leaps known as the Deer Jump and Bod- 
well's Falls, was made a separate township in 1725, called, in honor of 
the King's privy councillor, Methuen. At these falls the great Lawrence 
dam v/as built in the three years from 1845 to 1848. So from the Me- 
thuen teiTitory that was originally Haverhill territory, that part of the 
great mill city which lies north of the Merrimack was set off to form in 
May, 1847, the municipality of Lawrence. 

The boundaiy line between Massachusetts and New Hampshire, long 
in dispute and occasioning a border warfare, was settled by the King 
and Council, August 5, 1740, and thereby the most of the territory now 
comprised in the towns of Hampstead, Plaistow, Atkinson and Salem v/as 
transfen-ed from the Haverhill territory. While these towns have a 
filial relation to Haverhill by reason of their teiritory being of the original 
Haverhill grant, other towns bear that relation by reason of their having 
been settled by Haverhill men. Thus Pennacook, afterwards called Con- 
cord, New Hampshire, was settled by a party of Haverhill men, led by 
Ebenezer Eastman, v, ith his six yoke of oxen, who traversed the wilder- 
ness road through the night of May 26, 1726, and first made settlement in 
the future capital of the Granite State. So, in 1660, Jonathan Buck went 
from the little gambrel cottage on Water street, nearly opposite Mill 
street, to found the town of Bucksport, Maine. So, in 1661, two Haver- 
hill men, Michael Johnson and John Pattie, were sent to take possession 
of certain lands on the east side of the Connecticut river, and to this new 



HAVERHILL 459 

settlement they gave the name Haverhill, in memory of the old town from 

which they went. , ,^.„ x ^- i/^oo ^f*.^^ 

The little log meeting house built m the Mill Lot m 1638 was, after 
prolonged and bitter discussion, succeeded by a new meetmg house on the 
Common, built in 1698, and this was replaced by a later house, built m 
1761 also on the Common. Between church and State m these earher 
years the connection was close, and the meeting house was the place 
where the town met for elections and the discussion of matters ot politics 
and public interest. New churches were established m the! North parish 
in 1730, in the West parish in 1734, and in the East parish m 1743. But 
these were each of the Congregational creed, and conservatism opposed 
any new religious establishment. It refused the use of the meeting house 
to George Whitefield, the brilliant and forceful Methodist, and he preach- 
ed in an open field on Mill street to a large congregation. The authori- 
ties sent him a letter warning him to depart from the town He read 
the letter at the close of his discourse, and merely remarked. Poor 
souls, they need another sermon." Then he announced another meeting 
in the same place at sunrise the next morning, and this meeting was 
largely attended. The spirit of the times and the town refused recog- 
nition to the Quakers under the leadership of Joseph Peaslee, but 
against this narrowness and proscription there was m some mmds a 
perception of its injustice. In 1764 a young Princeton graduate of manly 
presence, great spirituality, wonderful oratory and the masterful quah- 
ties of a leader, preached in the parish churches, and was invited to be- 
come pastor of the one in the West Parish. But when he avowed himself 
to be of the faith of the Baptists, the church pulpits were all closed 
to him The more liberal citizens, however — many of them men of 
wealth and influence— opened their houses to him, and he also preached 
in the open at White's comer. Thus the Reverend Hezekiah Smith first 
broke the conservative spiritual unity of the town and established here 
a church of a new creed, the Baptist. To the church which he founded 
he ministered for forty years, and when he died in 1805 the universal gnef 
of the town was a tribute to him as a preacher and a citizen. 

The village that had clustered on Water and Main streets began to 
expand. In 1744 Front street (renamed Merrimack street in 1838, and 
now the chief commercial street of this city) , was laid out two-and-a-half 
rods wide through the alder-grown parsonage lands. Interest in ship 
building arose, and the river side of Water street became the scene of 
ship yards and wharves. The serenity of peace, however, yielded often 
in these years to the alanim of drams, and Haverhill men fought and 
made honorable record in all of the memorable battles of the French war. 
The clouds of conflict with Great Britain were arising, and Haverhill 
in its town meetings was not lacking in spirited denunciations of the 
exactions of the mother country. It acted, too, as energetically as it 
talked spiritedly. It appointed committees of inspection and coiTes- 
pondence ; it provided for supplies of ammunition ; it added to the three 
military companies then existing, a fourth; and these companies were 
drilled, that they might be in readiness for the call to arms. The drilling 
ground v/as the northern part of the Common, a place now marked by 
the memorial stone erected by the Daughters of the Revolution. In 
obedience to instructions from the Provincial Congress, a company of 
sixty-three minute-men, "as they are to be ready at a minute's warning," 
was raised. When the news of the fight at Lexington reached Haver- 
hill, just after noon on April 19, 1775, these men were ready: 



460 ESSEX COUNTY 

"Swift as their summons came, they left 
The plough mid-furrow standing still, 
The half-ground corn grist in the mill, 
The spade in earth, the axe in cleft," — 

and started, minute-men and militia, to the number of one hundred and 
five, on the march to Cambridge. Three days before, on the Sabbath, a 
disastrous fire had swept the west side of Main street and left but ruins 
from the Common to White's corner. Seventeen buildings in the very- 
heart of the town were destroyed, and some of the minute-men left their 
woik on these smouldering ruins in response to the orders to march. 

In frustrating the plans of General Gage to surprise Lexington and 
Concord, a son of Haverhill, William Baker, a youth of twenty years, 
played an important part. He was employed in Hall's distillery in Gile's 
Court, now Portland street, Boston. One mid-April day there came into 
this place a woman who was quartered with one of the British regiments. 
Being partially intoxicated, she unwittingly disclosed the designs of the 
British to march that night to Concord. Recognizing the importance of 
this disclosure, Baker immediately carried the information to General 
Warren's headquarters, passing the sentries and guards without sus- 
picion, because he was known to be an employe of the distillery. Im- 
mediately, plans were formed for arousing the minute-men, and in those 
plans the duty was assigned to Baker of having a horse ready for Paul 
Revere on the Charlestown shore. Baker returned to Haverhill, enlisted 
for the war, won by his ability in military service the rank of captain, and 
died a half century later in Providence, Rhode Island. 

The Provincial Congress, hastily summoned after the Lexington 
fight, among other acts established post riders and post offices, in order 
that there might be communication between Cambridge, the headquarters 
of the American army, and the principal towns. Such an office was then 
established at Haverhill, and the first postmaster of the town, Simeon 
Greenough, was appointed. 

In the battle of Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775, seventy-four Haverhill 
men took part, and of this number two, John Eaton and Simeon Pike, 
were killed. In this engagement Colonel James Brickett of Haverhill 
was severely wounded. As he was borne from the field, he met General 
Warren, who stopped to greet him. Warren was without arms ; Colonel 
Brickett proffered him his, and bearing these, Warren fought and gave 
his life in that engagement. 

In the more than eight years of the Revolutionary struggle the town 
of Haverhill contributed its full quota of men and its full share of ex- 
penditure. The cost of the war, the payment of bounty money and the 
supporting of the families of the soldiers placed a heavy burden upon 
the town, but its courage never weakened, its hope never lessened, and 
its determination never was broken. 

When the activities of war were over, the town sought to rebuild 
its shattered industries. The shipyards took on new life; the wharves 
were busy with commerce. Ox teams brought in the produce of inland 
places, to be shipped down the river to Newburyport in ships that there 
spread their sails to voyage to the West Indies, to London and other 
ports. Then returning, they brought cargoes of goods to be distributed 
to the surrounding country by the oxen express. 

The little town was greatly honored on November 4, 1789, by a visit 
from the revered President, Washington. He passed the night at Har- 



HAVERHILL 461 

rod's tavern, "The Freemason's Arms," then standing on the present site 
of the City Hall. He was cordial and winning in meeting the towns- 
people, gracious in his compliments on the natural beauty of the place and 
the enterprise of its people, and courteous and dignified in his bearing; 
the memory of his visit shines clear and golden in the annals of the town. 

The industry that distinguishes the city today, the making of shoes, 
began almost fortuitously in the year 1795. There were shoemakers 
among the earliest settlers: Job Clement, who came in 1641; Andrew 
Greeley, who came in 1646 ; Benjamin Webster and Samuel Parker, who 
were welcomed in 1679 ; but it is interesting to note that William Thomp- 
son and Peter Patie, who asked in 1676 permission to dwell in Haverhill 
and follow their trade of shoemaking, were refused this privilege, al- 
though later they became residents of Haverhill. In 1795 Moses Gale 
advertised that he had several thousand fresh and dry hides that he 
would exchange for shoes and await payment until the hides could be 
made into shoes. This induced the manufacture of shoes in wholesale, 
and thenceforward thi^ became an increasing industry. During the war 
of 1812, two storekeepers, Moses and James Atwood, sent a wagon-load 
of shoes to Philadelphia and sold them there for a very profitable price. 
In 1815 Phineas Webster engaged exclusively in the wholesale manufac- 
ture of shoes, exchanging his product largely in Danvers for the leather 
tanned there. The shoes were packed promiscuously in any kind of a 
barrel or box, shipped to Philadelphia or Baltimore, and there retailed 
from the decks of the vessels. In 1818 Rufus Slocomb commenced freight 
service between Haverhill and Boston, and this business increased until 
in 1835 he had forty horses and two yoke of oxen constantly engaged in 
hauling his large covered freight wagons over the road, the freight out- 
ward from the town consisting largely of cases of shoes. In 1837 there 
were forty-two shoe manufacturers in the town, but the business received 
by the panic of that year so severe a check that it took a decade to re- 
cover. In 1857 the number of manufacturers had increased to ninety, 
but another panic checked the growth. In 1861 there were seventy 
manufacturers. After this decade, the period of the Civil War and its 
immediate effects, the shoe business increased rapidly. In 1890 there 
were three hundred firms, employing 15,000 operatives. 

The earliest provision for protection against fire was made Feb- 
ruary 22, 1768, by the organization of a Fire Club, the members of which 
werei equipped with buckets, ladders and bags for saving property. It 
was composed of the leading citizens of the town, and its annual supper 
was a distinctive social occasion. The first fire engine was purchased in 
1769 by a company formed for that purpose, and this was changed from 
a private to a public enterprise by the presentation of the machine to the 
town in 1780, but the firemen were not paid for their services, except by 
the remitting of their poll taxes, until 1841, The first Haverhill bridge 
across the Merrimack was built in 1794 and was considered a marvel 
of beauty, strength and mechanical ingenuity. The first person to walk 
over it was widow Judith Whiting, bom in 1701, and therefore 93 years 
old. The memories of this interesting woman, told in her old age — she 
lived to be 98 — to her minister. Rev. Abiel Abbott, and written down by 
him, is the foundation of the history of the Indian attacks and much of the 
earlier chronicles of Haverhill. The bridge was rebuilt in 1808, was 
changed from an open to a covered bridge in 1827, and after long years 
of service, a brown and antiquated landmark, it was replaced by the pres- 
ent iron structure in 1874. 



462 ESSEX COUNTY 

In the later years of the eighteenth century and the earlier years 
of the nineteenth, Haverhill was the home of many families of refine- 
ment and public spirit, who drew as their guests people of similar quali- 
ties from other communities. John Quincy Adams visited here his rever- 
ed aunt, Elizabeth, wife of the Reverend John Shaw, and in her house- 
hold fitted for the senior class in Harvard College. In the youth of the 
town he found congenial and high-spirited associates, and in the homes 
plain living, but excellent thinking and sprightly wit. The spiritual 
summons to do missionary work in far-off lands took Harriet Atwood 
Newell from the old home at the head of the Common to the far-off Isle of 
France in 1812, and, from across the river, Anne Haseltine Judson to 
Burmah. The opening of the Haverhill Academy in 1827 brought to- 
gether a group of young men and women of unusual character, one of 
whom was John Greenleaf Whittier. In the same year a great temper- 
ance movement was inaugurated in the town. At that time the use of 
liquor was almost universal. It was served at marriages ; it was offered 
at funerals; it was a gift that appeared constantly in the donations to 
ministers; it went with the farmer into the field, and the mechanic into 
the shop; and in the town of 3900 inhabitants there were twenty-one 
places where it was sold. To combat its influence demands the highest 
type of courage. The "Gazette", which led in the movement for tem- 
perance, lost half of its subscribers; the men who advocated it were 
ridiculed, openly insulted and drawn in effigy about the town ; but in five 
years the cause became so strong that but one place could be found where 
liquor could be purchased, and in ten years the fires of the last distillery 
v^ere put out. 

In the latter part of the eighteenth century changes in religious 
thought caused many to dissent from the strict Congregational creed, 
and the First Church of the town was cleft into opposing parties. The 
changes became so acute that the party of the old faith withdrew, in 
1832, to form the Independent Congregational Church, now the Centre 
Church. Those who were left were divided between the Universalist 
and the Unitarian beliefs. An agreement was reached between these 
factions by which the Universalists received four thousand dollars of the 
parish funds and withdrew, in 1834, to join the church of that faith that 
had been established in 1823. This withdrawal left the First Parish 
Church to the Unitarians, and they have since held it. 

When the church was undivided, its house had been used freely for 
the to^vn meetings, but after the division, the parish made a charge to the 
town of thirty dollars a year for such use. The town questioned the 
parish's right of ownership of the land — the Common — on which the 
meeting house stood. The dispute was settled by the town paying, in 
1837, a thousand dollars for a quit claim deed to the land, "limiting the 
use of the said land for the purpose of an ornamental common, and pro- 
viding for the said deed being void and the land reverting to the said 
Parish if any building or buildings whatever shall, either by said town or 
any person or body, ever be placed or suffered to remain on said land." 
Thus, and under such conditions, the town acquired the land now known 
as City Hall Park. The town meetings, however, from 1828 until the 
building of the first town hall, in 1847, were held in the various churches 
and halls in the town, going as far west in 1828 as the West Parish 
meeting house, and as far east in the same year as the East Parish meet- 
ing house, and in the later years using alternately the First Parish 
Church and the Christian Union Chapel at Washington Square. 



HAVERHILL 46a 

The prelude to the Civil War was long, and its notes, harmonious or 
discordant, were heard early and clearly in Haverhill. In December, 
1833, the American Anti-Slavery Society was organized in Philadel- 
phia. A son of Haverhill, John Greenleaf Whittier, was a member of the 
convention effecting this organization. A young man, twenty-six years 
old, with dark, flashing eyes, square forehead, his tall, straight form 
clothed in Quaker garb, he was noticeable in appearance, and his growing 
reputation as a poet added to the interest in him. Of his service here he 
said in later life, "I love, perhaps, too well, the praise and goodwill of 
my fellow-men ; but I set higher value on my name appended to the Anti- 
Slavery Declaration of 1833 than on any title page of any book. Looking 
over a life marked with many errors and shortcomings, I rejoice that 
I have been able to maintain the pledge of that signature, and in the long 
intervening years — 

" 'My voice, though not the loudest, has been heard 
Wherever Freedom raised her cry of pain.' " 

The Haverhill Anti-Slavery Society was formed in April, 1834, and 
of this society Whittier was the corresponding secretary. His poetic 
power had already been dedicated to the cause of freedom in his tribute 
to William Lloyd Garrison, 'The Slave Ship", "Expostulation", and other 
poems. And all along the struggle against slavery, Whittier brooked and 
bore unpopularity and ostracism, while his lyrics rang out their notes of 
warning and appeal. And when war broke out, his strains were heard 
amid the din of strife, and the loyal soldiers felt their inspiration in the 
camp, on the march, and in the hour of battle. 

In the thirty years preceding the outbreak of the Civil War the 
country was aflame with discussion. In Haverhill, a favorite meeting 
place for the discussion of national and local affairs, was the hatshop of 
Nathan Webster, on Merrimack street, just west of White's corner. The 
arrogance of the Southern representatives in Congress, the repeated 
threats of secession, and especially the "Atherton gag," aroused the spirit 
of the men who met there. Consequently, they drew up a petition to be 
presented in Congress, praying that measures peaceably to dissolve the 
Union should be adopted immediately. The paper was drafted by Ben- 
jamin Emerson, a man who in appearance resembled Daniel Webster, 
and who was so uncompromising a foe to slavery and so dark in com- 
plexion that he was known as "Black Ben." The most of the signatures 
to this petition were obtained in the Union Evangelical Church on Win- 
ter street after the Sunday service. Th petition, so signed, was sent to 
John Quincy Adams, and by him presented in the House of Representa- 
tives on the 14th of January, 1842. Immediately a tumult arose. A 
resolution censuring Adams was introduced. After the matter had con- 
sumed twelve days, Mr. Adams was asked how much more time he would 
occupy in his defence. Mr. Adams reminded his hearers that when 
Warren Hastings was tried, Burke occupied some months in a single 
speech; he hoped, however, to complete his defence in ninety days. The 
resolutions of censure were laid on the table, and the result was inter- 
preted as a defeat and humiliation of Mr. Adams' enemies, and a signal 
victory for the cause of the right of petition. The original petition was 
presented to the Haverhill Historical Society in 1908 by the trustees of 
the Adams' papers. 

On January 4, 1834, a meeting was held at the Eagle House to pro- 
mote the extension of the Boston & Andover railroad from Andover to 



464 ESSEX COUNTY 

Haverhill. The practical results of this meeting were that the work of 
grading the road bed of this extension was begun in the autumn of 1835, 
and the road was formally opened to Bradford, just across the river, on 
October 23, 1837. This important event v/as celebrated by a free ride 
to the stockholders and a banquet in Academy Hall, at which there were 
sentiments and speeches. The road was extended through Haverhill to 
Kingston in 1839, and soon after to Portland. 

When the town was denied the free use of the First Parish Church 
for its town meetings, the subject of building a town hall became of in- 
terest. At a special meeting in May, 1831, the town voted adversely on 
the project, but in 1835 it gave approval to the measure, and appointed 
a committee to select a site and make recommendations. Two years later 
the matter was again considered, but indefinitely postponed. In 1847, 
however, the town definitely voted to build such a structure ''on the south 
side of the Harrod lot, so called", at an expense of $8,000. When the 
building was completed the full cost was found to be more than double 
that sum, and it was also manifest that the building had not been plan- 
ned of sufl[icient size. Twelve years later plans for a new building were 
drawn, and in town meeting, January 7, 1861, a vote was passed for its 
immediate erection. The walls of the old building were partially de- 
molished, when there came the outbreak of the Civil War. Nevertheless, 
the work of the construction of the new hall was zealously carried on, 
and it was dedicated August 6, 1862. In November, 1888, a fire of un- 
known origin broke out at 10:30 in the forenoon, and despite all efforts 
of the fire department gutted the building in an hour, the tower falling 
at 11 :30. The conflagration was spectacular, flames of varied hues, yel- 
low, green, red, reaching forth like long tongues from the ornamental 
windows and curling upward to the roof. The loss was estimated at $80,- 
000, with an insurance of $65,000. Plans were at once made for rebuild- 
ing the hall, and the present structure, outwardly closely resembling the 
old building, was completed at a cost of $111,791. 

When the Civil War of 1861 inflamed the whole country and made 
appeal to arms necessary, the existing military organization of Haverhill 
was the Hale Guards, a company of militia organized in the Town Hall, 
July 19, 1853, by General Benjamin F. Butler. A little thread leading 
back to the Revolution was the attendance of this company in full ranks, 
by the order of Governor Emory Washburn, at the funeral of Jonathan 
Harrington, the last survivor of the battle of Bunker Hill, who died at 
the age of 96, and was buried in the historic town of Lexington. In 
1861 the captain of the Hale Guards was Carlos P. Messer. At a meet- 
ing of this company on January 23, the roll was called upon the question 
of willingness to serve in the imminent war, and every member responded 
"Aye." They occupied as an armory the third floor of the building at 
the corner of Merrimack and Fleet streets, and on the evening of their 
first meeting there, April 15, they requested that the name of their or- 
ganization be changed from Hale Guards to Company G of the 7th Regi- 
ment, M. V. M. On Friday, April 19, came the news of the attack on 
the 6th Massachusetts Regiment as it passed through Baltimore, and 
that the first victims of the war lay dead in the streets of that city. In 
mid-afternoon of Saturday, the ringing of the bells announced that the 
summons for the Haverhill company had come. They immediately 
gathered at the armory. There v/ere farewell services on the Common, 
the gift of a Bible to each soldier, and the presentation of a beautiful 
silk flag made by Mrs. Nancy S. Buswell, a philanthropic and public- 



HAVERHILL 465 

spirited woman, who had taken the colors from the silks of her milinery 
establishment and stitched them with her own hands. This company, 
Carlos P. Messer, captain, became, as Company D, a part of the 5th Regi- 
ment. This regiment went by way of New York, by steamer to An- 
napolis, to Washington, and was encamped at first at Camp Andrew and 
afterwards at Camp Massachusetts, near Alexandria, Virginia. Here 
they remained until near the end of the three months' service for which 
they had been sworn in. As the time of their return came near, the 
citizens at home planned to welcome them with the ringing of bells, an 
address on the Common, and the firing of a salute. On July 16, how- 
ever. General McDowell began moving the Union troops on from Wash- 
ington towards Richmond, intending to attack the Confederate ai-my 
under General Beauregard at Bull Run. The division in which was 
the 5th Regiment, after a long and exhausting march, arrived at the 
scene of action on Sunday, July 21. The order was given that this 
regiment advance to a hill in direct range of the enemy's battery, and 
with unbroken front they obeyed. Coi^poral Wallace of Company D 
bore the regimental colors, and by his side Lawrence bore the United 
States flag. A shot killed Lawrence, but Wallace sprang and seized his 
colors, shouting, "Stand by the colors, boys." The Union troops, how- 
ever, were unable to withstand the mass of Confederates opposing them ; 
they turned in retreat, and fled back over the weaiy road and across the 
Long Bridge into Washington. In this engagement fell the first Haver- 
hill victim of the war, Hiram A. Collins. Wallace was wounded, and 
James A. Shaw was taken prisoner. Nine days later, July 30, the com- 
pany reached home. They marched through the streets to Johnson's 
field on Main street, where they gave an exhibition of military drill. Two 
objects of gi"eat interest in the parade were a cavalry horse, with Con- 
federate accoutrements, captured from the enemy, and the flag which 
Wallace had seized from the hands of the dying Lawrence. This flag 
had been presented to the Medford company when they went to the war, 
and, doubly precious for the blood that stained it, it was borne by an 
honor guard of Medford men. 

With the thrill of war in the air, the spirit of patriotism easily 
stirred men to enlist. On April 19, the day of the Baltimore massacre, 
a new company was organized in Haverhill through the influence of 
Henry Jackson How, who, by unanimous vote, was chosen captain. An- 
other company of volunteers. Company F, was raised through the efforts 
of Dr. Samuel K. Towle. Its captain was Luther Day. Other volun- 
teer organizations were the Union Guards, with William Taggait as 
captain, and the Irish Volunteers, with Michael McNamara as captain. 
Many sons of the town, too, sought sei-vice in the organizations of other 
towns and other states. 

Captain Henry Jackson How, originally commissioned in the 14th 
Regiment, was designated by an order issued July 27, 1861, as Major of 
the 19th Regiment. With this regiment he departed for the front on 
August 26, and was in the engagement at Ball's Bluff, October 3. In 
the fearful six days' fighting before Richmond, in June, 1862, while val- 
iantly bringing up the left of his regiment, he was mortally wounded by 
a shot in the breast, Monday, June 30. Knowing his fate, he said: 
"Let me die here on the field of battle, it is more glorious," and then he 
added : "Tell my mother I died a brave man. I am willing to die in so 
good a cause. Wrap me in the flag that they gave me at home." The 
town in meeting, September 12, 1862, passed resolutions in his memory 

Essex— 30 



466 ESSEX COUNTY 

and honor as ''a heroic champion, a gallant leader, and a chivalric, noble 
and generous citizen," and it requested of his family, his battle sword, as 
a legacy to his native place, be cherished and to bear this inscription: 
"The battle sword of Henry Jackson How, who fell in front of Richmond 
(at Glendale) while gloriously defending the Constitution and flag of his 
Country." The sword is guarded by the veterans of the war in which 
he died. Major How Post, 47, of the Grand Army of the R,epublic. 

During the war Haverhill furnished about thirteen hundred men, 
including seventy-three commissioned officers. It raised and expended 
for the soldiers $188,135, and as State Aid, afterwards refunded by the 
Commonwealth, $114,452. 

In the very beginning of the war a relief society of ladies, after- 
wards called "The Soldiers' Relief Society," was organized, its president 
being Mrs. Edwin P. Hill, and its beneficent work was continuous and so 
broad that it sought to meet every want. When the close of hostilities 
brought an end to its activities, the society gracefully suggested the 
erection of a soldiers' monument to commemorate the nobility of conse- 
cration and sacrifice of those who had given life for victory: "The Sol- 
diers' Relief Society, as is eminently fitting, at the conclusion of their 
legitimate service for the soldiers, turn with tender hearts and tearful 
eyes to the last kindly act allowed for the completion of their mission — 
the raising of a memorial to the heroic dead." At their meeting, July 
12, 1865, they chose an advisory committee of gentlemen for the incep- 
tion of the work. In the following year, at the March town meeting, 
a committee, James H. Carleton, James V. Smiley and Elias T. Ingalls, 
were appointed to procure plans for a soldiers' monument, and in March, 
1868, a design presented by Charles H. Weeks was accepted. A volun- 
teer soldier stands with musket at parade rest above a pedestal, on which 
are incut the names of one hundred and eighty-six honored dead. Above 
these names is the inscription: "1861-1865. In grateful tribute to the 
memory of those who, on land and on the sea, died that the Republic 
might live, this monument was erected by the citizens of Haverhill, A. D. 
1869." The entire memorial is 26 feet high. Its cost was $8,000. It 
stands in a circular enclosure sixty-six feet in circumference, in the broad 
space where Kenoza avenue meets Main street. The monument was 
dedicated with impressive exercises on Monday, July 5, 1869. A dinner 
at the Town Hall followed. In the afternoon four bands gave a con- 
cert on the Common, and in the evening the blazing of a huge bonfire 
on Powder House hill formed the last feature of the celebration. 

Among the sons of Haverhill whose services were given in other or- 
ganizations than those from the town, it is no invidious distinction that 
gives the highest place to Major General William Francis Bartlett. He 
was of eminent Haverhill ancestry, bom June 6, 1840, the son of Charles 
L. and Harriett (Plummer) Bartlett, and the grandson of the Hon. Bai- 
ley Bartlett, a descendant of Lieutenant John Johnson, who was killed 
in the memorable Indian attack on Haverhill in 1708, and of William 
White, whose name is signed to the Indian deed of Haverhill. Educated 
in Phillips Academy, Andover, and in Harvard College until he joined 
in his junior year, June 17, 1861, the Fourth Battalion of the Volunteer 
Militia, he was almost immediately made a captain in the newly-formed 
20th Regiment of Volunteer Infantry. At Yorktown, in April, 1862, 
he was shot in the left knee, and the leg was so shattered that amputation 
just below the knee was necessary. While engaged in the assault of 
Port Hudson in May, 1863, he was shot in the wrist and in the ankle. 



HAVERHILL 467 

In the battle of the Wilderness, May 6, 1864, he was wounded just above 
the right temple. In June he was commissioned a brigadier-general, 
and in the fight before Petersburg he was captured by the enemy in the 
crater of the mine. Held prisoner until the autumn, he was then re- 
leased, shattered in health by his wounds and by fever. In 1875 he was 
both offered the nomination for lieutenant-governor by the Democratic 
party and the nomination for governor by the Republican party, but he 
was unable to accept either. He died in Pittsfield, December 17, 1876, 
at the early age of thirty-six. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
upon which his life conferred such lustre, placed a noble bronze statue 
of him in the Memorial Hall of her capitol. It was dedicated on May 
27, 1904, the forty-first anniversary of the battle of Port Hudson. In a 
poem in his memory, Whittier paid him the highest praise, speaking of 
him as a son of old Essex. 

"Good men and true she has not lacked, 
And brave men yet shall be; 
The perfect flower, the crowning fact 
Of all her years was he." 

The population of Haverhill in 1860, just before the outbreaking of 
the Civil War, was 9,995; her valuation, $5,450,732; in 1865, the year 
of the closing of the war, her population was 10,660 ; her valuation, $4,- 
443,107. 

A city charter was granted to Haverhill by the Legislature in 1867, 
but the measure failed because the town did not contain the requisite 
number of inhabitants, 12,000. In the following year, 1868, the re-enact- 
ment of this charter was sought, and, the number of inhabitants being 
then suflficient, it was granted. This charter was accepted on May 15, 
1869, by a vote of 671 yeas opposed by but 141 nays. The selectmen 
divided the town into six wards, and on December 6, the first city elec- 
tion was held. The first mayor of the city, then chosen, was Warner R. 
Whittier, and on January 3, 1870, the first city government was inaugu- 
rated. 

The change in the form of administration shai-ply marks the line be- 
tween the old Haverhill and the new. The shade trees on Merrimack 
street were cut down (1871) and business blocks displaced the old-time 
residences there; Washington street, adjoining Washington Square, 
changed from a village road, with cottage houses, to a street of brick 
manufactories; the hay scales and the old town pump, with its iron 
"calabash" for drinking, in front of the City Hall, were swept away 
(1872) ; the tall liberty pole in Washington Square — the highest in the 
State, erected by the Torrent Engine Company — was cut down ; the First 
Baptist Church, on Baptist Hill, that once marked the western boundary 
of the village, where the Academj'- of Music now is, was demolished ; the 
historic "Christian Chapel," the old South Church on the comer of Wash- 
ington and Essex streets, was torn down; the memorable Atwood house 
on Crescent Place, consecrated by the birth there of Harriett Atwood 
Newell, the missionary, by the founding there of the first Sabbath School 
in 1817, and by the forming there of the Haverhill Benevolent Associa- 
tion in 1818, was destroyed (1872), and the first town school house, close 
by, was removed in the following year, and on the site arose a new 
High School building; the age-browned Haverhill bridge, antique and 
musty, but quaintly interesting, built in 1794, rebuilt in 1808, and made 
a covered bridge in 1825, was removed in ten days, and a new iron bridge 



468 ESSEX COUNTY 

built to replace it, was opened for carriages first on January 1, 1874. 

On January 29, 1873, the Hon. E. J. M. Hale, a son of the town, and 
a wealthy and generous mill owner, addressed the mayor and the Muni- 
cipal Council, offering to found a public library, giving therefor a lot of 
land on Summer street as a site for the building and the sum of $30,000 
if the city would raise a like amount of money for this pui'pose within 
six months. The offer was accepted and the condition met. The library 
building was at once begun, and was built at a cost of $49,543.32. It 
was dedicated November 11, 1875, Whittier writing for the occasion the 
poem "Let there be light." The first librarian was Edward Capen. He 
remained librarian until 1899, when he was succeeded by John Grant 
Moulton, whose term of office terminated with his death in 1921. 

Ezekiel James Madison Hale, the founder of the Public Libraiy, was 
bom in Haverhill, March 30, 1813. He was educated under Benjamin 
Greenleaf in Bradford Academy, when that institution admitted both 
sexes, and in Dartmouth College, from which he was graduated in 1835. 
He entered upon the study of law as a profession, but finding a business 
life more in harmony with his desires, he connected himself with his 
father's woolen mills. In 1859 he purchased the mill privileges and 
the factory in South Groveland, and this establishment he enlarged until 
he became the largest private manufacturer in the United States. His 
business acumen made him a very valuable member of many corporations, 
and he acquired a large fortune. Stem in his manner, brusque, un- 
emotional, he had a heart that was tender to worthy charities, and his 
quiet and unvaunted benevolences were many. He died June 4, 1881. 
In addition to his large gifts to the Public Library, he made provision for 
a city hospital, purchasing therefor a site and leaving by his will $50,000 
for a hospital fund. Upon this financial foundation the Hale Hospital 
is built. Mr. Hale stipulated that each of these institutions should be 
administered by a board of trustees of seven members, the mayor of the 
city being ex-officio the chairman, but the other six members holding 
office for life, and, in case of a vacancy, the vacancy being filled by elec- 
tion by the remaining members. 

In 1883, in the mayoralty of the Hon. Moses How, the stone arch 
over Little river at Washington Square was extended to the Merrimack 
river, a sea wall built, and the unsightly, weed-o'ergrown dump hitherto 
existing there, was, by filling, converted into Washington Square Park. 
The Park Act was accepted by the city in 1890 and a park commission 
appointed to take office, May 1, 1891. The Commission was fortunate 
in obtaining the services of Henry Frost as superintendent, and under his 
care and supervision, extending over a period of thirty years, the present 
wide system of parks and playgrounds has been developed. Washing- 
ton Square Park, containing 59,750 square feet and valued at $331,750 ; 
City Hall Park, containing 28,690 feet and valued at $71,725 ; Mt. Wash- 
ington Park, containing 48,000 feet, and Riverside Park, containing 35.40 
acres, were earliest placed under the control of the Commission. At 
present there are under the charge of the Park Commissioners seven- 
teen parks, the Soldiers' Monument at Monument Square, the City Ceme- 
tery, Pentucket Cemetery, and Old Burying Ground in Bradford, the 
Soldiers' and Sailors' graves in all cemeteries, and the four playgrounds, 
Passaquo, Margin street, Bradford, and Primrose street. The beautiful 
tract of ground known as Winnekenni Park, bordering Kenoza Lake, 
was transferred to the care of the Park Commission by the Water Board, 
October 28, 1896. The picturesque castle within this park was built bv 



HAVERHILL " 469 

Dr. James R. Nichols, who then owned the estate, in the years 1873 to 
1875, from stone found on the place, — stone that in the glacial period 
had been brought from the Franconia mountains. The Dudley Porter 
fountain within the grounds was formally presented by Mr. Porter's 
daughter and son on October 6, 1906, and the Tyler Shelter was the gift 
of Adelia E. Tyler in memory of her husband, Henry P. Tyler, Septem- 
ber 17, 1909. The playgrounds were established in 1909. The chair- 
men of the Park Commission have been : Thomas E. St. John, 1891-1896 ; 
Dudley Porter, 1896-1905 ; Albert L. Bartlett, 1905-1912 ; Henry H. Gil- 
man, 1912-1920; and Charles D. Porter, 1920 — . The present superin- 
tendent is Frederick J. Caswell. 

On January 4, 1897, by an act of the General Court accepted by both 
municipalities, the old town of Bradford became a part of the city of 
Haverhill, forming its Seventh Ward, but retaining its own name as a 
designation. Despite its long and close relations with the city on the 
north bank of the river Merrimack, the town on the south bank had a dis- 
tinct individuality, strong local pride, a gentry of families long resident 
there, and an atmosphere of culture that came partially from the influ- 
ence of the First Church that had even been ministered to by men of 
education and intellectual activity, and partially from the presence of its 
early-founded and notably excellent seminary of learning, Bradford 
Academy. 

The territory of Bradford, like that of Boxford and Georgetown 
and Groveland, was originally included in the extensive tract that con- 
stituted the plantation of Rowley. Among the herdsmen of the Rowley 
settlers were John and Robert Haseltine and William Wildes, sturdy but 
uneducated men, who drove their flocks far from the settlement into the 
wilderness. In the remote stretches where they pastured their flocks,^ 
they made clearings, planted the English grains, and built themselves log 
houses. In the spring of 1649 the town of Rowley gave to these men 
grants in the "Merrimack lands" that were later known as "Rowley-by- 
the-Merrimack" and still later Bradford; in return for this, they were 
to look after the herd of cattle which the town of Rowley should pas- 
ture there, receiving a stipend of two shillings a day for such care. 
John Haseltine removed to Haverhill, but he retained his lands in Brad- 
ford, and in 1655 gave for the public use there a lot on which "to set 
their meeting-house, and for a burying place." This is the lot of land on 
Salem street that forms the old burying ground. John Haseltine, having 
been a deacon in the church of John Ward, a selectman of Haverhill for 
six terms, died December 23, 1690. William Warde removed to Ips- 
wich, where he died in 1662. Robert Haseltine remained in Bradford, 
dying there August 27, 1674. 

To the attractive lands of "Rowley-by-the-Merrimack" other settlers 
followed the original herdsmen pioneers, and in 1675 the place was in- 
corporated as the town of Bradford, that name having been chosen in 
town meeting, January 7, 1672, in memory of the English town of Brad- 
ford in Yorkshire. In 1667 the Rev. Zachariah Symmes came to the 
settlement as a preacher and pastor. He was the son of the pastor of 
the' First Church in Charlestown, who came to New England in the ship 
that brought Anne Hutchinson, whom later he bitterly opposed. The son 
was graduated from Harvard in 1657, with the highest rank in scholar- 
ship, and his religious fervor was as notable as his scholarship. The 
town built for him a house in 1668, and a meeting house in 1670, placing 
it in the west corner of the lot given by John Haseltine. So here, where 



470 ESSEX COUNTY 

time has leveled the mounds above the ancient dead, and the mosses 
have sought to obliterate the inscriptions on the stones, in the earliest 
years, the activities of the town were centered. Here was the meeting 
house used for religious services and town meetings, while opposite was 
the manse; here, by vote of the town in 1672, the burying ground was 
established ; and here, by vote of the town in 1685, the public pound was 
built, "with gate and lock and key." 

The lands lying north of Salem, between the Naumkeag river and 
the Merrimack, were claimed by Masconomet, sagamore of the Aga- 
wams, and from him John Winthrop, Jr., obtained for twenty pounds the 
territory of Ipswich. Long after Masconomet' s death his heirs demand- 
ed possession of the other townships that originally were a part of Ips- 
wich. Bradford appointed a committee to treat with them, and, by the 
payment of six pounds and ten shillings, obtained, January 30, 1700, a 
deed of its territory. This deed was signed by the three Indian heirs, 
Samuel English, Joseph English and John Umpee, and, for the proprie- 
tors, John Tenny, Philip Atwood and John Bointon. The territory so 
acquired extended on the east to Newbury, and two communities de- 
veloped therein, East Bradford, which in 1850 became a separate town- 
ship, under the name of Groveland, and West Bradford, which retained 
the town name. Much of the early history of the township is connected 
with the east parish — Groveland — and will be found in the history of 
that enterprising town. The western division was largely devoted to 
agriculture, although a considerable business in the manufacture of shoes 
was carried on there in the years when the same business began to de- 
velop in Haverhill. Gradually this business was removed to Haverhill, 
and Bradford became mainly a residential town. 

The first meeting house, within which a gallery had been built in 
1690, after thirty-five years of use fell into decay, and in December, 
1705, it was voted to build a new meeting house on a knoll a few rods 
east of the old one. By the side of this new but unpainted and unwarmed 
structure there was placed a "nooning house" with great fireplaces, where 
the people might spend the time between services. Within these olden- 
day churches the tithing men, one for each ten families, not only pre- 
served order, but prevented careless inattention. "It is indecent and 
irreverent," this church voted in 1723, "to lay down the head and sleep 
in the house of God." Before the door in the early years stood a guard 
with flint-lock musket, to watch against the attack of the red enemy. 

Because of the distance which the residents in the eastern part of 
the town, had to travel, and not because of any disagreements, a new 
parish was created — the East Parish — and incorporated, June 17, 1726, 
and a new church organized ten days later. In the old parish there was 
a succession of notable pastors, the successor of the Rev. Thomas 
Sjrmmes being the Rev. Joseph Parsons, who came to Bradford in 1726, 
when he was but twenty-four years of age. He was one of the New 
England ministers wTio signed a protest to the Boston ministry against 
permitting Whitefield to enter their pulpits. His successor was the Rev. 
Samuel Williams, a man of profound scholarship, and especially inter- 
ested in scientific investigation. Many young men, afterwards dis- 
tinguished, were his pupils, among them Benjamin Thompson, Count 
Rumford, who has been classed with Franklin among the men of that 
period. His ministry lasted until June 14, 1780, when he was made pro- 
fessor of mathematics and natural philosophy in Harvard College. He 
was a fervent patriot during the Revolution, and he had the proud satis- 






iO':,o^ 






aO>^> 



..nV^ 





ABOVE-HIGH SCHOOL, HAVERHILL; BELOW, BRADFORD ACADEMY, 

HAVERHILL 



HAVERHILL 471 

faction of reading from his pulpit the Declaration of Independence. 

In Bradford Common there is a boulder of gi'anite marking the site 
of the third meeting house, standing there from 1751 to 1833, and com- 
memmorating the organization in this building of the American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, the first foreign missionary 
society formed in America. The inscription on the north face recounts 
that: 

The American Board of 

Commissioners for Foreign Missions 

was organized June 29, 1810 

in the Church that stood here 

It has carried the Gospel 

into many lands and ministered to millions 

through churches, schools and hospitals 

The institution that has given especial distinction to Bradford is the 
academy, Bradford Academy, which had its origin in a meeting held 
March 7, 1803, in the home of Joseph Chadwick in the outskirts of the 
village to consider how the village school system might be supplemented. 
In this meeting a resolution was passed that a building should be erected 
for an academy, and this resolution was vitalized by gifts that made the 
foundation of the school possible. A lot was procured, a building erected, 
a preceptor and preceptress were engaged, and in June, three months 
after the first neighborhood meeting, Bradford Academy was opened for 
its first term of twelve weeks, with an enrollment of fifty-one pupils, 
"fourteen gentlemen and thirty-seven ladies," coming from fifteen com- 
munities. The humble building that cradled this school stood in the lot 
so long used for school purposes on the south-west coraer of Main street 
and Joel's Road, now Kingsbury avenue. The first preceptor, Samuel 
Walker of Haverhill, the honor man of the class of 1802 of Dartmouth 
College, received for his services for a single term $80 and his board; 
the first preceptress, Miss Hannah Swan, received $5 per week and her 
board, and for many years these wages were not exceeded. In 1804 the 
institution was incorporated. In the first eleven years of its administra- 
tion there were thirteen different preceptors. Most marked of these in 
his influence upon the school was the Rev. Abraham Bumham, preceptor 
from May, 1805, until February, 1807, who changed the spirit of the 
school from careless levity to earnestness and spirituality. The mis- 
sionaries, Harriet Atwood Newell and Ann Haseltine Judson, were 
among those strengthened by his influence. 

The last preceptor of the Academy was Benjamin Greenleaf, whose 
term of service extended from December 12, 1814, to April 6, 1836, a man 
of marked personality, great directness, original methods and many pecu- 
liarities, who as a teacher was patterned after no model and who could 
have no imitators. He was bom in the west parish of Haverhill, Sep- 
tember 25, 1786, the son of Caleb and Susannah Emerson Greenleaf, and 
was a descendant of Edmund Greenleaf, born in England in 1600 and 
coming to Newbury in 1635, an ancestor, also, of John Greenleaf Whit- 
tier. A farmer's son, living four miles from the village, at fourteen 
years of age Benjamin Greenleaf did not know the multiplication table, 
yet he was hungry for knowledge and spent his spare time in reading, and 
his few pennies for books. The breaking of a leg turned the current of 
his life, and he was able to enter Dartmouth College, from which institu- 
tion he was graduated in 1813. The mathematical series of text books 



472 ESSEX COUNTY 

of which he was the author had their first publication in 1835, the pro- 
duct of twenty years of thought and practice. Of his Common School 
Arithmetic five hundred and sixty thousand were printed from the first 
plates, and more than a million were issued in all. His connection with 
the Academy as a trustee lasted until his death, October 29, 1864. 

In 1836 the male department of the Academy was discontinued, and 
the institution devoted entirely to female education. The head of the 
school as an academy for young ladies was Miss Abigail Carleton Hasel- 
tine, bom in Bradford, March 15, 1783, and a teacher in the school since 
1815. An appeal was immediately made for funds for a new building, 
and in 1841 a new and spacious edifice was dedicated, the old building 
being removed to the rear of the lot and named "Willow Hall." Miss 
Haseltine remained in service until July, 1848, and later gave additional 
administration to the Academy, her duties closing definitely in 1852. Fol- 
lowing her in administration came Miss Rebecca I. Oilman, and her suc- 
cessor was Miss Abby Haseltine Johnson. In Miss Johnson's administra- 
tion the large tract of land wherein the present buildings are located was 
bought and transformed into beautiful graded grounds, wherein was built 
a new building, dedicated in 1871, which, with the west wing added in 
1883, and the east wing added in 1892, constitutes the present edifice. 

Miss Abby H. Johnson, under whose direction the Academy had so 
expanded and prospered, resigned in 1873. She was succeeded by Miss 
Annie E. Johnson, formerly principal of the Framingham Normal School, 
a v/oman of strong mentality, with a heart of great tenderness, who 
placed stress upon the building of character. The years of her great ser- 
vice to the Academy were terminated by her death in 1892. Her succes- 
sor was Miss Ida C. Allen, a woman of high artistic development, to 
whose pure taste and personal generosity the arrangement and adorn- 
ment of the public rooms is largely due. Upon her resignation in 1901 
the trastees chose as her successor Miss Laura A. Knott, then at the head 
of the English department in the Lowell Normal School. Miss Knott's 
aspirations and strivings for her pupils are seen in her little volume of 
earnest counsel, published in 1916, "Vesper Talks to Girls." Upon her 
resignation, in 1920, the present very efficient principal. Miss Marion 
Coates was inducted into office. 

The Haverhill Historical Societj?- had its origin in the presentation 
of the needs of such an association in a city so rich in traditions and his- 
tory as Haverhill, made to the Fortnightly Club (a literary club of gentle- 
men) by a member, which resulted in the appointment of a committee 
from this club and from the Monday Evening Club (an older literary 
club of gentlemen) to put it into effect. At a meeting at Winnekenni 
Castle on June 29, 1897, at which representative ladies and gentlemen 
were present, an organization was made. Judge Ira A. Abbott being 
chosen president. The building occupied by the society is the former 
home of Col. Samuel W. Duncan, who died in early manhood in 1824, and 
was long occupied by his widow. At her death it became the property 
of the Hon. James H. Duncan, and by his daughter, Mrs. Mary Duncan 
Harris, the mansion house, with an acre-and-a-half of land, was given to 
the society as a memorial of her father. The house, built probably in 
1914, occupies the site of a "Saltonstall Seat," built probably in 1663 by 
Nathaniel Saltonstall, who married Elizabeth, the gentle daughter of 
John Ward, the first minister, and received this land from his father-in- 
law as the dowry of his bride. The location is the scene of Whittier's 
poem, "The Sycamores." Close by is the humble gambrel-roofed cottage 





ABOVE, BIRTHPLACE OF JOHN G. WHITTIER, EAST HAVERHILL, POSSESSED 
BY JOHN G. WHITTIER ASSOCIATION; BELOW, WINNEKENNI CASTLE, 

HAVERHILL 



HAVERHILL 473 

of John Ward, occupying its original site and restored to its early con- 
dition, supposed to be the first frame house built in Haverhill. The Ayer- 
Elliott Memorial Hall, added to the mansion, and dedicated June 16, 1917, 
was the gift of Mrs. Emma S. Elliott Cote and Miss Mary R. Elliott in 
memory of their father and mother, Samuel and Sophia (Ayer) Elliott. 

On November 16, 1873, a disastrous fire, originating in the Prescott 
building, west of Washington Square, destroyed eight buildings in the 
shoe district and caused a money loss of $175,000, and the death of two 
esteemed citizens, Amos George and Amos C. Heath. On February 17, 
1882, occurred the most extensive fire in the history of the city. Shortly 
after midnight on that date fire was discovered in a wooden building 
standing on the north side of Washington street and half-way between 
Washington Square and Railroad Square. It spread rapidly, and when, 
after" four hours, it was checked, it had swept out of existence the build- 
ings of the shoe district from the river to Wingate street, and from 
Washingrton Square to Railroad Square, with the exception of two. The 
money loss was a million and a half dollars, and one life was sacri- 
ficed, that of Joseph St. Germaine, who was killed by a falling chimney 
after the fire had been subdued. The night was intensely cold' and there 
was a very high wide, and only the assistance given by the fire depart- 
ments of Lawrence, Newburyport, Lowell and Dover prevented the dis- 
aster from being a stupendous one. The throwing out of employment of 
3,000 operatives, the losses and general disorganization, made it advisable 
to establish a relief commission. With commendable courage the manu- 
facturers re-established their operations wherever even the most primi- 
tive accommodations could be found, and when a year had gone by, at a 
dinner on' the anniversary of the fire, they were able to congratulate one 
another and the city on the new gi'owth of the district and the recovery 
from the severe conflagration. 

On July 4, 1876, the city of Haverhill celebrated the centennial an- 
niversary of the birth of the nation with a fulness of patriotic exercises. 
There was an abundance of decorations, a civic procession, and in the 
afternoon an oration on "The Colonial and Revolutionary History of 
Haverhill," delivered in the City Hall before the city government and the 
general public by Dr. John Crowell, a son of the town, of much literary 
ability and thoroughly versed in local history. 

In 1890, during the week beginning June 29, the city elaborately 
celebrated the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of its settlement. 
In honor of this event, the officials of the city sent invitations to be pres- 
ent to its notable sons and daughters abroad, to many distinguished men, 
and to the officials of the town of Haverhill in England. Of the govern- 
ing board of that town, the chairman, the Hon. Daniel Gurteen, with his 
daughter, Grace, came across the Atlantic to be the guests of the city. 
On Sunday there was an observance of the anniversary by the clergy in 
the Academy of Music. On Tuesday afternoon the literary exercises 
were held in the same place in the presence of an audience of especial 
distinction. The historic address was given by Samuel White Duncan, 
D. D., a son of the Hon. James H. Duncan. A poem by Dr. John Crowell, 
whose death preceded by a few months the celebration in which he had 
been deeply interested, was read by Prof. John W. Churchill of Andover. 
To these exercises John Greenleaf Whittier contributed his fine poem, 
"Haverhill," which, at his request, was read by Albert L. Bartlett. The 
Hon. Daniel Gurteen formally presented an address from the citizens of 
Haverhill, England. This beautiful document was engrossed on two 



474 ESSEX COUNTY 

sheets of vellum, surrounded by watered silk, and was inclosed in a box 
of polished oak, with a silver plate inset containing the inscription. At 
the sides of the inscription are the flags of England and the United States, 
and beneath clasped hands, signifying the bond of friendship. 

On Thursday there was a gi'and parade, in which all departments 
of the city took part, and to which the merchants and fraternal orders 
contributed floats and displays. The St. James societies arranged a series 
of eight tableaus, illustrating historic events in the history of the town: 
The Coming of the First Settlers, the First Meetmg House, the Adminis- 
tration of Justice, the Capture of Hannah Duston, the Escape of Mrs. 
Duston, the Indian Attack of 1708, a New England Kitchen in the Olden 
Days, the Fire Company of 1768, and Washington's Visit (1789). The 
French societies contributed floats illustrating the scenes connecting 
France and America. There was a loan exhibition of historic and old- 
time articles, and all places in the city of unusual interest were marked 
with explanatory signs. 

The city celebrated Old Home Week for the first time on the days 
from July 26 to 31, 1903, with a banquet in City Hall on Tuesday even- 
ing, at which there were notable speeches by distinguished guests, with 
a civic parade on Wednesday, an old-fashioned Firemen's Muster on 
Thursday, and especial events for the children on Thursday, with fire- 
works in the evening. 

The 275th anniversary of the settlement of the town was observed 
by a celebration of great impressiveness and beauty on October 10 and 
11, 1915. The literary exercises were on Sunday afternoon, when the 
Governor of the Commonwealth brought the congratulations of the 
State and gave a stirring patriotic speech, and the mayor, Albert L. Bai't- 
lett, gave the historic address on "Haverhill: 1640 — 1915." An address 
was delivered in the evening by a former pastor of the city, the Rev. 
Nehemiah Boynton, D.D. On Monday there was a large civic parade, 
and, in the evening, a splendid display of fireworks at Riverside Park. 

Haverhill has been honored by the election of five of its citizens as 
members of Congress — Hon. Bailey Bartlett, who served from 1797 to 
1801; Hon. Leonard White, who served from 1811 to 1813; Hon. John 
Vamum, who sei'ved from 1826 to 1830; Hon. James H. Duncan, who 
served from 1848 to 1852 ; and Hon. William H. Moody, who served from 
1895 to 1902. The career of Mr. Moody, to whom the gates of succes- 
sive honors seemed to open easily until he attained the highest aim of his 
ambition, followed almost immediately by physical disability that lasted 
through long years when the body was helpless, while the mind was clear 
and active, was brilliant in its accomplishment and pathetic in its close. 
He was born in Newbury, December 23, 1853, the son of Henry Lord and 
Melissa Augusta (Emerson) Moody. From the public schools of Salem, 
to which city his parents had removed, he entered Phillips Academy, 
Andover, in 1870, and thence he went to Harvard College in 1872. In his 
earlier academic years he was more distinguished for interest in athletics 
than for scholarly attainment, but in his last year in college his intel- 
lectual ability manifested itself and he became the unquestioned leader 
of his class in scholarship and in that keenness and energy of mind that 
henceforth formed his most conspicuous attributes. After a course at 
the Harvard Law School, he entered the office of the Hon. Richard H. 
Dana, the author of "Two Years Before the Mast," an able and profound 
lawyer, and a scholarly gentleman, who knew with exactness the cour- 
tesies of the best society. Mr. Moody often expressed his great obliga- 



HAVERHILL 475 

tions to the training that he received from the influence of Mr. Dana. 
From this office he came to Haverhill and fornied a partnership first with 
Edwin N. Hill, and later with Hon. Joseph K. Jenness. In 1881 he foi-m- 
ed a partnership with Horace E. Bartlett which continued until the death 
of Judge Bartlett in December, 1899. 

In 1888 Mr. Moody was appointed city solicitor of the city of 
Haverhill, and later, he was elected district attorney. In November, 
1895, upon the death of General William Cogsv/ell, representative of the 
Sixth Massachusetts Congressional District, Mr. Moody was elected to 
fill the unexpired term. He served in the House of Representatives for 
seven years, moving rapidly into prominence and leadership, and attract- 
ing national attention as well as winning the high confidence and esteem 
of his associates. On March 10, 1902, President Roosevelt appointed 
him Secretaiy of the Navy, to succeed ex-Governor John L. Long. When 
he returned to Haverhill, after this appointment, the city gave him a 
greeting of the greatest warmth and enthusiasm. The whole city was 
aglow with illuminations, there was the music of bands, and salvos of 
cheers from the citizens crowding the streets. On the evening of March 
19 he was given a public reception at City Hall, and presented by the Hon. 
George H. Carleton, in behalf of the city, with an illuminated address, 
written by Albert L. Bartlett, expressing the pride of the city in the 
honors that had come to him. 

On July 1, 1904, he was transferred to the position of attorney- 
general, and on December 17, 1906, by President Roosevelt's appoint- 
ment, he became a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. 
Then, having reached through gi'eat ability and favoring fortune the 
high position to which he had long and honorably aspired, disease smote 
his body and, unconquerable, snapped his physical powers and compelled 
his resignation. Upon his retirement on October 4, 1910, Roosevelt said 
that there was no public servant whom the nation could so ill afford to 
lose. His illness continued progressively until death came to him July 
1, 1917. The funeral services in his home on July 5 were attended by 
distinguished men with whom he had been associated, ex-President Taft, 
Chief Justice White, Justice O, W^. Holmes, and others. His body was 
laid in the old burying ground of Newbury. 

The city charter, under which the city had been administered since 
its change from a town form of government in 1870, followed the form 
established in most New England cities, providing a mayor, a chamber 
of aldermen, one from each city ward, and a chamber of councilmen, two 
from each ward. As the years passed, there was increasing dissatisfac- 
tion with the charter, because politics so largely entered into the elec- 
tions and appointments, the administration was divided among many 
minor committees, and responsibility for mal-administration or extrava- 
gance could not easily be placed. There were several attempts to change 
the charter, but none of them was successful until 1908. In the winter 
of that year the distinguished ex-president of Harvard University, Dr. 
Charles W. Eliot, spoke to a large and representative company of men 
in the Portland Street Church on city administration, giving his strong 
approval to the commission foiTn of government as in operation in Des 
Moines, Iowa. The distinguishing features of this form were: (a) the 
absence of political and all other designations on the election ballots; 
(b) a primary election, practically a caucus, from the results of which the 
names of the two candidates for each office receiving the highest number 
of votes were alone placed on the city election ballot; (c) a small city 



476 ESSEX COUNTY 

council, consisting of a mayor and four aldermen, chosen at large; (d) 
each in charge of, and to a large extent, personally responsible for, one 
of the five departments into which the administration of the city was 
divided ; (e) employed at a moderate salary, but giving full time to the 
administration ; (f ) meeting as a council regularly, and being in constant 
association and conference; (g) the recall, by which, upon petition of a 
designated per cent, of the number of voters balloting at the last city 
election, the holder of an elective office might be removed ; (h) the refer- 
endum, by which, in like manner, a measure passed by the municipal 
council should be suspended from operation until submitted to the cit- 
izens and ratified by a majority vote of the qualified voters ; and (i) the 
initiative, by v/hich, similarly, the council might be directed to pass a 
measure originating outside of the council chamber. The simplicity and 
directness of this form of charter greatly appealed to those who listened 
to the speaker, and a little group of men, walking home from the meeting, 
decided to make an attempt to place Haverhill under such administra- 
tion. Committees were formed, many meetings of deliberation were 
held, the fullest publicity and discussion were given to the subject, and a 
nev/ charter was drawn by Judge John J. Winn, with the aid of certain 
advisors, which followed closely but not exactly the Des Moines one. A 
petition favoring this charter, signed by 2,225 voters, was presented to 
the Legislature, and this body granting its submission, it was adopted in 
special election on October 6, 1908, by a vote of 3,066 yeas against 2,242 
nays. Those who were opposed to its acceptance sought to have it de- 
clared unconstitutional upon five particulars, all having reference to the 
mode of election. These were (1) restricting the names printed on the 
city election ballot to the two receiving the highest number of votes in 
the primary election; (2) denying the right to place upon the election 
ballot the names of those nominated by nomination papers, or by a cau- 
cus ; (3) denying the right to have political or other designations upon the 
ballot; (4) requiring candidates to seek the office, that is, to file a sworn 
statement that he is a candidate for the specified office; (5) requiring 
men to accept an oflfice of uncertain tenure, with liability of being recalled. 
The Supreme Court unanimously decided against each of these conten- 
tions, and upheld the constitutionality of the Haverhill charter. In the 
first primary election under the new charter there were seven candidates 
for mayor, sixty-six for aldermen, and sixteen for school committee, but 
the voters chose with discrimination, and in the first city election made a 
choice that was satisfactory to the whole city. In the thirteen years of 
administration under this charter, there have been two attempts to 
change the charter, both with powerful backing and aided by the fullest 
publicity and advertising. These have been defeated by overwhelming 
majorities, showing that the charter has the confidence of the citizens. 
Its operation has been watched with great interest because Haverhill was 
the first city in the East to accept a charter free from political dictation 
and so radical in its provisions. 

The following is a list of those who have been honored by election 
as mayor of the city, in the order of their service, and with the years of 
their administration. Under the first charter: 1. 1870-1871, Warner R. 
Whittier; 2. 1872, Levi Taylor; 3. 1873-1874, James V. Smiley; 4. 
1875, Alpheus Currier; 5. 1876-1877, Joseph K. Jenness ; 6. 1878-1879, 
Nathan S. Kimball; 7. 1880-1881, Charies Shapleigh; 8. 1882-1883, 
Moses How; 9. 1884, Calvin H. Weeks ; 10. 1885, Joseph H. Sheldon ; 
11. 1886, Calvin H. Weeks; 12. 1887, Joseph H. Sheldon; 13. 1888, 



HAVERHILL 477 

George H. Carleton; 14. 1889, Fred G. Richards; 15. 1890-1892, 
Thomas E. Bumham; 16. 1893-1894, Oliver Taylor; 17. 1895, Samuel 
L. Jewett; 18. 1896-1897, Benjamin F. Brickett, died in office, April 10, 
1897; 19. 1897, Edwin H. Moulton; 20. 1898, Daniel S. Chase; 21. 
1899-1900, John C. Chase; 22. 1901-1902, Isaac Poor; 23. 1903, Park- 
man B. Flanders ; 24. 1904-1908, Roswell L. Wood. 

Under the second charter— 25. 1909-1914, Edwin H. Moulton ; 26. 
1915-1916, Albert L. Bartlett; 27. 1917-1918, Leslie K. Morse; 28. 
1919-1920, Charles H. Croy ; 29. 1921—, Parkman M. Flanders. 

Haverhill was one of the first towns in Massachusetts to establish a 
water-works system, being preceded only by Boston, 1652 ; Salem, 1795 ; 
and Worcester, 1798. The situation of the town, built mainly on lands 
lying closely by, or rising slightly from the banks of the Merrimack, with 
several large lakes lying not far distant and on higher locations, pre- 
sented a condition distinctly advantageous for the establishing of an 
aqueduct system. The pond lying by Mill street and known successively 
as Ayer's Pond, Mill Pond, Plug Pond, and now as Lake Saltonstall, has 
an elevation of 122 feet and covers 70 acres. At the southern outlet of 
this pond a plug dam was built in early years, from which the name that 
the pond long bore was derived. North of this and for many years tribu- 
tary to it lies Round Pond, with an elevation of 152 feet and containing 
80 acres. A hundred rods east of this lies the beautiful sheet of water 
long known as Great Pond, but christened in 1859 as Kenoza Lake, a 
name selected by the poet Whittier, who wrote for the occasion the 
poem, "Kenoza." 

"Lake of the pickerel! let no more 
The echoes answer back 'Great Pond,' 
But sweet Kenoza, from thy shore 
And watching hills beyond. 

"Kenoza! o'er no sweeter lake 
Shall morning break or noon cloud sail; 
No fairer form than thine shall take 
The sunset's golden veil." 

This lake has an elevation of 152 feet, and covers 225 acres. In the 
western part of the city, and three miles from its centre, is Crystal Lake, 
formerly designated as Merrie's Pond, Merrie's Creek Pond, and Creek 
Pond, ca<^ering 159 acres and with an elevation of 152 feet. 

In January, 1798, Timothy Osgood and others petitioned the Legis- 
lature to be allowed incorporation under the name of the Haverhill 
Aqueduct Company, for the purpose of "taking the water at & from the 
round pond, so called, in Haverhill & conveying it through the several 
streets of said Haverhill for the use & convenience of themselves and 
others who may be desirous of being concerned therein & for their 
greater use and convenience." Although there was opposition, the peti- 
tion was granted. The matter was held in abeyance, however, until 
1802, when the sentiment of the town was strongly in favor of the aque- 
duct. The company was organized, October 11, 1802, in Harrod's Tav- 
ern, which stood on the site of the present City Hall. Land rights were 
secured by payment of damages and an agreement that the grantors of 
the land should have the privilege "of taking water at all times out of 
said aqueduct sufficient to water their cattle." The first pipes were of 
green logs, bored through with a two-inch auger. After the water had 



478 ESSEX COUNTY 

been let on, the pressure was so great that the log pipes burst. This 
difficulty was solved by making a break in the pipe line and permitting 
the water to run into a reservoir, whence another pipe line ran out. 
This reservoir was placed nearly opposite the Unitarian church on Main 
street. In the early years the aqueduct was facetiously called the "River 
Jordan," because an old man named Jordan bored the logs, put them 
down, placed the faucets, thawed the stream when it was frozen, made 
out the bills, and collected the money. His home and place of business 
was at the comer of Main and Pond (now Kenoza avenue) streets. In 
1848, when the lines of the aqueduct were greatly extended, the log 
pipes were replaced by iron pipes. In 1867 it became apparent that the 
water supply from Round Pound was insufficient to supply the rapidly- 
growing town, and the company was authorized to use the waters of 
Plug Pond and Kenoza Lake. Connection was made immediately with 
Plug Pond, and in 1871, with Kenoza. 

About 1870 a company called the Silver Hill Aqueduct Company 
was fomied to supply the residents of the district called Mount Washing- 
ton with water. A brick well was constructed close by the Merrimack 
river and from this, by a windmill, the water was forced to a reservoir 
on land 160 feet higher, whence it was conducted by pipes to the resi- 
dences supplied. The rights and property of this company were sold in 
1879 to the Haverhill Aqueduct Company. In the same year the latter 
company erected a standpipe on Kenoza avenue, and began to supple- 
ment the gravity system, hitherto used, by a high-service system. After 
the great fire of February 18, 1882, high-service pipes were laid for fire 
protection. In 1882 the company acquired the mill sites on the stream 
flov/ing from Crystal Lake, and in 1884 the Legislature granted the right 
to use the water of this lake. The company immediately laid a 16-inch 
cement pipe from the lake to the city. 

In 1884 there was an agitation for the acquirement of the aqueduct 
plant by the city, and hearings were held by a committee of the city 
government, but no definite action towards this result was taken until 
1890. In that year a committee of investigation was appointed, and in 
the following year the formal order of taking was passed by both branches 
of the city government, and this order was approved by the mayor, June 
10, 1891. A commission of three was appointed by the Supreme Judicial 
Court to determine the price to be paid. The company made a claim for 
$3,000,000, but the commission fixed the price to be paid as $637,500, 
with interest from July 6, 1891, the city to pay the fees of the commis- 
sioners, amounting to $7,655. The total cost to the city of the hearings, 
including experts and counsel fees, was $22,000. The water commis- 
sioners early acquired 623 acres of land, around its storage basin and 
Lake Kenoza, at a cost of $157,432, a portion of which is under the con- 
trol of the Park Commission, forming beautiful Winnekenni Park. In 
1894-5 the Millvale storage basin was constructed by damming East 
Meadow river. This has a capacity of 118,000,000 gallons, and the 
water from this is pumped through a 24-inch pipe into Kenoza Lake, a 
distance of one mile. In 1897, when the town of Bradford became a 
part of the municipality of Haverhill, the water commission took in 
charge the water system of that place. The source of this supply is 
Johnson's Pond, having an area of 22 acres. From this the water is 
pumped into a reservoir of 1,000,000 gallons capacity, and is conveyed 
by high pressure service. 

The board of water commissioners consists of five members, each 



HAVERHILL 479 

serving for five years, elected by the municipal council, and having full 
charge of all matters connected with the department. The chairman 
alone is paid, the other members serving gratuitously; the administra- 
tion of the board has been since its first formation of high character and 
excellent ability. 

The response of Haverhill to patriotic calls has ever been inrnie- 
diate and full, and in the Spanish War, the Mexican Border War, and 
the World War her sons have freely offered themselves to their country. 
On February 15, 1898, the United States Battleship Maine was destroyed 
in the harbor of Havana, Cuba, by a submarine mine, as the investigat- 
ing committee officially declared. The relations between the United 
States and Spain grew more and more tense until they were severed on 
April 21. On that day the Senate passed a bill for a volunteer army of 
100,00(r men, and the North Atlantic Squadron sailed to blockade the 
harbor of Havana. The President's call for volunteers was issued April 
23, and on April 25 President McKinley made official declaration that a 
state of war with Spain had existed since April 21. 

As soon as war seemed imminent, measures were taken to fill to its 
full complement the local company. Company F of the 8th Massachusetts 
Volunteer Militia. The officers of this company were Captain, Will C. 
Dow ; 1st Lieutenant, O. W. Svanberg (of Amesbury) ; 2nd Lieutenant, 
David E. Jewell ; 1st Sergeant, David F. Whittier. There was a rumor 
that the company was to be called on Tuesday, April 26, and the city was 
full of excitement on that morning, but it was not until May 4 that the 
order to move was received. On May 5 the departure of the company 
occurred. The address of farewell was given by the mayor, Daniel S. 
Chase, at the foot of the Common, where in years long past, the Revolu- 
tionaiy minute men and the Civil War volunteers had been given their 
God-speed, and with an, escort of police and of the veterans of the G. A. 
R. and other oragnizations, a procession was made through streets to the 
railway station. The company went into camp at Camp Dewey in 
Framingham, and thence they went to Camp Thomas at Chickamauga, 
and later to Cuba. 

In the War of the Mexican Border the same procedure was practi- 
cally repeated. The call of twelve strokes on the fire bells, repeated 
three times, on the morning of June 19, 1916, summoned Company F, 
8th Regiment, M. V. M., to assemble at the armory on Kenoza avenue, to 
prepare to entrain for the South Framingham camp, there to await or- 
ders to proceed to the border. The officers were Captain, Charles H. 
Morse ; Lieutenant, John D. Hardy ; 1st Sergeant, George A. Colloton. 

A year later the entrance of the United States into the World War 
made strong and serious demands upon the young life and all of the ener- 
gies and resources of Haverhill, as it did of all other patriotic communi- 
ties. On the morning of July 27, 1917, Batteiy A, Second Massachu- 
setts Field Artillery, which had been recruited in Haverhill, left for the 
Boxford training camp under these officers : Captain Charles H. Morse, 
Lieutenants Benjamin P. Harwood and William H. Root; 2nd Lieuten- 
ants George W. Langdon and Percy L. Wendell ; 1st Sergeant Albert L. 
Houle; while, a short time later. Company F, commanded by Captain 
John D. Hardy; 1st Lieutenant George A. Colloton; 2nd Lieutenant 
John B. Peaslee; 1st Sergeant Harry C. Davis (of Merrimac), and num- 
bering 150 men, was taken bj'^ autos to the camp at Lynnfield. 

No attempt can be made in this limited article to give the history of 
the participation of Haverhill in the World War, nor to name those who 



480 • ESSEX COUNTY 

placed above all else the call of their country, and offered life, service 
and substance to win the victory. All activities, the recruiting of troops, 
the draft board service, the Red Cross, the Liberty Loans, all movements, 
were fully met and with the willing spirit, and the sacrifices and losses 
touched the whole city. More than 4100 young men were enrolled in 
the army and the navy, and more than one hundred gave their lives in 
sacrifice, while more than one hundred were cited for bravery. 

The population of Haverhill, census of 1920, is 53,884 ; its valuation, 
1921, is $64,890,531. The annual appropriation for all purposes is $2,- 
016,374 ; for municipal administration solely, $1,700,129. For the schools 
the appropriation is $587,000, or 34 per cent, of the total for administra- 
tion. The schools are administered by a force of nearly 300 supervisors 
and instructors. The number of pupils in the high school is approxi- 
mately 1,700, and in all the schools above 8,000. 

The fire department consists of the chief engineer, four assistant 
engineers, and seventy-four firemen. There are, in addition, two village 
companies, one in Ayer's Village and one in Rock's Village. The de- 
partment is completely motorized. The appropriation for this depart- 
ment, 1921, is $172,835. The police department consists of a marshal, 
deputy-marshal, and fifty-nine other members, and a reserve force of 
sixteen. The department is motorized, and has two motorcycle police. 
Since 1916 a police woman has been a member of the department, and 
has done excellent preventive and reformatoiy work in addition to other 
duties. The appropriation for this department is $123,942. 

The city cares for its sick and injured by the General Stephen Henry 
Gale Hospital, instituted in 1916, for which the appropriation is $104,- 
000 ; the Tuberculosis Hospital, for which the appropriation is $24,579, 
and a dispensary, for which the appropriation is $4,765 ; the Contagious 
Hospital, for which the appropriation is $21,900; the Hale Hospital, a 
public institution, administered by a board of trustees ; an infirmary con- 
nected with the City Farm; and a general Board of Health, equipped 
with nurses, school physicians, and school dentists. 

The Public Library is one of the most serviceable in the State, and 
is most liberal in its provisions for lending. A system of branch libraries 
reaches each school in the city, and theie are large and important public 
branches in Bradford and in Washington Square. The library is especial- 
ly rich in works of art and rare books, and its collection of editions, 
pamphlets, fugitive articles, pictures, and material relating to the poet 
Whittier is probably the most complete one in existence. The birth- 
place of Whittier, the scene of many of his poems, and world-known as 
the scene of the New England idyll, "Snow-Bound," is owned by the 
Whittier Association, and is preserved as a typical New England farm- 
homestead of the early nineteenth century. Its furnishings are those 
used by the family of the poet, the old kitchen being in this respect of 
especial interest. The extensive grounds are kept in the simple, homely 
style of Whittier's boyhood days. The house and grounds are open to 
the public. 

In the limited space in this volume accorded to the city of Haver- 
hill, I have sought to present the outstanding matters of interest in the 
history of the place. But in every year of its existence there have been 
matters and occurrences worthy of being related, for which there is not 
room here, and its civic life has been constantly emiched by men and 
women of high character and lofty purposes and untiring energy, whose 
biogiaphies are deserving of record: 



HAVERHILL 481 

"And never in the hamlet's bound 
Was lack of sturdy manhood found; 
And never failed the kindred good 
Of brave and helpful womanhood." 

To write these would make this article far transcend the bounds set 
for it, while not to wiite them occasions deep regret. For necessary- 
omissions, the writer of this article craves forgiveness, while he writes, 
as the last line, the prayer of Whittier, "I pray God bless the good old 
town." 

Here concludes Mr. Albert L. Bartlett's excellent narrative. 

In addition to the well-written description, or rather, story, of 
Haverhill, by Hon. Albert L. Bartlett, other important facts in the his- 
tory and detailed development of the city follow. From a publication 
put out in 1919, by the Haverhill Chamber of Commerce, the same having 
been written by Daniel N. Casey, secretary of that body, this is found rela- 
tive to the city's growth : 

Haverhill is the fastest-growing shoe city, and in the period from 1909 to 1914, 
which was the last taken by the census of this State, Haverhill made a net g^in 
of thirteen shoe manufacturing establishments, leading all other competing shoe 
centres in the number of concerns gained in this period. In that five years also, 
Haverhill gained a total of fifty-two manufacturing establishments, and in 1919 
had a total of nearly four hundred industrial plants. Haverhill has more in- 
dividual shoe manufacturing concerns than any other city on the North American 
continent, about one hundred and thirty-five firms being devoted to the manufactui^e 
of boots and shoes. Haverhill is also a center for the cut-stock trade, there being 
about one hundred and forty firms engaged in this line. Worsted goods, hats, 
morocco goods, leather, box-board, wooden and paper boxes are also produced in 
Haverhill. Haverhill for a long time was known strictly as a woman's shoe center, 
and is today the slipper city of the world. Her manufacturers have also gone into 
the production of other lines of footwear, so that now Haverhill is producing twenty- 
five million pairs of shoes a year' for men, women and children in turns, welts, and 
McKays. 

The growth of Haverhill in all lines, particularly in the last ten years, has been 
steady. Haverhill has added an average of one thousand persons a year to her 
population in the past decade, has built an average of a modem shoe factory a 
year in the past ten years, and in the last five years has added seven and one-half 
million dollars to the value of her manufactured products, while her building per- 
mits have averaged close to a million and a half every year. New concerns and 
complete store alterations have naturally followed and 2,000 tenements and homes 
have been built. Gas in Haverhill in 1919 is eighty cents per thousand feet. Elec- 
tricity for lighting is eleven cents kw. hour, Avith a power rate as low as any 
in the State. Haverhill has forty miles of street car trackage. It has an area of 
thirty-two square miles. There are two general hospitals, a tuberculosis and a 
contagious hospital. Sixty trains a day arrive and depart from Haverhill depot, on 
the main line of the Boston & Maine. Direct express service to Boston and express 
direct to New York. Haverhill has four national banks, a trust company, three 
savings and two co-operative banks. Settler in 1640, made a city in 1870, Haver- 
hill has a population of 53,000. 

Albert M. Child, secretary of the Haverhill Shoe Manufacturers' 
Association, two years ago had an article published, from which many of 

Essex — 31 



482 ESSEX COUNTY 

the subjoined points have been extracted, showing, as they do, much 
that is relative to Haverhill's great and growing industry : 

-When we study the history of shoemaking, we find it to be one of the first 
industries to be taken up in Haverhill, after John Ward and his band of adventurous 
spirits paddled up the Merrimac in 1640 and settled in the most beautiful spot which 
their eyes beheld upon its banks. From making shoes for themselves, then for 
their neighbors and then on and on, the industry grew, until in the fifties and 
sixties, the city was developing into a Shoe City, reaching that distinction when 
receiving its city charter in 1870; and in the summer of that year proving that 
fact, when her shoe manufacturers entertained upon the eastern shore of Lake 
Kenoza shoe buyers from eveiy State in the Union, bringing them from Boston by 
spcial train, banqueting them in the "Old Stone House" and returning them to Bos- 
ton. Haverhill shoe manufacturers of 1870 knew and practiced successful methods 
of making, advertising and selling their goods. Their successors, with this in- 
herited knowledge, have, with infinite study, acquired the highest ability in devising 
new styles and fancy combinations to attract and please the buyer. Her shoe 
workers are born to the business, growing up in it, trained in it; employers and em- 
ployes thinking, talking, dreaming and making shoes. So Haverhill well merits its 
acknowledged position as the "Leading Slipper City of the V^orld." The Cham- 
ber of Commerce slogan, "Haverhill Shoes Tread the Carpets of the Globe," is just 
as true as though stated in less-thrilling language. 

In 187G at the Philadelphia Centennial, an exhibition of shoes by a local firm, 
Hazen B. Goodrich & Co., won a medal for unsurpassed style and workmanship. 
Although the style was the square toe and low heel of the period, the workmanship 
cannot be bettered today. 

In 1919, the value of men's shoes made was $6,000,000. From the State statis- 
tics in 1914 — seven years ago — Haverhill had 126 manufacturing establishments de- 
voted exclusively to the making of boots and shoes. The capital invested was 
approximately $9,500,000; the value of the stock and material was $14,569,417; and 
the amount of wages paid $6,318,254, while the value of the products reached $25,- 
319,953. 

In 1916 the Bureau of Statistics for Massachusetts had these figures on the 
various industries of Haverhill: Number of factory institutions, 364; capital in- 
vested, $20,496,000; value of stock and material used, $28,000,000; wages paid that 
year, $8,598,000; average yearly earnings, $643.96; number males employed, 8,832; 
females employed 4,521; value of products, $44,000,000. These industries were 
classed as follows: Boot and shoe cut stock and findings, 135 concerns; boots and 
shoes, 119; boxes, fancy and paper, 6; bread and bakery products, 18; cutlery and 
tools, 4; foundry and machine shop, models and patterns, 6; tobacco manufac- 
turers, 4; other industries, 67. 

In 1861, or more than three-score years ago, George Wingate Chase 
wrote a small volume devoted to the history of Haverhill, in which is 
found this description of the shoe making industry of the town, from the 
earliest date. This is all the more interesting when one learns that about 
one-seventh of all the value in foot-wear in the United States comes from 
the present-day factories of Haverhill, for these great plants have their 
salesmen in all civilized countries of the entire globe. (Beginning on 
page 532 of the work just named, this article reads as follows) : 

The first shoemaker in the town was doubtless Andrew Greeley, who came here 
in 1646, and some of his descendants still reside here and are engaged in the shoe 



HAVERHILL 483 

business. From the above date until within the present century (Eighteenth), 
shoemaking was confined almost exclusively to the wants of our own community. 
Shoes were not made up in quantities and kept on hand for sale, like most kinds 
of goods at the present day; much less were they manufactured for the foreign 
trade. The time is almost vidthin the memory of persons living (1861), when it 
was the common custom, outside the villages, for shoemakers to "whip the stump"; 
i.e., go from house to house, stopping at each long enough to make up a year's 
supply of shoes for the family. Farmers usually kept a supply of leather on hand 
for the family use and in many cases they were their own cobblers. Sometimes a 
farmer was also a shoemaker for the whole neighborhood, and worked at it on rainy 
days and during the winter months. 

In the villages, the "Village Cobbler", or shoemaker, gradually came to keep a 
little stock of leather on hand, and to exchange shoes with the farmer, tanners 
and traders, and others for produce, leather, foreign goods, etc. In this village, as 
late as 1794, there is said to have been but two shoemakers. Robert Willis remem- 
bers being in the shop of Enoch Marsh, in that year, when the latter was making a 
pair of shoes for Captain Benjamin Willis — of the privateer brig Betsey — between 
the soles of which a layer of gold pieces was placed. The precaution proved to 
have been timely, as the brig was captured the same voyage. 

In the course of time, store-keepers began to keep a few shoes on hand for 
sale. This grew out of the barter system of trade, then so common. They bartered 
with the shoemaker for shoes; bartered the shoes with the back country farmers 
for produce, and then bartered the produce for English and West India goods. 

In 1795, Moses Gale, of Haverhill, advertised that he had "several thousand 
fresh dry hides" which he would exchange for shoes, and would give credit until 
the shoes could be made from the same hides. This is the earliest authentic in- 
formation we have found of what might be called a wholesale shoe business in town. 
From this time on, the manufacture of shoes was regular and grew rapidly. Among 
the earliest to engage in this line were Moses and James Atwood, who also kept a 
store in the village. During the war of 1812, the first named sent a wagon load 
of shoes to Philadelphia, on which he realized a handsome profit. Later Mr. At- 
wood moved to Philadelphia and founded the first wholesale shoe house of that 
city. 

Phineas Webster was of the earliest, if not the very first, who made the whole- 
sale manufacture of shoes his business; this commenced in 1815. At first he ex- 
changed most of his shoes in Danvers for morocco and leather. The Danvers 
tanners and curriers packed their shoes in barrels, sugar boxes, tea chests and 
hogsheads, without regard to size or quality, then shipped them to Philadelphia 
and Baltimore, where they were exchanged for produce. 

In March, 18?2, there were twenty-eight shoe factories in Haverhill, viz: Jacob 
Caldwell, Caldwell & Pierce, Anthony Chase, Tappan & Chase, Samuel Tappan, 
Charles Davis, Benjamin Emerson, Jesse Emmerson, Samuel George, Joseph Gree- 
ley, Gubtal & Haseltine, Harmon & Kimball, Moses Haynes, Caleb Hersey, Kelly 
& Chase, Richard Kimball, Oliver P. Lake, Thomas Meady, James Noyes, Peter 
Osgood, Page & Kimball, Daniel S. Perley, Job Tyler, Isiah Webster, David Whit- 
taker, Whittier & George, John Woodman. The first morocco used here came from 
Newburyport and Danvers. The first morocco dressed here was by Jesse Harding. 

In 1836, Rufus Slocumb, who ran the first Une to Boston that year, made one 
hundred and fourteen trips, taking from Haverhill in all, that year, 26,955 cases 
of shoes, amounting to nine hundred and nine tons. 

In 1837, Haverhill had forty-two shops running, and fourteen tanneries and 
leather dealers. In 1857 the place had ninety shoe factories, eighty-two of which 
were in the center of the place; also eighteen inner sole and stiffening factories. 
The Boston & Maine railroad books show that these were the shipments for three 



484 ESSEX COUNTY 

decades : In 1850 there were shipped 46,000 cases ; in 1855 there were 59,984 and in 
1860, it reached 67,856 cases of shoes shipped out of the place. 

The latest City Directory gives the following list of factories as 
connected with the shoe trade in Haverhill : Box factories, nine ; black- 
ing-makers, four; last manufactories, two; leather-board makers, four; 
leather dealers, fifty-one; leather manufacturers, three; morocco manu- 
facturers, two ; wooden heels shops, sixteen. The number of individual 
companies or firms in the shoe business in the city is one hundred and 
forty. The sum total of value of boots and shoes made in Haverhill in 
1920 was $30,000,000. 

Not alone in the manufacture of shoes has Haverhill been noted as 
an industrial center. As early as 1747, a hatter named Jonathan Web- 
ster engaged in the manufacture of hats for men and boys. Other early 
hatters were Nathan Webster, Isaac How, John Ayer, John A. Houston 
& Co., the last-named company were employing fifteen men in 1861. 
Two hundred and fifty dozen hats were being made each month at that 
date. The products were carted to Boston and Salem. Some were 
taken on horseback and others in one-horse carts. They were made of 
beaver fur, and some of muskrat hides, as well as others of raccoon fur, 
the last named being "every day" hats. The best fur hats sold at $7 
each and lasted a lifetime. At one time this was a big industry in Haver- 
hill. 

When the Chamber of Commerce for Haverhill published its booklet 
setting forth the advantages of the city in 1918-19, it recited Postmaster 
L. F. McNamara's account of the postal affairs of Haverhill, and the 
same will here follow: 

Doing an annual business of more than $140,000, and employing over one 
hundred people in the transmission of its! business, the Haverhill postofRce must 
be considered a most important link in HaverhiU's industry. Haverhill is a first- 
class postoffice and enjoys practically all of the postal advantages of the larger cen- 
ters. Mails are received and dispatched at all hours during the day and night, and 
eleven contract stations, dependent upon the Haverhill postoffice, are so estab- 
lished that they render convenient service to all the citizens. 

In 1893 the erection of the present postoffice building, in Washington Square, 
was begun and was finished and occupied the following year. The cost was $75,- 
000. The land on which the postoffice stands is part of the original grant of 
two hundred acres of parsonage land, which was granted as pasture land, to Rev. 
John Ward, the first minister of Haverhill. On this lot also was set the first 
engine-house erected in Haverhill, this latter having been built in 1783. 

The postoffice has kept pace with the growth of the city. September 1, 1882, 
Haverhill was given its first letter carriers, and at that time there were but five. 
Today Haverhill has thirty-nine regular and ten substitute carriers, thirty-four 
regular and six substitute clerks and four rural carriers. There are three branch 
offices in Groveland, South Groveland and Georgetown. The eleven contract sta- 
tions include East Haverhill, and Ayers Village. There are nine numbered stations, 
and one independent station in the Bradford district. 

In the last ten years, while Haverhill has been growing ten thousand people, 
the revenue of the postoffice has nearly doubled. For the calendar year ending 1906 



HAVERHILL 485 

the receipts were $78,439.40, and for the calendar year ending January 1, 1917, the 
receipts were $143,926.75. May 1, 1917, there were 364 depositors in the postal 
savings department and there were $59,625 to their credit. There are about 200 
mail boxes in the city proper and suburbs. 

Midnight collections are made from all boxes in the principal residential and 
business districts, and clerks are on duty all night, dispatching these mails on the 
early morning train. Two parcel post teams are operated all the time, and several 
special delivery boys are employed to handle this special matter. The present 
postmaster, appointed in 1913, succeeded Charles M. Hoyt, who was appointed in 
1909. Clarence B. Lagacy is assistant postmaster, Nelson R. Foss has charge of the 
finances, George L. Kelly is superintendent and John J. Cronin is assistant superin- 
tendent of mails. 

The records from 1900 to 1917 show many interesting features, in- 
cluding these: Highest temperature recorded, 104 degrees on July 4, 
1911. Lowest temperature recorded, 17 degrees below zero, on Febru- 
ary 12, 1914. The average yearly precipitation has been a fraction more 
than thirty-eight inches. Greatest precipitation in 1900, when it was 
forty-eight inches. The least precipitation was in 1914, when it was 
only twenty-eight inches. The average snowfall is fifty inches, but in 
1916 it was one hundred inches. The least snowfall in any one year 
was in 1913, when it was less than twenty inches. Greatest velocity of 
wind was in 1915, on December 27, when it was eighty-five miles per 
hour. 

According to the United States census statistics, Haverhill had a 
population fro ml764 as follows : In 1764, estimated, 1,920 ; 1800, 2,730 ; 
1820, 3,070 ; 1840, 4,336 ; 1850, 5,754 ; in 1860, 10,000 ; 1870, 13,092 ; 1880, 
18,472 ; 1900, 37,175 ; 1910, 44,115 ; 1920, 53,884. The area of the city 
is 21,985 acres, or more than 34 square miles. It has 140 miles of pub- 
lic streets, 75 miles of private streets, 60 miles of public sewers, 116 miles 
of main water pipe, 91 miles of gas pipe mains, and 35 miles of street rail- 
way track. 

In 1860 the assessed value of Haverhill was $5,450,000 ; today it is 
almost fifty million dollars. 

Many years ago, Haverhill had its popular (for those times) Board 
of Trade, which was reorganized in May, 1901, with less than one hun- 
dred members. It served well its purpose, and in 1916 its name was 
changed to that of the Chamber of Commerce. It now has a member- 
ship of over one thousand. Among its accomplishments may be named 
these : It started the factory building project in 1902, under the corporate 
name of Haverhill Building Association ; it brought its influence to bear 
on the introduction of a new street lighting system in 1913 and helped 
raise $10,000 for this purpose. It has worked, in season and out of sea- 
son, to bring about the Merrimac river waterway project, by which 
Haverhill will be able to load and unload large freight boats at her wharfs. 
The train service has been much improved by reason of the work of the 
Chamber of Commerce. In 1917 a traflBc bureau was escablished. In 



486 ESSEX COUNTY 

brief, it may be said that this Chamber exemplifies the saying, "In Union 
there is strength." Among its earlier officers, after it was known as 
Chamber of Commerce, were these : Charles C. Chase, president ; Charles 
H. Dole, Charles N. Kelly, vice-presidents ; George A. Childs, treasurer ; 
Daniel L. Casey, secretary. To these men is due much of the credit of 
properly founding this Chamber of Commerce, and such is and will ever 
be recognized by thoughtful business men of Haverhill. These men took 
up a work begun by the first Board of Trade, which was formed in 1888, 
and put the modem touch to many business relations of Haverhill with 
its city interests, as well as making friends with the great busy outside 
world. 

The Haverhill Public Library was founded in 1873 by the Hon. E. 
J. M. Hale, who offered the land for the site, and $30,000 on condition 
that, if the city accepted the gift, a board of trustees should be appointed 
by the Mayor and City Council, a further sum of $30,000 should be fur- 
nished by friends of the movement, and the city government should pay 
the current expenses. This offer the city accepted, and $37,155.55 was 
raised by public subscription. The building was opened November 18, 
1875, with Edward Capen, of Boston, as librarian. It then had 20,962 
volumes, costing $18,000. The cost of the building was $50,000. Hav- 
erhill then had a population of 15,000. Mr. Hale made many gifts to 
the library in his life, and at death willed an endowment of $100,000, 
half for maintenance and half for new books. Other bequests were 
made by James E. Gale, Mrs. Caroline G. Ordway, Herbert I. Ordway, 
James H. Carleton, Nathaniel E. Noyes, Matilda T. Elliott, Jonathan E. 
Pecker and Elizabeth C. Ames. The total amount of endowment in 1918 
was $157,829.72. At the date last named there were 108,000 volumes 
in the library, and it ranked eighth in Massachusetts among the free city 
libraries. This is the largest public library in New England, north of 
Boston, and, with the exception of Northampton, is the largest public 
library in the United States in cities of the size of Haverhill. About 
five thousand volumes are added yearly, and there are nearly three hun- 
dred periodicals and newspapers on file. Here one sees some rare and 
beautiful paintings and works of art. It has a collection of "first edi- 
tions" of John G. Whittier, and books about him, that are the largest 
and most valuable of the Whittier collections in any city. This library 
is of great value to the students of the public schools and Bradford Acad- 
emy. Indeed, it is a befitting monument to the giver, who passed from 
earth's noble activities in 1881. 

Haverhill is now a fine type of an American city. In 1869, by a 
vote of 671 yeas to 141 nays, the act establishing the city of Haverhill 
was adopted. January 3, 1870, the first city government was instituted, 
with Hon. Warren R. Whittier as mayor. On November 2, 1896,, Brad- 
ford was annexed to Haverhill by mutual consent. This had been tried 
on two previous dates — once in 1869 and again in 1872, but the measure 



HAVERHILL 487 

failed of passage. In October, 1908, a new city charter, founded on the 
commission plan of city government, was adopted at a special election, 
and under such form of city government the city is still canied on suc- 
cessfully. While it is styled the "Commission Plan," it is not, in fact, 
that kind of a municipal government; although patterned thereafter, it 
lacks several of the important features of such city government. In 
1916, a member of the Council wrote this concerning the form of govern- 
ment: "The governing body of the City of Haverhill, styled the 'Munici- 
pal Council,' is composed of a mayor and four aldermen elected at large 
and without political designations, for terms of two years. In theory, 
at least, it is supposed to be continuously on duty for the transaction of 
the city's business, as indicated by some of the terms of the charter, by 
the amounts of the salaries paid the council ($2,500 to the mayor and 
$1,800 to the aldermen), and by the absence of any expressed power to 
delegate any duties." 

The following includes the present (1921) municipal officers for the 
city: Mayor — Parkman B. Flanders, term expires 1923. Aldermen — 
George W. Munsey, Jr., Albert L. Bartlett, George L. Martin, Horace M. 
Sargent ; president of the council, George W. Munsey, Jr. School Com- 
mittee — Mayor Parkman B. Flanders, president ; Herman E. Lewis, Otis 
J. Carleton, Fannie P. Kimball, Herman E. Lewis, Gertrude H. Brackett; 
secretary of school board and superintendent of schools, Albert L. Bar- 
bour. City clerk, William W. Roberts ; assistant clerk, Robert H. Quim- 
by; auditor of accounts, Arthur E. Leach; treasurer and collector of 
taxes, Arthur T. Jacobs ; superintendent of highways, Jesse J. Prescott ; 
city engineer, Louis C. Lawton ; superintendent of street lights, Stephen 
W. Howe; city solicitor, Frederick H. Magison; city physician. Dr. Leroy 
T. Stockes; clerk of overseers of poor, Frank B. Morse; assessors, Fred 
L. Bennett (chairman), Harry P. Morse, James D. McGregor; superin- 
tendent of parks, Henry Frost ; chief engineer of fire department, John B. 
Gordon. 

Since 1880, the tax rate per year on a thousand dollars has been 
$20.90, the lowest being $15.80, in 1891, and the highest $26, in 1919. 
In 1919 the total number of polls in the city was 15,012 ; valuation of real 
estate and personal property, as shown by the last city report published, 
$49,306,937. 

From an article prepared in 1919, on the Haverhill Fire Department, 
by Chief Engineer John B. Gordon, the following facts have been gleaned : 

The first fire company here was organized on Washington's Birthday, 1768, 
when a fire club was formed and four wardens were chosen. In 1769 a company 
was formed for the purpose of securing an engine, and such an engine was bought 
during that year at a cost of $192. Cornelius Mansise was captain. An engine 
house was erected in 1783. The first fire recorded in the annals of the town was 
the burning in 1761 of a thatched house owned by Matthias Brittons, of Kenoza 
avenue. The third engine was purchased by subscription in 1819, and cost $400. 
Up to 1841 the fire clubs were self-governed and received no pay, save exemption 



488 ESSEX COUNTY 

from poll tax. It was during 1841 that a regular, legali2ed fire department was 
formed by an act signed by the governor. Ezekiel Hale was first chief elected and 
held office until 1845. A hook and ladder company was formed in 1860. The first 
"steamer" was bought in Haverhill in 1866; it was named "(General Grant." The 
first serious fire in the shoe district occurred at three p. m. on Sunday, November 16, 
1873. Estimates placed the loss at $175,000. But the great fire of Haverhill was 
dated February 17 and 18, 1882. Alarm was sounded at about midnight, and the 
storm was loud and temperature stinging cold. At two o'clock in the morning both 
sides of Washington street, as well as a part of Wingate and Essex streets, were in 
flames. Many houses over in Bradford caught fire from huge cinders flying across 
the river. The property loss amounted to $2,000,000, ten acres were burned over, 
but only one human life was sacrificed, that of a member of the fire company. 

Haverhill had its first chemical engine in the seventies, and the Gamewell fire 
alarm system was placed in the city in 1883. There have been twenty-one fire 
chiefs in this city since Ezekiel Hale in 1841-45. The one appointed in 1893, John 
B. Gordon, was still at his post in 1919. In all that is excellent, both in men and 
equipment, for a fire company, Haverhill has among the best. 

Happy indeed should any city be when it has an abundant supply of 
good, pure, clear water. In this respect Haverhill is fortunate. In 
1802 there were only sixteen other communities in the United States 
with a water works system, and in Canada there was none. The Haver- 
hill Aqueduct Company was organized at a hotel, which then stood where 
now stands the City Hall. This was the commencement of a local water 
supply. In 1891 this property was taken over by the city at a cost of 
$720,504. The Bradford water plant became the property of Haverhill 
at the date of Bradford being annexed to Haverhill in 1896. The supply 
comes from never-failing spring lakes within a few miles' radius of Hav- 
erhill. A report made December, 1916, shows that the city had 117 miles 
of main pipe ; 8,005 service taps ; 1,477 stop-gates, 461 hydrants ; the daily 
consumption was 5,857,000 gallons, or 116 gallons to each inhabitant. 

Haverhill has had many church organizations since the days of its 
first settlement. It has many still. Harmony has not always obtained 
here; even congregations of the same faith and church polity have not 
lived in harmony at all times ; one faction has withdrawn and founded a 
second or sometime a third church. But as the years have come and 
gone, nearer a true state of harmony has come to be noticed in church 
life of the Protestant faith. Other histories of Haverhill and Essex 
county have recorded much concerning the early societies and their bit- 
ter strifes, hence the matter will not be gone into in detail in this His- 
tory. It may be well, however, to give a brief outline of some of the 
churches, when organized, etc., before dwelling upon developments dur- 
ing the last thirty years. 

But first let it be said that the prominent church organizations in 
Haverhill have been formed as follows : The First Parish church, under 
Pastor Dudley Phelps, had a separation of its ninety-one members, and 
this was the cause of the formation of the Centre Congregational Church. 
As a consequence the parish has ever since been Unitarian. These 
struggles have also existed in the West, North and East parishes, but suf- 



HAVERHILL 489 

fice merely to mention the fact in this connection. The Second Baptist 
Society was organized in the East Parish in 1821. The Riverside Con- 
gregational church was an offshoot from the Fourth Congregational, or 
old East Parish Church. The First Universalist Church was organized 
May 17, 1823, and built its first meeting-house in 1825, on Summer 
street. Several talented men have been preachers in this church. The 
Winter Street Congregational Church had a brilliant but short career — 
1839 to 1860. The Third Baptist Church was organized in 1858, and the 
Free- Will Baptist was formed the same year. In 1860 the latter society 
purchased the meeting house of the Winter Street Congregational So- 
ciety, which had about that date abandoned its activities. The South 
Christian Church was organized April 9, 1806. In 1887 it had over one 
hundred members. 

Concerning the Catholic churches in Haverhill, it may be stated 
that Mass was celebrated in September, 1850, by Rev. John T. McDon- 
nell. The first Catholic church building was dedicated in 1852. It was 
greatly enlarged in 1859. 

January 22, 1888, the public were invited to attend divine worship 
at the following churches and places of gathering : Trinity, Episcopal ; 
West Parish, Congregational; First Parish, Unitarian; Mt. Washington 
Baptist ; Fourth Congregational, (East Parish) ; Church of Christ, 
Grand Army Hall; Wesley Church; St. James' Catholic Church; St. 
Joseph French Catholic Church; Second Baptist, Rocks Village; Grace; 
Portland Street Church ; Salvation Army ; Centre Church ; First Baptist ; 
Church of St. John the Evangelist ; Riverside Church ; South Christian ; 
First Spiritualist Society, Unity Hall ; Advent Christian, Walnut street ; 
North Church; Winter Street Free Baptist; Calvary Baptist, Ashland 
street. Thirty-one years later, 1921, Rev. Francis W. Holden wrote on 
the churches of Haverhill under the head of "A Glimpse at the Religious 
History of Haverhill Since 1890," as follows : 

For a population of over fifty thousand, Haverhill has none too many churches 
and not enough religious workers. Relig^ion is too important a factor in life to be 
set aside for other pleasure or business, as has been the tendency during the years 
just past. Let the people again turn to religion and the church as a first duty, 
and many of the questions which now seem to be hard problems will vanish. 

Religion measured by denominations during the last thirty years has undergone 
but little change in Haverhill. The Christian Science movement is the only form 
of religious expression that is in the city now that was not here thirty years ago. 
The denomination has two societies, one of which has a small church, the other 
worships in a hall. The Spiritualists, though a somewhat older movement in the 
city, have divided themselves into three small organizations, and hold their services 
of worship in halls. The latest movement along religious lines is that of the 
Bahai, but as yet it has not taken upon itself distinct organization. For the real 
strength of religious influence now, as in the past, one must know the religious his- 
tory of the older and well-established churches. 

The oldest church in the city is the First Parish, commonly known as the 
Unitarian church. There are ten churches of the Congregational denomination, 
nine of them have ministers; one is a colored church. 



490 ESSEX COUNTY 

The second oldest denomination is the Baptist; this denomination has five 
churches, one of which is colored; all have ministers. Therel are also two Epis- 
copal churches, each having a minister. There are two Universalist churches, one 
of which is active and whose minister serves the second church when services are 
held. 

The following denominations have each one church: Unitarian, Presbyterian, 
Advent Christian, Seventh Day Adventists, Church of Nazarenes, Disciples Christian 
church. International Bible Students Association, Reorganized Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter Days Saints. The above list of churches and denominations in- 
dicate a great variety of religious thought and feeling. 

All the active Protestant churches maintain schools of religious education and 
have a volunteer corps of superintendents and teachers, which make in the city 
a strong force for religious instruction. One hour per week, however, for religious 
education is altogether too short a time in which to train the child in the knowledge 
and spirit of religion. 

Besides the Protestant churches there are six Catholic churches having five 
ministers or priests. The Catholic churches maintain schools for religious instruc- 
tion. Th^ Jewish people have two Synagogues, but one rabbi ministers to both 
congregations. Each of the Jewish Synagogues has connected with it a Hebrew 
school for religious education. It should be observed that nationalities and races, 
sects and denominations each administer religious thought and feeling after its 
own custom and ways of feeling. Now and then an individual strikes for freedom 
and the new thought of God and Man comes into being. Thus there is prognress in 
religion. 

The best evidence that our Protestant churches are working together for Chris- 
tian principles rather than denominal ends is the fact that the ministers of all de- 
nominations are coming together for an exchange of ideas and methods. Haver- 
hill has a ministers' association, which has been an active force for nearly twenty 
years. No denomination is excluded from this organization; and though some of 
the ministers do not become members, the association has placed a stamp for work- 
ing together along Christian lines that is a most wholesome factor in the life of 
the city. The allied organizations connected with the churches indicate a change 
in the social life of churches unknown thirty years ago. The so-called "Evangeli- 
cal churches" have the Y. M. C. A., the Y. W. C. A., the Christian Endeavor Socie- 
ties; the Liberal churches have the A. U. A., the Woman's Alliance, the Y. P. 
R. U., the Y. P. C. U., the Social Union, the Laymen's League. The Catholic have 
the K. C, and the Jews, the Young Men's Hebrew Association. Then there is the 
Salvation Army and the Missions that are supported by the people as a whole. All 
these are signs of the religion of the future. Social service is a religious demand 
of the age. 

Something over twenty of the churches of the city have formed a church fed- 
eration, which is doing very creditable work. Through the federation, the people 
and the churches are learning that they hold more in common than they have of 
differences, and that it is the common things which are in reality the vital things. 
The fact that the churches are working together is one of the most hopeful signs 
of the age. The poet and hymn writer has dreamed and sung of, "One Holy Church 
of God." It may be that the dream and the song is to come true in a united 
Protestant church. 



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PUBLIC LIBRARY', LAWRENCE 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 
THE CITY OF LAWRENCE 

Lawrence, according to the last Federal census, is the second largest 
municipality in Essex county. This authority gives the population of 
Lynn as 99,148, and that of Lawrence as 94,270. This does not include 
any territory outside the regular incorporated city of Lawrence. Count- 
ing in its numerous suburbs, it doubtless contains as many as 120,000 
population. 

The city lies in latitude 42 degrees, 42 minutes, 13 seconds, and in 
longitude 71 degrees, 10 minutes, 13 seconds, west from Greenwich ; has 
a little more than seven square miles (4,577 acres) area, of which 2,216 
acres' are in the Northern District, taken from the town of Methuen ; 2,- 
097 acres, south of the- Merrimack river, were taken from the town of 
Andover. The estimated water area is 264 acres. Excluding water sur- 
face, railway rights-of-way, public and church lands exempted, 3,102 
acres remain as taxable estates. The city is well situated in a broad and 
open plain. The central and more thickly-settled portions are upon the 
rolling swell of land on the north bank of the Merrimack river^ where 
that majestic stream curves about the great mills. To the south the 
plain is a wide expanse, extending westward from the Shawsheen river, 
somewhat rolling and broken near the western limits. The highlands 
west of the city known as Tower Hill, as well as the rolling ridge, Pros- 
pect Hill, eastward, are sites of attractive residences, having an eleva- 
tion of eighty to one hundred and fifty feet above the dam. The valley 
enclosed by these ridges is nearly two miles broad, extending to higher 
lands beyond the city limits. 

There seems to be every evidence that the territory now occupied by 
the city of Lawrence was once occupied by the native American Indian. 
Multitudes of Indian implements have been found in various parts of 
the present plat. In the eighties there was in possession of Charles 
Wingate a large and very interesting collection of such implements, in- 
cluding arrow and spear heads, stone axes, gouges, pestles, some rudely 
and others artistically fashioned and finished by some skilful artisan in 
stonework. 

In the western part of the city, when white men first settled there, 
an Indian burying ground was discovered, and a more extensive one 
farther up the river in Andover. It is believed that this temtory was 
occupied in many places during the summer months, to which year by 
year the natives returned on account of the abundance of excellent fish 
and game found in these parts. Most of the stone implements and the 
chips made in fashioning them are of a material not found in this locality. 

As to who was truly the first white settler in these parts is not 
{never will be) known positively, but it is claimed by some that Messrs. 



492 ESSEX COUNTY 

Frye and Cross were the original settlers. A tradition (not improbable) 
relates how* that for a single roll of cloth a pioneer purchased of the un- 
tutored Indians their rights in all the lands he could surround in a day's 
travel through the forest. Commencing on the river, with his savage 
companions, he took a course northwestward over the highlands about 
Spicket Falls, thence southward along the slopes of Tower Hill to the 
Merrimack, and by the north bank to the point of starting ; thus compass- 
ing a favorite hunting ground, and including the site of a future city. 

Among the earliest pioneers of South Lawrence were the Baniards, 
Stevenses and Poors; later came the Parkers and other families. The 
first-named family traced back the title of lands nearly two hundred and 
fifty years. To North Lawrence came as early pioneer settlers, who re- 
mained, the Bodwells, Swans, Sargents, Barkers, Poors and Marstens; 
possibly others, whose descendants do not remain. Notable among the 
sturdy yeomen, native residents, who had homesteads on the plain before 
the town was formed, were Captain Nathan Shattuck and Joseph Shat- 
tuck, Daniel Saunders, Ebenezer Poor, Phineas M. Gage, Benjamin Rich- 
ardson, Asa Towne, Nehemiah Herrick, John Tarbox, Michael Parker, 
Thomas Poor, Caleb Richardson, Nathan Wells, Abiel Stevens, James and 
Edwin Sargent, Adolphus Durant, Samuel Ames, Fairfield White, Ste- 
phen Huse, John Graves, James Stevens and Henry Cutler. Abiel Ste- 
vens and Adolphus Durant were men of character and were numbered 
among the first manufacturers in this section of New England. 

In South Lawrence the cross-road settlement where Broadway 
crosses Andover street was the nearest approach to a village within what 
are the present city limits of Lawrence. Here stood the Essex Tav- 
ern, subsequently converted into a dwelling; the Shawsheen Tavern, 
later the Revere House ; the old pioneer store, and the brick building oc- 
cupied by Daniel Saunders, founder of the city. The Shawsheen house 
was built by John Poor with bricks made at Den Rock in a brick-yard 
operated by the Peters family. On the Lowell road westward, from this 
comer were the farm house of Theodore Poor, the Caleb Richardson 
estate, and the old dwellings erected by the pioneer settlers Barnard and 
Stevens. On the comer of Andover and Parker streets stood the dwell- 
ing of Captain Michael Parker. Parker street was named for him. 

Nearly forty years ago John R. Rollins, in his annals on Lawrence 
and vicinity, took great pains to secure dates, names, and a general chain 
of facts concerning the pioneer settlement of Lawrence, and from such an 
article we are at liberty in this connection to quote freely, believing that 
no more interesting and accurate sketch can be produced of those early 
times than he has given: 

The first dwelling houses erected after the incorporation of the Essex Com- 
pany were built by them on the westerly side of Broadway, one of which waa 
occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Timothy Osgood, who for many years there and later in 
another part of the city kept an exceedingly good and popular boarding house. 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 493 

The first sale of land was made in April, 1846, to Samuel T. Merrill, who came 
from Georgetown, and on this he erected the first dwelling house in town after 
those built by the Essex Company; others followed rapidly. But many came with- 
out pecuniary means, among them many Irish laborers who must in some way be 
provided for — for them the Essex Company furnished a large tract on the south 
side of the river, near the dam, on which they might erect shanties, only on con- 
dition that liquors should not be sold on the premises. And the settlement thus 
formed with its quaint, narrow avenues and rustic division fences, was one of the 
most interesting spots in Lawrence, one which visiting strangers were always pleased 
ta see. These shanties were originally erected on the north side, but aa the water 
was raised by the construction of the dam and the territory west of the railroad 
was occasionally overflowed, the occupants removed to the south side to higher and 
dryer ground. 

Among the pioneers was Amos D. Pillsbury, of Georgetown, who came to pro- 
cure a shop for the manufacture of and the repair of boots and shoes; but finding 
no place wherein to commence work, he went to Newburyport, purchased a gon- 
dola thirty-two by twelve feet on which he built a "state room", put in a stock 
of boots and shoes, leather, tools, cooking apparatus and provisions, arrived at 
the "New City" just before the first land sale, anchored in the river below the 
bridge, threw out his plank, and commenced work. Here he continued untU cold 
weather, when he removed to a store on Essex street, which was then ready for his 
occupancy. He built in 1847 a building near the lower end of Common street, and 
while Mr. H. B. Clement was building a house for his own use near by, boarded 
with them for a short time. 

The history of Lawrence begins with its incorporation as a town, 
April 17, 1847. From the first sale of lands, April 28, 1846, to October 
10, 1846, the growth of the new settlement had been so rapid that the 
population had increased from less than two hundred to about twenty-five 
hundred, and there had been erected one hundred and thirty-five stores, 
shops and dwellings. The obvious inconveniences of taxation, education, 
etc., in two separate civil townships, led to a petition to the legislature 
for a charter for a new town. This, as might have been expected, was 
bitterly opposed by the people of Methuen. As early as February, 1847, 
a town meeting was called to see what action the town would take on 
the petition of Charles S. Storrow and others to be set off in a new town 
by the name of Lawrence. This meeting was well attended, there being 
between two hundred and fifty and three hundred present. John Davis 
was chosen to preside, and the meeting was addressed by George A. 
Waldo, J. W. Carleton and John Tenney, all in opposition to the proposed 
division; but with all the opposition could do, they were defeated, for 
April 17, 1847, the legislature granted a charter to the town of Lawrence, 
although other names had been suggested, such as Essex and Merrimack. 
The name Lawrence was taken in honor of one of its original founders. 
A part of the newly-formed town was taken from the territory of An- 
dover and Methuen. 

The first town officers were : Selectmen — William Swan, Charles F. 
Abbott, Nathan Wells, James Stevens, Lorenzo D. Brown; School Com- 
mittee — James D. Herrick, Dr. William D. Lamb, Dan Weed. The town 



494 ESSEX COUNTY 

government existed in Lawrence from 1847 to 1853, the last set of town 
officials being as follows: (1852) — William R. Page, Levi Sprague, 
Norris, selectmen; Rev. George Packard, A. D. Blanchard, Rev. Samuel 
Kelley, Nathan W. Harmon, John A. Goodwin, school committee ; George 
W. Benson, clerk; George W. Sanborn, treasurer; Ivan Stevens, auditor. 

From 1848 to 1853 the population of Lawrence increased to nearly 
13,000. It will go without saying that the members of the town board 
and every town official had their time well occupied in looking after busi- 
ness under such a form of local government. Looking after schools, 
cemeteries, highways and the collection of taxes was full of work. The 
inconvenience of such a condition led the people to apply for a city char- 
ter, which was granted, and the act signed by the governor, March 21, 
1853. 

The first set of officers elected, after the city charter had been se- 
cured, as above noted, were chosen April 18, 1853, and the new city gov- 
ernment was set in motion May 10th of that year. Three political par- 
ties presented candidates for the office of mayor, Charles S. Storrow, 
treasurer of the Essex Company, being the candidate of the Whig party, 
Enoch Bartlett of the Democratic, and James K. Barker of the Free-Soil 
party. Mr. Storrow was elected, and associated with him in the Board 
of Aldermen were George D. Cabot, Albert Warren, E. B. Herrick, Alvah 
Bennett, Walker Flanders and S. S. Valpey; and in the common coun- 
cil were Josiah Osgood (president), Nathaniel G. White (many years 
president of the Boston & Maine Railroad Company), Dana Sargent, 
William R. Spalding, Elkanah F. Bean, Daniel Hardy, Isaac K. Gage, 
other members of both boards being selected without regard to their 
party affiliations, but for their fitness for the positions for which selected. 
The mayors from date of first city charter in 1853 to the present (1921) 
have been as follows : 

1853, Charles S. Storrow; 1854, Enoch Bartlett; 1855, Albert Warren; 1856, 
Albert Warren; 1857, John R. Rollins; 1858, John R. RolUns; 1859, Henry K. Oliver; 
1860, Dan Saunders, Jr.; 1861, James K. Barker; 1862, William H. P. Wright; 1863, 
William H. P. Wright; 1864, Alfred J. French; 1865, Milton Bonny; 1866, Pardon 
Armington; 1867, Nathaniel P. Melvin; 1868, Nathaniel P. Melvin; 1869, Frank 
Davis; 1870, N. P. H. Melvin; 1871, S. B. W. Davis; 1872, S. B. W. Davis; 1873, John 
K. Tarbox; 1874, John K. Tarbox; 1875, Robert H. Tewksbury; 1876, Edmond R. 
Hayden; 1877, Caleb Saunders; 1878, James R. Simpson; 1879, James R. Simpson; 
1880, James R. Simpson; 1881, Henry K. Webster; 1882, John Breen; 1883, John 
Breen; 1884, John Breen; 1885, James R. Simpson; 1886, Alexander B. Bruce; 1887, 
Alexander B. Bruce; 1888, Alvin E. Mack; 1889, Alvin E. Mack; 1890, John W. 
Crawford; 1891, Lewis P. Collins; 1892, Henry P. Doe; 1893, Alvin E. Mack; 1894, 
Charles G. Rutter; 1895, Charles G. Rutter; 1896, George S. Junkins; 1897, George 
S. Junkins; 1898, James H. Eaton; 1899, James H. Eaton; 1900, James F. Leonard; 
1901, James F. Leonard; 1902, James F. Leonard; 1903, Alexander F. Grany; 1904, 
Cornelius F. Lynch; 1905, Cornelius F. Lynch; 1906; John P. Kane; 1907, John P. 
Kane; 1908, John P. Kane; 1909, William P. White; 1910, William P. White (re- 
signed) ; 1911, John T. Cahill (to fill vacancy) ; 1912, Michael A. Scanlon (two year 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 495 

term); 1913, Michael A. Scanlon; 1914, Michael A. Scanlon (died in office); 1915, 
John P. Kane (two year term) to fill vacancy at first; 1916, John P. Kane; 1917, 
John J. Hurley (two year term) ; 1918, John J. Hurley. 

Since 1912, Lawrence has been under a commission form of govern- 
ment. On November 7, 1911, at the State election, the present city 
charter was adopted, and it went into effect January 1st, 1912, at ten 
o'clock, when the newly-elected city council and school board took office. 
ThQ adoption of the new charter was the result of a vigorous movement 
for a change in the form of local government. When the questions per- 
taining to the project were submitted to the voters by the legislature, 
public sentiment was strongly in favor of a reform. On the question as 
to whether the old charter should be repealed the vote was : Yes, 6,027 ; 
No. 2,014; blanks, 840. The vote on the question as to the new form 
was as decisive. Two plans were presented: Plan 1, which was to 
establish a city government of a mayor and nine members in a Council ; 
plan 2, which was to establish a government by commission. The latter 
was adopted by a vote of 6,077 as against 1,358 for plan 1, with 1,646 
blanks. No provision being made in the new charter for a board of fire 
engineers and a water board, both these boards were abolished. Upon 
the adoption of the commission form of government, their powers and 
duties were put under control of the director of public safety and the 
director of engineering, respectively. 

In the present system of city government, there are five departments 
— Finance and Public Affairs ; Engineering ; Public Safety ; Public Prop- 
erty and Parks ; Public Health and Charities. The department of finance 
and public affairs includes all the sub-departments, boards and offices con- 
nected with it, such as the treasury, auditing, purchasing, assessing, sink- 
ing funds, tax collection, claims, registration of voters, city clerk and legal. 
The department of engineering includes the highway and other ways, 
street watering, sewer and drains, water and water-works, bridges and 
engineering. The department of public safety includes the police and fire 
departments, lighting, wiring, weights and measures and conduits. The 
department of public property and parks includes buildings, parks and 
public grounds. The department of public health and charities includes 
the health and poor departments, city physician and public hospitals. In 
1914 the charter was amended to provide that the office of each du-ector 
be designated on the ballot at the time of his election by the voters of the 
city. 

The first officers in Lawrence under the commission plan of govern- 
ment were: Mayor, Michael A. Scanlon; Aldermen — Paul Hannagan, 
director of engineering; Michael S. O'Brien, director of public property 
and parks; Cornelius F. Lynch, director of public safety; Robert S. 
Maloney, director of public health and charities. The present city officials 
are : Mayor, William P. White ; President of the City Council, Edward 
C. Callahan; Director of Public Safety, Peter Carr; Director of Engi- 



496 ESSEX COUNTY 

neering, John F. Finnegan ; Director of Public Property and Parks, Mich- 
ael F. Scanlon ; City Clerk, Edward J. Wade ; Assistant City Clerk, John 
J. Daly; City Auditor, Richard J. Shea; Assistant Auditor, William F. 
Mahoney ; City Treasurer, William A. Kelleher ; Collector of Taxes, Rob- 
ert R. Gerkell, Jr. ; City Solicitor, Daniel J. Murphy ; Purchasing Agent, 
M. F. McKenna. 

Previous to the building of the Town or City Hall, town meetings 
were held in old Merrimack Hall during 1847, but at the March meeting 
in 1848 the townsmen gathered in the Free Will Baptist Church, a one- 
story wooden structure on the northeast comer of White and Haverhill 
streets. In the warrant presented at that meeting was an article read- 
ing thus: "To see if the town will choose a committee to obtain a plan 
of a Town House, and to appoint an agent to superintend the building of 
the same." 

On April 17 the same year it was voted that a town house be erected, 
"to include a town hall and such offices as may be judged necessary for 
the present and future needs of the town government." It was finally 
decided to build the structure in its present location, on Common street, 
between Pemberton and Appleton. The "town of Lawrence" paid $8,000, 
or fifty cents a foot, for the land on which this building stands. Melvin 
& Young, architects, of Boston, drew the plans for the building. The 
contract price was $27,568, from which sum was reserved $1,000 for a 
clock and bell, $700 for heating, and $100 for ventilating apparatus. The 
structure in round figures, measures 69 by 120 feet. Charles Bean was 
selected to superintend its construction, and no better has ever been built 
in Essex county for real lasting and practical qualities. The building was 
turned over to the city, December 5, 1849, and the following day Town 
Clerk E. W. Morse (says the record) moved into the office prepared for 
him and became the first to inhabit the building. On December 10 that 
year it was dedicated, with appropriate exercises, during the evening 
hours. In March, 1851, this building and its fixtures was valued at $49,- 
119. 

When the building just described was erected, one of its prominent 
and unique decorative features was the large eagle on the high tower. 
It has been recently described by Mr. Dorgan as follows: 

The eagle, with the ball and pedestal on which it stands, was designed and 
carved by John M. Smith, a member of the board of selectmen, in 1848, who had 
charge of the woodwork construction at the Essex Company machine shop. It 
cost $500. Perched, as the bird is, about 156 feet above the ground, one does not 
realize that it is nine feet an4 six inches from the tip of the bUl to the tip of the 
tail, with other dimensions in proportion, and that the ball on which it stands is 
three feet in diameter. The eagle is in a position of preparing to spread his wings 
to fly, and in a description printed at the time it was regarded as a fit emblem for 
Lawrence, and the wish was expressed that the young community, so full of prom- 
ise, might ever be actuated by the noble inspiration "to spread and bear learning, 
virtue and wisdom to all parts of the world:" 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 497 

Another unsurpassed object of national interest, connected with this 
old city building and its tower, has been described in "Lawrence — Yes- 
terday and Today," by Maurice B, Dorgan, in these words : 

The two shot displayed on either side of the doorway in the City Hall came 
from Fort Svunter. They were picked up there after the evacuation of the fort by 
the Southern forces following the surrender of Charleston, February 17, 1865. As 
a token of regard, they were presented to the city of Lawrence by G. V. Fox, As- 
sistant Secretary of the Navy, and a former citizen of Lawrence, and at one time 
agent of the Bay State Mills. These fifteen-inch shot, with many others, were 
found among the ruins of Sumter, having been fired from the Federal fleet of mon- 
itors during the bombardment of the fort on April 7, 1863. No gun of a bore 
greater than ten inches had been used on any other vessel or by the army during 
the war. In the week ending December 25, 1865, the shot, each weighing three 
hundred and fifty pounds, were placed in position on the tower of the hall. The 
mountings were designed by Alderman Payne, and they consist of an iron wall 
plate in the shape of a shield embroidered by moulding in the form of a rope. On 
the shield is illustrated a monitor in relief, and from it projects a forearm and hand, 
in which the shot rests. The arm is clothed with a naval sleeve, bearing the cuff of 
a rear-admiral, ornamented in proper form with two bands of gold and a five- 
pointed star. The identification inscription was provided by Ericson, the inventor. 

This hall has probably sei*ved more and more varied uses than any 
other public hall in New England. Here have appeared in public many 
of the world's greatest orators, lecturers, authors, actors, musicians and 
political leaders. The county courts were held here until the new court 
house was provided. Many of the pioneer churches here held services. 
Here gi-eat Civil War mass meetings were held; it was a drill room for 
departing volunteers; and in it was wrapped, in an American flag, the 
remains of Needham, the first soldier to fall in the Rebellion. At the 
time of the fall of the Pemberton Mills, this hall became a morgue; it 
has been a house of mourning at the death of Presidents Taylor, Lincoln, 
and Garfield, and appropriate memorial services were held on each such 
sad occasion within its walls. 

For the first few years after Lawrence was founded, its citizens 
were obliged, in all civil and criminal cases, to go to Newburyport or 
Salem to attend court. The next step in progi'ess was holding certain 
courts in the town hall at Lawrence. But this could not long be en- 
dured by such a people as then made up the place. In 1858 the Essex 
Company donated sufficient land for court house purposes, the city pro- 
viding the foundation and the Essex county commissioners erecting the 
building from public funds. The architect was James K. Barker, then 
city engineer and later mayor of the city. It was not long, however, 
that this structure should gi'ace the site on which it had been constructed, 
for at the time of the burning of the United States Hotel, in 1859, this 
court house was ruined. It was rebuilt in 1860 and served until the 
present fire-proof court house structure was provided by the county. 
This was brought about by the Lavinrence Bar Association, which, work- 
ing through the legislature, had authorized the expenditure of $100,000 

Essex — 32 



498 ESSEX COUNTY 

for an addition to the old court house (rebuilt in 1860). George G. 
Adams was selected architect, and J. N. Peterson & Co., of Salem, were 
the contracting builders. It required an extra $150,000 fully to com- 
plete and enlarge the building operations as seen today. Here one finds 
the various courts ; a law library of 13,000 volumes — one of the finest in 
New England outside of Boston; rooms for some county officials, grand 
and petit jury rooms, and other useful apartments. This structure is 
built of brick, with handsome free-stone trimmings. Its interior marble 
finish shows great taste, as well as making it as near safe from the effects 
of a possible fire as could be. 

The jail should here be mentioned among the public buildings of the 
city. Prior to 1850 a lock-up, in rear of the postoffice, near the corner of 
Common and Broadway streets, served as a jail for Lawrence. At the 
date named above, cells were fitted up in the basement of the Town Hall, 
in the brick arches which support the safes connected with the clerk's 
offices. This was anything but a decent place in which to make secure 
the offenders of the law, as will be observed by this quotation from the 
"Lawrence Courier" of March 15, 1851: "It is narrow, dark, unventi- 
lated, reeking with moisture, a loathsome place, a disgrace to the town, 
and a dangerous piece of property." The first regular jail, or House of 
Correction, as frequently called, was the one provided in 1853, built on 
the south bank of the Spicket river. It was then known as "strictly 
modem," and had eveiy humane and needful appliance. The front por- 
tion, occupied by the keeper, opened out toward a park of an acre. The 
original structure cost the county $100,000. Its location may be de- 
scribed as standing on Auburn street. Many additions and various im- 
provements have been made to the first structure. To the octagonal- 
shaped original jail have been added wings. It now has one hundred 
and sixteen cells. One hundred and eighty prisoners may here be cared 
for. The town bought the acre park in front of the jail for $2,000, and 
the improvements on the park have so far cost in excess of $1,300. 

The County Training School, on Marston street, was established as a 
county school in 1891. It was first opened as an industrial school for 
bad boys by the city of Lawrence, in 1869, and finally became known 
as the Reform School. In 1891 the county took over the school, which 
later was known as the Essex County Training School. Only truants 
and those who have committed offenses against the schools are admitted. 
The grounds are extensive and buildings numerous. Besides the com- 
mon instruction given, a boy may learn a trade and be taught in garden- 
ing. The inmates run in recent years about one hundred and forty, with 
only six girls. 

The State Armory, on Amesbury street, was opened in 1893 for the 
State Militia. An annex was built in 1913 to accommodate the battery. 
It is of brick construction, the first of its type in Massachusetts. Out- 
door drilling is here made practical. 





LAWRENCK-ABOVE, ARMORY; BELOW, Y. M. C. A. BUILDING 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 499 

The poor farm and municipal hospital, commonly styled the Law- 
rence Almshouse, is located on Marston street. This institution was 
provided in February, 1849, when seven persons were admitted. It now 
has an average of about one hundred and thirty inmates. In 1912, four- 
teen rooms, with twenty-four beds, were nicely fitted up for hospital pur- 
poses for private patients. It is now called the Municipal Hospital. It 
has a resident physician, a surgical staff and twelve good nurses. 

In 1902, when smallpox was threatening the community, an isolation 
hospital was located on Marston street and served well its object. Of 
late there has fortunately been but little use for the institution, but it is 
kept in readiness in case of any epidemic in or near the city. 

The Tuberculosis Hospital, on Chickering street, was established by 
the city in 1909. Before that the day camp of the general hospital cared 
for such cases. In 1917 the Municipal Health Department took over the 
Tuberculosis Dispensary, and the work is much more satisfactory. 
There are now four wards, with twenty-two beds in each. Usually there 
are seventy-five patients. There is a superintendent, with seven nurses 
and two visiting physicians. 

A dental clinic was established by the Health Department of Law- 
rence in April, 1917. This is for the special examination of children's 
teeth. Two dentists are regularly employed in this work, which also 
includes visits to the schools and instructions concerning the care of the 
teeth. This is proving very popular and of great benefit. 

The orphan asylum and home for invalids, known as the Protectorate 
of Mary Immaculate, on Maple street, was the first charitable institution 
within the city. It was opened by the Sisters of Charity, or the "Gray 
Nuns," January 29, 1868. Large additions have been made to the 
grounds and buildings. Recent reports show this institution to have as 
inmates 221 boys and girls and 22 aged women, who are cared for by the 
nuns. There are about a score of Sisters in charge. When the boys 
reach the age of twelve, they are given good homes outside of the insti- 
tution. The girls may stay as long as they wish. 

The Lawrence General Hospital, private, was established in 1883, 
in a building built for the special purpose on Methuen street. In 1902 
the hospital was removed to an ideal location on the summit of Prospect 
Hill. It is one of the best-equipped hospitals in Massachusetts for its 
size. More than twenty physicians and surgeons and a company of 
trained nurses make the place one to be desired by the afflicted of the 
community. 

Lawrence Home for the Aged is located in a brick building at the 
top of Clover Hill. It was built in 1909 on land donated by Edward F. 
Searles, a millionaire philanthropist. It was incorporated in 1897. It 
is surrounded by beautiful, spacious grounds, made attractive by exquis- 
ite flower beds and elm trees. It is largely supported by voluntary con- 
tributions. 



500 ESSEX COUNTY 

September 7, 1846, a postofRce was first opened at Lawrence. It 
was kept in a little building on the old turnpike road, not far from the 
present postoffice site. Prior to this time Lawrence was called "Merri- 
mack," "New City," 'Essex" and "Andover Bridge." George A. Waldo 
originated the idea of securing a postoffice, and his son, George Albert 
Waldo, was made first postmaster. It was at first called Merrimack, 
and continued to be so called until Lawrence was set off from the towns 
of Methuen and Andover in 1847. It was named for the two Lawrences, 
Abbott and Samuel Lawrence. Michael F. Cronin was appointed in Janu- 
ary, 1914, as postmaster. 

The present postofRce is a handsome sandstone structure at the cor- 
ner of Broadway and Essex streets, and was first occupied in 1905. In 
1917 the postal savings department had deposits of $200,000. The mail 
of Lawrence is handled by thirty-three clerks and fifty-five regular 
carriers. 

Fortunate, indeed, is the city which from its earliest history has 
had access to a good public library, through the forethought and wealth 
of a few public-spirited citizens. Essex county has been especially 
blessed with such towns and cities, as well as such men as George Pea- 
body, who in Salem, Danvers, Peabody and other places in the county 
has left a monument in hundreds of "stacks" of valuable books more to 
be prized by the present and future generations than the loftiest, best- 
designed marble memorial building one can imagine. In Lawrence, this 
same thought obtained in the minds of some of the original founders and 
friends of the place. 

What was known as the Franklin library was incorporated in April, 
1847. Its first president was Captain Charles H. Bigelow, the engineer 
whose master mind planned and superintended the construction of the 
first great dam at what is now the enterprising city of Lawrence. Hon. 
Abbott Lawrence, one of the founders, as well as one of the two men for 
whom the city was named, donated one thousand dollars to be expended 
in the purchase of such books as would "tend to create mechanics, good 
Christians and good patriots." At his death, in 1855, Mr. Lawrence 
gave $5,000 additional towards the support of this institution. 

In 1872 the library and funds of the association were turned over to 
the city, and the Free Public Library, aided by the White fund, was suc- 
cessfully established. The old rooms soon grew too small and rooms were 
secured in the new Odd Fellows' building. The present building was 
opened in 1892, at the comer of Hampshire and Haverhill streets. Its 
first cost was $50,000, but in 1902 it was enlarged at an additional ex- 
pense of $38,000. It now has nearly eighty thousand volumes of valu- 
able books. August 1, 1898, a branch library was opened on South 
Broadway, and this proved a great success. 

The first bridge to span the Merrimack river at Lawrence was built 
by a corporation styled the "Proprietors of Andover Bridge." This was 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 501 

doubtless the oldest corporation within the limits of what is now the 
city of Lawrence. In March, 1793, near the close of Washington's first 
administration as President of the United States, an act was passed by 
the General Court of Massachusetts incorporating Samuel Abbott and 
John White, with Joseph Stevens, merchant, and Ebenezer Poor, yeoman, 
and associates, as the "Proprietors of Andover Bridge", for the purpose 
of erecting a bridge over the Merrimack river, from Andover to Methuen, 
at Bodwell's Falls, near where Broadway bridge now stands. The char- 
ter provided that said bridge should be constructed within three years, 
should not be less than twenty-eight feet wide, and should have a central 
span of one hundred and ten feet reach over the main channel, to insure 
easy passage of great timber rafts. Tolls were fixed by the act for foot 
passengers and every kind of carriage from a chariot to a wheelbarrow. 
This bridge was constructed to rest on wooden piers ; cost, $12,000 ; was 
opened to the public November 19, 1793, the same being a noted event. 
A boy named Stevens, who tried to pass by a guard of soldiers, at the 
opening day celebration, in advance of some noted personages, was fatal- 
ly injured by being bayoneted by the guard. 

This bridge was never a success, either mechanically or financially. 
Bridge building was then in its infancy. Howe, of "Howe Truss Bridge 
fame", had not been bom, neither had his brother, Elias Howe, the in- 
ventor of the sewing machine. This bridge, after eight or nine years, in 
August, 1801, in part fell in ruins, while a drove of cattle was passing 
over it. Some cattle, fifty-nine sheep, a half-dozen cows and a good sad- 
dle horse were drowned in the wreck, and had to be paid for by the 
o-wTiers or "proprietors" of the company. In 1802-3 the bridge was in 
part rebuilt, but soon thereafter the central span collapsed. It was 
promptly repaired. In February, 1807, a great flood and heavy flow of 
ice swept away a larger part of the structure. So far the bridge had 
stood where now stands the substantial railroad bridge, but when it was 
rebuilt again it was moved up stream to the present bridge site. Here 
stone in place of wooden piers were put in, and with certain repairs it 
continued in use until demolished, when the present iron structure was 
erected in 1881. 

As early as 1837 a bridge was built, a rough wooden structure, 
twenty feet wide, with no railings, yet travelers flocked over it in teams 
loaded with material for the new dam project, the canal, new buildings 
and mill foundations. In 1846 this bridge was taken over by the Essex 
Company (the ruling factor in all enterprises then) , and in the spring of 
1848 the bridge was raised ten feet, as high as the railroad bridge is to- 
day. It was of the frame- truss type, but in the spring freshet of 1852 
the toll-house, south abutment and fishway all went down in the great 
rush of angry waters. In 1858 the bridge was thoroughly rebuilt by 
Morris Knowles. It continued as a toll bridge until 1868, when it be- 
came free, Lawrence paying the larger part of the value and assuming its 



502 ESSEX COUNTY 

care under the county commissioners' awards. At the same date Law- 
rence bridge, at Union street, also became free. The last named had been 
constructed in 1854-55 for the accommodation of people of North An- 
dover and Lawrence. Both were destroyed by fire — Andover bridge in 
1881, and the Lawrence bridge in 1887. The present iron structures re- 
placed these bridges. 

Soon after operations began on the dam at Lawrence, the first fire 
engine house was provided, a small one-story house at the coraer of Essex 
and Broadway streets. In it was kept a hand-engine, the "Essex", 
bought by the Essex Company and handled by the employees of that com- 
pany. Three years later it was sold to the town. In 1847 the town pur- 
chased two more fire engines, and two small wooden buildings in which 
to store them — No. 2, Niagara, "Rough and Ready", and "Syphon No. 
3." Since the very earliest days, however, the present fire department's 
site has been marked by an engine house. Prior to 1860 none of the 
engine houses was provided with towers. They were occasionally heated 
by boxwood stoves and had a small bell upon the edge of the roof. The 
city hose carriage consisted of a two-wheeled affair capable of carrying 
five hundred feet of hose, and manned by ten firemen, so called, yet they 
did excellent work with what they had to operate with. In 1870 the 
Eagle Hose Company was formed and a five-wheel can-iage was pur- 
chased. In 1856 the first brick fire engine house was authorized ; it stood 
at the comer of Haverhill and White streets, later styled the Old Bat- 
tery. In 1865 what was known as Bonney Light Battery was formed, 
and named for Major Bonney. Hence came the name "Battery Build- 
ing." Another engine house was erected in 1869, and in 1876 another 
was built on the comer of Concord and Franklin streets. The more re- 
cent engine houses all are of brick, built as follows : Engine 4's, Oxford 
street, in 1910; Central Fire station, Lowell street, in 1907; Combina- 
tion 6's, Howard street, in 1896 ; Combination 7's, Park street, in 1896 ; 
Combination 8's, Ames street, in 1900 ; Combination 9's, Bailey street, in 
1908. 

Steam fire engines soon came into general use in Lawrence after the 
great Pemberton Mill disaster just prior to the Civil War. Pacific No. 
1, Atlantic No. 2 (lastnamed exhibited at the London World's Fair in 
1861), Tiger No. 3, Essex No. 4, Washington No. 5, are all well known 
"steamers" that have played well their part in keeping the fire fiend 
away from the precious lives and valuable property of Lawrence for 
many a year. 

The town Fire Department was organized June 12, 1847, and es- 
tablished by legislative act the year following. In 1917 this was pub- 
lished concerning the oldest active fireman in the United States : "Charles 
W. Foster, engineman at the Central station. He had (in 1917) been en- 
gaged as a fireman in Lowell for sixty-six years, having joined in 1851. 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 503 

He was still serving when eighty-three years old. For a third of a cen- 
tury he has run the old Washington 5 steamer." 

While the auto-fire trucks are soon to drive from the field the faith- 
ful horses trained to do the bidding of master firemen, it should be added 
here that in 1918 the Fire Department in Lawrence was as follows: 
"Fifty trained horses, four steamers, four hose wagons, four combina- 
tion hose and chemical wagons, one double tank chemical, four hook 
and ladder trucks, a water chief and deputy chief's wagons, besides nine 
supply and exercise wagons. The personnel includes a chief, deputy 
chief, eleven captains, nine lieutenants, sixty-nine permanent men, sixty 
call men and one hundred substitutes. There are nine engine houses, 
including the seven-run central station, one of the largest of the kind 
in the country." 

About 1857 an invention of gi'eat importance was produced in the 
machine shops of Lawrence by Thomas Scott and N. S. Bean, who 
brought forth the first real practical steam fire engine. The machine 
was awarded the test in Boston over all others then known. The first 
engine was constructed in Lawrence and named "Lawrence", and was 
purchased by the city of Boston. The invention (patents) were bought 
by the Amoskeag Company of Manchester, New Hampshire, where the 
engines were manufactured for many years. This fire-engine revolution- 
ized the fire departments, and Lawrence was not slow to adopt it. 

It is generally conceded that considering the area of the burnt dis- 
tricts, the two fires of 1859 and 1860, the former originating in the United 
States Hotel and the latter in the steam saw-mill of Wilson & Allyn, 
were the greatest conflagrations ever had in Lawrence, although in later 
years a greater amount of property has been destroyed than in those 
early day fires. 

For more than a quarter of a centuiy after Lawrence was platted 
as a town, it depended upon wells and cisterns for its water supply, save 
for fire extinguishing and power pui-poses, which, of course, was obtained 
from the Merrimack river. The first attention toward a water supply by 
artificial means was in 1848, when the Lawrence Aqueduct Company was 
chartered. This corporation was formed by John Tenney of Methuen, 
Alfred Kittridge of Haverhill, and Daniel Saunders of Lawrence, with 
their associates. The project of bringing water from Haggett's pond, 
now the source of supply for the town of Andover, was deemed imprac- 
ticable. This company was chartered with a capital of $50,000. 

In 1851 the Bay State Mills and the Essex Company, dividing the 
cost of construction, built a reservoir of a million gallons capacity on 
Prospect Hill. Water was pumped from the canal, and was supposed to 
stand on a level of 152 feet above the crest of the Merrimack dam. This 
was owned and operated by associated companies. For twenty-four 
years, pipes and hydrants in corporation yards and principal business 
streets were supplied from this source. In the early seventies municipal 



504 ESSEX COUNTY 

water works were agitated. An act was passed by the legislature, March 
8, 1872, providing for a commission of three members of the city council 
to execute and superintend the direct work. This commission made its 
report April 18, 1873, and an ordinance was passed calling for the elec- 
tion of a board of water commissioners. Such commission was as fol- 
lows: William Barbour (chaim:ian) , Patrick Murphy (clerk), and Mor- 
ris Knowles. The present pumping station was constructed in 1874-75. 
On October 19, 1875, water was first forced into the reservoir. In 1893 
the original filtering plant was finished — the first filtering system in the 
countrj^ eliminating bacteria. It has an area of two and one-half acres. 
In 1907 the capacity of this filtering plant was increased by the constiiic- 
tion of a covered filter west of the first plant. In ,1916 work was started 
on the reconstruction of the east unit of the open filter. At present, the 
reservoir has a capacity of forty million gallons, and the pumping capacity 
at the station is five million gallons each twenty-four hours. This ap- 
plies to the old pump, while the turbine pump has a capacity of two mil- 
lion gallons each twenty-four hours. The Barr pump also forces water to 
the amount of 1,500,000 gallons daily. A high service water tower was 
built in 1896, 102 feet high and thirty feet in diameter. At one hundred 
feet an eight-inch overflow pipe conveys the overflow back into reser- 
voir. The stand-pipe holds 520,000 gallons. The first cost of this water 
system was $1,363,000. The cost today, VN^ith the various improvements, 
is estimated to be $2,421,000. For a number of years this plant has 
been more than self-sustaining. 

First the streets of Lawrence were lighted by kerosene lamps, and 
later by gas, here and there over the main streets of the place. Police- 
m.eij turned off the lights at eleven o'clock, and carried matches with 
them, in order to light or relight any lamps that "had gone out." In 
1880 the first electric lights were installed by the Lawrence Electric 
Light Company in the old fishline mill building. Today the city spends 
more than $70,000 a year for street lighting. In 1918 there were 1240 
lights distributed over the streets, of which 642 were incandescent and 
598 arc. The old Gas Company also was among the first stockholders 
in the Electric Company. One corporation has always handled both 
plants. In 1905, 275,000,000 cubic feet of gas were consumed; in 1917 
it had increased to 576,000,000. In 1887 the Lawrence Gas Company 
bought out the Lawrence Electric Light Company. In 1890 it acquired 
the Edison Electric Illuminating Company, located on Common street. 
In 1900, a new plant was built on the south side of the river. It is run 
by water power ; also with steam turbine engines. The combined horse- 
power of these two systems is 11,000. Both gas and electricity are used 
almost universally, for light, heat, power, and cooking purposes. 

One of the finest, most modern type of bridges to be found in all 
New England is the new Central Bridge. Without going into the details 
of its origin, its political significance, construction plans, and other un- 






>J°^ 





LAWRENCE— ABOVE, WETHERBEE SCHOOL; BELOW, TARBOX SCHOOL 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 505 

pleasant features and obstacles that had to be overcome before it was 
finally opened up as a great highway through the city, it may be simply 
noted that when fully completed and equipped in all particulars its cost 
will have reached nearly $1,500,000. Of this about $500,000 has to be 
paid in property damages to the mill owners, etc. The first excavation 
was made October 1, 1914, the first concrete was laid October 20 of that 
year, and the bridge was finished March 20, 1918. It is a reinforced 
concrete structure, 1,500 feet long by eighty feet wide, spanning the 
Merrimack river at the foot of Amesbury street, approximately 460 feet 
south of Essex street, the main thoroughfare of the city. With the ex- 
tensions over the canals, the total length of the bridge is 1,750 feet. One 
of the great piers is sunk fifty-two feet below the waters of the stream, 
making a total height of this particular pier ninety-eight feet and six 
inches — as high as the Bay State Building, it is said. The road-way is 
fifty-six feet wide between curbing. It is planned to carry two electric 
car tracks, twelve-foot sidewalks, and driveway. The bridge is hand- 
somely illuminated by many 200-candle power electric lights. As a 
modem "White Way" this bridge is unsurpassed. As to its lasting 
qualities, there is no question. It was built upon honor for all time, as 
men sometimes remark. The commission in charge of its construction 
comprised John J. Donovan, chairman; John O. Battershill, secretary; 
Joseph J. Flynn, John A. Brackett, and Otto Parthum, with City Solicitor 
Daniel J. Murphy as counsel. Benjamin H. Davis of New York City 
was chief engineer. When one reviews the series of bridges — wooden, 
iron and other patterns of structures — that have spanned the majestic 
waters of the Merrimack river, since the bridge already mentioned as 
having been chartered back in the eighteenth century, one cannot but 
feel that man is a progressive being, and ever responsive to the urge both 
onward and upward. 

The population by five year periods since 1845 for the city of Law- 
rence has been as follows : 

Year Year Year 

1845 150 1870 28,921 1895 _ 52,654 

1850 _ 8,282 1875 34,016 1900 _ _. 62,559 

1855 - 16,081 1880 39,151 1905 69,939 

1860 ..._ 17,639 1885 38,862 1910 _ 85,892 

1865 21,678 1890 44,654 1915 „. 90,258 

1920 94,270 

It is now (1921) estimated that Lawrence, with its contiguous su- 
burbs, has a population of not far from 125,000 

The city has an area of 4,500 acres; is twenty-six miles from Bos- 
ton; became a town in 1847; City Hall dedicated December 10, 1849; be- 
came a city in 1853 ; first mayor was Hon. Charles S. Storrow ; first steam 
engine built in New England was constructed in Lawrence in 1858 ; num- 
ber of voters at last election, 13,101, including the 380 women who voted ; 



506 ESSEX COUNTY 

number of polls, 21,000; the city has one hundred and fifty passenger 
trains daily ; has public library of 60,000 volumes ; is the center of a street 
railway system transporting nine million passengers annually; has six- 
teen parks and play-grounds, 157 acres in all ; ninety miles of sewers built 
at a cost of $1,643,000; main water pipes, 104 miles; water connections 
used, 8,316; arc lights, 365; half-arc lights, 228; incandescent lights, 
615 ; hydrants, 845 ; regular firemen, 69 ; call firemen, 62 ; policemen, 102 ; 
reserve policemen, 26; has thirty mills covering 400 acres; one million 
spindles ; has 29 public schools ; 9,845 pupils ; 334 teachers ; 110 evening 
teachers ; eight parochial schools ; parochial school pupils, 6,000 ; has 108 
miles of streets; 18 miles of paved streets, with granite, cement and 
grout; second city in Massachusetts in point of value in manufactured 
products; savings bank deposits amount to more than $22,000,000; has 
seven bells, with weights as follows: Parker Street Church Bell, 1,557; 
Pacific Mill Bell, 2,360 ; Arlington Mill Bell, 3,047 ; City Hall Bell, 3,446 ; 
the John R. Rollins School Bell, 3,984 ; the A. B. Bruce School Bell, 6,143 
pounds. 

The Essex Company — In order to gain any definite knowledge con- 
cerning the early and later history of the city of Lawrence, with all its 
multitude of industries and commercial interests, one must needs con- 
sult the formation and activities of the Essex Company, formed by act 
of incorporation March 20, 1845, seventy-six years ago. In less than a 
month from the date of the charter, the company was organized in due 
form, with a capital of $1,000,000, without the issue of a circular or pros- 
pectus. The directors were Abbott Lawrence, Nathan Appleton, Patrick 
T. Jackson, John A. Lowell, Ignatius Sargent, William Sturgis and 
Charles S. Storrow, all manufacturers or financiers of high character. 

Harnessing the waters of the Merrimack river to the promotion of 
a gi-eat manufacturing industry was the thought in mind of this company, 
which, in fact, is the comer stone of the present city and its industries. 
In 1843 the Merrimack Water Power Association was formed, with 
Samuel Lawrence as president and treasurer, and Daniel Saunders as 
agent, with associates mainly from Lowell, as the forerunner of this more 
powerful chartered company. It had been discovered that near the his- 
toric Andover Bridge, about Bodwell's Falls, there lay a tract of land 
underlaid with blue limestone, so situated that a dam could be construct- 
ed as to be almost imperishable. When it was seen what had been ac- 
complished at Lowell and elsewhere in New England from 1825 to 1845, 
far-seeing operators were ready to take hold here at Lawrence. Maur- 
ic B. Dorgan, in his "Lawrence Yesterday and Today," writes of this 
corporation as follows : 

It has been said that Lawrence was at the beginning purely a business enter- 
prise, but it is also conceded that the needs of a future community were clearly 
foreseen by the promoters, and that steps were wisely taken to provide for coming 
population in advance of the then prevailing conception of public needs. Seldom 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 507 

do promoters encounter at the start more difficulties than did the founders of Law- 
rence. Textile manufacturing, in monster mills, was then an experiment in 
America. The works designed were upon a large scale, requiring heavy outlay and 
years of working and waiting for conclusive results. When operations were 
fairly begun, adverse legislation and financial depression came to hinder and dis- 
turb, but the directors and managers of this company were men of courage, integrity 
and loyalty. Their fortunes and their reputations were staked upon the success of 
an enterprise that would affect the lives of thousands of men and women in. this 
and other lands, and provide new opportunities for bread winners. Failure would 
result in loss to the stockholders and would also prove a public calamity and a 
blow at industrial developments in America. The leaders, doubtless, had an eye 
for ultimate profits, but there was also a philanthropic spirit manifest in their 
actions. 

The public at this day probably does not fully realize the extent of the activities 
of the Essex Company prior to the incorporation of the city. Besides building the 
dam, canals, the drainage system and streets, and fitting lands for human habita- 
tion, the company built, equipped and for years operated the great machine shop, 
with foundry and forge shop, all of stone, (afterward controlled by a company or- 
ganized as the "Lawrence Machine Shop," and now included in the Everett Mill 
group) ; also built fifty brick buildings and a large boarding-house, and made ex- 
pensive improvements in deepening and straightening the Spicket river from the 
machine shop race-way to its mouth. 

As a protection against fire, at the joint cost of the company and the Bay 
State Mills, the Prospect Hill reservoir was built and connected with a system of 
water mains. Andover bridge was purchased and repaired by it; a fine brick 
hotel (in later years enlarged and now the present Franklin House) was erected; 
gas works were needed, and this company, uniting with the Bay State Mills, built 
the first gas plant; the lumber dock on Water street was excavated, and lumber 
made and sold in immense quantities during the busy early construction period. 

In the loft of the machine shop, a full set of worsted machinery was set up 
and operated experimentally, the first attempt to develop that since important and 
growing industry of the city. Flumes, race-ways, wheel-pits and protecting walls 
were built at great cost at thel Central Mill site. The company also engineered 
and built for owners, and in some cases built and sold to the original owners, the 
first Atlantic Cotton Mills, the Upper Pacific Mills, the Pemberton Mills, Duck 
and machine shop buildings. 

The central and beautiful Common, Storrow Park, Bodwell Park, Union Park 
and Stockton Park, besides a large tract of land on the west bank of the Shawsheen 
river, from Market to Andover streets, were reserved by the company and conveyed 
by deed of gift to the inhabitants of Lawrence, to be forever used as public 
grounds. Besides, for recreation, it gave freely of lands for religious and educa- 
tional purposes. In fact, there was hardly an activity working toward the develop- 
ment and advancement of the "New City" in which this corporation was not con- 
cerned. 

It may be truthfully said that few incorporated companies have been operated 
continuously for more than seventy years along definite linea so little changed. In 
the whole history of the company there have been but two treasurers in genex-al 
management — Charles S. Storrow, and Howard Stockton. The engineers in charge 
have been Captain Charles H. Bigelow, Benjamin Coolidge, and Hiram F. Mills, 
although of late years Richard A. Hale, assistant engineer of the company, has 
practically filled the position of engineer. George D. Cabot, Captain John R. Rol- 
lins, Henry^ H. Hall, Robert H. Tewksbury and Rollin A. Prescott have in turn 
served as accountant and cashier. George Sanborn was connected with the com- 
pany for fifty-two years from 1845 to 1898, the most of thei time as superintendent 



508 ESSEX COUNTY 

of outside construction. At his death in 1898 he was succeeded by his son, George 
A. Sanborn, who still holds the position. 

The stone dam across the Merrimack river, the base of all later 
operations, was be^n in the summer of 1845 and completed in 1851. 
After more than three-score and ten years it stands as solid as the day 
on which it was built. Charles H. Bigelow, a captain of engineers in the 
United States Army, supervised this great undertaking. The dam is con- 
structed of immense granite blocks laid in hydraulic cement, firmly bolted 
upon the river rock bed. It measures thirty-five feet at the base and 
extends up to the crest, where it is only about thirteen feet wide. The 
dam and its wings are 1,629 feet in length. The overflow of water is 
nine hundred feet. At the day it was built, when material and labor 
were much lower than today, the cost of construction was about $250,000. 
It stood the test of the Merrimack flood in 1852, when the old toll-house 
and part of the Falls bridge and fish-way were swept away. 

The North Canal, built at the same time as the dam, is a little more 
than one mile in length and one hundred feet wide at place of beginning, 
and narrows to sixty feet at the outlet. About 12,500 horse-power or 
140 mill powers for ordinary working hours in the driest season was 
developed. The South canal, built in recent years, is three-fourths of a 
mile in length by sixty feet in width and ten feet in depth. 

Maurice B, Dorgan in his "Lawrence Yesterday and Today" gives 
the following list of distinguished visitors to the city: 

Lawrence has had many distinguished visitors, among them, November 14, 
1847, Daniel Webster and his wife; September 8, 1849, Father Theobald Mathew, 
the distinguished Irish Temperance reformer; in 1850, Horace Greeley, the famous 
journalist, who twenty-five years later lectured at City Hall on observations from 
his early visits; in February, 1853, Thomas Francis Meagher, the Irish patriot and 
after a major-general in the Union Army; in December, 1856, Senator Thomas H. 
Benton, for thirty years a member of the United States Senate; in 1860, Stephen 
A. Douglas, Lincoln's great opponent; in the spring of 1863, General George B. 
McClellan, famous Union commander, and his wife; in August, 1865, General U. S. 
Gi-ant, comm.ander-in-chief of the Union Armies, with his family and staff; Decem- 
ber 21, 1877, General James Shields; January 16, 1880, Charles Stewart Pamell, the 
Irish statesman; in 1889, President Benjamin Harrison; in September, 1896, William 
J. Bryan, Democratic candidate for President, and later erstwhile Secretary of 
State under President Wilson; January 2, 1897, Monsignor Martinelli, an apos- 
tolic delegate to the United States from Rome; August 26, 1902, President Theodore 
Roosevelt, with members of his cabinet. In the fall of 1912, during the presiden- 
tial campaign, Lawrence had the distinction of receiving a President and an ex- 
President of the United States on the same day. In the morning ex-President 
Roosevelt, Progressive candidate for President, visited the city; and in the after- 
noon President William Howard Taft, Republican candidate for re-election, came 
to the city and addressed a gathering of citizens on the Common. A Chinese 
Embassy, a Japanese Embassy, and a company of naval officers and officials repre- 
senting the Czar of all the Russias, have paid special visits to Lawrence, inspecting 
the mammoth mills with great interest. 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 509 

Various Historic Paragraphs — The two compass posts on the east- 
erly side of the Common are about two hundred feet apart, almost 
parallel with Jackson street. These define a true north and south line. 
The variation from the true north line is now about twelve degrees. 
These two granite posts are of invaluable service to civil engineers who 
come here to adjust their insti*uments. The placing of these markers 
was brought about by Gilbert E. Hood, who as school superintendent 
sent a communication to the school board and city council in 1871 stating 
that the legislature of 1870 had wisely provided that the county com- 
missioners of each county should by means of stone posts establish a 
true north and south line in one or more places within the county. He 
suggested that the Common was the most logical place for such posts, 
as of great value to the pupils of the high school. Upon petition of the 
city council, the county commissioners placed the posts at their present 
locations. 

Lafayette's visit was one of the early day notable events. June 20, 
1825, he passed through this section from Boston to Concord, New 
Hampshire. The General left Boston at nine o'clock in the morning, 
with a suite, riding in an open barouche drawn by four white horses. 
The route taken was through Charlestown, Medford, Reading, Andover, 
through the present Lawrence, and Methuen. He was met at the An- 
dover line by a company of cavalry and escorted to Seminary Hill, where 
the venerable Mr. Kneeland welcomed the honored guest. Several mili- 
tary companies in Lawrence joined the cavalry and escorted him to Tay- 
lor's Hotel, where he was welcomed by the faculty of the institution. 
About two p. m. the distinguished party passed over Andover (now 
Broadway) bridge in Lawrence, escorted by the Andover cavalry. At 
Methuen there was a welcome by the local militia and by some one of 
the General's old light infantiy soldiers, several of whom met him upon 
the route. At three p. m. at the State Line, the cavalry delivered their 
guest to the staff of Governor Morrill, of New Hampshire, the Granite 
State party arriving safely in Concord with their distinguished guest 
early the same evening. The only halt in Lawrence was to water the 
fine-blooded horses at the Shawsheen comer well, and a short rest upon 
the old bridge, where the picturesque rapids and pleasant scene at- 
tracted the attention of the noble Frenchman. The people turned out en 
masse. 

Writing of the fall of the Pemberton Mills, the late Hon. R. H. 
Tewksbury in his history of this calamity states: "No cyclone or whirl- 
wind had swept the plain; no torrent had undermined; no lightning 
stroke had rent; no explosion had shattered the fair structure. Some 
inherent defect invited and caused collapse so complete that it came with- 
out warning and overcame every element of strength and solidity." 

Fully to appreciate the gloom into which Lawrence was plunged by 
this disaster, one should remember that it was in the period of financial 



510 ESSEX COUNTY 

panics in this country, from 1857 on to 1860, when Lawrence, in common 
with all other cities, suffered greatly. The largest woolen mill plant in 
the United States had failed ; the great machine shop building was silent 
and deserted of its workmen. The Pacific Mills were yet in a stage of 
experimenting, struggling to sui-vive. The population had suddenly de- 
creased fully fifteen per cent. Only after the Civil War came on was 
there any demand for goods such as were here manufactured. 

The Pemberton Mills were built in 1853 by the Essex Company, and 
John Pickering Putnam was managing director. It was designed and 
built under the watchful care of Captain Charles H. Bigelow, and was 
one of the most attractive and apparently most substantial buildings in 
Lawrence. In 1859 it had been purchased by David Nevins of Methuen 
and George Howe of Boston, who paid $325,000 for the plant, which had 
cost in excess of $840,000. Under these owners the factory had resumed 
work, and prosperity seemed to smile upon the undertaking. Shortly be- 
fore 5 o'clock in the afternoon of January 10th, 1860, while the machin- 
ery was still in motion, without a second's warning, the entire building 
trembled, tottered and fell, burying beneath its shapeless, broken ruins a 
mass of humanity that had been working within its walls. Six hundred 
and seventy men, women and children went down in the ruins. Strong 
men with stout hearts went to work to remove the living from the ruins. 
To make the fatalities more than double what they would have been at 
first, about ten o'clock at night, when men were doing their best to re- 
lieve suffering, a lantern in the hands of a workman was broken by 
chance, and the ignited fluid fell among inflammable materials, such as 
cotton waste and oil, when suddenly tongues of fire leaped high over the 
ruins. One account of this calamity speaks as follows: "The scene 
lighted by bonfires, and the flames from the burning mass, in the smoke 
that hung about it, was weird, awe-inspiring and indescribable. All 
about the streets, from every available outlook, an excited, hushed crowd 
gathered from the homes of the city and from the country about, look- 
ing, on, filled with fear and foreboding. There were 918 persons em- 
ployed by the corporation, but of these nearly one-third were at work in 
out-buildings or in the yard, and were therefore out of danger. Of the 
670 persons in the mill when it fell, 307 escaped unhurt, 88 were killed, 
116 badly injured and 159 slightly injured." 

The City Hall was transformed into a morgue for the wounded and 
dead, by order of Hon. Daniel Saunders, Jr., then mayor, and the physi- 
cians of Lawrence and surrounding towns were all busy at work. The 
scene at the City Hall was one never to be forgotten by those who saw 
it in all its awfulness. At one time there were fifty-four wounded pa- 
tients in the hall. The heartrending scenes witnessed in the identifica- 
tion of the dead must here be left to the imagination. 

The relief committee, under the mayor and Charles S. Storrow, was 
flooded by every incoming mail with contributions from far and near. 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 511 

until these men had to refuse to accept the freely-given offerings. The 
total amount received was $65,835.67, and of this sum $52,000 was dis- 
bursed in aid of the sufferers; the $14,000 remaining was invested as 
annuities. Pardon Ai-mington was appointed clerk to make an accurate 
record of each case. Four days after the calamity the mayor ordered a 
day of fasting and prayer, calling upon the people to abstain from labor 
as much as possible and to attend religious services. 

The jury called by Dr. William D. Lamb, then coroner, heard the 
evidence of eye-witnesses that the roof of the mill first sank at the 
southerly end and the whole roof, freeing itself from wall supports, came 
crashing down to the floor below. Each floor gave way as the one above 
it came violently downward, till the last floor was reached. The wall at 
the north end of the 284 foot structure was thrown outward, a portion 
falling upon the ice that covered the canal. The chimney at the south 
end remained standing with some crumbling walls attached. Only the 
main building fell. Pictures of this scene were printed from the then 
used woodcuts in "Harper's" and "Frank Leslie's" illustrated papers, 
many of which are still to be seen at public libraries. It was the verdict 
of the jury that the cast-iron pillars used for supporting the several floors 
of the building were weak, on account of defective castings, and it was 
agreed by experts and jury that this was the sole cause of the disaster. 
Thirteen bodies were removed from the ruins so badly mutilated that 
they could not be identified, and these were all buried in Bellevue ceme- 
tery, over which was erected a plain granite monument with this inscrip- 
tion: "In memory of the um-ecognized dead who were killed by the fall 
of the Pemberton Mill, January 10, 1860." 

The present Pemberton Mills are on the site of the old mill. Imme- 
diately after this awful disaster a new company was organized with 
David Nevins, George Blackburn and Eben Sutton as largest share- 
holders. Their company was incorporated as the Pemberton Company. 

July 26, 1890, at about nine o'clock (Saturday morning), a whirl- 
wind swept over the southern ward of the city, in which eight persons 
were kilfed and sixty-five injured. The property loss was about $45,- 
000. The storm came from the west, at the velocity of a mile a minute. 
A funnel-shaped cloud hung high over Andover street and near West 
Parish road, struck the earth, and took everything in its pathway. It 
blew away buildings and upturned large trees. The railroad bridge was 
badly warped and twisted by the storm. A switchman was killed near 
there. It spent itself at the entrance of the Shawsheen into the Merri- 
mack river. Not very long after, the mayor and city officials were busy 
rendering relief. Early that evening a military guard was placed in 
charge, to keep order — old Battery C, Field Artillery, under Captain L. 
N. Duchesney, and also Company F, under Captain Joseph H. Joubert. 
The next day (Sunday) there were fully 50,000 people present as sight- 
seers, the utmost order prevailing. The total amount in relief funds was 



512 ESSEX COUNTY 

$37,560. The smallest amount given by any Lawrence person was ten 
cents, and the greatest was $500, Lawrence donated $27,000; Boston, 
$6,800; Lowell, $2,000; Haverhill, $1,059; Salem, $218; Manchester, 
New Hampshire, $66 ; and Worcester, $25, The amount of money drawn 
by the building committee to pay awards was $30,000. The estimated 
damage was $37,000, and the actual damage aggregated $42,000. 

Lawrence was visited August 4, 1910, by a tornado, which passed 
through the heart of the city. Trees were upturned, buildings were un- 
roofed, but no fatalities took place. One man was injured. The greatest 
loss was in the vicinity of the Common, The huge flagstaff, opposite the 
site of the present beautiful Shattuck staff, was snapped off at the base 
"like a pipe-stem," 

On June 30, 1913, the runway leading from the north bank of the 
Merrimack river, just above the dam, to one of the municipal bathhouses, 
collapsed, and eleven boys, ranging from eight to fifteen years, were 
drowned. Scores more were only saved by prompt and heroic work on 
the part of bystanders. While the boys were standing on the boardwalk 
extending out over the water, waiting until the keeper should open up 
the bathhouse for the first time that season, it suddenly collapsed, and 
all were plunger into the water. Only a few cases can here be mentioned 
wherein heroic persons, including boys, riskd their lives to save others 
struggling in the waters and unable to swim. Joseph McCann, a fifteen- 
year-old crippled lad, probably outshone all others in his daring yet un- 
successful attempt to save his companions. Without hesitation, he 
plunged into the stream. Being a fine swimmer, he was soon in reach 
of his chums, who (as is usually the case) grasped his frail his frail 
form, and all went to watery graves. Henry Hinchcliffe, aged sixteen, 
succeeded in bringing a number of boys safely to shore. He was award- 
ed the Carnegie Medal for bravery, and also afforded an education by 
the Carnegie Hero Fund. Expert divers brought to the surface seven 
more boys, malting eleven in all known to have drowned. The bath 
houses were then closed and never reopened. The relatives of the de- 
ceased boys each received $100 for funeral expenses, but the supreme 
court held later that the city was not liable for damages, for the reason 
that no fee had been charged for the use of the bath houses. The inquest 
disclosed the fact that the accident was due to lack of sufllicient braces 
under the board walk. Those who perished were : Secundo Allegdro, 10 
years ; William Bolster, 10 ; Joseph Belanger, 8 ; John Cote, 8 ; Romaldo 
Gaudette (was visiting in the city and was to have gone home to Fitch- 
burg on the day following the accident), 10; Joseph Hennessey, 15; Hol- 
land Jones, 9 ; Joseph McCann, 15 ; Flower Pinta, 11 ; William Thornton, 
10; Michael Woitena, 14. 

What was known as the Lawrence Board of Trade had its origin 
on February the eighth, 1888, with James H. Eaton as its first presi- 
dent; Charles A. DeCourcy, secretary; and Arthur W. Dyer, treasurer. 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 513 

About eighty men belonged to this organization, inckiding the mill agents 
as well as many of the better class of business and professional men of 
the city. For a full quarter of a centuiy this organization looked well 
to the commercial interests of Lav/rence. June 1st, 1913, the old organi- 
zation died and the newly-formed Charifiber of Commerce went into ac- 
tion, with larger scope and greater activities. Statistical matter has 
been printed and sent broadcast throughout the entire country, and good 
results have been known to follow this extensive advertising plan. One 
of the largest undertakings was the sending out a large display of articles 
produced in the many industrial plants. Tens of thousands of descriptive 
circulars were distributed in the 1915 Panama-Pacific International Ex- 
position at San Francisco. Another big feature was the sending of a 
special passenger train of one hundred and six enthusiastic boomers for 
Lawrence. The fine exhibit at San Francisco was awarded the first 
premium in way of such a collection of exhibits. 

The old Merchants' Association, v/hich had been formed in 1902, for 
mutual benefit to the merchants, was merged with the Chamber of Com- 
merce. The Chamber now has commodious quarters in the Bay State 
Building, and there the facts concerning the growing city of Lawrence 
may be readily found by interested parties. 

At the outset, the founders of the city made provision for the com- 
fort and enjoyment of coming generations. The Essex Company, men- 
tioned elsewhere, liberally donated the Common, and from time to time 
deeded other tracts of land to the city, which are now "favorite breathing 
spots." Storrow Park, a reservation of ten acres on the highlands of 
Prospect Hill, in Ward No. 1, was deeded to Lawrence, December 3, 
1853. In 1873 the same company deeded a seven-acre tract known as 
the "Amphitheatre", as it is closed on three sides by low ridges; this is 
also called Bodwell Park. The conditions of this gift were that the city 
should expend not less than two hundred dollars per year for a term of 
ten years in improving and making beautiful the grounds. Another 
handsome reservation was laid out by the Essex Company. This con- 
tains a little more than eleven acres and extends easterly from South 
Union street in W^ard No. 6, and is now styled Union Park. The public 
park off Hampshire street (known commonly as the "Jail Common"), is 
another gift from the Essex Company, besides the small Stockton Park 
at the junction of South Union street and Winthrop avenue. 

The playground movement was started in the summer of 1912, the 
first cost being borne by the city, v/ith some assistance by liberal citizens. 
However, away back in 1848 the place had its playground in the shape 
of the Commons, so generously donated to the newly-laid-out town. 
There are now seventeen parks or playgi'ounds containing 164.67 acres. 
This number includes Sullivan Park (named for the late Hon. Edward F. 
O'Sullivan), which tract v/as formerly Riverside Park ball grounds, but 
purchased by the city in the early months of 1918. The play gi'ounds are 

Essex— 33 



514 ESSEX COUNTY 

attracting great attention, and are utilized by thousands of children and 
youth, who are provided with all sorts of appliances for both amusement 
and physical culture. 

There are but few finer "Commons*' than the tract at Lawrence. It 
is in the very heart of the enterprising city, and comprises seventeen and 
one-half acres ; the land was deeded to the city in 1848 by the Essex Com- 
pany. Here are winding paths and walks leading in every direction. 
Stately elms and maple trees enclose expanses of grass plots, set off with 
attractive flower beds. In 1916 the park commissioner gave this com- 
mon as having four hundred and twenty-two trees. One descriptive 
writer, in "Lawrence of Today" says of this park or common: 

Originally this common, in the greater part of its area, was only a sand heap. 
The high ground was sown occasionally with buckwheat, which was plowed in as a 
fertilizer. At one time, near the northeastern corner, two acres were set out 
with cabbages. The eastern section along Jackson street was an elder swamp, 
with a brook running through it. The willows on the southeastern comer, the last 
of which were removed several years ago, were some of the original trees that grew 
up by the wall, which as one of the boundary lines of the Gage farm that stretched 
away to the eastward. One of these willow trees, cut down in 1899, had sixty-nine 
rings in the trunk, denoting an age of sixty-nine years. 

In 1874-75 the old fence which enclosed the park was removed and the granite 
curbing was provided. The present concrete water-basin, or artificial pond, built 
in 1914, replaced the original gold-fish pond for which ground was broken in August, 
1857. The beautifully designed Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument was here erected 
in 1881, as a result of the donations given by the Grand Army Post, citizens of 
the place, etc., who formed the Monument Association, with officers as follows: 
President, Robert H. Tewksbury; vice-presidents, John R. Rollins and Thomas Cor- 
nelie; secretary, Frank O. Kendall; trustees to receive and invest funds; Mayor 
James R. Simpson, Hezekiah Plummer, Waldo L. Abbott, Joseph Shattuck, Freder- 
ick E. Clarke, James S. Hutchinson, Byron Truell, John Hart, Edmund R. Hay- 
den. The total cost of this monument was $11,111.75, the total number of sub- 
scribers being 9,136. Among the long list of givers appear the names of these resi- 
dents. The crowning figure of the monument is "Union", designed by David Rich- 
ards. The bronze tablet attached to this Civil War Monument contains the names 
of two hundred and fifty-five soldiers who were killed in battle. This memorial 
to the defenders of their country was appropriately dedicated on the evening of 
November 2, 1881, amid a brilliant display of fireworks and calcium lights. It was 
accepted on belialf of the city by Mayor Henry K. Webster, who gave a befitting 
address. 

Another attraction on the Common is the unique flagstaff, the gift of Joseph 
Shattuck, upon the occasion of the first Flag Day demonstration, October 12, 1912. 
Mr. Shattuck gave $4,000 for the erection of this flagstaff, and an additional 
thousand was deposited with the Essex Savings Bank for the purpose of supply- 
ing new flags, as time goes on. The base of this flagstaff is an emblematic work 
of art, representing the industries of Lawrence, especially the weaving of fabrics. 
It is an elaborate affair and in connection with the base bears this inscription: "The 
gift of Joseph Shattuck, to the people of Lawrence, as a perpetual remembrance 
of October 12, 1912, when 32,000 men, women and children of the city marched 
under the flag for God and Country." 

The present bandstand on the Common was built in June, 1904. 
The public sanitary station, located in the same section, was completed 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 515 

and opened December 30, 1907. The park system includes parks and 
playstands in every ward. 

The "Service-Roll" was erected temporarily, in honor of the 3,600 
soldiers who had been inducted into the United States sei-vice for the 
World War. This will ere long doubtless be superseded by a more tasty 
and enduring memorial upon the part of the citizens of the city. 

The gi'eat textile strike of 1912 was felt directly throughout Essex 
county and indirectly throughout the whole of New England, also causing 
labor agitation even beyond the confines of this country, was the one at 
Lawrence, beginning January 12, 1912, lasting sixty-three days, in which 
27,000 operatives were involved. The real cause was the enforcement 
of the 54-hour law, which really meant that operatives lost two hours 
per week. The measure prohibited women and children from working 
in the mills more than fifty-four hours a week. But, as a matter of fact, 
the work of the women and children feeds the work done by the men, so 
the new law meant a reduction of two hours in the week's working sched- 
ule. While the wages per hour were not changed, the amount of the 
compensation received by the workers under the fifty-four hour law was 
less than under the fifty-six hour law. The workers demanded that they 
receive the same wages, regardless of the change of the schedule ; when 
the first pay-day arrived, following the date that the 54-hour law went 
into effect, they resented the reduction, as they saw fit to regard it, and 
the strike began. This was January 11. Five hundred weavers and 
spinners in the Everett, Arlington and Duck mills first quit work. 

The strike began January 12, 1912, and lasted sixty-three days. 
Twenty-seven thousand operatives were involved. Cause: Reduction 
in pay, with enforcement of new fifty-four hour law. Two regiments 
of infantry, two troops of cavalry, besides metropolitan park police, 
assisted augmented Lawrence police force in preserving order. Anna 
LoPezzi and John Remi were killed in clashes between strikers and police 
and strikers and militia. Joseph J. Ettor and Arturo Giovannitti, strike 
leaders, were arrested on charge of being accessories before the fact to 
the slaying of Anna LoPezzi; after jury trial, both acquitted. Parties 
of children were sent to New York, Philadelphia and Barre, Virginia, 
for care until the close of strike ; one group stopped by police and several 
arrests made. Investigation by Congressional Committee, United States 
Attorney General, the Federal Bureau of Labor, a committee of the State 
Legislature, and the Attorney General of the State. Cost to mills, esti- 
mated at nearly $1,000,000. Estimated loss of wages to employees, 
$1,350,000. Estimated cost of maintaining regular and special police by 
the city, $75,000. Estimated cost to State in maintaining militia, $200,- 
000. Relief funds sent in from all over the country, approximately $65,- 
000. More than 2,500 persons cared for daily during strike period. $45,- 
000 collected by I. W. W. ; leaders of that organization accused of mis- 



516 ESSEX COUNTY 

management and misuse of funds. Estimated number of arrests, 500; 
one-half of this number paid fines ranging from one to one hundred dol- 
lars. Strike ended March 14, 1912. Concessions of mills, five to twenty- 
five per cent, increases in wages. Wage advance spread over New Eng- 
land ; a general increase of from five to seven per cent. Estimated cost 
to 1,500 textile manufacturers, $5,000,000 a year. 

A local writer (Maurice B. Dorgan) gives this description of affairs 
connected with the strike: 

Friday morning, January 12, snow began falling at 7:30 and through the 
•whirling whiteness ran the constantly growing crowd of strikers. It started from 
the Washington Mills, with 500, and by 10 a. m. had 12,000 people out of the 
mills and the riot call sounding for the police. The mob marched over Union 
street and entered the Wood Worsted Mills. Weapons were brandished, belts were 
thrown off, obstacles were hurled into the machinery and workers were actually 
driven from the mills. Next the army of strikers went to the Ayer Mills to get 
the workers out. Here occurred the first clash with the police, who were under 
command of Assistant City Marshal Samuel S. Logan. Marching across the Duck 
bridge, the mob attacked the Duck and Kunhardt MUls, breaking many windows. 

The Industrial Workers of the World had a small organization of perhaps 300 
in Lawrence, although little or nothing had ever been heard of it until the strike. 
Immediately its local leaders sent for Joseph J. Ettor, an Italian organizer of that 
body, and he arrived from New York Saturday morning, addressing a mass meeting 
in City Hall. He remained chairman of the strike committee, which was organized 
on the following Monday, and the real leader of the strike until his arrest on Janu- 
ary 30, on the charge of being accessory to the murder of Anna Lo Pezzi, an Italian 
woman, who was shot on January 29. 

By Saturday night 15,000 of the mill workers of Lawrence were out. On Sun- 
day, Januai-y 14, Ettor and the strike committee had a conference with Mayor 
Michael A. Scanlon and the members of the board of aldermen, when the strikers 
were advised to observe law and order and not invoke trouble or continue the 
destruction of property. Fearing a further demonstration upon the part of the 
strikers on the following Monday morning, however, every police officer was ordered 
to report for duty early and the three local militia organizations, Battery C of the 
Field Artillery, Company F of the Ninth Infantry, and Company L of the Eighth 
Infantry, were ordered to report at the Amesbury street Armory. 

The next morning, Monday, January 15, there was a clash between the troops 
and the strikers and there was general disorder. Thirty-five arrests were made. A 
strikers' parade started in the vicinity of Union street and proceeded along Canal 
street to the Washington Mills. Here the null gate was stormed and a number 
succeeded in getting into the mill, where they were arrested. Then the mob moved 
up street along the canal of the Pacific Mills, where they were received with hose 
streams. After they had been repulsed, a crowd armed themselves with sticks from 
a freight car standing on their side of the canal and smashed many vdndows in the 
Atlantic Mills. Shots were fired by the mob at the millwatchman, and one rioter 
was bayoneted, though not fatally, by a member of Company F, in an attempt to 
rush the Atlantic Mill gates. 

This marked the entrance of the militia into the situation, which had got be- 
yond control of the civil authorities. Governor Foss ordered militia companies 
from other cities in the State to Lawrence, and from that day till several weeks 
later, when the need of the military was no longer apparent, the iron grip of the 
soldiery was felt. Cordons of militia were thrown about the mills, and sharp- 
shooters were located in the factory towers as a precaution against prowlers who 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 517 

might get by the line of soldiers. Later a portion of the militia did police duty 
in the foreign quarters and business section of the city. Col. E. LeRoy Sweetser 
was ordered to take command of the troops in Lawrence. Police from other cities 
and towns were also brought in to reinforce the local police. 

So matters went on day after day and week after week, until the clash between 
strikers and the authorities occurred, February 26. Before sunrise that morning 
there was a sharp encounter at the lower end of Common street between the police 
and the men supposed to be strikers. There were about thirty shot^ exchanged. 
One man, an Italian, was wounded in his shoulder. During this strike a well- 
organized relief station was maintained by the American Federation of Labor, 
where food, fuel and clothing were distributed to the needy. 

The conduct of the I, W. W. organization several months later in getting up a 
parade and carrying banners such as "No God; No Master," was the death blow 
to that society in Lawrence. Public opinion rose higher and higher against such 
things, and more than five thousand names were added to a society of loyal men 
and women who, in October that year, observed Flag Day. Iri the parade were 
seen thirty thousand men, women and children, marching beneath the folds of the 
Star Spangled Banner. Sixty thousand people with loyal hearts were present on 
that Flag Day occasion. This ended the influance of the Industrial Workers of the 
World, so far as this city was concerned. Pages more might be published on this 
great strike of 1912, suffice it to say that it was not long before the people of the 
country generally felt that all was done that could be done to shorten the duration 
of this terrible labor trouble in one of the fairest cities of the Republic. 

There is no pretension that the subjoined exposition of the industrial 
development of Lawrence from humble beginnings to present magnitude 
is exhaustive as to details. It is yet sufficiently comprehensive, how- 
ever, to emphasize a growth that reads almost like a romance. Of the 
so-called "boom" quality with which the settlement and growth of sundry 
American communities is associated, there is little or none in the story 
of Lawrence's industrial evolution. If there have been no signal periods 
when with diminished business the prestige of a milling centre seemed 
likely to pass away, so there have been no stages where the expansion 
took on a feverish character. The chronicler can not fail to be impressed 
with a development consistent with the building of a sure foundation 
and a conduct of affairs conforming to principles that spell permanency 
and progress. As will be seen by some of the statements that follow, 
certain facts justify a disregard of the discreetness of that rule which 
counsels general avoidance of the use of the superlative. No risks thus 
inhere in this quarter; for the dominance thus emphasized here and 
there is so unquestioned as to compel immediate recognition. Facts and 
figures have all been obtained at first hand ; they are therefore removed 
from any requirement as to qualification. The review of the milling in- 
dustries, no precedence being implied, is prefaced with the story of the 
Pacific Mills, succeeded by that of the American Woolen Company, both 
giant corporations; then follow the recitals, brief though they may be, 
that carry with them those adequate details to which the general reader 
is entitled. 

As to the Pacific Mills, when a few far-sighted Lowell and 



518 ESSEX COUNTY 

Boston business men, prominent among whom were the Lawrence 
brothers, from whom our city takes its name, journeyed by train to 
North Andover and thence by carriage to the site of the rapids in the 
Merrimack river at Bodwell's Falls, where Daniel Saunders had foreseen 
the possibilities of developing a fine water power and had acquired the 
o^vnership of land on both sides of the river, they had a vision of a 
great manufacturing city whose thousands of whirring spindles would 
be driven by the power of the water which the dam they proposed to 
build would turn into canals, whose banks would be lined with splendid 
mills. Now, seventy-five years afterward, we see their vision realized, 
as we gaze upon the great structures which house the machinery that 
turns out the millions of yards each year of cotton, worsted and woolen 
clothes which have made Lawrence the greatest producer in the United 
States of worsteds, and well to the front in cotton cloths also. 

The story of the formation in 1845 of the Essex Company to develop 
10,000 horse-power of water by building the great dam over which there 
is a clear fall of water in a sheet more than nine hundred feet broad and 
thirty-two feet high, is told elsewhere in this volume ; but we can pause 
to visualize what a tremendous undertaking it must have seemed in those 
early days, and with what energy and enthusiasm they set about build- 
ing this dam, the first stone of which was laid September 19, 1845, and 
the last one just three years to a day later, September 19, 1848 ; and to 
dig along the north bank of the river a canal over a mile long, one hun- 
dred feet wide at the head and tapering to a width of sixty feet at its 
outlet ; and along the south bank to start a similar but somewhat smaller 
canal. During this same time great mill buildings were being erected 
along the North canal. The "New City," as it was then called, became 
a veritable hive of busy workers, and has so continued ever since. 

The first mill site nearest the Canal entrance was that afterward ac- 
quired by the Pacific Mills, but theirs were not the first mills built; the 
next in line, the Atlantic Cotton Mills, and the Bay State Mills (now 
the location of the Washington Mills of the American Woolen Company) 
were both under way in 1846. The Atlantic Mills, after prosperous 
years and years of depression, finally went out of business, and the prop- 
erty was bought at auction by the Pacific Mills in 1913; their history, 
therefore, becomes a part of that of the latter company. The Atlantic 
Cotton Mills were incorporated February 3, 1846, with an authorized 
capital of $1,800,000, which was reduced in 1876 to $1,000,000. This 
plant had 106,000 spindles, for cotton yams, and over 3,000 looms making 
sheetings, shirtings and pillow-tubing cloths, and employed over 1000 
operatives. The Western or No. 1 Mill was commenced June 9, 1846, 
and started spinning yam May 10, 1849. The easterly, or No. 2 Mill 
was first operated September 4, 1849; ground for No. 3, or connecting 
mill, was broken February 15, 1850, and the machinery for this mill was 
built by the Essex Company in its machine shop, which is now the old 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 519 

stone mill of the Everett Mills. The first cotton to arrive in Lawi-ence 
was on Januaiy 12, 1849, and was used at the Atlantic Mills. Abbott 
Lawrence was the first president of this company, and Charles S. Stor- 
row was treasurer the first year. Mr. Storrow was the first mayor when 
Lawrence became a city. For the first ten years the agent was General 
Henry K. Oliver, who became mayor of Lawrence in 1859. He was 
originally a school teacher and a lover of music. He selected the various 
mill bells, so toned that they would blend harmoniously when all ringing 
together, and was the author of the well-known hymn, "Federal Street." 
During the Civil War, from 1861 to 1866, he was treasurer of the State 
of Massachusetts, and later on served as mayor of the city of Salem, Mas- 
sachusetts, for three years.. Joseph P. Battles, who succeeded him, 
served as agent for over twenty-five years. 

The main cotton mill of the Pacific Mills was started by the Essex 
Company before it was known what company would operate them. 
Ground was broken May 24, 1852, and on June 1st the first stone was 
laid at the southeast comer of the main mill structure. It was originally 
500 feet long and seven stories high ; the easterly portion of same height 
and 300 feet long was built in 1860. The print works buildings along 
the river were built at the same time as the main mill in 1852-3. 

The Pacific Mills was incorporated in 1853 to make ladies' dress 
goods "from wool wholly, from cotton wholly, and from wool and cot- 
ton combined." Abbott Lawrence was the first president of this com- 
pany, as he was also the first president of the Essex Company and of the 
Atlantic Cotton Mills. Mr. Lawrence and his elder brother Amos were 
among the greatest business men of New England of that period, and 
Abbott was prominent not only in his business relations, but in politics 
as well. Twice he was sent to Congress; he served as a commissioner 
appointed by Massachusetts to settle the boundary line between what is 
now the State of Maine and Canada, sei-ving with Lord Ashburton ; and 
in 1849 was appointed United States Minister to the Court of St. James. 
In 1847 he founded the Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard, and in 
other lines of activity was always a leader. Under his guidance the 
Pacific Mills grew and prospered, attaining such strength that it was 
able to survive the panic of 1857, when so many of even the strongest 
mills and merchants of the time were driven to the wall. The excel- 
lence of style, quality and durability of the Pacific Mills' cloths won 
popularity and built up a reputation which has lasted through all the sub- 
sequent years. 

The first treasurer and agent was Jeremiah S. Young, who had been 
active in the formation of the company. Mr. Young was lessee and man- 
ager of the Ballardvale Mills at Andover, where it is said the first fine 
flannels to be made in this country were woven. He brought with him 
to the new enterprise many skilled workmen, and devoted himself in- 
tensely to its development. The immense cost of so large an establish- 



520 ESSEX COUNTY 

ment and of the expensive machinery necessary for its equipment ex- 
hausted the capital of the company and embarrassed its progress, so that 
the stock, whose par value was $1000 a share, sold at one time as low* as 
$100 and less. But Mr. Lawrence, the president, was a man of infinite 
resource, who could not endure the thought of any enterprise in which 
he was so intimately connected proving a failure. In his own name he 
raised the amount necessary to carry the enterprise forward, and was 
actively and earnestly engaged in its interest until his death in 1855. 
The treasurer, Mr. Young, died in 1857, and after a short interval, when 
the duties of treasurer Vv^ere performed by Mr. George H. Kuhn, Mr. J. 
Wiley Edmands was chosen treasurer and manager, and for twenty-two 
years following the company continued to grow and prosper. Mr. Ed- 
mands received his early training with the firm of A. & A. Lawrence, 
and his thorough knowledge of mercantile affairs contributed much to 
the subsequent success of the mills. Associated with Mr. Edmands, 
William C. Chapin came in 1853 from Fall River to superintend the Print 
Works, and subsequently became resident agent. Mr. Chapin resigned in 
1871, after having been agent eighteen years, and John Fallon, who was 
his successor as chemist and superintendent of the Print Works, became 
acting agent. 

Following the death of Mr. Edmands in 1877, Mr. James L. Little 
became treasurer. Mr. Little was at the head of the firm of James L. 
Little & Co., who had been the selling agents of the Pacific Mills for 
over twenty years. Upon Mr. Little's retirement from active business 
in 1880, Mr. Henry Saltonstall was chosen treasurer. A man of untiring 
energy, a veritable "captain of industry," Mr. Saltonstall set at work to 
remodel and modernize the whole plant. During the administration of 
Mr. Edmands the mills had experienced a period of great prosperity and 
growth, and to meet the demands of the trade for Pacific goods, additions 
had been made to the buildings and machinery without due regard to 
consecutive or economical arrangement; at this time also, much of the 
machinery was found to be out-of-date and needing to be replaced by 
more modem. In 1864 the central, or as is now known, the "Lower 
Pacific'" site, had been bought, lying between the Atlantic and the old 
Bay State Mills, or Washington Mills, as they afterward became, and on 
this site was begun the erection of mills for an extension of the worsted 
department. Joseph Stone came from the Manchester Mills to be super- 
intendent of the worsted department in 1880, succeeding Joseph Wal- 
worth, who became wool buyer. Samuel Barlow was promoted from the 
position of color master to be superintendent of the print works, and 
Walter E. Parker came from Woonsocket, Rhode Island, to be superin- 
tendent of the cotton department in 1881. In 1883 Lawrence & Co. be- 
came the selling agents, and all these co-operated with Mr. Saltonstall 
in his task of remodeling the plant and making it thoroughly modern in 
equipment and efficiency. 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 521 

Work was begim early in 1882, old buildings were torn down and 
new ones erected, and machinery changed in location throughout the 
plant. These changes lasted several years, the worsted manufacturing 
being centered at the lower mill and the cotton at the upper site. In 

1886 the office building was erected; in 1887 and 1889 the upper mill 
weave shed, housing 2000 additional cotton looms ; in 1888 and 1889 the 
cotton yarn miu having 51,000 spindles. Large storehouses for storing 
cotton, wool and finished goods were also built during this period. In 

1887 Joseph Stone resigned as superintendent of the worsted department, 
and Walter E. Parker became agent of the mills, and Samuel Barlow 
agent of the Print Works. Mr. Barlow died in 1892 and Mr. Parker be- 
came agent of the entire Lawrence plant. He has retained that position 
up to the present writing, the first day of April, 1921, marking forty 
years of continuous service with this company. The ability with which 
he has managed the manufacturing end of this great corporation has 
built up for him a reputation second to none in the textile field. In 
1894 Henry Saltonstall died and was succeeded as treasurer by Mr. 
George S. Silsbee, who filled this position until stricken down in the 
midst of his usefulness, in the prime of life, in 1907. His successor was 
Mr. Edwin Farnham Greene, who came a a young man for so important 
a position, but whose recognized ability has enabled him to continue the 
remarkable record established by his predecessors, and maintain the 
high position which this company has always held in the textile industry. 

In 1907 the power station was built near the head of the canal, which 
develops about 15,000 electrical horse power, driving a large portion of 
the plant in North Lawrence, the Print Works having its own electric 
power plant. In 1909 to 1912, the Print Works having become anti- 
quated, a lot of land covering eighteen acres in South Lawrence was 
bought, and what is now the largest print works in America was built, 
a plant of 48 calico printing machines, with dye works and bleachery, 
comprising machinery from the old Print Works, the Cocheco Print 
Works at Dover, New Hampshire, the Hamilton and Merrimack Print 
Works at Lowell, all of which concerns had been bought and merged with 
the Pacific. The normal weekly output of this department exceeds 5,000,- 
000 yards of prmted and dyed cotton cloths, bleached and shoe goods. In 
1910 the old brick boarding house blocks along the north side of Canal 
street at the upper site were torn down, and in their place was built the 
No. 10 Worsted Mill, 550 feet long, 131 feet wide, and seven stories high, 
with a weave shed having about 1300 worsted looms on one floor. In 
1909 the Pacific Mills acquired the Cocheco Manufacturing Company 
plant at Dover, New Hampshire, and made extensive changes in this cot- 
ton mill of 150,000 spindles and over 3600 looms ; and in 1916 they pur- 
chased four mills comprising the Hampton Mills department located in 
the city of Columbia, South Carolina. This plant has about 200,000 cot- 
ton spindles and 4800 looms. 



522 ESSEX COUNTY 

At the present writing (1921) the' plant at Lawrence comprises 
buildings having about 135 acres of floor space: 215,456 cotton and 92,- 
464 worsted spindles, 3,833 cotton and 3,689 worsted looms. They em- 
ploy about 8,000 operatives, to whom they pay each week of 48 hours 
over $175,000 in wages. The Pacific Mills was originally capitalized for 
$1,000,000, increased at different periods, as the establishment grew, 
until today it stands at $20,000,000. 

In the sixty-seven years which have elapsed since the Pacific cloths 
first appeared on the market, great changes have taken place in manu- 
facturing methods and in the personnel of the working people. Some of 
the original cotton mill machinery was built in this country, but much of 
the worsted machinery and that for the print works was imported. 
Among the first if not the very first worsted combs in the United States 
are said to have been started in the Pacific Mills. One of the earlier 
types of the ring spinning spindles was invented by Oliver Pearl, an 
official of the Atlantic Mills. The Wade bobbin holder was invented by 
A. M. Wade, superintendent of the Pacific Mills cotton department. The 
machinery in the mills has been changed time after time, as it wore out, 
or better types were put upon the market. 

When the mills were first built, the northerly side of the North 
canal was lined with corporation boarding and rooming houses in which 
a large portion of the help lived ; for if wages were low, so also was the 
cost of living. Women and girls paid $2.25 to $2.50 a week for their 
board, with another $1 a week for their rooms; men paid $3 for board 
and $1 for the room. The working hours were long, wages were paid 
once a month, and in the earlier days were computed in shillings and 
pence. Where now a weaver works forty-eight hours a week, tends 
fourteen to eighteen automatic looms, and earns well up to $25 a week on 
plain cotton cloths, in 1860 she worked eleven hours a day for six days, 
or sixty-six hours a week, tending a small number of plain looms, and 
earning about 74 cents a day. Many of the girls who worked in the mills 
in the early days were daughters of New England farmers and were of a 
high class. The skilled printers, engravers, and foremen of the worsted 
manufacturing were many of them trained in the "Old Country." A 
little later we find English and Irish girls predominating in the mills, to 
be supplanted quite largely later on by French-Canadians. The last de- 
cade has shown a large influx of workers from Southern Europe, from 
Italy and Greece, also many men from Russia and Austria, so that the 
names on the payrolls today read far differently from what they did in 
the early days. 

The Pacific Mills was a pioneer in what is termed now "service 
work," maintaining a library and a relief fund for its operatives. In 
1868 at the Paris Exposition, at which ten awards of 10,000 francs each 
were given to individuals or associations "M''ho, in a series of years had 
accomplished the most to secure harmony between employers and their 



THE NEW YORK 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

ASTOR, LEt^OJC 
riLDEN FOUNDATIONS 




AVER MILLS. LAWRENCE. MASS. 










BIRD'S-EYE VIEW MONOMAC SPINNING CO. A'lILLS. LAWRENCE 




BIRD'S-EYE VIEW ACADIA MILLS, LAWRENCE 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 523 

workpeople, and most successfully advanced the material, intellectual, and 
moral welfare of the same," for which there were five hundred applica- 
tions, was successful in receiving the only award given to the United 
States, none being received by Great Britain. Today we see the same 
spirit shown, as evidenced by first aid rooms for the injured, rest rooms, 
group life insurance carried at the expense of the company upon the lives 
of all its workers, a live athletic association, including baseball and bowl- 
ing leagues, a mill band, etc., also a cafeteria restaurant at the Print 
Works. Great as has been the financial success of the corporation, it 
has been well earned and deserved. 

Few persons in this country have any conception of the magnitude 
of the operations of the American Woolen Company. The company is 
in no sense a "trust," but rather a giant company, with mills in Massa- 
chusetts, Maine, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Connecticut, New York, 
Vermont, and Kentucky, the total number of factory plants being fifty- 
nine. The head oflfice is in Boston ; its president is William M. Wood. It 
is believed that the information herein contained will be of interest both 
to the present and future generations in Essex county, from the fact that 
the American Woolen Mills operate in the city of Lawrence, this county, 
the Washington Mills, Wood Worsted Mills, Prospect Mills, Ayer Mills, 
and occupy the Lawrence, Merrimac and Washington No. 10 Store- 
houses. Recent literature furnished by this great corporation furnishes 
the writer of this chapter much valuable information, as will be observed 
by the subjoined paragraphs: 

The largest of the American Woolen Mills Company's plants is the 
Wood Worsted Mills, the largest in the world today; it covers twenty- 
nine acres. Here one finds the Pacific Mills and Arlington Mills; here 
are large cotton and print mills — largest ever built in the world. 

Of the American Woolen Company's "Washington Mills" in Law- 
rence, it may be said that the product is men's wear, and eight to sixty 
worsted yams; the equipment consists of 101 worsted cards, 114 worsted 
combs, 1,572 broad looms, one narrow loom, 90,948 worsted spindles, 22 
boilers, 10 water wheels, electric. They employ 6,500 persons, and dye 
and finish their own products. 

The Wood Worsted Mills make men's worsted wear and worsted 
yams. The equipment includes eighteen sets of woolen cards, 140 
worsted cards, 1,500 broad looms, 141 worsted combs, 12,800 woolen 
"spindles, 213,928 worsted spindles. 

Prospect Mills make worsted yarns. The equipment of this factory 
consists of 6,400 spindles, 3,000 twister spindles, two boilers, and the 
number of men employed is two hundred. 

The Ayer Mill devotes its entire energy to the manufacture of men's 
wear worsteds. It has 50 worsted cards, 400 broad looms, 1 narrow 
loom, 60 worsted combs, 44,732 spindles, 9 boilers of 600 rated horse- 
power each. Of the company's storehouses in Lawrence, Lawrence 



524 ESSEX COUNTY 

storehouse is 160 by 170 feet, six stories and a basenient; Merrimac 
storehouse is 108 by 390 feet, seven stories and a basement ; Washington 
storehouse No. 10, 154 by 165 feet, ten stories high. These buildings 
are all substantial red-brick structures, with every modern safeguard 
and convenience. There are certainly but few dry goods stores on this 
continent where the products of these mills cannot be found and are 
sold in great quantities. 

The magnitude of the American Woolen Mills Company may be 
better understood by reading one of its recent statements, which contain 
facts as follows : 

It owns and controls fifty mills, employs 35,000 hands, has a pay-roll of $25,000,- 
000 annually, and has a total output of all classes of fabrics of 70,000,000 yards per 
annum. (It is interesting to consider that the seventy million yards of woolen 
fabrics made annually by this company would form a belt that would extend more 
than one and a half times around the earth at the; equator; if all the pieces of 
woolen fabrics made in a year by this company were placed end for end, this long 
strip would extend about one-sixth of the mean distance from the earth to the 
moon. — Editor) . 

This company buys all of its wools and supplies of every kind direct. Its 
mills are fitted with the most modem and up-to-date machinery. Its designers are 
the most able that can be procured. The managers and superintendents are men 
of years of experience in the worsted and woolen manufacturing business, who 
know the business from beginning to end, and were chosen for their ability and 
knowledge. 

This company employs skilled help, and makes, in a large variety of patterns, 
woolen and worsted cloths for men's wear, women's wear and various purposes; 
but whatever the goods, they are among the best of all grades, from the lowest to 
the highest price. 

Clear-sighted management and unequaled purchasing power, experienced buy- 
ers, able designers, efficient equipment, expert operatives, all these unite in pro- 
ducing goods unexcelled on an economical basis; thus the public is able to obtain 
in the products of the American Woolen Company the very best goods that can be 
made — goods made honestly and conscientiously from the best of materials and in 
the most attractive and fashionable designs — at the lowest prices compatible with 
the quality of the goods manufactured. This company has shown by its own manu- 
factures that goods of as high quality and attractiveness, along its individual line, 
can be produced in America as anywhere in the world. 

For the benefit of those interested in the magnitude of the woolen 
and worsted industry in America, it may be stated that statistics show us 
that in 1919 the U. S. wool product amounted to 300,000,000 pounds. 
The highest amount ever produced was in 1902, when it totalled 316,000,- 
000 pounds. The number of establishments is 799; value of products 
annually, of recent years, is $400,000,000. The total number of em- 
ployes is 158,692. 

The following information concerns Lawrence industries in general : 

The American Woolen Company employs more help than any other 
industrial unit in New England, and is the largest manufacturer in the 
world of carded woolen and worsted cloths for men's wear. It had its 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 525 

beginning in Lawrence. This great corporation was conceived and 
founded by its present president, William M. Wood. 

The Arlington Mill of today is one of the largest in Lawrence. It 
employed, in 1919, 6,500 men and women, and its buildings cover an area 
of twenty acres. Its floor space equals tv/o and one-half million square 
feet. This corporation is capitalized at $8,000,000. It was the first cor- 
poration to pay its employes weekly, a system the law now requires. 
When running on full time, the pay-roll here amounts to $115,000 weekly. 
The company consumes one million pounds of wool weekly. It produces 
weekly 450,000 yards of worsted fabric and 275,000 pounds of worsted 
yarn. The plant has 117,000 worsted spindles, 2,700 looms, 118 combs 
and 150 cards. This company was the first in America to produce the 
making of black alpacas, mohairs and brilliantines. This corporation 
had its beginning in 1865. Its first capital was $200,000, and its quar- 
ters were in the old Stevens piano case factory, on Spicket river. In 
1866 the structure was burned, but in 1867-68 v/as rebuilt and the capital 
increased to $240,000. From time to time the business of this mill has 
required new and better buildings, both in Lawrence and Methuen. In 
1896 a noteworthy departure was the erection of a worsted top mill, 
which is devoted entirely to carding and combing wool for the use of 
the spinners. In 1917 the cotton business connected with this plant was 
sold to the Acadia Mills. In 1905-06 this corporation expended a mil- 
lion dollars in the erection of several new brick factory buildings. One 
of these structures, the top-mill, is a huge building measuring 110 by 
758 feet, and the whole is four stories in height. John T. Mercer is resi- 
dent agent. 

The Everett Mills produce goods famous the country-over — ging- 
hams, shirtings, and denims. This is the home of the ''Everett Classics," 
This company was incorporated in 1860, by Charles W. Cortwright, Sam- 
uel Batchelder and James Dana. Its building, erected in 1909-10, is said 
to be the largest cotton mill under one roof in existence. It has twelve 
acres of floor space and is six stories high. It was assessed at almost 
two million dollars in 1919. Here are consumed a quarter of a million 
pounds of wool weekly, and the production amounts to 1,170,000 yards of 
cotton goods. There are 143,296 spindles and 4,680 looms in operation. 
The factory gives employment to 2,000 people and the weekly payroll 
amounts to $34,000. Herbert W. Sears is president of the corporation. 

The Acadia Mills, formerly the cotton department of the Arling- 
ton Mills, were established in April, 1917, on a two million dollar capital 
They are located in both Lawrence and Methuen. This plant consists 
of five brick mill-construction manufacturing buildings, covering an 
area of almost 200,000 square feet. Here are made combed cotton yarns, 
mercerized, bleached and dyed. The yarns are delivered to the trade 
in skins, cones, tubes, quiller cops and warps. The finished product 
amounts to 200,000 pounds weekly. Eleven hundred operatives here 
find employment, and the weekly pay-roll is $20,000. William Whitman 
is president of this prosperous company. 

The Monomac Spinning Company was established in Lawrence by 
William Whitman in 1910 for the manufacture of French spun worsted 
and merino yams ; was incorporated in 1913 and capitalized at $1,200,- 
000. The actual floor space is five and three-quarters acres. The mill 
produces 3,000,000 pounds of merino and worsted yarn on the French 
system annually. There are 350 operatives and a pay-roll of about 
$7,500 weekly. Connected with the equipment is a Cooper-Corliss con- 



526 ESSEX COUNTY 

densing steam engine of 1,450 horse-power; a cooling pond, 125 by 200 
feet, is maintained for condenser purposes. 

The Katama, a recent addition to the industries of Lawrence, is a 
part of the Whitman corporation, and was established in 1916 with a 
$500,000 capital, soon increased to $1,500,000. It employs 300 opera- 
tives, and has a pay-roll of upwards of $6,000 weekly. The principal 
products are tire duck woven from Sea Island cotton yams. During the 
World War the government used all of its products. No danger here, 
for every loom is run by a separate electric motor. There are no more 
modern equipped mills in the United States than the one just described. 

The Wright Manufacturing Company, makers of cotton and mohair 
braids, had its origin in a small way in 1854. It was incorporated in 
1873, and had a capital of $60,000. A. S. Wright was^ superintendent. 
Today it has grown to be a large concern. The shoe trade here secures 
much of its supplies in braids used in the shoe business. Ninety-five 
per cent, of all button shoe companies use the patented braid made in 
this mill. The output is about 20,000 gross yardage a week. The plant 
has 1,800 braid machines, and at full capacity 300 people are employed. 

The George E. Kunhardt Corporation was established in 1886, and 
had formerly been known as the Lawrence Woolen Company. It manu- 
factures men's wear woolens and worsteds, and uniform cloths, having 
a weekly output capacity of 40,000 yards; 50,000 pounds of wool are 
used each week; 700 persons are employed and the weekly payroll is 
$15,000. George E. Kunhardt is president of the corporation. 

The Lawrence Duck Company was established in 1853 as makers 
of cotton duck; weekly output, 100,000 pounds; employes, 600; weekly 
pay-roll, $9,500. 

The United States Worsted Company, established in 1908, makes 
worsted and woolen men's wear and dress goods ; weekly output, 140,000 
yards; employs, 1,500; weekly pay-roll, $27,000. 

Pemberton Company, established in 1853 (present company formed 
in 1860, after the fall of the original mills), manufactures cotton goods 
and flannels, tickings, awnings, and shirtings; weekly output, 70,000 
pounds; employes, 600; payroll, $7500. 

Walworth Bros. (Inc.), established in 1895, makers of dress goods 
and men's wear ; weekly output, 19,000 yards ; employs 275 people ; pay- 
roll, $3,500. 

In addition to the more important industries in Lawrence in 1920-21 
may be named briefly the following concerns: 

A. G. Walton & Co., established 1916, makers of misses' and chil- 
dren's McKay's shoes ; weekly output, 35,000 pairs ; men employed, 600 ; 
pay-roll, $10,000. 

Lewis Scouring Mill, established 1870; wool scourers and carbon- 
izers; weekly output, 800,000 pounds; employes, 475; weekly pay-roll, 
$10,000. 

Emmons Loom Harness Company, established 1866; largest manu- 
facturer in country of loom harness and reeds; weekly output, 12,000 
shades of harness and 1,200 reeds weekly; employes, 200; weekly pay- 
roll, $3,500. 

Alfred Kimball Shoe Company, established 1900, makers of men's 
shoes; weekly output, 2,500 pairs; employs 350 persons, and the weekly 
payroll is $6,000. 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 527 

Faiwell Bleachery was established in 1886; incorporated to bleach 
dye and niercerize cotton piece goods; weekly Output 1,000 000 yards 
employs 350 persons; pay-roll, $5,000. -l,uuu,uuu yaias, 

oil , .^?^™^ck Paper Company, established in 1895; manufacturers of 
piyron $5!o^Oa''' ^""^^^ '"'^^'' ''^ ''"^' ^"^P^^^^ 275^ people; weekly 

J. W. Horne & Sons Co., established in 1871, makers of paner mill 
machmery; each year produces enough machinery to equfp f our cSm 
plete paper mills; employs 120 men; pay-roll is $3,000 weekfy. 

The Plymouth Mills, manufacturers of fibre rues and mflttino- wa« 
established in 1906 on a $325,000 capital. Today thf plant covers 80 000 
square feet, with a boor space of 240,000 feet. It uses Sch week 100 - 
fn 7fnnn^' ""^ '^^^^' cotton jute and paper, and finished producTamounts 
to 75 000 square yards. Three hundred persons are employed a^d the 
weekly pay-roll is about $5500. cinpiuyeu ana tne 

The Archibald Wheel Company was established in Lawrence in 
1871; manufacturers of vehicle wheels of all kinds for both hors^drawn 
to 1 To'^f 7^""^'' ^r^^y ""*P^^ ^^^^^^ f^'«"^ 4,000 au?lob[le w^^^^^^^ 
rencfplnt 4?irnn-l?nT f^^'^^'T '7^.^.^' ^^^^^^^ ^27 men in Law! 
Tay-r^ofuW^^^^^^^ ''' - -"^hem mills; weekly 

. The Champion-International Company, one of the largest indimtripc. 
m Lawrence, turns out a larger quantity of coated paper than Lnv othe? 
paper concern m the world. It makes a specialty of Tgh ^ade Lrfa^^ 

clXv"^¥^kt^V'7 "f t/-\^f "^ ^^ *h^ ^^^^^-^ plrioTcalsTn this 
hi sons' Tt L/1 ^ established in 1853-54 by William Russell and 
nis sons It was an incorporated company after 1854, under the name 

Paper'S/nr; iT^Ton^'fJ'^' '' was changed to'tL Intemltio^ 
rtl^rJ ^ I' ^""/^"^ ^^^2 *^^ P^^sent corporation was formed The 
Champion Card and Paper Company's mill at East Pepperell Mass and 
the purchase of the paper and pulp mills of the Internatfona pfner Com 

fsZe^Mlar7it^'%.7'rf'' ^^^^"f ^^ capadrof these mms" 
rol? of Tl 9 nnn If fi,- ^^.^''''iu^.'^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ employed, with a pay- 

The pre^sent head ^''Jf^' ^^'' "^P^^^ ^^ capitalized at $650,000. 
xne present nead of the concern is George Fred Russell nf iha 4iVri 
generation of Russells connected with the fndustiy ' ^^''^ 

wo A ^u^ nun^erous lesser factories and shops producing useful 

wares and shops doing a machine repair work (twenty shops of kst 
named), paper mill machinery, steam engines, pumpTn^fll supplies fire 
department trucks, boilers, bobbins, spools shuttLceS stone 

cTemtarars^oapr '''''' ^^^^^^ ^^^ '^^ ^^^^' ^^ STcVt^^; 

fi. J^v t^'^^'^t^'^^^' "^^'"^^ "^^^^ formerly the cotton department of 
tne Arlington Mills, were acquired by purchase in April 1917 The 
plant consists of five brick mill construction manufacturing buildings 
together with the necessary storehouses, engine and boiler houses re^ 
pair shops, etc. The buildings cover a ground area of 192,522 square 
teet. The floor space in square feet is divided as follows: For manu- 
facturing 495,942 square feet; for storage, 146,190 square feet; miscel- 
aneous, 17,442 square feet; total, 659,574 square feet. The plant is 
located on the Spicket river, adjacent to the Arlington Mills, and with 



528 ESSEX COUNTY 

the exception of one comer, which is in Lawrence, is located in the 
town of Methuen. There are 1,250 operatives employed, who are for the 
most part of American birth. 

This concern manufactures combed cotton yams in all counts from 
3's to lOO's. The entire product of these mills consists of processed 
yams ; that is, yam carried beyond its natural condition through the pro- 
cesses of mercerizing, bleaching or dyeing. The yams can be supplied 
both gassed and ungassed. The process of mercerizing not only pro- 
duces a beautiful silk-luster, but also decidedly improves the cotton in 
roundness and strength, in working qualities and in adaptability to fine 
dyeing. The Acadia Mills have elaborate installations to protect the 
bleaching process. A laboratory system is devoted entirely to testing 
the water, which enters the establishment after passing through a series 
of filtration beds, to the end that throughout the working day it shall 
be impossible for any water to pass into the processes unless it is 
chemically pure for its purpose. Maintenance of perfect equality of 
shade is of immense importance to users of dyed yarns. The Acadia 
Mills are organized with particular care, and have every facility for 
achieving uniformity, from the handling of the dye to the final examina- 
tion of the dyed yam in the put-up. Good dyes, specialized knowledge 
and modem equipment, are demanded, and the Acadia Mills possess all of 
these. The gray yams processed by the Acadia Mills are spun by them 
or are products of the Whitman Company group, made under the same 
rules of manufacture. They are all of special quality for mercerizing, 
and thus all the Acadia processed yams, even if unmercerized, have 
higher quality than ordinary yams. The twist used is a particular 
twist adopted after long experiment for gaining the maximum of luster 
and brilliancy. The importance of eliminating knots, slubs, and other 
imperfections from these yams, which are used in the more expensive 
manufactures, has led to an exceptional development of machinery and 
organization for this one purpose alone. Elasticity in Acadia mercerized 
thread yams, due to the Acadia twist, gives it unusually favorable run- 
ning qualities. It represents a silk twist more nearly than any other 
thread yam on the market, and is of maximum strength. These yams 
are delivered to the trade in skeins, cones, tubes, quiller cops and waips. 

The finished product per week amounts to 200,000 pounds. The 
officers of the corporation are: William Whitman, president; Ernest N. 
Hood, treasurer; Frank C. Chamberlain, clerk; William A. Pedler is the 
resident agent of the mills. The selling agents are William Whitman 
Company, Inc., with offices in Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Chi- 
cago. 

The Monomac Spinning Company was established by William Whit- 
man in 1910 for the manufacture of French spun worsted and merino 
yams. The company was incoi-porated in 1913, and now has a capital 
of $5,000,000. The officers of the corporation are William Whitman, 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 529 

president; Ernest N. Hood, treasurer; Frank C. Chamberlain, clerk; 
Walter M. Hastings, resident agent. 

The plant, which consists of two modem mill construction brick 
buildings, together with the power plant and storehouse, is located on 
South Union street in South Lawrence. The manufacturing floor space 
amounts to almost eleven acres, while another acre and a half of floor 
space is devoted to storage. When Mill No. 2, which was erected in 
1920, is completely equipped and running, the number of operatives em- 
ployed will be in the neighborhood of 1,000. The equipment comprises 
about 83,000 mule and frame spindles and all necessaiy preparatory and 
finishing machines. The power plant consists of a Cooper-Corliss con- 
densing engine, 1450 h.p., and an Allis-Chalmers turbine of 2000 k.w., 
together with a boiler plant of eight 300 h.p. Heine boilers. 

The Monomac Spinning Company is a worsted-yam mill, producing 
single and ply-yarns, both in all worsted and merino, in counts ranging 
from lO's to 60's. These yarns are all drawn and spun on the French 
system. The machinery for this purpose is the best existing in either 
America or Europe, having been made by the acknowledged leaders in 
French spinning equipment. The installation of mule and ring-spinning 
frames and of finishing machineries is as ample as any in the western 
hemisphere. 

In true merino yam manufacture the best merino yam is made 
from blends of cotton and wool that have been combed. The yam 
throughout its length is a uniform product, with the wool dominating. 
It is a standard product of quality, with its own great value, among 
which is the manufacture of undei-wear that will shrink less than if 
made from pure worsted. Peruvian cotton of high rough grade is more 
nearly like wool than any other vegetable fibre now known to com- 
merce, and is the kind of cotton used by the Monomac Spinning Company 
in making its "Merino yams." Monomac Merino yarns may be dyed 
without showing weakness. 

The Monomac worsted and Merino yams are put up for the knitting 
trade on cops and cones, and for weaving on dresser spools or in skeins. 
Both worsted and merino yams are made in various mixes, as desired. 
The mill has a reputation for single warp yarns and for single yams for 
tops for rubber shoes where an extremely level yarn is required. The 
Monomac Spinning Company makes uniformity of quality one of its 
big rules of manufacture. A user will find any given Monomac product 
the sam^ in quality next year, or the year after next, as it is now. If it 
can be improved, it will be. It v/ill not be permitted to deteriorate. 

Hygiene, cleanliness and light are maintained for the equal benefit of 
workers and product, and the latest facilities for correct temperature 
and humidity assure unvarying conditions for the work in all stages of 
progress. The entire production of the Monomac Spinning Company is 
sold by William Whitman Co., Inc. 

Essex —34 



530 ESSEX COUNTY 

Mercantile interests is a subject well treated in the following contri- 
butions to this chapter : 

It is only a matter of seventy-five years since the Lawrence dam in 
the course of constiaiction looked upon its first merchant, Amos D. Pills- 
bury, who in the year 1846 sold, or we might rather say peddled, boots 
and other articles that were needed by men engaged in building the dam. 

After the town was established, one of the first dry goods dealers 
to come to Lawrence and open a store was Artemus W. Stearns, who 
was born in Hill, New Hampshire. He opened a store on Amesbuiy 
street in 1846. In 1854 Mr. Stearns erected the building at 309 Essex 
street, and removed there when it was completed. The building on Essex 
street, which he enlarged in 1887, presented at that time one of the finest 
fronts on the street. Mr. Steams was a bright and energetic merchant, 
confining himself strictly to the sale of dry goods. He was well known 
and highly respected in the trade, and was considered one of the most 
trustworthy of the New England merchants of that time. He passed 
away at a good old age in 1896, and four years after his death the busi- 
ness was sold to Robertson Sutherland & Company. The name of this 
concern was later changed to A. B. Sutherland Company, who still oc- 
cupy Mr. Stearns' original Essex street store as a part of their present 
department store. 

To a stranger who steps off a train at the North Lawrence Station, 
it is hard to realize that Essex street, extending seven-eighths of a mile, 
with both sides built up with as fine an array of store fronts as any city 
and now one of the most beautiful business streets in New England, was 
part of a cow pasture only seventy-five years ago. There has been a 
steady improvement from year to year in the building all along the 
street, but in some sections the development has been more marked than 
in others. In the early days the trading center was nearly all along the 
north side of Essex street, for most of the south side was not built up 
extensively until recent years. What is known as the lower or eastern 
end of the street was looked upon fifty years ago as the best trading cen- 
ter, but the western end from Lawrence street to Hampshire street has 
grown rapidly, and now Lawrence has a longer trading area than almost 
any city of its size in the Eastern States. 

About 1860 Andrew Sharpe established a dry goods business east 
of Appleton street, which he sold out in the '70's to Simpson & Oswald. 
A few years later Simpson & Oswald removed to larger quarters, and 
Mr. Sharpe again entered business on his own premises, where he con- 
tinued until his death in 1900. In 1901 the business was sold and the 
name of A. Sharpe & Co. disappeared from Essex street. James C. 
Stuart was associated with Mr. Sharpe in partnership for a number of 
years, but this partnership was dissolved before the death of Mr. Sharpe, 
when Mr. Stuart opened a store on his own account next door to A. 
Sharpe & Co., where he continued until 1902. He is still living at a good 
old age. 

Simpson & Oswald, who purchased the business of A. Sharpe & 
Co., and later removed to larger quarters, were the pioneers of the de- 
partment store in Lawrence. They occupied the block at the comer of 
Essex and Appleton streets. A few years later Mr. Simpson associated 
himself with his brother, James Simpson, and Mr. William Crawford, 
and removed to Sixth Avenue, New York. There they built up one of 
the leading department stores in New York City, known for many years 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 53I 

by the name of Simpson, Crawford & Simpson. On Mr Simnson's re 
moval to New York, Mr. Oswald acquired his interest, and heTusiness 
r.'i'"TQ?^"/ continued under the name of William Oswald & Co 
until, m 1894, it was sold to Reid & Hughes. Mr. James J. Hughef who 
came to Lawrence to manage the business, was one of the most energetic 
and up-to-date merchants of his time. He improved the store and de- 

wl?ltu\iT7 ^'T^^'^T ^"«i"^««- He had a pleasing personality, 
was well liked— a fine, all-round gentleman. In ten years Mr. Oswald 
again acquired the business, and Mr. Hughes removed to Boston, to own 
and manage a larger business than he had in Lawrence. Upon the death 
sfo^of^T.^^' a few years later the business again came into the posses- 
sion of Reid & Hughes Co., under which name it is still conducted but 

In the Sweeney block, east of Appleton street, about the late '70's 
Ltl f """^'vf u ""? V^ fP^'^^l ^y Campbell & Dow, which afterward be^ 

larger fipTd^^fff. T.^^^^"' •^/^"" ^ ^"^ ^^^^^ ^^- ^^^^P^ell left for a 
nl^Zr^ \ "i the then rapidly rising city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 
On removal there Mr. Campbell established a fine business, and died a 
x?^? fi ^^°', ^^^""'^^ ^ considerable fortune. Mr. Taylor moved to 
North Adams, but did not meet with success equal to that of Mr. Camp- 
bell. Another dry goods dealer who had a store for many years ne5 
door to Mr Stearns was S. F. Snell. He sold his Essex street busineS 
about twenty-five years ago and removed to Broadway, where he con- 
t^^lf-^ f ''''^ successfully until his death. Another merchant who pros- 
pered m Lawrence was R. M. Cross; he occupied the store in the block 
on the north side of Essex street, between Pemberton and Appleton 
Goods^ Com ^an^""^ '^ ^*'" identified with that business. The Cross Dry 
Still another successful merchant who opened a store in 1858 on 

vl^L$ Ta ^I?"" '^/^^"' ^^^^^ removing to the block between 
Pemberton and Appleton streets, adjacent to R. M. Cross. Mr Truell 
was active m business until about 1902, when he retired. He was a 
capable and shrewd merchant. He came to Lawrence from northern 
Vermont and opened business for himself at an early age. He was iden- 
tified with the political affairs of the city and State serving several 
times on the governor's council. When Mr. Truell retired, he was re- 
FrJiitl/' • T^ ""u Lawrence's richest men. He is still alive, takes active 
interest m church work, and has a veiy high appreciation of the Repub- 
lican party with which he has been identified since its formation 

One of the first men's clothing dealers was Captain William R 

?L^i ^""^^ ^"""y- '"^ 5^^*'"''' ^^^ Hampshire. He came to Lawrence in 
1846 and continued business until about 1890. His store was east of 
fnvff "1 f ^^e^v^n what is today considered not one of the best locations 
tor that line of business. Another early clothing dealer was James M. 
!< airfield, a keen and energetic merchant. He acquired considerable 
property on the north side of Essex street, between Amesbury and Hamp- 

nZ\f^^^^^\ ^^'* ?^ ^'^ P^^P^^y h^ di«P««^d of before his death^ 
One of the later merchants was William H. Gile, who conducted a cloth- 
ing business with much success for twenty-three years in the Sweenev 

fed ^^^^ ^' """^^ ^"^ ^- ^' ^"^^^*^' ^'' J'"^^^^ partner, and retired 

Perhaps the most successful clothing merchants that Lawrence has 

had were the Bicknell Brothers, who established a business westof Hamp- 



532 ESSEX COUNTY 

shire street. Mr. Edmund Bicknell, the younger brother, was actively 
associated with everything that pertained to the advancement of Law- 
rence. He had different methods of doing business from most of the 
other merchants. His way of advertising was particularly unique and 
attractive. The two brothers were very successful, and when they died 
left a large amount of valuable property in and around Lawrence. 

In the groceiy business there were several successful merchants, of 
whom Joseph Shattuck comes to mind especially. He at one time con- 
ducted a store with his brother Charles, on Broadway, later removing 
to the building occupied by the gas company on Essex street. Mr. Shat- 
tuck retired from business over twenty-five years ago. He was presi- 
dent of the Bay State Bank and also of the Essex Savings Bank for many 
years, and at his death left a large fortune. 

Mr. James R. Simpson was another of the fine high-type merchants 
of our city. He engaged in ventures outside of his business, in which 
he was invariably successful, and at his death left a large estate. Daniel 
Jordan, who died recently, over ninety years of age, was another fine 
type of merchant, highly respected and well liked in the community. 

One of the early traders was John C. Dow, who opened and con- 
ducted for several years a book and stationery store, subsequently chang- 
ing it to crockery and glassware. He conducted this business where 
the Boston & Lowell station now stands, until the time of his death. 
John Colby was one of the early dealers in the book and stationery line, 
and had the pioneer book and stationery store of Lawrence. 

One of the earliest furniture dealers was Patrick Sweeney, who 
built up a very successful furniture business near Jackson street,) later 
removing to the Sweeney building. Shortly before his death Mr. Swee- 
ney sold his business to three men who were working for him — Buckley, 
McCormack and Sullivan. The business is still carried on by Mr. Sulli- 
van, under the name of M. J. Sullivan, Inc. Another successful furni- 
ture dealer was Frederick S. Jewett, engaged in business many years at 
the comer of Essex and Amesbury streets, while at the comer opposite 
was William Greenwood & Sons, fine types of the old-day merchant. Mr. 
R. Pedrick and Mr. Carlos C. Closson also conducted a successful furni- 
ture business at the comer of Essex and Amesbury streets. At this 
time the three comers of Essex and Amesbury streets were operated as 
furniture stores. Another of the more modern merchants who did a 
successful business for many years was William H. Godfrey. In 1914 
he sold his building and business to T. J. Buckley. Mr. Godfrey is still 
alive and lives on Haverhill street, Lawrence. 

William Forbes & Sons conducted a large business in kitchen goods 
and kindred articles at the comer of Essex and Hampshire streets. Mr. 
Forbes' sons owned the building until a few years ago. Part of the 
building is now occupied by the Lawrence Trust Company. Henry Musk 
i^ today dean of the furniture dealers, having been longer in business 
than any other furniture dealer. Franz Schneider has successfully con- 
ducted a jewelry business for many years, and is the oldest established 
jeweler in the city. Robert J. McCartney is the present leader in the 
men's clothing business, having met with good success in his forty-one 
years of business life, and is still active and energetic. Another mer- 
chant bom in Lawrence who has met with phenomenal success as a 
men's clothing merchant is Dan A. Donahue, Mr. Donahue owns a 
chain of clothing stores in Massachusetts cities and in New York State. 

During the last twenty years quite a number of chain stores have 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 533 

opened branches, of which the Five and Ten Cent stores are the most 
prominent. We have now chain drug, grocery, boot and shoe, millinery, 
and clothing stores. In passing, mention should be made of Frederick 
W. Schaake, who built the Schaake block and conducted a successful 
tailoring business there until his death. The earliest merchants in Law- 
rence were of the old New England stock, but as the city gi^ew, other na- 
tionalities came in, so that for many years there has been quite a sprink- 
ling of English. Irish, Scottish, German and of other European nation- 
alities. The pioneers, however, were mostly of the sturdy old stock 
from NevN^ Hampshire, Vermont and Maine, the states that have pro- 
duced many of the greatest pioneers of enterprise throughout this coun- 
try. Ther^ were a large number of merchants who got their start in 
Lawrence, who, after staying a few years, removed to larger fields where 
they could find gi^eater scope for their ability. In recent years there has 
been an influx of Jews, who are active in the men's clothing, women's 
clothing, and women's millinery business. 

The A. B. Sutherland Company has the largest department store in 
Lawrence and at the present time is making extensions that will provide 
over eleven thousand square feet of additional selling space. In 1900 
A. M. Robertson, A. B. Sutherland and J. J. Matheson purchased the 
business of A. W. Stearns & Company, and Mr. Sutherland came to Law- 
rence to m.anage it. In 1904 a lease v/as obtained on the adjoining prop- 
erty, with a frontage of 55 feet on Essex street to the west of the Stearns 
store, and a new building was erected thereon. In 1916 Mr. Robertson 
sold his interest to Mr. Sutherland, and the following year the name was 
changed to A. B. Sutherland Company. The business has been since 
1900 under Mr. Sutherland's management. 

In the wholesale grain business, mention should be made of Henry 
K. Webster, who started business in 1868 and continued actively until his 
death in 1920. The business is now managed by his second son, Dean 
K. Webster. Lawrence has become quite a wholesale center for hay 
and grain and groceries. 

The period from 1890 to 1918, more than a fourth of a century, has 
seen Lawrence make its greatest growth. In 1891 the horse street car 
was superseded by the electric system, reaching out to all surrounding 
towns and cities. 1905 saw the beginning of a great construction period. 
In the three years that followed, ten million dollars' worth of buildings 
were erected. It was at that time that the great Wood Mills were built, 
also the Ayer Mills. In 1907 was built the large Central Fire station. 
Real modem paving commenced in 1908 ; in 1912 over half a million dol- 
lars was spent for paving alone. In 1912 the city municipality changed 
its old form of government to that of a "commission" foi*m of govern- 
ment, under which it has been very successful. It was also in 1912 
that occurred the great mill strike, fully treated elsewhere in this work. 
In 1913 stepa were taken towards constructing a central bridge over the 
Merrimack river. The years 1916-17 were among the busiest in the 
history of the city. The great demand for textile products, caused by 
the European war, kept every mill running to its full capacity. Munici- 
pal and general business interests shared in the beneficial results. The 
mill hands were increased in their wages, voluntarily, several times. In 



634 ESSEX COUNTY 

June, 1916, local militia units were called to the Mexican border, where 
international trouble was brewing. In April, 1917, the United States 
declared war against Germany and Austria, after which for two years 
Lawrence had its full share of war activities, enlistments, drafts and 
sorrow occasioned by the death of many soldiers from its midst. Since 
the close of the World War, Lawrence has steadily gone foi'ward with its 
great manufacturing enterprises as well as its internal improvements. 

Church history in Lawrence has always been interesting; it began 
with the founding of the place, and has been a potent factor ever since. 
There are now established forty-three churches and ten smaller organiza- 
tions, making fifty-three religious bodies. The forty-three churches are 
included in twelve denominations. 

The directors of the Essex Company, true to the policy of the pio- 
neers, gave their attention to the moral condition of the new town. The 
president, Mr. Lawrence, writing to W. C. Rives, of Virginia, said: "All 
intellectual culture should be founded on our Holy Religion. The pure 
precepts of the gospel are the only safe source from which we can freely 
draw our morality ;" and in the letter which accompanied his gift to the 
Library: "It is no less the duty than the privilege of those who possess 
influence in creating towns and cities to lay the foundations deep and 
strong. Let the standard be high in religious, moral and intellectual 
culture, and there can be no well-grounded fear for the result." Ac- 
cordingly, governed by no sectarian bias, they gave to the first churches 
of several denominations a lot of land on which to erect their buildings, 
and to others, later, they made a discount of one-quarter from regular 
established prices. 

The first building devoted to public worship was the Episcopal 
chapel ; this stood on ground later occupied by Grace Church, and services 
were first held there on the second Sunday of October, 1846. However, 
more than a dozen years before the founding of Lawrence, on May 12, 
1832, a church was organized in the section known as North Lawrence 
(Methuen), in the old Prospect school house, and known as the First 
Protestant Episcopal Church of Methuen; several months later it was 
called Mount Zion Church. An effort was made to have a church build- 
ing constructed on the old Methuen Orthodox church site on Clover Hill, 
but failed; during the four or five years that this church existed, ser- 
vices were held in the old Prospect Mill school house, in the brick school 
house on Howe street at Grosvener's Comer, and in a hall at Methuen. 
The first Christmas service observed in this locality was held by this 
church. 

We cannot fix the exact date of the first Catholic church in Law- 
rence. Mass was probably first offered in this place in December, 1845, 
by Father McDermott, of Lowell. In April, 1846, Rev. Charles French 
commenced his work here. He was the first clergyman of any denomi- 
nation in Lawrence actually to purchase land for a church building. It 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 535 

was not long before a frame church was erected on Chestnut street 
and there services and a parochial school were maintained In isfs 

werVcath'r' '''".' ,r'^-'^^ ^^^ ^^^*' ^' «- Populati n of th^ plac 
were Catholics. Following Father French who died in IS'^I ^'^f 

Churlh'iusf n*rof thi"'"*^ "i f '^'"^^'^"^ ™^ «-<=« Episcopal 
unurcn just noith of the present stone edifice. It was a wood ^tnir 

ture and se^ces were first held there in October, 1846 and in Novetw 

»d ctSedT utrT '"J'^ ^'""-^ '""""'"^ -^ erecte^TTss 
«^„ '^'fjf "'te" 'n 1852. It was enlarged in 1896. From the orffaniza 

Packard h ^"'■^'i ""«' l^^"' ^"^ d^^ of the death of r"v Dr Teorg^ 

.o:k Mo'uHon!"™' " "^'"^- ^'^'^ P'-<''^<^"* '-'- - R-- Arthur Wh^e! 

The firet Methodist preaching service was held in June 1846 at the 

HaChirtLe^s^rd^rd'-ybiu^irru "rf;^i t^ 

1R4« h f!^""™"* '^""Sregational Society was organized 4ugust 1 
ChmU h' ""?' ^'^ ^'^^^^'^ '" *« Lawrence Street Congtegationaj 

the present modem building, the sa^ btS U VMay'tlf "' 
The pioneer Baptist organization was the First Free Rw'i^Vr.^' u 

organized January, 1847, although first se -tfcfs we^ Teldl tl L^^^^^^ 

mg house of Timothy Osgood, on Broadway streelin ATri 1846 Thl 

present church building was dedicated in April 1857 

The First Baptist Church was organized 'in the sprinff of 1947 .r.A 

was known as Amesbury Street Brntist Church tT ^ l *"^ 

s:™' src sr,s ""• "' " -« *- "" ^=3 

m May, 1850, the old wooden church building at the compr nf it i? 

::ZTr rr:r:?sr 1^1^^ an f^rjwtt::- 

Th.^st™cture was torn lJ^^^^;J!l^-:^ ^ et^p^t 



536 ESSEX COUNTY 

November 15, 1847, the First Universalist society was organized. 
They used leased halls until 1852, v/hen they built an edifice on Haver- 
hill street, and in 1865 the building was remodeled, enlarged, and a spire 
added thereto. This building is still in use by the society. 

Concerning early churches, it should be said that the Central Congre- 
gational Church was merged with the Trinity Congregational Church. 
This society was formed December 25, 1854, v/hen a new church at the 
corner of Essex and Appleton streets was dedicated. This building was 
entirely destroyed by fire in August, 1859. In the autumn of the same 
year the work of rebuilding had com^menced on Haverhill street, the pres- 
ent Trinity Congregational Church. In 1883 the Central and Eliot Con- 
gregational churches were consolidated, and the name Trinity Congre- 
gational Church was taken on. The Eliot Congregational Church had 
been foiTned September, 1865, by the Lawrence Street and Central 
churches. The brick church building at the corner of Methuen and Ap- 
pleton streets v/as dedicated in 1866. For a number of years this build- 
ing was the home of the Young Men's Christian Association. 

Another pioneer church was St. Mary's Catholic Church, which or- 
ganized in November, 1848, when Father James O'Donnell came to Law- 
rence and celebrated mass in old Merrimack Hall. It was not long be- 
fore he secured the central site now occupied by St. Mary's granite school 
building on Haverhill street. Here, on the first Sunday in January, 
1849, he first held services in an unfinished rough church edifice. It was 
so poorly finished that the snov/ forced its way through the sides and 
roof, falling on the congregation as they were at prayers. The pulpit 
was a huge pile of shingles. In 1851 the granite church went up over 
and about the little chapel before its removal. In August, 1859, Father 
O'Donneli introduced the Sisters of Notre Dame, who established the 
parochial school that has come to be such a power in the community. 
Father O'Donnell was really the founder of St. Mary's Church, although 
the cornerstone of the present magnificent edifice was laid August 19, 
1866, during the pastorate of Rev. Louis M. Edge. While in Philadel- 
phia, arranging for the cross of the new church, Father Edge was acci- 
dentally killed by being thrown from his carriage, February 24, 1870. 
The present St. Mary's Church was completed under the direction of 
Father Galberry, and v/as dedicated September 3, 1871. The parochial 
residence on Haverhill street, occupied by the Augustinian Fathers, who 
now have charge of all the English-speaking Catholics on the north side 
of the Merrimack river, was completed October 5, 1873. The chime of 
bells in St. Mary's church tower was placed in position December 12, 
1884. The present (1921) pastor of this church is Father James T. 
O'Reilly, who came to Lavvrrence in 1886. His work has been a great 
one, and is appreciated by both Catholic and Protestant denominations. 

Other religious organizations had their being in Lawrence in the 
following order: 



CITY OF LAWRENCE 537 

United Presbyterian, organized June, 1854. Edifice on Concord 
street, now occupied by Armenian Congregational church, built in 1870. 
The society moved to the old Haverhill Street Methodist Episcopal 
Church, October, 1911, following the merging of that church in the pres- 
ent Central Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Second Baptist, organized September 6, 1860 ; present building dedi- 
cated in 1874. 

St. John's Episcopal, organized May 14, 1866; was located many 
years on Bradford street, in building now occupied by Lithuanian Cath- 
olic Church. The corner-stone of the present edifice, on Broadway street, 
was laid October 11, 1903. 

South Congi^egational, organized May 13, 1868, came from a Sab- 
bath school established in 1852. The present church building was erect- 
ed in 1896. 

St. Patrick's (Catholic), formed in 1868. The first meeting house 
was a wooden structure on the site of the present church, dedicated in 
March, 1870. The corner-stone of the present brick edifice was laid in 
1881, but the church was not dedicated until June 17, 1894. 

Parker Street Methodist Episcopal, organized September, 1870 ; the 
present edifice was dedicated in 1875. 

Advent Christian, started in 1860 ; a church was really perfected in 
1870. The Lowell street edifice was dedicated in 1899. 

United Congregational, on Lowell street, was organized as a Primi- 
tive Methodist church in 1871. In 1877 the name was changed to 
Tower Hill Congregational, but since March 2, 1886, it has been called the 
United Congregational. The church building was first used in 1872. 

St. Anne's (French Catholic), formed in December, 1871. Their 
church edifice was long in building, and finally dedicated in 1883. While 
the church was being completed Mass M^as said in the basement. 

St. Laurence's (Catholic), the old structure at the comer of Essex 
and Union streets, now occupied by Holy Rosary Church (Italian Cath- 
olic), was dedicated as St. Laurence O'Toole's Church, July 12, 1873. 
The present brick edifice at the junction of Newbury and East Haverhill 
streets was erected in 1903. 

Riverside Congregational, on Water street, organized as Union Evan- 
gelical Church in June, 1875 ; became a Congregational church, March 9, 
1878. 

German Methodist Episcopal, Vine street, was organized in 1878, 
and the edifice dedicated December 11, 1881. 

St. Augustine's (Catholic) Church building on Water street, com- 
pleted and first mass celebrated there on December 25, 1878. 

German Presbyterian, East Haverhill street, had its beginning in 
1872. Church dedicated December 12, 1875. Organized as a Presby- 
terian church in 1879^ There had been a division in the church in 1878, 
members of Methodist inclination forming the German Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. 

St. Mark's Methodist Episcopal, first known as Bodwell Street Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. Organized in December, 1879; name changed 
to St. Mark's Methodist Episcopal Church in 1890. Edifice at the cor- 
ner of Essex and Margin streets dedicated May 22, 1890. 

St. Paul's Methodist Episcopal, on Wyman street, was organized De- 
cember 30, 1885, as the Arlington Union Church in a building known as 
the Lake Street Chapel. Became a Methodist Episcopal church April 
30, 1891. 



538 ESSEX COUNTY 

Religious Society of Friends, established May 12, 1886 ; first service 
in the meeting house on Avon street, March, 1896. 

Church of Assumption of Mary (German Catholic), parish formed 
in 1887, and present edifice, on Lawrence street, erected the same year. 

Congregation of Sons of Israel (Jewish) , organized October 3, 1894. 
Synagogue on Concord street built in 1913. 

First Church of Christ Scientist, Sunday school established in 1887. 
Church organized in 1896. Edifice on Green street dedicated in August, 
1896. 

St. Joseph's Syrian (Greek Catholic Rite), parish formed by Rev. 
James T. O'Reilly, of St. Mary's, in 1898. First worshipped in St. Mary's 
stone school building. Church on Oak street dedicated in 1905. 

Sacred Heart (French Catholic), parish formed in 1899. Estab- 
lished in basement of proposed church building on Groton street in 1915. 

Wood Memorial Free Baptist, Sunday school established in 1898. 
The first service held in church building on Coolidge street in Novem- 
ber, 1899. 

Congregation of Anshea Sfard (Jevfish), organized April 6, 1900. 
Synagogue on Concord street built in the autumn of 1907. 

St. Anthony's Syrian Maronite (Catholic) parish, formed in 1902. 
First occupied St. Mary's stone school building. Church on Elm street 
dedicated in 1906. 

St. Francis (Lithuanian Catholic) parish formed in 1903, by Rev. 
James T. O'Reilly, of St. Mary's. Building on Bradford street. 

Holy Trinity (Polish Catholic) parish formed in December, 1904. 
First vv^orshipped in basement of the Holy Rosary (Italian) Church. 
Church on Avon street dedicated February 5, 1905. 

SS. Peter and Paul (Portuguese Catholic) parish fonned by Rev. 
James T. O'Reilly, in 1905. First worshipped in basement of the Im- 
maculate Conception Church. Edifice on Chestnut street dedicated in 
1907. 

St. Augustine's Episcopal, established as a mission of Grace Church 
in 1905, when the chapel was built, at the corner of South Union and 
Boxford streets. Became a separate parish in 1907, and in 1910 occu- 
pied the basement of the proposed church. 

Franco-American Methodist Episcopal, organized October 20, 1907. 
Moved to building on Water street in 1914. 

Church of Holy Rosary (Italian Catholic) parish formed March 4, 
1908, when congregation became established in old St. Laurence's Church 
building at comer of Union and Essex streets. 

Salem Street Primitive Methodist, organized as a mission station in 
September, 1915, and became established in the present building on Salem 
street the same year. 

Bethel Armenian Congregational, started as a mission of the Law- 
rence Street Congregational Church about 1902. Organized as a church 
in 1916. Became established the same year in the building on Concord 
street formerly occupied by the United Presbyterian Church. 

In addition to those already mentioned, there are in the city of Law- 
rence religious societies as follows: Armenian Apostolic Church, First 
Spiritual Church, Lighthouse Mission, Lithuanian National Catholic 
Church, St. George's Syrian Greek Orthodox Church, St. John the Bap- 
tist Russian Greek Church, Salvation Army, Spiritualist Temple, Swedish 
Lutheran Church, Syrian Protestant Church. Also well organized 
Young Men's Christian Association and Young Women's Christian Asso- 
ciation. The former was organized in 1876 and the latter in 1892. 




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CHAPTER XXXVII. 
CITY OF NEWBURYPORT 

In 1642 what was originally Newbury granted authority to Thomas 
Parker, James Noyes, John Woodbridge, Edward Rawson, John Cutting, 
Edward Woodman, John Lowle and John Clark to lay out a new town. 
This town included what later became known as the "Port" of Newbury, 
and still later it was knowTi as Newburyport. Lying on the banks of the 
Merrimac river, and hard by the ocean, it gained in population quite 
rapidly. It i^ knov/n that as early as 1725 a part of the First Parish in 
Newbury, near the "water-side", was incorporated as a separate religious 
organization. In 1738 a Protestant Episcopal church was built. It was 
also in 1725 that the First Church in Newburyport was organized, and 
in 1746 another church was formed by a faction of the original church. 
Later this was styled the First Presbyterian Church of Newburyport. 

By the enterprise of the "water-side" people, a new feature was 
added to the settlement by the erection, at their own charge, of a new 
town-house, and in 1752 the old one on High street, built in> 1735 was 
abandoned. The people at the "Port" were compelled to build and sup- 
port their own schools, for public schools were then unknown, as we 
understand the term today. 

In 1763 two hundred and six of the "water-side" people, headed by 
William Atkins, Daniel Famham, Michael Dalton, Thomas Woodbridge 
and Patrick Tracy, signed and presented a petition to the General Court, 
"to be set off from Newbuiy and incorporated a town by themselves." On 
January 28, 1764, the petitioners had their prayers answered, and New- 
buryport was incorporated. It then had a population of 2,282. The 
area of territory set off comprised six hundred and forty-seven acres, a 
little more than a present day section of land. The original town of New- 
bury contained thirty thousand acres, one of the most extensive in Mas- 
sachusetts. The town having been duly organized and a set of town 
officers chosen, nothing but time and its shifting changes could further 
develop the new town. The first moderator was Michael Dalton; the 
first selectmen were Stephen Cross, Enoch Titcomb, Jr., Timothy Pike, 
and Daniel Famham. 

It was about that date when the Mother Country imposed the "stamp 
act", by which every instrument in writing, such as a deed, a ship's clear- 
ance, a will, contract and other business papers, each and all, were re- 
quired to have affixed to their face (to make them legal) a certain stamp. 
These stamps ranged from a half-penny to six pounds. The people at 
Newburyport openly opposed this measure, but fortunately it was so 
obnoxious that it did not long exist in the Colonies. This was the fore- 
runner of affairs that eventually separated England from her American 
colonies, and that was through the medium of the war for national in- 



540 ESSEX COUNTY 

dependence, which cost so much blood and treasure. The part the citi- 
zens of Newburyport took in the Revolution will be seen by reading the 
Military chapters of this work. 

After the close of the war of 1812-14, business activities picked up. 
The fisheries, foreign trade and ship-building rapidly forged to the fore- 
front. It was never known as a great place for fisheries, yet during the 
first twenty-five years of the eighteenth century, there were employed 
in the Newburyport district about forty fishing vessels in the cod fishery 
and seventy-five in the mackerel fishery industry. The fur, seal and 
whale fisheries, both successfully carried on here, have since many de- 
cades been abandoned. 

Trade with foreign ports reached its maximum about 1804. After 
the return of peace, the navigation of the town increased from ninety- 
nine vessels in 1789, of a tonnage of 11,607; in 1796 to 19,752 tons; in 
1806 to 29,713 tons— 25,000 tons of this total was foreign trade. In 1805 
there belonged to Newburyport alone 41 ships, 62 brigs, 2 skows, 2 bar- 
ques and 66 schooners. In fact, nature made this place one suited to the 
building of ships and boats, by reason of the large river along its front, 
which heads far in the north country, and along whose banks grew so 
much suitable timber used in ship-yards. This could be easily floated 
down to Newburyport, and that of itself was sufficient reason for making 
an excellent boat-building place. There seems to be good evidence that 
ship-building was carried on in Newburyport as early as 1680. Between 
1681 and 1714, 130 vessels were built on the Merrimac, one hundred of 
which were built in Newbury, as then known. For many years the town 
owned the ship-yards and fostered the enterprises to the utmost of its 
ability. In 1711 a building yard near Watt's cellar was let to Colonel 
Partridge, Mr. Clement and Mr. Hodges. In 1734 other leases were re- 
corded, as now shown in records, either made by the town or by the 
"proprietors", who owned a strip along the river. About 1750 there was 
an active ship-building era here, and in one year there were built and 
launched from Newburyport as many as fifty-two vessels by Gideon 
Woodwell, on the lower side of Water street, near the foot of Marlboro 
street. In 1766, two years after the incorporation of Newburyport, 
seventy-two vessels were on the stocks, between Pierce's farm and Mog- 
garidge's Point. 

Among the leading ship-builders at this point are recalled: (Before 
the Revolution) Ralph Cross, bom in Ipswich 1706. During the Revo- 
lution the construction of privateers was largely carried on, and in 1777 
a sixteen-gun ship, called the "Neptune", was built, but when leaving 
port capsized and sank in sixteen fathoms of water. 

After the Revolution had ended, Elias Jackman established a boat- 
yard and began to build boats. He followed this for thirty-odd years. 
In 1798, Orlando B. Merrill built the brig "Pickering", fourteen guns, 
for the United States. 



CITY OF NEWBURYPORT 541 

Major Cross, under direction of William Hacket, built in seventy-five 
days, at a cost of $46,170, what was known as the "Merrimack," which 
had a 350 ton burden capacity. It was loaned to the government and 
made many trips; during five years it captured a number of French ves- 
sels, as wen as recaptured many English prizes. She was sold for $21 - 
000 after five years' sei-vice, and her name changed to "Monticello " bu't 
was soon thereafter wrecked on Cape Cod. 

At the Webster ship-yards at Salisbury, in 1799, was built the "War- 
ren," eighteen guns, for the United States government. In 1810 the year 
after the embargo, so disastrous to shipping interests, was repealed, there 
were built on the Merrimac river, twenty-one ships, thirteen brigs one 
schooner and seven small craft, with a combined tonnage of 12,000 tons 

.!^J^^l' ^'^"'''''^ *^^ ^^'' ^^ ^^12)' *^^ United States sloop^of-war 
Wasp was built by Orlando B. Merrill, and about the same date two 
gun-boats were built by Stephen Cofi:in, in Newbury. 

Among later builders were Joseph CoflFin, Elisha Briggs, Stephen 
Dutton, Jonathan and Thomas Merrill, Joseph Jackman, William Cun-ier 
James L. Townsend, George E. Currier, Charles H. Currier, John Cur- 
rier, John W. S. Colby, Enoch P. Lunt, Stephen Jackman, Jr., George W 
Jackman, Jr., Eben Manson, Fillmore & McQuillen, Atkinson & Filmore 
Donald McKay, Joseph Pickett, W. B. CoflFin and Cyrus Bumham. In 
all there were constructed in Newbuiyport ship-yards, after the close 
of the Revolution, four hundred and ninety-two vessels of various sizes 
and tonnage capacities. The "Mary L. Gushing", built in 1883 was the 
last real ship built in Massachusetts. 

In 1851 the class of boats was materially changed at this point, as 
well as generally throughout the country. There then came a demand 
for larger vessels, especially on account of the discovery of gold in Cali- 
fornia, and then the annexation of Newburyport, in April, 1851, of a 
part of Newbury containing the ship-yards, in which vessels of larger 
tonnage had previously been built. 

During the war of 1812, privateers sailed from Newburyport as fol- 
lows: First the "Manhattan", followed by the "Yankee", and the "De- 
catur" and the "Bunker Hill". Before the summer of 1812 had passed, 
the U. S. sloop-of-war "Wasp", after capturing the "Frolic", was herself 
taken. Another U. S. sloop bearing the same name was built by Orlando 
B. Merrill of Newburyport ship-yards in September. The "Argus" and 
the "Antelope" were constructed and soon put out to sea, helping to thin 
out the enemy's merchant ships. 

In the summer of 1817, President Monroe visited Newburyport and 
was given a gi-and reception, at which Ebenezer Mosely was chainnan. 
At Ipswich, the President w^as received by a number of military officers 
and at the lower Green in Newbury, a company of cavalry, under Colonel 
Jeremiah Coleman, with the county's sheriff and a goodly number of 
citizens, escorted him into Newburyport. After the "meeting" and re- 



542 ESSEX COUNTY 

ception, he was escorted to the Wolfe Tavern, where dinner was provided, 
at which General Swift presided, after which the President proceeded on 
his journey to New Hampshire. 

In 1820 the "Institution for Savings in Newburyport and its Vicin- 
ity" was incorporated and grew rapidly from its first opening. In 1854 
the Newburyport Five Cent Savings Bank was incorporated. (See Bank- 
ing Chapter). A National Bank (The First) was organized under 
United States laws in 1864, and was among the first in the country after 
the national bank act had been enacted. 

In 1826 a charter was obtained for the bridge known as the New- 
buryport Bridge, crossing the Merrimac from the foot of Summer street 
to the Salisbury shore, and finished in 1827, at a cost of $70,000. The 
Essex-Merrimac Bridge, connecting what was Newbury with Salisbury, 
now within the limits of Newburyport, may be mentioned in this connec- 
tion. It was projected in 1791, and a subscription was at once put in 
circulation. Two hundred shares were subscribed for. This subscrip- 
tion was headed as follows, in part: "Newbury Port, May 30, 1791. 
Whereas, a bridge over Merrimac river from the land of the Hon'ble 
Jonathan Greenleaf Esquire in Newbery to Deer Island, and from the said 
Island to Salisbury would be a veiy extensive utility, by affording a safe 
Conveyance to Carriages, Teams and Travellers at all seasons of the 
year, and at all times of tide." Much litigation ensued, and the General 
Court had its time well occupied with this matter for many months, but 
finally a charter was granted and the bridge constructed and opened to 
the public, November 26, 1792. A native of Boxford, Timothy Palmer, 
of Newburyport, built this bridge in seven months. 

Until 1868 the two bridges were toll bridges. June 5th of that 
year the legislature passed an act directing the county commissioners to 
throw open these two bridges within the next sixty days from date of 
notice ; at least, that was the result of the legislation, for they were to 
lay out highways the several bridges over the Merrimac river, known as 
Andover Bridge, and Lawrence Bridge, in the city of Lawrence ; Haver- 
hill Bridge, between Haverhill and Bradford ; Rock Bridge, between West 
Newbury and Haverhill ; Essex-Merrimac Bridge, between Salisbury and 
Newburyport; Newburyport Bridge between Salisbury and Newbury- 
port ; and the Essex Bridge, over North river between Beverly and Salem ; 
and to determine what proportion of the amount of damages should be 
paid by the county of Essex, and by the several cities and towns bene- 
fited by the laying out. The Newburyport bridge charter having ex- 
pired, there was no damage awarded, and it was decreed that: "so much 
of said bridge, being three-fourths of said bridge next adjoining to said 
Newburyport, shall be maintained, kept in repair and supported, and the 
expense thereof and of raising the draw in said bridge, shall be paid by 
the said city of Newburyport ; and that the remainder of the said bridge, 
being the one-fourth part thereof lying next to Salisbury, aforesaid, shall 



CITY OF NEWBURYPORT 543 

be maintained, kept in repair and supported, at the expense thereof shall 
be paid by the town of Salisbury." 

As to damages on the other bridges named, it may be stated that 
each company or town owner received its proportion of damage money. 
And from that date on, there have been no toll bridges to hamper the 
traveling public in Essex county. 

Commercially speaking, the darkest days experienced by Newbury- 
port, were when the navigation laws of 1820, together with other 
causes, served to discourage capital. From 1810 to 1820, the population 
had fallen from 7,634 to 6,852, and in 1830 it had fallen still further, then 
totalling 6,741. The tonnage of the town had been reduced from 35,296 
tons in 1810 to 16,577 in 1830. One account of the condition of the town 
reads thus: 

The market, which in earlier days had been filled with country teams, was 
almost deserted; the East and West Indies and Mediterranean commerce had well- 
nigh disappeared, and masters of vessels, once active on the sea, were spending 
their time in the reading rooms and insurance office, hoping against hope, for a 
revival of the good old times. An intelligent antiquary in a series of articles writ- 
ten for the Herald of Newburyport says "that everything was old and rusty and 
dead; nobody thought of painting a building, and there were so many of them 
empty that rent was nothing, and the purchase price of anything was less than 
that. If an old fence blew down, there it lay, unless it was picked up to bum, and 
when a pump-handle broke, no more water came from that well." 

But it is as true of municipalities and of men as of the order of nature that 
the darkest time is just before morning. Capital, as closely attracted by the hope 
of profit as the needle by the magnet, began to feel that there were other channels 
than those of navigation open to it. Lowell had been incorporated in 1826, and 
the cotton manufacture was everywhere attracting the attention of enterprising 
men. A new wave of enterprise was then sweeping over New England, and this 
included Newburypoi-t. The Essex Mill was built in 1833 with a capital of $100,- 
000; and though it was neither long-lived nor largely profitable, it served, before 
it was finally burned on the 8th of March, 1856, to lead the way for others to fol- 
low, with surer steps and a better success. Several years after the erection of 
the Essex Mills, as the Newburyport antiquary already referred to states: A new 
man appeared among us, a well formed, noble-looking person, such a man as you 
do not often meet, full of power, energy and enterprise, who had studied machinery 
till he was himself one of the most powerful machines; who had been among steam 
engines till he was a perfect steam engine himself, thinking nothing of what to 
others seemed mountains of difficulties, and having an influence over the opinions 
and purses of our staid old capitalists that no ottier man had possessed for a long 
time." He was none other than Charles Tillinghast James, of Providence, Rhode 
Island, then thirty years of age. By his skill and energy, aided by the capital of 
WUliam Bartlett, then eighty-nine years of age, and others, the Bartlett mills were 
incorporated in 1837 and put in operation in 1838, under the name of the Wessacum- 
com Mills. Two years afterwards Mill No. 2 of this corporation was built, and 
the name changed to Bartlett mills. The capital of the mills was $350,000, and 
with 448 looms and 22,000 spindles, the product was 75,000 yards of fine sheetings 
and shirtings per week. These mills, situated on Pleasant street, were burned 
March 1, 1881, and were not rebuilt. 

Another mill was built in 1842 by Mr. James, called the "James 



544 ESSEX COUNTY 

Steam Mills." The first capital was $150,000; in 1871 a new company 
was formed, with a $250,000 capital, and the name changed to the Mas- 
conomet Mills. In 1887 this mill was producing, on 350 looms, and 17,- 
216 spindles, brown and bleached sheetings and shirtings to the amount 
of 48,000 yards per week. What was later known as the Peabody mills 
had a capital of $300,000 — 400 looms, 19,000 spindles, and a product of 
90,000 yards of print cloths and sheetings per week. Another large cot- 
ton mill was the "Ocean", built in 1846 and enlarged in 1868. This was 
changed to the "Whitefield Mills", which had 573 looms, 27,000 spindles 
and produced 100,000 yards of print cloth and fine sheetings per week. 
These three mills gave employment to more than a thousand people, rep- 
resenting 2,500 population. The place grew rapidly and in 1850 it had 
reached 9,534, 

Among other agencies which tended to drive away the commercial 
stagnation of Newburyport was the construction of a railroad from Bos- 
ton in the autumn of 1840, after which inland commerce was canied on 
by rail transportation instead of by water. In 1847 — Chiistmas Day — 
telegraph communication was established between Boston and Newbury- 
port ; Colonel Cushing raised his regiment for the war with Mexico, and 
Newburyport furnished one full company in the same. In 1850 the New- 
buryport railroad was connected with the Boston & Maine line. 

Many times had Newburyport attempted to gain lai'ger territory, but 
was always foiled in such attempt, until the very nature of the case de- 
manded it. It was in 1851 that a city hall was built at a cost of $30,000, 
and about the same time a portion of Newbuiy was annexed to Newbury- 
port by an act of the General Court. June 3, 1851 the citizens adopted 
the charter for a "city", and held their first municipal election, as shown 
below. At the town meeting held June 3, 1851, the whole number of 
votes cast upon the acceptance of the act granting a city charter was 
594, of which 484 were in the affirmative. 

The original charter of the city of Newburyport was adopted by the 
inhabitants June 3, 1851. The mayor is elected annually, and the sub- 
joined is a list from the first to 1920 : Caleb Cushing, 1851-52 ; Henry 
Johnson, 1852-53; Moses Davenport, 1854, 1855-61; William Cushing, 
1856, 1857-58 ; Albert Cunier, 1859-60 ; George W. Jackman, Jr., 1861- 
62-64-65, 1877 ; Isaac H. Boardman, 1863 ; William Graves, 1866 ; Eben 
F. Stone, 1867; Nathaniel Pierce, 1868-69; Robert Couch, 1870-81; 
Elbridge G, Kelley, 1871-72; Warren Cumer, 1873-74; Benj. F. Atkin- 
son, 1875-76; Jonathan Smith, 1878; John James Currier, 1879-80; Benj. 
Hale, 1882; WMlliam A. Johnson, 1883-84; Thomas C. Simpson, 1885; 
Charles C. Dane, 1886; Otis Winkley, 1887; William H. Huse, 1888; 
Albert C. Titcomb, 1888-89 ; Elisha P. Dodge, 1890-91 ; Orrin J. Gumey, 
1892-93-94, 1895 ; Andrew R. Curtis, 1896-97 ; George H. Plumer, 1898 ; 
Thomas Huse, 1899-1900; Moses Brown, 1901-02; James F. Carnes, 
1903-04; William F. Houston, 1905-06; Albert F. Hunt, 1907; Irving 






^Ttr, 



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WORLD'S FIRST SAVINGS BANK, SCOTLAND 




INSTITUTION FOR SAVINGS, NEWBURYPORT 



CITY OF NEWBURYPORT 545 

Besse, 1908; Albert F. Hunt, 1909; Robert E. Burke, 1910-11, 1912; 
Hiram H. Landford, 1913-14; Clarence J. Fogg, 1915-16; Walter B. Hop- 
kinson, 1917-18 ; David P. Page, 1919. 

City Officers in 1919-20: Mayor, Hon. David P. Page; Board of 
AldeiTnen-at-Large, Norman Russell, J. Walter Chase, Fred C. Lovejoy, 
Harold A. Besse, Percy B. Jackson, Samuel Sargent, Walter N. B. Biy- 
ant; Clerk, Henry W. Little. Common Council — William H. Hamilton, 
Frank E. Ryan, Herbert W. Simmons, ward 1 ; William F. Casey, Fran- 
cis M. McGlew, Harlan E. Randall, ward 2 ; J. Dwyer Buckley, Maurice 
E. Conners, Thomas G. McGlew, ward 3; John D. Hurley, Bernard C. 
McQuade, Arthur W. Southwell, ward 4; Charles H. Lord, Mathew A. 
Twomey, Wallace L. Whipple, ward 5; Elmer D. Coskery, Clinton S. 
Mason, William Peebles, ward 6; Clerk, J. Herman Carver; Treasurer 
and Collector, Charles E. Houghton; City Auditor, William Balch; City 
Solicitor, Horace L Bartlett; City Physician, Dr. George D. McGauran; 
City Marshal, John J. McClean. 

City Property in 1920 : Real estate, $152,700 ; schoolhouses, $222,- 
500; enginehouses, $36,500; lands, $40,209; personal property, $61,273; 
sewer system, $150,000; water works, $450,000; total $1,113,182. 

The United States census returns give the following figures on the 
population for Newburyport in three decades: 1900, 14,478; 1910, 14,- 
949; and in 1920, 15,618. 

The following table shows the net debt of the city from 1899 to 
1920: 

1899 $289,556.47 1910 $541,348.34 

1900 286,876.59 1911 507,916.05 

1901 317,272.13 1912 518,129.41 

1902 321,725.39 1913 464,470.01 

1903 369,687.30 1914 471,146.63 

1904 646,819.16 1915 426,408.64 

1905 _ 671,536.83 1916 360,438.53 

1906 630,305.15 1917 295,736.53 

1907 596,120.73 1918 253,982.14 

1908 586,259.64 1919 250,963.43 

1909 589,904.27 

The water plant was constructed in 1904, hence the large indebted- 
ness during that special period. 

Newburyport has a first-class postoffice, and had a business of about 
$58,000 during the last fiscal year. The superintendent of mails is 
Charles S. Smith. There are now fourteen mail carriers and eleven 
clerks. Two deliveries of mail are made daily. The postoffice has been 
in its present quarters since 1882. Ground has been purchased by the 
government and the city is to have a new postoffice building in the near 
future. Two mounted carriers deliver mail in the outskirts of the city. 
The postmasters who have served since 1885 are as follows: Sampson 
Levy, Willard J. Hall, William C. Cuseck, Fred E. Smith, Frederick L. 

Essex — 35 



546 ESSEX COUNTY 

Atkinson, W. C. Coffin, James F. Carens, present postmaster, the date 
of his commission being January 26, 1916. The present location of the 
office is at the comer of Pleasant and Inn streets. 

Newburyport now has churches as follows: Baptist, Congrega- 
tional (two). First church (organized 1635), Episcopal, Methodist Epis- 
copal, Presbyterian, two Catholic churches, Unitarian, Advent, Jewish, 
First Church of Christ (Scientist), Spiritualist, Salvation Army. These 
are all treated in the chapter on churches. 

The regular secret fraternities include the Masons, Knights of 
Pythias, Odd Fellows and their ladies' auxiliaries. The list of benevolent 
fraternal insurance orders here represented may be numbered by almost 
one word — legion. 

At present time the industries represented in the city include the 
three boat-building firms — William G. Bowen, McKay Company, and 
William H. Morse & Company. A large foundry is operated by Albert 
Russell Sons & Company. Comb factories are operated by W. H. Noyes 
& Brother and by G. W. Richardson. An extensive bronze-tablet foun- 
dry is also carried on by Albert Russell Sons & Company. 

The Newburyport Building Association was organized in March, 
1908, for the purpose of erecting modem factory buildings in Newbury- 
port. The following officers were elected: President, William G. 
Fisher ; secretary, James E. Mannix ; treasurer, William Ilsley ; trustees, 
James FL Higgins, William F. Lunt, Michael Cashman, George H. 
Plumer, and Charles A. Bliss. Shares were sold on the installment plan, 
monthly assessments of five dollars per share being paid for three years, 
making a full paid share $180. The first series was started in 1908, and 
was follovfed by others, as the work of the association progressed. Regu- 
lar dividends of four per cent, per annum have been paid for a number 
of years. 

The first factory v/as erected in 1911, being a five-story brick struc- 
ture containing 50,000 square feet. The next year factory No. 2 was 
built. In 1915 a third factory was started and finished early the follow- 
ing year. 

The work of the association has been of substantial assistance to 
the industrial growth of the city, and has furnished an example of the 
value of co-operative efforts when wisely directed. The last annual state- 
ment, published in 1921, showed a capital and surplus of over $100,000, 
the total assets being $179,000. 

Lieutenant Adolphus Washington Greely, who became famous for 
his Arctic voyage, as well by reason of his experiences in the Civil War, 
was born in Newburyport, March 27, 1844. He managed the construc- 
tion of fifteen hundred miles of telegraph line for the United States gov- 
ernment in Civil War days in Texas. It was he of whom Colonel Hincks 
told Governor Andrew of this state, that if he "had a regiment like him, 
he could whip the whole South." He was attached to the United States 



CITY OF NEWBURYPORT 547 

Signal Corps, and undertook the great Arctic expedition for the govern- 
ment. Upon his return from the perils of the far away Northland, the 
government ordered that his vessel should first land at his birthplace, 
Newburyport, which it did, August 14th. He was the guest of the city, 
and an elaborate programme was featured for the brave soldier and 
hardy explorer. Many noted men were present and took part in the 
exercises. 

The Public Library was organized in 1854. It is located on State 
street; was remodeled from an old Colonial house, the "Tracy mansion" 
of brick, originally built in 1771, to which a brick annex was added in 
1882 at a cost of about $22,000, by popular subscription, to which Michael 
H. Simpson was a donor of $18,500. In 1863, when the library was 
moved from the old City Hall, the expense of $21,568 had been con- 
tributed by sixty-four individuals for that purpose. The following is a 
partial list of those who gave liberally toward this public library : John 
R. Spring, $20,000 ; George Peabody, $15,000 ; William C. Todd (to estab- 
lish reading room), $15,000; William O. Moseley, $10,000; Elizabeth 
H. Stickney, $10,000; Josiah Little, $5,000; M. Plant Sawyer, $5,000; 
Edward S. Mosley, $5,000; Stephen W. Marston, $5,000; Charles W. 
Moseley, $5,000; Abram E. Cutter, $4,000; Elisha P. Dodge, $2,500; 
Sarah A. Green, $2,000; there were eight individual donations of one 
thousand dollars each. 

The libraiy is now kept up by municipal appropriations, for adminis- 
trative purposes, all books, newspapers and periodicals being purchased 
from incomes of various investments of bequests or donations. The 
present approximate number of books on stacks is fifty-eight thousand ; 
number of newspapers and periodicals, two hundred and twenty-five. 
The librarians have been only two — Hiram A. Tenney, 1855 to 1889 (ex- 
cept 1862, when Horace N. Jackman served) ; John D. Parsons, 1889 to 
the present date, 1921. The library has upon its walls many fine pic- 
tures and appropriate tablets in memory of generous donors, etc. This 
is an appropriate monument to the good sense of the citizens of New- 
buryport. 

\Nh.at was styled St. Paul's Church, an outgrowth of Queen Anne's 
Chapel at the Plains, was presided over by a Church of England minister, 
named John Lambton, who came from England and assumed his duties 
in November, 1712. In 1715 he returned to England, and was succeeded 
by Rev. Henry Lucas, who committed suicide August 23, 1720. Next 
came Rev. Matthias Plant, who continued until his death in April, 1753. 
These three ministers were sent from England by the Venerable Society 
for the Propogation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. About 1740, St. 
Paul's Church was opened on the site of the present building. For a 
time Rev. Plant officiated at both Queen Anne's and St. Paul's. The 
second church edifice was built in 1800. 

'The First Religious Society" was organized in 1725, and settled 



548 ESSEX COUNTY 

Rev. John Lowell in 1726. In 1735 it was formally set off by an act 
of the General Court. The first meeting-house of the society was in 
Market Square, but in 1801 another edifice was built on Pleasant street. 
Among the ministers recalled in earlier years are Revs. Cary, Andrews, 
Thomas B. Fox, Thomas W. Higginson, Charles Bowen, A. B. Muzzey, 
George L. Stowell and D. W. Morehouse, who was pastor in the eighties. 
Following him came Rev. Samuel C. Beane, D. D., 1888-1905 ; Lawrence 
Hayward, 1905 and still pastor. There are 600 members in this church 
today, with a Sunday school of 100 members. In 1915 St. Peter's Chapel- 
of-Ease was built a mile to the south of the city. 

Central Congregational Church is the result of a merger of three 
churches — the Prospect Street, the Whitefield and North Congregational 
churches, the union being effected in 1909. The original church was 
organized in 1768 and the total membership today is about 525, with a 
Sunday school attendance of 268 ; John H. Balch, Jr., being the present 
superintendent. The church edifice is valued at $7,500 ; it is an old build- 
ing and was left to the church by will. 

Since 1885 the pastors of the three churches, now forming the one, 
were for the North Church, Revs. Charles P. Mills, from 1880 to 1899 ; 
Elmer E. Shoemaker, 1900-02 ; Edward H. Newcomb, 1903-09. For the 
Whitefield Church— Revs. Henry E. Mott, 1884-88 ; Samuel A. Harlow, 
1888-92 ; John H. Reid, 1892-98 ; Frank G. Alger, 1899-1905 ; Leslie C. 
Greeley, 1905-09. For the Prospect Street Church — Revs. Palmer S. 
Hulbert, 1885-89 ; George W. Osgood, 1890-94 ; Myron Potter, 1895-1903 ; 
George P. Merrill, 1905-09. The pastor for the Central Church (merged) 
in 1909-20 was Rev. Walter H. Nugent; there is no pastor at this date 
(June, 1921). 

Of the three original church societies above mentioned as entering 
into the church merger, it should be added that the North Congregational 
Church was organized in 1768 as the Third Religious Society of New- 
buryport. Its first members were those who left the First church on 
account of liberality when Rev. Cary was called as pastor. The Whit- 
field Congi-egational Church was organized January 1, 1850. The church 
building of this society was erected in 1852. 

Newburyport Baptist Church was organized in 1869, but succeeded 
to an organization known as the Green Street Baptist Church, organized 
in 1804. Rev. Joshua Chase was the first preacher, and was followed 
by Rev. Peak. The Green street society of this denomination really com- 
menced its activities in 1846, with Rev. Nicholas Medbuiy, who led one 
faction of the old church that was formed in 1804. Since Rev. Medbury, 
theministers have been: Revs. John Richardson, J. R. Lane, J. T. Beck- 
ley, Eugene E. Thomas, 1886-88 ; Louis A. Pope, 1889-1800 ; George H., 
Miner, 1901-05 ; Arthur W. Cleaves, 1906-20 ; Edwin H. Prescott, 1921, 
and present pastor. The membership of this church in May, 1921 was 
270, and the Sunday school attendance 210. Herman S. Stevens is super- 



CITY OF NEWBURYPORT 549 

intendent. There is also a colored Baptist Church in Newburyport, of 
recent year formation. 

The First Presbyterian Church was formed January 3, 1746. Nine- 
teen members of that church had seceded, and for two years had wor- 
shiped in a small building on what is now known as High street, with 
Joseph Adams, a graduate of Harvard, as minister. Early ministers were 
inclusive of these : Revs. Jonathan Parsons, John Murray, Daniel Dana, 
D.D., S. P. Williams, John Proudfit, D.D., Charles F. Durfee, William 
W. Newell, Jr., and Charles C. Wallace. The meeting-house occupied by 
this church was erected in 1756, and the noted Rev. Whitefield was buried 
in a vault under his pulpit. Further data concerning this church are not 
at hand. 

The Second Presbyterian Church was organized October 29, 1795, 
by seceders from the First Presbyterian Church, who were opposed to 
the settlement of Rev. Dana. John Boddely, of Bristol, England, be- 
came the first pastor here. 

"The Fourth Religious Society" was incorporated in 1794, and was 
made up of the seceders from the First Presbyterian Church, who be- 
came dissatisfied with the settlement of Rev. John Murray. They erected 
a church edifice in 1793. Rev. Charles W. Melton was pastor until his 
death, in 1837, and was succeeded by Rev. Randolph Campbell. The 
church building was remodeled in 1800. 

The Belleville Congregational Church was organized in 1808 in New- 
bury, and was originally set off as a separate parish in 1761. At first 
the members used the old Queen Anne Chapel, but in 1763 they erected 
a church of their own, and it served until destroyed by lightning in 1816, 
when a new one was erected on its sita 

The Immaculate Conception Church. In 1841 Rev. Patrick Can- 
avan of Dover, New Hampshire, came to Newburyport once a month to 
celebrate mass and administer the sacrament of the Roman Catholic 
church. Services were held for nearly two years at the residences of 
Hugh McGlew and others, but in 1843 the vestry of the First Presby- 
terian Society was purchased and removed to a lot of land on Charles 
street, conveyed by Mr. McGlew to the Rt. Rev. Benedict Fenwick of 
Boston, "in trust for the use and benefit of the Roman Catholic religious 
society in Newburyport." The vestry, remodelled and repaired, served 
as a chapel until the church on Green street was completed in 1853. 
Father Canavan had charge of the parish until the spring of 1848. He 
was succeeded by the Rev. John O'Brien, who came to Newburyport, 
where he remained until December, when Rev. Henry Lennon was ap- 
pointed pastor of the church. 

May 6, 1851, Moses E. Hale and John Osgood sold to John H. Nichols 
of Salem, a lot of land on Green street. On the 12th day of the same 
month Mr. Nichols sold this land to John B, Fitzpatrick, Bishop of 
Boston. April 27, 1852, the comer stone of the Church of the Immacu- 



550 ESSEX COUNTY 

late Conception was laid with appropriate ceremonies. The building, 
with the exception of the steeple, which was not finished until twenty 
years later, was completed and dedicated March 17, 1853. 

Rev. Henry Lennon died July 13, 1871. He was buried near the 
southeast comer of the church on Green street, but was afterward re- 
moved to the Catholic cemetery on Storey avenue. In August, 1871, 
Rev. Arthur J. Teeling was appointed pastor of the church and entered 
at once upon the duties of his office. In 1872 he purchased for a parochial 
residence the house previously occupied by Father Lennon on Court 
street, and then turned his attention to the work of building a spire to 
the church, which was completed in March, 1874, and to the hanging in 
the belfry of a bell from the foundry of Menealy & Co., West Troy, New 
York. A month later land on Storey avenue was purchased for a ceme- 
tery. It was laid out with avenues and paths and consecrated by Arch- 
bishop Williams early in the summer of 1876. The parochial school build- 
ings on Court and Washington streets were erected in 1879. 

In April, 1881, the parochial residence was destroyed by fire, and a 
new one was built the following year to take its place. April 28, 1884, 
the school houses and the parochial residence were transferred to the Im- 
maculate Conception Educational Association, incorporated under the 
laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and on the 2d day of 
August following the church and cemetery were incorporated under the 
name of the Immaculate Conception Society of Newburyport. 

In 1886 the house on the comer of Washington and Green streets, 
built by Hon. Theophilus Parsons in 1789, was purchased for the use of 
the Sisters of Charity, who have charge of the children in the parochial 
schools. 

In 1893, Father Teeling was appointed pastor at St. Mary's Church 
in Lynn, and Rev. William H. Ryan was placed in charge of the Church 
of the Immaculate Conception in Newburyport. Under the care of 
Father Ryan, the parish has maintained its high standard of excellence 
and steadily developed its religious and educational work. In 1904 the 
interior of the church was painted and decorated by Italian artists, and a 
new marble altar, elaborately carved, was placed in the sanctuary. On 
the 2d, 3d and 4th days of May, 1903, the fiftieth anniversary of the dedi- 
cation of the church was observed with appropriate religious services. 
On Sunday, the 3d day of May, mass was celebrated in the presence of 
the Most Rev. John J. Williams, archbishop, and the Right Rev. Bishop 
Brady, auxiliary bishop of the diocese, and a congregation that filled all 
the available seats in the church. A home for destitute children has 
been established, accommodating 75 children, a home for aged women, 
and a new church at Plum Island Beach, all under the direction of Rev. 
William H. Ryan, and all are free of debt. The census of the parish is 
about 4,000. Rev. Father Ryan has as his assistants Rev. J. B. Moore 
and Rev. Joseph L. Dunn. The parish is a permanent rectorship and in 



CITY OF NEWBURYPORT 551 

a very flourishing condition, both spiritually and materially. 

What is knov/n as the Purchase Street Methodist Episcopal 
Church had its origin in the labors of Rev. John Adams, who in 1819 
collected a congregation which until 1825 was connected with the Salis- 
bury Conference. In 1825 Newburyport was made a station and placed 
under Mr. Adam's charge. That year a meeting-house was erected on 
Purchase street. From that date to this there have been regular services 
in this church by the Methodist denomination. 

Washington Street Methodist Episcopal Church was organized June 
20, 1827, at a house on Liberty street, where later a church edifice was 
erected by these people. Rev. Bartholomew Othman was the first pas- 
tor. Later its present church was built on Washington street, hence 
the name. This church is among the active factors in religious circles 
in the city today. 

There have been formed in Newburypoii; other churches, including 
the Universalist, organized in 1834 ; the Christian, in 1840, with Rev. 
Daniel Pike as pastor. The old Baptist church building was bought and 
used by this society on Congress street. The Second Advent Church was 
organized in 1848, and after using other buildings several years built an 
edifice on Charter street. The Seventh Day Adventists were organized 
in 1877. The Christian Science believers organized a church a few years 
since, but no facts were furnished for this chapter. St. Paul's Episcopal 
Church is in a flourishing condition today, as is also the Roman Catholic, 
Church of the Immaculate Conception. The French Catholics are also 
here represented. 





fm. 




PKABOD^-— ABOVE. PUl^.LIC SQUARE; BELOW, PEABODV INSTITUTE 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

THE CITY OF PEABODY 

Peabody comprises a part of the territory originally belonging to the 
old town of Salem. Its boundaries are nearly the same as old Middle 
Parish of Salem, set off in 1710, and continued a part of Salem until the 
incorporation of Danvers in 1752. In 1855 it was separated from Dan- 
vers, and the name Peabody was taken in 1868. For its history prior 
to 1710, see history of Salem, for it was then included in that town. That 
most graphic and accurate writer on local history of Essex county, Mr. 
Theodore M. Osborne, of Peabody, many years ago wrote of Peabody as 
follows : 

This town occupies a part of the territory originally belonging to the old town 
of Salem. It will be seen, therefore, that the early history of Peabody is in many 
ways inseparable from that of Salem. Its farmers were represented in the Salem 
town meeting, and some of them at times held office in the town. Its sturdy yeo- 
manry formed part of the training bands of the old town, and called out to do 
service in all the frontier warfare of that early period. Its religious interests were 
centered', in the old First Church, and the records of its proprietary interests is 
found with that of all the other lands belonging to the town of Salem. There was 
therefore, during nearly a whole century of the town, no occasion for any separate 
chronicle of the lives or the interests of the families who lived in this part of Salem, 
and for nearly half a century after the establishment of Middle Precinct, the people 
were one vdth Salem in everything but parish affairs. For more than another cen- 
tury the parish was a part of the town of Danvers, and its history is largely one 
with that of Danvers. It has had only about thirty years of independent exist- 
ence (1887). 

As to early settlement, it may be stated that it is not known just 
when the first men settled here, but it is known that the following con- 
stituted a part of the pioneer band who invaded these parts for the pur- 
pose of making permanent settlements: By 1633 there were a few set- 
tlers here. Before 1635 Captain William Trask, ancestor of all the nu- 
merous New England Trask family, received a grant of about fifty acres 
of land at the head of North river, near the present public square in the 
city of Peabody. Here he erected his first grist mill. Originally, the 
mill-pond was of considerable extent, and remained in use for some me- 
chanical purposes until about 1860, when it was filled up and a street laid 
out across it. This pond collected its water from three principal brooks, 
from which Brooksby took its name. Near the mill and its immediate 
surroundings a small village was started. Here, in 1637, Richard Adams 
had a grant of five acres, and William Hathome was given a ten-acre lot 
near the mill at about the same date. Thomas Goldthwaite also settled 
in this neighborhood at a very early date. 

Captain William Trask was among the earliest with Endicott. He 
possessed great energy and filled numerous public positions. He was a 



554 ESSEX COUNTY 

prominent military leader and drilled in the training band from the very- 
start. On account of his services in the Pequot War in 1636-37 he was 
rewarded with more land grants, and at his funeral in 1666 great mili- 
tary honors were observed by his fellow-countrymen. He it was who 
helped survey and lay out the lots in the town of Salem and vicinity. 

About 1640, Captain Trask built another mill a half mile down 
stream from the first, near present Grove street, and soon after he 
moved it and later it was known as Frye's mills. On. March 30, 1640, 
it is recorded that "Captain Trask hath leave to set up a tyde myll upon 
the Noith river, pvided he make passage for a shalloppe from halfe flood 
to full sea." In October, 1640, the mill was completed, and half an 
acre was granted him adjoining it. This mill also became the center of 
a settlement. In September, 1640, while this mill was building or soon 
after, Captain Trask received a fatherly admonition from the Court "to 
be more careful about his grinding & Towle taking." Previous to 1663 
Captain Trask's mills held the monopoly of this business. John Trask 
at one time, some complaint being made, agreed in behalf of his father 
with the town that they would "make as good meale as at Lin, and they 
when they could not supply the town for want of water or in any other 
respect," then they would "provide to send it to Lin upon their own 
charge and have it ground there." 

Other pioneer settlers included the following : Colonel Thomas Reed 
in 1636 claimed three hundred acres, including Buxton Hill. Robert Cole 
and heirs finally held a large tract upon North Brook. John Thomdike 
was in the northwestern part of the town, but later left there and be- 
came a resident in Salem village. In 1652 Robert Goodell had a farm 
of five hundred acres. William King had a tract of forty acres in the 
northern part of Peabody which he took in 1636. In October, 1637, a 
tract of one hundred acres was given to Edmund Batter; he also had 
twelve acres more in a fine pasture tract. He was a prominent man in 
his day in this part of Essex county. 

Others who had lands gi-anted to them hereabouts included Rev. 
Edward Norris, Joseph Pope, Mrs. Anna Higginson, Job Swinerton, 
Captain Samuel Gardner, and John Humphrey, who was a justice of the 
Quarter Court; in 1642 a considerable portion of his lands were sold on 
execution to Robert Saltonstall. Others were William Clarke, Joshua 
Verryn, Francis Johnson, Zacheus Cortis, Robert Moulton, John Brown, 
Sr., Richard Bartholomew. The Flints, Popes, Uptons, and Needhams 
all had valuable fai-ms; the Proctors came here from Ipswich in 1660; 
the Pooles from Cambridge in 1690 ; the Fosters from Boxford ; the Sut- 
tons from Rowley ; the Jacobs in 1700 ; the Poorg in 1770 ; and the Pres- 
tons, Shillabers and other prominent families were early settlers. A 
part of the farm of Jacobs lay in Peabody. 

About February 1st, 1710, a petition was presented to the selectmen 
of Salem, signed by Captain Samuel Gardner and others, requesting the 



CITY OF PEABODY 555 

town of Salem to set off as a new precinct that part of the town outside 
the town bridge and below the line of Salem village. The reason set 
forth included the fact that many of the residents lived too far from a 
place of worship. The boundaries of the proposed precinct were defined 
at a special town meeting March 6, 1709-10. Much stir was created 
over the proposed new precinct between two factions. It may be of 
some interest to the numerous descendants in this country at this time 
to know who the petitioners were that asked for such separation, hence 
their names are appended in this connection: Samuel Marble, Samuel 
Cutler, James Gould, Benj. Verry, Richard Waters, John Waters, 
Nathaniel Tompkins, John Marsh, William Osborne, John Giles, Robert 
Wilson, Henry Cook, Samuel Goldwaithe, Jr., John Nurse, Ebenezer 
Cutler, William King, Ezekiel Goldthwaite, Samuel Cook, Israel Shaw, 
William Osborne Jr., Benj. Marsh, John W. Burton, John Gardner, Eben 
Foster, Joseph Douty, John King, Abraham Pierce, Samuel King, Ste- 
phen Small, Nathaniel Waters, David Foster, Jacob Read, John O. Wal- 
din, Samuel Stacey Sr., Benj. C. Proctor, Geo. Jacobs, Jonathan King, 
Thomdike Procter, John King Jr., James Houlton, Samuel Stone, E. 
Marsh, John Jacobs, Nathaniel Felton, John Trask, A. H. Needham, S. 
Stacey, Elias Trask, John Felton, Skelton Felton, Sam Goldthwaite, S. 
Endicott. 

An animated discussion took place and petitions and counter peti- 
tions were in order for many weeks and took up the time of the court and 
selectmen, finally resulting on November 1, 1710, in the report of the 
legislative committee dated October 31, in favor of setting off the new 
precinct. The report was read in the council and left upon the board. 
The next day the report was again read and debated. On the 3rd, upon 
the question "whether the council will now vote the said report," there 
was a tie. It was not till the 10th of November that the report was 
finally accepted. The recommendation of the committee was that : "The 
said precinct do begin at the Great Cove in the North Field so to run 
directly to Trask's Grist Mill, taking in the mill to the new precinct; 
from thence on a straight line to the Mile-stone on the Road to Salem 
Meeting-House, and so along the road to hyn by Linday's; and then 
along the line between Salem and Lyn northward till it comes to Salem 
village line, & along by that line to Frost Fish River, & then by the Salt 
Water, to the Great Cove first mentioned and that the Meeting-House 
be erected on that Piece of land near Gardner's Brook already granted by 
the towne for that End." 

The report of the committee, which was signed by Penn Townsend 
for the committee, was read and accepted by both houses and consented 
to by Governor Dudley the same day, November 10, 1710. It seems that 
although the committee in their report speak of a piece of land as already 
granted by the town, there had been no location of the grant, which was 
indeed, by its terms, conditional. 



556 ESSEX COUNTY 

December 28 a formal vote was passed at a meeting of the select- 
men, ordering that Captain Jonathan Putnam, Mr. Benjamin Putnam 
and Mrs. John Pickering, or any two of them., be a committee to lay out 
the quarter of an acre and make return thereof. It was certainly a 
shrewd proceedings on the part of the petitioners to obtain the addition- 
al grant in advance, and then locate it by the recommendation of the 
committee of the General Court, before the layers out had been appointed. 
The fact that the land had already been gi'anted may be fairly supposed 
to have had some weight in the deliberations of the committee. 

After having been set off as a separate parish, the next thing to do 
was to provide a meeting-house. The site chosen was that now oc- 
cupied by the South Congregational Church in Peabody. It appears 
that in some way the original quarter of an acre had grown to an acre 
before the church v/as erected. The building committee met without 
much delay and planned for their new church edifice. This committee 
on the records of the town is always knov/n as "ye grate commity", and 
the size of the structure was stipulated to be forty-eight feet long by 
thirty-five feet wide. It was also decided by this committee that "the 
carpenders have two shillings and six pence a day for so many days as 
they work, and that men working a Narro Ax to have two shillings a 
day." The length of the new church building was finally agreed to be 
fifty-one feet instead of forty-eight feet. 

In 1713, the "Unworthy brethren and sisters living within the 
bounds of the Middle District in Salem" were as follows: Hanna King, 
Elizabeth Cook, John Foster, Hanna Small, Hanna Foster, Samuel 
Goldthwait, Jemima Veny, Deborah Good, Susanna Daniel, Martha 
Adams, Ebenezer Gyles, Ales Shafflin, Hanna Felton, Abel Gardner, Eliz- 
abeth Verry, Hanna Goldthwait, Robert Pease, Samuel Gardner, Samuel 
Goldthwait, Elizabeth Nurse, Isabelle Pease, David Foster, Mary Tomp- 
kins, Elizabeth Goldthwait, Richard Waters, Elizabeth Waters, Judah 
Mackintire, Sarah Gardner, John Felton, Hanna Southwick, Elizabeth 
Gyles, Wm. King, Sarah Waters, Elizabeth King. 

To show the formality and legal action taken in all that had to do 
with church affairs, as connected with the civil government of the early 
New England towns, the following request for and final dismissal of 
the above named members was issued and is now a part of the town- 
church records is here given: 

At a Church meeting at the Teacher's house, June 25th, the Church having 
received a petition from our brethren and sisters living in the District, wherein 
they desire a dismission from us for themselves and their children, in order to be 
a church of themselves. The Church giveth in answer as followeth: That although 
we cannot praise or justify our brethren's, proceedings so far as they have done in 
order to be a church of themselves without advising with or using means to 
obtain the consent of the Church they belonged to; yet the request of our breth- 
ren and sisters, for peace sake, we permit them and their children to become a 
chui'ch of themselves ; provided they have the approbation and consent of the Elders 



CITY OF PEABODY 557 

and messengers of some other churches in communion with us, that shall assist 
in their church gathering and ordaining them a pastor. And until they have so 
done, they continue members of this church. And so we commit them to the grace 
of God in Christ Jesus, praying that they may have divine direction and assistance 
in the great work they are upon, and that they become an holy and orderly and 
peaceable church, and that the Lord would add to them of such as are within 
their own limits, many as such as shall be saved. The above was twice distinctly 
read to the brethren of the church before it was voted upon and then consented to 
by the vote of the Church. 

Rev. Benjamin Prescott was ordained as pastor, September 23, 
1713, and the separation of the parishes was at last complete. In all the 
history of the separation of towns and precincts, of which our legislative 
and municipal history furnishes many noteworthy instances, down to 
the eighties, there has rarely been a division more earnestly pursued or 
more stubbornly resisted than that which resulted in the formation of 
the Middle Precinct of Salem. After this final separation, the Middle 
Parish people were generally busily engaged in building up their own 
interests as a church and community. They were still subject to the 
taxation for general expenses of the towTi of Salem, and for school pur- 
poses. Separate schools of their own, however, were soon demanded 
and secured. It was in 1714 that the town granted money towards the 
support of a "Reading, wi'iting and cyphering school" in the new pre- 
cinct. 

While it was not possible at that date to make a new voting precinct 
m which votes might be cast for representatives to the General Court, 
it was possible to separate from Salem as a district. This was allowed 
by the court in 1751-52, and the name given the new district was Dan- 
vers; the full title being, of course, "Second Parish in the District of 
Danvers." Soon, however, it was changed to "South Parish in Dan- 
vers," which continued to be its name for upwards of a century. The 
church was called "The Second Congregational Church of Danvers." 

June 16, 1852, the town of Danvers celebrated the one hundredth 
anniversary of its separate municipal existence. A pageant represent- 
ing the early customs of the settlers paraded the streets, escoi-ted by 
military forces and by the firemen of the tov/n. Also the pupils of 
the public schools took an active pai-t. An address was made by John 
W. Proctor, and Andrew Nichols delivered a poem in the old South 
Church, with music and religious exercises. A dinner was furnished 
in a canvas pavilion on the Crowinshield estate, at which many inter- 
esting addresses were given by the invited guests. It was at this din- 
ner that the first gift of George Peabody to his native town was offered, 
in a letter acknowledging his invitation to this celebration. He had 
ordered that an envelope he had handed in was not to be opened until 
the toasts were being proposed at the dinner. After a toast to Peabody, 
the letter was opened and read. It contained a sentiment by Mr. Pea- 
body which has become the motto of the endowments made by him for 



558 ESSEX COUNTY 

the benefit of education: "Education — a debt due from present to fut- 
ure generations." Among the paragraphs making up Mr. Peabody's 
letter are these: 

In acknowledgment of the payment of that debt by the generation which 
preceded me in my native town of Danvers, and to aid in its prompt future dis- 
charge, I give to the inhabitants of that town the sum of twenty thousand dollars, 
for the promotion of knowledge and morality among them. 

I beg to remark that the subject of making a gift to my native town has 
for some years occupied my mind, and I avail myself of your present interesting 
festival to make the communication, in the hope that it will add to the pleasures 
of the day. That a suitable building for the use of he Lyceum shall be erected, 
at a cost, including the land, fixtures, furnishings, etc., not exceeding seven thou- 
sand dollars, and shall be located within one third of a mile of the Presbyterian 
Meeting-House -occupying the spot of that formerly under the pastoral care of 
the Rev. Mr. Walker, in the South Parish of Danvers. 

The same letter above named, also contained a liberal subscription 
tov/ard the erection of a monument to the memory of General Gideon 
Foster. Before 1856 Mr. Peabody had increased his donations to mal^e 
a foundation of fifty thousand dollars. In 1869, on his last visit to his 
native place, he increased his bequests to the amount of two hundred 
thousand dollars. 

By an act of the legislature, passed May 18, 1855, the new town of 
South Danvers was incorporated, with boundaries corresponding with 
those of old Middle Precinct of Salem. About one year later the legis- 
lature changed the ancient boundary line between Salem and South 
Danvers and the same exists today. Peabody took its name from the 
great philanthropist, George Peabody, and was made a city in January, 
1917. The United States census in 1920 gives the population of Pea- 
body at 19,552. 

George Peabody, for whom the city is named, was a world-wide 
benefactor. He was born in South Danvers, (now Peabody), in the 
house which still stands at 205 Washington street. A suitable tablet 
in the yard commemorates this event. He left his native to^vn when 
young, and embarked in business at Baltimore. He later located in Eng- 
land, where he became one of the v\rorld's largest bankers. He gave 
away millions for charity, and did not forget his native town and its 
offspring, for two libraries endowed with sufficient money to maintain 
them were given Danvers and Peabody. Few cities have been so for- 
tunate as to have such a benefactor. 

Peabody, while not always spoken of or thought of as a great manu- 
facturing center, has with the passing years had many prodigious fac- 
tory plants for the production of numerous articles. The tannery busi- 
ness of the good old Quaker Joseph Southwick, commenced in 1739, was 
carried forward by several generations of the same name. About 1770 
Joseph Poor started a tannery near the "lane" (now Central street) , and 
as late as twenty-five years ago the same family was engaged in such 



THE NEW YORK 
PUBLIC LIB RA.R^ I 

ASTOR, LE^OJ^ I 

TILDES FOUNDATtONSj 



CITY OF PEABODY 55» 

useful business. Other tanneries were carried on by Dennison Wallis, 
Fitch Poole and Ward Poole. In 1855 the records show that South 
Danvers had twenty-seven tanneries, with an annual product of 131,000 
hides, valued at $660,000; 121 men were employed. The same date 
there were twenty-four cunying establishments, finishing leather to the 
value of $805,000, employing 153 men. The manufacture of morocco 
and lining skins grew up in a quarter of a century, and in 1856 had a 
product of 80,000 skins, valued at $25,000, employing 117 men, with a 
capital of $50,000. 

The boot and shoe factory trade commenced in 1830, and in twenty- 
five years time it had grown to the making of 800,000 pairs, valued at 
half a million dollars, and was employing in 1855 more than one thou- 
sand men and women. 

Chocolate was manufactured here by General Foster, in the early 
days, at his mill-pond (now Foster street). General Foster was a 
genius at constructing mill dams and water-power sufficient to run a 
vast amount of machinery within the town. His mills were destroyed 
by fire in 1823. At one time there were no less than thirty potteries in 
South Parish. During the period of the War of 1812-14, much pottery 
was sent from this district, as English goods were not available to any 
good American citizen. Finally this industry was mostly limited to the 
making of the brown and coarser wares such as bean-pots, flower-pots, 
and jugs. In 1855 the number of such plants had been reduced to two, 
and in 1887 only one small concern remained in operation. 

The Danvers Bleachery in 1847 commenced operations under Elijah 
Upton and the Messrs. Walker, in 1855 bleaching or coloring one hun- 
dred tons of goods, employing sixty men, with a capital of $150,000. 
Glue was made in South Danvers in immense quantities by the Uptons, 
commencing as early as 1817. In the fifties there were three large 
glue plants in operation, making glue valued at $120,000 per year, by 
the employment of less than twenty-five workmen. 

Other industries included cabinet-making, bakery, soap factories, 
a patent leather factory, a last factory, whose product was placed at 
$16,000 a year; a box factory, and a quarry producing hundreds of 
millstones. 

In the fire of the Boston district in 1872, many of the leather 
dealers in this section lost heavily. But still Peabody was then and 
is still known as a great leather center. The United States census re- 
ports for 1880 gave the total number of manufacturing establishments 
in this place as 53; number of persons employed, 1,195; capital em- 
ployed, $1,062,000 ; total product value, $4,278,000. 

Coming down to the present times, it may be said of Peabody that 
it still keeps pace with her sister cities in the productioh of many pro- 
ducts which find markets throughout the world. Among these valuable 
enterprises may be named the Felt Manufactury; the Densten Hair 



560 ESSEX COUNTY 

Company; the Essex Gelatine Factoiy; the American Glue Company; 
the Ink Factoiy; leather working machinery, including the John Boyle 
Company, the Peabody-Wobum Machine Company, the Turner Tan- 
ning Machine Company, etc. Also the stone-breaking plant by the 
Essex Trap Rock and Construction Company. 

The tanneries are inclusive of these concerns: Thayer Foss Com- 
pany, H. S. Snyder and M. W. Snyder, Pearse Leather Corporation, 
Kom Leather Company, Formal Leather Company, Essex Tanning Com- 
pany, and the Ameikaf Tanning Company. There are boot and shoe 
manufacturing establishments in Peabody such as the well known plants 
of the John J. Ryan Shoe Company, the Boston Baby Shoe Factory, etc. 
The embossing and stamping process is carried on here by the Lewis 
A. Felt Co. and the Woeliel Embossing and Decorating Company. 

The newspaper histoiy, as well as the story of Banks and Banking, 
are found elsewhere in this work. 

Leather has been the chief industry in Peabody for more than half 
a century. Pioneers of this industry settled here, for the water pos- 
sessed special qualities for vegetable tanning. The original tanners 
handled brogan leather, gi'adually changing to conditions of today. 
Relics of the old days can be seen in the many vats about the city, 
which are not needed under present conditions. 

Concerns who produced five hundred sides of leather daily in 
the eighties were large ones. Today six thousand sides each day are 
produced by one local concern. Sheepskins are the largest item manu- 
factured in point of numbers. Hides are second, followed by calf- 
skins. Before the World War, goatskins tanned in India would claim 
recognition, but today few are found on account of impoii; duties. 
There are frequent disputes as to the rank of Peabody as a leather 
center. In the number of pieces finished she now claims to be at 
the top. In value, according to United States statistics, she ranks 
fifth, with an output of $25,000,000 annually. Another industry of 
today is the one represented by two corporations who take the cattle 
hair of the tanners and convert it into felting and even into cloth. 
These concerns are rapidly developing ideas to increase the output. 
There are also cork-sole and fertilization plants, one being the largest 
in the world. 

As a city, Peabody is only four years old, it having been made 
a city corporation in January, 1917. It was set apart from the town 
of Danvers in 1855, and became known as Peabody in 1868. It can 
justly claim superiority to many of her sister cities in public buildings. 
The City Hall was completed in 1883 and still does excellent service 
as a city building. An audience hall seating over 1500, a council 
chamber of ample size, offices, modernized, and an additional building 
for the board of health, as well as a new court house, all tend to 
make the whole complete. The Public Library presented to the city 



CITY OF PEABODY 561 

by George Peabody is a lasting memorial and a benefit to all classes. 
Combined with the library are an amusement hall, the Sutton Refer- 
ence Library, and an endowed fund for free lectures each year. 

Peabody now has seventy-three miles of paved streets. Its area 
is seventeen square miles. The streets in the central part of the place 
were all rebuilt when the town became a city in 1917. The city 
sewer, which was constructed in 1907, is about twenty-eight miles 
long. It cares for about one and one-fourth billion gallons of water 
yearly. Because of the large amount of water used in the bleachery, 
the leather industry and the glue factories, this sewer is one of the 
essential parts of the city's machinery, so to speak. Water is a 
necessity in a city of this type where much manufacturing is going 
on. Peabody is now pumping 4,500,000 gallons of water daily, as 
against half that amount fifteen years ago. Spring Pond and Sun- 
taug Lake are the water sources at present. The city has a permit 
from the legislature to tap Ipswich river, which will doubtless be 
accomplished in the near future. 

The fire department consists of two steamers, a combination pump- 
ing engine and chemical, hook and ladder, two motor combination 
chemical and hose wagons, a horee-drawn chemical and hose-wagon, 
two horse-drawn hose wagons, a motor chemical and hose wagon 
(West Peabody) ; two pony chemicals on Bartholomew street and 
Lake Shore Park respectively, and a chief's automobile. There is a 
Gamewell fire-alarm system with sixty boxes. There are eighty-five 
men in this department, including eighteen permanent men. A new 
motor-driven combination engine and chemical has been purchased 
and will be delivered soon. 

The Electric Light plant was installed in 1892, expressly for illu- 
minating the streets of the town. A year later a generator was added 
for furnishing commercial and domestic lighting. At present the muni- 
cipality is lighted after strictly up-to-date methods, and has a little 
less than three hundred miles of wires over fifty-six miles of highways. 

The election of November 7, 1917, decided the matter of changing 
to a city government in Peabody. The total "yes" was 1170; "no," 
1115; blanks, 607; total vote, 2,892. The 1920 United States Census 
gave the city 19,552 population. The number of registered male 
voters in 1919 was 3,159; registered female voters, 505; polls assessed 
in 1919, 6,606. The net bonded indebtedness in 1920 was $771,661.39. 

The city officers in 1920-21 are as follows: Mayor, S. Howard 
Donnell ; president of city council, Richard W. Horrigan ; ward coun- 
cillors — Ward 1, Frank E. McKeen; Ward 2, John A. Jones; Ward 3, 
George H. Eagan; Ward 4, Dennis P. Hogan; Ward 5, Albert F. 
Reed; Ward 6, Walter H. Brown. City Clerk, Francis L. Poor. The 
other officers include these: City auditor, William F. Goggin; city 
collector, E. A. Hershhenson; city engineer, Frank Emerson; city 

Essex — 36 



562 ESSEX COUNTY 

physician, Dr. Elton M. Vamey; city solicitor, William H. Fay; city 
treasurer, Francis L. Poor; superintendent of schools, Albert Robin- 
son; chief of police, Michael H. Grady; mayor's secretary, Alice T. 
Chamberlain; matron of almshouse, Bridget Gilroy; superintendent 
of almshouse, Thomas F. Gilroy; truant officer, Charles E. Teague; 
foreman of water plant, Jesse F. Barrett; inspector of milk, Edward 
F. McHugh; health nurse, Ethel C. Boyle; keeper of lock-up, Michael 
H. Grady; constables: Alfred A. Hall, Arthur P. Reed. The chief of 
the Fire Department is Jesse F. Barrett; engineers: Thomas F. Hut- 
chinson, Thomas F. Carbrey, Arthur P. Bodge and John W. Castello. 
Since 1885 the postmasters at Peabody have been in their order 
as follows: Winsor M. Ward, Thomas F. Jackman, William F. Wiley, 
and the present incumbent, Dennis J. Dullea. The office is kept in 
a leased building centrally located, having occupied the present loca- 
tion since July 1, 1907. The following are connected with the post- 
office in their respective capacities: Thomas S. Waters, assistant 
postmaster; Richard G. Ward, George F. Hammond, Arthur C. Welch, 
William C. Mahoney, Joseph L. Lawless, regulai' clerks; John A. 
Lynch, Michael J. J. Duggan, James H. Murphy, James T. Waters, 
Edward J. Bieme and Helen M. Sullivan, substitute clerks. The city 
carriers are Samuel Watts, Herbert L. Brown, Thomas P. Hanley, 
Edward E. Spence, Walter S. Foss, John F. O'Brien, Charles W. 
Ferren, James A. O'Brien, Luke B. Callan, Michael B. Sullivan, 
James A. Cronin, regulars; the sustitute carriers are John P. Wil- 
liams, Herman C. Jung, Silsbee Emerton, Francis T. McCann, William 
H. Sweeney, Patrick F. Keilty. 

Mr. Fred W. Bushby, for twenty-four years a member of the 
board of trustees, contributes the following concerning the Peabody 
Institute and Library: 

It is unique in being one of the earliest endowed public libraries 
in the United States. Up to date it has existed on its endowment, 
and never received a cent from the town or city for its support. 
It was founded by that generous benefactor, who, self-educated him- 
self, realized the benefits to be derived from a good collection of books 
and expressed his sentiment in that splendid toast: "Education — a 
debt due from present to future generations." This benefactor was 
George Peabody, bom in South Danvers (as Peabody was then 
called), of humble origin, destined to become, through his own energy 
and perseverence, a wealthy man whose benefactions in later years 
gave help to people of two continents. 

Mr. Peabody, wishing to do something for his native town, gave 
in 1852 the sum of $20,000 to build the Institute. It was left to a 
committee of citizens to erect the building, and their success is evi- 
denced by the substantial building known as the Peabody Institute. 
This contains a good-sized lecture or concert hall on the second floor 
and a room for the free public library on the first floor. The build- 
ing was dedicated September 29, 1854, the address being made by 
Hon. Rufus Choate. 



CITY OF PEABODY 563 

The library was opened October 18, 1854, with 5000 volumes, about 
half of which were collected for Mr. Peabody in London and sent by 
him personally. Mr. Eugene B. Hinckley was the first librarian and 
the library was opened two afternoons a week. 

Other sums of money were afterwards forthcoming, until by 1869 
he had given $217,600. Out of this large fund, an addition to the 
original building was built and the portico and strong room for the 
custody of Queen Victoria's portrait were added. 

This miniature portrait entrusted by Mr. Peabody to the keeping 
of the trustees of the Institute, was presented by Queen Victoria, in 
recognition of his princely gift of $2,500,000 to the City of London 
to better the condition of the poor. In passing, I cannot refrain from 
saying that at the time of the last report, just before the war, the 
fund had been so well administered as to be three times its original 
size, besides having built houses capable of housing a population 
greater than the city of Peabody. 

The Queen would have bestowed a baronetcy on Mr. Peabody 
had he accepted. But this honor he refused, choosing to remain a 
plain American citizen, and so she had her portrait painted by the 
celebrated painter. Peal, set in a beautiful frame, with gold ornaments 
and presented to Mr. Peabody, with her autograph letter. 

Other memorials on exhibition are a gold box containing the 
freedom of the City of London, a gold box from the Fishmongers' 
Society of London, a gold medal and memorial from the United 
States Congress in recognition of the Southern Educational Fund. 

In the lecture hall in the center of the stage hangs a full-length 
portrait of Mr. Peabody, painted by Healey of London, while on either 
side of the stage hang portraits of Rufus Choate and Edward Everett, 
both painted by Ames. In the trustees' room are portraits of General 
Gideon Foster by Osgood, and President William Heniy Harrison by 
Abel Nichols, and Alfred A. Abbott, who was president of the board 
of trustees from 1859 to 1884. There is also in the Library room a 
marble bust of George Peabody, by J. S. Jones, and one of Nathaniel 
Hawthorne by Miss Lander of Salem. 

There have been six librarians since it was first opened — Eugene 
B. Hinckley, 1854-1856 ; Fitch Poole, 1856-1873 ; Theodore M. Osbome, 
1873-1880; J. Warren Upton, 1880-1898; Lyman P. Osborn, 1898- 
1915; John E. Keefe, 1915- 

There are at present in the library 49,185 volumes. A course of 
free lectures is given each season in the Lecture Hall, and this custom 
has been continuous since 1854. All the well-known lecturers of the 
country have spoken here. The institution is govered by a board of 
trustees, twelve in number, two elected each year, who in turn appoint 
a committee of twelve, who manage the library and attend to giving 
the courses of lectures. 

Eden Dale Sutton Reference Library — In 1866 Mrs. Eliza Sutton 
fitted up a room in the rear of the Lecture Hall and founded, by en- 
dowment, a special Reference Library, in memory of her son, Eben 
Dale Sutton. This room is beautifully finished, with black walnut 
cases and drawers for books, and luxuriously furnished. Only books 
of reference and art books are purchased. 

The choicest book in the library, which now contains 4,669 vol- 
umes, is a copy of Audubon's "Birds of North America," the elephant 
folio edition, in four volumes. No other town or city outside the big 



564 ESSEX COUNTY 

city libraries like Boston or Springfield can boast of such a large 
special reference library. 

The Washington Street Methodist Episcopal Church of Peabody 
was organized in 1830, and now has a membership of 355, with a 
Sunday school attendance of about 400, pupils and teachers. The 
present superintendent is W. H. Kimball. The congregation is still 
worshiping in a wooden building, valued at about $4,300. 

It will be well to briefly review the early beginnings of this 
church. In July, 1830, Amos Walton established a prayer meeting 
and Sunday school at Rockville (then known as Harmony Village), 
In connection with the South Street Methodist Church in Lynn. In 
1832 meetings were held in Sanger's Hall, and at the Armory some- 
times. The leader was Alfred N. Chamberlain; he rented the hall 
and managed the affairs largely himself. During the first three 
years seventeen different ministers served this flock of Methodists. In 
about three years a class was formed and the Lynn Common took 
charge of the same. In 1839 Amos Walton began preaching, and in 
July, 1840, he was appointed to this charge. The class then num- 
bered twenty-three, and a Sunday school was organized that year. 
While worshiping in the AiTnory Hall, a building formerly used as a 
pottery was purchased, fitted up, and dedicated. Plans were proposed 
for a new house and part of the material purchased. This was in 
1843, at the time the South Society was about building a new house 
of worship, and the Methodists bought their old church building 
erected in 1836. They paid $2,500. The building was moved from 
the square to its present place, near the comer of Washington and 
Sewall streets; the Lexington Monument had to be removed for the 
time being in order to get the structure through the street. The 
following year $700 were expended in placing vestries beneath the 
church, proper. Hard times came on and the mortgage given by the 
Methodist church could not be met, and Timothy Walton paid it off, 
took the property in his own name, and rented it for a reasonable sum 
to the society. In 1853, during the pastorate of William Gordon, a 
board of ti-ustees was organized according to law, under the name of 
the First Methodist Episcopal Church of Danvers. At this time the 
society purchased the church property from Mr. Walton on liberal 
terms. The following is a list of the various pastors who have 
served here: 

Amos Walton, 1839-40; Daniel Webb, 1841; H. G. Barras, 1842; 
Amos Binney, 1843; Reuben Ransom, 1844; I. J. P. Colyer, 1845-46; 
Z. A. Mudge, 1847; Thomas Street, 1848-49; O. S. Howe, 1850; W. 
C. High, 1851-52 ; William Gordon, 1853 ; A. E. Manning, 1855 ; George 
Sunderland, 1856-57; H. C. Dunham, 1858; E. S. Best, 1859-60; F. 
Furber, 1861; M. Dwight, 1862-63; S. B. Knowles, 1867-68; Rev. 
Leonard, 1869; Albert Gould, 1870-71; F. F. George, 1873-74; Daniel 
Wait, 1875-6-7; V. M. Simmons, 1878-79; Daniel Steele, 1880-2; C. N. 



CITY OF PEABODY 565 

Smith, 1883-85; George A. Phinney, 1886-88; Wm. P. Ray, 1889-91; 
Joseph Rand Wood, 1892-94; C. H. Stackpole, 1894-98; Charles H. 
Blackett, 1898-1900; George H. Chenney, 1900-02; Jerome Wood, 
1902-5; Arthur Bomier, 1905-1907; James W. Higgens, 1908-10; John 
R. Chaffee, 1911-12; R. Pierce, 1913-16; B. W. Rust, 1916-17; I. F. 
Lusk, 1918-21. 

St. Paul's Parish, Episcopal, was organized in 1875, and now has 
a total membership of 600; the number attached to the Sunday school 
is 110; the superintendent is Dr. Beal, the Rector. The rectors have 
served in the following order: Revs. George Walker, 1875-88; Joseph 
M. Hobbs, 1888-91 ; Frederick Pember, 1891-92 ; Abel Millard, 1892-97 ; 
Franklin W. Bartlett, D. D., 1898- ; Welles M. Partridge, 1900-06; 
Edmund J. Cleveland, 1906-08; Allen Green, 1908-18; Rev. Francis 
L. Beal, Ph.D., D.D., LL.D., Litt.D., 1918, and still ser\ing the parish 
acceptably. 

The first church, a wooden structure, was opened in February, 
1876. The present beautiful brick church on Washington street had 
its comer-stone laid in 1913 and the structure was ready and open 
for worship in April, 1914. It was consecrated June 30, 1918. A 
rectory was built in 1910. The value of the church, including organ, 
altar, etc., is $60,000. The value of the rectory is $8,000. In 
1920 a bequest from Grant Walker was made of $5,000, the income 
of which is to be used for repairs on parish buildings. 

St. John's Finnish Evangelical Church, one of the most recent 
church societies, was formed January 18, 1904, with eight charter 
members. The present total membership is 299; the parochial school 
in connection with this church has a scholarship of about sixty. A 
wooden superstructure, upon a concrete base, was provided in 1915 
at a cost of $5,000. The pastors of this young church have been 
Revs. Gabriel Lipsanen and S. H. Ronka. 

The South Congregational Church, organized in 1713, was set up 
from the original church in Salem. Its charter members were all 
identified with that church and continued as such while maintaining 
separate services until their enterprise was established by regular 
procedure. The present membership is 300, and the number in the 
Sunday school is about the same. The present (1921) superintendent 
is George W. Abbott. 

The first meeting-house was erected in 1710, and taken down in 
1736; the second building was erected in 1836, and in 1843 was sold to 
the Methodists ; the third, built in 1843, was burned before it had been 
used, in the fire of September 22, 1843; the fourth meeting-house was 
erected in 1844. 

The subjoined is a list of the various pastors in this church: 
Revs. Benjamin Prescott, 1713-56; Nathan Holt, 1759-92; Samuel 
Mead, 1794-1803; Samuel Walker, 1805-26; George Cowles, 1827-36; 
Harrison G. Park, 1837-38; Thomas P. Field, 1840-50; James D. 



566 ESSEX COUNTY 

Butler, 1851-52; James O. Murray, 1854-61; William N. Barbour, 
1861-68; George N. Anthony, 1869-76; Willard G. Sperry, 1878-86; 
George A. Hall, 1886-1906; Will Arthur Dietrick, 1906-11; Newell 
C. Maynard, 1912-13; Jason G. Miller, 1914-20; John Reid, present 
pastor. 

The West Congregational Church was organized in 1883 and had 
for charter members the following persons, possibly a few others: 
On confession of faith — L. Augustus Cross, Joel L. Southwick, Daniel 
A. Sheen, Jennie H. Danforth, M. Louise Danforth, Ruth S. Mugford, 
Rebecca P. Goodale, Matilda M. Felt. By letter— Arthur W. Felt, in 
Sunday school for thirty years, Lizzie E. Felt, M. A. Southwick, Mary 
A. Mugford, Henry A. Russell, Eliza A. Russell, Mary E. Kennedy. 

The present membership is 67, and a Sunday school scholar- 
ship of about 129; Deacon Edward E. White is superintendent. In 
1885 a frame building was erected at an estimated cost of $3,000. 
Prior to that, services were held in a hall and in the schoolhouse. 
The pastors have been as follows: Revs. John W. Colwell, February 
1, 1881, when there was no church congregation, to June 5, 1887; 
Israel Ainsworth, 1887-91; Frederick A. Holden, 1892-95; James A. 
Anderson, 1895-98; Owen E. Hardy, 1899-1904; Warren L. Noyes, 
1905-09; James J. Goodacre, 1909-16; Charles W. Sremway, 1916-17. 
(Student pastors) Stanley Marple, 1918; Fred D. Gealy, 1918-20; 
Gordon C. Shedd, 1921. 

St. John's Catholic Church in Peabody was formed in 1871, and 
now has a membership of 7,000. Prior to 1850 there were very few 
of the Catholic faith in town, and until 1871 the Catholics at South 
Danvers and Peabody worshiped at St. James Church, on Federal 
street, Salem. In 1868, Rev. John J. Gray, pastor of St. James 
Church, started to form a church in Peabody. In May, 1870, a fair 
was held in Mechanics' Hall, Salem, and as a result over $7,000 was 
raised toward building a church. That is the commencement of real 
Catholic work in Peabody. The first services in this structure were 
held in the basement, Christmas Day, 1871. The church was not 
completed until 1879. It is indeed a beautiful church. The first 
cost was about $120,000. This building has fifteen large expensive 
paintings between the windows, representing the Stations of the Cross. 
The altars of white marble are elaborate affairs. The original audi- 
torium seated twelve hundred persons. A parochial school has a 
present attendance of about 744, instructed by twenty Sisters, of 
Notre Dame. Seventy girls are in the high school. The school 
building is of brick, and cost $125,000. The parochial residence is 
also a fine brick building. The pastors have included: Revs. Michael 
J. Masterson, Nicholas Murphy and Thomas P. McGewn, the latter, 
the present pastor, is assisted by three other priests. There are other 
churches as follows, but no data was furnished concerning their organiza- 
tion : The Baptist, the Universalist, the First Unitarian. 






^^z^.. 



%>o, '7 




ABOVE, TABLET ROCK, GLOUCESTER; BELOW, THE TABLET ON THE ROCK 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 
THE CITY OF GLOUCESTER. 

The present city of Gloucester had a population of 23,000 in 
1920; was first settled in 1623; incorporated as a city in 1873; re- 
vised charter in effect January 1, 1909. It is the largest fishing port 
in the world today! 

In the preparation of this sketch of the ancient town of Gloucester, 
the writer has made use of two former and ever-credited historical 
works— the one by the Rev. R. Eddy, published with other towns 
and cities of Essex county, in 1887, and that compiled by the resi- 
dent, John J. Babson, published in 1860. Of course in the present 
work, the two former histories form the base and early history of 
Gloucester; but to the former interesting and valuable annals has 
been added eveiy feature necessary to make an up-to-date history of 
the present thriving city of world-wide fame as a fishing port, and of 
more recent years a charming ocean resort for summer residents. 

Originally, Gloucester included in its tenitory what is now styled 
Rockport, and the whole area formed Cape Ann. Its northern bound- 
ary was Ipswich Bay, its eastern the Atlantic Ocean, its southern 
Massachusetts Bay, and its western the towns of Essex and Man- 
chester. It was from four and five miles in width by nine miles in 
length. 

It is more than likely that the pei-manent settlement of Gloucester 
was effected in the autumn of 1631. At least, tradition says that Abraham 
Robinson, a son of the old pastor of the Pilgrims at Leyden, Rev. John 
Robinson, came with his mother and her family to Plymouth in 1630. 
The following year Robinson and a few more sailed over from Plym- 
outh, and, landing at Annisquam, v/ere so well satisfied with the 
countiy, as it seemed good for the ocean fishing business, that they 
set up a fishing stage, and made preparation for the accommodation 
of their families. There may be some doubt as to the paternity of 
Abraham Robinson, as no such name occurs in any list of children of 
the Rev. John Robinson, but that a person of that name settled on 
the Cape, about 1631, there is little doubt. The Rev. Eli Forbes in a 
sermon given in the First Church or meeting-house, in 1792, quoted 
from what he called an ''ancient manuscript," v/hich is unfortunately 
lost, that there were settlers on the Cape as early as 1633, who "met 
and carried on the worship of God among themselves, read the word of 
God, prayed to Him, and sung Psalms." We may therefore take the 
last mentioned date as fixing the time for permanent settlement. 

At a General Court, says one v/riter, in 1641, the deputy governor 
(Mr. Endicott) and Messrs. Downing and Hathorne, deputies from 
Salem, were appointed commissioners, to view and settle the boundaries 



568 ESSEX COUNTY 

of Ipswich, Cape Ann and Jeffries' Creek (now Manchester) ; and to 
dispose of all lands and other things at Cape Ann. The commissioners 
subsequently appointed the following-named eight men to manage 
the affairs of the plantation for 1642: William Stevens, Mr. Sadler, 
Obediah Bruen, George Norton, William Addes, Thomas Milward, Mr. 
Fryer and Walter Tybott. They probably had charge of all affairs, 
although most of the orders issued by them relate to highways, trees 
and timber. How many people were then residing on the Cape it is 
impossible to say. But about this time a large and influential addition 
was made to the population by the coming of Rev. Richard Blynman, 
with several families, from Plymouth. In May, 1642, the settlement 
was incorporated by the simple form then employed, and called Glouces- 
ter, from Gloucester in England, the native place of several of the 
settlers. How many came with Rev. Blynman cannot be ascertained, 
as no discrimination is made in the town records between the earliest 
and later inhabitants. Mr. Babson gives the following list of persons 
who are believed to comprise all known to have been residents or pro- 
prietors of the soil from 1633 to the close of 1650: 

William Addes, Christopher Avery, James Avery, William Ash, 
Thomas Ashley, Isabelle Babson, James Babson, Alexander Baker, 
Richard Beeford, George Blake, Richard Blynman, Obediah Bruen, 
John Bourne, Thomas Bray, Hugh Brown, William Brown, Hugh 
Calkin, Thomas Chase, Mr. Clark, Mathew Coe, John Collins, Thomas 
Cornish, John Coit, Sr., John Coit, Jr., William Cotton, Clement Coldan, 
Anthony Day, William Dudbridge, Osman Dutch, William Evans, 
Robert Elwell, Sylvester Evelyth, Henry Felch, Mr. Fryer, James 
Fogg, John Gallop, Charles Glover, Stephen Glover, William Haskell, 
John Holgrave, William Hough, Zebulon Hill, Samuel Haieward, 
George Ingersoll, Thomas Jones, Thomas Judkin, William Kenie, John 
Kettle, Nicholas Liston, Andrew Lister, John Luther, Solomon Martin, 
William Meades, Thomas Milward, George Norton, Ralph Parker, John 
Pearse, Captain Perkins, Thomas Prince, Hugh Pritchard, Phenis 
Rider, Abraham Robinson, Edward Rouse, Mr. Sadler, Robert Sadler, 
William Sargent, Thomas Skellin, James Smith, Thomas Smith, Mor- 
ris Somes, William Southmeade, William Stevens, Stephen Streeter, 
John Studley, Walter Tyddot, Thomas Very, William Vinson, Thomas 
Wakley, John Walkey, Henry Walker, William Wellman, Philip 
Youdall. 

Two-thirds of these eighty-two subsequently emigrated to other 
places, but the remainder continued to be citizens of Gloucester. Mr. 
Babson estimated in 1860 that not more than ten of this number had 
descendants in this community at that date. 

While there are no records to prove it, people posted in early 
immigration to these parts believe that Felch, Streeter, Thomas Smith, 
Baker and Cotton were in Gloucester before the town's incorporation, 
and were located at Done Fudging. Also the following were here 
about the same date: Ashley, Milward, Luther, Liston. Of the whole 



THE NEW YORK "^ 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

ASTOR, X.E1VOX 
TTLDEN FOUNDATIONS 




^a««l«£^^' 




ABOVE, FIRST TOWN HALL, FORBES SCHOOL, GLOUCESTER. BELOW, 

HIGH SCHOOL 



CITY OF GLOUCESTER 569 

number here prior to 1651, about thirty had their habitations at the 
Harbor Cove; five had lots in Vinson's Cove; three resided on Dun- 
can's Point, between the two Coves; and two lived on the south-east 
side of Governor's Hill. About forty of the pioneers named had houses 
on the "neck of house lots," by which they designated the land stretch- 
ing north from Governor's Hill, and between the two rivers, Mill and 
Annisquam. Having now fairly well established the dates and names 
of pioneer settlements, no more space will be devoted to this subject, 
but the rather the writer will proceed with the developments of sub- 
sequent years. 

Population of Gloucester, by estimate: 1704, 700; 1755, 2,745; 
1765, Colonial census, 3,768; 1775, estimated, 4,945; 1790, by United 
States census: 5,317; 1800, 5,313; 1810, 5,943; 1820, 6,384; 1830, 
7,510; 1840, 6,350; 1850, 7,786; 1860, 10,904; 1870, 15,389; 1880, 
19,329; 1900, 26,121; 1910, 24,398; 1920, 22,947. 

The great decrease in population in 1840 may be accounted for 
by the fact that 2,640 residents of this territory were set off to the 
town of Rockport. The division was brought before the town meet- 
ing in 1818, and failed; it was attempted again in 1827, and again 
failed. The act of the incorporation of Rockport passed both branches 
of the legislature, and received the final approval by the signature of 
the governor, February 27, 1840. 

In May, 1871, by a vote of 261 to 82, the measure to petition the 
legislature for a city charter was carried and the petition granted. 
The charter was submitted to the people of the town in the summer 
of the same year, but was rejected; yeas, 249; nays, 477. A second 
attempt at getting a charter followed from a special meeting held 
February 20, 1873, when the vote stood 394, against 48 for no charter. 
The legislature granted a city charter May 15th and it was accepted 
by 689 yeas, against 353 nays. The city government went into oper- 
ation January 1, 1874, with Hon. Robert R. Fears as mayor. He 
served two years, and following him came Messrs. Allan Rogers, J. 
Franklin Dyer, M. D. ; William Williams, William H. Wonson, Dr. 
Joseph Garland, John S. Parsons, and David I. Robinson, who was 
still mayor in 1887. John J. Som^es was elected clerk in 1874 and 
served until recently, making a very efficient officer for the city 
throughout all these years. 

The present city officials are inclusive of the following: 

Mayor, Percy W. Wheeler; Aldermen — Asa G. Andrews, Fitz E. 
Oakes, A. A. Silva, Frank W. Lothrop; City Clerk, Allen F. Grant; 
City Treasurer, Edward Dolliver; Tax Collector, Richard L. Morey; 
City Auditor, Daniel O. Marshall; City Solicitor, M. Francis Buckley; 
City Marshal, Daniel M. Casey; City Physician, Philip W. Rowley; 
Superintendent of Streets, Charles H. Barrett; City Engineer, John H. 
Griffin; City Messenger, Samuel H. Rogers; Night Watchman at City 
Hall, Walter J. Kendall. 



670 ESSEX COUNTY 

The mayor had this to say in the annual report of the city in 1921 : 

In 1923 Gloucester will observe its most important tercentenary anniversary. 
I have referred to this elsewhere, but at this time I may briefly say that among 
the big events of that occasion might properly come the dedication of our 
Memorial Building. 

It is not out of place at this time to refer to the three important anniver- 
saries which are to be celebrated in this city the present year. I refer to the 
one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the installation of Tyrian Lodge of 
Masons, and the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the 
Universalist church; also the seventy-fifth anniversary of Ocean Lodge, No. 91, 
Independent Order of Odd Fellowship. I am sure the city will gladly co-operate 
in whatever way it can, that these anniversaries shall be events worthy of 
Gloucester. 

In 1923 Gloucester will celebrate the three hundredth anniversary of its 
settlement. It is a most important anniversary, the most important since the 
celebration at Plymouth and Providence the present year. It is none too early 
to consider what shall be done to fittingly observe so important an event. 
A celebration such as Gloucester ought to have cannot be accomplished at short 
notice. There will be need of legislative action. The state itself will be asked 
to co-operate; for it was here in Gloucester that the Massachusetts Bay Colony 
was founded. I am deeply interested in this, and shall take occasion to refer 
to it later, that the initial steps shall be taken before the end of the present 
year. 

January 1, 1920, the harbor master at Gloucester, Captain Alfred 
Spurr, reported as follows: "Vessels ordered from channels, 62; vessels 
removed from channels, 26; sunken crafts removed from channels, 3; 
telephone calls for harbor master, 52," 

The Sawyer Free Public Library originated in or rather succeeded 
to the old Gloucester Lyceum of 1830. The last-named society was 
in existence many years, and had struggles of its own which will not 
add to the interest of this work. The present library resulted directly 
from an offer made by Samuel E. Sawyer, of Boston, who was a native 
of Gloucester; the offer, however, was not accepted. After four years 
had elapsed, he made another offer to the town, that he would donate 
two hundred and fifty dollars toward the founding of a public libraiy. 
This v/as in 1854, but matters still dragged financially, and soon Mr. 
Sawyer offered to give the sum of $1,000, on certain conditions. It 
was then that the old Lyceum offered to turn over its 1,400 books to 
a new society, which offer was taken up and a library was opened in 
the parlor of G. L. Low, at the corner of Spring and Duncan streets. 
This was really a circulating library, each member paying one dollar 
per year. To this Mr. Sawyer donated $250. In 1863 the library was 
moved to Front street, at No. 135, where it grew to considerable im- 
portance, but the fire of February 18, 1864, destroyed all save three 
hundred of the 3,000 books that had been collected; $1,500 insurance 
was collected. Again Mr. Sawyer came to the rescue of the library 
with a donation of $500, and May 7 of the same year another library 
was thrown open in the vestry of the Baptist church in Middle street. 





ABOVE, CITY HALL, GLOUCESTER. BELOW, SAWYER FREE LIBRARY 



CITY OF GLOUCESTER 571 

where it remained until the building of the Babson block, when it re- 
turned to its old home on Front street. The ladies of Gloucester strug- 
gled long and faithfully to keep alive the public library. In April, 
1871, a gift was announced from Samuel Sawyer, in the sum of $10,000, 
after which Gloucester was to have a truly high-class public free library. 
Thus the Lyceum of 1830, with the library of 1854, became a corpora- 
tion, under the name of the ''Gloucester Lyceum and Free Library," a 
library "free forever" to the inhabitants of Gloucester. But greater 
library facilities were in store for the city. Febi-uary 1, 1884, Samuel E. 
Sawyer purchased from William A. Pew, for $20,000, a spacious and 
beautiful residence, comer of Middle street and Dale avenue, where the 
library has ever since had a home. Later, Mr. Sawyer (seeming never to 
forget his native place), spent many thousands in beautifying the 
gi'ounds and improving the building; he also made a collection of fine 
paintings and presented the same to decorate the walls of the library. 
This library was dedicated with appropriate ceremony, July 1, 1884, 
when Mr. Sawyer presented the property to the city, also an endowment 
of $20,000. The result has been the making of one of the finest public 
libraries within the gi'eat Commonv/ealth of Massachusetts. 

Of the origin of this old estate, it should be added that it was erected 
in 1764 for Thomas Saunders, a leading citizen and a merchant, who 
took great pains to build well and worthily. He selected mostly oak, 
elm and chestnut woods for the building material. It was "raised" on 
July 10, 1764. The next owner was John Beach, succeeded in turn by 
Messrs. Samuel Calder, Thomas W. Penhollow, Dr. William Ferson, the 
last change being in 1827 ; in 1849 Mrs. Davidson became its owner and 
she bequeathed it to her son, Dr. Hennan E. Davidson. In 1878 it be- 
came the estate of William A. Pew. The building is now one hundred 
and fifty-seven years old. In 1884 the property was valued at $40,000. 

The library in the spring of 1921 had a total of 23,522 volumes; 
twelve regular daily newspapers are on file and seventy-three periodicals. 
The last year's circulation was 87,467. The present eflficient librarian is 
Rachel S. Webber, v/ho has been librarian for many years. 

The Gloucester Chamber of Commerce, organized in August, 1921, 
with a membership of over 700, including both men and women, is the 
outgrowth of the Gloucester Board of Trade, which was first organized in 
March, 1866, having an original membership of 65 men, most of whom 
were closely connected with the fishing industiy. It continued to be an 
active organization for about fifteen years, when the interest waned, and 
for a number of years it was inactive, although still maintaining its or- 
ganization. It was reorganized in 1888, enlarging the scope of its activ- 
ities, and continued a live organization till it became merged in the pres- 
ent organization. In 1898 the retail dealers of the town together with 
other business industries organized a Business Men's Association, with 
a substantial membership, which existed until July, 1912, when it united 
with the older organization. 



572 ESSEX COUNTY 

The late Directory of the sprightly city of Gloucester gives the fol- 
lowing list of companies now in operation, many of which are old, well- 
established concerns. The figures show year of organization and capital. 

American Halibut Co., 1895; $25,000. A. Smith, president; $2,500,000. 

Atlantic Maritime Co. Henderson & Johnson Paint Co., $20,- 

Atwood & Payne Co., 1909; wholesale 000. 

fish house; $10,000. Frank C. Pearce Fisheries Co., 1918; 

Cape Ann Anchor & Forge Co., 1866; $500,000. 

$150,000. Perkins Box Co., 1918; $40,000. 

Cape Ann Cold Storage Co., 1914; Rockport Granite Co., 1864; $300,000. 

$24,000. Rockport Isinglass Co., 1905; $20,000. 

Cape Pond Ice Co., 1902; $175,000. Rogers Isinglass-Glue Co. 

Crown Packing Co., 1909; $10,000. Rowe Bed Hammock Co., 1917; $50,- 

Fishermen Net & Twine Co., 1915. 000. 

Gloucester Cold Storage & Warehouse Russia Cement Co., 1882; $500,000. 

Co., 1905; $100,000. Success Manufacturing Co., 1906; 

Gloucester Electric Co., 1888; $314,- $100,000. 

000. The Eastern Enameling Company, 

Gloucester Gas Light Company, 1854; porcelain work, in which factory are pre 

$210,000. duced immense quantities of enamel 

Gloucester Net & Twine Co., 1907; sheets, sold to stove and refrigerator 
$300,000. makers. This plant is under the man- 
Gloucester Salt Fish Co., 1907; $30,- agement of Thomas B. Bolger. The 
000. original building was sixty by ninety 

Gloucester Times Co., 1908; $50,000. feet. Special machinery had to be in- 

Gorton-Pew Fisheries Co., Benjamin stalled in this factory. 

The author is indebted to the writings of Captain Fitz J. Babson, of 
Gloucester, for many facts herein contained concerning early fisheries in 
this vicinity. For two hundred and eighty years, the fisheries have been 
the main business of Gloucester. Long before the settlement of Ply- 
mouth, the vessels of France and England had fished on the Grand Banks 
and along the coasts of Massachusetts. The French were beyond ques- 
tion the pioneers in the cod-fisheries of the Western Atlantic, and in the 
early part of the sixteenth century the Basques, Normans, Spaniards and 
Portuguese had fifty ships on the Grand Banks. In 1577 the French 
had one hundred and fifty vessels employed in American fisheries. The 
settlement of Gloucester, as just noted, was attempted at what is called 
Stage Fort — the name ''stage" denoting that the locality was used for 
landing fish from the vessels of the Dorchester Company, of England. 
The cod-fishery constituted at that time and for many years later the 
only branch of the business pursued ; and while many other kinds of fish 
had been discovered and their pursuit and capture necessitated the use 
of a variety of methods, making each peculiar fishery a distinct business, 
still the cod-fishery remains the one great source of the supply of fish 
food. 

The fisheries of Gloucester, chiefly pursued upon the Ocean Banks, 
and employing vessels from twenty to one hundred and fifty tons bur- 
den, comprise cod, halibut, hake, haddock, and cusk. The mackerel are 



CITY OF GLOUCESTER 573 

now largely a deep water fish, as are the menhaden. The hemng fisher- 
ies employ vessels, although it principally is a coast fishery. Most of 
these fish are taken on the banks lying between the Gulf Stream and the 
shores of North America. The shore fisheries employ smaller vessels 
and boats, and also include the trap and net fisheries, and extend from the 
shore some twenty miles. The most important and prolific fishing 
gi-ound for Gloucester vessels is St. George's Bank, lying one hundred 
and twenty miles southeast from the Cape, forming one of the inner 
banks of the Gulf Stream, in that long succession of fishing banks extend- 
ing from Hatteras to Newfoundland. The fish taken upon this bank are 
of a superior quality, and bring a much larger price in the market than 
fish from other localities. The nearest land is Cape Cod, 95 miles; 
Brown's Bank, 45 miles from Cape Sable ; La Have Bank, 60 miles from 
Nova Scotia; Western Banks, 80 miles from Nova Scotia; St. Peter's 
Bank, 75 miles from Newfoundland; Green Bank, 70 miles from New- 
foundland; Grand Bank, 90 miles from Newfoundland; Flemish Cape, 
300 miles from Newfoundland — are all resorted to by vessels from Glou- 
cester for codfish and halibut. 

None of these fisheries are under the jurisdiction of any nation; 
their area, according to United State reports, is 73.123 geographical 
square miles. During 1886 there were employed in cod and halibut 
fisheries on the New England coast 283 vessels from Gloucester, aver- 
aging sixty tons each; total tonnage 15,649; aggregate crew, 4,117 men. 
They took and landed at Gloucester 54,048,484 pounds of codfish, 11,886,- 
135 pounds of halibut, 3,983,978 pounds of other gi-ound fish, and 29,000 
barrels of fish oil. The extent of the ocean mackerel fishing grounds is 
over seventy thousand square miles. The mackerel fishing grounds of 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence, from which American vessels are excluded, 
comprise about 775 square miles, or about one per cent, of the entire 
mackerel fishery area. 

Along the line of Gloucester's chief industry, the following figures 
have been collected on recent year operations of the great fishing com- 
panies of the city: In 1916 the United States custom house books 
showed that 128 fishing vessels were enrolled here, carrying 2,400 men ; 
vessels carried from twenty ton upwards. Eighty-eight vessels carried 
500 men. The greatest number of men thus engaged was 3,000 and 
the gross tonnage was 15,135. The value of codfish taken by fishermen 
from this port since 1623, when the industry commenced on the Atlantic 
shores, has been fixed at $500,000,000. In 1915 Gloucester vessels landed 
120,000,000 pounds of all kinds of fish — fresh and salted — the value of 
which was over $3,276,000. The same year (1915) Gloucester mackerel 
vessels took in 50,000 barrels, equal to $800,000. 

Sad, indeed, it is to state that all this ocean wealth has cost many a 
precious human life. Since 1830, eight hundred and seven vessels have 
been lost, vdth a financial loss of $4,400,000 ; while in the last century it 



574 ESSEX COUNTY 

is known that 4,534 men, fisheiTnen sailing from Gloucester, have been 
sacrificed beneath the angry waves, or an average of fifty-three each year. 
As one example, this list of accidents for one boat, the "Joseph P. Mes- 
quita," schooner, will tell the sad story of many others, this one being 
the losses in 1917: Gross tonnage of boat, 122; net tonnage, 78; fishery 
haddock ; value $18,000 ; insurance $15,000. Men lost as follows : Wash- 
ed or knocked overboard from vessel, 6; lost by vessel foundering, 7; 
died on vessel or in hospital, 8 ; went astray in fog, 1 ; fell into hold of 
vessel, 1 ; fell overboard from vessel, 3, 

The following statistics concerning Gloucester are of value : Settled, 
1623 ; incorporated a town, 1642 ; incorporated a city, 1873 ; area in acres, 
34.540; length in miles, 9; width in miles, 6; population in 1704, 700; 
population in 1920, 22,947 ; assessed polls in 1918, 7,084 ; exempted polls, 
624; registered male voters, 1918, 5,002; registered female voters, 1918, 
428; valuation in 1873, $7,711,096; valuation in 1918, $26,343,826; rate 
of taxation, $23.20; miles of public streets, 100; first schoolhouse built, 
1708 ; old Town Hall built, 1844 ; second Town Hall built, 1866 ; destroyed 
by fire, 1869; present City Hall built, 1869; first horse railroad, 1885; 
first steam cars, 1847 ; first steam cars to Rockport, 1861 ; Rockport set 
oflf from Gloucester, 1840. 

Within the last quarter of a century, the number of summer resi- 
ddents in Gloucester and its immediate environments has been steadily in- 
creasing. Many scores of beautiful residences hard by the ocean have 
been erected within recent years to accommodate these semi-resident 
citizens. Many of the more wealthy, cultured people from Boston and 
other eastern cities come here for the heated term, and enjoy the climate 
so well that they return with each recurring season, as the summer re- 
sorts open. The town records show that the assessed valuation of these 
residences was in the year 1916, $7,000,000. There were at that date 
nine hundred distinct summer houses, with generally five thousand 
boarders. 

The following with regard to the Custom House is contributed : 

A custom house was established in Gloucester by the United States 
government in 1789. Previous to that time the port had been annexed 
to the Salem district, having been made one of the lawful ports of entry 
as early as 1683. While the early maritime business of the town was 
confined principally to the fisheries, the inhabitants have at various 
times in the past engaged extensively in coastwise and foreign commerce, 
but it is probable that the duties of the customs officials were connected 
with imports rather than exports in the early years. 

It is further probable that the beginning of the coastwise trade 
was during the last quarter of the seventeenth century, when the division 
of the woodland of the to'WTi enabled the inhabitants to cut large quan- 
tities of wood for sale. In 1706 no less than fifty sloops were engaged 
in transporting wood to Boston, but this business was of necessity not 



CITY OF GLOUCESTER 575 

of long duration. The commerce of Gloucester grew directly out of its 
fisheries, but as to the time when the foreign and coastwise trade of the 
town commenced, no particulars are known. The earliest item of record 
in relation to the subject is the seizure here by the collector of Salem of 
the brig "Snow Esther," in 1725. 

As early as 1732 a trade had begun with the Southern Colonies, 
which was continued up to about the beginning of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. The foreign commerce, which was also for many years after its 
origin carried on with the fishing vessels, was of inconsiderable extent 
till about 1750, when voyages were made to the West Indies, Bilboa and 
London. The West Indies cargoes consisted of fish and other pro- 
visions, for which sugar, molasses, rum and coffee were returned, while 
to Europe little was sent except fish, the proceeds of which came back in 
salt, wine and specie. Both the coastwise and foreign commerce came 
to a temporary cessation with the breaking out of the Revolutionary War. 
The voyages to the Southern Colonies were made in the winter season, 
when there was no employment for vessels or men in fishing, and the 
business was conducted in a manner now little practiced in any part of 
the world. In most if not in all cases, no wages were paid the master 
and crew, but in lieu thereof each was given the privilege of bringing 
home a certain amount of southern produce. They were probably allow- 
ed to take out fish on private adventure, as in the few invoices preserved 
this article does not appear among the shipments made by the owners, 
the principal items being salt, rum, sugar and molasses, also ironware, 
woodenware, hats, caps, cloth for breeches, handkerchiefs and stockings. 
On these voyages the rivers, creeks and inlets of Maryland, Virginia and 
North Carolina were visited, where the cargoes were bartered in small 
quantities for corn, beans, live hogs and other products of the country. 
The business was not always reputably conducted, according to tradi- 
tion, for sometimes exchanges were made v»ath the slaves for stolen 
property, and often a demand for different kinds of rum were supplied 
from the same cask. Such proceedings, combined v/ith the complaints 
of the retail dealers whose business was affected by this commerce, prob- 
ably led to the legislative enactment which is said to have been respon- 
sible for its abandonment. 

The acts of Parliament for regulating the trade of the Colonies are 
said to have been generally disregarded, and smuggling, at which some 
of the revenue officers are reputed to have connived, was common. No 
officer of the customs is known to have resided here till after the com- 
mencement by England of the series of measures which resulted in the 
Revolutionary War, but officers were sent here from Salem when the 
occasion required. On one occasion a brig belonging to Colonel Joseph 
Foster arrived from a foreign port with a valuable cargo during the 
night, and according to custom the hatches were immediately opened 
and the landing of the cargo commenced, the owner himself assisting. 
A considerable part had been landed and stored before daylight, but 
more than half was still on board, and a tide-waiter was expected from 
Salem early in the m.oming. A watch house had been erected at the 
Cut, where John McKean, a stout Irishman, had been employed in time 
of alarm about the small pox to stop all strangers and subject them to a 
fumigating process before they could enter the town. At the suggestion 
of Col. Foster, when the customs official arrived, he was ushered into the 
watch house and kept till after dark, when he was released, purified from 
all infectious diseases, so far as a thorough smoking could do it, but in 



576 ESSEX COUNTY 

the meantime the balance of the cargo had been placed in secure quar- 
ters. 

With the attempt for a rigid enforcement of the revenue acts, com- 
missioners of the customs were sent over from England, to whom was 
delegated the appointment of local officials to enforce the provisions of 
the act. The first person to be so employed in Gloucester was Samuel 
Fellows, who rendered himself so obnoxious to his fell'ow-townsmen that 
one night in September, 1768, a mob of about seventy persons, headed by 
several respectable citizens, proceeded one night to the house of Jesse Sa- 
ville, where it was suspected he was concealed. They thoroughly search- 
ed the building in pursuit of him, showing much violence m their be- 
havior and a determination to deal severely with him if found. He 
sought safety, however, in flight, and the anger of the mob was vented 
on Mr. Saville and his family, the former being knocked down while de- 
fending his home, while a servant was threatened by Dr. Rogers, forceps 
in hand, with the loss of all his teeth unless he told where Fellows was. 
One or two of the party were haled into couit and fined for their share 
in the offence, one being confined in jail several months for the non-pay- 
ment of a fine of five pounds, but was finally released by the Governor, 
who remitted the fine. 

The merchants continued to land their goods in defiance of the 
customs regulations, and Mr. Saville, not intimidated by the scene which 
took place at his house, accepted a position in the revenue service. The 
zeal with which he performed his duty, however, brought upon him the 
vengeance of some of his fellow-townsmen. On the night of March 23, 
1770, he was dragged from his bed in an inhuman manner by a party of 
men disguised and negroes and Indians, and taken a distance of about 
four miles to the Harbor, where he was subjected to various indignities, 
but was finally allowed to return home. The outrage caused consider- 
able feeling in the town, and it was called to, the attention of the Gover- 
nor, who presented it to the general' court. The grievance found little 
sympathy or redress from the representatives of the people in the in- 
flamed state of public opinion, although a mulatto servant of Dr. Plum- 
mer was later convicted of aiding and abetting in the assault. He was 
punished by being kept on the gallows in Salem for an hour, with a 
halter around his neck, after which he was whipped, but he refused to 
give any infoiTnation of the persons concerned with him. 

A Mr. Phillips held the office of "land-waiter, weigher and guager' 
in 1770, and in January, 1771, the commissioners appointed Richard Sil- 
vester as his successor. Although they could not fail in performing their 
duty faithfully to expose themselves to public indignation and the danger 
of personal violence, it is not recorded that either received any bodily 
injury at the hands of the people. Silvester, however, was ordered to 
leave town with his family in September, 1772. He took no further 
notice of the order than to publish an ironical card in the Boston News 
Letter, in which he "prays leave to acquaint these worthies that he can- 
not and will not comply with their request." 

In 1776 the General Court passed an act providing that in the sev- 
eral ports of the State, including Gloucester, "there shall be an office 
kept, to be called and known by the name of the naval office, for the 
purpose of entering and clearing all ships and other vessels trading to and 
from this state, to take bonds in adequate penalties for obsei-ving the 
regulations made or which shall be made by the General Congress or the 
General Assembly of the state, concerning trade, take manifests upon 



CITY OF GLOUCESTER 577 

oath of all cargoes exported or imported, and keep fair accounts and en- 
tries thereoi, give bills of health when desired, and sign certificates that 
the requisites tor qualifying vessels to trade have been complied with 
and the fees to be demanded and paid in said office shall be the follow- 
ing and no greater, that is to say : 

s. d. 

For entering any ship or vessel from any of the States 2 

For clearing any ship or vessel to any part of the State 2 

For entering any ship or vessel from any other of the United States 6 

For clearing any ship or vessel to any other of the United States.... 6 

For entering any ship or vessel from a foreign voyage 6 

For clearing any ship or vessel from a foreign voyage 6 

For a register g q 

For indorsing a register ^ n 

For recording endorsement ^ q 

For any bond 2 n 

For a certificate to cancel bond 1 

For a bill of health 2 

For a permit to unload 10 

For a cocket q o 

For a let pass 8 

Samuel Vvhittemore received the appointment of naval officer for 
Grloucester under the above act in November of that year, and was re- 
appointed annually, except during a portion of the year 1782, when the 
position was held by Samuel Gorham, until a United States custom 
house was estabjished in 1792. 

For about a quarter of a century after its establishment, the custom 
house was located at Anmsquam, and alter its removal to the Harbor 
occupied various sites, according to the convenience of the collector until 
the erection of a permanent building. The customs district included 
Gioucester, Rockport, Manchester and Essex, and continued as an in- 
dependent district until July 1, 1913, when all the customs distrtcts of 
the state were combined into a single district, known as the district of 
Massachusetts, with headquarters at Boston, each former district beino- 
under the charge of a deputy collectoi-. The collectors of customs since 
the establishment of the office have been as follows, with year of appoint- 
ment: Epes Sargent, 1789; William Tuck, 1796; John Gibaut, 1802; 
John Kittredge, 180S; William Pearce, Jr., 1822; William Beach, 1829; 
George D. Hale, 1839; George W. Pearce, 18bl ; Eben H. Stacy, 1843; 
Ell b . Stacy, 1844 ; John L. Rogers (died in office) 1849 ; Frederick G 
Low, 1850 ; William H. Manning, 1853 ; Gorham Babson, 1858 ; John S. 
Webber, 1861; William A. Pew, 1865; Fitz J. Babson, 1869; David S 
Presson, 1885 ; William A. Pew, 1889 ; Frank C. Richardson, 1895 ; Wil- 
lia27i H. Jordan, 1900; Walter F. Osborne, 1911; Albert H. McKenzie 
(deputy in charge), 1913. 

Follov/ing the close of the Revolutionary War and the establish- 
ment of a custom house, a foreign trade of considerable magnitude was 
established, which reached its zenith during the period betv/een 1820 and 
1850, Gloucster ships making voyages to all sections of the g^obe, in- 
cluding South American ports, Calcutta and Sumatra. Among the prin- 
cipal firms engaged in the foreign trade were Daniel Rogers, David 
Pearce, William Pearce & Sons and Winthrop Sargent, the latter import- 
ing 16 cargoes from foreign ports in 1827. An extensive commerce was 

Essex — 37 



578 ESSEX COUNTY 

also established with Surinam, the capital of Dutch Guiana, which reach- 
ed its highest point in 1857, when 20 barques and brigs arrived with car- 
goes valued at over $400,000. Gloucester at one time had a monopoly 
of this trade, but the business ceased to be profitable with the freeing of 
the slaves in that country, and was abandoned some three or four years 
later. 

Although the activities of the custom house officials have been con- 
fined mainly to the fisheries, at the time of the consolidation of the ofllice 
with Boston, Gloucester ranked third among the ports of Massachusetts 
in the amount of foreign imports, and was the leading port in the country 
in the importation of salt, of which nearly 40,000,000 pounds were im- 
ported in 1912. The decisions of the Gloucester customs officials on 
disputed points regarding the interpretation of the laws governing the 
fisheries have as a rule been adopted and promulgated by the Treasury 
Department, thus governing the method of procedure at other ports. 

The following history of the Gloucester Post Offices is contributed 
by the same writer as the foregoing : 

A postoffice was established in Gloucester a few years after the 
adoption of the Federal Constitution, probably in 1792, previous to which 
the mails were carried by messenger to and from Beverly, then a paii: 
of Salem and known as "Cape Ann side," the trips being made twice in 
each week. When this an-angement was started or how long it con- 
tinued is not known, and the name of only one of the messengers, John 
Oakes, has been transmitted to posterity. The place for the reception 
and delivery of the letters was at the tavern kept by Philemon Haskell, 
which was located on what is now Middle street. 

The rates of postage at the time of the establishment of the post- 
office and until 1816 were as follows: Single letters, under 40 miles, 
eight cents ; under 90 miles, ten cents ; under 150 miles, twelve and one- 
half cents; under 300 miles, seventeen cents; under 500 miles, twenty 
cents; over 500 miles, twenty-five cents. 

The first postmaster was Henry Phelps, who served from 1792 to 
1809, the office being located in the apothecary shop kept by him on 
Fore, now Main street. The postmasters who have succeeded Mr. Phelps, 
with the date of their appointment or assuming the duties of the office, 
have been as follows: Isaac Elwell, March 3, 1809; William Stevens, 
August 2, 1820; Leonard J. Presson, November 22, 1834; Gorham Par- 
sons, February 20, 1839 ; T. Sewall Lancaster, January 22, 1849 ; Octa- 
vius A. MeiTill, May 22, 1853, appointed but never qualified; Gorham 
Parsons, second appointment, August 17, 1853; John W. Wonson, June 
14, 1858; William H. Haskell, July 1, 1861; Charles E. Grover, May 6, 
1867; David W. Low, July 1, 1873; Charles C. Cressy, April 1, 1886; 
James H. Mansfield, March 31, 1890 ; Leonard J. Presson, September 1, 
1894; Charles D. Brow^i, September 1, 1898; Charles D. Smith, April 1, 
1915. 

During the terms of office of the earlier postmasters and until the 
erection of a brick building by the United States government in 1857 to 
furnish quarters for the postoflice and custom houses, the office was lo- 
cated to suit the convenience of the postmaster, and was generally at his 
regular place of business. '"Squire" Phelps, the first postmaster, who 
kept an apothecary shop and was also the local justice of the peace and 
trial justice, had the oflSce near what is now the westerly comer of Main 
and Centre streets. His successor. Captain Elwell, removed the office to 



CITY OF GLOUCESTER 579 

a room in his home on Angle street, and the third postmaster changed 
the location to a building near the westei-ly end of Front (now Main) 
street. On the appointment of Mr. Presson, the office was removed to 
the westerly comer of what is now Main and Porter streets, and when 
he was succeeded by Mr. Parsons the latter transferred its location to a 
small building a few doors westerly on Front street, this building being 
now located on Prospect street near the Defiance engine house. Mr. 
Lancaster had the office at the comer of Front and Short streets, ad- 
joining and connected with his dry goods store, and when Mr. Parsons 
was again appointed, the office was transferred to a new building occupy- 
ing the same site as during his previous term, until it was removed to its 
present location at the comer of Main (then Spring) and Pleasant streets 
in 1857. 

Through the efforts of Hon. Timothy Davis, then representing the 
district in Congress, and who was the only native of the town to be 
elected to that position, aided by other citizens, an appropriation of 
$40,000 was secured from Congress in 1855 for the erection of a building 
to be used for a postoffice and custom house, and a lot was, purchased at 
the comer of Spring and Pleasant streets. Work was begun April 17, 
1856, and it was completed in March, 1857, but was not occupied until 
the following September, It is of brick, two stories in height, 60 by 40 
feet, and as originally constructed had a separate entrance and corridor 
for ladies, the ladies' department being opened December 13, 1857, being 
discontinued after a few years. 

With the introduction of the free delivery system and especially the 
parcel post, the accommodations, already overcrowded by the increase in 
the volume of business, became so cramped that it was necessary to se- 
cure additional quarters, and an annex at the comer of Duncan and 
Rogers streets was opened July 1, 1917, which is used especially for the 
distribution of incoming mail and as quarters for the carriers. An at- 
tempt was made in 1920 by Congressman Wilfred W. Lufkin, then rep- 
resenting the district, to secure an appropriation for a new and larger 
postoffice building, but at the time of writing this sketch, favorable action 
on the matter has not been taken by Congress. 

The free carrier service was established June 1, 1883, four carriers 
being employed, and at the present time the service requires twenty- 
three regular carriers and fifteen substitutes, besides twenty-tvv^o clerks 
and seven sub-clerks in the office. A rural free deliveiy service was 
established January 1, 1903. 

The increase of business in the outskirts of the town and the incon- 
venience caused by the distance from the postoffice and lack of transpor- 
tation facilities resulted in the establishment of postoffices in other sec- 
tions of the town, the first one being in the Sandy Bay or Fifth parish in 
1825, and having at first tri-weekly sei-vice, Winthrop Pool being appoint- 
ed postmaster, who held the office till 1838, when he was succeeded by 
Henry Clark, who occupied the position in 1840 when that section of 
the town was set off as the town of Rockport. 

The residents of the Annisquam parish started a movement for a 
postoffice in that section a few years later, but although most of the fish- 
ing business of the town was at that time conducted in that village and 
the custom house was at times located there, their efforts were not suc- 
cessful until January 1, 1833, when a postoffice was established there, 
Oliver W. Sargent being appointed postmaster. Letters destined for 
Annisquam unless placed in a separate package from the Gloucester let- 



680 ESSEX COUNTY 

ters at the office from which they were sent, were subject to an addition- 
al postage of six and a quarter cents, Mr. Sargent held the office until 
1839, when he was succeeded by William W. Chard, who held the posi- 
tion till Februaiy 14, 1862, a period of over twenty years. Mr. Chard 
was followed by John D. Davis, who continued in office for over thirty 
years, Frank E. Brown being appointed to the office July 1, 1893, and 
holding the position till June 20, 1897, his successor being Charles E. 
Cunningham, who when the office was made a sub-station of the Glou- 
cester office, July 1, 1907, was made clerk in charge and has since con- 
tinued in that position. 

A postoffice was established at Lane's Cove, December 15, 1854, 
and given the name of Lanesville postoffice, the first postmaster being 
Levi Dennen, his successors being Albert Young, 1866; Levi Dennen, 
reappointed, 1872; Fitz E. Griffin, 1879, who resigned March 15, 1906, 
after twenty-seven years service, and was followed by Emerson L. Saun- 
ders, who was continued as clerk in charge when that section was added 
to the free delivery service and the office was merged with the Gloucester 
office as a sub-station, April 1, 1909. 

The West Gloucester postoffice was established January 1, 1859, 
Theophilus Herrick being appointed postmaster, who held the office till 
his death, November 29, 1863, his successor being Henry C. L. Haskell, 
who was appointed January 1, 1864, and who held the office until it was 
abolished June 30, 1903, on account of the establishment of the rural 
free delivery service in that section, with the exception of less than two 
years, Jacob W. Dennen being appointed in 1888 and resigning the fol- 
lowing year, Mr. Haskell's term of service extending nearly forty years. 

The East Gloucester postoffice was opened March 24, 1860, and was 
discontinued July 1, 1885, when the carrier service was extended to 
that section. The first postmaster was Hemy S. Wonson, who resigned 
February 20, 1868, his successors being J. Warren Wonson, 1868; H. 
Mackay Coffin, March 28, 1873, and Joseph Parsons, 1875. A contract- 
station was established at East Gloucester after the postoffice was dis- 
continued, with William Parsons (3d) as clerk in charge, his successors 
being George H. Gerrard in 1889 and E. J. Farrell in 1920. 

A postoffice was established at Riverdale, February 2, 1863, with 
Miss Lizzie Elwell as postmistress, she being the first woman in the city 
to be employed in the local postal service. The office was located in a 
room in her house, and she held the position till the office was discon- 
tinued, December 1, 1886. 

The Bay View postoffice was established at Hodgdon's Cove, April 
1, 1870, Henry H. Bennett being appointed postmaster, who resigned in 
1892, after twenty-two years sei-vice. He was succeeded by Alphonso 
Sargent, who held the position till April 1, 1909, when the office was 
consolidated with the Lanesville postoffice, which was made a substation 
as before stated. 

The village of Magnolia having come into prominence as a summer 
resoi-t, a postoffice was opened there in 1875, the first postmaster being 
Lorenzo D. Story, his successors being Mrs. Sophia J. Tuck, 1881, Arthur 
M. Lycett, 1885 ; Maggie G. Fanning, 1895 ; Mrs. Mary A. Lycett, 1897 ; 
and Fred S. Lycett, 1907, who was appointed clerk-in-charge when the 
office was made a sub-station of the Gloucester postoffice July 1 of that 
year. 

From its commercial and fishing prestige, Gloucester has five United 



CITY OF GLOUCESTER 581 

States lighthouse stations, two of which date back to Colonial and early- 
days. The most important is the Cape Ann or Thacher's Island light 
station, consisting of two stone towers each 212 feet high, with lights of 
the first class, which were erected and first lighted by the Colonial gov- 
ernment in 1771. During the Revolution, the keeper of the lights was 
forcibly removed by citizens for disloyalty to the popular feeling against 
the crown, lights remained unlighted for several years. They were 
relighted by the United States government in 1791, and have shone con- 
tinuously every night since. The present towers were erected in 1861. 
The lighthouse at Wigwam Point, Annisquam, was erected in 1901, the 
present tower being built in 1861. Ten Pound Island light was estab- 
lished in 1821 and a new tower was placed there in 1881. Eastern Point 
light was established in 1831, the present tower being built in 1891. A 
lighthouse was erected on Straitsmouth Island at the entrance to Sandy 
Bay (now Rockport) harbor in 1835, the present lighthouse being erected 
in 1851. 

Gloucester citizens have a remarkable record for longevity, no less 
than ten of her citizens having according to authoritative records at- 
tained the age of more than one hundred years, while the records are re- 
plete with the names of those who have lived to within a few years of 
this age. The earliest record of a centenarian is that of Joseph Eveleth, 
son of Sylvester Eveleth or Everleigh, one of the first settlers, who died 
November 1, 1745, at the age of 105 years, having previously removed 
to Chebacco parish. The oldest inhabitant of the town was John Huse 
or Hews, a native of Wales, who came to Gloucester early in the eigh- 
teenth century and died in August, 1793, at the age of 108 years. 

John Blatchford, son of the early settler of that name at Sandy Bay, 
who was bom in England, died in 1809 at the age of 107 years; and 
William Pew, who came to Gloucester from Virginia, died January 1, 
1840, claiming to be 107 years old, and was unquestionably several years 
beyond the century mark. Other deaths which have occurred in more 
recent years are: Mrs. Joanna Andrews, died April 20, 1847, aged 102 
years 2 months 28 days; Mrs. Deborah Saunders, died April 12, 1868, 
aged 101 years 6 months 6 days; Mrs. Mary H. Gilbert, died December 
1, 1887, aged 101 years 2 months 23 days; Mrs. Betsy Tucker, died 
March 28, 1891, aged 100 years 11 months 11 days; Mrs. Sarah D. Steele, 
died January 6, 1918, aged 101 years 4 months 15 days; Mrs. Nancy D. 
Babson, died December 12, 1919, aged 102 years 4 months 21 days. 

Shipbuilding in Gloucester commenced in 1643, when a man named 
Griffin employed William Stevens and other ship-carpenters to construct 
him a craft. This is all that is recorded about ship-building in the place 
until about 1661. There does not appear any warrant for the belief that 
there was much ship-building here until the early years of the eighteenth 
century. It was left for Gloucester, however, to become famous with 
seafaring men on account of the construction of the first known vessel 



582 ESSEX COUNTY 

styled a "schooner". The date was not far from 1713. A diary kept by 
Dr. Moses Prince, visiting Gloucester, September, 1721, says: "We went 
to see Captain Robinson's lady. This gentleman was the first contriver 
of schooners, and built the first of the sort about eight years ago." 

Nearly seventy years afterwards another visitor gives further par- 
ticulars of this most interesting fact. Cotton Tufts, Esq. who was in 
Gloucester in September, 1790, writes: "I was informed (and commit- 
ted the same to writing) that the kind of vessels called "schooners" de- 
rived their name from this circumstance, viz : Mr. Andrew Robinson, of 
that place, having constructed a vessel, which he masted and rigged in 
the same manner as schooners are at this day, on her going off the stocks 
and passing into the water, a bystander cried out, 'Oh, how she scoons?' 
Robinson instantly replied, 'A schooner let her be !' From this time ves- 
sels so masted and rigged have gone by the name of 'schooners' ; before 
which, vessels of this description were not known in Europe or America. 
This account was confirmed to me by a great number of persons in Glou- 
cester. The strongest negative evidence confirms these statements. No 
marine dictionary, no commercial record, no merchant's inventory of a 
date prior to 1713 containing a word 'schooner* has yet been discovered ; 
and it may, therefore, be received as an historical fact that the first ves- 
sel of this class had her origin in Gloucester, as stated by the good 
authorities already named." 

Gloucester had its first land communication with Boston, April 25, 
1788, when a line of travel was opened up by Jonathan Lowe between 
the two points. He was a tavern-keeper in Gloucester, living on Front 
street. He made these trips twice each week, by a two-horse open car- 
riage. At that date there were only four stages (besides this one) run- 
ning into Boston — from Portsmouth, New Hampshire, from New York, 
from Providence, Rhode Island, and from Salem. Later the trips were 
made between Gloucester and Boston three times each week, and in 
1805 a daily service was established. Four-horse coaches soon followed, 
and within a few years two coaches were put on the run daily. 

In the autumn of 1844 a survey for a railroad between Beverly and 
Gloucester was made. At Beverly the road was to connect with the 
Eastern railroad as its branch. November, 1847, regular trips were be- 
ing run over this steam road. It will be recalled that railroading was 
then in its infancy in the world, hence to get a railway at any given place 
was indeed rare and greatly appreciated. 

Steamboats have been running more or less regularly from Boston 
to Gloucester since 1840. What was known as the Boston & Gloucester 
Steamboat Company was organized, and commenced making regular trips 
that year. 

Since the introduction of cement for building purposes, one does not 
see or hear nearly so much about stone quarries as people did prior to 
1900. But as a matter of history worth preserving, it should be record- 



^^5UC LIBRA p 




iaiJiiMePf^^' 




ABOVE, MAIN STREET, GLOUCESTER. BELOW, VIEW FROM HARBOR 



CITY OF GLOUCESTER 583 

ed that Gloucester and all Cape Ann abound in gi-anite or syenite of vai'i- 
ous colors and tints, suitable both for building and paving blocks. A 
quarter of a centuiy ago this industry at Gloucester was a very extensive 
one. Another feature of these quan-ies may be recalled, thatj of form- 
ing the old-fashioned mill-stones for grain-grinding purposes. Joshua 
Noi-wood Vk^as engaged in getting out such stones, v/hich found sale over 
a large scope of country where such stone did not abound. By 1824 men 
from Quincy, Massachusetts, went to Gloucester and engaged extensively 
in quanying gi-anite for shipment. The Sandy Bay stone was veiy pop- 
ular. In 1869 quaiTies were developed at Bay View, known as the Cape 
Ann Granite company, operating with a capital of $100,000. Jonas H. 
French was president of this company; H. H. Bennett, treasurer; and 
Charles W. Foster, superintendent. From three hundred to seven hun- 
dred men were employed in 1887. Stone from these quames went into 
the construction of the Boston postoffice building and the Sub-Treasuiy 
structure in Baltimore, Maryland. The beautiful polished granite of the 
Philadelphia City Hall interior finish came from these quarries. 

Another large quarrying industry was that of the Lanesville Granite 
Company, organized May, 1873, on a $50,000 capital. Eben Blatchford 
was president and John Butman, treasurer of this company. Here fifty 
thousand tons of stone were annually taken from the quarry; one hun- 
dred and fifty men found employment there. While there is still much 
stone taken from these quarries, the amount is not nearly so great as be- 
fore cement took the place of so much constructing work. 

Points of Interest — The Babson House, at Pigeon Cove, erected by 
three men, who fled from Salem about 1698 with their mother, charged 
with witchcraft, and hid in this house. The Babson House at Riverdale, 
built about 1740 by Joseph Allen, is said to still retain the slave pens 
used during slavery times. Ellery House, Riverdale, built between 1704 
and 1710 by Rev. John White, used for many years as a tavern, contains 
many interesting relics. Home for Cape Ann Fishermen; open to the 
public. Independent Christian Church ; the first Universalist Society in 
America, organized 1770 ; present building erected in 1806. Mount Anne 
Park, the highest elevation in the city, 255 feet above sea-level. "Nor- 
man's Woe," known wherever English is spoken, through Longfellow's 
"The Wreck of the Hesperus." Oldest house on Cape Ann, built by 
Thomas Riggs, the first schoolmaster and town clerk in Gloucester. 
Ravenswood Park, bequeathed to the city by Samuel E. Sawyer, to be 
preserved as a wild park. Revolutionary House, home of Rev. John 
Murray, first Universalist minister in America. United States Fish 
Commission Hatchery, on Ten Pound Island, in the harbor ; open to the 
public. 

Gloucester has been honored by the election of four of its citizens 
as representatives in Congress, a record exceeded by no other city or 
town in the county with the exception of Salem. The first candidate for 



584 ESSEX COUNTY 

Congressional honors among the citizens of the town to come before 
the voters was Hon. Robert Rantoul, Jr., in 1838, who had been a resi- 
dent of the town for about half a dozen years, but although his party, 
the Jacksonian Democrats, were in the majority in the district, a split in 
the party caused his defeat and the election of his Whig opponent. He 
soon after removed to Beverly, his native town, from whence he was 
elected to Congress in 1850, and died before the expiration of his term of 
office. 

The first resident and only native of the tov/n to be elected to Con- 
gress was Hon. Timothy Davis, who was elected in 1854 by the "Knov/- 
no thing" tidal wave which swept the State in that year, he receiving 612 
votes to 213 votes for his Vv'^hig opponent in Gloucester, and carrying the 
district by a vote of more than three to one, receiving 7428 votes to 2231 
votes for his opponent, the result of the vote being a complete surprise to 
the Whigs, who believed themselves strongly intrenched in power. He 
was again elected in 1856 by a larger vote, receiving 833 votes to 283 
votes for his opponent in Gloucester, and a total of 10,045 to 4292 in the 
district. 

After the close of the Civil V/ar, Gen. Benjamin F. Butler, of Lowell, 
removed to Gloucester, and was elected to Congress in 1866 as a Repub- 
lican, although he did not become a voter in the town till the following 
year. He sei'ved for four terms, and at his first election he received 765 
voteg in Gloucester to 149 for his opponent, and carried the district by a 
vote of 8586 to 2722. In 1868 he received 1041 votes in Gloucester to 
395 for the other candidates, and carried the district by a vote of 13,080 
to 6860. An opposition developed during his second term, resulting in 
his receiving only 613 votes in Gloucester to 406 and 216 for the opposing 
candidates in 1870, a total of 684, but he carried the district by a vote 
of 8333 to 4267 foi' his strongest opponent and 1076 for the third candi- 
date, a total of 5336 votes in opposition. His popularity returned in 
some measure during the next two years, and in 1872 he received 1096 
votes in Gloucester to 723 votes for Hon. Charles P. Thompson, the 
Democratic candidate, but carried the district by a vote of 11,864 to 
5,749. 

Hon. Chai'les P. Thompson was elected congressman in 1874, defeat- 
ing Gen. Butler by a vote of 8703 to 7731, a plurality of 972 in the dis- 
trict, and carrying Gloucester by a vote of 961 to 818. So confident were 
the Republicans of carrying the election that the party leaders had 
arranged with a Boston caterer for a complimentaiy banquet to Gen. 
Butler, but the viands were returned to Boston untasted. The latter 
removed back to Lowell, the following year, and two years later was 
again elected to Congress from that district. 

Judge Thompson was a candidate for re-election in 1876, but was de- 
feated by Hon. George B. Loring of Salem, receiving 11,228 votes in the 
district to 13,326 for Dr. Loring, giving the latter a plurality of 1098, 



CITY OF GLOUCESTER 585 

the vote of Gloucester being 1328 for Dr. Loring and 1221 for Judge 
Thompson. 

Hon. A. Piatt Andrew, who v/as elected at the special election in 
1921 to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Hon. Wilfred W. 
Lufkin of Essex to accept the position of collector of customs for the 
district of Massachusetts, is a native of India,na, and first came to Glou- 
cester as a summer resident, but later becam.e a voter and a permanent 
resident of the city. A strenuous fight was made in the primaries for 
the Republican nomination, which was won by Col. Andrew by a vote 
of 19,149 to 10,401 for his leading opponent, his vote in Gloucester being 
4753 to 267, a lead of 4486, while at the election he received 22,545 votes 
to 6792 for the Democratic candidate, a plurality of 15,153 in the district, 
caiTying Gloucester by a vote of 4246 to 282, giving him a plurality of 
8964 in the city, or about 15 to 1. 

Colonel Andrew is a veteran of the World War, going to France 
previous to the entry of the United States into the conflict and organiz- 
ing an ambulance corps, receiving the French croix de guerre, the Legion 
of Honor and the Distinguished Service medals. He was an instructor 
in economics at Harvard, and was later secretary of the Monetary Com- 
mission, director of the United States Mint and Assistant Secretary of 
the Treasury. 

In a sermon preached at the First Parish Church in 1792, and print- 
ed in 1795, the Rev. Eli Forbes says: "The first settlers of this Cape 
Ann were early solicitous to set up and maintain the worship of God 
amongst them. Though they were few in numbers and strangers in the 
land, yet in 1633, like Abram, so soon as they pitched their tent they set 
up an altar, that is agreed on as a place where they might meet for public 
worship of God, prayed to Him and sung Psalms." This statement was 
authenticated by an old manuscript, extant at the time, and respectable 
tradition points to the exact spot where their house of worship stood. 

It is probable that this body of worshipers met continually from this 
time, increasing in numbers and cohesiveness ; for with the advent of 
the Rev. Richard Blyman from Plymouth, with several followers, they 
were sufficiently strong to be organized into a church, it being the nine- 
teenth in order in the colony. They erected their house of worship on 
a plain now called the "Green," which was at that time the most acces- 
sible location to the various settlements on the Cape, and was the only 
organized church in the town until 1716. Several of the parishioners, 
however, being in the westerly part of the town, found it inconvenient to 
attend. The journey of from three to five miles, a part of which had to 
be made by ferry, was attended even with difficulty in winter, so after 
controversy covering three or four years, permission was given to them 
to form a separate parish at the above date. 

About ten years later, the northerly part of the town having had 
quite an increase in population and having industries started that were 



686 ESSEX COUNTY 

calculated to attract more settlers, applied for a separate church organi- 
zation, which was finally gi'anted them after much debate in 1728. Till 
about 1700, the largest number of inhabitants centered around the origi- 
nal church and along the river, but early in the eighteenth century the 
population around the hai'bor began to increase, and it was not long be- 
fore they, too, wished to be set off as a separate parish. This proposition 
met with prompt resistence by the parent church, as it foresaw that 
fui-ther dismemberment would be fatal to the first parish. There v/as 
strong feeling on both sides, and finally several influential members living 
at the harbor erected at their own expense, a commodious meeting house 
and offered it to the parish. This was accepted on certain conditions, in 
1738, a vote being passed that worship should be carried on there in the 
future as it had been carried on at the old one. A vigorous minority, 
however, took the matter to court, where it remained unsettled for four 
years. On December 15, 1742, it was ordered that the first precinct be 
divided into two precincts, giving boundaries to the same, and that Mr. 
White, the minister, should go to the harbor church, which should be 
known as the First Parish, while the seceders, occupying the veiy spot 
of the oiigrinal church, should hereafter bear the name of the Fourth 
Parish. The seceding members, however, were not without indepen- 
dence and energy; a new church of seventy-six members was organized 
and the Rev. John Rogers was installed a;^ minister. In 1752 the fourth 
and last meeting-house was built, but in 1756 another parish was organ- 
ized at Sandy Bay, the old church having fought a losing battle. 
Parson Rogers died in 1782. No successor was chosen to fill his place, 
and the pulpit was irregularly filled with chance supplies, mostly Meth- 
odist. In 1840 the edifice was taken down; the timber was sold, but 
aftei-wards given to the Methodists at the mills. 

To follow the annals of the First parish on Middle street. Parson 
White was succeeded by Samuel Chandlers, who received a life settle- 
ment, and on his death Rev. Eli Forbes was settled. It was during his 
ministi-y that Universalism was first preached ; and as many of the lead- 
ing citizens had embraced this doctrine, a spirit of dissension prevailed 
in the church for ten years. In 1780, however, the Universalist church 
was organized, and each set of believers acquiring means to worship God 
in their own peculiar way, peace and rest prevailed. Parson Forbes died 
in 1804, and was followed by several pastors of the same faith; but in 
1829, under the pastorate of the Rev. Hosea Hildreth, dissatisfaction with 
the doctrines preached by him arose, resulting in the withdrawal of seven 
women and two men, who foiTned a church known as the Evangelical 
Congregational Church. 

Mr. Hildreth, a conscientious worker, of conspicuous virtues, was 
greatly distressed by this dissension and dissolved his connection with 
the church. The next incumbent was a man of decided Unitarian views, 
and since his installation in 1834 the church has been known as Unl- 



CITY OF GLOUCESTER 587 

tarian, belonging to the conference of that body. The edifice now stand- 
ing is the second on the same site, and was built in 1828. 

Second Parish Church was incorporated by the General Court, June 
12, 1716. Mr. Thompson, who had performed the joint duties of teacher 
and minister the three years preceding, was called to the pastorate, and 
his ordination took place the following November, but was of short dura- 
tion, for he died in 1724, at the early age of thirty-tlu^ee years. History 
records him as a man "sweet of temper, inoffensive in his whole behavior, 
and orthodox in his faith." He was buried in the old parish burying 
gi'ound, where his tombstone may still be seen. The meeting-house was 
a substantial building standing on an elevated plateau on what is now 
called Thompson street, the parsonage standing near by, but no trace 
of either now remains. Mr. Jaques followed Mr. Thompson, who in turn 
was followed by Rev. Daniel Fuller, the last minister of the Second Par- 
ish. Mr. Fuller's ministry covered a period of fifty-seven years, when 
the aged minister, feeling that the years of his activity were over, re- 
signed. He was greatly beloved by his parishioners, whom he had com- 
forted during the trying years of the Revolution, and his death, a few 
years later was a great grief to them. About this time in the records 
of the church we find several instances of church members being dis- 
ciplined for holding views incompatible with the established faith, and 
in 1830 a vote was taken to ascertain in what faith the church would be 
most united. The result was Universalism — three to one — and from 
that time on, although there was no settled pastor, the pulpit seemed to 
have been filled by Universalist clergymen. At the demolition of the 
old church in 1846, the Rev. A. D. Mayo, minister of the Gloucester Uni- 
versalist church, conducted the farewell service. Later on services were 
held irregularly in Liberty Hall, which was partly built from timbers of 
the old church. In 1867 the society was organized under its present 
name. North Gloucester Universalist, and soon after the lot of land on 
which the present house of worship stands was presented to it by Mr. 
Sam Jones. In 1876 the building was completed and the church organi- 
zation effected in April of that year. The church has never had a resi- 
dent pastor, but has generally shared the services of the minister settled 
at Essex, as is the case at present. 

The orthodox faction organized a church of their own faith in 1834, 
with Levi Wheaton as pastor, and built their present house of worship 
on a rise of ground contiguous to the site where it now' stands. Renova- 
tions and improvements were made, and it was rededicated April 25, 
1913. Although never wholly independent of the Missionary Society, it 
had pretty generally had settled pastors till a few years ago. At present, 
each church maintains its separate organization, each its own Sunday 
school and Missionary society, but unite for worship under the ministra- 
tions of Rev. W. H. Rider, pastor of Essex Universalist Church, who 
preaches alternately in the two churches. 



588 ESSEX COUNTY 

The Third Parish was set off as a separate precinct June 11, 1728, 
and Mr. Bradstreet was ordained as minister the following September. 
His pastorate of nearly thirty-four years was teiTninated by death. The 
first meeting-house was an edifice of considerable size, at the head of 
Lobster Cove. In 1755 it was struck by lightning, and in 1830 gave 
place to the one nov/ standing on the same site. The pastorate of Mr. 
"^.Vyeth, who followed Mr. Bradstreet, was unsatisfactory, and he was 
dismissed in 1768. That of his successor. Rev. Obediah Parsons, was 
even more so, and he was also dismissed in 1779. From this time on the 
pulpit remained unfilled till 1804, when Rev. Ezra Leonard was called. 
In his ministry a most remarkable incident took place. Both he and 
practically his whole congregation embraced Universalism. The leaven 
of this new faith had long been working among his hearers, so when he 
announced his confession to it, their confidence in his judgment was so 
strong that they followed him with hardly a dissenting vote. This good 
man labored with them until his death in 1832. The church has con- 
tinued a Universalist church until this day, never, for any length of time, 
being without a minister. The present incumbent is Rev. G. H. Lewis. 

The Independent Christian Church grevi out of the first public 
preaching of the doctrine of universal salvation in this country, by John 
Mun-ay, and the first body in America for promulgating this faith was 
organized in Gloucester. A covenant was adopted in 1779. In 1780, on 
Christmas Day, members first assembled for public worship in a small 
building erected for the purpose. In 1785 a compact containing regula- 
tions for government was formed. Although the organization had been 
effected without the usual public ceremonies, they held that they were 
exempted from paying the parish tax upon which their property was 
seized, and to recover it they resorted to law. Eminent counsel was en- 
gaged on both sides, the case being in court three years. In 1786 the de- 
cision was given in favor of the church. Thus we see that Gloucester 
has not only the distinction of being the first community to embrace the 
doctrine of the final salvation of the human race, but also defended the 
right to support this doctrine without being taxed to support the parish 
church. Mr. Murray was publically ordained on Christmas Day, 1788, 
and the church was incorporated in 1792, the members signing an obli- 
gation to be taxed in proportion to the town tax. Mr. Murray preached 
here until 1793,i when he responded to a call to the church in Boston. 
For several years there was no settled pastor over the society, but in 
1804 Rev. Thomas Jones was called. His connection was severed in 
1841, owing to advanced age. Some years before. Rev. David Smith, 
having been settled as a colleague, assumed full pastoral duties. His 
pastorate, however, was filled with dissension and discord, resulting in 
the withdrawal of his followers to worship under a separate organiza- 
tion in 1843. They built a house of worship, where services were con- 
tinued till 1856, when the society was dissolved, and the building sold to 



CITY OF GLOUCESTER 589 

the Methodists. Most of the seceders returned to the parent church, 
but their action had embarrassed it financially, and it required both 
energy and sacrifice to hold continued seivices. Following Parson Jones 
the following ministers in the order of their succession have served the 
church: Revs. F. T. Thayer, A. B. Soule, A. D. Mayo, O. A. Skinner, 
E. H. Capen, Richard Eddy, W, H. Rider, Levi Powers, John C. Lee. 
In November, 1824, the society held a jubilee of a social and religious 
character, celebrating the coming of John Murray to Gloucester. In 
1870 the anniversary of preaching Universalism was observed by this 
church. More than five thousand persons were in attendance, and in 
August, 1920, the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary was observed in 
like manner. The first house of worship of this society stood at the head 
of Water street, a small structure without belfry, which v/as later re- 
moved and finally demolished. The present edifice was erected in 1805, 
Col. Jacob Smith being architect and builder. The church and city are 
justly proud of its Wren steeple, which closely resembles St. Clements 
in London. 

Trinity Congregational Church was organized November 17, 1829, 
by seven members from the First Paiish church, five women and two 
men, who felt that they could not support the doctrines preached from 
that pulpit. In March, 1830, the society was incorporated under the 
name of the Evangelical Congi^egational Church, and the year following 
the members erected a meeting-house on the corner of Middle and School 
streets, which was dedicated September 8. On January 14, 1832, a 
covenant and articles of faith were signed by forty-two people. Rev. 
Charles Porter accepted a call to becom.e pastor, and he was ordained in 
the Universalist church the following August. In Mr. Porter's pastorate 
several more seceders from the First Parish Church connected themselves 
with the Evangelical body, which added to its strength and influence. 
Mr. Porter was followed by C. M. Nichols, his successor being James 
Atkins. Under the pastorate of J. L. Hatch, 1853-56, the first meeting 
house was removed and the present edifice erected on the same site. At 
the present day it does not preserve the fine proportions and beautiful 
spire as it came from the hands of the builders. Elongation and the ad- 
dition of a basement have destroyed the proportions, while the spire, 
which was deemed to be unsafe, was taken down some years ago, the 
present unsightly structure being put in its place. This edifice was dedi- 
cated March 22, 1855, the sennon being preached by the pastor, Rev. J. 
L. Hatch. Although Mr. Hatch had been largely instrumental in accom- 
plishing the building of this church, he was destined to preach in it only 
a few times, if at all. Having given utterance to beliefs and sentiments 
not conforming to those held by the main body of church members, he 
was soon asked to resign. A period of dissension followed, culminating 
in a withdrawal of his followers, who for a short time held meetings by 
themselves. This period of dissension, however, was not of long dura- 



590 ESSEX COUNTY 

tion and eventually all or nearly all came back and were received as com- 
municants. From this time on, prosperity has characterized the pastor- 
ates of the several ministers. In 1892 the parish was abolished and the 
church was incorporated under the name of Trinity Congregational 
Church. Rev. A. A, Madsen is the present pastor. The present mem- 
bership is approximately four hundred and seventy-five. 

Lanesville Congregational Church was legally organized August 25, 
1828, with thirteen members. March 2, 1831, Rev. Moses Sawyer was 
installed as minister, and in 1860 its membership had increased to fifty- 
two, with a Sunday school numbering two hundred. Its first house of 
worship was built in 1828, which was enlarged and repaired in 1853. In 
1919 the parish was dissolved and the church became the corporate body. 
At that time a constitution and by-laws were drawn up and a church 
manual vvas prepared by Rev. Mary Macomber, pastor of the church. 
In 1918 the final debt on the parsonage was cleared, and this is now free 
from incumbrance. Rev. E. H. Whitman is at this writing the oflficiating 
clergyman. The present membership is one hundred and fourteen. 

The Magnolia Congregational Church was organized February, 1887, 
and held its meetings in the little chapel now standing, sharing its min- 
ister with the West Gloucester church. The present edifice was built 
in 1894, Dan Woodbury being the architect, the land and memorial win- 
dow being given by the heirs of Daniel Fuller. The bell and communion 
service were given by Mrs. Wendill of Jamaica Plains ; the organ by Mrs. 
Rebecca Colfert of Philadelphia ; and the communion table by Mrs. A. C. 
Thornton, it being built by J. Christpin from a design by the donor. 

The introduction of Methodism into Gloucester dates from 1806, 
when Rev. George Pickering was presiding elder. He probably came on 
the invitation of John Edny, a Wesleyan of English birth, who lived near 
the mills. Three years later Mr. Pickering came here as conference mis- 
sionary, but nothing more is said of his coming here till 1821, when for 
two years he made irregular visits, preaching in the old parish church on 
"the green". About this time class meetings were held and a class of 
eight persons was fomied, meeting at the home of Miss Lucy Low, under 
the leadership of Thomas Heller. In 1825 Gloucester was included in a 
circuit, Mr. Waitland and Mr. Pickering preaching alternately. After 
the death of Parson Rogers there was no settled minister at the parish 
church, and the latter having been repaired, the Methodist Conference 
was petitioned to station Mr. Waitland there as minister, and the petition 
was gi'anted. In 1828 Cape Ann first appeared as a separate charge in 
the minutes of the conference, and the house of worship, built on the 
comer of Taylor and Prospect streets, was completed the following year. 
This church was designed to accommodate both the Methodists of East 
Gloucester and the town parish, the minister dividing his labors between 
the two. The church was feeble and its support precarious, but in 
1837, under the ministrations of Rev. John Bailey, the debt on the church 



CITY OF GLOUCESTER 591 

v/as cleared, and a hundred and ten members, the fruit of a wonderful 
revival, were added to its membership. 

The Town Parish Methodists, however, were not accommodated by 
the meeting-house on Prospect street, and bought a place of worship in 
the old district school house, whose right to do so was disputed by the 
members of another denomination. For a while they carried on their 
services at the home of Mr. Samuel Curtes, who subsequently gave them 
a lot of land on which to build. In 1837 the foundation of a new church 
was laid and in the following year it was finished, dedicatory services 
bemg held November 17. L. B. Griffin was the first pastor, and from 
this time the two churches became separate charges. Without interrup- 
tion they have been supplied with pastors by the M. E. Conference, but 
from 1843 to 1847 one minister supplied both churches. Like the Pros- 
pect Street Church, this church was obliged to pass through financial 
difficulties. At one time the trustees had to mortgage their own property 
to save the church from passing under the hammer, but for many years 
it has been able to function with comparative ease, and now sustains pub- 
lic worship in a modem church. 

The Harbor Methodists occupied their first house of worship on Tay- 
lor street till 1858, when they purchased from the seceders of the Inde- 
pendent Universalists the house on Elm street, occupied by them during 
the time they were separated from the parent church. In 1881 they 
erected the present Harbor Methodist Church edifice on Prospect street. 
The land was purchased at a cost of $4,800, and the building cost $18,- 
400. The final mortgage on the property has been discharged and now 
the church is in a flourishing condition. The debt was paid off in Feb- 
ruary, 1920. 

Bay- View Methodist Church was organized in 1870. Previous to 
this time Rev. A. J. Hall had conducted neighborhood meetings, but in 
April, 1870, Rev. Alonzo Sanderson was sent to this field and organized 
the church. Plans were matured for erecting a church building. The 
land was given by Kilby Sargent, and Col. G. W. Randall furnished the 
plans. In March, 1871, it was ready for occupancy and was dedicated 
the 15th of that month. During its first years, the financial struggle 
was fierce, but it emerged triumphantly from its difficulties, and has 
supported uninterrupted preaching services up to the present time, be- 
sides doing missionary work among the foreign population in its neigh- 
borhood. 

East Gloucester Methodist Episcopal Church was organized Septem- 
ber 23, 1885, its first minister being Rev. Carl Anderson. Its first house 
of worship not being large enough, was sold, and the present church build- 
ing purchased of the Universalists. In 1919 the number of communi- 
cants was eighty-two. 

The first Baptist church on Cape Ann was organized at Sandy Bay 
in 1808, and was styled the First Baptist Church of Gloucester. In 183a 



592 ESSEX COUNTY 

the church at the Harbor was formed and was called the Second Bap- 
tist Church, but after the setting off of the town of Rockpoi-t in 1840, the 
Harbor Church assumed the name of the First Baptist Church of Glou- 
cester. Its first minister was the Rev. Samuel Adlam, a native of Eng- 
land, who was installed March 24, 1831, and the first house of worship 
was a small building on Pleasant street, later sold to the Catholics. In 
1850 a larger and better structure was erected on the corner of Pleasani; 
and Warren streets, but while undergoing repairs and enlargement m 
1869, was burned to the ground. In 1871 the present church was built. 
This church has had many able ministers and prominent members. 

The East Gloucester Baptist Church had its beginning in two Sun- 
day schools, one held in the hall of the Engine House, and the other on 
Rocky Neck, in the house of David Smith, Susan E. Wonson having 
charge of the latter. In 1858 the house of v/orship was built, and from 
1858 to 1861 Father Lysle ministered to these societies. In 1863 the 
society was organized into a church. Rev. Andrew Dunn being the first 
pastor. In 1869 the church was enlarged, and in 1870 a powerful re- 
vival added many to its communion. The Rev. John B. Wilson is the 
present pastor. 

St. John's Episcopal Church grew out of services held in Magnolia 
Hall in the early sixties, the parish being organized in 1865. Magnolia 
Hall having been purchased and removed to another location, a church, 
practically the gift of Theron Dale, was very soon after built on its site. 
The Rev. Joshua K. Pierce was the first rector, John Stacy and Joseph 
Dan being wardens. During the rectorship of J. A. Mills, the chancel 
was redecorated. A parish house was also built in 1911. The present 
rector, J. H. C. Cooper, took charge of the parish in 1907 ; communicants 
approximately number three hundred and twenty-five. 

Beside the church organizations mentioned above by Miss Babson, 
may be recalled the Swedenborgian church, formed in Gloucester in 1871 
and continued about seventeen years, going down vvith the removal of 
Rev. Robert P. Rogers, previously minister of the First Parish (Uni- 
tarian) church, in 1887. 

The First Church of Christ (Christian Science) was gathered by a 
Mrs. Leonard, of Brooklyn, New York, in 1884, the first meetings being 
held at the home of Mrs. Charles H. Boynton, on Prospect street. A 
charter was received from the Mother Church on April 29, 1899, and 
services have been regularly held from that time to this. There are at 
present approximately foi-ty-five communicants, and a Sunday school of 
about twenty children. As yet they have no house of worship, but hold 
meetings in Grand Ai-my Hall. 

The Swedenborgen Church of the New Jenisalem was organized in 
May, 1871, Rev. R. P. Rogers, a former Unitarian minister, being pastor. 
At first meetings were held in the house of Mr. Rogers, and later in a 
hall. Upon Mr. Rogers' removal from the city, meetings v/ere discon- 



CITY OF GLOUCESTER 593 

tinued ; and although missionaries at various periods have visited the 
city, there have not been a sufficient number of followers to unite for a 
regular worship. 

The Jewish Congregation was organized in Gloucester in 1903 with 
eighteen members. At first, services were held in a hall, the Jacobs 
building, but in 1905 a house of worship was purchased by the congre- 
gation, the same being situated on Liberty street. The congregation 
now numbers about fifty-five. In 1914 the society felt the need of more 
room, and purchased a dwelling house on Prospect street, and converted 
it into a synagogue, which is still used. The president is I. Cohen, and 
Rev. J. Steinburg is resident rabbi. 

The first attempt to establish a Young Men's Christian Association 
was made in 1858, a constitution and by-laws being adopted at a meeting 
held July 12 that year, and at a meeting August 2 the Association was 
organized by the choice of Charles C. Pettingell as president. There is 
no record of when the organization ceased to exist, but it is probable 
that the excitement of the Civil War diverted the interest of the public 
from local work. The present Young Men's Christian Association was 
organized February 19, 1873, its first meetings being held in the old Sav- 
ings Bank building, and in 1880 removed to Hough's block, now the Odd 
Fellows' building, and in 1882 purchased the old Odd Fellows' building, 
which it occupied until the erection of the present building on the comer 
of Middle and Hancock streets in 1905. This property, valued at $16,- 
000 and known as the Dale estate, was purchased by George R. Bradford 
in the summer of 1899, and in January of the following year was pre- 
sented to the Association. Mr. Bradford died December 31, 1902, leaving 
a bequest of $15,000 to the Association on condition that a like sum be 
raised by the Association within two yeai^s after his decease, and in 
November, 1903, about $1000 more than the required amount had been 
secured in pledges. The first sod in the erection of the new building was 
turned May 14, 1904, and the cornerstone laid with proper ceremonies 
July 2 of the same year, the building being dedicated March 29, 1905, 
and has since been used by the Association. The Ladies' Auxiliary to 
the Young Men's Christian Association was organized in August, 1883. 
Mrs. Howard F. Smith is the present president. The Association has 
employed a general secretary since October, 1881, and a physical director 
since April, 1894. The 1921 president of the Association is Reuben 
Brooks, who has served since 1899. 

The Salvation Army first established a branch in Gloucester, Sep- 
tember 29, 1897, but the work was carried on with indifferent success in 
different locations for a number of years, the officers in charge seldom re- 
maining here more than two years before being transferred elsewhere. 
The present officers in charge, Commandant Gunn and wife, took charge 
of the work October 2, 1912, and under their management the work re- 
ceived more general recognition than previously. They were relieved of 

Essex — 38 



594 ESSEX COUNTY 

th work by Adjutant Edward W. Shira, September 11, 1919, Comman- 
dant Gunn being sent to the latter's station at Newport, Rhode Island, 
and under Adjutant Shira a permanent home was purchased on Pleas- 
ant street. After two years at Newport, Commandant Gunn was re- 
turned to Gloucester, September 28, 1921, and at present continues in 
charge of the work. The plans of the Army include the erection of a 
building in which to hold services, v/ork upon which is now progressing 
and which will be completed in 1922. 




CHAPTER XL. 
BANKS AND BANKING. 

As a natural corollary of the steady expansion in the industrial and 
mercantile concerns of the communities which form the subject of men- 
tion in the chapter on banks and banking, stress is to be laid upon the 
conspicuous growth of financial institutions. Essex county, as the reader 
will note, possesses the second savings bank to be incorporated in the 
United States. Some of the other institutions have passed the century 
mark. In a num.ber of instances, the growth in business has been no less 
striking than significant. To use an abused term, "service" is standing 
out in banking operations today, as one of the newer activities to which 
bank development has given rise. There is a closer correspondence be- 
tween many of the customers or depositors, and the various manage- 
ments. Not only are consultations invited, where depositors feel in need 
of counsel, but special efforts are also made in many of the banks to put 
a premium upon such visits, that thereby the uninformed or the ques- 
tioning depositor, may freely avail himself or herself of the counsel thus 
available. In another way, too, emphasis may well be laid upon a strik- 
ing departure from old time methods. We refer to the liberality with 
which the general run of banks and savings institutions resort to the 
use of printer's ink in their publicity entei-prises. It is not necessary to 
go back hardly a generation to find banks, in overwhelming ratio, acting 
upon the theory that advertising was unethical. If there were any ad- 
vertising at all, this was confined to a mere stereotjTped announcement, 
bare in detail and obviously removed from methods designed to stimulate 
the saving habit. Today, the charges for bank advertising amount in 
the aggregate to enormous sums, the country over, with no indications 
in sight, that the feature is duly to register a diminishing volume . 

Incidental to the details that are incorporated in the following pages, 
one interesting fact should not be passed by without at least brief com- 
ment. It so happened, that at the time the banking chapter was in 
course of preparation, the president of the Emigrant Industrial Savings 
Bank of New York made public the statistics that had been gathered by 
him throughout the country, in connection with the work of the na- 
tional conference of mutual savings banks to encourage thrift. The 
figures showed, in brief, that the people of Massachusetts are the thrif- 
tiest in the entire country. In a population of 3,852,356, the Bay State 
has 2,593,287 savings bank depositors, or sixty-seven per cent. As with 
the State, so with New England in its entirety ; the saving habit, in the 
form exemplified above, was more pronounced than elsewhere in the 
Union. This popular thrift is naturally reflected in the recital of the 
growth of deposits in the savings banks and trust companies of the insti- 
tutions throughout Essex county. 



596 ESSEX COUNTY 

Salem — In 1782 a branch of the Bank of North America was 
located in Boston, and in 1784 the Massachusetts State Bank was estab- 
lished in that city. Eight years later, the first bank in Salem was or- 
ganized, the Essex Bank, which commenced business July 2, 1792, with 
a capital of $300,000. The Essex Bank occupied a room in the build- 
ing now laiown as the Central building, on Central street, for a time 
known as Bank street. This bank expired in 1819, though its affairs 
were not all wound up until 1822. 

The Salem Bank, later styled the Salem National Bank, was or- 
ganized March 8, 1803, with a capital of $250,000, but in 1859 decreased 
to $187,000; in 1865 restored to $200,000; in 1873 increased to $300,- 
000. Its earlier presidents were Benjamin Pickman, 1803; Joseph Pea- 
body, 1814; George Peabody, 1833; Benjamin Merrill, 1842; George 
Peabody, 1818-47; William C. Endicott, 1858; Augustus Storey, 1858; 
S. Endicott Peabody, 1882. In 1864 this bank became a National bank, 
and moved to the Holyoke Building, Washington street, in 1866. 

The Merchants' Bank was incorporated June 26, 1811, and it is now 
known as the Merchants' National Bank. It is really the oldest bank 
in the city of Salem, and the only National banking concern there. It is 
now situated at Nos. 253-55-57 Essex street. Its original officers in- 
cluded Benjamin Williams Crowinshield, president; John Saunders, 
cashier ; directors, B. W. Crowinshield, Joseph Winn, Capt, Jothan Neal, 
Robert Stone, Jr., Hon. Joseph Story, Capt. James Deveraux, Stephen 
White, Joseph Ropes, Capt. John Dodge, Jr. The present officers are 
Henry Batchelder, president; Josiah H. Gifford, vice-president; Carl 
F. A. Morse, cashier; Albert H. Barrett, assistant cashier; Charles 
Howard Bates, assistant cashier. This bank's first capital was $100,- 
000; it is now $200,000; surplus, $320,000; resources and liabilities, 
amount to $3,700,000. Its recent deposits were $3,000,000. In 1910 a 
fine brick-concrete bank building was constructed and is now valued at 
8180,000. This structure stands on the site of the birthplace of Hon. 
Joseph Hodges Choate, the famous lawyer and United States Ambas- 
sador to Great Britain. B. W. Crowinshield, the first president, was 
secretary of the Navy under Presidents Madison and Monroe. 

What was styled the Commercial Bank, later the First National 
Bank, was incorporated in 1819, capital $300,000, but in 1830 reduced 
to $200,000. It became a National bank in 1864, being among the 
earliest National banks in the country. 

The Exchange Bank was incorporated January 31, 1823, with $300,- 
000 capital, later reduced to $200,000. It was moved from its first lo- 
cation in Essex street to the First Church building, December, 1864. 
Later its street number was 109 Washington street. It became the 
National Exchange Bank in February, 1865. Its earlier presidents 
were Gideon Tucker, John Webster, Henry L. WilUams, Nathan Nichols. 

The Asiatic Bank was incorporated June 12, 1824, with a capital of 



BANKS AND BANKING 597 

$200,000, shortly increased to $315,000, It commenced business in the 
Central Street Bank Building; removed from there to the East India 
]\larine building, on Essex, opposite St. Peter's street, and in 1855 
changed quarters to the Asiatic building, on Washington street. De- 
cember 8, 1864, it became known as the Asiatic National Bank. Ste- 
phen White was the first president, and Henry Pickering its original 
cashier. 

The Mercantile Bank, incorporated March 4, 1826, opened with 
$200,000 capital in Central Bank building, on the west side of the street, 
but in 1827 moved to the opposite side. Nathaniel L. Rogers was its 
first president, John A. Southwick its first cashier. This institution, 
January 10, 1865, became the Mercantile National Bank. 

The Merchants' and Traders' Bank was incorporated March 10, 
1827, with a capital of $200,000, but for some reason never commenced 
business. 

The Naumkeag Bank was incoi-porated March 17, 1831, with $200,- 
000 capital, subsequently increased to $500,000. It commenced busi- 
ness in the Benjamin Dodge store building, on Essex street, opposite 
the Essex House, then was moved to the Manning building, and in 1872 
to the second floor of the Asiatic building, Washington street. David 
Pingree was its first president. In 1864 this institution was changed 
to the Naumkeag National Bank. This is now the Naumkeag Trust 
Company, as detailed in the following paragraph: 

The Naumkeag Trust Company was established October 7, 1909. In that year 
there were in Salem five National banks and one Trust company. It was about 
that time that the idea obtained among financiers there that it would be expedient 
to form a larger institution, which should be able to furnish better facilities to the 
public, with a safe deposit vault affording absolute security. The capital is $250,- 
000. The present officers are as follows: Leland H. Cole, president; Robert M. 
Mahoney, vice-president; George A. Vickery, vice-president and secretary; William 
O. Chapman, treasurer. The present surplus and undivided profits are $275,000. 
This, together with the stock-holders' liability, furnishes a guarantee of over three- 
quarters of a million dollars for the protection of its depositors. The company 
commenced business in October, 1909, and took over the accounts of the oldest banks 
in Salem, the Salem National Bank, established in 1803, the Asiatic National Bank, 
established in 1824, Naumkeag National Bank, established in 1831, and later took 
over the business of the Mercantile National Bank, which was established in 1826. 
Coming down to the present time, it may be stated that this institution has re- 
sources and liabilities amounting to $5,439,119.45, and recent reports show that 
deposits amount to $4,851,999.07. The assessed value of the building owned by this 
corporation is $138,995. The general style of architecture is Colonial. The wood- 
work is mahogany, with bronze grill work. Absolute safety was the first con- 
sideration, but every possible arrangement was also made for the convenience of 
customers. The Safe Deposit vaults are entirely separate from the building, stand- 
ing on their own foundations. Over three hundred tons of steel and concrete were 
used in their construction and the entire work is the finest in all particulars. They 
are among the strongest vaults outside New York City. A savings department is 
maintained as well as a trust department, by which the company acts as executor 
and trustees under wills, administrator without a will or with will annexed. 



598 ESSEX COUNTY 

Other early banks were these : The Bank of General Interest, incor- 
porated March 17, 1831, with a capital of $200,000. John Russell was 
president, and William H. Russell, cashier. It ceased business in 1842. 

The North American Bank, incorporated March 31, 1836, with an 
authorized capital of $300,000, for reasons now unknown never went 
into operation. 

The Salem Savings Bank, still one of the strong financial institu- 
tions of this part of Massachusetts, was incorporated January 29, 1818, 
being the second savings bank incoi-porated in the United States. In 
1886, between sixteen and seventeen thousand individual accounts were 
on the books as depositors. At that date the deposits amounted to 
$6,500,000. The first ofl!icers were Dr. Edward A. Holyoke, president; 
Joseph Peabody, vice-president; and William P. Richardson, treasurer. 
The present officers include Charles S. Rea, president; James Young, 
Jr., treasurer. The present amount in deposits is $12,098,428.42; sur- 
plus, $1,192,260.12; resources and liabilities, $13,244,213.56. 

Upon the occasion of the one hundredth anniversaiy of the found- 
ing of this bank, the officers in charge (1918) had compiled and printed 
a beautiful and elaborate booklet setting forth the history of this, the sec- 
ond savings institution in the world ; for be it known that Boston had the 
first savings bank established in the world, and Salem the second. In 
this booklet are numerous historical sketches of great events in the 
country's early history which transpired in Salem, nearly two centuries 
before this bank started. From this booklet it is learned that the fol- 
lowing have served as presidents: Edward Augustus Holyoke, 1818-29; 
Joseph Peabody, 1830-44; Nathaniel Silsbee, 1844-51; Daniel A. White, 
1851-61; Zachariah Fowle Silsbee, 1861-64; John Bertram, 1864-65; 
Joseph S. Cabot, 1864-74; Benjamin Hodges Silsbee, 1875-79; Peter 
Silver, 1879-83; William Northey, 1883-93; Edward D. Ropes, 1893- 
1902; Charles S. Rea, 1902 — to present time. The growth of deposits 
in this savings bank is indeed very marked: October, 1818, the number 
of depositors was 184 ; April, 1838, it was 2,724 ; April, 1848, 5,666 ; April 
1858, 8,734; April, 1868, 12,364; April, 1878, 15,502; April, 1888, 16,- 
676; April, 1908, 16,845; 1918, 22,023. The total amount of deposits 
on the bank's centennial anniversary amounted to $10,861,242.26. The 
dividends for that year amounted to four and one-half per cent. 

The Salem Five Cent Savings Bank was incorporated in 1855, and 
opened for business in the Downing Block, No. 175 Essex street, later 
removing to the second floor of the Northey building. Edward D. Kim- 
ball was its first president. In 1886 it had deposits amounting to $2,- 
500,000, with over eight thousand individual depositors. Today its 
statement show resources of $14,941,374.69 (May 24, 1921). The list 
of assets show almost three million dollars in United States bonds and 
nearly seven million dollars in loans and real estate. The total amount 
due the 31,279 depositors is $13,759,820.03. The present (1921) officers 



BANKS AND BANKING 599 

are Henry A. Hale, president ; Harry P. Giff ord, treasurer ; 0. S. Leigh- 
ton, assistant treasurer; board of investment, Henry M. Batchelder, 
Frank A. Brown, William R. Colby, Matthew Robson. 

Roger Conant Co-operative Bank was incorporated November 9, 
1894, at Salem, with officers as follows: Charles B. Balcomb, president; 
Patrick F. Tiemey, vice-president; Edward L. Millet, treasurer and 
secretary. The present (1921) officers are Vincent S. Peterson, presi- 
dent; Josiah H. Giff ord, vice-president; Joshua B. Merrill, treasurer; 
Robert B. Buckham, attorney; George B. Farrington, clerk. The 
authorized capital is one million dollars ; paid in capital, $862,695.66 ; 
present surplus, $33,168.61 ; resources and liabilities, $797,479.66. 

The Salem Trust Company was incorporated April 10, 1902, with a 
capital of $200,000. The first president was Graydon Stetson; Harry 
M. Wilkins, treasurer. Its capital is the same as when organized, and 
its suiplus is $50,000. Its resources and liabilities amount to $1,769.- 
625.13; recent deposits, $1,415,755.89. This institution succeeded to 
the First National Bank of Salem. The present officers are: Graydon 
Stetson, president; Fon-est L. Evans and Frank D. Tuttle, vice-presi- 
dents; Harry M. Wilkins, treasurer; William C. Long and Alfonso F. 
Fischer, assistant treasurers. 

Carmen-Kimball Company, bankers, Salem, established in 1919, suc- 
ceeding another private banking fimi that had been established in 1907. 
The first capital was $10,000 ; today it has reached $30,000, with a sur- 
plus of $1,363.71 ; resources and liabilities, $154,162.32 ; recent deposits 
are $33,760.48. This business was established by Kevie Carmen, who 
sold out to the Nutile Shai-pii'o Company. Mr. Kevie's was the first 
business of its kind in Salem. It has developed materially and nov/ 
serves the entire foreign population of the North Shore in all their busi- 
ness relations with their old homes. From a modest beginning when 
Mr. Carmen, in 1909, was the sole clerk, teller and cashier, it has grown 
until at the present time a force of five men are kept busy caring for 
the interests of its clients. The amount of money sent to Europe 
through this office totals Vv^ell over the million dollar mark. During the 
distress period of 1920, this firm sent two representatives to Europe, 
mainly to Poland, for relief work in connection with money transmit- 
tances. 

Lynn — In 1887 this was published concerning banking in the city 
of Lynn: "There are now (1887) in Lynn five banks of discount, with 
an aggregate capital of $1,1000,000, to wit: First National, capital, $500,- 
000 ; Central National, $200,000 ; National City, $200,000 ; National Se- 
curity, $100,000; Lynn National, $100,000. There are also two savings 
banks, namely: Lynn Institution of Savings and Lynn Five Cents Sav- 
ings Bank, with aggregate deposits of $4,710,000 in January, 1887." 

Great have been the financial changes wrought since the eighties in 
hyrm and all Essex county. An old directory shows that the Nahant 



600 ESSEX COUNTY 

Bank was incoi'porated in 1832 and failed in 1836, In 1854 the City 
Bank was incorporated, and reorganized in 1865 as a National bank. 

The Lynn Institution for Savings, at No. 25 Exchange street, was 
established in 1826, by Amariah Childs and about one hundred other 
citizens of Lynn. The first officers were Amariah Childs, president; 
Amos Rhodes, treasurer. After the passage of almost a century, the 
officers are Charles A. CoUins, president; Philip K. Parker, treasurer; 
Edith N. Hudson, assistant treasurer. Banks of this class have no 
capital stock, as they are conducted on the mutual plan. The resources 
and liabilities in June, 1921, were $12,500,000; surplus $1,018,000; re- 
cent deposits $11,332,000. The home of this bank is in the fine brick 
building erected in 1890, and is probably worth about $250,000 today. It 
is held jointly by the Essex Trust Company and the Lynn Institution for 
Savings. In the sweeping fire of 1889, this bank suffered loss by being 
burned out, after which for a time, it was located near the present Gas 
<& Electric Company building, on Exchange street. 

Central National Bank of Lynn, established in 1863, was founded 
by Francis and Henry Nev/hall in 1849 and styled the Leighton Bank, 
continuing as such until 1863. When the National Banking law was 
enacted, it was among the first to incorporate as a National bank. It 
was originally named "Leighton," after Thomas Leighton, a farmer, 
who settled in Lynn in 1638. The bank was first opened in the old 
Lyceum building, then at the comer of Summer and Market streets. 
Those were eventful times for business in Lynn. The Eastern railroad 
had just been completed, and the city's center of activity was moving 
gradually toward the water front, although many shoe factories still 
overlooked the commons. The Newhall brothers above named were the 
principal backers of this enterprise, and Francis Newhall became the 
first president. After nine years his brother took his place, being fol- 
lowed in office by Ezra W. Mudge, Philip A. Chase and Henry B. Sprague. 
The detailed stoiy of its progress, year by year, the various buildings 
which have housed its officers and the changes in its personnel, are mat- 
ters of history which are not so interesting at present as the new and 
larger institution which this history has evolved. The year 1921 finds 
the Central National Bank lodged in Central Square, in quarters it has 
now occupied since 1892. These rooms have been remodeled, new furni- 
ture and fixtures have been installed, and safe deposit facilities have been 
largely increased. All that plate glass and steel, all that science and 
system can do, has been done to remodel the offices, so that they offer 
every facility for the prompt and easy transaction of all kinds of banking 
business, as well as reflect the prosperity and progress of the institution 
itself. The present capital is $200,000 ; sui-plus over $500,000, undivided 
profits; recent deposits $5,500,000. The present officers are: Hem*y B. 
Sprague, president; James Brophy and Albert M. Creighton, vice- 
presidents; Herbert A. Cahoon, cashier and vice-president; Howard R. 
Young, assistant cashier; Herbert L. Doyle, assistant cashier. 



BANKS AND BANKING 601 

The National City Bank was established in October, 1854, by John 
C. Abbott, Otis Johnson and Amos P. Tapley. It was first known as 
City Bank of Lynn, and so continued until April 1, 1865, when it became 
a National bank. Its first capital was $100,000 ; its present capital is 
$200,000 ; surplus, $206,607.38 ; resources and liabilities, $5,223,481. Its 
recent deposits amounted to $4,629,367. The present site was pur- 
chased and a modem brick-concrete structure was built, and is now 
valued at $122,704. The first officers of this bank were John C. Abbott, 
president, from 1854 to 1858 ; Amos P. Tapley, from 1858 to 1893 ; Ben- 
jamin V. French, cashier, from 1854 to 1899. The present, or 1921 
oflficers, are: Arthur W. Pinkham, president; Francis E. Bruce, vice- 
president and cashier ; Albert S. Badger, assistant cashier. 

The Lynn Five Cents Savings Bank, located at No, 112 Market 
street, was established in 1855 by George Hood, Andrew Breed, Thomas 
B. Newhall, William F. Johnson, A. S. Moore, Dean Peabody, Charles B. 
Holmes, I. C. Breed, John Batchelder, Charles Merritt. The original 
oflficers were George Hood, president; John Batchelder, treasurer. The 
officers at this time (1921) are C. Fred Smith, president; Charles C. 
Handy, treasurer; Robert E. Ramsdell, assistant treasurer. Being a 
mutual savings bank, it necessarily has no capital, but its present re- 
sources and habilities amount to $9,228,650.28; present sui*plus, $781,- 
866.92; recent deposits, $8,195,456.46. The building, owned by the 
bank, v/as built in 1869, and is valued at $65,000. 

The Equitable Co-operative Bank, at No. 145 Monroe street, was 
estabhshed in 1877 by Benjamin E. Porter, Benjamin Dupar, D, A. 
Sutherland, James H. Richards, Thomas E. Ward, B. K. Prentiss and 
others. This is a m.utual financial institution, hence no capital is named ; 
its depositors are represented by the sum of $4,662,975. The present 
assets amount to $5,987,554.32 ; number of shares in force, 100,371 ; 
number of shareholders, 9,033. The dividend for six months shows a 
rate of five and one-half per cent, per annum. The present surplus and 
guaranty fund is $130,201 ; resources and liabilities, $6,026,645.72. In 
the great Lynn conflagration of 1889, being situated on Exchange streeij, 
this bank was totally destroyed, but in no manner crippled. It is the 
third largest co-operative bank in Massachusetts, only two others, both 
in Boston, surpassing it. The first officers were James H. Richards, 
president; W. C. Lamphier, vice-president; Benjamin E. Porter, secre- 
tary; A. M. Preble, treasurer. The 1921 officers are Albion Bartlett, 
president; Z. L. Seymour, vice-president; Edwin C. Lewis, treasurer and 
clerk. The assets by decades have been, in 1885, $36,781 ; in 1895, $365,- 
963; in 1905, $730,065; in 1915, $3,882,710; in 1920, it was $5,551,123. 

The Lynn Safe Deposit and Trust Company, comer of Market and 
Summer street, was established December 1, 1888, by John MacNair 
and several others. It took over the business of the Lynn National 
Bank, September 1st, 1915. The first officers were John Macnair, presi- 



602 ESSEX COUNTY 

dent; James E. Jenkins, treasurer. The present officers are Charles E. 
Harwood, president ; George E. Barnard, vice-president ; Charles W. Har- 
wood, vice-president; William Dunbar, treasurer; David Dunbai", assis- 
tant treasurer. The first capital was $100,000 ; the 1921 capital is $100,- 
000. The present sui-plus and profits are $349,834.40; resources and 
liabilities, $4,515,942.01. The reports show recent deposits to be $3,- 
969,356.43. 

The Manufacturers' National Bank, opposite the Boston & Maine 
station in Lynn, was established in 1891. The first officers were William 
A. Clark, Jr., president; W. B. Littlefield, vice-president; Frank L. Earl, 
cashier. The present officers are as follows: Clifton Colburn, presi- 
dent; W. M. Libbey, vice-president; Earl I. Foster, cashier; Joseph R. 
Vatcher, assistant cashier. The original as well as the present capital 
is $200,000 ; present surplus, $100,000 ; resources and habiUties, $5,- 
193,600 ; recent deposits $4,450,000. The bank is centrally located in a 
fine building, with all modern appliances for carrying on a large genera) 
banking business. 

The Lynn Co-operative Bank was established November 18, 1891, 
by Ralph W. Putnam and his associates. The present officers are as 
follows: Frank E. Wells, president; Fred A. Trafton, vice-president; 
Charles B. Bethune, treasurer. The present (1921) resources and ha- 
bilities are $1,435,057.92 ; profits, $184,854.38 ; reserve, $28,309.95. What 
is knovv'n in this class of banks as dues capital, amounts in this concern 
to $1,189,000.00. Among the items in the account of resources appears 
one in the May, 1921, statement of $1,293,565 for real estate loans. This 
bank has its headquarters in the Security Trust Building. The present 
security committee is as follows: Frank C. Reed, Robert S. Campbell, 
C. B. Bethune. The attorneys are Charles Leighton and Everett R. 
Campbell. 

Commonwealth Savings Bank was established at No. 325 Union 
street, in 1900, by Wilham M. Barney. The first officers were Benjamin 
W. Currier, president; George H. Allen, vice-president; Thomas Camp- 
bell, second vice-president; C. Neal Barney, clerk; William M. Barney, 
treasurer. The present (1921) officers are as follows: George H. Allen, 
president; Elmer E. Boyer, Patrick B. Magrane, Frank Hilliard, vice- 
presidents; Jesse M. Holder, clerk; Edward M. Barney, treasurer. The 
ti-ustees include George H. Allen, Edward M. Barney, Williami M. Barney, 
Maurice V. Bresnahan, Wilbeii; A. Bishop, Elmer E. Boyer, Frank J. 
Faulkner, John J. Heys, Frank Hilliard, Jesse M. Holder, Frank N. Hoyt, 
C. Hudson Johnson, Walter M. Libbey, Patrick M. Magi^ane, William 
M. Nye, Joseph G. Pinkham, George T. Till, Frank A. Turnbull. The 
present surplus is $70,020.47; recent deposits, $1,654,575.34; resources 
and liabilities, $1,739,037.95. 

Lincoln Co-operative Bank, No. 323 Union street, was established 
in 1909, by William M. Barney. Its first officers were W. M. Barney, 



BANKS AND BANKING 603 

president; Jesse M. Holder, vice-president; E. M. Barney, secretary; E. 
M. Barney, treasurer. The present officers are as foUows: Jesse M, 
Holder, president; Charles VVoodbridge and E. E. Boyer, vice-presidents; 
L. L. Barney, secretary; E. M. Barney, treasurer. The 1921 directors 
are L. L. Barney, E. M. Barney, W. M. Barney, E. H. Ballard, W. A. 
Bishop, E. E. Boyer, E. P. Buttei-field, T. J. Dumas, J. M. Holder, E. H. 
Kelley, W. M. Nye, A. E. Quick, Frank Smith, G. T. Till, C. G. Wood- 
bridge, James Bennett and Walter S. Libbey. The present capital is 
$293,765.34; sui-plus, $3,449,35; recent resources and liabilities, $301,- 
104.69. 

The Security Trust Company was established at No. 66 Central 
Square in 1910. The Security Safe Deposit and Trust Company was 
founded by Benjamin F. Spinney and associates in 1890. The National 
Security Bank consolidated with the Security Safe Deposit and Trust 
Company in 1910, forming- the present Security Trust Company. Its 
present capital, same as its first, is $200,000; surplus, $300,000; recent 
deposits, $7,356,715.23. Its statement of a recent date shows resources 
and liabilities to the amount of $8,022,128.05. Among the items in re- 
sources is found loans and discounts, $4,426,041.75; also loans on real 
estate, $2,070,131.21. The April 28, 1921, statement showed in the mat- 
ter of deposits, commercial, $4,530,380.21 ; savings, $2,826,335.05. The 
main office of this institution is at No. 66 Central Square, and it also has 
a branch bank at No. 31 Market Square. The main office and home is 
in the imposing flat-iron shaped stiiicture, eight stories in height, of 
solid limestone, value $500,000. The first business meeting held in this 
strictly modem banking house was April 9th, 1915. The Foreign De- 
partment, the Tnist Departm.ent and the Safe Deposit Department are 
each and all complete v/ithin them.selves. This conceni is a member of 
the Federal Reserve bank of Boston. The original officers were Ben- 
jamin F. Spinney, president; Luther S. Johnson, Samuel J. Hollis, C. 
Irving Lindsey, vice-presidents. The present officers are: Charles S. 
Sanborn, president; Benjamin F. Spinney, honorary president; Samuel 

C. Hutchinson, Harrison P. Burrill, vice-presidents; William M. Nye, 
treasurer; Edv/ard T. Chamberlain, cashier; Leo C. Stebbins, auditor; 
Ralph L. Law, manager West Lynn Branch. 

Essex Trust Company, at No. 25 Exchange street, was established 
February 28, 1814, hence is now one hundred and seven years old. It 
was founded by John Pratt, James Pratt, Daniel Silsbee, Joseph Fuller, 
3rd, Thomas Rich, Samuel Brimblecom and John D. Attwill. The Lynn 
Mechanics' Bank, opened February 28, 1814, was changed to the First 
National Bank of Lynn, December 9, 1864, and to the Essex Trust Com- 
pany on July 18, 1904. The original officers were Joseph Fuller (3d), 
president; Benjamin Ohver, clerk and cashier. The 1921 officers are 
M. P. Clough, chairman of the board ; H. Morris Kelley, president ; John 

D. Bartlett, vice-president; Hobart L. Walker, vice-president; Joshua 



604 ESSEX COUNTY 

Mills, treasurer; J. Frank Miller, assistant treasurer. This institution 
started on a capital of $100,000 ; today it has $250,000, with a surplus of 
$250,000. The June, 1921, statement, shows this bank to have had at 
that date assets amounting to $3,312,101.07 in the banking department 
and $108,6S2.34 in the trust department. The building in which it for- 
merly conducted its banking business was totally destroyed in the great 
conflagration of Novem-ber 26, 1889. One vault, containing many books 
and papers, was lost; the vault containing the money, notes and securi- 
ties withstood the flames, and the contents were safely transferred on 
November 29th to the vaults of the Lynn Safe Deposit and Trust Go. 
The bank resumed business the day after the fire, and all checks and 
drafts were honored on presentation. In 1891 the present bank build- 
ing, a free-stone structure, was built, valued at $75,000. This is the 
pioneer banking institution of Lynn, and during all the changes of finan- 
cial troubles in the United States, including the panics occasioned by 
wars and depression, it has steadily made its way. 

The State National Bank, No, 22 Central avenue, was established 
April 26, 1918. It was an effort upon the part of numerous Lynn mer- 
chants to have a bank owned and controlled by themselves. Its first and 
present capital represents $200,000. Its surplus is now $50,000; re- 
sources and liabilities, $2,500,000; deposits in June, 1921, $1,800,000. 
The first oflficers were Thomas H. Logan, president; James J. Donohue, 
vice-president; Ernest G. Mitchell, cashier; Frank E. Falkins, assistant 
cashier. The 1^1 officers are: Ernest G. Mitchell, president; James J. 
Donohue and Hiram E. Miller, vice-presidents ; Frank E. Falkins, cashier. 

The West Lynn Trust Company was established August 2, 1920, by 
the Lynn State Bank. August 2, 1920, the West Lynn Trust Company 
succeeded the Lynn State Bank, taking over all of its assets and liabili- 
ties. The Lynn State Bank was established November 1, 1919. The 
first officers of fhe Lynn State Bank, were Ernest G. Mitchell, president ; 
Benjamin F. Nason, treasurer. The present officers are William T. Mur- 
phy, president, and chairman of the board of directors ; Frank S. Newton, 
vice-president ; J. J. Donohue, vice-president ; John M. Nichols, treasurer. 
The first capital was $100,000, same as today; the surplus is now $25,- 
000 ; resources and liabilities, $550,000 ; recent deposits, $420,000. 

Danvers — The earliest bank established in Danvers, prior to the 
division of the town, was the Danvers bank, incorporated February 26, 
1825. The Western Bank was incorporated March 5, 1832, and both be- 
came Peabody institutions. The Village Bank was chartered by the 
legislature March 31, 1836, with a petition signed by John Page, Moses 
Black, Elias Putnam, Jeremiah Stone, Allen Putnam, Daniel P. King 
and Jacob F. Perry. The first meeting of stockholders was held at 
Eben G. Berry's tavern, April 22, 1836. Elias Putnam was chosen 
moderator, and Moses Black, Jr., clerk. The Sleeper residence was pur- 
chased for $2,800, and it was converted into a bank building. This was 



BANKS AND BANKING 605 

a large brick building on the northwest corner of the square of Plains 
Village. In June, 1836, it was voted "an engraving be taken, represent- 
ing the location and situation of the bank and vicinity for a picture on 
the bills." In the great fire of 1845, this building was destroyed, and 
various other buildings became the home of this concern, until 1854, 
when it erected a good brick structure. The charter of the bank was 
extended in 1849 to January, 1875. In 1864 it became the First National 
Bank of Danvers. William L. Weston was cashier for forty-three years, 
then resigned, succeeded by Benjamin E, Newhall, who held the posi- 
tion until 1906. The Danvers National Bank succeeded the First Na- 
tional Bank in 1904, and Gilbert A. Tapley was president from 1904 to 
1911 ; from 1911 to the present date, the president has been G. 0. Simp- 
son; and since 1913 the cashier has been R. S. Higgins. When the First 
National Bank liquidated, the Danvers National Bank was formed by Gil- 
bert A. Tapley, Walter A. Tapley, WiHiam M. Currier, Robert K. Sears 
and G. 0. Stimpson. Its capital is $100,000; resources and liabilities, 
$975,705.64 ; recent deposits, $785,455.82. A brick and granite building 
constmcted in 1855 is now valued at $50,000, and this is the home of 
the present bank. The Danvers Savings Bank was incorporated March, 
1850. Its first president was Gilbert Tapley, and William L. Weston 
was its treasurer for many years from the first of its history. 

The Danvers Co-operative Bank was established in 1892, with first 
ofl^icers as follows: President and director, J. Fletcher Pope; vice-presi- 
dent and director, Joseph W. Woodman ; treasurer and secretary, as well 
as one of the directors, Albert G. Allen, Jr. This bank is kept in the 
brick banking house of the Danvers National Bank; it was built in a 
cheap time, but the lot and building are still valued at $10,000. The 
assets in February, 1921, were $393,670.00. The present officers are as 
follows: President, Jasper Marsh; vice-president, Harry E. Jackson; 
treasurer, Carl A. Morse ; clerk, A. E. Perkins ; directors, Jasper Marsh, 
M. C. Pettingill, F. W. Marsh, Harry E. Jackson, Lester S. Couch, H. M. 
Wilkins, J. Ellis Nightingale, Winsor C. Nickerson; attorney, Harry E. 
Jackson. 

Ipswich — The people of Ipswich and vicinity had no money for 
the first two decades after the settlement. The medium of exchange 
was musket-bullets, wampum, and later a few English coins. In 1652 
silver was coined in Boston. Rogues soon began to clip and counter- 
feit the pieces, which occasioned the appointment of "searchers of 
coins." Massachusetts coined copper, silver and gold, from 1786 to 
1789, and the United States began coinage in 1793-94. Paper money 
was issued as early as 1690. At first the bills were expedient to meet 
the great expenses of the goverament in prosecuting the wars, and 
other necessary expenses, but finally the people lost confidence in such 
money, and widespread distress ensued. In 1781 seventy-five dollars 
in paper would only equal one of silver money. In the nineteenth cen- 



606 ESSEX COUNTY 

tuiy the national coinage, a system of State banking, obtained until the 
War of the Rebelhon came on, in 1861. Here in Ipswich an institution 
of this kind was established, or rather chartered, March 24, 1833, 
when Thomas Manning, Michael Bro\N'n, Ephraim F. Miller, Charles 
Kimball, Samuel N. Baker and Samuel S. Famngton became "the presi- 
dent, directors and company of the Ipswich Bank," to continue till Oc- 
tober 1, 1851; capital, $100,000. This banldng house stood opposite 
where later stood the new savings bank. 

"Joseph Ross, Aaron Cogswell, Frederick Willcomb and their asso- 
ciates and successors" were incorporated March 20, 1869, as the "Ips- 
■wich Savings Bank." The present resources and liabilities are $1,288,- 
665.02. The surplus in June, 1921, was $109,225.00; regular deposits, 
$1,167,938.33. The present officers are: President, George H. Green, 
vice-presidents, George Fall, Charles E. Goodliue; clerk, Arthur C. 
Damon; treasurer, George E. Farley. The trustees are as follows: 
George H. Green, Frank T. Goodhue, George E. Farley, David S. Farley, 
A. Story Brown, George Prescott, George B. Brown, Arthur C. Damon, 
Charles E. Goodhue, George Fall, Harry K. Damon, Clifford F. Chap- 
man, Wilham G. Horton, Norman J. Bolles. 

The First National Bank of Ipswich was estabhshed in 1892. Its 
capital has always been $50,000; present sui-plus and profits, $67,000; 
resources and liabilities, $596,600.00; recent deposits, $427,125.00. The 
bank is located in a brick building valued at $20,000. The organizers 
of this concern were as follows: George H. Carleton, C. J. Norwood, E. 
P. Dodge, E. H. Martin, H. A. Burnham, W. S. Russell, F. D. Hender- 
son, F. Willcomb, H. B. Little, I. J. Potter, William G. Brown. The 
first officers were: H. B. Little, president; W. S. Russell, vice-president; 
Charles M. Kelly, cashier. The present (1921) officers are C. Augustus 
Norwood, president; A. Story Bro\^^l, vice-president; Charles M. Kelly, 
cashier. 

Andover — What was known as the Andover National Bank was 
originally chartered by the State Legislature, in 1826, under the name of 
"the president, directors and company of the Andover Bank." The cor- 
porators were Samuel Farrar, Joseph Kettredge, Henry Skinner, Fran- 
cis Kidder, Hobart Clark and Mark Newman. The first semi-annual 
dividend was three and one-half per cent. In 1865 this bank was or-^ 
ganized as the Andover National Bank, after which it commenced pay- 
ing four and one-half per cent, semi-annual dividends. This institution 
has always been careful and conservative, hence never has met with 
great losses. Square Farrar held the office of president for thirty years, 
when he resigned in favor of John Flint, who served till his death in 
1873, and was succeeded by John L. Taylor, who served till 1880. Ed- 
ward Taylor followed Professor John Taylor. Up to 1887, all the presi- 
dents of this bank were treasurers of Phillips Academy, with the excep- 
tion of Mr. Flint. Present resources and liabilities, $1,565,594.60 ; cap- 



BANKS AND BANKING 607 

ital stock, $125,000 ; surplus, $100,000 ; undivided profits, $67,270.28 ; de- 
posits, $1,073,986.86, The officers are, Nathaniel Stevens, president; 
James C. Sawyer, vice president ; C. W. Holland, cashier. The directors 
are Frederic S. Boutwell, Burton S. Flagg, Frederick H. Jones, James C. 
Sawyer, George F. Smith, Samuel D. Stevens, Nathaniel Stevens. 

The Andover Savings Bank was incoiiDorated in 1834, in the month 
of April. It v>'as at first styled the Andover Institution of Savings. 
Later its name was changed to Andover Savings Bank. This being a 
mutual savings bank, it advertised no stated capital. The first officers 
were Amos Abbot, president; Amos Abbot, Paschal Abbot, B. H. Pun- 
chard, N. W. Hazen, George Hodges, Nathaniel Stevens, John Smith, 
John White, trustees; John Flint, treasurer. The present surplus is 
$265,379.09; deposits, $6,571,119.45; resources and liabilities, $7,355,- 
843.47. It operates in a leased building. A small amount was lost by 
a robbery many years ago. The present officers are Burton S. Flagg, 
president ; George Abbot, Frederick S. Boutwell, John H. Campion, John 
N. Cole, David Shaw, George F. Smith, Alfred E. Steams, Samuel D. 
Stevens, Colver J. Stone, trustees; Samuel D. Stevens, vice-president; 
Frederick S. Boutwell, treasurer; Alfred E. Steams, clerk. The dates 
and names as follows show the order in which the various presidents ol 
this bank have served: Amos Abbot, 1835-45; A. W. Hazen, 1845-52: 
Samuel Gray, 1852-61 ; Nathaniel Swift, 1861-79 ; John Abbot, 1879-82 ; 
Moses Foster, 1882-95; Nathaniel Stevens, 1895-1904; John H. Flint, 
1904-16; Burton S. Flagg, 1916 to the present time. 

Marblehead — Early in January, 1804, the principal business men 
of Marblehead, together with a few so-called capitalists, subscribed 
$100,000 toward the establishment of a bank, and applied to the legis- 
lature for an act of incorporation. March 7th the governor signed -the 
act to incorporate. It was known as the Marblehead Bank. Captain 
Joseph Barker was elected president, and John Pedrick cashier. The 
old "Lee Mansion" was later bought for $5,000, and converted into a 
banking house. 

During the year 1831 the Grand Bank was incoi-porated with a cap- 
ital of $100,000, its present capital being $120,000. The first president 
was Joseph W. Green, and John Sparhawk, Jr., was cashier. It is 
known at this time as the National Grand Bank of Marblehead. The 
present officers are: Everett Paine, president; Frank Cole, cashier; R. 
B. Hampson, assistant cashier. The bank building is of brick and stone. 
The April, 1921, statement, shows resources and liabilities, $979,257.49 ; 
capital stock paid in $120,000 ; surplus, $100,000 ; undivided profits, $45,- 
429.09; individual deposits subject to check, $574,894.92. 

The Marblehead Co-operative Bank was established in 1886 with 
no specified fixed capital, with officers as follows : John Lancy, president ; 
John A. Martin, vice-president; Henry C. Millett, treasurer. The pres- 
ent resources and liabilities amount to $337,000.00. 



608 ESSEX COUNTY 

The Marblehead Savings Bank, at 153 Washington street, was or- 
ganized March 18, 1871, by Jonathan H. Orae and many other citizens 
of Essex county. Its present resources and liabihties are $943,013.90; 
sui-plus, $58,114.10; recent deposits, $869,589.81. The original officers 
were John F. Harris, president; Jonathan H. Ome, N. P. Sanborn, Ben- 
jamin Lindsey, Thomas Garney, vice presidents; Isaac C. Wyman, Sam- 
uel Sparhawk, Henry Hooper, Thomas Appleton, Benjamin P. Ware, 
Henry A. Potter, William Hammond, Henry F. Pitman, William B, 
Brown, H. H. F. Whittemore, T. T. Paine, J. J. H. Gregory, Daniel Gile, 
R. P. A. Harris, trustees; William Gilley, Jr., treasurer; M. J. Doak, 
secretary. The bank is in a solid brick building valued at $10,000. The 
officers in the summer of 1921 are as follows : John L. Gilbert, president ; 
Robert C. Bridge, E. S. Doane, William J. Goldthwait, Edward D. Tutt, 
vice-presidents; Robert C. Bridge, Frank Cole, Frank E. Conly, Ernest 
S. Doane, Thomas S. Eastland, Edward W. Farrell, John L. Gilbert, 
William J. Goldthwait, Robert B. Hamson, William B. Merritt, William 
F. Nutting, Everett Paine, John D. Paine, Thomas W. Paine, Horace S. 
Swetland, Edward D. Tutt, Richard Tutt, Joseph S. Wormstead, trus- 
tees. The present treasurer is William F. Nutting ; the clerk is Richard 
Tutt. 

Gloucester — Nothing definite is now obtainable concerning the 
very earliest attempts at operating the banking business in Gloucester. 
The two-volume history of Essex county published in 1886, had this to 
say concerning banking there, up to that date: "There are four banks in 
Gloucester, established in the following order of time: The Gloucester 
Bank, 1796; the Cape Ann, 1855; First National, 1864; City National, 
1875 ; Cape Ann Savings Bank, incorporated in 1846." 

The Gloucester National Bank, first established in 1796 as the 
Gloucester Bank, is now operated with a capital of $100,000, and surplus 
of $132,000, while its books show deposits amounting to $1,400,000. 
The bank building is of limestone and brick, valued at $150,000. The 
present officers are George O. Stacy, president ; Charles T. Heberle, John 
A. Johnson, vice-presidents; Kenneth J. Ferguson, cashier; Chester L. 
Curtis, assistant cashier. 

The Cape Ann Savings Bank was established in April, 1846, by 
Joseph Reynolds, John C. Calef, Gorham Parsons, Michael T. Todd, John 
J. Babson, Edward Daniels, WilUam Ferson, Eben H. Stacy, William 
Babson, Jr., James Sawyer, Jr., Samuel Stevens, Benj. F. Somes, Fred- 
erick G. Low, Samuel A. Stacy, Samuel Jones, Stephen L. Davis, Ad- 
dison Gilbert, Alfred Cresson. The original officers were John W. Lowe, 
president; William Babson, Jr., secretary. The trustees were Addison 
Gilbert, James Mansfield, Samuel Jones, Joseph Friend, Frederick G. 
Low. The present officers are : Trustees, Lincoln S. Simonds, president ; 
Fred A. Barker, vice-president; John J. Pew, Snow P. F. Cook, Ezra L. 
Philips, Fred S. Thompson, George H. Perkins, F. C. Pearce, Edward S. 



BANKS AND BANKING 609 

Griffin, Wm. E. Kerr, George 0. Stacy, Frederick H. Tarr, John J. Eagan, 
Elmer W. Babson, Daniel T. Babson, treasurer ; Conrad R. Hanson, assis- 
tant treasurer. The present guarantee profit and loss and undivided 
earnings is $433,301.92. Recent amount in deposits, $4,059,220.82 ; re- 
sources and liabilities, $4,542,713.21. 

The Cape Ann National Bank of Gloucester was established in 1856 
as the Bank of Cape Ann. Its original directors included Gorham P. 
Low, John Pew, Moses Tarr, George F. Monson, David White, Josiah 0. 
Proctor, Joshua P. Fisk. The Cape Ann National Bank succeeded the 
old Bank of Cape Ann in 1856, and it became a national bank in 1865. 
Gorham P. Low was president in 1856, and Samuel J. Giles, cashier. In 
1865 the cashier was Hiram Rich. The first capital, as well as that of 
today, was $150,000. The present surplus and profits is $177,000; re- 
cent amount in deposits, $1,800,000 ; present-day resources and liabilities, 
$2,325,000. This bank is housed in its own brick building, valued at 
$60,000. In 1864 the original bank building was burned and rebuilt; it 
was recently enlarged, and this also gives greater vault space. To show 
the steady gi'owth of this financial concern, it may be stated that de- 
posits in 1905 amounted to $267,000; in 1910, $593,000; in 1915, over 
$1,000,000; in 1920 over $1,600,000. The present officers are John J. 
Pew, president; Enoch Bumham, vice-president; Kilby W. Shute, cash- 
ier; J. Hollis Griffin, assistant cashier; Charles A. Ingalls, assistant 
cashier. The present directors are John J. Pew, Enoch Bumham, A. M. 
I^owlton, Fred Bradley, Edv^^ard S. Griffin, N. Carlton Phillips, Kilby 
W. Shute, William P. Stanley, Frank C. Pearce, William G. Brown, Jr., 
William J. Maclnnis, L. Wetherell, William E. Kerr, Arthur C. Davis, 
Dr. Roy Garland. 

Tiie Gloucester Co-operative Bank was organized February 3, 1887 ; 
chartered March 2, 1887 ; began business April 14, 1887. This bank was 
founded by Everett Lane of Rockport, Massachusetts. Shares have 
been credited with six per cent, per annum since the incorporation of 
the banli. The first oflacers v/ere W. Frank Parsons, Cyrus Story, Ever- 
ett Lane, X. D. Tingley, George E. Lane, J. B. Green, Herbert C. Taft, 
D. 0. Marshall, A. G. Andrews, H. A. Swett, J. M. Cloutman, D. W. 
Low, G. A. Lowe, 0. E. Parsons, D. 0. Frost, Herbert Presson, J. C. 
Shepherd, Sidney F. Haskell, A. P. Stoddart. The present (1921) ofiicers 
are Maurice F. Foley, Daniel 0. Marshall, Everett Lane, George E. Mer- 
chant, Frederick Lane, Edward Hodgkins, Frank W. Lothrop, Joseph 
H. MacPhee, Alfred E. Presson, John A. Hawson, J. William Darcy, Eben 
C, Carroll, John J. Lowriee, M. Francis Buckley, Frederick A. Shackel- 
ford. Starting with a nominal capital this institution now has re- 
sources of $1,215,633.04; it also has a large surplus fund. The motto 
of this banlc is "The American Home the Safeguard of American Liber- 
ties." 

The Gloucester Safe Deposit and Trust Company was established 

Essex — 39 



610 ESSEX COUNTY 

in 1892 by a large number of stockholders. By liquidation, it merged 
with the First National Bank and also the City National Bank. The 
present officers are C. E. Fisher, president ; George H. Perkins and Isaac 
Patch, vice-presidents; Horace A. Smith, treasurer; and H. M. Demmon, 
assistant treasurer. At first the capital was $100,000, now $200,000 
with a surplus of $200,000 more. Recent deposits amounted to $3,939,- 
740.02. This concern occupies its own bank building, a three-story brick, 
with red granite front. The present value is placed at $100,000. 

Saugus — The Saugus Co-operative Bank was founded by numer- 
ous citizens in May, 1911. The first officers were Frank P. Bennett, Jr., 
president; Henry J. Mills, vice-president; J. Arthur Raddin, clerk; 
Joseph G. Bryer, treasurer. The present officers are Thomas Parsons, 
president; Walter L. C. Niles, vice-president; J. Arthur Raddin, clerk; 
Horace Ramsdell, treasurer. The present capital is $200,000; surplus 
and guarantee fund, $772.62; resources and liabilities, $194,567.73; de- 
posits, $144,567.73. 

Beverly — The Beverly National Bank, one of the most impor- 
tant factors in the financial life of the city, was incorporated in 1802 
with a capital of $160,000, reduced in 1815 to $100,000, but increased in 
1836 to $125,000. In 1865 it became the Beverly National Bank, with a 
capital in 1885 of $200,000. Its first president was Israel Thomdike, 
succeeded by Moses Brown, Joshua Fisher, William Leach, Pyam Lovett, 
Albert Thomdike, Samuel Endicott and John Picket. In the first eighty- 
five years of its existence it had only three cashiers — Josiah Gould, Al- 
bert Thomdike and Robert G. Bennett. Its present officers are Andrew 
W. Rogers, president; Charles E. Ober, vice-president; Edward S. Web- 
ber, cashier; Frank W. Foster, assistant cashier. It was organi2jed as 
a National bank, March 16, 1865. It commenced banking operations on 
a capital of $80,000, but is now working with a capital of $300,000, with 
a surplus of $256,921.21. Its recent deposits amount to $2,011,372.16; 
its resources and liabilities are $2,758,931.82. The order in which this 
bank increased its capital was as follows : At first it was $80,000 ; then 
$100,000 ; next $130,000, then $160,000, but of recent years as a National 
bank it has a capital of $300,000. This business is conducted in a leased 
building. The present directors are Andrew W. Rogers, Joseph C. Kil- 
ham, Geo. P. Brown, Walter A. Perry, Herman S. Brett, Ruel P. Pope, 
Roland W. Boyden, Charles E. Ober, George E. Rowe, T. F. Delaney, 
Ralph D. Stanley, Ozro M. Field. 

The Beverly Savings Bank was incorporated in 1867. Its state- 
ment in June, 1921, gives deposits, $4,902,096.05; total liabilities, $5,- 
321,875.06. Among the assets are almost one million dollars in U. S. 
Liberty bonds ; railroad bonds and notes, $927,000 ; loans on real estate, 
$2,020,168. Cash on hand and in banks, $59,947.76. The officers are 
Roland W. Boyden, president; Arthur K, Story, treasurer; committee 
of investment, Roland W. Boj'-den, Herman P. Brett, Arthur A. Fomess, 



BANKS AND BANKING 611 

Patrick J. Lynch, Frederick H. Perry. Deposits are here received from 
one dollar up to $2,000, and put upon interest the 15th of each month. 

The Beverly Co-operative Bank was organized September, 1888, on 
a capital of $1,000. The first officers were Octavius Howe, president; 
Charles F. Lee, secretary. The 1921 officers George P. Brown, president; 
Charles F. Lee, treasurer ; Harrie L. Ober, assistant treasurer. The sur- 
plus and guarantee fund amounts to $42,763.23 ; resources and liabilities, 
$1,275,380.71. This bank is located at No. 155 Cabot street. Its at- 
torney is Dennis W. Quill. The thirty-third annual report shows that it 
is in an excellent financial condition. The increase over the previous 
year in business volume amounted to $148,128, or over ninety-four per 
cent. 

The Beverly Trust Company was incorporated May, 1914, and com- 
menced business the following August. Its chief office is at No. 217 
Cabot street, while its branch place is at 721 Hall street. This business 
was established by Ulysses G. Haskell, Charles W. Tresh, John J. Nu- 
gent, Walter S. Flint. The present officers are U. G. Haskell, president ; 
Frank I. Lamasney, and Walter S. Flint, vice-presidents ; Caleb B. Hood, 
treasurer; Charles A. King, secretary. The present financial committee 
is as follows : CJeorge K. Thornton, George A. Endicott, Merton E. Ober. 
The first and present capital is $100,000; present surplus, $27,000; re- 
cent deposits — commercial, $397,900.65; savings, $546,529.72; totals 
$944,430.37; resources and liabilities, $1,091,907.70. In this institution 
is carried on a general banking business, savings department and trust 
department. 

Amesbury — The Provident Institution of Savings in the towns of 
Salisbury and Amesbury was established in 1828. Its first officers were 
Jacob Brown, president; Robert Patten, treasurer. The 1921, or pres- 
ent officers are Alfred C. Webster, president; Ralph P. Tine, treasurer, 
and Elsa L. Williams, teller. This institution now occupies its fine, 
modem bank structure erected in 1921, of brick and marble material. 
The number of open accounts is (June, 1921) 9,013; deposits, $4,041,971; 
assets, $4,458,336. 

The Powov; River National Bank, Amesbury, was incorporated as a 
private banking house in 1836, and as a National Bank in 1865. Little 
can be obtained from the archives of this concern concerning its earlier 
history. Its present capital is $100,000 ; surplus, $50,000 ; resources and 
liabilities, "$1,565,660.06. The surplus and undivided profits on the $100,- 
000 capital, amounts to about $109,380. The circulating notes are in 
the sum of $48,400 ; deposits $1,140,899.31. (These figures are from the 
December, 1920, statement.) It owns its own bank building, a brick 
structure valued at $27,500. The present officers are Benj. F. Sargent, 
president; William Bloom, and Harland A. Sawyer, vice-presidents; 
John Gibbons, cashier. Directors, B. F. Sargent, H. A. Sawyer, George 
E. Collins, Alfred C. Webster, William Bloom, J. H. Walker, W. E. Biddle, 
A. J. Anderson, Frank M. Hoj^. 



612 ESSEX COUNTY 

The Amesbury Co-operative Bank, Amesbury, was established in 
1886, but by whom is not disclosed by any data furnished the historian. 
This bank is a member of the State Bankers' League, and has for its 
present officers William W. Hawkes, president; Richard E. Briggs, vice- 
president ; John Gibbons, clerk and treasurer ; Jacob T. Choate, attorney ; 
other directors are John Currier, Charles Scofield, George E. Collins. 
May, 1921, this bank had resources amounting to $359,785.97; balance 
on hand, November, 1920, $25,365. 

Newburyport — On June 25, 1795, the Merrimac Bank was in- 
corporated to operate in Newburyport, being the first in the place. This 
institution united with the Newburyport Bank in 1805, the concern being 
recorded as the Newburyport Bank until 1831, when it was succeeded by 
the Merchants' Bank. The business was continued under the State 
charter until 1865, when the bank entered the National Banking System, 
under the name of the Merchants' National Bank of Newburyport. The 
first president of the original bank was William Bartlet, who served 
from 1795 to 1831. His successors were: John Wills, 1831-32; Henry 
Johnson, 1832-53; Micajah Lunt, Jr., 1853-70; Nathaniel Hills, 1870-79; 
Isaac H. Boardman, 1879-87 ; Philip H. Blumpey, 1887-1902 ; William R. 
Johnson, 1902, to present date. One of the earliest directors was Hon. 
Caleb Gushing. Joseph J. Knapp and John N. Gushing served the 
longest terms, being directors for nearly fifty years. During the period 
of one hundred and nine years from 1812 to the present day, there have 
been only four cashiers — Samuel Mulliken who resigned in 1851, aged 
eighty-two years ; Gyles P. Stone, who served from 1851 until his death 
in 1876, when he was succeeded by Albert W. Greenleaf, who continued 
until 1899, when at his decease he was succeeded by the present cashier, 
William Hsley. Edward F. Noyes was elected assistant cashier in ly^o. 
Jbfom 1865, when this bank became a National Bank, the officers were 
as follows: Micajah Lunt, presicrent; li. r. Stone, cashier; A. W. Green- 
leaf, bookkeei)er; Charles E. Stone, messenger. Directors, Micajah 
Lunt, J. J. Knapp, Nathaniel Hills, Isaac H. Boardman, William Graves, 
John N. Gushing, William Gushing. The present (1921) officers are 
William R. Johnson, president ; William Ilsley, cashier ; Edgar F. Noyes, 
assistant cashier. The structure in which this institution is housed is a 
fine brick and limestone building, valued at $50,000. The bank was 
capitalized when it became a national institution for the same amount 
as it operates under today, $120,000. The present surplus is $120,000 ; 
undivided profits, $30,000; resources and liabihties, $1,110,821.95; de- 
posits, $727,170.93. 

The Institution for Savings in Newburyport and its vicinity, was 
organized January 31, 1820, a little more than a century ago. It was 
founded by thirty-four residents of Newburyport. The first officers were 
Wilham B. Banister, president; Jeremiah Nelson, Thomas M. Clark and 
Thomas Carter, vice-presidents; Peter Le Breton, treasurer; Samuel 



BANKS AND BANKING 613 

Tenney, secretary. This is the list of presidents to the present, 1921 
William Bostwick Banister, 1820-1830; Thomas M. Clark, 1831-1841 
Eleazer Hale, 1842; Ebenezer Hale, 1843-1845 ; Micaj ah Lunt, 1846-1854 
Josiah Little, 1855-1860; Edward S. Moseley, 1860-1898; Henry B. Lit- 
tle, 1899 to the present. The treasurers have been Peter Le Breton, 
Jeremiah Nelson, John Harrod, Nathaniel Hills, Richard Stone, Philip 
K. Hills, L. W. Piper and William Balch, the last named coming into 
office in 1907. The present officers are Henry B. Little, president; Will- 
iam Balch, treasurer; George F. Avery, secretary. The present bank 
building was erected in 1872 and remodeled in 1903, and is an up-to-date 
structure; it is a brown-stone front building. This concern has in its 
century of existence never had a loss by fire, flood or robbery, and "has 
alwa3^s paid spot cash," dollar for dollar, in all its transactions. In June, 
1921, the books showed a surplus of $751,000; resources and liabilities, 
$9,015,000 ; deposits $8,230,000. The growth of deposits by decades has 
been: 1830, $80,193; 1840, $337,766; 1850, $567,530; 1860, $1,432,920; 
1870, $2,837,366; 1880, $4,003,650; 1890, $5,139,859; 1900, $6,178,793; 
1910, $7,008,932 ; 1920, $7,801,118. The rates have varied from three and 
one-half to eight per cent, per annum. At the present time there are 
deposits from nearly every State in the Union and from several foreign 
countries. 

The Newburyport Five Cents Savings Bank, was organized April 
24, 1854, the act of its incorporation reads in part as follows : "Section 1 — 
Dudley D. Tilton, John Balch, Edward S. Lesley, John Porter, Daniel D. 
Pike, Benjamin I. Lane, Luther F. Dimmick, Daniel M. Reed, Samuel J. 
Spalding, William C. Balch, Richard Plumer, their associates and succes- 
sors, are hereby made a corporation by the name of the Newburyport 
Five Cents Savings Bank, to be established in the city of Newburyport, 
with all the powers and privileges, and subject to all the duties, liabili- 
ties and restrictions set forth in the 36th Chapter of the Revised Statutes, 
and of all the laws of the Commonwealth relating to institutions of 
savings. 

"Section 2 — Said Corporation shall receive on deposit sums as small 
as five cents." [Passed by the House of Representatives, April 22, 1854 
and by the Senate, April 24, 1854.] 

The present surplus is $354,100; resources and liabilities, $4,020,997; 
recent deposits, $3,647,000. The building occupied by the bank was 
erected in 1874 and is now valued at $100,000. The first officers were 
Joseph B. Morse, president; James Horton, John Porter, Wm. C. Balch, 
Henry Bartlett, vice-presidents; Daniel P. Pike, secretary; James Hor- 
ton, treasurer. The present (1921) officers are these: Charles Thurlow, 
president ; Nathaniel Dole, Erskine Clement, Arthur C. Nason, Henry B. 
Trask, James H. Higgins, vice-presidents; John T. Lunt, treasurer; J. 
Willis Currier, teller. The latest dividend rate was five per cent. 

Another bank was opened in Newburyport, incorporated in 1836, 



614 ESSEX COUNTY 

with a capital of $100,000. It was wound up honorably in 1845. The 
Mechanics' Bank was established in 1813, and finally had a capital, as 
reported in 1887, of $250,000. In 1864 it became the Mechanics' Nation- 
al Bank. The First National Bank was established in 1864 and in the 
eighties had a capital of $300,000. (See later accounts) . 

The Ocean National Bank was established in 1865. The first 
officers were William Gushing, president; Philip H. Lunt, cashier. The 
present (1921) officers are George W. Richardson, president; John H. 
Balch, Jr., vice-president; E. S. Woodwell, cashier. It opened with and 
still has a capital of $150,000; its surplus is $50,000; present resources 
and liabilities are $961,925, and the recent total of its deposits is 
$530,000. This institution succeeded the old Ocean Bank above re- 
ferred to. Its present bank building property is valued at $10,000. Its 
charter number is 1011, and it is within the First Reserve District. 

The Newburyport Go-operative Bank was organized March 15, 1888, 
by George E. Stickney. Its first officers were Luther Dame, president; 
Frank L. Wilder, vice-president, and George E. Stickney, treasurer. The 
bank's officers at this date (1921) are Gharles E. Hale, president; Henry 
W. Little, vice-president; George E. Stickney, treasurer; Webster D. 
Adams, assistant treasurer. The resources and liabilities are $832,- 
612.84. The April, 1921, statement shows a capital (dues) of $606,813.- 
00. The profits have been $146,640.23. The present surplus is $4,- 
031.00. The resources include cash, $17,000 ; U. S. Liberty bonds, $45,- 
000 ; real estate loans, $760,000. The 1921 directors are George E. Stick- 
ney, Leonard N. Kent, Henry W. Little, William F. Houston, Samuel 
Brookings, Gharles E. Hale, Henry A. Pistorius, Nathaniel M. Jones, 
Webster D. Adams, George E. Gooper, John H. Badd, Albert M. Weather- 
by, Gharles W. Perry; attorney, Nathaniel N. Jones. 

Lawrence — The Bay State National Bank of Lawrence is the 
oldest and among the most prominent financial institutions in Essex 
county. It is the only National bank in Lawrence, and received its char- 
ter February 10, 1847, under the earlier banking system of the country. 
It was organized May 17, 1847, with Gharles S. Storrow as president, 
and Nathaniel White as cashier. Its first capital was fixed at $200,000, 
soon raised to $500,000. Soon after the organization of this bank, a 
piece of land at the corner of Essex and Lawrence streets was deeded 
by the Essex Gompany, and a fine structure was erected thereon, a 
portion of which building was used for banking purposes for fifty-seven 
years. The price paid for the lot just mentioned was one dollar per 
foot. The original building was of brick, three stories in height, with 
banking rooms on the second floor. On April 17, 1861, two days before 
the gallant Sixth Regiment marched through Baltimore, the directors 
voted $25,000 for the use of the government. In 1865 the bank became 
a National or Federal bank. As the years passed and business rapidly 
increased, more room was demanded and secured by this concern; the 



BANKS AND BANKING 615 

last change and addition being effected in 1912, when the building was 
greatly enlarged and improved. It now has a frontage on Essex street 
of seventy-six feet, by two hundred and six feet in depth. The cost of 
this fine structure was about a half million dollars. It is the highest 
structure in Lawrence. It has in all, two hundred and thirty rooms, 
devoted to offices principally. This institution does a general banking 
business, and is equipped with the most modem fixtures and safety 
vaults. Three years ago its capital stock was $375,000; sui'plus $225,- 
000 ; deposits, $2,200,000 ; assets, $3,400,000. 

The Essex Savings Bank, the largest bank in Essex county, and 
the first savings bank established in the city of Lav/rence, was incor- 
porated March 15, 1847, and commenced business the following October, 
in the rooms of the old Bay State Bank building. Charles S. Storrow 
was the first president, and Nathaniel White the first treasurer. Mr. 
Storrow served until 1860, and was succeeded by George D. Cabot, and 
he in turn by Joseph Shattuck in 1877. Mr. Shattuck retired in 1908, 
after twenty-six years as president. Walter E. Parker, the present in- 
cumbent, was then elected president. Nathaniel White filled the office 
of treasurer until called by death in September, 1866. He was follov/ed 
by James H. Eaton, who served until his death, March, 1901. During 
his seiTice of thirty-four years Mr. Eaton applied himself diligently to 
the work of the bank. His conscientious devotion to duty, together v/ith 
his strong personality and rem^arkable ability in matters of finance, v/on 
for him an enviable reputation and redounded to the success of the in- 
stitution. At his decease Joseph Shattuck, Jr., was elected treasurer, 
resigning in 1902, to accept a similar position in the Springfield Institu- 
tion for Savings, Springfield, Mass. He was succeeded by Albert I. 
Couch, who still fills the office. This bank owns its own building at the 
comer of Essex and Lawrence streets. The bank's quarters were large- 
ly increased in size in 1917 by the addition of other adjoining property 
owned by the bank. The institution has the best of facilities for the 
prompt and efficient transaction of business, and the protective devices 
are of the most approved description. The security vault is of very 
heavy construction and equipped with the m^ost modern electrical pro- 
tective appliances. The resources of the bank are now $19,600,000 ; de- 
posits amount to $17,700,000 ; the surplus is $1,750,000. The Essex Sav- 
ings Bank has never failed to compound interest each April and October, 
and the 147 dividends already declared amount to $16,664,573.72. Since 
Mr. Couch became treasurer, about twenty years ago, the deposits have 
increased more than $9,000,000, while the surplus and undivided profits 
have increased more than $900,000. The bank has always enjoyed the 
confidence of all classes in the community, hence its wonderful grov/th. 

The Lawrence Savings Bank, the second savings institution to be 
established in Lawrence, was chartered by special legislative act March 
10, 1868. It is located at 255 Essex street, corner City Hall Square. It 



616 ESSEX COUNTY 

was founded by Milton Bonney, president ; William H. Salisbury, Daniel 
Saunders, Jr., and Frederick E. Clarke, vice-presidents. The ofiicers, 
(1921) are Alvin E. Mack, president; Joseph S. Howe and William E. 
Philbrick, vice-presidents ; Directors — Mahlon D. Currier, Lewis A. Foye, 
Newton P. Frye, Joseph S. Howe, Frank W. McLanathan, Charles H. 
Kitchin, James A. McDonald, Alvin E. Mack, William T. McAlpine, 
Joseph E. Wohvorth, Kendall S. Norweed, John A. Perkins, William E. 
Fhilbriclr, Roland A. Prescott, Dean K. Webster. The treasurer is Lewis 
A. Foye; clerk, Newton P. Frye; board of investment, Alvin E. Mack, 
William E. Philbrick, Kendall S. Norwood. The present surplus is $936,- 
142; resources and liabihties, $10,193,998; recent deposits, $9,228,550. 
The building occupied by this bank was erected in 1912, of brick and 
stone, and is valued at $200,000. This institution also carries school 
savings banks in North Andover, Methuen and Lawrence, and publishes a 
monthly paper, called "Thrift News," distributed gratis to customers. 
The site of the present bank building was originally the property of the 
old Pemberton National Bank, which decided to retire from the banking 
field in 1893. 

The Broadway Savings Bank was established in 1872. Various, 
buildings constituted its quarters until in 1905, at a cost of $60,000, the 
bank erected the building at No. 522 Essex street, in which it is now 
located. The first president was John Fallon, and the first treasurer, 
James Payne. In April, 1918, this concern had assets amounting to 
$6,000,000 ; suiT)lus, $528,650 ; deposits, $5,381,000. Clinton 0. Andrews 
succeeded Gilbert E. Hood, upon the latter's death in 1905. 

The Merrimack Co-operative Bank was organized April 2, 1892, with 
John Breen, president ; C. J. Conovan, secretary ; C. A. McCarthy, treas- 
urer. Its first capital was $5,000, but its present capital is $910,627; 
profits reported, $156,755 ; present surplus and guarantee fund, $12,686. 
The 1921 oflficers are President, John J. Hurley ; James V. Brogan, vice- 
president; C. A. McCarthy, treasurer. 

The Arlington Trust Company was established first as the Arling- 
ton National Bank in 1890, and was then located at No. 265 Essex street. 
Later it absorbed the Pemberton National Bank, and subsequently pur- 
chased its present site, corner of Essex and Lawrence streets. The first 
officers in charge of the present organization were as follows: Thomas 
M. Cogswell, president; James F. Lanigan, vice-president; James Hous- 
ton, treasurer. The present officers are John A. Brackett, president ; Wil- 
liam H. Russell, vice-president ; C. A. McCarthy, secretary and treasurer. 
The original capital was the same as today, $200,000; present surplus, 
$50,000; profits, $54,000; resources and liabilities, $4,000,000; recent 
amount of deposits, $3,600,000. This concern owns its building, erected 
in 1908, and it is valued at $125,000. Since 1918, this bank has grown 
very rapidly, the increase being over two million dollars. 

The Merchants' Trust Company was established in 1911, as a 



BANKS AND BANKING 617 

consolidation of the Lawrence National Bank and Merchants National 
Bank, and in 1915, with the addition of the old Pacific National Banlc. 
Its first officers were James R. Simpson, chairman; Harry K. Webster, 
chairman of board of directors ; G. Fred Russell, president ; A. C. Dame, 
secretary. The original and present capital is $300,000, with a present 
suii>lus of $150,000. The resources and habilities are $7,209,220.16; 
recent amount of deposits, $6,565,309.02. The present bank building 
was erected in 1919, and is valued at $225,000. This bank is a member 
of the Federal Reserve system. It is directed by a board of directors 
of thirty-six men, well calculated to handle its large, increasing volume of 
business. The present officers are Henry L. Sherman, president ; Arthur 
C. Dame, treasurer; Arthur J. Crosby, assistant treasurer; Edwad L. 
South wick, assistant treasurer; Weston F. Eastman, assistant treasurer; 
also manager of the Broadway office. 

The Lawrence Trust Company was incorporated in 1910, in July, but 
did not open its doors for business until November 23 of that year. Cor- 
nelius J. Corcoran, present head of the bank, was its first president, and 
Peter MacDonald was the first treasurer. In 1915, having outgrowTi its 
business quarters it moved to its present location at the comer of Essex 
and Hampshire streets. In 1919 the following was written concerning 
this bank: 

The very latest methods and appliances for facilitating the handling of the busi- 
ness are in vogue. The institution was the first bank in the city to use bookkeep- 
ing machines which displaced the ordinary individual bank ledgers. It was also the 
first in Lawrence to establish a Christmas savings club, a project which has since 
been generally adopted and which has proved beneficial to the merchants. At the 
close of the last season the Lawrence Trust company distributed to the members 
of its Christmas Club $300,000, most of which went into the channels of trade. 
This bank is reputed to be the originator of the scheme of selling Liberty Bonds by 
the weekly payment plan. A recent innovation adopted by it was a departure from 
the regular banking hours. Under the new plan, the institution remains open until 
six p. m. each business day, thus giving the people employed in the shops and mills 
more opportunity with the bank. Two shifts of clerks are used in carrying out the 
plan. 

Peabody — The Danvers Bank, later the South Danvers National 
Bank, was incorporated in 1825 with a capital of $150,000. The first 
president was William Sutton. The Warren Bank, later Warren Nation- 
al Bank, was incorporated in 1832 with a capital of $250,000. Its first 
president was Jonathan Shove. 

The Warren Five Cent Savings Bank was incori^orated in 1854, and 
was located in the Warren Bank, now the Warren National Bank, and 
continued there for a number of years, when it opened a separate bank- 
ing room. Its first president was Dr. George Osbom. In the spring of 
1906 the bank was removed to its present quarters, having purchased the 
building foiTnerly owned by the South Danvers National Bank. Its 
growth has been steady, and since 1904 its deposits and total assets have 



618 ESSEX COUNTY 

doubled in amount, being at the present time as follows : Deposits, $5,- 
553,000.00; assets, $6,266,000. The vice-presidents are George E. 
Spaulding, William F. Sawyer, John A. Lord, Horace K. Foster, Ben- 
jamin G. Hall and Patrick H. O'Conor. The president is Arthur F. Poole ; 
ti'easurer, A. H. Merrill; assistant treasurer, Abbott B. Gallonpe; clerk, 
George R. Undei'Vt^ood. Mr. Merrill, the treasurer, has been connected 
with this bank for over fifty years, and Mr. Poole, present president, 
has filled the position he now holds since 1904, succeeding Mr. Rufus H. 
Brown, who served as president twenty-eight years. The present sur- 
plus is $609,451.09 ; resources, $6,315,886.67 ; liabilities, $5,706,435.58 ; re- 
cent deposits, $5,695,972.42. 

The Warren National Bank of Peabody was established as a Na- 
tional Bank in December, 1864, being the successor of the old Warren 
State Bank. Its first capital was $250,000, which has been reduced to 
$200,000. Its present surplus is $160,943 ; resources and liabilities, $2,- 
548,820 ; recent deposits, $2,025,794. The present officers are Lyman P. 
Osborn, president; C. S. Batchelder, cashier; Harry E. Trask, assistant 
cashier. It owns the brick building now occupied, which was built in 
1854, and is now valued at $85,000. It has a board of fifteen directors. 
As this bank succeeded to the old State Bank, it really dates back eighty- 
nine years to 1832, during which period it has ever stood for honor and 
business ability in its financial management. 

The Peabody Co-operative Bank was organized and incorporated in 
1888. The first statement, in November, 1888, showed dues to the 
amount of $5,799, while the present dues are $1,623,198.00. The pres- 
ent suitdIus is $12,089.69; guarantee fund, $21,723.78; resources and lia- 
bilities, $2,222,485.31. The 1921 officers are P. H. O'Conor, president; 
Lyman P. Osgood, vice-president; Roy N. Howe, treasurer. This bank 
occupies leased rooms in the Thomas Block, in Peabody, and also has a 
branch at Cliftondale. The total number of shares in force is 34,238, 
and the number of shareholders is 3,432. The last dividend was at the 
rate of five and one-half per cent, per year. Among the assets named in 
the statement v/ere real estate loans amounting to $2,015,850.00. The 
65th semi-annual report, as required by law, was dated December 18, 
1920. 

Groveland — Being near to Haverhill and other larger towns and 
cities, Groveland has not really felt the need of a bank, but in the sixties 
it had a bank, as appears from early accounts of the place. In May, 1869, 
Nathaniel H. Griffith, Nathaniel Ladd and Edwin T. Curtis, and their 
associates, were incorporated as the Groveland Savings Bank, and the 
company's officers were Moses Foster, president, and Henry H. Griffith, 
treasurer. After operating for sixteen years the bank gradually wound 
up its affairs. 

Rockport — The Rockport Bank was incorporated in 1851 ; capital 
stock, $100,000. Ezra Ames was its first president, serving until his 



BANKS AND BANKING 619 

death in 1874. Deacon Jabez R. Gott was elected cashier, served many 
years and finally resigned. When other State banks adopted the Na- 
tional Bank system, Rockport fell into line, and this concern became 
known legally as the Rockport National Bank. The bank has for its 
officers (1921), James W. Bradley, cashier; Elliot W. Grimes, teller. 
The directors not long since were Frederick W. Tarr, president; H. 
Chester Story, vice-president; James W. Bradley, Hosea E. Tufts, Levi 
W. Thurston, clerk ; C. Harry Rogers and Lindley I. Dean. 

Of the Granite Savings Bank, it may be said that after the closing of 
the Rockport Savings Bank some of the citizens felt that an institution 
for savmgs was needed. Accordingly, a petition to that effect was for- 
warded to the Legislature, and in 1884 the Granite Savings Bank was 
legally incoi-porated. William Winsor, J. Loring Woodfall, John W 
Marshall, George Elwell, George M. McClain, Nathaniel Richardson Jr 
Francis Tarr, Frank Scripture, William H. Colbey, and George A. Lowe 
were named in the act of incorporation. The president at first was John 
G. Dennis; J. Loring Woodfall, secretaiy. The first deposit made in the 
bank was April 11, 1885. Today this bank is located at No. 9 Main street 
and had a short time since assets of more than $550,000. Its recent 
officialg have been Henry Thurston, president; Benj. N. Tan- and Albert 
H. French, vice-presidents; Grafton Butman, treasurer; A. Carl But- 
man, assistant treasurer. 

Manchester— The Manchester Tiust Company was incorporated 
April 12, 1911, and commenced business May 1st of the same year. This 
bank was established by Messrs. Frank P. Knight, Oliver T. Roberts, 
William Hoare, Horace Standley, Frederick J. Merrill, George R. Dean,' 
George L. Knight, Edward A. Lane, George S. Sinnicks, Michael J.' 
Callahan, George W. Hooper, Maynard B. Gilman, George W. Blaisdell 
Franklin K. Hooper, and Alfred S. Jewett. The capital has always been 
$100,000; Its present surplus is $40,000; resources and liabilities, $896,- 
000; recent amount in deposits, $784,000. The original officers were 
Oliver T. Roberts, president; R. W. Babson, Franklin K. Hooper, vice^ 
presidents; Ralph H. Mann, secretary and treasurer. The 1921 oflScers 
are Oliver T. Roberts, president; R. W. Babson, William Hoare, vice- 
presidents; Harrison C. Cann, secretary and treasurer. The February 
statement issued in 1921 gave the following figures: Assets amount to 
$917,729.73. 

Merrimac — In February, 1864, the "First National Bank of 
Amesbury" was organized with a capital of $50,000, and its name was 
changed by act of Congress, December 27, 1876, to The First National 
Bank of Merrimac. Its charter was renewed in 1883. In June, 1864, 
its capital was increased to $75,000 ; and in May, 1875, to $200,000. Its' 
original directors were Patten Sargent, Thomas T. Merrill,' John S. 
Poyen, Benjamin F. Sargent and Wm. Gunnison. The first officers were: 
Patten Sargent, president; Wm. H. Haskell, cashier; John S. Poyen 



620 ESSEX COUNTY 

clerk. The 1921 ofiicers are Byron S. Sargent, president; Fred E. Sweet- 
sir, M. D., vice-president ; William B. Sargent, cashier. The first as well 
as present capital was $50,000; present surplus, $30,000; resources and 
liabilities, $296,361.41 ; recent deposits, $142,817.41. This bank leases 
its building quarters. 

WTiat was known as the Merrimac Savings Bank was incorporated 
m 1871. Its first officers were John S. Poyen, president; John P. Sar- 
gent, Isaac B. Little and J. B. Judkins, vice-presidents ; the treasurer was 
Wm. H. Haskell. 

The Economy Co-operative Bank was organized July 26, 1889 and 
commenced business August 12, 1889. The original officers were Georg.3 
Adams, president; Alexander Smart, vice-president; Bailey Sargent, 
secretary and treasurer; the directors included George Adams, Alex- 
ander Smart, Bailey Sargent, Isaac B. Little, Sampson A. McConnell, 
George G. Larkin, John B. Judkins, Charles D. Ruggles, J. Austin Lan- 
caster, Frank E. Pease. The capital is limited to $1,000,000; present 
dues capital, $82,339; profits capital, $15,898.57; assets, $102,880.43; 
surplus and guaranty funds, $3,079.56. The 1921 officers are Fred S. 
Hardwick, president; Charles W. Morrell, vice-president; Clifton B. 
Heath, treasurer and clerk. In Febi*uary, 1921, the statement showed 
assets $97,189.67. This bank now pays a dividend of six per cent, per 
annum to its shareholders. It was founded to aid those without much 
means to secure a home of their own, and in this aim it has been very 
successful. 

Georgetown — The first bank in Georgetown was a State Bank, 
established under the name of the Manufacturers' Bank. It was char- 
tered in 1836, with a capital authorized at $100,000. Benjamin Little 
was president, and George Foot its first cashier. It was located in a 
wing of the old Pentucket Hotel. This concern was removed to Methuen 
about 1845. 

The Georgetown Savings Bank was incoi-porated May 26, 1868. 
Its incorporators were George Boynton, Samuel Little, George J. Ten- 
ney, and others. Its first president was Jeremiah P. Jones. Its pres- 
ent officers are Lewis H. Bateman, president ; Edward A. Chaplin, vice- 
president; Lewis H. Giles, secretary; Sylvester A. Donoghue, treasurer. 
It now has a surplus of $57,812, with deposits amounting to $725,699. 

The Georgetown National Bank was incoiporated June 30, 1875. 
Its first ofiicers were H. Prescott Chaplin, president; Stephen Osgood, 
vice-president; George H. Carlton, cashier. Its present ofiicers are H. 
Howard Noyes, president; Justin F. Wliite, vice-president; Lawrence 
L. Chaplin, cashier. Its pi-esent capital is $50,000; surplus, $15,000. 

Haverhill — The Pentucket Savings Bank of Haverhill was in- 
corporated March 17, 1891, by George H. Carleton, John A. Gale, E. O. 
Bullock, Dennis T. Kennedy, Charles H. Hayes, Augustin Boumeuf and 
W. Monroe Nichols. The present surplus is $224,038; resources and 



BANKS AND BANKING 621 

liabilities, $3,421,632.87. The bank is housed within a good brick struc- 
ture owned by the conceni. The first officers were: President, George 
H. Carleton; vice-presidents, Oliver Taylor and John A. Gale; treasurer. 
Charles S. Titcomb. The officers at the present time are: President, 
George F. Carleton; vice-presidents, Daniel C. Hunt, Willard C. Cogs- 
well ; treasurer, Henry B. George ; assistant treasurer, H. Ivan Hall. 

The Merrimack National Bank was founded in 1814. In spite of 
strong competition, it has enjoyed great and continued prosperity, while 
its deposits have constantly increased, having doubled during the last 
few years. In the great fire of 1882 the bank building was destroyed, 
the vault alone, with its valuable contents, being found intact. The 
present building is among the best in the State for solidity and safetv. 
It has been remodeled of recent years at an expense of $40,000. The 
original home of this institution stood at the comer of Water'and Stage 
streets. Its first president was David Howe, Esq., and the cashier 
Leonard White. Nathaniel Hill was the second president, and the third 
was David Marsh, who was succeeded by James H. Duncan, and he by 
Dr. Rufus Longley. Hon. E. J. M. Hale was president from 1855 to 
1878, resigning after twenty-three years' service. All these years this 
bank was a State institution, but in 1864 it was converted into a national 
bank. In 1882, when the bank building was destroyed by fire, as men- 
tioned before, Charles W. Chase was president; he was followed by Dud- 
ley Porter, who in 1905 was succeeded by Charles W. Arnold. The cash- 
iers since Leonard White have been G. L. Bartlett, E. A. Porter, Samuel 
White, John L. Hobson, Ubert A. Killam and Arthur P. Tenney. The 
present officers are President, Charles W. Arnold; cashier, Arthur P. 
Tenney. John L. Hobson is vice-president. This is the oldest bankino- 
house in the city of Haverhill, and was the successor of the old Merii- 
mack Bank. Its present capital is $240,000; sui-plus, $240,000; undivid- 
ed profits, $140,000; resources and liabilities, $2,500,000- recent de- 
posits, $1,700,000. 

The Haverhill Trust Company, organized May 14, 1891, is nov/ lo- 
cated at No. 163 Merrimack street. The present officers are : George W. 
Lennox, president; Lewis H. Giles, vice-president and treasurer; Irving 
L. Keith, vice-president; James E. Knipe, assistant treasurer. Two 
hundred thousand dollars was the first and present capital ; present sur- 
plus is $100,000; resources and liabilities, $4,068,512.82; recent deposits, 
$3,723,566.58. The bank occupies its own building, which it has owned 
since the date of incoii)oration. In 1906 the Second National Bank of 
Haverhill was taken over by the Haverhill Trust Company. The Trust 
Company is made up of two depaitments— the Banking departm.ent, with 
a capital stock of $200,000, and a Savings department, with assets of 
$806,026.11; it has deposits amounting to $835,712.50. The directors 
are Albert B. Blaisdell, La^vl-ence Callaghan, Charles C. Chase, Lester 
A. Colby, George H. Dole, W. Eugene Elhs, Lewis H. Giles, Miltor A. 



622 ESSEX COUNTY 

Gilpin, Daniel C. Hunt, Irving L. Keith, David R. Knipe, George W. 
Lennox, Edson W. Noyes, D. S. Frank Page, Austin E. Ruddock, John 
W. Russ, Arthur R. St. Onge, Fred J. Thompson, Edmund C. Went- 
worth and Robert L. Wright. 

The Haverhill Co-operative Bank, organized in August, 1877, is 
located at No. 9 Emerson street. Its first officers were President, Amos 
W. Downing; vice-president, M. Warren Hanscom; secretary, John W. 
Tilton; treasurer, George S. Little; directors, J. B. Swett, Charles But- 
ters, Nathan Longfellow, J. W. Bennet, O. B. Otis, Walter S. Goodell, 
Edward P. Hayes, John G. Scates and Charles T. Ford. The present 
officers are James G. Page, treasurer; Edward A. Fittes, president; the 
directors are Charles A. Bodwell, Charles H. Clark, Edward A. Fitts, 
Matthew J. Fowler, George E. Frye, Eugene J. Kempton, Samuel A. 
McGregor, Benjamin I. Page, James G. Page, John H. Saward. The 
present capital is $2,097,543.60, surplus, $61,230.77; resources and lia- 
bihties, $2,230,166.99. The deposits average $33,000 per month in dues. 

The Haverhill National Bank, the third oldest institution in the city, 
was granted its original charter in 1836. The first location was on 
Main street, just above the present entrance to the District Court. Some 
few years later it moved to 83 Merrimack street, and in 1883 occupied 
quarters in the Masonic building at No. 117 Merrimack street. By 1913 
the business had so increased that more room had to be provided, and 
land at the comer of Merrimack and Emerson streets was bought. Here 
a fine seven-story fireproof building, after strictly modem plans, was 
built. This was opened for business in June, 1915. August 5, 1916, the 
bank purchased the business of the Merchants' National Bank. Under 
the presidency of the late John E. Gale the bank had a steady growth, 
and later under the management of Henry M. Oilman, trained under Mr. 
Gale, the institution has progressed to the present date. In 1919 the 
statements showed a capital of $200,000 ; sui'plus and profits in excess of 
$400,000 ; and aggregate deposits of $3,200,000. 

The First National Bank opened as a State Bank in 1849, as the 
Union Bank, and continued in business until June 17, 1864, when the 
National Banking act was passed by Congress, and it became a national 
bank, being the first national bank in the city of Haverhill. In the early 
days this bank was located at No. 94 Merrimack street. In 1880, as the 
shoe business was moving westward to Washington street, the First 
National, which was closely connected with the great shoe business of 
the city, purchased land at No. 46 Washington street, and erected a 
new building. This was destroyed by the fire of 1882, but was im- 
mediately rebuilt. In 1914 the bank purchased the premises at Nos. 73- 
79 Washington street, where the present handsome quarters were pro- 
vided. The growth of the deposits of this institution has been as fol- 
lows: In 1904 it had $368,000; in 1907, $658,000; in 1910, $1,274,000; 
in 1914, $1,755,000; in 1918, $3,410,000. The recent officers of this 



BANKS AND BANKING 62a 

bank have been Charles E. Dole, president; George F. Carleton, vice- 
president ; and Fred H. Harriman, cashier. 

The Essex National Bank was formed July 5, 1851, as a State 
bank. The original president was E. J. M. Hale. Later the bank be- 
came a national bank, as it is today. It has a savings department as 
well as the ordinary branches of banking. Its deposits in 1907 were 
$220,200 ; in 1918 the amount was $1,747,693 ; the surplus in 1918 was 
$100,000 ; undivided profits amounted in 1918 to $50,205. The officers 
are Charles A. Pingree, president ; Perley Leslie, vice-president ; Fred L. 
Townsend, cashier; James C. Pease, paying teller. 

The Haverhill Savings Bank, almost a century old, established Feb- 
ruary 8, 1828, has ever aimed to encourage the local thrift of the city. 
It has over 17,000 depositors, and assets of about an even nine million 
dollars. It is located at No. 153 Merrimack street, and its recent officers 
have been as follows: President, William W. Spaulding; vice-president, 
Fred D. McGregor; trustees, John L. Hobson, William H. Floyd, F. E. 
Hutchinson; William E. Bixby, Isaac Poor, William W. Spaulding, E. G. 
Frothingham, Charles E. Dole, Hazen B. Goodrich, Harold M. Goodwin, 
George W. Lennox, Herman E. Lewis, Ira A. Abbott, Charles D. Porter, 
John A. Lynch, Arthur H. Wentworth. The treasurer is Raymond 
Noyes; clerk, Alfred E. Collins. 

The City Five Cents Savings Bank was organized April 29, 1870, and 
its books were opened in May following, in the office of the First Nation- 
al Bank, in a building where now stands the Daggett building. The 
then mayor of Haverhill, Warner R. Whittier, was chosen first presi- 
dent, and Elbridge G. Wood was elected treasurer. In September, 1876, 
Mr. Wood resigned and his place was filled by George W. Noyes, and he 
is still serving in that capacity. Several persons have served as presi- 
dent of this bank. Sylvanus P. Gardner succeeded Samuel W. Hopkin- 
son, serving until November, 1917, when George B. Nichols was chosen 
to succeed Mr. Gardner as president. Recent accounts show the de- 
posits to be almost four million dollars ; in 1918 they were $3,689,654. 

The Citizens' Co-operative Bank, with headquarters at No. 81 Merri- 
mack street, was written up in the Chamber of Commerce Journal in 
1919 as follows : 

In March, 1919, the balance sheet showed that $706,102 had been lent on real 
estate loans. It has been the means of many a man obtaining his own residence in 
Haverhill. The officers are i^resident, Phil C. Swett; vice-president, William M. 
Spaulding. The purpose of this institution is to promote regular and systematic 
savings, especially by persons of modern circumstances; to help people to own 
their owm homes, build or buy homes, etc. This bank provides a plan by which in- 
debtedness may be rapidly reduced by a monthly payment plan. 



CHAPTER XLI. 
RAILROADS AND TRANSPORTATION. 

Prior to 1833 Essex county was without railroads — they were then 
in their infancy. WHien our ancestors first settled this county, they con- 
tented themselves, for a time, with the rude means of conveyance and 
transportation known to their savage neighbors. One ^\Titer says: **The 
favorite way to Boston, Plymouth and Cape Ann was by water. The 
*dug-out' was much in use, being a pine log twenty feet long and two and 
one-half feet wide, in which they sometimes 'went fowling two leagues 
to sea.' These 'cannowes' seem to have been inspected at stated inter- 
vals by a town surveyor, and passed or condemned according to their 
fitness for their further service. It was in swimming for one of these, 
from a desire to visit the Indian Village at Northfield, that Governor 
Winthrop's son Henry, on the day after his arrival at Salem, was 
drowned in the North River." 

The condition of the trail, which was the only land transit between 
Salem and Boston, is indicated by two writers of the same date. On 
April 12, 1631, Governor Endicott wrote to Governor Winthrop the fol- 
lowing letter from Salem: "Right worshipful: I did expect to have 
been with you in person at the Court, and to that end put to sea yester- 
day, and was driven back again, the wind being stiff against us. And 
there being no canoe or boat at Saugus, I must have been constrained 
to go to Mystic, and thence a foot to Charlesto^vn, which at that time 
durst not be so bold, my body being, at this present, in an ill condition 
to wade or take cold." 

In 1637 Governor Winthrop passed through Salem on foot, with a 
large escort, on his way to and from Ipswich, and next year visited 
Salem by water and returned by land. The first of Salem people who 
visited Boston, after its settlement, are said to have spent four days on 
the way, and, on the following Sabbath, to have put up a note of thanks 
in the First Church, for their safe guidance and return. 

Historian Felt says the first public conveyance was a hwre <:•■'■ — 
chair, or two horse curricle, which ran from Portsmouth to Boston and 
back each week, in 1761. "An epidemical distemper" interfered with the 
business in 1768, but, two years after, Benj. Coates, then landlord at the 
Ship Tavern in School (now Washington) street, gave notice that he 
had bought a "Nev/ Stage Chaise" which would run between Salem and 
Boston "So that he will then, with the one now improved in that busi- 
ness, be able to carry and bring passengers, bundles and the like every 
day except Sunday." 

Systematic staging probably began here about 1796, and in this 
business Benj. Hale, of Newburyport, seems to have been the pioneer of 
the route between Boston and Portsmouth, as was Seth Pajme, of Port- 
Essex — 40 



626 ESSEX COUNTY 

land, on the lines farther east. Mr. Hale was a resolute, persevering 
man, and there was nothing worth knowing about staging which he did 
not know. Many improvements in stage springs are credited to him, 
as well as the introduction of the trunk rack, by which means the pas- 
senger's luggage was employed to ballast the coach, whereas formerly 
it had rested, a dead weight on the axles, jolting and tossing as though 
springs were yet to be invented. 

The Eastern Stage Company was chartered by the State of New 
Hampshire for a period of twenty years. The great profit in this busi- 
ness could not long be concealed and rival companies sprung up. One 
set off for Boston from Salem, August, 1810. In 1818, opposing lines 
absorbed the rival stage lines, same as the lesser railroads today are 
merged or swallowed up by the more powerful lines. 

The first railroad charter granted by Massachusetts, authorized, 
March 4, 1826, the building of a railway from the Quincy quarries to Ne- 
ponset river, and the first freight transported over it was the corner-stone 
of Bunker Hill Monument. It was operated by horse power. The Bal- 
timore & Ohio road was chartered in 1827. In 1829-30-31 Massachusetts 
chartered railroads from Boston to Lowell, to Providence and to Wor- 
cester. It was in 1833 that the Boston & Lowell line was extended to 
Andover, Wilmington, and to Haverhill in 1835. These early roads drove 
the stage lines out of business and this caused great consternation among 
those interested in the stage coach lines, as well as breeders and dealers 
in horseflesh. But the iron horse had come to remain as a potent fac- 
tor in our general civilization and the stage coach was releg-ated to the 
museum, and others were allowed to rot down by the roadside, as a thing 
having outgi'own its usefulness. 

ConceiTiing the advent of railways at Salem, it was written a third 
of a century and more ago : "The steam railroad communications of Salem 
are excellent, the Boston & Maine railroad, Eastern Division, formerly 
the Eastern railroad, which was opened August, 1838 and the Boston & 
Lowell railroad, which has a terminus here, give rapid and cheap trans- 
portation to every part of Eastern New England and Canada. There are 
now (1886) twenty-three regular trains to Boston on the Boston & 
Maine, daily, with twenty-two extras and eleven Sunday trains, and a 
nearly equal number of trains going east. The trains on the Boston & 
Lowell line are also frequent. The freight facilities are equally good, 
and the amount of business transacted at both stations amount to a 
very large sum annually." 

Early in the thirties, the steam cars commenced to run through the 
town of Wenham, it was the old Eastern railroad, the first coiTDoration 
in the county to construct a steam railroad. The Newburyport & Wake- 
field branch of the Boston & Maine road was constructed in 1853. In 
1886 a street car line was run from Gloucester to Beverly and operated 
by horses, that being just a few years in advance of the electric car 
system. 



RAILROADS AND TRANSPORTATION 627 

Beverly records show that a town meeting was held August 20, 1835, 
when a committee was appointed to secure a change of location of the 
Eastern Railroad, from the east side of Essex Bridge (as projected) to 
the west, and this was complied with in 1837. 

In Ipswich the turnpike, the canal, then the railroad, each had its 
day in helping to develop this county. The railroad first entered the 
town in 1839 and this was in reality the beginning of a new era. The 
Eastern Railroad Company was incorporated in 1836 and was soon ex- 
tending its first line and was eventually bought up by the present Bos- 
ton & Maine system. 

In Saugus the railroad was not so early a help. While the old East- 
ern railroad was built through a portion of its territory, over the marshes 
in the extremity of the township, yet there was no station, and for many 
years the people had to go to Melrose, which was on the Boston & Maine 
line and nearer than was Breed's Wharf in West Lynn. The earliest 
efforts at securing a railroad in Saugus was in 1844. Numerous pro- 
jects were set afloat, but all failed until in 1854, the Eastern Railroad 
was finally constructed through to Saugus. It is now owned by the 
Boston & Maine system. Then one small car accommodated the pas- 
sengers. The experiment of combining car and locomotive was tried. 
It caused much fun for the travelers and was dubbed the "Tea-kettle" ; 
this was soon set aside. 

In Topsfield, the Danvers & Newburyport branch of the Boston & 
Maine railroad runs through the center of the town, and its only station 
point is the village of Topsfield. This was built in 1853. Trains run 
through to Boston without change of cars. 

In Rockport, the people had great difficulty in getting their road. 
The Gloucester branch of the Eastern Railroad company could not be 
induced to extend to Rockport. In 1860 another attempt was made to 
build by a home company, but this project, like others before, failed. 
After a few kinks had been straightened out, the Eastern Railroad Com- 
pany, aided by local stockholders, completed a line to Rockport, the same 
being completed in the autmn of 1861. Its cost was $91,000, of which 
the town held $75,000 worth of shares. 

Danvers, too, had its own troubles in securing a steam highway. 
Finally, in July, 1848, the old Eastern Railroad was completed to North 
Danvers. On the first time-table there were mentioned three trains a 
day, each way, to and from Salem. Three thousand persons passed over 
this route on the Fourth of July, 1848. By that fall, trains were run- 
ning to Andover. September 4th that year all was completed to 
Lawi-ence. The first station agent at Danvers was Samuel W. Spaulding. 

Concerning the coming of railroads to Lawrence, it may be said that 
direct railway communication was opened with Boston, Lowell and Salem, 
and Lawrence became an important railway center. The Boston & Maine 
Railway, having its location changed from Andover to North Andover, 



628 ESSEX COUNTY 

constructed between April, 1845, and March, 1848, the five miles of road 
between those places by way of Lawrence together, with bridges across 
the river and canal, and on February 28, 1848, ran their passenger cars 
across the bridge for the first time to the station on the north side of the 
river. July 2, 1848, the Lowell railway was completed between Law- 
rence and Lowell. The Essex Railway, from Lawrence to Salem, was 
opened September 4, 1848. The Manchester & Lawrence railway was 
opened for travel in October, 1849. The railroad facilities followed the 
growth of the city, and constant improvements were made in the ser- 
vice. Eventually, the need of a horse railroad was apparent, and in 
1867, the first track was laid from the Woolen Mill in Methuen to the 
Everett Mills, at the foot of Essex street. 

As the decades have passed by, changes in railway property have 
taken place, until today the chief steam roads of the county and for 
that matter all eastern New England are now embraced in the Boston 
& Maine company. 

The Boston, Revere Beach & Lynn railway, commonly knovim as 
the Narrow Gauge Line, is the owner of about ten miles of track of the 
naiTow-gauge kind, connecting Lynn with Boston. There is also a loop 
through the Winthrops, connecting with the main line at Orient Heights. 
This line runs along the sea shore, part of the distance over trestles. 
It reaches Boston by ferry from Noddle Island to Rowe's Wharf. The 
main line passes through Point of Pines, Revere Beach, Beachmont, 
Orient Heights and East Boston. The rate of fare is ten cents to Bos- 
ton, while from Lynn to Revere Beach it is only five cents. This road is 
purely a passenger line. Train service is carried on both day and night. 
Through the day trains run every few minutes and at night every half 
hour. The terminals of this line are conveniently located, that in Lynn 
being at the junction of Market and Broad streets, and the one at Bos- 
ton being at Rowe's Wharf on Atlantic avenue. There is a station at 
West Lynn, on Commercial street, for the accommodation of that section 
of the city. The Narrow Gauge owns and operates three large ferries 
in Boston. The abnormal number of trains daily between Lynn and 
Boston is one hundred and twenty each way. The records show that in 
1915 twenty million passengers were carried -without an accident to pas- 
sengers or crew. It is a double-tracked road, operated by steam power. 
This thoroughfare was constructed in 1875 and has been a very success- 
ful enterprise and served the traveling public for near a half century. 
In fact, its "builders built better than they knew." 

Haverhill was supplied with railways as follows: The Boston & 
Maine line was open for business to Bradford in October, 1838. It 
reached Haverhill in 1839, when the original bridge was built. There 
are now sixty passenger trains daily from this station. There is ample 
trackage room in Bradford for 650 cars. There are six passenger sta- 
tions within the corporation of Haverhill. The street car system is men- 
tioned elsewhere in this article. 



RAILROADS AND TRANSPORTATION 620 

Salem's first street railway was incorporated in 1862, under the 
iiame of the Salem Street Railroad Company. It was extended to what 
is now Peabody in 1863, also to Beverly. In May, 1864, a branch was 
opened to South Salem, and five years later, June 4, 1869, a North Salem 
branch was put in operation. The first company did not prove a finan- 
cial success, so in 1875 it was re-organized as the Naumkeag Street 
Railway Company. The first extension made by this new company was 
to the "Willows" the spot used so many generations as a picnic ground 
by Salemites. This was a horse car system, but as many as ten thou- 
sand persons were transported to that resort in summer, on several 
occasions. In 1883 the track was extended to Gloucester Crossing; also 
a line to Harmony Grove. In 1884, a new line was projected to Marble- 
head. But the most profitable of all, were the lines to North Beverly 
and to Wenham depot, on to Asbury Grove. This line, seven miles 
long, was completed in 1886. In June, 1886, the Naumkeag road assum- 
ed the franchise of the old Salem Street Railway, and with the purchase 
of the Salem & Danvers line in the spring of 1887, assumed sole control 
of all local traffic. In 1887 this company had thirty miles of trackage; 
105 cars, 390 horses and 112 employes, with an annual pay-roll of $70,- 
000. In 1886 this horse car system had total earnings of $190,000. 

The Salem & Danvers Street Railway was capitalized in the autumn 
of 1883, by men of Salem, Peabody and Danvers, and was incorporated 
in 1884. The road opened for travel in the summer of 1884. This was 
the start of what has come to be a great, far-reaching system of electric 
street cars and interurban lines in this section. 

The history of Saugus discloses the fact that two charters of rival 
horse car companies were granted in the spring of 1859, requiring cars 
to be running regularly by November 20, 1861. One of these was the 
Lynn & Boston Company. The other was the Cliftondale Horse Railroad 
Company, owned by James S. Stone of Charlestown. Cars were running 
on time — November 20, 1861. This road was a real estate scheme and 
did not prosper. Very soon after this came the change to electrified 
street railways. 

Early in the summer of 1884, the Lynn & Boston Street Railway 
Company extended its tracks to Marblehead and began running to and 
from Lynn to Marblehead. Soon thereafter, the Naumkeag Street Rail- 
way Company extended its tracks from Salem through the town to 
Franklin street, establishing regular horse-car connection with that 
city. 

Haverhill is served by one of the greatest single trolley corporations 
in the world — th.e Bay State Street Railway Company. It also has 
the Massachusetts Northeastern Street Railway Company, with head- 
quarters in Haverhill. The Bay State Company took over the old Haver- 
hill & Groveland Company, which was the original horse car line in 
Haverhill, receiving its franchise in 1877, and was installed into an elec- 



630 



ESSEX COUNTY 



trie line in June, 1892. The Haverhill & Amesbury Street Railway 
Company received its franchise June, 1892. Later these systems were 
all merged with the one company known as the Massachusetts North- 
eastern. 

The street railway lines of Lawrence are of great importance, 
reaching out, as they do, over so large a scope of territory. Should one 
so desire, he might go by electric trolley from Lawrence to New York 
and on into Pennsylvania. Great the change. Fifty years ago, stage 
coaches were driven between Lawrence, Methuen, Andover and Lowell. 
From a little horse car road, the Lawrence division of the Boston & 
Northern Street Railway, formerly the Merrimack Valley Horse Rail- 
road, and now known as the Bay State Street Railway, has come with 
its net-work of fifty miles of trackage upon which are run seventy-five 
cars. The entire length of this system is 960 miles. 

The first company to operate a street car line in Lawrence was 
headed by William A. Russell, as president. Ground was broken October 
21, 1867. Horses were discarded in 1890-91 and electricity took their 
places. In 1887 a belt line was constructed. In 1893 the line was ex- 
tended to Haverhill. The next season Lowell was reached, Andover hav- 
ing been connected in 1891. 

In 1899 a franchise was granted to the Massachusetts Northeastern 
Street Railway Company. This was first styled the Southern New 
Hampshire Company. Nearly every street traversed by street car lines 
in Lawrence, are finely paved thoroughfares. But few, if any cities ia 
this country, have a more complete system of street car and interurban 
lines than Lawrence. 




CHAPTER XLII. 
EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 

The Church and the School have always been dominant factors in 
New England, and especially is this true in Essex county. Its pioneers 
set about providing suitable meeting-houses and school-houses as soon 
as a shelter had been provided for their families. The private, public 
and parochial schools, and the higher institutions of learning, have each 
had place in the great foundation of educational advantages here en- 
joyed by the passing generations. 

The first settlement was effected in Virginia in 1607, and her first 
public school was opened in 1621, fourteen years after the settlement. 
The real settlement of Massachusetts Bay Colony was in 1628, \vhen John 
Endicott came to Salem. In 1837, nine years later, John Fiske opened 
a public school in Salem. In Boston, in 1636, a petition was presented 
to the authorities asking for a school, which was probably not estab- 
lished as prayed for until 1642. Just where the first "free scliool" was 
started is not quite certain, but this much is known, that while Salem 
m.aintained her school from the first in 1637 down to the present time 
(1921), the governor of Virginia in 1671 "thanked God there were no 
free schools, no printing, and hoped they would not have any these 
hundred years ;" and for long after, the Old Dominion taxed school- 
masters twenty shillings per head. 

At first the town of Salem appears to have paid a part of the expense 
of schooling the children in her midst, while the parents paid the re- 
mainder. A vote passed September 30, 1644, provided: "If any poor 
body hath children or a childe to be put to school, and not able to pay for 
their schooling, that the town will pay it by a rate." John Fiske ceased 
to teach (he was Salem's first instructor) in 1639, and in 1640 was suc- 
ceeded by Edward Norris, who was the only instructor in the town for 
twenty years. In 1670 Daniel Epes, Jr., was engaged to teach at £20 a 
year, and also to have half-pay for all scholars in the town and whole- 
pay from the strangers without who might send to school. The last 
years of his life he was allowed from ten to fifteen pounds sterling per 
year as a pension, so long as he lived ; and this was doubtless America's 
first pension plan in any of the professions. In 1677 Mr. Epes agreed to 
teach English, Latin and Greek, and fit pupils for the university ; also to 
teach them good manners and instruct them in religious and Christian 
principles. In 1768 the tuition in the public schools became free to all, 
as it is today. 

There seems to be no positive evidence that Salem had any other 
school in her midst until 1712, when Nathaniel Higginson opened a 
school "for reading, writing and cyphering, in the north end of the town- 
house." The English and Latin schools were united in 1743, but three 



632 ESSEX COUNTY 

years later v/ere separated. It appears that until about 1793, these 
schools were exclusively for boys. It was during the year lastnamed that 
the school committee vv^as instructed to "provide at the "WT:-iting school, 
or elsewhere, for the tuition of girls in reading, writing and cyphering." 
In 1827 sentiment had materially changed in Salem and all Essex county, 
for the town voted to have two high schools for girls — one located on 
Beckford street, known as the West School ; the other in Bath street, and 
styled the East School. 

From 1807 to 1843 colored children were educated in Salem schools. 
The first to teach such a primary school was Chloe Minn. In 1830 some 
questioned the right of a colored girl to attend the public school, and it 
was taken to the court, which decided she had the same rights as white 
girls in way of schooling. 

In 1884 a State law compelled the introduction of free text-books, 
slates, pencils, papei-, etc., into all the schools. It cost the city of Salem 
to comply with such a law, the sum of $9,000, the total number of pupils 
then being 4,000. But "without money and without price" the rich and 
poor, the black and white, have access to free schools. The total cost 
of Salem schools in 1886, more than a third of a century ago, was $81,000. 

In passing, il may be said that Salem has modern school buildings, 
find that, in contrast with the above figures given for 1886 paid the 
teachers of that citj^ the following obtain today : Superintendent, $4,000 
per school year; secretary to superintendent, $1,400; high school prin- 
cipal, $3,500; women department heads, $1,900; assistants, $1,600; ele- 
mentary teachers, principals, $2,500; assistants, $1,300; principals in 
kindergcirten, $1,200; assistants, $1,000. 

More space has been given to the different departments of the com- 
mon school in Salem, for the reason that it will serve as a basis in writing 
of the other towns and cities in Essex county, the general provisions be- 
ing about the same throughout the county. 

The Lynn Schools — What about those earliest years when Lynn's 
first settlers were building their log cabins in this wilderness known by 
the Indians as Saugus? Were there schools here then? Was book-learn- 
ing instilled into the minds of the children of those pioneers? and, if so, 
how? 

George Hood, Lyim's first mayor, in his inaugural address said : "The 
church and the school-house grew up together, both significant monu- 
ments of advancing civilization." His statement is true of many of the 
towns begun by our Pilgrim and Puritan forefathers, and we love to 
praise their zeal for education. Ljmn's able historian. Judge James R. 
Newhall, has written : "The next thing thought of after the establish- 
ment of the church was the school." So might it have been ! But was 
it? 

Ljmn's settlement dates from 1629, a year earlier than Boston, three 
years later than Salem. Within three years of that time the present First 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 633 

CongTegational Church of Lynn had been established, with Rev. Stephen 
Bachellor as its head. In 1637 the General Court passed a vote, admir- 
able for its brevity, that "Saugust is called Lin." But Judge Newhall 
says that the first action of Lynn in her corporate capacity in relation to 
schools, so far as the records show, was in January, 1696, when it was re- 
corded that "The Selectmen agreed with Mr. Abraham Normanton to 
be schoolmaster for the town for said year ensuing, and that the Town 
is to give him five pounds for his labors, and the town is to pay twenty- 
five shillings towards the hire of Nathan Newhall's house for a year to 
keep school in and that said Mr. Noi-nianton hire said house." 

Alonzo Lewis, poet, historian, schoolmaster, civil engineer, archi- 
tect, and public-spirited citizen in general, writing of 1687, says that Rev. 
Mr. Shepard "kept the school several months this winter." It seems 
likely he continued in the office, for we are told that on Dec. 21, 1691, 
the selectmen appointed him schoolmaster for the year ensuing "with his 
consent." After hiring Mr. Normanton in 1696, it is of interest to note 
that they went back to Mr. Shepard, June 7, 1700, engaging him to keep 
the grammar school for thirty pounds. 

While we lack absolute proof that Lynn had a public school earlier 
than 1696 or perhaps 1687, there is good reason to believe that schools 
were kept before those dates. In 1642 Governor Dudley had written his 
son in England : "There is a want of school-masters hereabouts." In 1647 
the Legislature passed a law that every town of fifty families should have 
a school for reading and writing, and all towns of one hundred families 
should maintain a grammar school. They gave their reasons for this 
law in these words : "It being one chief project of yt ould deludor, 
Satan, to keepe men from the knowledge of ye Scriptures, * * yt 
learning may not be buried in ye grave of our fathers in ye church and 
commonwealth, ye Lord assisting our endeavors: It is therefore or- 
dered," etc. But a law upon the statute books is not always a law en- 
forced. 

Cyrus M. Tracy, wi'iting of Lynn in the "History of Essex County" 
published in 1878, says that probably Rev. Samuel Whiting, who came in 
1636, and his colleague. Rev. Thomas Cobbet, who came next year, did 
some teaching, as both were called "teaching elders." When Jeremiah 
Shepard became pastor in 1680, Rev. Joseph Whiting was made associate 
pastor, being selected as "teacher" and "ordained" into the office. The 
Whiting and Cobbet and Shepard schools serve to keep in mind these first 
pastors of the old First Church, who were the educational leaders blazing 
new trails upon this virgin soil. 

The "Godless public schools", alleged in modem times, could not have 
been charged in that first century in Lynn, when the catechism and early 
piety furnished fhe leading topics of instruction, the only reading books 
being the New Testament and the Psalms of David, the minister being 
the schoolmaster. We realize how important a place religion held in our 



634 ESSEX COUNTY 

early schools as we examine the old "New England Primer" that came 
into general use as late as 1780. Religion was not barred out of those 
early schools, for there was but one church in town. Then the early 
Congregational Church was practically the "State Church" of New Eng- 
land. The following quotations from Lynn's oldest existing records will 
show how intimate were the relations of Church and State, and hence, of 
Church and School. 

"VOATED" IN TOWN MEETING. 

At a Legal Towne Meeting held in Lyn October the 27th 1707 

Voated that our Minister Mr. Jerimiah Shepard shall have Eighty pounds in 
such money as Now passes from man to man for his labours in ye Ministry for this 
present year which will be up the 8th day of January Next Ensewing in Lue or 
Consideration of the fourscore pounds voated by the towne March the 2 — 1680-81 
and the Contribution to be Keptup as heretofore. 

at the Same Meeting 

Voated to have a grammar Schoole Master to Keep Schoole in ye Towne for 
three months viz. January, february, and March Next following 

at the Same Meeting 

Voated thirty pounds money to pay the Schoole Master and other towne 
Debts. 

Also the above votes appear, essentially word for word, in the rec- 
ords of 1708, 1709 and 1710, making a considerable part of the business 
transactions of those annual town-meetings. Sometimes there was added : 
"the selectment to obtain said Schoolmaster." May we not reasonably 
suppose that if the records had been carefully written and preserved in 
all the earliest years we might find similar votes recorded back to the 
coming of Rev. Jeremiah Shepard in 1680, and perhaps even during the 
pastorate of his predecessors? A few earlier quotations will throw ad- 
ditional light upon what was taught, the compensation of the teacher, how 
the money was raised, and how the schools, originally in charge of the 
selectmen, occasionally were entrusted to a specially appointed committee. 

Nov. 5, 1780, it was voted to have a grammar schoolmaster to keep 
school, thirty pounds money was voted for his maintenance for one year 
and he was to teach Latin or to write, cipher and read. It was also 
"voted that Theophilus Burrill shall take care to procure a schoolmaster 
forthwjth or as soon as may be." 

At a December meeting that year it was "voted that the school for 
the year ensuing shall be a free school for the town, and so be kept by 
the schoolmaster, as other free schools are." 

March 1, 1702, "voted that all such that shall be sent to the school- 
master for the present year to learn to read shall pay three pence a 
week and all such as shall be sent to him to learn to write and cipher 
shall pay four-pence a week." 

Dec. 14, 1702, "voted ten pounds money for part of the mainten- 
ance of a grammar schoolmaster qualified according to law, for the year, 
to teach such as shall be sent to him to read, write and cipher, and to 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 635 

learn Latin ; and such master to have over and above the said ten pounds 
two-pence per week for such as are sent to read, three-pence per week 
for them that are sent to write and cipher, and six-pence per week for 
them that are sent to learn Latin, to be paid by parents and masters that 
send their children or servants to learn as aforesaid." 

The name, ''Grammar School", as then used, signified a school in 
which Latin and sometimes Greek was taught, the grammar being essen- 
tial to the understanding of the language. In the past century the term 
has signified a school in which English grammar was taught, while at 
present the term seems falling into disuse along with the study itself. 

In January, 1703, "voted ten pounds money in addition to the ten 
pounds gi'anted Dec. 1702", and it was voted that "the Selectmen should 
obtain a schoolmaster for the present year as cheap as they c£in." 

April 19, 1703, "voted that the Selectmen shall take care to build 
a convenient house for the tov/n to keep school in, and to get it done 
as cheap as they can, to stand in some convenient place, betwixt the 
meeting house and the burying place." (Vote seems not to have been 
carried out) . 

March 5, 1710-11, "voted to have a gramer Schoolmaster to keep 
schoole in ye Town for the year ensuing and to be paid by the town the 
selectmen to obtain and hold sd Schoole in such place and places in the 
Town as they shall Judge best to promote Larning." 

March 3, 1711, "voted that Capt. Johnson, Capt. Bancroft, Henry 
Collins Jr. and William Merriam be chosen to obtain a schoolmaster and 
agree with him and to settle the schools as shall be judged best." 

The above reminds us that in those days "agreeing with the school- 
master" and "settling the schools" had not become the prerogative ot 
the school committee, as is now the case; in fact, the duly-elected and 
legally-qualified school committee of the present time had not been dis- 
covered. And doubtless their one grammar school, held for three months 
each winter, was held in hired quarters till later than 1711. In his "His- 
tory of Lynn," which he wrote in 1829, Alonzo Lewis explains that "In 
clearing the forests and obtaining a subsistence the early settlers had 
little leisure for their children to spend in study; and a month or two 
in winter, under the care of the minister, was the principal opportunity 
which they had to obtain the little learning requisite for their future life. 
The consequence was that the generations succeeding the early settlers, 
from 1650 to 1790, were generally less learned than the first settlers, or 
those who have lived since the Revolution." 

March 2, 1718, "voted that the Selectmen obtain a schoolmaster and 
agree with him, the school to be kept in four parts of the town, viz. the 
body of the town, over the bridge, the Woodend, and the new portion as 
near as may be in proportion to each part's bigness as shall be ordered 
by the Selectmen ; having regard to some help for the Rev. Mr. Shepard 
in preaching." 



636 ESSEX COUNTY 

The project of building a schoolhouse met with difficulties, not the 
least of which v/as the growing rivaliy as to its location. The outlying 
sections were unwilling that the middle of the town should monopolize 
the school. As a compromise, it became the custom to move the school- 
master about ; but even then it was impossible to satisfy all the districts 
as to the portion of schooling and season of the year alloted each. In 
1720 we find John Lewis teaching in Lynnfield, in Saugus (over the 
bridge), on the Common, and at Woodend, all of which were impoi-tant 
parts of early Lynn. 

A schoolhouse was built in 1728. On March 28 of that year it was 
"voted that the school shall not be moved this year and the Selectmen 
to look a convenient place for to set up a schoolhouse on." By October 
21 they had made such progress with their problem that they held an- 
other toviTi meeting and voted "that there shall be two schoolhouses 
builded in the town ; the one betwixt Richard Johnson's house and Godfree 
Tarbox's house, the other on the westerly side of Mower's Hill." 

Mower's Hill was the hill between Tower Hill and East Saugus, as 
they are known today. But the west-end people were not satisfied with 
this solution, for on June 30, 1731, they succeeded in passing a vote in 
town meeting "that one of the schoolhouses shall be removed to Mill 
Hill" (Water Hill). It remained there until 1732, when the west-end 
champions were overpowered, and it was "voted to move the schoolhouse 
to the place where it formerly stood ; also, it was put to vote to have a 
Committee to regulate the School. It past in the negetive." 

That schoolhouse seems to have taken to wandering habits like those 
early schoolmasters, for no sooner was it settled in "the place where it 
formerly stood" than another town meeting was called, and on Nov. 22, 
1732 N S," voted, that the School House Bee Removed from the place 
where it now stands that is in Latons Lane so Calld (our present Frank- 
lin Street) to a knoll in the middle of the Comon." 

Now came the time when three months of schooling each year was 
not enough. They had school the year round and many years passed 
before our modem long summer vacation came into use. 

Town Debts to Mr. Jonathan Parpoint for Keeping Scoole Beginning 

December ye 12th 1732 at 65 pounds pr year 16 5 

June 12, 1733 Mr. parpoint for keeping scoole one quarter 16 5 

Sept. 12, 1733 Due for keeping scoole one quarter 16 5 

Dec. 12, 1733 Due for keeping scoole one quarter 16 5 

The following financial records are a little confusing in their fluctua- 
tions of value. But they help us realize the growing need of a more 
stable currency in the colonies. 

June 13, 1738 Mr, Richard Mower began the scool for ye rate of 65 — — 0. May 
14 Richard Mower, Gentleman, begged of for a fortnit to be absent. 

Sept. 13, 1738 paid Richard Mower one quarter scooling 16 — 5 — 0. 

Oct. 11th Mr. Richard Mower began to keep ye school this day at 95 pounds per 
yr. 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 637 

Mar. 30, 1744 Mr. John Lewis Junr. began to keep schoole at the rate of 100 
per yr. Aug. 6, 1744 John Lewis began at 120 — — 0. 

The following items seem to relate to "Mr. Nathanell Henchman" 

Aug. 8, 1749 By keeping Scool from this day till July 16, 1750 at 220. 

pounds pr year old tenor is „ 206 15 

By keeping Scool from September 5th 1750 to December 5th, 1750 att 

270 pr. year old tenor is 67 10 

Dec. 5th By keeping scool from Dec. 5th 1750 to Dec. 5th 1751 att 280 

poxrnds pr year old tenor is 280 

556 8 
1752 Docter Nathaniel Henchman paid for keeping school for a quarter 

of year to Dec. 12 _ 9 6 8 

33 weeks to Sept. 13, 1753 23 14 8 

33 1 4 

May 5, 1752 Paid Ebenezer Bancroft for room to keep school in 6 

Same date Jeddiah Wellman for keeping school in North Parish.... 5 10 

Same date Capt. Elishaw Newhall for a Rome to keep school in..._ 6 

July 5, 1756 This day Capt. Richard Mower opend ye Scule at the north part 
of the town at the same rate as has of late been given in this town 28 pounds per 
y old Tenor Lawful money 37 — 6 — 8 

May 5, 1759 To see whether the town will Settle a Schoole in the Body of 
the town To be Statedly kept through the year and allow the North and West 
parishes to Draw the proportion of money they Shall pay towards the Support 
of Sd Schoole upon Their providing Schools among themselves at Such Seasons 
of the year as will best Suit them to the amounts of Sd Share. 

It was put to vote and past in ye Negetive. 

The reader of these chapters will understand how fragmentary are 
the sources from which a history of early Lynn schools must be con- 
structed. Let us pass to more recent years. 

The Society of Friends had a semi-public school of their own in Lynn 
for nearly half a century. Hon. Nathan Mortimer Hawkes, in an ad- 
dress delivered in 1907, makes vigorous comment upon the peculiar fea- 
tures of this school, declaring that ''thus was established a full-fledged 
and original Parochial school on the soil of Puritan Lynn." 

"Sundry persons of the Quaker Society" on March 2, 1776, presented 
a petition "for the Grant of a Peace of Land to Sett a School House on." 
The "Peace" was not granted, but the next year they established their 
school. The schoolhouse stood "half way up Quaker Meetinghouse Hill ' 
and has been erroneously claimed to be "the second school set up in 
Lynn." The location was on Broad street, just below Silsbee. Their 
original schoolhouse was moved away and another, built in its place, after- 
ward became the "Union Store" of olden times. 

In 1784 application was made to the selectmen for the proportion 
of money which Friends were annually paying for the support of the 
public schools, to be refunded to them, to be used by them for the sup- 
port of this Friends' School. The request was refused at first but after- 
ward it was granted and the grant continued till 1821, about thirty-five 



638 ESSEX COUNTY 

years. But when the Lynn Methodists tried to arrange the same plan to 
estabhsh sectarian schools of their denomination upon their share of the 
public funds, it was voted in town meeting, February 23, 1792 "that the 
Methodists do not draw their part of the school money back." 

Micajah Collins was the master of this Friends' school during most 
of its existence. One of his schoolboys in 1814 was D. Wendell Newhall, 
who has written the following description of his schoolmaster as he re- 
members him: "His figure and noble mein, spectacles on nose, silver 
buckles on shoes and breeches, a clean white stocking, a pendant watch- 
chain and seal, a white neck-cloth, that peculiar cut vest and drab short- 
bellied coat, and those eyes peering out over the school, hushing the whole 
school into that Quaker quiet." The writer of the foregoing description, 
speaking of the punishments he remembers in Master Collins' school, 
mentions various "educational" devices common to many schools of that 
day. He remembers "the leather, the Vv^ooden ferrule, a something to 
stride the nose, a bone for the mouth, and the tony-hole." These last 
contrivances have so fallen into disuse that few of us understand what is 
meant. 

"A something to stride the nose" was also in use in the school at the 
westerly end of the Common about 1810. There it was known as a "nose- 
gay," being fastened astride the nose v/ith a contrivance somewhat like 
a clothespin, and the boys thus decorated were obliged to stick their heads 
out of the windows for the amusement of passers-by. "The bone for the 
mouth" was not particularly appetizing. The victim was made to open 
his mouth as wide as possible, and a stick, the "bone", was placed be- 
tween his teeth to hold his jaws apart. The pose became most uncom- 
fortable and the victim was required to face the other children, greatly 
to their amusement and his own mortification. 

About 1800 the Vvoodend School stood at the head of "Fresh Marsh 
Lane" on "School House Hill". Fresh Marsh Lane is now Chestnut street 
and the hill is at the end of Collins street. Half way up the middle aisle 
of this school Vv'as a scuttle hole for wood, where unruly boys were fre- 
quently shut up until the cold and darkness and shame brought them to 
repentance. Perhaps such dark holes in other schools may have served 
as Tony Holes, just as the Dunce's Corner and stool and cap once had 
their run of popularity as educational devices. 

The changes in the schools of Lynn in all these years provide a 
most interesting subject for study. The punishments always seem to be 
remembered after other experiences fade away. Supporting a book on 
the hand at arm's length or holding down a nail in the floor were refine- 
ments of punishment compared with methods sometimes employed. The 
daily cries of "Fight, fight", "Ring around", are no longer heard in the 
school yards, and the gangs of "Beach Streeters" or "Highlanders" or 
from "Wapping" no longer wage deadly battle through the streets with 
snowballs or sticks and stones. 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 639 

A few years ago one school gained notoriety from its custom of pun- 
ishing whisperers by tying a long stocking over their mouths. The par- 
ents objected, the daily papers featured their protests, and the authorities 
ordered it stopped, not as cruel or abusive, but as insanitary. The slates 
that have done service for centuries have been banished for a similar rea- 
son. Before there were arithmetics, the master would set all the sums 
on the slates, and the busy rattle of the pencils was the music of the 
arithmetic hour. But now that is no longer heard because the slates 
were found insanitary. Future generations may wonder why, but as for 
those of us who remember how they were "cleaned off", we'll say they 
were. 

Nathan B. Chase, writing in 1870, states that in 1800 there were 
only two public schoolhouses in Lynn, one at the westerly end of the 
Common and the other at Woodend. He has given us an interesting de- 
scription of the latter. "It was about 25 by 40, set up four feet from the 
ground on pasture stones. It had a pitched roof and a chimney at each 
end. To one there was a large fireplace, to the other a large box stove, 
the iron plates of which were an inch thick, put together with iron rods 
at the four comers. It stood in the back part of the center aisle and 
was heated with white pine wood. The scholars went to the fire by 
classes on a cold day, taking their turns from the first class downwards. 
On one side of this fireplace was the front entryway, on the other was 
the teacher's desk. From the front to the rear the ascent of the floor 
was about five feet, and going up to the back seats seemed like going up a 
small hill." 

"From the first class downwards" suggests that middle-aged Lyn- 
ners today remember that in their schooldays, the "Master's Class" was 
the "first gi'ade," and the lower grades were given the larger numbers, 
the reverse of the present day custom. In that same comparatively mod- 
ern time it will be remembered that school always kept Saturday fore- 
noons in Lynn and a few neighboring towns along the North Shore, al- 
though not the custom elsewhere. This afforded a Wednesday afternoon 
holiday much prized by pupils and teachers. 

In old times scholars were required to contribute coppers for buying 
brooms and water buckets, and to take turns in sweeping the house. Mr. 
Chase says "the master frequently stayed after school-hours to set copies 
and make and mend pens for the school. He kept the goose-quills and the 
more quills he cut up, the gi^eater the profits. Sometimes the school- 
master would add to his salary by keeping an evening school in winter 
and a five o'clock school in the summer." Scholars left school sometimes 
at twelve years of age and v/ent to work learning to make "slaps" or 
"cacks" or at binding shoes. One tells how, after going to work at that 
tender age, he used to go to evening writing school with a turnip in one 
pocket for a candlestick and a candle in the other to light his desk by. 

Of recent years the "portable schoolhouses" have become too numer- 



640 ESSEX COUNTY 

ous in Lynn, affording a temporary solution of the housing problem, as 
the gi'owth of population continually outstrips the erection of suitable 
buildings. In a few days the carpenters take one of these "Alladin'' 
structures apart, move the sections to some overcrowded school, screw 
them together in the schoolyard, and have a shelter for a teacher and 
forty children. They are suited better for a climate milder than ours, 
their toilet facilities are not ideal, and they should not be allov/ed to be- 
come permanent. 

The one-room portables have some resemblance to the ancient school- 
house which is still preserved in the rear of the Lummus home on Frank- 
lin street. A centuiy ago it stood at the end of the Common, about 
where the Soldiers' Monument now is, and was then one of Lynn's best 
schools. In this building Alonzo Lewis conducted the first Sabbath school 
in Lynn. The Lummuses have shown a commendable pride in preserving 
this old relic in which Thomas J. Lummus attended school when a boy. 
At that time he had as his seat-mate the youthful William Lloyd Gar- 
rison. 

The word "seat-mate" suggests the old double seats that many nov»^ 
living will remember, allowing two boys or two girls to sit together, 
while sometimes as a punishment a boy and girl were made to occupy the 
same seat. Some country schools had these seats and desks made of 
thick pine plank, the seats being fastened to the front of the desks. A 
later pattern was of thinner hard wood, with iron standards. In earlier 
times a board table was used, six or more pupils sitting around it upon 
benches that had no backs. 

Visiting the old Lummus school with its arched ceiling, one may be 
reminded that the winter firewood used to be stored in the attic until, 
one day in the Franklin Street school, a cord and a half of this fuel was 
precipitated to the room below, carrying with it plastering, timbers and 
flooring. Fortunately the children were out at recess. After this the 
wood was kept in the cellar. 

Many changes mark the stages of school evolution. A few years ago 
the teachers* platforms were cut away, so that now the teachers are on 
a level with their pupils. The superior aloofness with which the throned 
schoolmaster might look down upon his "subjects" has given place to a 
mingling of teacher and pupils, with an increasing sense of companion- 
ship, and now the teacher spends much of her time circulating among 
her pupils as she teaches, giving individual assistance instead of always 
sitting at her desk "hearing classes." 

In some Lynn schoolhouses you may still see the old recitation plat- 
form extending across the back of the room, where the classes stood in 
line when called to recite. It was better than "toeing the crack" in the 
front of the room, for that would hide the children in their seats from 
the sight of the teacher. In some schools a long bench was nailed to 
the wall on the rear platform so that the classes could sit, rising in turn 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 641 

when called. Modern graded schools have missed all the interest of 
classes standing in line to recite, with the smart children working up to 
the "head," while the dunces are left at the "foot." 

Introduction of modern sanitation has relieved the schools from un- 
speakably unwholesome conditions. Heating and ventilation are accom- 
plished facts, eyesight is conserved by proper seating and lighting, text- 
books and supplies are furnished to all pupils free, while telephone ser- 
vice in all large schools gives an efficiency of management otherwise 
impossible. Truly the v/orld does move. 

The earliest records in the possession of the Lynn School Commit- 
tee date from March 16, 1812, but after that date they are not continuous. 
Then the "Superintending School Committee for the Town of Lynn" met 
at the Lynn Hotel and organized. They voted to buy a book to keep their 
records in, planned to have their first quarterly visitation Monday, April 
27, and voted that they would meet at Rev. Mr. Frothingham's house 
at nine o'clock. 

Free text boofe came into use in Massachusetts in 1884, and scholars 
must not wi'ite upon them. Before that the inscriptions inside the cover 
were a delight to the owner, especially in the olden times. Sometimes 
over his name he wrote : 

"Don't steal this book, 
Not on your life, 
For I have got 
A big jack knife." 

Or perhaps the doggerel said: 

"Don't steal this book, 
For if you do, 
The Devil will 
Be after you." 

Showing a diiferent spirit: 

"Master William Brown, 2nd 
This is his book, 
This is his pen, 
He will be good, 

The Lord knows when." 

Original book-plates are not the sole property of schoolboys. The 
Lyrm School Committee, having bought themselves a new record book, 
had its inside cover page appropriately inscribed with the following 
words : 

SCHOOL COMMITTEE 

of 

LYNN— 1812 

The strongest dictates of our soundest reason 
Require each member to be here in season. 

"Punctuality is the life of business" 

Essex — 41 



642 ESSEX COUNTY 

"On April 27 this Committee visited the schools in Wards 1, 2, 3 
and then adjourned to the following day when they visited the schools 
in Wards 4, 5, 6, being the whole of their duty." That closing phrase 
tells its story. It was "the whole of their duty" to visit the schools four 
times in the year and examine them. On Monday, June 22, they again 
met and visited the several schools, recording that "the schools were 
found in as good condition as could be expected." Another terse though 
somewhat vague expression, appearing several times in their records, is 
that "the school was found in a state of progress." 

No longer was it the custom to vote in March meeting to have the 
selectmen find a schoolmaster and agree with him. The school commit- 
tee had become a settled fact. Each district or ward had its local com- 
mittee to hire the teacher and equip the school, while this general com- 
mittee, comprising one member from each ward, had been elected to ex- 
amine the schools and advise the local committees. Instead of visiting, 
all in one body, in July of 1813, the committee divided its labors. Tim- 
othy Munro, chairman, visited the Asa Newhall school, Abner Ingalls 
the John Phillips school, Dr. James Gardner the Nathan Hawkes school, 
Richard Mansfield the Mary Phillips school, John Pratt the Nahant school, 
and Jonathan Makepiece and Samuel Hallowell had a school assigned 
each. About twice a year the committee held its meeting at Breed's 
Hotel, sometimes recorded "Lynn Hotel", these meetings being usually 
at the end of a day spent in their quarterly visitations. On January 25, 
1813, the secretary paid Thomas A. Breed's bill of $14.58, which came out 
of the year's draft on the town treasurer for $29.86 for the expenses of 
the committee. Landlord Breed's bill included both the use of his room 
and the refreshments furnished. Next we find forty words completing 
the entire records for nine years : 

1816 Visited the schools statedly thro the year and reported a new order of 
things, which Vvfas accepted by the Town Committee are J. G. S. V. Z. A. J. P. 
E. C. R. 

July 8, 9, 10 Visited all the schools except Swampscott and Nahant. 

N. B. From the above date to May 10th, 1825, no records have been handed 
down from any committee to their successors. 

From 1825 the records are quite complete, indicating increased 
authority and greater interest and efficiency. 

The salary received by the masters was $100 per term, payable four 
times a year. Hannah Johnson was paid $58.50 but the other names 
were of men, including Amos Rhodes, Jesse Price, Asa N. Swinnerton, 
Alonzo Lewis, John W. Morrill, Jeremiah Sanborn and others. 

The committee voted to hold their examination of the schools in a 
different way. All were to go together but each member was to have a 
distinct part of the work. Reading and spelling were to be examined by 
Messrs. Nelson and Ingalls, penmanship by Mr. Breed, arithmetic by Dr. 
Gardner, grammar by Messrs. Green and Lummus, and geography by 
Dr. Haseltine. 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 643 

Benjamin Mudge has written : "In all my schooldays, which ended 
in 1801, I never saw but three females in public schools, and they were 
there only in the afternoon, to learn to write." This may explain why so 
many women of that time made their cross in witnessing legal papers. 
Judge Newhall explains that "previous to the 19th century hardly any 
girls attended the public schools", and then gives three reasons for this: 
"First, they were needed at home ; second, the studies were not thought 
necessary for their sphere; and third, it was not proper to have boys 
and girls so closely associated." At first the employment of women as 
teachers met with considerable opposition. The change seems to have 
been creeping in since about 1820, until now the women teachers out- 
number the men, ten to one. There are interesting records bearing upon 
this subject of sex distinction. 

13th June 1825, Met as by adjournment. The school (at Swampscott) was 
under the tuition of Miss Judith Phillips and consisted of 16 males and 19 females 
that were present. 

Voted: That it is expedient that all the schools in town be supplied some 
part of the year with a male teacher; and that we recommend to the Ward No. 1 
that they employ a male teacher for four months between this time and next March. 

Voted to adjourn to the female department in the Chestnut St. on Wednesday 
next at 2 o'clock P. M. 

15th June 1825 Met in Chestnut St. Committee all present, also the Ward 
committee. This school contains 60 females but the average number was stated to 
be 75 and the whole number of subjects 86. 

Thursday 23d inst. Visited the Western schoolhouse near Tower Hill which 
was under the care of Miss Raddin. 

Voted: To recommend to the committee of the western ward to employ a 
male teacher at least three months, and the same for the female deparment at 
Woodend. In the latter case at least, the advice of the general committee was 
followed by the ward committee, for we find that January 20, 1826, they "visited 
the Misses' School under the care of Mr. Lewis." Note that after Alonzo Lewis 
became its master, "the female department" of the Chestnut Street school in 
Woodend became the Misses' School.' 

Monday 20 Feb. 1826 The town having authorized the Selectmen to draw on 
the Treasurer for the sum of $60 to be awarded to the three most successful in- 
Woodend became "the Misses' School." 

Voted: To award the $60 in three amounts, $25, $20, and $15 to the schools 
that have shown the greatest improvement during the past year. 

The committee then ballotted and decided that $25 go to the female 
branch of the Woodend school. As Alonzo Lewis was then in charge, 
while Miss Annie W. Stone had been in charge a part of the year, it was 
decided that he should have $15 and she $10. Then they voted the $20 go 
to Mr. Jeremiah Sanborn of the Gravesend school, and the $15 to Mr. 
Ezra Willard, instructor of the school near the westerly end of the Com- 
mon. A week later the committee had obtained an attested copy of the 
proceedings of the town, finding there had been a misunderstanding, so 
they then voted to reconsider their former votes. After considering the 
matter another week, they came together and voted that if the town had 
appropriated the $60, they would have awarded it as aforesaid. 



644 ESSEX COUNTY 

The division of the Woodend school into a school for males and an- 
other for females was not made permanent. On March 20, 1826 the com- 
mittee voted that "the school in Ward No. 2 be so divided that the more 
advanced pupils of both sexes be placed under the care of a male 
teacher, and the younger pupils be entrusted to the charge of a female." 

Quite a number of the old towns about us maintained separate boys' 
and girls' schools for years. Conservative Boston still continues certain 
High and Grammar schools for boys and others for gu-ls. If that is the 
best way, why not pattern the new schools after them? If it is not the 
best way, why not change them? 

Perhaps the old schools over-emphasized the distinction of sex, 
thereby arousing unnatural self-consciousness. In many schools each 
sex must enter by its own side of the school yard, through its own door, 
up its own stairway, into its own coat room, and occupy its own side of 
the classroom. Today 50 per cent, of these artificial barriers have been 
removed and with good results. 

November 20, 1837, a statistical reply to an official inquiry by Hon. 
Horace Mann, Secretary of the State Board of Education, contained the 
following statement: "There are seven males and four females who 
practice school keeping as a regular employment". In 1850 there were 
9 male and 34 female teachers, with 3379 pupils; in 1863 there were 6 
male and 53 female teachers, and 4332 pupils ; in 1920 there were 43 male 
and 375 female teachers, with 13,297 pupils. 

The various districts originally spoken of as the First Parish, 
North Parish, and West Parish, and sometimes referred to as precincts, 
had been divided into school wards by 1810. The records of 1812 indi- 
cate six such divisions, their arrangement of numbers being chronological 
rather than geographical. "Ward Number One" was the old first parish, 
its school being located at the westerly end of the Common. The second 
ward was that of the Friends' school and it had the peculiarity, that, 
territorially, it existed wherever in Lynn there chanced to be a Quaker 
family sending a child to that school. Ward three was Woodend, of which 
district the Ingalls school is the present center. The fourth ward was at 
the easterly end of the Common. Gravesend, now called Glenmere, was 
Ward five, and Ward six was Swampscott. 

In those years the school money was divided into proportion to the 
count of school population between the ages of five and fourteen. The 
figures below are for 1816 : 

215 "subjects", allowance $418 
133 " " 317 

200 " " 380 

167 " " 360 

76 " " 170 

40 " " 125 

41 " West District 85 
"872 Nahant 40 

John Lindsey (children at home) 5 

$1900 



The 1st ^ 


ward 


contained 


" 2nd 


>f 


" 


" 3rd 


" 


» 


" 4th 


>' 


't 


" 5th 


" 


» 


" 6th 


>' 


') 


West of General's Hill 


Total 


subjects 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 645 

This designation of pupils as "subjects", the usual custom of that 
time, seems to us in this day of long-established democracy as suggesting 
a period of despotic rule. Were those schools autocracies, and how far 
are the teachers autocratic today? Certainly schools have changed since 
those "good old days." And Lynn has been growing as well as changing. 
In 1818 the town voted $60 to assist in the erection of a schoolhouse in 
Nahant, and a stone building was erected there to serve as school and 
library, several hundred volumes being donated by gentlemen from Bos- 
ton. Other sections of the town had grown to need new schools and, in 
1821 the school wards were increased to eight and rearranged in con- 
secutive order: 

Ward 6 or Swampscott became Ward 1. Ward 3 or Woodend be- 
came Ward 2. Ward 5 or Gravesend became Ward 3. Ward 2, the 
Friends' district, became Ward 4. Ward 4, at the easterly end of the 
Common, became Ward 5. Ward 1, the westerly end of the Common, 
became Ward 6. What was known as the West District became Ward 7. 
Nahant was Ward 8. 

Lynn no longer has Nahant, save in the forefront of her city seal, 
so there is no Ward 8. Dye House Village, where a small school be- 
gan to be kept about 1830, has become the populous suburb known as 
Wyoma, taking on the number one that Swampscott used to have. 
Woodend and Gravesend have interchanged their numbers, two and three. 
Otherwise there has been practically no alteration in the numbering, and 
the modem city wards stand as the school wards were arranged a century 
ago. 

Before 1835 very few pupils remained in the public schools after 
reaching the age of thirteen years, for the education provided was most 
elementary, meager and unsatisfactory. Throughout New England pri- 
vate academies began to multiply, and children were sent to them if they 
wished a higher education and could pay the charges. There was a 
growing demand that public higher schools should be established, avail- 
able for all. In 1820 the Lynn School Committee asked that a "perpetual 
grammar school" be provided as required by the law of the State. In 
1821 the" town evaded this law by calling one of its schools a "gram- 
mar school" and removing the younger children to another building. The 
intent of the law had been a "Latin and Greek grammar school", but in 
1826 a special committee reported that such a school must wait because 
"expenditures ought to be regulated by the most rigid rules of economy 
till the town exonerates herself of debts." 

These debts seem never to have been cleared, and in 1838 the School 
Committee stated : "Your committee further report that it is highly ex- 
pedient that the town comply with the letter of the statute which pro- 
vides that a High School be established in every town containing four 
thousand inhabitants. This provision has been too long and unwisely 
avoided, the cause of popular education suffers foi^ the want of such a 



646 ESSEX COUNTY 

school more than from any other cause whatever." But still for another 
dozen years the expenditures continued "to be regulated by the most 
rigid rules of economy" before such a school was provided and the law 
obeyed. 

And during this half century of so-called economy, Lynn depended 
upon a private school, the old Lynn Academy, for the education of her 
more wealthy families. It began its existence, April 5, 1805, with Wil- 
liam Ballard as its preceptor, and, in spite of many difficulties, it was 
continued till the Lynn High School took its place. 

The late George H. Martin, Lynn's able educational leader, has com- 
piled an interesting paper upon the old Lynn Academy, which was given 
before the Lynn Historical Society. He tells how the promoters of the 
academy leased their land of the old First Parish and built the house 
and were incorporated by the General Court. The preceptors were 
continually beginners, just out of college, who would stay a year or a 
term, and then move on to something more remunerative. A part of 
the time there were pupils enough to permit employing a preceptress to 
teach the girls. At one time Alonzo Lewis was a pupil and later the pre- 
ceptor of the academy, before beginning his public school teaching. 

In 1832 a new act of incorporation was obtained and the school be- 
came more prosperous. In 1835 Jacob Batchelder became its preceptor 
and Priscilla Titcomb the preceptress, remaining in charge till the High 
School was established, Mr. Batchelder becoming the first High School 
principal, and Miss Titcomb soon followed him as assistant. Principal 
or Preceptor Batchelder was known as "Master Jacob", to distinguish him 
from his brother, "Master John", principal of the grammar schools of 
Wards 5 and 6. The old academy building, shorn of its belfry and guild- 
ed eagle, was moved to the corner of Western avenue and Center street, 
where it served as a paint shop. It used to stand on the site now known 
as 170 South Common street. 

In 1850 Lynn became a city, and its first High School building was 
erected. "Master Jacob" had already organized his new school, begin- 
ning the first year of the Lynn High School on May 28, 1849, occupying 
a room in the basement of the school building "in Franklin street." But 
on January 8, 1851, the school was removed to the "elegant structure 
erected for its accommodation on the south side of City Square." 

We begin our school years in September rather than in May, but 
that was before the day of the long summer vacation. Perhaps we need 
to be told that this new city's newly named "City Square" was later re- 
named "Highland Square", while the newest Lynners must be informed 
that after the boys came home from the World War, "Highland Square" 
became "McGloin Square." But the old wooden High School building, 
that "elegant structure", looked out upon these changes with hardly any 
change of its own countenance. You may see on the side of the building 
just where it grew longer, changing from five windows to seven, and 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 647 

your imagination readily restores the ventilator that used to adorn the 
middle of the roof. 

That High School had three classes, junior, middle and senior. The 
pupil mortality was even greater than nov/, and of 47 who entered the 
first class, only 15 gi-aduated three years later. Those preparing for col- 
lege or so-desiring might remain longer for additional work. The cata- 
logue of 1852 states there were then in the school, "Gentlemen 54, and 
Ladies 100, Total 154", while the catalogue of 1857 gives, "Ladies 99, 
Gentlemen 61, Total 160", a gain of only 6 in five years. Henry Lum- 
mus, A.B., was now principal, "Master Jacob" having accepted a better 
position at the head of the Salem Classical High School. 

The early catalogues are embellished with a picture of the school, 
its rolling lawn occupied by a gi'oup of small boys busy with tops or 
marbles, while a group of girls were tossing a ball and rolling a hoop. 
The later catalogue reveals two scars where these groups have been 
erased as too juvenile in dress and sports to accompany the "gentlemen" 
and "ladies" listed within. 

When ten classes had passed through the school we find the total 
graduates numbered "162 ladies and 58 gentlemen," total 220. This 
public high school had its rivals. The old Lynn Academy was no more, 
but in its place arose the "English and Classical School and Mercantile 
and Art Academy." It existed from 1864 to 1872 and seems to have 
had considerable patronage under Principal S. P. Boynton. 

The old building remained in use for forty years before another 
was built. The school had then long outgrown its shell, so that classes 
of its pupils were housed all over the city wherever vacant rooms could 
be obtained. The new school alongside the old one on Highland square 
was dedicated June 17, 1892, President Eliot of Harvard University be- 
ing the principal speaker. Until 1911 the Classical High School, under 
Principal Eugene D. Russell, occupied the first floor, while the English 
High School, under Principal Charles S. Jackson, had the rest of the 
building, later much enlarged from time to time. 

The new Classical building was completed in 1911 and Principal 
Russell moved his school into it, remaining its head until his death. 
That school gained a fine reputation for the quality of its work, as shov/n 
by the standing of the children it fitted for college. Both schools are 
now crowded to their capacity, the English housing more than 1800 pupils 
and obliged to have a part of the freshman class come in the afternoon 
for lack of space. 

The direct oversight of the schools was originally in charge of the 
selectmen, excepting as now and then the annual town meeting voted 
that some special committee have charge for a year. About the close 
of the eighteenth centuiy we have seen that a duly authorized school 
committee had come into legal authority. They tried various experiments 
from year to year, dividing the duties between the ward or prudential 



648 ESSEX COUNTY 

committees and the visiting or supervising committees. Adequate super- 
vision by competent officials serving gratuitously was most difficult to 
obtain, and the problem was never solved satisfactorily until they learned 
to employ an expert professional educator as the Superintendent of 
Schools. Lynn has had a succession of three superintendents in charge 
of her schools, and a glance over the changing conditions makes us re- 
alize that a great deal of progress has been made through their forty 
years of service. 

Orsamus B. Bruce was Lynn's first superintendent, called from teach- 
ing in Binghamton, N. Y., in 1879. Then the school superintendent was 
a frequent visitor in every schoolroom and his genial, kindly presence 
made his sunny greeting of, "Good morning, children," certain of a happy 
response of, "Good morning, Mr. Bruce." Looking back, one could wish 
the School Committee had left more authority in the hands of their super- 
intendent, allowing him to make Lynn schools all that he so earnestly de- 
sired. He remained in office until 1901 and a citizen of Lynn until his 
death. His oil portrait in the Public Library is an excellent likeness, 
placed there by the pupils and teachers of the schools in token of their 
affection and esteem. 

Superintendent Frank J. Peaslee succeeded Superintendent Bruce 
and continued in the office until 1915, when Charles S. Jackson, the pres- 
ent superintendent, was elected to the position. Mr. Peaslee came to 
the office at a time when the rapid growth of the city and its changes in 
educational conditions demanded of him the fullest measure of executive 
attention. He did not shirk the responsibilities of his position and vv^as 
always loyal to the teachers in their best efforts in the cause of public 
education. Good progress was made by the schools during his term. 

Charles S. Jackson was well known as an educator at the time of his 
election to the superintendency, having already served twenty-five years 
as principal of the Lynn English High School. In that quarter century 
he saw his school grow under his hands from 135 pupils to 1101 and the 
faculty increase from 4 teachers to 36. His administration having al- 
ways been marked by progi-essiveness and tact, inspmng harmonious co- 
operation on the part of teachers and a loyal school spii4t on the part of 
pupils, the School Committee promoted him to the higher position. Never 
have the duties of the office been more trying than during these years 
of his service, and the patient perseverance with which he has faced 
the most disheartening situations, during and since the World War, 
merits the highest appreciation of every one. 

The bookkeeping and other clerical work of the school department 
becomes more extensive every year, demanding efficient handling of the 
school funds at City Hall if the schools are to make good returns to 
the city for nearly a million dollars annually expended. Fortunately 
for Lynn, Ernest J. Stevens, an experienced educator of more than 
ordinary executive force, is in chai'ge of this work, filling the double 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 649 

office of assistant superintendent and secretary of the School Board to 
the great assistance of the committee, the superintendent and the 
teachers. 

General Lander Post No. 5, of the Grand Army of the Republic, has 
maintained most intimate relations with Lynn schools for years. Just 
before Memorial Day, delegations in blue uniform, wearing the G. A. 
R. bronze button, always visited every school, telling the boys and girls 
of the stirring times when they marched away in defence of the Union. 
Together the pupils sang "America" and the "Star Spangled Banner" 
and joined in the salute: "I pledge allegiance to my Flag and to the 
Republic for which it stands, one Nation, indivisible, with Liberty and 
Justice for all." Who can measure the good Post 5 has done by these 
impressive object lessons? 

The ranks of Post 5 have grown thin, but the Sons of Veterans, the 
Spanish War Veterans, and the American Legion are marching beside 
them and assisting in perpetuating their Memorial Day observances. The 
Stars and Stripes float above every schoolhouse and adorn every school- 
room, and the love of flag and country is the great lesson every school 
must have its classes 100 per cent, perfect in. The loyalty of our boys in 
the World War just ended proves that this teaching has not been in 
vain. They faced their duty nobly, they were brave and efficient, and 
Lynn was proud of their record. 

All through the schools was a united effort to "help win the war." 
The children bought war stamps and Liberty bonds to help finance Uncle 
Sam, they joined the Red Cross and spent their time and money to send 
help to our soldiers an'd the sufferers over seas. They forgot the play- 
ground and often neglected their lessons in their zeal to do "more. Knit- 
ting, that had become a lost art, was revived again, and, as our great 
grandmothers would knit along the road while bringing home the cows 
from pasture, so some of our teachers and pupils found they could knit 
sweaters and comforters and stockings while carrying on their class reci- 
tations. 

Little primary girls learned to knit at school and then went home 
and taught their mothers ; the boys learned to knit and stayed in from re- 
cess to finish another sweater for the soldiers. Some schools organized 
to roll bandages and make other hospital supplies by the thousands, and 
garments for the oriDhan children of France and Belgium. Wool and 
other materials soared in price, but it must be bought. So the children 
had cake sales, candy sales, junk sales, and the classes got up original 
"shows" after school with home talent and ten cents admission, or larger 
evening affair in the school halls or the home parlors and dooryards. 

To give to the soldiers with your own hands the sweaters those 
hands had made, each with the name and address of the maker pinned to 
it and asking the soldier to write a letter from camp, then to march be- 
side your soldier through the streets to the depot asking him to bring 



650 ESSEX COUNTY 

you home the Kaiser's mustache when the war v/as over, and to wave 
goodbye to your soldier as the train pulled out, those were experiences 
never to be forgotten. 

America is the leading nation of the world in popular government. 
If we are to endure we must have public schools in which our future 
voters, growing up together, shall iearn to stand shoulder to shoulder in 
unselfish allegiance to the Stars and Stripes, unitedly upholding the spirit 
of liberty, justice and equal rights, of which our flag is the emblem. 
Lynn's schools are earnestly alive to this great work. Our city has be- 
come the home of thousands of foreign immigrants, desirous of liberty, 
but strange to our language and ways. 

In our schools their children, coming, in multitudes of various races, 
are learning by precept and example the great principles of social or- 
ganization and equality upon which America's success has been built. 
The^e foreign children are rivaling those of native stock, not only in their 
successful scholarship, but in their loyal allegiance to this land of free- 
dom. In their homes their fathers and mothers, speaking foreign tongues, 
are working and sacrificing to give their children an American educa- 
tion, and the children are bringing home to these parents from their 
schools the spirit of that sane democracy for which America stands in 
the progress of the world. The great aim of the schools is the educa- 
tion of the children, but there is a valuable by-product in the influences 
the children carry to the parents, which must be reckoned in when we 
compute the dividends upon the public school investment. Lynn's best 
investment is in her schools and she cannot afford to have them anything 
but the best. 

Lynn's senior high schools have their Alumni Associations, leading 
a more or less prosperous and helpful existence. The Parent-Teacher 
Associations have taken root in certain schools, the Lincoln and Shepard 
having especially enthusiastic organizations. Four associations of gram- 
mar school graduates have had noteworthy records of success, viz: 
Master King's Schoolboys, Master Chase's Schoolboys, Master Brickett's 
Schoolgirls, and the Cobbet School Associates. 

Samuel W. King was the Ward F'our schoolmaster from 1846 to 
1857, having taught previously in Danvers, his home being in South Dan- 
vers or what is now Peabody. The Master King Schoolboy Association 
originally set the pace for the other organizations. Holding their re- 
unions each summer, they would go to Nahant for a fish dinner, reviving 
good fellowship, playing the old games, and doing honor to their old 
master as they exchanged reminiscences of their schooldays. 

Henry L. Chase was also a Ward Four master and for more than a 
quarter century graduated boys and girls who have since become leading 
citizens of Lynn. His old schoolboys still maintain their annual reunions 
with enthusiasm. Their favorite ball game, "Run-around-tally", ante- 
dates the modern national game. It is played with a soft ball and a 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 651 

"barn-door bat", and they get the runner "out" by hitting him with the 
ball as he runs between bases. They kept score by notching their tal- 
lies on a stick with a jack-knife. 

These boys come to their reunions with pockets full of marbles, or, 
lacking marbles, with a supply of sweet fern cigars or of "belly-achers" 
to trade for marbles. "Belly-achers" were a favorite mixture of cinna- 
mon, sugar and flour, put up in a folded paper like a doctor's powder 
and swallowed dry. The boys always used to include on their outings 
their old truant ofiicer, "Bobby" Newhall, although they always elect a 
truant officer from their own number, to assist their "Principal" in main- 
taining discipline. The principal calls their school to order or to din- 
ner by ringing the same cracked handbell that Master Chase used in the 
old schoolyard, — the "cowbell", appropriately engraved and highly prized. 

Lynn's only feminine organization of this kind does honor to the 
memory of Master Leonard P. Brickett, whose term of service coincided 
very nearly with that of Master Chase. The schoolgirls have held more 
frequent meetings at their various homes, finding no less enjoyment in 
these social assemblies than do the boys. 

The Cobbet Schoolboys hold annual reunions similar to the others 
described, but are so organized as to include the boys who attended the 
Ward Five school, under various masters. It is well supported and has 
contributed in various ways to the old school, one of their gifts being 
the drinking fountain erected in the yard to the memory of Sidney In- 
galls Breed, a well loved Cobbet janitor of many years of service. At 
the Whiting school is an indoor fountain with a tablet inscribing it to 
the memory of Master Chase, presented by his old boys. 

It would be hard to find any old fogy so conservative as to wish to 
return to the earliest Lynn schools, with nothing but "Readin, Ritin, and 
Rithmetic" in their primitive simplicity. Those were the times of which 
Alonzo Lewis said that "spelling went wholly by fancy." But in the past 
two centuries how the glorified "Three R's" have multiplied into the 
numerous studies that throng the modem school curriculum ! 

Spelling became standardized and took its place as a regular study, 
so that "spelling matches" and "spelling bees" divided honors v/ith the 
old-fashioned singing school as a popular diversion. Geography and 
history, starting in a very simple way, have grown into beauty and rich- 
ness undreamed of a generation ago. English Grammar dawned big 
above the educational horizon, but, like many another popular favorite, 
has suffered a decline. Not unlike other New England communities, 
Lynn has been a constant battleground between progressive and reaction- 
ary educational forces, victories and defeats lying thick along the years, 
as new leaders, new studies, new methods and new fads have entered the 
fray. 

The music fad may serve as an illustration, strongly opposed as 
""ornamental rather than useful, a hopeless waste of time for all but a 



652 ESSEX COUNTY 

few gifted pupils." In 1851 it was placed upon the list of studies and 
$100 voted to pay Charles A. Adams for teaching it one term. Next 
term he was paid $150, but in 1852 the committee voted to dispense with 
the teaching of music in the schools. In 1855 it was iiiled that "Teachers 
shall pay such attention to singing as circumstances will permit, and so 
far as practicable, intersperse singing among the other exercises of their 
schools." In 1868 the course of study directed that all schools below 
the high school should have singing five minutes and physical culture 
three minutes, twice each session. When at last James Edward Aborn 
became the regular singing master, driving in his buggy from school to 
school, year in and year out, singing came to stay, and there was no study 
or teacher more enjoyed by the boys and girls. 

Drawing at first led a precarious existence, being kept alive by in- 
cluding it with writing under one instructor. But in the years when 
Henry Turner Bailey, representing the State Board of Education, aroused 
the country to the real value of art education, Nathaniel L. Berry, inti- 
mate friend and co-worker with Mr. Bailey, was the Lynn drawing 
teacher. Together they found the way to lead children to appreciate the, 
beauties of design in forms and color, and then to enable them to express 
with brush and pencil the things they had discovered. "Nat" Berry was 
both an artist and educator, and his work placed the art instruction of 
Lynn schools upon a solid foundation, establishing a high standard which 
has been maintained by his worthy successors. 

Time fails us to speak of the coming of hygiene and physiology, 
botany, biology, geology, physics, chemistry and the higher mathematics, 
civics and political economy, literature, rhetoric and modern languages, 
sewing, cooking, sloyd, manual training in wood and metal, printing, 
bookkeeping, typewriting and stenography, all with their varied equip- 
ment of schoolroom, laboratory, shop, studio or kitchen. Also no modem 
school is complete without a well-equipped gymnasium and a physical 
instructor to coach our young people for their "athletic meets" and to 
train their football and baseball teams for victory. The adaptation of 
these various studies to the varied tastes and talents of the pupils has 
greatly enriched our Lynn schools. 

New England sent missionaries to carry aid and enlightenment to 
needy and ignorant peoples in foreign lands. Now the foreign people 
have landed upon our shore, thronged our city streets, filling our fac- 
tories and schools, and asking us to show them how to become good 
Americans. Our Atlantic seaboard is engaged in a magnificent mis- 
sionary effort with these new immigrant races, and Lynn is awake to her 
opportunity and the patriotic duty of the hour. 

Lynn evening schools have broadened their work to include hun- 
dreds of foreign-speaking adults, anxious to learn our language and our 
ways. Also many Americanization classes have been organized, meet- 
ing in homes, schools, public libraries and factories, hundreds of the men 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 653 

studying to complete their naturalization, while hundreds of women in 
"mothers' classes" are learning the things that will keep them in touch 
with the lessons their children are learning in the day schools. The 
Americanization work in Lynn is the expression of the spirit of comrade- 
ship and helpfulness and is resulting in real patriotism. 

Since 1915 Lynn has been committed to the Junior High School 
plan, in theory the "6-3-3 plan", though thus far our Junior High Schools 
number but two grades, while the Senior High Schools retain their four 
grades, housing conditions forcing this arrangement. In the Eastern, 
Central and Western Junior High Schools more than two thousand pupils 
of seventh and eighth grades are concentrated. All teaching is depart- 
mental as in Senior High, and each teacher is a specialist in her chosen 
subject. The segi'egation of pupils of these grades permits of better 
management at an age when more democracy and less autocracy are de- 
sirable, and when the habits of self government should be brought into 
use. With adequate equipment and support, this new departure prom- 
ises big results, both in scholarship and citizenship. 

Lynn's Summer School has gi'own to be a valuable addition to the 
educational system of the city. It is practically self-supporting by the 
800 boys and girls of all gi'ades who pay $5 apiece for the privilege of 
attending three hours a day for six weeks of the summer vacation, that 
they may strengthen their weakest studies, removing "conditions", gain- 
ing trial promotions, and avoiding retardation. 

Our times demand expert training of all our Yankee ingenuity, since 
America competes with the w^orld in mechanical industry. So the teach- 
ing of manual arts is coming to gi^eater prominence in our day and even- 
ing schools. Also the General Electric Company is carrying on its admir- 
able four-year apprentice course, co-ordinating the activities of brain 
and hand in the production of electrical goods. 

Next came the Lynn Industrial Shoemaking School, the first and only 
institution of its kind in America. In this center of the shoe industry, 
an opportunity is given for our boys to spend four years in a thorough 
training to fit them to become expert shoe manufacturers. All that can 
be taught them concerning the materials, processes, tools and machinery, 
and every useful detail of the business, is presented by expert instruc- 
tors. Is this the dawning of a new era of scientific shoemaking for 
America? 

The Lynn Continuation School is the latest tenant of the already 
overworked English High School building. With evening and day school 
more than filling its rooms twice, the Continuation School, holding its ses- 
sions afternoons, is rapidly taking possession of its available rooms for a 
third shift of pupils. Here working boys and girls, between 14 and 16 
years old, come for study four hours each week. If they lose their jobs 
they must attend for twenty hours per week. Their studies are such as to 
give them practical training for the kinds of work they aim to follow, and 



654 ESSEX COUNTY 

to fit them to get better positions. Nearly a thousand students are en- 
rolled in this school which aims to make its pupils realize that their edu- 
cation need not come to a standstill even though they must begin work- 
ing for a living. 

In conclusion, the wi'iter desires to add that Lynn's schools, their 
teachers, and the officials in charge, are deserving of the fullest esteem, 
confidence and support of her good citizens. 

Danvers — The village and Middle Parish of Danvers was set off 
from Salem more on account of there not being gi-ammar schools near 
enough to accommodate the children. The first action toward a separate 
school within the limits of Danvers and Peabody was' in 1701, when it is 
recorded that "Mr. Joseph Herrick and Mr. Joseph Putnam and Mr. 
Joseph Putnam, Jun., are chosen and empowered to agree with some 
person suitable to be a school-master among us, in some convenient time ; 
and make return thereof to the people." The person instrumental in con- 
structing the first schoolhouse was the minister of the village church. 
Rev. Joseph Green. The first teacher named in the records was Kather- 
ine Deland, who taught before Mr. Green's house was finished. In 1714 
Samuel Andrew is the first master mentioned. The first school commit- 
tee, as a distinctive board, was chosen in 1756, under rules as follows: 
"Voted to chuse com'tee to regulate ye grammar school & to be five men. 
Voted Daniel Gardner Daniel Purington Daniel Epes Junr. Nathl Fenton 
Sr., David Putnam voted that the school committee Draw up Something 
and lay it before ye District on ye adjournment." 

In the midst of the Revolutionary struggle (1777) through a petition 
headed by Jeremiah Page, a decided step forward was taken in school 
matters. At a meeting held in the old North Church, Archelaus Dale, 
moderator, it was voted "that there be set up Ten Schools for three 
months each year, and that the selectmen regulate the schools and pro- 
vide proper persons for school-masters." The term "district school" is 
first used here in 1780, in these words, "That there be District schools 
set up for three months to begin as soon as they may be." In 1783 there 
were nine schools "set up." It was not until 1794 that the town was 
divided into school districts. The first rules laid down for the govern- 
ment of schools in the town was in 1806, when Dr. Wadsworth, the min- 
ister, and Hon. Nathan Reed, with a few others, formulated these rules, 
as well as many more, and all under one head were termed Dr. Wads- 
worth's Code. 

1. It is recommended that each instructor open his school in the morning 
and close in the evening by a short prayer. 

2. On every school day except Saturday, each instructor shall employ at least 
six hours in the instruction of his pupils, and not less than three on that day. 

8. To facilitate the acquirement of an accurate & uniform mode of Spelling 
& pronunciation, Perrys Spelling book and Dictionary shall be taught in all schools; 
and the following shall be the catalogue of Books from which the scholars shall be 
supplied at the discretion of the Instructor, viz: "Murray's Grammar Abridged", 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 655- 

"Morse's Geography, Abridged", "Constitution of the State of Massachusetts", etc.; 
"Wakefield's Mental Improvement", "Pike's Ai-ithmetic" & the "Holy Bible," to- 
gether with such Latin & Greek Classics as are usually taught in Grammar schools. 

The first mention of the school committee having pay for their ser- 
vices was in 1836, when it was voted to give the same pay as to other 
town officers. In 1837 was first mentioned the "Massachusetts School 
Fund." The year 1839 marked the era when printing and distributing 
town school reports in Danvers began. The first report ever made in this 
town was dated 1817, and it is still in existence — a crumpled and faded 
document, containing many humorous and extremely odd as well as use- 
less expressions. 

The first high school was opened in June, 1850. It was held at two 
points within the town. Thirty-eight entered the South school, and 
thirty-one the North school. Philanthropist George Peabody, whose home 
had been here, in 1853 sent word that he would give the high school 
named for him the sum of $200, and do so annually each year after 1854, 
the same to be expended in purchasing prizes for the best scholars, the 
same usually to be a medal. In 1867 Mr. Peabody established a fund 
of $2,000, the income of which was to purchase medals and books for 
graduates from this school. 

As the years have passed by, the schools of Danvers met with 
changes and improvements, both in manner of instruction and in the 
buildings devoted to school purposes. Each generation, however, has 
been blessed with the standard of schools common to the time in which 
it existed, ending with the present high state of the common and high 
school systems. 

In 1920 the following was a part of the teachers' report for Dan- 
vers : High school, $25,238 ; Maple and Charter streets, $19,693 ; Daven- 
port, $10,730; Tapley, $11,093; Wadsworth, $4,467; Park, $4,668; Put- 
namville, $1,030; Hathorne, $910; East Danvers, $2,271; Domestic 
Science, $2,350; Manual Training, $1,900; Drawing, $1,250; Physical 
Training, $1,250 ; Music, $480 ; Specials, $854 ; Substitute Teachers, $731. 
Total, $88,988.52. 

The high school is served with a lunch, and at times with dinners, 
the same being served at actual cost, and consists of wholesome food, 
such as soups, chowders, creamed dishes, cup-cakes, sandwiches, etc. 
This system was first conducted by the Daughters of the American 
Revolution, but later Vv'as taken care of by the department of Domestic 
Science. In 1920 $4,700 was spent in this manner, but all free of cost 
to the town, each pupil paying his or her share. In 1920 the schools had 
a total of about 1900 pupils. The superintendent of the high school re- 
ceives $2,750 per school year ; the total paid high school teachers in 1920 
was $25,238. 

Schools of Lawrence — In Lawrence about 1845, there were only three 
small, one-story school buildings, of the type of school buildings every- 



656 ESSEX COUNTY 

where found in New England rural districts. They were plain, roughly 
finished, and cold in winter time. In 1846 another building was provided 
by the Essex Company, under the direction of the Methuen school com- 
mittee. After Lawrence became a separate town, other schools were 
soon provided. The manufacturers who paid sixty-five per cent, of the 
taxes said: ''Let us maintain the best school we possibly can." The first 
high school was opened in January, 1849, and T. W. Curtis was appointed 
principal. The Oliver Grammar School was opened in the spring of 1848, 
with one hundred and forty students. The Packard School in South Law- 
rence was opened in 1872. The building was burned in March, 1885, but 
was rebuilt. Free evening schools were established in 1859, under direc- 
tion of George P. Wilson. In 1869 a training school was established as 
an experiment, and it proved successful. This was established for teach- 
ers who did not see their way clear to go to distant State normal institu- 
tions. Decade by decade Lawrence schools have developed, until today 
they stand abreast of others in Essex county. 

There are now a large number of strictly modern buildings, and all 
are supplied with the best of teachers. It was in 1892 that better school 
buildings commenced to be erected. In 1893 a $70,000 brick school 
building was erected; soon another appeared, costing $60,000, and still 
another, costing the same. The grammar school of 1897 cost $95,000; 
the new high school built in 1901, cost $250,000 ; the Alexander B. Bruce 
Grammar School cost in 1902, $100,000; the Hood Grammar School in 
1905 cost $150,000, and the John Breen Grammar School, in 1911, costing 
$135,000. In June, 1915, the Oliver Grammar school was started, and 
was completed in the fall of 1917, at an estimated cost of $210,000. Here 
one finds thirty-six class rooms, besides many other useful rooms. The 
latest innovation in schools here are the evening and the naturalization 
schools for the working and foreign element. 

There are also numerous parochial schools in Lawrence, under su- 
pervision of the churches. 

Essex Schools — The schools in the town of Essex have always been 
well up with the average of other schools in Essex county. There seems 
a shortage of early records in this town concerning school affairs. Com- 
ing down to the present time (1921), the records show that there were 
resources amounting to $14,813, and expenditures of $15,856, an over- 
draft of $1,040. The total number of pupils enrolled in 1920 was 260. 

On account of slight attendance, the South School was closed in 
1920. The children who had attended there were sent to the Island dis- 
trict. The transportation bill in 1920, for this town on account of its 
schools, was $1,625.50. The buildings are in excellent condition at this 
time. 

Topsfield Schools — The first reference to education in the records of 
this town is dated March 6, 1693, as follows: "The town have agreed 
that Goodman Lovewell, Schoolmaster, shall live in ye Parsonage house 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 657 

this yeare ensuing, to kepe Schole and swepe ye meeting-house," For a 
long time the town had but the single schoohnaster. He was chosen at 
the annual meeting, and was generally a citizen of the town. A room in 
a private house was hired for schooi-room purposes, even as late as 1750. 
The records speak of no regular school building until after 1790, wh?n 
the tovv^n was divided into three school districts, named South, Middle and 
North districts. The East district was soon added. The Middle was 
soon changed to Centre School House, and it stood on the present site 
of the town hall. In 1837, the town bought the Academy building and 
changed the Centre school to this building. (The Topsfield Academy is 
mentioned elsewhere). 

The school committee in a repoi-t for 1920 has the following: 

As is the case in all schools, we have a few ''backward pupils," and it may be 
wise to fall in with the general practice, and employ a special teacher to bring these 
pupils along more rapidly. 

On October 1st was begun the work of our instructress in hygiene and school 
nurse. This with us is an innovation and promises to be of great value to the school 
children. Miss McGinley has taken up the work with understanding and enthusi- 
asm, and already much good is visible from her care and instruction. Co-operation 
with the School Nurse by parents is earnestly urged, as upon this, the success of 
Ihis measure largely depends. 

Our school building seems to grow smaller, and its fitness for best care and de- 
velopment of pupils grows more meager as increasing demands are made upon it 
each year, and we earnestly wish for a new and larger school with modem equip- 
ments. The school expenses increase in proportion with the increased cost of 
living, especially in the detail of salaries. Teachers are relatively scarce and de- 
mand much larger salaries than formerly. 

In 1921 the total enrollment was, at the spring term, 165 — 86 girls 
and 79 boys. The teachers: James W. Frost, principal, salary, $1,500; 
Loma B. Tasker, high assistant, $1,150 ; Elsie M. Bremner, high assist- 
ant, $1,150; Ruth F. Pitman, high assistant, $1,150; Bessie B. Perkins, 
Grammar, $1,300 ; Regina C. Donovan, Lower Grammar, $950 ; Elizabeth 
A. Paul, Intermediate, $1,100; Alice S. Evans, Primary, $950; Bessie 
Cleaveland, Music, $300; Dorothy Durham, Drawing, $150. 

Amesbury Schools — The first account found in the town records is 
an entry that Mr. Wells was chosen schoolmaster, with a salary of £20 
per year; this was dated 1694. In 1710 the school apportionment v/as 
increased to £30 per year; the schools were kept half of the time at the 
meeting house and the other half at the house of Roger Stevens, at Jam- 
aco. In 1771 the grammar school was ordered kept at the meeting- 
house, at the "Pond Hills fort." 

In 1734 an effoi*t v/as made to establish a free school. The repre- 
sentative at General Court was instructed to petition that a body of land 
be granted for that purpose. No action was taken, hence we see no more 
concerning the free school proposition for some time. 

In 1796-97 trouble arose over the location of a proposed schoolhouse 
at the Ferry. Finally, it was built by private subscription, and later sold 

Essex— 42 



658 ESSEX COUNTY 

to the district. The first teacher there was Mr. Burrows, he receiving 
$18 a month for his services. The record says: "Mr. Burrows began his 
school January 16, 1797, on Monday, the First School that was Teached 
in this House." In 1801 a schoolhouse was built at the Mills, costing 
$250; this was the house built of brick, on Friend street. In 1802 a 
schoolhouse was erected at West Amesbury, at an expense of $200. In 
1805 an effoi-t was made to provide an academy at Bartlett's Corner, for 
the use of Amesbury and Salisbury. A stock company was formed, with 
a capital of $2,000, divided into shares of ten dollars each. A lot was 
secured where now stands the high school building. The structure was 
finished in 1805, and Abner Emerson was appointed first teacher. 

Coming down to 1886, Amesbury (including eight parochial schools) 
had thirty-three schools within her borders. The children between five 
and fifteen years of age numbered 1300. In 1920 there v/as an enroll- 
ment of 1,170 children ; teachers, fifty-four ; parochial schools, tv/o ; school 
appropriations, $111,350. A physical training department was installed 
in September, 1920, and is proving a success. 

In the year 1890 the town had in use nineteen different school build- 
ings. That this was highly unsatisfactory from an educational stand- 
point was evidenced by the fact that the committee at various times 
recommended measures of consolidation. In 1897, at the annual town 
meeting, a committee of six was appointed to act with the school com- 
mittee to ascertain w^hat lots were available for the erection of a school 
building at some point on Elm street. At the town meeting of the follow- 
ing year (1897) this committee reported that they had selected the Moses 
Collins lot on Elm street, which could be purchased at a cost of $2,000. 
They recommended also that a four-room building be erected, at a cost 
of $10,000, but inasn'iuch as they thought it possible to endure the cramp- 
ed conditions for some time longer, advised that appropriation for the 
erection of a nev,^ building be not made at that time. 

In 1897, owing to increased numbers of pupils enrolled, an addition 
of four rooms was made to the rear of the high school building. In the 
year 1903 the school committee recommended to the town that a com- 
mittee be appointed to see what steps should be taken for the better 
accommodation of pupils in the high school. This committee was ap- 
pointed at the annual town meeting, and it made reports in various detail 
at adjourned town meetings held on May 18th, June 22d, August 1st, 
and October 4th, 1904, the substance being that it was the unanimous 
opinion of the committee that a new high school building was needed and 
should be immediately erected. The matter was referred to the annual 
town meeting in March, 1905, where it was killed by the voters. Mean- 
time, during the year 1903, conditions were becoming altogether too 
cramped for safety, and the school committee erected an addition to the 
school building, which was opened in the fall of 1904. 

During the year 1903 the first step in the consolidation of schools 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 659 

was begun when the committee voted to close up the Pleasant Valley 
school and send the five children in attendance to the school in the Ferry 
district. In the year 1906 the school committee recommended that the 
town appoint a committee to act with the school committee to investigate 
the matter of consolidating the Azassiz, Garfield, and Mann schools into a 
new building on Congress street. At the annual town meeting in March, 
1907, the town voted to purchase a lot and build a new school building; 
this is the present Horace Mann School, located on Congi^ess street, dedi- 
cated September 3d, 1908, and opened for pupils a few days later. At 
the end of the school year 1908, the Dorr School on Rocky Hill road was 
closed, the pupils from this building being transferred to the Hackett 
School in that section of the town, or the Macy and Bartlett Schools at the 
Ferry. At the close of the year 1910, the Hackett School, Rocky Hill 
was closed. In 1914 the Pond Hills School was abolished, and in the fall 
of that year the pupils were transferred to the Horace Mann School. 

In 1916 an article was inserted in the warrant of the annual town 
meetmg to see if it would vote to increase its school accommodations by 
the erection of a new high school building. A committee was appointed 
to mvestigate the matter and report at a later date. At the adjourned 
town meeting, held on May 1st of the same year, the town voted the sum 
of $125,000 for the purpose of erecting a new building and purchase of 
equipment for the same. At a further adjourned meeting on May 22d 
the town voted to purchase the site of the so-called Huntington lot at a 
cost of $7,000. 

When the committee advertised for bids for construction, it was 
found that, owing to the rising price of materials due to the war, the 
buildmg could not be built for the money appropriated. A special town 
meetmg was called on September 9th, 1916, at which an additional ap- 
propriation of $10,000 was made. The building committee found itself 
still further in diflficulty financially, and at the town meeting^ of April 2d, 
1917, it received an additional appropriation of $15,000 for furnishing 
and equipment, and $10,000 for grading the lot. The foundation was be- 
gun October 28th, 1916, the cornerstone was laid January 17th, 1917, 
and the building was occupied on November 26th, 1917. 

Because of the erection of the new high school building, further ele- 
mentary consolidations were possible. In the summer of 1917 the Macy 
School was closed, the lower grade pupils being sent to the Bartlett School 
and the fifth and sixth grade pupils to the Ordway School. In the sum- 
mer of 1918 the Whittier and Davis schools were closed and all the chil- 
dren in the seventh and eighth grades in the town were consolidated in 
the old high school building, which was renamed the Junior High School. 
The ohly change made since that date was in the fall of 1920, when the 
Davis School was again reopened, owing to increased school enrolment 
and the establishment of special classes for backward children. 

Up until 1902 the school board was composed of three members, who 



660 ESSEX COUNTY 

had entire charge of the organization, administration and supervision of 
schools. This latter work was carried on through the appointment of 
sub-committees for different districts, each man acting as supervisor of 
his district. The total number of visits made by members to schools 
varied from 100 up to 430 in the year 1898. That the school committee 
realized the inefficiency of this method, and desired something better, is 
evidenced by the fact that year after year they recommended to the town 
that expert supervision be employed. In the year 1902 the Massachu- 
setts Legislature passed a law stating that on and after the first day of 
July the school committee of cities and towns not in unions "shall ap- 
point a Superintendent of Schools who, under the direction of the com- 
mittee, shall have the care and supervision of the public schools." 

In compliance with this, on April 7th, 1902, the school committee 
elected as superintendent of schools, Mr. C. S. Lyman, who began his du- 
ties immediately. On January 2d of the same year, at a special town 
meeting, the members of the school board were increased from three to 
nine. This change complicated the organization, inasmuch as the old 
committees for the different schools were retained and, in addition, new 
ones on teachers' salaries, textbooks and supplies, repairs, finance, rules, 
school athletics and industrial education were added. These continued 
down until the year 1914, when a gradual reduction in the number was 
begun. At present all of the old district committees have been elimi- 
nated and the board maintains two standing committees — namely, finance 
and buildings. 

At the beginning of the year 1906, Mr. C. S. Lyman resigned his 
position. At the town meeting of that year there was much discussion 
and criticism of the expense of supervision, and the school committee was 
instructed by the voters to secure some one at less cost. In compliance 
with this, the committee on April 11th held a special meeting, at which 
was discussed the advisability of joining with the town of Merrimac and 
forming a union superintendency. It was voted not to enter such an 
agreement. On April 23d Mr. Charles E. Fish, then superintendent of 
schools in Manchester on part-time, was secured to act as superinten- 
dent in Amesbury three days per week. Mr. Fish severed his relations 
in June, 1915, and was immediately followed by Burr F. Jones. The 
other occupants of this position have been Edmund K. Arnold to Decem- 
ber 1st, 1912 ; L. Thomas Hopkins, to October 1st, 1921 ; and Justin O. 
Wellman to date. 

Up to March 25th, 1907, it had been customary for a member of the 
school board to act as secretary. At this time the superintendent of 
schools was elected secretary, at additional compensation of $50. This 
method has continued to the present time, with the exception that when 
Mr. Arnold came as superintendent the additional compensation for this 
work was abolished. 

At the regular town meeting held in March, 1914, it was voted to 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 661 

reduce the number of school committee members from nine to seven, and 
one new member was elected in place of the three whose terms expired. 
It was found later, however, that this was in conflict with the State law, 
which requires the number three or a multiple of three. At the next an- 
nual town meeting in 1915 it was voted to reduce the board to six, 
which number has remained to the present time. 

After years of discussion and favorable recommendation on the part 
of the school committee, drawing was the first special subject to be intro- 
duced in the schools in the fall of 1895. This was placed in the hands of 
a special teacher, Miss Gertrude Smith. In September, 1902, music was 
added, under the direction of Mrs. Harriet J. Bartlett, who has continued 
unto the present time. This same year Mr. Forrest Brown, principal of 
the high school, stated in his report that he had collected a few benches 
and some tools and started the nucleus of a course in manual training 
for the high school. In the spring of 1909 the school committee voted 
to introduce sewing, cooking and manual training in the elementary 
schools, and instruction was begun in September. 

In compliance with Chapter 502, Acts of 1906, the school committee 
appointed Dr. Herman Cooper school physician, and he began his duties 
in September, 1906. On April 14, 1914, the first school nurse was em- 
ployed upon recommendation of Dr. Leslie, the school physician, owing 
to an epidemic of scarlet fever. She was employed jointly by the school 
committee and the board of health, one-half the salary being paid by each. 
Miss MacBumie resigned her position early in April, 1915, and on May 
11th, Miss Viola Sperry was elected to succeed her. At this time the 
joint relationship between the board of health and the school committee 
was severed, and Miss Speriy was employed solely by the latter. On 
June 8th, 1915, the office of attendance officer was combined with that 
of school nurse, and this arrangement continued until September, 1920, 
when these offices were separated. The school nurse then devoted her 
entire time to health work, including regular instruction in physiology 
and hygiene. The attendance work was taken care of by a man on half- 
time. 

In 1910 Superintendent Charles I. Fish recommended in his report 
that the committee introduce special work in physical education. Noth- 
ing was done along this line, however, until September, 1920, when a 
course was organized for all the schools of the town and placed in the 
hands of a special supervisor. 

The first evening school was opened March 9, 1891, and continued to 
January 22, 1892. Mr. A. E. Tuttle was in charge, with two assistant 
teachers. There were enrolled 162 pupils, and the subjects of book- 
keeping, grarmnar, mechanical drawing, arithmetic, reading, spelling and 
penmanship Vv^ere taught. The following year the number increased to 
210 pupils, six new teachers were added, and the subject of mechanical 
drawing was eliminated. Owing to criticisms of the cost of operation. 



662 ESSEX COUNTY 

during the year 1893-4, the teaching force was reduced to seven with 
larger classes. The total expense was $10 per night. The following 
year, owing to lack of funds, the term was shortened to ten weeks, and 
in the school report of 1895 the committee recommended a special appro- 
priation for the maintenance of this school. As this was not gi-anted at 
the town meeting in 1896, the school was discontinued. 

The next movement in this direction was when the school committee 
recommended in 1898 that evening instruction in English be offered to 
foreign-bom adults who did not have a command of the language. Noth- 
ing came from this recommendation. In 1919 the Massachusetts Legis- 
lature passed an act providing that towns maintaining Americaniza- 
tion classes for adults would receive one-half the cost of operation, pro- 
vided this act was accepted by the school committee and the school ap- 
proved by the Commissioner of Education. Under this law the school 
committee established Americanization classes in the French Parochial 
School. One hundred pupils were enrolled and instruction was offered 
in English, arithmetic, writing and citizenship; six teachers v/ere em- 
ployed. The success of this seemed to warrant further expansion. In 
September, 1920, a half-time director was appointed, and on November 
6th the work was conducted in the new high school building and ex- 
panded so as to include English and citizenship for adults, instruction 
in the common branches for illiterate minors who had not graduated 
from the sixth grade, and other subjects, such as sewing and cooking, 
shorthand, typewriting, bookeeping, and mechanical drawing. The school 
was in session twenty-four weeks and employed sixteen teachers. Gradua- 
tion exercises were held and certificates presented. 

Salisbury Schools — Thomas Bradbury appears of record as having 
been the first school teacher in Salisbury. The date of building the first 
schoolhouse is not to be found at this time. Private houses were largely 
used for many years. Schools moved from one neighborhood to an- 
other. This locality was among the number reported to the General Court 
as delinquent, in that the parents did not see the necessity of sending 
their children to school. The law in 1692 was "that every town within 
the Province having fifty Householders or upwards shall be constantly 
provided with a School Master to Teach Children and Youth to Read and 
Write, and when any such town or Towns have a number of one hun- 
dred families or Householders there shall also be a Grammar school sett 
up in every Town, and some discreet person of good conversation. Well 
Instructed in the Tongues, procured to teach such school." The penalty 
for not living up to this law was a fine of from ten to twenty pounds ster- 
ling. 

The first schoolhouse in Salisbury was erected at the Point by sub- 
scription in 1793. Seth Clark and Hon. Caleb Gushing were among the 
scholars who attended this humble school. Coming down to modem days, 
it may be not without profit to note a few facts gleaned from the school 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 663 

reports of 1920: Paid for teachers' salary, $8,682; salary of principal, 
$1,110 ; transportation of pupils, by street railway, $3,020. The cost of 
fuel was $507 ; books and supplies, $675 ; total membership, 288 ; average 
attendance, 235 ; number of graduates, seventeen. The contrast of school 
days in pioneer times and now, when children may ride to and from 
school in all times of the year, by street cars propelled by electricity, is 
great. It is doubtful whether the rising youth fully appreciate these ad- 
vantages bestowed upon them by modem facilities and methods. 

Andover Schools — It hardly seems possible that in a community so 
long a seat of learning, with its Theological Seminary and the Abbot and 
Phillips schools for boys and girls, should have had as first settlers such 
a band of hardy men and women who left their impress on the future 
generations, and yet they themselves without learning. As a rule, the 
men could i-ead and write, and had a fair understanding of the simple 
rules in mathematics, but beyond these they had little education; their 
wives had still less, and yet these women were leaders in their society; 
they could not in many instances read and write, but made their cross 
when their signature was required. The first teachers were also the 
first ministers, and under them lads were trained for Harvard College. 
The coming of Governor Bradstreet and his family to this town doubtless 
helped create a thirst for more knowledge. As early as 1678 the town 
sent to Harvard a contribution of twelve bushels of corn as a "compli- 
ment for ye new building of ye college," this showing the interest they 
took in the endeavor to do better by their sons than had been done for 
them by their parents. 

The law of 1647, requiring every township having fifty families to 
support a school, and every township having one hundred families to sup- 
port at least two gi-ammar schools, was not regarded in Andover until 
1701, when it was voted that "a convenient schoolhouse be erected at ye 
parting of ye ways, by Joseph Wilson's, to be twenty foot long and six- 
teen foot ^vide." Suitable school teachers were scarce, and the pay was 
small ; college graduates were in demand for the ministry. But the town 
was better off than others, for within her midst was the son of Gover- 
nor Bradstreet, Dudley Bradstreet, who in 1704 became master of the 
first grammar school in town. In regular succession he was followed by 
forty-one others, in eighty-seven years. Regular schools were not estab- 
lished in the town's outskirts until 1755. At first the schools were of 
a low grade, teaching little save reading, writing and arithmetic. In win- 
ter they were taught by men and in the summer months by women. In 
1795 Andover was divided into twelve school districts, in each of which a 
school was supposed to be maintained eight months each year. Taxes 
were levied, as now, to support these schools. The boys were supposed 
to need the rod as well as "book-learning", and they usually received 
it, too. The long ferule and the birch were a necessity with the master, 
as much as his arithmetic and reader. 



664 ESSEX COUNTY 

Coming down to the present time, it may be said that the common 
schools of Andover are fully abreast with those in other parts of New 
England, if not in some Vv-ays superior. The school report for Decem- 
ber, 1920, says that the appropriation that year for schools in Andover 
was $92,000. It is indeed fortunate for the residents of Andover that 
the town has so many superior schools; for after leaving the excellent 
high school, the pupil has a choice of two or three up-to-date institutions 
in which to complete a modern education, and that without great expense. 
Andover has sent forth to the world its thousands of brilliant men and 
women, who have cormnanded recognition in the busy walks of men, from 
one coast to the other. 

The total membership of the schools in 1920 was 1,350. The schools 
included were the High school, Stowe, John Dove, S. C. Jackson, Indian 
Ridge, Bradlee, Richardson, West Center, North, Bailey and Osgood. 

Hamilton Schools — From incorporation to the present, the schools in 
the town of Hamilton have been up to standard. Four ungraded schools 
were supported from the first organization of this town, designated the 
North, East, South and West districts. Until 1827 the school committee 
consisted of eight members, chosen annually. Later it was cut down to 
five members, and in 1857 the Legislature fixed the number at three. 
Down to 1844, the minister or pastor of the church was chosen chairman 
of the board or town committee. In 1850 the average wages paid to fe- 
male teachers was $9.75 a month, and to male teachers $30 a month. 
The school committee visited the schools at least twice each year and 
made a very "wise" inspection of methods and discipline, after which 
they repaired to some member's house, and there had a liberal feast, and 
compared notes on what each thought of the teacher and the pupils, the 
building, and school matters in general. These visits were (to the com- 
mittee) a real pleasure as well as official duty. 

Coming down to the present, the number of enrollments in this town 
in 1920 was 371, boys 166, and girls 205. The buildings are of a stand- 
ard Massachusetts qualify, and kept in good repair. The salaries run 
from $2,400 for the principal to the grades that usually receive about 
$1,000. The high school assistants run from $1,100 to $1,400 per school 
year. Of the high school students, the Seniors numbered 14; Juniors, 
14 ; Sophomores, 22 ; Freshmen, 32. Of these eighty-two, thirty-six are 
enrolled in the commercial course. 

Boxford Schools — The earliest public school in the town of Boxford 
was taught in 1701 by Captain John Peabody, the town clerk. Schools 
were held at private houses in various parts of the town for many years. 
About 1738 the town was divided into districts, and a schoolhouse was 
provided in each district. In 1796 nev*^ buildings took the place of the 
first schoolhouses. Many years ago, a second lot of schoolhouses was 
provided, and in many sections of the town still another set have been 
demanded and procured. In 1886 the town contained six districts and 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 665 

the average attendance was one hundred and twenty. Up to that date, 
Boxford had thirty-five gi*aduates from colleges — sixteen of Harvard, 
fourteen of Dartmouth, two of Yale, and one each of Amherst, Brown 
and Union colleges, all having been natives of Boxford. Since then many 
more have been added to the graduate list. 

The school reports for 1920 give facts as follows : Paid for teachers, 
$3,660 ; music teacher, $275 ; high school transportation, $985 ; grade 
transportation, $1,169 ; fuel, $484 ; the total of all expenses was placed 
at $9,887. The teachers in 1920-21 were Ada Clapp, Palmer School, on a 
salary of $1,000; Esther Perley, Wood School, salary $800; Jeane F. 
Sanborn, Morse Grammar School, salary $1,200; Catherine Mclnnes, 
Morse Primary School, salary $1,200. 

Groveland Schools — The first reference to schools in Groveland was 
in 1701, when it was voted "that the selectmen provide a school accord- 
ing to their discretion, and that they should assess the town for the ex- 
penses of the same." But it should be remembered that not until after 
the Revolution was the free school system thought of as being the stan- 
dard, for private and select schools mostly prevailed. The people felt 
the need of better educational facilities, otherwise there would not have 
been the demand for the founding of Harvard College, in which teachers 
might be trained and developed to instruct in the schools of the New 
England States. The first common school committee was appointed in 
1795, consisting of Nathaniel Thurston, James Kimball, Nathan Burbank 
and Seth Jewett. 

This county, with many others, did not take kindly to the free public 
school system for many years. It rather delighted in select schools 
and academies of religious or sectarian polity. Bradford took a leading 
part in this role, and in 1803 it was voted and agreed that a building 
should be erected for an academy, and subscriptions were raised to meet 
the expenses. In thi-ee months the building was finished and an academy 
was opened. The first principal was Samuel Walker of Haverhill, with 
Hannah Swan as preceptress. (For further history see later details in 
this work). 

In 1886 there were ten public schools in this town, the high school 
having a membership of twenty-eight. For the year named, $4,200 was 
appropriated for teachers. The 1920 school reports for Groveland show 
that out of a population of 2,650, there were enrolled 502 pupils in the 
public schools. The average attendance for 1920 was 401 ; assessed val- 
uation of personal and real property, $1,610,000. Tax rate per thousand, 
$30. Cost of schools in 1920, $28,418. Cost per pupil, $65.48. Aver- 
age v/ages paid teachers, females, from $100 to $120 per month; male 
teachers, from $170 to $200 per month. Number of teachers, eighteen. 
The report also shov/s a table of percentages as follows: The 1920 
school dollar was expended thus : Instruction, 62 per cent ; repairs and 
renewal of property, 131/^ per cent. ; care of building, 6 per cent. ; text- 



666 ESSEX COUNTY 

books, 514 per cent. ; fuel, 8 per cent, ; supervision, 2 4-5 per cent. ; health, 
nine-tenths of one per cent. ; incidentals, one-half of on© per cent. ; ad- 
ministration, eight-tenths per cent. 

Haverhill Schools — The first schoolmaster noted in Haverhill his- 
tory was in 1661, when Thomas Nasse taught the school for £10 from the 
town and what he might collect from outsiders. He was still teaching 
in Haverhill in 1673. Before 1670, schools had been kept in private 
houses, but that year an order was passed and executed to this effect: 
"As near the meeting-house that now is as may be, which may be con- 
venient for the teaching of a public school in & for the sei-vice of a watch- 
house, & for the entertainment for such persons on the Sabbath days, 
at noon, as may desire to repair thither, & shall not repair between the 
forenoon & afternoon exercises to, their own dwellings, which house is to 
be erected upon that which is now the town's common land, or reserved 
for public use.'"' The building was erected, and Thomas Nasse engaged 
as master, at not to exceed £10 from the town and whatever he might 
collect from patrons of his school. For a while this worked well, but 
eventually the school was a dismal failure, and the master had to resort 
to law in order to obtain his salary, small though it was. Haverhill had 
more than once been brought up before the court for not supporting a 
school, and had been fined, after which the selectmen "got busy," and 
engaged a competent teacher and agreed to pay him £34 for the school 
year. Soon the Indian wars came on, and schools were left out of the 
public mind, here as was the case in adjoining towns. In November, 
1705, the General Court made an order exempting all towns of less 
than two hundred families from keeping grammar school for three years, 
on account of the Indian difficulties. In 1827 the Haverhill Academy 
was dedicated and flourished many years until superseded by the excel- 
lent high school. 

From old school records, it has been learned that in 1886 the schools 
of Haverhill were in a highly satisfactory condition. In June, 1885, a 
superintendent had been elected, and this officer proved of great value. 
The cost of these schools, under this plan, and just before, was as follows: 
In 1884, $66,600 ; cost per pupil, $22.79 ; in 1885 the cost was $20.32 per 
pupil ; in 1887 it had been reduced to $18.40 per pupil. Albert L. Bart- 
lett was elected in February, 1888, to serve as superintendent. 

Coming down to modern days, it may be said that the condition of 
public schools in Haverhill was never better than in 1921, the date of this 
writing. But in this connection, let the reader note what was brought 
out in an article on the schools of the city of Haverhill in 1919, two years 
ago: 

The public school system includes one high school, a center ninth 
grade, twenty-two elementary buildings and eight rural schools. The 
various buildings are now valued at one million dollars. Other school 
structures have been planned within the last year or two. The high 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 667 

school building is a beautiful and commodious structure, equipped with 
all that modern days require. There is an auditorium holding more than 
one thousand persons. The gymnasium is surpassed by few in the State. 
This school building cost $400,000. Interested citizens have provided one 
of the finest athletic fields in the country. The grandstand will accom- 
modate five thousand people. Excellent school lunches are provided daily 
in the high and central ninth-grade buildings. Ventilation, temperature, 
general morals and other things affecting the welfare of children are 
carefully regulated. There is also a night school for such as cannot at- 
tend days, especially the foreign element. 

Ipswich Schools — It has often been repeated by writers that the 
Plymouth Colony had only one University man, the Elder Brewster, while 
the Massachusetts Bay Colony was noted for its men of wealth, social 
position and education. In this respect Ipswich was a representative 
town, not one whit behind the metropolis in mental and educational influ- 
ence and ability. A grammar school was established ("set up", as they 
called it then) in Ipswich in 1636, and the first teacher was Lionel Chute. 
It was begun two years after the incorporation of the town, which did not 
make sufficient appropriations, and in a short time the school was aban- 
doned. In January, 1650, the town granted to Robert Paine, Mr. Wil- 
liam Paine, Major Denison and Mr. Bartholomew in trust ''for the use 
of schools all that neck beyond Chebacco river and the rest of the ground 
up to Gloucester line adjoining to it." Soon after, the land was leased to 
John Cogswell, his heirs and assigns, for the space of one thousand years, 
at an annual rental of fourteen pounds. The tenants began to build on 
this land, and as early as 1723 a part of the present village of Essex was 
built on the same; the rent continues to be paid annually. The object 
of all this was the establishment of an endowed school. In 1652, Robert 
Paine bought a house and two acres of land for the use of the school- 
master, at his own expense. In 1650 John Cross "secured" on his farm 
near Rowley a perpetual annuity of ten shillings towards a free school in 
town. The first master in this school was Ezekiel Cheever, who taught 
ten years, and moved to Boston, and there became teacher in the Boston 
Latin school. Six years after the opening of the Ipswich school, the 
town had six pupils in Harvard College. The to'WTi agreed April, 1714, 
to make the Grammar School for the present year "absolutely free for all 
scholars belonging to the town." 

It should be remembered that there were free schools long before 
the town had districts. It was not until after 1800 that districts were 
formed in Ipswich by metes and bounds. The prudential committees and 
system was abolished in April, 1869, when the district property v/as 
appraised and purchased by the town. Early in the eighties free text- 
books came into general use in this State. The practice of teaching the 
Catechism in the schools was continued until 1826. 

In 1920 the enrollment of scholars in the town of Ipswich was 1,219 ; 
increase in ten-year period, 344. The history of the select, incorporated 



668 ESSEX COUNTY 

and common schools of this town, with the passing of more than two 
centuries, interesting as it is, of course is all too long to appear in a gen- 
eral work of this character. 

Middleton Schools — In 1786 this town had but one schoolhouse, and 
that stood by the side of the church, and was moved to Danvers in 1810 
by John Fuller. At one time there were three schools located on the east 
side, on the noith road, in the village in the center. The old Paper Mill 
Village also maintained a school for a time, the town paying a part of 
the expenses, while the company paid the remainder. There was a library 
established here forty years after the first library was opened in Phila- 
delphia. There is still a good public library in the town, a history of 
which appears elsewhere in this work. As the decades have run into 
scores of years, the schools here have kept pace' with the general ad- 
vancement, and the free common school means vastly more than it 
did a hundred or more years ago. 

The present standing is excellent. The distribution of pupils for 
the year 1920-21 is as follows: First grade, 18; 2d grade, 16; 3d grade, 
16 ; 4th grade, 17 ; 5th grade, 13 ; 6th grade, 17 ; 7th gi'ade, 15 ; 8th grade, 
12. The total number of pupils was one hundred and twenty-four. 

The school committee at present consists of Arthur E. Curtis, Mrs. 
Ruth Hastings, George E. Gifford. The following graduated in 1920: 
Raymond Irving Berry, Catherine Mary Green, Howard Henry Hood, 
Freida Helen Hurlbert, Peter Felix Jankoski, Dorotha Gertrude Lee, 
Seaver Lome MacDonald, Dorothy Amelia Merry, Guy Loren Morrison, 
Lillian Gertrude Richardson, William Roberts, Mary Genevieve Wilson. 
The class motto was "Work and Win." 

Saugus Schools — What was known as West Parish of this town very 
early felt the need of good public schools, and the people were not slow 
in securing such for their children. Until 1775 schools were held around 
from one private house to another, then a small one-story building was 
erected in the center of the town, on the southeast end of the burying 
ground. This rude school house served until 1811, when it was sold for 
sixty-three dollars to Richard Shute, who converted it into an addition 
to his house, where he kept groceries for sale. The next building was 
used many years, and turned into a shoe factory by William W. Board- 
man. The old Rock schoolhouse was built in 1806, in the south part of 
town. This is now the part known as East Saugus. As far back as 
1886, the State educational statistics show Saugus to have been eighth in 
rank among the thirty-five towns and cities in Essex county. At that 
date there was a total scholarship of 524. North Saugus had 26 ; Center 
Saugus, 175 ; Cliftondale, 167 ; East Saugus, 128 ; and Oaklandvale, 28. 

The high school of this town was established in April, 1872. From 
1875 on, for a number of years, rooms were occupied in the town hall. 
A three-year course prevailed in the eighties, and Latin and French were 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 669 

taught. The present day schoolhouses are good and the class of teachers 
is excellent. The word "modern" might well be stamped upon the pub- 
lic schools of Saugus. The number of school buildings is fourteen ; total 
number of minors, 3,406; average membership for 1920, 2,210; popula- 
tion of Saugus, 11,007 ; tax rate per thousand dollars worth of property 
for school purposes, $14.31. 

Methuen Schools — The early settlers here laid well the foundations 
for a good system of schools. In 1729 it voted to lay out a school lot 
north of World's End Pond, which was within the heavy forests at that 
date. At first, schools were kept at private houses. It was not until 
1735 that it was voted to build a schoolhouse, eighteen by twenty feet, 
and it was to be near the meeting-house. The first schools did not 
attempt any studies except reading, Vt^riting and arithmetic. No woman 
was allowed to teach until after 1749. In 1775 the town v^^as divided into 
seven districts. Each district built a schoolhouse, and all were built by 
one contractor, the price being £29 sterling each. Schoolmasters were 
obliged to come under the following rules, as far as possible: "The in- 
structor shall endeavor to govern his respective school by the skillfulness 
of his hand, and the integrity of his heart, with using as little severity 
as he shall judge will be for the best good of the school, but when mild 
measures will not subject the idle to the good order and regulations of 
the school, the instructor shall have a right to inflict reasonable and 
decent corporal punishment." 

In 1869 the school district system in Massachusetts was abolished. 
In the winter of that year the high school was established, and has ever 
since been the leading factor in the schools of the town. Besides the high 
school, in 1887 there were eighteen schools in Methuen, all kept open nine 
months in the year. As times changed, other improved methods have 
been adopted, so that today the educational affairs are fully up to the 
splendid standard of the schools in the neighboring city of Lawrence. 

Beverly Schools — There appears no record concerning the schools 
of Beverly until 1656, when a meeting house was erected on the town's 
land, and used as a school house. In 1674 a regular school house was 
built on town land, sixteen by twenty feet, and nine feet high ; this was 
also used as a watch-house. The first schoolmaster was Samuel Hardie, 
and his salary was £20 per school year. In 1700 a grammar school was 
established, and Robert Hale, son of the first minister, was the teacher. 
In 1704 James Hale, brother of Robert, taught writing, reading, casting 
accounts, Latin and Greek grammar, at a salary of thirty pounds. The 
grammar school was discontinued in 1782, but resumed on account of the 
law compelling such school to be kept. In 1798 it was established in a 
new house on Watch Hill, the second story being fitted up for town pur- 
poses. About 1750, the teacher was required to return a list of the 
names of the parents and masters and the number of children and ser- 



670 ESSEX COUNTY 

vants expected to be taught by him. The selectmen were expected to 
tax parents and masters for the support of the schools, and the children 
and servants of persons who refused to pay their proportion of fuel were 
not allowed to warm themselves by the schoolhouse fire. In 1836 a list 
of books to be used, and school regulations, revised to date, were pre- 
pared. 

In 1798 the site on Watch Hill was purchased of the heirs of Larkin 
Thorndike, and a school was opened under the tuition plan. Later the 
district bought the school house and land and gave it the name of Briscoe, 
in honor of Robert Briscoe. The grounds were greatly enlarged in 1873, 
by the purchase of several estates, and the old building was removed. 
Just after the Revolution a school was established by a few of the 
citizens of Beverly in Dike's Lane (now Elm square). This was in a 
small plain building, heated by a large open fire-place ; the largest atten- 
dance was forty scholars. Tuition was four dollars a quarter. The best 
teachers received $500 a year at that time. Among the early teachers 
of this school is recalled, in record, William Prescott, son of Charles Pres- 
cott, of Bunker Hill fame, afterwards a distinguished judge, who estab- 
lished the first law office in Beverly. 

Anticipating the abolition of the district system in 1866, the school- 
houses throughout the town had fallen into decay, and so remained till 
new buildings had to take their places. In January, 1875, the Briscoe 
building was erected at a cost of $75,000. As the years passed by, other 
buildings had to be provided, others remodeled and repaired, but at all 
times the future needs were borne in mind by those who had charge of the 
schools of the town. Coming down to the present, it should be said that 
during the recent World War period, the school children here did good 
work, nearly one thousand caring for gardens, the same being known as 
"War Gardens." They formed pig and poultry clubs, and also gathered 
peachstones and nut shell g for making carbon for gas masks ; more than 
a half ton was shipped from Beverly among the first requisitions made by 
the government. The children of public schools also contributed toward 
the raising of the tall Liberty pole, erected in commemoration of the 
250th anniversary of the incorporation of Beverly as a town. In one 
school entertainment, the children netted $228.89 for the benefit of the 
Red Cross work. Each pupil in all these schools was a member of the 
Junior Red Cross, and all aided in making and sending forth to the men 
overseas hosts of articles appreciated by the soldiers. 

The teachers of Beverly in 1919 were paid about $150,000, while the 
janitors of the numerous buildings were paid over $14,000. The report 
in 1919 shows that the schools of Beverly cost for teachers' administra- 
tion, teachers' salaries, janitors' salaries, with an unexpended balance 
of $375, the sum of "$168,949. The aim has been for many years 
in this town to employ good instructors and have suitable, comfortable 
and scientific school buildings and all modem fixtures in each. 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 671 

Newbury Schools — The pioneers of Newbury, as everywhere in Mas- 
sachusetts, at a very early date paid attention to the education of their 
children and youth. Teachers were scarce, and generally the intelligent 
parents had to instruct their children at home. Winthrop came with 
more than fifteen hundred men, almost all of whom were ignorant, and 
had children whom they were unable to teach, so in self-defense the Gen- 
eral Court had to provide some means of educating these children. The 
various pastors of churches had to assist in school teaching, whenever 
possible. The first schoolmaster appointed by the town was Anthony 
Someby, who was granted "four acres of land near the river Parker and 
some meadow land", as an inducement to keep school one year. It is 
thought that a part of the time he taught at the Frog Pond. In 1652 
a schoolhouse was built and twenty pounds was appropriated for schools 
that year. Before 1719 there were no free schools, but all were on the 
tuition plan. In 1675, Henry Short was allowed five punds for teaching a 
half year, and six-pence for each pupil. The next year some twenty boys 
were taught by Mr. Short in the Watchhouse. 

Up to 1691 the school was kept in the neighborhood of the old tov/n 
settlement, but later it was ordered that it be kept a part of the year in 
each part of the town or village. In 1695, Rev. Christopher Toppan 
taught school in Newbury ; he was a graduate of Harvard, and afterwards 
pastor of the First Parish. Richard Brown, a gi'aduate of Harvard in 
1697, taught from 1700 for eleven years, then he was ordained minister 
at Reading. He v/as also town clerk. When he resigned, here is what 
he said : 

I have sei'ved Newbury as schoolmaster eleven years and as tovn\ clerk five 
and a half years, and have been paid with abuse, ingratitude and contempt. I have 
sent nigh as many to college as all the masters before since the Reverend and 
learned Parker. Those I bred think themselves better than their master (God made 
them better still), and yet may they remember the foundation of all their growing 
greatness was laid in the sweat of my brow. I pray that from unacknowledgement 
Newbury may get them that may serve better and find thanks when they have done. 
If to find a house for the school two years when the town had none; if to take the 
scholars to my own fire when there was no wood at school, as frequently; if to 
give records to the poor and record their births and deaths gratis deserves acknowl- 
edgement, then it is my* due, but hard to come by. 

In 1763 the town voted to build a grammar schoolhouse near the head 
of Fish street, and in 1774, fifteen years after the incorporation of New- 
buryport, Samuel Moody made a donation of £100 to the town, in addition 
to a gift of twenty pounds previously given, for use in building a gram- 
mar school and maintaining the same until others were better able to do 
so than they were then. In 1821 the town was divided into districts, 
each looking after its own school and building. 

In 1887 the number of pupils in the schools of Newbury was two 
hundred and forty. At present, good schools are the rule in this town. 
The superintendent receives $2,700; the truant officer, $800; school- 



672 ESSEX COUNTY 

houses, twelve in all, were in 1920 valued at $222,500. Eight of these 
were brick structures. The Curtis schoolhouse, with land on Ashland 
street, was then valued at $10,000. 

Rowley Schools — In 1647 it was made an indictable offense not to 
maintain a school within any town in Massachusetts. It is not known 
when the first school here v/as established, but the date must have been 
very early. Charles Browne taught before 1650. February 3, 1656, the 
town agreed with William Boynton to teach school, and advanced money 
to enlarge his house for that purpose. He taught for more than twenty 
years. In 1789 the town was divided into districts, and so continued 
until the district system was abolished in 1869. In 1887 the town had 
seven schools in operation. Up to that date ninety-five scholars from the 
schools of this town had graduated from colleges, and more than one-half 
were finally ministers. 

With the passage of the decades, the schools have grown and kept 
up to the standard of the county. In 1920 the town had a population 
of 1249. The number of pupils was then 228 ; average membership, 216 ; 
amount spent per pupil, $42.13; spent per pupil for text-books, $1.25; for 
supplies, $1.47 ; amount paid for high schools, $4,649 ; pupils transported 
to high school at public expense, 43. The following amounts were paid 
on account of the school department in Rowley in 1920: Committee, 
$91.77; superintendent, $486.76; teachers, $5,722.51; noon-day service, 
$50; school physician, $50; high school tuition, $3,938; transportation 
grade scholars, $570 ; on high school, $2,346.41 ; books and supplies, $593.- 
16; fuel, $927.15; janitor service, $562.37; water and electric system, 
$682.43 ; miscellaneous, $268.62 ; total, $16,196.09. 

Wenham Schools — The early settlers sought to found a common 
school system by v/hich rich and poor alike might become well versed in 
the ordinary branches. Books in those days were rare and newspapers 
still less in number. Before schools in Wenham were established, the 
common people had been quite well informed. A complaint was made be- 
fore the court that no school was yet organized within this town, as late 
as 1700, but soon the court appointed Captain Thomas Fiske to teach 
children and youth to read and v/rite. As his remuneration, he was to 
receive whatever the parents would pay him and his taxes v/ere to be 
remitted. The next year the town paid a part of the school expense. 
At first the school was kept in the house of Captain Fiske, In 1702 
women were first allowed to teach in this tov/n. The record reads: 
"voted, to let the selectmen have full power to agree with such school 
dames as are necessary to learn children to read." This was perhaps 
among the earliest instances where women were allowed to teach school. 
William Rogers was many years employed as a teacher in the Wenham 
schools. In 1735, Daniel Fiske sold the town five square rods of land 
in the west end of tov/n on which to erect a school house and maintain a 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 673 

school. This building was erected in 1739, and that year thirty pounds 
was raised for school purposes. The selectmen then had full charge of 
the schools. The first school committee was appointed in 1772. It ap- 
pears that the custom was to rotate the school from one part of the town- 
ship to another. After 1817 the schools were looked after by a committee 
elected annually. 

The present system of schools includes the following, with an account 
of their condition in 1920, as per the town's report: Junior High had an 
enrollment of 55; Center Intermediate, 42; Center Primary, 58; East 
school, 9 ; West school, 16 ; total, 180. 

Nahant Schools — Historians have no means of fixing the exact date 
of the first school in Nahant. It is known that a school house was in use 
prior to 1812, The first school was held in the Hood house, and also one 
about the same date in the old Johnson estate. The schoolhouse refer- 
red to above was foiTnerly used as a shoe shop. It stood where later 
was established the postoffice. In 1887 there was still residing in Na- 
hant a man (then ninety years old) who had attended that early, if not 
first, school in the place, and this is what he had to say of it : 

The first school that I ever attended was to the Hood house, and 
y/as kept by Nancy Carter during twelve v/eeks in the winter. Some 
three winters after that we went to school in the old red school-house. 
There were then about thirty scholars. Benches ran across both sides 
of the room, so that we faced each other ; long seats or benches ran be- 
hind these ; and the teacher had a table at the end of the room, where she 
sat. The school was only kept in spring and winter. Clarissa Herrick 
was the first teacher^ who later married Richard Hood. Betsey Graves, 
who afterward man*ied Joseph Johnson, taught the school from 1812 to 
1816. 

The next schoolhouse was built about 1819, of stone gathered from 
the granite boulders that were scattered through the pastures. It was 
about twenty-five feet square, with a hip-roof. A library and a few pic- 
tures were donated by William Wood, Thomas H. Perkins and others. 
Another thoughtful person also furnished a bell. The heat for the 
building was furnished by a large box-stove that took in long, thick sticks 
of wood, which the scholars took turns in splitting and carrying into the 
"entry" each morning for the day's use. This building served as church 
and political hall, as well as the center of all attractions in Nahant, for 
a number of years. The records show that Joseph Johnson served many 
years as one of the prudential committee, and collected from Lynn the 
small amount allowed for the Nahant school, while the citizens of Nahant 
had to subscribe the remainder required. Joseph Johnson and his sons 
served as school committee for more than sixty years. In 1851 this build- 
ing was torn down and another built. This was the first well-built and 
then known as "modem built" schoolhouse in the county. When Nahant 
was set off from Lynn, this schoolhouse became the property of Nahant, 

Essex — 43 



674 ESSEX COUNTY 

the date being 1853. In 1853 a second primary school was established. In 
1876 the high school was established, followed by a fourth school, in 1880, 
with Miss Nellie Palmer as teacher. A grammar school was also erected 
in 1884. Since then the school buildings and fixtures have all been of the 
best, while the schools have measured up to the standard found through- 
out Essex county in the last third of a century. 

In 1921 the budget prepared by the school committee for Nahant 
was: Salaries, $15,000; tuition and transportation, $4,500; heating and 
lighting, $1,500; janitors, $1,800; books and supplies, $1,000; repairs 
and upkeep, $500 ; school expansion, $1,000 ; equipment, $450 ; physicians, 
$250. In 1920 the cost per pupil was $102.06. Back in 1912-13, it was 
$51.03 per pupil. There are now nine regular teachers. The average 
salary in Nahant is now $1,100. The number of scholars is about 275. 
These schools have departments in sewing, drawing, manual training, 
domestic science and cooking. 

Bradford Schools — While Bradford is now a part of Haverhill, it is 
not without some interest in this connection to mention the beginning of 
educational affairs here, the present history being associated, of course, 
with that of the Haverhill school system. The first vote of the town 
upon schools was in 1701, when the selectmen were ordered to provide 
school and assess the town for the expense. The next year it was voted 
that those who sent children to school should pay two pence a week for 
those who learned to read, and four pence for those who learned to 
write, the additional expense to be paid by the town. The first school- 
house was built on the meeting-house lot. It was eighteen by twenty- 
tv/o feet in size and seven feet high. Its cost was £25 sterling. The 
building committee was made up as follows : Jonathan Woodman, Rob- 
ert Haseltine and Nathaniel Walker. There was at least one "nooning 
house," where the people could warm themselves during the noon inter- 
mission and eat food they brought with them. In 1820 there were seven 
schoolhouses in the town. In 1754 it was voted that £40 be raised for the 
schoolmaster and his board. Having thus outlined the first schools of 
Bradford, the reader will find later facts for what was Bradford, but now 
embraced within Haverhill, in the section of this work treating on that 
city and its schools in the educational chapter, as well as what may be 
there found concerning the old Bradford Academy. Before passing to 
other schools, it may be said that in 1887 the public schools of Bradford 
had a scholarship of 546; there v/ere then twelve schools and fifteen 
teachers. The high school was established in 1866. 

Merrimac Schools — The education of youth in the early days was 
obviously not v/hat it is today. The first school board in Amesbury was 
chosen in 1792. In 1803 there were in this parish four school districts — 
the River District, receiving $174, with fourteen weeks; the "Birch 
Meadow," receiving $135 ; the "Esquire Sargent's," receiving $135, with 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 676 

eleven weeks, and the "Highland" receiving $92. At the time of the in- 
corporation of Merrimac in 1876, there were within the districts of this 
town eleven schools. At that time there were 367 scholars. The high 
school was established in 1873, Frank Wiggin being the first teacher, 
continuing until 1883. In 1879, Ellen Gunnison was appointed assistant 
and continued until the summer of 1881, when she was succeeded by 
Helen K. Spofford. 

In 1920 the total number of scholars was 385 ; the high school had 
71 ; eighth grade, 37 ; Prospect school, 33 ; Merrimacport, 25 ; and the 
various grades run about forty each. The total of regular salaries for 
the ten-months' school year is $16,900. 

The Schools of Gloucester — For the first sixty years the only 
schools were those of a private nature, and not very many of them. The 
town took its first action along the line of schools in 1696, when the 
selectmen were ordered to "provide a schoolmaster in convenient time." 
There were a few attempts at establishing a school, but such schools 
were not regular nor successful. In 1701, at the quarterly session at 
Salem, Gloucester was brought before that body for neglecting to main- 
tarn a school. In 1809 Joshua Moody taught a term of school lasting a 
quarter, for eight pounds, and in addition to the common branches "he 
was to teach lattine, if scholars appear." The first school house was 
built in 1708, and was located at the eastern side of the meeting-house. 
It was sixteen by twenty-four feet in size and had a six foot studding; 
the cost was £24. For thirty years the public grammar school was lo- 
cated in this building. It was too far for many of the children to at- 
tend, so in 1725 Sandy Bay secured land and built a building for that 
part of the town. The record says "to keep a good school in for the 
Godly instruction of children, and teaching of them to read and write 
good English." In 1826 a similar school was established at the Head of 
the Harbor. 

The schools were badly broken up during the Revolutionary war 
period, but after that struggle much attention was at once paid to schools. 
In 1793 the town voted to erect a school house costing about three hun- 
dred pounds. It was located on Granite street ; it was a square two-story 
house. For a time it served as town hall, school house and general pub- 
lic meeting place. After standing about sixty years, this building was 
lemoved to Beacon street, and there used for the primaiy department of 
the schools. In 1804, according to a new law, the town was divided into 
school districts. At first there were eleven districts in the township ; but 
after once in the habit of making districts, the number rapidly increased, 
until in 1840 there were twenty school districts, and a little later three 
more v/ere added. The incorporation of Sandy Bay in 1840 as a separ- 
ate town diminished the number to sixteen, but it was not many years 
before the entire school system was reorganized on better plans. A high 
school was organized and gi'ammar and primary schools were located in 



676 ESSEX COUNTY 

different parts of the town. When the district system was finally dis- 
carded there were 1,672 children of school age in the town. The school 
expenses were then running about $5,600 per year. In 1887 there were 
twenty-two school buildings in Gloucester City; 122 teachers; 4,326 
scholars. The amount appropriated at that date was $52,000. A pri- 
vate school at the Harbor, as early as 1790, in a building erected express- 
ly for that purpose, was known as the "Proprietor's School House." It 
did not survive many years. (For an account of other institutions of 
learning see later details in this section of the work) . 

Coming down to 1921, the schools of Gloucester are in an excellent 
condition. The apportionments for 1920 were about as follows: Gen- 
eral administration, $6,400 ; teachers' salaries, $150,500 ; evening schools, 
$3,000; text-books and all other supplies, $14,500; military equipment, 
$800; for transportation of pupils, $4,500. Every feature in a modem 
high and graded school may be found in Gloucester today. The public 
library mentioned in the city history affords a great help to the scholars 
of these schools. 

There can be no doubt as to our ancestors' valuation of education. A 
law relating to common schools was passed in 1642 and in 1647 it was 
made an indictable offence for towns not to maintain schools. From 
Gage's History of Rowley we learn that although schools were probably 
established before 1642, there were no definite records of the same as to 
dates or teachers before 1656. When the town agreed with William 
Boynton to teach a town school for seven years, "male children from four 
to eight, parents were to be taxed toward paying the matter." The 
church agreed to loan Mr. Boynton £5, to aid him to put up "an end to 
his house," on condition that he keep the school seven years; then the 
demand against him for said £5 to be void ; "but if he do not so keep the 
school, then he is to pay the church one-half the apprised value of said 
new end of the house." It appears that Mr. Bojmton taught the school, 
not only seven, but also twenty-four years, the town usually paying him 
£5 per year; the residue of his compensation he received by an assess- 
ment upon the scholars. He also swept the meeting house, and rang the 
bell. "For this service he usually received £2 10s. per annum." 

From 1682 to (date unrecorded) Simon Wainwright was the teacher. 
Then Mr. Edward Payson Colleague, with Rev. Samuel Phillips, was 
teacher most of the time until his death in 1696.* 

Soon after came a Mr. Richard Syle, with an increase in the salary, 
as it is recorded that in 1701 he received £10 per year, beside the assess- 
ment on scholars ; and in 1702 he received £20, but had to find his wood 
(fuel) . These terms were agreed on for many years. 

In 1706 the town was fined for not keeping school as the law re- 
quired. 



*Note — Consider the descendants of Phillips in relation to public schools. See 
Preface, Gage's History of Rowley. 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 677 

In 1716 Mr. Syle was to have £16, the town to furnish wood, and he 
was to teach three months in the "upper part of the town" — Byfield par- 
ish — the first record of a public school there. In 1720 the town. Old 
Rowley, voted to build a new school house, "26x20, 8 feet post." In 1722 
Mr. Syle died, after which Mr. Samuel Payson was employed. Mr. Pay- 
son assisted his father in the ministry and taught many years. He re- 
ceived £30 per annum, and in addition had 3d. per scholar for readers 
and 6d. for writers, and was to keep in the westerly part of the town four 
months. Here we have the first record, in Gage's History of Rowley, of 
a town school in that part of Rowley, which more than a hundred years 
later became the town of Georgetown, and during which time a few im- 
portant changes in the management of schools should be noted. 

The dividing of a teacher's time among the different parishes, as 
first arranged with Mr. Payson, was continued many years. In 1749 the 
school money was apportioned among the several parishes according to 
their "county taxes paid," and this plan continued until about 1838. 
Then the school money was divided among the school districts instead 
of the parishes. From 1769 the selectmen were to hire the masters. 
After that the town appointed a committee to hire them, and still later 
each school district was authorized to hire its own teacher. (This cus- 
tom prevailed when Georgetown was incorporated) . In 1789 a law was 
passed authorizing towns to define the limits of school districts. 

In addition to these town schools of Rowley, so briefly noted, were 
the private schools, where young men were fitted for college. The min- 
isters also rendered the same service, and as late as 1850 many a young 
man had his college entrance through the minister's study. There were 
also some notable dame-schools for the very young, forerunners of the 
present day kindergarten. The beginning of the schools of the town of 
Georgetown was the carrying on of the Rowley schools as above outlined. 
At the time of its incorporation (1838) Georgetown had 336 persons be- 
tween 5 and 16 years of age, and it granted $600 for the support of the 
schools. 

In 1838-9 the first school year of the newly-incorporated town of 
Georgetown, the town School Committee — the Rev. Isaac Braman, Rev. 
John Burdon and Mr. Moody Cheney — found in their care 336 scholars 
and an appropriation of $600, together with a share of the interest from 
"surplus revenue" from the United States "which may be received by the 
town of Rowley." There were seven school districts: No. 1, known as 
the Marlboro School ; No. 2, the South School ; No. 3, or the Hill School ; 
No. 4, or the Comer School ; No. 5, the North Street School ; No. 6, the 
Third Street School; No. 7, the Warren Street School. No. 7 was in 
both Georgetown and Rowley and for many years the two towns alter- 
nated in the care and expense of the school. 

In 1842-3, the town voted to have "400 copies of the school report 
printed for the use of the town," and G. P. Tenney and H. P. Chaplin of 



678 ESSEX COUNTY 

the school committee were made a printing committee. (The Rev. D. 
P. Livermore, with Tenney and Chaplin were the committee for that 
year). This report was probably the first printed annual report of the 
schools of Georgetown, and we learn by it that there were two terms in 
the year — a summer term of 16 weeks, taught by women, and a winter 
term of 10 weeks, taught by men. The wages for women were $6 per 
month, and their board $5 per month ; men were paid $26 per month, and 
board $8 per month. (We assume the men teachers had, perhaps, a 
little higher educational training and surely more physical strength, with 
which to impart knowledge to the pupils than had the women teachers) . 

It is also noteworthy that the management of our schools was 
shared by two different bodies. The Town School Committee was chosen 
by the town and reported to the town. It examined teachers, gave per- 
mits or licenses to teach, and examined the schools once or twice each 
term, and a thorough test of progress on that great day, the yearly ex- 
amination. The district or prudential committeeman was chosen by the 
district (which in those days built and owned its school houses) hired and 
paid for its own teachers, attended to providing fuel and all of the (then 
very meager) supplies. This committee reported to the district each 
year. One committee may be said to be the educational manager, the 
other the business manager of those old time schools. The former, little 
by little, gained in importance, and finally, after years of earnest dis- 
cussion, the abolition of district lines, and the advent of the superinten- 
dnt of schools, the prudential committeeman disappeared, leaving the 
janitor as his only successor. 

From the Town Committee not a year has passed without a printed 
report of the physical, financial and educational condition of the schools, 
and let us add, an annual essay on every known or possible phase of 
education, often pungent and clear, and always convincing ; for the town 
has always come to its aid, whenever requests in behalf of schools have 
been made. 

From these reports we quote: In 1842-3, the committee reported 
the house in District No. 2 to be a "miserable hovel," and the year after 
the report alludes to the "beautiful new house erected in District No. 2." 
In 1845, a very limited grading, by age, was begun in No. 2. The new 
school house had two rooms. In 1848, a further grading of pupils was 
considered and the raising of money to enlarge school room for that 
purpose advocated. 1849-50 marked the advent of women teachers 
for the winter terms, in two of the schools. To Miss Sara McLaughlin, 
in District No. 2, and Mrs. C. M. S. Carpenter in District No. 5, fell 
that honor. 

The committee of 1851 made a strong plea for abolition of district 
lines; doing away with large and small districts; the town to provide 
equal advantages to all, whether in the center or borders of the town; 
to establish a school for the more advanced scholars, and to take away the 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 679 

demand for select and subscription schools. This plea and others bore 
fruit, and in 1855 a new brick two-room school house was occupied in Dis- 
trict No. 4, the Comer school, and in 1857 a new town hall, with rooms 
for a high school, was completed and occupied. At that time the employ- 
ment of male teachers in district schools was discontinued. 

The lirst teacher in the high school was Mr. V/illiam Reed. He had 
for the short year's work of 24 weeks $375, no assistant, and eighty-one 
pupils from thirteen to twenty-two years of age. In his spare time he 
fitted one or two boys for college, and in the woods bought and cut a 
few cords of wood for his winter fires for his own home use. To ex- 
plain the large number of older pupils : Those who were done with the 
district schools were allowed the benefits of the high school until yearly 
admissions by examination of younger pupils had filled the number to its 
normal limits. For a few years following the establishment of the high 
school there was objection to its continuance, but it finally vanished as 
the town as a whole realized its value. 

From the establishment of the High School the Town Committee 
continued to direct and lead the schools, and for some time little of gen- 
eral interest occun-ed, outside the never-failing interest of parents and 
guardians of children. The attention of the tov/n was duly called to the 
various matters of management and conditions of its schools, such as 
state laws. The abolition of district lines and from that time (in 1870) 
the condition of buildings which thereby became town propertj^. The 
announcement (in 1871) that the sloping floors and plank seats and 
desks had been replaced with level floors and modern furniture, etc. In 
1874 the town tried the superintending of its schools for one year only. 
In 1876 the teaching of music had begun, and the committee this same 
year vigorously denounced "school books business as an imposition on 
parents who had to pay the bill." 1877 was marked by a request or de- 
sire that the teachers have "more enthusiasm" of a kind "not satisfied 
with daily routine," "a zealous love for their work, rich in expedients 
and methods," so that pupils will "feel that study is a delight." These 
and following years were marked by much discussion in the State con- 
cerning state management of schools. There was much doubt as to the 
wisdom, some calling such measures an infringement on "home rule," yet 
State control continued to increase, as we note. "In compliance with 
State law" the town in 1885 began to furnish books and supplies free 
to all pupils. In the year of 1888 the committee indulged in a slighting 
mention of visits to the schools by agents of the State Board of Educa- 
tion, — another intiTision on "home rule." 1893 marked the beginning of 
a thorough grading of the schools, and in 1895 the town "voted to accept 
the act empowering towns to form districts and to employ a Superinten- 
dent of Schools." It also authorized the School Committee to confer 
with committees of other towns in regard to the matter, and "if in their 
judgment it was for the interest of our schools to proceed to form such a 



680 ESSEX COUNTY 

district." As a result, the committees of Georgetown, Groveland and 
Rowley established such a district and in 1896 Mr. Charles W. Haley of 
Haverhill was chosen, and began his duties as superintendent of this new 
district. Late in 1898 the Tovv^n House was destroyed by fire, and the 
high school v/as removed to the hall of the Fire Engine House. The re- 
port of the year 1901 (for 1900) tells us of the passing of the high 
school, and in its place the acceptance for all high school requirements 
of the Perley Free School, the trustees of which had successfully arranged 
with the town and the State Board of Education for such acceptance. 
This school is strictly an endowed school. The building was constiiicted 
and the school is maintained by a fund given by John Perley, a native of 
Georgetown, and administered by trustees, as provided for in his will. 

Repeated reports by the school committee and superintendent of 
the deplorable condition of district school buildings resulted in a com- 
mittee being chosen to survey and report to the town as to the fitness 
for their purpose of all school buildings. This committee, on reports 
of 1903 and 1904, declared the buildings totally unfit, and recommended 
the building of a central schoolhouse and the abolishing of district 
schools. As a result of these reports, the same committee were made a 
building committee, and in 1905 the nev/ Central School house was fin- 
ished and occupied by all the pupils of the to^vn who were under the high 
school grade. In 1920 the town established a junior high school course 
and third room for the purpose in the Perley free school building. 

During these last years it may seem that there are less noteworthy 
changes in our schools than formerly, but progress probably. Changes 
surely are constant. Teachers are, technically, more alike in their prep- 
aration for service. Pupils are more uniform in fitness as they pass from 
grade to grade. Superintendents are of somewhat uniform grade, and 
general ability to direct the educational department of schools. There 
is a tendency toward what is called "team vv^ork." As long as school 
committees represent the public, and the especial interest of parents or 
guardian exists, changes and progress will never cease. The various 
steps in the progress of our schools have appeared slight. They have 
been very imperfectly recorded, owing to lack of space, time, and above 
all, ability. 

We will in closing indicate the one great step, as it may be shown in 
a comparison of some items of school affairs in 1841-2 and in 1920, re- 
calling in considering the incomplete record of the former date that at 
that time considerable sums were each year paid for old time private 
schools. Writing and singing schools all vanished, and the courses they 
taught are provided for in the all-containing free public schools of today. 

The cost of schools as reported by the auditing committee March, 
1842, for the preceding year was $767. This included all service of 
teachers and committee, fuel, etc. Of this sum there was received from 
the State treasurer from a school fund $68.16. It would thus appear 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 681 

that the tovm raised $698.84. The number of pupils is not recorded, but 
in 1838 there were 336. Cost per pupil per year, probably a little over 
two dollars ($2.00). Number of weeks schooling twenty-six. Wages 
and board, male teachers, per month, $34.00. Wages and board for 
women teachers per month, $11.00. Books and supplies were furnished 
by pupils. Pupils built the fires and swept the rooms. The cost of the 
schools for the year ending December 31, 1920, $17,282.75. Of this 
sum the town raised $11,635. Added for Junior high school $3,000. 
From the State school fund $1,054.01. From the State income tax, $1,- 
305.04. Reimbursement on salary of superintendent, $151.04. From 
contingent fund, $137.70. Total amount $17,282.75. 

The number of pupils five to fifteen years of age inclusive, 367. 
Cost per pupil based on average membership, $51.30. Number of v/eelis 
schooling 38. Average wages of teachers per month $112.00. Books 
and supplies furnished by the town. Pupils from beyond the center trans- 
ported to and from school. Pupils do no janitor work. 

One of the gi'eat educational advantages of Georgetown is the 
Georgetown Peabody Library, an account of which appears on another 
page of this work. 

The Gloucester Public Schools — A worthy report of the Gloucester 
public schools limited to three thousand words yet extending over a period 
of twenty-five years, involves a close marshalling of essentials vdtli the 
utmost brevity of expression. In his endeavor to meet such require- 
ments, the writer invokes the considerate spirit of the reader. The period 
of the requested report begins v/ith the year 1888. 

At the opening of this period, Gloucester was confronted with a 
serious problem relating to the comfortable housing of her school chil- 
dren. This was notably true in the case of her high school pupils. This 
school had once occupied a so-called home, but for years the latter had 
been Vv^oefully inadequate to the needs. In 1887 the old structure was 
visited by fire. Its destruction was generously complete, to the clarifica- 
tion of the situation and the presentation of an exacting emergency that 
was wisely met by the city government. 

Appropriations were duly made ; in 1888 a new building was in pro- 
cess of construction. The outlook became hopeful ; there was the prom- 
ise that, with the opening of the school year 1889-90, the Gloucester 
High School would have its first fair opportunity to compete with other 
high schools of the commonwealth. This promise was happily realized. 
Grave doubts had been freely expressed as to the wisdom of providing a 
high school building large enough to accommodate four hundred pupils. 
Such doubts soon vanished. The new house was first occupied in Sep- 
tember, 1889 ; in 1894 the number of pupils registered was exactly four 
hundred, the lunit for comfortable housing. To the upbuilding of this 
school and the quality of its work reference will be made later in the 
report. 



682 ESSEX COUNTY 

In 1895 a two-room schooihouse was erected in the Blynman dis- 
trict, to the grateful relief of the congestion there. About the same 
time the situation in Ward Five was becoming serious. The number of 
pupils in this ward was fast increasing. The Collins and Babson dis- 
tricts were generous to a fault in sharing their buildings with outside 
pupils. The rooms at the Forbes were crovv^ded ; the Beacon street quar- 
ters were packed ; like conditions existed at the Washington street school. 
The needs were pressing and called for prompt action. 

A new city government V\^as organized. Almost immediately after 
entering upon his duties for the year, one of the businesslike members of 
the new government called upon a school official, making known his pur- 
pose in these words: "I have heard a good deal said about the need of 
additional school accommodations in Ward Five, and have called to get 
information." "Will you give the time necessary for visiting the schools 
of the ward?" asked the official. The question was favorably answered 
and an early visit made. After a thorough inspection, the city father 
pointedly remarked, "I have seen for myself; now I shall know how to 
act." Be it recorded, to his great credit, that he not only knew what to 
do, but set about doing it v»^ith the least possible delay, having the willing 
aid of those whom his report on conditions had convinced of the need of 
immediate action. It may be added that before this efficient servant of 
the public severed his connection with the city government, the Hovey 
building had become a v/elcome addition to the creditable schoolhouses 
of Gloucester. It was completed in 1897. 

In 1900 an eight-room schooihouse was finished in season for spring- 
term use in the Maplewood district. Only three of its rooms were put 
to use at once ; but it was not long before all were occupied. Still later, 
all the grades were represented in this school. In 1907, following a 
somewhat prolonged agitation, another eight-room building was com- 
pleted, its location being on Eastern avenue. This schooihouse re- 
lieved the congestion in the Sawyer and Hildreth districts, accommodat- 
ing all grades of pupils. Meanwhile the more antiquated schoolhouses 
of the city were receiving needed attention ; improvements, more or less 
extensive, were being made. In some cases additions v/ere of so generous 
an extent as to warrant calling the transformed buildings practically new. 
Almost every annual school report of this period has its record of some- 
thing done toward the better housing of the Gloucester school children. 

In 1888 the total registry of pupils in the public schools was 3,981. 
The record for 1889 showed 4,101, a gain of 120. The next two years 
witnessed the slight gain of 46 ; but for the next twenty years immediate- 
ly follovTlng there was a steady gain at the rate of about fifty pupils per 
year, the registry for 1910 totaling the largest number, 5,168. This year- 
ly increase, small as it may seem, kept the housing problem constantly 
before the public, and was effective in bringing about additions to school 
accommodations in all sections of the city. 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 683 

Much credit belongs to the School Board of this quarter-centuiy 
for the willingness to remain so long in such service. Only men of genu- 
ine devotion to the public welfare are ready to give of their time and pa- 
tience to the pei-plexing problems that are always confronting the guar- 
dians of the public schools. The chief perquisites of the office are the 
satisfaction of being loyal to duty, the privilege of gratuitous and gener- 
ous service, the honor attached, and the rasping joys of criticism. 

The members of the Board at this time were men of affairs and com- 
manded the full confidence of the people whom they served. They were 
broad-minded and far-sighted ; while their clearness of vision kept them 
from becoming visionaiy. They had but one purpose, and were true to 
it in all they did. Every step taken and every enactment made was in- 
tended for the advancement of public school interests. "School politics" 
and they had nothing in common. Of all the strong men who were 
members of the Gloucester School Committee at the beginning of the 
twenty-five years concerned in this report, only one remains to recall the 
activities of that beginning. He is still in the sei"vice, this being his 
fortieth consecutive year in the office, — a time record surpassing any 
other in the history of Gloucester. 

Since the one aim of the Board was for results worthy of the mis- 
sion of the schools, its policy was shaped accordingly. Rules for the guid- 
ance of the school workers were of the simplest nature ; their observance 
was never irksome. The committee earnestly desired that the teachers 
should derive the greatest possible enjoyment from their service ; to that 
end they were permitted to serve as individuals ; in other words, recog- 
nition was made of the fact that no two teachers can best do the same 
work in precisely the same way. Ample freedom in methods was given 
in order that the teacher's best might be had in return. Further, it 
was in accord with the policy of the Board that pupils be held to such 
quality of work as would make for desirable growth. Any suggestion 
looking toward making school tasks easy did not meet approval. The 
Board saw, what so many miss seeing, that it is the hardworking pupil 
who gets most enjoyment as well as greatest benefit from his school tasks. 

While in too many places this quarter-century abounded in experi- 
mental innovations that v\^ould substitute the superficial for the real, the 
Gloucester School Committee would have none of them. Fads and frills 
were given prompt leave to withdraw on every petition for the privilege 
of helping to solve school problems through debilitating methods and 
programs. The Board had the wisdom to see that the worth-while man 
is not the product of the boy with the easy-going habit or just-get-by 
spirit of effort ; that the boy, to be a good "father of the man," must be 
trained in manly ways. Again, the School Board of this period had a 
keen appreciation of the value of harmony as a factor in school affairs, 
and sought to have its influence broadly exercised. Such harmony was 
desired as would find expression in the happiest possible relations be- 



684 ESSEX COUNTY 

tween teachers and higher authorities; such harmony as banishes envy 
and fosters considerateness ; the harmony that brings pupils and teachers 
together in mutual confidence and a common purpose. 

While financial conditions in Gloucester at this time would not 
justify the erection of palatial structures for use as schoolhouses, it 
was possible to transform such school buildings as the city could afford 
into school homes. This was happily accomplished, largely because the 
considerate attitude and admirable policy of the committee made the 
way clear and easy. Each of the tvv'enty or more schools of the city was 
recognized as a unit, and granted such freedom of action as would 
awaken a worthy emulative spirit. It was regarded as a member of the 
united school republics whose aims were one, but whose individualities 
were afforded a choice in methods of achieving that aim. In the stimu- 
lating privilege of such liberty a glowing school spirit was created and 
set in motion. Possessed by this spirit in large measure, the school 
workers, teacher and pupil, found themelves less concerned about palatial 
surroundings than about what they could do, how well they could do it, 
and enjoyment to be derived from the doing. With such a spirit domi- 
nating the school house, an attractive school home was the inevitable 
result. 

Does it need to be added that such home-like conditions in the school 
enhanced the value of the work accomplished? On this point the writer 
is permitted to quote from the observations of that eminently efficient 
worker and leader in Gloucester school affairs during this period, Prin- 
cipal Tingley, of the Sawyer School. Referring to the School Board's lib- 
eral and trustful attitude toward the teacher, he declares his grateful 
approval of it, "Because the joys of the teacher's life were so positively 
reflected in the quality of her v/ork." How gladly Principal Tingley wel- 
comed this policy and how eagerly he accepted it to the upbuilding and 
strengthening of his own school are matters of common knowledge. 

But the school home was not without its wider influence. The good 
school spirit could not be confined by schoolhouse walls. It made its way 
into the parental home, finding there a quick and supporting response. 
The community at large felt its touch and willingly yielded itself to it. 
The union of these three agencies — the school, the home and the com- 
munity — in concerted furtherance of the educational interests of Glouces- 
ter, was tellingly significant for good. In confirmation of the closer and 
worthier relationship established by this welding of school and associate 
interests, there was apparent a school attendance of remarkable excel- 
lence ; for it is a statistical fact that throughout this period of twenty-five 
years Gloucester led the cities of the commonwealth in the daily-percen- 
tage attendance of school children. The writer has often wondered how 
large a proportion of the community realized, at the time, the extent and 
value of its contribution to the welfare of its public schools through its 
salutary influence toward creating a glowing school spirit and thus help- 
ing to establish the attractive school home. 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 685 

Limited space permits only brief mention of some of the specialties 
connected with the educational work of the Gloucester schools during 
the whole or a part of these twenty-five years. 

Military training in the High School had been given a trial and had 
demonstrated its value to the boys of the school. Its continuance through 
this quarter-century followed as a matter of course, with the warm ap- 
proval of school authorities and the public. Later, physical education 
was carefully and systematically introduced. Its beneiicial results were 
so manifest as to give its worth to the schools early recognition. It soon 
found pemianency in the cuniculum of every school. Still later, manual 
training found its rightful place among the school industries. It had 
been given a trial in a limited way some years before ; for reasons largely 
^nancial it had been discontinued. 

The Teachers' Lecture Course was authorized by the School Board 
for the purpose of giving teachers the desirable advantage of coming 
under the educational and inspiring influence of eminent talent from the 
lecture field. The granting of this privilege was but one more generous 
act among the many so happily in accord with the desire of the Board to 
enrich school service. Those worthy men builded better than they knew. 
It may be added that the benefits of the course were felt outside the 
circle of teachers. The interest of the entire Cape Ann community was 
aroused, expressing itself in most gratifying results. This adjunct to 
the work of the public schools extended through the last fourteen years 
of this quarter-century, each succeeding year witnessing deeper interest 
and growing patronage. 

As stated elsewhere in this report, the High School had been seri- 
ously handicapped for years by its homeless condition. In 1884, Albert 
W. Bacheler accepted its principalship in the face of difficulties that would 
have dismayed one less courageous and aggressive than he. But Mr. 
Bacheler was possessed by a mai'velous zeal for the teaching sei^ice. He 
could meet adverse conditions with a smile, stimulated by the incentive 
which such conditions offer a man of his calibre with an up-hill contest 
before him. He accepted the challenge of the situation, winning as only 
such men can win. Before he gave up work in this school, at the end of 
thirty fruitful years of rare devotion to its best interests, he and his able 
helpers had given it an enviable place in rank and influence. 

When a new and real home was opened for the school in the fall of 
1889, its beneficial effects were immediately felt. A new year's work 
was about to begin under promising conditions, with the' school family 
no longer scattered. The outlook was heartening. Methods of service 
in this school were such as make for efficiency. The spirit of co-opera- 
tion was invoked. The school was led rather than commanded. The 
leader said, "Come !" and made the saying vitally effective by an example 
that kindled the emulative spiiit in every worker in the school. He said, 
"Let us, as teachers, show our pupils that we are not mere hirelings; 



686 ESSEX COUNTY 

that we have a deep personal care for them; that our attitude toward 
them savors of friendship ; and that requirements made of them are only 
the expressions of our friendship and interest." What this leader said, 
he and his teachers put into practice. 

He said to his pupils, "We are all in school for a purpose ; that pur- 
pose, to be realized, has to do with a liking for hard work. Let us ac- 
quire the liking. Let drudgery find no place in our daily tasks. Let us 
so imbue ourselves with the spirit of effort that we may come to regard 
all difficulties as so many appeals to the best there is in us. Let us look 
upon our school problems as so many life tests in miniature and grapple 
with them accordingly." Such counsel, happily exemplified, was magi- 
cally effective. An atmosphere of the most telling and desirable sort 
entered and pervaded the school. It made itself manifest in the aroused 
ambition, the banished lethargy, the purposeful endeavor, a new apprecia- 
tion of educational benefits, and the eager desire for hard work because 
of a growing consciousness of the enjoyment it begets. 

Under such leadership, supplemented by the ardent enthusiasm of 
loyal assistants, the Gloucester High School became the worthy pride 
of the city. It had been transformed into the "city set upon a hill" whose 
light and influence reached the grade schools with magnetizing effect. 
Its advantages were sought by pupils of adjacent towns. The worth of 
this school and the quality of its work came to be recognized by higher 
institutions of learning with marked favor. Such upbuilding of the 
school was accomplished through wise and vigorous leadership supported 
by efficiency and loyalty in the ranks of the teachers. To this leader- 
ship and loyalty Gloucester owes a debt immeasurably great. 

The closing words of this report will have to do with the teachers. 
This body was composed of men and women of high purposes. Their 
salaries were not so high. These devoted servants of the public knew 
that they were receiving, in pecuniary compensation, far less than they 
were earaing; but they rose superior to such knowledge and met every 
obligation with praiseworthy zeal. They thus exemplified the teaching 
spirit at its best. They had a keen sense of the weight of responsibility 
which they assumed in taking under their care the educational welfare of 
the city and gave to its carrying the fullness of strength at their command. 
It mattered little to them that their vocation was regarded as common- 
place by the unseeing and unthinking; they could feel nothing but com- 
passion for those who were unable to give it a commanding place in the 
domain of service that has to do with the highest type of accomplishment. 
Month after month during the school year they experienced the severe 
testing of patience, heavy pressure upon brain and nerve, physical and 
mental weariness, and all the discouragements peculiar to the exactions 
of the service ; then, with the school year ended, they had the courage to 
take the backward look and the grace to transform toil and difficulty into 
cheer and uplift because of the assured progi'ess and growth which they 






"°^T,0 





ANDOVER— ABOVE, ELM ARCH; BELOW, PHILLIPS ACADEMY 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 687 

had directed and stimulated. Such courage and grace, supplemented by 
the promise of a limited period of vacation rest, enabled them to an- 
ticipate another year of like experience with pleasure and content. 

Statistics show nothing of the wealth which their devoted service 
helped to accumulate; for statistics have no unit of measure for such 
wealth. Not until that unit shall have been discovered can the value 
of the Gloucester teachers' work during this period of twenty-five years. 
be computed. 

PRIVATE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 

Aside from the excellent subscription and later common public 
schools of Essex county, there have been numerous private institutions 
of learning, such as academies, select schools, schools for boys, and schools 
especially for young women, situated here and there throughout the 
county. Among the more important of such institutions are the follow- 
ing: 

Phillips Academy, at Andover, Massachusetts, was founded in 1778 
by Samuel Phillips, then lieutenant-governor of the cominonwealth of 
Massachusetts. In 1911-12 it had an enrollment of five hundred and 
seventy-one boys, it being exclusively for boys. Its equipment consists 
of thirty-five good buildings. The school is attended from all States in 
the Union and also from several foreign lands. It is still doing a great 
educational work. It has been truly said of this academy: "Phillips 
Academy became the mother and pattern of that great number of schools 
planted all over this country ; not that there were not secondary schools 
before, but they were established in almost every instance for the wants 
of a single community, while this academy at Andover was planted like 
the college — for mankind." 

Today, Andover Hill is Phillips Academy. When the Andover 
Theological Seminary moved to Cambridge, a few years since, and be- 
came associated with Harvard University, Phillips Academy was given a 
glorious opportunity. The necessary $200,000 required to be raised and 
paid over for the old Seminary buildings was obtained, and in 1916 An- 
drew Carnegie paid in his promised $25,000 toward the enterprise. The 
first school in the new quarters was opened September 16, 1908. In 
1915 the Academy had an attendance of five hundred and fifty-eight 
pupils, and they were instructed by forty teachers. The endowment was 
then $1,460,000 and the value of the academy property was estimated at 
$1,905,000. The library contains 8,675 volumes of excellent standard 
books. It is novv^ doing a wonderful work for the youth of many states 
and territories, really outstripping the most cherished aim in the mind of 
its generous founder. 

Another great institution in Andover is the school for girls and 
young women. It was founded in 1829 for the girls then living in New 
England, to fit them for life's important work. In its nearly a century of 
interesting history "Abbot's Academy" has sent out into the walks of 



688 ESSEX COUNTY 

life its thousands of well-trained young ladies, who prefeiTed this institu- 
tion to the regular college courses offered elsewhere. It was the earliest 
incorporated school for girls in New England. This school has a rich 
heritage in its history and traditions. The early trustees were men of 
weight in the community, and laid the foundations broad and deep. Its 
constitution stated at the outset: "A school to fomi the immortal mind 
to habits suited to an immortal being, and to instill principles of conduct 
and form the character for an immortal destiny," 

During the middle period of its existence, the long administration of 
Miss Philena McKeen, 1859-1892, the school became widely known and 
honored. In 1900 college preparatory work was taken on, after which 
the school grew rapidly in attendance. Here have been educated for life's 
duties thousands of wives of prominent ministers, lawyers, and teachers 
of world-wide note. The school is situated on about twenty-three acres 
of land in the very heart of Andover, with plenty of fine oaks and inspir- 
ing environments. The various halls and libraries and general religious 
influence tend to elevate all who attend this popular institution. This 
school possesses a scholarship fund of over $60,000, running from $1,000 
to $26,000 each. The recent enrollment was one hundred and forty-one 
boarding students and twenty-six local day students, making a total of 
one hundred and sixty-seven students. It should be added that this school 
was founded by the far-sighted citizens of Andover. It received its name 
from one of its founders — as did also its first Hall, that kno^^^l as Abbot 
Hall, named for Madam Sarah Abbot, who generously built it. 

The Andover Theological Seminary, chartered in 1807, really "placed 
Andover on the maps of this country," as has been well remarked. It 
was not only by act of incorporation and official management, a depart- 
ment of Phillips Academy, but also by growth from the original inten- 
tion of its projector. In fact, this Seminary vv^as founded to teach more 
directly the religious doctrines of the Calvinistic faith, as against that 
of the Armenians and Unitarians. Great theological men have been con- 
nected with this school from time to time. But with the passage of 
years dissensions arose, particularly in 1886-87, when removals of in- 
structors obtained to the detriment of the institution. Men of world-v/ide 
fame have been connected vv^ith Andover Theological Seminary. The 
register shows such names as Leonard Woods, the first Abbot professor 
of Christian Theology in the Andover Seminary; he was a member of 
the Provincial Congress. Eliphalet Pearson, a great "Master," who had 
for his pupils such men as John Quincy Adams, Judge Story, William E. 
Channing and Edward Payson. Bela Bates Edwa,rds, D.D., noted as an 
author of many valuable books, including the "Eclectic Reader," etc. He 
became a professor in Andover and Vv'as there a great power for the pro- 
motion of the school. Others were Samuel H. Taylor, LL.D. He became 
author of numerous text-books for common and higher schools. Rev. 
Austin Phelps. D.D. was another Andover professor, as was also Edwards 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 689 

A. Park, D.D., LL.D. He was president of the board of trustees for 
Abbot Academy for more than thirty years. Another was Prof. Calvin 
Stowe, Harriet Beecher Stowe's husband. 

After a course as an educational institution at Andover, in 1908 it 
was removed to Cambridge, and affiliated in a v/ay v.ath the interests of 
Harvard University, where it at least exchanges privileges. The cur- 
riculum is now one of three years. Students may divide their work be- 
tween Harvard University and the Seminary. Fourteen courses are re- 
quired for the degi-ee of Bachelor of Divinity, three of which may be 
taken at Harvard. The faculty consists of six professors, three lecturers 
and an assistant. The legal complications to unite these tv/o gi'eat 
schools of higher learning were not a few, but finally the General Court 
in March, 1907, passed a bill which made the transfers legal. The old 
and time-honored campus and fine building structures at Andover were 
then turned over to the Phillips Academy. 

The Beverly Academy was projected as a private school in 1833, by 
an association of gentlemen; and while it was of short duration, it was 
an important factor in developing sentiment in the community along 
higher educational lines. In May of the year just named, land was bought 
on the northeasterly side of Washington street and a building was erected, 
with Abiel Abbott, of New Hampshire, as principal, and Miss Maiy R. 
Peabody assistant. This school continued under various principals until 
1855. 

In 1804, an effort was made to establish an academy at Bartlett's 
Comer, for the benefit of Salisbury and Amesbury. A stock company 
was foiTned, with a two thousand dollar capital, divided in shares of 
ten dollars each. A lot was obtained, where the high school now stands. 
The building was erected in 1805 and Abner Emerson was appointed the 
first principal. After years of usefulness, this, like other private schools, 
finally gave way to the better and more uniform methods of our pres- 
ent public school system. 

In the town of Boxford, in 1826, Major Jacob Peabody established 
an academy in the building used by the Third Congregational church. 
This school flourished for about three years. The first principal was 
Prof. Leavenworth. The average attendance was fifty. 

The Baker Free School was founded by a fund given by Jonathan 
Tyler Baker, of North Andover, and such fund amounted to thirty thou- 
sand dollars. This was left by a will of this thoughtful man, who saw 
much in education. The trustees opened this school in 1884 in a leased 
building in the West parish. Stephen C. Clark was chosen first prin- 
cipal. Later, a building was erected, and the school carried on a num- 
ber of years longer. From 1865 to 1881, a private school for young men 
was established by Rev. Calvin E. Park, at his residence in West Parish. 

The Bradford Academy was the result of efforts put forth in March, 
1803, when it was mutually agi'eed that a building should be erected for 

Essex — 44 



690 ESSEX COUNTY 

an academy. In three months the structure was completed. Samuel 
Walker was the first principal. He was a native of Haverhill and a 
graduate of Dartmouth College in 1802. The school was incorporated 
in 1804. Benjamin Greenleaf was principal from 1814 to 1836, and he 
was the last preceptor. Then the institution was reorganized as a school 
for young ladies exclusively. Doubtless, Bradford Academy of today is 
greatly indebted to Mr. Greenleaf, who was succeeded by Miss Abigail 
C. Haseltine. In 1853, the semi-centennial anniversary was celebrated 
and fifteen hundred former students and their friends were present. In 

1869 a fine new set of buildings were provided. These are within a 
twenty-five acre tract of land beautifully situated, the view commanding 
the valley of the Merrimac. Many noted persons have graduated from 
this academy, including HaiTiet Newell and Ann H. Judson, well-known 
missionaries. This is the pride of northern Essex county, and is among 
the oldest institutions for the education of women in all New England, 
now being over one hundred and eighteen years old. More than seven 
thousand persons have graduated from this school. Of recent years, 
this school has been under the care of Miss Laura A. Knott, A.M., the 
principal. Here scores of young ladies are trained for teaching and other 
professions each year. 

What was styled the Merrimac Academy, a second institution in this 
part of the county, was started in 1821 ; the first section of the act of in- 
corporation reads as follows: "For the education of youth of both sexes 
in such languages, and such of the liberal arts and sciences as the trus- 
tees direct." The building was "raised" July 4, 1821, at a cost of $900, 
when completed. At the best days of this school, about sixty students 
were in attendance. A thousand and more of the inhabitants of Grove- 
land received their education within its walls. It was sustained in part 
by tuitions and partly by subscriptions. The Academy was burned in 

1870 and rebuilt the next season. In 1878 the trustees leased the prop- 
erty to the town for a term of ninety-nine years. After this the building 
was enlarged and the town has since then greatly improved the property. 

The Manning School, located in the town of Ipswich, was established 
in 1874, the founder being Dr. Thomas Manning, son of Dr. John Man- 
ning. The building was to be erected on the one hundredth anniversary 
of his birth. Up to 1886 about forty thousand dollars had been paid in 
to support the institution. The main building was a two-story edifice, 
with mansard roof. At the dedication of the premises one speaker re- 
marked: "The noble legacies of the dead and more noble gifts of the 
living have completed and furnished a structure which the citizens of 
Ipswich may look upon with grateful pride and satisfaction." This 
school was open to all without regard to religious belief, race or color. 
The remainder of the history of this institution is well known to the pres- 
ent generation. 

The Marblehead Academy was incorporated in 1792. Shortly after- 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 691 

ward, the Legislature granted a township of land (six miles square), 
lying between the rivers Kennebec and Penobscot, in the county of Han- 
cock, for the purpose of supporting the academy. This land was later 
sold to Samuel Sewall, for fifteen hundred pounds. This was the founda- 
tion for the present educational facilities of Marblehead. Her public 
schools are excellent and are patterned after the best in the common- 
wealth. 

In 1799 land liberally offered by Jonathan Stevens was accepted 
for the location, and subscriptions were secured for the erection of build- 
ings. This school was organized for the use of both sexes and was called 
the North Parish Free School until 1803, when by an act of the court it 
was named Franklin Academy. Many bright lights served as instruc- 
tors here, but especially under the care of Simeon Putnam, who com- 
menced in 1817, did this school forge to the front rank of that kind of 
educational institutions. This was among the earliest schools for women 
where women teachers were employed. It flourished with the years, 
and like other institutions finally gave the field over to the better system 
of public high schools, normals and academies so frequently found now-a- 
days. 

In Salem a State Normal School for girls was established in 1854. 
The city provided the site and erected the building at a cost of $14,000. 
The State paid back $6,000, and the Eastern Railroad Company con- 
tributed $2,000 additional. In 1870-71 the building was enlarged at an 
expense of $25,000. The original principal was Prof. Richard Edwards. 
Other educational factors in Salem, date back to 1770, when David 
Hopkins was granted leave to establish a private school to teach reading, 
writing and arithmetic. There are here and there snatches of history 
showing that during the first one hundred and thirty years, Salem had 
numerous private schools, but they left no regular recorded history, 
hence the present generation knov/ but little concerning their origin or 
character. In 1826 there were sixty-nine private schools, with 1666 
pupils. But with the coming of the common public school system, all 
this was changed. Salem now has its modern schools, v/ith a large force 
of capable teachers, who have been trained for their profession at the 
Normal. 

Saugus Female Seminary was established in 1821, by Rev. Joseph 
Emerson, of Beverly. The parish encouraged the enterprise, voting the 
use of the parsonage, with land near by, for a school building, which 
was erected in the spring of 1822. For two years this school flourished 
exceptionally well, but the autumn of the second school year was the 
dreadful epidemic season of typhoid fever; several young ladies of the 
school died, causing many others to withdraw, and the result was un- 
fortunate for the seminary. The school ceased to exist in the fall of 
1826. 

Topsfield Academy established in 1828, flourished for many years. 



692 



ESSEX COUNTY 



The first preceptor was Francis Vose, and the last to hold such office was 
Albert Ira Button, who discontinued the institution in 1860. This school 
occupied a central location, on an elevation, which made it the highest 
building in the village. A goodly number of men who made their influ- 
ences felt in later years, lived in the county and graduated from this 
school. 

At the village of Wenham, in 1810, an attempt was made to establish 
an academy. Later, other private schools were started, among them was 
one by C. L. Edwards, who opened a private school in the Town Hall. 
The date was 1854 ; he remained one year, and was succeeded by Francis 
M. Dodge, a native of Wenham. He continued the school two years and 
more, when other schools took the field. 




CHAPTER XLIII. 
PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY. 

Without going into the details of the origin and development of the 
science of medicine since away back in Galen's time, it will suffice to 
say that since Essex county was first settled by the forefathers, nearly 
three centuries ago, the greater advancement in this science has been 
made. Both in Medicine and Surgery, the last half century has accom- 
plished more in its line than all the hundreds of years prior to that date. 
The medical man is usually too busy to record his goings and comings, 
hence the writer of a chapter like this is necessarily a compiler of 
physicians' names, with such data as newspapers and old historical books 
contain, with here and there a personal sketch or obituary notice, yet 
these are not entirely valueless. In certain portions of this county, local 
physicians have kindly contributed articles for their own community, 
which enriches this part of the work. Of necessity, these writers fur- 
nish the reader with but little of a date prior to the time in which they 
commenced to practice medicine in the county. It is to be regretted that 
not more responded to the call for such articles, but such as we have we 
herewith present, believing that the mere mention of some good old 
"family doctor's" name will carry the older reader back in memory to a 
time long ago, when the profession was not quite what it is today. As 
a rule, the early physicians were a sturdy, honorable and intelligent type 
of manhood, who feared not the storms of winter, nor heat of summer, 
but went when called, and rendered such assistance as they could, with 
the skill they possessed, and many times without recompense, at that. 

Medical Practice in Danvers — It was not until 1815 that 
vaccination was the subject of public action. Gen. Gideon Foster's name 
was at its head in a petition for a town meeting, held July, 1815, in the 
town of Danvers for the special purpose of considering the expediency 
of accepting certain proposals offered by one Dr. Fansher. They were 
as follows: "Dr. Fansher begs leave respectfully to propose to the town 
of Danvers that he will (in case it meets the approbation of the town) 
vaccinate at such places in the different neighborhoods throughout the 
town as shall be designed by a committee for the children to assemble 
for that purpose, and attend and examine his patients at the proper time 
to see that each individual is secure from the danger of the Small Pox, 
at twenty-five cents per head, and he believes that no person can possibly 
do this nice business and do it justice for a smaller fee and be the gainer." 

These proposals were accepted with the provisions reserved — there 
must be some Yankee to the trade — that all above six hundred were to 
be treated gratis : "Resolved — That this town entertain a high opinion of 
vaccination, and consider it (when conducted by skilful and experienced 
hands) a sure and certain substitute for the small pox. Resolved — That 



694 ESSEX COUNTY 

this meeting deems it the indispensable duty of a community to make 
use of the means that the Divine Providence has given us to guard against 
every impending evil to which we are exposed, especially those which 
involve the health or the lives of the inhabitants." 

With the single exception of possibly Dr. Gregg, who is said to 
have lived in Salem village in 1692, there is no evidence that Danvers had 
any settled physician until about 1725, but depended for medical and sur- 
gical services upon Salem doctors. The first physician is considered to 
have been Dr. Prince, a native of Danvers, who studied medicine under 
Dr. Toothaker, of Billerica, and was the preceptor of Drs. Amos Putnam 
and Samuel Holton. He lived at the southern slope of Hawthorne Hill. 
Amos Putnam bom in Danvers, 1722, practiced until the French and 
Indian War, when he entered the service as a surgeon. After the war 
he returned to Danvers, where he practiced until more than eighty years 
of age. 

Archelaus Putnam, bom in Danvers in 1744, at the old Putnam 
homestead, graduated at Harvard College and soon commenced to prac- 
tice medicine. He was a skilful physician and surgeon and a man of 
influence in his community. He died in 1800 and was buried in the 
Wadsworth cemetery. 

James Putnam, son of Dr. Amos Putnam, bom at Danvers in 1760, 
studied medicine with his father and was associated with him in practice. 

Andrew Nichols, bom 1785, died 1853, was another well-known doc- 
tor, born in the northern part of Danvers, a son of Major Andrew Nichols, 
who introduced Lombardy Poplar into this country, his farm being lined 
with these trees. Dr. Nichols graduated at Phillips Academy and Har- 
vard. He was doubtless among the great men of his day and genera- 
tion — a many-sided man — for it is known that he was president of the 
Essex County Medical Society in 1811; was a leading Free Mason; first 
president of the Essex County Natural History Society in 1836, the 
same merging into the present Essex Institute in 1848. He was one 
of the founders of the Essex County Agricultural Society and delivered 
a lecture at the first cattle show at Topsfield, in 1820. He was an old- 
line Abolitionist and head of the Danvers Free Soil party. At his home 
many a slave, northward headed, found shelter and obtained food en- 
route to Canada and freedom. This good doctor found time to write 
much poetry; was a temperance worker; was an inventor and improved 
the hydrostatic bed, upon one of which he died. He introduced the 
cold air tube system, which consisted of a tube leading from the side 
of a window to the sick bed of his patients, that they might breathe 
fresh, pure air. He was one of the founders of the First Unitarian 
church in what is now Peabody. Indeed, Dr. Nichols was one of nat- 
ure's noblemen. 

Among very early physicians in Danvers, the old books mention 
Drs. Clapp, Cilley, Gould, Porter, Patten and Carleton. A son-in-law 



PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 695 

of Dr Holten lies buried in Danvers, and this is his tombstone inscrip- 
tion: "George Osgood, M. D.; he practiced medicine here fifty-five 
years; beloved by all who knew him. He passed to his rest, May 26, 
1863, aged 79 years 2 months." Dr. Ebenezer Hunt practiced medicine 
in Danvers more than half a centuiy, dying in 1874. Other prominent 
physicians of this town prior to the eighties v/ere Drs. Grosvenor, J. W. 
Snow, P. M. Chase, Lewis Whiting, Wm. Winslow Eaton, D. Homer 
Bachelder, Edgar O. Fowler, Woodbury G. Frost, Frank Gardner and 
H. F. Bachelder. 

In 1921 those practicing medicine and surgery are Drs. Fred Bald- 
win, C. L. Buck, Charles F. Deering, J. Ed Magee, Herbert L. Mains, 
John Moriarty, Ed. N. Niles, Mrs. Blanche B. Sartwell (Ost), John F. 
Sai-twell (Ost.), and John F. Valentine. 

Medical History of Lynn — The history of the medical pro- 
fession in Lynn does not begin until the town was fifty years old. Lynn 
was no exception to most of the small towns of New England, and as a 
matter of fact, of all England of the seventeenth centuiy. The Ply- 
mouth Colony had a doctor, who came with the colonists, and he was 
sent for to visit the surrounding towns when there was dire distress. At 
the invitation of the authorities, he visited Roxbury and Salem when an 
epidemic prevailed that the people could not control. At first Lynn was 
veiy fortunate in regard to sickness. William Wood, who was a sort of a 
press-agent for New England, says of the healthfulness of Lynn, "Out of 
that Towne, from v/hence I came, in three years and a half, there died 
but three; to make good which losses, I have seen foure children Bap- 
tized at one time." Wood takes rather too rosy a view of the healthful- 
ness of the climate, but his statement in regard to Lynn for the first 
three years was probably quite true. The reasons for the lack of sick- 
ness at first are: First, the settlers did not come directly to Lynn, and 
had therefore recovered from typhus fever, v/hich infested practically 
every ship in those days ; and secondly, the first settlers had all been ex- 
posed to small-pox before they reached New England. They were ex- 
posed to small-pox in 1663, when the Indian chief, John Sagamore, and 
many of his people died of it, and the Indian children were distributed 
among the settlers, but none contracted it. 

Before the days of vaccination, small-pox was a dreaded disease and 
it was believed that it was safer to be inoculated with the disease than to 
run the risk of catching it. The following is an account of the inocula- 
tion; of a company of Lynn people. "Lynn, May 14, 1777. There was a 
company of us went to Marblehead to have the small-pox. We had for 
our doctors, Benjamin Burchstead and Robert Deaverix, and for our 
nurse, Amos Breed. Hired a house of Gideon Phillips, viz: Abraham 
Breed, Jonathan Phillips, William Breed, Simeon Breed, Richard Pratt, 
Jr., Nathan Breed, Jr., Rufus Newhall, James Breed, Jr., John Curtin, Jr.| 
James Faime, Jr., William Newhall, Jr., David Lewis, Micajah Alley[ 



696 ESSEX COUNTY 

Jabez Breed, Jr., Micajah Newhall, Paul Farrington, Ebenezer Porter, 
William Johnson, Arnos Newhall, making nineteen in all ; and all came 
home well." 

The first mention of a physician in Lynn is in 1680, when Dr. Philip 
Read (1680) of Lynn complained to the court at Salem of Mrs. Margaret 
Gifford, as being a witch. She was a respectable woman and the wife 
of John Gifford, formerly agent for the Iron Works. The complaint said, 
"he verily believed she was a witch, for there were some things that 
could not be accounted for by natural causes." Mrs. Gifford gave no re- 
gard to her summons, and the Court very prudently suspended their 
inquiries. 

The next physician to settle in Lynn was Doctor Burchsted, in 1685. 
He was evidently a well-educated physician, and "Lewis and Newhall" 
gives the following account of him: "John Henry Burchsted, a 
native of Silesia, married Mary, widow of Nathaniel Kertland, 24 April, 
1690. Heniy, his son, was bom 3rd October, 1690. They were both 
eminent physicians and lived on the south side of Essex street, between 
High and Pearl. (There were two sons both physicians; one was a sur- 
geon in the British Navy; the other was Dr. Henry, of Lynn, who also 
had a son Henry, a physician). Dr. John Henry Burchsted died 20th 
September, 1721, aged 64. 

The Burchsteds, father and son, were the only physicians until 1744. 
In this year John Lewis began practice here, and in 1747 Nathaniel 
Henchman, a son of a minister of the same name, is listed as a physician. 
We do not find another new doctor for twenty-two years (1769) when 
John Flagg came. In 1771 we find the name of Jonathan Norwood, in 
1775 John Perkins, in 1779 Abijah Cheever, and in 1782 Aaron Lummus. 
In one hundred years the names of ten physicians are given, but two and 
possibly three of them did not practice. Philip Read received no mention 
after his appearance when he accused Mrs. Gifford of being a witch. This 
was the one enduring episode of his life in Lynn, or anywhere else, so 
far as the writer can learn. John Perkins was an old man when he 
settled in Lynnfield, having practiced for forty years in Boston. He 
did not probably do much active practice after he came here. Abijah 
Cheever graduated in 1779 and irmnediately went into the service with 
the Revolutionary army. After peace was declared he settled in Boston, 
where he and his descendants have been engaged in the practice of medi- 
cine ever since. 

Lynn has the credit of furnishing two surgeons to the Revolutionary 
army, Abijah Cheever, mentioned above, and Doctor John Flagg, who 
was commissioned colonel. He was an active patriot, a member of the 
Committee of Safety and looked after the recruits. He did not see active 
service in the field except his brief sei-vice at the battle of Lexington. 
James Gardner, who settled in Lynn in 1792, and married Doctor Flagg's 
daughter, was a Revolutionary soldier, but did not study medicine until 
after the close of the war. 



PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 697 

The fees for physicians were low. It was not until Lynn had reached 
the rank of a city, in 1850, that the physicians by mutual consent agreed 
to charge seventy-five cents a call for house visits. Furthermore the 
people did not call a doctor until they were actually obliged to do so 
It is quite probable that the early physicians were part-time farmers' 
That IS, they owned a small farm and raised their food by working the 
land during their leisure. 

Aaiw Lummus was the only one who remained in Lynn who lived 
to see the transition period of medicine. The historians say that he 
practiced for fifty years, was very successful and much beloved, but those 
who knew him say that he became very much discouraged at the lack of 
fZXf 1 "^'^^"f": ™' discouragement was very prevalent among 
thoughtfu men, and it gave rise to all sorts, of fads. There were water 
curists, eclectics, botanical physicians, Grahamites and countless others. 

who Jh^^^ T""' ^'T ^^^^ ^' ^^^^' *^""" ^^^'^ ^i^^ ^^^ physicians 
who settled m Lynn-James Gardner, 1792; Rufus Barrus, 1798; 
Peter G. Robbms 1805; John Lummus, 1816; he was a son of the old 
doctor; Edward L. Coffin, 1817; Richard Haseltine, 1817; William E 
Brown, 1828; Charles O. Barker, 1831; William Prescott, 1832 TOs 
division IS not entirely artificial. It includes the War of 1812, the growth 
of the national spirit, and the ending in 1832 was just before the deluge of 

nnnn?v.!'''''''f' ^^ '''^''' ^^ ^^^^^^P^^on had a very depressing effect 
upon the people. Beginning soon after the Revolution, the disease be- 
came a serious menace. Lewis says, "From some cause, however, there 
are a great number of deaths by consumption. Formerly, a death by this 
disease was a rare occurrence, and then the individual was ill for many 
years, and the subjects were usually aged persons. In 1727 when a 
young man died of consumption at the age of nineteen, it was noticed 
as a remarkable circumstance; but now, young people frequently die of 
that disease after an illness of a few months. Of 316 persons whose 
deaths were noticed in the First Parish for about twenty years previous 
to 1824, 112 were the subjects of consumption. In some years since 
more than half the deaths have been occasioned by that L'Zs S 
aoy. There IS something improper and unnatural in this. It is doubtless 
owing to the habits of the people, to their confinement in close rooms 
over hot stoves, and to their want of exercise, free air, and ablutions '^ 
Dnvi^rfi! 1 ;f '^'^'''f 'f *y y^^^s consumption was a veritable scourge. 

as im t waf th^ T""."' '^'' "^"^' '' ^"'"^"^ ^^-^^^«h^d' but as late 
as 1880 It v/as the leading cause of death in the city 

are- lllt''Z''^Vl'''^lf^T' ^'''''^' ^^ *^" ""^* P^^^^^ ^^ ^f^y years 
Surkee l7of T I'p'?"'^'' ^^^^-^^ramham Gould; 1836-Silas 
JJurkee, 1836— Daniel Perley; 1837— James Clark; 1837— Asa T Npw 

ols iglf^^rpvn- N^^i;«^S-«'>"'- Read. 1843-Chies H.- ^ 
ols, 1843-John Philhps; 1840-Isaiah Haley. The City Directory of 1851 



698 ESSEX COUNTY 

gave A. S. Adams, E. Porter Eastman, I. F. Galloupe, William L. Har- 
mon, Joseph B. Holder, Daniel A. Johnson, Edward L. Newhall, James 
M. Nye, John Renton, R. S. Rogers, Dryden Smith, Charles Weeks; the 
Directory of 1854 has Dearing T. Haven, John Hilton, William Kings- 
ford, J. Harden, John O'Flaherty, Nathaniel Ruggles. In 1856— J. M. 
Blaisdell, Josiah Brown, J. M. True ; 1858 — Bowman Breed, A. S. Adams, 
H. C. Angell, William Slocum; 1860— John Delaski, David F. Drew, B. 
F. Green, J. P. Prince; 1865 — Henry C. Ahlbom, Mary E. Breed, the first 
woman physician in Lynn, M. J. Flanders, Julius Weber, Cornelius A. 
Aheame, D. A. Allen, Horace C. Bartlett, John S. Emerson, J. W. Good- 
ell, D. W. Jones, W.' B. Ramsdell ; 1869— Mrs. C. A. Batchelder, E. T. 
Butman, A. M. Gushing, James H. Kimball, Joseph G. Perley, Joseph G. 
Pinkham, George Cahill ; 1871 — Eugene V. Gushing, Esther H. Hawkes, 
Edv/ard S. Haywood, Richard Kennedy, George W. Musso, John H. Sher- 
man, William Thompson, J. O. Webster; 1873--Mrs. E. T. Butman, 
George E. Clark, Levi Famdon, T. T. Graves, Charles R. Kellam, P. T. 
Jenness, J. W. Lindsay, Charles A, Lovejoy, Selian D. Mason, John A. 
McArthur, William B. Reynolds, William E. Tarbell, George S. Wood- 
man; 1876 — F. A. W. Bergengren, Charles R. Brown, Coeleb Bumham, 
C. B. Caples, S. W. Clark, R. Fletcher Dearborn, Mrs. L P. Haywood, J. 
McMahon, D. H. Spofford, S. A. Toothaker, J. C. Weeks, Isaac C. Win- 
chester, G. B. Yeaton; 1878 — Miss M. M. Averill, Henry W. Boynton, 
William D. Corken, Monica Mason, J. W. Moore, R. K. Noyes, Frank L. 
Radcliff, Chauncy C. Sheldon; 1880 — Albert Barrows, Andrew Baylies, 
HeiTTian I. Barry, Charles H. Brockway, George Burdett, Mary E. Clark, 
Henry Colman, Lucy B. Guemey, Horace W. Jackson, Charles E. 
Meader; 1882 — William H. Baker, John W. Bosworth, William Enright, 
George H. Felton, R. H. Golden, Edward P. Hale, Stephen W. Hopkins, 
Henri A. Jendrault, James E. Keating, Charles Lloyd, John J. MacMahan, 
Stella Manning, William A. McDonald, J. W. Moore, M. Rogers Sim- 
mons, Gustavius F. Walker. 

The fifty years from 1832 to 1882 are memorable in the history of 
medicine in general and of Lynn in particular. Firstly, there was a 
notable increase in the number of doctors. While there were only nine 
new physicians in the fifty years from 1782 to 1832, there were one 
hundred twenty-six new names listed in the next fifty years. Secondly 
— On October 17, 1846, the first public demonstration of ether anaes- 
thesia was given at the Massachusetts General Hospital. It was the 
privilege of one Lynn physician (Doctor Galloupe) to be present. He 
was still a medical student, but the event must have made a lasting im- 
pression upon his after life. Thirdly — In 1864 Pasteur published his 
lectures on fermentation and his work laid the foundation of modem 
medicine. Fourthly — In 1855 Florence Nightingale laid the foundation 
of modern nursing. Fifthly — In 1867 Lister read his first paper on 
the antiseptic treatment of wounds. Upon anaesthesia, nursing and 



PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 699 

antesepis depend all the progress that has been made in modem sur- 
gery. Sixth — The Civil War showed the people how dependent they 
were upon the doctors. 

On October 31, 1874, a meeting was held in Nathan Breed's parlor, 
to see what could be done about establishing a hospital in Lynn, and 
here was bom the Lynn Hospital. The first hospital was financed and 
conducted by the Lynn Union for Christian Work. The first hospital 
was located at 12 Waterhill street. It was a small affair, but it min- 
istered to the sick from March, 1875, to May, 1879, when it closed its 
doors, to be succeeded five years later by the present Lynn Hospital. 
It served its purpose in showing the people the need for a hospital and 
led to a continual agitation through the press, by public meetings, and 
penny collections that did not cease until the present model institution 
was opened. 

The first physician to locate in Lynn after 1832 was Edward A. 
Kittredge. He is described by those who knew him as of a striking 
personality. He wore long black curls, had a cleft palate, and was al- 
ways ready to express his opinions upon all subjects with force and 
conviction. He lived in Lynn for many years. In the Directory of 1841 
we find among others a vegetable physician and a botanic physician. 
In 1837 Dr. Asa T. Newhall located in Lynn and there have been Nev/- 
halls practicing in Lynn ever since. 

The first Homoeopathic physician to locate in Lynn was David A. 
Johnson. He probably came in the late forties. His name appears for 
the first time in the Lynn Directory of 1851. Whether there was a 
du'ectory between 1841 and 1851 I do not know, but I have not been 
able to find one. 

Doctors Emerson, Lovejoy and Sheldon were connected with the 
first hospital and they occupied a prominent position in the develop- 
ment of the present one. The physicians of Lynn who served as sur- 
geons in the Civil War were : Bowman Breed, Isaac F. Galloupe and J. 
P. Prince. 

The following is the list of physicians from 1884 to 1921 : 

1884 — George M. Barrell, John W. Bosworth, Frank W. Chandros, Charles 
W. Galloupe, Benjamin Goodwin, James H. Grant, Alice Guilford, Solomon H. 
Holbrook, Michael H. Hughes, Charles E. Jenkins, Thomas F. Joyce, Carey F. 
Marshall, James W. Moore, Mrs. E. Newcomb, Frank D. Stevens, William Watters. 

1886— H. F. Bradbury, F. F. Brigham, John De Wolfe, Francena J. Dilling- 
ham, Stephen M. Furbush, Roscoe HUl, William E. Holbrook, George W. Huse, 
William B. Little, George G. MeiTow, Miss Lucy J. Pike, Joseph H. Potts, S. W. 
Stilphen, Edwin P. Wing. 

1888 — Everett F. Adams, John B. Andrews, Eben F. Blake, Thomas Cole, 
Charles De Langle, Michael F. Donevan, Roscoe E. Freeman, George W. Gale, 
(East Saugus), Frank L. Judkins, J. R. Kinney, Henry P. Leonard, Frank T. 
Lougee, Normon R. Miller, Frank A. Morse, Luther Newcomb, Herbert W. New- 
hall, J. F. O'Shea, Isaac Steams, Frank E. Stone. 

1890— Miss Myra D. Allen, R. F. Cross, Philip F. Dillon, J. E. Frothingham, 



700 ESSEX COUNTY 

L. M. Marston, William A. McDonald, William H. Merry, Harry J. Pearce, Mur- 
dock C. Smith. 

1892 — Cornelius A. Aheame, Jr., J. Armand Bedard, Eben F. Blake, Arthur 
L. Blue, E. E. Deal, George H. Gray, Leonard F. Hatch, George W. Haywood, 
Edson G. Holmes, William T. Hopkins, Warren J. Johnson, Elgin W. Jones, Will- 
iam R. King, J. S. Lewis, John J. Mangan, John J. McGuigan, John J. McMann, 
Joseph Mitchell, John Richmond, Edward O. Wright. 

1894 — Howard E. Abbott, Charles H. Bangs, Arthur B. Chase, James Farish, 
Charles F. Faulkner, G. W. Fowler, Oscar F. George, T. R. Grow, Edward Hanna, 
Melvin A. Harmon, Arthur Hodges, William H. Knight, Charles D. S. Lovell, 
William E. McPherson, John A. Morse, Emil F. Ruppel, William Seaman, Michael 
Seney, George A. Spencer, Clarence A. Stetson, George F. Woodill, and Erwin 
Wright. 

1896 — Leland M. Baker, James Castle, L H. Chicoine, Charles E. Clark, Caro- 
lus M. Cobb, M. Coutre, Benjamin F. Green, Allston F. Hunt, H. D. Kennard, 
Frank W. Kenny, James A. Keown, William H. A. Knight, Albert Marie, Edward 

B. Marston, Charles W. Putnam, Charles W. Richardson, John W. Ridley, T. K. 
Serijan, Albert L. Whipple. 

1898 — John A. Balcom, E. Van Deusen Gray, George B. Carr, Maria J.- 
Cushing, Stephen R. Davis, A. S. Dennison, Charles E. Dever, F. B. Dezell, Eugene 
Dolloif, Arthur E. Harris, Edward B. Herrick, Mary Hobbs Iredale, Francis A. 
Lane, Archibald H. Martin, Clarence E. Mei-amble, Charles A. Pratt, Willard F. 
Read, N. A. Springer, Edith C. Vamey, Mabel L Waldron, Walton B. Warde, 
Frank L. Whipple. 

1900— Tekla Berg, Alfred Preston Bowen, Ora W. Castle, William H. Clark, 
William L. Eraser, Thomas N. Frost, Benj. F. Green, Mildred A. Libby, Wilmot 
L. Marden, J. Brayton Martin, S. K. Momjian, Thomas T. Perkins, Everett 
White. 

1902 — Frederick L. Bishop, Nathaniel P. Breed, Alexander Caird, William B. 
Chase, Joseph U. Eells, George B. Foster, Howard K. Glidden, William D. Harris, 
Alfred T, Hawes, F. W. MacPherson , Edward T. Mannix, Oi-a Marvin, Geo. H. 
Musso, A. Lester Newhall, G. A. Troxell, William H. Watters. 

1904 — Charles H. Bergengren, Nathaniel L. Beri-y, Frank E. Blake, Winfred 
O. Brown, Thomas F. Cogan, Gustav Desy, Peter C. Devlin, Clarence H. Dobson, 
T. J. Duncanson, F. Albert Foster, Perley Han-iman, Walter S. D. Hitchcock, 
John H. Mullen, Charles E. Rich, Frederick L. Sanborn, Mark Shrum, William 
Ward, James J. WUson, Charles A. Worthen. 

1906 — On-in C. Blair, Walter L. Burns, Marion Cowan, Alice Surry Cutler, 
Harland A. Danforth, George A. Davis, Charles B. Frothingham, Gustav Hart- 
man, Walter L. Hearn, Harold A. Johnson, WUlard W. Lemaire, Butler Metzger, 
Charles H. Mitchell, Howard F. Morse, Harrington Munroe, William F. O'Reilly, 
Martin W. Peck, Ella Severance, A. H. Stockbridge, John W. Trask. 

1908 — John H. Andrews, Hcimlin P. Bennett, Arthur E. Darling, Charles L. 
Hoitt, James A. Jones, George H. Kirkpatrick, William Liebman, Roy W. Mathes, 
William L. Soule, Arthur W. Tucker. 

1910 — Curtis W. Cotton, George W. Eastman ,Charles L. M. Judkins, Isabell 

C. R. Livingstone, Frederick J. Mclntire, W. Reignald Marshall, Hov^^ard N. Nason, 
Willis G. Neally, Charles A. Oak, Samuel Paltum, William G. Shepherd, Charles 
E. Stone. 

1912— J. Harper Blaidsell, Gladys L. Carr, Harry C. Clarke, John A. Dal/, 
Joseph W. Godfrey, Leonard W. Hassett, G. W. Heaslip, Frances G. Lamb John- 
son, Arthur E. Joslyn, George W. Lougee, George A, Lyons, Alexander McRobbie, 
Stanislas Martel, F, Harvey Newhall, James O'Keefe, Oscar L. Spencer, J. Robert 
White. 



PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 701 

1914 — Oliver Bixby, J. Arthur Courtemanche, Ellsworth Garipay, Thomas F. 
Grady, Levon Hagopian, T. Francis Hennessey, Nathan L. Jacobson, Charles H. 
Merrill, Everett A. Merrill, Edward S. O'Keefe, Charles O. Pratt, Willard L. 
Quennell, William S. Schley, Edward Shon, A. Leo Strain. 

1916 — Louis A. Blanchet, Frank B. Collotn, John Costello, Horace Hill, Wil- 
liam S. Hodnett, Muriel E. Lewis, Louis H. Limauro, William E. McLellan, Sam- 
uel G. Underhill, Perez W. Wainshel, John H. Clarke. 

1918 — John D. Constantinides, William V. Kane, Edward W. Karcher, Thomas 
B. Rafferty, Thomas W. Shaw, Oliver A. T. Swain, Joseph P. Trainor, Angello 
Zarrella. 

1920— Charles J. Allen, George E. Allen, Thomas A. Bany, Harry H. Butler, 
Alden V. Cooper, Henry L. Davis, Earl U. Hussey, Frank W. A. Mitchell, Wilbur 
M. Paige, Raymond F. Rauscher, Arthur J. Ring, Frank E. Schubnehl, Timothy 
E. Shine. 

From 1882 to 1920 there were two hundred and ninety-six new physi- 
cians given in the directoiy. A part of this number stayed but a short 
time and the remainder took the place of the older doctors, of those who 
died, or retired, or their services were rendered necessaiy by the growth 
of the city. The notable events in the medical history of Lynn during 
this period were the opening of the present hospital and the World War. 

The hospital at first was a small affair and accommodated but six 
patients. It was soon evident that room must be found for more patients, 
and a new ward was soon added. The hospital was opened for patients 
on March 12, 1883. Doctor Charles A. Lovejoy was given full charge, 
and on his management the success or failure of the enteiT)rise depended. 
Doctor Lovejoy invited to sei-ve with him on the staff Drs. Edward New- 
hall, I. F. Galloupe, David F. Drew, J. W. Goodell, J. S. Emerson, J. G. 
Pinkham, Henry Colman, and C. C. Sheldon. These men laid the founda- 
tion of the present hospital and some of them were spared to see the 
growth of the hospital era in New England. From a beginning with 
accommodations for six patients the hospital has grown to an institution 
able to care for one hundred and fifty patients. 

The war with Spain was not large enough or prolonged enough to 
make a serious demand upon Lynn's medical profession. The author can 
find only one Lynn physician who served in that war. Dr. James Keown. 

Of the one hundred and fifty physicians in Lynn, thirty-five respond- 
ed to the call of their countiy in the World War. The names are given 
below. Many of them saw service across the seas and they all did their 
duty in whatever station the government placed them. They are as fol- 
lows: J. A. Bedard, N. P. Breed, A. E. Darling, H. L. Davis, E. Dolloff, 
G. W. Eastman, W. L. Eraser, L. C. Furbush, G. H. Gray, L. W. Hassett, 
G. Hartman, C. L. Hoitt, W. L. Hearn, L. W. Harris, C. L. Judkins, A. E. 
Joslyn, H. A. Johnson, W. V. Kane, G. H. Kirkpatrick, W. F. Lemaire, 
L. H. Limauro, B. Metzger, R. W. Mathes, W. E. McLellan, C. H. Mer- 
rill, E. Merrill, E. S. O'Keefe, G. C. Parcher (Saugus), F. W. A. Mitchell, 
R. F. Rauscher, W. S. Schley, Oscar L. Spencer, J. W. Trask, S. G. Under- 
hill, R. White. 



702 ESSEX COUNTY 

Physicians of Essex (Town) — The first resident physician in 
Essex was Dr. Ebenezer Davis, who settled there in 1770. He was 
succeeded by Drs. Parker Russ, in 1778, and Reuben D. Mussey, in 1805, 
whose son won distinction in the Civil War, becoming a general. Dr. 
Thomas Sewall succeeded Dr. Mussey, practicing in Essex for a decade 
or more. Dr. Oscar F. Swasey came in 1853, and a few years later 
moved to Beverly, where he achieved much popularity as a surgeon. Dr. 
William H. Hull commenced medical practice in Essex in 1859, served in 
the Civil war and returned to take up practice in Essex again. He sold 
his house and practice to Dr. Towne. Dr. Josiah Lamson was one of the 
noted doctors of his day in this county. He retired from his practice in 
1861, and was succeeded by Dr. John D. Lovering. In 1880 the last 
named moved to New Hampshire, and was succeeded in Essex by Dr. A. 
P. Woodman. The present physicians of the town of Essex are Drs. 
Ernest C. Steeves and A. H. Haig, at South Essex. 

Rockport Physicians — In 1887 the following list of physi- 
cians, who had practiced at one date or another in Rockport, but were 
then deceased, was published in a general history of this county: Dr. 
John Manning, died 1841, aged eighty years; his father was Dr. John 
Manning of Ipswich, and he the son of Joseph Manning, another physi- 
cian of Ipswich. The John Manning of Rockport accumulated a for- 
tune, mostly by his practice, with some farm interests which he posses- 
sed. He served six temis as representative to the General Court. He 
had one son, a physician in his native tovv^n, where he died in 1843, aged 
forty-four years. 

Another aged physician of Rockport was Dr. James Goss, who died 
in 1842, aged seventy-nine years. Besides his medical work, he also 
wrote legal instruments and acknowledged such insti-uments as wills, 
deeds, etc. He was a representative at the General Court in 1832. Dr. 
Edward E. Barden died in 1875, aged twenty-nine years and seven 
months. He was a son of Rev. Stillman and Sarah Barden^ a Univer- 
salist minister of Rockport for a number of years. Benjamin Haskell, 
aged sixty-eight, died in 1878; he was born in Rockport, graduated at 
Amherst and at Bowdoin College, Maine, where he received his medical 
education. The physicians of Rockport at the present time (1921) are 
Drs. E. E. Cleaves, A. M. Tupper and Dr. Phillips. 

Physicians of Topsfield — According to best authority obtainable, the 
first physician to practice in Topsfield was Dr. Michael Dwinnell. His 
grandfather was probably a French Huguenot, who settled here before 
1668. Dr. Dwinnell was boni in Topsfield in 1705 and practiced there 
as late as 1733. The next physician was Dr. Richard Dexter, who began 
his medical practice here in 1740 and died in 1783. Dr. Joseph Brad- 
street, bom in Topsfield in 1727, practiced medicine to some extent, but 
was not successful ; he taught school at times and finally died a pauper 
in 1790. 



PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 703 

In 1783 the year, in which Dr. Dexter died, two physicians came to 
Topsfield — Nehemiah Cleaveland and John Merriam. Dr. Cleaveland 
was bom in Ipswich in 1760. Besides his medical work, he was State 
Senator many terms, as well as serving as session justice of the Circuit 
Court of Common Pleas. In 1823 he was appointed chief justice of the 
Court of Sessions in Essex county. In 1837, aged seventy-six years, he 
passed from earth's shining circles. Dr. Merriam was bom in Concord, 
Massachusetts, in 1758 ; he died of consumption in 1817. 

The next physician here was Dr. Jeremiah Stone, who began prac- 
tice in Topsfield in 1825 and continued a dozen years or more. He died 
on Cape Cod, April 23, 1875, and was buried at Topsfield. Dr. Joseph 
Cummings Batchelder succeeded Dr. Stone about 1838. He was a na- 
tive of Topsfield ; began practice in Lynn, went to Cambridge from Tops- 
field in 1849 and there remained the rest of his life. He was assistant 
surgeon in the Twenty-fifth Massachusetts Regiment, in Civil War days. 
He died in Templeton in 1884. 

Dr. Royal Augustus MeiTiam, who succeeded his father in practice 
here, was a native of Topsfield, bom 1786, graduated at Dartmouth, and 
v/as an exceptionally good physician; he died of heart trouble in 1864, 
aged seventy-eight years. Following this quite noted physician for his 
day, came Dr. Charles P. French from Boxford; Dr. David Choate re- 
maining until 1857, and then moved to Salem. In the eighties the physi- 
cians at Topsfield included Dr. Justin Allen, who came in the autumn of 
1857 ; was a native of Hamilton ; graduated from Hai^vard Medical School. 
The town is now (1921) supplied with physicians as follows: Drs. John L. 
Jenkins and Byron Sanbom. 

Wenham Physicians— The first medical man to locate at Wenham 
was Dr. John Fiske, where he practiced after his gi'aduation for many 
years. In 1694 he moved to Milford, Connecticut, where he practiced 
until 1715, when he died. Dr. John Newman practiced here from 1695, 
for a short time. Dr. Gott came in 1704 for a number of years. No 
other doctor is mentioned until Dr. William Fairfield settled, about 1760. 
He was born in Wenham, 1732, and practiced in the French and Indian 
war with great success, especially as a surgeon. He died of small-pox 
October, 1773, aged forty-one years. 

Dr. Isaac Spofford was a native of Georgetown, bom in 1752, having 
studied medicine at Haverhill under Dr. Brickett. After a short period 
of practice in Topsfield, he removed to Beverly, and in the Revolution 
became an army surgeon. Dr. Barnard Tucker, a graduate of Harvard, 
moved to Wenham and practiced some, but thought more of languages 
and society than of his chosen profession, hence was not a success profes- 
sionally. , .«> 

In 1826, Dr. Samuel Dodge, by invitation of the town, settled herie 
as a physician and surgeon. He was bom in Wenham in 1800 and prac- 
ticed in the village of Wenham until his death in 1833. Dr. Sylvanius 



704 ESSEX COUNTY 

Brown practiced medicine here two years in the thirties. After the death 
of Dr. Dodge the next to practice here was Dr. Nathan Jones, who re- 
mained until 1858, when he moved to Beverly, where he died in 1860. 
Other physicians here have been Drs. Myron O. Allen, David O. Allen, 
John L. Robinson, Samuel Ezra Thayer; and Frank A. Cowles, who was 
here in 1887 in medical practice. The present (1921) physicians who 
practice in Wenham are mostly those who visit the town from other 
points. 

Georgetown Physicians — The order in which the doctors in this town 
have sei"ved the community is about as follov/s: Dr. Amos Spofford, 
1771-1785 ; Dr. Moses D. Spofford, 1792-1832 ; Dr. David Mighill, 1809- 
49; Dr. Pierce, 1835-41; Dr. H. N. Couch, 1849-61; Dr. Martin, 'Old 
Doctor' Root, 1824-62 ; Dr. George Moody, 1830-35 ; Dr. Grosvenor, 1858- 
72; Dr. Spaulding, 1855-70; Dr. DeWolf, Dr. Ralph C. Huse, 1865-92; 
Dr. Richmond B. Root began in 1867; Dr. Edward M. Hoyt in 1893; Dr. 
Albert C. Reed in 1895, and Dr. Raymond R. Root in 1914. The four 
last named are in active practice today. 

Physicians of Beverly — Among the most noted medical men in early 
days in Beverly was Dr. Ingalls Kittredge, a native of Amherst, born 
1769, and died at Beverly, 1856, sixth in genealogical line from John Kit- 
tredge, of Billerica, who received gi'ants of land in 1660. His father was 
Solomon Kittredge. The son followed the profession of his father, was a 
gi'aduate of Harvard of the class of 1820, and studied medicine with Dr. 
John C. Warren. The name first appears in the tax list in 1803, but he 
did not become a resident of Beverly until 1804. His early visits were 
made on horseback, but later his large practice caused him to adopt the 
so-called "sulky", which vehicle was only capable of carrying one person. 
This doctor would today have been known as of the Eclectic school of 
medicine, for he would prescribe anything he thought would cure, 
whether it was named in his school of medicine books or not. He achiev- 
ed great success as a doctor and surgeon. He was among the first ardent 
temperance advocates ; was a strong anti-slavery man, a friend of Whit- 
tier, Phillips, Sumner, Gamson and such men of mark. He aided Fred 
Douglas and George Latimer to escape to the north-star country — Can- 
ada — where they became free men. He managed the line of "under- 
ground railroad" through this county, and could always be counted upon 
as true in his work for the runaway slave. But few such men have 
ever blessed a community. With the passing decades, scores of physi- 
cians have practiced in Beverly, but it is a question whether any have 
surpassed Dr. Kittredge in fidelity and earnestness. 

The present physicians of Beverly are: Dr. Ida Barnes, Maria W. 
Bliss, Dwight Cowles, Frank A. Cowles, Marland H. Eaton, Peer P. 
Johnson, Thomas Kittredge, George M. Kline, James F. Lawler, Daniel 
F. Murphy, Thomas H. Odeneal, Willard S. Parker, Charles H. Phillips, 
A. F. Roderick, Harry E. Sears, James A. Shatswell, Francis G. Stan- 



PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 705 

ley, Ralph E. Stone, Lawi^ence C. Swan, J. William Voss, Frederick A 
Webster, Hyman Yudin. 

Physicians in Andover— Charles E. Abbott, Fred Atkinson, J. Fos- 
ter Bush, Henry L. Clark, Timothy Culliance, J. J. Daly, James B. Fuller 
Ed. W. Holt, F. W. Kennedy, Joseph Kitredge, Percy J. Look, Cyrus w' 
Scott, Wilham H. Simpson, Fred S. Smith, W. D. Walker. 

Nahant Physician — Dr. Lawrence F. Cusic. 

Rowley Physician — Dr. F. L. Collins. 

Boxford Physicians— The earliest member of the medical profession 
to practice m Boxford was Dr. David Wood, a native of the town bom 
m 1677, died 1744. He practiced here thirty years. He accumulated 
much property, but largely through his fanning and milling interests 
rather than by medicine. He was followed, in 1753, by Dr. Benjamin 
Foscer, boni in Ipswich, 1700, and died in 1775. He was a skilful physi- 
cian and a noted botanist. Next came Dr. V/illiam Hale, in 1770 He 
was a native of Boxford, bom in 1741, and died in 1785 The ne-t 
physician was Dr. George Whitefield Sawyer, born in Ipswich in 1770 
He located m Boxford and there practiced until called by death Dr 
Joseph Bacon practiced in the town with him for twenty years These 
two doctors (one in one parish and the second in another) both died on 
the same day, March 23, 1855. Charles French, a young physician, was 
here m 1849, and moved later to Topsfield. 

The physicians now sei-ving the town (1921) are those who come 
from neighboring places and visit the sick, returning to residences most- 
ly outside the town. 

West Newbury Physicians-The present physicians of this town are : 
Drs. M. B. Cooney, Charles F. Hall, Wallace L. Orcutt, Gorham Rogers 
and George E. Worcester. 

Dr. Dean Robinson was, from all accounts, one of the most talented 
and beloved physicians who ever practiced medicine in this part of the 

i?«o*^\. ^! J"^^ ^"^ ^^^ ^^'^'^ '^''^^ ^'^ ^^""'^'y ^^ 1811. He was born in 
1788 attended the academy at North Andover, and for a time was a 
teacher m the Danvers public schools. He studied medicine vnth Dr 
Kittredge of Andover, a celebrated man of the county. In his last years,' 
although a great sufferer, he was patient throughout all of his unusual 
pam, till death relieved him. He died August, 1863. 

Haverhill's Physicians— It is to be regretted that there has never 
been preserved much data concerning the physicians who have from time 
to time practiced in Haverhill. However, in investigating the subiect 
some interesting facts have been obtained from a few biographies pre- 
served, and the same here follow: Dr. Kendall Flint, the emigrant an- 
cestor, came here from Wales. The first mention of him was in Salem 
town records in 1650, but genealogists generally believe he arrived at a 



Essex — 45 



706 ESSEX COUNTY 

much earlier date. He was among the first settlers of Salem Village, 
afterwards South Danvers, and now Peabody. He bought two hundred 
acres six miles from Salem courthouse, near Phelp's mill and brook, 
where the subject of this notice spent his boyhood and youth. 

Thomas Flint, son of Thomas, lived upon this homestead. He was 
in King Philip's War and was wounded in the swamp fight. He became 
a large landowner, having bought, between 1664 and 1702, more than 
nine hundred acres of land. Captain Samuel Flint, sixth son of the last 
Thomas, received the old homestead house and suiTOunding lands as his 
portion of his father's estate. His son Samuel was a soldier in the Revo- 
lution, was at Boston during the eight months siege, and was killed at 
the head of his company at Stillwater, October, 1777, being the only 
officer from Danvers killed in that war. This man's son Elijah (who be- 
came a major) was the second son of the last-named Samuel, and received 
the homestead. He was a Whig in politics, a Puritan in religion and a 
model farmer by occupation. 

Dr. Kendall Flint, youngest son of Major Elijah Flint, was bom Feb- 
ruary 4, 1807. He attended Amherst College, from which he graduated 
in 1831. He entered Andover Theological Seminary the same year, and 
in 1833, on account of declining health, was compelled to return to his 
father's house, where he was an invalid for two years. His physician at 
last decided that he must abandon indoor life and change from the theo- 
logical to the medical profession. It was a great cross to the young man, 
but he had to yield. He studied medicine under* Dr. Osgood of Danvers, 
receiving his degree in 1839 at the Boston-Harvard school. Early in 
1840 he came to Haverhill and purchased a situation previously occupied 
by Dr. Augustus Whiting. Haverhill then had a population of only 4,- 
300. He became a successful, leading physician, and practiced there till 
called by death. He served in Civil war days as examining surgeon for 
the army, continuing for fifteen years. Such was the career of one of 
Haverhill's well-known physicians. 

Coming dowm to more recent times, Dr. John F. Croston became 
known as the dean of doctors in Haverhill, and medical examiner of the 
northeastern Essex district since 1882. The local newspaper of July 
29, 1921, gave this item concerning the doctor: "He died at his home at 
Arlington square today. He was stricken seriously ill Thursday. For 
several years he suffered from a heart affliction, but he refused to for- 
sake his patients, many of them being of old-time families. Dr. Croston 
was bom in Bradford, now a district of this city. May 17, 1855. He was 
gi-aduated from the Bradford high school with the class of 1872. After 
his school career he became a compositor in a newspaper office at Law- 
rence, under the late Gen. George S. Merrill and afterwards worked on 
the Boston Herald. With his savings as a printer, he entered Dartmouth 
Coilge, and then completed his medical course at the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, New York City." He was for a year attached to the hos- 



PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 707 

pital at Blackwell's Island, and then returned to Haverhill to begin prac- 
tice, which continued for forty-one years. In 1883 he was made a mem- 
ber of the Board of Health, and was successively re-elected to continuous 
service, many years of which w^ere as chairman. Dr. Croston was ap- 
pointed medical examiner for the Northeastern Essex District in 1882, 
and was reappointed each tei-m thereafter. He served during the recent 
World War as chairman of the Draft Board. 

About the health and medical profession of Haverhill much might 
be written had the propeii notes have been preserved with the passing 
years; but, as it is, only fragmentary snatches can here be given. Few 
cities in the United States have been as progressive as Haverhill in look- 
ing after and providing for health and sanitation. As a proof of such 
statement, it is only necessary to point to the fact that in the past thirty- 
eight years the increase in longevity has been 44 per cent. 

It was in 1880 that the Board of Health was created, and then the 
average of descedents was thirty years and ten months. The Merrimack 
river at this point is found flowing thi-ough a valley five miles and more 
wide, and has a surface line along the river's bank for nine miles; this 
valley is drained by fifty-six miles of sewers. There are 140 miles of 
public highways, thirty-two of which are in the compact part of the city 
proper, while 110 miles of pipes furnish water service to more than 55,000 
people. The parks cover 259 acres, and the public play-gi'ounds furnish 
eighteen acres for the children. 

The hospitals are adequate to the population. There are two gen- 
eral hospitals, the Hale and the General Stephen Hemy Gale, a con- 
tagious disease hospital, a tuberculosis hospital, and a city infirmary, as 
well as the tuberculosis dispensary. George T. Lennon, agent and clerk 
of the board, succeeded the late Chester A. Bryant, who had served in 
that capacity for thirty-one years. Haverhill was among the first cities, 
if not the first in the State, to employ a bacteriologist, Dr. Homer L. 
Conner having served since 1906. In 1911 the Board of Health first 
employed a visiting nurse, Miss Anna A. Sheehan. The board now has 
two other nurses. Haverhill was among the first in the State to open a 
dispensary for the care and treatment of tuberculosis. This department 
has been under the care of Dr. I. J. Clarke. He has a staif of a dozen 
physicians, who volunteer to serve two months each year. Meat and 
milk inspectors have been employed for a good many years. About 1918 
the board inaugurated a dental clinic for school children. 

Just who the first physician in Haverhill was, is now a question none 
can well settle. Suffice it to say, every community has ahvays been pro- 
vided with its professional men when the demand called for their pres- 
ence. The early doctors were not as a rule highly educated in their "art 
of healing," but many possessed good minds, had reasonably good ordi- 
nary educations, and in times of emergency were sought after. As the 
science of medicine advanced, Haverhill had her full share of well- 



708 ESSEX COUNTY 

educated physicians, yet people in those days seemed not to care so much 
about the education of their "family doctor" as they did their minister. 
He must be of their own peculiar religious faith, in order to be even toler- 
ated and supported. But those times have all changed for the better; 
fifty years has witnessed wonderful strides in the medical profession, 
especially in surgery and dentistry. The non-graduate has now but 
little place to fill in any community. 

In the year 1921 the following physicians were in practice at Haver- 
hill and its environments: Doctors F. W. Anthony, Henry G. Armitage, 
E. A.^ Bacon, J. A. Bazin, Charles S. Benson, Alexander Blanchette, Wal- 
ter H. H. Bramard, William H. H. Briggs, Harry Broadbridge, Elmer W. 
Carter, L. R. Chaput, I. J. Clarke, F. H. Coffin, William Cogswell, George 
J. Connor, M. Blanche Conney, Timothy F. Cotter, George E. Crane, H. 
M. Crittenden, J. F. Croston, Hugh Donahue, L. P. Dorion, Charles S. 
Dunn, Charles E. Durant, James W. Elliott, W. W. Ferrin, J. J. Fitz- 
gerald, Arthur P. George, Albert J. Grandmaison, W. C. Hardy, Ches- 
ter A. Holbrook, A. M. Hubbell, H. C. Jewett, Charles C. Johnson, Henry 
Kelieher, E. Philip Laskey, L. B. LeGro, M. M. Leibel, Marion C. Little- 
field, Charles N. McCuen, William D. McFee, Arthur O. McLaughlin, 
Carl Mindlin, Abraham Morris, S. B. Morse, Hyman A. Mysel, P. Nettle, 
Mrs. Mimiie J. Nicholson, Socrates Y. Pavlides, Henry Perkins, F. B. 
Pierce, H. F. Pitcher, Constantine Popoff, A. A. Ratte, Charles F. Reed, 
Robert Rice, William Robinson, Joseph Ruel, John Sproul, Carroll W. 
Still, Leroy T. Stokes, T. N. Stone, F. A. Sullivan, Alice G. Symonds, 
Alfred C. Tmll, Karl R. Tuttle, G. B. Whitney, George E. Whitten, 
Arthur G. Wright. 

Physicians of Gloucester — It is unfortunate that the profession at 
Gloucester has failed to prepare an account of the various physicians and 
surgeons of the place, as was planned for by the publishers of this work, 
for doubtless with the long years of medical practice in Gloucester, its 
geographical location, its length of settlement and importance as a sea- 
port town, the histoiy of medicine would indeed be replete with many 
interesting events connected with the practice of one of the three great 
sciences. 

At this time (1921) the physicians, some of who date back in prac- 
tice a goodly number of years, include the following names: Drs. Silas 
H. Ayer, Parker Burnham, Hanford Carvell, Alton J. Choate, Horace J. 
Choate, Thomas Conant, S. P. F. Cook, Mary D. Dakin, John J. Egan, 
Albert S. Garland, Roy Garland, William Hale, Edward B. Hallett, Ed- 
ward B. Hubbard, Avis M. Keith, James H. Knowles, Philip P. Moore, 
Scott W. Mooring, Charles H. Morrow, Albert F. Oakes, Charles M. 
Quimby, Philip Rowley, William Rowley, Ellwood E. Shields, Philip 
Shinn, W. Arthur Smith, Arthur S. Torrey, Harper Whittiker. 

Groveland — Being so near to Haverhill and other larger centers, 



PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 709 

medical men have not been largely attracted to Groveland. The field is 
now occupied by Dr. Elmer S. Bagnall. 

Manchester — The present (1921) physicians in Manchester-by-the- 
sea are Drs. George Blaisdell, W. H. Tyler, and Robert Glendenning. 

Rowley — The physician who attends to the duties of a doctor of 
medicine in Rowley at this time is Dr. F. L. Collins. 

South Hamilton — The following are the present physicians of South 
Hamilton: Dr. John G. Cochran and Dr. Charles H. Davis. 

Salisbury — Dr. J. S. Spaulding is the only practicing physician at 
Salisbury at the present date, 1921. 

Newburyport Physicians — Among the pioneer medical men at New- 
buryport may be recalled Dr. Richard S. Spofford, a native of Rowley, 
this county, of the sixth generation from pioneer John Spofford. He was 
the son of Dr. Amos Spofford, an eminent physician, and one of the orig- 
inal members of the Massachusetts Medical Society. He was also an ex- 
tensive agriculturist. His grandfather was Colonel Daniel Spofford, of 
Rowley, who was present at the battle of Lexington, and commanded a 
regiment in the Revolutionary War. Richard S., the son of Amos Spof- 
ford, fitted himself for the medical profession. He first attended Phillips 
Academy, Andover, and entered Hai-vard College in the class that gradu- 
ated in 1812. He studied medicine with his father and brother, finishing 
his course at Philadelphia. He returned to Rowley and formed a part- 
nership with his brother, but in 1816 moved to Newburyport. There he 
remained in practice fully fifty years. He died in Januaiy, 1872. On 
the burial casket of this physician was this inscription (in Latin) "Rich- 
ard S. Spofford, M. D., May 24, 1787, January 19, 1872. Men never 
approach nearer to the gods than when giving health to their fellow- 
men." 

Dr. George Montgomery was another man who made a record as a 
useful physician and surgeon, and enjoyed a large practice among the 
best families in Newburypoi-t and vicinity. He was of an old family, 
born in Strafford, New Hampshire, in 1834, of Scotch-Irish parentage. 
His father was John Montgomery, a farmer of more than passing note. 
In 1851 he commenced the study of medicine with Dr. Charles Palmer, 
later of Ipswich. After attending various medical schools, he finally 
graduated from Bowdoin College in 1854. He commenced his practice 
in Gilman Iron Works, in Nevv^ Hampshire, in 1855, when aged twenty- 
one years. He forged to the front rank rapidly, remained seventeen 
years, and succeeded Dr. John F. Young and settled in Newburyport. 
As as a member of the Twelfth New Hampshire regiment, he had sei-ved 
one* year in the Union army in Civil War days. The life and practice 
of this eminent man is within the memory of so many still living that 
further details will not be entered into. 

The physicians in practice at Newburyport in 1921 are as follows: 



710 ESSEX COUNTY 

Drs. Daniel W. Wendell, Arthur J. Hewett, R. C. Hurd, C. F. Johnson, 
George R. Fellows, Charles F. Hall, Robert D. Hamilton, Thomas R. 
Healy, Abby N. Little, George D. McGauran, F. O. Morse, Arthur C. 
Naron, A. J. Pater, J. W. Snow, Frank W. Snow, Frederick Tigh, Roland 
L. Toppan, Loring Weed, George W. Worcester. 

Marblehead Physicians — The practicing physicians at Marblehead in 
the summer of 1921 are Drs. George P. Dunham, Samuel C. Eveleth, Her- 
bert J. Hall, Franklin Ireson, Martin V. B. Morse, Francis C. Murphy, 
Perley L. Sanborn. 

Merrimac Physicians — The present physicians of Merrimac are Drs. 
Eugene M. Gale and Fred E. Sweetsir. 

Saugus Physicians — The physicians practicing in Saugus in 1920-21 
are Drs. Myron Davis, George Gale, Herbert T. Penny, Maiy M. Penny, 
Clarence G. Parcher, Lome HaiTis, John E. Vassalo, Thomas Perkins 
and Leroy C. Furbusg. 

Middleton Physicians — At present (1921) the only practicing 
physician at Middleton is Dr. C. A. Pratt, whose practice extends 
throughout the surrounding countiy. 

Lynnfield Center Physicians — The physician who now attends to the 
medical calls in and surrounding the town of Lynnfield Center is Dr. 
Franklin W. Freeman. 

Physicians of Salem — It is of course impossible to give a list of the 
hundreds of doctors who have practiced in the neighborhood of the pres- 
ent city of Salem. The medical profession has been here represented by 
many celebrated men, long since departed this life. They left no record 
of their careers, save a few snatches here and there in the way of obituary 
notices, or in biogi'aphical dictionaries, many years gone to decay, with 
the hand of time, etc. That men of worth and high order of intelligence 
have graced the medical fraternity in Salem is proved by such reference 
as here follows of some early-day physicians of the city: 

At the commencement of the nineteenth century. Dr. R. D, Mussey 
practiced medicine in Salem. In 1816 he was engaged in delivering lec- 
tures on chemistry, and moved to Dartmouth, to accept a chair in the 
college of that place. Later, he was professor in a Cincinnati College. 
He published many medical essays, as wxU as an elaborate treatise on 
tobacco. He married the daughter of Dr. Joseph Osgood of Salem. 

Dr. Daniel Oliver was engaged with Dr. Mussey in popular scientific 
lectures in Salem. He was many yeai's a resident of Salem, was later a 
professor of the theory and practice of medicine at Dartmouth College. 
He published "First Lines on Physiology," in 1835. 

Dr. George B. Loring, bom in North Andover, 1817, gi-aduated from 
Harvard Medical School in 1842. From 1842 to 1850, he practiced medi- 
cine ; was surgeon of the United States Marine Hospital, Chelsea, 1843- 
50 ; commissioner to revise the Marine Hospital system, 1849 ; member 



PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 711 

of the Massachusetts Leg-islature, 1866-68 ; president of the New England 
Agricultural Society from its establishment in 1864; was United States 
Senator from Massachusetts, 1873-77; member of the House from 1877 
to 1881 ; United States Commissioner of Agriculture, 1881 to 1885. Yet 
with all these public duties to attend to, Dr. Loring found time to write 
upon diverse topics. As early as 1843, he wrote many aiticles for the 
New England Journal of Surgery and Medicine ; his review of the "Scar- 
let Letter" was well received. He \\a-ote letters from Europe to the Bos- 
ton "Post" — "Scientific and Practical Agi'iculture", "The Assassination of 
President Lincoln", and "Unity and Power of the Republic", and the 
oration dedicating the Memorial Hall at Lexington, 1871, were all works 
of his brain and pen. It is not outside the truth to state that his books 
and orations numbered into the hundreds. He contributed to the "South- 
em Literary Magazine", and for many years v/rote for the "North Ameri- 
can Review." 

To the works of physicians already lefeired to should be added the 
"Memoirs of Dr. Holyoke," furnished by Dr. A. L. Peirson, the learned 
and skilful physician and surgeon. Salem claims some relationship to 
all of these distinguished medical men and authors. 

Returning again to Dr. E. A. Holyoke, it should be added that he 
was interested in all that was good in American literature. He took a 
leading role in all the literary societies of Salem ; he signed the call for 
the meeting at the tavern of Mrs. Pratt in 1760, and was an original 
subscriber to the funds raised to establish the Social Library of Salem; 
he was the first president of the Essex Historical Society. 

The following are among the recent physicians and surgeons of 
Salem : Drs. C. A. Ahearne, Charles Aronson, Frank S. Atwood, George 
K. Blair, Edward K. Burbeck, Frank Carlton, Hemy G. Carroll, Dei Witt 
S. Clark, Camile Cote, Charles L. Curtis, John H. Dearbom, J. Frank 
Donaldson, Henry L. Elliott, Arthur B. Ferguson, Martin T. Field, Frank 
A. Gardner, George Z. Goodell, C. R. Gould, William T. Haley, William 
W. Hennesy, Thomas S. Henry, Thomas Kittredge, Alfred T. LeBoeuf, 
Max Lesses, J. H. Liverpool, William V. McDennott, Kate Mudge, Har- 
vey F. Newhall, William N. Noyes, Edv^ard L. Peirson, George E. Percy, 
Hardy Phippen, Walter G. Phippen, George Poirier, Horace Poirier, 
James P. Rouler, Edward A. Rushfield, A. N. Sargent, Katherine C. Shee- 
han, William Sheehan, Thomas O. Shepard, Octavius Shreve, James E. 
Simpson, George A. Stickney, Benj. F. Sturgis, Heniy Tolman, Jr., Ed- 
win D. Towle, George E. Tucker, Albert V/ebb. A number of these 
physicians have a practice in Beverly and Beverly Farms, but reside in 
Salem. 

Physicians of Ipswich — There have been fevN^er changes among the 
physicians of Ipsv/ich in the past thirty years than in any other profes- 
sion. In 1890 there were practicing in Ipsv/ich, in the following order, 
Dr. Charles Palmer, Dr. William E. Tucker, Dr. William H. Clark, and 



712 ESSEX COUNTY 

Dr. George E. MacArthur. Drs. Clark and Palmer are now deceased. 
There are now six physicians in the following order of seniority: Dr. 
William E. Tucker, Dr. George E. MacArthur, Dr. Charles E. Ames, Dr. 
George G. Bailey, Dr. Frank L. Collins and Dr. Burleigh B. Mansfield. 
Following are brief biographies of the physicians who have practiced in 
Ipswich during the past thirty years : 

Dr. Charles E. Ames, born in Brockton, Massachusetts, in 1863, 
graduated at the Brockton high school, and at the Heinemann Medical 
School of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1886. He settled in Ipswich 
in 1894 and has practiced there since. Dr. Ames mamed Miss Annie 
Hayes of Ipsv/ich. They have six children. In addition to general prac- 
tice. Dr. Ames gives special attention to roentgenology and general ex-ray 
work. He is a member of the Essex County Homoeopathic Medical So- 
ciety and the American Institute of Homoeopathy. His two oldest sons 
are medical students. 

Dr. George G. Bailey, born in Rowley, Massachusetts, gi'aduated at 
the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and the Harvard Medical School ; 
settled in Ipsv/ich and has practiced there since 1897. He has been medi- 
cal examiner for Ipswich since 1897, and was a member of the Medical 
Advisory Board for the 22d Massachusetts District during the recent 
World War. He has also been a member of the staff of the Benjamin 
Stickney Cable Memorial Hospital since that institution was established 
in 1917. Dr. Bailey married Miss Grace Damon of Ipswich, and they 
have three children. 

Dr. Michael C. McGinley was bom at Adirondack, New York, edu- 
cated in the public schools, attended the University of Vermont, and the 
Baltimore Medical College at Baltimore, Maryland. In 1904 he located 
in Ipswich, v/here he has since practiced his profession. He has been 
the town physician for the last ten years, and w^as a member of the Medi- 
cal Advisory Board for the 22d Massachusetts District during the World 
War. In addition to his general practice. Dr. McGinley is much inter- 
ested in surgery, and conducts a private hospital in connection v/ith his 
residence on Central street. Dr. McGinley married Miss Mabel Pov/ell, 
of Orono, Maine ; they have one child. Dr. McGinley is a member of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society. 

Dr. Frank L. Collins v/as born in Warren, Maine, educated in the 
public schools and graduated from the medical school at Bowdoin Col- 
lege. He settled in Ipswich in 1916, after a year's interneship at the 
Salem Hospital, and has practiced here and at Rowley, where he now 
makes his home. Dr. Collins served as a member of the Medical Ad- 
visory Board during the World War in the 22d Massachusetts District. 
He is married and had one child. He is engaged in general practice in 
both towns. He is a member of the Massachusetts Medical Society. 

Dr. George E. MacArthur, bom in Camden, Maine, was educated at 
the Waterville Classical Institute, Bowdoin College and the University 



PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 713 

of Vermont, from which institution he graduated. He settled in Ipswich 
in 1888 and has resided there ever since, excepting one year, which he 
spent in Europe engaged in travel and post-graduate study in the Lon- 
don hospitals. Dr. MacAilhur has been a member of the Ipswich school 
committee for more than twenty years ; is chaiiinan of the Ipswich Board 
of Health, and school physician. He was chairman of the Medical Ad- 
visory Board of the 22d Massachusetts District during the late World 
War; was a captain in the Medical Corps of the Massachusetts State 
Guard, serving in the influenza epidemic of 1918, and in the police strike 
in Boston in 1919. He has been a member of the attending staff of the 
Benjamin Stickney Cable Memorial Hospital since the institution was 
opened in 1917. Dr. MacArthur married Miss Isabel Safford of Camden, 
Maine ; she passed away in January, 1919. He is a member of the Mas- 
sachusetts Medical Society, the American Medical Association and the 
American Public Health Association. 

Burleigh B. Mansfield, born in South Hope, Maine, educated in the 
public schools and at Bowdoin College, from which institution he receiv- 
ed his degree in medicine ; served one year as interne in the Salem Hos- 
pital, after which he located in Union, New Hampshire, coming to Ips- 
wich in 1919. He is married and has one child. The doctor is a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Medical Society. 

Dr. Charles Palmer, a native of New Hampshire, graduated at Dart- 
mouth Medical College, and served as surgeon in the Civil War. After 
the close of that war he settled in Ipswich and practiced his profession 
here until his death. Dr. Palmer is well remembered by the older genera- 
tion, and was a. physician of much skill and a gentleman of the old school. 
Mrs. Palmer died a few years after the death of her husband, and 
about two years ago the only child, Prof. Elizabeth Palmer, of Vassar 
College, also passed av/ay. There are therefore no living descendants of 
Dr. Palmer. Old friends of the family will always hold them in affection- 
ate remembrance. 

Dr. William E. Tucker, born in Amesbuiy, Massachusetts, received 
his medical training at the Long Island Hospital Medical College at 
Brooklyn, New York. He settled in Ipswich in 1872. Dr. Tucker is one 
of the best-known physicians in Essex county, and has always enjoyed a 
large practice in Ipswich and surrounding towns in Essex county. He 
was medical examiner of the Ipswich district for many years, and was 
for more than thirty years physician to the Essex County House of Cor- 
rection. He is a member of the consulting staff of the Benjamin Stick- 
ney Cable Memorial Hospital, and was for many years a member of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society. For the past few years Dr. Tucker 
has spent his winters in Florida, where he has practiced his profession. 
He is still actively engaged in practice. Dr. Tucker married Miss Anna 
Tupper of Vermont. They have two children, a son and daughter, both 
of whom are now in college. 



714 ESSEX COUNTY 

Dr. William H. Clark, a native of Connecticut and a graduate of the 
University of New York, settled in Ipswich in 1888, and practiced there 
until 1897. He was medical examiner of the district the last few years 
he resided in Ipswich. He aftei-wards located in Bellingham, Massa- 
chusetts, where he met his death in a railway accident about twenty years 
ago. Dr. Clark was about forty-five years of age at the time of his 
death. He left a wife and one daughter. 

Dr. William H. Russell, born in Ipswich, was educated in the public 
schools and Tufts Medical School. He began practice of medicine after 
his graduation and resided in Ipswich until his death, which occurred 
suddenly, about ten years ago. His age at the time of his death was 
about forty-eight years. He was married, but had no children. Mrs. 
Russell passed away a few years ago. 

The Benjamin Stickney Cable Memorial Hospital was a gift to the 
trustees of the Ipsvdch Hospital Corporation, by Richard T. Crane, Jr., of 
Chicago and Ipswich, as a memorial to his friend, Benjamin Stickney 
Cable. This hospital was opened August 1st, 1917, and has served most 
admirably the hospital needs of Ipswich and surrounding towns. Fully 
to appreciate this hospital, with all of its modem appliances, it must be 
seen throughout. Briefly, it may be stated that it is strictly an up-to- 
date institution. Their printed report for 1920 says that, besides operat- 
ing the institution, the trustees have been able to pay off about one-half 
of the $7,128 debt against the property January 1st, 1920. Voluntary 
contributions have been during the year $13,000. The value of the land, 
building and equipment of this concern is placed at $208,399. Number 
of patients admitted in 1920 was 347 ; number of babies boiTi in hospital, 
76; expenses, $26,113; total revenue, $26,719. The present (1921) offi- 
cers are : President, Herbert W. Mason ; treasurer, Hov/ard N. Doughty ; 
secretary, Mrs. Robert S. Kimball ; superintendent. Miss Blanche M. 
Thayer, The active and visiting staff of doctors: Drs. G. G. Bailey, 
Frank L, Collins, George E. MacArthur. 

Methuen Physicians — 1921. —The follovdng are practicing medicine 
in Methuen at this date: Drs. Roy V. Baketel, W. E. Nutt, John Parr, 
victor Reed, Howard L. Cushman, Ed H. Genley, and Ralph G. Norris. 

Medical Profession at Amesbury.— -^Vriting a history of the practice 
of medicine in Amesbury, which for its purpose must be somewhat limited 
in its scope, or to fix a time limit, would be to forget the practitioners 
who carried on the work long before this modern age. It is important 
to recall, so far as we have any knowledge, a few of the older physicians, 
that their names may not be lost entirely. They may become, as they are, 
'a part of this history. 

The first noted physician of which we have knowledge was Josiah 
Bartlett, bom at the Ferry district, although he did not practice here. 
He was one of the signers of the Declaration of American Independence. 
He is honored by a monument which stands in Huntington Square. 



PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 715 

A long gap intervenes, in which we find no record of physicians until 
about the year 1800. Somewhere about that time, Dr. Jonathan French 
and Dr. Brown, the latter combining preaching with the practice of med- 
icine, were practicing here. Dr. Nehemiah Ordway practiced in town 
somewhat later. He lived on Main street. His memory is preserved 
in the name of Ordway School, on School street. Dr. Israel Balch, who 
studied with Dr. French, resided at the Ferry district. He died in 1858. 
Dr. Henry Dearborn lived on Main street, and Dr. Gale on High street. 
Dr. Carswell, who lived on Elm street, was a large, full-bearded man, 
and was minus one leg. Dr. Thomas Sparhawk, who lived on School 
street, at the head of Main street, was bluff and hearty, as well as free- 
hearted and generous, with an unusually heavy voice. We seem to hear 
that impressive voice asking: "How's your bowels?" His memory is 
preserved by the name of Sparhav/k street. These names bring us up 
to 1860 and 1865 and some time after the Civil War. Then we find the 
name of Dr. Hurd, who practiced in Amesbury until he accepted an offi- 
cial position in Ipswich, Mass., soon after 1865. Dr. John A. Douglass 
settled on Main street, afterwards removing to Upper Main street, where 
he resided until his death, in 1916. He was a good physician and a 
highly respected resident. Dr. Horace G. Leslie, who settled in the 
Ferry district and died in 1907, was also a good physician, a kind man, a 
fluent, ready orator, and a writer of some ability. There was a Dr. Mer- 
ritt and a Dr. Jones here for a short time. A Dr. McAllister, a Dr. Nor- 
ton, and Dr. Graelie are also to be recalled. During these years, that re- 
markable woman, Maiy Baker Eddy, lived here or was visiting) at the 
Ferry district, and for a time with Mrs. Sarah Bagley, who posed as some 
kind of a healer. 

This brings us to 1885, when the physicians were as follows: Drs. 
John A. Douglass, Horace G. Leslie, John Carswell, John Q. Adams, John 
A, FitzHugh, Benjamin Young, Charles Stanley, John W. Rand and A. 
Toole. These physicians, with new practitioners, Drs. David D. Mur- 
phy, Trudell, John F. H. Biron and Heniian Cooper, complete the list to 
1900. Later came Drs. Peter Mullen, Herbert C. Leslie, Arthur Lavinac, 
Otis P. Mudge, Clarence Hines, Fred S. Evelett, H. P. Robinson, C. W. 
Warren. Some practitioners and their personalities have been with us 
during the past thirty-six years. Dr. John Q. Adams, who lived on Main 
street, was a stern man, a, good physician, a reader, and student particular- 
ly of social problems. Dr. David D. Murphy, short and thick set, with a 
hearty mien, is one of our most successful practitioners. He lives on 
Main street and is still active, spending the winter months in Florida. 
He always had and likes a fast horse. Dr. O'Toole was a politician of 
force on Amesbury. Dr. Charles Stanley, who resided on Market street, 
a homoeopathic physician, left a fund for children's outings ; he had a large 
practice. Dr. Trudell, recalled as a fine-looking French physician, soon 
left for other fields. Dr. Benjamin H. Young lived on Gushing street. 



716 ESSEX COUNTY 

A quiet pleasing man; he never hurried, and enjoyed the confidence of 
his clientele. Dr. Herman Cooper, who lived on Market street, was de- 
voted to surgery and became a fairly good operator, with plenty of cour- 
age. He died in 1908. Dr. John A. FitzHugh lived on Main street. 
He v/ent to London to study and specialize in skin diseases. He finally 
settled here, and built up a large practice. Subsequently he was struck 
by a locomotive and seriously injured, but lived to be an active worker 
in the local medical society. He died in 1914. 

The disease most common in 1886 was typhoid fever. We always 
had this infection in the spring and fall. Consumption was common. 
Diphtheria was a dreaded disease and common, together with summer 
catarrhal diseases in children. In 1889 first appeared the epidemic of 
influenza, which Vv^as characterized by fever, chills, muscular pains and 
general prostration; while severe, it yet differed from the later epidemic 
in expending its action, not on the respiratory organs, but more on the 
heart and nervous system. The years from 1885 to 1921 were a period 
of great advance in the knowledge and the application of medicine and 
remedies to relieve sickness. Our principal reliance up to 1896 was 
upon vegetable and mineral products, of which many are still in use. 
The coal-tar derivitives were used extensively in the 90's. Aside from 
vaccination, we knew little of vaccine and serum treatment. The study 
of the causes and the histoiy of nearly all infective and contagious dis- 
eases have been so active and successful that it has revolutionized the 
practice of medicine. The tuberculosis bacteria was discovered in 1883. 
Antitoxin was used in 1895. Typhoid vaccine has been perfected, both 
as a preventive and cure, so that the disease is under control, and we 
seldom see a case. With regard to yellow-fever and malaria, their causes 
have been thoroughly discovered and their methods of cure duly per- 
fected. It is hoped that cures for cancer, tuberculosis and all infective 
and contagious diseases will yield to serum and vaccine treatments. The 
study of the glandular system promises to help. We use them in our 
practice. The endeavor is to stimulate the natural resistant forces of 
the body, to stimulate antigeus and to form antibodies, which are de- 
structive to germs. The great advance in knowledge of sepsis and anti- 
septics has opened the way to more progressive operative work. Sterili- 
zation and cleanliness, with plenty of pure fresh air, are recognized as 
the principles. This holds good of all kinds of wounds ; even simple in- 
cised wounds are now carefully sterilized. The attendant at confine- 
ments, so far as is possible, is careful to sterilize himself and his sur- 
roundings. The physicians of Amesbury have kept step with the march 
of medical science so far as our field will allow. The treatment of syphilis 
and gonorrhea has advanced, but in these diseases prevention is the thing, 
local anaesthesia by cocaine and its salts, grows in volume, while freezing 
with ethyl-chloride is extensively used. The discovery and perfecting of 
the X-Ray and its application is of the greatest benefit to the profession,. 



PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 717 

especially in the case of fractures and dislocations, and in locating foreign 
bodies in the anatomy. Dr. David D. Murphy bought the first X-Ray 
static machine and used it extensively and successfully. There are now 
three of them in town. Dr. Clarence Hines, Dr. Peter J, Mullin and Dr. 
David D. MuiT)hy now use the blood-pressure apparatus, which is of use 
in all obscure cases and in insurance work. 

The Amesbury Medical Society was organized in 1896, with the fol- 
lowing-signed members: Drs. John Q. Adams, John A. Douglass, Her- 
man Cooper, John A. FitzHugh, Daniel D. Murphy, Horace G. Leslie, 
Benjamin H. Young and John W. Rand. Meetings are held every two 
weeks at the home of the members in alphabetic order, with the host as 
president of the evening. Dr. John W. Rand was the first secretary and 
Dr. John A. Douglass the first treasurer. The only original members are 
Dr. John Vv. Rand and Dr. Daniel D. Mui'phy. Papers were read and 
discussed and a repast was served. In 1899 a fire destroyed the house 
and office, with contents, of Dr. John W. Rand, wiping out the books of 
records of the meetings. Later, a book was lost, so that we have no 
record until 1907, when with increased membership the affiliated physi- 
cians were the following: Drs. John Q. Adams, J. Edgar Blake, 
Herman Cooper, John A. Douglass, John A. FitzHugh, Herbert G. Leslie, 
Peter J. Mullen, Daniel D. Murphy, John W. Rand, H. P. Robinson, Ar- 
thur Lavinac, Benjamin H. Young, J. F. H. Biron. Fred. S. Evelett and 
Olis P. Mudge in 1909. These meetings came every two weeks until 
1914, except during the summer months, when owing to death, resigna- 
tions and loss of interest, meetings were only called when important 
business demanded attention. The membership in 1921 comprises Drs. 
J. Edgar Blake, D.D.S., Clarence Hines, Daniel D. Murphy, Peter J. Mul- 
len, Otis P. Mudge, John W. Rand, Charles Warren, Arthur Lavinac and 
John F. H. Biron. 

Many years ago an effort was made to establish a small hospital 
here. At a duly-called meeting, an association was formed; it after- 
wards received state authority. The late Cyrus W. Rowell was the first 
president ; Dr. Herman Cooper was clerk and Hai*vey Loocke, treasurer. 
There is need of a hospital in town to care for maternity and operative 
cases ; and, as we have an industrial business, such an institution is needed 
to care for accident cases. Some progress has recently been made in 
securing a site. In 1899 Dr. David D. Murphy v/as appointed assistant 
medical examiner, and has held that office since. 

The selectmen have appointed a town physician to take medical care 
of indigent poor cases. This position has been filled by different physi- 
cians. Dr. Arthur Lavinac is at present town physician. The exami- 
nation of the dead body by autopsy was quite common up to 1900. With 
the advance in surgery there is less need of such work. It is seldom we 
have a post mortem. 

We have a pest house in Amesbury, located back of the town farm. 
It is in decay and has not been used for years. 



718 ESSEX COUNTY 

The Old Ladies' Home is located in the Feiry district, Main street, 
and is a comfortable, substantial building. The physicians give their 
time and care freely, each in rotation serving two months. We are glad 
to do this work. 

Five years ago the town purchased a police ambulance. This has 
been of great benefit to the people, as Vv^ell as to the police. There are 
quick responses to accident and insane cases, and also cases requiring 
hospital attention. Its great value was shown in the influenza epidemic 
of 1918. 

Tv/o of the pulmonic apparatus were purchased, one to be left at the 
police station, the other on the fire apparatus. They are of doubtful 
utility, although it is well to have them in cases of drowning or asphyxic 
from any cause. 

All physicians in Amesbury have their office in their homes. The 
equipment varies from special apparatus for the nose and throat to 
the X-Ray vibrators and fluroscope machines. All physicians have a 
blood pressure gage, and carry an office supply of medicines, mostly in 
tablet fonn. A charge is made to cover the cost of the tablets. All our 
physicians prescribe freely as needed. 

There are six drug stores in town, all in fine condition. The older 
druggists have died or been supplanted by new men. It' is interesting 
to note the change in the arrangement of the tinctures, fluid extracts 
and spirits; these have been relegated to back shelves or back room, by 
the prescription counter. 

The Board of Health is an elective office, and consists of three mem- 
bers. Its activities in 1885 were to receive reports of infective and con- 
tagious diseases and to placard houses for small-pox, diphtheria and 
scarlet fever, keep a record of deaths, and fumigate where it was thought 
necessaiy. This fumigation was later done away with, as it was of no 
utility against germs. We depend on cleanliness, sunlight, fresh air and 
isolation. For twenty years board of health have been more active in 
looking more carefully after the public health. The list of i-eportable 
diseases is quite lengthy, and includes all contagious diseases. Cultures 
are required in all diphtheria cases. All sputum examinations are 
made free by the State Board of Health. Dr. Peter J. Mullen was at one 
time the town bacteriologist. After investigation and objection, the 
office was discontinued. All specimens are sent to Boston for examina- 
tion. Vaccination is compulsory among all school children. 

Prior to July 1, 1912, when the Workmen's Compensation Act be- 
came a law, the workman injured in industiy found himself without any 
legal claim for the loss of his wages, doctors' bills and his sufferings. 
He bore the whole burden himself. The law recognizes that he should 
not bear the whole burden, but that a part of it should be charged up to 
industry. This has been of great benefit to all concerned. We make 
full use of the act in our industries. A workman, even with very slight 



PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 719 

injury, now ieeis free to have surgical care, and in many cases this pre- 
vents more serious trouble. Some of our factories have first-aid rooms, 
with a nurse in attendance. 

The invention and development of the automobile is one of great 
benefit to the medical profession, also to the sick public. The physician 
is enabled to respond quickly to emergency calls and can do his work 
without the weariness of the long rides with a tired horse. All physi- 
cians in active practice in Amesbury use the automobile. The first one 
bought and used here for his practice belonged to Dr. Herman Cooper. 
It was a small affair, a gasoline driven buck-board. Machines were pur- 
chased from time to time, and local doctors all use them today. 

Most physicians secure a change either by a summer or a winter 
vacation. This is a matter which each physician must determine for 
himself. Some prefer to give constant service and probably are as well 
off, as most vacationists return tired, tanned and lazy. 

Following the discoveiy of the bacillus tuberculosis and better knowl- 
edge in combating its spread, an activei movement, national and State, 
was started, with local societies in nearly every town, to spread its his- 
tory and to enlighten and instruct the general public as to cause and rem- 
edy. While the enthusiastic hopes have not been wholly realized, a 
great amount of good has come. The disease in Amesbury prior to 1908 
was very common, now we do not have many cases. The extreme treat- 
ment has given way to more rational methods. In 1908 a local Red 
Cross Society was formed here, and has been active in helping the sick 
with money and other ways. It has assisted tubercular cases to the hos- 
pital, while a nurse responds to calls by the hour. 

The science and art of nursing has been developed greatly within 
thirty-six years. Time was when nurses in Amesbuiy were supposed to 
be on the v/ork 24 hours a day. Their duties v»^ere to attend the sick 
patients, do the cooking and general housevfork for the family, wash and 
dress and attend to the children, and with it all keep a good countenance 
and cheerful manner. The experienced one did surprisingly well. Most 
of the old nurses are dead. I know of only one nurse living who was 
with us thirty-six years ago. She is 87 now, a cheerful, happy lady, with 
many friends. We now have young, well-trained women nurses, who are 
of the greatest help to the physicians, easing him of many worries and 
cares. In all important cases we place a trained nurse in attendance, a 
long remove from the "Sara Gamp type.'' A registry of nurses was kept 
for years at the store of Frederick Merrill. After his death, the practice 
fell av/ay. A school nurse is now required to look after public school 
childen, acting in concert v/ith the school physician. Miss McBurnie was 
the first school nurse, and Dr. Herman Cooper the first school physician. 

The World War finally involved this nation in its teiTible tragedy. 
A national draft law was passed, calling for 1,000,000 young men to help 
preserve to the world that freedom for which our ancestors fought for 



720 ESSEX COUNTY 

and died. There served on the draft board from this town, Drs. Otis P. 
Mudge, Herbert G. Leslie and Charles Warren, the last-named seeing 
service. 

The first epidemic of influenza appeared in 1889 and sporadically up 
to 1893. The features of the disease were different from the epidemic 
of 1918. The initial stages were much the same as with chills, prostra- 
tions, fever, cough, muscular pains and weakness, and the effects were 
more keenly felt by persons of middle and old age. The disease left its 
mark on the heart and nervous system. 

The gi^eat epidemic or pandemic of 1918 was characterized by its 
severity and rapidity of attack, and in its singling out of the young, par- 
ticularly people from 25 to 40 years of age. Its special force was on the 
respiratory organs, in the form of broncho-pneumonia, bronchitis, pleur- 
isy, many cases of pneumonia proving fatal in from two to four days. 
The disease spread so rapidly and attacked so many that it aroused the 
general public to combat its ravages. It was soon learned that many of 
the sick were not receiving sufficient care. This being impossible in their 
suiToundings, and with so many sick to properly care for them, a meet- 
ing was called of representative and official citizens, and at that meeting 
was started an emergency hospital in the Y. M. C. A. rooms, with a 
trained nurse in charge. The general public volunteered to help with 
food, clothing, bedding, and to do any needed work. It was soon in fair 
working order, and did much to isolate and control the spread and to 
save many lives by the care they thus received. 

We have had in the past thirty-six years some severe winters and 
hard storms, which for a time interfered with medical work, especially in 
the countiy districts. The winter of 1919-1920, however, was the 
severest winter known to any of us, a constant test to man and beast. 
Horses v/ere hard to get. We could not use the automobile, while the 
electric-cars found it so difficult to run that some divisions were closed. 
The physicians who passed through that abnormally stormy winter will 
never forget its severity, nor the obstacles in attending the sick. 

The physicians in active practice, in August, 1921, are. in order of 
length of practice: Mrs. John William Rand, David D. Murphy, Peter 
J. Mullen, John F. H. Biron, Arthur Lavinac, Otis P. Mudge, Clarence 
Hines and Charles Warren. 

Physicians in Lawrence — When it became known that the great 
water pov/er of the Merrimac river was to be utilized at a point near the 
old Andover bridge between Andover and Methuen, this same thought 
came into the minds of hundreds of recent graduates of medicine, "What 
a fine place for me to start the practice of medicine." In the days before 
Lawrence was founded, the young doctors were looking anxiously for 
locations, while now there is a scarcity of doctors, and many towns are 
looking anxiously for doctors. The first doctor to take his chance in the 
nev/ settlement was Dr. Moses L. Atkinson. Dr. Atkinson v/as bom in 



PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 721 

Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1814. He gi-aduated from Dartmouth Col- 
lege in 1838, and from Harvard Medical School in 1844. He died in 1852. 
In those days the family physician was obliged to depend upon himself, 
in deciding what was the matter with his patient, and what treatment he 
would give, for there v/ere no laboratory experts, or X-ray machines, and 
very few specialists. 

When a few rough houses had been built around the dam then in 
the process of construction, v/hen the later Lawrence was variously re- 
ferred to as the New Settlement, Andover Bridge, and Merrimac, Mr. J. 
F. C. Hayes came here, and on October 10, 1846, began the publication of 
a weekly newspaper, the Merrimac "Courier." In the first issue of this 
paper appears this advertisement: "E. W. Morse, M. D., physician and 
surgeon, office at Mr. Timothy Osgood's on the Turnpike, Merrimac, 
Mass." One week later there appeared in the "Courier" this item: "The 
first physician in this place was Dr. M. L. Atkinson, who came into town 
October, 1845, and opened an office here the first day of Januaiy, 1846." 

Below is a list of the first eighteen physicians to settle in Lawrence, 
arranged in the order in v/hich they settled here: M. L. Atkinson, J. 
Brown, William D. Lamb, David Dana, N. Ayer, J. H. Curtis, C. Marsh, 
A. D. Blanchard, J. Harris, Aaron Ordway, E. W. Morse, E. B. Allen, 
J. H. Morse, J. H. Curtis, G. W. Sanborn, C. Gibbs, N. Swift, J. A. 
Parant. 

Following are a fev/ notes, of some of the representative physicians 
who have lived and died in Lawrence : 

Dr. G. W. Garland was born in Barnstead, New Hampshire, January 
3, 1813, of Dutch and English descent. According to the custom of 
that age, he studied for tvv^o years under preceptors, at first in Laconia, 
New Hampshire, and afterwards in Boston. He graduated from Bow- 
doin Medical School in 1837. He practiced for the first seventeen years 
in New Hampshire, coming to Lawrence in 1865. Dr. Garland, although 
a very busy man, found time to write many valuable articles for the medi- 
cal magazines. He died in Lawrence, May 5, 1881. 

Dr. J. G. McAllister v/as born in 1842. He entered the army of the 
North in the Wai' of '61, immediately after graduating from the medical 
school, serving about two years as surgeon. When the war closed, he 
came to Lawrence and began the practice of medicine. Dr. McAllister 
practiced medicine in Lawrence for forty-two years. He was a trusted 
and able counselor to his patients, as vv^ell as to his fellow practitioners. 
He died on June 20, 1908, at the age of sixty-six. 

Dr. Michael Roberts practiced medicine in Lawrence for more than 
thirty years. He was a busy and successful practitioner of medicine, 
and died in February, 1884. 

Dr. David Dana gi'aduated from Harvard Medical School in 1847, 
and in the same year began the practice of medicine in Lawi'ence. He 
practiced medicine in Lawrence for forty-one years, and for many years 



Essex — 46 



722 ESSEX COUNTY 

he was the leader of the local medical profession. He died in 1888. 

Dr. George W. Sargent was the son of Dr. Seneca Sargent, a promi- 
nent physician of Lawrence. Dr. George W. Sargent was born in Ver- 
mont in the year 1834, coming to Lawrence when he was twelve years 
of age. He graduated from the Albany Medical School in 1857 and be- 
gan the practice of medicine in Lawrence in 1858. During the Civil 
War Dr. Sargent was assistant surgeon in the famous 6th Massachusetts 
riegiment. For many years after the Civil V\^ar he was a surgeon with 
the rank of major in the Massachusetts Militia. Dr. Sargent was one 
of the best known physicians, that Lawrence has produced. As a physi- 
cian and surgeon, he was a wise and safe counselor. As a medical wit- 
ness, his reputation was Statewide. He died January 1, 1893. 

Dr. Frank B. Flanders was born May 16, 1850, and died September 
28, 1911. His academic education was obtained in the public schools of 
Lawrence and Harvard College. He gi^aduated from Harvard College in 
1874, and from Harvard Medical School in 1878. He spent one year as 
house officer in the Rhode Island Hospital and began the practice of medi- 
cine in Lawrence in 1879. Dr. Flanders began the practice of medi- 
cine at about the time that antisepsis became known, and surgery was 
fast becoming an exact science. He early developed a liking for surgery, 
and became one of the most skilful surgeons in Northeastern Massa- 
chusetts. He was a tireless worker, and was always completely happy 
when caring for the sick. 

Dr. Albert W. Hancock, was born in Antigna, one of the British 
West Indies, in the year 1877, and died by drowning June 18, 1915. A 
brilliant young man, his death was a distinct loss to Lawrence. 

Dr. S. Wedell A. Abbott was born October 24, 1849, and died Sep- 
tember 1, 1916. Dr. Abbott graduated from the New York University 
Medical School in 1879. He was for many years the leading physician 
of Lawrence, in general medicine and obstetrics. 

In 1873 the Rev. Charles N. Dunning, the Lawrence City mission- 
ary, saw the need of a day nursery for children, while their mothers were 
at work, and also a hospital, where people without hornes could be cared 
for when ill. In a very shoit time, he so interested fifteen of the good 
women of Lav/rence that they formed a society and adopted the name 
of "Ladies' Union Charitable Society." The results of the humble be- 
ginning by Mr. Dunning and these women is the Lawrence General Hos- 
pital of today where over three thousand patients are cared for every 
year. 

Ooctober 5, 1875, the Ladies' Union Charitable Society v-^as organ- 
ized and January 4, 1876, a charter of incorporation was given by the 
State Legislature of Massachusetts. The first officers of this society 
were: President, Mrs. A. P. Clark; vice president and treasurer, Mrs. 
William A. Russell ; there was a board of twelve directors. At first the 
society hired a few rooms, and four children were cared for during the 



PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 723 

day. In May, 1877, it was decided to keep the children over night. Dur- 
ing the same month the invahds' home was established and four patients 
were admitted. It seems that the Invalids' Home was intended at first 
only for people who were slightly ill, or needed a rest, for in 1880 it was 
voted to admit only persons that were really ill. During the first five 
months of the existence of the Invalids' Home, seventeen patients were 
admitted. Dr. Susan E. Crocker was the medical supei-visor of the 
home and made one hundred and eighteen visits on these seventeen 
patients. January 1, 1878, Dr. David Dana was asked to assist Dr. 
Crocker in the care of patients in the Invalids' Home, and a few months 
later Dr. O. T. Howe began to assist Drs. Crocker and Dana. In 1880, 
the name of Dr. W. D. Lamb appears in the records of the Home as a 
regular attendant. During this year a larger home was hired on Mont- 
gomery street, to take care of the increasing number of patients. This 
building was used until the new hospital was finished. In 1881, Dr. C. N. 
Chamberlain was appointed as a visiting physician. During the first 
years of the life of the Invalids' Home, there often arose the question of 
closing the institution for lack of funds, but in eveiy emergency some- 
thing happened to save the day. Either some patient would pay a board 
bill, or a friend would give a few dollars to tide over the crisis. 

In 1881 the Society bought land on Methuen street, and began to 
build a brick building, sixty feet long, twenty-four feet wide, and three 
stories high, and the cost was to be seven thousand dollars. In Feb- 
ruary, 1882, the new building, still called the Invalids' Home was opened, 
and the first patient admitted was a women with a compound fracture of 
the leg. 

During the year 1882 the names of Dr. J. G. McAllister, and Dr. C. 
G. Carleton were added to the list of visiting physicians. In October, 
1882, a training school for nurses was organized. In 1883 Dr. H. M. 
Chase's name was added to the staff". During this year one trained nurse 
was employed, and there seemed need of another, but money was lacking. 
During this year Dr. Chamberlain resigned and Dr. S. W. Abbott was 
elected to fill his place. Up to this time it seems that only women and 
girls were admitted to the home, for in 1882 it was voted to admit male 
as well as female patients, and wards were fitted out for both sexes. In 
this same year an operating room was fitted out. It was a source of 
great satisfaction to the members of the society that no surgical case 
need to be sent to Boston for treatment. With all these additions and 
improvements the debt grew larger every year, and many people thought 
bankruptcy was imminent, but the storm was always weathered. 

In 1885 a regular consulting medical staff, consisting of Drs. David 
Dana, C. N. Chamberlain, G. W. Sargent, was appointed. The active 
staflf consisted of Drs. S. W. Abbott, S. E. Crocker, C. G. Carieton, H. M. 
Chase, O. T. Howe, J. G. McAllister, G. C. Talbot. June 20, 1885, the 
medical staff organized, with Dr. David Dana president and home secre- 



724 ESSEX COUNTY 

tary. The number of patients for this year was ninety-seven. From 
this time on the hospital was inin in an orderly manner, and began to be 
recognized as one of the good hospitals in Massachusetts. In 1886 the 
new building was finished, and dedicated, and all debts were paid. The 
name adopted was the Lawrence General Hospital. From this time on, 
the work of the hospital increased rapidly, and in 1898 it became appar- 
ent that a larger building was needed. This became possible through 
the legacy of Mr. William A. Russell, w^ho left in his will a large tract of 
land and the Russell homestead at the corner of Prospect and Garden 
streets. The homestead was enlarged and remodeled and dedicated No- 
vember 20, 1902, and two surgical wards v/ere added. Since the hos- 
pital was dedicated, there have been added the Parker ward, donated by 
Mr. W. E. Parker, and used for the treatment of diphtheria and scarlet 
fever. Mrs. R. M. Cross has given a bungalow for the isolation of 
doubtful cases. There have also been added a maternity ward, a chil- 
dren's ward and a new nurses' home. 

The Lawrence General Hospital now has many departments excelled 
by few hospitals in the United States. The training school for nurses is 
one of the best to be found in Massachusetts, and the gi-aduates of this 
schQol stand very high. Since the Lawrence General Hospital training 
school was started that have been gi^aduated ty\^o hundred and fifty-five 
nurses. In 1918 the University of the State of New York placed the 
Lawrence General Hospital on the accredited list of hospitals of the 
United States and Canada. The graduates of such accredited hospitals 
have a very high standing in every country in the world. 

Chief clerk and almoner, Timothy M. Riley, of the Health and Chari- 
ties department of Lawrence, in 1921 gave out the following: There was 
a commission appointed December 28, 1908, to erect a Tuberculosis Hos- 
pital, under Mayor John P. Kane's administration. The cost of the land 
and buildings was $47,500.06. The hospital has a capacity for caring 
for one hundred patients at a cost of $475 a bed. The trustees were 
Alexander L. Siskind, James F. Lanigan, Fred H. Eaton and James Flan- 
agan, all of whom resigned March 19, 1912, when the new city govern- 
ment went into effect. The first superintendent appointed was Miss Maiy 
Cahill; second superintendent, Miss Anna Allen, appointed April 20, 
1912 ; third superintendent. Dr. T. J. Joyce, appointed December 1, 1919. 
Edward C. Callahan is the present director of Health and Charities. The 
present school physicians are Drs. Bannon, Bartley, Schwartz, McCarthy, 
Cyr, Levek. The city physician is Dr. P. J. McKallagat and the assistant 
is Dr. O'Reilly. 

The records show that the people looked after the unfortunate and 
afflicted persons away back before Civil War days. At a meeting held 
January 9, 1861, David Ambrose was elected superintendent of the 
Alrnhouse. The value of the land, stock, produce and fixtures on hand 
was then $8,622.55. In December, 1860, six and one-half acres more 



PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 725 

land WB.S secured at an expense of $656.19. The various superintendents 
of the Almshouse and Cottage Hospital from 1892 on were as follows: 
F. S. Spaulding, J. F. Calhoun, Otis Freeman, James J. Stanley, Dr. T. 
J. Joyce, Dr. J. A. Bacon. The last named is still serving, having com- 
menced in December, 19 IS. The insane patients were turned over to 
the Danvers State Asylum in September, 1904, and at that time there 
were turned over to the state authorities sixty-four insane. Total of 
sixty-three beds: 31 female and 32 male inmates. The number of pa- 
tients admitted to the Municipal hospital during the year 1920 was 704. 
Number inmates in Almhouse January 1, 1921 — male, 63 ; female, 39 ; 
total, 102. The total cost of almhouse and hospital for the year 1920 
was $90,646.47. The present school nurse is Mary T. Murphy; school 
dentists, Drs. W. O'Brien and W. H. Fingleton. 

October 27, 1875, fifteen doctors of Lawrence met at the house of 
Dr. C. N. Chamberlain, for the purpose of forming a medical club. The 
reasons why these doctors wished to form a club were, that they wished 
to know one another better, and they believed that a meeting once a 
month of the medical men of Lawrence would result in mutual improve- 
ment and social enjoyment. Each of these fifteen men knew the need of 
such a club, and so without much discussion a club was formed and the 
by-laws were drafted and accepted. The name adopted was the Law- 
rence Medical Club. The object of the club as stated in the by-laws was 
mutual improvement in the art and science of medicine. The charter 
members were Doctors, William D. Lamb, David Dana, Michael Roberts,, 
C. C. Talbot, Eugene S. Yates, Charles P. Morrill, J. G. McAllister, H. 
M. Chase, George W. Sargent, George W. Garland, C. N. Chamberlain^ 
Timothy Sullivan, Thomas Manley, James Pierce, O. T. Howe, F. B. Flan- 
ders, C. G. Carleton, John H. Crawford. Of these eighteen original mem- 
bers, only one is alive today, Dr. O. T. Howe, who lives in Boston and 
is in good* health. The club has increased in size every year since its 
formation, and now has thirty-six members. The Lawrence Medical 
Club has always served a good purpose in Lawrence. The meetings 
have relieved the monotony of medical practice. The papers read at 
the monthly meetings, the exchange of views, and the experiences of the 
members have been of help. This club has done good work in opposing 
pernicious legislation and in promoting legislation beneficial to the health 
of the community. 

The following doctors of Lawrence were officers in the Great War. 
The first to enlist was Dr. J. Forrest Burnham. He was in the service 
nineteen months, nearly all of that time in command of the medical de- 
partment of the Remount Station at Camp Devens. 

Dr. H. H. Nevers was a member of the National Guard when the 
war began, and was transfen^ed to the regular army. He was later dis- 
charged because of physical disability. Dr. George P. Howe, the only 
physician from Lawrence to be killed in battle, enlisted in the English 



726 ESSEX COUNTY 

AiTny in 1917. He was killed in the Polygon woods September 28, 1917. 
Dr. Walter M. Crandall, Dr. Harold M. Allen, Dr. Richard B. Leith, 
Dr. Rolf C. Norris, and Dr. Joseph M. Scanlon, served with the American 
Army in France. 

The doctors who enlisted and received militaiy training were Drs. 
G. S. Allen, L. M. Ashton, Joseph A. Bacon, Alfred W. Burr, John F. 
Curtin, Henry F. Dearborn, Timothy S. Donovan, John J. Hilton, Hugh 
F. Lena, Joseph A. Levek, Justin A. McCarthy, Wm. H. Merrill, Thomas 
W. Murphy, Francis A. O'Reilley, Arthur A. Rattey, Andrew F. Shea, 
Millard Clark, V. A. Reed. 

The following men died in the service: Alfred W. Burr, Justin A. 
McCarthy, Millard Clark. 

The only doctor* from Lawrence to enlist in the Spanish War was 
Dr. George E. Chamberlain. He was also in the World War. 

In the Civil War were Drs. C. G. Carleton, J. G. McAllister, George 
W. Sargent, David Dana, C. N. Chamberlain, H. M. Chase, George C. 
Howard. 

Although few of the doctors of Lawrence were fortunate enough 
to cross the Atlantic, it seemed that they have enough in common, to 
form a society, so that in September, 1920, such a society was formed, 
and had its first meeting September 3, 1921. The club has seventeen 
members, and the meetings are scheduled for the first Thursday of Feb- 
ruary, May, September and December. Dr. William H. Merrill is presi- 
dent of the club, and Dr. Joseph M. Scanlon secretary and treasurer. 
The charter members are G. S. Allen, J. A. Bacon, E. H. Ganley, J. A. 
Levek, W. H. Men^ill, H. H. Nevers, F. A. O'Reilley, J. M. Scanlon, Har- 
old M. Allen, J. F. Bumham, H. F. Dearborn, J. J. Hilton, R. B. Leith, 
T. W. Murphy, R. C. Norris, V. A. Reed. 

Physicians of Peabody Since 1867 — The period of time in the history 
of Essex county from the year 1865 to 1900 was, generally speaking, 
the generation after the close of the Civil War. During those years 
medical practice in the town was for the most part in the hands of four 
well-known practitioners. 

Dr. George Sterne Osbom was bom in Peabody in the year 1839. 
He was the youngest son of Dr. George and Sarah (Whitridge) Osborn, 
his mother being the daughter of Captain Whitridge. He was educated 
in the public schools of Salem and entered Harvard College in 1856. In 
1859 he began his studies in the Harvard Medical School and was gradu- 
ated from this school in 1862. Immediately after graduation he enlisted 
in the First Massachusetts Cavalry, and on March 17, 1863, became 
assistant surgeon, with the rank of lieutenant. In December of the same 
year he was promoted to the rank of major, and made surgeon of the 
Fifth Massachusetts Cavalry, which position he held until the following 
year, when he resigned on account of illness. On recovering his health 
he returned lo the service and was made surgeon in charge of the Hos- 



PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 727 

pital Transport "George Leary", remaining in that position until Sep- 
tember, 1865, when he was discharged. He spent the next two years 
abroad, completing his medical education by studies in Vienna and Paris. 
Upon his return he was married to Sarah Pollard Vanbrunt, in Dedham, 
^Massachusetts, in 1868, and immediately commenced the practice of medi- 
cine in Peabody, in which work he continued constantly until the death 
of his wife in 1894. He then retired from practice and devoted his time 
to travel and study. Dr. Osbom was a close student of French and Ger- 
man, and could read these languages as fluently as English. During the 
years of his active practice in Peabody, he served for several years on 
the school board, and was for many years a director of the Warren 
National Bank. He was an active member of the Second Corps of 
Cadets, serving as surgeon of both the active and Veteran Corps, and was 
also medical examiner of the Eighth District of Essex County for sev- 
eral years. He was greatly interested in yachting, and was familiar with 
the waters all along the eastern coast of the United States. The last 
few years of his life were spent in Salem, where he died June 1, 1901. 
One son and two daughters survived him. 

Dr. Charles Colby Pike was born in New London, New Hampshire, 
May 5th, 1844. He attended the New London Academy and then served 
in the 11th New Hampshire Volunteers during the Civil War. In 1869 
he graduated from Dartmouth Medical College and after two years of 
practice in New Hampshire he came to Peabody and was engaged con- 
stantly in the very active practice of his profession from 1871 until his 
sudden death in Januaiy, 1894. The local paper of January 31st, 1894, 
had this headline, "Peabody Mourns the Loss of a Good Physician and 
Friend" and added "No man has died in Peabody for a generation vv^hose 
loss has called forth such a universal feeling of sympathy and general 
expression of regard. There has not been so large a public funeral in 
Peabody since the funeral of George Peabody." Dr. Pike filled a very 
large and conspicuous place in the community during all the years of his 
busy life here. He was active in all the affairs of the town, but conspicu- 
ously so in the organization and carrying on of the Law and Order 
League. He had the rare faculty of hating the evil without hating the 
evil-doer. He devoted his life and strength to the things which seemed 
to him to be of the greatest importance, and was not a seeker of public 
office, although he was for several years a member of the Pension Board, 
a member of the Board of Health and a very active and helpful member 
of the South Church and the Grand Anny of the Republican. In his 
professional work, he was enthusiastic, energetic and efficient and gave 
his strength and skill alike to those who could compensate him and those 
who could not. He was a member of the Massachusetts Medical Society 
and of the Masonic Order, Odd Fellows and other fraternal bodies. He 
was generally conceded to be an all-round, strong man, a good citizen, 
an efficient physician and the friend of everyone. His years of medical 



728 ESSEX COUNTY 

service stand out prominently in the history of Peabody during the gen- 
eration in which he lived. Dr. Pike was twice married ; his second wife, 
who survived him, but who has since died, was Miss Susan Baker, daugh- 
ter of Francis Baker of Peabody. He left no children. 

Dr. George Melville Frost was another active practitioner of medi- 
cine in Peabody during the same term of years, following the Civil War. 
He was the son of Joshua and Catherine (Paul) Frost and was born at 
Eliot, Maine, April 27, 1843. Pie was graduated from Berwick Academy 
and began the study of medicine with Dr. C. H. Guptill, later entering the 
Medical School of Maine and receiving his M. D. degree from that institu- 
tion in 1869. Immediately after graduation he began the practice of 
m-cdicine in Peabody, where he remained until his death, on June 20, 
1898. He built up a large and lucrative practice, and was prominent 
as a member of the Board of Health, being chairman of the board for 
nearly twenty years. He also held other official positions in the town. 
He traveled and studied abroad and was, during his whole life, a close 
student of medical literature and of definite and fixed opinions. He was 
married in 1873 to Miss Asenath Ober, who survives him. He had no 
children. His valuable term of service to the community covered a 
period of twenty-nine years, from 1869 to 1898. 

Dr. Fitzwilliam Sargent Worcester was bom in South Framing- 
ham, April 1, 1857, and was the son of Dr. Samuel H. Worcester, for- 
merly of Salem. He gi'aduated from the Harvard Medical School in the 
class of 1873. Later he took up the study of Homceopathic practice, 
taking a course of instruction in Paris and Vienna. He then began the 
practice of medicine in Peabody, and remained there continuously for a 
period of forty years, his death occuring in December, 1913. Dr. Wor- 
cester was a type of the ''old school" family doctors, being very kind- 
hearted and friendly towards all classes and conditions of society and 
most faithful and painstaking in his efforts to relieve those v/ho came 
under his care. He made a special study of the diseases of children and 
diseases of the lungs, being especially successful in treating pneumonia. 
He vv'as m.uch interested in the formation of a Medical Club which should 
include all the physicians of the town. Such a club was formed, largely 
through his efforts, and he was elected its first president. A widow, one 
son. Dr. George F. Worcester, of Haverhill, Massachusetts, and a daugh- 
ter survive him. Dr. Worcester was the only homceopathic practitioner 
during the forty years of his residence here. 

Several other physicians have been in practice for short periods of 
tim.e during the years from 1865 to 1900. The terms of some of those 
still in active practice in Peabody extend back to about 1880. But the 
four whose long terms of service have already been recorded were the 
centers of medical history in Peabody during their generation. 

Among those who practiced medicine for a few years and who es- 
tablished a successful clientage, may be mentioned Dr. Alice M. Patter- 



PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 729 

son. She was born and educated in Peabody and in the Homoeopathic 
Medical School of Boston and Tufts Medical School, After several years 
of successful practice in Peabody, she Vv^ent into institutional work at the 
Danvers State Hospital, and later at other similar public institutions. 
Dr. Patterson is still engaged in similar work. 

Dr. Charles G. Weston had a successful practice in Peabody for a 
few years, taking over the office of Dr. Elliot. He was a graduate of 
the Harvard Medical School and sei-ved a term at the Boston City Hos- 
pital. He removed to Minneapolis, Minn., and is now at the head of the 
Hilcrest Surgical Hospital in that city. 

Dr. Charles B. Frothingham also practiced in Peabody for several 
years and removed to Haverhill, Massachusetts, and is now retired. 

Dr. William Henry Downey was another physician who built up a 
successful practice in Peabody, but has since died. He was bom in 1870, 
was educated at the North Broodfield Pligh School, Amherst College, 
1892, and Harvard Medical School, 1897, He then spent a year and half 
in hospital service at the Boston City Hospital and then began the prac- 
tice of medicine in Peabody. He served a term as a member of the school 
committee and was a member of the board of trustees of the J. B. 
Thomas Hospital. He man'ied Mrs. Kate Walsh of Taunton in 1910, and 
three years later, on account of ill health, he removed to Taunton, Mass. 
He died suddenly in October, 1914. His widow survives him. 

Several others have been established in Peabody for short terms and 
have removed to other places. 

There are now in Peabody thirteen practitioners. There is one 
specialist, one homceopathist and the others are graduates of regular 
schools of medicine. The list of physicians practicing in Peabody since 
1920 is as follows: Frank L. Burt, Fred O. Elder, Ralph E. Foss, Horace 
K. Foster, J. C. Kirby, Harry Halpeni, John J. Hickey, John F. Jordan, 
Lawrence Kelley, Harry D. Kennard, Byzant Manoogian, Joseph W. P. 
Murphy, Harris Pom.roy, John J. Shanahan, S. Chase Tucker, Elton M. 
Varney. 




CHAPTER XLIV. 
' NEWSPAPERS OF THE COUNTY 

There seems to be no question about the statement that Samuel Hall, 
a young man, a native of Medford, Massachusetts, was the first person to 
undertake to conduct a newspaper in Salem. He was a practical prin- 
ter, having leanied his trade in New Hampshire of his uncle, who was 
the first printer in that State. Young Hall had been associated just prior 
to coming to Salem, with Mrs. Anne Franklin, a sister-in-law of Ben- 
jamin Franklin, in the publication of the Newport (R. I.) Mercury, found- 
ed by James Franklin. In coming to Salem, Mr. Hall evidently had the 
sympathy and possibly financial backing of the patriotic paity made up 
of the younger men of this section of the country. He opened his office 
in Salem in April, 1768, on Main street, near where the Creamer block 
subsequently stood. His newspaper v/as styled the Essex Gazette. 

The first number of his paper appeared August 2, 1768, and it was 
a well edited and handsomely printed paper, considering the times in 
which it was published. Its size and form was that of a crown sheet, 
folio, ten by sixteen inches, three columns to the page, and was men- 
tioned in the prospectus as being "four pages, printed in folio." Its head 
was embellished (?) by a rude cut, comprising the figure of two Indians, 
with a cod-fish overhead, and a dove with a sprig in its bill in the center. 
This device bore some resemblance to the Essex County seal, and was 
intended to be emblematic of peace, the fisheries and successful immigra- 
tion. Political news from various portions of the globe, domestic news, 
under the headings of different towns within the Colony, a few legal no- 
tices, and filled out with advertisements, made up the paper's contents 
weekly. 

The Essex Gazette was published in Salem about seven years — 
eventful years they were, too — for they immediately preceded the Revo- 
lution. In October, 1770, an attempt was made to injure the subscrip- 
tion of the publication on account of alleged partiality in its columns 
toward non-importation agreements, but the effort was a failure, for the 
subscription list even increased on account of what was said against the 
paper and its editor. 

After the fight at Concord and Lexington in April, 1775, a full ac- 
count of the struggle was given in the Salem Gazette, and soon thereafter 
the paper was removed from Salem to Cambridge for political purposes. 
The last number printed in Salem was May 2d, and the next number was 
printed May 12th in Cambridge. The name was changed then to the 
New England Chronicle or Essex Gazette. The paper remained in Cam- 
bridge until the evacuation of Boston by the British, when it was removed 
to that city, and then the title was simply New England Chronicle. 
Historian Streeter says: "Before Messrs. Hall left Salem, their printing 



732 ESSEX COUNTY 

office was burnt out by the great fire of October, 1774, which destroyed 
a meetinghouse, custom house, eight dwellings, fourteen stores and sev- 
eral barns and outbuildings. The meetinghouse destroyed was the Rev. 
Dr. Whittaker's, which was succeeded by the Tabernacle, and stood on 
King street just above School street, about where the Endicott building 
nov/ stands. The Custom House was just above. The printing office 
was subsequently located in a brick building on School street, which was 
afterward incorporated in the brick block near the comer of Norman 
street." 

Before Mr, Hall left Salem with his printing office another paper 
had been started, July 1, 1774. Its title was The Salem Gazette and 
Newbury and Newburyport Advertiser. It was published by Ezekiel 
Russell, from Boston, who was an unsuccessful printer. He leaned tow- 
ard the Tory party. Mr. Russell's office in Salem was in Ruck street, 
somewhere on Washington street, near the depot site. The head of this 
publication announced that it was "A weekly, Political, Commercial and 
Entertaining Paper — Influenced neither by Court or Country." But the 
"country" decided that it was biased tov/ards the Court and favorably to 
the British, hence it terminated its career within a few months. 

The third newspaper in Salem was the American Gazette, or the 
Constitutional Journal. This publication, too, was by the same man 
Russell, who had conducted the second paper in the town. It was pub- 
lished during the Revolution, beginning June 19, 1776, and closing in a 
few weeks. Nominally it was published by John Rogers at Mr. Russell's 
office. It was published weekly at eight shillings per annum. Russell 
moved to Danvers and ran a printing shop for a number of years near 
Bell Tavern. 

Salem's fourth newspaper was the Salem Gazette and General Ad- 
vertiser. For about five years during the Revolutionary War, Salem 
had no newspaper, but in 1780, Mrs. Mary Crouch, widow of a printer 
in South Carolina, removed hither, with press and types, and December 
6, 1780, issued a prospectus in the name of Mary Crouch & Co., for 
the publication of the paper above named. The first number of this 
paper was dated January 2, 1781, It was "issued weekly at fifty cents 
a quarter." It commenced the publication of stories, tales and other 
entertaining articles usually appreciated about the home and fireside. 
Financially the paper was a failure, and after nine months it "went the 
way of all the earth." Mrs, Crouch gave as her reason for quitting 
"the want of sufficient assistance, and the impossibility of obtaining 
house-room for herself and family to reside near her business," Her 
printing office was at the comer of Derby and Hardy streets. Later, 
Mrs. Crouch, an estimable lady, removed to Providence, her old home and 
native place. 

Salem seemed destined to have a local paper with the word "Gazette" 
attached to its title in some way. Just after Mrs. Crouch's paper was 



NEWSPAPERS OF THE COUNTY 733 

discontinued, The Salem Gazette was launched by Samuel Hail, who had 
established the first paper in Salem, as above related. The initial num- 
ber of this Gazette was dated October 18, 1871. He continued the pub- 
lication of this series of Gazettes for more than four years, enlarging the 
sheet on its third volume, and finally closing operations in Salem, No- 
vember 22, 1785. He again returned to Boston. In leaving Salem, Mr. 
Hall stated in substance that he did so under the pressure of stern neces- 
sity. His business had been materially injured by a tax upon adver- 
tisements, which had been imposed by the Legislature the previous sum- 
mer. This tax, in conjunction v/ith the decline of trade, had operated 
so disastrously as to deprive him of nearly three-quarters of his income, 
hence he was advised by friends again to move to Boston. 

Mr. Hall immediately removed to Boston and established (without 
missing a single issue) the Massachusetts Gazette, and made arrange- 
ments to furnish his subscribers at Salem, as usual, by a carrier system. 
Later he sold his Gazette to other parties, and engaged in the book-store 
business in Cornhill, which store was later known as Gould & Lincoln's. 
Mr. Hall was a many-sided man ; was a native of Medf ord, bom in 1740, 
and died at the age of sixty-seven years. In all of his writings he advo- 
cated freedom and loyalty to the land in which he lived. Governor 
Buckingham once said of this pioneer Salem journalist: "This country 
had no firmer friend, in the gloomiest period of its history, as well as in 
the days of its young and increasing prosperity, than Samuel Hall," 

The Salem Chronicle and Essex Advertiser, from March, 1786, for 
less than a year, filled in the gap betv^een the two papers conducted by 
Mr. Hall. This was run by George Roulstone and was printed on what 
was known as Paved street. 

The Salem Gazette commenced its publication October 14, 1786, 
with John Dabney and Thomas C. Gushing at the helm; they published 
the paper under the title of The Salem Mercury until 1790, when its name 
was changed. Mr. Dabney withdrew from the paper in its third year, 
and opened a book store in Salem. Mr. Gushing then became sole pro- 
prietor and continued until October, 1794, then transfeiTed the property 
to William Carlton, his partner in the book business. 

"The amiable and gifted Gushing," on account of ill health, with- 
drew from the paper in December, 1822, and two years later died, aged 
sixty. He is described as one "having strong powers of mind, waiTnth 
of fancy, various and extensive knowledge, and a familiar acquaintance 
with the best of English literature, which gave attraction and fascina- 
tion to his conversation." 

The next publishers of the Gazette v/ere Caleb Gushing (son of 
Thomas C. Gushing), and Ferdinand Andrews, who commenced at the 
beginning of 1822, but Mr. Gushing withdrew after a few months. In 
1825 a half interest was sold to Caleb Foote, who had served an appren- 
ticeship with T. C. Gushing, who had himself been an apprentice of Mr. 



734 ESSEX COUNTY 

Hall, and thus was established a personal connection between the origi- 
nal Essex Gazette and the Salem Gazette that flourished later. In 1833, 
Mr. Foote became sole proprietor of the paper. In 1851 Nathaniel A. 
Morton became associated with Mr. Foote as publisher and editor. From 
1847 to October, 1851, the Gazette was issued tri-weekly, on Tuesday, 
Friday and Saturday. Later it was enlarged, but made into a semi- 
weekly paper. It became a radical Republican organ. 

The Salem Register was the eighth newspaper established in Salem. 
It made its bow to the public in 1800, its first issue having been pulled 
from the press on May 12th of that year. It was first known as the 
Impartial Register, and was published on Mondays and Thursdays, by 
William Carlton, who had withdrawn from the Gazette, and had for his 
partner, for a time, Thomas C. Gushing. This organ was started in op- 
position to the Federal party, and ably defended the Republican cause 
in the violent political struggle. It was greatly aided by Dr. Bentley, 
whose miscellaneous writings were well received by the subscribers. 
Early in 1802 the word "Impartial" was dropped from the heading of this 
journal. An original motto was then added to the imprint of the paper, 
the same having been written impromptu by Judge Story, who, it is 
stated, scratched the follovnng on the side of a printer's case with his 
pencil : 

"Here shall the Press the People's Rights maintain, 
Unawed by Influence, and unbribed by Gain; 
Here Patriot Truth her glorious precepts draw, 
Plelged to Religion, Liberty and Law." 

During the fall of 1802, the editor, Mr. Carlton, was convicted of a 
libel on Timothy Pickering, and suffered imprisonment therefor. In 
writing of this, a well-posted citizen of Salem said: 

This occurred just after the election of a member of Congress for this district, 
when Jacob Crowinshield, Democratic candidate, was chosen over Mr. Pickering, 
who was the Federalist candidate. The Register had asserted that "Robert Lis- 
ten, the British Ambassador, distributed $500,000 amongst the partizans of the 
English nation in America," and intimated that Mr. Pickering might have partaken 
of these secret legacies, some little token, some small gratuity, for all his zealous 
efforts against liberty and her sons, for all his attachment to the interests of Eng- 
land, at the same time indulging in contemptuous flings toward the distinguished 
ex-Secretary of State. To answer for this article, Mr. Carlton was indicted by the 
grand jury, and tried before the Supreme Court, at Ipswich, in April, 1803. He 
was convicted, and sentenced to pay a fine of $100 and the costs of prosecution; 
to be imprisoned in the county jail two months, and to give bonds, with two sure- 
ties in four hundred dollars each, to keep the peace for two years. This unfor^ 
tunate affair is simply illustrative of the. tension of party feeling at that time. 

A little more than two years after this imprisonment, Mr. Carlton 
died, July, 1805, aged thirty-four years. He had suffered from fever 
during his imprisonment, as stated by Dr. Bentley, and continued feeble 
until the day before his decease, when he was suddenly seized by violent 
fever and derangement, which terminated his life in twenty-four hours. 



NEWSPAPERS OF THE COUNTY 735 

Mr. Carlton was a native of Salem, and descended from two of the an- 
cient families of the country. His constant friend said of him: "He 
always possessed great cheerfulness of temper and great benevolence of 
mind. He was distinguished by his perseverance, integrity and upright- 
ness. To his generous zeal the public were indebted for the early in- 
formation which the Register gave of the most interesting occurrences. 
To a tender mother he was faithful, and to his family affectionate. The 
friends of his youth enjoyed the warmth of his gratitude. His profes- 
sions and friendships were sincere. He was an able editor and an honest 
man." 

Mr. Carlton's wife conducted the paper until the following August, 
when she died. Then Dr. Bentley and Warwick Palfray, Jr., assisted in 
running the Register for about two years. July 23, 1807 a new series of 
the paper was commenced under the title of "The Essex Register", under 
Haven Pool and Warwick Palfray, Jr., assisted by Cleveland Blydon. 
In June, 1811, the eldest of the proprietors, Mr. Pool, only twenty-nine 
years old, suddenly died, leaving Mr. Palfray sole editor and publisher. 
He continued twenty-three years. 

This printing office was located successively in three buildings, next 
below the Franklin Place until April 28, 1828, when it was transfen-ed 
to Steams' building, and in 1832 to Central building. The following is 
an outline of owners and editors of this paper after the death of Mr. Pal- 
fray in 1838, when came his partner John Chapman, who took full charge 
of the publication editorially. The paper was a strong supporter of the 
Whig party, and for his good political work he was appointed postmaster 
at Salem by President Lincoln. In 1839, Charles W. Palfray, a son of 
the former proprietor, and a graduate of Harvard, assumed the place 
vacated by his father. In 1841, the earlier name. The Salem Regis- 
ter, was again adopted. Eben N. Walton became associate publisher 
and editor, January 1, 1873, and after the death of Mr. Chapman, April 
19, 1873, the paper was conducted by Palfray & Walton. 

The Weekly Visitant was established in 1806, during the rage in 
party politics. It was founded by Haven Pool, and was of a literary 
character, octavo in size and form, and published Saturday evening "di- 
rectly west of the Tower of Dr. Price's Church." It appears to have 
been launched as a means of giving the Salemites something besides 
political squabbles between rival party papers. Its motto was — "Ours 
are the plans of fair, delightful peace, unwarped by party rage, to live 
like brothers." 

This publication had a successor the next year in the Friend, started 
by Mr. Pool, in connection with Stephen C. Blyth, as editor. It was 
published weekly, on Saturday evening, was of the common newspaper 
form and had a subscription rate of two dollars per year. It announced 
itself as "the new and neutral paper," and it sought to make peace in 
the community in both secular and religious matters. Its Bible motto 



736 ESSEX COUNTY 

was : "Sweet language will multiply friends ; and a fair-speaking tongue 
will increase kind greetings." After six months of joy and gladness the 
Friend, on July 18, merged with the Register, the two publishers forming 
a co-partnership. Mr. Blyth, by pemiission of the General Court, 
changed his name to Blydon. He was born in Salem and taught in the 
schools of the place. Subsequently he moved to Canada, v/here he died. 

We hear the children of today speaking about the "'funny paper," 
meaning the illustrated sections of daily papers made exclusively for the 
younger generation. These papers were not known in earlier times, but 
Salem certainly had its share of humorous publications. In 1807-08 
John S. Appleton, of the firm of Cushing & Appieton, known as a ready 
wit, got out two or three small humorous papers. One of these was 
known as The Fool, by Thomas Brainless, Esq. LL.D., jester to his 
majesty, the public. Another useless, foolish publication was issued in 
1807, known as the Barbershop, kept by Sir David Razor. Another 
"funny sheet" was the Salmagunda, emanating from the same source. 
In all of these light-weight papers the Republican party was held up to 
satire and ridicule. It should be remembered that this was the first Re- 
publican party — not the present day party, which came into existence 
almost a half century later. 

Recording the papers of Salem in the order in which they were 
established, it should be said that the fourteenth paper was the Gospel 
Visitant, a quarterly octavo magazine, commenced in 1811, to espouse 
the then new doctrine of Universalism. 

The first number of The Salem Obsei-ver appeared Januaiy 2, 1823. 
Its proprietors were William and Stephen B. Ives. It was of the royal 
size, and was issued Monday evening from the old Washington Hall 
building. This sheet was supposed to be purely a literary and miscel- 
laneous character. It was still running in the late eighties, and never 
believed in meddling much in politics. During its first year it was edited 
by Benjamin Lynde Oliver. At the beginning of volume 2, in 1824, its 
title was changed to Salem Observer, and Joseph G. Waters became its 
editor. January 15, 1825, the name was enlarged and known as Salem 
Literary and Commercial Observer, and this lasted until 1829, v\^hen it 
was again changed to Salem Observer. In 1882 the owners of this paper 
built the Observer building, of three stories, of brick, in Kinsman Place, 
next to the City Hall. The publication was founded in animated politi- 
cal debate times, but true to its motto, it never sought political power, 
but rather the publication of a clean, newsy family newspaper. At the 
termination of Mr. Water's editorship, Solomon S. Whipple became a reg- 
ular contributor, and aftervv^ards Wilson Flagg, Rev. E. M. Stone, Edwin 
Jocelyn and Stephen B. Ives, Jr. Gilbert L. Streeter became associated 
with the Observer January 1, 1847, and in a measure v/as the strength of 
the publication for many years. 

The Salem Courier was started in 1828 by Charles Amburger An- 



NEWSPAPERS OF THE COUNTY 737 

drews ; it was a weekly paper, published on Wednesday, at three dollars 
per year, from an office in the East India Marine Hall. It proclaimed it- 
self strictly independent, a suppoi-ter of Adams' administration, an, op- 
ponent of the tariff, etc., and it becam.e, however, a theological rather 
than political paper, and was a zoalous antagonist of the doctrines of 
Galvanism. After one year the publication of this organ v/as discon- 
tinued. Mr. Andrews was a member of the Essex county Bar and served 
as a representative of the city in the Legislature. He died June 17, 1843. 

The Hive, a small weekly paper for children, issued its first number 
in the fall of 1828 ; it was published by W. & S. B. Ives. The cut of a 
bee hive adorned its first page and its contents were mostly selected. It 
existed two years and v/as Salem's first real exclusive paper for children 
and youth. 

The Ladies' Miscellany, a small weekly folio, commenced January, 
1829, by John Chapman ; it had as a subscription rate one dollar per year 
and supplied both amusing and instructive reading to the ladies of Salem 
and vicinity. After numerous struggles this paper finally, in its second 
volume, suspended for lack of financial support. 

The nineteenth paper established in Salem, the Essex County Mer- 
cury, started really by the publication of a small weekly paper in 1831, 
by the proprietors of the Gazette, named the Salem Mercury. It was 
later considerably enlarged, and in the eighties was known as the Essex 
County Mercury, Danvers, Beverly and Marblehead Courier. It was 
made up largely from items found in the Gazette. 

The Salem Advertiser, begun April 4, 1832, by Edward Palfray and 
James R. Cook, was the first organ of the modem Democratic party. At 
first it was published as a semi-weekly. The office was in Central build- 
ing, over the Savings Bank. It was a strong supporter of General An- 
drew Jackson, and strove hard to build up the Democratic party for seven- 
teen years. After one year it had annexed to its title, Essex County 
JouiTial. It was then published weekly. In 1837 Palfray & Cook sold 
to Charles W. Woodbury, v/ho issued it again as a semi-weekly, under 
the name of the Salem Advertiser. It was published until its final 
issue in August, 1849. Among those who edited or partly edited this 
paper are recalled such men as William B. Pike, H. C. Hobart, F. C. 
Crowninshield, Messrs. Vamey, Parsons and Perley, also Eben N. Wal- 
ton, who began in 1847 and continued until the paper suspended. Mr. 
Woodbury, one of its earlier editors, became postmaster in Salem; he 
was the third person to go into the Union army in Civil war days, and 
was drowned while en route home from the service of his country. Be- 
fore coming to Salem he had published the Gloucester Democrat. 

The Saturday Evening Bulletin was the title of a small neutral 
paper, published weekly, by Palfray & Cook, at the Advertiser office. 
Price, one dollar a year. It continued only about one year. It was edited 
by Nicholas Devereux. 

Essex— 4T 



738 ESSEX COUNTY 

The twenty-second paper in Salem was the Constitutionalist. This 
paper was the political successor of the Bulletin. After the Congression- 
al campaign, in which Joseph H. Cabot was a candidate, had ended, or 
for a term of about six months, it suspended publication. 

The Landmark was the next paper launched in Salem. The date 
was August, 1834 ; it was a semi-weekly paper of goodly proportions. Its 
days of publication were Wednesday and Saturday each week; it was 
first edited by Ferdinand Andrews, formerly of the Gazette, but sub- 
sequently publisher of the Boston Traveller, and then edited largely by 
Rev. Dudley Phelps. This paper stood out boldly for three things — then 
great issues of the times — anti-slavery, temperance and opposition to the 
teachings of the Unitarian religious faitii. Unfortunately, this paper 
published a communication from Rev. George B. Cheever, then the young 
pastor in Howard street church, Salem, entitled "Enquire at Giles' 
Distillery." It Vv^as a stinging, radical article, denouncing the manufac- 
ture and drinking of liquors, and had personal reference to a prominent 
deacon of the First Church, then a distiller. It v/as decided by the court 
to be a libel, and the usual fine was imposed upon the editor, who was 
forced to apologize in his next issue. But public excitement was high, 
and two weeks later, Rev. Cheever v*'as whipped by the foreman of the 
Giles' Distillery, the place being in Essex street and the whip being one 
made from rough, hard cowhide. Ham, the foreman, was fined fifty dol- 
lars and Cheever was later tried for libel ; although that great lawyer, 
Rufus Choate, defended him, he was found guilty, and sentenced to a 
fine of one thousand dollars and imprisonment in the Salem jail for one 
month. Later, Mr. Ham became a very ardent temperance worker. 
Cheever left the Branch Church and commenced his well-knowm career 
in Nev/ York City. The Landmark was more than a decade in advance 
of public opinion and v^Aas not supported, so it ceased November 2, 1836. 
It is doubtful whether there can be found a city of its population, and its 
age, in the entire country, where so many different papers have been 
started as in the city of Salem. 

The twenty-fourth paper started there was known as the Light- 
house, printed at the Gazette office, and "edited by an Association of 
gentlemen", the object of which was to represent the sentiments and 
espouse the interests of liberal Christianity." It was recognized as the 
antagonist of the Landmark, and continued from June until October 31 of 
1835. 

The Essex County Democrat rem.oved from Gloucester in the autumn 
of 1838, to sustain Joseph S. Cabot and the Democratic party, especially 
the wing of that party to which he belonged. It was edited and published 
by Joseph Dunham Friend. Its first number was issued November 2. 
At first it v/as a semi-weekly, but after a short time vv-as cut down to a 
vreekly. This publication, like most campaign papers, only lasted about 
three months. 



NEWSPAPERS OF THE COUNTY 739 

The twenty-sixth paper of Salem was known as the Harrisonian, an- 
other campaign organ removed from Gloucester in the 1840 campaign. 
It commenced its career February 22, and continued until the election, and 
each issue aided the Whig nominees. 

The Whig was another organ started for campaign purposes in 1840. 
It was printed at the Register office to further on the election of General 
William Hemy Harrison, as President. The subscription price for all 
these campaign papers was nominal, and of course freely circulated. 

Two "papers," both published under the same direction by Rev. A. 
G. Comings for two years, were the Genius of Christianity and the Chris- 
tian Teacher, the date of their career being 1832 for the last-named and 
1841 for the former. 

What was styled the Locomotive, an independent journal, was 
established in April, 1842, by William H. Perley, at Lynn, but later moved 
to Central building, Salem, in December, 1842. It was issued there each 
Saturday until July, 1843. It was humorous and miscellaneous in its 
general character. 

Among the earliest temperance organs in this county was the Essex 
County Washingtonian, printed during a portion of the year 1842 at 
both Lynn and Salem. Among its editors was Rev. David H. Barlow, 
of Lynn. What was known as the "Washingtonian Movement", in tem- 
perance campaigns, was of the moral suasion character. Its Salem 
office was in Washington Hall. It was there edited by Charles W. Deni- 
son and published by Theodore Abbott. In 1843 it assumed the New 
England Washingtonian, and was published in Boston for a number of 
years. 

In chronological order, the thirty-third newspaper in Salem was 
the Independent Democrat, started in 1843, by reason of a split in the 
Democratic party. This paper worked for the election of David Pin- 
gree for a seat in Congress against Robert Rantoul, Jr., It commenced 
in March, and continued for only a few weeks. Even back in those 
days the people, especially political workers, had much faith in the 
"power of the press." 

The Voice of the People was established in May, 1843, by Sylvanus 
Brown (who was at that time languishing in the jail at Salem for dis- 
turbing public worship), and continued to run a small sheet for a time. 
Mr. Brown belonged to a sect known as "Comeouters", then quite 
numerous, and thus named on account of their protest against the pro- 
slavery tendencies in the pulpits generally at that time. 

Another unique and short-lived publication recalled by the older 
citizens of this section of Massachusetts was known as the Voice 
Around the Jail. It had its birth in 1843, when its founder, Hemy 
Clapp, Jr., editor of the Lynn Pioneer, was in jail at Salem under a sen- 
tence for libel. The Voice was in favor of radical reform. Mr. Clapp 
was a Garrisonian Abolitionist, and a man of much ability and courage 



740 ESSEX COUNTY 

in defending what he believed to be right. Later he became a well- 
known journalist in New York City. 

The second attempt to establish a Universalist periodical in Salem 
was in August, 1843, in way of a small weekly paper, issued each Satur- 
day. Its editors were L. S. Everett, J. M. Austin and S. C. Bulkeley, 
pastors in Salem and Danvers. It was styled the Evangelist and exist- 
ed only about six months. 

The Essex County Reformer was the thirty-seventh paper estab- 
lished in Salem, the same being started in the fall of 1843 as a supporter 
of the Washingtonian temperance movement. T. G. Chipman was its 
editor. Its story was told in less than four months. 

The Temperance Offering by Rev. N. Harvey, of the Free Church, 
was established in Salem in February, 1845, and continued until 1846 
as a monthly, 12 months, periodical. It was printed at the Gazette 
office. Later, it was published in Boston and then styled the Youth's 
Cascade. Subsequently, parts of this paper were published in neat book- 
form. 

Another paper of brief duration was the Salem Oracle in 1848, by 
Henry Blaney. 

The Essex County Times was a Democratic weekly journal, pub- 
lished in the autumn of 1848, by E. K. Averill. It began in Marble- 
head, where ten numbers were printed, then moved to Salem, and ended 
its career in about one month. The chief writer for this paper was E, 
K. Averill, later known as a writer of "yellow-covered literature" for 
Gleason's publishing house in Boston. 

Publication number 41 in Salem was the Free World, a spirited, 
political campaign paper, run during the Presidential contest in 1848, 
in support of Van Buren and Adams, Free Soil candidates. George F. 
Cheever was its editor and it was printed at the Observer office. 

Salem Daily Chronicle was the title of the first daily publication in 
Salem. It was by Henry Blaney, who in 1848, on March 1st, commenced 
the publication of the above named daily. It was printed in Bowker's 
building, and published every afternoon at one cent per copy. It took 
no part in politics and was of necessity short-lived. 

A young folks' paper was launched in August, 1848, in Salem, by 
William H. Hutchinson, a job printer, who named his paper the Asteroid, 
meaning star-like. It was designed for entertainment of the youth. 
Subsequently it was removed to Boston. 

Essex County Freeman, a free-soil organ, was established in Salem 
in 1849, by Gilbert L. Streeter and William Porter. Its design was to 
further the cause of anti-slavery. It was published Wednesday and 
Saturday each week, at three dollars per year, from an office in Hale's 
building. November 25, 1850, Mr. Streeter withdrew from the paper 
financially, but was still its editor. Mr. Porter continued this paper 
until February, 1852, then turned the plant over to "Benjamin W. Lan- 



NEWSPAPERS OF THE COUNTY 741 

der for the proprietors." It was then that George F. Cheever associated 
himself with the former editor as joint conductor of the publication. In 
1853 the paper was purchased by Rev. J. E. Pomfret, who retained the 
former editors for a few months. After another year had passed the 
paper fell into the hands of Edwin Lawi'ence, of the Lynn Bay State. 
He issued a weekly until June 14, 1854, when the publication ceased, 
after a term of five years. 

Of all short-lived organs in Salem, may be recalled the prospectus 
or specimen sheet of the National Democrat, May 24, 1851, by James 
Coffin. It was another unsuccessful attempt at running the politics 
of a county. 

The Union Democrat was more successful as an anti-coalition Dem- 
ocratic paper. This paper lasted nearly eleven months. It was com- 
menced by Samuel Fabyan, a printer from Boston, July, 1852, and closed 
in the autumn of the same year. It was a semi-weekly. 

The forty-seventh newspaper venture in Salem was when the Mas- 
sachusetts Freeman, a tri-weekly free-soil paper was established, and 
run for a short time, by J. E. Pomfret, commencing June, 1853. Really, 
it was made up from the columns of the Essex County Freeman. Mr. 
Pomfret had published the Amesbury Villager. He was a minister of 
the Universalist denomination, and subsequently settled in Haverhill. 

The People's Advocate was begun in Marblehead in November, 
1847, by Rev. Robinson Breare, a Universalist minister, and then bore 
the name of The Marblehead Mercury. In 1848 it was sold to James Cof- 
fin and Daniel R. Beckford. A year later it was the People's Advocate 
and Marblehead Mercury, and that season it became the sole property of 
Mr. Coffin. In 1853 the policy of the paper changed from a neutral paper 
to a Democratic organ. In October, 1854, the office was moved to Salem 
and the paper's title changed to The People's Advocate. It was discon- 
tinued in 1861, at the outbreak of the Civil War. 

The Salem Daily Journal, the second attempt at running a daily in 
Salem, was started by Edwin Lawrence in 1854. He issued the first 
number of his daily July 24, that year. It was published in the after- 
noon, as had been the Chronicle in 1848. After a trial of over one year, 
the paper was discontinued. At first the Journal was neutral, but later 
favored the Native American Party, and in the autumn of 1855 approved 
the Republican platform. This Mr. Lawrence was the same gentle- 
man who had previously published the Newburyport Union, Lynn Bay 
State and Essex County Freeman. 

Salem's fiftieth newspaper venture was the establishing of the Es- 
sex Statesman in 1863, in the middle of the Civil War period. It com- 
menced by issuing January 17, 1863, publishing Wednesdays and Satur- 
days, under Edgar Marchant, and later by Benjamin W. Lander. It was 
announced as "conservative" and mildly opposed the national adminis- 
tration, under President Lincoln. After four years of struggle, it went 
down to rise no more. 



742 ESSEX COUNTY 

The next paper publication was in 1872 in the month of July, when 
came forth fresh from the press a weekly entitled The City Post, by 
Charles H. Webber. It was also named the Salem City Post, and the 
Salem Evening Post. Before Mr. Webber sold out, he had made it into 
a semi-weekly paper. The next owner was Charles D. Howard. In 
1885 the paper was sold to the Telegi-am Publishing Company, a new 
penny daily. Politically, the Post was in reality Democratic, although 
it posed as a neutral paper. 

The Salem Evening News, established October 16, 1880, was the 
fifty-fourth newspaper started in the city. It was also the third daily, 
and it stands today, in the forty-second year of its existence, the most 
successful and profitable journalistic enteiprise in the history of the 
community. The principals at the outset were Charles H. Cochrane of 
New York, and Robin Damon, formerly of Middleton. At the lapse of 
about a year, Mr. Cochrane disposed of his interest to his partner and 
returned to New York. In November, 1881, Benjamin F. Arrington of 
Lynn, formerly of the Lynn Reporter and the Lynn Bee, took editorial 
charge. With the exception of one year, while absent in Springfield, 
Massachusetts, as editor and general manager of the Springfield Demo- 
crat, he served continuously as editor of the News, retiring, May 29, 
1920, the dean of Essex county editors, with a record of rising thirty- 
seven years in the service of the paper. Early in July, 1920, Mr. 
Damon, while motoring to his summer camp in Farmington, Maine, was 
in collision with another automobile, the accident occurring near Row- 
ley common. He was conveyed to the hospital in Ipswich, where he 
succumbed, a few days later, to his injuries. During his funeral, one of 
the largest in local history, business was generally suspended in Salem. 
Mr. Damon possessed marked executive ability. Harry E. Flint, a 
nephew, had long been trained in the business department of the daily, 
and he duly succeeded, following the untimely death of his uncle, to the 
responsibilities of publisher. The News possesses a fine plant, all the 
departments being complete in every requisite, and is ranked as one of 
the most progressive dailies in its class in New England. The first loca- 
tion was in a small office on Central street, but for many years it has 
occupied its present commodious quarters in the Peabody building, 
Washington street. 

In June, 1881, the Salem Daily Argus was established, later called 
the Post, and still later the Salem Evening Post ; it subsequently passed 
into the hands of the Evening Telegram Publishing company. 

The Salem Times was established in March, 1887, but only survived 
until February, 1888. 

The Evening Telegram was established February 9, 1885, as a 
penny daily to rival the News. Its first number was printed by the 
Telegram Publishing Co., and it continued until March, 1887, when for 
financial reasons it was sold to the publishers of the Daily Times. 



NEWSPAPERS OF THE COUNTY 743 

iQQrr'^^^ ^^^^^ Public, a weekly newspaper started Saturday, April 23 

1887 with Charles F. Trow as proprietor, had a subscription rate of 
^1.50 per year. This paper was devoted largely to the interests of the 
n T^.""^ *^^ Republic. Mr. Trow had fonnerly been associated 
with the Methuen Transcript and Salem Telegi-am. 

.000'^^^ ^^^^"^ ^^^^^ ^"^ ^""^^ ^^^^^^^ by Charles E. Trow, April 16 

1888 sui-vived until the end of two months, and was discontinued. ' 
The Evening Telegram was the name of another daily paper It 

was founded April 2, 1888, but lasted only a short time 

October 10, 1890, William H. and Charles H. Cochrane established 
the Daily Call, which ran until July 5, 1891. 

In 1889 the newspapers of Salem were: The Mercuiy, by Foote & 
Horton; the Gazette, by Horton & Son; The Fireside Favorite, a com- 
mercial publication, by John P. Peabody; the Salem News; the Salem 
Gazette by N. A. Horton & Son; the Observer, by George W. Pease & 
Co_.; Salem Register, by Palfrey & Walton. About a decade later, the 
newspapers of Salem were reduced to the Evening News, Salem Daily 
Gazette (by the Gazette Publishing Co.), the Saturday Evening Observer 
by Newcomb & Gauss, continuing until about 1919. 
_ In 1909 Salem's papers included the Evening Gazette, Salem Even- 
ing News, Saturday Evening Observer, the Salem Dispatch, Pilgrim 
Leader, Willow Budget, and Le Courier de Salem (French paper), and 
these publications were all being conducted in 1914. In 1915 the papers 
had nan^owed down to the Salem News, Salem Sunday Mercury Satur- 
day Evening Observer, Willow Budget, and the French publication, 
which is still conducted, but its place of publication is now at Lowell 

The last daily to be started in Salem was the Dispatch, listed in the 
foregoing paragraph, by Arthur Howard of New York. It was pub- 
lished intermittently at the outset, small in size and crude in make-up 
In time, however, it managed to acquire sufficient impetus to appear 
regularly. It was successively increased in size, its most generous pro- 
portions marking the period when it was printed, by contract, in Lynn 
Financial difficulties continued, and finally the Dismtch, unique in the 
later annals of journalism in Salem, was forced to submit to the inevit- 
able. Mr. Howard, the editor and publisher, was not a trained news- 
paper man. He ran his paper on "original lines," and through the repu- 
tation thus acquired, both as a free lance and as a ''champion of reform " 
he bore off the mayoralty honors in an exciting election. After his de- 
parture from Salem, he edited a VeiTnont daily for a while, later dying 
m New York. ^ 

There have been other publications in Salem, but they were not 
strictly speaking, newspapers. Many were issued by merchants fairs 
and societies. The Essex Institute Publication appears quarterly' The 
historical publications of one kind and another have been printed since 
1859, and are now highly prized by those interested in historical af- 
lairs. 



744 ESSEX COUNTY 

Another series of publications, of a scientific character, should here 
be listed in brief, as being a part of the literary products in Salem. 
Benjamin Lynde Oliver was a distinguished contributor to scientific 
works before the Revolution, and his "Essays on Comets" was published 
in Salem from pioneer Hall's printing office. The names of Count Ben- 
jamin Rumford, John Pickering, Nathaniel Bowditch, Edward A. Hol- 
yoke, and Charles L. Page should be included in a list of able authors. 
The Essex Institute and Peabody Academy of Science have both been 
prolific in their publications in recent decades. The Journal of the Es- 
sex County Natural History Society, from 1838 on through the Civil 
War period, published many collections of historical sketches, now of 
invaluable use to students and lovers of historic and scientific lore. 
The American Naturalist, an illustrated journal of natural history, 
had its origin in Salem, but later vv^as transferred to New York and 
Philadelphia. The original editors of this periodical were, commencing 
in March, 1867, A. S. Packard, Jr., Edward S. Morse, A. Hyatt and 
F. W. Putnam. 

Coming down to the autumn of 1921, we find three publications 
only, the Salem Evening News, the Essex Antiquarian and Little Folks 
magazine. 

Lynn Newspapers — September 3, 1825, was the date of the 
first newspaper published in Lynn. It was known as the Mirror, and 
was founded and conducted by Charles Frederick Lummus. The event 
was one of great importance to the community, although the paper was 
not especially v/ell edited or mechanically handsome. There was no 
greeting to the public, nor allusion, in any shape, to the prospects, plans, 
or executions of the publisher. An original tale occupied five of the 
little columns, and an original poem filled another. Probably Mr. Lewis 
wrote both of these. The third page contained three advertisements, 
and the remainder of the space was taken up by news items and short 
extracts. The four pages of the sheet were a little less than nine by 
eleven inches. The type was much worn, the ink poor, the paper 
course and dingy. Long primer was used, save one page, which was 
set in brevier. The proprietor continued to run a page or two in large 
type, saying editorially, that it was to please his older readers, whose 
eyesight was poor. This paper was published in a small wooden build- 
ing, on the west side of Market street, but after four years was moved 
to the west end of the common, where the most active business of Lynn 
was then being conducted. In March, 1832, this paper was sold to 
James R. Newhall, that is, the printing plant was sold to him for $200, 
the publication having ceased to be issued longer than March, 1832. 
The founder, Mr. Lummus, became involved, and his paper failed to 
support him. In the summer of 1832, he published Lynn's first business 
directory ; it contained seventy pages and was paper-covered. April 20, 
1838, Mr. Lummus passed from earth's activities. Thus ended the 



NEWSPAPERS OF THE COUNTY 745 

career of Lynn's first weekly newspaper founder. 

The next paper here was the Star, later called the Mirror, which 
was succeeded by a long list of weekly papers, most all being short-lived. 
These included the Record by Alonzo Lewis, poet, author and historian, 
and his partner, Jonathan Buffum ; the Pioneer, by Henry Clapp, Jr. ; 
The Lynn Saturday Union, of which Samuel Foss, the noted local poet, 
was editor; the Bay State, the Lynn Transcript, the Reporter, second 
Record, and the Little Giant (first Lynn daily). Other newspapers re- 
called are the long-since defunct publications known as the Essex Demo- 
crat, the Weekly Messenger, the Lynn Chronicle, Lynn Focus, the Ban- 
ner, the Lynn Democrat, the Puritan, Freeman and Essex County Whig ; 
the Democrat-Sentinel, the Republican, the Protectionist, the Voice of 
the People, Essey County Whig, which was later knov/n as the first 
Lynn News, the Essex County Washingtonian, later called the Pioneer. 
The last named v>^as a radical of radicals, and because it assailed a 
local judge its editor spent three months in the Salem jail, where he 
edited his paper from his cell ; on his release, was looked upon as a hero, 
and a parade was gotten up in his honor. Subsequently, he went to 
Europe and the tour was paid for by his many admirers. Smaller publi- 
cations in Lynn included these: A Pebble Against the Tide, the True 
Workingman, the True Friend, the Forum, the Old Rat, the Tattler, 
the Sizzler, the Free-Soil Pickaxe, Freedom's Amulet, the Lynn Dew- 
drop, the Spectator, the Grindstone, the Temperance League, the Organ, 
the Kite Ender, the Nev/ England Mechanic, the Banner, and the Old 
Time Vendor, all of which were of brief duration, but each had its 
"Day in Court." 

In the public library in Lynn is a scrap-book collection of matters 
relative to the press* of that city, including the list of publications, dates 
and proprietors' names ; the same here follov/s : 1825 — The Lynn Week- 
ly Mirror, by Charles F. Lum.mus; 1831 — The Essex Democrat, by Ben- 
jamin Mudge ; 1832 — The Messenger, by James R. Newhall ; 1838 — The 
Lynn Freeman, by Eugene F. Vv^. Gray; 1842 — The Essex County Wash- 
ingtonian, by D. H. Barlow; 1844 — The Essex County Whig, successor 
to the Freeman; 1846— The Lynn News, by J. F. Kimball; 1849— The 
Bay State, by Lewis Josselyn; 1854 — The Reporter, by Peter L. Cox; 
1855 — The Lynn Daily, by Levv^is Josselyn. 

The Lymi News was first established in 1846, as a weekly, and con- 
tinued until 1861. In 1889, a paper was started under the name of the 
Morning News, but it was of brief duration. 

What was styled the Lynn City Item, a weekly, was established 
January 7, 1876, by Horace N. Hastings, who had labored first on a 
Woburn weekly, and subsequently came to Lynn, where for years he 
filled a responsible position on the Lynn Semi-Weekly Reporter, then un- 
der the proprietorship of Peter L. Cox. December 8, 1877, the Vv^eekly 
Item Vv^as converted into a daily, under the name it now bears. Daily 



746 ESSEX COUNTY 

Evening Item. This was printed in the Sweetser building, at the junc- 
tion of Union street and Railroad avenue. The building was destroyed 
by fire, November 26, 1889. The Item next erected a new building' on 
the old site, and this, with others, was demolished when the elevation 
of the tracks of the Boston & Maine railroad signalized the disappear- 
ance of grade crossings within the confines of the city. The present 
Item building, which not only houses the paper in manner second to 
none among the suburban dailies of New England, but also accommo- 
dates a large clientele of office tenants, was ready for occupancy in 1900. 
The Item did not miss an issue when its establishment was wiped out in 
the great fire of 1889 ; but aided by a job office in Lynn and the Boston 
Post, was able to continue regular daily publication. The Item is pub- 
lished by its proprietors, the Hastings & Sons Publishing Company, and 
is fully equipped in all the essentials that go to make up the modem 
daily. Harlan S. Cummings, who worked on the Lynn papers and sub- 
sequently was identified with the Salem News and the Salem Gazette, 
is the editor. 

The Lynn Bee was established in June, 1880, by Eugene F. Forman, 
who met death by falling frorn the fourth story of the Sagamore Hotel 
building. This publication was burned in the great fire of November 26, 
1889, and after collecting the insurance, the paper started up with a 
new outfit, on Market street, in a basement office room. But the paper 
was not a financial success and only continued to be published a little 
more than a year after the fire referred to above. The Bee was edited in 
rooms over the McGrane's department store building, on Market street, 
and many of the present day printers were employed there at one time, 
including Chet E. Morse, later reporter for the Boston Globe. 

In 1897, Robin Damon established the Lynn Daily News, but later 
disposed of his interest. In 1912 the News came into the ownership of 
a corporation, which made it an independent paper, so called ; and its 
officers were: Fred E. Smith, president; James H. Higgins, treasurer; 
Edward E. Hickey, secretary ; F. H. Druehl, business manager. On July 
22, 1918, the publication was merged with the Lynn Telegram, under 
the name of the Telegram-News. 

The Lynn Telegram was established in 1912, as a daily evening 
publication, Democratic in politics, with a Sunday issue — the only Sun- 
day paper in Lynn. It started out as a daily penny paper, which on 
Sunday sold at two cents. It is now the Telegi-am-News, as above 
stated, and is one of the two daily papers in Lynn at present, with an 
equipment fitted to its requirements. Frederick W. Enright is the edit- 
or and publisher. 

Saugus — The Herald was founded in 1877. Its present size and foi-m 
is a six-column from six to twelve pages per issue. It is all home-print, 
is issued each week on Thursday, at a subscription rate of one dollar 
and fifty cents per year. Politically, it is an independent paper and has 



NEWSPAPERS OF THE COUNTY 747 

for its motto at its head "An Independent Newspaper Devoted To The 
Interests of Saugus and Vicinity." The Herald is run by electric motor 
power. The plant has equipment including a linotype, cylinder, jobber, 
power presses; also a paper-cutter and folder. The office has an excel- 
lent business in its job printing department. The paper circulates most- 
ly in Saugus and suburban places. This newspaper office is the property 
of the McKay Publishing Company, Robert W. McKay, manager and 
publisher; A. E. Starkey, editor. It is one of the cleanest, news-full, 
family papers in the county. Its editorials are always to the point, up- 
to-date, and tinctured with good sense and editorial propriety. 

Haverhill Newspapers — Chase's "History of Haverhill" (good author- 
ity), says the first newspaper in Haverhill was the Guardian of Free- 
dom, which first made its appearance September 6, 1793. From that 
date on down the years, various men had control of this and other news- 
papers. It is not the province of this chapter to go into the details of all 
these changes, further than to say that Haverhill has never been entire- 
ly without a local newspaper since the birth of the one already named. 
The narrative continues in substance to relate that in 1824 Nathan Bur- 
rill sold his printing establishment, the Herald-Gazette, to one Isaac 
R. Howe, who edited and published the paper until October, 1826, when 
he engaged the services of A. W. Thayer to assist. Congressman John 
Vamum was once a partner in the paper with Mr. Howe. These men 
were law partners and connected by mamage ties. In February, 1827, 
Mr. Thayer bought the establishment and changed the name of the paper 
to the Essex Gazette. He was a practical printer and a foi-mer fore- 
man of the same paper for a time. He remained in Haverhill from 
October, 1826, to July, 1835. He was what today would be called a "live 
wire" in any community. According to historian Chase, he was the first 
man to advocate total abstinence from intoxicating liquors, and the sec- 
ond in the world, in a newspaper, to so declare himself. In Haverhill 
there were at that date twenty-nine places where liquor could be bought 
by the drink; within five years he so changed public opinion that there 
was only one secret place where it might be obtained. Mr. and Mrs. 
Thayer took deep interest in the schooling of the farmer lad, John G. 
Whittier, and who was connected with the Gazette from July, 1830, to 
December, 4th, 1836. For many years Dr. Jeremiah Spofford, of Grove- 
land, was in a way associated with the management of this paper and 
was an interesting writer. 

In July, 1834, Rev. Thomas G. Famsworth established the Essex 
Banner and Haverhill Advertiser as a Democratic weekly paper. Eben 
H, Saflford soon connected himself with this paper. William Taggart 
was connected with it from 1838 to 1843, when Safford took full con- 
trol and continued until his death in December, 1887, after which it was 
edited by his daughter for a time. 

January 1, 1859, Z. E. Stone began to publish the Tri-weekly Pub- 



748 ESSEX COUNTY 

lisher, an independent paper. The same year the Essex County Dem- 
ocrat was started by D. P. Bodfish and A. L. Kimball. 

It appears that in 1861, Haverhill had four newspapers, with an 
aggi^egate of four thousand copies in circulation. These were the Ga- 
zette, the Banner, Tri-weekly Publisher, and Essex County Democrat. 
The last named was of short duration ; the Tri-weekly Publisher survived 
until 1878, when its list and good will was sold to the Bulletin. Another 
early paper was the Merrimac Intelligencer; it went down in 1818. 
Nathaniel Greene established the Essex Patriot in 1818, published it 
three years, and sold out. 

The first daily newspaper in Haverhill was the Daily Bulletin, 
established by A. J. Hoyt & Co., July 1, 1871. The following January 
the Weekly Bulletin was issued; in September, 1875, the property was 
owned by Mitchell & Hoyt. The Tri-weekly Publisher was merged with 
the Weekly Bulletin in 1877-78. In 1887 this paper had a circulation 
daily of 2,500 and of the weekly issue 3,000. Politically, it was always 
Republican. 

The Haverhill Evening Gazette is the only daily published in the 
city, and is one of the oldest publications in New England; it occupies 
a three-story office building on Merrimac street, with its model mechan- 
ical plant on MeiTill's Court. It is published every day except Sunday 
and legal holidays. Its sworn circulation is (or was a year or two 
since) 13,500 copies. It is published by a corporation, with Robert L. 
Wright as treasurer and publisher. It was built up by the late John 
B. Wright, father of Robert L., who was among the best kno-wn writers 
and editors in the State. The Gazette has ever been an independent 
publication, not owned or controlled by political parties. To make plain 
this position as an independent paper, it has for many years carried the 
following at the head of its editorial columns: 'The Gazette is a 
fighter — it aims to be a real friend of the common people and believes 
in the masses more than in the classes. It espouses every deserving 
cause and cares nothing for so-called party obligations if the people 
be the gainer by advocating an independent policy." 

The Sunday Record was established by Lewis R. Hovey at No. 4 
Main street, in 1903, in partnership with Dennis A. Long, of Lowell. 
Soon after, Mr. Long sold his interest, and the concern was incorporated 
by the Record Publishing Company. It moved to 108 Merrimack street, 
15 West street, and 24 Locust street. It is the only Sunday paper in 
its territory, and has been a success from the beginning. Politically, it 
is independent. Its job department is extensive and modem in all its 
appointments — "Anything fiom a calling-card to a newspaper" being 
its slogan. 

Nev/spapers of Newburyport — The first newspaper established 
in Newburyport was the Essex Journal and Merrimac Packet, by 
Thomas & Tinges. The first number was dated December 4, 1774, 



NEWSPAPERS OF THE COUNTY 749 

and in June, 1775, its name was changed to that of the Essex Journal, 
or the Massachusetts and New Hampshire General Advertiser, which 
was indeed some name, or at least would be so looked upon today. 

The Imperial Herald, a Federal paper, was started in 1793, and 
was the parent of the Herald of a much later' date. The first number 
was pulled from the hand-press May 17, 1793, and consisted of four 
pages of four columns each, the price being nine shillings per year. 
It was published in Market Square, each Saturday afternoon. The two 
proprietors were Edward M. Blunt and Howard S. Robinson. Decem- 
ber, 1794, it became a semi-weekly, and continued such until June, 1879, 
when it again became a weekly paper. In October, 1797, it was changed 
to the Political Gazette, under ownership of William Barrett. The 
Gazette and Herald were merged into the Newburyport Herald and 
Country Gazette. About 1801 the Herald and American Intelligencer 
were merged as the Herald, under Allen & Stickney. Mr. Allen was 
chief proprietor until 1834. About that date his office was burned, with 
many other buildings. Until December, 1811, Mr. Allen occupied tem- 
porary quarters at Brown's Wharf, but at that time he moved the office 
of the Herald to the place where it stood so many years. 

June 1, 1832, Mr. Allen started a daily paper, and two years later 
he sold to Joseph B. Morse and William H. Brewster, who conducted it 
until Januaiy 1, 1854, when the Daily Evening Union, then five years 
old, was united with the Herald, and at the same time William H. Huse 
became a partner in the business. Arthur L. Huse and Caleb B. Huse, 
with George J. L. Colby, were associated with the paper until early in 
the eighties. In 1880 a Daily Evening Herald was started, and also the 
weekly was issued, too. The Daily Herald, at six dollars per year, was 
the first daily newspaper in Massachusetts outside of Boston. 

The Merrimac Valley Visitor was established in 1872, published 
every Saturday by Colby & Coombs, and remained a permanent fixture, 
while other papers went out of business. 

The Daily News of Newburyport was established in January, 1887, 
by Fred E. Smith. Its proprietors have been Messrs. Smith, Jc.mes H. 
Higgins, E. E. Hicken, N. D. Rodigrass, J. E. Mannix, fonning the News 
Publishing Company, ( Incorporated ) . The News is publi,3hed every 
evening except Sunday ; it is a Republican paper and has seven columns 
to the page. The office in which this paper is printed has all modem 
equipment, including five linotypes. Cox duplex press, while the job de- 
partment produces a general run of book and job work. The paper 
circulates in Newburyport, Newbury, Amesbury, West Newbury, Salis- 
bury, Merrimac, Georgetown, Ipswich and Byfield. The News succeed- 
ed to the Daily Germ, and afterwards purchased the Newburyport Her- 
ald. The proprietors of the paper own their own building, which is 
valued at about $10,000. 

Amesbury Newspapers — The Chronicle was the first paper printed 



750 ESSEX COUNTY 

in Amesbury. It was established in 1832, by Nay son & Caldwell. A 
year later, Mr. Caldwell assumed full control, and called his paper the 
Evening Chronicle, but in 1834 it was known as the Morning Courier. 
In 1837 it was changed to the News and Courier, C. E. Patten, editor, 
with Caldwell & Whitman publishers. In 1839 Caldwell again had full 
control of the paper and called it the Evening Transcript. In 1840 it 
was sold to Robert Rich, and he sold to Joseph M. Pettingill, who had 
charge until 1845, when he formed a partnership with Joseph E. Hood, 
and the paper was continued and known as the Essex Transcript. It 
was made the organ for the old Liberty party in Essex county. In 1848 
Mr. Pettingill sold his interests to Daniel F. Momll, who continued the 
paper one year as the Villager. In 1849 W. H. B. Currier assumed 
control of the paper and continued to conduct it for thirty years. In 
1833 he sold to J. M. and I. J. Potter, who continued it as the Amesbury 
and Salisbury Villager. 

In 1880 a second paper was founded in Amesbury by J. B. Rogers, 
called the Weekly News, but soon changed to the Amesbuiy News, of 
which later mention is made in this chapter. 

The Amesbury Daily News Vv^as established in 1888, its first issue 
being dated May 5th. It v/as founded by J. M. and I. J. Potter, both 
of whom subsequently died, and the paper was purchased March 1, 1902, 
by Edwin J. Graves and Thomas F. Coffin, who have since conducted it 
in the name of the Amesbury Publishing Company. The first name 
The Daily, was changed in 1893 to The Amesbury Daily News. In 
reality, this paper was the outgrowth of the old Weekly Villager, 
a well-known paper in Massachusetts for many years. It was this paper 
to which John G. Whittier, the poet, contributed for nearly a score of 
years; at one time he wrote the political editorials. Politically, the 
News is independent Republican. It circulates mostly in Amesbury, 
Merrimac, Salisbury, Hamilton, Kensington, Newton, Hampton Falls, 
Hampton, New Hampshire. This paper is well equipped with machin- 
ery, including linotypes, cylinder presses, etc. The job department 
keeps pace with modern demands. 

The Press of Peabody — What was known as the Danvers Eagle 
was published for about one year beginning in 1844. The Danvers 
W^hig, a political sheet, was published during the Presidential campaign 
of 1844. The Danvers Courier, edited by George R. Carlton, was estab- 
lished in March, 1845, continuing until September, 1849, The present 
newspaper of Peabody is the Enterprise, established in 1912, by Frank 
W, Penniman, who is the present proprietor. It succeeded the Peabody 
Press. Politically, the Enterprise is independent and its circulation is 
mostly in Peabody. Its present form is that of a six column quarto, 
printed on a platen press, the composition being largely by means of an 
improved linotype. This paper affords the community in which Pea- 
body is situated all the readable news. 



NEWSPAPERS OF THE COUNTY 751 

Newspapers in Gloucester — For the first two centuries of the exis- 
tence of Gloucester as a town, its inhabitants depended on newspapers 
published outside its borders for their knowledge of current events. 
The Boston News Letter and the Salem Gazette, after their establish- 
ment, supplied such information of passing events as their columns af- 
forded. Having a very limited circulation in the town, the few copies 
received here, after being perused by the original recipients, v/ere dis- 
tributed among their friends. 

The first paper in the town began publication January 1, 1827, as a 
weekly, being issued every Saturday, and continued as such until 1834, 
when it was issued as a semi- weekly until 1873, after which it was 
published weekly until it ceased to be issued in 1876. The first daily 
paper was issued June 26, 1884. Five weekly and five daily papers have 
been started since the first paper made its appearance, of which only one 
daily now remains, besides several others, which had merely an ephemial 
existence. 

The Telegraph was the first paper, the first copy being issued Janu- 
ary 1, 1827, by William E. P. Rogers, a native of the town, and was pub- 
lished by him until July 6, 1833, when he sold the paper to Gamaliel 
Marchant, and removed to Bangor. Mr. Marchant continued as publisher 
until October 28, 1835, when he disposed of it to Hemy Tilden and Edgar 
Marchant, and also removed to Bangor. The two Marchants were 
brothers and learned the printer's trade in the Telegraph office. The 
paper was made a semi-weekly, issued Wednesdays and Saturdays, in 
1834, and Mr. Tilden became the sole proprietor, October 12, 1836, con- 
tinuing it until January 1, 1843, when on account of the death of his wife, 
he decided to remove from the town, and sold the paper to John S. E. 
Rogers, who had announced his intention of starting a weekly paper, the 
Cape Ann Light, to be published Saturdays, on that date. Mr. Rogers 
continued its publication as a semi-weekly until August 1, 1873, Vv'hen it 
was made a weekly paper. It was purchased by Martin V. B. Perley, 
December 19, 1874, by whom it was published until October 4, 1876, when 
it was discontinued after an existence of nearly fifty years. 

The publication of the Cape Ann Light was begun by Mr. Rogers 
January 1, 1843, in accordance with his previous plans, being issued on 
Saturda,ys as a weekly edition of the Telegraph until August 1, 1873, 
when the Telegraph became a weekly and it was discontinued. 

The early issues of the Telegi'aph v/ere devoted almost exclusively 
to miscellany, little attention being paid to local and general news. The 
first copy was a sheet of four pages of five columns each, of which near- 
ly one-half was devoted to advertisements. It was commenced as a 
paper neutral in politics and continued so till 1834, when upon the com- 
mencement of a vigorous political warfare between the supporters and 
opponents of President Andrew Jackson's administration, under the 
name of Democrats and Whigs respectively, it became a strenuous ad- 



752 ESSEX COUNTY 

vocate of the latter. After its purchase by Mr. Rogers, it became for a 
time a neutral paper again, but soon espoused the principles of the 
Whig party, and after the death of that party advocated the principles 
of the Republican party until it suspended publication. During Mr. 
Rogers' proprietorship, it devoted more attention to local matters, and 
became a valuable repository of accounts of local events. 

The establishment of a printing press in the town induced an effort 
for the publication of a religious paper, and the first number of The 
Christian Neighbour was issued from the office of the Telegraph Novem- 
ber 7, 1827, its editor being Samuel Worcester. While it did not claim 
to be a controversial paper, its sectarian bias was in favor of evangelical 
doctrines, and the first issue contained a review of three sermons preach- 
ed by the liberal clergymen of the town. Rev. Thomas Jones, Rev. Hosea 
Hildreth and Rev. Ezra Leonard. A sufficient number of subscribers 
did not respond to the appeal for its support, however, and no second 
number was published. 

Later in the same year an effort was made to establish a paper in 
the interest of the doctrine of Universalism, and the first number of 
The Liberal Companion was issued, also printed at the Telegraph office, 
being edited by Rev. Benjamin B. Murray, minister of the Universalist 
society at Sandy Bay, but this effort was also futile, its publication end- 
ing with the initial issue. 

The espousal of the doctrines of the Whigs by the Telegraph in 1834 
resulted in the establishment of a paper in advocacy of the principles of 
the Democratic party, called the Gloucester Democrat, the first issue of 
which appeared August 18, 1834. It was edited by Robert Rantoul, 
Jr., who resided in Gloucester at the time, and was printed and publish- 
ed by his brother-in-law, Charles W. Woodbury. Being established as 
a political organ, it paid scant attention to local affairs except as they 
affected the welfare of the party and its candidates. In September, 
1839, it passed into the hands of F. L. Rogers and George W. Parsons, 
by whom it was continued till February 16, 1838, when it was merged 
with the Salem Advertiser. 

Another Democratic paper, called the Jeffersonian Republican, was 
started in October, 1838, in the interest of the election of Mr. Rantoul 
to Congress, but its publication ceased with the defeat of the party at 
the election in November. It was issued semi-weekly and bore the name 
of John F. Hall as editor and proprietor. 

The second strictly local paper was the Gloucester News and Semi- 
weekly Messenger, the first copy being issued October 11, 1848, by John 
J. Piper, who came to Gloucester from Fitchburg as principal of the 
Town Grammar School. It was published on Tuesday and Friday morn- 
ings, while the Telegraph was issued on Wednesdays and Saturdays, 
and the rivalry between the two papers was at times exceedingly keen. 
It was continued by Mr. Piper until December, 1851, when it was pur- 



NEWSPAPERS OF THE COUNTY 753 

chased by Mr. Rogers and merged with the Telegraph, under the titlQ of 
Telegraph and News. 

The next newcomer into the local journalistic field was Procter's 
Able Sheet, an advertising publication, which was started by Francis 
and George H. Procter in July, 1853, and was circulated gratuitously, 
being published monthly to October, 1855. The publication was re- 
sumed in January, 1856, under the name of Gloucester Advertiser, and 
issued monthly until June, 1857, when it was changed to a semi- 
monthly, continuing as such until October 23, 1858, the name being 
changed to Cape Ann Advertiser, December 5, 1857. On November 5, 
1858, the publication was changed to a weekly under the name of the 
Cape Ann Weekly Advertiser, and continued to be issued as a weekly 
until June 28, 1901, when it was discontinued as the result of the field be- 
ing more satisfactorily covered by the Daily Times. 

The Advertiser was devoted primarily to local news, being neutral in 
politics, and established the policy of having special correspondents in the 
neighboring towns and suburban villages. During the Civil War, from 
1861 to 1865, it maintained correspondents with practically all the Glou- 
cester companies which sei'ved in the Union armies, thus securing an 
invaluable record of the experiences and doings of the men who repre- 
sented Gloucester in the camps and on the battlefields in that great 
struggle. 

Another political paper was issued from the Advertiser office in 
October and November, 1857, for five weeks in the stonny political cam- 
paign between Nathaniel P. Banks and Henry J. Gardner for goveraor of 
Massachusetts, in the interest of the latter, being published by Stoiy & 
Harris and edited by Dr. Charles H. Hildreth and Hon. Timothy Davis. 

The Cape Ann Bulletin v/as started as a v/eekly publication Novem- 
ber 7, 1877, by John D. Woodbury and David Low, under the firm name 
of Woodbuiy, Low & Co., continuing under the same management until 
January 1, 1878, when the interest of Mr. Low was purchased by Thomas 
Tresilian, and the name of the firm changed to Woodbuiy & Co. In July, 
1880, Sidney F. Haskell secured an interest in the paper, and the name of 
the fiiTn was changed to the Bulletin Publishing Company. Mr. Wood- 
bury withdrew from the company in September, 1883, and the publication 
was continued by his associates until May 7, 1887, when the name v/as 
changed to the Cape Ann Weekly Breeze, being discontinued on July 9 
of the same year. 

The first daily newspaper published in Gloucester was the Gloucester 
Daily News, the first issue of which appeared June 28, 1884, being pub- 
lished by the News Publishing Com.pany, F. A. Wiggin, editor and man- 
ager, at one cent per copy. It was continued under this management 
until August 1, 1885, when the Daily News Company assumed control, 
with John D. Woodbuiy as manager, who continued in that position 
until January 9, 1886, when he resigned and was succeeded by M. Herbert 

Eeeex — 48 



754' ESSEX COUNTY 

Nichols, who had been a reporter on the paper from its start, and who 
continued as manager until the suspension of the paper Februaiy 4, 1886. 

The Cape Ann Evening Breeze, another daily, was first published 
August 29, 1884, being issued from the Cape Ann Bulletin office, with 
Sidney F. Haskell and Thomas Tresilian as editors and managers, the 
name of the company being changed a few years later to the Cape Ann 
Printing Company, with George R. Bradford as president, and Sidney F. 
Haskell as treasurer and manager. Like the News, it was originally 
four pages and sold at one cent per copy ; the number of pages was later 
increased to eight, and it was the first paper in town to be printed with 
stereotype plates. It was merged with the Gloucester Daily News, the 
second publication bearing that name, December 2, 1901. 

An attempt to establish a Sunday paper was made by the News Pub- 
lishing Company in 1884, when the Sunday Call was issued from that 
office, but the project was unremunerative, and the paper was discon- 
tinued after a few issues. 

The Cape Ann Clipper was started as a weekly paper, February 24, 
1887, by M. Herbert Nichols, and was published on Thursdays for ten 
weeks, the last issue being dated April 28, 1887. 

The Gloucester Daily Times was the third venture in the daily news- 
paper field, and has outlived all its competitors, having had the field to 
itself without competition since 1909. It was started June 16, 1888, by 
the Times Newspaper Company, Francis and George H. Procter, editors 
and managers, and continued under the same management until Decem- 
ber 1, 1908, when a half interest in the company was purchased by Fred 
E. Smith and James W. Higgins of Newburyport, the former assuming 
the position of managing editor, while the latter became business man- 
ager. It was the first paper to be printed upon a perfecting press. 
Originally starting with four pages, it now prints eight, ten, twelve and 
frequently sixteen pages, as the demands of the news and advertising may 
require. 

A second paper under the title of the Gloucester Daily News was 
started April 23, 1900, by the Gloucester Publishing Company, John J. 
Flaherty, president; David B. Smith, treasurer; and James R. Pringle, 
managing editor; and was published under that name till December 2, 
1901. It was then consolidated with the Cape Ann Breeze, under the 
name of the Cape Ann Daily News, and published by the Cape Ann News 
Company until the spring of 1909, when it passed out of existence. Mr. 
Pringle retired from the management at the time of the consolidation, 
which was assumed by Mr. Haskell. The following year Wilmot A. Reed 
and James R. Jeffrey purchased a controlling interest in the company, 
and assumed the management of the paper, which they held until 1905, 
when they disposed of their interest to Leonard Williams and George H. 
Brewster, by whom the paper was published at the time of its suspen- 
sion. 



NEWSPAPERS OF THE COUNTY 755 

The Gloucester Citizen, a weekly paper, was the last one to enter the 
field, and was published by Edward T. Millett, the first number being 
issued March 24, 1916. Its publication continued till April 11, 1918, 
when the last issue was published. 

The Newspapers of Lawrence — According to the historical records, 
tlie first printing in the "New City," as Lawrence was called in the early 
days, was a poster announcing that The Men-imack Courier would ap- 
pear the following day. This was published by J. F. C. Hayes in Octo- 
ber, 1846. Others associated with this publication during its existence 
were John A. Goodwin, Henry A. Cooke, Rev. Henry F. Harrington and 
Nathaniel Ambrose. It suspended shortly after Lincoln's election in 
1860. Such were the beginnings of newspaper jouraalism in Lawrence. 
As in most places, the story is one of a struggling devotion to ideals and 
the cause, with the ultimate survival of the fittest. It is a long step 
from a weekly paper like the Merrimack Courier of small size and cir- 
culation to a modem daily, such as The Evening Tribune of today, with 
its large circulation and extensive advertising patronage, giving its read- 
ers probably more news matter in a single issue than would the old-time 
weekly in a three-month period. Nevertheless these weekly publications 
were the foundation of present day journalism. The progress was slow, 
but there was a continuous advance, step by step, until at last the more 
venturesome among the publishers dared to try the experiment of a daily 
issue. 

Following the Merrimack Courier there came in chronological order 
these publications: 

January, 1847 — The Weekfy Messenger, published by Brown & 
Becket for about two years. 1847 — The Engine, issued by E. R. Wilkins. 
Only two issues. 1848 — The Herald, published by Amos H. Sampson. 
Short lived. 1848 — The Vanguard, brought out by Fabyan & Douglas. 
This was a Democratic publication, which later became The Sentinel. 
Under this name it existed until recent years. During its career there 
were a number of noted writers connected with The Sentinel, among them 
such men as John K. Tarbox, Abiel Momson, Jeremiah T. and Edward 
F. O'Sullivan. 1855 — The Lawrence American was published by George 
W. Sargent and A. S. Bunker. The latter soon retired and the weekly 
was continued by Mr. Sargent alone. 1856 — The Home Review was 
started by J. F. C. Hayes, who later merged it in The Courier. 1867 — 
The Essex Eagle was started by Charles G. Merrill and H. A. Wads- 
worth. 1871 — The Lawrence Journal was issued by Robert Bower, who 
soon sold it to Patrick Sweeney. This was later changed to the Sunday 
Register and continued until late years under different managements. 
1884 — The Sunday Telegram was started by Winfield G. Merrill. 

We have said that the weekly papers were the foundation of the 
dailies. Looking backward now it is easy to trace the connection, for the 
present Sun- American is an outgrowth of the Lawrence American ; The 



756 ESSEX COUNTY 

Eagle Tribune of The Essex Eagle and The Lawrence Telegram of The 
Sunday Telegram. 

During the period that The Lawrence American was under the man- 
agement of George W. Sargent, he had as an assistant George S. Merrill. 
After a few years the latter became sole owner and editor. Under the 
control of Major Merrill, The American gained steadily in influence and 
was rated among the foremost weeklies of New England. In July, 1868, 
an afternoon daily was issued under same name, and as a Republican 
organ was highly esteemed throughout the State, Major MeiTiii had con- 
siderable political influence and ultimately was made Insurance Commis- 
sioner of Massachusetts. He disposed of his plant in 1892 to William S. 
Jewett. The latter started The Sun as a morning paper August 1, 1893, 
and shortly after a Sunday edition under the same name was started. Mr. 
Jewett disposed of his interests to the present owners, The Sun- American 
Publishing Co. in 1914. Under the new management The Sun was dis- 
continued and the name of the afternoon paper changed to The Sun- 
American. The Sunday Sun still continues as the only Lawrence Sun- 
day newspaper; other publications being devoted to comment oniy. 

Soon after the publication of The Essex Eagle was commenced, 
Charles G. Merrill retired, and Horace A. Wadsworih carried on the 
paper alone. He started The Daily Eagle, July 20, 1868, and since the 
daily issue of The American was not in evidence until the following even- 
ing, the Daily Eagle has the honor of being the oldest daily newspaper 
in the city. In 1873 these papers were sold to Hammon Reed, who after 
a few years sold them back again to Mr. Wadsworth. He started The 
Evening Tribune as an afternoon paper in 1890. The Tribune was suc- 
cessful from the very beginning and as the years have passed has gained 
steadily in influence and prestige. Mr. Wadsworth died soon after The 
Tribune was started, and in 1898 F. H. Hildreth and A. H. Rogers pur- 
chased the plant, under the firm name of Hildreth & Rogers. Upon the 
death of Mr. Hildreth, in 1909, the present management, a stock company, 
took over the papers, under the corporate name of Hildreth & Rogers Co. 

George Goldsmith, who became associated with Winfield G. Menill 
in the publication of The Sunday Telegram, later came into control, and 
with HaiTy Nice started The Lawrence Telegi'am as a daily on March 5, 
1895. Its progress was decidedly slow at first. In 1896 John N. Cole, 
of Andover, took hold of the paper, and by hard work succeeded in estab- 
lishing it upon a firm foundation. In 1906, Kimball G. Colby of Metliuen, 
secured a controlling interest in The Telegram and has continued it suc- 
cessfully. 

There have been a few unsuccessful attempts at daily papers in Law- 
rence which merit passing notice. The first on record was The Daily 
Journal, issued by Dockliam. & Place, December 1, 1S60. Publication as 
a daily v\^as continued for about two years, then it was changed to a tri- 
weekly, and in 1863 was merged in The American. James E. Donohue 



NEWSPAPERS OF THE COUNTY 757 

established The Star as a weekly in 1893 and started The Daily News in 
1900, Both papers expired after a few years. 

Present weekly publications include the Anzeiger und Post, a Ger- 
man weekly, and The Sunday Leader, classed as a "journal of comment", 
and carrying only a brief news summary. 

Beverly Newspapers — Beverly depended upon Salem newspapers for 
a record of local happenings until 1851. The three Salem newspapers 
were then published semi- weekly, which gave a publication nearly every 
day, and was almost the same as a daily paper. 

March 28, 1851, the initial number of the Beverly Citizen appeared, 
the first newspaper to be published in the town. It was a six-column folio, 
printed in Boston, and well filled with reading matter. Arthur F. Wales 
was the publisher. His real business was running an express route be- 
tween Beverly and Boston. Beverly people were slow to wean from the 
Salem newspapers, all of which at that time had been published for more 
than a quartei' of a century, and Mr, Wales discovered that it was not a 
profitable venture. In 1855 John B. Cressy purchased the good will of 
the business and put in a printing plant, the first in Beverly, at 7 Wash- 
ington street. 

Irving W. Allen purchased the Citizen in 1881 and continued it for a 
number of years. George Chinn was the editor for several years, and 
he was succeeded by J. Herman Carver of Newburyport. The office was 
on Vestry street in the Lafavour Opera House block, where is now the 
E. W. Rogers furniture store. Dec. 30, 1892, Charles A. King purchased 
the establishment and continued the paper until June, 1919, when he sus- 
pended publication, like many others, on account of the high cost of 
material and labor. He owned it all this time, except for two years, when 
he was editor of the Berkshire Courier at Great Banington. During this 
time the Walter Brothers v^ere the publishers. Mr. King also published 
the American Benefit Journal, for 25 years. Previous to coming to 
Beverly, he owned the Merrimac Budget, and formerly was part owner 
of the Milford Journal and the Bennington, Vt., Gazette. In 1890 W. C. 
Trump published the Beverly Chronicle on Saturdays, in Commercial 
block. The paper was short lived. 

The Beverly Evening Times, which is now a household word in 
Beverly, was established in 1893. Previous to that time Albert Vittum, 
the publisher of the Times for more than a quarter of a century, was the 
publisher of the Weekly Times. The Weekly was started in October, 
1881, by Ephraim M. Bates, now deceased, Willard O. Wylie and Wil- 
liam C. Morgan. The first few numbers were printed in the office of the 
Beverly Citizen, and later in the office of the New England Newspaper 
Union, Boston, The paper was a four-page sheet, 8x10 inches in size. 
Messrs. Morgan and Wylie sold their interests a short time later to Mr. 
Bates, who continued the business. Mr. Bates conducted a job office in 
connection with the paper, and finding the latter more profitable, sold to 



758 ESSEX COUNTY 

George W. Cook, who had had previous experience as editor of the Bev- 
erly citizen. Mr. Cook subsequently sold to Isaac M. Marshall of Man- 
chester, Massachusetts, the present publisher of the Manchester Cricket. 

In May, 1887, Albert Vittum, who under the firm name of Femald 
& Vittum had published the Peabody Press in Peabody, purchased the 
paper. It was moved to the job office of Mr. Bates, and with the equip- 
ment of the Lynn Union, which Mr. Vittum had purchased previously of 
Sam Walter Foss, there was abundance of good material to issue a week- 
ly paper. The make-up of the paper was changed to a seven-column 
folio and special attention given to local news. In May, 1888, Mr. Vit- 
tum started the Essex Echo, and in October of the same year the Man- 
chester Cricket. Both of these papers proved good property, and are 
now owned by Isaac M. Marshall, to whom they were sold when the Even- 
ing Times was established. 

In 1892, Mr. Vittum established the Wenham-Hamilton Times and 
Asbuiy Grove Cottager, both of which were later taken over by Charles 
A. King of the Beverly Citizen. In 1893, the need of a home daily be- 
coming apparent, with the rapid growth, of the population, the Evening 
Times was established by Mr. Vittum, and when the question of a city 
charter for Beverly came up for discussion, a daily edition of the Times 
was promised by the publisher of the Weekly Times, should the charter 
be granted, when the new city government was inaugurated. A canvass 
of the city was made and six hundred subscribers for a daily paper were 
secured. In October, 1893, in spite of the panic that prevailed at that 
time, the first issue of the Daily Evening Times was printed. Inside of 
six months, the circulation had increased to 1000 copies sold. The paper 
was started as a six-column folio, and at the close of the first year had 
enlarged to seven columns, and at the end of the second year to eight 
columns. The equipment now consists of a battery of three Mergen- 
thaler linotype machines, a Ludlow Topograph, and a Cox Duplex press. 
The Times was first published under Mr. Vittum's competent manage- 
ment in the Atlantic Block on Cabot street, then in the Bates job office on 
Franklin place, then on Railroad avenue in the building now known as 
the Highland Apartment house, then in the Bumham building on Cabot 
street. The last move was to the present quarters in the Savings Bank 
building, which it has occupied since the erection of the building. Mr. 
Vittum continued the business with marked success until December, 1919, 
when he sold his interests to Walter E. Hubbard of Brattleboro, Vermont, 
for many years editor of the Brattleboro Reformer, a newspaper man of 
marked ability, with twenty-five years experience in newspaper work in 
varied fields, who has conducted the business successfully since. 

While the personnel of the Evening Times has changed much dur- 
ing the years of its existence, William C. Morgan, the city editor, has 
been with the paper since its start. Lawrence P. Stanton, his assistant 
in the reportorial department, came to the paper, when in the Beverly 



NEWSPAPERS OF THE COUNTY 759 

high school, furnishing items from the school. Noland E. Giles, fore- 
man of the mechanical department, took around the first copy of the 
Weekly Times as a newsboy in 1881. These men are still on the job. 
Other faithful employees who have been with the paper for years are 
Robert J. Mumey of the reportorial staff, Miss Minnie L. Goodridge, the 
efficient bookkeeper, who has a thorough knowledge of the business office 
in all its details; and J. Eraser Stuart, in charge of the advertising de- 
partment, who has been a large factor in the success of the paper. Wil- 
liam H. Barnes, the "make-up" man, has been with the paper since 1905. 
Cornelius P. Connolly has been the competent pressman for 13 years. 
The other places on the reportorial staff, in the business office, the com- 
posing arid press room are filled with competent help. 

In September, 1921, the Evening Times again changed hands, Mr. 
Hubbard disposing of his holdings to Thomas Leavitt, of Dorchester, 
who has a newspaper training of more than a quarter of a century. He 
has introduced sundry changes, with every promise of adding to the 
achievements of his predecessors. 

The story of the press in Beverly would be incomplete without a 
word concerning the North Shore Breeze. The North Shore Breeze was 
started in the spring of 1904 by its present editor, J. Alex. Lodge, and 
has been from the start a publication that has focused its efforts on the 
summer resort business centering upon that section of the Massachusetts 
coast between Boston and Newburyport, so popularly known as the North 
Shore. Magazine in form, ranging from 24 pages in the dull winter 
months, to 80 and more pages, with colored cover, in the summer season, 
the Breeze so appeals to the tastes of the large number of wealthy people 
who flock into New England from all parts of the countiy for the summer, 
that they subscribe by the year, thus having the paper follow them to 
their winter residences. The late Robin Damon, of the Salem News, once 
wrote of the North Shore Breeze that it was probably read by more mil- 
lionaires than any weekly paper in America. In the first years of its 
publication, the office of the Breeze was in Beverly, but in 1906 Editor 
Lodge moved it to his home town, at Manchester, because he at that 
time bought a small printing office that has since developed into one of 
the finest-equipped publishing plants in Essex county. 

In 1910 the North Shore Breeze was incorporated, the only stock- 
holders outside of the original owner being about a score of the represen- 
tative summer residents, whose personal interest in the enterprise had 
much to do with the constant but very evident growth of the business 
since that date. 

It was in 1913 that the North Shore Reminder, a weekly, published 
in the Swampscott-Marblehead section of the North Shore, and much of 
the same nature as the Breeze, was purchased by Mr. Lodge from E. R. 
Grabow of the United Fruit Company interests. Since that time the 
Breeze has covered the entire North Shore field from Nahant to New- 



760 ESSEX COUNTY 

buryport, including Cape Ann, instead of devoting its attention almost 
exclusively to the territory between Beverly and Magnolia and the ad- 
jacent inland section. Vv^hile the paper is devoted very largely to the 
summer resort business, it has always maintained a local field in covering 
that section of the shore line including Magnolia, Manchester, Beverly 
Farms and Pride's Crossing. 

Ipswich Newspapers — Before speaking of the various newspapers 
that have been published in Ipswich a word should be mentioned con- 
cerning the authorship of several quite noted books from this vicinity. 
New England's first book of poetry was Mrs. Anna Bradstreet's, early of 
Ipswich. One of the first histories of New England was by an Ipswich 
clergyman, William Hubbard. The first Latin book printed in America 
was by Rev. John Norton, of Ipswich. The "Body of Liberties", con- 
taining the essence of our civil rights today, and the "Simple Cobbler of 
Agawam," long to be remembered as an old time classic, were the works 
of the author, preacher, jurist and scholar Nathaniel Ward, of Ipswich. 
These are a few of the most illustrious names. But now, coming to the 
newspaper press of Ipswich, it may be stated that the first local news- 
paper established here was the Ipswich Journal, issued weekly, by John 
H. Harris, who began its publication in July, 1827, and discontinued in 
August, 1828. Then came the Register, edited by Eugene F. W. Gray; 
its first number was pulled from the old handpress June 1, 1837, and it 
went down a year later. The town then went without a newspaper until 
1850, when the Clarion was started and issued once in two weeks, by 
Timothy B. Ross. It was a newsy folio paper. The first Saturday in 
January, 1868, the Bulletin first appeared and continued until August, 
only. Charles W. Felt of Salem, was its proprietor, and he proposed to 
furnish a paper to several near-by towns. Thus the Rockport Quarry 
and the Ipswich Bulletin were the same with the name changed. This 
was a new idea in newspaperdom and soon followed the "patent" sheet 
system, then sterotyped stories and news. July 3, 1871, began to be 
published the Ipswich Advance, with Edward B. Putnam as editor and 
proprietor. He continued until March 16, 1872, when Edward L. Daven- 
port and Frederick W. Goodwin, having bought the establishment, began 
the publication of the Ipswich Chronicle. Lyman H. Daniels took hold 
of this paper four years later and associated with him I. J. Potter, who 
later was sole proprietor. After a year or two Mr. Porter associated with 
his brother J. M. Potter and they conducted the chain of papers for side 
towns as follows: Ipsv^ich Chronicle, Amesbury Villager, Lynn Re- 
porter, Lynn Bee, and the Yankee Blade of Boston. September 10, 1886, 
the Ipswich Independent edited by Charles G. Hull was another active 
force in newspaperdom in the place. Later it went down after a hard 
struggle to exist. The Chronicle is the only paper in Ipswich now. It is 
independent in politics; is an eight-page, six column paper, printed Fri- 
days ; it uses electricity for its power in printing; subscription rate is $1.50 



NEWSPAPERS OF THE COUNTY 761 

yearly. A good job department is conducted in connection with the news- 
paper. 

Marblehead Newspapers — Marblehead's first local newspaper was 
established March 13, 1830, and was known as the Marblehead Register, 
and was founded by Henry Blaney, who for three years struggled vigor- 
ously to make his enterprise a success but finally had to discontinue the 
publication. Several other papers have been started in the place since 
then, and made a similar disappointment to their proprietors. The pres- 
ent newspaper, the Marblehead Messenger, was established in 1871, and 
its only owners and proprietors have been N. A. Lindsey & Co. (Incor- 
porated). Frank L. Armstrong is president and treasurer at this time. 
This is an eight-page paper, circulating mostly in the entire town, the 
Neck and in Clifton. Its day of issue is Friday ; politically, it is Repub- 
lican. June 25, 1877, the office was destroyed by fire, along with many 
other Marblehead business places. The office is. now well equipped with 
modem appliances, including typesetting machines and facilities for hand- 
ling all kinds of job printing, including commercial and catalog work. 
The Messenger stands for all that is good and useful in the community in 
which it circulates. 

The Andover To^vnsman was established in October, 1887; it is 
owned by the Andover Press Company (incorporated). It is published 
each Friday, is a Republican paper with a subscription rate of $2.00 per 
year, having a good circulation both at Andover and throughout the coun- 
tiT generally. It is published in a building erected in 1906 by the cor- 
poration that owns the plant, and it is finely equipped with such articles 
as go toward making up a first-class job and book printing establishment, 
in connection with the publication of the Townsman. The equipment in- 
cludes one large cylinder press and six other job presses ; two monotypes, 
power paper-cutter, etc. 

The Townsman is an eight-page, seven column paper devoted to the 
local interests of Andover, and it is almost entirely printed at home. An- 
dover being a college town, there is necessarily a large amount of job 
printing work of which this oflice executes a large per cent. 




THE 



'"*'^"Ss^ 



yoRK 



J^to 



^STo 



'&N 







STATUE OF JOAN OF ARC 
In Memory of Gloucester's Fallen Heroes in the World War 



CHAPTER XLV. 
MILITARY HISTORY 

In the numerous wars in which Essex county has participated, down 
to the recent great World War, the town of Essex has furnished her share 
of men and supplies. The following is a concise account of the activities 
during the wars in which Essex people have shown their patriotism : 

The soldier record in Essex commences in 1637, when John and 
Thomas Bumham, Robert Crosse and Andrew Story were drafted to 
serve in the war against the Pequot Indians ; for this short service these 
men received grants to several acres of land. It is believed this was the 
first instance on the American continent where a bounty was given for 
the service of a soldier. In 1643 the brothers Burnham were again in the 
service against other Indians. 

Essex also took part in King Philip's War, and sent men good and 
true. Among these was John Bennet, who was killed at Deerfield, Mas- 
sachusetts, September, 1675. He v/as a member of the company from 
Essex county, known in all New England annals as "The Flower of Essex" 
commanded by Captain Thomas Lathrop, of Beverly. Sui-prised at 
Deerfield by the Indians, at what is now called Bloody Brook, he and 
most of his command were slaughtered. Out of the company of eighty- 
four, seventy-six were killed, having been ambuscaded by neai'ly seven 
hundred Indians. It is said that this band of warriors was led by King 
Philip in person. 

Captain Joseph Gardner, of Salem, organized a company to join the 
expedition against Narragansett. In this company were Robert Andrews, 
Zaccheus Perkins, John Prince, Samuel Rust, Samuel Stoiy, and Joseph 
Soames. This company was mustered at Dedham, Massachusetts, in De- 
cember, 1675, and marched to Rhode Island. Capt. Gardner, Robert An- 
drews, Joseph Soames and six others in this company were later killed in 
battle in the Nan-agansett Swamp ; the command then devolved on Wil- 
liam Hawthorne, of Salem. This Hawthorne was an ancestor of the dis- 
tinguished author Nathaniel Hawthorne. 

In 1708 Essex furnished other brave men who fought against the 
Indians. Rev. Benjamin Choate, a native of the place, was for some time 
stationed at Deerfield, near where thirty years before Captain Lathrop 
and so many men were ruthlessly murdered by the red-skins. Rev. 
Choate was acting as chaplain at the time he was near Deerfield. 

In the hostilities \^ith Spain, in the expedition to Spanish West In- 
dies, in 1740, was Major Ammi Ruhami Wise, son of Rev. John Wise, and 
a native of Essex, and possibly several others from Essex. 

In the Siege of Louisburg, under Pepperell and Warren, in 1745, 
were several men from Essex. In the Eighth Massachusetts were Col. 
John Choate, Lieut. Thomas Choate, Jr., William Andrews, Aaron Fos- 



764 ESSEX COUNTY 

ter (maternal grandfather of Hon. Rufus Choate), and Daniel Giddings. 
In other commands of this campaign were Abraham Martin and four 
others, whose names have been lost with the flight of years. 

During the French War, in the expedition to Fort Ticonderoga, was 
a command under Capt. Stephen Whipple, in the first regiment raised in 
Massachusetts to operate against Canada. It took part in the disastrous 
campaign to Lake George in 1758. Three of the officers — first and sec- 
ond lieutenants and ensign, Nathan Burnham, Stephen Low and Samuel 
Knowlton, as well as Rev. John Cleaveland — were from Chebacco. The 
two lieutenants were fatally wounded in the attack upon Ticonderoga, 
July 8th. Of the death of Lieut. Bumham, the Bumham genealogy says : 
"Tradition has it that before leaving for the war, he took his sword on his 
hand to try the metal, and it broke. Turning to his wife, he said, 'I shall 
never come back.' He went on, but returned to pray once more with 
his family before taking his final leave." 

In the Revolutionary War, Essex furnished in all, for vanous periods 
of service in the army, more than one hundred men. Crowell's "History 
of Essex" gives a list of one hundred and five names, and the record re- 
marks in a note that "no doubt several more served whose names cannot 
be obtained correctly at this date." Seven men whose names appear 
among eai'ly families in Essex were at Bunker Hill: James Andrews, 
Benjamin Burnham, Francis Bumham, Nehemiah Choate, Aaron Perkins 
and Jesse Story, Jr. The last-named was killed in the engagement there, 
and Francis Bumham, a brother of Capt. Nathaniel Bumham, was 
wounded. Two others were employed during the previous night to make 
cartridges — Aaron Low and Samuel Proctor. Low was one of the seven 
soldiers from Essex who were with the forces sent out to suppress the 
Shay Rebellion. 

In the army of General Gates, at the defeat of Burgoyne, were 
twenty-eight soldiers from Chebacco, of which five were detailed to guard 
his forces, after their surrender, while en route to Charlestown prior to 
their embarking for England. Major John Burnham served throughout 
the Revolution, was with Washington at Valley Forge in the winter of 
1777 ; served under Lafayette and Gen. Greene ; was among the first to 
settle at Marietta, Ohio, and finally died in New Hampshire in 1843. 

In the second war with the Mother Country in 1812, nineteen men 
from the place enlisted. Abel Andrews was one of the sergeants. An- 
drew* Bumham, a native of Essex, who died here in 1885, aged one hun- 
dred years and two months, was a soldier. Enoch Bumham and Ben- 
jamin Andrews were taken prisoners in the Bay of Biscay while on the 
privateer "Essex", and were in prison two years in England. 

Of course it might go without saying that a town that had furnished 
such splendid array of military talent during previous wars would not be 
found wanting when Lincoln called for his first 75,000 men. During the 
four-year struggle from 1861-65, Essex furnished 182 men, of which 



MILITARY HISTORY 765 

number 144 were her own citizens. Of these, three served in the navy; 
twenty-three never returned home, three having been shot dead in bat- 
tle, and five died of wounds ; one was accidentally drowned ; fifteen died 
of disease; and two perished in Southern prison pens; twenty-two were 
wounded in battle. These men were on thirty-seven battle fields of the 
Civil War, including the greatest. Six Essex men were taken prisoners- 
George W. Bumham, John B. Bumham, Lewis Burnham, Albert A. 
Haa^ell, James B. Kimball, and Rufus E. Hears. Mark Francis Bum- 
ham was in fifteen engagements and had four horses shot under him. 
Two horses were shot under him at the battle of Winchester, under that 
gallant leader, Gen. Phil. Sheridan. The commissioned officers from 
Essex were: Colonels— Jonathan Bumham, John Choate, Jonathan Cogs- 
well ; Majors— John Burnliam, Thomas Bumham, Caleb Low; Captains- 
Charles Howes, David Low, Francis Perkins, William Story; Ensign- 
Samuel Knowlton; Lieutenants— Cyrus Andrews, Nathan Bumham, 
Samual Bumham, Thomas Choate, Jr., John Cleaveland, Jr., Stephen 
Low. 

In all the wars to the end of the Civil War, this town had furnished 
340 soldiers. In the Spanish-American War in 1898-1890, Essex filled 
her quota without any trouble. In the World War, three laid down their 
hves for the cause of world-peace : George F. Lendall, Stephen H. Meuse 
and Laurence E. Perkins. Essex did its full share in the various depart- 
ments of war work at home, and "went over the top" in its government 
bond purchases in several drives. 

Danvers in Various Wars— Not long after the incorporation of 
original Danvers began the storm of discontent throughout all the 
colonies. These years sifted out the hearts of men with crucial test. 
What was styled the "writs of assistance" were issued in 1761 ; the odious 
stamp act was pased in 1765, when Franklin wrote, "The sun of liberty 
is set." American merchants agreed to non-importation until its repeal. 
New taxes and the act for the enforcing quartering troops by citizens in 
1767; the refusal of Boston to furnish quarters; three years of constant 
irritation and a massacre in the streets of Boston, March, 1770 ; the "Tea 
Party", December, 1773; the Boston Port Bill; the first Continental Con- 
gress; John Hancock's Provincial Congress at Cambridge, and its meas- 
ures for committees of safety and minute-men, 1774; then Lexington 
war, independence, the United States of America. 

Danvers'kept pace with all the events. How well its citizens grasped 
the situation of the times and how forcibly and well they expressed them- 
selves it has been left on the records for any to read who will. They came 
together after the passage of the stamp act; Thomas Porter was their 
representative in the General Court. 

It was between five and six o'clock on the morning of April 19, 1775, 
that the engagement took place on Lexington Commons. The British 
arrived at Concord, some six miles beyond, about nine o'clock. By that 



766 ESSEX COUNTY 

time the alarm had reached Danvers, sixteen miles away. It met with 
instant response. Two companies of minute-men and three companies of 
m.ilitia, from 150 to 200 men, hunted to the scene of action. Learning of 
the retreat from Concord, the object was to reach Cambridge soon 
enough to cut off the British from effecting a return. To this they went 
on a run, and in a few hours they were in the midst of action. Few well 
men could be found in Danvers that day ; at New Mills not one. 

The women who were left alone at New Mills gathered at the house 
of Colonel Hutchinson to watch and wait together. A reliable account 
says: "To their anxious vigil news of the fight came on the evening of 
the 19th. Were the men safe? Most of them. Were any hurt? Some. 

Were any ? Yes, young bride of a few weeks, your husband, Jotham 

Webb, was one of the first martyrs to Liberty. Six others, only one more 
than twenty-five years old, lost their lives, out of the men who went out 
from Danvers. Henry Jacobs, Samuel Cook, Ebenezer Goldwaite, George 
Southwick, Benjamin Dalan, Jr., and Perley Putnam. Nathan Putnam 
and Dennison Wallace were wounded ; Jos. Bell, missing." 

On the evening of the 20th several men on horseback drove to the 
house where the women waited, escorting a horse-cart which bore a 
precious burden. On the kitchen floor of that house, which is still stand- 
ing, the dead were unrolled from the bloody sheets, and the next morn- 
ing were taken away for burial. Danvers suffered more than any other 
town after Lexington. The corner-stone of the monument at the corner 
of Main and Washington streets, Peabody, was erected in commemoration 
of the dead, April 20, 1835, the sixtieth anniversary of the fight. Gen. 
Gideon Foster, who led the way to Lexington, took part in the exercises, 
and a number of the survivors of the battle were present. Of the differ- 
ent companies in which soldiers of Danvers were members were these: 
Hutchinson's, Page's and Flint's. 

In 1814, during the second war with England, sixty men, mostly too 
old to be of regular military age, banded together and formed themselves 
into a company in defense of the Stars and Stripes. The officers were 
Samuel Page, captain; Thomas Putnam, lieutenant; Caleb Oakes, ser- 
geant; John Endicott, sergeant; John Page, clerk; Richard Scidmore, 
drummer; Stephen Whipple, fifer; Ephraim Smith, fugleman. 

It appears that the citizens of Danvers anticipated trouble with the 
South after President Lincoln's election, and had called a town meeting a 
week before Fort Sumter was fired upon. This meeting was called to see 
about raising a company of militia, as well as money, in case of war. 
Arthur A. Putnam presided. The matter of being first to enlist in this 
proposed company was looked upon as an honor, and it was borne off by 
Nehemiah P. Fuller, who stepped forward to volunteer, but it later ap- 
peared that one Ruel B. Pray had signified that he was to enlist first, and 
really had put down his name ahead of Fuller. This company was called 
the Danvers Light Infantry. The officers elected were as follows : Capt. 



MILITARY HISTORY 767 

Nehemiah P. Fuller ; First Lieut., William W. Smith ; Second Lieut., Ruel 
B. Pray ; Third Lieut., William W. Gould ; Fourth Lieut., D. W. Hyde. A 
few days later another company was recruited in Danvers ; Capt. Arthur 
A. Putnam was elected to command. 

In about two months the first company, Danvers Light Infantry, 
was transferred to the 17th Infantry. The Putnam Guards were trans- 
ferred to the 14th Infantry. The first military funeral of the war in 
Danvers was that of Thomas A. Musgrave, of Capt. Fuller's company, 
who died August 9, 1861, at Camp Lynnfield. The entire regiment 
marched to the Universalist church. 

Danvers furnished, in all, 792 men for the Civil War, a surplus of 
thirty-six over and above all demands. There were forty-four commis- 
sioned officers. The total amount of money raised on account of the war, 
exclusive of State aid, was $36,596. 

When the Spanish- American War came on, Essex county, through its 
National Guard and otherwise, furnished her full quota of men, as is 
shown by the records of the various towns. 

During the recent World War, the people of Danvers were fully up 
to the standard in which they were found in all previous wars. From 
first to last, the people gave of their means in way of government bond 
sales, Red Cross work, and in enlistments of men even to above her de- 
manded quota. Some enlisted away from home, and hence were not cred- 
ited to Danvers. Of the scores of brave boys who went forth into this 
conflict, the following have been inscribed on the "roll of honor" or 
memorial of the town : Ludwig Carmichael, Arthur F. Drapeau, Hadley 
M. McPhetres, Harry E. Little, Raymond F. Knowlton, Ernest A. St. 
Hilaire, Merritt H. Barnes, Frank A. Small, Ralph W. Lane, Marcus A. 
Jordan, Dexter E. Woodmen, Herbert W. Staples, Robert Nangle. These 
perished that Democracy might become world-wide. 

Salem's Military History — Salem's fame rests not only upon her mili- 
tary record, for she has had forts and artillery and tramping armies, but 
also on account of her peaceful state all down through the almost three 
centuries of history. When other sections of the country, to which she 
has been allied, have been in war and needed her help, no city or town has 
been more ready and willing to assist than Salem. As was written by a 
local observer many years ago: "In every Indian skirmish, and on eyery 
smoke-wreathed field known in our history, from the taking of 'Sassacus 
his fort' to Bunker Hill and Gettysburg, or firing their guns on the ocean 
in all latitudes, have stood men of Salem, patriotic, brave and enduring. 
Their blood has wet the sod from the Chapparal of Mexico to the shores 
of the great lakes, and their shattered bones lie fathoms deep in every 
sea." 

It was really in Salem where the Revolution began, when the Gen- 
eral Court, the same year, formed itself into a Provincial Congress, and 
later, adjourning to Concord, appointed officers independent of the crown 



768 ESSEX COUNTY 

and proceeded to procure arms and ammunition. Here also, says one his- 
torian, occurred "the first actual collision with the British troops, which 
though without bloodshed, resulted in their retirement without the 
accomplishment of their purpose." 

One year before the "Lexington Alarm," Salem had been making 
ready for any emergency that might come. After Lexington, no com- 
promise seemed possible. Men everywhere arranged to enter an aiTny 
to fight to the bitter end. A lady wrote from Salem in June, 1775 : "The 
men are listing very fast; 3 or 400 are gone from here." A few men 
were present at Bunker Hill, but most of the company did not arrive soon 
enough. Lieutenant Benjamin West, a gallant young oflScer from Salem, 
was killed at Bunker Hill, about the breastworks. 

The naval part in which Salem engaged throughout this war was of 
much importance, and kept the English navy busy watching the move- 
ments. At last peace came to the Colonists, and all was tranquil until 
1812, when war was declared against England the second time by this 
countiy. For three years forty vessels, practically all men-of-war-ships, 
cruised from Salem, heavily armed, and manned by skilful seamen; this 
does not include over one hundred letter-of-marque trading vessels, which 
also took a hand in fighting as well as in trading. 

As was the case in all previous times, Salem had her part in the 
Civil War, waged between the North and South from 1861 to 1865, 
This is not the proper place in which to discuss the causes of that four- 
year conflict; sufficient to say, slavery v/as back of it, and the right of 
one State in the Union to secede from the others had to be tested on 
many a hard fought battle field. Salem shared with other New Eng- 
land towns in her anger at the South for firing on the Union's own fort, 
with the Union's own guns and powder. Five days after Sumter was 
fired upon, a meeting was called in Salem, at Mechanics Hall, at which 
Mayor S. P. Webb presided. It was there determined to stand by the 
Union, come what might. Several thousand dollars were subscribed on 
the spot for immediate use in organizing and for carrying out anything 
the government at Washington might deem wise. The following day the 
Salem company of Light Infantry, under Capt. Arthur Devereux, number- 
ing sixty-two muskets, left Salem for Boston, where it was made a part 
of the Eighth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers. Within five days, 
two hundred men left Salem for Washington at the call of President Lin- 
coln. 

But Salem saw ahead and believed more men should be sent to other 
parts of the Southland, and hence went about recruiting companies of 
soldiers. It was not hard to get enlistments "for three years or the 
war," and at an Irish patriotic meeting, forty men enlisted on the spot. 
The Salem City Council appropriated $15,000 at its first meeting after 
Sumter fell. The years of war went steadily on, men were wanted and 
men were had ; money was needed and money was forthcoming — anything 



MILITARY HISTORY 769 

to save the flag and the Union. When the final report was made, in 
round numbers, it was discovered that Salem had sent forth 2,760 pri- 
vates and 340 commissioned officers, making a total of 3,100 men. Of the 
great number of "killed, wounded and missing," from out the more than 
three thousand soldiers from Salem, let the years of eternity disclose the 
facts. 

The next war in which Salem was called upon to make her offering 
and sacrifice was that of the War with Spain in 1898-99, when Cuba 
gained her freedom from the Spanish yoke of four hundred years' burden. 
As most of the men demanded in that war were from organized militia or 
National Guard companies, the local work of mustering and recruiting 
in Salem was easier accomplished than in previous wars. No authority 
In way of corrected military reports as to men serving and of the death 
lists having been provided by the State of Massachusetts, further mention 
of the service in the Spanish- American War cannot here be given. 

Of the recent World War, government reports have not yet been 
compiled, and the local authorities failed to retain a copy of the enroll- 
ments, war activities, etc, for Salem, only little can therefore be said in 
interesting detail about the part Salem took in the struggle. 

The following war activities in Salem, as shown by their different 
department records, had officers as follows : Food Administration — James 
C. Poor, Essex County Director; Arthur H. Phippen, Salem Food Direc- 
tor. Fuel Board — Alvah P. Thompson, chairman, Salem Chamber of 
Commerce. Legal Advisory Board — Robert W. Hill, chairman. Masonic 
Temple; Charles A. Salisbury, Probate officer, Superior Court; William 
H. Hart, District Court. Liberty Loan Committee — Henry M. Bachelder, 
chairman. City Hall; Edmund G. Sullivan, secretary. Chamber of Com- 
merce. Public Safety Committee — Arthur H. Phippen, chairman. City 
Hall. Public Service — George W. Pitman, chairman, Salem Chamber of 
Commerce. American Red Cross — Rev. Edward D. Johnson, chairman, 
Salem Chapter; Annie L. Warner, executive secretary, Salem Chapter, 
Masonic Temple. War Chest — George W. Hooper, president; D. A. 
Donahue, treasurer ; A. B. Towers, clerk, Salem Five Cents Savings Bank 
Building. 

It may be said that in each and every call for men and dollars, Salem 
went to the standard set, and in most cases "over the top", as did many 
of her brave sons over the seas, when seeking to silence the power of 
the great foe before them. 

Military History of Lynn. — Every good law-abiding citizen is inter- 
estedd in the histoiy of the military movements in which his people have 
been connected. In the nearly three centuries since white men first 
looked upon the fair and valuable domain known as Essex county, Mas- 
sachusetts, and the towTi of Lynn, so historic in its day and generation, 
there has been need of many trained soldiers, and they have always been 
forthcoming. That sacrifices have been made to carry forward what has 

Essex — 49 



770 ESSEX COUNTY 

been deemed just wars, goes without saying. The first wars were occa- 
sioned by the savage Indian tribes, and later the white race fought be- 
tween themselves. White men here in New England first taught the 
untutored savage the art of using a gun, and such an act was about the 
worst thing they could have offered the red-skin. Military skill was 
naturally in high repute among the early fathers in New England. 
Plymouth had her Miles Standish and Lynn had John Humphrey, the 
first major-general of the colony, who settled in Lynn in 1634. From 
that time to this, many are the military characters of which this sketch 
is all too short to narrate. 

It was early in 1630 that a military company was organized here 
under Captain Richard Wright, with Daniel Howe as lieutenant, and 
Richard Walker as ensign. This company was provided with two 
iron cannon. At the breaking out of the Pequot war, in 1636, Captain 
Nathaniel Turner of Lynn commanded one of the companies detailed for 
service in that war. Among the Lynn soldiers in the Pequot war was 
Christopher Lindsey, who kept the cattle of Mr. Dexter, at Nahant. He 
was a laboring man, and in his honor the elevation of land there was 
called Lindsey's Hill. It was in 1638 that the Ancient and Honorable 
Artillery was organized in Lynn. Among the first members were Will- 
iam Ballard, Joseph Hewes, Daniel Howe, Edward Tomlins, Nathaniel 
Turner and Richard Walker. 

The last gi^eat struggle of the red man commenced in 1675, in what 
is termed the King Philip War, in which Lynn was not especially inter- 
ested, only as it being of general interest to New England. Thomas 
Marshall was then captain of the Lynn company, and had been a resident 
here forty years. He kept the tavern near Saugus river many years. 
Lynn did "her full share in that memorable war. Much space cannot be 
given here for details in these early wars in which Essex county took 
part. The towns have ample records, where one interested can obtain 
the salient facts concerning the Indian wars and the French and Indian 
as well as the Revolutionary struggle. However, a few facts should 
here be narrated. 

Several Lynn men were present at the battle of Lexington, April 19, 
1775, the opening battle of that long struggle. Four of these men were 
killed — Abedenego Ramsdell, William Flint, Thomas Hadley and Daniel 
Townsend. April 23, that year, a committee of safety was formed in 
Lynn. At first it consisted of Rev. John Treadwell, minister of the 
First Parish, Rev. Joseph Roby, minister of the Third Parish, and Deacon 
Daniel Mansfield. An alarm company was organized and three night 
watches were established. Colonel John Mansfield's regiment marched 
to Bunker Hill, but arrived too late to render assistance. L3mn fur- 
nished in that war for independence two colonels, three captains, five 
lieutenants, five sergeants, six corporals, and about one hundred and sixty 
privates. Lynn was poor at that date, and business prostrate, yet she 



MILITARY HISTORY 771 

voted in 1770 to each company of soldiers furnished for the expedition 
into Canada, fifteen pounds sterling to each man. In 1780 she voted as 
much money as would purchase 2,700 silver dollars to pay off the soldiers. 

The War of 1812 was necessarily a naval combat, but it occasioned 
much distress and business depression. The gallant contest between 
the English frigate "Shannon" and the American frigate "Chesapeake," 
June 1, 1813, was witnessed by crowds of the people of Lynn, who not 
only climbed the hills, but also clung to the housetops. At about that 
time there were three well-uniformed and equipped companies in Lynn — 
Lynn Artillery, organized in 1808 ; the Light Infantry, organized in 1812 ; 
and the Rifle Company, organized in later years. The gallant Lieutenant 
Mudge, of Lynn, lost his life in the Seminole, or Florida War, about 1835. 
The Mexican War, which commenced in 1846, continuing two years, a^ked 
for men from Lynn, and she furnished twenty volunteers. 

The Civil War, or the Rebellion of the Southern States, opening with 
the firing on Fort Sumter, April 12, 1861, and lasting more than four 
years, called from Lynn and all Essex county a large number of men, 
many of whom sacrificed life on the altar of the country. In five hours 
after President Lincoln called for 75,000 men, Lynn had two full com- 
panies ready for duty. Early the day following they left for the seat of 
war. These two companies formed a part of the Eighth Massachusetts 
Regiment of Infantry, and were styled Company D and Company F. The 
former, the Lynn Light Infantry, was commanded by Captain George T. 
Newhall and the latter by Captain James Hudson, Jr. The regimental 
officers belonging to Lynn were : Timothy Munroe, colonel ; Edward W. 
Hinks, lieutenant-colonel ; Ephraim A. Ingalls, quartermaster ; Roland G. 
Usher, paymaster ; Bowman B. Breed, surgeon ; Warren Tapley, assistant 
surgeon ; Horace E. Munroe, quartermaster-sergeant. In all that dread- 
ful straggle, Lynn furnished 3,274 men, 230 more than her quota. The 
principal victories were celebrated by the ringing of bells, by bonfires 
and other demonstrations. Many who were the "loyal blue" lost their 
lives — some on battlefields, some starved in prison-pens, beneath a South- 
em sky, while others died of disease. The Lynn cemeteries hold many 
of the forms of Union soldiers, while a greater share were buried in the 
far-off Southland. In 1873 a beautiful monument was erected in City 
Hall Square. It is a solid bronze allegorical cast made at Munich, Bava- 
ria, and its cost was over $30,000. 

Coming down to the Spanish-American War in 1898-9, it may be 
said that Lynn furnished more than nine hundred men, and almost one 
hundred are now buried in the city cemeteries. The veterans of that 
war keep up an organization, similar to the old Grand Army of the Re- 
public. 

When war was declared by Congress and President Wilson in April, 
1917, Lynn, with all other parts of Essex county, commenced to do its 
full share in sending to the scene of action men as fast as transports could 
carry them over seas. 



772 



ESSEX COUNTY 



The various Liberty Loan campaigns or "drives" resulted as follows: 
First, no quota, $3,348,450 subscribed; Second, quota, $4,730,000, 
$4,691,700 subscribed ; Third, quota, $2,917,500 ; $3,391,550 subscribed ; 
Fourth, quota $4,545,000, $4,577,550 subscribed. Among the committees 
for these "drives" the following served for the "fighting" or Fourth Lib- 
erty Loan drive : Charles A. Collins, chairman ; Charles F. Sprague, vice- 
chairman; Mrs. John H. Hollis, chairman of the women's committee, "and 
100,000 more." 

The War Chest work was great, and resulted in much good. The 
following organizations made up the "Chest": Young Men's Christian 
Association, Red Cross Society, Knights of Columbus, and Salvation 
Army. The War Chest Committee was as follows: Mr. Edward S. 
Underwood, Charles A. Collins, C. Fred Smith, Dr. F. W. Perkins, Rev. 
John Sheridan, Mrs. John H. Hollis, Mrs. Daniel C. Goss, Mrs. Charles 
A. Collins, Mrs. John Adams, George R. Beardsell, Adolph Ackerman, 
Charles S. Sanborn and Harrison P. Burrill. The exact amount of money 
raised by this budget is not yet audited, but the author personally knows 
that it runs into tens of thousands of dollars, and all was placed where it 
would supposedly do the most good. The work carried on in the public 
schools was also a wonderful accomplishment. Prof. Haseltine, in his 
chapter on "Public Schools of Lynn" in this work, makes special and im- 
pressive mention of this feature on the part of children and teachers. 

In front of the City Hall stands a large granite rock, in which, is 
securely imbedded a heavy bronze tablet bearing in plain raised letters 
the inscription of the names of those who sacrificed life for their loyalty 
to the flags of the allied forces in the recent war. The heading of the 
inscription reads thus: 

"Soldiers, Sailors and Marines Who Died for Their Country in the 
War Against Germany, Austria and Hungary." 

Their names follow: 



Anderson, Ernest C. 
Anderson, Theodore 
Andrews, Cecil E. 
Austin, J. Frank 
Baker, Francis P. 
Balcom, Horace V. 
Bangs, Edward Wilson 
Baston, Edgar H. 
Bazinski, Joseph 
Beaupre, Joseph D. 
Berube, Thomas H. 
Bird, Everett E. 
Boissonneau, A. A. 
Borginski, Joseph 
Buchanan, Mathew L. 
Burdette, Ralph M. 
Burke, Frank L. 
Burrill, George F. 
Burrus, Frank K. 
Buttimer, George A. 
Caldwell, Calvin A. 
Call, James C. 



Carter, Richard C. 
Chamberlain, Joseph W. 
Chase, David 
Chase, Edward F. 
Chesley, Louis Albert 
Ciampa, Pasquale 
Clark, Fred A. 
Collier, Raymond 
Conneroy, William H. 
Cosgrove, James J. 
Crozman, James Elmer 
Currier, Rowland L. 
Curtis, Fred L., Jr. 
Deicman, Thomas J. 
Dolley, John H. 
Doolan, Patrick 
Draper, John 
Dunn, Frank J. 
Ethridge, Geo. F. 
Faretti, Carlo F. 
Farrell, John J. 
Featherstone, Charles D. 



Feeney, George Francis 
Fiske, Crowell G. 
Fitzgerald, James 
Fleet, Chester A. 
Flemiken, John 
Ford, Frank 
Fowler, George 
Freeman, Frank F. 
Frey, Rollin W. 
Furlong, Francis J. 
Gagnon, Rene J. 
Gardner, Clyde H. 
Gormeley, Owen J. 
Goss, Roy E. 
Griswold, Merwin L. 
Grover, William A. 
Hall, Archie C. 
Hannify, Francis M. 
Hanrahan, Daniel J. 
Harris, Harold H. 
Hobbs, Joseph Henry 
Hudson, Charles A. 




WORKING FOR WORLD WAR SOLDIERS, LYNN 



MILITARY HISTORY 



773 



Hard, Arthur B. 
Hurley, John H. 
Jordan, Albert F. 
Kavanaugh, Eugene M. 
Kehoe, Thomas, Jr. 
Kelley, William E. 
Kennedy, Arthur J. 
Kiley, William E. 
Kimpton, Arlo 
Kinane, James R. 
King, Philip E. 
Kourtis, Peter 
Lane, George A. 
L&ngdell, George W. 
Lathe, Harold W. 
Law, Harold A. 
Leach, H. W. 
Leslie, Frank 
Lilegren, Karl A. 
Lindsey, Andrew B. 
Lindsey, Stanley H. 
Lundburg, Elmer H. 
Maag, E. F. C. 
Mace, Lawrence R. 
Madden, Robert L. 
Magrane, Francis J. 
Malady, John J. 
Mallinson, H. L. 
Marks, E. Milton 
Morrison, L. J. 



McCartin, Patrick J. 
McDonough, Thomas L. 
McGloin, Edgar J. 
McGlue, John R. 
McGovern, James P. 
McGrath, Joseph F. 
Mclsaac, Richard R. 
McLean, George L. 
Minard, Asa Raymond, Jr. 
Mitchell, Lester 
Mooney, George T. 
Morisette, Cyril P. 
Morrelli, P. 
Morrisey, Charles A. 
Munroe, George 
Murphy, Frank 
Murphy, Frank Joseph 
Nelson, Leroy E. 
Noonan, Thomas E. 
Oreghva, Joseph 
Parker, Albert 
Parker, Wilfred 
Paylor, George F. 
Peckley, Joseph G. 
Philips, Ralph 
Pickman, Ed J. 
Preston, Harold C. 
Purdon, Frederick W. 
Puzzo, Charles 
Quinn, John T. 
Reen, John J. 



Rice, Melvin F. 
Richard, Marcel E. 
Robinson, Aubrey E. 
Ryans, Robert M. 
Sacron, Benjamin 
Saubders, Clayton F. 
Saunders, Jeffrey H. 
Sawage, Carroll 
Sewell, Loren W. 
Shaw, Ed W. 
Shea, Earl W. 
Shelton, Harold 
Smith, Samuel 
Southworth, R. O. 
Stephens, William J. 
Stevens, Raymond 
Stewart, Guy D. 
Taylor, Stephen H. 
Thomas, George E. 
Thorpe, John Reynolds 
Timmons, Basil D. 
Tulloch, John S. 
Walsh, Francis A. 
Walsh, William H. 
Watson, Edward O. 
White, William L. 
Wilkins, Lloyd E. 
Wood, Benjamin Clifford 
Worth, Charles E. 
Young, Walter H. 



McCarthy, Charles J. 

In the recent World War, Lynnfield proved herself equal to the task 
of responding to the numerous calls for both men and money. The 
various "drives" were met with the same promptness as in the other 
towns of Essex county, and the final result of the war was gratifying to 
all within her borders. The sad part was the loss by death of three of 
her brave sons, who fell in the strife — Willard James Freeman, Benja- 
min Lincoln Mitchell and John Farrington Lammers. 

Gloucester's Military Record. — The first call for service by a mili- 
tary company in Gloucester was in 1675, during the Indian War. These 
eight men were the first called: Andrew Sargent, Joseph Clark, Joseph 
Somes, Joseph Allen, Jacob Davis, Vincent Davis, Thomas Kent and 
Hugh How. When the return was made, they all signed before the 
words: "due want warm clothing, and must have new coates." Thir- 
teen others served from Gloucester in the first Indian war. These 
twenty-one persons represented about one-third of the male citizens of 
the town capable of bearing arms. In 1676, when the Indians were 
committing depredations at Andover and other near-by places, Glouces- 
ter was put in a state of defence ; a committee of General Court reported 
"Cape Ann has made two garrisons, besides several particular fortifica- 
tions." 

The next call for service was when came the expedition against Louis- 
burg, the well-fortified French town, at Cape Breton, in 1745. Trans- 
ports from Gloucester, under Captain Thomas Sanders and Captain 
Charles Byles, with a company of forty-five soldiers from Gloucester, 
took part in this important expedition. 



774 ESSEX COUNTY 

When the French and Indian War came on, in 1755, Gloucester had 
a large interest at stake, as its Grand Bank fishery, now being of much 
importance, had been greatly interfered with by the French. The suc- 
cess of the English was therefore necessary to the best interests of 
Gloucester. One whole company was furnished from Gloucester, and 
several soldiers in other companies, in the first year of the war. After 
the war just named, the country was at peace for a number of years, 
but upon the passage of the Stamp Act in 1765, there soon were heard 
the mutterings of a stoiin, the climax of which was the Revolutionary 
struggle and final independence of the Colonies. Early in 1775, active 
military preparations commenced ; small arms were bought, musket balls 
procured and cartridges made, all by the direction of the town; a com- 
pany of minute-men was organized, commanded by Nathaniel Warner. 
While all this was going on, came news of the fight at Lexington. An 
express was sent to Cambridge to procure arms. A committee of safety 
of thirty-one men was formed and enlistments were vigorously pushed 
forward. It is not known just the number of men from Gloucester, 
but it is certain that there were four companies, wholly Gloucester men, 
and thirty enlisted here from Ipswich. One account says: Gloucester 
had in the first campaign over three hundred soldiers. Two Gloucester 
companies were present at the battle of Bunker Hill. Two gallant men 
were lost that day — Daniel Callahan and Benjamin Smith. The other 
Gloucester company was commanded by Captain John Rowe. It left 
Gloucester June 12th, en route to Cambridge, via Wenham. They soon 
met a large company of men from the Cambridge army, and, uniting 
forces, all marched to Bunker Hill, where quietly they began throwing 
up breastworks. In the ensuing engagement Francis Pool, Josiah 
Brooks and William Parsons were killed and many others wounded. 
Mr. Babson (historian) says that "all but six were fishermen and sail- 
ors. Thirty-five were natives of Gloucester. Seventeen were under 
twenty-one years of age, five only over thirty, and none over forty. The 
youngest was William Low, only fourteen years old. John Row, Jr., 
was only sixteen years of age." 

Many ships went forth as privateers and captured several valuable 
prizes in the War of 1812. In fact, the greater strength of war activi- 
ties from Gloucester in that war was that concerning marine or ocean 
operations. 

The mails of the morning of April 15, 1861, brought full particu- 
lars of the firing on Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor. South Carolina, 
the opening of the Civil War. That evening Company G, of the Eighth 
Regiment of Infantry, was recruited and left Gloucester on the morning 
of the 16th. This was soon followed by Company K, of the Twelfth 
Regiment. Mass-meetings were held, and in a few days Company C 
was recruited and made a part of the Twenty-third Regiment. Com- 
pany D, of the Thirty-second, and Company K, of the Thirtieth Regi- 



MILITARY HISTORY 



775 



ment, gave a respectable lot of soldiers from Gloucester. In December, 
1864, a company of Coast Defense was raised at Gloucester and sta- 
tioned at Marblehead port till the end of the war. The men credited 
to Gloucester during the four-year Civil War were as follows: Three 
months' men, 67 ; one hundred days' men, 72 ; for six months, 3 ; for nine 
months, 106 ; for three years, 649 ; for one year, 129. Total for army, 
1,026 ; in the navy, 478 ; total anny and navy, 1,504. 

Passing over the war period of the Spanish-American War, 1898-99, 
in which the National Guard of Essex county made the chief bodies sent 
out, the reader is invited to note the particulars of the recent World War: 
Tme to its record in all previous wars in which the countiy has been 
engaged, Gloucester did its part in the gi^eat World War, furnishing 
over 1,650 men, of whom over 500 were in the naval service, in response 
to the cry of the Allies for help in their great struggle against Germany, 
fifty-seven of whom, including one woman, laid down their lives that 
Liberty and Freedom might be preserved throughout all the earth. As 
a memorial to the services of these men, the Old Tovm Hall, erected in 
1845 and used as the public meeting place until the erection of a more 
modem building in 1867, and later as a school house, was remodeled and 
placed at the disposal of the sui-vivors as a Memorial Building, while in 
the square in front a tribute to the heroic dead was erected in the form 
of an equestrian statue of Joan of Arc, a duplicate of the statue near 
Riverside Drive, New York, the work of Miss Anna Vaughn Hyatt, of 
Cambridge, a summer resident of Annisquam. 

The statute stands on a pedestal of Cape Ann granite, of attractive 
design, the work of Frederick G. Hall, of Boston, a summer resident of 
East Gloucester. On one end of the pedestal is the motto, "For Their 
Country, 1917-1918," surrounded by a wreath, with a representation of 
the city seal on the other end, while on the sides are bronze tablets con- 
taining the names of fifty-six men and one woman who made the su- 
preme sacrifice while in the service, above the names being the motto, 
"Aetemum Vale," and beneath, ''Sons of Gloucester Who Gave Their 
Lives in the World War." The names upon the tablets are as follows : 



Lendall H. Abbott 
Frank B. Amaral 
Harvey R. Anderson 
William E. Blaisdell 
Rodney D. Brown 
Samuel H. Byers 
Roland L. Cole 
Lester E. Collins 
Philip Cunningham 
Arthur E. Diamino 
Patrick E. Degnan 
Kilby S. Dennison 
Leon H. Donahue 
Thomas R. Doucette 
Thomas H. G. Douglass 
Wilfred J. Duchane 
Manuel H. Enos 
O. Proctor Friend 
Daniel C. Gale 



John E. Gosson 
Roland B. Griffin 
Edward E. Hamilton 
Phillips Haskell 
Edward W. Howe 
Franklin S. IngersoU 
Alfred A. Jedry 
Mrs. Winifred Call Jeffery 
Aino E. Johnson 
James E. Keating 
Charles B. Knutson 
Milton E. Lane 
Eric Lingard 
Raymond W. Lowe 
Joseph S. Mattos, Jr. 
James E. McDonald 
J. Russell McKenney 
Donald C. McKinnon 
Joachim Murray 



Edward D. Newell 
Harold E. Oakes 
A. Maxwell Parsons 
Lawrence C. Peabody 
Frank R. Perry 
Arthur M. Pinkham 
Albert T. Plourde 
Herman S. Robinson 
Thomas L. Saxild 
Carl L. Seaburg 
Carlton J. Smith 
George H. Stenstream 
Waldo L. Stream 
James J. Torretta 
Nestor T. Walen 
Lester S. Wass 
Martin L. Welch, Jr. 
George H. Whiting 
Lawson A. Wile 



776 ESSEX COUNTY 

Newburyport. — A committee of safety was appointed at Newbury- 
port just before the battle of Lexington, and the seizure of public stores 
at Concord by the British troops was the final signal for action. On the 
receipt of the news, Captain Moses Nowell at once mustered his company 
of militia and started at eleven o'clock for the scene of action. In May, 
1775, a volunteer company was formed in the town and marched away 
to unite with Colonel Moses Little's regiment. Still a third company 
was recruited, but had within its numbers many from outside towns. 
Finally, these all joined the Continental army, and with Capt. Lunt were 
at the battle of Bunker Hill. During seven years of the Revolutionary 
War, Newburyport furnished 717 enlistments, including those who came 
from outside towns and enrolled there. From the date of the Lexing- 
ton alarm to the end of the conflict, Newburyport had appropriated the 
sum of £500,000 sterling, nearly all having been spent for war expenses. 
Men from this town were found on the ocean wherever the new flag, 
"Old Glory" as now styled, was seen floating to the breeze. Wherever 
a gun was fired by Newburyport men, it was in defence of true liberty. 

When the War of 1812 came on, there were many men in Newbury- 
port who understood something of what a war meant to any country. 
This had come to be a very large shipping and boat-building port, and 
when the British began seizing our boats it hurt the business interests 
here to a great extent. The hundreds of craft here built and owned 
were at the sport of the British navy. When war was declared, New- 
buryport had about 8,000 population ; its tonnage was 24,000 tons ; its 
duty on imports was $47,000. Here, as all over New England, this was 
not a popular war. Votes were passed refusing to pay bounties for en- 
listments should men be called for. The seizure of our boats greatly 
tended to enthuse the people, however, and finally they were fast for 
war. Before the close of 1812, they had a busy fleet of privateers on 
the seas. The "Manhattan" was the first privateer to sail out from the 
town. All in all, Newburyport did at last stand united with other States 
in repelling the British scheme of ruining our sea trade and undermining 
our commerce. 

Again in 1861, when the Southern States rebelled and the safety of 
the Union of States was threatened, Newburyport took a bold stand, and 
her sons went forth at the first call of President Lincoln. The 8th Regi- 
ment was an Essex county regiment, and the Cushing Guards, under 
Capt. Albert W. Bartlett, was known as Company A. The next com- 
pany to leave was the McClellan Guard, under Capt. Luther Dame; it 
left Massachusetts on June 27, 1861, and was assigned to the 11th Remi- 
ment, and its record was replete with thrilling conduct in all the great 
battles of the war. The next company was that known as Company B, 
of the 35th Regiment, under Capt. Albert W. Bartlett. It is easier to 
say that it was in all the great engagements than it is to try to enumer- 
ate the many battles. Company A of the 48th Regiment was made up 



MILITARY HISTORY 777 

at Newburyport, under C. M, Woodward. The total number of en- 
listments credited to Newburyport was 1,343. Besides these in the 
army, there were 242 volunteers in the navy, making 1,585 in all. The 
ladies of the town were ever alert, and the amount of needful articles 
were forthcoming whenever a call was made for them. The Home 
Soldiers' Relief Association raised and disbursed $13,000 in cash during 
three years, to which was added boxes of articles for the health and 
comfort of the men in the field. The money and articles furnished 
was in excess of $31,000. When the war had ended the ladies had a 
balance of $1,500, which v/as distributed among the various churches of 
the town. 

In the Spanish-American War of 1898-99, when Cuba was set free, 
as one of the results of the sinking of the "Maine," Newburyport re- 
sponded with men and money to further a war which, happily, was of 
short duration, it being largely an ocean warfare. 

The late W^orld War, in which the allied forces, including the United 
States, had for their enemy Germany, Austria and Hungary, commanded 
the attention of all loyal spirits on American soil. Newburyport was 
fully up to the standard in what she did, and what she furnished in men 
and in means in support of the cause of true democracy, world-wide. 
The government reports are not yet published, so that a roster of men 
sent to this conflict cannot now be given. In front of the City Hall in 
Newburyport has been erected a wooden tablet (preparatory to more 
permanent memorials) to the men who sacrificed life in the war. This 
tablet shows the names of the following: James H. Aurelius, Raymond 
T. Balch, Edwin E. Boston, Eben Bradbury, Jr., Harry M. Burke, Fred 
A. Clark, Joseph S. Chaisson, George Dow, Cornelius J. Doyle, Fred C. 
Duelvitz, James G. Gallagher, Francis M. Fowler, Daniel H. Lucy, Ar- 
thur Morin, Cornelius F. Moynihan, Joseph A. Pelkey, Ed. H. Perry, 
Wicenitzy Pieterneck, Harry L. Pray, John W. Ryan, Arthur H. Wright, 
Harold Gove, Fred Horsch, Daniel P. Horgan, John T, Hallisey. 

Haverhill. — From various records and historical writings, including a 
recent article from the pen of Major Ralph D. Hood, the following has 
been gleaned as to the part taken by loyal citizens of Haverhill in all of 
the conflicts since the Indian wars and the Revolution, as well as in the 
late World War. 

As early as 1631, a military company was authorized, and in all 
probability Ensign Noyes, the first surveyor, was an officer, although it 
was not until 1662 that a record was made of the organization of a mili- 
tary company, with Captain William White and Lieutenant Daniel Ladd 
as ofl^cers. In 1675 a fort was constructed around the meeting house, 
and from that date till 1762 the Colony was almost continuously under 
arms in defense of their homes from the attack of the Indians and 
French. April 30, 1697, the famed Hannah Dustin and two companions 
killed and scalped ten Indians, thereby carving a place for herself in the 



778 ESSEX COUNTY 

world's history as the American Amazon. In the Indian massacre of 
August 29, 1708, the following officers were killed: Captains Samuel 
Ayer and Simeon Wainwright, and Lieutenant John Johnson. 

In the period before the Revolutionaiy War many companies of 
militia were formed. Among those whose names have been perpetuated 
are found those of General Israel Bartlett, the only general officer men- 
tioned in early history, and the following: Captains, Edmund Mooers, 
Richard Saltonstall, David Johnson, John Hazen; and Ensign Moses 
Hazen. These officers kept up the organization of the military com- 
panies of that early period. Before September 5, 1774, all of the Hav- 
erhill troops had been infantry, but on this date a company of artillery 
was organized under Captain James Brickett, with Lieutenant Israel 
Bartlett and Ensign Joshua B. Osgood as officers, probably in anticipa- 
tion of the Revolution. 

April 19, 1775, Lieut.-Col. James Brickett, with Capts. James Saw- 
yer's and Ebenezer Colby's and Lieut. Samuel Clement's companies of 
minute-men, a total of 105 officers and men, left Haverhill for Cambridge 
in answer to the first call of the American Revolution; one company of 
militia was left behind to protect the town and complete the spring work. 
At the battle of Bunker (or Breed's) Hill, two companies were in action 
and a number of men were wounded, among them being Col. James 
Brickett. A greater portion of these men, with many home recruits, 
continued in the service throughout the war, among whom were Capt. 
William Baker and Gen. Thomas Bartlett, the latter having been the 
ranking officer from the town of Haverhill. 

In 1804 Capt. Huse was commanding the local company, and on 
May 26, 1810, the Haverhill Light Infantry was organized, commanded 
by Capt. Jesse Harding, with an ai-mory in the Bannister block, on the 
site of the Wachusett Club, at the comer of Bridge and Merrimack 
street. The town boasted, in 1812, of three companies. September 10, 
1814, Capt. Samuel W. Duncan's company of the 5th Regiment, Second 
Brigade, Second Division, M. V. M., with Lieut. Nathaniel Burrill and 
Ensign Thomas Newcomb, marched to Charlestown for service in the 
war against England. At the close of the war in 1815, the town held 
a celebration in honor of their successful efforts to maintain their inde- 
pendence. The names of Majors Duncan, White and Harding appear 
as the ranking officers of that occasion. The Haverhill Light Infantry 
was disbanded in 1841 and was succeeded by the Hale Guards, under 
Capt. William Taggert. 

No company was organized for the Mexican War in 1846-48, but 
many Haverhill soldiers went with Col. Caleb Cushing's Massachusetts 
regiment, and at least seven of these veterans are buried in Haverhill 
cemeteries. 

No remarkable military events occurred between 1849 and 1861. 
During a part of this time the Hale Guards were quartered in the Town 



MILITARY HISTORY 779 

Hall, and later were transferred to the Armory, at the comer of Merri- 
mack and Fleet streets, where they were when the call came to put down 
the Rebellion. Under Capt. Carlos P. Messer, the Hale Guards, as Com- 
pany D, 5th Massachusetts Infantry, entrained for Washington and took 
part in the Baltimore riot on their way. The following companies were 
later recruited and did loyal service from 1861 to 1865: Company E, 
17th Volunteers, Capt. Michael McNamara; Company F, 17th Volun- 
teers, Capt. Luther Day; Company H, 22nd Volunteers, Capt. William 
F. Gibson; Company G, 50th Volunteers, Capt. George W. Edwards; 
Company F, 50th Volunteers, Capt. Samuel Duncan; Company I, 60th 
Volunteers, Capt. David Boynton. 

Many detached units follov/ed, all doing heroic service. Many 
earned high rank and honor, among them Major-General Henry Jackson 
How, whose brilliant life closed on a Southern battlefield. With a total 
population of less than ten thousand persons, Haverhill furnished 73 
officers and 1,003 men to preserve the Union, and of this number 186 
gave up their lives in battle. 

Military matters were at a standstill in Haverhill after the end of 
the Civil War, until July 1, 1869, when Company F, 6th M. V. M., was 
transferred from Concord to Haverhill, and Capt. Edmund G. W. Cart- 
wright, 1st Lieut. Henry T. Fitts and 2nd Lieut. William H. Turner were 
elected officers on August 6, 1869, and camped at Boxford, August 24 to 
29, 1^69. 

In 1873 the State purchased the State Camp Ground at Framing- 
ham, and the militia was equipped with the muzzle-loading Springfield 
rifle. May 19, 1873, John N. Ellsworth was commissioned first lieu- 
tenant, and Frank A. Dow second lieutenant. April 13, 1874, John N. 
Ellsworth was commissioned captain, Frank A. Dow first lieutenant, and 
Charles H. Stanton second lieutenant. The latter was succeeded by 
Marshall Alden, September, 1875, and later became first lieutenant, 
September 17, 1877. It was in 1877 that this company was equipped 
with Springfield breech-loading rifles, calibre 45. September 11, 1878, 
Marshall Alden became captain, and in December, 1878, the company 
was transfeiTed from the 6th to the 8th Regiment.