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JAPANESE 
SWORD GUARDS 




MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS 
BOSTON 




MUSEUM OF 
FINE- ARTS 
BOSTON ** 



JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

BY OKABE-KAKUYA 



IN CO-OPERATION WITH THE DEPARTMENT 
OF CHINESE AND JAPANESE ART 









PREFATORY NOTE 



THE following catalogue of a special exhibition 
( 1907-1908 ) of Japanese sword guards, or tsuba, 
has been prepared by Mr. Okabe-Kakuya. To 
our knowledge it is the first attempt to treat the history 
of the tsuba and tsuba makers apart from the other 
branches of metal work which enter into the orna- 
mentation of the Japanese sword. 

Of the three sections into which the book is 
divided, the first gives a brief general history of the 
art, specifying the different periods in which the artists 
worked, the various circumstances and influences which 
from time to time caused new developments of form 
and material, and the results due to these changes. 
The illustrations in this section are reproductions of 
drawings by Mr. Okabe from woodcuts in the Japanese 
books at the Museum. The second section consists of 
an alphabetical list of the more important schools of 
tsuba makers. The list of names given is strictly con- 
fined to those of men who actually made tsuba, and 
does not include artists who worked only in other 
forms of metal work. The third section serves as a 
guide to the present exhibition. It is accompanied 
with half-tone plates giving typical illustrations of 
various schools and artists. In instances where the 
execution, design, or material is of particular interest, 
special notes have been added. 

Mr. Okabe was assistant professor of metal work at 
the Imperial Art School of Tokyo under the late 
Kano-Natsuo, one of the most noted metal artists of 
recent times, and is now a member of the Nippon- 
Bijitsuin. His work has been honored by medals at 
various expositions. During his six years' association 



M7G57G3 



iv PREFATORY NOTE 

with Kano-Natsuo he had exceptional advantages for 
study, and took many notes from talks and lectures by 
the Master. In 1899 Mr. Okabe wrote a series of 
articles on metal work, based on this material in the 
Nippon-Bijitsu. These articles gave a new presenta- 
tion of the subject from the artist's point of view, and 
have been acknowledged as a valuable contribution to 
the history of art. 

For the last three years Mr. Okabe has been in 
charge of the metal work at the Museum, studying the 
collection, cataloguing it, and putting the objects into 
good condition. The tsuba shown in this special exhi- 
bition have been selected by Mr. Okabe from the 
collections of Dr. Bigelow, Dr. Weld, and Dr. Ross, 
which together comprise more than one thousand two 
hundred tsuba. To these have been added many 
valuable specimens kindly loaned by Miss Louise M. 
Nathurst, of Boston; Mrs. Russell Robb, of Concord; 
Mr. Frank Jewett Mather, Jr., of New York; and 
Mr. J. H. Donahey, of Cleveland. 

In the preparation of this work Mr. Okabe has 
found the following Japanese books very useful : 

Ansaizuihitsu, by Ise-Teijo. 

Dainihon-Bizutsuriakushi, Imperial Museum of 
Tokyo. 

Sankofuriaku ( Kinkotsubayose ), by Kurihara- 
Nobumitsu. 

Sokenkisho, by Inaba-Tsurio. 

Kokon Kanteibenran, by Nishizawa. 

Kokon Kajibiko, by Yamada-Yoshimutsu. 

Manpozensho, by Kikumoto-Kohosai. 

Bukisodekagami, by Kurihara-Nobumitsu. 



PREFATORY NOTE v 

Bukemeimokusho, by Arai-Kunbi. 
Koto-Kinkomeifu, by Noda-Yoshiaki. 
Kiyu Shoran, by Kitamura-Nobuyo. 
Riuanzappitsu, by Kurihara-Nobumitsu. 
Among European publications, Die Meister der 
Japanischen Schwertzierathen, by S. Hara, and Japanische 
Schwertzierathen, by Gustave Jacoby, contain admirable 
studies on the subject. 

Mr. Okabe desires to acknowledge the shortcom- 
ings of his essay, particularly the incompleteness in 
names and dates, inasmuch as the library at his com- 
mand in America has been necessarily a limited one. 

To Miss Margarette W. Brooks is due the index 
and assistance in correcting the proof. 

The spelling of Chinese and Japanese words follows 
accepted standards except in a few cases (for example, 
Choshiu instead of Choshu), where a change has 
seemed desirable. 

OKAKURA-KAKUZO. 
February, 1908. 



SECTION I 

A brief description of the tsuba of different periods, 
together with an account of the political and social 
changes which from time to time caused new develop- 
ments in the art of tsuba making. 



HISTORIC J L ACCOUNT 3 

UNLIKE the early Chinese and European sword 
guards, which ordinarily are wrought into the 
blade, the Japanese tsuba is a distinctly sepa- 
rate piece of metal, and therefore, although closely 
connected in form and decoration with other adjuncts 
of the weapon, may be to a certain extent con- 




Ear/y Chinese iron swords 



sidered by itself. Primarily we have to consider the 
tsuba in its general relation to swordsmanship and 
warfare, remembering the restrictions placed upon it 
by the shape, length, and weight of the weapon to 
which it was a necessary adjunct. The tsuba had to 
be of suitable size and form to protect the hand, strong 
to withstand impact, and yet light enough not to inter- 
fere with the proper balance of the sword. In the 
peaceful days of the Tokugawa Shogunate (1603- 
1868), however, when the sword became more an 
object of ornament than of use, many of these restric- 
tions were no longer heeded and new factors entered 
into the determination of its shape, material, etc. For 
instance, the strict etiquette of that age imposed, accord- 
ing to social position, the exact manner in which the 
sword should be worn, which in turn necessitated cer- 
tain modifications in the tsuba. At the same time 
the swords (and with them the tsuba) of the Mikado's 



4 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

court at Kyoto differed from those of the Tokugawa 
aristocracy at Yedo, as well as from the shorter swords 
which commoners were privileged to wear on certain 
occasions. The use of gold in its decoration was at 
one time strictly forbidden to all below the rank of 
samurai. Local custom again often dictated the style 
of tsuba worn; thus it is not difficult for any one 
slightly acquainted with the subject to recognize the 
guards made in certain daimyates. 

Everything which pertained to the sword was 
regarded with reverence by the samurai. The adora- 
tion of the blade, common to almost all ancient races, 
never perhaps attained so high a significance or found 
such artistic expression as among the Japanese. When 
the ruler of the sea, brother of the Sun Goddess, slew 
the great dragon whose devastations spread terror 
through the land, he took from its tail a wonderful 
sword which his sister bestowed, together with the 
mirror and the jewel, upon her grandson, founder of 
the Imperial line of Japan. Of these three divine 
gifts, which together constitute the regalia of the 
Island Empire, the dragon sword is preserved at the 
time-honored Shinto shrine of Atsuta. To this shrine, 
as to the shrine at Isonokami, where rests the sword 
of the Sea God, thousands of pilgrims come yearly to 
pay homage. 

With the introduction of Zen modes of thought 
during the Kamakura (1190-1337) and Ashikaga 
(1 337-1 582) periods, the samurai embodied in the 
sword their supreme conception of honor and man- 
hood. In the icy steel, born of fire, they saw revealed 
the mystery of Life, indivisible from that of Death. 



HISTORICAL ACCOUNT 5 

Its serenity taught them the virtue of that self-control 
which calmly prepares for a mighty struggle. In the 
unclouded face of the crystalline blade they beheld 
mirrored the purity and chastity inseparable from 
true loyalty. The most precious dowry a bride could 
bring to a samurai was the honored sword of her 
ancestors, while many an old Japanese drama is based 
on the quest and recovery of some lost blade. His 
sword was a part of the samurai's own personality, and 
people were wont to judge his character from that of 
his weapon. It is related that once Taiko-Hideyoshi, 
the Japanese Napoleon, saw the swords of his generals 
lying on a rack in the antechamber of his palace, and 
so expressive was their individuality that he at once 
recognized to whom each belonged. Next in impor- 
tance to the blade itself came the tsuba and the 
menuki, the central stud on the hilt. To illustrate 
the frame of mind in which the Kamakura knights 
approached the tsuba, we may cite their custom of 
having it consecrated by the holy fathers of the Bud- 
dhist Church. 



The word tsuba is an abbreviation of the classic 
tsumiba, signifying an object which "clinches the 
blade," while its derivatives, tsubamono or tsuhamono 
(something possessing a tsuba), came to be used not 
only for the sword itself but for weapons in general, 
and still later for a man-at-arms. 

As it emerges from the darkness of the unknown 
into the twilight of mythology, we find the Japanese 
race armed with a sword of which the tsuba forms an 



6 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

important accessory. In the legendary creation of the 
world it is related that the Primeval Mother, after 
bearing the Sun Goddess, the Moon God, and other 
deities, expired in the act of giving birth to the Fire 
God. The Primeval Father, whose mighty sobs 
created the Goddess Echo, at last in a frenzy of grief 
drew his sword and killed the unhappy cause of his 
suffering. From the hewn body of the slain God 
rose the mountains ; volcanoes sprang from his welling 
blood; of the gory drops which bespattered the 
Father's tsuba were born a race of war gods, through 
whose achievements came to the descendants of the Sun 
Goddess sway over the Island Empire. 

Many examples of the early Japanese sword have 
been recovered from ancient tombs. The blade is 
straight (see Fig. 2), the hilt and scabbard being 



Fig 2 Early Japanese sword 



covered by a thin layer of gilt copper, decorated with 
dotted patterns. It has a large ball-shaped pommel, 
"hammer-headed" as described in early records. So 
far as we are aware, no swords of this description have 
been found in China or adjacent countries. It may 
perhaps furnish a helpful clue in tracing the origin of 
the Japanese race. 

The tsuba which belongs to this sword is of unrefined 
copper, heavily gilt. It is ovate (see Fig. 3), to 
correspond with the form of the closed hand. It is 



HISTORIC J L ACCOUNT 7 

lightened and at the same time decorated by symmet- 
rical perforations executed with the chisel. It shows 
even at this early period an almost perfect combination 
of the three essential qualities of the tsuba, strength, 
lightness, and appropriate form. It is interesting to 
notice in this connection the part which the blade 
plays in the shape of the tsuba. The central opening, 
through which the tang of the blade was inserted into 
the hilt, is wider in this case ( Fig. 3 ) than in a tsuba 
of a slightly later period (Fig. 4), and its greatest 
width is in the middle. The shape of this opening 





Fig 3 Early tsuba Fig 4 Early tsuba 

indicates that the blade in the former was thicker 
and probably double-edged, while the latter was 
thinner and one-edged, since the lines of the tsuba 
were designed to conform to the blade itself. 

Contact with the then superior civilization of China 
profoundly influenced the Japanese and led to the imi- 
tation of Celestial customs and art. The type of the 
sword from the sixth century on was quite Chinese in 
character, the tsuba becoming practically a mere orna- 
mental adjunct of the hilt. The habaki, a metal collar 



8 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

placed between the tang and blade in order 
to hold the tsuba more firmly in position, 
seems to have been of Chinese origin. 
To judge from the specimens in the Im- 
perial Collection of Shosoin at Nara, about 
the eighth century Japan developed new 
types of tsuba based on those of the Tang 
sword. Fig. 5 shows one of these swords, 
together with a front view of the tsuba. 
The hilt is made of a rare Indian wood, 
with gilt metal bands about the pommel. 
The scabbard is richly decorated with fig- 
ures of animals and flowers of thin gold 
plate inlaid in lacquer, 
a process peculiar to this 
period. The tsuba is 
thickly coated with lac- 
quer; in form it is a 
modified hexagon, 
comparatively small in 
relation to the length of 
the blade. 

Fig. 6 represents 
another sword from the same collection, 
the shark-skin hilt and lacquered scab- 
bard both profusely decorated with per- 
forated work in gilt bronze. Here the 
tsuba, also in gilt bronze with fine pat- 
terns chased over it, has greater thickness 
than width. Viewed from the side, it 
presents the same motif of the modified 
hexagon already seen in Fig. 5, though 



Fig 5 

Japanese sword 

showing Chinese 

influence 



HISTORIC J L ACCOUNT 



in a more developed form. This type is known in Japan 
as the Shitogi tsuba from the resemblance it bears to 
the Shitogi cake, a confectionery used in Shinto ritual. 




Fig 6 Shitogi tsuba 



The insufficient protection which such 
a tsuba afforded to the hand must have 
been felt even by the aristocrats of the day, 
though they wore their swords chiefly as 
an ornamental accessory of the court cos- 
tume. A century later we find the Shitogi 
tsuba increasing in size and embellished with a semi- 
circular metal ring which projected on both sides, as 
shown in Fig. 7. In this final shape the Shitogi tsuba 





Fig 7 Shitogi tsuba with projecting metal ring 



10 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

survived in the ceremonial sword of the Mikado's 
court at Kyoto until the Meiji Restoration (1868). 

In the tenth century also appears the earliest form 
of the double-edged symbolical Buddhist sword, which 
formed a part of the esoteric ritual and was supposed to 
ward off evil spirits. Fig. 8 shows one supposed to 
have been the property of the Emperor Saga. Its hilt 
represents the three-forked vajra, while the tsuba is in 




Fig 8 Buddhist sword with vajra hilt 

the form of a lotus bud. In another type of Buddhist 
sword the upper part of the vajra itself forms the tsuba. 
But the sword was not destined to play merely a 
peaceful role in courtly functions or religious rites. By 
the eleventh century a storm was gathering which was 
to awaken the " dragon spirit " of the sword from its 
long sleep. Feudalism was about to replace the Impe- 
rial bureaucracy, and the disturbances of the times, 
culminating in the deadly feuds of the two powerful 
families of Heike and Genji, demanded the perfection 
of arms. Swordsmiths vied with each other in forging 
adamantine blades for this Japanese War of the Roses. 
Straight swords were henceforth discarded in warfare, 
to be replaced by curved blades, which were considered 
more effective in dealing heavy blows. The curved 



HISTORIC J L ACCOUNT 11 

sword was also serviceable as a cavalry weapon now that 
battles were begun by a contest of archery, only to be 
finished by a cavalry charge. Thus the blades of the late 
Fujiwara and Kamakura periods, being intended to be 
held by one hand, are more curved and of lighter build 
than those of the Ashikaga period, when most of the 
fighting was done on foot. 

The uselessness of the Shitogi tsuba in active warfare 
soon became apparent, and the smiths had to revert to 
the original idea of flat metallic discs exemplified in the 




Fig 9 Aoi tsuba 

early Japanese tsuba. The form much in vogue in the 
twelfth century is called the Aoi tsuba, from the heart- 
shaped leaf of that plant, known in botany as Asarum. 
It is a square, the sides of which are developed into 
heart-shaped forms (see Fig. 9). It is interesting to 
note that the Aoi tsuba retains the outlines of the ringed 
Shitogi tsuba (compare Fig. 7). About this time thin 



12 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

pieces of metal known as seppa (written "setsuba") 
were added to the tsuba in order to hold it securely on 
to the blade and hilt. They were generally four in 
number, two large (o-seppa) and two smaller (ko- 
seppa) , one of each being placed on either side of the 
tsuba. Sasara-seppa and kowari-seppa, slightly smaller 
than the ko-seppa, were sometimes added next to the 
latter. The o-seppa gave color and life to the other- 
wise plain appearance of the guard, while the ko-seppa 
performed somewhat the function of a washer. They 
were sometimes made of gold or silver, but more often 
of an exceedingly dark copper, white bronze, or sha- 
kudo (an alloy of gold and copper). 




Fig 10 Aoi tsuba of Goshirakawa 



HISTORICAL ACCOUNT 



13 



The Aoi tsuba was generally made of copper and 
gilded, though sometimes of iron or leather. The sur- 
face was often decorated with flower motives in low 




Fig 11 Aoi tsuba of leather 

relief. Fig. 10 shows an Aoi tsuba on the sword of the 
Emperor Goshirakawa (middle twelfth century), on 
which the o-seppa is highly decorated and covers 




Fig 12 Aoi tsuba of iron 

almost the whole tsuba. Fig. 1 1 shows an Aoi tsuba 
made of leather lacquered at the border. This type 
(Neri-tsuba) was made by glueing together four or five 



14 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

pieces of untanned hide, and was much esteemed for 
its lightness. Fig. 12 represents an Aoi tsuba made of 
iron on which a dragon-fly is chiselled and perforated. 
The dragon-fly, as symbolic of courage, was much used 
as a decorative motif on arms. 




Fig 13 Tsuba with Aoi decoratio?i 

Tsuba of other forms beside the Aoi were also in 
use in the twelfth century. The tsuba shown in Fig. 13 
approaches a square form with rounded corners and is 
perforated with Aoi decoration. Fig. 14 is a guard 
from the sword of Yoshitsune, a famous hero of the 



HISTORICAL ACCOUNT 15 




Fig 14 Tsuba belonging to 
Yoshitsune 




Fig 15 Tsuba with 
pigeo?i design 



16 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

period, the chasing on which represents storks and 
young pines. Fig. 15 shows a tsuba chased with de- 
signs of flying pigeons, a bird sacred to the war god 
Hachiman. Another variation of the shape is shown 
in Fig. 16, a tsuba which possesses an elaborately carved 
o-seppa. The thickened rim is also highly decorated. 




Fig 16 Tsuba with carved o-seppa 

The perfectly round tsuba seems to have come some- 
what later. Fig. 17 shows one of the thirteenth cen- 
tury, in which it is interesting to note the survival of 
the Aoi motive on the o-seppa. 

The invasion of Japan by the Mongols in the latter 
half of the thirteenth century occasioned a general 
reform in military tactics. Infantry became a more 



HISTORICAL ACCOUNT 17 

important factor than cavalry in the line of battle. 
As straighter swords of greater breadth and weight 
came into use, swords to be wielded on foot with 
both hands, there arose a new school of sword- 
smiths, of whom Masamune is par excellence the 
foremost representative. In the civil wars which 




Fig 17 Round tsuba with Aoi o-seppa 

followed the dissolution of the Kamakura (1337) 
and the establishment of the Ashikaga Shogunate (1337- 
1582 J, the new form of blade proved a deadly weapon, 
cleaving with unturned edge through iron helmets. 
The long sword (odachi), an invention of the period, 



18 



JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 



was four or five feet in length, and was often worn slung 
from the shoulder in addition to the sword and dagger 
in the belt. According to old records, the Chinese gen- 
erals who opposed the Japanese during the TaikS's 
invasion of Corea in the sixteenth century attributed 
the successes of the latter to the use of this weapon. 
To fit this sword the size of the tsuba was proportion- 
ately increased. In order to withstand the powerful 
impact of such a formidable weapon the tsuba had to 
be made stronger than heretofore. From this time on 




Fig 18 Early Ashikaga tsuba In Figs 18 and 19 
the open work parts are represented in black 



HISTORICAL ACCOUNT 



19 



until the peaceful days of the Tokugawa the tsuba was 
made of the best wrought steel. The sword-smiths 
themselves, as well as the armorers, now often forged 
tsuba. 




Fig 19 Tsuba of the middle Ashikaga period 



The tsuba of the Ashikaga period (1337-1582) are 
large and massive. Fig. 18 represents an early square 
Ashikaga tsuba with perforation, representing the five 
stupa and an invocation to Amida-Buddha. Fig. 19 
shows a tsuba of the middle Ashikaga period; it is 



20 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

circular with perforations in the shape of a rudder, 
probably the heraldic device of the owner. 

By the end of the fifteenth century Zen philosophy, 
which, since the Kamakura period, had been perme- 
ating Japanese life and thought, begins to impress its 
individualism even on the minor crafts, thus raising 
them toward the level of the higher arts. The makers 
of tsuba now tried to realize in metal the ideals which 
inspired Sesshiu and Soami in painting. For the first 
time they affixed signatures to their work. Iron was 
treated with acids to secure a rich dark tone. The 
wonderful grain of the surface and the simple charm 
of the scenes in low relief found in the tsuba of Kaneiye 
I, one of the] master craftsmen of the early sixteenth 
century, command our admiration no less than the 
more developed workmanship of the Tokugawa artists. 
In fact, it is owing to their initiative that the tsuba 
gained such artistic expression in the hand of their 
followers. 

By the middle of the sixteenth century began the 
continuous struggle of feudal barons whose ambition 
was to obtain supremacy over each other, only to end 
with the consolidation of the empire under Taiko- 
Hideyoshi. This again led to a change in tactics and 
a further improvement in arms, which affected the 
tsuba along with other parts of the sword. 

Questions about the relative merits of the square and 
round tsuba were discussed by the warriors of this period. 
The former gave more protection to the hand and was 
useful in scaling the walls of a fortress, but the difficulty 
in drawing the sword when grappling with the enemy 
was a serious drawback. Moreover, the corners were 



HISTORICAL ACCOUNT 21 

likely to injure a man who was thrown from his horse. 
Each principality vied with its neighbors in producing 
a serviceable tsuba. It is said that in the principality 
of Nagoya, famed for the quality of its guards, the 
smiths pounded the newly made tsuba in a mortar with 
a heavy pestle and only put in use those that survived 
this severe test. In the principality of Koshiu, which 
under the celebrated general Takeda-Shingen (died 
1573) had the highest reputation for military science, 
preference was given to a perforated tsuba (Fig. 20). 




Fig 20 Tsuba of Takeda-Shingen 



22 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

The reason given was the fact that a heavy tsuba con- 
centrated the force of concussion on that one spot; in 
dealing hard blows the blade either snapped at the tsuba 
or else broke the mekugi, the pin which fastened the 
tang into the hilt just under the tsuba. The Tokugawa 
adopted the Koshiu tactics and affected its fashion in 
weapons, thus causing the prevalence of perforated tsuba 
in the early Tokugawa period. 

Albeit the tsuba makers of this period gave the first 
place to practical utility, it did not prevent them from 
producing works of extraordinary beauty. Foremost 
among them stands Nobuiye, who worked in Koshiu. 
He was a worthy representative of the illustrious family 
of armorers, the Miochin, and ranks side by side with 
Kaneiye as the master of tsuba. In Kishiu flourished 
the school of Hoan, in Nagoya the Yamakichi. The 
tsuba of Choshiu are also interesting, though they did 
not rise to the level they attained in the later period. 
Simple inlaying in gold and brass as applied to tsuba first 
appears in the works of Hino-Yoji and Yoshiro, guard 
makers of this period. In the second section of this 
work may be found the schools of the tsuba makers 
alphabetically arranged. 

The history of modern tsuba dates from the rule of 
Taiko-Hideyoshi (1586) and the establishment of the 
Tokugawa Shogunate (1603) shortly after his death. 
It may be briefly divided into three periods. In the 
first period, late sixteenth to late seventeenth century, 
the warlike days were not yet forgotten, and still the 
sword was useful in settling nice points of honor. At 
this time the tsuba was always made in steel. However, 
the effect of prolonged peace soon appeared in the 



HISTORICAL ACCOUNT 23 

shortening of swords, at first due to personal conven- 
ience, but later required by law. In the court of Yedo 
it was ordained that the daimyo in attendance on the 
Shogun should wear only the small sword (chiisa- 
katana) about eighteen inches in length. In 1670 the 
maximum length of the ordinary sword was restricted 
to two feet and eight and three-quarters inches (Japan- 
ese measure). Under these conditions the tsuba dimin- 
ished in size. 

The tsuba of this first period show a transition from 
the perforated tsuba of the Ashikaga to the pictorial 
ones of the later Tokugawa. Perforation is generally 
used, though the designs grow freer and more elaborate. 
The unperforated part of the tsuba is more fully treated 
in relief. Tsuba of the Higo school, founded by Fusa- 
yoshi, and those of the Akasaka school, founded by 
Tadamasa, show the highest development of this style. 
Side by side with these come the tsuba in which carving 
plays a prominent part. The movement is led by 
Umetada-Shigeyoshi, famed for his carving on sword 
blades, whose tsuba combines the styles of Kaneiye and 
Nobuiye. In the Kinai tsuba of Echizen we find carv- 
ings much akin in treatment to the sculpture of ramma 
(wooden friezes) in the Taiko's palaces or the Nikko 
temples, where the perforations serve to bring out the 
outline of the main design. In general we might 
describe the tsuba of this period as sculpturesque in 
contradistinction to the pictorial tsuba. Inlay work in 
metal also progresses in the hands of the Fushimi school, 
while cloisonne is used on tsuba for the first time by the 
Hirata school. 

The second period commences about the time of 



24 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

the Genroku era (1688) and lasts till near the close 
of the eighteenth century. During this period the 
tsuba, freed from the requirements of practical war- 
fare, reaches its highest artistic development. The use 
of steel being now no longer necessary, softer varieties 
of iron take its place. Artists in other metals also 
now lend their secrets to the adornment of the tsuba. 
Color becomes an important factor in the workmanship, 
all possible alloys being utilized in order to produce the 
desired tone. The name Efu (picture-style) or Iroe 
(color-painting) given to the metal work of this period 
suggests the striving after pictorial effect. Indeed the 
impulses of contemporary painting can be felt most 
clearly in the great tsuba makers of the period. In 
Toshinaga and Joi we find a reflection of the Kano 
style. Yasuchika is the counterpart of Korin. Yokoya- 
Somin imitated to perfection the brush-strokes of Itcho 
in his chasing on shibuichi. The Chinese style of 
painting of the late Ming and early Ch'in dynasties, the 
influence of which began to be felt at this time, finds 
expression in the works of Jakushi of Nagasaki. Of 
the numerous schools which arose in this period in 
Yedo the Nara school was the greatest; in Kyoto 
Nagatsune led the movement and founded the Ichino- 
miya school. 

The schools of the preceding period also show great 
vitality under the new conditions. Munesuke and 
Sosatsu give a new life to the Miochin school, while 
the school of Umetada flourishes under the Shoami and 
the famous Tomotsune and Tomokatsu of Choshiu. In- 
lay work makes further progress, precious stones, coral, 
etc. , being used in addition to metal. Among the tsuba 



HISTORICAL ACCOUNT 25 

makers of the period Toshinaga, Yasuchika and Joi, all 
of the Nara school, are commonly and justly known as 
the three great masters. We would fain, however, 
add the names of Shozui of that school and Nagatsune 
of Kyoto in the illustrious list. 

The third period, late eighteenth century to the 
Restoration of 1868, is an age of decadence, only re- 
deemed toward its close by a return to early ideals. In 
the preceding period, though the tsuba had become 
pictorial, the artists never forgot the limitations of work 
in metal. While they got their inspiration from the 
painters, they adapted the pictorial forms to the require- 
ments of their own material. In this last period, how- 
ever, they became servile imitators; their designs grew 
more elaborate and bizarre, not deep and full of force. 
Although technique had never reached so high a level, 
true artistic spirit was lost in the striving after effect. 
The craftsman was still present, but not the artist. 

Notwithstanding the general decline in taste, we still 
have artists of great individuality and capability who 
will always hold their place in the history of the tsuba. 
The Nara school under Nariyuki gains in delicacy what 
it loses in strength. Variations of the Nara style are to 
be found in Konkwan, Nampo, Yeiju, and Hironaga, all 
artists of high order. The Yanagawa school, an off- 
shoot of the Yokoya, the rival of the Nara school, is 
made famous by the names of Naoharu and Kono- 
Haruaki. New schools of painting appearing at this 
time immediately show their effect upon contemporary 
tsuba. In Yedo the influence of the Ukiyoe painters, 
Shigemasa, Hokusai, and Keisai, is seen in the Ishiguro 
and Mito schools. Another painter, Kikuchi-Yosai, 



26 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

furnished designs to the celebrated Goto-Ichijo. In 
Kyoto the naturalistic schools of painting under Ganku, 
Okyo and Goshiun gave rise to a new school of tsuba 
makers, the Otsuki. Mitsuoki was himself a pupil of 
Ganku. Kano-Natsuo in his younger days owed his 
inspiration to Raish5, the disciple of Okyo. 

Goto-Ichij5, Kono-Haruaki and Kano-Natsuo are 
commonly known as the three great masters of metal 
work and tsuba making in modern times, though the 
lack of power in the work of the first scarcely entitles 
him to rank with the other two. It was Haruaki and 
Natsuo who in an age of general decadence realized 
the conditions into which the tsuba artists had grad- 
ually and unconsciously fallen, and attempted to 
improve them by a revival of past ideals. Haruaki 
reverted to the style of the early Goto school, while 
Natsuo sought inspiration from the masters of the 
second period or even earlier. In his tsuba he tried to 
combine the qualities of Yasuchika, Nagatsune, and of 
the first Kaneiye. There is a simplicity and dignity 
in the work of Haruaki and Natsuo rarely found in 
that of their contemporaries. The hopes of this revival 
were never to be fulfilled, for after the Restoration of 
1868 its influence was lost in the general craze for 
everything Occidental. Soon after came the edict 
from the new government prohibiting the wearing of 
swords. The tsuba became a thing of the past. 



SECTION II 

An alphabetical list of schools with the names of the 
principal tsuba makers under each school. 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBJ MAKERS 31 

AKASAKA SCHOOL 

This school was founded by Tadamasa, a guard 
maker who lived at Kurokawadani in the district of 
Akasaka in Yedo, during the early part of the seven- 
teenth century. As in this instance, many schools of 
metal workers bore the names of the places in which 
their members lived, rather than the names of the foun- 
ders. The artists of this school were famed for origi- 
nality of design and skill in tempering iron. On account 
of their preference for open or perforated work, they 
were largely restricted to the use of conventional de- 
signs, often looking for inspiration to the classic models 
of the Kamakura and Ashikaga periods. 

Tadamasa, who died in 1657, is generally referred 
to by his family name of Shoyemon. Other artists of 
the Akasaka school were Tadamasa II (died 1677), 
Masatora (died 1707), and Tadatoki, or Hikojiuro 
(died 1746) ; the latter was especially noted for his skill 
in perforated work. His style influenced the subsequent 
members of the school up to the early part of the 
nineteenth century. Their work is particularly inter- 
esting on account of a curious grained effect, like that 
of wood, produced by a special method of hammering 
together pieces of iron of varying degrees of hardness, 
and then subjecting the whole to a corrosive bath. 
For two hundred and fifty years the artists of the Aka- 
saka school worthily maintained the excellent standard 
set by the first Tadamasa. 

Note. Natsuo, the Japanese metal worker and 
authority, says that the Akasaka guards resemble 
very closely those of the Higo school, which started 



32 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

somewhat later and flourished contemporaneously 
with them in western Japan. It is very difficult to dis- 
tinguish the work of the two schools. The Akasaka 
workmen, however, paid more attention to temper 
and their designs are more refined in feeling, while 
those of Higo show greater strength and less depend- 
ence on detail than did the artists of the capital. The 
favorite subjects of the latter were plum blossoms, 
wild geese, Lake Biwa, Chikubushima Island, and 
decorative written characters, all executed with more 
freedom than those of the Higo school. The Akasaka 
guards may further be determined from the Higo by 
the fact that in them the seppadai (the oval undeco rated 
space about the sword blade hole) was smaller in pro- 
portion to the size of the guard. The Higo tsuba were 
not generally held in such high esteem as the Akasaka. 

AKAO SCHOOL 

The first artist of the Akao family was Yoshitsugu 
(or Kichiji), born at Fukui toward the end of the 
seventeenth century, of samurai parentage. A second 
Kichiji (early in the eighteenth century), a resident 
of Yedo, produced many fine guards of shakudo and 
perforated iron. 

Tahichi (about 1825), who also signed his name 
Kichiji, produced interesting color effects by combi- 
nations of various metals. 

Tatsutoshi (early in the nineteenth century), a 
skillful workman, was famed for the fine temper 
of his iron and the excellence and originality of his 
designs. 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBJ MAKERS 33 

Masatsugu and Tomotsugu ( or Yoji) of the Taka- 
hashi family, pupils of the Akao school, became known 
for what is called the guri style of carving ( an imitation 
of lacquer, usually a red spiral design on a black 
ground). They worked early in the nineteenth 
century. 

AOKI SCHOOL 

See under Goto School (p. 35). 
AWA SCHOOL 

This was a branch of the Shoami school in the pro- 
vince of Awa, dating from the middle of the seventeenth 
century. It was founded by Tansai, who was followed 
by Ujinao, Ujiyasu, Yasufusa, and Masayasu, all of 
whom made a specialty of inlay on iron. Masachika, 
Nagafusa, Nagahide, and Masanobu were the best 
known workers in relief and inlay of this school during 
the eighteenth century; the last of these made use of 
inlay work mainly on perforated iron and brass. His 
sword guards are recognizable by the unusual size of 
the riobitsu (holes on each side of the triangular blade 
opening). 

CHOSHIU OR HAGI SCHOOL 

Mitsutsune, an artist of the late fourteenth century, 
is said to be the originator of the Choshiu school, but 
no examples of his work are known and even his iden- 
tity is doubtful. The earliest existing guards of this 
school were made at Yamaguchi and Hagi, towns in 
Suwo and Nagato provinces, during the early part of 
the seventeenth century. Toward the latter part of 



34 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

this century and during the eighteenth century a num- 
ber of these artists separated from the main school and 
started independently with their followers in other 
places, but their works commonly bore the name of 
Choshiu or Hagi tsuba. The main school is known as 
the Nakai, from a family of artists who first worked in 
Yamaguchi and removed to Choshiu early in the seven- 
teenth century. Its most celebrated offshoots were the 
families of Okamoto, Kaneko, Kawaji, Yamichi, 
Inouye, and Nakahara. 

During the early part of the seventeenth century 
the great Umetada-Mioju of Kyoto settled at Yama- 
guchi for a time and exerted considerable influence on 
the Choshiu school. His pupil Umetada-Masatomo 
became the founder of the Okada family. By the 
middle of the eighteenth century the Choshiu school 
had a great following. Among its leaders were 
Tomomitsu, Tomotsune, Tomomichi, Tomoyuki, 
Tomonobu, Yukinori (or Koto), Tomokatsu, Tomo- 
hisa, Nobumasa, and Masatomo. Their tsuba differed 
from those of their contemporaries not only in being 
of a finer quality of iron, but also in possessing a 
beautiful surface of nearly black color produced 
by the action of acids. Their designs invariably 
follow the Kano and Sesshiu schools of painters, 
although the families varied from each other slightly 
in detail. 

DAIGORO TSUBA 

These tsuba were made by Gorobei at Kyoto about 
the middle of the eighteenth century. They come 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBJ MAKERS 35 

under the general heading of Kyo tsuba, a generic 
name given to guards made for the market in Kyoto 
by obscure artists not belonging to any particular school 
or family. The perforated designs represent insects, 
birds, and crests. 

FUSHIMI SCHOOL 

The exact date of this family and school is un- 
known, but its manner of inlay became very popular 
during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth cen- 
turies, and many artists came to Fushimi, in the prov- 
ince of Yamashiro, to learn the method. 

GOKINAI TSUBA 

This name is given by some writers to the work of 
a class of tsuba makers who lived in the Gokinai (the 
five provinces in the vicinity of Kyoto). So many 
schools flourished in the Gokinai that the term is mis- 
leading. The artists are referred to here under their 
respective schools, for example, the Heianjo and 
Fushimi schools. The so-called Gokinai tsuba were 
produced in the seventeenth century. They resembled 
those of the Higo school, except that more attention 
was paid to inlay. The best work was done toward 
the latter part of the century. 

GOTO SCHOOL 

Even so limited a catalogue as this cannot pass 
over the Goto family and their influence on the design 



36 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

and workmanship of sword guards, though that is 
almost the only branch of decorative metal wx>rk which 
they did not ordinarily practise. 

The first of this famous school and family, Goto 
Yiujo, served under the Shogun Ashikaga-Yoshimasa, 
and died in 1512. He established the rules and tradi- 
tions of the family, which were religiously kept for 
eleven generations more than two hundred years. 
The fifth of the name, Tokujo, was court metal 
worker to the great Hideyoshi, and, living in Kyoto, 
executed orders from the Imperial court and the 
Tokugawa Shogunate. 

Early in the eighteenth century, however, Tsujo, 
the eleventh descendant of Goto- Yiujo, was given an 
establishment at Yedo by the Shogun and tempted 
from the family traditions. Once in the progressive 
atmosphere of the new city, Tsujo found himself hard 
pressed to keep up his prestige among such artists as 
Somin, Toshinaga, Yasuchika, and others. This com- 
petition forced him to make concessions to the new 
taste, and to disregard some of the ancient rules of his 
family. Up to the middle of the nineteenth century 
no one of the race had made sword guards except as a 
personal favor, or on an order from his Daimyo, but at 
this time Goto-Ichijo, a member of a collateral branch, 
finally broke the traditions of three hundred and fifty 
years. He became known as a maker of sword guards 
as well as of the ornamental furniture for scabbard and 
hilt, for which his family had been famous. 

Of the six well-known pupils of Goto-Ichijo, 
Funada-Ikkin was the most famous. He worked 
during the second half of the nineteenth century. 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBA MAKERS 37 

Of the collateral members of the Goto school who 
studied the traditional style and then developed styles of 
their own, the following are most important: 

Takeshima-Kadzutoshi, a pupil of Teijo (the ninth 
Goto) , who worked in the first quarter of the eighteenth 
century. 

Tobari-Tomihisa, a pupil of Yen jo (the thirteenth 
Goto), who worked during the last half of the eigh- 
teenth century. 

Morimura-Atsutaka, a pupil of Shinjo (the fifteenth 
Goto). He worked during the third quarter of the 
eighteenth century. 

Aoki-Tsunekumo founded the Aoki school and 
family in the middle of the seventeenth century. 
Among his most famous followers were Tsuneyoshi, 
Tsunekiyo, and Tsuneari. 

Masayoshi founded the Tanaka school in the early 
part of the eighteenth century. Of the later artists in 
the family Yoshiaki, who worked during the latter 
part of the century, is the most famous. 

Masatoki, the founder of the Nomura family, 
worked in the middle of the seventeenth century. 
His pupil, Tsu-Zimpo, later became famous. 

HEIANJO SCHOOL 

Founded in the late sixteenth century, this school 
was named from the three characters, Hei-an-jo, 
generally written before the names of the artists of 
this school. Heianjo is a classic name for Kyoto, 
but the name signified the adjoining territory as 
well as the city itself. During the latter part of the 



38 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

seventeenth and the early part of the eighteenth cen- 
turies, Kishi, Shigemitsu, and Seibei became famous 
for their iron, brass, and gold inlay, and skillful open 
work and chiselling. They invariably chose for their 
subjects animals and birds, often treating them gro- 
tesquely. 

HIGO SCHOOL 

This school started about the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, under the patronage of Hosokawa, the 
Daimyo of Higo province. Its first artist, Fusayoshi 
(sometimes called Matahichi or Shigeharu), died at 
the age of eighty-four in 1691. Other prominent 
members of this school were Shigefusa (died 1730), 
Shigemitsu (died 1729), Shigetsugu (died 1784), 
Shigehisa, Katsumitsu, Yoritada, and Ikuhei. Their 
work is much sought after by collectors. It is charac- 
terized by well-tempered iron, perforated design, and a 
thick round edge. 

Jingo, an independent worker in Higo about the 
middle of the seventeenth century, approached the 
manner of the Higo school. Generally making use 
of the plum and kiri flowers in his designs, he excelled 
in perforated work. His guards are of good color 
with smooth and well-finished surfaces, and their 
edges are often treated so as to represent grained wood. 

Kanpei and Kanshiro (family name Nishigaki) 
were two famous guard makers, born in Tosa province, 
who later lived in Higo province. They worked from 
the latter half of the seventeenth to the beginning of 
the eighteenth century. Their style resembled that of 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBA MAKERS 39 

the Higo school, as well as that of the Miochin. Ex- 
amples of their work are very valuable. 



HI RATA SCHOOL 

Donin, the first artist of this school, worked during 
the first half of the seventeenth century. He was 
probably the first to use cloisonne in connection with 
sword guards, and is said to have learned the process 
of its application from a Korean master, by order of 
the Shogun. Five and sometimes six colors were 
used in conjunction with gold wire on an iron back- 
ground. He died in 1646. 

The descendants of Donin in line were Narikadzu 
(died 1652), Narihisa ( died 1671), Shigekata (died in 
the middle of the eighteenth century, or, according to 
one record, in 1714), Narikado (died in middle of the 
eighteenth century), Nariyuki (died 1770), and Nari- 
suke (died 1816). 

Harunari, a somewhat more notable man than 
those mentioned above, a skillful carver and cloisonne 
worker, lived during the late eighteenth and early 
nineteenth centuries. 

For two hundred and fifty years this school was 
under the patronage of the Tokugawa Shoguns. 



HOAN SCHOOL 

Hoan, the first artist of this school, worked during 
the Tensho period ( 1573-91 ). His tsuba are generally 
circular and perforated. 



40 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

Kanenobu, Kaneyasu, Haruyoshi, and both Sada- 
nagas, well known for the excellence of their work, 
were artists of this school who lived at Hiroshima ( in 
the province of Geishiu) and in the province of Kishiu, 
and produced tsuba during the late seventeenth and 
early eighteenth centuries. 

HOSONO MASAMORI STYLE 

The katakiri style of carving (incised work in imi- 
tation of brush strokes) was extensively practised by 
Hosono-Masamori in Kyoto. He used a great variety 
of metals for inlay, but oftenest gold, silver, and copper. 
His designs generally were small figures with land- 
scapes, taken from drawings by early Ukiyoe masters 
of the Genroku era, those of Moronobu and Nishikawa- 
Sukenobu being his favorites. His work dates from 
about the middle of the eighteenth century. 

ICHINOMIYA SCHOOL 

Nagatsune, who at first signed himself Setsuzan, 
was descended from a samurai family of Kaga province, 
which afterward settled in Echizen province. As a 
youth he went to Kyoto where he became a pupil of 
Takanaga and also of Furukawa-Yoshinaga, a follower 
of the Goto school. Not satisfied with their teachings, 
he devoted himself to a study of the old masters and 
founded a school of his own called the Ichinomiya. 
He was a great designer and maker of decorative metal 
work, as well as of tsuba. His skill in katakiri was 
considered equal to that of Yokoya-Somin. He was 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBJ MAKERS 41 

honored with the title of " Echizen-no-Daijo " by the 
Emperor, and often signed himself so on his guards. 
He died 1786, aged sixty-seven. His pupils, Naga- 
yoshi, Chobi, and Tsunenao, worked during the latter 
part of the eighteenth and the early part of the nine- 
teenth centuries. 

INLAY WORK (ZOGAN) 

There were practically three methods of inlaying 
metals used by the tsuba artists. One was to cross- 
hatch the surface of the object, apply the metal to be 
inlaid, and hammer it into the surface. This work was 
called by the Japanese nunome-zogan ( ' ' cloth-surface 
inlay ' ' ), as the surface resembled a piece of woven 
stuff, and was used for the harder metals. Another 
process was called hira-zogan ("flat inlay"); in this 
case a groove was cut in the object and the softer 
metal hammered or pressed into it. As the groove 
was broader at the bottom than at the top, the inserted 
metal was held firmly in place. Soft metals which 
lend themselves readily to moulding were ordinarily 
used in this process. The third process, known as 
taka-zogan ( "high inlay" ), was used when the inlaid 
parts needed to be in relief. The relief parts were 
finished separately, set into a groove, and then secured 
in place by hammering the edge of the groove. This 
last process was mainly used by the regular metal 
carvers, not by the inlay workers, who formed a class 
by themselves. 

Hino-yoji, whose name is sometimes written Hino- 
choji, was the first one known to have made much 



42 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

use of silver inlay. He worked during the fifteenth 
century. 

Yoshiro, the founder of a school of inlay workers, 
was a stirrup maker as well as a tsuba artist, who made 
a study of brass inlay work. He was best in the con- 
ventional treatment of the tendril design. He worked 
during the sixteenth century. 

Murakami-Jochiku was a metal carver of Yedo, 
about the middle of the eighteenth century, who did 
inlay work on stirrups. He also made tsuba and 
sword ornaments. He inlaid all metals with equal 
skill and soon became famous, being the first to 
produce color effects in hira-zogan by the use of dif- 
ferent alloys. Rock crystal, jade, corals, and mother- 
of-pearl were also utilized in his inlay work. His 
daughter, Jotetsu, was also skillful in her father's art. 

Kiyoyasu, a Yedo artist of the latter part of the 
eighteenth century, was an expert in the Jochiku 
style of inlay work. 

Kiyo-Sada of Sendai ( Oshiu province ) and Chikon 
of Okayama (Bizen province) were noted for their 
delicate hira-zogan. 

INSHIU SCHOOL 

The earliest artist of this school to attain fame was 
Suruga, who lived during the early part of the eigh- 
teenth century. His work, as well as that of other 
members of the school, resembled in style that of the 
Choshiu artists. Choshiu is not far from Inshiu, and 
it seems probable that this similarity of treatment was 
due to the fact that the artists of the two schools 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBA MAKERS 43 

associated together and influenced each other's work. 
Takuji, Masamitsu, Masahide, Naomitsu, and the 
two Masayoshi, well-known followers of this school, 
worked from the beginning of the eighteenth to the 
middle of the nineteenth century. The later of these 
masters were influenced by the Ito school of Yedo. 

ISHIGURO SCHOOL 

The early work of this school, which flourished 
in Yedo, resembles that of the Yanagawa and Goto 
schools, but its first artist, Masatsune I, a pupil of 
Naotsune, soon adopted an individual style which 
was received with great favor. His designs were 
generally studies of flowers, birds, and human figures, 
in beautiful inlay of various metals. He died in 1828, 
aged sixty-nine. 

Masatsune II flourished during the early part of 
the nineteenth century. Koretsune continued the 
style of Masatsune, and, together with Koreyoshi, 
Masayoshi, Masauki, and Hideaki, won great renown 
in metal carving about the middle of the nineteenth 
century. Many artists followed this style until the 
Meiji period. It is one of the notable schools of 
modern times. 

ITO SCHOOL 

This school was a branch of the Umetada, and 
forms one of the largest groups of metal workers in 
Yedo. Its members worked principally on perfor- 
ated iron guards, though some made sparing use of gold 



44 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

inlay. The most famous of them was Ito-Masatsune, 
who died in 1724. 

A second It6-Masatsune (Jingoro), whose work 
and signature are very different from those of the 
first Masatsune, was by profession a musket maker, 
who also made sword guards. He worked during 
the early nineteenth century. Many famous pupils 
carried on the work after his death. 

Artists of the Ito school often wrote Bushiujiu 
before their names, to signify that they resided in 
Bushiu province, of which Yedo was the chief city. 
This signature has led many critics to give the name 
Bushiu tsuba to their works. 

Hashimoto Seisai, a guard maker of Yedo, was 
noted for the fine temper of his iron. His guards 
have a finely finished surface and show skillful per- 
foration. He flourished during the early part of the 
nineteenth century. His work resembled that of the 
Ito style. 

IWAMOTO SCHOOL 

A branch of the Yokoya school. Its earliest expo- 
nent was Chiubei, pupil of the first Yokoya-Soyo, who 
worked in Yedo during the early part of the eighteenth 
century. 

Iwamoto-Riokwan II, a skillful metal carver, was the 
fourth of this line. His pupil, Konkwan, who, having 
broken away from his master's style, developed a 
method of his own, was much influenced by the Nara 
school. He was celebrated for his representations of 
fishes. He died in 1801, aged fifty-eight. His other 
signatures are Hakuhotei and Shiunsho. 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBJ MAKERS 45 

Kwanri, the adopted son of Konkwan, did exceed- 
ingly fine work during the early part of the nineteenth 
century. 

JAKUSHI SCHOOL 

The first artist was Jakushi, who lived at Nagasaki 
in Hizen province. He later became a monk and 
changed his name from Jakushi to Doko or Fukoshi. 
He was a painter, but he worked in metal as well, and 
was famous for his representations of Chinese land- 
scapes. He used nunome inlay, regulating the thick- 
ness of the inlaid surface so as to produce an effect like 
that produced by gradation of color in paintings. He 
worked during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth 
centuries. Inasmuch as Nagasaki was the only port 
open to foreign commerce, Chinese influences in art 
naturally were felt there sooner than in other parts of 
Japan. Jakushi was the first artist to introduce into 
metal work the pictorial style of the early Ch'in dynasty. 

Jakushi II, who was also called Kizayemon, sur- 
passed his father and master, Jakushi I, in skill and 
reputation. He was versatile in his designs and expert 
in execution, and worked about 1730. 

Yeirakudo, a Nagasaki artist probably of the late 
eighteenth century, was noted for copying Jakushi 
tsuba. 

KAGA SCHOOL 

The artists of the Kaga school followed the designs 
of the Kano painters and the style of the Goto school 



46 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

of metal carvers. The earliest artists, Yoshishige, who 
was also a painter, and his brother Kuninaga, were con- 
nected with the house of the Daimyo of Kaga province 
about the middle of the seventeenth century. 

Yoshinori, Yoshikuni, and Yoshitsugu were noted 
pupils of this school. Morisada, a distinguished inlay 
worker of Toyama, a town in the same daimyate, is 
also classed with them. Ujiiye, a pupil of Goto-Kenjo 
of the Goto school, came to Kaga from Fushimi about 
1650 and joined the ranks of the Kaga artists. As a 
school they are famed for their great skill in inlay 
work (hira-zogan). 

KANAYAMA SCHOOL 

Little is known as to the origin of this school, but 
probably the name is derived from a place name in the 
province of Yamashiro, where the early artists worked. 
Natsuo places the date of the earliest known example 
of their work in the late sixteenth century. Tsuba of 
this school are perforated so as to be very light, and are 
decorated with many variations of the gourd design, a 
favorite motif of the Taiko period. They have a very 
beautiful patina. 

KANEIYE SCHOOL 

In design, the first Kaneiye followed the style of 
Mokkei, a Chinese painter (Sung dynasty), and Sesshiu, 
a Japanese painter, who worked after the Chinese style 
during the fifteenth century. His guards are remark- 
able for the brown or reddish color of the iron and 
their wonderful finish, unsurpassed by that of any other 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBA MAKERS 47 

artist with the possible exception of Nobuiye. They 
are generally hammered very thin and have an appear- 
ance of softness and pliability. He was the earliest 
artist to execute landscape in relief on iron, and was 
fond of representing Chinese scenery, flowers, birds, 
and animals. His high relief was made by inlaying 
the raised portion of the design, which sometimes made 
it insecure. His best work was that done in low relief. 
He used gold inlay sparingly, but with much effect, 
sometimes merely to represent a dewdrop on the grass 
or the eye of a bird. His date is not certain. Some 
records place him in the second half of the fifteenth 
century, but probably he worked early in the sixteenth 
century. With Kaneiye the shape of the tsuba began 
to vary from the regular, symmetrical type. He first 
introduced the Kobushigata tsuba, an ovate shape with 
the contour of a closed fist. 

Kaneiye II closely followed the first Kaneiye in the 
shape and design of his tsuba. His guards can, how- 
ever, be readily told from those of Kaneiye I by their 
greater roundness, thickness, and the difference in the 
signature, that of Kaneiye II being cut much the 
sharper of the two. He worked during the latter part 
of the sixteenth and the early part of the seventeenth 
centuries. We gather from a legend on one of his 
tsuba that he was living at Nara in the year 1593. 

Kanesada was a pupil of the second Kaneiye, who 
closely imitated his teacher's designs and methods, and 
worked during the early part of the seventeenth century. 

Koten worked during the seventeenth century after 
the style of the first Kaneiye. Examples of his work 
are very rare. 



48 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

Tetsunin, a follower of Kaneiye, was not only a 
well-known guard maker, but also a master in the art 
of fencing, in which capacity he served as teacher in 
the house of the Daimyo of Higo province. It is said 
that he tempered the iron used by the second Kaneiye 
and was very skillful in this work. His tsuba show 
crudeness of design compared with those of the two 
Kaneiye, and his subjects in general were large in 
scale and lacked detail. He worked during the early 
part of the seventeenth century. 

KASUTSURA STYLE 

Uyesugi-Kasutsura began life as an apprentice in 
a sword shop in Kyoto kept by Sawaya-Zihei, a con- 
noisseur in metal work. His fine relief work in metal 
is signed at first with the name Kazutsura in two char- 
acters, then later as Kasutsura in three characters. He 
lived in the latter part of the eighteenth century. His 
most famous pupil was Aritsune, the son of Sawaya- 
Zihei. 

KIKUGAWA FAMILY 

Hisahide, of the Kikugawa family, was a metal 
carver of Yedo. At first a pupil of Muneyoshi ( nick- 
named the Kikubori-Chobei for his skill in represent- 
ing chrysanthemums), he later studied the work of 
Chizuka-Hisanari, and became an exceedingly skillful 
tsuba maker. " Nampo " is a signature he sometimes 
used. He lived during the latter half of the eighteenth 
century. Many pupils came under his teaching, among 
them Terukiyo and Teruchika. 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBA MAKERS 49 

KIKUOKA FAMILY 

The first of the name, was Mitsuyuki, who was a 
maker of ornamental sword fittings as well as being 
a famous poet. Toward middle life he studied tsuba 
making under Yanagawa-Naomitsu of the Yanagawa 
school, but his work resembles more strongly that of 
the Yokoya school. He did good copying from Yo- 
koya-Somin. He died in 1800, aged fifty-one. His 
brother, Mitsumasa, also a skillful metal carver, died 
in 1824. His was a very prominent family, and many 
students flocked to learn his methods. 

KINAI SCHOOL 

Kinai, the founder of the school, was a native of 
Echizen province. His family is known by the name 
Takahashi, although Sokenkisho, the standard work 
on sword ornaments, calls it Ishikawa. About the 
early part of the seventeenth century the first Kinai is 
said to have been selected to carve the sword blades of 
namban steel, which Yasutsugu, a famous sword-smith, 
forged for the Shogun. He was not only expert in the 
use of the chisel in embellishing sword blades, but 
also a tsuba maker. The iron of which his tsuba were 
made was of the finest quality, and its surface had a 
smooth polish. He took pride in simple vigorous 
effects, never using inlay, sometimes working with nam- 
ban iron. He was best in perforated work, using as his 
favorite designs, dragons, storks, bamboo, shells, etc. 
With him are associated the names of Kogitsune, Tada- 
saku, and Yoshitsugu. Up to the nineteenth century 



50 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

the members of this school, who invariably signed their 
work with the name Kinai, kept up the style and 
reputation of its founder. The best of their work was 
regularly presented to the Shogun by the Daimyo of 
Echizen, hence it is known asKenjo, or " presentation 
tsuba." 



MIOCHIN SCHOOL 

The Miochin was a renowned family of armor- 
smiths from the days of its founder Munesuke in the 
twelfth century. Little is known of their sword guards, 
though they must have engaged in this branch of the 
art. Yoshinaga, the fourteenth Miochin, Yoshimichi, 
brother of the sixteenth Miochin, and Nobuiye, the 
seventeenth Miochin, are generally considered the three 
greatest masters of the school. Of these, Nobuiye is the 
only one known to have made sword guards. His 
early name was Yasuiye, but he is popularly known as 
Koshiu-Miochin, Koshiu being the province in which 
he lived and worked. His guards were usually rather 
thick and heavy, with a wonderful patina. Nobuiye' s 
guards, next to those of Kaneiye, were most sought 
after on account of their near approach to the ideal 
tsuba; consequently in both cases there are many skill- 
ful forgeries. Kaneiye excelled in design, Nobuiye in 
the high quality of tempered iron. Nobuiye nourished 
in the first half of the sixteenth century; the date of 
his death is sometimes given as 1564. 

Ujiiye, who worked in Koshiu and later in Kotsuke 
in the second half of the sixteenth century, signed his 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBJ MAKERS 51 

later works with the name Nobuiye. He is often 
known as Nobuiye II. 

Nobuaki was a pupil of Nobuiye, who worked in 
the late sixteenth century. He was noted for the beau- 
tiful texture and color of his iron, his perforated design, 
and the versatility of his work. He lived in Kuwana 
in the province of Ise. 

Nobusada was a wonderful copyist of Nobuiye, 
whose work cannot be distinguished from that of the 
latter except when it is signed. He nourished about 
the beginning of the seventeenth century. 

Three artists with the name Nobuiye, who worked 
in Kyoto, Kaga, and Geishiu (Aki province), are 
known respectively as Kyo-Nobuiye, Kaga-Nobuiye, 
and Geishiu-Nobuiye. Their dates are uncertain, 
though probably they worked in the second half of the 
seventeenth century and early in the eighteenth century. 

Munenobu, the twentieth artist of the Miochin 
school, who worked during the ea_rly part of the seven- 
teenth century under the title of Osumi-no-Kami, was 
particularly noted for the high quality of his tempered 
iron. 

Munesuke, a famous artist of the Miochin school, 
flourished during the early part of the eighteenth 
century and was a critic of his family's works. 

Sosatsu ( or Muneaki ) was a well-known maker of 
skillful perforated work who flourished about 1730. 
He is noted for the fine temper and delicate color of 
his iron. He made a study of old armor, and is con- 
sidered one of the great masters of the Miochin school. 

Nobumichi worked about the middle of the eigh- 
teenth century, after the style of the Miochin school. 



52 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

Munetoshi, a guard maker of Tosa province, of the 
Miochin school, who worked during the eighteenth 
century, was noted for his skill in tempering iron. 

Setsuju, a skilled late eighteenth century worker of 
the Miochin school, lived at Mito and executed small 
perforated designs on highly tempered iron. 

Ariaki, a guard maker of the early part of the nine- 
teenth century, was especially noted for his representa- 
tion of wood-grain on iron in Miochin style. He lived 
in Shimotsuke province. 

Munetane and Munetaka, two artists of the Mio- 
chin school, flourished from 1800 to 1830. 

Naokatsu lived in Kotsuke province and was a 
sword-smith as well as a guard maker. As a sword- 
smith he knew well the value of highly tempered iron 
and accordingly used it for his tsuba. This, together 
with the excellent color of his guards, has made him 
famous. His style is similar to that of the artists of 
the Miochin school. He died in 1857. 

Muneharu, a native of Yedo and an artist of the 
Miochin school, worked about the middle of the nine- 
teenth century. 

Yasuiye, a skillful tsuba artist of the Miochin school, 
worked during the nineteenth century. 



MITO SCHOOL 

At Mito, Hitachi province, lived many artists who 
followed various styles. Their work, however, pos- 
sessed a certain general similarity, such that they have 
become known as the "Mito School.' ' Four main 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBA MAKERS 53 

divisions came under this heading : the Sekijoken, the 
Koami, the Hitotsuyanagi or Ichiriu, and the Yegawa. 

Mototaka, the founder of the Sekijoken line, was a 
son of Taizan-Motonori, a pupil of the Yokoya school, 
who signed his work Sekijoken-Taizan-Mototaka. He 
worked during the last part of the eighteenth century 
and lived to a great age. He was a skillful copyist of 
the style of the Nara artists, Joi, Shozui, Yasuchika, 
Toshinaga, etc., and a teacher of great ability, so 
that his studio was crowded with pupils, among the 
most expert of whom was Takase-Yeiju (or Hisan- 
aga), who worked during the late eighteenth and early 
nineteenth centuries. 

The artists of the Sekijoken school at first followed 
the style of Yokoya, but later they turned to the Nara 
school. 

The Koami family was founded by Koami, a pupil 
of the Goto. 

His pupil, Tsujiu, followed the Goto style; his 
name is derived from the names of two Goto artists, 
Tsujo and Jiujo. Later he and his followers adopted 
the Nara style. 

Other noted men of the school were Yoshinaga and 
Yoshihisa, who flourished during the latter half of the 
eighteenth century, and Hironaga, pupil of Yoshinaga, 
who did excellent work in relief during the late eigh- 
teenth and the early nineteenth centuries. 

The Hitotsuyanagi or Ichiriu family was a branch 
of the Koami family. The first four artists used the 
same signature, " Tomoyoshi." They are celebrated 
for their high relief and for their original designs de- 
picting the dragon, the tiger, and the Howo bird. 



54- JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

They lived during the eighteenth and nineteenth cen- 
turies. 

The Yegawa family was founded by Yegawa-Toshi- 
masa, a pupil of Hitotsuyanagi-Tomoyoshi, who later 
changed from his master's style to that of the Yokoya 
artists. During the late eighteenth century he served 
in the household of the Daimyo of Kurume under the 
name of Sorin, a name probably adopted because of 
the fame attained by Somin and Soyo of the Yokoya 
school. His son, Toshimasa, also became a famous 
metal carver. 

MUKADE TSUBA 

The "mukade" design originated from a represen- 
tation of a mukade or centipede, but soon became con- 
ventionalized out of all recognition. Sometimes the 
tsuba were twisted coils of metal bound together with 
wire, sometimes merely inlaid with different metals to 
give that appearance. Some writers give the date of 
its origin as the sixteenth century, but all we can be 
certain of is that it did not come into fashion until the 
early part of the eighteenth. The centipede is an 
insect sacred to Bishamon, the god of war. 

NAMBAN, KANNAN (KAGONAMI), OR CAN- 
TON TSUBA. 

These names were used to refer to any extraneous 
material or style which found its way by trade to Japan 
from China or by the East-Indian route, and became 
popular there. About the seventeenth century a craze 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBA MAKERS 55 

for foreign designs manifested itself among the artists 
who made decorative metal work, especially sword 
guards. The work is characterized in general by very 
small perforations, a curious undercutting with the 
chisel, and in most instances a slight use of gold nunome 
inlay. The introduction of the dragon and a conven- 
tional flower into the " tendril design" characterizes 
the popular canton work made at Nagasaki, Kyoto, 
and Yedo from the beginning of the eighteenth century. 

Yamada-Ichirohei is one of the many guard makers 
of this style who lived in Nagasaki and worked during 
the second half of the eighteenth century. 

Tanaka-Sobei II, a guard maker of this style in 
Yedo, worked during the early nineteenth century. 

Mitsuhiro I and Mitsuhiro II, two artists of Hizen 
province, became well known as clever workers in the 
"canton" style during the early nineteenth century- 
They are famous for the individuality of their methods. 
The so-called one thousand horse and monkey designs 
were their favorite subjects. 

NARA SCHOOL 

The artists of the Nara family, one of the most im- 
portant schools in Yedo, made metal ornaments and 
sword guards, as did almost every school of metal 
workers. Toshiteru, Toshimune, Toshiharu, Toshi- 
naga (or Riyei), Tatsumasa, and Juyei were famous 
metal carvers and tsuba artists of the early Nara school. 

In the latter part of the seventeenth century the 
great Nara-Toshinaga came into prominence through 
his development of a much more refined and polished 



56 ., JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

style than that of the earlier Nara artists, and through 
his knowledge of human anatomy. For this reason 
the school, previous to his advent, is known as the 
Ko-Nara, or Old Nara, school, in distinction from the 
later Nara. He was noted for his skill in figure relief, 
and his designs were generally historical in character. 
His guards were generally thick and either square or 
of the irregularly rounded form then fashionable. He 
died in 1736, at the age of seventy. One tsuba by 
this master is particularly well known and interesting. 
It is called the Omori-Hikohichi tsuba, and tells the 
story of a female demon_who in the form of a beautiful 
girl begged a certain Omori-Hikohichi to carry her 
across a river. Omori complied with her request, but 
when about half way across he felt his burden grow- 
ing heavier and heavier, and at last looking up saw 
mounted upon his back a hideous female demon. 
This guard is probably known to every metal carver 
in Japan. 

Toshinaga II was a metal worker and also a guard 
maker, who copied the style of the first Toshinaga and 
was well known as a clever worker. His chiselling 
has a rare power and finish, but he never equalled his 
master in strength of design or exactness of execution. 
He died in 1771. 

Natsuo discovered differences in the signatures of 
the first and second Toshinaga. The placing of the 
name on the tsuba and the character of the chisel 
used, both serve to distinguish between their work. 

Tsuchiya-Yasuchika, a very celebrated carver of the 
Nara school, was a pupil of Tatsumasa, the contempo- 
rary of Korin and Toshinaga, the former of whom 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBJ MAKERS 57 

he resembles in originality of design and decorative 
adaptation. He sometimes used the name Towu. 
His guards are made of several materials: brass, brass 
with shibuichi inlay (or vice versa), brass with inlay 
of pewter, or in combination with shakudo. These 
are very different from those of contemporary artists, 
because, like Korin, his dominant idea was to produce 
a decorative effect, while his contemporaries were 
working out illustrations to stories. He paid much 
attention to the choice of materials, selecting them 
with a view to color harmony, a new idea in metal 
work. He died in 1744, at the age of seventy-five. The 
most famous tsuba by Yasuchika is an iron tsuba rep- 
resenting the worn wooden piers of a bridge with wild 
geese flying across. This is considered as rivalling in 
artistic excellence the Omori-Hikohichi of Toshinaga. 

Yasunobu, a pupil of the first Yasuchika, later signed 
his work Yasuchika, and is known as Yasuchika II. 
His work in general resembled that of the first Yasu- 
chika, but with much more attention paid to detail. 
In technical skill he excelled the first Yasuchika, whose 
chief interest lay in design and color effect. He died 
in 1747 at the age of fifty-three. 

Note. Natsuo has decided that the signatures of 
the first and second Yasuchika show individualities of 
writing and position that give enough evidence to 
attribute their work correctly. 

Sugiura-Joi, a pupil of Nara-Juyei, is associated with 
Toshinaga and Yasuchika as one of the three most 
famous artists of the Nara school. His manner, how- 
ever, is easily distinguished from that of the others, for 
he worked low relief on iron, brass, and copper, taking 



58 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

animals for the most part as subjects. He died in 1761, 
at the age of sixty-one. He uses the signatures Issando 
and Nagahara, as well as Joi ; his signatures are re- 
markably clear-cut. 

Hamano-Shozui (1696-1769), a pupil of Toshi- 
naga I, followed his master's style and execution. He 
is distinguished for his originality, for, instead of taking 
designs from the hackneyed pictures, as was the almost 
universal custom, he drew from nature and his own 
fancy. He also signed his work Itsuriuken, Miboku, 
and in his old age Kankei ; his signatures are cut 
deeply and vigorously. 

Kaneyuki (died 1776), Nobuyuki or Tomoyuki 
(died 1793), and Masanobu were three pupils of Shozui, 
all of whom acquired great skill, and, like their teacher, 
signed their work " Itsuriuken Miboku." Akabumi, 
who worked in Ushiu province during the latter part 
of the eighteenth century, was also a pupil of Shozui ; 
he sometimes used the name Yiirakusai. 

Kawamura-Tsuneshige, whose early name was 
Sekiguchi-Rioka, nourished about the middle of the 
eighteenth century. He is said to have worked with 
great rapidity. His tsuba, some square in shape and 
others slightly rounded, were generally of brass, deco- 
rated with figures, animals, and flowers. 

Jowa was a nephew of Joi, whom he closely resem- 
bles in style. With him ends the Joi style in the Nara 
school proper, although his style was perpetuated in 
other schools, for example, by Sekijoken-Mototaka of 
the Mito schools. 

Yasuchika III and Yasuchika IV were notable 
rather for their name and training than for the 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBA MAKERS 59 

excellence of their work. The work of the third 
Yasuchika is distinguished by the fact that his signa- 
ture is in a running hand. Yasuchika IV, called 
Shinsuke-Yasuchika, worked at Mito late in the 
eighteenth and early in the nineteenth century. 

Noriyuki (or Kuzui), adopted son and pupil of 
Shozui, was a very painstaking and skillful worker in 
relief of the Nara school (died 1787). Of his many 
pupils the most famous were : 

Yeizui ( or Nagayuki ), who worked during the third 
quarter of the eighteenth century. 

Noriyuki II, who studied under Noriyuki I and 
Yeizui, and flourished late in the eighteenth century. 
He signed his work Kuse or Norinobu, or later 
Noriyuki. 

Chokuzui (or Naoyuki), who worked at the same 
time and followed closely the first Noriyuki. 

Hiroyuki, who, although a pupil of the first Nori- 
yuki, developed a style more nearly like that of Shozui. 

Iwama-Masayoshi won renown as a pupil of Yeizui 
and Chokuzui. He worked after the style of Shozui, 
on which account he was often called Shozuibo. He 
died 1837, at the age of seventy-four. 

Nobuyoshi, a pupil of Nobuyuki and Masayoshi, 
flourished about the middle of the nineteenth century. 

Tsuchiya-Kunichika, a pupil of the fourth Yasu- 
chika, was a skilled carver of sword furniture and a 
tsuba maker. He is known as Yasuchika V. He 
lived in Yedo during the early part of the nineteenth 
century. 

His sons, Masachika, Nagamasa, and Tsunechika, 
of whom Toshimasa was the most skillful, followed 



60 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

the style of Yasuchika, working in the first half of the 
nineteenth century. The eldest assumed the name of 
Yasuchika VI, but this title was not recognized by his 
contemporaries. 

Horiye-Okinari (or Kosei), although a pupil of 
Shozui, often followed the manner of the Omori 
school. In addition to his reputation as a tsuba maker, 
he is well known as a carver of decorative metal work. 
He worked in Yedo during the latter part of the 
eighteenth century. 

Chizuka-Hisanori (second half of the eighteenth 
century), born of samurai family, served under the 
Daimyo of Mito. At first he made sword ornaments 
merely for pleasure, but later devoted himself wholly 
to sword guards. He was renowned for the beautiful 
finish of his surfaces; his style closely resembled that 
of the Nara school. 

The Nara school continued through the Tokugawa 
period (about three hundred years), and was popular 
even though the Goto monopolized the court favor. 
They chose more natural subjects than the Goto. Its 
members had much influence on the work of other 
contemporary schools, and at Yedo received more 
orders than any others. 

NOMURA FAMILY (see under Goto school) 



ODAWARA SCHOOL 

The founder of this school was Masatsugu, who 
lived during the early part of the seventeenth century, 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBJ MAKERS 61 

and worked at Odawara in Soshiu province. He ex- 
celled in minute perforated work on iron and shakudo, 
without inlay. Masayoshi, Masakuni I, Masakuni II, 
and Masakatsu were other artists of the school who 
worked in Hizen, Shimosa, and Sagami provinces in 
the second half of the seventeenth century. 

OMORI SCHOOL 

This school, originally a branch of the Nara (the 
earliest artist, Shigemitsu, was a pupil of Miidera-Ichi- 
robei), later followed the style and method of the 
Yokaya. Teruhide (who died in 1798 at the age of 
sixty-nine ), the fifth of the family, was the first artist 
of importance. He was skillful in reproducing waves, 
and invented a method of undercutting part of the 
design so that it stood out in relief. This became 
known as the Omori wave, and was much copied by 
later artists. 

Hideuji, Terumitsu, Hidetomo, and Hideyoshi 
were notable artists of the Omori school who worked 
during the later eighteenth and early nineteenth 
century. 

OTSUKI SCHOOL 

It is not known who was the actual founder of this 
school, but Otsuki-Korin, in Owari province, has left 
his signature from the first quarter of the eighteenth 
century, and was probably one of the first to become 
famous. Later many artists of the school worked in 
Kyoto. 



62 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

Yoshikuni, Mitsutsune, and Mitsuyoshi made tsuba 
as well as other metal ornaments. Toward the end of 
the century a versatile genius, Mitsuoki ( son of Mitsu- 
yoshi), came into prominence. He far surpassed 
his contemporaries in his command of design and 
color, and at first stood quite alone in his disregard of 
classic Kano school models, taking many of his de- 
signs from the painter Ganku, with whom he studied. 
He signed his work Tsuki-Mitsuoki, though he is 
also known as Shiwundo, Riukudo, Dairiusai, and 
Zekuniudo. 

Mitsuhiro and Mitsunao, his sons, who got their 
inspiration from the same source, became famous, as 
did also his three pupils, Masaoki (famed for his 
birds), Motohiro, and Okitaka, about the middle of 
the nineteenth century. 

Kawarabayashi-Hideoki, working during the first 
quarter of the century, closely resembled Mitsuoki, but 
never attained to his skill, though he taughtjiis adopted 
son, Hidekuni ( who worked in Kyoto and Osaka about 
the middle of the nineteenth Century ), to be a greater 
artist than himself. Gessan ( or Gassan ), a pupil work- 
ing at the same time as Hidekuni, also acquired skill 
and fame. He excelled in depicting wolves. 

Kano-Natsuo was a pupil of Okitaka and his son 
Takanaga, of the Otsuki school. He also studied the 
work of Kaneiye and Nobuiye, Yasuchika, Nagatsune, 
and other old masters, and soon developed a style dis- 
tinctly his own. He studied in the Maruyama school 
of painting under Nakashima-Raisho, and took many 
popular designs from paintings by Okio. Natsuo was 
one of the greatest metal artists of recent times, a most 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBA MAKERS 63 

careful worker, and a skillful colorist. During his 
later days he held the position of head artist at the 
Imperial Japanese mint and professor of metal work in 
the Tokyo art school. He died 1898. 



SADO SCHOOL 

Sanzayemon, most famous artist of this school, 
worked during the middle of the seventeenth century 
at Sado province. His designs were severe and regular, 
and generally perforated. 

The two Toshisada and Yoshihisa worked during 
the second half of the eighteenth century and were 
known for their well-tempered iron and strong per- 
forated design. 



SAOTOME SCHOOL 

This school of armorers and tsuba makers was 
probably an off-shoot of the Miochin school. Iye- 
tsugu, one of the earliest artists of the school, worked 
during the early part of the sixteenth century. Iyenori, 
best known as an armorer, worked during the middle 
of the sixteenth century. Iyemichi and Iyemitsu were 
guard makers of the Saotome family in the early part 
of the seventeenth century. Iyesada was a sword-smith 
and maker of iron sword guards of exceedingly fine 
temper, often perforated, and inlaid with shakudS. He 
flourished during the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. He was associated with the Saotome school. 



64 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

SEIJO SCHOOL 

This school was founded by Goto-Seijo (or Mitsu- 
toyo; died in 1734 at the age of seventy-two), a metal 
worker of the Goto school who made but few tsuba. 
The second of the school, Seijo-Mitsuzane ( died 1750 
at the age of fifty-two), worked in relief, and also did 
inlay in the nunome style. He often used the water 
dragon on his guards and delighted in carving curious 
flowers. He always signed work in nunome gold 
inlay. 

About this time there was a demand for foreign 
designs, and this school turned out many guards in 
what is known as the Canton style. The third, fourth, 
and fifth exponents of the school used the same signa- 
ture, "Seijo." The sixth Seij5, sometimes known as 
Harumitsu, Sessai, or Shiunchin, was famed for his 
excellent composition and detail. Many of his pupils 
became famous. 

SHOAMI SCHOOL 

Was founded at Nishijin, in Kyoto. The first 
carver was Masanori, in spite of the fact that some 
consider that Norisada was earlier. He was a pupil of 
the Umetada school during the first part of the seven- 
teenth century, but soon adopted the style of the Goto. 
Takatsune, his pupil, carried along his work. In the 
early part of the eighteenth century those who had 
studied with the Shoami masters at Kyoto founded 
branch schools in their native provinces all over Japan. 
By the beginning of the nineteenth century there were 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBJ MAKERS 65 

branches in Aidzu and Morioka, Oshiu province; 
Shonai and Kameda, Ushiu province; Tsuyama, Saku- 
shiu province; Matsuyama, Yoshiu province; and Ku- 
rume, Chikushiu province. 

Among the best men of the time were Dennai, 
Morikuni, Moritomi, Shigesada, Shigetsune, Kane- 
mori, Matahichi, and Tsunayoshi. The artists of 
Shoami worked all over Japan except in Yedo, where 
the other schools were more popular. Most of their 
work was done for the smaller towns. 

SOTEN SCHOOL (HIKONE TSUBA) 

Kitagawa-Soten (also called Soheishi), who lived in 
Hikone in Goshiu province, founded this school. He 
worked in high relief and perforation, generally choos- 
ing as his subjects Chinese figures in landscapes. His 
faces he made by inlaying copper or silver. The land- 
scapes were composed of gold and silver inlay. He 
flourished late in the seveenteenth and early in the 
eighteenth century. Ordinarily the place where he 
lived was prefixed to his signature, for example, Goshiu- 
Hikone; hence the name Hikone tsuba, which is some- 
times applied to his works. They are also known as 
Mogarashi-tsuba, from a popular reading of the Chinese 
character "Soheishi." 

Shiuten is thought by some critics to be an early 
signature of Kitagawa-Soten, by others to be the sig- 
nature of his predecessor; more probably he was a 
distinct artist of this school. 

Masashige, Kanetane, Yoshitake, and Kanenori 
were later artists of this same school. 



66 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

Nomura-Kanenori was an expert metal worker 
whose design and treatment resembled those of Soten. 
He lived at Hikone in the second quarter of the eigh- 
teenth century. His signature is often found, together 
with the characters Kanyeishi. 

Noriyoshi, or Tokurio, a native of Aidzu, imitated 
the work of the Hikone tsuba masters during the latter 
part of the eighteenth century. 

Soken (Yiumeishi), a pupil of Nomura-Kanenori, 
worked after the style of the S5ten school in the middle 
of the eighteenth century. 

Hiragiya tsuba resemble in general design and ex- 
ecution those of the Soten school, the differences being 
that the subjects chosen are Japanese instead of Chi- 
nese, and the technique is more full and rounded, and 
gives the effect of modelling. The best guards were 
made during the late eighteenth century. Their au- 
thorship is unknown, as none of them are signed. 
Hiragiya was probably the name of an Aidzu merchant 
who dealt in this kind of tsuba. 



SUNAGAWA SCHOOL 

This school was founded in Yedo at the beginning 
of the eighteenth century by Masatora, of the Akasaka 
school. Later members were Masachika, Masanori, 
and Masayoshi, who worked from the late eighteenth 
through the early nineteenth century. These later 
artists were somewhat influenced by the I to school. 

Otaka-Hironaga, a pupil of Masachika of the Suna- 
gawa school in Yedo, was noted for his skill in open 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBJ MAKERS 67 

work and the bright, highly finished surface of his 
guards. He worked during the nineteenth century. 

TANAKA SCHOOL (see under Goto school) 

TEMPO TSUBA 

These guards were first produced at Sanoda, in 
Yamashiro province. It is probable that the name 
Tempo perpetuates that of a seventeenth century artist, 
though it was not until the first part of the eighteenth 
century that they became well known. The pecul- 
iarity of this school is the signed character tempo (often 
the character tern only is stamped ) which was put on 
the sword guards before the final heating of the steel. 

Hirokuni, a guard maker of Sendai, in Oshiu 
province, worked during the late eighteenth century. 
His tsuba are similar to those made in the Tempo style, 
being stamped with a die. 

Mitsuhaya, a guard maker of Kyoto, worked in the 
Tempo manner during the early part of the nineteenth 
century. 

The name Kiami is considered by some critics to 
be another name of the Hoan family. Kiami was a 
tsuba maker of Geishiu province, who made use of 
stamps or dies of flower subjects after the manner 
of the Tempo school. He worked about the middle 
of the eighteenth century. 

TETSUGENDO SCHOOL 

The first of the workers in this manner was Oka- 
moto-Naoshige, a pupil of Kuniharu of Kyoto. His 
name is associated with those of the famous Nagatsune 



68 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

and Kasutsura of Kyoto, but of the three he is con- 
sidered the best iron worker. His early signature was 
"Toshiyuki," his latter one " Tetsugendo Seiraku," 
or Shoraku. The designs used by him are often taken 
from the drawings of Hanabusa-Itcho. After his death, 
in 1780, the following pupils carried on his work: 
Naofusa, Naokata, Naomichi, Naotomo, Shigemoto, 
and Takenori. 

TOJIBATA TSUBA 

Morishige and Kaneshige are the best known artists 
of this school, which flourished in the province of 
Sekishiu or Iwami late in the eighteenth century. The 
members of the Tojibata were skillful at open work 
and slight surface chiselling. 

TORIUSAI SCHOOL 

Tanaka-Toriusai-Kiyotoshi, of Yedo, founded this 
school during the nineteenth century. He was self- 
taught, though influenced by the Ishiguro school. His 
special contribution to the art was an invention for 
making inlay by cutting successive Y-shaped grooves 
instead of using the regular cross-hatched grooves of 
nunome-zogan. Hidenaga, Toshihide, and Toshikage 
were skillful pupils of Toriusai, Toshikage being espe- 
cially famed as a master artist in tsuba making and 
other metal work. 

UMETADA SCHOOL 

The members of the Umetada school, many 
branches of which were scattered throughout the 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBA MAKERS 69 

country, were both tsuba makers and swordsmiths. 
Shigeyoshi, a far-famed maker of sword ornaments, 
served under the patronage of the Shogun Ashikaga- 
Yoshimitsu during the late fourteenth century. Miojiu, 
son of Shigetaka, was another swordsmith and guard 
maker of great ability, who served the last Ashikaga 
Shogun and Taiko during the sixteenth century. He 
was one of the originators of the new style of sword 
which appeared about this time. His son, Shigeyoshi, 
famous for his carving on sword blades, also made 
tsuba; he served under the Tokugawa family about 
the middle of the seventeenth century. The Umetada 
ingeniously combined the styles of preceding schools. 
They worked on iron, were exceedingly good at inlay 
of shakudo, gold, and silver, and excelled in low relief 
and open or perforated work. 

Shigenaga, son of Shigeyoshi, served the Tokugawa- 
Shogun after the latter retired. 

Shigenari, Hikobei, Muneshige, Narishige, Shig- 
echika, and Yoshinaga, who followed this style, worked 
from the second half of the seventeenth to the eigh- 
teenth century. 

Naritsugu (died 1752 or 1755) was the last impor- 
tant artist of the Umetada school. Unlike the other 
members of his family, who preferred to live in Kyoto, 
Naritsugu removed to Yedo. He gave up making 
swords to devote himself entirely to sword ornaments. 
The dragon known as the "Umetada dragon" was 
first designed by him. It can be recognized by its 
minute eyes and scales. 

Ichiwo, a guard maker of the middle of the nine- 
teenth century, whose well-tempered and skillfully 



70 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

made sword guards were of a light brownish color, was 
perhaps the first to replace the character ume in the 
signature of the school, by a carving of the plum 
flower itself, ume being the Japanese for "plum." 

The Umetada school has the names of many famous 
swordsmiths who made blades decorated in relief, as 
well as tsuba makers, enrolled on its lists. Pupils 
flocked to the standard of this school and made it one 
of the three most famous. In order of excellence 
would come, first, the Kaneiye school, next Nobuiye 
and his followers, and third the Umetada group. 

YAMAKICHI STYLE 

Yamakichi was a native of Owari province who 
during the middle of the sixteenth century made thin 
strong guards with small perforations. It is said that 
his guards could be hammered in a mortar without 
breaking. Yagiu, a celebrated fencer and teacher of 
the third Shogun, was exceedingly fond of them and 
made them popular. 

Yamakichibei was a pupil of the first Yamakichi 
'whose skillfully tempered iron shows a curiously 
grained surface produced by a special method of riling 
sometimes in parallel and sometimes in radiating lines. 
The shape of his guards was quite varied. He worked 
during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century. 

YOKOYA SCHOOL 

This school, founded in the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, confined its attention for the most part 



SCHOOLS OF TSUBJ MAKERS 71 

to ornamental sword fitting, the making of tsuba being 
a side issue. The name of the first artist was Soyo 
( called " Grandfather Soyo " ), but the most famous of 
the school was Somin, an intimate of Hanabusa-Itcho, 
a versatile painter noted for his humorous pictures, 
many of which Somin used as designs for sword guards. 
He carried the katakiri-bori (imitation of brush stroke) 
to the highest point of perfection. In this work he 
often made use of shibuichi. 

Soyo II (died 1779), Somin II, Kiriusai-Soyo, 
and Kiriusai-Somin (late eighteenth to early nine- 
teenth century), all had pupils who carried out their 
style. 

Terukiyo I and II, Katsura (Yeiju), Miyake- 
Terumitsu, and Furukawa-Genchin, were the most 
famous pupils who worked during the second half of 
the eighteenth century. 

Kikuchi-Tsunekatsu, although a pupil of Inagawa- 
Naokatsu of the Yanagawa school, made use of a style 
which resembled that of Somin. He was a maker of 
many decorated objects other than tsuba, and was a 
master of the katakiri style of carving. His work dates 
from the middle of the eighteenth century. 

Tsuneoki ( son of Inagawa-Naokatsu, or, according 
to one account, Kikuchi-Tsunekatsu), Tsunemitsu, 
and Tsunefusa, were his best known pupils. 

Tsunemasa, a worker of horse armor, also made 
guards. He was skilled in producing finely tempered 
iron and well finished perforated tsuba. Although 
originally of the Yokoya school, he later was influenced 
by the Ito style. He worked during the first half of 
the nineteenth century. 



72 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

Yanagawa Family 

This school, which started late in the seventeenth 
century, was an offshoot of the Yokoya school. Masat- 
sugu and Naomasa were its leading exponents. Their 
style was similar to that of the main school and the 
subjects used by them were flowers and animals in 
relief. 

Naohisa, Naomitsu, and Inagawa Naokatsu, pupils 
of Naomasa, were skillful artists. Naoharu, son of 
Naohisa, was a famous and popular metal-worker, and 
many students worked under him. He flourished 
during the later part of the eighteenth and early nine- 
teenth century. 

Haruaki, pupil of Naoharu, combined his own 
early style, acquired under Naoharu, with that of the 
Got5 school. *He generally treated subjects taken 
from old philosophical writings or from popular stories. 
He received the title of " Hogen " and is ranked as one 
of the three greatest artists of recent times. He died 
in 1859. His pupil also, Tanabe-Tomomasa, won 
renown for his tsuba. 

Rinsendo Family 

Tsuji-Mitsumasa, a follower of the Yokoya style in 
Goshiu province, famous for his muskets as well as his 
tsuba, was the first of the family. In the latter part of 
his life he was influenced by the Nara school. He 
died in 1776. Tadasuke, also a musket maker, became 
well known as a worker in iron and inlay during the 
second half of the eighteenth century, at which time 
the other members of the family, Sukeshige and 
Tsunenari, were most famous. 



SECTION III 

A catalogue of the present exhibition (1907-1908), 
including notes on certain examples. 

The tsuba are arranged in a Western Series and an 
Eastern Series ( see map on page 28 ). 



WESTERN SERIES 75 

WESTERN SERIES 

1 . Conventional chrysanthemum : iron. Miochin 
school. Sixteenth century. Ross Collection. 

2. Kiri and gourd design : iron, perforated. Kana- 
yama style. Late sixteenth century. Ross Collection. 

The kiri is a common plant in Japan, and combina-, 
tions of its leaves and flowers are often used for family 
crests and decorative purposes. The Taiko-Hideyoshi, 
a famous general who held supreme power over Japan 
for many years, used the flower and leaves of the kiri 
for his crest. He also used the gourd design, and it is 
said that for every victory in battle he added a new 
golden gourd, until at last he bore the "banner of the 
thousand gourds." 

3. Crab and bamboo design: iron, brass inlay. 
Miochin school. Late sixteenth century. Weld Col- 
lection. 

4. Maple and deer: iron, brass inlay. Yoshiro 
style. Late sixteenth century. Lent by Frank Jewett 
Mather, Jr. 

5. Ivy leaves: iron, brass inlay. Yoshiro style. 
Late sixteenth century. Lent by Mrs. Russell Robb. 

6. Bamboo and crabs : iron, silver and brass inlay. 
Fushimi style. Late seventeenth century. Weld Col- 
lection. 

During the twelfth century, at the time of the wars 
for feudal supremacy between the Heike and Genji 
families, the Heike knights were defeated, and after 
their last stand, off Dannoura beach, leaped into the 



76 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

sea in hundreds and were drowned. A species of crab 
found near Dannoura bears upon its back markings 
strangely like the features of a fierce warrior. It is 
therefore known as the '* Heike crab," and each is 
popularly believed to contain within its shell the angry 
spirit of a drowned Heike knight. These crabs be- 
came favorite tsuba subjects, and later the common 
crab (as shown in this example) was also introduced. 

7. Waves and running hare: iron, brass inlay. 
Yoshiro style. Middle of the seventeenth century. 
Ross Collection. 

In China and Japan the moon is supposed to be 
inhabited by a hare. A hare running on the waves is 
a symbol of moonlight playing on the water. 

8. Autumn flowers with mantis and dragon fly: 
iron, various metal inlays. Kaga style. Middle of 
the eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

9. Bag and staff design : iron, perforated, wood 
grain surface. Yamakichibei style. Late sixteenth 
century. Lent by Frank Jewett Mather, Jr. 

10. Kiri design : iron, perforated. Jingo style, 
Higo province. Middle of the seventeenth century. 
Lent by Frank Jewett Mather, Jr. 

11. Sword and biwa: iron, perforated. Higo 
school. Middle of the seventeenth century. Lent by 
Frank Jewett Mather, Jr. 

12. Kiri design: iron, perforated. Higo school. 
Middle of the seventeenth century. Lent by Frank 
Jewett Mather, Jr. 



WESTERN SERIES 77 

13. Pine tree and sail boat: iron, perforated. 
Higo school. Early eighteenth century. Ross Col- 
lection. 

14. Plum tree: iron, perforated. Fusayoshi style, 
Higo school. Early eighteenth century. Lent by 
Frank Jewett Mather, Jr. 

15. Pine tree: iron, perforated. Higo style. 
Middle of the eighteenth century. Lent by Frank 
Jewett Mather, Jr. 

16. Grass and new moon design : iron, perforated. 
Higo school. Middle of the eighteenth century. 
Lent by Frank Jewett Mather, Jr. 

17. Snow-flakes: iron, perforated. Higo style. 
Early eighteenth century. Lent by Frank Jewett 
Mather, Jr. 

18. Conventional design of crest: iron, perforated. 
Hoan style. Late eighteenth century. Lent by Frank 
Jewett Mather, Jr. 

19. Thunder God: iron, perforated. Signed by 
Nagasone, swordsmith, and Mototoshi, tsuba artist. 
Middle of the seventeenth century. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

20. Dragon design: iron, perforated and set with 
crystal eye. Signed by Suzuki-Seibei. Heianjo school. 
Second quarter of the seventeenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

21. Howo bird : iron, nunome gold inlay. Heianjo 
school. Late seventeenth century. Weld Collection. 



78 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

22. Chrysanthemum on a trellis: iron, nunome 
gold inlay. Heianjo style. Late seventeenth century, 
Ross Collection. 

23. Conventional design, dragon and cloud : iron. 
Heianjo style; Canton influence is also perceptible. 
Late seventeenth century. Ross Collection. 

24. Seri, a Japanese vegetable : iron, nunome gold 
inlay. Heianjo style. Late seventeenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

25. Butterflies: iron, perforated, nunome gold 
inlay. Heianjo style. Late seventeenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

26. Turnips : iron, perforated. Heianjo style. 
Late seventeenth century. Ross Collection. 

27. Monkeys on a pine tree : iron, perforated, cop- 
per inlay. Heianjo style. Late seventeenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

28. Mouse running up a straw rope curtain : iron, 
perforated, nunome gold and silver inlay. Heianjo 
style. Late seventeenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

29. Spinning reels: iron, nunome gold inlay. 
Heianjo style. Middle of the eighteenth century. 
Ross Collection. 

30. Daruma on the sea : iron. Kaneiyel(P). Six- 
teenth century. (Compare No. 66 of Western Series. ) 
Bigelow Collection. 



WESTERN SERIES 79 

3 1 . Fisherman in the moonlight : iron, low relief. 
Signed by Kaneiye II. Early seventeenth century. 
Ross Collection. 

32. Signs of the Zodiac: iron; gold, silver, and 
copper inlay. Signed by Kaneiye II. Early seven- 
teenth century. Lent by Frank Jewett Mather, Jr. 

The Japanese symbols of the months of the year 
and the days of the months are as follows: the rat, 
cow, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, sheep, 
monkey, hen, dog, and wild hog. 

33. Fisherman : iron. Signed by Kaneiye II. 
Early seventeenth century. Ross Collection. 

34. Benkei at Gojo Bridge: iron, gold and silver 
inlay. Kaneiye II style. Late seventeenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

Benkei, the slayer of nine hundred and ninety-nine 
knights on the bridge of Gojo, at last meets his match 
in youthful Yoshitsune and forever after becomes his 
devoted follower. Benkei was said to have had the 
strength of one hundred men, to have been eight feet 
in height, and to have carried many different weapons, 
each of which he wielded with consummate skill. 

35. Wild geese flying over temple: iron, slight 
gold inlay. Signed by Kaneiye II. Early seventeenth 
century. Ross Collection. 

36. Frog under a rush, watching dragon flies: 
iron, gold inlay. Kaneiye style. Late eighteenth cen- 
turv. Bigelow Collection. 



80 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

37. Dragon design: iron, low relief, gold inlay. 
Tetsunin style. Middle of the seventeenth century. 
Weld Collection. 

38. Daruma in meditation: iron, low relief, gold 
inlay. Tetsunin style. Late seventeenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

Daruma, a patron saint of the Zen sect, is said to 
have sat so long in meditation that his legs shrivelled 
away. Probably no single subject in Japan is more 
commonly used by artists and decorators than ' * Da- 
ruma Sama ' ' in meditation. 

39. Summer house and flying geese in moonlight : 
iron. Kaneiye style. Late seventeenth century. Bige- 
low Collection. 

40. Wild geese feeding : iron, gold and silver inlay. 
Kaneiye style. Late seventeenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

41. Butterfly: iron, nunome gold inlay. Signed 
by Kaneiye II. Early seventeenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

42. Wild geese in the rain flying over a bridge: 
iron. Signed by Yoshitane. Early nineteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 

43. Landscape : iron, nunome gold inlay. Kaneiye 
style. Late eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

44. Map of Ancient Japan, province names in 
gold: nunome gold inlay. Signed by Shigeyoshi. 
Umetada school. Middle of the seventeenth century. 
Weld Collection. 



WESTERN SERIES 81 

45. Chrysanthemum and stream: iron, nunome 
gold inlay. Signed by Shigeyoshi. Umetada school. 
Ross Collection. 

The chrysanthemum and stream formed the crest 
of the Kusunoki family, and as such were always favorite 
subjects with the samurai on account of the pre-emi- 
nent patriotism and devotion of Kusunoki Masashige 
to the unfortunate Emperor Go-Daigo in the fourteenth 
century. 

46. Kimono-rack: iron, gold and silver inlay. 
Umetada school. Middle of the eighteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

47. Interlocking squares, with gold inlaid scroll 
design : iron. Umetada school. Middle of the eigh- 
teenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

48. Conventional flower and wheel design : iron, 
perforated, gold inlay. Signed by Shigetsugu. Ume- 
tada style. Late seventeenth century. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

49. Wheel design: iron, silver inlay. Umetada 
school. Middle of the eighteenth century. Weld 
Collection. 

50. Chrysanthemum and cherry blossom : iron. 
Tadatsugu style. Late seventeenth century. Ross 
Collection. 

51. Namban style of design: iron, perforated, low 
relief. Umetada influence. Second half of the seven- 
teenth century. Ross Collection. 

52. Dragon and sword design : iron. Umetada 
style. Middle of the seventeenth century. Ross 
Collection. 



82 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

53. Dragon and fan design: iron, perforated. 
Umetada influence. Late seventeenth century. Ross 
Collection. 

54. Fallen leaves: iron, various metals inlaid. 
Umetada school. Middle of the eighteenth century. 
Weld Collection. 

55. Heron on willow tree: iron, gold and silver 
inlay. Signed by Umetada Ichiwo. Middle of the 
nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

56. Torii (temple gate) and pigeon : iron. Umetada 
school. Middle of the nineteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

57. Dragon and tiger: iron, gold inlay. Signed 
by Umetada. Middle of the nineteenth century. 
Weld Collection. 

This tsuba bears the later signature of the Umetada 
school, a plum blossom, "Ume," followed by the 
character "tada." 

58. Plum tree: low relief, gold inlay. Umetada. 
school. Middle of the nineteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

59. Dance bells : iron, perforated. Umetada school. 
Middle of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

60. Chinese fan-baton of shakudo, and depressed 
shapes. SaotOme school. Middle of the seventeenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

61. Conventional cloud design: iron, perforated. 
Saotome school. Middle of the seventeenth century. 
Ross Collection. 



WESTERN SERIES 83 

62. Inlaid designs of shakudo. Saotome school. 
Middle of the seventeenth century. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

63. Dance bells: iron, perforated. Saotome style. 
Late seventeenth century. Ross Collection. 

64. String of prayer beads : iron, perforated. Sao- 
tome style. Late seventeenth century. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

65. Irregular perforated design: iron. Saotome 
style. Late seventeenth century. Ross Collection. 

66. Flowering vines and butterfly : iron, gold and 
silver inlay. Mixed school. Middle of the eighteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

67. Flower and poem design: iron, gilt copper 
inlay. Signed by Tadatsugu. Late seventeenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 

68. Cherry flower and ripple design: iron, perfo- 
rated. Signed by Tadatsugu. Late seventeenth cen- 
tury. Ross Collection. 

69. Yebisu and Daikoku, Gods of luck: lacquered 
copper. Signed by Iyetsugu of Yamato province. 
Second quarter of the eighteenth century. Ross Col- 
lection. 

Two of the Shichi-Fukujiu, or seven Gods of 
Good Fortune. Daikoku, with the mallet and rice 
bales, grants worldly prosperity to farmers and others 
who do him honor. Yebisu, the fisherman, is the 
tutelary God of fishermen and sailors. 



84 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

70. Tiger and bamboo: iron. Iyetsugu style, in 
Yamato province. Second quarter of the eighteenth 
century. Lent by Miss Louise M. Nathurst. 

71. Landscape: iron, copper inlay. Shoami style. 
Very early eighteenth century. Ross Collection. 

72. Thunder God and Wind God: iron, gold 
inlay. Signed by Soten. Very early eighteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 

The Wind God carries a huge bag from which he 
allows breezes or tempests to issue as he loosens the 
strings or throws wide the mouth. 

73. Hotei, swastika, and treasure symbols: iron, 
various metals inlaid. Signed by Soten. Very early 
eighteenth century. 

Hotei is one of the seven Gods of Good Luck, 
originally a fat jolly Chinese priest, exceedingly fond 
of children. He is shown leaning on the bag of good 
things from which he is inseparable, and from which 
he gets his name, hotei, meaning cloth bag. 

74. Chinese figures, and landscape. Signed by 
Soten. Very early eighteenth century. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

75. The three amusements, viewing pictures, play- 
ing go, and music: iron. Soten style. Very early 
eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

76. Historical scene of the Heike wars of the 
twelfth century : iron, gold inlay. Soten style. Mid 
die of the eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

Yoshitsune captured the fortress of Ichinotani bv an 






WESTERN SERIES 85 

assault from the rear down what was considered an 
impassable cliff. He discovered the practicability of 
the passage by first sending over it two riderless horses, 
one white as representing his own colors, and the other 
red for those of the enemy. The red horse was dashed 
to pieces, but the white one successfully leapt upon the 
castle roof. 

77. Chinese figures playing go : copper, perforated. 
Soten style. Very early eighteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

78. Tawaratoda bringing a temple bell from Riugu 
to Miidera Church: iron, perforated, gold and silver 
inlay. Hiragiya style. Early half of the nineteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

79. Two hunters of Northern China: iron, per- 
forated, gold inlay. Hiragiya style. Early nineteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

80. Plum tree and stork : iron, gold inlay. Soten 
style. Early eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

81. The fox trapper: iron, perforated; gold, sha- 
kudo, and copper inlay. Hiragiya style. Very early 
nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

82. Idaten, a Heavenly guardian, pursuing a 
demon : iron, perforated, gold inlay. Soten style. 
Middle of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

83. Dragon design: iron, perforated, gold inlay. 
Signed by Yoshikawa-Kanetane. Soten school. Mid- 
dle of the eighteenth century. Weld Collection. 



86 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

84. The battle at Uji Bridge in the twelfth cen- 
tury: shakudo, various inlays. Signed by Kanenori, 
Soten school. Second quarter of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 

85. Benkei and Ushiwaka fighting on Gojo Bridge: 
iron, perforated, gold inlay. Hiragiya style. Early 
nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

86. Hakui and Shikusei, Chinese historical char- 
acters: iron, gold and brass inlay. Soten school. 
Middle of the eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

87. Tsuzumi ( drum used in No dance ) and letter 
box design: iron, gold inlay. Hiragiya style. Very 
early nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

88. Inro and tobacco pouch design: iron, perfo- 
rated, nunome gold inlay. Kyo-tsuba. Late eighteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

89. Conventional rice-ear design : iron, perforated, 
gold inlay. Kyo-tsuba. Middle of the eighteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

90. Aoi leaf and conventional outline design of the 
same : iron, perforated. Kyo-tsuba. Third quarter of 
the eighteenth century. Weld Collection. 

91. Chrysanthemum and lotus flower design : iron, 
stamp work. After Tempo style. Signed by Tansuishi. 
Middle of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

92. Tempo tsuba: iron, with outside edge of sha- 
kudo. Middle of the eighteenth century. The Tempo 
style of guard is very rare. Bigelow Collection. 



WESTERN SERIES 87 

93. Autumn flowers: iron, gold inlay. Signed by 
Kiami. Tempo style. Second half of the eighteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

94. Ideographs: iron, shakudo inlay. Tempo 
style. Second half of the eighteenth century. Bige- 
low Collection. 

95. Driftwood design : iron, applied brass. After 
Tempo style. Early eighteenth century. Ross Col- 
lection. 

96. Miyajima temple: iron, perforated, nunome 
gold inlay. Kyo-tsuba. Second half of the eighteenth 
century. Ross Collection. 

97. Nanten, "Winter flower" : iron, nunome gold 
inlay. Mixed style. Late eighteenth century. Weld 
Collection. 

98. Howo bird and kiri flower design : iron, nunome 
gold inlay. Mixed style. Early nineteenth century. 
Weld Collection. 

99. Flying dragon: iron, nunome gold inlay. 
Signed by Tadafusa of Kuwana in Ise province. 
Mixed style. Second quarter of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 

100. Howo bird and kiri design : iron, nunome 
gold inlay. Signed by Bikio of Kyoto. Mixed style. 
Second quarter of the nineteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

101. Screen design: iron, nunome gold inlay. 
Mixed style. Early nineteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 



88 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

102. Hotei and children at play: iron, nunome 
gold inlay. Mixed style. Early nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

103. Dragonfly: iron, nunome gold inlay on re- 
lief work. Joyen style ( made in Kyoto ). Early nine- 
teenth century. Weld Collection. 

104. Landscape: iron, nunome gold inlay on relief 
work. Late Jiakushi style. Early nineteenth century. 
Ross Collection. 

105. Wave and flower design: iron, perforated, 
nunome gold inlay. Awa school. Second quarter of 
the eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

106. Pine tree and bridge: iron, nunome gold 
inlay. Awa school. Second quarter of the eighteenth 
century. Ross Collection. 

107. Temple scene : iron, nunome gold inlay. Awa 
school. Second quarter of the eighteenth century. 
Ross Collection. 

108. Howo bird in circular and perforated design: 
iron, nunome gold inlay. Awa school. Second 
quarter of the eighteenth century. Ross Collection. 

109. Flat boat and towers, shakudo : inlay of various 
metals and katakiri chisel work. Signed by Hosono- 
Masamori. Middle of the eighteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

110. The birth of the year: iron, gold inlay. 
Signed by Nagatsune. Second half of the eighteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 



WESTERN SERIES 89 

111. Shoki the Demon Queller: brass, katakiri 
chisel work. Style of Ichinomiya-Nagatsune. Second 
half of the eighteenth century. Weld Collection. 

112. Shoki and demon depicted on a banner. Un- 
doubtedly by Nagatsune. Second half of the eigh- 
teenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

Shoki, the demon slayer, is a Chinese mythological 
character who chastises the spirits of evil. He is often 
represented on the banner which is displayed on the 
fronts of Japanese houses at the time of the Boy's 
Festival, May 5th. 

113. Kanzan and Jittoku reading a scroll: iron, 
gold and silver inlay. Signed by Sadatsune, Ichino- 
miya school. Late eighteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

Kanzan and Jittoku are two young, eccentric fol- 
lowers of the Zen doctrine in the Tang dynasty. They 
were supposed to be manifestations of the Bodhisatvas 
Monju and Fugen. 

114. Chinese boys enjoying a cock fight: iron, 
various inlaid metals. Ichinomiya school. Early 
eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

One of the Emperors of the Tang dynasty in China, 
being born in the Year of the Cock, adopted cock-fight- 
ing as the court amusement, and invited five hundred 
small boys to take part in the game. 

115. Pilgrims outside a temple gate: iron; gold, 
silver, and copper inlay. Ichinomiya style. Signed 
by Tadayuki. Late eighteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 



90 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

116. Pigeon and flowers: iron, gold and silver 
inlay. Signed by Aritsune, pupil of Kasutsura. Late 
eighteenth to early nineteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

117. Pine tree design : iron. Signed by Naoshige, 
Tetsugendo school. Third quarter of the eighteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

118. Dragons and treasure ball design : iron, per- 
forated. Tetsugendo school. Third quarter of the 
eighteenth century. Weld Collection. 

119. Flying cranes and waves: iron, slight gold 
inlay. Signed by TetsugendS-Seiraku. Third quarter 
of the eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

120. Dragon design : iron. Tetsugendo style. 
Third quarter of the eighteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

121. A threatening thunder storm: iron, gold and 
copper inlay. Tetsugendo style. Third quarter of 
the eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

A popular design taken from a picture by Hana- 
busa-Itcho, representing all sorts of people seeking a 
shelter during a storm. 

122. Sparrows and rice sheath: iron, perforated. 
Signed by Naofusa, a pupil of Naoshige; Tetsugendo 
school. Late eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

123. Shiu-kaido, "Autumn flower": iron, per- 
forated, nunome gold inlay. Signed by Naofusa, 
Tetsugendo school. Late eighteenth century. Bige- 
low Collection. 



WESTERN SERIES 91 

124. Ika (cuttlefish) design: iron, perforated. 
Tetsugendo style. Late eighteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

125. Howo birds: iron, perforated. Tetsugendo 
style. Early nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

126. Dragonflies: iron, perforated. Tetsugendo 
style. Early nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

127. Lions at play under waterfall: iron, perfo- 
rated. Tetsugendo style. Early nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

128. Peony: iron. Signed by Yoshikatsu, a sword- 
smith; Tetsugendo style. Dated 1816. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

129. Unrolled makimono : iron, perforated. Signed 
by Morikuni, Shoami school. Middle of the eigh- 
teenth century. Lent by Miss Louise M. Nathurst. 

130. Monkey in a peach tree: iron. Signed by 
Moritomi, Shoami school. Made in 1819. Bigelow 
Collection. 

131. Cock and drum: iron, gold inlay. Shoami 
school. Middle of the eighteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

A certain virtuous emperor of China ordered a 
great drum to be placed outside the palace gate so that 
any one with a grievance might, by beating on it, sum- 
mon him to give audience. The government, how- 
ever, was so well conducted that the drum was never 
sounded, and at last, overgrown with weeds and spider 
webs, it became a roosting place for birds. 



92 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

132. Eel and cuttlefish : iron, gold inlay. Shoami 
school. Middle of the eighteenth century. Weld 
Collection. 

133. Wave and kiri crest design: iron, gold inlay- 
Awa style. Late eighteenth century. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

134. Lotus design: iron, silver inlay. Awa style. 
Late eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

135. Deer and autumn flowers: iron, gold inlay. 
Goto style. Middle of the eighteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

136. Narcissus design: iron, gold inlay. Goto 
style. Early nineteenth century. Weld Collection. 

137. Autumn flowers: iron, gold and silver inlay. 
Goto style. Early nineteenth century. Weld Col- 
lection. 

138. Kiri crests : shakudo, gold inlay. Goto school. 
Middle of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

The three and five flower kiri crest was permitted 
to others than those of the Imperial family. The five 
and seven flower kiri crest was always Imperial. 

139. Narihira journeying to the East (designed 
from a picture by Hanabusa-Itcho) : shakud5, gold and 
silver inlay. Signed by Goto-Ichij5. Middle of the 
nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

An interesting comparison may be made between 
this representation by the artist Itcho and the accepted 



WESTERN SERIES 93 

traditional treatment of the same subject shown on No. 
443 (Eastern series). Itcho with characteristic dis- 
regard of custom and propriety, has shown the famous 
man lolling in sleep upon a farm horse led by a country 
lad. 

140. Wading heron and rush : iron, silver and gold 
inlay. Signed by Ichijo; dated 1850. Weld Col- 
lection. 

141. Wild geese flying over a rice field: iron. 
Signed by Ichijo (see No. 139 t ). Weld Collection. 

The season for harvesting rice is the late autumn, 
and at this time the wild ducks are flying southward. 
Hence the rice fields and flying wild ducks are often 
represented together. 

142. Hen and chickens: shibuichi, various metal 
inlays. Signed by Ikkin, pupil of Ichijo. Middle of 
the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

143. Dragon design: iron, applied gold. Signed 
by Ikkin ( see No. 142 ). Bigelow Collection. 

144. Snow scene, bird alighting on a frozen well : 
shibuichi; silver, shakudo, and copper inlay. Signed 
by Nobukiyo; Goto style. Dated 1855. Bigelow 
Collection. 

145. Dragon design : silver, applied gold. Signed 
by Nobukiyo; Goto style. Middle of the nineteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

146. Iris design: iron, perforated. Signed by 
Michitaka. Very early nineteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 



94 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

147. Sailboats: iron. Choshiu school. Third 
quarter of the eighteenth century. Weld Collection. 

148. Design of bean pods : iron, perforated. Signed 
by Masakata, Choshiu school. Second half of the 
seventeenth century. Lent by Miss Louise M. Nathurst. 

149. Daimyo's castle and water-mill: iron, low 
relief work. Signed by Tomomitsu, Choshiu school. 
Middle of the seventeenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

The mill is a famous one on the Yodo river near 
Kyoto. 

150. Tortoise and sea-weed design: iron, perfo- 
rated. Signed by Masaaki. Middle of the nineteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

151. Kioyiu washing his ear at a waterfall: iron, 
perforated. By a Choshiu artist who practised the 
Tetsugendo style. Second half of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 

Kioyiu was a Taoist who considered his ears polluted 
because he was offered the throne of China. 

152. Nio the two Guardian Kings of the Buddhist 
church : iron, perforated. Signed by Kiyoshige. Early 
eighteenth century. Weld Collection. 

Large carved wooden figures of these deities are 
usually placed one on each side of the gateway to a 
temple. 

153. Chinese landscape from a Sesshiu design: 
iron. Signed by Tomohisa, Choshiu school. Mid- 
dle of the eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 



WESTERN SERIES. 95 

154. Grapes and squirrels: iron, perforated. Signed 
by Kawaji. Third quarter of the eighteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

155. Chrysanthemum design: iron, perforated, 
nunome gold inlay. Signed by Hisatsugu. Late 
eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

156. Spider and web design: iron. Signed by 
Tomokatsu, Choshiu school. Third quarter of the 
eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

157. Evening flower and wheel design: iron, per- 
forated. Signed by Hisatsugu, Choshiu school. Late 
eighteenth century. Weld Collection. 

158. A young monkey fleeing from an eagle : iron. 
Signed by Tomonobu, Choshiu school. Middle of 
the eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

159. Cow design: iron, perforated. Choshiu 
school. Middle of the eighteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

160. Horse design: iron, perforated. Choshiu 
school. Second quarter of the eighteenth century. 
Weld Collection. 

161. Shells: iron. Signed by Kawaji, Choshiu 
school. Late eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

162. Various decorative designs : iron. Signed by 
Tomohisa, Choshiu school. Third quarter of the 
eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

163. Pea-fowl and peony design: iron, low relief. 
Signed by Koto, Choshiu school. Late eighteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 



96 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

164. Man resting on the back of a cow: shakudo. 
Signed by Kiyotaka, Choshiu school. Late eighteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

165. Shikami design : iron, perforated. Signed by 
Tomonori, Choshiu school. Late eighteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 

The design of the " shikami" or " biting lion ' ' is 
common on armor bosses and helmet fronts. It is 
supposed, like the Gorgon's head, to inspire terror in 
the enemy, and is thus peculiarly appropriate for a 
tsuba. 

166. Wave design: iron, perforated. Signed by 
Mitsutaka, Choshiu school. Early nineteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 

167 Carp and sea-weed: iron. Signed by Yu- 
kitoshi, Choshiu school. Late eighteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

168. Iris design : iron, perforated. Signed by Yu- 
kitoshi, Choshiu school. Late eighteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

169. Orchid design: iron, perforated. Signed by 
Tomonobu, Choshiu school. Third quarter of the 
eighteenth century. Lent by J. H. Donahey. 

170. Biwa and bumble bee: iron, perforated. 
Signed by Tomotsune, Choshiu school. Early nine- 
teenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

171. Lotus design: iron. Signed by Masayuki, 
Choshiu school. First half of the nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 



rVESTERN SERIES 97 

172. Flower arrangement: iron, perforated, gold 
and shakudo inlay. Signed by Tadayuki, Choshiu 
style. Very early nineteenth century. Lent by Mrs. 
Russell Robb. 

173. Dragon design: iron. Choshiu school. Very 
early nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

174. Monkeys : iron, perforated. Signed by Toshi- 
tsugu, Choshiu school. Early nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

175. Sword handles (nakago): iron, perforated. 
Choshiu school. Late eighteenth century. Weld 
Collection. 

176. Cormorants fishing : iron, perforated. Choshiu 
school. Early nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

177. Dragon design : iron, perforated, nunome gold 
inlay. Canton style. Early eighteenth century. Bige- 
low Collection. 

178. Plum flower design: iron, perforated, gold 
inlay. Canton style. Early eighteenth century. Ross 
Collection. 

179. Dragons, treasure ball, and Chinese character 
in tendril design : iron, perforated. Canton style. Sec- 
ond quarter of the eighteenth century. Ross Collection. 

180. Tendrils and mythological animals: iron per- 
forated. Canton style. Third quarter of the eigh- 
teenth century. Ross Collection. 

181. Lion and tendril design: iron, perforated, 
nunome gold inlay. Canton style. Third quarter of 
the eighteenth century. Ross Collection. 



98 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

182. Landscape: iron, perforated, nunome gold 
inlay. Canton style. Third quarter of the eighteenth 
century. Ross Collection. 

183. Conventional perforated design: iron, gold 
inlay. Namban style. Second quarter of the eigh- 
teenth century. Ross Collection. 

184. Tendril design: iron, perforated. Namban 
style. Second quarter of the eighteenth century. Bige- 
low Collection. 

185. Fish and fish-net design : iron, nunome gold 
inlay. Canton style. Late eighteenth century. Ross 
Collection. 

186. The "Thousand Horse" design: iron, per- 
forated. Signed by Mitsuhiro, of Hizen province. 
Early nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

187. Conventional flower design: iron, perforated. 
Signed by Mitsuhiro (see No. 186). Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

188. Cherry blossom design: iron. Signed by 
Mitsuhiro (see No. 186). Bigelow Collection. 

189. Rice bags: iron. Signed by Mitsunari. 
Middle of the nineteenth century. Weld Collection. 

190. The "Hundred Monkey" design: iron, per- 
forated. Signed by Mitsuhiro (see No. 186). Bigelow 
Collection. 

191. Tendril design: iron, inserted disks of silver, 
gold and stone. Canton style. Late eighteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 



WESTERN SERIES 99 

192. Dragon design: iron, nunome gold inlay. 
Namban style. Early nineteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

193. Bamboo : shakudo and shibuichi inlay. Signed 
by Chikon. Second quarter of the nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

194. Crows and full moon : shibuichi, shakudo and 
silver inlay. Rinsendo-Mitsumasa style. First half of 
the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

195. Flower and leaf design: copper, shakudo and 
silver inlay. Hirazogan style. Third quarter of the 
eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

196. Wolf and rush : iron, shibuichi and gold inlay. 
Otsuki school. Third quarter of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 

197. Hawk, pine tree and waterfall : brass. Signed 
by Mitsuoki, Otsuki school. Late eighteenth to early 
nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

198. Man_with lantern: iron, gold inlay. Signed 
by Mitsuoki, Otsuki school (see No. 197). Bigelow 
Collection. 

199. Dried fish: iron, silver inlay. Signed by 
Mitsuoki ( see No. 197 ). Bigelow Collection. 

This particular fish, which is called gomame, is 
dried and eaten with sauce on New Year's Day for 
good luck. 

200. The "Hundred Horse" design: iron, various 
metal inlays. Signed by Mitsuoki (see No. 197). 
Bigelow Collection. 



100 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

201. New moon and stream: shibuichi, nunome 
gold inlay. Signed by Mitsuoki ( see No. 197). Bigelow 
Collection. 

202. Demon beggar: shibuichi, gold and copper 
inlay. Signed by Mitsuoki (see No. 197). Bigelow 
Collection. 

An Oni or devil became converted to Buddhism 
and is here represented as begging alms like a holy 
man. About his neck is a ceremonial bell, and in his 
right hand a mallet for sounding it. His left hand 
holds a scroll for inscribing the gifts to the church, 
and over his back hangs a paper umbrella. 

203. Wolf beside a stream :_ shakudo, gold and 
silver inlay. Signed by Hideoki, Otsuki school. Early 
nineteenth century. 

204. Storm dragon: iron, gold inlay. Signed by 
Hideoki ( see No. 203 ). Bigelow Collection. 

205. Fungus: copper. Signed by Hideoki ( see No. 
203 ). Bigelow Collection. 

206. Rakan performing a miracle : iron; gold, shi- 
buichi, and shakudo inlay. Signed by Hidekuni, adopted 
son of Hideoki; Otsuki school. Middle of the nine- 
teenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

207. Snow on the bamboo leaves: silver. Signed 
by Hidekuni ( see No. 206 ). Bigelow Collection. 

The snow-laden bamboo is a favorite device of 
Japanese artists for denoting the character which yields 
but never breaks. 



WESTERN SERIES 101 

208. Chohi, the strong voiced general: iron, shi- 
buichi and gold inlay. Signed by Hidekuni (see No. 
206). Bigelow Collection. 

Illustrating a Chinese tale of the general who by 
his terrible voice alone put an army to flight. 

209. Soshi, a famous Chinese philosopher, and 
butterflies: iron, gold and silver inlay. Signed by 
Hidekuni (see No. 206). Weld Collection. 

210. Farmer resting at evening time : iron, copper 
and shakudo inlay. Signed by Hidekuni (see No. 
206). Bigelow Collection. 

211. Two cows under cherry tree : shibuichi. Ges- 
san, Otsuki school. Middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 

212. Stork and sunrise: iron, silver and gold inlay. 
Gessan (see No. 211). Weld Collection. 

213. Dragon design : iron, applied gold leaf. 
Signed by Atsuoki, Otsuki school. Middle of the 
nineteenth century. Weld Collection. 

214. Flying dragon design : iron, applied gold leaf. 
Signed by Atsuoki (see No. 213). Weld Collection. 

215. Peony and butterfly : shibuichi; gold, silver, 
and copper inlay. Signed by Atsuoki (see No. 213). 
Bigelow Collection. 

216. Chinese poet and waterfall : iron, gold inlay 
Signed by Mitsuhiro, Otsuki school. Second quarter 
of the nineteenth centurv. Weld Collection. 



102 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

217. Tortoise sunning on the beach: iron;_gold, 
silver, and shakudo inlay. Signed by Atsuhiro, Otsuki 
school. Third quarter of the nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

218. Tiger and lightning : iron, gold and shibuichi 
inlay. Signed by Atsuoki, Otsuki school. Middle of 
the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

219. Flying storks, pine tree, and sea beach : iron; 
gold, silver, and Shakudo inlay. Signed by Atsuhiro, 
Otsuki school. Third quarter of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 

220. Kanzan and_Jittoku: shibuichi, gold inlay. 
Signed by Okishige, Otsuki school. Third quarter of 
the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection (see note 
on 113). 

221. Wild geese feeding in the moonlight: iron, 
gold, and silver inlay. Signed by Natsuo, Otsuki 
school. Third quarter of the nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

222. Hawk and snow-covered pine tree: iron; 
gold, silver, and shibuichi inlay. Signed by Natsuo 
(see No. 221). Bigelow Collection. 

223. Snowflakes : iron. Signed by Natsuo (see 
No. 221). Bigelow Collection. 

224. Iris : weathered wood surface, iron, silver in- 
lay. Signed by Natsuo (see No. 221). Bigelow Col- 
lection. 



WESTERN SERIES. 103 

225. Various designs: iron, tempered by Miochin 
Muneharu. Bigelow Collection. 

These inlaid designs are by different metal artists, 
assembled and inlaid by Kano-Natsuo. They are inter- 
esting as showing the work of Natsuo' s contemporaries. 

226. Fungus and orchid design: iron, gold inlay. 
Signed by Natsuo (see No. 221). Bigelow Collection. 

227. Crayfish : iron, gold inlay. Signed b}^ Natsuo 
(see No. 221 ). Bigelow Collection. 

228. Dragon design : iron, shibuichi and gold inlay. 
Signed by Takechika, Otsuki style. Late quarter of 
the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

229. Sparrows and headed wheat stalks : iron, cop- 
per and gold inlay. Signed by Masayoshi, Natsuo 
style. Third quarter of the nineteenth century. Bige- 
low Collection. 

230. Heron and lotus design: brass; gold, ^ilver, 
and shibuichi inlay. Signed by Mitsuhiro, Otsuki 
school. Second half of the nineteenth century. 

231. Flower design: iron, gold and silver inlay. 
Signed by Teikan; Natsuo style. Third quarter of 
the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

232. Chrysanthemums and butterflies : copper, sha- 
kudo and gold inlay. Signed by Teikan; Natsuo 
style. Third quarter of the nineteenth century. Weld 
Collection. 



104 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

233. Seaweed: iron, nunome gold inlay. Signed 
by Masahide, Inshiu school. Late eighteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 

234. Flying wild ducks and conventional stream 
design: iron, perforated. Signed by Suruga (II?), 
Inshiu school. Early nineteenth century. Weld 
Collection. 

235. Horned pout: iron, gold inlay. Signed by 
Suruga ( II ? ) (see No. 234 ). Bigelow Collection. 

236. Dragon design: iron, perforated. Signed by 
Yeiju, an Osaka artist. Early nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

237. Dragon design : iron, low relief. Signed by 
Yeiju (see No. 236). Bigelow Collection. 

238. Dragon and cloud : iron. Signed by Naotake, 
a Satsuma artist. Early nineteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

239. Howo bird and kirin: silver, perforated. 
Signed by Rinsendo. Third quarter of the nineteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

The kirin is a mythological animal which appears 
on earth only at the birth of a wise or great man. It 
is pictured with the head of a dragon, the body of a 
deer, and the tail of a lion, while from its shoulders 
spurt flames. 

240. Fouled anchors and rope : shibuichi, applied 
gold leaf. Third quarter of the nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 



WESTERN SERIES 105 

241. Shojo-Doji, the boy sake drinker: brass, cop- 
per inlay and applied gold leaf. Modern. Bigelow 
Collection. 

242. Clam and sparrow design (from Japanese 
story) : iron, various metal inlays. Signed by Mitsu- 
tsugu. Third quarter of the nineteenth century. Bige- 
low Collection. 

The sparrow is supposed to be transformed into a 
clam. This sword guard shows the sparrows before 
they have been entirely transformed. 

243. Sennin riding on the back of a carp: brass, 
incised and low relief. Signed by Teikan. Third 
quarter of the nineteenth century. Weld Collection. 

244. Spray of peach blossoms : shakudo, shibuichi, 
and silver inlay. Signed by Katsuhiro; Natsuo style. 
Third quarter of the nineteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

245. Regular design of mother-of-pearl inlaid in 
lacquer over iron. Modern. Bigelow Collection. 

246. Conventional flower designs : shibuichi guard 
covered with lacquer, mother-of-pearl inlay. Modern. 
Bigelow Collection. 

247. Kiri crest design : aoi-flower shape, lacquered 
copper, brass rim. Early nineteenth century imitation 
of old style. Bigelow Collection. 

248. Lacquered leather over iron. Modern. Bige- 
low Collection. 



106 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

EASTERN SERIES 

249. Conventional tortoise shell : iron, incised work. 
Signed by Nobuiye. Sixteenth century. Ross Col- 
lection. 

250. Cheek-guard of a horse's bit, kiri flower : iron, 
perforated. Miochin school. Middle of the seven- 
teenth century. Weld Collection. 

251. Kiri and tortoise shell: iron. Miochin-No- 
buiye style. Middle of the eighteenth century. Bige- 
low Collection. 

252. Conventional flower : iron, perforated. Aka- 
saka school; Shoyemon style. Middle of the eigh- 
teenth century. Ross Collection. 

253. Fagots: iron, perforated. Akasaka style. 
Second quarter of the eighteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

254. Conventional stream : iron. Akasaka school. 
Middle of the seventeenth century. Ross Collection. 

255. Peach : iron, brass inlay. Signed by Nobuiye 
of Kyoto ; Miochin school. Second half of the seven- 
teenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

The work of Nobuiye of Kyoto resembles more 
closely that of the Eastern than the Western schools. 

256. Rabbits: iron. Signed by Kuninaga, Mio- 
chin school. Late eighteenth century. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 



EJSTERN SERIES 107 

257. Frogs : iron, gold inlay. Style of Nobuiye of 
Kyoto. Second quarter of the eighteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection ( see note to No. 255 ). 

258. Wood-grain and axe: iron, shakudo inlay. 
Signed by Hiromitsu, Miochin school. Second 
quarter of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

259. Wood-grain: iron. Miochin school. Second 
quarter of the eighteenth century. Ross Collection. 

260. Conventional flower-bud: iron, perforated. 
Akasaka school. Second half of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. Ross Collection. 

261. Tea ceremony utensils : iron. Nobuiye style ; 
Miochin school. Late seventeenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

262. Snake: iron perforated. Miochin school. 
Late seventeenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

263. Wheel: iron, perforated. Signed by Mune- 
taka. Late eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

264. Circular crests: iron, perforated. Odawara 
school. Second half of the seventeenth century. Lent 
by Frank Jewett Mather, Jr. 

265. Chinese characters in relief: iron. Signed 
by Yasuiye, late Miochin school. Dated 1866. Lent 
by Frank Jewett Mather, Jr. 

266. Sanscrit characters: iron, perforated. Signed 
by Tadanori, Akasaka school. Early nineteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 

These characters stand for three Buddhist divinities 
who represent power and vitality. 



108 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

267. Buddhist gong: iron. Signed by Yasuiye. 
Middle of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

The wumpan is a small flat bronze bell which is used 
in the Buddhist church ritual. 

268. Arrows: iron, perforated. Akasaka school. 
Early nineteenth century. Weld Collection. 

269. Dragon : iron, perforated. Signed by Tadatoki, 
Akasaka school. Early nineteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

270. Circular crest: iron, perforated. Odawara 
style. Late eighteenth to early nineteenth century. 
Weld Collection. 

271. Bows: iron, gold inlay. Miochin style. 
Second quarter of the nineteenth century. Weld 
Collection. 

272. Basket work: iron. Akasaka style. Late 
eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

273. Imitation of wood-grain: iron, shakudo rim. 
Miochin school. Second quarter of the nineteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

274. Kiri crests: iron, gold and shakudo inlay. 
Designed by Mototoshi; tempered by Miochin- Yasu- 
chika. Second quarter of the nineteenth century. 
Weld Collection. 

275. Tortoise-shell: iron, perforated. Signed by 
Setsuju; MiSchin style. Dated 1789. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 



EASTERN SERIES 109 

276. Wheel: iron, perforated. Miochin style. 
Second half of the eighteenth century. Lent by 
Frank Jewett Mather, Jr. 

277. Frog: iron. Signed by Sadakiyo. Miochin 
style. Early nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

278. Grass-blades : iron, perforated. Akasaka style. 
Second quarter of the nineteenth century. Lent by 
Frank Jewett Mather, Jr. 

279. Bound wire: iron, gold and copper wire. 
Mukade-tsuba. First half of the eighteenth century. 
Weld Collection. 

"Mukade" (centipede) is the name applied to 
this type of design on account of its development from 
a representation of a centipede. No. 280 shows a tran- 
sitional stage. 

280. Bound wire : iron, copper wire. Mukade 
style. Late seventeenth century. Weld Collection 
(see note to No. 279). 

281. Butterflies: iron, cloisonne inlay. Hirata 
school. Late seventeenth century. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

282. Tortoises and rocks: iron, perforated, cloisonne 
inlay. Hirata school. Middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 

The tortoise is an emblem of longevity, being said 
to live ten thousand years. The Chinese sages told 
fortunes by the markings on its back, and the Japanese 
fortune teller of to-day copies them for his chart. 



110 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

283. Conventional designs: iron, cloisonne inlay. 
Hirata school. Middle of the eighteenth century. 
Weld Collection. 

284. Bound wire design: iron, brass and copper 
wire. Mukade style. Middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection (see note to No. 279). 

285. Flowers : brass, cloisonne inlay. Hirata school. 
Late eighteenth century. Weld Collection. 

286. Butterflies and beetles: shakudo, cloisonne 
inlay. Hirata school. Early nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

287. Cloisonne work: shakudo. Hirata school. 
Early nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

288. Jewel design: iron, cloisonne work. Hirata 
school. Early nineteenth century. Bigelow Collec- 
tion. 

289. Conventional storks: iron. Kinai school; 
Echizen province. Middle of the eighteenth century. 
Weld Collection. 

290. Stork: iron. Kinai school. Middle of the 
eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

291. Acorns and autumn leaves: iron, perforated. 
Kinai school. Middle of the eighteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

292. Chiysanthemum : iron, perforated. Kinai 
school. Late eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

293. Dragon: iron, perforated. Kinai school. 
Early nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 



EASTERN SERIES 111 

294. The seven wise men of the bamboo grove : 
iron, perforated. Kinai school. Second quarter of 
the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

Seven famous Chinese sages of the sixth dynasty 
retired to a bamboo grove to spend the remainder of 
their lives in communion with nature and in literary 
work. 

295. Bamboo: iron, perforated. Kinai school. 
Early nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

296. Rice stalks: iron, perforated. Kinai school. 
Early nineteenth century. Weld Collection. 

297. Dragon: iron, perforated. Signed by Koki- 
tsune; Kinai style. Early nineteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

298. Howo bird: iron, perforated. Signed by 
Yoji; Kinai style. Second quarter of the nineteenth 
century. Lent by Frank Jewett Mather, Jr. 

The Howo bird is a mythological creature similar 
in many ways to the classical Phoenix. It is always 
represented as a species of peacock, with a fixed 
number of feathers in the tail and having eyes like an 
elephant's. It appears in the world only at long 
intervals, and is an omen of good fortune. 

299. Cricket and autumn flowers : iron, perforated. 
Kinai school. Early nineteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

300. Chinese baton and gold cord : iron, perforated, 
gold inlay. Signed by Aijiu, Shoami school. Third 
quarter of the eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 



112 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

301. A monkey grasping for the reflection of the 
moon on the waves : iron. Shoami style. Late seven- 
teenth century. Lent by Frank Jewett Mather, Jr. 

As a symbol of the vain strivings of mankind after 
what is but illusion, this scene points a favorite moral 
of the Zen sect of Buddhism. 

302. Taikobo, Chinese sage, fishing under a wil- 
low: iron, shakudo and copper inlay. Shoami school. 
Third quarter of the eighteenth century. 

303. Fisherman's boat at its mooring: iron, gold 
inlay. Shoami school. Third quarter of the eighteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

304. Design of old Chinese coins of the Ming 
dynasty: iron, silver inlay. Shoami school. Third 
quarter of the eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

305. Old Chinese coins: iron, real coins inlaid. 
Shoami style. Middle of the eighteenth century. 
Weld Collection. 

306. Chinese coins: iron; nunome gold, silver, and 
shakudo inlay. Early nineteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

307. Sanscrit characters : iron, silver inlay. Signed 
by Toda, sword smith and guard maker. Owari prov- 
ince. Early eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

A prayer of the Nichiren sect. 

308. Chrysanthemums: iron, low relief. Signed 
by Iyesada, Saotome school. Early eighteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 



E J STERN SERIES 113 

309. Shell: iron, perforated. Signed by Iyesada. 
Early eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

310. Kiri and butterfly: iron, perforated. Signed 
by Naokatsu, sword-smith and guard maker; Kotsuke 
province. First half of the nineteenth century. Bige- 
low Collection. 

311. Dog and bird: iron, brass inlay. Old Nara 
school. Second half of the seventeenth century. Ross 
Collection. 

312. Wheel, flowers and mantis: iron, gold inlay. 
Toshinaga I, Nara school. Early eighteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

In the Fujiwari romance, "Genji Monogatari,' > 
Genji rides in an ox-cart to visit his love at dusk. The 
design of this sword guard shows the wheel of his cart, 
an evening flower, and a winged insect called the 
mantis. 

313. Dragon and cloud : silver, gold inlay. Signed 
by Masanaga, Nara school. Second quarter of the 
eighteenth century. Weld Collection. 

314. Daruma on the waves: iron, copper inlay. 
Nara school. Early eighteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

Daruma, in one of the Chinese stories, comes from 
India across the waters on a bundle of rushes. 

315. Jar: iron, gold and silver inlay in relief. 
Yasuchika style, Nara school. First half of the eigh- 
teenth century. Bigelow Collection. 



114 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

316. Imitation of leather: brass. Signed by Yasu- 
chika (see No. 315). Weld Collection. 

317. Illustration of a mythological tale: iron, gold 
and silver inlay. Nara school. Middle of the eigh- 
teenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

The design represents Takenouchi-Sukune receiving 
a treasure ball from the sea-god. 

318. The three vinegar tasters: copper; gold, 
silver, and shakudo inlay. Nara school. Middle of 
the eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

The three masters of philosophy, Buddha, Confucius 
and Laotse, once gathered about a pot of vinegar. 
Buddha, as he tasted, said, "It is bitter, " Confucius, 
" It is sour," Laotse, "It is sweet," thus illustrating 
their respective views of existence. 

319. Inhabitants of the Indies: iron, gold and silver 
inlay. Toshinaga style. Third quarter of the eigh- 
teenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

These figures are taken from an illustration in a 
Japanese Encyclopedia published during the early part 
of the eighteenth century. 

320. Dragon: shakudo; brass, pewter, and shibuichi 
inlay. Signed by Yasuchika (VI?). Middle of the 
nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

321. Chinese seal of the Han dynasty: copper. 
Signed by Yasuchika. First half of the eighteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

322. Cow feeding under a willow near a stream : 
iron, gold inlay. Nara school. First half of the 
eighteenth century. Ross Collection. 



EASTERN SERIES 115 

323. White elephant with treasure ball on its back : 
iron, gold and silver inlay. Signed by Yasuchika. 
First half of the eighteenth century. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

The elephant is not native to Japan, and early 
representations of it are far from accurate. About 
1729 one was sent from Siam as a present to the 
Shogun, and it seems likely that this animal furnished 
Yasuchika with a model for the present design. 

324. Watonai or Koxinga, a famous hero of great 
strength encountering a tiger : brass, gold and crystal 
inlay. Signed by Tsuneshige. Middle of the eigh- 
teenth century. Weld Collection. 

325. Imitation of leather work and old coins: cop- 
per, shakudo and shibuichi inlay. Signed by Yasu- 
chika. First half of the eighteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

This type of design is known as Namban style. 
The background is very cleverly made to imitate the 
texture of leather by dexterous use of the chisel. 

326. No mask: iron, copper inlay. Nara style. 
Second half of the eighteenth century. Weld Col- 
lection. 

327. Peony and butterflies : iron, gold and shakudo 
inlay. Nara school. Middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 

328. Crayfish : iron, copper inlay in high relief. 
Nara school. Second half of the eighteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 



116 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

329. Gourd vine: iron; gold, silver, and copper 
inlay. Old Nara style. Middle of the eighteenth 
century. Lent by Frank Jewett Mather, Jr. 

330. One of the Nio or "Two Kings" who guard 
Buddhist temples, and flying pigeon : iron ; gold, silver, 
and copper inlay. Nara school. Very early nineteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

331. Heron and water flower: iron, gold and silver 
inlay. Nara style. Early nineteenth century. Weld 
Collection. 

332. Sennin and dragon: iron, perforated, gold 
and copper inlay. Nara school. Late eighteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 

333. Wolf howling at the moon : iron, gold and 
silver inlay. Nara style. Middle of the eighteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

334. Dragon appearing before two Rakan: iron, 
gold and silver inlay. Nara school. Late eighteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

335. Gama-Sennin : iron, gold inlay. Jowa, Nara 
school; iron tempered by Miochin Nobunichi. Third 
quarter of the eighteenth century. Weld Collection. 

Gama-Sennin is a mountain recluse always depicted 
in company with a three-legged frog. 

336. Tengu of the forest: iron; silver, brass, and 
copper inlay. Signed by Shozui (died 1769) ; Nara 
school. Weld Collection. 

The mountain-demons are surprised from their re- 
treats by a cloud of rare incense. This is probably a 



EASTERN SERIES 117 

sarcastic reference to professors of incense ceremony, 
who were very prevalent at the time. 

337. A man riding on a catfish: iron; gold, silver, 
and shakudo inlay. Shozui style. Third quarter of 
the eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

" Catching a catfish with a gourd" is a common 
Japanese expression for trying to reach the unattainable. 
The catfish is elusive and the gourd difficult to force 
under water. This theme is not an uncommon one 
in Japanese art. 

338. Dragon: brass. Tsuneshige style. Middle 
of the eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

339. Heron on a notice board under a willow tree : 
iron, silver inlay. Shozui style. Third quarter of the 
eighteenth century. Weld Collection. 

340. Shoki (the Demon Oueller) riding on a lion : 
iron, gold inlay. Signed by Joi. Dated 1761. 

341. Bamboo: brass. Joi style. Third quarter of 
the eighteenth century. Weld Collection. 

342. Old farmer snaring a fox: shakudo, gold and 
copper inlay. Shozui style. Third quarter of the 
eighteenth century. 

343. Three monkeys seated on a rock: iron, gold 
and copper inlay. Shozui style. Third quarter of the 
eighteenth century. Weld Collection. 

A popular reminder of the teaching, "Thou shalt 
neither hear, see, nor speak evil." 



118 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

344. Mask of Sh5jo, a No character, and rush: 
iron, gold and copper inlay. Signed by Shozui. Third 
quarter of the eighteenth century. Weld Collection. 

345. Salt kilns by the seashore: brass, shibuichi 
inlay. Signed by Norinobu, Nara school. Very late 
eighteenth century. Weld Collection. 

In earlier times salt was produced by evaporating 
sea water on the rocks or in vessels. The present 
design represents Shiogama, a place famous for its salt 
industry. 

346. Genji general on horseback: iron, gold inlay. 
Signed by Shozui. Third quarter of the eighteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

The combination of bas-relief with full relief is 
noteworthy (see No. 340). 

347. Landscape with traveler approaching a sum- 
mer house : iron, gold inlay. Nara style. Third quar- 
ter of the eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

348. Pine tree and cuckoo: brass, various metal 
inlays. Signed by Nagaharu (Joi). Middle of the 
eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

349. Shinno: iron, gold inlay. Signed by Joi (see 
No. 348). Weld Collection. 

Shinno was a famous Chinese emperor, the first to 
gather herbs and leaves for use in medicine. 

350. Rakan and a dragon: shibuichi, gold inlay. 
Joi style ( see No. 348 ). Weld Collection. 



E J STERN SERIES 119 

351. Chidori (plover) and old piling: iron, shi- 
buichi inlay. Signed by Norinobu, Nara school. 
Late eighteenth century. Bigelovv Collection. 

352. Herons flying through the rain, rushes below: 
iron, gold and silver inlay. Signed by Kazuaki (dated 
1865). Bigelow Collection. 

353. Momotaro and his dog, illustration from boys' 
story: iron, gold and shibuichi inlay. Nara school. 
Third quarter of the eighteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

Momotaro is a favorite character in Japanese folk- 
lore. 

354. Gourd vine growing through an old broken 
board: iron, gold and shibuichi inlay. Signed by 
Yasuchika III. Second half of the eighteenth century. 
Lent by Frank Jewett Mather, Jr. 

355. Plum tree: iron. Signed by Kunitaka; de- 
signed by Yasuchika III. Early nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

356. Deer and flying bat, fungus on the reverse: 
iron, gold and copper inlay. Signed by Yurakusai- 
Akabumi. Late eighteenth century. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

The names of the animals here shown, together 
with that of the fungus on the obverse of the guard, 
united give the name of one of the Gods of Good 
Luck, Fukurokuju, Fuku being the Chinese word for 
bat, roku the word for deer, and ju the word for im- 
mortality as symbolized by the fungus. 



120 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

357. Lizard climbing over an old wall : iron. Nara 
school. Third quarter of the eighteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

358. Rinwasei, a Chinese sage, and his favorite 
stork: iron, gold inlay. Nara school. Late eighteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

359. Shoki chastising a demon: shibuichi, gold and 
copper inlay. Signed by Nara-Nobuchika. Middle 
of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

360. Omori helping a female demon over a river 
ford: shibuichi, gold and silver inlay. Signed by 
Noriyuki, Nara school. Late eighteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

361. A sparrow perched on a hoe handle: iron, 
gold and copper inlay. Nara style. Third quarter of 
the eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

362. Ritaihaku gazing upon a waterfall : shibuichi, 
gold and silver inlay. Signed by Kaneyuki (died 
1776), Nara school. Bigelow Collection. 

Ritaihaku was a famous Chinese poet of the Tang 
period, 600-900, the favorite theme of whose song was 
the cascade of the Lu mountains. 

363. Stork and fleeing pigmies : shibuichi, various 
metal inlays. Signed by Nobuyoshi. First half of 
the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

364. Toad: iron, gold inlay. Signed by Yasuyuki, 
Nara school. Very early nineteenth century. Weld 
Collection. 



<t 



EASTERN SERIES 121 

365. The Chinese Emperor Bunno: shibuichi, 
various metal inlays. Signed by Naoyuki, Nara 
school. Late eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

Bunno was an emperor of the Chow dynasty who 
believed that music was mightier than the sword, and 
subdued by its aid the nomad tribes. 

366. Spider: iron, shibuichi inlay. Signed by 
Miboku, Nara school. Late eighteenth century. 
Lent by Frank Jewett Mather, Jr. 

367. Monkeys playing under waterfall : iron, cop- 
per and nunome gold inlay. Nara style. Second 
quarter of the eighteenth century. Weld Collection. 

368. Plum tree: iron, gold and silver inlay. Nara 
school. Early nineteenth century. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

369. The lion dance by children : shakudo, gold 
and copper inlay. Signed by Yoshitane, Nara school. 
Second quarter of the nineteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

370. Chidori (plover) and waves: copper, gold 
inlay. Signed by Nagamasa, Nara school. Second 
quarter of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

371. Chinese children at play: shibuichi; gold, 
silver, and shakudo inlay. Signed by Haruchika, 
Nara school. Early nineteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

372. Yoritomo hiding in a hollow tree: shibuichi; 
gold, silver, shakudo, and copper inlay. Signed by 



122 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

Yoshinaga, Nara school. Early nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

After the defeat of Yorimoto by the Oba family he 
was forced to hide in a hollow tree. His pursuers 
tracked him to the spot, but when a bird flew out at 
their approach they thought it useless to search there 
for him. 

373. Bamboo design: copper, gold inlay. Signed 
by Nagamasa. Second quarter of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 

374. Fudo and attendants : shibuichi, various metal 
inlays. Signed by Yasuchika IV, Nara school. Early 
nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

Fudo, the Immovable, rising out of the devouring 
fire, symbolizes the power of self-conquest. He is 
represented with a cord in his left hand, with which 
he binds desire, and a sword in his right, with which 
he cleaves sin. Kongo and Seitaka attend him. 

375. Lotus design: iron; gold, silver, and copper 
inlay. Signed by Mitsunaka ; Nara style. Very early 
nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

376. Octopus: copper, gold inlay. Nara style. 
Middle of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

377. Shoki in a rain storm, Oni, or demon, bring- 
ing him high clogs and an umbrella : shibuichi, gold 
inlay. Signed by Yoshitane, Nara school. Second 
half of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 



EASTERN SERIES 123 

378. Temple gate (torii) and cedar tree: iron, 
silver and copper inlay. Signed by Nampo, Kikugawa 
school. Dated 1792. Bigelow Collection. 

379. Omi Hakkei (eight views of Lake Bivva) : 
iron, gold and copper inlay. Nampo style. Late 
eighteenth century. Weld Collection. 

380. Eagle and wave design: shibuichi, gold inlay. 
Nara-Toshinaga style. Early half of the nineteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

381. The evening flower, moth and cart wheel: 
shibuichi, several metal inlays. Signed by Nagayuki, 
Nara school. Late eighteenth century (see No. 321 ). 
Bigelow Collection. 

382. Benten with sword and sacred gem: brass, 
gold inlay. Signed by Masachika, Nara school. Mid- 
dle of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

383. Fish and bamboo design: shibuichi, gold 
inlay. Signed by Hironaga. Early nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

384. Old gardener teasing a snail with smoke from 
his pipe: shakudo, gold and copper inlay. Signed by 
Hironaga (see No. 383). Bigelow Collection. 

385. Snake and graveyard palings: iron, copper 
relief. Signed by Hironaga; iron tempered by Sa- 
danaga (see No. 383). Weld Collection. 

386. The "One Hundred Sparrow" design .'shi- 
buichi, gold inlay. Signed by Hirochika. Early half 
of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 



124 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

387. Landscape showing mountain temple: shi- 
buichi; gold, silver, and shakudo inlay. Signed by 
Hironaga (see No. 383). Bigelow Collection. 

388. Traveller on his way to a mountain retreat: 
iron, gold inlay. Hironaga style. Early nineteenth 
century. Weld Collection. 

389. Princess praying to the stars, from a Chinese 
legend: shibuichi, gold inlay. Signed by Hisanaga 
or Yeiju. Late eighteenth to early nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

390. Chrysanthemum design: iron. Signed by 
Hisanaga (see No. 389). Weld Collection. 

391. "The Spirit of the Pine," scene from a 
favorite No opera: iron, gold inlay. Signed by Nobu- 
yoshi, Nara school. Second quarter of the nineteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

392. Eagle, sparrows and peony design : shibuichi 
and gold. Signed by Moritoshi; Nara style. Third 
quarter of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

393. Peony design : shakudS. Signed by Atsutaka ; 
Nara style. Third quarter of the nineteenth century. 
Weld Collection. 

394. A Japanese courtier (?) viewing the Yoro 
waterfall: iron, various metal inlays. Iwamoto-Kon- 
kwan. Late eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

It is interesting to note the unusual treatment of the 
waterfall, by which the artist has attempted to produce 
an effect of motion. 



EJSTERN SERIES 125 

395. See No. 319: shibuichi, gold and copper in- 
lay. Signed by Konkwan (see No. 394). Bigelow 
Collection. 

396. Eel and eel grass: iron, shibuichi and gold 
inlay. Signed by Ikkwan, Iwamoto school. First 
half of the nineteenth century. Lent by Frank Jewett 
Mather, Jr. 

397. Oni and plum tree: iron, gold and silver in- 
lay. Signed by Kwanri. Second half of the eigh- 
teenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

398. Tendril, figure and butterfly design: iron, 
nunome gold inlay. Namban style. Early nineteenth 
century. Weld Collection. 

399. Turtle design: iron. Signed by Goto-Seijo. 
Middle of the eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

400. Shell: iron. Signed by Kiyohide. Second 
half of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

401. Dragon: iron. Seijo school. Early nineteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

402. Cloud and wave design: iron, gold inlay. 
Seijo school. Early nineteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

403. Peony design: iron, silver inlay. Signed by 
Mitsunaka; dated 1847. Bigelow Collection. 

404. Peacock design : shakudo, gold inlay. Signed 
by Yoshioka-Inabanosuke. Second quarter of the nine- 
teenth century. Bigelow Collection. 



126 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

405. Kiri design and autumn flowers: shakudo, 
gold inlay. Goto style. Middle of the nineteenth 
century. Weld Collection. 

406. Chrysanthemum and dragon: shakudo, gold 
inlay. Goto style. Middle of the nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

407. Heron and chestnut tree design: iron, per- 
forated, gold and silver inlay. Signed by Fusuhisa; 
Goto style. - Early nineteenth century. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

408. Melon vine and butterfly design: perforated 
iron, gold nunome inlay. Signed by Tsunemasa; 
Goto style. Early nineteenth century. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

409. Howo and Kiri design: iron, shakudo and 
gold inlay. Signed by Masayuki; Goto style. Late 
half of the eighteenth century. Lent by Frank Jewett 
Mather, Jr. 

410. Conventional design: shibuichi. Signed by 
Mitsunaga; Goto style. Second half of the nineteenth 
century. Weld Collection. 

411. Old lion and cub: shibuichi, incised work. 
Signed by Soyo II, Yokoya school (died in 1779). 
Bigelow Collection. 

412. Fukujo and demon: shibuichi, gold inlay. 
Signed by Somin II, Yokoya school. Late eighteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

Fukujo, the goddess of good fortune, is here repre- 
sented as throwing beans to drive off the Oni, or evil 



EASTERN SERIES 127 

spirits. It is the custom in Japanese houses annually 
to exorcise the Oni by throwing a handful of beans at 
each wall in turn, and repeating the charm, "Fuku- 
wa-uchi, Oni-wa-soto " (in with the good luck, out 
with the ill ). 

413. Shoki: shibuichi, gold inlay. Signed by 
Tsunekatsu; Yokoya style. Middle of the eighteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

414. Fish and seaweed: shakudo, gold and shi- 
buichi inlay. Signed by Tsunekatsu (see No. 413). 
Weld Collection. 

415. Eagle: shakudo, shibuichi and gold inlay. 
Signed by Tomokatsu ; Yokoya style. Early half of 
the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

416. Butterflies: shakudo, various metal inlays. 
Signed by Nobushige, Kikuoka school. Early nine- 
teenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

417. Persimmon : _ shakudo, applied gold leaf. 
Signed by Yoshinaga, Omori school. Early nineteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

418. Eagle and waterfall: shakudo, silver inlay, 
applied gold leaf. Signed by Jochiku. Second half 
of the eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

419. Flying wild geese at night: shibuichi, gold 
and silver inlay. Omori style. Middle of the nine- 
teenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

420. Lotus leaf and snail design : shibuichi. Signed 
by Tomohide. Dated 1810. Bigelow Collection. 



128 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

421. Gourd vine and butterfly: shibuichi; gold, 
silver, copper, and shakudo inlay. Signed by Mitsu- 
toki, Omori school. Second quarter of the nineteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

422. Chidori (plover) and wave design: iron, gold 
inlay. Signed by Terutomo, Omori school. Early 
nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

423. Sparrow on a hanging flower-shell : shakudo, 
various metal inlays. Signed by Teruaki, Omori 
school. Second quarter of the nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

424. Wave design: shibuichi, gold inlay. Signed 
by Teruhide, Omori school. Late eighteenth to early 
nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

This tsuba is a good example of skilled workman- 
ship. The raised parts in many places are completely 
undercut by the chisel. Teruhide was the inventor of 
this style of undercutting. 

425. Dragon design: iron, applied gold inlay. 
Signed by Terumitsu. Early nineteenth century. 
Weld Collection. 

426. Pine tree and crescent moon : brass. Signed 
by Teruaki. Second quarter of the nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

427. Carp design: iron. Signed by Hidetomo. 
Early eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

428. Fungus design : copper and shakudo. Omori 
school. First half of the nineteenth century. Weld 
Collection. 



EASTERN SERIES 129 

429. Leaf design : shakudo, perforated, gold inlay. 
Omori style. First half of the nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

430. Dragon design: iron, perforated, gold inlay 
around edge. Omori style. Early nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

431. Plum blossoms: iron, various metal inlays. 
Omori style. Third quarter of the eighteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

432. Dragon design: iron. Omori style. Early 
nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

433. Rat : shibuichi. Omori style. Third quarter 
of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

434. Lion and peony design : iron ; gold, silver, and 
shakudo inlay. Signed by Naomasa (died 1757), Yana- 
gawa school. Weld Collection. 

The Japanese lion is an imaginary beast, probably 
of Chinese or Korean origin, called Shishi, the king of 
animals. It is often associated with the peony, the 
queen of flowers. 

435. Bishamon and mukade (centipede): iron, 
copper inlay. Signed by Naoharu, Yanagawa school. 
Late eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

436. Zen temple dinner gong: shibuichi, gold in- 
lay. Signed by Haruaki (died 1859 ). Lent by Frank 
Jewett Mather, Jr. 

A wooden gong in the form of a fish is struck with 
a mallet in Zen temples to call the student-monks to 
meals. 



130 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

437. Cow-herd playing flute: iron; gold, silver, and 
shakudo inlay. Signed by Haruaki (see No. 436). 
Bigelow Collection. 

438. Fruit of the biwa tree: iron, gold inlay. 
Signed by Akiyoshi, a pupil of Haruaki. Middle of 
the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

439. Plum tree and flying bird: iron, gold and 
shibuichi inlay. Haruaki style. Middle of the nine- 
teenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

440. Old tree and spider's web: iron, gold inlay. 
Yanagawa style. Second half of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Bigelow Collection. 

441. Old tree swarming with ants: iron, gold and 
shakudo inlay. Signed by Hirotoshi. Second half of 
the eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

442. Old piece of wood and gourd vine : iron, gold 
and shakudo inlay. Yanagawa style. Second half of 
the eighteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

443. Narihira traveling to the East: iron, various 
metal inlays. Signed by Masatsune, Ishiguro school. 
Late eighteenth to early nineteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

Narihira was a nobleman and poet of the ninth 
century. He is famous for having celebrated in rhyme 
his journey from Kyoto to Musashi province. 

444. Sparrow and rice stalk : shakudo, copper inlay. 
Signed by Masayoshi, Ishiguro school. Second quarter 
of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 



EASTERN SERIES 131 

445. Cherry tree: shibuichi, gold inlay. Signed 
by Masayoshi ( see No. 444 ). Bigelow Collection. 

446. Pheasant and peony design : shakudo, gold 
and shakudo inlay. Signed by Koreyoshi. Third 
quarter of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

This is a very good example of nanako or fish roe 
chisel work. Although no guide of any kind is used, 
the small indentations are executed with wonderful 
precision. 

447. Kwannon riding on a dragon's head: iron, 
gold and silver inlay. Signed by Toriusai-Kiyotoshi. 
First half of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

448. Plum and bamboo design: copper; gold, sil- 
ver, and shakudo inlay. Toriusai school (see No. 447). 
Bigelow Collection. 

449. Pheasant in a cherry tree, his mate below: 
shakudo, gold, silver and copper inlay. Signed by 
Yoshinobu, Toriusai school. Middle of the nineteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

450. Peony and plum flower design : shakudo and 
silver ground ; gold, silver, and copper inlay. Signed 
by Harunaga, Toriusai school. Middle of the nine- 
teenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

451. Moon rising out of the mist: iron, gold in- 
lay. Signed by Toshiaki, Toriusai school. Dated 
1860. Bigelow Collection. 

452. Maple leaves and cherry flower: iron, gold 
inlay. Signed by Hidenaga, Toriusai school. Third 
quarter of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 



134 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

470. Dragon emerging from the waves : iron, gold 
and shakudo inlay. Signed by Tsuju (died 1768), 
Mito school. Bigelow Collection. 

471. Famous Chinese characters: shakudo, various 
metal inlays. Signed by Sekijoken-Mototaka, Mito 
school. Late eighteenth to early nineteenth centuries. 
Bigelow Collection. 

The son of an emperor of the late Han dynasty and 
two famous generals, who, meeting in a peach orchard, 
pledged themselves to restore the Emperor's power. 

472. Cow grazing under a pine tree: iron, perfo- 
rated, gold inlay. Signed by Sekijoken-Mototaka, 
Mito school (see No. 471 ). Weld Collection. 

473. Howo birds: iron, perforated. Signed by 
Tomoyoshi, Hitotsuyanagi family; Mito school. 
Middle of the eighteenth century. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

474. Carp ascending a waterfall : iron, gold inlay. 
Signed by Yoshihisa, Koami family. Second quarter 
of the nineteenth century. Weld Collection. 

The persistence of the carp, flinging himself again 
and again up the cataract till at last he succeeds, is a 
moral often pointed in Japanese art. 

475. Shoki chastising an Oni, or demon: iron, per- 
forated, gold inlay. Mito school. Late eighteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

476. Fish, stream, and waterrlower design : iron, 
gold inlay. Signed by Tomoyoshi, Mito school. 



EASTERN SERIES 135 

Third quarter of the nineteenth century. Lent by 
Frank Jewett Mather, Jr. 

477. Yorimitsu guided by a Mountain God : sha- 
kudo, various metal inlays. Signed by Yoshimori, 
Mito school. Middle of the nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 

This guard with the one below make a pair. No. 
477 was used on the dai or large sword, No. 478 on the 
sho or small sword. It was customary for a samurai to 
wear two swords, one large and one small. 

478. Demon guardians at the giant's gate : shakudo, 
various metal inlays. Signed by Yoshimori ( see No. 
477). Bigelow Collection. 

Oyeyama ( mountain ) in Tamba province was the 
abode of an evil giant who frequently descended to 
Kyoto and bore away fair maidens and much treasure. 
Minamoto Yorimitsu was ordered by the emperor to 
put a stop to these outrages. With a few faithful fol- 
lowers, dressed as Yamabushi ( pilgrim priests ), he pro- 
ceeded to the mountain, where, under the guidance of 
a mysterious being, he discovered and killed the giant 
in his stronghold. 

479. Flying wild goose design : copper, shibuichi 
inlay. Signed by Katsuhira, Mito school. Second 
half of the nineteenth century. Weld Collection. 

480. Tiger defying the elements : iron, gold inlay. 
Signed by Sorin, Yegawa school. Late eighteenth to 
earry nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 



136 JAPANESE SWORD GUARDS 

481. Chrysanthemum design: shakudo. Signed 
by Toshihide, Yegawa school. First half of the nine- 
teenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

482. Fudo (the Immovable): iron, gold inlay. 
Signed by Motomasa, Mito school. Second quarter 
of the nineteenth century. Lent by Frank Jewett 
Mather, Jr. 

483. The moon and its reflection on the waves: 
iron, gold and silver inlay. Signed by Motosada. 
Middle of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

484. Lioness and cubs: shibuichi, gold and sha- 
kudo inlay. Signed by Yasuyo, Mito school ; Nara 
style. First half of the nineteenth century. Weld 
Collection. 

It is commonly told in Japan that the lioness takes 
her newly-born cubs to the top of a cliff and pushes 
them off. The weaklings are dashed to pieces, while 
the hardier climb up and join their parent. 

485. Birds and plum tree: shakudo, gold and 
shibuichi inlay. Signed by Katsuhira, Mito school. 
Middle of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Col- 
lection. 

486. The God of Thunder spreading devastation: 
copper, gold inlay. Signed by Hokusen, Mito school. 
Third quarter of the nineteenth century. Weld Col- 
lection. 

487. Bamboo design: iron, perforated. Signed by 
Shoami-Denshichi. Middle of the nineteenth century. 
Bigelow Collection. 



EASTERN SERIES 137 

488. Lion and peony design: iron, perforated. 
Signed by Masatsune, Ito school. Dated 1833. Bige- 
low Collection. 

489. Susuki rush and full moon: iron, perforated. 
Signed by Masakata, Ito school. Second quarter of 
the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

490. Cottage gate and pine tree : iron, perforated. 
Signed by Masatoyo, Ito school. Early nineteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

491. Chrysanthemums in flower basket: iron, per- 
forated. Signed by Hashimoto-Seisai ; Ito style. First 
half of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

492. Howo and leaf : iron. Signed by Hashimoto- 
Seisai (see No. 491 ). Bigelow Collection. 

493. Leaf design: iron, perforated, gold inlay. 
Signed by Masakata, Ito school. Second quarter of 
the nineteenth century. Lent by J. H. Donahey. 

494. Icho and maple leaf design : iron, gold inlay. 
Signed by Masachika, It5 school. Second quarter of 
the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

495. Fish and bamboo design: iron, perforated. 
Signed by Hashimoto-Seisai (see No. 491). Weld 
Collection. 

496. Cherry blossom and waves : iron, gold inlay. 
Signed by Masanaga. Ito school. Middle of the 
nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 

497. Flying wild ducks and crescent moon : iron, 
perforated, silver inlay. Signed by Sunagawa-Masanori. 
Middle of the nineteenth century. Bigelow Collection. 



138 JAPANESE SIVORD GUARDS 

498. Pine tree : iron, perforated, gold inlay. Signed 
by Masaharu, Ito school. Middle of the nineteenth 
century. Bigelow Collection. 

499. Representation of stream and floating cherry 
flowers: shibuichi and shakudo. Signed by Yoji. 
Third quarter of the nineteenth century. Bigelow 
Collection. 

500. Irregular design: shakudo and other metals. 
Yoji style. Third quarter of the nineteenth century. 
Weld Collection. 

501. Imitation lacquer work: shakudo and cop- 
per. Third quarter of the nineteenth century. Weld 
Collection. 



INDEX 



NAMES OF SCHOOLS 



Akao, p. 32, Nos. 457, 458, 459, 

460. 
Akasaka, pp. 23, 31, 66, Nos. 254, 

260, 266, 268, 269. 
Aoki, pp. 33, 37. 
Awa, p. 33, Nos. 105, 106, 107, 108. 

Ch5shiu (Hagi), pp. 33, 42, Nos. 

147, 148, 149, 151, 153, 156, 157, 
158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 
165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 
172, 173, 174, 175, 176. 

Daigoro Tsuba, p. 34. 

Fushimi, pp. 23, 35. 

Gokinai Tsuba, p. 34. 
Goto, pp. 26, 35, 40, 43, 45, 46, 53, 
60, 64, 72. 

Hagi, see Choshiu, p. 33. 
Heianjo, pp. 35, 37, Nos. 20, 21. 
Higo, pp. 23, 31, 32, 35, 38, No. 16. 
Hirata, pp. 23, 39, Nos. 281, 282, 

283, 285, 286, 287, 288. 
Hoan, pp. 22, 39. 
Hosono Masamori Style, p. 40. 

Ichinomiya, pp. 24, 40, No. 114. 
Inshiu, p. 42, Nos. 233, 234. 
Ishiguro, pp. 25, 43, 68, Nos. 443, 

444. 
Ito, pp. 43, 66, Nos. 488, 489, 490, 

493, 494, 496, 498. 
Iwamoto, pp. 44, No. 396. 

Jakushi, p. 45. 

Kaga, p. 45. 
Kanayama, p. 46. 
Kaneiye, pp. 46, 70. 



Kasutsura Style, p. 48. 

Kikugawa, No. 378. 

Kikugawa Family, p. 48. 

Kikuoka Family, p. 49. 

Kinai, p. 49, Nos. 289, 290, 291, 292, 

293, 294, 295, 296, 299. 
Ko-Nara, p. 56, No. 311. 

Miochin, pp. 24, 39, 50, 63, Nos. 1, 
3, 250, [255, 256, 258, 259, 261, 
262, 265, 273. 

Mito, pp. 25, 52, 58, Nos. 466, 467, 
468, 469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 475, 
476, 477, 479, 482, 484, 485, 486. 

Mukade Tsuba, p. 54. 

Nakai, p. 34. 

Namban, Kannan (Kagonami) or 
Canton Tsuba, p. 54. 

Nara, pp. 24, 25, 53, 55, 60, 61, 72, 
Nos. 312, 313, 314, 315, 317, 318, 
322, 327, 328, 330, 332, 334, 335, 
345, 351, 353,357, 358, 360, 362, 
364, 365, 366, 368, 369, 370, 371, 
372, 374, 377, 381, 382, 391, 392. 

Nomura Family, see Goto School. 

Odawara, p. 60, No. 264. 

Old Nara, p. 56, No. 311. 

Omori, pp. 60, 61, Nos. 417, 421, 

_422, 423, 424, 428. 

Otsuki, pp. 26, 61, Nos. 196, 197, 

198, 203, 206, 211, 213, 216, 217, 

218, 219, 220, 221, 230. 

Rinsendo Family, p. 72. 

Sado, p. 63. 

Saotome, p. 63, Nos. 60, 61, 62, 308. 
Seijo, p. 64, Nos. 401, 402. 
Sekijoken, p. 53. 



142 



NAMES OF SCHOOLS 



Shoami, pp. 33, 64, Nos. 130, 131, 

132, 300, 302, 303, 304. 
Soten, p. 65, Nos. 83, 84, 86. 
Sunagawa, p. 66. 

Tanaka, p. 37. 

Tanaka Family, see Goto School. 

Tempo Tsuba, p. 67. 

Tetsugendo, p. 67, Nos. 117, 118, 

122, 123. 
Tojibata Tsuba, p. 68. 



Toriusai, p. 68, Nos. 448, 449, 450, 
451, 452, 453, 454, 455, 456. 

Umetada, pp. 24, 43, 64, 69, Nos. 44, 
45, 46, 47, 49, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59. 

Yamakichi, p. 22. 

Yanagawa, pp. 43, 71, 72, Nos. 434, 

435. 
Yegawa, Nos. 480, 481. 
Yokoya, pp. 25, 44, 49, 53, 54, 61, 

70, Nos. 411, 412, 413. 



NAMES OF ARTISTS. 



Aijiu, No. 300. 
Akabumi, p. 58. 
Akao-Tahichi, No. 464. 
Alciyoshi, No. 438. 
Aoki-Tsunekumo, p. 37. 
Ariaki, p. 52. 
Aritsune, p. 48, No. 116. 
Atsuhiro, Nos. 217, 219. 
Atsuoki, Nos. 213, 214, 215, 218. 
Atsutaka, No. 393. 

Bikio, No. 100. 

Chikon, p. 42, No. 193. 
Chiubei, p. 44. 
Chizuka-Hisanori, pp. 48, 60. 
Chobi, p. 41. 
Chokuzui, p. 59. 

Dai'riusai, see Mitsuoki, p. 62. 
Dennai, p. 65. 
Doko, see Jakushi, p. 45. 
Donin, p. 39. 

Echizen-no Daijo, see Nagatsune, 
p. 40. 

Fukoshi, see Jakushi, p. 45. 
Funada-Ikkin, p. 36. 
Furukawa Genchin, p. 71. 
Furukawa-Yoshinaga, p. 40. 
Fusayoshi, pp. 23, 38. 
Fusuhisa, No. 407. 

Gassan, see Gessan, p. 62. 
Geishiu-Nobuiye, p. 51. 
Gessan, p. 62, Nos. 211, 212. 
Gorobei, p. 34. 

Got5-Ichijo, pp. 26, 36, No. 139. 
Goto-Kenjo, p. 46. 
Goto-Seijo, p. 64, No. 399. 
Goto-Yiujo, p. 36. 



Hakuhotei, see Konkwan, p. 44. 

Hamano-Shozui, p. 58. 

Haruaki, pp. 26, 72, Nos. 436, 437. 

Haruchika, No. 371. 

Harumitsu, see Seijo VI, p. 64. 

Harunaga, No. 450. 

Harunari, p. 39. 

Haruyoshi, p. 40. 

Hashimoto-Seisai, p. 44, Nos. 491, 

492, 495. 
Hideaki, p. 43. 
Hidekuni, p. 62, Nos. 206, 207, 208, 

209, 210. 
Hidenaga, p. 68, No. 453. 
Hideoki, Nos. 203, 204, 205. 
Hidetomo, p. 61, No. 427. 
Hideuji, p. 61. 
Hideyoshi, p. 61. 
Hikobei, p. 69. 

Hikojiuro, see Tadatoki, p. 31. 
Hinochoji, see Hino Yoji, p. 41. 
Hino Yoji, pp. 22, 41. 
Hirochika, No. 386. 
Hirokuni, p. 67. 
Hiromitsu, No. 258. 
Hironaga, p. 25, Nos. 383, 384, 385, 

387, 463. 
Hirotoshi, Nos. 397, 441. 
Hiroyuki, p. 59. 
Hisahide, p. 48. 
Hisanaga, No. 390. 
Hisanaga, see Takase-Yeiju, p. 53. 
Hisanaga, or Yeiju, No. 389. 
Hisatsugu, Nos. 155, 157. 
Hitotsuyanagi-Tomoyoshi, p. 54. 
Hoan, p. 39. 
Hokusen, No. 486. 
Horiye-Okinari, p. 60. 
Hosono-Masamori, p. 40, No. 109. 

Ichijo, Nos. 140, 141. 
Ichiwo, p. 70. 



144 



NAMES OF JRT1STS 



Ikkin, Nos. 142, 143. 
Ikkwan, No. 396. 
Ikuhei, p. 38. 

Inagawa-Naokatsu, pp. 71, 72. 
Issando, see Sugiura-J6i, p. 57. 
Itsuriuken, Miboku, see Hamano- 

Shozui, p. 58. 
Ito-Masatsune, p. 44. 
Iwama-Masayoshi, p. 59. 
Iwamoto-Konkwan, No. 394. 
Iwamoto-Riokwan II, p. 44. 
Iyemichi, p. 63. 
Iyemitsu, p. 63. 
Iyenori, p. 63. 

Iyesada, p. 63, Nos. 308, 309. 
Iyetsugu, p. 63, No. 69. 

Jakushi, pp. 24, 45. 

Jakushi II, p. 45. 

Jingo, p. 38. 

Jingoro, see Ito-Masatsune, p. 44. 

Jochiku, No. 418. 

Joi, pp. 24, 25, 53, 58, No. 349. 

Jotetsu, p. 42. 

Jowa, p. 58. 

Juyei, p. 55. 

Kaga-Nobuiye, p. 51. 

Kaneiye, pp. 20, 22, 23, 26, 46, 47, 

50, 62. 
Kaneiye I (?), No. 30. 
Kaneiye II, p. 47, Nos. 31, 32, 33, 

35, 41. 
Kanemori, p. 65. 
Kanenobu, p. 40. 
Kanenori, p. 65, No. 84. 
Kanesada, p. 47. 
Kaneshige, p. 68. 
Kanetane, p. 65. 
Kaneyasu, p. 40. 
Kaneyuki, p. 58, No. 362. 
Kankei, see Hamano-Shozui, p. 58. 
Kano-Natsuo, pp. 26, 62, No. 225. 
Kanpei, p. 38. 
Kanshiro, p. 38. 



Kasutsura, pp. 48, 68. 
Katsuhiro, Nos. 244, 479, 485 
Katsumitsu, p. 38. 
Katsura-Nagatoshi, p. 71. 
Kawaji, Nos. 154, 161. 
Kawamura-Tsuneshige, p. 58. 
Kawarabayashi-Hideoki, p. 62. 
Kazuaki, No. 352. 
Kazutsura, see Uyesugi-Kasutsura,. 

p. 48. 
Kiami, p. 67, No. 93. 
Kichiji, p. 32. 
Kikubori-Chobei, see Muneyoshi,, 

p. 48. 
Kikuchi-Tsunekatsu, p. 71. 
Kinai, p. 49. 
Kiriusai-Somin, p. 71. 
Kiriusai-Soyo, p. 71. 
Kishi, p. 38. 
Kitagawa-Soten, p. 65. 
Kiyohide, No. 400. 
Kiyo-Sada, p. 42. 
Kiyoshige, No. 152. 
Kiyotaka, No. 164. 
Kiyoyasu, p. 42. 

Kizayemon, see Jakushi II, p. 45. 
Koami, p. 53. 
Kogitsune, p. 49, No. 297. 
Konkwan, pp. 25, 44, No. 395. 
K5no-Haruaki, pp. 25, 26. 
Koretsune, p. 43. 
Koreyoshi, p. 43, No. 446. 
Kosei, see Horiye-Okinari, p. 60. 
Koshiu-Miochin, see Nobuiye, p. 50. 
Koten, p. 47. 
Koto, No. 163. 
Koto, see Yukinori, p. 34. 
Kuniharu, p. 67. 
Kuninaga, p. 46, No. 256. 
Kunitaka, No. 355. 
Kuse, see Noriyuki II, p. 59. 
Kuzui, see Noriyuki, p. 59. 
Kwanri, p. 45. 
Kyo-Nobuiye, p. 51. 




NAMES OF ARTISTS 



J45 



Masaaki, p. 43, No. 150. 
Masachika, pp. 33, 59, 66, Nos. 382, 

494. 
Masaharu, No. 498. 
Masahide, p. 43, No. 233. 
Masakage, No. 456. 
Masakata, Nos. 148, 489, 493. 
Masakatsu, p. 61. 
Masakuni I, p. 61. 
Masakuni II, p. 61. 
Masamitsu, p. 43. 
Masanaga, Nos. 313, 496. 
Masanobu, pp. 33, 58. 
Masanori, pp. 64, 66, No. 497. 
Masaoki, p. 62. 
Masashige, p. 65. 
Masatoki, p. 37. 
Masatomo, p. 34. 
Masatora, pp. 31, 66. 
Masatoyo, No. 490. 
Masatsugu, pp. 33, 60, 72. 
Masatsune, Nos. 443, 488. 
Masatsune I, pp. 43, 44. 
Masatsune II, p. 43. 
Masayasu, p. 33. 
Masayoshi, pp. 37, 43, 59, 61, 66, 

Nos. 229, 444, 445. 
Masayuki, Nos. 171, 409. 
Matahichi, p. 65. 
Matahichi, see Fusayoshi, p. 38. 
Miboku, see Hamano-Shozui, p. 58, 

No. 366. 
Michitaka, No. 146. 
Miidera-Ichirobei, p. 61. 
Mikaye-Teremitsu, p. 71. 
Miochin Muneharu, p. 52, No. 225. 
Miochin Nobunichi, p. 51, No. 335. 
Miochin Yasuchika, No. 274. 
Miojiu, p. 69. 
Mitsuhaya, p. 67. 
Mitsuhiro, p. 62, Nos. 186, 187, 188, 

190, 216, 230. 
Mitsuhiro I, p. 55. 
Mitsuhiro II, p. 55. 
Mitsumasa, p. 49. 



Mitsunaga, No. 410. 

Mitsunaka, Nos. 375, 403. 

Mitsunao, p. 62. 

Mitsunari, No. 189. 

Mitsuoki, pp. 26, 62, Nos. 197, 198, 

199, 200, 201, 202. 
Mitsutaka, No. 166. 
Mitsutoki, No. 421. 
Mitsutoyo, see Goto Seijo, p. 64. 
Mitsutsugu, No. 242. 
Mitsutsune, p. 62. 
Mitsuyoshi, p. 62. 
Mitsuyuki, p. 49. 
Morikuni, p. 65, No. 129. 
Morimura-Atsutaka, p. 37. 
Morisada, p. 46. 
Morishige, p. 68. 
Moritoshi, No. 392. 
Motohiro, p. 62. 
Motomasa, No. 482. 
Motosada No. 483. 
Mototaka, p. 53. 
Mototomi, p. 65. 
Mototoshi, Nos. 19, 274. 
Muneaki, see Sosatsu, p. 51. 
Muneharu, p. 52. 
Munenobu, p. 51. 
Muneshige, p. 69. 
Munesuke, pp. 24, 50, 51. 
Munetaka, p. 52, No. 263. 
Munetane, p. 52, 
Munetoshi, p. 52. 
Muneyoshi, p. 48. 
Murakami- Jochiku, p. 42. 

Nagafusa, p. 33. 

Nagahara, see Sugiura Joi, p. 57. 

Nagaharu (Joi), No. 348. 

Nagahide, p. 33. 

Nagamasa, p. 59, Nos. 370, 373. 

Nagatsune, pp. 24, 25, 26, 40, 62, 68, 

No. 110. 
Nagayoshi, p. 41. 
Nagayuki, see Yeizui, p. 59, Nos. 

381, 468. 



146 



NAMES OF ARTISTS 



Nampo, p. 25. 

Nampo, see Chizuka-Hisanori, p. 48, 

No. 378. 
Naofusa, p. 68, Nos. 122, 123. 
Naoharu, pp. 25, 72, No. 435. 
Naohisa, p. 72. 
Naokata, p. 68. 
Naokatsu, p. 52, No. 310. 
Naomasa, p. 72, No. 434. 
Naomichi, p. 68. 
Naomitsu, pp. 43, 72. 
Naoshige, No. 117. 
Naotomo, p. 68, No. 238. 
Naotsune, p. 43. 
Naoyuki, see Chokuzui, p. 59, No. 

365. 
Nara-Juyei, p. 57. 
Nara-Nobuchika, No. 359. 
Nara-Toshinaga, p. 55. 
Narihisa, p. 39. 
Narikado, p. 39. 
Narikadzu, p. 39. 
Narishige, p. 69. 
Narisuke, p. 39. 
Naritsugu, p. 69. 
Nariyuki, pp. 25, 39. 
Natsuo, pp. 26, 31, 46, 56, 57, 62, 

Nos. 221, 222, 223, 224, 226, 227. 
Nobuaki, p. 51. 
Nobuiye, pp. 22, 23, 47, 50, 51, 62, 

Nos. 249, 255. 
Nobuiye II, see Ujiiye, p. 50. 
Nobukiyo, Nos. 144, 145. 
Nobumasa, p. 34. 
Nobumichi, p. 51. 
Nobusada, p. 51. 
Nobushige, No. 416. 
Nobuyoshi, p. 59, Nos. 363, 391. 
Nobuyuki, pp. 58, 59. 
Nomura-Kanenori, p. 66. 
Norinobu, see Noriyuki II, p. 59, Nos. 

345, 351. 
Norisada, p. 64. 
Noriyishi, p. 66. 
Noriyuki, p. 59, No. 360. 



Okamoto-Naoshige, p. 67. 
Okitata, p. 62. 
Otaka-Hironaga, p. 66. 
Otsuki-Korin, p. 61. 

Rinsendo, No. 239. 
Riukudo, see Mitsuoki, p. 62. 
Riyei, see Toshinaga, p. 55. 

Sadanaga, p. 40, No. 385. 

Sadasune, No. 113. ,, 

Sanzayemon, p. 63. 

Seibei, p. 38. 

Sekiguchi-Riojka, see Kawamura- 

Tsuneshige, p. 58. 
Sekijoken-Mototaka, p. 58, Nos. 471, 

472. 
Sekij5ken-Taizan-Mototaka,see Mo- 

totaka, p. 53. 
Seijo VI, p. 64. 
Seijo Mitsuzane, p. 64. 
Sessai, see Seijo VI, p. 64. 
Setsuju, p. 52, No. 275. 
Setsuzan, see Nagatsune, p. 40. 
Shigechika, p. 79. 
Shigefusa, p. 38. 
Shigeharu, see Fusayoshi, p. 38. 
Shigehisa, p. 38. 
Shigekata, p. 39. 
Shigemitsu, pp. 38, 61. 
Shigemoto, p. 68. 
Shigenaga, p. 69. 
Shigenari, p. 69. 
Shigesada, p. 65. 
Shigetaka, p. 69. 
Shigetsugu, p. 38, No. 48. 
Shigetsune, p. 65. 
Shigeyoshi, Nos. 44, 45, 69. 
Shinjo, p. 37. 
Shinsuke-Yasuchika, see Yasachiha IV 

p. 59. 
Shiunchin, see Seijo VI, p. 64. 
Shiunsho, see Konkwan, p. 44. 
Shiuten, p. 65. 
Shiwundo, see Mitsuoki, p. 62. 



NAMES OF ARTISTS 



147 



Shoami-Denshichi, No. 487. 
Shoraku, see Okamoto Naoshige, p. 

67. 
Shoyemon, see Tadamasa, p. 31. 
Shozui, pp. 25, 53, 58, 59, 60, Nos. 

336, 344, 346. 
Sh5zuibo, see Iwama-Masayoshi, p. 59. 
Soheishi, see Kitagawa Soten, p. 65. 
Soken, p. 66. 

Somin, pp. 36, 54, 71, No. 412. 
SomiII, p. 71. 
Sorin, No. 480. 

Sorin, see Yegawa-Toshimasa, p. 54. 
Sosatsu, pp. 24, 51. 
Soten, p. 66, Nos. 72, 73, 74. 
Soyo, pp. 54, 71. 
Soyo II, p. 71. 
Soyo III, No. 411. 
Suguira-Joi, p. 57. 
Sukeshige, p. 72. 
Suruga, p. 42. 

Suruga (II?), No. 234, 235. 
Suzuki-Seibei, No. 20. 

Tadafusa, No. 99. 
Tadamasa, pp. 23, 31. 
Tadamasa II, p. 31. 
Tadanori, No. 266. 
Tadasaku, p. 49. 
Tadasugu, Nos. 67, 68. 
Tadatsuke, p. 72. 
Tadatoki, p. 31, No. 269. 
Tadayuki, Nos. 115, 172. 
Tahichi, p. 32. 
Taizan-Motonori, p. 53. 
Takanaga, pp. 40, 62. 
Takase-Yeiju, p. 53. 
Takatsune, p. 64. 
Takechika, No. 228. 
Takenori, p. 68. 
Takeshima-Kadzutoshi, p. 37. 
Takuji, p. 43. 
Tanabe-Tomomasa, p. 72. 
Tanaka-Sobei II, p. 55. 
Tanaka-Toriusai-Kiyotoshi, p. 68. 



Tansai, p. 33? 

Tansuishi, No. 91. 

Tatsumasa, pp. 55, 56. 

Tatsunaga, Nos. 457, 459, 460, 461, 

462. 
Tatsutoshi, p. 32. 
Teijo, p. 37. 

Teikan, Nos. 231, 232, 243. 
Teruaki, Nos. 423, 426. 
Teruchika, p. 48. 
Teruhide, p. 61, No. 424. 
Terukiyo, p. 48. 
Terukiyo I, p. 71. 
Terukiyo II, p. 71. 
Terumitsu, p. 61, No. 425. 
Terutomo, No. 422. 
Tetsugendo-Seiraku, see Okamoto- 

Naoshige, p. 68, No. 119. 
Tetsunin, p. 48. 
Tobari-Tomihisa, p. 37. 
Toda, No. 307. 
Tokujo, p. 36. 

Tokurio, see Noriyoshi, p. 66. 
Tomohide, No. 420. 
Tomohisa, p. 34, Nos. 153, 162. 
Tomokatsu, pp. 24, 34, Nos. 156, 415. 
Tomomichi, p. 34. 
Tomomitsu, p. 34, No. 149. 
Tomonaga, No. 467. 
Tomonobu, p. 34, Nos. 158, 159. 
Tomonori, No. 165. 
Tomotsugu, p. 33. 
Tomotsune, pp. 24, 34, No. 170. 
Tomoyoshi, p. 53, Nos. 469, 473, 476. 
Tomoyuki, pp. 34, 58. 
Toriusai, p. 68. 
Toriusai-Kiyotoshi, No. 447. 
Toshiaki, No. 451. 
Toshiharu, p. 55. 
Toshihide, p. 68, No. 481. 
Toshikage, p. 68. 
Toshimasa, pp. 54, 59. 
Toshimune, p. 55. 
Toshinaga, pp. 24, 25, 36, 53, 55. 
Toshinaga I, p. 58, No. 312. 



148 



NAMES OF ARTISTS 



Toshinaga II, p. 56. * 

Toshisada, p. 63. 

Toshiteru, p. 55. 

Toshitsugu, No. 174. 

Toshiyuki, see Okamoto Naoshige, 

p. 67. 
Towu, see Tsuchiya-Yasuchika, p. 56. 
Tsuchiya-Kunichika, p. 59. 
Tsuchiya-Yasuchika, p. 56. 
Tsuji-Mitsumasa, p. 72. 
Tsujiu, p. 53. 
Tsujo, p. 36. 
Tsuju, No. 470. 

Tsuki-Mitsuoki, see Mitsuoki, p. 62. 
Tsunayoshi, p. 65. 
Tsuneari, p. 37. 
Tsunechika, p. 59. 
Tsunefusa, p. 71. 
Tsunekatsu, Nos. 413, 414. 
Tsunekiyo, p. 37. 
Tsunemasa, p. 71, No. 408. 
Tsunemitsu, p. 71. 
Tsunenao, p. 41. 
Tsunenari, p. 72. 
Tsuneoki, p. 71. 
Tsuneshige, No. 324. 
Tsuneyoshi, p. 37. 
Tsu-Zimpo, p. 37. 

Ujiiye, pp. 46, 50. 
Ujino, p. 33. 
Ujiyasu, p. 33. 
Umetada, No. 57. 
Umetada- Ichiwo, No. 55. 
Umetada-Masatomo, p. 34. 
Umetada- Mioju, p. 34. 
Umetada-Shigeyoshi, p. 23. 
Uyesugi-Kasutsura, p. 48. 

Yamada-Ichirohei, p. 55. 
Yamakichi, p. 70. 
Yamakichibei, p. 70. 
Yanagawa-Naomitsu, p. 49. 
Yasuchika, pp. 24, 25, 26, 36, 53, 57, 

60, 62, Nos. 316, 321, 323, 325 
Yasuchika II, p. 57. 



Yasuchika III, pp. 58, 59, Nos. 354, 

355. 
Yasuchika IV, pp. 58, 59, No. 374. 
Yasuchika V, p. 59. 
Yasuchika VI, p. 60. 
Yasuchika (VI?), No. 320. 
Yasufusa, p. 33. 
Yasuiye, p. 52, Nos. 265, 267. 
Yasuiye, see Nobuiye, p. 50. 
Yasunobu, p. 57. 
Yasutsugu, p. 49. 
Yasuyo, No. 484. 
Yasuyuki, No. 364. 
Yegawa-Toshimasa, p. 54. 
Yeiju, p. 25, Nos. 236, 237. 
Yeirakudo, p. 45. 
Yeizui, p. 59. 
Yenjo, p. 37. 

Yiumeishi, see Soken, p. 66. 
Yoji, Nos. 298, 499. 
Yoji, see Tomotsugu, p. 33. 
Yokoya-Somin, pp. 24, 40, 49. 
Yokoya-Soyo, p. 44. 
Yoritada, p. 38. 
Yoshiaki, p. 37. 

Yoshihisa, pp. 53, 63, Nos. 466, 474. 
Yoshikawa-Kanetane, No. 83. 
Yoshikuni, pp. 46, 62. 
Yoshimichi, p. 50. 
Yoshimori, Nos. 477, 478. 
Yoshinaga, pp. 50, 53, 69, Nos. 372, 

417. 
Yoshinobu, No. 449. 
Yoshinori, p. 46. 
Yoshioka-Inabanosuke, No. 404. 
Yoshiro, pp. 22, 42. 
Yoshishige, p. 46. 
Yoshitake, p. 65. 
Yoshitane, Nos. 42, 369, 377. 
Yoshitsugu, pp. 32, 46, 49. 
Yukinori, p. 34. 
Yukitoshi, Nos. 167, 168. 
Yiirakusai, see Akabumi, p. 58, 

No. 356. 

Zekiiniudo, see Mitsuoki, p. 62. 




No 2 Kiri and gourd Kanayama style 
Late sixteenth century 




Noll 

Sword and 

biwa 

Higo school 

Middle of the 

seventeenth 

century 



No 13 
Pine tree 

and 

sailboat 

Higo school 

Early eighteenth 

century 




No 14 

Plum tree 

Fusayoshi style 

in Higo 

Early eighteenth 

century 





No 18 

Crest 

Hoan style 

Late eighteenth 

century 



No 19 

Thunder god 
Nagasone and 

Mototoshi 
Middle of the 

seventeenth 
century 





No 23 

Canton 

influence 

Heianjo style 

hate seventeefith 

century 




No 25 

Butterflies 

Heia?ijo style 

Late seventeenth 

century 



No 26 

Turnips 

Heianjo style 

Late seventeenth 

century 




No 27 
Monkeys on a 

pine tree 

Heianjo style 

Late 

seventeenth 

century * 





No 28 

Mouse and 

straw rope 

curtain 

Heianjo style 

Late 

seventeenth 

century 




No 29 

Spinning reels 

Heianjo style 

Middle of the 

eighteenth century 



No 32 
Signs of the 

Zodiac 

Kaneiye II 

Early seventeenth 

century 




No 40 

Wild geese 

Kaneiye style 

Late seventeenth 

century 





No 50 

Chrysanthemum 

and cherry 

blossom 
Tadatsugu style 
Late seventeenth 

century 




No 59 

Datice bells 

Umetada school 

hate nineteenth 

century 



No 67 
Flower and poem 

design 

Tadatsugu 

Late seventeenth 

century 





No 74 

Chinese 

figures and 

landscape 

Soten 

Early 

eighteenth 

century 



No 80 

P/um tree and 

stork 

Soten style 

Early eighteenth 

century 





No 88 

Inro and 

tobacco pouch 

Kyd-tsuba 

Late eighteenth 

century 



No 90 

Conventional 

Aoi leaf 

Kyd-tsuba 

Third quarter 

of the eighteenth 

century 




No 101 

Scree?i design 

Nunome inlay by 

Kiyotoki 
Early nineteenth 

century 





No 103 

Dragonfly 

Nunome inlay 

Joy en style 

Kyoto 

Early nineteenth 

century 




No 123 

Shiu-kaido flower 

design 

Naofusa 

Late eighteenth 

cejitnry 



No 126 

Dragonflies 

Tetsugendo style 

Early ni?ieteenth 

century 




No 140 

Heron and rush 

Goto-Ichijo 

Dated 1850 





No 147 

Sailboats 

Choshiu school 

Middle of the 

eighteenth 

century 




No 148 

Bean pods 

Choshiu school 

Second half of the 

seventeenth century 



No 154 
Grapes and 

squirrels 

Kawaji 
Second half 

of the 
eighteenth 

century _ 




No 157 

Evening flower 

and wheel 

Hisatsugu 

Second half 

of the eighteenth 

century 





No 172 

Flower 
arrangement 

Tadayuki 

Choshiu style 

Early nineteenth 

century 




No 179 

Tendril 

design with 

dragons etc. 

Canton style 

Second 

quarter 

of the 

eighteenth 

century 



No 185 - 

Fish and fish-net 

design 

Canton style 

Late eighteenth 

century 




No 198 

Man with 

lantern 

_Mitsuoki 

Otsuki school 

Late eighteenth 

to early 

nineteenth 

century 





No 224 

Iris flower 

Kano-Natsuo 

Third quarter of the 

nineteenth century 




No 250 
Horse's bit with 

kiri flowers 

Miochin school 

Middle of the 

seventeenth 

century 



No 253 

Fagots 
Akasaka style 
Second quarter 

of the 
eighteenth century 




No 254 

Conventional 

stream 

Akasaka school 

Middle of the 

seventeenth century 





No 255 

Peach 

Nobuiye of Kyoto 

Second half of the 

seventeenth 

century 



No 256 

Rabbits 

Kuninaga 

Miochin style 

Late eighteenth 

century 





No 264 

Crests 

Odawara school 

Second half of the 

seventeenth century 




No 266 

Sanscrit 
characters 

Tadanori 
Akasaka school 
Early nineteenth 

century 



No 267 
Buddhist gong 

Yasuiye 

Middle of the 

nineteenth century 




No 276 

Wheel 

Miochin style 

Second half of the 

eighteenth century 





No 280 

Mukade tsuba 

(centipede 

design) 

Late seventeenth 

century 




No 281 

Cloisonne inlay 

on iron 

Hirata school. 

Late seventeenth 

century 



No 282 

Cloisonne inlay 

on iron 

Tortoises and rocks 

Hirata school 

Middle of the 

eighteenth century 




No 289 

Storks 

Kinai school 

Middle of the 

eighteenth century 





No 291 

Acorn and 

autumn leaves 

Kinai 

Middle of the 

eighteenth century 




No 292 
Chrysanthemum 

Kinai school 
Late eighteenth 

century 



No 307 

Sanscrit characters 

Toda 

Early eighteenth 

century 




No 310 
Kiri and 

butterfly 
Naokatsu 
First half 

of the 
nineteenth 

century 





No 316 

Imitation of 

leather 

Yasuchika 

Nara school 

First half of the 

eighteenth century 




iV* 320 
Dragon and gold 

characters 
Yasuchika(FIf) 

Middle of the 
nineteenth century 



No 323 

Elephant with 

treasure ball 

Yasuchika 

First half of the 

eighteenth century 




No 336 

Tengu of the forest 

Shozui 

Nara school 

Middle of the 

eighteenth century 





No 356 

Fukurokuju (deer 

and bat) 

Yurakusai 

Nara school 

Late eighteenth 

century 




No 357 

Lizard climbing a wall 

Nara school 

Third quarter of the 

eighteenth century 



No 366 
Spider 
Miboku 
Nara school 
Late eighteenth 
century 




No 375 
Lotus design 
Mitsunaka 
Nara style 
Very early 
nineteenth 

century 





No 384 

Old gardener and snail 

Hironaga 

Early nineteenth 

century 




No 399 

Turtle 

Goto-Seijo 

Middle of the 

eighteenth ce?itury 



No 422 

Plover and waves 

Terutomo 

Omori school 

Early nineteenth 

century 





No 432 

_ Dragon 

Omori style 

Early nineteenth 

century 



No 436 
Temple dinner gong 

Haruaki 
Yanagawa school 
First half of the 
nineteenth century 




No 457 
Swallows and 

waves 

Akao school 

Middle of the 

nineteenth century 





No 463 

Bamboo 

Hironaga 

Sunagawa style 

Second quarter 

of the nineteenth 

century 




No 489 

Susuki rush and 

full moon 

Masakata 

ltd school 

Second quarter 

of the nineteenth 

century 



No 495 

Fishes and 

ha?nboo 

Has/iimoto-Seisai 

First half 

of the nineteenth 

century 




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