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Full text of "Museums, their history and their use : with a bibliography and list of museums in the United Kingdom"

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Museums 

Their History and their Use 



PUBLISHED BY 

JAMES MACLEHOSE AND SONS, GLASGOW 
PtUiUslure to tht anibcrsttg. 

MACMILLAN AND CO., LTD., LONDON. 
AVa' Vcfrk, ■ - The Macmiilan Co. 
Lo>ido7i, • • ■ Sinipkin, Hamiiton and Ce. 
Cambridge, ■ ■ MacfiitllaH and Bowes. 
Edinburgh - - Douglas and Foidis. 



Museums 

Their History and their Use 

lVit6 a Bibliography and hist of Museums 
in the United Kingdom 



By David Murray 

LL.D., F.S.A. 



Volume I 



Glasgow 

James MacLehose and Sons 

Publishers to the University 
1904 



^1 



Z- 



50C'" 
M91 



GLASGOW : PRINTED AT THE UNIVRRSITY PRESS 
BY KOBERT MACLEHOSE AND COMFANV, LIMITED. 



PREFACE. 

I Having at various times, during the last thirty years, 
visited the principal museums of the United Kingdom, 
of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, Finland and 
Russia, Austria, Hungary, Germany, Italy, Switzer- 
land, France, Belgium and Holland, the United States 
and Canada, I was anxious to learn something of the 
history and development of museums as scientific 
institutions. Strange to say, however, there is little 
or nothing bearing upon the subject in the ordinary 
books of reference. There are only twenty-three lines 
upon it in the last edition of Chambers' Cyclopatdia ; 
there is no article upon Museums in the last edition 
of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, but there is a short 
notice, principally relating to art museums, in the 
recent supplement to this work. '' Museum " does 
not appear as a title in Leon Vallee's Bibliographie des 
bibliographies or Petzholdt's Bibliotheca bibliographic a. 
" Museums " is not an independent subject in Mr. 
Fortescue's exhaustive Subject-index of the modern 
works in the British iNIuseum, but is included under 
"Exhibitions" and "Natural History" and such 
headings as "Anatomy," "Art," "Ceramics" and 
the like. The title only casually occurs in Mr. 
Sonnenschein's valuable Reader s Guide and The Best 
Books. 



VI PREFACE 

I had beside me several of the catalogues of the 
older collections ; amongst others those of Ole Worm's 
museum and of the Copenhagen museum, Grew's 
Catalogue of the Rarities belonging to the Royal Society, 
Sibbald's Auctarinm Musei Balfouriani, Mercati's 
Metallotheca, the Museo Cospiano, and Aldrovandi's 
Mtiseum Metallicum. I often consulted them and 
found both amusement and instruction in turning 
over their pages, and it seemed to me that from such 
sources one could learn something of the idea of what 
a museum ought to be, which the old collectors had, 
their schemes of classification and the science on which 
these were based. Working upon these lines, with 1 
the help of other catalogues, old and new, and of sundry 
volumes of travels and general works, I prepared a 
paper which I read as a Presidential Address to the 
Glasgow Archaeological Society in the winter of 1897. 
As I pursued the subject I gradually ascertained that 
it possessed a considerable literature and my paper 
grew into the following volume. Substantially, how- 
ever, it is the same as the original Address, and this 
explains the local allusions and the prominence given 
to museums of archaeology. Had I known, when I 
took up the subject, that so much had already been 
written upon it, my paper would no doubt have taken 
a different shape, or, what is more probable, it 
would not have been written. Previous writers have 
followed much the same method as I have done. 
Museum catalogues have supplied their material ; the 
actual catalogues used varying in each case. Each 
writer, however, seems to have been unaware that he 
had a predecessor in the same field. After the greater 



PREFACE VU 

part of this volume had been printed off I therefore 
thought that it would be useful to future inquirers if 
I were to add a list of the works cited and of those 
which I had consulted, so as to provide a tentative 
bibliography of museums. This list was prepared 
and printed, but was not satisfactory. Some museums 
were fully dealt with ; others were merely referred 
to ; many were omitted. With this draft to work 
upon I endeavoured to fill up the blanks, and the 
work gradually increased from some fifty pages to two 
volumes. These do not by any means exhaust the 
subject. It was not my aim to provide a complete 
bibliography, or to include all the works relating to 
the general subject or to particular museums, and I 
have excluded books in the Russian and other less 
generally known languages. What I have attempted 
is, in the first place, to give a short list of the books 
bearing on the bibliography of museums, which I had 
found useful, that is a bibliography of bibliographies. 
The list could easily be enlarged, but is probably sufifi- 
cient for the purpose. The next subject, Museography, 
is dealt w^th more fully, but not exhaustively, and 
many books have no doubt escaped me. This section 
is followed by a selection of books on the practical 
work of museums — the collection, preparation, and 
preservation of specimens, their registration and 
exhibition. This is a wide field, and I have kept 
my selection within moderate limits, but have prefixed 
to the section a short subject-bibliography. The 
greater part of the second and third volumes is 
devoted to Catalogues and other works relatino- to 

o o 

particular museums and special collections. The 



Vlll PREFACE 

museums and collections dealt with, it should be ex- 
plained, are those of which there are printed catalogues 
or descriptions. Museums of which there are no cata- 
logues, or which are not otherwise described in other 
works, consequently do not appear. Many museums 
therefore, and some of great importance, are not to 
be found in the list. 

The difficulty there is in getting information re- 
garding museum catalogues will scarcely be credited. 
As a rule, I ask in every museum I visit whether 
there is a catalogue or handbook. In very many 
cases the answer is in the negative. I have been 
so told repeatedly when I was already in posses- 
sion of the catalogue. The explanation I found to 
be that if the catalogue or handbook is out of 
print it is treated not only as non-existent, but as 
if it had never existed. Having been unable to 
get information regarding a certain catalogue I wrote 
to the Museum for a copy of the title page. I had 
no reply. In answer to a further application I 
received this : " We certainly have a small Museum, 
but have lost all trace of our catalogue since the 
death of Mr. . . . in . . ., who then was the Curator." 
Librarians again seem to take little interest in cata- 
logues of museums, except in the case of Art 
collections, and do not collect them systematically. 
I have not found in any library, at home or abroad, 
anything like a complete collection of the published 
works relating to the museums in the same town. 
The British Museum possesses far more works on 
museums in general than any other library with 
which I am acquainted, but it has not a complete 



PREFACE IX 

collection of the works relating to itself. I asked 
in a University museum whether there was a cata- 
logue. I was told that there was not and that there 
never had been a catalogue. I then went to the 
University library and examined the catalogue of 
the library, which is on the card system and is kept 
up-to-date. The library did not contain a single 
volume relating to the museum. A printed catalogue of 
the museum nevertheless exists. In another Univer- 
sity Library I went over the catalogue to ascertain what 
had been published in reference to the museums in 
the town, and found several entries. The University 
possesses an excellent museum ; but the library had 
nothinof relating to it ; and the librarian told me that he 
did not think that the museum had issued a catalogue. 
I walked over to the museum, purchased the catalogue, 
and brought it back to the library. The librarian 
promised to make a note of it. In a third library, 
presided over by one of the leading exponents of the 
art of cataloguingr, I found that the title " Museum " 
did not exist in his own catalogue, and that the library 
did not possess a copy of a "Visitors' Guide" to a 
well-known museum in the neighbourhood, of which 
there had been at least two editions. 

In the Bibliography the museums are arranged 
under the towns or places where they are situated, 
and in the case of private collections under the name 
of the collector, or of his residence when it is well 
known. Names of authors are given separately as 
cross-references. 

The term " museum " I have taken in its ordinary 
English acceptation, and have excluded galleries of 



X PREFACE 

painting and sculpture from my lists. Collections 
of coins are, as a rule, likewise excluded. Numis- 
matics is a specialised subject with an extensive 
literature and it would have served no good purpose 
to incorporate catalogues of coin collections in a 
work dealing with museums generally. When coins 
or works of ancient art form part of a University 
or similar collection, I have, however, given shortly 
the principal works relating to them. 

Where there are a number of museums in one 
town I have endeavoured to keep them distinct and 
to give separately the works relating to each museum. 
This, however, is not always possible. One volume 
often treats of several museums. Museums again 
change their names or are split up or are ab- 
sorbed by others. One edition of a book refers to 
a collection when it was an independent institution : 
another treats it as part of a larger collection. I 
have done the best I could to meet these and other 
difficulties, not altogether successfully I fear, as local 
knowledge is often necessary to unravel the history 
of particular museums and collections. In many 
cases I have spent both time and trouble in identify- 
ing under a new name the collection to which some 
book refers. I have searched numbers of local his- 
tories for information of this kind, generally without 
reward. Few historians concern themselves with 
details about museums. 

Following the bibliography of particular museums 
and collections, I have given a list of travels and 
books of a general nature which are cited in the 
text or which I have consulted. It would have 



PREFACE XI 

been easy to increase this list, as many books of 
travel and most guide-books refer, more or less fully, 
to museums, but a mere enumeration of collections 
or the repetition of what has been already said by 
some previous writer is of little use to one who desires 
special information. As it is, several of the books 
included are of this character, and are mentioned 
only because I had passed them through my hands. 
A considerable number of Travels are referred to 
in Part IV. as authorities on particular museums. 
These, as a rule, are not again given in Part V. 
I have also omitted from this Part the most of 
the old scientific and oreneral works referred to in 
Volume I., as not bearing directly upon museums. 

The references to the transactions of learned bodies, 
to journals and other periodical publications have 
mostly been made ciirrente calamo and generally 
when I was engraoed in searchino- for other infor- 
mation. Had I been able to go systematically 
through several journals of different countries and 
relating to different branches of science for a series 
of years, a great deal of additional information would 
have been obtained, but this would have required 
an amount of time and opportunity for research far 
beyond what I could command. 

I have endeavoured to give the names of authors 
in full, a point which involves more trouble 
than is apparent. I have also, in the majority of 
cases, given the date of their births and if dead of 
their deaths, with an indication of their profession 
or position. This has added much to my labour. 
Even in the case of names to be found in the 



Xll PREFACE 

ordinary biographical dictionaries, it takes some little 
time to extract the information ; but a very large 
number of those who ficrure in the literature of 
museums do not appear in such dictionaries and 
the work of running them to earth is often very 
tedious, but I ought to add, very fascinating. In 
some cases I have failed. With plenty of time 
and with the British Museum behind me I would have 
been more successful, but to a large extent I have 
had to depend upon my own library, and in addi- 
tion time was scant. Engaged all day in an exacting 
profession and with many of the duties of citizenship 
to perform, I have never had more than a few 
hours of the evening- to give to this work ; I have 
had many interruptions, and continuous labour has 
been impossible. 

More errors have crept in than I could have 
wished. In some cases, in deference to some 
accepted authority, I have altered names and dates 
and other particulars which I had in my notes, and 
have found when too late that my original note 
was right and that my trusted guide was wrong. 
In other cases the mistakes are slips or oversights. 
In dealing with such a multitude of particulars, and 
with entries in many languages, it is difficult to avoid 
inaccuracy. The bibliography has been written on 
the margins and backs of a long series of proof 
sheets, so that occasionally some things have got out 
of joint and transcription has been at fault. What 
has been done I have done myself without assist- 
ance of any kind. 

Now that the work is finished it is easy to see 



PREFACE Xlll 

where it fails and how it could have been improved, 
but this is incident to most undertakings of the 
kind and few things would be attempted if one 
could see at the commencement the difficulties that 
were to be surmounted and the labour to be encoun- 
tered. I have written for my own amusement, but 
I hope not altogether without profit to others. Be 
this as it may the preparation of the book has given 
me much pleasure during several years. I have read 
a great deal of out-of-the-way literature, and have 
m.ade the acquaintance of a large number of men 
who were prominent in their day, and with 
whom I have found it pleasant to hold converse 
through their books. Some of them have waited long 
for a reader. I have cut the leaves of, I should say, 
a score of volumes which have stood unopened on 
the shelves of various libraries, some for two, some 
for three hundred years. 

Not being a librarian or a bibliographer by pro- 
fession, I have not felt myself bound by any of the 
ingenious rules laid down for cataloguing. All such 
rules are apt to be embarrassing when carried out 
rigidly, and with long experience of catalogues 
I have found that they are generally more useful 
when not too systematic. I have not always been 
consistent, and there is a satisfaction in not being 
subject to any formal rule. The French De is a 
disturbing element. Sometimes I have followed the 
practice of the British Museum and in other cases 
I have not. In taking an entry from a catalogue 
or bibliography one naturally accepts it as given, 
and as each cataloguer treats the particle as it 



XIV PREFACE 

pleases him it is difficult for a third person to alter J 
the entries uniformly. I have endeavoured to adopt 
the form that I thought would be most readily- 
recognised. 

The list of Museums in the United Kingdom is 
based upon that prepared by the British Museum 
Association in 1887, which the Association has been 
CTood enough to allow me to use. I have omitted 

o o 

some of the particulars furnished by them, as being 
unnecessary for my purpose, and have inserted at 
the beo;inninor a list of museums in London. A 
number of museums will be found in the Bibliography 
which do not occur in the list. 

At the end of volume three there is a list of some 
corrections and of some books accidentally omitted 
or published since the bibliography was printed. 

In conclusion may I be allowed, without undue 
assumption, to adopt the words of Aldo Manuzio, 
" Etsi opere in magno fas est obrepere somnum (non 
enim unius diei labor hie noster, sed multorum 
annorum, atque interim nee mora nee requies,) sic 
tamen doleo, ut si possem mutarem singula errata 
nummo aureo." 

DAVID MURRAY. 



169 West George Street, 

Glasgow, 27th September, 1904. 



CONTENTS. 

CHAPTEK PAGE 

I. Introductory, i 

II. The Renaissance; the Collecting of Objects of 

Ancient Art, 13 

III. The Progress of Science: Collections of Nat- 

ural Objects, 19 

IV. Early Museum Catalogues, 28 

V. The Use of the Term Museum, ' ' ' ' 34 

VI. Some Old Exhibits, ------- 39 

VII. Some Early Museums, 78- 

VIII. Later Museums, 102 

IX. The Beginnings of the British Museum, - - 127 

X. Special Collections, 145 

XI. Scottish Collectors .\nd Scottish Museums, - 151 

XII. Museums as Shows, 170 

XIII. Dispersion of Museums, 181 

XI\'. Non-Scientific Char.\cter of Early Museums, - 186 

XV. Arrangement of Old Museums, - - - - 205 

XVI. The Modern Museum. Archaeological Museums, 231 

XVII. Glasgow Museums. The Museu.ms of Hamburg, 

Bremen and Lubeck, 245 

XVIII. The Use of Museums, 259 

APPENDIX. 

The Levden Catalogue of 1591, 287 

List of Museums in the United Kingdom, - - - 291 

INDEX, 3^3 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

A Museum, as now understood, is a collection of the 
monuments of antiquity or of other objects interesting 
to the scholar and the man of science, arranged and 
displayed in accordance with scientific method. In 
its original sense it meant a spot dedicated to the 
Muses, and secondarily, a place for study and for 
the intercourse of learned men, or, in other words, 
a place appropriated to literature and philosophy. By 
far the most important museum of antiquity was the 
great institution at Alexandria founded by Ptolem.y 
Philadelphus in the third century before Christ for 
the promotion of learning and the support of students.^ 
It formed part of the palace and contained cloisters, 
a public lecture-room and a common hall with botani- 
cal and zoological gardens attached. It was supported 
by a grant from the treasury and was under the 
superintendence of a priest nominated by the king, 

^ As to the Alexandrine Museum, see Strabo, Geographica^ xvii. i, 8 ; 
Gronovius and Neocorus, De Museo Alexandrino, in Gronovii, Thesaurus 
Graecariim Antiquitatum, viii. 2741-78 ; Parthey, Das alexandrinische 
Museum, Berlin, 1838; Klippel, Ueber das alexandrinische Museum, 
Gottingen, 1838 ; Weniger, Das alexandrinische Museum, Berlin, 1875. 

A 



2 THE ALEXANDRINE MUSEUM 

and, after Egypt became a Roman province, by the 
emperor. In the language of modern times it would 
be called an Academy or perhaps a College or Uni- 
versity. After Alexandria passed under Roman rule 
its prosperity began to decline ; its public buildings 
were allowed to fall into disrepair, its works of art 
were removed to Italy ; and by the end of the fourth 
century of our era it had well nigh been ruined and 
the museum closed. 

Those authors who undertake to treat of museums 
in a thorough and exhaustive manner ^ find in Noah's 
Ark the most complete Museum of Natural History 
that the world has ever seen. Coming to later 
times they make sure that King Solomon had 
a collection of curiosities ; and when King Hezekiah 
in a boastful mood showed the envoys of the King 
of Babylon all the house of his precious things, 
the silver and the gold and the spices and the 
precious oil and all that was found in his treasures, 
they are certain that he took them round his 
museum. Some of these objects of interest were 
thought to have come down to our times, all duly 
catalogued by Collin de Plancy.- The Cathedral of 

^ Neickelius, [i.e. Caspar Friedrich Einckel,] "Von dem Ursprung der 
Kunst- und Naturalien-Kammern," in Muscographia, p. 8, Leipzig, 1727, 
4to ; Johann Daniel Major, Unvorgreiffliches Bede7icken von Kunst- und 
Natur alien- Kamvierti itisgemein, Kiel, 1674, 8vo, reprinted by Valentin! in 
his Museum Museorum, vol. i. ; and Valentini himself, in his Museum 
Museorum, Introduction, vol. i., Franckfurt-a.-M., 1704, fol. ; Daniel Wil- 
helm Moeller, Cotmnentatio de Techtiophysiotameis., p. 199, in Koehler, 
Sylloge aliquot Scriptorum de bene ordinanda et ornanda Bibliotheca, 
Francof., 1728, 4to ; Koehler, Aitiueisung fiir Reisende gelehrte, p. 217, 
Frankf., 1762, 8vo ; p. 728, Magd., 1810, 8vo. 

^ Dictionnaire critique des Reliques et des Images miraculeuses. Paris, 
1 82 1, 8vo, 3 vols. 



EARLY ORIGIN CLAIMED FOR MUSEUMS 3 

Milan, says Addison, " is very rich in relics, which 
run up as high as Daniel, Jonas, and Abraham":^ 
and in the ninth century hair from the beard of 
Noah was shown at Corbie.- The great Abbey of 
St. Denis possessed a large and curious goblet of 
rock cr)^stal which was formerly in Solomon's temple, 
a gold and jewelled cup which belonged to King 
Solomon himself, and a gamahe of white agate on 
which was impressed the likeness of the Queen of 
Sheba ; ^ and on a column in the nave of San 
Ambrogio, Milan, travellers are still shown the brazen 
serpent which was raised by Moses in the wilder- 
ness. These learned writers come to firmer ground 
when they refer to the great collection of animals, 
drawn from all parts of the world, which Alex- 
ander the Great is said to have provided for 

^" Remarks on Italy," 1701-1703, lVorks,u., p. 13. London, 1811, 8vo. 

In the Treasury of Durham was "a piece of the tree under which were 
the three angels with Abraham," and "a part of the rod of Moses." Raine, 
Saint Cjithbert, pp. 122, 124. Durham, 1828, 4to. 

^ A wonderful series of the relics of his cloister is catalogued by 
Angilbert, Abbot of St. Riquier (Abbas Centulensis). Ada SS.O.S. 
Betiedicti, ed. Mabillon, iv. i. 108. 

^ Abrege de rinventaire dti Trhesor de St. Denys, pp. 12, 14, Paris, 
1668, 8vo ; Evelyn, Diary., i., p. 45, London, 1879 \ Valentini, Museum 
Museorum, ii.. Appendix ii., p. 7. 

A foot of King Solomon and an arm of the Queen of Sheba were 
extant until recently, but seem now to have disappeared. V Inicrniediaire 
des ChercJieurs et Curieux, xxii. (1889), 291. 

The engraved figures on Gamahes were supposed to be produced 
directly by nature, and were considered to have peculiar virtues. 
See post, p. 237. Another theory was that they were made by the 
children of Israel during their forty years' wanderings in the wilder- 
ness. The words gamahe and cameo are the same. The art of cameo 
cutting was practised by the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, but was 
lost in the Middle Ages. Labarte, Arts of the Middle Ages, p. 52, 
London, 1855. 



4 THE ROMANS AS COLLECTORS 

Aristotle to enable him to write his natural history, 
but even if the tradition be well founded this was 
a zoological garden rather than a museum, which 
does not admit live specimens. 

While the Romans were industrious collectors of 
statues and paintings they sought after them merely 
as decorative objects and not for the purpose of 
cultivating taste, or as instruments for the study and 
teaching of the arts of design. At first they were 
employed exclusively for the decoration of temples 
and places of public resort ; but private collections 
began to be formed and by the close of the Republic 
it had become fashionable for wealthy citizens to 
have a room in their houses for the reception and 
display of works of art.^ Vitruvius, writing in the 
time of Augustus, includes the pinacotheca amongst 
the apartments of a great house and gives directions 
as to its form and aspect.- 

A collection of precious stones was known as a 
" dactyliotheca"; and according to Pliny, the first 
person who possessed one at Rome was Scaurus, 
the stepson of Sulla. For a long time there was no 
other, until Pompey the Great, amongst other dona- 
tions, dedicated in the Capitol one which had belonged 
to King Mithridates. Following his example, Julius 
Caesar consecrated six collections in the temple of 
Venus Genetrix, and Marcellus the nephew of Augustus 
presented one to the temple of the Palatine Apollo.^ 

^ See Curtius, Kunsttnuseeii j ihre Geschichte und ihre Besti??iinufig, 
p. 15, Berlin, 1870, 8vo; Friedlander, Sittetigeschichte Roms, ii., p. 154 
sqq., Leipzig, 1881, 5th ed. ; Evelyn, Numistnata, p. 69, London, 1697, fol. 

"^ De Architectura, i. 2 ; vi. 5, 7 ; cf. Pliny, Hisioria Naiuralis, xxxv. 
4; Dezobry, Rofne an Steele cTAugusie, i., p. 92, Paris, 1875, Svo. 

^ Pliny, Hisioria Naturalis, xxxvii. 5 ; Dezobry, Op. laud., i., p. 289. 



MUSEUM OF AUGUSTUS 5 

Natural objects, such as we call curiosities, had long 
been preserved in temples, both in Greek and Roman 
times, not as scientifically interesting but because 
of their rarity or peculiarity, and Pliny incidentally 
mentions numerous examples ; ^ many of them, it is 
to be feared, of a very fanciful description, e.g. the 
bones of the monster to which Andromeda had been 
exposed, and which had been brought to Rome from 
Joppa, where the remains of the chains by which 
she had been fastened to the rock were still to be 
seen.^ Suetonius tells us^ that the villa of Augustus 
was remarkable not so much for statues and pictures 
as for things notable by their age and rarity {res 
vettistate ac rai'itate iwtabiies), such as the huge 
members of wild beasts known as the bones of 
giants,^ and the weapons of heroes ; ° and there seems 

^ E.g. Historia Naturalis, v. lo ; vi. 36 (31); viii. 14; xi. 36 (31); 
xii. 42 (19) ; xxviii. 6. Sachse de Lewenheimb, Gammarologia., p. 49. 
Franc of., 1665, 8vo. 

2//. N.., ix. 4 ; V. 14. 

^ Vita Augusti, c. 72. See Reinach, "Le Musee de rEmpereur Auguste," 
in Revue d'Anthropologie, 1889, p. 28 sqq. 

■* Pliny mentions {Historia Natiiralis, vii. 16) that the bones of two 
very tall men over nine feet in height were kept as curiosities in the 
gardens of the Sallust family. These gardens belonged to the Emperor 
Augustus, and the bones in question may have been part of those 
referred to by Suetonius. 

Pliny says they were preserved iti co/iditorio, from which it might be 
assumed that ^^ conditorium'' was the appropriate term for a cabinet of 
curiosities. Leibnitz refers to museums as " conditoria renan pere- 
grinarumr Protogaea, § 35, Goetting., 1749, 4to. 

5 The latter were objects which the Greeks had been accustomed to 
display in their temples. The spear of Achilles was preserved in the 
sanctuary of Athena at Phaselis, and the sword of Memnon in the temple 
of /Esculapius at Xicomedia. Pausanias, iii. 3. 8. The blade and the 
spike at the butt-end of the spear and the whole of the sword were of 
bronze, which Pausanias adduces as showing that in the Heroic Age 



6 RELICS 

some ground for believino- that Tiberius also had a 
museum.^ 

In the Middle Ages many monasteries had collec- 
tions of curiosities, most of them the gifts of travellers 
on their return from distant lands." Princes and 
ecclesiastics had collections of the relics of saints which 
they carried about from place to place in a reliquary, 
chest or cabinet {capelld), and these had a most import- 
ant bearing on the life of the time in peace as well 
as in war.'^ "The reliquary was the most precious 
ornament in the Lady's chamber, in the Knight's 
armoury, in the King's hall of state, as well as in 
that of the Bishop or the Pope."^ It was to relics 
that men, of a faith altogether material, gave the 
greatest credence, and they were employed in all solemn 
acts of justice and administration.^ The shift of the 
Virgin, which Charles the Bald had brought with 
other relics from Constantinople, when displayed upon 

weapons were all of bronze. Pausanias, Description of Greece, by Frazer, 
i., p. 136; iii., p. 314. 

The expression "arma heroum" has been thought to refer to palaeo- 
lithic weapons of stone or weapons of bronze of the prehistoric period. 
See Reinach, in Revue cT Anthropologic, 1889, p. 28; Reinach, Antiquites 
natiotiales, i., p. 83 ; Evans, Ancient Stone Weapons, p. 4 (2nd ed.). 

* Reinach, Antiquites nationales, i., p. 28, Paris, 1889. 

- Lacroix, Science et Lettres au moyen age, pp. 124, 137, Paris, 1877 ; 
English translation, pp. no, 114. London, 1878, 8vo. 

^See Smith, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, s.v. Relics and 
Reliquary; Milman, History of Latin Christianity, \\.,^^. 153, 154; ix., 
pp. 84-88. London, 1864, 8vo. 

* Milman, Op.la7id.,\x.,Y>- 84; Lacroix, 6*/. /a«^., p. 363 j^^. London, 1878. 
° De Coulanges, La Monarchic Franque, p. 149, Paris, 1888, 8vo; Du 

Cange, Glossarium, s.v. Capella ; Spelman, Glossariuin Archaiologicuin, 
s.v. Capella. Smith, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, s.vv. Relics, 
Reliquary, Wonders. 



CHURCH TREASURIES 7 

the ramparts of Chartres, brought defeat upon the 
hitherto all-conquering Rollo.^ An Eastern king 
inserted the thumb of St. Sergius in his own right 
arm, and, as a reward for his faith, was able to conquer 
his enemies by the raising of that arm." Amongst the 
relics of Croyland, Abbot Turketul set especial value on 
the thumb of St. Bartholomew the Apostle, so much so 
that he always carried it about him, and in all times 
of danger, tempest, and lightning crossed himself 
therewith.^ As Gregory of Tours was travelling from 
Burgundy to Auvergne a thunderstorm came on ; 
when, plucking some relics from his bosom, he held 
them up towards the threatening cloud. It at once 
parted in twain, and the traveller passed on in safety.* 
Every church had its treasury, and most treasuries 
contained relics/ many possessed illuminated manu- 
scripts and works of art, often of very early date and 
of great historic interest,*^ and some of them curiosities 

^Gulielmus Malmesburiensis, De gestis regjivi Anglorutn, ii. 5. 

^ Gregorius Turonensis, Historia Fraticorum, vii. 31, Opera 355, Lutet., 
1699, fol- 

^Ingulphus, Historia Croylandensis, in Gale et Fell, Rerutn Angli- 
carum Scriptores, i., p. 51, Oxon., 1684, fol. 

^ De Gloria Mariyrum, i. 84, Opera 817. Numerous examples of the 
same thing are recorded by the hagiographers, e.g. Acta SS.O.S. Bene- 
diciti, ed. Mabillon, iii. 2, 438. 

^ See the very interesting Inventory of Relics which belonged to the 
Cathedral of Durham in 1383. Raine, Saitit Cuthbert., pp. 120-130. 
Durham, 1828, 4to. The relics of Durham were, in the Middle Ages, 
one of its most striking features. See poem in Hickes, Thesaurus, i., p. 179. 
Oxon., 1705, fol. 

®The older authorities are conveniently collected in Von Schlosser, 
Quellenbuch zur Kunstgeschichte des abetidliindischen Mittelalters. Wien, 
1896, 8vo. As a later example see Ingulph's description of the treasury 
of Croyland, supra. 



8 RARITIES IN CHURCHES 

and rarities brought home by pilgrims or travellers.^ 
*' In some churches," says Durandus, "two eggs of 
ostriches and other things of the like kind, which cause 
admiration and which are rarely seen, are accustomed 
to be suspended, that by their means the people may 
be drawn to church and have their minds the more 
affected."^ This practice was more common in the East 
than in the West, and is still continued in both Chris- 
tian churches and Mohammedan mosques.^ There are, 
however, examples of it in the West. An ostrich 
Qgg, for instance, used to hang in the old Dom of 
Goslar in the Harz ; while the griffin's eggs,^ which 
appear in many church inventories of the Middle Ages, 

■^ Otte, Handbuch der kirchlidien Kitnst-Archdologie, p. 48, Leipzig, 1854, 
8vo ; i., p. 213, Leipzig, 1883, 8vo. Klemm, GeschicJite der Sat/nnlungen 
fur IVissetisc/iaft und Kttnst in DeutscJiland, p. 142, Zerbst, 1837, 8vo. 
Milman, Op. laud.., iv., p. 171 ; ix., p. 86. 

2 Rationale divi7ioriim Officiorutn, i. 3, § 42. 

Durandus is not altogether satisfied with this explanation, and § 43 
suggests another : " Again some say that the ostrich, as being a forgetful 
bird, leaveth her eggs in the dust [Job xxxix. 14], and at length when 
she beholdeth a certain star returneth unto them, and cheereth them by 
her presence. Therefore the eggs of ostriches are hung in churches to 
signify that man, being left by God on account of his sins, if at length 
he be illumined by the Divine Light, remembereth his faults and 
returneth to Him, who by looking on him His mercy cherisheth him." 

^A^. and Q., 3rd S. iv. 470; 5th S. xii. 46; 8th S. v. 434; vi. 57. 
Tozer, Visit to Mount Athosj Vacation Tourists, p. 103 ; Burnaby, 
On Horseback through Asia Minor, i., p. 310 ; Valentini, Museum 
Museoru7n, vol. ii., Appendix xxi., p. 87. Franckfurt-a.-M., 17 14, fol. 

*'R.2i\nQ, Sai7it Cuthbert, p. 122; Meyers, Konversations-Lexikon, s.v. 
Greif. Amongst the relics belonging to the Cathedral of Durham were 
several griffin's eggs. Raine, Saint Cuthbert, pp. 123, 125, 127, 128. 

An ostrich egg was often used as a stand for a reliquary. The egg, 
clasped in a metal ring, rested on a metal foot, and the reliquary stood 
on the top attached to the ring. There are two in the Welfen Museum, 
Hanover ; one in the treasury of Quedlinburg ; two at Hildesheim, one 
of them dating from the eleventh century ; and there are many elsewhere. 



RARITIES IN CHURCHES 9 

are believed to have been ostrich eggs. But other 
rarities were to be found, and their use goes to strengthen 
the suggestion of Durandus that they were kept as 
attractions. Thus, in the porch of the Cathedral of 
Merseburg, on the Saale, there is a large carapace 
of a tortoise.^ There are "antediluvian" (vorsilnd- 
fluthliche) bones in the church of St. Kilian, at 
Heilbronn, in Wurtemberg, and in the old Roman- 
esque church of Alpirsbach, in the Black Forest.^ 
One hangs in the western entrance of the Cathedral of 
Halberstadt, and used to be passed off as one of the 
bones of Jonah's whale ; while on the wall opposite 
it hangs a thunderbolt, — or as we would now say, 
a stone axe, — which was kept as a protection against 
drought and lightning.^ In the sacristy of the Cathe- 
dral of Brunswick there is the horn of an antelope, 
which Duke Henry the Lion (1129-1195) brought 
back from Palestine as being the claw of a griffin.^ 
In the church of St. Michael, in Hildesheim, another 
griffin's claw was exhibited, which was in reality a goat's 
horn, and two others were to be seen in a church 
near Helmstadt.^ In the Schloss-Kirche of Witten- 

^ Briickmann, Epistola Itineraria, 53, Cent. i. There was also preserved 
in this church the hand which Rudolph of Suabia lost in battle with the 
Emperor Henry IV. Briickmann, Op. laud., 49, Cent. i. 

- Otte, Op. laud. 

^Hermes, Der Dom zii Halberstadt, p. 50, Halberstadt, 1896, 8vo. 
It is mentioned in the Catalogue of Davila's Museum, iii., p. 15. 

A large axe of jade was found in 1884 on one of the tie-beams in the roof 
of a granary belonging to the old Cistercian nunnery, known as Martha's 
Hof,in Bonn. Bonner Jahrbucher,\xx\\\. (1884), p. 216 ; Ixxix. (1885), p. 280. 

^ Oi\.e,ut supra. See Tylor, Early History 0/ Mankind, p. 319, 3rd ed. ; 
Y.vzx\s,Ani7nal Sy>nbolismin Ecclesiastical Architecture,"^. 106. Lond., 1896. 
There is an interesting note on the griffin in Frazer's Pausanias, ii., p. 318. 

° Bartholin, Epistolae niedicinales. Cent, ii., Ep. 11, p. 339. 



lO RARITIES IN CHURCHES 

here — on whose doors Luther affixed his famous 
theses — two whale ribs were suspended, when Faber 
wrote in 171 7, which were said to have been brought 
from the Holy Land, but which in fact belonged to a 
whale thrown up on the shores of the Baltic. Above 
them hung a hunting horn reputed to be made of a 
griffin's claw also brought from the Holy Land/ The 
treasury of Durham Cathedral possessed two such 
claws."' In the church of St. Nicholas at Juterbog, 
in Brandenburg, there is the rib of a whale,^ In 
the choir of the parish church of Ensisheim, in Upper 
Alsace, there is a portion of a meteorite, which fell 
in 1492 and weighed 260 pounds."* In the parish 

^ Matthaeus Faber, Kurtzgefasste historische Nachricht von der Schloss- 
Kirche in Wittenberg, pp. 140-142. Wittenberg, 1717, 8vo. 

At p. 191 sqq. he gives a curious list of the Relics preserved in the 
Treasury. 

2 Raine, Saint Cuthbert, p. 122. 

^ Otte, ut supra. 

There is also preserved in this church one of the Indulgence boxes of 
Friar Tetzel, "der Ablasskramer." He was waylaid in a wood near the 
convent of Zinna by a robber Knight, Hans von Hacke, as he was 
carrying it home filled with gold, the produce of the pardons he had sold. 

There is another such bo.x in the cathedral of Magdeburg. 

* Gesner, De reriim fossilitim, lafidiun et gemtnaricm Liber, f. 66, 
Tiguri, 1565, 8vo ; Chladni, Ueber Feuer-Meteore, pp. xvi., 90, 205, 427, 
Wien, 1819, 8vo ; Leonhard, Geologic, iv., p. 177. Stuttgart, 1841, 8vo. 

The Emperor Maximilian, arriving at Ensisheim shortly after the fall, 
presented a fragment to the Archduke Sigismund, retained another for 
himself, and deposited the remainder in the parish church. 

During the Revolution the stone was taken from the church and 
placed in the public library of Colmar. Fragments were broken off and 
presented to various persons and institutions. Fourcroy obtained a 
piece of 9^ kilos, for the Museum of Natural History, Paris. The 
remainder was afterwards returned to Ensisheim. Chladni, supra. Meunir, 
" Notice historique sur la collection de Meteorites du musdum d'histoire 
naturelle," in Centenaire de la fondation du Museum d'histoire nalurelle, 
p. 403, Paris, 1893, 4to. 



RARITIES IN CHURCHES II 

church of Petty, on the Moray Frith, the bones of a 
^iant, known as " Httle John," were still preserved in 
the sixteenth century.^ Giants' bones were preserved 
in the Cathedral of Vienna.' Boccaccio records that, in 
his day, in the church of the Annunciation in Trapani, 
in Sicily, three teeth weighing a hundred ounces, of 
an enormous giant of 200 cubits in height, were 
hung up on wire.^ Certain elephants' tusks, found 
in 1605, were suspended in the church at Halle/ In 
the church of St. Vulfran, in Abbeville, a cayman 
is suspended on the wall near the north-west door.^ 
The drinking horn and fork of Charlemagne are 
still shown in the treasury of Hildesheim. In the 
treasury of St. Denis there were the horn of 
a unicorn,*' the claw of a griffin presented to 
Charlemagne in the year 807 by King Aaron of 
Persia, and two tusks of a walrus or hippopotamus 

^ The Historic of Scotland^ by Leslie. Translated in Scottish by Dal- 
rymple, i., p. 46. Edinburgh, 1888, 8vo. 

2 Briickmann, Epistolae liinerariae, 5 and 12, Cent, i., Wolfenb., 
1729, 4to. Also in the Kreuz Kirche of Breslau, Kundmann, Promtuariujn, 
p. 12, Vratislav., 1726, 4to ; but no longer to be seen there. 

'^ De Genealogia Deorufn, Lib. iv., c. 68, p. 115, Basil., 1532, fol. Boc- 
caccio gives a most graphic account of the finding of the giant sitting in 
a cave, and of his resolving into dust when touched. Nothing was left 
but these teeth and part of the skull. 

As to other giants' teeth, see Briickmann, Op. laud. 

* Hoffmann, Dissertatio itiauguralis physico-medica de ebore fossili 
Suevico Halensi, p. 8. Hal. Magd., 1734, 4to. 

* A^. and Q., 8th S. vi. 512 ; Joanne, Itin^raire gmeral de la France — Le 
Nord, p. 35. Paris, 1892. 

' This was a famous specimen duly described and commented on by 
writers on the unicorn. See Bartholinus, De Unicornu, p. 250, Amstel., 
1678, i2mo; Historiariim anatomicariim Rariora, Cent, iv., 4, p. 217. 

There were two similar horns in the Treasury of St. Mark, Venice. 
Bartholinus, De Ufticornu, p. 253. 



12 PRESERVATION OF OBJECTS OF ART IN CHURCHES 

presented to the Abbey by David, King of Scotland,^ 
probably indicating that there had been a find of fossil 
ivory in this country at the time. In the treasury of St. 
Mark in Venice " they shew you likewise a lilly, offer'd 
by Henry III, of France to the most Serene Republic, 
and a surprizing pearl, call'd mother-pearl, and several 
things of that nature."- The acquisition of articles 
prompted by piety or superstition was no doubt on 
a different footing from collecting for purposes of in- 
struction or study, but it stimulated the taste for col- 
lecting, and secured the preservation of numerous 
interesting objects. The treasuries of many foreign 
churches still contain some of the finest existing 
examples of ancient art, and many of those beautiful 
and valuable objects which now adorn our great 
museums at one time belonged to churches. 

"^ Abrege de P Inventaire du Trhesor de St. Deiiys, p. 25, Paris, 1668, 
8vo ; Valentini, Museum Museoriim, ii., Appendix ii., p. 7. " Deux dents 
d'un cheval marin de grandeur prodigieuse," according to the official 
Inventory. " Zwei tiberaus grosse dentes Hippopotami," in Valentini's 
version. 

^ Montfaucon, The Antiquities of Italy, translated by Henley, p. 40. 
London, 1725, fol. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE RENAISSANXE ; THE COLLECTING OF OBJECTS 
OF ANCIENT ART. 

The revival of learning in the fifteenth century 
led to a passionate admiration for the monuments 
of classical antiquity, and to an eager desire for 
their acquisition and preservation. Cosmo, and after- 
wards Lorenzo de Medici, stood forward as the 
patrons of the new learning, assisted and encouraged 
the numerous scholars who made Florence famous. 
Popes, princes and magistrates promoted and carried 
on vast excavations on ancient sites. Between the 
years 1450 and 1550, an immense number of an- 
tiquities were unearthed in Rome and its neighbour- 
hood, and many palaces were filled with them.^ 
Coins and medals were especially attractive to men 
filled with the new enthusiasm for art and antiquity. 
Petrarch was a coin collector ; Politian used coins 
as vouchers of ancient orthography and customs, 
Benedetto Dandolo is said to have been the first to 

^ Fiorillo, Geschichte der zeichietiden Kiiiiste, i. 125 sqq. ; ii. 48 sqg., 
Gottingen, 1798, 8vo ; Gregorovius, Rovie in the Middle Ages^ vii., 
p. 588 sqq., London, 1900, 8vo ; Miintz, Des Antiquites de la Ville de 
Rome, p. 53 sqq., Paris, 1886, 8vo. The estimates of the number of 
statues found at Rome vary from 6o,cxx) to 170,000. Miiller, Attcietit 
Alt and its Remains, § 261, London, 1852, 8vo. 

13 



14 CABINETS OF COINS 

form a cabinet of coins. Cardinal Pietro Barbo, after- 
wards Pope Paul II., was a specialist in this branch 
of antiquity,^ which was pursued by Pietro Tommasi, 
Ciambatista Egnazio, and Cardinal Domenico Grimani 
(1460- 1 523). The museum collected by the latter 
and added to by his nephew Giovanni, was so 
extensive that when Alfonso, Duke of Ferrara, and 
Henry III. of France visited Venice in 1574, it took 
them a whole day to look over it.^ Gian Vincenzo 
Pinelli (i 535-1 601) is best known as a book collector, 
and his magnificent library was long celebrated, but 
he had also a museum of crlobes, mathematical and 
philosophical instruments, fossils, natural objects, and | 
coins,'^ which was acquired after his death by Cardinal ' 
Federigfo Borromeo.* The formation of cabinets of 
coins and medals grew apace,^ and by the middle of 
the sixteenth century, there were 200 in the Low 
Countries, 175 in Germany, more than 380 in Italy, 

^ The catalogue of part of his collections has been printed by Eugene 
Mlintz in Revue Archeologique, xxxvi., N.S., p. 87, Paris, 1878, 8vo ; 
Zeitschrift fiir Museologie, 1878, No. 16. 

- Fiorillo, Geschichte der zeichnenden Kiinste, ii. 56 ; Tiraboschi, Storia 
delta Letteratura Italiana, w'u., t^. 342. Milano, 1824. Pflaumern, il/^r- 
curius Italicus, Partii.,p. 58. August. Vindel., 1650, i2mo. Montfaucon, 
The Antiquities of Italy ^ translated by Henley, p. 29. London, 1725, fol. 

An account of the collection was published at Venice in 1497 ; and 
again Courte description dcs choses plus remarquables du Palais Grimani 
a Sainte Marie Formosa, Svo, n.p., n.d. 

^ The Pinelli library, formed by another member of the family, purchased 
in 1788 by James Robson, was sold by auction in London in 1789. 
Nichols, Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century, v., p. 324 ; iii., 
pp. 438, 735 ; The Gentleman's Magazine, lix., Part L (1789), p. 69. 

* Tiraboschi, Storia delta letteratura Jtaliana, vii., p. 356. 

^ Hubert Goltz in his C. Ivtivs Caesar sive Historiae hnperatorvm 
Caesarvmque Romanortim ex antiqvis numismatibvs restitvtae, Brug., 
1563, fol., enumerates the collectors to whom he was indebted for infor- 
mation and assistance. 



COLLECTIONS OF INSCRIPTIONS 1 5 

and about 200 in France. Engraved gems were speci- 
ally coveted and many collections were made. The 
first English collector^ was Thomas Howard, Earl of 
Arundel (1586- 1646). whom Horace Walpole calls the 
'* Father of Vertu in Eno-land." It was he who brought 
together the magnificent collection of intaglios and 
cameos long known as "The Marlborough Gems"; 
the Arundel MSS., now in the British Museum ; and 
the "Marmora Arundeliana," one of the ornaments of 
Oxford. 

The value of inscriptions had long been recognised, 
and from the seventh century onwards, pilgrims to 
Rome had been in the habit of noting such as they 
met with and carrying home their transcripts for 
preservation.- The scholars of the Renaissance, 

1 Evelyn, writing in 1689, laments that there was no collection of coins 
in England, Diary, iii., p. 442, London, 1879 ; and Zedler, when enumer- 
ating, in 1739, the principal cabinets of Europe does not mention one in 
this country. Universal Lexicon, s.v. Aliintz-Kabinet. 

In 1719-20, however, Nicolas Haym, an Italian musician, published at 
London (4to, 2 vols.) his // Tesoro Britannico, in which he proposed to 
describe all coins, gems, statues and other works of art to be found in the 
cabinets of England and not hitherto described. The work was intended 
to extend to about 12 quarto volumes. In 1746 the Catalogue of the 
Collection {Cinielinin) of Thomas, Earl of Pembroke, appeared in 4 vols. 
4to {infra, p. 137), and in 1750 that of the Bodley Collection at Oxford. 
In 1780 the Marlborough gems were described, Choix de pierres antiques 
gravccs dii Cabinet du Due de Marlborough, 1780-91, fol., 2 vols. 

^The earliest collection, of this description, is one made in the eighth or 
ninth century which is preserved in the monastery of Einsiedeln and was 
published by Mabillon, Analecta, p. 358 sqq., Paris, 1723, fol., but which 
first appeared at Paris, 1675-85, in 4 vols. 8vo. The collection was sub- 
sequently edited by Haenel, in Seebode und Jahn, Archiv fiir Philologie 
und Paedagogik, v., idisic. i., p. 116. See C.I.L., vi., pt. i., p. viii. ; De 
Rossi, Inscriptioties Christianae Urbis Romae, ii., pt. i., p. 9 sqq., and pp. 
15, 47, 159; Jordan, Topographie der Stadt Rom im Alterthicm, ii., pp. 330 
sqq., 6^6 sqq. Berlin, 1871. 



1 6 USE OF INSCRIPTIONS 

Pastrengo, Poggio, and Signorili, devoted themselves 
to the systematic search for and transcription of 
epigraphic monuments in Italy, while Cyriaco of 
Ancona, the earliest of scientific travellers, travelled 
abroad under the patronage of Pope Nicholas V., 
for the purpose of making collections in foreign 
lands. ^ Criticism, no doubt imperfect but at all 
events earnest, followed upon collection. Flavio 
Biondo (1388-1463), the Secretary of Eugenius IV., 
described the monuments of ancient Rome in various 
works commencing in 1449. He was followed by 
Andrea Fulvio, the contemporary of Raphael, and 
somewhat later by Bartolomeo Marliani.^' The 
accomplished Venetian humanist, Ermolao Barbaro, 
Patriarch of Aquileia (1454- 1495), "unus ex reliquiis 
aurei saeculi,"^ turned inscriptions to account in 
interpreting the classics and amending texts. "^ The 
celebrated Cardinal Bembo (1470- 1547) formed a 
museum in which were several fragments of bronze 
tables on which certain ancient laws were engfraved 
which have been of great service to jurists and 

^ Fiorillo, Op. laud.., i. 126. Tiraboschi, Storia della LetteraUira 
Italiana, vi., p. 178 sqq. His family name was PizzicoUi. 

^ Romae Topographia, Romae, 1534, 8vo ; and 1544, folio, with wood 
cuts ; Basileae, 1550, fol., and Venetiis, 1588, fol. It has found a place 
in the great Thesmirus of Graevius, vol. iii., p. 54 sqq. 

"^VoXxtx-AW, Epistolae., Lib. ii., Epist. 9, p. 59, Amstelod., 1542, i2mo ; 
cf. Lib. i., Epist. 6; Lib. ix., Epist. 4 ; Lib. v., Epist. i. 

* His Castigationes Plinianae were printed at Rome, 1492, fol., and often 
subsequently. He was a good Grecian and translated several portions of 
the works of Aristotle. The story goes that, being puzzled by the word 
evT€\4x^La, he consulted the devil as to the meaning, and received as 
answer, " perfectihabia." Leibnitz, however, defends his rendering {Theo- 
dice'e, par. i., § 87), and says that he owed it to good scholarship and not 
to an evil spirit. 



I 



NUMISMATICS 17 

philologists.^ The first comprehensive printed 
Corpus of Inscriptions'^ was the work of two pro- 
fessors of Ineolstadt, the mathematician Peter 
Apianus^ and the poet Bartholomew Amantius, and 
was published in 1534 at the expense of Raimund 
von Fugger, baron of Kirchberg. The study of 
coins was placed upon a scientific basis, and the 
foundations of numismatics were laid by the writings 
of two learned Venetians,^ Enea Vico and Sebastian 

^ Tiraboschi, Op. land.., vii., pp. 344, 369 ; Fiorillo, Op. laud.., ii., p. 53. 
On the Cardinal's death they were sold and dispersed. One has dis- 
appeared, two are at Vienna, and the remainder in the Museo Borbonico 
at Naples. See C.I.L., i. 49-54. 

2 The first printed collection of Inscriptions was that of Desiderio 
Spreti for Ravenna (Venet., 1489, 4to). Then followed those of Konrad 
Peutinger, the proprietor of the MS. of the famous Roman Itinerary 
known as the Tabula Peuti7igcria7ia, for Augsburg (Augsb., 1505, fol.), of 
which a second edition appeared in 1520 (Mainz, 1520, fol.), and in the 
same year the collection of Johann Huttich in his work on the Antiquities 
of Mainz (1520, fol.). Francesco Albertini collected those for Rome 
in his Mirabilia Romac, 1520, 4to, of which earlier editions had been 
published in 1508, 1510, 1515, and 1519. It was re-edited by Schmarsow, 
Heilbronn, 1886, 8vo. 

^ Originally Bienewitz which he rendered Apianus, after the fashion of 
the time. He was one of the earliest writers on the methods of arithmetic 
by means of the Arabic numerals. 

Augustus de Morgan doubts whether Apianus was the author or only 
the printer of the Inscriptiones. The Biographical Dictionary of the 
Society for the diffusiott of useful Knowledge, iii., s.v. Apianus. But there 
seems no foundation for the doubt. The name of Apianus appears on the 
title page as author as well as printer. Both sign the dedication. See 
also Dr. Siegmund Giinther, Peter and Philipp Apia?t, p. 13, Prag, 1882, 
4to, in the Abhandlungen der Konigl. bohmischen Gesellschaft der IVissen- 
schaften, vol. xi., 6th series, 1882; and note by David Clement in his 
Bibliotheque curieuse, i., p. 402, Gottingen, 1750, 4to. 

* Fiorillo, Geschichte der zeichnenden Kilnste, ii. 57 ; Tiraboschi, 
Storia delta Letteratura Italiana., vii., pp. 1248, 1249. 

The cabinet of Erizzo was preserved in the family of Capello. Spon, 
Voyage d'ltalie, de Dahnatie, &'c., i., p. 74. Lyon, 1678. 

B 



1 8 SEALS AND GEMS 

Echinus or Erizzo, which they gave to the world in 
1555 and 1559. In 1601 Abraham Gorlee of Delft 
published his Dactyliotheca^ which for upwards of a 
century remained the standard authority upon rings, 
seals, and gems.^ Nearly every subject of classical 
antiquity was treated more or less exhaustively by 
various scholars during the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, and their monographs were subsequently 
brought together and methodically arranged in the 
portly volumes of Graevius and Gronovius, Sallengre 
and Polenus, which still remain cyclopean monuments 
of industry and learning, and indispensable aids in 
any exhaustive antiquarian inquiry. 

The vast treasures of art which had been re- 
covered in Italy^ were gradually absorbed into special 
collections and formed the foundation of the museums 
of the Vatican and the Lateran at Rome, of the 
museum of Florence and of those of Vienna, Dresden, 
Munich, Paris, St. Petersburg, and London. 

^ Some copies bear date 1605, and others 1609. James Gronovius 
prepared a new edition which appeared in 1695 (2 vols. 4to), and again in 
1707. The plates without the text were published at Paris in 1778. 

2 It has been said that the learned preface to the Dactyliotheca was 
written by Aelius Everhard Vorst, and that Gorlee was ignorant of the 
Latin language. Bayle, Dictionnaire, vii., p. 158 (ed. 1820). His know- 
ledge of Latin was limited, but he had a thorough knowledge of his 
subject. Gassendi, Vita Peirescii, p. 55, Hag. Com., 1655, 4to ; Stark, 
Hatidbuch der Archdologie der Kunsf, p. 122. There seems to be no 
sufficient foundation for depriving him of his own preface. 

^ Dr. John Bargrave who visited Rome on four occasions between 1646 
and 1660 mentions that statues of marble or bronze were constantly being 
unearthed, and that " the Pope's, and every Cardinal's and Prince's 
pallaces are nobly adorned with them." He himself made a small collec- 
tion which he bequeathed to the Cathedral library, Canterbury. Pope 
Alexander the Seventh .... by John Bargrave, D.D., with a Catalogue 
of Dr. Bargrav^s Museum, p. 115. The Camden Society, 1867, No. xcii. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE: COLLECTIONS OF 
NATURAL OBJECTS. 

While humanism was spreading in every land and 
literature was becoming a profession, the objects of 
animated nature and the phenomena of the material 
world were beoinninof to be regarded with scientific 
interest. Aristotle and Theophrastus, Pliny and 
Dioscorides still reigned as masters in natural history,^ 
but more exact observation was correcting and ex- 
panding their statements and creating a new science. 
"It is not to be esteemed a small matter," says 
Bacon, "that by the voyages and travels of these 
later times, so much more of nature has been dis- 

^ Gitnther Christoph Schelhanimer (1649-1716), professor of the practice 
of medicine at Kiel, a prodigy of learning, vigorously defended, in the early 
part of the eighteenth century, Aristotle's opinion that all metals are the 
products of exhalations. C. S. Scheffel, Vi'/a Schelhammeri, p. 37, in ^^ 
G. C. Schelhammerum Epistolae Selectiores,W\sm2ir, 1727, 8vo. Aristotle's 
opinion will be found, Meteorologica, iii. 7 ; iv. 8. Exhalations are of 
two kinds, fuliginous and vaporous ; from the former are generated 
fossils {opvKTo.) which are of a stony nature, such as ochre, sulphur, 
vermilion, and the like. From vaporous exhalations metals are 
generated. 

In medicine, Schelhammer followed the system of the peripatetics and 
opposed Van Helmont, Descartes, Sylvius, and Stahl, 

19 



20 EARLY COLLECTIONS 

covered than was known at any former period. It 
would, indeed, be disgraceful to mankind, if, after 
such tracts of the material world have been laid 
open which were unknown in former times — so many- 
seas traversed — so many countries explored — so many 
stars discovered — philosophy, or the intelligible world, 
should be circumscribed by the same boundaries as J 
before." ' 

The opening up of the sea route to India, the dis- 
covery of the New World, the founding of factories 
and trading stations in the East and West Indies and 
on the American continent, and the establishment of 
missions by the Church amongst heathen nations 
brought Europeans into touch with many remote lands, 
and enabled them to become acquainted with their 
natural productions, with the manufactures, the dresses, 
the tools and weapons of their people, and a traffic in the 
rarities and curiosities of Eastern Asia soon sprang up. 

The naturalists of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries were as unwearied in their search after 
rocks and minerals, flowers and plants, as were 
scholars in digging up antiques. Collections of 
natural objects became as common as collections of 
works of art and the two were often included in 
the one repository. Maistre Pierre Borel of Castres 
(1614-1671),^ the biographer of Descartes, who had 
himself a considerable museum, published in 1649 
a roll of the principal cabinets of curiosities in the 
chief towns of Europe in alphabetical order.- Fol- 

^ The dates are taken from the Notice of Maistre Pierre Borel by Ch. 
Pradel in his edition of Les Atitiquitez de Castres. 

^"RooUe des Principaux Cabinets curieux, et autres choses remarqu- 



MUSEOGRAPHY 2 1 

lowing his example Dr. Jacob Spon of Lyons 
(1647- 1 685), who too was a collector/ gives similar 
and somewhat extended lists.^ Philipp Jakob Sachse 
von Lowenheim of Breslau (1627-1672), another 
collector,^ in his very curious TajUfxapoXoyia,^ shortly 
describes all the more important collections of his 
day, largely from personal inspection and appar- 
ently without any knowledge of Borel's list. This 
was added to by Johann Daniel Major of Kiel 
(1634-1693), writing in 1670;^ Everhard Werner 

ables qui se voyent ez principales Villes de I'Europe. Redige par ordre 
Alphabetique" in Les Antiqnitez, Raretez . . . de la Ville et Co?nte de 
Castres d'Albtgeois, pp. 124-131, Castres, 1649, 8vo ; ed. Pradel, pp. 137- 
145. Paris, 1868, i2mo. 

^ Discours sur une piece antiqtie et curieuse du Cabinet de Jacob Spon. 
Lyon, 1674, i2mo. Reference is made to other objects belonging to him- 
self in his Recherches curieuses d'antiquite'. Lyon, 1683, 4to. Post, p. 125. 

2 In his Recherche des Antiqtiites et Curiosites de la Ville de Lyon, 
Lyon, 1673, i2mo, reprinted 1676 and 1857, he gives lists of (i) Collectors 
in Lyons, (2) Collectors in Paris, and (3) Collectors and Antiquaries in 
other towns of Europe. The Paris portion was reprinted at Paris in 1866. 
In his Voyage d Italic, de Dahiiatie, &^c., he gives a list of the principal 
collections in Rome, i., pp. 39 sqq., 388 sqq. Lyon, 1678, i2mo. 

'^ Responsoria Dissertatio de miranda Lapidum Natura, p. 59, in Johann 
Daniel Major's Dissertatio Epistolica de cancris et serpentibus petrefactis, 
Jenae, 1664, 8vo, which is a long epistle to Sachse von Lowenheim. 

* TAMMAPOAOriA sine Gaimnaroriini, viilgo Cancroricm consideratio, 
pp. 46-53. Francof. et Lipsiae, 1665, 8vo. Some correspondence passed 
between Sachse von Lowenheim and Thomas Bartholin. See Bartholin, 
Epistolae medicinales, Cent, iv., Epist. 15, 16, 35, 36, 62, 63. Hag. Com., 
1740, i2mo. 

^ See-Farth 7iach derneuen Welt ohtie Schiff- und Segel, p. 86, Hamburg, 
1683. i2mo. The first edition (Kiel, 1670, 4to) is very inconvenient for 
reference from want of pagination. See also the list in his Unvorgreif- 
fliches Bedencken von Kunst- und A'aturalien-Kamjnern insgemein, Kiel, 
1674, fol., reprinted by Valentini in his Museum Museorum, vol. i., 
Francof., 1704, fol. 

As to Major, see Renauldin, Les medicins numistnatistes, p. 302 sqq. 
Paris [1852], 8vo. 



2 2 MUSEOGRAPHY 

Happel (1647-90) about the same time gives a 
detailed description of a considerable number ; ^ Sir 
Robert Sibbald (1641-1722) gives a short account 
of those known to him.- Daniel Wilhelm Moeller 
(1642-17 1 2) mentions the principal museums of 
his time ;^ Caspar Friedrich Einckel, a merchant of 
Hamburg, (who wrote under the pseudonym 
Neickelius,) a few years afterwards, gives another 
long list which is added to by his editor. 
Johann Kanold (1679-1729);' and Michael Bernhard 
Valentini of Giessen enumerates many others.^ 
Professor Beckmann of Gottingen (1739-1811) treats 
of " Collections of Natural Curiosities " in his History 
of Inventions y Discoveries, and Origins, and gives ^ many 

^ Grosseste Denkwurdigkeitefi der Welt, oder sogenarmte Relationes 
Curiosae, part iii., 1 17-139, Hamburg, 1687, 4to. 

^ Auctarium Musaei Balfouriaiii e Musaeo Sibbaldiano, pp. i., vii., 
Edinburgh, 1697, i2mo. 

^ Conwientatio de Technophysiotafueis, p. 228 (1704), in Koehler, Sylloge 
aliquot Scriptorutn de bene ordinanda et ornanda Bibliotheca, Francof., 
1728, 4to. 

The Cotmnentatio as originally published appeared as a Thesis to be 
defended, under the presidency of Moeller, by Friedrich Sigismund 
Wurffbain (whose name appears on other theses at Altdorf in 1702, and 
Basle in 1707), Dissertatio de Technophysiotajneis . . . quani . . . 
defenders annitetur . . . Fridericus Sigismundus Wurffbain. Altdorf, 
1704, 4to. 

'^ Museographia,^. 18 sqq.,"^. 138 sqq.,-^. 181 sqq., Leipzig, 1727, 4to. 
As to Neickelius, see Lesser in Hamburgisches Magazin, iii. (1748), p. 560. 

* In the Musetim Museorujti, Appendices to vol. ii., Franckfurt, 1714, 
fol. Several of Valentini's lists are taken from Edward Brown, M.D., 
Durch Niederland, Teiitschland, Hungaren . . . Reiseti (Niirnberg, 
1686, 4to), the German version of Dr. Edward Brown's Travels in 
Divers Parts of Europe (London, 1673, 1679, 4to ; 1685, fol.) ; and, as 
mentioned above, he has reprinted in his first volume, p. 19, J. D. 
Major's list of 1674. 

^ Beytrdge zur Geschichte der Erfindungen, Leipzig, 1 780- 1 805, 8vo, 5 vols. ; 



MUSEOGRAPHY 2 3 

curious particulars regarding them ; while, so far as 
concerns German museums, Hirsching (i 762-1800)/ 
Meusel (1743-1820),^ Klemm (1802-1867),^ and the 
Berlin Handbook of Museums'* bring down our infor- 
mation to the present time. Johann Craft Hiegel of 
Mainz, physician to the Elector of Treves, was amongst 
the first^ to give a bibliography of museums.*^ 

Bd. ii., 3'^ Stiick, p. 364 sqq., Leipzig, 1786, 8vo ; English translation, i., 
p. 282 sqq.i London, 1846, 8vo. The translation has not been made 
from the latest German edition, and lacks some of the author's notes. 

^Friedrich Karl Gottlob Hirsching, Nachrichten vofi sehenswiirdigen 
Gemalde- und KiipferstichsammlHnge?i, Afiinz-, Gemtnen-, Kuttst- und 
Naturalienkabineten, Sammlungen von Modellen, Maschinen, physikal- 
ischen und matliejnatischen Instrutnenten, anatoniischen Prdparaten und 
botanischen Garten in Teutschland^ nach alphabetischer Ordnung der 
Stddte. Erlangen, 1786-92, 6 vols., 8vo. 

^Johann Georg Meusel, " Verzeichniss sehenswlirdiger Bibliotheken, 
Kunst-, Miinz-, und Naturalienkabinette in Teutschland und in der 
Schweiz," in the third volume of his TciitscJies Kunstlerlexicoti^ 2nd edition, 
Lemgo, 1808-14, 8vo, 3 vols. 

^ Gustav Klemm, Ztir Geschichte der Sammlungen fiir IVissenschaft 
und Kunst in Deutsckland, Zerbst, 1837, 8vo. 

* Kunsthandbuch fiir Detitschland, Berlin, 1897, 8vo, fifth edition by 
Dr. Ferdinand Laban, librarian of the Royal Museums, Berlin. 

° In his Museii7n Hiegelianum, Confluent, 17 14 4to. This is a short 
account of part of his museum which, besides paintings, engravings, 
statues, and other works of art, contained costumes and utensils of various 
peoples, physical and mathematical instruments, and specimens of 
Natural History. There is prefixed a selected list of books in his 
library, bearing on the subject of the Catalogue, which includes a large 
number of the books then published relating to museums. In an earlier 
work, Collectaneoru7H tiaturae^ artis et afitiquitatis Specitneti priynuni, 
Mogunt., 1687, 4to, .with 5 plates, he dealt with the sepulchral urns found 
in the neighbourhood of Mainz. 

Hiegel is mentioned by Baier, Sciagraphia Musei sui, p. 21 ; and 
James Petiver {infra, p. 135) was indebted to him for various fossils. 

* Neickelius in his Mtiseographia also gives a short bibliography of 
Museums. Tiraboschi Storia delta Letteratura Jtaliana, vii., p. 901 ; Spon, 
Voyage dltalie, de Daltnatie, Qr'c., p. i., p. 68, Lyon, 1678, i2mo. 

Lists of works relating to Museums, particularly those of Natural 



24 EARLY COLLECTORS 

Amongst the early naturalists who had collections 
of specimens of natural history and other objects, 
were Henry Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheym 
(1486-1535), best known as the author of Three 
Books of Occuli Philosophy and of The Vanity of 
Sciences and Arts ; Nicolas Monardes of Seville 
(d. 1578);^ Paracelsus (1493-1541); Georg Agricola 
(properly Bauer, 1494-1555),^ the father of miner- 
alogy,^ and whose writings induced the Elector 

History, will be found in Boehmer, Bibliotheca Scriptorum historiae 
naturalis^ i., p. 369 sqq.^ Lipsiae, 1785, 8vo ; Dryander, Catalogus 
Bibliothecae Historico-Naturalis Josephi Banks, i. 217, and in various 
parts of the other volumes, London, 1796-1800, 8vo, 5 vols. ; Engelmann, 
Bibliotheca Historico-Naturalis, p. 4 sqq., Leipzig, 1846 ; Bibliotheca 
Zoologica, i., p. 3 sqq., Leipzig, 1861. 

For the literature of anatomical and pathological museums, see 
Index Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon GeneraVs Office United 
States Army, vol. ix., pp. 581-589, Washington, 1888; Catalogue of the 
Library of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society, London, vol. ii., s.v. 
Museums, London, 1879. 

^ He was the author of various works ; amongst others, Simplicitim 
Medicainentortim ex Novo Orbe delatorum, quorum in Medicina usus est, 
Historia (Antwerp 1579, and in 1574), originally published in Spanish in 
1565 ; translated into Latin by Clusius, and into English from the 
Spanish by John Frampton, a Spanish merchant, and published in 1577 
with woodcuts ; Pulteney, Sketches of the Progress of Botany, i., p. 114. 

^The date of his birth is usually but erroneously stated to be 1490, and 
his family name Ackermann or Landmann. See Herzog in Afitthcilungen 
des Freiberger Alterthumsvereiiis, 1865, p. 365, Freiberg, 1866, 8vo. 

^ " What Conrad Gesner," says Cuvier, "was to zoology, Agricola was 
to mineralogy." Schelhammer styles him " Decus universae Germaniae, 
deque re metallica optime meritus," Note on Conringii, In universam 
artein medicam Introductio, p. 287, Spirae, 1688, 4to. As to his scientific 
position, see G. H. Jacobi, Der Mineralog Georgius Agricola, und sein 
Verhdltnis zur Wissenschaft seiner Zeit, Werdau, 1889. A new edition 
of his works, edited by Lehmann, appeared at Freyberg as recently as 
1 806- 1 81 3, in 4 vols., 8vo. The De re metallica was published at Basle, 
in 1546, 1556, 1558, 1561, and 1657, in folio; and there were numerous 
other editions and German translations (1557 and 1621). 



EARLY COLLECTORS 25 

Augustus of Saxony (1552- 1586) to form a collec- 
tion (Kunst und Naturalien Kammer), which has since 
developed into the various museums at Dresden ; ^ 
Valerius Cordus (151 5-1544), the botanist, "felicissimus 
indagator herbarum antea ignotarum " ; Pier Andrea 
Mattioli of Sienna (i 501- 15 77), the commentator 
on Dioscorides ; Jerome Cardan (1501-1576) of 
Milan, mathematician and physician, still remem- 
bered in Scotland by his visit in 1552 to the 
unfortunate John Hamilton, abbot of Paisley, then 
Archbishop of St. Andrews ; Julius Caesar Scaliger 
(1484- 1 5 58), the antagonist of Cardan;^ Conrad Gesner 
of Zurich (15 16-1565), the German Pliny,^ to whom 
archaeologists are indebted for an account illustrated 
with drawings of the various forms of stone axes 
and stone hammers which had come under his obser- 
vation;* Joachim Camerarius (in German books 
Kammermeister) of Nuremberg (i 534-1 597), who 
acquired the botanical portion of Gesner's collection.^ 

^ Guide to the Royal Collections of Dresden translated by C. S. Fox, 
pp. 71, 119, Dresden, 1897, 8vo. 

^ He refers to his museum as " In nostris musarum thesauris," De 
Subtilitate, Exercitatio 112, p. 422, Francof., 1612, 8vo. See also Gassendi, 
Vita Peirescii, p. 42, Hag. Com., 1656, 4to. 

^ His collection comprised animals, plants, gems, metals, and fossils, 
and was open to all his friends. Adam, Vitae Ger7nanoriijn Medicorum 
p. 160, Heidelb., 1620, 8vo ; see post, p. 97 ; Sachse von Lowenheim, 
ut supra, p. 53 ; and Zedler, Universal Lexicon, s.v. Gesnerus. 

* De reriim fossiliinn, lapidiun et ^etntnarum Liber, p. 62 sqq., Tiguri, 
1565, 8vo. The book is somewhat rare. Clement, Bibliotheque 
curieuse, ix., p. 169; Denis, Die Merkwiirdigkeiten der garellischen 
Bibliothek, p. 509, Wien, 1780, 4to. 

* Adam, Op. laud., p. 340. The curious history of Gesner's wood- 
blocks is given by Pulteney, Sketches of the Progress of Botany, i., p. 160, 
London, 1790, 8vo. 



26 EARLY COLLECTORS 

Pierre B61on (15 17-1564), professor at the College 
of France, a busy traveller in Palestine and Egypt, 
Greece and Arabia, and the translator of Theo- 
phrastus into French ; Guillaume Rondelet (1507- 1566), 
professor of medicine at Montpellier, an accurate 
ichthyologist;^ Leonhardt Thurneisser (1530-1596), 
traveller, chemist, mineralogist and botanist ; ^ Dr. 
James Cargill (d. 1616) of Aberdeen;^ Abraham Ortel 
(i 527-1 598), the eminent geographer and antiquary, 
who assembled in his house a collection of busts, statues, 
coins, shells, marbles, and carapaces of tortoises great 
and small.* Andrea Cesalpini (15 19-1603) formed an 
herbarium which is still preserved at Florence. Anselm 
de Boodt (Latinised Boetius, d. circa 1634) of Bruges, 
physician to the Emperor Rudolph the Second, collected 
rocks, minerals, and fossils, and wrote a work on gems 
and stones which was for long a standard authority 
on the subject.^ Dissatisfied with the classification 

^ De historia Piscium Libri xviii., Lugd., 1554, fol., 2 vols., with illus- 
trations. Translated into French, Lyon, 1558, fol. The authorship has 
been attributed to Guillaume Pelicier, bishop of Montpellier, but without 
foundation. 

'^Thurneisser was the first person in Brandenburg who formed a 
collection of natural curiosities, plants and seeds, shells, rocks and 
minerals. Moehsen (J. C. W.), Beit7dge ziir Geschichte der Wissenschaften 
itt der Mark Brandenburg, p. 142, Berlin, 1783, 4to. 

^ Pulteney, Op. laud., ii., p. 2. Scottish N. and Q., viii., p. 164. 

*Melchior Adam, Vitae Germanorum Philosophorum, p. 431, Heidelb., 
1615, 8vo. 

^ Gemmarum et lapidtim Historia, ii., c. 168. Lugd. Bat., 1647, 8vo, 
originally published, Hanov., 1609, 4to. 

There is a French translation of de Boodt's work by Jean Bachou, Le 
parfaict loaillier on Histore des Pierreries, Lyon, 1644, 8vo. John de 
Laet's treatise, De gemtnis et lapidibus, p. 103, Lugd. Bat., 1647, 8vo, 
Hanov., 1609, 4to, is a kind of supplement to De Boodt. 



ANSELM DE BOODT 2/ 

of Gesner he proposed another, which he sets out 
in two elaborate tables. But although he was learned 
in the predicables and could accurately distinguish 
between genius and species, differentia and accidens, 
this did not enable him to devise a logical system of 
mineralogy. The science of the time was altogether 
inadequate for the purpose. It proceeded mainly on 
the external shapes of stones, and form was made a 
determining element in classification. 



CHAPTER IV. 

EARLY MUSEUM CATALOGUES. 

One of the earliest printed catalogues of a collection 
is said to have been by Samuel von Quiccheberg, 
Quiccelberg, or Quichelberg, a physician of Antwerp, 
who resided at Ingolstadt in the middle part of the 
sixteenth century.^ John Kentmann (Latinised Chent- 
mannus, 15 18-1574), a physician of Torgau, formed, 
at very considerable expense, a cabinet of rocks 
and minerals of 1600 specimens, a catalogue of which, 
based on the system of Agricola, he sent to Gesner 
by whom it was published in 1565.^ Another phy- 
sician, Michele Mercati of San Miniato (i 541-1593), 
appointed keeper of the botanic garden of Pope 
Pius v., was an industrious collector and formed 

^His work is entitled Inscriptiones vel tituli Theatri amplisswii cofri- 
plectentis rerian universitatis siiigulas materias et imagines eximias, 
Munich, 1565, 4to ; but it was rather a scheme for a general antiquarian 
and ethnographical collection than a catalogue of a particular museum. 
See Stark, Systematik nnd Geschichte der Archiiologie der Kuiist, p. 151, 
Leipzig, 1880, 8vo ; Beckmann, Beytrdge zur Geschichte der Erfindungen 
ii., pt. 3, p. 388, Leipzig, 1786; English translation, i., p. 291, London, 
1846, Svo. Klemm, Geschichte der Sammlungen fiir Wissenschaft und 
Kunst in Deutschland, p. 196, Zerbst, 1837, 8vo. The book is a scarce 
one. There is a copy in the Breslau University library. 

'It is the first piece in Gesner's collection, De omni rerum fossilium 
genere, Tiguri, 1 565, Svo. 

28 



DRESDEN CATALOGUE 29 

a museum at the Vatican.^ He prepared an account 
of its most interesting objects, which, although 
well known to scientific men and often quoted, re- 
mained in manuscript until 17 19, when it was edited 
by Monsignor Lancisi, with notes by Pietro Assalti, 
and published at the expense of Pope Clement XI.^ 

The first collections for the great museum of Dres- 
den were made by the Elector Augustus of Saxony 
(1553- 1 586), and the year after his death his son and 
successor, the Elector Christian, caused an elaborate 
inventory of the collection to be prepared, which is 
still preserved in manuscript at Dresden.^ 

One of the first printed catalogues in English, if 
we were to rely upon title pages, is that " of all the 
cheifest Rarities in the Publick Theater and Ana- 
tomie-Hall of the University of Leyden " which 
bears to have been published at Leyden in 1591, 
and is so entered in the British Museum Catalogue * 
but the date seems to be a mistake for 1691. It 
is written in Roman letters and apparently a C has 
accidentally dropped out. The catalogue was prepared 
by Jakob Voorn, the keeper of the collection, for the 
use of visitors, and is certainly curious reading.^ The 

^Tiraboschi, Storia delta Letteratiira Italiana^xn.,^). 899, Milano, 1824. 

-Metallotheca, Romae, 17 17, fol. ; Appendix, lb., 17 19, fol., with plates 
and portraits, and a life of Mercati by Monsignor Majelli. 

Koehler thought that the MS. was lost, Aniueisung fiir Reisende 
gelehrte, p. 228, Frankf, 1762. 

^ Klemm, Geschichte der Sammlimgen fiir Wissenschaft und Kiinst in 
Deutschland, p. 166 sqq., Zerbst, 1837, 8vo. Zeitschrift fiir Museologie, 
1879, Nos. 2, 3, and 4. 

^ Catalogue of the Books in the Library of the British Museum . . . 
to the year 1640, i., p. 343, London, 1884, 8vo. 

* Other editions of this Catalogue in English were published at Leyden 



30 LEYDEN CATALOGUE 

exhibits were not confined to anatomical subjects but 
were very g'eneral in their character. Here are a 
few of them : A Norway house, built of beams with- 
out mortar or stone ; shoes and sandals from Russia, 
Siam, and Eg-ypt; the skin of a man dressed as 
parchment ; a drinking cup of the skull of a Moor 
killed in the beleaguering of Haerlem ; warlike 
arms used in China ; Chinese songs, Chinese paper, 
Chinese books, and a great many other articles 
from China; Egyptian mummies and Egyptian idols; 
several Roman coins ; a Roman lamp which burns 
always under ground and another which burned 
eternally ; ^ an hand of a Meermaide presented by 

in 1683 and 1687. In 1695, I7ci) ^7^3, 1707, 1716 the name of Gerard 
Blancken, who was the next keeper, appeared on the title-page. He 
was succeeded by Francis Schuyl, who was the editor of an edition 
pubUshed in 1719; and in the edition of 1753 John Eysendrach was the 
editor. All these editions are the same, except that the later ones contain 
a few more exhibits. See also A Cotnpleat Volume of tite Memoirs for the 1 
Curious^ i., pp. 189, 217, London, 1710, 4to, a reprint of volumes i. and ii. j 
of the Monthly Miscellany, London, 1707-09, 4to. 

The same Catalogue was also published in Latin, Catalogus anti- 
quaruin et novariitn reriim ex longe dissitis terrarum oris, quarum \ 
visendarum copia Ljigduni iti Batavis in Anatomia publica. Quae ' 
ita disposita et digesta omnia ut suis ordine locis facile invenianfur, 
at Leyden in 1681 and 1690, 4to, edited by Voorn ; and in 1703 and 1709 
edited by Blancken. The latter published a French edition in 17 13. 

In 1726 Francis Schuyl, who was then keeper, issued it with a new 
title-page, Catalogus rerum tnemorabilium quae in Theatre Anatomico 
Academiae qui Lugduni Batavorum floret demonstrantur, Ludg. Bat., 
1726, 4to. Schuyl also issued a French edition, Catalogue de ce qu'on 
voit de plus remarquable dans la cha7nbre de Fanatomie publiqu6, de 
rUniversite de la ville de Leide. Leyden. 1718, 1721, 1735, 4to. A Dutch 
version published at Leyden in 1669, 1690 and 17 10, 4to ; and a German 
one is given in Valentini, Museum Museorum, vol. ii.. Appendix xv., p. 53. 

^ The belief that there were such lamps was common in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, and many of them were reported to have been 
found. See Peacham, Valley of Varietie, p. 49 sqq., London, 1638, 1 



LEYDEN MUSEUMS 3 I 

Prince Mauritz;^ a mushroom above lOO years old, 
which grew on the banks of the Haerlemer river ; 
a petrified toad-stool ;- a box of very large amber 
presented by Daniel Beckler ; a thunderbolt given 
by Melchior de Moncheson and a mallet or ham- 
mer that the savages in New Yorke kill with, 
presented by Herman Broem.^ 

i2mo. Deusing, Vindiciae foetus extra uterttm geniti, p. 98, Groning., 
1664, i2mo. Fortunio Liceto (1577-1657), an Italian physician, a man of 
vast learning but somewhat credulous, in his book, De lucernis anti- 
quorum rcconditis Libri zV., Van., 162 1, 4to, Utini, 1653, fol., Patav., 
1662, fol., while remarking upon the extraordinary nature of the pheno- 
menon, accepts it and deals with it at length. (See pp. 7, 104, 190 of 
edition of 1662.) Montfaucon has doubts on the matter. Antiquity 
Explained, translated by Humphreys, v., p. 140, London, 1722, fol. 
They are referred to in Hudibras : 

Love in your heart as idly burns 

As fire in antique Roman urns, 

To warm the dead, and vainly light 

Those only that see nothing by't. — Part ii.. Canto i. , 309. 

Dr. Plot explained how lamps might burn perpetually, or at least for 
a very long period, by leading a spring of petroleum into a suitable 
position and burning it in a wick of asbestos or gold wire. The Philo- 
sophical Transactio?is, xiv., p. 106 ; Kirchmaier, Noctiluca consta?is, 
Wittenb., 1676, 4to ; Parkinson, Orgajiic Remains of a former World, 
i., p. 149, London, 1804, 4to. 

^ In the museum of the Royal Society of London there was " a bone 
said to be taken out of a Maremaid's head." Grew, Mzisaeufn Regalis 
Societatis, p. 81, London, 1681, fol. 

^ Canon Bargrave had in his museum " a fair large toadstool or mush- 
room, very weighty, which is not a mushroom petrified, but grew always a 
stone, in this shape and figure." Catalogue of Dr. Bargrave's Museum, 
No. 35. Pope Alexander the Seventh and the College of Cardinals, p. 126, 
1867, 4to. Camden Society, No. xcii. 

' As to the Leyden museum, see post, p. 1 90 ; Journal des voyages de 
Monsieur De Monconys, Pt. ii., p. 151, Lyon, 1666; Hegenitius, Itiner- 
arium Frisio-Hollandicum, p. 61, Lugd. Bat., 1667, i2mo ; Northleigh, 
Topographical Descriptions, p. 37, London, 1702, 8vo ; Ray, Travels 
through the Low Countries, i., p. 32, London, 1738, 8vo ; Skippon, 



32 LEYDEN MUSEUMS 

There was a separate collection of " curiosities and 
rarities to be seen in the Gallery of the Garden of the 
Academie of Leyden," and in the Indian Cabinet to 
which the gallery led. The collection in the Gallery 
consisted of natural history specimens and ethno- 
graphical objects ; birds, fish and other animals of 
various kinds, amongst them " Barnacles a sorte of 
Geese sayd to grow in Scotland on trees " ; " cups 
made of gourds, and pots out of which the negroes in 
Africa drink palm wine"; "an almanack used by the 
Laplanders"; "an hunting pouch used by the Moores 
on Guinea" ; " bows and arrows used by the negroes" ; 
"a Brasilian weapon used in war"; "stockings and 
shoes worn by the Japonners " ; " the foot of the Bird 
Cassuaris"; "the skin of a mermaid"; "a modell of 
Muscoviter's palace"; "paper money of the siege of 
Leyden." ^ This consisted of pieces of card issued 
when the town was besieged by the Spaniards in 1574, 

Journey, in Churchill, Collection of Voyages, vi., p. 414, London, 1752, 
fol. ; Neickelius, Museographia, p. 62, Leipzig, 1727, 4to; Brown, 
Travels, p. 93, London, 1685, fol. ; Misson, A New Voyage to Italy, \., 
p. 14, London, 1699, 8vo ; Wright, Travels in Fraiice, Italy, Sr'C., ii.,. 
p. 512, London, 1764, 4to ; Memoirs of Sir John Clerk of Pennicuik, 
p. 14, Edinburgh, 1892. 

1 Curiosities ajid Rarities, to be seen in the Gallery of the Garden of the 
Academie of Leyden, n.p., n.d., bound up with Blancken's Catalogue of the 
Rarities in the Anatomie Hall, Leyden, 1695, 4to (Advocates' Library, 
Edinburgh). 

There is another copy, circa 1700, in the Rylands Library, Manchester, 
and an edition of 1737. A Latin edition appeared as early as 1659, Res 
curio sae <2^ exoticae quae in Ambiilacro Horii Acculemiae Leydensis 
curiositatem amantibus offeruntur Anno 1659, fol. ; often reprinted with 
a slightly different title-page, n.p., n.d., 4to; and in Valentini, Museum 
Museorum, vol. ii.. Appendix ix., p. 21. 

A?t Index to the Indian Closset, which contains several foreign creatures,. 



LEYDEN MUSEUMS 33 

bearing on the one side Haec libertatis ergo, and on the 
other side Pugno pro patria} An EngHsh catalogue 
of this collection appeared as early as 1665.^ 

The museum at Leyden is now one of the great 
institutions of the world, remarkable for its Egyptian 
and Etruscan antiquities and its fine ethnographical 
and natural history departments, which were enriched 
a generation ago by the remarkable collections of 
the ethnologist Philipp Franz von Siebold (1796- 1866), 
an officer of the Dutch Embassy to Japan.^ 

and plants swimming in Balsamick liqiiours as if now alive. To be seen 
in the Garden of the Academy of Leyden. [Leyden] 1688, 4to. 

Register van't Indiaanse Cabinet . . . zijnde te sien i7i de Thiiyn van 
de Academie tot Leyden, n.p., n.d., 4to. 

Musaei Indici Index, n.p., n.d., 4to, several editions. 

* Misson, A new Voyage to Italy, i., p. 15, London, 1699, ^^'O- This 
money is more fully described, Museum Wormianum, p. 361. 

^ A Catalogue of the Rarities that are shown to the Curious, i7t the 
University-garden at Leyden in Holland. Translated out of Latin. No 
doubt that of 1659, supra. This forms part (pp. 72-76) of Hubert's 
Catalogue of tnany Natural Rarities, London, 1665, i2mo. It is not in 
the edition of 1664. Post, pp. 127, 128. 

^ Leemans, Het Rijks Museum van Oudheden en het Rijks Ethno- 
graphisch Museum te Leiden, Leiden, 1870 and again 1877, 8vo ; Ver- 
slag van den Directeur van^s Rijks Museum van Oudheden te Leiden, 
Leiden, 1888, 8vo. 

The anatomical museum was described by Sandifort, Musaeum ana- 
tomicum Academiae Lugduno-Batavae descriptum, Lugd. Bat., 1793- 
1835, fol., 4 vols. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE USE OF THE TERM MUSEUM. 

Kentmann terms his collection thesaurus fossilium, 
and the cabinet in which it was contained area 
rerum fossiliunt. Gazophylacium^ Cimeliarehium ^ 
or its English equivalent "Repository,"^ eimelium,^ 

^ This was a common and appropriate name for a cabinet of coins and 
gems. It was originally used of the Treasury of a church ; and is rendered 
in German, " die Schatzkammer." 

^Thus Lorenz Beger uses it of the cabinets of the Elector Palatine 
of the Rhine and of the Elector of Brandenburg. Thesaurus Branden- 
burgicus selectus, sive gemmarum et numistnatum Graecorutn in cim- 
eliarchio Electorali Brandendurgico, elegantiorutn Series, commetitario 
illustratae. Coin. a. d. Spree, 1 696-1 70 1, fol. 3 vols, with engravings. The 
Catalogue of the Cimeliarehium of the Elector Palatine was published at 
Heidelberg in 1685. We have also Cimeliarehium seu Thesaurus num- 
niorum . . . Friderici AugJisti, D2icis Wurtembergiae, Stuttg., 17 10, fol. 

^The museum of the Royal Society was generally spoken of in its 
earlier days as "the Repository." Weld, History of the Royal Society, i., 
pp. 186, 189, 224, 280, London, 1848, 8vo. In the Act 26 Geo. II., 
c. 22, establishing the British Museum, the term "Repository" is used. 
The Museum is referred to as a "Repository" in 1776, and objects are 
said to be " reposited" in it. Archaeologia, ii., p. 121. 

Evelyn speaks of " the Ceimeliarcha or Repository " in the Palazzo 
Vecchio, Florence, Diary, i., pp. 106, 224, London, 1879; see also his 
Numismata, p. 244, London, 1697. Cimeliarcha, however, means the 
keeper, not the repository. Thus Edward Lhuyd, in his Lithophylacii 
Britannici Ichnographia, London, 1699, 8vo, styles himself, "Apud 
Oxonienses Cimeliarcha Ashmoleanus." 

* Robert Ainsworth, the Lexicographer, who prepared the account of 
John Kemp's museum (London, 1720, 8vo), terms it "cimelium." 

34 



OLD TERMS FOR MUSEUMS 3 5 

KeifXi'iXiou,^ cimeliotheca^ rarotheca^ and other terms* 
were sometimes used, but gradually the word 7nuseum 
came to be adopted as the technical term for a collec- 
tion of objects of art, of monuments of antiquity or 

Praef., p. iii., and title-page of part ii. Nathaniel Sendel in his work on 
amber describes the examples as " ex regiis Augustorum Cimeliis 
Dresdae." Historia Succinoriim^ Lipsiae, 1742, fol. On the other 
hand, Christian Gottlieb Ludwig, when describing the earths in the 
same collection, styles it " Museum." Terrae Musei Regit Dresdensts, 
Lipsiae, 1749, fol. 

^ E.g. Powell, Humane Industry, p. 51, London, 1661, i2mo; Worm, 
Monumenta Danica, pp. 48, 49. 

^ Sachse a Lewenheimb, Responsoria dissertatio de miranda Lapidum 
nafura, p. 53, with Major, Dissertatio epistolica de Cancris et Serpentibus 
petrefactis, Jenae, 1664, 8vo. 

^Schelhammer, note on Conringii In universam artem medicam Intro- 
ductio, p. 294, Spirae, 1688, 4to ; Briickmann, Epistola Itineraria, Cent. 
i., p. 12, Wolfenb., 1728, 4to. 

*Gotfried Hegenitius of Leyden uses Texfv/J-o-roipvXdKLov or Pinacotheca, 
Itinerarium Frisio-Hollandicum, p. 30, Lugd. Bat., 1667, originally 
published 1630. Olaf Bromel of Gothenburg styles his collection a 
Pinacotheca. Catalogus generalis . . . rerum curiosarum tarn arti- 
ficialium quam 7iaturaliutn in Pinacotheca Olai Bromelii, M.D., Goth., 
1694, 4to. Thomas Bartholin refers in 1652 to the Copenhagen museum 
as " Technicotheca Regia." Historiarum anatoniicarutn Rariora, Cent, 
ii., Hist. 61, Amstel., 1654, i2mo. J0rgen Hahn, who pronounced a 
funeral oration over Bartholin, had a collection which he styled " Phy- 
s'xcoth&cdL," Physicotkeca beati Doct. Georgii Hannaei. Hafniae, 1699,410. 

Daniel Wilhelm Moeller proposed the term "Technophysiotameium" 
as the equivalent of the German " Eine Kunst- und Naturalien-Kammer, 
Zimmer oder Gemach," and wrote of Museums under the title Com- 
fnentatio de Technophysiotameis, Altorf, 1704; reprinted by Koehler in 
his Sylloge aliquot Scriptorutn de bene ordinanda et ornanda biblio- 
theca, Francof., 1727, 4to. Friedrich Christian Lesser uses " Physiotech- 
notameum" in his Epistola de praecipuis tiaturae et artis curiosis 
specimenibus Musei vel potius P/iysiotechnotamei Friderici Hofftnanni, 
Nordhusae, 1736, 4to. Sachse von Lowenheim suggested "Litho-phyto- 
therophylacia" and invented the word 'E^uTiKoOav/xaTovpyrjfjLaTOTa/jLdov, under 
which title he describes the collection at Dresden. Gammarologia, p. 50. 

Johann David Major makes merry over this ten yards word, as he 
calls 't, and explains that with all its length it is not sufficiently 



36 USE OF THE WORD MUSEUM 

of specimens of natural history, mineralogy, and the 
like, and generally of what were known as "rari- 
ties" and "curiosities." In the lano-uaQ^e of Dr. 
Johnson a museum was "a repository of learned 
curiosities."^ Occasionally the Latin musaeiifn was 
rendered into English and "study" is used as 
the equivalent.^ Later the French word cabinet 
came into use with the same meaninof and was 
adopted into English^ or translated by " closet "■* and 

descriptive, as it omits artificial objects, and that it should have been 
^Yi^wnKOT^voBa.vu-o.Tovpy^iw.roTa.^tov. See his Bedenckett von Kunst- und 
Nahir alien- Kamtnern^ p. 5, in V'alentini, Museum Museorum, vol. i., 
Francof., 1704, Neickelius, Museographia, p. 408 (Leipzig, 1827), and 
Moeller, Op. laud.., p. 194. 

Major's own See-Farth nach der fteuen Welt ohne Schiff U7id Segel, is 
about the last title that one would consult on the subject of museums ; and 
the title of Sachse's Gammarologia, i.e. a Treatise on Crabs, is not 
more instructive. 

^Nathan Bailey, English Dictionary {17 ■^j), defined "Museum" as "a 
study or library ; also a college or publick place for the resort of learned 
men." "The Museum, a neat building in the city of Oxford, founded by 
Elias Ashmole." Defoe, speaking of the same museum, calls it "the 
museum or chamber of rarities." A Tour thro' the whole of Great Britaitt 
by a Gentleinafi, ii., p. 227, London, 1753, 8vo, originally published in 1725. 

■•'Thus Evelyn, when at Rome in 1644, visited " Signor Angeloni's study; 
where with greater leysure we survey'd the rarities, as his cabinets and 
medaills especially." Diary, i., p. 128, London, 1879. See also Sibbald, 
Auctariutn Musaei Balfouriani, Praef, Edinb., 1697. 

^E.g. the king's " cabinet of curiosities," Ward, Lives of the Professors 
of Gresham College, p. 100, London, 1740, fol. ; "a cabinet of shells," 
Evelyn, Diary, ii., p. 23, London, 1879; "a paradise and cabinet of 
rarities," lb., ii., p. 270 ; cf. ii., p. 1 19 ; " cabinets or collections of medals," 
Evelyn, Numisviata, p. 199, London, 1697, fol. " Nothing can be 
pleasanter than to see a circle of these virtuosos about a cabinet of 
medals, descanting upon the value, rarity, and authenticalness of the 
several pieces that lie before them." Addison, " Dialogues on Medals," 
Works, i., p. 340, London, 181 1. 

*Thus by Henley in his translation of The Antiquities of Italy, by 
De Montfaucon, pp. 16, 17, London, 1725, fol.; Ashmole {Diary, y. 126, 



GALLERY AND OTHER TERMS 37 

the terms '' galerie^' "■ chambre',' ''chambre des raretes,''^ 
Rarit at en- cabinet , Curiosit'dten-Cabinet are also found."- 

London, 1774) refers to Tradescant's museum as his "Closet of 
Curiosities." "After dinner, his highness was pleased to call us into his 
closet, and show us many curiosities." Ray [1663], Travels through the 
Low Countries^ ii., p. 71, London, 1738, 8vo. 

'All are exemplified in the works of the antiquary, Nicholas Chevalier, 
a Huguenot refugee in Holland : — 
(rt) Catalogue des Medailles doubles qui sont dans le Cabinet de Nicholas 

Chevalier a Amsterdam. Amsterdam, 1696, 4to. 
{b) Catalogue de toutes les Raretez qui se montrent dans la Chambre de 

la Ville d' Utrecht. Utrecht, 1707, 4to. 
(^) Remarques sur une piece antique de Bronze trouvee . . . aux environs 

de Rome, . . . avec une description de la Chambre des Raretez de 

I'Auteur. Amsterdam, 1694, i2mo, with 12 plates by Schoonebecks. 
{d) Catalogue de toutes les Raretez qui se montrent dans la Gallerie 

d'Antiquitez au dessus de la Bourse a Amsterdam. Amsterdam, 

i2mo. [n.d., circa^ 1700.] 
{e) Description de la piece d'ambre gris que la chambre d'Amsterdam a 

recue des Indes Orientales, pesant 182 livres ; avec un petit traite 

de son origine et de sa vertu. Amsterdam, 1700, 4to. 
(/) Recherches curieuses des Antiquitez venues d' Italic, de la Grece, 

d'Egypte et trouvees k Nimegue, k Santen, . . . que Ton, 

void dans la gallerie de Raretez de I'auteur. Utrecht, 1712, fol. 
The greater part of Chevalier's own collection was purchased by the 
Elector Augustus of Saxony and transferred to Dresden. 

Sir Andrew Balfour uses Gallery as synonymous with Museum; e.g. 
" Septalie's Galerie"; ''His Galerie of Curiosities." Letters., p. 245. It 
was the word in common use in Italy. 

Bacon says. New Atlantis., "we have two very long galleries ; in one of 
these we place patterns and samples of all manner of the more rare and 
excellent inventions." Works., ed. Spedding, iii., p. 165. 

^ The Germans used the terms "Raritaten-Cabinet," " Raritaten- Kammer,'' 
and " Kunst- Kammer," while a particular collection was styled " Natural- 
ien-Cabinet," " Miinz-Cabinet," " Mineralien-Cabinet," and so on. Speak- 
ing of the Elector of Saxony and his museum at Dresden, Dr. Edward 
Brown says : " But that which affords greatest delight is his Kunst- 
Kammer, Art Chamber of Collection of Rareties, both of Art and Nature." 
Travels., p. 166, London, 1685, fol. There is a corresponding definition 
in Zedler, Universal Lexicon, s.v. " Kunst- Kammer," where "museum" 
and "cabinet " are given as equivalents. 

Brown mentions the " Chamber of Rareties " of the Burgomaster 



38 TERM MUSEUM ESTABLISHED 

Museum was used not only for the collection but also 
for the place where it was kept {conclave redtcs rarioribus 
et pretiosoribtis sive nature sive arte elaboratis servandis 
destinatum) . From the closing years of the sixteenth 
century museum is constantly used in both senses.^ 

of Leipsic. Travels,^. 172. In the German version it is " Raritaten- 
Kammer," p. 293, Niirnberg, 1686. Neickelius gives "Eine Schatz- 
Raritaten-Naturalien-Kunst-Vernunfft-Kammer, Zimmer oder Gemach." 
Museographia, p. 409. In the Thesaurus Ey-tiditionis Scltolasticae of 
Basil Faber, Francof., 1749, fol., Kunst-Kammer and Gallerie are with 
Bilder-gemach given as the equivalents of Pinacotheca. 

" Material- Kammer" is a collection of simples, or more generally of 
the substances used by the druggist. 

^Goltz uses museutn and nuinismatarchia for a coin cabinet, in the Dedi- 
cation to the Patrons of Antiquities in his C. Ivlivs Caesar, Drug., 1563, fol. 
In 1569 Enea Vico of Parma edited certain bronze tables containing 
Egyptian hieroglyphics " ex Torquati Bembi Museo " which was reprinted 
at Venice, 1600, fol. Fuiren's collection was a " Museum," Rariora 
Musaei Henrici Fuiren, AI.D., quae Academiae regiae Hafjiiae legavit, 
publici juris facta a Thoma Fuiren, Hafniae, 1663, 4to. From Paris we 
have Selecta Numismata antiqua ex Musaeo Petri Seguini, Paris, 1666, 4to, 
and Selectiora Numismata e Museo Francisci de Camps, Lutet., 1695, 4to- 

In 1692 the collection of coins and gems of Jacob de Wilde of Amster- 
dam, and in 1740 that of Baron de Grassier are styled ''• musaeump See 
Selecta numismata aittiqua ex musaeo J acobi de Wilde. Amst., 1692, 4to. 
Signa antiqua e museo J. de W., veterum poetarum carminibus illus- 
trata. Amst., 1700, 4to. Ge7nmae selectae antiquae e museo y. de W. 
Amst. 1703, 4to. Descriptio Gemmaruni quae in museo G. Baronis de 
Grassier . . . asservatitur. Leodii, 1740, 4to. Baron de Grassier also 
collected coins, statues, and other antiquities of which he printed a 
Catalogue. Liege, 172 1, 8vo. The great collections at Florence are 
termed a Museum in 1731, Museu7n Flore)itinum, exhibens insigniora 
Vetustatis monumenta, quae Floreiitiae sunt in Thesauro Mediceo. 
Florent., 1731-66. 12 vols., fol. 

The collection of gems and coins made by Queen Christina of Sweden, 
and acquired by the Duke Odescalchi, was also styled "museum." See 
Museum Odescalchutn. Romae, 175 1, 2 vols., fol. Her collection is 
styled "nummophylacium" or "cabinet" in Nummophylacium Reginae 
Christinae, by Havercamp. Latin and French. Hag. Com., 1742, fol. 

The elder Scaliger improves upon museum by the phrase " Musarum 
thesaurus." Supra, p. 25. 



CHAPTER VI. 

SOME OLD EXHIBITS. 

Some of the exhibits of the old museums — unicorn's 
horn, giants' bones, petrified toad-stools, and the like — 
strike us as somewhat extraordinary, but they were 
placed there in accordance with the opinions and teach- 
ing of the time. Our point of view is so different that 
we are inclined to look upon much of the material of 
the old collections as rubbish, and it is apt to be so 
treated by keepers only interested in the current views 
of museum management, but this is a mistake. Many 
of these objects are of much interest in the history of 
science, and to the discussion and controversies, which 
some of them evoked, we are indebted for the science 
of to-day. The illustration of the growth and develop- 
ment of culture and civilisation is one of the aims of 
the modern museum ; and we have rooms filled with 
objects, chronologically arranged, to show the progress 
not only of such things as costume, weapons, and 
furniture, but of trade and navigation and the indus- 
trial arts, of geography, of education, of surgery, and 
of physical research, but it does not seem to have 
occurred to anyone to illustrate in a museum the 
' i'ory of the idea of the museum, its arrangement 
\ 39 



40 AN OLD MUSEUM AS AN EXHIBIT 

and contents. The nearest approach to this, so far as 
I can remember, is the old apothecary booth and 
chemical laboratory in the German National Museum 
at Nuremberg, and another in the Bohemian National 
Museum at Prague.^ 

Some explanation of the current opinions regard- 
ing a few of these exhibits may enable us to under- 
stand why they found a place in the older museums 
and something of the nature of these collections. 

UNICORN HORN. 

No museum of any repute was considered complete 
without one or more specimens of unicorn's horn,'^ 
an article which was believed to possess wonderful 
virtues, and was much employed in medicine. It 
was a recognised preservative against poisoning, and 
a piece was placed in the drinking cup of the King 
of France till almost the close of the monarchy. At 
the reception of Louis Seigneur de la Gruthuyse, by 
Edward IV. in England, in 1472, the king gave him 
a golden cup with a piece of unicorn horn in it, seven 
inches in circumference.^ The Grand Inquisitor Tor- 
quemada always carried about with him the horn of a 
unicorn to protect him against poison and assassins.* 

^ Fiihrer durch die Sammlungen des Museums des Kbnigreiches 
Bohmen in Prag, p. 70, Prag, 1897, i2mo; Die Ku7ist- und Kultur- 
geschichtlichen Satmnlungen des Germanischen Museums^ p. 159, Niirnberg, 
1899, i2mo. 

This, however, is only a reproduction of an old idea. There was a 
laboratory and apothecary's booth in the Dresden Museum in the seven- 
teenth century. 

^ See Leibnitz, Protogaea, § 35, Goetting., 1749, 4to. 

^ Archaeologia, xxvi., p. 277. 

* Collin de Plancy, Dictionnaire des Reliques, ii., p. 121, Pari.' ^f' 



UNICORN HORN 4 I 

Above the drug cases in one of the old apothecary- 
booths exhibited in the Prague Museum — the Apotheke, 
"Zur goldenen Krone" — are two conventional unicorns' 
horns. Above one of those in the Nuremberg Museum, 
the horn of a narwhal — the sea unicorn — is suspended,^ 
reminding one of Shakespeare's apothecary : 

in his needy shop a tortoise hung, 
An alHgator stuff' d, and other skins 
Of ill-shap'd fishes.^ 

The " true" horn commanded a very high price. At 
Rome as much as 90,000 crowns were given for a 
single horn.^ The Republic of Venice, in 1595, gave 
30,000 ducats for another ; and Brantome mentions a 
nobleman who sold an estate for 50,000 crowns, of 
which he took payment as regards 45,000 in gold and 
silver, and for the balance of 5000 crowns a piece of 
unicorn horn.* In the Jewel House in the Tower 
there were in 1649, " The unicornes homes weighing 
40 lb. 8 oz., valued at ^600."^ Bankers and money- 
lenders often advanced large sums of money upon no 
other security than the pledge of a bit of this horn.^ 
The existence of the horn was proof positive that the 

^ Hill, writing in the middle of the eighteenth century, mentions that 
the narwhal's horn was "kept as an ornament to druggists' shops." 
History of the Materia Medica, p. 842, London, 1751, 4to. In Germany, 
"Einhorn Apotheke" is still to be seen amongst the street signs. 

"^ Romeo and Juliet, Act v. Sc. i. See also Hudibras, Part iii., Canto 
ii., 1074. 

^ Bartholinus, Historiarton attatomicaruin Rariora, Cent, iv., Hist. 4, 

^ "6, Hafniae, 1657. 

Goe 

• ■■ .arousse. Grand Didionnaire miiversel du xix^ Siecle, x., s.v. Licorne. 

•y ; op. laud., p. 841, mentions that one of the French kings had a 

hisii valued at ^20,000. ^ Archaeologia, xv., p. 274. 

4^->etius, Gemmartcm et lapidum Historia, p. 435, Lugd. Bat., 1647. 



42 THE EXISTENCE OF THE UNICORN 

unicorn itself existed. " Some have made doubt," says 
Guillim, " whether there be any such beast as this 
or no. But the great esteeme of his home (in many 
places to be seen) may take away that needless scruple."^ 
Another old writer is more precise, " Albeit there be 
many horned beasts which may improperly be called 
unicorns, yet that which is the right unicorn indeed is 
like unto a colt of two years and a half old, which hath 
naturally but one horn, and that a very rich one, which 
groweth out of the middle of his forehead, being a horn 
of such virtue as is no beasts horn besides ; which, 
whilst some have gone about to deny, they have 
secretly blinded the eyes of the world from their full 
view of the greatness of God's great works. "^ Many 
reputable travellers reported that they had seen it.^ 
Sometimes it was said to be in India, at other times in 
South Africa, and latterly in West Africa,* but although 
constantly sought after, the animal itself was never 
brought to Europe. Still the horn was forthcoming. 

' A Display of Heraldry, p. 259, London, 1660, fol. 
■• 2 Swan," Speculum Mundi or a Glass of the World, p. 389, London, 
1670, 4to. 

The unicorn has appeared as one of the supporters of the Royal 
Arms of Scotland since the reign of James II L, and since the 
union of the crowns it has occupied the same position on the arms of 
the United Kingdom. Woodward and Burnett, Heraldry, British atid 
Foreign, pp. 296, 632, Edinburgh, 1892, 8vo ; Nisbet, Sysievt of Heraldry, 
i., p. 311, Edinburgh, 1722, fol. 

^ Ludovico di Varthema saw two live unicorns in the temple at 
Mecca. Travels, p. 46, London, 1863, 8vo (Hakluyt Society, vol -Kyj" )■ 
Scaliger founds upon this passage in order to con^'-^- P- ^l.ven- 
Cardan who had doubts as to the existence of the un * I 

De Subtilitate, Exercit. 205, p. 659, Francof., 1582. ^'^W, 

* Bartholinus, Historiarum anato^nicarum Rariora, L °^" 

p. 251, Amstel, 1654. Varthema, Op. laud., p. 47 n. ^<i 



CAVE-HUNTING 43 

Other one-horned animals, notably the rhinoceros and 
narwhal, or Unicornu Gronlandicum, as it was termed, 
were to be found in plenty, and it was ascertained 
by experiment that their horns possessed the same 
qualities as those of the " true " unicorn, although 
in a less degree. Certain small differences existed 
which could only be detected by an expert, and his 
services were in as much demand as those of an 
assayer at the present time.^ 

Besides the horns of existing animals, fossil horn 
was in request. This was horn embedded in the earth, 
generally some species of ivory,-' and was found prin- 
cipally in caves. Cave-hunting was in consequence 
carried on in the seventeenth century almost as as- 
siduously as in the nineteenth ; the Baumanshole at 
Riibeland in the Harz and a cave at Scharzfeld in 
the duchy of Grubenhagen were explored, and others 
were opened up in the neighbourhood of Hildesheim, 
and many in Hungary, Moravia, Silesia, Saxony, and 
elsewhere.^ The nature of these bones was much 
discussed, and many curious theories were propounded. 
The supposed skeleton was set up with one prominent 
horn on its head and is fio-ured in books.* 

^Museum Wormianum, p. 286; Boetius, Op. laud., p. 429; Schroder, 
Pharmacopoeia Medico-Chymica, lib. iii., p. 42 ; lib. v., p. 292. 

'^ Woodward, An addi/ion to the Catalogue of the Foreign and 
Extraneous Fossils, p. 13, London [1728], 8vo. 

^ Boetius, Op. laud., p. 425; Philosophical Tratisactions, vi. (^\bli), 
p. 3016 ; Briickmann, Epistolae Itinerariae, 34, "JT, Cent. i. ; Valentini, 
Museum Museorutn, vol. ii., p. 49; Leibnitz, Protogaea, §§ 34, 36, 37, 
Goetting., 1749, 4to ; Parkinson, Organic Remains of a former World, 
iii., p. 415 sqq.; Boehmer, Bibliotheca Scriptorum historiae naturalis, 
iv., 2, p. 355, Lipsiae, 1789, 8vo ; Dryander, Catalogus Bibliothecae 
histonco-naturalis fosephi Banks, iv., p. 56, Lond., 1799, 8vo. 

* Valentini, Museum Museorwn, i., p. 479. 



44 HORN LOSES ITS REPUTATION %. 

As time advanced the existence of the unicgrn itself 
became matter of discussion,^ and much labour wa^ 
expended in ascertaining the characteristics of the 
various one-horned animals that could be ad^ced. 
Ambroise Pare (1509- 1590), the great French sur- 
geon, doubted whether there was such an animal, 
and disputes the virtues attributed to the horn." As 
information accumulated, and was sifted, the truth 
was gradually arrived at, but by a long and tedious 
process ; and even yet there are some who live in 
hopes of seeing a "true" unicorn,^ Lord Bacon, 
writing in 1623, mentions that unicorn horn had lost 
its reputation as a cordial,^ but sixty years later 
Nehemiah Grew, and the rest of the Faculty, still 
believed in it for producing perspiration in fevers and 
curing other ailments.^ 

^ Boetius, Op. laiid.^ p. 429 ; Bartholinus, iit supra; Museum Wormi- 
anum, p. 287. 

^ Discours asqavoir de la Mumie, des Venifis, de la Licorne et de la 
Peste, Paris, 1582,410. The work is illustrated with curious woodcuts. 
Reprinted in his Oeuvres completes., by Malgaigne, iii., p. 492 sqq.., Paris, 
1 84 1, 8vo. He takes the same view in his Chirurgie, xxi., c. 39, English 
translation, p. 533, London, 1649, fol. 

His opinions were challenged, and he replied to the criticisms in 
Replique d Ambroise Pare . . . a la Response faicte contre son 
Discours de la Licorne., Paris, 1584, 4to. 

^ Mr. G. Percy Badger, writing in 1863, is inclined to believe the 
stories of the old travellers, and that the unicorn, as they described it, 
really existed. He thinks "that further research in the unexplored 
parts of Central Africa, or among the mountains of Tibet, may yet 
bring it to light." Varthema, Travels., p. 48 n., London, 1863, 8vo. 

^ Historia Vitae et Mortis., p. 188, London, 1623, 8vo ; Works, ii., 
p. 1 56, ed. Spedding ; see Hill, Op. laud. ; Hoffmann, Clavis pharma- 
ceutica Schroderiana, p. 691, Hal. Sax., 1675, 4to 5 Alston, Lectures on 
the Materia Medica, ii., pp. 527, 528, London, 1770, 4to. 

* Grew, Musaeum Regalis Societatis, p. 84 ; Schroder, Pharmacopoeia 



GIANTS BONES 45 

Ralph Thoresby had in his museum "a thin slice 
of the sea-unicorn's horn, white and solid ; the present 
of Mrs. Dorcas Dyneley, to whose great-grand- 
mother, Frances, then daughter-in-law to Archbishop 
Parker, and after the wife of Archbishop Matthews, 
Queen Elizabeth gave this very piece. "^ Unicorn horn, 
veritable and substitute, living and fossil has a con- 
siderable literature full of curious learning.^ 

GIANTS' BONES. 

The belief in giants was universal. They were 
mentioned in Holy Writ and by classical authors. 
Their bones, as already mentioned, figured in the 
museum of Augustus, and formed conspicuous objects 
in many museums of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries.^ In some instances they were even passed 
off as the bones of saints/ These were not parts 

Medtco-Chytnica, lib. iii., p. 42, Ulmae, 1644, 4to ; Salmon, Neiv London 

Dispensatory, p. 422, London, 1696, 8vo. 

^"A Catalogue and Description of the Rarities in this Museum," 

p. 7, in Ducatus Leodiensis, vol. ii., 1816, fol. 

Rev. John Ward has a curious anecdote regarding a piece of unicorn 

horn. Diary (1648-79), p. 171, London, 1839, 8vo. 

- Hoffmanni, Lexicon, s.v. " rhinoceros," " unicornu," has some interest- 
• ing notes on the unicorn. The whole subject has, in recent times, been 
I fully dealt with by J. W. von Miiller, Das Einhorn vom geschichtlichen 
' und naturalwissenschaftlichen Siandptinkt, Stuttgart, 1853. Reference 
' may also be made to E. P. Evans, Animal Symbolistn in Ecclesiastical 

Architecture, p. 105 sqq., London, 1896 ; Charles Gould, Mythical 

Monsters, p. 338 sqq., London, 1886; Thomas Hawkins, Book of the 
j Great Sea Dragons, London, 1840, fol. 

I '"Nullum fere Musaeum giganteis dentibus caret," Bartholinus, 
' Historiariini anat07nicarum Rariora, Cent, i.. Hist. 96, p. 144, Amstel., 
i 1654, i2mo ; 77^1? Philosophical Transactions, xxii. (1700), p. 489. Major, 

Bevolckertes Cimbrien, p. 53 sqq., Plon, 1692, fol. 

*ln the Jesuits' Church at Munich they had in the seventeenth 

century "a vertebra or joint of the back-bone as big as that of an 



46 FINDS OF GIANTS 

of the skeletons of ordinary men, but were bones 
dug up from the earth Hke the fossil unicorn 
horn. The body of Pallas, son of Evander, was 
reported to have been found in Rome in the time 
of the Emperor Henry III. in 104 1 or 1054, and was 
of such size that it exceeded the walls of the city in 
height.^ Boccaccio, as we have seen, mentions the 
finding of a giant in Sicily. In 1577 another was 
disinterred near Lucerne. Felix Plater (1536- 16 14), 
the learned physician of Basle, made a drawing of 
the skeleton, which he computed to be nineteen feet 
high, and the Lucernese adopted the giant for a 
supporter of the city arms.^ In 161 3 some bones of 
extraordinary size were found in Dauphin^, which were 
brought to Paris by a physician named Mazurier and 
exhibited as a show. To attract visitors he issued a 
pamphlet descriptive of the bones in which he attri- 
buted them to Teutobochus, King of the Teutons.^ 
This opinion was adopted by Nicholas Habicot (1550- 
1604), a well-known surgeon and anatomist. His 
opinion was immediately challenged by Jean Riolan 
(157 7- 1 65 7), professor of anatomy, in several publica- 

elephant or some huge animal ; and this great bone, as we were inform'd, 
is in great veneration with them, as being one of the vertebrae of the huge 
St. Christopher." Misson, A New Voyage to Italy^ i., p. 88, London, 
1699, 8vo ; Keysler, Reisen, p. 56, Hannover, 1751, 4to. 

As to Giants' bones in churches, see supra, p. 11. Briickmann 
enumerates several other instances, Epistolae Itinerariae, 12, 35, Cent. i. 

^Aldrovandi, Musacum Meiallicufn, p. 236, Bononiae, 1648, fol. ; 
Dom Calmet, Dictiofinaire de la Bible, s.v. Geant, i. 318, Paris, 1722, 
fol.; Martene, Thesaurus Anecdotarum, iii., p. 576, Paris, 1717, fol. 

'^Platerus, Observationum. Libri tres, p. 566, Basil, 1680, 8vo ; 
Bartholinus, Historiarum anatotnicarum Rariora, Cent, i.. Hist. 98, 
p. 147, Amstelod., 1654, i2mo. Infra, p. 98. 

^ Histoire veritable du g^ant Teutobochus. Paris, 161 3, l2mo. 



TEETH AND BONES 47 

tions, most of which he issued anonymously, and in 
which he personally attacks Habicot.^ After all, the 
bones, it is said, were those of a fossil salamander. 
Thomas Bartholin, the elder (i 6 19-1680), of Copen- 
hagen, an excellent anatomist and author of a standard 
work upon his subject, which was translated into 
English,^ had no doubt at all as to the former existence 
of giants, but on the contrary satisfied himself of the 
fact by careful measurements of a tooth in Olaf Worm's 
museum, which proved that it was in exact proportion 
to the human tooth, and must have belonged to another 
Og.^ He visited Malta in 1644, and in his description 
of the island mentions that it was formerly inhabited 
by giants, and that in the museum of John Francis 
Abela (1582- 165 5), Vice-Chancellor and Commander 
of the Knights of Malta, there were preserved the hip 
bones, a tooth, and a rib of one of them.* When the 
remains of the mastodon were first discovered, near 
Albany, i 712, they were believed to be bones of giants 
and a confirmation of the Mosaic account of gigantic 
races of men.^ One would suppose that an anatomist 

^An account of the controversy is given by Habicot in his Anti- 
gigantologie, ou contre discours de la grandeur des Geatts. Paris, 1618, 8vo. 

- Bartholimis Anatomy . . . in four books and four tnanuals. . . 
published by Nich. Culpeper, Cent., and Abdiah Cole, Doctor of Physick. 
London, 1668, fol. 

^ Historiaru7n anatomicarum Rariora, ut supra, p. 144. Museujn 
IVormianum, p. 343. 

* His account is contained in a letter to Joseph Donzelli, Epistolae 
Medicinales, Cent, i., Epist. 53, p. 223, Hafniae, 1663, and again, Hag. 
Com., 1740, i2mo. 

The remains of a species of small elephant have been found in caves in 
Malta. Boyd Davvkins, Cave Huttiing, p. 377. London, 1874, 8vo. 

* Letter, Dr. Mather to Dr. Woodward, The Philosophical Transactions^ 
vol. xxix. (17 1 2), p. 62. 



48 EXISTENCE OF GIANTS DISPUTED 

should have no difficulty in distinguishing between 
the bones of a man and of other animals, but Cuvier 
says that this is not so, and that there is considerable 
resemblance between some of the human bones and 
those of the elephant.^ 

The existence of giants was, however, disputed by 
some. Jan van Gorop, surnamed Becanus (1518- 
1572), physician to the Lady Mary, sister to the 
Emperor Charles the Fifth, Queen of Hungary and 
Regent of the Netherlands, writing in 1569, says that 
the so-called giant's bones are bones of large animals, 
not of man ^"^ but this heterodox opinion was at once 
disputed by Jean Chassanion.^ Michael Mercati, while 
doubting the existence of giants, maintained that men 
and other animals were not larger in former times 
than they are now. Some, he says, explained the 
great size of the fossil bones by the suggestion 
that they increased in size while lying in the soil. 

'^ Recherchcs siir les ossefnens fossiles, i., p. 75, 3" ed., Paris, 1825, 4to. 
Cuvier has here collected a vast amount of information on the subject of 
giants' bones, which is reproduced and abridged by Pidgeon, Fossil 
Remains of the Animal Kingdom^ p. 41 sqq.^ London, 1836, 8vo ; and by 
Edward J. Wood in Giatils and Dwarfs^ London, 1868, 8vo. 

2 Origines Antverpianae. Book ii., entitled Gigantomachia, p. 242. 
Antverp., 1569, fol. There is a long notice of this work in Clement, 
Bibliotheque Curieuse, ix., p. 243. 

Becanus maintained that German was the first and most ancient 
language m the world, and assumed that it was spoken in Paradise. 
In allusion to this Butler says that Sir Hudibras knew all about Adam 
and Eve and the Fall, 

Whether the devil tempted her 
By a High-Dutch interpreter. 

Hudibras, Part i.. Canto, i., 180. 
See Lord Fountainhall's Journals, p. 81, Edinburgh, 1900. 

^Cassanion, De Gigantibus eorumque reliquiis. Basil., 1580, i2mo ; 
Spirae, 1587, i2mo. 



GIANTS BONES THOSE OF ELEPHANTS 49 

This he denies, and holds that the bones are produced 
by the earth itself.^ On the other hand, Nicolas Steno, 
whose views on the formation of fossils were sound, 
was of opinion that giants had existed and that the 
bones which were found were their very bones in a 
fossilised condition." In 1696 a skeleton was found 
at Tonna in Gotha, which the physicians, consulted by 
the Duke, declared to be a lus7is naturae. Tentzel, 
the Duke's librarian, compared each bone separately 
with those of the elephant, and found that they were 
identical.^ Many other finds were made in Germany 
and in Italy, and it gradually came to be accepted that the 
bones were those of elephants and not of men/ Then 
came a difficulty, how to account for their presence, as 
the elephant is not a European animal. As regarded 
Italy, an easy explanation was found in the suggestion 

^ Metallotheca, pp. 325, 326. 

"^ Prodromus to a Dissertation concerning Solids naturally contained 
within Solids. English' d by H. O. [Henry Oldenburg], p. 89, London, 
167 1, 8vo. Originally published in Latin at Florence, 1669, 4to. 

The Prodromus is an excellent discussion of present geological 
doctrines .—the deposition of horizontal strata by water, their dislocation 
by fire, gas or other upheaving force, the scooping out of valleys, and 
the formation of mountains. The whole surface of the earth has been 
repeatedly submerged and again elevated. Fossils, he maintains, were 
originally living organisms converted into stone by certain elements in 
the earth. He entirely repudiates the doctrine that they grew in the earth. 

^His account is printed in the Philosophical Transactions, xix. 
(1695-97), p. 757. Separately, Epistola de sceleto Elephantino Tonnae 
nuper effoso, 1'^" ed., Jenae [1696], 8vo ; Briickmann, Epistola Itineraria, 
12, Cent. i. 

G. A. Helwing {Lithographia Angerbnrgica, p. 92, Regiom., 17 17) 
mentions the frequent finding of large teeth attributed to giants, but 
he did not think that they were such. 

* Briickmann devotes a letter to the subject, Epistola Itineraria, 
12, Cent. i. See also Epistolae 5, 11, 34, 35, 36, 55, 56, 61, Cent. i. ; 
Keysler, Rdsen, pp. 96 sqq., Hannover, 1751, 4to, ist ed., 1740, 4to. 



50 ANATOMY OF THE ELEPHANT 

that the bones were those of elephants brought by the 
Carthaginians or the Romans. As this could not apply 
to Germany, it was necessary to fall back upon an 
elephant sent to Charlemagne by the Caliph Haroun- 
al-Raschid, which had to do duty for scientists in 
all parts of the country. The difficulty as regarded 
England w^as still greater. Some thought that the 
Emperor Claudius might have brought an elephant with 
him, and that it died here. But this supposition, being 
unsupported by evidence, was rejected. A live elephant 
was shown at Oxford in 1676, when Dr. Robert Plot, 
afterwards the keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, took 
the opportunity of comparing its teeth with one of the 
fossil grinders, and finding that they differed, triumph- 
antly decided in favour of giants.^ The first complete 
account of the anatomy of the elephant was by Mr. 
Patrick Blair, the botanist, then a surgeon in Dundee, 
who dissected and set up one which died near that place 
in 1706. His account occupies no less than 116 pages 
of the Philosophical Transactions. The drawings were 
made by Mr. Blair and engraved in Dundee by Gilbert 
Oram.^ 

MUMMY.3 

In old times Egyptian mummies were to be come 
by only with difficulty, and were rarely to be found 
in Europe. When one was obtained for a museum, 
it formed a prominent object in the collection, and 

^ The Natural History of Oxfordshire^ p. 136, London, 1705, fol. 

"^ The Philosophical Transactions, xxvii. (1710-12), p. 53 sqq.\ xxx. 
(1717-T9), p. 385 ; and separately, Osteographia ElepJtantitia, 1713, 4to. 

An account of Dr. Patrick Blair will be found in Pulteney, Sketches of 
the Progress of Botany, ii., p. 134. 

3 Kundmann, Promtuarium, p. 120, Vratislav., 1726, 4to. 



MUMMY 5 I 

became the subject of elaborate description/ Father 
Montfaucon figrures several ; one of them had been 
brought to Paris in 1692 ; two of the others were in 
Father Kircher's museum at Rome. The town of 
Leipsic purchased one in 1693, which was placed in 
the town library, and an account of it occupies nearly 
four columns of Zedler's Lexicon. The Jesuits of 
Presburg had one in their Pharmacy (Apotheke), which 
was believed to be that of Cleopatra.' There was one 
in the Copenhagen Museum, one in the Gottorp 
Museum, and others in those of Tobias Reymers of 
Luneburg^ and Robert Hubert of London.* In the 
Leyden Museum they had " The Mumie of an 
Egyptian Prince about 1800 years old," and "The 
Mumie of an Egyptian Princes above 13CXD yeares old." 
The Royal Society of London had a mummy taken 
from the Royal Pyramids, and presented by the Duke 
of Norfolk.^ It was unrolled, and various experiments 
were made with the body, which enabled Dr. Grew to 
advance certain opinions regarding the method of em- 
balming practised by the Egyptians, but everything 
concerning the personality of the mummy remained a 
mystery. Information regarding ancient Egypt and 
her people was principally derived from Herodotus 

^Zedler, Universal Lexuo?t, s.v. " Mumie." The Leipsic mummy is de- 
scribed and figured by Bruckmann, Epistola Itineraria, 1 3, Cent, iii., p. 1 35. 

-Antiquity Explained^ translated by Humphreys, v., p. 121, London, 
1722, fol. 

^ Valentini, Museum Museorum, vol. ii.. Appendix x., p. 26. 

* A Catalogue of many Natural Rarities, with great industry, cost, and 
thirty years' travel in Foraign Countries, Collected by Robert Hubert, alias 
Forges, Gent., and sworn servant to His Majesty, p. i, London, 1665, i2mo. 

* This was a famous specimen, and is referred to by Valentini, Museu)n 
Museorum, i., p. 418. 



52 MEDICINAL USE OF MUMMY 

and Diodorus Siculus, and abounded in the marvel- 
lous ; while the writing, with which mummy cases and 
wrappers were covered, had long baffled all the attempts 
of scholars to interpret it, so that a mummy was in 
truth a curiosity. 

Embalmed bodies were found to be endowed with 
extraordinary virtues. Francis I. always carried about 
with him a little packet containing some mummy 
mixed with pulverized rhubarb, ready to take upon 
receiving any injury from a fall or other accident that 
might happen to him.^ According to Cardan, mummy 
was a most valuable medicine for staunching blood, 
and for healing fractures and bruises,^ an opinion 
which has the support of Robert Boyle and Lord 
Bacon. ^ " Mummy," says Ole Worm, "is of great 
use for contusions, dissolves clotted blood, assists 
labour, relieves spasms and convulsions, and cures 
all wounds, external and internal, ulcerations, and 
other ailments of that kind."^ This was disputed by 
Ambroise Pare ^ and others, but it was the current 
opinion of the time. Mummy accordingly formed an 
important item of the Materia Medica, and was to 
be found in every apothecary's shop, and appears in 

^ Belon, ObsenuitioTis de phtsieiirs Singularitez et Choses memorables, 
p. 261 ; quoted by Pettigrew, A History of Egyptian Mummies, p. 9, 
London, 1834, 4to. 

^ De Subtilitate, lib. xviii., p. 645, Lugduni, 1580, 8vo. 

^ Sylva Sylvarum, Cent, x., § 980; Works, ii., p. 665, ed. Spedding. 

"^Museum Wormianutn, p. 344, Lugd. Bat., 1655, fol. ; see further, 
Aldrovandi, Musaeum Metallicujn, p. 403 ; Zedler, Universal Lexicon, s.v. 
'• Mumie." 

^ Discours, supra, p. 44 ; Oeuvres, iii., p. 468 ; Chirurgie, ii., c. 7, 
Oeuvres, ii., p. 202 ; English translation, p. 332, London, 1649, fol. 



FRAGMENTS OF MUMMY 5 3 

the Scottish Customs Tariff of 1612,^ The mummy of 
commerce was of various colours. Pierre Pomet of 
Rouen (1658- 1699), chief druggist to the Grand Roi, 
recommends one to choose what is of black colour. 
"This is reckon'd proper for contusions and to hinder 
the blood from coagulating in the body; but its greatest 
use is catching fish."-' 

Although all museums could not attain to an entire 
mummy, nearly every one had one or more fragments. 
Thus, besides the whole mummies in the Leyden collec- 
tion, they had "The head and foot of a Mumie," "The 
cheek-bone of a Mumie," "The arme of an Egyptian 
Mumie." In the old pharmacy in the German National 
Museum at Nuremberg there is a piece of black 
mummy amongst the assortment of drugs. Franz 
Ernst Briickmann of Wolfenblittel had the whole left 
I foot of an Egyptian mummy, with all the toes;'^ and 
Jakob von Melle of Liibeck had a bit in his cabinet, 
I which is still preserved in the town museum.^ There 
i was another fragment in the Balfour Museum, pre- 
i sented by Sir Robert Sibbald to the University of 
' Edinburgh.^ 

I But while mummified portions of human bodies were 
always obtainable for pharmacies or museums, it is to 

^Ledger of Andretu Halyburto7i^ p. 301, Edinburgh, 1867 (Lord Clerk 
Register Series). 

- Histoire getterale des Drogues, Paris, 1694, fol., English translation, 
ii., p. 229, London, 1712, 4to. The copy of this translation in the British 
Museum bears on the title-page the autograph " James Petiver, S.R.S." 
'Stt post, p. 135. 

^ Epistola Itineraria, 58, Cent, i., Wolffenb., 1737, 4to. 

^Festschrift zur XXVIII. Versammlung dcr deutschen anthropologi- 
schen Gesellschaft, p. 16, Liibeck, August, 1897. 

^ Auctarium Musaei Balfourtani, p. 32. 



54 ARTIFICIAL MUMMY 

be feared that very few of them were parts of em- 
balmed bodies. "All the kinds of Mummy are brought 
from yEgypt, but we are not to imagine that any body 
breaks up the real /Egyptian Mummies to sell to the 
druggists, as they make so much better a market for 
them in Europe whole, when they can contrive to get 
them. What our druggists are supply 'd with is the 
flesh of executed criminals, or of any other bodies the 
Jews can get, who fill them with common bitumen, so 
plentiful in that part of the world ; and adding a little 
aloes, and two or three other cheap ingredients, send 
them to be baked in an oven till the juices are ex- 
haled, and the embalming matter has penetrated so 
thoroughly, that the flesh will keep, and bear trans- 
porting into Europe."^ Fortunately, just as the horn of 
the narwhal was found to possess all the qualities of 
the " true " unicorn, so artificial mummy was found 
to be quite as efficacious as the genuine article. 

Dr. John Schroder (1600- 1664), whose Pha7'ma- 
copoeia was for more than a century a standard 
authority on the simples,'^ advocates the use of artificial 
mummy as being fully as good in all respects as the 
best Egyptian, provided it be properly prepared. The 
coarse work of the Jew dealers was not in much 
esteem ; but a receipt for the preparation of the arti- 
ficial article by Oswald Croll was highly recommended. 
From this were prepared tincture of mummy, elixir of 
mummy, and balsam of mummy. The latter "has 

^ Hill, History of tJie Materia Medica, p. 875, London, 175 1, 410; 
Alston, Lectures on the Materia Medica, ii., p. 543, London, 1770, 4to ; 
Zedler, Op. laud. ; Valentini, Museum Museortim, vol. ii.. Appendix xxi., 
p. 83 ; Pettigrew, A History 0/ Egyptian Mummies, p. 8, London, 1834, 4to. 

2 Alston, Op. laud., i., p. 24. 



HUMAN SKULL 5 5 

such piercing qualities, that it pierceth all parts, 
restores wasted limbs, consumptions, heckticks, and 
cures all ulcers and corruptions."^ 

HU-%LA.\ SKULL. 

A collection of human skulls is one of the features 
of a modern anthropological museum ; but although 
skulls were to be found in the old museums, they were 
not exhibited for anthropological purposes, but as 
common simples of the Pharmacopoeia. A man's skull 
was a specific in the cure of most diseases of the head, 
and was administered as a magistery and in various 
other forms. ^ Human brains again, either in the form 
of a spirit or an oil, was a noble anti-epileptic. 
Nehemiah Grew catalogues two skulls in the Royal 
Society's museum amongst " Human Rarities,"^ The 
one was, "A human skull that was never buried. 
Whereof there are several medicines prepar'd, as 
Cranium htimamiin praeparatum, Cra^imm humatium 
calcinatuTn, Cra^iii huniani magistermm, Spiritus 
essentificatus, Oleum, Sal volatile, Ti?ictura, Galreda, 
i.e. Extractum cranii Theophrasti. But the Cranium 
praeparatitm and the spirit are the most, and most 
deservedly, in use." Directions for the preparation 

^Salmon, New London Dispensatory, pp. 194, 195, London, 1696, 8vo ; 
Schroder, Pharmacopoeia Medico-Chymica, lib. v., p. 277, Ulmae, 1644, 
4to; Hoffmann, Clavis Pharmaceutica Schrbderiana, p. 673, Hal. Sax., 
1675, 4to. 

^Salmon, Op. laud., p. 195; Daniel Beckher (1594-1655;, Professor at 
Konigsberg, wrote Medicus Microcosmus, sive, Spagyria Microcosmi, 
tradens Medicinatn e corpore Hominis, turn vivo, turn extincto, docte 
eruendam, scite praeparandam et dextre propinandam, Rostochii, 1622, 
8vo; Lugd. Bat, 1633, 4to; Lond., 1660, i2mo, in which this and similar 
subjects are discussed. 

^Grew, Musaeum Societatis Regalis, p. 6, London, 1681, fol. 



56 USNEA 

and use of all these and many others are given in 
the Neiv London Dispensatory^ In the Balfour 
Museum, presented by Sir Robert Sibbald to the 
University of Edinburgh, there was a similar skull. ^ 
Another was "A humane skull cover'd all over with 
moss, by the Paracelsians called usnea. This moss is 
by them commended by its peculiar virtue in stopping 
of bleeding at the nose." In consequence of a schism 
in the sympathetical school of curers, a serious discus- 
sion was long maintained "Whether it was necessary 
that the moss should grow absolutely on the skull of a 
thief who had hung on the gallows?"^ The general 
opinion was that the virtues attributed to skulls be- 
longed only to those which had never been buried, 
and particularly of persons who had died violent 
deaths, and had lain some time on the ground, or 
hung on the gibbet or the like. The skulls of com- 
merce were generally those of criminals, and in the 
old days of hanging there was always a plentiful 
supply. French writers love to give colour to tl 
subject, and Pierre Pomet, when treating of skulls, 
says, " The English druggists generally bring these 
heads from Ireland, that country having been remark- 
able for them ever since the Irish massacre."* About 

^ Salmon, Neiv London Dispensatory, p. 195 ; Schroder, Pharmacopoeia 
Medtco-Chytnica, lib. v., p. 280 ; Hoffmann, Op. laud., p. 676. 

2 Sibbald, Auctarium Musaei Balfouriatii, p. 197, Edinburgh, 1697, 1 
i2mo. There was one in the Anatomy School at Oxford. Fountainhall, ] 
Journals, p. 170, Edinburgh, 1900; see also Museum Wormianitm, 
p. 344 ; Salmon, Op. laud., p. 79 ; Robert Boyle, Works, ii., p. 177 ; iv., 
767, London, 1772, 4to. 

^Pettigrew, Superstitions comiected with the History atid Practice of 
Medicine and Surgery, p. 162, London, 1844, 8vo. 

* Pomet, Op. laud., English translation, p. 229 ; Boyle, ut supra. 



HUMAN SKIN 57 

the same time it was said that the Germans got their 
supply from the last Turkish war.^ 

HUMAN SKIN. 

The seat on which the Persian judges sat was 
covered with the skin of their unjust predecessor, with 
the inscription, " Remember whereon thou sittest." 
Amongst European nations the skin of an enemy or 
of a notorious criminal was often tanned and preserved 
out of revenge or as a terror to others. In many old 
collections pieces of tanned human skin were to be 
seen," but these were placed there not as ethno- 
graphical objects, but as specimens of officinal pre- 
parations, as this material was said to be possessed 
of many virtues. " Celebres sunt corii humani 
praeparati in medicina usus."^ A belt of human skin 
was used as a remedy for hysteria, and was found 
to be useful in spasms of the hands and feet.* A 
bandao^e round the wrist checked convulsions, and a 
thong round the neck cured a paroxysm of epilepsy.^ 

The origin of this strange belief is illustrated by 
the practice of uncivilised people of the present day. 
Some of the aborigines of Queensland carefully flay 
their slain foes, and preserve the skin with the 

■' Valentini, Museum Museorujii, i., p. 419. 
2 E.g. in the Anatomy Hall of Leyden. 

^ Bartholinus, Historiariim anatomicarinn Rariora, Cent, iii., Hist. 87, 
p. 177, Amstelod., 1654. 

* Rattray, Aditus itoviis., p. 25, Glasguae, 1658, i2mo ; Schroder, Op. 
laud., lib. v., p. 279 ; Hoffmann, Op. laud., p. 679. Briickmann disputes 
this, Epistola Itineraria, 1 7, Cent. i. 

* Bartholinus, Op. laud. As the tanning of human skin was a disagreeable 
and somewhat difficult art, Bartholin gives directions how it is to be done. 



58 STAGS HORNS 

hairy scalp and even the finger nails attached. They 
look upon it as a powerful medicine, and cover their 
patients with it as with a blanket.^ In some parts of 
Africa the natives cover their idols with human skin. 

THE STAG AND THE ELK. 

Hartshorn (the antlers of the cervus elephas) is a 
familiar term in pharmacy, and oil of hartshorn, spirits 
of hartshorn, and the like are still ordinary domestic 
remedies ; but in old days so many medicines were 
compounded from various parts of the stag that they 
formed the subject of entire volumes, ^ and inspired 
a poem.^ The animal itself was described as "a 
world of remedies, of commodities and advantages, for 
men." The horn that was most in repute was that of 
the red deer, the eXetpa? of the Greeks, but, as it was 
scarce in England, the horn of the fallow deer was 
used instead. The old Schloss Merlan at Grumberg 
in Hesse-Darmstadt was so set out with rare, cu ,, 
and valuable stag-horns of all descriptions as to be in 
itself a museum.* In the Dresden Museum there were 
various stag-horns and preparations from stags,^ and 
in the Court Pharmacy there were fifty-one of such 
preparations,*^ a selection from which was presented 

^ Frazer's Paiisanias, ii., p. 477, who refers to Fison and Howitt, 
Kamilarot and Kurnai, p. 223, Melbourne, 1880, 8vo. 

2 Boehmer, Bibliotheca Scriptorutn historiae naturalis^ ii., 2, pp. 360-7. 

^ Balduin Ronsseus, Venatio Aledica, Lugd. Bat, 1584 and 1589, 8vo ; 
and in his Opuscula Medica, Lugd. Bat., 161 8 and 1654, 8vo. 

■* Valentini, Aluseum Museoritm^ i., p. 430. There is a large collection 
at the present day in the Schloss Erbach in the Odenwald. 

^ Beutel, Cedern-Wald, Dresden, 1671, 4to ; Happel, Relationes 
Curiosae, iii., p. 121, Hamburg, 1687, 4to. 

"Happel, Op. laud., iii., pp. 121, 122. 



MEDICINAL USE 59 

by the Elector John George II. (1656-1680) to the 
Grand Duke of Tuscany.^ 

Stag's horn was esteemed of great use in cases of 
poisoning and of malignant diseases. Snakes, it was 
said, would not touch a person clad in deer-skin. 
The smell of burnt horn drove away serpents and 
gnats. Venison was a specific for fevers. A stag 
could not only swallow a snake with impunity, but 
turned it into stone in its stomach." Stag tears, "a 
thicken'd excretion from the inward angle of his eye," 
had a great reputation ; and were " affirmed to be 
sudorifick and of an alexipharmic nature " ; and Dr. 
Grew wickedly adds, "If they were as easie to be 
had as some women's it were worth the trying."^ 
But they were scarce, and so valuable as by some to 
be preferred to all the treasures of a king.* The elder 
Scaliger had one which he considered the gem of his 
collection.^ 

Another esteemed remedy was Ossa de Corde Cervi, 
a kind of ossification occasionally found in the hearts 
of stags and of oxen. These were imported from Italy 
and sold by the thousand,'' and we find them in use in 

^ Major, Dissertatio Epistolica de Cancris et Serpentidus petrefaclts, 
p. 9, Jenae, 1664, 8vo. 

2 Major, Op. laud., pp. 7 sqq., 36 ; Sachse von Lowenheim, Op. laud., 
p. 58. 

^ Grew, Afusaeum Regalis Socle talis, p. 21. 
* Hoffmann, Clavis phar?naceutica, p. 659. 

^ De Subtilitate, Exercitatio 112, p. 422, Francof., 161 2, Bvo. Schroder 
mentions that he had the gift of a small piece from Sophia Eleonora, 
Princess of Saxony, wife of George, Landgrave of Hesse. P harinacopoeia 
Medico-Chyrnica, lib. v., p. 266, Ulmae, 1644, 410. 

"Valentini, Museum. Museorum, i., p. 431. 



6o elk's hoof 

Scotland in 1612.^ So numerous were their merits 
that these afforded material for a graduation thesis. ^ 

The elk and its parts were to be found in museums 
and in apothecaries' shops.^ Elk's hoof was a specific 
remedy for epilepsy, and was always kept in druggists' 
booths and often placed in museums. That which 
possessed the greatest power was the hoof of the left 
hind foot. The elk, it was said, was itself subject to 
epilepsy, and cured itself by putting that foot into its 
ear.* Judging from the form of the animal, such 
cures must have been few and far between. 

The medicinal virtues of these various substances 
were not arrived at haphazard, but were ascertained 
by observation and by what were believed to be 
careful experiments. Very few of them were of any 
real toxicological value ; but that cures followed many 
of the prescriptions there is no doubt. In some raco- 
the remedy did effect a cure. In other cases the natural 
event of the disease was mistaken for the effect of 
the medicine last administered, or at least of the use of 
some medicine.^ Imagination, too, plays an important 
part in the human economy, and in our own day many 

^Andrew Halyburtofis Ledger, ut supra, p. 301. 

" Os de corde cervi gestantem reddit immunem a venanatorummorsibus." 
Rattray, Aditus novus, p. 26, Glasguae, 1658, i2mo. 

" Adami, Dissertatio i?iauguralis de Osse Cordis Cervi, Giessae, 1684, 4to. 

^ Ray notes the horns and feet of the elk in the museum of Jan van Der 
Mere of Delft, and the horns (25 lbs. in weight) in the shop of Mr. 
Holney, apothecary in Lewes. Travels through the Low Countries, ii., 
p. 24, London, 1738, 8vo. 

^Valentini, Museum Museorum, i., p. 428; Schroder, Pharmacopoeia 
Medico-Chytnica, lib. v., p. 252 ; Salmon, Neiu London Dispensatory, p. 197. 

* Alston, Lectures on the Materia Medica, i., p. 24, London, 1770, 4to. 



IMAGINATION AS A CURATIVE POWER 6 1 

wonderful cures have been apparently effected by 
remedies which were in fact powerless ; a subject 
which has been discussed by Dr. T. J. Pettigrew/ 
who records many interesting cases. " Imagination," 
says Lord Bacon, " is next akin to miracle — a working 
faith." In old days it was dangerous, however, to 
apply a harmless remedy and leave it to the imagina- 
tion to do the rest. Sir Georcre Mackenzie mentions 
the case of a poor woman who was charged with 
witchcraft because she cured another by applying a 
plantain leaf to the left side of her head, and binding a 
paper to her wrist, upon which was written the name 

T 2 

Jesus. 

FIGURED STONES. 

Everyone knows what is meant by a "fossil"; but 
the present meaning of the word is somewhat late. 
The old writers understood by fossils whatever was ex- 
tracted from the earth, and divided them into three 
classes : media mineralia, stones, and metals.^ Media 
mineralia were of a nature intermediate between stones 
and metals, and comprised earths, salts, sulphur, and 
bitumen. This classification, or some modification of 
it, was the groundwork of the arrangement of all old 

^ On Superstitions connected with the History and Practice of Medicine, 
p. 89 sqq., London, 1844, 8vo. See also Thomas Fien, De Viribus 
Imaginationis tractatus, Lovan., 1608, 8vo ; Lugd. Bat., 1635, i2mo ; 
Robert Boyle, Works, ii., p. 174, London, 1772, 4to ; Haygarth, Of the 
Imagination as a Cause and Cure of Disorders of the Body exemplified 
by Fictitious Tractors and Epidemical Convulsions, Bath, 1800, 8vo ; 
D. H. Tuke, Illustrations of the Infiuence of the Mind upon the Body 
in Health and Disease, designed to elucidate the Action of the Imagination, 
London, 1872, 8vo. 
'^Pleadings in some remarkable Cases, p. 192, Edinburgh, 1673, 4to- 
^ Albertus Magnus, De mineralibus et rebus metallicis, lib. v., c. i. 



62 FIGURED STONES 

museums, and must be kept clearly in view in studying 
their catalogues and in reading the descriptions of their 
contents. Fossils, it was held, were endowed with the 
power of growth and reproduction ; there was thought 
to be a seminal quality or plastic power {vis plastica, 
fiisus formativtis) in the earth by which fossils were 
produced, by which they grew and took shape.^ 

Stone was defined to be a fossil body, hard, inductile, 
not soluble in water, generated from a strong juice 
{succus\ in which is the stone-forming spirit {lapidificus 
spiritus),'^ petrescent liquor or petrifick spirit, as 
Robert Boyle called it.^ One of the principal divi- 
sions of stones was lapides Jigurati or lapides iSio- 
/jLopcpoi, s. ejujuopcpoi, " formed stones," otherwise lapides 
regiilares or "regular stones," that is, stones which 
had a specific form or shape, or resembled in shape 
some known object, animal or vegetable, '^'^ -^' - 
tinguished from lapides a/uopcpoi. For example, the 
Jew stone [lapis yudaiacs^ was of various shapes, re- 
sembling a pear, an almond, an acorn, or an olive ; 
and had many virtues. These stones were of two 

1 " Quis non obstupescit animo, cui hominum, piscium, serpentum, 
ostrearum, concharum, et infinitarum aliarumque rerum, ab archaeo 
subterraneo fabricatae et lapidibus metallicis impressae, occurrunt 
imagines.'"' Zacharia-Pillingen, Bitumen et lignum fosstle biiumt?tosum, 
p. 8, Altenb., 1674, 8vo. To the same effect, see Museum Wormianum, 
p. 81. 

"^Museum Wormianum, p. 36 ; Aldrovandi, Museum Metallicum, 
p. 818, Bononiae, 1648, fol.; Agricola, De ortu et causis Subterraneorum, 
lib. iv., with his De re metallica, p. 512 sqq., Basil, 1657, fol. ; Boetius, 
Gemmarian et lapidum Historia, pp. 1 3, 24, 29 ; Valentini, Museum 
Museorum, ii., Appendix xxi., p. 92. 

^Steno, Prodromus Efiglish'd by H. O. [Henry Oldenburg]. Preface, 
London, 1671, 8vo. Boyle thought that there were also both Metal- 
lescent and Mineralescent juices. 



STONES RESEMBLING NATURAL OBJECTS 63 

kinds, male and female, the former covered with 
points, the latter smooth, and found in Palestine ; 
and were supposed to grow like other stones. They 
were, in fact, the spines of an echinus. Belemnites, 
the English "bolt-head" — so called from its resem- 
blance to an arrow ; in Scotland known as an elf- 
arrow, and in Germany as Alpfschos, because they 
are vulgarly believed to be shot by fairies — are the 
petrified internal bone or shell of a kind of cuttle-fish ; 
the ammonite or cornu Ammonis, so called from its 
resemblance to the horn on the statue of Jupiter 
Ammon, is a fossil shell. Then we have bucardia or ox- 
heart stone, echmites or button-stone, pear stones, apple 
stones, gourd stones, stone teeth, ^ and so on. Some of 
these were only accidentally shaped, but the greater 
part of them are animal remains which have been petri- 
fied. In the old museums they were, however, treated 
as natural growths. Thus, in the beautiful collection 
in the Schloss Amras near Innsbruck, were "stones 
which represent trees, fruits, shells, and animals, all 
which are the pure product of nature." ^ The stone 
oranges, figs, melons, nutmegs, mushrooms, and the 
like, regarding which the most miraculous stories 
were current,^ were fossil zoophytes. The bufoniies, 

^ These were not petrified teeth, but figured stones, or perhaps some 
kind of coral. Briickmann, Episiola Itmeraria, 64, Cent. i. 

^ Misson, A New Voyage to Italy, i., p. 113, London, 1699, 8vo. 
Misson was anything but credulous. When they showed him at Ley den 1 
a serpent's skin with Arabic letters on it naturally formed, he at once / 
rejected it and very justly adds, " There is so universal, and so odd a 1 
diversity in all things in the world, that 'wou'd be easie to find the i 
like figures on the first thing we meet with, if we would give ourselves 
the trouble to look for 'em." Op. laud., i., p. 15. 

^ Parkinson, Organic Remains of a Former World, i., p. 460. 



64 PLASTIC POWER OF NATURE 

the English toad-stone, a semi-oval or semi-globular 
stone, was supposed to be engendered in the heads 
of toads and frogs, but is in reality a petrified portion 
of the teeth or dentary plates of fishes ; although, 
when this was demonstrated, the defenders of the old 
opinions produced another stone, convex above and 
concave below, which they said was the real toad- 
stone.^ The fact that animal or vegetable remains 
could be petrified was only recognised comparatively 
recently. It was opposed to the science of older 
times, and even when sounder views began to prevail 
they had to encounter theological objections, which 
stood in the way of their acceptance. What we 
now know as fossils were popularly explained by 
some to be sports, — lusus naturae, — by others, to 
be the product of the plastic quality of *"^' th, 

which by its inherent power in certain places pro- 
duced stones having these particular shapes. Stones, 
it was said, grow ; vegetables grow and live ; animals 
grow, live, and feel.' 

Another group of stones falling within the class of 
lapides Jigurati, or regular stones, were cerauniae, the 
stone axes and stone hammers of modern archaeologists. 
These were popularly believed to fall from the clouds, 
and had for centuries been regarded with superstitious 
awe.^ Our English encyclopaedist, Bartholomew de 

^ Plot, The Natural History of Oxfordshire^ p. 129, London, 1705, fol. 

2 Linnaeus, Fundainenta Botanica, § 3 ; Alston, Lectures on the Materia 
Medica, i., p. 22. 

^ Stone celts are still viewed as thunderbolts by the modern Burmese. 
P. R.I. A. 2''S., i. (1870-1879), p. 396. See other references in Reinach, 
Antiquith nationales, i., p. 79. Paris, 1889. 

As to charms in the form of stone axes, see Mate'riaux, x. C1875), p. 290, 



THUNDERBOLTS 65 

Glanville [r, 1250], gave currency to the current 
doctrine,^ and quotes the curious poem of Marbode, 
Bishop of Rennes (f 1 1 23) : — 

Cum tonat horrendum, cum fulgurat igneus Aether 
Nubibus illisis caelo cadit ille lapillus. 

Illis quippe locis, quos constat fulmine tactos, 
Iste lapis tantum reperiri posse putatur. 

Qui caste gerit hunc a fulmine non ferietur 
Nee domus, aut villae, quibus asseruit lapis ille.- 

The stone axes in the Cathedral of Halberstadt and 
in Martha's Hof, Bonn, before alluded to, exemplify 
this belief. 

When the stone fell it buried itself in the earth as 
deep as the highest church tower is high. Every 
time it thundered it began to rise nearer to the surface, 
and after seven years you may find it above ground.^ 
According to others the thunderbolt penetrated the 
earth to a distance of nine fathoms, and rose up a 
fathom each year until it reached the surface.* Agricola 

^ De Proprietatibus rertim, lib. xvi., c. 32. He relies on Isidore as his 
authority. 

^ Marbode, Liber de Gemnn's, § 28, in Migne, Pairologiae Ciirsus coni- 
pleius, torn. 171, p. 1756. Ropartz, Poenies de Marbode (Latin and 
French), p. 176, Rennes [1872], 8vo. This is a locus classiais quoted 
since its date by everyone who has touched upon cerauniae. It was 
copied on a slip and attached to a Fubninis sagitta in the museum 
at Leyden in 1634. Brereton, Travels, P- 41. (Chetham Society.) 

^ Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, translated by Stallybrass, i., p. 179. 
London, 1882, 8vo. 

■• Gesner, De rerutn fossiliuin, lapidu7n et gcmniarum Liber, p. 66 ; 
Aldrovandi, Mtiseum jnetallicum, p. 609 ; Von Scheelenberg in Zeitschrift 
filr EtJmologie, xii. (1880), p. 255. 



66 STONE CELTS 

mentions the common belief, but without saying that 
he accepts it/ and in this he is followed by Gesner."^ 
De Boodt says that so strong was the vulgar notion 
that anyone who disputed that such things fell from the 
clouds would be thought a fool. Many, however, he 
adds, are doubtful, while others explain the pheno- 
menon by the theory that cerauniae were the product 
of an exhalation from lightning acted on by moisture 
and heat which caused them to assume their specific 
shapes and produced their various colours.^ But if 
this explanation be well founded, it is strange, he adds, 
that the stone is not entirely round, and that it is 
perforated. Others, again, could not understand how 
stones came to be formed in the clouds, anu suggested 
that the cerauniae^ or the material which composes 
them, were swept up from the earth by whirlwinds 
and hurled down again by thunder clouds.'^ This de 
Boodt considered unsatisfactory. Ulisse Aldrovandi, 
the great naturalist of Bologna, thought that they 
were produced like other stones, by the plastic power 
of nature, and this was evidently the opinion of 
Agricola, of Gesner, and of de Boodt. 

While so many imaginary virtues were attributed to 
celts it is interesting to know that they are possessed 
of some very curious dynamical properties. A few 
years ago an Aberdeenshire farmer ascertained that a 
perforated celt spins perfectly when turned in one 

'^ De naiura fossiliutn, lib. \-., p. 6io, with the De re metallica. Basil., 
1657. 

■^ Ut supra, p. 65. 

^ This is explained at some length by Lodovico Moscardo, Note ovvero 
Memorie del suo fnuseo, p. 144. Padua, 1656, fol. 

*See Von Scheelenberg, ut supra, p. 255. 



THUNDER BALLS 6/ 

direction, but will not do so when spun in the opposite 
direction ; a phenomenon which was subsequently 
investigated and explained by Mr. G. T. Walker of 
Trinity College, Cambridge.^ 

Another thunder-stone was known by the name of 
brontea (German Trottenstein) and a third as ombria. 
The latter falls, says Pliny,- " with showers and light- 
ning, much in the same manner as the ceraunia and 
brontea, the properties of which it is said to possess." 
The bronteae were in reality petrified bodies, the 
ceratLuiae were the product of human handicraft, yet 
both were treated as stones which had assumed their 
particular shapes by virtue of an occult power in the 
earth. Bronteae, says Mercati, " are not thunder- 
bolts but naturally-formed stones," by w^hich he meant 
lapides i§iofx6p(poi.^ Besides thunder-bolts there were 
also thunder-balls {^globuliftUminares, Donner-Kugeln), 
which were likewise thouQ-ht to be o'enerated in the 
air and thrown down by thunder clouds. These were 
egg-shaped in form, and were apparently merely rolled 
stones. "^ 

Stones have often an accidental resemblance to 
some known object, such form being produced by 
weathering, by ice, water, or other external cause, and 
it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between such 

'^Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, viii. (1895), P- 2>'^S- 

Valentini notes that the perforation is through the point of equilibrium. 
Museum Museorum, i., p. 54. 

^Historia Naturalis, xxxvi. 65. 

^Metallotheca, p. 246. 

* Briickmann, Epistola Itineraria, 32, Cent, i., and Supplement, p. 26. 
He mentions, Epistola 1 5, a curious story of meal which some credulous 
peasants believed to have fallen from the clouds. 



68 GLOSSOPETRAE 

a Sport and an object artificially formed. A large 
number of the stones which were grouped according 
to a fancied likeness to some natural object were of 
this character. The result was that petrifactions, 
artifically shaped stones and mere sports were placed 
in the same group, which was based on figure, and 
such figure, it was assumed in each case, was pro- 
duced by the plastic power of the earth. 

Glossopetrae were a class of stones which caused 
much discussion, Pliny says^ that the glossopetra 
resembles the human tongue, is not engendp»-'^d in the 
earth, but falls from the heavens dunng the moon's 
eclipse, and is considered highly necessary for the pur- 
poses of selenomancy. He does not, in terms, refer 
to flint arrowheads, but that he did was assumed by 
many of the older antiquaries, who classed these ob- 
jects under the head glossopetrae, and attributed to 
them all the virtues mentioned by Pliny and many 
others besides. Glossopetrae were found in great num- 
bers in Malta, and were known as " Serpents' tongues " 
from the belief that they were the tongues of ser- 
pents which had been turned into stone by the 
preaching of St. Paul.'- This, says de Boodt, is all 
wrong; "they are stones of their own kind," that is, 
stones which so grew.^ Michael Mercati, after men- 
tioning that there are three kinds of glossopetrae, 
large, middling, and small, says that some people 

^Historia Aaturalis, xxxvii. 59. 

-Bartholinus, Epistolae Medicinales, Cent, i., Epist. 53, p. 223. See 
also lb., pp. 216, 240, 241, 242 ; Major, Bedencken von Kiinst- und 
Naturalicn-Kammern, c. x., p. 59, in Valentini, Museum Museorum, 
vol. i. See also Valentini, Op. laud., i., p. 65. 

^ Getmnarznn et lapiduni Historia, p. 340. 



FOSSIL SHELLS 69 

confound the large kind with the teeth of the lamia 
or shark, and that their mistake is excusable as there 
is a great similarity. He figures the open mouth 
of a shark and separately one of its teeth and also a 
glossopetra. He then goes on to point out wherein 
they differ. Giossopetrae, as a rule, are thinner and 
less bright ; sharks' teeth are always bright, while 
giossopetrae vary in colour. It was the middle size 
which were taken for serpents' teeth, which, says 
Mercati, is an error; they are nature's own handiwork, 
"privatum naturae opus."^ Yet they are undoubtedly 
the fossilised teeth of certain kinds of shark. ^ The 
identification, which was only accepted after a long 
controversy, was one of the first steps towards 
determining the true nature of fossils. Fossil shells, 
according to the opinion of the ancients, were the 
remains of fish that had once lived, ^ but curiously 
enough this view was not accepted by scientific men 
of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Accord- 
ing to their doctrine, fossil shells were not regarded 
;is having any connection with actual shells, but were 
attributed to a vegetative virtue in the particular soil 
in the places where they were found, which deter- 
mined them to that particular and regular shape. An 
argument against their ever having been the coverings 
of molluscs was that they were found far from the sea. 

'^Metallotheca, p. 333. His account of the lamia he takes from Ron- 
dolet, De piscibtcs marinis, p. 390. Lugd., 1554, fol. 

^Pidgeon, The Fossil Remains of the Animal Kingdo7H, p. 428, London, 
1836, 8vo ; Hill, History of the Materia Medica, p. 307. 

'An interesting abstract of the opinions of the older writers tending to 
prove that fossil shells were once real shells is given by John de Laet, De 
ge7?iinis et lapidibiis, p. 177 sqq. Lugd. Bat., 1647, 8vo. 



70 FOSSIL TEETH 

Glossopetrae for instance were found in the sands of 
Deventer and in the alum pits at Ltineburg/ as well as 
in Malta, and sharks, it was argued, could not by any 
possibility have been in such inland places. John 
Baptista Olivus or Oliva of Cremona, writing in 1584, 
states that they were believed to be sharks' teeth. 
" dentes lamiarum credunt."' Fabio Colonna (1567- 
1660), a physician in Rome, an exact and erudite 
observer, published a treatise in 1616, </^ Glossopetris, 
in which he maintained that they were the teeth of 
sharks.^ In 1669 Niels or Nicolaus Steno (1631-1687), 
a Danish naturalist resident in Italy, argued that they 
were the teeth of sea doQ-s/ Aorostino Scilla, a 
Sicilian painter, writing in 1670, pointed out the close 
resemblance in several particulars between the fossil 
teeth found in Malta, Calabria, and other places, and 
the teeth of living sharks, and added that they are just 
such teeth converted into stone. ^ John Reiske (1640- 

^Boetius, Geinmarum et lapidum Historia^ p. 341. 

- De recondifis et praecipuis collcctaneis in Musaeo Calccolarii, p. 42. 
Venet., 1584, 4to. 

^With his treatise, De Purpura, Romae, 161 6, 4to ; reprinted separately 
in an enlarged form, Romae, 1627, and with Agostino Scilla De Corportbus 
marinis lapidescentibiis. Romae, 1752, and again 1759, 4to. He had 
advocated the same views in his De aquatilibus aliisque anitnalibus 
qtdbusdaiH panels Libelbis. Romae, 1616, 8vo. 

An account of Colonna's museum will be found in Major, Bedencken 
von Kunst- und Ahituralieti-Katnniern, p. 68, in \"alentini, Museum 
Museoriun, vol. i. 

*De Solido intra Solidum naturaliter contento dissertationis Prodro- 
?nus. Florent., 1669, 4to ; Lugd. Bat., 1679, i2mo ; translated into 
English by H. O. [Henry Oldenburg], London, 167 1, 8vo. In Italian, 
Pistorii, 1763, 4to, supra, p. 49. 

^La vana speculaziotie disingafmata del Senso. Naples, 1670, 4to ; in 
Latin, Rome, 1752, 1759, 4to. Abridged in The Philosophical Trans- 
actiofts, xix. (1695-97), p. 181 sqq., by Dr. Wotton. The subject was 



THEIR ORIGIN 7 I 

1 701), Rector of the Gymnasium at Liineburg, took a 
different view, combatted the doctrines of Colonna, 
Steno, and Scilla, and advanced as his own opinion 
that glossopetrae were neither tongues nor parts of 
animals but simply stones, that is, figured stones which 
had so grown/ Still later, Ole Worm (1667- 1708), 
grandson of the great collector of the same name, gives 
it as his opinion that the glossopetra was a stone con- 
densed by some saline, nitrous, and bituminous juices 
in the bowels of the earth, as well on the sea shore as 
on the tops of mountains." In 1717 Georg Andreas 
Helwing (1666- 1748), pastor of Angerburg,^ refutes 
the old story of glossopetrae being serpents' tongues 
and describes several species of sharks' teeth under 
the titles Glossopeh^a and Odo7itopeira^ He was, 

taken up and discussed by Dr. John Arbuthnot. An Exaj)iitiatio)i of 
Dr. Woodward's Account of the Deluge., etc., London, 1697, 8vo, in which 
he deals not only with Dr. Woodward, but also with Steno, Scilla, and 
Wotton. 

An interesting account of the whole question and of the views of Robert 
Hooke is given by Ray, Travels througJi the Loiu Countries., i., pp. 96- 
iio, 252, 267, London, 1738, Svo. 

Scilla's collections are in the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge. 

^De Glossopetris Lihiebiirgensibus. Lips., 1684, 4to ; Norimb., 1687, 8vo. 

"^De Glossopetris dissertatio. Hafniae, 1686, 4to. 

^ Lithographia Angerburgica, pars i. Koenigsb., 1717; pars ii. Lips., 
1720, 4to. Prefixed to Part i. is a very quaint engraving of Angerburg. 
De lapidibus et fossilibus. Koenigsb., 1717. His chapter (Part i., c. vii., 
p. 79 sqq}) on Thunder-bolts {lapidesfulininares) is reprinted in Materiaux., 
X. (1875), P- 297 sqq. See also lb.., p. 98. 

In his plate x. he gives representations both of stone and bronze axes 
and fibulae. 

''This was pretty much Scilla's view, that minerals and metals were 
generated by a penetrating juice or vapour, arising out of the bowels of 
the earth, which alters and turns all manner of earth into itself. 

Briickmann deals fully with the subject in Epistola Itineraria., 29, 
Cent. i. 



72 FOSSIL BONES 

however, a believer in fossil man, and describes 
many petrified parts of the human body and stones 
bearing the figure of man.^ A few years later, Dr. 
John Woodward {1665-1728) catalogues a large 
number of objects, which had been sent to him by 
Scilla, as fossil sharks' teeth. ^ Chemistry was 
dragged into the dispute. Elias Camerarius (1672- 
1734), Professor of Medicine in the University 
of Tubingen, was unable to persuade himself that 
the glossopetrae could ever have been the teeth 
of any fish because of the small quantity of volatile 
salt and oil which they afforded on distillation. To 
which Woodward replied that they no doubt lost the 
best part of their volatile principles from being so 
long buried in the earth. Camerarius next objected 
that when exposed to the naked fire they turn to a 
coal and not to a calx as asserted by Colonna.^ To 
this Woodward answered that it was quite probable 
that in burning they might assume the form of a 
coal before it arrived at that of a calx. 

Fossil bones which were not petrified were treated 
just the same as teeth that were petrified. It was 
assumed that they were not bones at all. By some it 
was thought that they were produced naturally in the 
earth. Others were of opinion that stone marrow 

^ op. laud.., part i., p. 55 sqq. ; ii., p. 127. 

"^Catalogue of foreign fossils. Part ii., pp. 23-29. London, 1728, 
8vo. 

3 Woodward, Naturalis historia Telluris illustrata et aucta una cum 
ejusdem defensione praeserfim contra jiuperas objectiones El. Camerarii, 
London, 1714, Svo. In English, London, 1726, Svo ; in French, by 
Noguez, Amst., 1735, ^^o* 



MEDICINAL USE OF FOSSILS 73 

[me7'-ga),^ being dissolved and percolating through the 
earth, ultimately assumed the form of bones.' 

Glossopetrae, like arrow-heads, were used as charms.^ 
At one time, too, they occupied a prominent place 
in the pharmacopoeia and were administered in 
various forms as a remedy for snake bites and for 
the cure of many diseases ; * but latterly they were 
less esteemed and, like the teeth of present-day 
sharks, were used only for tooth powder."" 

Nearly every stone, figured and otherwise, was 
used in medicine in old days. Cerauniae — stone 
axes — when reduced to powder, was a famous remedy 
for jaundice, and belemnites — the bolt-head — was an 
accepted cure for nightmare ! 

THE BARNACLE GOOSE. 

An exhibit which was eagerly sought after was the 
Claik or Barnacle Goose, — the French IMargueroUe 
or Macreuse — the origin of which long vexed the 

^As to merga, see Agricola, De natura fossiliiim, lib. ii., with the De re 
metallica, p. 578^. Basil., 1657. Aldrovandi, Mtisaeum metalliaivi, p. 
630 ; Valentini, Museum Aluseorum, ii., pp. 3, 4 ; Leibnitz, Protogaea, § 36 ; 
Schroder, Pharmacopoeia, lib. iii., p. 42. 

^Boetius, Op. laud., p. 426 ; Valentini, Op. laud., ii., Appendix i., p. 92 ; 
Hill, History of the Materia Medica, p. 260. 

3 One is figured in Materiaux, xi. (1876), p. 540. 

* Hoffmann, Clavis pharmaceutica Schroderiatta, p. 131, Halae, 1675, 
4to ; Alston, Lectures on the Materia Medica, \., p. 271; Valentini, 
Museum Museoruni, i., p. 66. Keysler, explains their virtues by the 
presence of coralline salts. Reisen, p. 102, Hannover, 1751, 4to. 

^Leibnitz, Protogaea, § 32; Rondelet mentions {De piscibus marinis, 
P- 393) Lugd., 1554, fol.) that from sharks' teeth the best dentifrice is made. 
It whitens the teeth by reason of its hardness. Goldsmiths, he says, 
covered the teeth with silver and called them " Serpents' teeth," and 
mothers hung them round their babies' necks in the belief that they 
assisted dentition and kept off frights. 



74 BARNACLE GOOSE 

scientific world. Hector Boyis, "a man nocht les 
notable in lugement, than famous in eruditione, and 
a maist curiouse sercher out of this secrete and 
nature of this foule,"^ had given currency to the fable'^ 
that they were produced either in rotten timber float- 
ing in the sea, or from the fruit of certain trees when 
it fell into the sea;^ which are actually figured by 
Gerarde* and Aldrovandi. Michael Maier (1568- 
1622), physician and alchemist, Count of the Imperial 
Consistory, wrote a special treatise upon these birds/ 
The elder Scaliger disputed that they grew upon 
trees, but was satisfied that they sprang from floating 
wreckage.*^ Sir Robert Moray, the President of the 
Royal Society, declared, in 1678, that when he was 
last in the Western Islands of Scotland he saw 
multitudes of shells adhering to trees, "having within 
them little Birds perfectly shap'd." He opened several 
of them and found, he says, nothing wanting for 
" making up a perfect Sea Fowl," ' a statement which 
is alluded to in Hitdibras (Part iii., Canto ii., 652) : 

And from the most refin'd of saints, 

As nat'rally grow miscreants, 

As barnacles turn soland geese 

In th' islands of the Orcades. 

^ The Historie of Scotland, by Leslie, translated in Scottish by Dal- 
rymple, i., p. 60, Edinburgh, 1888, 8vo. 

- Boece's History was published in 1527. The stor)' is to be found three 
hundred years earlier in the Speculum of Vincent de Beauvais (t 1264). 

^ Boethii, Scotorum Historia, p. 8, verso. Paris, 1574, fol. 

*Herball, p. 1 39 1. London, 1597, fol. 

' Tractatus de Volucre Arborea, absque patre et matre in Insulis 
Orcadum forma Anserculorum proveniente. Francof., 1619; i2mo. 

^ De Siibtilitate, Exercitatio 59, p. 215. Francof, 161 2, 8vo. See 
Gassendi, Vita Peirescii, p. 42, Hag. Com., 1656, 4to. 

'Philosophical Transactions, xii., No. 137, p. 925. John Ray, who was 



USED IN LENT 75 

Ole Worm^ adopted the popular belief, with some 
additional marvels taken from John Monipennie's 
A bridge7ne7it or Sumniarie of the Scots Chronicles. 
"At Dumbarton, directly under the castle, at the 
mouth of the river of Clyde, as it enters in the sea, 
there are a number of clayk geese, blacke of colour, 
which in the night time doe gather great quantity 
of the crops of the grasse, growing upon the land, 
and carry the same to the sea ; then assembling 
in a round, and with a wondrous curiositie, do 
offer everie one his own portion to the sea fioud, 
and there attend upon the flowing of the tide, till 
the grasse be purified from the fresh taste, and 
turned to the salt ; and lest any part thereof should 
escape, they labour to hold it in with their nebs ; 
there after orderly every fowie eats his portion ; 
and this custome they observe perpetually. They are 
very fat and delicious to be eaten."- In some places 
they were eaten instead of fish, and not being flesh 
or being produced from flesh, the Theologians of the 
Sorbonne, it is said,^ decided that they were to be 

a fellow of the Royal Society, writing in 1663, says that the story is 
" without all doubt false and frivolous." Travels through the Low 
Countries^ i., p. 250. London, 1738, 8vo. 

^Museum IVormianum, p. 257. 

^ Edinburgh, 1671, p. 289; Glasgow, 1820, p. 202. The first edition was 
published, London, 1612, 4to. Again, Edinburgh, 1633, i2mo ; Glasgow, 
1750, i2mo. 

The Claik is still found on the Clyde and Loch Lomond, but the 
picturesque details of the old chronicler have vanished. See Lumsden 
and Brown, Guide to the Natural History of Loch Lo7no?id and Neighbour- 
hood, p. 47, Glasgow, 1895, 8vo. 

3 Worm, Op. laud. ; Dr. Tancred Robinson, " On the French Macreuse 
and Scotch Bernacle," in The Philosophical Transactions, xv. (1685), pp. 
1036, 1041. 



^6 HATCHED FROM EGGS 

classed with fish, and not with birds ; they were 
therefore deemed suitable for use during Lent, and 
used to be sent from Normandy to Paris in great 
numbers at that season.^ Andre Graindorge of Caen 
(i6 16-1676) rejected all such stories and decided, in 
accordance with the opinion of many writers, whom 
he quotes, that they were hatched from eggs like 
other birds." Sir Robert Sibbald, about the same 
time, examined the whole subject personally, and 
showed that the Barnacle goose [Bernicla leucopsis) 
was a bird produced from an ^'g'g, and that the 
Barnacle shell {Concha miatiferd) instead of being 
that ^^<g was a pholas — the Scots piddocks.^ 

It still, however, held its place in the Phar7nacopoeia, 
and Salmon repeats the old story that "they breed 
unnaturally of the leaves or apples of a certain tree in 
Scotland." It agreed in nature and virtues with the 
common goose. The grease is exceeding good against 

^ This was still the case in 1698. Lister, A Journey to Paris, in 1698, 
p. 156, London, 1699, 8vo. 

2 Traite de Vorigine des MacrcKscs par feu M. de Graifidorge, doctcur de 
la Faculte de Medecine de M otitpellier, et fiiis en lumiere par M. Thomas 
Malouin, Docteur de la Faculte de Medecine en PUniversite de Caen. 
Caen, 1680, 8vo. Reprinted by P. J. Buchoz in Traites fres-rares, con- 
cernant Vhistoire naturelle et les arts. Paris, 1780, i2mo. 

^ Pf'ody-omus NaturaUs Hisioriae Scotiae, Pt. ii., lib. 3, pp. 21, 27, and 
Appendix, p. 36, Edinburgh, 1684, fol. ; Auctarium Musaei Balfouriani, 
p. 170, Edinburgh, 1697, i2mo. See Wallace, Description of the Isles 
of Orkney, pp. 21, 189, and Plate ii., ed. Small, Edinburgh, 1883, 8vo. 
Deusing, Dissertatio de anseribus Scoticis, in his Dissertationum Fasciculus, 
Groning., 1660, i2mo ; Valentini, Museum Museorum, i., p. 465 ; Laskey, 
Account of the Hunterian Museum, pp. 30, 99, Glasgow, 1813, 8vo. 
Migne, Dictionnaire des Superstitions, s.v. Paris, 1856. 

An interesting account of the Barnacle goose myth is given by Max 
Miiller in Lectures on the Science of Language, 2nd Series, pp. 536-551. 
London, 1864, 8vo. 



MEDICINAL USE J J 

palsies, lameness, and the like ; the blood is an anti- 
dote against poison ; the gall with honey helps contused 
eyes ; the dung is excellent against scurvy and dropsy, 
gout and jaundice ; the skin of the feet dried and given 
in powder was a specific for certain ailments.^ 

^ Salmon, Ncio London Dispensatory, pp. 223, 224, 5th ed., London, 
1696, 8vo ; Schroder, Pharmacopoeia medico-chymica, lib. v., p. 295, 
Ulm., 1684, 4to. 



CHAPTER VII. 

SOME EARLY MUSEUMS. 

Passing by national collections such as those of 
Rome, Florence, Vienna, Dresden, Munich, Berlin, 
Paris, Brussels, and London, and Galleries of Art and 
special collections, as of coins, medals and gemS; and 
anatomical and pathological preparations,^ it may be 
instructive to run over some of the more important 
museums of the seventeenth and eio-hteenth centuries. 
One of the earliest and most notable was that of 
the great naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi (1527-1605),^ 
" omnis fere eruditionis oceanus^"^ which is still pre- 
served at Bologna, a monument of his industry and 
learning. His ambition was to describe and illustrate 
all external nature. For thirty years he employed 
and paid a painter two hundred crowns a year, and 
spared no expense in obtaining the assistance of the 
first artists of the day ; but his labours exceeded 
his strength and wealth, and he died poor and blind 
in the hospital of his native city. 

^ See supra, p. 24 ; itifra, p. 145. 

^C. S. Schefifel, Vita Schelhammeri, p. 25, in Ad G. C. Schelhavimerum 
Epistolae selectiores, Wismar, 1727, 8vo. " Rondeletius, Gesnerus at 
Aldrovandus, qui tres constituunt trigam historicorum physicorum 
absolutissimam," Alsted, Scientiarum omnium Eficylopadia, xxxii. 10, § 4. 

78 



ALDROVANDI S MUSEUM 79 

His works published in 1599 and subsequent years 
fill no less than thirteen folio volumes, and were in 
part edited by Thomas Dempster of Muresk, then 
professor of humanity in the University of Bologna.^ 
" But above all, I must entreat you," writes a learned 
Scot, " buy me Aidrovandiiss workes, which are 
13 or 14 Tomes in Folio; you may buy them in 
sheets and have them packt up in your own things 
for Venice, where you will not fail to meet with 
frequent occasions of sending them to London.""^ 
One of the rarest of these volumes is the Musaezmt 
metallicwn^ a description of rocks and earths, 
minerals and metals, including amongst rocks, — 
fossil plants, shells and fish, and such artificial 
productions as stone axes and flint arrowheads. 
It is copiously illustrated and brings together all 

^After Aldrovandi's death the Senate of Bologna employed Dempster 
along with John Cornelius Uterverius of Delft, who was also a professor 
at Bologna, to assist in preparing his MS. material for the press. Only a 
portion was published. There still remain in manuscript between two 
and three hundred memoirs. Maximilian Misson, who visited the com- 
bined museums of Aldrovandi and Cospi in 1688, says, "But there is 
nothing in both those cabinets so rare and surprising as what I am going 
to relate to you. In a chamber near to the first we saw a hundred and 
eighty-seven volumes in folio, all written by Aldrovandus his own hand, 
with more than two hundred bags full of loose papers. 'Tis true the 
margins are large, and the lines at a considerable distance." A Neiu 
I'oyage to Italy, ii., p. 197, London, 1699, 8vo. 

-Letters 'written to a friend by tJie learned a)id judiciotts Sir Atidrcw 
Balfour, M.D., pp. 213, 268, Edinburgh 1700, i2mo. See the remarks of 
Schelhammer in notes on Conringii, In 7tniversam artein niedicam Intro- 
ductio, p. 293. Spirae, 1688, 4to. 

'^ Musaetim 7netallicum in libros iiii. distributum, Barth. Ambrosinus 
composuit. Bononiae, 1648, fol. Bartholomeo Ambrosini, the editor, was 
Director of the Botanic Garden of Bologna. The Musaeum was abridged 
by David Kellner, Synopsis Musaei Metallici U.A. Lipsiae, 1701, i2mo. 



80 ZANONl's MUSEUM 

the information of the time, which instead of being 
a blemish, as Buffon suggests, adds considerably 
to the utility of a work whose value is nowadays, 
to a great extent, historical. In treating of the 
metals Aldrovandi deals with them not only in their 
native but also in their manufactured condition, and 
enumerates and describes the uses to which they are 
put for weapons, utensils, and otherwise.^ Although 
he mentions that in India the natives used stone 
knives and stone axes, and figures beautifully hafted 
examples of both,^ it apparently did not occur to him 
that they corresponded with the cerauniae which he 
describes at length.^ He represents a stone arrowhead 
as lapis sagittariiLs or artificial belemnite, and men- 
tions that these objects were used by the old Romans 
in warfare.* 

There was another contemporary museum at Bo- 
logna, that of Giacomo Zanoni (1615-1682), the 
botanist, which was remarkable for its collection of 
stones, learnedly termed a XSoTafxelov} " Dr. Mont- 
albanus," says John Ray, writing in 1663, ''very 
civilly brought us to the house of Jacobus Zenoni, an 

^In treating of bronze he refers to frequent finds of bronze objects in the 
earth, and concludes that the ancient Saxons used weapons of bronze. 
Musaeum Metalltcum, p. 122. 

^Musaeiim Aletallicum, pp. 156-158. 

^Op. laud., p. 606, et sqq. He repeats the illustrations of Gesner and 
adds some of his own. 

^ Op. laud., pp. 618, 634, 635. \'alentini comments on the passage, 
Museum Museoru?n, ii., p. 16. 

^C. S. Scheffel, Vita Schelhajnmen, p. 25, in Ad G. C. Schel- 
hammerum Epistolae Selectiores. Wismar, 1727, 8vo. See also Jocher 
Gelehrteti- Lexicon, s.v. ; Fantuzzi, ScrittoH Bolognesi, viii., p. 412. 

Zanoni was the author of Istoria Botanica (Bologna, 1675, fol.) ; 
translated into Latin by Cajetano Monti, Bologna, 1742, fol. 



/ 



BOLOGNA AND MODENA 8 I 

apothecary, a skilful herbarist, and a collector of 
rarities ; who among other things shewed us three 
pieces of rock-chrystal, with drops of water inclosed 
in the middle of them, which we could plainly per- 
ceive when the chrystal was moved to and fro."^ 
The museum was maintained by Zanoni's son, 
Pelleorino." 

When at Bologna, Ray mentions that he visited 
" Signor Gioseppi Bucemi, a chymist, who prepares 
the Bononian stone or Lapis phosphortts, which, if 
exposed a while to the illuminated air, will imbibe the 
light, so that withdrawn into a dark room, and there 
look'd upon, it will appear like a burning coal ; but 
in a short time gradually loses its shining, till again 
exposed to the light." ^ 

At Modena, Ray saw the Duke's palace, but " what 
we most minded was the cabinet or musaeum, furnished 
with choice of natural rarities, jewels, ancient and 
modern coins and medals, ancient and modern en- 
taglias, curious turn'd works, dried plants pasted upon 
smooth boards whiten'd with ceruss, which may be 
put in frames and hung about a room like pictures ; 
and a great collection of designs of the best painters. 
Among other things we took notice of a human head 

^ Ray, Op. laud.., i., p. 200. 

^ Paolo Boccone in A conipleat Volume of the Memoirs for the Curious, 
ii., p. \oz sqq.^ London, 1710, 4to. He mentions several other museums 
in Bologna and the neighbourhood. 

*As to the Bononian stone, see Robert Boyle, Works, iv., p. 380; 
The Philosophical Transactions Abridged, by Hutton, i., p. 139 ; ii., pp. 
382, 515; Grew, Musaeum Regalis Societatis, p. 311 ; Valentini, Museilm 
Museorum, ii., p. 56 ; Beckmann, History of Inventiofts, ii., p. 429 ; and 
list of treatises in Dryander, Catalogus Bibliothecae historico-naturalis 
Josephi Banks, iv., p. 254. 

F 



82 OBJECTS OF INTEREST 

petrified ; a hen's egg having on one side the 
signature^ of the sun, which I the rather noted, 
because some years before Sir Thomas Brown of 
Norwich sent me the picture of one, having the 
perfect signature of a duck swimming upon it, which 
he assured me was natural. Moss included in a piece 
of chrystal, silver in another. A fly plainly discernible 
in a piece of amber. A Chinese calendar written on 
wooden leaves."^ 

This description gives, in short compass, an excellent 
idea of the contents of a seventeenth century museum, 
and tells us, not merely what attracted the ordinary 
visitor, but what the scientific traveller looked at and 
deemed to be of importance. 

Mercati's museum, already referred to, was an ex- 
cellent one, and he was himself a good observer and 
a man of considerable independence of judgment. He 
was among the first to establish that flint arrowheads, 
known in Italy as " saette," were really manufactured 
weapons. He appeals to history, and refers to the use 
of flint knives amongst the Jews, and to the employ- 
ment of stone for tools and weapons by the American 
Indians. The early inhabitants of Italy likewise, he 
thought, used stone, which gave way to iron only on the 
introduction of the latter by commerce.^ He describes 
true meteorites, and distinguishes them from cerauniae 

1 As to signatures, cf. p. 85 and see Prof. P. J. Veth of Arnheim in 
hiternationales Archiv fiir Ethnographie, vii. (1894), pp. 75, 105. 

2 Ray, op. laud., i., p. 201. His remarks on the Florentine museum 
are in the same strain. lb., p. 285. 

^ Metallotheca, pp. 243-245. He figures nine examples. The passage 
has been reproduced in Matdriaux pour Phistoire primitive et naturelle 
d£ P horn me, x. (1875), pp. 49-57. 



CALCEOLARI MUSEUM 83 

and other stones supposed to have fallen from the 
clouds.^ Ceratmtae, that is, stone celts {cerauniae 
CHiieaiae), he mentions, were used in his day for 
burnishing gold and silver, and by the shoemakers of 
old for polishing women's shoes,- Mummy, he points 
out, is not a bitumen, as fancied by the Arabians, 
but human remains preserved by spices. It is an 
excellent remedy, he explains, for ruptures and con- 
tusions, and for stopping bleeding, either taken 
internally or applied externally.^ Pit-coal he treats 
as a mere museum curiosity. It is not used for cook- 
ing, he says, on account of its heavy smell.* 
"*■■ Francesco Calzolari or Calceolari of Verona added 
greatly to the museum which had been commenced 
by his father of the same name — from whom the well- 
known yellow flowers, with long baggy lips which 
ornament our o^reen-houses and wardens, are said 
to take their name^ — who was an intimate friend of 
Mattioli and Aldrovandi. He grudged neither trouble 
nor expense in obtaining specimens from all parts 

^ Op. laud., p. 248. 

^ Op. laud., p. 241. This seems to have been a fairly general practice. 
See Evans, A?tdent Stone Implements, p. 440, 2nd ed. London, 1897. 

^Op. laud., pp. 84, 85. 

* Op. laud., p. 87. 

^ So say the scientists. Father Feuillet, the distinguished French 
traveller and observer, is said to have given the name in honour of 
Calceolari. The Dictionary-makers — English, French, and German — 
on the other hand derive the name from calceohis, a slipper. With 
strange inconsistency Pierre Larousse, in that most useful work Grand 
Dictionnaire Universel du xix^ Steele, on the same page (Tom. iii., p. in) 
gives the slipper etymology, and mentions that Father Feuillet bestowed 
the name in honour of the Italian botanist. The plant does not appear 
in Boehmer, Commentatio botanico-literaria de Plafitis in memoriam 
Cultorum noininatis, Lipsiae, 1799, 8vo. 



84 MOSCARDO OF VERONA 

of the world, and made the collection one of the 
most complete and valuable in Italy. An account 
of the museum, as it existed in the father's time, was 
drawn up by John Baptista Oliva of Cremona;^ 
and a detailed account of the enlarged collection, 
prepared by Benedetto Ceruti and Andrea Chiocco, 
was published in 1662." Prefixed is a view of 
the interior of the museum. The collection passed 
into the hands of Ludovico Moscardo, a noble- 
man of Verona, who added it to his own which 
was particularly rich in antiquarian objects — inscrip- 
tions, statues, fibulae, lacrymatories, lamps, weapons, 
implements. Of these he wrote an account and gave 
drawings of all the more important.^ 

* De 7'econditis et praecipuis collectaneis ab honestissimo et solertissimo 
Francisco Calceolario VeroJicnsi in Miisaco adserieafis, Venet., 1584, 4to. 
Prefixed is a tabular index. 

'^ Musaeuin Francisci Calceolari Jnnioris^ a Benedicio Cervto, nudico, 
incoeptitm et ab Andrea Chiocco luculenier descriptiirn et perfectum. 
Veronae, 1622, fol., with plates. Tiraboschi, Storia delta Letteratura 
Italiana, viii., p. 124. It was a scarce and dear book in 17 19. 
Nichols, Literary Illustrations of the Eighteenth Century, i., p. 358. 

^ Note, ovvero Memorie del suo Aluseo . . . in tre libri distinte, Padoa, 
1656, fol., with plates ; and enlarged, Verona, 1672, fol. The book is 
somewhat rare, and the chapter on ceratiniae is reprinted in Materiaux, 
xi. (1876), p. I sqq. 

The Museum was visited by Ray in 1663 {Travels through the Low 
Countries, i., p. 186, London, 1738, 8vo) ; by Gilbert Burnet in 1685 
{Letters cotttaining an account of what seemed most remarkable in 
Switzerland, Italy, &^c., p. 122, Amsterdam, 1686); by Misson and his 
pupil in 1687 {A New Voyage to Italy, i., p. 130 sqq.; ii., p. 332); in 
1700 by Father Montfaucon, who describes it. The Antiquities of Italy, 
translated by Henley, p. 294, London, 1725, fol. No part of it was to 
be seen in 1730. Keysler, Reisen, p. 1020, Hannover, 175 1, 4to. See 
Maffei, Verona illustrata, Verona, 1731-32, folio ; 1792-93, 4to ; and 
Blume, Iter Italicum, i., p. 266 (Berlin, 1824). 

A part of the Calceolari collection seems to have come into the hands 



CUSANUS AND IMPERATI 85 

Another museum at Verona, at this time, belonged 
to IMapheus Cusanus, an apothecary, "Wherein were 
shewn many ancient y^gyptian idols, taken out of 
the mummies, divers sorts of petrified shells, petrified 
cheese, cinnamon, spunge and mushroomes. A jasper 
stone and an agate having chrystal within them. 
Stones having upon them the perfect impression or 
signature of the ribs and whole spines of fishes. . . . 
A stone called Ocichis mundi, n. d., which when dry 
shews cloudy and opake, but when put into water, 
grows clear and transparent."^ 

The museum of Ferrante and Francesco Imperati 
of Naples was very celebrated in its day, and did 
much for the advancement of science.^ It was visited 
in 1 60 1 by Fabri de Peiresc, who found it well 
furnished with the rarities of nature,^ Ferrante seems 
to have been the first who ascertained the true nature 
of bronteae and 07nbriae, and showed that the Jew 
stones were the petrified points of an echinus. 

of Mario Sala, an apothecary of Verona, who had a museum in 1663. 
Ray, ut supra. 

^ Ray, Op. laud.., i., p. 186. As to the Ocuhis muiuii, see De Laet, Dc 
Gemniis et Lapidibus, cap. xviii., p. 69, Lugd. Bat., 1647, 8vo. Dryander 
enumerates twenty-seven papers on this stone, Catalogus Bibliothecac 
historico-naturalis Josephi Banks, iv., p. 90. 

^ BarthoHnus, Episiolae Medicinalcs, Cent, i., Epist. 49, p. 201, Hag. 
Com., 1740, i2mo; Happel, Eelatiojics curiosae, iii., p. 136, Hamburg, 
1687 ; Aldrovandi, Musaeum Metallicum, p. 825 ; Pflaumern, Merciiriiis 
Italicus, Part ii., p. 65 ; Major, Bedencken von Kunst- und Naturalien- 
KaniJiiern, pp. 27, 71, 72, in Valentini, Museum Museorutn, vol. i. 

The Museum was the foundation of Ferrante's Natm-al History, 
Naples, 1599, and of Francesco's work on Fossils, Naples, 16 10. There 
is no foundation for the allegation made by Bartholin that N. A. Stelliola 
was the real author of the latter. 

^Gassendi, Vita Peirescii, p. 22, Hag. Com., 1655, 4to. 



86 SCHLOSS AMRAS 

In 1564 Schloss Amras, near Innsbruck, became 
the property and favourite residence of the Archduke 
Ferdinand II. and his first wife, the beautiful Philip- 
pine Welser. Here he brought together a rich 
collection of books and manuscripts, works of art, 
weapons, antiquities, and curiosities, which attracted 
sightseers from every part of Europe. Maria Theresa 
removed the rarer books and the finest of the medals 
to Vienna, and presented the remainder of the library 
to the University of Innsbruck. In 1806, on the 
occasion of the French invasion, the greater part of 
the armour, art and other valuable objects were taken 
to Vienna,^ and now form the Ambras collection 
(Ambraser Sammlung) in the National Museum.' 
The remains of the collection have been considerably 
added to in recent years, and the museum is once 
more open to the public. Misson visited x^mras in 
1687, and his account indicates that the museum was 
well and intelligently arranged.^ The collection of 
weapons is still one of its features, and seems par- 
ticularly to have interested Misson. Like all travellers 
of his day, he is careful to note anything rare or out 
of the way, and mentions, amongst other weapons, 
a cross-bow which worked four and thirty bows and 

^ Hirsching, Nachric/ifen, i., p. 12 ; iv., p. 256, Erlangen, 1786, 8vo. 

Primisser, Die Kaiserlich-Konigliche Ambraser Sammlung, Wien, 
1 8 19, 8vo. A second edition was published in 1827, with an account of 
the ethnographical collections from the South Sea Islands and Green- 
land in the Imperial Museum. 

- Fiihrer diircJi die K.K. Ambraser Sai)imhc77g. Wien, 1S79, 1882, 
and later years, 8vo. 

''Misson, A New Voyage to Italy, i., p. iii sqq. ; ii., p. 331, London, 
1699. This account is repeated by Neickelius, Museographia, p. 20. 
Keysler, Reisen, p. 25 sqq, Hannover, 1751, 4to. 



SETTALA OF MILAN 87 

discharged as many arrows at once ;^ and a piece of 
the rope with which Judas hanged himself. 

Lodovico Settala, a physician of Milan, and his 
son Manfredo, a Canon of the Cathedral, collected 
a museum, particularly of what were then known 
as "artificial curiosities" {artificia rariorct), such as 
medals, intaglios, cameos, chemical preparations, 
philosophical instruments, and articles of glass and 
metal. *' Manfredo Septali," says Sir Andrew 
Balfour,- "is one of the greatest virtuosi in Italy. 
His Studie of Books consists of 2 or 3 Roomes. 
His Galerie of Curiosities of three Roomes. The 
Curiosities are both Natural and Artificial, of so 
great a Number and Varietie, that I must not insist 
upon particulars; but only refer you to the descrip- 
tion thereof in Latine by Paulus Maria Tersagus ; 
the Book is in 4to, Dertono, 1664, and bears the 
name Musaeum Septalianum."" Canon Settala's 

^ The ordinary repeating cross-bow was the so-called Chinese cross-bow 
(die chinesische Armbrust) which discharged a score of arrows in 
succession. Demmin, Die Kriegstuaffeji, pp. 102, 900, 908. Gera- 
Untermhaus, 1891, 8vo. 

Gilbert Burnet, Professor of Divinity at Glasgow (1669-1674), afterwards 
Bishop of Salisbury, when at Basle in 1686 saw a wind-giin that discharged 
ten shots at once, or could concentrate the force required for ten upon 
one, a kind of weapon the use of which he thought it the interest of man- 
kind to forbid. Letters, p. 265, Amsterdam, 1686, 8vo, p. 236; Rotterdam, 
1687, 8vo. 

-Letters Written to a Friend by the Learned and Jiidicious Sir 
Andreiu Balfour, M.D., p. 245, Edinburgh, 1700, i2mo. It was also 
visited and described by John Ray in 1663. Travels through the Low 
Countries, i., p. 209, London, 1738, 8vo. 

^ There is also an Italian translation by Sig. P. F. Scarabelli, Museo 
b Galeria adimata dal sapere, e dalle studio del Sig. Canonico Man/redo 
Settala . . . , et hora in Italiano dal Sig. P. F. Scarabelli, Tortona, 



88 VISIT TO A MUSEUM 

cabinet, says Addison, "is always shown to a stranger 
among the curiosities of Milan, which I shall not 
be particular upon, the printed account of it being 
common enough."^ Misson's description shows how 
a museum was visited and what was observed, in the 
seventeenth century. " Here we observ'd several 
sorts of very ingenious machines contriv'd for finding 
out the Perpetual Motion, looking-glasses of all sorts, 
dials, musical instruments both ancient and modern, 
some of which were invented by Settala himself; 
Books, medals, curious keys and locks, seals, rings, 
pictures, Indian works, mummies, arms, strange habits, 
lamps, urns, idols, with an infinite number of other 
sorts of antiquities ; Fruits, stones, minerals, animals ; 
a prodigious variety of shells ; works in steel, wood, 
amber and ivory ; a great piece of cloth made of the 
stone Amianthtcs; and without engaging further in 
those tedious enumerations I promis'd to avoid, all the 
most rare and curious productions of art and nature, 
not forofettine Monsters."^ It was Settala's wish that 
after his death the museum should be deposited in 

1666, 4to. Folding plate and frontispiece. Again, Tortona, 1677, 4to. 
Ouirini based his treatise, De Testaceis Fossilibiis Musaei Septalliani, 
Yen., 1676, 4to, on the specimens in the museum. 

The collection was visited by Evelyn in 1646, Diary, i., p. 275, 
London, 1879. See also Happel, Relationes Ctiriosae, iii., p. 133, 
Hamburg, 1687, 4to. 

In Karl W. Hiersemann's Katalog, 223 (Leipzig,, 1899), there are 
advertised (No. 263) two quarto volumes, containing 138 original water- 
colour drawings of the more important objects in the Settala collection, of 
date circa 1670. 

^"Remarks on Italy," Works, ii., p. 15, London, 181 1, 8vo. 

"A New Voyage to Italy, ii., p. 220; cf. p. 387, London, 1699, 8vo. 
Bishop Burnet's account is much the same. He dwells on the monsters, 
Letters, p. 114, Amsterdam, 1686, i2mo. 



COSPI OF BOLOGNA 89 

the Ambrosian Library, but the arrangement fell 
through, and the collection was dispersed.^ 

The Senator Ferdinando Cospi of Bologna made 
a very valuable collection which he gifted to his fellow- 
citizens as an addition to the museum of Aldrovandi. 
An excellent catalogue, prepared by Lorenzo Legati, 
Professor of Greek in the University of Bologna, 
was published in 1678.^ It contains a large folding 
plate showing the arrangement of the museum. 

There was great eagferness in France during- the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to collect coins, 
medals, and antiquities, and natural objects of all 
descriptions. Borel and Spon record a vast number 
of collections, of various kinds, in Paris and other 
parts of the country, during the earlier part of the 
seventeenth century f Dr. Martin Lister gives an 
account of those he found in Paris in 1698 ;^ and 

' Tiraboschi, Storia della Lcttcratura Italiana, viii., p. 140, Milano, 
1824. The Duke of Modena had been in treaty for its purchase some 
years earher at the price of 1000 pistoles. Ray, Travels through the 
Low Countries, i., p. 202. 

'^ Museo Cospiano aijnesso a quello del fanioso Vlisse Aldrovandi, 
Bologna, 1677, fol. Woodcuts and portrait of Cospi. Tiraboschi, 
Op. laud., viii., p. 108. This is often treated as a fourteenth volume 
of the works of Aldrovandi and bound uniformly with them. To this 
must be added Inventario semplice di tutte le materie, che si trovano 
nel Mtiseo Cospiaiw. Bologna, 1680, 4to. 

See also Neickelius, Museographia, pp. 28, 186, Leipzig, 1727, 4to ; 
Filippo Schiassi, Guida del forestiere al Museo delle Antichita della 
Regia Universita di Bologna. Bologna, 18 14, 8vo. 

^ Supra, p. 21. See also Bonnafte in Gazette des Beaux- Arts, 2^^ S., 
i. (1869), pp. 254, 316 ; xvii. (1878), p. 414 ; Les collectionneurs de Vancienne 
France, Paris, 1873, 8vo ; Dictionnaire des Amateurs Frafigais aic XVI F 
Siecle, Paris, 1884, 8vo. 

* A Journey to Paris in the year i6g8, London 1699, 8vo, reprinted in 
Pinkerton, Voyages and Travels, vol. iv., p. i. There is an edition by 



90 FRENCH COLLECTORS 

Neickelius and Kanold bring down the list a few years 
later. Most of these collections, however, seem to 
have been comparatively small and to have been soon 
dispersed. There are detailed catalogues, such as we 
have of the more important private museums of Italy 
and Germany, of very few of them. 

Bernard Palissy (1510-90), the Huguenot potter, had 
a remarkable museum of natural objects — shells, fossils 
and minerals — and also of enamels and pottery, and 
gratefully records the gifts of many friends.^ 

Pierre de I'Estoile (i 546- 161 1), the diarist, was an 
enthusiastic collector, and the dangers of the League 
did not deter him from carrying on his favourite pur- 
suits and steadily adding to his library and cabinet.- 

Fabri de Peiresc (1580- 1637) of Aix, an exact 
scholar and profound antiquary, occupied his lifetime 
in study, in travelling, corresponding with the scholars 
of Europe and in gathering books, manuscripts, and 
antiquities and natural curiosities from all parts of the 
world.^ These he bestowed with munificent liberality. 
Though he bought more books than any man of his 
time, his library was not a large one. As fast as he 
purchased he made presents to the learned of what- 
ever might be useful in their studies.^ He dealt in 

George Henning, I\LD., with notes, London, 1823, but it omits large 
portions of the text ; also a French translation, Paris, 1872, 8vo. 

^ Morley, Palissy the Potter, ii., p. 87, London, 1852, 8vo ; p. 251 sqq., 
London, [1878,] 8vo. 

^ Lacroix, XVIP'^ Steele, Sciences, Lettres et Arts, p. 141, Paris, 1882, 8vo. 

3 Bonnaffe in Gazette des Beaux-Arts, supra, xvii. (1878), p. 421 ; Les 
Collectionneurs dc Pa7tcietif!e France, p. 2)7 1 Paris, 1873, 8vo ; Dictionnaire 
des Amateurs Franqais au XVI P Steele, p. 245, Paris, 1884, Svo. 

* Gassendi, Vita Peirescii, p. 229 sqq.. Hag. Com., 1655, 4to. 



FABRI DE PEIRESC 91 

the same way with the contents of his museum, and 
gave coins and antiquities to ever^^one to whom he 
thought they would be of use. Athanasius Kircher 
records with oratitude that, in order to assist him, 
Peiresc sent him all the Egyptian things in his col- 
lection {antiquitatuvi gazophylaciiuii)^ and many others 
besides. His biography by Gassendi presents a vivid 
picture of his labours and travels, of the learned men 
he met or corresponded with, and the museums he 
visited.- He had agents in all parts of the world 
on the outlook for manuscripts, antiquities and 
curiosities. It was one of these agents who, at his 
expense, unearthed the Arundel marbles, which went 
astray at Smyrna on their way to France, but were 
afterwards found and acquired from the finder by the 
Earl of Arundel. Peiresc sent Theophilus Minutius, 
a Franciscan friar, on two expeditions to the East, pro- 
viding him with money and licenses from the Pope and 
the General of his Order, and through him obtained 
a great quantity of Samaritan, Coptic, Arabic and 
Greek manuscripts, coins, roots, seeds and various 
other objects, including two Egyptian mummies. 

Peiresc was a man of sound judgment and consider- 
able observation. He carefully examined an elephant 
which was brought to Toulon, and had drawings of it 
made. He satisfied himself that what passed for 
oiants' teeth and bones were the orinders and bones 

o o 

' The passages are collected by Gassendi, Op. laud.., p. 281. 

- Illustris Nicolai Claiidii Fabricii de Peiresc Vita., Hag. Com., 1655, 
4to, and previously 165 1, 4to. Originally published at Paris, 1641, 4to. 
Translated into English by William Rand, Doctor of Physik, London, 
1657, 8vo. Dedicated to John Evelyn. Granger, Biographical History 
of England., ii., p. 84, London, 8vo, 1779. See Leopold Delisle, Fabri de 
Peiresc, Toulouse, 1889, 8vo. 



92 GASTON, DUKE OF ORLEANS 

of elephants and discredited the Teutobochus myth.^ 
He held that fossil shells had been the coverino-s 
of living animals, and that they and the leaves 
and wood of trees had been turned into stone by 
a petrifying- humour which penetrated them. This 
liquid he thought arose from a lapidific or stone- 
forming spawn or seed contained in the earth. He 
believed that the sea had, at one time, covered the 
highest mountains and that it was still retreating from 
certain places and encroaching in others. The city of 
Venice, he said, would one time or other be joined to 
the continent, seeing that within a definite period the 
continent had been lengthened 1500 paces or a mile 
and a half.^ 

The museum was dispersed on Peiresc's death. A 
portion of it found its way to Paris, and was incor- 
porated with the Cabinet de la Bibliotheque de Sainte 
Genevieve, where it w^as seen by Lister. " Nothing 
pleased me more," he notes, "than to have seen 
the remains of the cabinet of the noble Pieresc, the 
greatest and heartiest Maecenas, to his power, of 
learned men of any of this age."^ A considerable part 
fell to ]M. Borilly of Aix, secretary of the King's 
chamber, who had already a considerable collection of 
all kinds of rarities, amongst which were a meteorite, 
of 50 lbs. weight.* 

Gaston, Duke of Orleans (1608- 1660), son of 
Henry IV. of France, and brother of Henrietta 

* Gassendi, Vita Peit'escn, pp. 90, 152, 156. ^ lb., p. 151. 
^ A Journey to Paris, p. 123, London, 1699, 8vo. 

* Borel, Les Antiquites de Castres, p. 138, Paris, 1868, i2mo ; Spon, 
Les Antiquites de la Ville de Lyon, p. 255, Paris, 1857 ; Lacroix, 
XVII"^ Siecle, p. 150 ; Bonnafife, Diction?taire des Amateurs, p. 32. 



PAUL CONTANT 93 

Maria, Queen of Charles I., devoted some attention 
to natural history, established a botanic garden at 
Blois — which for ten years was under the charge of 
the distinguished Scots naturalist and Royalist refugee, 
Dr. Robert Morison (1620-1683)^ — and formed a 
museum in his palace.^ His gold coins were the 
commencement of the great Cabinet dtc roi;^ and a 
portion of his natural history collections was purchased 
by Colbert in 1660, and became the foundation of 
the Cabinet d' histoire 7iatti,relle,^ which, after being 
enriched by numberless accessions was, in 1793, trans- 
formed into the Museum of Natural History of Paris, 
Another Frenchman, Paul Contant, Master Apothe- 
cary of Poitiers {circa 15 70- 163 2), was an enthusiastic 
botanist, took long journeys in pursuit of science, and 
made an interesting collection of plants and their 
parts, earths, stones, minerals, shells, and fish, of which 
he published a short catalogue, Exagoge mirabiliuni 
naturae e Gazophylacio Pauli Contanti, which he 
dedicates to Sully. He also described various plants 
and animals in two poems, Second Eden, and Le 
yardin et Cabinet po^tiq^ce de Panl Contajit."" '^^ ^ 

* Morison assisted in the preparation of the Hortus Regius Blesenszs, 
Paris, 1653, fol., which appeared under the authorship of Abel Brunyer. 
In 1669 he pubhshed Hortus Regius Blesensis anctus. London, 1669, 8vo. 

- Bonnaffe, Diction7iaire des Amateurs, p. 35. 

'Peignot, Dictionnaire raisonne de Bibliologie, i., p. 443. Paris, 
1802, Bvo. 

*See Memoires de PAcadanie des Sciences de Paris, 1753) P- 369; 
Deleuze, Histoire et description du Museum d^histoire naturelle, Paris, 
8vo, 2 vols ; Centenaire de la fondation du Museum d^ histoire natureile, 
Paris, 1893, 4to. 

^ His father, Jacques Contant, had commenced a commentary on 
Dioscorides, which his son completed. Les Ocuvres de Jacques et 



94 PIERRE BOREL 

Maistre Pierre Borel of Castres had himself a large 
collection, of which he published a catalogue in 1645, 
and an enlarged edition in 1649.^ It comprised 
antiquities of all kinds, artificial curiosities, and speci- 
mens of natural history. Amongst human rarities, 
he includes the shoulder-blade of a giant, weighing 
35 lbs., 4 palms in height and 7 in width, two 
giants' teeth half the size of one's fist,^ and various 
fragments of Egyptian mummy. He had a piece 
of a veritable horn of an Ethiopian unicorn, and 
teeth of fossil unicorns.^ His birds embraced the bill 
and wing of the Barnacle goose (les oyes d'Ecosse), 
which he explains spring from the decaying wood 
of vessels, a piece of which was also in the collec- 
tion.* Amongst the fish was a sea-devil or Galanga, 
which he gives as an alternative name : and, 
amongst the leaves of plants, the "herb divine" 
or tea which, infused in wine and drunk, enables 

Paul Contant pere et fils. Poictiers, 1628, fol., 7 plates and engraved 
title-page. 

Our own Cowley, it will be remembered, also wrote a botanical poem, 
although in Latin; Plantarinn libri duo, Lond., 1662, 8vo; enlarged to 
six books in 1668, and translated into English by Nahum Tate, London, 
1705, i2mo. For other poems on botanical subjects, see Dryander, 
Catalogus BibliotJiecae historico-naturalis JosepJii Banks, iii., p. 191. 

^ " Catalogues de choses rares qui sont dans le Cabinet de Maistre 
Pierre Borel, Medecin de Castres au haute Languedoc, Edition 2 aug- 
mentee de beaucoup," in Les Antiginfez, Raretez . . . de Castres, pp. 
132-149, Castres, 1649; pp. 146-165, Paris, 1868. 

2 Supra, p. 47. 

^That is, of some kind of fossil ivory. Supra, p. 43. 

*As to the Barnacle goose, see supra, p. 73. He describes the arbor 
conchifera in his Historiaruni et Observationum medicophysicarum 
Centuriae IV., Obs. 96, p. 351, Paris, 1656, 8vo. 



BERNON, SIEUR DE BERNONVILLE 95 

one to do without sleep for a long time, without 
suffering inconvenience/ 

In 1670 Leonard Bernon, Sieur de Bernonville, a la 
Rochelle, published a catalogue of curiosities, in his 
cabinet, brought from the Indies, Egypt, and Ethiopia; 
which contains an interestinof list of curiosities formine 
the personal equipment of a savage chief ("diverses 
curiositez servant a la personne dun General des 
sauvages "). Amongst them were — A trophy of 
Christians slain in battle and of enemies whom he 
had eaten. Two halters with which he bound poor 
Christian prisoners, mocassins, shoes, bows and 
arrows, and his tobacco pipe "made of marble, very 
curious."-^ 

Berend Ten Brocke, better known as Bernardus 
Paludanus (1550-1633), a learned Dutch physician of 

^ Tea was coming into favour at this time. In 167 1 Dufour published 
De Pusage du Caphe, du The et du Chocohit, Lyon, i2mo, which 
passed through several editions and was translated into Latin by 
Dr. Jacob Spon, and into English by John Chamberlayn, London, 1685, 
i2mo. 

Sibbald states that tea restores the appetite and prevents drowsiness. 
" About twelve leaves are thrown into six ounces of boiling water ; the 
pot is then removed from the fire, a little sugar is added and the tincture 
is sipped." Atictarium Musaei Balfouriani, p. 105. " It causeth wakeful- 
ness, so that whole nights may be spent in study without hurt to the body, 
because it binds the mouth of the stomach, thereby restraining those 
vapours which, ascending, would cause sleep." Salmon, New Dispensa- 
tory^ p. 108. Others were, however, ready to cry out against it, and as 
early as 1665 Professor Simon Paulli of Copenhagen wrote Co7)wicntarius 
de abusu Tabaci et herbae Thee, Argent., 1665, 4to. Some curious in- 
formation on the subject will be found in Alston, Lectures on the Materia 
Aledica, ii., p. 233 sgq. ; Hoffmann, Clavis pharmaceutical p. 556. 

^ Recueil des pieces ciirieuses apporiees des Indes, d'Egypte &" d'Ethiopie 
qui se trouvent dans le Cabinet de Leonard Bernon, Sieur de Berno7iville, 
a la Rochelle. Paris, 1670, Svo, 15 pp. 



96 PALUDANUS : GOTTORP 

Enkhuizen, had a famous collection of rarities {em 
W under- Kainmer). ^ 

In the old world or new, what wonderous thing, 
Did art to light or nature lately bring, 
This Paludanus house doth show a rare 
Proof of the owner's soveraign wit and care.- 

The museum was visited in 1592 by Frederick, 
Duke of Wiirtemberg- — "the Jarmane Duke" of The 
Merry Wives of Windsor — when on his way to 
England.^ In 1651 it was purchased by Adam 
Olearius (the Latinised form of Oelschlager), the 
celebrated traveller and orientalist, for Frederick III., 
Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp,* and added to 
the collection at Gottorp. Olearius prepared a cata- 
logue which was published in 1666,^ and was long 
used by collectors as a convenient hand-book. The 
whole of the Gottorp collection ultimately found its 
way to St. Petersburg, and was absorbed in the 
Imperial collection. 

^ Sachse de Lewenheimb, Gaimnarologia, p. 50, Francof., 1665, 8vo ; 
Major, See-Farth, p. 107, Hamburg, 1683, i2mo ; Neickelius, Mtiseo- 
graphia, p. 195, Leipzig, 1727 ; Jacobus Kok, Vaderlandsch Woorden- 
bock, xxiii., p. 320, Amst., 1790, Svo. 

2 Powell, H'.tinane Industry, p. 188, London, 1661, i2mo. The 
original lines are quoted by Gotfried Hegenitius {Ifineraftiwi Frisio- 
Hollandicimi, p. 30, Lugd. Bat., 1667, originally published 1630), who 
gives as their author Tobias Schultze van Schwensche Bregoshutz. He 
also gives others by the learned lawyer, Privy Councillor Hippolyt von 
Colli, otherwise a Collibus or a Colle. 

3 Jacob Rathgeb, Warhaffte Bescreibung z-weyer Raisen; with Index 
rerum . . . natiiralium a B. Paludano . . . coUectaritm. Tubingen, 
1603, and again 1604, 4to. 

■* Neickelius, Museographia, p. 197. He also acquired the Foucault 
collection of coins. 

^ Gottorffische Kunst-Kammer, Schlesswig, 1666, 4to, and again in 
three parts, lb., 1674, 4to. See ZeitscJirift fiir Mtcseologie, 1800, No. 20. 



BAUHIN AND PLATER 97 

Johann Bauhin (1541-1613), the great botanist, 
physician to Duke Ulrich of Wiirtemberg and his 
successors, made a large collection of the fossil shells 
and other objects of interest to be found in the 
neighbourhood of the baths of Boll, and published 
an account of them in 1598.^ 

P^elix Plater of Basle (1536- 16 14) had one of the 
most notable museums of the period, which re- 
mained in possession of his family for many years. 
It contained curiosities of all kinds, works of art in 
gold and silver, pictures and portraits of eminent 
men, and a cabinet of coins, Greek, Roman, and 
modern. Its strong point was the natural histor)' 
section, which was rich in specimens from all the three 
kingdoms, and had a particular interest as containing 
the collections of Conrad Gesner.-' When Skippon 
visited it with Ray in 1663, he describes the specimens 
as "somewhat negflected," although "in Ljood order." 
He adds, " The doctor's son, who shewed us them. 



^ See Book IV. of his Historiae novi et admirabilis Fontis Balneique 
Bollensis ifi Dvcaiv Wirtembergico ad acidulas Goepingenses^ Montisb., 
1598, 4to, illustrated with woodcuts. Amongst them are some wonderful 
representations of belemnites. The book was republished under the title 
De aquis medicatis ?tova Methodus, Montisb., 1612. The part treating of 
stones, fossils, and natural productions is given as a separate treatise 
with separate pagination. A German translation of the original was 
published at Stuttgart, 1602, 410. 

^Miescher, Die nudizinische Facultdt in Basely P- 52, Basel, i860, 4to ; 
Adam, Vitae mediconim Germanoriini, p. 430, Haidelb., 1620, 8vo ; 
Monconys, Journal des voyages. Part ii., p. 310, Lyon, 1666 ; Sachse von 
Lowenheim, Responsoria Disseriaiio, p. 83, in Major, Dissertatio epistolica 
de Cancris et Serpentibus petrefactis, Jenae, 1664, 8vo. Ray, Travels 
through the Low Countries, i., p. 85. His museum is also referred to by 
Bauhin, Op. laud., "Thesaurum habes multarum rerum exoticarum 
amplissimum artificiosissimaque methodo digestum." 

G 



98 BASIL BESLER 

brought us a book wherein we w^rote our names, and 
then gave a golden ducat, it being covetously expected / 
of us." ' Plater was a sound botanist, and made ^ 
observations in all branches of Natural History. It 
was in 1584, when on a professional visit, of several 
months' duration to Lucerne, being in search of curio- 
sities, that the bones of the oriant, to which reference 
has already been made, were shown to him in the 
Court House.^ He is a fluent and lucid writer. His 
statements of the cases he deals with in his three books 
of Observations,^ the symptoms, remedies applied and 
their effects, are as precisely set out as in the pages 
of a modern medical journal. His descriptions of 
certain mental and psychological conditions are very 
instructive,* and when dealing with deformities, he 
gives an account of various dwarfs and giants — in the 
ordinary sense — that he had met with in practice. 

Basil Besler of Nuremberg (156 1- 1629), an excellent 
botanist, was also a collector and the author of a 
beautiful work, Fasciculus rariorum et aspectu dig- 
7ior 11771 varii generis quae collegit et stiis i77tpensis 

^Journey in Churchill, Collection of Voyages and Travels, vi., p. 460, 
London, 1752, fol. 

"^ Supra, p. 46. 

^ Observationum medicalium libri tres, Basil., 1641, and again 1680, 8vo. 

*Sir William Hamilton quotes {Lectures on Metaphysics, i., p. 336) 
a curious instance of the activity of the mind while the body is asleep 
which his father Thomas Plater, the printer of Basle, met with {Observa- 
tiones,^. 12, ed. 1641; p. 11, ed. 1680). 

Plater gives a number of instances of longevity (p. 233, ed. 1641 ; p. 221, 
ed. 1680); amongst others of his maternal grandfather, Johann Summer- 
matter. On a copy of the 1680 edition in the Library of the University 
of St. Andrews, which formerly belonged to Professor Thomas Simson, 
he has noted the case of Nicholas Vilant, grandfather of Dr. William 
Vilant, Principal of the New College, St. Andrews. 



SMET OF NYMEGEN 99 

aeri ad viva7)i incidi ciiravit Basiliiis Besler} His 
nephew, Michael Rupert (1607-1661), continued to 
add to the museum and pubhshed a further account 
of it."^ One of the objects he figures (pi. 31) as 
dtus inaxillaris lapideits seems to be the tooth of a 
fossil hippopotamus. 

Jan Smet van der Ketten of Nymegen, an 
eminent antiquary, began to form a collection of 
coins and of Roman and other antiquities in 1618. 
It passed to his son, the pastor of Alkmaar, who 
added to it and published an illustrated account of 
the whole in 1678.^ The coins were sold to the 
Elector Palatine, John William (1690- 17 16), for 20,000 
florins, for the electoral museum at Heidelberg. 

The first museum at Heidelberg was founded by 
Carl Ludewig (Elector, 1632-80), grandson of our 
James I. and brother of " Rupert of the Rhine," who 
purchased a cabinet of coins and other antiquities in 
Italy, and various curiosities and rarities, and appointed 
his librarian, Lorenz Beger (1653- 1705), keeper. On 
the death of the next Elector in 1685, the whole 
collection passed by bequest to the "Great Elector" 

^Nuremberg, 1616, and continuation, 1622, 4to, with 24 plates. 

- Gazophylacium reriim nattcraiiuin, Lipsiae, 1642, fol., 24 plates; 
and Leipzig, 1733, with 35 plates. Johann Heinrich Lochner published 
Rariora Miisei Besleriaiii . . . aejieis tabulis incisa . . . Nurem- 
berg, 17 16, fol., with 40 plates and portrait, which had been prepared 
by his father, Michael Lochner von Hummelstein. See Nichols, Literary 
Illustrations of the Eighteenth Ceiitiiry^ i., pp. 358, 363. 

^ Antiqtiitates Neoinagenses, Nov. Bat., 1678, 4to. It was a new 
edition of the father's work. Thesaurus antiquarius Sinetiatiiis, Amstd., 
1658, i2mo. 

See also Nicholas Chevalier's Recherches ciirieuses. Utrecht, 1709, 
fol. Supra, p. 37. 



lOO MUSEUM OF HEIDELBERG 

of Brandenburg, and was transferred to Berlin. 
Beger accompanied it, and was put in charge of 
the cabinet which Friedrich W^ilhelm was forming. 
The two collections he described in the stately 
folios above mentioned,^ which still remain useful 
books of reference in the coin room. A less known 
work of Beger is a defence of polygamy, which 
he wrote at the request of his patron, Carl Ludewig, 
who, having quarrelled with his wife and married 
another, required a piece justificative} Ray visited 
Heidelberg in 1663, before this domestic rupture 
occurred. The Elector, he says, spoke six languages 
perfectly, and was greatly beloved of his subjects. 
Ray and his fellow-travellers were invited to dinner, 
and "after dinner his highness was pleased to call us 
into his closet and shew us many curiosities, among 
others (i) a purse made of alumen pltcmosiim, which 
we saw put into a pan of burning charcoal, till it was 
thoroughly ignite, and yet when taken out and cool, 
we could not perceive that it had received any harm 
at all from the fire. (2) Two unicorns horns, each 
eight or ten foot long, wreathed and hollow to the top. 
. . . (3) The imperial crown and globe of Rupe^'tus 
Imp. ... (4) An excellent and well-digested col- 
lection of ancient and modern coins and medals of all 
sorts, in which the Prince himself is very knowing."^ 
Ray mentions that they also saw the great church 

^ Supra, p. 34. The Thesaurus ex thesauro Palatino selectus was 
published at Heidelberg in 1685, fol. 

^ This he wrote under the name Dap/ifmeus Arcuarius and published 
in 1679, 4to, without place or printer's name. 

^ Ray, Travels through the Low Countries, i., p. 71, London, 1738, 
8vo. 



LOSS OF THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY lOI 

where the famous Hbrary was kept. It will be remem- 
bered that, after the battle of Prague and the defeat of 
the Elector Friedrich, the "Winter King," Tilly took 
Heidelbero- in 1622, and havincr on behalf of Maxi- 
milian of Bavaria presented the University library to 
Pope Gregory XV., the whole of the books and manu- 
scripts were carried to Rome, and added to the Vatican 
library.^ Napoleon Bonaparte in turn removed the best 
of the Vatican manuscripts to Paris in 1797. After his 
fall the general question of the restoration of collec- 
tions arose, and was decided in favour of the despoiled 
proprietors. Heidelberg got whatever parts of the 
library were to be found in Paris. The principle was 
extended to what was still in Rome, and in 1816 all 
the German manuscripts which had formerly belonged 
to the University were restored. 

Very little of the Palatinate museum is now at 
Berlin, the greater part having been transferred to 
Dresden in the time of King Friedrich Wilhelm I.- 

^ According to Lord Fountainhall, the Bodleian library was exceeded 
by the Vatican only by the augmentation the latter got by that of Heidel- 
berg. Journals^ p. 169, Edinburgh, 1900, 8vo (Scottish History Society). 

Leone AUacci, better known as Leo Allatius, afterwards librarian of 
the Vatican, was entrusted with the duty of transferring the library to 
Rome, and wrote Tra7isporto dclla biblioteca Palaiina da Heidelberg 
a Roma. 

^ Klemm, Geschichte der Sammlungeji fiir Wissoischaft und Kiinst ifi 
Deutschland, pp. 83, 120, 206, 282, 305, Zerbst, 1837, 8vo. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

LATER MUSEUMS. 

The Novum Organmn was given to the world in 
1625, and the Nfew Atlantis in 1627; in 1657 the 
Accademia del Cimento was founded at Florence ; 
the Royal Society of London received its charter 
in 1660, and the Academie des Sciences of Paris 
was established in 1666. At the same time Journals 
devoted to science were set on foot ; the Journal 
des Scavans was commenced in 1665, and in 1670 
the Miscellanea C^criosa^ of the German Academy 
of Natiwae Curiosi, which had been founded " by 
Johann Laurenz Bausch of Altdorf (1605- 1665), in 
1652.^ These agencies exercised much influence; 
they aroused a spirit of inquiry ; quickened observa- 

1 The transactions of the Academia Caesarea Naturae Curiosorum 

appeared under the title Miscellanea Curlosa, 1670- 1705, 32 vols.; 

Ephenierides, 1712-1722, 5 vols.; Acta and Noz'a Acta, I72)7i ^QQ-i and 

latterly Leopoldina. See Morhof, Polyhistor, ii., p. 139, Liibeck, 
1732, 4to. 

- It had no home. In 1687 it was taken under the patronage of the 
Emperor Leopold, from whom it took the title Leopoldine Academy. 

3 Bausch had a museum, which he mentions in his De Uiiicornu 
fossili Schediasma, printed with Fehr, Anchora Sacra, pp. 173, 183. 

102 



THE COPENHAGEN MUSEUM IO3 

tion ; taught accuracy ; provided new and improved 
means of communicatino- discoveries, and discussed 
and criticised opinions.^ 

The Copenhagen Museum, which has done so much 
in recent times to advance archaeological science, had 
its beginning in the seventeenth century and even 
earlier. The principal collections were made under 
King Christian V. (1670-99), and his son and suc- 
cessor Frederick IV. When the Earl of Carlisle 
visited Copenhagen in 1664 as ambassador-extra- 
ordinary of Charles II. he was shown "the Rarities 
also in the King's Pallace, which were several 
very curious pieces of Mechanicks, besides many 
Curiosities brought from the remotest countries. 
The Rareties were disposed in five or six several 
appartements on one floor, and indeed were the 
only observable things almost he saw in that 
Pallace. Amongst other things, in one of these 
appartements, he had the sight of an excellent piece 
of Art, which was called a little ship ready rigged, 
whose mast, ladders, sails, and cannon were all 
of Ivory."- The museum was famous for its cabinet 
of coins, and, besides many other interesting objects, 
contained a number of articles from Greenland, such 

^John Ludovic Hannemann of Kiel gives a most enthusiastic account 
of the Royal Society of London and of its methods in the Dedication 
addressed to Thomas Bartholin (1619-1680), the anatomist and antiquary 
of Copenhagen, of his E.xercitatio de vero et genuino sangiiificaiidi orga7io, 
Kiel, 1675, 4to. 

^ A Relation of the three Embassies . . . performed by the Right 
Honble. the Earle of Carlisle iti the years 1663 and 1664, p. 410, London, 
1669, 8vo. The author was Guy Miege, Under-Secretary to Lord Carlisle. 

It was also described by Dr. William Oliver in the Philosophical 
Transactions, xxiii. (1702-3), pp. 1400-1410. 



I04 THE COPENHAGEN MUSEUM 

as were to be found in many museums of the period,^ 
and other ethnographical material." In one of the 
rooms, says Dr. Oliver, "there is nothing but the 
garments, arms and utensils of Indians, Turks, and 
Greenlanders, and other barbarous nations ; which 
for their number and variety entertain the eye with 
a very agreeable pleasure."^ 

In 1696 Holger Jacobaeus (1650-1701), a pupil of 
Steno, and son-in-law of Thomas Bartholin, professor 
of medicine at Copenhagen, published a sumptuous 
catalogue of the whole collection, which was followed 
in three years by a supplement,* and was edited and 
improved by Johan Lorentsen or Lauerentzen in 1710.^ 

One of the most celebrated collections of the 
seventeenth century was that of Ole or Olaf Worm 
{1588- 1 654), a Danish physician — from whom the 
ossicula Wormtana, the supernumerary bones of the 
skull, have their name — who may be considered 
the founder of what has now become the science 

^ E.g. Museo Cospiano, p. 297. 

2 These are again described by Valentini in bis Museum Museorum., 
ii., p. 130, chapter xxiv., "Concerning wild men such as Hottentots, 
Greenlanders, and the like." 

3 Op. laud.., p. 1404. 

'^Museum Regium., Hafniae, 1696-99, fol., 2 vols., with 37 plates. 

Noticed in Memoirs of Literature., iv., p. 139, London, 17 14, 4to. See 
also Valentini, Museum Museorutn, ii.. Appendix iii., p. 8 ; Regenfuss, 
Choix de coquillages et de crustace'es, Copenh., 1758, fol., French and 
German ; and The King of Denmark's Collection of Shells a?id Petri- 
factions, with Descriptions by Regenfuss, with plates, in some copies 
coloured from the originals. Copenh., 1758, fol. The introduction, 
p. I sqq., contains a bibhography of works on natural history, including 
the catalogues of various museums. 

^To this was added in 1726 an alphabetical Index in two parts. It 
is more of a precis than an index. 



OLE WORMS MUSEUM IO5 

of prehistoric archaeology.^ A tabular view of his 
museum drawn up by Georg Seger ' appeared in 
1653, and a more complete account prepared by him- 
self was published after his death by his son, Willum 
Worm.^ The Mtisaeum Wormiaimm was not a 
mere inventory, but was a descriptive catalogue, and 
for more than a century held its place as a recognised 
text-book of archaeology ; and, with other works of 
the same class, such as Mercati's Metallotheca and 
Aldrovandi's Ahisaeum Metallictcm, is still valuable 
as a summary of the scientific opinion of the times 
on archaeology and natural history, and a practical 

^ Pope takes Worm as the type of what he chose to think an antiquary 
was : 

But who is he, in closet close y-pent, 

Of sober face, with learned dust besprent? 

Right well mine eyes arede the myster wight, 

On parchment scraps y-fed and Wormius hight. 

To future ages may thy dulness last, 

As thou preserv'st the dulness of the past. 

The Duttciad, iii. 185. 

See Granger, Biographical History of England, ii., p. 433, London, 
1779, 8vo. 

In the first edition the fourth Hne read, 

"That wonnes in haulkes and hemes, and H — ne hight," 
which evidently alkided to the antiquary Thomas Hearne. Pope protested 
that this was not so, and next that " Wormius " was purely fictitious, 
but res ipsa loquitur. 

-Synopsis niethodica Rarioruin . . . in Musaeo Olai Wormii. 
Hafniae, 1653 and 1658, 4to. 

Seger (1629-1678) was a German, but studied under Thomas 
Bartholin, of Copenhagen, whose Historiariwi anatomicarum Rariora 
he translated into German. Francof., 1657, 8vo. 

'^ Musaeum Wormianiim, Lugd. Bat. (L. & U. Elzevir), 1655, fol., 
with plates. Some copies have Amsterdam as place of publication. 

There was also a small hand catalogue, Catalogtis Musaei Wormiani, 
published at Copenhagen in 1642 and 1645 in i2mo. 



io6 kircher's museum 

exposition of the scope and aims of the museology 
of the seventeenth century. 

Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (1602- 1680), bequeathed 
to the Jesuit College at Rome the splendid museum 
of antiquities, philosophical instruments, and other 
objects, which he had brought together. It has 
since received many additions, and is one of the 
great museums of the world, notable for its collec- 
tion of aes grave} It was first described by Sepi 
in 1678, and next by Buonanni (1638- 1725) in 
1709, and often subsequently.- " Father Kircher," 
says Sir Robert Southwell {1635-1702), ''is my 
particular friend, and I visit him and his gallery 
frequently. Certainly he is a person of vast parts 
and of as great industry. He is likewise one of 
the most naked and good men that I have seen, and 
is very easy to communicate whatever he knows ; 
doing it, as it were, by a maxim he has. On the 
other side, he is reputed very credulous, apt to put 
in print any strange, if plausible story, that is brought 
unto him." ^ It was Kircher who found in Noah's 

1 The aes grave was described by Giuseppe Marchi, S.J., Rome, 1839, 
4to, with Atlas of 40 plates. 

2 Sir Andrew Balfour visited Rome between 1651 and 1665; see 
Sibbald, Memoria Balfouriana, p. 94, Edinburgh, 1699. All that he 
says of the Roman College is that " there is a famous Shop and 
Laboratorie for Pharmacie, as also a Garden." Letters, p. 134. This 
is probably explained by what Misson writes in 1688 : " Father Kircher's 
Cabinet, in the Roman College, was formerly one of the most curious in 
Europe, but it has been very much mangl'd and dismember'd : yet there 
remains still a considerable collection of natural rarities, with several 
mechanical engines." A New Voyage to Italy, ii., p. 117, London, 1699, ^^O- 
Keysler gives a long account of it in 1729, Reisen, p. 485 sqq. 

^Letter, 30th May, 1661, Robert Boyle's Works, vi., p. 299, London, 
1772, 4to. 



TRADESCANT S MUSEUM I07 

ark the first museum of natural history.^ He was 
sound, however, on the subject of perpetual motion 
^ and machines to exhibit it.^ 

John Tradescant (d. 1638) and his son of the same 
name (d. 1662) were two of the earliest English 
naturalists and collectors.^ Their museum attracted 
much attention and is often alluded to by contem- 
porary writers ; 

. Nature's wliinisey that outvies 
Tradescant and his ark of novelties."* 

In 1656 the younger Tradescant published Mitsaeum 

' Koehler, Amueisimg fiir Reisende gelehrte, p. 217, Frankf., 1762; 
p. 728, Magdeb., 1810; Kircher, Area Noe, Amst., 1675, fo'- 

- Motus perpetui differentia experimenta in suo Musaeo exhibebit 
Kircherus, quibus motum perpetuum non tarn asseverat sed reprobat." 
De Sepibus, Romani Collegii S. J. Musaeum, p, 56, Amst., 1678. 
Evelyn, writing in 1644, says Father Kircher took him to his own 
study, " where with Dutch patience he shew'd us his perpetual motions, 
catoptrics, magnetical experiments, modells, and a thousand other 
crotchets and devices." Diary, i., p. 125. As to these, see Dircks, 
Perpetuum Mobile, 2nd Series, p. 17 sqq., London, 1870, 8vo. 

'^Memoirs of Dr. Stukeley, iii., p. 201 (Surtees Society, No. Ixxx.). -^ 

As to the Tradescants, see The Tatler, i., pp. 388, 435 ; vi., p. 34, 
ed. Nichols, Lond., 1786; Gx^ng^x, Biographical History of England, 
ii., p. 370, London, 1 779, 8vo; Pulteney, Sketches of the Progress of Botany, 
i., p. 175 sqq., London, 1790, 8vo; The Philosophical Tra?tsactions, vol. 
xlvi., p. 160; Ixiii., p. 82 ; Weld, History of the Royal Society, i., p. 187, 
London, 1848 ; P. B. Duncan, A Catalogue 0/ the Ashmolean Museum, 
p. iv., Oxford, 1836, 8vo ; Parker, The Ashmolean Museum . . . A 
Lecture, p. 27, Oxford, 1870, 8vo ; Hamel, Tradescant der aeltere in 
Russland, St. Petersburg, 1847, 4to ; N. and Q., ist S., iii., pp. 353, 
391, 393, 469 ; v., pp. 367, 385, 474- 

■'Cleveland, Poems, p. 55 (London, 1687). In the Epistle Dedicatory 
reference is made to John Tradeskant as a collector of curiosities — 
"minims of art and nature." 

The ark in Lambeth was well known. Evelyn, Dia?y, ii., p. 94, 
London, 1879; Powell, Humane Indjistry, p. 187, London, 1661, 8vo; 



I08 ELIAS ASHMOLE 

Tradescantianuni ; or, A Collection of Rarities pre- 
served at South Lambeth neer London} This was a 
bare list, partly in English and partly in Latin, of 
the objects which father and son had accumulated 
during many years. The museum, which was con- 
sidered to be the most extensive in Europe at 
the time, contained a vast quantity of material — 
natural history specimens and specimens of industrial 
art, ethnographical, anthropological and archaeological 
objects, coins and curios — but was of little scientific 
value for want of proper arrangement. It was 
acquired in 1659 by Elias Ashmole^ and incorporated 
with his own collection. The whole passed by gift 
to the University of Oxford in 1682, and was the 
foundation of the great Ashmolean Museum. " On 

Kippis, Biographia Britannica, iv., p. 347. If we are to rely on 
Thomas Flalman, it does not seem to have been particularly accessible. 
Thus John Tradeskin starves our greedy eyes 
By boxing up his new found Rarities. 
Flatman's Poems, p. 147, London, 1682 ; Nichols, Illustrations of the 
Literary Histo7'y of the Eigliteenth Century, iv. 626. 

^London, 1656, i2mo, with portraits of father and son, by Hollar. 
At the end there is a list of donors to the museum, which fills five 
pages. 

Tradescant's house and garden at Lambeth were latterly occupied 
by William Heseltine, the friend of Horace Smith. Beavan, James 
and Horace Smith, p. 125. London, 1899. 

2 The deed remained in Mrs. Tradescant's hands, and after her 
husband's death Ashmole instituted a suit in Chancery to compel the 
widow to transfer the collection to him. Mrs. Tradescant replied to 
the bill, denying that such a conveyance had ever been executed, and 
cited her husband's Will, of a later date than the alleged conveyance, 
in which the collection was left to her during life, with power to be- 
queath it to O.xford or Cambridge University. The Lord Chancellor 
(Clarendon), however, gave judgment in 1664 in favour of Ashmole, 
subject to the widow's life interest. N. and Q., ist S., v., p. 385. 

When Ashmole transferred his collection to the University of 



THE ASHMOLEAN MUSEUM IO9 

the fifteenth day of May (Thursday), 1679, the first 
stone of that stately fabric, afterwards called Ash- 
mole's Musaeum, was laid on the west side of the 
theatre, and being finished by the beginning of 
March, 1682, were put therein, on the 20th of the 
same month, about 1 2 cart loads of rarities sent to 
Oxon by Mr. Ashmole ; which, being fixed in their 
proper places by Rob. Plot, LL.D., who before had 
been intrusted with the custody of the said musaeum, 
were first of all publicly viewed on the 21st day of 
May following by his royal highness James Duke 
of York, his royal consort Josepha Maria, princess 
Anne and their attendants, and on the 24th of the 
same month by the doctors and masters of the 
university." ^ 

How unsatisfactory the classification of the day was 
may be judged by Plot's method of dealing with formed- 
stones, or as we now term them fossils. He adhered to 

Oxford he removed everything that might connect the name of either 
of the Tradescants with it. " The name of Tradescant was unjustly sunk 
in that of Ashmole." Pulteney, Sketches of the Progress of Botany, i., 
p. 179. London, 1790, 8vo. 

A portion of the collection remained with the widow in 17 12, 
Thoresby Diary, W., p. 108. 

^Wood, Athenae Oxonienses, iv., 358 (ed. Bliss). By a fire in his 
chambers in the Middle Temple in 1678, Ashmole lost his library and 
a large collection of coins and medals. lb.; Evelyn, Diary, iii., p. 442 ; 
Family Correspondence of the Family of Hatton, i., p. 171 (Camden 
Society, 1878). 

The museum is described by Thoresby in 1684, Diary, i., pp. 173, 
303; ii., p. 427. London, 1830, 8vo. 

There is an account of the Ashmolean Museum by Llewellyn Jewitt 
in The Art fourtial, xi., N.S. (1872), pp. 177, 213. See also Duncan 
and Parker, supra, p. 107, note, and another lecture by Parker, The 
Ashmolean Mitsetini. . . . The Additions made to it in the Season 
1870-71, Oxford, 1 87 1. 



IIO TLOTS CLASSIFICATION 

the old view of the origin of such stones, and main- 
tained the doctrine of the plastic power of nature, which, 
he explains, operates through certain salts, it being the 
undoubted prerogative of the saline principle to give 
bodies their figure, as well as solidity and duration. 
The astroites and the bronteae, he thinks, were formed 
by an antimonial salt, the belemnites by a nitrous salt, 
and the ammonites by the joint operation of two salts. 
He accordingly classifies formed-stones or fossils 
according as they resemble plants, fishes, shells or 
the lower animals, or some part of them or some 
part of man ; with a result that is surprising, as he 
duly catalogues stone horse-heads and bulls' hearts, 
and various parts of man — stone brains, stone eyes, 
stone thighs, and so on.-^ A stone, in the form of a 
button-mould, found near a gfigfantic thig^h bone and 
tooth in Cornwall, he suggests, had belonged to the 
owner of the bone. He has, however, the merit 
of having pointed out that stone axes and similar 
utensils were the actual tools of the early inhabitants 
of the country, and appeals to a hafted modern 
example in the museum as showing how they might 
be fastened to a helve,"' His successor as keeper of 

^ The Natural History of Oxfordshire^ being an Essay towards the 
Natural History of B.nglaiid, chapter v., p. 112 sqq. ; cf. p. 33, Oxford, 
1705, fol., 2nd ed. As to his collections on which he founded these 
works, see Evelyn, Diaty, ii., p. 311. London, 1879. 

Bartholin gives a long list of petrified portions of the human body. 
Epistolae Medicinales, Cent, iii., Ep. viii., p. 31, Hag. Com., 1740 ; and 
many are referred to by Briickmann, Epistolae Itinerariae, 11, 36, 37, 
Cent. i. See also Valentini, Museum Museorurn, ii., pp. 19, 27 ; 
Koehler, At77veisung fiir Reisende gclehrte^ p. 251, Frankf., 1762, 8vo, 
p. 817, Magdeb., 18 10, 8vo. 

2 The Natural History of Staffordshire^ p. 397. O.xford, 1686, fol. 



JOHN RAY S MUSEUM I I I 

the museum was Edward Lhuyd (1660- 1709), the 
Celtic philologist, who published a copious catalogue 
of the English fossils in the collection in 1699/ As 
regards their origin, he supported the doctrine that 
fossils were produced from the semina of fishes and 
other creatures, raised by vapours from the sea, which, 
tailing with the rain, were carried into the inner parts 
of the earth. 

John Ray (1628- 1705), the botanist, made a collection 
of natural curiosities which he presented to his friend 
and neighbour, Mr. Samuel Dale, author of the 
Pharmacologia, to whom they were delivered about 
a week before his death. Ray had sounder views 
than Plot regarding petrified shells and figured stones, 
which he held to be the remains of once-oro-anised 
bodies.^ 

Kippis refers to the museum of John James Swam- 
merdam, " apothecary at Lambeth, "^ but this is a 
mistake. Swammerdam was a Dutchman, and his 
collection was at Amsterdam, and was visited by Dr. 
Edward Brown in 1668.^ A sale catalogue was pre- 
pared after his death, which shows that the collection 
was a large and varied one. One-third of the whole 
consisted of artificial curiosities, another third of coins, 
and the remainder of fossils, vegetable and animal 
specimens.^ 

Michael Bernhard Valentini (165 7- 1729), Professor 

^ Lithophylacii Britannici Ichnographia. London, 1699, 8vo. 
-Ray, Travels through the Low Countries (in 1663), i., pp. 96 sqq.^ 252, 
267. London, 1738, 8vo. 

^ Biographia Britannica^ iv., 347. 

* Travels^ p. 100, London, 1685, fol. 

° Catalogus musei tJistructissuni, e.xhibeits copiosam supeUectilem varia- 



I r 2 VALENTINI S MUSEUM 

at Giessen, and a Fellow of the Royal Society of 
London, to whom frequent reference has been made, 
was himself a collector, and published in his Museum 
Mnseoruni^ 2. catalogue of what he calls the " Re- 
positorium Valentinianum." It comprised natural 
history specimens arranged according to the mineral, 
vegetable, and animal kingdoms ; things sacred and 
superstitious ; artificial rarities ; philosophical, mathe- 
matical, anatomical, surgical, and chemical apparatus ; 
coins and medals. 

Franz Ernst Bruckmann of Wolfenbiittel (1697- 
1753), who, like Valentini, wrote much about other 
people's collections, found time during a busy life to 
form a large museum of his own, which he has 
described in his curious Epistolae Itinei^ariae^ dedi- 
cated to Sir Hans Sloane and the Royal Society. 
He had large collections illustrative of natural history, 
botany, and mineralogy; many antiquities and other 
artficial rarities, and a great assemblage of Curiosa 
mathematico-arithmetica. Amongst the latter was a 
field glass, which he calls a Polemoscope, otherwise 

ruvi 7-eruin exoticaruiii tarn naturalium qiiam arte factariim quas collegit 
Jo/i.Jac. Siuammerdam (Dutch and Latin), 1679, S^'O) PP- I43- 

See also Le Cabhiet de Mr. Swanunerdam, doctciir en Me'decine, on 
Catalogue de toiites sortes dhtsectes et de diverses preparations anato- 
7niques^ que Pon petit dire etre tin supplement tres considerable de PHistoire 
naturclle des Afii7naux, n.p., n.d., but apparently published at Amsterdam. 

^ Vol. ii., Appendix xxiii., pp. 100-108. 

^Epistolae 39-47, 57-6o, 64, 65, and 81-84, Cent. i. ; Epistola 50, 
Cent. ii. 

Centuria i. was published Wolfenbiittel, 1742 ; Centuria ii., 1749 ; and 
Centuria iii., 1750-53, all in 4to. The Epistles seem to have been origin- 
ally published separately, and each has an original title-page of earlier 
date than the complete collection. 



BRUCKMANN S MUSEUM I I 3 

Kriegs-Perspectiv or Bataillen-Ktuker ; ^ two magic 
lanterns with two hundred sHdes ; and a catoptric 
camera, with four plain mirrors placed parallel and 
opposite, in which was represented the marriage at 
Cana ; the figures were of wax, and moved to the 
sound of music, gesticulating with their hands, arms, 
and eyes, as if engaged in conversation ; and many 
other optical toys. Amongst the aerometric objects 
was the still familiar hygrometer in the form of a 
tiny house, with a boy and girl that indicated fine 
or bad weather according as the one or the other 
came out or went in, which he calls Hamburgische 
Wetter- Machine or Wetter- Hdusgenr His anatomical 
appliances included glass eyes ^ and a human figure of 
wood, prepared by Dr. Friedrich Hoffmann of Halle, 
which could be taken to pieces so as to show the 
arrangement of the internal parts.* The artificial 
curiosities were very numerous, and of such a mis- 
cellaneous description that they must have brought 
I any visitor who tried to view them into a state of 
! complete distraction. There w^ere Turkish and Tartar 
j weapons ; a crucifixion in various coloured amber ; 
wax fruits and figures ; Indian reed pens and China 
\ ink ; Chinese paper, wood pulp paper, and cotton 
paper ; tobacco boxes and snuff boxes ; puzzle purses 

^ See \'alentini, Museum Museorutn, ii., Part iii., pp. 60, no. 

-See also Valentini, Museum Museorutn, ii., Part iii., pp. 25, in. 
At p. 19 he describes the Magdeburg Wetter-Mdnnchen. 

^ See also Epistola 32, Cent. i. Lister describes the perfection of the arti- 
ficial eyes made in Paris. A Journey to Paris, p. 144, London, 1699, 8vo. 

* There were similar exhibits in the museum of Albert Ritter of Ilfeld. 
Briickmann, Epistola Itineraria, 32, Cent. i. ; and in Dr. Kahn's Ana- 
tomical Museum, Catalogue, p. 31, London, 1851. 



I 1 4 BRUCKMANN S MUSEUM 

and puzzle boxes ; tea and coffee cups ; games and 
tops ; a silver coin which, when put into the fire, 
exhibits the sign which appeared in the clouds to 
Constantine the Great, with the words, In hoc signo 
vinces ;^ bread of all kinds ; febrifuges ; shoes ; knives 
and chop-sticks ; a small cart or carriole, in which one 
was wheeled about the garden, and which at the same 
time weeded, hoed, and rolled the walks and alleys, 
and gathered up the rubbish ; a pedometer ;^ a hand 
warmer, such as is nowadays extensively advertised 
under the name of Instra; a magnetic ring or 
Avicenna 's fortune, which when carried on the finger 
attracts the poison of malignant diseases and becomes 
black; so long as the wearer is in sound health the ring 
retains its brioht Qolden colour, if he turns ill it loses 
its brightness and becomes tarnished ; a witch's-dollar, 
Hexen- Thaler, made of a mixture of the seven metals, 
and inscribed with magical characters ; a talisman, of 
lead covered with Arabic letters, which was used as an 
amulet by being placed in burning soda. 

The museum had a section devoted to ecclesiastical 
objects [Curiosa ecclesiae Romano -Cat holicae). Ap- 
parently, however, it was not intended to illustrate 
Christian antiquities or ecclesiastical art, but rather 
to gratify the love of the marvellous. There were 

^ It is also described and figured in Epistola Ilinefaria, 32, Cent, i., 
in which he describes the museum of Albert Ritter. This coin when hung 
round the neck rendered the weai'er proof against bullets and all 
weapons. There was a similar coin in Kilter's collection. Briickmann 
gives several references to writers on this curious subject; amongst others 
to Happel, Relationes Curiosae, iv., pp. 291, 534. 

2 Beckmann, History of Inventions, i., p. 5 ; Nicolai, Reise, i., Beilage i, 
Berlin, 1783, 8vo. 



SEBA S MUSEUMS I I 5 

a great number of charms and amulets ; a crystal of 
red glass, containing St. John's Gospel, which was 
hung upon infants to preserve them from poison ; 
Spanish weather-crosses, which were believed to ward 
off thunder and storms, and other metal crosses ; 
vertigo-crosses, made of glass of various colours, which 
prevented giddiness ; a cross of horn which had been 
touched by the Pope, and was therefore a remedy for 
all ailments ; Indulgence pence ; St. Benedict's pence ;^ 
a perfume plant, whose smoke puts to flight spectres 
and witches ; various relics of saints ; raw silk, white 
and red, consecrated in St. Stephen's Cathedral, 
Vienna, and good against erysipelas ; earth from St. 
Ulric's grave, near Augsburg, which keeps away mice.^ 
A portable altar, with two wings, figures in the list, 
probably on account of its small size.^ 
* One of the largest private museums of the seven- 
teenth century was that of Albert Seba (1665- 
1736), Commencing life as a druggist in Amsterdam, 

' he entered the service of the Dutch East India 
Company, and acquired great wealth. His early 
studies had given him a taste for natural history, and 

j he employed his large fortune in forming a collection 
of the most interesting objects in the animal, vege- 

, table, and mineral kingdoms. When Peter the Great 
visited Amsterdam, in 1716, he purchased the museum 

• 

^ He again refers to St. Benedict's pence, which were a preservative 
against magical practices, in Epistola Itineraria, i8, Cent. i. 

^He treats at length of St. Ulric's Earth in Epistola IHneraria, 6, 
Cent. i. 

^ In Epistola 8, Cent, i., he mentions the portable altar of the Emperor 
Henr)' at Quedlinburg. 



ii6 ruysch's museums 

and removed it to St. Petersburg ; ^ but Seba im- 
mediately undertook the collection of another, which 
soon surpassed every other in Europe. It was, how- 
ever, dispersed on his death in 1736. He began 
a description of this museum, one volume of which 
was published during his lifetime and three more 
after his death. ^ 

Another celebrated museum at Amsterdam belonged 
to the great anatomist, Frederik Ruysch (1638- 1731), 
which " in the extent, variety, and arrangement of its 
contents, became ultimately the most magnificent that 
any private individual had ever accumulated, and was 
the resort of visitors of every description. Generals, 
ambassadors, princes, and even kings, were happy in 
the opportunity of examining it."" Peter the Great, 
when in Holland in 1698, often dined with Ruysch 
that he might have an opportunity of examining his 
cabinet, and on his next visit to Holland he purchased 

^ See Bacmeister, Essai siir la bibliotJieqiie et le cabi7iet de Curiositez et 
d' Histoire naturelle de T'Aca,d^niie des Sciences de S. Petersboia-g^ p. 149. 
Petersb., 1776, 8vo. 

- Locupletissimi reriun ?iaturalmm thesauri accurata Descriptio et 
iconibus Expressio, per universam physices historiam. Amst., 1734-65, 
4 vols. fol. A French translation accompanies the Latin text, and in 
some copies a Dutch translation is substituted for the French. A copy 
was advertised by B. & J. White in 1795 {Catalogue, No. 37, p, 3, London, 
1795), iri which the plates were coloured by J. Fortuyn, at Leyden, soon 
after the publication of the work, from the specimens themselves in 
Seba's museum.. 

The plates were reprinted at Paris in 1827, and a new tey.t was 
promised, but was not issued. The plates, says Cuvier, are excellent, 
but the text ',5 of no authority whatever, being written without accuracy 
or judgment. Cuvier, The Animal Kingdotn, by Griffith, vol. xvi. 
(Index), p. 321. London, 1835. 

^ Chalmers, Ge?ieral Biographical Dictionary, s.v. Ruysch. It was 
visited by Dr. Edward Brown in 1668. Travels, p. 100, London, 1685, fol. 



MUSEUM NATURAE CURIOSORUM 117 

it for 30,000 florins, and sent it to St. Petersburg in 
1717.^ Like Seba, Ruysch, although an octogenarian, 
immediately set about the formation of a new collection, 
which was ultimately acquired by the King of Poland 
for 20,000 florins." He published a catalogue of the 
original collection in 1691/ and of part of the second 
in 1710.^ To this there is prefixed a long poem in 
Latin, descriptive of the museum, by Lambert Bidloo, 
with a Dutch translation, and a shorter Dutch poem 
by Hermann Schyn. After Ruysch's death an auction 
catalogue of the whole of this collection was issued.^ 

The Academy of Naturae Ciiriosi was for long- 
anxious to establish a library and museum similar to 
those of the Royal Society of London, but w^ant of 
funds prevented the execution of the plan for many 
years. Johann Jakob Baier (1677-1735) of Altdorf, 
the fifth President, who had spent much time and 
money in forming a private collection,*^ vigorously 
supported the scheme, fixed upon Nuremberg as the 

^ Scheltema, Afiecdotes historiques siir Picrre-le-Gnmd et sur ses 
voyages en Hollande, p. 127, Lausanne, 1842, 8vo ; Bacmeister, Op. laud., 
p. isosqg. 

^ Van der Aa, Biographisch Woordetiboek der Nederlanden, s.v. Ruysch. 

■* Catalogus rariorum quae in Museo Ruyschiano asservantur appended 
to his Observationum anaiomico-chirurgicarum C^«/z^rza, Amstelod., 1691, 
4to. 

•* Thesaurus aninialiuiii primus., Amstel., 1710, 4to — Latin and Dutch 
— with plates. A synopsis of the contents of the whole museum is given 
by Valentini, Museum Museorum, ii.. Appendix xviii., p. 59. 

° Catalogus Musaei Ruyschiani, Amstel. [1731], 8vo, 94 pp. See also 
J. F. Schreiber, Historia vitae et ineritorum Frederici u^uysck, p. jj, 
Amstel, 1732, 4to. James Petiver acknowledges his indebtedness to 
Ruysch for various reptiles, insects, etc. 

^ He describes his library and museum in his Sciagrapkia Musei sui, 
Norimbergae, 1730, 4to. Infra., p. 219. 



Il8 DR. JOHN woodward's MUSEUM 

most central place for the institution, and made some 
progress in obtaining books and specimens. After 
his death its quarters were changed to Erfurt, and 
accommodation for it was found in the convent of 
the Augustinian monks. The museum contained ana- 
tomical and pathological preparations, coins and medals, 
minerals, petrifactions and shells. The collection seems 
never to have been very extensive, and was in 1805 
transferred to the University of Erfurt.^ 

Dr. John Woodward (1665-1728), with unwearied 
industry during forty years, and at great expense, 
formed a very extensive museum of minerals, fossils, 
and shells, both English and foreign. ^ It ranked 
with Sloane's, and was well known at the time. 

A verier monster, than on Afric's shore 

The sun e'er got, or sUmy Nikis bore. 

Or Sloane or Woodward's wondrous shelves contain.^ 

The foreign fossils w^ere sold after his death, but the 
greater part of the English ones he bequeathed to 
the University of Cambridge, together with a sum of 
money for the endowment of a professorship for the 
study of geology. The collection was remarkable for 

•^ Biichner, Acadeniiae . . . Naturae Curiosoruin Historia, p. 565 sqq. 
Halae ]\Iagd., 1755, 4to, with a View of the Hall. Hirsching, NachricJiten 
von seJiensiuurdigen Gcmcilde . . . Kunst- und Naiuralien-Kabineten 
. . . in Teutschland, iii. 22 ; vi. 91. 

-An attanpt toivards a Natural History of the Fossils of England, in 
a Catalogue of the English Fossils in the Collection of f. Woodward, 
M.D., part i., tome i., London, 1729, 8vo, pp. xvi., 243, dealing with 1574 
specimens; part ii., pp. 115; tome ii., London, 1728, contains Addi- 
tional English Native Fossils, pp. no. This is followed by Catalogue of 
the Foreign Fossils, part i., pp. 52, and part ii., pp. 33, and Ati Addition, 
pp. 21, and another Addition, pp. 15. 

^ Pope, Satires of Dr. Donne versified, iw 28. 



ITS CONTENTS I I 9 

its extent and variety, and is particularly worthy of 
note as having been made with the express object 
of determining- the true nature of petrified bodies. 
His views regarding the relative positions of the 
various strata of the earth's crust were accurate, and 
he clearly saw that water had played an important 
part in their formation, and that what is now dry 
land had formerly been submerged. This submer- 
sion he assumed was the Noachian deluge, which 
implied a very short period of time, so that in account- 
ing for geological phenomena he had to attribute to 
it extraordinary powers. Its waters, he maintained, 
had an almost universal solvent power, by which 
rocks and mountains were melted down, and were 
thus able to admit foreign bodies, such as shells, 
into their interior, and so themselves became rock.-^ 
Woodward had also "a curious collection of Roman 
antiquities, not only of urns, but gems, signets, rings, 
keys, stylus scriptorius, res turpiculae, ivory pins, brass 

^ Dr. Woodward's views are alluded to in a satirical broadside ballad 
of the period Tauronomachm relating to the quarrel between him and 
Dr. Mead, in which he appears under the title Onos. 

First Onos there of great Renown, 

A fam'd Empirick of the Town, 

Noted for skill in occult Arts 

And Sciences 

He, by Deduction long and sage, 
Teaches, How with impetuous Rage 
Th' Abyss, deserting dark Abode, 
From subterranean Caverns flow'd, 
And dissipating all the World 
Into a Hodge-Podge Deluge hurl'd. 

Both Doctors are alluded to in another contemporary broadside, The 
Drury Lane Monster, in which Dr. Mead is described as, 
A famous Physician as ever was seen, 
WTiio once had a Patient and she was a queen. 



I20 HIS SHIELD 

Jibidae, etc.,"-^ and a very extensive library, all of which 
were sold in 1728.^ 

One of his specimens gave rise to a storm of contro- 
versy and many personalities. This was a small but 
curious iron shield of a round form, which he had 
acquired at the sale of Mr. Conyer's museum about 
1693.^ The latter had purchased it of a brazier, who 
bought it amongst some brass and iron fraoments 
which came out of the armoury in the Tower of 
London near the end of Charles II.'s reign. When 
it passed into Woodward's possession, it became an 
object of interest to antiquaries. He had several 
casts of it taken, and had it engraved at Amsterdam 
in 1705. On the concave side were represented, in 
the upper part, the ruins of Rome when burnt by the 
Gauls ; and below, the weighing out of the gold to 
purchase their retreat, together with the arrival of 
Camillus and the flight of the Gauls; and in the centre 
a grotesque mask with horns very large and promi- 
nent.* Antiquaries could not agree as to its age. The 
Dutch thought that it was an antique ; the French 
that it was modern. Henry Dodwell wrote a dis- 
sertation upon it, in which he fixed its date as the time 
of Nero, and suggested that it had come out of 

^ Thoresby's Diary, i., p. 340. London, 1830, 8vo. 

^A catalogue of the library, antiquities, etc., of the late learned Dr. 
Woodward. . . . By Mr. Christopher Batenian, bookseller, aitd Mr. 
John Cooper. London [1728], 8\'o. The catalogue of the library contains 
4756 numbers. 

The University of Cambridge, in order to make their collection com- 
plete, purchased two of the cabinets, ordered to be sold, at the price 
of ^500. 

^ See inf7-a, p. 134. 

^ Biographia Britannica, vi. 4330, London, 1766, fol. 



FIGURES AS CORNELIUS SCRIBLERUS 12 1 

some public collection such as the Shield Walk, White- 
hall.^ Theophilus Downes took a different view, and 
would not allow that it was ancient. Ainsworth 
abridged Dodwell's paper, and inserted it at the end 
of the Museum Woodwardianum, and re-edited and 
improved it in 1734.^ 

Woodward was not popular with his contempor- 
aries,^ and some of those whom he had offended took 
"all occasions to vex him, which they thought might 
be done to purpose by decrying the antiquity of this 
monument."'* Amono-st these " ino-enious o-entlemen " 
was Pope, who ridiculed both him and the shield. 
In the Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus he figures 
as Cornelius, "a grave and learned gentleman, by 
profession an antiquary," who had chosen his wife 
because on the father's side she was related to 
Cardan, and to Aldrovandi on the mother's. He 
was fond of an antique buckler which he held as a 
most authentic relic, and, remembering that the cradle 
of Hercules had been a shield, determined that the 
infant Martinus should be cradled in his own. The 

^ De parmn equestri Woodwardiana Disscrtatio, published by Hearne, 
Oxonii, 17 1 3, 8vo. See N\cho\s, Afiecdofcs 0/ Afr. Boiuyer, p. 109, Lon- 
don, 1782, 4to ; Illustrations of the Literary History of the Eightec7ith 
Century^ iv., pp. 100-102. 

-De Clipeo Caiiii/li aittiquo. . . . Disscrtatio, Lond., 1734, 4to. 

^ Woodward was evidently of a somewhat jealous and petulant 
temperament. See Letter by Sir Hans Sloane in Nichols, Literary 
Illustrations of the Eighteenth Cefitury, i., p. 272. Thoresby, Corre- 
spondence, i., p. 409. Sloane mentions that Woodward's collection was 
a very fine one. Sir John Clerk of Penicuik says "he himself was the 
greatest curiosity of the whole collection," Memoirs of Dr. Stukcley, i., 
p. 213; Metnoirs of Sir John Clerk, p. 127. 

* Thoresby, Correspondence, ii., p. 108. 



122 DR. MEADS MUSEUM 



housemaid, " concern'd for the reputation of her own 

cleanliness, and her young master's honour, scoured it 

as clean as her And-irons," to the inexpressible grief 

of Cornelius. In the Epistle to Addison, Pope reverts 

to the subject : 

Poor Vadius, long with learned spleen devour'd, 
Can taste no pleasure since his Shield was scour'd. 

At Woodward's sale the shield was purchased by 
Colonel Richard King, one of his executors, for £\oo, 
and at the sale of his effects in 1768 it was sold to Dr. 
Wilkinson for forty guineas.^ 

A physician in Glasgow got a similar shield from 
Spain in 1737.^ 

Dr. Richard Mead (1673- 17 54) spent three years at 
the University of Utrecht, under the great classical 
scholar and antiquary, Graevius, and probably imbibed 
from him a taste for classical learning and classical 
antiquities, which he cultivated during the rest of his 
long life. From Utrecht he passed to Leyden and 
became a pupil of Paul Hermann (1646- 1695), Pro- 
fessor of Botany. Hermann had lived for several 
years in the East Indies, and had made a large collec- 
tion of oriental plants, animals, and other objects which 
he used in illustration of his lectures. How far the 
influence of Hermann, and a residence in Leydipn, with 
its great museums, stimulated the collecting spirit, it is 
impossible to say, but both Mead and his fellow- 
student, Hermann Boerhaave'^ (1668- 1738), became 

^ Biographia Britanntca, ict supra ; Gough, British Topography, i., p. 
720, London, 1780. 
^Memoirs of Dr. Stukeley, ill., p. 411 (Surtees Society, No. Ixxx.). 
3 See post, p. 146. 



SALE OF HIS COLLECTIONS 1 23 

collectors and formed museums. Mead was a success- 
ful physician, and the wealth which he acquired 
enabled him to indulge his tastes. His spacious 
house in Great Ormond Street "became a repository 
of all that was curious in nature or in art, to which 
his extensive correspondence with the Learned in all 
parts of Europe not a little contributed."^ His 
collections were always available for the use of 
students, and were freely open to the public. 

Egyptian mummies were still rarities, and the hiero- 
glyphics on their cases had not ceased to puzzle scholars. 
Mead was the fortunate possessor of a mummy, and 
Alexander Gordon — Jonathan Oldbuck's Sandy Gordon 
— endeavoured to solve the mystery by a comparative 
study of this and all the other mummies in England, 
which do not seem to have exceeded three. ^ 

^[Maty], Memoirs of the Life of Richard Mead, M.D., p. 51, London, 
1755, 8vo. Prefixed is a view of the Library and Museum; Nichols, 
Anecdotes of William Botuyer, pp. 255, 550, London, 1782, 4to. 

-An Essay toward'^ explaining the ant lent Hieroglyphical Figures 
on the Egyptian Mummy in the Museum of Doctor Mead, London, 
1737, fol. 

Gordon pubHshed 25 plates of all the mummies and other Egyptian 
antiquities in England, as also this Essay and another on the mummy 
belonging to Captain William Lethieullier, London, 1737, fol. He in- 
tended to publish similar essays explanatory of the other plates, but no 
more appeared. Two plates of the Lethieullier mummy had been pre- 
viously engraved by G. Vertue, London, 1724, fol. 

Mead's mummy and Gordon's book are referred to in Koehler, Anwei- 
sung fiir Reisende gelehrte,'ip. 219, Frankf, 1762, 8vo ; p. 736, Magd., 
1 8 10, 8vo. 

The mummy was purchased at Dr. Mead's sale by Dr. John Hunter for 
thirteen guineas, and its remains are now in the museum of the Royal 
College of Physicians. The Royal Society's mummy was opened in 1763 
and caused the death of Dr. Hadley, Gough, British Topography, i., 
p. 662. 



124 KEMPS MUSEUM 

Mead's various collections were brouoht to sale after 
his death, and realised upwards of ;^i 6,000. The 
library, which was particularly rich in rare and curious 
editions of the classics, produced over ^5000. His 
coins and medals brought nearly ^2000, and his anti- 
quities ^3246.^ 

Another London collection of repute was that of 
John Kemp (1665-1717).- Its foundation was one 
which had been formed a number of years before by 
Jean Gailliard, a Frenchman, who had been governor 
to George, first Lord Carteret, to whom he sold it 
for an annuity of ^200.^ After Lord Carteret's 
death, in 1695, Kemp purchased the museum from his 
representatives and added largely to it. The objects, 
says a writer of the day, "are neatly dispos'd in ex- 
cellent order in a square room, tho' at your entrance 
you would not imagine to find such treasure there."* 

Ralph Thoresby, who visited it in January, 1709, 
found much to interest him, " I visited Mr, Kempe, 
who showed me his noble collection of Greek and 
Roman medals, several of the laroe medallions in 

^ Nichols, Anecdotes of Mr. Bowyer, pp. 252-255 ; Museum Afeadiaman, 
London, 1755, 8vo. This is in two parts. The first (pp. 210) is of the 
coins. The second (pp. 213) embraces antiquities, gems and objects of 
natural history. A month later there was a second sale of the general 
antiquities. A Catalogue of the . . . Collection of valuable geiiis^ bronzes., 
marble and other busts and antiquities of the late Doctor iJ/^i^^^ [London, 
1755], 8vo. 

There were separate sales and catalogues of the library, the prints and 
drawings and the pictures. 

- Nichols, Anecdotes of Mr. Bowyer, p. 108 ; Literary Anecdotes of the 
Eighteenth Century, v., pp. 249, 519 ; Literary Illustrations, iv., p. 432. 

^ A Compleat Volume of the Memoirs for the Curious, ii., p. 259, London, 
1710, 4to ; Gough, British Topography, i., p. 761, London, 1780, 4to. 

* A Compleat Volume of the Memoirs for the Curious, ii., p. 260. 



KEMPS MUSEUM 125 

silver, and others larger in copper, valued at vast 
sums of monies ; he had also two entire mummies (in 
their wooden chests, shaped with a human head, &c.), 
one of which has the Egyptian hieroglyphics painted 
upon the swathing-bands; he had fragments of another 
and gave me a piece, which seems converted into a 
dark coloured rosin or gum by the embalming, which 
has penetrated the very bones, which are not only 
outwardly but quite through of a black colour, as is 
evident per a piece he gave me ; but what 1 was most 
surprised with was his closet of the ancient deities, 
lares, lamps, and other Roman vases, some of which 
were Monsieur Spon's, and are described in print, 
others not yet ; being the noblest collection I ever 
beheld of this kind. The Duke of Buckinoham had 

o 

O a design upon them, but not yielding to the price, 
Mr. Kempe advanced ;^io and procured the treasure, 
and has wrote over thai part of the museum ' Hie 
sitis Lm'ibus laetor' "^ Three years later on a second 
visit he found that it had been considerably added to. 

With a view of keeping his collection together, 
Kemp directed in his will that it should be offered, to- 
gether with his library, to Robert, first Earl of Oxford, 
or his son Edward, Lord Harley, for ^2000. The 
offer was declined, and the museum was brought 
to sale in 1721, when Mead was an extensive pur- 
chaser.- Some objects fell to Ebenezer Mussel, who 
was subsequently a considerable purchaser at the 

^ Diary, ii., pp. 31, 112. 

2 Note on a copy of the Momnnenta Vetustatis Kempiana, London, 
1719-20, 8vo, in the library of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society 
of London. 



126 ainsworth's museum 

Mead sale, and were again dispersed at the sale of 
his own curiosities in 1765.^ An elaborate catalogue of 
Kemp's collection^ was prepared by Robert Ainsworth 
(1660- 1 743), the author of the well-known Latin 
Dictionary, who was a hunter after antiquities and 
ofot tooether a small museum.^ 

One of the most industrious collectors of the period 
was Ralph Thoresby (1658- 1725), the historian of 
Leeds. Another was William Stukeley (1687- 1768), 
the antiquary. Both kept diaries and preserved their 
correspondence. These have been published and give 
much interesting information regarding collectors and 
collectino- in Eng-land in the first half of the eighteenth 
century.* 

^ Infra, p. 1 84. 

"^ Monumenta Vetustatis Kempiana, London, 1719-20, 8vo, in two 
parts. 

3 Nichols, Anecdotes of Mr. Bowyer, pp. 108- no ; Literary Anecdotes of 
the Eighteenth Century, v., p. 248. 

* Thoresby, Diary, London, 1830, 2 vols., 8vo ; Letters of Emijieiit 
Me7i addressed to R. T., lb., 1832, 2 vols., 8vo ; Stukeley, Family 
Memoirs, 1882-87, 3 vols., 8vo (Surtees Society), Infra, p. 183. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE BEGINNINGS OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 

Robert Hubert alias Forges/ "Gent, and sworn 
servant to his Majesty," had a collection " of many 
natural rarities " which he had collected '' with great 
industry, cost, and thirty years' travel in foraign 
countries." He withdrew it from England during 
the troubles of the Commonwealth period, and ex- 
hibited it at Leipzig in 1651, and thereafter at 
Hamburg, and printed a catalogue in German for 
the use of visitors." Amongst those "whose love 
of virtue, learning, and of the admirable works of 

^A change of name was often a necessity in those times. Courtine 
adopting the name of Charleton {infra, p. 129) is another example. 
Carte, the historian, lived in France under the name of Phillips. 
Maty, Memoirs of the Life of Richard Mead, M.D., p. 39, London, 
1755, 8vo. We have William Hubord, alias Lowden, a plotter in 
Westmoreland in 1663. Cale7idar of State Papers, Domestic, 1665-66, 
P- 377- 

'^Sachse de Lewenheimb, Gammarologia, p. 53, Francof., 1665, 8vo. 
He gives some further particulars in Major, Dissertatio Epistolica de 
Cancris et Serpentibus, pp. 63, 85, Jenae, 1664, 8vo ; amongst others, 
that the collection originally belonged to King Charles I. See also 
Major, See-Farth, p. 109, Hamburg, 1683. In the printed Catalogue 
Charles I. heads the list of donors. 

127 



128 Hubert's museum 

God in natural rarities," had been shewed " by their 
bountiful addingr of somethino- to the encrease of the 
fore-mentioned collection," were " Gaston, Duke of 
Orleans, Dr. Housewetel, Physitian to the King 
of Sweden and chief Physitian in Hamburg," Doctor 
Towers of Hamburgh, and Dr. Bezler, Chief 
Physitian in Nuremberg.^ After the Restoration 
Hubert brought it back to England, and in 1664 
exhibited it "at the place called the Musick House, at 
the Miter, near the west end of St. Paul's Church.""^ 
It was considered a good collection at the time, 
but now would be thouo-ht to have little scientific 
value. Amongst the specimens from the animal king- 
dom were "a rib of a Triton or Mereman, taken by 
Captain Finny upon the shoals of Brasil, five hundred 
leagues from the Maine " ; " the head and beak of a 
true Griffin " ; "a very perfect great and true Remora 
of India, whose property is to hinder or stay ships as 
they swim (if we will believe Heathen philosophers)."^ 

^A Catalogue of Natural Rarities, London, 1665, i2mo. 

''■A Catalogue of Natural Rarities, London, 1664, and again in 1665, 
i2mo. The two editions differ slightly. I have quoted from both. There 
is another catalogue, A Catalogue of part of the Rarities collected by 
R. H. alias Forges, Gent, London, n.d., 8vo, mentioned in Catalogus 
Bidliot/iecae Harleianae, \\. 13,398. London, 1743, 8vo. Aga.ss\z, £il>lio- 
graphia zoolo^iae et geologiae, s.v. Forges, London, 1848-54, 8vo. 

As to this collection, see The Tatler, vi., p. 33, ed. Nichols, Lon- 
don, 1786. Kippis, Biographia Britannica, iv., p. 347, London, 
1789, fol. ; Weld, History of the Royal Society, i., p. 188. 

^The Remora is the sucking-fish {echefieis) of which the ancients related 
the most wonderful stories (Pliny, Histoj'ia Naturalis, ix. 41 (25), xxxii. 
i), faithfully repeated, with additions, until comparatively recent times. 
It is figured and described by Briickmann, Epistola Itineraria, 50, 
Cent, i., and by Ignazio Bracci, Reinorae pisciculi Effigies, Romae, 1643, 
fol. 



COURTEN S COLLECTIONS I 29 

Besides "divers stones of strange shapes and regular 
forms," he had a considerable assortment of, what was 
then a favourite exhibit, "natural landskips in stone. "^ 
Amongst them "a white stone that represents a tree, 
as if it was made by art with a pen " ; "a stone with 
the natural land-skip of a castle on a hill, a town at 
the bottom, and a pathway between, very pleasant to 
behold." Hubert mentions that he had an Arcuata 
coccmea, a sort of sea-curlew, ''given me together with 
the full relation of it, by the learned Dr. Charlton, 
one of the King's Majestis Physitians in ordinary, 
and excellently knowing in Natural Rarities," and 
" a great Crocodile given by noble Squire Courtine, 
a lover of vertue and ingenuity." 

Squire Courtine was William Courten (1642- 1702), 
better known as William Charleton, a name which 
he assumed and under which he lived for many 
years. His collection Evelyn declared to be one 
of the largest and most perfect he had seen, and cost 
;!^8ooo."" Petiver alludes to it as " the incomparable 
Museum of that most curious preserver of both 
natural and artificial rarities, and my worthy friend 

^ For instance, Briickmann, Epistolae Itinerariae, 25, 50, Cent. i. Grew, 
Musaeiim Regalis Societatis, p. 311, London, 1681, fol. In the Copen- 
hagen museum they had " a piece of marble with a natural representation 
of a Crucifix on its outside, mightily valued by the Lutherans." The 
Philosophical Transactions, xxiii. (1702-3), p. 1412. 

-Evelyn, Diary, iii., pp. 29, 86, 99, 442, London, 1879; Numismata, 
pp. 246, 251, 282, London, 1697; Thoresby, Diary, i., p. 299; ii., 
p. 250, London, 1830, 8vo ; Brown, Travels, p. 102, London, 1685, fol- \ 
[M. de la Combe de Vrigny] Travels through Denmark and sotne 
parts of Germany, p. 7, London, 1707, 8vo ; Neickelius, Museographia, 
p. 67, Leipzig, 1727, 4to ; Cramer's Introduction to Rumph, Amboi- 
nische Raritdten-Kammer, p. vii., Wien, 1766, fol. 

I 



I30 DR. WALTER CHARLETON 

Mr. William Charleton in the Middle Temple."^ It 
was bequeathed on his death in 1702 to Sir Hans 
Sloane ;^ but was in confusion when it came into his 
possession.^ It now forms part of the British Museum.^ 
Dr. Charleton (1619-1707) was the well-known 
physician,^ and author of the Chorea Giganturn^ in 
which, supported by arguments supplied by Ole 
Worm, he essays to prove that Stonehenge was 
erected by the Danes, and which was the occasion 
of Dryden's spirited Epistle : 

Stonehenge, once thought a temple, you have found 
A throne, where Kings, our earthly gods, were crown'd ; 
"\\Tiere by their wond'ring subjects they were seen, 
Joy'd with their stature and their princely mien. 

Shortly after its incorporation the Royal Society, 
on the initiative of Daniel Colwal, began to form 
a museum of curiosities at Gresham College. " Those 
of the Society that are now in London," writes Henry 
Oldenburg, " do endeavour to get a good collection of 
natural and artificial curiosities for the Society's reposi- 

■* The Philosophical Tratisacfiotis, xxi. (1699), p. 295. 

-Letter by John Calder, 1788, in Nichols, Literary Illustrations of the 
Eighteenth Century, viii., p. 265 ; Jb. i., p. 800 ; Kippis, Biographia 
Britannica, iv., p. 334 sgq. ; The Taller, vi., pp. 476, 488-502, ed. 
Nichols, London, 1786 ; Weld, History of the Royal Society, L, p. 452 ; 
Chambers, Edinburgh Journal, xv. (1851), p. 310; Edwards, Memoirs 
of Libraries, i., p. 440, London, 1859, 8vo ; Lives of the Founders of 
the British Museum, p. 248 sqq., London, 1870, 8vo. 

*Thoresby, Correspo?ide?tce, i., p. 409. London, 1832, 8vo. 

* Gentleman^ s Magazitie, vol. 86, pt. ii. (18 16), p. 395 ; Dryden, Works, 
ed. Scott, xi. p. 12, Edinb., 182 1, 8vo. 

^ Weld, History of the Royal Society, i., p. 190. 

® London, 1663, 4to. See Bartholin, Epistolae Medidnales, Cent, iv., 
Epist. 92, pp. 479, 480. Hag. Com., 1740, i2mo. 



ROYAL SOCIETY S MUSEUM I 3 I 

tory ; and they hope to make shortly an acquest of a 
very good stock of that kind, which will look as 
somethinor towards a foundation."^ This was a 
collection ''which had belonged to Mr. Hubbard,"^ 
which was purchased with ;^ioo presented by Mr. 
Colwal.^ Many additions were made, and the 
museum soon became one of the attractions of 
London ; " Inquire at Gresham Colledge for Dr. 
Pope," says Sir Andrew Balfour, " that by his 
means you may see a verie fine collection of 
naturall rarities kept in that Colledge."* In 1678 
Nehemiah Grew (1628-1711), the vegetable ana- 
tomist and physiologist, was requested to prepare a 
descriptive catalogue of the collection, which was 
published three years afterwards, and w^hich passed 
throuQfh several editions.^ The Catalosfue was founded 
on several lectures read by the author before the Royal 

^Robert Boyle, Works, vi., p. 215. London, 1772, 4to. 

■^Weld, History 0/ the Royal Society, i., p. 186, London, 1848, 8vo. 

' Colwal himself is said to have been a collector. Granger, Biographical 
History of England, iii., p. 402, London, 1779, 8vo. 

■* Letters written to a Friend by the Learned and Jttdicioies Sir Andrew 
Balfour, M.D., p. 4. Edinburgh, 1700, i2mo. The letter in question 
was written about 1668. 

^ A Catalogue and description of the natural and artificial rarities 
belonging to the Royal Society and preserved at Creshatn College. 
London, 1681, fol., with engravings, prepared at the expense of Daniel 
Colwal, the founder of the museum. Valentini, Museujn Museorum, 
ii.. Appendix, p. 19, gives a short account of the collection founded on the 
Acta Lipsiensia of 168 1 -1686. 

Sir Hans Sloane wrote, " An account of a China Cabinet, filled with 
several instruments, fruits, etc., used in China ; sent to the Royal Society 
by Mr. Buckly, Chief Surgeon at Fort St. George." The Philosophical 
Transactions, xx. (1698), pp. 390, 461 ; xxi. (1699), pp. 44, 70. 



132 FOUNDED ON HUBERTS 

Society in 1676. The collection itself was ultimately- 
transferred to the British Museum/ 

There seems little doubt that the stock which 
formed the foundation of the Royal Society's Mu- 
seum was that of Robert Hubert alias Forges.^ 
Hubert's collection was for sale at the time;^ and 
a comparison of his catalogue with that of Grew 
seems to settle the question. Take but a few 
examples. The first entry in the former is "A 
Giants Thigh-bone, more than four feet in length, 
found in Syria.' Grew describes it, "The leg bone 
of an Elephant. It was brought out of Syria for the 
Thigh-bone of a Giant." Hubert had the horns of a 
hare which had belonged to the Prince Electors of 
Saxony,* and a rhinoceros' horn which was given to 
him by the Duke of Holstein. Both objects appear 

1 Flower, "The Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, England," 
in Transactions of the International Medical Congress, 7 Sess., i., p. 133, 
London, 1881; Essays on Musetans, p. 76. 

2 The purchase was made in February, 166^, and Hubert's museum 
was on exhibition in 1664 and 1665 [supra, p. 127). According to 
Oldys, " this collection, or a great part of it, was purchased by Sir 
Hans Sloane;" (Hawkins, History of Music, iv., p. 379, London, 1776, 
4to). But I think part, at any rate, went to the Royal Society. There 
was no Mr. Hubbard, a collector, so far as I have been able to ascertain, 
and I take it that Hubbard is a mistake for Hubert. 

Sir Hans Sloane's part of the museum seems to have come by way 
of Mr. Courten {The Tatler, vi., p. 34, ed. Nichols, London, 1786). 
Allibone, Dictionary of EnglisJi Literature, i., p. 909, London, 1859, 
8vo, says that the collection was destroyed in the great fire of 1666, 
but there seems to be no authority for the statement. 

'^ A Catalogue of many Rarities, p. 68, London, 1665, l2mo. 

* Hares' horns were great curiosities. King James L of England had 
one of the horns. The horned hare was found in Saxony. Mtcseum 
Wonnianiim, p. 321 ; Keysler, Reisen, p. 1309, Hannover, 175 1, 4to. 



THOMAS WILLLSEL 133 

in Grew's catalogue, with the same note of former 
ownership. Grew seems to have been puzzled by 
the horns of the hare, for he adds, "so I find them 
inscribed."' The flamingo i^phaenicopter) which he 
describes was, he says, " Given by Thomas Povey, 
Esq." Hubert's specimen was "given by the in- 
genious lover of rarities, Mr, Povey, treasurer to His 
Hignesse the Duke of Yorke." Hubert had a leg of 
a dodo, which duly figures in the Royal Society's 
collection. They were likewise indebted to him for 
the leg and t.<g^ of the cassow^ary. Besides the ob- 
jects catalogued, Hubert mentions that he had forty 
chests or boxes furnished with many hundred 
rarities. 

As an assistant in the great work of collecting, 
mention should be made of Thomas Willisel, a 
Northamptonshire man, who " was employed by the 
Royal Society in the search of natural rarities, both 
animals, plants, and minerals; for which purposes he 
was the fittest man in England, both for his skill and 
industry. He gave great assistance to Ray and other 
botanists in collecting specimens for them,"^ He 
served as a foot-soldier in the army of Oliver Crom- 
well. " Lying at St, James's (a garrison then, I 
thinke), he happened," writes Aubrey, "to go along 
with some simplers.'- He liked it so well that he 
desired to goe with them as often as they went, and 
tooke such a fancy to it that in a short time he 

^ Pulteney, Sketches of the Progress of Botany, i., pp. 348, 349. Ray, 
Travels throug]i the Low Countries, i., p. 98. 

^A "simpler" is what Ray {supra, p. 81) terms an "herbarist." Dr. 
Adam Littleton in his Latin Dictionary explains Herbarius as " an 
herbarist or simpler ; he that has knowledge of herbs, plants, etc." 



134 CONYERS MUSEUM 

became a good botanist. He was a lusty fellow, and 
had an admirable sight, which is of great use for a 
simpler ; was as hardy as a Highlander ; all the 
clothes on his back not worth ten groates, an ex- 
cellent marksman, and would maintain himselfe with 
his dog and his gun and his fishing-line. The 
botanists of London did much encourage him, and 
employed him all over England, Scotland, and good 
part of Ireland, if not all ; where he made brave 
discoveries, for which his name will ever be remem- 
bered in herballs. If he saw a strange fowle or bird, 
or a fish, he would have it and case it."^ Some of his 
collections were in Sir Hans Sloane's Herbarium and 
so found their way to the British Museum. 

John Conyers, by profession an apothecary in Shoe 
Lane, and by taste an antiquary,^ had a museum of 
rarities which he had collected during thirty years. 
In 1691 he had it newly "methodized," and made 
"a Proposal to the publick of exposing his col- 
lections to such as shall be curious to see them." 
The Athenian Society " for the resolving all nice 
and curious questions " was consulted upon the pro- 
posal, and after viewing the collection and shortly 
describing it, pronounced this somewhat enigmatical 

^ Aubrey, The Natural History of Wiltshire, ed. Britton, p. 48, note, 
London, 1847, 4to. (The Wiltshire Topographical Society.) 

2 He was also inventor of an improved Hygroscope, an improved Pump, 
and an improved Speaking-Trumpet. The Philosophical Transactions, 
xi. (1676), No. 129, p. 715, xii. (1677-78); No. 136, p. 888; No. 141, 
p. 1027. Sloane MS. 958, contains a number of observations by Conyers 
from 1673 to 1690. See also Harleian MS. 5953, f. 112. He mentions 
finding of the tooth and bone of an elephant, supposed to have been 
" slain in the battle between ye Romans and ye Britains." Cf. supra, p. 50. 



JAMES PETIVER 135 

opinion : " Now of what use a carefull and observant 
view of these things may be to the Divine, the 
Naturalist, Physician, Antiquary, Historian, or indeed 
any person of Curiosity will not be hard to deter- 
mine."^ It was sold apparently about two years later. '"^ 
James Petiver (d. 17 18), apothecary to the Charter- 
house, an excellent botanist and entomologist,'^ corre- 
sponded with naturalists all over the world,* and formed 
a large miscellaneous museum, which he described in 
various publications between 1695 and 171 7.' On his 

^ The Athenian Merairy, vol. iv., No. i6, 2ist November, 1691. Of 
Conyers himself, see Nichols, Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth 
Century, i., p. 535. 

There is mention about this time of an exhibition on Ludgate Hill, 
Where Crocodile, Rhinoceros, and Baboon 
With other Prodigies are daily shown : 
which may refer to this collection. State Poems Cojitifiucd, p. 162, in 
Poems on Affairs of State, vol. i., London, 17 10, 8vo. 

2 Nichols, Literary Illtistratioiis of the Eighteenth Century, iv., p. 10 1 ; 
Supra, p. 120. 

^ Sloane, A Voyage to the Islands of Madeira . . . and famaica, ii., 
p. iv., London, 1725, fol.; Pulteney, ^'^^/'^r/z^i- of the Progress of Botany, 
ii., p. 31. There are a great many notices of Petiver in the first volume 
of Nichols, Literary Illustrations of the Eighteenth Century. 

* He occasionally got specimens from Scotland, e.g. " Muscus Scoticus 
corallio incrustatus. Got in a fresh River near Clacmannan on Forth 
within a few miles of Stirling ; procur'd me thence by my Curious and 
Worthy Friend, Mr. James Hamilton, Surgeon in Edinburgh." Gazo- 
phylacii Naturae et Artis Decas Priina, Tab. x.. No. 10, p. 16, Londini, 
1702. 

At the end of the Museum Petiverianum, infra, he returns thanks for 
specimens to many friends. Amongst them are No. 13, Mr. James 
Hamilton, Surgeon in Edinburgh ; and No. 26, Mr. James Sutherland, 
Superintendent of the Physick Garden at Edinburgh. Itfra, p. 159. 

''Museum Petiverianum, London, 1695- 1703, 8vo ; in ten centuries, 
each describing one hundred plants, animals, or fossils. Petiveriana, 
London, 1716-17, fol. See also A Compleat Volume of the Memoirs for 
the Curious, p. 222, London, 17 10, 4to ; Valentini, Museum Museorum, ii., 
Appendix xiv., pp. 43-52 ; The Philosophical Transactions, xx. (1698), 



136 SIR HANS SLOANE 

death Sir Hans Sloane purchased the collection to- 
gether with his books and manuscripts/ all of which 
subsequently passed to the British Museum. The 
Herbarium has recently been transferred from Mon- 
tague House to the Natural History Museum at 
South Kensington. 
- One of the orreatest collectors whom the world has 

o 

ever seen was Sir Hans Sloane ( 1 660-1 75 1), the 
celebrated physician, President of the College of 
Physicians and of the Royal Society,"' and a con- 
temporary of Dr. Mead. He early commenced 
to form a museum, and continued to add to it 
without intermission until the close of his long life. 
In 1687 he made a voyage to Jamaica, and is said 
to have been the first man of learning whom the 
love of science alone led to that, then distant, part 
of the orlobe. He brouo-ht home with him not 
fewer than 800 different species of plants, and this 
was the first laro^e accession to his collection. 
Amongst other important acquisitions which he 
made in later years were the Charleton or Courten 
and Petiver collections, which have already been 
mentioned, and those of Dr. Christopher Merret 

PP- 313, 393 ; xxi. (1699), PP- 289, 295 ; xxiii. (1702-3), p. 141 1 sqq. ; xxvii. 
(1710-12), p. 142 sqq. 

Petiver also published Brief Directions for the easie making and pre- 
serving Collections of all Natural Curiosities, n.d. 

1 Sloane, tit supra; Pulteney, Op. laud., ii., p. 78; Nichols, Illustra- 
tions of the Literary History of the Eighteenth Century, i., p. 276. 
Edwards, Lives of the Founders of the British Museum, p. 290. London, 
1870, 8vo. 

2 See Briickmann, Epistola Itineraria, 64, Cent. i. ; Memoirs of Dr. 
Stukeley, i. pp. 65, 125 (Surtees Society, No. Ixxiii.). 



FORMATION OF SLOANE S MUSEUM 137 

(1614-1695)/ of Dr. Leonard Plukenet (1642-1706),^ 
a friend of Courten, and of Rev. Adam Buddie, 
Reader at Gray's Inn,^ which consisted chiefly of 
botanical specimens or other objects of natural history. 
Pope, speaking- of the connoisseur or agent, mentions 
the principal collectors of the day : 

He buys for Topham, Drawings and Designs, 
For Fountain Statues, and for Pembroke Coins ; 
Rare monkish Manuscripts for Hearne alone, 
And Books for Mead, and Rarities for Sloane.'^ 

The arrangement of his treasures cost Sloane much 
time and trouble. In 1725 he had 5497 specimens 
of earths, bitumens, metals, minerals, stones, and 
fossils; 804 corals; 8226 vegetable and vegetable 
substances ; 200 large volumes of dried samples of 
plants ; 3824 insects ; 3753 shells ; 1939 echini, 
Crustacea, fishes, and the like ; 568 birds and 185 
eggs; 1 1 94 quadrupeds and their parts; 345 vipers 

^ Sloane, A Voyage to the Islands of Madeira . . . and /amaz'ca, ii., 
p. ii., London, 1725, fol. 

-Pulteney, Sketches of the Progress of Botany, ii., p. 28. 

^ Nichols, Literary Illustrations of the Eighteenth Century, i., pp. 
269, 282, 364. 

* Pope, Moral Essays, Ep. iv., 7. " Rarities " became " Butterflies " in 
the later editions. In these editions the name of Sir Andrew Fountain 
(1676-1763) was dropped out. He was a well-known antiquary and 
virtuoso. " By his skill and judgment he furnished the most considerable 
cabinets of this kingdom, to his own no small emolument." Nichols, 
Literary Anecdotes, v., p. 253, "Walked with Mr. G. Plaxton to the in- 
genious Sir Andrew Fountain's, who showed me several admirable 
curiosities and antiquities from Ireland, both Roman, Danish, and Irish, 
of copper and other metals," Thoresby, Diary, ii., p. 28. Of Lord Pem- 
broke's coins Thoresby says, " It is incomparably the best collection in 
the nation, if not in the universe," Op. laud., ii., p. 35. As to the catalogue 
of this collection see supra, p. 1 5. 



138 ITS EXTENT 

and serpents; 507 JiMviana \ 1169 miscellaneous 
objects, both natural and artificial ; 302 things relating 
to the customs of ancient times, or antiquities, urns, 
instruments, etc.; and 81 large seals ; 319 pictures, 
many relating to natural history ; 54 mathematical 
instruments; 441 "large vessels, handles, and other 
things made of agats, jaspers, cornelians, christals, 
besides many camei and seals, excisa and incisa ; 
20,228 coins and medals, ancient and modern; 136 
books in miniature or colours, with drawings of plants, 
etc., and all sorts of natural and artificial curiosities ; 
580 books of prints ; 2666 volumes of manuscripts, 
the greater part of them relating to physick and 
natural history, travels, etc."^ In all he had 53,018 
separate specimens, which by 1733 had increased to 
69,352,^ and went on increasing for the next twenty 
years.^ He was equally industrious in collecting a 
library relating to the medical art, natural history, 
chemistry, anatomy, etc., which contained 40,000 
printed volumes and 4100 mss. In 1740 he re- 
signed the presidentship of the Royal Society, which 
he had held since 1727, and next year removed his 

■'This is his own account in the Introduction to vol. ii. oi A Voyage to 
the Islands of Madeira . . . and Jainaica^ London, 1725, fol. 

^Maitland, History of Lofidon, ii., p. 1287, London, 1772, fol. 

^The museum as it stood in 1748 is described in T/ie Getitlema-n's 
Magazine, xviii. (1748), p. 301. See also John Ragford's account, lb. 
(1816), part ii., p. 395. The number of articles in 1753 is given in 
Edwards' Lives of the Founders of the British Museum., p. 303, London, 
1870, 8vo. See also Wendeborn, Zustand des Staats, der Religion, der 
Gelehrsamkeit und der Kunst in Grosbfitannieft, vol. ii., p. 162, Berlin, 
1785-88, 8vo. English translation, i., p. 317, London, 1791, 8vo, but this 
is an abridgment and does not give the particulars in the original. 



SLOANES WILL I 39 

library and museum to Chelsea, where he died nth 
January, 1753. ^^^ museum and library had cost 
upwards of ^50,000, and its value, according to his 
own and other accounts, was ^80,000.^ By his Will 
he bequeathed the whole to the nation on condition 
that ^20,000 should be paid to his family. The 
document is an interestino- one : 

Whereas from my youth I have been a great observer 
and admirer of the wonderful power, wisdom, and contrivance 
of the Almighty God, appearing in the works of his creation, 
and have gathered together . . . books, both printed and 
manuscript, . . . natural and artificial curiosities, precious 
stones, . . . dried plants, . . . and the like, . . . 
amounting in the whole to a very great sum of money : Now, 
desiring very much that these things, tending many ways to 
the manifestation of the glory of God, the confutation of 
atheism and its consequences, the use and improvement of 
the arts and sciences, and benefit of mankind, may remain 
together and not be separated, and that chiefly in and about the 
city of London, where they may, by the great confluence of 
people, be of most use. ... Do hereby request that . . . (my) 
trustees ... do make their humble application to Parlia- 
ment ... to pay . . . ;^2o,oco . . . unto my executors 
. . . in consideration of the said collection (it not being, 
as I apprehend and believe, a fourth of the real and intrinsic 
value), and also to obtain . . . sufficient and effectual powers 
... for the preserving and continuing my said collection, 
in such manner as they shall think most likely to answer the 
public benefit by me intended. 

The gift was accepted, and in 1753 an Act (26 
Geo. II., c. 22) was passed for the purchase of the 
Sloane library and museum and of the Harley col- 

1 Letter by Horace Walpole, who was one of his trustees, to Sir Horace 
Mann, 14th February, 1753. Walpole, Letters^ ed. Cunningham, vol. vii., 
p. 320, London, 1857, 8vo. 



140 MUSEUM ACQUIRED BY THE NATION 

lection of charters and manuscripts, which was in 
the market at the time, for uniting them with the 
Cotton Library, and for providing one "general reposi- 
tory " for these and any other additions that might 
thereafter be made. The Act authorised the raising 
of the funds required by means of a lottery, and 
fully ^95,000 was obtained. Of this, ^20,000 went 
to the two daughters of Sir Hans Sloane, Mrs. Stanley 
and Lady Cadogan ; ;i^i 0,000 to the Duchess of 
Portland, heiress of the second Earl of Oxford; 
^10,000 for the purchase of Montagu House; ^13,000 
for altering and repairing it ; and ^30,000 was set 
aside as a capital fund, the interest of which, it was 
hoped, would meet salaries and cost of maintenance. 
The three collections thus acquired and housed be- 
came the British Museum, which was opened to the 
public on Monday, the 15th of January, 1759, and is 
now one of the greatest museums and libraries of 
the world. 

While the Harleian manuscripts were secured for 
the nation, it is to be rei^retted that the o'reat Harleian 
Library had been allowed to be dispersed a few years 
earlier. It was purchased, in 1742, by Tom Osborne, 
the bookseller, for ^13,000, a sum which is said to 
have represented less than the price of the bindings,^ 
and was sold off in detail. Grateful to the deceased 
Earl of Oxford for many favours, Osborne determined 
to issue a sale catalogue that would be a monument to 
his memory, and employed Samuel Johnson to assist 
in its preparation. " Hie artiuni liber alium disciplin- 

^ Oldys, in Brydges, Censttra Literaria, i., p. 438, London, 1805, 8vo. 



LETHTEULLIER AND BRANDER I4I 

artmiqiie aniatoribus offertur catalogiis ; tanquam 
perefDie qiiidam literariitm Musei Harleiani momi,- 
mefttum." ^ 

The first donor to the new establishment was 
Colonel William LethieulHer, who bequeathed to the 
museum a collection of English and Egyptian anti- 
quities and a very perfect mummy, which had been 
described by Gordon.^ A committee of the trustees 
waited upon the Colonel's executors upon 23rd 
February, 1756, to return thanks for the legacy, 
when Pitt LethieulHer, the Colonel's nephew, pre- 
sented them with several antiquities which he had 
himself collected during his residence in Cairo.^ 

Gustavus Brander (i 720-1 787), a wealthy London 
merchant, employed his leisure and his means in 
making various collections, and amongst others a 
collection of fossils found in the cliffs about Christ- 
church and the west of Hampshire. These he 
presented to the British Museum, and a description 
of them prepared by Daniel Charles Solander, the 
keeper of the printed books, was published in 1766/ 

^ The catalogue, Catalogus Biblioihecae Harleianae^ London, 1743-45, 
is in five volumes and contains 36,690 lots, representing probably 100,000 
to 150,000 volumes, in addition to 251 volumes of books of prints and 36 
lots of drawings. Gough states {British Topography, i., p. 658) that the 
last three volumes were only shop catalogues, in which the unsold articles 
are repeated. This may be true to some extent, but they likewise contain 
a great quantity of books which are not in the first or second volumes. 

2 Supra, p. 123. 

^ '^\<:ho\'s,, Anecdotes of Mr. Bcwyer, pp. 108, 548 ; Literary Attecdotes 
of the Eighteenth Century, v. p. 372. 

* Fossilia Hantonieiisia colleeta, et in Musaeo Britatinico deposita, a 
Gustavo Brander, London, 1766, 4to, with plates; London, 1829, 410; 
Nichols, Op. Laud., vi., p. 260 ; Edwards, Lives of the Founders of the 
British Museum, pp. 22, 401, London, 1870, 8vo. 



142 HAMILTON AND BANKS 

In 1764 and 1765 a collection of birds, insects, and 
other objects was exhibited at Spring- Gardens, and 
was ultimately absorbed by the Museum.^ 

But the first large and comprehensive addition to 
the archaeological department was that made in 1772 
by the purchase by means of a Parliamentary grant of 
the museum of antiquities which had been formed 
during seven years' researches in Italy by Sir William 
Hamilton, British Ambassador at Naples.- 

One of the most eminent of the benefactors of the 
British Museum was Sir Joseph Banks (1743- 1820), 
who, like Sir Hans Sloane, occupied the chair of the 
Royal Society for a long series of years. Like Sloane, 
he made a voyage in early life for the study of natural 
history and for collecting and describing specimens.^ 
He continued to collect during the remainder of his 
lone life, but as a rule limited himself to what he 
acquired personally and did not ransack the market 
or buy up whole museums as Sloane did/ Much of 
his time and energy were given to the formation of 
his library. His opinion was that private collectors 

^ A Catalogue of Birds, Insects, etc., now exhibiting at Spring Gardens. 
[London], 1764 and 1765, i2mo. 

2 Edwards, Lives of the Founders of the British Museum, p. 247 
sqq. London, 1870, 8vo. 

^ Dr. Samuel Johnson had some thoughts of being a member of this 
expedition, " I see but at a small distance. So it was not worth my while 
to go to see birds fly, which I should not have seen fly ; and fishes swim, 
which I should not have seen swim," Boswell, Life of Johnson, ed. Croker, 
iii., p. 172, London, 1859, 8vo. 

* He bought Dr. William Fothergill's natural history collections after 
his death in 1780, but the Doctor had by his will ordered that they should 
be offered to him at a valuation. Nichols, Op. laud., ix., p. 740. 



SIR JOSEPH BANKS LIBRARY 1 43 

should "confine their libraries to one individual branch 
of human knowledge, by which means a great number 
of particular collections, each complete in its kind, 
would quickly be brought forward, and the purposes of 
instruction be more easily attained, than whilst the 
rage of indiscriminate collection subsisted, and the num- 
ber of competitors for the same book precluded the 
possibility of completion."-^ Acting upon this rule he 
confined himself to books relating to natural history, 
with the result that his collection is one of the most 
complete ever brought together by one man. It was 
under the charge first of Dr. Solander, and subse- 
quently of Jonas Dryander (i 748-1810), Librarian of 
the Linnaean Society, who prepared an accurate and 
valuable catalogue of its contents.- Sir Joseph left the 
library and all his collections to the British Museum.^ 
The library is still kept in a room by itself, and con- 
tains probably more books relating to museums than 
any other existing collection. 

As originally organised, the British Museum was 
divided into three departments : (i) manuscripts, 
medals, and coins, {2) Natural and artificial produc- 
tions, and (3) Printed books.'* 



^ Nicolai, Das Gelehrte England, English Preface by George Forster, 
Berlin, 1791, 8vo., quoted in Brj'dges, Censiira Literaria^ ii., p. 248, 
London, 1806, 8vo. 

- Catalogus Bibliothecae hislorico-naturalis, Josephi Banks, Baronetti, 
London, 1796- 1800, 8vo, 5 vols.; Nichols, Op. land., ix., p. 43. 

^ Edwards, Op. laud., p. 507. 

■* The General Contents of the British Museum, London, 1761, 8vo ; 
Letters on the British Museion, London, [By A. Thomson] 1767, i2mo. 



144 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

In 1802 the great collection of Egyptian antiquities 
acquired under the Capitulation of Alexandria passed 
into the museum. This was followed in 1805 by the 
purchase of the Towneley marbles and terracottas, and 
of the bronzes, coins, gems and drawings in 18 14. 
These acquisitions rendered it necessary to create a 
new department, that of Antiquities and Art, to 
which were united the Prints and Drawings as well 
as the Medals and Coins. Botany was added, 
as a fifth department, in 1S27. after the bequest of 
Sir Joseph Banks' collections. In 1837 the Prints 
and Drawings were separated from the department 
of Antiquities and became an independent depart- 
ment. At the same time the department of Natural 
History was divided into two, one of Geology, 
including Palaeontology- and Mineralogy, the other 
of Zoolocf^-. In 1 8^7 Mineralocry was constituted a 
separate department. In 1S61 the department of 
Antiquities was subdivided into (i) Greek and 
Roman Antiquities, (2) Coins and IMedals, (3) 
Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities; and in 1866 the 
British and Mediaeval Antiquities were formed into 
a separate department along with the Ethnographical 
collections. Between 1880 and 18S3 the Natural 
History collections were transferred to the new 
Natural Historv Museum in Cromwell Road. 



CHAPTER X. 

SPECIAL COLLECTIONS. 

The greater number of the old museums were what 
are now known as general collections, but there 
were also many special museums. Anatomical and 
pathological preparations were recognised as neces- 
sary for the intelligent study of the structure, 
physiology, and diseases of the human body, and 
Leyden, Amsterdam, and Cassel were long famous 
for their collections.^ The Gottorp Museum was to a 
considerable extent ethnographical,^ as was likewise that 

^As to the Leyden Museum, see pp. 29, 190, 209. 

As to the Amsterdam Anatomical Museum, see Valentini, Musewn 
MuseoruJti, ii., Appendix xv., p. 52 ; Ausfuhrlicfie Beschreibung der Nie- 
derlande, p. 309. 

The Cassel Museum, which is now a large and excellent general collec- 
tion, is known as the Museum Fridericiamutn ; Stoltz, Beschreibung des 
Kurfurstlidien Museu?ns zu Cassel^ Cassel, 1832, 8vo; Valentini, Op. 
laud., ii., Appendix v., p. 14. 

Theodore Kirkring of Hamburg (+1693) made a large anatomical 
collection, which was acquired by Anthony Verbrocht of Hamburg, on 
whose death, about 1727, it was catalogued and advertised for sale, but 
was bought in by the town. Ripke, Dissertatio historico-litteraria de 
meritis Hamburgensium in Hisioriam naiuralem, p. 30, Hamb., 1791, 
4to. ; Neickelius, Museographia, ^. 199; Kirkring, Spicilegium anatomi- 
cwn, AmsL, 1670, 4to. 

^ Olearius, Gottorffische Kunst-Kammer, p. 3 sqq. Schlesswig, 1674, 4to. 
K 145 



146 TECHNICAL MUSEUMS 

of Lorenz Hofmann of Halle.^ Friedrich the Great 
was amongst the first to appreciate the value of such a 
collection, and despatched first Polemann, and after 
his death, Cleyer to the East to collect arms, clothing, 
utensils, and the like for the Berlin Museum.'^ 
Augustus II., Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, 
in 1 73 1 sent Professor Johann Ernest Hebenstreit, 
with four companions and an artist, to collect specimens 
for the Dresden Museum and for his zoological garden.^ 
The collections of Johann Georg Kisner of Frank- 
fort* and G. F. Richter of Jena^ were com.posed largely 
of fossils. Hermann Boerhaave (1668- 1738) had a 
museum of chemical and pharmaceutical prepara- 
tions.^ Many collections were principally illustrative 
of natural history, as for instance those of Johann 

1 GATMATO'i'TAAKIOX, sive Thesaurus variarum Rerum antiquarum 
et exoticarum tarn naturalium quam artificialium collectus. Latin and 
Germ. Halae, 1625, 8vo. 

^ Klemm, Geschichie der Sajfimlungen fiir Wissenschaft und Kunst in 
Deutschland, p. 206, Zerbst, p. 1837. 

^Gundling, Historic der Gelahrheit, i., p. 590, iv., p. 5280, Franckf., 
1734-37, 4to, 5 vol. 

On his return Hebenstreit gave an account of the Roman remains in 
Africa, Oratio de antiquitatibus Romanis per Africanis exstantibus, Leipzig, 

* Catalogus figuratorutn fossilitwi in Museolo D. Kisneri Francofurti^ 
171 1, in Valentini, Museum Museorum, ii., Appendix xiii. 

Petiver dedicates his 48th Table to Kisner. 

* Museum Richterianum continens fossilia, anijnalia, vegetabilia, marina 
cum comment. Jo. Ernesti Hebenstreitii. Lips., 1743, fol., with figures. 

^Museum Boerhavianum. Lugd. Bat, 1739, 8vo. This was a sale 
catalogue drawn up after his death. The chemical preparations all made 
by Boerhaave's own hand comprise 422 lots. There were 215 lots of 
dried or preserved specimens of natural history' and 54 lots of physical 
instruments and rarities. 



TECHNICAL MUSEUMS 1 47 

Conrad Ratzel of Halberstadt,^ Gottfried Nicolai of 
Wittenberg,^ and Christopher Gottwaldt of Danzig 
(1636- 1 700), which last ultimately found its way 
to the Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg.^ 
Georg Eberhard Rumph (1634-1706), an enlightened 
merchant at Amboyna, in the Dutch service — a 
member of the Academy of Nahirae Curiosi, in 
which he took the title " Plinius Indicus," — made an 
excellent collection of shells.* The States of Holland 
presented a fine collection to Charles II., but it was 
soon dissipated and lost.^ Nicolao Gualtieri (1688- 
1744), of Florence, previously a physician at Pisa, 
made another,*^ and Signor Micconi of Genoa had one 

^ Valentini, Op. land.., ii., Appendix xix. 

^ lb.., Appendix xxi. ; Neickelius, Museographia, p. 131 ; and Christian 
Wurlitz, Museum Curiosum, Wittenberg, 17 10, 4to. 

^ Bacmeister, Op. laud.., p. 1 50 ; Nouvelle Bios,raphie generale, s.v. 
Gottwald ; Musaeum Gott-ivaldianutn sive Catalogus rerum rariarum, 
. . . collectarmn a D. Christophero Gottivaldio patre et D. Joh. 
Christoph. Goilivaldio Jilio^DdiTiZig, 17 14, 8vo. A sale catalogue. The 
collection was principally natural history specimens ; but there was also 
a considerable number of artificial curiosities, antiquities, and works of 
art ; amongst others, " Reliquiae tunicae S. Catherinae Bononiensis " ; 
Musei Gotiuialdiani testaceorum, siellarutn marinaruin et coralliorum 
Tabulae. Norimb., 1782, fol., with plates, ed. by J. S. Schroter. 

* Thesaurus Imaginum pisciu?n testaceorutn cochlearu7ii, Lugd. Bat., 
171 1, fol., with 60 plates ; first published, D Ambonische Rariteit Kamer, 
Amst., 1705, fol., and again Latin and Dutch, 1741, fol., 7 vols.; trans- 
lated into German under the title Amboinische Raritdten-Katmner, by 
P. L. S. Miiller, with additions by J. H. Chemnitz, and an Introduction 
by J. A. Cramer. Wien, 1766, fol., with 33 plates. 

^Granger, History of England, iii., p. 402. London, 1779, ^vo ; Lister, 
A Journey to Paris., ed. Henning, p. 82. London, 1823, 8vo. 

^ Index testarum conchy liorum quae adservantur in Musaeo Nicolai 
Gualtieri J et methodice distributae exhibentur tabulis aeneis ex.., 
Florent., 1742, fol., with portrait. The figures, says Cuvier, are numerous 
and exact. 



148 COLLECTIONS OF PHILOSOPHICAL INSTRUMENTS 

of the best in Italy ;^ and cabinets of shells were 
common elsewhere." Dru Drury (172 5- 1803) brought 
together a remarkably fine collection of insects, which 
was of material service in the advancement of ento- 
mology.^ 

The university of Giessen had a collection of 
philosophical and scientific instruments ; * there was 
another large and well arranged one at St. Peters- 
burg.^ Similar collections were formed by Henry 
Johann Bytemeister of Helmstadt,*" Johann Jakob 
Spener of Halle/ and by the astronomer, Professor 
Erhard Weigel of Jena^ (1625-1699). The last was 
included amongst the seven wonders of the town. 

Ara, Caput, Draco, Mons, Pons, Vulpecula Turris, 
Weigeliana domus, septem miracula Jenae.^ 

^Addison, " Remarks on Italy," Works, ii., p. 6. London, 1811, 8vo. 

2 M. de la Combe de Vrigny who accompanied Mr. Vernon on his em- 
bassy to Denmark in 1702, mentions the Cabinet of shells of M. de la 
Faille, bailiff of Delft as particularly interesting. Travels through 
Denmark and some parts of Germany, p. 6. London, 1707, 8vo. 

A notice of various collections of shells and other objects of natural 
history, principally in Denmark, will be found in Regenfuss, Choix de 
CoqiiiUages et de crustace'es, p. vi. sqq. Copenhag., 1758, fol. 

^ See Saint-Fond, Travels in England, Scotland, and the Hebrides, 
i., p. 123, London, 1799, 8vo. 

^Valentini, Op. laud., vol. ii., Appendix xvi., p. 56. 

^Museum Imperiale Petropolitanum, vol. ii., pt. i., pp. 3-72. Petrop., 
1 74 1, 8vo. 

^ Bibliothecae Appendix, sive Catalogus Apparatus curiosorum arti- 
ficialium et Tiaturaliu7n. Helmstadt, 1731, 8vo ; 1735, 4^0- 

This collection also contained natural and artificial curiosities. He 
figures a beautiful perforated stone hammer and a stone chisel (Tab. 
xvi. 219) as " lapides ceraunii seu fulminares nigri," p. 47. 

"^ Museum Spenerianiwi. Lips., 1693, Svo. 

8 Valentini, Op. laud.. Appendix xvii., p. 58. 

^ Neickelius, Museographia, p. 57. These verses are explained by 
Keysler, Reisen, p. 1344, Hannover, 1751, 4to; Nicolai, Reisc durch Deutsch- 



PRESENT-DAY COLLECTIONS 149 

A considerable portion of Dr. Bargrave's museum 
consisted of philosophical instruments and toys,^ and 
Briickmann, as has been mentioned, had a large 
number of the same kind of things.^ Johann Hubner 
of Hamburg formed a collection of maps, charts, and 
astronomical instruments.^ 

The nature of such collections is well described 
by Kinderling, * and may be seen in the present 
Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon at Dresden, ° which 
was part of the original Kunst-Kammer, and is still 
very much what it was in the early part of the 
eighteenth century. There is a similar but recent 
collection in the Germanic museum at Nuremberg, 
which is more instructive, as it forms one section 
of an organized whole. A room, in the Imperial 
Art- History Museum at Vienna, is devoted to such 
objects, many of them from the Schloss Amras and 
from the Imperial Schatz-Kammer, admirably shown 
and excellently arranged.'' 

There is a collection of surgical instruments in the 
Nuremberg ; there is another and more extensive 

land iind Sc/iiveiz, i., p. 58, Berlin, 1783. Keysler mentions in 1730 
that Weigel's instruments had gone to ruin. 

^ Pope Alexander the Seventh and the College of Cardinals . . . luith a 
Catalogue of Dr. Bargrave's Museimi, 1867, 4to. Camden Society, 
No. xcii. 

"^ Supra, p. 112. 

^Museum Geographicuni^ Hamburg, 1726, 8vo. 

* Koehler, Aniveisung mit nutzen zu reiscn, edited by Kinderling, pp. 
837-845, Alagdeb., 18 10, 8vo. 

^Drechsler, Katalog der Sammlung des K. JMathematisch-Physikali- 
schen Salon. Dresden, 1874, i2mo. 

^ Filhrer durch die Sammlung der Kunstindustrielle7i Gegenstdnde, p. 
14 sqq. Wien, 1891, 8vo. 

The best collection is probably that in the \'ictoria and Albert (late 
South Kensington) Museum. 



ISO ARMS AND ARMOUR 

one in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, 
London, and others in various anatomical museums. 

A collection of arms and armour was considered 
especially appropriate in royal palaces and in the 
castles of wealthy nobles. It was regarded as a 
symbol of rank and power, and was particularly 
attractive at a time when almost every gentleman 
was a soldier. Such objects were gradually in- 
troduced into ordinary museums, and are now an 
essential feature of every historical museum and of 
every collection of industrial art. There are large 
and instructive collections in London and Paris, 
Madrid and Venice, Stockholm and Copenhagen, 
Berlin and Dresden, Vienna and Buda Pesth, Mos- 
cow^ and St. Petersburg,^ and in nearly every 
important museum in Europe.^ 

1 Weltmann, Le tresor de Moscou {Oroujeynaja Palatd). Moscou, 1861, 
8vo. 

-At Zarskoje-Selo. Described by Gille, Muse'e de Tzarskoe-Selo, 
St. Petersbourg, 1835-53,50!. 3 vol.; K^mratx^r, Arsenal de Tsarskoe'-Selo, 
lb. 1869, fol. 

•^ See Demmin, Die Kriegstvaffeti, Introduction, Gera-Untermhaus, 1891, 
8vo ; Guide des amateuis d^ Amies et Armures anciennes, Paris, 1869, 8vo. 



CHAPTER XI. 

SCOTTISH COLLECTORS AND SCOTTISH MUSEUMS. 

Amongst early Scottish collectors were Timothy 
Pont, the topographer, and Robert Maule, Commissary 
of St. Andrews, but by far the most celebrated were 
the illustrious brothers Sir James Balfour {1600- 1657) 
and Sir Andrew Balfour (1630- 1694). Sir James, 
" with unwearied industry and at great expense," 
says his biographer, " collected a library filled 
with the choicest books in every branch of litera- 
ture, but more especially in those which illustrate 
the history of Scotland, antiquities and heraldry. 
And seeinof that thinofs and events involved 
in obscurity are often illustrated by ancient coins, 
rings, collars, bracelets, seals, and other remains 
of a former age, he carefully collected this precious 
antiquarian material, and arranged it in cabinets 
{tit loczilis) as a supplement to his library. The 
Romans had long been settled in this northern part 
of Britain, which now comprehends the Kingdom of 
Scotland, and for protecting the Provincials against 
the Scots and Picts had constructed walls and many 
camps, and had left some buildings in which were 

151 



152 SIR JAMES AND SIR ANDREW BALFOUR 

inscribed stones ; these he was assiduous in investi- 
gating and in recording the inscriptions. ... He 
likewise cultivated Natural History. He wrote on 
gems and prepared an alphabetical treatise in the 
Scots tongue containing the description, names, 
virtues, qualities, of every kind with the places 
where they are found. He also compiled an account 
in Latin of the frauds practised in preparing imitations 
of precious stones." ^ 

Sir Andrew, after completing his education, went 
to London where he lived for some time, and then 
spent fifteen years in travel abroad. Returning to 
Scotland about 1667 he brought with him the 
best library, particularly in medicine and natural 
history, that had appeared in Scotland ; as also a 
series of medals and a collection of arms, costume, 
and ornaments, mathematical, philosophical and 
surgical instruments, a complete cabinet with all 
the simples of the materia medica and some com- 
positions in pharmacy ; and large collections of fossils, 
plants, and animals.^ He continued to add to the 
museum during the rest of his life.^ On his death 
it passed into the hands of Sir Robert Sibbald, while 
the library was sold. 

^ Sibbald, Metnoria Balfouriana, pp. 33, 34, 45. Edinburgh, 1699, 
i2mo ; Michael Balfour, Preface, p. 11, to Letters written to a Friend by 
the Learned a7id Judicious Sir Andrew Balfour, M.D., Edinburgh, 1700, 
i2mo. 

^Sibbald, Op. laud., pp. 63-67; Walker, "Memoirs of Sir Andrew 
Balfour," in Essays on Natural History, p. 353, London, 8vo ; Letters 
by Sir Andrew Balfour, pp. iii. iv. ; Remains of Sir Robert Sibbald, 
p. 21, Edinburgh, 1837. 

^ Auctarium musaei Balfouriani e musaeo Sibbaldiano, Pref Edin- 
burgi, 1697, i2mo ; Walker, Essays, p. 362. 



SIR ROBERT SIBBALD I 53 

Sir Robert Sibbald (1641-1722) was an industrious 
naturalist and antiquary, and a diligent collector, 
and was the first to give a systematic account 
of the natural history of Scotland/ Imitating the 
recent example of Ashmole in gifting his collection 
to the University of Oxford, Sibbald, in 1697, 
presented Balfour's collection to the University of 
Edinburgh that it might be open to the public, 
and in the hope that it would receive numerous 
additions and be the means of creating a general 
interest in natural history in Scotland. In order 
that the museum might be as complete as possible 
he added a large number of additional specimens 
from his own collection, which he described in a 
catalogue or handbook for the use of students.^ 
The volume is instructive as indicating the scope 
and character of the science of the day, and is inter- 
esting on account of the local information it contains 
and the number of Scottish words and quaint ex- 
pressions which it preserves. Defoe mentions that 
the collection was placed in the upper Common Hall 
of the old College on the south side of the Cowgate. 
He calls it "a curious and noble museum"; and 
says that "it contains a vast treasure of curiosities 
of art and nature, domestic and foreign, from almost 
all parts of the world ; and is greatly valued by the 
Virtuosos, containing some rarities that are not to 

^ His Scotia illustrata sive Prodromus historiae yiaturalis was published 
at Edinburgh in 1684 in folio. See also The Philosophical Transactions, 
xxii. (1700), p. 693. J. K. Cramer in his Introduction to Rumph, 
Amboinische Raritciten-Kaminer, p. ix., Wien, 1766, fol. 

"^ Auctarium musaei Balfouriani e Mnsaeo Sibbaldiano. Edinburgi, 
1697, i2mo. 



154 GIFT TO UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH 

be found either in those of the Royal Society at 
London, or the Ashmolean at Oxford."^ So little, 
however, did the University appreciate the treasures 
which had been entrusted to its care that it allowed 
the collection to be made away with, and in less 
than a century from the date of the gift not a 
vestige of it remained," — a fate which likewise nearly 
overtook Ashmole's collection.^ In 1753 the greatest 
rarity the University of Edinburgh possessed was 
a crooked transparent horn, eleven inches in length, 
which had been removed from the head of a woman 
in 1672,^ a kind of curiosity which possessed great 
attractions for the collectors of the seventeenth century.^ 

^A Tour thro' the whole Island of Great Britain by a Gentleman (1727), 
iv., p. 79, London, 1753, 8vo ; The Gentle?nan's Magazine, xv. (1745), p. 687. 

^Memorial to the Lord Advocate for the Society of Scottish Antiquaries 
(1783), p. 4. Reprinted by Smellie, in Account of the institution and 
progress of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, part ii., p. 27. 

In a printed letter by the Earl of Buchan and the Secretary to the 
members of the Society of Antiquaries it is said : The University " seem 
to be ashamed that the Society has already been entrusted with a more 
valuable collection of natural objects, than the University have allowed 
to perish since the days of James VI., the founder of their incorporation." 

^Gough, British Topography, ii., p. 629. London, 1780, 4to. 

* Maitland, The History of Edinhirgh, p. 371. Edinburgh, 1753, fol. 

Thomas Kirk saw it in 1677, Thoresby's Correspondence, ii., p. 418. 
Thoresby himself saw it in 1681, Diary, i., p. 102 ; and it is also men- 
tioned in the Catalogue of the Rarities in his Museum, p. 2, reprint in 
the Ducatus Leodiensis, 1816, fol. Sir Robert Sibbald refers to it, and 
had it copied and engraved by John Adair. It was removed on 14th 
May, 1671, by Arthur Temple, a well-known surgeon in Edinburgh. 
Sibbald, Prodrofnus naturalis historiae Scotiae, Part ii., lib. 2, p. 60. 
Edinburgh, 1683, fol. 

George Buchanan's skull was another of the attractions. Memoirs of 
Dr. Stukeley, i., p. 316 ; iii., p. 416 (Surtees Society, No. Ixxx.). 

*Worm, Danicorum M onujnentorum Libri sex, p. 364. Hafniae, 
1643, fo'- Bartholinus, De Unicornu, p. i sqq., Amstd., 1678, who refers 



LOSS OF THE BALFOUR MUSEUM 155 

When Pennant visited Edinburgh in 1772 he found 
the museum "totally empty, for such," he adds 
"has been the negligence of past times, that scarce 
a specimen of the noble collection deposited in it 
by Sir Andrew Balfour is to be met with, any more 
than the great additions made to it by Sir Robert 
Sibbald."^ John Macky, on the other hand, states 
that in 1723 Sir Andrew Balfour's museum was in 
the Hall of the College of Physicians in the Cowgate, 
while in the University library there were only a 
few natural curiosities, but he evidently confuses the 
collections. - 

In 1764 the Incorporation of Surgeons proposed 
to transfer their library and collection of natural 
curiosities to the University of Edinburgh, as an 
addition to the library and the inconsiderable museum 

to numerous examples. See also his Epistolae Medicinalcs, i., p. 95. 
Hag. Com., 1740. Such curiosities are still in repute with the crowd. 
In Dr. Kahn's Anatomical Museum there was shown a horn ten inches 
long which had been extracted from the forehead of a woman, 80 years 
of age, and who lived seven years afterwards. Catalogue of Dr. 
Kahn's Anatomical Museum, p. 25, London, 1851, and various other 
editions. 

■^ Tour in Scotland in 1772, Part ii., p. 246, London, 1776, 410. 

^A Journey through Scotland, pp. 68, 70. The Physicians had a 
meeting-house and some property near the Cowgate Port. Arnot, History 
of Edinburgh, p. 322. The old University buildings were a little to the 
south of the Cowgate, and Macky probably confounded them. Defoe's 
precise statement at the very time at which Macky was writing shows 
that the latter was in error. A Tour thrd the whole Island of Great 
Britain by a Gentleman, iv., p. 79, 5th ed., originally published in 1727. 

Wallace mentions that a Finnish boat, with the oar and dart 
for striking the fish, was preserved in 1693 "in the Physicians' Hall," 
Edinburgh (Wallace, Description of the Isles of Orkney, p. 34, ed. Small, 
Edinburgh, 1883, 8vo), so that the Physicians had some sort of a collec- 
tion. 



156 FURTHER GIFTS TO EDINBURGH 

which Still belonged to the University.^ The gift 
was accepted, and next year the old library was 
fitted up "as a museum for natural curiosities." 
In 1766 the Earl of Buchan presented another 
collection of natural objects to the University for 
the purpose of supplementing this new museum f 
and when Dr. Robert Ramsay was shortly after- 
wards appointed Regius Professor of Natural History 
and Keeper of the Museum, the Town Council 
confirmed the appointment on condition that he 
" deliver to the clerk a full list or inventory of 
all the curiosities or rarities belonging to the Uni- 
versity."^ The fitting up of the new museum 
completed the ruin of the Balfour collection. Part 
of it existed in 1 750, and was, Professor Walker 
tells us, the first thing that inspired him with a love 
for Natural History; but when the rearrangement of 
1765 was carried out, "it was dislodged from the hall 
where it had long been kept ; was thrown aside ; 
and exposed as lumber ; was further dilapidated, and 
at length almost completely demolished."^ 

The Earl of Buchan's collection shared the fate 

^ Dunbar, History of the University of Edinburgh, ii., pp. 433. 434, 435; 
Session Papers in Magistrates of Edinburgh v. University of Edinburgh, 
Revised Answers for the University, p. 88, reprinted 15th January, 1829. 
The case is reported 7 S., p. 255. 

Defoe speaks of their "chamber of rarities, in which there are several 
skeletons of uncommon creatures, a mumy and many other curiosities." 
A Tour thrd the whole of Great Bj-itain, iv., p. J 7, London, 1755, 8vo, 
originally published in 1727 ; Maitland also mentions it. History of 
Edinburgh, p. 182. 

2 Smellie, Account of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, p. 95, 
Edinburgh, 1782, 4to. 

^ Dunbar, Op. laud., ii., p. 440. 

*• Essays, pp. 353, 365, London, 181 2, 8vo. 



PROFESSOR WALKERS COLLECTION I 57 

of Balfour's, and by 1783 had wholly disappeared.^ 
Pennant states in 1769 that by Dr. Ramsay's 
assiduity " the museum bids fair to become a most 
instructive repository of the naturalia of these King- 
doms."' This probably refers to his private collection, 
as in 1772 he records that the " University museum 
is at present totally empty. "^ When John Walker 
(173 1- 1 803) became professor in 1779/ he com- 
menced the formation of a museum for teachingr 
purposes, and included in it a few objects which still 
remained from Balfour's collection.^ M. Faujas 
Saint- Fond, who visited it in 1784, describes it 
as excellently arranged, and on that account more 
interesting- than the British Museum.*^ On Walker's 
death, in 1803, the museum was claimed by his 
representatives as his private property, removed from 
the precincts of the University, and sold. The 
University, however, possessed a few cases con- 
taining specimens of birds, serpents and minerals, 
and some ethnological objects ; but whether any part 

■* Smellie, Account of the Society of Antiqiiaries of Scotland, p. 95. 
Smellie presented the inventories to the Society. 

* Tour in Scotland in jydg, p. 55, 2nd ed. London, 1772, 8vo. The 
passage quoted does not appear in the later collected edition of the Tours, 
e.g. London, 1776, 4to, which bears to be the fourth edition ; or in the 
fifth, London, 1790. 

^ Tour in Scotland in 1772, Part ii., p. 246, London, \ 776, 4to. 

* While holding the professorship of Natural History, Walker was a 
parish minister and was Moderator of the General Assembly in 1790. In 
1765 the University of Glasgow conferred upon him the degree of M.D., 
and in the same year the University of Edinburgh gave him that of D.D. 

^Walker, Essays, p. 353 ; Arnot, History of Edinburgh, p. 405, Edin- 
burgh, 1788, 4to. 

^Travels in England and Scotlaftd, ii., p. 228, London, 1799, ^^o. 
The date is fixed, vol. i., p. 249 n. 



158 REORGANIZATION OF EDINBURGH MUSEUM 

of Sir Robert Sibbald's gift was amongst these 
does not appear.^ Walker was succeeded, in 1804, 
by Robert Jameson (1774- 1854), who placed his 
own collection in the University Museum, and made 
great exertions to add to it." It was enriched by the 
bequest of the collection of minerals made by Dr. 
Thompson, of Palermo, and by the gift of the similar 
collection made b}^ the great geologist, Dr. James 
Hutton (1726-1797).^ The latter had not been 
unpacked in 1845, ^^^ ^^ seems doubtful whether it 
is now extant.* In 1807 Professor Jameson suggested 
that an application should be made to the King for 
an Order directing the officers of the Navy to 
forward to the museum such specimens of Natural 
History as they could obtain. The request was 
granted, and by this means a vast quantity of valuable 
material was obtained. In 18 19, on the dispersion of 
the great collection of William Bullock, — known as the 
London Museum, — a large number of specimens were 
purchased by the Senatus Academicus, and at the same 
time the entire collection of M. Dufresne, of Paris, 
was acquired, the total expenditure being ^3000. 
The museum was, however, for long badly managed. 
The Scottish Universities Commissioners of 1826 

^ Report of the Scottish Universities Commission of 1826 ; Visitation 
at Edinburgh, Appendix, p. 48. 

2 It was evidently popular in 18 13. A Walk through Auld and New 
Reekie in the year 181 j, by John Millar, pp. 16, 17, Edinburgh, 1829, 
8vo. 

3 Report of the Universities Commission of 1826 ; Visitation at Edinburgh, 
Appendix, p. 48 ; Report relative to the University of Edinburgh, p. 90. 

* New Statistical Account, i., p. 682. According to the Dictionary of 
National Biography, s.v. " Hutton," the collection cannot now be traced. 



COLLECTION OF FACULTY OF ADVOCATES I 59 

reported that, although it was practically a national 
institution supported by public funds, the majority 
of the students were excluded from it, and scientific 
men were only allowed to use it under very stringent 
and restrictive regulations.^ 

In 1854 the Town Council of Edinburgh, as patrons 
of the University, transferred the museum to the 
Science and Art Department of the Board of Trade,^ 
and in 1857, along with that department, it was placed 
under the charge of the Committee of Council on 
Education. There were afterwards added an Industrial 
Museum, and a library of reference and in 1864 its 
title became, The Edinburgh Science and Art Museum. 
It stands alongside the University buildings, so that it 
is to all intents a University Museum maintained at 
public expense. The annual charge is upwards of 
^13,000, over and above the use and maintenance 
of buildings. 

Besides books and manuscripts, the Faculty of 
Advocates began shortly after the establishment of 
their library in 1682 to collect antiquities. In 1707 
they purchased from James Sutherland, the keeper of 
the Edinburgh Botanic Garden,^ a large and valuable 

^ General Report, p. 95 sqq. 

2 Gentleman's Magazine, xli., N.S. (1854), p. 605 ; xliii. (1855), p. 394. 

^ He was a well-known collector. {Supra, p. 135, note 4.) He sent 
Edward Lhuyd a number of coins and a stone, found in the north of 
Scotland, which smelt strongly of violets. Another of these he sent to 
Mr. Charleton and a third to the Ashmolean Museum. Thoresby, Corre- 
spondence, ii., p. 416. Such stones {Lapides odorati) were in much 
request amongst collectors, and are often mentioned by the old writers, 
and are discussed at length by Briickmann, Episiola Itineraria, 13, 
Cent. i. The smell came from " the corrected vitriol of the stone," 
Keysler, Reisen, p. 104, Hannover, 1751, 4to. ; i., p. 119, London, 1756. 



l60 GLASGOW UNIVERSITY MUSEUM 

collection of Greek, Roman, Scottish, Saxon, and 
English coins and medals,^ Inscribed stones from 
the Roman Wall and other antiquities were, from 
time to time, presented to the curators for deposit 
in the library as partaking of the character of a 
national institution. 

Towards the end of the seventeenth century the 
University of Glasgow received by donation many 
Roman altars, legionary stones, and other monuments; 
and during the eighteenth century several additional 
Roman stones and other objects of interest were added 
to the collection.^ Writing in 1732 Horsley says, 
" The two principal collections in Scotland are those 
of the University of Glasgow and of Baron Clerk ; 
for I do not know of three inscriptions together in any 
other place in Scotland."^ By his Will, dated in 1781, 
Dr. William Hunter* bequeathed to the University 
his splendid museum valued at ^65,000. It was 

* Edward Lhuyd in The Philosophical Transactiotts^xxvm., 17 13, p. 100; 
Maitland, The History of Edinburgh, p. 417. Edinburgh, 1753, fol. 
Sibbald, Collections Concertiing the Roman Ports, Preface (Edinburgh, 
171 1); Memoirs of Dr. Stukeley, i., p. 317; iii., p. 416. The coins are 
described by Gordon, Itinerariiim Septentrionale, p. 119 sqq. 

^Dr. Thomas Reid, when describing the University in 1794, says, "In 
an adjoining apartment the College has placed a number of milestones 
altars, and other remains of antiquity, which have been discovered in the 
ancient Roman Wall between the Forth and Clyde." Works, ed. Hamil- 
ton, p. 738 ; Old Statistical Account, xxi., Appendix, p. 48. 

^Britannia Romana, p. 181. London, 1732, fol. 

*In 1781 Dr. William Hunter presented a considerable number of coins 
to the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Smellie, 
Account of the Society, p. 62. Edinburgh, 1782, 4to. Dr. Hunter was 
M.D. of the University of Glasgow, and an honorary member of the 
Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow. 



ANDERSONIAN MUSEUM l6l 

removed to Glasgow in 1807, ^""^^ considerable addi- 
tions have since been made to it. ^ 

John Anderson (i 726-1 796), Professor of Natural 
Philosophy in the University of Glasgow, formed a 
considerable collection of natural history specimens 
and physical apparatus. The Rev. John Lettice, who 
visited Glasgow in 1792, was struck by its excellence, 
and assuming that it belonged to the University calls 
it the " repository of their philosophical apparatus and 
natural history." " I have seen no repository of this 
kind," he says, " in any university, either at home or 
abroad, more abundantly furnished with mathematical, 
mechanical, and optical instruments, and every sort of 
machinery or model requisite for the illustration of 
science ; nor any so agreeably and conveniently 
arranged, as this in the college of Glasgow. It 
is, indeed, a splendid collection ; and few perhaps 
have been rendered more successfully subservient to 
the purposes, for which they were designed."^ On 
the Professor's death, it was transferred to the Institu- 
tion which he founded, and to which his name was 

^ Ma.wma.n, Excursion to the Highlands of ScotIa?id, p. no, London, 
1805, 8vo. Hughson, London, iv., p. 331. London, 1807, 8vo. 
D'Archenholz, Picture of England, ii., p. 219. Captain James Laskey, 
A General Account of the Hiinterian Museum, Glasgow. Glasgow, 
18 1 3, 8vo. P.S.A.Sco., xxii. (1888), p. 349. A short but good account 
by Professor John Young appeared in The Glasgow University Magazine, 
February, 1889. 

Catalogue of Anatoniical preparations in the Hunteriaji Museum. 
Glasgow, 1840, 8vo. The preface bears date ist Nov., 1841. Catalogue 
of anatomical and pathological preparations of Dr. William Hunter in 
the Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow. By John H. Teacher, 
Glasgow, 1900, 2 vols., 8vo. This is an admirable catalogue. 

"^ A Tour through various Parts of Scotland, p. 61. London, 1794, 8vo. 

Garnett, Tour itt Scotland, ii., p. 196. London, 1800, 410. 

L 



I 62 PATHOLOGICAL MUSEUMS 

given. It was added to from time to time, and a 
short account of it, prepared by Dr. John Scouler 
(1804- 1871), was pubHshed in 1831,^ When this 
Institution was merged in the Glasgow and West 
of Scotland Technical College, in 1887, the natural 
history and general specimens were presented to the 
Hunterian Museum, and the remainder was retained 
as the nucleus of a mineralogical and geological col- 
lection to be used for teaching purposes in the new 
College. This technical museum is being organised 
and extended, and will soon be a valuable educational 
instrument. 

Repeated efforts were made by the Faculty of 
Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow during the 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to form a museum, 
but these invariably resulted in failure. The collection 
of "rarities" in natural history to which occasional 
references are made in the Minutes of last century 
appears to have left no trace in the present century. 
In 1823, and again ten years later, movements towards 
the institution of a pathological museum resulted in 
the formation of a considerable nucleus of such a 
collection. In the former year a sum was voted for 
the museum, and in the latter proposals were made 
for the erection of a suitable building, but the scheme 
eventually came to nothing, and in 1852 the entire 
collection was handed over to the Pathological Museum 
of the Royal Infirmary.^ Of that museum a catalogue 

^ Accomit of the Andersonian Museum, Glasgow. Glasgow, 1831, 
8vo. 

2 Duncan, Memorials of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of 
Glasgow, p. 215. Glasgow, 1896, 4to. 



ABERDEEN MUSEUMS I 63 

has been published.^ In the Western Infirmary, Glas- 
gow, there is an excellent Pathological Museum, of 
which a catalogue is in preparation and is expected to 
be published presently. 

Dr. Peter Wright (d, 1819), five times President 
of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons, one of 
the Trustees, and the first President of the Ander- 
sonian Institution, Mr. Gilbert Hamilton and Mr. 
Alexander Brown, of Glasgow, were collectors, and 
made various gifts to the museum of the Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland, 

Many objects of curiosity were acquired by 
Marischal College, Aberdeen, during the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries, which were deposited in the 
College library. The collection gradually grew and 
included natural history objects, coins, and medals.^ 
In 1764 it was proposed to provide a separate apart- 
ment for it, but this was not done until 1786. The 
collection of philosophical instruments was in 1798 
considered one of the best in the kingdom ; and was 
supplemented by models of the most useful machines 

^ Catalogue of the Pathological Micseum of the Glasgow Royal In- 
firmary^ edited by Joseph Coats, Glasgow, 1872, 8vo ; again edited by 
David Foulis, Glasgow, 1878, Svo. 

^Stuart, Essays on Scottish Antiquities^ p. 31, Aberdeen, 1846, 4to. 
Old Statistical Accounts, xxi., Appendix, p. 131 ; Gough, British Topo- 
graphy, ii., p. 628. 

In Marischal College the teaching of Civil and Natural History was 
in 1827 entrusted to one professor. He dealt with both in one course, 
and his teaching embraced in one session the history of the Egyptians, 
Phoenicians, Greeks, Persians, and Romans ; Mineralogy and Zoology ; 
Chemistry, Electricity, Galvanism, and Magnetism, Light and Heat. 
Report of the Universities Commission of 1826, Visitation at Aberdeen, 
Marischal College, pp. 22 sqq., 40 sqq. 



164 ST. ANDREWS MUSEUM 

in the various arts and manufactures, acquired out of a 
grant made during several years by the Board of 
Trustees for promoting Fisheries and Manufactures in 
Scotland. 

There was a separate museum in King's College, 
Aberdeen, which was much increased by the exertions 
of Professor William Ogilvie (i 736-1819), and his own 
valuable collection of Greek coins was ultimately trans- 
ferred to it.^ In i860 King's College and Marischal 
College were united, when the Natural History section 
of Kino's Colleo^e was transferred to the museum in 
Marischal College, and the remainder became the 
Archaeological Museum of King's College.^ 

There seems to have been no attempt to form a 
museum in the University of St. Andrews until com- 
paratively recently, and it was only in embryo in 1827.^ 
The Literary and Philosophical Society of St. Andrews, 
soon after its foundation in 1838, began to form a 
collection, and this together with various departmental 
museums belonging to the University are deposited 
in a suite of rooms in the University buildings. 
The archaeological collection is illustrative of the 
neighbourhood, and contains a number of objects ot 

■'Douglas, General Description of the East Coast of Scotland, p. 198, 
Paisley, 1782, 8vo ; Ogilvie, Birthright in Land, with Biographical Notes 
by D. C. Macdo7iald, p. 239. London, 1891, 8vo. 

- P. S.A.Scot., xxii. (1888), p. 356. Catalogue of Antiquities in the 
Archaeological Museum, King's College. Aberdeen, 1887, 8vo. 

^ Report of the Scottish Universities' Commission of 1826, Visitation at 
St. Andrews, p. 19, and Evidence of Dr. Chalmers, p. 68, and of John 
M 'Vicar, pp. 183, 184. Report of the Commissioners, p. 28. 

In 1782 the skeleton of the college carrier and a few objects of a 
similar character were preserved in the library. Douglas, General 
Description of the East Coast of Scotland, p. 31. Paisley, 1782, 8vo. 



STUDY OF NATURAL SCIENCE IN GLASGOW 1 65 

much interest. The natural history museum is of 
considerable extent, and there are excellent collec- 
tions of fossils and geological specimens, a number 
of ethnological objects, and a well-arranged osteo- 
logical collection/ 

Robert Wodrow {1679- 1734), the minister of East- 
wood, had some taste for natural science, and although 
unwearied in gathering materials for his History of 
the SingtLla7' Sufferings of the Church of Scotland, 
found time to collect a small museum of antiquities 
and fossils, the use of which he gave to Sir Robert 
Sibbald. Writing to Sibbald, he says, "If there are 
any of your Roman curiositys that are perfectly 
doubles, or any natural products that you have doubles 
of, it would be a new obligation to send some of them 
to augment my small collection."- The collection was 
dispersed on his death." 

"^Report of the Si. Aftdrezvs University Commissioners^ p. 19, London, 
1845, fol. ; Roger, History of St. Andrews, p. 119, 2nd ed., Edinb., 1849, 
8vo ; P.S.A.Scot., xxii. (1888), p. 345. 

-23rd November, 1710, Remai?is of Sir Robert Sibbald, pp. 21-40. 
Wodrow Correspondence, i., pp. 32, 171 ; ii., pp. 289, 344 ; iii., p. no. 

George Crawfurd, in his General Description of the Shire of Renfrew 
(Edinburgh, 171 1, fol.), mentions "several curiosities observed by Mr. 
Robert Wodrow." There is a letter from Professor Robert Simson, 6th 
August, 1725, to Wodrow introducing Gordon, the author of the Itiner- 
arium Septe7tt7'ionale, and referring to this collection. Gordon himself 
mentions it, Itinerariicm Septe?itrionale, p. 118. Maidment, Analecta 
Scotica, ii., p. 220. Edinburgh, 1837. 

^ Memoir of Wodrow by Dr. Robert Burns, prefixed to his edition of 
Wodrow's History, i., p. iii. Glasgow, 1829, 8vo, 4 vol. 

Dr. Stevenson Macgill, his successor in the parish of Eastwood, states 
{Old Statistical Account, xviii., p. 211) that Wodrow "was among the 
first who attended to natural history in this country ; and he left behind 
him a small Museum of fossils, chiefly collected from his own parish, and 
also a collection of medals." 



1 66 SOME OTHER SCOTTISH COLLECTORS 

The study of natural science was just commencing 
in Glasgow at this time. Caleb Threlkeld (1676- 1728), 
the author of the tirst treatise on the plants of Ireland, 
commenced Master of Arts in the University of 
Glasgow in 1698,^ and it was probably when a student 
there that he first beo-an to interest himself in the study 
of botany. In 1704 part of the College Yards was 
laid out as a Physic or Botanical Garden,- and John 
^Marshall, surgeon in Glasgow, was appointed teacher 
or professor of botany.^ It was through his opportuni- 
ties for study in this garden that Robert Simson, the 
mathematician, became a learned botanist ; and it was 
there that Charles Alston (1683- 1760), whose work 
on the Matej'ia Medica has been repeatedly quoted 
in these pages, acquired his first knowledge of the 
science of botany which he afterwards so successfully 
cultivated.'^ 

Amongst other private museums in Scotland, the 
most extensive was the collection of antiquities made 
by Sir John Clerk, of Penicuick (1684-1755), better 

^ Pulteney, SketcJies of the Progress of Botany, ii., p. 196. Cf. Mitnivienia 
Universitatis Glasguensis, iii., p. 159. Glasg., 1854, 4to. 

^ Muniinenta Universitatis Glasguensis, iii., pp. 512, 514. 

In the librar}' of the University of Glasgow (of which Wodrow was 
keeper for several years), there are copies of Gesner, De reruvi fossiliuvi 
lapidujii et ge»i?>iaruvi Liber {supra, p. 25), and of Boetius, Geminarum cf 
lapidutn Hisioria {supra, p. 26), presented by him in the same year, 1704. 

3 In his Testament (recorded 27th November, 1719, Commissariot of 
Glasgow) he is styled " Professor of Botanie in the University of 
Glasgow." 

■*He commenced M.A. in the University of Glasgow in 1717 and M.D. 
in 1719, Munitmnta, iii., pp. 173, 305. He had gone to Leyden in 1716, 
but e\-idently returned to Glasgow next year to take his degree. In 1720 
he began to lecture in Edinburgrh. 



MUSEUM OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 1 6/ 

known as Baron Clerk. ^ Somewhat later Mr, James 
MacgoLian, of Edinburgh, made a similar collection 
which was described by Pennant in 1772.^ 

The most important museum of archaeology in Scot- 
land is that collected by the Society of Antiquaries, 
which is now national property. The Society was 
founded in 1780 on the initiative of the Earl of Buchan. 
One of its objects was the formation of a museum, 
which, it was intended, should embrace not onl)' 
antiquities but also specimens of the natural productions 
of Scotland. Many donations were received, and the 
museum quickly took shape. In 1782 the Society 
applied for a Royal Charter of incorporation. The 
application was most strenuously opposed by all the 
vested interests of Edinburgh — by the University, the 
Faculty of Advocates, and the Philosophical Society — 
but the opposition, which was evidently prompted by 
jealousy, fortunately failed. It was supported on 
various flimsy grounds, one of which was the in- 
advisability of sanctioning the formation of a museum. 
The opponents apparently despaired of being able to 
extinguish the Society, but endeavoured to supersede 
it by suggesting the incorporation of another upon a 
more extensive plan, to embrace literature and science, 
and to be called " The Royal Society of Scotland." 

Mn 1857 Clerk's inscribed Roman stones were presented to the 
National Museum. P.S.A.Sco., iii., p. 37. It is to be regretted that 
they were not added to the collection in Glasgow, which would then have 
approached completeness. 

2 Tour in Scotland in 1J72, Part ii., p. 241. London, 1776, 4to. 

Gough also refers to the collection of John Cay, Deputy Secretary of 
Excise at Edinburgh. British Topography, ii., pp. 628, 744. He was 
grandson of Robert Cay, the Antiquary, often mentioned in Stukeley's 
correspondence. 



1 68 OPPOSITION OF THE UNIVERSITY 

Dealing with the question of museums, the University 
of Edinburgh, headed by Principal Robertson, the his- 
torian, say " The library of the Faculty of Advocates 
has been during a century the repository of every thing 
that tends to illustrate the history, the antiquities, and 
the laws of this country. The collection is very con- 
siderable, though still far from being complete. By its 
situation it is easily accessible to the Courts of Justice, 
and to the practitioners at the bar. It is humbly 
submitted, whether an attempt to form a new and rival 
collection be a measure prudent, expedient, and of 
advantage to the public. The musaeum of the 
University of Edinburgh contains those objects of 
natural history which are exhibited by the professor 
of that branch of science to his students, and are 
illustrated by him in the course of his lectures. 
It appears to the Senatus Academicus that the estab- 
lishment of another Musaeum would not only interrupt 
the communication of many specimens and objects 
which would otherwise have been deposited in the 
Museum of the University, but may induce and enable 
the Society of Antiquaries to institute a lectureship of 
natural history, in opposition to the professorship in 
the University." After detailing their scheme for the 
Royal Society which they advocated they next propose 
" that whatever collections of antiquities, records, 
MSS., etc., shall be acquired by this Royal Society 
shall be deposited in the library of the Faculty of 
Advocates, and all the objects of natural history 
acquired by it shall be deposited in the Musaeum of the 
University of Edinburgh, so as both may be most 
accessible to the members of the Society, to the public, 



PERTH MUSEUM 169 

and of most general utility." The Lord- Advocate 
Henry Dundas, to whom the petition for the Charter 
had been referred, was not to be duped by such 
arguments, and, appreciating the aims of the Society, 
recommended that the Charter should be granted, and 
it passed accordingly in May, 1783.^ 

The museum has now been transferred, under 
certain conditions, to the Government, and receives 
an annual grant in aid. 

In 1784 the Literary and Antiquarian Society of 
Perth was established after the pattern of that of 
Edinburgh, and the formation of a museum was 
commenced.^ It contains a considerable number of 
objects of various kinds, but it is not very extensive, 
and has not had the good fortune, like that of 
Edinburgh, to have been taken over and maintained 
by the State. 

^ Memorial for the Principal and Professors of the University of Edin- 
burgh. Reprinted by William Smellie, Account of the Institution and 
Progress of the Society of Antiquaries in Scotla7id, part ii., p. 13. Edin- 
burgh, 1784, 4to. Smellie (1740-95) was superintendent of the Society's 
museum. 

'^ Transactions of the Literary and Anfiquaria?i Society of Perth. 
Perth, 1827, 4to. This volume contains a catalogue of the contents of 
the museum at that date. See further P. S.A.Scot., xxii., p. 337 ; Nature, 
xlvi. (1892), p. 472 ; Museums Association, Proceedings at Seventh 
Meeting, ed. by Howarth and Platnauer, p. 43. London, 1896, 8vo ; Sir 
William Henry Flower, Address at the Opening of Perth Museum, 29th 
November, 1895. Garnett, Tour in Scotland, ii., p. 104. London, 
1800, 4to. 



CHAPTER XII. 

MUSEUMS AS SHOWS. 

It is unnecessary, for the present purpose, to trace the 
history of other museums. Dealing in curiosities had 
become a recog^nized callino",^ Collections continued to 
be formed both by private persons and public bodies 
in England and on the Continent, and many of great 
extent and value were made. They could be counted 
by the score in Rome, and in every important town in 
Italy,- Holland, France, and Germany there were 
numerous collections. " I am now makino- a collec- 
tion of natural rarities," says Robert Hooke in 
1666, "and hope within a short time to get as good 

^Evelyn, Diary, i., p. 51 ; Nuniismata, p. 199. 

Giovanni Ciampolini was a noted dealer in antiquities in the time of 
Pope Leo X., and was a friend of Politian. 

Philippe Sylvestre Du Four (1622- 1687), druggist in Lyons and friend 
of Dr. Jacob Spon, was an antiquary and collected on his o^vn account, 
but he was always prepared to sell his pieces as readily as his drugs when 
opportunity occurred. At least, so says Niceron, Mcmoires pojir servir 
a Vhistoire des homines illustres, vol. xvi., p. 362. 

Kanold prints a catalogue of antiquities for sale by Matthaeus Bayer 
of Ulm. Neickelius, Museographia, p. 70. 

^ For example, Misson, A New Voyage in Italy, ii., p. 368, London, 
1699 ; and Spon, supra, p. 21. See Bonnafte, Les Collectioneurs de 
rancienne Rome, Paris, 1867, 8vo. 

170 



THE COLLECTING SPIRIT I/I 

as any have been yet made in the world." ^ " I am 
extremely glad you tell me you intend to collect 
Natural Curiosities," writes Sir Hans Sloane to a 
correspondent. " I have," says another, just back 
from India, "collected innumerable Specimens of 
Plants. ... I have likewise made a good Collection 
of Insects, Fishes, etc., which are partly dried and 
partly preserved in spirits. Of Shells I have a good 
store, many of them very fine; and have not neglected 
antiquities, but have collected a great number of 
Pagods, Amulets, and other curiosities of the kind, 
which the country afforded."- John Evelyn, as Beck- 
mann subsequently did, included amongst inventors, 
" the diligent and curious collectors of both artificial 
and natural curiosities, types, models, machines, &c."^ 
Every traveller visited the principal collections, and 
many of them have left a record of what they saw. 

So popular had such collections become in the 
eighteenth century that a museum of curiosities was 
thought an attraction in a London coffee house. One 
of the sights of London during the eighteenth century 
was the repertory of curiosities in Don Saltero's Coffee 
House in Cheyne Row, Chelsea.* It was established 
in 1690, and sold off in 1799. The founder was James 
Salter, an old servant of Sir Hans Sloane, who helped 
him with the collection. '' From Putney we returned 
to Chelsea to see Mr. Salter's Collection of Curiosities, 

^Robert Boyle, Works, vi., p. 505. London, 1772, 4to. 

^Nichols, Literary lllustraiions of the Eighteenth Century, i., pp. 
270, 314- 

"^ Xiimis7nata, p. 282, London, 1697, fol. 

■* Don Saltero appears frequently in the pages of The Tatler. In 
Number 34 he and his coffee-house are described by Steele. 



172 DON SALTEROS AND ADAMS S MUSEUMS 

which is really surprising considering his circumstances 
as a coffee-man ; but several persons of distinction 
have been benefactors."^ There was a printed Cata- 
logue which was sold to visitors, and passed through 
about fifty editions. 

" Monsters of all sorts here are seen, 

Strange things in nature as they grow so, 
Some relics of the Sheba queen, 

And fragments of the famous Bob Crusoe." 

This success led to imitation. Ralph Thoresby 
records that in 17 14 Mr. Miers, who kept a coffee- 
house which was frequented by Sir Hans Sloane and 
other learned men, " hath a handsome collection of 
curiosities in the room where the virtuosi meet."^ 

Another London attraction in the middle of the 
eighteenth century was Adams's museum at the Royal 
Swan in Kingsland Road. It was shown in three 
rooms, in an entry or passage and a long room at the 
back. There were no less than 567 numbers com- 
prising a most miscellaneous lot of things, most of 
them rubbish, many of them fictitious or absurd, but 
all appealing to popular curiosity : Charles of Swede- 
land's boots ; Harry the Sth's spurs ; tobacco stopper 
made from the royal oak King Charles was hid in 
at Boscobello Grove in Staffordshire ; Vicar of Bray's 
clogs ; caps, gloves, and shoes from Hudson's Bay ; 
Mandarin's hubble-bubble from Gambroon in Persia ; 
Chinese chop-sticks ; Star and Garter made of Indian 
arrows, with a George in the middle ; a corn-mill in a 
bottle, that goes without wind, water, or clock work ; 

^ Thoresby, Diary, ii., p. 376. - Op. laud., ii., p. 229. 



cox S MUSEUM 173 

thunderbolt stones, and many relics of the risings of 
of 1 7 15 and 1745.1 

Another popular collection was that of James Cox 
in Spring Gardens, Charing Cross. It consisted of 
mechanical contrivances, waterfalls, Asiatic temples, 
jewellery, and curiosities in richly decorated rooms, and 
was for some time a fashionable resort- " I promised 
precisely at twelve to call on Lady Frolic, to take a 
turn in Kensington Gardens, to see both the exhibi- 
tions, the stain'd glass, dwarf, giant, and Cox's 
museum."^ When the attendance began to fall off. 
Cox applied to Parliament and was successful in 
obtaining an Act authorising him to dispose of it "by 
way of chance."* It is alluded to by Foote. "His 
father," says the incoherent Mr. Aircastle, "keeps a 
pastry cook's shop in Spring-gardens, just where Cox's 
museum is — by the by, they tell me, Cox will get 
devilish rich by his lottery."'' So it was generally 
thought.** 

Hubert's museum and that of John Conyers, 

^ A Catalogue of the Rarities to be seen at Adams's at the Royal Swan 
in Kingsland Road, leading from Shoreditch Church. London, 1756, 8vo. 
The third edition. 

^ A descriptive Catalogue of the several superb attd magnif cent pieces of 
jnechanism and jexvellery exhibited iii the Museum at Spring Gardens, 
Chari?ig Cross. London, 1772,410. 

The Museum is well described in Miss Burney's Eveliria, Letter xix. 

D'Archenholz, Picture of England, i., p. 106 sqq. London, 1789. 

3 Mrs. Simony, in Foote's "The Cozeners," Works, ii., p. 157, infra. 

* 13 Geo. III., c. 41. The contents are scheduled to the Act. 

* Foote, op. laud., ii., p. 195. London, 1799, Svo. 

" In the debate on Sir Ashton Lever's Bill, i?if?-a, p. 176, it was said that 
both Cox's lottery and that of the Messrs. Adam for the disposal of their 
Adelphi Buildings had been frauds on the public. The Gefttleman's 
Magazine, liv. (1784), p. 705. As to the Adelphi lottery, see lb., xliv., p. 138. 



174 GREENES MUSEUM 

although of a superior kind to any of these, were also 
open to the public, and seem to have been formed 
for the purpose of exhibition. Others followed their 
example. Richard Greene (i 716- 1793), surgeon and 
apothecary in Lichfield, began collecting curiosities 
about 1740, and continued to do so with unremitting 
zeal until his death, nearly fifty years later.^ His 
museum was shewn to the public gratuitously. It was 
visited by Dr. Johnson in 1774, and again in 1776 along 
w^ith Boswell, who describes it as " truly a wonderful 
collection both of antiquities and natural curiosities and 
ingenious works of art."" A descriptive catalogue 
was published in 1773 and passed through several 
editions.^ In that year the collection contained coins 
and medals, Christian antiquities, and natural history 
specimens. In later years there were added many 
ethnographical objects from the South Seas, books 
and manuscripts, arms and armour. After Greene's 
death the collection was broken up ; first the fossils 
were sold in 1799 to Sir John St. Aubyn, and next 
year the arms and armour to William Bullock; and 

^ There is an account of Greene and his museum in Nichols Illustra- 
tions of the Literary History of the Eighteenth Century, vi., p. 318-326 ; 
see also Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteeiith Century, ix., p. 380. The 
museum is shortly described, and a plan of part of it is given in The 
Gentleman^s Magazine, Iviii., part ii. (1788), p. 847. 

-Life of fohnson, ed. Croker, vi., p. 98, London, 1859. Johnson 
said of it, " Sir, I should as soon have thought of building a man- 
of-war as of collecting such a museum." 

^The New and Accurate Survey of the Lichfield Museum, 3rd edition, 
Lichfield, 1786, extends to 84 pages. 

Amongst the specimens was "the tusk of an Elephant dug out of a 
gravel pit near Stratford-upon-Avon six feet beneath the surface of the 
ground." 



LEVERS MUSEUM 1/5 

afterwards nearly the whole of the remainder to 
Walter Honeywood Yate, of Bronsberrow, who 
printed a catalogue of it in 1801/ This part was 
ultimately acquired by Richard Wright, of Lichfield, 
Greene's grandson, but was finally dispersed on his 
death in 1821. 

Sir Ashton Lever (i 729-1 788) early in life be- 
came a collector of natural history specimens, and 
began the formation of a museum at his house, 
Alkrington Hall, near Manchester. In this he was 
assisted by James Douglas, the antiquary, author of 
Nenia Britannica. In later years he added ethno- 
graphical objects, coins, medals and casts, and all 
kinds of curiosities.^ In 1775, "flattered by his great 
success," he removed the museum to London, styled 
it Holophusikon, and exhibited it in Leicester House, 
Leicester Square, " not doubting but he would make 
it, by its pre-eminence over all other collections, a 
national honour." He entered upon the undertaking 
"with a determined spirit," and "secured every capital 
article that offered itself." By selecting out of some 
hundred thousand specimens, he formed a " collection 
of subjects of natural history and of art superior to 

^ A concise . . . CatalogTie of . . . the . . . curiosities in the Museum 
of W. H. v., 8vo. [1801]. 

-Described in T/ie Ge?itleviati s Magazine, xliii. (1773), p. 219 ; and in 

Wendeborn, Der Zustand des Staats, der Religion, der Gelehrsatnkeit und 

der Kunst iti Grosbritannien, ii., p. 142. Berlin, 1785, 8vo. English 

abridged translation, i., pp. 323, 350, London, 1791, 8vo. See also 

Compayiioti to the Museum late Sir A. Lever's, London, 1790, 8vo ; 

I' Shaw, Micsei Leveriani Explicatio (Latin and English), London, 1792-96, 

n 2 vols., 4to, with 72 coloured plates ; Skelton, Engraved Illustrations 

\ of Meyric^s collectioti of Ancient Armour, contains several of the general 

I objects from Lever's museum in addition to the armour, 1830, 2 vols., fol. 



176 OFFERED TO THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

anything of the kind in Europe."^ Whether this be 
so or not, it was evidently an attractive show, 
as one httle lad of ten was so carried away 
with excitement that he addressed a set of verses 
to Sir Ashton, which were printed in the Gentle- 
mans Magazine : 

View there an urn which Roman ashes bore, 
And habits once that foreign nations wore, 
Birds and wild beasts from Afric's burning sand, 
And curious fossils rang'd in order stand.- 

The collection had cost him ^53,000, which made so 
serious an inroad on his fortune, that he became anxious 
to dispose of it,^ and offered it to the Trustees of 
the British Museum for a moderate sum, but they 
declined to purchase it. Dr. Johnson was in favour 
of the acquisition by the nation both of it and of the 
Houghton collection of pictures belonging to Lord 
Oxford, which was likewise for sale at this time.^ 
The Government allowed the pictures to slip through 
their fingers, and they are now one of the principal 
ornaments of the Hermitaoe Museum in St. Peters- 
burg. In 1783 Sir Ashton petitioned Parliament 
for an Act to authorize him to dispose of his 
museum by way of chance.^ The petition was 
referred to a committee, who reported favourably, 

^ Preamble to the Act 24, Geo. iii., Sess. 2, cap. 22 ; House of Commons 
Journals^ xxxix. (1783-84), p. 161. Duncan, Catalojriie of the Ashmolean 
MKseum, p. iii. Oxford, 1836, 8vo. 

= xlix. (1779), P- 319- 

^The Gentlemaiis Magazine, Iii. (1783), p. 919. 

•*Boswell, Life of fohnson, ed. Croker, ix., p. 337, London, 1859. 

^ H. of C. Journals, xxxix., p. 161. 



SOLD BY LOTTERY 1/7 

Next session an enabling Bill was introduced, and 
after some discussion was passed.^ A lottery was 
then an accepted method of raising money, and, as 
we have seen, it was by this means that money was 
obtained for establishing the British Museum and for 
paying for the collections out of which it grew. 
Sir Ashton's Act"- allowed him to sell 36,000 tickets 
at a guinea apiece, but of these only 8000 were 
applied for by the public. The museum fell to Mr. 
James Parkinson, a holder of two tickets, who 
exhibited it in the Rotunda near the Surrey end 
of Blackfriars Bridge.^ It was very popular for 
some years. ^ " The trouble to obtain a sight of 
the British Museum," says an American writer, 
"renders it of less value to the public than a 
private collection belonging to Mr. Parkinson, called 
the Leverian Museum."^ In the course of time it was 
neglected and was sold off in 1806.^ A few of the 
objects are now in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow. 

'^ Gcntlemaii s Magazine, liii. (1783), 919; liv., (1784), 622, 705. 

^24 Geo. iii., 2 Sess., c. 24, "An Act for enabling Sir Ashton Lever to 
dispose of his Museum as no\s' exhibited at Leicester House by way of 
chance." 

The contents of the museum are scheduled to the Act. 

"Nichols, Literary Illustratiotis of the Eighteenth Century, vii., p. 469 ; 
Hughson, London, iv., p. 329. London, 1807, 8vo. 

^See the Advertisement in Thornbury, Old and Netv London, vi., p. 382. 

'" Peale, Discourse on the Science of Nature, p. 20. Philadelphia, 1800, 
8vo. 

'^Catalogue of the Leverian Museum, London, 1806, 4to, pp. 410. There 
is a copy in the British Museum, with the prices and the purchasers' 
names. 

Part of the ethnographical collection was purchased for the Vienna 
museum. Klemm, Geschichte der Sainmlungen fiir IVissenschaft und 
Kunst in Deutschland, p. 299, Zerbst, 1837, 8vo. 



178 bullock's museum 

William Bullock, a goldsmith in Liverpool, in early- 
life began to form a museum. In 1800 he bought 
the greater part of the arms and armour from 
Greene's Museum, the remainder being acquired for 
the collection in the Tower of London. He like- 
wise made considerable purchases at the sale of Sir 
Ashton Lever's Museum.^ In 1805 he opened the 
" Liverpool Museum " at 22 Piccadilly, in the room 
originally occupied by Astley for his evening perform- 
ance.'- In 1808 he had the Egyptian Hall erected 
for him, transferred his collection to it and opened it to 
the public as the London Museum, which soon became 
one of the most attractive sights in London. By 
1 8 10 it had cost him ^22,000, and in the next year 
he spent on it ^8000 more.^ In 1 819 he sold off the 
whole,* and commenced an extensive scheme of travel 
extending over several years. During this time he 
formed a Mexican collection, which he exhibited 
at the Egyptian Hall in 1824. The University of 

^A Companio7i to the Liverpool Museum. 6th edition. Hull, 1808, 8vo. 
A seventh edition was published in 1809. 

- Timbs, Cu7'iosities of London, p. 266. London, 1855, 8vo. 

^ A Compa7iion to Mr. Bullocks museum . . . now open for public 
inspection in the Great Room No. 22 Piccadilly, London, 8th edition. 
London, 18 10, 8vo. This is called the eighth edition, being a continua- 
tion in a new form of the original Liverpool Companion. A seventeenth 
edition was published in 18 16. 

* Catalogue of the Roman Gallery of A}itiquities and Works of Art and 
the London Museum of Natural History . . . at the Egyptia7i Hall . . . 
which will be sold by auction. London, 1819, 4to. 

The whole collection was first oft'ered to the British Government 
for ^50,000; but, the age of lotteries having passed, they declined to 
purchase. 

A large portion of the ethnographical section went to the Berlin 
museum. Klemm, Geschichte der Sammlungen fiir IVissenschaft und 
Kunst in Deutschland, p. 210, Zerbst, 1837, 8vo. 



PEALE S PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM 179 

Edinburgh, as already mentioned, purchased a con- 
siderable portion of the original collection. The 
armour which Bullock had acquired from Greene's 
Museum was purchased by Sir Samuel Meyrick 
(1783- 1 848), and in 1871 was sold with the rest of 
Sir Samuel's magnificent collection to M. Frederic 
Spitzer, of Paris. In 1893 the Spitzer collection 
was in turn disposed of by auction. 

Charles Wilson Peale (i 741-1827), the portrait 
painter of Philadelphia, was one of the first to form a 
museum in the United States. He was much inter- 
ested in Natural History, delivered lectures on the 
subject, and was indefatigable in collecting material. 
The foundation of the collection was a few of the bones 
of a mammoth, which he acquired in 1785. Sixteen 
years later he obtained the first entire skeleton which 
had ever been found. Besides specimens of natural 
history the museum contained wax figures of the dif- 
ferent nations of the North American Indians, "dressed 
in their proper habiliments," a collection of their 
arms and utensils, other Indian and European 
curiosities, and casts of ancient gems and statues. 
For ten years it was kept in the Philosophical Hall, 
but in 1802 the greater part of it was transferred to 
the State- House, the use of which was granted by 
the Legislature of Pennsylvania for its display. There 
were also some models of machines, and in one of the 
rooms there was a person "with Hawkins' ingenious 
Physiognotrace, who draws the Profiles of such as 
chuse to pay the cost of paper, free of other expence."^ 

^ Scientific a7td Descriptive Catalogue. Philadelphia, 1796, 8vo; Guide 
to the Philadelphia Museum., Philadelphia, 1804, 8\o. See also Rembrandt 



l8o DELACOSTE's new YORK MUSEUM 

In one of his lectures Peale gives a succinct account 
of various European museums, and of the uses such 
institutions are intended to serve. ^ 

In 1804 Messrs. Delacoste and Curling exhibited 
an extensive cabinet of Natural History in New York. 
Delacoste, who evidently was a precursor of Barnum, 
solicited subscriptions, and undertook to augment the 
collections and make it as useful and interestino- as 
possible. Not to be behind Peale, he bound himself 
"to travel throuoh the whole continent of North 
America for the purpose of procuring a skeleton of 
that anonymous animal called the Mammoth, which 
has given so much credit to the museum of Phila- 
delphia, and of completing as much as can reasonably 
be expected the collections of the natural productions 
of the United States, so that the cabinet of New York 
might, in an inconsiderable time, rival not only the 
above-said museum, but all institutions of the kind in 
other parts."- 

VtaXe, Accoiinf of the Skeleton of the Mammoth, London, 1802, 4to; An 
historical Disquisition on the Mammoth, London, 1803, 8\-o. 

He exhumed two specimens, one of \\hich was erected in his father's 
museum. The other he brought to London for exhibition. 

^ Discourse itttroductory to a course of Lectures on the Science of Nature 
luith original Music composed for a7ici sting on the occasion. Philadelphia, 
1800, 8vo. 

He published an earlier lecture in the same year, Introduction to a 
course of Lectwes on Natural History. Philadelphia, 1800, 8vo. 

- Catalogue of the natural 'productions and curiosities lohich compose the 
collection of the Cabinet of Natural History, opetied for fo'thcr exhibition 
at No. 38 William Street, New York. New York, 1804, 8vo, pp. 87. 

The New York Lyceum of Natural History was formed shortly after- 
wards. See Catalogue of the orga7iic remains and other geological and 
mineralogical articles cofitained i?i the collection Presented . . . by S. L. 
Mitchell. New York, 1826, 8vo, pp. 40. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

DISPERSION OF MUSEUMS. 

A FEW private collections, as for instance those 
of Consul Sherard (1659- 17 28)/ John Martyn (1699- 
1768), and Richard Pulteney (i 730-1 801), have been 
absorbed in public museums, but the greater number 
have been dispersed, ** as it com'only fares with such 
curiosities where the next heire is not a virtuoso.'"^ 
The money represented by a collection was in many 
cases needed for a widow or children, so that a sale 
could not be avoided ; and pathos may be found 
in a sale catalogue. j0rgen Hahn, or, as Latinised, 
Georgius Hannaeus of Copenhagen (163 7- 1699), the 
friend and eulogist of Thomas Bartholin, formed a con- 

' Described by Thoresby, Diary, ii., p. 374. 

'-'Letter by Evelyn to Pepys, Diary, iii., p. 443 (London, 1879). 
" NonnuUis hujusmodi Thesauris baud raro accidit ; ut, quos longus 
pertinaxque labor una accumulavit, defuncto possessore, brevi distra- 
hantur." Catalogus Bibliothccae Harleianae, vol. i., Dedication written 
by Michael Maittaire. London, 1743, Svo. 

War was also a disturbing element. Dr. Edward Brown mentions 
that his father, Sir Thomas Brown, had a piece of unicorn's horn 
which had formerly been amongst the Duke of Curland's rarities, which 
were apparently dispersed after he was taken prisoner by Douglas in the 
wars between Sweden and Poland. Travels, p. 102, London, 1685, fol- 

iSi 



1 82 SALE OF HAHN AND SCHVNVOET's MUSEUMS 

siderable museum of natural history. On his death 
his widow issued, in 1699, a catalogue of the objects 
" ancient and recent, natural and artificial, home and 
foreign which are preserved in the museum of the late 
Professor {beati professoris), arranged therein with 
much labour and no less cost and are to be seen in 
beautiful order and now, since his death, long for a sym- 
pathetic purchaser (curiosum desiderunt emptorem)."' 
The reasons assigned for a sale are sometimes 
rather far-fetched. Simon Schynvoet (165 2- 1727), 
the naturalist and friend of Rumph,^ was a diligent 
collector, and by 1698 his museum, or at least the 
numismatic portion of it,^ was of sufficient importance 
to be annexed by Peter the Great. Like his country- 
men, Ruysch and Seba, he immediately began again, 
and at his death left a large collection of shells, fossils, 
minerals, precious stones, and petrifactions, which 
passed to his only daughter, as heir-at-law. Her 
husband, however, not being- a man of science, could 
make no use of it, and, being of opinion that it 
would injure the reputation of his late father-in-law 
if such a collection was practically buried, he resolved 
to offer it for sale in two parts — minerals and shells 
— to some prince or great person. If not sold to 
such a purchaser by a fixed day, he reserved right 
to deal with it as he might think proper.^ 

^ PJiysicotlieca beati Doct. Geoj'gii Haujiaei. Hafniae, 1699, 4to. 

' Supra ^ p. 147. 

^ Muntkabinet der Roomsche Keyzers e?i Keyzcrinncn. hi vaarcn 
beschreven door Abraliam Bogaert. Amst., 1695, 8vo, with 70 plates. 

* Catalogiis Musaei p7-aestantissimi Fossiliian . . . Simon Schynvoet, 
n.p., n.d., 8vo [but Amst., 1744]. Latin and Dutch. 

Catalogue d'un tres famcux et ires excellent Cabinet Royal de toutes 



SALE OF OTHER MUSEUMS I 83 



Besides those already mentioned, or referred to, 
the museums of Kirke,' Thoresby,' and Stukeley,^ 
of Edward Harley (i 689-1 724), second Earl of 
Oxford/ and of his daughter, Lady Margaret Caven- 
dish-Harley (171 5-1 785), Duchess of Portland,^ of 

sortes des Coqiiilles . . . assembles . . . par . . . Simon Schynvoet, 
n.p., n.d., 8vo [but Amst., 1744]. French and Dutch. See Gersaint, 
Catalogue raisoimc dc Coquilles, p. 40. Paris, 1736, i2mo. 

^ Nichols, Literary Illustrations of the Eighteenth Century, iv., p. 174. 

-Musaeum Thoresbyanum (London, 1725, 8vo), reprinted with additions 
in Ducaius Leodie?isis, 18 16, occupying 123 folio pages, followed by A 
Catalogue and Description of the Natural and Artificial Rarities in this 
Musaeum, lb., 116 pp., with plate. The Philosophical Transactions, 
xxiii. (1702-3), p. 1070. Supra, p. 126. 

He was much pressed to give part of his collections to the Ashmolean 
Museum, " but kept off promising till I see how it please God to dispose 
of me as to marriage, posterity, etc." Diary, ii., p. 429. 

The museum was bequeathed to Thoresby's son, Ralph, and after 
his death what remained of it was sold by auction in London in 1764. 
See Notes and Queries, ist S., iii., p. 247. 

Thomas Hearne, writing in 1726, says, "I am much obliged to you 
for your information concerning Mr. Thoresby and his curiosities. 
I wish they may fall into good hands ; methinks they might be proper 
to be joined with Sir Hans Sloane's." Nichols, Literary Illustrations 
of the Eighteenth Century, i., p. 307. 

^ A Catalogue of the Collection of Coins and Medals, various Anti- 
quities, Fossils, and other Curiosities of William Stukeley. London, 
1766, 8vo. Supra, p. 126. 

* A Catalogue of the Collection of the Right Honourable Edward Earl 
of Oxford, deceased. London, 1742, 4to. A sale catalogue. The collec- 
tion consisted of pictures and works of art, and a few Roman and other 
antiquities. Amongst the latter some British celts, one of them in the 
mould it was cast in (p. 14). There was a separate catalogue and sale of 
the coins and medals. 

* Nichols, Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century, v., pp. 494, 495. 
Catalogue of Coins and Medals of a person of distinction. London, n.d. 
A Catalogue of the Portland Museuin, lately the property of the 

Dowager Duchess of Portland. London, 1786, 4to. 

Horace Walpole writes, 30th May, 1751 : "I have just seen her collection, 
which is indeed magnificent, chiefly composed of the spoils of her father's 



1 84 SALES OF VARIOUS MUSEUMS 

Henry, third Lord Coleraine (i 693-1 749), Arthur 
Pond, Ebenezer Miissell/ John Neilson, George 
Scott," James West,^ Richard Bateman,^ Samuel Tyssen, 
George Humphrey of St. Martin's Lane,' Dr. Lettsom, 
the famous Quaker physician, Daniel Boulter of Yar- 
mouth,^ Rackstrow,^ and Professor Ramsay of Edin- 
burgh, were sold. Sir John Soane, profiting by the 
experience of these and of many other eminent 
collectors, obtained during his lifetime an Act of 
Parliament for settling and maintaining his museum 
and works of art.^ 

The extensive museum of Marmaduke Tunstall, 

and the Arundel collections. The Gems of all sorts are glorious." 
Letfet's, ed. Cunningham, ii., p. 225. London, 1857, 8vo. 

The catalogue was prepared by Rev. John Lightfoot, the author of the 
"Flora Scotica." Nichols, Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century, 
iii., p. 670. 

It is said that Linnaeus readjusted his system of Shells after visiting 
the Duchess' Museum. Laskey, Account of the Hiinterian Mjtseinn, p. 
104. Glasgow, 1813, Svo. 

^ Nichols, Literary Illustrations of the Eighteenth Century, iv., p. 432. 

Catalogue of the genuine and curious collection of Roinan atid Egyptian 
antiquities . . . and other effects of Ebenezer Mussel I, Esq., of Bethnal 
Green, deceased. London, 1765, 8vo. A sale catalogue. There were 
separate catalogues and sales of his Coins and Library. The library con- 
tained many examples of the presses of Caxton, Pynson, and Wynken de 
Worde. 

-Correspondence of John Ray, p. 482. London, 1848, Svo. 

"^ Catalogue of the Museum of James West. London, 1772, Svo. Two 
parts. Memoirs of Dr. Stukcley, iii., p. 3 (Surtees Society, No. Ixxx.). 

^A Catalogue of that much esteemed and truly valuable Museum of the 
late Hon. Richard Bateman, deceased. London, 1774, Svo. 

•^ Fox, Synopsis of the Newcastle Museum, p. 179. Newcastle, 1827, 
Svo. 

"Fox, Op. laud., p. 179, 

' Catalogue of Rackstro^Lfs Museum. London, 1794, Svo. 

^ Descriptioti of the House and Museum . . . of Sir John Soane, 
p. loi. London, fol., n.d. 



THEFTS FROM MUSEUMS 1 85 

of Wycliffe, was sold on his death in i 790, and pur- 
chased by George Allan, of Darlington, who added 
it to his own collection, and threw the whole open 
to the public. Mr, Allan died in 1800, when his 
collection was sold. It was purchased by his son, who 
retained it until 1822, when he advertised it for sale 
by auction, but disposed of it privately to the Literary 
and Philosophical Society of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
and it thus became the foundation of the Newcastle 
Museum.^ 

The valuable collections of shells and insects made 
by Dr. John Fothergill (1712-80) were acquired by 
Dr. William Hunter, and are now in the Hunterian 
Museum at Glasgow. His series of drawings of rare 
plants in his famous botanical garden at Upton was 
purchased after his death for a large sum by the 
Empress of Russia. 

Museums have sometimes suffered from theft. 
Samuel Stryk (1640-17 10) the celebrated jurist, 
president of the Faculty of Law in the University of 
Wittemberg, had a collection of coins, which was made 
away with by his servant, a misfortune which caused 
him great grief. - 

^Fox, Synopsis of the Newcastle Museum, Newcastle, 1827, 8vo ; Nichols, 
Literary Anecdotes of t lie EigJiteejith Century, viii., pp. 366,* 752, 753. 

-Gundling, Historic der Gelahrheit, iii., p. 4072. Franckfurt, 1734-37, 
4to, 5 vol. Gundling has a chapter on Museums, abridged from Bertram, 
Valentini, Neickelius, Major, Morhof, and Misson. 

Two cases of museum theft are reported in December, 1900 : the one of 
Nelson relics from Greenwich Hospital Museum, and the other of old 
silver from West Ham School and Technical Museum, Stratford. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

NON-SCIENTIFIC CHARACTER OF EARLY MUSEUMS, 

While an enormous quantity of material was col- 
lected, it was only gradually that its real value began 
to be appreciated, and that it was turned to proper 
account. The early museums had often certain 
definite aims, and were intended to be exponents 
of science;^ but natural history was hampered by 
traditional opinions, and physical science was over- 
weighted by metaphysics. Everything was explained, 
but the explanations had always to be in accord with 
the accepted doctrines of logic and metaphysics, which 
had themselves in turn to square with theology. The 
wonders of nature had an extraordinary fascination 
for men of science, who were constantly on the 
outlook for them. Any variation of the ordinary 
type of a common object was eagerly sought after, 
and the more extraordinary it was the greater was 
its attraction. Hence museums had a tendency to 
represent the abnormal rather than the normal, what 
was rare rather than what was common. A museum 

^Leibnitz, for instance, appeals to '■'• curiosprum Musea'' in his Pro- 
tbgaea^ % 24. 

186 



CURIOSITIES 187 

was a collection of curiosities, and although the 
word ''curiosity" in its older sense^ had a broader 
meaning than at present and as it still has in France,^ 

'Thus Addison describes the museums at Florence as "the noblest 
collections of curiosities to be met with in any part of the whole 
world." "Remarks on Italy," IVor/cs, ii., p. 157, London, 1811, 8vo. 

Canon Bargrave says that the seeing of the various collections at Rome 
" put me likewise into a humour of curiosity, and making this collection 
insuing." Po/>t' Alexander the SeventJi and the College of Cardinals, p. 
116, 1867, 4to, Camden Society, No. xcii. 

Bishop Burnet entertained Ralph Thoresby " most agreeably with the 
sight of several valuable curiosities, as the original of Magna Charta of 
King John." Diary, ii., p. 27. Mr. Wanley, the keeper of the Harleian 
Library, was "a gentleman of great curiosity." lb., p. 36. 

" Mr. Thomas Knowlton was a man of general curiosity and observa- 
tion ; and, amongst other matters, not inattentive to the pursuits of the 
antiquary." Pulteney, Sketches of the progress of Botany, ii., p. 240. 

One of the oldest examples of the use of the word is Curiostifu 
Urbis Romae regioniim xiv., probably dating somewhere between the 
fourth and the eighth centuries. See Jordan, Topographie der Stadt 
Rom itn Alterthiaii, ii., p. 3 sqq., 541 sqq. 

Robert Estienne renders Antiquarius, as Ung homme curietilx d'auuoir 
OH scatioir chases antiques. Dictionnarium Latino-Gallicuin, s. v. Paris, 
1538, fol. ; Les mots Francois . . . iournez e7i latin pour enfants. Paris, 
1 544, 4to. Bargrave uses " Antiquarian " for a dealer in curiosities. Op. 
laud., p. 127; again, "a rare antiquity and curiosity," p. 135. 

-In France Curiositc' corresponds pretty much to what we call 
" applied art," — ceramics, furniture, and the like. The Catalogue of the 
Orleans Museum (Orleans, 185 1, i2mo) is '■^Explication des Tableaux, 
Dessins, Sculptures, Antiquites et Curiosites qui y sont exposes.''' The old 
usage was the same, e.g. Gersaint, Catalogue raisojinc de diffcrens effets 
curieux et rares contenus dans le cabinet de Mr. de la Roque comine 
Tableaux, Dessins, Estainpes, Bronzes, Porcelaines ancienncs, Diamants, 
Pierres fines, Pieres gravies, etc. Paris, 1745, i2mo ; Catalogue raisonne 
des diver ses curiosites de Mr. Quoit in de POrangere, composees de 
Tableaux origitt. des tneilleurs Mattres de Flandres, etc. Paris, 1744, 
1 2mo. See Gersaint's remarks in the preface to the latter. 

In France the contents of the South Kensington Museum would 
be described as cu7-iositc's. Edmond Bonnaffe, the originator of the cor- 
responding collection in the Louvre, writes Le Commerce de la curiosite 
(Paris, 1895, 8vo), and many other works on the same subject. In 



I 88 COLLECTION DETERMLN^ED BY ODDITY 

there was generally implied in it the idea of strange- 
ness or rarity.^ The object to which it was applied 
was to be regarded as worthy of being looked at 
because it was odd or rare. Of Sir Hans Sloane, 
Edward Young writes: 

. . . Sloane, the foremost toyman of his time, 
His nice ambition lies in curious fancies. 

The Ashmolean Museum he terms " Ashmole's 
baby-house."^ At Antwerp, says a well-known Scots- 
man, " I saw the oddest whim of this kind that 
could be imagin'd, which was a collection of eggs 
from the Ostridge down to the Tom Tit."^ In the 
Tradescant Museum were pieces of stone from 
Apollo's Oracle, Diana's tomb, and the like. The 
same sort of things figure in Valentini's collection. 
Amongst sacred curiosities he includes a stone from 
the wall of Damascus ; another stone from the same 
city where St. Paul prayed ; a stone from Mount 
Guarantana where our Saviour was tempted of the 
devil ; wood from an olive tree in the Garden of 
Gethsemane. Amongst his artificial curiosities he had 

Gazette des Beaiix-Arts, 2^^ S., i. (1869), p. 327, he gives the history of the 
word. See H Intermediaire des Chercheurs et Curieux, xxvii. (1893), 587. 
The Germans use the term " Kunstgewerbe," art-industry. 

'"The downfall of May-Fair has quite sunk the price of this noble 
creature [the elephant], as well as of many other curiosities of nature." 
Addison, "The Tatler" No. 20, Works, ii., p. 209, London, 181 1. Bulph 
the pilot " had the little finger of a drowned man on his parlour mantel- 
shelf, with other maritime and natural curiosities." See Dickens, Nicholas 
Nickleby, c. xxiii. 

-Young, Love of Fame, Satire iv. 

^ [John Macky] A Journey through England, p. 260, 2nd ed. London, 
1722, 8vo. The owner of this collection was Monsieur Peters. He had 
also a collection of shells and another of pictures. 



OR RARITY 189 

a MS. of the Koran ; Chinese ink, which was then a 
great rarity, and various other objects from China ; a 
Turkish tobacco pipe and an English tobacco box 
with a burning glass ; a piece of writing done by a 
cripple with but one finger on each hand, and a model 
of a mine cut in wood.^ Sometimes, when sounder 
ideas of arrangement began to prevail, such articles 
were relegated to a special class under the title 
" fj'hola,"^ but such cases are exceptional. 

Very considerable numbers of objects, such as are 
now known as ethnographical exhibits, were to be 
seen in various museums, but they were brought 
together not for the purpose of enabling the visitor 
to study the arts, industries, and instruments of primi- 
tive peoples, but to excite in the spectator a feeling 
of wonder and surprise, in some cases by their rude- 
ness and clumsiness, in others by their finish and 
elegance.^ " The older naturalist," says Professor 
Ferguson, "collected chiefly the exceptional things 
of nature (the more wonderful, the better for his 
purpose), w^hich he found on record, without question ; 
or. if he questioned, without attempting to substan- 
tiate his opinion by a personal observation or 
experiment. The ordinary phenomena were passed 
by as of no importance, or as too familiar to deserve 
notice or to require explanation."^ 

Leyden was one of the most famous schools of ana- 

' \'alentini, Museum Museoruvt, vol. ii., Appendix xxiii., pp. 103, 104. 
-This was so in the case of the St. Petersburg Museum. Muscuni 
imperiale Petropolitaniim, ii., pt. i., p. 127. Petrop., 1741, 8vo. 
^ See the Preface to the third part of \'alentini's book, vol. ii. 
■* Trartsactions Archaeol. Soc, Glasgow, ii., p. 11. 



190 CURIOSITIES AT LEVDEN 

tomy of the seventeenth century.^ "Amongst all the 
rarities of Leyden," says John Evelyn, " I was much 
pleased with a sight of their Anatomy schole, theater, 
and repository adjoyning, which is well furnish'd with 
natural curiosities ; skeletons from the whale and 
eliphant to the fly and spider, which last is a ver)^ 
delicate piece of art. . . . Amongst a great variety 
of other things, I was shewn the knife newly taken 
out of a drunken Dutchman's guts by an incision 
in his side, after it had slipped from his fingers 
into his stomach."- The account of Leyden given 
by Gotfried Hegenitius half a century earlier is 
very similar.^ Balthasar de Monconys (1611-1665) 
particularly mentions an anatomical preparation made 
after the method of Lodewijk de Bils.^ Amongst 
the considerable things in the university Edward 
Leigh notes, " the Anatomy-Theatre, where there is 
mummies of Egypt, the idols of the heathens, birds 
which came from China and other far countreys."^ 
When speaking of the collection of Paludanus, 

'C. S. Scheffel, Vita Schelhatmneri in Ad G. S. Schelhammcrum 
Epistolae Selectiores, pp. i8, 19, Wismar., 1727, 8vo. 

-Evelyn, Diary, i., p. 24, London, 1879. There was a similar exhibit 
in the Vienna Museum. Dr. Edward Brown, Travels, p. 149, London, 
1685, fol. See also Briickmann, Epistola Itineraria, 23 Cent. i. Dr. 
William Oliver saw at Konigsberg a knife which had been swallowed by 
a peasant in 1685 ^"d cut out. The PJiilosopJiical Transactions, xxiii. 
(1703), p. 1408. 

'^ Itinerarium Frisio-Hollandicmn, p. 61, Lugd. Bat., 1667. The 
account in Les Delices de la Hollande, p. 51. Amsterd., 1697, i2mo., is 
also similar. 

^Journal des Voyages de Monsieur de Monconys, Pte. ii., p. 151. Lyon, 
1666. 

'=> A treatise of Religion and Lear?iing and of religious and learned Men, 
p. 74. London, 1656, fol. Thoresby's account is similar, Diary i., p. 18. 



APPRECIATION OF THE MARVELLOUS I9I 

of Enkhuizen, Hegenitius mentions the stellio ^ or 
newt, which he describes as a fish not unHke a 
Hzard, and adds that although the skin, which it 
sheds once a year, is a sovereign remedy against 
epilepsy, it nevertheless deprives man of its use by 
swallowing it as soon as it is cast ; - and that hence 
the crime " stellionate " has its name.^ In short, the 
first requisite of a museum exhibit was that it should 
be something rare or costly,* which was apt to degene- 
rate into what was bizarre or outlandish. 

The more an explanation appealed to the mar- 
vellous, the more acceptable it was ; and the belief in 
the miraculous, which had characterized the ^liddle 
Ages, had not died out in the seventeenth century. 
"Piety," says Arnauld, the great Port Royalist, "does 
not oblioe a man of orood sense to believe all the 

o o 

miracles related in the Golden Legend, or in Simeon 
Metaphrastes, since these authors are full of so many 
fables that we have no ground to be assured of any- 

^ Hegenitius, Op. laud., p. 32. 

^All the newts treat their cast skin in this manner. See Alfred 
Brown in Lumsden and Brown, Natural History of Loch Lomond, 
p. 68. Glasgow, 1895, 8vo. 

3 There is a long and interesting note in Hoffmani Lexicon Universale, 
S.V., on the Stellio. See also Agncola, De ajiimafiiidus subterraneis 
with his De re Metallica, p. 487. Basil., 1657, fol. Theophrastus 
mentions that the skin of the newt icioXtiln-(]%) is good against epilepsy 
Frag. 175, Opera, p. 460, ed. Trimmer, Paris, 1866, 8vo. 

Stellionate in Roman law was applied to a crime which involved fraud 
and had no special name. Dig., 47. 20. See Pliny, Hist. Nat., 30, 27 (10). 

*Gundling, Historic der Gelahrheit, i., p. 589. Franckfurt, 1734-37, 
4to, 5 vol. At the same time, he says, the objects must not be trifling, 
like the Judas rope at Amras {supra, p. 87). 

A wonderful catalogue of wonders collected by Sachse von Lowen- 
heim is given by him in Major, Dissert alio Epistolica de Cancris, et 
Serpentibiis petrefactis, p. '^\sqq. Jenae, 1664, 8vo. 



192 THOMAS BARTHOLIN 

thing on their testimony alone. But I maintain that 
every man of good sense, though he has no piety, 
ouo-ht to receive as true the miracles which St. Aug-us- 
tine relates in his Coufess707is ^.nd in the City of God, as 
having happened before his eyes, or of which he testi- 
fies himself to have had most minute information from 
the persons themselves to whom these things had hap- 
pened."^ It was indeed no longer allowable to ascribe 
every extraordinary phenomenon to a miracle, but a firm 
belief in extraordinary and exceptional powers of nature 
was an easy means of explaining away every difficulty. 
Take the case of Thomas Bartholin, the elder, 
(i 6 1 9- 1 680) of Copenhagen. He was an excellent 
anatomist, author of a standard work upon the subject 
which was translated into English,"- travelled over 
the greater part of Europe, and corresponded with 
all the savants of the time. Yet notwithstanding 
his culture, learning, and experience, his range of 
view was very narrow. He was oppressed by the 
traditional science of the day, and found it im- 
possible to form an independent judgment upon the 
vast array of facts that came before him. He visited 
Malta in 1644, and seems to have found much that 
was interesting and instructive in the island, but 
he records only what is of the nature of the marvel- 

^The Port-Royal Logic by Baynes, Pt. iv., c. 14, p. 358. Edinburgh, 
1854, 8vo. 

- Bartholinus Atiatoiny . . . iti four books and four manuals . . . 
■biiblished by Nich. Odpeper and Abdiah Cole, Doctor of Physick. 
London, 1668, fol. 

Of Culpepper the Rev. John Ward records : " Nick Culpepper says that a 
physitian without astrologie is like a pudden without fat." Diary, p. 95. 
London, 1839, 8vo. 



i 



MARVELS OF MALTA 1 93 

lous and out of the way.^ The whole land, he 
says, produces plants that are antidotes against 
poison {liniversa terra alexipharmaca est), which is 
attributed to the blessing of St. Paul.^ Earth is dug 
from a grotto in which St. Paul spent a night, ^ and 
is used for the cure of many ailments, and yet, strange 
to say, although this has gone on for centuries the 
supply never diminishes.^ 

^His account is contained in a letter to Joseph Donzelli, Epistolae 
Medicinales, Cent, i., Epist. 53, p. 223, Hafniae, 1663, and again Hag. 
Com., 1740, i2mo. See also Hoffmann, Clavis pharmaceutical p. 130. 
Halae, 1675, 4^0- 

"According to popular belief the blessing of St. Patrick conferred 
similar qualities on the soil of Ireland. There are no serpents in 
Ireland, says Bartholomew de Glanville {De Proprietatibus rerum, lib. xv., 
c. 80), and the soil is such an antidote to poison that if carried elsewhere 
and scattered on the ground it kills snakes and toads. 

^ See Reiske, De glossopetris Luneburgensibus, p. 51. Norimb., 1687, 8vo. 
Caruana, Monografia critica della Grotta di San Paolo. Malta, 
1 896. 8vo. 

*This is also mentioned by Ray, Travels through the Low Countries, i., 
p. 262. The virtues of Malta earth were recommended in a printed sheet, 
distributed in the island, which is preserved by Ole Worm {Museum 
lVor7}iianuin, p. 7), to whom it was no doubt sent by Bartholin. It 
is also given in French and Latin by Reiske. Op. laud., p. 53; in German 
and Latin by Valentini, Museum Museorum, i., p. 66. 

There was a specimen in the Copenhagen Museum and another in 
the Royal Society's Museum. Nehemiah Grew refers to the Musaeum 
Calceo larii {Stci. 2, p. 130) for a description of its virtues, but seems him- 
self rather sceptical regarding them, J/usaeum Regalis Societatis, p. 347. 

It found a place, however, in the pharmacopeia of the day. See, for 
instance, Catalogus medicamentorum quae in officina Dietriciana sunt, 
p. 36 (xvii. cent.), MS. in the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg 
(Room 64). It was esteemed a cordial, a sudorific, and a certain remedy 
for the bites or stings of venomous animals of all kinds. 

In the eighteenth century it was sent from Malta made up in little 
cakes of the form of segments of a cylinder, stamped with the impression 
of a Cherubim's head and wings, and with the words Terra sigillata 
underneath. Hill, History of the Materia Medica, p. 206. 



194 FOSSIL MAN 

He has no doubts as to fossil man.^ After referring 
to the case of Lot's wife, as a crucial example, he goes 
on to relate that recently a city in Africa, near Tripoli, 
had been, by the judgment of God, turned into stone, 
and that a petrified boy had been sent from it to 
Cardinal Richelieu.^ As evidence of the truth of this 
story he adduces a piece of petrified wood which 
he saw in Abela's museum/ and which was said to have 
been brought from the same town. The story is a 
striking one, and evidently made a deep impression 

' Fossil man came into great prominence next century on the publication 
of Scheuchzer's Homo diluvii testis et Qeda-Kovos, Zurich, 1726, 4to. He 
maintained that a petrifaction found in the quarries at Oeningen, on the 
lake of Constance, was a petrified man who had been witness of the flood. 
Cuvier ultimately proved it to be a salamander. The object now is or 
was in the museum at Harlem. 

James Parkinson cites some wonderful stories of fossil men. Organu 
Remains of a Former World, i., p. 38. Briickmann mentions some 
examples {Epistolae Itinerariae, ii., 35 Cent, i.), but cautiously adds 
regarding one of them, " haec relatio magnam requirit fidem." In Epistola 
55, Cent, i., he relates the story of a monk who, having stolen a chalice 
and denied it upon oath, was turned into stone. 

-The story was again repeated in London in 1728. Kundmann, Rariora 
naturae et artis, p. 31, Breslau, 1737, fol. 

Another petrified child seems to have been one of the sights of Paris. 
See John Baptist van Helmont, De Lithiasi, p. 25, in his Opuscula medica. 
Col. Ag., 1644, i2mo. It was purchased by a merchant in Paris, carried 
to Venice, and sold there in 1653 to Frederick III., King of Denmark, 
and became one of the most noted objects in the Copenhagen Museum ; 
Jacobaeus, Museum Regium, Sect, i., No. 6, where it is figured; Valentini, 
Museum Museorum, i., pp. 417, 420. Dr. William Oliver was disappointed 
of seeing the carved cherry-stone, but he saw the stone child and an egg 
laid by a woman, the size of a hen's egg, and many other things equally 
strange. The Philosophical Transact iotrs, xxiii. (1703), p. 1401. 

Some other wonders of a similar kind are related in The Spottiswoode 
Miscellany, ii., p. 522. Edinburgh, 1845, 8vo. 

^ Montfaucon saw in the museum of Bernard Tarvisiano, at Venice, 
" a board petrify'd, with the knots in it, in such manner that it appears to 
the eye like wood, and is found to be stone by the touch." The Antiquities 
of Italy, translated by Henley, p. 55. London, 1725, fol. 



EXCEPTIONAL POWERS OF NATURE 1 95 

Upon him, as he refers to it in at least three of 
his published works ;^ but what surprises the modern 
reader is that a man of undoubted ability, and one 
able to form a sound judgment on all ordinary matters 
should have been so influenced by authority as to 
surrender his own powers of reasoning and observa- 
tion. The assumption that nature constantly operated 
in an exceptional manner and contrary to com- 
mon experience, and the desire to record instances, 
are probably the explanation. This tendency is 
apparent even in his professional papers. He is 
too fond of monsters and other things strange and 
unusual ; he believes in spells and charms,^ and pins 
his faith on peculiar remedies and, in the case of 
epilepsy, even upon amulets.^ 

But Bartholin was not singular in his attitude. 
His opinions were those of most of his contemporaries. 
Johann Daniel Major, to whom reference has fre- 

^Epistolae Medicinales, ut supra; De Unicornu, p. 371, Amstd., 1678, 
i2mo ; Historiaruni anatoniicaritin Rariora, Cent, ii.. Hist. 100, p. 319, 
Amstd., 1654. The account in the last is the most detailed. 

Bartholin's statement is quoted and relied on by Antonius Deusing in 
\{\% Hi storia foetus extra Uteriim geniti, p. 121. Groningae, 1661, i2mo. 
This work involved the author in a storm of controversy, carried on, like 
a Chinese duel, with the most provocative personalities. 

'' Historianmi atuito/nicariein Rariora^ Cent, iii., Hist. 71, p. 141. His 
use of a charm to cure epilepsy was adduced by Sir George Mackenzie, 
when defending a woman charged with the crime of witchcraft, because 
she had tied a paper with a few words upon it to the wrist of her patient, 
as showing that there was nothing objectionable in the practice. Plead- 
ings in some Remarkable Cases, p. 192. Edinburgh, 1673, 4to. 

* Historiarum anatomicarum Rariora, Cent, ii., Hist. 78, p. 278. He 
frequently reverts to the subject of epilepsy, e.g. Op. laud., pp. 301, 304. 

Robert Boyle was a firm believer in the virtues of amulets, and ex- 
plained their effect by asserting that they emitted effluvia which passed 
through the skin. Works, ii., p. 171 ; iv., pp. 767, 768. London, 1772, 4to. 



196 EXPLANATION OF PETRIFACTION 

quently been made, not only accepted the story of 
the city turned into stone, but explained how it 
came about. No petrifaction is possible without a 
certain predominant presence and activity of salt. 
Salt is the basis of all combinations and of all 
changes. If there be an excess of some pure, 
free, and volatile salt, which is impelled forcibly 
forwards, it fills up the pores of the first permeable 
body that it meets, unites with its volatile particles, 
and the spirits being dispersed, destroys the power of 
fermentation. Hence the earthy portion of the body 
being deprived of volatile salt congeals and hardens 
in virtue of the power of the fixed salts.^ Sachse 
von Lowenheim, commenting on this, mentions that 
during an earthquake in Austria, in 1348, fifty 
peasants who were milking cows were turned into 
statues of salt by the earthy spirit which was 
liberated by the violent commotion.^ 

Everything, it was held, might be changed into 
stone, ^ as, for instance, the head and legs, even the 
tongue and heart of man ; a hen hatching eggs ; a 
stag with a serpent in its stomach. These were 
mostly produced by what were known as stone-forming 
waters, the uSara XiOoyova of Gesner, which were to be 
found in all parts of the world.* One of these was the 

^ Disserta/io Episiolica de Cancris et Serpentibus petrefactis^ pp. 13, 22. 
Jenae, 1664, 8vo. Lot's wife was, he thinks, transformed in this manner, 
but the change was effected in a moment. 

* Major, Op. laud., p. 68. Conrad von Meidenberg, an eminent mathe- 
matician, states that he and the Chancellor of Austria saw the statues. 
Other similar cases are mentioned by J. B. Van Helmont, Op. laud.., p. 25, 

Kundmann, Op. laud.., p. 31 sqq..i treats fully of the subject, and relates 
many examples. ^ Supra, pp. 62, 72, no. 

*A long list is given by Sachse von Lowenheim in his Responsoria 



THE WHITE CAVE OF SLAINS 197 

water of the Rattray Cave, or White Cave of Slains, in 
Aberdeenshire, which had a European reputation, and 
is vouched for by Dr. Sylvester Rattray, a Glasgow 
physician.^ This water "doth in a short time congele 
into stone. . . . Here you would take notice of 
i a story which will convince you of the possibility of 
this. A Scottish Gentleman, having been in France 
and there acquainted with another of that country, 
who (it seemeth) was curious to know the various 
and (almost) miraculous operations of Nature, did 
inform him by writing concerning this well and its 
water. The Frenchman returned this answer, ' I am 
sorry, that you should think me such a fool as to 
believe such a paradox as this is, that water should, 
in a short time, be converted into stone.' Thereupon 
our countryman fearing least the other should think 
this a meer fiction, he took the pains to set a glass 
under the droping water, untill it became full, and 
then he sent the glass unto him, the water therein 
contained being converted into a stone. A very 
increnious argument for convincincr so confident a 
Gain-sayer."^ In course of time it was ascertained 
that the stone-forming power of such waters arose not 
from a creative spirit, but because they carried lime in 
solution. Sibbald understood this, and a specimen 
appeared in his museum as stalactite ; but alongside 

dissertatio de miranda lapidiiin natura with Majors Dissertatio Epistolica 
de Cancris et Serpentibus peirefactis^ p. 70 sqq. Jenae, 1664, 8vo. 

^Aditus novus adoccultas Sympathiae et Antipathiae causas inveniendas^ 
p. 52. Glasguae, 1658, i2mo. 

"Matthew MacKaile, The Oyly-Well ; or a topographico-spagyricall 
Description of the Oyly- Well at St. Cathrinis-chappel, in the paroch of 
Libberton^ p. 136. Edinburgh, 1664, i2mo. 



198 RARITIES SOUGHT AFTER BY TRAVELLERS 

of it he had "the yolk of a stone of the figure of an 
Holland cheese," "a white pebble resembling a Hen's 
^tog"' " "^ stone resembling a heart," another resem- 
bling a human foot, and another resembling the mould 
of a button. All these were placed under the head 
"Regular stones."^ So great was the belief in the 
creative power of the earth that some writers main- 
tained that the old urns found buried in the soil were 
products of nature.^ 

Rarities and freaks of nature and art engfagfed the 
attention of everyone. Amongst the things which 
Lord Bacon recommends the intelligent traveller 
to see, are " treasures of jewels and robes ; cabinets 
and rarities." Sir Andrew Balfour directs the Baron 
of Livingstone, when visiting the Abbey of St. 
Denis, " to take notice of Charles the Great's Crown, 
in which there is a Rubie of the Bigness of a 
Pidgeon's Egg ; A large Cup of oriental Aggat, 
which they count much of; One of the Nails 
that fixed our Saviour's Bodie to the Cross, sent 
to Charles the Great by Constantine V., Emper- 
our of Constantinople ; One of the Potts wherein 
our Saviour changed the water into wine at the 

"^ Auctarium Mtisaci Balfouriani, p. 55 sqq. 

' Hagendorn in Miscellanea Cnriosa, Ann. iii. (1672), Lipsiae, 168 1, 
4to ; Stieff, De Urnis iti Silesia . . . Epistola^ p. 15, Wratislav., 1704, 
4to, 5 plates ; Reusch, De Tiimulis et Urnis sepnlchralibus in Prussia, 
p. 45, Regismonti [1724], 4to ; Kundmann, Rariora naturae et artis, p. 31 
sqq., Klemm, Handbuch d. germ. Alterthumskunde, p. 188. 

The popular belief was that they were fashioned in the earth about 
Whitsuntide or St. John's day by pigmies, and they were in consequence 
known as Johannis-Topflein. It was thought that milk creamed better 
in them and that they produced better butter, and hence they were called 
Milch-Tdpfe. Many other virtues of a like kind were attributed to them 
Stieff, Op. laud., p. 15 ; Reusch, Op. laud., pp. 45, 47 ; Klemm, ut supra. 



THE GREEN VAULTS OF DRESDEN 1 99 

marriage of Cana in Galilee ; The Pucel of Orleans 
Sword, wherewith she overcame the English ; the 
Lantern that was carried before Judas, when He 
betrayed our Saviour ; and a thousand other things 
of great value. "^ The slippers of the Virgin Mary 
used to be one of the sights of Upsala;- part of her 
skirt; and another of the water pots of Cana are still to 
be seen in the treasury of the Abbey Church of the old 
town of Quedlinburg.^ 

The famous Green Vaults of Dresden — the Treasury 
of the Electors and Kings of Saxony — founded by 
the Elector Augustus in 1560, is a survival of the old 
type of museum, and possesses much of its original 
character and arrangement. The objects are still 
arranged according to their substance — bronze, silver, 

^Letters written to a Friend by the learned and judicious Sir Andrew 
Balfour, M.D., p. 14, Edinburgh, I7cx>, i2mo. Evelyn gives a similar 
list, Diary i., pp. 43-45, London, 1879 5 ^^^ adds a mirror that belonged 
to Virgil. See also Montfaucon, The Antiquities of Italy, p. 42. 

^Bremner, Excursions in Denmark, Norway, and Stueden, ii., p. 304, 
London, 1840, 8vo. 

'The water pot is an onyx vase about 18 inches in height, and was 
brought home from the East by the Empress Theophano (955-991), 
wife of the Emperor Otto IL, and presented to this church. It is 
figured and described by Briickmann, Epistola Itineraria 19, Cent. i. The 
Treasury also contains a number of relics of Mary Magdalene, St. Paul, 
and others. These e.xcited the curiosity of Bnickmann, who deals with 
them in the same Epistola and in the Supplement, pp. 11, 12. 

More than twenty of these Cana pots were to be seen in various 
European collections. There was one at Bologna. It is, says Montfaucon, 
" entirely like the funeral urns discovered lately by Cardinal Bouillon, 
Dean of the Sacred College, at the gates of Ostia. It is of marble, a 
foot high, grac'd on the outside with foliage." The Antiquities of Italy, 
translated by Henley, p. 284, London, 1725, fol. 

One of the nails that fastened our Saviour to the cross ; the knife He 
used at the Passover feast ; and the Virgin Mary's comb, are figured by 
Valentini, Museufn Museorum, ii.. Tab. xxxvii. 



200 CURIOSITIES IN THE ROYAL SOCIETY S MUSEUM 

gold, ivory, and so on — set out on valuable tables or on 
brackets placed on boards across the great mirrors 
which line the walls. There are no doubt many 
beautiful objects in the collection, but they are not 
brought together to illustrate beauty of design or of 
workmanship or the development of art. The ivory 
ship, the tower of Babel, the Court of the Great 
MoguV and other costly gimcracks, the objects in 
amber and rock crystal, mother of pearl, coral and 
ivory, are intended to exhibit the technical skill and 
patient labour of the craftsman and the wealth and 
magnificence of his patron, and to impress the 
imagination of the spectator with feelings of wonder 
and surprise. The collection as it stands, notwith- 
standing the costliness of its specimens, is of little 
educational or scientific value. 

The Tradescant Museum was "a collection of 
rarities." Oldenburg, writing on 3rd March, 166^, 
of a meeting of the Royal Society, says "there were 
also produced several curiosities to be lodged in our 
repository ; as a great bone petrified ; a whole egg 
in an egg ; a stone bottle which seven years ago 
was filled full with Malaga sack, and well stopped, 
but is now empty, though said never to have been 
opened, and the outside is all covered over with a 
thick mucous coat, having stood in a corner of a 
wine-celler all that time."^ Grew described the 
Museum as a collection "of Natural and Artificial 
Rarities." Addison, while insisting on the advantage 

' There is a series of articles on this object in Zeitschrift fur Museo- 
logie, vol. ii., pp. 99 sqq. Dresden, 1879, 4^°- 
^ Robert Boyle, Works, vi., p. 272. London, 1772, 4to. 



MONTFAUCON S TRAVELS 201 

to be gained by visiting a well arranged museum ot 
Roman antiquities, adds, " This would perhaps be 
much more useful to universities than those collections 
of whalebone and crocodile skins in which they com- 
monly abound."^ 

Even an antiquary of such eminence as Bernard 
de Montfaucon hardly rises above the feeling of 
interested curiosity, and his accounts of the various 
collections he visited in Italy are entirely wanting 
in grasp. "On the 6th of July [1698], we went 
to the Closet of the Renown'd Bidelli, well stor'd 
with Rarities, Antiquities and Coins. In the Series 
of Brass Medals of the largest and middle size 
are some that are very rare." "One day it was 
our amusement in the afternoon to view the Closet 
of Septala, where we observ'd in particular a certain 
King of France (they call him Charlemaign) cut 
in a Lapis Lazuli, bearing a scepter in one hand 
and a sword in the other, surrounded with flower-de- 
lys's. On another stone is Alexander the Great, with 
the Horns of Jupiter Ammon.""- The collection of 
Signer Rugini, of Venice, "abounded in things petri- 
fied, wallnuts, eggs in which y^ yealk rattl'd, a peare, 
a piece of beefe with y^ bones in it, an whole hedge- 
hog, a plaice on a wooden trencher turn'd into stone 
and very perfect, charcoale, a morsel of cork yet 
retaining its levitie, sponges and a piece of taffety 
part roll'd up, with innumerable more."^ 

^" Dialogues on Medals," Works, i., p. 347. London, 181 1, 8vo. 

^Montfaucon, T/te Antiquities of Italy, translated by Henley, pp. 16, 
17. London, 1725, fol. Supra, p. 87. 

'Evelyn, Diary, i., p. 257, London, 1879; see also De Montfaucon, 
Op. laud., p. 48. 



202 MUSEUMS AS COLLECTIONS OF CURIOSITIES 

Stone bread {Japides paniforntes), stone biscuits, 
cakes, pancakes (laganites), and stone cheese [tyro- 
7norphites) abounded in every museum^ ; and the 
most marvellous tales were related of them. Take 
but one instance. In 1316 a poor woman, with 
a numerous family, being distressed by hunger, ap- 
plied to a wealthy sister for bread to save the lives 
of herself and her perishing children. The sister 
answered that she had no bread in the house, and 
adjured God that if there was it might be turned 
into stone. To the horror of all the bread which she 
had beside her, and which she denied, immediately 
became stone. One of these loaves was for long pre- 
served in the Church of St. Peter in Leyden.^ 

In 1 79 1 the British Museum was described as "an 
Exhibition of a great variety of Antiquities and 
Natural Curiosities"; while Timbs in 1855 describes 
*' the leading curiosities of the several collections."^ In 
1847 Mr. Albert Way entitles the Catalogue which 
he prepared for the Society of Antiquaries, "Cata- 
logue of Antiquities, Coins, Pictures, and miscellaneous 
curiosities in the possession of the Society of Anti- 
quaries."^ At the beginning of the present century the 
leg bone of an elephant was exhibited and labelled in 

* Aldrovandi, Musaeum metallicum^ pp. 5 1 5, 869 ; Museutn IVormi- 
anum, p. 84 ; Sibbald, Auctarium Miisaei Balfouriani^ p. 55 ; Briick- 
mann, Epistolae Itincrariae, 11, 36, yj^ 66, Cent. i. ; Catalogue of all the 
chiefest Rarities . . . of the University of Leyden. 

2 Briickmann, Op. laud., Ep. 66, Cent. i. 

* Curiosities of London, p. 515. London, 1855, 8vo. 

* It is the accepted expression, and occurs in the Ashmolean Catalogue 
of 1836, by Phihp Bury Duncan, A Catalogue of the Ashmolean Museum 
descriptive of the Zoological Specimens, Antiquities, Coins, and Miscel- 
laneous Curiosities, Oxford, 1836, 8vo. 



FABRICATION OF CURIOSITIES 203 

the Ashmolean Museum as the thigh bone of a giant.^ 
Henry the Eighth's hawking glove; King Charles the 
First's spurs ; the hat he used at his execution ; Oliver 
Cromwell's skull, and many other curiosities of this 
description were to be found in it." The Scottish 
University Commissioners of 1826 reported, as re- 
gards the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, that the 
students were allowed to visit it only once a year, 
and " this visit is regarded rather as an oppor- 
tunity of witnessing an exhibition of curiosities than 
as an auxiliary study. "^ 

The craving for what w^as strange and uncommon 
led to the fabrication of curiosities. The basilisk was 
an animal not to be found in nature, but it was 
exhibited in museums. " The invention is prettily 
contriv'd and has deceiv'd many ; for they take a 
small Ray, and having turn'd it after a certain manner, 
and rais'd up the fins in the form of wings, they fit a 
little tongue to it, shap'd like a dart, and add claws 
and eyes of enamel, with other little knacks dexter- 
ously piec'd together; and this is the whole secrecy 

1 Parker, The Ashmolean Museum . . . A Lecture, 1^. 31. Oxford, 1870, 
8vo ; Llewellyn Jewett in The Art Journal, xi., N.S., 1872, p. 177. 

^Zedler (1739) particularizes Anne Boleyn's straw bonnet. Universal 
Lexicon, s.v. Museum Ashmoleanum, xxii., 1878 ; Wendeborn, Der 
Zustand des Staats, der Religion, der Gelehrsamkeit und der Kunst in 
Grosbritafinien, iv., p. 287, Berlin, 1788, 8vo ; Duncan, Catalogue, supra, 
pp. 140, 141. 

Evelyn mentions the rarities in the Anatomy school at Oxford in 1654. 
Diary, ii., p. 56. London, 1879. They are also described by Olaf 
Borrick in 1663, in Bartholin, Epistolae medicinales. Cent, iv., Epist. 92, 
p. 471. Hag. Com., 1740, i2mo. 

•* Report relative to the University of Glasgow, p. 77. This is not 
remedied yet. See Finlayson, Plea for a Reform of the University teach- 
ing in Scotland, p. 27. Glasgow, 1890. 



204 CURIOSITIES AS ATTRACTIONS 

of making basilisks,"^ There were many similar 
cheats." The object of showing such things was that 
they were expected and that the museum should not 
seem to be incomplete by their not being there. This 
is how IVIisson explains the presence of the unicorn's 
horn and of the Remora that stopped the galley of the 
unfortunate Antony, "another fabulous animal, which 
for all its fame may be plac'd in the ranks of unicorns."^ 
The presence of mere curiosities, even in the 
modern museum, has been defended by no less an 
authority than Mr. John Henry Parker, curator of 
the Ashmolean Museum: " I do not wish to exclude 
curiosities from it ; they attract people, and when they 
are brought hither by curiosity, they may stop to learn 
something better ; they may want to know something 
of the history of the curiosities they have come to see."^ 

^ Misson, A New Voyage to Italy, i., pp. 134, 135. London, 1699, 8vo. 

-Jacob Bobart, the botanist, transformed a dead rat into the feigned 
figure of a dragon, which imposed upon the learned so far that " several 
fine copies of verses were wrote on so rare a subject." Pulteney, Sketches 
of the History of Bo tatty, \., p. 313. 

In 1822 a mermaid valued at £1000 was brought to London, and was 
exhibited at the Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly. It was in reality the head and 
shoulders of a monkey neatly attached to a headless fish. A pretended mer- 
maid was also exhibited in London in 1775 ; and another in Broad Court, 
Covent Garden, in 1794. Timbs, Curiosities of London, p. 266. London, 
1855, 8vo. "A mermaid from Ceylon" was exhibited in 1835 i^^ the 
Caledonian Museum of Practical Science, Straiten House, Wemyss Place, 
Edinburgh. Catalogue of the Works of Art . . . also of the fohnston 
Gallery of Pictures . . . now deposited in the Caledonian Museum of 
Practical Science, Edinburgh, 1834, 8\-o. 

^The Chinese turn the Remora to account for taking the turtle. Bullen, 
Idylls of the Sea, p. 170, London, 1899, 8vo. 

* TJie Ashmolean Museum . . . the Additions tnade to it in the Season 
1870-1871, p. 4. Oxford, 1871. 



CHAPTER XV. 

ARRANGEMENT OF OLD MUSEUMS. 

The defects of the old museums were want of 
space, insufficient means of displaying the objects, 
and bad arrangement. There was no proper staff of 
attendants, so that the collections could neither be 
kept in good order nor made sufficiently accessible to 
students. The keepership of the Ashmolean Museum, 
for instance, was " a mean place." No salary was 
attached to it, and a scholar of the eminence of 
Edward Lhuyd had to depend for his subsistence 
on the fees paid by strangers for seeing the curiosities. 
The fee for visiting the Green Vaults at Dresden, in 
1730, was from four to six gulden, or about nine to 
fourteen shillings, the greater part of which went to 
the superintendent.^ There was thus a great tempta- 
tion to make museums attractive to the vulgar 
rather than useful to the learned. Visitors were 
often hurried through the rooms, and were some- 
times allowed to inspect part only of the collection. 
A traveller, says Montfaucon, can seldom make a 

^ Keysler, Reisen, p. 1299, Hannover, 175 1, 4to ; English translation, 
iv., p. 100, London, 1757, 4to. 

205 



206 LABELS IN OLD MUSEUMS 

just advantage of the Musaea or closets of rarities ; 
"for they that preserve them in custody are com- 
monly pall'd with a task they are oblig'd so often 
to repeat, and hurry it over too hastily for the 
conveniency of the observer."^ When he visited 
Bologna he was unable to see the Aldrovandi 
museum, because the keeper was absent;^ while in 
Keysler's time it was so carefully kept that it was 
never shown except in the presence of a senator.^ 

Then, as now, there were " eyes and no eyes " ; 
and the intelligent sight-seer was recommended in 
visiting a museum to have his magnifying glass and 
his note-book with him, that he might examine and 
record all that was most worthy of observation,^ 
advice which is equally pertinent at the present 
day. The virtue of labels had also been discovered. 
Everything in the Aldrovandi museum at Bologna 
was — at least in 1688 — described on a ticket attached 
to it ;^ and the same thing was done in the Plater 
museum at Basle in 1663.^ Exhibits were, however, 
often badly placed, and were nearly always arranged 
in relation to their accidental and not to their dis- 

1 The Antiquities of Italy, translated by Henley, p. xvii. London, 1725, 
fol. See also p. 32. Misson complains of the same thing, A Nczu Voyage 
to Italy, ii., p. 388. London, 1699, 8vo. 

^ Montfaucon, Op. laud., p. 285. 

^Reisen,\>. 950. Hannover, 175 1, 4to. 

*Zedler, " Universal Lexicon," s.v. Raritaten-Cabinet,Raritdten-Kani- 
mer, xxx. 890. 

^Misson, A Neto Voyage to Italy, ii., p. 197. London, 1699, 8vo. 

8 Ray, Travels through the Low Countries, i., p. 85. London, 1738, Svo, 

Friedrich Christian Lesser of Nordhausen followed the same practice 
Briickmann, Epistola Itineraria, 51, Cent. i. He was also careful to 
record the provefiance of every object. 



FANTASTIC ARRANGEMENT 20/ 

tinguishing features. Things were disposed accord- 
ing to size, like pipes in an organ ; and the two 
sides of a room had to balance, so that the most 
incongruous objects were often placed alongside of 
each other ; an armadillo beside an ostrich egg ; a 
cocoa nut beside a stone swan ; a bird of paradise 
beside a remora.^ Not that the matter of arrange- 
ment was not considered, for the space that a col- 
lection should occupy, the uses it should serve, and 
its proper disposition, the position and size of the 
rooms, and their decoration, were all questions 
discussed by the old writers upon museums ;^ but 
their ideas were too vague and ill-defined to lead 
to useful results, and they contented themselves with 
merely reciting what one collector or another had 
done. Happel considers the arrangement of the 
Electoral Museum at Dresden to be so perfect as to 
be in itself a memoria artificialis, but his own account 
shows how imperfect and confusing it was.^ It had, 
however, one department which might well have been 

^ Major, " Bedencken von Kunst-und Naturalien-Kammern," p. 17, in 
Valentini, Museum Museorum, vol. i. 

''Major, Op. laud.,^. 16; Moeller, Coinmentaiio de Tec/mopkysiotameis, 
p. 204 sqq.; Neickelius, Museogmphia^ p. 418 sqq.; David Hultman, 
InstrucHo Musei rerum Jiaturalium, a Thesis supported under the pre- 
sidency of Linnaeus at Upsala, 14th November, 1753, Upsala, 1753, 
4to ; and reprinted in Linnaeus, Amoenitates Acadetnicae, iii., p. 446. 
(Erlangen, 1767); Briickmann, Epistola liineraria, 51, Cent. i. 

^Happel, Relationes Curiosae, iii., p. 118. The accounts of this 
famous museum by Martin Zeiller {Handbuch von allerley nutzlichen 
Errinerungen,^. 475, Ulm, 1655, i2mo), by Dr. Edward Brown {Travels, 
p. 166, London, 1685, fol.), and in the official Catalogue of Tobias Beutel 
{Cedern-Wald, Dresden, 1671, 4to, and again 1683, 4to, Latin and 
German) are much more intelligible. In 1755 an official guide to 
the Natural History department was published, Kmser E?itzuurf der 



208 DISPLAY OF ANATOMICAL OBJECTS 

imitated elsewhere. This was a Cabinet d'tgnorance, 
in which were kept such products of nature as could 
not be named or classified, such as lapides polyniorphi 
and other petrifactions.^ 

The object in view was to create surprise rather 
than to afford instruction. For example, the anatomical 
collection at Dresden was arranged like a pleasure 
erarden. Skeletons were interwoven with branches 
of trees in the form of hedges so as to form vistas.^ 
Anatomical subjects were difficult to come by/ and, 
when they were got, the most was made of them. At 
Leyden they had the skeleton of an ass upon which 
sat a woman that killed her daughter ; the skeleton 
of a man, sitting upon an ox, executed for stealing 
cattle ; a young thief hanged, being the Bridegroom 
whose Bride stood under the gallows, very curiously set 
up in his ligaments by P. S. V. Wiel the Younger.* 
Even in Paris at the present day the skeleton of an 
assassin is exhibited in the museum of natural history.^ 

Kdniglichen Naturalien-Kammer 211 Dresden^ and also an authorized 
French translation. The arrangement in this guide is far from perfect, 
and some objects are placed in curious juxtaposition. 

The best of the older accounts of the various Dresden collections is 
that by Johann Georg Keysler in 1730. Reisen, p. 1299 sqq. Hannover, 
1 75 1, 4to. ^ Keysler, Op. laud., p. 1308. 

- Beutel, Cedern- Wald, ut supra. Neither edition is paged. This 
anatomical collection was transferred to the University of Wittenberg in 
1732, and a new one commenced at Dresden. Description du Cabinet 
Roial de Dresden, pp. 3, 34. Dresden, 1755, 4to. 

^ See William Hunter, Two Introductory Lectures . . . with papers 
relating to his phot for establishing a Museum iti London, p. 41. London 
1784, 4to. 

^ A Catalogue of the cheifest Rarities in the publick Tfieater and Ana- 
tomie Hall of the University of Leyden. Leyden, 1591 [but ?i69i] 4to. 
Supra, p. 29. The young thief was not in the edition of 1683. 



IN OLD MUSEUMS 209 

The great museum of Frederik Ruysch was set off 
with all the nicety and ornamental taste belonging" to 
his countrymen. Plants disposed in nosegays, and 
shells arranged in figures were mixed with skeletons 
of animals and anatomical preparations, and suitable 
inscriptions from the Latin poets were placed at proper 
intervals.'^ Levinus Vincent of the Haoue arranged 
his corals so as to represent shrubs and trees. ^ 

There is a print of 1610 of the Anatomical Hall 
and Library of the University of Leyden, but it is 
all library. The anatomical exhibits seem to be 
arranged round the walls, but they are not prominent 
in the picture. John Macky, writing in 1714 of the 
collection of the Royal Society, says, " The Repository 
of curiosities is a theatrical building resembling that 
of Leyden in Holland. . . . The rarities are put up 
into boxes as abroad ; and the beasts and birds hang-ino" 
round the room."* The Leyden Catalogue professes 
that the objects "are so set in order that all may 
easily be found in their Places." But some of the 
places were not very accessible. These were the 
Entrance Hall, the Anatomy Chamber, " about the 
circle of the theatre," "about the beams and walls 
of the theatre," in four presses, six cases and three 
cupboards. These cases, however, seem to have 

'The skeleton of the young Syrian who assassinated General Kl^ber. 
Guid^ des Etraiigers dans le Museum d'histoire ?7aturelle, p. 62. Paris, 1873. 

-See his Thesaurus Anirnalhun priinus, Kmstt\. 1710,410. 

' Elenehus iabularum . . . in Gazophylacio Levini Vincenti. Harlem, 
1 7 19, 4to (Latin and French). A series of plates showing the arrange- 
ment of this museum. A library of natural history was attached to it. 

^A Journey through England, pp. 260, 261, 2nd edition. London, 
1722, 8vo. As to this arrangement, see Major, Op. laud., p. 16. 

O 



2 10 FEATURES OF THE ENTRANCE HALL 

been olazed and the rooms were well lio-hted/ A 
print of the Royal Library and Museum at Vienna 
shows the walls are lined with drawers and numerous 
objects hanging from the roof or on the walls above 
the drawers.^ The principal part of the museum was 
contained in a long gallery in which were a double 
row of cabinets, twenty in number, joined by the back 
and sides and carried up to the roof, but with so 
little space round them that the visitor could hardly 
pass ; while " an infinite number of things were fast- 
ened to the ceiling and walls."^ 

The entrance hall, it was held, ought to present a 
striking appearance and be set out with crocodiles and 
tortoises, bears white and grizzly, sword-fish, whales, 
sharks, Egyptian mummies, and so on.^ Like the old 
apothecary's shop : — 

Here Mummies lay most reverently stale, 
And there the Tortoise hung her Coat o' Mail ; 
Not far from some huge Shark's devouring Head 
The Flying-Fish their finny Pinions spread. 
Aloft in rows large Poppy Heads were strung, 
And near a scaly Alligator hung. 
In this place, Drugs in musty heaps decay'd, 
In that dry Bladders and drawn Teeth were laid.^ 
Keysler complains of the ineffective arrangement of 
the Kircherian Museum ; and the list of curiosities 
which he gives shows that its method was very faulty.'' 

^ yionconys, /oitrtial des Voyages, Ft*, ii., p. 151. Lyon, 1666. 

- Valentini, Museum Museorum, ii., PI. 38. 

^ Misson, A New Voyage to Italy, i., pp. II2, 114. London, 1699, 8vo. 

* Major, Unvorgreijffliches Bedencken von Kunst- und Naturalien-Kam- 
iiiern, p. 16 in Valentini, Museum Museorutn, vol. i. 

^ Garth, The Dispensary, Canto ii., p. 17. London, 1726, 8\'o. Cf. 
" The Doctor," in T. E. Brown's " Fo'c's'le Yarns," Collected Poems, Lon- 
don, 1900, 8vo. There is a curious picture of a druggist's shop in 
Renodaeus, Institutioncs Pharmaceuticce. Paris, 1605, 4to. 

^ Keisen, p. 485. Hannover, 1751, 4to. 



INEFFECTIVE ARRANGEMENT 2 I I 

Antiquities and artificial rarities suffered most in the 
old museums. Of the great Medicean Museum at 
Florence Father Montfaucon says, in 1700, "In 
another room adjoyning" is amass'd a vast quantity of 
ancient vessels, the like number I never saw, but in 
no order because a proper place is providing to range 
them in. I cursorily took notice of two most ancient 
tripods, basons for sacrificing, and ladles, a measure 
call'd sextans^ and vessels for liquids, clasps or buckles, 
curry-combs, a kettle-drum, and much more of that 
sort."^ In the Gaddi Museum at Florence he found 
"many ancient sacrificing vessels, statues, seals, and 
other thinors of that sort. There is also a series of 
medals or coins, but in no order so that we could not 
examine them."^ 

It is obvious that to lump all archaeological objects 
in one division under the oreneral title "artificial 
curiosities" could convey no real idea of their nature, 
nor was the arrangement helped by subdividing them 
into articles of wood, of metal, of glass, and so on. 
Addison, when describing the Florentine Museum, 
says, " The next two chambers are made up of several 
artificial curiosities in ivory, amber, crystal, marble and 
precious stones, which all voyage writers are full 
of."^ Amongst them were the Venus de Medici and 
other pieces of sculpture. 

^ A century later things were little better. " The 
British Museum," says one who visited it in 1786, " con- 
tains many collections in natural history ; but, with the 

^ The A niiqiiiiies of Italy, irsinslBX&dhy Henley,p.255. London, 1725, fol. 

"^ Op. land., p. 256. 

^"Remarks on Italy," Works, ii., p. 161. London, 181 1, 8vo. 



212 KENT.MANN S METHOD 

exception of some fishes in a small apartment, which 
are begun to be classed, nothing is in order, every- 
thing is out of its place ; and this assemblage appears 
rather an immense magazine, in which things have 
been thrown at random, than a scientific collection, 
destined to instruct and honour a great nation."^ In 
addition, the museum was difficult of access."- 

When the objects were classified it was of course 
in accordance with the science of the day, so that 
classification represented, as it must necessarily do, 
the contemporaneous state of scientific opinion. 

Kentmann, following very much the system of 
classification proposed by Agricola, arranged his 
mineralogical collection in twenty-six divisions : 



I. 


Terrae. 


14. 


Aurum. 


2. 


Succi nativi. 


IS- 


Argentura. 


3- 


efflorescentes. 


16. 


Argentum vivum. 


4- 


pingues. 


17. 


Aes seu Cuprum. 


5- 


Lapides. 


18. 


Cadmia metallorum 


6. 


Lapides ab animantibus 




Plumbago. 




appellati. 


19. 


Pyrites. 


7- 


Fluores. 


20. 


Plumbum nigrum. 


8. 


Silices. 


21. 


cinereum. 


9- 


Gemmae. 


22. 


candidum 


lO. 


Marmora. 


23- 


Stibi. 


II. 


Saxa. 


24. 


Ferrum. 


12. 


Ligna in saxa corporata. 


25- 


Stomoma. 


13- 


Arenae. 


26. 


Marina varia. 



^ Saint Fond, Travels hi England, Scotland, a?id the Hebrides, i., p. 89. 
London, 1799, 8vo. He contrasts with the British Museum the better 
arrangement of the Edinburgh Museum. Supra, p. 157. 

- Peale, Discourse on the Science of Nature, p. 20. Philadelphia, 1800, 
8vo. 

A French traveller (Louis Simond), who visited the Museum in 
1810, says, "We had no time allowed to examine any thing; our con- 



MERC ATI S 213 

The first division "Earths" contains "earths" proper 
of fifty kinds, and eight other sub-divisions, clay, marl, 
stone marrow (medu/la), and so on, ending with vessels 
made from clay. The title "Stones" includes male 
loadstone {magnes) and female [theamedes), which repels 
instead of attracting iron, gypsum, asbestos, brontiae, 
cerauniae, and glossopetrae ; stones which take their 
names from animals or parts of animals, stones pro- 
duced from wood, stones that melt with heat. 

Mercati arranged his collection under ten heads : 
(i.) Earths; (ii.) Salts and nitres; (iii.) Clays; (iv.) Sued 
acres, which included copperas, misy,^ metallic ink 
{meianteria) ] (v.) Siicci pingues.XhdX is, sulphur, bitu- 
men, pit coal, and the like ; (vi.) Marine objects, such 
as alcyonium — the Halcyon stone, a stony concretion 
bred of the waves of the sea, from which the Halcyon 
was fabled to make its nest;^ true coral and sponge; 
(vii.) Earths like stones, sarcophagus,'^ calamine, 
manganese, and others ; (viii.) Stones engendered in 

ductor pushed on without minding questions, or unable to answer them, 
but treating the company with double ciitcndres and witticisms on various 
subjects of natural history, in a style of vulgarity and impudence which I 
should not have expected to have met in this place, and in this country." 
Jour?ial of a Tour imd Residence in Great Britain during the Years 1 8 1 
and 181 1, i., p. 84. Edinburgh, 181 5, 8vo. 

' i.e. green vitriol. See Lesser, Epistola de praecipids Naturae et Artis 
curiosis speciniinibus Musei vel potius P hysiotechnotamei . . . Friderici 
Hofffuanfii, p. 7. Nordhausae, 1736, 4to. Hoffmann (1660-1742) was a 
physician and professor of medicine at Halle, and a F.R.S. 

'^ Pliny, Historia Naturalis, xxxii., 28. 

' Sarcophagus, or the stone of Assos, is described by Pliny, Historia 
Naturalis, xxxvi., 27. According to De Boodt {Gonmarum et lapidum 
Historia, p. 405) there seem to be included under the term sarcophagus 
stones of a light and spongy character which contain alum, nitre and 
salt. See Aldrovandi, Musaeuni metallicum, p. 692. 



214 BRACKENHOFFER S MUSEUM 

animals, bezoar, stag's tears, toad-stone, pearls ; (ix.) 
Lapides ISiojixopcpoi ; (x.) Marbles. 

Elias BrackenhofFer, of Strasburg, followed the four- 
fold division of Fossil, Vegetable, Animal, and Artificial 
objects, and all the specimens in his great collection 
found their place under one or other of these heads. 
Fossils included stones, mineralia media, and metals. 
The subdivisions of stones show the uncritical charac- 
ter of the mineralogy of the time. These were, Lapides 
majores molles ; stones taken from animals ; meteoric 
stones, including ceratmiae and bronteae ; Lapides fossiles 
minor es ; Silices minores ; various stones ; petrifactions, 
amongst which were petrified wood, the petrified molar 
of an elephant, the stone horn of a cow, an ox tongue 
petrified, petrified earth showing the mark of a horse's 
shoe ; gems and precious stones, including lapis lazuli, 
and many others ; and corals. The mineralia media 
included earths and sulphurs. Amongst Animals a 
crocodile was to be found, as also parts of animals, 
and zoophytes. Vegetables stood by themselves. The 
primary division of Artifical objects was into those of 
wood, of glass, or of ivory. Other artificial objects 
were pictures, gold and silver work, works of art in 
marble, wax, and other materials ; antiquities and 
coins.^ 

Ole Worm divided his museum into two sections : — 
Natural Objects and Artificial Objects ; the former 

^ Mtisaeuni Brackenhofferianmn, Strasburg, 1683, 8vo. 

There was also another catalogue of this Museum, by Johann 
Joachim Bockenhoffer, Musaeum Brackenhofferia?ium. Strasburg, 1677, 
4to, pp. 52. Reprinted in Valentini, Miiseiiin Muscorum, ii., Appendix 
XX., pp. 69-81. Franckfurt-a-M. 17 14, fol. 



WORMS MUSEUM 21 5 

being subdivided into Fossils, Plants, and Animals. 
Artificial Rarities were classed according to the sub- 
stance of which they were made. The subdivisions of 
fossils were similar to those of Kentmann, but Worm's 
descriptions are fuller and more exact. The section 
relating to the animal world included, what would now 
be treated as, anthropological specimens.^ The section 
" Artificial Rarities " deals with coins and with vessels, 
utensils, tools, weapons and other articles of clay, 
amber, stone, gold, silver, bronze, iron, glass, and 
wood. The tabular synopsis of the contents of Worm's 
museum, by Seger," gives at a glance a view of the 
whole arrangement and of the system of classification 
of the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdom then 
in use. 

A view of the interior of the Museum is prefixed to 
the Museum Wonnianmn which gives a very good 
idea of the appearance and arrangement of a seven- 
teenth century museum, ^n the floor and on two 
shelves above it were boxes and trays containing the 
smaller objects, beginning with earths and salts, and 
proceeding in order through the mineral, vegetable and 
animal kingdoms, till they ended with parts of animals. 
Interspersed amongst the trays or hung from the 
shelves were various freaks and oddities. On a shelf 
over these there was a miscellaneous assemblage of 
statuary, antiquities, birds, fish, bones, coral and petri- 
factions. The upper parts of the walls were covered 
with tortoises, crocodiles, and lizards, skeletons, spears, 

^ Afuseuin IVoriinafiuin, p. 344. Lugd. Bat., 1655, fol. 
^ Synopsis niethodica rarioriini . . . in Mtisaeo . . . Ohn Wormii. 
Hafniae, 1653 and 1658, 4to. 



2l6 COPENHAGEN MUSEUM 

lances, and arrows, paddles and costumes from Green- 
land. Between the windows hung horns, antlers and 
heads of deer and other animals : underneath on the 
floor lay vertebrae of a whale. From the roof were 
suspended a great polar bear, a shark and other fish, 
various birds, and an Esquimaux Kayak. 

The Copenhagen Museum as arranged by Holger 
Jacobaeus was divided into two parts. The first part 
had seven sections : (i.) Man — commencing with an 
Egyptian mummy ^ and what was called a Danish 
mummy- — and other animals, quadrupeds ; (ii.) birds ; 
(iii.) fish; (iv.) shells; (v.) reptiles and insects; (vi.) 
plants; (vii.) metals, minerals, stones, and earths. In 
the second part there were five sections : (i.) Artificial 
objects of metal, wood, bone, horn, and amber — 
amongst which was the ivory ship [navis bellica ex 
ebore) which had attracted the attention of the Earl 
of Carlisle's secretary'- ; (ii.) weapons, clothes, imple- 
ments and utensils from India, China, and elsewhere; 
(iii.) antiquities ; (iv.) scientific and mechanical 
apparatus — amongst which is included a magic 
Lantern ; and (v.) coins, medals, and seals. 
^ Nehemiah Grew, in his Catalogue of the Royal 
Society's Museum, followed the same general classifi- 
cation as Worm, but arranged the classes in a different 
order, Animals, Plants, Minerals, and Artificial Curi- 
osities. He places " Humane Rarities " at the head of 
the division "Animals," beginning with an Egyptian 
mummy; and then proceeds to others "according to 

^ This was a favourite arrangement. It was adopted by Legati in his 
account of the Cospi Museum. Museo Cospia?io, p. i. Bologna, 1677, fol. 
^i.e. a desiccated body. Bartholin wrote considerably on this subject. 



GREW AND SIBBALD 217 

the degrees of their approximation to human shape and 
with one another "; a classification which is approved 
of in Zedler's Lexicon} He finds fauh with Aldro- 
vandi who commenced with the horse because of its 
use to man. His whole volume is full of curious in- 
formation. Rings made of the teeth of the hippo- 
potamus are believed to be very effectual against the 
cramp. In Scandinavia the otter is tamed and "will 
bring the fishes into the very kitchen to the cook." 
" The squirrel, when he hath a mind to cross any water 
for a good nut-tree, picks out and sits on some light 
piece of barque for a boat, and erecting his tail for sail 
he makes his voyage." 

Sir Robert Sibbald adopted the old fourfold arrange- 
ment of Fossil, Vegetable, and Animal substances, and 
Artificial rarities, "Fossils" are divided into Minerals 
{media mineralia), Stones, and Metals. " Minerals " 
include earths, salts, sulphur, and bituminous sub- 
stances, amongst which he reckons petroleum,- asphalt 
{pissaphalhiin), jet, cannel coal or bastard jet, as well 
as mummy, amber/ and ambergris. " Stones " 

^Zedler, " Universal Lexicon," s.v. Naturalien-Cabiiiet. 

' Sibbald's specimen of petroleum was " the oyl found floating in Saint 
Catherine's Well, near the Church of Liberton " {supra, p. 197, n. 2). 
His asphalt was found in a stone quarry belonging to the laird of 
Roughsols, now Rochsoles, and was presented to him by Alexander 
Monteith, Deacon of the Surgeons of Edinburgh. Auctarium Musaei 
Balfoiiriani, pp. 31, 32. 

^ Amber was for a long time classed with the bitumens. Zacharia- 
Pillingen, Bitujnen et lignum fossile Mtumittosum, pp. 32, 40. Altenb., 
1674, 8vo ; Parkinson, Organic remains of a former World, i., p. 224. 

Bog butter was known as " mineral tallow," was also treated as a bitu- 
men, although it was questioned whether it might not be of animal origin. 
Parkinson, Op. laud., i., p. 214 sqq. ; Jameson, Mineralogy of the Scottish 
Isles, ii., p. 129. Edinburgh, 1800, 4to. 



2l8 CLAUDE DU MOLINET 

include slate, flint, marble, alabaster, loadstone, crystals 
and gems, pearls, corals, and petrifactions. Amongst 
human rarities he includes, "a piece of human skull, 
that was never buried, with a moss growing upon 
it, commended for peculiar virtues in medicine."^ 
Artificial curiosities embrace various philosophical 
instruments; and such things as "cochleare Hirtense 
a spoon of an odd shape made in Hirta of the horn 
of one of their sheep " ; nine portraits ; Slezer s 
views ; and drawings of many antiquities ; maps ; 
inscribed stones from the Roman wall, coins, books, 
and manuscripts. 

The arrangement of the Cabinet de la Bibliotheque 
de Sainte Genevieve, adopted by Father Claude du 
Molinet (1620-1687)," was much more orderly, and 
has been commended as a model. ^ The collection 
was divided into two main sections, Antiquities and 
Natural History. In the first came Antiquities (a) 
relating to the Christian religion, (d) to the religion 
of the Egyptians and Romans, and (c) to the rites 
of burial, (d) Roman weights and measures. Then 
followed coins and medals, arranged according to 
countries and periods, and engraved gems and talis- 
mans in stone and metal, and lamps. The Natural 
History section was divided into birds, animals, fish, 
fruits and plants, shells, stones and minerals. 

' Siip7'a, p. 56. 

-Paris, 1692, fol. See also Lister, A Journey to Paris in i68g^ p. loo. 
London, 1823, 8vo ; p. 115, Paris, 1887, 8vo. 

Northleigh mentions that Father Molinet had " a curious collection 
of Rarities of his own." 

"^Encyclopedic incthodiqtie j A?itiquities^ T. i., p. 549, s. v. Cabinet. 
Paris, 1786, 4to. 



VON MELLE AND BAIER 219 

Jakob von Melle {1659- 1743), pastor at Lubeck, 
otnni nostra laiide viajor,^ arranged his extensive 
museum on a scheme similar to that of Sibbald. 
There were two main divisions, Natural and Artificial. 
The former comprehended Fossils, Vegetables, and 
Animals, at the end of which he places homo sapiens. 
Artificial curiosities he sub-divided into ei^ht classes : 
(i.) Things pertaining to religion and superstition ; (ii.) 
coins ; (iii.) engraved gems ; (iv.) sepulchral urns 
and the like; (v.) arms and utensils; (vi.) costume 
and personal ornaments ; (vii.) books, charters, and 
manuscripts ; (viii.) miscellaneous, - 

Professor Baier of Altdorf (1677- 1735) arranged 
his natural collection, or Physiotameion, in seven over- 
lapping divisions (i.) minerals and metals ; (ii.) earths 
and stones ; (iii.) figured stones, which he regards as 
liiS2is natnrae^ but which evidently took shape largely 
according to the observer's imagination ; (iv.) petri- 
fications, animal and vegetable ; (v.) petrified shells ; 
{y\.) exangtiia, shell fish, sea urchins, etc.; (vii.) litho- 
phytes, corals and the like. He had also a collection 
of Artificial objects, including antiquities, gems and 
coins and works in marble, wood and amber. ^ 

Friedrich Christian Lesser (1692- 1754), a Lutheran 

^ Briickmann, Epistola itineraria, 31, Cent. i. 

'''Festschrift zur xxviii. Versamvilung dcr deiitschen anthropologischen 
Gesellschaft. Lubeck, August, 1897, p. 16. A contemporary collection at 
Lubeck was that of Hermann Eeckhoff, which was sold by auction in 
1732. Musetan Eeckhoffianum, Lub., 1732, 8vo. 

^ Sciagraphia musei siii. Norimb., 1730, 4to, three plates {supra, p. 117). 

Amongst the friends to whom he was indebted for specimens were (pp. 
20, 21) John Woodward, F.R.S., Johann Georg Kesner of Frankfurt 
{supra, p. 146), Johann Craft Hiegel {supra, p. 23), and Jacob von Melle. 



2 20 LESSER 

clergyman of Nordhausen and a well-known natu- 
ralist and museographer, took the Mosaic account 
of the creation as the basis for arranging the con- 
tents of his museum/ He accordingly placed 
the mineral kingdom first, then the vegetable, and 
next the animal ; and, in each division, the more 
perfect object followed the less perfect. In the 
first division he began with casts, followed by salts, 
sulphur, stones and metals. Amongst vegetables, 
funguses were placed first, then came mosses, plants 
aquatic and terrestrial and parts of plants, the roots, 
wood, bark, sap, leaves, fruit and seeds. In the 
animal kingdom he put insects first, then soft-shelled 
and hard-shelled animals, creeping things, fish, birds, 
animals void of reason, and lastly reasoning man. 
Artificial objects were arranged in the same order, that 
is, according as the substance from which they were 
formed belonoed to the mineral, the vegfetable, or the 
animal kingdom. Paper and books thus fell into the 
division of artificial objects made from vegetable sub- 
stances.^ Lesser held views similar to those of 

' It was visited and described by Briickmann, Epistolae Itinerariae, 50, 
51, Cent. i. ; 33 Cent. ii. 

^ He gave a detailed account of the museum (Naturalien-und-Kunst- 
cabinet), the size and disposition of the cabinets and cases, the labelling 
and arranging of the objects, and his system of classification in the 
Hainburgischcs Magaziii^ iii. (1748), p. 549 sqq. This is followed, p. 559 
sqq., by an account of the Naturalien-Cabinet of Professor Carl Clusius 
of Leyden. See also Briickmann, Op. laud. 

Lesser had previously described the collection of Friedrich Hoffmann 
(1660-1742), professor of medicine at Halle and F.R.S. Epistola de 
praecipius naturae et arils curlosls speclnilnlbus Miisei vel poll us Physlo- 
technotainel . . . Friderlcl Hoffmann. Nordhusae, 1736, 4to. Supra 
PP- 35. 213. 



THORESBV AND KOEHLER 22 1 

Derham in reference to the works of creation, as 
evidence of the beino- and attributes of God, and 
advocated them in a series of works.^ 
-- Thoresby, like Grew, set out with human rarities, 
and includes "a pugill of the dust (unmix'd with earth) 
of a noble Countess, not easily distinguish'd from com- 
mon dust and ashes," and the hand and arm of the 
great Montrose. The division "Artificial Curiosities" 
is subdivided into a great number of heads which, 
although not altogether logical, made it comparatively 
easy to trace a particular object.^ 

Johann David Koehler (1684-1755), historian and 
numismatist, and the editor of Moeller's book on 
museums, prepared a Travellers' Guide to libraries, 
coin-cabinets {innnophylacia), picture-galleries i^pinac- 
othecae), museums of antiquities {inusea antiquarid), 
of natural history [gazopkylacia naturae), and of 
artificial curiosities, or industrial art {rerzwi ai^tijicium 
thesauri\ which was published after his death in 
1762, and again in 1788 and i8io.'^ His views 

^ Lithotheologia, Nord., 1732, 8vo ; Hamb., 1735 ^"^^ I75i- I" French, 
La Haye, 1742, 8vo : Insecto-Theologia, Franckf., 1738, 8vo, and later 
editions. Originally published in 1735 under a different title. In French, 
La Haye, 1742, 8vo ; Italian, Venezia, 1751, 8vo ; English, Edinburgh, 
1799, 8vo ; Testaceo-Theologia, Leipzig, 1744, 8vo, which passed through 
several editions, and was also translated into French. 

■■^"A Catalogue and Description of the Rarities in this Museum," p. 36 
sqq., in Ducat us Leodicnsis, vol. ii., 18 16, fol. 

"^ Aiiii'eisung fiir Reisende gelc/tric, Bidlioi/ieken, Miinzkabinette, . . . 
Naturalien- tind Ku7istknmi)icr7i init Nutzen zu besehen. Leipzig, 1762, 
8vo. Magdeb., 1788 and 1810, 8vo. 

There was an earlier work of the same kind by Johann Reiske, 
Dissertatio qua pinacoihecas, ciineliothecas, et societates doctoruin ifi 
Europa praecipuas breviter explicare .... voluit. Guelferb., 1685, 4to. 



222 KOEHLERS CLASSIFICATION 

as to the scope and object of a museum were definite 
and decided. 

A museum of antiquities, he holds, consists of three 
parts ; statues, inscriptions, and vessels or utensils {in- 
st7'u)nenta\ sacred, military and domestic— of metal or 
clay. Cabinets of natural history are to be regarded 
as the treasure-house of God ; and embrace objects 
from the animal, the vegetable, and the mineral 
kingdoms. He places man at the head of the animals, 
and begins the list with mummies — Egyptian and 
others, including desiccated bodies — foetuses, monsters, 
skeletons, giants' bones, — which he points out are 
really bones of beasts, — and calculi. Then follow 
in order quadrupeds, reptiles, birds, insects, fish, 
and shells. Herbariums are included amongst exhibits 
of the vegetable kingdom, but he explains that 
botanical specimens generally form special collections. 
The mineral kinofdom is divided into metals, semi- 
metals, inflammable matter, salts and stones. The 
metals he takes in detail. Inflammable matter in- 
cludes sulphur, bitumen, pit-coal — the best of which, he 
says, is found in Scotland.^ Salts include vitriol and 
alum. The earths he enumerates in order. Stones 
he classifies as common and precious. Alternatively 
they may be arranged according to some special 
quality, e.g. porosity or sweet scent. ^ Amongst the 
more remarkable common stones are marble, por- 
phyry, and alabaster. He then takes up precious 
stones, beginninor with the as^ate and endingr with 
the diamond, the king of gems. Then follow the 
figured stones [gebildete Steine, lapides Jigurati, lapides 

'Ed. 1762, p. 234. '-^Cf. supra, p. 159. 



INDUSTRIAL ART 223 

petrifacti). He mentions that two opinions had 
been advanced as to their origin ; the one that 
they were due to diluvial forces, the other that they 
were produced by the plastic power of nature. Of 
fiofured stones belonoino- to the animal kingfdom he 
deals first with man. As yet, that is in 1755, he 
says, no part of a human body has been found 
petrified, although in mines bodies have been met 
with encrusted in stone.^ He next takes up figured 
stones of quadrupeds, birds, and fish, glossopetrae 
and shells ; then those of the vegetable kingdom, 
wood, fruit, and leaves. 

A museum of Industrial Art iyKimst-Kannnci^) he 
defines'- as a collection of objects which man has 
produced by untiring industry and the imitation of 
nature, and consists of objects which indicate great 
intelligence and industry. Art and nature must be 
distinguished. 

Linnaeus has remarked that those who visit 
museums of natural productions, generally pass them 
over with a careless eye, and immediately take the 
liberty of expressing a dogmatic opinion upon their 
merits. "The indefatigable collectors of such objects," 
he adds, " sometimes have the fate of beingf reckoned 
monsters ; many people wonder at their great but 
useless labours, and those who judge most tenderly, 
exclaim that such things serve to amuse persons 
of great leisure, but are of no real service to the 

^ Ed. 1762, p. 251. As to such bodies see Mercati, Metallotheca^ pp. 6, 
227, note by Lancisi, 

2 Ed. 1762, p. 256, In the ed. of i8ro, p. 832 technotheca or techno- 
thylacium is given as an equivalent. 



224 VIEWS OF LINNAEUS 

community." To correct such views he proceeds 
to examine the design and end of such collections.^ 
The globe, he says, may be regarded as a museum 
furnished with the works of the Supreme Creator, 
disposed in three grand classes, fossils, vegetables, 
and animals. The world is destined to the celebration 
of the Creator's glory, and man has been placed 
in it as the herald and interpreter of the wisdom 
of God. Hence a collection of natural productions 
is, as it were, an offering from all the inhabitants 
of the earth, in which the spectator may behold 
the works of creation and the Divine order of the 
universe. "He who views only the produce of his 
own country may be said to inhabit a single world ; 
while those who see and consider the productions of 
other climes bring many worlds in review before 
them. We are but on the borderland of knowledge ; 
much remains hidden, reserved for far-off generations, 
who will prosecute the examination of their Creator's 
works in remote countries, and make many discoveries 
for the pleasure and convenience of life. Posterity 
will see its increasing museums and the knowledge 
of divine wisdom flourish together ; and at the same 
time antiquities and history, the natural sciences, 
the practical sciences of the manual arts will be 
enriched." 

King Adolf Friedrich of Sweden (b. 1710, d. 1771) 
formed a museum in the palace of Ulricsdahl, and 

' Museum Adolphi Friderici Regis, Swedish and Latin, 33 plates, 
Hobiiiae, 1754, fol. Preface. 

The Preface was translated by James Edward Smith under the title. 
Reflections on the Study of Nature, London, 1785, 8vo, reprinted in his 
Tracts, London, 1798, 8vo. It was his first publication. 



MUSEUMS ARRANGED BY LINNAEUS 22 5 

Queen Louisa Ulrique (b. 1720, d. 1782, sister of 
Friedrich the Great) had another at Drottningholm, 
which were arranged by Linnaeus according to his 
own system. The king's collection consisted mainly 
of quadrupeds, birds, insects, and shells, with a 
valuable herbarium ; the queen's of insects, shells, 
corals, and crystals.^ 

In a thesis propounded by David Hultman. a 
pupil of Linnaeus, at Upsala in 1753, similar views 
are expressed ;"" and reference is made to the museums 
of the king and queen, of Count Tessin (1695-1771),^ 
and of the University of Upsala'* as examples of 
well-ordered collections. The museum building, 
he states, should be of brick, longer than it is broad, 
with windows facing the north. He gives practical 
directions as to the best methods of preparing, 
preserving, protecting, and setting out the specimens, 
many of which are still of value and are interesting 
as no doubt embodying the methods of Linnaeus.^ 

^ Musemn Ludovicae Ulricae Reginae, Holmiae, 1764, 8vo. To this is 
added a Supplement to the king's collection in which various animals 
acquired since the date of the earlier catalogue are described. 

"^ Instructio Musei rerum natura/iuiu, in Linnaei, Ainoenitates 
Academicae, vol. iii., p. 446, Erlangae, 1787, Svo. 

^Museum Tessimanu7n, Holmiae, 1753, fol. Edited by Linnaeus. 
Latin and Swedish, with 12 plates. 

^As to the Upsala Museum see Thunberg, Museum naturaliutn 
Academiae Upsaliensis, Upsaliae, 1787-98, 4to, 2 vols.; Peale, Discourse 
on the Science of Nature^ p. 23. Philadelphia, 1800, 8vo. 

^The library, herbarium, and museum of Linnaeus were purchased in 
1784 for a thousand guineas by James, afterwards Sir James, Edward 
Smith, and after his death were presented to the Linnaean Society of 
London, Gentleman^ s Magazine, liv. (1784), pp. 393, 488, 869 ; Lady Smith, 
Memoir and Correspondence of the late Sir fames Edward Smith., 
London, 1832, Svo. 

P 



2 26 SCHEME OF ARRANGEMENT 

Lonor and minute directions are s^iven in the 
Encyclopaedia Pertheiisis^ for the formation of a 
museum of Natural History, the construction and 
furnishinor of the buildino- and the arrangement of 
the contents. The windows ought to be placed in 
the two longest sides of the building, that it may 
be equally lighted during the whole day. On one 
wing must be placed eleven presses with shelves, 
supported on wooden brackets. These presses were 
intended to contain the eleven classes of the mineral 
kingdom, viz., i. Waters. 2. Earths. 3. Sands. 4. 
Stones. 5. Salts. 6. Pyrites. 7. Semi-metals. 8. Metals. 
9. Bitumens and sulphurs. 10. Volcanic productions. 
II. Petrifactions, fossils, and lusus naturae. On the 
second wing of the cabinet ten presses were to be 
placed for specimens from the vegetable kingdom, i. 
Roots. 2. Barks. 3. Woods and stalks. 4. Leaves. 5. 
Flowers. 6. Fossils and seeds. 7. Parasite plants, 
agarics and mushrooms. 8. The juices of vegetables ; 
as balsams and solid resins, resinous gums and gums 
properly so called. 9. Extracted juices, sugars, and 
dregs. 10. Marine plants, and plants growing on the 
shores of the sea. The third wino- was also to have 
three presses for objects from the animal kingdom. 
I. Lithophytes. 2. Zoophytes. 3. Testaceous animals. 
4. Crustaceous animals. 5. Insects. 6. Fishes. 7. Am- 
phibious animals, reptiles, and oviparous quadrupeds. 
8. Birds w4th their nests and eggs. 9. Viviparous 
quadrupeds. 10. Man. Like the older museums the 
last-mentioned section was to include embryos and 
monsters, an Egyptian mummy, and stony concretions. 

^Vol. XV., pp. 593-597. Edinburgh, 1816, 8vo, second edition. 



IN "ENCYCLOPAEDIA PERTHENSIS 2 2/ 

The so-called decoration of a cabinet was still deemed 
a matter of importance. " For this purpose the tops 
of the presses are commonly ornamented with shells 
of a very great size, foreign wasps' hives, the horn 
of a rhinoceros, an elephant's trunk, the horn of an 
unicorn, urns and busts of alabaster, jasper, marble, 
porphyry, or serpentine stone. Here likewise are 
placed figures of antique bronze, large lithophytes, 
animals made of shells, bouquets made of the wings 
of Scarabaeus, gourds cut into two, painted and made 
into bowls, plates, vases, etc., as they are used by 
savages ; little trunks of bark, books made of the 
leaves of the palm tree, globes, spheres, etc. The 
floor of the cabinet may likewise be paved with 
different kinds of common stones, which are susceptible 
of a polish." The ceiling was to be painted white, 
divided into three spaces and furnished with hooks 
and brass wires on which were to be hung all sorts of 
things, sugar canes, palm leaves, knotted sticks, stuffed 
animals, lizards, crocodiles, caimans, sharks and sword 
fish, large serpents, deer and other horns ; Indian 
and Chinese dresses, arms, weapons, and utensils ; 
" in short, various curiosities from nations ancient 
and modern, if they can be found ; and various 
furniture and utensils of different nations ancient 
and modern." The piers of the windows were to 
be furnished with presses to hold mathematical and 
philosophical instruments. " On the semi-circular 
shelves below are placed stones formerly used by 
savages for hatchets, some curious pieces of lacker- 
work, Indian pagodas, trinkets belonging to the 
savages of the north and to the Chinese, which are 



2 28 SURVIVAL OF OLD VIEWS 

made of ivory or yellow amber, or of coral mounted 
with gold, silver, porcelain-clay, kriacks of Siam, 
and Turkish cangiars, which are a kind of pogniards, 
Indian curiosities of silver, and the galians which 
the Turks and Persians use in smoking tobacco and 
aloes. The drawers under the press contain a collec- 
tion of medals, china-ink, lachrymatory phials, and 
the most beautiful engraved stones of Europe, or an 
impression of them in wax or sulphur, counters, 
cameos, antiques, talismans, ancient weights and 
measures, idols, urns, lamps, instruments of sacrifice 
and false jewels." 

This idea of a museum was, thus, in 1816 practically 
what it had been two centuries earlier, a collection 

Of unicorns and alligators, 

Elks, mermaids, mummies, witches, satyrs, 

And twenty other stranger matters.^ 

The subdivisions of the three kingdoms of nature 
are different, but otherwise the museum was set out 
as in the days of Aldrovandi or Worm. The only 
modern idea is that the museum should contain a 
library, that the rarer objects should be figured and 
the drawings placed on the wall, and that there 
should be a section of comparative osteology, including 
those animals which most nearly approach to man.2 

In 1823 Mr. John Shute Duncan was appointed 
Curator of the Ashmolean Museum. Finding that 
it was in a very neglected state he applied for and 

* Prior, Epistle to Fleetwood Shepherd^ Esq. 

2 The directions in the Encyclopaedia Perthensis are, however, trans- 
lated without acknowledgment from Valmont de Bomare's Dictionnaire 
d'Histoire naiurelle, iv., p. 384, Paris, 1775, 8vo ; iv., p. 128, Lyon, 
1 79 1, 4to. 



DUN'CAN S CLASSIFICATION 229 

obtained authority to have the specimens cared for, 
rearransi^ed. and added to. It consisted, he savs, 
of: I. Ancient ReHcs. 2. Arms of different nations. 

3. Dresses and implements of half-civilized nations. 

4. Rarities — (a) Royal gifts. {/>) Memorials of re- 
markable persons, (r) Amulets, (^/) Curious works 
of Art. 5. Pictures. 6. Books, MS. and printed. 7. 
Specimens illustrative of zoological arrangement — 
" collected with a hope of continually exciting a remem- 
brance of the pious works of Derham and of Paley."^ A 
taste for the study of natural history had been excited 
at Oxford at this time, by Paley's A^atnral Theology 
and other popular works, in which Duncan partici- 
pated.- He rearranged the specimens in three 
divisions according to Paley's plan, and so gave 
"an exalted interest to the collection, such as no 
exhibition of the kind had hitherto displayed. "^ 

"The first division proposes to familiarize the eye 
to those relations of all natural objects, which form the 
basis of argument in Dr. Paley's Natural Theology ; 
to induce a mental habit of associatinof the view 
of natural phenomena with the conviction that they 
are the media of Divine manifestation ; and by such 
association to give proper dignity to every branch 
'•f natural science. " 

^Introduction to the Catalogue of the Ashmolean Museum [Oxford, 
1826], 8vo ; apparently not published and not followed by a catalogue. 
There is a copy in the British Museum, 7206, h 5. (i). 

-He published Botano-Theology, 1825, 8vo ; and Analogies of 
Organized Beings. Oxford, 1831, 8vo. 

'Philip Bury Duncan, A Catalogue of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 
1836, p. vi. Mr. P. B. Duncan succeeded his brother as Keeper of the 
Museum in 1829, and held office until 1854. 



230 OXFORD MUSEUMS 

"The second division exhibits relics of antiquity, 
arranged according to the order of time, with some 
specimens of curious art of uncivihzed as well as of 
refined nations." 

" In the exhibition of animals the order of Cuvier 
has been generally adopted. The name of every 
specimen is conspicuously affixed, and hand-catalogues 
explain the general principle of the arrangement, 
and the contents of each cabinet to which they refer. "^ 

The view of the interior of the Museum on the 
title-page of Mr. P. B. Duncan's Catalogue shows an 
arrangement similar to that of a seventeenth century 
collection. 

In recent years the books, coins, and medals were 
transferred to the Bodleian Library, and the natural 
history department separated from the antiquarian, 
and transferred to the New Museum. The collections 
have been largely increased by the liberality of Mr. 
Parker and Dr. Hortnum, and by the acquisition of 
a long series of Egyptian, Roman, British, Anglo- 
Saxon, and English objects ; and the Ashmolean 
is now strictly an Archaeological and Ethnological 
Museum of great value and excellently arranged.^ 



^ P. B. Duncan, Op. laud., p. vii. 

^Arthur John Evans, The Ashmolean Museum as a Home of Archaeo- 
logy in Oxford. Oxford, 1884, 8vo. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

THE MODERN MUSEUM. 
ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUMS. 

Sir William Flower thinks, and probably with justice, 
that John Hunter is to be regarded as the founder of 
the modern museum, the distinguishing features of 
which are speciaHzation and classification.^ A museum 
has been described by Huxley as "a consultative 
library of objects"; and just as special libraries are re- 
quired, so special museums have become a necessary 
aid in scientific research. Instead of one museum 
embracing every subject, or at least many subjects, 
we have museums which are limited to one or to a few 
special subjects, as, for instance, museums of Natural 
History, museums of Geology and Mineralogy, In- 
dustrial, Commercial, Agricultural, Chemical, Educa- 
tional and Military museums, museums of Archaeology, 

^ An excellent exposition of a systematic classification of natural history 
objects will be found in Fritsch, Principien der Organisation der natur- 
historischen Abtheilung des neuen Museums zu Prag. Prag, 1888, 8vo ; 
Koch, Die Aufstellung der Tiere im neuen Museum zu Darmstadt, 
Leipzig, 1899, 8vo. As to the classification of archaeological museums 
see Schwartz, Grundsdtze fiir die Ordnung von Sammlungen vorge- 
schichtlicher Altertiimer, 1898, 8vo. 

231 



232 CHRISTIAN THOMSEN 

museums of Art and of Antiquities — Christian and 
secular — and sundry others. 

Archaeology furnishes a good example of what is 
gained by careful and accurate classification, and the 
bringing together of objects for comparison. Archae- 
ology has been called ''the science of sepulchres." 
This is true, in a sense, for it is from the rest- 
ing-places of the dead that we have recovered the 
greater portion of the material remains of prehistoric 
peoples which we now possess; and the recognition of 
the fact that interments afforded valuable aid in the 
elucidation of the past was one of the great steps 
in archaeological science.^ But while this is so, 
it is the museum which has made them intelligible. 
Whoever it may be that first spoke of the "three- 
age system,"^ it was Christian Thomsen who first 
turned it to practical account, and it was the ar- 
rangement of the great museum of Copenhagen, 
according to this system, that created the science 
of Archaeology. Prior to his time the museum was 
but a valley of dry bones ; in his hands and by 
his genius these were made to live and to tell the 
story of the past. The co-relation of the various 

1 Johann Daniel Major and Christian Stieff were amongst the earliest to 
recognize the value of interments for archaeological purposes. See Stieff, 
De Urnis in Silesia . . . Epistola^ Wratislav., 1704, 4to ; Major, Bevol- 
ckertes Cimbrien, Plon, 1692, fol. The latter observes (p. 44) that in many 
sepulchral urns one or more stone axes have been found, and therefore 
he concluded they must have been the work of man. 

^ James Douglas (1753-1819) clearly distinguished three periods about 
1790, Nctiia Britannica^ pp. 150, I54n. London, 1793, fol., but published 
1786-93. It was present to the mind of William Cunnington of Heyles- 
bury in 1802, Archaeologia, xv., p. 126 ; and was adopted by Sir Richard 
Hoare in 1812, Ancient Wiltshire, i., p. 76. 



THE THREE-AGE SYSTEM 233 

monuments of antiquity to one another and to the 
present time was sketched out by him in broad outline, 
and soon a host of observers all over the world 
arose to fill in the details. Immense progress has 
been made since the publication, in 1836, of Thomsen's 
classification; and the history of the past, the growth 
of culture and the progress of civilization are now 
being investigated and recorded in every country 
on sound scientific lines. " Archaeology," says M. 
de Quatrefages, "which formerly was regarded as a 
matter of curiosity, having interest only for a few 
privileged persons, has become a science well nigh 
positive in its character." 

Every museum of archaeology is now arranged more 
or less in accordance with Thomsen's principles, with 
such modifications as circumstances require. German 
museums generally follow this classification ; — the Stone 
Age is divided into Older and Younger, that is Palaeo- 
lithic and Neolithic; the Bronze age is similarly divided, 
the latest portion of that age being known as the 
Hallstatt period ; the transitional period leading to the 
Iron Age is known as the La Tene or pre-Roman 
period, then comes the period of Roman domination, 
followed by the period of the great migrations (Volks- 
wanderungszeit), the Franko-Merovingian period and 
the Wendish period.^ The Musee de Saint Germain 
is arranged according to epochs suitable to France : 

^ In most German museums sheets are hung up, on which are figured 
in colour the characteristic objects of each period. Those prepared by 
the West Prussian museum and pubUshed at Dantsic, six in number, 
are perhaps the most useful. Others are published at Hanover by 
the Provincial Museum ; at Halle for Saxony ; at Stuttgart for the 
Rhine and the German Danube districts ; and at Vienna for Austria- 



2 34 OBJECTS FOR COMPARISON 

Gaul prior to the use of metals ; Gaul after the 
introduction of metals ; the Gaulish, the Roman, and 
the Gallo-Roman epochs. This system is practically 
that of M. Gabriel de Mortillet by whom the museum 
was organized and who classified the great collection 
in the Paris Exhibition of 1867. His classification 
is, however, merely a modification of that of Thomsen. 
Starting with the three x^ges of Stone, of Bronze, and 
of Iron, he divides them into six periods, Eolithic, 
Palaeolithic, Neolithic, Tsiganian, Galatian, Roman 
and INIerovingian, and these periods again he divides 
into Epochs named from the places where the objects 
characteristic of each have been found/ 

The names given to ages, periods, or epochs, are 
immaterial. What is of value and what is aimed 
at in every properly organized museum of archaeology 
is to discriminate and illustrate the stages of human 
culture, in other words to trace the growth and 
development of civilization. 

A most useful feature of modern museums is 
the separation of objects into national and foreign, 
the latter being reserved as objects with which to 
compare, and by which to illustrate the former. 
Nothing has done more than this to place archaeo- 
logical science upon a sound basis ; and yet fifty 
years ago so little had this principle been thought 
of, that there was not a single room in the British 
Museum specially appropriated to British Antiquities, 

Hungary. See Von Hauer, Allgemeiner Fiihrer durch das K. K. natur- 
historische Ho/museum, p. 137. Wien, 1898, 8vo. 

^G. de Mortillet, For?nation de la nation Francaisey'p-p. 192, 193. Paris, 
1897, 8vo. Musee Prehistorique, Introduction. Paris, 1881, fol. 



ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTIQUITIES, ETHNOGRAPHY 235 

and even gifts of national antiquities were reluct- 
antly received and sparingly acknowledged. The 
few that were preserved were mostly unclassed 
and practically unavailable for reference and com- 
parison.^ 

As we approach recent times archaeology shades 
into antiquities, and the archaeological collection 
grows into the historical. In every considerable 
museum therefore, the archaeologrical section is 
followed by an historical and is supplemented by an 
ethnographical, and in some cases by an anthropo- 
logical, section. 

One of the greatest museums of the day is the 
Germanic National Museum at Nurembercr, estab- 
lished in 1852 for the illustration of German 
historical research.- It contains an enormous amount 
of material, much of it of the kind that was 
to be found in the museums of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries ; — -stone implements and clay 
urns, Roman and other antiquities, carvings, glass and 
porcelain, ecclesiastical vessels and vestments, scien- 

^ Roach Smith, Collectanea Antigua, i., p. 171 ; iii., p. 183. London, 
1848. 

- Hektor, Geschichte des Germanisches National museums von seinem 
Ursprunge bis sum Jahre 1862, Nuremberg, 1863 ; Das Gerjnanische 
Nationalmuseum und seine Sainmlungen. Wegweiser fiir die Besu- 
chenden. Niirnberg, 1861, 8vo, and other editions ; Essenwein, Das 
Germanische Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg, 1884 ; Leitschuh, Das Ger- 
manische Nationalmuseum in Niirnberg, Bamberg, 1870; Die Kunst- 
und Kultur-geschichtlichen Sammlungen des Germanischen Museums, 
Niirnberg, 1 899 ; Stegmann, Das Germanische National- Museum zu Niirn- 
berg in seinen Rdumen und Gebaulichkeiten, fol., Niirnberg, 1896 ; 
Anzeiger des Germanischen National-Museums, Leipzig, 1884-94, 8vo. 
This was a continuation of Anzeiger fiir Kunde der deutschen Vorzeit, 
1832-39, and N.S. 1853-83, 8vo. 



236 GERMANIC NATIONAL MUSEUM 

tific apparatus, and all that used to pass under 
the name of artificial curiosities. These have, how- 
ever, been arranged so as to tell the history of 
the German land and the German people, chapter 
by chapter, and subject by subject, from the earliest 
period down to the present ; prehistoric, Roman and 
German. Objects illustrative of civil life and ecclesi- 
astical life, war, agriculture, handicrafts and trade, art 
and science, are set out in order, so that the student 
has everything grouped before him and the mere 
passer-by can read and understand their import. The 
I lesson of the museum is the importance of order and 
method. These are what orive scientific value to the 
collection. It was the want of these that made the old 
museums comparatively worthless. 

The recognition of the fact that the products of the 
lower forms of civilization of the present time materi- 
ally assist in understanding the life, the thought and 
culture of prehistoric peoples, and of many of the 
manners and customs of our own day, was a great 
help to the progress of archaeology. The importance 
of this comparison seems to us to be obvious, 
but it was not grasped, or at least, was not acted 
upon until comparatively recent times. Aldrovandi, 
as we have seen, did not recos^nize that the ancient 
stone weapons dug out of the soil of Italy were 
identical with the stone knives and stone axes in use 
in India in his own day, examples of which he had in 
his own museum.^ So little was comparison thought 

^Chiocci, in his description of the Musaeian Calceolari, mentions (p. 308) 
when treating oi cerminiae, that in the New World stones were found of so 
sharp an edge as to equal iron, and were fashioned into axes, shovels, and 
other tools and weapons which in Italy were made of iron. 



OBJECTS IN OLD MUSEUMS NOT COMPARED 237 

of that Anselm de Boodt, after describing^ ccrauniae, 
adds that because all these stones resemble a hammer, 
a wedge, an axe, a plough-share or some such other 
implement pierced for a handle, some persons thought 
that they are not thunderbolts, but tools of iron which 
have been petrified.^ In the Imperial library of Vienna 
amongst other curiosities was shown an Arabian sacri- 
ficial knife or axe shaped like a ceraunia and hafted in 
wood.^ The ceraunm itself was apparently not recog- 
nized as an artificial object. Ole W^orm describes a 
flint exactly like the point of a hunting spear, which 
was found in a low hill in Ripen along with an urn con- 
taining ashes and bones.^ He had in his collection* 
an arrow point of Lydian stone sent to him from 
Iceland in 1643, which had been found in the 
blubber of a whale, but this did not enable him to 
decide as to the character of the Ripen object. But for 
the assumed impossibility of working flint he would 
probably have come to the conclusion that it was 
artificial. As it was he remained in doubt, and refers 
to Paracelsus who styled such things Gamahu. Of 
these there were two varieties the one found in sand 
and streams, fashioned exactly as if made by man, but 
in fact created by God, and endowed with miraculous 
powers.^ The artificial Gamahu were stones on which 

^ Gemmariim et Lapidii^n Historia, ii., c. 260. 

2 Briickmann, Epistola Ithieraria, i Cent, i., p. 6. Wolfenb., 1728. 

^Museum IVormianutn, p. 85. 

*0p. laud., p. 350. 

^ " Gamachies," says Sibbald, " are found near to Marlsfield, the Laird of 
Grubbet's house. The young laird, a worthy gentleman, gave me this 
account of them. There is a steep precipice of clay on the side of the 
Cttle river that passeth by Marlsfield House ; towards the middle of this pre- 



238 SUPERNATURAL ORIGIN OF STONE OBJECTS 

by a peculiar constellation images of man and animals 
have been impressed/ Nehemiah Grew following 
Worm includes these objects amongst regularly 
shaped stones under the name anchorites, from 
their resemblance to an anchor, or "flat bolt-head," 
or " to the head of a bearded dart from whence 
I have named it." As proof of their origin, he 
quotes a story told of Terzago " That the corps 
of one struck dead with thunder, being inspected 
in the presence of Septalius and several others, 
and a black wound observed about the hip, and 
searched to the bone, they found therein a round 
and edged stone, which being broken had a very 
strong sulphurious stink. With this author," he 
adds, "I scarce think anything of this nature incredible 
to those that read the relation given at large by 
Wormius of the Norwegick mouse." ^ Sir Robert 
Sibbald adopted Grew's opinions.^ Worm, Grew, and 
Sibbald were all physicians of large experience and 

cipice there boileth out a red shining clay, as tough as melted wax, with a 
blue sliminess on the top ; when any of this clay falleth in the stream, 'tis 
rolled down by the current, and is moulded into an hundred dififerent 
shapes, of birds and beasts and other things ; and groweth to the con- 
sistence of a stone in a few days, although at first very soft and 
malleable." AuciariuDi Musaei Balfouria?ii, p. 57. 

^ Supra, p. 3, Paracelsus, " De Imaginibus," c. 7. Opera, ii., pp. 499, 
502, Genevae, 1658, fol. Jacques Gaffarel collects all the learning on 
Gamahes in his Curiositez inouyes sur la sculphire talistnaniques des 
Persons, chap. v. (Paris, 1629, 8vo). In English, by Edmund Chilmead, — 
Grecian and musician, — p. 96 sqq. (London, 1650) ; in Latin, ed. J. A. 
Fabricus, p. 74 sqq. (Hamburg, 1706); Valentini, Museum Museorutn, 
i., p. 52. 

2 Op. laud., pp. 303, 304. 

"^ Auctarium Musaei Balfouriani, pp. 58, 67; Miscellanea eruditae 
Antiquitatis, p. 36. d 



NO COMPARISONS MADE 239 

men of undoubted ability, and although it may seem 
surprising that, with all the facts before them, they 
went so far astray, it is not difficult to understand their 
position. To arrive at a different opinion would have 
required almost a complete break with the whole 
science of the day. Errors of a similar kind have 
been committed in our day. The bone objects found 
in prehistoric cave deposits, which were long known 
as batons de commandemeiit, have, by comparing them 
with similar objects used by the Eskimo, been shown 
to be arrow-stretchers ; and it is probable that many 
of the opinions which we now think beyond question 
will be shown by future inquirers to be erroneous. 

In the Catalogue of the Copenhagen Museum, of 
1 710, lapides ceratmiae and glossopetrae appear as in 
older collections,^ but they are not looked upon as in 
any way explaining the true nature of cerauniae. Stone 
hammers and flint daggers are described by name, 
and reference is made to Louis Hennepin's account 
of Louisiana and the use of stone weapons by the 
Indians," and also to their use by the Greenlanders.^ 
Attention is directed to bronze weapons, and although 
the author cannot understand why the early inhabitants 
of the country preferred bronze to iron, he admits 
that such was the case and cites the well-known 
passage in Hesiod, and refers to Homer and the 
figures on Trajan's column. He quotes Claude Du 
Molinet's suggestion, that the reason why bronze 
objects only of early date were found is that iron 
more readily decayed. 

'^Museum regiutn, i., 7, Nos. 64 and 67 (ed. 1710). 
-' Op. laud., ii. 3, Nos. 24, 25, 26. '^3., ii. 2, No. 80. 



- 



240 USE OF STONE BEFORE METAL PROVED 

The fact that the use of stone had preceded the use 
of bronze, and the use of bronze that of iron, had long 
been vaguely suspected. Sir William Dugdale, being 
perhaps ignorant of the speculations of the learned 
world regarding gamahus and other cognate subjects, 
recognized flint implements as artificial objects made by 
the ancient Britons, " inasmuch as thev had not then 
attained to the knowledge of workino- iron or brass 
to such uses."^ This inference was not, however, 
arrived at from a consideration of what was to be 
seen amongst uncivilized tribes, but by reasoning on 
the finds in ancient graves. Professor Johann Christoph 
Iselin, of Basle (1681 -1737), writing to Father Mont- 
faucon in 17 18, points out that the earliest weapons 
were of stone, followed by those of bronze, and then 
by those of iron. This, he says, is proved by the 
sepulchres of the Germans. The oldest have most 
frequently arms of brass and those of a later age have 
commonlv iron." A laroe number of stone axes and 
bone objects were found in an interment at Cockerel 
in Normandy in 1685, which satisfied Montfaucon 
that they belonged to a people who were ignorant 
of the use of metals.^ Plot seems to have been the 
first to appeal to modern examples to illustrate the 
old.^ 

When Edward Lhuyd was in the Highlands of 

^ The Antiquities of Warwickshire Illustrated, p. 765 (1656, fol.), where 
a flint celt in the collection of Elias Ashmole is figured. See Wood, 
AtJienae Oxonienses, iv. 358. 

^ Montfaucon, Antiquity Explained, translated by Humphreys, v., 
p. 135. London, 1722, fol. 

^ Op. laud., p. 132. 

* Supra, p. no. 



SEPARATION OF ETHNOGRAPHICAL OBJECTS 24 1 

Scotland in 1699 he was shown many stone arrow 
heads which the people ascribed to the fairies, and 
remarks, " They are just the same chipp'd flints the 
natives of New Engrland head their arrows with at 
this day; and there are several stone hatchets found 
in this kinodom not unlike those of the Americans." 

o 

He adds that Elf-arrow heads had not been used as 
amulets above thirty or forty years, from which he 
concluded that they were not invented for charms, 
but were once used in shooting here, as they are still 
in America.^ 

In his arrangement of the Copenhagen Museum 
Thomsen sorted out and arranged the ethnographical 
objects as a separate and independent collection, and 
took steps to provide material for this part of the 
museum from every available source. After his death 
it was taken in hand by Worsaae, who modified and 
improved the system of arrangement, and the museum 
is still one of the foremost of its kind in Europe. 
Similar collections have been organized at Christiania 
and Stockholm. In Eno^land we have the g-reat collec- 
tions of the British Museum ; of the India Museum, 
and of the Ashmolean at Oxford ; in Paris there is 
one in the Louvre and another in the Musee du 
Trocadero;" besides the Musee Guimet founded at 
Lyons in 1879 by M. Emile Guimet, presented to the 
State and transferred to Paris in 1885, the leading 
object of which is to illustrate the history and practice 

' The Philosophical Tra?tsaciiof2s, xxviii. (171 3), p. 99. 

' Hamy, " Les origines du Musee d'Ethnographie " \x\ Revue cPEthnO' 
graphic, viii., p. 305. 

Q 



242 ETHNOGRAPHICAL MUSEUMS 

of religion.^ There is a magnificent ethnographical 
museum in Berlin,- and others in Leipsic, Hamburg", 
Dresden, Darmstadt, and various other German towns. 
There are two in Vienna, one in Rome," and others in 
Florence, Modena,* Venice, Madrid, Lisbon, Leyden, 
and Moscow.^ The Asiatic Museum of St. Petersburg 
is one of great importance, and is founded on the old 
collections of Paludanus and others, acquired by Peter 
the Great.^ The anthropological and ethnological 
collections in the National Museum at Washington are 
amongst the finest in the world, and the ethnographical 
and ethnological publications of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, founded upon the collections in the museum 
and upon personal observation of the agents of the 

^ Milloue, Catalogue du Musee Guimct. Lyon, 18S3, and later editions. 

- Fiihrer durch das Mitseiim fur Volkerkufide, Berlin, 1895, ^^'O ! 
Bahnson in Mittheilungen der ajithropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien^ 
xviii. (1888), p. 115. 

There is also in Berlin an excellent museum of German National 
costumes — Museum fiir deutsche Volkstrachten und Erzeugnisse des 
Hausgewerbes — described in Fiihrer durch die Sammlung des Museums. 
Berlin, 1895, 8vo. Second and enlarged edition. 

Q<?olini, Cronaca del Museo Prcistorico ed ettiograjico di Roma. 3 parts. 
Roma, 1884-87, 8ao. There is likewise the Museo Borgiano, ^<?j/, p. 247. 

* Gaddi, // museo etnografico-ajitropologico dclla R. Universita di 
Modena, Modena, 1870, 4to. 

^ There is an account, translated from the Danish, of the Ethnographical 
museums of Europe particularly in Germany, Austria, and Italy, by Dr. 
Kristian Bahnson of Copenhagen, in Mittheilungen der anthropologischen 
Gesellschaft in Wien., vol. xviii., pp. 109-164. Wien, 1888. Translated 
from the Danish into EngHsh, The Archaeological Review., ii. (1889), pp. i, 
73, 145, 217, 289. 

^ Supra, pp. 96, 115, 116, 182. The Catalogue of 1741 contains a large 
quantity of Oriental objects, well arranged. Museum Imperiale Petro- 
politanum, ii., Pt. i., p. 94 sqq. See also Dorn, Das asiatische Museum 
der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu St. Petersburg. St. 
Petersburg, 1846, 8vo. 



AIMS OF THE ETHNOGRAPHICAL MUSEUM 243 

institution, have been of the greatest value to science. 
7'here is a fine collection of ethnographical objects 
in the New York Museum, another at Chicago (the 
Field Columbian Museum), and there are similar 
collections in many other of the museums of the 
United States/ and a good one in the Australian 
Museum at Sydney.^ 

The objects to be served by an Ethnological 
Museum are well stated by General Pitt-Rivers in 
a memorandum reoardins: the collection which he 
presented to the University of Oxford : 

"The specimens, Ethnological and Prehistoric, are arranged 
with a view to demonstrate, either actually or hypothetically, 
the development and continuity of the material arts from the 
simpler to the more complex forms. 

" To explain the Conservatism of savage and barbarous Races, 
and the pertinacity \nth which they retain their ancient types of 
art. 

" To show the Variations by means of which progress has 
been affected, and the application of Varieties to distinct uses. 

"To exhibit Survivals^ or the vestiges of ancient forms, 
which have been retained through Natural Selection in the 
more advanced stages of the arts, and Reversions to ancient 
types. 

" To illustrate the arts of Prehistoric times, as far as practic- 
able, by those of Existing Savages in corresponding stages of 
civilization. 

"To assist the question as to the Monogenesis or Poly- 

1 The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Pa., has a good 
collection of human crania. Catalogices by J. A. Meigs, Philadelphia, 
1857, 8vo. 

-[Bennett], A Catalogue of the specimens of Natural History and mis- 
cellaneous curiosities belonging to the Australian Museunt, Sydney, 1837, 
8vo ; Guide to the Australian Museum, Sydney, Sydney, 1890, 8vo. 



244 PITT-RIVERS OPINIONS 

genesis of certain arts ; whether they are exotic or indigenous in 
the countries in which they are now found ; and, finally : 

" To aid in the solution of the problem whether Man has 
arisen from a condition resembling the brutes, or fallen from 
! a high state of perfection. 

" To these ends objects of the same Class from different 

> countries have been brought together, but in each Class the 

Varieties from the same localities are usually placed side by 

I side, and the geographical distribution of various arts is 

shown in distribution maps. 

"Special Finds, ser\-ing to illustrate the correlation of the 
arts, or of forms, have been kept together."^ 

^ See also Introduction to Catalogue of the Anthropological Collection 
lent by Colonel Lane Fox for exJiibition in the Bethnal Green Museum. 
London, 1874, 8vo. This was the collection subsequently presented by 
the author to the University of Oxford. 

Of an earlier date we have Jomard, " Caractere et essai de classifi- 
cation d'une Collection ethnographique "' appended to Lettre a M. Fr, 
de Siebold sur les Collectiom Ethnographiqucs, Paris, 1845, Bvo ; and 
\^on Siebold, Lettre sur Vutilite des musees ethnographigues, Paris, 
1843, 8vo. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

GLASGOW MUSEUMS, THE MUSEUMS OF HAMBURG, BREMEN, 

AND LUBECK. 

In Glasgow we have considerable collections, both 
archaeological and ethnographical, in the Hunterian 
and Kelvingrove Museums. In the former there is 
an extensive and varied collection of South Sea 
weapons, paddles, carvings and manufactured articles 
brought home by Captain Cook. The Kelvingrove 
Museum is primarily a museum of the Industrial 
and Economic Arts, but has likewise a natural 
history and an ethnographical department ^ ; and 
contains the Livingstone collection of implements, 
utensils, and other articles from Central Africa, 

^ See Paton, Sketch Guide to the City Indiist}'ial Museum of Glasgow, 
Glasgow [1877], 8vo ; and Report on the Kelvingrove Museum, published 
annually since 1877 ; P.S.A.Sco., xxii. (1888), p. 351. 

The origin of this museum dates back to 1846. In the winter of 
1846-47 the Glasgow Philosophical Society, with the assistance of the 
Town Council, had an Exhibition of Industrial Art, which proved very 
attractive and financially successful. There was a surplus of ^1000, 
which was set aside for purposes of a similar kind, and it was hoped that 
the exhibition "may thus have laid the foundation of a museum which 
may become gigantic in extent." Statistical Account and Catalogue of 
the Glasgow Philosophical Society's Exhibition of Models of Works of 
Art, etc., Glasgow, 1847, 8vo. The Daily Exhibitor, Glasgow, 1847, 8vo; 
Eleven numbers issued (24th December, 1846— 9th January, 1847) during 
the exhibition. 

245 



246 SHIPMASTERS AS COLLECTORS 

a collection of tools and weapons from New Guinea, 
and smaller collections from Australia and New 
Zealand. There is, however, no organized system of 
collection, and yet no place is more favourably situated 
than Glasgow for obtaining the necessary specimens. 
Glaso'ow has a magnificent mercantile fleet and 
commercial relations with every country under the 
sun, and especially with the islands of the Indian 
Archipelago and of the Pacific, but practically no 
advantage has been taken of this for obtaining material 
for her museums. Hull has been more fortunate. The 
large ethnographical collection in the museum of that 
town owes much to the merchants of Hull, and to the 
commanders of vessels sailing from the port of Hull. 

It is not to be expected that a shipmaster can turn 
himself into a museum-agent, but the commanders of 
vessels, trading to out-of-the-way places, have many 
opportunities of obtaining objects illustrative of the 
life of the people, their religion, their warfare, their 
arts and industries. They often do not know that 
such things are of scientific value. If they do know- 
that they are appreciated by scientific men, they are 
generally ignorant of what to get, and what inquiries 
they are to make and what to record concerning the 
objects they secure. It would be of immense advantage 
to our museums if a short memorandum were prepared, 
stating what sort of objects are wanted and the par- 
ticulars to be recorded regarding them, and a copy 
given to each officer of a ship going foreign. Along 
with the note it would be desirable to issue a book of 
blank schedules, in which each article as obtained would 
be described in a systematic and uniform manner. 



MISSIONARY MUSEUMS 247 

The British Museum invites the co-operation of all 
persons interested in Natural History in collecting- 
specimens for the Natural History collection, and has 
issued a series of short manuals for their cruidance/ 
Other institutions might follow this example. The 
Natural History section of the Edinburgh Museum 
was, as we have seen,- built up from the collections 
of officers in the Royal Navy. 

In these days of missionary enthusiasm more advan- 
tage might be taken of the presence of cultured and 
experienced men, in uncivilized countries, to obtain 
systematic collections of the arts and industries of the 
people amongst whom they reside. Livingstone was 
one of the noblest of missionaries, but he was at the 
same time a most accurate and careful observer, and 
did much towards our knowledge of the anthropology 
of Africa. The Jesuit missionaries of the seventeenth 
century made large collections in the countries to which 
they were sent, which they forwarded to Paris.^ The 
Museo Borgiano in the college of the Propaganda 

^The following notice has been issued by Dr. Ray Lankester, the 
Director of the Natural History Department of the British Museum : 
" Notice. — Persons going abroad, who are willing to help the Natural 
Museum by collecting Specimens, are invited to apply for information 
regarding Specimens wanted, and the method of their preservation at 
the Secretary's Office on the first floor. There is no part of the world 
from which Specimens of scientific value may not be obtained.'' 

The Museum publishes nine small tracts, " Hints for collecting and 
preserving Specimens of Natural History." 

-Supra, p. 158. 

2 See Evelyn, Diary, ii., p. 165. London, 1879. These collections are 
still continued. See, for example, Milne-Edwards Rapports sur diverses 
collections envoy ees au Museum par le P. Armand David, Missionaire 
de la congregation des Lazaristes a Pekin in Nouvelles Archives du 
Museum d'Histoire naturelle, i. (1865). Bulletin i. 



248 COLLECTING SHOULD BE SYSTEMATIC 

Fide at Rome is filled with the contributions of 
Roman Catholic missionaries of the present day/ 
Although a large number of its objects have been 
deposited in the British Museum,^ the museum of the 
London Missionary Society still contains a consider- 
able amount of valuable material collected by their 
missionaries in the lands in which they labour.^ 
The Evangelical Missionary Museum at Basle is 
of a similar character.* There is a missionary 
museum at Canterbury ; and another at Utrecht sup- 
plied with objects sent home by the Dutch missionaries 
in New Guinea and other parts of the East.^ The 
American missionaries have a museum in their college 
at Ooroomia in Persia. The Moravian missionaries 
have done much for the increase of our knowledge 
of the lands in which they labour, both by their 
writings and by the collections which they have formed.^ 

^ G. A. Colini, CoUezioiii etnografiche del Museo Borgiano in Bollettino 
della Societa Gcografica Italiana, vol. xxii. (1885), pp. 316, 914 ; Schmeltz, 
Ethnographische Musea in Midde7i-Eiiropa^ p. 49, Leiden, 1896, 410. 

"^British Micseum Report^ 1891, p. 62. 

^ Several of the illustrations in Professor Ratzel's History of Mankind 
(London, 1896, 8vo, 3 vols.) are from objects in this collection. The 
collection of the Church Missionary Society has also provided a number 
of the illustrations. 

* Katalog der Ethnographisclien Sammhmg iin Miiseiivi des Missions' 
hauses zii Basel, Basel, 1882, 1883, and 1888, 8vo ; Schmeltz, Op. laud., 
p. 40. 

There is another and larger ethnographical collection belonging to the 
University of Basle. 

^ The Archaeological Review, ii., p. 311. 

'' Bossart, Kiirze Aniueisiuig Natitralicn zit sanimlen. Barby, 1774, 8\-o. 
The author was Superintendent of the Museum of the United Brethren's 
Seminary, and gives some account of its origin and progress. This 
volume was intended for the use of the missionaries. 

Glitsch, Versiich einer Geschichic der /tistorischen Sajmnhing der 



GERMAN COLLECTIONS 249 

Temporary museums of ethnographical objects arranged 
by the various missionary organizations with a view 
of promoting interest in their work are common, 
and are often very attractive.^ Glasgow contributes 
largely to the support of foreign missions, and, if 
the attention of missionaries were directed to the 
subject, there is no doubt they would give valuable 
assistance in providing additions to our museums. 
One requisite, however, is that a scheme be pre- 
pared, and distinct instructions given of what 
is wanted. At present whatever comes into the 
museum is by chance and in a haphazard way. A 
museum cannot be built up in this fashion. Objects 
must be sought for systematically, and unfortunately 
must often nowadays be paid for, as there are many 
competitors in the market. In addition to money, 
time and trouble and skill must be expended in 
making a collection, and an agent must know what 
he wants, and be able to distinguish what is valuable 
from what is useless. 

Compare the position of Glasgow with that of 
any of the three great trading towns of Northern 
Germany, Lubeck, Hamburg, and Bremen — ocelli 
Germaniae.- Bremen has a population of somewhat 
less than 200,000 persons. Its Cathedral and Rathaus 

Briider-Unitdi^ Herrnhut, 1891, 8vo; Fiihrer diirch das ethnographisches 
. . . Museum. lb., 1891, Svo. 

^ A manual on the subject, edited by C. J. Fison and H. G. Malaher, 
has been published by the Church Missionary- Society. A Manual for 
Stewards at Missionary Loan Exhibitions. London, 1899, 8\-o. There 
was a temporary exhibition in Glasgow of this kind, 5-14 March, 1899, 
which was visited by many thousands of interested visitors. 

^Heineccius, Scriptorcs de Jure nautico, Dedication. Hal. Mag., 1730. 



2 50 BREMEN MUSEUMS 

and quaint street architecture bear witness to its 
greatness and artistic taste in times long past ; while 
its parks, its library, and museum mark the scientific 
spirit and culture of the present and the generosity 
of its citizens, A recent deputation sent to inspect 
the parks of continental cities reported that Glasgow 
had nothing to learn. The deputation evidently did 
not visit Bremen or its park. The town library is a 
collection of over 100,000 volumes, beautifully kept 
and housed in a spacious building of purple brick, 
with a reading-room which the British Museum 
might envy. The museum (Stadtisches Museum flir 
Natur-Yolker- und Handelskunde) occupies another 
large and well-planned building near by. It contains 
a small collection of archaeological objects, mostly from 
the neighbourhood, and a special collection from north- 
western Germany presented by Mr. P. I. Sparkuhle ; 
a good botanical museum and a large natural history 
collection. The latter cannot, of course, vie with a 
national collection, such as that in Cromwell Road, 
London, but it is very comprehensive and is most 
methodically arranged and labelled, and includes 
anatomical and other preparations and microscope 
exhibits. In London they have recently set up 
a new whale-house, but the specimens in Bremen 
are just as interesting, and are even better shown. 
The orround flat of the new buildinor contains a 
large ethnographical collection gathered from all 
the uncivilized portions of the globe, arranged accord- 
ing to countries, with models of dwellings, costume, 
and illustrations of the domestic life of various peoples. 
Alongside this are specimens of the raw and manu- 



LUBECK MUSEUMS 25 I 

factured products of these and of other countries, 
mostly non- European ; tobacco from every place where 
it is grown, and in every state of preparation ; all 
sorts of fibres, grains, and wood ; models of cotton 
plantations and cotton preparation, of indigo fields 
and indigo manufacture, of Chinese tea gardens, of 
saltpetre works and petroleum works. Great numbers 
of the exhibits and many of the most valuable are gifts 
from citizens of Bremen. Bremen has also an In- 
dustrial museum (Gewerbemuseum), and proposes to 
set up an Historical museum/ 

Georg Blohm, a merchant of Liibeck, on his death 
in March, 1878, bequeathed 150,000 marks for the 
good of the town, and, after consideration of how it 
might be best applied, it was resolved to expend it in 
the erection of a museum building. The municipality 
granted a site ; the building was proceeded with and 
was opened on i6th May, 1893. It is a handsome 
structure of red and black glazed brick in the old 
Liibeck style; and contains a splendid collection of 
objects illustrative of the history and life of Liibeck, 
a museum of industrial art (Gewerbemuseum), a 
commercial museum (Handelsmuseum), and excellent 
ethnographical and natural history collections. The 
Liibeck collection extends from prehistoric to com- 
paratively recent times, so as to present a continuous 
picture of the life of the old Hanse city. Amongst 
the objects illustrative of Liibeck in the medieval and 
historical periods are models of ships and boats, houses 

^ There is a short account of the B: emen Museum in Schmeltz, Ethno- 
graphische Miisea in Midden-Europa, p. 92. Leiden, 1896, 4to. The 
stipend of the museum is £2^00 per annum. 



252 LtJBECK MUSEUMS 

and workshops, domestic furniture, tools and imple- 
ments, instruments of punishment and of torture, dress 
and costume, books and bookbindings, manuscripts, 
coins, medals and seals, maps, plans and views of the 
town and its buildings. Ecclesiastical life is shown, in 
a separate section, in clerical vestments and altar furni- 
ture, pictures, plate, carvings, and the like. The 
natural history collection was commenced about the 
beginning of the present century and is of considerable 
extent, well arranged and well shown. The ethno- 
graphical collection is large and valuable, and dates 
from the end of the seventeenth century, when Jakob 
von Melle commenced the formation of his museum, 
which subsequently passed to Dr. J. C. Lindenberg, 
burgomaster of Liibeck, by whose son it was be- 
queathed to the Society for the encouragement of 
popular Industry (Gesellschaft zur Beforderung 
gemeinniitziger Thatigkeit). It was then combined 
with other collections, and the ethnographical side 
was enriched from time to time with gifts from 
Liibeckers sojourning in Brazil, Australia, Eastern 
and Western Africa, and other distant lands. In 
1897 the German Anthropological Society held its 
congress at Liibeck so as to have the advantage of 
the rich stores of the museum for illustration and 
discussion at its meetino^s. The whole museum is 
under the management of a joint committee appointed 
by the Senate of Liibeck and the Gesellschaft zur 
Beforderung gemeinniitziger Thatigkeit.^ In addition 

1 Filhrer diircJi. das Mtisetiin zii Liibeck, Liibeck, 1 896, 8vo ; Festschrift 
zur xxviii. Versa>iiinlitfjg dcr deutscken atitJiropologischen Gesellschaft, 
Liibeck, August, 1897. [Liibeck, 1897, 8vo.] 



I 



HAMBURG MUSEUMS 253 

to the museum the town possesses a large and valuable 
library of nearly 100,000 volumes. 
^ Hamburg is a great seaport, an industrial and manu- 
facturing centre, somewhat resembling Glasgow. In 
the fifties a small collection of objects illustrative of 
archaeology and ethnography, prehistoric antiquities, 
and Hamburg antiquities, was established in the 
rooms of the Natural History Society of Hamburg. 
These were embraced under the general title of His- 
torical-Culture Museum (Culturhistorisches Museum), 
and placed under the management of a Commission. 
In 1878 the ethnographical department was trans- 
ferred to the hall in the museum-building in the 
Steinthorplatz, and took the name of " Museum fiir 
Volkerkunde." A new Commission was appointed, 
and at the same time Herr C. W. Luders gave his 
valuable collection to the city, and, later, parts of the 
ethnographical and anthropological sections of the rich 
museum brought together by the untiring efforts of 
the great mercantile firm of Godeffroy were acquired.^ 
When the new Natural History Museum was built, 
the collections were transferred to it and arranged 
in 1 89 1. The ethnographical and archaeological 

' There is an excellent catalogue of these sections, by Schmaltz and 
Krause, Die Ethnoi^raphisch-Aiithropologische Abtheiliing dcs Museum 
Godeffroy in Ha7}ilmrg. Hamburg, 1881, 8vo. See also Schmeltz, Filhrer 
durch das Museum Godeffroy. Hamburg, 1882, 8vo. Schmeltz is now 
keeper of the Ethnographical Museum at Leyden. 

As to Johann Cesar Godeffroy himself (1813- 188 5), see Meyers, Konver- 
sations-Lexikon, s.v. ; and " Museum Godeffroy " in The Popttlar Science 
Monthly, viii., p. 699. New York, 1876. 

The principal part of the ethnographical collection went to Leipzig. 
The remainder of the museum was purchased by Mr. Damon, of 
Weymouth. 



2 54 GLASGOW CITY MUSEUMS 

objects occupy the upper floor in the new building ; 
they are very numerous and representative, and 
are admirably arranged. 

Besides its museum of natural history and archae- 
ology, ethnography and anthropology, Hamburg has 
a museum of Arts and Industries, a botanical museum 
and laboratory, excellent chemical, physical and metal- 
lurgical laboratories,^ and a great town library of 
600,000 printed and 5000 manuscript volumes.^ The 
population of Hamburg is considerably less than that 
of Glasgow, but its appliances for scientific research 
are far superior to ours.^ 

What is required in Glasgow as in Hamburg is a 
Special Commission to take charge of and enlarge the 
museums of Archaeology, Ethnography, and the 
Applied Arts. It is not questioned that the inten- 
tions of the Town Council have been o-ood ; but in 
order fully to develop the collections, it is necessary 
that there should be added to the administration a 
certain number of citizens who have special knowledge 
of the subject. The plan of a hybrid Commission 
composed partly of citizens and partly of members of 
the municipal body, is universal in France, Germany, 
and the United States, and has been found to work to 

^ Brinckinann, Das HanibiifgiscJie Museum fiir Kunst und Gewerbe, 
Hamburg, 1894, 8vo ; Mittheilungen der anthropologischen Gesellschaft 
in Wicn^ xviii. (1888), p. 143. 

■^Petersen, Geschichte der Hamburger Stadtbibliothek. Hamburg, 
1838, 8vo. 

2 The Hamburg Observatory is maintained by the town, and does 
excellent service in the interests of the port. The Town Council of Glas- 
gow recently withdrew a small annual grant to the Glasgow Observatory 
for transmitting correct time, and it was with great difficulty that it could 
be induced to restore it. 



GLASGOW CITY MUSEUMS 255 

the greatest advantaofe. It is also the rule in this 
country where the Library Acts are in operation, and 
this would be one of the advantages that would 
have been gained if these Acts had been adopted in 
Glasgow. 

Instead of adopting the Acts the Corporation ob- 
tained, in 1899, special powers, under a Tramways 
Act,^ for taxing the city for the maintenance of public 
libraries. Their object was to get rid of a Commis- 
sion, as required by the general law,- and to secure to 
the Town Council the sole and uncontrolled adminis- 
tration.^ Unfortunately, no body less fitted than the 
Town Council to create and administer libraries could 
have been selected. The administration must neces- 
sarily be that of officials, which may be good or may 
be bad, but can never be independent, while the 
Council can thwart good or accentuate bad manage- 
ment. The town museums ars in the same plight. A 
more vigorous and enlightened administration, and a 
more liberal expenditure of money are required in 
order to place the municipal museums of Glasgow in 
anything like the position which they ought to occupy. 

When Professor Bastian was put in charge of the 
great Ethnographical Museum of Berlin, one of the 
first steps that he took was to bring together a Com- 
mittee of Assistance of prominent citizens, which has 

^ " An Act to authorise the Corporation of the City of Glasgow to con- 
struct new tramways, to establish libraries, to extend the boundaries of 
the city, to raise further moneys, and for other purposes " (62 and 63 Vict, 
c. clxvi.) §§ 29-41. 

2 " The Pubhc Libraries Act (Scotland) 1867 " (30 and 31 Vict. c. 37) § 14. 

3 This was so stated by the Lord Provost at a meeting of the Council 
on 20th September, 1897. The Glasgow Herald, 21st September, 1897. 



256 GLASGOW UNIVERSITY MUSEUM 

been of the orreatest use in obtaininof funds, enllstinor 
sympathy, and in organising collecting expeditions 
and other work. 

Glasgow has an ancient history extending back to 
the period of the Roman domination, with many evi- 
dences of a much earlier occupation. A museum of 
Old Glasgow, similar to the museum of the City of 
Vienna, to the Provincial Museum of Berlin or the 
Musee Carnavalet of Paris, could still be formed, but 
the lapse of each succeeding year adds to the difficulty. 
Alongside of such a museum would appropriately be 
placed a collection illustrating, chronologically and 
topographically, the domestic life, home industries and 
costumes of the people of Scotland, such as we find in 
every town of any importance on the Continent and 
in many in America. If there be much further delay 
in commencing; the formation of a Museum of Scottish 
History and Civilization, every trace of Scotland as it 
was will have vanished.^ 

Considering the limited funds at the disposal of the 
authorities the collections in the University museum 
are good and are well shown. A large sum of money 
is, however, necessary to bring the museum and the 
University library up to present-day requirements and 
to maintain them in an efficient state. The late 

1 The Museum fiir osterreichische Volkskunde, in Vienna, is an excel- 
lent example of this kind .of museum. Another is the Museum flir 
deutsche \'olkstrachten und Erzeugnisse des Hausgewerbes, in Berlin. 

One of the features of the National Museum at Wellington, N.Z., is a 
beautiful Maori house. The house, besides being a perfect specimen of 
Maori art, contains a large collection of weapons, household appliances, 
and other objects illustrative of Maori life and culture. 

Maori art is well described by Hamilton, T/ie Art Workmanship of 
the Maori Race iii Neiv Zealand. Dunedin, 1896, 410. 



FURTHER ENDOWMENT 257 

University Commission made no provision for either. 
They disposed of the whole of the additional grant 
made by Parliament for University purposes without 
reference either to library or museum, and left the 
income of both much as it had been half a century 
before, althousfh the number of students and of the 
teach ino- staff is doubled, and the need of a well- 
equipped library and museum has been becoming more 
pressing every year. The only step which the Com- 
mission took in reference to the museum was to issue 
a draft ordinance for the sale of the Hunterian coins, 
which they were, with some difficulty, induced to cancel.^ 
To bring" the Universitv abreast of the times a further 
grant is urgently needed for the library and museum 
as well as for laboratories, apparatus and additional 
staff. This provision is required not only for medicine 
and science, but also for philology and history. 
L' The anatomical collections in the University museum 
and the collections of natural history and geology 
are used as aids in the teaching of certain subjects, 
but no practical use is made of the other collec- 
tions, as no means exist at present for doing so. 
The recently published catalogue — the first of an 
intended series — of the coins in Dr. Hunter's 
collection shows the rich store of material that the 
University possesses in this department,- and yet it has 

^ General Report of the Commissioners under the Universities {Scotland) 
Act; 1889, pp. xlii., 237. Edinburgh, 1900. fol. 

2 Since the above was written a Lectureship of Classical Archaeology 
has been established in the University of Glasgow. New rooms for the 
botanical, anatomical and surgical museums have been provided and a 
museum of materia medica has been organized. 

A grant by the Carnegie Trustees has also done something towards 
filling up blanks in the library. 

R 



258 MUSEUMS IN TEACHING 

to lie dormant for lack of a professor of classical 
archaeology. In most Continental Universities ample 
provision is made for subjects such as this, and for 
takino- full advantaoe of museum collections. In 
the University of Berlin there is not only a professor 
but also five privat-docents of classical archaeology 
whose lectures are based on the collections in the 
museum, and several of the numerous professors and 
lecturers on classical philology use the same collections 
for illustrating their expositions of the classics. In 
some German Universities there is likewise a Chair 
of Christian Archaeology, with a special collection 
of objects and a library of reference for the use 
of the department. This subject is not confined to 
Roman Catholic institutions, but is thoroughly and 
systematically studied in several of the Protestant 
Universities, and one of the leading German text-books 
is by the pastor of a rural parish.^ In Germany 
museums are made the basis of instruction, and every 
subject which can be made intelligible by means of 
a museum is provided with a teacher. With us 
museums are regarded too much as mere exhibitions, 
and are too little employed for practical teaching. 

^ Handbuch der kirklichen Kwist-Archdologie des deiitscJien Mitt el- 
alters^ by Dr. Henrich Otte, pastor of Frohden. Leipzig, 1883-84. Fifth 
edition. See as to museums of Christian Archaeology. Op. laud., i., p. 7. 

In Berhn there is a "Verein fiir religiose Kunst in der evangelischen 
Kirche " with a membership of between 300 and 40c. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



THE USES OF MUSEUMS. 



The faculty which is the least trained, under our 
present system of education, is that of observation, 
and yet none is of greater value and none is de- 
serving- of more careful cultivation. While accurate 
observation is the foundation of all original scientific 
work, we do comparatively little to develop the 
habit in the young. Their eyes are holden that 
they can see nothing save book-print. The museum 
ought to be an adjunct of the schoolroom, as it 
now is of the University lecture-room, and children 
should be trained to observe just as they are taught 
to cypher or to swim. 

In a general sense a museum is a popular educator. 
It provides recreation and instruction for all classes 
and for all ages. Its doors are open to all alike, and 
each visitor gets profit or pleasure by viewing its 
objects just as he does from a visit to a picture 
gallery. The modern museum has, however, more 
definite aims. A museum has now become a recog- 
nised and necessary instrument of research ; it plays 
an important part in university and technical instruc- 

259 



26o MUSEUMS AS 

tion, and it should be adopted as an aid in elementary 
and secondary education. 

The majority of our museums are general museums 
open to the public and intended for the preservation 
of suitable objects of various kinds, and for rendering 
these useful for instruction and amusement. In some 
cases, general museums have been established or 
extended with the special object of assisting in 
education, and in others provision is made for carrying 
on research work. But taking museums as a whole, 
far too little use is made of them as ordinary instru- 
ments of education. 

It is the practice in Denmark and Sweden for 
schoolmasters to conduct their pupils through a depart- 
ment of their town-museum, and to explain to them 
the more important and typical objects of some section 
of it. This familiarises the children with the objects, 
it teaches them what to observe and how to dis- 
tinguish points of difference, and to recognise points 
of resemblance. It compels them to employ their 
own eyes and not to depend upon those of others. 
Black-board illustrations, photographs, coloured draw- 
ings, lantern demonstrations, are all excellent in their 
way, but, as a rule, a lesson from the object itself is 
superior to one from a picture of the object. Size, in 
particular, is a characteristic which is very imperfectly, 
and often inaccurately, learnt from a drawing. Book 
illustrations are not made to any particular scale. 
Each draughtsman pleases himself, and objects in 
the same set of illustrations are frequently drawn to 
different scales. The result is that one often forms 
a wrong conception of an object, which he knows 



INSTRUMENTS OF EDUCATION 26 1 

only from a drawing or a photograph. Museum 
lessons to school children are not unknown in this 
country, but they are not carried on systematically 
as part of our educational methods, and are intended 
rather for amusement than for serious instruction. 

Some of our museums are designed for educational 
purposes ; and others prepare specimens, which are 
lent to schools in their neighbourhood. Some schools 
are furnished with type specimens of certain classes 
of objects, just as some are provided with casts of 
works of ancient art or models of modern machines.^ 
All these are excellent in their way, but do not 
supersede the necessity for larger and more general 
collections. A school cannot be turned into a scientific 
academy, and a school museum can seldom be of 
such extent as to make it independent of other col- 
lections. There is too much of so-called science 
taught in schools at present, and to add to this any- 
thing like technical instruction in a museum would 
ruin elementary education. But children ought to 
understand something of the ordinary things mentioned 
in their lessons. These are explained nowadays by 
woodcuts in school books, or in books of reference, 
or by diagrams or plates on the walls of the school- 
room, but this should be supplemented by an in- 
spection of the actual objects. The canoes, weapons, 
implements and house-goods of primitive times, the 
arms and armour, horse trappings and banners of the 

^When the Glasgow Normal School was founded in 1836 it was 
arranged to provide it with a museum and a library. Third Report of 
the Glasgozu Educational Society's Norinal Seminary, p. 22. Glasgow, 
1837, 8vo. 



262 MUSEUM VISITORS 

middle ages, as seen in a museum, and explained by 
a competent teacher, will make a far more vivid 
impression on the pupil, and will give far more 
accurate ideas than a library of illustrated books. 
The same applies to the natural productions of our own 
and of foreign countries; to the ordinary beasts, birds, 
and fishes. The sight of even a poorly set up 
whale in a museum will tell more to a learner than 
an accurate drawing to scale. 

The usefulness of a town or general museum should 
not, however, be dependent upon the services of a 
guide. As far as possible it should be self-interpreting; 
it should explain itself. Museum lectures and demon- 
strations, in which certain objects or sections are 
explained by an expert, are of the greatest value 
and are a happy means, in some cases, of popularising 
science, and in others of assisting scientific students. 
The success of such lectures and demonstrations is, 
nevertheless, dependent, to a large extent, upon the 
arrangement and display of the exhibits, and the better 
the work of the curator is done the more does the 
museum become an instrument of education in the 
hands of the lecturer. 

The majority of the visitors to museums are not 
classes or societies, but units. Some are students who 
come for a definite purpose, and to obtain certain 
information. Others are beginners groping their way, 
and seeking to grasp more clearly what they have been 
learnino; from text-books. The laroer number of all 
visitors have probably no very distinct aim before them, 
but all wish to know what the object is they are look- 
ing at, and to have some general information about it. 



MUSEUM ARRANGEMENTS 263 

For all visitors, methodical and scientific arrangement, 
easy and unobstructed means of observing, and proper 
labelling are essential. The objects must be arranged 
according to the best accepted system. They must 
be placed so as to be seen. One must not interfere 
with the other. The cases must not be overcrowded, 
and every object must be shortly and systematically 
described. There was something to be said for the 
scheme of the old museums which brought a number 
of large and striking objects into view as the visitor 
entered the museum. The modern method of setting 
out natural history specimens impresses the imagina- 
tion of the ordinary visitor, and gives him in a 
concrete form the result of years of patient observa- 
tion of many trained naturalists. The display and 
grouping of the objects are, as far as possible, an 
exact reproduction of nature itself, and the sight of 
birds, or other wild creatures in their native haunts, 
is a source of much pleasure to the least instructed 
visitor, while it enables the student to see with ease 
what he probably may never have an opportunity of 
observing for himself. Better methods of taxidermy, 
improved methods of arrangement have done much 
to make the zoological departments of our museums 
most valuable educational aids. He must be a dull 
man who does not derive pleasure or instruction from 
a natural history museum arranged on modern lines. ^ 
J'v good guide book with a clue-plan should be found 

^ Since the above was written an interesting account of Sir William 
Flowers work in museum arrangement and the preparation and exhibition 
of specimens has appeared in Charles J. Cornish's Sir William Hetiry 
Flower: A personal I\Ie?noir. London, 1904, 8vo. 



264 HANDBOOKS AND LABELLING 

in every museum, but in many museums no cata- 
logue of any kind is to be had. The Trustees of the 
British Museum have pubHshed, for the use of students, 
elaborate catalogues of every department and collec- 
tion. They have also issued a series of short popular 
handbooks, prepared by the ablest officers of the staff, 
which have been of immense service in making known 
the contents of this vast storehouse, and in helping 
intelligent visitors to understand and appreciate the 
objects placed on view. The handbook to the Miner- 
alogical Department in Cromwell Road, for instance, 
is admirably adapted for enabling any person of ordi- 
nary intelligence to view the collection with pleasure 
and profit. Directions are placed in the gallery 
informing: the visitor how to examine the exhibits in 
the most profitable manner, and each exhibit is fully 
described on its own ticket. Of a similar character 
is the handbook, by Dr. W. D. Matthew, to the re- 
markable collection of fossil horses in the American 
Museum of Natural History in New York. 

The full and systematic labelling of specimens is a 
matter which has of late received much attention and 
is carefully carried out in the best museums. The 
provenance of the object is not, however, always 
recorded upon the ticket, which in many cases is a 
serious omission. As a rule it is of importance that 
the exact locality from which each specimen has been 
obtained should be recorded, and also in many cases 
the geological position of the spot. If it came from 
any particular collection this should be specified. This 
does not apply to archaeological objects alone ; it 
is equally necessary as respects zoological, geological, 



LOCAL MUSEUMS 265 

and other similar specimens. The date of finding or 
of acquisition is often Hkewise of importance. All 
these particulars and various others, such as the name 
and address of the donor, or of the vendor, should be 
recorded in the accession register, so that as far as 
possible the history of each specimen may be traced. 
The price paid should be recorded in the case of 
purchases. Every entry should be drafted and revised 
before being inserted in the register, and every ticket 
should be checked with the reoister before beinor 
issued. 

Every museum should, as far as possible, have a 
predominant character. This goes without saying in 
the case of a technical museum ; its special char- 
acter must necessarily predominate. But even in 
the case of a general museum it should have some 
distinctive feature. Local museums are necessarily 
general museums, and should aim at illustrating the 
town or district in which they are established. Such 
museums are often crowded with what are popularly- 
known as curiosities ; — odds and ends connected with 
the town, furniture and utensils presented to the 
museum simply because they are old and out of 
date, gifts by friends in foreign lands, — birds, beasts, 
eggs, and fossils. When huddled together in cabinets 
or on shelves such objects are useless for scientific 
purposes, and curators are far too ready to con- 
sign to the dust cart what they do not like, and 
much valuable material has in this way been de- 
stroyed. What is wanted in such cases is patience 
and method. Antique furniture and utensils, old- 
fashioned clothes, old prints and the like, when 



2 66 SPECIMENS 

properly arranged, become an historical museum, one 
of the most instructive and attractive sections of any 
collection. The materials of the great Northern 
Museum at Stockholm, of the Historical Museums 
at Berne and Basle, of the Carnavalet Museum in 
Paris, are mostly of a common-place character when 
taken individually, but when grouped together so as 
to bring before the eye the life of former days, they 
become of the greatest interest and value. 

Neither a local nor any other museum is to be 
filled with whatever comes handiest, without regard 
to its fitness. Every object acquired for the museum 
should be selected with a definite end in view, and 
should be placed in its appropriate position in relation 
to the other objects which it is intended to supplement 
or explain. As a rule, a poor specimen is better than 
a blank ; when a better one turns up the other will be 
removed. Every museum should aim at having the 
best available specimens. But while this is so, there 
is too great a tendency to get rid of exhibits merely 
because they are not in fashion, or because they 
represent some exploded doctrine. Obsolete speci- 
mens and old arrangements ought in many cases to 
be retained, for the very reason that they embody for- 
gotten ideas, and are to be shown as illustrating these. 

A museum should illustrate the growth and develop- 
ment of civilisation and the arts. Early printed books 
are of great interest and of considerable value ; and 
in many museums the progress of the art of printing is 
illustrated by examples. The first forms of machines 
are often highly prized, and museums of early inven- 
tions and old machines are not unknown. The 



MUSEUMS ACTS 267 

Specimens which ilhistrated the geology and natural 
history of two hundred years ago would be just as 
instructive, in their own way, if we could get hold 
of them, but many of them have been swept away 
by modern curators, who forget that at the end of 
fifty years much of what they now value will, in 
its turn, have become obsolete, and will be useful 
only for illustrating the science of the nineteenth 
century.^ 

Free libraries supported by the rates have spread, 
and are spreading all over the country. The oppor- 
tunity of consulting the best books is a boon to all 
classes of the community. The results have not, 
however, corresponded with the expectations that 
were formed by the advocates of free libraries. These 
libraries have no doubt afforded amusement to large 
numbers of the population, and the free library is 
a comfortable lounge for idlers on a rainy day and 
during strikes, but the solid advantages of the 
scheme have been confined, almost wholly, to those 
who are students. Free museums were in the field 
before free libraries, but have not been so vigorously 
pushed. In 1845 an Act (8 and 9 Victoria, c. 43) 

1 One of the survivals is the fine chipped flint, " coup de pong," found 
near Gray's Inn Lane about 1690, and now in the British Museum. It 
is the earliest recorded find of a flint implement in the Quaternary 
gravels, whether in Britain or in any other country. See Evans, Ancient 
Stone Implements, p. 581, second edition, London, 1897; Boyd Davvkins, 
Early Man in Britain, p. 158, London, 1880. 

It seems to have been acquired by John Conyers [supra, p. 134) ; 
from whose collection it passed into that of John Kemp {supra, p. 124)^ 
then to Sir Hans Sloane, and with his collection to the British Museum 
{supra, p. 139). If all the old collections had been preserved, it may 
be that other equally interesting finds would have been disclosed. 



268 TOWN MUSEUMS 

was passed, enabling Town Councils of boroughs 
having a population exceeding 10,000 persons to 
levy a small rate for the establishment of museums 
of Art and Science for the instruction and amuse- 
ment of the inhabitants. This was followed in 
1850 by the Public Libraries Act of that year 
(13 and 14 Victoria, c. 65), which recited "that it is 
expedient to promote the establishment and exten- 
sion of Public Libraries, and to give greater facilities 
than now exist for establishing and extending Public 
Museums of Art and Science in Municipal Boroughs, 
for the instruction and recreation of the people," and 
made provision accordingly.^ Various amending Acts 
have been passed enlarging the scope of both statutes, 
and free museums are now commonly joined with free 
libraries, but there are many such libraries without 
corresponding museums. 

Town Museums, whether supported by the rates or 
otherwise, are necessarily local museums, and should 
have a local character.^ The history of the town, the 
flora and fauna, the geology and archaeology of the 

^ In the same year the Act for the better preservation of Works of 
Art and Scientific and Literary Collections (8 and 9 Victoria, c. 44) was 
passed. 

2 Lord Bacon recommended that for the proper pursuit of natural 
science histories should be written, or at least exact catalogues prepared, 
of the metals, minerals, plants, and animals of each district. Acting 
upon the suggestion, Joshua Childrey (1623-70) prepared and published : 
Britannia Baco7iica; or the 7iattiral rarities of Enxiajid, Scotland and 
Wales, according as they are to be found in every Shire, historically 
related accordini^ to the precepts of the Lord Bacon. London, 1660, 
8vo, and again 1661 and 1662. It was translated into French, Paris, 
1667, 8vo. 

Sibbald's Scotia lllustrata, Edinburgh, 1684, fol. was another attempt 
in the same direction. 



BENEFITS FROM MUSEUMS 269 

district ought to be represented as fully as practicable, 
so that the townsfolk may have the opportunity of 
becoming- acquainted with their own town and neigh- 
bourhood from the point of view of history and science. 
/ A town museum should have as its aims amusement, 
culture, scientific study and research, and technical 
instruction. If you join any knot of labouring men, 
or some family party as they go round a good 
museum on a holiday, you will be surprised to find 
what intense enjoyment they have in looking at 
well-known natural objects, the larger animals, the 
brilliant plumage of birds from far-off lands. They go 
for amusement and they get it, but in addition they 
carry away a certain amount of information which is 
useful in itself and gives pleasure when recalled. A 
museum is the easiest means of self-instruction. 
It is one of the surest means of producing en- 
lightenment and of raising the people above the 
depressing influence of dull and common-place sur- 
roundings, 

Ingenuas didicisse fideliter artes 
Emollit mores, nee sinit esse feros. 

^' To the more thoughtful visitor the museum is an 
instrument of culture and education. In it he has 
presented to him the results of science in an 
easily intelligible form. A museum has inspired 
many a youthful visitor with a love of nature, and is 
the means by which the amateur naturalist can most 
readily and most certainly enlarge his knowledge 
and test the correctness of his own observations. 
Schoolboys and young men are always to be seen 
comparing their specimens with those in the museum 



270 TRADES AND INDUSTRIES 

cases, identifying species, or checking their own 
identifications. To the man of science a crood 
museum is essential. Its collections are a fair 
index of what has been ascertained on any particular 
subject, and give him a definite basis from which 
to w^ork. 
^, A local museum may be made conducive to the 
development and improvement of the trade and indus- 
tries of the place. Commercial, economic, and tech- 
nical museums, to which reference has already been 
made, have been of the greatest benefit to the towns 
in which they exist. Several of our town museums 
have added to their collections a special section to 
illustrate the industries of the place. This is as it 
should be, but the system might be greatly extended. 
A handicraftsman may be no great reader, and may 
not be able to follow detailed accounts, such as are 
given in technical handbooks, of machinery, designs, or 
manufacturing processes, but every workman under- 
stands and is interested in his own craft, and can 
appreciate and profit by actual examples illustrating 
the development and improvement of some pattern or 
movement, some tool or process. The eye of the 
artificer is trained and his taste cultivated by the study 
of form and colour as displayed in the productions of 
the most skilful workmen. Chantry often mentioned 
the inconvenience he had experienced in his early days 
from the want of opportunity of training his eye by the 
inspection of the best models. Familiarity with such 
models insensibly cultivates the taste and trains the 
eye of the artist. It is said that the Romans only 
besfan to esteem art after the collection of statues in the 



SERVICES RENDERED BY MUSEUMS 2/1 

city had increased to such an extent as to make them 
common. Having become accustomed to look upon 
beautiful objects, they gradually came to understand 
and to appreciate them. " Where a people have free 
access to the means of instruction afforded in the 
memorials of their past success, in the arts of civil- 
ization, and can glory in the names which have made 
their country renowned by genius, and skill, there is 
hope of a new^ birth to greatness ; \nd however free 
and powerful, where our people ar6\ systematically 
excluded from the sight and enjoyment\of the proofs 
of our present refinement and progress in the arts, 
and never by the remotest chance see such testi- 
monies of the national growth to greatness — of our 
progress from early times in art and science, or learn 
to be proud of our national history by its monu- 
ments — of its heroes by the memorials of them which 
art can alone provide, there is an element of decay," ^ 
■-^ The establishment of science and art museums 
has been of great service in improving the artistic 
side of our manufactures, and has in this way been 
of substantial advantage to the manufacturing 
industries of the country, and if these museums 
were more systematically used they would be of still 
greater advantage. Technical schools and colleges 
are springing up on all hands, but a technical museum 
is a necessary adjunct ; and every town that has a 
technical school or college should endeavour to supple- 
ment the teaching of lecturers by the town museum, 

^ C. H. Wilson, On the Formation of Provincial MuseujHs and Collections 
of Works of Art, in Transactions of the Architectural htstitute of Scotland, 
1854-55, P- 56. 



272 MUSEUMS AS AIDS 

just as they provide technical books in the town 
library. In Glasgow we have an admirable School of 
Weaving, Dyeing and Printing, with a small but 
appropriate museum. As a complement to technical 
instruction in the construction of the loom, in the 
arts of weaving, calico printing and dyeing and in 
designing, a series of carefully selected examples of 
different kinds of looms, of woven and printed fabrics 
of various descriptions, of the materials used and the 
designs employed, such a museum is essential. But 
in a manufacturinQ[' town in which weavino- and calico 
printing are amongst its leading industries, the public 
museums should make special provision for assisting 
these industries. To a certain extent it is now done, 
but the scheme could with advantage be much 
extended. Glasgow is one of the great centres of 
shipbuilding, and its museums ought to represent much 
more fully than they do models of the hulls of vessels 
of all types arranged in sequence of development, 
the scheme of rigging and sails of sailing vessels, the 
machinery of steamboats, and the various apparatus 
required on shipboard. 

Writing nearly fifty years ago, an eminent Glasgow 
citizen, Mr. Charles Heath Wilson, pointed out how 
municipal museums might be utilised in connection 
with local architecture: "To take one item of a munici- 
pal museum — architectural designs — let us think for a 
moment what London might have possessed, had the 
municipality but entertained the idea which I now pre- 
sent to you, had the plans, elevations, perspective views, 
and models of all the buildings, which, since the time 
of Sir Christopher Wren, have been successively laid 



OF MANUFACTURES AND COMMERCE 273 

before that great corporation been preserved in one 
place. Consider for one moment the priceless value, 
the indescribable interest of such a collection. When 
in London with my colleagues of the Council, we 
visited dusty depositories in search of such municipal 
treasures, we found one sketch by Wren, the sketches 
by Thornhill for his Chiaroscuri in the Cupola of 
St. Paul's, and very little sketches they were, and 
besides these, thickly coated with dust, some half- 
dozen models of city improvements. Our municipali- 
ties pay for drawings and models, it is only necessary , 
to frame, glaze, register, and preserve them. I think 
that I need hardly speak of the value of such collec- 
tions, for reference, for instruction, and for a variety of 
purposes which must present themselves to your 
minds." ^ 

/ The arts and crafts a.re not the only things that 
can be advanced by a museum. It can do much for 
a trading community. Articles of commerce, the 
raw materials, the processes by which these are 
obtained, the manufactured goods, the style in 
which they are made up, the boxes and bales and 
wrappers most suitable for each market can all be 
shown with advantage in a commercial and economic 
museum, and the town museum of a commercial 
community should as far as possible serve the purpose 
of such a museum. We are being constantly reminded 
that trade is lost to this country because British 
manufacturers and merchants will not provide the 

* On the Formation of Provincial Museums and Collections of Works of 
Art, in Transactions of the Architectural htstitute of Scotland, 1854-55, 
p. 59. 

S 



2 74 COUNTY MUSEUMS 

class of goods wanted by particular countries or will 
not make them up as foreign buyers desire. This, 
to a certain extent, is true, and insular conservatism 
is blamed, but it is not the only reason why our 
manufacturers do not meet the requirements of foreign 
customers. Ignorance has more to do with the matter. 
Whenever the British manufacturer knows precisely 
what is wanted, and is satisfied that it will pay him 
to make the necessary alterations on his machinery, 
designs or methods he will make it. If he could 
examine the article required, ascertain by inspection 
how it is to be used, and what form, size, or design 
is more suitable for one market than another, he 
would have reliable data on which to act. Without 
this the reason for the change proposed may not 
be obvious. 

The museum of a county town ought to have an 
agricultural section. Many County Councils provide 
lectures on agricultural subjects ; but there is much 
that the farmer and the husbandman can learn by the 
eye in an appropriate museum, and it is far easier and 
pleasanter to learn by observation than by the ear. 
Information so obtained is more firmly grasped and 
retained than if got from a book or a lecture. 
Hence the necessity and the importance of methodical 
arrangement, of concise and accurate labelling in 
every museum. 

As an instrument of scientific research a well- 
equipped museum is nowadays indispensable A 
museum is once again, as in the days of the Ptolemies, 
a place for study ; and one of the features of a great 
museum such as those of W^ashington, and Harvard, 



MUSEUMS OF RESEARCH 275 

of the Natural History Museums of London or of 
Paris, is the provision made for systematic study 
and for following out special lines of research. A 
working library, a laboratory, and a workshop are the 
essential adjuncts of the modern museum, just as a 
lantern, with screen and slides, and an electro-motor 
are part of the apparatus of every scientific lecture 
room. Every Professor of a branch of science 
requires a museum and a laboratory for his depart- 
ment ; and accordingly in all our great universities 
and other teaching institutions we have independent 
museums of botany, palaeontology, geology, miner- 
alogy, and zoology, of anatomy, physiology, pathology, 
and materia medica, of archaeology — prehistoric and 
historic, classical and Christian — each subject taught 
having its own appropriate collection. The provision 
and maintenance of these collections, and of the 
apparatus needed for turning them to account, add 
largely to the cost of scientific education as com- 
pared with even a few years ago, but it is impossible 
to teach any branch of science or to carry out any 
scientific investigation without such appliances. The 
subdivision of labour, the specialisation on small 
sections of a great subject demand special collec- 
tions and apparatus to meet their needs, so that the 
cost of scientific museums and their accessories is 
ever expanding. One general museum used to be 
thought enough for a well-equipped University. 
This is now supplemented by a score of depart- 
mental collections, and these are found insufficient. 
Such collections, however, are for teaching and 
working purposes merely, and do not supersede the 



276 ACCESSORIES 

general collection, which requires to be far more 
extensive and representative than was formerly deemed 
necessary, even in a strictly scientific museum. Each 
branch of science is dependent upon its neighbour, 
and each shades into the other. It is impossible, for 
instance, to study living forms of plants or animals with- 
out reference to extinct forms, and a palaeontological 
collection must supplement the botanical and zoo- 
logical departments. The palaeontological shades into 
the geological and the geological into the mineral- 
ogical department, and so on. If we seek to illustrate 
human progress, we enter upon a vast and ever-widen- 
ing field. Anthropologists and archaeologists are 
slowly reconstructing in visible form the history of the 
past. Each part is being fitted into its place like the 
articulations of some ancient animal, and the skeleton 
is being clothed with muscle and tissue and skin as it 
was in life. It is in the museum that this is being 
done, and to enable it to be accomplished the museum- 
authority must aim at full and extensive collections, 
and these must be arranged with the greatest care and 
fulness of knowledge. 

The laboratory and the work-room make consider- 
able demands upon the resources of a museum. Large 
quantities of material for research must be provided, a 
thing which was hardly thought of until recently. The 
note books of a student in his laboratory work are 
now considered a better test of his training and pro- 
gress than a sheaf of certificates of attendance upon 
lectures. Observation, reflection and resource are 
developed in the laboratory. 

Skilled assistance is required in a museum to an 



MUSEUM BULLETINS 277 

extent which, a generation since, was unknown. It 
is impossible, however, without such assistance to 
utilise the collections for the purposes of research 
or to employ them as means of instruction and for 
the training^ of observers and investio-ators. The 
relation between collection and apparatus, teachers 
and workers must balance. Material is useless 
without apparatus for treating it, research cannot 
be pursued without workers, teaching without 
demonstrators and students. The salary account 
has consequently increased and will continue to 
increase. Printing is an additional item of expense 
which a good museum must incur. The work in the 
museum to become useful must be communicated to 
the world and bulletins containing information as to 
the results of research, the preparation and mounting 
of specimens and the accessions to the collection 
should be issued. Several of the American museums 
publish such bulletins and collect them into volumes 
at intervals. The Novitates Zoologicae of the Hon. 
Mr. Rothschild's museum at Trin^ are well known. 

A oreneral museum cannot be turned into a school of 
research, and it would cease to be a means of general 
instruction and information if it were. But by means 
of type specimens and judicious arrangement it can 
at once satisfy the wants of the scientific visitor, of 
the student, and of the ordinary visitor. From lack 
of space very few museums are able to display all 
their specimens in such a subject as natural history, 
and even if they could it would not be wise to do so, 
as many objects are injured by exposure to light 
and also by dust which invades the best constructed 



278 MUSEUM EXHIBITS 

cases. It is sufficient for ordinary purposes to exhibit 
merely the typical objects, but a notice placed beside 
the examples shown should state that the other 
members of the series can be seen upon application 
to the curator. It is also desirable, in some instances, 
to change the exhibits from time to time, so that 
all the more important should be shown in turn. 
Most museums have duplicates. These should 
not be shown, as this only leads to confusion : 
duplicates are, however, always useful for special 
examination or experiment, or for exchange. 

A picture gallery and a library are regarded as 
essential in every well-regulated town. Why should 
a museum not be considered equally necessary ? A 
museum is a library of illustrations, bibliotheca sine 
libris, as it has been termed by Schelhammer, and 
it is just as important to provide objects for study 
as to provide books which tell about them. A library 
of classical archaeology is of little use without a 
museum of ancient sculpture or of casts to illustrate 
it. No one can become a palaeontologist or a miner- 
aloQ:ist without a cabinet of fossils or of minerals. 
History, as now pursued, is founded upon the study 
not only of original documents, but of all the objects 
of public and private life that are accessible. The 
novelist is not satisfied unless he portrays the times 
he describes with the accuracy of an archaeologist, 
and the stage depicts the scene it presents as 
faithfully as possible. The material for such study 
and equipment are to be found principally in museums. 
The descriptions in books, and even the delineations 
of artists, can be made thoroughly intelligible only 



MUSEUM STUDIES 279 

by an examination of the object described or repre- 
sented. To study archaeology without a museum is 
like studying art without a gallery, or anatomy with- 
out a subject. Many of the best modern works on 
archaeology, such as those of Sir John Evans, Joseph 
Anderson, and Dr. Robert Munro, of Bertrand and 
Reinach, Montelius, and Sophus Miiller, Linden- 
schmidt and Von Sacken, are practically museum 
studies, systematic expositions of museum exhibits. 

An objection often urged against rate-supported 
libraries is the excessive quantity of poor fiction that is 
provided and read. But go beyond this and note the 
books in the hands of the readers in the Reading Room 
of any free, rate-supported library, and which figure in 
the official returns as "history," "biography," "travels," 
"science," or under some other imposing title, and it 
will be seen that they are mostly books of ephemeral 
interest, of no real value, and not possessing the merit 
which many works of fiction have, of being literature. 
The proportion of standard works either of literature 
or science that is consulted is very small, and of 
those that are read still smaller. The readers who 
call for such books are mostly university or technical 
college students, who sometimes find the public refer- 
ence library a convenient place for working up a 
subject. Comparatively few general readers, and it 
is they who chiefly use such libraries, consult any- 
thing but the class of books that are supplied by the 
ordinary circulating library. 

In the museum there are no "penny dreadfuls,' 
no "pot-boilers." The exhibits placed on view are the 
best that can be obtained and are the same to every 



28o MATERIAL FOR MUSEUMS 

visitor. The casual observer looks upon the same 
objects as the man of science. The one may derive 
more instruction from his inspection than the other 
does, but this is the result of training. The one 
has learned to use his eyes, the other has not. 
The museum, however, does not, like the library, 
require to provide material for the idler as well as 
for the man of science. Its collections are all of the 
highest class and of permanent value. The specimens 
do not grow out of date, nor are they superseded by 
newer ones. On the contrary, each addition generally 
enhances the value of those on hand. It helps to 
complete a group ; it illustrates some feature in the 
former exhibits, and will probably be itself in turn 
illustrated by some later addition. Another advantage 
a museum has, as compared with a library, is that the 
objects are not depreciated in value by being passed 
through the hands of casual visitors or made vehicles 
of disease, as often happens with books. It is sad to 
see in the rate-supported libraries a so-called reader 
with foul clothes and filthy hands vacantly turning 
over the plates of some handsome volume, and 
another burying his face in the outspread pages of 
a stately folio, and going to sleep. 

In no way can time or money be more profitably 
employed than in providing and maintaining museums. 
Much requires to be done, and the work should be 
pressed on without delay. Exhibits of many kinds 
are becoming scarcer and more difficult to obtain. 
This applies even in the case of some Natural 
History specimens, and it is especially so as regards j 
ethnographical objects. Material is rapidly disappear- 



EXPENDITURE 281 

ing. It would be more difficult to furnish an historical 
museum now than it would have been fifty years 
ago, but it would be easier to do so now than it 
will be even a generation hence. Objects of archaeo- 
logical value are constantly being found, but as a rule 
they are more suitable for supplementing the collec- 
tions of existing museums than of setting out new 
ones. Every year increases the difficulty, for there 
are certain classes of objects which turn up only 
occasionally, and when they do they generally pass 
into some existing collection. On the other hand 
there is a considerable amount of material that is 
lost because there is no museum to receive it. This 
would not be so if there was a local museum. (Objects 
which would be of comparatively small interest in a 
general museum acquire a value, when preserved in 
the place where they are found. ^ This is the function 
of local museums. A museum is wanted in every 
county to bring together the objects of interest 
found in the district, particularly such as illustrate 
its antiquities and history, its people and their 
surroundings, their industries and trade. 

A large expenditure is requisite for maintaining 
the older and well-established museums. A general 
museum must endeavour to keep all its sections abreast 
of the times, and this requires constant watchfulness, 
sound learning, great labour, and considerable expendi- 
ture of money. The weakest part of a museum is gener- 

^ A notable example of what can be done in this way is the collection 
made by James Smith, "the Whitechapel antiquary," a working man 
in London, whose collections have found a place in the Guildhall 
Museum, and add materially to its interest and value. As to James 
Smith see the Bibliography^ Vol. III., s.v. Smith (James). 



252 EXPENDITURE 

ally the financial, but as a rule it is the part which can 
most easily be strengthened. 

Money is grudged for museum purposes by the 
Imperial Exchequer as well as by the finance com- 
mittees of towns and counties. This arises, to a 
large extent, from ignorance. Funds are voted readily 
for the purchase of pictures, but very sparingly for 
museum exhibits. Town councillors and county 
councillors are slow to appreciate the value of 
museums and the necessity of keeping them up-to- 
date. There is a general impression amongst those 
who have the control of public money that any col- 
lection will answer the purposes of a museum, that 
once a museum is established it requires little or no 
attention, and that any person can take charge of it. 
The truth is, that considerable and increasing ex- 
penditure is essential. Large, well-designed, well- 
equipped, well-heated, and well-lighted buildings are 
required. A sufficient and competent staff is neces- 
sary, and must be liberally remunerated. A museum 
curator ought to be a man of culture and resource ; 
his assistants must have a thorough knowledge of 
several branches of science, and must possess much 
manual dexterity. Specimens niust be got and paid 
for, and in many cases carefully prepared for exhibi- 
tion. A museum cannot depend for its supply upon 
the generosity of friends or the resources of the 
dealer. Collection in the field is often necessary and 
a scientific expedition of the most modest character 
is apt to be costly. Provision must be made for the 
staff and for a certain number of students carrying 
on research work, and for the provision of scientific 



MANAGEMENT OF MUSEUMS 263 

apparatus. For these, and many other purposes, 
liberal orants are required. The money can in most 
cases be provided if the authorities see fit to vote it ; 

[^ the material to be collected, the men to carry on 

ythe work are more difficult to find. 

Some museums are under the management of univer- 
sities and scientific institutions. Others are controlled 
by town councils and other local bodies. It is essential 
to transfer the management of the latter to specially 
selected commissions, composed of persons possessed 
of knowledo^e of the needs and aims of a modern 
museum. It is sheer waste of public money to entrust 
to town councils the administration of the funds raised 
by assessment for libraries and museums. Institutions 
in the hands of such bodies are no doubt managed, 
after a fashion, but they are managed not by the 
councillors but by the officials they appoint, and just 
to the extent that these gentlemen possess the art of 
handlingf and humourinor a committee. A museum is 
the best exponent of science. It tells more than the 
best text-book. It can give lessons which the pro- 
fessor cannot teach. No one would venture to entrust 
the preparation of a treatise on archaeology or 
zoology to a town council, but it is not seen to be 
quite as ridiculous to entrust the same body with the 
organization of a museum of archaeology or zoology. 
Complete devolution is in this case absolutely essential 
for the well-beingr of museums and for enablinor them 
to afford the aid that is required for the advancement 
of trade, of the arts, of science, and of culture. 

Prior to 1858 the University of Edinburgh was con- 
trolled and managed by the Town Council of Edin- 



284 SHORTCOMINGS OF MANAGEMENT 

burgh, but the arrangement was inconvenient and 
inadequate, and adverse to the best interests of the 
institution, and was aboHshed in that year, and the 
administration committed to a body acquainted with 
university work, a change which has been of the 
greatest advantage to the university. The manage- 
ment of a university by a municipal corporation is no 
more anomalous than the administration of a museum 
by a similar body, and it is as much in the interests of 
museums, as it was of the University of Edinburgh, 
that municipal control should cease. 
y^ The formation and administration of museums, their 
adaptation to changing circumstances and to the re- 
quirements of the time are of supreme importance for 
the well-being of the State, for the instruction and 
advancement of the people, and should be entrusted, 
in every case, to a governing body of a stable and 
non-fluctuating character, independent of party and 
of the ballot-box, and composed of persons of scien- 
tific training, who understand and sympathize with 
the ends which the museum is intended to serve, and 
who are able to assist the administration by their skill 
and experience. 

The principal museums of other countries issue 
bulletins, memoirs, and other periodical and occasional 
publications founded upon and explanatory of the 
museum collections, and the results of the work in 
their laboratories. To some extent this is carried out 
in Eng-land, but it is on a much more limited scale than 
is done abroad. Many of our museums do nothing but 
exhibit specimens; they make no provision for research, 
and give no encouragement to systematic study. Our 



MUSEUMS OF THE FUTURE 285 

municipalities receive large sums of money from the 
State for educational purposes, but no municipality, so 
far as I am aware, has devoted any part of its funds 
for utilizing its museums and publishing the results of 
research. 

The country is slowly awakening to the necessity 
there is for an adequate and regulated training in 
every field of culture and every department of industry. 
One of the most potent engines by which this is to be 
secured is the museum. Some of our museums are 
amongst the finest in the world ; many are lending 
valuable assistance to the advancement and apprecia- 
tion of art and science. A large number, however, are 
still content to be mere holiday resorts. All, even the 
best, must advance, and for this end enlightened and 
sympathetic administration and a liberal income are 
required. The museum of 1897 is far in advance 
of the museum of 1847 ! but it in turn will be old- 
fashioned by the end of twenty years and when the 
coming century is half-way through its methods and 
arrangements will probably be wholly superseded by 
something better. We are ever moving onwards, but 
we do not reach the goal. 

And men through novel spheres of thought, 
Still moving after truth long sought, 
Will learn new things, when I am not. 

Thou hast not gained a real height, 
Nor art thou nearer to the light, 
Because the scale is infinite. 



APPENDIX. 

THE LEYDEN CATALOGUE OF 1591. 
Supra p. 29. 

There can be no doubt that the date, 1591, on one 
edition of the Leyden Catalogue, is a mistake for 1691. 
The University was only founded in 1575 after the 
great siege, and there is no evidence that a museum 
of any kind existed in 1591. The first collections 
seem to have been made by Peter Pauw or Pavius, 
who became professor of botany and anatomy in 

1589-^ 

The title-page of the edition of 1683 is practically 

identical with that of 1591 : "In Leiden a. cid ioc 
Lxxxiii." The 1 59 1 edition is dated in the same way 
except having Leyden for Leiden and apparently c has 
dropped out after id. The edition of 1683 was printed 
by Jacobus Voorn, that of 1591 by J. Voorn, pre- 
sumably the same person, as the Address to the 
Reader is in both cases by Jacobus Voorn. If so he 
could not print both in 1591 and 1683. 

There are two copies of the 1683 edition in the 
British Museum, entered in the catalogue under Voorn 
(Jacobus) ; the one is marked b. 482 (3) and belonged 
to Sir Joseph Banks; the other 1044, c. 34 (i). 

'Adam, Vitae Medicoruvi Cerinajiorutn, p. 434, Heidelb. 1620, 8vo 

287 



288 THE LEYDEN CATALOGUE 

The Catalogue of 1591 is identical with that of 1683, 
except that it contains some additional articles. In 
the second British Museum copy, 1044, c. 34 (i) there 
is a contemporary slip inserted as follows " After that 
these books were printed, these following rarities were 
brought into the Anatomy Chamber." They are six in 
number and all appear in the 1591 edition. One of 
them ''Two blue coat soldiers in their skins" is 
entered as No. 32 at the foot of page 2 and is preceded 
and followed by two other specimens numbered respec- 
tively 31 and T,T,. Page 2 of the 1683 edition ends 
with No. 30. Page 3 of both editions begins with 
No. 31, and the numbers run on consecutively, clearly 
showing that Nos. 31, 32 and 7^2) of the 1591 edition 
were an insertion. The second object mentioned 
in the slip is "a Saw-fish." This is entered in the 
1 591 edition as No. 104'', there being already a 
No. 104 as in the 1683 edition. It is needless to 
deal with the other numbers. 

The last page of the 1683 catalogue ends with 
No. 53. There are six additional articles in that of 
1 59 1. One of them is "a curious sceleton set up by 
Professor Nuck." The oreat anatomist, Professor 
Anton Nuck of Leyden, was born about 1660 and 
died prematurely in 1692. He could have made 
a preparation in 1691 but not in 1591. Many of 
the objects in both catalogues are gifts from " Dr. de 
Bils." There can be no doubt that this is Lodewijk 
or Louis de Bils, the anatomist who died about 1672. 
There are also various gifts by " Pr. Carpenter, 
Governor in the East Indies." Pieter de Carpenter, 
from whom the Gulf of Carpentaria takes its name. 



OF I59I 289 

was born in 161 6 and died in 1659, which proves, if 
more were required, that the apparent date 1591 is 
wrong. 

There is an edition in Latin, also printed by 
Jacobus Voorn at Leyden in 1690 (Br. Mus. b. 
482 (3) ) which inspection shows was subsequent to 
the edition of 1683 but corresponds with that of 
1 59 1. The Latin equivalent of "two blue-coat 
soldiers in their skins," is " Sceletus duorum militum 
qui sua signa deseruerant." 



LIST OF 
MUSEUMS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. 

This is a reprint of a list, prepared by a Committee 
of the British Association/ which the Association has 
been good enough to allow me to use. As that list 
was limited to Provincial Museums, I have prefixed 
a list of London Museums. I have omitted the 
columns containing the name and address of the 
curator, principal officer or owner ; the number of 
visitors weekly ; the duplicates for exchange ; and 
terms of admission, as also a considerable portion of 
the "Remarks" column. In some cases other 
remarks have been substituted. 

In the British Association list "the collections are 
named in the order of their numerical importance in 
each Museum ; that is according to the numbers of 
specimens in each department." Where two dates 
are given, the second refers to removal to the 
premises occupied in 1887. 

M. stands for Museum. 

The figures 1, 2, 3, 4 in the " Class" column denote 
the four classes, in which the Committee arranged 
the museums in their schedule, founded upon the 
superficial area of the rooms, the size and character 
of the collections, the annual cost, the staff, and the 
number of visitors. 

' Report ... of the British Association . . . Manchester . . . 1887, 
p. 97. London, 1888, 8vo. lb. Bath, 1888, p. 124. London, 1889, 8 vo. 

291 



292 LIST OF MUSEUMS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM 



c 

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.MM,, MM 5" M -c 
>ll=l III 1 1 Id 1 |l II 

-o--;^ oo ■^ort 
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Supported by 


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of Music, 
City, 

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London, 


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of 
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1 Si 1 1 1 1 M 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


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(Juildhall M., 
(niy's Hospital M., 
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King's College; M., 

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Geology, 

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Parkcs M., 
Post Office M., 
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M., 


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ENGLAND. 
London, 




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LIST OF MUSEUMS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM 297 

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LIST OF MUSEUMS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM 



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LIST OF MUSEUMS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM 299 



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300 



LIST OF MUSEUMS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM 



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c O 



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302 


LIST OF MUSEUMS IN THE UNITED 


KINGDOM 






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LIST OF MUSEUMS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM 303 



X! U= J= 



ell 



xi s: ft 






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i)> o'T'js or; o 0.5 o.S 2— K-a xJ= x.-c >^.js 



504 



LIST OF MUSEUMS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM 





























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LIST 


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IN 


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UNITED 


KINGDOM 


305 




>^ 


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INDEX. 



Abbeville, Cayman in the church at, ii. 

Abbolsford, 308. 

Abela (J. F.) and his museum, 47, 194. 

Aberdeen, 

Museums, 163, 164, 30S. 

King's College, 164. 

Marischal College, 163, 164. 
Aberystwilh, 312. 

Academia Naturae Curiosorum, 102, 
117. 

their museum, 117. 

their hall, 118. 
Academic des Sciences, 102. 
Accademia del Cimento, 102. 
Accession Register, 265. 
Achilles, Spear of, 5. 
Adams's Museum, 172. 
Addison (Joseph), 3, 36, 88, 148, 171, 

178, 187, 201. 
Adelphi lottery. The, 173. 
Administration of Museums, 252, 254, 

255, 274, 283, 284. 
Adolf Friedrich, King of Sweden, 224. 
Advocates, Faculty of, 159, 167. 
Aesculapius, Temple of, 5. 
Aes grave, 106. 
Africa, collections from, 245, 252. 

Roman remains in, 146. 

City turned into stone, 194. 
Agate cup at St. Denis, 198. 
Agricola (Georg), 24, 62, 65, 73, 212. 
Agricultural Museums, 231, 265, 274. 
Agrippa von Nettesheym (H. C.)> 24. 
Ainsworth (Robert), 121, 126. 
Aix, 92. 

Albertini (Francesco), if. 
Albertus Magnus, 61. 
Alcyonium, the Halcyon stone, 213. 
Aldborough, 293. 



Aldrovandi (Ulisse), 46, 52, 62, 65, 66, 
73. 74, 83, 85, 105, 121, 202, 213, 
217, 228, 236. 

his museum, 78, 202, 206, 217, 236. 
Alexander the Great, 

zoological collections, 3. 

representation of, 201. 
Alexander VII., Pope, 187. 
Alexandria, Capitulation of, 144. 
Alexandrine museum, \. 
Alkmaar, 99. 
Allan (George), 185. 
Allatius (Leo), loi. 
Alloa, 308. 
Alnwick, 293. 
Alpfschos, 63. 
Alpirsbach, Church of, 9. 
Alston (Charles), 44, 54, 60, 73, 95, 166. 
Altar, Portable, 115. 
Altdorf, 117, 219. 
Alton, 293. 

Amantius (Bartholomew), 17. 
Amber, 217, 219. 
Ambrosini (Bartholomeo), 79. 
America, Discovery of, 20. 
Ammonite, 63. 

its formation, 110. 
Amras, Schloss, 63, 86, 149, 191. 
Amsterdam, 37, iii, 115, 116, 120. 
Amulets, 114, 115, 195, 229, 241. 
Anatomical collections, 24, 29, 33, 78, 
118, 14s, 257, 275. 

arrangement, 208. 

models, 113. 
Anchorites, 238. 
Anderson (Prof. John), 161. 
Anderson (Dr. Joseph), 279. 
Andersonian Institution, Glasgow, 161, 

163. 
iVndover, 294. 
Andromeda, Relics of, 5. 



313 



314 



INDEX 



Angeloni, Signer, 36. 

Angilbert, Abbot, 3. 

Animals grow, live, and feel, 64. 

Anthropological collections, 215, 235. 

Antiquaries of London, Society of, 202. 

of Scotland, Society of, 163. 
Antiquities, Study of, 18, 235. 
Antwerp, 188. 
Apianus (Peter), 17. 
Apothecary booth, 210. 

as an exhibit in old museums, 40. 
Apparatus for use in museums, 277. 
Apparatus on exhibition. See In- 
struments. 
Apple, Stone, 63. 
Arbor conchifera, 74, 94. 
Arbuthnot (Dr. John), 71. 
Archteological collections, 15, 81-91, 
99, loS, 120, 123, 125, 134, 135, 
230, 235, 245, 250. 

museums, 231, 265, 275. 
Archceolog}', 

the science of sepulchres, 232. 

study of, 18, 230, 232, 233, 235. 

modern writers on, 279. 

Christian, 232, 252, 258, 275. 

Classical, 232, 257, 275, 278. 
Architectural Museums, 273, 278. 
Aristotle, Natural History, 4, 19. 
Arma heroum, 6. 
Armagh, 31 1. 

Armbrust, Die chinesische, 87. 
Arms and armour, collections of, 150, 

152, 174, 175, 179. 
Arnauld (Antoine), 191. 
Arrangement of Exhibits, 236, 262, 263, 

266, 274. 
Arrow-heads, Stone, 63, 68, 80, 237. 

not recognised as artificial, 236, 237, 

239-. 
ascertained to be manufactured, 82, 240. 
Art museums, 232, 267, 271. 
Artificial curiosities, 87, iii, 211, 214, 
215, 216, 217, 219, 220, 221. 
now known as Industrial Art, 221. 
Arundel, Thomas, Earl of, 15. 
Arundel MSS., 15. 
Marbles, 15, 91. 
Collections, 184. 
Ashmole (Elias), 108, 109, 153, 240. 
Ashmolean Museum, 36, 50, 108, 154, 
i59j 183, 1S8, 203, 204, 205, 228, 
230, 240, 241, 303. 
arranged on basis of Paley's Natural 

Theology, 229. 
Archaeological and Ethnographical 
collections, 230. 



Assistants, Museum, 277. 

Assos, Stone of, 213. 

Astroites, no. 

Astrology, 192. 

Athena, Sanctuary of, 5. 

Athenian Society, The, 134. 

Augustine, St., 192. 

Augustus, The Emperor, a collector, 5, 

^45- 

his villa, 5. 
Augustus I., Elector of Saxony, 25, 29, 

199. 
Augustus II., Elector and King of 

Poland, 37, 117, 146. 
Australia, Collections from, 246, 252. 
Australian Museum, 243. 
Avicenna's fortune, 114. 
Axes, stone, 64, 71, 80, no. 

bronze, 71. 

hafting, no. 

prehistoric, recognised to be artificial, 
241, 241. 
Aylesbury, 294. 

B. 

Bacon, Lord, on the advance of science, 

19. 
referred to, 37, 44, 52, 61, 102, 198, 

268. 
Badger (G. Percy), 44. 
Bagford (John), 138. 
Bahnson (Khristian), 242. 
Baier (J. J.), n7, 219. 
Bakewell, 294. 
Balfour (Sir Andrew), 53, 56, 76, 1 5 1, 

152, 155, 156, 217. 
Balfour (Sir James), 151. 
Balfour (Michael), 152. 
Banff, 308. 
Bangor, 312. 

Banks (Sir Joseph), 24, 142, 143. 
Barbo (Pietro). See Paul II. 
Barby, 248. 

Bargrave (John), 18, 31, 149, 187. 
Barnacle Goose, The, 32, 73, 76, 94. 
Barnacle shell, 76. 
Barnard Castle, 294. 
Bartholin (Thomas), 9, 11, 21, 47, 192. 
Basilisk, how made, 203, 204. 
Basle, 87, 97, 206, 248, 266. 
Bastian (Adolf), 255. 
Bateman (Richard), 184. 
Bath, 294. 

Batons de commandement, 239. 
Bauhin (Johann), 97. 
Bausch (J. L.), 102. 



INDEX 



315 



Bavaria, Maximilian of, loi. 
Bayer (Matthaeus), 170. 
Bayle (Pierre), 18. 
Becanus {].), 48. 
Beckher (Daniel), 55. 
Beckmann (Johann), 22. 
Beger (L.), 34, 99, 100. 
Belemnites, 63, 73. 

artificial, 80. 
Belfast, 311. 
Belon (Pierre), 26, 52. 
Bembo (T.), 38. 
Berlin, 78, 100, 146, 150, 242, 255, 

256, 258. 
Berne, 266. 
Bernon (Leonard), 95. 
Bertrand (Alexandre), 279. 
Ber\vick-on-T\veed, 294. 
Besler (Basil), 98. 
Eesler (Michael Rujierl), 99. 
Bethnal Green Museum, 244, 292. 
Beutel (Tobias), 207, 208. 
Bidelli Museum, 201. 
Bidloo (Lambert), 117. 
Bils (L. de), 190, 288. 
Birmingham, 294, 295. 
Blackburn, 295. 
Blair (Patrick), 50. 
Blancken (Gerard), 30. 
Blohm (Georg), 251. 
Blois, Botanic Garden and Museum, 93. 
Bobart (Jacob), botanist, 204. 
Boccaccio (Giovanni), 11, 46. 
Boccone (Paolo), 81. 
Bodleian Library, 15, 230. 
Boece or Boethius (Hector), 74. 
Boerhaave (H.)) 122, 146. 
Boetius. See Boodt. 
Bog butter, 217. 

Boleyn's (Ann) straw bonnet, 203. 
Boll,' baths of, 97. 
Bologna, museums, 78-81, 89, 206. 

Cana water-pot at, 199. 
Bolt-head, the, 63, 73, 238. 
Bolton, 295. 

Bomare (Valmont de), 228. 
Bonn, Martha's Hof, 9, 65. 
Bononian Stone, 81. 
Boodt (A. de), 26, 41, 42, 44, 62, 66, 

68, 70, 73, 166, 213, 237. 
Bootle, 295. 

Borel (Pierre), 20, 21, 94. 
Borgiano Museo, 242, 247. 
Borilly of Aix, collector, 92. 
Borric'k (Olaf), 203. 
Borromeo (Federigo), Cardinal, 14. 
Botanical Museums, 257, 275. 



Boulter (Daniel), 184. 

Bow, cross, repeating, 86, 87. 

Boyis or Boece (Hector), 74. 

Boyle (Hon. Robert), 52, 56, 61, 81, 

106, 131, 171, 195. 
Bracci (Ignazio), 128. 
Brackenhoffer (Elias), 214. 
Brackenhoffer (Joachim), 214. 
Bradford, 295. 
Brains, Human, as an anti-epileptic, 55. 

petrified, no. 
Brandenburg, 100. 
Brander (Gustavus), 141. 
Brazen Serpent, The, of Moses, 3. 
Brazil, collections from, 252. 
Bread, Stone, 202. 
Bremen, 249, 250. 

Breslau, Giants' Bones in Church, II. 
Brighton, 295. 
Bristol, 295. 

British Antiquities only recently made a 
separate department in Museums, 

234- 
British Association, 291. 
British Museum, 15, 18, 127, 132, 136, 
139-144, 202, 211, 212, 234, 241, 
247, 250, 264, 267, 274, 292. 

established, 140. 

catalogues, 143, 264. 

departments, 143, 144. 

Ethnographical collections, 241. 

Natural History department, Crom- 
well Road, 144, 264, 275. 
Bromel (Olaf), 35. 
Brontia, 67. 

its nature, 67, 85, no, 213, 214. 

how formed, no. 
Bronze Age, 5, 233, 
Bronze weapons, 5, 80, 239. 

why bronze preceded iron, 239. 
Brown (Alexander), 163. 
Brown (Ed.), Traveller, 22, 32, 37, 38, 

III, 116, 129. 181, 190, 207. 
Brown (T. E.), 210. 
Brown (Sir Thomas), 82, 181. 
Briickmann (F. E.), 9, II, 35, 43, 49. 
53, 112, 115, 128, 136, 149, 159, 
199, 202, 219, 220, 237. 

his museum, 1 12, 149. 
Brunswick, Cathedral of, 9. 
Brussels, 78. 
Bucemi (Giuseppe), 81. 
Buchan, Earl of, 156, 167. 
Buchanan's ((jeorge) skull, 154. 
Bucardia, 63. 
Buda Pesth, 150. 
Buddie (Rev. Adam), 137. 



i6 



INDEX 



Buffon, 80. 

Bufonites, 63. 

Buildings, Museum, 225, 226, 250, 251, 

282. 
Bulletins, Museum, 277. 
Bullock (William), 158, 174, 178. 
Buonanni (Filippo), 106. 
Buiney (Frances), 173. 
Burslem, 295. 
Burton-on-Trent, 295. 
Buiy-St. -Edmunds, 296. 
Butler's Hudibras, 41, 48, 74. 
Button stone, 63. 

mould, no, 19S. 
Bytemeister (H. J.), 148. 



Cabinet = collection, 5, 6, 36. 
Cabinets of coins, growth of, 14. 

of gems, 15. 
Cabinet d'ignorance, 208. 
Caerleon, 296. 
Caesar (Julius), 4. 
Calceolari (Francesco), 83, 236. 
Calceolaria, 83. 
Calculi, 214, 222, 226. 
Caledonian Museum, 204. 
Cambridge, 118, 120, 296. 
Cameos. See Gamahes. 
Camerarius (Elias), 72. 
Camerariu; (Joachim), 25. 
Camps (F. de), 38. 
Cana, water pot from, 199. 
Cange (Charles, du Fresne, Sieur du), 6. 
Canterbur)-, Collections at, 18, 248, 296. 
Capella = a cabinet, 6. 
Cardan (Jerome), 25, 42, 52, 121. 
Cardiff, 312. 
Cargill (James), 26. 
Carlisle, 296. 

Carlisle, Earl of, 103, 216. 
Carlyle Museum, 292. 
Carnarvon, 312. 
Carnavalet Museum, 256, 266. 
Carnegie Trust, 257. 
Carpenter (P. de), 288. 
Carte (Thomas), 127. 
Cases for Museums, 220, 263. 
Cassel, 145. 
Cassowary, The, 133. 
Catalogues of Museums, 28, 264. 
Catherine's, St., oil well, 197, 217. 
Cave hunting, 43. 
Cavendish (Lady Margaret). 

See Portland, Duchess of. 
Cay, (Robert), 167. 



Celts, Stone, as protecting against 
lightning, 9. 
known as thunderbolts, 9, 64, 71. 
in Cathedral of Halberstadt, 9, 65. 
in Nunnerj' at Bonn, 9, 65. 
believed to fall from the clouds, 64, 

238. 
perforated celts, 66, 14S. 
curious quality of perforated celts, 66. 
use of celts by uncivilized tribes, 80, 

236-240. 
use as burnishers, 83. 
Cerauniae, 64, 81, 82, 213, 214, 236, 

237. 239. 

supposed origin, 64, 66, 237. 

remedy for jaundice, 73. 
Ceruti (B.), 84. 
Cesalpini (A.), 26. 
Chambre, Chambre des raretes = 

museum, 37. 
Chard, 296. 
Charles I., 93, 127. 

his spurs, 203. 

hat, 203. 
Charles II., 147. 
Charlemagne, Relics of, li. 

his elephant, 50. 

his crown, 198. 

his figure in lapis lazuli, 201. 
Charleton (Walter), 129, 130. 
Charleton (William), 127, 129, 159. 
Charms, 115, 194, 241. 

in form of stone axes, 64. 

of glossopetrae, 73. 
Chassanion (Jean), 48. 
Chatham, 296. 
Cheese, Stone, 85, 198, 202. 
Chelmsford, 297. 
Chelsea, 171. 
Cheltenham, 297. 
Chemical Museums, 231. 

preparations, 146. 
Chemistry, 72. 
Chester, 297. 
Chesterfield, 297. 
Chevalier (N.), 2,1 ■> 99- 
Chicago, 243. 
Chichester, 297. 
Child, petrified, 194. 
Childrey (Joshua), 268. 
Chiocci (A. ), 84, 236. 
Chipped flint, 267. 
Chladni(E. F. F.), 10. 
Christ ; 

nail from the Cross, 198, 199. 

knife used at the Passover, 199. 
Christchurch, Hants, 296. 



INDEX 



Z^7 



Christian antiquities, II4, 174, 188,218. 
Archaeology, Museums of, 232, 258, 

.275- 
Christian V. of Denmark, 103. 
Christiania, 241. 
Christina, Queen of Sweden, 38. 
Church Missionary Society, 248, 249. 
Church treasuries as museums, 7. 

curiosities in, 8, S(/ij., 34. 
CiampoHni (Giovanni), a dealer, 170. 
Cimeliarchium = museum, 34. 
Cinieliotheca = museum, 35. 
Cirencester, 297. 
City turned into stone, 194. 
Civilisation, growth and development 

of, 233, 234, 256, 266. 
Claik or Barnacle Goose, 32, 73, 75, 94. 
Clark (Baron), 160. 
Classical Archaeology, 231, 257, 275, 

278. 
Philology, 258. 
Classification of exhibits, 212-230. 

of mineralogical specimens, 212, 213. 
Claudius, Emperor, 50. 
Clement (David), 17. 
Cleopatra, mummy of, 51. 
Clerk (Sir John), 160, 166, 167. 
Cleveland (John), 107. 
Closet = museum, 36. 
Clusius (Carl) museum, 220. 
Clyde, The, 75. 
Coal, Pit, a museum curiosity, 83, 213, 

222. 
best is found in Scotland, 222. 
not to be used for cooking, 83. 
Coalbrookdale, 297. 
Cockerel, Find of stone and bone 

objects at, 240. 
Coins, Collections of, 17, 26, 38, 78, 

81, 89, 90, 93, 96, 97, 99, 100, 103, 

III, 124, 138, 160, 163, 164, 175, 

182, 201, 228, 230, 257. 
Coins, Study of, by early scholars, 13, 

17- 

Colchester, 297. 
Cole (Abdiah), 192. 
Coleraine, Earl of, 184. 
Colini (G. A.), 248. 
Collecting as a calling, 133. 
Collections. Sec Museums. 
Collectors included amongst inventors, 
171. 

Directions for, 246, 247. 

Missionaries as, 247-249. 

Shipmasters as, 246. 
Collin de Plancy (J.A. S.), 2, 40. 
Colmar, Meteorite in public librar\- at, 10. 



Colwal (Daniel), 130, 131. 
Commercial Mu.seums, 231, 251, 265, 

270, 273. 
Commission for administration of 

Museums, 254, 255. 
Conditorium = a cabinet, 5. 
Constantine V. , Emperor, 198. 
Contant (Paul), 93. 
Conyers (John), 120, 134, 173, 267. 
Cook (Captain James), Ethnographical 

collections, 245. 
Copenhagen, 35, 51, 103, 150, 192, 193, 

216, 232, 239, 241. 
Corbie, Abbey of, 3. 
Cordus (Valerius), 25. 
Corium humanum, 57. 
Cork, 311. 

Cornelius, in Martinus Scn'blerus, 121. 
Cospi (Ferdinando), 79, 89, 216. 
Countess, The dust of a, as an exhiljit, 

221. 
Coup de pong, 267. 
Coulanges (F. de), 6. 
Courtine (William), 127, 129. 
Cowley (Abraham), 94. 
Cows, Milk, turned into stone, 196. 
Cox (James), 173. 
Cox's Lottery', 173. 
Cramp, remedy for, 217. 
Cranium humanum prseparatum. 55. 
Grassier (Baron de), 38. 
Crocodile, 214, 215. 
Croll (Oswald), 54. 
Cromwell's (Oliver) skull, 213. 
Croyden, 297. 
Croyland, relics at, 7. 
Crucifixion ; nail of the Cross, 198. 
Culpepper (Nicholas), 192. 
Cunnington (William), 232. 
Curator of Museum, 98, 205, 206, 278, 

282. 
Curiositaten-Cabinet = museum, 37. 
Curiosities, 36. 

collected by pilgrims and travellers, 8. 

artificial, 87, III, 211. 

described, 81. 

examples, 188, 200, 202, 203, 211, 

265. 
fabrication of, 203, 204. 
Curiosity, meaning of the word, 187. 
Curland, Duke of, 181. 
Current opinion dominating the judg- 
ment, 239. 
Curtius (Ernst), 4. 
Cusanus (Mapheus), 85. 
Cuvier (G. L. C. F. D.), 24, 48, 116, 

147, 194, 230. 



3i8 



INDEX 



D. 

Dactyliothcca, The, of ihe Romans, 4. 

Dale (Samuel), in. 

Dandolo (Benedetto), 13. 

Danish Mummy, 216. 

Danzig, 147, 233. 

Daphnaeus Aicuarius, 100. 

Darmstadt, 231, 243. 

Darwen, 297. 

Date of acquisition of specimens to be 

recorded, 265. 
Daventer, 70. 

David I. King of Scotland, 12. 
David (Armand), missionary, 247. 
Davila's collection, 9. 
Dealers in antiquities and other museum 

objects, 170, 187. 
De Camps (F.), 38. 
Deer skin, its virtues, 59. 
Defoe (Daniel), 36, I53. I54. I55. IS6- 
Delacoste and Curling's Museum, 180. 
De Laet (T-), 69, 85. 
Delft, 60, 148. 

Deluge, The, as a geological force, 119, 
Demonstrations, Museum, 262. 
Demonstrators, Museum, 277. 
De JNIorgan (Augustus), 17. 
Dempster (Thomas), 79. 
Denis, St., Treasury, 3, 11, 12. 
Denmark, Use of Museums in, for 

popular education, 260. 
Dentition, helps in, 73. 
Derham, (William), 221, 229. 
Derby, 297. 
De Rossi (G. B.), 15. 
Deusing (Ant.), 31, 76, 195. 
Devizes, 298. 
Devonport, 298. 
Dezobrs' (L. C), 4. 
Dickens (Charles), 188. 
Diodorus Siculus, 52. 
Dioscorides, 19. 
Dircks (Henry), 107. 
Directions for collectors, 246, 247. 

for visitors to Museums, 206, 264. 
Dodo, the, 133. 
Dodwell (Henry), 120. 
Donaldson Museum, 292. 
Donations to Museums, 249, 265, 282. 
Donner-Kugeln, 67. 
Donors, 90, 108, 135. 

names of Donors to be recorded, 265. 
Dorchester, 298. 
Douglas (James), 175, 232. 
Dover, 298. 
Downes (Theophilus), 121. 



Dragon made out of a rat, 204. 

Drawings, 261, 262. 

Dresden Museums, 18, 25, 29, 35, 37, 

40, 59, 78, loi, 149, 150, 199, 

205-208, 242. 
The Green Vaults, 199. 
Drottningholm, 225. 
Druggists' shops, 40, 41, 210. 
Drury (Dru), 148. 
Drury Lane Monster, The, 1 19. 
Dryander (Jonas), 24, 143. 
Dryden (John), 130. 
Dublin, 311. 
Dudlev, 298. 
Dufour (P. S.), 170. 
Dufresne of Paris, 158. 
Dugdale (Sir William), 240. 
Dulwich, 298. 
Dumbarton, 75. 
Dumfries, 308. 
Duncan (John Shute), 228. 
Duncan (Philip Bury), 229, 230. 
Dundee, 50, 309. 
Duplicate specimens, 278. 
Durandus, 8. 

Durham, Treasury of, 3, 7» lO- 
Durham, Museum, 298. 
Dwarfs, 98. 

E. 

Earth, Plastic and formative powers in 
the, 62, 67, 69, 92, no, 192, 195, 
198, 223. 

Saline qualities, no, 196. 
Earths, ^'arious kinds, 212, 2 1 3, 2 16, 
217, 222, 226. 

St. Ulric's, n5. 

Malta, 193. 
Earthquakes producing petrifaction, 196. 
Eastbourne, 298. 

Ecclesiastical objects in museums, 1 14. 
Echinites, 63. 
Echinus (Sebastian), 18. 
Economic Museums, 270, 272, 273. 
Edinburgh, 53, 56, 135, 153-159, 167, 
169, 179, 212, 247, 308. 

Botanic Garden, 159. 

Town Council, 156, 159. 

College of Physicians, 153, 155. 

Incorporations of Surgeons, 155. 

Faculty of Advocates, 159, 167. 

Philosophical Society, 167. 

Society of Antiquaries, 167, 16S. 

University Museum, 153, 155, 168, 
179, 212, 247, 283. 

Gifts to museum, 153, 155, 156. 

Caledonian museum, 204. 



INDEX 



19 



Education, Use of museums in, 258, 
259, 262, 275. 

increasing cost of, 275. 
Educational Museums, 231. 
Eeckhoff (Hermann), 219. 
Egg laid by a woman, 194. 
Egnazio (Ciambatista), 14. 
Egyptian Antitjuiiies presented by 

Peiresc to Kircher, 90. 
Egyptian Antiquities acquired by British 

Museum, 144. 
Egyptian Antiquities acquired by Ash- 

niolean museum, 230. 
Egyptian mummy, 50, 216. 

counterfeit, 54. 
Einckel (C. F.), 2, 22, 36. 

Set; Neickelius. 
Einhorn Apotheke, 41. 
Einsiedeln, monastery, 15. 
Elephant, supposed discovery of its 
bones, 49, 133. 

in England, 50, 133, 174. 

its anatomy, 50, 91. 

fossil, 47. 

teeth and hones supposed to belong 
to giants, 45-48, 91, 203. 

in shows, 188. 
Elf arrow, 63, 241. 
Elgin, 309. 

Elk, preparations from, 60. 
Encyclopaedia Pcrthensis, 226. 
Enkhuizen, 96, 191. 
Entomological collections, 137, 148. 
Eolithic Period, 234. 
Epilepsy, remedies for, 55, 57, 60, 191, 

195- 
Erbach, Schloss, 58. 
Erfurt, 118. 
Erizzo (Sebastian), 18. 
Eskimo arrow stretchers, 239. 
Estienne (Robert), 187. 
Ethnographical collections, 33, 86, 95, 

104, 108, 113, 145, 174, 178, 189, 

216, 227, 230, 235, 241, 242, 245, 

246, 248, 250, 252, 255. 
their object, 243. 
Eton, 298. 

Etruscan Antiquities, 33. 
Evangelical Missionary Society at Basle, 

248. 
Evans (A. J.), 230. 
Evans (E. P.), 9, 45- 
Evans (Sir John), 6, 83, 279. 
Evelpi (John), 3, 4, 15. 
Exeter, 298. 
Exhibits, 30, 39, 80, 81, 84, 85, 88, 94, 

95, 100, 103, 108, 113-115, 118, 



123, 125, 128, 129, 132, 137, 138, 
146-148, 152, 164, 172-174, 190, 
191, 200, 203, 234, 236, 261, 262, 
263, 266, 278, 280, 288. 

Badly placed and arranged in old 
Museums, 206, 208, 209, sijq. 

National and foreign to be dis- 
tinguished, 234. 

Acquisition, 246, 249, 282. 

Selection, 266. 

Arrangement, 236, 262, 263, 266, 278. 

Type specimens, 261, 278. 

Obsolete, 266. 

Duplicate, 278. 

Not depreciated by use, 280. 

Becoming scarcer, 256, 280. 
Expeditions for collecting material for 

Museums, 91, 146, 282. 
Expenditure on Museums, 275, 277 

281, 282. 
Eysendrach (John), 30. 

F. 

Faber (Basil), 38. 

Faber (Matthaeus), 10. 

Fabri de Peiresc. See Peiresc. 

Fabrication of curiosities, 203, 204. 

Faille (F. de la), 148. 

Farmers, Benefitof agricultural museums 

to, 274. 
Febrifuges, 59, 114. 
Fees for admission to old museums, 98, 

205. 
Ferdinand II., Archduke, 86. 
Ferguson (Professor John), 189. 
Ferrara, Alfonso, Duke of, 14. 
Fevers, remedies for, 59- 
Fien (Thomas), 61. 
Figs, Stone, 63. 

Figured stones, 61, 71, 219, 222. 
Finlayson (James), ^I.D., 203. 
Fiorillo (J. D.), 13, 14, 17. 
Fire, Museums destroyed b), 109. 
Fish, caught with mummy as bait, 53. 
Flamingo, 133. 
Flatman (Thomas), 108. 
Florence, 78, 102, 242. 

Museum, 18, 38, 78, 147, 1S7, 211, 

242. 
Gaddi Museum, 211. 
Flower (Sir William), 231, 263. 
Folkestone, 298. 
Foote (Samuel), 173. 
Forges, otheiwiie Hubert (Robert), 127, 

132. 
Formed stones, 62, 67, 109, no. 



320 



INDEX 



Forres, 309. 
Fossils, 61, 27S. 

power of reproduction, 62. 

Itisus naturae, 64. 

Plot's, views as to their origin, 1 10. 

Lhuyd's, iii. 

Ray's, III. 

See Petrifactions. 
Fossil bones, 46-50. 

teeth, 47. 
Fossil ivor)', 49; in Scotland, 12. 

shells, 69, 92. 

unicorn horn, 43. 

horses, 264. 

man, 70, 82, 110, 194; doubled, 
223. 

Catalogue of English fossils, 1 1 1 . 
Fothergill (Dr. John), 185. 
Fothergill (Dr. William), 142. 
Foucault's collection of coins, 96. 
Fountain (Sir Andrew), 137. 
Fountainhall (Lord), 48, 56, lOl. 
Frankfort on the Main, 146. 
Franko- Merovingian Period, 233. 
Frazer (J. G.), 9. 
Freaks, 198, 200, 215. 
Frederick III. of Denmark, 194. 
Frederick IV. of Denmark, 103. 
Frederick the Great, 146, 225. 
Friedlander (Ludwig), 4. 
Frivola in museum classiiication, 189, 

200. 
Frome, 298. 

Fugger (Rairaond von), 17. 
Fuiren (H.) museum, 38. 



Gaddi museum at Florence, 21 1. 
Gailliard (Jean), 124. 
Galanga or sea-devil, 94. 
Galatian Period, 234. 
Galerie, gallery = museum, 37, 38. 
Gal way, 311. 

Gamahe, or Gamahu, 3, 237, 240. 
Garth (Sir Samuel), 210. 
Gassendi (P.), 18, 91. 
Gazophylacium, 34, 91, 93, 221. 
Gems, collections of, 15, 87, 138, 184, 
214, 218. 

study of, 18. 

treatise on, in Scots, 152. 

imitations, 151. 
General Museums, 260, 265, 275. 
Genoa, 147. 

Genevieve, Cabinet de la Bibliotheque 
de Ste. Genevieve, 92, 218. 



Gentkina)is Magazine, 14, 138, 159, 

173. 176, 177- 
Geological museums, 231, 265, 275. 

opinions, 92, 1 19. 
Gerarde's Herball, 74. 
German Anthropological Society, 252. 
German language, its antiquity, 48. 
German Museums, 233. 
Germaniae ocelli, 249. 
Germanic National Museum, 235. 
Germany, Museums used as aids in 

education, 258. 
Gesner (Conrad), 10, 24, 25, 27, 28, 
65, 66, 78, 80, 97, 166. 

His wood-blocks, 25. 
Gethesemane, Garden of, 188. 
Giants' bones, what, 45, 48, 91, 203. 

preserved by the Romans, 5, 45. 

in various churches, 11, 46. 

in the Ashmolean museum, 203. 

passed off as bones of saints, 45. 

various finds, 46, 98. 

opinions as to, 48, 92. 

mastadon bones, mistaken for, 47. 

giant's shoulder-blade, 94. 

thigh bone, 132. 

teeth, 47, 91, 94. 
Giessen, 148. 
Giggleswick, 299. 

Glanville (Bartholomew de), 65, 193. 
Glasgow, 

Museums, 76, 160-163, '77) 185, 245- 
259,271, 309. 

University, 160, 245, 256, 309. 

Hunterian Museum, 76, 160, 162, 
177, 245, 256, 309. 

Andersonian Institution, 161, 163. 

Technical College, 162. 

Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons, 
162, 163. 

Kelvingrove Museum, 245, 309. 

Historical Museum of, suggested, 256, 

Royal Infirmary, 162. 

Western Infirmary, 163. 

Philosophical Societ3% 245. 

Exhibition in 1846, 245. 

School of Weaving and Museum, 272. 

Botanic Gardens, 166. 

Science teaching in, 166. 

Physician, 122, 
Glass eyes, 113. 
Glastonbur}', 299. 
Glossopetrae, 68, 73, 213, 223. 
Gloucester, 299. 
Goddefroy Museum, 253. 
Goltz (Hubert), 14, 38. 
Gordon (Alexander or Sandy), 123, 165. 



INDEX 



321 



Gorlee (Abraham), 18. 

Gorop (J. Van), 48. 

Goslar, Dom of, 8. 

Gosport, 299. 

Gotha, 49. 

Gottorp, 96, 145. 

Gottwaldt (Christopher), 147. 

Gould (Charles), 45. 

Gourd stone, 63. 

Graevius(J. G.), 18. 

Graindorge (Andre), 76. 

Green vaults, Dresden, 199, 205. 

Greene (Richard), 174, 178, 179. 

Greenland, 104, 239. 

Greenock, 309. 

Greenwich, 185, 299. 

Gregorovius (F. ), I3- 

Gregory of Tours, 7. 

Gresham College, 131. 

Grew (Nehemiah), 44, 51, SS: 59. Si, 

129, 131, 193, 216, 238. 
Grimani (Domenico), Cardinal, 14. 

(Giovanni), 14. 
Grimm (Jacob), 65. 
Griffin, A true, 128. 

eggs, 8. 

claws, 9, 10, II. 
Gronovius (J. F.), i, 18. 
Gualtieri (Nicolo), 147. 
Guarantana, Mount, 188. 
Guidebooks to Museums, 221, 263, 264. 
Guildhall Museum, 281, 292. 
Guillim (John), 42. 
Guimet (Emile), 241. 
Guimet Museum, 241. 
Guinea, New, collections from, 246, 

248. 
Guns, wind, 87. 

Gundling (N. H.), 146, 185, 191. 
Gunther (Siegmund), 17. 
Guy's Hospital Museum, 292, 

H. 
Haarlem, 194. 
Habicot (Nicholas), 46. 
Hagendorn (Ehrenfrid), physician, 198. 
Hahn or Hannseus (Jorgan), 35, 181, 

182. 
Haileybury, 299. 
Halberstadt, Cathedral of, 9, 65. 

Museums, 147. 
Halcyon stone, 213. 
Halifax, 299. 
Halle, Church at, 11. 

Museums, 146, 148, 233. 
Hallstatt Period, 233. 



Halyburton (Andrew), 53, 60. 
Hamburg, 127, 128, 145, 149, 242, 249, 

253- 
Hamburgische Wetter-Machme, 113. 

Hamilton (Gilbert), 163. 
Hamilton (James), 135. 
Hamilton (John), Archbishop, 25. 
Hamilton (Sir William), of Preston, 

Philosopher, 9S. 
Hamilton (Sir William), Ambassador, 

142. 
Handbooks. See Guidebooks. 
Hand warmers, 114. 
Hannemann (J. L.), 103. 
Hanover, Welfen museum, 8. 

Provincial museum, 233. 
Happel (E. W.), 22. 
Hare's horns, 132, 133. 
Harleian librar}', 128, 140, 181, 187. 

MSS., 140. 
Harley (Edward). See Oxford, Earl of. 
Hartshorn, 58. 
Har\'ard (Mass.), 274. 
Hawick, 309. 
Hawkins (Thomas), 45. 
Hawkin's Physiognotrace, 179. 
Haygarth (John), 61. 
Ha}Tn (Nicholas), 15. 
Hearne (Thomas), 105, 183. 
Hebenstreit (J. E.), 146. 
Hegenitius (Gottfried), 31, 35, 96, 190. 

191. 
Heidelberg, 99. 

Heilbronn, Church of St. Kilian, 9. 
Plelmont (J. B. van), 194. 
Helmstadt, 9. 
Helwing (G. A.), 49, 71. 
Hen, hatching eggs, turned into stone, 

194, 196. 
Hennepin (Louis), 239. 
Henry HI. of France, 14. 
Henry VIII., hawking gloves, 203. 
Heraldry, 42. 
Herbarius, a simpler, 133. 
Hereford, 299. 
Hermann (Paul), 122. 
Hermes (E.), 9. 
Hermitage museum, 176. 
Herodotus, 51. 
Heroes, weapons of, preserved by 

Greeks and Romans, 5, 6. 
Hezekiah's treasures, 2. 
Hexen-Thaler, 114. 
Hickes (George), philologist, 7. 
Hiegel (J. C), 23, 219. 
Hildesheim, 8, 9, li, 43. 
Hill (Sir John), 41, 44, 54. 69, 73. I93- 



122 



INDEX 



Hippopotamus' teeth, 12, 99. 

Rings made from them cure cramp, 
217. 
Hirsching (F. K. G.), 23. 
Hirta, 218. 
Historical collections in Museums, 235, 

251, 266, 26S. 
Museums, 251. 253, 266. 
Hoare (Sir Richard'Colt), 232. 
Hoffman (Friedrich), Physician, of 

Magdeburg, 44, 55, 59, 73- 95. 

.193- 
Hoflmarin (Friedrich), Professor at 

Halle, 113, 213, 220. 
Hoffmann (J. J.), Philologist, 45, 191. 
Hofmann (Lorenz), 146. 
Holnev (Mr.), Apothecarv in Lewes, 

60 
Hooke (Robert), 71, 170. 
Homiman Museum, 292. 
Horsley (John), 160. 
Hortnum'(Dr.), 230. 
Hottentots, 104. 
Houghton, pictures at, 176. 
Hubert, othei^'ise Forges (Robert), 51, 

127, 128, 131, 132, 173. 
Hnddersfield, 299. 
Hudibras, 41, 48, 74. 
Huebner (Johann), 149. 
Hull, 246, 299. 
Hultmann (Da\"id), 225. 
Human skin, its uses, 57. 

skull, its uses, 55. 
Humphrey (George). 184. 
Hungar}-, 43. 
Hunter (John), 123, 231. 

(William), 160, 162, 177, 185, 208, 

257- 
Huntingdon, 299. 
Husbandmen, uses of agricultural 

museums for, 274. 
Huttich (Johann), 17. 
Hutton (tames), 158. 
Hygrometer, 113. 
Hygroscope, 134. 
Hysteria, remedies for, 57. 



Iceland, stone arrow point from, 237. 
Illustrations in books, 260. 
Imagination in the cure of disease, 60. 
Imperati (F.), 85. 
India Museum, London, 24I. 
Indians, American, 82, 179, 239. 
Indulgence boxes, 10. 
pence, 115. 



Industrial An, 188, 221, 223. 

Museums, 231, 245, 251, 254. 
Ink. metallic or melanteria, 213. 
Innsbruck, 63, 86. 

Inscriptions, Early collections of, 15. 
Instra, 114. 

Instruments and Apparatus, Philoso- 
phical, Surgical and other, 87, 88, 
106, 113, 148, 149, 152, 161, 163, 
218, 227. 
Interments, value for archaeological 

purposes, 232. 
Inverness, 309. 
Ipswich, 300. 

Ireland, no serpents in, 193. 
Iron Age, 233. 
Iron supersedes stone, 82. 

supersedes bronze, 239, 240. 
Iselin (Professor J. C.), 240. 
Ivory, Fossil, 49. 

in Scotland, 12.; 

J- 
Tacobaeus (Holger). 104. 194, 216, 239. 
Jacobi(G. H.), 24. 
Jameson (Robert), 158. 
Jaundice, cure for, 73. 
Jena, 146, 148. 

its seven wonders, 148. 
Jermyn Street ^Museum, London, 292. 
Jesuit Missionaries, 247. 
Jew stone, Judaicus lapis, 62, 85. 

male and female, 63. 
Jews, use of stone tools by the, 82. 
Johannis-Topflein, 198. 
John's Day, St., Urns fashioned in the 

earth, on, 198. 
Johnson (Dr. Samuel), 36, 140, 142, 

174, 176. 
Jomard (E. F.), 244. 
Jonah's whale, rib of, 9. 
Jordan (H.), 15. 
Journal des Stravans, I02. 
Judas, rope with which he hanged 
himself, 87, 191. 

lantern carried before him at the 
betrayal, 199. 
Jiiterborg, church at, whale rib in, 10. 



Kahn (Joseph), M.D., 113, 155. 

Kanold (Johann), 22. 

Kelso, 309. 

Kelvingrove museum, Glasgow, 245, 

309- 
Kemp (John), 34, 124, 267. 



INDEX 



Kendal, 300. 
Kentmann, John, 28, 34. 

his .system of classification, 212. 
Kesnei (J. G.), 219. 
Keswick, 300. 
Kew Gardens, 292. 
Kilkenny, 312. 
Kilmarnock, 309. 
Kinderling (J. F. A.), 149. 
King, (Col. Richard), 122. 
King's College, London, 292. 
King's Lynn, 300. 

Kircher (Athanasius), 51, 91, 106, 210. 
Kirkcudbright, 310. 
Kirke (Thomas), (d. 1706), 154, 183. 
Kirkleatham, 300. 
Kirkring (Thomas), 145. 
Kisner (J. G. ), 146. 
Klemm (G. F.), 8, 23, 28. 
Klippel (G. H.), I. 
Koehler (J. D.), 2, 29, 107, 110, 123, 

149, 221. 
Konigsberg, 190. 
Koran, MS. of, 189. 
Kimstgewerbe, 188. 
Kunsthandhiich fiir Deutschland, 23. 
Kunst-Kammer = museum, 37. 
Klister (Ludwig) or Neocoms (L.), I. 



Labels, 206, 220, 264, 274. 

their early use, 206. 

particulars to be entered on, 264. 

preparation of, 265. 
Laboratory for a museum, 275, 276. 

work of students, its value, 276. 
Lacroix (Paul), 6. 
Lambeth, 108. 
Lamia, 69, 70. 

Landscapes, natural, in stone, 129. 
Lancaster, 300. 
Lane-Fox. See Pitt-Rivers. 
Lankester (Dr. Ray), 247. 
Lapides fossiles minores, 214. 

majores moUes, 214. 

odorati, 159, 222. 

polpnorphi, 208. 
Lapidificus spiritus, 62, 92. 
Lapis phosphorus, 81. 

Sagittarius, 80. 
Largo, 310. 
La Tene Period, 233. 
Lateran Museum, 18. 
Launceston, 300. 
Lectures, ^luseum, 262. 
Leeds, 3(X), 301. 



Leek, 301. 

Legend, the Golden, 191. 

Leibnitz, 5, 40, 73, 186. 

Leicester, 301. 

Leigh (Edward), 190, 240. 

Leipsic, 51, 127. 

Burgomaster of, 38. 

Museums, 242, 253. 
L'Estoile (Pierre de), 90. 
Leopoldine Academy, 102. 
Lesser (F.), 219. 
Lesser (F. C), 219. 
Lethieullier (Wm.), 123. 
Lettice (John), 161. 
Lettsom (J. C), 184. 
Lever (Sir Ashton), 175. 
Lewes, 301. 

Leyden, 29, 31, 32, 51, 53, 57, 63, 64, 
145, 189, 160, 208, 209, 220, 242, 
253. 287. 
Lhuyd (Edward), 34, iii, 159, i6o, 

205. 
Libraries, 

Banks, 143. 

Bremen, 250. 

Glasgow, 255, 257. 

Hamburg, 254. 

Heidelberg, loi. 

Liibeck, 253. 

Vatican, 10 1. 

as part of a museum equipment, 228. 

Free, 267, 268, 280. 

Working library for a museum, 275. 

Town libraries, now considered a 
necessity, 278. 

Museum is a librarv of illustrations, 
278. 
Liceto (F.), 31. 
Lichfield, 174, 301. 
Lightfoot (John), 184. 
Lime in solution forming petrifactions, 

197. 
Lindenberg (J. C), 252. 
Lindenschmidt (L. ), 279. 
Linnaean Society, 143. 
Linnsus, 64, 184, 207, 223, 225. 

his library, herbarium, and museum, 
225. 
Lisbon, 242. 

Lithophytes, 219, 226, 227. 
Liverpool, 178, 301. 
Livingstone (David), Ethnographical 

collections, 245, 247. 
Loadstone, male and female, 213. 
Local museums, 261, 265, 268, 281. 

their aims, 268, 270, 281. 
Lomond, Loch, 75. 



;24 



INDEX 



London, 15, 18, 41, 51, 78, 107, 121, 
122, 124, 126, 128, 132, 134, 140- 
150, 170-178, 204, 267, 275, 292, 

293- 

The Tower, 41, 178, 293. 

British Museum, 15, 18, 127, 132, 

136, 139-144. 202, 211, 212, 234, 

241, 247, 250, 264, 267, 274, 287, 

292. 

South Kensington, now Victoria and 

Albert, Museum, 149, 187, 293. 
Guildhall Museum, 281, 292. 
Post Office Museum, 292. 
Sloane's Museum, 130, 132, 134-138, 

183, 188, 267. 
Sloane's Museum, 184, 293. 
Sir A. Lever's, 175. 
William Bullock's, 158, 174, 178, 

204. 
other museums, 135, 171, 172, 173, 

292, 293. 
London Missionary Society, 248, 292. 
Church Missionary Society, 248, 249. 
St. Paul's Cathedral, 273.' 
The Royal Society, 31, 34, 51, 55, 
102, 117, 123, 130, 132-134, 138, 
142, 154, 193, 209, 216. 
L'Orangere (Quentin de), 187. 
Lorentsen (J.), 104. 
Lot's wife, 194, 196. 

how turned into salt, 196. 
Lotteries, 140, 173, 176, 177. 
Louisa Ulrique, Queen of Sweden, 225. 
Louvre, 18, 241. 
Lubeck, 53, 219, 249, 251. 
Lucerne, Giant at, 46. 
Luders (C. W.), 253. 
Ludgate Hill Museum, 135. 
Ludlow, 301. 
LUneburg, 51, 70, 71. 
Lusus naturae, 64, 219, 226. 
Lydian stone, 237. 
Lyons, 170, 241. 

M. 

Mabillon (Jean), 15. 
Macclesfield, 301. 
Macgowan (James), 169. 
Machines, Early forms of, 266. 
Mackenzie (Sir George), 61, 195. 
Macreuse, or Barnacle Goose, 73, 75. 
Madrid, 1 50, 242. 
Magdeburg, Cathedral of, 10. 
Magdeburg, Wetter- Mannchen, 113. 
Maidstone, 301. 
Maier (Michael), 74. 



Maiitaire (Michael), 181. 
Major (J. D.), 2, 21, 35, 45, 59, 68, 85, 
97. 127. 191, 195, 196, 207, 209, 
210, 232. 
Malta, 47, 68, 70, 192. 

earth its virtues, 193. 
Mai ton, 302. 
Malvern, 302. 
Mammoth, 179, 180. 
Man, Fossil, 194, 196. 

doubted, 223. 
Manchester, 175, 302. 
Marbode, Bishop, 65. 
Marcellus, 4. 
Marchi (G.), ro6. 

Marguerolle, or Barnacle Goose, 73. 
Maria Theresa, 86. 
Markets, Foreign, Museums as aids to 

their requirements, 273. 
Marlborough College, 302. 
Marlborough gems, 15. 
Marrow, Stone, 73, 213. 
Marshall (John), 166. 
MartjTi (John), 181. 
Marvellous, The, 191, 202. 
Mary Magdalene, relics of, 199. 
Mary, \'irgin, 

her shift, 6. 

slippers, 199. 

comb, 199. 
Mason College, Birmingham, 294. 
Mastadon, discovery of, 47. 
Materia medica, The, 41, 52, 55, 57, 

59. 73, 76, 152, 166, 193. 
Material -Kammer, 38. 
Material for research students, 276. 

Museums of, 257, 275. 
Matthew (W. D.), 264. 
Mattioli (P. A.), 25, 83. 
Maule (Robert), 151. 
Mead (Richard), 119, 122, 125, 137. 
Meal that fell from the clouds, 67. 
Medici (Cosmo and Lorenzo, de), 13. 
Medulla, or stone marrow, 213. 
Meidenberg (Conrad von), 196. 
Melanteria, or metallic ink, 213. 
Melle (Jacob von), 53, 219, 252. 
Melons, Stone, 63. 
Melton Mowbray, 302. 
Memnon, Sword of, 5. 
Mercati (Michele), 28, 29, 48, 67, 68, 

82, 105, 213, 223. 
Mere (J. van der), 60. 
Merga, or stone marrow, 73. 
Merlan, Schloss, 58. 
Mermaid, 30, 204. 
Merovingian Period, 234. 



INDEX 



32:) 



Merret (Dr. Christopher), 136. 
Merseburg, Cathedral of, 9. 
Metaphrastes (Simeon), 191. 
Metaphysics a hindrance to natural 

science, i86. 
Meteorite at Ensisheim, 10. 
Meteorites, 82, 92. 
Meusel (J. G. ), 23. 
Mexican collection, 178. 
Meyrick (SirS.), 175, 179. 
Micconi, Signor, of Genoa, 147. 
Mice, remedy against, 115. 
Middlesborough, 302. 
Miege (Guy), 103, 216. 
Miers museum, 172. 
Migne, L'Ahbe, 76. 
Migrations, Three great, 233. 
Milan, 87. 

Cathedral treasury, 3. 

Church of San Ambrogio, 3. 
Milch-Topfe, 198. 
Milk-cows turned into stone, 196. 
Military Museum, 231. 
Milman (H. H.), 6. 
Mineralia media, 61, 214, 217. 
Mineralogical collections, 264, 275, 278. 
Minutius (Theophilus), 91. 
Mirahilia A'oniae, 17. 
Miracles, 191, 192. 
Miscellanea Curiosa, 102. 
Mistakes of the learned, 239. 
Mitliridates, as a collector, 4. 
Missionary Museums, 248, 249, 292. 
Missionaries extend our knowledge of 
distant lands, 20. 

as collectors, 247-249. 
Misy, or green vitriol, 213. 
Modena Museums, 81, 242. 
Moehsen (J. C. W.), 26. 
Moeller (D. W.), 2, 22, 35, 207, 221. 
Molinet (Claude du), 218, 239. 
Monardes (Micholas), 24. 
Monastries had collections of curios, 6. 
^^onipennie's Abridgemejit of the Scots 

Chi-onicles, 75. 
Monk turned into stone for perjury, 194. 
Monsters as museum exhibits, 88, 188, 

195, 226. 
Montagu House, 140. 
Montelius (Oscar), 279. 
Montfaucon (B. de), 12, 14, 51, 84, 194, 
199, 201, 206, 211, 240. 

Visits to sundry museums, 201. 
Montrose museum, 310. 
Montrose, Marquis of, hand and arm 
exhibited in Thoresby's museum, 



Moravia, 43. 

Moravian Missionaries, 248. 

Moray (Sir Robert), 74. 

Morison (Dr. Robert), 93. 

Mortillet (Gabriel de), 234. 

Mosaic account of the creation as a basis 

of museum arrangement, 220. 
Moscardo (Lodovico), 66, 84. 
Moscow, 150, 242. 
Moses, Rod of, 3. 

Brazen serpent of, 3. 
Mueller (J. W. von), 45. 
Mueller, Max, 76. 
Mueller (C. O.), 13. 
Mueller (Sophus), 279. 
Mummies, 30, 50, 83, 85, 88, 91, 125, 

210, 216, 226. 
Mummy as a curative agent, 52, S3. 

as fish bait, 53. 

artificial mummy, 54. 

elexir of, 54. 

balsam of, 54. 

Egyptian mummy, 216. 

Danish ,, 216. 

list of mummies, 123. 
Munich, Museum at, 18, 45, 78. 

Jesuits' Church at, 45. 
Municipal Museums, 251, 261, 265, 

268, 273. 
Munro (Dr. Robert), 279. 
Miintz (Eugene), 13, 14. 
Museum, 

Original meaning of the term, i, 38, 
274. 

Its present meaning, i, 38. 

Dr. Johnson's definition, 36. 

Bailey's , , 36. 

Huxley's ,, 231. 

Schellhammer's ,, 278. 

Is a library of illustrations, 27S. 

Equivalent terms, 34, 80, 91, 93, 96, 
112, 219, 221, 223. 
Museums — (i) Early Museums. 

Their origin and development, 20. 

Lists of, 20-27, 89. 

Bibliography of, 23, 24. 

Aims of, 39. 

Early Catalogues, 28. 

Some of the old Museums, 63, 78, 
sqq. 180. 

Museum of the I7lh centurj-, 82, 88. 

Their non-scientific character, 186. 

Want of space and staff, 205. 

Their internal appearance, 207, 209, 
210, 215. 

Entrance hall, 210, 211. 

Difficulty of obtaining access, 206. 



326 



INDEX 



Museums, iontitmed. 

Fees for admittance, 98, 205. 
Visitors hurried over the collections, 

206. 
Directions to \"isitors, 206. 
Labels, 206, 220. 
Cabinets, 220. 
(2) Later Museums, 102, 180. 

Expeditions for collecting material, 

146, 2S2. 
Objects exhibited, 30, 39, 80, 81, 84, 
85, 88, 94, 95, 100, 103, loS, 113- 
115, iiS, 123, 125, 128, 129, 132, 
137, 138, 146-148, 152, 164, 172- 
174, 190, 191, 194, 200-203. 
Curiosities, 188, 200, 202, 203, 211, 
265, 288. 

as attractions, 204, 288. 
Rarities, 198, 200. 
Freaks and oddities, 198, 200, 215, 

227. 
Monsters, 88, 188, 195. 
Dealers in antiquities and other 

museum objects, 170. 
Museums destroyed by fire, 109. 
Plan and position of buildings, 225, 

226. 
Decoration, 227. 

Methods of arrangements, 112, 205- 
230. 

Scheme of Kentman, 212. 

Mercati, 213. 

Brack enhoft'er, 214. 

Wonn, 214. 

Copenhagen, 216. 

Royal Society, 216. 

Sibbald, 217." 

Zedler, 217. 

Aldrovandi, 217. 

St. Genevieve, 218. 

Jacob von Melle, 219. 

Baier, 219. 

Lesser, 219. 

Thoresby, 221. 

Koehler, 221. 

Linnaeus, 224. 

Valmont de Bomare, 226, 22S. 

J. S. Duncan, 229. 

Christian Thomsen, 232, 241. 

German archaeological museums, 

233- 
St. Germain, 233. 
Worsaae, 241. 
Pitt-Rivers 243. 
Jomard, 244. 
Purchase of museums, 96, 99, 115, 
116. 



Museums, continued. 

Sale of museums, 89, 92, 99, iii, 
116, 116, 124, 124, 126, 147, 174, 

175' 177, 178. 
Gifts of museums, 106, loS, ill, 118, 

153. 155- 
Disappearance of museums, 147, 154, 

156, 157- 
Dispersion of museums, 181. 
Thefts from museums, 185. 
Museums as shows, 170-180, 258. 
(3) Modern Museums. 
Modern Museums, 231. 
List of, 292-312. 

Their aim, 258, 262, 266, 276, 283. 
Museums as places of recreation, 258. 
Museums as aids to education, 258, 

260, 269. 
Again places of study, 275, 276. 
Museum lessons for children, 261. 
Museum lectures and demonstrations, 

262. 
A museum should be self interpreting, 

262. 
Handbooks, 221, 263, 264. 
Catalogues, 264. 

Visitors, 203, 206, 223, 262, 264, 269. 
Museums should have distinctive 

character, 265. 
Museums Acts, 267. 
Museums as aids to amateur natural- 
ists, 269. 
Museums as an index of the progress 

of science, 270. 
Museums essential for scientific 

students, 270, 274, 275, 276, 283, 

284. 
Museum buildings, 225, 226, 250, 

251, 282. 
Museum accessories, libraries, labora- 
tory, workshop, 275, 276. 
Museum apparatus, 277. 
printing, 277. 
Bulletins and Memoirs, 277, 

2S4. 
Museum expenditure, 275, 277, 2S2. 

staff. 277, 282. 
Importance of order and method, 236, 

262, 263, 266, 274. 
Type specimens, 261, 278. 
Management, 252, 274, 283, 284. 

By commission, 252, 254, 255, 284. 
Curator of Museum, 98, 205, 206, 

278, 282. 
Selection of exhibits, 266. 
Illustrations on walls, 233, 264. 
Museum cases, 220, 263. 



INDEX 



r-1 



Museums, continued. 

Labels, 206, 220, 264, 274, 
Display of exhibits, 206, 262, 263. 
Exhibits that can not be identified, 

208. 
Obsolete specimens, 266. 
Donations, 249, 264, 265, 2S2. 
Search for exhibits, 146, 249, 282. 
Officers of the Navy employed to 

collect specimens, 158, 247. 
Shipmasters as collectors, 260. 
Missionaries as collectors, 247-249. 
Registrations of specimens, 265. 
{4) Special Museums and collections, 
Local, 261, 265, 268, 281. 
Municipal, 251, 261, 265, 268, 273. 
University, 275. 
School, 261. 

Agricultural, 231, 265, 274. 
Anatomical, 24, 29, ^^i, 78, 118, 145, 

257. 275> 278. 
-Archaeological, 231, 265, 275. 
Architectural, 273. 
Art, 232, 267. 
Botanical, 257, 275. 
Chemical, 231. 

Commercial, 231, 251, 265, 270, 273. 
Economic, 270, 272, 273. 
Educational, 231. 
Ethnographical, 241, 242. 248, 253, 

255- 

Geological, 231, 265, 275. 

Historical, 251, 253, 278. 

Industrial, 231, 270. 

Instruments and Apparatus, Philo- 
sophical, Surgical, and other, 87, 
88, 106, 113, 148, 149, 152, 161, 
163, 218, 227. 

Materia Medica, 257, 275. 

Mineralogical, 264, 275, 278. 

Natural History, 224, 226, 231, 264. 

Palaeontological, 275, 278. 

Pathological, 162, 163, 265, 275. 

Religious, 218, 219, 242. 

Weaving, 272. 

Zoological, 265, 275. 

(5) General Museums, 

General Museums, 260, 265, 275. 

(6) Museums of the Future, 2S5. 
Museums and collections referred to : 

Abbotsford, 308. 
Abela"s, 47, 194. 
Aberdeen, 163, 164, 308. 
Aberystwith, 312. 
Academia, Nat. Cur. ,117. 
Adams's, 172. 
Agricola (G. ), 24. 



Museums, continued. 
Agrippa von Nettesheym, 24. 
Aix, 92. 

Aldborough, 293. 
Aldrovandi, 78, 206, 236. 
Alexandria, i. 
Allan (George), 185. 
Alloa, 308. 
Alnwick, 293. 
Alton, 293. 

Amras, Schloss, 63, 86, 149, 191. 
Amsterdam, 37, iii, 115, 116, 145. 
Andersonian, Glasgow, 161. 
Andover, 294. 
Angeloni, 36. 
Antwerp, 188. 
Armagh, 31 1. 
Ashmolean, 36, 50, 108, 154, 159, 

183, 188, 203, 204, 205, 228, 230, 

240, 241, 303. 
Augustus, Emperor, 5, 45. 
Aylesbury, 294. 
Baier(J.'j.), 117. 
Bakewell, 294. 
Balfour (Sir A.), 53, 56, 76, 152, 

156,217. 
Balfour (Sir James), 151. 
Banff, 308. 
Bangor, 312. 
Banks (Sir Joseph), 142. 
Barby, 248. 

Bargrave, Canon, 31, 149 
Barnard Castle, 294. 
Basle, 97, 206, 248, 266. 
Bateman (Richard), 1S4. 
Bath, 294. 
Bauhin (J.), 97. 
Bausch (J. L.), 102. 
Bayer (Matthaeus), 170. 
Belfast, 311. 
Bclon (P.), 26. 
Berhn, 78, 100, 146, 150, 242, 255, 

256, 258. 
Berne, 266. 
Bernon (L.), 95. 
Berwick-on-Tweed, 294. 
Besler (Basil and Rupert), 98, 99. 
Bethnal Green, 244, 292. 
Bidelli's, 201. 
Birmingham, 294, 295. 
Blackburn, 295. 
Bodleian, 15, 230. 
Boerhaave (H.), 122, 146. 
Bologna, 78, 80, 81, 89, 206. 
Bolton, 295. 
Boodt (A. de), 26. 
Bootle, 295. 



,28 



INDEX 



jNIuseums, continued. 

Borel's, 20, 94. 

Borgiano, 242, 247. 

Borilly's, 92. 

Boulter (D.), 184. 

Brackenhoffer (E.), 214. 

Bradford, 295. 

Brander (Gustavus), 141. 

Bremen, 249. 

Brighton, 295. 

Bristol, 295. 

British Museum, 15, 18, 127, 132, 
136, 140-144, 202, 211, 212, 234, 
241, 247, 250, 264, 267, 274, 287, 
292. 

Bromel (O.), z^. 

Briickmann (F. E.), 112, 149. 

Brussels, 78. 

BDcemi(G.), 81. 

Buda Pesth, 150. 

Buddie (A.), 137. 

Bullock's, 154, 174, 204. 

Burslem, 295. 

Burton-on-Trent, 295. 

Bur}--St. -Edmunds, 296. 

Bytemeister (H. J.), 148. 

Caerleon, 296. 

Calceolari, 83, 236. 

Caledonian, 204. 

Cambridge, 118, 120, 296. 

Camps (F. de), 38. 

Canterbury, 18, 248, 296. 

Cardan (J. )> 25. 

Cardiff, 312. 

Cargill (flames), 26. 

Carlisle, 296. 

Carlyle, 292. 

Carnarvon, 312. 

Carnavalet. 256, 266. 

Cassel, 145. 

Cay (Robert), 167. 

Cesalpini (A.), 26. 

Chard, 296. 

Charles II., 147. 

Charleton (W.), 129, 136. 

Chatham, 296. 

Chelmsford, 297. 

Chelsea, 171. 

Cheltenham, 297. 

Chester, 297. 

Chesterfield, 297. 

Chevalier (N.), 37. 

Chicago, 243. 

Chichester, 297. 

Christiania, 241. 

Christchurch, Hants, 296. 

Christina, Queen, 38. 



Museums, continued. 

Church Missionarv- Society, 248. 

Cirencester, 297. 

Clark (Baron), 160. 

Clusius (C), 220. 

Coalbrookdale, 297. 

Colchester, 297. 

Coleraine (Lord), 184. 

Colwal (D.), 131. 

Contant (Paul), 93. 

Conyers (John), 120, 134, 173, 267. 

Cook (Captain James), 245. 

Copenhagen, 35, 51, 103, 150, 193, 

194. 216, 232, 239, 241. 
Corbie, Abbey of, 3. 
Cordus (V.), 25. 
Cork, 311. 
Cospi, 79, 89, 216. 
Courtine. See Charleton. 
Cox (James), 173. 
Crassier (Baron de), 38. 
Croyden, 297. 
Curland, Duke of, 181. 
Cusanus (JNI.), 85. 
Danzig, 147, 233. 
Darmstadt, 231, 242. 
Darwen, 297. 
Davila, 9. 
De Camps (F.), 1^. 
Delacoste and Curling, 180. 
Delft, 60, 148. 

Denis, St., Treasury, 3, 11, 12, 198. 
Derby, 297. 
De%azes, 298. 
Devonport, 298. 
Donaldson, 292. 
Dorchester, 29S. 
Dover, 29S. 
Dresden, 18, 25, 29, 35, 37, 40, 59, 

78, loi, 149, 150, 199, 205, 206, 

208, 242. 
Drottningholm, 225. 
Di-ury (Dru), 148. 
Dublin, 311. 
Dudley, 298. 
Du Four (P. S.), 170. 
Dufresne, 158. 
Dumfries, 30S. 
Dundee, 309. 
Durham, 29S. 

Durham, Treasury of, 3, 7, 10. 
Eastbourne, 29S. 
Edinburgh, 53, 56, 153-159. 167, 

169, 179, 212, 247, 308. 
Eeckhoff(H.), 219. 
Elgin, 309. 
Enkhuizen, 96, 191. 



INDEX 



,29 



Museums, continued. 
Erfurt, 118. 
Eton, 29S. 
Exeter, 298. 
Faille (De la), 148. 
Florence, 18, 38, 78, 147, 187, 211, 

242. 
Folkestone, 298. 
Forres, 309. 
Fothergill (John), 1S5. 
Fothergill (W.), 142. 
Foucault, 96. 
Fountain (Sir A.)) I37- 
Frankfort, 146. 
Frome, 298. 
Fuiren (H.), 38. 
Gaddi, 211. 
Gailliard (Jean), 124. 
Gal way, 311. 
Genoa, 147. 

Gesner (Conrad), 25, 97. 
Giessen, 148. 
Giggleswick, 299. 
Glasgow, 76, 160-163, I/?! 245-259, 

271, 309. 
Glastonbury, 299. 
Gloucester, 299. 
Goddefroy, 253. 
Gosport, 299. 
Gottorp, 51, 96, 145. 
Gottwaldt (C), 147. 
Greene (R.), 174, 178, 179. 
Greenock, 309. 
Greenwich, 185, 299. 
Grimani, 14. 
Gualtieri (N.), 147. 
Guernsey, 299. 
Guildhall Museum, 281, 292. 
Guille-Alle, 299. 
Guimet, 241. 
Guys Hospital, 292. 
Haarlem, 194. 
Hahn (G.), 35, 181. 
Haileybury, 299. 
Halberstadt, 147. 
Halifax, 299. 
Halle, 146, 148, 233. 
Hamburg, 145, 149, 242, 249, 253. 
Hamilton (G.), 163. 
Hamilton (Sir Wm.), 142. 
Hanover, 8, 233. 
Harvard (Mass.), 274. 
Hawick, 309. 
Heidelberg, 99. 
Helmstadt, 9, 148. 
Hereford, 299. 
Hermann (Paul), 122. 



Museums, continued. 
Hermitage, 176. 

Hildesheim, Treasury of, 8, 9, 11. 
Hoffmann (F.), 220. 
Hofmann (L. ), 146. 
Hooke (Robert), 170. 
Homiman, 292. 
Hubert's, 51, 127, 173. 
Htibner (J.), I49- 
Huddersfield, 299. 
Hull, 246, 299. 
Humphrey (George), 184. 
Hunterian, Glasgow, 76, 160, 162, 

177, 185, 245, 257, 309. 
Huntingdon, 299. 
Hutton (James), 158. 
Imperati, 85. 
India, London, 241. 
Innsbruck, 63, 86. 
Inverness, 309. 
Ipswich, 300. 
Jameson (Robert), 158. 
Jena, 146, 148. 
Jermyn Street, London, 292. 
Kahn (Joseph), 113, 155. 
Kelso, 309. 

Kemp (John), 34, 124, 267. 
Kendal, 300. 

Kentmann (Johann), 28, 34, 212. 
Keswick, 300. 
Kew Gardens, 292. 
Kilkenny, 312. 
Kilmarnock, 309. 
King's College, London, 292. 
King's Lynn, 300. 
Kircher (Athanasius), 51, 91, 106, 

210. 
Kirkcudbright, 310. 
Kirke (Thomas), 183. 
Kirkleatham, 300. 
Kirkring (T.), 145. 
Kisner (J. G.), 146. 
Konigsberg, 190. 
Lambeth, 108. 
Lancaster, 300. 
Largo, 310. 
Lateran, 18. 
Launceston, 300. 
Leeds, 300, 301. 
Leek, 301. 
Leicester, 301. 
Leipsic, 38, 51, 242, 253. 
L'Estoile (P. de), 90. 
Lethieullier, 123. 
Lettsom (J. C), 184. 
Lever's, 175. 
Lewes, 301. 



330 



INDEX 



Museums, continued. 

Leyden, 29, 31, 32, 51, 53, 57, 63, 
65, 145, 189, 190, 208, 209, 242, 
253, 287. 

Lichfield, 174, 301. 

Linnaeus, 225. 

Lisbon, 242. 

Liverpool, 301. 

" Liverpool Museum,'' 178. 

Livingstone, 245, 247. 

London, 18, 51, 78, 107, 121, 122, 
124, 126, 128, 132, 134, 140, 142, 
143, 149, 150, 158, 172, 17s, 178, 
241, 247, 248, 264, 27s, 292, 293. 

London Hospital, 292. 

London ^Missionary Society, 248, 292. 

Louvre, 18, 241. 

Liibeck, 53, 249, 251. 

Luders (C. W.), 253. 

Ludlow, 301. 

Ludgate Hill, 135. 

Lyons, 170, 241. 

Macclesfield, 301. 

Madrid, 150, 242. 

Maidstone, 301. 

Malton, 302. 

Malvern, 302. 

Manchester, 302. 

Marlborough, 15. 

Marlborough College, 302. 

Mart)^! (John), 181. 

Mason College, 294. 

Mead (Dr. R.), 122, 125, 137. 

Melle (J. von), 53, 219, 252. 

Aleiton Mowbray, 302. 

Mercati (M.), 28, 82, 213. 

Mere (|. van der), 60. 

Merret (C), 136. 

Meyrick (Sir S.), I75, I79- 

Micconi, 147. 

Aliddlesborough, 302. 

Miers (Mr.), 172. 

Milan, Churches of, 3 
Museums, 87. 

Mithridates, 4. 

Modena, 81, 242. 

Monardes (Nicolas), 24. 

Montrose, 310. 

Moscardo (L.), 84. 

Moscow, 150, 242. 

Munich, 18, 45, 78. 

Mussell (E.), 125, 184. 

Naples, 17, 85. 

Neath, 312. 

Neilson (John), 184. 

Newbury, 302. 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 185, 302. 



Museums, continued. 
Newport, 303. 
New York, 180, 243, 264. 
Nicolai (G. ), 147. 
Northampton, 303. 
Northwich, 303. 
Norwich, 303. 
Nottingham, 303. 
Nuremberg, 40, 41, 53,98, 117, 149, 

193, 235. 
Nymegen, 99. 
Odescalchi, 38. 
Ogilvie (Wm.), 164. 
Oldham, 303. 
Olearius, 96. 
Ooroomia, 248. 
Orangere (Q. de T), 187. 
Orleans, Duke of, 92. 
Orleans, Town, 187. 
Ortel (A.), 26. 
Oxford, 15, 36, 56, 108, 203, 243, 

244, Z^l>- 
Oxford, Earl of, 183. 
Paisley, 310. 

Palatine Apollo, Temple of, 4. 
Palissy, 90. 

Paludanus (B.), 96, 242. 
Paracelsus, 24. 
Paris, 10, 18, 78, 92, 93, 150, 208, 

241, 247, 256, 266, 275. 
Parkes, 292. 
Parkinson (James), 177. 
Peale(C. W.), 179. 
Peiresc, 91. 

Pembroke (Earl of), 15, 137. 
Penrith, 303. 
Penzance, 304. 
Perth, 169, 310. 
Peterborough, 304. 
Peterhead, 310. 
Peters', 188. 
Petiver (James), 135. 
Philadelphia, 179, 243. 
Pinelli, 14. 

Pitt-Rivers (General), 243, 244. 
Plater (Felix), 97, 206. 
Plukenet (L.), 137. 
Plymouth, 304. 
Poitiers, 93. 
Pond (Arthur), 184. 
Poole, 304. 

Portland, Duchess of, 183. 
Post Office, London, 292. 
Prague, 40, 41, 231. 
Presburg, 51. 
Preston, 304. 
Pulteney (R.), 181. 



INDEX 



;3i 



Museums, continued. 

Quedlinburg, treasury of, 8, 115, 

199. 
Rackstrow (B. ), 184. 
Ramsay (Prof. R.), 157, 184. 
Ratzcl (J. C), 147- 
Ray (John), ill. 
Reading, 304. 
Reymers (Tobias), 51. 
Richmond, 304. 
Ripen, 304. 

Ritter (Albert), 113, 114. 
Rome, 4, 5, 18, 78, 106, 242, 248. 
Rondelet (G. ), 26. 
Roque (M. de la), 187. 
Rothschild (Hon. L. W.), 277. 
Royal Architectural Society, 292. 
Royal Botanic Society, 293. 
Royal College of Surgeons, 293. 
Royal Society, 31, 34, 51, 55, 123, 

154, 193, 209, 216. 
Royal United Service Institution, 293. 
Rugini of Venice, 201. 
Runiph (G. E. ), 147. 
Ruysch (F.), 116, 182, 209. 
Ryde, 305. 

Sachse von Lowenheim, 21. 
Saffron Walden, 305. 
Sala (Mario), 85. 
Salford, 305. 
Salisbuiy, 305. 
Sallust, 5. 
Saltero (Don), 171. 
ScaligerQ. C), 25. 
Scarborough, 305. 
Scaurus, 4. 
Schynvoet (S.), 182. 
Scotland, Society of Antiquaries, 167. 
Scott (George), 184. 
Seba (A.), 115, 182. 
Seguin(P.), 38. 
Settala or Septala, 37, 87, 201. 
Shakespeare, 306. 
Shefheld, 305. 
Sherard (Consul), 181. 
Shield Walk, 121. 
Shrewsbury, 305. 
Sibbald (Sir K.), 153, 217. 
Sloane (Sir H.), 130, 132, 134, 136, 

137, 138, 183, iSS, 267. 
Smet van der Ketten (Jan), 99. 
Soane (Sir J.), 184, 293. 
Southampton, 305. 
South Kensington. See Victoria and 

Albert. 
Southport, 305. 
South Shields, 305. 



Museums, continued. 
Sparkuhle (P. J.), 250. 
Spener (J. J.), 148. 
Spitzer (F.), 179. 
Spon (Jacob), 21. 
Spring Gardens, 142, 173. 
Slaftord, 305. 
Stalybridge, 305. 
Stamford, 306. 
St. Andrews, 164, 310. 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 293. 
St. Denis, 3, 11, 12, 198. 
St. Genevieve, 92, 218. 
St. George's Hospital, 293. 

Museum, Sheffield, 198. 
St. Germain, 233. 
St. Neots, 306. 
St. Petersburg, 18, 96, 147, 148, 150, 

176, 182, 189, 242. 
Stirling, 310. 

Stockholm, 150, 241, 266. 
Stockport, 306. 
Stoke-upon-Trent, 306. 
Stratford-on-Avon, 306. 
Stryk (Samuel), 185. 
Stukeley (William), 126, 183. 
Stuttgart, 233. 
Sunderland, 306. 
Swammerdam (J. J.), ill. 
Swansea, 312. 
Sydney, 243. 

Tarvisiano (Bernard), 194. 
Taunton, 306. 
Ten Brocke (Berend), 96. 
Tenby, 312. 
Tessin, Count, 225. 
Thoresby (Ralph), 45, 126, 183, 221. 
Thornhill, 310. 
Thurneisser (L. ), 26. 
Torquay, 306. 
Tower, The, of London, 41, 178, 

293- 
Towneley (Charles), 144. 
Tradescant (John), 37, 107, 188, 200. 
Tring, 277. 
Truro, 306. 

Tunstall (Marmaduke), 184. 
Tynemouth, 306. 
Tyssen (Samuel), 184. 
Ulm, 170. 
Ulrichsdahl, 224. 
Upsala, 225. 
Utrecht, 37, 248. 
Valentini (M. B.), in, 188. 
Vatican, 18, 29. 
Venice, 11, 12, 14, 150, 194, 201, 

242. 



332 



INDEX 



Museums, continued. 

Venus-Genetrix, Temple of, 4. 

Verona, 83-85. 

Victoria and Albert, 149, 187, 293. 

Vienna, 17, 18, 78, 86, 149, 150, 190, 
210, 233, 237-242, 256. 

Vincent (L. ), 209. 

Wakefield, 307. 

Warrington, 307. 

Warwick, 307. 

Washington, 242, 274. 

Watford, 307. 

Weigel(E.), 148. 

Welfen, 8. 

Wellington, N. Z., 256. 

Welshpool, 312. 

Wenlock, 307. 

West Ham, 185. 

West (James), 184. 

West Prussian, 233. 

Weymouth, 253. 

Whitby, 307. 

Whitechapel, 293. 

Whitehall, 121. 

Wilde (J. de), 38. 

Winchester, 307. 

Windsor, 307. 

Wisbech, 307. 

Wittenberg, 147, 208. 

Wodrow (Robert), 165. 

Wolverhampton, 307. 

Woodward (Dr. J.), 118. 

Woolwich, 293, 307. 

Worcester, 307. 

Worm (Ole), 43, 47, 56, 104, 214. 

Wright (Dr. Peter), 163. 

Yate(W. H.), 175. 

York, 308. 

Zanoni's, 80. 
Mushrooms, Stone, 63. 
Mussell (Ebenezer), 125, 184. 



N. 
Naples, 17, 85. 
Napoleon, removal of museums and 

art objects by, loi. See vol. ii. 

p. 49. 
Narwhal horn, 41, 42. 
Natural Historj- Museums, 224, 226, 

231, 264. 
Directions for formation of, 226. 
Nature, Exceptional powers, 62, 67, 

69, 92, no, 192, 195, 198. 
Navy, Officers of the, as collectors for 

Museums, 158, 247. 
Neath, 312. 



Neickelius (C. F.), 2, 22, 23, 36, 38, 

90, 96, 129, 145, 147, 170, 207. 
Neilson (John), 184. 
Neocorus (Ludolphus), i. .SV.: Kiister. 
Neolithic Period, 234. 
Newbur}-, 302. 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 185, 302. 
Newport, 303. 
Newt, The, 191. 
New York, 180, 243, 264. 

Delacosteand Curling's museum, 180. 

Lyceum of Natural History, 1 80. 

Natural History Museum, 264. 

Ethnographical collections, 243. 
Nicolai (Gottfried). 147. 
Nightmare, remedy for, 73. 
Nisbet (Alexander), 42. 
Nisus formativus, 62. 
Noah's ark, a museum, 2, 107. 

Hairs from Noah's beard at Corbie, 3. 
Nordhausen, 220. 
Northampton, 303. 
Northwich, 303. 
Norwich, 303. 
Nottingham, 303. 
Nuck (Professor Anton), 288. 
Numismatics, origin of science of, 13, 

17- 
Numophylacium=:a coin cabinet, 38, 

221. 
Nuremberg, 40, 41, 53, 98, 117, 128, 

149, 193, 235. 
Nutmegs, Stone, 63. 
Nymegen, 99. 

O. 

Observation, Faculty of, training of, 

258, 274. 
Obsolete specimens, 267. 
Oculus mundi, 85. 
Oddities and freaks, 198, 200, 215. 
Odescalchi, Duke, 38. 
Odontopetra, 71. 

Oeningen, fossil man, found at, 194. 
Ogilvie (Prof. William). 164. 
Oil Well, 197. 

Oldenburg (Henry), 62, 70, 130, 200. 
Oldham, 303. 
Oldys (William), 132, 140. 
Olearius (Adam), 96, 145. 
01iva(J. B.), 70,84. 
Oliver (Dr. William), 103, 104, 190, 

194. 
Ombria, 67, 85. 
Ooroomia, 248. 
Oram (Gilbert), of Dundee, 50. 



INDEX 



133 



Orangere (Q. de 1'). Sc'e L"Orangere. 

Oranges, Stone, 63. 

Order and Method, 236, 262, 263, 265. 

Orleans, Gaston, Duke of, 92, 12S. 

Orleans, Maid of, Sword of, 199. 

Orleans museum, 187. 

Ortel (Abraham), 26. 

Osborne (Tom), 140. 

Ossa de corde Cervi, 59. 

Ossicula Wormiana, 104. 

Osteolog)', comparative, 228. 

Ostrich eggs, hung up in churches, 8. 

Otte (Christian), 8, 9, 10, 258. 

Otter, The, 217. 

Otto II., Emperor, 199. 

Oxford, 15, 36, 56, 108, 203, 241, 243, 

244. 303- 

Bodleian library, 15, 230, 303. 

Pitt-Rivers, collection, 242. 

See Ashmolean Museum. 
Oxford, Earl of, declined to purchase 
Kemp's museum, 125. 

his library, 140. 

pictures, 176. 

museum, 183. 
Ox-heart, Stone, 63. 
Oyes d'Ecosse, Les, 94. 

P. 
Paisley, 310. 

Paleolithic Period, 233, 234. 
Palceontological Museums, 275, 278. 
Palatine Apollo, temple of, 4. 
Palatine, Elector, 99. 
Paley (William). His Natural Theo- 
logy as a basis for Museum arrange- 
ment, 229. 
Palissy (Bernard), 90. 
Pallas, Body of, 46. 
Paludanus (B. ), 95, 242. 
Paracelsus, 24, 237, 238. 
Pare (Abraham), 44, 52. 
Paris, 78, 92, 102, 150, 179, 194, 247. 
Cabinet du roi, 93. 
Natural History Museum, 10, 93, 

208, 275. 
Louvre, 18, 241. 
Spitzer collection, 179. 
Musee Guimet, 241. 
Carnavalet Museum, 256, 266. 
Parker (J. H.), 204, 230. 
Parkes Museum, 292. 
Parkinson (James), 31, 43, 63, 177,' 

194, 217. 
Parthey (Gustav), i. 
Pathological collections, 162, 163, 265, 
275- 



Paul, St., at Malta, 193. 

relics of, 199. 
Paul II., as a coin collector, 14. 
PauUi (Professor Simon), 95. 
Pansanius, 5. 

Pauw or Pavius (Peter), 287. 
Peacham (Henry), 30. 
Peale (C. W.), 179, 212, 225. 
Pear Stone, 63. 
Pedometer, 1 14. 
Peiresc (Fabri dc), 85. 

as traveller, 85. 

collector, 90. 

his library, 90. 

his agents, 91. 

opinions on fossils, 92. 
Pembroke, Thomas, Earl of, 15, 137. 
Pennant, Thomas, 155. 
Penrith, 303. 
Penzance, 304. 
Perpetual motion, 88, 107. 
Perth museums, 169, 310. 

Library.and Antiquarian Society, 168. 
Peter the Great, 115, 116, 182, 242. 
Peterborough, 304. 
Peterhead, 310. 
Peters (Mons.), 188. 
Petiver (James), 23, 117, 129, 135, 146. 
Petrarch, as a coin collector, 13, 53. 
Petrifactions, 62, 64, 68, 85, 119, 196, 
201, 202, 208, 214, 218, 219, 223, 
226. 

Shells, 85. 

Wood, 194, 214. 

Sponge, 85. 

Fruit, 63, 201. 

Cinnamon, 85- 

Mushroom, 85. 

Bread, 202. 

Biscuits, 202. 

Eggs, 196, 198, 201. 

Cheese, 85, 198, 202. 

Teeth, 63, 99, 214. 

Man, 94, 233. 

Child, 194. 

Monk, 194. 

Human head, 82. 

Brains, no. 

Eyes, 1 10. 

Tongue, 196. 

Heart, no. 

Foot, 198. 

Horse head, no. 

Bull's heart, no. 

Cows, 196. 

Cow's horn, 214. 

Hen and Eggs, 196. 



134 



INDEX 



Petrifactions, continued. 

Stag and Serpent, 194. 

Hedgehog, 201. 

Glass and water, 197. 

Sepulchral ruins, 198. 

African city, 194. 

Stone tools supposed to be petrifac- 
tions, 237. 

Petrifaction explained, 119, 196. 
Petroleum, 217. 
Pettigrew (T. T.), 54, 56, 61. 
Petty Church, bones of giant at, 11. 
Peutinger (Konrad), 17. 
Pflaumern (J. H. von), 14, 85. 
Pharmaceutical preparations, 146. 
Pharmacopoeia, The, 41, 52, 55, 57, 59, 

73> 76, 193- 
Philadelphia, 179, 180, 243. 
Phosphorus, 81. 
Photographs, 261. 
Physicotheca, physiotechnotameum = 

museum, 35, 220. 
Physiological Museums, 275. 
Physiotameion = a museum, 219. 
Picture Galleries, 278. 
Piddocks, the barnacle shell, 76. 
Pilgrims of the Middle Ages, 8. 

as collectors of inscriptions, 15. 
Pinacotheca, the, of the Romans, 4. 

= Museum, 35. 
PinelH (G. V.), 14. 

his library, 14. 

his museum, 14. 
Pitt-Rivers (General), 243, 244. 
Plancy (Collin de). 

See Collin de Plancy. 
Plastic power of nature, 62, 67, 69, 92, 

no, 192, 195, 198, 223. 
Plater (Felix), 46, 97, 206. 
Plater (Thomas), 98. 
Pliny, 4, 5, 19, 67, 68, 128, 213. 
Plot (Robert), 31, 50, 64, 109, 240. 
Plukenet (Dr. Leonard), 137. 
Plymouth, 304. 

Poems on Affairs of State, 135. 
Poison, preservatives against, 40, 115. 
Poitiers, 93. 

Poland, King of. See Augustus II. 
Poleni (Giovanni), 18. 
Politian, use of ancient coins by, 13 ; 

referred to, 170. 
Pomet (Pierre), 53, 56. 
Pompey the Great, 4. 
Pond (Arthur), 184. 
Pont (Timothy), 151. 
Poole, 304. 
Pope (Alexander), 105, 118, 122, 137. 



Pope, The, 115. 
Popes, 

Alexander VII., 187. 

Clement XL, 29. 

Eugenius IV., 16. 

Gregory XV., loi. 

Leo X., 170. 

Nicholas V., 16. 

Paul II., 14. 
Portland, Duchess of, 183. 
Post Office Museum, London, 292. 
Povev (Thomas), 133. 
Powell (Thomas, D.D.), 35, 96. 
Prague, 40, 41, loi, 231. 
Prehistoric tools and weapons recog- 
nised as similar to those of un- 
civilized people of the present, 82, 
240, 241, 243. 

Collections of prehistoric objects, 243. 
Pre-Roman Period, 233. 
Presburg, 51. 
Preston, 304. 

Prices paid for specimens to be re- 
corded, 264. 
Printing, Specimens of early, 266. 
Printing required for museum work, 277. 
Prior (Matthew), 228. 
Propaganda, College of the, 247. 
Provenance of objects, 264. 
Ptolemy Philadelphus, i, 274. 
Pulteney (Richard), 24, 25, 26, 50, 107, 
109, 133, 135. 137. 166, 181, 187, 
204. 



Quaternary gravels, 267. 
Quatrefages (A. de), 233. 
Quedlinburg, Treasury of, 8, 115, 199. 
Queensland, Aborigines of, 57. 
Quiccheberg (Samuel), 28. 

R 

Rackstrow (B.), 184. 

Raine (James), 7, 8, 10. 

Ramsay (Dr. Robert), 156, 157, 184. 

Raritaten-cabinet = museum, 37. 

Rarities, 36, 186, 198, 229. 

Rarotheca, 35. 

Rattray Cave, 197. 

Rattray (Svlvester), 57, 60, 197. 

Ratzel (J. C.), 147. 

Ray (John), a collector, in. 

refe'rred to 31, 37, 71, 74, 81, 82, 84, 
85. 87, 89, 97, 100, III, 132, 133, 
193, 206. 



INDEX 



Reading, 304. 

Red deer, 5S. 

Regenfuss (F. M.). 104, 147. 

Register of accessions, 265. 

Regular stones, 62. 

Reinach (Salomon), 6, 64, 279. 

Reiske (J.), 70, 193, 221. 

Relics of saints, 3, sqq. 

Religion as a museum subject, 218, 

219, 241. 
Reliquaries, 6. 
Reniora, The, 128, 204. 
Repository = museum, 34, 36, 157. 
Renauldin (L. J.), 21. 
Renodaeus (Johannes) or Renon (Jean), 

210. 
Research, Museum necessary for, 274, 
283. 

material for, 277. 
Reusch (C. F.), 198. 
Reymers (Tobias). 51. 
Richelieu, Cardinal, 194. 
Richmond, 304. 
Richter (G. F.), 146. 
Rings, Study of, 18. 
Riolan (Jean), 46. 
Ripon, 304. 

Ritter (Albert), 113, 114. 
Robinson (Tancred), 75. 
Rochelle, 95. 
Roman College, 106. 
Roman Period, 233. 234. 
Roman Wall in Scotland, 160, 167, 218. 
Romans, The, as collectors, 4. 
Rome, Unearthing of antiquities in, 13. 

Museums, 4, 5, 18, 78, 106, 242, 248. 
Rondelet, (G.), 26, 69, 73, 78. 
Ronsseus (Baldwin), 58. 
Roque (M. de la) museum, 187. 
Rossi (G. B. de), 15. 
Rothschild (Hon. L. W. ), 277. 
Royal Architectural Society, 292. 
Royal Botanic Society, 293. 
Royal College of Surgeons, 293. 
Royal Society, 31, 34, 51, 55, 102, 117, 

' 123, 13d, 132, 133, 134, 138, 142, 
154, 193, 209, 216. 

Museum. See s.v. Museums. 
Royal United Service Institution, 293. 
Riibeland, 43. 
Ruby, large, 19S. 
Rudolph of Suabia, 9. 
Rudolph II., Emperor, 26. 
Rugini's collection, 201. 
Rumph (G. E.), 147, 153, 182. 
Ruysch (Frederik), n6, 182, 209. 
Ryde, 305, 



S 

Sachse von Lowenheim (T. f.), 21, 35,. 

59. 96, 97, 127, I9i> 194. 196. 
Sacken (Eduard von) Baron, 279. 
Saette = flint arrow heads, 82. 
Saffron Walden, 305. 
Saint, 

Andrews, 25, 98, 164, 310. 

Aubyn, 174. 

Bartholomew, thumb of, 7. 

Bartholomew's Hospital, 293. 

Benedict's pence, 115. 

Christopher's bones, 46. 

Denis, 3, il, 12, 198. 

Genevieve, 92, 218. 

George's Hospital, 293. 

Museum, Sheffield, 305. 

Germain, 233. 

Neots, 306. 

Patrick, 193. 

Paul, 193, 199. 

Paul's Cathedral, London, 273. 

Petersburg, 18, 96, 116, 117, 147, 
148, 150, 176, 182, 189, 242. 

Riquier, 3. 

Sergius, thumb of, 7. 

Ulric's earth, 115. 
Saints, Bones of, 45. 
Sala (Mario), 85. 
Salamander, Fossil, 47, 194. 
Sal ford, 305. 

Saline principle in the earth, 1 10, 196. 
Salisbury, 305. 
Sallengre, (A. H. de), 18. 
Sallust, Gardens of, 5. 
Salmon (William), 45, 55, 56, 60, 77, 93. 
Saltero (Don), 171. 
Sarcophagus, 213. 

Saxons, use of bronze weapons by, 80. 
Saxonv, 43, 159, 233. 
Scaliger (J. C.), 25, 38, 42, 59, 74. 
Scarborough, 305. 
Scarcity of specimens, 256, 280. 
Scaurus, as a collector, 4. 
Scented stones, 159, 222. 
Scharzfeld cave, 43. 
Schatzkammer = Museum, 34, 38. 
Scheelenberg, ( von), 65, 66. 
Schelhammer (G. C.), 19, 35, 78, 79, 

81, 190, 278. 
Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, 96. 
Schlosser ([ulius von), 7. 
Schmeltz (j. D. E.), 253. 
School Museums, 261. 
Schroder (Dr. Johann), 43, 44, 54, 55, 
56, 57, 59. 60, 73, 77- 



136 



INDEX 



Schultze van Schvvensche Bregoschutz 

(Tobias), 96. 
Schuyl (Francis), 30. 
Schyn (Hermann), I17. 
Schynvoet (Simon), 182. 
Science and Art Museums, 271. 

Set- Art. 
Science teaching in Schools, 261. 
Scilla (Agostino), 70. 
Scotland, 

Specimens from, 135. 

Barnacle Geese, 32, 73, 76, 94, 

Collectors in, 135, 151. 

Museums in, 151. 

Natural History of, 153. 

Early libraries, 151. 

Language, 152, 153. 

History of civilization, 256. 

Customs tariff, 53. 

Society of Antiquaries, 167. 

Universities Commission, 257. 

Museum of Scottish History and 
Civilization wanted, 256. 
Scott (George), 184. 
Scoular (Dr. John), 162. 
Seals, Study of, 18. 
Seba (Albert), 115, 182. 
Segar (Georg), 105, 215. 
Seguin (P.), 38. 
Selenomancy, 68. 
Seminal quality in the earth, 62. 
Sepi (G.), 106. 
Sepulchral urns, 232, 
Serpent, Brazen, of the Wilderness, 3. 
Serpents, to keep away, 59, 193. 
Serpents, petrified, 59, 196. 
Serpents' tongues, 68, 71, 73. 

See Snakes. 
Settala or Septala (Ludovic and Man- 

fredo), 37, 87, 201, 238. 
Shakespeare, 41. 
Shakespeare Museum, 306. 
Shark's teeth, 69, 71, 72, 73. 
Sheba, Queen of, 3, 172. 
Sheffield, 305. 
Sherard (Consul), 181. 
Shield Walk collection, 121. 
Shipmasters as collectors for Museums, 

246. 
Shrewsbury, 305. 

Sibbald (Sir Robert), 22, 36, 53, 56, 
76, 95, 152, 153, 154, 158, 165, 
198, 202, 217, 238, 268. 
Siebold (P. F. von), 33, 244. 
Silesia, 43, 198. 
Signatures explained, 82, 85. 
Simond (Louis), 212, 



Simplers, 133. 

Simson (Prof! Robert), 166. 

Skeletons in Museums, 208, 209. 

Skin, Human, its uses, 57. 

Skull, Human, in medicine, 55. 

Slains, stone forming cave at, 197. 

Sloane (Sir Hans), 112, 121, 130, 131, 

132, 134. 135. 136, 137. 138, 139, 
140, 142, 171, 188, 267. 

his Museum described, 136-138. 

referred to, 130, 132, 134-138, 18^, 
188, 267. 

gift to the Nation, 139. 
Smet van der Ketten (Jan), 99. 
Smith (C. Roach), 235. 
Smith (James), the Whitechapel anti- 
quary, 281. 
Smithsonian Institution, 242. 
Snakes will not attack a person clad in 
deerskin, 59. 

Malta earth keeps them away, 193. 

Turned into stone if swallowed by a 
stag, 59, I96._ 

Cure for their bites, 73. 
Soane's (Sir John) Museum, 184, 293. 
Solander (D. C), 141, 143. 
Solomon's curios, 3. 

relics of, 3. 

goblet of rock crystal from the 
temple, 3. 
Southampton, 305. 
South Kensington. See London. 
Southport, 305. 
South Shields, 305. 
Southwell (Sir Robert), 106. 
Sparkuhle (P. J.), 250. 
Speaking trumpet, 134. 
Special finds, 244. 
Specimens. See Exhibits. 
Spener (J. J.), 148. 
Spitzer (Frederic), 179. 
Spon (Jacob), 17, 21, 95, 125, 170. 
Spreti (Desiderio), 17. 
Spring Gardens, 142, 173. 
Squirrel, The, 217. 
St. See Saint. 
Staff, Museum, 277, 282. 
Stafibrd, 305. 
Stag's horn as a remedy, 58. 

collections of, 58. 
Stag's tears, 59, 214. 

Ossa de corde cervi, 59. 
Stag and serpent petrified, 59, 196. 
Stalactite, 197. 
Stalybridge, 305. 
Stamford, 306. 
Stark (C. B.), 18. 



INDEX 



337 



Stellio, The, 191. 
Stelliola, (N. A.), 85. 
Stellionate, crime, 191. 
Steno (Nicolas), 49, 62, 70, 104. 
Stieff (Christian), 198, 232. 
StirHng, 310. 

Stockholm, 150, 241, 266. 
Stockport, 306. 
Stoke-upon-Trent, 306. 
Stone Age, 232. 

Palaeolithic, 233, 234. 
Neolithic, 233, 234. 
Stone, 

defined, 62. 

figured, formed, regular stones, 61, 

198, 219. 
stt)ne forming spirit, 62, 67, 92. 
stones grow, 64. 
stone marrow, 73, 213. 
stone forming water, 196, 197. 
stone arrow heads, 63, 68, 80, 82. 
weapons, 64, 71, 80, no, 148, 232, 

236, 267. 
tools, 82, 236. 

prehistoric and modern, 236, 239. 
supposed to be petrifactions, 237. 
stone knife likened to a ceraunia, 

237- 

natural landscapes in stone, 129. 

scented stones, 159, 222. 

petrifaction explained, 197, 198. 

See Petrifactions. 
Stones, classification of, 214. 
Stonehenge, 130. 
Strabo, I. 
Strasburg, 214. 
Stratford -on- Avon, 174, 306. 
Stryk (Samuel), 185. 
Students in Museums, 270, 274, 275, 

276. 
Study = museum, 36. 
Stukeley (William), 107, 122, 126, 136, 

154, 167, 183. 
Stuttgart, 233. 
Succi acres, 213, 

Pingues, 212, 213. 
Suetonius, 5. 
Sulla, 4. 

Sunderland, 306. 
Survivals, 243. 

Sutherland (James), 135, 159. 
Swammerdam (J. J.), in. 
Swan (John), 42. 
Swansea, 312. 
Sweden, Use of Museums in, for 

popular education, 260. 
Sydney, Australian Museum at, 243. 



Talisman, n4, 218, 228. 
Tanned human skin in museums, 57. 
Tarvisiano (Bernard), 194. 
Taunton, 306. 
Taiironomachia, \\<). 
Tiixidermy, improved methods of, 263. 
Tea, " the herb divine," 94. 
Technical instruction, 258. 
Museums, 270, 271, 272. 
Schools and Colleges, 271. 
Technicotheca = museum, 35. 
Teeth, Stone, 63, 99. 
Ten Brocke (Berend), 95. 
Tenby, 312. 
Tene, La, Period, 233. 
Tentzel (J. F. ), 49. 
Terzago (P. M.), 87, 238. 
Tessin, Count, 225. 
Tetzel, Friar, 10. 

Teutobochus, King, Bones of, 46, 92. 
Theophano, Emperor, 199. 
Theophrastus, 19, 191. 
Thompson (Dr., of Palermo), 15S. 
Thomson (Christian), 232,233, 234,241. 
Thoresby (Ralph), 45, 109, 120, 121, 

124, 125, 126, 130, 137, 154, 159, 

172, 181, 183, 187, 190, 221. 
Thornhill ( ), 273. 

Thornhill Museum, 310. 
Three age svstem, 232, 234, 240. 
Threlkeld (Caleb), 166. 
Thunderballs, 67. 
Thunderbolts, stone axes considered to 

be, 64, 71, 173, 237. 
Thurneisser (L. ), 26. 
Tiberius, 6. 
Tickets. See Labels. 
Tiraboschi (Girolamo), 14, 17, 23, 29, 

84, 89. 
Toadstone, 64, 214. 
Tommasi (Pietro), 14. 
Tonna, 49. 
Tooth powder, 73. 
Torquay, 306. 

Torquemada, Grand Inquisitor, 40. 
Tower of London, 41, 178, 293. 
Town history illustrated in Town 

Museum, 256, 266, 268. 
Towneley (Charles), 144. 
Tradescant (John), 37, 107, 188, 200. 
Trapani, Church at, giant's teeth at, 1 1. 
Tra%-ellers early, made a point of visiting 

collections, 171. 
Guide books for, to Museums, 

libraries, etc., 221, 264. 



33^ 



INDEX 



Treasuries of Churches. See Museums. 

Tring, 277. 

Tripoli, 194. 

Trottenstein, 67. 

Truio, 306. 

Tsiganian Period, 234. 

Tuke (D. H.), 61. 

Tunstall (Marmaduke), 184. 

Turketul, Abbot, 7. 

Tuscany, Grand Duke of, 59. 

Tylor (E. B.), 9- 

Tynemouth, 306. 

Type specimens, 261, 278. 

Tyssen (Samuel), 184. 

U. 
Ulm, 170. 

Ulrichsdahl, Museum at, 224. 
Unicorn described, 42. 

its existence doubted, 42, 44. 

in the Arms of Scotland, 42. 
Unicorn horn, 40 si/^. 

at St. Denis, 11. 

at St. Mark's, Venice, 11. 

at Heidelberg, 100. 

a preservative against poisoning, 40. 

value, 41. 

as a security for banker's advance, 41. 

true horn, 43, 44, 94. 

fossil, 43, 94. 

as a museum exhibit, 204. 
United Brethren, The, 248, 249. 
Upsala, 199, 207, 225. 
Urns, sepulchral, treated as fossils, 198. 
used as milk vessels, 198. 
known as Johannis-Topflein, 198. 
or, Milche-Topfe, 198 
Usnea, 56, 218. 

Uterverius (J. C), of Delft, 79. 
Utrecht, 37, 122, 248. 

V 

Valentini (M. B.), 2, 3, 8, 12, 21, 22, 
30, 36, 43, 51, 54, 57, 58, 59, 60, 
62, 67, 68, 73, 76, 80, 85, 104, 
no, III, 117, 131, 135, 145, 146, 
147, 148, 194, 199, 207, 210, 214, 

239- 
Valmont de Bomare (J. C. ), 226, 228. 
Varthema (L. di), 42, 44. 
Vatican Museum, 18, 29. 
Vendors of specimens, their names to 

be recorded, 265. 
Venice, 11, 12, 14, 150, 194, 201, 242. 
Treasury of St. Mark, 11, 12. 
Grimani Museum, 14. 



Venison, a specific for fevers, 59. 
Venus Genetrix, Temple of, at Rome, 

4- 

Verbrocht (Anthony), 145. 
Verona, Museums at, 83-85. 
Vertigo crosses, 115. 
Vico (Enea), 17, 38. 
Victoria and Albeit, formerly South 
Kensington Museum, 149, 187, 
293. 
Vienna, Cathedral of, giant's bones in, 
II. 

Museums, 17, 18, 78, 86, 149, 150, 
190, 210, 233, 237-242, 256. 
Vilant (Nicholas), 98. 
Vilant (William), 98. 
Vincent (Levinus), 209. 
Violet-scented stones, 159. 
Virgil, mirror of, 199. 
Virgin Mary, shift of, 6. 

her slippers, 199. 

her comb, 199. 
Vis riastica, 62, 67, 69, 92, no, 192, 

195, 19S. 
Visitors to Museums, 223, 262, 269. 

fees, 205. 

difficulties, 206. 

directions, 206, 221, 264. 
Vitruvius, 4. 

Volkswanderungszeit, 233. 
Voorn ([acob), 29, 30, 287, 289. 
Vorst (A. E.), 18. 



W. 

Wakefield, 307. 

Walker (G. T. ), on curious quality of 

perforated celts, 67. 
Walker (Professor John), 156, 157. 
Wallace (James), 76. 
Walpole (Horace), 139, 183. 
Ward (John), 45, 192. 
Warrington, 307. 
Warwick, 307. 
Washington, Natural Museum at, 242, 

274. 
Water, Stone-forming, 196, 197. 

explained, 197, 19S. 
Watford, 307. 
Way (Albert), 202. 
Weaving School and Museum, Glasgow, 

271. 
We^gel (Erhard), 148. 
W^elfen Museum, 8. 
Wellington, N. Z., 256. 
Welser (Philippine), 86. 
Welshpool, 312. 



INDEX 



339 



Wentlish Period, 233. 

Weniger (Ludwig), i. 

Wenlock, 307. 

West (James), 184. 

West Ham, 185. 

West Prussian Museum, 233. 

Weymouth, 253. 

Whale ribs from the Holy Land, 10. 

from the Baltic, 10. 

specimens of, in museums, 216, 250. 
Whitby, 307. 

Whitechapel Antiquary, the, 281. 
Whitchapel Museum, 293. 
Whitehall, 121. 

Wiel (P. S. v.), the Younger, 208. 
Wilkinson (Dr.), 122. 
Wilde (Jacob do), 38. 
Willisel (Thomas), 133. 
Wilson (Charles Heath), 271, 272. 
Winchester, 307. 
Windsor, 307. 
Wisbech, 307. 
Witches' dollar, 114. 

means of driving witches away, 
115. 
Wittenberg, 147, 208. 

Church of, 9. 

collections, 147, 208. 

University, 185. 
Wodrow (Rev. Robert), as a collector, 

165, 166. 
W'olfenbiittel, 53. 
Wolverhampton, 307. 
Wood (A. a), 109. 
Wood(E. J.), 48. 

Woodward (John), 43, 47, 71, 72, 118, 
219. 

his Museum, 118. 

his geological opinions, 119. 

his shield, 120. 

endows chair at Cambridge, 118. 

figures in Martinus Scriblerus, 121. 



I Woodwardian Professorship at Cam- 
bridge, 118. 

Woolwich, 293, 307. 

Worcester, 307. 

Workshop for a Museum, 275, 276. 

Worm (Olc), 43, 44, 47, 52, 62, 71, 75, 
104, 130, 132, 154, 193, 202, 215, 
228, 237, 238. 
His Museum, 43, 47, 56, 104, 214. 
Scheme of its arrangement, 214. 
Its internal appearance, 215. 

Worm ((d\(t), grandson of the above, 71. 

Worm (William) 105. 

Wormiana ossicula, 104. 

Worsaae (J. J. A.), 241. 

Wren (Sir Christopher), 272, 273. 

Wright (Dr. Peter), 163. 

Wright (Richard), 175. 

Wurflbain (F. S.), 22. 

Wurliiz (Christian), 147. 

Wuttemberg, 

Frederick, Duke of, 96. 
Ulrich, Duke of, 97. 



Yate(W. H.), 175. 
York, 308. 

York, James, Duke of, 109. 
Young"(Edward), 18S. 
Young (Prof. John), 161. 



Zacharia-Pillingen, 62, 217. 
Zanoni (Giacomo), 80. 

(Pellegrino), 81. 
Zealand, New, collections from, 246. 
Zedler(J. H),' 15, 25, 37, 51, 52, 54, 

203, 206, 217. 
Zoological Museums, 265, 275. 
Zoophytes, fossil, 63, 214. 



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