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Full text of "Museums USA"

museums 
usa 



national endowment for the arts 





^_ __ 




















1 
































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■ 









Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries 



http://archive.org/details/museumsusa1974nati 



museums usa 

art, history, science, 
and other museums 



MSB ~'~ - ' 

SBfTS 



museums usa 



purposes and functions 

programs 

attendance, accessibility, admissions 

collections and exhibitions 

trustees 

personnel 

facilities 

finances 

■ national endowment for the arts i^i 

7T 



Research conducted by the 

National Research Center of the Arts, Inc., 

an affiliate of Louis Harris and Associates, Inc., 

under contract to the National Endowment for the Arts 



Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data 

National Endowment for the Arts. 

Museums USA: art, history, science, and others. 

Supt. of Docs: NF2.2:M97/2 

1. Museums — United States. I. Title 

AM11.N37 1974 069'.0973 74-18239 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington, D.C. 20402 

Price $4.40 

Stock Number 036-000-00024 



Contents 

List of Figures vii 
Foreword xiii 
Introduction 1 

Chapter 1. Museum Characteristics 7 

Classification and comparison of museums by four characteristics — type, budget size, 
governing authority, region 7 

Chapter 2. Purposes and Functions 25 

Museum directors' evaluations of purposes and functions of museums 25 
Museum directors' selection of priority purposes and functions, compared with their 
assessment of the priorities of museum trustees and the public, and with their assessment 
of the purposes and functions most successfully satisfied by their museums 30 

Chapter 3. Programs 37 

Types and frequency of educational and cultural programs offered by museums 37 

Increases or decreases in museum educational activities since 1966 41 

Staffing of programs 41 

Joint programs with colleges and universities 44 

Research and publications 44 

Chapter 4. Attendance, Accessibility, Admissions 47 

Size and composition of museum audiences 47 

Amount of time museum facilities are open to the public 52 

Admission policies 54 

Membership policies 57 

Efforts to increase attendance 59 

Chapter 5. Collections and Exhibitions 61 

Percentage of permanent collection exhibited 61 

Special exhibitions 64 

Traveling exhibitions 66 

Loans of objects to storefront or community-based museums 67 

Increases or decreases in the exchange of objects since 1966 69 

Rental of objects 70 

Chapter 6. Trustees 71 

Distribution, size, and composition of museum boards of trustees 71 

Reasons for and methods of selection of trustees 76 

Length and number of terms served by trustees 77 

Frequency of board meetings 77 

Working relationship between the board and the director/staff 78 



VI 



Chapter 7. Personnel 83 

Distribution of full-time, part-time, and volunteer personnel by job categories 85 
Distribution of full-time, part-time, and volunteer personnel by budget size, museum 

type, and governing authority 94 
Full-time personnel: characteristics and salary levels 99 

Senior personnel: characteristics, work experience, education, and salary levels 102 
Directors: characteristics, work experience, education, salary levels, functions and 

responsibilities 107 
Employee benefits and perquisites 113 

Levels of minority employment in professional staff positions 115 
Need for additional staff 116 
Adequacy of staff training and salaries 118 
Museum training programs 118 

Chapter 8. Facilities 125 

Construction of primary and secondary structures and additions to and renovations of 

facilities 125 
Ownership of buildings and space 127 
Adequacy of exhibition and storage areas 132 
Adequacy of and need for other facilities 135 
Rental of facilities 138 

Chapter 9. Finances 139 

Museum finances, FY 1971-72: 

Income 141 

Operating expenditures 153 

Net income 156 

Extraordinary expenditures 162 

Current fund balances 164 

Endowments and other funds 167 

Financial status and income needs: 

Increases in operating costs and cutbacks in operations since 1966 172 

Distribution and adequacy of operating budgets 177 

Long-term financial needs 180 

Climate control, security, and conservation 182 

Outlook 183 

Index 187 

Appendix: List of the 258 tables appearing in Museums USA: A Survey Report 197 



List of Figures 



VII 



Figure 1 2 

Year in Which Museum was Founded (By 

Museum Type, Budget Size, Governing 
Authority, and Region) 

Figure 2 5 

Number and Percentage of Museums in 
Sample and Universe 



Figure 3 
Museums by Type 

Figure 4 

Museums by Budget Size 

Figure 5 

Museums by Governing Authority 



Figure 7 

Museum Type by Budget Size 



Figure 9 

Museum Type by Region 

Figure 10 

Budget Size by Museum Type 



Figure 12 

Budget Size by Region 



Figure 15 

Region by Museum Type 



8 



10 



Figure 6 11 

Museums by Region and Population ' 



12 



Figure 8 13 

Museum Type by Governing Authority 



14 



16 



Figure 11 17 

Budget Size by Governing Authority 



18 



Figure 13 19 

Governing Authority by Museum Type 

Figure 14 20 

Governing Authority by Budget Size 



21 



Figure 16 22 

Region by Budget Size 

Figure 17 23 

Region by Governing Authority 

Figure 18 27 

Purposes Considered Very Important 
by Directors (By Museum Type) 

Figure 19 28-29 

Functions Considered Very Important 
by Directors (By Museum Type) 

Figure 20 32 

Directors' Evaluations of the Two 
Purposes and Two Functions Most 
Important to Themselves, the Public, 
and Trustees, and Most Successfully 
Satisfied by the Museum 

Figure 21 33 

Art Museum Directors' Evaluations 
of the Two Purposes and Two 
Functions Most Important to Them- 
selves, the Public, and Trustees, and 
Most Successfully Satisfied by the 
Museum 

Figure 22 34 

History Museum Directors' 
Evaluations of the Two Purposes and 
Two Functions Most Important to 
Themselves, the Public, and Trustees, 
and Most Successfully Satisfied by the 
Museum 

Figure 23 35 

Science Museum Directors' 
Evaluations of the Two Purposes and 
Two Functions Most Important to 
Themselves, the Public, and Trustees, 
and Most Successfully Satisfied by the 
Museum 

Figure 24 38-39 

Frequency of Educational and 
Cultural Activities (By Museum Type 
and Budget Size) 



VIII 



Figure 25 42 

Increases or Decreases in Educational 
Activities Since 1966, by Museum Type 
and Budget Size 

Figure 25A 43 

Increases or Decreases in Educational 
Activities Since 1966, by Governing 
Authority 

Figure 26 48 

Attendance by Museum Type, 
FY 1971-72 

Figure 27 49 

Attendance by Governing Authority, 
FY 1971-72 

Figure 28 50 

Attendance by Budget Size, 
FY 1971-72 

Figure 29 51 

Attendance by Region, FY 1971-72 

Figure 30 53 

Increases or Decreases in Hours 
Open to the Public Since 1966 

(By Museum Type, Budget Size, and 
Governing Authority) 

Figure 31 54 

Admission Policies, by Museum 
Type and Budget Size 

Figure 31A 55 

Admission Policies, by Governing 
Authority 

Figure 32 57 

Membership Policies (By Museum 
Type, Budget Size, and Governing 
Authority) 

Figure 33 58 

Percentage of Museums that Made 
Special Efforts to Attract Certain Groups 

(By Museum Type, Budget Size, 
Governing Authority, and Region) 



Figure 34 62 

Percentage of Total Permanent 
Collection Exhibited in FY 1971-72 

(By Museum Type, Budget Size, and 
Governing Authority) 

Figure 35 63 

Proportion of Total Permanent 
Collection Not Exhibited in FY 1971-72 
by Reason For Not Being Exhibited 

(By Museum Type, Budget Size, and 
Governing Authority) 

Figure 36 64 

Museums that Had Special 
Exhibitions in FY 1971-72 (By Museum 
Type, Budget Size, and Governing 
Authority) 

Figure 37 66 

Museums that Sent Out Traveling 
Exhibitions in FY 1971-72 (By Museum 
Type, Budget Size, and Governing 
Authority) 

Figure 38 67 

Museums that Loaned Objects 

or Materials to Storefront or 

Community-Based Museums in 

FY 1971-72 (By Museum Type, Budget 

Size, and Governing Authority) 

Figure 39 68 

Increases or Decreases in Exchange of 
Objects Since 1966, by Museum Type 
and Budget Size 

Figure 39A 69 

Increases or Decreases in Exchange 
of Objects Since 1966, by Governing 
Authority 

Figure 40 72 

Museums With Board of Trustees or 
Equivalent Body (By Museum Type, 
Budget Size, Governing Authority, and 
Region) 



IX 



Figure 41 74 

Characteristics of Members of 
Boards of Trustees (By Museum Type, 
Budget Size, and Governing Authority) 

Figure 42 76 

Reasons Cited by Museum Directors 
for Selection of Trustees 

Figure 43 78 

Length of Time Current Trustees Have 
Served on Board 

Figure 44 79 

Attendance by Directors at Board of 
Trustee Meetings (By Museum Type 
and Governing Authority) 

Figure 45 85 

Total Museum Work Force, 
FY 1971-72 

Figure 46 86 

Full-Time, Part-Time, and Volunteer 
Personnel by job Category 

Figure 47 88 

Number and Distribution of Permanent 
Full-Time Paid Personnel, by Museum 
Type and Budget Size 

Figure 47A 89 

Number and Distribution of Permanent 
Full-Time Paid Personnel, by Governing 
Authority 

Figure 48 90 

Number and Distribution of Part-Time 
Paid Personnel, by Museum Type and 
Budget Size 

Figure 48A 91 

Number and Distribution of Part-Time 
Paid Personnel, by Governing Authority 

Figure 49 92 

Number and Distribution of Volunteers, 
by Museum Type and Budget Size 



Figure 49A 93 

Number and Distribution of Volunteers, 
by Governing Authority 

Figure 50 95 

Full-Time, Part-Time, and Volunteer 
Personnel by Budget Size 

Figure 51 96 

Full-Time, Part-Time, and Volunteer 
Personnel by Museum Type 

Figure 52 97 

Classification of Personnel Within 
Museum Type 

Figure 53 98 

Full-Time, Part-Time, and Volunteer 
Personnel by Governing Authority 

Figure 54 100 

Characteristics of Permanent 
Full-Time Personnel by job Category 

Figure 55 101 

Average Annual Salary of Full-Time 
Personnel, FY 1971-72, by Museum 
Type and Budget Size 

Figure 55A 102 

Average Annual Salary of Full-Time 
Personnel, FY 1971-72, by Governing 
Authority 

Figure 56 104 

Senior Personnel: Years of Experience 
in Museum or Related Work and 
Years in Current Position, by job 
Category 

Figure 57 106 

Average Annual Salary of Senior 
Personnel, FY 1971-72, by Museum 
Type and Budget Size 

Figure 57A 107 

Average Annual Salary of Senior 
Personnel, FY 1971-72, by Governing 
Authority 



Figure 58 108 

Characteristics of Directors (By 

Museum Type, Budget Size, and 
Governing Authority) 

Figure 59 109 

Directors: Years of Experience 
in Museum or Related Work and Years 
in Current Position (By Museum Type 
and Budget Size) 

Figure 60 111 

Average Annual Salary of Directors, 
FY 1971-72, by Museum Type and 
Budget Size 

Figure 60A 111 

Average Annual Salary of Directors, 
FY 1971-72, by Governing Authority 

Figure 61 114 

Directors' Evaluations of Importance 
of Activities and Time Spent on 
Activities 

Figure 62 120 

Job Areas in Which More Staff 
is Needed: Curatorial, Display, and 
Exhibit (By Museum Type, Budget Size, 
and Governing Authority) 

Figure 63 121 

Job Areas in Which More Staff 
is Needed: Education (By Museum 
Type, Budget Size, and Governing 
Authority) 

Figure 64 122 

job Areas in Which More Staff 

is Needed: Operations and Support 

(By Museum Type, Budget Size, and 
Governing Authority) 

Figure 65 123 

Job Areas in Which More Staff 

is Needed: Administration (By Museum 

Type, Budget Size, and Governing 

Authority) 



Figure 66 

Construction Dates of Primary 

Facilities 

Figure 67 

Construction Dates of Separate 

Facilities 



126 



127 



128-31 



Figure 68 
Adequacy of Exhibition and 
Storage Areas (By Museum Type, 
Budget Size, and Governing Authority) 



Figure 69 136-37 

Existence of or Need for Certain 
Facilities (By Museum Type, Budget 
Size, and Governing Authority) 

Figure 70 141 

Total Museum Income, FY 1971-72 

Figure 71 142 

Sources of Private Sector Income, 
FY 1971-72 



Figure 72 

Dollar Income by Museum Type, 

FY 1971-72 



144 



Figure 73 145 

Sources of Income by Museum Type, 
FY 1971-72 



Figure 74 

Dollar Income by Budget Size, 

FY 1971-72 



147 



Figure 75 148 

Sources of Income by Budget Size, 
FY 1971-72 

Figure 76 149 

Dollar Income by Governing Authority, 
FY 1971-72 



Figure 77 

Sources of Income by Governing 

Authority, FY 1971-72 



150 



XI 



Figure 78 152 

Dollar Income by Region, FY 1971-72 

Figure 79 153 

Sources of Income by Region, 
FY 1971-72 

Figure 80 154 

Operating Expenditures by Budget Size, 
FY 1971-72 

Figure 81 155 

Operating Expenditures by Museum 
Type, FY 1971-72 

Figure 82 156 

Operating Expenditures by Governing 
Authority, FY 1971-72 

Figure 83 '157 

Operating Expenditures by Region, 
FY 1971-72 

Figure 84 158 

Summary of FY 1971-72 Income and 
Operating Expenditures (By Museum 
Type, Budget Size, Governing 
Authority, and Region) 

Figure 85 159 

Net Income Position (Unexpended 
Income, Broke Even, Deficit) at End of 
FY 1971-72, by Museum Type and 
Budget Size 

Figure 85A 160 

Net Income Position (Unexpended 
Income, Broke Even, Deficit) at End of 
FY 1971-72, by Governing Authority 

Figure 85B 161 

Net Income Position (Unexpended 
Income, Broke Even, Deficit) at End of 
FY 1971-72, by Region 



Figure 86 163 

Extraordinary Expenditures from 
Current Funds, FY 1971-72 (By Museum 
Type, Budget Size, Governing 
Authority, and Region) 

Figure 87 165 

Current Fund Balances, FY 1971-72 

(By Museum Type, Budget Size, 
Governing Authority, and Region) 

Figure 88 166 

Non-Current Fund Balances, 
FY 1971-72 (By Museum Type, Budget 
Size and Region) 

Figure 89 168 

Museums with Endowment Funds, by 
Museum Type and Budget Size 

Figure 89A 169 

Museums with Endowment Funds, by 
Governing Authority and Region 

Figure 90 170 

Endowment Fund Balances, 
FY 1971-72 (By Museum Type, Budget 
Size, and Region) 

Figure 91 173 

Necessity for Cutbacks in Facilities, 
Services, or Staff Since 1966, by 
Museum Type and Budget Size 

Figure 91 A 174 

Necessity for Cutbacks in Facilities, 
Services, or Staff Since 1966, by 
Governing Authority 

Figure 92 176 

Specified Cutbacks Necessary Since 
1966 (By Museum Type, Budget Size, 
and Governing Authority) 

Figure 93 177 

Distribution of Total Operating Budget 
Among Program Areas, by Museum 
Type and Budget Size 



XII 



Figure 93A 178 

Distribution of Total Operating Budget 
Among Program Areas, by Governing 
Authority 

Figure 94 181 

Priority Funding Areas Over Next 
Five to Ten Years (By Museum Type, 
Budget Size, and Governing Authority) 



Foreword 



XIII 



America's museums, whose beginnings 
predate the nation's founding in 1776, are 
a major thread in the rich cultural fabric 
of this country and the world. Museums 
USA is the first publication to present a 
comprehensive picture of these institutions — 
their numbers and locations, their types 
and functions, their facilities and finances, 
their personnel and trustees, their activities 
and attendance. It is, we believe, a bench- 
mark in two ways: It presents a breadth 
of information heretofore unknown, and, 
more importantly, it offers a sound base 
for future efforts to expand our under- 
standing of museums and other cultural 
institutions, and their role in American life. 

Two important points must be kept in 
mind in reading Museums USA. One relates 
to what was not covered by our museum 
survey; the second is a word of caution 
about interpretation of the data that were 
gathered. 

• Regarding areas not covered by the 
survey: Only museum directors were 
interviewed; trustees, staff members, 
and members of the museum audience 
were not. Thus, the relationship between 
board, director, staff, and the public were 
explored only from the director's point 
of view, and areas such as the motivation 
and experience of the museum-goer 
were not dealt with. Other information 
on, for example, the number of items 

in museum collections and the square 
footage of museums' physical facilities 
was considered too difficult to collect, 
too detailed, or too closely allied to 
specific types of museums to be included 
in a survey of this scope. The survey 
findings themselves suggest a number of 
areas warranting further study and these 
are noted throughout this publication. 

• Regarding interpretation of the informa- 
tion that was gathered: Sound data are 
essential in understanding the museum 



field, but a word of caution about inter- 
pretation of the data is in order. Indi- 
vidual statistics taken out of context 
may distort rather than elucidate. For 
example, aggregate figures on museum 
income and expenditures do not reveal 
museums' true financial status. Rather, 
these figures must be viewed against a 
backdrop of museum cutbacks, under- 
utilization of resources, rising costs, 
personnel shortages, and heavy reliance 
on volunteers. As another example: There 
are sharp differences in salaries paid 
professional and nonprofessional staff, 
and staff in museums of various types 
and sizes, that are not apparent in the 
overall average figures. These and other 
distinctions should be kept in mind, 
particularly when attempting to make 
comparisons. And, of course, statistics 
can rarely if ever convey information on 
intangible but essential ingredients such 
as quality and commitment. 

The Introduction to Museums USA provides 
information which is critical to any in- 
formed reading of this book. It pinpoints 
the background and process of our national 
museum survey, including how "museum" 
was defined, consequent determination of 
institutions to be included, how the actual 
research was conducted, and individuals 
and groups involved. It discusses the con- 
tent and organization of this book and 
its relationship to the survey and to our 
earlier publication, Museums USA: 
Highlights. 

Museums USA does not attempt to draw 
conclusions. Nor does it provide recom- 
mendations beyond some suggestions for 
future exploration of problems and op- 
portunities. This was a conscious decision 
based on three major views expressed by 
our Museum Advisory Panel, consultants, 
and other experts in the field: 

First, that the most urgent need for this 
particular effort — the first of its kind — 



XIV 



was to gather and disseminate information 
about America's museums. 

Second, that efforts to draw conclusions 
or make recommendations would seriously 
delay release of sorely needed information. 

Third, that exploration of some areas for 
conclusions and recommendations might 
more correctly be the province of the 
profession itself, working in concert with 
appropriate resource people and organi- 
zations. The Endowment is engaged 
actively with the profession and others in 
furthering this process: An "Interim Com- 
mittee" convened in July 1974 to explore 
major concerns of the profession, the 
survey's implications, and ways to begin 
follow-up efforts. 

While we have exercised restraint with 
respect to immediate conclusions and rec- 
ommendations, the Endowment is deeply 
concerned with the issues that face the 
museum profession today. Museums USA 
goes behind the display cases into the 
workings of the museum as an institution. 

Thanks to advice from experts in the field, 
the frequently unglamorous operational 
facets of museum life not only are dealt 
with throughout this publication, but also 
have a prominent place in the Endowment's 
major program of assistance to museums. 
Endowment grants are directed not only to 
mounting exhibitions and widening mu- 
seums' availability to the public, but also to 
conservation of collections, climate control, 
storage and security, cataloguing, exchange 
of visiting specialists, better utilization of 
permanent collections, museum training, 
and other priority concerns of the profes- 
sion. Our Museum Program, which began in 
1971 with less than $1 million, has in- 
creased steadily to a current level of 
over $10 million. The National Council 
on the Arts has recommended continued 
expansion. 



Guided by our Museum Advisory Panel and 
directed by Dr. John R. Spencer, the 
Endowment's Museum Program is 
assisting hundreds of museums of many 
types and sizes to carry out essential 
functions. As our efforts to aid museums 
continue to evolve, the information in- 
cluded in this publication and the ongoing 
exploration of its implications will be of 
great value to us, and, we believe, to mu- 
seums and all those concerned with their 
development. 

In addition, it is my conviction that the 
potential benefits of these efforts extend 
well beyond museums. All of America's 
cultural institutions share many areas of 
common concern and potential, particularly 
as their activities reach more and more 
deeply into the lives of all Americans. The 
impact of research of this and other types, 
and the pursuit of its implications, can and 
should deepen the understanding and 
strengthen the bonds already apparent in 
the growing trend toward cooperation 
between and among America's cultural 
institutions and the people they serve. We 
have touched on some of these interrela- 
tionships in this book. And there are many 
more. 

This book may be of most immediate in- 
terest to professionals, trustees, citizens and 
groups actively involved in the work or 
study of museums and other cultural in- 
stitutions, and public and private agencies 
concerned with their development. Beyond 
and at least partly because of these more 
specific uses, I believe the ultimate value of 
Museums USA will extend to the American 
public at large. Demands on all our cultural 
institutions are growing. If, by strengthen- 
ing the base of knowledge available and 
broadening the context within which it is 
considered, Museums USA contributes to 
effective planning to meet these demands, 
we will consider our work on this book well 
rewarded. Because in the final analysis, 



XV 



the ultimate goal we share with the nation's 
cultural institutions is service to the public. 

I am deeply grateful to all who made this 
project possible. The National Council on 
the Arts and the Museum Advisory Panel 
recommended its undertaking and followed 
its progress with interest. Museum service 
organizations and other government agen- 
cies offered their endorsement and assis- 
tance. The National Research Center of the 
Arts, Inc., carried out a task of impressive 
proportions. The Endowment staff worked 
long and hard, particularly Judith G. Smith 
who wrote this book with skill and dedi- 
cation. The museum professionals who 
were consultants throughout the project 
were extremely helpful, and those who 
reviewed the manuscript of Museums USA 
provided invaluable suggestions and insights. 



The directors and staffs of the museums 
interviewed deserve special thanks for 
their cooperation. We hope all share our 
excitement and pleasure in having come 
this far. 

It is significant that this major first step 
has been taken. What is going to be more 
important are the steps that follow. 




Nancy Hanks, Chairman 
National Council on the Arts 
National Endowment for the Arts 

Washington, D.C. 
December 1974 



XVI 



Introduction 



America's first public museum was founded 
in 1773. By 1900, one out of five of today's 
museums had been established, and by 
the end of the 1930's, more than half were 
in operation. (Fig. 1, p. 2.) The growth 
rate slowed to 10 per cent in the 1940's, 
largely because of World War II, but rose 
again in the 1950's and 1960's when 32 
per cent of today's museums were founded. 

Although museums are among this nation's 
major cultural resources, research in the 
museum field has been seriously limited. 
Recent studies — most notably The Belmont 
Report, the U.S. Office of Education's Survey 
of Museums and Related Institutions, the 
American Association of Museums' financial 
and salary surveys, and the Conference of 
Directors of Systematic Collections' report 
on the systematic biology collections 
of the United States — clearly have contri- 
buted to knowledge of the field. 1 However, 
any attempt to document comprehen- 
sively the status of the nation's museums 
necessitated the accumulation of a larger, 
more clearly defined body of data than 
that already available. 

The National Council on the Arts in May 
1972 recommended that the National 
Endowment for the Arts undertake a major 
national museum survey. This recom- 
mendation was based on the results of a 
thorough feasibility study conducted in 
close cooperation with the museum pro- 
fession. The Council had determined that 
the need for information in the museum 
field was of highest priority, particularly 
since The Ford Foundation at that time was 
conducting a study of professional perform- 
ance arts institutions. 

The Endowment's museum survey is the first 
of its kind to be conducted in the United 
States of museums of all types — art, history, 
science, art/history, and other museums 
with combined subjects. It deals with more 
than 1,800 museums and covers every major 
aspect of operations: the purposes and func- 
tions of the institutions, programs, accessi- 



bility, attendance and admissions, collections 
and exhibitions, trustees, management and 
personnel, facilities, and finances. The Arts 
Endowment in December 1973 published 
Museums USA: Highlights, which sum- 
marized some of the key findings of the 
study. 2 

This book, Museums USA, discusses all 
areas of museum operations covered 
by the survey. It analyzes the data col- 
lected and, where appropriate, relates 
the findings to assumptions about 
and opinions on the museum field 
from the viewpoint of both museum 
professionals and the general public. In 
addition, it specifies what was not elicited 
by the survey, makes some observations, 
and offers some suggestions for future 
efforts. 

The introduction to each chapter sum- 
marizes briefly some of the major findings 
detailed in the chapter. This is followed 
by a description of the areas covered in the 
order in which they are presented. 

Museums USA: Highlights and Museums 
USA were prepared by the Arts Endow- 
ment's Division of Budget & Research. 
Judith G. Smith wrote both publications, 
with research assistance from Anne Clark. 
The National Research Center of the 
Arts, Inc., and museum consultants 
J. C. Dickinson, Jr., Thomas W. Leavitt, 



1 American Association of Museums, America's 
Museums: The Belmont Report, Washington, D.C., 
1968; American Association of Museums, Financial 
and Salary Survey, Washington, D.C., 1971; American 
Association of Museums, Museum Salary and 
Financial Survey, Washington, D.C., 1973; Conference 
of Directors of Systematic Collections, The 
Systematic Biology Collections of the United States: 
An Essential Resource (Part i), Bronx, N.Y., 1971; 

U.S. Office of Education, Museums and Related 
Institutions: A Basic Program Survey, Washington, 
D.C., 1969. 

2 Museums USA: Highlights is available at 600 per 
copy from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402 
(stock number 3600-00016). 



2 
Figure 1 



Year in Which Museum was Founded 



Base: Total museums 






% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


All Museums 


20 


3 


5 


10 


18 


10 


16 


16 


1 


1 


Museum Type 


Art 


18 


4 


9 


8 


15 


8 


20 


15 


2 


1 




History 


20 


3 


3 


8 


19 


14 


17 


14 


1 


1 




Science 


22 


5 


4 


12 


18 


4 


16 


15 


1 


3 




Art/History 


19 


- 


5 


15 


19 


9 


14 


19 


— 


— 




Other Combined 


18 


3 


5 


15 


18 


9 


11 


19 


2 


- 


Budget Size 


Under $50,000 


11 


2 


3 


9 


20 


13 


17 


20 


2 


3 




$50,000-99,999 


21 


2 


4 


12 


16 


9 


20 


14 


1 


1 




$100,000-249,999 


13 


6 


5 


12 


23 


8 


18 


14 


1 


— 




$250,000-499,999 


28 


3 


9 


6 


16 


5 


15 


15 


3 


— 




$500,000-999,999 


41 


10 


10 


17 


6 


6 


2 


8 


— 


— 




$1,000,000 and Over 


39 


6 


15 


14 


10 


3 


9 


4 


- 


- 


Governing 


Private Nonprofit 


20 


3 


5 


11 


19 


6 


16 


17 


2 


1 


Authority 


























Government 


15 


3 


5 


11 


17 


17 


17 


14 


* 


1 




Federal 


13 


2 


3 


14 


25 


10 


14 


19 


— 


_ 




State 


16 


4 


4 


1 


13 


18 


19 


21 


1 


3 




Municipal-County 


13 


4 


7 


16 


18 


18 


17 


7 


- 


- 




Educational Institution 


24 


4 


6 


6 


18 


4 


15 


15 


4 


4 




Public 


21 


4 


6 


7 


24 


3 


16 


13 


3 


3 




Private 


27 


5 


5 


5 


11 


4 


14 


17 


6 


6 


Region 


New England 


35 


6 


6 


5 


18 


6 


6 


16 


1 


1 




Northeast 


26 


3 


9 


11 


15 


9 


14 


13 


— 


_ 




Southeast 


10 


3 


3 


11 


13 


6 


31 


23 


— 


_ 




Midwest 


19 


4 


4 


12 


24 


10 


12 


13 


1 


1 




Mountain Plains 


7 


4 


2 


10 


28 


9 


14 


18 


3 


5 




West 


15 


2 


4 


11 


11 


17 


21 


13 


4 


2 


* Less than 0.5% 

























Helmuth Naumer, and Evan Turner reviewed 
the manuscript of Museums USA and made 
valuable substantive and editorial contri- 
butions. Both publications were supervised 
by Ana Steele, Director, Budget & Research. 

Survey Development 

Research for the museum study was con- 
ducted by the National Research Center 
of the Arts, Inc., an affiliate of Louis Harris 
and Associates, Inc., under contract to the 
National Endowment for the Arts. The 
Research Center's effort was directed by 
Joseph Farrell, President, assisted by 
Michael Edison and Bernard Lacy. John 
Spencer, the Endowment's Museum Pro- 
gram Director, and Ana Steele and her 
assistant, Anne Clark, supervised the 
research effort. 

In the developmental phases of the study, 
and in the analysis of the data, the En- 
dowment and the Research Center were 
advised by museum experts representing 
museums of all types throughout the 
country: William T. Alderson, Director, 
American Association for State and Local 
History, Nashville, Tenn.; Charles Buckley, 
Director, St. Louis Art Museum, St. Louis, 
Mo.; Mildred Compton, Director, Children's 
Museum of Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Ind.; 
J. C. Dickinson, Jr., Director, Florida State 
Museum, University of Florida, Gainesville, 
Fla.; James Elliott, Director, Wadsworth 
Atheneum, Hartford, Conn.; Lester Fisher, 
D.V.M., Director, Lincoln Park Zoological 
Gardens, Chicago, 111.; Edmund Gaither, 
Director, Museum of the National Center of 
Afro-American Artists, Dorchester, Mass.; 
Wilder Green, Director, The American 
Federation of Arts, New York, N.Y.; John 
Kinard, Director, Anacostia Neighborhood 
Museum, Washington, D.C.; Thomas W. 
Leavitt, Director, Herbert F. Johnson 
Museum of Art, Cornell University, Ithaca, 
N.Y.; George E. Lindsay, Director, Califor- 



nia Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, 
Calif.; Kyran McGrath, Director, American 
Association of Museums, Washington, 
D.C.; Tait Milliken, McLean, Va.; Carlos 
Nagel, Santa Fe, N.M.; Joseph Noble, Di- 
rector, Museum of the City of New York 
New York, N. Y.; Gerald Nordland, Direc- 
tor, Frederick S. Wight Galleries, University 
of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, 
Calif.; Frederick Rath, Deputy Commis- 
sioner for Historic Preservation, New York 
State Parks and Recreation, Albany, N.Y.; 
Charles van Ravenswaay, Director, Henry 
Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, 
Winterthur, Del.; Frederick Schmid, Assis- 
tant Director, Office of Museum Programs, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.; 
Evan Turner, Director, Philadelphia Mu- 
seum of Art, Philadelphia, Pa.; Alexander 
Wall, President, Old Sturbridge Village, 
Sturbridge, Mass.; Bradford Washburn, Di- 
rector, Museum of Science, Boston, Mass.; 
E. Leland Webber, Director, Field Mu- 
seum of Natural History, Chicago, III.; Solan 
Weeks, Director, Detroit Historical Mu- 
seum, Detroit, Mich.; Deanne Winokur, 
Museum Program Officer, National Endow- 
ment for the Humanities, Washington, 
D.C.; Warren Wittry, Towanda, Pa. 

In addition to the contributions of these 
individuals, assistance was given by national 
museum associations: American Associa- 
tion of Museums, American Association 
for State and Local History, American As- 
sociation of Zoological Parks and Aquari- 
ums, Association of Art Museum Directors, 
Association of Science Museum Directors, 
and The American Federation of Arts. The 
Smithsonian Institution (National Museum 
Act) and the National Center for Educa- 
tional Statistics of the U.S. Office of Edu- 
cation also cooperated in the development 
of the study. All financial data obtained 
were analyzed and checked by the ac- 
counting firm of Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & 
Co. for reliability, accuracy, and conformity 
with survey requirements. 



Survey Procedure 

Six criteria developed by the museum experts 
were used to determine whether or not an 
institution qualified for the survey: 

• The institution has permanent facilities 
open to the public on a regularly sched- 
uled basis. 

• The facilities are open three months or 
more per year and a minimum of 25 hours 
per week during at least three months of 
the year. 

• The operating budget for FY 1971-72 
(excluding expenditures for acquisitions of 
land, buildings, major equipment, and for 
collections) averages a minimum of $1,000 
each month the museum is open. 

• At least part of the collection exhibited 
is owned by the institution. 

• The institution has at least one full-time 
paid employee with academic training or 
special knowledge relating to the major 
subjects represented in the collection. 

• The institution is a nonprofit tax-exempt 
organization. 

For inclusion in the study, an institution had 
to meet all six criteria. Approximately 1,821 
museums in the 50 states and the District 
of Columbia were identified as meeting 
these criteria. Although for ease in 
reading, the word "approximately" is not 
carried throughout the publication, it is an 
important statistical term. Starting essentially 
from the U.S. Office of Education's lists 
from its 1966-67 study, 8 and working 
closely with the American Association of 
Museums, the Smithsonian Institution 
(National Museum Act), and museum 
professionals, the Research Center made a 
major effort to identify every institution, 
including those founded since 1966, that 
might meet the criteria. There is some 
margin for error, both in including and in 
excluding institutions, but the Endowment 
believes that the universe base established 
is statistically sound. 



Previous museum studies have been ham- 
pered by the absence of a generally ac- 
cepted and workable definition of museums 
and the consequent inability to determine a 
valid universe. It is the Endowment's hope 
that the criteria formulated through the 
thoughtful and thorough efforts of con- 
sultant museum professionals offer a 
standardized and workable definition of 
museums, and that the universe established 
will provide a useful and valid basis for 
future museum research. 

It should be noted that there are more 
institutions in the museum field than the 
1,821 covered by this survey. However, 
criteria for inclusion in the Endowment's 
study were minimal. (For example, the 
annual operating budgets of museums 
included in the survey were as low as 
$3,700.) The Endowment and its consul- 
tants are confident that the statistical 
information and analysis contained in this 
study would be affected little, if at all, 
by the inclusion of these institutions. This 
in no way represents a qualitative judg- 
ment on the institutions that did not meet 
all the criteria. 

Of the 1,821 museums, a representative 
sample of 728 was selected for interviewing. 
The sampling was scientifically designed to 
reflect accurately the distribution of the 
1,821 museums by type, by budget size, 
and by region. All 164 museums with 
operating budgets of $500,000 and over 
were interviewed. Approximately half of 
the middle-sized museums ($100,000 to 
$499,999) and one-third of the smaller 
museums (under $100,000) were inter- 
viewed. (The disproportionate weight given 
to larger museums was statistically corrected 
in the final tabulations.) In the survey, all 
references made to museums are in terms 
of the 1,821 that the universe comprises. 



3 The U.S. Office of Education's study of museums 
and related institutions was conducted in 1966-67 
and published in 1969. 



Figure 2 



Number and Percentage of Museums 
in Sample and Universe 



Base: Total museums 



Actual 
number 
in sample 



Number 
in universe 



Percentage 
of total 



All Museums 


728 


1,821 


100% 


Museum Type 


Art 


177 


340 


19 




History 


205 


683 


37 




Science 


151 


284 


16 




Art/History 


68 


186 


10 




Other Combined 


127 


328 


18 


Budget Size 


Under $50,000 


218 


831 


44 




$50,000-99,999 


123 


338 


19 




$100,000-249,999 


142 


313 


17 




$250,000-499,999 


81 


175 


10 




$500,000-999,999 


82 


82 


5 




$1,000,000 and Over 


82 


82 


5 


Governing 


Private Nonprofit 


407 ' 


1,018 


56 


Authority 


Government 


239 


623 


34 




Federal 


47 


112 


6 




State 


78 


215 


12 




Municipal-County 


114 


296 


16 




Educational Institution 


82 


180 


10 




Public 


44 


98 


5 




Private 


38 


82 


5 


Region 


New England 


82 


241 


13 




Northeast 


135 


315 


17 




Southeast 


135 


334 


18 




Midwest 


170 


439 


25 




Mountain Plains 


85 


211 


12 




West 


121 


281 


15 


Budget Size 


Art 








within 


Under $50,000 


42 


114 


7 


Museum Type* 


$50,000-99,999 


31 


74 


4 




$100,000-499,999 


52 


100 


5 




$500,000 and Over 


52 


52 


3 




History 










Under $50,000 


92 


423 


23 




$50,000-99,999 


38 


114 


6 




$100,000-499,999 


58 


129 


7 




$500,000 and Over 


17 


17 


1 




Science 










Under $100,000 


43 


110 


6 




$100,000-499,999 


52 


118 


7 




$500,000 and Over 


56 


56 


3 



*The breakdown of budget size within museum type excludes art/history and other combined because of the relatively small number of museums 
which these categories comprise. For the same reason, only four budget categories are used within art and history and three within science. 



Once the questionnaire was developed and 
field tested and the interviewers briefed by 
the Research Center, interviews were con- 
ducted in person with museum directors. 
The directors were the primary respondents 
in the survey, which is important to recall 
particularly when considering material on 
topics such as trustees and personnel. Infor- 
mation was collected in two stages: During 
the initial visit interviewers obtained basic 
attitudinal and statistical data; on the return 
visit interviewers secured completed budget, 
personnel, and trustee forms and asked an 
additional series of questions on finances. 
(Attitudinal information was obtained 
through both open-end and closed-end 
questions.) Data in all areas were collected 
for FY 1971-72, defined as the fiscal year 
ending in 1972, or in December 1971 if the 
fiscal year was the calendar year. Each 
questionnaire was checked for completeness 
and accuracy and further inquiries were 
made when necessary. The financial state- 
ments were reviewed by Peat, Marwick, 
Mitchell & Co. 

Analysis and Presentation of Data 

The data collected for the survey are 
examined according to the total number 
of museums and by four museum charac- 
teristics — type, budget size, governing 
authority, and region. (Fig. 2, p. 5.) The 
text of this book analyzes data in all of 
these categories, except when there are no 
significant or substantial variations. How- 



ever, relevant statistics usually are reflected 
in the accompanying figures. In selected 
cases, the text also examines data by the 
three major museum types (art, history, 
science) broken down by budget size. 

The report from the National Research 
Center of the Arts, Inc., which resulted from 
the survey and provided the basis for this 
book, has been reproduced by the Arts 
Endowment. Museums USA: A Survey Re- 
port, which includes a copy of the ques- 
tionnaire used in conducting the research, 
may be purchased from the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D.C., 20402. 

As specified by the Endowment, all data 
were reported in aggregate form only; data 
identifying institutions by name will remain 
confidential unless their release is agreed 
to in writing by the museum(s). 

It is possible that further major research ef- 
forts requiring, for example, a specific focus 
not available from this book or from the 
report might benefit from the permanent 
data tapes currently stored at the Research 
Center. (A list of the 258 tables included in 
the Research Center's report appears in the 
Appendix to this book.) Inquiries from 
qualified organizations regarding use 
of the data tapes should be addressed to 
the Division of Budget & Research, National 
Endowment for the Arts, Washington, 
D.C., 20506. 



Chapter 1 



Museum Characteristics 



Introduction 

Museums were classified and compared 
according to four basic museum character- 
istics — type, budget size, governing 
authority, and region. The findings show, 
for example, that the largest proportion 
(62 per cent) of museums are history or 
history related. Sixty-three per cent of all 
museums had annual operating budgets 
in FY 1971-72 of less than $100,000. More 
than half (56 per cent) are governed by 
private nonprofit organizations. With the 
exception of New England, which has a 
greater concentration of museums than of 
population, the distribution of museums 
across the country roughly parallels the 
distribution of population. 

r 

This chapter defines the four museum 
characteristics used in assembling the 
survey data and classifies the total number 
of museums by each characteristic. It then 
compares the results of these classifications. 

The Four Characteristics 

Museum Type 

Museums were classified into five types: art, 
history, science, art/history, and other 
combined museums with equal emphasis on 
either art and science, or history and science, 
or art, history, and science. 

As defined in the survey, history museums 
include historic sites and museum villages 
in addition to the more conventional type of 
museum. Included among the science mu- 
seums are natural history museums, science 
technology museums, zoos, aquariums, 
planetariums, and botanical gardens. 1 

According to this classification of the 1,821 
museums, more than one-third (37 per cent) 
are exclusively or predominantly history. 
(Fig. 3, p. 8.) Nineteen per cent of the 
museums are exclusively or predominantly 
art, and 16 per cent exclusively or predomi- 
nantly science. Ten per cent are classified 
as art/history. Among the 18 per cent of 



museums with other combined subjects, 
nine per cent are art/history/science, six 
per cent history/science, and three per 
cent art/science. 2 

A grouping of all museums by the three 
major subject areas shows that 62 per 
cent are history or history related, 41 per 
cent art or art related, and 34 per cent 
science or science related. 



Budget Size 

Museums are grouped by the size of their 
FY 1971-72 operating budgets, which are 
defined as all expenditures except those for 
acquisitions of land, buildings, major equip- 
ment, and for collections. (The value of 
contributed services was not included in the 
operating budgets.) The overwhelming 
majority of museums are small when 
measured by budget size. Forty-four per cent 
had annual operating budgets of less than 
$50,000, and another 36 per cent expended 
between $50,000 and $249,999. (Fig. 4, p. 9.) 
Ten per cent had operating budgets of 
$250,000 to $499,999. Only 10 per cent of 
the museums operated on funds totaling 
$500,000 or more; this figure divided equally 
between those with budgets of $500,000 
to $999,999 and those with budgets of 
$1,000,000 and over. 

The annual operating budgets of the 
museums included in the survey ranged 
from $3,700 to over $20 million. 



1 This grouping of institutions within the science 
category, which has been a convention in the mu- 
seum field, led to some problems in the analysis 
of data. It is suggested that in future research 
these areas be treated separately wherever appropriate 
and possible. Consultants have suggested also that 
in future research historic sites and museum 
villages be treated separately from the more 
conventional type of history museum. 
- Because of the relatively small number of museums 
involved, these three sub-categories are not broken 
out separately in the analysis of the data but are 
treated together in the "other combined" category. 



8 



In FY 1971-72, the 1,821 museums spent 
$478.9 million. The impact of budget size 
on total expenditures is seen clearly when 
examining the percentage of expenditures 
accounted for by the museums in each 
budget category. Museums with budgets 
of $1,000,000 and over, which represent 
five per cent of all museums, accounted 
for 57 per cent of the total operating ex- 
penditures. In sharp contrast, the 44 per cent 
of museums with budgets under $50,000 
accounted for only four per cent of the total 
expenditures. Between these two extremes, 
the percentage of total funds expended in- 
creases steadily from five per cent in 
museums with budgets of $50,000 to 
$99,999 to 10 per cent in the $100,000 
to $249,999 museums and 12 per cent in 



both the $250,000 to $499,999 and $500,000 
to $999,999 museums. Thus, the 63 per cent 
of museums with budgets under $100,000 
accounted for only nine per cent of the 
total expenditures. (Fig. 80, p. 154.) 

Governing Authority 

The governing authority is defined as the 
agency or organization that ultimately 
owns the assets and collections of the 
museum though not necessarily the build- 
ings and grounds. More than half (56 per 
cent) of the nation's museums are governed 
by private nonprofit organizations. (Fig. 5, 
p. 10.) These museums, governed by either 
a nonprofit organization administered in the 
public interest or a church, denominational 
group, or affiliated organization, are private 



Figure 3 
Museums by Type 

Base: Total museums 



History 

37% 




Science 

16% 



Art/History 

10% 



Other Combined 

8% 



only in terms of governing authority. All of 
them are open to and serve the public; 
their sources of support may be either 
public or private or a combination of both. 

About one-third (34 per cent) of the mu- 
seums are governed by either a municipal- 



county government (16 per cent), a state 
government (12 per cent), or the federal 
government (six per cent). Educational in- 
stitutions govern the remaining 10 per cent 
of the museums, 3 divided almost equally 

3 This 10 per cent includes one per cent governed 
by schools below the college or university level. 



Figure 4 

Museums by Budget Size 

Base: Total museums 



100% 



Under 
$50,000 



$50,000- 
99,999 



$100,000- 
249,999 



$250,000 
499,999 



$500,000 
999,999 



$1,000,000 
and Over 



44% 



19% I 



17% I 



10% 




10 



between those operated by a public college, 
university, or school and those operated 
by a private college, university, or school. 

Region 

The distribution of museums across the 
country roughly parallels the distribution of 
population. The one exception is New 
England which has 13 per cent of the nation's 
museums but only five per cent of its pop- 
ulation. (Fig. 6, p. 11. For information 
on the distribution of museums, population, 



and attendance by region, see Fig. 29, 
p. 51.) The six regions used in the survey 
conform to those of the American Asso- 
ciation of Museums: 

New England (6 states): Connecticut, Maine, 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode 
Island, Vermont. 

Northeast (6 states): Delaware, District of 
Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, 
Pennsylvania. 



Figure 5 

Museums by Governing Authority 

Base: Total museums 




Private Nonprofit 
56% 



Government 
34% 



Federal 
6% 



Municipal — County 
16% 



Educational 

Institution 

10% 



■ Public 

5% 

• Private 

5% 



11 



Southeast (12 states): Alabama, Arkansas, 
Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, 
Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia. 

Midwest (8 states): Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, 
Wisconsin. 



Mountain Plains (10 states): Colorado, 
Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, 
North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, 
Texas, Wyoming. 

West (9 states): Alaska, Arizona, California, 
Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, 
Washington. 



Figure 6 

Museums by Region and Population 




r 



Percentage of all museums 
Base: Total museums 



Percentage of total population 
Base: 1970 U.S. Census 



12 



Some Comparisons 

Art Museums 

Among the three major types of museums, 
art ranks second to history in the propor- 
tion of museums with budgets under 
$50,000 and second to science in the pro- 
portion of museums with budgets of 
$500,000 and over. (Fig. 7, p. 12.) Thirty- 
three per cent of the art museums had 
operating budgets of less than $50,000 in FY 
1971-72, and 16 per cent had budgets of 
$500,000 and over. Forty per cent operated 



on budgets ranging from $50,000 to 
$249,999; 11 per cent had budgets of 
$250,000 to $499,999. 

Compared with history and science, art 
has the highest proportion of museums 
governed by private nonprofit organizations 
and by educational institutions, and the 
lowest proportion operated by government 
agencies. (Fig. 8, p. 13.) Over two-thirds 
(69 per cent) of the art museums are 
governed by private nonprofit organizations. 
Another 21 per cent are under the govern- 



Figure 7 

Museum Type by 
Budget Size 

Base: Total museums 



Under $50,000 

$50,000-99,999 

$100,000-249,999 
$250,000-499,999 
$500,000-999,999 

$1,000,000 and Over 





100% 



11% 


8% 


8% 









History 



62% 



17% 



13% 



6%1%1% 




Science 



20% 



26% 



16% 



10% 












Art/History 




1 7% 6% 5% 2% 



Other Combined 


43% 


20% 


17% 


13% 


2'i 


5% 











13 



ing authority of either private (14 per 
cent) or public (seven per cent) educational 
institutions. Only 10 per cent of the art 
museums are operated by government 
agencies: six per cent by municipal-county, 
three per cent by state, and one per cent 
by the federal government. 

The largest percentages of art museums 
are in the Midwest, the Northeast, and the 
Southeast. (Fig. 9, p. 14.) Twenty-three per 
cent of the art museums are located in 
the Midwest and 20 per cent in both the 



Northeast and the Southeast. The smallest 
percentage (10 per cent) is found in the 
Mountain Plains. 

History Museums 

Of the three major museum types, history 
has the largest proportion of museums with 
budgets under $50,000 and the smallest 
proportion with budgets of $500,000 and 
over. (Fig. 7, p. 12.) Nearly two-thirds 
(62 per cent) of the history museums had 
operating budgets of less than $50,000 in 
FY 1971-72, while only two per cent 



o 

Art 



History 



Figure 8 
Museum Type 
by Governing 
Authority 

Base: Total museums 



54% 



Private Nonprofit 



Government 

Federal 
State 

Municipal-County 



Educational Institution 

Public 
Private 



69% 1% 3% 




11% 



20% 



13% 2% 



Science 



45% 5% 5% 



29% 





1 



12% 4% 




Art/History 



72% 2% 5% 



16% 5% 




Other Combined 



48% 5% 



14-; 



22% 7% 4% 




*Less than 0.5% are private educational institution museums. 



14 



had budgets of $500,000 and over. Thirty 
per cent of these museums operated on 
budgets ranging from $50,000 to $249,999, 
and six per cent had budgets of $250,000 
to $499,999. 

A higher proportion of history museums 
than of art or science museums is operated 
by government agencies, and a lower pro- 
portion by educational institutions. (Fig. 8, 
p. 13.) While just over half (54 per cent) 
of the history museums are governed by 
private nonprofit organizations, a substan- 



tial 44 per cent are operated by govern- 
ment agencies (20 per cent by state gov- 
ernment, 13 per cent by municipal-county 
government, and 11 per cent by the federal 
government). The remaining two per cent 
of the history museums are governed by 
public educational institutions. 

Following the pattern of art museums, the 
largest percentages of history museums 
are found in the Midwest, the Northeast, 
and the Southeast. (Fig. 9, p. 14.) Twenty- 
two per cent of these museums are in 



Figure 9 
Museum Type 
by Region 

Base: Total museums 



New England 
Northeast 
Southeast 
Midwest 

Mountain Plains 
West 

















100% 


Art 


12% 


20% 


20% 


23% 


10% 


15% 

















History 14% 19% 19% 22% 


9% 


17% 









Science 10% 




11% 



18% 



20% 



14% 



27% 



18% 



14% 



15 



the Midwest, 19 per cent in the Northeast, 
and 19 per cent in the Southeast. The 
smallest percentage (nine per cent) is found 
in the Mountain Plains. 

Science Museums 

Among the three major types, science has 
the smallest proportion of museums with 
budgets under $50,000 and the largest pro- 
portion with budgets of $500,000 and 
over. (Fig. 7, p. 12.) Only 18 per cent of 
the science museums had operating budgets 
of less than $50,000 in FY 1971-72, while 
20 per cent had budgets of $500,000 and 
over. Forty-six per cent had budgets 
ranging from $50,000 to $249,999; 16 per 
cent had budgets of $250,000 to $499,999. 

A lower proportion of science museums 
than of art or history museums is governed 
by private nonprofit organizations. (Fig. 8, 
p. 13.) Less than half (45 per cent) of the 
science museums are governed by private 
nonprofit organizations. Government 
agencies operate 39 per cent of these 
museums: 29 per cent are municipal- 
county museums, five per cent state, and 
five per cent federal. Sixteen per cent of 
the science museums are under the govern- 
ing authority of either public (12 per cent) 
or private (four per cent) educational 
institutions. 

The largest percentage of science museums 
is found in the Midwest, followed by the 
Southeast and the West. (Fig. 9, p. 14.) 
Almost one-third (30 per cent) of these 
museums are located in the Midwest; 18 
per cent are in the Southeast and 18 per 
cent in the West. The smallest percentage 
(10 per cent) is located in New England. 

Art/History Museums 

More than half (55 per cent) of the art/ 
history museums had operating budgets 
of less than $50,000, while only seven per 
cent had budgets of $500,000 and over. 
Thirty-two per cent operated on budgets 
of $50,000 to $249,999, and the remaining 



six per cent had budgets of $250,000 to 
$499,999. (Fig. 7, p. 12.) The overwhelming 
majority (72 per cent) of art/history mu- 
seums are governed by private nonprofit 
organizations. The next largest percentage 
(23 per cent) is operated by government 
agencies: 16 per cent by municipal-county 
government, five per cent by state, and two 
per cent by federal. The remaining five per 
cent are governed by private educational 
institutions. (Fig. 8, p. 13.) About half of 
the art/history museums are. located in the 
Northeast and Midwest (29 and 20 
per cent, respectively). The smallest per- 
centage (nine per cent) is located in the 
West. (Fig. 9, p. 14.) 

Other Combined Museums 

Approximately four out of ten (43 per cent) 
of the other combined museums had op- 
erating budgets under $50,000; only 
seven per cent had budgets of $500,000 
and over. Thirty-seven per cent operated 
on budgets ranging from $50,000 to 
$249,999, and 13 per cent had budgets of 
$250,000 to $499,999. (Fig. 7, p. 12.) About 
half (48 per cent) of the other combined 
museums are governed by private nonprofit 
organizations, with an almost equally high 
41 per cent operated by government 
agencies (22 per cent by municipal-county 
government, 14 per cent by state, and five 
per cent by federal). The remaining 11 per 
cent are governed by public (seven per cent) 
or private (four per cent) educational insti- 
tutions. (Fig. 8, p. 13.) The largest percent- 
age of other combined museums is found 
in the Midwest (27 per cent), followed by 
the Southeast and Mountain Plains (18 per 
cent each). The smallest percentage (nine 
per cent) is located in the Northeast. (Fig. 
9, p. 14.) 

Budget Size 

About half (51 per cent) of the museums 
with operating budgets under $50,000 are 
classified as history. This percentage de- 
creases steadily as budget size increases, 
with history museums representing only 



16 



nine per cent of the $1,000,000 and over 
museums. (Fig. 10, p. 16.) Art museums 
and science museums reverse this pattern. 
They account for a respective 14 and six per 
cent of the museums with budgets under 
$50,000, and each represents 32 per cent of 
the museums with budgets of $1,000,000 
and over. Compared with the three major 
museum types, there is less variation in the 
proportions of museums in each budget 



category that are classified as art/history and 
as other combined. Art/history museums 
represent between 12 per cent of the 
museums in the under $50,000 category 
and five per cent of the museums in the 
$1,000,000 and over; the proportion classi- 
fied as other combined ranges between 
23 per cent in the $250,000 to $499,999 
museums and 10 per cent in the $500,000 
to $999,999 museums. 



Figure 10 

Budget Size by Museum Type 

Base: Total museums 



Under 
$50,000 



$50,000- 
99,999 



100% 14% 




$250,000- 
499,999 



$500,000- 
999,999 



$1,000,000 
and Over 



22% 
22% 
26% 

7% 
23% 


m 



32% 



12% 



35% 




Art 



History 



Science 



Art/History 

| Other 
Combined 



17 



There is little variation in governing au- 
thority among the six budget categories. In 
each, the largest percentage of museums 
is governed by private nonprofit organiza- 
tions. This ranges from 46 per cent in the 
$100,000 to $249,999 museums to more 
than 60 per cent in both the $500,000 
to $999,999 and the $1,000,000 and over 
museums. (Fig. 11, p. 17.) In all budget 
categories, approximately one-third of the 



museums are operated by government 
agencies, ranging between 27 per cent in the 
$500,000 to $999,999 group and 38 per cent 
in the $100,000 to $249,999 group. In all 
but the $250,000 to $499,999 category, 
where the largest number of government 
museums are state operated, municipal- 
county museums represent the largest single 
percentage of government museums. 
Educational institutions govern the smallest 



100% 



Figure 11 

Budget Size by Governing Authority 

Base: Total museums 



Private Nonprofit 

Government 

Federal 
State 

Municipal-County 

Educational Institution 

Public 
Private 



| Priva 

m 





Under 
$50,000 


bWc 




i% 




12% 




1 8% 




4% 
5% 







$50,000- 
99,999 


57% 




1 2% 




8% 




1 4% 

4% 
5% 





$100,000- 
249,999 



46% 



10% 



12% 



11%l 



5% 





$250,000— 
499,999 


v% 




2% 




22% 




13% 
6% 







$500,000— 
999,999 


63% 




4% 




6% 




4% 
6% 





62% 


$1,000,000 
and Over 


12% 




6% 




lb% 

1% 
4% 





18 



percentage of museums in each category, 
ranging between five per cent of the 
$1,000,000 and over museums and 16 per 
cent of the $100,000 to $249,999 museums. 
In the middle-sized budget categories of 
$100,000 to $499,999 there are more public 
than private educational institution mu- 
seums; this pattern is reversed in the under 
$100,000 and the $500,000 and over mu- 
seums where the proportions of private 



educational institution museums are slightly 
greater than those of public. 

The regional distribution of museums is 
fairly uniform within each of the budget 
categories under $250,000. Noticeable 
variations appear, however, among the 
larger museums. (Fig. 12, p. 18.) Of those 
museums with operating budgets of $250,000 
and over, considerably higher percentages 



Figure 12 

Budget Size by Region 

Base: Total museums 



Under 
$50,000 



$50,000- 
99,999 



$100,000- 
249,999 



$250,000- 
499,999 



$500,000- 
999,999 



$1,000,000 
and Over 



100% 13% 




15% 



22% 



9% 



21% I 



40% 



New 
England 

Northeast 



5% 

27% I 



Southeast 
Midwest 



2%r 

17% I 



Mountain 
Plains 

West 



19 



Figure 13 

Governing Authority 
by Museum Type 

Base: Total museums 



35% 



Private Nonprofit 




Government 




Educational Institution 





Art 

History 

Science 

Art/History 

Other Combined 



are located in the Northeast and the Mid- 
west than in any other region. For example, 
of the $1,000,000 and over museums, 40 per 
cent are in the Northeast and 27 per cent 
in the Midwest, compared with two per 
cent and five per cent located respectively 
in the Mountain Plains and the Southeast. 
The Northeast's share of the largest budget 
museums is particularly significant con- 
sidering that only 17 per cent of all muse- 
ums are located in this region. The Midwest, 
in contrast, accounts for almost equal 
percentages of the largest budget museums 
and of total museums (27 and 25 per cent, 
respectively). 

Governing Authority 

Approximately one-third (35 percent) of 
the museums governed by private nonprofit 
organizations are history museums. (Fig. 13, 
p. 19.) Twenty-three per cent are classified 
as art and 13 per cent as science. Other 
combined museums account for 16 per cent 
of the private nonprofit museums and 
art/history 13 per cent. 

History museums also represent the largest 
percentage (47 per cent) of all govern- 
ment museums. (They constitute 64 
per cent of the federal museums, 63 per 
cent of the state museums, and 32 per cent 
of the municipal-county museums.) Eighteen 
per cent of all government museums are 
science (representing 28 per cent of mu- 
nicipal-county, 12 per cent of federal, and 
seven per cent of state museums). Art mu- 
seums account for only six per cent of all 
government museums (representing seven 
per cent of municipal-county museums and 
four per cent of both federal and state mu- 
seums). Twenty-two per cent of the govern- 
ment museums are other combined and 
seven per cent art/history. 

Educational institution museums are more 
heavily art and science oriented than either 
private nonprofit or government museums: 
Forty-one per cent are art and 25 per cent 
science, while only nine per cent are clas- 



20 



Figure 14 

Governing Authority 
by Budget Size 

Base: Total museums 



Private Nonprofit 



Government 



Educational Institution 




4% 
2% 




Under $50,000 

$50,000-99,999 

$100,000-249,999 

$250,000-499,999 

$500,000-999,999 

$1,000,000 and Over 



sified as history. Other combined museums 
account for 20 per cent of the educational 
institution museums and art/history five per 
cent. 

When comparing the three major governing 
authorities by budget size, only minor 
variations appear. (Fig. 14, p. 20.) Almost 
half (47 per cent) of the private nonprofit 
museums had budgets under $50,000 and 
only five per cent had budgets of $1,000,000 
and over. Forty-five per cent of all govern- 
ment museums had budgets under $50,000, 
while only four per cent operated on 
budgets of $1,000,000 and over. The distri- 
bution of educational institution museums 
according to budget size roughly parallels 
that of private nonprofit and government 
museums: Forty-three per cent had budgets 
under $50,000, and two per cent budgets 
of $1,000,000 and over. 

There are noticeable differences in budget 
size within government museums and within 
educational institution museums. A con- 
siderably lower percentage of federal mu- 
seums (21 per cent) than of municipal- 
county (50 per cent) or state (48 per cent) 
museums had budgets under $50,000. And 
a somewhat higher percentage of federal 
museums (nine per cent) than of municipal- 
county (four per cent) or state (two per cent) 
museums had budgets of $1,000,000 and 
over. Private, as compared with public, edu- 
cational institution museums had a higher 
proportion both of museums with budgets 
under $50,000 (51 per cent) and of museums 
with budgets of $1,000,000 and over (four 
per cent). The respective figures for public 
educational institution museums were 37 
per cent and one per cent. 

Region 

While the total number of museums varies 
greatly among regions, the distribution 
of museums by type nationwide is prac- 
tically duplicated region by region. (Fig. 15, 
p. 21; Fig. 3, p. 8.) The proportion of total 
museums within each region that is classi- 



21 



fied as art ranges from 16 per cent in the 
Mountain Plains to 21 per cent in both the 
Northeast and the Southeast. The proportion 
that is history ranges from 30 per cent in the 
Mountain Plains to 41 per cent in the North- 
east and the West, and the proportion that 
is science ranges from 11 per cent in the 
Northeast to 20 per cent in the Midwest. 
The range for art/history is from six per cent 
in the West to 17 per cent in the Northeast, 
and for other combined from 10 per cent 



in the Northeast to 27 per cent in the Moun- 
tain Plains. 

With the exception of the Northeast, at least 
43 per cent of the museums in each region 
had annual operating budgets of less than 
$50,000. (Fig. 16, p. 22.) The Northeast, 
where a somewhat lower 38 per cent of 
the museums have budgets under $50,000, 
has the highest proportion (16 per cent) of 
museums with budgets of $500,000 and 



Figure 15 

Region by Museum Type 

Base: Total museums 



17% 




20% 




History 

Science 
Art/History 
Other Combined 



22 



over. The Midwest and the West have the 
next highest proportions of large budget 
museums (approximately 10 per cent each), 
while the Southeast has the lowest (three 
per cent). 

The largest percentage of museums in each 
region is governed by private nonprofit 
organizations, except in the West where the 



largest single percentage is operated by 
government agencies. (Fig. 17, p. 23.) Of 
the six regions, New England has the highest 
proportion (75 per cent) of museums 
governed by private nonprofit organ- 
izations and the lowest proportion (13 per 
cent) operated by government agencies. 
Reversing this pattern, the West has the 
lowest proportion (40 per cent) of private 



Figure 16 

Region by Budget Size 

Base: Total museums 



43% 




23 



nonprofit museums and the highest pro- 
portion (48 per cent) of government muse- 
ums. In each region the smallest percentage 
of museums is governed by educational 
institutions, ranging from seven per cent in 
both the Northeast and the Southeast to 
12 per cent in New England and in the West. 



Figure 17 

Region by Governing Authority 

Base: Total museums 




75% 



Educational 
Institution 



24 



Chapter 2 



Purposes and Functions 



25 



Introduction 

Given the great diversity in museum type, 
budget size, governing authority, and lo- 
cation, there is remarkably strong agree- 
ment among the nation's museum directors 
on the basic purposes of their institutions 
and the functions necessary to realize these 
purposes. In particular, museum directors 
give high priority to what they consider the 
educational responsibilities of the museum 
and its role in informing and instructing the 
public. Ninety-two per cent considered pro- 
viding educational experiences for the pub- 
lic a very important purpose of their mu- 
seums. Exhibiting the cultural and/or scien- 
tific heritage, essentially an educational 
activity, was considered a very important 
function by 84 per cent. 

The first part of this chapter focuses on 
the purposes and functions viewed by 
museum directors as very important. 
The second part discusses the directors' 
evaluation of priority purposes and func- 
tions, and then compares the directors' own 
priorities with their assessment of the 
priorities of the museum trustees and the 
public, and with their evaluation of the 
purposes and functions most successfully 
satisfied by their museums. 



Purposes and Functions 

In order to determine which purposes and 
functions museum directors consider most 
important for their museums, each director 
was asked to evaluate six purposes and 
ten functions that had been suggested by 
the museum consultants. Directors evaluated 
each of the purposes and functions on a 
scale of very important, somewhat important, 
of minor importance, or not a purpose or 
function. In this chapter, responses are 
analyzed only in terms of the percentage of 
directors that considered the given pur- 
poses and functions very important. 



Providing educational experiences for the 
public was considered a very important 
purpose by the largest percentage of mu- 
seum directors (92 per cent). 1 (Fig. 18, p. 27.) 
Eighty-four per cent regarded as very im- 
portant conserving the cultural and/or 
scientific heritage, 78 per cent interpreting 
the past or present to the public, and 49 
per cent providing aesthetic experiences for 
the public. Only 17 per cent regarded as 
very important encouraging positive social 
change and 17 per cent providing entertain- 
ment to the public. The responses of the 
directors differ little by budget size or gov- 
erning authority. However, there are some 
noteworthy differences among museum 
types. 

Providing educational experiences for the 
public was selected by the highest per- 
centage of directors of art museums (94 per 
cent) and science museums (98 per cent) as 
a very important purpose. (Fig. 18, p. 27.) 
Conserving the cultural and/or scientific 
heritage and interpreting the past or present, 
while important to these museums, were 
considered very important purposes by 
lower percentages of art and science mu- 
seum directors than of all directors. 

Directors of history museums assess dif- 
ferently the role of their museums: while 
86 per cent viewed providing educational 
experiences as a very important purpose, 
93 per cent regarded both conserving the 
cultural and/or scientific heritage and in- 
terpreting the past or present as very im- 
portant. (Consultants have suggested that 
this apparent discrepancy between the 
viewpoints of history museum directors 
and other directors perhaps stems from the 



1 Consultants have noted that the interpretation of 
"educational experiences" undoubtedly varied widely 
among museums, and have suggested that the 
educational role of museums in the broadest sense 
(including but not limited to educational programs) 
is an important topic for further examination and 
analysis. 



26 



principal concern of history museums for 
historical preservation, expressed here as 
conservation, and the corollary attitude that 
their most vital educational contribution is 
through interpretation of the past.) 

In art/history museums and other combined 

museums, the ordering of very important 
purposes was nearly identical. Ninety-four 
per cent of the directors of art/history mu- 
seums and 96 per cent of the directors of 
other combined museums cited providing 
educational experiences for the public as 
very important. Conserving the cultural 
and/or scientific heritage was mentioned by 
a respective 94 and 87 per cent, and inter- 
preting the past or present by a respective 
91 and 83 per cent. 

Art museum directors are found to be more 
concerned than directors of any other type 
of museum with providing aesthetic experi- 
ences for the public: Ninety-two per cent 
of the art museum directors thought this 
purpose very important compared with 51 
per cent of the science museum directors 
and only 27 per cent of those in charge of 
history museums. This purpose was cited by 
a respective 52 and 46 per cent of the di- 
rectors of other combined and art/history 
museums. 

Of all six purposes, encouraging positive 
social change and providing entertainment 
ranked lowest in each museum type. 2 
Directors of science museums do attribute 
more importance to entertaining the public 
(28 per cent) than do directors of history 
museums (16 per cent), art museums (nine 
per cent), or art/history and other combined 
museums (18 per cent each). The inclusion 
of facilities such as zoos and botanical 
gardens in the science category would seem 
to be one reason for this difference. 

The emphasis given to providing educa- 
tional experiences as a museum purpose is 
reinforced by the directors' assessment of 
the importance of ten museum functions. 



Exhibiting the cultural and/or scientific heri- 
tage, essentially an educational activity, was 
regarded as a very important function by 84 
per cent of the directors. (Fig. 19, pp. 28-29.) 
Conservation and preservation of objects 
was considered very important by 82 per 
cent, providing instruction to the young by 
71 per cent, 3 providing a scholarly and 
information resource by 62 per cent, and 
acquiring works or specimens by 56 per cent. 

Less than half of the directors identified as 
very important to their museums any one of 
the five remaining functions, of which the 
lowest ranked were rendering assistance to 
smaller museums (16 per cent) and training 
museum professionals (14 per cent). The 
question on training museum professionals 
referred only to training as a function of 
the individual museum. The existence or 
nature of training programs conducted by 
institutions other than museums, and the 
director's assessment of the importance of 
such programs, were not covered in the 
survey. (Information on museum in-service 
training programs is considered in 
Chapter 7, p. 118.) 

Among art museums, the function ranked 
highest by directors was exhibiting the cul- 
tural and/or scientific heritage (84 per cent), 
followed by providing instruction to the 
young (75 per cent). (Fig. 19, pp. 28-29.) This 
is reversed among science museum direc- 
tors: Eighty-one per cent selected providing 
instruction to the young as a very important 
function and 70 per cent exhibiting the cul- 
tural and/or scientific heritage. 

The importance history museum directors 
assign to conserving the cultural and/or 

2 Directors themselves were not asked to rank pur- 
poses and functions in order of importance. Rankings, 
as referred to in this section, indicate the ordering of 
purposes and of functions based on the proportion 
of directors that cited each as very important or, 

in describing priorities, as one of the two most 
important. 

3 The survey did not specify an age range for this item. 



27 



Figure 18 

Purposes Considered Very Important 

by Directors 

Base: Total museum directors 



Art 

History 

Science 

Art/History 

Other Combined 



92% 



All Directors 




Providing educational 
experiences for the 
public 



Directors by Museum Type 




84% 




Conserving the 
cultural and/or 
scientific heritage 




78% 




Interpreting the past 
or present to the public 




49% 




Providing aesthetic 
experiences for the 
public 




92% 



17% 




Encouraging positive 
social change 





22% 




6% 




2 




1 19% 









26% 



28% 



17% 




Providing 
entertainment to 
the public 




28% 



28 



Figure 19 

Functions Considered Very Important 

by Directors 

Base: Total museum directors 



Art 

History 

Science 

Art/History 

Other Combined 



84% 



All Directors 



82% 




Exhibiting the cultural 
and/or scientific 
heritage 



Directors by Museum Type 



Conservation and 
preservation of objects 



Providing instruction 
to the young 



Providing a scholarly 
and information 
resource 



Acquiring works 
or specimens 




94% 



95% 



29 



Figure 19 (cont'd) 

Functions Considered Very Important 

by Directors 

Base: Total museum directors 



1 Art 
History 
Science 
I Art/History 
Other Combined 



All Directors 



41% 




Conducting research 



Directors b 


y Museum Type 




40% 






37% 





46% 



38% 




Attracting tourists to 
the community 




47% 



42% , 



20% 




Serving as a center for 
community activities 




33% 



16% 




Rendering assistance to 
smaller museums 




14% 




Training museum 
professionals 




scientific heritage as a museum purpose is 
reflected in their evaluation of functions, 
with 91 per cent identifying conservation 
and preservation of objects as very im- 
portant. This function was considered 
very important by lower proportions of 
art (69 per cent) and science (68 per cent) 
museum directors, although it did rank third 
for both of these museum types. In history 
museums, as in art and science, emphasis is 
given to educational activities: Exhibiting 
the cultural and/or scientific heritage 
and instructing the young were ranked 
second and third, respectively, by history 
museum directors. 

The largest percentage of directors of art/ 
history museums (95 per cent) and other 
combined museums (82 percent) cited 
conservation and preservation of objects as 
a very important function, followed closely 
by exhibiting the cultural and/or scientific 
heritage (94 and 81 percent, respectively). 
Providing a scholarly and information re- 
source was cited by 67 per cent of the 
art/history museum directors as a very im- 
portant function. In other combined mu- 
seums, all of which have some emphasis on 
science, the function ranked third was pro- 
viding instruction to the young (71 per cent). 

Rendering assistance to smaller museums 
and training museum professionals were 
among the lowest ranked functions in each 
museum type. However, a larger percentage 
of both art and science museum directors 
(21 per cent) than of history museum direc- 
tors (six per cent) considered training a 
very important museum activity. Fourteen 
per cent of the directors of art/history and of 
other combined museums considered this 
function very important. Attracting tourists 
to the community was considered a very 
important function by a lower percentage of 
directors of art museums than of any other 
museum type. Serving as a center for 
community activities was ranked lowest 
by history museum directors. 



30 



Priority Purposes and Functions 

In addition to assessing the relative im- 
portance of the given purposes and func- 
tions, directors selected from the list the 
two purposes and the two functions they 
thought most important for their museums. 
These responses then were compared with 
the directors' evaluations of the two pur- 
poses and two functions most important to 
museum trustees and to the public, and of 
the two purposes and two functions the mu- 
seum had satisfied most successfully. 

Providing educational experiences for the 
public, highest on the directors' list of very 
important purposes, was cited by 69 per 
cent of the directors as one of the two pur- 
poses they considered most important for 
their museums. (Fig. 20, p. 32.) Fifty-eight 
per cent cited conserving the cultural and/ 
or scientific heritage and 39 per cent inter- 
preting the past or present. 

When the directors' selections of priority 
purposes are compared with their evalua- 
tions of the two purposes they think the 
trustees and the public consider most im- 
portant, only a few variations occur. The 
most striking of these is that the public, in 
contrast with directors and trustees, is 
thought to give higher priority to entertain- 
ment as a museum purpose and lower 
priority to conserving the cultural and/or 
scientific heritage. (Fig. 20, p. 32.) 

Within each of the three major types of 
museums there also is a close correlation 
between the directors' priorities and their 
evaluations of very important museum pur- 
poses. The highest percentage of art mu- 
seum and science museum directors (74 
and 92 per cent, respectively) consid- 
ered providing educational experiences 
as one of the two priority purposes of their 
museums. (Fig. 21, p. 33; Fig. 23, p. 35.) 
Among history museum directors, 70 per 
cent identified conserving the cultural and/ 
or scientific heritage as a priority objective, 



followed by providing educational experi- 
ences (61 per cent). (Fig. 22, p. 34.) When 
selecting priority purposes, the directors of 
all three types of museums again attributed 
relatively little importance to encouraging 
positive social change and to entertaining 
the public. 

While the directors of art, history, and sci- 
ence museums felt that the purposes most 
important to the trustees and most suc- 
cessfully met by the museum generally fol- 
low their own ordering of priorities, they 
indicated a different set of priorities for the 
public. (Fig. 21, p. 33; Fig. 22, p. 34; Fig. 
23, p. 35.) The public was thought to be 
more concerned than either directors or 
trustees with entertainment, and less con- 
cerned with education and conservation. 
And, in history and science museums, the 
public was thought to give higher priority 
to the museums' providing aesthetic ex- 
periences. 

As with museum purposes, the directors' 
selection of priority functions matches their 
choice of very important functions. Sixty per 
cent identified exhibiting the cultural 
and/or scientific heritage as one of the two 
most important activities of their museums. 
Forty per cent selected conservation and 
preservation of objects and 30 per cent 
providing instruction to the young. (Fig. 20, 
p. 32.) 

The public and the trustees, the directors 
felt, also would rank exhibition as one of 
the two most important museum functions 
and rendering assistance to smaller museums 
and training museum professionals as the 
least important. (Fig. 20, p. 32.) The public, 
however, was thought to be less concerned 
with conservation and preservation of ob- 
jects than were either directors or trustees. 
The two other areas in which priorities 
differed noticeably were research, which 
according to the directors was a more im- 
portant activity to them (11 per cent) than to 
trustees (six per cent) or the public (two 



31 



per cent); and attracting tourists to the 
community, a function thought to be more 
important to the public (22 per cent) and 
trustees (15 per cent) than to directors 
(eight per cent). 

In relation to this emphasis the public is 
thought to give to attracting tourists as 
a museum function, a recent public opinion 
survey on cultural activities and resources 
(including museums of all types), conducted 
for Associated Councils of the Arts, 
showed that 80 per cent of the public felt 
it was either very (46 per cent) or somewhat 
(34 per cent) important to the business and 
economy of the community to have avail- 
able facilities such as museums, theatres, 
and concert halls. 4 

For art, history, and science museum direc- 
tors, the ranking of priority functions not 
only follows their evaluations of very im- 
portant functions, but also generally corre- <■ 
sponds with their evaluations of the trustees 
and the public's priorities. Exhibiting the 
cultural and/or scientific heritage was 
identified as a priority function by 64 per 
cent of the art museum directors; it was 
considered by an equal or greater number 
of these directors to be of priority impor- 
tance to the public (64 per cent) and trustees 
(70 per cent). (Fig. 21, p. 33.) Unlike direc- 
tors and trustees, the public was thought to 
be less concerned with acquiring works or 
specimens and with conservation and 
preservation of objects. 

In history museums, exhibition was regarded 
as one of the two most important functions 
by 64 per cent of the directors, with similar 
ratings given for the public (64 per cent) 



and trustees (66 per cent). (Fig. 22, p. 34.) 
Compared with directors and trustees, the 
public was thought to attribute more im- 
portance to attracting tourists as a museum 
function, and less importance to conserva- 
tion and preservation of objects. 

While exhibition was considered the pre- 
dominant function in both art and history 
museums, another type of educational ac- 
tivity was given high priority by science 
museum directors. The largest percentage 
(48 per cent) of these directors identified 
providing instruction to the young as one of 
their museums' two most important activ- 
ities, with even higher percentages given for 
trustees (57 per cent) and the public (59 per 
cent). (Fig. 23, p. 35.) In science museums, 
attracting tourists was considered by direc- 
tors to be of greater importance to trustees 
and the public than to themselves; acquiring 
works or specimens was considered to be 
of greater importance to trustees than to 
either directors or the public. The public 
was thought to give lower priority than 
directors or trustees to conducting research. 

In each of the three major types of mu- 
seums, rendering assistance to smaller 
museums and training museum profes- 
sionals were given priority by the lowest 
number of directors for themselves and for 
trustees and the public. 



4 Americans and the Arts: A Survey of Public Opinion, 
based on interviews in January 1973 with a repre- 
sentative cross-section of Americans 16 years of 
age and older, was commissioned by Associated 
Councils of the Arts and conducted by the National 
Research Center of the Arts, Inc., an affiliate of 
Louis Harris and Associates, Inc. The study is available 
from Associated Councils of the Arts, New York, N.Y. 



32 

Figure 20 



Directors' Evaluations of the Two Purposes and Two Functions 
Most Important to Themselves, the Public, and Trustees, and 
Most Successfully Satisfied by the Museum 



Base: Total museum directors 



/ 



<C 



£ 



P 



-/ 






Rank 


(%) 


Rank 


(%) 


Rank 


(%) 


Rank 


(%) 


Purposes 


















Providing educational 


















experiences for the public 


1 


(69) 


1 


(58) 


1 


(67) 


1 


(66) 


Conserving the cultural 


















and/or scientific heritage 


2 


(58) 


3 


(35) 


2 


(58) 


2 


(50) 


Interpreting the past or 


















present to the public 


3 


(39) 


3 


(35) 


3 


(37) 


3 


(39) 


Providing aesthetic 


















experiences for the public 


4 


(20) 


5 


(26) 


4 


(24) 


4 


(26) 


Encouraging positive 


















social change 


5 


( 6) 


6 


( 2) 


6 


( 3) 


6 


( 3) 


Providing entertainment 


















to the public 


5 


( 6) 


2 


(36) 


5 


(10) 


5 


(14) 


Functions 


















Exhibiting the cultural 


















and/or scientific heritage 


1 


(60) 


1 


(65) 


1 


(65) 


1 


(60) 


Conservation and 


















preservation of objects 


2 


(40) 


3 


(26) 


2 


(33) 


3 


(28) 


Providing instruction 


















to the young 


3 


(30) 


2 


(32) 


3 


(31) 


2 


(36) 


Providing a scholarly and 


















information resource 


4 


(24) 


5 


(18) 


4 


(20) 


4 


(22) 


Acquiring works or specimens 


5 


(16) 


7 


(10) 


5 


(18) 


5 


(19) 


Conducting research 


6 


(11) 


8 


( 2) 


8 


( 6) 


7 


( 9) 


Attracting tourists 


















to the community 


7 


( 8) 


4 


(22) 


6 


(15) 


6 


(15) 


Serving as a center for 


















community activities 


8 


( 7) 


6 


(15) 


7 


(10) 


7 


( 9) 


Rendering assistance to 


















smaller museums 


9 


( D 


10 


(-) 


10 


(*) 


9 


( D 


Training museum professionals 


9 


( D 


9 


( D 


9 


( 2) 


9 


( D 


*Less than 0.5% 



















33 



Figure 21 



Art Museum Directors' Evaluations of the Two Purposes and Two Functions 
Most Important to Themselves, the Public, and Trustees, and 
Most Successfully Satisfied by the Museum 



Base: Total art museum directors 



/ 



■/ 



P 



Q 



£ 



J? 



<N 



$ 



J? ■ <? 

O ' 



c? 





Rank 


(%) 


Rank 


(%) 


Rank 


(%) 


Rank 


(%) 


Purposes 


















Providing educational 


















experiences for the public 


1 


(74) 


1 


(58) 


1 


(74) 


1 


(74) 


Providing aesthetic 


















experiences for the public 


2 


(71) 


2 


(52) 


2 


(68) 


2 


(73) 


Conserving the cultural 


















and/or scientific heritage 


3 


(32) 


4 


(22) 


3 


(36) 


3 


(32) 


Interpreting the past or 


















present to the public 


4 


(15) 


5 


(18) 


4 


(11) 


4 


(11) 


incouraging positive 


















social change 


5 


( 8) 


6 


( 2) 


6 


( 2) 


5 


( 4) 


"Yoviding entertainment 










f 








to the public 


6 


( D 


3 


(32) 


5 


( 8) 


5 


( 4) 


Functions 


















Exhibiting the cultural 


















and/or scientific heritage 


1 


(64) 


1 


(64) 


1 


(70) 


1 


(67) 


Providing instruction 


















to the young 


2 


(36) 


2 


(38) 


2 


(38) 


2 


(35) 


\cquiring works or specimens 


3 


(29) 


4 


(14) 


3 


(28) 


3 


(29) 


Conservation and 


















preservation of objects 


4 


(24) 


7 


( 6) 


5 


(18) 


5 


(16) 


Serving as a center for 


















community activities 


5 


(17) 


3 


(35) 


4 


(24) 


4 


(19) 


Providing a scholarly and 


















information resource 


6 


(16) 


6 


(11) 


6 


(13) 


6 


(14) 


Conducting research 


7 


( 5) 


8 


( D 


8 


( 2) 


8 


( 4) 


Attracting tourists 


















to the community 


8 


( 4) 


5 


(12) 


7 


( 9) 


7 


( 5) 


Rendering assistance 


















to smaller museums 


9 


( 2) 


9 


(-) 


9 


(*) 


9 


( 2) 


Training museum professionals 


9 


( 2) 


9 


(-) 


9 


(*) 


9 


( 2) 


•Less than 0.5% 



















34 

Figure 22 



History Museum Directors' Evaluations of the Two Purposes and Two Functions 
Most Important to Themselves, the Public, and Trustees, and 
Most Successfully Satisfied by the Museum 



Base: Total history museum directors 



./ 






P 



^ 






^ 



«? 





Rank 


(%) 


Rank 


(%) 


Rank 


(%) 


Rank 


(%) 


Purposes 


















Conserving the cultural and/or 


















scientific heritage 


1 


(70) 


3 


(47) 


1 


(73) 


1 


(64) 


Providing educational 


















experiences for the public 


2 


(61) 


1 


(49) 


3 


(54) 


2 


(58) 


Interpreting the past or 


















present to the public 


3 


(60) 


1 


(49) 


2 


(55) 


3 


(56) 


Providing entertainment 


















to the public 


4 


( 6) 


4 


(30) 


4 


( 9) 


4 


(13) 


Providing aesthetic 


















experiences for the public 


5 


( 3) 


5 


(12) 


5 


( 6) 


5 


( 5) 


Encouraging positive 


















social change 


6 


( D 


6 


( D 


6 


( D 


6 


(*) 


Functions 


















Exhibiting the cultural 


















and/or scientific heritage 


1 


(64) 


1 


(64) 


1 


(66) 


1 


(61) 


Conservation and 


















preservation of objects 


2 


(54) 


2 


(39) 


2 


(49) 


2 


(42) 


Providing a scholarly and 


















information resource 


3 


(23) 


5 


(19) 


4 


(21) 


4 


(22) 


Providing instruction 


















to the young 


4 


(21) 


4 


(21) 


3 


(23) 


3 


(31) 


Attracting tourists 


















to the community 


5 


(12) 


3 


(31) 


5 


(18) 


5 


(20) 


Acquiring works or specimens 


6 


( 9) 


7 


( 7) 


6 


(13) 


6 


(12) 


Conducting research 


6 


( 9) 


8 


( D 


8 


( 4) 


7 


( 6) 


Serving as a center for 


















community activities 


8 


( 3) 


6 


( 9) 


7 


( 6) 


7 


( 6) 


Rendering assistance to 


















smaller museums 


9 


( D 


10 


(-) 


9 


( D 


9 


( D 


Training museum professionals 


10 


(*) 


8 


( D 


9 


( D 


9 


( D 


*Less than 0.5% 



















35 



Figure 23 



Science Museum Directors' Evaluations of the Two Purposes and Two Functions 
Most Important to Themselves, the Public, and Trustees, and 
Most Successfully Satisfied by the Museum 



Base: Total science museum directors 



s^ 



J 



•J-> 



P 



Q 






^ 



^ 



W 



=? 





Rank 


(%) 


Rank 


(%) 


Rank 


(%) 


Rank 


(%) 


Purposes 


















Providing educational 


















experiences for the public 


1 


(92) 


1 


(73) 


1 


(93) 


1 


(82) 


Conserving the cultural 


















and/or scientific heritage 


2 


(44) 


4 


(16) 


2 


(37) 


2 


(31) 


Interpreting the past or 


















present to the public 


3 


(17) 


5 


(12) 


5 


(17) 


5 


(20) 


Providing aesthetic 


















experiences for the public 


4 


(16) 


3 


(31) 


4 


(22) 


4 


(24) 


Providing entertainment 


















to the public 


5 


(15) 


2 


(51) 


3 


(25^ 


3 


(30) 


Encouraging positive 


















social change 


6 


(12) 


6 


( 2) 


6 


( 5) 


6 


( 5) 


Functions 


















Providing instruction 


















to the young 


1 


(48) 


1 


(59) 


1 


(57) 


1 


(53) 


Exhibiting the cultural 


















and/or scientific heritage 


2 


(44) 


2 


(56) 


2 


(47) 


2 


(42) 


Providing a scholarly and 


















information resource 


3 


(28) 


3 


(23) 


3 


(25) 


3 


(27) 


Conservation and 


















preservation of objects 


4 


(25) 


4 


(15) 


6 


(13) 


5 


(16) 


Conducting research 


5 


(19) 


8 


( D 


7 


(12) 


5 


(16) 


Acquiring works or specimens 


6 


(17) 


7 


(10) 


4 


(21) 


4 


(21) 


Serving as a center for 


















community activities 


7 


( 7) 


6 


(12) 


8 


( 8) 


8 


( 9) 


Attracting tourists 


















to the community 


8 


( 6) 


4 


(15) 


5 


(15) 


7 


(14) 


Training museum professionals 


9 


( 2) 


9 


(-) 


9 


(-) 


9 


( D 


Rendering assistance to 


















smaller museums 


10 


( D 


9 


(-) 


9 


(-) 


10 


(-) 



36 



Chapter 3 



Programs 



37 



Introduction 

The museums' ability to provide educational 
experiences, and their consequent impact 
as educators, is derived from the tradition- 
ally visible activities of acquisition, conser- 
vation, interpretation, and exhibition and 
the educational and cultural programs built 
upon these activities. The scope of programs 
offered by museums clearly reflects the 
emphasis given by directors to education in 
their evaluations of purposes and functions. 
In addition to the inherent educational 
value of exhibitions, the overwhelming 
majority of museums offer some type of 
educational activity directed to a specific 
audience, particularly to groups of school 
children visiting the museum. Most muse- 
ums also schedule educational activities for 
adults and the general public. Significantly, 
about half (51 per cent) of the museums 
have increased their educational activities 
since 1966, and only one per cent have de- 
creased them. The findings show that while 
most museum programs are conducted 
wholly or partially by paid staff, the partici- 
pation of volunteers is an important, and 
in some cases critical, factor. 

This chapter discusses the types of educa- 
tional and cultural programs offered by 
museums, and the frequency with which 
they are scheduled. It also examines the 
staffing of programs, the level of coopera- 
tion between museums and schools and 
colleges and universities, and the museums' 
involvement in research and publications. 
There was no attempt made in the study to 
evaluate the effect of the museums' pro- 
grams on the audience. The consultants 
stressed the value of such an investigation 
but felt that it did not fall within the scope 
of this survey. 

Educational and Cultural Activities 

Directors were given a list of ten specific 
educational and cultural activities and were 
asked with what frequency their museums 



scheduled each activity — regularly, occa- 
sionally, or not at all. (The list of activities is 
based on program descriptions used in the 
U.S. Office of Education's 1966-67 survey 
of museums and related institutions.) 

The programs scheduled by the largest 
number of museums are those conducted for 
groups of school children visiting the mu- 
seum. (Fig. 24, pp. 38-39.) Guided tours, 
special lectures, or demonstrations were 
scheduled regularly by 73 per cent of the 
museums; 20 per cent occasionally sched- 
uled these activities and only seven per cent 
never scheduled them. This type of educa- 
tional program was conducted either 
regularly or occasionally by 90 per cent or 
more of the museums in each category. 

Nearly two-thirds of the museums conduct 
classes, clubs, or study groups for school 
children who visit the museum outside of 
school groups. Twenty-eight per cent 
scheduled these programs regularly and 34 
per cent occasionally. Except for history and 
art/history, more than half of the museums 
in each category reported these activities. Of 
the two remaining educational activities for 
children, presentations at schools were given 
either regularly or occasionally by 56 per 
cent of the museums; organized school loan 
services of special materials and collections 
were provided regularly or occasionally 
by 36 per cent. 

Of the 93 per cent of museums with some 
type of school program, 80 per cent planned 
the programs for both elementary and sec- 
ondary students, 15 per cent for elementary 
students only, and three per cent for secon- 
dary students only. (Two per cent were not 
sure.) In a majority of these museums, the 
schools did not participate in planning and 
developing the programs. (Directors were not 
asked the reasons for this apparent lack of 
close cooperation.) Among museum types, 
only in art and other combined did half or 
more of the museums work closely with 
schools in planning the educational programs. 



38 

Figure 24 



Frequency of Educational and Cultural Activities 



Base: Total museums 



^ 



Pi 



& 



<£> 



^ v 



^ 



^ 



> 



*y 











% 


% 


0/ 

la 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


Guided tours, special lectures, 


























and/or demonstrations at 


























museum for school classes 


























Regularly 


73 


70 


77 


73 


64 


72 


68 


71 


71 


80 


88 


90 


Occasionally 


20 


21 


17 


22 


26 


21 


23 


23 


22 


15 


10 


4 


Not at all 


7 


9 


6 


5 


10 


7 


9 


6 


7 


5 


2 


6 


Guided tours and gallery talks 


























for general groups 


























Regularly 


53 


51 


55 


48 


63 


48 


53 


50 


51 


59 


57 


58 


Occasionally 


30 


34 


28 


32 


27 


34 


27 


35 


37 


27 


28 


30 


Not at all 


17 


15 


17 


20 


10 


18 


20 


15 


12 


14 


15 


12 


Lectures, classes, clubs, and 


























study group for adults 


























Regularly 


31 


52 


14 


41 


31 


37 


26 


27 


34 


42 


43 


58 


Occasionally 


38 


34 


40 


42 


28 


43 


35 


41 


41 


44 


42 


33 


Not at all 


31 


14 


46 


17 


41 


20 


39 


32 


25 


14 


15 


9 


Classes, clubs, study groups for 


























children not in school groups 


























Regularly 


28 


46 


12 


42 


18 


37 


20 


30 


33 


33 


49 


54 


Occasionally 


34 


26 


37 


37 


24 


40 


37 


35 


29 


37 


30 


23 


Not at all 


38 


28 


51 


21 


58 


23 


43 


35 


38 


30 


21 


23 


Presentations at schools 


























Regularly 


18 


24 


9 


30 


12 


21 


13 


19 


19 


20 


38 


27 


Occasionally 


38 


32 


40 


40 


30 


41 


31 


44 


45 


40 


33 


45 


Not at all 


44 


44 


51 


30 


58 


38 


56 


37 


36 


40 


29 


28 


Organized school loan service 


























of special materials and 


























collections 


























Regularly 


14 


18 


9 


15 


12 


23 


10 


12 


17 


21 


35 


21 


Occasionally 


22 


18 


18 


29 


19 


31 


17 


28 


25 


29 


20 


26 


Not at all 


64 


64 


73 


56 


69 


46 


73 


60 


58 


50 


45 


53 



39 



Figure 24 (cont'd) 



Frequency of Educational and Cultural Activities 



Base: Total museums 



^ 



£" 



C 



0) 

ft v 



ft* 



<?> 



& 



y 






ft 



?> 



J 



ft 



,ft x 



s£ 



# & 





% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


0/ 

/o 


0/ 

/o 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


Film series prepared by 
the museum 


























Regularly 


14 


28 


6 


19 


11 


12 


6 


11 


18 


26 


37 


37 


Occasionally 


16 


23 


13 


15 


13 


14 


13 


16 


19 


16 


16 


27 


Not at all 


70 


49 


81 


66 


76 


74 


81 


73 


63 


58 


47 


36 


Performing arts presentations 
prepared by the museum 


























Regularly 


6 


16 


4 


3 


6 


3 


4 


2 


7 


11 


20 


20 


Occasionally 


12 


25 


6 


6 


13 


16 


7 


15 


16 


15 


21 


15 


Not at all 


82 


59 


90 


91 


81 


81 


89 


83 


77 


74 


59 


65 


TV programs produced 
by the museum 


























Regularly 


4 


6 


1 


9 


2 


4 


1 


3 


5 


9 


11 


15 


Occasionally 


19 


24 


13 


19 


18 


26 


17 


20 


16 


19 


28 


35 


Not at all 


77 


70 


86 


72 


80 


70 


82 


77 


79 


72 


61 


50 


Radio programs produced 
by the museum 


























Regularly 


3 


4 


2 


4 


2 


3 


2 


* 


5 


3 


9 


16 


Occasionally 


20 


22 


15 


23 


13 


27 


17 


20 


18 


26 


25 


30 


Not at all 


77 


74 


83 


73 


85 


70 


81 


80 


77 


71 


66 


54 


"Less than 0.5% 



























40 



The level of cooperation varies more 
noticeably by budget size, where school 
participation in program planning occurred 
much more frequently in the $1,000,000 and 
over museums than in the under $100,000 
museums. Within governing authority, the 
level of cooperation was somewhat higher 
in private nonprofit and educational institu- 
tion museums than in government museums. 

Slightly more than half (53 per cent) of the 
museums with elementary or secondary 
school programs reported that the pro- 
grams were supplemented by preparatory 
or follow-up activities in the schools. This 
percentage remained consistently high in all 
categories except the $50,000 to $99,999 
museums and educational institution 
museums, where it dropped only slightly 
to a respective 41 and 49 per cent. 

Earlier in this chapter it was noted that the 
survey did not attempt to evaluate the ef- 
fect of educational programs on the mu- 
seum audience. The Associated Councils of 
the Arts' public opinion survey did provide 
some information related to this subject. It 
was found that of the 62 per cent of the 
public that had taken school field trips to 
museums, planetariums, concerts, or plays, 
the vast majority (79 per cent) felt that such 
trips had stimulated their interest. 

In addition to programs designed specifi- 
cally for children, the great majority of 
museums schedule with some frequency 
educational activities for the general public 
and adults. (Fig. 24, pp. 38-39.) Tours and 
gallery talks for general groups were con- 
ducted by 83 per cent of the museums, 53 
per cent regularly and 30 per cent occa- 
sionally. Within museum type and budget 
size, at least eight out of ten museums 
offered this type of program. Although 
fewer museums scheduled lectures, classes, 
clubs, and study groups for adults, a sub- 
stantial two-thirds offered these programs 
either regularly (31 per cent) or occasionally 
(38 per cent). 



Some interesting variations can be seen 
when comparing the frequency of ed- 
ucational and cultural programs according 
to museum type and budget size. The per- 
centage of museums offering programs 
designed specifically for children (other 
than tours or lectures for school classes) is 
noticeably higher in art and science than in 
history, reflecting in part the priority these 
museum directors assign to providing 
instruction to the young as a museum func- 
tion. (Fig. 24, pp. 38-39.) For example, 79 
per cent of the science and 72 per cent of the 
art museums conducted regularly or occa- 
sionally classes, clubs, or study groups 
for children, compared with 49 per cent of 
the history museums. Presentations at 
schools were made by 70 per cent of the 
science and 56 per cent of the art museums, 
and by a somewhat lower 49 per cent of 
the history museums. The great majority of 
other combined museums scheduled both 
of these types of programs, compared with 
less than half of the art/history museums. 
Adult programs — lectures, classes, clubs, 
study groups — also were offered regularly 
or occasionally by a substantially higher 
percentage of museums in art (86 per cent) 
and science (83 per cent) than in history 
(54 per cent). These activities were sched- 
uled by 80 per cent of the other combined 
and 59 per cent of the art/history museums. 
The percentage of museums conducting 
tours or lectures for school groups and 
tours for general groups was consistently 
high in all museum types. 



The occurrence of programs generally in- 
creases with museum budget size. The 
widest variations in the percentage of 
museums reporting an activity are found in 
programs for adults (ranging from 61 per 
cent of the under $50,000 museums to 91 
per cent of the $1,000,000 and over muse- 
ums) and in presentations at schools (rang- 
ing from 44 per cent of the under $50,000 
museums to 72 per cent of those $1,000,000 
and over). 



41 



Less than one-third of the museums offer 
either regularly or occasionally any one of 
the following types of activities prepared 
or produced by the museum itself: televi- 
sion programs, radio programs, film series, 
and performing arts presentations. (Con- 
sultants have indicated that there are un- 
doubtedly museums that offer such pro- 
grams prepared by groups or individuals 
outside the museum. The survey, however, 
did not inquire about this.) Twenty-three 
per cent of the museums produced tele- 
vision programs and a like 23 per cent radio 
programs. In each case, less than five per 
cent did so regularly. (Fig. 24, pp. 38-39.) 
The occurrence of television and radio pro- 
grams increases with budget size, from a 
respective 18 and 19 per cent in the under 
$50,000 category to a respective 50 and 
46 per cent in the $1,000,000 and over 
group. 

Film series prepared by the museum were 
offered regularly or occasionally by 30 per ' 
cent of all museums. This percentage rose 
substantially in art museums, with 51 per 
cent having film series contrasted with 34 
per cent of the science and 19 per cent of 
the history museums. Almost equal percent- 
ages of art/history (24 per cent) and other 
combined (26 per cent) museums offered 
these programs. Again, budget size is an 
important factor, with the proportion of 
museums offering film series rising steadily 
from 19 per cent of the under $50,000 mu- 
seums to 64 per cent of the $1,000,000 and 
over museums. 

Performing arts presentations prepared by 
the museum were scheduled by fewer 
museums (18 per cent) than any other type 
of educational and cultural activity inves- 
tigated. Only in art museums was this ac- 
tivity of any significance: Forty-one per cent 
scheduled these programs either regularly 
or occasionally, compared with approxi- 
mately 10 per cent of the history and sci- 
ence museums. The proportion of all mu- 
seums offering performing arts presentations 



does increase with size from 11 per cent of 
the under $50,000 museums to 35 per cent 
of the $1,000,000 and over museums. How- 
ever, the occurrence of this type of program 
is determined more by museum type than 
by budget size. When the three major types 
of museums are broken down by budget 
size, it is only among art museums that the 
proportion scheduling this activity rises 
significantly with size. 

Since 1966, about half (51 per cent) of the 
museums have increased their educational 
activities. Only one per cent reported a 
decrease in this period. (Fig. 25, p. 42; Fig. 
25A, p. 43.) Increases were concentrated 
largely in programs for children and school 
groups, the same program areas that were 
singled out by directors as among the 
most important in their museums. (When 
directors were asked to describe the two or 
three most important educational activities 
regularly scheduled by their museums, 
the programs most frequently cited were 
classes or tours, especially those designed 
for children and school groups. Only 
seven per cent reported no educational 
activities other than the educational value 
of exhibitions.) 

While the majority (55 per cent) of history 
museums reported that program levels had 
remained about the same as in 1966, 61 per 
cent of both art and science museums re- 
ported expanded educational activities. 
Thirty-nine per cent of the art/history mu- 
seums and 59 per cent of the other com- 
bined museums increased their programs. 
Because educational programs are rarely 
self-supporting, increased activity is affected 
strongly by budget size: 78 per cent of the 
$1,000,000 and over museums reported in- 
creases compared with a considerably 
lower 39 per cent of the under $50,000 
museums. 

Staffing of Programs 

With the exception of school presentations 



42 



and performing arts presentations, each of 
the educational and cultural activities ex- 
amined in the survey was conducted wholly 
or partially by paid staff in at least 80 per 
cent of the museums offering the program. 
Even in the two exceptions, paid staff were 
involved in no less than two-thirds of the 
museums. The use of contract paid per- 
sonnel was minimal, and restricted largely 



to performing arts presentations. Volunteers, 
however, were used widely to conduct a 
variety of programs. 

Volunteers were involved in conducting the 
programs in at least one-third of the muse- 
ums offering any of the following activities: 
guided tours for school classes and general 
groups; presentations at schools; classes, 



Figure 25 

Increases or Decreases in 
Educational Activities Since 1966, 
by Museum Type and Budget Size 

Base: The 96% of museums that were open in 1 966 



I 



Increased 
Decreased 

Remained about same 
Not sure 



All 
100% Museums 

51% 



Art 



History : 



Science 



Art/ 
History 



Other 
Combined 



1 
45% 



61% 

3% 
34% 

2% 





40% 



55% 



61% 

2% 
34% 

3% 





39% 



58% 



59% 



Under $50,000- $100,000- $250,000- $500,000- $1,000,000 

$50,000 99,999 249,999 499,999 999,999 and Over 

39%l ■— I 61%r~ ~~ I 55%| I 57%| ~" I 71 %| | 78% 



1% 
57% 



38% 



1% 



3% 





61% 

1% 
36% 

2% 




55% 

1% 
39% 

5% 





1% 



25% 



2% 
19% 

3%H ' 
I 1% 



*Less than 0.5% decreased activities 



43 



clubs, and study groups for children; and 
performing arts presentations. The use of 
volunteers is more frequent in art than in any 
other type of museum. For instance, 67 per 
cent of the art museums with tours for 
school groups used volunteers to conduct 
the program, compared with 44 per cent 
of science, 38 per cent of art/history, 35 per 
cent of other combined, and 25 per cent 
of history museums. Similarly, presentations 



at schools were made by volunteers in 59 
per cent of the art museums with this 
program, contrasted with 36 per cent of 
art/history, 32 per cent of both science and 
other combined, and 26 per cent of history. 
The percentage of museums using volun- 
teers did not vary significantly with budget 
size except that volunteers were used more 
frequently for school and general group 
tours in the large budget museums. 



100% 51' 



Figure 25A 

Increases or Decreases in 
Educational Activities Since 1966, 
by Governing Authority 

Base: The 96% of museums that were open in 1 966 

Government Federal 



All 
Museums 



Private 
Nonprofit 



State 



1% 
45% 



54% 

1% 
43% 

2% 





46% 



1% 
48% 



55% 

1% 
42% 

2% 





s 



Increased 
Decreased 

Remained about same 
Not sure 



Municipal- 
County * 



4/% 

1% 
50% 

2% 





42% 



50% 



8% 



52% 



Educational Public 
Institution 

51% | 



Private 






4% 



40% 



5%| 



53% 




47% 





*Less than 0.5% decreased activities 



44 



Although paid staff were involved in educa- 
tional and cultural activities in the great 
majority of museums, in some cases volun- 
teers were the sole source of manpower. 
For example, in 24 per cent of the museums 
with presentations at schools and in 19 per 
cent of the museums with guided tours for 
school classes, paid staff were not involved 
and the participation of contract paid staff 
was minimal. Clearly, without the services of 
volunteers a considerable number of mu- 
seums would be forced to restrict severely 
their educational programs. (See pp. 87-94 
for detailed description of volunteer 
participation in museums.) 

Other Museum Activities 

In examining the educational and cultural 
activities of museums, the survey also inves- 
tigated the types of programs conducted in 
cooperation with colleges and universities, 
and the extent to which museums themselves 
are involved in research and publication. 

Aside from the nine per cent of museums 
governed by a college or university, 30 per 
cent had joint programs with these insti- 
tutions. 1 The variations within museum 
type show that art and science museums 
were associated with colleges and universi- 
ties more often than history museums, either 
through the governing authority (21 per 
cent of art and 16 per cent of science, 
compared with two per cent of history) or 
through joint programs (38 per cent of 
art and 42 per cent of science, compared 
with 16 per cent of history). In addition to 
the seven per cent of other combined 
museums governed by a college or univer- 
sity, a relatively high 46 per cent had joint 
programs." Five per cent of the art/history 
museums are governed by educational 
institutions and another 26 per cent had 
joint programs. 

As with many other kinds of museum 
activities, the incidence of joint programs 
is closely related to budget size. Only 16 per 



cent of the museums with budgets under 
$50,000 conducted joint programs, while 
more than half of the museums with budgets 
of $250,000 and over, including 70 per cent 
of the $1,000,000 and over museums, of- 
fered them. In addition to the 90 per cent 
of educational institution museums that are 
governed by a college or university, seven 
per cent had joint programs. Thirty-seven 
per cent of the private nonprofit and 27 
per cent of the government museums were 
associated with colleges and universities 
through joint programs. 

Out of a list of 11 activities, the ones con- 
ducted by the largest percentages of those 
museums affiliated with colleges or universi- 
ties, either through governing authority or 
joint programs, were non-credit work ex- 
perience (61 per cent) and research at the 
undergraduate level (58 per cent) or the 
graduate level (55 per cent). Forty-seven 
per cent of the museums offered work 
experience for credit at the undergraduate 
level; 45 per cent offered credit courses 
taught in the museum. Joint training pro- 
grams for professional museum workers 
were offered by the smallest percentage (24 
per cent) of museums. 

Research was considered by approximately 
two out of three museums to be a minor 
(43 per cent) or an incidental (22 per 
cent) activity. One in three regarded it 
as a primary (four per cent) or major (29 
per cent) function. In educational institution 
museums and museums with budgets of 
$500,000 and over, more than half of the 
museums considered research a primary or 
major function. 



1 The 10 per cent of all museums under the governing 
authority of educational institutions includes one 

per cent governed by schools below the college or 
university level. 

2 Eleven per cent of the other combined museums 
are governed by educational institutions: seven per 
cent by a college or university and four per cent 
by schools below the college or university level. 



45 



Because research is an ancillary activity for 
many museums, the impact of budget size is 
predictably strong. Approximately one out 
of four museums with budgets under 
$50,000 reported that research is a primary 
(three per cent) or major (21 per cent) 
activity; this increases markedly in the 
$1,000,000 and over museums, with 11 per 
cent considering it a primary function and 
another 62 per cent a major function. A 
similar pattern appears when examining the 
three major types of museums by budget 
size. The proportion of art museums that 
regarded research as a primary or major 
activity rises sharply from 13 per cent of 
those with budgets under $50,000 to 73 per 
cent of those with budgets of $500,000 and 
over; in history museums, it increases from 
25 per cent to 87 per cent. In science, the 
proportion increases from 13 per cent of 
the under $100,000 museums to 54 per cent 
of those with budgets of $500,000 and 
over. (It should be noted here that the sci- 
ence category includes two distinct types of 
museums which differ greatly in terms of 
research: the science or technology cen- 
ter with exhibitions generally requiring 
minimal or no basic research, and the 
natural history museum which is strongly 
research oriented.) 

Slightly more than one-third' (35 per cent) 
of the museums undertook or sponsored 
formal research projects during FY 1971-72. 
This percentage increased substantially in 
educational institution museums (50 per 
cent) and museums with budgets of 
$250,000 and over (ranging from 60 per 



cent of the $250,000 to $499,999 museums 
to 78 per cent of the $1,000,000 and over.) 

In the question on the level of research ac- 
tivity, the term "research" was not defined. 
Although it was intended that research 
be interpreted as an activity leading to the 
creation of new knowledge, it appears 
that a number of directors took a broader 
view. As a result, some consultants found 
the level of research activity surprisingly 
high in certain categories, particularly art 
museums. Research was considered a pri- 
mary or major activity by approximately 30 
per cent of art as well as history and sci- 
ence museums. 

Publications are one means by which a 
museum can expand or supplement its 
educational activities. Nearly half (46 per 
cent) of the museums published a formal 
annual or biennial report and almost two- 
thirds (63 per cent) published books, book- 
lets, or regular periodicals. Twenty-two per 
cent published exhibition catalogues, 22 
per cent scholarly or technical papers, and 
11 per cent catalogues of collections. Pre- 
dictably, the percentage of museums pub- 
lishing materials increases substantially with 
budget size. Among museum types there is 
one noticeable variation in materials pub- 
lished: The majority (61 per cent) of art 
museums published exhibition catalogues, 
contrasted with only eight per cent of both 
history and science museums. This is under- 
standable in view of the fact that art muse- 
ums exhibit borrowed objects more fre- 
quently than either history or science. 



46 



Chapter 4 



Attendance, Accessibility, Admissions 



47 



Introduction 

Attendance figures are one measure of the 
museum's success in discharging its obliga- 
tions to the public. According to the survey 
findings, a total of 308,205,000 visits were 
made to the 1,821 museums in FY 1971-72. 
This large attendance figure reflects not only 
the extent of public demand on America's 
museums, but also the public's response to 
the unique experiences offered by museums. 
While the majority (65 per cent) of museums 
were open about the same number of hours 
in FY 1971-72 as they were in 1966, 24 per 
cent had increased their hours in this period. 
Only 11 per cent were open fewer hours. 

In FY 1971-72, 59 per cent of the museums 
had free admission at all times. Thirty-seven 
per cent charged admission, and four per 
cent requested a donation. Although it is 
commonly assumed that charging admission 
is a relatively new museum practice, 76 per 
cent of the museums charging had been do- 
ing so for more than five years. Among direc- 
tors of museums with free admission about 
half felt charging would lead to a significant 
decrease in attendance. However, when this 
question was asked of directors of museums 
that do charge only 17 per cent indicated 
that this policy had in fact reduced atten- 
dance markedly. 

When attendance increases, there are 
added demands placed on the museum's 
staff and facilities. Yet, nine out of ten of the 
nation's museum directors reported that 
they are interested in attracting more visitors 
to their museums. 

This chapter, in addition to reporting figures 
on the size and composition of the museum 
audience, treats a variety of factors affecting 
the nature of the audience. It deals with the 
question of accessibility in terms of the 
amount of time museum facilities are open 
to the public. It investigates the admission 
policies of museums and their effects on the 
size and makeup of the audience. It discusses 



membership policies. Finally, it examines the 
directors' interest in increasing attendance 
at their museums and specific efforts to 
attract larger audiences. 

Attendance 

There is relatively little hard data on actual 
attendance levels in museums. Only about 
30 per cent of the museums interviewed 
were able to base their responses to at- 
tendance questions on actual counts. 
Although the percentage of museums using 
actual counts increases from 25 per cent of 
the under $50,000 museums to approxi- 
mately 50 per cent of the $1,000,000 and 
over museums, the incidence of keeping 
accurate attendance records is not dis- 
cernibly high whether examined by museum 
type, budget size, or governing authority. 
This understandably accounts for the wide 
fluctuations in previously reported atten- 
dance figures. 

Each director was asked to provide for FY 
1971-72 the total attendance, paid and free, 
at the museum's permanent facilities. In- 
cluded in this attendance were general 
attendance by adults and children, including 
attendance at special exhibitions; atten- 
dance by school class groups; and atten- 
dance at organized activities such as work- 
shops, classes, and performing arts presen- 
tations. The list excluded attendance at 
traveling exhibitions developed and sent 
out by the museum. 1 All figures on atten- 
dance represent museum visits, as distin- 
guished from museum visitors. 

Some information on the number of actual 
visitors was obtained in the Associated 
Councils of the Arts' national public study. 
It was found that 56 per cent of the adult 



1 The consultants thought these figures, if available, 
would be questionable and would likely result in 
duplicate counts since most traveling exhibitions 
originate in and travel to museums. 



48 



public (16 years of age and over) visited on 
the average of at least once a year a history 
museum, historic building or site; 49 per 
cent a science or natural history museum; 
and 48 per cent an art museum. Twenty-two 
per cent of the public visited on the average 
of three or more times a year at least one of 
these kinds of museums. The study also 



found that the majority (67 per cent) of the 
public feels it is very important or somewhat 
important to have these institutions readily 
accessible. 

In about half (53 per cent) of the museums, 
the total attendance in FY 1971-72 ranged 
from 10,000 to 99,999. Thirty per cent had 



Figure 26 

Attendance by Museum Type, FY 1971-72 



Total museum visits 
308,205,000 

1. 43,024,000 

2. 74,876,000 

3. 117,039,000 

4. 1 7,506,000 

5. 55,760,000 



Percentage of total museums 
Base: Total museums 

Percentage of total attendance 
Base: Total museum visits 



to 





1 

Art 




100% 



19% 


14% 



2 
History 



3 
Science 



Art/ History 



Other Combined 





24% 







38% 


16% 






49 



a total attendance of 100,000 or more; only 

17 per cent had less than 10,000. 

Out of the total 308,205,000 visits made to 
the museums, 38 per cent were to science 
museums, 24 per cent to history museums, 

18 per cent to other combined museums, 



14 per cent to art museums, and six per cent 
to art/history museums. (Fig. 26, p. 48.) 
Thus, science museums, although represent- 
ing a smaller percentage of all museums 
than art, history, or other combined, drew 
the largest single percentage of total 
attendance. A comparison of attendance 



Figure 27 

Attendance by 

Governing Authority, FY 1971-72 



100% 



Private 
Nonprofit 



Government 



56% 


42 ", 







3 

Federal 



4 

State 



5 

Municipal- 
County 



34% 


55% 





15% 


6% 





Total museum visits 
308,205,000 




1. 127,430,000 

2. 170,782,000 

3. 47,242,000 

4. 42,329,000 

5. 81,211,000 

6. 9,993,000 

7. 7,038,000 

8. 2,955,000 




6 
Educational 


7 
Public 



Institution 





26% 


16% 





10% 

: 3% 





Percentage of total museums 
Base: Total museums 

; Percentage of total attendance 
i Base: Total museum visits 



8 

Private 




50 



figures by governing authority shows that a 
majority (55 per cent) of all museum visits 
were made to government museums, which 
represent 34 per cent of all museums. 
(Twenty-six per cent of total visits were made 
to municipal-county museums, 15 per cent 
to federal museums, and 14 per cent to 
state museums.) (Fig. 27, p. 49.) Private 



nonprofit museums, which account for more 
than half of all museums, drew 42 per cent 
of the total attendance. Educational insti- 
tution museums, representing 10 per cent of 
all museums, drew only three per cent. 

A comparison of attendance figures by 
budget size demonstrates the impact of the 



Figure 28 

Attendance by Budget Size, FY 1971-72 



Total museum visits 
308,205,000 



1 

Under 

$50,000 



2 

$50,000- 
99,999 



3 

$100,000- 
249,999 



100% 



44% 


11% 





19% 


8% 





1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 



35,068,000 
24,900,000 
52,819,000 
57,929,000 
35,147,000 
102,342,000 



4 

$250,000- 
499,999 





19% 


10% 





Percentage of total museums 
Base: Total museums 

Percentage of total attendance 
Base: Total museum visits 



$500,000- 
999,999 



$1,000,000 
and Over 





34% 


5% 





51 



larger museums on the pattern of attendance. 
(Fig. 28, p. 50.) Museums with budgets of 
$500,000 and over, which represent only 
10 per cent of the nation's museums, 
accounted for 45 per cent of the total 
attendance. Museums with budgets under 
$50,000, which represent 44 per cent of the 
museums, accounted for 11 percent. A 
similar pattern occurs in the distribution of 
attendance figures by region. (Fig. 29, p. 51.) 



The Northeast, with the highest percentage 
of the $500,000 and over museums, had 29 
per cent of the total attendance — propor- 
tionately higher than either its share of 
museums (17 per cent) or population (21 per 
cent). New England, with a much lower 
percentage of large museums, had five per 
cent of the attendance — proportionately 
lower than its share of museums (13 per 
cent), but identical to its share of population. 



Figure 29 

Attendance by Region, FY 1971-72 





Percentage of total museums 
Base: Total museums 

Percentage of total attendance 
Base: Total museum visits 



Percentage of total population 
Base: 1970 U.S. Census 



Total Museum Visits: 308,205,000 



New England 


14,496,000 


Northeast 


89,067,000 


Southeast 


46,413,000 


Midwest 


74,661,000 


Mountain Plains 


26,716,000 


West 


56,852,000 



52 



Eighty per cent of the total museum at- 
tendance was classified as general atten- 
dance, which includes people of all ages. 
Elementary and secondary school classes 
represented 15 per cent of the 308,205,000 
visits, with the remaining five per cent 
divided between attendance at performing 
arts presentations and adult workshops 
and classes. The kind of attendance varies 
little among museum types, except that 
art museums had a somewhat lower pro- 
portion of school visits and, along with other 
combined museums, a slightly higher pro- 
portion of attendance at performing arts 
presentations. 

The proportion of total attendance char- 
acterized as general increases with budget 
size from 70 per cent in the under $50,000 
museums to 86 per cent in the $1,000,000 
and over museums, while school visits de- 
crease on this scale from 21 to 11 per cent. 
Attendance at performing arts presentations 
and adult classes remains consistently low in 
all budget categories. Government museums 
had a higher proportion (83 per cent) of 
general attendance than private nonprofit 
(76 per cent) or educational institution (73 
per cent) museums. A more striking variation 
in type of attendance occurred within gov- 
ernment museums, with federal museums 
having the lowest proportion of school visits 
(eight per cent) of all museum categories. 

While most museums were unable to 
provide specific information on the pro- 
portions of general attendance represented 
by adult and children's visits, the survey did 
identify the groups to which museums 
primarily direct their regularly scheduled 
activities. More than half (56 per cent) 
designed their programs for all ages equally, 
and another 24 per cent developed them 
primarily for adults, including university and 
college students. Eleven per cent of the 
museums directed programs to elementary 
school children, three per cent to secondary 
school students, and the remaining six per 
cent to both these groups. Science museums, 



which as noted earlier strongly emphasize 
providing instruction to the young as a mu- 
seum function, developed programs for ele- 
mentary and secondary school students 
more frequently than any other type of 
museum. The percentage of museums de- 
veloping programs primarily for adults 
was noticeably higher in art (46 per cent) 
than in history (18 per cent) or science 
(17 per cent). 

Accessibility of the Museum 

Museums are open an average of approxi- 
mately 11 months a year and more than 
45 hours a week. 2 In FY 1971-72, 79 per cent 
of the museums were open during all 12 
months and 67 per cent were open 41 or 
more hours a week. Among museum types, 
the percentage of museums open all 12 
months ranged between 71 per cent in art 
and 95 per cent in science. Eighty-seven 
per cent of the science museums were open 
41 or more hours a week, compared with 
74 per cent of other combined, 63 per cent 
of history, 58 per cent of art/history, and 
54 per cent of art. 

While only 11 per cent of the museums had 
reduced the number of hours open to the 
public since 1966, more than twice this 
number (24 per cent) had increased their 
hours. (Fig. 30, p. 53.) Sixty-five per cent of 
the museums were open about the same 
number of hours as they were in 1966. The 
most marked variations in this pattern 
occur in federal museums, where a higher 
than average 23 per cent were open fewer 
hours in 1971-72 than in 1966, and in other 
combined museums, where a higher than 
average 34 per cent were open more hours. 

Only 20 per cent of all museums were open 



2 By definition, all museums included in this survey 
were open to the public on a regularly scheduled 
basis three months or more per year and a 
minimum of 25 hours per week during at least 
three months of the year. 



53 



Figure 30 



All 
Museums 



Art 



History 



Science 



Art/ 
History 

Other 
Combined 



Under 
$50,000 

$50,000- 
99,999 



$250,000- 
499,999 

$500,000- 
999,999 

$1,000,000 
and Over 



Private 
Nonprofit 

Government 



Educational 
Institution 



Increases or Decreases 
in Hours Open to the 
Public Since 1966 



Open more hours 
Open fewer hours 
About the same 



Base: The 96% of museums that were open in 1 966 




24% 


11% 


65% 




25% 


11% 


64% 







20% 12% 



68% 




73% 



71% 



34% 12% 



54% 







20% 11% 



69% 



27% 12% 



I L 



61% 



30% 7% 



63% 



27% 10% 



63% 




71% 



27% 7% 



66% 



26% 11% 



63% 




70% 



73% 



at least one evening a week. Among mu- 
seum types, this percentage is highest in 
art (37 per cent) and science (28 per cent) 
and lowest in history (nine per cent). The 
percentage of museums open a minimum 
of one evening a week increases with budget 
size from 15 per cent of the under $100,000 
museums to about one-third of the $500,000 
and over museums. Thirty-two per cent of 
the educational institution museums were 
open in the evening, compared with 19 per 
cent of the private nonprofit and 18 per cent 
of the government museums. 

The primary reasons given by museums for 
not having evening hours were expected 
low attendance/lack of demand and, more 
importantly, lack of funds for staff and 
security. These same reasons were cited by 
the approximately one-third of museums 
without evening hours that had tried open- 
ing in the evening. 

The average museum is open a sufficient 
amount of time to provide easy access for 
the public. However, it is probable that with 
so few museums open in the evening many 
people, especially adults, must limit their 
visits to the weekends. The consequent 
crowding of museums, particularly in urban 
areas, could have an overall negative effect 
on total museum attendance. Although a 
substantial number of museums that tried 
opening in the evening cited low attendance 
as a reason for discontinuing this practice, 
it is not known what efforts were made to 
publicize evening hours or for what length 
of time the museum experimented with the 
policy. In connection with this reported low 
attendance, it may be interesting to note 
that the Associated Councils of the Arts' 
national public study found that 55 per cent 
of the adult public did not like to go to 
downtown areas after dark because they felt 
it was inconvenient and dangerous. 

Evening hours and evening attendance were 
cited by the museum consultants as subjects 
worthy of further investigation. 



54 



Admission Policies 

One factor affecting museum attendance 
and accessibility is whether or not a visitor 
is charged an admission fee. In FY 1971-72, 
the majority (59 per cent) of museums had 
free admission at all times. Thirty-seven per 
cent charged an admission fee, and four per 
cent requested a donation. (Fig. 31, p. 54; 
Fig. 31A, p. 55.) 



Although it is commonly assumed that the 
charging of admission fees is a relatively new 
museum practice, 76 per cent of those charg- 
ing had been doing so for more than five 
years, while only four per cent had been 
doing so for less than one year. 3 Asking for 



3 The survey did not determine if a museum had 
at one time charged a fee but later discontinued 
the practice. 



Figure 31 

Admission Policies, by Museum Type 

and Budget Size 



■ Charge admission fee 
Ask for donation 
Always free 



Base: Total museums 



100% 

37% 



All 
Museums 



Art 



History 



Science 



4% 
59% 









15% 

1% 
84% 





51% 



39% 



1% 
60% 



5% 
44% 



i 


\rt/ 
History 


55% 

5% 
40% 





Other 
Combined 



18% 

8% 
74% 





36% 



Under $50,000- $100,000- $250,000 

$50,000 99,999 249,999 499,999 

40% I - I 33% I |34%~ 



$500,000- 
999,999 



$1,000,000 
and Over 



6% 



58% 



1% 
59% 



3%| | 1% 

65% 



J 



46% 

2% 
52% 





48% 

4% 
48% 





55 



a donation is a more recent practice, but 
even here 57 per cent had had this policy 
for more than five years compared with 27 
per cent for less than one year. 

The percentage of museums having free 
admission at all times is higher in art (84 
per cent) than in science (60 per cent) or 
history (44 per cent). (Fig. 31, p. 54.) 



Charging for admission is, conversely, a 
more frequent practice in history (51 per 
cent) than in science (39 per cent) or art 
(15 per cent). Certain types of history 
museums, such as historic sites and museum 
villages, traditionally charge admission fees. 
Other types of history museums are less 
likely to charge. History museums also 
request donations more often (five per 



Figure 31A 
Admission Policies, 
by Governing Authority 



Base: Total museums 



§ 



Charge admission fee 
Ask for donation 
Always free 



All 
1 00% Museums 

37% 



Private 
Nonprofit 



Government Federal 



State 



Municipal- Educational Public 

County Institution 



Private 



43% 



59% 



33% 



1% 
66% 



6% 
51% 



41% 




59% 





37% 



1% 
62% 




28% 

2% 
70% 





4% 

1% 
S5% 





1 6% 

1% 
83% 





11% 




89% 





56 



cent, compared with one per cent of both 
art and science museums). The public is 
admitted free in 40 per cent of the art/his- 
tory and 74 per cent of the other combined 
museums. Fifty-five per cent of the 
art/history museums charge and another five 
per cent request a donation; 18 per cent of 
the other combined museums charge and 
eight per cent request a donation. 

Among all museums, budget size has sur- 
prisingly little effect on admission policies. 
However, when the three major museum 
types are examined by budget size, the inci- 
dence of charging increases steadily with 
size in art (from four per cent of the under 
$50,000 museums to 31 per cent of the 
$500,000 and over) and in science (from 25 
per cent of the under $100,000 to 63 per 
cent of the $500,000 and over.) There is 
little variation in history, with the per- 
centage charging admission remaining con- 
sistently high in all budget categories 
(ranging between 45 per cent of the $100,000 
to $499,999 group and 68 per cent of the 
$50,000 to $99,999). Among governing au- 
thorities, private nonprofit museums either 
charge or request a donation (43 per cent 
and six per cent, respectively) more often 
than government museums (33 per cent and 
one per cent) or educational institution 
museums (14 per cent and one per cent). 
(Fig. 31A, p. 55.) 

Directors were asked what effect they 
thought charging a fee or requesting a do- 
nation would have, or did have, on atten- 
dance at their museums. A majority felt it 
would, or did, decrease attendance either 
significantly (37 per cent) or somewhat (21 
per cent). Thirty-six per cent felt it would, or 
did, have little effect on attendance. Among 
directors of those museums with free ad- 
mission, about half (51 per cent) felt charg- 
ing would lead to a significant decrease in at- 
tendance, and another 23 per cent somewhat 
of a decrease. However, when this ques- 
tion was asked of directors of museums that 
charge admission, only 17 per cent indicated 



that this policy had in fact reduced atten- 
dance markedly and about the same per- 
centage (18 per cent) reported it had de- 
creased attendance somewhat. The majority 
(65 per cent) felt it had had little effect. 
Although the survey did not investigate this, 
consultants noted that instituting admission 
fees may result in an initial drop in atten- 
dance followed by a return to former atten- 
dance levels. 

Regarding the effect of admission fees on 
composition of the museum audience, 59 
per cent of all directors felt charging a fee 
would, or did, change audience composi- 
tion. Seventy per cent of the directors of 
museums with free admission felt this way. 
And 44 per cent of the directors of museums 
charging a fee and 50 per cent of those 
requesting a donation agreed that a change 
had occurred. But while these directors felt 
that their museums' admission policies had 
produced positive changes — such as con- 
tinuing to attract people who are interested 
in the museum but keeping out loiterers and 
vandals — the directors of museums with 
free admission emphasized the possible 
negative effects of charging, such as deter- 
ring students, young people, and the poor 
from visiting the museum. According to the 
consultants, a number of museums that do 
charge have taken into account these possi- 
ble negative effects and are minimizing them 
through means such as discounted ad- 
mission fees and specified times when no 
admission is charged. 

Presumably, it was financial need that often 
dictated the change from a policy of free 
admission to one of charging. Considering 
the impact of admission charges on income 4 
as well as on attendance, it is interesting 
that less than half (43 per cent) of the mu- 
seums that charge or ask for a donation 
first conducted research on the ramifications 
of this policy. Consultants have indicated 

4 In FY 1971-72, admission fees for general and 
special exhibitions accounted for $46.3 million, 
or nine per cent, of total museum income. 



57 



Figure 32 
Membership Policies 

Base: Total museums 



Paid membership 

| No paid membership 

*3 



that additional research on admission poli- 
cies, especially the factors determining these 
policies and the effect of these policies on 
attendance and finances, would be of value 
to the field. 



Ail 
Museums 



Art 



History 



Science 



Art/ 
History 

Other 
Combined 



Under 
$50,000 



51% 



100% 

49% 



Private 
Nonprofit 











78% 


22% 








40% 






60% 










53% 




47% 
















Membership Policies 

It would seem that an active membership 
could have a positive effect on attendance, 
contributions, and general support of the 
museum. Yet, just 51 per cent of all museums 
have a paid membership. (Fig. 32, p. 57.) 
The incidence of paid memberships appears 
to be related most closely to governing 
authority and budget size. Seventy-five per 
cent of the private nonprofit museums had 
a paid membership, contrasted with 29 per 
cent of the educational institution museums 
and 18 per cent of all government museums. 
(Twenty-eight per cent of the municipal- 
county, 13 per cent of the state, and four 
per cent of the federal museums had paid 
memberships.) The percentage of museums 
with a paid membership generally increases 
with budget size, from 44 per cent of the 
under $50,000 museums to 77 per cent of 
the $500,000 to $999,999 museums and 72 
per cent of the $1,000,000 and over. 
Among museum types, art has the highest 
proportion (78 per cent) of museums with a 
paid membership. Art museums also have 
a relatively high proportion of large budget 
and of private nonprofit museums. The 
incidence of paid memberships is lowest in 
history (40 per cent). 

Budget size also influences the actual 
number of paid members. More than 
one-third (37 per cent) of the museums 
with a paid membership reported a total 
of 1,000 or more members (individuals 
and organizations). This percentage rises 
steadily with budget size from 15 per cent 
in the under $50,000 museums to 86 per 
cent in the $1,000,000 and over museums. 
(Fifty-three per cent of these largest 
museums had at least 5,000 members, 



58 

Figure 33 



Percentage of Museums that Made Special Efforts to Attract Certain Groups 



Base: Total museums 









£ 
&■<? 



■& 



<& 






/ 


/ -^ 


•& / 


/ <?v 


^ o / 




?/ / 







% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


All Museums 


31 


29 


16 


18 


27 


Art 


36 


49 


19 


24 


33 


History 


28 


21 


9 


12 


24 


Science 


27 


23 


15 


12 


30 


Art/History 


27 


25 


20 


13 


19 


Other Combined 


40 


33 


25 


33 


30 


Under $50,000 


28 


25 


12 


15 


23 


$50,000-99,999 


29 


28 


18 


21 


28 


$100,000-249,999 


28 


27 


13 


15 


24 


$250,000-499,999 


54 


37 


20 


25 


41 


$500,000-999,999 


32 


46 


22 


27 


35 


$1,000,000 and Over 


40 


51 


34 


29 


41 


Private Nonprofit 


35 


32 


18 


20 


31 


Government 


28 


22 


11 


15 


24 


Federal 


37 


35 


16 


14 


36 


State 


27 


22 


8 


19 


26 


Municipal-County 


26 


17 


12 


13 


18 


Educational Institution 


22 


35 


17 


21 


16 


Public 


20 


18 


9 


19 


12 


Private 


24 


56 


27 


24 


20 


New England 


25 


21 


13 


18 


24 


Northeast 


37 


36 


15 


14 


36 


Southeast 


25 


35 


7 


12 


26 


Midwest 


40 


30 


15 


20 


31 


Mountain Plains 


24 


19 


16 


17 


18 


West 


28 


27 


30 


30 


21 


Multiple response question; 












percentages total more than 100. 













59 



compared with only one per cent of the 
smallest ones.) 

In 36 per cent of those museums with a 
paid membership, the annual fee charged 
for the membership category with the most 
members was less than $10.00. In 35 per 
cent, the fee ranged from $10.00 to $14.99, 
and in 24 per cent from $15.00 to $24.99. 
Five per cent charged $25.00 or more. 

Increasing Museum Attendance 

The survey findings show that the vast ma- 
jority (90 per cent) of the nation's museum 
directors would like to have more people 
visit their museums. Ten per cent of the 
directors reported that their museums were 
unable to accommodate more than the exist- 
ing number of visitors. The only measurable 
differences in responses occurred within 
government museums: 93 per cent of the 
directors of municipal-county and 88 per 
cent of the directors of state museums ex- 
pressed an interest in having more visitors, 
compared with a lower 77 per cent of di- 
rectors of federal museums. Of those direc- 
tors interested in having a larger general 
attendance, 70 per cent indicated that they 
were trying to attract more visitors through 
publicity, primarily press releases and news 
features, and to a much lesser extent through 
advertising. One other possible means of 
encouraging museum attendance was noted 
in the Associated Councils of the Arts' na- 
tional public study: Forty-four per cent of 
the public expressed an interest in joining a 
group that organized trips to museums, or 
famous buildings and historical sites, and 
provided a guide. 

It is interesting to note a variety of other 
factors that bear on museum attendance. 
The museum survey findings show that edu- 
cational programs have increased signifi- 
cantly since 1966. The Associated Councils 
of the Arts' survey indicates that today's 
young people are much more likely than 



their elders to have visited art museums 
(and it might safely be assumed other types 
of museums as well) while they were grow- 
ing up. Furthermore, a substantial number 
of the public surveyed who had gone on 
school field trips to museums and other cul- 
tural institutions reported that these trips 
had stimulated their interest. Thus, if educa- 
tional programs continue to increase, and if 
more young people are involved and their 
interest stimulated, an upward trend in over- 
all museum attendance will likely result. 

Regarding the museums' efforts to expand 
their audiences, the findings show that no 
more than one-third of all museums had 
made special efforts to attract any one of 
five given groups: senior citizens, Blacks, 
Spanish Americans, other minority groups, 
or the economically disadvantaged. (Fig. 33, 
p. 58.) Of all museum types, art and other 
combined were found to be the most actively 
involved in efforts to attract particular 
groups to the museum. Among budget sizes, 
the incidence of special efforts was highest 
in the $250,000 and over museums; among 
governing authorities, it generally was high- 
est in private nonprofit, federal, and private 
educational institution museums. Blacks 
were the subject of special efforts primarily 
in the Northeast and the Southeast, Spanish 
Americans in the West, and senior citizens 
in the Midwest and Northeast. Most often, 
the efforts to attract specific groups to the 
museum involved special exhibitions or pro- 
grams, contacts with group organizations, 
and other activities including free or re- 
duced admission for senior citizens and the 
economically disadvantaged, and bilingual 
information materials such as brochures or 
labels for Spanish Americans. 

Consultants have suggested that efforts 
to attract different segments of the popula- 
tion have contributed to the development of 
new institutions within the field as well as 
new museum audiences and increased 
attendance. 



60 



Chapter 5 



Collections and Exhibitions 



61 



Introduction 

In FY 1971-72, more than two-thirds of 
the nation's museums had special exhi- 
bitions, most of which were developed 
by the individual museum rather than by an 
outside source. A majority of the 32 per 
cent of museums that did not have special 
exhibitions would like to offer them but 
are unable to do so primarily because they 
lack space and funds. One-third of the 
museums sent out traveling exhibitions 
during the year, most frequently to other 
museums and universities or colleges. 
The survey findings show that the frequency 
with which museums are exchanging objects 
has increased since 1966: Of the 99 per cent 
of museums that borrow and/or loan objects, 
29 per cent reported an increase in this 
practice. Only nine per cent reported a de- 
cline, citing as the major reasons high cost 
and, more importantly, risk of damage 
or loss. 

The first part of this chapter is concerned 
with the proportion of the total permanent 
collection exhibited in FY 1971-72. Here it 
is important to note that the survey did not 
undertake an investigation of the number of 
objects in the collection or of the proportion 
of the collection catalogued, primarily be- 
cause the consultants predicted considerable 
difficulty in gathering useful data in a survey 
of this scope. The second part of this chapter 
examines the development of special exhi- 
bitions and traveling exhibitions, focusing 
principally on the sources of objects exhib- 
ited and recipients of objects loaned. It also 
discusses increases and decreases in the 
exchange of objects since 1966. 

Exhibition of the Permanent 
Collection 

During FY 1971-72, 20 per cent of the mu- 
seums exhibited the entire permanent collec- 
tion. (Fig. 34, p. 62.) Forty-four per cent 
exhibited from 50 to 99 per cent of the col- 
lection in this period, while 34 per cent 



exhibited less than half. The average per- 
centage of the total permanent collection 
shown was 62 per cent. In two-thirds (66 per 
cent) of those museums that exhibited less 
than 100 per cent of the collection during 
the year, the items in storage were used for 
research by scholars other than those on the 
museum staff. (The survey did not inquire 
about the ongoing use of items in storage 
by scholars on the museum staff.) 

The most interesting variations in the per- 
centage of the total collection exhibited 
during the year occurred among museum 
types and governing authorities. A con- 
siderably higher percentage of museums 
in history and science than in art ex- 
hibited at least half of the collection. 
Fifty-one per cent of the history museums 
exhibited from 50 to 99 per cent and 
another 20 per cent the full collection. (Con- 
sultants have pointed out that historic sites 
and museum villages traditionally exhibit a 
substantially larger percentage of their col- 
lections than the more conventional type of 
history museum.) The respective figures for 
science museums were just slightly lower, 
with 41 per cent exhibiting from 50 to 99 
per cent of the collection and 22 per cent 
the entire collection. In contrast, 35 per cent 
of the art museums exhibited from 50 to 99 
per cent and only 14 per cent the full col- 
lection. 

It is important to recall, particularly in this 
chapter, the diversity of museums included 
in the science category. Natural history mu- 
seums, which are largely research oriented 
and may therefore exhibit to the public only 
a small proportion of their total collection, 
contrast sharply with science and technology 
centers, zoos, aquariums, planetariums, and 
botanical gardens which regularly exhibit a 
large proportion of their collection. In some 
areas of the survey, such as those concerning 
the museum collection, the consultants 
would have preferred that natural history 
museums be treated as a separate category. 
However, the survey was designed to reflect 



62 



All 
Museums 



Art 



History 



Science 



Art/ 
History 

Other 
Combined 



Under 
$50,000 

$50,000- 
99,999 

$100,000- 
249,999 



$250,000- 
499,999 

$500,000- 
999,999 

$1,000,000 
and Over 



Private 
Nonprofit 

Government 



Educational 
Institution 



Figure 34 

Percentage of Total 
Permanent Collection 
Exhibited in FY 1971-72 

Base: Total museums 




Less than 50% 
50-99% 
100% 
j Not sure 

y±b 



100% 

20% 2% 




accurately all science museums as one group, 
using the conventional grouping of insti- 
tutions within that category. As a conse- 
quence, any attempt to break out a partic- 
ular kind of institution from the science 
category as treated in this survey would 
result in inaccurate representation. As noted 
earlier, it is suggested that refinement of this 
science grouping be considered in future 
research efforts. 

Among governing authorities, government 
and private nonprofit museums exhibited a 
larger percentage of the total collection than 
did educational institution museums. Forty- 
seven per cent of the government museums 
and 43 per cent of the private nonprofit 
museums exhibited from 50 to 99 per cent 
of the collection, compared with 31 per cent 
of the educational institution museums. The 
full collection was exhibited by a respective 
21 and 22 per cent of the government and 
private nonprofit museums, but by only 11 
per cent of the educational institution 
museums. 

There are a number of reasons why each 
individual item in a museum's permanent 
collection is not displayed during the year. 
Items such as textiles, watercolors, prints, 
and drawings deteriorate if continually 
exposed to light and other atmospheric 
conditions. Also, depending on the type of 
museum and the size of its collection, the 
inclusion of certain objects in an exhibit 
not only can result in duplication and misuse 
of existing space but also can detract from 
the intended focus and meaning of the 
particular exhibit. 

# 

Recognizing that part of a museum's 
collection may not have been exhibited for 
some or all of the above reasons, the survey 
singled out six specific reasons and asked 
the directors what percentage of the un- 
exhibited collection was not shown for each 
reason. (Fig. 35, p. 63.) 



63 



Figure 35 



Proportion of Total Permanent Collection Not Exhibited in FY 1971-72 
by Reason for Not Being Exhibited 



Base: The 78% of museums that 
exhibited less than 100% of 
the permanent collection 

Numbers on the table represent the 
percentage of the collection not 
exhibited 



o* 




£> 


/ S 


& 


/ -^ 


y. 


/ •£" 


O / 


' -£> 


it / 





£ 



£ 






$ $ & 







**'<?" ^ 



^ ■§ b 

0° c° «f 











% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


All Museums 


51 


34 


30 


25 


21 


10 


Art 


53 


27 


39 


16 


17 


14 


History 


47 


32 


27 


33 


22 


8 


Science 


61 


41 


30 


27 


30 


13 


Art/History 


51 


29 


24 


27 


20 


8 


Other Combined 


51 


37 


25 


16 


19 


7 


Under $50,000 


52 


34 


27 


27 


22 


12 


$50,000-99,999 


54 


38 


34 


27 


20 


8 


$100,000-249,999 


48 


35 


31 


20 


22 


8 


$250,000-499,999 


53 


33 


27 


23 


19 


13 


$500,000-999,999 


51 


20 


32 


17 


16 


10 


$1,000,000 and Over 


44 


21 


30 


26 


19 


15 


Private Nonprofit 


50 


33 


30 


25 


19 


10 


Government 


53 


33 


28 


23 


25 


9 


Federal 


39 


31 


34 


18 


14 


8 


State 


57 


42 


27 


31 


24 


12 


Municipal-County 


53 


26 


26 


19 


28 


8 


Educational Institution 


55 


38 


35 


25 


20 


12 


Public 


63 


45 


29 


37 


21 


10 


Private 


47 


32 


39 


10 


19 


13 


Multiple response question; 














percentages total more than 100. 















64 



All 
Museums 



Art 



History 



Science 



Art/ 
History 

Other 
Combined 



Under 
$50,000 

$50,000- 
99,999 

$100,000- 
249,999 

$250,000 
499,999 

$500,000- 
999,999 

$1,000,000 
and Over 



Figure 36 

Museums that Had Special 

Exhibitions in FY 1971-72 

Base: Total museums 



1 



51' 



62% 



58% 



81% 



56% 



74% 



85% 




The largest percentage of the unexhibited 
collection was not shown because of lack of 
space (51 per cent), followed by insufficient 
staff (34 per cent) and the secondary interest 
or importance of the works or specimens 
(30 per cent). 1 In each of the museum cate- 
gories, lack of space prevented the showing 
of a major proportion of the unexhibited 
collection. (As noted in the discussion of 
museum facilities, a sizable percentage of 
museums rated interior exhibition space less 
than fully adequate 2 ). 

In most categories, the second most im- 
portant reason for nonexhibition was insuffi- 
cient staff. Exceptions were art museums, 
museums with budgets of $500,000 and over, 
federal and municipal-county museums, and 
private educational institution museums; in 
most of these categories, one of the primary 
reasons for nonexhibition was the secondary 
interest or importance of the works or 
specimens. The other exception was history, 
where one of the two principal reasons was 
that the items were part of research collec- 
tions not intended or suitable for exhibition. 

Special Exhibitions 

Special exhibitions, which offer museums 
and their publics the opportunity to focus 
on particular areas of interest, were held 
by more than two-thirds of the museums 
in FY 1971-72. (Fig. 36, p. 64.) Sixty-five 
per cent of these museums had five or more 
special exhibitions during the year, including 
14 per cent that had more than 20. Thirty- 
four per cent had from one to four. In a 
majority (83 per cent) of the museums there 



Private 
Nonprofit 

Government 



Educational 
Institution 



73% 



55% 



79% 



1 This question was asked of the directors of the 78 
per cent of museums that exhibited less than 100 per 
cent of the collection in FY 1971-72. (In addition 

to the 20 per cent of museums in which the entire 
collection was exhibited, two per cent were not 
sure of the proportion not exhibited and therefore 
were excluded from this question.) Since more than 
one reason could apply to any portion of the col- 
lection, the percentages total more than 100. 

2 See pp. 132-133. 



65 



was no charge for special exhibitions, other 
than general admission, if any. Only among 
the museums with budgets of $1,000,000 
and over did as many as one-third charge 
for these exhibitions. (A special exhibition 
is defined as an organized show of materials 
or objects with a common theme or subject, 
held for a limited amount of time and either 
developed by the museum where shown or 
obtained from an outside source.) 

Among museum types, almost all (98 per 
cent) of the art museums had special 
exhibitions compared with 62 per cent of 
science and 51 per cent of history. (The 
relatively low incidence of special exhibi- 
tions in history museums is partly attrib- 
utable to historic sites and museum villages 
which are ill-suited for this type of exhi- 
bition.) Fifty-eight per cent of the art/his- 
tory museums and 81 per cent of the other 
combined museums had special exhibitions. 
Among budget categories, special exhibitions 
occurred most frequently in the $250,000 
to $499,999 and $1,000,000 and over mu- 
seums (85 per cent each) and least frequently 
in the under $50,000 museums (56 per cent). 
Noticeable variations also appear among 
governing authorities, with 79 per cent of 
the educational institution museums and 73 
per cent of the private nonprofit museums 
having special exhibitions, contrasted with 
55 per cent of the government museums. 

While special exhibitions were shown with 
relative frequency, inadequate space 
apparently is for many museums a principal 
deterrent to having these exhibitions or, 
as the consultants have noted, to offering 
more extensive ones. Of the 32 per cent of 
museums that did not have special exhi- 
bitions in FY 1971-72, a majority (53 per 
cent) would like to offer them but are 
unable to do so primarily because they lack 
space. The other major reason cited was 
lack of funds, followed by lack of objects 
suitable for exhibition, inability to obtain 
traveling or loan exhibitions, and security 
problems. 



Most of the special exhibitions shown in 
FY 1971-72 were developed by the museum 
where they were shown rather than by an 
outside source. Forty-four per cent of the 
museums with special exhibitions developed 
all of them, while only seven per cent de- 
veloped none. In the remaining 49 per cent 
of museums, at least one of the exhibitions 
shown was developed by an outside source. 
Fifty-nine per cent of the history museums 
and 40 per cent of the science museums 
developed all of their own exhibitions. But 
among art museums, which offer special 
exhibitions more frequently than any other 
museum type, only 27 per cent developed 
all of their exhibitions. 

There is almost no variation among govern- 
ing authorities, with approximately four out 
of ten private nonprofit, government, and 
educational institution museums developing 
all of their own exhibitions. However, within 
government museums the proportion de- 
veloping all of their special exhibitions 
ranged widely from 35 per cent of municipal- 
county to 61 per cent of state museums. 
Among budget sizes, the percentage of mu- 
seums developing all of their special exhi- 
bitions was highest in the under $50,000 
group (50 per cent) and lowest in the 
$500,000 and over categories (approxi- 
mately 30 per cent). 

The largest percentage of museums with 
special exhibitions developed by an outside 
source received them on loan either from 
private collectors, artists, or service organi- 
zations or from other museums. Museums 
also obtained exhibitions from government 
agencies other than museums and from 
commercial sources. Private collectors, 
artists, or service organizations represented 
the major source of special exhibitions in 
art, history, and science, although a sub- 
stantial percentage of art museums also re- 
ceived exhibitions from other museums. The 
second most important source for history 
and science museums was government 
agencies. 



66 



All 
Museums 



Art 



History 



Science 



Art/ 
History 

Other 
Combined 



Under 
$50,000 

$50,000- 
99,999 

$100,000- 
249,999 

$250,000- 
499,999 



$500,000 
999,999 

$1,000,000 
and Over 



Private 
Nonprofit 

Government 



Educational 
Institution 



Figure 37 

Museums that Sent Out Traveling 

Exhibitions in FY 1971-72 

Base: Total museums 



1 34% 



55% 





ib% 










29% 









42% 




56% 



54% 











27% 









37% 



39% 



In addition to special exhibitions, the 
directors were asked if the museum had 
exhibited in FY 1971-72 any individual 
objects or specimens borrowed on a 
short-term basis. More than one-third (38 
per cent) of all museums did exhibit such 
objects, with this percentage increasing 
substantially in art museums (58 per cent), 
educational institution museums (55 per 
cent), and museums with budgets of $500,000 
and over (approximately 50 per cent). Of 
all categories, state museums had the 
lowest percentage (26 per cent) exhibiting 
borrowed objects. The ranking of impor- 
tance of the sources of individual objects 
borrowed was identical to that for special 
exhibitions: private collectors, artists, or 
service organizations; other museums; gov- 
ernment agencies other than museums; 
and commercial sources. 

Traveling Exhibitions 

One out of three (34 per cent) of the 
museums sent out traveling exhibitions in 
FY 1971-72, with an average of six exhibi- 
tions sent out by each museum. (Fig. 37, 
p. 66.) (Traveling exhibitions are defined as 
organized exhibitions developed and sent 
out by the museum. 3 ) The differences within 
museum categories are similar to those 
found in relation to special exhibitions. More 
than half (55 per cent) of the art museums 
sent out traveling exhibitions in this period, 
compared with 36 per cent of science and 
19 per cent of history. Twenty-nine per 
cent of the art/history museums and 42 per 
cent of the other combined museums sent 
out exhibitions. Among budget sizes, the 
percentage of museums that sent out 
traveling exhibitions was considerably 
higher in the $500,000 and over categories 
(approximately 55 per cent) than in the 
under $50,000 group (24 per cent), 
although this percentage did increase 

3 There undoubtedly is some overlap in traveling and 
special exhibitions, since a museum may develop 
and show a special exhibition which it then sends 
out as a traveling exhibition. 



67 



All 
Museums 



Art 



History 



Science 



Art/ 
History 

Other 
Combined 



Under 
$50,000 

$50,000- 
99,999 

$100,000- 
249,999 

$250,000 
499,999 

$500,000- 
999,999 

$1,000,000 
and Over 



Private 
Nonprofit 

Government 



Educational 
Institution 



Figure 38 

Museums that Loaned Objects 

or Materials to Storefront 

or Community-Based Museums 

in FY 1971-72 

Base: Total museums 

42% 



46% 



38% 



36% 



40% 



51% 




44% 



38% 



sharply in the $50,000 to $99,999 category 
(40 per cent). Variations were more 
moderate among governing authorities: 
More than one-third of the educational 
institution and private nonprofit museums 
(39 and 37 per cent, respectively) sent out 
exhibitions, compared with 27 per cent of 
the government museums. 

Museums that organized traveling 
exhibitions sent them most frequently to 
other museums (54 per cent) or to univer- 
sities or colleges (49 per cent). 4 Forty-six 
per cent had exhibitions shown in com- 
munity centers other than museums, 42 per 
cent in elementary schools, 36 per cent 
in secondary schools, and 28 per cent in 
storefront or community-based museums. 5 
The primary differences in this pattern 
occured among the three major museum 
types. The principal recipients of traveling 
exhibitions sent out by art museums were 
other museums and universities or 
colleges. The most common locations for 
exhibitions from history museums were 
elementary schools, and from science 
museums, both elementary schools and 
community centers. 

While relatively few museums sent traveling 
exhibitions to storefront or community- 
based museums, a sizable 42 per cent of all 
museums did make objects or materials 
available on loan to these facilities during 
the year. (Fig. 38, p. 67.) The great majority, 
however, lent materials only occasionally 
(52 per cent) or rarely (29 per cent), and 
the loan could, of course, consist of a 
single object. In all categories, more than 

4 The survey did not specify whether or not university 
or college museums were to be included by the 
respondents in this item. Because of the 

relatively high response, however, the consultants 
thought it likely that these institutions had been 
included. 

5 "Community centers other than museums" and 
"storefront or community-based museums" were 

not defined in the survey. Consultants have suggested 
that consequently there may be some overlap in the 
responses regarding these two items. 



68 



two-thirds of the museums that lent objects 
did so only occasionally or rarely. 

Only a small percentage (21 per cent) of 
those museums that did not make objects 
available on loan to storefront or commu- 
nity-based museums were planning to do so. 
The museums that were not planning to 
engage in this activity cited as the major 
reasons the unsuitability of objects for lend- 
ing (29 per cent), lack of demand (26 per 



cent), and inadequate security (18 per cent). 
Ten per cent of the museums noted that 
this practice was against museum policy; 
only four per cent responded that it is not 
a function of museums. Lack of staff was 
also relatively unimportant, with only eight 
per cent of the museums citing this as a 
reason for not loaning objects. Since little 
information is available on the number 
and distribution of storefront or com- 
munity-based museums, it is difficult to 



Figure 39 

Increases or Decreases in Exchange of Objects 

Since 1966, by Museum Type and Budget Size 

Base: The 99% of the 96% of museums open in 1 966 that 
engage in the exchange of objects 



More frequently 
Less frequently 
About the same 
Not sure 



All 
1 00% Museums 

29% 



Art 



History 



Science 



Art/ 
History 



Other 
Combined 



9% 



37% 



25% 



43% 
13% 




36% 
8% 






41% 




8% 




32% 
19% 


" 



Under $50,000- $100,000- $250,000- 

$50,000 99,999 249,999 499,999 

34% 



$500,000- $1,000,000 
999,999 and Over 

~ 43% 




69 



determine the extent to which reported lack 
of demand for loaned objects owes to the 
scarcity of these museums and/or to their 
not having requested objects from the more 
established museums. 

The frequency with which museums are 
exchanging objects has increased since 1966. 



Of the 99 per cent of museums that borrow 
and/or loan objects and collections, 29 per 
cent reported an increase in this practice. 
Only nine per cent reported a decline. (Fig. 
39, p. 68; Fig. 39A, p. 69.) These findings 
would indicate that rising insurance and 
transportation costs have not hampered 
the exchange of objects as severely as 



Figure 39A 

Increases or Decreases in Exchange of Objects 

Since 1966, by Governing Authority 

Base: The 99% of the 96% of museums open in 1966 that 
engage in the exchange of objects 



^ More frequently 
Less frequently 
About the same 
Not sure 



All Private 

1 00% Museums Nonprofit 

29%i~ , ~~n 30% 



Government Federal State 




37% 




41% 



25% 



20% 



23% 

7% 
33% 

37% 


, 




Municipal- Educational Public 

County Institution 

32%|~~ "~ | 29% 



Private 



37% 




45% 



43% 




13% 




7% 




70 



generally assumed in the museum profes- 
sion. Moreover, among art museums, which 
offer special exhibitions and engage in the 
borrowing and lending of objects more fre- 
quently than any other museum type, a 
significant 43 percent reported an increase 
in this practice. The consultants have pointed 
out that while the findings show an increase 
in the frequency with which objects are 
being exchanged, there was no information 
obtained in the survey on the quality of 
objects being exchanged. 

Among the small percentage of museums 
reporting a decline in the exchange of 
objects, the major reasons cited were high 
cost and, more importantly, risk of damage 
or loss. This emphasis on damage or loss was 
reinforced in a related question to which 
almost nine out of ten museums responded 
that climate control and security in the 
receiving museums are very important (70 
per cent) or somewhat important (17 per 
cent) in the exchange of objects. 

The exchange of objects not only allows 
museums to expand and build upon par- 
ticular interests, but also increases the 
public's opportunities to see a variety of 
exhibitions. While overall the exchange of 
objects has increased since 1966, the 
percentage of museums sending out 
traveling exhibitions is still relatively low. 
The findings suggest that any substantial 
increase in this activity to some extent 
depends on improved exhibition space and 
better climate control and security in the 
receiving museums. 



Renting of Objects 

The renting of objects is neither a frequent 
activity of museums nor a significant source 
of revenue for those few that do engage in 
this practice. And although renting has been 
suggested as a means of reaching new 
publics — especially through rentals to cor- 
porations and businesses — as well as a 
source of revenue, there were few indica- 
tions of major activity in this area. 

Of the eight per cent of museums that 
rented objects in FY 1971-72, 60 per cent 
received rental fees of $1,000 or less. 
Twenty-six per cent received fees ranging 
from $1,000 to $10,000, and six per cent 
from $10,000 to $50,000. Two per cent 
received fees over $50,000. (The remaining 
six per cent were not sure of the rental 
fees received.) 6 More than half of the 
museums rented objects to individuals (55 
per cent) or to corporations (54 per cent). 
Thirty-three per cent rented to other mu- 
seums and 14 per cent to exhibition services. 

Of those museums that did not rent ob- 
jects, only a few (three per cent) had plans 
for doing so. Among the primary reasons 
cited for not instituting this practice were 
the unsuitability of the collection for renting, 
the possibility of loss or damage, lack of 
demand, and museum policy. 



6 Although the question on renting of objects was 
included in a series concerning the permanent col- 
lection, it did not restrict the rental of objects to 
items in that collection. It is possible that items 
provided through museum rental services, in addition 
to those from the permanent collection, were 
included in the responses. 



Chapter 6 



Trustees 



71 



Introduction 

Three out of four (76 per cent) of the 
museums have a board of trustees or an 
equivalent body responsible for formulating 
the policies that determine the programs 
and activities of the museum. In the 
overwhelming majority of these museums 
the board's major responsibility is for 
finances, while direct responsibility for 
collections and exhibitions rests primarily 
with the director and staff. To a large 
extent, directors of museums with boards 
expressed satisfaction with their board's 
involvement in nonfinancial program 
decisions related to exhibitions, collections, 
and acquisitions. Yet, slightly less than 
half considered the board very well 
informed about the museum's programs 
and operations. A majority felt that the 
board was very well informed about the 
financial situation of the museum. 

According to the directors, the primary 
reasons governing selection of trustees are 
the individuals' interest in the museum, 
aside from contributions, and their expertise 
in administrative areas of value to the 
museum. This is reflected in the occupa- 
tional background of those museum trustees 
serving terms in FY 1971-72: more than 
one-third were business executives, lawyers, 
bankers, accountants, and other financial 
experts. Another 21 per cent were volun- 
teers active in civic affairs but not otherwise 
employed. The findings show that most 
museum trustees are male and white, 
and many 50 years of age or older. 

This chapter describes the size and com- 
position of boards of trustees. It examines 
various reasons for and methods of se- 
lecting trustees, the length and number of 
terms served by trustees, and the frequency 
of board meetings. It also discusses the 
board's influence on museum operations in 
terms of its relationship with the director 
and staff, and the allocation of responsi- 
bilities among these groups. 



All data presented in this chapter were 
obtained from museum directors. Trustees 
were not interviewed. 

Distribution and Characteristics 
of Boards 

Among all museum categories, boards of 
trustees are found most frequently in pri- 
vate nonprofit museums. (Fig. 40, p. 72.) 
Ninety-three per cent of these museums 
have boards, contrasted with 59 per cent of 
the government museums and 40 per cent 
of the educational institution museums 
(other than the board of the parent 
institution). Seventy-two per cent of the 
municipal-county museums and 59 per 
cent of the state museums have boards, 
compared with 23 per cent of the federal 
museums. Boards are found in 48 per cent 
of the private and 33 per cent of the public 
educational institution museums. 

The occurrence of boards within museum 
type, budget size, and region is determined 
largely by governing authority. Art/history, 
which of all museum types has the 
highest proportion of museums gov- 
erned by private nonprofit organizations, 
also has the highest proportion (86 per cent) 
with boards. Conversely, science, with 
the lowest proportion of private nonprofit 
museums, has the lowest proportion (66 
per cent) of museums with boards. The 
same interrelationship appears within bud- 
get size and region. The budget categories 
($500,000 and over) and the region (New 
England) with the largest proportions of 
private nonprofit museums also have the 
largest proportions of museums with boards 
(approximately 85 per cent each). 

Of the 24 per cent of museums without 
boards, almost half (48 per cent) are under 
the jurisdiction of some type of federal, state, 
municipal, or county government agency, 
and 25 per cent are governed by a university 
or college. Historical societies serve as the 



72 



Figure 40 
Museums with 


All 
Museums 


Board of Trustees 




or Equivalent 
Body 


Art 
History 


Base: Total museums 


Science 




Art/ 
History 




Other 
Combined 




Under 
$50,000 




$50,000- 
99,999 




$100,000- 
249,999 




$250,000- 
499,999 




$500,000- 
999,999 




$1,000,000 
and Over 




Private 
Nonprofit 




Government 




Educational 
Institution 




New England 




Northeast 




Southeast 




Midwest 




Mountain Plains 




West 



79% 



76% 



66% 



186% 



76% 




82% 



85% 



87% 



193% 



59% 



40% 




73 



governing body of nine per cent of the 
museums without boards. This accounts 
for the majority of those private non- 
profit museums that do not have their own 
boards. 

The average museum board membership 
is 19. (Fig. 41, p. 74.) There are only minor 
differences among museum types, with a 
slightly higher average board membership 
in art, science, and art/history museums 
(approximately 22 members each) than in 
history or other combined museums 
(16 members each). The average number 
of board members generally increases 
with budget size, from 15 in the under 
$50,000 museums to 27 in the $1,000,000 
and over museums. Board membership 
averages 23 in private nonprofit museums, 
compared with 14 in educational institution 
museums and 11 in government museums. 



The composite profile of board members 
shows that most museum trustees are male 
and white, and many 50 years of age or 
older. (Fig. 41, p. 74.) Sixty-nine per cent 
of all trustees are men; 31 per cent are 
women. This varies most strikingly ac- 
cording to budget size, with the proportion 
of trustees that are male rising steadily 
with size, from 62 per cent in museums 
with budgets under $50,000 to 82 per cent 
in those with budgets of $1,000,000 and 
over. 

Eighty-six per cent of all trustees are white. 
Three per cent are Black or of some other 
ethnic group such as Asian American, 
Mexican American, or American Indian. 
This information was not reported for the 
remaining 11 per cent of trustees. No 
marked differences in these proportions 
are found in any of the museum categories. 
(When figures on ethnic identification 
are converted to the 89 per cent of 
trustees for whom this intormation was 
reported, the findings show that 97 per 
cent of these trustees are white and three 



per cent of some other ethnic identifi- 
cation.) 

About half (49 per cent) of all trustees were 
50 years of age or older; 21 per cent were 
from 35 to 49 years old and four per cent 
from 25 to 34 years old. Only one per cent 
of all trustees were under 25 years of age. 
This information was not reported for 25 
per cent of trustees. (Of the 75 per cent 
of trustees for whom ages were reported, 
66 per cent were 50 or more years old, 
28 per cent from 35 to 49 years old, five 
per cent from 25 to 34 years old, and one 
per cent under 25.) 

The business community is the major single 
source from which museum trustees are 
drawn. Approximately one-third of all 
trustees serving terms in FY 1971-72 were 
business executives (24 per cent) or bankers, 
accountants, or other financial experts 
(seven per cent). Twenty-one per cent were 
volunteers active in civic affairs but not 
otherwise employed. Another seven per 
cent were lawyers, seven per cent educa- 
tors, and four per cent elected or appointed 
public officials. Professional artists, critics, 
historians, or scientists accounted for only 
three per cent of all trustees. There are no 
significant variations in this pattern except 
among governing authorities, where pre- 
dictably there was a higher than average 
percentage of educators on the boards of 
educational institution museums (13 per 
cent) and of public officials on the boards of 
government museums (eight per cent). Of 
all museum categories, educational insti- 
tution museums had the lowest proportion 
(nine per cent) of volunteers serving 
as trustees and the highest proportion 
(nine per cent) of professional artists, critics, 
historians, or scientists as board members. 

Representation of the Board 

The directors of the 76 per cent of museums 
with boards were asked to evaluate the 
board's representation of various sectors of 



74 



Figure 41 



Characteristics of Members of Boards of Trustees 



Base: Members of boards of the 76% 
of museums with board of trustees or 
equivalent body 



S> 



P) 



5^ 



o» 



^A 



CV «8? 



S" 



i? 



^ 






£ 



'<*> O 






&/<&•§/ 



Average number of members 



19 



23 



16 



22 



22 



16 



15 



23 



20 



21 



28 



27 



23 



11 



14 



% 



% 



% 



0/ 

/o 



% 



% 



0/ 

/o 



% 



% 



% 



% 



% 



% 



Sex 

Male 
Female 

Ethnic Group 

White 

Black 

Other 

Not sure/not reported 

Age 

Under 25 

25-34 

35-49 

50-64 

65 and over 

Not sure/ not reported 



69 
31 



86 
2 
1 

11 



1 
4 
21 
32 
17 
25 



63 

37 



85 
2 
1 

12 



2 
5 
25 
32 
12 
24 



69 
31 



88 
1 
2 
9 



2 
18 
32 
23 
25 



78 
22 



82 
2 
1 

15 



5 
21 
36 

7 
31 



63 

37 



88 
1 
1 

10 



3 

15 
35 
23 
24 



71 
29 



82 
3 
1 

14 



5 
28 
31 
15 
21 



62 
38 



88 
1 
1 

10 



1 
5 
20 
34 
19 
21 



69 
31 



85 
1 

4 
10 



4 
23 
30 
18 
25 



71 
29 



86 

1 

* 

13 



3 
23 
31 
14 
29 



73 
27 



79 
4 
1 

16 



4 
21 
33 
10 
32 



81 
19 



86 

2 
1 

11 



3 

21 
36 
15 
25 



82 
18 



83 
3 
1 

13 



2 
16 
36 
18 
28 



67 
33 



86 
1 
1 

12 



1 
4 
21 
31 
17 
26 



76 

24 



87 
3 
1 
9 



4 
20 
37 
15 
24 



78 
22 



84 

1 

* 

15 



1 

6 

26 

39 

9 

19 



*Less than 0.5% 



75 



the community such as minority groups, 
blue collar workers, young people, and 
members of neighborhood groups. More 
than half (56 per cent) of the directors felt 
that their museum's current board had ad- 
equate representation of these groups. Yet, 
a substantial 44 per cent responded that 
representation was inadequate. Of this 
number, more than one-third (38 per cent) 
noted that there were plans to broaden the 
representation of the board, with an em- 
phasis on adding members of minority 
groups. 

The directors also were asked whether they 
felt broadening the representation of the 
board is generally a good or a bad idea and 
for what reasons. Fifty-nine per cent consid- 
ered it a good idea, citing as the predomi- 
nant reasons the importance of having a 
board that represents a cross-section of the 
people served by the museum and the pres- 
ence of diverse opinions and viewpoints that 
would expand the board's range of interests. 
Twenty-five per cent of the directors felt 
broadening representation is a bad idea. The 
major reason cited was that specialized 
knowledge needed for the museum's opera- 
tions must take precedence in the selection 
of trustees. The possible effects of broader 
representation on the financial support of 
the museum were not considered particu- 
larly significant by the directors: only nine 
per cent felt it would result in greater com- 
munity acceptance and financial support, 
and only five per cent felt it would have the 
reverse effect of impairing fund-raising 
efforts. 

In 60 per cent of the museums with boards, 
the directors reported that there had been 
no changes made since 1966 to broaden the 
board's representation. Thirty-five per cent 
of the museums had made changes in 
this period. (Five per cent were not sure.) 
About half (49 per cent) of those museums 
that had made changes expanded the 



board's representation by adding mem- 
bers of unspecified minority and ethnic 
groups. Nineteen per cent specified that 
they had added Blacks to the board and 
four per cent either Mexican Americans, 
Latin Americans, Puerto Ricans, or Asian 
Americans. Young people (age unspecified) 
were added to the board in 28 per cent 
of the museums, and women in 11 per cent. 
Despite the addition of "young people" 
to museum boards, only five per cent 
of all trustees serving in FY 1971-72 were 
under 35. 

A comparison of directors' responses to 
each of the three preceding questions on 
board representation reveals some inter- 
esting interrelationships. Among museum 
types, art not only had the highest propor- 
tion of directors that considered the current 
board's representation inadequate (52 per 
cent) and felt it was a good idea to broaden 
representation (68 per cent), but also the 
highest proportion of museums in which 
changes had been made to expand rep- 
resentation (48 per cent). In contrast, 
while a relatively high percentage of sci- 
ence museum directors considered repre- 
sentation inadequate (50 per cent) and 
favored the idea of broadening represen- 
tation (60 per cent), these museums had the 
lowest incidence of actual changes (28 per 
cent). This pattern in science museums 
is repeated among governing authorities. 
About half of the directors of government 
museums (46 per cent) and of educational 
institution museums (52 per cent) felt 
that the board did not have adequate rep- 
resentation, and even larger percentages, a 
respective 66 and 67 per cent, considered 
broadening representation a good idea. 
Yet, less than one-third of either govern- 
ment (28 per cent) or educational institution 
(24 per cent) museums actually had made 
changes since 1966 to broaden the board's 
representation. 



76 



Figure 42 

Reasons Cited by Museum Directors 

for Selection of Trustees 

Base: The 76% of museums with board of trustees or 
equivalent body 



Shown significant interest in 
museum aside from 
contributions 



Expert in administrative areas 
of value to museum 



Expert in subject fields 
of museum 



Represent special interest 
groups in community 



Are friends of officers and/or 
members of the board 



Have political influence 



Are good fund raisers 



Are large contributors of funds 
or serve as security on loans/ 
notes 



Have well known name and 
celebrity status 



Are major collectors 



Are experienced museum 
administrators 



Other 




83% 



151% 




48% 




138% 



35% 




131% 



29% 



28% 



| I 




15% 



Selection of Trustees 

There is a discernible relationship between 
the large proportion of businessmen among 
museum trustees and the reasons for which 
trustees are selected. Directors were asked 
which of a given list of reasons for selection 
applied to any of their current trustees. 
While 83 per cent cited the trustees' 
interest in the museum aside from con- 
tributions, a substantial 72 per cent men- 
tioned the more specific reason of the 
trustees' expertise in administrative areas 
of value to the museum. (Fig. 42, p. 76.) 
This reason ranked among the top two in all 
museum categories except government 
museums, where more directors cited the 
trustees' political influence as a reason for 
selection. Among the other given reasons, 
51 per cent of the directors cited the 
trustees' expertise in subject areas of the 
museum and 48 per cent the fact that 
trustees represented special interest groups 
in the community. 

Relatively few directors mentioned the 
trustees' ability to raise funds (35 per cent) 
or to contribute funds (31 per cent) as rea- 
sons for selection. However, directors 
reported that in FY 1971-72 an average 
16 per cent of the private contributions 
to museums were received from trustees, 
and that the pattern of giving had not 
changed significantly since 1966. Sixty-one 
per cent of the museums having boards 
and receiving private support reported that 
the proportion of total private contributions 
accounted for by trustees was about the 
same in FY 1971-72 as in 1966. Seventeen 
per cent of the museums reported that 
the proportion contributed by trustees was 
larger; 14 per cent responded that it 
was smaller. 

Responsibility for the formal selection 

of trustees is largely that of the board, 

its officers, or a committee of the board. In a 

majority of museums with boards, trustees 

are nominated or recommended by the 



77 



nominating committee of the board (41 per 
cent), the full board (12 per cent), or the 
board chairman (one per cent). In no more 
than four per cent of the museums are 
trustees nominated or recommended by the 
museum membership, the staff, or gov- 
ernment officials. 

While the actual election or appointment 
of trustees is most often a function of the 
board (37 per cent) or the board chairman 
(five per cent), this responsibility does rest 
with the museum membership in 27 per 
cent of the museums and with government 
officials in 20 per cent. The latter figure 
reflects the relatively high percentage (61 
per cent) of government museums that 
use this method of appointing or electing 
trustees. 

Directors were asked to evaluate the 
degree to which the process of trustee 
selection is influenced by the current board 
and its committees, the museum staff, the ' 
membership, and civic and community 
groups. In almost nine out of ten museums, 
the chairman of the board was considered 
to have either a great deal of influence (63 
per cent) or some influence (25 per cent) in 
the selection of trustees. (Of those museums 
with boards that have a nominating 
committee, 68 per cent reported the com- 
mittee had a great deal of influence and 16 
per cent some influence. Of those that 
have an executive committee, 59 per cent 
reported this committee had a great deal 
of influence and 29 per cent some influence.) 

In more than seven out of ten museums, the 
director was thought to have either a great 
deal of influence (35 per cent) or some 
influence (38 per cent) in trustee selection. 
The museum staff and civic groups were 
considered less influential, having either 
a great deal or some influence in only 36 
and 24 per cent of the museums, respec- 
tively. However, well over half of the 
museums that have boards and a paid 
membership reported that the membership 



has either a great deal (14 per cent) or 
some (45 per cent) influence in the selec- 
tion process. 



Terms of Service 

Twenty-one per cent of the museums with 
boards have no specified term for their 
trustees. In the 79 per cent that do have 
specified terms, ranging from one year or 
less to a lifetime, the most common length 
of term is three years, specified by half of 
the museums. Twenty-four per cent have 
terms of two years or less; 23 per cent terms 
of four to ten years. Only three per cent 
have lifetime terms. 

Aside from those museums with a lifetime 
or no specified term for their trustees, in 
72 per cent of the museums trustees may 
serve more than one consecutive term. In 
five per cent they may not. In almost half 
of those museums where more than one 
consecutive term is possible, directors 
reported that trustees actually did serve as 
long as they wished or were able. 1 

Despite the fact that in more than half of the 
museums with boards trustees may serve 
a lifetime term, an unspecified term, or as 
long as they wish or are able, only nine per 
cent of all trustees had served more than ten 
years. (Fig. 43, p. 78.) This finding is perhaps 
surprising since consultants have indicated 
that entrenched boards are considered to 
be a problem in many museums. 



Board Meetings 

Nearly half (48 per cent) of all boards meet 
at least once a month, and another 35 per 
cent meet at least once a quarter. Boards 



1 For those museums in which trustees are allowed to 
serve more than one consecutive term, the survey 
did not inquire about any limitations on the number 
of consecutive terms that may be served. 



78 



Figure 43 

Length of Time Current Trustees 

Have Served on Board 

Base: Members of boards of the 76% of museums 
with board of trustees or equivalent body 



Less than 
1 year 



9% 



1-2 
years 



3-5 

years 



25% 



6-10 
years 



24% 



More than 
1 years 



Not sure/ 
Not reported 



16% 



that meet less than once a quarter account 
for a relatively low 17 per cent. The per- 
centage of museums in which boards meet 
at least once a month decreases with budget 
size from 52 per cent of the under $50,000 
museums to 36 per cent of the $1,000,000 
and over museums. Board meetings are 
held at least once a month in 59 per cent 
of the government and 46 per cent of the 
private nonprofit museums, but in only 28 
per cent of the educational institution 
museums. Among regions, the percentage 
of museums with boards that meet this 
often is highest in the West (68 per cent) 
and lowest in New England (39 per cent). 
There is only one significant difference 
within museum type. Board meetings 
occur at least once a month in 31 per cent 
of the art/history museums, compared 
with approximately half of the museums 
in the other categories. 

In 66 per cent of the museums with boards, 
the board has an executive committee. 
More than half (55 per cent) of these 
committees meet only on special occasions, 
which may occur frequently or infrequently 
depending on the circumstances within 
each museum. Of the 45 per cent of execu- 
tive committees that meet regularly, the 
great majority convene at least once a 
month. (The survey did not inquire about 
trustee attendance at meetings of boards or 
their executive committees. Consultants 
have indicated that this area may warrant 
investigation in future research efforts.) 

The Board, Director, and Staff 

The continuity of the museum to a large ex- 
tent is assured and maintained through the 
cooperative efforts of the board, the direc- 
tor, and the staff. The survey examined the 
working relationship between these groups 
in terms of the attendance of the director 
and staff at board meetings and the direc- 
tors' evaluations of the general level of com- 
munication between the board and the 



79 



director/staff. In most areas, the directors 
considered this relationship satisfactory. 

The director is a member of the board in 
less than one-third (31 per cent) of the mu- 
seums with boards. However, he does 
attend board meetings in the great 
majority of the 69 per cent of museums in 
which he is not a board member. (Fig. 44, 



p. 79.) In 78 per cent of these museums the 
director attends board meetings regularly, 
and in 11 per cent he attends occasionally. 
The director does not attend board meetings 
at all in 11 per cent. 

Members of the professional staff attend 
board meetings either regularly (33 per 
cent) or occasionally (24 per cent) in more 



Figure 44 

Attendance by Directors 

at Board of Trustee Meetings 

Base: The 69% of the 76% of museums with board 
of trustees or equivalent body in which director is 
not a member of the board 



1 3 



Attend regularly 
Attend occasionally 
Attend not at all 



All 
10 °% Museums 

78%. 



Art 



History 



Science 



93% 




6% 
1% 




15% 
14% 





80% 



72% 




8% 



20% 



Art/ 
History 




Other 
Combinec 




7% 
15% 





Private 
Nonprofit 



Government 



Educational 
Institution 



86% 



7% 
7% 



63% 



17% 



20% 



M 





53% 

30% 

17% 





80 



than half of the museums with boards. 
Although staff members attend board meet- 
ings less frequently than directors, the 
overwhelming majority of directors felt that 
the professional staff understands very well 
(64 per cent) or somewhat well (29 per 
cent) the functions and responsibilities of 
the board. In all but one museum category, 
the directors of at least 90 per cent of the 
museums with boards felt the staff un- 
derstands the board's role. The exception 
is educational institution museums, where 
this percentage dropped slightly to 83 
per cent. 

The directors also were asked to evaluate 
the trustees' involvement in and knowledge 
of museum operations. Eighty-three per 
cent rated as satisfactory the board's in- 
volvement as a group in nonfinancial 
program decisions related to exhibitions, 
collections, and acquisitions. Only a small 
percentage of directors considered the 
board either too little involved (11 per cent) 
or too much involved (four per cent). The 
board was considered very well informed 
about the museum's financial situation 
by 62 per cent of the directors, but a lower 
47 per cent considered it very well in- 
formed about programs and operations. 
(The board was considered poorly informed 
about the financial situation by only eight 
per cent of the directors; 11 per cent 
considered it poorly informed about pro- 
grams and operations.) 

In determining the allocation of responsi- 
bilities among the board and the director/ 
staff, the directors of museums with boards 
were asked to describe for each group the 
involvement in and final responsibility for 
the following types of decisions: 

Annual Budget (98 per cent) 2 : In 79 per 
cent of the museums the board is involved 
in determining the annual budget of the 
museum and in a like 79 per cent the 
director/staff is involved. However, final 
responsibility for determining the budget 



rests with the board in 64 per cent of the 
museums, while the director/staff has this 
responsibility in only 21 per cent. Final 
responsibility rests with the board in at 
least half of the museums in all categories 
except government museums (38 per cent) 
and educational institution museums (48 
per cent), where responsibility may fre- 
quently rest with the individual governing 
authority. 

Endowment Expenditures (45 per cent): 
Decisions on how much to spend from the 
endowment are made most often by the 
board, which is involved in 90 per cent of 
the museums and has final responsibility in 
86 per cent. While the director/staff is in- 
volved in this decision in a substantial 51 
per cent of the museums, it has final re- 
sponsibility in only 12 per cent. The only 
categories in which these proportions vary 
significantly are other combined museums, 
the $50,000 to $99,999 budget group, and 
educational institution museums, where the 
director/staff has final responsibility in 
approximately one-third of the museums. 

Capital Improvements and Capital Drives 

(95 per cent) : In the great majority of 
museums the board is both involved in 
(83 per cent) and has final responsibility for 
(71 per cent) determination of capital im- 
provement needs and organization of 
capital drives. While the director/staff is in- 
volved in these decisions in 67 per cent of 
the museums, it has final responsibility in 
only 20 per cent. 

Financial Judgments on Acquisitions (87 per 

cent): The board and the director/staff are 
involved in making financial judgments on 
major acquisitions in a respective 70 and 
72 per cent of the museums. In a majority 
(57 per cent) of museums the final responsi- 



2 The number of museums responding differs 
for each type of decision; the figure in parentheses 
indicates the percentage of museums with boards 
that make such decisions. 



81 



bility for this decision rests with the board. 
The director/staff has final responsibility 
in 33 per cent of the museums. 

Quality Judgments on Acquisitions (93 per 

cent): The responsibility for making quality 
judgments in selecting objects for acquisi- 
tion rests most often with the director/staff, 
which is involved in this decision in 87 per 
cent of the museums and has final re- 
sponsibility in 73 per cent. The board is 
involved in this decision in 33 per cent of 
the museums, and in 22 per cent it has final 
responsibility. 

Exhibitions and Programs (96 per cent): 
The planning of major exhibitions and pro- 



grams is handled primarily by the director/ 
staff, which is involved in this decision in 91 
per cent of the museums and has final re- 
sponsibility in 79 per cent. In contrast, 
the board is involved in 25 per cent of the 
museums and has final responsibility in 
only 16 per cent. 

Staff (98 per cent) : The director/staff also 
is more frequently concerned than is the 
board with setting staffing requirements. 
It is involved in this decision in 85 per cent 
of the museums and has final responsibility 
in 63 per cent. The percentage of museums 
in which the board is either involved or 
has final responsibility is considerably 
lower, 41 and 31 per cent, respectively. 



82 



Chapter 7 



Personnel 



83 



Introduction 

The total museum work force, including 
volunteers, numbered more than 110,000 
in FY 1971-72. Of this number, 30,400 
were full-time paid personnel — 11,000 pro- 
fessionals and 19,400 nonprofessionals — 
and 18,700 were part-time paid personnel. 
A total of 64,200 volunteers, greater in 
number than the full-time and part-time 
paid staffs combined, were utilized. 

The distribution of full-time personnel by 
job categories shows that nearly half (45 per 
cent) worked in operations and support, 
followed by administration (23 per cent), 
curatorial, display, and exhibit (17 per cent), 
education (nine per cent), and research (six 
per cent). The distribution of part-time 
employees roughly parallels that of full-time, 
except that a lower proportion of part- 
time staff was involved in administration 
(10 per cent) and a higher proportion in 
education (27 per cent). In contrast with 
full-time and part-time personnel, the 
largest single percentage of volunteers was 
assigned to the area of education (38 per 
cent). 

Budget size is a key factor in the distribu- 
tion of full-time and part-time personnel 
among the various museum categories. 
Museums with budgets of $1,000,000 and 
over, which represent only five per cent of 
all museums, employed almost half (45 per 
cent) of the full-time personnel and ap- 
proximately one-third (32 per cent) of the 
part-time personnel. Museums with budgets 
under $100,000, which account for a 
sizable 63 per cent of all museums, em- 
ployed only 15 per cent of the full-time and 
24 per cent of the part-time employees. 
Nearly two-thirds of the volunteers were 
used by the 80 per cent of museums with 
budgets under $250,000. 

Sixty-three per cent of the full-time em- 
ployees are men; 82 per cent are white. 
The average annual salary of all full-time 



employees in FY 1971-72 was $8,500: Pro- 
fessionals earned an average of $11,500 and 
nonprofessionals an average of $6,800. 

The findings show that museum directors 
are most often male, white, and 40 years of 
age or older. Directors have had an average 
of almost 17 years of experience in museum 
or museum-related work and have been in 
their current positions an average of just 
over eight years. In FY 1971-72, the average 
salary of museum directors was $14,100. 
Eleven per cent earned less than $5,000; 
nine per cent earned $25,000 or more. 
Male directors earned almost twice as much 
as women in this position, an average of 
$16,000 compared with $8,800. One reason 
for this difference in salary levels is the 
high proportion of men among directors 
of large budget museums. 

No less than 47 per cent of the museum 
directors reported the need for additional 
staff in each of the five major job categories 
examined. Curatorial, display, and exhibit 
was the most understaffed, with 61 per cent 
of the directors citing the need for addi- 
tional staff in this area. While the majority 
of directors felt that their museums' full- 
time staff had adequate training, a sub- 
stantially lower percentage considered the 
salaries paid these employees adequate. 
Assuming that sufficiently high salaries 
could be offered, one-third of the museum 
directors felt that it would be difficult to fill 
certain jobs because of a lack of trained or 
experienced personnel. Twenty-seven 
per cent of the museums had formal in- 
service training programs for their staffs, 
and 14 per cent conducted training pro- 
grams for museum personnel other than 
those on their own staffs. 

The types of museum personnel examined 
in this chapter are defined as follows: 
• Full-time employees — all permanent, 
paid employees hired to work a minimum 
of 20 hours per week for the entire year 
or during the entire part of the year the 



84 



museum is open. 

• Part-time employees — all paid employees 
hired to work less than full-time or to 
work only during peak periods of activity. 

• Volunteers — individuals who contribute 
their time, on a full-time or part-time 
basis, to perform jobs that otherwise 
would require the hiring of paid 
personnel. 

Professional staff positions are defined as 
those requiring specialized training or ex- 
perience and include personnel such as 
curators, librarians, designers, and lecturers. 
Nonprofessionals include personnel such as 
those in custodial, security, and clerical 
positions. (While definitions and examples 
were provided, it was left to the respondents 
to classify their museums' employees as 
professional or nonprofessional. Conse- 
quently, the classification of some positions 
as professional or nonprofessional may 
have varied from one museum to another.) 

The first part of this chapter describes the 
distribution of full-time, part-time, and 
volunteer staffs — -both professional and 
nonprofessional — among the following five 
major job categories: ] 

• Administration, including staffs of ad- 
ministrative, financial, and membership 
departments, and personnel working 
in public relations, publications, and 
libraries. 

• Curatorial, display, and exhibit, includ- 
ing staffs of all curatorial departments 
(except education and research), display 
and exhibition departments, and person- 
nel involved in cataloguing, conservation/ 
preservation, horticulture, and animal 
nutrition. 

• Education, including directors of edu- 
cation, docents, instructors for children 
and adults, and workshop leaders. 

• Research, including research curators, 
research associates, laboratory techni- 
cians, and archeologists. 

• Operations and support, including 
custodians, security personnel, sales 



forces, packers, preparators, installers, and 
animal attendants. 

The chapter next examines the distribution 
of the total work force by museum type, 
budget size, and governing authority. 

The second part of the chapter provides a 
detailed examination of full-time personnel, 
senior personnel, and museum directors. 
For all of these employees, it discusses 
certain characteristics — such as sex, ethnic 
group, union membership, and education — 
and FY 1971-72 salary levels. For senior 
personnel and directors, it provides addi- 
tional information on work experience and 
job-related education. It also discusses the 
major functions and responsibilities of 
directors and the amount of time spent on 
various activities. The chapter then exam- 
ines the types of benefits and perquisites 
offered employees, and the levels of mi- 
nority employment in professional staff 
positions. Finally, it describes the directors' 
evaluations of the need for additional staff 
in the five job areas and the adequacy of 
staff training and salaries, and it reports on 
the types of training programs conducted 
by museums. 

In the initial stages of the survey design, 
it was suggested that comparisons be 
made between museums and institutions of 
higher education in areas such as personnel, 
specifically salary levels. There are how- 
ever a number of inherent problems that 
make it difficult to insure valid compar- 
isons: For example, the institutional struc- 
tures of universities and colleges, and the 
functions and relative positions of their 
staffs, differ considerably from those of 
many museums. Because of this and related 
problems, it was decided not to attempt 
any such comparisons in this survey. 



1 If an employee's job involved work in more than 
one category, he was to be classified in the category 
in which the greatest portion of his time was spent. 



85 



Total Museum Work Force 

Of the 113,300 individuals working in 
museums in FY 1971-72, 27 per cent were 
full-time paid employees, 16 per cent 
part-time paid employees, and 57 per cent 
volunteers. (Fig. 45, p. 85.) Thirty-eight per 
cent of all full-time personnel were classi- 
fied as professionals. There were fewer 
professionals among part-time employees 
(22 per cent) and among volunteers (15 per 
cent). 

Distribution of Personnel 
by Job Categories 

Full-Time Staff 

Nearly half (45 per cent) of the 30,400 
full-time paid employees - worked in op- 



Figure 45 

Total Museum Work Force, FY 1971-72 

113,300 

Base: Total museum personnel 




Full-Time Paid 

30,400 

27% 

Part-Time Paid 

18,700 
16% 



Volunteer 

64,200 

57% 



erations and support. Twenty-three per cent 
worked in administration, 17 per cent in 
curatorial, display, and exhibit, nine per cent 
in education, and six per cent in research. 
(Fig. 46, p. 86; Fig. 47, p. 88; Fig. 47A, p. 89.) 
Professionals outnumbered nonprofessionals 
in every job category except operations and 
support, where eight out of nine employees 
were nonprofessionals. 

In each type of museum the largest single 
percentage of full-time staff worked in 
operations and support, and, except in 
other combined museums, the second larg- 
est percentage worked in administration. 
In other combined museums, curatorial, 
display, and exhibit accounted for a slightly 
higher percentage of full-time staff than 
administration. (Fig. 47, p. 88.) 

Art/history museums had more full-time 
staff assigned to education (19 per cent) 
than any other museum type. Science 
museums and other combined museums, all 
of which have some emphasis on science, 
had the highest proportions of full-time 
staff working in research (nine and seven 
per cent, respectively). This area accounted 
for no more than three per cent of the 
full-time employees in the other types of 
museums. The proportions of full-time staff 
working in curatorial, display, and exhibit 
vary little with museum type, ranging be- 
tween 15 per cent in science and art/history 
and 23 per cent in other combined. 

In all but the under $50,000 budget cate- 
gory, the largest single percentage of full- 
time staff worked in operations and sup- 
port, and in all but the $1,000,000 and 
over category, the second largest per- 
centage worked in administration. In the 
under $50,000 museums the largest per- 
centage worked in administration, and in 



2 By definition, museums included in this survey had 
at least one full-time paid employee with academic 
training or special knowledge relating to the major 
subjects represented in the collection. 



86 



the $1,000,000 and over museums equal 
percentages worked in curatorial, display, 
and exhibit and in administration. (Fig. 47, 
p. 88.) As museum budget size increases, 
there is a corresponding increase in the pro- 
portion of full-time staff involved in opera- 
tions and support and a decrease in the 
proportion involved in administration. 
Budget size has no noticeable effect on the 
proportions of full-time staff working in 



curatorial, display, and exhibit, education, 
or research. 

Among governing authorities, educational 
institution museums had the highest pro- 
portion of full-time staff working in cura- 
torial, display, and exhibit and the lowest 
proportion working in operations and sup- 
port. (Fig. 47A, p. 89.) In educational institu- 
tion museums, some or all of the operations 



Figure 46 

Full-Time, Part-Time, and Volunteer 

Personnel by Job Category 

Base: Total museum personnel 



Full-Time Paid 
(30,400) 



Part-Time Paid 
(18,700) 



Volunteer 
(64,200) 



23% 



17% 



45% 




10% 



10% 



27% 



.12% 



15% 



5% 1% 
4%| 



48% 




45% 



B 



Administration 

Professional 

Nonprofessional 

Curatorial, Display, 
Exhibit 

Professional 

Nonprofessional 



Education 

Professional 

Nonprofessional 



Research 

Professional 

Nonprofessional 

Operations and 
Support 

Professional 

Nonprofessional 



87 



and support staff may be provided by the 
parent institution. Educational institution 
museums also had a slightly higher propor- 
tion of full-time staff assigned to research 
than government or private nonprofit mu- 
seums. 

Part-Time Staff 

Eighty-four per cent of all museums em- 
ployed part-time paid personnel in FY 
1971-72. (Fig. 48, p. 90; Fig. 48A, p. 91.) 
The percentage of museums with part-time 
staff was consistently high in all museum 
categories, rising to 92 per cent in educa- 
tional institution museums and 93 per cent 
in the $1,000,000 and over museums. 

The distribution of the 18,700 part-time 
employees among job categories roughly 
parallels that of full-time staff, except that a 
considerably lower proportion of part-time 
staff was involved in administration (10 per 
cent) and a higher proportion in education' 
(27 per cent). (Fig. 46, p. 86; Fig. 48, p. 90; 
Fig. 48A, p. 91.) Forty-eight per cent worked 
in operations and support, 10 per cent in 
curatorial, display, and exhibit, and five per 
cent in research. Nonprofessionals outnum- 
bered professionals in all job categories, 
most notably operations and support where 
the ratio was 15 to one. 

The largest single percentages of part-time 
staff in each museum type worked in op- 
erations and support and in education. (Fig. 
48, p. 90.) In other combined museums, 13 
per cent of the part-time staff were assigned 
to research, but in no other museum type 
did this proportion rise above the six per 
cent in science. The proportion of part-time 
personnel working in administration was 
noticeably higher in art (16 per cent) and 
history (12 per cent) than in science, art/ 
history, or other combined museums (ap- 
proximately six per cent each). 

The proportion of part-time staff involved 
in operations and support was highest in 
the $1,000,000 and over museums, and the 



proportion involved in administration was 
highest in the under $100,000 categories. 
(Fig. 48, p. 90.) Noticeable variations also 
occurred in education, with the proportion 
of part-time staff assigned to this area 
ranging between 20 per cent in the 
$1,000,000 and over museums and 39 per 
cent in the $250,000 to $499,999 museums. 

Operations and support accounted for the 
largest single percentage of part-time 
employees in the three major governing au- 
thorities. (Fig. 48A, p. 91.) Well over half (61 
per cent) of the government museums' part- 
time staff worked in this area, compared 
with 44 per cent in private nonprofit and 33 
per cent in educational institution museums. 
(Of all museum categories, municipal-county 
museums had the highest proportion, 75 per 
cent, of part-time personnel assigned to 
operations and support.) In private nonprofit 
and in government museums, education 
accounted for the second largest percent- 
age (33 and 16 per cent, respectively) of 
part-time staff. 

Volunteers 

Nearly two-thirds (60 per cent) of all mu- 
seums used full-time or part-time volunteers 
in FY 1971-72. (Fig. 49, p. 92; Fig. 49A, p. 93.) 
A higher percentage of art museums (74 
per cent) than of any other museum type 
used volunteers. More than half of the mu- 
seums in all budget categories reported 
volunteers, increasing from 57 per cent of 
the under $50,000 museums to 77 per cent 
of the $500,000 to $999,999 and to 63 per 
cent of the $1,000,000 and over museums. 
Among governing authorities, the percent- 
age of museums that used volunteers was 
highest in private nonprofit museums (72 
per cent). 

Of the 64,200 volunteers serving in mu- 
seums, the largest single percentage (38 per 
cent) worked in education. This is in 
marked contrast to full-time and part-time 
personnel, the largest single percentages of 
which worked in operations and support. 



88 



Figure 47 



Number and Distribution of Permanent Full-Time Paid Personnel, 
by Museum Type and Budget Size 



Base: Total full-time paid personnel 



<r 



^ 



Ǥ> 




Total number of 
full-time paid personnel 


30,400 


7,900 


5,400 


9,000 


2,700 


5,400 


2,600 


1,900 


3,700 


4,200 


4,200 


13,800 




% 


% 


% 


0/ 

/o 


0/ 

/o 


% 


% ■ 


0/ 

/o 


% 


% 


% 


% 


Administration 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 


23 
12 
11 


25 
13 
12 


27 
16 
11 


18 
9 
9 


23 
12 
11 


22 
11 
11 


38 
27 
11 


36 
23 
13 


26 
15 
11 


23 
12 
11 


20 

9 

11 


17 

7 

10 


Curatorial, Display, and Exhibit 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 


17 

11 

6 


16 

10 

6 


17 
10 

7 


15 
9 
6 


15 
8 

7 


23 

16 

7 


19 
12 

7 


14 

12 

2 


17 

11 

6 


19 

13 

6 


16 

10 

6 


17 
10 

7 


Education 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 


9 
6 
3 


8 
6 
2 


12 
4 
8 


6 

4 
2 


19 
12 

7 


9 
6 
3 


9 

4 
5 


10 
7 
3 


9 
5 
4 


11 
8 
3 


9 
5 
4 


9 
6 
3 


Research 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 


6 
4 
2 


1 

1 

* 


3 

2 
1 


9 
6 
3 


2 
1 
1 


7 
5 
2 


4 
2 
2 


1 

1 

* 


3 
2 
1 


4 
3 
1 


4 
3 
1 


7 
5 
2 


Operations and Support 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 


45 

5 

40 


50 

5 

45 


41 

5 

36 


52 
5 

47 


41 

3 

38 


39 

5 

34 


30 

4 

26 


39 
8 

31 


45 

7 
38 


43 

6 

37 


51 

4 

47 


50 

4 

46 


*Less than 0.5% 



























89 



Figure 47A 



Number and Distribution of Permanent Full-Time Paid Personnel, 
by Governing Authority 



Base: Total full-time paid personnel 



/ 






t 



* 



£ 



i 



£ 




^ 



J 



./ 



^~ 



^ 






■Sj 



<& «? 

<£ ^ 



^ 




Total number of 
full-time paid personnel 



30,400 



18,300 



10,200 



2,400 



3,200 



4,600 



1,900 



1,100 



800 



% 



% 



% 



% 



% 



% 



% 



Administration 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 

Curatorial, Display, and Exhibit 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 

Education 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 

Research 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 

Operations and Support 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 



23 

12 
11 

17 

11 

6 

9 
6 
3 

6 
4 
2 

45 

5 

40 



23 

12 
11 

16 

10 

6 

11 

7 
4 

4 
3 
1 

46 

4 

42 



20 
10 
10 

18 
11 

7 

7 
4 
3 

6 

4 
2 

49 

6 

43 



23 
10 
13 

17 
10 

7 

10 
6 
4 

11 
8 
3 

39 

5 

34 



22 


17 


12 


9 


10 


8 


22 


13 


13 


9 


9 


4 


11 


4 


6 


2 


5 


2 


8 


1 


5 


1 


3 


* 


37 


65 


6 


7 


31 


58 



25 
14 
11 

27 

18 

9 

9 

5 
4 

9 

7 
2 

30 

4 

26 



21 


33 


12 


18 


9 


15 


23 


31 


15 


21 


8 


10 


10 


5 


5 


3 


5 


2 


10 


10 


7 


8 


3 


2 


36 


21 


4 


4 


32 


17 



"Less than 0.5% 



90 



Figure 48 



Number and Distribution of Part-Time Paid Personnel, 
by Museum Type and Budget Size 



Base: Total part-time paid personnel 



s? 




Total number of 


























part-time paid personnel 


18,700 


3,800 


4,400 


4,900 


1,500 


4,100 


2,500 


2,100 


3,400 


3,000 


1,900 


5,800 


Percentage of museums with 
part-time paid personnel 


84 


87 


82 


84 


85 


83 


71 


88 


89 


91 


90 


93 




% 


% 


0/ 

/o 


% 


% 


% 


% 


0/ 

/o 


0/ 

/o 


% 


% 


% 


Administration 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 


10 
3 

7 


16 

4 

12 


12 
5 

7 


6 
1 
5 


7 
2 
5 


5 
1 
4 


15 
8 

7 


17 

5 

12 


7 
2 
5 


8 
3 
5 


8 

1 

7 


7 

* 

7 


Curatorial, Display, and Exhibit 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 


10 
3 

7 


8 
5 
3 


10 
2 
8 


6 
1 
5 


10 
2 
8 


15 

2 

13 


10 
3 

7 


7 
3 
4 


10 
2 
8 


12 
5 

7 


9 

2 

7 


10 
2 
8 


Education 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 


27 
12 
15 


33 
26 

7 


24 

3 

21 


23 

9 

14 


41 

17 
24 


26 
12 
14 


24 

9 

15 


29 
12 
17 


28 
16 
12 


39 
11 
28 


32 
16 
16 


20 

11 

9 


Research 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 


5 
1 
4 


1 

1 

* 


2 

* 

2 


6 
2 
4 


4 
1 
3 


13 

2 

11 


2 

* 

2 


5 
1 
4 


13 

2 

11 


4 
1 
3 


5 
1 
4 


3 
1 
2 


Operations and Support 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 


48 
3 

45 


42 

7 

35 


52 

3 

49 


59 

1 

58 


38 

1 

37 


41 

2 

39 


49 

3 

46 


42 

7 

35 


42 

3 

39 


37 

8 

29 


46 

* 

46 


60 

* 

60 


*Less than 0.5% 



























91 



Figure 48A 



Number and Distribution of Part-Time Paid Personnel, 
by Governing Authority 



Base: Total part-time paid personnel 



^ 



/ 






/ 



# 



^ 



Jt 



J? 



/ 



£ 



«* 





Total number of 
part-time paid personnel 

Percentage of museums with 
part-time paid personnel 



18,700 



84 



11,900 



84 



4,900 



80 



1,000 



87 



1,900 



74 



2,000 



81 



1,900 



92 



1,000 



90 



900 



87 



fa 



o/ 
fa 



o/ 
fa 



fa 



o/ 
fa 



fa 



o/ 
fa 



o/ 
fa 



% 



Administration 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 

Curatorial, Display, and Exhibit 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 

Education 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 

Research 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 

Operations and Support 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 



10 
3 

7 

10 
3 

7 

27 
12 
15 

5 
1 

4 

48 

3 

45 



10 
2 
8 

10 
3 

7 

33 
17 
16 

3 
1 
2 

44 

2 

42 



9 

4 
5 

10 
2 
8 

16 

5 

11 

4 
1 
3 

61 

5 

56 



16 

10 

6 

3 

* 

3 

18 

4 

14 

1 
1 



62 

5 

57 



4 

i 

3 

17 

2 

15 

22 

6 

16 

6 
1 
5 

51 

3 

48 



8 
3 
5 

5 
2 
3 

10 
4 
6 

2 

* 

2 

75 

7 

68 



10 
3 

7 

14 
5 
9 

21 

4 
17 

22 

2 

20 

33 

2 

31 



11 
3 
8 

14 

4 

10 

32 

2 

30 

15 

1 

14 

28 

* 

28 



9 
3 
6 

15 
7 
8 

10 

7 
3 

30 

4 

26 

36 

4 

32 



"Less than 0.5% 



92 

Figure 49 



Number and Distribution of Volunteers, 
by Museum Type and Budget Size 



Base: Total volunteers 





Total number of 
volunteers 

Percentage of museums 
with volunteers 



64,200 



60 



23,900 



74 



17,700 



53 



9,700 



59 



3,600 



61 



9,300 



59 



15,200 



57 



10,800 



59 



14,500 



62 



7,100 



63 



8,000 



77 



8,600 



63 



0/ 

/o 



% 



% 



% 



% 



% 



% 



0/ 

/o 



% 



0/ 

/o 



0/ 

/o 



% 



Administration 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 

Curatorial, Display, and Exhibit 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 

Education 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 

Research 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 

Operations and Support 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 



16 
1 

15 

7 
2 
5 

38 
10 
28 

2 
1 
1 

37 

1 

36 



24 

1 

23 

5 
2 
3 

30 

7 

23 

1 

* 

1 

40 

2 

38 



14 

1 

13 

6 
1 

5 

46 
20 
26 

3 
1 

2 

31 

* 

31 



9 
2 

7 

8 
2 
6 

43 

9 

34 

5 
3 
2 

35 

1 

34 



10 
2 
8 

7 
2 
5 

36 

2 

34 

1 

* 

1 

46 

1 

45 



12 

2 

10 

7 
1 
6 

39 

5 

34 

3 
2 
1 

39 

2 

37 



24 

4 

20 

9 
2 

7 

33 

7 

26 

4 
1 
3 

30 

2 

28 



15 
1 

14 

4 

* 

4 

42 
29 
13 

2 
1 
1 

37 

1 

36 



18 
1 

17 

4 
1 
3 

23 

3 

20 

1 

* 

1 

54 

* 

54 



16 

1 

15 

10 
6 

4 

46 

7 
39 

2 

* 

2 

26 

4 

22 



8 

* 

8 

2 

* 

2 

54 

6 

48 

2 
1 
1 

34 

* 

34 



10 
1 
9 

11 
3 
8 

46 
12 
34 

5 
4 
1 

28 

* 

28 



♦Less than 0.5% 



93 



Figure 49A 



Number and Distribution of Volunteers, 
by Governing Authority 



Base: Total volunteers 



/ 



/ 



/ 



,^ 



/ 



<C 






:$ 






V 



? 



$ 






•>5> 8? 



^ 



Total number of 
volunteers 


64,200 


47,800 


13,400 


1,100 


2,000 


10,300 


3,000 


2,200 


800 


Percentage of museums 
with volunteers 


60 


72 


41 


53 


28 


47 


56 


60 


51 




% 


0/ 

/o 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


0/ 

/o 


% 


Administration 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 


16 

1 

15 


18 

2 

16 


12 

* 

12 


1 

1 

* 


9 

* 

9 


14 

* 

14 


10 

* 

10 


5 
5 


26 

1 

25 


Curatorial, Display, and Exhibit 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 


7 
2 
5 


7 
2 
5 


3 

* 

3 


14 

2 

12 


'5 

* 

5 


2 
2 


7 
1 
6 


5 
1 

4 


13 

1 

12 


Education 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 


38 
10 
28 


37 
12 
25 


41 

4 
37 


74 
1 

73 


51 

7 

44 


36 

3 

33 


36 
11 
25 


30 
13 
17 


54 

5 

49 


Research 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 


2 
1 
1 


2 
1 
1 


2 
1 
1 


7 
7 


1 

* 

1 


1 

* 

1 


2 

* 

2 


1 

* 

1 


3 

* 

3 


Operations and Support 

Professional 
Nonprofessional 


37 

1 

36 


36 

1 

35 


42 

* 

42 


4 
1 
3 


34 

1 

33 


47 

* 

47 


45 
3 

42 


59 

3 

56 


4 

* 

4 


•Less than 0.5% 





















94 



Thirty-seven per cent of the volunteers 
worked in operations and support, com- 
pared with the 45 and 48 per cent, respec- 
tively, of full-time and part-time personnel 
involved in this area. (Fig. 46, p. 86; Fig. 49, 
p. 92; Fig. 49A, p. 93.) Sixteen per cent of 
the volunteers worked in administration, 
seven per cent in curatorial, display,and 
exhibit, and two per cent in research. The 
number of volunteers classified as non- 
professionals exceeded the number classi- 
fied as professionals in all job areas but 
research, where the proportions were equal. 

The largest percentages of volunteers in 
each museum type worked in education and 
in operations and support. (Fig. 49, p. 92.) 
Administration accounted for a consider- 
ably higher proportion of volunteers in art 
museums (24 per cent) than in the other 
types of museums. The proportions of 
volunteers assigned to curatorial, display, 
and exhibit and to research are within each 
museum type similar to those in all 
museums. 

Among budget categories, the proportion of 
volunteers working in administration gener- 
ally decreases with size from 24 per cent in 
the under $50,000 museums to 10 per cent 
in the $1,000,000 and over museums. But, 
unlike full-time personnel, there is no cor- 
responding increase on this scale in the pro- 
portion of volunteers working in operations 
and support. Education accounted for larger 
percentages of volunteers in the $250,000 
and over museums than in the under 
$250,000 museums. (Fig. 49, p. 92.) 

In the three major governing authorities, the 
largest percentages of volunteers were used 
in education and in operations and support. 
Education accounted for 41 per cent of the 
volunteer staff in government museums, 
37 per cent in private nonprofit museums, 
and 36 per cent in educational institution 
museums. The proportion of volunteers 
working in operations and support was 
slightly higher in government and educa- 



tional institution museums than in private 
nonprofit museums. (Fig. 49A, p. 93.) 

Of all museum categories, federal museums 
had the highest proportions of volunteers 
working in education (74 per cent) and 
curatorial, display, and exhibit (14 per cent), 
and, along with private educational insti- 
tution museums, the lowest proportion 
(four per cent) working in operations and 
support. 

Distribution of Personnel 
by Museum Categories 

Budget Size 

Budget size to a great extent determines the 
way in which the full-time and part-time 
work force distributes among the various 
museum categories. Museums with budgets 
of $1,000,000 and over, which represent 
only five per cent of all museums, em- 
ployed nearly half (45 per cent) of the 
30,400 full-time personnel and approxi- 
mately one-third (32 per cent) of the 18,700 
part-time personnel. In sharp contrast, 
museums with budgets under $100,000, 
which account for 63 per cent of all mu- 
seums, employed only 15 per cent of the 
full-time and 24 per cent of the part-time 
personnel. (Fig. 50, p. 95.) 

Budget size has much less of an effect on 
the distribution of volunteers. Nearly 
two-thirds of the 64,200 volunteers were 
used by the 80 per cent of all museums 
with budgets under $250,000: 24 per cent 
worked in the under $50,000 museums, 17 
per cent in the $50,000 to $99,999 museums, 
and 23 per cent in the $100,000 to $249,999 
museums. The remaining 36 per cent of the 
volunteers distribute almost equally among 
the three larger budget categories, which 
represent 20 per cent of all museums. 

Museum Type 

Art and science museums, which together 
account for 35 per cent of all museums but 
64 per cent of the $1,000,000 and over 



95 



museums, employed more than half of the 
full-time work force. Twenty-six per cent of 
the full-time employees worked in art and 
29 per cent in science. (Fig. 51, p. 96.) 
History and other combined museums each 
employed 18 per cent of the full-time 
personnel and art/history museums nine per 
cent. There were less marked variations in 
the distribution of part-time staff among 
museum types. While art/history museums 
employed eight per cent of the part-time 



personnel, the remaining museum types had 
an almost equal share of these employees, 
ranging between 20 per cent in art and 26 
per cent in science. 

More than one-third (37 per cent) of all 
volunteers worked in art museums. This was 
substantially greater than these museums' 
share of either full-time or part-time per- 
sonnel. The next largest percentage (28 per 
cent) of volunteers served in history 



Figure 50 

Full-Time, Part-Time, and Volunteer 

Personnel by Budget Size 



Base: Total museum personnel 



Full-Time Paid 
(30,400) 



Part-Time Paid 
(18,700) 



100% 9% 

6% 
12% 

14% 




14% 
45% 







13% 

11% 

18% 

16% 

10% 
32% 





Volunteer 
(64,200) 



24% 



17% 



23% 





Under $50,000 

$50,000-99,999 

$100,000-249,999 

$250,000-499,999 

$500,000-999,999 

$1,000,000 and Over 



96 



museums, followed by science (15 per 
cent) and other combined (14 per cent). 
Art/history museums used six per cent 
of all volunteers. 

In addition to the variations found when 
examining the distribution of total full-time, 
part-time, and volunteer personnel among 
museum types, there also are interesting 
differences in the staff composition within 
each museum type. Although the total 



number of employees varies widely, in each 
type of museum volunteers account for the 
largest single percentage of all personnel 
and part-time staff for the smallest 
percentage. 3 (Fig. 52, p. 97.) 



3 This breakdown of staff by full-time, part-time, and 
volunteer employees is based solely on number of 
employees and in no way indicates the relative con- 
tributions of these individuals in terms of amount 
of time worked or job responsibilities. 



Figure 51 

Full-Time, Part-Time, and Volunteer 

Personnel by Museum Type 

Base: Total museum personnel 



Full-Time Paid 
(30,400) 



Part-Time Paid 
(18,700) 



Volunteer 
(64,200) 



100% 26% 

18% 
29% 

9% 
18% 







20% 
24% 

26% 

8% 
22% 





37% 

28% 

15% 

6% 
14% 






97 



More than two-thirds (67 per cent) of the 
35,600 staff members of art museums were 
volunteers. Twenty-two per cent were 
full-time employees and 11 per cent 
part-time. History museums, with a total of 
27,500 employees, also had a high pro- 
portion (64 per cent) of volunteers. Full- 
time employees represented 20 per cent of 
history museum personnel and part-time 
employees 16 per cent. A different pattern 
appears in the staff composition in science 
museums. These museums, with 23,600 
employees, had the highest proportion of 
full-time staff (38 per cent) and the lowest 
proportion of volunteers (41 per cent). The 



remaining 21 per cent of the science mu- 
seum employees were classified as part- 
time. Art/history museums employed 7,800 
personnel, of which 46 per cent were vol- 
unteers, 35 per cent full-time employees, 
and 19 per cent part-time employees. Of 
the 18,800 personnel working in other 
combined museums, 49 per cent were 
volunteers, 29 per cent full-time employees, 
and 22 per cent part-time employees. 

Governing Authority 

Private nonprofit museums, which account 
for 56 per cent of all museums and 62 per 
cent of the $1,000,000 and over museums, 



Figure 52 

Classification of Personnel 

Within Museum Type 

Base: Total museum personnel 



Total museum personnel 
113,300 

1. 35,600 

2. 27,500 

3. 23,600 

4. 7,800 

5. 1 8,800 



Full-time paid 
Part-time paid 
Volunteer 




2. History 



20% 



16% 




100% 

67% 



64% 



3. Science 




38% 






21% 


41% 








4. Art/History 




35% 


19% 


46% 






5. Other Combined 


29% 




22% 


49% 









98 



employed well over half of both the full- 
time (60 per cent) and part-time (64 per 
cent) personnel. (Fig. 53, p. 98.) Govern- 
ment museums, representing 34 per cent of 
all museums and 33 per cent of the largest 
budget museums, employed 34 per cent of 
the full-time and 26 per cent of the part- 
time personnel. The smallest percentages of 
full-time (six per cent) and part-time (10 per 
cent) employees are found in educational 
institution museums, which represent 10 per 



cent of all museums and only five per cent 
of the $1,000,000 and over museums. 

Private nonprofit museums also accounted 
for the great majority (74 per cent) of all 
volunteers. Twenty-one per cent of the 
volunteers worked in government museums, 
with municipal-county museums alone 
accounting for 16 per cent. Only five per 
cent of all volunteers worked in educational 
institution museums. 



Figure 53 

Full-Time, Part-Time, and Volunteer 

Personnel by Governing Authority 



Base: Total museum personnel 



Full-Time Paid 
(30,400) 



Part-Time Paid 
(18,700) 



Volunteer 
(64,200) 



100% 60% 




8% 




11% 




15% 
3% 

o 3% 





64% 



10% 



11% 



_ 




74% 




1% 




3% 




16% 

4% 
1% 





□ 



Private Nonprofit 

Government 

Federal 

State 

Municipal-County 

Educational Institution 

Public 

Private 



99 



Full-Time Personnel 

Characteristics 

As part of its investigation of the museum 
work force, the survey examined certain 
characteristics of full-time personnel — sex, 
ethnic group, union membership, and ed- 
ucation. (Fig. 54, p. 100.) The findings show 
that almost two out of three (63 per cent) 
of the full-time personnel are men, with 
this proportion slightly higher among 
professionals (66 per cent) than among 
nonprofessionals (61 per cent). The two 
job categories in which women constitute 
a majority of the full-time staff are adminis- 
tration (59 per cent) and education (57 
per cent). This, however, is largely because 
a high proportion of the nonprofessionals in 
these areas are women. The majority of 
professionals in all job areas are men. The 
division is closest in education, where men 
represent 53 per cent of the professional 
staff and women 47 per cent. The highest 
proportion of men, both professionals and 
nonprofessionals, is among operations 
and support personnel. 

A breakdown of total full-time personnel by 
ethnic group shows that approximately 
eight out of ten (82 per cent) are white. 
Eleven per cent are Black and four per cent 
of some other ethnic group such as Asian 
American, Spanish American, or American 
Indian. (This information was not reported 
for the remaining three per cent.) Of the 
professional full-time staff, six per cent 
are Black or of some other ethnic group. In 
none of the five job categories does this 
percentage rise above the 12 per cent in 
operations and support. There are more 
(21 per cent) non-whites among nonpro- 
fessionals, with this percentage highest (27 
per cent) in operations and support. 

A small percentage (16 per cent) of all 
full-time personnel were members of a 
union. Except for operations and support, 
where 17 per cent of the professionals 
belonged to a union, union enrollment was 



concentrated almost exclusively among 
nonprofessionals. 

An examination of the educational back- 
ground of all full-time employees shows 
that 56 per cent have less than a bachelor's 
degree. Eighteen per cent have a bachelor's 
degree, and 11 per cent a master's degree 
or doctorate. The great majority (71 per 
cent) of nonprofessional personnel have less 
than a bachelor's degree. Of professional 
staff members, 26 per cent have less than a 
bachelor's degree. Thirty-five per cent of 
the professionals have a bachelor's degree 
and 31 per cent a graduate degree, com- 
pared with nine and one per cent, respec- 
tively, of the nonprofessionals. Research 
has, of all job areas, the highest proportion 
(51 per cent) of professionals with a 
graduate degree. 

A comparison of the characteristics of 
full-time staff in art, history, and science 
museums shows the following: 

• Science has the highest proportion of 
men among full-time personnel, 72 per 
cent compared with 60 per cent in art 
and 57 per cent in history. 

• Blacks and members of other ethnic 
groups represent a higher proportion 
of full-time personnel in art and science 
(17 and 18 per cent, respectively) than 
in history (eight per cent) museums. 

• The only substantial union enrollment was 
among nonprofessionals in art and sci-. 
ence museums: approximately 27 per 
cent of these museums' nonprofessional 
full-time staff were union members, com- 
pared with nine per cent in history. 

• History museums have a slightly higher 
proportion (59 per cent) of full-time 
employees with less than a bachelor's 
degree than either art or science museums 
(51 per cent each). Nine per cent of the 
full-time personnel in history museums 
have a graduate degree, compared 

with 14 per cent in art and 11 per cent 
in science. 



100 



Figure 54 



Characteristics of Permanent Full-Time Personnel by Job Category 



Sex 



Ethnic Group Union Membership 



Education 



Base: Total full-time paid personnel 




v& 



Jp 



4" 



iF 



?c- 








0/ 

/o 


0/ 

/o 


% 


% 


0/ 

/o 


0/ 

/o 


% 


0/ 

/o 


0/ 

h 


0/ 

/o 


0/ 

h 


0/ 

/o 


0/ 

/o 


0/ 

/o 


Total Personnel 


30,400 


63 


37 


82 


11 


4 


3 


16 


69 


15 


56 


18 


8 


3 


15 


Professional 


11,000 


66 


34 


91 


3 


3 


3 


6 


81 


13 


26 


35 


22 


9 


8 


Nonprofessional 


19,400 


61 


39 


75 


16 


5 


4 


21 


63 


16 


71 


9 


1 


* 


19 


Administration 
































Total 


6,800 


41 


59 


91 


4 


2 


3 


6 


80 


14 


45 


28 


14 


4 


9 


Professional 


3,600 


63 


37 


94 


2 


2 


2 


4 


85 


11 


24 


38 


26 


7 


5 


Nonprofessional 


3,200 


16 


84 


87 


7 


3 


3 


8 


74 


18 


68 


17 


1 


* 


14 


Curatorial, Display, 
































and Exhibit 
































Total 


5,200 


61 


39 


91 


4 


3 


2 


10 


73 


17 


38 


26 


16 


8 


12 


Professional 


3,200 


67 


33 


94 


1 


3 


2 


7 


80 


13 


23 


33 


24 


12 


8 


Nonprofessional 


2,000 


51 


49 


86 


8 


3 


3 


14 


64 


22 


64 


15 


2 


1 


18 


Education 
































Total 


2,800 


43 


57 


83 


6 


3 


8 


6 


77 


17 


34 


36 


17 


2 


11 


Professional 


1,700 


53 


47 


86 


5 


3 


6 


4 


81 


15 


17 


48 


25 


2 


8 


Nonprofessional 


1,100 


25 


75 


77 


8 


5 


10 


8 


72 


20 


63 


20 


2 


* 


15 


Research 
































Total 


1,500 


61 


39 


87 


5 


5 


3 


6 


75 


19 


21 


32 


17 


20 


10 


Professional 


1,000 


69 


31 


89 


3 


4 


4 


3 


79 


18 


7 


33 


23 


28 


9 


Nonprofessional 


500 


41 


59 


81 


10 


6 


3 


11 


69 


20 


53 


31 


2 


1 


13 


Operations and Support 
































Total 


14,100 


80 


20 


71 


19 


7 


3 


26 


59 


15 


72 


6 


1 


* 


21 


Professional 


1,500 


82 


18 


85 


6 


6 


3 


17 


70 


13 


64 


19 


3 


- 


14 


Nonprofessional 


12,600 


79 


21 


70 


20 


7 


3 


27 


58 


15 


74 


4 


* 


* 


22 


* Less than 0.5% 

































101 



Figure 55 

Average Annual Salary 

of Full-Time Personnel, 

FY 1971-72, by Museum Type 

and Budget Size 

Base: Total full-time paid personnel 



H 



Professional 
Nonprofessional 



All Museums 



Art 




History 



Science 



Art/History 



Other Combined 



Under 
$50,000 



$50,000- 
99,999 

$100,000- 
249,999 



$250,000- 
499,999 



$500,000- 
999,999 



$1,000,000 
and Over 




$11,500 



$11,900 



$12,700 



$11,700 



$8,100 



$9,200 



$10,400 




$11,200 



1 3,600 



Salary Levels 

In FY 1971-72, the average annual salary of 
all full-time personnel was $8,500: Profes- 
sionals earned an average of $11,500, and 
nonprofessionals an average of $6,800. (Fig. 
55, p. 101; Fig. 55A, p. 102.) Fifty-one per 
cent of the professionals earned $10,000 or 
more, compared with seven per cent of the 
nonprofessionals; 39 per cent of the pro- 
fessionals earned from $5,000 to $9,999, 
while 65 per cent of the nonprofessionals 
had salaries in this range. 

Budget size is the clearest determinant of 
salary levels. The average annual salary for 
all full-time personnel increases from 
$6,300 in museums with budgets under 
$50,000 to $9,300 in those with budgets of 
$1,000,000 and over. Professionals earned 
$8,100 in the under $50,000 museums, com- 
pared with $13,600 in the $1,000,000 and 
over museums. Nonprofessional staff salaries 
increased on this scale from $4,400 to 
$7,300. (Fig. 55, p. 101.) 

Among museum types, average salaries for 
all full-time staff were highest in other com- 
bined museums ($9,100), followed closely by 
science museums ($9,000) and art mu- 
seums ($8,900). Art/history and history 
museums had the lowest salary levels 
($7,400 and $7,000, respectively). The aver- 
age pay for professionals ranged between 
$9,700 in history and $12,700 in science 
museums; for nonprofessionals it ranged 
between $5,500 in history and $7,200 in 
art, science, and other combined museums. 

Among governing authorities, average 
salaries for full-time personnel were 
$8,000 in private nonprofit, $9,100 in 
government, and $9,700 in educational in- 
stitution museums. In private nonprofit 
museums, professionals earned $10,900 and 
nonprofessionals $6,400; in government 
museums, the respective figures were 
$12,400 and $7,400 and in educational in- 
stitution museums, $12,300 and $7,200. 
(Fig. 55A, p. 102.) Federal museums had 



102 



Figure 55A 

Average Annual Salary of Full-Time 

Personnel, FY 1971-72, 

by Governing Authority 

Base: Total full-time paid personnel 



I 



All Museums 



Private 
Nonprofit 



Government 



Federal 



State 



Municipal- 
County 



Educational 
Institution 



Public 



Private 




11,500 



$10,900 



$6,400 



$12,400 




10,700 



$7,400 




$12,300 



$12,900 



$1 1 ,700 



Professional the highest salary levels, both for profes- 

Nonprofessionai sionals and nonprofessionals, of any mu- 

seum category, the average annual salary 
of all full-time personnel in these museums 
was $11,700, with professionals earning 
$16,500 and nonprofessionals $8,500. 

Senior Personnel 



The survey examined in some detail the 
senior staff members of museums. The 
description of senior personnel was re- 
stricted to job responsibility and was not 
based on length of time served in the 
current position. It was left to the director 
to determine which staff members, other 
than himself, should be classified as senior 
personnel. Each director then was asked a 
series of questions about himself and about 
$16,500 the three senior positions he considered 

most important to the museum. Information 
was obtained on job tenure and work ex- 
perience, formal and museum-related ed- 
ucation, as well as certain employee char- 
acteristics (age, sex, ethnic group, union 
membership) and salary levels. With the ex- 
ception of the following job descriptions 
of senior personnel, all data discussed in this 
section on senior personnel include the 
director as a senior staff member. More 
detailed information on museum directors 
is found on pp. 107-13. 

Eighty-nine per cent of the museums have 
senior personnel other than the director. 
The highest percentage of museums re- 
ported senior personnel among admin- 
istrative professionals (58 per cent) and cura- 
torial, display, and exhibit professionals 
(57 per cent). The next largest percentages 
of museums reported senior personnel 
among operations and support nonprofes- 
sionals (25 per cent), administrative non- 
professionals (24 per cent), and education 
professionals (22 per cent). Six per cent 
of the museums reported senior personnel 
among operations and support and re- 
search professionals. No more than one 
per cent have senior personnel among non- 



103 



professionals in curatorial, display, and 
exhibit, education, and research. 

Characteristics 

The majority (85 per cent) of all senior 
personnel, including the director, were 
full-time paid employees; and 10 per cent 
were part-time paid staff. Five per cent 
were full-time or part-time volunteers. Most 
of the senior personnel in each of the job 
categories were full-time paid staff. Volun- 
teer representation was highest among 
professionals in administration and research 
(10 per cent each), followed closely by 
directors, eight per cent of whom were 
volunteers. 

Nearly two-thirds (62 per cent) of all senior 
personnel are men. Women, representing 
38 per cent of senior personnel, accounted 
for the majority of senior employees in 
two job categories: administrative non- 
professionals, 96 per cent of whom are 
women, and education professionals, 52 per 
cent of whom are women. Approximately 
two out of five of the senior professional 
employees in administration (43 per cent), 
curatorial, display, and exhibit (41 per cent), 
and research (42 per cent) are women. The 
proportion of women is lowest among 
directors (28 per cent) and among opera- 
tions and support nonprofessionals (23 
per cent) and professionals (10 per cent). 

Budget size has a marked effect on the 
proportions of men and women among 
senior staff. More than half (54 per cent) of 
the senior personnel in the under $50,000 
museums are women, but this drops to 
eight per cent in the $1,000,000 and over 
museums. The ratio of men to women in 
art, history, and other combined mu- 
seums is similar to that in all museums. In 
science, a higher than average proportion 
(81 per cent) of all senior personnel are 
men; and in art/history, a higher than aver- 
age proportion (50 per cent) are women. 
Private nonprofit museums have a higher 
proportion (45 per cent) of women in senior 



positions than educational institution mu- 
seums (33 per cent) or government museums 
(29 per cent). Of all governing authorities, 
federal museums have the lowest propor- 
tion (21 per cent) of women in senior 
positions. 

The average age for senior personnel was 
44.7 years. Thirty-six per cent were under 40 
years of age, and another 46 per cent be- 
tween 40 and 59 years of age. Eighteen per 
cent of the senior employees were 60 or 
more years old. Directors have the highest 
average age level (48.8 years) of any job 
category; the lowest levels are found among 
research and education professionals (40.1 
and 39.2 years, respectively). Within mu- 
seum type, the average age of senior per- 
sonnel is lowest in art (41.4 years) and 
highest in art/history and history (47.8 and 
47.6 years, respectively). 

Ninety-six per cent of all senior personnel 
are white, a somewhat larger proportion 
than that for all full-time personnel. Two 
per cent are Black and two per cent of 
some other ethnic group. The only job 
categories in which non-whites account 
for as much as nine per cent of the senior 
personnel are research professionals and 
operations and support professionals. 
Directors, 99 per cent of whom are white, 
have the lowest proportion of non-whites of 
any job category. There is little variation in 
the ethnic affiliation of senior personnel 
within museum type and governing author- 
ity. The most substantial non-white repre- 
sentation is in federal museums, where six 
per cent of the senior personnel are Black 
and six per cent of some other ethnic group. 

Only six per cent of all senior personnel 
were members of a union, with this mem- 
bership concentrated largely among opera- 
tions and support professionals (14 per cent) 
and nonprofessionals (12 per cent). Within 
museum type the incidence of union 
enrollment is highest in science and other 
combined museums, where approximately 



104 



Figure 56 

Senior Personnel: Years of Experience in 
Museum or Related Work and Years in 
Current Position, by Job Category* 

Base: Total senior personnel 



Average number of years 
in current position 

Average number of years 
of experience 






Years 



Total Senior 
Personnel 



Director 



Administrative 

Professional 

Personnel 



Administrative 

Nonprofessional 

Personnel 



Curatorial, Display, and 
Exhibit Professional 
Personnel 



Education 

Professional 

Personnel 



Research 

Professional 

Personnel 



Operations and 
Support Professional 
Personnel 




16.7 




11.6 





10.1 





10.6 




6.9 


14.8 


^^^" 


6.0 11.4 




^^^ 





Operations and 
Support Nonprofessional 
Personnel 

*Due to the very small number of senior personnel classified as curatorial, display, and exhibit, 
education, and research nonprofessionals, these job categories are not covered in this figure. 



10 per cent of the senior personnel be- 
longed to a union. Union enrollment among 
senior personnel was somewhat higher in 
government museums (10 per cent) than in 
educational institution (five percent) or 
private nonprofit (three per cent) museums. 

Work Experience and Education 

As a group, senior personnel have had an 
average of 12.9 years of experience in 
museum or museum-related work, with 6.6 
of these years spent in their current posi- 
tions. (Fig. 56, p. 104.) Directors have had 
the longest average number of years ex- 
perience (16.7), as well as the longest job 
tenure (8.1 years). Operations and support 
professionals follow, with an average of 
14.8 years spent in museum or museum- 
related work and 6.9 years in their current 
positions. Education professionals, who as 
noted previously are relatively younger in 
age than other senior personnel, have had 
the shortest average number of years of ex- 
perience (8.4) and, except for administrative 
nonprofessionals, the shortest job tenure 
(5.4 years). Among museum types, the total 
work experience of senior personnel ranges 
from an average of 14.4 years in science 
to 11.7 years in history. The average number 
of years spent in current positions ranges 
from 7.8 in science to 5.7 in art. 

Thirty-three per cent of the senior staff 
members have a bachelor's degree. An 
almost equal percentage have either a mas- 
ter's degree (23 per cent) or a doctorate 
(nine per cent). The remaining 35 per cent 
have less than a bachelor's degree. The 
proportion of senior personnel with a 
graduate degree is highest among directors 
(49 per cent) and research professionals (45 
per cent). Research professionals have 
the highest proportion of senior personnel 
with a doctorate, 23 per cent compared with 
16 per cent of directors. In other job 
categories, the proportion of senior person- 
nel with a graduate degree (primarily a 
master's degree) ranges between 37 per cent 
among curatorial, display, and exhibit pro- 



105 



fessionals and three per cent among admin- 
istrative nonprofessionals. 

Art museums have the highest proportion 
(45 per cent) of senior personnel with a 
graduate degree. Although a somewhat 
lower proportion (37 per cent) of senior 
personnel in science museums have a 
graduate degree, these museums have more 
individuals with doctorates (16 per cent) 
than any other museum type. The incidence 
of graduate degrees is lowest in history 
museums, where 19 per cent of the senior 
personnel have a master's degree and only 
five per cent a doctorate, and in art/history 
museums, where 21 per cent have a mas- 
ter's and six per cent a doctorate. History 
and art/history museums also have the 
highest proportions (44 and 40 per cent, 
respectively) of senior personnel with less 
than a bachelor's degree. 

According to directors, 65 per cent of the ' 
museums' senior personnel have had 
formal education directly related to their 
jobs. 4 The highest incidence of job-related 
educaton is found among directors (75 
per cent), followed closely by education 
professionals (73 per cent), curatorial, dis- 
play, and exhibit professionals (70 per cent), 
and research professionals (69 per cent). In 
the remaining job categories, the percent- 
age of senior personnel with job-related 
education ranges from 29 per cent among 
operations and support nonprofessionals to 
59 per cent among administrative profes- 
sionals. Within museum type, art and 
science have the highest proportions (76 
and 77 per cent, respectively) of senior 
personnel with job-related education, and 
history and art/history the lowest (54 and 
58 per cent, respectively). Sixty-five per cent 
of the senior personnel in other combined 
museums have had formal education related 
to their jobs. 

Responses indicate that the formal educa- 
tion of senior personnel is related more to 
subject areas of the museum than to ad- 



ministrative areas. Of the 65 per cent of 
senior personnel with formal job-related 
education, 21 per cent have studied science, 
14 per cent studio arts, 12 per cent art 
history, and eight per cent history. Un- 
derstandably, there is a direct correlation 
between the educational background of em- 
ployees and the types of museums in which 
they work. The percentage of senior per- 
sonnel that have studied science rises to 62 
per cent in science museums, the per- 
centage that have studied studio arts to 28 
per cent in art museums, and the per- 
centage that have studied art history to 24 
per cent in art and 20 per cent in art/his- 
tory museums. The percentage of senior 
personnel that have concentrated in history 
rises to 24 per cent in history museums. 

Twelve per cent of the senior personnel 
have had formal job-related education in 
museum administration, and only eight per 
cent have studied finance, business, and 
accounting. Even among directors and ad- 
ministrative professionals these percentages 
are not noticeably high: Nineteen per cent 
of the directors and eight per cent of the 
administrative professionals have studied 
museum administration; eight per cent of 
the directors and 18 per cent of the ad- 
ministrative professionals have studied fi- 
nance, business, and accounting. The pro- 
portion of senior personnel with formal 
education in finance, business, and ac- 
counting is, in fact, higher among admin- 
istrative nonprofessionals (29 per cent) than 
among directors or administrative profes- 
sionals. 

Salary Levels 

In FY 1971-72, the average annual salary of 
all senior personnel was $10,600. (Fig. 57, 



4 It was left to the director to decide what consti- 
tutes "formal education that directly relates to the 
job". Thus, responses represent the director's own 
evaluation of the level of education among the mu- 
seum's senior personnel. 



106 



All Museums 



Men 



Women 



Figure 57 

Average Annual Salary of 
Senior Personnel, FY 1971-72, 
by Museum Type and Budget Size 

Base: Full-time and part-time paid senior personnel 



$10,600 



$12,900 




Art 



History 



Science 



Art/History 



Other Combined 



Under 
$50,000 

$50,000- 
99,999 

$100,000- 
249,999 

$250,000- 
499,999 

$500,000- 
999,999 

$1,000,000 
and Over 



$12,200 



$8,500 



$13,200 



$9,800 



$10,400 






$6,700 



$8,700 



$11,300 



$14,300 



$16,900 



n 



$23,900 



p. 106; Fig. 57A, p. 107.) Thirty-six per cent 
of these employees earned between $5,000 
and $9,999 and 20 per cent less than $5,000. 
Forty-four per cent had salaries of $10,000 
and over, but only four per cent earned 
$25,000 or more. Particularly striking is 
the fact that men in senior positions 
earned almost twice as much as women in 
senior positions — $12,900 compared with 
$6,900. 

Directors had the highest average annual 
salary ($14,100) of any senior personnel. 
Research professionals follow, with an aver- 
age salary of $12,300. Curatorial, display, and 
exhibit professionals, who had an average 
annual salary of $9,800, earned less than 
administrative professionals ($10,100) and 
operations and support professionals 
($11,000), and just slightly more than ed- 
ucation professionals ($8,400). The lowest 
salary levels for senior personnel were 
among nonprofessionals in operations and 
support ($7,500) and in administration 
($5,000). 

The average annual salary for senior person- 
nel increases steadily with budget size, 
from $6,700 in the under $50,000 museums 
to $16,900 in the $500,000 to $999,999 
museums and to $23,900 in the $1,000,000 
and over museums. (Fig. 57. p. 106.) Men 
earned an average annual salary of $8,200 
in the under $50,000 museums, increasing 
to $24,700 in the $1,000,000 and over 
museums; salaries earned by women in- 
crease on this scale from $5,400 to $15,100. 

Senior personnel earned an average annual 
salary of $13,200 in science museums and 
$12,200 in art museums, compared with 
only $8,500 in history museums. (Fig. 57, 
p. 106.) Senior staff members in educational 
institution museums earned an average 
salary of $12,400, compared with $10,900 in 
government museums and $10,100 in pri- 
vate nonprofit museums. (Fig. 57A, p. 107.) 
The highest average salary levels of any 
governing authority ($13,600) were found 
in federal museums. 



107 



All Museums 



Men 



Women 



Figure 57A 

Average Annual Salary of 
Senior Personnel, FY 1971-72, 
by Governing Authority 

Base: Full-time and part-time paid senior personnel 



1 0,600 




$12,900 



Directors 

Characteristics 

Eighty-six per cent of the museum direc- 
tors were full-time paid employees, while 
six per cent were part-time paid personnel 
and eight per cent full-time or part-time 
volunteers. Within museum type and 
budget size, the proportion of directors 
that were full-time drops below 90 per cent 
in only three categories: history (81 per 
cent), art/history (83 per cent), and the 
under $50,000 museums (76 per cent). In 
these categories, from 11 to 15 per cent 
of the directors were full-time or part- 
time volunteers. 



Private 
Nonprofit 



Government 



Federal 



State 



Municipal- 
County 



Educational 
Institution 

Public 
Private 



$10,100 



$10,900 



$13,600 



$10,500 



$10,200 



$12,400 



$12,500 



$12,200 



Seventy-two per cent of the museum 
directors are men. (Fig. 58, p. 108.) 
Science has, of all museum types, the 
highest proportion (91 per cent) of male 
directors and art/history the lowest (57 per 
cent). Except in the under $50,000 mu- 
seums, where there are relatively even 
numbers of men and women serving in this 
position, the majority of directors in all bud- 
get categories are men. The proportion of 
women in this position drops sharply as bud- 
get size increases, from 46 per cent in the 
under $50,000 museums to no more than 
four per cent in any of the budget cate- 
gories of $250,000 and over. Men account 
for a higher proportion of directors in 
educational institution museums (83 per 
cent) than in government (79 per cent) or 
private nonprofit (66 per cent) museums. 

The average age of museum directors was 

48.8 years. Twenty-seven per cent were under 
40 years of age. Fifty-one per cent were be- 
tween the ages of 40 and 59, and the 
remaining 22 per cent 60 or more years old. 
Within museum type, the average age for 
directors ranges from 44.7 years in art to 

50.9 years in art/history. There is little varia- 
tion within governing authority or budget 
size, except that the proportion of directors 
under 40 years of age does decrease notice- 



108 

Figure 58 



Characteristics of Directors 



Base: Total museum directors 



^ 



£> 



S> 



S 



O) 



V5- 



*S 



<=v 



.^ 



A 



£< 



■$£' 



.$■■$> ' 



N\, 



«/«?o 



'C^ 



o/ 
/o 



% 



% 



% 



% 



% 



% 



% 



% 



% 



% 



0/ 

/o 



% 



Sex 

Male 
Female 

Age 

Under 30 

30-39 

40-49 

50-59 

60-69 

70 and over 

Average age 

Ethnic Group 

White 

Black 

Other 

Union Membership 

Member of union 
Not member of union 



72 
28 



19 
23 
28 
16 
6 

48.8 



99 
1 



5 
95 



78 
22 



9 
27 
28 
23 
11 

2 

44.7 



97 
2 
1 



3 
97 



65 
35 



8 
18 
19 
27 
19 

9 

50.4 



99 
1 



4 
96 



91 



7 
24 
21 
34 
14 



47.1 

99 
1 



7 
93 



57 
43 



8 

15 
23 
26 
17 
11 

50.9 



98 
2 



3 
97 



75 
25 



10 

12 
26 
31 
12 
9 

49.8 



99 

* 



10 
90 



54 
46 



12 

13 
17 
29 
18 
11 

50.7 



99 
1 



6 

94 



75 
25 



10 
30 
19 
23 

15 
3 

45.4 



96 
3 
1 



5 
95 



90 
10 



5 
28 
25 
25 
14 

3 

47.0 



97 
1 
2 



4 
96 



98 
2 



2 
15 
40 
31 

9 

3 

48.1 



99 
1 



4 
96 



96 
4 



17 
37 
30 
15 
1 

49.1 



99 
1 



6 
94 



98 
2 



9 
38 
36 

17 



50.7 

99 
1 



9 
91 



66 
34 



10 
18 

19 

30 

17 

6 

48.8 



100 

* 

* 



3 
97 



79 
21 



9 
20 
26 
21 
16 

8 

48.6 



98 
2 



9 
91 



83 
17 



21 
31 
32 
12 
4 

49.0 



97 
2 
1 



4 
96 



*Less than 0.5% 



109 



Figure 59 

Directors: Years of Experience in Museum or 

Related Work and Years in Current Position 

Base: Total museum directors 
Years 



Average number of years 
in current position 

Average number of years 
of experience 



n 



All Museums 



Art 



History 



Science 



Art/History 



Other Combined 



Under 
$50,000 



$50,000 
99,999 



$100,000 
249,999 



$250,000- 
499,999 



$500,000 
999,999 



$1,000,000 
and Over 



8.1 




16.7 


^^^^ 


6.3 




16.6 


^^^ 


6.9 


13.6 




^^^ m 






19.3 



11.2 



17.3 





21.8 




22.4 



ably from 25 per cent in the under $50,000 
museums to nine per cent in the $1,000,000 
and over museums. 

With the exception of federal and private 
educational institution museums, where 
non-whites account for a respective nine 
and seven per cent of directors, the nation's 
museums are headed almost exclusively 
by whites. Ninety-nine per cent of all 
museum directors are white. 

Five per cent of all museum directors be- 
longed to a union. Only in state museums 
does the proportion of directors who 
were union members rise above one in 
ten. 

Work Experience and Education 

Directors have had an average of almost 
17 years of experience in museum or 
museum-related work and have been in 
their current positions an average of just 
over eight years. (Fig. 59, p. 109.) Of all 
museum types, directors of other combined 
museums have had the longest experience 
in the field (20.6 years) and directors of 
art/history museums the longest job tenure 
(11.2 years). Science museum directors 
follow in both field experience (19.3 years) 
and job tenure (9.8 years). In contrast, 
history museum directors have had the 
least experience in museum or museum- 
related work (13.6 years) and art museum 
directors the shortest job tenure (6.3 years). 

As the budget size of the museum increases 
there is a corresponding increase in the 
total number of years the director has spent 
in the field, from 14.6 in the under $50,000 
museums to 22.4 in the $1,000,000 and 
over museums. While directors of the 
largest budget museums do have more years 
of experience, the number of years spent in 
current positions is not noticeably greater 
than that for directors of the smallest bud- 
get museums (8.5 years in the $1,000,000 
and over museums compared with 8.1 
years in the under $50,000 museums). 



110 



Twenty-eight per cent of the directors have 
a bachelor's degree, 33 per cent a master's 
degree, and 16 per cent a doctorate. 
Twenty-three per cent have less than a 
bachelor's degree. Approximately two-thirds 
of the directors of art (66 per cent) and of 
science (64 per cent) museums have a 
graduate degree, compared with 38 per cent 
of the history museum directors. A respec- 
tive 40 and 46 per cent of the directors 
of art/history and other combined museums 
have a graduate degree. The proportion 
of directors with a graduate degree 
increases with budget size, from 36 
per cent in the under $50,000 museums 
to 72 per cent in the $1,000,000 and 
over museums. Conversely, the proportion 
with less than a bachelor's degree decreases 
on this scale, from 33 per cent to five per 
cent. 

Three out of four directors reported 
that they have had some type of formal 
education directly related to their jobs. 
While more than 80 per cent of the direc- 
tors of art, science, and other combined 
museums have had formal job-related 
education, this percentage drops slightly to 
a respective 63 and 69 per cent in history 
and art/history museums. The only budget 
category in which less than 80 per cent of 
the directors have had formal job-related 
education is the under $50,000 museums 
(66 per cent). Among governing authorities, 
the proportion of directors with job-related 
education reaches its highest level in edu- 
cational institution museums, 92 per cent 
compared with 74 per cent in both private 
nonprofit and government museums. 
(Eighty-eight per cent of the directors of 
federal museums have had job-related 
education, contrasted with 74 per cent of 
the state and 68 per cent of the municipal- 
county museum directors.) 

Salary Levels 

The average salary of museum directors in 
FY 1971-72 was $14,100. (Fig. 60, p. 111; 
Fig. 60A, p. 111.) Sixty-six per cent earned 



$10,000 or more in this period, with only 
nine per cent earning $25,000 or more. 
Twenty-three per cent earned between 
$5,000 and $9,999. Eleven per cent of the 
museum directors earned less than $5,000. 
Men were paid almost twice as much as 
women, an average $16,000 compared with 
$8,800. (The high proportion of men among 
directors of large budget museums is one 
reason for this difference in salary levels.) 

Directors earned an average of $9,000 in the 
under $50,000 museums; salaries increased 
steadily to $24,500 in the $500,000 to 
$999,999 museums and to $33,200 in the 
$1,000,000 and over museums. In these 
largest budget museums, 39 per cent of the 
directors earned $35,000 or more. This 
compares with only three per cent in the 
next largest budget category, $500,000 to 
$999,999, and two per cent in the $250,000 
to $499,999 category. None of the directors 
in the under $250,000 museums earned as 
much as $35,000. The average salaries for 
directors of science and art museums were 
$17,900 and $16,600, respectively. The next 
highest salary levels were in other combined 
($13,500) and art/history ($12,500) museums. 
History museums paid the lowest salaries 
($11,600) of any museum type. 

Among governing authorities, average 
salaries of directors were higher in educa- 
tional institution museums ($16,500) than in 
government and private nonprofit museums, 
both of which paid $13,800. Public educa- 
tional institution and federal museums paid 
the highest average salaries ($17,700 and 
$17,400, respectively) of any governing 
authority. (Fig. 60A, p. 111.) 

Functions and Responsibilities 

Directors were asked to describe their 
major functions and responsibilities and 
to select from a list of eight activities the two 
they thought should be their first or second 
most important responsibilities. Directors 
then were asked how much time they 
actually spend on each of the eight activities. 



111 



Figure 60 

Average Annual Salary of Directors, 
FY 1971-72, by Museum Type 
and Budget Size 

Base: Full-time and part-time paid 
museum directors 



Figure 60A 

Average Annual Salary of Directors, 

FY 1971-72, 

by Governing Authority 

Base: Full-time and part-time paid 
museum directors 



All Museums 



Men 



Women 




$14,100 



$16,000 



All Museums 



Men 



Women 




$14,100 



$16,000 



Art 



History 



Science 



Art/History 



Other Combined 



Under 
$50,000 

$50,000- 
99,999 

$100,000- 
249,999 

$250,000- 
499,999 

$500,000- 
999,999 

$1,000,000 
and Over 





$16,600 








t 


1 1 ,600 










$1 7,900 










$12,500 






500 




$13, 






■ $9,0C 









$12,800 










$16,300 










$19,400 









■ $24,500 



Private 
Nonprofit 



Government 

Federal 
State 



Municipal- 
County 



Educational 
Institution 

Public 



Private 



$13,800 



$13,800 



$17,400 



$13,000 



$13,000 



$16,500 



$17,700 



$15,200 



$33,200 



112 



In describing their major functions and 
responsibilities, the largest single percentage 
(50 per cent) of the directors mentioned 
administration and office work. Forty-four 
per cent reported that they have complete 
responsibility for everything. Forty per cent 
of the directors cited responsibility for 
maintaining relations with the community 
or city, and 34 per cent supervision of 
staff. Construction and display of exhibits — 
the first non-administrative function to 
appear on the list — was described as a 
major responsibility by just under one-third 
(30 per cent) of all directors. Supervision 
of educational work was considered a major 
function by 25 per cent, maintenance and 
care of the collection by 24 per cent, re- 
sponsibility for formulation of and con- 
formity to the museum's financial plan by 
23 per cent, responsibility for acquisitions 
for the collection by 22 per cent, and or- 
ganization of activities such as classes, tours, 
and lectures by 21 per cent. 

Twenty-two per cent of the directors 
mentioned liaison with trustees and donors 
as one of their major responsibilities, and 
a lower 13 per cent mentioned raising funds 
and maintaining relations with donors. 
The other activities described by directors 
as major responsibilities were: serving 
in a curatorial capacity (17 per cent); main- 
tenance of building and grounds (16 per 
cent); research on the collection (15 per 
cent); receiving and cataloguing gifts/mate- 
rials( eight per cent); concern for the mu- 
seum's future development (eight per cent); 
and providing artistic and creative leader- 
ship (six per cent). 

Some noteworthy differences appear when 
the directors' descriptions of functions are 
compared by museum type, budget size, 
and governing authority. Construction and 
display of exhibits was cited as a major 
responsibility by more directors of art and 
other combined museums (45 and 41 per 
cent, respectively) than of art/history (26 
per cent), history (22 per cent), or science 



(20 per cent). Responsibility for acquisitions 
for the collection and providing artistic and 
creative leadership also were considered 
relatively more important by directors of art 
and other combined museums. Maintenance 
and care of the collection and maintenance 
of buildings and grounds were considered 
major responsibilities by larger percentages 
of history museum directors (29 and 22 per 
cent, respectively) than of directors of sci- 
ence museums (19 and 11 per cent, re- 
spectively) or art museums (17 and seven 
per cent, respectively). The relatively large 
number of small budget museums in the 
history category and the inclusion in this 
category of historic sites and museum vil- 
lages — where buildings and grounds 
themselves often are an integral part of 
exhibitions — may account partially for this 
variation. 

Among budget sizes, the percentages of 
directors that cited liaison with trustees and 
donors and raising funds and maintaining 
relations with donors as major functions 
was highest in the $250,000 and over 
museums. In contrast, directors of the under 
$250,000 museums gave relatively more 
emphasis to construction and display of 
exhibits, maintenance and care of the 
collection, and organization of activities 
such as classes, tours, and lectures. 

Directors of educational institution mu- 
seums view their responsibilities somewhat 
differently than those of other governing 
authorities. For example, relatively few of 
these directors considered any one of the 
following a major function: administration 
and office work (39 per cent, compared 
with approximately 53 per cent in private 
nonprofit and in government museums); 
responsibility for maintaining relations with 
the community or city (27 per cent, com- 
pared with approximately 43 per cent in 
private nonprofit and in government); 
maintenance and care of the collection (16 
per cent, compared with approximately 25 
per cent in private nonprofit and in gov- 



113 



ernment); and maintenance of buildings 
and grounds (four per cent, compared with 
approximately 18 per cent in private non- 
profit and in government). 

Responsibility for acquisitions for the collec- 
tion and construction and display of ex- 
hibits were cited as important functions by 
more directors of educational institution 
museums (44 per cent in each case) than 
of private nonprofit museums (21 and 30 
per cent, respectively) or government 
museums (16 and 26 per cent, respectively). 
Despite the fact that more than half of 
the government museums have a board of 
trustees, a relatively small number (11 per 
cent) of directors of government museums 
considered liaison with trustees and donors 
a major responsibility. This compares with 
28 per cent in private nonprofit museums — 
93 per cent of which have boards — and 22 
per cent in educational institution museums' 
— 40 per cent of which have boards. Raising 
funds and maintaining relations with donors 
also was considered a major function by a 
lower percentage of directors of government 
museums (four per cent) than of private 
nonprofit (17 percent) or educational insti- 
tution (21 per cent) museums. 



community activities (four per cent) ; and 
participation in outside organizations (one 
per cent). 

Most directors appear to be spending their 
time in those areas they feel should be of 
highest priority. (Fig. 61, p. 114.) Eighty-four 
per cent reported that they spend a great 
deal of time on administrative and staff 
responsibilities, and 53 per cent a great deal 
of time on policy and planning for collec- 
tions and exhibitions. (Less than five per 
cent of the directors spend no time on 
either of these activities.) Although dealing 
with trustees and advisory committees 
ranked third on the list of priority respon- 
sibilities, directors actually spend somewhat 
less time in this area than they do working 
on collections and exhibitions and working 
in their own museum-related specialty. 
More than one-third (38 per cent) of the 
directors reported that they spend no time 
on fund raising, an activity that ranked 
among the lowest on the list of directors' 
priority responsibilities. Only 15 per cent 
spend a great deal of time on fund raising; 
47 per cent spend some or little time on this 
activity. (The survey did not investigate the 
extent to which other staff members might 
be involved in fund raising.) 



Directors were given a list of eight specified 
activities and were asked which two they 
thought should be their first or second most 
important responsibilities. Nearly eight out 
of ten (78 per cent) singled out administra- 
tive and staff responsibilities as among the 
two most important. (Fig. 61, p. 114.) Fifty- 
seven per cent cited policy and planning 
for collections and exhibitions. Twenty-one 
per cent of the directors selected dealing 
with trustees and advisory committees as 
their first or second most important func- 
tion, and 17 per cent cited work on collec- 
tions and exhibitions. No more than one 
out of ten chose any one of the remaining 
activities on the list: work in own museum- 
related specialty (10 per cent); fund raising 
(eight per cent); personal participation in 



Employee Benefits and Perquisites 

Directors were asked the extent to which 
their full-time paid employees were covered 
by health and medical insurance, a retire- 
ment or pension plan, and life insurance. 
Responses show that health and medical 
insurance existed for all of these employees 
in 70 per cent of the museums and for some 
in five per cent. In almost all of the $100,000 
and over museums, every full-time em- 
ployee was covered. The proportion of 
museums providing coverage drops sharply 
in the smaller museums, especially the 
under $50,000 where in 42 per cent of the 
museums none of these employees was 
covered. 



114 



Figure 61 

Directors' Evaluations of Importance of 

Activities and Time Spent on Activities 

Base: Total museum directors 



A great deal 
Some or little 
None at all 



Percentage of Directors Considering Activity 
as First or Second Most Important Responsibility 



100% 



78% 




17% 



10% 




Administrative and 
staff responsibilities 



Policy and planning for 
collections and 
exhibitions 



Work on collections 
and exhibitions 



Work in own museum- 
related specialty 



Dealing with trustees 
or advisory committee 



! ' ! Personal participation 

in community activities 




I 



I 

n 



Fund raising 



1%1 Participation in 

outside professional 
organizations 



20% 



Time Spent on Activity 


84% 14% 2% 






53% 43% 4% 









38% 


54% 


8% 









25% 51% 


24% 







67% 13% 




115 



Retirement or pension plans were available 
for all full-time personnel in 59 per cent of 
the museums and for some in six per cent. 
The percentage of museums offering this 
type of benefit for all of these employees 
decreases from 93 per cent in the 
$1,000,000 and over group to 42 per cent 
in the under $50,000. 

Life insurance was made available less often 
than the other benefits, with 45 per cent of 
the museums offering it for all full-time em- 
ployees and five per cent for some. Among 
budget sizes, the percentage of museums 
offering life insurance for all of these 
employees decreases from 83 per cent in 
the $1,000,000 and over category to 25 per 
cent in the under $50,000. The survey did 
not investigate the adequacy of insurance 
coverage and pension plans. However, 
it is significant that in some museums, 
especially those with small budgets, none 
of the employees was offered any of these 
basic benefits. 

Levels of coverage for all three kinds of 
employee benefits are slightly higher in 
science than in the other types of museums. 
Among governing authorities, coverage 
is noticeably lower in private nonprofit 
museums than in government or 
educational institution museums. For ex- 
ample, 56 per cent of the private nonprofit 
museums offered health and medical in- 
surance to all of their full-time paid em- 
ployees and six per cent to some, compared 
with a respective 89 and seven per cent 
of the educational institution museums and 
a respective 85 and four per cent of the 
government museums. Federal museums 
have the highest coverage levels of any 
governing authority, particularly for 
health, medical, and life insurance which 
were offered to all full-time paid employees 
in at least 95 per cent of these museums. 

Directors were asked which of ten given 
perquisites were offered or made available 
to any of the museum staff. Almost half (47 



per cent) of the museums offered none of 
the perquisites. Twenty-two per cent of- 
fered free or reduced-cost housing and 19 
per cent paid sabbatical or research leave. 
Less than 10 per cent of the museums 
offered any of the remaining perquisites, 
including tuition for family members, 
spouse's travel expenses, and free legal or 
accounting services. According to the 
directors, perquisites are offered primarily 
to senior staff members, including directors. 
Except in the case of free or reduced-cost 
housing, other staff members usually are 
not included. 

Budget size is a significant factor, with the 
percentage of museums offering no per- 
quisites markedly higher in the under 
$50,000 museums (52 per cent) than in the 
$1,000,000 and over (23 per cent). Fifty- 
three per cent of the government and 46 per 
cent of the private nonprofit museums 
offered none of the perquisites, compared 
with 30 per cent of the educational institu- 
tion museums. This is a reflection of the large 
percentage of educational institution mu- 
seums that offered paid sabbatical or 
research leave (54 per cent) and tuition for 
family members (40 per cent). 

Minority Employment 

Directors were asked if their museums had 
made any special efforts since 1966 to 
broaden minority employment in profes- 
sional staff positions, and if they felt that 
their museums had adequate representation 
of minority groups in these positions. Ac- 
cording to the responses, one out of four 
(25 per cent) of the museums had made 
special efforts to broaden minority em- 
ployment. Seventy-two per cent reported 
that no special efforts had been made, and 
three per cent were not sure. 

Responses varied little within museum type, 
with the percentage of museums that had 
made special efforts ranging from 20 per 
cent in art/history to 30 per cent in other 



116 



combined museums. The incidence of 
special efforts increases with budget size, 
from 16 per cent in the under $50,000 
museums to 48 per cent in the $500,000 to 
$999,999 museums and to a substantial 
67 per cent in the $1,000,000 and over 
museums. Among governing authorities, 
special efforts to increase minority 
employment were made more frequently 
by educational institution (36 per cent) and 
government (33 per cent) museums 
than by private nonprofit museums (19 per 
cent). Federal museums, 69 per cent of which 
reported efforts to increase minority em- 
ployment, had the highest incidence of 
special efforts of any museum category. 
Thirty per cent of state and 21 per cent 
of municipal-county museums had made 
special efforts to increase minority em- 
ployment. 

Directors divided almost equally on the 
question of adequate representation of 
minority groups at the professional level in 
their museums. Forty-four per cent felt that 
representation was adequate; 45 per cent 
felt that it was not. (Eleven per cent were 
not sure.) There is a direct correlation 
between the percentage of museums that 
had made special efforts to broaden 
minority employment and the percentage 
that considered minority representation 
inadequate. This is seen most clearly within 
budget size. The under $50,000 category, 
which had the lowest proportion of muse- 
ums that had made special efforts, also 
had the lowest proportion (36 per cent) that 
considered representation inadequate. 
Conversely, the $1,000,000 and over cate- 
gory, with the highest proportion of 
museums making special efforts, had the 
highest proportion (62 per cent) considering 
representation inadequate. 

The 45 per cent of directors who felt that 
minority representation was not adequate 
were asked if their museums had any 
plans for broadening representation at the 
professional staff level. Thirty-two per 



cent responded that such plans did exist, 
64 per cent had no plans, and four per 
cent were not sure. The most marked varia- 
tions in responses to this question occur- 
red among budget sizes: The percentage 
of directors responding that their museums 
had plans for broadening minority 
representation increased from 10 per 
cent in the under $50,000 museums to 72 
per cent in the $1,000,000 and over 
category. Among governing authorities, 
two-thirds of the directors of federal 
museums reported plans for broadening 
representation, but in no other category 
did this percentage rise above the 37 per 
cent in state museums. 

Responses to the preceding questions on 
minority employment in professional staff 
positions do not suggest necessarily that 
smaller museums are indifferent to ade- 
quate minority representation. These mu- 
seums have fewer staff positions to fill and, 
in addition, are more likely to be located 
outside of major urban areas where many 
minority groups are concentrated. 



Need for Additional Staff 

For each of the five major job areas exam- 
ined in the survey, no less than 47 per 
cent of the museum directors reported the 
need for additional staff. Curatorial, display, 
and exhibit was the most understaffed, with 
61 per cent of the directors citing the need 
for additional personnel in this area. Edu- 
cation was second on the list (57 per cent), 
followed by operations and support (53 per 
cent), administration (52 per cent), and 
research (47 per cent). 

In art museums, almost equal numbers of 
directors expressed the need for additional 
staff in curatorial, display, and exhibit (66 
per cent), administration (66 per cent), and 
operations and support (65 per cent). In 
science museums, the need for staff was 
greatest in education (67 per cent), cura- 



117 



torial, display, and exhibit (66 per cent), and 
operations and support (63 per cent). The 
percentages of directors citing the need for 
additional staff in each of the job areas was 
lowest in history and art/history. In history 
museums, the areas most in need of addi- 
tional staff were curatorial, display, and 
exhibit (55 per cent) and education (52 per 
cent). The areas most frequently cited in 
art/history museums were operations and 
support (52 per cent), curatorial, display, 
and exhibit (48 per cent), and education (47 
per cent). The largest percentage of direc- 
tors of other combined museums reported 
the need for additional personnel in cura- 
torial, display, and exhibit (69 per cent) and 
education (68 per cent). Other combined 
museums had, of all museum types, the 
highest proportion (62 per cent) of directors 
that cited research as an understaffed area. 

There is no consistent pattern within budget 
size or governing authority in the per- 
centage of directors citing the need for 
additional staff. In each of the job areas, 
needs generally were lower in museums 
with budgets under $100,000. Nevertheless, 
in none of the six budget categories did the 
percentage of directors reporting the need 
for additional personnel in any job area fall 
below 40 per cent. 

Except in the area of education, directors 
of government museums expressed the need 
for additional staff less frequently than 
directors of museums within the other gov- 
erning authorities. Fifty-eight per cent of the 
government museum directors cited educa- 
tion as an area requiring additional staff 
and 55 per cent curatorial, display, and 
exhibit. In private nonprofit museums, the 
areas of greatest need were curatorial, 
display, and exhibit (62 per cent), adminis- 
tration (59 per cent), and education 
(58 per cent). The most understaffed areas 
in educational institution museums 
were curatorial, display, and exhibit (72 
per cent) and operations and support (62 
per cent). 



For each job area, directors who had 
indicated the need for additional staff were 
asked to focus on the specific types of 
personnel needed within that category. 5 

In the curatorial, display, and exhibit area 
the primary need, cited by 61 per cent 
of the directors responding, was for exhibi- 
tion/display personnel. Forty-two per 
cent specified curatorial staff, 34 per cent 
cataloguers, and 32 per cent conservation/ 
preservation personnel. (Fig. 62, p. 120.) 

Of those directors who cited the need for 
more education personnel, the largest single 
percentage (28 per cent) specified instruc- 
tors and teachers. (Fig. 63, p. 121.) Twenty- 
three per cent mentioned the need for 
department heads to coordinate school 
programs, which is particularly interesting 
since the survey findings show that in 
many cases the level of cooperation between 
museums and schools in planning and de- 
veloping school programs is minimal. Other 
types of personnel needed in the education 
area were instructors for children (18 per 
cent), docents (16 per cent), workshop lead- 
ers (12 per cent), and guides (11 per cent). 

The primary staff needs in operations and 
support were for security guards and cus- 
todians, mentioned by a respective 45 and 
40 per cent of the directors responding. 
(Fig. 64, p. 122.) Following this are 
building maintenance personnel (18 per 
cent), preparators (14 per cent), gardeners 
and grounds attendants (12 per cent), in- 
stallers and exhibit technicians (12 per 
cent), and sales personnel (11 per cent). 

Directors expressed the need for a variety 
of personnel in the administration area. (Fig. 
65, p. 123.) Thirty-six per cent cited the 
need for public relations director/staff, 29 
per cent a publications chief, 28 per cent 



5 Research was excluded because the responses were 
not specific enough to divide the category by types 
of personnel. 



118 



clerical/secretarial staff, 24 per cent a 
librarian, and 22 per cent a financial officer/ 
business manager. 



Adequacy of Staff Training 
and Salaries 

In addition to inquiring about the need for 
additional staff, the survey sought the 
directors' opinions on the adequacy of 
academic and/or other training of full-time 
staff, other than senior personnel. Directors 
also were asked if they thought salaries paid 
these staff members were adequate or 
were, in fact, too low to attract the kinds of 
individuals needed by the museum. 

For each job area, a substantial number of 
directors of museums with full-time staff 
primarily assigned to that category con- 
sidered employee training adequate. This 
ranged between 72 per cent in the area of 
operations and support and 87 per cent in 
administration. The percentage of directors 
that considered salaries adequate was sig- 
nificantly lower, ranging between 42 per 
cent in administration and 58 per cent in 
research. 

In all but a few museum categories, the 
percentage of directors that considered 
training adequate surpassed the percent- 
age of directors that considered salaries 
adequate. Exceptions occurred in federal 
museums, art/history museums, and public 
educational institution museums. In federal 
museums, 78 per cent of the directors 
considered salaries of operations and sup- 
port personnel adequate, but a lower 
76 per cent considered training adequate. 
Ninety-seven per cent of federal museum 
directors thought that both training 
and salaries of education personnel were 
adequate. Sixty-seven per cent of 
art/history and 100 per cent of public 
educational institution museum directors 
considered both training and salaries of 
research personnel adequate. 



For every job area but research, the per- 
centage of directors that considered salaries 
adequate was higher in federal museums 
than in any other museum category. In 
research, the 87 per cent of federal museum 
directors that considered salaries adequate 
was exceeded only by the 100 per cent of 
public educational institution museum 
directors that felt this way. 

Even assuming that sufficiently high salaries 
could be offered, 34 per cent of all mu- 
seum directors felt it would be difficult to 
fill certain jobs because of a lack of trained 
or experienced personnel. According to 
these directors, the two kinds of personnel 
that would be most difficult to find are 
curators and exhibit/preparation specialists 
(each cited by 22 per cent of these 
directors), followed by conservators (13 per 
cent) and education staff (12 per cent). 
The only marked variations in responses to 
this question occurred within budget size. 
About half of the directors of the $250,000 
and over museums felt that they would have 
difficulty finding trained or experienced 
personnel, compared with approximately 
one-third in the under $250,000 museums. 

Only 27 per cent of the directors reported 
that their museums had formal in-service 
training programs for the staff. Among 
museum types, the percentage of museums 
conducting such training programs is 
highest in science (36 per cent), followed 
by art/history (33 per cent), other com- 
bined (32 per cent), history (25 per cent), 
and art (17 per cent). The incidence of 
in-service training programs increases 
steadily with budget size, from 21 per cent 
in the under $50,000 museums to 51 per 
cent in the $1,000,000 and over museums. 
Among governing authorities, these pro- 
grams were conducted more frequently by 
government (30 per cent) and private 



G The survey did not investigate museum training 
programs conducted by institutions other than mu- 
seums. 



119 



nonprofit (27 per cent) museums than by 
educational institution museums (18 per 
cent). Of all museum categories, the in- 
cidence of in-service training programs is 
highest among federal museums (57 per 
cent). 

Even fewer museums conducted training 
programs for museum personnel other than 
those on their own staff. Moreover, in more 
than half of the 14 per cent of museums that 
did conduct such programs in FY 1971-72, 
fewer than ten individuals completed the 
course. Again, budget size is a factor, with 
only seven per cent of the under $50,000 
museums offering this type of training 
program contrasted with 40 per cent of the 
$1,000,000 and over museums. Art, although 



having of all museum types the lowest 
proportion of museums with in-service 
training programs, had, along with other 
combined museums, the highest proportion 
(20 per cent) with programs for training 
personnel other than those on the museum 
staff. These programs were conducted least 
frequently by history museums (eight per 
cent). More educational institution museums 
(26 per cent) than government (15 per cent) 
or private nonprofit (12 per cent) museums 
offered programs for training other museum 
personnel. But, the proportion of educa- 
tional institution museums offering either 
in-service training or training for other 
museum personnel seems relatively low 
considering these museums' affiliation with 
universities and colleges. 



120 



Figure 62 



Job Areas in Which More Staff is Needed: Curatorial, Display, and Exhibit 



Base: The 61% of museums that 
need more curatorial, display, 
and exhibit personnel 




J° 









«$ 






c 



c 



5C- 



O 



.& 



r 



,£> 'So 

p £y 



c? 





0/ 

/o 


0/ 

/o 


% 


% 


% 


% 


All Museums 


61 


42 


34 


32 


3 


5 


Art 


55 


42 


37 


37 


_ 


6 


History 


70 


21 


43 


38 


5 


4 


Science 


57 


54 


18 


21 


5 


2 


Art/History 


38 


46 


28 


23 


8 


13 


Other Combined 


67 


58 


31 


27 


* 


6 


Under $50,000 


55 


32 


44 


26 


4 


10 


$50,000-99,999 


66 


40 


36 


31 


2 


3 


$100,000-249,999 


59 


45 


31 


34 


3 


4 


$250,000-499,999 


80 


47 


19 


45 


3 


2 


$500,000-999,999 


65 


73 


14 


32 


- 


- 


$1,000,000 and Over 


51 


58 


20 


35 


7 


2 


Private Nonprofit 


64 


44 


35 


31 


4 


6 


Government 


63 


32 


33 


38 


4 


3 


Federal 


50 


21 


48 


71 


- 


- 


State 


78 


31 


36 


38 


5 


- 


Municipal-County 


52 


35 


27 


30 


4 


6 


Educational Institution 


43 


50 


33 


18 


- 


7 


Public 


38 


62 


35 


21 


- 


7 


Private 


55 


30 


27 


14 




7 


*Less than 0.5% 















121 



Figure 63 



Job Areas in Which More Staff is Needed: Education 



Base: The 57% of museums that 
need more education personnel 



'*c 



of 



Sf 



* 



^ 



gs^ <° 






^ 



>C- 



^•' J? 






O .87 



'<? 



S\ 



.O ,G 



J? K 






c- 



5? 



s^ o 



Q 



^ 



(J 



f 



a? 






<c-s /c 






S\ 



C? 



-/ 
&£ 






0/ 

/o 



% 



All Museums 

Art 

History 

Science 

Art/History 

Other Combined 

Under $50,000 

$50,000-99,999 

$100,000-249,999 

$250,000-499,999 

$500,000-999,999 

$1,000,000 and Over 

Private Nonprofit 
Government 

Federal 
State 

Municipal-County 
Educational Institution 

Public 
Private 



28 

22 
28 
41 
26 
23 

28 
14 
25 
44 
51 
37 

30 
27 
33 
27 
24 
25 
37 
9 



23 

39 
16 
21 
20 
26 

13 
37 
35 
18 
15 
25 

26 
21 
11 
21 
26 
18 
10 
30 



18 

13 
26 
19 
5 
12 

15 
18 
19 
20 
21 
20 

12 
29 
42 
20 
29 
10 
10 
9 



% 



8 

5 

13 

10 

1 

5 

5 
7 
11 
13 
11 
11 

7 

12 

18 

16 

6 

2 

4 



<V 

/o 



16 

15 
16 
12 
29 
16 

23 
12 

7 
19 
25 

7 

16 
16 
20 
22 
10 
17 
14 
21 



0/ 

/o 



% 



0/ 

/o 



0/ 

/o 



0/ 

/o 



12 

9 
12 
14 
19 



14 
8 
9 

17 
11 

7 

13 
11 

12 

15 

8 

2 



11 

3 

18 

10 

4 

9 

15 
7 
9 

15 
4 
2 

8 
15 
12 
18 
15 
13 
12 
15 



8 

5 

10 
7 
9 



7 
8 
11 
3 
9 
7 

6 
11 
17 

8 
11 

5 

12 



4 
1 
3 
8 

2 

3 
2 
2 
3 
4 
2 

2 
3 

3 

5 
10 
12 

6 



9 

8 
9 
9 

5 

6 

5 

9 

13 

11 

11 



6 
11 
6 
6 
4 
9 



10 

12 
8 
10 
13 
12 

10 
7 

19 
4 
6 
9 

11 

8 

3 

7 

10 

13 

14 

12 



122 



Figure 64 



Job Areas in Which More Staff is Needed: Operations and Support 




Base: The 53% of museums 
that need more operations 
and support personnel 



O 



f 



£&■ 



r c7 



All Museums 

Art 

History 

Science 

Art/History 

Other Combined 

Under $50,000 

$50,000-99,999 

$100,000-249,999 

$250,000-499,999 

$500,000-999,999 

$1,000,000 and Over 

Private Nonprofit 
Government 

Federal 
State 

Municipal-County 
Educational Institution 

Public 
Private 



o/ 

/o 



0/ 

/o 



45 

51 
41 
40 
41 
48 

29 
42 
52 
63 
62 
65 

44 
48 
35 
71 
34 
41 
30 
58 



*Less than 0.5% 



40 

42 
40 
35 
34 
47 

38 
39 
47 
32 
46 
46 

46 
35 
21 
33 
43 
26 
21 
33 



% 



18 

15 

24 
23 
10 
14 

15 
17 
17 
31 
20 
24 

17 
23 
48 
19 
16 
14 
16 
12 



% 



0/ 

/o 



% 



14 

24 
8 

10 
6 

20 

13 
12 
14 
18 
34 
9 

11 
16 
8 
18 
17 
27 
23 
33 



12 

4 

6 

24 

16 

14 

7 
17 
12 
15 
12 
11 

12 

13 

15 

3 

19 

7 

9 

5 



12 

38 
5 
2 
2 
4 

12 
10 
13 
10 
12 
17 

14 
7 
2 
7 
9 
13 
15 
9 



0/ 

/o 



11 

12 

7 

7 

22 

14 

12 

9 

10 

20 



13 
10 
8 
19 
4 
4 
3 
5 



% 



o/ 
/o 



7 

7 

12 

10 

10 

1 
11 
10 
10 
22 
26 



11 

19 
5 

11 
8 
5 

14 



9 

12 

1 

5 

4 
3 
8 



11 

4 
10 
6 
6 
14 
6 
9 
2 



o/ 
/o 



24 
3 



10 
6 
6 

10 

7 

5 

7 



13 



% 



5 

17 

1 
3 
1 

5 
5 
3 

5 



6 
2 

1 
3 

5 

12 



% 



3 

5 

2 

12 

2 



4 
4 
6 

7 



0/ 

/o 



2 
4 

* 

3 

1 

1 
3 
2 
2 
4 



/o 



3 
4 
8 
8 

7 



1 

7 
4 



6 
3 

2 
5 
9 

15 



123 



Figure 65 



Job Areas in Which More Staff is Needed: Administration 




Base: The 52% of museums that 
need more administrative 
personne 



% 



0/ 

/o 



% 



0/ 

/o 



/o 



o/ 
/o 



°/ 
/o 



/o 



% 



% 



0/ 

/o 



0/ 

/o 



0/ 

/o 



All Museums 

Art 

History 

Science 

Art/History 

Other Combined 

Under $50,000 

$50,000-99,999 

$100,000-249,999 

$250,000-499,999 

$500,000-999,999 

$1,000,000 and Over 

Private Nonprofit 
Government 

Federal 
State 

Municipal-County 
Educational Institution 

Public 
Private 



36 

34 
37 
39 
21 
38 

31 
44 
27 
46 
43 
36 

34 
44 
33 
47 
48 
27 
25 
28 



29 

26 
31 
30 
24 
29 

30 
26 
27 
28 
45 
30 

31 
27 
20 
19 
36 
22 
15 
30 



28 

22 
29 
37 
18 
31 

28 
31 
23 
41 
26 
11 

25 
31 
22 
50 
23 
37 
42 
32 



24 

23 
28 
26 
25 
15 

25 
13 
27 
28 
38 
26 

28 
19 
35 
11 
17 
11 
17 
6 



22 

22 
17 
26 
21 
26 

14 
19 
22 
40 
28 
36 

23 
20 
15 
39 
10 
15 
19 
12 



16 

23 
12 
15 

17 
14 

13 

17 
17 
17 
23 
15 

23 
3 

3 

4 

7 

4 

10 



11 

16 
8 

13 
1 

11 



16 
19 

17 
15 

9 
12 

6 
11 
16 
18 
19 
18 



6 
7 
9 
6 
9 

11 
4 
5 
2 
6 

13 

10 
3 



5 
3 
6 



3 
4 
13 
2 
9 
2 

6 
3 

4 
4 
6 

4 



5 
5 

10 
4 

2 
4 

7 

7 



5 
3 
6 
5 

3 
4 
2 



4 
3 

2 
3 
4 
6 
2 
9 

4 
3 



5 
4 
4 
4 



4 
3 
4 



2 
6 
4 
1 

10 

3 
3 

7 
1 

10 
4 

16 



12 

17 
8 
14 
13 
11 



4 
20 
16 
19 
30 

11 
12 
9 
12 
14 
16 
21 
12 



124 



Chapter 8 



Facilities 



125 



Introduction 

Two out of five museums are using primary 
facilities at least 30 years old, with one in 
five housed in buildings more than 50 years 
old. Since their establishment, 59 per cent 
of the museums have constructed separate 
secondary facilities and 42 per cent have 
completed major additions to and renova- 
tions of existing structures. Still, the 
findings suggest that a substantial num- 
ber of museums occupy facilities that are 
outmoded in terms of the museum's 
ability to serve its public and perform 
its educational and other functions. For 
example, when asked to rate the adequacy 
of various aspects of exhibition and 
storage areas, less than half of the museums 
for which the items were applicable rated 
any aspect, except available exterior space, 
as fully adequate. Other types of facilities — 
including classrooms, libraries, and chil- 
dren's galleries — also were considered less ' 
than fully adequate by a sizable percentage 
of museums. When museums were asked 
to cite specific facilities they do not have 
but need, the one most frequently men- 
tioned was facilities for the preservation, 
restoration, or reconstruction of the 
collection. And even among the more 
than half that have such facilities, the great 
majority considered them less than fully 
adequate. 

The information presented in this chapter 
relates specifically to museum facilities 
currently in use. The chapter deals first with 
the construction of primary and secondary 
structures and additions to or renovations 
of these facilities. Following this is a 
detailed investigation of the adequacy of 
existing facilities, focusing primarily on 
exhibition and storage areas, and the need 
for certain other types of facilities. 
Museum policy regarding the renting of 
facilities also is discussed. The survey did not 
inquire about dimensions of building 
space. While the consultants thought this 
information would be useful, they also 



stressed the difficulty many museums 
would have in supplying accurate — and 
comparable — data. 

Construction, Additions, Renovations 

The construction of museum facilities 
predictably follows a pattern similar to that 
of the founding of these institutions — a 
steady increase from 1900 to 1939, a drop 
during the 1940's, and a rise again in the 
1950's and 1960's. (Fig. 1, p. 2; Fig. 66, 
p. 126.) Since 1950, however, construction 
(or acquisition, if historic site) of primary 
facilities presently in use has been sig- 
nificantly greater than the founding of 
museums. During this period, one-third 
(33 per cent) of the museums were founded 
but almost half (48 per cent) built new 
primary facilities. Although it is possible 
but unlikely that museums founded 
after 1950 may have replaced their facilities, 
the difference between the percentage 
of museums founded and primary facilities 
constructed indicates that approximately 
15 per cent of today's museums were 
founded prior to 1950 and also are 
housed in facilities built since that date. 

The proportion of museums that were es- 
tablished before 1950 but have constructed 
new primary facilities since then remains 
relatively consistent within budget size and 
governing authority. There are wide varia- 
tions, however, within museum type and 
region. About one-fifth (22 per cent) of 
the science museums were founded before 
1950 but have built primary facilities since 
then, compared with 11 per cent of both 
art and history museums. This percentage is 
even lower (four per cent) in art/history, 
but among other combined museums, all of 
which have some emphasis on science, 
it rises to 24 per cent. The differences are 
even sharper for the approximately one 
out of five art, history, and science museums 
founded before 1900. While 22 per cent 
of all science museums were founded 
before that date, only four per cent are still 



126 



Figure 66 

Construction Dates of 
Primary Facilities* 

Base: Total museums 



Before 
1900 



1900- 
1909 



1910- 
1919 



1920- 
1929 



1930- 
1939 



1940- 
1949 



1950- 
1959 



1960- 
1969 



1970- 
1972 



Not sure of date 



11% 



4% 



5% 



7% 



14% 



10% 



22% 



23% 



13% 



1% 



"Or acquisition dates if historic sites 



housed in primary facilities built then. 
Among art museums, 18 per cent were 
founded before 1900 and 10 per cent are 
still housed in primary facilities built then. 
Twenty per cent of the history museums, 
which include historic sites, were founded 
in this same period, and a relatively high 
18 per cent are still using primary facilities 
built then. 

Regional variations show that the Midwest 
(24 per cent), followed by New England 
and the Mountain Plains (17 per cent each), 
have the highest proportions of museums 
founded before 1950 but housed in primary 
facilities built since then. This drops 
sharply in the Southeast (nine per cent), 
the Northeast (six per cent), and the 
West (five per cent). 

The period since 1950 also has been the 
most active for construction of other 
than primary facilities. A majority (59 per 
cent) of all museums have constructed or 
acquired separate facilities, with much of 
the activity concentrated between 1960 and 
1969. 1 (Fig. 67, p. 127.) The percentage 
of museums with separate facilities varies 
most noticeably within museum type 
and budget size. Almost two-thirds of the 
history and science museums (65 per cent 
each) have separate facilities, compared with 
approximately 54 per cent of the art, 
art/history, and other combined museums. 
In history museums this results partly from 
acquisition of historic sites and buildings, 
and in science museums partly from 
construction of specialized buildings at 
zoos, planetariums, and aquariums. Among 
budget sizes, the proportion of museums 
with separate facilities predictably is higher 
in the $1,000,000 and over museums (78 per 
cent) than in the under $50,000 museums 
(52 per cent). 



1 The survey did not define primary and separate 
facilities. Some examples of separate facilities would 
be field research stations, workshops, or laboratories. 



127 



Figure 67 

Construction Dates of 
Separate Facilities* 

Base: Total museums 



Before 


■ 3% 




1900 


u 


1900- 


■ ' 


1909 


1 


1910- 


( 1 i<7, 


1919 


Q 


1920- 


■■■ 3% 


1929 


■ 


1930- 


1 1 b '' 


1939 




1940- 


^^H 5<7 t 


1949 


■ 


1950- 


1 1 


1959 


L 1 


1960- 




1969 




1970- 


l 


17 


1972 


1 




Not sure of date 


■ 2% 





37% 



D 



No separate facilities 



*Or acquisition dates if historic sites 

Multiple response question; 
percentages total more than 100. 



41% 



In addition to the construction of separate 
facilities, directors were asked about major 
additions to or renovations of facilities, 
aside from the acquisition or renovation 
of historic sites. Almost half (49 per cent) 
of the museums have renovated existing 
structures, and a slightly lower 42 per cent 
have made additions to facilities. The 
single most active year was 1972, when 
11 per cent of the museums completed 
renovations and seven per cent completed 
additions. 



Ownership 

The buildings and space of the 34 per cent 
of museums operated by a government 
agency are with few exceptions owned by 
the agency. The same is true, to a lesser 
degree, of the small percentage of museums 
governed by educational institutions. Own- 
ership varies more widely among the 56 
per cent of museums governed by private 
nonprofit organizations: While the gov- 
erning authority owns the facilities in the 
majority (66 per cent) of these museums, the 
remaining 34 per cent are housed in facili- 
ties owned by other authorities, primarily 
municipal, county, or state governments. 
(Municipal governments alone own the facil- 
ities of 18 per cent of all private nonprofit 
museums.) Only a small percentage are 
using facilities owned by groups such as 
church organizations and private and 
public universities or colleges. 

In almost all cases, those private non- 
profit museums that do not own their own 
buildings and space are provided the fa- 
cilities without charge; those that do own 
their facilities usually own them outright 
without a mortgage. However, consultants 
have noted that although these museums 
are free of rental or mortgage costs, they 
often are responsible for utilities, main- 
tenance, repairs, and remodeling, all of 
which may necessitate sizable expenditures 
by the museum. 



128 



Figure 68 



Adequacy of Exhibition and Storage Areas 




Base: Percentage of museums 
for which item was applicable 



o/ 

/o 



% 



0/ 

/o 



% 



% 



% 



% 



0/ 

/o 



% 



% 



% 



% 



% 



% 



Available exterior space 

Exhibition (86%) 

Fully adequate 
Somewhat adequate 
Barely adequate 
Not adequate 

Storage (62%) 
Fully adequate 
Somewhat adequate 
Barely adequate 
Not adequate 



Available interior space 

Exhibition (95%) 
Fully adequate 
Somewhat adequate 
Barely adequate 
Not adequate 

Storage (79%) 
Fully adequate 
Somewhat adequate 
Barely adequate 
Not adequate 



Lighting 

Exhibition (94%) 

Fully adequate 
Somewhat adequate 
Barely adequate 
Not adequate 



62 

15 
8 

15 



55 

16 

8 

21 



28 
29 
15 
28 



26 
25 
21 
28 



44 
26 
14 
16 



59 

15 

7 

19 



49 

13 

9 

29 



30 
36 
13 
21 



27 
27 
18 
28 



46 
27 
15 
12 



66 

14 

9 

11 



63 

15 

9 

13 



31 
31 
14 
24 



31 
23 
24 
22 



40 
24 
15 
21 



54 

20 

6 

20 



45 

29 

5 

21 



20 
24 
19 

37 



17 
24 
28 
31 



48 
28 
12 
12 



70 

12 

6 

12 



69 

7 

24 



32 

31 
13 
24 



36 
23 
11 
30 



44 
28 
12 
16 



55 
18 
11 
16 



46 
14 
13 
27 



24 
23 
16 
37 



19 
26 
20 
35 



41 
28 
15 
16 



65 

12 

9 

14 



57 
10 
10 
23 



28 
30 
13 
29 



27 
20 
22 
31 



37 
26 
17 
20 



62 
11 
13 
14 



58 
15 
12 
15 



28 
24 
17 
31 



23 
35 
22 
20 



45 
22 
16 

17 



66 
15 

4 
15 



49 

29 

4 

18 



27 
31 
16 
26 



31 
24 
19 
26 



51 

26 
11 
12 



41 

35 

3 

21 



51 

19 

5 

25 



30 
27 
18 
25 



25 
23 
22 
30 



61 

24 

5 

10 



52 

21 

7 

20 



50 
16 

7 
27 



27 
35 
10 
28 



26 
28 
23 
23 



44 
34 
10 
12 



64 

16 

5 

15 



58 

16 

4 

22 



33 

30 
14 
23 



19 
33 
19 
29 



37 

43 

8 

12 



64 
13 
10 
13 



53 

16 

9 

22 



27 
31 
16 
26 



25 
28 
20 
27 



42 
27 
15 
16 



58 

19 

5 

18 



58 

16 

9 

17 



29 
28 
12 
31 



27 
20 
24 
29 



48 
22 
12 
18 



59 
11 
11 
19 



51 

16 

3 

30 



31 
25 

17 
27 



27 
20 
23 
30 



41 
33 

14 
12 



129 



Figure 68 (cont'd) 



Adequacy of Exhibition and Storage Areas 



,-?> 



Base: Percentage of museums 
for which item was applicable 






9) 



<r 



^ 



a 



g 



&9 



o> 



£< 



Si 



O) 






.0.0/ 



>M 





% 


% 


0/ 
/o 


% 


% 


0/ 

/o 


0/ 

/o 


0/ 

/o 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


/o 


Lighting (cont'd) 
































Storage (79%) 
































Fully adequate 


44 


48 


39 


44 


51 


43 


34 


49 


51 


55 


54 


50 


41 


50 


39 


Somewhat adequate 


24 


21 


25 


30 


13 


26 


25 


20 


24 


23 


25 


30 


24 


23 


25 


Barely adequate 


14 


14 


15 


13 


10 


15 


17 


18 


10 


8 


7 


6 


13 


13 


20 


Not adequate 


18 


17 


21 


13 


26 


16 


24 


13 


15 


14 


14 


14 


22 


14 


16 


Protection against 
































fluctuation and extremes 
















' 
















of temperature and humidity 
































Exhibition (93%) 
































Fully adequate 


34 


35 


33 


45 


36 


23 


33 


31 


33 


31 


45 


40 


30 


41 


27 


Somewhat adequate 


20 


22 


16 


24 


20 


27 


14 


24 


26 


30 


27 


26 


20 


20 


22 


Barely adequate 


16 


16 


19 


15 


13 


11 


21 


11 


11 


14 


6 


13 


16 


16 


18 


Not adequate 


30 


27 


32 


16 


31 


39 


32 


34 


30 


25 


22 


21 


34 


23 


33 


Storage (77%) 
































Fully adequate 


32 


36 


28 


42 


32 


24 


31 


28 


31 


34 


42 


37 


29 


37 


28 


Somewhat adequate 


21 


27 


18 


25 


15 


19 


13 


27 


23 


26 


31 


30 


20 


20 


26 


Barely adequate 


15 


12 


17 


13 


8 


21 


19 


18 


9 


12 


6 


7 


16 


15 


13 


Not adequate 


32 


25 


37 


20 


45 


36 


37 


27 


37 


28 


21 


26 


35 


28 


33 


Protection against 
































air pollution 
































Exhibition (93%) 
































Fully adequate 


33 


37 


31 


47 


34 


22 


36 


29 


34 


26 


34 


36 


33 


35 


28 


Somewhat adequate 


23 


27 


20 


21 


27 


28 


19 


23 


26 


29 


35 


26 


22 


23 


31 


Barely adequate 


12 


7 


15 


9 


16 


11 


13 


11 


13 


12 


3 


9 


11 


14 


12 


Not adequate 


32 


29 


34 


23 


23 


39 


32 


37 


27 


33 


28 


29 


34 


28 


29 


Storage (76%) 
































Fully adequate 


34 


41 


30 


37 


30 


31 


35 


28 


31 


39 


41 


30 


33 


33 


39 


Somewhat adequate 


23 


27 


19 


27 


36 


19 


16 


32 


30 


21 


28 


31 


21 


26 


24 


Barely adequate 


12 


9 


13 


12 


4 


16 


14 


11 


8 


11 


6 


15 


12 


12 


9 


Not adequate 


31 


23 


38 


24 


30 


34 


35 


29 


31 


29 


25 


24 


34 


29 


28 



130 



Figure 68 (cont'd) 



Adequacy of Exhibition and Storage Areas 



Base: Percentage of museums 
for which item was applicable 



£> 



£> 



& 



& 



<s 



O) 



&" 



& y 



^ 



«? 



S" 



«\# 






«s 



W * v 






/o 



0/ 

/o 



0/ 

/o 



0/ 

/o 



% 



% 



0/ 

/o 



% 



0/ 

/o 



% 



% 



0/ 

/o 



% 



% 



% 



Protection against 
mold and mildew 

Exhibition (92%) 

Fully adequate 
Somewhat adequate 
Barely adequate 
Not adequate 

Storage (77%) 
Fully adequate 
Somewhat adequate 
Barely adequate 
Not adequate 



Protection against pests 

Exhibition (94%) 
Fully adequate 
Somewhat adequate 
Barely adequate 
Not adequate 

Storage (78%) 
Fully adequate 
Somewhat adequate 
Barely adequate 
Not adequate 



Protection against fire 

Exhibition (95%) 

Fully adequate 
Somewhat adequate 
Barely adequate 
Not adequate 



39 

27 
11 
23 



41 
24 
10 
25 



45 

31 

9 

15 



41 
29 
12 
18 



45 
31 
10 
14 



47 
24 
10 
19 



52 

22 

7 

19 



59 

21 

5 

15 



56 

22 

6 

16 



54 

27 

9 

10 



32 
30 
10 
28 



35 

24 
11 
30 



41 
33 
11 
15 



34 
33 
15 
18 



44 

31 

7 

18 



48 
26 
11 
15 



40 
28 
13 
19 



38 
34 
14 
14 



34 
30 
16 
20 



45 

35 

8 

12 



43 
26 
14 
17 



33 

35 

5 

27 



49 

32 

5 

14 



42 

34 

5 

19 



54 
15 
13 
18 



38 
25 
11 
26 



43 
20 
11 
26 



42 

33 

8 

17 



43 
23 
13 
21 



33 
41 

17 
9 



39 
26 
10 
25 



39 
23 
10 
28 



47 

27 

8 

18 



39 
26 
14 
21 



44 

31 

7 

18 



34 
28 
14 
24 



38 
28 
10 
24 



45 
27 
12 
16 



41 

29 

8 

22 



51 

25 

15 

9 



41 
26 
13 
20 



42 

24 

8 

26 



45 
32 
13 
10 



48 
24 
15 
13 



39 
32 
15 
14 



40 

34 

5 

21 



43 
20 
13 
24 



28 

52 

7 

13 



28 

50 

7 

15 



36 

42 

8 

14 



54 

24 

8 

14 



51 

27 

8 

14 



57 

31 

4 

8 



54 

28 

7 

11 



56 

26 

6 

12 



52 
22 
12 
14 



50 

21 

9 

20 



46 

35 

9 

10 



49 
22 
12 
17 



53 

31 

6 

10 



41 

24 

9 

26 



41 

25 

9 

25 



48 

26 

9 

17 



41 
27 
12 
20 



46 

31 

9 

14 



38 
32 
12 
18 



40 
26 
10 
24 



39 
39 
10 
12 



39 
34 
12 
15 



46 
27 
13 
14 



36 
29 
18 
17 



43 
16 
14 
27 



48 
28 
10 
14 



47 
21 
11 
21 



40 

40 

6 

14 



131 



Figure 68 (cont'd) 



Adequacy of Exhibition and Storage Areas 



Base: Percentage of museums 
for which item was applicable 






% 


% 


% 


0/ 

/o 


% 


0/ 

/o 


0/ 

/o 


0/ 

/o 


% 


/o 


0/ 

/o 


0/ 

/o 


0/ 

la 


% 


0/ 

/o 


Protection against fire (cont'd) 
































Storage (79%) 
































Fully adequate 


41 


55 


38 


43 


39 


29 


35 


51 


43 


32 


53 


50 


42 


38 


42 


Somewhat adequate 


28 


23 


29 


26 


27 


34 


28 


23 


25 


41 


22 


30 


24 


34 


29 


Barely adequate 


12 


8 


11 


14 


12 


17 


15 


8 


13 


10 


11 


6 


13 


11 


12 


Not adequate 


19 


14 


22 


17 


22 


20 


22 


18 


19 


17 


14 


14 


21 


17 


17 


Protection against theft 
















r 
















Exhibition (95%) 
































Fully adequate 


32 


44 


32 


28 


38 


23 


33 


17 


27 


27 


35 


34 


37 


29 


19 


Somewhat adequate 


33 


32 


34 


31 


27 


35 


31 


25 


36 


39 


45 


43 


30 


36 


39 


Barely adequate 


16 


13 


17 


18 


10 


20 


16 


16 


21 


19 


10 


10 


17 


14 


21 


Not adequate 


19 


11 


17 


23 


25 


22 


20 


22 


16 


15 


10 


13 


16 


21 


21 


Storage (79%) 
































Fully adequate 


40 


58 


40 


28 


32 


33 


40 


45 


41 


27 


43 


44 


44 


34 


40 


Somewhat adequate 


29 


29 


28 


29 


38 


30 


29 


19 


30 


42 


33 


36 


25 


35 


34 


Barely adequate 


14 


3 


15 


18 


8 


22 


15 


13 


11 


19 


16 


7 


14 


14 


11 


Not adequate 


17 


10 


17 


25 


22 


15 


16 


23 


18 


12 


8 


13 


17 


17 


15 


Protection against vandalism 
































Exhibition (95%) 
































Fully adequate 


23 


24 


26 


18 


28 


14 


27 


21 


17 


17 


21 


24 


26 


21 


10 


Somewhat adequate 


42 


46 


41 


34 


35 


48 


41 


39 


41 


45 


50 


47 


41 


42 


46 


Barely adequate 


13 


15 


12 


18 


13 


13 


10 


13 


18 


21 


13 


15 


12 


15 


16 


Not adequate 


22 


15 


21 


30 


24 


25 


22 


27 


24 


17 


16 


14 


21 


22 


28 


Storage (79%) 
































Fully adequate 


40 


62 


42 


23 


34 


28 


39 


42 


40 


28 


49 


40 


42 


35 


40 


Somewhat adequate 


31 


28 


28 


34 


31 


40 


29 


25 


35 


43 


28 


39 


30 


34 


33 


Barely adequate 


12 


1 


12 


16 


15 


17 


16 


6 


7 


16 


10 


10 


12 


12 


8 


Not adequate 


17 


9 


18 


27 


20 


15 


16 


27 


18 


13 


13 


11 


16 


19 


19 



132 



Exhibition and Storage Areas 

In examining the adequacy of facilities, the 
survey focused primarily on exhibition areas 
and storage space for the collection, both 
of vital importance to museums. Directors 
were asked to evaluate the same ten 
given aspects for both exhibition and stor- 
age areas, rating each on a scale of fully 
adequate, somewhat adequate, barely 
adequate, or not adequate. Aside from 
available exterior space, a minor considera- 
tion in most museums (except zoos), less 
than half of the museums for which the 
items were applicable rated any aspect of 
the exhibition or storage area fully ade- 
quate. Moreover, even combining the fully 
and somewhat adequate ratings indicates 
that a significant number of the nation's 
museums consider the present condition 
of exhibition and storage areas unsatis- 
factory. (Fig. 68, pp. 128-31.) Especially 
since the museum's ability to serve its public 
and perform its functions is tied closely 
to the adequacy of its facilities, the need for 
renovation or replacement of certain 
facilities would appear to be serious in 
many museums. 



Available Exterior Space 

• Exhibition (86 per cent) 2 : Earlier it was 
noted that exterior space, whether related 
to exhibition or storage areas, is a relatively 
minor problem for most museums. Well 
over half (62 per cent) rated exterior exhibi- 
tion space fully adequate and another 15 
per cent somewhat adequate. A low 15 per 
cent considered it not adequate. Only in 
the $250,000 to $499,999 budget category 
did less than half rate exterior space fully 
adequate, and this was partially offset 
by the 35 per cent that considered it 
somewhat adequate. 



• Storage (62 per cent) 3 : More than half 
(55 per cent) of the museums felt exterior 
storage space was fully adequate, with 
another 16 per cent rating it somewhat 
adequate. Twenty-one per cent considered 
it not adequate. A majority of the muse- 
ums in each category gave this item a 
fully adequate rating, except in art, science, 
other combined, and the $100,000 to 
$249,999 museums. But even in these 
categories the ratings did not fall below 
45 per cent. 



Despite the fact that a large number of 
directors considered their facilities less than 
fully adequate, consultants found the 
ratings of some aspects of exhibition and 
storage areas surprisingly high. This, 
according to the consultants, may be 
partly attributable to a lack of generally 
accepted standards in the field forjudging 
the adequacy of facilities. Directors may 
consider aspects of facilities adequate, but 
may be unaware of existing or potential 
problems. 



Available Interior Space 

• Exhibition (95 per cent): In contrast with 
exterior space, available interior space 
was considered one of the least adequate 
aspects of both exhibition and storage areas. 
A relatively low 28 per cent of the muse- 
ums felt interior exhibition space was fully 
adequate and an equal percentage rated 
it not adequate. Twenty-nine per cent con- 
sidered it somewhat adequate. Among 



The directors' evaluations of each of the ten 
given aspects — first in relation to the ex- 
hibition area and then in relation to the 
storage area — are treated below and in 
Fig. 68, pp. 128-31. 



2 The figures in parentheses represent the percentage 
of total museums responding to each item. 

3 Twenty per cent of all museums do not have 
storage space for the collection. Thus, the response 
base for each item in relation to the storage area 

is lower than that for the exhibition area. 



133 



museum types, interior exhibition space was 
of particular concern in science and other 
combined museums where 20 and 
24 per cent, respectively, rated it fully ade- 
quate, but 37 per cent each rated it not 
adequate. 

• Storage (79 per cent): The ratings here 
were almost identical to those given for the 
exhibition area. Twenty-six per cent of the 
museums considered interior space fully 
adequate, while 28 per cent rated it not 
adequate. It was considered somewhat 
adequate by 25 per cent. Again, science and 
other combined had the lowest ratings of 
any museum type: only 17 and 19 per cent, 
respectively, considered interior storage 
space fully adequate. 

Lighting 

• Exhibition (94 percent): Although less 
than half (44 per cent) of the museums 
considered lighting fully adequate, the great 
majority (70 per cent) felt it was fully or 
somewhat adequate. Only 16 per cent rated 
this item not adequate. In none of the 
museum categories did the fully or some- 
what adequate rating fall below 60 per cent. 

• Storage (79 per cent): As with the exhi- 
bition area, lighting in the storage area was 
considered fully adequate by less than half 
(44 per cent) of the museums, but the 
majority (68 per cent) rated it either fully 

or somewhat adequate. Eighteen per cent 
rated it not adequate. The proportion of 
museums rating this item fully or somewhat 
adequate remained consistently high in 
all categories, except the under $50,000 
museums where the rating dropped slightly 
to 56 per cent. 

Protection Against Fluctuations and 
Extremes of Temperature and Humidity 

• Exhibition (93 per cent): While more than 
half of the museums felt that protection 
against fluctuations and extremes of tem- 



perature and humidity was either fully 
(34 per cent) or somewhat (20 per cent) 
adequate, a relatively high 30 per cent 
considered it not adequate. In several 
categories this item was considered fully 
or somewhat adequate by slightly less 
than half of the museums: history (49 per 
cent), the under $50,000 museums (47 
per cent), and educational institution mu- 
seums (49 per cent). 

• Storage (77 per cent): The ratings here 
were similar to those given for the exhibi- 
tion area. Protection against temperature 
and humidity changes was considered fully 
adequate by 32 per cent of the museums 
and somewhat adequate by 21 per cent, 
but 32 per cent rated it not adequate. 
The categories in which the fully or some- 
what adequate ratings fell below 50 per 
cent were: history (46 per cent), art/history 
(47 per cent), other combined (43 per 
cent), the under $50,000 museums (44 
per cent), and private nonprofit museums 
(49 per cent). 



Protection Against Air Pollution 

• Exhibition (93 per cent) : The response to 
this item was similar to that for protection 
against temperature and humidity changes. 
While one-third (33 per cent) of the mu- 
seums rated it fully adequate and another 

23 per cent somewhat adequate, 32 per 
cent rated it not adequate. The most in- 
teresting variations occurred among mu- 
seum types, with this item rated fully 
adequate by a higher percentage of science 
museums (47 per cent) than of art (37 per 
cent) or history (31 per cent). It was 
rated fully adequate by 34 per cent of 
the art/history and 22 per cent of the 
other combined museums. 

• Storage (76 per cent) : Almost identical 
ratings were given this item in relation to 
the storage area. Thirty-four per cent of the 
museums considered it fully adequate 



134 



and 23 per cent somewhat adequate; 31 
per cent rated it not adequate. This type 
of protection was considered fully adequate 
by higher percentages of art and science 
museums than of the other museum types. 



were similar to those given for the exhibi- 
tion area. Forty-one per cent of the 
museums considered protection fully ade- 
quate and 29 per cent somewhat adequate, 
with 18 per cent rating it not adequate. 



Protection Against Mold or Mildew 

• Exhibition (92 per cent): Two-thirds of 
the museums reported that protection 
against mold or mildew was fully (39 per 
cent) or somewhat (27 per cent) ade- 
quate. Twenty-three per cent rated it 

not adequate. The percentage of museums 
rating this item fully or somewhat ade- 
quate was higher in art and science (71 
and 74 per cent, respectively) than in his- 
tory (62 per cent). Approximately two- 
thirds of the art/history (69 per cent) and 
of the other combined (63 per cent) 
museums gave this rating. 

• Storage (77 per cent) : About two-thirds 
of the museums considered protection 
against mold or mildew in the storage area 
fully (41 per cent) or somewhat (24 per 
cent) adequate, while 25 per cent rated it 
not adequate. Seventy-four per cent of 
the art and 68 per cent of the science 
museums rated protection fully or some- 
what adequate, compared with 59 per cent 
of history. These ratings in art/history and 
other combined museums were 68 and 63 
per cent, respectively. 

Protection Against Pests 

• Exhibition (94 per cent): Protection 
against pests was considered one of the 
more adequate aspects of the exhibition 
area. Almost half (45 per cent) of the 
museums rated it fully adequate and an- 
other 31 per cent somewhat adequate. Only 
15 per cent reported that protection was 
not adequate. 

• Storage (78 per cent): The ratings for 
protection against pests in the storage area 



Protection Against Fire 

• Exhibition (95 per cent): The response to 
this item was nearly identical to that for 
protection against pests. The great major- 
ity of museums rated it fully (45 per 
cent) or somewhat (31 per cent) adequate, 
while 14 per cent rated it not adequate. 

• Storage (79 per cent) : Forty-one per cent 
of the museums considered protection 
against fire in the storage area fully ade- 
quate and 28 per cent somewhat adequate. 
Nineteen per cent rated it not adequate. 
There were moderate differences within 
museum type, with the percentage of 
museums rating protection fully or some- 
what adequate ranging between 63 per 
cent in other combined and 78 per cent in 
art. 



Protection Against Theft 

• Exhibition (95 per cent): About one-third 
(32 per cent) of the museums reported that 
protection against theft was fully adequate, 
with another 33 per cent rating it some- 
what adequate. Nineteen per cent rated it 
not adequate. Protection against theft was 
given a higher fully adequate rating in 

art (44 per cent) than in history (32 per 
cent) or science (28 per cent). Thirty-eight 
per cent of the art/history and 23 per cent 
of the other combined museums rated it 
fully adequate. 

• Storage (79 per cent): Museums appar- 
ently are better protected against theft in 
the storage area than in the exhibition area. 
Protection was considered fully adequate 
by 40 per cent of the museums and some- 
what adequate by 29 per cent; 17 per cent 



135 



rated it not adequate. More than half 
(58 per cent) of the art museums rated 
protection against theft fully adequate, 
contrasted with 40 per cent of history, 33 
per cent of other combined, 32 per cent of 
art/history, and 28 per cent of science. 

Protection Against Vandalism 

• Exhibition (95 per cent) : Only 23 per cent 
of the museums rated protection against 
vandalism fully adequate, although a sub- 
stantial 42 per cent did consider it some- 
what adequate. Twenty-two per cent rated 

it not adequate. The fully adequate ratings 
for protection against vandalism were con- 
sistently low among museum types: 28 per 
cent in art/history, 26 per cent in history, 24 
per cent in art, 18 per cent in science, and 

14 per cent in other combined. 

• Storage (79 per cent) : Forty per cent of 
the museums rated protection against van- 
dalism in the storage area fully adequate, 31 
per cent somewhat adequate, and 17 per cent 
not adequate. Protection against vandalism 
was rated fully adequate by 62 per cent of 
art, compared with 42 per cent of history, 

34 per cent of art/history, 28 per cent of 
other combined, and 23 per cent of science. 

Other Facilities 

In addition to exhibition and storage areas, 
the survey investigated the need for and 
adequacy of a variety of other kinds of 
museum facilities, including classrooms, 
auditoriums, libraries, members' facilities, 
and public parking. It was first determined 
whether the museum had the facility and, if 
not, whether it was needed. For most of the 

15 areas listed, at least one-fifth of the 
museums reported that they do not have 
but need the facility. (Fig. 69, pp. 136-37.) 

Among all museums, the most frequently 
mentioned need was facilities for the 
preservation, restoration, and conservation 
of the collection: one-third (33 per cent) 



responded that they do not have but need 
such facilities. (Only 13 per cent reported 
that they neither have nor need them.) A 
greater percentage of art (44 per cent) 
than of history or science museums (37 
and 23 per cent, respectively) require this 
type of facility. Among budget sizes, the 
need decreases from 35 per cent of the 
under $50,000 museums to 12 per cent of 
the $1,000,000 and over museums. 

Equal percentages (32 per cent) of mu- 
seums expressed a need for separate 
exhibition areas or galleries for children 
and for an auditorium/theatre. At least 31 
per cent, however, responded that they 
neither have nor need such facilities. The 
percentage of museums requiring separate 
children's galleries was highest in history 
(38 per cent), while the need for an 
auditorium/theatre was greatest in science 
(42 per cent). 

Classrooms, lecture rooms, and studios — 
mentioned by 29 per cent of all museums — 
also were high on the list of needed 
facilities. Here the most noticeable 
variations occurred among governing au- 
thorities, with a considerably higher per- 
centage of government museums (40 per 
cent) than of private nonprofit (26 per cent) 
or educational institution (14 per cent) 
museums needing such facilities. 

Of the remaining facilities listed, 24 per 
cent of the museums reported that they do 
not have but need a workshop, 22 per cent 
members' facilities, and 20 per cent public 
parking. Twenty per cent require a field 
research station and 20 per cent a separate 
lab operation. (This is largely a reflection 
of science museums, approximately one- 
third of which need these two kinds of fa- 
cilities. The great majority of all museums 
neither have nor need them.) Among those 
facilities least needed by museums are 
storage space for the collection (15 per 
cent), restaurant/cafeteria (14 per cent), mu- 
seum shops or sales desks (13 per cent), 



136 

Figure 69 



Existence of or Need for Certain Facilities 



Base: Total museums 



£> 



o> 



i£ 



xS 



<V 



J" 



& 



69 O/ 






0/ 
/o 



0/ 
/o 



0/ 
/o 



% 



% 



0/ 
/o 



0/ 
/o 



% 



% 



% 



% 



% 



% 



% 



Facilities for preservation, 
restoration, or reconstruction 
of the collection 

Have 

Haven't but need 

Haven't and do not need 

Administrative offices 

Have 

Haven't but need 

Haven't and do not need 

Classrooms, lecture rooms, 
and studios 

Have 

Haven't but need 

Haven't and do not need 

Auditorium/theatre 

Have 

Haven't but need 

Haven't and do not need 

Restau rant/cafeteria 

Have 

Haven't but need 

Haven't and do not need 

Library 

Have 

Haven't but need 

Haven't and do not need 

Shop/sales desk selling 
museum-related items/books 

Have 

Haven't but need 

Haven't and do not need 



54 
33 
13 



84 
9 

7 



47 
29 
24 



37 
32 
31 



12 

14 
74 



75 
12 
13 



75 
13 
12 



35 
44 
21 



85 

10 
5 



67 
19 
14 



55 

29 
16 



11 
19 
70 



70 
16 
14 



75 
11 
14 



50 
37 
13 



79 
11 
10 



28 
34 
38 



25 

30 
45 



85 



72 
11 
17 



75 
12 
13 



60 
23 
17 



94 
4 
2 



62 
31 

7 



46 
42 
12 



27 
23 
50 



72 

19 

9 



70 
13 
17 



58 

34 

8 



73 
12 
15 



38 
28 
34 



23 

29 
48 



6 

17 

77 



76 

5 

19 



80 

11 

9 



71 

23 

6 



89 
8 
3 



60 
30 
10 



41 
34 
25 



12 

11 

77 



84 
9 

7 



73 

19 

8 



51 
35 
14 



71 
15 
14 



33 
33 
34 



20 
33 
47 



4 
10 
86 



63 
14 
23 



65 
17 
18 



42 
43 
15 



88 
8 

4 



44 
36 
20 



35 
39 
26 



8 
12 
80 



76 

17 

7 



77 
13 
10 



56 
32 
12 



96 
3 
1 



61 

21 
18 



48 
35 
17 



12 

15 
73 



86 
8 
6 



80 

12 

8 



60 
27 
13 



97 
3 



70 

24 

6 



64 
15 
21 



20 
23 
57 



85 
9 
6 



87 
8 
5 



64 
22 
14 



99 
1 



75 
21 

4 



66 

28 

6 



41 

30 
29 



82 

13 

5 



92 
4 
4 



84 

12 

4 



96 
2 

2 



79 

16 

5 



76 

23 

1 



63 
20 

17 



93 
5 
2 



96 
2 
2 



52 
35 
13 



83 

11 

6 



51 
26 
23 



38 
33 
29 



11 
15 

74 



78 
11 
11 



81 
12 

7 



57 
29 
14 



85 
6 
9 



36 
40 
24 



33 
33 
34 



13 

14 
73 



72 
15 
13 



69 
15 
16 



48 
38 
14 



86 
8 
6 



60 
14 
26 



44 
23 
33 



11 

7 
82 



61 
12 
27 



56 
14 
30 



137 



Figure 69 (cont'd) 



Existence of or Need for Certain Facilities 



Base: Total museums 




«»' 



A 



,<& 



6? 



a 



<? 



9v 






«8f 



S" 



#£■ 



vr.^> 





/^ 


f r 


(* 


/«? 


/ T 


/° 


/<? 


/ «r 


/ ^ 


/ <V 


/ <o 


/£c 


y <£ 


/o° 






% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


0/ 

/o 


% 


0/ 

/o 


% 


% 


0/ 

/o 


% 


% 


% 


Public parking 
































Have 


74 


68 


76 


85 


60 


74 


70 


79 


83 


69 


73 


69 


72 


78 


68 


Haven't but need 


20 


21 


17 


14 


27 


24 


22 


15 


15 


25 


21 


21 


20 


18 


26 


Haven't and do not need 


6 


11 


7 


1 


13 


2 


8 


6 


2 


6 


6 


10 


8 


4 


6 


Accessibility by public 
































transportation 
































Have 


68 


74 


59 


67 


87 


70 


61 


72 


70 


79 


84 


72 


66 


70 


71 


Haven't but need 


18 


16 


22 


23 


7 


16 


20 


14 


20 


15 


12 


24 


21 


15 


13 


Haven't and do not need 


14 


10 


19 


10 


6 


14 


19 


14 , 


10 


6 


4 


4 


13 


15 


16 


Members' facilities 
































Have 


31 


32 


34 


25 


30 


27 


32 


28 


23 


34 


32 


52 


39 


21 


17 


Haven't but need 


22 


27 


17 


24 


22 


27 


22 


21 


20 


22 


33 


22 


24 


23 


11 


Haven't and do not need 


47 


41 


49 


51 


48 


46 


46 


51 


57 


44 


35 


26 


37 


56 


72 


Separate exhibitions or 
































galleries for children 
































Have 


28 


34 


16 


42 


30 


37 


19 


34 


33 


39 


44 


50 


31 


28 


18 


Haven't but need 


32 


31 


38 


26 


32 


28 


34 


33 


30 


33 


33 


24 


34 


35 


16 


Haven't and do not need 


40 


35 


46 


32 


38 


35 


47 


33 


37 


28 


23 


26 


35 


37 


66 


Field research station 
































Have 


8 


4 


7 


16 


2 


13 


4 


4 


9 


17 


23 


30 


7 


9 


16 


Haven't but need 


20 


16 


13 


39 


10 


29 


19 


18 


24 


29 


23 


11 


16 


29 


16 


Haven't and do not need 


72 


80 


80 


45 


88 


58 


77 


78 


67 


54 


54 


59 


77 


62 


68 


Separate lab operation 
































Have 


17 


11 


12 


34 


6 


24 


9 


10 


21 


31 


41 


57 


13 


22 


22 


Haven't but need 


20 


17 


14 


31 


20 


26 


18 


23 


22 


19 


20 


11 


20 


19 


22 


Haven't and do not need 


63 


72 


74 


35 


74 


50 


73 


67 


57 


50 


39 


32 


67 


59 


56 


Workshop 
































Have 


59 


69 


45 


75 


42 


75 


43 


54 


81 


80 


88 


86 


55 


60 


75 


Haven't but need 


24 


22 


30 


17 


26 


18 


31 


33 


14 


9 


6 


7 


28 


21 


12 


Haven't and do not need 


17 


9 


25 


8 


32 


7 


26 


13 


5 


11 


6 


7 


17 


19 


13 


Storage space for the collection 
































Have 


80 


87 


76 


79 


78 


84 


74 


79 


85 


93 


93 


91 


79 


81 


89 


Haven't but need 


15 


12 


19 


10 


14 


14 


21 


16 


9 


5 


2 


7 


17 


13 


8 


Haven't and do not need 


5 


1 


5 


11 


8 


2 


5 


5 


6 


2 


5 


2 


4 


6 


3 



138 



and libraries (12 per cent). Except for 
restaurants, these facilities are found in at 
least three out of four museums. 



Having determined the need for certain 
facilities, the survey then investigated the 
adequacy of these facilities in museums 
that do have them. For each item examined, 
the responses according to museum type, 
budget size, and governing authority 
generally follow those of all museums. 
Facilities for the preservation, restoration, 
and conservation of the collection — 
topping the list of most needed facilities — 
were rated less than fully adequate by 
the highest percentage of museums with 
these facilities. Approximately one-third 
reported them barely adequate (20 per cent) 
or not adequate (12 per cent); only 28 per 
cent rated them fully adequate. 

Museums also gave relatively low adequacy 
ratings for classrooms, libraries, and sep- 
arate children's galleries. For example, of 
the three out of four museums that have a 
library, 33 per cent considered it barely or 
not adequate, while 38 per cent rated it 
fully adequate. Of the more than four out 
of ten museums with classrooms, lecture 
rooms, and studios, 34 per cent rated 
these facilities fully adequate but an equal 
34 per cent rated them barely or not 
adequate. Separate children's galleries, 
found in almost three out of ten museums, 
were considered somewhat more satis- 
factory: 45 per cent rated them fully ade- 
quate; 11 per cent rated them barely 
adequate and 14 per cent not adequate. 
At least half of the museums responding 
rated as fully adequate members' facilities 
(62 per cent), auditorium/theatre (56 per 
cent), public parking (56 per cent), and 
restaurant/cafeteria (55 per cent). 



Renting of Facilities 

Although a potential source of additional 
income, the renting of facilities was found 
to be an uncommon practice among mu- 
seums. Moreover, in those museums that do 
rent, the charges often are made simply 
to cover the museum's costs. Of the 27 per 
cent of museums that rented their facilities 
in FY 1971-72, about half (51 per cent) 
made them available to individuals and 
profit-making organizations as well as to 
private nonprofit organizations; the remain- 
ing 49 per cent rented only to private non- 
profit groups. In most cases, facilities were 
used for meetings, conferences, social 
gatherings, performing arts events, films, 
and lectures. 

Art museums rent much more frequently 
(44 per cent) than science (27 per cent), 
other combined (27 per cent), art/history 
(20 per cent), or history (19 per cent) 
museums. Among governing authorities, this 
percentage is considerably higher in pri- 
vate nonprofit museums (37 per cent) than 
in government or educational institution 
museums (14 and 13 per cent, respectively). 
The percentage of museums that rent their 
facilities ranges widely among budget sizes, 
from 13 per cent of the under $50,000 
museums to 48 per cent of the $1,000,000 
and over museums. 

Among the 73 per cent of museums that do 
not rent their facilities, the major reasons 
cited for not renting were lack of practical 
or usable space, the fact that facilities are 
available to outside groups or individuals 
free of charge, and government or museum 
policy. (The latter may account partly for the 
low incidence of renting among govern- 
ment museums.) Only a small percentage 
cited lack of demand or lack of security. 



Chapter 9 



Finances 

Introduction 

The total income of the 1,821 museums 
in FY 1971-72 was $513.3 million. Nearly 
two- thirds (63 per cent) of this amount was 
provided by the private sector, with the 
remaining 37 per cent derived from the 
public sector (federal, state, municipal- 
county governments). Operating expendi- 
tures, more than half of which were for 
personnel, totaled $478.9 million in this 
period, resulting in a net income of $34.4 
million. Fifty-five per cent of the museums 
had unexpended income totaling $49.7 
million at year end, 24 per cent managed 
to or were legally required to break even, 
and 21 per cent had a deficit totaling $15.3 
million. 

It is essential to understand that the $15.3 
million deficit in no way can be equated 
with the total financial need of museums. 
There are, rather, a number of critical 
factors that must be kept in mind when 
assessing financial need: 

• A substantial 66 per cent of the directors 
reported that their museum's operating 
budget did not permit full utilization of 
the museum's resources. These directors 
estimated that a median budget increase 
of 45 per cent was needed in the next 
two to three years alone. 

• Further, 36 per cent of all museums 
responded that since 1966, financial 
pressures had necessitated cutbacks in 
staff, facilities, or services. Such cutbacks 
resulted most frequently in reduced staffs, 
followed by reductions in building 
maintenance and repairs, reductions in 
hours and/or facilities open to the public, 
and cutbacks in publications, school 
programs, and services to researchers 
and scholars. 

• And, as discussed in Chapter 7, significant 
numbers of museums need additional 
staff, are concerned about inadequate 
salary levels, and rely heavily on volun- 
teers. 



139 



It is impossible to grasp the true picture 
of the financial condition of museums with- 
out taking all of these factors into account. 
In addition, the impact of inflation, clearly 
reflected in museums' rising costs between 
1966 and 1972, undoubtedly continues to 
have increasingly serious implications for 
the nation's museums. 

Museum finances are discussed and ana- 
lyzed in this chapter in two parts. The first 
section examines all budgetary data for FY 
1971-72,' beginning with a discussion of 
current funds: 



• Total museum income and sources of 
income. 

• Operating expenditures, including all 
expenditures from current funds except 
those for acquisitions of land, buildings, 
major equipment, and for collections. 

• Net income. 

• Extraordinary expenditures, defined as 
those expenditures for acquisitions of 
land, buildings, major equipment, and for 
collections that are charged against cur- 
rent funds but excluded from operating 
expenditures. 

• Current fund balance, or net cash po- 
sition, at year end. 

Non-current funds — endowment funds, 
funds similar to endowments, unexpended 
funds for land, buildings, equipment, and 
collections, and other special funds — are 
then considered in terms of additions 
to and deductions from the funds and 
balances at the beginning and end of FY 
1971-72. 



1 In the text, dollar figures have been rounded on 
the basis of the individual figure. Thus, in some 
cases, there may be a slight discrepancy between a 
total dollar figure and the sum of its parts. All dollar 
figures in the accompanying graphs are expressed as 
full figures. 



140 



The survey did not undertake to relate 
specific sources of income to specific areas 
of expenditures. Although it is widely as- 
sumed, for example, that funds received 
from municipal-county governments gener- 
ally are used by museums for ongoing 
operating expenses, this type of relation- 
ship between income and expenditures was 
not explored. 

The second section of this chapter focuses 
on the financial status of museums and 
their specific income needs. It examines 
increases in operating costs since 1966 and 
the extent to which financial pressures have 
resulted in cutbacks. Also discussed are 
the directors' evaluations of the adequacy 
of their museum's current operating budget 
and areas in which additional funds 
would be spent in the next two or three 
years, and the next five to ten. 

There are several special characteristics of 
museums that must be considered in rela- 
tion to the financial data presented in this 
chapter. First, the finances of museums 
must be analyzed with the understanding 
that these institutions are not intended to 
be profit-making or even self-supporting. 
Further, by definition, museums included 
in this survey hold nonprofit tax-exempt 
status. Their budgets, rather than repre- 
senting profit or loss statements, provide 
a useful itemization of the inflow and out- 
flow of funds, and it is in this regard that 
they are treated here. 

That museums are not profit-making insti- 
tutions is a fact understood by a substantial 
portion of the American public. The As- 
sociated Councils of the Arts' national pub- 
lic study revealed that no more than 15 per 
cent of the public thought that either art, 
history, science, or natural history museums 
are primarily self-supporting. The public, 
in addition, appears to have a realistic view 
of the differences in major support sources 
for the various types of museums. The 
largest percentage of the public considered 



government the main source of financial 
support for history, science, and natural 
history museums, and private donations 
and gifts from businesses the main source 
of support for art museums. The museum 
survey findings show that in FY 1971-72 
government support did account for a 
substantially higher proportion of total 
income in both history and science museums 
(48 and 44 per cent, respectively) than in 
art museums (21 per cent). Private support, 
which includes gifts and donations from 
individuals and businesses, represented 
32 per cent of total income in art museums, 
contrasted with 14 per cent in history and 
18 per cent in science. 

Clearly, the public has a more accurate 
picture of the financial situation of museums 
than that of the performing arts. According 
to the Associated Councils of the Arts' study, 
from 43 to 57 per cent of the public felt 
that noncommercial professional theatres, 
symphony orchestras, opera companies, and 
ballet or modern dance companies are pri- 
marily self-supporting, which is, of course, 
incorrect. 

Another important factor to be noted when 
considering the financial data presented in 
this chapter is the existence of certain legal 
or other restrictions on the financial prac- 
tices of museums. The consultants have 
noted that some museums, particularly 
those operated by government agencies, are 
not permitted to operate with a deficit or 
a surplus. In these museums, funds appro- 
priated for a fiscal year are based on the 
museum's budget request and estimate of 
revenues that can be generated from other 
sources. If the income generated exceeds 
the estimate, the excess sum may revert to 
the government treasury or may be carried 
over as a cash balance to the next fiscal 
year and then deducted from that year's 
appropriation. In either case, the museum 
is legally restricted from spending the excess 
income. 



141 



Figure 70 

Total Museum Income, FY 1971-72 

$513,341,000 



Private Sector Income 

$326,745,000 
63% 



Base: Total museum income 




Public Sector Income 

$186,596,000 

37% 



Private Support 

$109,290,000 
21% 



Operating Revenues 

$150,090,000 
29% 

Non-Operating Revenues 

$67,365,000 
13% 



Public Sector 
Income 




Private Sector 
Income 



Municipal-County 

$90,042,000 
18% 

State 

$35,776,000 
7% 

Federal 

$60,778,000 
12% 



Private nonprofit museums, in contrast, 
usually estimate their budgets for the coming 
year and then attempt to raise funds suffi- 
cient to meet anticipated costs. If the re- 
quired funds are not raised, there is a 
deficit; if fund raising exceeds expectations, 
there is a cushion for the following year. 

Museum finances are extremely complex. 
The museums themselves expended con- 
siderable time and effort in supplying finan- 
cial data, which then were reviewed 
thoroughly by Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. 
Both factors contributed significantly to the 
validity of the information presented in 
this chapter. 

Current Funds 

Income 

Of the $513.3 million total income received 
by the 1,821 museums in FY 1971-72, 63 
per cent ($326.7 million) was provided by 
the private sector and 37 per cent ($186.6 
million) by the public sector. 2 (Fig. 70, 
p. 141). 

"Private sector income" refers to private 
support, operating revenues, and non- 
operating revenues combined. It should not 
be confused with "private support," which 
is only one of the components of private 
sector income. The sources of private sector 
income were: 

Private Support ($109.3 million or 21 per 
cent of total income): Direct contributions 
from individuals, including donations and 
membership fees, accounted for almost half 
(45 per cent) of the total private support. 
(Fig. 71, p. 142.) Twenty-one per cent was 
provided by foundations, and a low six 
per cent by corporations (including corporate 
foundations). The remaining 28 per cent of 
private support came from intermediate 

- Total income does not include the value of gifts-in- 
kind, objects on loan for display, or similar additions 
to museum assets from public or private sources. 



142 



Figure 71 

Sources of Private Sector Income, 

FY 1971-72 

Base: Total private sector income, 
$326,745,000 



1 Private Support $109,290,000 

2 Operating Revenues $150,090,000 

3 Non- Operating Revenues $67,365,000 



General and special exhibit 
admissions 
$46,275,000 30% 



Museum shop and related sales 
$39,000,000 26% 



Facilities such as restaurants 
and parking lots 
$34,984,000 23% 



Tuition 
$9,092,000 





6% 



Admissions to lectures, 
films, performances 
$5,588,000 4% 

Other program charges 
$4,149,000 3% 

Fees for services to other museums 
$811,000 1% 

Miscellaneous 
$10,191,000 7% 




Other 
$1,897,000 2% 

United Fund organizations 
$2,933,000 3% 



Corporations 
$6,322,000 6% 

Special fund-raising events 
$12,373,000 11% 



investment income 
$63,216,000 94% 



Disposition of investment properties 
and other fixed assets 
$4,149,000 6% 



Allocations by colleges 
and universities 
$1 2,966,000 1 2% 



Foundations 
$22,676,000 21! 



Individuals 
$50,123,000 45% 



143 



sources, such as special fund-raising events 
and United Fund organizations, and from 
allocations by both public and private col- 
leges and universities. Funds allocated by 
colleges and universities include amounts 
originally received by these institutions from 
government as well as private sources. 

Operating Revenues ($150.1 million or 29 
per cent of total income) : Admission fees 
for general and special exhibitions gener- 
ated nearly one-third (30 per cent) of total 
operating revenues. (Fig. 71, p. 142.) Sales 
from museum shops accounted for 26 per 
cent, with another 23 per cent derived from 
service facilities such as restaurants and 
parking lots. The remaining 21 per cent of 
operating revenues came from sources such 
as tuition fees and admissions to special 
programs. Although operating revenues (or 
earned income) represented the largest 
single source of all museum income in 
FY 1971-72, it nevertheless accounted for 
less than one-third of total income. This 
finding indicates that while museums may 
attempt to increase their earned income, 
they are nonetheless forced to obtain 
substantial funds each year from other 
sources. 

Non-Operating Revenues ($67.4 million or 
13 per cent of total income) : Income on 
investments accounted for 94 per cent of all 
non-operating revenues. (Fig. 71, p. 142.) 
The remaining six per cent came from the 
disposition of investment properties and 
other fixed assets. 

The distribution of private sector income 
by governing authority shows that 83 
per cent went to private nonprofit museums, 
10 per cent to government museums, and 
seven per cent to educational institution 
museums. Among museum types, art 
received 38 per cent of the private sector 
income, science 26 per cent, art/history 15 
per cent, history 11 per cent, and other 
combined museums 10 per cent. 



The sources of public sector income were: 

Municipal-County Government ($90 million 
or 18 per cent of total income) : Forty-eight 
per cent of these funds went to municipal- 
county museums, 46 per cent to private 
nonprofit, three per cent to state, two per 
cent to federal, and one per cent to educa- 
tional institution museums. 



State Government ($35.8 million or seven 
per cent of total income) 3 : Sixty-one per 
cent of these funds went to state museums, 
32 per cent to private nonprofit, six per 
cent to educational institution, one per cent 
to municipal-county, and none to federal 
museums. 

Federal Government ($60.8 million or 12 
per cent of total income): Seventy-eight per 
cent of these funds went to federal mu- 
seums, 17 per cent to private nonprofit, 
three per cent to educational institution, 
and two per cent to state and municipal- 
county museums. 

The distribution of all public sector income 
by governing authority shows that a pre- 
dictably high percentage (63 per cent) of this 
income went to government museums. Pri- 
vate nonprofit museums received 34 per 
cent and educational institution museums 
three per cent. (In the survey, all allocations 
from colleges and universities to educa- 
tional institution museums were classified as 
private support. Nevertheless, it is likely that 
part of the funds received by public and, to 
a lesser extent, private educational institu- 
tion museums from the parent institutions 

3 Of this amount, $7.3 million came from State Arts 
Agencies in FY 1971-72 and was distributed to 
museums of all types: $2.9 million to history, $1.8 
million to art, $1.7 million to other combined, $0.5 
million to art/history, and $0.4 million to science. 
There are indications that State Arts Agency funding 
of museums is on the rise; information on this will 
be collected in a National Endowment for the Arts 
study of these agencies to be conducted in 1975. 



144 



Figure 72 

Dollar Income by Museum Type, 

FY 1971-72 

Compared with Distribution 
of All Museums by Type 



Museums by Type 

Base: Total number of museums 




Income by Museum Type 

Base: Total museum income 
$513,341,000 



History 

37% 

Science 

16% 

Art/History 

10% 



Other Combined 




Art 

• $125,638,000 

□ $ 32,528,000 

$158,166,000 



History 

• $35,754,000 

□ $33,203,000 

$68,957,000 



Science 



• Private sector income 
D Public sector income 



• $ 85,276,000 

□ $ 67,845,000 

$153,121,000 



Art/History 

• $47,636,000 

□ $ 5,807,000 

$53,443,000 



— Other Combined 

• $32,441,000 
□ $47,213,000 
$79,654,000 



initially came from government sources, 
particularly state government. Thus, the total 
support received by these museums from 
the public sector, directly and indirectly, is 
undoubtedly greater than three per cent.) 
Thirty-six per cent of all public sector in- 
come went to science museums, 25 per 
cent to other combined, 18 per cent to 
history, 18 per cent to art, and three per 
cent to art/history museums. 

Income by Museum Type 

The total income of art museums in FY 
1971-72 was $158.2 million. 4 (Fig. 72, p. 144.) 
An almost equal amount, $153.1 million, 
was received by science museums. Although 
numbering more than art and science 
museums combined, history museums, 
which include large numbers of small 
budget institutions, had a total income of 
only $69 million. Other combined museums 
had a total income of $79.7 million. Art/ 
history museums received $53.4 million. 

Private sector income totaled $125.6 mil- 
lion in art museums, $85.3 million in science, 
$47.6 million in art/history, $35.8 million in 
history, and $32.4 million in other combined. 
Public sector income totaled $67.8 million 
in science museums, $47.2 million in other 
combined, $33.2 million in history, $32.5 
million in art, and $5.8 million in art/ 
history. 

Art 

Of the three major museum types, art 
had the highest proportion of total income 
derived from the private sector (79 per 
cent) : 32 per cent from private support, 24 
per cent from operating revenues, and 23 
per cent from non-operating revenues. (Fig. 
73, p. 145.) The major sources of private 
support were contributions from individuals 



' For the total operating expenditures of each 
museum type, see Fig. 81, p. 155. For a summary of 
income and expenditures by museum type, 
see Fig. 84, p. 158. 



145 



and foundations. (The $23.2 million re- 
ceived by art museums from individuals was 
more than the combined amount received 
by history, $6.2 million, and science, $11.9 
million.) Operating revenues were derived 



largely from museum shop sales and tuition 
fees. The remaining 21 per cent of total 
art museum income came from the public 
sector, primarily municipal-county govern- 
ment. 



Private sector income 



Figure 73 

Sources of Income by Museum Type, 

FY 1971-72 

Base: Total museum income, $513,341,000 



Public sector income 



§ 



100% 



Art History Science Art/History Other Combined 

$158,166,000 $68,957,000 $153,121,000 $53,443,000 $79,654,000 



32% 




24% 




2i% 

13% 

2% 
6% 





14% 




30% 




8% 
10% 

24% 
14% 





1 8% 




30% 




8% 

24% 

3% 
17% 





18% 




61% 




10% 

3% 
4% 

4% 


I 



1 4% 




1 8% 




9% 
30% 

12% 




l/% 





Private Support 



Operating 
Revenues 



Non-Operating 
Revenues 



Municipal- 
County 



State 



Federal 



146 



History 

Compared with art and science, history 
museums had a lower proportion of total 
income derived from the private sector (52 
per cent) : 30 per cent from operating rev- 
enues, 14 per cent from private support, 
and eight per cent from non-operating 
revenues. (Fig. 73, p. 145.) The major 
sources of operating revenues were ad- 
mission fees and museum shop sales. Pri- 
vate support came primarily from contri- 
butions from individuals. 

Public sector income accounted for 48 per 
cent of the total income received by history 
museums. State government funds repre- 
sented a considerably higher percentage 
(24 per cent) of total income in these mu- 
seums than in either art or science. Fourteen 
per cent of total income was provided by 
the federal government and 10 per cent by 
municipal-county government. 

Science 

Science museums received 56 per cent of 
their total income from the private sector: 
30 per cent from operating revenues, 18 per 
cent from private support, and eight per 
cent from non-operating revenues. (Fig. 
73, p. 145.) The largest single source of oper- 
ating revenues was admission fees, followed 
by facilities such as restaurants and parking 
lots and by museum shops. The major 
sources of private support were founda- 
tions, allocations from colleges and univer- 
sities, and, more importantly, individual 
contributions. 

Forty-four per cent of total science museum 
income came from the public sector. Muni- 
cipal-county government provided 24 per 
cent of total income, and federal govern- 
ment funds represented 17 per cent, a 
higher percentage than in art or history. The 
remaining three per cent came from state 
government. 



Art/History 

In art/history museums, private sector in- 
come accounted for 89 per cent of total 
income, representing the largest proportion 
of income derived from this source by any 
museum type. (Fig. 73, p. 145.) Operating 
revenues, over half of which came from 
facilities such as restaurants and parking 
lots, represented a substantial 61 per cent 
of total income. Private support, primarily 
contributions from individuals and founda- 
tions, accounted for 18 per cent and 
non-operating revenues 10 percent. Eleven 
per cent of total income received by art/ 
history museums came from the public 
sector, with almost equal proportions 
provided by municipal-county, state, and 
federal governments. 

Other Combined 

Of all museum types, other combined had 
the highest proportion (59 per cent) of total 
income derived from the public sector. In 
fact, it was only among these museums that 
public sector income exceeded private 
sector income. Thirty per cent of total in- 
come came from municipal-county gov- 
ernment, 17 per cent from the federal 
government, and 12 per cent from state 
government. (Fig. 73, p. 145.) The remaining 
41 per cent of total income of other com- 
bined museums was provided by the private 
sector. Operating revenues, most of which 
came from admission fees and museum 
shop sales, accounted for 18 per cent of 
total income. Private support represented 14 
per cent and non-operating revenues nine 
per cent. 

Income by Budget Size 

Among budget sizes, the total FY 1971-72 
income went from $22.8 million in the 
under $50,000 museums to $64.4 million in 
the $500,000 to $999,999 museums, and rose 
sharply to $284 million in the $1,000,000 
and over museums. (Fig. 74, p. 147.) 



147 



Under 
$50,000 



$50,000 
99,999 



$100,000- 
249,999 



$250,000 
499,999 



$500,000- 
999,999 



$1,000,000 
and Over 



Figure 74 

Dollar Income by Budget Size, FY 1971-72 

Compared with Distribution of 
All Museums by Budget Size 



I 



Percentage of total museums 
Base: Total number of museums 

Percentage of total income 

Base: Total museum income, $513,341,000 



44% 







■ 5% 



I 



5% 



55% 



• Private sector income 
D Public sector income 



• $12,630,000 

D $10,202,000 

$22,832,000 



• $14,683,000 

D $12,002,000 

$26,685,000 



• $31,668,000 

□ $21,982,000 

$53,650,000 



• $37,181,000 

□ $24,576,000 

$61,757,000 



• $40,886,000 

□ $23,529,000 

$64,415,000 



• $189,697,000 

□ $ 94,305,000 

$284,002,000 



Income from the private sector accounted 
for more than half of the total income in 
museums of all budget sizes, rising steadily 
from 55 per cent in the under $100,000 
museums to 67 per cent in those with 
budgets of $1,000,000 and over. (Fig. 75, p. 
148.) The percentage of total income de- 
rived from operating and non-operating 
revenues combined generally increases with 
budget size, from 25 per cent in the under 
$100,000 museums to 52 per cent in the 
$1,000,000 and over museums. The per- 
centage derived from private support re- 
mains consistent in the under $500,000 
museums (approximately 30 per cent). It 
drops to 25 per cent in the $500,000 to 
$999,999 museums and to 15 per cent in 
the $1,000,000 and over category. 

The primary sources of operating revenues 
were admission fees and museum shop 
sales, except in the $1,000,000 and over 
museums where facilities such as restaurants 
and parking lots accounted for a slightly 
higher proportion than either of these 
two sources. Contributions from individuals 
represented the largest single source 
of private support in all budget categories, 
especially the $1,000,000 and over muse- 
ums in which more than half of the private 
support came from individuals. Foundations 
represented the second most important 
source of private support in museums with 
budgets of $250,000 and over. In the under 
$250,000 categories, the second most impor- 
tant source was allocations from colleges 
and universities. 

Reversing the pattern of private sector in- 
come, the percentage of total income re- 
ceived from the public sector decreases as 
the budget size of the museum increases, 
from 45 per cent in the under $100,000 
categories to 33 per cent in the $1,000,000 
and over category. 

Municipal-county government was the 
largest single source of public sector in- 



148 



come in all but the $1,000,000 and over 
museums, where the largest proportion 
of this income came from the federal 
government. In these largest budget mu- 
seums, 16 per cent of total income was 



derived from the federal government while 
14 per cent came from municipal-county 
government. In the remaining budget cate- 
gories, the percentage of total income pro- 
vided by municipal-county government 



Figure 75 

Sources of Income by Budget Size, 

FY 1971-72 

Base: Total museum income, $513,341 ,000 



Private sector income 



Public sector income 



§ 



§ 



Under 
$50,000 



$50,000- 
99,999 



$100,000- 
249,999 



$250,000- 
499,999 



$500,000- 
999,999 



$1,000,000 
and Over 



100% 



$22,832,000 $26,685,000 $53,650,000 $61,757,000 $64,415,000 $284,002,000 



30% 




18% 




/% 
24% 

15% 
6% 





30% 




20% 




5% 
22% 

11% 
12% 





21' 



15% 




i/% 




15% 

14% 

3% 
16% 





Private 
Support 



Operating 
Revenues 



Non-Operating 
Revenues 



Municipal- 
County 



State 
Federal 



149 



Figure 76 

Dollar Income by Governing 

Authority, FY 1971-72 

Base: Total museum income, $513,341,000 



• Private sector income 
□ Public sector income 



ranged from 17 per cent in the $100,000 to 
$249,999 museums to 25 per cent in those 
with budgets of $500,000 to $999,999. 
Federal government funds represented from 
five per cent of total income in the $250,000 
to $499,999 museums to 12 per cent in the 
$50,000 to $99,999 museums. 




Private Nonprofit 

• $270,019,000 
□ $ 63,341,000 

$333,360,000 

65% 



Government 

• $ 34,094,000 

□ $118,138,000 
$152,232,000 

30% 

Federal 

• $ 6,131,000 

□ $48,672,000 
$54,803,000 

11% 

State 

• $11,869,000 

□ $25,943,000 
$37,812,000 



Municipal-County 

• $16,094,000 

□ $43,523,000 

$59,617,000 

12% 



Educational Institution 

• $22,632,000 
D $ 5,117,000 

$27,749,000 

5% 

Public 

• $10,909,000 
□ $ 4,010,000 

$14,919,000 



Private 

• $11,723,000 
D $ 1,107,000 

$12,830,000 

2% 



State government funds accounted for 
between 11 and 15 per cent of total income 
in museums with budgets under $500,000. 
This decreased to six per cent in museums 
with budgets of $500,000 to $999,999 and 
three per cent in those with budgets of 
$1,000,000 and over. 

Income by Governing Authority 

Private nonprofit museums, which consti- 
tute more than half of the 1,821 museums, 
had a total income of $333.4 million: $270 
million from the private sector and $63.3 mil- 
lion from the public sector. (Fig. 76, p. 149.) 
Government museums, the next largest 
category, received $152.2 million: $34.1 
million from the private sector and $118.1 
million from the public sector. The total 
income of educational institution museums 
was $27.7 million, with $22.6 million pro- 
vided by the private sector and $5.1 million 
by the public sector. 

Private nonprofit museums derived a sub- 
stantial 81 per cent of their total income 
from the private sector: 37 per cent in 
operating revenues, 26 per cent in private 
support, and 18 per cent in non-operating 
revenues. (Fig. 77, p. 150.) Operating rev- 
enues came primarily from admission fees, 
museum shop sales, and facilities such as 
restaurants and parking lots. The major 
sources of private support were contribu- 
tions from individuals and foundations. 

While operating revenues are a substantial 
source of income in private nonprofit 
museums, accounting for 37 per cent of 
total income in FY 1971-72, they represent 



150 



Figure 17 

Sources of Income by Governing Authority, 

FY 1971-72 

Base: Total museum income, $513,341,000 



Private sector income 



Public sector income 



FJ 



100% 



Private 


Government 


Federal * 


State 


Municipal- 


Nonprofit 








County * * 


$333,360,000 


$152,232,000 


$54,803,000 


$37,812,000 


$59,61 7,000 



26% 




i/% 




1 8% 

12% 

4% 
3% 






58% 



Educational Public Private 

Institution 

$27,749,000 $14,919,000 $12,830,000 



15% 




54% 




10% 




1% 
2% 
6% 





Private 
' Support 



_ Operating 
Revenues 



( Non-Operating 
Revenues 



. Municipal- 
County 



•Received no state support 

"Received less than 0.5% 
from state government 



151 



a considerably lower proportion of income 
than in the performing arts, 58 per cent 
in 1970-71. 5 Although performing arts 
groups are less likely than museums to 
earn income through shop sales and facili- 
ties such as restaurants and parking lots, 
as a field they not only traditionally 
charge admissions, but do so in amounts 
whose upward levels almost always ex- 
ceed those of museums. 

Nineteen per cent of total income re- 
ceived by private nonprofit museums came 
from the public sector. Municipal-county 
government provided 12 per cent of total 
income; four per cent came from state 
government and three per cent from the 
federal government. 

In government museums, public sector 
income accounted for 78 per cent of total 
income received. (The percentage of total 
income derived from the public sector 
ranged from 69 per cent in state museums 
to 89 per cent in federal museums.) (Fig. 77, 
p. 150.) The primary sources of public sector 
income in all government museums were 
the federal government (32 per cent) and 
municipal-county government (31 per cent); 
the remaining 15 per cent of total income 
came from state government. There is, of 
course, a direct correlation between the 
kind of government museum and its major 
sources of income: Federal museums re- 
ceived 86 per cent of their total income 
from the federal government, municipal- 
county museums 72 per cent from munici- 
pal-county government, and state museums 
a somewhat lower 58 per cent from state 
government. 

About one-fifth (22 per cent) of the total 
income received by government museums 
was derived from the private sector: 15 per 
cent in operating revenues, five per cent in 
private support, and two per cent in non- 
operating revenues. (Within government 
museums, the percentage of income 
derived from the private sector was lowest 



in federal museums, 11 per cent, and 
highest in state museums, 31 per cent.) 
Operating revenues were generated largely 
from admission fees, followed by facilities 
such as restaurants and parking lots and 
by museum shop sales. Approximately 
half of the private support represented 
contributions from individuals. 

Educational institution museums received 82 
per cent of their total income from the 
private sector, about the same proportion as 
that of private nonprofit museums. (Fig. 77, 
p. 150.) (Private educational institution 
museums received 91 per cent of total in- 
come from the private sector, the highest 
percentage of any museum category. Public 
educational institution museums received 
73 per cent from the private sector.) Private 
support, most of which represented funds 
allocated by colleges and universities, ac- 
counted for over half (58 per cent) of the 
total income received by all educational 
institution museums. Non-operating reve- 
nues represented 15 per cent; operating 
revenues, derived mainly from museum 
shop sales, represented nine per cent. 

Eighteen per cent of total income re- 
ceived by educational institution museums 
came from the public sector, with eight per 
cent provided by state government, seven 
per cent by the federal government, and 
three per cent by municipal-county gov- 
ernment. (The percentage of income 
derived from the public sector was nat- 
urally higher in public educational insti- 
tution museums, 27 per cent, than in 
private educational institution museums, 
nine per cent.) 



5 The Finances of the Performing Arts, Volume I: A 
Survey of 766 Professional Nonprofit Resident 
Theaters, Operas, Symphonies, Ballets, and Modern 
Dance Companies; Volume II: A Survey of the 
Characteristics and Attitudes of Audiences for 
Theater, Opera, Symphony, and Ballet in 12 U.S. 
Cities. The Ford Foundation, New York, N.Y., 1974. 



152 

Figure 78 

Dollar Income by Region, 

FY 1971-72 

Base: Total museum income, $513,341,000 






• Private sector income 
□ Public sector income 




Northeast 

• $101,998,000 

□ $ 85,381,000 

$187,379,000 

36% 



New England 

• $42,996,000 

□ $ 5,879,000 

$48,875,000 

10% 



Southeast 

• $52,066,000 
□ $20,509,000 
$72,575,000 
14% 
Midwest 
• $ 76,999,000 
□ $ 34,548,000 
$111,547,000 
22% 



Mountain Plains 

• $15,698,000 
□ $12,026,000 
$27,724,000 
5% 
West 
• $36,988,000 
D $28,253,000 
$65,241,000 
13% 



Income by Region 

Among the six regions, the total museum 
income in FY 1971-72 ranged from $27.7 
million in the Mountain Plains, the re- 
gion with the smallest share of the 
$1,000,000 and over museums, to $187.4 
million in the Northeast, the region with the 
highest percentage of these large budget 
museums. (Fig. 78, p. 152.) 

Income from the private sector accounted 
for more than half of the total income of 
museums in all regions, most notably New 
England where 88 per cent of total in- 
come was derived from this sector. This 
percentage was lowest in the Northeast 
(54 per cent) and in the Mountain Plains 
and West (57 per cent each). (Fig. 79, 
p. 153). Operating revenues represented the 
largest single source of private sector in- 
come in five of the six regions, including 
the Southeast where approximately half 
of the total income came from this source. 
The exception was the Mountain Plains, 
where the major source of private sector 
income was private support. 

The percentage of total income derived 
from the public sector was lowest in New 
England (12 per cent), and highest in the 
Northeast (46 per cent) and the Mountain 
Plains and the West (43 per cent each). With 
one exception, municipal-county govern- 
ment was the single most important source 
of public sector income, ranging from five 
per cent of total income in New England to 
30 per cent in the Mountain Plains. In the 
exceptional case, the Northeast, federal 
government funds represented approxi- 
mately one-fourth (26 per cent) of total 
income. In no other region did the per- 
centage of total income derived from the 
federal government exceed five per cent. 
The percentage of income derived from 
state government ranged from three per 
cent in New England to 10 per cent in the 
Mountain Plains. 



153 



Operating Expenditures 

The operating expenditures of the 1,821 
museums in FY 1971-72 ranged from $3,700 
to over $20 million and totaled $478.9 
million. 6 (This amount includes all ex- 
penditures from current funds except those 
for acquisitions of land, buildings, major 



equipment, and for collections. The value 
of contributed services is not included.) 
Personnel costs (salaries, fringe benefits, and 

''' By definition, all museums included in this survey 
were open a minimum of three months per year 
and had operating expenditures in FY 1971-72 that 
averaged a minimum of $1,000 per month for each 
month the museum was open. 



Figure 79 

Sources of Income by Region, 

FY 1971-72 

Base: Total museum income, $513,341,000 



Private sector income 



Public sector income 



§ 



§ 



100% 



New England Northeast Southeast 

$48,875,000 $187,379,000 $72,575,000 



Midwest Mountain Plains West 

$111,547,000 $27,724,000 $65,241,000 



26% 




il L /c 




30% 

5% 

3% 
4% 





18% 




21% 




15% 

13% 

7% 




26% 





16% 




51% 




5% 
15% 

9% 
4% 





26% 




30% 




13% 
23% 

6% 

2% 





Private 
Support 



Operating 
Revenues 



Non-Operating 
Revenues 

Municipal- 
County 



State 



Federal 



154 



Figure 80 

Operating Expenditures by Budget Size, 

FY 1971-72 

Compared with Distribution of All Museums by Budget Size 




Percentage of total museums 
Base: Total number of museums 

Percentage of total operating expenditures 

Base: Total museum operating expenditures, $478,912,000 



O Salaries, fringe benefits, 

payroll taxes 
▲ Other expenditures 



Under 
$50,000 




44% 



O $12,245,000 

▲ $ 8,229,000 

$20,474,000 



$50,000 
99,999 



$100,000 
249,999 




19% 



O $15,783,000 

▲ $ 8,713,000 

$24,496,000 



O $29,899,000 

A $19,297,000 

$49,196,000 



$250,000 
499,999 



110% 



O $34,025,000 

▲ $21,645,000 

$55,670,000 



$500,000 
999,999 



112% 



O $36,278,000 

▲ $22,560,000 

$58,838,000 



$1,000,000 
and Over 



57<7< 



O $153,612,000 

A $116,626,000 

$270,238,000 



155 



Figure 81 

Operating Expenditures by Museum Type, 

FY 1971-72 

Compared with Distribution of 
All Museums by Type 



Museums by Type 

Base: Total number of museums 




Operating Expenditures by Museum Type 

Base: Total museum operating expenditures 
$478,912,000 



Art/History 



Other Combined 




O Salaries, fringe benefits, payroll taxes 
A Other expenditures 



Art 

O $ 80,036,000 

▲ $ 62,447,000 
$142,483,000 
30% 

History 

O $38,777,000 
A $24,069,000 

$62,846,000 

13% 

Science 

O $ 86,014,000 

▲ $ 59,870,000 
$145,884,000 

30% 

Art/History 

O $29,982,000 

▲ $22,278,000 
$52,260,000 

11% 

Other Combined 

O $47,033,000 

▲ $28,406,000 
$75,439,000 

16% 



payroll taxes) accounted for 59 per cent, or 
$281 .8 million, of the total operating ex- 
penditures. The remaining 41 per cent, or 
$197.1 million, represented all other mu- 
seum expenditures. 7 The relative proportions 
spent on personnel and other expenditures 
varied little within the museum categories. 
Only in municipal-county and public ed- 
ucational institution museums did the 
proportion spent on personnel rise above 
70 per cent. 

Predictably, operating expenditures rise 
steadily with budget size. Expenditures to- 
taled $20.5 million in the 44 per cent of 
museums with budgets under $50,000, in- 
creasing to $58.8 million in the five per cent 
with budgets of $500,000 to $999,999. In 
the five per cent of museums with budgets 
of $1,000,000 and over, expenditures rose 
sharply to $270.2 million. (Fig. 80, p. 154.) 

Science museums had the largest operating 
expenditures of any museum type ($145.9 
million). s These museums represent 16 
per cent of all museums and 32 per cent 
of the museums with budgets of $1,000,000 
and over. (Fig. 81, p. 155.) Art museums, 
representing 19 per cent of all museums 
and 32 per cent of the $1,000,000 and over 
museums, expended a slightly lower $142.5 
million. In contrast, history museums, 
which account for 37 per cent of all mu- 
seums but only nine per cent of the 
largest budget museums, expended $62.8 
million, less than half as much as either 
art or science. The total operating ex- 
penditures of other combined museums 
were $75.4 million; art/history museums 
spent $52.3 million. 



7 The survey attempted to elicit more detailed 
breakdowns of operating expenditures. However, 
because of a lack of uniformity in the accounting 
practices of museums, the only reliable breakdown 
was between these two broad categories. 
s For the total income of each museum type, 
see Fig. 72, p. 144. 



156 



Figure 82 

Operating Expenditures by Governing 

Authority, FY 1971-72 

Base: Total museum operating expenditures, $478,912,000 




O Salaries, fringe benefits, 

payroll taxes 
▲ Other expenditures 



Private Nonprofit 

O $173,676,000 

▲ $139,420,000 

$313,096,000 



Government 

O $ 91,275,000 

▲ $ 49,038,000 
$140,313,000 

29% 

Federal 

O $29,740,000 

▲ $23,154,000 
$52,894,000 

11% 

State 

O $22,627,000 

▲ $10,136,000 
$32,763,000 

7% 

Municipal-County 

O $38,908,000 

A $15,748,000 

$54,656,000 

11% 



Educational Institution 

O $16,891,000 

▲ $ 8,612,000 

$25,503,000 



Public 

O $ 9,915,000 

▲ $ 4,024,000 

$13,939,000 

3% 

Private 

O $ 6,976,000 

A $ 4,588,000 

$11,564,000 

2% 



Among governing authorities, operating 
expenditures were highest ($313.1 million) 
in private nonprofit museums, which rep- 
resent 56 per cent of all museums and 62 
per cent of the $1,000,000 and over mu- 
seums. (Fig. 82, p. 156.) Government mu- 
seums, accounting for 34 per cent of all 
museums and 33 per cent of the $1,000,000 
and over museums, spent $140.3 million. 
Expenditures dropped considerably to 
$25.5 million in educational institution 
museums, which represent only 10 per cent 
of all museums and five per cent of the 
largest budget museums. 

The Northeast, accounting for 17 per cent 
of all museums and 40 per cent of the 
$1,000,000 and over museums, had the 
highest ($181.2 million) operating ex- 
penditures of any region. (Fig. 83, p. 157.) 
Expenditures were lowest ($25.2 million) 
in the Mountain Plains, which has 12 per 
cent of all museums and only two per cent 
of the $1,000,000 and over museums. 

Net Income 

Based on the total museum income of 
$513.3 million and total operating expen- 
ditures of $478.9 million, the net income 
in FY 1971-72, before deductions of extra- 
ordinary expenditures, was $34.4 million. 
This resulted in seven per cent of total 
income unexpended at year end. (Fig. 84, 
p. 158.) 

Among museum types, art had the highest 
percentage of income unexpended at the 
end of the fiscal year (10 per cent), fol- 
lowed by history (nine per cent) and sci- 
ence (five per cent). Other combined mu- 
seums had five per cent of income 
unexpended and art/history two per cent. 
Among budget categories, museums with 
budgets under $50,000 had 10 per cent 
of total income unexpended at year end, 
while those with budgets of $1,000,000 and 
over had five per cent unexpended. In 
the other budget categories, this per- 



157 



Figure 83 

Operating Expenditures by 

Region, FY 1971-72 

Base: Total museum operating expenditures, 
$478,912,000 



O Salaries, fringe benefits, payroll taxes 
▲ Other expenditures 




New England 

O $23,175,000 

▲ $18,075,000 

$41,250,000 



Northeast 

102,362,000 
78,884,000 
$181,246,000 
38% 



Southeast 

O $40,997,000 

A $26,940,000 

$67,937,000 

14% 



Midwest 

O $ 64,461,000 
▲ $ 39,206,000 
$103,667,000 
22% 
Mountain Plains 
$15,209,000 
$10,002,000 
$25,211,000 
5% 



West 

O $35,638,000 

▲ $23,963,000 

$59,601,000 

12% 



centage ranged from eight per cent in both 
the $50,000 to $99,999 and $100,000 to 
$249,999 museums to 10 per cent in the 
$250,000 to $499,999 group. 

Government and educational institution 
museums each had eight per cent of total 
income unexpended and private nonprofit 
museums six per cent. Museums in New 
England had, of all regions, the highest 
percentage (16 per cent) of income unex- 
pended at year end, while those in the 
Northeast had the lowest (three per cent). 

These aggregate figures on income and 
operating expenditures do not describe 
adequately the actual financial status of 
museums. That a substantial number of 
museums are confronted by serious finan- 
cial problems is indicated in part by the 
breakdown of museums according to their 
individual income positions at the end 
of the fiscal year. While 55 per cent of the 
museums did have some unexpended in- 
come and 24 per cent managed to or were 
legally required to break even, 21 per 
cent of the museums had a deficit after 
exhausting all sources of income. (Fig. 85, 
p. 159; Fig. 85A, p. 160; Fig. 85B, p. 161.) 
The total operating surplus of the 55 per 
cent of museums with a surplus was $49.7 
million. The total deficit of the 21 per cent 
of museums with a deficit was $15.3 million. 
As noted earlier in this chapter, it is 
essential that this deficit not be equated 
with the total financial need of the museum 
field. For those museums with unexpended 
income, the surplus often means simply 
that they were able to plan and budget 
ahead for the following year with some 
degree of confidence. Further, consultants 
have indicated that many museums that 
broke even or ended the year with un- 
expended income may have done so at the 
expense of personnel needs and of pro- 
grams and activities they felt essential to 
meet the needs of their disciplines and of 
their publics. Moreover, figures on income 
and expenditures must be viewed in the 



158 



Figure 84 



Summary of FY 1971-72 Income and Operating Expenditures 



Base: Total museums 



Dollar amounts in thousands 



/ 



-^ 











$ 


$ 


$ 


All Museums 


513,341 


478,912 


34,429 


Art 


158,166 


142,483 


15,683 


History 


68,957 


62,846 


6,111 


Science 


153,121 


145,884 


7,237 


Art/History 


53,443 


52,260 


1,183 


Other Combined 


79,654 


75,439 


4,215 


Under $50,000 


22,832 


20,474 


2,358 


$50,000-99,999 


26,685 


24,496 


2,189 


$100,000-249,999 


53,650 


49,196 


4,454 


$250,000-499,999 


61,757 


55,670 


6,087 


$500,000-999,999 


64,415 


58,838 


5,577 


$1,000,000 and Over 


284,002 


270,238 


13,764 


Private Nonprofit 


333,360 


313,096 


20,264 


Government 


152,232 


140,313 


11,919 


Federal 


54,803 


52,894 


1,909 


State 


37,812 


32,763 


5,049 


Municipal-County 


59,617 


54,656 


4,961 


Educational Institution 


27,749 


25,503 


2,246 


Public 


14,919 


13,939 


980 


Private 


12,830 


11,564 


1,266 


New England 


48,875 


41,250 


7,625 


Northeast 


187,379 


181,246 


6,133 


Southeast 


72,575 


67,937 


4,638 


Midwest 


111,547 


103,667 


7,880 


Mountain Plains 


27,724 


25,211 


2,513 


West 


65,241 


59,601 


5,640 



159 



context of a number of other critical 
factors: Sixty-six per cent of the directors 
reported that their museum's operating 
budget did not permit full utilization of the 
museum's resources and estimated that a 
median budget increase of 45 per cent was 
needed in the next two to three years alone; 
36 per cent of all museums responded that 
since 1966, financial pressures had necessi- 



tated cutbacks in staff, facilities, or services, 
and, as discussed in Chapter 7, significant 
numbers of museums need additional staff, 
are concerned about inadequate salary 
levels, and rely heavily on volunteers. 

Among museum types, 64 per cent of the 
art museums had unexpended income at 
year end, compared with 54 per cent 



Figure 85 

Net Income Position (Unexpended Income, 
Broke Even, Deficit) at End of FY 1971-72, 
by Museum Type and Budget Size 



8 



Percentage of museums with unexpended income 
Percentage of museums that broke even 
Percentage of museums with deficit 



Base: Total museums 



100 



All 
Museums 



Art 



History 



Science 



Art/ 
History 



Other 
Combined 



24% 
21% 





64% 



13% 



23% 



54% 



28% 



54% 



22% 



50% 



55% 



50% 



2 



24% 



18% 




32% 



18% 



Under 
$50,000 




$50,000- 
99,999 




49% 

26% 
25% 





$100,000- 
249,999 

60% I - ~~] 68% 



17% I 



$250,000- $500,000 
499,999 999,999 

73%) 



$1,000,000 
and Over 




23% 



25% 



7% 



20% 




76% 

3% 




21% 





160 



of both history and science museums. (Fig. 
85, p. 159.) Almost equal percentages of art 
and science museums (23 and 24 per cent, 
respectively) had a deficit in this period. 
History museums, almost half of which are 
government operated, had the lowest pro- 
portion (18 per cent) of museums with 
deficits and the highest proportion (28 per 



cent) of museums that broke even. Among 
those museums with deficits, the average 
deficit was $84,000 in art, and $68,000 in 
science, compared with $10,000 in history. 
Of the art/history museums, 50 per cent had 
unexpended income and 26 per cent a deficit. 
The respective figures for other com- 
bined museums were 55 and 21 per cent. 



Figure 85A 

Net Income Position (Unexpended Income, 
Broke Even, Deficit) at End of FY 1971-72, 
by Governing Authority 



u 



Percentage of museums with unexpended income 
Percentage of museums that broke even 
Percentage of museums with deficit 



Base: Total museums 



100% 



All 
Museums 



Private 
Nonprofit 



Government Federal 



State Municipal- Educational Public 

County Institution 

51% I 1 52%1 1 54% | 1 50% 



Private 




161 



Within budget size, the percentage of 
museums in which income exceeded op- 
erating expenditures ranged from approx- 
imately 50 per cent of the under $100,000 
museums to 76 per cent of the $1,000,000 
and over museums. (Fig. 85, p. 159.) The 
percentage of museums with deficits varied 
little among budget categories. The average 



deficit in the 18 per cent of the under $50,000 
museums with deficits was $3,000. The 21 
per cent of museums with deficits in the 
$1,000,000 and over category had an 
average deficit of $589,000 — a sizable sum 
to cover even for those museums operating 
on budgets of well over $1 million. 






Figure 85B 

Net Income Position (Unexpended Income, 
Broke Even, Deficit) at End of FY 1971-72, 
by Region 



§ 



Percentage of museums with unexpended income 
Percentage of museums that broke even 
Percentage of museums with deficit 



Base: Total museums 



100% 



All 
Museums 



New 
England 



Northeast Southeast Midwest 



55% 



24% 



66% 



21% 




48% 



32% 



59% 



53% 



12% 



22% 




20% 




18% 



Mountain 
Plains 

56% | 1 52% 



West 



29% 




32% 



12% 



162 



Private nonprofit museums had, of all 
governing authorities, the highest propor- 
tion of museums with a surplus (61 per 
cent) and of those with a deficit (28 per 
cent). (Fig. 85A, p. 160.) Actual dollar amounts 
are significant in both instances: These mu- 
seums accounted for $34.9 million of the 
total $49.7 million museum surplus, and for 
$14.6 million of the total $15.3 million 
museum deficit. Fifty-two per cent of the 
educational institution museums had unex- 
pended income and 17 per cent a deficit. 
The respective figures for government mu- 
seums were 46 and 10 per cent. Among all 
governing authorities, federal museums had 
the lowest incidence of both operating 
surpluses and deficits. Seventy-six per cent 
of these museums broke even. 

Of the six regions, New England had the 
highest proportion (66 per cent) of mu- 
seums with unexpended income and the 
Northeast the lowest (48 per cent). (Fig. 85B, 
p. 161.) Operating deficits occurred most 
frequently among museums in the Midwest 
(29 per cent) and least frequently in the 
Mountain Plains (12 per cent). 

Extraordinary Expenditures 

Extraordinary expenditures are defined as 
expenditures for acquisitions of land, 
buildings, major equipment, and for col- 
lections that are charged to current 
funds but not considered part of the mu- 
seum's general operating expenditures. In 
contrast to the $478.9 million in operating 
expenditures, the 1,821 museums had total 
extraordinary expenditures in FY 1971-72 
of $37.7 million. (Fig. 86, p. 163.) Of this 
amount, $26.4 million, or 70 per cent, was 
for acquisitions of land, buildings, and 
major equipment, and $11.3 million, or 30 
per cent, was for acquisitions for collec- 
tions. 9 

Among budget sizes, extraordinary ex- 
penditures totaled $1.7 million in museums 



with budgets under $50,000, increasing to 
$5.2 million in the $500,000 to $999,999 
museums and rising substantially to $19.7 
million in the $1,000,000 and over category. 
Acquisitions of land, buildings, and major 
equipment accounted for more than half 
of the total extraordinary expenditures in 
all budget categories, ranging between 51 
per cent in the $250,000 to $499,999 group 
and 76 per cent in the $1,000,000 and 
over museums. 

Extraordinary expenditures were substan- 
tially higher in art and science ($12.2 and 
$12.6 million, respectively) than in history 
($2.9 million) museums. The expenditures in 
science and history were almost entirely 
for acquisitions of land, buildings, and 
major equipment, while acquisitions for 
collections represented the largest expense 
in art. Art/history and other combined 
museums expended a respective $6 and 
$4 million, mostly for acquisitions of land, 
buildings, and major equipment. 
Private nonprofit museums had a total of 
$29.5 million in extraordinary expenditures, 
compared with $6.6 million in government 
museums and only $1.6 million in educa- 
tional institution museums. Acquisitions of 
land, buildings, and major equipment 
represented the largest proportion of ex- 
penditures except in educational institution 
museums, where these kinds of acquisitions 



9 The expenditures for acquisitions of land, buildings, 
major equipment, and for collections reported as 
deductions from current funds represent only a 
portion of the total expenditures for acquisitions in 
all museums; major expenditures also are made 
directly from special non-current funds set aside 
for this purpose. In FY 1971-72, expenditures for 
acquisitions from all non-current funds amounted 
to $50 million, resulting in a total of close to $88 
million in acquisitions for the year. Acquisitions of 
land, buildings, and major equipment made from 
non-current funds were $36.3 million, for a total of 
$62.7 million; acquisitions for collections made from 
non-current funds were $13.8 million, for a total 
of $25.1 million. For a discussion of expenditures 
from non-current funds see pp. 167-72. 



163 



Figure 86 



Extraordinary Expenditures from Current Funds, FY 1971-72 



Base: Total museums 



Dollar amounts in thousands 



&* 






,o c 






^ 



*? 





$ 


$ 


$ 


All Museums 


26,386 


11,344 


37,730 


Art 


4,421 


7,827 


12,248 


History 


2,450 


462 


2,912 


Science 


11,307 


1,257 


12,564 


Art/History 


5,177 


872 


6,049 


Other Combined 


3,031 


926 


3,957 


Under $50,000 


1,242 


444 


1,686 


$50,000-99,999 


988 


527 


1,515 


$100,000-249,999 


2,383 


800 


3,183 


$250,000-499,999 


3,269 


3,167 


6,436 


$500,000-999,999 


3,466 


1,731 


5,197 


$1,000,000 and Over 


15,038 


4,675 


19,713 


Private Nonprofit 


21,092 


8,367' 


29,459 


Government 


4,920 


1,716 


6,636 


Federal 


827 


809 


1,636 


State 


2,540 


334 


2,874 


Municipal-County 


1,553 


573 


2,126 


Educational Institution 


374 


1,261 


1,635 


Public 


325 


552 


877 


Private 


49 


709 


758 


New England 


5,172 


2,103 


7,275 


Northeast 


6,786 


5,093 


11,879 


Southeast 


4,999 


814 


5,813 


Midwest 


4,370 


1,819 


6,189 


Mountain Plains 


1,346 


440 


1,786 


West 


3,713 


1,075 


4,788 



164 



presumably are of secondary importance 
since the museums' facilities often are 
part of the building complex of the parent 
institutions. 

The Northeast had the highest ($11.9 mil- 
lion) extraordinary expenditures of any 
region, and the Mountain Plains the lowest 
($1.8 million). New England ranked second 
in the total amount expended ($7.3 million), 
even though this region has a lower per- 
centage of large budget museums than 
either the Midwest or the West. 

Current Fund Balance at Year End 

The total current fund balance of the 1,821 
museums at the beginning of FY 1971-72 
was $87.1 million. At year end the bal- 
ance totaled $92.6 million, an increase of 
$5.5 million or six per cent. (Fig. 87, p. 165.) 
The year-end current fund balance was 
calculated by taking the balance at the 
beginning of the fiscal year, adding un- 
expended income after operating expendi- 
tures, deducting extraordinary expenditures 
made from current funds, and accounting 
for transfers to or from non-current funds. 

Art museums and history museums ad- 
vanced their current fund balances in FY 
1971-72 by a respective $4.9 and $3.8 
million. Science museums, despite sizable 
transfers from other funds, had a net 
change downward of $1.5 million. While 
art/history museums increased their current 
fund balance by a modest $135,000, other 
combined museums decreased their balance 
by $1.8 million. 

Current fund balances increased in 
all but the $100,000 to $249,999 budget 
category, where a lower year-end balance 
was accounted for largely by transfers to 
other funds. Museums in the $250,000 
to $499,999 category reported an increase 



totaling $2.8 million, an amount that far 
outdistanced increases in the other budget 
categories. Museums with budgets of 
$1,000,000 and over had only a modest 
increase of $893,000 in their current fund 
balance, despite a transfer of $6.8 million 
from other funds. Government museums 
had a positive net change of $4.9 million 
in the current fund balance. This contrasts 
sharply with increases of only $367,000 in 
private nonprofit museums and $250,000 
in educational institution museums. 

An examination of current fund balances at 
the beginning and end of FY 1971-72 shows 
an increase in both the percentage of 
museums with a positive fund balance and 
the percentage with a negative fund bal- 
ance. Forty-four per cent of the museums 
had a beginning year positive balance 
totaling $95.9 million. By the end of the 
fiscal year this percentage had increased to 
59 per cent, with a total positive balance of 
$102.6 million. Despite this increase in the 
number of museums with a positive current 
fund balance, the average balance de- 
creased from approximately $121,000 to 
$96,000. The percentage of museums with a 
negative current fund balance increased in 
this period from five per cent with a nega- 
tive balance totaling $8.8 million to 11 per 
cent with a negative balance of $10 million. 
The average negative balance, however, de- 
clined from $90,000 to $52,000. 
In all categories, the percentage of mu- 
seums with a positive current fund bal- 
ance was higher at the end of the fiscal 
year than at the beginning, with the sharp- 
est increases found in other combined 
museums, museums with budgets of 
$250,000 to $499,999, and government and 
educational institution museums. Simi- 
larly, all categories, most notably science 
museums, showed an increase in the per- 
centage of museums with a negative 
balance. 



165 



Figure 87 



Current Fund Balances, FY 1971-72 



Base: Total museums 



Dollar amounts in thousands 





A 2 ' 



n 



^ 






All Museums 

Art 

History 

Science 

Art/History 

Other Combined 

Under $50,000 

$50,000-99,999 

$100,000-249,999 

$250,000-499,999 

$500,000-999,999 

$1,000,000 and Over 

Private Nonprofit 
Government 

Federal 
State 

Municipal-County 
Educational Institution 

Public 
Private 

New England 

Northeast 

Southeast 

Midwest 

Mountain Plains 

West 



87,134 

43,969 

10,742 

21,305 

2,062 

9,056 

8,241 

1,912 

12,269 

6,756 

15,432 

42,524 

77,652 
7,166 
2,483 
2,437 
2,246 
2,316 
510 
1,806 

16,962 

30,488 

4,009 

22,025 

3,659 

9,991 



34,429 

15,683 
6,111 
7,237 
1,183 

4,215 

2,358 
2,189 
4,454 
6,087 
5,577 
13,764 

20,264 
11,919 
1,909 
5,049 
4,961 
2,246 
980 
1,266 

7,625 
6,133 
4,638 
7,880 
2,513 
5,640 



(37,730) 

(12,248) 
(2,912) 

(12,564) 
(6,049) 
(3,957) 

(1,686) 
(1,515) 
(3,183) 
(6,436) 
(5,197) 
(19,713) 

(29,459) 
(6,636) 
(1,636) 
(2,874) 
(2,126) 
(1,635) 
(877) 
(758) 

(7,275) 
(11,879) 
(5,813) 
(6,189) 
(1,786) 
(4,788) 



8,810 

1,447 

583 

3,877 

5,001 

(2,098) 

235 

(28) 

(1,396) 

3,103 

54 

6,842 

9,562 
(391) 

(313) 
(78) 

(361) 
(44) 

(317) 

(643) 

6,823 

4,328 

(1,821) 

283 

(160) 



5,509 

4,882 

3,782 

(1,450) 

135 

(1,840) 

907 
646 
(125) 
2,754 
434 
893 

367 
4,892 

273 
1,862 
2,757 

250 
59 

191 

(293) 
1,077 
3,153 

(130) 
1,010 

692 



92,643 

48,851 

14,524 

19,855 

2,197 

7,216 

9,148 

2,558 

12,144 

9,510 

15,866 

43,417 

78,019 
12,058 
2,756 
4,299 
5,003 
2,566 
569 
1,997 

16,669 
31,565 

7,162 
21,895 

4,669 
10,683 



166 



Figure 88 



Non-Current Fund Balances, FY 1971-72 



Base: Percentage of museums with 
funds other than current funds 



Dollar amounts in thousands 



& $ v 

*c -q o 







^ 



t/ is 
^ o 



% 



%* 



All Museums 

Art 

History 

Science 

Art/History 

Other Combined 

Under $50,000 

$50,000-99,999 

$100,000-249,999 

$250,000-499,999 

$500,000-999,999 

$1,000,000 and Over 

New England 

Northeast 

Southeast 

Midwest 

Mountain Plains 

West 



1,471,003 

808,098 
126,375 
279,687 
139,811 
117,032 

50,495 
29,332 
101,578 
115,927 
179,689 
993,982 

293,575 

644,042 

96,588 

325,744 

33,306 

77,748 



38% 

53% 
31% 
38% 
45% 
34% 

29% 
38% 
45% 
46% 
57% 
74% 

72% 

36% 
27% 
40% 
30% 
28% 



144,925 

74,041 
18,661 
13,410 
15,950 
22,863 

2,857 
3,799 
13,437 
23,283 
21 ,001 
80,548 

16,592 
46,780 

17,727 

33,494 

7,578 

22,754 



(57,997) 

(34,370) 
(8,490) 
(8,013) 
(1,155) 
(5,969) 

(1,676) 
(1,679) 
(6,221) 
(4,899) 
(13,023) 
(30,499) 

(5,445) 
(22,443) 

(2,141) 
(17,988) 

(3,735) 

(6,245) 



(8,810) 

(1,447) 

(583) 
(3,877) 
(5,001) 

2,098 

(235) 

28 

1,396 

(3,103) 

(54) 

(6,842) 

643 

(6,823) 

(4,328) 

1,821 

(283) 

160 



78,118 

38,224 
9,588 
1,520 
9,794 

18,992 

946 
2,148 
8,612 

15,281 
7,924 

43,207 

11,790 
17,514 
11,258 
17,327 
3,560 
16,669 



1,549,121 

846,322 
135,963 
281,207 
149,605 
136,024 

51,441 

31,480 

110,190 

131,208 

187,613 

1,037,189 

305,365 
661,556 
107,846 
343,071 
36,866 
94,417 



40% 

53% 
32% 
40% 
45% 
36% 

30% 
38% 
45% 
50% 
60% 
76% 

72% 
37% 
30% 
41% 
29% 
31% 



'Percentage of museums 
with balance 



167 



Non-Current Funds 

Non-current funds comprise endowment 
funds, funds similar to endowments, 
unexpended funds for acquisitions or re- 
placement of land, buildings, and equip- 
ment, and for acquisitions for collections, 
and miscellaneous other special funds. 
The total balance of all non-current funds 
was a substantial $1.47 billion at the 
beginning of FY 1971-72 and $1.55 bil- 
lion at year end. This represented a net 
change upward of $78.1 million or five 
per cent. (Fig. 88, p. 166.) It is important to 
note that this balance is not entirely ex- 
pendable by museums since a large portion 
of it represents endowments on which only 
the income can be spent. Moreover, the 
expendable portion is to a large extent 
restricted to specific purposes. 

Total additions to non-current funds in 
FY 1971-72 were $144.9 million. Slightly 
more than half (53 per cent) of this 
amount was accounted for by donations, 
bequests, and other forms of contributions 
from individuals, foundations, and corpo- 
rations. Gains on the disposition of invest- 
ments accounted for 26 per cent of the total 
additions, investment income for 12 per 
cent, and other sources for nine per cent. 
Deductions from non-current funds during 
this period totaled $58 million, 64 per 
cent of which represented acquisitions 
of land, buildings, and major equipment. 
Acquisitions for collections accounted for 
only 23 per cent of the total deductions. 
Other deductions represented 13 per cent. 

Endowment Funds 

Surprisingly, only 27 per cent of the 1,821 
museums have endowment funds. 10 (Fig. 89, 
p. 168; Fig. 89A, p. 169.) Among museum 
types, endowments are found more fre- 
quently in art (41 per cent) and art/history 
(36 per cent) than in science (28 per cent) 
or history and other combined (20 per cent 
each). The percentage of museums with 
endowments is substantially higher in the 



large budget museums than in the small 
ones: Less than one out of five (16 per cent) 
of the under $50,000 museums reported 
endowments, compared with approximately 
half of the $500,000 and over museums. 

Among governing authorities, endow- 
ments are limited almost entirely to 
private nonprofit and educational insti- 
tution museums, but even here the 
percentage of museums with these funds 
is a relatively low 39 and 33 per cent, 
respectively. Only five per cent of the 
government museums reported endow- 
ment funds. In New England, well over 
half (63 per cent) of the museums have 
endowments, a reflection of this region's 
large number of private nonprofit muse- 
ums. In no other region does the percentage 
rise above the 29 per cent of museums 
with endowments in the Northeast. 

Among the 27 per cent of museums that 
have endowments, the total endowment 
fund balance at the beginning of FY 
1971-72 was $886.1 million. This amount 
was advanced by $47.5 million, or five per 
cent, to a year-end balance of $933.6 mil- 
lion. (Fig. 90, p. 170.) Just over half (55 per 
cent) of the museums with endowments 
increased these funds during the fiscal year, 
while 10 per cent decreased them. In the 
remaining 35 per cent, the endowment 
fund balance was unchanged. 

Art museums had, of all museum types, the 
largest endowment fund balances both at 
the beginning ($484.9 million) and at the 
end ($505.7 million) of the fiscal year. 
In fact, the balances in these museums 
accounted for more than half of the total 
endowment fund balance of all museums. 



10 Endowment funds are defined in the survey as 
"all assets provided under stipulation by their donor 
that they be invested and that only the investment 
income be used, for general or for specified purposes, 
until a specified time, or the occurrence of a 
specified event, or in perpetuity." 



168 



The year-end fund balance in science 
museums totaled $133.9 million and in 
history $107.3 million, representing respec- 
tive increases of $3.9 and $5 million over 
the beginning balances. Sixty-four per cent 
of the art museums with endowments in- 



creased these funds during the year, com- 
pared with 51 per cent of science and 46 
per cent of history. Sixteen per cent of the 
history museums with endowments de- 
creased the funds, contrasted with nine per 
cent of art and five per cent of science. 



Figure 89 

Museums with Endowment Funds, 

by Museum Type and Budget Size 

Base: Total museums 



100% 



All 

Museums 



Art 



27% 



41% 



History 



Science 



Art/ 
History 



Other 
Combined 



Under 
$50,000 



$50,000- 
99,999 



$100,000- 
249,999 



$250,000 
499,999 



$500,000- 
999,999 



$1,000,000 
and Over 



20% 



28% 



36% 



20% 



16% 



32% 



32% 





169 



Museums with budgets of $1,000,000 and 
over predictably had the most sizable en- 
dowment funds of any budget category. In 
these museums, the fund balance was in- 
creased by $29.9 million to a year-end total 
of $614.9 million, representing 66 per cent 



of the total endowment fund balance of 
all museums. Only among the smallest mu- 
seums did the endowment fund balance 
show a net change downward: The rela- 
tively small percentage of under $50,000 
museums that have endowments reported a 



Figure 89A 

Museums with Endowment Funds, 

by Governing Authority and Region 

Base: Total museums 



100<7 f 



All 
Museums 



Private Government Educational New 

Nonprofit Institution England 



Northeast 



27% 



39% 



33% 




63% 




29% 



Southeast 


Midwest 


Mountain 
Plains 


21% 




21% 




16% 



West 



17% 




170 

Figure 90 



Endowment Fund Balances, FY 1971-72 



Base: The 27% of museums 
with endowment funds 



Dollar amounts in thousands 



& £ £ 

a? X^^ 
H3 ^O O 



./ 



^ 



Q 



<? 


/ cf^ 


/ *0 


,f 


/ <o & C - 




s>> 


/ i= O A / 


o 


f / 


/ ,5" ~N £ / 


/ 








$ 


$ 


$ 


$ 


$ 


$ 


All Museums 


886,069 


62,291 


(1,204) 


(13,596) 


47,491 


933,560 


Art 


484,940 


27,862 


(745) 


(6,397) 


20,720 


505,660 


History 


102,387 


5,166 


- 


(213) 


4,953 


107,340 


Science 


130,055 


5,060 


(116) 


(1,090) 


3,854 


133,909 


Art/History 


76,612 


7,337 


(340) 


(5,008) 


1,989 


78,601 


Other Combined 


92,075 


16,866 


(3) 


(888) 


15,975 


108,050 


Under $50,000 


46,548 


75 


(8) 


(218) 


(151) 


46,397 


$50,000-99,999 


22,353 


1,271 


(13) 


(14) 


1,244 


23,597 


$100,000-249,999 


66,284 


5,531 


(13) 


(346) 


5,172 


71,456 


$250,000-499,999 


56,107 


9,806 


(206) 


(1,745) 


7,855 


63,962 


$500,000-999,999 


109,795 


4,082 


(457) 


(154) 


3,471 


113,266 


$1,000,000 and Over 


584,982 


41,526 


(507) 


(11,119) 


29,900 


614,882 


New England 


238,337 


8,552 


(48) 


(612) 


7,892 


246,229 


Northeast 


327,938 


21,094 


(594) 


(9,279) 


11,221 


339,159 


Southeast 


66,632 


7,413 


(10) 


(3,076) 


4,327 


70,959 


Midwest 


185,854 


14,431 


(40) 


(434) 


13,957 


199,811 


Mountain Plains 


10,948 


504 


(166) 


(119) 


219 


11,167 


West 


56,360 


10,297 


(346) 


(76) 


9,875 


66,235 



171 



slight decrease in their fund balance from 
$46.5 million to $46.4 million. Thirty-nine 
per cent of these museums increased these 
funds during the year, while 16 per cent 
decreased them. Of the $1,000,000 and over 
museums with endowments, 74 per cent 
increased the funds during the year and 14 
per cent decreased them. 

The largest fund balances of any region 
were reported by museums in the North- 
east, $327.9 million at the beginning of the 
year and $339.2 million at year end. New 
England, while having a higher proportion 
of museums with endowments but a lower 
percentage of large budget museums, re- 
ported slightly lower balances for this pe- 
riod of $238.3 million and $246.2 million. 
Endowment fund balances, both at the 
beginning and end of the year, were lowest 
in the Mountain Plains ($10.9 million and 
$11.2 million). The West, which ranked just 
ahead of the Mountain Plains in total en- 
dowment fund balances ($56.4 million at 
the beginning of the year and $66.2 million 
at year end), had the greatest percentage 
increase in fund balances of any region 
(18 per cent). 

In FY 1971-72, the principal additions to 
endowment funds were accounted for by 
gains on the disposition of investments, rep- 
resenting 53 per cent of the total $62.3 
million added to these funds. Contributions, 
grants, and bequests represented 39 per 
cent of total fund additions, investment 
income seven per cent, and other sources 
one per cent. Deductions from endow- 
ment funds, which amounted to $1.2 
million, were made primarily to accom- 
modate adjustments and losses in portfolio 
positions. Acquisitions accounted for only 
a small percentage (15 per cent) of the 
total deductions." 

In addition to evaluating budgetary data 
on endowment funds, the survey examined 
the specific policies and practices of mu- 
seums concerning the management of these 



funds. In more than half (56 per cent) of 
the museums with endowments, there are 
restrictions on the use of all or some part 
of the income derived from the funds. In 
14 per cent of the museums with endow- 
ments all income is restricted. Among all 
museums with endowments, an average 27 
per cent of the endowment income is re- 
stricted. The average percentage of endow- 
ment income restricted rises noticeably 
in both art and science museums (40 per 
cent) and in museums with budgets of 
$250,000 to $499,999 (43 per cent). 

Almost half (49 per cent) of the museums 
with endowments reported that some part 
of the principal of endowment funds can be 
expended upon designation of the trustees 
or the governing board of the museum. 12 
Currently realized capital gains on at least 
some part of the endowment principal can 
be used for current income purposes in 37 
per cent of the museums with endowments. 
(Seventeen per cent of the museums with 
endowments reported that currently re- 
alized capital gains on all of the endowment 
principal can be used.) The great majority 
(78 per cent) of the museums in which 
capital gains on some part of endowment 
principal can be used for current income 
purposes did realize gains on the endow- 
ments during FY 1971-72 and 59 per 
cent actually used these gains for current 
income purposes. 

The assumption that most museums can 
exist primarily on endowment income 



"The difference between the $61.1 million net 
additions to endowment funds and the overall $47.5 
million increase in the total endowment fund 
balance is accounted for by transfers to and from 
other funds. 

ai; Museums often confuse endowment funds with 
funds similar to endowments. Strictly defined, those 
funds of which the principal can be expended upon 
designation of the trustees or governing board are 
funds "similar to endowments" and not endowment 
funds. 



172 



would appear to be unfounded. First, and 
most important, only 27 per cent of all 
museums have endowments. Second, while 
the survey did not separately identify for 
those museums with endowments what per- 
centage of total income was accounted for 
by non-operating revenues, which include 
investment earnings on endowments, total 
non-operating revenues in all museums 
amounted to only $67.4 million in FY 
1971-72. In this same period, operating 
expenditures in just those museums with 
endowments were close to $256 million. 
It is apparent therefore that museums 
generally cannot rely on endowment in- 
come to cover normal operating expendi- 
tures. 

Similar Funds 

Similar fund balances totaled $429.5 million 
at the beginning of FY 1971-72 and in- 
creased slightly to $447.8 million at the 
end of the year, a net change of $18.3 mil- 
lion or four per cent. 13 Of the total $17.7 
million in additions to similar funds, 61 per 
cent was accounted for by contributions, 
grants, and bequests, 31 per cent by gains 
on disposition of investments, seven per 
cent by investment income, and one 
per cent by other sources. Total deduc- 
tions amounted to $1.3 million, of which 
acquisitions represented only three per 
cent. 14 

Unexpended Land, Buildings, Equipment, 
and Collections Funds 

These funds totaled $136.3 million at the 
beginning of FY 1971-72 and $148.1 mil- 
lion at year end, an increase of $11.8 
million or nine per cent. Contributions, 
grants, and bequests accounted for 64 per 
cent of the total $63.2 million in additions 
to these funds. Investment income repre- 
sented 17 per cent and other sources 19 
per cent. Deductions, which totaled $54.5 
million, were primarily for acquisitions of 
land, buildings, and major equipment (68 
per cent). Acquisitions for collections 
accounted for 24 per cent. 15 



Financial Status and Income Needs 

Operating Costs and Cutbacks 

Respondents indicated that since 1966 
operating costs had increased in 90 per cent 
of the museums, with a median increase 
of 39 per cent. 10 Improvements and expan- 
sions in staff, programs, facilities, and col- 
lections contributed to this increase, but the 
primary reasons for the cost rise were the 
related factors of higher salaries and in- 
flation. Forty-seven per cent of the directors 
of museums that experienced increases in 
operating costs reported higher salaries as 
a predominant cause. Forty-three per cent 
listed inflation and cost of living increases. 
(A number of directors, especially in gov- 
ernment museums, noted that in their 
museums salary increases were mandatory, 
causing a continual rise in operating ex- 
penses.) Also cited as factors contributing 
to higher operating costs were increases in 
the number of staff (18 per cent); costs of 
materials and equipment, maintenance 
costs, and expanded programs and in- 
creased activities (17 per cent each); ex- 
pansion or improvement of buildings and 
facilities (15 per cent); and expansion or 
improvement of the collection and exhibits 
(nine per cent). 



13 Similar funds are defined in the survey as "all assets 
designated by the board and management of the 
museum to be invested in income-producing assets 
and administered as if they were endowments." 

14 The difference between the $16.4 million in net 
additions to similar funds and the overall $18.3 
million increase in the similar funds balance is 
accounted for by transfers to and from other funds. 

15 The difference between the $8.7 million in net 
additions to unexpended land, buildings, equipment, 
and collections funds and the overall $11.8 million 
increase in the balance of these funds is accounted 
for by transfers to and from other funds. 

16 Of the remaining 10 per cent of museums, 
five per cent reported that operating costs had 
remained about the same as in 1966, and one per 
cent reported that costs were lower. Four per cent 
of the museums were not operating in 1966. 



173 



Financial pressures had resulted since 
1966 in cutbacks in facilities, services, or 
staff in more than one-third (36 per cent) 
of all museums. (Fig. 91, p. 173; Fig. 91A, 
p. 174.) In no category did this percentage 
tall below 27 per cent. Among museum 
types, art had the highest percentage (42 
per cent) of museums in which cutbacks 
were necessary and art/history the lowest 



(29 per cent). Forty-one per cent of the 
other combined museums and approxi- 
mately one-third of both history and 
science museums were forced to restrict 
operations. Within budget size, cutbacks 
were most frequent in the $250,000 to 
$499,999 museums (52 per cent) and least 
frequent in the $50,000 to $99,999 mu- 
seums (30 per cent). 



Figure 91 

Necessity for Cutbacks in Facilities, 

Services, or Staff Since 1966, 

by Museum Type and Budget Size 



§ 



Cutbacks necessary 
Cutbacks not necessary 
Not sure 



Base: The 96% of museums that were open in 1 96ft 



AH 
Museums 



Art' 



History 



Science 



Art/ 
History 



Other 
Combined 




33% 



Under $50,000- $100,000- $250,000- $500,000- $1,000,000 

$50,000 99,999 249,999 499,999 999,999 and Over 

39% 



66% 




61% 



174 



A substantial 52 per cent of the educational 
institution museums were forced to make 
cutbacks, contrasted with 36 per cent of 
the government and 33 per cent of the 
private nonprofit museums. Among 
government museums, financial pressures 



had the most pronounced effect on federal 
museums: 50 per cent of these museums 
had to cut back some part of their opera- 
tions, compared with 41 per cent of state 
and 27 per cent of municipal-county 
museums. 



Figure 91A 

Necessity for Cutbacks in Facilities, 

Services, or Staff Since 1966, 

by Governing Authority 



§ 



Cutbacks necessary 
Cutbacks not necessary 
Not sure 



Base: The 96<7r of museums that were o()en in 1 966 



100% 



All 
Museums 



Private 
Nonprofit 



Government Federal 



State 



Municipal- 
County 



Educational 
Institution 



Public 



Private 



36% 



63% 



1% 




36% 



63% 




46% 



54% 



60% 



175 



The directors of the 36 per cent of muse- 
ums in which operations had been cut 
back since 1966 were asked if cutbacks 
were made in any of eight given areas. 17 
Twenty per cent of the directors cited 
nonprofessional staff reductions and 19 per 
cent professional staff reductions (Fig. 92, 
p. 176). This was followed by reductions in 
maintenance and repairs (16 per cent), 
quality and/or quantity of publications (14 
per cent), number of hours open to the pub- 
lic (12 per cent), school programs (10 per 
cent), and services to researchers and 
scholars (10 per cent). Nine per cent of the 
directors reported that the museum had 
found it necessary to close part of the 
facilities previously open to the public. 

These specified cutbacks were slightly less 
prevalent in museums with budgets under 
$250,000 than in those with budgets over 
$250,000. For example, reductions in the 
number of nonprofessional staff occurred 
in 16 per cent of the under $50,000 mu- 
seums, compared with 33 per cent of the 
$1,000,000 and over museums. Variations 
were less apparent in professional staff 
cutbacks, with the percentage of museums 
that made reductions increasing from 17 per 
cent in the under $50,000 category to 24 per 
cent in the $500,000 to $999,999 group and 
21 per cent in the $1,000,000 and over. 
The only area in which cutbacks were 
higher in the under $50,000 museums than 
in the $1,000,000 and over was the num- 
ber of hours the museum is open: Twelve 
per cent of the under $50,000 museums 
reduced hours, compared with nine per 
cent of the $1,000,000 and over. 



reductions in hours open to the public least 
frequently in science. 

Among governing authorities, a some- 
what higher percentage of educational in- 
stitution museums than of government or 
private nonprofit museums reduced their 
professional and nonprofessional staffs. 
Reductions in the quality and/or quantity of 
publications and in hours open to the public 
were also more frequent in educational 
institution museums (22 and 17 per cent, 
respectively) than in private nonprofit 
(16 and 10 per cent, respectively) and 
government (8 and 12 per cent, re- 
spectively) museums. However, the most 
noticeable variations occurred within 
government museums. In many of the 
specified areas, the incidence of cutbacks 
was substantially higher in federal museums 
than in state or municipal-county museums. 
For example, 40 per cent of the federal 
museums reduced maintenance, compared 
with only 17 per cent of state and 13 per 
cent of municipal-county museums; 27 per 
cent of the federal museums reduced 
hours, contrasted with 10 per cent of state 
and eight per cent of municipal-county. 
School programs were cut back by 21 per 
cent of the federal museums, while only 
12 per cent of the state and seven per 
cent of the municipal-county museums 
were forced to restrict these activities. 
Reductions in professional staff occurred 
more frequently in federal museums than 
in any other museum category. 



A comparison of cutbacks within museum 
type shows that slightly higher percentages 
of art, science, and other combined mu- 
seums than of history and art/history mu- 
seums reduced their professional and 
nonprofessional staffs. Reductions in quality 
and/or quantity of publications occurred 
least frequently in history museums and 



17 This question was asked only of the directors of 
the 36 per cent of museums in which cutbacks were 
made. The percentages were converted to the 1,821 
museum base to indicate the impact of these cutbacks 
on the field as a whole. Because many directors 
cited more than one cutback area, the percentages 
total more than 100. 



176 



Figure 92 



Specified Cutbacks Necessary Since 1966 



Base: Total museums* 












<Zj 

J? 79 <& 









** 















C /b 

c <? 



# £■ c? 

,<& i& •<• 
„o ,e* ,o 



o <f 



^.o 



# 



O <? S 



,<b 



% 



% 



% 



0/ 

/o 



0/ 

/o 



% 



% 



% 



All Museums 

Art 

History 

Science 

Art/History 

Other Combined 

Under $50,000 

$50,000-99,999 

$100,000-249,999 

$250,000-499,999 

$500,000-999,999 

$1,000,000 and Over 

Private Nonprofit 
Government 

Federal 
State 

Municipal-County 
Educational Institution 

Public 
Private 



*This question was asked only of 
the directors of the 36 per cent of 
museums in which cutbacks were 
made. The percentages were 
converted to the 1,821 museum 
base to indicate the impact of 
the cutback on the field as a 
whole. Multiple response question; 
percentages total more than 100. 



20 

22 
17 
22 
19 
24 

16 
18 
20 
33 
28 
33 

20 
19 
29 
26 
11 
28 
28 
28 



19 

24 
17 
20 
14 
22 

17 
19 
22 
22 
24 
21 

19 
18 
37 
13 
15 
27 
22 
32 



16 

14 
16 
16 
15 
20 

16 
12 
17 
21 
17 
22 

15 
19 
40 
17 
13 
12 
13 
10 



14 

19 
7 
13 
19 
20 

13 
14 
15 
13 
18 
15 

16 

8 

6 

11 

7 

22 

18 

26 



12 

12 
13 
4 
11 
15 

12 
8 
13 
14 
13 
9 

10 
12 
27 
10 
8 
17 
18 
16 



10 

9 

8 

8 

16 

16 

9 
7 
11 
19 
10 
17 

10 
11 
21 
12 
7 
13 
10 
16 



10 

9 
10 

6 
15 
13 

12 
3 

12 
9 

18 

12 

11 

10 
23 
10 
5 
7 
9 
5 



9 
9 
7 
8 
11 

7 
7 
12 
13 
12 
18 

8 
10 
13 
13 

5 
10 

6 
15 



177 



Distribution of Operating Budgets 

Each director was asked to give the pro- 
portional distribution of the museum's FY 
1971-72 operating budget among five 
program areas: administration; curatorial, 
display, and exhibit; education; research; 
and operations and support. 18 The director 
also was asked whether current budget 



levels enabled full utilization of the mu- 
seum's resources and, if not, in what specific 
areas funding increases in the next two or 
three years would be spent. 



18 These same areas are used in the analysis of 
personnel data and are defined in Chapter 7, p. 84. 



Figure 93 

Distribution of Total Operating 
Budget Among Program Areas, 
by Museum Type and Budget Size 

Base: Total museum operating budgets 



Administration 

Curatorial, Display, and Exhibit 

Education 

Research 

Operations and Support 



All 

Museums 
100% 28% I- I 32% 



Art 



History 



20% 



15? 



10% 



27% 




22% 



16% 




23% 



32% 




20% 



Science Art/ Other 

History Combined 

27% 



19% 



16% 



15% 



30% 




Under $50,000 

$50,000 99,999 

~ 30% 



31% 

20% 

14% 

8% 
27% 





17% 



17% 



11% 



25% 



$100,000- $250,000 
249,999 499,999 

27%| — | 23% 



$500,000 $1,000,000 

999,999 and Over 



2i<7< 



22% 




20% 



12% 



11% 



35% 





18% 
23% 

12% 
13%) 

34% 





178 



Figure 93A 

Distribution of Total Operating 
Budget Among Program Areas, 
by Governing Authority 

Base: Total museum operating budgets 



Administration 

Curatorial, Display, and Exhibit 

Education 

Research 

Operations and Support 



All Private Government Educational 
Museums Nonprofit Institution 

100% 28% I I 30% | 1 25% | 1 26% 



20% 



19% 



21% 



15% 



10% 



27% 






16% 




12% 



10% 



32% 



26% 




The findings show that the two largest 
museum expense areas in FY 1971-72 were 
administration and operations and support, 
accounting for a respective 28 and 27 per 
cent of the total operating budget ($478.9 
million). (Fig. 93, p. 177; Fig. 93A, p. 178.) 
Curatorial, display, and exhibit — the third 
largest expense area — represented 20 per 
cent of the total budget. Education and 
research accounted for the lowest propor- 
tions, a respective 15 and 10 per cent. 

Both art and history museums spent a 
slightly higher proportion of their total 
operating budgets on administration (32 
per cent each) than on operations and sup- 
port (23 and 28 per cent, respectively). (Fig. 
93, p. 177.) This pattern is reversed in sci- 
ence museums, where 30 per cent of the 
budget was allocated for operations and 
support and 20 per cent for administration. 
Another noticeable variation occurs in 
research, an area that accounted for a 
greater proportion of the operating budget 
in science (15 per cent) than in any other 
museum type. 

In each of the budget categories, the pro- 
portion of the total budget spent on cura- 
torial, display, and exhibit and on education 
and research is similar to that in all mu- 
seums. But the distribution of funds 
between the two remaining, and generally 
largest, museum expense areas clearly is 
affected by budget size. In the under 
$100,000 museums, administration ac- 
counted for a slightly higher proportion of 
the total operating budget than operations 
and support, while in the $500,000 and over 
museums, operations and support ac- 
counted for a higher proportion than ad- 
ministration. These two areas represented 
equal percentages of the operating budget in 
both the $100,000 to $249,999 and 
$250,000 to $499,999 budget categories. 

Among governing authorities, private non- 
profit and educational institution museums 
spent a higher proportion of their total 



179 



operating budgets on administration (30 
and 26 per cent, respectively) than on 
operations and support (26 and 19 per 
cent, respectively). (Fig. 93A, p. 178.) Revers- 
ing this pattern, government museums 
expended 32 per cent for operations and 
support and 25 per cent for administration. 

Curatorial, display, and exhibit accounted 
for a slightly higher proportion of the 
total budget in educational institution 
museums (24 per cent) than in govern- 
ment (21 per cent) or private nonprofit (19 
per cent) museums. Educational institution 
museums also allocated a relatively larger 
proportion for research, 16 per cent com- 
pared with approximately 10 per cent in pri- 
vate nonprofit and in government museums. 
As noted in the discussion of museum per- 
sonnel, educational institution museums had 
the highest proportions of full-time paid 
personnel working in curatorial, display, 
and exhibit (27 per cent compared with 
18 per cent for government and 16 per cent 
for private nonprofit museums) and in re- 
search (nine per cent compared with six per 
cent for government and four per cent for 
private nonprofit). The investigation of the 
level of research activity in museums also 
shows that among governing authorities 
it was educational institution museums that 
placed the greatest emphasis on research. 

Adequacy of Operating Budgets 

Two-thirds (66 per cent) of all directors 
reported that their museum's current op- 
erating budget did not permit full utili- 
zation of facilities, exhibits, collections, 
staff, and other museum resources. These 
directors estimated that to achieve full 
utilization, a median budget increase of 45 
per cent would be needed in the next two 
to three years. Differences in responses were 
most striking among governing authorities, 
with operating budgets considered inade- 
quate in 83 per cent of the educational 
institution museums compared with 70 per 
cent of the private nonprofit and 55 per 
cent of the government museums. It is 



noteworthy that although federal muse- 
ums had the highest rate of cutbacks of all 
government museums, a lower percentage 
of these museums (41 per cent) than of 
state (69 per cent) or municipal-county 
(51 per cent) museums reported that 
current budget levels were insufficient for 
full utilization of resources. 

When the directors of the 66 per cent of 
museums operating below capacity were 
asked to list the two or three areas in 
which any additional funds would be spent 
over the next two or three years, 50 per 
cent responded that at least part of the 
funds would be used to increase staff. 19 
Forty-one per cent of the directors would 
use additional funds for exhibitions and 
displays and 21 per cent for educational 
programs. Seventeen per cent would spend 
funds on collections and acquisitions, 17 per 
cent on improvements and renovations of 
facilities and grounds, 13 per cent on 
new building and more space, 11 per 
cent on research and scholarship, and 10 
per cent on conservation and preservation 
of collections. Only eight per cent of the 
directors indicated that additional funds 
would be used to increase staff salaries. 

There are several noticeable differences in 
the way directors of art, history, and 
science museums would spend additional 
funds. Increased funding would be used 
for educational programs in 28 per cent 
of the science and 25 per cent of the art 
museums, compared with 17 per cent of 
the history museums. Similarly, a respective 
48 and 44 per cent of the art and science 
museums would use additional funds for 
exhibitions and displays, contrasted with 
32 per cent of history. A considerably 
higher percentage of history museums (25 
per cent) than of art (12 per cent) or 
science (15 per cent) would spend addi- 
tional funds on improvements and reno- 

ln Since a number of directors mentioned more than 
one area, percentages total more than 100. 



180 



vations of facilities and grounds, a differ- 
ence that may well relate to the inclusion 
of historic sites and museum villages in 
this category. 

Funding increases in educational programs 
and in research activities were given slightly 
higher priority by the large budget mu- 
seums than by the small ones. Thirty-nine 
per cent of the $1,000,000 and over mu- 
seums would allocate funds for educational 
programs, compared with 19 per cent 
of those with budgets under $50,000. Ad- 
ditional funds would be used for research 
and scholarship in 25 per cent of the 
$1,000,000 and over museums, but in only 
eight per cent of the under $50,000. A 
different pattern appears in regard to the 
use of funds for additional staff, improve- 
ments and renovations of facilities, and new 
building and more space, with each of 
these areas cited by higher percentages 
of small budget museums than of large 
ones. For example, 18 per cent of the 
under $50,000 museums would spend 
funds on new buildings and more space 
contrasted with two per cent of the 
$1,000,000 and over museums. 

Variations in responses were generally less 
pronounced among governing authorities. 
Fifty per cent of the educational institution 
museums cited exhibitions and displays as 
one of the primary areas in which addi- 
tional funds would be spent. Forty-two 
per cent of the private nonprofit and 
37 per cent of the government muse- 
ums mentioned this area. Collections and 
acquisitions also was cited by a higher per- 
centage of educational institution museums 
(27 per cent) than of private nonprofit (15 
per cent) or government (18 per cent) 
museums. Improvements and renovations 
of facilities and grounds was given priority 
by a somewhat higher percentage of gov- 
ernment museums (22 per cent) than of 
private nonprofit or educational institution 
museums (16 and 12 per cent, respectively). 



Long-Term Needs 

Each director was asked to consider the 
museum's needs over the next five to ten 
years and to list the two or three primary 
areas in which improvements would be 
made if sufficient funds were available. 
Forty-nine per cent of the directors men- 
tioned staff, 41 per cent new building 
and more space, and 34 per cent exhibitions 
and displays. (Fig. 94, p. 181.) Nineteen 
per cent would use additional funds for 
improvements and renovations of facilities 
and grounds, 17 per cent for collections 
and acquisitions, 17 per cent for facilities 
and equipment, and 16 per cent for educa- 
tional programs. Eight per cent of the 
directors cited storage space and a like 
eight per cent conservation and preser- 
vation of the collection as primary areas 
of need. Six per cent cited research and 
scholarship. Here it is interesting to recall 
that a substantial 82 per cent of all muse- 
um directors considered conservation and 
preservation of objects a very important 
function of their museums. Yet, relatively 
few mentioned this as a priority area for 
additional funding in the next five to 
ten years. 

Within museum type, the percentage of 
museums that would allocate funds for staff 
ranged between 60 per cent in art and 40 
per cent in art/history. Science museums 
gave more emphasis to increased funding 
for exhibitions and displays and for educa- 
tional programs than any other museum 
type. Collections and acquisitions were 
mentioned by a considerably higher per- 
centage of art museums (37 per cent) than 
of history or science museums (14 and 
12 per cent, respectively), while im- 
provements and renovations of facilities and 
grounds was of greater priority in history 
and art/history (approximately 25 per cent 
each) than in art (11 per cent), science 
(19 per cent), or other combined (14 per 
cent) museums. 



181 



Figure 94 



Priority Funding Areas Over Next Five to Ten Years 




0/ 

/o 



% 



0/ 

/o 



% 



0/ 

/o 



/o 



% 



0/ 

/o 



% 



% 



% 



0/ 

/o 



% 



0/ 

/o 



0/ 

/o 



Staff 

New building/more space 

Exhibitions/displays 

Improvement/ renovation 

of facilities and grounds 
Collections/acquisitions 
Facilities/equipment 
Educational programs 
Storage space 
Conservation/preservation 

of collection 
Research and scholarship 
Work space 
Maintenance of buildings 

and facilities 
Visitors and members' services 
Library 
Publications 
Increased salaries 
Security/protection 
Climate control 
Audio-visual equipment 
Other 






49 
41 
34 

19 
17 
17 
16 
8 

8 
6 
5 

4 
4 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
10 



60 
35 
28 

11 
37 
24 
16 
10 

7 
3 
4 

2 
3 
1 
5 
4 
1 
2 
2 
9 



46 
36 
32 

24 
14 
16 
13 
7 

11 
5 
3 

4 
4 
2 
3 
2 
2 
2 
4 
11 



47 
43 
41 

19 
12 
14 
24 
4 

4 
9 
3 

9 
4 
2 
3 
3 
1 



40 
43 
27 

25 
10 
10 
9 
11 

9 
8 
8 

2 
7 
8 
3 
3 
8 
2 
4 
18 



50 
52 
39 

14 
13 
16 
19 
11 

3 

6 

10 

3 
3 
5 

1 

* 

* 

1 

* 



47 
45 
31 

19 
12 
20 
12 
9 

5 
3 
2 

3 
4 

3 

* 

2 
2 
2 
3 
11 



63 
38 
33 

21 
19 
14 
22 
4 

7 
5 
8 

3 
3 
2 
6 
1 
6 
1 
3 
11 



50 
33 
38 

18 
25 
14 
16 
9 

9 

7 
5 

8 
4 
3 
4 
2 

2 
2 
8 



33 

42 
38 

16 
20 
10 
18 
13 

12 
13 

11 

6 
2 
3 
5 
3 
1 



10 



48 
36 
31 

18 
28 
19 
23 
11 

13 

11 

6 

1 
5 
4 
8 
5 

3 
1 

11 



38 
39 
40 

26 
21 
14 
23 
3 

15 

16 

4 

4 
9 
5 
3 
5 

1 

1 

10 



52 
40 
33 

19 

17 

19 

17 

6 

8 
5 
5 

3 
4 
4 
4 
3 
2 
2 
2 
12 



44 
43 
33 

20 
15 
15 
14 
11 

7 
6 
6 

7 
3 
2 
1 
1 

3 

* 

3 
10 



47 
39 
37 

18 
29 
10 
19 

11 

8 
7 
3 

2 

5 

3 

7 

4 

2 

1 

2 

6 



* Less than 0.5% 

Multiple response question; 

percentages total more than 100. 



182 



There is no discernible pattern in the 
evaluations of long-term needs according to 
budget size, except that the percentages of 
museums citing both conservation and 
preservation of the collection and research 
and scholarship are found to be generally 
higher in the $250,000 and over museums 
and the percentages citing staff higher in 
the under $250,000 museums. Among 
governing authorities, the most marked 
difference in the descriptions of long-term 
needs was the emphasis given to collections 
and acquisitions: Twenty-nine per cent of 
the educational institution museums (and a 
substantially higher 43 per cent of the private 
educational institution museums) cited this 
area, compared with 17 per cent of the 
private nonprofit and 15 per cent of the 
government museums. 

As an additional, and final, measure of 
financial needs, each director was given 
a list of 14 museum operations and asked 
to rate the seriousness of need for addi- 
tional money in each area applicable to 
the museum. About half (51 per cent) of 
the museums responding considered very 
serious the need for additional funds for 
major new construction. Thirty-eight per 
cent rated as very serious the need for addi- 
tional money for staff and programs in 
the area of education, and 38 per cent in 
the area of curatorial, display, and ex- 
hibit. Renovation of facilities for reasons 
other than preservation or conservation 
of objects and climate control for protec- 
tion of the collection each were cited by 
37 per cent of the directors as areas in 
which the need for additional money was 
considered very serious. 

Clearly, museum directors perceive little 
difference in their short-term needs and 
their long-term needs. Whether looking 
ahead for two or three years or five to ten, 
directors gave high priority to improve- 
ments in staff, exhibitions, and facilities. 
Predictably, these same areas were em- 
phasized by museum directors when 



considering the seriousness of need for 
additional money. 

Climate Control, Security, and Conservation 

While no more than 10 per cent of the 
directors listed climate control, security, or 
conservation as one of the two or three 
most important short-term or long-term 
priority needs of their museums, approxi- 
mately one-third did rate the need for 
additional funds in these three areas as 
very serious. Thirty-seven per cent consid- 
ered very serious the need for additional 
money for climate control for protection 
of the collection, 34 per cent for security, 
and 33 per cent for conservation. 

In FY 1971-72, average operating expend- 
itures (direct costs and personnel costs) in 
those museums able to specify or estimate 
such expenditures were $18,000 for secu- 
rity, $12,800 for conservation, and $5,400 for 
climate control. The overall expenditures 
naturally were greater in the large budget 
museums and in those museum categories 
with high proportions of large budget 
museums. But within each of these museum 
categories the relative amounts spent on 
security, conservation, and climate control 
did vary noticeably. In art museums, for 
example, the average expenditures for 
security ($48,900) were considerably higher 
than those for climate control ($13,100) or 
conservation ($8,900). Science museums, in 
contrast, expended an average $46,700 for 
conservation, compared with $19,600 for 
security and $9,200 for climate control. Of 
the large budget museums, those in the 
$500,000 to $999,999 category spent more 
on security ($61,800) than on conserva- 
tion ($34,300) or climate control ($23,800). 
Security also accounted for the largest 
proportion of these expenditures in the 
$1,000,000 and over museums, $230,000 
compared with $147,700 for conservation 
and $58,500 for climate control. 

In the great majority of museums, current 
expenditures for climate control, security, 



183 



and conservation are not considered ade- 
quate to meet needs. For conservation 
alone, directors estimated that an average 
increase of 58 per cent in operating ex- 
penditures would be required to meet 
immediate needs. Similar increases were 
considered necessary in security and cli- 
mate control, an estimated 48 and 46 
per cent, respectively. 

Outlook 

The overall picture of museum finances 
in FY 1971-72 underscores these institu- 
tions' reliance on a wide variety of private 
and public funding sources. In addition, 
most museum directors reported increased 
costs and under-utilized resources; more 
than one-third cited actual cutbacks in 
staff, facilities, and services since 1966. 
And, there is growing concern throughout 
the field about the effects of the cur- 
rent economic situation. Under these 
circumstances, the directors' views on 
the future financing of their museums is 
particularly significant. 

When asked whether they felt each of six 
given sources of financial support would 
become over the next few years increasingly 
important, less important, or remain about 
the same, 49 per cent of the directors 
cited the federal government as increasingly 
important, 44 per cent individuals, 38 per 
cent foundations, 33 per cent state govern- 
ment, 31 per cent corporations, and 28 
per cent local government. 20 In contrast, 
no more than four per cent of the directors 
felt that any of these sources would be- 
come less important. The two sources 
expected by the highest percentages 
(24 per cent each) of museums to remain 
at about the same level of importance 
were individuals and local government. 

For museums of all types, individuals were 
one of the two income sources most fre- 
quently cited as increasingly important. 
The other source was the federal govern- 
ment, except in science museums, where 



foundations were cited as frequently as 
individuals. 

Museums in the under $500,000 
budget categories generally cited most 
frequently the federal government and 
individuals, while the $500,000 to $999,999 
museums named the federal government 
and foundations, and the $1,000,000 and 
over museums the federal government and 
corporations. 

More than half (57 per cent) of the private 
nonprofit museums responded that in- 
dividuals would become increasingly im- 
portant as a source of income; 49 per cent 
cited the federal government and 45 per 
cent foundations. Government museums 
predictably cited most frequently their 
respective governing authorities as in- 
creasingly important income sources: The 
federal government was cited by the 
largest single percentage (38 per cent) of 
federal museums, state government by the 
largest percentage (64 per cent) of state 
museums, and municipal-county govern- 
ment by the largest percentage (65 per 
cent) of municipal-county museums. The 
largest numbers of educational institution 
museums named the federal government 
and foundations (52 per cent each) as 
increasingly important sources, followed 
closely by individuals (49 per cent). 

In a related question, directors were asked 
how sure they were that income from 
various sources — earned income and private 



20 It is interesting to compare with responses 
in another area the relatively low ranking given 
local government as an increasingly important funding 
source. A substantial 42 per cent of all museums 
received in FY 1971-72 municipal or county 
support. When these museums were asked 
whether they expected this support to increase, 
remain about the same, or decrease, more than 
half said they expected it to increase (11 per cent 
substantially and 45 per cent somewhat) and 
35 per cent to remain about the same. Five per 
cent expected a decrease and four per cent said 
they were not sure. 



184 



and public support for general operations 
and for specific programs — would achieve 
the levels they were projecting for the 
next few years. 

Among the 72 per cent of all museums 
that received earned income in FY 1971-72, 
a high 63 per cent responded that they 
were very sure or fairly sure (23 and 40 
per cent, respectively) that this kind of 
income would meet projected levels. (With 
the exception of federal museums, only 21 
per cent of which received earned income, 
substantial percentages of museums in all 
categories, ranging from 50 per cent of 
the municipal-county to 90 per cent of 
the $1,000,000 and over museums, received 
earned income.) 

Among the 71 per cent of all museums 
that received private contributions for 
operating support, 55 per cent were very 
sure or fairly sure (16 and 39 per cent, 
respectively) that this income would 
achieve the levels they were projecting. 
(While 25 per cent of the federal museums 
received private contributions for operating 
support, percentages ranging from 51 per 
cent of state museums to 89 per cent of 
art museums received this kind of income.) 

Just half of the 81 per cent of all museums 
that received government support for 
general operations in FY 1971-72 were very 
sure (26 per cent) or fairly sure (24 per 
cent) that this support would achieve 
projected levels. (Government support for 
general operations is a significant factor 
for museums in all categories, ranging 
from 65 per cent of the art/history museums 
to 98 per cent of the federal museums.) 

Of the 73 per cent of all museums that 
received private contributions for specific 
programs, a relatively low 43 per cent were 
very sure or fairly sure that this income 
would reach the levels they were project- 
ing for the next few years. Only nine per 
cent were very sure and 34 per cent fairly 



sure. (While 36 per cent of the federal 
museums received private contributions for 
specific programs, between 60 per cent of 
the state museums and 89 per cent of the 
$250,000 to $499,999 museums had this 
kind of income.) 

Only 32 per cent of the 75 per cent of 
museums that received government grants 
for specific programs were very sure or 
fairly sure of this type of income: seven 
per cent very sure and 25 per cent fairly 
sure. (Percentages ranging from 56 per cent 
of the federal to 90 per cent of the $250,000 
to $499,999 museums received govern- 
ment grants for programs.) 

Conversely, when the only slightly sure or 
not sure at all responses are examined, 37 
per cent of those museums that received 
earned income were only slightly sure or 
not sure at all that this source would 
meet projected levels. Forty-five per cent 
were unsure about private contributions 
for operating support; 50 per cent about 
government support for general operations; 
57 per cent were unsure about private 
contributions for specific programs; and 
68 per cent about government support for 
specific programs. 

For each of the income sources listed, 
more than half of the educational institu- 
tion museums were only slightly sure or 
not sure at all that the given source would 
achieve the levels they were projecting. 
Two-thirds or more of the private nonprofit 
museums that received government funds 
were unsure of this source, both for 
general operations (66 per cent) and for 
specific programs (71 per cent). 

Among budget categories, high percentages 
of the under $50,000 museums that 
received funds for specific programs were 
unsure that this income would reach 
projected levels — 71 per cent in the case 
of private contributions and 76 per cent 
in the case of government funds. 



185 



And among museum types, a substantial 
68 per cent of the art museums that 
received government support for general 
operations were only slightly sure or not 
sure at all that this source would achieve 
the levels they were projecting for the next 
few years. Relatively high percentages of 
other combined museums were unsure 
about private contributions for operating 
support (58 per cent) and earned income 
(50 per cent). 

It is encouraging to note that earned in- 
come, which was the largest single source 
of total museum income in FY 1971-72, 



is, in the opinion of directors, the support 
source most likely to achieve projected 
levels over the next few years. The fact 
that more than two-thirds of museum 
income in FY 1971-72 came from sources 
other than earned income emphasizes, 
however, the responsibility museums face 
in generating the bulk of their income 
from a variety of support sources, both 
private and public. 

The complex interrelationships between 
needs, projections, expectations, and poten- 
tials must continue to be explored and ways 
devised to deal with these challenges. 



186 



Index 



187 



The letter "F" following page number denotes 
a graph or table. 



Accessibility, 52-53 

increases and decreases in hours open, 52, 53F 

Admission policies, 54-57 

by budget size of museum, 54F, 56 

effect on attendance, 56-57 

by governing authority of museum, 55F, 56 

by type of museum, 54F, 55-56 

Aquariums, 7, 61. See also Science museums 

Art museums 

accessibility of, 52-53, 53F 

adequacy of exhibition and storage areas in, 

1 28-31 F, 132-35 
admission policies of, 54F, 55-56 
attendance at, 48F, 49, 52 
boards of trustees in, 72F, 73, 74F, 75, 79F 
budget size of, 12, 12F, 16, 16F 
classification of, 5F, 7, 8F 
construction of facilities, 125-26 
current fund balances of, 164, 165F 
cutbacks in operations, 173, 173F, 175, 176F 
dates founded, 2F, 125-26 

directors of, 107, 108F, 109, 109F, 110, 111F, 112 
distribution of operating budget, 177F, 178 
efforts to increase attendance, 58F, 59 
endowment funds, 167-68, 168F, 170F, 171 
exhibition of permanent collection, 61, 62F, 

63 F, 64 
expenditures for climate control, security, and 

conservation, 182 
extraordinary expenditures of, 162, 163F 
full-time personnel in, 85, 88F, 94-95, 96F, 97, 

97F, 99, 101,1 01 F 
functions of, 26, 28-29F, 29, 31, 33F 
governing authority of, 12-13, 13F, 19, 19F 
income of, 143-45, 144F, 145F, 158F 
increases or decreases in educational activities, 

41, 42F 
increases or decreases in exchange of objects, 

68F, 70 
loans of objects to storefront museums, 67F 
membership policies of, 57, 57F 
need for additional staff, 116, 120F, 121 F, 122F, 

123F 
need for facilities, 135, 136-37F 
net income of, 156, 158F, 159, 159F, 160 
non-current fund balances of, 166F 



operating expenditures of, 155, 155F, 158F 
part-time personnel in, 87, 90F, 95, 96F, 97, 97F 
personnel training programs, 118-19 
priority funding areas, 179-80, 181 F 
programs of, 37, 38-39F, 40-41, 42F, 43-45 
purposes of, 25-26, 27F, 30, 33F 
regional location of, 13, 14F, 21, 21 F 
rental of facilities, 138 
senior personnel in, 103-06, 106F 
special exhibitions, 64F, 65-66 
traveling exhibitions, 66-67, 66F 
volunteer personnel in, 43, 87, 92F, 94-97, 96F, 
97F 

Art/History museums 

accessibility of, 52, 53F 

adequacy of exhibition and storage areas in, 

128-31 F, 133-35 
adequacy of staff salaries and training, 118 
admission policies of, 54F, 56 
attendance at, 48F, 49 

boards of trustees in, 71, 72F, 73, 74F, 79, 79F 
budget size of, 12F, 15-16, 16F 
classification of, 5F, 7, 8F 
construction of facilities, 125-26 
current fund balances of, 164, 165F 
cutbacks in operations, 173, 173F, 175, 176F 
dates founded, 2F, 125 

directors of, 107, 108F, 109, 109F, 110, 111 F, 112 
distribution of operating budget, 177F 
efforts to increase attendance, 58F 
efforts to increase minority employment, 115 
endowment funds, 167, 168F, 170F 
exhibition of permanent collection, 62F, 63F 
extraordinary expenditures of, 162, 163F 
full-time personnel in, 85, 88F, 95, 96F, 97, 97F 

101, 101 F 
functions of, 28-29F, 29 
governing authority of, 13F, 15, 19-20, 19F 
income of, 143-44, 144F, 145F, 146, 158F 
increases or decreases in educational activities, 

41, 42F 
increases or decreases in exchange of objects, 

68F 
loans of objects to storefront museums, 67F 
membership policies of, 57F 
need for additional staff, 117, 120F, 121F, 122F, 

123F 
need for facilities, 136-37F 
net income of, 156, 158F, 159F, 160 
non-current fund balances of, 166F 
operating expenditures of, 155, 155F, 158F 
part-time personnel in, 87, 90F, 95, 96F, 97, 97F 
personnel training programs, 118 



188 



Art/History museums (cont.) 
priority funding areas, 180, 181 F 
programs of, 37, 38-39F, 40-41, 42F, 43^4 
purposes of, 26, 27F 
regional location of, 14F, 15, 21, 21 F 
rental of facilities, 138 
senior personnel in, 103, 105, 106F 
special exhibitions, 64F, 65 
traveling exhibitions, 66, 66F 
volunteer personnel in, 43, 92F, 94, 96-97, 96F, 
97F 

Art/History/Science museums, 7. See also 
Other Combined museums 

Art/Science museums, 7. See also Other 
Combined museums 

Associated Councils of the Arts, national public 
survey, 31, 40, 47-48, 53, 59, 140 

Attendance, 47-52, 59. See also 

Accessibility; Admission policies; 

Membership policies 
by budget size of museum, 50F, 50-51 
efforts to increase, 58F, 59 
by governing authority of museum, 49-50, 49F 
kinds of, 47, 52 
by region, 51, 51 F 
by type of museum, 48F, 49 



B 



exhibition of permanent collection, 62F, 63F, 64 
expenditures for climate control, security, and 

conservation, 182 
extraordinary expenditures of, 162, 163F 
full-time personnel in, 85-86, 88F, 94, 95F, 101, 

101 F 
governing authority of, 17-18, 17F, 20, 20F 
income of, 146-49, 147F, 148F, 158F 
increases or decreases in educational activities, 

41, 42F 
increases or decreases in exchange of objects, 

68F 
loans of objects to storefront museums, 67F 
membership policies of, 57, 57F 
need for additional staff, 117, 120F, 121F, 122F, 

123F 
need for facilities, 135, 136-37F 
net income of, 156-57, 158F, 159F, 161 
non-current fund balances of, 166F 
operating expenditures of, 154F, 155, 158F 
part-time personnel in, 87, 90F, 94, 95F 
personnel training programs, 118-19 
priority funding areas, 180, 181 F, 182 
programs of, 38-39F, 40-41, 42F, 44-45 
regional location of, 18-19, 18F, 21-22, 22F 
rental of facilities, 138 
senior personnel in, 103, 106, 106F 
special exhibitions, 64F, 65-66 
traveling exhibitions, 66, 66F 
types of, 12-16, 12F, 16F 
volunteer personnel in, 43, 92F, 94, 95F 



Botanical gardens, 7, 61. See also Science 
museums 

Budget Size, museums by 

accessibility of, 53, 53F 

adequacy of exhibition and storage areas in, 

1 28-31 F, 132-33, 135 
admission policies of, 54F, 56 
attendance at, 50-51, 50F 
boards of trustees in, 71, 72F, 73, 74F, 78 
construction of facilities, 126 
current fund balances of, 164, 165F 
cutbacks in operations, 173, 173F, 175, 176F 
dates founded, 2F 

definition and classification of, 5F, 7-8, 9F 
directors of, 107, 108F, 109, 109F, 110, 111 F, 112 
distribution of operating budget, 177F, 178 
efforts to increase attendance, 58F, 59 
efforts to increase minority employment, 116 
employee benefits and perquisites, 113, 115 
endowment funds, 167, 168F, 169, 170F, 171 



Climate control, 70, 182-83 

Collections, permanent 

exhibition of, 61-62, 62F, 63F, 64 
rental of, 70 

Community-based museums. See Storefront 
museums 

Conservation, 182-83 

D 

Directors, 107-13 

age of, 103, 107, 108F 

educational background of, 104-05, 110 

ethnic affiliation of, 103, 108F, 109 

evaluations of museum purposes and functions 

by, 25-26, 27F, 28-29F, 29-31, 32F, 33F, 34F, 

35F 



189 



Directors (cont.) 

functions and responsibilities of, 110, 112-13, 

114F 
relationship with board of trustees, 78-81, 79F 
salaries of, 106, 110, 111 F 
sex of, 107, 108F 

time spent on activities, 113, 114F 
union membership, 108F, 109 
work experience of, 104, 104F, 109, 109F 



Educational Institution museums. See also 

Private Educational Institution museums; 

Public Educational Institution museums 
accessibility of, 53, 53F 
adequacy of exhibition and storage areas in, 

1 28-31 F, 133 
adequacy of operating budget, 179 
admission policies of, 55F, 56 
attendance at, 49F, 50, 52 
boards of trustees in, 71, 72F, 73, 74F, 75, 78, 

79 F, 80-81 
budget size of, 17-18, 17F, 20, 20F 
current fund balances of, 164, 165F 
cutbacks in operations, 174, 174F, 175, 176F 
dates founded, 2F 

definition and classification of, 5F, 9-10, 10F 
directors of, 107, 108F, 110, 111F, 112-13 
distribution of operating budget, 178-79, 178F 
efforts to increase attendance, 58F 
efforts to increase minority employment, 116 
employee benefits and perquisites, 115 
endowment funds, 167, 169F 
exhibition of permanent collection, 62, 62F, 63F 
extraordinary expenditures of, 162, 163F 
full-time personnel in, 86-87, 89F, 98, 98F, 

101, 102F 
income of, 143, 149, 149F, 150F, 151, 158F 
increases or decreases in educational activities, 

43 F 
increases or decreases in exchange of objects, 

69 F 
loans of objects to storefront museums, 67F 
membership policies of, 57, 57F 
need for additional staff, 117, 120F, 121 F, 122F, 

123F 
need for facilities, 135, 136-37F 
net income of, 157, 158F, 160F, 162 
operating expenditures of, 156, 156F, 158F 
ownership of facilities, 127 
part-time personnel in, 87, 91 F, 98, 98F 
personnel training programs, 118-19 
priority funding areas, 180, 181 F, 182 



programs of, 40, 43F, 44-45 

regional location of, 23, 23F 

rental of facilities, 138 

senior personnel in, 103-04, 106, 107F 

special exhibitions, 64F, 65-66 

traveling exhibitions, 66F, 67 

types of, 12-13, 13F, 14-15, 19-20, 19F 

volunteer personnel in, 93F, 94, 98, 98F 

Endowment funds, 167-72 

balances, 166F, 167-69, 170F, 171 

by budget size of museum, 167, 168F 

by governing authority of museum, 167, 169F 

management of, 171-72 

by region, 167, 169F 

by type of museum, 167, 168F 

Exhibitions, 61-70 

increases and decreases in exchange of objects, 

68-69 F, 69-70 
loans of objects to storefront museums, 67-69, 

67F 
of permanent collection, 61-62, 62F, 63F, 64 
special, 64-66, 64F 
traveling, 66-67, 66F, 70 

Expenditures, extraordinary, 162-64 

by budget size of museum, 162, 163F 

current fund balances, 164, 165F 

by governing authority of museum, 162, 163F, 

164 
by region, 163F, 164 
by type of museum, 162, 163F 

Expenditures, operating, 153-56 

adequacy of operating budgets, 179-80 

by budget size of museum, 8, 154F, 155, 158F 

current fund balances, 164, 165F 

cutbacks in operations, 173-75, 173-74F, 176F 

distribution of operating budgets, 177-79, 

177-78F 
increases in operating costs, 172 
by governing authority of museum, 156, 156F, 158F 
net income, 1 59-61 F 
by region, 156, 157F, 158F 
by type of museum, 155, 155F, 158F 



Facilities, 125-38 

additions to, 127 

adequacy of exhibition and storage areas, 

1 28-31 F, 132-35 
construction of, 125-26, 126F, 127F 



190 



Facilities (cont.) 

existence of and need for, 135, 136-37F, 138 

ownership of, 127 

renovation of, 127 

rental of, 138 

Federal museums 

accessibility of, 52 

adequacy of operating budget, 179 

adequacy of staff salaries and training, 118 

admission policies of, 55F 

attendance at, 49F, 50, 52 

boards of trustees in, 71 

budget size of, 17F, 20 

current fund balances of, 165F 

cutbacks in operations, 174, 174F, 175, 176F 

dates founded, 2F 

definition and classification of, 5F, 9, 10F 

directors of, 109-10, 111 F 

efforts to increase attendance, 58F, 59 

efforts to increase minority employment, 116 

employee benefits, 115 

exhibition of permanent collection, 63F, 64 

extraordinary expenditures of, 163F 

full-time personnel in, 89F, 98F, 101, 102F 

income of, 143, 149F, 150F, 151, 158F 

increases or decreases in educational activities, 

43F 
increases or decreases in exchange of objects, 

69F 
membership policies of, 57 
need for additional staff, 120F, 121 F, 122F, 123F 
net income of, 158F, 160F, 162 
operating expenditures of, 156F, 158F 
part-time personnel in, 91 F, 98F 
personnel training programs, 119 
senior personnel in, 103, 106, 107F 
types of, 13, 13F, 14-15, 19 
volunteer personnel in, 93F, 94, 98F 

Finances, 139-85. See also Expenditures, 
extraordinary; Expenditures, operating; 
Income 
adequacy of operating budgets, 179-80 
budgetary practices and policies, 140-41 
current funds, 139, 141-64, 141F, 142F, 144F, 
145F, 147F, 148F, 149F, 150F, 152F, 153F, 154F 
155F, 156F, 157F, 158F, 159-61F, 163F, 165F 
cutbacks in operations, 173-75, 173-74F, 176F 
distribution of operating budgets, 177-79, 

1 77-78 F 
financial status and income needs, 157, 159, 

172-85 
increases in operating costs, 172 



non-current funds, 139, 166-72, 166F, 168-69F, 

170F 
priority funding areas, 179-80, 181F, 182-83 

Ford Foundation, The, 1 

Functions of museums, 25-26, 28-29F, 29, 
30-31, 32F, 33F, 34F, 35F 



Governing Authority of museum, 5F, 8-10, 10F, 
19-20, 19F, 20F. See also Educational Institu- 
tion museums; Federal museums; Government 
museums; Municipal-County museums; 
Private Educational Institution museums; 
Private Nonprofit museums; Public Educa- 
tional Institution museums; State museums 

Government museums. See also Federal 

museums; Municipal-County museums; 

State museums 
accessibility of, 53, 53F 
adequacy of exhibition and storage areas in, 

1 28-31 F 
adequacy of operating budget, 179 
admission policies of, 55F, 56 
attendance at, 49F, 50, 52 
boards of trustees in, 71, 72F, 73, 74F, 75-78, 

79F, 80 
budget size of, 17, 17F, 20, 20F 
current fund balances of, 164, 165F 
cutbacks in operations, 174, 174F, 175, 176F 
dates founded, 2F 

definition and classification of, 5F, 9, 10F 
directors of, 107, 108F, 110, 111 F, 112-13 
distribution of operating budget, 178F, 179 
efforts to increase attendance, 58F, 59 
efforts to increase minority employment, 116 
employee benefits and perquisites, 115 
endowment funds, 167, 169F 
exhibition of permanent collection, 62, 62F, 63F 
extraordinary expenditures of, 162, 163F 
full-time personnel in, 89F, 98, 98F, 101, 102F 
income of, 143, 149, 149F, 150F, 151, 158F 
increases or decreases in educational activities, 

43 F 
increases or decreases in exchange of objects, 

69 F 
increases in operating costs, 172 
loans of objects to storefront museums, 67F 
membership policies of, 57, 57F 
need for additional staff, 117, 120F, 121 F, 122F, 

123F 



191 



Government museums (cont.) 

need for facilities, 135, 136-37F 

net income of, 157, 158F, 160F, 162 

operating expenditures of, 156, 156F, 158F 

ownership of facilities, 127 

part-time personnel in, 87, 91 F, 98, 98F 

personnel training programs, 118-19 

priority funding areas, 180, 181 F, 182 

programs of, 40, 43F, 44 

regional location of, 22-23, 23F 

rental of facilities, 138 

senior personnel in, 103-04, 106, 107F 

special exhibitions, 64F, 65 

traveling exhibitions, 66F, 67 

types of, 12-13, 13F, 14-15, 19, 19F 

volunteer personnel in, 93F, 94, 98, 98F 



H 



Historic sites, 7. 5ee also History 
museums 



need for additional staff, 117, 120F, 121 F, 122F, 

123F 
need for facilities, 135, 136-37F 
net income of, 156, 158F, 159, 159F, 160 
non-current fund balances of, 166F 
operating expenditures of, 155, 155F, 158F 
part-time personnel in, 87, 90F, 96F, 97, 97F 
personnel training programs, 118-19 
priority funding areas, 179-80, 181 F 
programs of, 37, 38-39F, 40-41, 42F, 43-45 
purposes of, 25-26, 27F, 30, 34F 
regional location of, 14-15, 14F, 21, 21 F 
rental of facilities, 138 
senior personnel in, 103-06, 106F 
special exhibitions, 64F, 65 
traveling exhibitions, 66-67, 66F 
volunteer personnel in, 43, 92F, 94-97, 96F, 97F 

History/Science museums, 7. See also Other 
Combined museums 



I 



History museums 

accessibility of, 52-53, 53F 

adequacy of exhibition and storage areas in, 

1 28-31 F, 133-35 
admission policies of, 54F, 55-56 
attendance at, 48F, 49, 52 
boards of trustees in, 72F, 73, 74F, 79F 
budget size of, 12F, 13-16, 16F 
classification of, 5F, 7, 8F 
construction of facilities, 125-26 
current fund balances of, 164, 165F 
cutbacks in operations, 173, 173F, 175, 176F 
dates founded, 2F, 125-26 

directors of, 107, 108F, 109, 109F, 110, 111 F, 112 
distribution of operating budget, 177F, 178 
efforts to increase attendance, 58F 
endowment funds, 167-68, 168F, 170F 
exhibition of permanent collection, 61, 62F, 63F, 

64 
extraordinary expenditures of, 162, 163F 
full-time personnel in, 88F, 95, 96F, 97, 97F, 

99, 101, 101F 
functions of, 26, 28-29F, 29, 31, 34F 
governing authority of, 13F, 14, 19-20, 19F 
income of, 143-44, 144F, 145F, 158F 
increases or decreases in educational activities, 

41, 42F 
increases or decreases in exchange of objects, 

68F 
loans of objects to storefront museums, 67F 
membership policies of, 57, 57F 



Income, 141-52, 141 F 

by budget size of museum, 146-49, 147F, 148F, 

158F 
compared with income of performing arts 

groups, 140, 149, 151 
current fund balances, 164, 165F 
from federal government, 143 
by governing authority of museum, 149-51, 

149F, 150F, 158F 
from municipal-county government, 143 
net, 156-62, 158F, 159-61 F 
non-operating revenues, 142F, 143 
operating revenues, 142F, 143 
outlook, 183-85 

from private sector, 141, 142F, 143 
private support, 141, 142F, 143 
from public sector, 141, 143-44 
by region, 152, 152F, 153F, 158F 
from state government, 143 
by type of museum, 144-46, 144F, 145F, 158F 



M 



Membership policies, 57, 57F, 59 

Midwest, museums in 

attendance at, 51 F 
boards of trustees in, 72F 
budget size of, 18F, 19, 22, 22F 
construction of facilities, 126 
current fund balances of, 165F 



192 



Midwest, museums in (cont.) 
dates founded, 2F 

definition and classification of, 5F, 11, 11 F 
efforts to increase attendance, 58F, 59 
endowment funds, 169F, 170F 
extraordinary expenditures of, 163F, 164 
governing authority of, 23F 
income of, 152F, 153F, 158F 
net income of, 158F, 161 F, 162 
non-current fund balances of, 166F 
operating expenditures of, 157F, 158F 
types of, 13, 14-15, 14F, 21, 21F 

Mountain Plains, museums in 

attendance at, 51 F 
boards of trustees in, 72F 
budget size of, 18F, 19, 22F 
construction of facilities, 126 
current fund balances of, 165F 
dates founded, 2F 

definition and classification of, 5F, 11, 11 F 
efforts to increase attendance, 58F 
endowment funds, 169F, 170F, 171 
extraordinary expenditures of, 163F, 164 
governing authority of, 23F 
income of, 152, 152F, 153F, 158F 
net income of, 158F, 161F, 162 
non-current fund balances of, 166F 
operating expenditures of, 156, 157F, 158F 
types of, 13, 14F, 15, 21,21F 

Municipal-County museums 

adequacy of operating budget, 179 

admission policies of, 55F 

attendance at, 49F, 50 

boards of trustees in, 71 

budget size of, 17, 17F, 20 

current fund balances of, 165F 

cutbacks in operations, 174, 174F, 175, 176F 

dates founded, 2F 

definition and classification of, 5F, 9, 10F 

directors of, 110, 111 F 

efforts to increase attendance, 58F, 59 

efforts to increase minority employment, 116 

exhibition of permanent collection, 63F, 64 

extraordinary expenditures of, 163F 

full-time personnel in, 89F, 98F, 102F 

income of, 143, 149F, 150F, 151, 158F 

increases or decreases in educational activities, 

43 F 
increases or decreases in exchange of objects, 

69 F 
membership policies of, 57 
need for additional staff, 120F, 121F, 122F, 123F 



net income of, 158F, 160F 

operating expenditures of, 155, 156F, 158F 

part-time personnel in, 87, 91 F, 98F 

senior personnel in, 107F 

special exhibitions, 65 

types of, 13, 13F, 14-15, 19 

volunteer personnel in, 93F, 98, 98F 

Museum survey 

classification of museums, 4, 5F, 6 
development of, 1, 3 
procedure, 4, 6 
qualifying criteria, 4 

Museum villages, 7. 5ee also History 
museums 

N 

National Council on the Arts, 1 

National Endowment for the Arts, 1, 3-4, 6 

National Research Center of the Arts, Inc., 1, 

3-4, 6 

Natural History museums, 7, 61-62. See also 
Science museums 

New England, museums in 

attendance at, 51, 51 F 

boards of trustees in, 71, 72F, 78 

budget size of, 18F, 22F 

construction of facilities, 126 

current fund balances of, 165F 

dates founded, 2F 

definition and classification of, 5F, 10, 11 F 

efforts to increase attendance, 58F 

endowment funds, 167, 169F, 170F, 171 

extraordinary expenditures of, 163F, 164 

governing authority of, 22-23, 23F 

income of, 152, 152F, 153F, 158F 

net income of, 157, 158F, 161 F, 162 

non-current fund balances of, 166F 

operating expenditures of, 157F, 158F 

types of, 14F, 15, 21 F 

Northeast, museums in 

attendance at, 51, 51 F 
boards of trustees in, 72F 
budget size of, 18F, 19, 21, 22F 
construction of facilities, 126 
current fund balances of, 165F 
dates founded, 2F 



193 



Northeast, museums in (cont.) 
definition and classification ot, 5F, 10, 11 F 
efforts to increase attendance, 58F, 59 
endowment funds, 167, 169F, 170F, 171 
extraordinary expenditures of, 163F, 164 
governing authority of, 23, 23F 
income of, 152, 152F, 153F, 158F 
net income of, 157, 158F, 161 F, 162 
non-current fund balances of, 166F 
operating expenditures of, 156, 157F, 158F 
types of, 13, 14-15, 14F, 21, 21 F 



O 



Other Combined museums 

accessibility of, 52, 53F 

adequacy of exhibition and storage areas in, 

1 28-31 F, 132-35 
admission policies of, 54F, 56 
attendance at, 48F, 49, 52 
boards of trustees in, 72F, 73, 74F, 79F, 81 
budget size of, 12F, 15-16, 16F 
classification of, 5F, 7, 8F 
construction of facilities, 125-26 
current fund balances of, 164, 165F 
cutbacks in operations, 173, 173F, 175, 176F 
dates founded, 2F, 125 
directors of, 108F, 109, 109F, 110, 111F, 112 
distribution of operating budget, 177F 
efforts to increase attendance, 58F, 59 
efforts to increase minority employment, 115-16 
endowment funds, 167, 168F, 170F 
exhibition of permanent collection, 62F, 63F 
extraordinary expenditures of, 162, 163F 
full-time personnel in, 85, 88F, 95, 96F, 97, 97F, 

101, 101F 
functions of, 28-29F, 29 
governing authority of, 13F, 15, 19-20, 19F 
income of, 143-44, 144F, 145F, 146, 158F 
increases or decreases in educational activities, 

41, 42F 
increases or decreases in exchange of objects, 

68F 
loans of objects to storefront museums, 67F 
membership policies of, 57F 
need for additional staff, 117, 120F, 121 F, 122F, 

123F 
need for facilities, 136-37F 
net income of, 156, 158F, 159F, 160 
non-current fund balances of, 166F 
operating expenditures of, 155, 155F, 158F 
part-time personnel in, 87, 90F, 96F, 97, 97F 
personnel training programs, 118-19 
priority funding areas, 180, 181 F 



programs of, 37, 38-39F, 40-41, 42F, 43-44 
purposes of, 26, 27F 
regional location of, 14F, 15, 21, 21F 
rental of facilities, 138 
senior personnel in, 103, 105, 106F 
special exhibitions, 64F, 65 
traveling exhibitions, 66, 66F 
volunteer personnel in, 43, 92F, 94, 96-97, 96F, 
97F 



Personnel, 83-123. See also Directors 

adequacy of salaries, 118 

adequacy of training, 118 

benefits and perquisites offered, 113, 115 

by budget size of museum, 85-87, 88F, 90F, 

92F, 94, 95F 
characteristics of full-time paid staff, 99, 100F 
characteristics of senior staff, 103-04 
contract paid, 42, 44 
cutbacks in, 175, 176F 
definition of job categories, 84 
full-time staff, 83, 85-87, 88-89F, 99-102 
by governing authority of museum, 86-87, 89F, 

91 F, 93 F, 94, 97-98, 98F 
by job categories, 85-87, 86F, 88-89F, 90-91 F, 

92-93 F, 94 
minority employment, 115-16 
need for additional staff, 116-18, 120F, 121 F, 

122F, 123F 
nonprofessional staff, 84-85, 86F, 87, 88-89F, 

90-91 F, 92-93F, 94, 100F, 101-02, 101-02F 
part-time staff, 84, 87, 90-91 F 
professional staff, 84-85, 86F, 87, 88-89F, 90-91 F, 

92-93F, 94, 100F, 101-02, 101-02F 
relationship with board of trustees, 78-81 
salaries of full-time paid staff, 101-02, 101-02F 
salaries of senior staff, 105-06, 106-07F 
senior staff, 102-06 
total work force, 85, 85F 
training programs, 118-19 
by type of museum, 85, 87, 88F, 90F, 92F, 94-97, 

96F, 97F 
volunteers, 42-44, 84, 87, 92-93F, 94 
work experience and education of senior staff, 

104-05, 104F 

Planetariums, 7, 61. See also Science museums 

Private Educational Institution museums 

admission policies of, 55F 
attendance at, 49F 
boards of trustees in, 71 



194 



Private Educational Institution museums (cont.) 

budget size of, 17F, 18, 20 

current fund balances of, 165F 

cutbacks in operations, 174F, 176F 

dates founded, 2F 

definition and classification of, 5F, 9-10, 10F 

directors of, 109, 111 F 

efforts to increase attendance, 58F, 59 

exhibition of permanent collection, 63F, 64 

extraordinary expenditures of, 163F 

full-time personnel in, 89F, 98F, 102F 

income of, 143-44, 149F, 150F, 151, 158F 

increases or decreases in educational activities, 

43 F 
increases or decreases in exchange of objects, 

69 F 
need for additional staff, 120F, 121 F, 122F, 123F 
net income of, 158F, 160F 
operating expenditures of, 156F, 158F 
part-time personnel in, 91 F, 98F 
priority funding areas, 182 
senior personnel in, 107F 
types of, 13, 13F, 15 
volunteer personnel in, 93F, 94, 98F 

Private Nonprofit museums 

accessibility of, 53, 53F 

adequacy of exhibition and storage areas in, 

1 28-31 F, 133 
adequacy of operating budget, 179 
admission policies of, 55F, 56 
attendance at, 49F, 50, 52 
boards of trustees in, 71, 72F, 73, 74F, 78, 79F 
budget size of, 17, 17F, 20, 20F 
current fund balances of, 164, 165F 
cutbacks in operations, 174, 174F, 175, 176F 
dates founded, 2F 

definition and classification of, 5F, 8-9, 10F 
directors of, 107, 108F, 110, 111F, 112-13 
distribution of operating budget, 178-79, 178F 
efforts to increase attendance, 58F, 59 
efforts to increase minority employment, 116 
employee benefits and perquisites, 115 
endowment funds, 167, 169F 
exhibition of permanent collection, 62, 62F, 63F 
extraordinary expenditures of, 162, 163F 
full-time personnel in, 89F, 97-98, 98F, 101, 

102F 
income of, 143, 149, 149F, 150F, 151, 158F 
increases or decreases in educational activities, 

43 F 
increases or decreases in exchange of objects, 

69 F 
loans of objects to storefront museums, 67F 



membership policies of, 57, 57F 

need for additional staff, 117, 120F, 121 F, 122F, 

123F 
need for facilities, 135, 136-37F 
net income of, 157, 158F, 160F, 162 
operating expenditures of, 156, 156F, 158F 
ownership of facilities, 127 
part-time personnel in, 87, 91 F, 97-98, 98F 
personnel training programs, 118-19 
priority funding areas, 180, 181F, 182 
programs of, 40, 43F, 44 
regional location of, 22-23, 23F 
rental of facilities, 138 
senior personnel in, 103-04, 106, 107F 
special exhibitions, 64F, 65 
traveling exhibitions, 66F, 67 
types of, 12, 13F, 14-15, 19, 19F 
volunteer personnel in, 93F, 94, 98, 98F 

Programs, 37^45 

with colleges and universities, 44 

film series, 39F, 41 

frequency of, 38-39F 

for general public and adults, 38F, 40 

increases and decreases in, 41, 42-43F 

performing arts, 39F, 41 

publications, 45 

radio, 39F, 41 

research, 44-45 

for school children, 37, 38F, 40 

staffing of, 41-44 

television, 39F, 41 

Public Educational Institution museums 

adequacy of staff salaries and training, 118 

admission policies of, 55F 

attendance at, 49F 

boards of trustees in, 71 

budget size of, 17F, 18, 20 

current fund balances of, 165F 

cutbacks in operations, 174F, 176F 

dates founded, 2F 

definition and classification of, 5F, 9-10, 10F 

directors of, 110, 111F 

efforts to increase attendance, 58F 

exhibition of permanent collection, 63F 

extraordinary expenditures of, 163F 

full-time personnel in, 89F, 98F, 102F 

income of, 143-44, 149F, 150F, 151, 158F 

increases or decreases in educational activities, 

43F 
increases or decreases in exchange of objects, 

69 F 
need for additional staff, 120F, 121 F, 122F, 123F 



195 



Public Educational Institution museums (cont.) 

net income of, 158F, 160F 

operating expenditures of, 155, 156F, 158F 

part-time personnel in, 91 F, 98F 

senior personnel in, 107F 

types of, 13, 13F, 14-15 

volunteer personnel in, 93F, 98F 

Purposes of museums, 25-26, 27F, 30, 32F, 33F, 
34F, 35F 



R 



Regional location of museum, 5F, 10-11, 11 F, 
20-23, 21 F, 22F, 23F. See also Midwest; 
Mountain Plains; New England; Northeast; 
Southeast; West 



membership policies of, 57F 

need for additional staff, 116, 120F, 121 F, 122F, 

123F 
need for facilities, 135, 136-37F 
net income of, 156, 158F, 159F, 160 
non-current fund balances of, 166F 
operating expenditures of, 155, 155F, 158F 
part-time personnel in, 87, 90F, 95, 96F, 97, 97F 
personnel training programs, 118 
priority funding areas, 179-80, 181 F 
programs of, 38-39F, 40-41, 42F, 43^5 
purposes of, 25-26, 27F, 30, 35F 
regional location of, 14F, 15, 21, 21F 
rental of facilities, 138 
senior personnel in, 103-06, 106F 
special exhibitions, 64F, 65 
traveling exhibitions, 66-67, 66F 
volunteer personnel in, 43, 92F, 94, 96-97, 96F, 

97F 



Science museums 

accessibility of, 52-53, 53F 

adequacy of exhibition and storage areas in, 

1 28-31 F, 132-35 
admission policies of, 54F, 55-56 
attendance at, 48F, 49, 52 

boards of trustees in, 71, 72F, 73, 74F, 75, 79F 
budget size of, 12F, 15-16, 16F 
classification of, 5F, 7, 8F 
construction of facilities, 125-26 
current fund balances of, 164, 165F 
cutbacks in operations, 173, 173F, 175, 176F 
dates founded, 2F, 125 
directors of, 107, 108F, 109, 109F, 110, 111 F, 

112 
distribution of operating budget, 177F, 178 
efforts to increase attendance, 58F 
employee benefits, 115 
endowment funds, 167-68, 168F, 170F, 171 
exhibition of permanent collection, 61-62, 62F, 

63 F 
expenditures for climate control, security, and 

conservation, 182 
extraordinary expenditures of, 162, 163F 
full-time personnel in, 85, 88F, 94-95, 96F, 97, 

97F, 99, 101, 101F 
functions of, 26, 28-29F, 29, 31, 35F 
governing authority of, 13F, 15, 19, 19F 
income of, 143-44, 144F, 145F, 146, 158F 
increases or decreases in educational activities, 

41, 42F 
increases or decreases in exchange of objects, 

68F 
loans of objects to storefront museums, 67F 



Science technology museums, 7, 61. See also 
Science museums 

Security, 70, 182-83 

Similar funds, 166F, 167, 172 

Southeast, museums in 

attendance at, 51 F 
boards of trustees in, 72F 
budget size of, 18F, 19, 22, 22F 
construction of facilities, 126 
current fund balances of, 165F 
dates founded, 2F 

definition and classification of, 5F, 11, 11 F 
efforts to increase attendance, 58F, 59 
endowment funds, 169F, 170F 
extraordinary expenditures of, 163F 
governing authority of, 23, 23F 
income of, 152, 152F, 153F, 158F 
net income of, 158F, 161 F 
non-current fund balances of, 166F 
operating expenditures of, 157F, 158F 
types of, 13, 14-15, 14F, 21, 21 F 

State museums 

adequacy of operating budget, 179 

admission policies of, 55F 

attendance at, 49F, 50 

boards of trustees in, 71 

budget size of, 17, 17F, 20 

current fund balances of, 165F 

cutbacks in operations, 174, 174F, 175, 176F 

dates founded, 2F 



196 



State museums (cont.) 

definition and classification of, 5F, 9, 10F 

directors of, 109-10, 11 1F 

efforts to increase attendance, 58F, 59 

efforts to increase minority employment, 116 

exhibition of permanent collection, 63F 

extraordinary expenditures of, 163F 

full-time personnel in, 89F, 98F, 102F 

income of, 143, 149F, 150F, 151, 158F 

increases or decreases in educational activities, 

43F 
increases or decreases in exchange of objects, 

69F 
membership policies of, 57 
need for additional staff, 120F, 121 F, 122F, 123F 
net income of, 158F, 160F 
operating expenditures of, 156F, 158F 
part-time personnel in, 91 F, 98F 
senior personnel in, 107F 
special exhibitions, 65-66 
types of, 13, 13F, 14-15,19 
volunteer personnel in, 93F, 98F 

Storefront museums, 67-69, 67F 



Trustees, 71-81 

by budget size of museum, 71, 72F, 73, 78 

characteristics of, 73, 74F 

financial contributions to museums, 76 

frequency of board meetings, 77-79 

by governing authority of museum, 71, 72F, 73 

occupations of, 73, 76 

by region, 71, 72F 

relationship with director/staff, 78-81, 79F 

representation of community groups, 73, 75 

selection of, 76-77, 76F 

terms of, 77, 78F 

by type of museum, 71, 72F, 73 



Type of museum, 5F, 7, 8F, 12-15, 12F, 13F, 14F. 
See also Art museums; Art/History museums; 
History museums; Other Combined 
museums; Science museums 



U 



Unexpended land, buildings, equipment, and 
collections funds, 166F, 167, 172 



Volunteers. See Personnel 
W 

West, museums in 

attendance at, 51 F 

boards of trustees in, 72F, 78 

budget size of, 18F, 22, 22F 

construction of facilities, 126 

current fund balances of, 165F 

dates founded, 2F 

definition and classification of, 5F, 11, 11F 

efforts to increase attendance, 58F, 59 

endowment funds, 169F, 170F, 171 

extraordinary expenditures of, 163F, 164 

governing authority of, 22-23, 23F 

income of, 152, 152F, 153F, 158F 

net income of, 158F, 161 F 

non-current fund balances of, 166F 

operating expenditures of, 157F, 158F 

types of, 14F, 15, 21, 21 F 



Zoos, 7, 61. 5ee also Science museums 



Appendix 



197 



Following is a list of the 258 tables that 
appear in Museums USA: A Survey Report. 



Introduction 

1 Categorization of Museums by 
Classification, 11 Budget Size, Governing 
Authority, Region, and Size within 
Major Classifications 

Formation, Characteristics, and 
Distribution of Museums 

2 Year in which Museum was Founded 

3 Classification of Museums 

4 Budget Size of Museums 

5 Distribution of Number of Museums by 
Budget Category and Proportion of 
Total Operating Expenditures 

6 Governing Authority of Museums 

7 Regional Distribution of Population, 
Number of Museums, and total 
Attendance 

8 Regional Distribution of Museums by 
Size and by Classification 

Purposes and Functions of Museums 

9 Selected Purposes Considered Very 
Important by Museum Directors 

10 Selected Functions Considered Very 
Important by Museum Directors 

11 Directors' Evaluation of the Two 
Purposes Most Important to Them- 
selves, to the Public, and to Trustees, 
and Most Successfully Satisfied by their 
Museums 

12 Art Museum Directors' Evaluation of 
the Two Purposes Most Important to 
Themselves, to the Public, and to 
Trustees, and Most Successfully Satisfied 
by their Museums 

13 History Museum Directors' Evaluation 
of the Two Purposes Most Important 
to Themselves, to the Public, and to 
Trustees, and Most Successfully Satisfied 
by their Museums 

14 Science Museum Directors' Evaluation 
of the Two Purposes Most Important to 
Themselves, to the Public, and to 



Trustees, and Most Successfully Satisfied 
by their Museums 

15 Directors' Evaluation of the Two 
Functions Most Important to Them- 
selves, to the Public, and to Trustees, 
and Most Successfully Satisfied by their 
Museums 

16 Art Museum Directors' Evaluation of 
the Two Functions Most Important to 
Themselves, to the Public, and to 
Trustees, and Most Successfully Satisfied 
by their Museums 

17 History Museum Directors' Evaluation 
of the Two Functions Most Important 
to Themselves, to the Public, and to 
Trustees, and Most Successfully Satisfied 
by their Museums 

18 Science Museum Directors' Evaluation 
of the Two Functions Most Important 
to Themselves, to the Public, and to 
Trustees, and Most Successfully Satisfied 
by their Museums 

Programs 

19 Frequency of Educational and Cultural 
Activities 

20 Who Conducts Educational and Cultural 
Activities 

21 Whether School Programs were 
Prepared for Elementary or Secondary 
School Pupils, or Both 

22 Whether School Programs were Planned 
in Close Cooperation with School 
Authorities or Developed by Museum 
on Its Own and Then Offered 

23 Whether School Programs were 
Supplemented by Preparatory or 
Follow-up Activity in the Schools 

24 Whether Museum Has Joint Programs, 
or is Affiliated, with Universities or 
Colleges 

25 Joint Programs Museum Has with 
University or College 

26 Materials Published by Museum During 
Fiscal 1971-1972 



a The word "classification" refers to the five museum 
types — art, history, science, art/history, and other 
combined. 



198 



27 Most Important Educational Activities 
Regularly Scheduled by Museum 

28 Whether Educational Activities Have 
Increased or Decreased Since 1966 

29 Areas in Which Additions Have Been 
Made to Educational Activities Since 
1966 

30 Level of Research Activity in Museum 

31 Whether Museum Undertook or 
Sponsored Any Formal Research 
Projects During Fiscal 1971-1972 

Collections and Exhibitions 

32 Percentage of Permanent Collection 
That is Museum's Own Property by 
Legal Title 

33 Average Percentage of Total Permanent 
Collection Exhibited in Fiscal 1971-1972 

34 Percentage of Total Permanent 
Collection Exhibited in Fiscal 1971-1972 

35 Proportion of Collection That Was Not 
Exhibited in Fiscal 1971-1972 by 
Reason for Not Being Exhibited 

36 Whether Collections in Storage Were 
Used for Research by Scholars Not on 
Museum Staff, Fiscal 1971-1972 

37 Whether Museum Had Special 
Exhibitions in Fiscal 1971-1972 

38 Whether Museum Would Like Special 
Exhibitions and, if so, Reasons It Is 
Unable to Offer Them 

39 Number of Special Exhibitions Shown 
During Fiscal 1971-1972 

40 Aside from General Admission, Does 
Museum Ever Charge for Special 
Exhibitions 

41 Number of Special Exhibitions 
Developed by the Museum in Fiscal 
1971-1972 

42 Number of Special Exhibitions 
Developed by Outside Source in Fiscal 
1971-1972 

43 Sources of Special Exhibitions Received 
on Loan 

44 Whether Museum Exhibited in Fiscal 
1971-1972 Any Individual Objects or 
Specimens Borrowed on a Short-Term 
Basis 



45 Sources of Individual Objects or 
Specimens Loaned to Museums 

46 Whether Museum Sent Out Traveling 
Exhibitions in Fiscal 1971-1972 

47 Number of Traveling Exhibitions Sent 
Out in Fiscal 1971-1972 

48 Where Museum Sent Traveling 
Exhibitions in Fiscal 1971-1972 

49 Whether Museum Made Objects or 
Materials Available on Loan to 
Storefront or Community-Based 
Museums During Fiscal 1971-1972 

50 Whether Museum is Planning to Make 
Objects or Materials Available on Loan 
to Storefront or Community-Based 
Museums 

51 Reasons Why Museum is Not Planning 
to Make Objects or Materials Available 
on Loan to Storefront or Community- 
Based Museums 

52 Whether Museum is Engaging More or 
Less Frequently, Compared with 1966, 
in the Borrowing and Loaning of 
Objects and Collections 

53 Reasons Why Museum is Engaging 
Less Frequently in the Borrowing and 
Loaning of Objects and Collections 

54 Importance in Exchange of Objects of 
Climate Control and Security in the 
Receiving Museum 

55 Whether Museum Rented Objects to 
Outside Organizations or Individuals 
During Fiscal 1971-1972 

56 To Whom the Museum Rented Objects 
During Fiscal 1971-1972 

57 Total Amount Received from Rental 
of Objects in Fiscal 1971-1972 

58 Whether Museum Has Plans for Renting 
Its Objects 

59 Reasons Museum Does Not Have Plans 
for Renting Its Objects 

Accessibility and Attendance 

60 Ranges of Attendance in Fiscal 
1971-1972 

61 Attendance in Fiscal 1971-1972 

62 Proportion of Total Attendance by 
Type of Attendance 



199 



63 Groups to Which Regular Museum 
Activities are Primarily Directed 

64 Interested in Seeing More People 
Come to Museum or is Museum 
Unable to Handle More People Than 
Are Already Attending 

65 Does Museum Use Advertising or 
Publicity to Attract Larger Attendance 
by General Public to See Permanent 
Collection 

66 What is Museum Doing to Attract 
Larger Attendance by General Public 

67 Made Special Efforts to Attract 
Particular Groups 

68 What Specific Steps have been Taken 
to Increase Attendance Among Groups 

69 Does Museum have Paid Membership 

70 Number of Paid Members, Both 
Individuals and Organizations 

71 Membership Fee for Category Which 
Had Largest Number of Members 

72 What is Regular Museum Policy About 
Charging Admission 

73 Admission Policies (Fixed Fee, 
Requested Donation) for Specific 
Groups 

74 Is Museum Open at Least One Day a 
Week with No Charge 

75 How Long Has Museum Been 
Charging an Admission Fee or Asking 
for a Donation 

76 Did Museum Conduct Any Research 
on Admission Fees Before Instituting 
Charges 

77 What Type of Research on Admission 
Fees Was Conducted 

78 Directors' Evaluation of What Effect 
Charging Admission Fee or Asking for 
Donation Has or Would Have on 
Total Attendance at Museum 

79 Do You Feel Charging Admission Has 
Changed, or Would Change, 
Composition of Your Museum's 
Audience 

80 Kind of Change in Audience 
Composition Charging Admission 
Would (or Did) Cause 

81 Number of Months Museum Was 
Open to Public 



82 Months of Year during which Museum 
Closed for at Least Two Weeks 

83 Number of Hours Per Week, on 
Average, Museum Was Open to Public 

84 Whether Museum was Open More or 
Fewer Hours in Fiscal 1971-1972, 
Compared with 1966 

85 During Which Days of Week Was 
Museum Open Before 6 P.M. 

86 Museums Open at Least One Evening 
a Week 

87 During Which Evenings of Week Was 
Museum Open 

88 Why Was Museum Not Open to Public 
Any Evenings 

89 Has Museum Ever Tried Opening 
in the Evening 

90 Why Did Museum Stop Opening in 
Evenings 

Personnel 

91 Number and Distribution of Permanent 
Full-Time Personnel 

92 Number of Full-Time Permanent 
Personnel Compared with Number of 
Museums 

93 Characteristics of Permanent Full-Time 
Personnel 

94 Characteristics of Permanent Full-Time 
Personnel by Museum Classification 

95 Has Museum Made Any Special Efforts 
over Past Four or Five Years to 
Broaden Minority Employment in 
Professional Staff Positions 

96 Does Museum Have Adequate 
Representation of Minority Groups on 
Professional Staff 

97 Average Annual Salary: Full-Time 
Permanent Personnel 

98 Fringe Benefits Offered Full-Time Paid 
Personnel 

99 Perquisites Offered or Available to Any 
of Museum Staff 

100 Job Category of Senior Personnel Just 
Below Director 

101 How Long Held Current Position: 
Senior Personnel 



200 



102 How Long Held Current Position: 
Senior Personnel (By Budget Size within 
Major Classifications) 

103 Years of Experience in Museum or 
Related Work: Senior Personnel 

104 Years of Experience in Museum or 
Related Work: Senior Personnel (By 
Budget Size within Major 
Classifications) 

105 Age: Senior Personnel 

106 Ethnic Group: Senior Personnel 

107 Sex: Senior Personnel 

108 Highest Grade of School Completed: 
Senior Personnel 

109 Formal Education that Directly Relates 
to Job: Senior Personnel 

110 Type of Formal Education that Directly 
Relates to Job: Senior Personnel 

111 Job Status: Senior Personnel 

112 Union Membership: Senior Personnel 

113 Annual Salary: Senior Personnel 

114 Average Annual Salary: Senior 
Personnel 

115 Average Annual Salary of Senior 
Personnel by Sex 

116 Average Annual Salary of Senior 
Professional Personnel by Sex 

117 How Long Held Current Position, and 
Years of Experience in Museum or 
Related Work: Director 

118 Age: Director 

119 Ethnic Group: Director 

120 Sex: Director 

121 Highest Grade of School Completed: 
Director 

122 Formal Education that Directly Relates 
to Job: Director 

123 Type of Formal Education that Directly 
Relates to Job: Director 

124 Job Status: Director 

125 Union Membership: Director 

126 Annual Salary: Director 

127 Average Annual Salary: Director 

128 Average Annual Salary of Director by 
Sex 

129 Major Functions of Director 



130 Activity that Should Be One Most 
Important Responsibility of Director/ 
First or Second Most Important 
Responsibility of Director 

131 Time Spent by Director on Various 
Activities 

132 Not Enough Staff in Different Job 
Categories 

133 Job Areas in Which More Staff are 
Needed — Curatorial/Display/Exhibit 

134 Job Areas in Which More Staff are 
Needed — Education 

135 Job Areas in Which More Staff are 
Needed — Operations and Support 

136 Job Areas in Which More Staff are 
Needed — Administration 

137 Academic and/or Other Training 
Considered Adequate in Functional 
Categories; Salaries Considered 
Adequate 

138 Are There Job Categories It Would Be 
Difficult to Fill Because of a Lack of 
Trained or Experienced Personnel, 
Assuming High Enough Salaries Could 
Be Offered 

139 What Job Categories Would Be 
Difficult to Fill Because of a Lack of 
Trained or Experienced Personnel 

140 Whether Museum Has Formal Program 
for In-Service Training of Own Staff 

141 Training Programs for Museum 
Personnel Other Than Own Staff, and 
Number of Individuals Completing 
Those Programs in Fiscal 1971-1972 

142 Number and Distribution of Part-Time 
Personnel 

143 Comparison of Number of Part-Time 
and Full-Time Paid Permanent 
Personnel 

144 Number and Distribution of Volunteers 

145 Number of Volunteers, Full-Time Paid, 
and Part-Time Paid Personnel 

146 Characteristics of Permanent Full-Time 
Personnel — Art Museums 

147 Characteristics of Permanent Full-Time 
Personnel — History Museums 

148 Characteristics of Permanent Full-Time 
Personnel — Science Museums 

149 Average Annual Salary: All Personnel 



201 



Trustees 

150 Museums with Board of Trustees or 
Equivalent Overseeing Body 

151 Governing Bodies of Museums That 
Do Not Have Board of Trustees or 
Equivalent Body 

152 Characteristics of Members of Boards 
of Trustees 

153 Whether Broadening Representativeness 
of Board of Trustees Is Generally a 
Good or Bad Idea 

154 Reasons Why Broadening 
Representativeness of Board of Trustees 
is a Good or Bad Idea 

155 Whether Changes Have Been Made 
Since 1966 to Broaden Representative- 
ness of Board of Trustees 

156 Kinds of Changes Made Since 1966 to 
Broaden Representativeness of Board 
of Trustees 

157 Whether Director Feels Board of 
Trustees has Adequate Representation 

158 Whether Museum has Plans for 
Changes to Broaden Representativeness 
of Board of Trustees and Kinds of 
Changes Planned 

159 Occupations of Members of Boards of 
Trustees 

160 Reasons for Selection of Trustees that 
Apply to Current Board 

161 Proportion of Private Contributions to 
Museums made by Trustees in Fiscal 
1971-1972, Compared with 1966 

162 Degree of Influence on Selection of 
New Members of Board of Trustees 

163 Methods of Choosing Trustees 

164 Terms of Trustees on Board 

165 Number of Terms Usually Served by 
Trustees 

166 Length of Time Current Trustees Have 
Been Members of Board 

167 Frequency of Regular Meetings of 
Board of Trustees 

168 Existence of Executive Committee of 
Board of Trustees 

169 Frequency of Meetings of Executive 
Committee 

170 Participation of Directors in Board of 
Trustees 



171 Frequency of Attendance of Staff at 
Board of Trustee Meetings 

172 Evaluation by Directors of Professional 
Museum Staff's Understanding of 
Functions and Responsibilities of Board 
of Trustees 

173 Evaluation by Directors of Involvement 
of Board of Trustees in Nonfinancial 
Programming Decisions 

174 Evaluation by Directors of How Well 
Informed Board of Trustees Is About 
Museum's Financial Situation, Programs 
and Operations 

175 Directors' Evaluation of How Well 
Informed Board Is About Programs and 
Operations of Museum, Compared with 
Evaluation of How Well Staff 
Understands Board 

176 Responsibility for Determining Annual 
Budget of the Museum 

177 Responsibility for Deciding How Much 
to Spend from Endowment 

178 Responsibility for Determining Capital 
Improvement Needs and Organizing 
Capital Drives 

179 Responsibility for Making Financial 
Judgments on Major Acquisitions 

180 Responsibility for Making Quality 
Judgments in Selecting Objects for 
Acquisition 

181 Responsibility for Planning Major 
Exhibitions and Programs 

182 Responsibility for Setting Staffing 
Requirements 

Facilities 

183 Year in Which Primary Facilities 
Currently in Use Were Built 

184 Year(s) in Which Other Separate 
Facilities Were Constructed or Acquired 

185 Year(s) in Which Major Additions to 
Existing Structures Were Completed 

186 Year(s) in Which Major Renovations 
Were Completed 

187 Owners of Buildings and Space of 
Museums Governed by Private 
Nonprofit Organizations 



202 



188 Rent Paid by Private Nonprofit 
Museums That Do Not Entirely Own 
Their Buildings and Space 

189 Private Nonprofit Museums Whose 
Owned Buildings and Space are 
Mortgaged 

190 Adequacy of Exhibition Area 

191 Whether Museum Owns or Rents Any 
Mobile Units Sent Out in Fiscal 
1971-1972 

192 Adequacy of Storage Area for Museum 
Collection 

193 Existence of or Need for Facilities 

194 Adequacy of Other Facilities 

195 Does the Museum Rent Its Facilities 
to Outside Individuals or Groups 

196 Why Does Museum Not Rent Its 
Facilities to Outside Individuals or 
Groups 

197 Does Museum Rent Only to Nonprofit 
Organizations 

198 Why Does Museum Rent Only to 
Nonprofit Organizations 

199 For What Purposes Does Museum 
Rent Its Facilities to Outside Groups 

200 Are Alcoholic Beverages Regularly 
for Sale Within the Museum 

201 Why Are Alcoholic Beverages Not for 
Sale in the Museum 

Finances and Budget 

202 Total Income in Fiscal 1971-1972 

203 Sources of Private Support in Fiscal 
1971-1972 

204 Operating Revenues in Fiscal 1971-1972 

205 Non-Operating Revenues in Fiscal 
1971-1972 

206 Support from the Public Sector in 
Fiscal 1971-1972 

207 Operating Expenditures in Fiscal 
1971-1972 

208 Percentage Distribution of Income 
and Operating Expenditures in Fiscal 
1971-1972 

209 Summary of Income and Operating 
Expenditures in Fiscal 1971-1972 



210 Percentage of Museums with Positive 
or Negative Income Positions and the 
Dollar Amounts Involved, Fiscal 
1971-1972 

211 Extraordinary Expenditures from Current 
Funds in Fiscal 1971-1972 

212 Current Fund Balances in Fiscal 
1971-1972 

213 Positive or Negative Current Fund 
Balances, the Beginning and End of 
Fiscal 1971-1972, and Museums With 
Balances 

214 Fund Balances of All Funds Other than 
Current Funds in Fiscal 1971-1972 

215 Additions to Fund Balances of All 
Funds Other Than Current Funds in 
Fiscal 1971-1972 

216 Deductions from Fund Balances of All 
Funds Other Than Current Funds in 
Fiscal 1971-1972 

217 Endowment Fund Balances in Fiscal 
1971-1972 

218 Additions to Endowment Fund Balances 
in Fiscal 1971-1972 

219 Deductions from Endowment Fund 

Balances in Fiscal 1971-1972 

220 Similar Fund Balances in Fiscal 
1971-1972 

221 Additions to Similar Fund Balances in 
Fiscal 1971-1972 

222 Deductions from Similar Fund Balances 
in Fiscal 1971-1972 

223 Unexpended Land, Buildings, 
Equipment, and Collections Fund 
Balances in Fiscal 1971-1972 

224 Additions to Unexpended Land, 
Buildings, Equipment, and Collections 
Fund Balances in Fiscal 1971-1972 

225 Deductions from Unexpended Land, 
Buildings, Equipment, and Collections 
Fund Balances in Fiscal 1971-1972 

226 Directors' Evaluation of How 
Successful Museum Has Been in 
Controlling Costs 

227 Does Museum Make Full Use of Various 
Business Techniques 

228 Does Museum Have an Endowment 

229 What, If Any, Proportion of Endowment 
Is Restricted As To Its Use 



203 



230 Can Principal of Any Amount Recorded 
as Endowment Be Expended Upon 
Designation by the Trustees and, If So, 
What Proportion 

231 On What Proportion of Endowment 
Principal Can Currently Realized Capital 
Gains Be Used for Current Income 
Purposes 

232 Whether Capital Cains on the 
Endowment Were Realized During 
Fiscal 1971-1972 and, If So, Used for 
Current Income Purposes 

233 Whether Director Approves or 
Disapproves of Use of Capital Cains 
as Part of Endowment Income 

234 Reasons Director Approves or 
Disapproves of Use of Capital Gains 
as Part of Endowment Income 

235 Directors' Evaluation of Attitude of 
Board of Trustees Regarding Use of 
Capital Gains as Part of Endowment 
Income 

236 Necessity for Cutbacks in Facilities, 
Services or Staff Since 1966 

237 Cutbacks Necessary Since 1966 

238 Specified Cutbacks Necessary Since 
1966 

239 Operating Costs Compared to 1966 

240 What Has Been Percentage Increase 
in Operating Costs Since 1966 

241 Primary Reasons for Increase in 
Operating Costs 

242 Percentage Distribution of Operating 
Budget Among Program Areas 

243 Whether Current Operating Budget 
Enables Full Utilization of Resources 

244 Ways in Which Funding Increases in 
Next Two to Three Years Would Be 
Spent 

245 Quality of Service Over Next Few 
Years with Expected Budget 



246 If Had Sufficient Funds for Any 
Improvements Over Next Five to Ten 
Years, in Which Two or Three Areas 
Would They Be Spent 

247 Areas in Which the Need for Additional 
Money Is Felt To Be Very Serious 

248 Mean Operating Expenditures for 
Security, Conservation, and Climate 
Control in Fiscal 1971-1972 

249 Mean Increase Needed in Operating 
Expenditures for Security, Conservation, 
and Climate Control 

250 How Conservation Work is 
Accomplished at Museum 

251 Preferred Way to Have Conservation 
Work Done 

252 Attitude of Board Toward Assumption 
of Debt 

253 How Sure that Income from Various 
Sources Will Achieve Projected Levels 
Over Next Few Years, By Private 
Nonprofit and Educational Institution 
Museums 

254 How Sure that Income from Various 
Sources Will Achieve Projected Levels 
Over Next Few Years, By All Museums 

255 The Two or Three Museum Programs 
Offered by the National Endowment 
for the Arts Felt To Be Most 
Beneficial to the Museum 

256 Other Programs Museum Directors 
Believe Should Receive Financial 
Support 

257 Applicable Programs Offered by the 
National Endowment for the Arts Felt 
To Be of Little Value to the Museum 

258 How Important Will Various Income 
Sources Be in Future 



a U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1975 O - 568-775 








Sir 



%s 




M.1 
.N37 



design: 

david hausmann 

dianecroyle 

kathyjungjohann 

graphs: 

sparkman and bartholomew associates, inc.