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Full text of "The mushroom book : a popular guide to the identification and study of our commoner Fungi, with special emphasis on the edible varieties"

/: 



THE MUSHROOM BOOK 




MUSH- 
BOOK 




COPRINUS COMATUS 

Courtesy of Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell. 
See page 90 




Amanitopsis parcivolvata, Pk. 
See page 55. 



Copyright, 1901, 1904, by 
Doubleday, Page & Company 



Berwick & Smith Co., Norwood, Mass., U.S.A. 



^THE MUSHROOM 

BOOK. A POPULAR GUIDE 
TO THE IDENTIFICATION AND 
STUDY OF OUR COMMONER 
FUNGI, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS 
ON THE EDIBLE VARIETIES : : : : 



BY 

NINA L MARSHALL 



n»it^ (mang 3ffu0frafion0 in Cofov an^ (gfacS ani> ^^iU 
^^ioQtap^c^ from (Uafure 6g 3- (^- ^ S- ^- (^n^ereon 



LUiRARY 
NEW YORK 
bOiAMCAL 

GARDEN 



\ 



NEW YORK 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & CO. 

1904 



1704 



Copyright, 1901, 1904, by 
Doubleday, Fage & Company 



NcrtDoob 53rfB8 : 

Berwick * Smith Co., Norwood, Maas., TT.S.A. 



PREFACE 



LIBRARY 
NEW YORK 
BOTANICAL 

GARDEN 



oo 

CI? 

Q_ 
UJ 

CO 



The author of this book 
makes no claim to the discovery 
of the facts presented. The ma- 
terial has all been drawn from 
monographs written by men 
who have made specialties of 
the different divisions of fungi. 
A list of works consulted is 
ofiven at the close of this book. 
The plates are reproductions of 
photographs made by Mr. J. A. 
Anderson, and coloured by Miss 
H. C. Anderson. They are as 
true to nature as it is possible to 
make them with the best meth- 
ods of reproduction now known, 
and by them alone an acquaint- 
ance with many species may be 
acquired. 

Many of the cuts have been 
redrawn by the author from vari- 
ous reliable sources, and many 
have been drawn directly from 
.nature. With a few exceptions, 
the line drawings of sections 
were made from the specimens 
photographed. It has been the 
aim of the author to write a book 
simple enough to serve as a 
source of knowledge for the 
many who, though busy with 
other pursuits, yet take an in- 
terest in science and wish to 
obtain information about the 
fungi, either for the sake of 
using them as food, or for the 

V 




( oiinmis comatus 



Courtesy of Ajrricullural Experiment Station. Cornell 
University. 



See page 90 



/ 



Preface 



pleasure which :m acquaintance with their habits and home life 
may give. A great effort has been made not to sacrifice accuracy 
in this attempt. 

The number of species of the fungi is so great that to de- 
scribe them all would necessitate a book of huge dimensions, so 
that it has seemed best simply to give a general idea of the 
characteristics upon which the larger groups, the classes, orders, 
and genera, are based, by describmg some of the species m each. 
Seven genera of the Spore-sac Fungi are illustrated with ten 
species, and thirtv-five genera of the Basidiomycetes with 
seventy-three species, making a total of eighty-three species 
represented by photographs m colour and half-tone. 

In addition a number of species are given in rough pen 
drawings, with sufficient accuracy for identification, and many 
species have been described without illustration. 

An effort has been made to describe the species in terms 
intelligible to the average reader without constant reference to 
an unabridged dictionary, and, whenever possible, the terms have 
been illustrated by line cuts. 

Although the technical names necessarily used are a serious 
hindrance to the popularization of the study of fungi, it has 
seemed best, in most cases, to give only the Latin form of the 
names of species, since, by so doing, there will be less danger 
of confusing harmless species with those which are harmful ; and, 
also, if their Latin names are adhered to, one will find it much 
simpler to consult the scattered literature on this subject, as this 
nomenclature is used by all naturalists of whatever nationality. 

That the pronunci;ition of names may be rendered as simple 
as possible, each vowel has been marked long or short. These 
vowel-marks are not necessarily indicative of the true syllabic 
quantity, but are rather diacritical points denoting the popular 
pronunciation by the English system. Each word has been 
divided into syllables according to the accepted rules, and an 
accent has been placed on the syllables to be accented. 

The author is under deep obligations to Professor Lucien M. 
Underwood, of Columbia University, for aid and encouragement 
in the work of this book, and for his cheerful willingness at all 
times to assist in the search for material and in the work of 
revising proof. 



VI 



Preface 

Thanks are also due to Professor Charles H. Peck, the New 
York State Botanist, for his kind assistance in identifying many 
of the specimens illustrated. 

A list of books consulted has been placed at the end of the 
book, for the benefit of those who may wish to pursue the study 
further. 



vu 




Coprinus comatus. 

Courtesy of Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell University. 
See page go 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I : The Homes and Habits of Fungi 

CHAPTER II : The Relation of Fungi to Other Plants 

CHAPTER 111 : From Spore to Mushroom 

CHAPTER IV : The Key .... 

What a key is, and why a name is desirable 
How a key for fungi is made, and why it is 

desirable ..... 
The Key 

CHAPTER V : Fungi with Gills . 

I. WHITE-SPORED SERIES 

Genus Amanita . 

Death Cup; Poison Amanita 

Fly Amanita . 

Orange Amanita . 

Comparison of Three Yellow Amanitas 
Genus Cantharellus 

Cantharellus floccosus . 
Genus Amanitopsis 

The Sheathed Amanitopsis 

Amanitopsis parcivolvata 
Genus Mycena 

Mycena haematopoda 
Genus Lentinus . 

Scaly Lentinus 
Genus Pleiirotus . 

Oyster Mushroom 

Pleurotus sapidus 

Elm Pleurotus 
Genus Hygrophonis 

Chanterelle Hygrophorus 



Page 
I 

I I 

15 
15 

15 
17 

46 

46 

48 

49 

50 
52 
53 
53 
53 
54 
55 
55 
55 
56 
56 
57 
=>7 
58 
58 
59 
''9 



IX 



Contents 



Vermilion Hygrophorus 

Ivory Hvgrophorus 
Genus A nil ill aria 

Honey-coloured Armillaria 
Genus Lepioia 

Parasol Mushroom ; Tall Lepiota 

Smooth Lepiota 

Lepiota Friesii 
Genus Marasniius 

Fairy-ring Mushroom 
Genus Collvbia 

Collybia familia 
Genus Paniis 
Genus Trogia 
Genus Schi^ophvIIuin . 
Genus Omphalia . 
Genus Russula . 

Emetic Russula 

Green Russula; Verdette 

Variable Russula . 
Genus Cliiocyhe . 

Clitocybe laccata . 

Clitocybe virens . 
Genus Tricholonm 

Masked Tricholoma 

Craterellus cantharellus 

2. BROWN-SPORED SERIES 

Genus Agaricus .... 

Comparison of Eight Agarici . 

Common Mushroom 

Rodman's Mushroom . 

Agaricus abruptus 
Genus Hvplwlonia 

Perplexing Hypholoma . 

Comparison of Six Hypholomas 

Uncertain Hvpholoma . 

Hypholoma sublateritium 
Genus Sirop/iaria 

X 



Page 
60 
61 
61 
61 

63 
63 
64 

65 
65 

66 
66 
67 
67 
67 
67 
68 
68 
68 
69 
70 
70 
70 

7' 

72 

72 
73 



73 

75 
76 

76 

77 

78 
78 

79 
80 
81 
82 





Contents 




Page 


Genus Psathyra 


. 82 


Genus Psilocyhe 


. 82 


Genus Pilosace 


. 82 


Genus Deconica . ..... 


. 82 


Genus Chitonia 


. 83 


3. RUSTY-SPORED SERIES 




Genus Pholiola 


. 83 


Fat Pholiota 


. 83 


Early Pholiota 


. 84 


Pholiota aggericola .... 


. 84 


Genus Cortinarius 


. 85 


Cortinarius alboviolaceus 


. 86 


4. PINK-SPORED SERIES 




Genus Pluteus 


. 87 


Fawn-coloured Pluteus .... 


. 87 


Genus Entoloma 


. 88 


Genus Eccilia 


. 88 


Genus Volvaria 


. 88 


Genus Clitopilus 


. 88 


5. BLACK-SPORED SERIES 




Genus Coprinus 


. 89 


Ink Caps 


. 89 


Shaggy-mane; Horsetail; Maned Agaric 


. 90 


Inky Coprinus 


• 91 


Glistening Coprinus .... 


• 91 


Genus Gomphidius 


. 92 


Genus Psathyrella 


. 92 


Genus Panceo/us 


. 92 


6. FUNGI WITH MILKY JUICE 




Genus Lactarius 


. 92 


Peppery Lactarius 


. 92 


Lactarius ligniotus 


• 93 


CHAPTER VI : Fungi with Teeth — Hydnace/e 


. 94 


Genus Hyduum 


• 9S 


Spreading Hydnum .... 


. 9^ 


White Hydnum 


• 95 



XI 



Contents 



Page 



Hydnum imbricatum 










. 96 


Bear's-head Hydnum 






• • 


. 96 


Medusa's Head 








• 97 


Hedgehog Hydnum 






» • 


• 97 


Coral Hydnum 






• 


• 97 


CHAPTER VII : Fairy Clubs and Coral Fungi — Cla- 


VARIACEy€ 98 


Genus Physalacria 








. 98 


Genus Pistillaria . 








. 98 


Genus Typhula . 








. 98 


Genus Sparassis . 








• 99 


Genus Pterula 








• 99 


Genus Lachnocladium . 








• 99 


Genus Clavaria . ... 








• 99 


Pale Yellow Clavaria 








. 99 


Golden Clavaria . 








. 100 


Red-tipped Clavaria 








100 


Crested Clavaria . 








100 


Pistil Clavaria ; Large Club 








. lOI 


Clavaria fellea 








lOI 


Clavaria formosa . 








lOI 


CHAPTER VIll : Fungi with Pores— BoLETACEyt ; Poly- 


PORACE/E 102 


Boletacece . 










102 


Genus Fistulina . 










102 


Genus Bole tin us . 










103 


Painted Boletinus . 










103 


Getius Boletus 










104 


Boletus glabellus . 










104 


Boletus bicolor 










105 


Boletus cyanescens 










105 


Boletus pallidus 










105 


Boletus mutabilis . 










105 


Boletus speciosus . 










105 


Golden-flesh Boletus 










106 


Boletus radicans . 










106 


Boletus Peckii 










106 


Boletus calopus 










106 



xu 















Page 


Purple Boletus 107 


Boletus Satanus . 










107 


Bitter Boletus 










107 


Boletus scaber 










108 


Orange-cap Boletus 










108 


Chestnut Boletus . 










108 


Boletus eximius . 










108 


Edible Boletus 










109 


Boletus subtomentosus . 










109 


Boletus Americanus 










109 


Polyporacece 










109 


Genus Merulius . 










1 10 


Genus Polyporus . 










no 


Polyporus applanatus , 










1 10 


Polyporus fomentarius 










1 10 


Polyporus conchatus 










1 1 1 


Polyporus velutinus 










1 1 1 


Polyporus pergamenus 










1 1 1 


Polyporus perennis 










1 1 1 


Polyporus sulphureus 










I II 


Polyporus squamosus 










112 


Polyporus lucidus . 










I \2 


Polyporus arcularius 










1 12 


Polyporus versicolor 










1 12 


Polyporus circinatus 










"3 


Genus Trametes . 










113 


Genus Leniites . 












113 


Lenzites betulina . 












113 


Lenzites separia . 












114 


Genus Dcedalea . 












. 114 


Daedalea unicolor 












. 114 


Daedalea confragos 


a 










. 114 


Daedalea quercina 












. 114 


Genus Favolus 












• "5 


CHAPTER IX : Gelatinous and Other Fungi 




. 116 


Jew's Ear, or Judas's Ear 




. 116 


Tremellodon 




. 116 


Guepina 








• 




. 116 



XUl 



Contents 










Page 


CHAPTER X: Offensive Fungi— Order Phallales . . 117 


Genus Phallus 


117 


Stinkhorns .... 


• • 




117 


Phallus impudicus 








119 


Genus Dictyophora 








120 


Dictyophora Ravenelii . 








120 


Dictyophora duplicata . 








120 


Mutinus caninus . 








120 


Family Clathracece .... 








121 


Latticed Clathrus . 








121 


Clathrus columnatus 








121 


Anthurus borealis . 








121 


Simblum rubescens 








122 


CHAPTER XI : Puffballs 








123 


Order Lycoperdales .... 








123 


Genus Lycoperdon 








124 


Pear-shaped Puffball 








125 


Pinkish Puffball . 








125 


Genus Calvalia . 








126 


Brain-shaped Calvatia . 








126 


Giant Puffball 








127 


Cup-shaped Puffball 








128 


Genus Bovista 








. 128 


Genus Bovistella . 








. 129 


Bovistella Ohiensis 








129 


Genus Geaster 








. 129 


Earth-stars . 








. 129 


The Smallest Earth-star 








. 130 


Water-measuring Earth-star 








. 130 


Genus Calo stoma 








. 131 


Calostoma lutescens 








. 132 


Calostoma Ravenelii 








. 132 


Calostoma cinnabarinum 








. 132 


Order Nidulariales 








• ^33 


Genus Sphcerobolus 








' 133 


Genus Nidiilaria 








• 133 


Genus Cyathus . 








• ^33 


Genus Crucibulum 








■ ^33 



XIV 



Contents 



ngiies 



Order Sclerodermatales 
Genus Scleroderma 

Scleroderma vulgare 

CHAPTER XII : Spore-sac Fungi — Ascomycetes 
Order Tuber ales — Truffles . 
Order Hypocreales 
Genus Xylaria 
Order Sphaniales 
Order Peii'iales — Cup-fungi 
Peziza odorata 
Golden Peziza 
Order Helvellales 
Family Geoglossacea' — Earth To 
Genus Spaihularia 

Velvety Spathularia 
Spathularia clavata 
Genus Geoglossum 

Geoglossum hirsutum 
Geoglossum glabrum 
Genus Vibrissea . 

Vibrissea truncorum 
Vibrissea circinans 
Genus Mi t ml a 

Irregular Mitrula . 
Family Helvellacece — Morels 
Genus Gyromitra . 

Gyromitra esculenta 
Genus Morchella . 
Genus Helve/ la 

Helvella elastica 
Helvella lacunosa , 

CHAPTER Xlll : Slime Fungi — Myxomycetes 

CHAPTER XIV : Fungi for the Herbarium 
Collector's notes . 
Collector's outfit , 
Care of specimens 
Collecting spores 
The search for a name 



Page 

134 

135 

135 
136 

136 
136 

137 

137 

138 

138 
138 
138 
138 

139 

•39 

139 

139 

139 

139 
140 

140 

140 

140 

141 

141 

141 

142 

142 

143 

144 

145 

145 

147 

'47 

147 
149 



XV 



Contents 



The preparation of rough-dried plants for the herbarium 

Mounting 

Sections ..... 
Poisoning herbarium specimens . 

CHAPTER XV : Fungi for the Table 
Cautions for the inexperienced . 
The food value of fungi 
To keep mushrooms temporarily 
To prepare the edible agarics for cooking 
To toast agarics . 
To bake agarics . 
To broil agarics . 
Mushrooms stewed 
To prepare russulas 
To prepare fungi with milky juice 

Lactarius deliciosus 

Lactarius volemus 
To prepare amanitas . 
To prepare chanterelles 
To fry chanterelles 
To prepare coprini — ink caps 
To prepare boleti 
To prepare Hydnum repandum 
To prepare morels 
To prepare beefsteak fungus 

For salad 

Minced 
To prepare gyromitras 

To prepare woody pore-bearing fungi — Polyporae 
To prepare clavarias and branched hydnums 
To cook clavarias 
To prepare puffballs . 
To cook puffballs 
To cook the giant puffball 
Puffball salad 

List of Authorities Consulted 

Abbreviations of Names of Botanists with Explanations 

Index and Glossary 



Pack 

'49 
149 
50 
50 
51 
51 
52 

53 
53 
53 

53 
53 
53 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
55 
55 
55 
155 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55 

57 

59 

161 



XVI 



LIST OF PLATES 

Plate 

I. Amanitopsis parcivolvata, Pk. (see p. 55) Frontispiece 

FACING PAGE 

II. Death Cup; Poison Amanita (Amanita phalloides, Fr.) 48 

III. Fly Amanita (Amanita muscaria, L.), poisonous . 49 

IV. Orange Amanita (Amanita Caesarea, Scop.), edible . 50 
V. Strangled Amanitopsis (Amanitopsis strangulata, Fr. 

Roze), edible 53 

VI. Sheathed Amanitopsis (Amanitopsis vaginata, Roze), 

edible 54 

VII. Helmet Mycena (Mycena galericulata. Scop.), edible 55 
VIII. Scaly Lentinus (Lentinus lepideus, Fr.), edible . 56 
IX. Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus, Fr.), edible 

(see p. 57) 58 

X. Golden-flesh Boletus (Boletus chrysenteron, Fr.) 

(see p. 106) 60 

Vermilion Hygrophorus (Hygrophorus miniatus, Fr.), 

edible 60 

Chantarelle Hygrophorus (Hygrophorus cantharellus, 

Schw.), edible (see p. 59) .... 60 

XI. Fat Pholiota (Pholiota adiposa, Fr.), edible (see p. ^2>) 61 
Honey-coloured Armillaria (Armillaria mellea, Vahl.), 

edible 61 

XII. Grainy Lepiota (Lepiota granosa, Morg.), . . 6} 

XIII. Smooth Lepiota (Lepiota naucinoides, Pk.), edible 64 
Parasol Mushroom (Lepiota procera. Scop.), edible 

(see p. 63) 64 

XIV. Lepiota Friesii, Lasch 65 

Cortinarius alboviolaceus, Fr. (see p. 86) . . 65 

xvii 



List of Plates 

PLATE FACING PAGE 

XV. Spotted CoUybia (Collybia maculata, A. and S.) 66 

Broad-gilled Collybia (Collybia platyphylla, Fr.) 66 

XVI. Collybia familia, Pk. (edible) .... 67 

Clitocybe laccata, Scop., edible (see p. 70) . 67 
XVII. Emetic Russula (Russula emetica, Schaeff.), 

(dangerous) ...... 68 

XVIII. Green Russula (Russula virescens, Fr.), edible . 69 

XIX. Deceiving Clitocybe (Clitocybe illudens, Schw.) 70 

XX. Clitocybe virens, Scop, (edible) . . . .71 

XXI. Masked Tricholoma (Tricholoma personatum, 

Fr. ; var. bulbosum, Pk.), edible ... 72 

XXII. Pholiota aggericola, Peck (see p. 84) ... 73 

Craterellus cantharellus, Schw. (edible) . . 73 

XXIII. Agaricus campestris, L., edible (see p. 76) . 74 
Agaricus abruptus, Pk. (edible) .... 74 

XXIV. Field Mushroom (Agaricus campestris, L.), edible 

(uncultivated) ...... 75 

XXV. Rodman's Mushroom (Agaricus Rodmani, Pk.), 

young 76 

Rodman's Mushroom (mature) .... 76 

XXVI. Agaricus abruptus, Pk. (edible) . . „ -11 
XXVII. Perplexing Hypholoma (Hypholoma perplexum, 

Pk.), harmless ...... 78 

XXVIll. Uncertain Hypholoma (Hypholoma incertum, Pk.), 

edible ........ 80 

XXIX. Brick Top (Hypholoma sublateritium, Schaeff.), 

edible 81 

XXX. Ivory Hygrophorus (Hygrophorus eburneus, Fr.), 

edible (see p. 61) . . . . .84 

Early Pholiota (Pholiota praecox, Pers.), edible . 84 

XXXI. Dog Cortinarius (Cortinarius caninus, Fr.) . . 85 
XXXII. Zoned Cortinarius (Cortinarius armillatus, A. and 

S., Fr.) . . ^ . . . . 86 

xviii 



List of Plates 



Plate Fac 



NG PAGB 



XXXIII. Fawn - coloured Pluteus (Pluteus cervinus, 

Schaeff.), edible 87 

XXXIV. Inky Coprinus (Coprinus atramentarius, Fr. ; var. 

silvestris, Pk.), edible (see p. 91) . . 89 

XXXV. Inky Coprinus (Coprinus atramentarius, Fr.), 

edible 91 

XXXVI. Peppery Lactarius (Lactarius piperatus, Scop.), 

edible 92 

XXXVII. Mycena hsematopoda, Pers. (see p. 55) . . 93 

Lactarius ligniotus, Fr 93 

XXXVIII. Bear's-head (Hydnum caput-ursi, Fr.), edible . 96 
XXXIX. Coral Hydnum (Hydnum coralloides, Scop.), 

edible . 97 

XL. Little Tongue Clavaria (Clavaria ligula, Fr.) . 98 
XLI. Golden Clavaria (Clavaria aurea, Schaeff.), 

edible 100 

XLII. Clavaria formosa, Pers., edible . . . .101 
XLIII. Cone-like Boletus (Strobilomyces strobilaceus. 

Berk.) 102 

XLIV. Painted Boletinus (Boletinus pictus, Pk.), edible 103 
Spreading Hydnum (Hydnum repandum, L.), 

edible (see p. 95) 103 

XLV. Bitter Boletus (Boletus felleus, Bull. ; var. obesus, 

Pk.) 107 

XLVI. Scabrous-stemmed Boletus (Boletus scaber, Fr. ; 

var. niveus, Gill.) ..... 108 
XLVII. Tinder-wood Polyporus (Elfingia fomentaria, L., 
Fomes fomentarius, Gill., Polyporus fomen- 

tarius, Fr.) no 

XLVIII. Polyporus versicolor, Fr 112 

Polyporus circinatus, Fr. (see p. 113) . .112 

XLIX. Lenzites betulina, Fr 113 

L. Dcedalea quercina, L., Pers 114 

LI. Jew's Ear (Hirneola auricula-Judoe), L., Berk. . 116 

xix 



List of Plates 

Platb Facing Page 

ii6 



LI. Xylaria (see p. 136) ..... 

LII. Phallus impudicus, L 

LIII. Pear-shaped Puffball (Lycoperdon pyriforme 
Schaeff.), edible ..... 

LIV. Brain Puffball (Calvatia craniformis, Schw.) 
edible ....... 

LV. Bovistella Ohiensis (Ellis and Morgan), edible 

(see p. 129) 

Cup-shaped Calvatia (Calvatia cyathiformis, Bosc) 
edible ....... 

LVI. Least Earth-star (Geaster minimus, Schw.) . 

Water-measuring Earth-star (Geaster hygromet- 
ricus, Pers.) .... 

C.) (see 



119 

125 
126 

128 

128 
130 

130 



Bird's Nest (Cyathus vernicosus, D 

p. 133) .... ... 130 

LVIl. Calostoma Ravenelli, Berk., Mass. . . . 132 

Calostoma lutescens, Schw.^ Burnap . . . 132 

Calostoma cinnabarinum, Desv 132 

Spathularia velutipes, C. and F. (see p. 138) . 132 
LVIII. Flesh-coloured Puffball (Lycoperdon subincar- 

natum, Pk.), edible (see p. 125) . . . 134 
Young Pear-shaped Puffball (Lycoperdon pyri- 
forme, Schaeff.), edible (see p. 125) . . 134 
Hard-skinned Puffball (Scleroderma vulgare, Fr.) 134 
LIX. Cordyceps capitala (Holmsk., Lk.), parasitic on 

Elaphomyces ...... 136 

Lycogola epidendron (see p. 144) . . . 136 
Floccose Chanterelle (Cantharellus floccosus, 

Schw.), edible (see p. 53) . . . . 136 

Mutinus caninus, Huds. (see p. 120) . . . 136 

LX. Slippery Leotia (Leotia lubrica), edible . . . 137 

Jelly-like Tremellodon (Tremellodon gelatinosum) 137 

LXl. Golden Peziza (Peziza aurantia, Pers.), edible . 138 

XX 



List of Plates 



Platk 



Facing Pagb 



LXI. Peziza odorata, Pk., edible (see p. 137) 
LXII. Helvella elastica, Bull, (see p. 142) 

Helvella lacunosa, Holm, (see p. 143) . 
Mitrula vitellina, Sacc, var. irregularis, Pk. 

LXIII. Delicious Morel (Morchella deliciosa, Fr.), edible 

Polyporus arcularius, Batsch, Fr. (see p. 112) 

LXIV. Bristly Panus (Panus strigosus, B. and C.) (see 

p. 67) . . . . . . . . 



138 
140 
140 
140 

142 
142 

145 



xx\ 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT 



Coprinus comatus, Fr. (old) 
Coprinus comatus, Fr. (mature) . 
Coprinus comatus, Fr, (young) . 

Puffball 

Corollas and honey, attractive to insects 
Ingenious stamens .... 

Pistil of violet 

Seed-box of iris 

Pistil of St. Johnswort 

Seed-box of sacred bean 

Winged seed of the silver fir 

Fern with spores (Polypodium vulgare) 

Grass spikelet 

Liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha) . 

Bean seed to show embryo 

Indian pipe ..... 

Moss (Dicranum scoparium) (natural size) 

White mould on dead fly . 

Spores borne in delicate membranous sacs 

Bread mould 

Spores borne on little spicules . 
Spores as simple cells 
Spores divided into several cells 
Mycelial threads .... 
Mushroom buttons .... 
Young mushroom .... 
Puffball 



Pack 

i 

V 

viii 

4, 25 

5 

5 
6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

7 

7 

7 

7 
8 

8 

9. '7 

9 

9. 17 
I 

I 

I 

I 

I 

12 



ZXUl 



List of Illustrations in Text 



in hollow rind 



gnified) 



Mushroom to show veil . « . . . 

Mushroom to show cap, ring, gills, and stem . 

Mushroom' to show veil on stem and cap . 

Section across gill (magnified) .... 

A small portion of section of gill (highly magnified) 

Corn smut .... 

Leaf rust on Hepatica triloba 

Pouch-fungus, section to show spores 

Section to show gills . 

Section of a Boletus, to show pores 

Clavaria with spores on spines . 

Section of Hydnum, to show teeth 

Section of stroma with perithecia (ma 

Perithecium (highly magnified) 

Outer surface of truffle 

Section of truffle 

Fleshy cup-like fungi 

Club-shaped fungus . 

Conic, convex, and pitted fungus 

Fungus with gyrose furrows 

Saddle-shaped fungus 

Fungus with spore surface flat, running down the sid 

Fungus with gills 

Fungus with pores 

Fungus with spines 

Calostoma 

Geaster 

Nidularia . 

Clathrus cancellatus 

Simblum rubescens 

Anthurus borealis 

Mutinus 

Phallus impudicus 

XXIV 



es 



24, 

24. 

24, 

» 

24, 



Pack 
12 
12 
12 
12 

13 

13. 22 

13, 22 

. 14 

. 14 

14, 102 

. 14 

. 14 

. 18 

. 18 

. 18 

. 18 

19, 20 

19, 21 

19-21 

19, 20 

19, 20 

21 

22, 30 

23, 42 
. 23 

2), 29 

23, 28 

23, 24 

26, 121 

26, 122 

26, 121 
. 27 

27, 119 



List of Illustrations in Text 











Page 


Embryo plant of Mutinus caninus .... 24, 120 


Scleroderma vulgare . 






. 25 


Section of Scleroderma vulgare . 






• 25, 134 


Mutinus caninus, young plant; embr^ 


/o plant 




. 120 


Bovista 






28, 128 


Section of Bovista (diagrammatic) 






28, 128 


Calvatia 






28, 126 


Section of Calvatia 






28, 126 


Geaster 






. 28 


Lycoperdon .... 






. 29 


Section of Lycoperdon (diagrammatic] 






29, 124 


Bovistella 






. 29 


Section of Bovistella . 






29, 129 


Clavaria 






. 30 


Section of Hydnum . 






. 30 


Cap of Hydnum imbricatum 






30, 96 


Cap with striations on the margin 






• 30. 40, 50 


Bracket fungus .... 






. 31 


Resupinate fungus 








• 31 


Boletus Satanus .... 








• 31 


Polyporus quercina 








• 31 


Pleurotus, stem central 








• 32 


Pleurotus, stem eccentric . 








32 


Pleurotus, stem wanting 








3^ 


Gills toothed, Lentinus 








32 


Lamellae entire .... 








33 


Stem eccentric .... 








• 33 


Lamellse simple .... 








33 


Fungus with volva and annulus . 








34 


Volva, but no annulus 








34 


Annulus, but no volva 








34 


Lamellae free from stem 






34.39 


Annulus movable .... 






. 


34 



List of Illustrations in Text 



Lamellae united with stem . 

Lamellae decurrent 

Lamellae adnate .... 

Lamellae sinuate 

Volva wanting; annulus wanting 

Lamellae in shallow folds . 

Volva present; annulus wanting 

Volva none; annulus none. 

Annulus arachnoid 

Lamellae adnate 

Veil remaining on stem as annulus 

Volva none .... 

Veil attached to margin of pileus 

Lamellae deliquescent 

Spores fusiform .... 

Spores globose .... 

Hydnum with central stem 

Branched Hydnum 

Lamellae labyrinthine, woody 

Lamellae radial, woody 

Pores long-hexagonal 

Pores in the form of tubes, stem lateral 

Pores in the form of tubes, stem central 

Section of young Amanita in wrapper 

Young Amanita in wrapper 

Young Amanita in ruptured wrapper 

Section of Amanita muscaria 

Cap striate, and free from warts . 

Section of Amanita Caesarea 

Young plant of Amanita Caesarea 

Section of Cantharellus floccosus 

Section of Amanitopsis vaginata 

Section of Amanitopsis parcivolvata 



Page 

. 34 
35- 37. 39. 40 
35. 37. 39 
35 
35 
3^ 
31 
31 
38 
38 
39 
39 

39 
40 

40 

40 

41 
41 
43 
43 
43 
44 
44 
47 
47 
47 
47 
50 
50 
50 
53 
54 
55 



XXVI 



List of Illustrations in Text 



Section of Lentinus lepideus 

Section of Pleurotus ostreatus 

Section of Pleurotus sapidus 

Section of Pleurotus ulmarius 

Section of Hygrophorus miniatus 

Section of Hygrophorus eburneus 

Section of Armillaria mellea 

Section of Lepiota procera . 

Section of Lepiota naucinoides 

Section of Collybia familia . 

Section of Russula emetica 

Section of Russula virescens 

Section of Clitocybe laccata 

Section of Tricholoma personatum (var. bulbosum) 

Section of Craterellus cantharellus 

Section of Agaricus Rodmani 

Section of Agaricus abruptus 

Section of Hypholoma perplexum 

Section of Hypholoma incertum 

Section of Hypholoma sublateritium 

Section of Pholiota adiposa 

Section of Pholiota prsecox 

Section of Cortinarius violaceus . 

Section of Pluteus cervinus 

Section of Lactarius piperatus 

Section of Hydnum repandum . 

Section of Hydnum caput-ursi . 

Boletus Satanus 

Under surface of Lenzites betulina 

Favolus areolarius 

Section of young phallus . 

Mutinus bambusinus . 

Lycoperdon .... 



Page 
56 

57 
58 

59 
60 

61 

62 

(>3 
64 
67 
68 
69 

71 

72 

73 

76 

77 

79 
80 

81 

83 
84 
86 

87 

93 

95 
96 

107 

U3 

H5 
119 

120 

124 



xxvu 



List of Illustrations in Text 

Section of Lycoperdon (diagrammatic) 

Asci and paraphyses 

Section of truffle to show position of asci . 

Truffle, ascoma 

Fungus growing on caterpillar . 

Section of Peziza odorata to show two layers 

Gyromitra esculenta 

Morchella esculenta 

Section of Morchella deliciosa 

Helvella 

Helvella lacunosa (diagrammatic) 



Page 
124 

U6 

137 
141 

141 

141 

142 

•43 



XXVIU 



THE MUSHROOM BOOK 



CHAPTER I : THE HOMES AND HABITS 

OF FUNGI 

For centuries epicures have used certain fungi for food. 
The Greeks and Romans esteemed them highly, and gave a great 
deal of consideration to favourable times and places for gathering 
them, and to choice methods of preparing them for the table. 
Juvenal tells us of one old Roman enthusiast who was so carried 
away by his love for them as to exclaim, " Keep your corn, O 
Libya, unyoke your oxen, provided only you send us mush- 
rooms! " Horace says that mushrooms which grow in the fields 
are the best, and that one can have but little faith in other kinds. 
Mushroom eaters of the present day would perhaps not agree 
with him, for they fmd edible species in every imaginable place 
where fungi grow, and are constantly adding to their list new 
varieties which they esteem delicious. 

Although for centuries it has been known that some fungi 
contain most virulent poisons, still, through ignorance of those 
points which distinguish the poisonous from the edible, frequent 
cases of poisoning occur in all classes of society. The mistakes 
resulting in death have been frequent enough to inspire the timid 
with an overpowering dread of all fungi, while the damp and 
grewsome places in which many fungi flourish have caused them 
to be despised by others. The following lines from Shelley very 
aptly express the general sentiment : 

" And plants, at whose names the verse feels loath, 
Fill'd the place with a monstrous undergrowth, 
Prickly and pulpous, and blistering and blue, 
Livid, and starr'd with a lurid dew. 

I 



The Homes and Habits of Fungi 

" And agarics and fungi, with mildew and mould, 
Started like mist from the wet ground cold ; 
Pale, tleshy, as if the decaying dead 
With a spirit of growth had been animated." 

Shelley: " The Sensitive Plant." 

To many people the only growths known as fungi are toad- 
stools and mushrooms. They give the name mushrooms to the 
species known to them as edible, and regard all other similar 
growths as toadstools, things uncanny or poisonous. 

" The grisly todestool grown there mought I see, 
And loathed paddocks [toads] lording on the same." 

Spenser's " Faerie Queene." 

This distinction has no scientific basis, and in fact most of 
the species called toadstools are edible. Fungi are not always 
the grewsome things of Shelley and Spenser. In their ranks are 
many which delight the eye with their colouring and the sym- 
metry of their forms. They are the grotesques of nature; nests, 
hoofs, cups, umbrellas, shells, and clubs are represented, together 
with spheres, hemispheres, cones, and many other geomet- 
rical figures. The mildew on the linen, the mould on food, 
the rusts and smuts which blight our fields of grain, and the dry 
rot which crumbles our lumber to dust and which causes old 
wood in dark places to glow with a weird, pale, flickering light, 
are all forms of one group or another of these plants which prey 
upon living or dead organic matter. In ordinary observation, 
only the simpler and more noticeable fungi are taken into account, 
but they are in reality met with in almost every situation imagin- 
able. They are found in damp cellars and in rooms shut off 
from the light ; in fact, some form of fungus will be found in 
every place and on everything which is not exposed to a circula- 
tion of fresh air. 

In woods and open fields the attractive forms are found. In 
shady woods the beautiful white "bear's head" hangs on stately 
tree trunks, and the "destroying angels" gleam white in the 
shadows on the ground. Shelving brackets, green or red or 
brown, encircle old stumps, or stand out stiff and white from 
the crumbling trunks of fallen moss-grown monarchs of the 
forest, while wood-brown toadstools huddle in groups among 

2 



The Homes and Habits of Fungi 

the fallen leaves. On the outskirts of the wood, green and red 
Russulas vie with the flowers in the brilliancy of their colouring. 
Pink or violet Clavarias, dainty corals, border the wood path, and 
golden Clavarias lighten up the sombre wood tints with their 
yellow branches. In dry pastures and along wood roads, puff- 
balls, large and small, send up their puffs of brown smoke, to the 
delight of every passing child who strikes them with a wand. 
On lawns and hillsides the Oreades cause fairy rings to grow. 
The fairy rings are circles, or parts of circles, of impoverished grass 
of a lighter colour and less luxuriant growth than that of the grass 
immediately surrounding the circle. Before the existence of fiury 
folk came to be doubted, it was firmly believed that these fairy 
rings were the dancing grounds of the fairies. 

" The nimble elves 
That do by moonshine green sour ringlets make 
Whereof the ewe bites not ; whose pastime 'tis 
To make these midnight mushrooms." 

Rev. Gerard Smith. 

The rings on the commons increase in size until sometimes 
two or more rings intersect to form a labyrinth of green network. 
Rings appear year after year in the same place, and then disap- 
pear, to reappear after an interval of a few seasons. As long as 
the fairies existed in the imaginations of the people, it was easy to 
account for these strange happenings — the fairies danced in the 
moonshine, and the grass was worn down under their feet. If 
they were displeased and left the neighbourhood, the rings disap- 
peared too. As this fancy was given up, other solutions of the 
mystery were sought. Some believed that the ring was caused 
by a thunder-bolt entering the ground at this spot, and still others 
were confident that it was caused by moles. The true solution 
is not hard to find, to one familiar with the habit of growth of the 
fungus plant. One fungus plant growing alone upon the lawn 
will soon exhaust the soil directly beneath it of all true fungus 
food. Of all the spores which fall from the parent plant only 
those will grow which fall without this impoverished spot, and 
so a ring of toadstools is formed. Again, only those spores 
which fall outside the ring will find good fungus food, and so 
the ring widens always outward, forming a perfect circle, unless 
something on one side or other interferes with its travels. The 

3 



The Homes and Habits of Fungi 

decaying ring of fungi temporarily stimulates the grass around it, 
so that its rich colour stands out in circles or arcs of circles against 
the less highly nourished grass. Such rings are conspicuous on 
the lawns of the White House at Washington, and are often to 
be seen well defined on distant hillsides. 

Brackets and mushrooms and puffballs grow in warm, moist 
places where they find decaying wood and leaves to feed upon. 
Old tree trunks and fallen logs, rich leaf mould, and cattle pastures 
are their favourite haunts. 

The reason for their choice of place is invariably connected 
with the question of food, for fungi can thrive only where they 
can obtain organic matter, as they have lost the power which all 
green plants have of feeding on inorganic or mineral matter. All 
plants must have food with which to form plant flesh. Green 
plants by means of their leaf green — the only agent in the world 
which has the power to turn lifeless mineral matter into living 
matter — take the element carbon from the air, and hydrogen gas 
and oxygen gas from water, and with their green granules, by some 
mysterious process, make of the elements hydrogen, oxygen, and 
carbon, compounds of wood and starch and sugar. Fungus plants 
have none of this leaf green and must therefore feed on material 
which has been manufactured by green plants. 

To define fungi simply, so as to include all the varieties, would 

be a difficult task ; but in general it may be said that they are 

plants which have no leaf green and which do not grow from true 

seeds, but from dustlike bodies resembling in appearance the yel- 

^•.^. low pollen of roses or lilies. 

.■^:-\". The fungi have no flowers and produce no 

seeds. They produce spores instead, fine dust-like 
particles, which are borne in special places on the 
mature plant, whether a mould or mildew, a toad- 
stool, puffball, or bracket. The cap of a mush- 
room placed right side up on a piece of paper under 
an inverted glass will print with its spores a pic- 
,, „, ,, ture of the radiating leaves or gills beneath. A 

runball <^ ° 

slight blow on a puffball in the pasture will cause 
a puff of smoke-like dust to rise from it — really millions of spores 
that have ripened inside the puffball and are now ready to grow 
into new puffball plants when they fall on favourable soil. 




CHAPTER II : THE RELATION OF FUNGI 
TO OTHER PLANTS 



A CLASSIFICATION or Orderly arrangement of material collected 
for study is indispensable to true pleasure and profit. The nature 
student must classify both his specimens and the knowledge he 

may obtain about them ; for, as Spen- 
cer has said, "When a man's knowl- 
edge is not in order, the more of it 
he has the greater will be his confu- 
sion of thought." As he compares his 
specimens he sees interesting grada- 
tions of resemblance, and becomes fas- 
cinated with the pleasure of tracing 
their relationships and the gradual evo- 
lution of higher forms from lower. 

Every lover of nature who haunts 
the fields and woods acquires a rich 
store of facts about plant life, and with- 
out, perhaps, recognising that he does 
so, distinguishes two great groups of plants — those which have 
attractive flowers, and those which have no flowers at all. His 
flowerless plants bear no seeds, but quan- 
tities of fine, dust-like particles which rise 
in the air as he brushes his stick over their 
green leaves. As the powers of observa- 
tion develop, he distinguishes the ferns 
and Christmas greens among flowerless 
plants, and perhaps soon recognises that 
the soft green moss bank, too, is composed of small plants, 
and that the green mats, the liverworts, on stones and moist 
banks and logs, are plants also. His only reason, perhaps, for 
calling them plants is that they grow and are green. He may 




Corollas and honey, at- 
tractive to insects 




Ingenious stamens 



The Relation of Fungi to Other Plants 




Pistil of 
violet 



learn with the microscope that the pond scums which he had 
thought disgusting frog-spittle are in truth tangles of exquisite 
plants, made up of chains of slender, transpar- 
ent cells finer than silken threads, each cell 
containing many tiny green par- 
ticles of leaf green, or chloro- 
phyll — the cause of the green 
colour of all green plants. 

At first the most conspicu- 
ous plants attract the attention, 
and afterwards, in succession, 
those less and less conspicuous. 
They, in reality, present them- 
selves in great natural groups, readily distinguished 
by well-marked characteristics. 

It will be seen, as these 
pass in review, that they are 



conspicuous according as 
they are complex. The gorgeous flow- 
ering plants have complicated methods 
of reproduction 
— corollas and 
honey, attrac- 
tive to insects : 



Pistil of 
St. Johns- 
wort 





Seed-box of 
iris 



Seed-box of sacred bean 



ingenious 



sta- 



mens, pistils, seed-boxes, and seeds. 

The humble grasses, with their close 
relatives, dispense with 
gay colours and the as- 
sistance of insects, and 
trust to the breezes to carry 
their pollen to its goal. 
The pines and their allies 
are a step nearer simplic- 
ity, and do not enclose 

Winged seed their seeds in a seed-box 
°^ ^^^ ''^- at all, but provide them 

ver fir 

With Wings for dissemi- 
nation, and leave them exposed to the Yem with spores {Pofypo. 

wind. dium vttlgare) 

6 





The Relation of Fungi to Other Plants 





Liverwort (^Marchantia 
polymorpha) 



The ferns and Christmas greens (Lycopodiums) have no 
flowers, and therefore no true seeds. They have a distinct stem, 
which grows from the apex and is strength- 
ened by woody fibres, which may readily be 
seen by breaking the stem across. The 
woody fibres so strengthen the tissues of 
these plants that they are able to stand erect 
and make a conspicuous appearance not pos- 
sible to the 
small moss- 
es and liv- 
e r w r t s , 
which are 

spore-bearing plants with no 
woody fibre. 

The plants of all these 

Grass spikelet groups re- 

semble each 
other in descending degrees, so that they may 
be classed in groups under groups. Similar 
specimens may form groups of species. 
Species may form larger groups, or genera. 
Genera with common characteristics may 
form families ; and groups of families, orders; 
and orders, classes ; while classes unite to 
form branches, or phylae. 

A botanist relies for the classification of 

his specimens 

mainly upon the 

similarity of those 

parts of the plant 

which produce 

the seeds or 

spores rather than 
upon those parts — the roots and leaves and 
stems — which have the work of the plant 
household to do. He finds that the seed 
and spore producing parts are more con- 
stant in their forms and habits than the leaves and stems and 
roots, which are more exposed, and which are constantly 

7 




Bean seed open to show embryo 




Indian pipe 



The Relation of Fungi to Other Plants 




being forced to a change of form which will better suit their 

changed surroundings. 

The novice sees nothing in the brown, or even in the highly 

coloured, fungi to war- 
rant his calling them 
plants. They are to him 
"just toadstools ;" for 
green colouring matter 
— his first criterion for 
plants — is not there, and, 
moreover, there is noth- 
ing in their shape which 
suggests to him the 
plants with which he is 
fomiliar. The snow- 
white Indian pipe lacks 
the green of most plants, 
but that does not rule it 
for him out of the plant 

Moss {Dicranum scoparium) (natural size) ^^^^^ . ^^^ although it 

is colourless, and depends upon other plants for food, still it 
has a flower form and produces a seed-box with well-devel- 
oped seeds. Fungi, however, to any but the close student 
must seem quite unrelated to all normal plant forms. But the 
botanist, by a study of their structure, finds 
that they all grow from microscopic, dust- 
like particles, which differ from true seeds in 
consisting of but one or a few cells, and in 
having no embryo plant in them as true 
seeds have. He recognises their position in 
the kingdom of living things, and classes 
them as spore-bearing plants, lower than 
the group of mosses, those dainty plants 
which delight every one with their graceful- 
ness, and which bear their spores in tiny cap- 
sules or boxes set up on slender stems. By studying their life 
history he decides that they are degenerate members of the low- 
est group — the algae — and that they have fostered the habit of 
feeding on material constructed by green plants, instead of con- 
structing food material for themselves, and have, in consequence, 

8 




White mould on dead 
fly 



The Relation of Fungi to Other Plants 



Threads 




Bread mould (mag- 
nified) 



lost their power of constructing such food, and also their green 
granules by which this work of construction may be carried on. 
The life history and structure of fungi 
has been studied so minutely that one is Spore cases 
able to arrange them in three well- 
marked classes: 

The first class, the algal-like fungi 
(Phycomycetes), includes bread moulds 
and several of those fungi which cause 
diseases of plants and animals — the 
downy mildew on the grape, the potato 
rot, the common white mould which 
fastens dead flies to the walls or window 
panes in the autumn, and the fungus 
which grows on salmon 

and causes them to die in great numbers. The 
plant of these fungi is cobwebby, sometimes 
growing within the cells of the plant substance on 
which it lives, and sometimes growing both 
within and on the surface. A freshly moulded 
piece of moist bread shows the bread covered with 
exquisitely fme transparent threads, which con- 
stitute the plant. Later, spore cases containing 
tiny black spores will be seen, which give a del- 
Spores borne in del- icate gray tint to the plant at first, but later form 
icate membran- ^ black, repulsive mass as their numbers increase, 
ous sacs (magni- jj-jg^g plants are regarded as descendants of de- 
generate algae, which lost their power of inde- 
pendent existence through stealing their food 
instead of making it for themselves. 

The second class, the spore-sac fungi, 
produce their spores in delicate membranous 
sacs. The spore-sac fungi vary greatly in 
size, habit, and structure. Most of them 
are inconspicuous members of the plant 
world, as the yeast plant, by which our 
bread is raised ; the fungus which causes 
the peach leaves to curl and the black knots 
to appear on cherry and plum trees. 
The third class is made up of 

9 





Spores borne on little 
spicules (magnified) 



all fungi 



which bear their 



The Relation of Fungi to Other Plants 

spores on little spicules standing up on large cells. This con- 
tains most of the conspicuous fungi one will care about knowing. 
To understand the group one must understand the method by 
which a spore grows to be a fungus plant, and to be able to 
distinguish the different members of the group one must know 
on just what portions of the spore receptacle the spores are 
borne- 



TO 



CHAPTER III : FROM SPORE TO MUSHROOM 



o O 



o4 




The way in which a spore grows into a fungus plant is very 
simple : 

(i) The spore is a single cell, and when it is in a warm, 
moist place it swells. 

(2) The cell absorbs food through 
its cell wall and divides into two cells. 

(3) Each new cell absorbs food and 
divides until long chains of cells are 
formed, looking to the unaided eye like 
threads. Each thread is a hypha, and a 

tangle of threads is a mycelium. 

(4) In the soil the mycelium nour- 
ishes itself on decaying vegetable 
matter, and grows ; then, at certain 
points, the threads mat together to 
form little balls the size of pin- 
heads {a). 

{b) The pinheads grow to the size 

of bird-shot. 

{c) The bird-shot increase to the size 
of shoe-buttons. 
(5) If the ball 
* * * is to become a 

stemmed toadstool, a minute stem ap- 
pears on the button. The stem and 
button increase in size. The button is 
lifted above the soil and expands into a 
mushroom. 

(6) If the button is to become a puff- 
ball, no stem appears on the button ; but 

II 






From Spore to Mushroom 



it grows, and comes out of the ground a round puffball. (See 

Plate opposite p. 124.) 

If one wishes to learn to distinguish the members of the 

mushroom or toadstool family, either 
for the pleasure he may derive from 
knowing them, or from a desire to 
distinguish the edible from the poison- 
ous, he must 




Puffball 





be f a m i 1 i a r 
with the typi- 
cal parts of the 
fungus plant, 
and must 
know the names of these parts. 

The edible mushroom of the market 
{Agaricus campesiris) 
serves well for study, 

Veil V/,^**^?IP/ ^^ ^^ shows some of 

the characteristics 
which all the toad- 
stools, mushrooms, brackets, and puffballs 
have in common. 

(i) This mushroom is in shape some- 
thing like a parasol. 

(2) The handle is the stem, or stipe. 

(3) The open top is the cap, or pileus. 

(4) Under 
the cap, radi- 
ating from 
the stalk to 
the edge of 
the cap, are 
thin plates — the gills, or lamellae. 

(5) When the mushroom is in 
.Short cells the button stage, the gills are not 

visible, for they are covered with 
a thin sheet of mycelial threads, 
called the veil. (See coloured plate 
of Agaricus campesiris.) 
(6) As the button grows the veil stretches, and finally breaks, 

12 




Spores on 

slender processes 




Mycelial threads 



Club-shaped bodies 



Section across gill (magnified) 



From Spore to Mushroom 




A small portion of section of gill 
(highly magnified) 



feaving a ragged edge to the cap, and a ring or annulus of veil 

around the stem. The gills of the Agaricus are not fastened to 

the stem, but are rounded off at 

the end near the stem, while 

others, between the long ones, 

extend from the edge of the cap j-,- 

only far enough toward the stem 

to fill up the angles formed by 

the long gills. 

The surface of the gills is the n 

fruiting portion of the mushroom. ^^V- 

It is here that the spores are 

formed. 

The structure of the fungus 

plant up to this point has been 

similar throughout. A loose tangle 

of threads underground formed the myce- 
lium — the food provider. A more closely 
matted tangle above ground formed the 
stem and cap and veil, and even the central 
part of the gill — the fruiting parts of the 
plant. 

On the surface of the gill a difference 
in structure is found, which will be clearly 
understood from a picture of a thin section 
cut across a gill. 

(i) The central portion of the gill is 
made by loosely tangled mycelium threads 
(/r) draping themselves in thin plates from 
the surface of 
the cap. 

(2) Just outside of this loose 
mycelium, on either side, are layers 
of short cells {c), which bear club- 
shaped bodies standing out over 
both surfaces of the gills ib). 

(3) Each club bears two slen- 
der processes (5/) at the free end, 
and each process bears a spore 
{sp). 

13 




Corn smut 




Leaf rust on Hepatica triloba 



From Spore to Mushroom 




Pouch-fungus section, to show 
spores in hollow rind 




Section to show gills 




All corn smuts, wheat smuts, leaf rusts, toadstools, puff- 
balls, and brackets bear their spores on club-like cells, and for 

this reason are put in one group, called 
Basidiomycetes. 

The fact that corn smuts and leaf 
rusts feed on living 
plants, while toad- 
stools, brackets, 
and puffballs feed 
on dead plants, 
separates them in- 
to two groups ; 
the smuts and rusts forming the lower group, 

and the others the higher group. It is the 
higher Basidiomycetes which we wish to con- 
sider, as this group includes most of the con- 
spicuous fungi, most of the edi- 

Section of a Boletus, i i j ^u c • x.- \. 

ble, and those fungi which are 

to show pores ^ 

dangerous because of their re- 
semblance to edible species. 

Remembering that toadstools, puffballs, and 
brackets all start from spores ; that all have the 

tangled thread-like 
plants, seeking the 
dark ; that they all 
have the spore recep- 
tacle in the light, and 
bear their spores on club-like cells, 
one can readily understand their be- 
ing put in one group. 

With a few exceptions not 
Section of Hydnum, to show teeth necessary for US to Consider, all the 

higher fungi naturally divide into 
two groups — pouch-fungi (Gasteromycetes), which conceal their 
spores in a definite rind, or peridium, as the puffballs do ; 
and membrane fungi (Hymenomycetes), now called Agari- 
cales, which bear their spores exposed on the surface of gills, 
pores, spines, or teeth, as the garden mushrooms, the Boleti, 
the Clavarias, and the Hydnums. 





Clavaria with 
spores on spines 



U 



CHAPTER IV: THE KEY 

WHAT A KEY IS, AND WHY A NAME IS DESIRABLE 

A KEY in the study of botany is a guide by whicii a student 
may trace a specimen until he finds a name for it. Having found 
a name, he may learn from books or from friends what is known 
of its habits of growth, of its value as a food or drug, whether 
it is harmful or harmless, whether it is to be protected or 
whether war is to be waged against it. He may learn whether 
it has figured in history or the myths, and how the poets and 
artists viewed it, and may perhaps learn to see it with their 
eyes. He may watch similar specimens as they grow, and may 
add the results of his observations to the facts already recorded 
about his specimen. 

HOW A KEY FOR FUNGI IS MADE, AND WHY IT IS DESIRABLE 

In the first place, only such plants are considered as grow 
from spores and have no leaf-green. (The spore characteristic is 
one the amateur must decide upon either by seeing the spores 
or by inferring their existence from the f^ict that seeds do not 
appear.) There are some thirty-five thousand species of fungi 
known to botanists, so that it would be impossible to find a 
name for a specimen if one had to read at randoin until the right 
description for his specimen was found; but since all of these 
plants may be put in one or another of three groups, on account 
of certain points of resemblance which they have in common, 
and since these three groups may each in turn be divided and 
subdivided, one may, by selecting groups rather than individual 
specimens, find a short path to the name desired. The three 
primary groups, called classes, are made as follows : 

The first contains many mould-like fungi which resemble 
one another in microscopic characters. 

The second contains other mould-like fungi and many con- 

15 



The Key 

spicuous fungi which bear their spores in transparent sacs (see 
first page of Key). 

The third contains all fungi which bear their spores on en- 
larged cells called basidia (see first page of Key). 

To even partially understand the inconspicuous fungi is a 
task impossible to one who is not familiar with the use of a com- 
pound microscope. To acquire a knowledge sufficiently accu- 
rate to identify nearly all of the conspicuous fungi is within the 
power of any intelligent person, for the two groups or classes 
containing the conspicuous species may be divided, on account 
of easily distinguished characters, into groups called orders. 
The orders may be divided into groups called families, and the 
families into groups called genera (singular genus), and the 
genera into individual specimens called species; and all these 
groups may be arranged in such a way that the series of selec- 
tions may be quickly made. Such an arrangement of groups is 
called a key. 



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Dd 




o 







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27 



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<u 



' 


Zi 


c\> 


VD 


IT) 


n 


C/3 
C/3 


C3 
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o 


E 


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3 


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rt 


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3 
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be 

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c 




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be 




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29 



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ITS 


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+-> 

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31 



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32 



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t 
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f-'Ji ^B^-^ 








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34 



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• 

00 






• 




• 








a 


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•cybe 
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n 00 


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CL, 0) 


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a- 
P 








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bJD 


Coll 
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5d! 


Hygro 
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>^ bfi 






1 




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nt rigid 
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mellae 
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< 

UJ 

z 

o 



{/) 




3 


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0) 


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rt 


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jr 


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u 

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c/5 


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a 


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w 


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rt 


2: 




be 




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45 



CHAPTER V: FUNGI WITH GILLS 
GENUS AMANITA 

The fungi with gills all have this characteristic in common — 
that they bear their spores on radiating plates or lamellae. Their 
family name, Agaricacecu, is derived from a typical member of the 
family, Agaricus campestris. The family is the largest and most 
widely distributed of all the families, and contains some five 
thousand described species, which are placed in groups or genera, 
more or less large, based on such characters as the colour of the 
spores; the position and shape of the lamellae; the colour and 
texture, as well as the shape, odour, taste, and appendages of the 
cap and stem. 

The colour of the spores is one of the most important char- 
acteristics, as the decision as to whether the plant is wholesome 
or not often rests upon it. The colour may be determined by 
placing the cap, with spore surface down, on a sheet of white or 
black paper, and leaving it for a time under an inverted glass, so 
as to cut off all drafts which may blow the spores away. A print 
of the radiating gills will then be made in the colour of the spores — 
white, pink, rusty brown, or black. 

For external characters of the stem, one must be careful to 
get the entire stem from the ground; for a most important char- 
acteristic, the volva, if present, will be found at the base. The 
volva may be membranous and attached to the base, excepting 
at the rim, or membranous and loose, or present only in the form 
of rings of scales at the base, with perhaps traces on the surface 
of the cap. 

The surface of the stem may be smooth or rusty or mealy 
white. It may or may not have near the cap a ring of the 
membrane which covered the gills of the young plant. 

The character of the lamellae and the internal characters of 
the stem may best be determined by cutting the cap and stem 
from top to base with a sharp knife, for then it may be seen 
whether the gills are free from the stem or attached to it, or 

46 



White-spored Series 



whether they grow down on the stem; and whether the stem is 
hollow, solid, or filled with web-like mycelium, and whether it is 
fleshy or has a tough and hard rind. The lamellae may be of 
different or of equal lengths, and their edges may be entire or 
toothed or thin or blunt. 

To know a genus of the gill-bearing fungi, one must know 
the cap, gills, stem, and habit of growth which characterise that 
genus. 

A very young plant of the genus Amanita is enveloped in a 
membranous wrapper. The relation of the young plant to the 
wrapper will readily be understood by cutting 
a young plant through its length. 

As the plant grows, the wrapper is ruptured, 

a part is left at the base 
to form a cup or sheath, 
or a part may be carried 
•Veil up on the cap, to ap- 
pear in small patches. 

The cap is, as a 

rule, regular and 

broadly convex. It may be almost 

flat when mature. The stem has a 

conspicuous collar and the gills are 

free from the stem. 

There are twenty American species in the genus Amanita ; 

some of them are the most poisonous patches. 

fungi known, while others are most 

highly esteemed for the table. Since Free giiis^ 





Wrapper 



Young plant in 
wrapper 



Section of young plant in 
wrapper 




Stem 



the most dan- 
cap gerous species 
belong to this 
genus, it would 
be better for the 
...Voiva amateur not to 
eat of specimens 




Ring 



.Wrapper 
remains 



A. muscaria (See Plate III.) 



Wrapper ruptured 



which havestalks 

with a swollen base surrounded by a cup- 
like or scaly envelope, especially if the gills are white. In gath- 
ering all white-gilled species, care should be taken to get 

X-mSn'-Y-ta 
47 



Fungi with Gills 

below the base of the stalk ; for it often happens that the bulb 
is broken off and left behind, and thus the principal charac- 
teristic lost which would mark it as a specimen not to be 
eaten. 

Death Cup; Poison Amanita (Poisonous) 

Amanita phalloides 

Cap or Pilcus — White or greenish or greyish brown; smooth, 
no striations; width, 3-5 inches. 

Stem or Stipe — Ring present. Abruptly bulbous at the base ; 
bulb margined by the wrapper remains. White in white- 
cap forms, tinged with a paler shade than the cap in brown- 
cap forms. Pithy when young, hollow when old. 3-6 
inches long. 

Veil — White in white-cap forms, tinged with brown in brown- 
cap forms. 

Gills or Lamellcz — White, free from the stem, rounded at the 
stem end, rather broad. 

Spores — Globose and white. 

Flesh— \N\\\\t. 

Time — ^July to October. 

Habitat — Woods, groves, open places, and pastures. 

The poisonous principle of the death cup is known as phal- 
lin, one of the tox-albumins, the poisons found in rattlesnakes 
and other venomous animals, and the poisons which produce 
death in cholera and diphtheria. 

The phallin acts directly upon the blood corpuscles, dissolv- 
ing these, so that the serum of the blood escapes from the blood- 
vessels into the alimentary canal and drains the whole system of 
its vitality. There is no known antidote by which the effects of 
phallin may be counteracted. If one has eaten of the Amanita 
phalloides, the only chance of saving life is to remove the undi- 
gested parts from the alimentary canal by stomach-pump and 
oil purgatives ; then, if the amount of phallin absorbed into the 
system is not too great, the remainder may wear itself out on 
the blood and the patient may recover. 

The amount of the fungus which is necessary to produce 
death is small; even the handling of specimens and the breathing 
in of spores affect some people unpleasantly. 

rhal-loi'-des 
48 




DEATH CUP. DESTROYING ANGEL 

(Amanita phallcides. Fries) 

Reduced. Nat. size: Cap, 3!< inches; stem. /J^ inches 



White-spored Series 

Fly Amanita (Poisonous) 

Amanita muscaria 

Cap or Pileus — Orange red to pale yellow or almost white. The 
young plants are brighter, and fade from the margin inward 
as the plant matures. Floccose scales, the wrapper remains, 
are scattered on the cap. The margin is often striate. 3-6 
inches broad. 

Steyn or Stipe — White or slightly tinged with yellow. Pithy or 
hollow. Base not broad and abrupt, but ovate, covered 
with the scaly margins of the wrapper. 4-6 inches long. 

Veil and Ring or Anmdus — The veil covers the gills of the young 
plant, and later is seen as a collar-like ring on the stem. 

Gills or LamellcE — White or slightly tinged with yellow. Various 
in length ; short ones terminating in length with almost 
vertical abruptness. 

Spores — White, broadly elliptical. 

Flesh — White, tinged with yellow under the epidermis. 

Z!^<?(^//a/— Along roadsides, on borders of fields, in groves of conif- 
erous trees. It prefers poor soil, gravelly or scanty. It 
grows singly, not in groups. 

Time — June until freezing weather. 

Young Plant — This is at first egg-like, then dumb-bell shaped. 
As the parts within expand, the wrapper breaks up into 
scales, so that the convex, unexpanded cap is densely covered 
with more or less concentric fragments of the wrapper, and 
the bulbous stem is covered with rings of iringy scales. As 
the stem expands, these scales are left on the bulbous base, 
while the fragments on the cap are more widely separated 
by the growth of the cap. 

The fly amanita is a very conspicuous and handsome species. 
There are conflicting statements concerning the properties of 
this fungus; some claim that it is edible, and yet it is known 
to have caused much sickness and many deaths. It caused 
the death of the Czar Alexis of Russia, and of the Count de 
Vecchi in Washington, It is said that it is cooked and eaten 
by the Russians, and still it is on record that several French 
soldiers ate of it in Russia and became very ill. 

The Siberians steep dried specimens of the fly amanita in 
whortleberry juice, and thus make a drink which produces an 
intoxication similar to that produced by the " haschisch " and 
" majoon " of the East, 

Mus-ca'-rl-^ 
3 49 



Fungi with Gills 

There is something about it particularly attractive to flies, 
and yet for them to sip its juices means death, as may be seen 
by the circle of dead flies lying on the ground under the shadow 
of its cap. 

The chief poison of this fungus is an alkaloid called musca- 
rine, which paralyzes the nerves controlling the action of the 
heart. Injections of atropine in doses of from one one-hundredth 
to one-fiftieth of a grain are employed as an antidote for this 
poison. In addition, the most powerful emetics are used. 

Orange Amanita (Edible) 

Amanita Ccesarca 

Cap or Pileus — Smooth, glabrous, and free from warts or scales. 
Red or orange, fading to yellow on the margin or all 
over the cap. Margin distinctly striate. When fully ex- 
panded, nearly flat. When moist, 
slightly sticky and viscid. 
Stem — Yellow. When young, fibrous 
or cottony within, later hol- 
low. 
Wrapper or Volva — White and mem- 
branous, loosely sheathing the 
base of the stem. 
Veil — Covers the gills of the young plant. Remains are seen 
on the stem only, where it hangs down 
like a white ruffle. 
Gills or LamellcE — Rounded at the stem end and 
not attached to the stem. Yellow, an 

exception to the 
rule that the col- 
our of the gills 
in mature plants 
resembles the 
colour of the 
spores. 
Yo7ing Plant — When 
young, the cap 

and stem are contained in a wrap- 
per not unlike a hen's egg in 
shape, size, and colour. As the 
cap and stem within develop, the wrapper ruptures in its 
upper part, the stem elongates, and the cap is carried up, 

Cse'-sS-re'-S 




Cap striate^ and free from 
warts 





Section of A. Csesarea 

(a) Smooth cap (c) Hollow stem 
(*) Free gills (r) Ruffle-like ring 



Young plant 



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while the remains of the wrapper are left at the base of 
the stem, an open sac. 

Spores — White, eUiptical, 

Flesh — White stained with yellow under the separable epidermis 
and next the line of attachment of the gills. 

Taste — Mild and pleasant. 

Habitat — Thin woods, preferably pine woods and sandy soil. 
Abundant in southern Europe, common in the Southern 
States, and occasionally found in New York and Massa- 
chusetts. 

Time — July, August, September. 

The Amanita Ccesarea is one of the handsomest species. 
The Greeks and Romans esteemed it as an article of food. The 
names, " Food of the gods," " Cibus Deontm," " Imperial mush- 
room," "Csesar's mushroom," and " Katserltng," suggest the 
esteem in which it was held. 



51 



Fungi with Gills 



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52 





STRANGLED AWIANITOPSIS (EDIBLE, 

(Amanitopsis strangulata, Fr., Roze) 
Cap greyish brown; wrapper fragments dark brown. See Genus, p. 53 



White-spored Series 



GENUS CANTHARELLUS 

The members of the genus Cantharelliis differ from all other 
gill-bearing fungi in that the gills are in the form of shallow folds 
growing down the stem. The folds are generally narrow and 
forked or branching. The name Cantharellus, meaning little 
cup or goblet, refers to the shape of the fungus, some of the 
species being so deeply depressed that a cup not unlike a tall 
goblet results. 



Cantharellus floccosus (Edible) 

(See Plate Facing Page 136) 

Cap or PiicKs — Funnel form or trumpet 
shaped, depressed even into the 
stem. The surface of the depression 
is woolly or scaly. The scales some- 
times persist and sometimes dis- 
appear. Reddish yellow, fading to 
yellow. 

Gills or LamellcB — Blunt, narrow, close; 
forked branched so as to appear as a 
network. Yellow to yellow brown. 

Stem or Stipe — Short, smooth, or hairy. 
Sometimes extending like a root 
among fallen leaves. 

Spores — White. 

i%^/i— White, thin. 

Time — July to September. 

Habitat — In groups in 

specimen pictured was found grow- 
ing in moss by a stream among 
laurels and rhododendrons. 



woods. The 




Section of C. floccosus 



GENUS AMANITOPSIS 

The genus Amanitopsis has white spores, the gills free from 
the stem, and at the base of the stem a volva, the remains of the 
wrapper which enclosed the young plant. There is no aniiii/iis 
or ring on the stem, a feature which separates the genus Amaiii- 
topsis from the genus Amanita. 

Can-tha-rgl'-lus F16c-c6'-stis X-man'-I-t5p'-sTs 

S3 



Fungi with Gills 




The Sheathed Amanitopsis (Edible) 

Amanitopsis vaginata 

Cap or Pileus — Variable in colour, ranging from white to reddish 
brown. Thin, fragile, smooth; or, when young, with a few 
fragments of the wrapper adhering to its surface. Margin 

distinctly and 
deeply striated. 
2-4 inches broad. 
Stem or Stipe — Hol- 
low or stuffed; 
smooth, or 
sprinkled with 
minute mealy 
particles or woolly 
scales. Not bul- 
bous at the base. 
3-5 inches long. 
Spores — White. 
Ring or Annulus — 

None. 
Wrapper or Volva — 
Soft, flabby, 
white, adhering 
slightly to the 
base. 
Gills or Lamellce — Free 
from the stem. 
Whiteorwhitish, 
close, irregular. 
Flesh — White, or 
s ometimes 
stained under the 
easily separating 
skin. 
Tifne — June to Oc- 
tober. 

Habitat — In woods or open places, in damp vegetable mould, 
widely distributed. Specimen pictured was found growing 
in mountains of New Jersey. 

A. vaginata, var. alha, has the whole plant white. 
A. vaginata, var, fulva, has the cap tawny yellow. 
A. vaginata, var, livida, has the cap leaden brown, and gills 
and stem tinged with smoky brown. 

Vag-in-a'-ta Fulv'-a L!v'4-da 

54 





Section of A. vaginata 




SHEATHED AMANITOPSIS (EDIBLE) 
{Amanitopsis vaginata, Roze^ 












HELMET MYCENA (EDIBLE) 

(Mycena galericulata. Scop.) 

Cap greyish ; gills white ; stems firm, hollow, hairy at the base. See p. 55 



White-spored Series 



Amanitopsis parcivolvata (See frontispiece) 



^^2^ 



Cap or Pileus — Convex, then expanded ; smooth, free from warts. 

Colour brilliant orange red over 

the whole cap; not yellow on 

the margin, not fading with 

age. Uniform in colour in 

young and old specimens. 

Margin with striations deep and long. 
Gills or Lamellce — Lemon yellow, free from 

stem, and rounded at the outer extremity. 
Slem — Slightly tapering toward the cap; hol- 
low. Clear lemon yellow, covered with 

meal-like particles. 
Ring or Veil — None in old or young specimens. 
Volva — Present ; not large and loose. White ; 

clinging closely to the stem in the form 

of scales. 
Spores — White. 
Fles/i — Unpleasant raw odour. White, stained 

with orange red immediately under the 

skin. 
Hadiiai—lMxed woods. New Jersey, North 

Carolina. 
Ti?ne — July. 

The caps of the specimens found Section of A. 

in North Carolina varied in colour from parcivolvata (reduced) 
almost white to white with a red centre, and from orange or 
shades of orange to brilliant red. 




GENUS MYCENA 

The members of this genus have white spores ; no volva nor 
annulus ; lamellae thin, with acute edges ; gills with a little bay 
cut out near the stem, sinuate, and the stem with a cartilaginous 
rind. Cap membranous and striate on the margin — that is, with 
depressed parallel lines. 

Mycena haematopoda (See Plate facing page 93) 

Cap or Pileus — Bell-shaped; reddish brown, deeper shade on 

margin. 
Gills or Lamella — Paler tint of colour of cap ; adnate. 

Par'-^l-vfll-va-ta My-ce'-nU llcm'-a-t6p'.«-da 

55 



Fungi with Gills 

Stem or Stipe — Colour of cap ; hollow ; a mere tube, with thin 
walls. When cut quickly, it changes to a deep red brown 
and exudes a purple juice. Flexible, fragile. 

Spores — White. 

Ring or Annulus — None. 

Time — Septe m ber. 

Habitat— V)tc?Lytd wood in forest. 



GENUS LENT IN US 

The genus Lentinus has white spores, no annulus, and no 
volva. The stem is central or lateral, and the lamellae are nor- 
mally toothed on their margins. The species are leathery, fleshy, 
and tough ; will stand drying, and revive when moist. 

Lentinus lepideiis is one cause of the decay of telegraph poles, 
railroad ties, and bridges. 



Scaly Lentinus (Edible) 

Lentinus lepidens 




Section of 
L. lepideus 



Cap or Pikus — Fleshy, firm, convex or 
expanded. Creamy white, spotted 
with dark brown appressed scales. 
3-5 inches. 

Gills or Lamella: — Rather broad, not 
crowded; growing down the stem. 
White edges, irregularly toothed. 

Stein or Stipe — Whitish. Sometimes ec- 



LSn-tl'-ntis 



Lgp-W'-e-tis 



56 



White-spored Series 

centric, straight, or curved; firm, solid, equal, or tapering at 

the base. 2-4 inches long. 
Ring or Annulus — None. 
Spores — White. 
Flesh— \N\\\\.t. 
Time — June to August. 
Habitat — On wood; common on railroad ties. 



GENUS P LEU ROT US 

In the genus Pleurotus the stem is attached to the cap at 
some point to one side of the centre. The stem may be on the 
very margin of the cap, or may be wanting altogether. The 
three species to be mentioned all grow on dead wood — either on 
dead trees or on dead branches of living trees. 

The name Pleurotus comes from a Greek word meaning 
side, and has reference to the position of the stem. 



Oyster Mushroom (Edible) 

Pleurotus ostreatus 

Cap or Pileus — Fleshy, convex, smooth, and moist. White, 

or tinted with ash colour or brown. 
Gills or Lamellce — White, or tinted with ash ; broad ; growing down 

the stem, and 

branching again 

and again at the 

base. 
Stem or Stipe — Short 

or wanting. 
Spores — White, ob- 
long. 

/^/^•^//— White, tough. Section of P. ostreatus 

Time — September. 

Habitation dead wood. The specimens pictured were found 

growing on a dead forest tree at Lake Placid. The largest 

shells measured four inches across. 

Plu-ro'-tiis Os-tre-a'-tiis 

57 




Fungi with Gills 



Pleurotus sapidus (Edible) 

Cap or Pileus — Convex or depressed, smooth, often irregular. 

White, yellowish, ashy grey, dull lilac, or even brownish; 

overlapping each other. 2-5 inches broad. 
Gills or LamellcB — Whitish, rather distant, growing down the 

stem, branching and connecting again at stem end. 




Section of P. sapidus 

Stem or Stipe — Stems more or less united at the base, eccentric or 

lateral, smooth, whitish. 1-2 inches long. 
Spores — Lilac, oblong. 
Time — June to November. 
Flesh — White, tough. 
Habitat — In clusters, often from a common stem, growing on 

decayed wood. 

Elm Pleurotus (Edible) 

Pleurotus ulmariiis 

Cap or Pileus — Convex or nearly flat, firm, smooth. White, 

tinted at the centre with reddish yellow or brownish yellow. 
2-5 inches broad. 
Gills or LamellcB — Broad, not crowded, notched at the stem end, 

growing down the stem. White, turning yellow with age. 
Stem or Stipe — United to the cap one side of the centre. Usually 

curved ; solid, smooth, or downy. White or whitish. 2-4 

inches lonsr. 



Sap'-l-dtis 



Ul-ma'-ri-tis 



58 




Oyster Mushroom (edible). 

(Pleurotus ostreatus, Fr.) 

Reduced. See page 57. 



White-spored Series 




Section of P. ulmarius 

Flesh — White, not tender, agreeable flavour. 
Spores — White, globose. 
lime — September to November. 

Habitat — Conspicuous on dead parts of standing elms. Large and 
white. Sometimes found on other than elm trees. 

GENUS HYGROPHORUS 

The members of this genus may be recognized by their moist 
caps and by the waxy nature of their gills, which usually grow 
downward on the stem (decurrent), and are not very closely 
placed side by side. No species is known to be dangerous. 

Chantarelle hygrophorus (Edible) 

Hygrophorus cantharellus (See Plate Facing Page 6o) 

Cap or Pilens — Thin, convex at first, but later depressed. Cov- 
ered with minute scales. Moist, bright red, becoming orange 
or yellow. >2-i inch broad. 

Hy-gr6ph'-o-rus 
59 



Fungi with Gills 

Gills or Lamella. — Distant, somewhat arched, growing downward 

on the stem {decurrent). Yellow, sometimes tinged with 

vermilion. Unequal. 
Stem or Stipe — Smooth, not truly solid, sometimes hollow. 

Coloured like the cap, whitish within, 2-4 inches long. 
Ring or A tut 11 1 us — None. 
Spores — White. 

Flesh — Disagreeable in flavour. 
Habitat — Swamps and damp, shaded places ; in fields or woods. 

Common. The specimen photographed was found in 

dense mixed woods, Lake Placid. 

Var. H. rosea has the cap expanded and the margin wavy. 
Var. H. flava has the cap and stem pale yellow, the gills 
arched and strongly decurrent. 

Var. H. flavipes has the cap and stem red or reddish. 
Var. H. flaviceps has the cap yellow and the stem reddish. 



Vermilion Hygrophorus (Edible) 

Hygrophorns miniatus 

Cap or Fileus — Thin, fragile at first, convex, becoming nearly 
flat. Smooth or minutely scaly. Often depressed. Red, 
fading to yellow or orange. 1-2 inches broad. 
Gills or LamellcR — Distant. Usually yellow, sometimes tinged 

with red. Notched at the 
stem end, or growing down 
the stem, or fastened to the 
stem by the entire width of 
the inner extremity of the gill. 
Stem or Stipe — Slender, smooth. 
Coloured like the cap. Solid 
when young, hollow when 




old. 



1-2 inches long. 



Ring or Atinulus — None. 

Spores — White, elliptical. 

Flesh — Tender, and of agreeable 
flavour. 

Titne — ^June to September. 

Habitat — Adapts itself to varying 

conditions. Singly, in groups, 

or in clusters, in bogs or on 

dry hillocks. The specimen photographed was found in 

woods, among fallen leaves and decayed wood. Lake Placid. 



Section of H. miniatus 



Flav'-K-pes 



Flav'-!-ceps 
60 



Min-i-a'-tiis 




Goiden-flesh Boletus. (Boic-tus cnrysenteron, Fr.)- Reduced. See page l 06. 




Vermilion Hygrophorus (edible) (Hygrophorus miniatus, Fr.). Reduced. 




Chanterelle H y '.rr(jphoru s (ed ible), (Hy_; < ■ 

Reduced. See page 59. 



intliateilub, Schw) 




Fat Pholiota (edible). Pholiota adiposa, Fr. 



See page 83. 




Honey-coloured Armillaria (edible). 
(Armillaria mellea, Vahl). 



White-spored Series 



Ivory Hygrophorus (Edible) 

HygrophorUS eblirneus (See Plate Facing Page 84) 

Cap orPileus — White, 

thin,fleshy,viscid. 
Stem or Stipe — White, 

unequal, long, 

slender, stuffed, 

or hollow; viscid. 
Gills or Lainellce — 

White, waxy, 

unequal, distant, 

growing down 

the stem (decur- 

rent), thick and 

firm. 
Volva and Annulus — 

Wanting. 
Spores — White. 
Flesh — O dour and 

taste grateful. 
Time — September. 
Habitat — The speci- 
men photo- 

graphed was found growing among moss and fallen leaves 

in dense wood, Lake Placid. 




Section of H. eburneus 



GENUS ARMILLARIA 

The members of this genus have white spores, and the gills 
attached by the inner extremity to the stem. The stem has a 
collar, but no wrapper at the base. The name is derived from the 
Latin armilla, a bracelet, referring to the ring upon the stem. 



Honey-coloured Armillaria (Edible) 

Armillaria mellea 

Cap or Pileiis — Colour from almost white to dark reddish brown. 
Young plants have numerous minute tufts or scales of 
brownish or blackish hairs. Margins sometimes striated. 
1-6 inches broad. 



Eb-ur'-ne-iis 



Ar'-mll-la'-rt-a 
61 



Mei'-i^-a 






Fungi with Gills 

Stem or Stipe — Usually reddish brown, paler above than below. 
Uniform in thickness, narrowed or slightly thickened at the 
base. Firm externally; soft and spongy, or hollow 

within. 1-6 inches long. 
^ — ' — .^^^ Ring or Auniihis — Cottony to 

^ ^^s. membranous, sometimes 

/^•^ ^ N. lacking in old plants. 

iYO-"^~"'*><\ /'"ZZTT"^ I ^^^^^ ^^ Lajncllce — Simply 

\( ^1 lA^ ^\\/ joined to the Stem or run- 

/ f JX "^"^ down it. White or 

11 ^ whitish ; sometimes va- 

riegated with reddish- 
brown spots. 
Spores — White, elliptical. 
Flesh — White or whitish. 
Section of A. meiiea Taste unpleasant or acrid. 

Quality inferior. 
Habitat— Coxnmow in woods or in cleared land, on the ground or 

on decayed wood. Solitary or clustered. 
Ti7ne — Abundant in September. Found in June. 

Var. ohscura has cap covered with numerous small, blackish 
scales. 

Var. flava has cap yellow or reddish yellow. 

Var. glabra has cap smooth. 

Var. radicata has tapering stem which penetrates the earth 
deeply. 

Var. biilbosa has bulbous base. 

Var. exannnlata has cap smooth, margin even, stem tapering, 
annulus slight and evanescent, or wholly wanting. 

The Armillaria mellea has a disagreeable taste when raw, but 
when cooked it is thought by some to be very good. Dr. Peck says 
he does not know of any unwholesome species for which it may 
be mistaken. The Armillaria mellea has the habit, very unusual 
for a member of the group of Agaracales, of producing from its my- 
celial threads tuber-like masses of fungal substances from which 
the fruiting caps arise. The fungal masses of the Armillaria, 
the so-called sclerotia, are ribbon or string like, and may be 
found between the wood and bark of cone-bearing trees. These 
sclerotia send out cylindrical branches, called rhizomorphs, 
which may penetrate the soil and attack the roots of other trees, 
and so continue their work of destruction in the forest. 



Ob-scu'-r5 


Gla'-bra 


Bul-bo'-sa 


Flav'-a 


Rad-!-ca'-ta 
62 


Ex-an'-nu-la'-ta 



White-spored Series 

It is to the luminosity of tliese mycelial threads, which per- 
meate the decaying wood, that the weird phosphorescent light in 
dense woods is due. 



GENUS LEPIOTA (See plate facing page 64) 

The members of this genus have the gills free from the stem, 
and have no wrapper remains at the base of the stem. In some 
species the cap or pileus has the surface scaly, owing to the rup- 
ture of the fibres which compose it. it is this feature which has 
suggested the name Lepiota, from the Latin word lepis — a scale. 
There are about thirty 
species represented 
in the United States, 
of which a few are 
commonly eaten. 

Parasol Mush- 
room ; Tall 
Lepiota (Edi- 
ble) 

Lepiota procera 

Cap or Pileus — Con- 
vex, like an open 

umbrella. Thin, 

umbonate, cov- 
ered with closely 

pressed scales. 

3-5 inches broad. 
Stem or Stipe — Long, 

hollow, or with 

cottony pith ; 

bulbous at the 

base ; usually 

covered with 

closely pressed 

scales. 5-1 o 

inches long. 
Veil or Ring — Thick 

and firm ; often 



movable on 
stem. 



the 




L^P-K-6'-ta 



Section of L. procera 
Pr6s'-«-ri 



63 



Fungi with Gills 



Gills or Lamella— do^tXy placed, side by side. Whitish, or 
tinged with yellow. The inner extremity remote from the 
stem. 

Spores — White, elliptical. 

Flesh — White, soft, and dry. 

Time—\w\y to September. 

Habitat— \\\\x\ woods, pastures, and by roadsides. 

The specific name, Procera, from the Latin procera (tall), 
refers to the length of the stem. 

There is no poisonous species for which it can be mistaken 
if one bears in mind that it has a long stem with bulbous base, 
a brownish, spotted cap with dark apex, and a broad basin 
about the insertion of the stem. 

Smooth Lepiota (Edible) 

Lepiota naiicinoides 

Cap or Pileus — Smooth, white ; 
rarely the central part of 
the cap is tinged with a 
smoky hue. 2-4 inches 
broad. 

Stetn or Stipe — Coloured like the 
cap ; thickened at the base. 
Hollow or webby. 2-^ 
inches long. 

Veil or Annulus — White. Exter- 
nal edge generally thicker 
than the inner ; often mov- 
able on the stem. 

Gills or Lajtiellce — White when 
young ; when old, pinkish 
or smoky brown. Rounded 
at the inner extremity and 
not attached to the stem. 
Narrower toward the stem 
than in the middle. 

Spores — White, sub-elliptical. 

Flesh — Thick, white, and ten- 
der. 

7};;/^— August — November. 

The smooth lepiota resembles the chalk agaric {Agaricus 
cretaceous), which has brown spores, and the meadow mush- 

Nau'-9Tn-oi'-des 
64 




Section of L. naucinoides 




SMOOTH LEPIOTA (EDIBLE) 

(Lepiota nancinoides. Peck) 

Nat. size : Cap diam., -^K inches; stem length, 4^2 inches. 




PARA50L MUSHROOM. TALL LEPIOTA (EDIBLE) 

(l.efiiota proceriiy Scop.) 

Nal. Size : Cap Oiain., 3}^ inches; stem length, ^% inches 

See page 63 





Lepiota Friesil, Lasch. (edible). 
See page 65. 




Cortinarius alboviolaceus, Fr. 
Reduced. See page 86. 



White-spored Series 

room {Agariciis campestris), which has darker gills, a persistent 
collar, and a stem tapering at the base. No harm can come from 
confusing these for edible purposes. Great care should be taken 
to be sure that a specimen thought to be a smooth lepiota has no 
volva or wrapper at the base, for the absence of a volva is the 
most marked difference between it and the poisonous vernal 
amanita {Amanita verna). The gills of the smooth lepiota turn 
a dingy brown or pink, and those of the vernal amanita remain 
white ; and the cap of the smooth lepiota has not the moist 
smoothness and the brilliant whiteness of the vernal amanita. 

Lepiota Friesii 

Cap or Pileus — Rather thin, convex, or nearly plain, with soft, 

tawny fibres forming small patches over the surface. 1-4 

inches wide. 
Si^tn or Stipe — Tapering toward the cap, slightly bulbous at the 

base. The lower part of the stem coloured like the cap, and 

with similar fibrils. Hollow. Powdery white above the 

ring. 2-5 inches long. 
Ring or Annulus — Present and pendulous. 
Gills or La?nellce — Narrow, crowded, free from stem ; white ; some 

forked. 
Spores — White. 

Flesii — Soft, white, with a slight odour when bruised. 
Ring or Annulus — Well developed, drooping. White above, and 

tawny or scaly below. 
Habitat — Soft, loose soil in bushy places. 
Time — July to September. 

GENUS MARASMIUS 

The genus Marasmius belongs to the white-spored series. 
The plants are small, and wither and shrivel in dry weather, to 
revive again when wet. The gills are thin, and have acute 
edges. 

The generic name comes from the same Greek word as the 
word marasmus, the name applied to a disease from which the 
patient wastes away without any apparent cause. The signifi- 
cance of the name will be apparent to one who watches the 
fleshy little plant shrink away when the sun shines. 

Fre'-sM Mi-ras'-m!(-iis 

5 65 



Fungi with Gills 



Fairy-ring Mushroom (Edible) 

Marasnu'i/s arcades 

Cap or Pileus — Fleshy, tough, smooth, convex, or nearly plane, 
often with the centre higher than the space between it and 
the rim. Reddish ; fading, as it ages or dries, to pale yellow 
or buff. 1-2 inches broad. 

Gills or Lamellce — Broad and wide apart, creamy or yellowish, 
rounded at the stem end, unequal. 

Stem or Stipe — Whitish, slender, tough, solid, coated with dense 
woolly hairs. \-2Yz inches long. 

Ring or Annitlus — None. 

Spores — White. 

Flesh — Thin, white, tough. 

Time — May to October. 

Habitat^-\vi circles or groups. 

Dangerous fungi somewhat resembling the M. oreades, and 
found in company with it, may be distinguished by their dark- 
coloured spores. 



GENUS COLLYBIA 

The members of this genus have white spores, and the 
lamellae with thin edges attached to the stem by their inner ex- 
tremity. The stem has a cartilaginous rind; that is, it is hard and 
of a tough texture. The genus contains fifty-four American 
species, some of which are regarded as edible, while others are 
regarded as deleterious. The velvet-stemmed coUybia, or Col- 
lybia vehttipas, is edible, and remarkable for its habit of growing 
long after the frosts of winter have come. It is easily recognised 
by its yellowish and viscid cap, and its habit of growing in tufts, 
and developing on the stem ^ dense coat of velvety hairs. The 
rooted collybia, Collybia radicata, may be recognised by the char- 
acter of its stem, as the lower part is like a slender tap root, gener- 
ally penetrating the earth to a depth equal to the length of the 
stem above the surface, 

O-re'-a-des C61-lyb'-I-a 

66 




SPOTTED COLLYBIA (EDIBLE, Mel.) 

(CoUybia maculata^ A. & S.) 
Cap and stem white with rusty spots; giiis white. See Genus, p. 66 




BROAD-GILLED COLLYBIA (EDIBLE, Wlcl ) 

(Collybia platyphylta, Fr.) 
Surface of cap brownish, tibrillose ; (jills white. See Genus, p. 66 




CoUybia fainilia . I'l-ck. Reduced (Edible) 




WAXY CLITOCYBE (EDIBLE) 

(Clitocybi- laccata. Scop.) 

See page 70 




White-spored Series 



CoIIybia familia (Edible) 

Cap or Pilcus — Greyish, with centre darker. Smooth margin, 
often cracked. Slightly striate. 

Gills or Lamella; — Slightly greyish, soft, un- 
equal, free, not crowded. 

Stem or Stipe — Greyish, hollow. Lower 
part covered with white woolly sub- 
stance. 

Spores — White. 

Flesh — Greenish grey. 

7}'w^_September. Section of C. familia 

Habitat — The specimen photographed was 

found growing upon a prostrate evergreen tree near Lake 
Placid. 

GENUS PAN US (See Plate facing Paoe 145) 

The members of this genus are leathery plants, with the 
stems lateral or wanting. The gills are simple, not forked, and 
the spores are white. Panus styptictis is common on rotten 
wood, and gives out a weird, phosphorescent light. 

The species of the genus Panus so much resemble species' 
of the genus Lentinus, which do not have toothed margins, that 
Panus and Lentinus are considered by some as one genus, with 
the name Lentinus. 

GENUS TROGIA 

But one American species is reported; this is small and 
leathery, brownish in colour, with the spore-bearing surface 
white. The lamellae are obtuse on their edges, and are not hairy. 
The spores are white. This plant is common on fallen branches 
of the alder. 

GENUS SCHIZOPHYLLUM 

The members of this genus have white spores and a leathery 
pileus, with the lamellse hairy and grooved, or split. Sc/ii^o- 
phyllum commune is common on twigs or branches. It varies 
from Yz io 2 inches across, appearing as fluted shells on the 
bark. 

Fa-mll'-I-d Pa'-nfis Trog'-I-ii Sklz-o-pliyl'-liim Ct3m-mu'-ne 

67 



Fungi with Gills 



GENUS OMPHALIA 

The members of this genus have white spores, and the gills 
growing down on the stem. They have a hard, tough rind to the 
stem, which distinguishes them from the genus Clitocybe, which 
has fleshy stems. Omphalia umhellifera is a small species, with 
a cap about an inch broad. It is the common mushroom on the 
top of Mount Marcy, the highest mountain in the State of New 
York. 

GENUS RUSSULA 

The genus Russtila may usually be recognised by its brittle 
character, added to its fleshy stem and the fact that the lamellae 
are usually joined to the stem. Bright clear reds and purplish 
hues prevail, but several species exhibit a green colour, or an 
approach to green. The spores are white or yellowish, and the 
flesh never exudes a milky or coloured juice. 



Emetic Russula (Dangerous) 

Russula emetica 

Cap or Pileus — Rosy tint to rich red. Flesh thin. The margin 

furrowed with parallel 
lines. Skin separable, 
somewhat viscid. Cap 
diameter of specimen 
p h otographed, y/?, 
inches. 

Gills or La77iell(Z — White. 
Usually uniform, occa- 
siona 1 ly un eq ual ; 
broad and brittle. 

Stem or Stipe — Rosy. Swol- 
len near the base. 
Specimen photo- 
graphed, 2>^ inches 
long. 

Spores — White. 
Flesh — White, unless just under the skin, where it may be pink. 
Very fragile. Peppery to the taste. 




Section of R. emetica 



Om-pha'-ll-a, 



Um-bel-ll'-fe-ra 
68 



Rus'-sii-la 



E-met'-l-ca 



White-spored Series 

Taste — Acrid and biting. 
Time — ^July to November. 

Habitat — In damp meadows, in woods, in grassy places, under 
pine trees and firs. 

Green Russula; Verdette (Edible) 

Russiila virescens 

Cap or Pile us — Greyish green. At first globose, then expanded ; 
convex or depressed at the centre. Firm and dry. Not 
viscid, but adorned with flaky greenish or yellowish 
patches, produced by the cracking of the skin. 2-4 inches 
broad. Margin marked with impressed lines. 




Section of R. virescens 



GUIs or Lamellcc — White. Moderately close ; free, or nearly so ; 

narrow as they approach the stem. Some forked, others 

not. 
Stem or Stipe — Shorter than the diameter of the cap. Smooth, 

white, and solid, or somewhat softer within. 1-2 inches 

long. 
Spores — White, rough, nearly globose. 
Flesh — White ; mild in taste. 

VY-r^s'-9Sns 
69 



Fungi with Gills 

Time — July and August. 

Habitat — Grassy grounds, groves, and open woods. 

No milky nor coloured juice, no coloured circular zones. 

Variable Russula (Edible) 

Rrissitla heterophylla 

Cap or Pileus — Variable in colour. Greenish or pinkish grey, but 
fleshy, firm ; slightly convex, then depressed ; smooth, and 
polished, the very thin skin disappearing. Margin thin, 
smooth, or with slightly depressed lines closely placed. 

Stem or Stipe — Solid, firm, smooth, shining white, the apex oc- 
casionally dilated in the form of a cup. 

Annuliis or Volva — None. 

Gills or Lamellce — Narrow, crowded, forked ; white ; of different 
lengths. 

Spores — White. 

Flesh — White ; mild in taste. 

Habitat — Woods. Common. 

Time—]\\\y to October. 

The specific name refers to the difference in the lengths of 
the gills. 

GENUS CUTOCYBE 

The members of the genus Clitocybe have the spores white, 
no volva nor annulus, the gills with thin edges not notched on 
the edge near the stem, and generally decurrent. 

Clitocybe laccata (Edible) (See Plate facing page 67) 

Cap or Pileus — When moist, pale red, buff red, or flesh red ; 
when dry, greyish to pale yellowish brown. Surface cov- 
ered with tiny tufts of hair. Convex when young, flattened 
with wavy margin when old ; often depressed. ^-2 inches 
broad. 

Gills or Lamellce. — Broad, distant, unequal. Flesh colour. Slightly 
decurrent. 

Veil and Annulus — None. 

Stem or Stipe — Slender, stiff, fibrous, stuffed, or hollow. Colour 
like cap. Often twisted. 1-3 inches long. 

Spores — White, rough, globose. 

Flesh — Thin, pale flesh colour, leathery, tasteless. 

Het'er-ft-phyl'-la. Cli-to-cjy'-be L^c-ca'-ta 

70 




DECEIVING CLIT0CY3E (UNWHOLESOME. 

{Cliiocybe illudens, Schw.) 
Dull iiranjic ; pliosphorcscenl. See Genus, p. 70 



White-spored Series 




Sections of C. laccata 



Time — Spring to autumn. 

Habitat—SN oodi, swamps, or open fields, naked ground, mossy 
or grassy places. 

Var. amethystina has cap darker, gills amethyst, quite 
decurrent. 

Var. pallidifolia, gills paler than laccata. 

Var. striatiila, plants small, gills showing as lines through 
the thin cap. 

Clitocybe virens 

Cap or Pileiis — Fleshy, convex, expanded, obtuse. Pale greenish 

blue. 
Gills or Lamelhc — White, crowded, thin, slightly decurrent. 
Stem or Stipe — White, with occasional rusty spots ; stiff, solid. 

Sometimes two stems are found growing together at the base. 
Spores — White. 
Flesh— \N\\\\e. 
Time — Autumn. 
Habitat— "Wit specimen photographed was found growing in 

mixed woods in Pennsylvania. 



Am-e-thys'-tl-nd 



Pai-lt-dt-fo'-lT-a 
71 



Stri-clt'-a-lJl 



Vi'-rcns 



Fungi with Gills 



GENUS TRICHOLOMA 



The members of genus Tricholoma have white spores, and 
no collar on the stem. The gills are attached to the stem, and 
are notched on the edge at or near the stem. 



Masked Tricholoma (Edible) 

TricJioloma personatum {var. bulbosiim) 



Cap or Pileiis — Variable in colour; pale lilac, with yellowish tint; 
brighter in young specimens ; sometimes whitish or pale 
greyish. Thick, fleshy, convex when young, with margin 

rolled in, and 
slight bloom or 
mealiness on 
the surface. 
When mature, 
smooth ; mar- 
gin wavy or 
turned upward. 
Gills or La?nell(B — 
Faint lilac col- 
our, with tint 
of violet. Nar- 
row, unequal, 
free, close, and 
rounded at the 
stem end. 
Steffi — Faint lilac 
tint. Surface 
rather fibrous ; 
short, stout, 
solid, bulbous, 
c .• fT . r 7 ,,. ^ Sjfores—Sor did 

Section of 1 . personatum (var. i5«/*(?j-?/w) -u/hitp pllinti 

cal. 
Flesh — Firm. 

Habitat — Thin woods, open grassy places. 
Time — September to freezing weather. 




Tri-ch6-lo'-ma 



Per-s6n-a'-tum 



72 




Pholiota aggcricola. Peck 

Reduced slightly 
See page 84 




Cratcrellus cantharelius, Schw. 
(Edible.) Reduced slightly 




Brown-spored Series 



Craterellus cantharellus (Edible) 

Cap or P ileus — Margin wavy. Yellow or pinkish 
yellow. Fleshy, firm, convex, then centrally 
depressed. 

Gills or Lamellce — Blunt, running down the stem, 
forking many times. 

Stetn — Solid, yellow, and smooth. 

Spores — Yellowish. 

Flesh — White, slightly stained in places. Taste 
slightly peppery ; no odour. 

Tirne — Summer and autumn. 

Habitat — Specimen photographed was found grow- 
ing in moss and earth on an old wood road in Section of c. 
mixed woods. New Jersey. cantharellus 

Craterellus is at present classified as one of the family 
Thelephorace(x. For convenience we have placed it under 
" Fungi with Gills." It is interesting, as it forms a connecting 
link between fam. Thelephoracece and fam. Agaricaccx. 



GENUS AGARICUS 

The genus Agartciis includes all brown-spored species which 
have free gills and a stem with a collar. The distinctive features 
of several edible species may be quite satisfactorily seen by refer- 
ence to the table with parallel columns. 

Mushroom-growing is becoming quite an important industry 
in this country ; both professional horticulturists and amateurs 
successfully engage in it. It is not a difficult matter to raise the 
common mushroom, as the conditions necessary are easily ob- 
tained. Mushrooms will grow almost anywhere out of doors, 
and also in cellars, caves, and tunnels where a uniform and mod- 
erate temperature of from 50° to 60° Fahr. can be maintained. The 
part of a cellar devoted to mushrooms must be darkened some- 
what, must have a dry fioor, and must be protected from wet 
overhead and from winds. These conditions are common in cel- 
lars which are rather dark, but sufficiently well ventilated not to 
be musty. The bed for the mushrooms is prepared in a manner 

Cra'-ter-i-r-liis Thcl-e-phb-ra'-fe-oe A-gar'-I-ciis 

73 



Fungi with Gills 

similar to that employed in making a hot-bed, care being taken 
that the conditions are such that too great heat is not generated. 
Any one desiring to experiment will find it helpful to have the 
"Farmers' Bulletin," No. 53, " How to Grow Mushrooms," 
which may be obtained from the United States Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 



74 



!"'2*WS>'^''^*' '^V- 




Agaricus campestrls, L. (edible). 
Reduced. See page 76 




Agaricus abruptus, Pk. (edible). 
Reduced. See page 77. 




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75 



Fungi with Gills 



Common Mushroom (Edible) 

AgaricUS campestris (See Plates Facing Pages 74 and 75) 

Cap or Pileus — Silky, or with fine fibres. The young plants — 
"buttons" — are hemispherical or almost globose. The 
mature plants are convex or nearly flat. White, or tinged 
with dingy browns. Skin separable. Margin extending 
beyond the gills. 

Gills or Lamella— Delicate pink, then dark brown, covered by a 
veil in young plants. Crowded, rounded at the inner ex- 
tremity. Not attached to stem 

Ston or Stipe — White, smooth; stuffed; that is, softer within than 
without. Shorter than the diameter of the cap. 

Ring or Anmiliis — Delicate, often disappearing with age. 

Flesh — White. Much esteemed. 

Spores — Brownish, elliptical. 

Titne — Late summer and autumn. 

Habitat — In pastures, lawns, and open places. 

Agariciis campestris is the mushroom ordinarily seen in the 
markets, either fresh from the growers or preserved in cans. 

Rodman's Mushroom (Edible) 

Agaricus Rodmani 




Sections of A. Rodmani 

CSm-pes'-tris R6d-mSn'-i 

76 




RODMAN'S MUSHROOM, YOUNG (EDIBLE) 
{Agariczis Rodmani^ Peck. Reduced) 




RODMAN'S MUSHROOM, MATURE (EDIBLE) 

{Ac^ricHs Roiitnani, Peck) 

Nat. size: Cap diam., ^Vi inches ; stem length, 2 inches 



Brown-spored Series 



Cap or Pileus — Creamy, with brownish spots. Firm, surface dry. 

Mature specimens frequently have the surface or the cap 

broken into large, brownish scales.' 3^ inches broad. 
Gills or Laviellce — Whitish, then pink, becoming dark brown. 

Narrow, close, unequal. 
Stem or Stipe — Fleshy, solid, short, thick. 2 inches long. 
Ring or Annulus — Double. 
Spores — Brown. 
Flesh — Firm, whit:, assuming a pinkish or salmon tint. When 

cut, agreeable nutty flavour. 
Time — May to July. 
Habitat — Grassy grounds, crevices of unused pavements. The 

specimen photo- 

graphed was 

foundgrowingin 

a cluster between 

broken stone in 

the gutter of a 

village street in 

New Jersey. 

Agaricus ab- 
ruptus (Edible) 

Cap or Pileus — Crea my 

white, dry, and 

silky. Irregular 

in shape when 

young. Yellow 

when bruised. 
Gills or Lamellx — 

Slightly pinkish 

when the veil 

first breaks; 

deeper pink in 

mature speci- 
mens, becoming 

brownish. Soft, 

free from the 

stem, crowded, 

unequal. 
Stem or Stipe — Creamy 

white, deeper 

cream, or brown- 
ish near the base. 

Hollow, stiff, 

brittle, sometimes Section of a. abmptus 

Ab-rup -tus 




Fungi with Gills 

splitting lengthwise. Abruptly bulbous at the base, 

tapering toward cap. } inches long. 
Spores — Brown. 
Veil and Annulus — Frail, part adhering to the margin of the cap, 

part forming a ring on the stem. 
Flesh— V\/\-\\\.e, solid. Decided taste of pistachio-nut. 
Time — September. 
Habitat — The specimen photographed grew by the trail along 

Lake Placid. 

GENUS HYPHOLOMA 

This genus has brown spores, and no volva at the base of 
the stem. The veil remains as a fringe attached to the margin 
of the pileus, but is not always apparent in old specimens; no 
portion remains as a ring on the stem. The gills are attached or 
grown fast to the stem at their inner extremity. In this respect, 
and also in having the stem destitute of a collar, the genus differs 
from the genus Agaricus. 

Perplexing Hypholoma (Harmless) 

Hypholoma perplextim 

Cap or Pileus — Convex or nearly plane, smooth, sometimes 
slightly umbonate. Reddish or brownish red, fading to yel- 
low on the margins. 

Stern or Stipe — Firm and hollow, slightly covered with fine 
threads. Whitish or yellowish to rusty red or red brown. 
2-j inches long. 

Veil or Ring — Veil remains attached to the margin. No ring on 
the stem. 

Gills or Lamellcc — Thin, crowded, slightly rounded at the stem 
end. At first pale yellow, then tinged with green or purplish 
brown. 

Spores — Purplish brown, elliptical. 

Flesh — Mild, not clearly bitter, white. 

Time — Autumn to freezing weather. 

Habitat — Grows in clusters, sometimes singly, on stumps, in the 
woods or in the open. 

Six allied species of Hypholoma may be readily distinguished 
by reference to the table. 

Hy'.ph6-l6'-ma PSr-piex'-fim 

78 




Perplexing Hypholoma (^haiinless). 
(Hypholoma perplexum, Pk. ) 



Brown-spored Series 




Section of H. perplexum 

I— TASTE MILD OR NOT CLEARLY BITTER 



H. epixanthus 
Gray-gilled Mush- 
room 



Gills — Y e 1 1 o w, be- 
coming grey; 
neither green nor 
purplish. 

Cap — Yellow or 
slightly tawny on 
disk only. 

Taste — Mild. 



H. capnoides 



Gills — Grey to purple- 
brown. 



Cap — Yellow or 
slightly tawny on 
the disk only. 

Taste— mXdi. 



H. perplexum 

Perplexing Mush- 
room 



Gills — Yellow, green, 
or purple brown. 



Cap — Brick red, yel- 
low on the margin. 



Taste— m\di or 
clearly bitter. 

Regarded as edible. 



not 



E'-pl-xln'-thiis 



CXp-noi'-des 



79 



Fungi with Gills 



II— TASTE BITTER 



H. elseodes 



Gills — Green to olive. 

Cap — Brick red. 

Stem — Hollow, rusty. 

Flesh — Yellow. 
7«j/^— Bitter. 



H. fasciculare 

Tufted Yellow Mush- 
room 



Gills — Ye How to 
green. 

Cap — Yellow tinged 
with tawny. 

Stem — Hollow, yel- 
low. 

Flesh— ^tWo^N. 

Taste— '^WXq.X. 

Reputed poisonous. 



H. sublateritium 
Brick-red Mush- 
room 



G^/&— Whitish to 
sooty olive. 

Cap — Brick red. 



Stem — Solid or 
stuffed. 

/7^^//— Whitish. 

Taste — Bitter. 

Reputed poisonous and 
edible. 



Uncertain Hypholonna (Edible) 

Hypholoma incertum 



fragile, whitish. Margin often wavy 



Cap or F ileus — Thin, 

and adorned 

with the frag- 
ments of the 
* woolly whiteveil. 

Opaque when 

dry, transparent 

when moist. 

Ovate at first, 

then broadly 

spreading, \-2y2 

inches wide. 
Gills or Lamella — 

Thin, narrow, 

close; fastened to 

the stem at their 

inner extremity. 

White at first, 

then purplish 

brown. Section of H. incertum 

El'-£e-5'-des Fasc'-Ic-u-la'-re Sub-la-ter-K'-sM-um In-9er'-tiim 

80 





a) 

u 

Xi 



bo 
a 



Q 
LLl 



Q. 

o 



O 

CD 



J3 



> s 

? ■•3 



a 
u 



(1) 



u 
o 

3 

•a 



Brown-spored Series 



Stem or ^A>^— Hollow, white, and slender. 1-3 inches long. 

Spores — Purplish brown, elliptical. 

Flesh — Tender. 

Time — Throughout a moist season. 

Habitat— \v\ clusters, in lawns, gardens, thin woods, and pastures. 

Brick Top (Edible) 

Hypholoma siiblaieritium 

Cap or Pileus — Brick red, with pale yellowish border. Surface 
covered with fine silky fibres. Fleshy, firm, moist. 2>4-4 
inches broad. 
Stem or Stipe — Creamy when young, lower part slightly tinged 

with red. 
Hollow or 
stuffed. Silky 
fibres on the 
surface. lYz- 
4 inches long. 

Gills or LamellcB — 
Creamy 
when young, 
olive when 
old. Attached 
to stem at 
innerextrem- 
ity. Rather 
n arrow, 
crowded, un- 
equal. 

Ring or Annuliis — 
None. Rem- 
nants of veil 
often seen on 
edge of cap. 

Spores — Brown. 

y^/<?j'/i— Creamy, 
firm, bitter. 

Time — Septem- 
ber. 

Habitat — The 
specimen 
photo- 
graphed 
grew in clus- 
t e r s on a 
mossy stump 

Section of II. sublateritium in the open. 

81 




Fungi with Gills 

GENUS STROPHARIA 

There are about seven species of this genus in America. The 
spores are brown, there is no volva, the stem has a collar, and 
the lamellae are united with the stem. They have no special 
economic importance. 

GENUS PS A THY RA 

Two American species are reported for this genus. The 
spores are dark brown, there is no volva, the veil is inconspicu- 
ous or wanting, and the lamellse attached to the stem or notched 
at the inner extremity. The margin of the cap in the young 
plant and mature plant is always straight. 

GENUS PSILOCYBE 

Eleven American species are reported for this genus. The 
spores are dark brown. There is no volva, the veil is incon- 
spicuous or wanting, and the lamellae are attached to the stem 
or notched at the inner extremity. In the young plant the cap 
curves in at the margin. 

GENUS PI LOS ACE 

This genus has but one American species recorded. The 
spores are dark brown. There is no volva, and the veil is incon- 
spicuous or wanting. The lamellae are free from the stem. 



GENUS DECONICA 

But one American species is reported. This has dark brown 
spores, and the lamellae growing down on the stem. The veil 
is inconspicuous or wanting, and there is no volva. 

Str6ph-a'-ri-a Psa-thy'-rS PsM6-9y'-be 

Pi-Io-sa'-9e De-c6n'-l-ca 

82 



Rusty-spored Series 



GENUS CHITONIA 

One American species is reported in this genus, Clarkeinde 
plana, from Nebraska. The spores are brown, and the stem has 
a volva at the base, but no ring. 



GENUS PHOLIOTA 

The members of this genus have rusty spores, and an annulus 
on the stem. There are about twenty known species, and 
some of these are edible. 



Fat Pholiota (Edible) 



Pholioia adiposa (See Plate Facing Page 6 1) 

Cap or Pileus — Showy, deep yellow, 

with little scales of reddish 

brown. Fleshy, firm. At first 

hemispherical, then convex. 

Sticky when moist, shiny when 

dry. 2-4 inches broad. 
Stern or Stipe — Stem yellow, gener- 
ally rusty at the base. Equal in 

diameter, or slightly thickened 

at the base. Stuffed or solid. Section of p. adiposa 

Tough. 

Gills or "Zawi'/^c— Yellowish, becoming rusty ; close, and at- 
tached to the stem. 

Ririg or Annulus — Slightly radiating, woolly. 

Spores — Rusty brown. 

Time — September to November. 

Habitat— \\-\ tufts, on stumps or dead trunks of trees. 

Pholiota limonella, lemon-yellow pholiota, has a smaller, 
thinner, and more expanded cap, of a lighter yellow, with white 
gills. 

Chl-t5'-nr-ii PhG-U-o'-a Ad-T-po'-si 

83 




Fungi with Gills 



Early Pholiota (Edible) 

Pholiota prcccox 




Section of P. 



prsecox 



Cap or I*i7eus— Creamy white, 
smooth, not shining. Very 
thin skin. 1-2 inches long. 

S/em or Stipe — Creamy white, 
rather scaly. Skin peels 
readily. Stuffed or hollow. 
1-5 inches long. 

Gills or Lamellce — Creamy white 
when young, brown when 
mature. Soft, close, un- 
equal, notched at the inner 
extremity, and attached to 
the stem. 

Veil and Ring — Stretched like a 
drumhead from stem to mar- 
gin of cap. Variable in 
manner of parting. It some- 
times separates from cap 
margin, and forms a distinct 
ring about the stem; again, 
but little remains on the 
stem, and much on the rim 
of the cap. 

Spores — Rusty brown. 

Flesh — White, solid though soft, 
moist. Taste slightly bitter. 

Time — May to July. 

Habitat — Grassy ground. The 
specimen pictured grew 
about the roots of a poplar 
tree in New Jersey. 



Pholiota aggericola 

(See Plate Facing Page 73) 

Cap or Pileus — Brown, shining when moist. Margin in older 
specimens finely and closely impressed with parallel lines. 
Cap diameter of specimen photographed, 2 inches. 

Gills or Lamellce — Pale brownish when young, darker brown 



Pre'-c6x 



Ag-ger-Ic'-6-ia 



84 




IVORY HYGROPHORUS (EDIBLE) 

(Hye^>o/>horus ebiirtieus^ Fries) 

Reduced. Cap diam., i inch ; stem length, 2^ inches 

See page 61 




EARLY PHOLIOTA (EDIBLE) 

(Pholiola prcecox, I'crs.) 

Reduced. Nat. size: Cap diam , 2'^ inches; stem length, 3'^ inches. 




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Veil — Pale brown, colour of stem 
Stem or Stipe — 

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ish, darker at 

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Flesh — Pale 

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odour, 
Titne — October. 



Rusty-spored Series 
Attached to stem when young, free when 




Section of P. aggericola 



Habitat — Specimen photographed grew among grass and leaves 
in a New Jersey garden. 



GENUS CORTINA RIUS 

This genus contains many species which are distinguished 
by the rusty yellow colour of their spores and by the webby 
character of the veil. It is of the utmost importance in identify- 
ing species of Cortinarius to know the colour of the gills of the 
young plant, as the gills of the old plants are almost uniform in 
colour, owing to their being dusted with the rusty yellow spores. 
In addition, one should carefully note the colour of the young 
plant compared with the old; the surAice, whether sticky or dry, 
smooth or hairy; the taste; and the markings left on the stem by 
the retreating veil. All species have their gills attached to the 
stem, and some have them notched at the stem end. They may 
be looked for along the borders of woods and groves in hilly 
regions, during the latter part of the summer. 



Cor-t!-na'-rT-us 
85 



Fungi with Gills 



Cortinarius alboviolaceus (See flate facing page 65) 
Cap 07- Fi/eus — Lavender, paler in the centre. Surface with rusty 



spots 



inches broad. 



Gills or Lamellcz — Crowded, unequal, attached to the stem. 




%/ 



C. violaceus 

Stem or Stipe — Pale lavender, assuming a deeper shade when cut 
or bruised. Spongy in the centre, swollen toward the base. 
3 inches long. 

Veil—V\\my, stretching from stem to the margin of the cap in 
young plant. 

Spores — Rusty brown. 

Al-b6'-vi-o-la'-c§-fis 
86 




ZONED CORTINARIUS 

(Cortinariiis armillatus, A. & S., Fr.) 
Cap cinnamon-brown ; gills paler than cap ; stem lit,'lu brown with fibrous zones of red. See Genus, p. 85 




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Pink-spored Series 

Flesh — Tinged with violet. 

Time — Autumn. 

Habitat — Thick, damp woods. 

C. violaceus differs from c. alboviolaceiis in having the cap 
dark violet and usually covered with fibres. 

GENUS PLUTEUS 

The members of the genus Phiteiis are fleshy fungi with 
pink spores, and gills free from the stem. They have no volva or 
wrapper about the young plant, and no ring or annulus on the 
stem. Eleven species are known from the United States, of 
which Pliiteus cervinus, the fawn-coloured mushroom, is the 
commonest. 

The generic name Pliiieiis means all that is joined together 
to make a cover for besiegers at their work, that they may be 
screened from the missiles of the enemy. The arrangement of 
the caps in the group pictured is suggestive of the meaning. 



Fawn-coloured Piuteus (Edible) 



CaJ) or Fileus — Light 
brown or fawn 
coloured, 
streaked with 
lines of darker 
brown. Sur- 
face dry and 
shining. Skin 
thin and papery. 
3 >^ inches 
broad. 

Gills or Lamellce. — 
Almost white 
when young, 
flesh colour 
when mature. 
Broad, unequal 
in length, free 
from the stem. 

Stem or Stip e — 
Creamy white, 



Piuteus cervinus 




Plu'-tS-us 



P. cervinus 
^fir-vi'-ntls 



87 



Fungi with Gills 

Streaked with pale brown. Brittle, pithy in the centre when 

mature. 3-6 inches long. 
Spores — Pink, with suggestions of yellow; salmon colour. 
Flesh— ^\\\\t, tasteless. 
Tune — Early in the season, May. 
Habitat — Mixed woods, on and around old stumps. New Jersey. 



GENUS ENTOLOMA 

The members of this genus have pink spores, and the 
lamellae attached to the stem, or with a notch near the junction 
of gill and stem. The stem is fleshy, and not tough and hard as 
in Leptonia and Nolauea, genera with pink spores and adnata 
or sinuate lamellae. There are some twelve species in this genus, 
none of which have any economic interest. 

GENUS ECCILIA 

The members of the genus Eccilia have neither volva nor 
annulus. The gills grow downward on the stem, the spores are 
pink, and the stems have a hard, tough rind, not fleshy as in 
Clitopiliis. There are three species known in America. 

GENUS VOLVA RI A 

The members of the genus l^olvaria are fleshy fungi, soon 
becoming putrescent. The spores are salmon colour. A volva 
is present, but no annulus. Distinguished from Amanitopsis by 
having salmon-coloured spores instead of white. 

GENUS CLITOPILUS 

The members of this group have neither volva nor annu- 
lus. The gills grow downward on the stem, the spores are 
pink, and the stem is fleshy, without a hard and tough rind as 
in Eccilia. There are fourteen American species, of which at 
least two species are edible. 



En-t6-l5'-ma 


N5-la'-ne-i 


Ec-9ll'-t-a 


Lep-to'-nl-S 


V61-va'-ri-a 
88 


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Black-spored Series 

GENUS COPRINUS 
Ink Caps (Edible) 

The genus Copriniis may be readily recognised from the 
fact that the spore-bearing plates dissolve to an inky fluid soon 
after the spores mature. 

An amateur mushroom hunter may feel perfectly safe in col- 
lecting ink caps for his table, as all the species large enough to 
tempt the collector are not only edible, but are generally conceded 
to be of the best. 

Their general appearance is such that even the most un- 
trained observer should not mistake them for species of other 
groups. 

The oblong or nearly cylindrical cap, which does not expand 
until ready to dissolve in inky drops, is too striking a character- 
istic to permit of any one making a mistake in identifying it as 
a specimen safe to eat. 

These plants literally grow up in a night and perish in a 
day, as their period of growth is spent underground, and it is 
not until all the parts of the fruiting portions of the plants are 
fully developed that they push themselves above ground. Then 
they push and crowd from the ground in such numbers, where 
but a few hours before no evidence of them was seen, that each 
one is compressed from its cylindrical form to that of a many- 
sided prism, so that there would be no chance for the expansion 
of those within the group if it were not that those on the outer 
rim so rapidly expand and dissolve away. 

Specimens to be eaten should be gathered in the young 
stage and should be cooked promptly; for though not poisonous 
in the black stage, they are surely not attractive. 

Shelley must have had the ink caps in mind when he wrote 
of the fungi in the garden of "The Sensitive Plant": 



Their mass rotted off them flake by flake. 
Till the thick stalk stuck like a murderer's stake, 
Where rags of loose flesh yet tremble on high, 
Infecting th« winds that wander by." 

Co-pri'-nfis 
89 



Fungi with Gills 

Shag^gy-mane ; Horsetail; Man eel Agaric 

(Edible) 

Copn'nUS COmatllS (See Pages i, v, viii) 

Cap or Pileus — Cylindrical or barrel-shaped ; becoming bell-shaped 
or expanded, with split margins, when old. Colour of the 
buttons or young plants dark; but that of the older forms 
white, flecked with dark patches or scales. Surface shaggy. 
i>^-3 inches long before expansion. 

Stem or Stipe — White, smooth, hollow, 3-4 inches long. 

Ring or Antiulus — Slightly adherent, or movable in the young 
plant ; later lying on the ground at the base of the stem, 
or wholly disappearing. 

Git/s or Lame'lh^ — Crowded. White, then tinged with pink ; 
finally black, and dripping an inky fluid. 

Spores — Black, elliptical. 

Flesh — Fragile, tender, digestible, with nutty flavour. 

Time — Autumn. 

Habitat — Loose, rich earth. By roadsides, in pastures, and in 
dumping grounds. 

If one study the specimens of the shaggy-mane from the 
time it pushes its little brown head above the ground until, as a 
tall black umbrella, it melts away into inky blackness, he will 
find much that is beautiful and interesting. 

A little brown button may be cut with a sharp knife through- 
out its length to show the unexpanded gills lying close to the 
part which is afterwards to become the stem. 

An older button cut in the same way will show the gills 
separated from the stem and the outer cover of the cap at the 
lower end of the gills joined to the stem. A still older specimen 
will show the connection of the outer cover broken loose from 
the base of the gill and the torn part still remaining on the stem 
as a temporary collar. 

The outer layer of brown threads which covers the button 
will be found to break as the threads within expand, and to re- 
main in the older specimens on the surface as patches of brown 
threads. Underlying these are broken white threads which in a 
younger stage, unbroken, formed a white cover under the brown. 
It is these loosely hanging threads which give the shaggy ap- 
pearance to the cap of the mature plants and which have 
suggested the names of shaggy-mane, horsetails, and comatus 
{comatus, in Latin, meaning hairy). 

C6-ma'-tiis 
90 




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Black-spored Series 

Inky Coprinus (Edible) 

Copriiius atramentariiis 

Cap or Pikus — Cylindrical at first, broadening by degrees until it 
is cone-shaped. Colour greyish or greyish brown, with sug- 
gestions of lead colour. Smooth or' with a few obscure 
scales on the disk. Often suffused with bloom. The mar- 
gin sometimes notched or lobed. Deliquescing. 1-3 inches 
in diameter. 

Stem or Stipe — Slender, smooth, whitish, hollow. 

Ring or A/mii/us — A slight vestige of one may be seen to extend 
around the stem near the base as an irregular zigzag ele- 
vated line of threads. 

Gills or Lamellae — Crowded. At first whitish and flocculose on 
the edges, then black, moist, dropping away in inky fluid. 

Spores — Black, elliptical. 

Flesh — White, quickly deliquescing. 

Time — Autumn. 

Habitat — Rich soil, waste places, woods. 

The form growing in the woods is much more beautiful and 
is known as C. atramentariiis, var. silvestris. See plate facing 
page 89. 

Glistening- Coprinus (Edible) 

Coprinus micaceiis 

Cap or Pileus—0M2iiQ, then bell-shaped. Striations radiating 
from near the centre of the disk to the margin. Glistening 
mica-like scales cover undisturbed young specimens. 1-2 
inches broad. Colour tan, light buff, or tawny yellow. 

Stem or Stipe — Slender, smooth, fragile, white, hollow. 1-3 inches 
long. 

Ring or Annuhis — Rarely seen except in very young specimens. 

Gills or Lamelhe — Not as crowded as in the ink cap and shaggy- 
mane. Colour white, then tinged with pinkish or purplish 
brown, finally black. 

Spores — Brown, elliptical. 

Flesh — A nutty flavour when raw. In wet weather it melts to 
an inky fluid. In dry weather it may dry with all parts 
well preserved. 

Time — Common during spring and early autumn. 

The glistening coprinus is small and beautiful, and grows in 
clusters on decaying woods, stumps, or buried roots. 

A.t -ri-m^n-ta -il-us Ml-ca -^e-us 

91 



Fungi with Gills 



GENUS GOMPHIDIUS 

This genus has black spores. The lamellae are waxy, and 
grow downward on the stem. 

GENUS PSATHYRELLA 

The members of this genus are fleshy fungi, with black 
spores. They have no annulus, and the lamellae are not waxy 
or decurrent. The cap is striate, and the stem has a hard, 
tough rind, 

GENUS PANyEOLUS 

There are six or more species of this genus in America. 
They have black ovoid spores, a cap smooth and not striate, a 
fleshy stem. 

GENUS LACTARfUS 

A milky or coloured juice exuding from the broken gills of a 
fungus marks it as a Lactariiis. The species are mostly stout 
and fleshy, the cap resembling an inverted cone ; the gills are 
more or less decurrent, and the stem short and stout. Many of 
the species have a hot, acrid taste, and some have zones of colour 
on the surface of the cap. The spores are white or yellow. The 
juice exuded may be white or orange or blue. 

Peppery Lactarius (Edible) 

Lactarins piperatits 

Cap or Pileus — Creamy white, fleshy, firm, depressed in the cen- 
tre. Dry, never viscid, and uncommonly broad. 3-12 inches 
in diameter. 

Gills or LafnellcB — Creamy white, narrow, crowded, unequal, 
forked, decurrent. Exuding a milky juice when bruised. 
Milk ivhite. 

Stem or Stipe — Creamy white, short, thick, solid, rounded at and 
slightly tapering toward the base. 

G6m-ph!(d'-t-us Sa-thy-rel'-li Pan-ae'-o-lus 

Lac-ta-ri-us PKp-er-a'-tus 

92 




PEPPERY LACTARIUS 
(Lactarius piperatus. Scop. Nat. size) 




PEPPERY LACTARIUS 
(Lactarius piperatus. Scop. Nat. size) 




Mycena haematopoda, Pers. 



See page 55 




Lactarius ligniotus, Fr. 



i-jsa. 



Fungi with Milky Juice 




L. piperatus 



Veil a?id Annuliis — None. 

Spores — White. 

Flesh — Slightly paler than the surface of the cap. Taste very pep- 
pery. Odour quite aromatic. 

Time — Summer. 

Habitat — Specimen pictured was found in mixed woods, among 
dried leaves and sticks, in New Jersey. 



Lactarius Ilgniotus 



Cap or Pileus — Fleshy ; brown velvety surface ; convex to plane; 
brittle. 

Gills or Lamell(B — Attached to the stem, distant, unequal. Snow 
white to yellowish white. Milk mild and zvhite. 

Stem attd Stipe — The upper part the same colour as the cap surface, 
base lighter ; hollow. 

liing or Anniilus — None. 

Spores — White. 

Flesh — Taste pleasant. Broken flesh reddish white, then yellow- 
ish. 

Tifne — September. 

Habitat — Common among niosses under fir trees. The specimen 
pictured was found growing in mixed woods at Lake Placid. 

Llg-nT-o'-tus 
93 



CHAPTER VI: FUNGI WITH TEETH— 

HYDNACE^ 

The fungi with teeth are so called because, instead of bear- 
ing their spores on the surface of gills and pores, they bear 
them on the surface of awl-shaped teeth, which project down- 
ward. The genera of the family Hydnacece are distinguished 
by the size, shape, and attachment of the teeth. Plants with 
teeth only, and no basal membrane, make the genus Mucronella. 
Plants with flattened, leaf-like teeth attached to a leathery mem- 
brane, growing on wood, either in the form of a cap, or simply 
spreading over the host, make the genus Irpex. Plants with 
thick, blunt, irregular spines make the genus Radulum. Fleshy 
or membranous plants with caps and flattened teeth, growing on 
the ground, make the genus Sistotrema. Plants which spread 
over their host, closely attached to its surface, and have simple, 
bristle-like teeth, make the genus Pyciwdon. Plants growing 
in a manner similar to those of the genus Pycnodon, but having 
low-crested wrinkles instead of bristles, make the genus 
Phlebia ; while those with smooth hemispherical warts make 
the genus Grandinia, and those with crested papillose warts 
make the genus Odontiiim. The typical genus Hydnum has the 
teeth cylindrical, so that a cross section would appear circular. 
This is the only large genus, and in it are found several impor- 
tant edible species. These may be put in two groups, one con- 
taining the species with a cap and central stem, and one the 
species growing in branched masses with no distinct cap. These 
are commonly known as Hedgehog Mushrooms. 

Hyd-na'-9e-se Ir'-p^x Sts-to-tre'-mS Phleb-t'-S 

Mu-cro-n^l'-la Rad'-u-lum Pyc'-n6-d6n Gran-dl'-nt-a 

0-d6nt'-K-iim Hyd'-num 

94 



Genus Hydnum 



GENUS HYDNUM 
Spreading Hydnum (Edible) 

Hydnum repandlim (See Plate Facing Page 103) 

Cap or Pileus — Fleshy, fragile, moist, smooth or somewhat 
scaly in mature specimens. Variable in colour ; light red, 
pale buff, or rusty yellow. Convex, plane, or deeply con- 
cave by the stem becoming 
hollow. Margins often wavy. 
1-4 inches broad. 

Teeth or Aculei — Pointed, whitish, 
easily detached, leaving little 
cavities in the fleshy cap. 

Stem or Stipe — Stem solid in young 
specimens, hollow in older 
specimens. Surface rather 
rough ; often eccentric. 1-3 
inches long. 

Flesh — Watery, lighter colour than 
cap. 

Spores — Whitish. 

Ti7ne — ^July to October. 

Habitat — Woods and open places. 
Singly or in clusters. The speci- 
men pictured was found in 
North Carolina in February. 




Section of H. repanduni 



Hydnum rufescens (edible) is redder than the typical form, 
is smaller and more regular. 



White Hydnum (Edible) 

Hydnum albidum 

Cap or Pileus — White, fleshy. 1-2 inches broad. 

Teeth or Aculei — White, short. 

Stem or Stipe — White, solid, short. 1-2 inches long. 

Flesh— ^N\(\\.^. 

Time — ^June to August. 

Habitat — Thin, wet woods. 



Re-pin'-dum 



Ru-f^s'-92ns 
95 



Al-bl'-diim 



Fungi with Teeth — Hydnaceae 



Hydnum imbricatum 



'i^rf ' 



H. imbricatum 

Time — Late summer. 
Habitat — Dry woods. 



Cap or Pilcus — Brownish, as if 
scorched. Surfoce cracked in 
irregular scales. 6-7 inches 
wide. 

Teeth — Bluish grey. 

Stem or Stipe — Short and thick, with 
irregular scales. 

i^/^j/^— Whitish. 



Bear's-head Hydnum (Edible) 

Hydnum caput-ursi 

J^/ant— White, fleshy. 

Branches and Teeth — Short branches covered with awl-shaped 
teeth of varying length, pointed toward the ground. 




Section of H. caput-ursi 

Flesh — White when young, creamy when old. 

Habitat — On prostrate or standing tree trunks of decaying de- 
ciduous trees. Erect, if on the upper side; ascending or 
pendulous or both, if on the side of the trunk. 

The bear's-head hydnum is very variable in form. The 

Im-bri-ca'-tum Ca'-put-iir'-si 

96 




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CORAL HYDNUM 
{Hydnum coralloides. Scop.)- See p. g; 



Genus Hydnum 

essential character is a solid, fleshy body with short protecting 
branches bearing numerous simple or branched teeth, which 
may vary in length from one-sixth of an inch to two inches. 

Medusa's Head (Edible) 

Hydnum caput-medusce 

Hydnum caput-medusce has knob-like branches, with short, 
distorted teeth above, and long, uniform ones below. At first it 
is white, but later changes to a smoky or ash colour. The change 
in colour from white to an ashy tint distinguishes it from H. 
caput-ursi, which changes to creamy white. 

Hedgehog Hydnum (Edible) 

Hydnum echinaceus 

The hedgehog hydnum is white at first, and then creamy. 
The branches are knob-like, and bear numerous straight, equal 
teeth about two inches long. 

Coral Hydnum (Edible) 

Hydnum coralloides 

Plant — Pure white, becoming creamy with age. 

branches and Teeth — Numerous, spreading, angular or flattened. 
Terminal branches often curved upwards, terminating in a 
crowded mass of spines. Teeth, %-yi of an inch long. 

Stem — Short, dividing into branches almost from the base. 

Flesh — Tender, white, with agreeable taste. 

Time — ^July to October. 

Habitat — On prostrate trees in mountainous or hilly country. 

When a mere child, Elias Fries was so attracted by this beau- 
tiful coral-like fungus, which grew in his native forests in Sweden, 
that he was led to take up the study of fungi, and later became 
one of the most prominent students in that branch of botany, 
and laid the foundation for the study of the Basidioniycetes. 

CX'-put-me-du'-sce Ech-I-na'-95-us C6r-il-loi -des 

7 97 



CHAPTER VII: FAIRY CLUBS AND CORAL 
FUNGI— CLAVARIACE.^ 

The fairy dubs and coral fungi belong to the family Clava- 
riacecB. They are fleshy fungi of upright growth, which have 
their spore-bearing surface exposed on the apices of branching 
or simple club-like forms. Many are extremely beautiful, re- 
sembling corals of exquisite shades of pink, violet, yellow, or 
white. 

The seven genera are distinguished by the colour of the 
spores, by their habit of growth — whether simple or branched, 
and, if branching, by the form of the branches ; whether club- 
like or thread-like, flat or round, cartilaginous or leathery. Many 
of the members of this family are edible, and none are known to 
be unwholesome, so that it will be safe for a beginner to try any 
of them. 

GENUS PHYSALACRIA 

Plant small, simple, hollow, and enlarged at the apex. 

GENUS PISTILLARIA 

Plants conspicuous, club-shaped or thread-like, with two 
spicules to each spore-bearing cell. 

GENUS TYPHULA 

Plants conspicuous, club-shaped or thread-like, with four 
spicules to each spore-bearing cell. 

Ciav'-ar'-I-a'-5e-£ Phys-a-Ia'-cri-a PIs-tH-la'-ri-a Typh'-u-la 

98 








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Genus Clavaria 



GENUS SPARASSIS 

Plants conspicuous, with the branches strongly flattened or 
leaf-like. 

Sparassis crispa somewhat resembles a yellow cauliflower, 
and often forms masses as large as one's hand. It is considered 
an excellent fungus for the table. 

GENUS PTERULA 

The members of this genus are mostly slender, thread-like 
forms, cartilaginous when moist, and horny when dry. 

GENUS LACHNOCLADIUM 

The members of this genus are leathery plants covered with 
hairs. 

GENUS CLAVARIA 

The genus Clavaria is the largest genus in the family Clava- 
riacece. Many of the species are edible, and so easily recognised 
that the beginner may venture without hesitation to eat any of 
the branching forms. The club-like forms might be mistaken 
for certain club-shaped forms of the sac-fungi unless an examina- 
tion of the spores were made. The Clavarias would have the 
spores on little spicules, as in the garden mushroom, whereas 
the forms for which they might be mistaken would have them 
in membranous sacs. 

In collecting species of Clavaria, notes should be taken as 
to the character of the apices of the branches, the colour of 
the branches, the colour of the spores, the taste, and the place 
of growth. 

Pale Yellow Clavaria (Edible) 

Clavaria flava 

Plant— V^\\\Xq and pale yellow. 2-5 inches high ; the mass of 
branches 2-5 inches wide. 

Spa-ris'-sTs Cris'-pa T^r'-u-Ii Lak-n6-cla'-dl-£im Cliiv-ar'-ta Flav'-S 

99 



Fairy Clubs and Coral Fungi— Clavariaceae 

Branches — Round, not flattened; smooth, crowded, and nearly 
parallel, pointing upward. Whitish or yellowish, with pale 
yellow tips. Branchlets terminating in from one to three 
blunt, tooth-like points. 

Stem — Short, thick, white. 

Spores — Yellowish . 

/7d'^/z— White, tender. 

Time—]u\y to September. 

Habitat — Thin woods and open places. 

Golden Clavaria (Edible) 

Clavaria aiirea 

The plant is from three to four inches high, with the 
branches of a uniform deep golden yellow, and often longitudi- 
nally wrinkled. The stem is stout, but thinner than the Clavaria 
JIava, which it somewhat resembles. 

Red-tipped Clavaria (Edible) 

Clavaria botrytes 

Plant — From 2-5 inches high, whitish or yellow or pinkish, with 

the tips of the branches red. 
Branches — Sometimes longitudinally wrinkled, repeatedly 

branched. 
Stetn — Short, thick, fleshy, whitish. 
Time — July to September. 
Habitat — Thin woods and open places. 

Crested Clavaria (Edible) 

Clavaria cristata 

Plant — Small, not more than 2-2^2 inches high. White or 
whitish, often faintly tinged with dull pink, or creamy yel- 
low, or smoky tints. 

Brafiches — Widened and flattened above, and deeply cut into 
several finger-like points, which may turn blackish brown 
when old. 

Stem — Slender, spongy within. 

Spores — White. 

Habitat — Woods and open places, especially in cool, shady, moist 
places. 

Au'.rg-& B6-try'-tes Cris-ta'-ta 

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Genus Clavaria 

Pistil Clavaria; Large Club (Edible) 

Clavaria pistillaris 

Of the club-shaped clavarias, the pistil clavaria is the 
largest. It is of a light yellow tinged with brown or red, and 
with soft white flesh. In shape it resembles an Indian club, 
being blunt and rounded at the summit, with a diameter of an 
inch or less, and a height of five inches or less. It is found 
during the summer in grassy open places or in thin woods. 

Clavaria fellea 

The clubs of this species are about one inch high, light yellow 
tinged with brown or red, somewhat divided by pairs from 
bottom to top into two forked branches. The stem is round and 
solid, and the branches are crowded and nearly parallel, with 
blunt tips, and of a uniform colour. The taste is bitter. 

Clavaria formosa 

The Clavaria formosa has a stout whitish stem, with erect 
branches, dividing and subdividing repeatedly, golden to pink, 
the branchlets obtuse. The specimen pictured grew on a fallen 
tree in dense mixed woods. 

Pls'-tn-la-ris Fel'-le-a F6r-m6'-sa 



loi 




CHAPTER VIII: FUNGI WITH PORES— 
BOLETACE/E; POLYPORACEy^ 

The fungi with pores naturally divide into two groups. 
The perishable fleshy fungi with pores easily separating from 
the cap and from each other make the family Boletacece. The 
perishable fleshy fungi, and the leathery, corky, membranous 
or woody fungi, with pores permanently united to the cap and 
to each other, make up the family Poly- 
poracece. In each the spores are borne on 
the linings of pores or tubes placed close 
^ . , T. w together, so that on the surface of the cap they 

Section of a Boletus '=' , ,., i • • , r j 

look much like large pm pricks on a stiff 
cushion ; but in a sectional view, obtained by cutting the cap 
from the upper surf^ice to the lower, they look like tubes placed 
side by side. 

Among the fleshy forms the genus Fisttilina has the stem 
lateral and the tubes close together, but distinct from each other. 
The genus Boletus has the tubes easily separable from the cap, 
and the genera Boletiniis and Strobilomyces have the tubes quite 
firmly connected. A brief comparison of essential points is 
given in the table. 

1. Stem strictly lateral. Mouths of the tubes separated from 

each other Genus Fistulina 

2. Stem central. Pores readily separating from the cap Genus Boletus 

3. Stem central or eccentric ; fleshy. Pores in more or less 

radiating rows Genus Boletinus 

4. Stem central, /"tiM^/^. Pores uniform. Cap woody Genus Strobilomyces 

GENUS FISTULINA 

The genus Fistulina contains one notable species, Fistnlina 
hepatica, so called from its resemblance to a liver. In its early 
stages it somewhat resembles a strawberry, and later it may 

B6-l^-ta'-9?-ae Fls-tu-li'-na BS-le-ti'-nus 

P6'-ly-p6-ra'-5e-se B6-le'-tus Str6-Ml-6'-my-9es 

1 02 




-■•» 



CONE. LIKE BOLETUS (EDIBLE, Mel) 

(Strobilomyces strobilaceus, Hcrk.) 
Purplish lilack ; flesh white, chanpinn to red when bruised. See p. 102 




Painted Boletinus (edible). 
(Boletinus pictus, Pk.). 




Spreading Hydnum (edible). 

(Hydnum repandum, L.). 

See page 95. 



Genus Boletinus 

have the appearance of a big red tongue protruding from a tree 
truni<, so that the French call it langue de boeuf. It is often 
called vegetable beefsteak, from the flesh-like fibre and colour of 
the fresh specimens. When young, the upper side is velvety 
and of a fine peach colour ; later it becomes liver red and loses 
the velvety appearance ; the under surface is flesh coloured, and 
is rough, much like the surface of a tongue, owing to the fact 
that the tubes are free from one another. 



GENUS BOLETINUS 

The spore-bearing surface of the genus Boletimis is com- 
posed of broad, radiating lamellae connected by numerous nar- 
row partitions so as to form large angular pores. The tubes are 
not easily separable from each other and from the portion on 
which they are borne. They are yellowish in colour, and grow 
downward somewhat on the stem. The genera may be distin- 
guished by the following table: 

1 . Stem hollow Boletinus cavipes 

2. Stem solid, lateral, or eccentric Boletinus porosus 

3. Stem solid, central. Cap pale yellow and silky Boletinus decipiens 

4. Stem solid, central. Cap red Boletinus paluster 

5. Stem solid, central. Cap with red scales Boletinus pictus 

Painted Boletinus (Edible) 

Boletinus pictus 

Cap or Pileus — Convex or nearly plane; at first covered with red 
matted fibres, which soon divide into small scales, so as to 
reveal the yellow colour of the cap beneath. 2-4 inches wide. 

Tubes — Pale yellow, or pale yellow tinged with brown. Not 
easily separated from the cap. 

r<?/7— Webby, concealing the tubes of the young plant. 

S/em or Stipe — Solid, with scales and colour similar to those of the 
cap. 1^-3 inches long. 

Ring or Annulus. — Webby; evident in some specimens. 

Spores — Pale yellow tinged with brown. 

Flesh — Yellowish, often assuming reddish tints when bruised. 

Habitat — Woods and mossy swamps. 

C&v'-K-pes Po-ro'-stis De-9Tp'-T-ens Pa-lfis'-t5r PTc'-tiis 

103 



Fungi with Pores — Boletaceae 

GENUS BOLETUS 

The species in the genus Boletus are numerous, and many 
are extremely beautiful. They are distinguished from the other 
pore-bearing fungi by the fact that their tubes are easily separable 
from each other and from the portion on which they are borne. 

They are to be looked for in the warmest part of the season, 
and with a few exceptions will be found on the ground. As it 
is difficult to dry specimens so that they will retain their size, 
shape, and colour, careful notes should be taken of these points, 
together with the colour of the spores, the colour of the tubes, 
the colour of the flesh before and after being bruised, the char- 
acter of the stem, the presence or absence of hairs and fibres on 
the several parts of the plant. The genus Boletus contains many 
edible species, and also many which are dangerous ; and as the 
recognition of the different species is a difficult matter, even for 
experts, the beginner should be especially cautious. In general 
it will be well to avoid for edible purposes all Boleti which 
change colour on exposure to the air or on being pressed; all 
those which have red-mouthed tubes, or mouths of a deeper 
colour than the rest of the tube ; and all those with a peppery or 
acrid taste. Experiment cautiously with the other species. 

A detailed description of the species is out of the question in 
this book; for such the reader must refer to " Boleti of the United 
States,"* or to " Fiihrer fur Pilzfreunde."f 



Boletus glabellus 

Cap — Smoky yellow. 

Flesh — -White, changing to blue when wounded. 

Tubes — Brownish yellow tinged with green, changing to blue 

when wounded. 
Stem — Reddish at the base, pallid above, with a narrow reddish 

circumscribing ^one or line at the top. 
Habitat — Grassy ground. 

Gla-bel'-lus 

* Bulletin, New York State IMuseum, No. 8, 1888. This can be obtained 
at a small price of the State Librarian at Albany, New York. In it are described 
one hundred and ten species. 

f By Edmund Michael. A book in German, with sixty-eight coloured plates. 

104 



Genus Boletus 



Boletus bicolor 

Cap — Dark red, fading when old ; often marked with yellow. 
Flesh — Yellow, slowly changing to blue when wounded. 
Tubes — Bright yellow, changing to blue. 
Stem — Solid, red, generally yellow at the top. 
Habitat — Woods and open places. 

Boletus cyanescens 

Cap — Pale buff or greyish yellow. Covered with woolly scales, 

two-fifths of an inch wide. 
Flesh — White, quickly changing to blue when wounded. 
Tjibes — White, becoming yellowish, changing to blue when 

bruised. 
Stem — Coloured like the cap. Swollen, stuffed, not covered with 

a network. 
Habitat — Woods and open places. 



Boletus pallidus 

Cap — Pallid or brownish white, sometimes tinged with red. 
Flesh— \N\\\\t. 

Tubes — Pale whitish yellow, changing to blue when wounded. 
Stejn — Long and whitish, sometimes streaked with brown ; 
smooth. 

Boletus mutabilis 

Cap — Brown, becoming blackish ; smooth and shining ; or dry, 
somewhat woolly. 

Flesh — Bright yellow, promptly changing to blue when wounded. 

Tubes — Yellow, changing to greenish yellow, and quickly be- 
coming blue wheti wounded. Mouths large and angular. 

^/^;«— Stout, bright yellow within, covered with brown and 
dotted scales. 

Habitat — Dense woods. 

Boletus speciosus 

Cap — Red. 3-7 inches broad. 

Flesh — Pale or bright lemon yellow, changing to blue when 
wounded. 

Bl'-co-lur gy-an-(5s'-9^ns Pil'-IT-dus Mu-ti'-bl-lls Spe-9l(-6'-sus 

105 



Fungi with Pores — Boletaceae 

Tabes — Bright lemon yellow, becoming dingy yellow with age; 

changing to green, then to blue, when wounded. 
Sfem — Bright lemon yellow ivithoiit and within, sometimes reddish 

at the base. 2-4 inches long. 
Habitat — Thin woods. 



Golden-flesh Boletus 

Boletus Chrysenteron (See Plate Facing Page 60) 

Cap — Yellowish brown, reddish brown, brick red, or olive tinted 

with reddish chinks. 
Fiesh — Yellow, red just under the skin, often changing to blue 

when wounded. 
Ti/bes — Greenish yellow, changing to blue when wounded. 
Stem — Red or pale yellow. 
Habitat — Woods or mossy banks, common. 

Boletus radicans 

Cap — Dry, somewhat woolly. Greenish grey, becoming pale yel- 
low. Margin rolled under. 

Flesh — Pale yellow, \x\^\'ax\W'j changingto dark blue when wounded. 

Tubes — Lemon yellow. 

Stejn — Tapering downward and rooting. Woolly, with a reddish 
bloom. Pale yellow, becoming dark with a touch. 

Habitat — Woods, Ohio. 

Boletus Peckii 

Cap — Firm, dry. Red, fading to yellowish red or buff brown. 
Tubes — Yellow, changing to blue when wounded. 
Stem— Red; yellow at the top. 
Habitat — Woods. 

Boletus calopus 

Cap — Olive tinted, somewhat woolly. 2-3 inches wide. 

Flesh — Pallid, slightly changing to blue when wounded. 

Tubes — Yellow. 

Stem — Covered with a network. Whollv scarlet, or at the apex 

only. Longer than the diameter of the cap. 
Habita /— W d s . 

Cris-^n'-ter-6n RS'-di-cans Peck'-l-I CSl-o'-pfis 

106 



ite 



»i" 



'■'^<H 






BITTER BOLETUS fUNPALATABLE) 
(Boletus felletts. Bull.; var. obesus, Pk.). See p. 107 



Genus Boletus 



Purple Boletus 

Boletus piirpiireus 

Cap — Dry, velvety. Purple red. 

Flesh — Changing to Hue, and then to dark yellow in the young 

plant. 
Tubes — Yellow or greenish yellow. Mouths minute, orange 

tinged -with purple, changing to blue where wounded. 
Stem — Stout, with purple veins or dots. Apex sometimes covered 

with a network. Yellow, reddish within. 
Habitat — Woods. 



Boletus Satanus 



Cap — Smooth, somewhat sticky. 
Pale brown or whitish. 
3-8 inches broad. 

Flesh — Whitish, becoming red- 
dish or violet when 
wounded. f^ery poison- 
ous. 

Tubes — Yellow. Mouths bright- 
red, becoming orange. 

Stem — Thick, swollen, marked 
above with a red network. 
2-} inches long. 

Habita t — W o d s . 




B Satanus 



Bitter Boletus 

Boletus felleus 

Cap — Smooth, pale yellowish, greyish brown, yellowish brown, 

reddish brown, or chestnut. 3-8 inches broad. 
Flesh — White, changing to flesh colour when bruised. Taste 

bitter. 
Tubes — White, becoming flesh colour. Mouths angular. Adnata 

to the stem. 
Stem — Covered with network. Colour similar to the cap. 2-4 

inches long. 
Habitat — Woods and open places. 



Piir-pu'-re-tis 



Sa-tS'-nus 
107 



F^l'-le-iis 



Fungi with Pores— Boletaceae 



Boletus scaber 

Cap — Smooth, viscid when moist, or minutely woolly, velvety, or 
scaly. 1-5 inches wide. Colour ranges from nearly white 
to almost black. 

Tubes — Free from the stem, white, long. Mouths minute. 

7%'^/!— White. 

Stern — Long, ground colour whitish, roughened ivith blackish 
brown or reddish dots or scales. 3-5 inches long. 

Habitat — Common in woods, swampy and open places. 

Orange-cap Boletus 

Boletus versipellis 

Cap — Orange red. i-d inches wide. Dry, minutely woolly, 
then scaly or smooth. Margin edged with the remains of 
the veil. 

Flesh — White or greyish. 

Tubes — Long. Mouths minute. Greyish-white. 

Stem — Solid ; white scaly wrinkles. Whitish colour. 3-5 
inches long. 

Habitat — Woods and open places. 

Chestnut Boletus 

Boletus castaneus 

Cap — Dry, minutely velvety. Cinnnnion or reddish-brown. 1-3 

inches broad. 
F/esk— White. 

Tubes — White, becoming yellow. Short, and free from the stem. 
Stem — Clothed and coloured like the cap. i-2>4 inches high. 
Habitat — Woods and open places. 

Boletus exinaius 

Cap — Purplish-brown or chocolate colour, folding to smoky red 

or pale chestnut. 3-10 inches broad. 
Flesh — Greyish or reddish white. 

Tubes — Resembling the cap in colour. Mouths minute. 
Stem — Stout, covered witti a meal-like powder. Colour resembling 

the cap, grey tinged with purple within. 2-4 inches long. 
Habitat — Woods. 

Sca'-b^r Ver-sK-pel -lis Cas-ta -ne-us Ex-Km -I-iis 

108 




SCABROUS-STEMMED BOLETUS 'EDIBLE) 

(Boletus sc3.bi-r, Fr. ; var. nivcus. Gill.) 
Cap white. Sec p. io8 



Fungi with Pores— Polyporaceae 



Edible Boletus 

Boletus ediilis 

Cap — Convex or nearly plane; smooth, moist; compact, then 

soft. Greyish red, brownish red, or tawny brown. 4-6 

inches broad. 
Flesh — White or yellowish; reddish beneath the skin. 
Tubes — Convex, nearly free, long, minute, round. White, then 

yellow and greenish. 
Sie7n — Short or long, straight or curving, sometimes bulbous, 

stout, covered with network. Just beneath the stem 

whitish or brownish. 2-6 inches long. 
Habitat — Woods and open places. 

Boletus subtomentosus 

Cap — Covered with soft -woolly hairs. Somewhat olive green, 
uniform in colour under the skin, yellow chinks on the sur- 
face. 

F/esh—\M\\\tQ. 

Tubes — Yellow, with large angular mouths. 

Stem — Stout, rugged, with minute dots. 

Habitat — Common in woods. 

Boletus Americanus 

Cap — Thin, soft, viscid, slightly woolly on the margin when 
young. Yellow, becoming dingy with age; sometimes 
streaked with bright red. 1-3 inches broad. 

Fksh — Pale yellow. 

Tubes — Not free from the stem. Large, angular. Pale yellow, 
becoming tinged with brown. 

Stej?i — Slender. No annulus. Yellow, brownish towards the base, 
marked with numerous brown or reddish-brown glandular 
dots; yellow within, ij^-2)^ inches long. 

Habitat— V/oods, swamps. 

POLYPORACEy^ 

The fungi with pores permanently united to the surrounding 
tissue and to each other form a large and important group, the 
Polyporacea\ With but few exceptions they are leathery, corky, 
membranous, or woody. 

Nearly six hundred species have been reported from America. 

Ed'-u-lls Sub'-to-men-to'-sus A-mSr'-l-ca'-nus Po'-iy-p6-ra-9S-3e 

109 



Fungi with Pores — Polyporaceae 



GENUS MERULIUS 
Merullus lacrymans 

The simplest of these Polyporacea: is the dry-rot fungus, 
Merulius lacrymans. The food-seeking portion consists of fine 
white threads, mycelium, which penetrate the woodwork of 
buildings, causing it to crumble to dust. The fruiting portion 
consists of flat, irregular bodies whose under surface bears the 
spores in shallow pits separated by narrow ridges. Water is 
excreted from these flat disks, which, from the habit of dropping 
like tears, has suggested the specific name lacrymans, from the 
Latin lacrymare, to weep. 

GENUS POLYPORUS 

The genus Polyponis and the genus Trametes have the pores 
closely packed and united to together. In Trametes the uniting 
substance is the same as the substance of the cap, but in Poly- 
poms the uniting substance is different from the substance of 
the cap. The genus Polyponis in its widest sense is a large, 
one, numbering some five hundred species, and containing every 
texture from fleshy or pulpy to woody. 

The fruiting portion is often seen in the form of brackets 
shelving out from standing or fallen trees. The mycelium pene- 
trates the wood, softening it, and causing it to crumble, so that 
in the course of time the tree dies. The external evidence that 
the tree has been attacked is the appearance of the fruiting por- 
tion, which often attains a very great size. 

Elfvingia (polyporus) megaloma 

Polyponis megaloma is attractive to frequenters of the woods, 
as its spore surface when fresh is soft anJ white, and furnishes 
an attractive surface for stencil drawings. 

Elfvingia (polyporus) fomentaria 

The brackets of Elfvingia fomentaria resemble horses' 
hoofs. They are employed in the manufacture of amadou, or 

Mer-u-H-us Lic'-ry-mans P6-lyp'-6-rus Tra-me'-tes Meg-ii-l6'-ma Fo-m6n-ta'-rt-us 

I lO 




TINDERWOOO POLYPORU^ 

{Elfin,i;ia /omeutaria, \..\ Fomis fomrntarius. Gill.; Polyfiorus foment arius, Fr.) 

Upper surface grey to brown; tube-surface concave. See p. no 



Genus Polyporus 

German tinder, which, in the form of sticks or fusees, commonly 
known as punk, is used for lighting cigars and pipes in the 
wind, or for touching off fireworks. 

The fusees are made by beating the fungus substance until 
it is flexible, and then dipping it into saltpetre, 

Polyporus conchatus 

Polyporus conchatus is a beautiful species found on the 
under side of fallen trees, growing in such a manner that from 
the spore-bearing surface the shells look like rosettes of shim- 
mering golden-brown velvet. 

Polyporus velutinus 

Polyporus velutinus is common in the form of stiff ruffles 
with white or creamy spore surface, and grey or tan-coloured 
plush-like upper surface. 

Polyporus pergamenus 

Polyporus pergamenus has a somewhat bristle-like, tan- 
coloured spore surface, and a velvety drab upper surface, often 
tinged with green from a green alga which grows upon it. 

Polyporus perennis 

Polyporus perennis resembles a slender-stemmed goblet. 

Polyporus sulphureus 

Polyporus sulphureus is an edible fleshy form, it grows in 
clusters, the stemless caps often five or six inches broad and 
overlapping. The colour of the young cap is yellowish red or 
pale orange, with the margin wavy, and of a beautiful yellow. 
It is soft and juicy, and often — when cut — exudes a yellow 
juice. 

The plants may be found on the dead wood of trees 
during showery weather from May to October. The mature 
plants become dry and crumbling, and as they dry they lose 

C6n-cha'-tus Vel-u'tl-niis r(5r-gi-me'-nus PCr-^n -nis Siil-phu'-rc-us 

I I I 



Fungi with Pores — Polyporaceae 

their attractive colours. They exhibit phosphorescence in early 
stages of decay. The tubes are minute and short and of a 
bright sulphur colour. Only the young plants should be used 
for food. 

Polyporus squamosus 

Polvponts squamosus is found often on decayed ash trees and 
sometimes on others. The cap has a thick lateral dark stem and 
is pale yellow tinged with brown, and covered with dark scales. 
It is reported to have been found seven feet in circumference, 
with a weight of forty-two pounds, and that it attained this 
growth in the short time of four weeks. 

Polyporus lucidus 

Polyporus lucidus has a lateral stem which, with all but the 
margin of the cap, is highly polished, as if varnished, and is in 
colour a rich mahogany brown. 

Polyporus arCUlariuS (See Plate Facing Page 142) 

Cap — Dark brown, minutely scaly, depressed in the centre; 
margin stiff, edge hairy, no flesh. 

Tubes — Dingy cream colour. Openings oblong, almost diamond- 
shape, resembling the meshes of a net, drawn from stem to 
the margin of the cap, the meshes smaller on the margin, 
and simply marked out at the top of the stem. 

Stetn — Dark brown, minutely scaly, mottled, with a ground 
work of cream colour. Older stems are roughened at 
the base with whitish hairs. Hollow. 

Spores — Creamy white. 

Habitat — The specimen pictured was found growing on decayed 
branches of an oak tree in North Carolina. 

Polyporus versicolor* 

Polyporus versicolor has a leathery cap, thin and rigid, plane, 
depressed at the attached portion, velvety, shining with varie- 
gated two-coloured zones. The pores are minute, round, with 
acute and ragged edges. White, then yellowish. It is common 
on decaying tree trunks and upon telegraph poles. 

Squa-mo'-sus Lu'-9l-dus Ar-cu-la -rl-us Ver-sk -6-15r 

* Known also as Polystictus versicolor 

112 





Polyporus circinatus, Fr. 
See page I I 3. 




Lenzites betulina, Fr. 
See page I I 3 



Genus Lenzites 



PolypOrUS CircinatUS (See Plate Facing Page 112) 

Polyporus circinatiis quite often has one cap within 
another. The caps are thick, round, without zones, velvety, and 
of a rusty-yellow colour. The lower surfaces of the caps, with 
the stems are woody and corky, but the upper surfaces of the 
caps are soft and woolly. The stem is swollen and covered 
with yellow wool. The pores are decurrent, minute, and un- 
broken, and of a dusky grey colour. This is a handsome species, 
especially remarkable for its double cap. The stem is an inch 
long and almost equally thick. The cap is three to four inches 
wide, and the flesh is uniform in colour. 



GElslUS TRAMETES 

Trameies pini is brown, and grows on pines and other cone- 
bearing trees. Trameies cinnabarina is bright red, and common 
on birch and cherry. Trameies suaveolens is white, and grows 
on willows. 

GENUS LENZITES 

Lenzites betulina 

The Lenzites beiiilina has a somewhat corky, leathery cap, 
firm, and without zones, 
woolly and pale; the mar- 
gin of uniform colour; the 
lamellae radial, somewhat 
branching, and coming to- 
gether again. Sordid white. 
This fungus, in the form of 
brackets, is found espe- 
cially on birch trees, but it 
is also found on various 
other kinds. It is a wide- 
spread specjes, and is quite 
variable. The lamellai are at first thick, corky, and sordid 
white; then thinner, with acute edges. 

(^Tr-9T-na'-tus ri'-nl Cin'-nii-bci-ri'-nS Su-a-ve'-(3-l^ns LSn-zi'-tes B^t-u-U'-nX 
8 113 









•^... 



-T 



Under surface of L. betulina 



Fungi with Pores— Polyporaceae 

Lenzites sepiria 

Leathery shells, with the upper surface marked with rough 
zones of various shades of brown: the under surface with brown, 
radiating, papery gills. 



GENUS D/EDALEA 

The genus Dcedaka has the spore-bearing surface in the 
form of winding and labyrinthine lamellre, so that instead of 
pores there are irregular branching slits on the under surface. 
These fungi are normally sessile, woody, and hard. 



Daedalea unicolor 

Dcvdalea unicolor is in form like a full leather ruffle with 
scalloped edge, so full that the scallops overlap. The branching 
slits are very minute, and the upper side is in zones of tan colour, 
with a plush-like surface. The zones are often tinged with blue 
or green from algae which grow upon them. 



Daedalea confragosa 

Dxdalea confragosa has a rough grey upper surHice, and 
grows from the centre in the form of depressed sessile caps. 
The texture is firm and leathery. 



Daedalea quercina 

Dcedalea quercina is a woody or corky species, rugged, and 
without zones on the surface. At first it is porous ; then, by 
the breaking down of the walls of the pores, slits are formed, 
with blunt partitions. It is common on oak trees. 

Se-pi'-ri-S Das-da'-le-S C6n'-fra-g6'-sa Quer-9i'-na. 

114 




Deedalea quercina, (L.) Pers. 
Upper side. Reduced 




DitdaU-a gnercina, (L.) Pers. 
Lower side. Reduced 



Genus Favolus 



GENUS FAVOLUS 



The genus Favolus has but few spe- 
cies ; one is very common on beech and 
hickory trees. Favolus areolarius has a 
lateral stem. The cap is depressed, and 
has a smooth, creamy-white upper sur- 
face, with long hexagonal pores running 
down the short stem. 

Fa'-v6-lus 




F. alveolarius 



"5 



CHAPTER IX: GELATINOUS AND OTHER FUNGI 

Jew's Ear, or Judas's Ear (Edible) 

Hinieola atmciila-Judce 

The Jew's ear is a gelatinous fungus which is so lobed and 
folded as to resemble a human ear. It is this resemblance to an 
ear which has suggested the names, Jew's ear and Judas's ear. 
Its habit of growing on elder has given rise to the belief that 
Judas Iscariot hanged himself on this tree. This fungus is prized 
by the Chinese as an article of food, and is imported by them from 
the South Sea Islands. 

Its manner of bearing the spores on basidia places it in 
Class III, Basidiomycetes, which contains fungi with gills, teeth, 
and pores. 

Tremellodon 

Tremellodon is a clear fungus, which in colour resembles a 
piece of water-soaked snow, but in form resembles a Hydnum, 
as it has teeth-like projections on the under surface. 

Guepinia 

Gnepina is a bright yellow fungus, about an inch high, in 
form like little spatules or goblets. It is common in cracks of 
logs and stumps. 

HKr-ne'-6-la Au-ric'-u-la Tre-mel'-lo-don Guep4n'-I-a. 



ii6 




JEW'S EAR. JUDAS'S EAR (EDIBLE) 
(Hirncola Auricula-Judie^ (L.) Berk.) 




XYLARIA 
See page 136 



CHAPTER X: OFFENSIVE FUNGI— ORDER 

PHALLALES 

The PJiallales are all terrestrial fungi; that is, they are found 
growing on the ground, and not on logs and trees. They are in- 
teresting, but too offensive to attract any but the most coura- 
geous students. 

They are more common in the South than in the North, 
where they make themselves too conspicuous by their intoler- 
able odour. 

They are structurally different from the other pouch-fungi, the 
puffballs, in that they do not retain their spores in the skin (pe- 
ridium) until they are fuUy mature, but send them into the light, 
exposed on a quickly deliquescing jelly-like mass, the gleba. 

The order may conveniently be divided into two families: 

( Receptacle latticed, sessile, or stalked. 

FAMILY I. CLATHRACE/E I Spore mass borne on the inner sur- 

( face of the receptacle. 
( Receptacle tubular or cylindric, with a 

FAMILY n. PHALLACE/E \ Cap. 

( Spore mass on the surface of the cap. 

GENUS PHALLUS 
Stinkhorns 

The genus Phallus may be readily distinguished by the 
cylindrical shape of the spore receptacles and the intolerable 
odour. No one with his sense of smell developed would think of 
eating the members of this group. The botanist and the artist, 
however, have braved this lion on his own territory, and have 
found much that is beautiful and interesting ; the artist having 
the advantage in his task of portraying the handsome specimen, 

Phai-la'-les Ciath-ra'-9e-£e rhil-la'-9e-3e Thai-lus 

117 



Offensive Fungi 

in that he can inclose it in a sealed glass case and work in 
comfort. The experience of the botanist must be realised to be 
appreciated. 

An overpowering fetid odour suddenly evident upon the 
premises has many times filled with consternation the guests at 
summer resorts, causing among them much speculation, with 
suggestions of bad sewerage, and carelessness on the part of their 
host, together with other comments equally disastrous to the 
reputation of the place. 

The distracted householder searches in vain for a solution of 
the difficulty, and the odour disappears as mysteriously as it came. 
If he is one of the initiated, however, he will search until he finds 
the haunt of the offender, and will destroy all chance of a repeti- 
tion of the nuisance — for one summer, at least. 

The mischief-maker is a handsome specimen, as its plate 
shows. The white stem, bearing at its summit a mass of gela- 
tinous green substance capped with a yellow-white ring, and 
emitting its intolerable odour, has surely come into existence for a 
purpose — a purpose soon suggested — as hundreds of flies wing 
their way hither to sip the semi-fluid mass. 

The botanist tells us that the spores of this plant are mixed 
in the green fluid, and that they are carried away on the feet and 
in the bodies of the flies to other places, where new colonies may 
be started. 

The plant has undoubtedly emerged from the ground for the 
sole purpose of disseminating its spores, and all its parts have 
been developed to accomplish this function in the most effectual 
manner. 

The banquet for the flies is prepared underground, and the 
table, with its viands all ready, is pushed into the light, while the 
invitation to the guests is wafted swiftly on the breeze. 

One is curious to learn the mechanism by which so much is 
accomplished in apparently so short a time, and finds in this 
instance, as in all others where great things are accomplished 
v/ith ease, that many forces have been slowly at work to insure 
everything being in readiness for the success of a final flourish. 
A search underground shows the mycelial threads to have per- 
meated the soil for many feet in every direction in search of 
building material, and a glance at a vertical section of one of the 
pink eggs which has pushed its way out of the soil will show 

ii8 



Genus Phallus 



in outline the plan of what is to be. The pink "eggshell," or 
peridium, is lined with a jelly-like substance, which has un- 
doubted ly 



Pink egg6hell- 

Fufure ^reen mass of Cap 
cJeI!y-iike substance 
Future stem 



Compressed cells 




served as a 
safe packing 
to what is 
within, a 
protection 
against 
blows and 
insect rav- 
ages. Within 
this coat, in 
section, ap- 
pears as two 
dark-col- 

oured saddle-bags that which later is to form the green mass on 
the cap of the fully developed spore table. Between these dark 
masses lies in section the future stem ; it is hollow, and bears on 
its rim the spore-bearing cap. The walls of this cap consist of 
flattened cells, which by extraordinary growth and expansion are 
to force the stem through the eggshell and carry the banquet of 
spores several inches into the light, leaving the torn wrapper 
as a volva at its base, a natural "Jack-in-the-box." 



Section of young phallus 



Phallus impudicus 



Cap or Pileus — Outer surface bearing the 
spores in a jelly-like mass, gleba. 
Conic-campanulate. Outer surface 
sculptured with reticulated ridges after 
the green spore mass has disap- 
peared. 

Stem — Hollow, tapering at each end ; upper 
end joined with the cap by a recurved 
border. 

F<'//— Wanting. 

Volva — Pinkish. 

Habitat — Low ground. 

Im-pud'-t-cus 
119 



Reticulated 
ridges 




P. impudicus 



Offensive Fungi 



GENUS DICTYOPHORA 



The genus Dictvophora differs from the genus Phallus in 
having a veil suspended from the apex of the stem, underneath 
the pileus or cap. 

Dictyophora Ravenelii 

Stem — Tapering at both ends. 

F<f/7— Short, not reaching below the cap. 

Dictyophora duplicata 

F«7— Voluminous, hanging for several inches below the cap. 

It is thought that this delicate white network, which hangs 
like a lace skirt below the cap, renders the fungus additionally 
conspicuous after dark, thus attracting the night moths and other 
night-flying insects. 

MutinUS CaninUS (See Plate facing page 136) 

Cap or Pileus — Flesh coloured. The spore-bearing mass, oblong, 
ovoid, or conical, occupying one-third to one-sixth the total 
length of the stipe. 



Spore mass 



.Spore mass 



Embryo 
plant 



Volva. 





Stalk 



Volva 



Young plant 
M. caninus 




Stalk 



Volva 



M. bambusinus 



Stem or Stipe — Hollow, cylindrical, fusiform. 
Habitat — About buildings, in gardens and thickets. 



DKc-ty-6ph'-6-ra 
Ri'-ven-el'-ii 



Du-plT-ca'-ta 
Mu-tT'-niis 



Ca-nl'-nus 
Bam-bu-sl'-nus 



120 



Family Clathracea 



FAMILY CMTHRACE^E 

The members of the family Clathracece have a volva similar 
to the volva of the Phallacece. The volva ruptures, and the 
receptacle issues in a similar manner. The members of this 
family have the spore receptacle latticed or branched instead of 
tubular or cylindrical, and bear the spores on the inner surface 
of the receptacle rather than on the outer surface. 



Latticed Clathrus 

Clathrits cancellatiis 

Receptacle not stalked. The 
bars of the lattice-work are ob- 
lique and transversely wrinkled. 
The outer surfiice may be cinna- 
bar red or white or yellowish. 
The inner surface of the bars is 
red. 




Spore 
mass 



Volva 



C. cancellatus 



Clathrus columnatus 

Receptacle not stalked, consisting of from 2-5 vertical col- 
umns, separate below, but jointed at the apex. Columns cinna- 
bar red, enclosing the spore mass. Odour very fetid. 




.Arms 



Stalk 



.Volva 



A. borealis 



Anthurus borealis 

Receptacle stalked, hollow, divided above 
into arms, which do not join at their apices, and 
which bear the spore masses on their inner sur- 
faces, enclosing the spore mass when young, 
but later diverging. 

Stem of receptacle white ; arms narrow 
lance-shaped, with pale flesh-coloured backs, 
traversed their entire length by a shallow 
furrow. 



Ciath-ra -9^-36 
ClAth'-riis 



CXn-921-la'-tus 
C61-um-na -tiis 



An-thu'-rus 
Bo'-re-a-lls 



121 



Offensive Fungi 




Simblum rubescens 

Receptacle stalked and globular, bars of the 
lattice forming meshes of about equal diam- 
eter either way. Red or flesh coloured, and 
Stalk transversely wrinkled. 

Slm'-blum Rii-bes'-j^ns 



.Egg 



S. rubescens 



122 



CHAPTER XI: PUFFBALLS 
ORDER LYCOPERDALES 

The pouch fungi include all fungi which have their spores 
or seeds in closed chambers until maturity — that is, until they are 
fully ripe and ready to be scattered by winds or animals. Col- 
lectively, the closed chambers are called the gleba, and this gleba 
is surrounded by a definite rind (peridium), which, in different 
puffballs, has various and characteristic ways of opening to per- 
mit the spores to escape. 

The different ways in which the rinds (peridia) open are 
explained under the separate examples of the pouch fungi — 
puffballs, earth-stars, stinkhorns, birds' nests, and calostomas. 

The Lycoperdales, known in different parts of the country as 
smokeballs, devil's snuffboxes, puffballs, etc., have their spores 
enclosed until maturity in closed chambers, surrounded by a con- 
tinuous skin or peridium. They spend most of their lifetime 
underground, getting their food from decaying vegetable matter, 
and are for this reason called subterranean saprophytes. When 
they are about ready to scatter their spores, they emerge from the 
ground, and are then to be seen in pastures, and on fallen logs in 
woods and along roadsides. Every country child has pinched 
them to see the " smoke" rise, little knowing that he was doing 
for the puffball just that for which it had come into existence — 
scattering its spores far and wide to grow into new plants. 

The plants of the puffballs, the mycelial threads, form an 
extensive network of white threads in the decaying vegetable 
matter in which they grow ; then little balls appear on the white 
threads, as in the Agaricales, with the difference that they in- 
crease in size without forming gills and stem. The balls have 
a fleshy interior, cheesy and white at first, but afterwards yel- 
lowish or pinkish, gradually darkening until the whole or a part 

Ly'-co-pcr-dil'-lcs 
123 



Puffballs 

of the fleshy interior becomes filled with dust-like spores, when 
the rind of the ball breaks to let the spores escape. 

Sometimes the wall breaks off in scales ; sometimes it is 
punctured at the summit with one hole, sometimes with several, 
and sometimes it splits and turns back to form a star on the 
ground. Sometimes the balls contain elastic threads (capillitium), 
which help to push out the spores, and sometimes they do not. 
Sometimes there are threads massed at the base without spores 
in them, so that they form a sterile base or sterile subgleba, and 
sometimes the threads are massed to form a central column 
(columella) in the interior of the ball. These characters, with 
others, form the basis on which the puffballs are separated 
into the genera Lycoperdon, Geaster, Calvatia, Bovistella, Bovista, 
and Calostoma. 




GENUS LYCOPERDON 

The Lycoperdons, or true puffballs, produce within the ball 
vast numbers of dust-like spores mingled with elastic threads. 
When the ball is compressed, the rind or peridium bursts at the 

summit to form a single mouth, and the 
elastic threads cause the spores to fly out in 
puffs like smoke. 

The spore-bearing part of the plant is 
globe-shaped, obovoid, or top-shaped, and 
at the base of the gleba no spores are pro- 
duced ; the cells here are coarse and empty. 
The rind or peridium of the ball con- 
sists of two parts, the outer bark or outer 
peridium being adorned with spines or scales or warts or gran- 
ules. Sometimes the exterior coat may be peeled off, sometimes 
it dries and falls away in fragments. 
The inner coat is thin and papery, and 
opens on the top with one opening. 
At first the ball is fleshy within, the 
microscope showing the flesh to con- 
sist of a great number of simple or 
branched threads and enlarged cells. 
The enlarged cells bear usually four 

Ly'-c6-per'-d6n 
124 



Lycoperdon 




Sterile base 



Section of Lycoperdon 
(diagrammatic) 



Genus Lycoperdon 

spicules, on the tips of which are the spores. When the plant 
is fully developed, the fleshy part becomes so filled with moisture 
that water may be squeezed out as from a sponge. As the flesh 
becomes moist, the colour changes from white, through yellow, 
to olive. After the change in colour, the wet mass becomes dry 
and powdery, a mass of globose spores and elastic threads or 
capillitium. 

The Lycoperdons are of small size, usually found infields and 
woods. A section made by cutting a ball from top to base will 
show that the threads form a more or less well developed sterile 
base or subgleba underneath the fertile gleba, or mass of threads 
containing spores. Sometimes the sterile threads from the base 
rise upward in the centre of the fertile mass and form a little 
column, the columella. Usually the threads which bear the 
spores are in two sets ; one set extending inward from the walls 
of the rind, and another set extending outward from the central 
columella. 

Pear-shaped Puffball (Edible) 

Lycoperdon pyriforme 

Peridwm or Pouch — Pear-shaped, Dingy white or brownish, with 

mycelium of long, white, branching fibres. Diameter ji-\}i 

inches. Height 1-2 inches. 
Bark or Outer Coat — Thin; of minute, often persistent, scales or 

granules, or short, stout spinules. Whitish grey or brownish. 
In?ier Coat — Smooth, papery, whitish grey or brownish, opening 

by apical mouth. 
Subgleba — Small, white, quite compact, the cells minute. 
Columella — Present. 

Spores — Globose, even, greenish yellow to brownish olive. 
Threads — Branched, long, forming a dense tuft in the centre. 
Time — July to October. 
Habitat — On old timber or on the ground, in groups sometimes 

several feet across in extent. The commonest of puffballs, 

and found throughout the world. 

Pinkish Puffball (Edible) 

Lycoperdon Stlbincarnatum (See Plate Facing Page 1 34) 

Peridium or Pouch — Globe-shaped, sessile, without a stem-like 
base. Rarely over one inch in diameter. 

Py'-rl-fur'-mc Sub-In'-cir-na'-tum 

125 



Puffballs 

Bark 07- Outer Coat — Pinkish brown, with minute short, stout spin- 

ules, which fall away at maturity.. 
Itmer Coat — Ash coloured. Deeply pitted by the falling off of the 

spinules of the outer coat, the pits not surrounded with 

dotted lines. 
Columella — Present. 
Suhgleba — Small but distinct. 
Spores and Capillitium — Spores round, minutely warted. Greenish 

yellow, then brownish olive. Threads long, simple, and 

transparent. 
Tit7ie — August to October. 
Habitat — Old trunks in woods. 



GENUS CALVATIA 

The Calvaiias are puffballs of large size, all with thick cord- 
like mycelium rooting from the base. They all eject their spores 

through irregular openings in the upper 

part of the peridium, and they all have 

a d e n s e 

network of 

branching 

threads 

(capillitium) 

t raversing 

the tissues 

of thespore- 

bearingpor- 

t i o n, the 
gleba. These threads are elastic, and project the spores from 
the rind or case as they twist and turn. The sterile portion, the 
subgleba, is definitely limited and concave above. 





Sterile base 



Calvatia 



Section of Calvatia 



Brain-shaped Calvatia (Edible) 

Calvatia craniformis 

Peridium or Pouch — Very large, obovoid or top-shaped, depressed 
above. 

Bark or Outer Coat — Smooth, very thin and fragile, easily peel- 
ing off. Pallid or greyish, often with a reddish tinge ; often 



Ciil-va'-sht-a, 



Cra-n!-f6r'-m!s 



126 





m: 



BRAIN PUFFBALL (EDIBLE) 
(Calvatia crani/ormis, Schw.) 



Genus Calvatia 

wrinkling to resemble somewhat the surface of the brain, 
whence its name cramformis. 

Inner Coat — Thin, ochreous to bright brown, velvety, extremely 
fragile. The upper part breaks into fragments. 

Subgleba — Occupies half the peridium ; cup-shaped above, per- 
sistent. 

Spores — Greenish yellow, then olivaceous. Globose, even, with 
minute pedicel. 

Threads — Long. 

Habitat — On ground in woods. 

Giant Puffball (Edible) 

Calvatia maxima 

Peridium or Pouch — Very large, 8-15 inches in diameter, or larger. 
Globose, depressed globose, or obovoid, with a thick cord- 
like root. 

Bark or Outer Coat — Flocculous or nearly smooth, thin, and fragile. 
White or greyish, becoming yellowish or brown; usually 
remaining closely adherent to the inner coat. 

Inner Coat — Thin and fragile after maturity, breaking up into 
fragments. 

Subgleba — Shallow or none. 

Spores and Threads — Greenish yellow, then brownish olive. Spores 
globose, threads long and branched. 

Time — August to September. 

Habitat — Grassy places. 

Calvatia maxima has been known as Lycoperdon giganteum, 
and also as Lycoperdon maxima. It has been transferred from 
the genus Lycoperdon to the genus Calvatia because it ruptures 
the peridium irregularly to discharge its spores, instead of form- 
ing a small hole at the apex, as other Lycoperdons do. 

It is asserted on good authority that the giant puffball has 
been found with a diameter of three feet and a weight of forty- 
seven pounds. The giant puffball is considered by many as a 
choice article of food when the flesh is white. It is said that 
if the flesh of a growing puffball is cut or injured the wounds 
will fill up with new tissue. It will be interesting for some one 
to try this experiment. 

In the days before matches came into use, the dry, spongy 
threads were used as tinder to catch the sparks which flew from 
the flint-stone when it was struck for fire, and the spore-dust 
was used to stanch the flow of blood. 

127 



Puffballs 



Cup-shaped Puffball (Edible) 

Calvatia cyathiformis 

Feridiian — Large, top-shaped. 

Bark or Outer Coat — Thin, adherent, smooth, and continuous, 
easily peeling off. 

Inner Coat — Pale to dark purple, loosely woven, fragile at matur- 
ity, breaking up into fragments from above downward. 

Siibgleba — Short and thick, with cord-like root, persistent, cup- 
shaped, occupying Vi-Y-z the peridium. 

Spores and Threads — Violet to dark purple. Spores globose and 
warted, threads long. 

Time — August to October. 

Habitat — On the ground in meadows and pastures. 

The old name was Ly coper don cyathi forme. Cyaihi forme, 
meaning cup-shaped, is suggested by the cup-like base which 
remains after the dispersion of the spores and threads (capillitium). 



GEl^US BOVISTA 



In the genus Bovista the rind or peridium opens by an apical 
mouth, as do the species of Lycoperdon, but the species of 

Bo-vista have no 

sterile base. 

They are puff- 
balls of small 

size, growing 

in fields and 

woods. The 

outer coat is 

thin and fragile, 

and scales off 

at maturity. The inner coat is thin, becoming papery, and 
then opens by an apical mouth. 

Bovista plitmbea is esteemed a delicacy. It is shaped like a 
flattened globe, with a smooth, white inner coat, and a lead- 
coloured outer coat opening by an apical mouth. 

Cy'-ath-l-for'-mls Bo-vls'-ta Plum'-be-a 

128 





Bovista 



Section of Bovista 
(diagrammatic) 




Bovistella Ukietisis^ Ellis and Morgan 
(Edible.) Reduced 




CUP-SHAPED CALVATIA (EDIBLE) 

(Cahiatia cyaihi/ormis^ Bosc) 

Reduced. Nat. size : Hall diam., 2^3 inches 



Genus Geaster 



GENUS BOy 1ST ELLA 

The genus Bovistella contains but one species. 

Bovistella OhiensiS (Edible) (See Plate facing page 128) 

Peridiiim or Pouch — Globose or broadly obovoid, sometimes much 

depressed, wrinkled underneath, with thick cord-like base. 
Bark or Outer Coat — Dense, floccose, or with soft warts or spines. 

White or greyish, drying 

to buff colour, and falling 

away. 
Inner Coat — Smooth, shining, 

pale brown or yellowish 

surface. 
Siibgleba — Cup-shaped, broad, 

ample, occupying nearly 

one-half the peridium ; 

long, persistent. 
Spores and Capillitiian — Loose, 

friable, clay colour. 



Threads 



Cup-shaped 
base 




Section of Bovistella (diagrammatic) 



Threads free, short, twice branching, originating within the 
spore mass, and having no connection with the tissue of the 
inner coat. 
Habitat — On ground in pastures and open woods. 



GENUS GEASTER 



Earth-stars 

The Geasters or Earth-stars are the most picturesque forms 
of the puffballs. At first they are sunk deep in the soil, and are 
connected with it by abundant thread-like mycelium, which 
issues from every part of the surface. In the earth-stars the 
covering to the pouch is double, the outer cover is thick and 
leathery, and at first closely invests the inner coat, but is separate 
from it. At maturity the outer coat breaks its connection with 
the mycelium in the soil and bursts to form separate lobes, which 
become reflexed and lift the inner ball from the ground into the 
air, where it remains, seated at the centre of the expanded star- 



Bo-vls-tei'-li 
9 



O-hi-en'-sIs 
I2g 



Ge-as'-ter 



Puff balls 

like coat. The coat of this ball is thin and papery, and opens by 
one apical mouth. The threads or capillitium, which bear the 
spores, project from the tissue of the inner wall and also from a 
central columella. 

The Geasters have no economic value, but are rather inter- 
esting to the nature student on account of their beauty and their 
curious methods of discharging their spores. 

The Smallest Earth-star 

Geaster minimus 

Peridium or Pouch — Globose, depressed, not pointed; vaulted 

underneath. 
Bark 07- Outer Coat — Segments acute at the apex, many lobed; 

the lobes, seven to nine, expanding ^-i inch. 
Inner Coat — Ovoid, ^-i inch in diameter, white to pale brown, 

with a distinct pedicel, seated in a plain circular disk. 
Mouth — Lifted on a cone, lip bordered with hair-like fringe. 
Spores — Brown, globe-shaped, minutely warted. 
Threads — Transparent. 
Habitat — Grassy grounds. 

Water-measuring Earth-star 

Geaster hygrometricus 

Peridium or Pouch — Sub-globose, depressed, the bark or skin fall- 
ing with the mycelium. 

Bark or Outer Coat — Deeply parted; the segments, acute at the 
apex, seven to twenty. Strongly hygrometric, expanding to 
a breadth of 2-3 inches. 

Inner Coat — Globose, depressed, sessile, covered with a network. 
Whitish or greyish. 

Mouth— RXm irregular. 

Spores — Brown, globe-shaped, minutely warted. 

Threads — Transparent, much branched and interwoven ; continu- 
ous with the hyphse or threads of the inner coat. 

Habitat — Fields and woods, in sandy soil. 

The Geaster hygrometricus, or Astrcviis hygrometrictis as it 
is called by some, is found all over the world. When the 

Mln'-l-mus Hy'-gro-met'-ri-ciis 

130 









1 {. 


*- 






7 



LEAST EARTH-STAR 
{Geaster ii'.iniimis, Schw. Nat. size) 




WATER-MEASURING EARTH-STAR 
{Geaster hygrometricus, Pers. Nat. size) 




z-^< y 



/■ 






f l/- 



-^zi' 



BIRD'S NEST 

{Cvathus zic'rnicosi4s, D. C. Nat. size) 
See page 133 



Genus Calostoma 

weather is wet, the lining of the points of the star become gelati- 
nous and lie flat on the ground, anchoring the plant firmly ; but 
when the weather is dry, the soft, gelatinous part becomes hard 
and rigid, and curls the segments up around the inner ball; then 
the wind rolls it about, and it scatters its spores from the hole in 
the apex of the ball as it rolls. It is a fair-weather traveller, 
always resting at night and on damp days. 



GENUS CALOSTOMA 



This genus has but three known American species. The 
plants are remarkable in structure and substance. The spore 
mass or gleba lies at the centre of a base, and is in its young 
stages surrounded by four layers. The outermost coat is gelati- 
nous, and soon disappears. This is known as the volva or 
wrapper. The layer just within the wrapper also soon disap- 
pears ; it is known as the exoperidium. The layer just within 
the exoperidium is known as the endoperidium, and is the layer 
seen on the exterior of older specimens. Between the exope- 
ridium and endoperidium is a layer of red threads, part of which 
is torn away when the exoperidium breaks, and a part of which 
remains as a red star at the apex of the ball. 

The exoperidium is cartilaginous ; it is thin and fragile when 
dry, but when wet it is flexible, translucent, and soft. The 
endoperidium is hard and rigid when dry, and is conspicuous for 
the brilliant red which shows at its mouth. Within the endo- 
peridium is a sac which contains the spores ; when the spores 
are mature, this sac contracts, and forces the spores out into the 
air. The mycelium, or vegetative part of the Calostoma plant, is 
composed of numerous cord-like fibres, translucent, jelly-like, 
and tough, which, branching and anastomosing into a dense net- 
work, form a rooting columnar base to the spore-bearing part of 
the plant. The name Calostoma means beautiful mouth, referring 
to the red star which surrounds the opening through which the 
spores escape. 

Cai-6s'-t6-m& 

131 



Puffballs 



Calostoma lutescens 



Ball or Peridiuni — Globular, with a thick, entangled, rooting base. 

Outer Coat or Exoperidium — Dingy yellow, rupturing so as to form 
a ragged collar at the base, a thin cap on the summit, and 
small fragments between. The cap is marked on the under 
side with a vermilion star outlined with yellow. 

Inner Coat or Endoperidium — Smooth, globular. Pale yellow. 

Mouth — With several rays of a bright red colour. 

Footstalk — Thick, of entangled strands finer than those of C. cin- 
iiabarhimn. Stem long, yellowish green. 

Spores — Globular, with protuberances. 



Calostoma Ravenelii 



Bailor Peridium — Globular, with a thick, entangled, rooting base. 
Outer Coat or Exoperidium — Cartilaginous, gelatinous. Fragments 

remain upon the inner coat in the form of irregular warts or 

scales. 
Inner Coat or Endoperidium — Yellowish. Tough when wet, rigid 

when dry. 
Mouth — Red starred. 
Footstalk — Short and rooting, composed of mycelial threads netted 

to form cartilaginous cords. 
Spores — Elliptical, oblong, smooth. 



Calostoma cinnabarinum 

Outer Coat or Exoperidium — Vermilion within, breaking at the 

base and sometimes at the apex. 
Inner Coat or Endoperidium — Yellowish, often slightly vermilion. 

Smooth. 
Mouth — Rays several. Vermilion. 
Footstalk — Reddish brown or brownish. 
Spores — Elliptical oblong, spined or punctured, pale ochre 

yellow. 

Lii-tes'-^ens Ra-ven-el'-I-I Cln'-na-ba-n'-nura 

132 




Calostoma Ravenelii (^Berk.j Mass. 





Calostoma cinnabarinum, Desv. 




Calostoma lutescens (Schw.j, Burnap. 



Spatluilaiia velutipes, C. &. F. 
Reduced. See page 138. 



Genus Scleroderma 



ORDER NIDULARIALES 

The members of this order, Nidulariales, or bird's-nest fungi, 
are curious fungi of small size. They resemble, when mature, tiny 
birds' nests containing eggs, as the pouch in which the spores are 
developed opens at the top to form a nest or bowl or trumpet, and 
the globular cases in which the spores are contained have strong 
walls, and remain in the open pouch like eggs in a nest. 

One genus of the order, Sphceroholus, has two walls or layers 
to its nest and but one spore case or '' tggJ" This '' tgg'' is 
jelly-like, and is forcibly thrown from the nest when the spores in 
it are mature. While a part of this action is due to the mechan- 
ical working of the teeth, it is thought that underneath the spore 
case gases are formed which expand, and so help force out the 

The other genera have but one wall to their nests. The 
genus Niditlaria has ragged edges, the genus Cyathus is trumpet- 
shaped, and the genus Crucibulum is bowl-shaped. 



ORDER SCLERODERMATALES 

The puffballs of the order Sclerodennatales have the rind 
or peridium thick. The spores remain in the peridium until 
maturity, when they escape from an irregular opening in the 
rind. The species are not numerous, but some are abundant and 
widely distributed. 



GENUS SCLERODERMA 

The species of the genus Scleroderma, or thick-skinned puff- 
balls, represent a transition from the subterranean forms to those 
which emerge from the ground and have a definite opening from 
which they eject their spores. To illustrate : there is one group 
{Hymenogastrales) in which the species remain in the ground, 

NTd-u-ia'-rT-a'-Ics Nrd-u-Ll'-rt-d Cru-9Tb'-u-lum Scl^r-6-der'-mii 

Sphe-r6b'-6-lus ^y'-i-thiis SclSr'-S-dcr'-mii-ta'-lcs 

J 33 



Puffballs 

even when mature, unless washed out by rains or nosed out by 
animals, and which rely upon being crushed by accident or upon 
the disintegration of their rinds to free their spores. All true puff- 
balls push themselves out of the ground before the spores are 
mature, and then, by rupturing the skin in a definite manner 
when mature, disperse their spores. The thick-skinned puff- 
ball goes a step farther than the first mentioned and emerges 
from the ground; but it remains behind the true puffballs, which 
disperse their spores from a definite opening, for it ruptures the 
skin irregularly. 

Scleroderma vulgare (Edible) 



Peridium or Pouch — Rough and warty ; 
depressed, globose. Pinkish to 
buff, remaining solid until the 
fungus is quite old. Sessile or 
with a rooting base. Ruptures 
irregularly to scatter the spores. 

Subgleba — None. 

Spore Mass — Lead colour marbled with 
white. 

Habitat — Old stumps and buried roots. 




Section of S. vulgare 



This fungus has been eaten without harm, but is pronounced 
very unattractive. 

Vul-ga'-re 



134 




FLESH-COLOURED PUFFBALL (EDIBLE) 

{Lycoperdon subincay-natum. Peck) 

See page 125 




YOUNG PEAR-SHAPED PUFFBALL :£DiBLE; 

(Lycoperdon pyri/ornte, Schaeff) 

See page 125 




HARD-SKINNED PUFFBALL 
(Sclt-riuifriiia vulgnrc, Frics^ 



CHAPTER XII: SPORE-SAC FUNGI— 
ASCOMYCETES 

All the fungi which belong in the class Ascomycetes de- 
velop their spores in little membranous sacs called asci. These 
asci are, as a rule, collected, together 
with slender empty asci, called para- 
physes, in variously shaped bodies, 
known in different orders by different 
names, such as perithecium, ascoma, 
apothecium, and receptacle. This class 
includes in its numbers individuals 
ranging in size from microscopic one- 
celled plants to conspicuous and often 
beautiful specimens. We shall con- 
cern ourselves with but a few of 
those conspicuous ones which are attractive either from an edible 
or an artistic standpoint. 



Asci 



..Paraphyses 




Asci and paraphyses 



ORDER TUBERALES— TRUFFLES 

The order Tnberales contains the truffles, which are subter- 
ranean fungi, ranging in size from an acorn to a good-sized po- 
tato. The asci or spore-sacs are formed 
on the inte- 
rior of the 
fungus, the 
warty truffle 
itself being 
called an as- 
coma, as it 
contains the 
asci. 

Since the time of Pliny and Dioscorides, truffles have been 
known and esteemed as a table delicacy. Since they mature 

As'-c6-niy-ce'-tcs Tu'-Wr-a'-lcs 

135 





Section to show position of 
asci 



Truffles, ascoma 



Spore-sac Fungi — Ascomycetes 

underground, they must be hunted for by dogs and pigs trained 
for the purpose. A pig will scent a truffle at a distance of twenty 
feet, and will run quickly to the spot to dig it out with her snout. 
An attendant must follow the pig to secure the truffle before the 
pig eats it. Edible species have not been found growing in this 
country. 



ORDER HYPOCREALES 



The order Hypocreales contains certain fungi which are 
parasitic on other fungi, and also on insects. In the genus 
Cordyceps there is a club-like form about an inch long, and 
of a rich red colour, which lives as a parasite on the 
pupae of various moths buried beneath dead leaves, in 
New Zealand a similar fungus lives on caterpillars. The 
mycelium in time replaces the body, but maintains out- 
wardly the form and appearance of the caterpillar. These 
growths are much prized by the natives as food. The 
form which grows on the truffle-like Elaphomyces is shown 
in the species of Elaphomyces upon which the Cordy- 
ceps lives as a parasite grow two or three inches below 
the surface of the ground, and somewhat resembles a 
truffle in appearance. 

ORDER SPHyERIALES 

(See Plate Facikg Page i i6) 

The Xylarta pictured is a woody fungus which is 
common, growing on logs or at the bases of trees or 
stumps. The collections of asci {perithecia) are fully im- 
bedded in the fleshy part of 
the fungus {stroma), which is 
formed almost wholly of 
Fungus growing on caterpillar hardened mycelium. 

Hy-p6-crS-a'-les C6r'-dy-9eps E'-laph-6'-my-ces Sphe-rK-a'-les Zy-Ia'-ri-3 

136 




.f. 

t. 




M 



mW^i 




Cordyceps capitala (Holmsk.), Lk. 
(Parasitic on Elaphomyces.) 
Reduced. 



¥ 




Lycogala epidendron. 
Reduced. See page 144. 




Floccjbt; Chanterelle (edible). 
(Cantharellus floccosus, Schw.) 
Se-i page 53. 




Mutinus caninus, Huds. 
See page 120. 




SLIPPERY LEOTIA (EDIBLEi 

{Lfotia lubrica (Scop.)i Pers.) 

Gelatinous, gristly ; spore-bearing body {ascoma)^ green or yellow ; stem yellow 

Family, Geoglossacea. Class, Ascomycetes. Order, Helrellales. See p. 138 




JELLY-LIKE TREMELLODON (EDIBLE, Mel.) 

( Treniellodon gelatinosiim) 
Surface white to grey; teeth white. Class, Basidiomycetes. Order, Tretnellales. See Genus, p. 116 



Order Pezizales— Cup Fungi 

ORDER PEZIZALES-CUP FUNGI 

The Pe:(^f\ales or cup fungi, which are typically disk or cup- 
shape, comprise an extensive group, and vary in size from forms 
scarcely visible to the naked eye to forms several inches in 
diameter. One genus, Peii{a, has a smooth ascomata, regularly 
saucer-shaped or cup-shaped. The genus contains many species 
which are met with chiefly on decaying vegetable matter. The 
spore-sacs are situated on the upper surfaces of the cups, and the 
spores are ejected with such force and in such profusion that they 
form a cloud around the plant from which they are expelled. 

Pe^iia ceruginosa is a stalked green form, and is interesting 
because it permeates the wood of oaks and beeches with its 
mycelium, and gives a rich green colour to the wood, which 
makes it valuable for the manufacture of the famous "Tunbridge 
ware." One may often find the wood affected when the fruit 
cups are not evident. Pe^i^a Willkommii produces on larch trees 
a disease known as the "larch canker," which shows itself as a 
sunken, blistered hole from which resin flows. This patch is 
formed because the mycelium of the fungus attacks and destroys 
the cambium or green layer which lies under the brown bark, 
and since this is the tissue which builds up the wood of the 
trees, the growth of wood in this part is prevented. The fruits 
appear above the bark in the form of little cups, white outside 
and scarlet within. When branches bearing golden-yellow 
needles are seen among the fresh green shoots of a larch, pre- 
maturely giving to the tree an autumnal appearance, one may 
expect to find Peit^a Willkommii at work. 

Peziza odorata (Edible) 

Cup — Yellowish, translucent, becoming 
dull brown when old. The flesh 
is moist and watery, and separable 
into two layers; the outer layer 
rough, and the inner smooth. The 
frame is cup-shaped when young, 
but flattened and split on the mar- 
gin when old. 

E'-ru-gtn-o'-si \Vllkum'-t-I 6'-cl6r-a'-ti Section to show two layers 

137 




Spore-sac Fungi — Ascomycetes 

Stem — None. 

Habitat — The specimen pictured was found in December, among 
the violets in a cold frame in New Jersey. 

Golden Peziza (Edible) 

Pe:{i\a auraniia 

Cup — Orange red within, golden or whitish outside, with a 

frosted appearance. Subsessile, irregular. 
Habitat — In clusters on the ground, usually in the autumn. 

ORDER HELyELLALES—EAR TH- TONGUES 

The order Hehellales contains the fleshy spore-sac fungi 
which have the spore-bearing body, the ascoma, open from the 
earliest stage of its development. 

FAMILY GEOGLOSSACEy^ 

The family Geoglossacea% which belongs to this order, con- 
tains the earth-tongues, which are club-like forms, green or 
black or yellow, and from one to three inches high, common on 
the ground, growing in rich wood mould. In consistency they 
are fleshy, gelatinous, or waxy, and their asci open by means 
of a terminal pore. 

GENUS SPATHULARIA 

The genus Spathtilaria has the spore body flattened and 
growing down both sides of the stem. 

Velvety Spathularia 

Spathtilaria velutipes (See Plate Facing Page 132) 

Spore Body — Flattened, tawny yellow, shaped like a spatula, with 
the spore surface wavy and growing down two sides of the 
stem. 

Stem — Hollow, minutely velvety, dark brown tinged with yellow. 

Fksh — Firm and tough, shrinking little in drying. 

Habitat — Mossy trunks in damp woods. 

Au-r2.n'-shl-a. Ve-lu'-tt-pes 

138 




^•fciCi 



Golden Peziza (edible). 
(Peziza aurantia, Pers.) 




Peziza odorata. Pk. (edible). 
Reduced. See page 137. 



Genus Vibrissea 



Spathularia clavata 

Spo7'e Body — Clear yellow, shaped like a spatula, sometimes tinged 
with red. Obtuse or cleft at the apex, the surface wavy, 
the margin crisped, growing down the stem some distance 
on opposite sides ; hollow. 

Stem — Thick, hollow. White, often becoming yellowish. 

Flesh — Dry. 

GENUS GEOGLOSSUM 

The genus Geoglossum has the spore body simple, erect, 
and club-shaped, and entirely black. The spore surface is ter- 
minal. 

Geoglossum hirsutum 

Geoglossum hirsiitiini is black, dry, and everywhere velvety. 
Lanceolate, ovate, oblong, or almost round, often irregular. The 
spore-bearing portion is one-quarter to one-half the length of the 
fungus. 



Geoglossum glabrum 

Geoglossiim glabrum is dry, black, or brownish black, some- 
times tinged with olive or purple. Club-shaped or sometimes 
laterally compressed. The spore-bearing portion not sharply 
distinct from the stem below. 

GENUS VIBRISSEA 

The genus Vibrissea contains fungi with vertical and simple 
stems, and horizontal caps with their thick margins rolled in to- 
ward the stem. The spore-sacs are borne on the upper surface. 

Vibrissea truncorum 

Vibrissea truncoruin is a clear orange-red or sometimes yel- 
low or brownish-red fungus, about an inch high, found on 
decayed wood, branches, or leaves which are submerged in 
water. 

ClAv-a'-til HTr-sii'-tum Vl-bris'-se-a 

Ge-6-gl6s'-sum Gla'-brum Triin-co'-riim 

139 



Spore-sac Fungi— Ascomycetes 



Vibrissea circinans 

yibrissea circinans is a pale yellowish flesh colour, or simply 
yellowish fleshy fungus found growing in circles or clusters, 
with convex caps and incurved, wavy margins, the concave under 
surface often minutely wrinkled. The stem is long, pallid, or 
reddish. The plant is found chiefly in pine woods. 

GENUS MITRULA 

The genus Miirtila has the spore body erect, black or bright 
coloured, and dry, spatulate, or cylindrical, often compressed lat- 
erally. The spore-bearing surface is sharply distinct from the 
scaly or mealy stem below. 

Irregular Mitrula (Edible) 

Mitrula vitellina, var. irregularis * 

Spore Body — Bright tgg yellow. Club-shaped, somewhat lobed, 
cylindrical or compressed ; apex narrow, obtuse, smooth. 
No two plants are quite alike. Length, 1-2 inches. 

Stetn — Short, white, rather distinct, covered with fibres. Spongy 
and white within. 

Habitat — in mossy places in woods during the autumn. The 
specimen pictured was found growing among fallen birch 
leaves, hemlock needles, and moss, in the dense woods at 
Lake Placid. 

FAMILY HELVELLACEy^— MORELS 

A second family Helvellacece contains three important gen- 
era, Morchella, Gyromitra, and Helvetia, in which are the largest 
and most highly prized spore-sac fungi known. They are dis- 
tinguished from the earth-tongues by the cap-like form of the 
spore body or ascoma, but especially by the character of the 
spore-sac, which opens by a little lid instead of by a simple pore. 

Qir-9t'-nans Vl'-tel-ll'-ni Gy'-ro-ml'-tra 

MIt'-ru-la M6r-kel'-ia Hel-vel'-lS 

* This species is also described under the names Geoglossum irregulare and 
Geoglossum vitelliiium. 

140 




Helvella elastica, Bull. Reduced. See page 142 



y 




Helvella lacunosa, Holm. Reduced Seepage 143- 




Mitrula vitelima, ^acc, var. irregularis, Pk. (edible). Reduce 



■\ 



Genus Morchella 



GENUS GYROMITRA 

The genus Gyromitra contains seven species. These have 
the ascomata distinctly stalked, and the upper surface covered 
with gyrose folds. The largest spore-sac fungi belong in this 
genus. 

Gyromitra esculenta (Edible) 



Cap — Bay red, round, lobed, irregular, 
gyrose-wrinkled, attached to the 
stem in several places. Hollow, 
white, and uneven within. 

»S/<fw— Whitish, hollow, scurfy. Two or 
more inches long. 

Flesh — Edible only when young and 
freshly gathered. 

Habitat— \n sandy soil, during the wet 
weather of May and June. 




G. esculenta 




M. deliciosa 

Section to show margin of the cap 

united to the stem. 



GENUS MORCHELLA 

The genus Morchella has the 
cap covered with a network of blunt 
ridges enclosing irregular depressed 
spaces. The spore-sacs are devel- 
oped in both ridges and depressions. 
All the species when young are 
of a buff yellow tinged 
with brown, but later 
they are darker. The 
stems are rather stout 
and hollow, white or 
whitish in some spe- 
cies, and attached to 
the cap at the apex 
only ; but in others, 
attached to the rim 
as well. All the species 

Es -ctt-lSn -ti 




M. esculenta 



141 



Spore-sac Fungi — Ascomycetes 

are edible and highly esteemed. They must be looked for during 
wet weather, early in the season. They may be classed in two 
groups, according to the attachment of the stem. 



1— MARGIN OF CAP UNITED TO THE STEM 

Cap rounded or oval Morchella esculenta 

Cap oblong or cylindrical : Morchella deliciosa 

Cap conical or oblong conical ; broader than stem Morchella conica 

Cap conical or oblong conical ; scarcely broader than stem. Morchella angusticeps 



II_MARGIN OF CAP FREE FROM THE STEM 

Cap free from the stem to the middle Morchella semilibera 

Cap free from the stem to the top Morchella bispora 




GENUS HELyELLA 

The genus Helvella contains twelve species. They 
all have lobed, irregular, or saddle-shaped caps, which 
are fleshy, and attached to the stem at the apex. They 
are contorted in such a way that no two of the species 
appear alike. 



Helvella 



Helvella elastica 

(See Plate Facing Page 140) 

Cap — Brownish grey. Cup-shaped, flattening out when mature ; 

when young, the under surface is covered with little spines 

or hairs. Both surftices are smooth when mature. 
Stem — Slender, of the same colour as the cap, tapering toward 

the cap. Solid and white within. 
Habitat — The specimen pictured was found growing beneath 

hemlocks and yellow birches, in Lake Placid forest, during 

September. 

De-ltsh-K-o'-sS, An-gus'-tl-9eps Bi'-sp6r-a 

C6n'4-ca Sem'-MIb'-er-a E-las'-tlc-a 

142 




DELICIOUS MOREL (EDIBLE) 
{Morc/tel/a deliciosa, Fr.) 




Polyporus arcuiarius, (Ratsch) Fries 
See page iiz 



Genus Helvella 



Helve Ua laCUnOSa (See Plate facing Page 140) 

Cap — Of one piece, thin and flexible like rubber cloth, folded to 
saddle the apex of the stem. The two saddle-flaps are at- 
tached on their 



margins 



irreg- 



at 
ular intervals 
when young, and 
are puffed out 
like a balloon ; 
but when ma- 
ture, the pieces 
separate. Their 
outer surface is 
brownish grey, 
and their inner 
surface light 
grey, creased and 
folded. 

Stem — Irregularly and 
deeply furrowed. 

Flesh — Odour offen- 
sive. 

Habitat — The speci- 
men pictured was 
found growing 
imbedded in deep 
woods. 




Attachment 
of stem 



Cap flattened 
out 



H. lacunosa (diagrammatic) 



moss on old bark in the Lake Placid 



Lac-u-no'-sa 



143 



CHAPTER XIII: SLIME FUNGI— MYXO- 

MYCETES 

(See Plate Facing Page 136) 

Whether the slime fungi are plants or animals is a question 
not yet decided. They are living organisms which have no 
chlorophyll, or leaf-green, and which in their vegetative state 
resemble certain groups of the Proio^oa, or unicellular animals, 
which live in water. In their manner of reproduction they show 
resemblances to certain fungi, and the spore cases or sporangia 
of some resemble tiny puffballs in form and maimer of ejecting 
their spores. 

In the growing stage they consist of a naked mass of yel- 
lowish or whitish protoplasm, which creeps about in the dark, in 
accumulations of dead parts of plants, or under the bark of 
rotting stumps or logs. When a spore germinates, the mem- 
brane about it bursts, and a bit of naked and slimy protoplasm 
escapes. This tiny mass creeps about, absorbing food from its 
surroundings, and increasing in size until it may perhaps cover 
an area of many inches. After a time spores begin to form, then 
either the whole mass is transformed into a single spore case or a 
number of spore cases are formed. The spore cases of Lycogala 
epidendroji are pretty things, resembling pink coral beads. When 
fresh, a case is filled with a thin pink paste; but when mature, 
with fine brown dust-like spores. When the spore case bursts, 
these spores escape, and if they fall in favourable places the life 
cycle begins anew. 

Myx'-6-my-5e'-tes Pro-to-zo'-i Ly-cog'-X-li £p-K-den'-dr6n 



144 




BRISTLY PANUS 

(Panus sirig-nsus, B. & C.; Lentinus strigosus') 
Cap, gills, and stem creamy. See Genus, p. 67 



CHAPTER XIV : FUNGI FOR THE HERBARIUM 

There are no plants more difficult to preserve for an her- 
barium than the fleshy fungi, and yet my personal observation 
leads me to believe that there are many people who would be 
willing to undertake the task if they knew how to set about it; 
and there is no class of plants in which the assistance of the 
amateur may help the botanist more than in this, provided that, 
at the time of gathering a specimen, full descriptive notes are 
made of all the characteristics of the plant. 

To aid one in quickly taking notes, it is well to have with 
one in the field some printed or written blanks. A convenient 
form is suggested by the following outline, which is the one 
used by the Boston Mycological Club : 

Species 
Collected by 
No. 

Locality 
Date 

COLLECTOR'S NOTES. 

N.B. — When collecting, be sure to get the whole plant, base and all, uninjured; 
and to get young as well as mature specimens. 

Note here at once the 

Habitat. On j ;!:^^^ ('^;';^.' f ,^ °\;'"'"g^- 

( (jround (kind oi soil). 

Place (wood, field, wet or dry, high land or low, etc.). 

Under and near what trees ? 

Manner of j (Solitary, in clusters, troops, or caespitose [growing from one 
Growth. ( root]). 

Cliaracter. (Viscid, hygrophanous [transparent when moist], dry.) 

Smell. 

Taste. 

Spores. Colour. 

Note. — If the plant is perishable, sketch and describe it fully at once, and look 

lo 145 



Fungi for the Herbarium 

for indications of spore colour. After the plant is described it may be dried in hot 
air (over a stove for instance) and preserved or sent in for identification. 

Sketch the plant, indicating markings of cap and stem. Draw or trace a vertical 
section through the centre of cap and stem, indicating thickness of flesh; shape and 
attachment of gills; nature of interior of stem; position of ring, volva, etc. Do this 
also for a young specimen (button), showing whether the margin of the pileus is 
straight or incurved. 

N.B. — if not life size, note dimensions. 

When the characters vary with age or with moisture, note the changes. 



Pileus. 



( Shape (flat, convex, concave, umbonate [raised in the centre], 
I umbilicate [depressed in the centre], etc.). 

Is it viscid when moist and fresh; tough, fragile, fleshy, mem- 
branaceous; smooth, floccose, scaly, silky, fibrillose; even, 
rough, wrinkled, furrowed? etc. 

Is the margin entire, wavy, striate, inrolled, upturned, smooth, 
woolly, hairy, appendiculate? etc. 

Colour and markings. 

Gills. Shape. 

Attachment (adnate, sinuate, decurrent, etc., ox free). 

Are they distant or crowded, all of one length, branching or 
forked, connected by veins ? 

Surface (smooth, powdery, marked in any way). 

Colour (young and old). 

Texture (thick, thin, brittle, etc.). 

Margin (entire, wavy, scalloped, toothed, fringed). 

With Boleti note colour, length, and size of tubes, shape and size 
of mouths, relation of pore surface to stem, etc. 

Flesh. Consistency (firm, mealy, punky, etc.). 

Colour (in general; just under skin; near gills or tubes). 

Juice (taste and colour). 
Stem. Texture (tough, flexuous, fragile, fleshy). 

Shape (tapering either way, straight or bent, swollen, etc.). 

Exterior (cartilaginous, fibrous or not, etc.). 

Colour and markings (striate, dotted, pruinose [with a bloom], 
fibrillose, or smooth, etc.). 

Interior (hollow, solid, stuffed, fistulose [tubular], etc.). 

Base (shape, markings, etc.). 

146 



Fungi for the Herbarium 

Mycelium (thread-like, cottony, compact, root-like, sclerotioid 
[hard], coloured). 



Veil. (Examine young specimens) 

Ring. 

Volva. (Examine young buttons, base of stem, surface of pileus). 

Remarks. 



( (Relative position, permanent or fugacious [quickly disappearing], 
\ etc.). 



Collector's Outfit. — For collecting fungi there is nothing 
better than a cheap splint basket with a cover. The size will 
depend upon the ambition and strength of the collector. In ad- 
dition, a chisel for woody fungi and a trowel or broad-bladed 
knife will be found convenient ; also a few small boxes for 
fragile species, and a package of thin, tough, uncoloured paper 
in which other specimens may be put. Sheets of six inches 
square and also of twelve by twenty-four are convenient sizes. 
Before the specimens are put in the basket, those of a kind should 
be compactly piled in the centre of a sheet, and the four corners 
of the sheet brought together and fastened by twisting them. 
The slip with the notes may either be put inside the package or 
fastened on the outside. 

Care of Specimens. — As soon as possible after reaching 
home, the packages should be taken from the basket and spread 
out in convenient places. If the specimens are to be used imme- 
diately for identification, begin with the most perishable, or they 
will be lost by decay. If they are to be preserved for future use, 
put them in the warmest place available where they will not 
burn. This may be under or over the kitchen stove, or in the 
furnace-room of the hotel or laundry ; or, if any of these places is 
not practicable, then a drier may be improvised by placing over 
a lamp a frame made of wire screening. 

Collecting Spores. — At least one specimen of each kind 
should be set for spores. This is readily done by thrusting the 
stem of one plant through a hole in a disk of gummed paper so 
that the paper fits closely against the gills. This disk may be 
held in place by thrusting the stem of the fungus through a piece 
of thin paper and then bringing the paper above the cap and 
twisting the corners. Use white disks for fungi suspected of 
having coloured spores, and coloured paper for those suspected of 

147 



Fungi for the Herbarium 

having white spores. If there is any doubt, set two fungi — one 
with a coloured disk and the other with a white one. 

It is an easy matter to fix spores for future use, but a more 
difficult matter to fix them so t'hat they represent a picture of the 
radiating gills. In order to do this the stem must be cut from 
the cap, and the cap must be so arranged over the paper that no 
draughts shall disturb the spores as they f^ill, and also so that it 
may be removed from the paper without disturbing the spores 
after they have fallen. The writer would suggest that two fine 
wires should be thrust horizontally and at right angles to each 
other through the cap, and that the ends of the wires should be 
supported in a convenient manner, so that the cap may just 
swing free from the paper which is to receive the spores. The 
whole must be covered to keep the spores from being disturbed 
by draughts. When the spores have fallen, the cover can be re- 
moved, the cap raised, and the spore-print fixed. 

Various methods of fixing spores for prints are recommended. 
The following are quoted from a bulletin of the Boston Mycoiog- 
ical Club : 

The following directions iox fixing spore prints are taken from Herpel (" Das 
Prapariren der Hutpilze "). 

Paper which is somewhat absorbent must be used; unglazed blue or black paper 
(of which the colour must be unaffected by the fixative) for white-spored species. 
The piece of paper bearing the spore print is to be laid, spores upward, in a flat plate 
or platter on which a thin layer of fixative has first been poured. The fixative is al- 
lowed to soak up through from below, and should not overflow the edges of the 
paper. When it is certain that the spores as well as the paper are thoroughly soaked, 
the preparation is removed and dried; sometimes, to prevent sticking, being laid on 
moistened blotting-paper. 

The fixative to be used will vary with the species. For instance, the spores of 
Ca7ttharellus ciharitis and some others may be fixed by water alone. The following 
solution is recommended for Boleti and species with coloured spores: One part san- 
darac, two parts mastic, and two parts Canada balsam, dissolved in thirty parts of 
ninety-five per cent, alcohol. In the use of this it has been found that the time of 
soaking necessary to fix the spores is for Boleti, \.\no minutes; Dermini, C oprinarii, 
Gomphidius, Paxillus, Russ2ila, and Lactarius, four to five minutes; pink-spored 
agarics, also dark brown spored (as the meadow mushroom), and Coriinarii, six to 
eight minutes. It is important that the alcohol should be full strength. 

A gelatine solution is useful for white-spored species. This is prepared and used 
warm. Its strength varies with the species. Lepiota procera, Collybia radicata, and 
Clitocybe laccata may be fixed by a solution of one part gelatine to thirty of water. 
For species of Tricholoma this is too strong, and one to sixty, or one to two hun- 
dred must be the formula. The difficulty arises here from the fact that an excess of 

148 



Fungi for the Herbariun 

gelatine makes the spores transparent and even invisible. Their opacity may be 
secured by previous treatment with a solution of one part mastic in thirty of ether. 

For certain kinds {Tricholoma pcrsoiiatum, Lepiota granulosa, Anianitopsis 
vaginata, and others which experiment will discover), ten to twenty-five per cent, 
of alcohol must be added to the gelatine solution in order to make the spores adhere. 

Experience will doubtless show that other fixatives may be used. Gum arable, 
for instance, suggests itself This, however, if strong, is apt to cake the spores to- 
gether. If one method fails, invention and repeated trials must find a successful 
means. Reports are requested from all who engage in the amusement of making 
spore prints. To these a suggestion not without value is that dry agarics (like 
Marasmiiis and some Collyhias) may be kept in a condition to shed spores by putting 
moistened blotting-paper under them. 

Another method of making spore prints is to spray them 
from an atomizer with a solution of white shellac in alcohol. 
A saturated solution should be made, and then diluted fifty per 
cent, with alcohol. 

The Search for a Name. — When looking up a name for a 
plant, the best plan is to use fresh specimens, and, if a good 
supply can be had, make a careful comparison of all, so as to be 
sure that the characteristics are normal and not due to injury. 
If the attempt to find a satisfactory description is not successful, 
preserve the specimens dried, together with full notes, and send 
a part of them to the State botanist for determination. 

The name of a fungus is not the vital thing. In pursuit of a 
name do not neglect the plant. Observe it as it grows and in 
its different stages. Make a friend of it, and you will find it 
good company. 

The Preparation of Rough-dried Plants for the Herba- 
rium — Put the dried plants in a place where they will absorb just 
moisture enough to make them pliant. Either put them in a box 
containing something damp, as a wet sponge, sand, or paper; or 
spread them where they can absorb the moisture of the atmos- 
phere without getting too wet. When pliant, bend the stem and 
cap so that they lie in the same plane, and arrange them in as 
natural a form as possible; then place them between driers of un- 
glazed paper, with a weight just sufficient to keep them from 
curling out of shape. 

Mounting — The specimens may be placed loose in envelopes 
made by folding paper as for mosses or lichens, or they may be 
glued directly to mounting sheets, or they may be kept in boxes 
of varying sizes. 

149 



Fungi for the Herbarium 

Sections — A section of a fungus is a very thin slice cut from 
the plant by running a thin-bladed knife from the top of the cap 
down through the stem. When well made, sections of young 
and mature plants are valuable in addition to the notes and dried 
specimens. A section to be of any value must show the form of 
the cap; the attachment of the gills to the stem ; the thickness of 
the stem ; and the interior, whether solid, hollow, or stuffed. 
To preserve the section, it must be placed, while fresh, upon 
a sheet of gummed paper, and then covered with a sheet of 
waxed paper, and placed between driers, under heavy pressure. 

Poisoning Herbarium Specimens — It will be found necessary 
to use every means possible to keep insects from the herbarium, 
as fungi are particularly subject to such pests. In order that no 
eggs and larvae may be packed away with the dried plants, it 
will be well to apply a poisonous solution to the specimens just 
after they have been moistened to be put into press. Professor 
Peck, the State botanist of New York, uses a solution made by 
dissolving strychnine in warm water, and then adding alcohol 
in sufficient quantities to make the mixture spread easily with a 
brush. 

Sulphate of strychnia }{ ounce 

Warm water 4 or 5 ounces 

Alcohol About 2 ounces 

In addition to this precaution, the specimens must be kept 
where insects cannot get at them, or the havoc which they make 
will be disastrous. An ingenious person can improvise all the 
apparatus necessary for a successful collection of moderate size; 
and then, if his enthusiasm continues, he can provide himself 
with everything of the most improved style from dealers who 
make a specialty of botanical supplies. 



ISO 



CHAPTER XV : FUNGI FOR THE TABLE 

Before you attempt to use fungi for the table be sure that 
they are edible ; the consequences which follow a mistake are 
too serious to warrant any risks. Unless you are experienced in 
making careful observations and comparisons, eat only those 
fungi which have been shown to you by some one who has tried 
them and knows them to be wholesome. If you are experienced 
in making careful observations and comparisons, and wish to 
make experiments, make them cautiously, using a small quantity 
of the fungus for the first trial, and, if no ill effects are felt, in- 
crease the amount until you are satisfied as to its edibility. 

There is no general rule by which one may know an edible 
species from a poisonous species. One must learn to know each 
kind by its appearance, and the edibility of each kind by experi- 
ment. 

Some edible mushrooms change colour when bruised, some 
edible ones do not. 

Some poisonous mushrooms change colour when bruised, 
and some poisonous ones do not. 

Some mushrooms with bright colours, or viscid caps, or 
pleasant taste, or agreeable odour are edible, and some are 
poisonous. 

Some edible mushrooms will turn a silver spoon black, and 
so will some poisonous ones. 

Cautions for the Inexperienced 

Never use specimens which are decomposed in the slightest 
degree. 

Never use those which are at all burrowed by insects. 

Never collect, for food, mushrooms in the button stage, as 
it is difficult for a novice to distinguish the buttons of poisonous 
species from the buttons of harmless species. 

Never use fungi with swollen bases surrounded by sac-like 
or scaly envelopes. 

iqi 



Fungi for the Table 

Never use fungi with milky juice unless the juice is red- 
dish. 

Never use fungi with caps thin in proportion to the width 
of the gills when the gills are nearly all of equal length, especially 
if the caps are bright coloured. 

Never use for food tube-bearing fungi in which the flesh 
changes colour when cut or broken, nor those with the tubes 
reddish. Be very cautious with all fleshy tube-bearing fungi. 

Never use for food fungi with a web-like ring around the 
upper part of the stem. 

The novice may safely experiment with Clavarias, coral 
fungi, morels, and puffballs. 

The Food Value of Fungi. — Many people thoughtful for the 
welfare of those with limited opportunities for varying their bill 
of fare have hoped to solve the problem by introducing into 
more general use the varied and abundant fungi which grow 
everywhere throughout our country. In order to accomplish 
this object, bulletins have been published by the several agricul- 
tural departments, and have been distributed freely to those 
wishing to have them. The result has been that a wide-spread 
interest has been created in this branch of botany, and fungi 
have become a common dish on tables where they were never 
before seen. 

As accessories, for relish or variety, edible fungi are undoubt- 
edly valuable ; but that they can never take the place of meat, as 
many fondly hoped, nor rank very high as an essential food, has 
been shown by the experiments of Mr. L. B. Mendel in the 
Sheffield Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Yale University. 
Mr. Mendel has demonstrated by chemical analysis and by ex- 
periments in artificial digestion that the proportion of proteid 
matter — the material which meat supplies — is smaller than it was 
formerly supposed to be, and also that a large proportion of that 
present is not acted upon by the digestive juices. Since, also, 
the proportion of water to solid matter is very great, being from 
seventy to ninety per cent, in the most desirable edible species, 
it would be necessary that a man should eat a great many 
pounds of even the richest fungi in order to obtain the daily 
requisite of proteid matter necessary to maintain a healthy 
constitution. 

The specimens marked edible in this book have been repeat- 

152 



Fungi for the Table 

edly tried by many people, and without ill effects. Some marked 
edible are harmless, but poor, while others are extremely de- 
licious and appetizing. 

A few directions for preparing different species for cooking 
are given below, that those who wish to experiment may have 
the benefit of the experience of others. Receipts for cooking the 
common mushroom, Agaricus campestris, may be found in all 
complete cook-books, and these receipts as they are given or 
modified may be used for other kinds also, provided that the 
directions for the preparation of the different species are fol- 
lowed. 

To Keep Mushrooms Temporarily. — Cleanse, remove the 
parts to be rejected, rinse in cold water the parts to be used, dry 
with a cloth, then put in boiling water and keep boiling for five 
or ten minutes. Drain, and wipe dry. 

To Prepare the Edible Agarics for Cooking. — Cleanse, 
cut off the stems and throw them away. Rinse the caps in 
cold water, drain, and leave in cold water acidulated with lemon 
or vinegar until just before using. 

To Toast Agarics. — Dry with a cloth, dust with flour, put 
a little butter, pepper, and salt on the gills. Lay the caps, gills 
upward, on a wire-net toaster, over a moderate fire, and cook 
from five to ten minutes. 

To Bake Agarics. — Dry with a cloth. Line a porcelain pie- 
dish with toast, spread the peeled caps on the toast, sprinkle 
with pepper and salt, and pour over them a few spoonfuls of 
thick cream. Cover with a plate, and place in a moderate oven 
for fifteen minutes. Serve hot. Or, 

Line the dish with toast dipped in hot water and buttered. 
Spread the caps on the toast, with half a teaspoonful of butter on 
each one. Cover, and cook in a warm oven for ten minutes. 

To Broil Agarics — Broil lightly on both sides over a bright 
fire. Arrange on buttered toast, sprinkle with pepper and salt. 
Put bits of butter or bits of toasted bacon on each, and set in the 
oven a moment. Serve hot. 

Mushrooms Stewed — Caps, peeled, one quart; butter, two 
tablespoonfuls; salt, one teaspoonful; pepper, one-third of a 
teaspoonful; water or stock, one-half cupful. Boil gently in 
a covered stewpan for five minutes. Or, 

Caps, peeled and cut in pieces, one pint; butter, one table- 

153 



Fungi for the Table 

spoonful; salt, one-half teaspoonful; pepper, one pinch. Simmer 
in a stewpan for ten minutes. 

To Prepare Russulas — Reject the stems and gills, but not 
the peel. Cleanse the caps, rinse in cold water, then put for a 
moment in boiling water, and dry with a cloth. Cook by the 
receipts given for agarics. 

To Prepare Fungi with Milky Juice — Remove the stems, 
cleanse, rinse, and scald. Steep for six hours in a liquid pre- 
pared by mixing one wineglass of strong vinegar, one table- 
spoonful of salt, and one pint of water. Boil for ten minutes in 
salt and water. Cook by the receipts given for agarics. 

Lactarius deliciosus — Known by its greyish-orange cap 
marked with brighter zones, and by its orange milk. Also 

Lactarius volemus — Known by its reddish-brown cap, two 
to five inches across, with stems of the same colour, and white 
milk. May be prepared by simply removing the bases of the 
stems and then rinsing in water. 

To Prepare Amanitas — Reject the stems and peel, and cook 
but a short time. 

To Prepare Chanterelles — Cut off the base of the stems, 
rinse in cold water, soak in warm milk for six hours. Stew a 
long time with plenty of butter or stock. Use with meat hashes 
and stews, or in omelet. 

To Fry Chanterelles — Wash, slice, put in melted butter, 
and stir for ten minutes, simply keeping them warm. Add more 
butter, pepper, salt, crumbs of bread, and minced parsley, and 
fry over a hot fire. 

To Prepare Coprini — Ink Caps — Use only young specimens. 
Remove the base of the stems, wipe with a damp cloth. Throw 
for an instant into boiling water. Fry in boiling butter or lard. 
Remove from the pan as soon as they break or sink. Serve on 
toast. 

To Prepare Boleti — Remove the tubes with a spoon. 
Reject the stems. 

To Prepare Hydnum repandum — Remove the bases of the 
stems, and scrape off the spines. They require little cooking. 

To Prepare Morels— Cleanse; rinse by shaking them in 
several waters, or run the cold water from the faucet over them 
until the pits are thoroughly cleansed. They require to be 
cooked for a long time. 

154 



Fungi for the Table 

To Prepare Beefsteak Fungus — Gather when of a light- 
red colour. Remove the hard base, cleanse in cold water. 
. For salad — Cut in thin slices and serve with dressed lettuce. 

Minced — Mince fine, put in a stewpan with butter, three 
ounces to the pound. Season with salt, pepper, minced parsley, 
and onion juice. Stew gently for twenty minutes. Bind with 
egg-yolk beaten in cream, and serve with toast. This mince 
may be used with veal or chicken hash. 

To Prepare Gyromitras. — Cleanse, cut in slices, boil in water 
fifteen minutes, then wash by shaking in two successive waters 
boiling hot. Dry on cloths, and cook as directed for morels. 

To Prepare Woody Pore-bearing Fungi — Polypor.€. — Take 
the soft parts of young specimens. Put in boiling water for a 
few moments, rinse in cold water, and dry on cloths. Spread 
with butter, lay in a stewpan, and cover; then keep them for ten 
minutes just warm enough to melt the butter. Strain, broil for 
fifteen minutes, or stew half an hour or more with gravy. 

To Prepare Clavarias and Branched Hydnums. — Cleanse, 
throw into scalding water for a moment, and then put into cold 
water made acid with lemon or vinegar until they are to be 
cooked. Divide the large ones, and tie the small ones into 
bundles. Place in a stewpan with bits of butter laid on them. 
Cover the pan, and expose to heat enough to melt the butter. 
Leave for ten minutes, and drain. 

To Cook Clavarias. — Put into a hot stewpan with bits of 
butter; season with salt, pepper, and lemon juice. Cover closely, 
and stew for half an hour. Thicken with cream and flour, season 
to taste, and cook until tender. 

Clavarias may also be cooked as directed for agarics. 

To Prepare Puffballs. — Cleanse, peel, trim off the base. 
Cut in two pieces, and reject all those which are not pure white 
within. 

To Cook Puffballs. — Fry in lard five or six minutes, with 
bacon, parsley, onion juice, salt, and pepper; or cook as directed 
for agarics. 

To Cook the Giant Puffball. — Cut in slices half an inch 
thick, dip in the beaten yolk of egg, pepper, and salt. Fry in 
boiling fat for five or six minutes. 

Puffball Salad. — Cut in strips, and serve with green salad 
dressed with mustard, oil, and vinegar. 

155 



AUTHORITIES CONSULTED 



ATKINSON. Studies and Illustrations of Mushrooms, I, 11. Bull. Cor- 
nell Univ. Expt. Station, 138: 337-366,/. 87-112. 1897. 168: 491-516, 
/. 83-g7. 1899. 

BURNAP. Notes on the Genus Calostoma. Bot, Gaz., 23: 180-192, 
PI. ig. 1897. 

BU RT. A List of the Vermont Helvellaceae, with Descriptive Notes. Rhodora, 
I: 59-67, PI. 4. 1899. 

On Collecting and Preparing Fleshy Fungi for the Herbarium. Bot. 

Gaz., 25 : 172-186, PI. 14. 1898. 

The Phalloideae of the United States, I-III. Bot. Gaz., 22 : 273-292, 

PI. II, 12 ; ^']()--}<)\. 1896. 24:73-92. 1897. 

COOKE. Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms. 8vo, 18 plates. London, 
1894. 

Illustrations of British Fungi, 8 vols.,/"/. i-iiqS. London, 1881-1891. 

Mycographia. PI. i-iij. London, 1879. [Pezizales.] 

Mycographia. i-io, 87-104, 179-206, 215-220 ; PL 1-4, 41-46, 8i-g6, 

10 1, 102. 1879. [Helvellales.] 

COVILLE. Observations on Recent Cases of Mushroom Poisoning in the 
District of Columbia. U. S. Dep. Agr., 1897. 

FALCONER. Mushrooms : How to Grow Them. U. S. Dep. Agr., 1896. 

FARLOW. Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms. U. S. Dep. Agr., 1898. 

FRIES. Icones selectae Hymenomycetum, Holmias. 2 vols. 1867-1884. 

HAY. Text-book of British Fungi. 8vo. London, 1887. 

MASSEE. A Monograph of the Geoglosseas. Annals of Bot., 22S-506, 
PI. 12, I J. 18Q7. 

A Monograph of the Genus Calostoma. Bot. Gaz., 23: 180-192, PI. 

ig. 1897. 

A Monograph of the British Gastromycetes. Annals of Bot., Vol. IV, 

No. XIII. November, 1889. 

MENDEL. The Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of some Edible 
American Fungi. Am. Jour, of Physiology, 1: 225-238. 1898. 

157 



Authorities Consulted 

MICHAEL. Fuhrer fiir Pilzfreunde. i2mo, jj /'/ates. Zwickau, 1897. 

MORGAN. North American Fungi. Jour. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist., II : 
141-149, /v. J. 1889. [Phallales.] 

North American Fungi. Jour. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist., 12: 8-22, 

PL 1,2. 1889. 163-172, /'A /6. 1890. 13: 5-21, /v. /, ^. 1891. 14: 
141-148. n. 5. 1892. [Lycoperdales.] 

PECK. Reports of the State Botanist of New York, in the Regents' Reports 
of the State Museum of Natural History, 22-51. 

Boleti of the United States. Bull. N. Y. State Mus., No. 8. 1888. 

STEVENSON. British Fungi. 2 vols. 

UNDERWOOD. Moulds, Mildews, and Mushrooms. New York, 1899. 

On the Distribution of the North American Helvellales. Minn. BoL 

Studies, I ; 483-500. 1896. 

WEBSTER. Notes on Calostoma, Rhodora, 1 : 30-53. 1899. 



158 



NOTE 



It is customary, when writing the name of a fungus for 
scientific purposes, to append the name of the author who first 
pubhshed the appellation. The author's name, for convenience, 
may be abbreviated. A list of such abbreviations as are used 
in this book is given below. 

Albertini and Schweinitz. 

Augustus Batsch (i 761- 1802), German botanist. 

Rev. Miles Joseph Berkeley. 

Berkeley and Curtis. 

Louis Bosc (1759- 1 828), one of the first collectors 
of fungi in the United States. 

Pierre Bulliard, 1 742-1 793. 

Charles E. Burnap, an American student. 

Johann Christian Buxbaum, 1693- 1730, 

Augustin Pyrame de Candolle (1778-1841), a promi- 
nent Swiss botanist. 

Nicaise Augustin Desvaux, French botanist, 1784- 
1856. 

J. B. Ellis. Mr. Ellis is a mycologist in the United 
States. The Ellis collection of fungi contains the 
largest number of types of any collection of Ameri- 
can fungi in existence. It is deposited in the 
museum of the New York Botanical Garden. 

Elias Magnus Fries (1794-1878), a Swedish botanist, 
who laid the foundations for the study of the 
Basidiomycetes. 

Theodor Holmskiold (1732- 1794), a Danish botanist. 

William Hudson (i 730-1 793), an English botanist. 

Wilhelm Lasch (1786-1863), a German botanist. 

Heinrich Friedrich Link (i 767-1851), a German 
botanist. 

Carl von Linnaeus (i 707-1 778), a Swedish botanist, 
who revised the principles of classitication and 
introduced what is known as the biiwiiiial 110- 
menclaiure. According to his method, the name 
of a plant is reduced to two words : the first, or 
159 



A. & S. 
Batsch. 
Berk. 

B. & C. 
Bosc. 

Bull. 
Burnap. 
BuxB. 
D. C. 

Desv. 

Ellis. 



Fr. 



HOLMSK. 
HUDS. 

Lasch. 
Lk. 

L. or Linn. 



Note 

generic, name is a substantive or a word used as a 
substantive ; while tlie second, or specific, name is 
an adjective. Lactarius is the generic name of 
those fungi dripping milk, and deliciostis (delicious) 
the specific name for one edible species. 

Mass. George Massee, an English botanist. 

MoRG. A. P. Morgan, an American botanist. 

Pk. Charles H. Peck (1833- ). the State botanist of 

New York. 

Pers. Christian Hendrik Persoon (i 755-1837), a German 

botanist. 

RozE. Ernest Roze, a French botanist. 

ScHW. Lewis David de Schweinitz (1780-1834), an Ameri- 
can botanist ; one of the first to make mycology a 
serious study. 

Scop. Giovanni Antonio Scopoli (i 723-1 788), an Italian 

botanist. 

ScH/tFF. Jacobi Christiani SchaefTer (1718-1790), a German 
botanist. 

Sacc. p. a. Saccardo (1845- ), an Italian botanist. Sac- 

cardo is the compiler of Sylloge Fuugorum, a work 
in Latin, containing descriptions of over forty thou- 
sand species. It is a most valuable work, as it has 
made accessible to workers throughout the world 
the greater part of the technical descriptive litera- 
ture upon the subject of fungi. 

Vahl. Martin Vahl (1749-1804), a Norwegian botanist. 



The diacritical marks used in the pronunciation of the Latin 
names indicate the sounds of the same letters in the following 
list : 



a as 


in fat 


a ' 


fate 


e ' 


' met 


e ' 


' meet 


\ ' 


' fin 


1 ' 


' fine 


6 ' 


' not 


6 ' 


note 



li as 


m cut 


u ' 


' ciite 


y ' 


' myth 


y ' 


' my 


g ' 


' gem 


g ' 


' get 


c ' 


' cat 


9 ' 


' cent 



160 



INDEX AND GLOSSARY 



Adnate, 35 ; united by 
growth ; said of gills 
when they are grown 
to the stem. 

Agaricacese, 30, 32, 40, 

46, 73- 
Agaricales, 14, 30. 
Agaricus, 39, 73. 

— abruptus, 77. 

— arvensis, 75. 

— campestris, 12, 75, 76. 

— cretaceus, 64. 

— hemorrhoidarius, 75. 

— how to grow, 73. 

— maritimus, 75. 

— placomyces, 75. 

— Rodmani, 75, 76. 

— subrufescens, 75. 

— sylvaticus, 75. 
Algae, 9. 

Algal-like fungi, 9, 17. 
Amanita, 34, 46. 

— Csesarea, 50, 52. 

— Frostiana, 52. 

— muscaria, 52. 

— phalloides, 48. 

— to prepare, for cooking, 

154- 

— verna, 65. 

— young plant, 47. 
Amanitopsis, 34, 53, 88. 

— parcivolvata, 55. 

— vaginata, 54. 

var. alva, 54. 

var. fulva, 54. 

var. livida, 54. 

Anthurus, 26. 

— borealis, 121, 
Antidote, 48 ; anything 

that will counteract 
the effects of poison. 

II 



Arachnoid, 38 ; web-like. 
Armillaria, 34. 

— mellea, 61. 

var. bulbosa, 62. 

var. exannulata, 62. 

var. fiava, 62. 

var. glabra, 62. 

var. obscura, 62. 

var. radicata, 62. 

Asci, 18, 19 ; the sacs in 
which the spores of 
the cup fungi are de- 
veloped. 

Ascoma, 19, 20, 21 ; the 
disk-like body bear- 
ing the spore-sacs 
of the cup fungi and 
their allies. 

Ascomata, 20, 21 ; plural 
of ascoma. 

Ascomycetes, 17, 18, 135. 

Ascus, 17; singular of asci. 

Astraeus hygrometricus, 
130. 

Basidia, 16, 17 ; enlarged 
cells bearing spores. 

Basidiomycetes, 14, 17, 
97. 116. 

Bean seed to show embryo, 

7- 
Bear's head, 2, 96. 

Beefsteak fungus, 103. 

— for salad, 155. 

— minced, 155. 

— to prepare, 155. 
Hird's-nest, 24, 133. 
Bitter Boletus, 107. 
Black knot, 9. 
Boletacea;, 31, 44, 102. 
Boleti, 14. 

161 



Boleti, care of spores, 
148. 

— to prepare, 154. 

— of the United States, 

104. 

— which change colour, 

104. 
Boletinus, 45, 102, 103. 

— pictus, 103. 

— painted, 103. 
Boletus, 44, 104. 

— Americanus, 109. 

— bicolor, 105. 

— calopus, 106. 

— castaneus, 108. 

— chrysenteron, 106. 

— cyanescens, 105. 

— edulis, 109. 

— eximius, 108. 

— felleus, 107. 

— glabellus, 104. 

— mutabilis, 105. 

— pallidus, 105. 

— Peckii, 106. 

— purpureus, 107. 

— radicans, 106. 

— Satanus, 107. 

— scaber, 108. 

— speciosus, 105. 

— subtomentosus, 109. 

— versipellis, 108. 
Boston Mycological Club, 

145- 
Bovista, 128. 

— plumbea, 128. 

— section of, 128, 
Bovistella, 29, 124, 129. 

— Ohiensis, 129. 
Brackets, 2, 4. 
Brain-shaped Calvatia, 126. 
Branches, 7. 



Index and Glossary 



Brick top. (PI. opposite 

p. 8i.) 
Brick-red mushroom, So. 
Button, II, 12 ; the name 

given to a young 

mushroom. 

Caesarea, 50. 

Caesar's mushroom, 51. 

Ca-'spitose, 145; growing in 

clumps, many plants 

from one root. 
Calostoma, 29, 123, 124, 

131- 

— cinnabarinum, 132. 

— lutescens, 132. 

— Ravenelii, 132. 
Calvatia, 28, 124, 126. 

— craniformis, 126. 

— cyathiformis, 128. 

— fragile coat, 126. 

— maxima, 127. 

— section of, 126. 

Cambium, 137 ; the deli- 
cate young cells be- 
tween the wood and 
bark. The inner be- 
come new wood ; the 
outer, new bark. 

Campestris, 76. 
Caninus, 120. 
Cantharellus, 36, 53. 

— cibarius, 14S. 

— floccosus, 53. 
Cap, defined, 12. 

— membranous, 35. 

— ragged edge, 13. 

— scaly, 34. 

— smooth, 34. 

— striate, 50. 

— umbonate, 63, 

Capillitium, 25, 126; sim- 
ple or branched 
threads mixed with 
spores. 

— elastic, 126. 
Capitate, 21; having a dis- 
tinct head. 



Capitila. (PI. opposite p. 
136.) 

Caput-ursi, 96. 

Carbon, 4 ; an elementary 
substance found in 
plant and anin\al 
tissue. 

Cartilaginous, 36, 146 ; 
similar to the elastic 
tissue found at the 
ends of fresh bones. 

Caterpillar, fungus grow- 
ing on, 136. 

Cautions, 151. 

Cell, II ; a living vegeta- 
ble unit. 

— spore, II. 

— club-like, 13, 14. 
Cervinus, 87. 
Chalk agaric, 64. 
Chanterelle hygrophorus, 

59- 

— to fry, 154. 

— to prepare, 154. 
Chemical analysis, 152. 
Chestnut Boletus, 108. 
Chitonia, 83. 
Chlorophyll, 6, 144 ; the 

green coloring mat- 
ter of plants. 

Christmas greens, 5, 7. 

Chrysenteron, 106. 

Cibus Deorum, 51. 

Cinnabarinum, 132. 

Circinatus, 113. 

Class, 7, 15, 17. 

Classification, 5, 7. 

Clathracese, 26, 117, 121. 

Clathrus, 26, 121. 

— cancellatus, 121. 

— columnatus, 121. 
Clavaria, 3, 14, 99. 

— aurea, 100. 

— botrytes, 100. 

— cristata, 100. 

— fellea, loi. 

— flava, 99. 

— formosa, loi. 

162 



Clavaria, golden, icx3. 

— pale yellow, 99. 

— pistil, loi. 

— pistillaris, loi. 

— red-tipped, 100. 

— to cook, 155. 

— to prepare, 155. 
Clavariaceoe, 30, 98, 99. 
Clavate, 21 ; club-shaped. 
Clitocybe, 35, 68, 70. 

— laccata, 70. 

— care of spores, 148. 
Clitocybe virens, 71, 

— var. amythystina, 71. 

— var. pallidifolia, 71. 

— var. striatula, 71. 
Clitopilus, 37, 88. 
Collector, notes of, 145. 

— outfit of, 147. 
Collybia, 35, 66. 

— care of specimens, 150. 

— care of spores, 148. 

— familia, 67. 

— radicata, 66. 

— radicata, care of spores, 

148. 

— velutipes, 66. 
Columella, 125. 
Common mushroom, 76. 
Context, 42 ; the tissue 

immediately in con- 
tact with a specified 
part. 

Coprinarii. See Coprini. 

Coprini.careof spores, 148, 

— to prepare, 154. 
Coprinus, 40, 89. 

— atramentarius, 91. 

— comatus, iii, v, viii, 90. 

— micaceus, 91. 
Coral fungi, 98. 
Coral Hydnum, 97. 
Cordyceps, 136. 
Corollas, 6. 
Cortinarii, care of spores, 

148. 
Cortinarius, 38, 85. 

— alboviolaceus, 87. 



Index and Glossary 



Cortinarius violaceus, 87. 
Count de Vecchi, 49. 
Craniformis, 126. 
Craterellus cantharellus, 

73- 
Crested Clavaria, 100. 
Crucibulum, 133. 
Cup fungi, 19, 137. 
Cup-shaped puffball, 128. 
Cyathiformis, 128. 
Cyathus, 133. 
Czar Alexis, 49. 

Dasdalea, 43. 

Death Cup, 48. 

Deconica, 39, 82. 

Decurrent, 35 ; growing 
down the stem ; said 
of gills. 

Deliquescent, 26 ; dissolv- 
ing or melting away. 

Destroying Angels, 2. See 
Death Cup. 

Dictyophorus, 27. 

Dissemination, of seeds, 

i 6 ; the act of scat- 
tering. 

— of spores, 4, 118, 126, 

131, 133, 137- 

Early Pholiota, 84. 
Earth-stars, 123, 129. 
Earth-tongues, 138. 
Eccilia, 87, 88. 
Edible Boletus, 109. 
Elaphomyces, 136. 
Elias Fries, 97. 
Elm Pleurotus, 58. 
Emetic Russula, 68. 
Entoloma, 37, 88. 

Fairy clubs, 9. 
Fairy-ring mushroom, 66. 
Fairy rings, 3. 
Families, 7, 16. 
Fat Pholiota, 83. 
Favolus, 115. 

— areolarius, 115. 



Fawn-coloured Pluteus, 87. 
Fernwithspore capsules, 8. 
Fertile gleba, 125. 
Fibrillose, 146 ; furnished 

with fibres. 
Fistulina, 44, 102. 

— cavipes, 103. 

— decipiens, 103, 

— hepatica, 102. 

— paluster, 103. 

— porosus, 103. 
Fistulose, 146 ; hollow 

through the whole 
length. 

Flexuous, 146 ; bent alter- 
nately in opposite 
directions. 

Flint-stone, 127 ; a stone 
formerly used for ob- 
taining sparks. 

Floccose, 45 ; clothed 
with locks of soft 
hair or wool. 

Flocculent, 52 ; woolly. 

Flowerless plants, 5. 

Fly Amanita, 49. 

Food of the gods, 51. 

Frog-spittle, 6. 

Fruiting portion, 12, 13. 

Flihrer fiir Pilzfreunde, 
104. 

Fungi, defined, 4. 

— for food, I, 151. 

— for the herbarium, 145. 

— for the table, 151. 

— not grewsome, 2. 

— habitat, 2. 

— how to grow them, 73. 

— number of, 15. 

— poisonous, I, 48, 151. 

— typical parts, 12. 

— with gills, 30, 32-40, 

46-92. 

— with milky juice, 92, 93. 

— with pores, 42, 44, 102, 

155- 

— with spines, 23, 41, 

94-97- 

163 



Fungi with teeth, 94- 

97. 
Fungus plant, 9. 
Fusiform, 40 ; cylindrical, 

tapering gradually to 

each end. 

Gasteromycetes, 2, 3, 14, 

24. 
Geaster, 28, 124, 129. 

— hygrometricus, 130. 

— minimus, 130. 
Gelatinous fungi, 116. 
Genera, 7, 16. 
GeoglossaceK, 21, 138. 
Geoglossum, 139. 

— glabrum, 139. 

— hirsutum, 139. 
Giant puff'ball, 127. 
Gills, 12. 

— forked, 53. 

— notched, 58. 

— structure, 13. 

— toothed, 56. 

— waxy, 61. 
Glabrous, 50; not hairy. 
Gleba, 26, 117 ; the spore 

mass of the pouch 
fungi. 

Glistening Coprinus, 91. 

Globose, 40 ; having or 
approaching a spher- 
ical form. 

Golden Clavaria, 100. 

Golden-flesh Boletus, 106. 

Golden Peziza, 138. 

Gomphidius, 4, 92. 

— fixing spores of, 148. 
Grandinia, 94. 

Grass spikelet, 7. 
Gray-gilled mushroom, 79. 
Green Russula, 69. 
Greeks, i. 
Guepinia, 116. 
Gyromitra, 20, 140, 
141. 

— esculenta, 141. 

— to prepare, 155. 



Index and Glossary 



Habitat, 145 ; the locality 
where a plant natu- 
rally lives. 

Haschisch, 49 ; an intoxi- 
cating preparation of 
the Indian hemp. 

Hedgehog Hydnum, 97. 

— mushroom, 94. 
Helvella, 20, 140. 

— elastica, 142. 

— lacunosa, 143. 

diagrammatic draw- 
ing, 143. 

section of stem, 143. 

Helvellacese, 20, 140. 

Helvellales, 19, 138. 

Hirneola auricula-Judse, 
116. 

Honey-coloured Armilla- 
ria, 61. 

Host, 22 ; the plant or 
animal which sup- 
ports a parasite. 

Hydnacese, 32, 94. 

Hydnum, 14, 32, 41, 94, 
116. 

— albidum, 95. 

— branched, to prepare, 

155- 
■ — caput-medusse, 97. 

— caput-ursi, 96. 

— coralloides, 97. 

— echinaceus, 97, 

— imbricatum, 96. 

— repandum, 95. 

— rufescens, 95. 
Hydrogen gas, 4 ; one of 

the elements found 
in plant and animal 
tissue. 

Hygrophanous, 145; 
opaque when dry, 
and transparent when 
moist. 

Hygrophorus, 35, 59. 

— cantharellus, 59. 

— eburneus, 61. 

— miniatus, 60. 



Hygrophorus, var. flava, 
Co. 

— var. flaviceps, 60. 

— var. flavipes, 60. 

— var. rosea, 60. 
Hymenogastrales, 133. 
Ilymenomycetes, 2, 14. 
Hypha, 11 ; a thread-like 

strand of the vegeta- 
tive part of a fungus. 
Hypholoma, 39, 78. 

— capnoides, 79. 

— eloeodes, 80. 

— epixanthus, 79. 

— fasciculare, 80. 

— incertum, 80, 81. 

— perplexum, 78, 79. 

— sublateritium, 81. 
Hypocreales, 18, 136. 

Imperial mushroom, 51. 
Incertum, 80, 81. 
Indian pipe, 7. 
Ingenious stamens, 6. 
Ink-caps, 89. 
Inky Coprinus, 91. 
Irpex, 94. 
Ivory Hygrophorus, 61. 

Jew's Ear, 116. 
Judas's Ear, 116. 
Juice, milky, 32. 

— watery, 32. 

Juvenal, i ; a Roman poet, 
first century A.D. 

Kaiserling, 51. 
Key, 15-45. 

Lachnocladium, 99. 
Lactarius, 32, 92. 

— care of spores, 148. 

— channeled, 33. 

— crisped, 33. 

— deliciosus, 154. 

— entire, i. 

— ligniotus, 93. 

— piperatus, 92. 

164 



Lactarius, to cook, 154. 

— to prepare, 152. 

— volemus, 154. 
Lamellae, 12. 

— acute 35 ; the edges 

thin, not blunt. 

— adnate, 35 ; grown to 

the stem. 

— brittle, 35. 

— decurrent, 35 ; growing 

down the stem. 

— entire, 47. 

— free from the stem, 34. 

— obtuse, 36. 

— shallow folds, 36. 

— simple, 33. 

— sinuate, 35. 

— splitting deeply, 33. 

— toothed, 32. 

— villous, 33 ; with soft 

hairs. 

— waxy, 35. 
Larch canker, 137, 
Large club, loi. 
Latticed Clathrus, 121. 
Leaf-green, 4, 6, 15, 144. 
Lentinus, 32. 

— lepideus, 56. 
Lenzites, 43. 

— betulina, 113, 

— separia, 114. 
Lepiota, 34, 63. 

— Friesii, 65. 

— granulosa, care of 
spores, 149. 

— naucinoides, 64. 

— procera, 63. 

care of spores, 148. 

Leptonia, 88. 
Light from dry rot, 2. 
Liverworts, 5, 7. 
Lycogala epidendron, 144. 
Lycoperdales, 25, 28, 123. 
Lycoperdon, 29, 124. 

— cyathiforme, 128. 

— giganteum, 127. 

— maxima, 127. 

— pyriforme, 125. 



Index and Glossary 



Lycoperdon, section of, 
124. 

— subincarnatum, 125. 
Lycopodiums, 7. 

Majoon, 49 ; an intoxicat- 
ing confection of 
India. 

Maned agaric (see Coma- 
tus), ii, V, viii, 90. 

Marasmius, 33, 65. 

— care of spores, 149. 

— oreades, 66. 
Marchantia polymorpha,7. 
Masked Tricholoma, 72. 
Medusa's head, 97. 
Mendel, 152. 
Membrane fungi, 14, 22. 
Merulius, no. 

— lacrymans, no. 
Mitrula, 21. 

— vitellina, var. irregula- 

ris, 140. 
Morels, 140, 154. 

— to prepare, 154. 
Morchella, 21, 140, 141, 

142. 

— angusticeps, 142. 

— bispora, 142. 

— deliciosa, 142. 

— esculenta, 141, 142. 

— section of, 141. 

— semilibera, 142. 
Mould, 2. 

— on bread, g. 

— on food, 2. 

— on dead fly, 9. 
Mould-like fungi, 15, 77. 
Mounting, 149. 
Mount Marcy, 68. 
Mucronella, 94. 
Muscaria, 49. 
Muscarine, 50 ; a poison 

found in A. muscaria. 
Mushrooms, baked, 153. 

— broiled, 153. 
^- stewed, 153. 

— toasted, 153. 



Mushrooms, to keep, 15. 

— to prepare, 153. 
Mutinus, 27. 

— bambusinus, 120. 

— caninus, 120. 

— embryo plant, 120. 

— young plant, 120. 
Mycelial threads, 117, 123. 

— luminosity of, 63. 
Mycelium, 11, no, 136. 

— food provider, 13. 
Mycena, 35, 55. 

— hsematopoda, 55. 
Myxomycetes, 144. 

Name, not a vital thing, 
150. 

— the search for, 150. 
Nidularia, 133. 
Nidulariales, 24, 133. 
Nolanea, 88. 

Odontium, 94. 
Offensive fungi, 117. 
Omphalia, 35, 68. 

— umbellifera, 68. 
Orange Amanita, 50. 
Orange-cap Boletus, 108. 
Orders, 7, 16. 
Oreades, 3. 

Oxygen, 4 ; one of the ele- 
mentary substances 
which, chemically 
united with carbon 
and hydrogen, forms 
plant tissues. 

Oyster mushroom, 57. 

Painted Boletinus, 103. 

Panaeolus, 92. 

Panus, 33, 67, 

Paraphyses, 135 ; jointed 
thread - like bodies 
found accompanying 
the spore-sacs of cer- 
tain fungi. 

Parasite, 22 ; that which 
lives by taking its 

165 



food from living 
plants or animals. 

Parasite, Cordyceps, on 
Elaphomyces, 136. 

Parasol mushroom, 63. 

Paxillus, care of spores, 
148. 

Peach cure, g. 

Pear-shaped puffball, 125. 

Peridium, 14, 23, 24, 25, 
123 ; the thickened 
covering to a puff- 
ball. 

Perithecium, 58 ; a round- 
ed, oval, pear-shaped, 
or beaked body in 
which the spore-sacs 
are developed. 

Perplexing Hypholoma, 

78, 79- 
Perplexum, 78. 
Peziza, 22, 137. 

— teruginosa, 137. 

— aurantia, 138. 

— odorata, 137. 

— Willkommii, 137. 
Pezizales, 19, 20, 137. 
Phallaceae, 27, 117. 
Phallales, 24, 117, 121. 
Phallin, 48 ; a deadly 

poison found in cer- 
tain fungi. 

Phalloides, Amanita, 48. 

Phallus, 27. 

— impudicus, 117. 

— section of young impu- 

dicus, iig. 
Phlebia, g4. 
Pholiota, 38. 

— adiposa, 83. 

— limonella, 83. 

— prnecox, 84. 
Phycomycetes, g, 17. 
Phylse, 7. 
Physalacria, 98. 

Pileus, 146 ; the cap of a 

mushroom. 
Pilosace, 39, 82. 



Index and Glossary 



Pinkish puflball, 125. 
Pistachio nuts, 7S. 
Pistil of St. Johnswort, 
6. 

— of violet, 6. 
Pistil Clavaria, loi. 
Pistillaria, 98. 
Pleurotus, 32. 

— ostreatus, 57. 

— sapidus, 58. 

— ulmarius, 58. 
Pliny, 135. 
Pluteus, 37. 

— cervinus, 87. 
Poison Amanita, 48. 
Poisoning, cases of, 49. 

— of herbarium sheets, 

150. 

— recipes for, 150. 
Poisonous, 48, 49, 151. 
Pollen, 4, 6. 
Polypodium vulgare, 6. 
Polyporacese, 31, 42, 102, 

109. 
Polypori, no. 

— to prepare, 155. 
Polyporus, 42. 

— arcularius, 112. 

— circinatus, 113. 

— conchatus, iii. 

— fomentarius, no. 

— megaloma, no. 

— perennis, in. 

— pergamenus, in. 

— squamosus, 112. 

— sulphureus, in. 

— velutinus, in. 
Pores, 14 ; the openings 

of the spore-bearing 
tubes. 

— easily separating from 

the adjoining tissue, 
44, 102. 

— in radiating rows, 102. 

— in the form of tubes 

whose mouths are 
separated, 44, 102. 

— long-hexagonal, 43. 



Pores, permanently united 
to adjoining tissue, 
42, 102. 

— separating with dififi- 

culty, 45. 

— to prepare woody, 155. 

Pouch fungi, 14, 23, 123. 

Pruinose, 146 ; as if frost- 
ed with a bloom or 
powder. 

Psathyra, 39, 82, 

Psathyrella, 40, 92. 

Psilocybe, 39, 82. 

Protoplasm, 144 ; the vis- 
cid, contractile, semi- 
fluid substance of 
an animal or vege- 
table cell. 

Protozoa, 144 ; uni9ellular 
microscopic animals. 

Pterula, gg. 

PufTballs, 3, 4, 123. 

— salad, 155. 

— to cook, 155. 
Purple Boletus, 107. 
Pycnodon, 94. 

Radulum, 94. 
Resupinate, 31. 
Ring, 12. 

— movable, 63. 
Rodman's mushroom, 76. 
Romans, i. 

Rough-dried plants, 149. 
Russia, 49. 

Russula, 3, 35. 

— care of spores, 148. 

— emetica, 68. 

— heterophylla, 70. 

— to prepare for cooking, 

154- 

— virescens, 69. 

Salmon fungus, 9. 
Saprophytes, 123. 
Scaly Lentinus, 56. 
Schizophyllum, 33, 67. 
Scleroderma, 133. 

166 



.Scleroderma vulgare, 134. 
Sclerodermatales, 25, 133. 
Seed-boxes, 6, 8. 
Sensitive plant, 89. 
Shaggy-mane, ii, v, viii, 90. 
Shelley, i, 2, 89. 
Silver fir, 6. 
Simblum, 26. 

— rubescens, 122. 
Sinuate, 35 ; said of gills 

which have a notch or 
recess near the stem. 

Slime fungi, 144. 

Smallest Earth-star, 130. 

Smith, Rev. Gerard, 3. 

Smokeballs, 123. 

Smooth Lepiota, 64. 

Smuts, 2, 14, 22. 

Sparassis crispa, 99. 

Spathularia, 21, 138. 

— velutipes, 138. 
Species, 7, 16. 
Specimens, 7. 

— care of, 147. 
Spencer, 2, 5. 
Sph^riales, 136. 
Sphserobolus, 133. 
Spines, 14, 41. 
Spore-dust to stanch blood, 

127. 
Spore print, 4. 

— receptacle, 10. 
Spore-sac fungi, 9, 17, 18, 

135- 
Spores, II ; single cells 
which serve the same 
purpose for fungi as 
seeds do for flowering 
plants. 

— black, 32, 46, 89-92. 

— brown, 38, 73-83. 

— colour, 4. 

— collecting of, 147. 

— dark brown, 32, 73-S3. 

— dissemination of, 4, 

118,126,131,133,137. 

— elliptical, 72. 

— fusiform, 40. 



Index and Glossary 



Spores, how formed, 12. 

— in a definite rind, 14, 

23. 123. 

— on spicules, 9. 

— pink, 36, 46, 87, 88. 

— purplish-brown, 32. 

— rough, 6g. 

— rosy, 32, 87, 88. 

— rusty brown, 32, 46, 

83-87. 

— salmon, 32, 87, 88. 

— violet, 32, 58. 

— white, 32, 46-73. 

— yellowish - brown, 32, 

83-87. 
Spreading Hydnum, 195. 
State botanist, 150. 
Stem, 12, 13. 

— cartilaginous, 35. 

— central, 60. 

— characters of, 46. 

— cup at base, 47, 49, 50, 

54, 88. 

— eccentric, 56. 

— fleshy, 5. 

— hollow, 50. 

— lateral, 58. 

— mealy, 46. 

— rusty, 46. 

— smooth, 46. 

— solid, 56. 

— swollen base, 48. 

— wanting, 113. 
Sterigmata, 9, 17 ; the 

slender stalks or 
spicules upon which 
the spores of the 
Basidiomycetes are 
borne. 
Sterile, 29 ; not containing 
spores. 

— base, 125. 
Stinkhorns, 24, 26, 1 17, 123. 



Stipe, 12 ; stem of fun- 
gus. 

Striate, 35, 50 ; said of 
the cap when marked 
with radiating 
straight lines on the 
margin. 

Strobilomyces, 102. 

Stroma, 136 ; a compact 
mass of mycelium 
which unites the 
pear-shaped bodies 
in which spore-sacs 
are contained. 

Stropharia, 39, 82. 

Sulphury polyporus, iii. 

Sistotrema, 94. 

Tall Lepiota, 63. 

Thelephoracese, 73. 

Tinder, 127 ; dry material 
which will ignite 
without explosion 
when in contact with 
a spark. 

Toadstool, 2, 8. 

Tox-albumins, 48 ; poi- 
sonous proteids pro- 
duced by bacteria. 

Trama, 42 ; a middle tis- 
sue between two lay- 
ers of spore-bearing 
tissue. 

Trametes, 42, no, 113. 

— cinnabarina, 113. 

— pini, 113. 

— suaveolens, 113. 
Tremellines, 22, 
Tremellodon, 116. 
Tricholoma, 35. 

— care of spores, 148. 

— personatum, care of 

spores, 149. 



Tricholoma personatum, 
var. bulbosum, 72. 

Trogia, 33. 

Truffles, 18, 

Tuberales, 18, 30, 135. 

Tufted yellow mushroom, 
80. 

Tunbridge ware, 137. 

Typhula, 98. 

Umbilicate, 146 ; provided 
with a central depres- 
sion. 

Umbonate, 63 ; provided 
with a central promi- 
nence. 

Uncertain Hypholoma, 8. 

Variable Russula, 70. 

Veil, 12, 113 ; the mem- 
brane which covers 
the spore surface of 
a fungus in the young 
stage. 

Velvety Spathularia, 138. 

Verdette, 69. 

Vermilion Hygrophorus, 
60. 

Vernal Amanita, 65. 

Vibrissea, 139. 

— circinans, 140. 

— truncorum, 139. 
Volva, 34, 46, 52. 

— of mutinus, 120. 
Volvaria, 36, 88, 

Water-measuring Earth- 
star, 130. 
White Hydnum, 95. 
Wrapper, 47,49, 50, 51.54. 

Xylaria, 136. 

Yeast plant, 9. 



167 



INDEX OF PLATES 



Agaricus abruptus, 74, 

77- 

— campestris, 74, 75. 

— Rodmani, 76. 
Amanita Cassarea, 50. 

— muscaria, 49. 

— phalloides, 48. 
Amanitopsis parcivol- 

vata, Frontispiece. 

— strangulata, 53. 

— vaginata, 54. 
Armillaria mellea, 61. 

Bear's head, 96. 
Bird's-nest, 130. 
Bitter Boletus, 107. 
Boletinus pictus, 103. 
Boletus chrysenteron, 
60. 

— felleus, var. obesus, 

107. 

— scaber, var. niveus, 

108. 
Bovistella O h i e n s i s , 

128. 
Brain pufifball, 126. 
Brick top Hypholoma, 

81. 
Bristly panus, 145. 
Broad-gilled Collybia, 

66. 

Calostoma cinnabarina, 
132. 

— lutesccns, 132. 

— Ravenelii, 132. 
Calvatia craniformis, 

126. 

— cyathiformis, 128. 
Cantharcllus floccosus, 

136. 



Chanterelle Hygropho- 

rus, 60. 
Clavaria aurea, 100. 

— formosa, 10 1. 

— ligula, 98. 
Clitocybe illudens, 70. 

— laccata, 67. 

— virens, 71. 
Collybia familia, 67. 

— maculata, 66. 

— platyphylla, 66. 
Cone-like Boletus, 102. 
Coprinus atramentari- 

us, 91. 
var. silvestris, 89. 



Coral Hydnum, 97. 

Cordyceps c a p i t a 1 a 
(Parasitic on Ela- 
phomyces), 136. 

Cortinarius alboviola- 
ceus, 65. 

— armillatus, 86. 

— caninus, 85. 
Craterellus cantharcl- 
lus, 73. 

Cup-shaped Calvatia, 

128. 
C y a t h u s vernicosus , 

130. 

Dajdalea quercina, 114. 
Death cup, 48. 
Deceiving clitocybe, 

70. 
Delicious morel, 142. 
Dog cortinarius, 85. 

Early Pholiota, 84. 
Elaphomyces, 136. 
Elfingia fomcntaria, 

1 10. 
Emetic Russula, 68. 
169 



Fat Pholiota, 61. 
Fawn-coloured Plute- 

us, 87. 
Field mushroom, 75. 
Flesh-coloured ptiffball, 

134- 
Floccose Chanterelle, 

136. 
Fly Amanita, 49. 
F o m e s fomentarius, 

1 10. 

Ge aster hygrometri- 
cus, 130. 

— minimus, 130. 
Golden Clavaria, 100. 

— flesh Boletus, 60. 

— Peziza, 138. 
Grainy Lepiota, 63. 
Green Russula, 69 

Hard-skinned puff- 
ball, 134. 
Helmet Mycena, 55. 
Helvella elastica, 14©. 

— lacunosa, 140. 
Hirneola auricula- 

Judaj, 116. 

Honey-coloured Armil- 
laria, 61. 

Hydnum caput-ursi, 
96. 

— coralloides, 97. 

— rcpandum, 103. 
Hygrophorus cantha- 
rcllus, 60. 

— ebumeus, 84. 

— miniatus, 60. 
Hypholoma incertum, 

80. 

— perplcxum, 78. 

— sublateritium, 81 



Index of Plates 



Inky Coprinus, 91. 

wood variety, 8g. 

Ivory Hygrophorus, 
84. 

Jelly-like Trcmcllodon, 

137- 
Jew's ear, 116. 

Lactarius ligniotus, 93. 

— piperatus, 92. 
Least Earth-star, 130. 
Lentinus lepideus, 56. 

— strigosus, 145. 
Lenzites betulina, 113. 
Leotia lubrica, 137. 
Lepiota Friesii, 65. 

— granosa, 63. 

— nancinoides, 64. 

— procera, 64. 
Little-tongue Clavaria, 

98. 
Lycogola epidendron, 

136. 
Lycoperdon pyriforme, 

125, 134- 

— subincarnatum, 134. 

Masked Tricholoma, 

72. 
Mitrula vitellina, var. 

irregularis, 140. 
Morchella deliciosa, 

142. 
Mutinus caninus, 136. 
Mycena galericulata, 

55- 

— hsematopoda, 93. 



Orange amanita, 50. 
Oyster mushroom, 58. 

Painted Boletinus, 103. 
Panus strigosus, 145. 
Parasol mushroom, 64. 
Pear-shaped puff ball, 

125- 
Peppery Lactarius, 92. 
Perplexing Hypholo- 

ma, 78. 
Peziza aurantia, 138. 

— odorata, 138. 
Phallus impudicus , 

119. 
Pholiota adiposa, 61. 

— aggericula, 73. 

— praecox, 84. 
Pleurotus ostreatus, 58. 
Pluteus cervinus, 87. 
Poison Amanita, 48. 
Polyporus arcularius, 

142. 

— circinatus, 112. 

— fomentarius, no. 

— versicolor, 112. 

Rodman's mushroom, 

76. 
Russula emetica, 68. 

— virescens, 69. 

Scabrous-stemmed Bo- 
letus, 108. 

Scaly Lentinus, 56. 

Scleroderma vulgar e, 
134. 



Sheathed Amanitop- 

sis, 54. 
Slippery Leotia, 137. 
Smooth Lepiota, 64. 
Spathularia velutipes, 

132. 
Spotted Collybia, 66. 
Spreading Hydnum, 

103. 
Strangled Amanitop- 

sis, 53. 
Strobilomyces strobi- 

laceus, 102. 

Tall Lepiota, 64. 
Tremellodon gelatin- 

osum, 137. 
Tricholoma persona- 

tum, var. bulbo- 

sum, 72. 

Uncertain Hypholoma, 
80. 

Vermilion Hygropho- 
rus, 60. 

Water-measuring 
Earth-star, 130. 

Xylaria, 116. 

Young pear-shaped 
puffball, 134. 

I Zoned Cortinarius, 86. 



170 



New York Botanical Garden Library 

QK617.M34 1904 gen 

Marshall. Nina Love/The mushroom book : 



3 5185 00064 1512