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Full text of "The mushroom, edible and otherwise, its habitat and its time of growth, with photographic illustrations of nearly all the common species : a guide to the study of mushrooms, with special reference to the edible and poisonous varieties, with a view of opening up to the student of nature a wide field of useful and interesting knowledge"

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M. E. HARD, M. A. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 
Kirkwood, Mo. 



Press of 



Halftones by Bucher Engraving Co. 




MV> -29*4937 

i - 

COrYRIGHT 1908- 

by the 


Columbus, Ohio 

(All riehtl'reienred) 



J3 ' 


S5 j 

l-i X 




Whose thorough knowledge of plant life, 
and whose patience in preserving fungal specimens 

sometimes beautiful but often odorous 

scattered from the back porch to the author's library, 

whose eyes, quick to detect structural differences, 

and whose kindly and patient help have been a constant 

benediction, this work 1* inscribed. 


I would agree with those who might maintain that no Introduction is needed 
for this book on mushrooms. Nevertheless a word may not be out of place for 
the inception of the work is out of the ordinary. Mr. Hard did not decide that 
a book on this subject was needed and then set about studying these interesting 
plants. He has observed them, collected them, induced many friends to join in 
eating those which proved to be palatable and delicious really meddled for years 
with the various kinds which are edible and otherwise, and then recently he has 
decided to publish a book on his favorite subject. The interesting occupation of 
photographing the mushrooms and the toadstools doubtless has contributed largely 
to the determination culminating in the materialization of the treatise. 

If I have correctly apprehended the origin and the contributing causes, we 
would expect this book to be different from the other books on mushrooms not 
of course in scope and purpose ; but the instruction and suggestions given, the 
descriptions and general remarks offered, the wide range of forms depicted in 
word and picture, the whole make up of the 'book in fact, will appeal to the people 
at large rather than the college student in particular. The author does not write 
for the specially educated few, but for the mass of intelligent people those who 
read and study, but who observe more ; those who are inclined to commune with 
nature as she displays herself in the glens and glades, in the fields and forests, 
and who spend little, if any, time chasing the forms or sketching the tissues that 
may be seen on the narrow stage of a compound microscope. 

The book then is for the beginner, and for all beginners ; the college student 
will find that this is the guide to use when he is ready to begin studying the 
mushrooms ; the teachers in the schools should all begin to study mushrooms now, 
and for the purpose they will find this book advantageous ; the people who see 
mushrooms often but do not know them may find here a book that really is a 

We might wish for color photography when the subject is a delicately tinted 
mushroom ; but if with it we should lose detail in structure then the wish would 
be renounced. The colors can be, approximately, described, often not so the 
characteristic markings, shapes and forms. The half-tones from the photographs 
will, we anticipate, prove a valuable feature of the book, especially if the plants 
be most carefully examined before turning to the pictures. For half an hour the 
pages may be turned and the illustrations enjoyed. That, however, would give 
one no real knowledge of mushrooms. If such use only is made of the pictures, 
better had they never been prepared by Mr. Hard and his friends. But if a 
charming little toadstool, a delicately colored mushroom, a stately agaric, be 



carefully removed from the bed of loam, the decaying stump, or the old tree- 
trunk, then turned over and over again, and upside down, every part scrutinized, 
the structure in every detail attentively regarded not with repugnant feeling, 
rather with a sympathetic interest that should naturally find all organisms in- 
habiting our globe then in due time coming to the picture, a real picture, in the 
book, it must surely bring both pleasure and profit. Ponder the suggestion. 
Then, to conclude in a word, if Mr. Hard's book will induce people to learn and 
enjoy the mushrooms that we have, it will be a success, and great will be his 

W. A. Kellerman, Ph. D. 

Botanical Department, 

Ohio State University, 
Columbus, O. 



It is with feelings of profound sadness that I am impelled to supplement 
the above Introduction by a brief tribute to the memory of that genial gentleman 
and lovable companion, as well as enthusiastic scientist, the late Dr. W. A. 

Spending his life in the pursuit of science, the Angel of Death overtook 
him while still in search for wider knowledge of Nature and her works, and 
with icy fingers sealed the lids over eyes ever on the alert for the discovery of 
hidden truths. 

Quiet, reticent, and unassuming, it was given to but few to know the great- 
hearted, unselfish sweetness of nature underlying his whole life. Yet the scientific 
world in general and Nature students especially, recognize in Dr. Kellerman's 
death a loss long to be regretted and not soon to be repaired. 

The foregoing "Introduction" from his pen was one of the latest, if not the 
last of his public writings, done but a few weeks before being stricken with the 
fatal fever which fell upon him in the forests of Gautemala, and so quickly ended 
his earthly hopes and aspirations. 

It seems doubly sad that one so well and widely known in his life should 
be called upon to lay its burdens and its pleasures down while so far away from 
all who knew and loved him well ; and to rest at last among strangers in a strange 

To this beloved friend and companion of so many pleasant days in woods 
and fields the author of this book desires to pay the tribute of a loving remem- 
brance and heartfelt appreciation. 

The Author. 


" Various as beauteous, Nature, is thy face ; 
* * * all that grows, has grace. 
All are appropriate. Bog and moss and fen 
Are only poor to undiscerning men. 
Here may the nice and curious eye explore 
How Nature';; hand adorns the ruby moor ; 
Beauties are these that from the view retire, 
But will repa}' th' attention they require." 

Botany and geology have been favorite studies of the author since leaving 
college, thanks to Dr. Nelson, who lives in the hearts of all his students. He, 
by his teachings, made these subjects so attractive and interesting that by one, 
at least, every spare moment has been given to following up the studies of botany 
and paleontology. But the mycological part of botany was brought practically 
to the author's attention by the Bohemian children at Salem, Ohio, at the same 
time arousing a desire to know the scientific side of the subject and thus to be 
able to help the many wh^ were seeking a personal knowledge of these interesting 

Every teacher should be able to open the doors of Nature to his pupils that 
they may see her varied handiwork, and, as far as possible, assist in removing 
the mist from their eyes that they may see clearly the beauties of meadow, wood 
or hillside. 

In beginning the fuller study of the subject the writer labored at great dis- 
advantage because, for a number of years, there was but little available literature. 
Every book written upon this subject, in this country, was purchased as soon 
as it came out and all have been very helpful. 

The study has been a very great pleasure, and some very delightful friend- 
ships have been made while in search for as great a variety of species as possible. 

For a number of years the object was simply to become familiar with the 
different genera and species, and no photographs of specimens were made. This 
was a great mistake ; for, after it was determined to bring out this work, it seemed 
impossible to find many of the plants which the author had previously found in 
other parts of the state. 

However, this failure has beei. very largely overcome through the generous 
courtesy of his esteemed friends, Mr. C. G. Lloyd, of Cincinnati; Dr. Fisher, 
of Detroit ; Prof. Beardslee, of Ashville, N. C. ; Prof. B. O. Longyear, of Ft. 
Collins, Col., and Dr. Kellerman, of Ohio State University, who have most 
kindly furnished photographs representing those species found earlier in other 
parts of the state. The species represented here have all been found in this state 
within the past few years. 



The writer is under great obligation to Prof. Atkinson, of Cornell Univer- 
sity, for his very great assistance and encouragement in the study of mycology. 
His patience in examining and determining plants sent him is more fully ap- 
preciated than can be expressed here. Dr. William Herbst, Trexlertown, Pa., 
has helped to solve many difficult problems ; so also have Mr. Lloyd, Prof. Morgan, 
Capt. Mcllvaine and Dr. Charles H. Peck, State Botanist of New York. 

The aim of the book has been to describe the species, as far as possible, in 
terms that will be readily understood by the general reader; and it is hoped that 
the larger number of illustrations will make the book helpful to those who are 
anxious to become acquainted with a part of botany so little studied in our schools 
and colleges. 

No pains have been spared to get as representative specimens as it was 
possible to find. A careful study of the illustrations of the plants will, in most 
cases, very greatly assist the student in determining the classification of the plant 
when found ; but the illustration should not be wholly relied upon, especially in 
the study of Boleti. The description should be carefully studied to see if it tallies 
with the characteristics of the plant in hand. 

In many plants where notes had not been taken or had been lost, the de- 
scriptions given by the parties naming the plants were used. This is notably 
so of many of the Boleti. The author felt that Dr. Peck's descriptions would 
be more accurate and complete, hence they were used, giving him credit. 

Care has been taken to give the translation of names and to show why the 
plant was so called. It is always a wonder to the uninitiated how the Latin name 
is remembered, but when students see that the name includes some prominent 
characteristic of the plant and thus discover its applicability, its recollection 
becomes comparatively easy. 

The habitat and time of growth of each plant is given, also its edibility. 
The author was urged by his many friends throughout the state, while in institute 
work and frequently talking upon this subject, to give them a book that would 
assist them in becoming familiar with the common mushrooms of their vicinity. 
The request has been complied with. 

It is hoped that the work will be as helpful as it has been pleasant to perform 

M. E. H. 

Chillicothe, Ohio, January n, 1908. 


Introduction by Dr. W. A. Kellerman vii 

Preface ix 

Chapter I. Why Study Mushrooms ? I 

Mushrooms and Toadstools 3 

What Any One May Eat 4 

How to Preserve Mushrooms 5 

Terms Used 5 

What Is a Fungus or a Mushroom ? 10 

Six Groups of Mushrooms 12 

Group 1 ' Hymenomycetes 13 

Family 1 Agaricaceae 13 

Spore Prints 14 

Analytical Key 16 

Chapter II. The White-Spored Agarics 20 

Chapter III. The Rosy-Spored Agarics 236 

Chapter IV. The Rusty-Spored Agarics 257 

Chapter V. The Purple-Brown-Spored Agarics 307 

Chapter VI. The Black-Spored Agarics 331 

Chapter VII. Polyporacese. Tube-Bearing Fungi 350 

Chapter VIII. Fungi With Teeth 432 

Chapter IX. Thelephoraceae 450 



Chapter X. Clavariaceae Coral Fungi 459 

CHAPTER X I . Tremellini 477 

Ch apter XII. Ascomycetes Spore-Sac Fungi 485 

Chapter XIII. Nidulariaceae Bird's Nest Fungi 517 

Chapter XIV. Group Gastromycetes 522 

Chapter XV. Lycoperdaceae Puff-Balls 531 

Chapter XVI. Sphseriacese 573 

Chapter XVII. Myxomycetes 577 

Chapter XVIII. Recipes for Cooking Mushrooms 582 

Chapter XIX. How to Grow Mushrooms 586 

Glossary ; 595 

A Brief History of Mycologists 598 


WHY STUDY MUSHROOMS. Some years ago, while in charge of the 
schools of Salem, Ohio, we had worked up quite a general interest in the study 
of botany. It was my practice to go out every day after flowers, especially the 
rarer ones, of which there were many in this county, and bring in specimens for 
the classes. There was in the city a wire nail mill, running day and night, whose 
proprietors brought over, from time to time, large numbers of Bohemians as 
workers in the mill. Very frequently, when driving to the country early in the 
morning, I found the boys and girls of these Bohemian families searching the 
woods, fields and pastures at some distance from town, although they had not 
been in this country more than a week or two and could not speak a word of 
English. I soon found that they were gathering mushrooms of various kinds 
and taking them home for food material. They could not tell me how they knew 
them, but I quickly learned that they knew them from their general character- 
istics, in fact, they knew them as we know people and flowers. 

I resolved to know something of the subject myself. I had no literature 
on mycology, and, at that time, there seemed to be little obtainable. About that 
time there appeared in Harper's Monthly an article by W. Hamilton Gibson 
upon Edible Toadstools and Mushrooms an article which I thoroughly de- 
voured, soon after purchasing his book upon the subject. 

Salem, Ohio, was a very fertile locality for mushrooms and it was not long 
till I was surprised at the number that I really knew. I remembered that where 
there is a will there is a way. 

In 1897 I moved to Bowling Green, Ohio; there I found many species which 
I had found about Salem, Ohio, but the extremely rich soil, heavy timber and 
numerous old lake beaches seemed to furnish a larger variety, so that I added 
many more to my list. After remaining three years in Bowling Green, making 
delightful acquaintance with the good people of that city as well as with the 
flowers and mushrooms of Wood county, Providence placed me in Sidney, Ohio, 
where I found many new species of fungi and renewed my acquaintance with 
many of those formerly met. 

Since coming to Chillicothe I have tried to have the plants photographed as 
I have found them, but having to depend upon a photographer I could not always 
do this. I have not found in this vicinity many that I have found elsewhere in 
the state, although I have found many new things here, a fact which I attribute 
to the hilly nature of the county. For prints of many varieties of fungi obtained 
before coming here, I am indebted to my friends. I should advise any one in- 
tending to make a study of this subject to have all specimens photographed as 
soon as they are identified, thus fixing thes species for future reference. 

It seems to me that every school teacher should know something of mycology. 



Some of my teachers have during the past year made quite a study of this in- 
teresting subject, and I have found that their pupils kept them busy in identify- 
ing their finds. Their lists of genera and species, as exhibited on the blackboards 
at the close of the season were quite long. I found from my Bohemian boys 
and girls that their teachers in their native country had opened for them the door 
to this very useful knowledge. Observation has proven to me conclusively that 
there is a large and increasing interest in this subject throughout the greater 
part of Ohio. 

Every professional man needs a hobby which he may mount in his hours 
of relaxation, and I am quite sure there is no field that offers better inducement 
for a canter than the subject of botany, and especially this particular department 
of botanical work. 

I have a friend, a professional man who has an eye and a heart for all the 
beauties of nature. After hours of confinement in his office at close and critical 
work he is always anxious for a ramble over the hillsides and through the woods, 
and when we find anything new he seems to enjoy it beyond measure. 

Many ministers of the gospel have become famous in the mycological world. 
The names of Rev. Lewis Schweiwitz, of Bethlehem, Pa. ; Rev. M. J. Berkeley 
and Rev. John Stevenson, of England, will live as long as botany is known to 
mankind. Their influence for good and helpfulness to their fellowmen will be 

With such an inspiration, how quickly one is lost to all business cares, and 
how free and life-giving are the fields, the meadows and the woods, so that one 
must exclaim with Prof. Henry Willey in his "Introduction to the Study of the 
Lichen" : 

" If I could put my woods in song, 

And tell what's there enjoyed, 
Air men would to my garden throng, 

And leave the cities void. 

In my lot no tulips blow ; 

Snow-loving pines and oaks instead ; 
And rank the savage maples grow, 

From Spring's first flush to Autumn red ; 
My garden is a forest ledge, 

Which older forests bound." 



bility no student of mycology has any one query more frequently or persistently 
pressed upon his attention than the question, "How do you tell a toadstool from 
a mushroom?" or if in the woods or fields, in search for new species, with an 
uninitiated comrade, he has frequently to decide whether a certain specimen "is 
a mushroom or a toadstool," so firmly fixed is the idea that one class of fungi 
the toadstools are poisonous, and the other the mushrooms are edible and 
altogether desirable ; and these inquiring minds frequently seem really disap- 
pointed at being told that they are one and the same thing; that there are edible 
toadstools and mushrooms, and poisonous mushrooms and toadstools ; that in 
short a toadstool is really a mushroom and a mushroom is only a toadstool after all. 

Hence the questions with the beginner is, how he may tell a poisonous 
fungus from an edible one. There is but one answer to this question, and that 
is that he must thoroughly learn both genera and species, studying each till he 
knows its special features as he does those of his most familiar friends. 

Certain species have been tested by a number of people and found to be 
perfectly safe and savory ; on the other hand, there are species under various 
genera which, if not actually poisonous, are at least deleterious. 

It is the province of all books on fungi to assist the student in separating 
the plants into genera and species; in this work special attention has been given 
to distinguishing between the edible and the poisonous species. There are a 
few species such as Gyromitra esculenta, Lepiota Morgani, Clitocybe illudens, 
etc., which when eaten by certain persons will cause sickness soon after eating, 
while others will escape any disagreeable effects. Chemically speaking, they are 
not poisonous, but simply refuse to be assimilated in some stomachs. It is best 
to avoid all such. 

HOW MUSHROOMS GROW. There is a strong notion that mushrooms 
grow very quickly, springing up in a single night. This is erroneous. It is 
true that after they have reached the button stage they develop very quickly ; 
or in the case of those that spring from a mature egg, develop so rapidly that 
you can plainly see the motion of the upward growth, but the development of 
the button from the myselium or spawn takes time weeks, months, and even 
years. It would be very difficult to tell the age of many of our tree fungi. 

HOW TO LEARN MUSHROOMS. If the beginner will avoid all Amanitas 
and perhaps some of the Boleti he need not be much worried in regard to the 
safety of other species. 

There are three ways by which he can become familiar with the edible kinds. 
The first is the physiological test suggested by Mr. Gibson in his book. It con- 
sists in chewing a small morsel and then spitting it out without swallowing the 
juice ; if no important symptoms arise within twenty-four hours, another bit may 


be chewed, this time swallowing a small portion of the juice. Should no irrita- 
tion be experienced after another period of waiting, a still larger piece may be 
tried. I always sample a new plant carefully, and thus am often able to establish 
the fact of its edibility before being able to locate it in its proper species. This 
fall I found for the first time Tricholoma columbetta; it was some time after I 
had proven it an edible mushroom before I had settled upon its name. A better 
way, perhaps, is to cook them and feed them to your cat and watch the result. 

Another way is to have a friend who knows the plants go with you, and 
thus you learn under a teacher as a pupil learns in school. This is the quickest 
way to gain a knowledge of plants of any kind, but it is difficult to find a com- 
petent teacher. 

Still another way, and one that is open to all, is to gain a knowledge of a 
few species and through their description become familiar with the terms used 
in describing a mushroom; this done, the way is open, if you have a book con- 
taining illustrations and descriptions of the most common plants. Do not be in 
a hurry to get the names of all the plants, and do not make use of any about 
which you are not absolutely sure. In gathering mushrooms to eat, do not put 
into your basket with those you intend to eat a single mushroom of whose edible 
qualities you have any doubt. If you have the least doubt about it, discard it, 
or put it in another basket. 

There are no fixed rules by which you can tell a poisonous from an edible 
mushroom. I found a friend of mine eating Lepiota naucina, not even knowing 
to what genus it belonged, simply because she could peel it. I told her that the 
most deadly mushroom can be peeled just as readily. Nor is there anything 
more valuable in the silver spoon test in which Mr. Gibson's old lady put so 
much confidence. Some say, do not eat any that have an acrid taste; many are 
edible whose taste is quite acrid. Others say, do not eat any whose juice or 
milk is white, but this would discard a number of Lactarii that are quite good. 
There is nothing in the white gills and hollow stem theory. It is true that the 
Amanita has both, but it must be known by other characteristics. Again we are 
told to avoid such as have a viscid cap, or those that change color quickly ; this 
is too sweeping a condemnation for it would cut out several very good species. 
I think I may safely say there is no known rule by which the good can be dis- 
tinguished from the bad. The only safe way is to know each species by its own 
individual peculiarities to know them as we know our friends. 

The student of mycology has before him a description of each species, which 
must tally with the plant in hand and which will soon render him familiar with 
the different features of the various genera and species, so he can recognize 
them as readily as the features of his best friends. 

* WHAT ANYONE MAY EAT. In the spring of the year there comes with 
the earliest flowers a mushroom so strongly characteristic in all its forms that 
no one will fail to recognize it. It is the common morel or sponge mushroom. 
None of them are known to be harmful, hence here the beginner can safely trust 
his judgment. While he is gathering morels to eat he will soon begin to dis- 
tinguish the different species of the genera. From May till frost the different 


kinds of puff-balls will appear. All puff-balls are good while their interior 
remains white. They are never poisonous, but when the flesh has begun to turn 
yellow it is very bitter. The oyster mushroom is found from March to December 
and is always a very acceptable mushroom. The Fairy Rings are easily recog- 
nized and can be found in any old pasture during wet weather from June to 
October. In seasonable weather they are usually very plentiful. The common 
meadow mushroom is found from September to frost. It is known by its pink 
gills and meaty cap. There is a mushroom with pink gills found in streets, 
along the pavements and among the cobble stones. The stems are short and the 
caps are very meaty. It is A. rodmani. These are found in May and 
June. The horse mushroom has pink gills and may be found from June 
to September. The Russulas, found from July to October, are generally good. 
A few should be avoided because of their acrid taste or their strong odor. There 
is no time from early spring till freezing weather when you can not find mush- 
rooms, if the weather is at all favorable. I have given the habitat and the time 
when each species can be found. I should recommend a careful study of these 
two points. Read the descriptions of plants which grow in certain places and 
at certain times, and you will generally be rewarded, if you follow out the de- 
scription and the season is favorable. 

HOW TO PRESERVE MUSHROOMS. Many can be dried for winter 
use, such as the Morels, Marasmius oreades, Boletus edulis, Boletus edulis, va. 
clavipes, and a number of others. My wife has very successfully canned a 
number of species, notably Lycoperdon pyriforme, Pleurotus ostreatus and Tri- 
choloma personatum. The mushrooms were carefully picked over and washed, 
let stand in salt water for about five minutes, in order to free them of any insect- 
life which may be in the gills, then drained, cut into pieces small enough to go 
into the jars easily. Each jar was packed as full as possible with mushrooms 
and filled up with water salt enough to flavor the mushroom' properly. Then 
put into a kettle of cold water on the stove, the lids being loosely placed on the 
top, and allowed to cook for an hour or more after the water in the kettle begins 
to boil. The tops were then fastened on securely and after trying the jars to 
see if there was any leak, they were set away in a cool, dark place. 

In canning puff-balls they should be carefully washed and sliced, being sure 
that they are perfectly white all through. They do not need to stand in salt 
water before packing in the jar as do those mushrooms which have gills. Other- 
wise they were canned as the Tricholoma and oyster mushroom. Any edible 
mushroom can easily be kept for winter use by canning. Use glass jars with 
glass tops. 


rooms it is necessary to use certain terms, and it will be incumbent upon anyone 
who wishes to become familiar with this part of botanical work to understand 
thoroughly the terms used in describing the plants. 


The substance of all mushrooms is either fleshy, membranaceous, or cork v. 
The pileus or cap is the expanded part, which may be either sessile or supported 
by a stem. The pileus is not made up of cellular tissue as in flowering plants, 
but of myriads of interwoven threads or hyphae. This structure of the pileus 
will become evident at once if a thin portion of the cap is placed under the 

The gills or lamella are thin plates or membranes radiating from the stem to 
the margin of the cap. When they are attached squarely and firmly to the stem 
they are said to be adnate. If they are attached only by a part of the width of 
the gills, they are adnexcd. Should they extend down on the stem, they are 
decurrent. They are free when they are not attached to the stem. Frequently 
the lower edge is notched at, or near, the stem and in this case they are said to 
be emarginate or sinuate. 

Figure 2 Small portion of a section through the spore-bearing layer of a 
mushroom which produces its spores on the ends of cells called basidium. 
(a) Spores, (b) basidium, (c) sterile cells. 

In some genera the lower surface of the cap is full of pores instead of gills ; 
in other genera the lower surface is crowded with teeth; in still others the sur- 
face is smooth, as in the Stereums. The gills, pores and teeth afford a founda- 
tion for the hymenium or fruit-bearing surface. It will be readily seen that the 
gills, pores and teeth simply expose in a very economical way the greatest possi- 
ble spore-bearing surface. 

If a section of the gills be examined by a microscope, it will be observed 
that upon both sides of the surface are extended hymenial layers. The hymenium 


consists of elongated cells or basidia (s^ngular^basidium) more or less club- 
shaped. Figure 2 will show how these basidia appear on the hymenial layer 
when strongly magnified. It will be seen that they are placed side by side and 
are perpendicular to the surface of the gills. Upon each of these basidia are in 
some species two, usually four, slender projections upon which the spores are 
produced. In Figure 2 a number of sterile cells will be seen which resemble the 
basidia except that the latter bear four sterigmata upon which the spores rest. 
Among these basidia and sterile cells will frequently be seen an overgrown 
bladder-like sterile basidium which projects beyond the rest of the hymenium, 
and whose use is not as yet fully known. They are called cystidia (singular, 
cystidium). They are never numerous, but they are scattered over the entire 
surface, becoming more numerous along the edge of the gills. When they are 
colored, they change the appearance of the gills. 

' '* 



BflHfe . '# 

* ^ 


. " m 

SfjSjgSM Li! 





Figure 3. Rootlike strands of mycelium of the pear-shaped puff-ball growing in rotten 
wood. Young puff-balls in the form of small white knots are forming on the strands. 
Natural size. Longyear. 

The spores are the seeds of the mushroom. They are of various sizes and 
shapes, with a variety of surface markings. They are very small, as fine as dust, 
and invisible to the naked eye, except as they are seen in masses on the grass, 
on the ground, or on logs, or in a spore print. It is the object of every fungus 
to produce spores. Some fall on the parent host or upon the ground. Others 
are wafted away by every rise of the wind and carried for days and finally settle 
down, it may be, in other states and continents from those in which they started. 
Millions perish because of not finding a suitable resting place. Those spores 


that do find a favorable resting place, under right conditions, will begin to ger- 
minate by sending out a slender thread-like filament, or hyphse, which at once 
branches out in search of food material, and which always forms a more or 
less felted mass, called mycelium. When first formed the hyphae are continuous 
and ramify through the nourishing substratum from which there arises after- 
ward a spore-bearing growth known as the sporocarp or young mushroom. This 
vegetative part of the fungus is usually hidden in the soil, or in decayed wood, 
or vegetable matter. In Figure 3 is a representation of the mycelium of the 
small pear-shaped puff-ball with a number of small white knobs marking the 
beginning of the puff-ball. The mycelium exposed here is very similar to the 

mycelium of all mushrooms. 

In the pore-bearing genera 
the hymenium lines the vertical 
pores ; in teeth-bearing fungi it 
lines the surface of each tooth, 
or is spread out over the smooth 
surface of the Stereum. 

The development of the spores 
is quite interesting. The young 
basidia as seen in Figure 2 are 
filled with a granular proto- 
plasm. Soon small projections, 
called sterigma (plural, sterig- 
mata), make their appearance on 
the ends of the basidia and the 
protoplasm passes into them. 
Each projection or sterigma 
soon swells at its extremity into 
a bladder-like body, the young 
spore, and, as they enlarge, the 
protoplasm of the basidium is 
passed into them. When the 
four spores are full grown they 
have consumed all the proto- 
plasm in the basidium. The 
spores soon separate by a trans- 
verse partition and fall off. All 
spores of the Hymenomycetous 
fungi are arranged and pro- 
duced in a similar manner, with 
their spore-bearing surface ex- 
posed early in life by the rup- 
ture of the universal veil. 

In the puff-balls the spores 
are arranged in the same way, 

Figure 4. Small portion of a section through the spore- 
bearing part of a morel in which the spores are pro- 
duced in little sacs or asci. (a) An ascus, (b) an 
ascus discharging its spores, (c) the spores, (d) sterile 
cells. Highly magnified. Longyear. 


but the hymenium is inclosed within an outer sack. When the spores are ripe 
the case is ruptured and the spores escape into the air as a dusty powder. The 
puff-balls, therefore, belong to the Gastromycetous fungi because its spores are 
inclosed in a pouch until they are matured. 

Another very large group of 
fungi is the Ascomycetes, or sac 
fungi. It is very easily deter- 
mined because all of its mem- 
bers develope their spores inside 
of small membranous sacs or 
asci. These asci are generally 
intermixed with slender, empty 
asci, or sterile cells, called para- 
physes. These asci are variously 
shaped bodies and are known in 
different orders by different 
names, such as ascoma, apothe- 
cium, perithecium, and recep- 
tacle. The Ascomycetes often 
include among their numbers 
fungi ranging in size from mi- 
croscopic one-celled plants to 
quite large and very beautiful 
specimens. To this group be- 
long the great number of small 
fungi producing the various 
plant diseases. 

In a work of this kind especial 
attention is naturally given to 
the order of Discomycetes or cup 
fungi. This order is very large 
and is so called because so many 
of the plants are cup shaped. 
These cups vary greatly in size 
and form; some are so small 
that it requires a lens to examine 
them ; some are saucer-shaped ; 
some are like goblets, and some 

resemble beakers of various shapes. The saddle fungi and morels belong to this 
order. Here the sac surface is often convoluted, lobed, and ridged, in order to 
afford a greater sac-bearing surface. 

In the mushrooms, puff-balls, etc., we find the spores were borne on the 
ends of basidia, usually four spores on each. In this group the spores are 
formed in minute club-shaped sacs, known as asci (singular, ascus). These 



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FicufE 5- Small portion of a stem of a morel showing 
cell filaments. Highly magnified. Longyear. 


asci are long, cylindrical sacs, standing side by side, perpendicular to the fruiting 
surface. Figure 4 will illustrate their position together with the sterile cells on 
the fruiting surface of one of the morels. They usually have eight spores in 
each sac or ascus. 

The stem of the mushroom is usually in the center of the cap, yet it may be 
eccentric or lateral : when it is wanting, the pileus is said to be sessile. The 
stem is solid when it is fleshy throughout, or hollow when it has a central cavity. 
or stuffed when the interior is filled with pithy substance. The stems are either 
fleshy or cartilaginous. When the former, it is of the same consistency as the 
pileus. If the latter, its consistency is always different from the pileus, resem- 
bling cartilage. The stem of the Tricholoma affords a good example of the 
fleshy stemmed mushroom, and that of the Marasmius illustrates the cartilaginous. 

If the cap or stem of a mushroom is examined with a microscope of high 
magnifying power it will be found to be made up of a continuation of the my- 
celial filaments, interlaced and interwoven, branching, and the tubular filaments 
often delicately divided, giving the appearance of cells. Figure 5 represents 
a small portion of a Morel stem highly magnified showing the cell filaments. 
In soft fungi the mycelial threads are more loosely woven and have thin walls 
with fewer partitions. 

The veil is a thin sheet of mycelial threads covering the gills, sometimes 
remaining on the stem, forming a ring or annul us: This sometimes remains for 
a time on the margin of the cap when it is said to be appendiculatc. Sometimes 
it resembles a spider's web when it is called arachnoid. 

The voha is a universal wrapper, surrounding the entire plant when young, 
but which is soon ruptured, leaving a trace in the form of scales on the cap and 
a sheath around the base of the stem, or breaking up into scales or a scaly ring 
at the base of the stem. All plants having this universal volva should be avoided, 
further than for the purpose of study. Care should be taken that, in their young 
state, they are not mistaken for puff-balls. Frequently when found in the egg 
state they resemble a small puff-ball. Figure 6 represents a section of an Ama- 
nita in the egg-state and also the Gemmed puff-ball. As soon as a section is 
made and carefully examined the structure of the inside will reveal the plant at 
once. There is but little danger of confusing the egg stage of an Amanita with 
the puff-ball, for they resemble each other only in their oval shape, and not in 
the least in their marking on the surface. 

WHAT IS A FUNGUS OR A MUSHROOM? It is a celular. flowerless 
plant, nourished by the mycelium which permeates the soil or other substances 
on which the fungus or mushroom grows. All fungi are either parasites or 
saprophytes which have lost their chlorophyll, and are incapable of supporting 
an independent existence. 

There is a vast number of genera and species, and many have the parasitic 
habit which causes them to enter the bodies of other plants and of animals. 
For this reason all fungi are of economic importance, especially the microscopic 
forms classed under the head of Bacteria. Some recent writers are inclined to 
separate the Bacteria and slime-molds from the fungus group, and call them 



fungus animals. However this may be, they are true plants and have many of 
the characteristics of the fungi. They may differ from the fungi in their vegetative 
functions, yet they have so many things in common that I am inclined to place 
them under this group. 

Many, such as the yeast fungus, the various fermentative fungi, and the 
Bacteria concerned in the process of decomposition, are indeed very useful. The 
enrichment and preparation of soils for the uses of higher plants, effected by 
Bacteria, are very important services. 

Figure 6. The lefthand figure represents a vertical section through a young plant of 
the gemmed puff-ball showing the cellular structure of the stem-like lower half, 
called the subgleba. The righthand figure shows a vertical section of the egg stage 
of an Amanita, a very poisonous fungus which grows in woods and which might 
be mistaken for a young puff-ball if not cut open. The fungus forms just below 
the surface of the soil, finally bursting the volva, sending up a parasol mushroom. 
Natural size. Longyear. 

Parasites derive their nourishment from living plants and animals. They 
are so constituted that when their nourishing threads come within range of the 
living plant they answer a certain impulse by sending out special threads, envelop- 
ing the host and absorbing nutrition. Saprophitic plants do not experience this 
reaction from the living plants. They are compelled to get their nourishment 
from decaying products of plants or animals, consequently they live in rich ground 


or leaf mold, on decayed wood, or on dung. Parasites are usually small, being 
limited by their host. Saprophytes are not thus limited for food supply and it is 
possible to build up large plants such as the common mushroom group, puff-balls, 

The spores are the seeds or reproductive bodies of the mushroom. They 
are very fine, and invisible to the naked eye except when collected together in great 
masses. Underneath mushrooms, frequently, the grass or wood will be white 
or plainly discolored from the spores. The hymenium is the surface or part 
of the plant which bears the spores. The hymenophore is the part which supports 
the hymenium. 

In the common mushroom, and in fact many others, the spores develop on 
a certain club-like cell, called basidium (plural, basidia), on each of which four 
spores usually develop. In morels these cells are elongated into cylindrical 
membranous sacs called asci, in each of which eight spores are usually developed. 
The spores will be found of various colors, shapes, and sizes, a fact which will 
be of great assitance to the student in locating strange species and genera. In 
germination the spores send out slender threads which Botanists call mycelium, 
but which common readers know as spawn. 

The method and place of spore development furnish a basis for the classifica- 
tion of fungi. The best way to acquire a thorough knowledge of both our edible 
and poisonous mushrooms is to study them in the light of the primary characters 
employed in their classification and their natural relation to each other. 

There is a wide difference of opinion as to the classification of mushrooms. 
Perhaps the most simple and satisfactory is that of Underwood and Cook. They 
arrange them under six groups : 

i. Basidiomycetes those in which the spores or reproductive bodies are naked 
or external as shown in illustration 2 on page 15. 

2. Ascomycetes those in which the spores are inclosed in sacs or asci. These 

sacs are very clearly represented in illustration Figure 4 on page 18. This 
will include the Morels, Pezizse, Pyrenomycetes, Tuberaceae, Sphairiacei, 

3. Physcomycetes including the Mucorini, Saprolegniaceae, and Peronosporeae. 

Potato rot and downy mildew on grape vines belong to this family. 

4. Myxomycetes Slime moulds. 

5. Saccharomycetes Yeast fungi. 

6. Schizomycetes are minute, unicellular Protophytes which reproduce mainly 

by transverse fission. 


Class, Fungi Sub-Class, Basidiomycetes. 

This class will include all gill-bearing fungi, Polyporus, Boletus, Hydnum, etc. 
Fungi of this class are divided into four natural groups : 
i. Hymenomycetes. 

2. Gasteromycetes. 

3. Uredinae. 

4. Ustilagineae. 

Group i Hymenomycetes. 

Under this group will be placed all fungi composed of membranes, fleshy, 
woody, or gelatinous, whether growing on the ground or on wood. The hymen- 
ium, or spore-bearing surface, is external at an early stage in the life of the 
plant. The spores are borne on basidia as explained in Figure 2, page 6. 
When the spores ripen they fall to the ground or are carried by the wind to a 
host that presents all the conditions necessary for germination ; there they produce 
the mycelia or white thread-like vines that one may have noticed in plowing sod, in 
old chip piles, or decayed wood. If one will examine these threads there will be 
found small knots which will in time develop into the full grown mushroom. 
Hymenomyctes are divided into six families : 

1. Agaricaceae. Hymenium with gills. 

2. Polyporaceae. ' Hymenium with pores. 

3. Hydnaceae. Hymenium with spines. 

4. Thelephoracese. Hymenium horizontal and mostly on the under surface. 

5. Clavariaceae. Hymenium on a smooth club-shaped surface. 

6. Tremellaceae. Hymenium even and superior. Gelatinous fungi. 

Family i Agaricaceae. 

In the Agaricaceae or common mushrooms, and in all other of similar struc- 
ture, the spore-producing membranes are found on the under surface of the cap. 
They consist of thin lamellae, or gills, attached by the upper edge to the cap and 
extending from the stem to the margin of the cap. Very frequently that space 
may be entirely utilized by shorter lamellae, or gills, intervening between the longer, 
especially toward the margin of the cap. In a few species where the stem seems 
to be wanting, or where it is attached to the side of the cap, the lamellae, or gills, 
radiate from the point of attachment or from the lateral stem to other parts of the 
circumference of the cap. Berkeley gives the following characteristics : 
Hymenium, inferior, spread over easily divisible gills or plates, radiating from 
a center or stem, which may be either simple of branched. 

This family includes the following genera : 



i. Agaricus Gills, not melting, edge acute; including all the sub-genera which 
have been elevated to the rank of genera. 

2. Coprinus Gills deliquescent, spores black. 

3. Cortinarius Gills persistent, veil spider-web-like, terrestrial. 

4. Paxillus Gills separating from the hymenophorum and decurrent. 

5. Gomphidius Gills branched and decurrent, pileus top-shaped. 

6. Bolbitius Gills becoming moist, spores colored. 

7. Lactarius Gills milky, terrestrial. 

8. Russula Gills equal, rigid, and brittle, terrestrial. 

9. Marasmius Gills thick, tough, hymenium dry. 

10. Hygrophorus Stem confluent with the hymenophorum ; gills sharp edged. 

11. Cantharellus Gills thick, branched, rounded edge. 

12. Lentinus Pileus hairy, hard, tough ; gills, tough, unequal, toothed ; on logs 

and stumps. 

13. Lenzites Whole plant corky; gills simple or branched. 

14. Trogia Gills venose, fold-like, channelled. 

15. Panus Gills corky, with acute edge. 

16. Nyctalis Veil universal ; gills broad, often parasitic. 

17. Schizophyllum Gills corky, split longitudinally. 

18. Xerotus Gills tough, fold-like. 

Therefore the gill-bearing fungi are known under the family name, Agari- 

caceae, or more generally 
known as Agarics. 

This family is divided into 
five series, according to the 
color of their spores. The 
spores when seen in masses 
possess certain colors, white, 
rosy, rusty, purple-brown and 
black. Therefore the first and 
most important part to be de- 
termined in locating a mush- 
room is to ascertain the color 
of the spores. To do this, 
take a fresh, perfect, and fully 
developed specimen, remove 
the stem from the cap. Place 
the cap with the gills down- 
ward on the surface of dark 
velvety paper, if you suspect 
the spores to be white. Invert 
I a finger bowl or a bell glass 

Ficu 7 .-Spor e .print of Agaricus arvensis. r t,le Ca P to kee P the air 



from blowing the spores away. If the spores should be colored, white paper 
should be used. If the specimen is left too long the spore deposit will continue 
upward between the gills and it may reach an eighth of an inch in height, in 
which case if great care is taken in removing the cap there will be a perfect like- 
ness of the gills and also the color of the spores. 

There are two ways of making these spore prints quite permanent. First 
take a piece of thin rice paper, muscilage it and allow it to dry, then proceed as 
above. In this way the print will stand handling quite a little. Another way, 
and that used to prepare the spore-prints in these photographs, is to obtain the 
spore-print upon Japanese paper as in the preceding method, then by an atomizer 
spray the print gently and carefully with a fixative such as is used in fixing 
charcoal drawings. Success in 
making spore-prints requires both 
time and care, but the satisfaction 
they give is ample recompense for 
the trouble. Is is more difficult to 
obtain good prints from the white- 
spored mushrooms than from those 
bearing colored spores, because it 
is hard to obtain a black paper 
having a dull velvety surface, and 
the spores will not adhere well to 
a smooth-finished, glossy paper. 
For the prints illustrated I am in- 
debted to Mrs. Blackford. 

If the plant is dry it is well to 
moisten the fingerbowl or bell- 
glass on the inside before placing 
it over the mushroom. The spores 
of Boleti, and, indeed, all fungi 
can be caught and fixed in the 
same way. 

From the study of these spore- 
prints we shall find five different colors of spores. This family is, therefore, 
divided into five series, determined by the color of the spores, which are always 
constant in color, size and shape. 

The five series will be treated in the following order : 

i. The white-spored Agaric^. 

2. The rosy-spored Agarics. 

3: The rusty-spored Agarics. 

4. The purple-brown-spored Agarics. 

5. The black-spored Agarics. 

Figure 8. Spore-print of Hypholoma sublatertium. 




Figure 9. Spore-print of a Flammula. 

This key is largely based upon 
Cooke's analytical key. Its use will 
help to locate the plant in hand in the 
genus to which it belongs. 

The first thing the student should 
do is to determine the color of the 
spore if it is not evident. This is best 
done according to the plan described 
on page 15. 

The plant should be fresh and ma- 
ture. Careful attention should be 
given to different stages of develop- 
ment. The habit of the plant should 
be considered ; then, as soon as the 
color of the spores is determined, it 
will be an easy matter to locate the 
genus by means of the key. 

Group i Hymenomycetes. 

Mycelium floccose, giving rise to a distinct hymenium, fungus fleshy, 
membranaceous, woody or gelatinous. Spores naked. 
Hymenium, normally inferior 
Hymenium with 

gills Agaricacese. 

Hymenium with 

pores Polyporacese. 

Hymenium with 

teeth Hydnaceae. 

Hymenium even . . Thelophoracese. 
Hymenium, superior 
Hymenium on smooth 

surface, club-shaped, Clavariaceae. 
Hymenium lobed, 

convolute, gelatinous, Tremellaceae. 

Family i Agaricaceae. 
Hymenium inferior, pileus more 

Or less expanded, Convex, bell- FlGURE I0 ._ S port-print of a Boletus. 

shaped. Gills radiating from the 

point of attachment of the pileus with the stem, or from a lateral stem to other 

parts of the cap, simple or branched. 


I. Spores white or slightly tinted. 

A. Plants fleshy, more or less firm, decaying soon. 

a. Stem fleshy, pileus easily separating from the stem. 
^_ Volva present and ring on the stem. 

Pileus bearing warts or patches free from the cuticule . . . Amanita. 

Volva present, ring wanting \manitopsis. 

Pileus scaly, scales concrete with cuticle, 

Volva wanting ring present Lepiota. - t+h 

Hymenophore confluent, 
Without cartilaginous bark, 

b. Stem central, ring present (sometimes vague), 

Volva wanting, gills attached Armillaria. 

Without a ring, 

Gills sinuate Tricholoma. Co 

Gills decurrent, 

Edges acute Clitocybe. 

Edges swollen .' Cantharellus. 

Gills adnate, 

Parasitic on other mushrooms Nyctalis. 

Not parasitic, 

Milky Lactarius. 

Not exuding juice when bruised, 

Rigid and brittle Russula. /Fi 

Quite viscid, waxy consistency Hygrophorus. i-oif 

c. Stem lateral or none, rarely central Pleurotus. 

d. Stem with cartilaginous bark, 

Gills adnate . ^\K^.-. jhvA Collybia. 

Gills sinuate Mycena. 

Gills decurrent Omphalia. /3o 

Plants tough, fleshy, membranaceous, leathery, 
Stem central, 

Gills simple Marasmius. 

Gills branched Xerotus. 

B. Plants gelatinous and leathery Heliomyces. 

Stem lateral or wanting, 

Edge of gills serrate Lentinus. 

Edge of gills entire Panus. 

Gills fold-like, irregular Trogia. 

Edge of gills split longitudinally Schizophyllum. 2 I 2. 


C. Plants corky or woody, 

Gills anastomosing Lenzites. 

II. Spores rosy or salmon color. 

A. Stem central. 

Gills free, stem easily separating from pileus. 
Without cartilaginous stem, 

Volva present and distinct, no ring Volvaria. 

Without a volva, with a ring Annulana. 

Without a volva and without a ring . Pluteus. 

B. Stem fleshy to fibrous, margin of pileus at first in 

Gills sinuate or adnate Entoloma. 

Gills decurrent Clitopilus. tvn 

C. Stem eccentric or none, pileus lateral Claudopus. 

Gills decurrent, pileus umbilicate Eccilia. 

Gills not decurrent, pileus torn into scales, and slight- 
ly convex, margin at first involute Leptonia. 

Pileus bell-shaped, margin at first straight Nolanea. 

III. Spores rusty-brown or yellowish-brown. 

A. Stem not cartilaginous, 
o. Stem central, 

With a ring, 

Ring continuous Pholiota. 

Veil arachnoid, 

Gills adnate, powdery from spores Cortinarius. 

Gills decurrent or adnate, mostly epiphytal Flammula. 

Gills somewhat sinuate, cuticle of the pileus silky, or 
bearing fibrils Inocybe. 

Cuticle smooth, viscid Hebeloma. 

Gills separating from the hymenophore and de- 
current Paxillus. 

b. Stem lateral or absent Crepidotus. 

B. Stem cartilaginous, 

Gills decurrent Tubaria. 

Gills not decurrent, 

Margin of the pileus at 'first incurved Naucoria. 

Margin of pileus always straight, 

Hymenophore free Pluteolus. 


Hymenophore confluent Galera. 

Gills dissolving into a gelatinous condition Bolbitius. 

IV. Spores purple-brown. 

A. Stem riot cartilaginous, 

Pileus easily separating from the stem, 

Volva present, ring wanting Chitonia. 

Volva and ring wanting Pilosace. 3 1 <j 

Volva wanting, ring present Agaricus. Sot 

Gills confluent, ring present on stem Stropharia. 3 ?6 

Ring wanting, veil remaining attached to margin 

of pileus Hypholoma. 3z3 

B. Stem cartilaginous, 

Gills decurrent Deconia. 

Gills not decurrent, margin of pileus at first in- 
curved Psilocybe. 

Margin of pileus at first straight Psathyra. 

V. Black spored mushrooms. 

Gills* deliquescent Coprinus. 

Gills not deliquescent, 

Gills decurrent Gomphidius. 

Gills not decurrent, pileus striate . . . . : Psathyrella. 

Pileus not striate, ring wanting, veil often present 

on margin Panseolus. 3^ 

Ring wanting, veil appendicular^ > Chalymotta. 

Ring present , Anellaria. 



The species bearing the white spores seem to be higher in type than those 
producing colored spores. Most of the former are firmer, while the black spored 
specimens soon deliquesce. The white spores are usually oval, sometimes round, 
and in many cases quite spiny. All white-spored specimens will be found in 
clean places. 

Amanita. Pers. 

Amanita is supposed to be derived from Mount Amanus, an ancient name 
of a range separating Cilicia from Syria. It is supposed that Galen first brought 
specimens of this fungus from that region. 

The genus Amanita has both a volva and a veil. The spores are white and 
the stem is readily separable from the cap. The volva is universal at first, 
enveloping the young plant, yet distinct and free from the cuticule of the pileus. 

This genus contains some of the most deadly poisonous mushrooms, although 
a few are known to be very good. There is a large number of species about 75 
being known, 42 of which have been found in this country a few being quite 
common in this state. All the Amanita are terrestrial plants, mostly solitary in 
their habits, and chiefly found in the woods, or in well wooded grounds. 

In the button stage it resembles a small tgg or puff-ball, as will be seen 
in Figure 6, page 11, and great care should be taken to distinguish it from the 
latter, if one is hunting puff-balls to eat; yet the danger is not great, since the 
volva usually breaks before the plant comes through the ground. 

Amanita phalloides. Fr. 
The Deadly A iAnita. 

Phalloides means phallus-like. This plant and its related species are deadly 
poisonous. For this reason the plant carefully studied and thoroughly 
known by every mushroom hunter. In different localities, and sometimes in the 
same locality, the plant will appear in very different shades of color. There are 
also variations in the way in which the volva is ruptured, as well as in the char- 
acter of the stem. 

The beginner will imagine he has a new species often, till he becomes 
thoroughly acquainted with all the idiosyncrasies of this plant. 

The pileus is smooth, even, viscid when young and moist, frequently adorned 



with a few fragments of the volva, white, grayish white, sometimes smoky-brown ; 

whether the pileus be white, oyster-color or smoky-brown, the center of the cap 

will be several shades darker than the margin. The plant changes from a knob 

or egg-shape when 

young, to almost flat 

when fully expanded. 

Many plants have a 

marked umbo on the 

top of the cap and 

the rim of the cap 

may be slightly turned 


The gills are always 
white, wide, ventri- 
cose, rounded next to 
the stem, and free 
from it. 

The stem is smooth, 
white unless in cases 
where the cap is dark, 
then the stem of those 
plants are apt to be of 
the same color, taper- 
ing upward as in the 
specimen (Fig n) ; 
stuffed, then hollow, 
inclined to discolor 
when handled. 

The volva of this 
species is quite vari- 
able and more or less 
buried in the ground, 
where careful obser- 
vation will reveal it. 

One need never con- 
found this species with 
the meadow mush- 
room, for the spores 
of that are always 
purple-brown, while a 
spore-print of this will 
always reveal white 
spores. I have seen a slight tint of pink on the gills of the A. phaloides but the 
spores were always white. Until one knows thoroughly both Lepiota naucina 
and A. phalloides before eating the former he should always hunt carefully for 
the remains of a volva and a bulbous base in the soil. 

Figure ii. Amanita phalloides. Fr. Showing volva at the base, cap dark. 



Figure 12. Amanita phalloides. Fr. White form showing volva, scaly stem, ring. 

This plant is quite conspicuous and inviting in all of its various shades of 
color. It is found in woods, and along the margin of woods, and sometimes on 
lawns. It is from four to eight inches high and the pileus from three to five 
inches broad. There is a personality about the plant that renders it readily 
recognizable after it has once been learned. Found from August to October. 


Amanita recutita. Fr. 
The Fresh-skinned Amanita. Poisonous. 

Recutita, having a fresh or new skin. Pileus convex, then expanded, dry, 
smoth, often covered with small scales, fragments of the volva ; margin almost 
even, gray or brownish. 

The gills forming lines down the stem. 

The stem stuffed, then hollow, attenuated upward, silky, white, ring distant, 
edge of volva not free, frequently obliterated. 

Rather common where there is much pine woods. August to October. 

This species differs from A. porphyria in ring not being brown or brownish. 

Amanita virosa. Fr. 
The Poisonous Amanita. 

Virosa, full of poison. The pileus is from four to five inches broad; the 
entire plant white, conical, then expanded; viscid when moist; margin often 
somewhat lobed, even. 

The gills are free, crowded. 

The stem is frequently six inches long, stuffed, round, with a bulbous base, 
attenuated upward, squamulose, ring near apex, volva large, lax. 

The spores are subglobose, 8-io/x. This is probably simply a form of A. 
phalloides. It is found in damp woods. August to October. 

Amanita muse aria. Linn. 
The Fly Amanita. Poisonous. 

Muscaria, from musca, a fly. The fly Amanita is a very conspicuous and 
handsome plant. It is so called because infusions of it are used to kill flies. I have 
frequently seen dead flies on the fully developed caps, where they had sipped of 
the dew upon the cap, and, like the Lotos-eaters of old, had forgotten to move 
away. It is a very abundant plant fliKthe woods of Columbiana county, this state. 
It is also found frequently in many localities about Chillicothe. It is often a 
very handsome and attractive plant, because of the bright colors of the cap in 
contrast with the white stem and gills, as well as the white scales on the surface 
of the cap. These scales seem to behave somewhat differently from those of 
other species of Amanita. Instead of shrivelling, curling, and falling off they are 
inclined to adhere firmly to the smooth skin of the pileus, turning brownish, and 
in the maturely expanded plant apper like scattered drops of mud which have dried 
upon the pileus, as you will observe in Figure 13. 

The pileus is three to five inches broad? globose at first, then dumb-bell in 
shape, convex, then expanded, nearly flat in age ; margin in matured plants 



slightly striate; the 
surface of the cap 
is covered with 
white f 1 o c c o s e 
'scales, fragments 
of the volva, these 
scales being easily 
removed so that old 
plants are frequent- 
ly comparatively 
smooth. The color 
of the young plant 
is normally red, 
then orange to pale 
yellow ; late in the 
season, or in old 
plants, it fades to 
almost white. The 
flesh is white, some- 
times stained yel- 
low close to the 

The gills are pure 
white, very sym- 
metrical, various in 
length, the shorter 
ones terminating 
under the cap very 
abruptly, crowded. 
free, but reaching 
the stem, decurrent 
in the form of lines 
somewhat broader 
in front, sometimes 
a slight tinge of 
yellow will be ob- 
served in the gills. 
The stem is 

white, often yellowish with age, pithy and often hollow, becoming rough and 

shaggy, finally scaly, the scales below appearing to merge into the form of an 

obscure cup, the stem four to six inches long. 

The veil covers the gills of the young plant and later is seen as a collar-like 

ring on the stem, soft, lax, deflexed, in old specimens it is often destroyed. The 

spores are white and broadly elliptical. 

Figure 13. Amanita muscaria. Linn. Cap reddish or orange, 
scales on the cap and at base of stem. 




The history of this plant is as interesting as a novel. Its deadly properties 
were known to the Greeks and Romans. The pages of history record its undoing 
and its accessory to crime. Pliny says, alluding to this species, "very conveniently 
adapted for poisoning." This was undoubtedly the species that Agrippina, the" 
mother of Nero, used to poison her husband, the Emperor Claudius ; and the 

Figure 14. Amanita muscaria. Linn. One-half natural size, showing development of the plant. 

same that Nero used in that famous banquet when all his guests, his tribunes and 
centurions, and Agrippina herself, fell victims to its poisonous properties. 

However, it is said this mushroom is habitually eaten by certain people as 
an intoxicant; indeed, it is used in Kamchatka and Asiatic Russia, generally, 
where the Amanita drunkard takes the place of the opium fiend and the alcohol 
bibber in other countries. By reading Colonel George Kennan in his "Tent-life 



in Siberia," and Cooke's "Seven Sisters of Sleep," you will find a full description 
of the toxic employment of this fungus which will far surpass any possible 

It caused the death of the Czar Alexis of Russia ; also Count de Vecchi, with 
a number of his friends, in Washington in 1896. He was in search of the Orange 
Amanita and found this, and the consequences were serious. 

Figure 15. Amar : ta Frostiana. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 

In size, shape, and color of the cap there is similarity, but in other respects 
the two are very different. They may be contrasted as follows : 

Orange Amanita, edible. Cap smooth, gills yellow, stem yellow, wrapper 
persistent, membranaceous, white. 

Fly Amnita, poisonous. Cap warty, gills, white, stem white, or slightly yel- 
lonnsh, wrapper soon breaking into fragments or scales, white or sometimes yel- 
lowish brown. 

Found along roadsides, wood margins, and in thin woods. It prefers poor 
soil, and is more abundant where poplar and hemlock grow. From June to frost. 



Amanita Frostiana. Pk. 
Frost's Amanita. Poisonous. 

Frostiana, named in honor of Charles C. Frost. 

The pileus is convex, expanded, bright orange or yellow, warty, sometimes 
smooth, striate on the margin, pileus one to three inches broad. 

The gills are free, white, or slightly tinged with yellow. 

The stem is white or yellow, stuffed, bearing a slight, sometimes evanescent, 
ring, bulbous at the base, the bulb slightly margined by the volva. The spores 
globose, 8-iOjn in diameter. Peck. 

Great care should be taken to distinguish this species from A. csesarea because 
of its often yellow stem and gills. I found some beautiful specimens on Cemetery 
Hill and on Ralston's Run. It is very poisonous and should be carefully avoided, 
or rather, it should be thor- 
oughly known that it may be 
avoided. The striations on 
the margin and its yellow 
tinge might lead one to mis- 
take it for the Orange Am- 
anita. It is found in shady 
woods and sometimes in 
open places where there is 
underbrush. June to Octo- 

Amanita verna. Ball. 

The Spring Amanita. 

Verna, pertaining to 
spring. This species is con- 
sidered by some only a white 
variety of Amanita phallo- 
ides. The plant is always a 
pure white. It can only be 
distinguished from the white 
form of the A. phalloides by 
its closer sheathing volva 
and perhaps a more ovate 
pileus when young. 

The pileus is at first ovate, 
then expanded, somewhat 
depressed, viscid when 

Figure 16. Amanita verna. Two-thirds natural size, show- 
ing the volva cup and the ring. 



moist, even, margin naked, 
smooth. The gills are free. 

The stem is stuffed, with 
advancing age hollow, equal, 
floccose, white, ringed, base 
bulbous, volva closely cm- 
bracing the stem with its free 
margin, ring forming a broad 
collar, reflexed. The spores 
are globose, 8/x broad. 

This species is very abund- 
ant on the wooded hills in this 
section of the state. Its pure 
white color makes it an at- 
tractive plant, and it should 
be carefully learned. I have 
found it before the middle of 

Figure 17. Amanita solitaria. Two-thirds natural size, show- 
ing the peculiar veil. 

Amanita magnwelaris. Pk. 

The Large Veiled Amanita. 

.Magnivelaris is from mag- 
nus, large; velum, a veil. 

The pileus is convex, often 
nearly plane, with even mar- 
gin, smooth, slightly viscid when moist, white or yellowish-white. 
The gills are free, close, white. 

The stem is long, nearly equal, white, smooth, furnished with a large 
membranaceous volva, the bulbous base tapering downward and rooting, The 
spores are broadly ellipitcal. 

This species very closely resembles Amanita verna, from which it can be 
distinguished by its large, persistent annulus, the elongated downward-tapering 
bulb of its stem, and, especially, by its elliptical spores. 

It is found solitary and in the woods. I found several on Ralston's Run 
under beech trees. Found from July to October. 

Amanita pellucidula. Ban. 

Pileus at first campanulate. then expanded, slightly viscid, fleshy in center, 
attenuated at the margin ; color a smooth bright red, deeper at the top. shaded 
into clear transparent yellow at the margin; glossy, flesh white, unchanging. 

The gills are ventricose, free, numerous, yellow. 



The stem is stuffed, ring descending, fugacious. Peck's 44th Report. 

This species differs from Amanita caesarea in having an even margin and a 
white stem. It is only a form of the caesarea. The white stem will attract the 
attention of the collector. 

Amanita solitaria. Bull. 
The Solitary Amanita. 

Solitary, growing alone. I have found this plant in various parts of the 
state and I have always found them growing alone. In Poke Hollow, where I 
found the specimens in the illustrations, I found several on the hillside on 
different occasions, but 
I have never found them 
growing in groups. It is 
quite large in size, white 
or whitish, very woolly 
or floccose. Usually the 
cap, stem, and the gills 
are covered with a floc- 
cose substance which will 
serve to identify the 
species. This fluffy ex- 
terior adheres readily to 
your hands or clothing. 
The cap is sometimes 
tinged with brown, but 
the flesh is white and 
smells quite strong, not 
unlike chloride of lime. 
The annulus is frequent- 
ly torn from the stem 
and is found adhering to 
the margin of the cap. 

The pileus is from 
three to five inches broad, 
or more, when fully ex- 
panded, at first globose 
to hemispherical, as will 
be seen in Figures 17 and 

18, convex, or plane, warty, white or whitish, the pointed scales being easily rubbed 
off, or washed off by heavy rains, these scales varying in size from small granules 
to quite large conical flakes, and differing in condition and color in different plants. 

The gills are free, or are not attached by the upper part, the edges are 
frequently floccose where they are torn from the slight connection with the 

Figure 18. 

-Amanita solitaria. Two-thirds natural size, showing 
scaly cap and stem. 

Plate II. Figure 19. Amanita solitaria. 
Natural size, showing scaly cap and stem, plant white. 



upper surface of the veil; 
white, or slightly tinged 
with cream-color, broad. 

The stem is four to 
eight inches high, solid, 
becoming stuffed when old, 
bulbous, rooting deep in 
the soil, very scaly, ventri- 
cose sometimes in young 
plants, white, very mealy. 
Volva friable. Ring, large, 
lacerated, usually hanging 
to the margin of the cap, 
but in Figure 19 it adheres 
to the stem. 

This is a large and beau- 
tiful plant in the woods, and 
easily identified because of 
its floccose nature and the 
large bulb at the base of 
the stem. It is not so warty 
and the odor is not nearly 
so strong as the Amanita 
strobiliformis. It is edible 
but very great caution 
should be used to be sure of 
your species. Found from 
July to October in woods 
and roadsides. 

Figure 20. Amanita radicata. Two-thirds natural size, show- 
ing scaly cap, bulbous stem and root broken off and pecu- 
liar veil. 

Figure 21. Amanita radicata. 

Plate III. Figure 22. Amanita strobiliformis. 
Young plant showing veil covering the entire gill-surface of the plant. 
Cap covered with persistent warts, stem rough and rooting, odor strong 
of chloride of lime. 


Amanita radicata. Pk. 

Radicata means furnished with a root. The root of the specimen in Figure 
20 was broken off in getting it out of the ground. 

The pileus is subglobose, becoming convex, dry, verrucose, white, margin 
even, flesh firm, white, odor resembling that of chloride of lime. 

The gills are close, free, white. 

The stem is solid, deeply radicating, swoolen at the base or bulbous, 
"floccose or mealy at the top, white; veil thin, floccose, or mealy, white, soon 
lacerated and attached in fragments to the margin of the pileus or evanescent. 
The spores are broadly elliptic, 7.5-10/1, long, 6-7//, broad. Peck. 

This is quite a large and beautiful plant, very closely related to Amanita 
strobiliformis, but readily distinguished from it because of its white color, its 
clearly radiating stem, and small spores. The stem shows to be bulbous and the 
cap covered with warts. I found the plant frequently in Poke Hollow and on 
Ralston's Run. July and August. 

Amanita strobiliformis. Fr. 
The Fir-cone; Amanita. 

Strobiliformis means fir-cone form; so called from the similarity of its 
undeveloped form to that of the strobile of the pine. 

The pileus is six to eight inches broad, when young, subglobose, then convex, 
expanded, nearly plane, with persistent warts, white, ash-color, sometimes yellow 
on the cap, the margin even and extending beyond the gills ; warts hard, angular, 
pointed, white ; flesh white, compact. 

The gills are free, crowded, rounded, white, becoming yellow. 

The stem is five to eight inches long, frequently longer, tapering upward, 
floccosely scaly, bulbous, rooting beyond the bulb; ring large, torn; volva forming 
concentric rings. The spores are 13-14x8-9//.. 

This is one of the most stately plants in the woods. It is said to be edible, but 
the strong pungent cdoi, like chloride of lime, has deterred me from eating it. 
This, however, is said to disappear in cooking. It grows to be very large 
Dr. Kellerman and I found a specimen in Haynes's Hollow whose stem measured 
over eleven inches, and cap nine inches. It is found in open woods and wood, 
margins. Great caution should be used before the plant is eaten to know it 
beyond doubt. Found July to October. 

Plate IV. Figure 23. Amanita strobiuformis. 
Showing long root. 



Amanita mappa. Fr. 
The Delicate; Amanita. Poisonous. 

Mappa means a napkin, so called from the volva. The pileus is two to three 
inches broad, convex, then expanded, plane, obtuse or depressed, without separ- 
able cuticle ; margin nearly even ; white or yellowish, usually with patches of 
the volva dry. 

The gills are adnexed, close, narrow, shining, white. 

The stem is two to three inches long, stuffed, then hollow, cylindrical, nearly 
smooth, bulbous, nearly globose at the base, white, almost equal above the bulb. 

The volva with its free margin is acute and narrow. The ring is mem- 
branaceous, superior, soft, lax, ragged. 

Its color is quite as variable and its habits are much like A. phalloides, from 
which it can only be distinguished by its less developed volva, which, instead of 
being cup-shaped, is little more than a mere rim fringing the bulb. The odor at 
times is very strong. It is found in open woods and under brush. Label it 

Fic.urE 24. Amanita mappa. Natural size, showing long smooth stem, cap 
yellowish-white and ring. 



Amanita crenulata. Pk. 

Crenulata means bearing notches, refering to the crenulate form of the gills, 
which are very distinct. 

The pileus is thin, two to two and a half inches broad, broadly ovate, becoming 
convex, or nearly plane, somewhat striate on the margin, adorned with a few 
thin whitish floccose warts or with whitish flocculent patches, whitish or grayish, 
sometimes tinged with yellow. 

The gills are close, reaching the stem, and sometimes forming decurrent lines 
upon it, floccose crenulate on the edge, the short ones truncate at the inner ex- 
tremity, white. 

Figure 25. Amanita crenulata. 

The stem is equal, bulbous, floccose mealy above, stuffed or hollow, white, 
the annulus slight, evanescent. Spores broadly elliptic or subglobose, 7.5-10 
long, nearly as broad, usually containing a single large nucleus. Peck, Bull. Tor. 
Bot. Club. 

The stem is bulbous at the base but the volva is rarely seen upon it although 
slight patches are frequently seen on the pileus. The ring is very evanescent and 
soon disappears. The specimens I have received from Mrs. Blackford look gooJ 
enough to eat and she speaks highly of the edible qualities of this species. So far 
as I know this plant is confined to the New England states. Found from Septem- 
ber to November. It grows in low damp ground under trees. 



Amanita cothumata. Atkinson. 

The Bootkd Amanita. 

Cothurnata means buskined ; from corthunns, a high shoe or buskin worn by 
actors. This species is easily separated from the other Amanitas. I shall give 
Prof. Atkinson's description of it in full : "The pileus is fleshy and passes from 
nearly globose to hemispherical, convex, expanded, and when specimens are very 
old sometimes the margin is elevated. It is usually white, though specimens are 
found with a tinge of citron yellow in the center or of tawny yellow in the center 
of other specimens. The pileus is viscid, strongly so when moist. It is finely 

Figure 26. Amanita cothurnata. Slightly reduced from natural size, showing different 

stages of development. 

striate on the margin, and covered with numerous, white, floccose scales from the 
upper half of the volva, forming more or less dense patches, which may wash off 
in heavy rains. 4 

The gills are rounded next the stem, and quite remote from it. The edge of 
the gills is often eroded or frazzly from the torn-out threads with which they 
were loosely connected to the upper side of the veil in the young or button stage. 
The spores are globose or nearly so, with a large "nucleus" nearly filling the spore. 

The stem is cylindrical, even, and expanded below into quite a large oval 


bulb, the stem just above the bulb being margined by a close-fitting roll of the 
volva, and the upper edge of this presenting the appearance of having been sewed 
at the top like the rolled edge of a garment or buskin. The surface of the stem 
is minutely floccose, scaly or strongly so, and decidedly hollow even from a very 
young stage or sometimes when young with loose threads in the cavity. 

A. cothurnata resembles in many points A. frostiana and it will afford the 
collector a very interesting study to note the points of difference. I found the two 
species growing on Cemetery Hill. Figure 26 is from plants collected in Michigan 
and photographed by Dr. Fisher. Found in September and October. 

Amanita rubcsccns. Fr. 
The Reddish Amanita. Edible. 

Rubescens is from rubcsco, to become red. It is so called because of the 
dingy reddish color of the entire plant, and also because when the plant is handled 
or bruised it quickly changes to a reddish color. It is often a large bulky plant 
and rather uninviting. 

The pileus is four to six inches broad, dingy reddish, often becoming 
pale flesh color, fleshy, oval to convex, then expanded ; sprinkled with small pale 
warts, unequal, mealy, scattered, white, easily separating; margin even, faintly 
striate, especially in wet weather; flesh soft, white, becoming red when broken. 

The gills are white or whitish, free from the stem but reaching it and form- 
ing at times decurrent lines upon it, thin, crowded. 

The stem is four or five inches long, nearly cylindrical, solid, though inclined 
to be soft within, tapering from the base up. with a bulbous base which often 
tapers abruptly below, containing reddish scales, color dull red. It has seldom any 
distinct evidence of a volva at the base but abundant evidence on the cap. Ring 
large, superior, white, and fragile. 

The plant is quite variable in color, sometimes becoming almost white with 
a slight reddish or brownish tint. The strong distinguishing character of the 
species is the almost entire absence of any remains of the volva at the base of the 
stem. By this, and by the dull red hues and the bruised portions quickly changing 
to a reddish color, it is easily distinguished from any of the poisonous Amanitas. 

According to Cordier it is largely used as an article of food in France. 
Stevenson and Cooke speak well of it. I noticed the small Bohemian boys 
gathered it about Salem, Ohio, not having been in this country more than a week 
and not being able to speak a word of English. It convinced me that it was an 
article of diet in Bohemia and that our species is similar to theirs. I have found 
the plants in woods about Bowling Green and Sidney. Ohio. The plants in Figure 
27 were collected on Johnson's Island, Sandusky, Ohio, and photographed by Dr. 
Kellerman. It is found from June to September. 



Figure 27. Amanita rubescens. One-third natural size, caps a dingy reddish-brown, 
stains reddish when bruised. 

Amanita aspera. Fr. 

Rough Amanita. 

Aspera means rough. The pileus is convex, then plane ; warts minute, some- 
what crowded, nearly persistent; margin even, rather thin, increasing in thickness 
toward the stem ; scarcely umbonate, reddish with various tints of livid and gray ; 
flesh rather solid, white, with tints of reddish-brown immediately next to the 


The gills are free, with sometimes a little tooth behind, running clown the 
stem, white, broad in front. 

The stem is white, squamulose, bulb rugulose, ring superior and entire. The 
spores are 8x6/*. 

When the flesh fs bruised or eaten by insects it assumes a reddish-brown color, 
and in this respect it resembles A. rubescens. The odor is strong but the taste 
is not unpleasant. In woods from June till October. The collector should be 
sure he knows the plant before he eats it. 

Amanita ccusarea. Scop. 

The Orange Amanita. Ediblk. 

The Orange Amanita is a large, attractive, and beautiful plant. I have 

marked it edible, but no one should eat it unless he is thoroughly acquainted with 
all the species of the genus Amanita, and then with great caution. It is said to 
have been Caesar's favorite mushroom. The pileus is smooth, hemispherical, bell- 
shaped, convex, and when fully expanded nearly flat, the center somewhat elevated 
and the margin slightly curved downward ; red or orange, fading to yellow on the 
margin ; usually the larger and well-developed specimens have the deeper and richer 
color, the color being always more marked in the center of the pileus ; margin dis- 
tinctly striate ; gills rounded at the stem end and not attached to the stem, yellow, 
free and straight. The color of the gills of matured plants usually is an index 
to the color of the spores but it is an exception in this case as the spores are 

The stem and the flabby membranceous collar that surrounds it toward the 
top are yellow like the gills, the depth of the color varying more with the size 
of the plant than is the case with color of the cap. Sometimes in small and 
inferior plants the color of both stem and gills is nearly white, and if the volva 
is not distinct it is difficult to distinguish it from the fly mushroom, which is very 
poisonous. The stem is hollow, with a soft cottony pith in the young plants. 

In very young plants the edge of the collar is attached to the margin of the 
cap and conceals the gills, but with the upward growth of the stem and the ex- 
pansion of the cap the collar separates from the margin and remains attached 
to the stem, where it hangs down upon it like a ruffle. 

The expanded cap is usually from three to six inches broad, the stem from 
four to six inches long and tapering upward. 

When in the button stage, the plant is ovate; and the white color of the 
volva. which now entirely surrounds the plant, presents an appearance much like 
a hen's egg in size, color, and shape. As the parts within develop, the volva 
ruptures in its upper part, the stem elongates and carries upward the cap, while 



the remains of the 
volva surrounds the 
base of the stem in the 
form of a cup. 

When the volva 
first breaks at the 
apex, it reveals the 
point of the cap with 
its beautiful red color 
and in contrast with 
the white volva makes 
quite a pretty plant, 
but with advancing 
age the red or orange 
red fades to a yellow. 
In drying the speci- 
mens the red often en- 
tirely disappears. In 
young, as well as in 
old plants, the margin 
is often prominently 
marked with stria- 
tions, as will be seen 
in Figures 28 and 29. 
The flesh of the plant 
is white but more or 
less stained with yel- 
low next to the epi- 
dermis and the gills, 
which are of that 

The plant grows in 
wet weather from July 
to October. It grows 
in thin woods and 
seems to prefer pine 
woods and sandy soil. 

I have found it from the south tier of counties to the north of our state 
however, a common plant in Ohio. 

From its several names Caesar's Agaric, Imperial Mushroom, Cibus Deorum, 
Kaiserling one would infer that for ages it had been held in high esteem as an 

Too great caution cannot be used in distinguishing it from the very poisonous 
fly mushroom. 

Figure 28. Amanita caesarwu From a drawing showing the different 
stages of the plant. Caps, gills, stem and collar yellow, volva white. 

It is not, 

Ficure 29. Amanita caesarca. 

Photo by H. C. Beardslec. 


Amanita spreta. Pk. 
Hated Amanita. Poisonous. 

Spreta, hated. The pileus at first is nearly ovate, slightly umbonate, then 
convex, smooth, sometimes fragments of the volva adhering, the margin striate, 
whitish or pale-brown toward and on the umbo, soft, dry, more or less furrowed 
on the margin. 

The flesh is white, thin on the edges, and increasing in thickness toward the 
center. Gills close, white, reaching the stem. 

The stem is equal, smooth, annulate, stuffed or hollow, whitish, finely striate 
at the top from the decurrent lines of the gills, not bulbous at the base, the volva 
rather large and inclined to yellowish coIot. The spores are elliptical. 

The plant resembles the dark forms of the Amanitopsis in having the marked 
striations and the entire and closely fitting volva at the base, but can be easily 
distinguished by its ring. I found it on Cemetery Hill in company with the 
Amanitopsis. It does not seem to root as deep in the ground as the Amanitopsis. 
It is very poisonous and should be carefully studied so that it may be readily 
recognized and avoided. 

It is found in open woods from July to September. 

Amanitopsis. Roze. 

Amanitopsis is from Aminita and opsis, resembling; so called because it 
resembles the Amanita. The principal feature wherein the genus differs from the 
Amanita is the absence of a collar on the stem. Its species are included among the 
Amanita by many authors. The spores are white. The gills are free from the 
stem, and it has a universal veil at first completely enveloping the young plant, 
which soon breaks it, carrying remnants of it on the pileus, where they appear as 
scattered warts. It differs from the Lepiota in having a volva. 

Amanitopsis vaginata. Bull. 
The Sheathed Amanitopsis. Edible. 

Vaginata from vagina, a sheath. The plant is edible but should be used with 
very great caution. It is quite variable in color, ranging from white to mouse 
color, brownish or yellowish. 

The pileus is ovate at first, bell-shaped, then convex and expanded, thin, quite 
fragile, smooth, when young with a few fragments of the volva adhering to its 
surface, deeply and distinctly striate. 



The gills are free, white, 
then pallid, ventricose, broad- 
est in front, irregular. The 
flesh is white, but in the 
darker forms stained under 
the easily separating skin. 
The spores are white and 
nearly round, 7-10/x. 

The stem is cylindrical, even 
or slightly tapering upward, 
hollow or stuffed, smooth or 
sprinkled with downy scales, 
not bulbous at the base. 

The volva is long, thin, 
fragile, forming a permanent 
sheath which is quite soft and 
readily adheres to the base of 
the stem. 

The striations on the margin 
are deep and distinct, as in the 
Orange Amanita. The cup is 
quite regular but it is fragile, 
easily broken and usually deep 
in the ground In some plants 
a slight umbo is developed at 
the center. 

The mushroom-eater wants 
to distinguish very carefully 
between this species and Amanita spreta, which is very poisonous. 

It is found in woods, in open places where there is much vegetable mould. 
sometimes found in stubble and pastures, especially in meadows under trees. 
Found from June to November. 

The plant varies considerably in color, and there are several varieties, separable 
by means of their color : 

A. vag'nata. var. alba. The whole plant is white. 
A. vaginata var. fulva. The cap tawny yellow or pale ochraceous. 
V vaginata var. livida. The cap leaden brown: gills and stem tinged with 
smokv brown. 

Figure 30. Amanita vaginata. One-third natural size, 
a portion of the volva adhering to the cap. 



Amanitopsis strangidata. Fr. 
The Gray Amanitopsis. Edible. 

Strangulata means choked, from the stuffed stem. The pileus is two to four 
inches broad, soon plane, livid-bay or gray, with patches of the volva, margin 
striate or grooved. 

The gills are free, white, close. 

The stem is stuffed, silky above, scaly below, slightly tapering upwards. The 
volva soon breaking up, forming several ring-like ridges on the stem. The spores 
are globose, 10-13^. 

This is a synonym for A. ceciliae. B. and Br. and perhaps nothing more than 
a vigorous growth of Amanitopsis vaginata. It has almost no odor and a sweet 
taste and cooks deliciously. 

Found in the woods and in open places from August to October. 

Lepiota. Fr. 

Lepiota means a scale. In the Lepiota the gills are typically free from the 
stem, as in Amanita and Amanitopsis, but they differ in having no superficial or 
removable warts on the cap, and no sheathing or scaly remains of a volva at the 
base of the stem. In some species the epidermis of the cap breaks into scales which 
persistently adhere to the cap. and this feature, indeed, suggests the. name of the 
genus, which is derived from the Latin word lepis, a scale. 

The stem is hollow or stuffed, its flesh being distinct from the pileus and easily 
separable from it. There are a number of edible species. 

Lepiota procera. Scop. 
The Parasol Mushroom. Edible. 

Procera means tall. 

The pileus is thin, strongly umbonate, adorned with brown spot-like scales. 

The gills are white, sometimes yellowish-white, free, remote from the stem, 
broad and crowded, ventricose, edge sometimes brownish. 

The stem is very long, cylindrical, hollow or stuffed, even, very long in pro- 
portion to its thickness and is, therefore, suggestive of the specific name, procera. 
The ring is rather thick and firm, though in mature plants it becomes loosened and 
movable on the stem. This and the form of the plant suggest the name, parasol. 
The cap is from three to five inches broad and the stem from five to nine inches 
high. I found one specimen among fallen timber that was eleven inches tall and 
whose cap was six inches broad. 

Plate VI. Figure 32. Lepiota procera. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 



It has a wide distribution. It is found in all parts of Ohio but is not abundant 
anywhere. It is a favorite with those who have eaten it, and, indeed, it is a 
delicious morsel when quickly broiled over coals, seasoned to taste with salt and 
pepper, butter melted in the gills and served on toast. This mushroom is especially 
free from grubs and it can be dried for winter use. 

There is no poisonous species with which one is likely to confound it. The 
very tall, slender stem with a bulbous base, the very peculiar spotted cap with the 
prominent dark colored umbo and the movable ring on the stem, are ear-marks 
sufficient to identify this species. 

Spores white and elliptical, 14x10. Lloyd. It is found in pastures, stubble, 
and among fallen timber. July to October. 

I am indebted to C. G. Lloyd for the photograph given here. 

Lcpiota naucina. Fr. 
Smooth Lepiota. Edible. 

Pileus soft, smooth, white or smoky-white ; gills free, white, slowly changing 
with age to a dirty pinkish-brown color ; stem annulate, slightly thickened at the 

Figure 33. Lepiota naucina. The entire plant white. 



base, attenuated upward, clothed with fibres pure white. The Smooth Lepiota 
is generally very regular in shape and of a pure white color. The central part 
of the cap is sometimes tinged with yellow or a smoky white hue. Its surface 
is nearly always very smooth and even. The gills are somewhat narrower toward 
the stem than they are in the middle. They are rounded and not attached to the 

Cap two to four inches broad ; stem two to three inches long. It grows in 
clean grassy places in lawn, pastures, and along roadsides. I have seen the road- 
side white with this species around Sidney, Ohio. The specimens represented 
in figure were found in Chillicothe, August to November. 

This is one of the best mushrooms, not inferior to the meadow mushroom, 
it has this advantage over the former that the gills retain their white color and 
do not pass from a pink to a repulsive black. The half-tone and the description 
ought to make the plant known to the most casual reader. 

Figure 34. L,epiota americana. Center of disk red or reddish-brown, stem frequently swollen. 

turning red when drying. 



Lepiota ameficana. Pk. 

The American Lepiota. Edible. 


This plant is quite common about Chillicothe, especially upon sawdust piles. 

It grows both singly and in clusters. The umbonate cap is adorned with reddish 
or reddish-brown scales except on the center where the color is uniformly reddish 
or reddish-brown because the surface is not broken up into scales ; gills close, 
free, white, ventricose; stem smooth, enlarged at the base. In some plants the 
base of the stem is abnormally large ; ring white, inclined to be delicate. 

Wounds and bruises are apt to assume brownish-red hues. Dr. Herbst says : 
"This is truly an American plant, not being found in any other country. This is 
the pride of the family. There is nothing more beautiful than a cluster of this 
fungi. To look over the beautiful scaly pileus is a sight equally as fascinating as 
a covey of quail." 

Found in grassy lawns and on old sawdust piles, in common with Pluteus 
cervinus. It is found almost all over the state. It is quite equal to the Parasol 
mushroom in flavor. It has a tendency to turn the milk or cream in which it is 
cooked to a reddish color. It is found from June to October. Mr. Lloyd suggests 
the name Lepiota Bodhami. It is the same as the European plant L. hoemato- 
sperma. Bull. 

Lepiota Morgani. Pk. 
In Honor of Prof. Morgan. 

Pileus fleshy, soft, at first subglobose, then expanded or even depressed, white, 
the brownish or yellowish cuticule breaking up into scales on the disk ; gills close, 
lanceolate, remote, white, then green ; stem firm, equal or tapering upward, sub- 
bulbous, smooth, webby-stuffed, whitish tinged with brown ; ring rather large, 
movable as you will observe in Figure 35. Flesh of both pileus and stem white, 
changing to a reddish, then to yellowish hue when cut or bruised. Spores ovate 
or subelliptical, mostly uninucleate, sordid green. 10-13x7-8. Peck. 

This plant is very abundant about Chillicothe and I found it equally so at 
Sidney. I have known several families to eat of it, making about half of the 
children in each family sick. I regard it as a dangerous plant to eat. It grows 
very large and I have seen it growing in well marked rings a rod in diameter. 
If you are in doubt whether the plant you have is Morgani or not, let it remain 
in the basket over night and you will plainly see that the gills are turning green. 
The gills are white until the spores begin to fall. The plant is found in pastures 
and sometimes in pasture woods. June to October. 



Lepiota granulosa. Batsch. 
Grainy Lepiota. Ediblk. 

Granulosa from granosus, full of grains. Pileus thin, convex or nearly 
plain, sometimes almost umbonate, rough, with numerous granular scales, often 
radiately wrinkled, rusty-yellow or reddish-yellow, often growing paler with age. 
Flesh white or reddish tinged. Gills close, rounded behind and usually slightly 
adnexed, white. Stem equal or slightly thickened at the base, stuffed or hollow, 
white above the ring, colored and adorned like the pileus below it. Ring slight 
and evanescent. Spores elliptical, .00016 to .0002 inch long, .00012 to .00014 inch 

Plant one to two and one-fifth inches high ; pileus one to two and one-fifth 
inches broad ; stem one to three lines thick. Common in woods, copses, and waste 
places. August to October. 

"This is a small species with a short stem and granular reddish-yellow pileus, 
and gills slightly attached to the stem. The annulus is very small and fugacious, 
being little more than the abrupt termination to the coating of the stem. The 
species was formerly made to include several varieties which are now regarded 
as distinct." Peck's Report. 

Found in the open woods about Salem, Ohio. The plant is small but quite 
meaty and of a pleasing quality. 

Lepiota cristatclla. Pk. 

Pileus thin, convex, subumbonate, minutely mealy, especially on the margin, 
white disk slightly tinged with pink. 

Gills close; rounded behind, free, white; stem slender, whitish, hollow; spores 
subelliptical, .0002 inch long. 

Mossy places in woods. October. Peck's Report. No one will fail to recog- 
nize the crested Lepiota the moment he sees it. It has many of the ear marks of 
the Lepiota family. 

Lepiota granosa. Morg. 

Granosa means covered with granules. 

The pileus is convex, obtuse or umbonate, even, radiately rugose-wrinkled, 
generally even and regular on the margin, reddish-yellow or light bay. 

The gills are attached to the stem, slightly decurrent, somewhat crowded, 
whitish, then reddish-yellow. 

The stem is thickened at the base, tapering toward the cap, flesh of the stem 
is yellow. The veil is membranous and forms a persistent ring on the stem. 

Plate VIII. Figure 36. Lepiota granosa. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 



It grows on decayed wood. I found it in large quantities, and tried to make 
it L. granulosa, but I found it fit- better L. amianthinus, which it resembles very 
closely, but it is much larger and its habit is not the same. I was not satisfied 
with this description and sent the specimens to Prof. Atkinson, who set me right 
It is a beautiful plant found on decayed wood in September and October. 

FlCUtl 37. T.cpiota cepsestipes. Pilettt thin, white or yollowish. 

Lcpiota cepcrstipes. Sow. 
The Onion Stemmed Lei-iota. Edible. 

Cepaestipes is from cepa, an onion and stipes, a stem. 1 'ileus is thin at first 
ovate, then bell-shaped or expanded, umbonate. soon adorned with numerous 
minute brownish scales, which are often granular or mealy, folded into lines on 
the margin, white or yellow, the umbo darker. 

The gills are thin, close, free, white, becoming dingy with age or drying. 

The stem is rather long, tapering toward the apex, generally enlarged in the 
middle or near the base, hollow. The ring is thin and subpersistent. The spores 
are subelliptical, with a single nucleus, 8-10x5-8/1. 



The plants often cespitose, two to four inches high. Pileus is one to two 
inches broad. It is found in rich ground and decomposing vegetable matter. It 
is also found in graperies and conservatories. Peck. 

This plant derives its specific name from the resemblance of its stem to that 
of the seed-stalk of an onion. One form has a yellow or yellowish cap, while the 
other has a white or fair cap. It seems to delight to grow in well rotted saw- 
dust piles and hot houses. The specimens represented in Figure 37 were collected 
in Cleveland and photographed by Prof. H. C. Beardslee. 

Lcpiota acutesquamosa. Wcin. 
The Squarrose Lepiota. Edible. 

Acutesquamosa is from aattiis, sharp, and squama, a scale; so called from 
the many bristling, erect scales on the pileus. The pileus is two to three inches 

Figure 38. Lepiota acutesquamosa. Two-thirds natural size, showing small pointed scales. 

broad, fleshy, convex, obtuse, or broadly umbonate ; pale rusty with numerous 
small pointed scales, which are usually larger and more numerous at the disk. 
The gills are free, crowded, simple, white or yellowish. 



The stem is two to three inches or more long; stuffed or hollow, tapering 
upward slightly from a swollen base; below the ring rough or silky, pruinose 
above, ring large. The spores are 7-8X4/X. 

They are found in the woods, in gardens, and frequently in greenhouses. 
There is a slight difference between the specimens growing in the woods and 
those in the greenhouse. In the latter the pubescent covering is less dense and 
the erect scales are more numerous than in the former. In older specimens these 
scales fall off and leave small scars on the cap where they were attached. The 
specimens in Figure 38 were gathered in Michigan and were photographed by 
Dr. Fisher of Detroit. 

Arm Maria. Fr. 

Armillaria, from armilla, a bracelet referring to the ring upon the stem. 
This genus differs from all the foregoing white-spored species in having the 
gills attached to the stem by their inner extremity. The spores are white and the 
stem has a collar, though a somewhat evanescent one, but no wrapper at the base 
of the stem as in the Amanita and Amanitopsis. By the collar the genus differs 
from the other srenera which are to follow. 

Figure 39. Armillaria mellea. Two-thirds natural size. Honey colored. Tufted with dark-hrown fugitive 

hairs. Flesh white. 



The Amanita and Lepiota have the flesh of the stem and the pileus not 
continuous, and their stems are, therefore, easily separated from the cap, but in 
the Armillaria the gills and the pileus are attached to the stem. 

Figure 40. Armillaria mellea. Two-thirds natural size, showing double ring present. 

Armillaria mellea. Vahl. 

The Honey-Colored Armillaria. Ediblk. 

Mellea, from melleus, of the color of honey. Cap fleshy, honey colored, or 
ochraceous, striate on the margin, shaded with darker brown toward the center, 
having a central boss-like elevation and sometimes a central depression in full 
grown specimens, tufted with dark-brown fugitive hairs. Color of the cap varies, 
depending upon climatic conditions and the character of the habitat. Gills distant, 



ending in a decurrent tooth, pallid 'or dirty white, very often showing brown or 
rust colored spots when old. Spores white and abundant. Frequently the ground 
under a clump of this species will be white from the fallen spores. Stem elastic 
and scaly, four inches or more in length. Ring downy. Diameter of cap from 
two to five inches. Manner of growth is frequently in tufts, and, as with most 
of the Armillarias, generally parasitic on old stumps. 

The veil varies greatly. It may be membranaceous and thin, or quite thick, 
or may be wanting entirely, as will be seen in Figure 39 ; in Figure 40 only a slight 
trace of the ring can be seen. The two plants grew under very different environ- 
ment ; the last grew in the woods and Figure 39 on a lawn in the city. The 
species is very common and grows either in thin woods or in cleared lands, on the 
ground or on decaying wood. Its favorite habit is about stumps. It is either 
solitary, gregarious, or in dense clusters. It is very abundant about Chillicothe, 
where I have seen stumps literally surrounded with it. It has a slight acridity 
while raw, which it seems to lose in cooking. Those who like it may eat it without 
fear, all varieties being edible. 

Prof. Peck gives the following varieties : 

A. mellea var. obscura has the cap covered with numerous small black scales. 

A. mellea var. flava has a cap yellow or reddish-yellow, otherwise normal. 

A. mellea var. glabra has a smooth cap, otherwise normal. 

A. mellea var. radicata has a tapering root penetrating the soil. 

A. mellea var. bulbosa has a bulbous base. 

A. mellea var. exannulata has the cap smooth and even on the margin, and 
the stem tapering at the base. 

Fic.fKK 41. Armillaria bulbigcra. Reddish-gray caps and short bulbous stems. 



Armillaria bulbigera. A. & S. 
Marginats-bulbed Armillaria. 

Bulbigera is from bulbus, a bulb, and gcro, to bear. 

The pileus is fleshy, three to four inches across, convex, then expanded, obtuse, 
even, brownish, gray, sometimes reddish, dry, fibrillose near the margin. 

The gills are notched at the stem, pallid, crowded at first, at length rather 
distant, becoming slightly colored. 

The stem is distinctly bulbous, two to three inches long, stuffed, pallid, 
fibrillose, ring oblique, fugacious. The spores are 7-10x5//.. 

I have found some very fine specimens in Poke Hollow, near Chillicothe. The 
stems were short and very bulbous, having hardly any trace of the ring on the 
older specimens. The caps were obtusely convex and of a grayish rufescent color. 
This species can readily be distinguished by the distinctly marginate bulb at the 
base of the stem. The specimens in Figure 41 were found in Poke Hollow, near 
Chillicothe, October 2d. I have no doubt of their edibility but I have not eaten 

Armillaria nardosmia. Ellis. 


Nardosmia is from nardosmius, 

the odor of nardus or spikenard. 

The pileus is quite thick, firm 
and compact, thinner toward the 
margin, strongly involute when 
young, grayish white and beauti- 
fully variegated with brown spots, 
like the breast of a pheasant, 
rather tough, with a separable 
epidermis, flesh white. 

The gills are crowded, slightly 
notched or emarginate, somewhat 
ventricose, white. 

The stem is solid, short, fibrous, 
sheathed by a veil forming a ring 
more or less evanescent. The 
spores are nearly round, 6/x in di- 

This is the most beautiful species 
of the genus, and from its 

Figure 42. Armillaria nardosmia. One-half natural size, 
showing the veil and incurved margin. 


pheasant-like spotted cap, as well as its strong odor and taste of spikenard or 
almonds, it is easily determined. The almond taste and odor disappears in cooking. 
I found some very fine specimens around a pond in Mr. Shriver's woods, east of 
Chillicothe. In older specimens the cuticule of the caps frequently breaks into 
scales. Found in woods in September and October. 

Armillaria appcndiculata. Pk. 

Appendiculata, bearing small appendages. Pileus is broadly convex, glabrous, 
whitish, often tinged with rust-color or brownish rust-color on the disk. Flesh 
white or whitish. Gills close, rounded behind, whitish. Stem equal or slightly 
tapering upward, solid, bulbous, whitish, the veil either membraneous or webby, 
white, commonly adhering in fragments to the margin of the pileus. Spores 
subelliptical, 8x5. 

Pileus two to four inches broad. Stem 1.5-3.5 inches long; 5-10 lines thick. 

The general appearance of this species is suggestive of Tricholoma album, but 
the appearance of a veil separates it from that fungus and places it in the genus 
Armillaria. The veil, however, is often slightly lacerated, or webby. and adherent 
to the margin of the pileus. Peck's Report. 

I have found this at Salem and Chillicothe. 

Tricholoma. Fr. 

Tricholoma is from two Greek words meaning hair and fringe. This genus 
is known by its stout, fleshy stem, without any evidence of a ring, and by the gills 
being attached to the stem and having a notch in their edges near or at the ex- 
tremity. The veil is absent, or, if present, it is downy and adherent to the margin 
of the cap. The cap is generally quite fleshy ; the stem is homogeneous and 
confluent with the pileus, central and nearly fleshy, without either ring or volva, 
and with no distinct bark-like coat. The spores are white or grayish-white. 

The distinguishing features are the fleshy stem, continuous with the flesh of 
the pileus, and the sinuate or notched gills. This is quite a universal genus. All 
the species grow on the ground, so far as I know them. 

There are many edible species under this genus, there being only two, so far 
as I know, not edible ; and no one is likely to touch those on account of their strong 
odor. They are T. sulphureum and T. saponaceum. 


Tricholoma transmutans. Pk. 
The Changing Tricholoma. Edible. 

Transmutans means changing, from changes of color in both stem and gills in 
different stages of the plant. This species has a cap two to four inches broad, 
viscid or sticky when moist. It is at first tawny-brown, especially with advancing 
age. The flesh is white and has a decided farinaceous odor and taste. 

The gills are crowded, rather narrow, sometimes branched, becoming reddish- 
spotted with age. 

The stem is equal or slightly tapering upward ; bare, or slightly silky-fibrillose ; 
stuffed or hollow; whitish, often marked with reddish stains or becoming reddish- 
brown toward the base, white within. Spores subglobose, 5/x. 

The species grows in woods and open places, also in clover pastures, either 
singly or in tufts. I have seen large tufts of them, and in that case the caps are 
more or less irregular on account of their crowded condition. I found it frequently 
about Salem, and this fall, 1905, I found it quite plentiful in a clover pasture near 
Chillicothe. Found in wet weather from August to September. 

Tricholoma equestre. Linn. 
The Knightly Tricholoma. Edible. 

Equestre means belonging to a horseman ; so called from its distinguished 
appearance in the woods. 

The pileus is three to five inches broad, fleshy, compact, convex, expanded, 
obtuse, viscid, scaly, margin incurved at first, pale yellowish, with sometimes a 
slight tinge of green in both cap and gills. Flesh white or tinged with yellow. 

The gills are free, crowded, rounded behind, yellow. 

The stem is stout, solid, pale yellow or white, white within. The spores are 


It differs from T. coryphaeum in having gills entirely yellow, while the edges 
only of the latter are yellow. It differs from T. sejunctum in the latter having 
pure white gills and a more slender stem. 

It is found but occasionally here, and then 'only a specimen or two. It is 
an attractive plant and no one would pass it in the woods without admiring it. 
Found from August to October. 



Figure 43. Tricholoma equestre. 

Tricholoma sordidnm. Fr. 

Sordidum means dingy, dirty. 
The pileus is two to three inches broad, rather tough, fleshy, convex, bell-shaped, 
then depressed, subumbonate, smooth, hygrophanous, margin slightly striate, 
brownish lilac, then dusky. 

The gills are rounded, rather crowded, dingy violet then dusky, notched with 
a decurrent tooth. 

The stem is colored like the pileus. fibrillose striate, usually slightly curved. 
stuffed, short, often thickened at the base. 

The spores are 7-8x3-4, minutely rugulose. 

This species differs from T. nudum in being smaller, tougher, and often 



It is found in richly manured gardens, about manure piles, and in hot-houses. 
The specimens in Figure 44 were found in a hot-house near Boston, Mass., and 
sent to me by Airs. E. Blackford. They are found in September and October. 

Figure 44. Tricholoma sordidum. 

Tricholoma gr ammo podium. Bull. 
The Grooved Stem Tricholoma. Edible. 

Grammopodium is from two Greek words meaning line and foot. 

The pileus is three to six inches broad, flesh thick at the center, thin at the 
margin, solid yet tender; brownish, blackish-umber, almost a dingy-lavender when 
moist, whitish when dry ; at first bell-shaped, then convex, sometimes slightly 
wavy, obtusely umbonate ; margin at first inclined to be involute, and extending 
beyond the gills. 

The gills are attached to the stem, broadly notched as will be seen in the 
specimen, closely crowded, quite entire, shorter ones numerous, a few branched, 
white or whitish. 

The stem is three to four inches long, thickened at the base, smooth, firm, 
longitudinally grooved from which it gets its specific name, whitish. 
The spores are nearly round, 5-6/u,. 
It closely resembles T. fuligineum but can be distinguished by the grooved 



Figure 45. Tricholoma grammopodium. Natural size. 

stem and crowded gills. The specimens in Figure 45 were found near Boston, and 
were sent to me by Mrs. Blackford. The plants keep well and are easily dried. 
They were found the first of June. They have an excellent flavor. 

Tricholoma pccdidum. Fr. 

Paedidum means nasty, stinking. 

The pileus is small, about one and a half inches broad, rather fleshy, tough ; 
convex, then flattened, soon depressed around the conical umbo; fibrillose, becoming 
smooth; smoky gray, somewhat streaked; moist; margin involute, naked. 

The gills are adnexed. crowded, narrow, white, then grayish, somewhat sinuate 
with a slight decurrent tooth. 

The stem is short, slightly striate, dingy gray, thickened at the base. The 
spores are elliptical or fusiform. 10-1 1x5 O/i. 

The specific name, "nasty" or "stinking." has really no application to the plant. 
It is said to be very good when cooked. It is found in well manured gardens and 
fields, or about manure piles. 

It differs from T. sordidum in having no trace of violet color. T. lixivium 
differs in the free truncate gills. 



Tricholoma lixivium. Fr. 

Lixivium means made into lye ; hence, of the color of ashes and water. 

The pileus is two to three inches broad ; flesh thin ; convex then plane ; 
umbonate, never depressed ; even ; smooth ; grayish-brown when moist, then umber ; 
margin membranaceous, at length slightly striate, sometimes wavy. 

The gills are rounded behind and adnexed, free, soft, distant, often crisped, gray. 

The stem is about two inches long, fibrous, hollow, or stuffed, equal, at first 
covered with a white down, fragile, gray. 

The spores are elliptical, 7x4-5^. 

The umbonate pileus and the nearly free, broad, gray gills will distinguish it. 
They are a late grower and are found under pine trees in November. 

Figure 46. Tricholoma sulphureum. 

Tricholoma sulphureum. Bull. 
Sulphury Tricholoma. Poisonous. 

Sulphureum, sulphur; so called from the general color of the plant. 
The pileus is one to three inches broad, fleshy, convex, then expanded, 
plane, slightly umbonate, sometimes depressed, or flexuous and irregular, mar- 



gin at first involute, dingy or reddish-yellow, at first silky, becoming smooth 

and even. 

The gills are rather thick, narrowed behind, cmarginate or acutely adnate. 

The stem is two to four inches long, somewhat bulbous, sometimes curved, 
frequently slightly striate; stuffed, often hollow; sulphur-yellow, yellow within; 
furnished at the base occasionally with many rather Strong, yellow, fibrous roots. 
Odor strong and disagreeable. Flesh thick and yellow. Spores are 9-10x5/1. 

It grows in mixed woods. 1 find it frequently where logs have decayed. The 
specimen in Figure 46 was found in Uaynes' Hollow and photographed by Dr. 
Kellerman. Found in October and November. 

Fie.iRK 47. Triclioloma laterarimn. 



Tricholoma quinqucpartitum. Vr. 

Quinquepartitum- means divided into five parts. There is no apparent reason 
for the name. Fries could not identify Linnaeus' Agaricus quinqnepartitus and 
he attached the name of this species. 

The pileus is three or four inches broad, slightly fleshy ; convex, rather 
involute, then flattened, somewhat repand ; viscid, smooth, even, pale yellowish. 

The gills are notched at the point of attachment to the stem, broad, white. 

The stem is three to four inches long, solid, striate or grooved, smooth. The 
spores are 5-6x3-4. 

This species differs from T. portentosum in the pileus not being virgate, and 
from T. fucatum in the smooth, striate or grooved stem. This plant is found in 
thin woods where logs have decayed. I have not eaten this species but I have 
no doubt of its edibility. The taste is pleasant. Found in October and November. 

Tricholoma lateraruim. Pk. 

Laterarium is from later, a brick ; so called because there is nearly always a 
slight tinge of brick red on the disk. 

The pileus is two to four inches broad, convex, then expanded, sometimes 
slightly depressed in the center ; pruinose, whitish, the disk often tinged with red 
or brown, the thin margin marked with slight subdistant, short, radiating ridges. 

The gills are narrow, crowded, white, prolonged in little decurrent lines on the 
stem. The stem is nearly equal, solid, white. The spores are globose, .00018 
inch in diameter. Peck's 26th Rep. 

This plant is quite widely distributed in the United States. It is found quite 
frequently in Ohio and is rather abundant on the hillsides about Chillicothe, where 
it is frequently somewhat bulbous. The tinge of brownish-red on the disk, and the 
short radiating ridges on the margin of the pileus will serve to identify the plant. 
It is edible and fairly good. 
Found on leaf-mold in rather 
damp woods from July to No- 

Tricholoma panccolum. Fr. 

Panseolum, all variegated. The 
pileus is from three to four 
inches broad, deeply depressed, 
dusky with a gray bloom, hygro- 
phanous ; margin at first inrolled, 
sometimes wavy or irregular 
when fully expanded. 

The gills are quite crowded, 
adnate, arcuate, white at first, 

Figure 48. Tricholoma panaeolum. 



turning to a light gray tinged with an intimation of red, notched with a de- 
current tooth. 

The stem is short, slightly bulbous, tapering upward, solid, smooth, about 
the same color as the cap. The spores are subglobose, 5-6. 

I found the specimens in Figure 48 under pine trees, growing on a bed of 
pine needles, on Cemetery Hill. They were found on the 9th of November. 

Var. calceolum, Sterb., has the pileus spongy, deformed, thin, soft, expanded, 
edge incurved, sooty-gray ; gills smoky ; stem excentric. fusiform, very short. 

Tricholoma columbetta. Fr. 
The Dove-Colored Tricholoma. Edible. 

' Columbetta is the diminutive 
of columba, a dove; so called 
from the color of the plant. The 
pileus is from one to four inches 
broad, fleshy, convex, then ex- 
panded; at first smooth, then 
silky ; white, center sometimes a 
dilute mouse color shading to a 
white, frequently a tinge of pink- 
will be seen on the margin, which 
is at first inrolled, tomentose in 
young plants, sometimes cracked. 
The gills are notched at the 
junction of the stem, crowded, 
thin, white, brittle. 

The stem is two inches or more 
long, solid, white, cylindrical, un- 
equal, often compressed, smooth, 
crooked, silky especially in young 
plants, hullx his. Spores .00023 
by .00018 inch. Flesh white, 
taste mild. 

This is a beautiful plant, seem- 
ing to be quite free from insects, 
and will remain sound for several 
days on your study table. 1 had no end of trouble with it till Dr. I lerbst suggested 
the species. It is quite plentiful here. Dr. Peck gives quite a number of vari< 
Curtis, Mcllvaine, Stevenson, and Cooke all speak of its esculent qualities. Found 
in the woods in September and October. 

Tricholoma columbetta. One-third natural mzc 
Caps white. Stems bulbous. 



Tricholoma melaleucum. Pcrs. 

The; Changeable: Tricholoma. 

Melaleucum, black and white ; from contrasted colors of the cap and gills. 
This Tricholoma grows in abundance in northern Ohio. I have found it 
in the woods near Bowling Green, Ohio. The specimens in the halftone were 
found near Sandusky, Ohio, and were photographed by Dr. Kellerman. It is 
usually found 
in sandy soil, 
growing sin- 
gly in shady 

The pileus 
fleshy, thin, 
from one to 
three inches 
broad, con- 
vex, rather 
broadly um- 
b o n a t e , 
smooth, moist, 
with variable 
color, usually 
pale, nearly 
white at first, 
later much 
darker, some- 
times slightly 

The gills 
are notched, 
adnexed, ven- 
t r i c o s e , 

The stem is 
stuffed, then 
hollow, elas- 
tic, from two 
to four inches 
long, some- 
what smooth, 

whitish, Sprin- 
kled With a Figure so. Tricholoma melaleucum. Two-thirds natural size. 


few fibrils, usually thickened at the base. The flesh is soft and white. There is 
no report, so far as 1 know, regarding its edibility, and I have no doubt as to this, 
but would advise caution. 

Tricholoma lascivwn. Pr. 

The Tarry Tricholoma. 

Lascivum, playful, wanton; so called because of its many affinities, none of 
winch are very close. The pileus is fleshy, convex, then expanded, slightly obtuse, 
somewhat depressed, silky at first, then smooth; even. The gills are notched, 
adnexed, crowded, white; the stem is solid, equal, rigid, rooting, white, tomentose 
at the base. Found in the woods. Haynes" Hollow near Chillicothe. September 
and October. 

Tricholoma Russula. ScJucff. 
Tin-: Reddish Tricholoma. Edible. 

Russula is so named because of its likeness in color to some species of the 
genus Russula. 

The pileus is three to four inches broad, fleshy, convex, then depressed, viscid. 
even or dotted with granular scales, red or flesh color, the margin somewhat paler, 
involute and minutely downy in the young plant. 

The gills are rounded or slightly decurrent, rather distant, white, often 
becoming red-sj totted with age. 

The stem is two to three inches long, solid, firm, whitish rosy-red. nearly equal, 
scaly at the apex. The spores are elliptical, iox-5/x. 

This plant is quite variable in many of its peculiar characteristics, yet it usually 
lias enough to readily distinguish it. The cap may lie flesh-color and the stem 
rosy-red, the cap may be red and the stem white or whitish with stains of red. 
During wet weather the caps of all are viscid ; when dry. all may be cracked more 
or less. The stems may not be scaly at the apex, often rosy when young. They 
are found in the woods solitary, in groups, or frequently in dense clusters. The 
specimens in Figure 51 were found in Michigan and photographed by Dr. Fischer. 

T found this plant in Poke Hollow. The gills were quite decurrent. 

Tricholoma accrhum. Hull. 
The Bitter Tricholoma. 

Accrhum means bitter to the taste. 

The pileus is three to four inches broad, convex to expanded, obtuse, smooth, 
more or less spotted, margin thin, at first involute, rugose, sulcate, viscid, whitish, 
often tinged rufous, or yellow, quite bitter to the taste. 








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Figure 51. Tricholoma Russula. Natural size. Caps reddish or flesh color. 

The gills are notched, crowded, pallid or rufescent, narrow. 

The stem is solid, rather short, blunt, yellowish, squamulose above or about 
the apex. The spores are subglobose, 5-6/A. 

These plants were found growing in a thick bed of moss along with Armillaria 
nardosmia. They were not perfect plants but I judged them to be T. acerbum 
from their taste and involute margin. I sent some to Prof. Atkinson, who con- 
firmed my classification. They grow in open woods in October and November. 

Tricholoma cinerascens. Bull. 

Cinerascens means becoming the color of ashes. 

The pileus is two to three inches broad, fleshy, convex to expanded, even, 
obtuse, smooth, white, then grayish, margin thin. 


The gills arc ejnarginate, crowded, rather undulate, dingy, reddish often 
yellowish, easily separating from the pileus. 

The stem is stuffed, equal, smooth, elastic. 

They grow in clusters in mixed wood. They are mild to the taste. 

Tricholotna album. ScJiceff. 

The White Tricholoma. Edible. 

Album means white. 

The pileus is two to four inches broad, fleshy, entirely white, convex, then 
depressed, obtuse, smooth, dry. disc frequently tinged with yellow, margin at 
first involute, at length repand. 

The gills are rounded behind, rather crowded, thin, white, broad. 

The stem is two to four inches long, solid, firm, narrowed upwards, smooth. 

This plant is quite plentiful in our woods, growing usually in groups. It 
grows upon the leaf mould and is frequently quite large. It is quite acrid to 

Figure 52. Tricholotna album. Entirely white. 



the taste when raw, but this is overcome in cooking. It is found from August to 

These plants are quite plentiful on the wooded hillsides about Chillicothe. 
Those in Figure 52 were found on Ralston's" Run and photographed by Dr. 

Tricholcma iiiibricattiin. Fr. 
The; Imbricated Trichou>ma. Edible. 

means covered 
with tiles, iiii- 
breces, referring 
to the lacerated 
condition of the 
cap. This spe- 
cies is very close- 
ly related to T. 
transmutans in 
size, color and 
taste. It is, how- 
ever, easily sep- 
arated by its dry 
cap and solid 
stem. Its cap is 
reddish - brown 
o r cinnamon- 
brown, and its 
surface often 
presents a some- 
what scaly ap- 
pearance lie- 
cause the epi- 
dermis becomes 
lacerated or torn 
into small irreg- 
ular fragments 
which adhere 
and seem to 
overlap like 
shingles on a 
roof. The flesh 
is firm, white, 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd 

Figure 53. Tricholoma imbricatum. 

and has a farinaceous taste as well as odor. The gills are white, becoming red or 
rusty spotted, rather close, and notched. The stem is solid, firm, nearly equal, 


except slightly swollen at the base, colored much like the cap hut usually paler. 
When old it is sometimes hollow on account of the insects mining it. The spores 
are white and elliptical, .00025 mcn long'- 

I found this mushroom near Salem, Ohio, Bowling Green, Ohio, and on 
Ralston's Run near Chillicothe. Found in mixed woods from September to 

Tricholotna terriferum. Pk. 
The Earth-bearing Tricholoma. Edible. 

Terriferum. earth-bearing', alluding to the viscid cap's holding particles of 
loam and pine needles to it as it breaks through the soil. This is a meaty mush- 
room, and when properly cleaned makes an appetizing dish. 

The pileus is convex, irregular, wavy on the margin and rolled inward, 
smooth, viscid, pale yellow, sometimes whitish, generally covered with loam on 
account of the sticky surface of the cap, flesh white. 

The gills are white, thin, close, slightly adnexed. 

The stem is short, fleshy, solid, equal, mealy, very slightly bulbous at the base. 

Found near Salem, Ohio, on lion. J. Thwing I>rooks' farm September to 

Tricholotna fumidellutn. Pk. 
Tut': Smoky Tricholoma. Edible. 

Fumidellum smoky, because of the clay-colored caps clouded with brown. 

The pileus is one to two inches broad, convex, then expanded, subumbonate, 
bare, moist, dingy-white or clay-color clouded with brown, the disk or umbo gen- 
erally smoky brown. 

The gills are crowded, subventricose. whitish. 

The stem is one and a half to two and a half inches long, equal, bare, solid 
whitish. The spores minute, subglobose, 4-5x4/1. Peck, 44 Rep. 

The specimens T found grew in a mixed woods in the leaf-mold. They are 
found only occasionally in our woods in September and October. 

Tricholotna leitcocephalutn. Fr. 
The White-capped Tricholoma. Edible. 

I.eucoeephaium is from two Greek words meaning white and head, referring 
to the white caps. 

'Idie pileus is one and a half to two inches across, convex, then plane; even, 
moist, smooth when the silky veil is gone, water-soaked after a rain; flesh thin, 
tough, smell mealy, taste mild and pleasant. 



The gills are rounded behind and almost free, crowded, white. 

The stem is about two inches long, hollow, solid at the base, smooth, carti- 
laginous, tough, rooting. The spores are 9-10x7-8^. 

It differs from T. album in having the odor of new meal strongly marked. 
It is found in open woods during September and October. 

Tricholoma fumescens. Pk. 
Smoky Tricholoma. Ediblk. 

Fumescens means growing smoky. 

Pileus convex or expanded, dry, clothed with a very minute appressed tomen- 
tum, whitish. 

The gills are narrow, crowded, rounded behind, whitish or pale cream color, 
changing to smoky blue or blackish where bruised. 

The stem is short, cylindrical, whitish. Spores are oblong-elliptical, 5-6x5/11. 
Pileus is one inch broad. Stem one to one and a half inches high. Peck, 44th 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Figure 54. Tricholoma fumescens. 


The caps arc quite a bit larger in the specimens found in Ohio than those 
described by Dr. Peck. So much so that 1 was in doubt as to the correct identifi- 
cation. I sent some specimens to Dr. Peck for his determination. The species 
will be readily identified by the fine crowded gills and the smoky blue or blackish 
hue they assume when bruised. The caps are frequently wavy, as will be seen 
in Figure 54. 

I found the plants in Poke Hollow near Chillicothe, September to November. 

Tricholonia tcrreitm. Schacff. 

The Gray Tricholoma. Edible. 

Terreum is from terra, the earth ; so called from the color. This is quite a 
variable species in color and size, as well as manner of growth. 

The pileus is one to three inches broad, dry. fleshy, thin, convex, expanded, 

Figure 55. Tricholonia terreum. Cap grayish-brown or mi 

nearly plane, often having a central umbo; floccose-scaly, ashy-brown, grayish- 
brown or mouse-color. 

The gills are adnexed. subdistant, white, becoming grayish, edges more or 
less eroded. Spores, 5-6/1. 



The stem is whitish, fibrillose, equal, paler than the cap, varying from solid 
to stuffed or hollow, one to three inches high. 

I find this plant on north hillsides, in beech woods. It is not plentiful. There 
are several varieties : 

Var. orirubens. Q. Edge of gills reddish. 

Var. atrosquamosum. Chev. Pileus gray wjth small black scales ; g. whitish. 
Var. argyraceum. Bull. Entirely pure white, or pileus grayish. 
Var. chrysites. Jungh. Pileus tinged yellowish or greenish. 
The plants in Figure 55 were found in Poke Hollow near Chillicothe. Their 
time is September to November. 

Tricholoma saponaceum. Fr. 

Saponaceum is from sapo, soap, 
so called from its peculiar odor. 

The pileus is two to three inches 
broad, convex, then plane, involute 
at first as will be seen in Figure 56, 
smooth, moist in wet weather but 
not viscid, often cracked into scale? 
or punctate, grayish or livid-brown, 
often with a tinge of olive, flesh 
firm, becoming more or less red 
when cut or wounded. 

The gills are uncinately emargin- 
ate, thin, quite entire, not crowded, 
white, sometimes tinged with green. 
Spores subglobose, 5X4/Z. 

The stem is solid, unequal, root- 
ing, smooth, sometimes reticulated 
with black fibrils or scaly. 

This species is found quite fre- 
quently about Chillicothe. It is 
quite variable in size and color, but 
can be readily recognized from its 
peculiar odor and the flesh's becom- 
ing reddish when wounded. It is 
not poisonous but its odor will pre- 
vent any one from eating it. Found 
in mixed woods from August to 

Figure 56. Tricholoma saponaceum. 



Tricholoma cartilagineum. Bull. 

The Cartilac.ixois Tricholoma. Kmiu.k. 

Figure 57. Tricholoma cartilaginea. Two-thirds natural size. 

means gristly or 

The pileus is 
two to three 
inches broad, 
elastic, fleshy, 
convex, soon ex- 
panded, wavy, 
as seen in Figure 
^y. margin in- 
curved, smooth, 
inclined to be 
blackish at first, 
then broken up 
into small black- 

The gills are 
slightly notched, 
adnexed, some- 
what crowded, 

The stem is 
one to two inch- 
es long, rather 
Taste and odor 

firm, stuffed, equal, smooth, white, often striate and mealy 

A number of my friends ate it because of its inviting taste and odor. It grew 
in quantities among the clover in our city park (hiring the wet weather of the last 
of May and the first of Tune. 

Tricholoma squarrulosum. Bres, 

Squarrulosum means full of scales. 

The pileus is two to three inches broad, convex, then expanded, nmhonate. 
dry; fuscous then lurid tan. center black, with black squamules; edge fibrillose, 
exceeding gills. 

The gills are broad, crowded, whitish-gray, reddish when bruised. 



The stem is of the same color as the pileus, punctato-squamulose. The spores 
are elliptical, 7-9x4-5^. 

This is a beautiful plant, growing in mixed woods among the leaves. The 
stem is short and apparently the same color as the pileus. The latter is covered 
with black squamules which give rise to the name of the species. I have succeeded 
in finding the plants only in ( )ctober. The specimens in Figure 58 were found in 
Poke Hollow, near Chillicothe. 

Figure 58. Tricholoma squarrulosum. Caps showing black squamules. 

Tricholoma maculatescens. Pk. 

Spotted Tricholoma. 

Maculatescens means growing spotted ; so called because when the specimen 
is dried the cap becomes more or less spotted. 

The pileus is one and a half to three inches broad, compact, spongy, reddish- 
brown, convex, then expanded, obtuse, even, slightly viscid when wet, becoming 
rivulose and brown spotted in drying, flesh whitish, margin inflexed, exceeding 
the gills. 

The gills are slightly emarginate, rather narrow, cinereous. 



The stem is spongy-fleshy, equal, sometimes abruptly narrowed at the base, 
solid, stout, fibrillose, pallid or whitish. The spores are oblong or subfusiform, 
pointed at the ends, uninucleate, .0003 inch long. .00016 broad. Peck. 

I found the plant on several occasions in the month of November, but was 
unable to fix it satisfactorily until Prof. Morgan helped me out. The specimens 

Figure 59. Tricholoma maculatescens. One-third natural -ize. 

in Figure 59 were found on Thanksgiving day in the Morion woods, in Gallia 

County. Ohio. I had found several specimens about Chillicothe, previous to this. 

This species seems to be very mar T. flavobrunneum, T. graveolens, and T. 

Schumacheri. but may be distinguished from them by the spotting of the pileus 

when drying and the peculiar shape of the spores. 

It is found among the leaves in mixed woods even during freezing weather. 
It is no doubt edible, but I should try it cautiously for the first time. 


Tncholoma flavobrunneum. Fr, 
Thk Yeixow-Brown Tricholoma. Edible. 

Flavobrunneum is from flavus, yellow ; brunneus, brown ; so called from the 
brown caps and yellow flesh. 

The pileus is three to four or more inches broad, fleshy, conical, then convex, 
expanded, subumbonate, viscid, brownish-bay, scaly-streaked, flesh yellow, then 
tinged with red. 

The gills are pale yellow, emarginate, slightly decurrent, somewhat crowded, 
and often tinged with red. 

The stem is three to four inches long, hollow, slightly ventricose, brownish, 
flesh yellow, at first viscid, sometimes reddish-brown. The spores are 6-7x4-5. 
Found in mixed woods among leaves. 

Tricholoma Schumacheri. Br. 

Schumacheri in honor of C. F. Schumacher, author of "Tlantarum Saellan- 
diae." The pileus is from two to three inches broad, spongy, convex, then plane, 
obtuse, even, livid gray, moist, vi\^v beyond gills incurved.' 

The gills are narrow, close, pure white, slightly emarginate. 

The stem is three to four inches long, solid, fibrillosely-striate, white and 

This seems to be a domestic plant, found in green-houses. 

Tricholoma grande* Pk. 
Thk Large Tricholoma. Edible. 

Grande, large, showy. This was quite abundant in Haines' Hollow and on 
Ralston's Run during the wet weather of the fall of 1905. It seems to be very 
like T. columbetta and is found in the same localities. 

The pileus is thick, firm, hemispherical, becoming convex, often irregular, 
dry. scaly, somewhat silky-fibrillose toward the margin, white, the margin at first 
involute. Flesh grayish-white, taste farinaceous. 

The gills are close, rounded behind, adnexed, white. 

The stem is stout, solid, fibrillose, at first tapering upward, then equal or but 
slightly thickened at the base, pure white. The spores are elliptical, o-iixfyt. 

The pileus is four to five inches broad, the stem two to four inches long, and 
an inch to an inch and a half thick. Peck, 44th Rep. 

This is a very la^pe and showy plant, growing amonu leaves after heavv 
rains. Roth this and T. columbetta, as well as a white variety of T. personatum, 



were very plentiful in the same woods. They grow in groups so closely crowded 
that the caps are often quite irregular. The darker and scaly disk and larger sized 
spore will help you to distinguish it from T, columbetta. The very large specimens 
are too coarse to be good. Found in clamp woods, among leaves, from August to 

Tricholoma sejunctum. Sozv. 
The Separating Tricholoma. Edible. 

Sejunctum means having separated. It refers to the separation of the gills 
from the stem. Pileus fleshy, convex, then expanded, umbonate, slightly viscid, 
streaked with innate brown or blackish fibrils, whitish or yellow, sometimes green- 
ish-yellow, flesh white and fragile. 

The gills are broad, subdistant, rounded behind or notched, white. 

The stem is solid, stout, often irregular, white. The spores are subglobose, 

Figure 60. Tricholoma sejunctum. One-half natural size. 


.00025 inch broad. The pileus is one to three inches broad ; stem one to four 
inches long and from four to eight lines thick. Peck's Report. 

This is quite common about Salem, Ohio ; on the old Lake Shore line in Wood 
County near Bowling Green, Ohio ; and I have found it frequently near Chillicothe. 
When cooked it has a pleasant flavor. It is always an attractive specimen. I find 
it under beech trees in the woods, September to November. 

Tricholoma unif actum. Pk. 
United Tricholoma. Edible. 

Unifactum means united or made into one, referring to the stems united in one 
base root or stem. 

The pileus is fleshy but thin, convex ; often irregular, sometimes eccentric 
from its mode of growth ; whitish, flesh whitish, taste mild. 

The gills are thin, narrow, close, rounded behind, slightly adnexed, sometimes 
forked near the base, white. 

The stems are equal or thicker at the base, solid, fibrous, white, united at the 
base in a large fleshy mass. 

Spores are white, subglobose, .00016 to .0002 of an inch broad. Peck. 

I found a beautiful specimen in Poke Hollow, in a beech woods with some 
oak and chestnut. There was but one cluster growing from a large whitish fleshy 
mass. There were fifteen caps growing from this fleshy mass. I could not identify 
species until too late to photograph. 

Tricholoma albellum. Fr. 
The Whitish Tricholoma. Edible. 

The pileus is two to three inches broad, becoming pale-white, passing into 
gray when dry, fleshy, thick at the disk, thinner at the sides, conical then convex, 
gibbous when expanded, when in vigor moist on the surface, spotted as with 
scales, the thin margin naked, flesh soft, floccose, white, unchangeable. 

The gills are very much attenuated behind, not emarginate, becoming broad 
in front ; very crowded, quite entire, white. 

The stem is one to two inches long, solid, fleshy-compact, ovate-bulbous 
(conical to the middle, cylindrical above) , fibrillose-striate, white. Spores elliptical, 



Tricholoma personafum. Fr, 

The Masked Tricholoma. Kninuc. 

Personatum means wearing a mask; so called because of the variety of colors 
it undergoes. This is a beautiful mushroom, and is excellently flavored; it has 
a wide range and is frequently found, in great abundance. I have often seen it 
growing in almost a straight line for over twenty feet, the caps so thoroughly 
crowded that they had lost their form. When young the cap is convex and quite 

Figure 6i. 

Tricholoma personatum. One-third natural size. Caps usually tinged with lilac 
. iolet. Stem-- bulbous. 

firm, with the margin minutely downy or adorned with mealy particles, and in- 
curved. In the mature plant it is softer, broadly convex, or nearly plane, with 
the thin margin spreading and more or less turned upward and wavy. When 
young it is pale lilac in color, but with advancing age it changes to a tawny or 
rusty hue, especially in the center. Sometimes the cap is white, whitish or gray, 
or of a pale violaceous color. 

The gills are crowded, rounded next to the stem, and nearly free but approach- 
ing i the -tern, more- narrow toward the margin, with a faint tinge of lilac 
or violet tint when young, but often white. 

The stem is short, solid, adorned with very minute fibers, downy or mealy 


particles when young and fresh, but becoming- smooth with advancing age. The 
color of the stem is much like the cap but perhaps a shade lighter. 

The cap is from one to five inches broad, and the stem from one to three 
inches high. It grows singly or in groups. It is found in thin woods and thickets. 
It delights to grow where an old saw mill has stood. 

The finest speci- 
mens of this species 
that I ever saw 
grew on a pile of 
compost of what 
had been green cobs 
from the canning 
factory. They had 
lain in the pile 
for about three 
years and late in 
November the com- 
post was literally 
covered with this 
species, many of 
whose caps exceed- 
ed five inches while 
the color and figura- 
tion of the plants 
were quite typical. 

In English books 
this plant is spoken 
of as Blewits and in 
France as Blue- 
stems, but the stems 
in this country are 
inclined to be lilac 
or violet, and then 
only in the younger 

The spores are 
nearly elliptical and 
dingy white, but in 
masses on white 

paper they have a salmon tint. Its smooth, almost shining, unbroken 
epidermis and its peculiar peach-blossom tint distinguish it from all other species 
of the Tricholoma. There is a white variety, very plentiful in our woods, which 
is illustrated in Figure 62. They are found only in leaf-mould in the woods. 
September to freezing weather. 

Figure 6j. Tricholoma personatum. Two-thirds natural 
entire plant white. 



Tricholoma nudum. Bull. 
The Naked Tricholoma. Edible. 

Nudum, naked, bare ; from the character of the margin. The pileus is two 
to three inches broad, fleshy, rather thin, convex, then expanded, slightly de- 
pressed ; smooth, moist, the whole plant violet at first, changing color, margin 
involute, thin, naked, often wavy. 

The gills are narrow, rounded behind, slightly decurrent when the plant 
becomes depressed, crowded, violet at first, changing to a reddish-brown without 
any tinge of violet. 

The stem is two to three inches long, stuffed, elastic, equal, at first violaceous, 
then becoming pale, more or less mealy. Spores 7x3.5^. 

I found some very fine specimens among the leaves in the woods in Haynes' 
Hollow, near Chillicothe. October and November. 

Tricholoma gainbosum. Fr. 
St. George's Mushroom. Edible. 

Gambosum. with a swelling of the hoof, gamba. The pileus is three to six 
inches broad, sometimes even larger; very thick, convex, expanded, depressed, 
commonly cracked here and there; smooth, suggesting soft kid leather; margin 
involute at first, pale ochre or yellowish white. 

The gills are notched, with an adnexed tooth, densely crowded, ventricose, 
moist, various lengths, yellowish white. 

The stem is short, solid, flocculose at apex, substance creamy white : swollen 
slightly at the base. The spores are white. 

It is called St. George's mushroom in England because it appears about the 
time of St. George's day. April 23d. It frequently grows in rings or crescents. 
Tt has a very strong odor. Its season is May and Tune. 

Tricholoma portcutosum. Fr. 
The Strange Tricholoma. Edible. 

Portentosum means strange or monstrous. 

The pileus is three to five inches broad, fleshy, convex, then expanded, sub- 
umbonate. viscid, sooty, often with purple tinge, frequently unequal and turned 
up, streaked with dark lines, the thin margin naked, flesh hot compact, white, 
fragile, and mild. 



The gills are white, very broad, rounded, almost free, distant, often becoming 
pale-gray or yellowish. 

The stem is three to six inches long, solid, quite fibrous, sometimes equal, 
often tapering toward the base, white, stout, striate, villous at base. The spores 
are subglobose, 4-5x4./*. 

Figure 63. Tricholoma portentosum. 

The plants grow in pine woods and along the margins of mixed woods, 
frequently by roadsides. It is usually found in October and November. The 
plants in Figure 63 were found near Waltham, Mass., and were sent to me by 
Mrs. E. B. Blackford. This is said to even excel T. personatum in edible qualities. 



C litocybc. Fr, 

Clitocybe is from two Greek words, a hill-side, or declivity, and a head; so 
called from the central depression of the pileus. 

The genus Clitocybe differs from Tricholoma in the character of the trills. 
They are attached to the stem by the whole width and usually are prolonged down 
the stem or deenrrent. This is the first genus with decurrent t^ilis. The genus 
has neither a volva nor a ring and the spores are white. The stem is elastic, 
spongy within, frequently hollow and extremely fibrou s, commons with the pileus. 

The pileus is generally fleshy, growing thin toward the margin, plane or 
depressed or funnel-shaped, and with margin incurved. The universal veil, if 
present at all, is seen only on the margin of the pilens like frost or silky dew. 

These plants usually grow on the ground and frequently in groups, though 
a few may he found on decayed wood. 

The collyhia. Mycena, and ( )mphalia have cartilaginous stems, while the stem 
of the Clitocybe is extremely fibrous, and the Tricholoma is distinguished by its 
notched gills. 

This genus, because of the variations in its species, will always he puzzling 
to the beginner, as it is to experts. We may easily decide it is a Clitocybe because 
of the gills squarely meeting the stem, or deenrrent upon it. and its external fibrous 
stem, but to locate the species is quite a different matter. 

Clitocybe media. Pk. 
Tin'. Intermediate Clitocybe. Edible. 

Ficube 64. I media. One-half natural size. 

Media is from medius, middle; 
it is so called because it is inter- 
mediate between C. nebularis and 
C. clavipes. It is not as plentiful 
as either of the others in our 
w< tods. 

The pileus is grayish-brown or 
blackish-brown, always darker 
than C. nebularis. The flesh is 
white and farinaceous in taste. 

The gills are rather broad, not 
crowded, adnate and decurrent. 
white, with few transverse ridges 
or ve'ns in the spaces between the 

The stem i> one to two inches 
long, usually tapering upward. 



paler than the pileus, rather elastic, smooth. The spores are plainly elliptical, 

This resembles very closely the two species mentioned above and is hard to 
separate. I found the specimens in Figure 64 along Ralston's Run where the 
ground is mossy and damp. Found in September and October. 

Clitocybe infundibuliformis. Schaeff. 
The Funnel-Formed Cutocybe. Edible. 

Infundibuliformis means funnel-shaped. This is a beautiful plant and very 
abundant in woods after a heavy rain. It grows upon the leaves and especially 
among pine needles. 

The pileus is at first convex and umbonate and as the plant advances in age 
the margin becomes elevated until the plant becomes funnel-shaped. The margin 
is frequently incurved and finally wavy. The flesh is soft and white. The color 
of the cap is a pale tan. If the cap is examined carefully it will be seen to be 
covered with a slight down or silky substance, especially on the margin. The 
color of the cap is apt to fade so that specimens will be found almost white. 

The gill's are thin, close, white or whitish, and very decurrent. 

The stem is quite smooth, and generally tapers upward from the base. It is 
sometimes white or whitish, but more frequently like the cap. Mycelium will usual- 
ly be found at the base on the leaves, forming a soft white down. I have found this 
species in several parts of the state. It is frequently found in clusters, when the 
caps will be irregular on account of the crowded condition. They are very tender 

and of excellent flavor. 
I Found from August to 
( tetober. 

Picurs 66. ' dora. One-third natural siae. 

Cap pale green. 

Clitocybe odor a. Bull. 

S\\ k.kt-sm ki.i.ixg Clitocybe. 

( Mora means fragrant. 
This is one <>t the easiest of 
the Clitocybes to identify. 
The collector will very readi- 
ly recognize it by its olive- 
Efreen color and its odor. 


The color in the old plant is quite variable but in young plants is well marked. 
The pileus is one to two and a half inches broad, flesh quite thick; at first 
convex, then expanded, plane, often depressed, sometimes inclined to be wavy ; 
even, smooth, olive-green. 

The gills are adnate, rather close, sometimes slightly decurrent, broad, pallid. 

The stem is one to one and a half inches long, often slightly bulbous at the 

These plants are found from August to October, in the woods, on leaves. 
They are quite common about Chillicothe after a rain. When cooked by them- 
selves the flavor is a bit strong, but when mixed with other plants not so strong 
in flavor, they are fine. 

Clitocybc illudens. Schw. 
The Deceiving Cutocybe. Not Edible. 

Illudens means deceiving. Pileus of a beautiful yellow, very showy and 
inviting. Many a basketful has been brought to me to be identified with the hope 
of their edibility. The cap is convex, umbonate, spreading, depressed, smooth, 
often irregular from its crowded condition of growth; in older and larger plants 
the margin of the pileus is wavy. The flesh is thick at the center but thinner 
toward the margin. In old plants the color is brownish. 

The gills are decurrent, some much further than others ; yellow ; not crowded ; 

The stem is solid, long, firm, smooth tapering towards the base, as will be 
seen by Figure 67, sometimes the stems are very large. 

The pileus is from four to six inches broad. The stem is six to eight inches 
high. It occurs in large clusters and the rich saffron color of the entire plant 
compels our admiration and we are reminded that "not all is gold that glitters." 
It will be interesting to gather a large cluster to show its phosphorescence and 
the heat which the plant will generate. You can show the phosphorescence 
by putting it in a dark room and by placing a thermometer in the cluster you 
can show the heat. It is frequently called "Jack-'o-lantern." 

I have known people to eat it without harm, but the chances are that it will 
make most persons sick. It ought to be good, since it is so abundant and looks 
so rich. Found from July to October. 

... >, 



Clitocybe multiceps. Pic 

The Many-Headed Clitocybe. Edible. 

Multiceps means many heads ; so called because many caps are found in one 
cluster. It is a very common plant around Chillicothe. It has been found within 
the city limits. It is quite a typical species, too. having; all the characteristics of 
the genus. I have often seen over fifty caps in one cluster. 

FIGURE 68. Clitocybe multiceps. One-half natural size. Caps grayish-white. 

The pileus is white or gray, brownish-gray or. buff : smooth, thin at the margin, 
convex, slightly moist in rainy weather. 

The gills are white, crowded, narrow at each end, decurrent. 

The stem is tough, elastic, fleshy, solid, tinged with the same color as the cap. 

The pileus is one to three inches broad; grows in dense tufts. Spores are 
white, smooth and globose. 

When found in June the plants are a shade whiter than in the fall. The fall 
plants are very much the oyster color. The early plant is a more tender one and 
better for table use. however, I do not regard it as excellent. They are found in 
woods, in old pastures by logs and stumps, and in lawns. June to October. 



Clitocybe clavipes. Pcrs. 

Clavipes is from clava, a club, and pes, a foot. 

The pileus is one to two and a half inches broad, fleshy, rather spongy, convex 
to expanded, obtuse, even, smooth, gray or brownish, sometimes whitish toward the 

The gills are decurrent, descending, rather distant, nearly entire, rather broad, 

Figure 69. Clitocybe clavipes. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 

The stem is two inches long, swollen at the base, attenuated upward, stuffed. 
spongy, fibrillose, livid sooty. Spores are elliptical, 6-7X4./X. 

I found specimens on Cemetery Hill underneath pine trees. I sent some to 
Dr. Herbst and Prof. Atkinson ; both pronounced them C. clavipes. They resemble 
quite closely C. nebularis. I have also found this plant in mixed woods. Edible 
and fairly good. 


Clitocybe tomata. Fr. 

Tornata means turned in a lathe; so called because of its neat and regular 

The pileus is orbicular, plane, somewhat depressed, thin, smooth, shining, 
white, darker on the disk, very regular. 

The gills are decurrent adnate, rather crowded, white. 

The stem is stuffed, firm, slender, smooth, pubescent at the base. 

The spores are elliptical, 4-6x3-4^. 

These are small, very regular, and inodorous plants. They are found in open 
fields in the grass about elm stumps. July to September. They are edible and 
cook readily. 


Clitocybe 'mctachttija. Fr. 
The Obconic Clitocybe. Edible. 

Metachjfafa means changing color. rV 

The pileus is one to two and a half inches broad, somewhat fleshy, convex, 
then plane, depressed, smooth, hygrophanous, brownish-gray, then livid, growing 

The gills are attached to the stem, crowded, pale gray, slightly decurrent. 

The stem is one to two inches long, stuffed, then hollow, apex mealy, equal, 

It differs from C. ditopa in being inodorous and having a thicker and depressed 

The caps are quite smooth and are frequently concentrically cracked or 
wrinkled, much as in Clitopilus noveboracensis. 

It is found growing on leaves in mixed woods, after a rain, in August and 
September. When young the margin is incurved but wavy in age. It is quite a 
hardy plant. 

Clitocybe adirondackensis. Pk. 

Adirondackensis, so called because the plant was first found in the Adirondack 
Mountains of New York. 

The pileus is thin, submembranaceous, funnel-form, with the margin decurved, 
nearly smooth, hygrophanous, white, the disk often darker. 



Figure 70. Clitocybe metachroa. Caps dark gray. Gills pale gray. 

The gills arc white, very narrow, scarcely broader than the thickness of the 
flesh of the pilens. crowded, long, decurrent, snharcnate. some of them forked. 

The stem is slender, snhequal, not hollow, whitish, mycelio-thickened at the 
base. Peck. 

The pilens is one to two inches broad and the stem is one to two and a halt 
long. This is quite a pretty mushroom and has the Clitocybe appearance in 
.-! marked degree, The long, narrow, decurrent skills, sometimes tinged with 
yellow, some of them forked, margin of the pilens sometimes wavy, will assist 
in distinguishing it. I have no doubt of its edibility. Found among leaves in 
woods after heavy rains. With us it is confined to the wooded hill-sides. The 
specimens in Figure 71 were found in Michigan and photographed by Dr. Fischer. 
Found in Tnlv and AugU 



Figure ft. Clitocybe adirondackensis. Three-fourths natural size. Caps white. 

Clitocybe ochro purpurea. Berk. 
The Clay-Purple Clitocybe. Edible. 

Ochropurpurea is from ochra, ocher or clay color; purpureas, purple; it is so 
called because the caps are clay-color and the gills are purple. The caps are 
convex, fleshy, quite compact, clay-colored, sometimes tinged with purple around 
the margin, cuticle easily separating, margin involute, often at first tomentose, 
old forms often repand or wavy. 

The gills are purple, sometimes whitish in old specimens from the white 
spores, broad behind, decurrent, distant. 

The stem is paler than the cap, often tinted with purple, solid, frequently 
long and swollen in the middle, fibrous. The spores white or pale yellow. 

The first time I found this species I never dreamed that it was a Clitocybe. 
It was especially abundant on our wooded clay banks or hillsides, near Chillicothe, 
during the wet weather in July and August of 1905. It is a hardy plant and 
will keep for days. Insects do not seem to work in it readily. When cooked 
carefully it is rather tender and fairly good. 


Clitocybc sitbditopoda. Pk. 

Subditopoda is so called because it is nearly (sub) like Fries' C. ditopus, which 
means living in two places, perhaps referring to the stem being sometimes central 
and sometimes eccentric. 

The pileus is thin, convex or nearly plane, umbilicate, hygrophanous, grayish- 
brown, striate on the margin when moist, paler when dry, flesh concolorous, odor 
and taste farinaceous. 

The gills are broad, close, adnate, whitish or pale cinerous. 

The stem is equal, smooth, hollow, colored like the pileus. The spores are 
elliptical, .0002 to .00025 inch long, .00012 to .00016 broad. Peck. 

It is found on mossy ground in woods. I have found them under pine trees 
on Cemetery Hill. Dr. Peck says he separated this species from C. ditopoda 
because of the "striate margin of the pileus, paler gills, longer stem, and elliptical 
spores." The plant is edible. September and October. 

Clitocybc ditopoda. Fr. 

Ditopoda is from two Greek words, di-totos, living in two places, and pus 
or poda, foot, having reference to the stem being central at times and again 

The pileus is rather fleshy, convex, then plane, depressed, even, smooth, 

The gills are adnate, crowded, thin, dark, cinereous. 

The stem is hollow, equal, almost naked. 

This species resembles in appearance C. metachroa but can be separated by 
the mild taste and farinaceous odor. Its favorite habit is on pine needles. August 
and September. I found this species in various places about Chillicothe and on 
Thanksgiving day I found it in a mixed wood in Gallia County, Ohio, along with 
Hygrophorus laurse and Tricholoma maculatescens. I sent some specimens to 
Dr. Herbst, who pronounced it C. ditopoda. 

Clitocybc pithyophila. Fr. 

The Pine-Loving Cutocybe. 

Pithyophila means pine-loving. This plant is very abundant under pine 
trees on Cemetery Hill. They grow on the bed of pine needles. The pileus is 
very variable in size, white, one to two inches broad ; fleshy, thin, becoming 
plane, umbonate, smooth, growing pale, at length irregularly shaped, repand, 
wavy, sometimes slightlv striate. 



Figure 73. Clitocybe pithyophila. Two-thirds natural size. Cap white and showing 
the pine needles upon which they grow. 

The stem is hollow, terete, then compressed, smooth, equal, even, downy 
at the base. 

The gills are adnate, somewhat decurrent, crowded, plane, always white. The 
spores are 6-7x4/*. The plants in Figure 73 are small, having been found during 
the cold weather in November. They are said to be good, but I have not eaten 

Clitocybe candicans. Fr. 

Candicans, whitish or shining white. Pileus is one inch broad, entirely 
white, somewhat fleshy, convex, then plane, or depressed, even, shining, with 
regularly deflexed margin. 

The gills are adnate, crowded, thin, at length decurrent, narrow. 
The stem is nearly hollow, even. waxy, shining, nearly equal, cartilaginous, 
smooth, incurved at the base. The spores are broadly elliptical, or subglobose, 
5-6x4/*. Found in damp woods on leaves. 


Clitocybe obbata. Fr. 
The Beaker-Shaped Clitocybe. Edible. 

Obbata means shaped like an obba or beaker. 

The pileus is somewhat membranaceous, nmbilicate, then rather deeply 
depressed, smooth, inclined to be hygrophanous, sooty-brown, margin at length 

The gills are decurrent, distant, grayish-white, pruinose. 

The stem is hollow, grayish-brown, smooth, equal, rather tough. 

I found plants growing on Cemetery Hill under pine trees. I had some 
trouble to identify the species until Prof. Atkinson helped me out. August to 

Clitocybe gilva. Pers. 
The Yellow Clitocybe. Edible. 

Gilva means pale yellow or reddish yellow. 

The pileus is two to four inches broad, fleshy, compact, soon depressed and 
wavy, smooth, moist, dingy ocher, flesh same color, sometimes spotted, margin 

The gills are decurrent, closely crowded, thin, sometimes branched, narrow 
but broader in the middle, ochraceous yellow. 

The stem is two to three inches long, solid, smooth, nearly equal, somewhat 
paler than the cap, and inclined to be villous at the base. 

The spores are nearly globose, 4-5/x. 

This plant is sometimes found in mixed woods, but it seems to prefer pine 
trees. It has a wide distribution, found in the east and south as well as the west. 
I have found it in several localities in Ohio. Found from July to September. 

Clitocybe flaccida. Sow. 
The Limp Clitocybe. Edible. 

Flaccida means flabby, limp. 

The pileus is two to three inches broad, rather fleshy, thin, limp, umbilicate, 
then funnel-shaped, even, smooth, sometimes cracking into minute scales, tawny or 
rust-colored, margin broadly reflexed. 

The gills are strongly decurrent, yellowish, to whitish, close, arcuate. 

The stem is tufted, unequal, rusty, somewhat wavy, tough, naked, villous at 
the base. The spores are globose or nearly so, 4-5x3-471. 



This resembles the C. infundibuliformis very (jjosely, both in its appearance 
and its habit. It grow> among leaves in mixed woods during wet weather. It 
is gregarious, often many stems growing from one mass of mycelium. The plants 
in Figure 74 were collected in Ackerman's woods near Columbus. ( )hio. and were 
photographed by Dr. Kellerman. They are found on all the hillsides about 
Chillicothe. Found from July to late in October. 

Figure 74. Clitocybe flaccida. One-half natural size. 

Clitocybe monadelpha. Morg, 
The One-Brotherhood Clitocybe. Edible. 

Monadelpha is from monos, one and adelphos, brother. 

Prof. Morgan of Preston, Ohio, gives the following description of the One- 
Brotherhood Clitocybe in the Mycological Flora of the Miama Valley: "Densely 
cespitose. Pileus fleshy, convex, then depressed, at first glabrous, then scaly, 
honey-colored, varying to pallid-brown or reddish. The stem elongated, solid. 
crooked, twisted, fibrous, tapering at the base, pallid-brownish or flesh color. 
Spores white, a little irregular, .0055MM.'* 

Plate XII. Figure 75- Clitocybe monadelpha. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 


It might be easily taken for the ringless Armillaria mellea, but the decidedly 
decurrcnt gills and the solid stem ought to set any one right. In very wet 
weather it soon becomes water-soaked, and is then not good. It is found in 
woods about stumps, and in newly cleared fields about roots or stumps. From 
spring to October. See Plate XII, Figure 75,- for an illustration. Bresadola of 
Europe has determined this to be the same as that described by Scoparius in 1 772 
as Agaricus (Clitocybe) tabescens. I have preferred to retain the name given 
by Prof. Morgan. 

Clitocybe dealbata. Sow. 

The White Clitocybe. Ediblk. 

Dealbata means whitewashed ; so called from its white color. 

The pileus is about one inch broad, rather fleshy, convex, then plane, up- 
turned and wavy, smooth, shining, even. 

The gills are crowded, white, attached to the stem. 

The stem is fibrous, thin, equal, stuffed. Spores are 4-5x2.5^. 

This is a beautiful plant and widely distributed. Found among leaves and 
sometimes in the grass. It makes a delicious dish. 

Clitocybe phyllophila. Fr. 
The Leaf-Loving Clitocybe. Edible. 

Phvllophila means leaf and fond of. It is so called because it is found on 
leaves in the woods during wet weather. 

The pileus is one and a half to three inches in diameter, whitish-tan, rather 
fleshy, convex, then plane, at length depressed, even. dry. noticeably white around 
the margin. 

The gills are attached to the stem, decurrent especially after the cap is 
depressed, somewhat distant, rather broad, white, becoming yellowish or ocher 
tinged, thin. 

The stem is two to three inches long, stuffed, becoming hollow, silky, rather 
tough, whitish. The spores are elliptical, 6x4/*. 

The whitish-tan cap with its white, silvery zone near the margin will serve 
to identify the species. August to October. 



Clitocybe cyathiformis. Bull. 
The Cup-Shaped Clitocybe. Edibee. 

Cyathiformis is from cyathus, a drinking cup; formis, form or shape. 

The pileus is two to three inches broad, fleshy, rather thin ; at first depressed, 
then funnel-shaped ; even, smooth, moist, hygrophanous ; the margin involute, 
sooty or dark brown when moist, becoming pale when dry, often dingy ochraceous 
or tan-color, inclined to be wavy. 

The gills are attached to the stem, decurrent from the depressed form of the 
pileus, united behind, somewhat dingy, sparingly branched. 

The stem is stuffed, elastic, tapering upward, fibrillose, base villous. The 
spores are elliptical, 9x6/1. 

This plant has a wide distribution and is found in woods or wood margins. I 
found some very fine specimens on Ralston's Run, near Chillicothe. September 
to October. 

Clitocybe lac cat a. Scop. 
Waxy Clitocybe. Edible. 

Laccata means 
made of shellac or 
sealing-wax. This 
is a very common, 
variable plant. 
Sometimes of a 
bright amethyst but 
usually of a reddish 
brown. The pileus 
is from one to two 
inches broad, al- 
most membranace- 
ous, convex, then 
plane, depressed in 
the center, downy 
with short hairs, 
violet or reddish- 

The gills are 
broad, distant, at- 
tached to the stem 

Figure 76. Clitocybe laccata. Two-thirds natural size. Caps violet or 
reddish-brown. Hills broad and distant. 



by the entire width ; pale fleshy-red in hue which is more constant than the color 
of the cap and which forms an ear-mark to tell the species ; adnate with a decurrent 
tooth, plane, the white spores being very abundant. 

The stem is tough, fibrous, stuffed, crooked, white-villous at the base, rather 
long and slender, dull reddish yellow or reddish-fiesh-colored, sometimes 
pallid or dull ochraceous, slightly striate; when the season is wet it is often 

This waxy Clitocybe has a wide range and is frequently very abundant. It 
is found through almost the entire season. Tt will grow almost anywhere, in 

FiGUM 77. Clitocybe laccata. Two-thirds natural size. Specimens growing late in the fall. 

woods, pastures, and lawns, and sometimes on naked ground. The plants in 
Figure 76 were found in tall grass in a grove in August. Those in Figure ~~ 
were found the last of November on Cemetery Hill, under pine trees. 

Prof. Peck gives the following varieties: 

Var. amethystina in which the cap is much darker in color. 

Var. pallidifolia gills much paler than usual. 

\ ar. striatula cap smooth, thin, so that shadowy lines are seen on cap, radi- 
ating from near the center to the margin. This grows in damp places. Some 
authors make Clitocybe laccata a type for a new genus and call it Lacaria 



Collybia. Fr. 

Collybia is from a Greek word meaning- a small coin or a small round cake. 
The ring - and volva are both wanting in this genus. The pileus is fleshy, generally 
thin, and when the plant is young the margin of the pileus is incurved. 

The gills are adnate or nearly free, soft, membranaceous. Many species of 
Collybia will revive to some extent when moistened, but they are not 

The stem differs in substance from the pileus, cartilaginous or has a cartilagin- 

Plate XIII. Figure 78. Collybia radicata. 

ous cuticle, while the inside is stuffed or hollow. This is quite a large genus, con- 
taining fifty-four American species. 


Collybia radicata. ReKl. 
The; Rooting Coixybia. Edible. 

This, in its season, is one of the most common mushrooms in the woods. It 
grows in the ground, frequently around old stumps, sometimes on lawns. 

Those in Figure J$ were found in the woods on the ground. ( )ne plant, as 
will be seen by the square, is a foot high. 

It is easily recognized by its long root and flat cap. The root extends into 
the ground and will frequently break before pulling up. This root gives name 
to the species. 

The pileus is fleshy, rather thin, convex, then plane, often with margin up- 
turned in old plants as in Figure 78, and frequently wrinkled at and toward the 
umbo, smooth, viscid when moist. 

The color is quite variable, from almost white to gray, grayish-brown; flesh 
thin, very white, elastic. 

The gills are usually snow white, broad, rather distant, broad in the middle, 
joined to the stem by the upper angle, unequal. 

The stem is frequently long, of the same color as the cap, yet sometimes 
paler ; smooth, firm, sometimes grooved, often twisted, tapering upward, ending in 
a long tapering root, deeply planted in the soil. 

The spores are elliptical, 15XIO/X. 

They grow singly, but generally have many neighbors. They are found in 
open woods and around old stumps. I seldom have any trouble in getting enough 
for a large family and some for my neighbor, who may not know what to 
but does know how to appreciate them. Found from June to October and from 
the New England states through the middle west. They differ from C. hariolarum 
in the densely tufted habit of the latter. 

Colybia in grata. Sclutiu. 

Ingrata means unpleasant; from its somewhat unpleasant odor. 

The pileus is one to two inches broad, globose, bell-shaped, then convex, 
umbonate, even, brownish-tan. 

The gills are free, narrow, crowded, pallid. 

The stem is twisted, subcompressed, sprinkled with a mealy tomentum above, 
umber l>elow, hollow, rather long, unequal. 

I found this plant quite abundant on Cemetery Hill, growing under pine 
trees, from the mas- of pine needles. Found in July and August, 



Collybia platyphylla. Fr. 

Broad-Gilled Collybia. Edible. 

Platyphylla is from two Greek words meaning broad and leaf, referring to 
the broad gills. It is a much larger and stouter plant than Collybia radicata. It 
is found in new ground on open pastures about stumps, also in woods, on 
rotten logs and about stumps. 

The pileus is three to 
four inches broad, at first 
convex, then expanded, 
plane, margin often up- 
turned, smoky brown to 
grayish, streaked with 
dark fibrils, watery when 
moist, flesh white. 

The gills are adnexed, 
very broad, obliquely 
notched behind, distant, 
soft, white, in age more 
or less broken or 

The stem is short, thick, 
often striated, whitish, 
soft, stuffed, sometimes 
slightly powdered at the 
apex, root blunt. The 
spores are white and 

It is easily distinguished 
from C. radicata by the 
blunt base of the root and 
the very broad gills. Like 
C. radicata they need to 
be cooked well or there 
is a slightly bitter taste 
to them. They are found 

from June to October. Figure 7 9--Collybia platyphylla. One-third natural size. 



Collybia dryophila. Bull. 
Oak-Loving Collybia. Edible. 

Dryophila is from two Greek words, oak and fond of. The pileus is bay- 
brown, hay red, or tan color, one or two inches broad, convex, plane, sometimes 
depressed and the margin elevated, flesh thin and white. 

The gills are free with a d c Curren t tooth, crowded, narrow, white, or whitish, 
rarely yellow. 

The stem is cartilaginous, smooth, hollow, yellow, or yellowish, equal, some- 
times thickened at the base as will he seen in Figure 80. The color of the stem 

Photo by ( . <-'. Lloyd. 
i-'ic.irk 80. Cotlybw dryophila. Natural iae. Caps bay-brown. 


is usually the same as the cap. This is a very common plant about Chillicothe. 
They are found in woods, especially under oak trees, but are also found in open 
places. I found them on the High School lawn in Chillicothe. Some very fine 
specimens that were found growing in a well marked ring, in an old orchard, were 
brought to me about the first of May. Their season is from the first of May to 

Collybia zonata. Pk. 
The Zoned Collybia. Edible. 

Zonata, zoned : referring to the concentric zones on the cap which show 
faintly in Figure 81. 

The pileus is about one inch broad, sometimes more, sometimes less ; rather 
fleshy, thin, convex, when expanded nearly plane, slightly umbillicate, covered 
with fibrous down ; tawny or ochraceous tawny, sometimes marked with faintly 
darker zones ; even in the very young specimens the umbilicate condition is usually 

The gills are narrow, close, free, white or nearly white, usually with a pulver- 
ulent edge. 

The stem is one to three inches long, rather firm, equal, hollow, covered like 
the cap with a fibrous down, tawny, or brownish tawny. The spores are broadly 
elliptical, .0002 inch long, .00016 broad. 

This species closely resembles C. stipitaria, but is easily distinguished from 
it because of its habits of growth, different gills, and shorter spores. It is found 
on or near decaying wood in mixed woods. I have found it frequently on Ralston's 
Run but always only a few specimens in one place. It does not grow in a 
cespitose manner with us. Found in August. 

Collybia maculata. Alb. & Schw. 
The Spotted Collybia. Edible, 

Maculata, spotted; referring to the reddish spots or stains both on the cap 
and on the stem. The pileus is two to three inches broad, at first white, then 
spotted (as well as the stem) with reddish brown spots or stains, fleshy, very 
firm, convex, sometimes nearly plane, even, smooth, truly carnose, compact, at 
first hemispherical and with an involute margin, often repand. 

The gills are somewhat crowded, narrow, adnexed, often free, linear, white or 
whitish, often brownish cream, gills not reaching to the margin of the cap. 

The stem is three t<> four inches long, nearly solid, more or less grooved, stout, 



unequal, sometimes ventricose, 
frequently partially bulbous, 
lighter than the gills, usually 
spotted in age, white at first. 
The spores are subglobose, 
4-6/x. The plant is a hardy one. 
It will keep for several days. 
The plants in Figure 82 grew in 
the woods where a log had 
rotted down. 

Var. immaculata, Cooke, dif- 
fers from the typical form in 
not changing color or being 
spotted, and in the broader and 
serrated gills. This variety de- 
lights in fir woods. September 
to November. 

Figure 82. Coilybia maculata. Two-thirds natural size. 
Reddish-brown spots on caps and stems. 

Coilybia atrata. Fr. 
Charcoal Collybia. 

Atrata, clothed in black ; from 
the pileus' being very black 
when young. The pileus is 
from one to two inches broad, 
at first regular and convex, 
when expanded becoming, as a 
rule, irregular in shape, some- 
times partially lobed or wavy ; 
in young plants the cap is a 
dull blackish brown, faded in 
older specimens to a lighter 
brown, umbilicate, smooth, shin- 

The gills are adnate, slightly 
crowded, with many short ones, 
rather broad, grayish-white. 

The stem is smooth, equal, 
even, hollow, or stuffed, tough, 
short, brown within and with- 
out, but lighter than the cap. The plant grows in pastures where stumps have 
been burned out, always, so far as I have noticed, on burned ground. Spores 

Figure 83. 

-Coilybia atrata. 

One-half natural size. 
Gills grayish-white. 

Caps dull 



Collybia ambusta. Fr. 

The Scorched Collybia. 

Ambusta, burned or scorched, from its being found on burned soil. 
The pileus is nearly membranaceous, convex, then expanded, nearly plane, 
papillate, striatulate, smooth, livid brown, hygrophanous, umbonate. 

The gils are adnate, crowded, lanceolate, white, then of a smoky tinge. 
The stem is somewhat stuffed, tough, short, livid. Spores 5-6x3-4. 
This species differs from C. atrata in having an umbonate pileus. 

Collybia cottfluens. Pers. 

The Tufted Collybia. Edible. 

Confluens means growing together; so called from the stems often being 
confluent or adhering to each other. 

The pileus is from an inch to an inch and a quarter broad, reddish-brown, 

Pigubi B4. Collybia confluens. Natural si/e. showing reddish Btems. 



often densely cespitose, somewhat fleshy, convex, then plane, flaccid, smooth, 
often watery, margin thin, in old specimens slightly depressed and wavy. 

The gills are free and in old plants remote from the stem, rather crowded, 
narrow, flesh colored, then whitish. 

The stem is two to three inches long, hollow, pale red, sprinkled with a 
mealy pubescence. The spores are slightly ovate, inclined to be pointed at one 
end, 5-6x3-4/*. 

These plants grow among leaves in the woods after warm rains, growing 
in tufts, sometimes in rows or lines. They are not as large as C. dryophylla, 
the stem is quite different and the plants seem to have the ability to revive like 
a Marasmius. They can be dried for winter use. 

Collybia myriadophylla. Pk. 
Many-leaved Collybia. 

Myriadophylla is from two Greek words, meaning many leaves. It has 
reference to its numerous gills. 

The pileus is very thin, broadly convex, then 
plane or centrally depressed, sometimes umbilli- 
cate, hygrophanous, brown when moist, ochraceous 
or tan-color when dry. 

The gills are very numerous, narrow, linear, 
crowded, rounded behind or slightly adnexed, 

The stem is slender, but commonly short, equal, 
glabrous, stuffed or hollow, reddish-brown. The 
spores are minute, broadly elliptical, .00012 to 
.oooi6-inch long, .0008-inch broad. Peck, 49th 

I found only a few specimens in Haynes's Hol- 
low. The caps were about an inch broad and the 
stems were an inch and a half long. It will be 
easily identified if one has the description of it, 
because of its peculiarly colored gills. I found 
my plants on a decayed stump in August. In the 
dried specimens the gills assume a more brownish- 
red hue, as in the next following species. 

Collybia colorea. Pk. They sometimes appear 
to have a glaucous reflection, probably from the abundance of the spores. The 
stem is more or less radicated and often slightly floccose-pruinose toward the 
base. The basidia are very short, being only .0006 to .0008-inch long. 

Figure 85. Collybia myriadophylla. 



Collybia atratoidcs. l'k. 
Tin: Blackish Collybia. 

Atratoidcs means like the species atrata, which means black ; so called be- 
cause the caps when fresh are quite black. Atratoides has a different habitat 
and is not so dark. 

The pileus is thin, convex, subumbilicate, glabrous, hvgrophanous, blackish- 
brown when moist, grayish-brown and shining when dry. 

The gills are rather broad, subdistant, adnate. grayish-white, often trans- 
versely veiny above and venoselv connected. 

Figure 86. Collybia atratoidcs. Two-thirds natural size. Caps blackish 
to grayish-brown. 

The stem is equal, hollow, smooth, grayish-brown with a whitish mycelioid 
tomentum at the base. The spores are nearly globose, about .0002-inch broad. 
The pileus is six t<> ten lines broad and the stem is about one inch long. Peck. 

The plant is gregarious, growing on decayed wood and on mossy sticks, 
in mixed woods. The margin of the cap is often serrated, as you will 
see in Figure 86, yet this does not seem to he a constant characteristic of the 
species. It is closely related to C. atrata. but its habitat and the color of its 
pileus and gills differ very greatly. I have not eaten it. but have no doubt of 
its good qualities. 

Found in August and September. Quite common in all our woods. 



C ollybia acervata. i r. 
Thi Tufted Coelybia. Edible. 

Acervata, from acervus, a mass, a heap. 

Pileus fleshy hut thin, convex, or nearly plane, obtuse, glabrous, hygropha- 
nous, pale, tan-color or dingy pinkish-red, and commonly striate on the margin 
vvhen moist, paler or whitish when dry. 

Gills narrow, close, adnexed or free, whitish or tinged with flesh-color. 

The stem slender, rigid, hollow, glabrous, reddish, reddish-brown or brown, 
often whitish at the top, especially when young, commonly with a matted down 
at the base. Spores elliptical, 6x3-4^. 

Figure 87. Collybia acervata. Two-thirds natural size. Caps pale, tan or dingy pink. 

The plant is cespitose. Pileus one-half inch broad. Stem two to three 
inches long. Peck's 49th Report. 

This is a beautiful plant when growing in large tufts. The entire plant is 
tender and has a delicate flavor. I found the plant figured here on the Frankfort 
pike where an old saw mill had formerly stood. It grew abundantly there, along 
with Lepiota Americana and Pluteus cervinus. 

Found from August to October. 


Collybia velutipes. Curtis. 

The Velvet-foot Collybia. Edible. 

Velutipes, from vellum, velvet and pes, foot. 

I 'ileus from one to four inches broad, tawny yellow, fleshy at the center, 
thick on the margin, quite sticky or viscid when moist, margin slightly striate, 
sometimes inclined to be excentric. 

Gills rounded behind, broad, slightly adnexed, tan or pale-yellow, somewhat 

The stem is cartilaginous, tough, hollow, umber, then becoming blackish, 
with a velvety coat. Spores are elliptical, 7x3-3. 5/x. 

It grows on stumps, logs and roots, in the ground. It grows almost the 
year round. I have gathered it to eat in February. Plate XV gives a very 
correct notion of the plant. It is most plentiful in September, October and 
November, yet found throughout the winter months. 

Myeena. J'r. 

Mycena is from a Greek word, meaning a fungus. The plants of this genus 
are small and rather fragile. 

Pileus more or less membranaceous, generally striate, with the margin almost 
straight, and at first pressed to the stem, never involute, expanded, campanulate, 
and generally umbonate. 

The stem is externally cartilaginous, hollow, not stuffed when young, con- 
fluent with the cap. Gills never decurrent. though some species have a broad 
sinus near the stem. 

Most species are small and inodorous, but some which have a strong alkaline 
odor are probably not good. Some are known to be edible. 

A few species exude a colored or watery juice when bruised. The Mycena 
resembles the Collybia, but never has the incurved margin of the latter. The 
plants are usually smaller, and the caps are more or less conical. 

This genus might be mistaken for Omphalia, in which the gills are but 
slightly decurrent, but in Omphalia the cap is umbilicatc while in Mycena it is 

Their being so small make< the determination of species somewhat difficult. 
Some have characteristic odors which greatly assist in establishing their identity. 

* X 

OB ^- 




Mycena galcricitlata. Scop. 
The Small Peaked-cap Mycena, Edible. 

Galericulata, a small peaked-cap. 

The pileus is campanulate, whitish or grayish, center of the disk darker and 
lighter toward the margin, smooth, dry, margin striated nearly to the peak of 
the umbo, sometimes slightly depressed. 

The gills are adnate with a tooth, connected by veins, whitish, then gray, 
often flesh color, rather distant, ventricose. edge sometimes entire, sometimes 

The stem is rigid, cartilaginous, hollow, tough, straight, polished, smooth, 
hairy at the base. 

It grows on logs and stumps in the woods. It is very common and sometimes 
found in abundance. The plants are frequently densely clustered, the numerous 
stems matted together by a soft hairy- down at the base. There are many forms 
of this plant. Found from Septemher to frost. The plants in Figure 89 were 
photographed by Prof. G. D. Smith. Akron, O. 

Mycena rugosa, Vr. 
The Wrinkled Mycena. Ki>ible. 

Rugosa means wrinkled. The pileus is somewhat fleshy, darker and smaller 
than the galericulata, quite tough, hell-shaped, then expanded, with unequal 
elevated wrinkles, always dry. striate on the margin. 

The gills are adnate. with a tooth, united behind, connected by veins, some- 
what distant, whitish, then gray, edge sometimes entire, sometimes serrate. 

The stem is short, tough, rooted with a hairy base, strongly cartilaginous, 
hollow, rigid, smooth. It is found on stumps or decayed logs during September 
and ( Jctober. 

Mycena prolifera. Sow. 
Tin-; Proliferous Mycena. Edible. 

Prolifera is from proles, offspring, and fero, to bear. The pileus is somewhat 
fleshy, coinpanulate. then expanded, dry. with a broad, dark umbo; margin at 
length sulcate or furrowed and sometimes split, pale-yellowish or becoming 

The- gills are adnexed. subdistant, white, then pallid. 

The stem i> firm, rigid, smooth, shining, minutely striate, rooting. Fries. 



This species, a> well as M. galericulata, is closely related to M. cohaerens. I 
have found it in dense tufts or clusters, sometimes on lawn--, mi the hare ground, 
and in the woods. It is one of the plants in which the stems may he cooked with 
the caps. 

Mycenq capillaris. Schutn. 

Capillaris means hair-like. This is a very small but beautiful white plant. 
The pileus is bell-shaped, at length umbilicate, smooth. 
The gills are attached to the stem, ascending, rather distant. 
The stem is thread-like, smooth, short. 
The spores are 7-8x4. Fries. 

These plants are very small and easily overlooked. They grow on leaves 
in the woods after a rain. July and August. Quite common. 

Myccna sctosa. Sow. 

Setosa means full of seta? or hairs. 

The pileus is very delicate, hemispherical, obtuse, smooth. 

The gills are distant, white, almost free. 

The stem is short, slender, and covered with spreading hairs which gives 
rise to its specific name. 

Commonly found on dead leaves in the woods after a rain. Found in July 
and August. 

Mycena henna to pa. Pers. 
Tiik BtooD-FooT Myckna. Edible. 

Haematopa is from two Greek words, meaning blood and foot. 

The pileus is fleshy, one inch broad, conic, or bell-shaped, somewhat umbonate, 
obtuse, whitish to flesh-color, with more or less dull red. even, or slightly striate at 
the margin, the margin extending beyond the gills and is toothed. 

The gills are attached to the stem, often with a decurrent tooth, whitish. 
Spores, 10x6-7. 

The stem is two to four inches long, firm, hollow, sometimes smooth, some- 
times powdered with whitish, soft hairy down, in color the same as the pileus. 
yielding a dark red juice which gives name to the specii 

The color varies quite a little in these plants, owing to some having more 
of the red juice than others. The genus is readily identified by the dull blood-red 



juice, hollow stem, the crenate margin of the cap, and its dense cespitose habits. 
It is found on decayed logs in damp places from August to October. The plants in 
Figure 90 were found in Haynes' Hollow, September 8. The plant is widely 
distributed over the United States. No one will have the slightest difficulty in 
recognizing this species after seeing the plants in the figure above. 

Mycena olkolina. Fr: 

The Stump Mycena. 

Solitary or cespitose ; pileus one-half to two inches broad, rather mem- 
branaceous, campanulate, obtuse, naked, deeply striate, moist, shining when dry, 

Figure 90. Mycena harmatopa. Brownish-red or flesh-color. A dull red juice exudes" from the stem. 

Margin dentate by sterile flap. 

when old expanded or depressed, but little changed in color, though occasion- 
ally with a pink or yellow hue, whitish or grayish, the center of the disk 

The gills are adnate, rather distant, slightly ventricose, at first pale, then 
glaucous, pinkish, or yellow, more or less connected by veins. 



The stem is smooth, slightly sticky, 
shining, villous at the base with a 
sometimes tawny-down, sometimes 
firm and tenaceous, hollow, aettnu- 
ated upward. The plant is rigid, but 
brittle, and strong-scented. Found 
on decayed stumps and logs, you will 
meet it frequently. August to No- 

Mycena filopes. Bull. 

Thready-Stkm.m ed Mycena. 

Pileus membranaceous, obtuse, 
campanulate, then expanded, striate, 
brown or umber, tinged with pink. 

The gills are free or minutely ad- 
nexed, slightly ventricose. white or 
paler than the pileus. crowded. 

The stem is hollow, juicy, smooth, 
filiform, rather brittle, whitish or brownish. Found in woods on leaves, after a 
rain, from July to October. 

Figure 91. Mycena alkalina. Two-thirds natural size, 
often larger. Young specimens. 

Mycena staiinca. I'r. 
Tin-: Tin-Colored Mycena. 

Stannea pertaining to the color of tin. This is a delicate species that grows 
in the woods in tufts on rotten wood in damp places. The general character is 
shown in the illustration, being nearly white but many of the pilei are somewhat 

The pileus is firm, membranaceous, bell-shaped, then expanded, sin 
very slightly striate, hygrophanous, quite silky, tin-color. 

The gills are firmly attached to the stem, with a decurrent tooth, connected 
by veins, grayish-white. 

The stem is sVnooth, even, shining, becoming pale, at length compressed. This 
species differs from Mycena vitrea in having a tooth to the gills. May. June, and 



Myccna vitrea. Fr. 

Vitrea, glassy. This plant is quite fragile. The pileus is membranaceous, 
bell-shaped, livid-brown, finely striate, no trace of umbo. 

The gills are firmly attached to the stem, not connected by veins, distinct, 
linear, whitish. 

The stem is slender, slightly striate, polished, pale, base fibrilose. This species 
differs from M. aetites and M. stannea in gills not having a decurrent tooth and 
not being connected by veins. 

Figure 92. Mycena stannea. Natural size. Caps white, sometimes smoky. 

Mycena corticola. Fr. 

Corticola means dwelling on bark. 

It is one of the smallest of the Mycenas, the pileus being about two to four 
lines across, thin, hemispherical, obtuse, becoming slightly umbilicate, deeply 
striate, glabrous or flocculosely pruinose, gray, tan, or brownish. 

The gills are attached to the stem, with slight decurrent tooth, broad, rather 
ovate, pallid. 

The stem is short, slender, incurved, glabrous or minutelv scurfv, somewhat 



Figure 93. Mycena corticola. 

paler than the pileus. The spores are elliptical, 5-6x3^ ; eystidia obtusely fusiform, 

These plants are found on the bark of living trees. After rains I have seen 
the bark on the shade trees along the walks in Chillicothe, literally covered with 
these beautiful little plants. The plants in Figure 93 were taken from a maple 
tree the 4th of December. They are very close allied to M. hiemalis but can be 
distinguished by the broad, ovate gills bearing eystidia. and smaller spores. 

Mycena hiemalis. Osbeck. 

The Winter Myckxa. 

Hiemalis, of, or belonging to. winter. The pileus quite thin, bell-shaped, 
very slightly umbonate. margin striate: pinkish, rufescent, white, sometimes 

The gills are adnate, linear, white or whitish. 

The stem is slender, curved, base downy, whitish, pinkish-red. The spores 
are 7-8x3. 

This is a more delicate species than M. corticola and differs from it in its 
narrow gills, and striate, not sulcate. pileus, also in the color of the stem. Found 
on stumps and logs. October and November. 



Mycena Leaiana. Berk. 

Leaiana named in honor of Mr. Thomas G. Lea, who was the first man to 
study mycology in the Miami Valley. This is a very beautiful plant growing - on 
decayed beech logs in rainy weather. The pileus is fleshy, very viscid, bright 
orange, the margin slightly striate as will be seen in the one whose cap shows. 

The gills are distant, not entire, broad, notched at the stem, attached, the 
edge a dusky orange, or vermilion, the short gills beginning at the margin. 

Figure 94. Mycena leaiana. Natural size. Caps bright orange and very viscid. 

The stem is in most cases curved, attenuated toward the cap, smooth, hollow, 
/ather firm, quite hirsute or strigose at the base. The spores are elliptical, 
apiculate, .0090X.0056 mm. 

They are csespitose, growing in dense tufts on logs somewhat decayed. It is 
extremely viscid, so much so that your hands will be stained yellow if you handle 
it much. It grows from spring to fall but is usually more abundant in August 
and September. Very common. 



Mycena iris. B. 

I'ik'us is small, convex, expanded, obtuse, slightly viscid, striate, quite 
when young", growing brownish with blue fibrils. 

The gills are free, tinged with gray. 

The stem is short, bluish below, tinged with brown above, somewhat pruinose. 
Found in damp woods after a rain, in August. 

Photo by Prof. G. D. Smith. 
FIGURE 95. Mycena pura. 

Mycena pura. Pers. 

Pura mean> unstained, pure 

The pileus is fleshy, thin, bell-shaped, expanded, obtusely umbonate, finely 
striate 011 the margin, sometimes haying margin upturned, violet to r< 

The gills are broad, adnate to sinuate, in older plants sometimes free by 
breaking away from the stem, connected by veins, sometimes wavy and crenate 
on the edge, the l'(\^c of the gills sometimes almost or quite white, violet, rose. 

The stem is even, nearly naked, somewhat villous at the base, Sometimes 
almost white when young, later assuming the color of the cap, hollow, smooth. 

The spores are white and oblong. 6-8x3-3.5. M. lVlianthina differs from 



this in having dark-edged gills. It differs from M. pseudopura and M. zephira 
in having a strong smell. M. ianthina differs in having a conical cap. 

This plant is quite widely distributed. Our plants are light-violet in color, 
and the color seems constant. I have found it in mixed woods. It is found in 
September and October. 

Mycena vulgaris. Pers. 

Vulgaris means common. 

The pileus is small, convex, then depressed, papillate, viscid, brownish-gray, 
finely striate on the margin. 

The gills are subdecurrent, thin, white ; the depressed cap and decurrent gills 
make the plant resemble an Omphalia. Spores, 5x2.5/*,. 

The stem is viscid, pale, tough, fibrillose at the base, rooting, becoming 
hollow. It differs from M. pelliculosa in not having a separable cuticule and the 
fold-like gills. 

This plant will be recognized by its smoky or grayish color, umbilicate pileus, 
and viscid stem. It is found in woods on leaves and decayed sticks. August and 

Mycena epipterygia. Scop. 

Epipterygia is Bpi, upon, and 
Pterygion, a small wing. 

These are small the pileus being 
one-half to one inch broad, mem- 
branaceous, bell-shaped, then expand- 
ed, rather obtuse, not depressed, stri- 
ate, the cuticule separable in every 
condition and viscid in damp weather, 
gray, often pale yellowish-green near 
the margin often minutely notched 
when young. 

The gills are attached to the stem 
with a decurrent tooth, thin, whitish 
or tinged with gray. 

The stem is two to four inches 
long, hollow, tough, rooting, viscid, 
yellowish, sometimes gray or even 
whitish. The spores are elliptical, 

These plants have a wide distri- 

Figure 96. Mycena epipterygia. 


bution and found on branches, among moss and dead leaves. They are found in 
clusters and solitary. They resemble in many ways M. alcalina but do not have 
the peculiar smell. 

The plants in Figure 96 were photographed by Prof. G. D. Smith of 

Omphalia. Fr. 

Omphalia is from a Greek word meaning the navel ; referring here to the 
central depression in the cap. 

The pileus from the first is centrally depressed, then funnel-shaped, almost 
membranaceous, and watery when moist ; margin incurved or straight. Stem 
cartilaginous and hollow, often stuffed when young, continuous with the cap but 
different in character. Gills decurrent and sometimes branched. 

They are generally found on wood, preferring a damp woody situation and a 
wet season. It is easily distinguished from Collybia and Mycena by its decurrent 
gills. In some of the species of the Mycena where the gills are slightly decurrent, 
the pileus is not centrally depressed as it is in corresponding species of Omphalia. 
There are a few species of Omphalia whose pileus is not centrally depressed but 
whose gills are plainly decurrent. 

Omphalia campanclla. Batsch. 
The Bell Omphalia. Edible. 

Campanella means a little bell. 

The pileus is membranaceous, convex to extended, centrally depressed, striate, 
watery, rusty-yellow in color. 

The gills are moderately close, decurrent, bow-shaped, connected by veins, 
rigid, firm, yellowish. The spores elliptical, 6-7X3-4/X. 

The stem is hollow, clothed with down, and paler above. 

This plant is very common and plentiful in our woods and is widely distributed 
in the states. It grows on wood or on ground very heavily charged with decaying 
wood. It is found through the summer and fall. It is delicious if you have the 
patience to gather them. 

Omphalia cpicJiysia. Pers. 

The pileus is thin, convex to expanded, depressed in the center, sooty-gray 
with a watery appearance, pallid to nearly white when dry. 

The gills are slightlv decurrent, whitish then gray, somewhat crowded. 
The stem is slender, hollow, gray. The spores are elliptical, 8-1OX4-5/X. 


It grows in decayed wood. Its smoky color, funnel-shaped pileus, and gray 
short stem will distinguish it. I have some plants sent me from Massachusetts 
which seem to be much smaller than our plants. 

Omphalia umbellifcra. Linn. 
The Umbel Omphalia. Edibi.k. 

Umbellifera umbclla, a small shade ; ferro, to bear. Pileus one-half inch 
broad, membranaceous, whitish, convex, then plane, broadly obconic, slightly 
umbilicate even in the smallest plants, hygrophanous in wet weather, rayed with 
darker striae. 

The gills are decurrent, very distant, quite broad behind, triangular, with 
straight edges. 

The stem is short, not more than one inch long, dilated at the apex, of same 
color as the pileus, at first stuffed, then hollow, firm, white, villous at the base. 

It is a common plant in our woods, growing on decayed wood or ground large- 
ly made up of rotten wood. Decayed beech bark is a favorite habitat. Found from 
July till October. 

Omphalia cccspitosa. Bol. 

Caespitosa means growing in tufts ; ccrspes, turf. The pileus is submem- 
branaceous, very small, convex, nearly hemispherical, umbilicate. thin, sulcate, 
light-ochre, margin crenate, smooth. 

The gills are distant, rather broad, shortly decurrent, whitish. 

The stem is curved, hollow, colored like the pileus, slightly bulbous at the 
base. The spores are 6x5. 

This species is very much like Omphalia oniscus and they can only be dis- 
tinguished by their habitats and color. It is found in August and September. It 
delights in well rotted wood. I have seen millions in one place. 

Omphalia oniscus. Fr, 
Bolton's Omphalia. Edible. 

Oniscus. a name given to a species of codfish by the Greeks, so named because 
of their gray color. The pileus is flaccid, irregular, alxiut one inch broad, convex, 
plane, or depressed, slightly fleshy, wavy, sometimes lobed, margin striate, dark- 
cinereous, paler when dry. 



Figure 98. Omphalia casspitosa. Natural size. 

The gills are adnate, decurrent, livid or whitish, arranged in groups of four, 
somewhat distant. 

The stem is about one inch long, rather firm, straight or curved, sometimes 
unequal, nearly hollow. The spores are i2xy-Sfi. 

This is found in damp places from August to November. 

Omphalia pyxidata. Bull. 

The Box Omphalia. 

Pyxidata means made like a box, from pyxis, a box. 

The pileus is somewhat membranaceous, clearly umbilicate, then funnel- 
shaped, smooth when moist, margin often striate, brick-red. 

The gills are decurrent, rather distant, triangular, narrow, reddish gray, often 



The stem is stuffed, then hollow, even, tough, pale-tawny. The spores are 

The plants are usually hygrophanous, but when dry, floccose or slightly silky. 
This is a small plant growing usually on lawns, nearly hidden in the grass. I 
found some very fine specimens on Dr. Sulzbacher's lawn on Second Street, Chilli- 
cothe. The plant is, however, widely distributed. I found many specimens on the 
3d of November. 

Omphalia fibula. Bull. 

Figure 99. Omphalia fibula. 

Fibula means a 
buckle or pin, 
from the pin-like 

The pileus is 
at first top-shaped, 
expanded, slightly 
umbilicate, striate, 
margin inclined to 
De inflexed, yellow 
or tawny, with a 
dusky center, 
minutely pilose. 

The gills are 
deeply decurrent, 
paler, distinct. 

The stem is 
slender, nearly 
orange color with 
a violet - brown 
apex, the whole 
minutely pilose. 
The spores are 
elliptical, 4-5x2/*. 

They are found 
on mossy banks 
where it is more 
or less damp. I 
have only found 
it in October. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 


Omphalia alboflava. Moy. 
The Golden-Gieled Omphalia. 

Alboflava is from two Greek words meaning whitish-yellow, from the yellow 

The pileus is one to two inches broad, thin, somewhat membranaceous, ura- 
bilicate, flaccid, covered with fine woolly material, yellow-brown, lighter when 
dry, margin reflexed. 

The gills are distant, deep golden-yellow, occasionally forked. 

Figure ioo. Omphalia alboflavia. Cap yellowish-brown, sometimes a greenish tinge. Gills 

golden yellow. 

The stem is hollow, equal, smooth, shining, egg-yellow. 

The spores are elliptical, 8x4^. 

This plant is found quite frequently on decayed branches and logs about 
Chillicothe. I have never had the opportunity to test its edibility but I have no 
doubt of its being good. 

The plants in Figure 100 were found in Haynes' Hollow and were photo- 
graphed by Dr. Kellerman. Found from July to October. 



Marasmius. Fr. 

Marasmius is a Greek participle meaning withered or shriveled; it is so called 
because the plant will wither and dry up, but revive with the coming of rain. 

The spores are white and subelliptical. The pileus is tough and fleshy or 

The stem is cartilaginous and continuous with the pileus, but of a different 
texture. The gills are thick, rather tough and distant, sometimes unequal, variously 
attached or free, rarely decurrent, with a sharp entire edge. It is quite a large 
genus and many of its species will be of great interest to the student. 

Figure ioi. Marasmius oreades. Two-thirds natural size. 

Marasmius oreades. Fr. 
The Fairy-Ring Mushroom. Edible. 

Oreades, mountain nymphs. I 'ileus is fleshy, tough and pliable when moist, 
brittle when dry, convex, becoming flat, somewhat umbonate, brownish-bufT at 
first, becoming cream-color ; when old it is usually quite wrinkled. 



The gills are broad and wide apart, creamy or yellowish, rounded at the stem 
end, unequal in length. 

The stem is solid, equal, tough, fibrous, naked and smooth at base, every- 
where with a downy surface. The spores are white, 8x5. 

To my mind there is no more appetizing mushroom than the "Fairy Ring" 
mushroom. Figure 101 will give an accurate notion of the plant and Figure 102 
will show how they grow in the grass. It is found in all parts of Ohio. Every 
old pasture field or lawn will be full of these rings. The plant is small but its 
plentifulness will make up for its size. 

There are many conjectures why this and 1 many other mushrooms grow in 
a circle. The explanation is quite obvious. The ring is started by a clump or 

Figure 102. Marasmius oreades. Showing a fairy ring. 

an individual mushroom. The ground where the mushroom grew is rendered 
unfit for mushrooms again, the spores fall upon the ground and the mycelium 
spreads out from this point, consequently each year the ring is growing larger. 
Sometimes they appear only in a crescent form. One can tell, by looking over 
a lawn or pasture, where the rings are, because, from the decay of the mushroom, 
the grass is greener and more vigorous there. 

Long ago, in England and Ireland, before the peasantry had begun to ques- 
tion the reality of the existence of the fairy folk and their beneficent, interference 
in the affairs of life, these emerald-hued rings were firmly believed to be due to 
the fairy footsteps which nightly pressed their chosen haunts, and to mark the 



"little people's" favorite dancing ground. ''They had always fine music among 
themselves, and danced in a moon shiny night around or in a ring, as one may 
see to this day upon every common in England where mushrooms grow," quaintly 
says one old writer. And the Rev. Gerard Smith still further voices the belief 
of the people as to the nature of these grassy rings : 

''The nimble elves 
That do by moonshine green sour ringlets make, 
Whereof the ewe bites not ; whose pastime 'tis 
To make these midnight mushrooms." 

It is a very common plant, and it will pay any one to know it, as we cannot 
find anything in the markets that will equal it as a table delicacy. 

Found in pastures and lawns during rainy weather from May till frost. 

Marasmius urens. Fr. 
The Stinging Marasmius. 

Urens means burning; so called from its acrid taste. 

The pileus is pale-buff, tough, fleshy, convex or flat, becoming depressed and 
finally wrinkled, smooth, even, one to two inches broad. 

The gills are unequal, cream-colored, becoming brownish, much closer than 
in the Fairy Ring, hardly reaching the stem proper, joined behind. 

The stem is solid above and hollow below, fibrous, pale, its surface more or 
less covered with flocculent down, and densely covered with white down at the 

It will be well for collectors to pass by this and M. peronatus, or to exercise 
the greatest caution in their use. They have been eaten without harm, but they 
also have so long been branded as poisonous that too great care cannot be taken. 
Its taste is acrid, and it grows in lawns and pastures from June to September. 

Figure 103. Marasmius androsaceus. Natural size. 

Marasmius audrosaccits. Linn. 

Androsaceus is from a Creek 
word which means an unidenti- 
fied sea plant or zoophyte. 

The pileus is three to six lines 
broad, membranaceous, convex, 
with a slight depression, pale- 
reddish, darker in the center. 
striate, smooth. 

The gills are attached to the 



stem, frequently quite simple and few in number, about fifteen, with shorter 
ones between, somestimes forked, whitish. 

The stem is one to two inches long, horny, filiform, hollow, quite smooth, 
black, often twisted when dry. The spores are 7x3-4.//,. 

This is a very attractive little plant found on the leaves in the woods after a 
rain. They are quite abundant. Found from July to October. 

Marusmius foctidus. Sow. 

Foetidus means stinking or foetid. 

The pileus is submembranaceous, tough, convex, then expanded, umbilicate 
striato-plicate, turning pale when dry, subpruinose. 

The gills are annulato-adnexed, distant, rufescent with a yellow tinge. 

The stem is hollow, minutely velvety, bay, base flocculose. 
The caps are 
light brownish-red 
in color, fading 
when dry. When 
fresh it has a 
foetid odor quite 
perceptible for 
such small plants. 
It is found on de- 
cayed sticks and 
leaves in woods. 
During wet weather 
or after heavy 
rains it is quite 
common in the 
woods about Chil- 

Found from July 
to October. 

This is also 
called Heliomyces 
feet ens (Pat.) and 
is so classified by 
Prof. , Morgan in 
his very excellent 
Monogram on 
North American 
Species of Maras- 

Figure 104. Marasmius foetidus. 



Marasmius velutipes. B. & C. 

Velutipes means velvet-footed, from the velvety stem. The pileus is thin, 
submembranaceous, smooth, convex, or expanded, grayish-rufous when moist, 

cinerous when dry, a half to 
one and a half inches broad. 

The gills are very narrow, 
crowded, whitish or grayish. 

The stem is slender, three to five 
inches long, equal, hollow, clothed 
with a dense grayish velvety 
tomentum. Peck. 

They usually grow in a very 
crowded condition, many plants 
growing from one mat of my- 
celium. It is quite a common 
plant with us, found in damp 
woods or around a swampy place. 
The pileus with us is convex. 
Some authorities speak of an um- 
bilicate cap. The plant is quite 
hardy and easily identified because 
of its long and slender stem, 
with the grayish tomentum at the 
base. Found from July to 

The specimens in Figure 105 
were found at Ashville, Ohio. 


Figure 105. Marasmius velutipes. 

Marasmius coh&rens. (Fr.) Brcs. 
The Stemmed-Massro Marasmius, Edible. 

Cohaerens means holding together, referring to the stems being massed to- 

The pileus is fleshy, thin, convex, campanulate, then expanded, sometimes 
slightly umbonate, in old specimens the margin upturned or wavy, velvety, reddish 
tan-color, darker in the center, indistinctly striate. 

The gills are rather crowded, narrow, adnate, sometimes becoming free from 
the stem, connected by slight veins, pale cinnamon-color, becoming somewhat 
darker with age. the variation of color due to the number of cystidia scattered over 
the surface of the gills and on their edge. Spores, oval, white, small. 6x3/4. 

The stem is hollow, long, rigid, even, smooth, shining, reddish-brown, growing 



paler or whitish toward the cap, a number of the stems growing together at the 
base with a whitish myceloid tomentum present. 

The plant grows in dense clusters among leaves and in well rotted wood. 

Figure 106. Marasmius cohxrens. Two-thirds natural size, 
stems are massed together. 

showing how the 

I have found it quite often about Chillicothe. It is called Mycena cohgerens, Fr., 
Collybia lachnophylla, Berk., Collybia spinulifera, Pk. The plants in Figure 106 
were found near Ashville, Ohio. September to frost. 



Marasmius candidus. Bolt. 
The White Marasmius. 

Candidus means shining- white. This delicate species grows in moist and 
shady places in the woods. It grows on twigs, its habitat and structure are fully 
illustrated in the Figure 107. 

The pileus is rather membranaceous, hemispherical, then plane or depressed, 
pellucid, wrinkled, naked, entirely white. 

Figure 107. Marasmius candidus. Natural size. 

The gills are adnexed, ventricose, distant, not c>ntire. 

The stem is thin, stuffed, whitish, slightly pruinose, base tinged with brown. 
Spores are elliptical, 4x2^. 

This plant has a wide distribution in this country. The specimens figured 
were collected by H. H. York near Sandusky, Ohio, and were photographed by 
Dr. Kellerman. I have found them at various points in Ohio. 



Marasmius rotula. Fr. 
The Coixared Marasmius. 

Rotula means a little wheel. 

The pileus is one to three lines broad, hemispherical, umbilicate, and minutely 
umbonate, plaited, smooth, membranaceous, margin crenate, white, or pale buff, 
with a dark umbilicus. 

The gills are broad, distant, few, equal, or occasionally with a few short ones, 
of the color of the pileus, attached to a free collar behind. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 
Figure 108. Marasmius rotula. Natural size. Caps white or pale-buff. 



The stem is setiform, slightly flexuous, white above, then tawny, deep shining 
brown at the base, striate, hollow, frequently branched and sarmentose, with or 
without abortive pilei. M. J. B. This plant is very common in woods on fallen 
twigs. The plants in Figure 108 were collected near Cincinnati. This plant has a 
wide distribution. It is in all our Ohio woods. 

Marasmius scorodouius. Fr. 

Strong-Scented Marasmius. Edible. 

Scorodonius is from a Greek word meaning like garlic. 
The pileus is one-half inch or more broad, reddish when young, but becoming 

pale, whitish ; some- 
what fleshy, tough ; 
even, soon plane, 
rugulose even when 
young, at length 
rugulose and crisped. 

The gills are at- 
tached to the stem. 
often separating, 
connected by veins, 
crisped in drying, 

The stem is at 
least one inch long, 
hollow, equal, quite 
smooth, shining, red- 
dish. The spores are 
elliptical. 6x4/1. 

It is found in 
woods growing on 
sticks and decayed 
wood. It is strong- 
smelling. It is fre- 
quently put with 
Other plants to give 
a flavor of garlic 
to the dish. Found 
from July to Octo- 

Figure 109. Marasmius scorodonius. 


Marasmius calopus. Fr. 

Calopus is from two Greek words meaning beautiful and foot, so called 
because of its beautiful stem. 

The pileus is rather fleshy, toug-h, convex, plane then depressed, even, at 
length rugose, whitish. 

The gills are emarginate, adnexed, thin, white, in groups of 2-4. 

The stem is hollow, equal, smooth, not rooting, shining, reddish-bay. It. is 
found growing on twigs and fallen leaves, in the woods. Smaller than M. 
Scorodonius but with longer stem. 

Marasmius prasiosmus. Fr. 
The Leek-Scented Marasmius. 

Prasiosmus means smelling like a leek ; from prason, a leek. The pileus is 
one-half to one inch broad, somewhat membranaceous, tough, bell-shaped, pale 
yellow or whitish, disk often darker, wrinkled. 

The gills are adnexed, somewhat close, white. 

The stem is tough, hollow, pallid and smooth above, dilated at the base, 
tomentose and brown. It is found in woods adhering to oak leaves after 
heavy rains. It is very near M. porreus but differs from it in its gills being 
white and caps not being striated. It differs from M. terginus mainly in its 
habitat and leek-like scent. 

Marasmius anomalus. Pk. 

Anomalus, not conforming to rule, irregular. The pileus is one to two inches 
broad, somewhat fleshy, tough, convex, even, reddish-gray. 

The stem is two to three inches long, hollow, equal, smooth, pallid above, 
reddish-brown below. 

The gills are rotundate-free, close, narrow, whitish or pallid. Morgan. 

This is quite a pretty plant, growing on sticks among leaves in the woods. 
It is larger than most of the small Marasmii found in similar habitats. 

Marasmius semihirtipes. Pk. 

Semihirtipes means a slightly hairy foot or stem. 

The pileus is thin, tough, nearly plane or depressed, smooth, sometimes striate 
on the margin, hygrophanous, reddish-brown when moist, alutaceous when dry 
the disk sometimes darker. 


The gills are subdistant, reaching the stem, slightly venose-connected, sub- 
crenulate on the edge, white. 

The stem is equal, even or finely striate, hollow, smooth above, velvety- 
tomentose toward the base, reddish-brown. Peck. 

These plants are very small, often no doubt overlooked by the collector. They 
are gregarious in their mode of growth. 

Marasmius longipes. Pk. 

Longipes means long stem or foot. 

The pileus is thin, convex, smooth, finely striate on the margin, tawny-red. 

The gills are not crowded, attached, white. 

The stem is tall, straight, hollow, equal, covered with a downy meal, rooting, 
brown or fawn-color, white at the top. 

These plants are quite small and slender, sometimes four to five inches high. 
They are rather common in our woods after a rain. 

Marasmius graminum. Berk. 

Graminum is the gen. pi. of gramen, which means grass. 

The pileus small, membranaceous, convex, then nearly plane, umbonate, deeply 
and distinctly striate or sulcate, tinged with rufous, the furrows paler, disc brown. 

The gills are attached to a collar that is free around the stem, few in number, 
slightly ventricose, cream-color. 

The stem is short, slender, equal, smooth, shining, black, whitish above. 

The spores are globose, 3-4^. 

This species is very near M. rotula but it can be easily distinguished by the 
pale rufescent, distinctly sulcate pileus, and its growing on grass. I have fre- 
quently found it on the Chillicothe high school lawn. 

Marasmius siccus. Schw. 
The Bell-Shaped Marasmius. 

This is a very beautiful plant found in the woods after a rain, growing from 
the leaves. They are found singly, but usually in groups. 

The pileus is at first nearly conical, then campanulate, membranaceous, dry, 
smooth, furrows radiating from almost the center, growing larger as they ap- 
proach the margin, ochraceous-red, the disk a little darker. 



The gills are free or slightly 
attached, few, distant, broad, 
narrowed toward the stem, whit- 

The stem is hollow, tough, 
smooth, shining, blackish-brown, 
two to three inches long. The 
pileus is about a half inch broad. 

The plant is quite common in 
our woods. I have not found it 
elsewhere. The plants in the 
photograph represent the pink 
form, which is not so common as 
the ochraceous-red. In the pink 
form the center of the cap and 
the apex of the stem is a delicate 
pink, which gives the plant a beautiful appearance. 

Found from June to October. I have not tested it but have no doubt of its 
esculent qualities. 



jh *V5f*PW| 

\ l 


Wf ' ^ 




Figure III. Marasmiu9 siccus. Natural size. Caps deeply 
furrowed and pinkish. 

Marasmius fagineus. Morgan. 

Fagineus means belonging to beach. 

Pileus a little fleshy, convex then plane or depressed, at length somewhat 
repand, rugose-striate, reddish-pallid or alutaceous. 

The gills are short-adnate, somewhat crisped, close, pale reddish. 

The stem is short, hollow, pubscent, thickened upward, concolorous ; the base 
somewhat tuberculose. Morgan, Myc. Flora M. V. 

This plant is quite frequently found in our woods growing on the bark at the 
base of living beech trees. Its habitat, its reddish or alutaceous cap, and its 
paler gills will clearly identify the species. 

Marasmius peronatus. Fr. 
The Masker Marasmius. 

Peronatus is from pcro, a boot. 

The pileus is reddish-buff, convex, slightly flattened at the top, quite wrinkled 
when old ; diameter, at full expansion, between one and two inches, margin 

The gills are thin and crowded, creamy, becoming light red dish -brown, con- 
tinuing down the stem by a short curve. 



The stem is fibrous-stuffed, pale, densely clothed at the base with stiff yellowish 

It grows in the woods, among dead leaves, from May till frost. . 

It is usually solitary yet is sometimes found in clusters. It has been eaten 
frequently without injury, but by most writers is branded poisonous. It is quite 
acrid, but that disappears in cooking. The dense yellow hairs at the base, of the 
stem appear to constitute the distinguishing characteristic. Found from July to 

Figure 112. Marasmius peronatus. Natural size. Cap reddish-buff. Gills creamy 
or light reddish-brown. 

Marasmius ramealis. Fr. 

Ramealis means a branch or stick ; so called because the plant is found grow- 
ing on sticks, in open woods. 

The pileus is very small, somewhat fleshy, plane or a trifle depressed, obtuse, 
not striate, slightly rugulose, opaque. 

The gills are attached to the stem, somewhat distant, narrow, white. 


Figure 113. Marasmius ramealis. Natural size. 

The stem is about one inch long, stuffed, mealy, white, inclined to be rufescent 
at the base. 

The spores are elliptical, 4x2^. 

This is a very pretty plant but easily overlooked. It is found on oak and 
beech branches, frequently in large groups. Figure 113 illustrates their mode of 
growth and will assist the collector in identifying the species. Not poisonous, but 
too small to gather. Found from July to October. The specimens in Figure 113 
were found in Haynes' Hollow near Chillicothe and photographed by Dr. 

Marasmius sacchariiuts. Batsch. 
Granular Marasmius. Edible. 

Saccharinus is from sacchantm. sugar; it is so called because the white pileus 
looks very much like loaf sugar. 

The pileus is entirely white, membranaceous, convex, somewhat papillate, 
smooth, sulcate and plicate. 

The gills are broadly and firmly attached to the stem, narrow, thick, very 
distant, united by veins, whitish. 

The stem is quite thin, thread-form, attenuated upward, at first fiocculose, at 
length becoming smooth, inserted obliquely, reddish, pale at the apex. Spores, 


Quite common in wet weather on dead oak limbs in woods. This plant differs 
from M. epiphyllus in its habitat, in the papillate form of its pileus and the stem's 
being fiocculose, then smooth ; also in that the gills are united in a reticulated 
manner. Common. July to October. 



Marasmius epiphyllas. Fr. 
The Leaf Marasmius. Edible. 

Epiphyllus means growing on leaves. 

The pileus is white, membranaceous, nearly plane, at length umbilicate, 
smooth, wrinkled, plicate. 

The gills are firmly attached to the stem, white, connected by veins, entire, 
distant, few. 

The stem is rather horny, bay, minutely velvety, apex pale, inserted. The 
spores are 3x2/x. This plant is abundant everywhere, on fallen leaves in woods 
during rainy weather. July to October. , 

Marasmius delectans. Morgan. 

Delectans means pleasing 
or delightful. 

The pileus is subcoriace- 
ous, convex, then expanded 
and depressed, glabrous, 
rugulose, white, changing 
in drying to pale alutaceous. 

The gills are moderately 
broad, unequal, rather dis- 
tant, trabeculate betiween, 
white, emarginate, ad- 
nexed ; the spores are lance- 
oblong, hyaline, 7-9x4^. 

The stem, arising from 
an abundant white-floccose 
mycelium, is long, slender, 
tapering slightly upward, 
smooth, brown and shining, 
white at the apex. 

It is found growing on 
old leaves in woods. The 
plants in the figure were 
collected in the woods at 
Sugar Grove, Ohio, by R. 
A. Young, July 28, 1906, 
and photographed by Dr. 
Kellerman. Found from 
July to October. 

' '^"lisSpsIf ^m -4 ' ' 


IpiPL A 


-. iJ^^^^H \ 


Figure 114. Marasmius delectans. Natural size. Caps white. 
Gills broad and distant. 



Marasmius nigripes. Schiv. 

Nigripes means black foot, so called because the stems are black. 

Tremmelloid. Pileus very thin, pure white, pruinose, rugulose-sulcate, con- 
vex then expanded. 

The gills are pure white, unequal, some of them forked, adnate, the interstices 

Figure 115. Marasmius nigripes. Natural size. Caps and gills white, 
stems black. 

The stem is thickest at the apex, tapering downward, black, white-pruinose, 
the base insititious. Morgan. 

It is found on old leaves, sticks, and old acrons and hickory-nuts. When dry, 
the stem loses its black color and the gills become flesh-color. It is quite common 
in thin and open woods. The spores are hyaline and stellate. 3-5-rayed. Found 
from July to October. 

This is called Heliomyces nigripes by some author-. 



Pleurotus. Fr. 

Pleurotus is from two Greek words meaning side and ear, alluding to its 
manner of growth on a log. This genus is very common everywhere in Ohio, and 
is easily determined by its eccentric, lateral, or even absent stem, but it must 
have white spores, and the characteristics of the Agaricini. 

Pileus fleshy in the larger species and membranaceous in the smaller forms, 
but never becoming woody. Stem mostly lateral or wanting; when present, 
continuous with cap. Gills with sinus or broadly decurrent, toothed. 

Grows in woods. 

Pleurotus ostrcatus. Jacq. 
The Oyster Mushroom. Edible. 

Pileus two to six inches broad, soft, fleshy, convex, or slightly depressed 
behind, subordinate, often cespitosely imbricated, moist, smooth, margin involute; 
whitish, cinerous or brownish ; flesh white, the whole surface shining and satiny 
when dry. 

Figure 116. Pleurotus ostreatus. Two-thirds natural size. Often growing very large. 



= 5 



Gills broad, decurrent, subdistant, branching at the base, white or whitish. 
The stem when present is very short, firm, lateral, sometimes rough with stiff 
hair, hairy at the base. Spores oblong, white, .0003 to> .0004 inch long, .00016 inch 

This is one of our most abundant mushrooms, and the easiest for the beginner 
to identify. In Figures 116 and 117, you will see the plant growing in imbricated 
form apparently without any stem. In Figure 118 is a variety that has a pro- 
nounced stem, showing how the stems grow together at the base, the slight 
grooving on the stems, also the decurrent gills. In most of these plants the 
stems are plainly lateral, but a few will appear to be central. It will be difficult 

Figure i i 8. Pleurotus ostreatus. One-half natural size, showing gills and stems. 

to distinguish it from the Sapid mushroom and for table purposes there is little 
need to separate them. In Ohio the Oyster mushroom is very common every- 
where. I have seen trees sixty to seventy feet high simply loaded with this 
mushroom. If one will locate a few logs or stumps upon which the Oyster 
mushroom grows, he can find there an abundant supply (when conditions are 



right for fungus growth) during the entire season. It is almost universally a 
favorite among mushroom eaters, but it must be carefully and thoroughly cooked. 
It grows very large and frequently in great masses. I have often found speci- 
mens whose caps were eight to ten inches broad. It is found from May to 

Plcurotus soli gn us. Fr. 
The Willow Pleurotus. Edible. 

Salignus from salix, a willow. Pi leu s is compact, nearly halved, horizontal, 
at first cushion-shaped, even, then with the disk depressed, substrigose, white or 

Figure 119. Pleurotus ulmarius. One-third natural size. 

fuliginous. The stem eccentric or lateral, sometimes obsolete, short, white- 
tomentose. The gills are decurrcnt, somewhat branched, eroded, distinct at the 
base, nearly of the same color. Spores .00036 by .00015 inch. Fri< 

I found this species near Bowling Green on willow stumps. About every 
ten days the stumps offered me a very excellent dish, better than any meat market 
could afford. September to November. 


Pleurotus iilmarius. Bull. 
The Elm Pleurotus. Edible. 

Ulmarius, from ulmus, an elm. It takes its name from its habit of growing on 
elm trees and logs. It appears in the fall and may be found in company with 
the Oyster mushroom, late in December, frozen solid. This species is frequently 
seen on elm trees, both dead and alive, on live trees where they have been trimmed 
or injured in some way. It is often seen on elms in the cities, where the elm 
is a common shade tree. Its cap is large, thick and firm, smooth and broadly 
convex, sometimes pale yellow or buff. Frequently the epidermis in the center of 
the cap cracks, giving the surface a tessellated appearance as in Figure 1 19. The 
flesh is very white and quite compact. The gills are white or often becoming tawny 
at maturity, broad, rounded or notched, not closely placed, sometimes nearly 
decurrent. The stem is firm and solid, various in length, occasionally very short, 
inclined to be thick at the base and curved so that the plant will be upright, as 
will be seen in Figure 119. 

The cap is from three to six inches broad. A specimen that measured over 
ten inches across the cap, was found some thirty feet high in a tree. While it 
was very large, it was quite tender and made several meals for two families. 
But this species is not limited entirely to the elm. I found it on hickory, about 
Chillicothe. There are a few elm logs along my rambles that afford me fine 
specimens with great regularity. Insects do not seem to infest it as they do the 
ostreatus and the sapidus. Sometimes, when the plant grows from the top of a 
log or the cut surface of a stump, the stem will be longer, straight, and in the 
center of the cap. This form is called by some authors var. verticalis. 

For my own use I think the Elm mushroom, when properly prepared, very 
delicious. Like all tree mushrooms it should be eaten when young. It is easily 
dried and kept for winter use. Found from September to November. 

Pleurotus petaloides. Bull. 
The Petaloid Pleurotus. Edible. 

This species is so called from its likeness to the petals of a flower. Pileus 
fleshy, spathulate, entire; margin at first involute, finally fully expanded; villous, 
depressed. The stem is compressed and villous, often channelled, nearly erect. 
The gills are strongly decurrent, crowded, narrow, and white or whitish. 
Spores minutely globose, .0003 by .00015. 

The plant varies very greatly in form and size. Its chief characteristic is 


the presence of numerous short white cystidia in the hymen ium, which dot the 
surface of thchymenium, and under an ordinary pocket lens give to the gills a 
sort of fuzzy appearance. Frequently it will have the appearance of growing 

Figure 120. Pleurotus petaloides. 

from the ground, but a careful examination will reveal a piece of wood of some 
kind, which serves as a host for the mycelium. I have found this plant but a few 
times. It seems to be quite rare in our state, especially in the southern part of the 
state. The plants in Figure 120 were photographed by Prof. G. D. Smith of 
Akron, Ohio. 



Figure 121. Pleurotus sapidus. One-third natural size, 
showing imbricated growth. Spores lilac. 

Pleurotus sapidus. Kalchb. 

The Sapid Pleurotus. 

Sapidus, savory. This 
plant grows in clusters 
whose stems are more or less 
united at the base as in 
Figure 121. The caps when 
densely crowded are often ir- 
regular. They are smooth 
and vary much in color, be- 
ing whitish, ash-gray, brown 
ish, yellowish-gray. 

The flesh is thick and 
white. The gills are white 
or whitish, rather broad, 
running down on the stem, 
and slightly connected, at 
times, by oblique or trans- 
verse branches. The stem is generally short, solid, several usually springing 
from a thickened base, white or whitish and either laterally or eccentrically 
connected with the cap. 

This plant is classed with 
the white-spored species, 
yet its spores after a short 
exposure to the air, really 
exhibit a pale lilac tint. 
This can only be seen when 
the spores are in sufficient 
quantity and resting on a 
suitable surface. 

The size of the plant 
varies, the cap being com- 
monly from two to five 
inches long. It grows in 
woods and open places, on 
stumps and logs of various 
kinds. Its edible quality is 
quite as good as the Oyster 
mushroom. The only way 
by which it can be distin- 
guished from the P. ostrea- 
tus is by its lilac-tinted 
spores. It is found from 
June to November 

Figure 122. Pleurotus sapidus. 



Plcurotus serotinoides. Pk. 

The Yellowish Pleurotus. Edible. 

Serotinoides, like serotinus, which means late-coming; from its appearing in 
the winter. 

The pilens is fleshy, one to three inches broad, compact, convex or nearly 
plane, viscid when young and moist, half-kidney-shaped, roundish, solitary or 
crowded and imbricated, variously colored, dingy-yellow, reddish-brown, greenish- 
brown or olivaceous, the 
margin at first involute. 

The gills are close, deter- 
minate, whitish or yellow- 

The stem is very short, 
lateral, thick, yellowish be- 
neath, and minutely downy 
or scaly with blackish 

The spores are minute, 
elliptical, .0002 inch long, 
.0001 inch broad. 

There is probably no dif- 
ference between this and P. 
serotinus, the European 
species. It is a beautiful 
plant. The color and size 
are quite variable. I found 
it on Ralston's Run and in 
Baird's woods on Frankfort 
Pike. It is found from Sep- 
tember to January 







-**fB a 

FIGURE 124. Pleurotus serotinoides. One-third natural size. 

Pleurotus applicatus. Batsch. 

Little Gray Pleurotus. 

Applicatus means lying upon or close to; so named from the sessile pileus. 
The pileus is one-third of an inch across, when young cup-shaped, dark cinerous, 
somewhat membranaceous, quite firm, resupinate, then reflexed, somewhat striate, 
slightly pruinose, villous at the base. 

The gills are thick, broad in proportion to the size of the cap, distant, radiat- 
ing, gray, the margin lighter, sometimes the gills are as dark as the pileus. 



Sometimes it is attached only by the center of the pileus ; sometimes, growing 
on the side of a shelving log, it is attached laterally. It is not as abundant as 
some other forms of Pleurotus. It differs from P. tremulus in absence of a distinct 

Figure 125. Pleurotus applicatus. Natural size. 

Pleurotus cyphellceformis. Berk. 

Cyphellaeformis means shaped like the hollows of the ears. The pileus is cup- 
shaped, pendulous, downy or mealy, upper layer gelatinous, gray, very minutely 
hairy, especially at the base, margin paler. 

The gills are narrow, rather distant, pure white, alternate ones being shorter. 
These are very small plants, found only in damp places on dead herbaceous plants. 
They resemble a Cyphella griseo-pallida in habit. 

Pleurotus abscondens. Pk. 

Absconders means keeping out of view. It is so called because it persists in 
growing in places where it is hidden from sight. 

The pileus is often two and a half inches broad, delicate-white, strong stringent 
odor, usually pruinose, margin slightly incurved. 

The gills are attached to the stem, rather crowded, very white, somewhat 

The stem is short, solid, pruinose. usually lateral, and curved. 



The plant usually grows in hollow stumps or logs, and in this case the stem 
is always lateral and the plant grows very much as does the P. ostreatus, except 
that they are not imbricated. Occasionally the plant is found on the bottom of a 
hollow log and in that case the cap is central and considerably depressed in the 
center. I have never seen it growing except in a hollow stump or log. Its manner 
of growth and its delicate shape of white will serve to identify it. It is found 
from August to November. 

Figure 126. Pleurotus abscondens. Entire plant white. 

Pleurotus circinatus. Fr. 

Circinatus means to make round, referring to the shape of the pileus. 

The pileus is two to three inches broad, white, plane, orbicular, convex at first, 
even, covered over with silky-pruinose lustre. 

The gills are adnate-decurrent, rather crowded, quite broad, white. 

The stem is equal, smooth, one to two inches long, stuffed, central or slightly 
eccentric, rooted at the base. 

The form of these plants is quite constant and the round white caps will at 


first suggest a Collybia. The white gills and its decurrent form will distinguish 
it from P. lignatilis. It makes quite a delicious dish when well cooked. I found 
some beautiful specimens on a decayed beech log in Poke Hollow. Found in 
September and October. 

Lactarius. Fr. 

Lactarius means pertaining to milk. There is one feature of this genus that 
should easily mark it, the presence of milky or colored juice which exudes from 
a wound or a broken place on a fresh plant. This feature alone is sufficient to 
distinguish the genus but there are other points that serve to make the determina- 
tion more certain. 

The flesh, although it seems quite solid and firm, is very brittle. The fracture 
is always even, clean cut. and not ragged as in more fibrous substances. 

The plants are fleshy and stout, and in this particular resemble the Clitocybes, 
but the brittleness of the flesh, milky juice, and the marking of the cap, will easily 
distinguish them. 

Many species have a very acrid or peppery flavor. If a person tastes one 
when raw, he will not soon forget it. This acridity is usually lost in cooking. 

The pileus in all species is fleshy, becoming more or less depressed, margin at 
first involute, often marked with concentric zones. 

The stem is stout, often hollow when old, confluent with the cap. 

The gills are usually unequal, edge acute, decurrent or adnate. milky ; in 
nearly all the species the milk is white, changing to a sulphur yellow, red, or violet, 
on exposure to the air. 

Lactarius torminosus. Fr. 
The Woolly Lactarius. Poisonous. 

Torminosus, full of grips, causing colic. The pileus is two to four inches 
broad, convex, then depressed, smooth, or nearly 50, except the involute margin 
which is more or less shaggy, somewhat zoned, viscid when young and moist, 
yellowish-red or pale ochraceous. tinged with red. 

The gills are thin, close, rather narrow, nearly of the same color as the pileus, 
but yellower and paler, slightly forked, subdecurrent. 

The stem is one to two inches long, paler than the cap, equal or slightly 
tapering downward, stuffed or hollow, sometimes spotted, clothed with a very 
minute adpressed down. 

The milk is white and very acrid. The spores are echinulate. subglobose, 

This differs from L. cilicioides in its zoned pileus and white milk. Most 



authorities speak of it as dangerous. Captain Mcllvaine speaks of the Russians as 
preserving it in salt and eating it seasoned with oil and vinegar. They grow in the 
woods, open places, and in fields. The specimens in Figure 127 were found in 
Michigan and photographed by Dr. Fischer. 

Figure 127. Eactarius torminosus. Three-fourths natural size. Caps yellowish-red- 
or ochracious tinged with red, margin incurved. 

Lactarius piperatus. Fr. 
The Peppery Lactarius. Edible. 

Piperatus having a peppery taste. The pileus is creamy-white, fleshy, firm, 
convex, then expanded, depressed in the center, dry, never viscid, and quite broad. 

The gills are creamy-white, narrow, close, unequal, forked, decurrent, adnate, 
exuding a milky juice when bruised, milky-white, very acrid. 

The stem is creamy white, short, thick, solid, smooth, rounded at the end, 
slightly tapering at the base. Spores generally with an apiculus, .0002 by .00024 

The plant is found in all parts of Ohio, but most people are afraid of it on 
account of its very peppery taste. Although it can be eaten without harm, it will 
never prove a favorite. 

It is found in open woods from July to October. In its season is one of the 
very common plants in all of our woods 



Lactarius pergamenus. Fr. 

Pergamenus is from pergamena, parchment. The pileus is convex, then ex- 
panded, plane, depressed, wavy, wrinkled, without zones, often repand, smooth, 

The gills are adnate, very narrow, tinged with straw-color, often white, 
branched, much crowded, horizontal. 

The stem is smooth, stuffed, discolored, not long. The milk is white and 
acrid. Spores, 8x6. It differs from L. piperatus in its crowded, narrow gills and 
longer stem. Found in woods from August to Octoher. 

Figure 128. Lactarius piperatus. One-third natural size. 

Lactarius deceptivus. Ph. 
Deceiving Lactarius. Edible. 

Deceptivus means deceiving. 

The pileus is three to five inches broad, compact, at first convex, and um- 
bilicate, then expanded and centrally depressed or subinfundibuliform, obsoletely 
tomentose. or glabrous except on the margin, white or whitish, often varied with 
yellowish or sordid strains, the margin at first involute and clothed with a dense, 
soft cottony (omentum, then spreading or elevated and more or less fibrillose. 

The gills are rather broad, distant or subdistant. adnate or decurrent. some of 



Figure 129. Lactarius deceptivus. 

them forked, whitish, becoming 

The stem is one to three inch- 
es long, equal or narrowed 
downward, solid, pruinose- 
pubeseent, white. Spores are 
white, 9-12.7^. Milk white, 
taste acrid. 

This plant delights in woods 
and open groves, especially un- 
der coniferous trees. It is a 
large, meaty, acrid white 
species, with a thick, soft, cot- 
tony tomentum on the margin 
of the pileus of the young plant. 

The specimen photographed 
was sent me from Massachus- 
etts by Mrs. Blackfoird. It 
grows in July, August and 
September. Its sharp acridity 
is lost in cooking, but like all 
acrid Lactarius it is coarse and 
'not very good. 

Lactarius indigo. (Schw.) Fr. 







"** '"-BMP*' 

Figure 130. Lactarius indigo. One-third natural 
size. Entire plant "indigo blue. 

This is one of our most striking 
plants. No one can fail to recog- 
nize it, because of the- deep indigo 
blue that pervades the whole plant. 
I have found it in only one place, 
near what is known as the Lone- 
Tree Hill near Chillicothe. I have 
found it there on several different 

The pileus is from three to five 
inches broad, the very young plants 
seem to be umbilicate with the 
margin strongly incurved, then de- 
pressed or . funnel-shaped ; n as the 
plant ages the margin is elevated 
and sometimes waved. The entire 
plant is indigo blue, and the surface 



of the cap has a silvery-gray appear- 
ance through which the indigo color 
is seen. The surface of the cap is 
marked with a series of concentric 
zones of darker shade, as will he seen 
in Figure 130 especially on the 
margin ; sometimes spotted, becoming 
paler and less distinctly zonate with 
age or in drying. 

The gills are crowded, indigo blue, 
becoming yellowish and sometimes 
greenish, with age. 

The stem is one to two inches long, 
short, nearly equal, hollow, often spot- 
ted with blue, colored like the 

It is edible but rather coarse. Found 
in open woods July and August. 

Figure 131. Lactarius indigo. One-third natural 
size, showing gills. 

Ficumg 132. Lactariui regal is, Natural size. Caps white, tinged with yel 



Lactarius regqlis. Pk. 

Regalis means regal ; so named from its large size. The pileus is four to six 
inches broad, convex, deeply depressed in the center; viscid when moist; often 
corrugated on the margin ; white, tinged with yellow. 

The gills are close, decurrent, whitish, some of them forked at the base. 

The stem is two to three inches long and one inch thick, short, equal, hollow. 
The taste is acrid and the milk sparse, white, quickly changing to sulphur-yellow. 
The spores are .0003 of an inch in diameter. Peck. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 
Figure 133. I.actarius scrobiculatus. Natural size. Caps reddish-yellow, zoned. Margin very 

. much incurved, stem pitted. 



This is frequently a very large plant, resembling in appearance L. piperatus 
but easily recognized because of its viscid cap and its spare milk changing to 
yellow, as in L. chrysorrhaeus. It grows on the ground in the woods, in August 
and September. I find it here chiefly on the hillsides. The specimens in Figure 
132 were found in Michigan and photographed by Dr. Fischer. 

Lactarius scrobiculatus. />. 
The Spotted-Stemmed Lactarius. 

Scrobiculatus is from scrobis, a trench, and ferro, to bear, referring to the 
pitted condition of the stem. The pileus is convex, centrally depressed, more or 
less zoned, reddish-yellow, viscid, the margin very much incurved, downy. 

The gills are adnate, or slightly decurrent, whitish, and often very much 
curled, because of the incurved condition of the cap at first. 

The stem is equal, stuffed, adorned often with pits of a darker color. 

The spores are white, juice white, then yellowish. 

The plant is very acrid to the taste, and solid. Too hot to be eaten. I have 
found it only a few times on the hills of Huntington township, near Chillicothe. 
The yellowish hue and markedly incurved margin will identify the plant. Found 
in August and September. 

Lactarius trivialis. Fr. 



1 Mk ih ^^ 



^^vi ;n*^E^^^^^^^ 

Figure 134. Lactarius trivialis. One-half natural size. Caps 
light tan with a pinkish hue. Very acrid. 

Trivialis means com- 

The pileus is three to 
four inches broad, usually 
damp or watery, some- 
times quite viscid, shining 
when dry, convex, then 
expanded, depressed in 
the center, margin at first 
incurved, even, smooth ; 
warm, soft tan, rather 
light, and sometimes a 
very slight pinkish hue 
prevails. The flesh is 
solid and persistent. 

The gills are rather 
crowded, slightly decur- 



rent, at first whitish, then a light yellow, many not reaching to the stem, none 
forked. The stem is from three to four inches long, of same color as the pileus, 
often a much lighter shade ; tapering from the cap to the base, smooth, stuffed, 
and finally hollow. The plant is quite full of milk, white at first, then turning 

The plant is very acrid and peppery. It is quite plentiful along the streams 
of Ross county, Ohio. It is not poisonous, but it seems too hot to eat. It is 
found after rains from July to October, in mixed woods where it is damp. 

Lactarius insnlsns. Fr. 

Insulsus, insipid or tasteless. 
This is a very attractive plant. 
Quite solid and maintains its 
form for several days. The 
pileus is two to four inches 
broad, convex, depressed in 
the center, then funnel-shaped, 
smooth, viscid when moist, 
more or less zoned, the zones 
much narrower than L. scro- 
biculatus, yellowish or straw- 
color, margin slightly in- 
curved and naked. 

The gills are thin, rather 
crowded, adnate and some- 
times decurrent, some of them 
forked at the base, whitish or 
pallid. Spores subglobose, 
rough, iox8/a. 

Figure 135. Lactarius insulsus. One-third natural size. 
Caps yellowish or straw color. Very acrid. 

The stem is one to two inches long, equal or slightly tapering downward, 
stuffed, whitish, generally spotted. Milk, white. 

Most authorities class this as an edible plant, but it is so hot and the flesh so 
solid that I have never tried it. I found two plants which fully answered the 
description of the European plants. The zones were orange-yellow and brick-red. 
I have visited the place many times since, but have never been able to find another. 
It is not an abundant plant with us. Found from July to October, in open 

Plats XXI. Ficum 136. Lactam ul lignyotui. 

Natural size. Caps a BOOty umber. Flesh mild to the taste. 

I'ltoto b\ C. G. Lloyd. 



Lactarius lignyotus. Fr. 
Thk Sooty Lactarius. Edible. 

Lignyotus is from lignum, wood. The pileus is one to four inches in diameter, 
fleshy, convex, then expanded, sometimes slightly umbonate, often in age slightly 
depressed, smooth or often wrinkled, pruinosely velvety, sooty umber, the margin 
in the old plants wavy and distinctly plaited ; the flesh white and mild to the taste. 

The gills are attached to the stem ; unequal ; snow-white or yellowish-white, 
slowly changing to a pinkish-red or salmon color when bruised ; distant in old 

The stem is one to three inches long, equal, abruptly constricted at the apex, 
smooth, stuffed, of the same color as the pileus. Milk white, taste mild or tardily 
acrid. The spores are globose, yellowish, 9-11.3^. 

This is called the Sooty Lactarius and is very easily identified. It will be 
frequently found associated with the Smoky Lactarius which it greatly resembles. 
It seems to delight in wet swampy woods. It is said to be one of the best of the 
Lactarii. The specimens in Figure 136 were collected at Sandusky, Ohio, and 
photographed by Dr. Kellerman. 

Lactarius cincrcus. Pk. 

Cinereus is from cincrcs, 
ashes ; so called from the 
color of the plant. 

The pileus is one to two 
and a half inches broad, 
zoneless, somewhat viscid, 
floccose-scaly, depressed in 
the center, margin thin, 
even, flesh thin and white, 
mild to the taste, ashy-gray. 

The gills are adnate, 
rather close, sometimes 
forked (usually near the 
stem), uneven, white or 
creamy-white, milk white, 
not plentiful. 

The stem is two to three 
inches long, tapering up- 
ward, loosely stuffed, final- 
ly hollow, often floccose at 
the base. 

Figure 137. Lactarius cinereus. 



This plant is quite common from September to November, growing in damp 
weather on leaves in mixed woods. It has a mild taste. While I have not eaten 
it I have no doubt of its edibility. The color of the pileus is sometimes quite dark. 

Lactarius griseus. Pk. 
Gray Lactarius. 

Griseus means gray. 

The pileus is thin, nearly plane, 
broadly umbilicate or centrally de- 
pressed, sometimes infundibuliform, 
generally with a small umbo or pa- 
pilla, minutely squamulose tomen- 
tose, gray or brownish-gray, becom- 
ing paler with age. 

The gills are thin, close, adnate, 
or slightly decurrent, whitish or yel- 

The stem is slender, equal or 
slightly tapering upward, rather 

fragile ; stuffed or hollow ; generally villose or tomentose at the base ; paler than, or 
colored like, the pileus. 

The spores are .0003 to .00035 mcn ; milk white, taste subacrid. 
Pileus is 6 to 18 lines broad, stem 1 to 2 inches long, 1 to 3 lines thick. Peck. 
It resembles L. mammosus and L. cinereus. It differs from the former in 
not having ferruginous gills and pubescent stems, and from the latter by its smaller 
size, its densely pubescent pileus, and its habitat. It grows on mossy logs or in 
mossy swamps. The base of one of the plants in Figure 138 is covered with the 
moss in which they grew. These plants were found in Purgatory Swamp, near 
Boston, by Mrs. Blackford. They grow from July to September. 

Figure 138. Lactarius griseus. 

Lactarius distans. Pk. 
The Distant-* '.ii.u:i> Lactarius. Edible. 

I )istans means distant, so called because the gills are very wide apart. 

The pileus is firm, broadly convex or nearly plane, umbilicate or slightly 
depressed in the center ; with a minute, velvety pruinosity ; yellowish-tawny or 



The gills are rather broad, distant, adnate or slightly decurrent, white or 
creamy yellow, interspaces veined; milk white, mild. 

The stem is short, equal or tapering downward, solid, pruinose, colored like 
the pileus. 

The spores are subglobose, 9-1 ifx broad. Peck, N. Y. Report, 52. 

I frequently mistake this plant for L. volemus when seen growing in the 
ground, but the widely separated gills distinguish the plant as soon as it is gathered. 
The stem is short and round, tapering downward, solid, colored like the pileus. 
The milk is both white and mild. I find it on nearly every wooded hillside about 
Chillicothe. It is found from July to September. 

Figure 139. Lactarius atroviridus. Cap and stem dark green. Cap depressed in 
center. Gills white. 

Lactarius atroviridus. Pk. 

The Dark-Green Lactarius. 

Atroviridus is from ater, black ; viridyis, green ; so called from the color of 
the cap and the stem of the plant. 

The pileus is convex, plane, then depressed in the center, with an adherent 
pellicle, greenish with darker scales, margin involute. 

The gills are slightly decurrent, whitish, broad, distant ; milk white but not 
copious as in many of the Lactarii. 

, J 



The stem is quite short, tapering downward, dark green, scaly. 

The stem is so short that the cap seems to be right on the ground, hence it is 
very easily overlooked. It is found only occasionally on mossy hillsides, where 
there are not too many leaves. The plant in Figure 139 was found in Haynes' 
Hollow, near Chillicothe. I have found the plant on top of Mt. Logan. It is 
found from July to October. I do not know of its edibility. All specimens that 
I have found I have sent to my Mycological friends. It should he tasted with 

Figure 140. Lactarius subdulcis. 

I Aid 'ar ins subdulcis. Vr. 
Tin - . Sw ki:t Lactarius. Edible. 

Subdulcis means almost sweet, or sweetish. 

The pileus is two to three inches broad, rather thin, papillate, convex, then 
depressed, smooth, even, zoncless cinnamon-red or tawny-red, margin sometimes 



The gills are rather narrow, thin, close, whitish, often reddish or tinged with 
red. Spores, 9-10/A. 

The stem is stuffed, then hollow, equal, slightly tapering upward, slender, 
smooth, sometimes villous at the base. The milk is white, sometimes rather acrid 
and unpleasant to the taste when raw. It needs to be cooked a long time to make 
it good. 

It is likely to be found anywhere, but it does best in damp places. The plants 

Figure 141. L,actarius corrugis. Caps wrinkled, tawny-brown. G1II9 orange-brown. 

found with us all seem to have red or cinnamon-red gills, especially before the 
spores begin to fall. They are found growing on the ground, among, leaves, or on 
well-rotted wood and sometimes on the bare ground. Found from July to 


Lactarius scri/luus. J-'r. 

Serifluus means flowing with serum, the watery part of milk. 

The pileus is fleshy, depressed in the center, dry, smooth, not zoned, tawny- 
brown, margin thin, incurved. 

The gills are crowded, light-brown, or yellowish, milk scanty and watery. 

The stem is solid, equal, paler than the pileus. Spores, 7-8/*. 

It differs from L. subdulcis in having a solid stem and perhaps a shade darker 
color. Found in woods, July to November. 

Lactarius corrugis. Pk. 
The Wrinkled Lactarius. Edible. 

Corrugis means wrinkled. 

The pileus is convex, plane, expanded, slightly depressed in the center ; 
surface of the cap wrinkled, dry, bay-brown ; margin at first involute. 

The gills are adnexed, broad, yellowish or brownish-yellow, growing paler 
with age. The stem is rather short, equal, solid, pruinose, of the same color as 
the pileus. The spores are subglobose, 10-13^. 

This species looks very much like L. volemus, and its only essential difference 
is in the wrinkled form and color of the pileus. The milk when dry is very sticky 
and becomes rather black. It has just a touch of acridity. 

Any one determining this species will not fail to note the number of brown 
cystidia or seta?, in the hymenium, which project above the surface of the gills. 
They are so numerous and so near the edge of the gills that they give these a 
downy appearance. The quality of this species is even better than L. volemus, 
though it is not as abundant here as the latter. Found in thin woods from August 
to September. The photograph, Figure 141, was made by Prof. H. C. Beardslee. 

Lactarius volemus. Fr. 
The Orange-Brown Lactarius. Edible. 

Volemus from volema pira, a kind of a pear, so called from the shape of the 
stem. The pileus is broad, flesh thick, compact, rigid, plane*, then expanded, obtuse, 
dry, golden-tawny, at length somewhat wrinkly. 

The gills are crowded, adnate or slightly decurrcnt. white, then yellowish; 
milk copious, sweet. 

The stem is solid, hard, blunt, generally curved like a pear-stem ; its color is 
that of the pileus but a shade lighter. Spores globose, white. 



The milk in this species is very abundant and rather pleasant to the taste. 
It becomes quite sticky as it dries on your hands. This plant has a good record 
among - mushroom eaters, both in this country and Europe. 

There is no danger of mistaking it. The plants grow in damp woods from 
July to September. They are found singly or in patches. They were found quite 
plentifully about Salem, Ohio, and also about Chillicothe. 

Photo by Prof. Atkinson. 
Figure 142. Lactarius volemus. Natural size. Caps golden-tawny. Milk copious, as will be seen 

where the plant has been pricked. 

Lactarius deliciosus. Fr. 

The Delicious Lactarius. Edible. 

Deliciosus, delicious. The pileus is three to five inches broad ; color varying 
from yellow to dull orange or even brownish-yellow with mottled concentric zones 
of deeper color, especially in younger plants, sometimes a light reddish-yellow, 
without apparent zones (as is the case of those in Figure 143) ; convex, when 
expanded becoming very much depressed; funnel-shaped; smooth, moist, some- 



Figure 143. Lactarius deliciosus. One-third natural size. 
Caps light reddish-yellow. Milk orange color. 

times irregular, wavy ; flesh 
brittle, creamy, more or less 
stained with orange. 

The gills are slightly de- 
current in the depressed 
specimens, somewhat crowd- 
ed, forked at the stem, short 
ones beginning at the mar- 
gin ; when bruised exuding 
a copious supply of milky 
juice of an orange color; a 
pale tan-color, turning green 
in age or in drying. Spores 
are echinulate, 9-10x7-8/*. 

The stem is two to three 
inches or more, equal, 

smooth, hollow, slightly pruinose, paler than the cap, occasionally spotted with 

orange, tinged with green in old plants. 

The taste of the raw plant is slightly peppery. It grows in damp woods and 

is sometimes quite common. Its name suggests the estimation in which it is held 

by all who have eaten it. 

Like all Lactarii it must be 

well cooked. The specimens 

in Figure 143 were gath- 
ered on Cemetery Hill close 

to the pine trees and in 

company with Boletus Am- 

ericanus. Found from July 

to November. I found the 

plant in a more typical 

form about Salem, Ohio. 

Lactarius uvidus. J'r. 

Uvidus is from uva, 
grape, so called because 
when exposed to the air 
changes to the color of a 

The pileus is two to four 
inches broad, flesh rather 
thin, convex, sometimes 

irius uvidus. 


slightly umbonate, then depressed in the center, not zoned, viscid, dingy pale 
ochraceous-tan, margin at first involute, naked, milk mild at first then becoming 
acrid, white changing to lilac. 

The gills are thin, slightly decurrent, crowded, shorter ones very obtuse and 
truncate behind, connected by veins, white, when wounded becoming lilac. 

The stem is soon hollow, two to three inches long, viscid, pallid. 

The spores are round, io^t. 

Not only the milk changes to a lilac when cut, but the flesh itself. They are 
found in damp woods during August and September. The plants in Figure 144 
were found near Boston, by Mrs. Blackford. These plants grew in Purgatory 
Swamp. The Sphagnum moss will be seen at the base of the upright plant. 

Lactarius chrysorrhcus. Fr. 
Yellow-Juiced Lactarius. 

Chrysorrheus from two Greek words; chrysos, yellow or golden; reo, I flow, 
because the juice soon turns to a golden yellow. 

The pileus is rather fleshy, depressed, then funnel-shaped, yellowish-flesh 
colored, marked with dark zones or spots. 

The stem is stuffed, then hollow, equal, or tapering below, paler than the 
pileus, sometimes pitted. 

The gills are decurrent, thin, crowded, yellowish, milk white, then golden- 
yellow, very acrid. 

The milk is white, quite acrid, has a peculiar taste, and changes at once on 
exposure to a beautiful yellow. This is a common species about Salem, Ohio, and 
is quite variable in size. Found in woods and groves from July to October. I do 
not know whether its edible quality has ever been tested. When I found it some 
years ago I had less faith in mushrooms than I have now. 

Lactarius vcUereus. Fr. 
The Wooly-White Lactarius. Foible. 

Vellereus from vellus, a fleece. The pileus is white, compact, fleshy, depressed 
or convex, tomentose, zoneless, margin at first involute, milk white and acrid. 

The gills are white or whitish, distant, forked, adnate or decurrent, connected 
by veins, bow-shaped, milk scanty. 


The stem is solid, blunt, pubscent, white, tapering downward. Spores white 
and nearly smooth, .00019 by 000 34 inch. 

This species is quite common ; and though very acrid to the taste, this acridity 
is entirely lost in cooking. It will be readily known by the downy covering of the 
cap. Found in thin woods and wood margins. July to October. 

Russula. Pers. 

Russula, red or reddish. The beginner will have little difficulty in determining 
this genus. There is such a strong family likeness that, finding one, he will say 
at once it is a Russula. The contour of the cap, the brittleness of its flesh and of 
its stem, the fragile gills, and the failure of any part of the plant to exude a milky 
or colored juice, the many gay colors will all help in determining the genus. 

Many species of Russula strongly resemble those of the genus Lactarius, in 
size, shape, and texture. The spores, too, are quite similar, but the absence of the 
milky juice will mark the difference at once. 

The cap may be red, purple, violet, pink, blue, yellow, or green. The colored 
zones often seen in the Lactarii do not appear here. The beginner will possibly 
find trouble in identifying species, because of variation of size and color. The 
spores are white to very pale yellow, generally spiny. The pileus is fleshy, convex, 
then expanded, and at length depressed. The stem is brittle, stout, and smooth, 
generally spongy within, and confluent with the cap. The gills are milkless, with 
acute edge, and very tender. 

Captain Mcllvaine, in his very valuable book, One Thousand American Fungi, 
says: "To this genus authors have done special injustice; there is not a single 
species among them known to be poisonous, and where they are not too strong of 
cherry bark and other highly flavored substances, they are all edible ; most of them 
favorites." I can testify to the fact that many of them are favorites, though a few- 
are very peppery and it requires some courage to attack them. 

Thev are all found on the ground in open woods, from early summer to late 

Russula delica. Fr. 

The Weaned Russula. Edible. 

Delica means weaned, so called because, though it resembles Lactarius vel- 
lereus in appearance, it is void of milk. 

The pileus is quite large, fleshy, firm, depressed, even, shining, margin in- 
volute, smooth, not striated. 

The gills are decurrent, thin, distant, unequal, white. 

The stem is solid, compact, white, short 



"Specimens will be found that resemble Lactarius piperatus and L. vellereus, 
but they may be easily distinguished because they have no milk in their gills and 
the taste is mild. They are not equal to most of the Russulas. Found in woods 
from August to October. 

Russula adusta. Pers. 
The Smoky Russula. Edible. 








*S^/ vfJ 





/ / 

1 ; -^ *>. 

'^ >'/ 1 

** V F */ 

Figure 145. Russula adusta. 

^Vdusta means burned. 

The pileus is fuliginous, cinereous, flesh compact, margin even and inflexed, 
depressed in the center. 

The gills are attached to the stem, decurrent, thin, crowded, unequal, white, 
not reddening when bruised. 

The stem is obese, solid, of the same color as the pileus, not turning red when 

The plant resembles R. nigricans, but can readily be distinguished from it 



because of the thin, crowded gills and failure to turn red when cut or braised. 
The spores are subglobose, almost smooth, 8-9/u.; no cystidia. It is found in the 
woods during August and September. Edible but not first class. It is a plant 
very widely distributed. 

Russtda nigricans. Fr. 

Plato by C. G. Lloyd. 

Figure 146. Russula nigricans. 

Nigricans means blackish. 

The pilens is two to four inches broad, dark grayish-brown, black with ad- 
vancing age, fleshy, compact, flesh turning red when bruised or convex, flattened, 
then depressed, at length funnel-Shaped, margin entire, without striate, margin at 
first incurved, young specimens are slightly viscid when moist, even, without a 
separable pellicle; whitish at first, soon sooty olive, at length becoming broken up 
into scales and black; flesh firm and white, becoming reddish when broken. 

The gills are rounded behind, slightly adnexed. thick, distant, broad, unequal, 
the shorter ones sometimes very scanty, forked, reddening when touched. 



The stem is rather short, thick, solid, equal, pallid when young, then black. 
The spores are subglobose, rough, 8-9/u,. 

The plant is quite compact, inodorous, becoming entirely black with age. It 
is easily distinguished from R. adusta by the flesh becoming reddish when bruised, 
and by the much thicker, and more distant gills. It is very close to R. densifolia 
but differs from it in that its gills are more distant and because of its mild taste. 

I am pleased to present to my readers, in Figure 146, a photograph of a plant 
which grew in Sweden in the locality where Prof. Fries did his great work in 
fungal study and research. It is a typical specimen of this species. It was gathered 
and photographed by Mr. C. G. Lloyd. 

It is found from June to October. Not poisonous, but not good. 

Figure 147. Russula fcetens. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 



Russula fattens. Fr. 
The Fltid Russula. Not Edible. 

Fcetens means stinking. 

The pilens is four to six inches broad, dirty white or yellowish ; flesh thin ; at 
first hemispherical, then expanded, almost plane, often depressed in the center; 
covered with a pellicle which is adnate ; viscid in wet weather ; widely striate- 
tuberculate on the margin, which is at first incurved. 

The gills are adnexed, connected by veins, crowded, irregular, many forked, 
rather broad, whitish, becoming dingy when bruised, exuding watery drops at first. 

The stem is stout, stuffed, then hollow, concolor, two to four inches long. The 
spores are small, echinulate, almost round. 

I have found the plants very generally diffused over the state. It is very 
coarse and uninviting. Its smell and taste are bad. Found from July to October. 
These plants are widely distributed and usually rather abundant. 

Russula alutacea. Fr. 

Tin: Tan-Colored Russula. Edible. 

FIGURE 148. Russula alutacea. Two -think natural size. Cap*. 
tlesh color, ('.ills broad and yellowish. 

Alutacea, tanned leath- 
er. The pileus is flesh- 
color, sometimes red ; 
flesh white; bell-shaped, 
then convex ; expanded, 
with a viscid covering, 
growing pale : slightly 
depressed : even ; margin 
inclined to be thin, stri- 

The gills are broad, 
ventricose, free, thick, 
somewhat distant, equal, 
yellow, then ochraceous. 

The stem is stout, 
solid, even : white, though 
parts of the stem are red, 
sometimes purple; wrin- 
kled lengthwise; spongy. 
The sjx>res are yellow. 

The taste is mild and 


pleasant when young, but quite acrid when old. Alutacea will be known mostly 
by its mild taste, broad, and yellow gills. It is quite common, but does not grow 
in groups. It is sweet and nutty. 
From July to October. 

Russula ochrophylla. Pk. 
Ochrey Gilled Russula. Edible. 

Ochrophylla is from two Greek words meaning ochre and leaf, because of 
its ochre-colored gills. 

The pileus is two to four inches broad, firm, convex, becoming nearly plane 
or slightly depressed in the center; even, or rarely very slightly striate on the 
margin when old; purple or dark purplish-red; flesh white, purplish under the 
adnate cuticle ; taste mild. 

The gills are entire, a few of them forked at the base, sifbdistant, adnate at 
first yellowish, becoming bright, ochraceous-buff when mature and dusted by the 
spores, the interspaces somewhat venose. 

The stem is equal or nearly so, solid or spongy within, reddish or rosy tinted, 
paler than the pileus. The spores are bright, ochraceous-buff, globose, verruculose, 
.0004 of an inch broad. Peck. 

This is one of the easiest Russulas to determine because of its purple or 
purplish-red cap, entire gills, at first yellowish, then a bright, ochraceous-buff when 
mature. The taste is mild and the flavor fairly good. 

There is also a plant which has a purplish cap and a white stem, called Russula 
ochrophylla albipes. Pk. It quite agrees in its edible qualities with the former. 

R. ochrophylla is found in the woods, especially under oak trees, in July and 

Russula lepida. Fr. 
The Neat Russula. Edible. 

Lepida, from lepidus, neat. 

The pileus firm, solid; varying in color from bright red to dull, subdued 
purplish with a distinct 'brown ; compact ; convex, then depressed, dry unpolished ; 
margin even, sometimes cracked and scaly, not striated. 

The gills are white, broad, principally even, occasionally forked, very brittle, 
rounded, somewhat crowded, connected by veins, sometimes red on the edge, 
especially near the margin. 



Figure 149. Russula lepida. Two-thirds natural size. 
purplish-red, with more or less brown. 


The stem is solid, 
white, usually stained 
and streaked with 
pink, compact, even. 

The surface is dull, 
as with a fine dust 
or plum-like bloom, 
and thus without 
polish. Often times 
the surface will ap- 
pear almost velvety. 
The tints of the 
flesh and the gills 
will be found uni- 
form. The plant 
when raw is sweet 
and nut-like to the 
taste. -This is a 
beautiful species, the 
color being averaged 
under the general hue 
of dark, subdued red, 
inclining to maroon. 
It is simply delic- 
ious when properly 
cooked. Found in 
woods from July to 

Russula cyanoxantha. Fr. 
The Blue and Yellow Russula. Edible. 

Cyanoxantha. from two ('.reck words, blue and yellow, referring to color 
of the plant. 

The pileus is quite variable as to color, ranging from lilac or purplish to 
greenish; disk yellowish, margin bluish or livid-purple; convex, then plane, de- 
pressed in center; margin faintly striate, sometimes wrinkled. 

The "ills are rounded, hehind. connected by veins, forked, white, slightly 

The stem is solid, spongy, stuffed, hollow when old. equal, smooth and white. 

The color of the cap is quite variable hut the peculiar combination of color 



will assist the student in distinguishing it. It is a beautiful plant and one of 
the best of the Russulas to eat. The mushroom-eater counts himself lucky 
indeed when he can find a basketful of this species after "the joiner squirrel" 
has satisfied his love of this special good thing. It is quite common in woods 
from August to October. 

Russula vcsca. Fr. 
The Edible Russula. Edible. 

Vesca from vesco, to feed. The pileus is from two to three inches broad ; 
red-flesh-color, disk darker; fleshy; firm; convex, with a slight depression in the 
center, then funnel-shaped ; slightly wrinkled; margin even, or remotely striate. 

Gills adnate, rather crowded, unequal, forked, and white. 

The stem is firm, solid, sometimes peculiarly, reticulated, tapering at the base. 
The spores are globose, spiny, and white. I frequently found it near Salem, O., 
in thin chestnut woods and in pastures under such trees. A mushroom lover will 
be amply paid for the long tramps if he finds a basket full of these dainties. It is 
mild and sweet when raw. It is found in thin woods and in wood margins, some- 
times under trees in pastures, from August to October. 

Figure 150. Russula virescens. Two-thirds natural size. Caps pale-green. Gills white. 


Russula vircsccns. Fr. 
The Green Russula. Edible. 

Virescens, being - green. The Pileus is grayish-green ; at first globose, then 
expanded, convex, at last depressed at the center ; firm, adorned with flaky greenish 
or yellow patches, produced by the cracking of the skin ; two to four inches broad, 
margin striate, often white. 

The gills are white, moderately close, free Or nearly so, narrow as they ap- 
proach the stem, some being forked, others not; very brittle, breaking to pieces 
at the slightest touch. 

The stem is shorter than the diameter of the cap, smooth, white, and solid 
or spongy. The spores are white, rough, and nearly globose. 

This plant is especially sweet and nutty to the taste when young and unwilted. 
All Russulas should be eaten when fresh. I have found the plant over the state 
quite generally. It is a prime favorite with the squirrels. You will often find them 
half eaten by these little nibblers. Found in open woods from July to September. 
It is one of the best mushrooms to eat and one that is very easily identified. It 
is quite common about Chillicothe, Ohio. Its mouldy color is not as prepossessing 
as the brighter hues of many far less delicious fungi, but it stands the test of use. 

Russula variata. Ban. 
Variable Russula. Edible. 

Pileus is firm, convex becoming centrally depressed or somewhat funnelform, 
viscid, even on the thin margin, reddish-purple, often variegated with green, pea- 
green sometimes varied with purple, flesh white, taste acrid or tardily acrid. 

The gills are thin, narrow, close, often forked, tapering toward each end, 
adnate or slightly decurrent, white. 

The stem is equal or nearly so, solid, sometimes cavernous, white. The spores 
are white, subglobose, .0003 to .0004 of an inch long, .0003 broad. Peck, Rep. 
State Bot., 1905. 

This plant grows in open beech woods, rather damp, and appears in July 
and August. The 'caps are often dark purple, often tinged with red, and some- 
times the caps contains shades of green. I found the plants plentifully in 
Woodland Park, near Newtonville, Ohio, in July, 1907. We ate them on several 
occasions and found them very good. The greenish margin and purplish center 
will mark the plant. 



Russula Integra. Fr. 
The; Entire; Russula. Edible;. 

Integra, whole or entire. The pileus is three or four inches in diameter, 
fleshy ; typically red, but changing color ; expanded, depressed, with a viscid 
cuticle, growing pale. Margin thin, furrowed and tuberculate. Flesh white, 
sometimes yellowish above. 

The stem is at first short and conical, then club-shaped or ventricose, some- 
times three inches long and up to one inch thick ; spongy, stuffed, commonly 
striate ; even, and shining white. 

The gills are somewhat free, very broad, sometimes three-fourths of an inch ; 
equal or bifid at the stem, rather distant and connected by veins ; pallid or white, 
at length light yellow, being powdered yellow with the spores. 

Although the taste is mild it is often astringent. One of the most changeable 
of all species, especially in the color of the pileus, which, though typically red, is 
often found inclining to azure-blue, bay-brown, olivaceous, etc. It occasionally 
happens that the gills are sterile and remain white. Fries. 

The spores are spheroid, spiny, pale ochraceous. 
R. integra so closely resembles 
R. alutacea that to distinguish them 
requires a knowledge of both 
plants, and even then one may not 
feel quite sure ; however, it matters 
little as they are equally good. Its 
powdery gills will help to distin- 
guish R. integra from R. alutacea. 
Found from July to October. 

Russula roseipes. (seer) Bres. 

The Rosy-Stem mld Russula. 
Edible;. , 

Roseipes is from rosa, a rose ; 
pes, a foot; so called because 
of its rose-colored or pinkish 

The pileus is two to three inches 
broad, convex, becoming nearly 
plane, or slightly depressed; at 
first viscid, soon dry, becoming 
slightly striate on the margin ; 

Figure 151. Russula roseipes. Natural size. 

1 92 


rosy-red variously modified by pink, orange or ochraceous hues, sometimes 
becoming paler with age; taste mild. 

The gills are moderately close, nearly entire, rounded behind and slightly 
adnexed. ventricose, whitish becoming yellow. 

The stem is one to three inches long, slightly tapering upward, stuffed or 
somewhat cavernous, white tinged with red. The spores are yellow, round. 
Peck, 51 R. 

This planj: is widely distributed from Maine to the West. It grows best in 
pine and hemlock woods, but sometimes found in mixed woods. It is found in 
July and August. 

FlGUKS 152. Kussula fragilis. 

Russula fragilis. Vr. 
The Tender Russula. 

Fragilis means fragile. 

The pileus is rather small, flesh-color or red, or reddish ; thin, fleshy only at 
the disk; at first convex and often umbonate, then plane, depressed; cuticle thin, 
becoming pale, viscid in wet weather, margin tuherculate-striate. 

The gills are thin, ventricose, white, slightly adnexed. equal, crowded, some- 
times slightly eroded at the edge. The spores are minutely echmulate, 8-iox8/*. 

The stem is stuffed, hollow, shining white. 



Quite as acrid as R. emetica, which it resembles in many ways, especially the 
smaller plants. It can be distinguished by its thinner caps, thinner and crowded 
gills, more ventricose and often slightly eroded at the edge. It is generally classed 
among poisonous mushrooms ; but Captain Charles Mcllvaine in his book says : 
"Though one of the peppery kind, I have not, after fifteen years of eating it, had 
reason to question its edibility." I should advise caution. Eat of it sparingly till 
sure of its effects. Found in woods from July to October. 

Russula emetica. Fr. 
The; Emetic Russula. 

Emetica means making sick, inciting to vomit. The pileus is fleshy, quite 
viscid, expanded, polished, shining, oval, or bell-shaped when young; its color is 
very variable from rose-red to a yellow-red or even purple ; margin furrowed, 
flesh white. 

The gills are free, equal, broad, distant, white. The spores are round, 8/*. 

The stem is stout, solid, though sometimes spongy stuffed, even, white or 
reddish. The spores are white, round, and spiny. 

This species is recognized by its very acrid taste and free gills. A distinct 
channel will be seen between the gills and the stem. This very pretty mushroom 

Figure 153. Russula emetica. Two-thirds natural size. Caps rose-red to yellow-red. Gills white. 



is quite common in most parts of Ohio. I found it in abundance about Salem, 
Bowling Green, Sidney, and Chillicothe all in this state. 

Captain Mcllvaine states that he has repeatedly eaten it and cites a number 
of others who ate it without bad results, although weight of authority would 
band it a reprobate. I am glad to report something in its favor, for it is a beautiful 
plant, yet I should advise caution in its use. 

It is found in open woods or in pastures under trees, from July to October. 
Its viscid cap will distinguish it. 

Russiila furcata. Fr. 

Tiik Forked Gileed Russula. Edible. 

Furca, a fork, so called from 
the forking of the gills. This 
is not peculiar, however, to this 
species: The pileus is two to 
three inches broad ; greenish, 
usually greenish-umber, some- 
times reddish; fleshy; compact; 
nearly round, then expanded, 
depressed in the center ; even ; 
smooth; often sprinkled with a 
silky luster, pellicle separable, 
margin at first inflexed, then 
expanded, always even, some- 
times turned upward. The 
flesh is firm, white, dry, some- 
what cheesy. 

The gills are adnate or slight- 
ly decurrejjt; somewhat crowd- 
ed, broad, narrowed at both 
ends, many forked, shining 
white. The spores, 7-8x9^,. 
The stem is two to three inches long, solid, white, rather firm, even, equal or 
tapering downward. The spores are round and spiny. 

I have found it frequently on the wooded hillsides of the state. The taste 
When raw is mild at first, but soon develops a slight bitterness which, however, is 
lost in cooking. Fried in butter they are excellent. July to October. 


154. Kussula furcata. Two-thirds natural Size. 
Caps greenish-umber to reddish. 



Rassula rubra, Fr. 

The Red Russula. 

Rubra means red, so called from the cap being concolorous, bright vermillion ; 
showy, becoming pale with age, center of the cap usually darker ; compact, hard, 
fragile, convex, expanded, somewhat depressed, dry, no pellicle, often cracked 
when old. The flesh is white, often reddish under the cuticle. 

Figure 155. Russula rubra. Two-thirds natural size. Caps bright- vermilion. Gills forked 

and tinged with red. 

The gills are adnate, rather crowded, white at first, then yellowish, many 
forked and with some short ones intermixed, frequently tinged with red at the 
edge. Spores 8-io,u,, cystidia pointed. 

The stem is two to three inches long, solid, even, white, often with a faint 
reddish hue. The spores are nearly round and white. 



It is very acrid to the taste, and because of this acridity it is usually thought 
to be poisonous, but Captain Mcllvaine says he does not hesitate to cook it either 
by itself or with other Russuhe. It is found very generally in the state and is 
quite plentiful in the woods about Chillicothe, from July to October. 

Russula purpurina. Quel & Schuli 
The Purple Russula. Edible. 

Figure 156. Russula purpurina. Two-thirds natural size. Caps rosy-pink to light-yellow. Gills yellowish 

in age. 

Purpurina means purple. The pileus is fleshy, margin acute, subglobose, ther* 
plane, at length depressed in the center, slightly viscid in wet weather, not striate. 
often split, pellicle separable, rosy-pink, paling to light-yellow. 

('.ills are crowded in youth, afterward subdistant. white, in age yellowish, 
reaching the stem, not greatly narrowed behind, almost equal, not forked. 

The stem is stuffed, spongy, very variable, cylindrical, attenuated above, 



rosy-pink, becoming* paler toward the base, color obscure in age. The flesh is 
fragile, white, reddish under the skin ; odor slight and taste mild. The spores 
white, globose, sometimes subelliptical, 4-8/u, long, minutely warted. Peck, 42 Rept., 
N. Y. State Bot. 

This is not a large plant, but it can be readily determined by its red or reddish 
stem, mild taste and white spores. Found in open woods in July and August. 

Russula densifolic. Gillct. 

Figure 157. Russula densifolia. Two-thirds natural size. Caps whitish, becoming fuliginous gray. 
Flesh turning red when exposed to the air. 

Densifolia has reference to the crowded condition of the gills. 

The pileus is from three to four inches broad, fleshy, quite compact, 
convex, expanded, then depressed, margin inflexed, smooth, not striate, white or 
whitish, becoming fuliginous, gray, or brownish, quite black in center, flesh red 
when broken. 

The gills are attached to the stem, somewhat decurrent, unequal, thin, 
crowded, white or whitish, with a rosy tint. Spores, 7-8/x. 


The stem is short, slightly mealy, white, then gray, at length blackish, smooth, 
round, turning- red or brown on being handled. 

It differs from R. nigricans in being much smaller, and in its crowded gills. 
It differs from R. adusta in flesh turning red when broken. The flesh or substance 
is white at first, turning red when exposed to the air, then blackish. This plant is 
not abundant in this state. I found a number of plants on Cemetery Hill, where 
some shale had been dumped under a large beech tree. Found in July and August. 

Cantharellus. Adansan. 

Cantharellus means a diminutive drinking-cup or vase. This genus can be 
distinguished from all other genera by the character of its gills which are quite 
blunt on the edge, like folds, polished, and are mostly forked or branched. In 
some species the gills vary in thickness and number. They are decurrent, folded, 
more or less thick and swollen. The spores are white. They grow on the ground, 
on rotten wood, and among moss. They seem to delight in damp shady places. 

Cantharellus ciharius. Fr. 

Till': Edible Canthakkt. us. 

Cibarius means pertaining to food. This plant is frequently spoken of as 
the Chanterelle. The entire plant is a rich egg-yellow. The pileus is fleshy, at 
first convex, later flat, three to five inches broad, depressed in the center, finally 
funnel-shaped ; bright to deep yellow ; firm, smooth, but often irregular, its margin 
often wavy; flesh white, the cap has the appearance of an inverted cone. 

The gills are decurrent, shallow and fluted, resembling swollen veins, 
branched, more or less interconnected and tapering downward on the stem, color 
the same as the pileus. 

The stem is solid, variable in length, often curved, tapering towards the base, 
paler than the pileus and gills. 

It grows in woods and rather open places. I found it in great abundance in 
Stanley's woods, near Damascus, < )hio. I have found it very often about 
Chillicothe. The plant has a strong prune-like odor; when tasted raw they are 
peppery and pungent but sweet and quite delicious when cooked. My friends and 
myself have eaten it and pronounced very good. The plants in Figure [58 were 
gathered near Columbus, ' Hiio, and photographed by Dr. Kellerman. 

The species is quite common in the state, and is found from June to September. 







re r 

o f 



Cantharellus aurantiacus. Fr. 

False Chantakklle. 

Phato by C. G. Lloyd. 
Figure 159. Cantharellus aurantiacus. One-third 
natural size. Caps orange-yellow. Gills 
yellow and forked. 

Aurantiacus means orange-yellow. 
The pileus is fleshy, soft, depressed, 
downy, the margin strongly incurved 
when young, in mature plants it is 
wavy or lobed; color dull yellowish, 
usually brownish. 

The gills are crowded, straight, 
dark-orange, branched, with a regu- 
lar bifurcation. 

The stem is lighter in color than 
the pileus, solid at first, spongy, 
stuffed, hollow, unequal, tapering 
upward, and somewhat curved. 

It is generally labeled poisonous, 
but some good authorities say it is 
wholesome. I have never eaten it 
further than in its raw state. It is 
easily distinguished from the edible 
species by its dull orange cap and its 
orange gills, which are thinner and 
closer and more regularly forked 
than those of the Edible Chantarelle. 
It grows in woods and open places. 
Found from July to September. 

Cantharellus floccosus. Schixr. 

The Woo i. 1 a' Cant 1 1 ark i.lus. Edible. 

Floccosus means floccose or woolly. 

The pileus at the top is from one to two inches broad, fleshy, elongated funnel- 
form or trumpet-shape, floccose-squamose, ochraceous-yellow. 

The gills are vein-like, close, much anastomosing above, long decurrent and 
subparallel below, concolorous. 

The stem is very short, thick, rather deeply rooted. The spores are elliptical, 
[2.5-15x7.6/*. Peck, 23 Rep., N. Y. 

This plant is funnel-shaped nearly to the base of the stem. Tt is a small 
plant, never more than four indies high. I found it in 1 [aynes's Hollow, in 
rather open woods, on mossy hillsides. July and August. 



Cqntharellus brevipes. Pk. 
Thk Short-Stemmed Edible. 

Brevipes is from brezis, short; pes, foot; so called because of its short stem. 

The pileus is fleshy, olKonic. glabrous, alutaceous, or dingy cream-color, the 
thin margin erect, often irregular and lobed, tinged with lilac in the young plant ; 
folds numerous, nearly straight in the margin, abundantly anastomosing below ; 
pale umber, tinged with lilac. 

Figure 161. Cantharellus cinnabarinus. Cap and strm cinnibar-red, 
flesh white. Natural size. 


The stem is short, tomentose-pubescent, ash-colored, solid, often tapering 
downward. Spores yellowish, oblong-elliptical, uninucleate, 10-12X5/A. Peck, 
33d Rep., N. Y. 

The plant is small; with us, not more than three inches high and the pileus 
not more than two inches broad at the top. It differs somewhat in color, in the 
character oi the folds, and materially in the shape of the margin of the pileus. 
Found occasionally on the hillsides of Huntington Township, near Chillicothe, 
July to August. 

Cantharellus cinnabarinus. Seine. 
This Cinnabar Cantharellus. Edible. 

Cinnabarinus means cinnabar-red, from the color of the plant. 

The pileus is firm, convex, or slightly depressed in the center, often irregular 
with wavy or lobed margin ; glabrous, cinnabar-red, flesh white. 

The gills are narrow, distant, branched, decurrent, of the same color as the 
cap, dull on the edge. 

The stem is equal or tapering downward, glabrous, solid, sometimes stuffed, 

The spores are elliptical, 8-iOyu, long, 4-5/A broad. 

No one will- have any difficulty in identifying this plant, since its color sug- 
gests the name at once. It is quite common about Chillicothe and throughout the 
state. It is found frequently with Craterellus cantharellus. It is a very pretty 
plant, growing in open woods or along the roadside in woods. It will keep for 
some time after it is gathered. It is found from July to October. 

Cantharellus infundibuliformis. Fr. 
Funnel- Shaped Cantharellus. 

Infundibuliformis means shaped like a funnel. 

The pileus is one to two and a half inches broad, somewhat membranaceous, 
umbilicate, then infundibuliform, usually perforated at the base, and opening 
into the cavity of the stem, floccosely rugose on the surface, yellowish-gray or 
smoky when moist, pale when dry, becoming wavy. 

The gills are decurrent. thick, distant, regularly forked, straight, yellow or 
cenereous, at length pruinose. 

The stem is two to three inches long, hollow, even, smooth, always yellow, 
slightly thickened at the base. The spores are elliptical, smooth, 9-10x6^. 

They grow on the ground, especially where wood has decayed and become 
a part of the ground. They also grow on decayed wood. Thev are found from 
July to October. 



Nyctalis. Fr. 

Xyctalis is from a Greek word meaning night. 

Pileus symmetrical, in some species bearing large conidia upon its surface. 
The gills are adnate or decurrent, thick, soft, margin obtuse, ' 
The stem is central, its substance continuous with the flesh of the pileus. 
The spores are colorless, smooth, elliptical or globose. Pries. 

Xyctalis asterophora. Fr. 

Asterophora means 

The pileus is about 
one -half inch broad, 
fleshy ; conical, then 
hemispherical ; floc- 
culose and rather 
mealy, owing to the 
large, stellate conidia; 
whitish, then tinged 
with fawn-color. 

The gills are ad- 
nate, distant, narrow, 
somewhat forked, 
straight, dingy. 

The stem is about 
one-half inch long, 
slender, twisted, 
stuffed, white then 
brownish, rather 
mealy. The spores 
are elliptical, smooth, 
3x2/*,. Fries, Hym. 

I found, about the 
last of August, these plants growing on decaying specimens of Russula nigricans, 
along Ralston's Run, near Chillicothe. 

Plato by C. G. Lloyd. 

PlCURI 1 6 j. Xyctalis asterophora. 

Hygrophoras. Fr. 

Hygrophorus is from two Creek words meaning bearing moisture. So called 
because the members of this genus may be known from their moist caps and the 
waxy nature of the gills, which distinguish them from all others. As in the 

Plate XXIV. Figure 163. Hygrophorus pratensis. 


Pleurotus, the gills of some of the species are rounded or notched at the end next 
to the stem, but of others they are decurrent on it ; hence, in some species they 
are like the gills of Tricholoma in their attachment, in others they run down on 
the stem as in the Clitocybe. In many of them both cap and stem are very viscid, 
a characteristic not found in the Clitocybes ; and the gills are generally thicker and 
much farther apart than in that genus. A number of the species are beautifully 

Hygrophorus pratensis. Fr. 
The Pasture Hygrophorus. Edible. 

Pratensis, from pratum, a meadow. The pileus is one to two inches broad ; 
when young almost hemispherical, then convex, turbinate or nearly flat, the center 
more or less convex, as if urmbonate ; margin often cracked, frequently contracted 
or lobed; white or various shades of yellow, buffish-reddish, or brownish. Flesh 
white, thick in the center, thin at the margin. The stem is stuffed, attenuated 
downwards. The gills are thick, distant, white or yellowish, bow-shaped, de- 
current, and connected by vein-like folds. Spores are white, broadly elliptical, 
.00024 to .00028 inch long. 

The pasture hygrophorus is a small but rather stout-appearing mushroom. 
It grows on the ground in pastures, waste places, clearings, and thin woods, from 
July to September. Sometimes all white or gray. 

Var. cinereus, Fr. Pileus and gills gray. The stem whitish and slender. 

Var. pallidus, B. & Br. Pileus depressed, edge wavy, entirely pale ochre. 

This species differs mainly from H. leporinus in that the latter is quite floccose 
on the pileus. 

Hygrophorus cburneus. Bull. 
Shining White Hygrophorus. Edible. 

Eburneus is from cbur. ivory. The pileus is two to four inches broad, some- 
times thin, sometimes somewhat compact, white; very viscid or glutinous in wet 
weather, and slippery to the touch: margin uneven, sometimes wavy; smooth, and 
shining. When young, the margin is incurved. 

The gills are firm, distant, straight, strongly decurrent, with vein-like eleva- 
tions near the stem. The spores are white, rather long. 



The stem is unequal, sometimes long and sometimes short; stuffed, then 
hollow, tapering downward, punctate above with granular scales. Odor and taste 
are rather pleasant. It is found in woods and pastures in all parts of Ohio, but 
it is not plentiful anywhere. I have found it only in damp woods about Chillicothe. 
August to October. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 
Figure 164. Hygrophorus eburneus. 

Hygrophorus cossits. Sozv. 

Cossus, because it smells like the caterpillar, Cossus ligniperda. 

The pileus is small, quite viscid, shining when dry, white with a yellow tinge, 
edge naked, very strong-scented. 

The gills are somewhat decurrent, thin, distant, straight, firm. 

The stem is stuffed, nearly equal, scurvy-punctate upwards. Spores 8x4. 
Found in the woods. The strong smell will serve to identify the species. 



Hygrophonts chlorophanus. Fr. 
The Greenish-yellow Hygrophorus. 

Chlorophanus is from two Greek words, meaning appearing greenish-yellow. 

The pileus is one inch broad, commonly bright sulphur-yellow, sometimes 
scarlet-tinted, not changing color; slightly membranaceous, very fragile, often 
irregular, with the margin split or lobed, at first convex, then expanded ; smooth, 
viscid, margin striate. 

The gills are emarginate, adnexed, quite ventricose, with a thin decurrent 
tooth, thin, subdistant, distinct, pale-yellow. 

The stem is two to three inches long, hollow, equal, round, viscid when 
moist, shining when dry, wholly unicolorous, rich light-yellow. 

The spores are slightly elliptical, 8x5^. 

This species resembles in appearance H. ceraceus, but it can be identified by its 
emarginate gills and somewhat larger form. The plant has a wide distribution, 
having been found from the New England States through the Middle West. It 
is found in damp, mossy places from August to October. I have no doubt of 
its edibility. It has a mild and agreeable taste when eaten in the raw state. 

Hygrophonts cantharclhts. Schw. 

Cantharellus means a small vase. 

The pileus is thin, convex, at length umbilicate, or centrally depressed, 
minutely squamulose. moist, bright red, becoming orange or yellow. 

The gills are distant, subarcuate, decurrent, yellow, sometimes tinged with 

The stem is one 
to three inches long, 
smooth, equal, sub- 
solid, sometimes be- 
coming hollow, con- 
colorous, whitish 
within. Peck. 

I have found about 
Ghillicothe a number 
of thi' van' rties given 
by Dr. Peck. 

Var. flava. Pileus 
and stem pale yellow. 
Gills arcuate, strongly 

Figure 165. Hygrophorus canthanllus. .Natural size. Caps bright red. iwvww*. i. 



Var. flavipes. Pileus red or reddish. Stem yellow. 

Var. flaviceps. Pileus yellow. Stem reddish or red. 

Var. rosea. Has the pileus expanded and margin wavy scalloped. 

Found from July to September. 

Hygrophorus coccineas. Fr. 
The Scarlet Hygrophorus Edible. 

Coccineus, pertaining to scarlet. The pileus is thin, convex, obtuse, viscid, 
scarlet, growing pale, smooth, fragile. 

The gills are attached to the stem, with a decurrent tooth, connected by veins, 
variously shaded. 

The stem is hollow and compressed, rather even, not slippery, scarlet near 
the cap, yellow at the base. 

This plant when young is of a bright scarlet, but it soon shades into a light- 
yellow with advancing age. It is quite fragile and varies very greatly in size 
in different localities. Found in woods and pastures from July to October. 

Hygrophorus conicus. Fr. 
The Conical Hygrophorus. Edible. 

The pileus is one to two inches broad, acutely 
conical, submembranaceous, smooth, somewhat 
lobed, at length expanded, and rimose ; turning 
black, as does the whole plant when broken 
or bruised; orange, yellow, scarlet, brown, 

The gills are free or adnexed, thick, attenu- 
ated, ventricose, yellowish with frequently a 
cinereous tinge, wavy, rather, crowded. 

The stem is three to four inches long, hollow, 
cylindrical, fibrillose, striated, colored like the 
pileus, turning black when handled. 

This plant is quite fragile. It can be iden- 
tified by its turning black when bruised. It 
sometimes appears early in the spring and 
continues till late in the fall. It is not abund- 
ant but is only occasionally found on the ground 
in woods and open places. 

Figure 166. Hygrophorus conicus. 



Hygrophorus flavodiscus. Frost. 
Yelu>w-disked Hygrophorus Edible. 

Flavodiscus means yellow-disked. 

The pileus is one-half to three inches broad, fleshy, convex or nearly plane, 
glabrous, very viscid or glutinous, white, pale-yellow or reddish-yellow in the 
center, flesh white. 

The gills are adnate or decurrent, subdistant, white, sometimes with a slight 
flesh-colored tint, the interspaces sometimes venose. 

Figure 167. Hygrophorus flavodiscus. Natural size. The gluten is shown connecting the margin 

of the cap to their stem. 

The stem is one to three inches long, solid, subequal, very viscid, or gluti- 
nous, white at the top, white or yellowish elsewhere. The spores are elliptical, 
white, .00025 to .0003 of an inch long, .00016 to .0002 broad. 

These mushrooms make a delicious dish. The specimens in the photograph 
were gathered at West Gloucester, Mass., by Mrs. E. 1>. Blackford, of Boston. 
I have found them about Chillicothe. They are very viscid, as the plants in 
Figure 167 will show. The caps are thick and the margin inrolled. They are 
found in October and November. 



Hygrophorus speciosus. Pk. 

Showy Hygrophorus Edible. 

Speciosus means beautiful, showy ; so called from the scarlet color of the 
umbo. The pileus is one to two inches in diameter, broadly convex, often 
with small central umbo; glabrous, very viscid or glutinous when moist; yel- 
low, usually bright 
red or scarlet in 
the center ; flesh 
white, yellow un- 
der the thin, sep- 
arable pellicle. 

The gills are 
distant, decurrent, 
white, or slightly 
tinged with yellow. 

The stem is two 
to four inches long, 
nearly equal, solid, 
viscid, slightly 
fibrillose, whitish or 
yellowish. The 
spores are elliptic. 
.0003 of an inch 
long, .0002 broad. 

This is a very 
beautiful and 
showy plant. It 
grows in swampy 
places and under 
tamarack trees. 
The specimens in 
Figure 168 were 
found in Massa- 
chusetts by Mrs. 
Blackford, and 
were photograph- 
ed by Dr. Keller- 
man. It is found 
in September and 

Figure 168. Hygrophorus speciosus. 



Hygrophorus fuligineus. Frost. 
Sooty Hygrophorus Edible. 

Fuligineus means sooty or smoky. 

The pileus is one to four inches broad, convex or nearly plane, glabrous, 
very viscid or glutinous, grayish-brown or fuliginous, the disk often darker or 
almost black. 

The gills are subdistant, adnate or decurrent, white. 

Figure 169. Hygrophorus fuligineus. Natural size. Specimen on the right is II. caprinus. 

The stem is two to four inches long, solid, viscid or glutinous, white or 
whitish. The spores are elliptic, .0003 to .00035 f an " lcn l n g> .0002 broad. 
Peck, No. 4, Vol. 3. 

This species is found frequently associated with H. flavodiscus, which it 
resembles very closely, save in color. When moist, the cap and stems are cov- 
ered with a thick coating of gluten, and when the caps are dry this gives them 
a varnished appearance. I do not find them abundant here. The plants in 
Figure 169 were found by Mrs. Blackford near West Gloucester. Mass. They 
are found October and November. 


Hygrophorus caprinus. Scop. 
The Goat Hygrophorus. Edible. 

Caprinus means belonging to a goat; it is so called from the fibrils resem- 
bling goat's hair. 

The pileus is two' to three inches broad, fleshy, fragile, conical, then flattened 
and umbonate, rather wavy, sooty, fibrillose. 

The gills are very broad, quite distant, deeply decurrent, white, then 

The stem is two to four inches long, solid, fibrillose, sooty, often streaked 
or striate, as will be seen in Figure 169, page 212. 

The spores are 10x7-8^. 

These plants grow in pine woods in company with H. fuligineus and H. 
flavodiscus. The specimen on the right in Figure 169 was found near West 
Gloucester, Mass., by Brs. Blackford. It is found from September till hard frost. 

Hygrophorus Laura. Morg. 

This is a beautiful plant, found among leaves, and so completely covered 
with particles of leaves and soil that it is hard to clean them off. They are very 
viscid, both stem and cap. They are only occasionally found in our state. 

The pileus is two to three inches broad; reddish-brown in the center, 
shading to a very light tan on the edges ; very viscid ; convex ; margin at first 
slightly incurved, then expanded. 

The gills are adnate, slightly decurrent, not crowded, unequal, yellowish. 

The stem is stuffed, tapering downward, whitish, furfuraceotis near the cap. 

I have found this plant in Poke Hollow, near Chihicothe, on several occa- 
sions, also in Gallia county, Ohio. I have not found it elsewhere in this vicinity. 
While I have not found it in sufficient quantity to try it I have no doubt of its 
edible qualities. I have found it only about the last of September and the first 
of October. It grows in rather dense woods on the north sides of the hills, 
where it is constantly shaded and damp. Named in honor of Prof. Morgan's wife. 

Hygrophorus micro pus. Ph. 

Short-stemmed Hygrophorus. Edible. 

Micropus means short-stemmed. The pileus is thin, fragile, convex or cen- 
trally depressed, umbilicate ; silky, gray, often with one or two narrow zones on 
the margin ; taste and odor farinaceous. 



The gills are narrow, close, adnate or slightly decurrent, gray, becoming 
salmon color with age. 

The stem is short, solid or with a slight cavity, often slightly thickened at 

the top, pruinose, 
gray, with a 
white, mycelioid 
tomentum at 
the base. The 
spores are angu- 
lar, uninucleate, 
salmon color, 
.0003-.0004 of an 
inch long, .00025- 
0003 broad. Peck. 
This is a very 
small plant and 
not frequently 
found, but widely 
distributed. I 
have always 
found it in open 
grassy places 
during damp 
weather. The 
caps are thin, 
often markedly 
depressed. Its 
silky appearance 
and narrow zones 
on the margin of 
the cap, together 
with its rather 
close gills, broad- 
ly attached to the 
stem, gray at 
first, then salmon 
color, will iden- 
t i f v the species. 
July to Septem- 

Figure 170. Hygrophorus Laura. 



Hygrophorus miniatus. Fr. 
The Vermilion Hygrophorus. Edible. 

Miniatus is from minium, red lead. 

This is a small but a very common species, highly colored and very attrac- 
tive. The pileus and the stem are bright red and often vermilion. The pileus 
is at first convex, but, when fully expanded, it is nearly or quite flat, and in wet 
weather it is even concave by the elevation of the margin, smooth or minutely 
scaly, often umbilicate. Its color varies from a bright red or vermilion or blood- 
red to pale orange hues. 

The gills are yellow and frequently strongly tinged with red, distant, 
attached to the stem, and sometimes notched. 

The stem is usually short and slender, colored like, or a little paler, than, 

Figure 171. Hygrophorus miniatus. Cap and stems vermilion-red. Gills yellowish 
and tinged with bright-red. 

the cap; solid, when young, but becoming stuffed or hollow with age. The 
spores are elliptical, white, 8/* long. 

The Vermilion mushroom grows in woods and in open fields. It is more 
plentiful in wet weather. It seems to grow best where chestnut logs have de- 
cayed. It can be found in such places in sufficient quantities to eat. Few mush- 
rooms are more tender or have a more delicate flavor. There are two other 
species having red caps, Hygrophorus coccineus and H. puniceus, but both are 
edible and no harm could come from any mistake. They are found from June 
to October. Those in Figure 171 were found in Poke Hollow September 29. 

Plats x\\ Picoai 172. Hyoeofhokui uiniatdi jphagkophhu*. 
Natural size. 



Hygrophorus miniatus sph-agnopliilus. Pk. 

Sphagnophilus means sphagnum loving, so called because it is found 
growing on sphagnum. 

The pileus is broadly convex, subumbilicate, red. 

The gills are adnate, whitish, becoming yellowish or sometimes tinged with 
red, occasionally red on the edge. 

The stem is colored like the pileus, whitish at the base, both it and the pileus 
are very fragile. 

This is more fragile than the typical form and retains its color better in 
drying. Peck, 43d Rep. 

This is a beautiful plant growing, as Figure 172 shows, on the lower dead 

Figure 173. Hygrophorus marginatus. 

portion of the stems of bog moss or sphagnum. It grows very abundantly in 
Buckeye Lake. The photograph was made by Dr. Kellerman, It is found from 
July to October. These plants cook readily, have an excellent flavor and because 
of their color make an inviting dish. I have eaten heartily of them several times. 



Hygrophorus marginatus. Pk. 
Margined Hygrophorus. Edible. 

Marginatus, so called from the frequent vermilion edged gills. 

The pileus is thin, fragile, convex, subcampanulate or nearly plane, often 
irregular, sometimes broadly umbonate, glabrous, shining, striatulate on the 
margin, bright golden-yellow. 

The gills are rather broad, subdistant, ventricose, emarginate, adnexed, 
yellow, sometimes becoming orange or vermilion on the edge, interspaces venose. 

The stem is fragile, glabrous, often flexous, compressed or irregular, hollow, 
pale-yellow ; spores broadly elliptic, .00024-.0003 of an inch long, .00024-.0002 
broad. Peck, N. Y., 1906. 

This plant has the most beautiful yellow I have ever seen in a mushroom. 
This bright golden yellow and the orange or vermilion color on the margin or 
edge of the gills will always characterize the plant. 

The specimen in Figure 173 were sent to me by Mrs. Blackford, of Boston, 
Mass., the last of August. They were not in the best condition when photo- 

Hygrophorus ceraceus. Fr. 

The Wax-like Hygrophorus. Edible. 

Ceraceus is from ccra, wax. The pileus is one inch and less broad, waxy- 
yellow, shining, fragile, thin, occasionally subumbonate, slightly fleshy, slightly 


The gills are firmly attached to 
the stem, subdecurrent, distant, 
broad, ventricose often connected 
with veins, almost triangular, yellow. 

The stem is one to two inches 
long, hollow, often unequal, flexu- 
ous, sometimes compressed, yellow, 
occasionally orange at the base, 
waxy. The spores 8x6/*. 

This is a very beautiful, fragile 
plant, usually found growing in the 
grass. It is easily distinguished by 
Its waxy yellow color. The plants 
photographed were found on the 
Ceitieter) Hilt They are found 
" H wIx P y h ;e r now eracCUS - ' from August to October. 

...- . ^^^Hhl 

1 V 

J j8 






Hygrophorus virgineus. Wulf. 

The Ivory-Capped Hygrophorus. Edible. 

Virgineus, virgin ; so called from its whiteness. The pileus is fleshy, convex, 
then plane, obtuse, at length depressed; moist, sometimes cracked into patches, 
floccose when dry. \ 

The gills are decurrent, distant, rather thick, often forked. 

Figure 175. Hygrophorus virgineus. Two-thirds natural size. Kntire plant white. 

The stem is curt, stuffed, firm, attenuated at the base, externally becoming 
even and naked. Spores 12x5-6/1.. Fries. 

The plant is wholly white and never large. It is easily confounded with 
H. niveus and sometimes difficult to distinguish from the white forms of H. 
pratensis. This plant is quite common in pastures, both in the spring and in the 
fall. I found the specimens in Figure 175 on Cemetery Hill under the pine trees 
on November 11. They were photographed by Dr. Kellerman. 



Hygrophorus niveus. 
The Snow-White Hygrophorus. Edible. 

Niveus, snow-white. The plant is wholly white. The pileus is scarcely one 
inch broad, somewhat membranaceous, bell-shaped, convex, then umbilicate, 
smooth, striate, viscid when moist, not cracked when dry, flesh thin, everywhere 

The gills are decurrent, thin, distant, acute, quite entire. 

The stem is hollow, thin, equal, smooth. Spores 7x4^. Found in pastures. 

Figiki: 1 76. Hygrophorus sordidus. 

Hygrophorus sordidus. l'k. 
Tin: Dingy Hygrophorus. Edible. 

Sordidus means a dirty white, or dingy, referring to the color of the caps, so 
made by adhering earth. 

The pileus is broadly convex or nearly plane, glabrous, slightly viscid, white, 
but usually defiled by adhering dirt: the margin at first Strongly involute, then 
spreading or reflexed ; flesh firm when young, tough when old. 



The gills are subdistant, adnate, or decurrent, white or creamy-white. 

The stem is five to ten Cm. long, firm, solid, white. 

The spores are elliptical, 6.5-7.5x4-5//,. Peck. 

The specimens I found were clear white, growing among leaves and were 
especially free from soil. The stems were short and were inclined to be slightly 
ventricose. Dr. Peck says that this "species is distinguished from H. penarius 
by its clear white color, though this is commonly obscured by the adhering dirt 
that is carried up in the growth of the fungus." The young, growing plants were 
strongly involute but the older plants were reflexed, giving the plants a funnel- 
shaped appearance and giving the gills a much stronger decurrent appearance. 
Found October 26th. 

Hygrophorus serotinus. Pk 
Late Hygrophorus. 

Serotinus means 
late. So called be- 
cause it is late in the 

Pileus is fleshy but 
thin, convex or nearly 
plane, often with the 
thin margin curved 
upward, glabrous or 
with a few obscure in- 
nate fibrils, reddish in 
the center, whitish 
on the margin, flesh 
white, taste mild. 

The gills are thin, 
subdistant, adnate or 
decurrent, white, the 
interspaces slightly 

The stem is equal, 
stuffed or hollow, glabrous, whitish 
inch long, .0002 broad. 

Pileus is 8-15 lines broad; stem about 1 inch long, 1.5-2.5 lines thick. Peck. 

Some specimens of this species were sent to me from Boston by Mrs. Blackford, 

but after a careful study of them I was unable to place them. She then sent 

them to Dr. Peck, who gave them their very appropriate name. Those in Figure 

177 were sent me in December, 1907. 

Figure 177. Hygrophorus serotinus. 

The spores are white, elliptic, .0003 of an 



They grow a number in the same locality and frequently in close groups or 
tufts. They seem to delight in oak and pine woods. Dr. Peck observes that this 
species is similar to Hygrophorus queletii, Bres., both in size and color, but the 
general characteristics of the plants do not agree. He also says it is similar in 
size and color to H. subrufescens, Pk., but differs materially in the specific 

Panus. Fr. 

Panus means swelling. The species under this genus are leathery plants, 
having the stems lateral and sometimes wanting. They dry up but revive with 
moisture. The gills are simple and thinner than the Lentinus, but with an entire, 
acute edge. There are a few species which give a phosphorescent light when 
growing on decayed logs. The genus closely resembles Lentinus but can be 
readily recognized on account of the smooth edged gills. A number of good 
authorities do not separate them' but give both under the name Lentinus. This 
genus abounds Whereever there are stumps and fallen timber. 

Pluoto by C. G. Lloyd. 
FicurB 178. Panus stypticus. Two-thirds natural size. Cinnamon color. 


Panus stypticus. Fr. 
The Styptic Panus. Poisonous. 

Stypticus means astringent, styptic. The pileus is coriaceous, kidney-shaped, 
cinnamon-color, growing pale, cuticle breaking up into scales, margin entire or 
lobed, surface nearly even, sometimes zoned. 

The gills are thin, crowded, connected by veins, of same color as cap, de- 
terminate, quite narrow. 

The stem is lateral, quite short, swollen above, solid, compressed, pruinose, 
paler than the gills. 

It is found very plentifully on decayed logs and stumps, and at times it is 
quite phosphorescent in its manifestations. It has an extremely unpleasant 
astringent taste. One might as well eat an Indian turnip as this species. Just a 
taste will betray it. Found from fall to winter. 

Panus strigosus. B. & C. 
The Hairy Panus. Edible. 

Strigosus, covered with stiff hairs. The pileus is sometimes quite large, 
eccentric, covered with stiff hairs, margin thin, white. 

The gills are broad, distant, decurrent, straw-color. 

The stem is stout, two to four inches long, hairy like the pileus. 

The favorite host of this species is an apple tree. I found a beautiful 
cluster on an apple tree in Chillicothe. Its creamy whiteness and hairy cap and 
short hairy stem will distinguish it from all other tree fungi. It is edible when 
young, but soon becomes woody. 

Panus conchatus. Fr. 
The Shell Panus. 

Conchatus means shell-shaped. The pileus is thin, unequal, tough, fleshy, 
eccentric, dimidiate ; cinnamon, then pale ; becoming scaly ; flaccid ; margin often 

The gills are narrow, forming decurrent lines on the stem, often branched, 
pinkish, then ochre. 

The rlem is short, unequal, solid, rather pale, base downy. 



This species will frequently be found imbricated and very generally confluent. 
Its shell-like form, its tough substance, and its thin pileus are its distinguishing 
marks. The taste is pleasant but its substance very tough. Found from Septem- 
ber to frost. 

Paints ntdis. Fr. 

This is a very plentiful plant about Chillicothe and is found throughout the 
United States, although it is a rare plant in Europe. It is generally given in 
American Mycology under the name Lentinus Lecomtei. It grows on logs and 
stumps. The form of the plant is quite different when growing on the top of a 

Figure 179. Panus rudis. 

log or a stump, from those springing from the side. Those in the extreme left 
of Figure 179 grew on the side of the log, while those in the center grew on the 
top, in which case the plant has usually a funnel-shaped appearance. 

The pileus is tough, reddish or reddish-brown, depressed, sinuate, bristling 
with tufts of hair, the margin quite >tr. mgly incurved, ca-spitose. 

The gills are narrow and crowded, decurrent, considerably paler than the cap. 

The stem is short, hairy, tawny; sometimes the stem is almost obsolete. 

There is a slight tinge of bitterness in the plant when raw, but in cooking 
this disappears. When prepared for food it should be chopped fine and well 
cooked. It can be dried for winter use. It is found from spring to late fall. 



Panus torulosus. Fr. 
The Twisted Panus. Edible. 

Torulosus means a tuft of hair. The pileus is two to three inches broad, 
fleshy, then tough, coriaceous; plane, then funnel-shaped, or dimidiate; even; 
smooth ; almost flesh color, varying- to reddish-livid, sometimes violet tinted. 

The gills are decurrent, rather distant, distinct behind, separate, simple, ruddy, 
then tan-colored. 

Figure 180. Panus torulosus. 

Phtoto by C. G. Lloyd. 

The stem is short, stout, oblique, gray, covered with a violaceous down. The 
spores are 6x3^. 

The plant is variable both in form and color. Sometimes shaded very slightly 
with pink. It is not very common here. I found some very fine specimens 
growing on a log near Spicier Bridge, Chillicothe. 

It is edible but quite tough. 


Pan us levis, B. & C. 
The Light Panus. Edible. 

Levis, light. Pileus two to three inches broad, orbicular, somewhat depressed, 
white, covered with a dense mat of hair; margin inflexed and marked by triangular 

The gills are broad, entire, decurrent. 

The stem is two to three inches long, attenuated upward, eccentric, lateral, 
solid, hairy below like the pileus. The spores are white. 

This certainly is a very beautiful plant and will hold the attention of the 
collector. It is not common with us. I have found it only on hickory logs. It 
is said to be of good flavor and to cook readily. 

Lent inns. Fr. 

Lentinus means tough. The pileus is fleshy, corky, tough, hard and dry, 
reviving when moist. 

The stem is central or lateral and often wanting, but when present is con- 
tinuous with the cap. 

The gills are tough, unequal, thin, normally toothed, decurrent more or less, 
margin acute. The spores are smooth, white, orbicular. 

All the species, so far as I know, grow on wood. They assume a great 
variety of forms. This genus is very closely related to Panus in the dry, coriaceous 
nature of the pileus and the gills, but it can be readily recognized by the toothed 
margin of the gills. 

Lentinus vulpinus. Fr. 
Strong-Scented Vulpinus. 

Vulpinus is from vulpes, a fox. 

This is quite a large, massive plant, growing in a sessile and imbricated man- 
ner. It has appeared in large quantities for the past four years on an elm. very 
slightly decayed, but in quite a dam]) and dark place. The reader will get some 
idea of the size of the whole plant in Figure l8l if he will consider each pileus to be 
five to six inches broad. They are built up one on top of another, overlapping each 
other like shingles on a roof. 

The pileus is fleshy but tough, shell-shaped, connate behind, longitudinally 
rough, costate, corrugate, tan-colored, and the margin is strongly incurved. 

5 ^ 


8 3 



The gills are broad, nearly white, flesh-colored near the base, coarsely toothed. 

The stem is usually obsolete, yet in some cases it is apparent. 

The spores are almost round and very small, .00006 inch in diameter. In all 
plants which I have found the odor is somewhat strong and the taste is pungent. 
It grows in the woods in September and October. 

Lentdnus lepideus, Fr. 

The Scaly Lkxtixis. Edible. 

PlCUUt 182. Lentinus lepideus. 

Lepideus is from 
lepis, a scale. 

The pileus is 
fleshy, compact, 
convex, then de- 
pressed, unequal, 
broken up in dark 
scales, flesh white, 

The gjU s are 
sinuate, decurrent, 
broad, torn, trans- 
versely s tr i a t e , 
whitish, or with 
white edges, ir- 
regularly toothed. 

The stem is stout, 
central or lateral, 
tomentose or seal v. 
often crooked, root- 
ing, whitish, solid, 
equal or tapering at 
the base. 

This is a peculiar 
plant, growing 
sometimes to im- 
mense forms. It 
grows on wood, 
seemingly to be 
partial to railroad 
ties to which its 



mycelium is very injurious. I found the plant frequently about Salem, Ohio. The 
specimens in the halftone were found near Akron, Ohio, and photographed by 
Prof. Smith. As an esculent it almost rivals the Pleuroti. It is found from spring 
to autumn. I found a beautiful cluster on an oak stump near Chillicothe, while 
looking for Morels, about the last of April. 

Lent inns cochlcatus. Fr. 
Thl Spiral-Formed Llntinus. Edible. 

Cochleatus is 
from cochlea, a 
snail, from re- 
sembling i t s 

The pileus is 
two to three 
inches broad, 
tough, flaccid, 
irregular, de- 
pressed, some- 
times funnel- 
shaped, some- 
times lobed or 
flesh-color, be- 
coming pale. 

The gills are 
crowded, beau- 
tifully serrated, 

The stem is 
solid, length 
variable, some- 
times central, 
frequently ec- 
centric, often 
lateral, smooth. 
The spores are 
nearly round, 

This is a 

Figure 183. Lentinus cochleatus. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 



beautiful plant but sparingly found with us. I found a pretty cluster at the foot 
of a maple stump in Poke Hollow. The serrated form of the gills will attract 
attention at once. It is found in August and September. 

Lenzites. Fr. 

Lenzites, named after Lenz, a German botanist. The pileus is corky, dimi- 
diate, sessile. The gills are corky, firm, unequal, branched, edge obtuse. . It is 
very common in the woods, sometimes almost covering stumps and logs. 

Lenzites betulina. 

Betulina, from 
betula, a birch. This 
has a somewhat 
corky, leathery cap, 
firm and without 
zones, woolly, ses- 
sile, deeply grooved 
concentrically, mar- 
gin of the same 

The gills are radi- 
al, somewhat branch- 
ing, and coming to- 
gether again, sordid 
white or tan-color. 

This species is 
wide-spread and is 
quite variable. It 
grows in the form 
of brackets. Figure 
185 was photo- 
graphed by Dr. Kel- 

Figure 185. Lenzites betulina. 



Lenzites scparia. Pr. 
The Chocolate Lenzites. 

The pileus is corky, leathery shells, with the upper surface marked with rough 
zones of various shades of brown ; margin yellowish. 

The gills are rather thick, branched, one running into another; yellowish. 
Stem obsolete. Growing on limbs and branches, especially of the fir tree. 

Lenzites flaccida. Fr. 

Flaccid Lenzjtes. 

Flaccida means limp, flaccid. Pileus is coriaceous, thin, flaccid, unequal, 
hairy, zoned, pallid, more or less flabelliform, imbricated. 

The gills are broad, crowded, 
straight, unequal, branched, 
white, becoming pallid. Spores 
are 5x7. 

This is a very attractive plant 
and quite common. It runs al- 
most imperceptibly into Lenzites 
betulina. It is found on stumps 
and trunks. 

Lenzites vialis. Pk. 

Pileus is corky, almost woody, 
firm, zoned. 

Gills are thick, firm, serpentine. 
Stem, none. 

Figure 186. Lenzites flaccida. Two-thirds natural size. 

Schizophyllum* Fr, 

Schizophyllum is from two Greek words, meaning to split, and a leaf. 

The pileus is fleshy and arid. The gills are corky, fan-like, branched, united 
above by the tomentose pellicle, bifid, split longitudinally at the edge. The spores 
somewhat round and white. 

The two lips of the split ^(b^ of the gills are commonly revolute. This genus 
is far removed from the type of Agaricini. It grows on wood and is very common. 



Schizophyllum commune. Fr. 

This is a very common plant, growing- in the woods on branches and decayed 
wood, where it can be found in both winter and summer. 

The pileus is thin, adnate behind, somewhat extended, more or less fan- 
shaped or kidney-shaped, simple, often much lobed, narrowed behind to the point 
of attachment ; whitish, downy, then strigose. 

The gills are radiating, gray, then brownish-purple, and sometimes white, 

Figure 187. Schizophyllum commune. 

branched, split along the edges and rather deeply rolled backwards. The spores 
are nearly round, 5-6//.. 

This is a very common species all over the world. I found it in the winter 
of 1907 on decayed shade-trees along the streets of Chillicothe. It seems to be 
partial to maple timber. Some call this S. alneum. It is very easily identified 
from its purple gills being split. 


Trogia. 1'r. 

Trogia is so called in honor of the Swiss botanist, Trog. 

The pileus is nearly membranaceous, soft, quite tough, flaccid, dry, flexible, 
fibrillose, reviving when moist. 

The gills are fold-like, venose, narrow, irregular, crisped. 

Trogia crispa. Fr. 

Crispa means crisp or curled. The pileus tough, cup-shaped, reflexed, lobed, 
villous, whitish or reddish toward the attachment, often tan-colored. 

The gills are quite narrow, vein-like, irregular, more or less branched, blunt 
on the edge, white or bluish-gray, quite crisped, edge not channeled. 

The caps are usually very much crowded and imbricated. It revives during 
wet weather and is found throughout the year, generally on beech limbs in our 



The spores of this series are of great variety of color, including rosy, pink, 
salmon-color, flesh-color, or reddish. In Pluteus, Volvaria, and most of Clitopilus, 
the spores are regular in shape, as in the white-spored series ; in the other genera 
they are generally irregular and angular. There are not so many genera as in the 
other series and fewer edible species. 

Pluteus. Fr. 

Pluteus means a shed, referring to the sheds used to make a cover for be- 
siegers at their work, that they might be screened from the missiles of the enemy. 

They have no volva, no ring on the stem. Gills are free from the stem, white 
at first then flesh-color. 

' ^feV^H^H 


1 ^ii 

.^fi'vjj -.- 

. ^j^t^jB^/^ 

Figure 189. Pluteus cervinus. 

( 235; 

Plats XXVIII. Pici m; i88. Plutkus cxkvinus. 

Natural size. 

Photo by C. 



Pluteus cervinus, Schceff. 
Fawn-Coloked Pluteus. Edible. 

Cervinus is from ccrvus, a deer. The pileus is fleshy, bell-shaped, expanded, 
viscid in wet weather, smooth, except a few radiating fibrils when young, margin 
entire, flesh soft and white ; color of the cap light-brown or fawn-color, sometimes 
sooty, often more than three inches across the cap. 

The gills are free from the stem, broad, ventricose, unequal in length, almost 
white when young, flesh-colored when mature from the falling of the spores. The 
stem is solid, slightly tapering upward, firm, brittle, white, spread over with a few 
dark fibrils, generally crooked. The spores are broadly elliptical. The cystidia 
in the hymen ium on the gills will be of interest to those who have a microscope. 

This is a very common mushroom about Chillicothe. It is found on logs, 
stumps, and especially on old sawdust piles. Xote how easily the stem is removed 
from the cap. This will distinguish it from the genus Entoloma. You cannot get 
anything in the market that will make a better fry than Pluteus cervinus ; fried in 
butter, it is simply delicious. Found from May to October. 

Figure 190. Pluteus granulans. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 


Plutcus grannlaris. Pk. 

Pileus is convex, then expanded, slightly umbonate, wrinkled, sprinkled with 
minute blackish granules, varying in color from yellow to brown. 

The gills are rather broad, close, ventricose, free, whitish, then flesh-colored. 

The stem is equal, solid, pallid, or brown, usually paler at the top, velvety with 
a short, close pile. 

The spores are subglobose, about .0002 inch in diameter. The plant is two to 
three inches high, pileus one to two inches broad, stem one to two lines thick. 
Peek, 38th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

This is a much smaller species than P. cervinus, but its esculent qualities are 
quite as good. Found from July to October. 

Plutcus e.viniins. Smith. 

Ex'unias, choice, distinguished, The pileus is fleshy, bell-shaped when young, 
expanded, beautifully fringed on the margin, larger than the cervinus. 

The gills are free, broad, ventricose, white at first, then rose-colored, flesh 
white, and firm. 

The stem is thick, solid, and clothed with fibers. Dr. Herbst, Fungal Flora of 
the Lehigh Valley. 

I found some beautiful specimens in George Mosher's icehouse. I am very 
sorry I did not photograph them. 

/ 'olvaria. Fr. 

The spores of this genus are regular, oval, rosy-spored. The veil is universal, 
forming a perfect volva. distinct from the cuticle of the pileus. The stem is easily 
separable from the pileus. The gills are free, rounded behind, at first white, then 
pink, soft. Most of the species grow on wood. Some on damp ground, rich mold, 
in gardens, and in hothouses. One is a parasite on Clitocybe nebularis and 

Volvaria bombycina, fPcrs.) Fr. 

The Silky Volvaria. I'.imih.k. 

Bombycina is from bombyx, silk. This plant is so called because of the 
beautiful silky lustre of the entire plant. The pileus is three to eight inches br 'id, 
globose, then bell-shaped, finally convex and somewhal umbonate, white, the 
entire surface silky, in older. specimens more or less scaly, sometimes smooth at 









Moft*vi ^t3 


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ImUL -4 

VW*" ' 

jifc* - ^i 

6C*^*'. ...' JH 

if' -V 

Plate XXIX. Figure 191. Volvaria bombycina. 
The egg form of the V. bombycina showing the universal veil or volva bursting at the apex. These 

are unusually large specimens. 





Fici'RE 192. Yolvaria bombycina. Two-thirds natural 
size. Entire plant white and silky. 

I have found the plant frequent- 
ly about Chillicothe, usually soli- 
tary ; but on one occasion 1 found 
three specimens upon one trunk. 
apparently growing from the same 
mycelial mass. The caps of two 
of them were each five inches 
across. It usually grows on maple 
and beech. If you will observe a 
hollow beech, or sugar snag of 
which one side is broken away. 
leaving- the sheltered yet open nes- 
tling place, you are very likely to 
find snugly enscounced in its de- 
caying heart one or more speci- 
mens of these beautiful silky 
plants. The volva is quite thick 
and frequently the plant, when in 
the egg state, has die appearance 
of a phalloid. Found from June 
to October. 

the apex. The flesh is while and 
not thick. 

The gills are free, very crowded, 
broad, ventricose, flesh-colored, 
not reaching the margin, toothed. 
The stem is three to six inches 
long, tapering upward, solid, 
smooth, the tough volva remain- 
ing like a cup at the base. The 
spores are rosy in mass, smooth, 
and elliptical. The volva is large, 
membranaceous, somewhat viscid. 

The plant in Figure 192 was 
found August 16th, on a maple 
tree where a limb had been brok- 
en, on North High Street. Chilli- 
cothe. Many people had passed 
along and enjoyed the shade of the 
trees but its discovery remained 
for Miss Marian Franklin, whose 
eyes arc trained to see birds, flow- 
ers, and everything beautiful in 

I'ic.iKi: 193. Volvaria bombycina. Two thirds natural 
. showing the gills, which are pink, then 



Volvaria umbonata. Peck. 

The Umbonate Volvaria. 

Umbonata, having an umbo or conical projection like the boss of a shield. 
This plant is quite common on the richly manured lawns of Chillicothe. I have 
found it from June to October. The pileus is white or whitish, sometimes grayish, 
often smoky on the umbo; globose when young, bell-shaped, plane when fully 
expanded, umbonate, smooth ; slightly viscid when moist, shining when dry, inch 
to an inch and a half broad. The flesh is white and very soft 

Figure 194. Volvaria umbonata. Two-thirds natural size. Entire plant white and silky. 

The gills are free, white at first, then from flesh-color to a reddish hue from 
the rosy-colored spores ; some of the gills are dimidiate, somewhat crowded, 
broader in the middle. 

The stem is two inches to two and a half long, tapering from the base up, 
smooth, cylindrical, hollow and firm. The volva is always present, free, variously 
torn, white and sometimes grayish. 

The entire plant is silky when dry. I have found it growing in my buggy 
shed. It is not abundant, though quite common. I have never eaten it, but I do 
not doubt its edibility. 



I 'olvaria pusilla. Pers. 

The pileus is explan- 
ate, white, fibrillose, dry, 
striate, center slightly 
depressed when mature. 

The gills are white, be- 
coming flesh-color, from 
the color of the spores, 
free, distant. 

The stem is white, 
smooth, volva split to the 
base into four nearly 
equal segments. The 
spores are broadly ellip- 
tical, 5-6 mc. 

This is the smallest 
species of the Volvaria. 
It grows on the ground among the weeds and is apt to escape the attention of the 
collector unless he knows its habitat. It is quite likely that V. parvula is the 
same plant as this. Also V. temperata, although it has a different habitat, seems 
to be very near this species. The plants in Figure 195 were collected in Michigan 
and photographed by Dr. Fischer. The volva is brown-tipped as shown in the 
figure given. 

Figure 195. Volvaria pusilla. 

Volvaria volvacea. Bull. 

The Stove Volvaria. 

It is called "The Stove Volvaria" because it has been found in old unused 
stoves. Pileus fleshy, soft, bell-shaped, then expanded, obtuse, virgate, with 
adpressed black fibrils. The gills are free, flesh-colored, and inclined to deliquesce. 
The stem is solid, subequal, white. The volva loose, whitish. The spores are 
smooth, elliptical. 

This is a much smaller plant than the V. bombycina and grows in the ground. 
It is often found in hot-houses and cellars. 



Entoloma. Fr. 

Entoloma is from two Greek words ; cntos, within ; hum, a fringe, referring 
to the inner character of the veil, which is seldom even apparent. The members' 
of this genus have rosy spores which are prominently angular. There is neither 
volva, nor annnlus. The gills are attached to the stem or notched near the junction 
of the gills and the stem. The pileus is fleshy and the margin incurved, especially 
when young. The stem is fleshy, fibrous, sometimes waxy, continuous with the 
pileus. It corresponds with Hypholoma, Tricholoma, and Hebeloma. It can 
always be separated from the rosy-spored genera by the notched gills. The 

Figure 196. Entoloma rhodopolium. Three-fourths natural size. 

flesh-colored spores and gills distinguish the Entoloma from the Hebeloma, which 
has ochre-spored ones, and Tricholoma, which has white ones. 

All the species, so far as I know, have rather a pleasant odor, and for that 
reason it is highly necessary that the genus and species should be thoroughly 
known, as they are all dangerous. 



lintoloma rhodopolium. Fr. 
The; Rose-Gray Entou>ma. 

Rhodopolium is composed of two Greek words, rose and gray. 

The pileus is two to five inches broad, hygrophanous ; when moist dingy- 
brown or livid, becoming pale when dry, isabelline-livid, silky-shining; slightly 
fleshy, bell-shaped when young, then expanded and somewhat umbonate, or 
gibbous, at length rather plane and sometimes depressed ; fibrillose when young, 
smooth when full grown ; margin at first bent inwards and when large, undulated. 
Flesh white. 

The gills adnate, then separating, somewhat sinuate, slightly distant, broad, 
white, then rose color. 

The stem is two to four inches long, hollow ; equal when smaller, when 
larger, attenuated upward ; white pruinate at the apex, otherwise smooth ; slightly 
striate, white, often reddish from spores. Spores 8-iox6-8/i,. Fries. 

The plant is found in mixed woods and is rather common. Captain Mc- 
Ilvaine reports it edible, but I have never eaten any of the Entolomas. Some of 
them have a bad reputation. Found in September and October. 

Entoloma grayanum. Pk. 

The pileus is convex to expanded, sometimes broadly umbonate, drab in 
color, the surface wrinkled or rugose, and watery in appearance. The flesh is 

thin and the margin in- 

The gills are at first drab 
in color, but lighter than the 
pileus, becoming pinkish in 
age. The spores on paper 
are very light salmon-color. 
They are globose or rounded 
in outline, 5-7 . angled, with 
an oil globule, 8-io/a in di- 

The stem is of the same 
color as the pileus, but 
lighter, striate, hollow, some- 
what twisted, and enlarged 
below. The above accurate 
description was taken from 

PlCUM i 97 .-F.ntoloma grayanum. One-half natural size. ^ nSOn's Studies of Ameri- 


can Fungi. The plants were found near a slate cut on the B. & O. rail- 
road near Chillicothe. Not edible. This species and E. grisea are very 
closely related. The latter is darker in color, with narrower gills, and 
has a different habitat. 

Bntoloma subcostatum. Atkinson n. sp. 

Subcostatum means somewhat ribbed, referring to the gills. 

Plants gregarious or in troups or clusters, 6-8 cm. high ; pileus 4-8 cm. broad ; 
stems 1-1.5 cm. thick. # 

The pileus is dark-gray to hair-brown or olive-brown, often subvirgate 
with darker lines ; gills light salmon-color, becoming dull ; stem colored as the 
pileus, but paler ; in drying the stems usually become as dark as the pileus. 

Pileus subviscid when moist, convex to expanded, plane or subgibbous, not 
umbonate, irregular, repand, margin incurved ; flesh white, rather thin, very thin 
toward the margin. 

Gills are broad, 1-1.5 cm. broad, narrowed toward the margin of the pileus, 
deeply sinuate, the angles usually rounded, adnexed, easily becoming free, edge 
usually pale, sometimes connected by veins, sometimes costate, especially toward 
the margin of the pileus. 

Basidia four-spored. Spores subglobose, about six angles, 8-10^ in diameter, 
some slightly longer in the direction of the apiculus, pale-rose under the microscope. 

Stem even, fibrous striate, outer bark subcartilaginous, flesh white, stuffed, 
becoming fistulose. 

Odor somewhat of old meal and nutty, not pleasant ; taste similar. 

Related to E. prunuloides, Fr., and E. clypeatum, Linn. Differs from the 
former in dark stem and uneven pileus, differs from the latter in being subviscid, 
with even stem, and pileus not umbonate and much more irregular, and differs 
from both in subcostate gills. Atkinson. 

The specimens in Plate XXX grew in grassy ground on the campus of the 
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. They were collected by R. A. Young 
and photographed by Dr. W. A. Kellerman, and through his courtesy I publish 
it. The plants were found the last of October, 1906. 

Bntoloma salmonea. Pk. 

Pileus thin, conical or companulate, subacute, rarely with a minute papilla at 
the apex, smooth, of a peculiar soft, ochraceous color, slightly tinged with salmon 
or flesh color. 

The gills and stem are colored like the pileus. Peck. 

Dr. Peck says, "It is with some hesitation that this is proposed as a species, 
its resemblance to another species is so close. The only difference is found in 

Plats XXX. Ficubi roLouA BuscosTATuk. 

Mature plants showing broad gills and very thin flesh, also fibrous striate stems. 



its color and in the absence of the prominent cusp 
of that plant. In both species the pileus is so thin 
that in well dried specimens, slender, dark, radiating 
lines on it, mark the position of the lamellae beneath, 
although in the living plant these are not visible." 
The plant in Figure 199 was found in Purgatory 
Swamp near Boston, by Mrs. Blackford. They are 
found in August and September. 

Bntoloma clypeatum. Linn. 
The Buckler Entoloma. 

Cly peat it in, a shield or buckler. The pileus is 
slightly fleshy, lurid when moist, when dry gray 
and rather shining, streaked, spotted, campanulate, 
then expanded, umbonate, smooth, watery. 

Gills just reaching the stem, rounded, ventri- 
cose, somewhat distant, minutely toothed, dirty 

The stem is stuffed, then hollow, equal, round, 
clothed with small fibers, becoming pale, covered 
with a minute powdery substance. The flesh is 
white when dry. This plant will be distinguished 

usually by the amount of white mycelium at the base of the stem. Dr. Herbst 
remarks that it is a genuine Entoloma. It is certainly a beautiful plant when fully 
developed. It is found in woods and in rich grounds from May till September. 
Label it poisonous until its reputation is established. 

Figure 199. Entoloma salmonea. 

Clitopilus. Fr. 

Clitopilus is from clitos, a declivity ; pilos, a cap. This genus has neither 
volva nor ring. It is often more or less eccentric, margin at first involute ; stem 
fleshy, diffused upward into the pileus ; the gills are white at first, then pink or 
salmon-color as the plant matures and the spores begin to fall ; decurrent, never 
notched. The pileus is more or less depressed, darker in the center. The spores 
are salmon-color, in some cases rather pale, smooth or warted. Clitopilus is 
closely related to Clitocybe, the latter having white gills, the former pink. It 
differs from Entoloma just as Clitocybe differs from Tricholoma. It can always 
be distinguished from Eccilia because the stem is never cartilaginous at the 
surface. It differs from the genus, Flammula, mainly in the color of the spores. 



Clitopilus prunulus. Scop. 
The; Plum Clitopilus. Edible. 

Prunulus means a small plum ; so called from the white bloom covering 
the plant. 

The pileus is two to four inches broad, fleshy, firm ; at first convex, then 

expanded, at length 
becoming slightly 
depressed, often ec- 
centric, as will be seen 
in Figure 200; whitish, 
often covered with a 
frost-like bloom, mar- 
gin often wavy, bend- 
ing backward. 

The gills are strong- 
ly decurrent, compara- 
tively few of full 
length, white, then 

The stem is solid, 
white, naked, striate, 
short. Spores, 7-8x5. 

This is one of the 
most interesting plants 
because of the various 
forms it presents. 

I have found it in 
various parts of the 
state and frequently 
about Chillicothe. It 
has a pleasant taste, 
and an odor reminding 
you of new meal. It is 
tender and its flavor is 

Found in woods or open woods, especially where it is damp, and under beech 
trees, as well as oak. Found from June to October. 

The plants in Figure 200 were collected near Ashville, N. C, and photo- 
graphed by Prof. H. C. Beardslee. 

Figure 200. Clitopilus prunulus. 




Clitopilus orccllus. Bull. 
The Sweet-Bread Clitopilus. Edible. 

Orcellus is a diminutive meaning a small cask ; from orca, a cask. 

The pileus is fleshy, soft, plane, or slightly depressed, often irregular, even 
when young; slightly silky, somewhat viscid when moist; white or yellowish-white, 
flesh white, taste 
and odor farinace- 

The gills are 
deeply decurrent, 
close, whitish, then 

The stem is short, 
solid, flocculose, of- 
ten eccentric, thick- 
ened above. The 
spores are elliptical, 
9-10x5//,. Peck, 426. 
Rep. N. Y. 

This plant re- 
sembles the Plum 
mushroom, C. 
prunulus, very 
closely in appear- 
ance, taste and odor, but it is considerably smaller. It grows in wet weather, in 
open fields and lawns. It is quite widely distributed in our state, having found it 
in Salem, Bowling Green, Sidney, and Chillicothe. I frequently find it associated 
with Marasmius oreades. The specimens in Figure 201 were found near Ashville, 
N. C, and were photographed by Prof. H. C. Beardslee. Found from July to 

Figure 201. Clitopilus orcellus. 

Clitopilus abortk'us. B. and C. 
The Abortive Clitopilus. Edible. 

Abortivus means abortive or imperfectly developed ; so called from its many 
irregular and undeveloped forms. 

The pileus is fleshy, firm, convex, or nearly plane, regular or irregular, dry, 
clothed with a minute silky tomentum, becoming smoother with age, gray or 
grayish-brown, flesh white, taste and odor subfarinaceous. 



Figure 202. Clitopilus abortivus. Two-thirds natural size, showing the grayish-brown cap and solid stem. 

The gills are slightly or deeply decurrent, at first whitish or pale gray, then 
flesh-colored, spores irregular, 7.5-10x6.5^.. 

The stem is nearly equal, solid, minutely flocculose, sometimes fibrous, striate, 
paler than the pileus. Peck, 426. Report N. Y. 

There are often three forms of this plant ; a perfect form, an imperfect form, 
and an abortive form, as will be seen in Figure 203. The abortive forms seem 
to be more common, especially in this locality. They will be taken at first to be 

PlGUKS 203. Clitopilus abortivus. Abortive forms. Edible. 



some form of puff-ball. They are found in open woods and in ravines. I found 
some very fine specimens under beech trees on Cemetery Hill. They are, however, 
widely distributed over the state and the United States. The specimens in Figure 
203 were collected near Ashville and photographed by Prof. Beardslee. 

Clitopilus subvilis. Pk. 
The Silky-Capped Clitopilus. Edible. 

Subvilis means very cheap, insignificant. 

The pileus is thin, centrally depressed or umbilicate, with the margin decurved, 
hygrophanus, dark-brown, striate on the margin when moist, taste farinaceous. 

The gills are subdistant, adnate, or slightly decurrent, whitish when young, 
then flesh-colored. 

The stem is slender, brittle, rather long, stuffed or hollow, glabrous, colored 
like the pileus or a little paler. 

The spores are angular, 7.5-10^. Peck, 42d Rept. 

This plant is distinguished from Clitopilus villis by its shining pileus, widely 
separated gills, and farinaceous taste. Found on Ralston's Run and in Haynes' 
Hollow, near Chillicothe, from July to October. 

Figure 204. Clitopilus Noveboracensis. Two-thirds natural size. 



Clitopilus Noveboracensis. Pk. 

Xoveboracensis, the New York Clitopilus. Pileus thin, convex, then expanded 
or slightly depressed ; dingy-white, cracked in areas or concentrically rivulose, 
sometimes obscurely zonate; odor farinaceous, taste bitter. 

Gills narrow, close, deeply decurrent, some of them forked, white, becoming 
dingy, tinged with yellow or flesh-color. 

Stem equal, solid, colored like the pileus, the mycelium white, often forming 
white, branching, root-like fibers. Spores globose. 

Prof. Beardslee thinks that this species is doubtless identical with C. popinalis 
of Europe. He has submitted specimens and photographs to European myco- 
logists, who hold to this view. 

I found this plant quite abundant on the Huntington Hills after heavy rains 
in August. Their season is from August to October. The specimens in Figure 204 
were found growing among leaves after a heavy rain October 10th. The plants 
have a tendency to turn blackish if they are bruised in handling them. 

Var. brevis. This is so called from its short stem. The margin of the pileus is 
pure white when moist. Gills attached to the stem or slightly decurrent. 

Ec cilia. Fr. 

Eccilia is from a Greek verb 
which means "I hollow out" ; so 
called because the hollow cartila- 
ginous stem expands upward into 
a membranaceous pileus, whose 
margin at first is incurved. Gills 
decurrent, attenuated behind. 

This genus corresponds with 
Omphalia and is separated from 
Clitopilus by the cartilaginous, 
smooth stem. 

FicurE 205. Kccilia carneo-gri 

or slate color. Gill- rosy. 

lie cilia cameo-grisea. B. & Br. 

Tin: Tm.ksii-Gkay Kcciua. 

Carneo-grisca means fleshy- 

The pileus is one inch or more 
broad, umbilicate, dark-gray or 



grayish flesh color, finely striate, margin darkened with micaceous 

The gills are distant, adnate, decurrent, rosy, slightly undulate, margin 
irregularly darkened. 

The stem is one to two inches long, slender, smooth, hollow, wavy, same 
color as the pileus, white tomentose at the base. 

Spores irregularly oblong, rough, 7x5^. 

It is found from Nova Scotia through the Middle West. It is commonly 
reported in fir and pine woods but I find it on the hillsides about Chillicothe in 
mixed woods. It is frequently found here associated with Boletinus porosus. 

Found in July, August, and September. 

Eccilia polita. Pers. 

Polita means having been furbished. 

The pileus is one inch or more broad, convex, umbilicate, somewhat mem- 
branaceous, watery, livid or hair-brown to olive, smooth, shining when dry, 

finely striate on the mar- 

The gills are slightly decur- 
rent, crowded, irregular or 
uneven, flesh color. 

The stem is cartilaginous, 
stuffed or hollow, lighter in 
color than the pileus, equal 
or sometimes slightly enlarged 
at the base, polished from 
which the specific name is de- 

This is a larger plant than 
E. carneogrisea ; and it dif- 
fers materially in the character 
of its spores, which are 
strongly angled and some 
of them square, 10-12/* in 
diameter, with a promin- 
ent mucro at one angle. 
It is found in the woods 
from September to frost. 

Figure 206. Eccilia polita. Natural size. Caps hair-brown 
to olive, umbilicate. 



Leptonia. Fr. 

Leptonia means slender, thin. 

The spores are salmon-color and irregular. The pileus is never truly fleshy, 
cuticle always torn into scales, disk umbilicate, and often darker than the margin 
which is at first incurved. The gills are attached to the stem and easily separated 
in old plants. The stem is rigid, with cartilaginous bark, hollow or stuffed, 
smooth, shining, often dark-blue, confluent with the cap. 

Leptonia incana. Fr. 
The Hoary Leptonia. 

Incana means hoary or grayish-white. 

The pileus is about one inch broad, somewhat membranaceous, convex, then 
plane, depressed in the center, smooth, with a silky lustre, margin striate. 

The gills are attached to the stem, broad, somewhat distant, white, then 

The stem is hollow, shining, smooth, brownish-green. The spores are very 
irregular, dull-yellowish, pink, rough, 8-9^. 

It is frequently found in pastures after warm rains. They grow in clusters, 
and have the odor of mice to a marked degree. 

Figure 207. Leptonia serrulata. 


Leptonia serrulata. Pers. 
Saw Leptonia. 

Serrulata means saw-bearing, so named from the serrulate character of the 

The pileus is dark-blue, flesh thin, umbilicate, depressed, without striate, 

The gills are attached to the stem, with a dark serrulate edge. 

The stem is thin, cartilaginous, paler than the pileus. 

Nolanea. Fr. 

Nolanea means a little bell, so called from the shape of the pileus. 

It is rosy-spored. The stem is cartilaginous and hollow. The pileus is sub- 
menbranaceous, thin, bell-shaped, papillate, margin straight, pressed close to the 
stem. The gills are free and not decurrent. They are found growing on the 
ground in the woods and pastures. 

Nolanea pascua. P. 
The Pasture Nolanea. 

Pascua means pasture. 

The pileus is membranaceous, conical, then expanded, slightly umbonate, 
smooth, striate, watery ; when dry, shining like silk. 

The gills are nearly free, ventricose, crowded, dirty-grayish. 

The stem is hollow, fragile, silky-fibrous, striate. The spores are irregular, 
9-10. They are found in pastures in summer and fall, after a rain. 

Nolanea conica. Pk. 

The Cone Nolanea. 

The pileus is thin, membranaceous, conical, with a minute umbo or papilla, 
cinnamon-color, striatulate when moist. 

The gills are light flesh-color, nearly free. 
The stem is slender, straight, hollow. 
Found in moist woods. 



Claudopus. Smith. 

Claudopus is from two Greek words : claudos, lame ; pus, foot. 

The pileus is eccentric or lateral like the Pleuroti. The species were formerly 
placed in the Pleuroti and Crepidoti, which they very closely resemble, save in the 
color of the spores. This genus formerly included those plants which have lilac 
spores, but Prof. Fries limited it to those which have pink spores. The spores in 
some species are even and in others, rough and angular. The stem is either 
wanting or very short, hence its name. All are found on decayed wood. 

Claudopus nidulans. Pers. 

Nidulans is from nidus, a 

The pileus is sessile, some- 
times narrowed behind into a 
short stem-like base, caps of- 
ten overlapping one another, 
kidney-shaped, quite downy, 
the margin involute, hairy to- 
ward the margin, a rich yellow 
or buff color. 

The gills are broad, moder- 
ately close, orange-yellow. 

The spores are even, 
3-5x1/*, elongated, somewhat 
curved, delicate pink in mass. It is quite common in the woods about Chillicothe. 
A maple log from which I secured the specimen photographed in Figure 208 was 
completely covered and presented a beautiful sight. It has a rather strong and 
disagreeable odor. It is edible, but generally tough, and must be chopped very fine 
and cooked well. It is found in woods, on logs and stumps, from August to 

Figure 208. Claudopus nidulans. One-half natural size. 
Cap yellow or buff. Gills orange-yellow. 

Claudopus variabilis. Pers. 

Variabilis, variable or changeable. The pileus is white, thin, resupinate that 
is the plant seems to be on its back, the gills being turned upward toward the light, 
quite downy, even, being fastened in the center to a short downy stem. 

The gills are at first white, then of the color of the spores. 

It is found on decaying limbs and branches in the woods. It is quite common 



The spores are of various shades of ochre yellow, rusty, rusty-brown, brown, 
yellowish-brown. The hymenophore is never free from the stem in the rusty- 
spored series, nor is there a volva. 

P ho Hot a. Fr. 

Pholiota, a scale. The members of this genus have rusty spores. These may 
be sepia-brown, bright yellowish-brown or light red. There is no volva, but there 
is a ring which is sometimes persistent, friable, and fugacious. In this respect it 
corresponds with the Armillaria among the white spored agarics. The pileus is 
fleshy. The gills are attached to the stem and sometimes notched with a decurrent 
tooth, tawny or rusty in color on account of the falling of the spores. Many 
species grow on wood, logs, stumps, and branches of trees, although others grow 
on the ground. 

Pholiota precox. Pers. 

The Early Phieiota. Edible. 

Precox, early. Pileus is fleshy, soft, convex, then expanded, at length 
smooth, even, margin at first incurved ; moist but not sticky, whitish, often with 
slight tinge of yellow or tan-color; when the plant is fully matured it is often 
upturned and fluted. 

The gills are attached to the stem and slightly decurrent by a tooth, moderately 
broad, crowded, unequal, creamy white, then rusty-brown. Spores brownish, 

The stem is stuffed, then hollow, often striate above the ring, rather slender, 
sometimes mealy, skin peeling readily, whitish. The spores are rusty-brown and 
elliptical. The caps are from one to two inches broad, and the stem is from two 
to three inches long. The veil is stretched like a drumhead from the stem to the 
margin of the cap. It varies in manner of breaking ; sometimes it separates from 




the margin of the cap and forms a ring around the stem ; again, but little remains 
on the stem and much on the rim of the cap. 

It appears every year on the Chillicothe high school lawn. The gills are 
creamy-white when the cap first opens, but they soon turn to a rusty-brown. 
It comes in May. I have never found it after June. I am always delighted to 
find it for it is always appetizing at that season. Look for them on lawns and 
pastures and in grain fields. 

Figure 209. Pholiota precox. Two-thirds natural size. Caps whitish, often tinged with yellow. 

Pholiota dura. Bolt. 
The Hard Phouota. Edible. 

Dura, hard; so called because the surface of the cap becomes quite hard and 
cracked. The pileus is from three to four inches or more broad, very compact, 
convex, then plane, cuticle often very much cracked, margin even, tawny, tan-color, 
sometimes quite brown. 

The gills are firmly attached to the stem, somewhat decurrent with a tooth, 
ventricose, livid, then a brown rusty color. Spores elliptical, 8-9x5-6/1. 

The stem is stuffed, hard, externally fibrous, thickened toward the apex, 
sometimes ventricose, often irregularly shaped. 

On June 6th, 1904, I found Mr. Dillman's garden on Hickory street, Chilli- 
cothe, white with this plant. Some were very large and beautiful and I had an 
excellent opportunity to observe the irregularity in the form of the stem. Some 



years previous I found a garden in Sidney, Ohio, equally filled. In the fall of 
1905 I was asked to drive out about seven miles from Chillicothe to see a wheat- 
field, the last of October, that was white with mushrooms. I found them to be of 
this species. 

Only the young- plants should be used, as the older ones are a bit tough. 

Figure 210. Pholiota dura. One-half natural size. Caps tawny tan-color. 

Pholiota adiposa. Fr. 
The Fat or Pineapple; Pholiota. Edible. 

Adiposa is from adeps, fat. The pileus is showy, deep-yellow, compact, con- 
vex, obtuse, slightly umbonate, quite viscid when moist, shining when dry ; cuticle 
plain or broken into scales which are dark-brown, the margin incurved ; the flesh 
is saffron-yellow, thick at the center and thinning out toward the margin. 

The gills are firmly attached to the stem, sometimes slightly notched, close, 
yellow, then rust-color with age. Spores elliptical, 7x3^. 

The stem is equal, stuffed, tough, thickening at the base, brown below and 
yellow above, quite scaly. 

The beautiful appearance of the tufts or clusters in which the Pineapple 
Pholiotas grow will attract the attention of an ordinarily unobservant beholder. 
The scales on the cap seem to contract and rise from the surface and sometimes 



disappear with age. The caps of mushrooms should not ordinarily be peeled before 
cooking, but it is better to peel this one. 

The ring is slight and the specimens represented here were found on a stump 
in Miss Effie Mace's yard, on Paint Street, Chillicothe. 

Figure 211. Pholiota adiposa. Two-thirds natural size. Caps saffron-yellow. 

Pholiota caperata. Pers. 

Tin; \Y k ink 1.1:1 ) Piioi.iota. Hnir.1.1:. 

Caperata means wrinkled. 

The pileus is three to four inches broad, fleshy, varying from a clay to a 
yellowish color, at first somewhat egg-shaped, then expanded, obtuse, wrinkled at 
the sides, the entire cap and especially at the center is covered with a white 
superficial flocci. 

The gills are adnate or attached t<> the Stem, rather crowded, this, somewhat 
toothed on their edges, clay-cinnamon color. Spores elliptical. 1 2x4. s>. 

The stem is four to five inches long, solid, Stout, round, somewhat bulbous at 

Plate XXXI. Figure 212. Pholiota caperata. 



the base, white, scaly above the ring-, which is often very slight, often only a 
trace, as will be seen on the left hand plant in Figure 212. 

The spores are dark ferruginous when caught on white paper, but paler on 
dark paper. 

The white superficial flocci will mark the plant. It has a wide distribution 
throughout the states. I found it in a number of places in Ohio and it is quite 
plentiful about Chillicothe. It is a favorite in Germany and it is called by the 
common people "Zigeuner," a Gypsy. 

It is found in September and October. 

Figure 213. Pholiota unicolor. Natural size. 

Pholiota unicolor. I'l. Dan. 

Unicolor means of one color. 

The pileus is companulate to convex, subumbonate. hygrophanous, bay, then 
ochre, nearly even, never fully expanded. 

The gills are subtriangular. adnate, seceding, broad, ochraceous-cinnamon. 
Spores 9-10x5^.. 


The stem is stuffed, then hollow, colored as the pileus, nearly smooth, ring 
thin but entire. 

They are a late grower and found on well-decayed logs. They are quite com- 
mon in our woods. Found in November. The plants in Figure 213 were found 
on the 24th of November, in Haynes' Hollow. 

Pholiota mutablis. Schaff. 
The Changeable; Pholiota. Edible. 

Mutablis means changeable, variable. The pileus two to three inches broad, 
fleshy ; deep cinnamon when moist, paler when dry ; margin rather thin, trans- 
parent ; convex, then expanded, somestimes obtusely umbonate, and sometimes 
slightly depressed; even, quite smooth, flesh whitish and taste mild. 

The gills are broad, adnate, slightly decurrent, close, pale umber, then cin- 

The stem is two to three inches long, slender, stuffed, becoming hollow, 
smooth above or minutely pulverulent, and pale, below slightly scally up to the 
ring, and darker at the base, ring membranaceous, .externally scaly. The spores 
are ellipsoid, 9-11x5-6^. 

I find this specimen growing in a caespitose manner on decayed wood. It 
is quite common here late in the season. I found some very large specimens on 
Thanksgiving day, 1905, in Gallia County, Ohio. It is one of the latest edible 

Pholiota hcteroclita. Fr. ' , . 

Bulbous-stemmed Pholiota. 

Heteroclitus means leaning to one side, out of the center. 

The pileus is three to six inches broad, compact, convex, expanded, very 
obtuse, rather eccentric, marked with scattered, innate, adpressed scales, whitish 
or yellowish, sometimes smooth when dry, viscid if moist. 

The gills are very broad, at first pallid, then ferruginous, rounded, adnexed. 

The stem is three to four inches long, solid, hard, bulbous at the base, 
fibrillose, white or whitish ; veil apical, ring fugacious, appendiculate. The spores 
are subelliptical, 8-10x5-6/*,. 

This species has a strong and pungent odor very much like horse-radish. 
It grows on wood and its favorite hosts are the poplar and the birch. It is 
found at almost any time in the fall. The specimens in the Figure 214 were 
found in Michigan and photographed by Dr. Fischer, of Detroit. 



** * "\ >< 



?^B . ' ; 2sBaiK- 

* ^ w ^BmwmUujII 

c" ' s8 |j^ 

Lb r 


Figure 214. Pholiota heteroclita. Natural size. Caps whitish or yellowish. 

Pholiota aurevella. Batsch. 
Golden Pholiota. 

Aurevella is from auri-vclliis, a golden fleece. 

The pileus is two to three inches in diameter, bell-shaped, convex, gibbous, 
tawny-yellow, with darker scales, rather viscid. 

The gills are crowded, notched behind, fixed, very broad, plane, pallid olive, 
at length ferruginous. 

The stem is stuffed, nearly equal, hard, various in length, curved, with rusty 
adpressed squamules, ring rather distant. On trunks of trees in the fall, generally 
solitary. Not very common. 

Pholiota curvipes. /';. 

Curvipes, with a curved foot or stem. Pileus is rather fleshy, convex, then 
expanded, torn into adpressed floccose scales. 

The gills are adnate, broad, white, then yellowish, at length tawny. 

The stem is somewhat hollow, thin, incurved ( from which it derives its name), 
fibrillose, yellow, as well as is the floccose ring. Spores 6-7x3-4. Cooke. 



I found several specimens of this species at different times on one well rotted 
beech log on Ralston's Run, but was unable to find it on any other log in any woods 
near Chillicothe. I had trouble to place it till Prof. Atkinson helped me out. I 
found it from August to November. 

Pholiota spectabilis. Fr. 
The Showy Pholiota. 

Spectabilis, of notable appearance, worth seeing. The pileus is compact, con- 
vex, then plane, dry, torn into silky scales disappearing toward the margin, golden 
orange color, flesh yellow. 

The gills are adnexed, rounded near the stem, slightly decurrent, crowded, 
narrow, yellow, then ferruginous. 

The stem is solid, three to four inches high, quite thick, tough, spongy, 
thickened toward the base, even, bulbous, somewhat rooting. Ring inferior. I 
found the specimens in October and November. It may grow earlier. Found on 
decayed oak stumps. 

Pholiota marginata. Batsch. 
The Marginate Pholiota. Edible. 

Marginata means edged, mar- 
gined ; so called from the pe- 
ripheral striae of the pileus. 

The pileus- is ..rather fleshy, 
convex, then plane, smooth, 
moist, watery, striate on the 
margin, honey-colored when 
moist, tan-colored when dry. 

The gills are firmly attached 
to the stem, crowded, unequal; 
when mature, of a dark reddish- 
brown from the shedding of the 
spores. Spores 7-8x4^. 

The stem is cylindrical, smooth, hollow, of the same color as the pileus, covered 
with a frost-like bloom above the ring, which is distant from the apex of the stem 
and frequently disappears entirely. 

It is quite common, being found on nearly every rotten log in our woods. It 
comes early and lasts till late in the fall. "The caps are excellent when well 

Figure 215. Pholiota marginata. Two-thirds natural size. 
Caps honey-colored and tan-colored. 



Pholiota agerita. Fr, 

./Egerita is the Greek name for the black poplar; so called bcause it grows 
on decayed poplar logs. The pileus is fleshy, convex, then plane, more or less 
checked or rivulose, wrinkled, tawny, edge of the cap rather pale. 

The gills are adnate. with a decurrent tooth, rather close, pallid, then growing 

The stem is stuffed, equal, silky-white, ring superior, fibrillose, tumid. 
Spores 10x5^. 

Found in October and November, in the woods wherever there are decayed 
poplar logs. 

FicurE 216. Pholiota squarrosoides. Two-thirds natural size. Cans yellow or yellowish. 

Pholiota squarrosoides. Pk, 
I. ikk Tin: Scaly Pholiota. Edible. 

Squarrosoides means like Squarrosa. The pileus is quite firm, convex, viscid. 
especially when moist; at first densely covered with erect papillose or subspinose 
tawny scales, which soon separate from each other, revealing the whitish or yellow- 
ish color of the cap and its viscid character. 

Plate XXXII. Figure 217. Pholiota squarrosa. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 


The gills are close, emarginate, at first whitish, then pallid or dull cinnamon 

The stem is equal, firm, stuffed, rough, with thick squarrose scales, white 
above the thick floccose annulus, pallid or tawny below. The spores are minute, 
elliptical, .0002 inch long, .00015 inch broad. 

They grow in tufts on dead trunks and old stumps, especially of the sugar 
maple. They closely resemble P. squarrosa. Found late in the fajl. Its favorite 
haunt is the inside of a stump or within the protection of a log. 

Pholiota squarrosa. Mull. 
The Scaly Pholiota. Edible. 

Squarrosa means scaly. The pileus is three to four inches broad, fleshy. 
bell-shaped, convex, then expanded; obtusely umbonate, tawny-yellow, clothed 
with rich brown scales ; flesh yellow near the surface. 

The gills are attached to the stem, with a decurrent tooth, at first yellowish, 
then of a pale olive, changing to rusty-brown in color, crowded, and narrow. 
The spores are elliptical, 8x4/1. 

The stem is three to six inches high, saffron yellow, stuffed, clothed with 
small fibers, scaly like the pileus, attenuated at the base from the manner of its 
growth. The ring is close to the apex, downy, rich brown, inclining to orange 
in color. 

This is quite a common and showy mushroom. It is found on rotten wood, 
on or near stumps, growing out from a root underground, and is often found 
at the foot of trees. Only the caps of the young specimens should be eaten. It 
is found from August to late frost. 

hiocybc. J'r. 

Inocybe is from two Greek words meaning fiber and head: so called from 
the fibrillose veil, concrete with the cuticle of the pileus. often free at the margin, in 
the form of a cortina. The gills are somewhat sinuate, though they are sometimes 
adnate, and in two species are decurrent : changing color but not powdered with 
cinnamon. Spores are often rough but in other specimens are even, more or less 
brownish rust-color. Stevenson. 



Inocybe scaber. Mull. 
Rough Inocybe. Not Edible. 

Scaber means rough. The pileus is fleshy, conical, convex, obtusely gibbous, 
sprinkled with fibrous adpressed scales ; margin entire, grayish-brown. 

The gills are rounded near the stem, quite crowded, pale dingy-brown. 

The stem is solid, whitish or paler than the pileus, clothed with small fibers, 
equal, veiled. The spores are elliptical, smooth, 11x5/1,. 

It is found on the ground in damp woods. Not good. 

Inocybe lac era. l'r. 
The Torn Inocybe. 

Lacera means torn. The pileus is somewhat fleshy, convex, then expanded, 
obtuse, umbonate, clothed with fibrous scales. 

The gills are free, broad, ventricose, white, tinged with red, light-gray. 
Spores are obliquely elliptical, smooth, I2x6fi. 

The stem is slender, short, stuffed, clothed with small fibers, naked above, 
reddish within. 

Found on the ground where the soil is clayish or poor. Not good. 

Figure 218. Inocybe subochracea Burtii. Natural size. 



Inocybe subochracea Burtii. Peck. 

This is a very interesting species. It is thus described by Dr. Peck : "Veil 
conspicuous, webby fibrillose, margin of the pileus more fibrillose; stem longer and 
more conspicuously fibrillose. The well developed veil, and the longer stem, are 
the distinguishing characters of this variety." 

The plants are found in mossy patches on the north hillsides about Chillicothe. 
The pale ochraceous yellow and the very fibrillose caps and stem will attract the 
attention of the collector at once. The caps are one to two and a half inches 
broad and the stem is two to three inches long. 

Inocybe subochracea. Peck. 

Pileus thin, conical or convex, sometimes expanded, generally umbonate, 
fibrillose squamulose, pale ochraceous-yellow. 

The gills are rather broad, attached, emarginate, whitish, becoming brownish- 

The stem is equal, whitish, slightly fibrillose, solid. Peck. 

This is a small plant from one to two inches high whose cap is scarcely over 
an inch broad. It grows in open groves where the soil is sandy. It is found on 
Cemetery Hill from June to October. 

Inocybe geophylla, var. violacea. Pat. 


MliwMrli jfc* 

V- x ^^ 




k *% 


1 ^j^ 

8 pvj ..-;'* 

W Jjpr Ev. i 


' JbhH 

PlCUJtl 219. Inocybe geophylla, var. violacea. 

This is a small 
plant and has all 
the characteristics 
of Inocybe geo- 
phylla excepting 
color of cap and 

The pileus is an 
inch to an inch 
and a half broad, 
hemispherical at 
first, then expand- 
ed, u m b i> n a t e, 
even, silky - fib- 
rillose. lilac. 
growing paler in 



The gills are adnexed, lilac at first, then colored by the spores. Spores 10x5. 
The stem equal, firm, hollow, slightly violaceous. 

This plant grows in September in mixed woods among the dead leaves. 
Its bright violet color will arrest the attention at once. 

Dulcamara m e a n s 
bitter - sweet. The 

pileus is an inch to an 
inch and a half in di- 
ameter, rather fleshy, 
convex, umbonate, 

The gills are arcuate, 
ventricose, pallid oli- 

The stem is some- 
what hollow, fibrillose 
and squamulose from 
the veil, farinaceous at 
the apex. Spores 

Found from July to 
September, in grassy 

Inocybe dulcamara. A. & S. 

Figure 220. Inccybe dulcamara. 

Inocybe cincinnata; Fr. 

Cincinnata means with curled hair. This is 
quite an interesting little plant. It is found 
on Cemetery Hill, in Chillicothe, under the 
pine trees and along the walks where there is 
but little grass. It is gregarious and quite a 
hardy plant. 

The pileus is fleshy, convex, then plane, 
quite squarrosely scaly, somewhat dark or 

The gills are grayish-brown with a tinge of 
violet at times ; adnexed, rather close, ventri- 

Figure 221. Inocybe cincinnata. Two- 
thirds natural size. Caps scaly, 
dark or grayish -brown. 


The stem is solid, slender, scaly, somewhat lighter than the pileus. The 
spores are 8- 10x5/*. 

This plant seems to be a late grower. I did not find it till about the 15th 
of October and it continued till the last of November. I had found two other 
species on the same hill earlier in the season. No Inocybes are good to eat. 

fnocybe pyriodora. Pers. 

Pyriodora, smelling like a pear. The pileus is one to two inches broad, quite 
strongly umbonate, at first conical, expanded, covered with fibrous adpresscd 
scales, in old plants the margin turned up, smoky or brown-ochre becoming pale. 

The gills are notched at the stem, not crowded, dingy-white, becoming nearly 
cinnamon-brown, somewhat ventricose. 

The stem is two to three inches long, stuffed, firm, equal, pale, apex pruinose, 
veil very fugacious. Flesh tinged with red. 

Common in the woods in September and October. The plant is not edible. 

Inocybe rimosa. Bull. 
The Cracked Inocybe. 

Rimosa, cracked. The pileus is one to two inches broad, shining, satiny, 
adpressed fibrillose, brown-yellow, campanulate, then expanded, longitudinally 

The gills are free, somewhat ventricose, at first white, brownish-clay color. 

The stem is one to two inches high, distant from the pileus, solid, firm, nearly 
smooth, bulbous, mealy white above. Spores smooth, 10-11x6^. 

I. eutheles differs from this species in being umbonate ; I. pyriodora in its 
strong smell. Many plants will often be found in one place in open woods or in 
cleared places. Their radiately cracked pilei, with the inner substance showing 
yellow through the cracks, will help to distinguish the species. Found from June 
to September. 

Hcbt-loma. I'r. 

Hebeloma is from two Greek words meaning youth and fringed. Partial 
veil fibrillose or absent. Pileus is smooth, continuous, somewhat viscid, margin 
incurved. The gills are notched adnate, edge of different color, whitish. The 
spores clay-color. All found on the ground. 


Hebeloma glutinosum. Linn. 

Glutinosum, abounding in glue. The pileus is one to three inches broad, 
light-yellow, the disk darker, fleshy, convex, then plane, covered with a viscid 
gluten in wet weather ; flesh is white, becoming yellow. 

The gills are attached to the stem, notched, slightly decurrent, crowded, pallid, 
light yellow, then clay-color. Spores elliptical, 10-12x5/*,. 

The stem is stuffed, firm, somewhat bulbous, covered with white scales, and 
mealy at the top. There is a partial veil in the form of a cortina. 

Found among leaves in the woods. In wet weather the gluten is abundant. 
While it is not poisonous it is not good. 

Hebeloma fastibile. Fr. 
Ochrey Hebeloma. Poisonous. 

Fastibilis means nauseous, disagreeable ; so called from its pungent taste and 

The pileus is one to three inches across, convex, plane, wavy, viscid, smooth, 
pale yellowish-tan, margin involute and downy. 

The gills are notched, rather distant, pallid, then cinnamon ; lachrymose. 

The stem is two to four inches long, solid, subbulbous, white, fibrous scaly, 
sometimes twisted, often becoming hollow, veil evident. The spores are pip- 
shaped, iox6/x. 

The odor is much the same as in H. crustiliniforme but it differs in having 
a manifest veil and more distant gills. Found in woods from July to October. 

Hebeloma crustiiliniforme. Bull. 
The Ring Hebeloma. Not Edible. 

Crustuliniforme means the form of a cake or bun. 

The pileus is convex, then expanded, smooth, somewhat viscid, often wavy, 
yellowish-red, quite variable in size. 

The gills are notched, thin, narrow, whitish then brown, crowded, edge 
crenulate, and with beads of moisture. 

The stem is solid, or stuffed, firm, subbulbous, whitish, with minute white 
recurved flecks. 

It is found in woods or about old saw-dust piles. The plants sometimes 
grow in rings. September to November. 



Hebeloma pascuense. Pk. 

Pascuense, pertaining 
to pastures ; referring to 
its habitat. 

The pileus is convex. 
becoming nearly plane, 
viscid when moist, ob- 
scurely innately fibril- 
lose ; brownish-clay, of- 
ten darker or rufescent 
in the center, the margin 
in the young plant slight- 
ly whitened by the thin 
webby veil ; the margin 
of the cap more or less 
irregular, flesh white, the 
taste mild, odor weak. 

The gills are close, 
rounded behind, ad- 
nexed. whitish, becom- 
ing pale ochraceous. 

The stem is short, 
firm, equal, solid, fibril- 
lose, slightly mealy at the 
top, whitish or pallid. 

The spores are pale 
ochraceous, subelliptical. 
I found the plants in 
Figure 222 on Cemetery 
Hill late in November. 
It is a verv low plant, 

Figure 222. -Hebeloma pascuense. Natural size. Caps chestnut-color. ff T under the nine 

trees and keeping close to the walks. The whitened margin of the young plant 
is a very good ear-mark by which to know this species. 

Pluteolus. / ; r. 

Pluteolus means a small shed. It is the diminutive of pluteus, a shed or pent- 
house, from its conical cap. 

The pileus is rather fleshy, viscid, conical or campanulate, then expanded: 
margin at first straight, adpressed to the stem. Stem somewhat cartilaginous, 
distinct from the hymenophore. Gills free, rounded behind. 


Pluteohis reticulatus. Pcrs. 

Reticulatus means made like a net ; from rctc, a net, so called from the net-like 
appearance of veins on the cap. 

The pileus is slightly fleshy, campanulate, then expanded, rugoso-reticulate, 
viscid, margin striate, pale violaceous. 

The gills are free, ventricose, crowded, saffron-yellow, to ferruginous. 

The stem is one to two inches long, hollow, fragile, fibrillose, inclined to be 
mealy at the top, white. 

I have found only a few plants of this species in our state. It seems to be 
rare. The anastomosing veins on the cap and its pale violaceous color will mark 
the species. I have always found it on decayed wood. Captain Mcllvaine speaks 
of finding it in quantities on the stems of fallen weeds and says it was tender and 
of fine flavor. September. 

Gal era. Fr. 

Galera means a small cap. The pileus is more or less bell-shaped, margin 
straight, at first depressed to the stem, hygrophanous, almost even, atomate when 
dry, more or less membranaceous. 

The gills are attached to the stem or with a decurrent tooth, as in Mycena. 

The stem is cartilaginous, hollow, confluent with, but different in texture 
from the cap. The veil is often wanting, but when present is fibrous and fugacious. 
The spores are ochraceous ferruginous. 

Galera hypnorutn. Batsch. 
The; Moss-Loving Galera. 

Hvpnorum means of mosses ; from hypna, moss. 

The pileus is membranaceous, conic, campanulate, smooth, striate, watery 
when moist, pale when dry, cinnamon. 

The gills are attached to the stem, broad, rather distant, cinnamon-colored, 
whitish on the edge. 

The stem is slender, wavy, same color as the pileus, pruinose at the apex. 
This plant is very like G. tenera, only much smaller.and of a very different habitat. 
Found in mosses from June to October. 



Galera tenera. Schacff. 

The Slender Galera. Edible. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 
Figure 223. Galera tenera. 

Found in richly manured lawns and pastures 
caps, only, are good. 

Tenera is the feminine 
form of tener, slender, deli- 

The pileus is somewhat 
membranaceous, at first cone- 
shaped, partially expanded, 
bell-shaped, hygrophanous, 
ochraceous when dry. 

The gills are attached to 
the stem, crowded, rather 
broad, ascending, cinnamon- 
brown, the edges whitish, 
sometimes slightly serrate. 

The stem is straight, hol- 
low, fragile, rather shining; 
three to four inches long, 
equal or sometimes inclined 
to thicken downward, of 
nearly the same color as the 
pileus. The spores are el- 
liptical and a dark rust-color, 

You will frequently meet 
a variety whose cap and stem 
are quite pubescent but 
whose other characteristics 
agree with G. tenera. Prof. 
Peck calls it G. tenera var. 

It is quite common. The 

Galera lateritia. Fr. 
The Brick-Red Galera. Edible. 

Lateritia means made of brick, from later, a brick ; so called because the caps 
are brick-colored. 

The pileus is somewhat membranaceous, cone-shaped, then bell-shaped, obtuse, 
even, hygrophanous. rather pale yellow when wet, ochraceous when dry. 



The gills are almost free, adnexed to 
the top of the cone, linear, very narrow, 
tawny or ferruginous. 

The stem is three to four inches long, 
hollow, slightly tapering upward, 
straight, fragile, white pruinose, whit- 
ish. Spores are elliptical, 11-12x5-6//, 

This plant resembles G. ovalis, from 
which it can be distinguished by its 
linear ascending gills and the absence 
of a veil. 

Found on dung and in richly manured 
pastures, from July to frost. 

Galera Kellermani. Pk. sp. nov. 

Kellermani is named in honor of Dr. 
W. A. Kellerman, Ohio State Universi- 

The pileus is very thin, subovate or 
subconic, soon becoming plane or nearly 
so ; striatulate nearly to the 
center when moist, more or 
less wavy and persistently 
striate on the margin when 
dry, minutely granulose or 
mealy when young, unpol- 
ished when mature, often 
with a few scattered floccose 
squamules when young, and 
sometimes with a few slight 
fragments of a veil adhering 
to the margin which appears 
as if finely notched by the 
projecting ends of the gills ; 
watery-brown when moist, 
grayish-brown when dry, a 
little darker in the center ; 
taste slight, odor faint, like 
that of decaying wood. 

The gills are thin, close, 
adnate, a delicate cinnamon- 

Ficure 224. Galera Kellermani. Showing 
young plants. 

Figure 225. Galera Kellermani. Showing older plants. 



brown becoming' darker with age. The stem is two and a half to four cm. long, 
slender, equal, or slightly tapering upward ; finely striate, minutely scurvy or 
mealy, at least when young ; hollow, white. The spores are brownish ferruginous 
with a faint pinkish tint in mass, elliptic, 8-12x6-7/*. Peck. 

Dr. Peck says the distinguishing features of this species are its broadly 
expanded or plane grayish-brown pileus, with its granulose or mealy surface, its 
persistently striate margin, and its very narrow gills becoming brownish with age. 
I have seen the plant growing in the culture beds in the greenhouse of the Ohio 
State University. It is a beautiful plant. Plants of all ages are shown in Figures 
224 and 225. 

Ficrm-: 236. Galera crispa. Natural size. Cap ochraceous-brown, 

Galera crispa. Longyear. 

Crispa means crisped; the specific name is based on the peculiar character of 
the gills whidl are always crisped as soon as the pileus is expanded. 

The pileus is 1.5 to 3.5 cm. broad, membranaceous, persistently conico-com- 
panulate, subacute, uneven and somewhat rivulose, ochraceous-brown on disk, 


lighter toward the margin which becomes crenulate and upturned in older speci- 
mens ; slightly pruinose at first, rugulose and a little paler when dry. 

The gills are adnexed, not crowded, rather narrow, interspersed with 
anastomosing veins ; much crisped ; at first nearly white, then becoming ferruginous 
from the spores. 

The stem is 7 to 10 cm. long, tapering from a somewhat bulbous base, yellow- 
ish-white, pruinose at base, hollow, fragile. The spores are 8-iO/x broad, 12-16^ 
long. Longyear. 

They are found in grass on lawns and in pastures, June and July. 

Dr. Peck, to whom specimens were referred, suggested that they may be a 
variety of G. lateritia, unless the peculiar character of the gills preved to be 
constant. Prof. Longyear has found the plant frequently in Michigan and it was 
found by him in the City Park, Denver, Col, in July, 1905. 

Its distinguishing characteristic is sufficiently constant to make the recognition 
of the species a matter of ease. The plants in Figure 226 were photographed by 
Prof. B. O. Lons:vear. 

Galera oralis. Fr. 
The Oval Galera. 

The pileus is somewhat membranaceous, oval or bell-shaped, even, watery, 
dusky-rust color, somewhat larger than G. tenera. 

The gills are almost free, ventricose, very broad, rust-colored. 

The stem is straight, equal, slightly striate, nearly of the same color as the 
cap, about three inches long. Found in pastures where stock has been. I have 
found it in the Dunn pasture, on the Columbus pike, Ross County, O. 

Crepidotus. Fr. 

Crepidotus is from a Greek word meaning a slipper. The spores are dark 
or yellowish-brown. There is no veil. The pileus is excentric, dimidiate or 
resupinate. The flesh is soft. The stem is lateral or wanting, when present it 
is continuous with the cap. They generally grow on wood. 

Crepidotus versutus. Pk. 

This is a very modest little plant growing on the underside of rotten logs 
or bark, thus, no doubt, escaping the attention of many. Sometimes it may be 
found growing from the side of a log, in which case it grows in a shelving form. 



When growing under the log the upper side of the cap is against the wood and 
it is said to be resupinate. 

The pileus is kidney-form, quite small, thin, pure white, covered with a soft 
whitish down. 

The gills are radiate from the point of attachment of the cap, not crowded, 
whitish, then ferruginous from the spores. 

Figure 227. Crepidotus versutus. Natural size. Caps pure white. 

Crepidotus mollis. Schaeff. 
Soft Crepidotus. 

The pileus is between subgelatinous and fleshy ; one to two inches broad ; 
sometimes solitary, sometimes imbricated ; flaccid, even, smooth, reniform, sub- 
sessile, pallid, then grayish. 

The gills are decurrent from base, crowded, linear, whitish then watery 
cinnamon. The spores are elliptical, ferruginous, 8-9x5-6/1. 

This species is widely distributed and finite common on decayed logs and 
stumps, from July to October. 


Naucoria. Fr. 

Naucoria, a nut shell. The pileus is some shade of yellow, convex, inflexed, 
smooth, flocculent or scaly. The gills are attached to the stem sometimes nearly 
free, never decurrent. The stem is cartilaginous, confluent with the cap but of 
a different texture, hollow or stuffed. The veil is absent or sometimes small 
traces may be seen attached to the rim of the pileus, in young plants in the form 
of flakes. The spores are of various shades of brown, dull or bright. They 
grow on the ground on lawns and rich pastures. Some on wood. 

Naucoria hamadryas. Fr. 
The Nymph Naucoria. Edible. 

Hamadryas, one of the nymphs whose life depended upon the tree to which 
she was attached. 

The pileus is one to two inches broad, rather fleshy, convex, expanded, 
gibbous, even, bay-ferruginous when young and moist, pale yellowish when old. 

The gills are attenuated, adnexed, almost free, rusty, slightly ventricose, 
somewhat crowded. 

The stem is hollow, equal, fragile, smooth, pallid, two to three inches long. 
The spores are elliptical, rust-color, 13- 14x7^. 

This is quite a common species, often growing alone along pavements, under 
shade trees, and in the woods. The caps only are good. Found from June to 

Naucoria pediades. Fr. 
The Tan-colored Naucoria. EdibeE. 

Pediades is from a Greek word meaning a plain or a field, referring to its 
being found on lawns and pastures. 

The pileus is somewhat fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse or depressed, dry, 
finally opaque, frequently inclined to be minutely rivulose. 

The gills are attached to the stem but not adnate to it, broad, subdistant, 
only a few entire, brownish, then a dingy cinnamon. 

The stem is pithy or stuffed, rather wavy and silky, yellowish, base slightly 
bulbous. The spores are of a brownish-rust color, 10-12x4-5/*,. 

If the small bulb at the base of the stem is examined, it will be found to 
be formed chiefly of mycelium rolled together around the base. It is found on 
lawns and richly manured pastures from May to November. Use only the caps. 
This plant is usually known as semiorbicularis. 



Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 
FlGUHE ^^8. Xaucoria pediades. Natural size. 

NaucoHa pcdudosella. Atkinson n. sp. 

Paludosella is a diminutive of palus, gen. paludis, a swamp or marsh. 

Plants six to eight cm. high; pileus two and a half to three cm. broad; stem 
three to four mm. thick. 

Pileus viscid when moist, convex to expanded, in age somewhat depressed; 
clay color, darker over center, often with appressed clay brown scales with a 
darker color. 

Gills raw umber to Mars brown (R), emarginate. adnate sometimes with a 
decurrent tooth, easily becoming free. 

Cystidia on sides <>i gills none, cdiiv of gills with large, hyaline, thin-walled 

Plate XXXIII. Figure 229. Naucoria paludosella. 
Showing mode of growth, clay-brown scales on the caps. 


cells, subventricose, sometimes nearly cylindrical, abruptly narrowed at each end 
with a slight sinus around the middle. 

Spores subovate to subelliptical, subinequilateral, smooth, 7-9x4-5^, fuscous 
ferruginous, dull ochraceous under microscope. 

Stem same color as pileus but paler, cartilaginous ; floccose from loose 
threads or, in some cases, abundant threads over the surface; becoming hollow, 
base bulbous, the extreme base covered with whitish mycelium. 

Veil rather thick, floccose, disappearing, leaving remnant on stem and margin 
of pileus when fresh. Atkinson. 

Dr. Kellerman and I found this plant growing on living sphagnum, other 
mosses and on rotten wood on Cranberry Island, in Buckeye Lake, Ohio. Figure 
229 will illustrate its mode of growth, and the older plant with upturned cap will 
show the conspicuous clay-brown scales of the. pileus. The plants are found in 
September and October. 

Flammula. Fr. 

Flammula means a small flame; so called because many of the species have 
bright colors. The spores are ferruginous, sometimes light yellow. The cap 
is fleshy and at first usually inrolled, bright colored; veil filamentous, often 
wanting. The gills are decurrent or attached with a tooth. The stem is fleshy, 
fibrous, and of the same character as the cap. 

The species of the Flammula are mostly found on wood. A few are found 
on the ground. 

Flammula Havida. Schaeff. 
The Yellow Flammula. 

Flavida means yellow. 

The pileus is fleshy, convex, expanded, plane, equal smooth, moist, margin 
at first inrolled. 

The gills are firmly attached to the stem, yellow, turning slightly 

The stem is stuffed, somewhat hollow, fibrillose, yellow, ferruginous at the 

These plants are of a showy yellow, and are frequently found in our woods 
on decayed logs. They are found in July and August. 


Flammula carbonaria. Fr. 
The; Viscid Flammula. 

Carbonaria is so called because it is found on charcoal or burned 

The pileus is quite fleshy, tawny-yellow, at first convex, then be- 
coming plane, even, thin, viscid, margin of the cap at first inrolled, 
flesh vellow. 

Figure 230. Flammula carbonaria. 

The gills are firmly attached to the stem, clay-colored or brown, moderately 

The stem is stuffed or nearly hollow, slender, rigid, squamulose, pallid, 
quite short. 

The spores are ferruginous-brown, elliptical, 7x3.5^. 

I have found this species quite frequently where an old stump had been 
burned out. It is gregarious. I have only found it from September to No- 
vember but the specimens in Figure 230 were sent to me in May, from Boston. 
They were found in great abundance in Purgatory Swamp, where the grass and 
vegetation had been burned away. 



Flam inula fusus. Batsch. 

Fusus means a spindle ; so called from the spindle-shaped stem. 

The pileus is compact, convex, then expanded, even, rather viscid, reddish-tan, 
flesh yellowish. 

The gills are somewhat decurrent, pallid yellow, becoming ferruginous. 

The stem is stuffed, firm, colored like the pileus, fibrillose, striate, attenuated 
and somewhat fusiform, rooting. The spores are broadly elliptical, 10x4^. 

Found on well-decayed logs or on ground made up largely of decayed wood. 
Found from July to October. 

Flam inula fillius. Vr. 

The pileus is two to three inches .broad, even, smooth, with rather viscid 
cuticle, pale orange-red with the disc reddish. 

The gills are attached to the stem, arcuate, rather crowded, white, then pallid 
or tawny-yellow. 

'Hie stem is three to five inches long, hollow, smooth, pallid, reddish within. 
The spores are elliptical, 10x5/1. 

Found on the ground in the woods from July to October. 

Figure 231. Flammula squalida. 

Flam inula squalida. Pk. 

The pileus is one to one and a half inches broad, 
fleshy, convex, or plane, firm, viscose, glabrous, 
dingy-yellowish or rufescent. flesh whitish but in 
color similar to the pileus under the separate 

The gills are rather broad, adnate, pallid, be- 
coming dark ferruginous. 

The stem is one and a half to three inches long. 
one to two lines thick, slender, generally flexuose. 
hollow fibrillose, pallid or brownish, pale-yellow 
at the top when young: spores are brownish- 
ferruginous, .0003 inch long, .00016 broad. Peck. 

It is found in bushy and swampy places. Dr. 
Peck says it is closely related to F. spumosa. Its 
dingy appearance, slender habit, more uniform 
and darker color of the pileus. and darker color 
of the lamella?. Tt grows in groups. The plant in 
Figure 231 was found in Purgatory Swamp, by 
Mrs. Blackford, found in August and September. 



Pa.rilhts. Br. 

Paxillus means a small stake or peg. The spores as well as the entire plant are 
ferruginous. The pileus, with an involute margin, gradually unfolds. It may 
be symmetrical or eccentric. The stem is continuous with the hymenophore. The 
gills are tough, soft, persistent, decurrent, branching, membranaceous, usually 
easily separating from the hymenophore. 

The distinctive features of this genus are the involute margin and the soft, 
tough, and decurrent gills which are easily separable from the hymenophore. Some 
grow on the ground, others grow on stumps and sawdust. 

Figure 232. Paxillus involutus. 

Paxillus involutus. Fr. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 

v Involutus means rolled inward. The pileus is two to four inches broad, fleshy, 
compact, convex, plane, then depressed ; viscid when moist, the cap being covered 
with a fine downy substance, so that when the margin of the cap unrolls the marks 
of the gills are quite prominent ; yellowish or tawny-ochraceous, spotting when 

The gills are decurrent, branched ; anastomosing behind, near the stem ; easily 
separating from the hymenophore. 



The stem is paler than the pileus, fleshy, solid, firm, thickened upward, brown 

The flesh is yellowish, changing to reddish or brownish when bruised. The 
spores are rust-colored and elliptical, 8-iO/n. It is found on the ground and decayed 
stumps. When found on the side of a decayed stump or a moss-covered log the 
stem is usually eccentric, but in other cases it is generally central. 

It will be found around swampy places in an open woods. I found quite large 
specimens around a swamp in Mr. Shriver's woods near Chillicothe, but they were 
too far gone to photograph. It is edible but coarse. It appears from August to 
November. Some authors call it the Brown Chantarelle. 

Paxillus atrotomentosus. Fr. 

Atrotomentosus is from ater, black, and tomentum, woolly or downy. 

The pileus is three 
to six inches broad, 
rust-color or reddish- 
brown, compactly 
fleshy, eccentric, con- 
vex then plane or de- 
pressed, margin thin, 
frequently minutely 
rivulose, sometimes 
tomentose in the cen- 
ter, flesh white, tinged 
with brown under the 

The gills are at- 
tached to the stem, 
slightly decurrent, 
crowded, branched at 
the base, yellowish- 
tawny, interspaces 

The stem is two to 
three inches long, 
stout, solid, elastic, 
eccentric or lateral, 
rooting, covered ex- 
cept at the apex with 
a dark-brown velvety 
down. The spores are 
elliptical, 5-6x3-4^. 

FicurB 233. Paxillus atrotomentosus. 



I found the specimen in Figure 233 at the foot of an old pine tree on 
hillside at Sugar Grove, Ohio. I found the plant frequently at Salem, Ohio. It 
grows where the pine tree is a native. It is not poisonous. I do not regard it as 
very good. Found during August and September. 

PaxiUus rhodoxanthus. Schw. 

The Yellow Paxillus. Edible. 

Rhodoxanthus means a yellow rose. The pileus is one to two inches broad, 
convex, then expanded, cushion-shaped, the epidermis of the cap often cracked 
showing the yellow flesh, resembling very much Boletus subtomentosus ; reddish- 
yellow or chestnut-brown. The flesh is yellow and the cap dry. 

The gills are decurrent, somewhat distant, stout, chrome yellow, occasionally 

Figure 234. Paxillus rhodoxanthus. Two-thirds natural size. Cap reddish-yellow or chestnut-brown. 

Gills yellow. 

forked at the base; anastomosing veins quite prominent, the cystidia being very 

The stem is firm, stout, of the same color as the cap, perhaps paler and more 
yellow at the base. The spores are oblong, yellow, -8-12x3-5^. 

This is one of the most troublesome plants whose genus we have to settle. 
One of my mycological friends advised me to> omit it from the genus altogether. 
It has been placed in various genera, but I have followed Prof. Atkinson and 


classed it under Paxillus. The plant is widely distributed. I find it frequently 
about Chillicothe. It is edible. Found in August, September and October. A full 
discussion of the plant will be found in Prof. Atkinson's book. 

Cortinarius. Fr. 

Cortinarius is from cortina, a curtain, alluding to a cobwebby veil seen only 
in the comparatively young plants. Sometimes, parts of it will seem more sub- 
stantial, remaining for a time on the margin of the cap or on the stem. The color 
of the pileus varies and its flesh and that of the stem are continuous. Tht 
hymenophore and the gills are continuous. The gills are attached to the stem, 
frequently notched, membranaceous, persistent, changing color, dry, powdery, 
with rusty-yellow spores which drop slowly. The veil and gills are the chief 
marks of distinction. The former is gossamer-like and separate from the cuticle, 
and the latter are always powdered. It is always essential to note the color of the 
gills in the young plant, since color is variable and sometimes shows only the 
slightest trace on the stem, colored from the falling spores. 

Most authorities divide the genus into six tribes, from the appearance of the 
pileus. They are as follows : 

I. Phlegmacium, meaning a shiny or clammy moisture. The pileus has a 
continuous pellicle, viscid when moist, stem dry, veil spider-webby. 

II. Myxacium, meaning mucus, slime; so called from the glutinous veil. 
The pileus is fleshy, glutinous, rather thin ; the gills are attached to the stem, 

slightly decurrent ; the stem is viscid, polished when dry, slightly bulbous. 

III. Inoloma, meaning a fibrous fringe; from is, genative inos, a fibre; and 
loma, a fringe. 

The pileus is fleshy, dry, not hygrophanous or viscid, silky with innate scales ; 
the gills may be violaceous, pinkish-brown, yellow at first, then in all cases cin- 
namon-color from the spores ; the stem is fleshy and somewhat bulbous ; veil simple. 

IV. Dermocybe, meaning a skinhead ; from derma, skin, and cybe, a head. 
The pileus thin and fleshy, entirely dry, at first clothed with silky down, 

becoming smooth in mature plants. The gills are changeable in color. The stem 
is equal or tapering downward, stuffed, sometimes hollow, smooth. 

V. Telamonia, meaning a bandage or lint. The pileus is moist, watery, 
smooth or sprinkled with whitish superficial fibres, the remnants of the web-like 
veil. The flesh is thin, somewhat thicker at the center. The stem is ringed and 
frequently scaly from the universal veil, slightly veiled at the apex, hence almost 
with a double veil. The plants are usually quite large. 

VI. Hydrocybe, meaning water-head or moist head. The pileus is moist, 
not viscid, smooth or sprinkled with a whitish superficial fibril, flesh changing 
color when dry. and rather thin. The stem is somewhat rigid and bare. Veil 
thin, fibrillose. rarely forming a ring. Gills also thin. 



Cortinarius purpurascens. Fr. 
The; Purplish Cortinarius. Edible;. 

Purpurascens means becoming purple or purplish ; so named because the 
blue gills become purple when bruised. 

The pileus is four to five inches broad, bay-brown, viscid, compact, wavy, 
spotted when old ; often depressed at the margin, sometimes bending back ; the 
flesh blue. 

The gills are broadly notched, crowded, bluish-tan, then cinnamon-color, be- 
coming purplish when bruised. 

The stem is solid, bulbous, clothed with small fibres, blue, very compact, juicy ; 
becoming purplish when rubbed. The spores are elliptical, 10-12x5-6^. 

This is one of the delicious mushrooms to eat, the stem cooking tender as 
readily as the caps. I found it in Tolerton's woods, Salem, Ohio, and in Poke 
Hollow near Chillicothe. September to November. 

Cortinarius turmalis. Fr. 
The; Ylllow-Tan Cortinarius. Edible;. 

Turmalis means of or belonging to a troop or a squadron, turma ; so called 
because occurring in groups, and not solitary. 

The pileus is two to four inches broad, viscid when wet, ochraceous-yellow, 
smooth, discoid, flesh soft; veil extending from the margin of the cap to the stem 
in delicate arachnoid threads, best seen in young plants. 

The gills are emarginate, decurrent, depending upon the age of the plant ; 
crowded, somewhat serrated, whitish at first, then brownish-ochraceous-yellow. 
The remnants of the veil will usually show above the middle of the stem as a zone 
of minute striae, darker than the stem. 

I found specimens on Cemetery Hill under pine trees. September to 

Cortinarius olivaceo-stramineus. Kauff. n. Sp. 

Olivaceo-stramineus means an olive straw-color. 

Pileus 4-7 cm. broad, viscid from a glutinous cuticle, broadly convex, slightly 
depressed in the center when expanded ; margin incurved for some time ; pale- 
yellow with an olivaceous tinge, slightly rufous-tinged when old ; smooth or 


silky-fibrillose, disk sometimes covered with minute squamules, shreds of the 
partial veil attached to the margin when expanded. Flesh very thick, becoming 
abruptly thin toward the margin, white, dingy-yellowish in age, soon soft and 
spongy. Gills rather narrow, 7 mm. broad, sinuate-adnexed, whitish at first, then 
pale cinnamon, crowded, edge serratulate and paler. Stem 6-8 cm. long, with a 
slight bulb when young, from whose margin arises the dense partial veil ; white 
and very pruinate above the veil, which remains as clingy fibrils stained by the 
spores ; spongy and soft within, becoming somewhat hollow. Veil white with an 
olive tinge. Spores, 10-12x5.5-6.5^, granular within, almost smooth. Odor agreeable. 

Kauffman says this resembles C. herpeticus, except that the gills when young 
are never violet-tinged. 

I found this plant in Poke Hollow, near Chillicothe. It was unknown to me 
and I sent it to Dr. Kauffman of Michigan University to determine. I found it 
under beech trees, during October and November. 

Cortinarius varius. Fr. 
The Variable Cortinarius. Edible. 

Varius Variable, so called because it varies in stature, its color and habit 
are unchangeable. The pileus is about two inches broad ; compact, hemispherical, 
then expanded ; regular, slightly viscid, thin margin at first incurved, sometimes 
with fragments of the web-like veil adhering. 

The gills are notched, thin, crowded, quite entire, purplish, at length clay- 
colored or cinnamon. 

The stem is solid, short, covered with threads, whitish, bulbous, from one and 
a half to two and a half inches long. 

The plant is quite variable in size but constant in color. It is found in woods. 
I found specimens at Salem, Ohio, and at Bowling Green, Ohio. September to 

Cortinarius cccnrfesccns. Fr. 
The Azure-Blue Cortinarius. Edible. 

Caerulescens, azure-blue. Pileus fleshy, convex, expanded, even, viscid, azure- 
blue, flesh soft, not changing color when bruised. 

The gills are attached to the stem, slightly rounded behind, crowded, quite 
entire, at first of a pure dark blue, then rusty from the spores. 

The stem is solid, attenuated upward, firm, bright violet, becoming pale. 



whitish, bulb growing less with age, fibrillose from vein. Spores elliptical. Neither 
the flesh nor the gills change color when bruised. This fact distinguishes it from 
C. purpurascens. When young the entire plant is more or less blue, or bluish- 
purple, and the color never entirely leaves the plant. In age it becomes somewhat 
spotted with yellow. The flesh is a little tough and needs to be stewed for some 
time. Found in Whinnery's woods, Salem, Ohio. September to October. 


Cortinarius collinitus. Fr. 

The Smeared Cortinarius. Edible. 

Collinitus means smeared. The pileus is at first hemispherical, convex, then 
expanded, obtuse; smooth, even, glutinous, shining when dry; purplish when 
young, later brownish ; at first incurved. 
The sfills are attached to the 


rather broad, dingy- 
or grayish-tan when 
then cinnamon. 
The stem is solid, cylindri- 
cal, viscid or glutinous when 
moist, transversely cracking 
when dry, whitish or paler 
than the cap. The spores are 
elliptical, 12x6/*. I found this 
species in Tolerton's woods, 
Salem, Ohio, St. John's woods, 
Bowling Green, Ohio, also on 
Ralston's Run near Chilli- 
cothe, where the specimens in 
Figure 235 were found. Both 
cap and stem are covered with a thick gluten. They grow, with us, in woods 
among leaves. The young plant has a development peculiar to itself. The cap 
varies greatly in color. The flesh is white or whitish. The peculiar bluish-white 
gills of the young plant will attract attention at once. It is found from September 
to November. 

Figure 235. Cortinarius collinitus. One-half natural size. 
Caps purplish-brown, also showing veil. 




Cortinarius autumnalis. Pk. 

The; Fall Cortinarius. Edible. 

Autumnalis pertaining- to fall. The pileus is fleshy, convex or expanded, dull 
rusty-yellow, variegated, or streaked with innate rust-colored fibrils. 
The gills are rather broad, with a wide, shallow emargination. 

FIGURE 236. Cortinarius autumnalis. Two-thirds natural size. Cap a dull 
rusty-yellow, also showing bulbous stem. 

The stem is equal, solid, firm, bulbous, a little paler than the 

The height is three to four inches, breadth of pileus two to four inches. 

The plant was named by Dr. Peck because it was found late in the fall. I 
found the plant on several occasions in September, 1905. It grew very sparingly 
in a mixed woods on a north hillside. 



Cortinarius alboviolaceus. Pers. 
The Light Violet Cortinarius. Edible. 

Alboviolaceus means whitish-violet. 

The pileus is two to three inches broad, fleshy, rather thin, convex, then 
expanded, sometimes broadly subumbonate ; smooth, silky, whitish, tinged with 
lilac or pale violet. 

The gills are generally serrulate, whitish-violet, then cinnamon-color. 

The stem is three to four inches long, equal or tapering upward, solid, silky, 

Figure 237. Cortinarius alboviolaceus. The caps are pale violet. 

white, stained with violet, especially at the top, slightly bulbous, the bulb 
gradually tapering into the stem. Spores, 12x5-6/*. Peck's Report. 

Sometimes the stem has a median ring-like zone, being violet above the zone 
and white below. The spider-like veil shows very plainly in the specimen on the 
left in Figure 237. In the plant on the right is shown the tapering stem from the 
base to the apex. These plants were found in Poke Hollow, September 21st. 
They are quite abundant there and elsewhere about Chillicothe. They are very 
good but not equal in flavor to C. violaceus. They are found in mixed woods. 
September to frost. 


Cortinarius lilac in us. Pk. 
The Lilac-Colored Cortin arils. Edible. ' 

The pileus is two to three inches broad, firm, hemispherical, then convex, 
minutely silky, lilac-color. 

The gills are close, lilac, then cinnamon. 

The stem is four to five inches long-, stout, bulbous, silky-fibrillose, solid, 
whitish, tinged with lilacs. Spores nucleate, iox6/x. Peck. 

I have found this plant in but one place near Chillicothe. In Poke Hollow 
on a north hillside I have found a number of rare specimens. All were identified 
by Dr. Kauffman of Michigan University. All were found under beech trees 
within a very small radius. September and October. 

Cortinarius bolaris. Pr. 

The Collared Cortinarius. 

The"pileus is fleshy, obsoletely umbonate, growing pale, variegated with 
saffron-red, adpressed., innate, pilose scales. 

The gills are subdecurrent, crowded, watery cinnamon. 

The stem is two to three inches long, at first stuffed, then hollow, nearly 
equal, squamose. 

Found under beech trees. Onlv occasionallv found here. 

Cortinarius violaccus. Pr. 
Tiik Violet Cortinarius. Edible. 

Violaceus, violet color. The pileus is convex, becoming nearly plane, dry, 
adorned with numerous persistent hairy tufts or scales ; dark violet. 

The gills are rather thick, distant, rounded, or deeply notched at the inner 
extremity; colored like the pileus in the young plant, brownish-cinnamon in the 
mature plant. 

The stem is solid, clothed with small fibres ; bulbous, colored like the pileus. 
The spores are slightly elliptical. 

The Violet Cortinarius is a very beautiful mushroom and one easy of recogni- 
tion. At first the whole plant is uniformity colored, but with age the gills assume 
a dingy ochraceous or brownish-cinnamon hue. The cap is generally well formed 
and regular, and is beautifully adorned with little hairy scales or tufts. These 
are rarely shown in figures of the European plant, but they are quite noticeable 



in the American plant, and should not be overlooked. The flesh is more or less 
tinged with violet. Peck. 50th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

No one can fail to recognize this plant. The weblike veil in the young plant, 
the bulbous stem, and the violet tinge throughout will readily distinguish it. 
It grows in rich hilly country. It grows solitary, and in open woods. 

Figure 238. Cortinarius violaceus. Two-thirds natural size. Caps dark violet. Stems 
bulbous. Gills violet. 


Cortinarius cinnamoneus. Fr. 

The Cinnamon Cortinarius. Edible. 

The pileus is thin, convex, nearly expanded, sometimes nearly plane, some- 
times slightly umbonate, sometimes the pileus is abruptly bent downward; dry, 
fibrillose at least when young, often with concentric rows of scales on the margin, 
cinnamon-brown, flesh yellowish. 

The gills are thin, close, firmly attached to the stem, slightly notched, decurrent 





that has 


with a tooth, becoming easily 
separated from the stem, shin- 
ing, yellowish, then tawny-yel- 

The stem is slender, equal, 
stuffed or hollow, thin, clothed 
with small fibres, yellow, as is 
also the flesh. The spores are 
elliptical. This plant is so 
called because of its color, the 
entire plant being of a cin- 
namon-color. Sometimes there 
are cinnabar stains on the 
pileus. It seems to grow best 
under pine trees, but I have 
found it in mixed woods. My 
attention was called to it by 
the little Bohemian boys pick- 
ing it when they had been in 
this country but a few days 
and could not speak a word of 
It is evidently like the European species. There is also a Cortinarius 
blood-red gills. It is var. semi-sanguineus, Fr. July to October, 
plants in Figure 239 were found on Cemetery Hill, Chillicothe, O. 

239. Cortinarius cinnamoneus. Two-thirds natural 
size. Caps cinnamon-brown. Stems yellow. 

Figure 240. Cortinarius ochroleucus. Two-thirds natural size, showing 
veil and bulbous form of item. 



Cortiuarius ochroleucus. Fr. 

THE PALLID Cortinaria. 

Ochroleucus, meaning yellowish and white, because of the color of the cap. 
The pileus is an inch to two and a half inches broad, fleshy ; convex, sometimes 
somewhat depressed in the center, often remaining- convex ; dry ; on the center 
finely tomentose to minutely scaly, sometimes the scales are arranged in con- 
centric rows around the cap ; quite fleshy at the center, thinning out toward the 
margin; the color is a creamy to a deep-buff, considerably darker at the center. 

Figure 241. Cortinarius ochroleucus. Two-thirds natural size, showing the developed plant. 

The gills are attached to the stem, clearly notched, somewhat ventricose; in 
mature plants, somewhat crowded, not entire, many short ones, pale first, then 
clay-colored ochre. 

The stem is three inches long, solid, firm, often bulbous, tapering upward, 
often becoming hollow, a creamy-buff. 

The veil, quite beautiful and strongly persistent, forms a cortina of the same 
color as the cap but becoming discolored by the falling of the spores. In Figure 
240 the cortina and the bulbous form of the stem will be seen. 

Found along Ralston's Run. In beech woods from September to November. 




Cor ti iiar ins Morrisii. Pk. 

Morrisii is named in honor of George E. Morris, Ellis, Mass. 

Pileus fleshy, except the thin and at length reflexed margin ; convex, irregular, 
hygrophanous, ochraceous or tawny-ochraceous ; flesh thin, colored like the pileus ; 
odor weak, like that of radishes. 

The gills are broad, subdistant, eroded or uneven on the edge; rounded 
behind, adnexed, pale-yellow when young, becoming darker with age. 

The stem is nearly equal, fibrillose, solid, whitish or pale-yellow and silky at 

Figure 242. Cortinarius Morrisii. 

the top, colored like the pileus below and fibrillose; irregularly striate and sub- 
reticulate, the double veil whitish or yellowish-white and sometimes forming an 
imperfect annulus. 

The spores are tawny-ochraceous, subglobose or broadly elliptic, nucleate, 
8-io/x long, 6-7 p. broad. Peck. 

Pileus 3-10 cm. broad; stem 7-10 cm. long, 1-2 cm. thick. 

They require moist and shady plaees and the presence of hemlock trees. They 
are found from August to October. The plants in Figure -'4- were found near 
Boston by Mrs. E. B. Blackford. 



Cortinarius armillatus. Fr. 
The Red-Zoned Cortinarius. Edible. 

Armillatus means ringed ; so called because the stem is banded with one or 
more rings, or red bands. The pileus is two to four inches broad, fleshy, not 
compact, bell-shaped, then expanded, soon innately fibrillose and torn into scales, 
smooth when young, reddish-brick-color, margin thin, flesh dingy-pallid. 

The gills are very broad, distant, adnate, slightly rounded, pallid, then dark- 

Figure 243. Cortinarius armillatus. Two-thirds natural size, showing the rings on the stem. 

The stem is fairly long, solid, bulbous, whitish, with two or three red zones, 
somewhat fibrillose. The spores iox6ju,. 

This is a very large and beautiful Cortinarius and it has such a number of 
striking ear marks that it can be easily recognized. The thin and generally uneven 
margin of the pileus and the one to four red bands around the stem, the upper one 
being the brightest, will distinguish this species from all others. It is found in 
the woods in September and October. In quite young specimens the collector will 



notice two well defined arachnoid veils, the lower one being much more dense. 
Prof. Fries speaks of them as follows : "Exterior veil woven, red, arranged in 
2-4 distant cinnabar zones encircling the stem ; partial veil continuous with the 
upper zone, arachnoid, reddish-white." The specimens in Figure 243 were 
collected in Michigan and photographed by Dr. Fischer of Detroit. A number of 
this species form a prize for the table. 

Cortinarius Atkinsonianus. Kauff. 

is named in 
honor of Prof. 
Geo. F. Atkin- 

The pileus is 
8 cm. broad, ex- 
panded, wax- 
yellow or gall- 
stone-yellow to 
clay-colored and 
tawny (Ridg.), 
colors very strik- 
ing and some- 
t i m e s several 
present at once ; 
viscid, smooth, 
even, somewhat 
shining w hen 
dry. Flesh thick, 
except at mar- 
gin, bluish-white 

like the stem, or paler, scarcely or not at all changing when bruised. 

The gills are comparatively narrow, 6-8 mm., width uniform except near outer 

end, adnate, becoming slightly sinuate, purplish to yellow, then cinnamon. 
The stem is violaccus-blue, 8 cm. long, 12-15 mm. thick, equal or slightly 

tapering upward, bulbous by a rather thick, marginate bulb 3 cm. thick, hung with 

fibrillose threads of the universal veil, which is a beautiful pale-yellow and clothes 

the bulb even at maturity; violaceous-blue within, solid. Spores 1 3-1 5/1x7-8. 5/x, 

very tubercular. Kauff. 

The specimens in Figure 244 were found in Poke Hollow near Chillicothe. 

I have found them on several occasions. They are edible and of very good flavor. 

Found from September to frost. The specimens illustrate the spider-like veil 

that gives rise to the genus. 

K J44. 

-Cortinariu< Atkinsonianus. Caps waxy-yellow, bulbous stem, 
spider-like veil. 



Cortinarius umidicola. Kauff. 

Umidicola means dwelling in moist places. Pileus as much as 16 cm. broad 
(generally 6-7 cm. when expanded), hemispherical, then convex and expanded, 
with the margin for a long time markedly incurved ; young cap heliotrope-purplish 
with umber on disk, or somewhat fawn-colored, fading very quickly to pinkish- 
buff, in which condition it is usually found ; margin when young with narrow 
strips, of silky fibrils from the universal veil ; pileus when old covered with 
innate, whitish, silky fibrils, hygrophanous ; surface punctuate, even when young. 

Figure 245. Cortinarius umidicola. One-half natural size. Caps pinkish-buff. 

Flesh of stem and pileus lavender when young but soon fading to a sordid white, 
thick on disk, abruptly thin towards margin, soon cavernous from grubs. The 
gills are very broad, as much as 2 cm. ; at first lavender, soon very pale-tan to 
cinnamon ; rather distant, thick, emarginate with a tooth ; at first plane, then 
ventricose; edge slightly serratulate, concolorous. Stem as much as 13 cm. long 
(usually 8 to 10 cm.), 1-2 cm. thick, usually thickened below and tapering slightly 
upwards, mostly thicker also at apex, rarely attenuate at the base, sometimes 
curved, always stout, solid, lavender above the woven, sordid white, universal veil, 
which at first covers the lower part as a sheath, but soon breaks up so as to leave 


a band-like annulus half way or lower down on the stem. The annulus is soon 
rubbed off, leaving- a bare stem. Cortina violaceous-white. Spores 7-9x5-6, al- 
most smooth. Kan ff man. 

The specimens in Figure 245 were gathered at Detroit, Michigan, and photo- 
graphed by Dr. Fischer. They grow in groups in damp places, preferring 
hemlock trees. 

Cortiiiaritis croccocolor. Kauff. sp. nov. 
Saffron-Colorkd Coktixarics. ( Tki.amonia. ) 

Croceocolor means saffron-colored. 

Pileus 3-7 cm. broad, convex then expanded, saffron-yellow, with dense, 
dark-brown, erect squamules on disk ; whole surface has a velvety appearance and 
feel, scarcely hygrophanous, even ; flesh of pileus yellowish-white, rather thin 
except on disk, slightly hygrophanous. scissile. 

Gills cadmium-yellow (Ridg.). moderately distant, rather thick, emarginate, 
rather broad, 8-9 mm., width uniform except in front where they taper quickly to 
a point. 

Stem 4-8 cm. long, tapering upwards from a thickened base. i. c, clavate- 
bulbous, 9-15 mm. thick below, peronate three-fourths of its length by the crome- 
yellow to saffron veil, paler above the veil, solid, saffron-colored within, 
hygrophanous, soon dingy ; attached to strands of yellowish mycelium. Spores 
subspheroid to short elliptical, 6.5-8x5.5-6.5^, echinulate when mature. 

Found under beech trees in Poke Hollow near Chillicothe. Found in October. 

Cortiiiarius evernius. Fr. 

Evernius comes from a Greek word meaning sprouting well, flour- 

The pileus is one to three inches broad, rather thin, between membranaceous 
and fleshy, at first conical, becoming bell-shaped, and finally expanded, very 
slightly umbonate, everywhere covered with silky, adpressed veil, usually purplish- 
bay when smooth, brick-red when dry, then pale ochraceous when old, at length 
cracked and torn into fibrils, very fragile, flesh thin and colored like the 

The gills are attached to the stem, quite broad, ventricose, somewhat distant, 
purplish-violet, becoming pale, finally cinnamon. 

The stem is three to five inches long, equal or attenuated downwards, often 



slightly striate, soft, violaceous, scaly from the remains of the white veil. The 
spores are elliptical, granular, loxyfi. 

They grow in damp pine woods. The specimens in the photograph were 
gathered in Purgatory Swamp near Boston, and sent to me by Mrs. Blackford. 
They are found in August and September. 

Figure 246. Cortinarius evernius. 


Cortinarius castaucus. Bull. 

The Chestnut-Colored Cortinarius. Edible. 

Castaneus, a chestnut. The pileus one inch or more broad, at first quite small 
and globose, with a delicate fibrillose veil, which makes the margin appear 
silvery ; dark-bay or dirty-violet, often with a tawny tint ; soon expanded, broadly 
umbonate, pileus often cracked on the margin and slightly upturned. 

The gills are fixed, rather broad, somewhat crowded, violet-tinged, then 
cinnamon-brown, ventricose. Spores, 8x5^. 

The stem is one to three inches high, inclined to be cartilaginous, stuffed. 



then hollow, even, lilac-tinged at the top, white or whitish below the veil, the 
whole stem beautifully fibrillose, veil white. 

This plant is very abundant on Cemetery Hill, growing under pine trees. 
The caps are small, but they grow in such profusion that it would not be 
difficult to secure enough for a meal. They compare very favorably with the 
Fairy Ring mushroom in flavor. They have little or no odor. Found in 
October and November. 

PicubB -47. Cortinariuj Two-thirds natural 



Agaricus. Linn. (Psalliota. Fr.) 

The pileus is fleshy, but the flesh of the stem is of different texture from that 
of the pileus, veil universal, concrete with the cuticle of the pileus, and fixed 
to the stem, forming - a ring- which soon disappears in some species ; the stem 
is readily separated from the cap and the gills are free from the stem or slightly 
adnexed, white at first, then pink, afterwards purple-brown. 

All the species grow in rich ground, and it includes many of our valuable 
food mushrooms. 

Figure 248. Agaricus campestris. Two-thirds natural size. 

Agaricus campestris. Linn. 
The Meadow Mushroom. Edibee. 

Campestris, from campus, a field: This is perhaps the widest known of all 
mushrooms, familiarly known as the "Pink-gilled mushroom." It is the species 
found in the markets. It is the only species which is sure to respond to the 
methods of cultivation. 

It is the same species which is bought in cans at the store. 

In very young plants the pileus is somewhat globular, as will be seen in the 
small plants in the front row in Figure 248. The edge is connected with the 
stem by the veil ; then round convex, then expanding, becoming almost flat ; 
surface dry, downy, even, quite scaly, varying in color from creamy-white to a 




light-brown ; margin extending beyond the gills, as will be seen in Figure 249 
in the one on the extreme right. 

The gills, when first revealed by the separation of the veil, are of a delicate 
pink hue, but with advancing age this generally deepens to a dark-brown or 
blackish-brown color. 

The stem is rather short, nearly equal, white or whitish; the substance in 
the center is more spongy than the exterior, hence it is said to be stuffed. Some- 
times the collar shrivels so much that it is scarcely perceptible, and may disappear 
altogether in old plants. The spores are brown in mass. The cap of this 
mushroom is from three to four inches in diameter and the stem from one to 
three inches long. 

This is the first mushroom that yielded to cultivation. It is raised in large 
quantities, not only in this country, but especially in France, Japan, and China. 
No doubt other species and genera will be produced in time. 

This species grows in grassy places, in pastures, and richly manured grounds, 
never in the woods. I found it in great abundance in Wood County, in fields 
which had never been plowed and where the ground was unusually rich. There it 
seemed to grow in groups or large clusters. Usually it is found singly. Found 
from August to October. The plants figured here were found near Chillicothe. 

I'k. 11: i Liicua campestris. Two-thirds natural size. 

. Igaricus Rodmani. Pk. 
Rodman's Mushroom. Edible. 

The pileus is creamy, with brownish spots, firm, surface dry. The mature 
specimens frequently have the surface, of the cap broken into large, brownish 

The gills are whitish, then pink, becoming dark-brown: narrow, close and 



The stem is fleshy, solid, short, thick, about two inches long - . The collar 
when well developed exhibits a striking- characteristic. It appears as if there were 
two collars with a space between them. Its spores are broadly elliptical, .0002 to 
.00025 inch long. . 

It may be easily distinguished from the common Agaric by the time when 
found, its thick firm flesh, its narrow gills, which are almost white at first, and 
its double collar. I have found people eating it, supposing they were eating the 
common mushroom. 

Figure 250. Agaricus rodmani. Two-thirds natural size. 

It is found in grassy places and especially between the cobble stones along 
the gutters in the cities. The specimens in Figure 250 were found in Chillicothe 
in the gutters. It is a meaty plant and one can soon tell it from its weight alone. 
It is found through May and June. It is fully as good to eat as the common 
mushroom. Macadam speaks of finding it in the fall, but I have never succeeded 
in finding it later than June. 

Agaricus silvicola. Vitt. 
The Silvan Agaric. Edible. 

Silvicola, from silva, woods and colo, to inhabit. The pileus is convex, 
sometimes expanded or nearly plane, smooth, shining, white or yellowish. 

The gills are crowded, thin, free, rounded behind, generally narrowed to- 
ward each end, at first white, then pinkish, finally blackish-brown. 

The stem is long, cylindrical, stuffed or hollow, white, bulbous ; ring either 



thick or thin, entire or lacerated. Spores elliptical, 6-8x4-5. The plant is four 

to six inches high. I 'ileus three to six inches hroad. Peck. 36th X. V. State Bot. 

A. silvicola is very closely related to the common mushroom. Its chief 

differences are in its place of 
growth, its being slender, and its 
hollow stem somewhat hulbous at 
the base. I have found it many 
times in the woods about Chilli- 
cothe, although I have never suc- 
ceeded in finding more than one 
or two at a time. I have always 
put them with edible species and 
have eaten them when thus 
cooked with others. 

Because of the resemblance 
which it bears, in its earlier 
stages, to the deadly Amanita, 
one can not exercise too great 
care in identifying it. It grows 
in the woods and is found from 

FlGUHB -'51. Agaricus silvicola. One-half natural size. J 111 } l< _> V/CIODCI. 

Agaricus arvensis. Schacff. 
The Field or Horse Mushroom. Edikle. 

Arvensis, pertaining to o Held. Pileus is smooth, white or yellowish, convex 
or conical, bell-shaped, then expanded, more or less mealy. The gills are crowded, 
free, generally broader toward the stem; at first whitish, then pinkish, finally 

The stem is stout, equal, slightly thickened at the base, smooth, hollow or 
stuffed, ring rather large and thick, the upper part membranaceous and white, 
while the lower or exterior surface is thicker, downy, radically split and yellowish. 

The spores are elliptical, .0003 to .0004 inch long. 

This plant grows much larger than the common mushroom, and may be 
distinguished by the collar being composed of two parts closely allied to each 
other making a double membrane, the lower part being much thicker, softer in 
texture and split in a stellate manner into hroad and yellow rays, as will be seen 
in Figure 252. 

I found it very plentiful in Wood County, Ohio, and in quantities in 
Dr. Manville's yard in Bowling Green, Ohio. I ate them frequently and gave 
them to my friends, who all voted them delicious. 



When the stem is first cut 
there exudes from the wound 
a yellowish liquid which is 
quite a sure ear mark of this 

There is a tradition that the 
spores will not germinate un- 
less they pass through the 
alimentary canal of the horse 
or some animal. However this 
may be, it is found frequently 
where no trace of the horse 
can be found. It appears 
from July to September. I 
have found it in Fayette Coun- 
ty, Ohio, in large rings, re- 
sembling the Fairy - Ring 
Mushroom, only the ring is 
very large, as well as the 




! ^ 



Agaricus abruptus. Pk. 

Abruptus means to break 
away, referring to the break- 
ing of the veil from the mar- 
gin of the cap. 

The pileus is creamy-white, 
dry and silky, quite irregular 
in shape when young, turning 
yellow when bruised or when 
the stem is cut. 

The gills are slightly pinkish 
when the veil first breaks, gradually growing a deeper pink, in mature specimens 
becoming brownish, soft, free from the stem, quite close, unequal. 

The stem is creamy-white, much darker toward the base, hollow, rather stiff, 
quite brittle, frequently found to be split lengthwise, ventricose, tapering toward 
the cap. 

The veil is rather frail, one portion of it often adhering to the cap and another 
portion forming a ring on the stem. 

Through the courtesy of Captain Mcllvaine I am able to present an excellent 

Piguke 252. Agaricus arvensis. Two-thirds 
showing veil. 

natural size, 



picture of this species. The beginner will have some trouble to distinguish it 
from A. silvicola. This species, like the A. silvicola, is closely related to the 
meadow mushroom, but can be readily separated from it. This, too, like the 
A. silvicola, when seen in the woods at a distance, resembles the Amanita, but a 
careful glance at the gills will detect the difference. 

The gills of the very young plant may appear white, but they will soon develop 
a pinkish tinge which will distinguish it from the Amanita. It is found in thin 
woods from July to October. 

Figure 254. Agaricus abruptus. 

Agaricus comptulus. Fr, 

Comptulus means beautified or luxuriously decked ; so called from the silky 
lustre of its cap. 

The pileus is at first convex, then expanded, rather fleshy, thinner at the 
margin and incurved, usually with an adpressed silky finish to the surface of the 
cap which gives rise to its specific name. 

The gills are free, much rounded toward the margin and the stem, white at 
first, then grayish, pinkish, purple-brown in old plants. 

The stem is hollow, tapering from the base to the cap, slight bulbous, white, 
then yellowish, fleshy, fibrous. The veil is more delicate than in A. silvaticus, 
parts of it often found in young plants on the margin of the cap, forming a ring 
on the stem which soon almost disappears. Spores small, 4-5x2-3^. 

The surface of the cap, the rounding of the gills both in front and behind, 
also the tendency to turn white paper blue or bluish when the flesh of the cap 
comes in contact with it, will assist in determining this species. 

It is found in grassy places in open woods, especially in the vicinity of pine 
trees, October and November. 



Agaricus placomyces. Pk. 
The Flat-cap Mushroom. Edible. 

Placomyces means a flat 
mushroom. This is one of 
our prettiest plants. 

The pileus is broadly 
ovate, rather thin, at first 
convex, but when it is fully 
expanded it is quite flat, 
whitish, brown in the cen- 
ter, as will be seen in Figure 
256, but it is covered with 
a persistent brown scale. 

The gills are white at 
first, then pink, turning 
blackish brown, quite 

The stem is rather long, 
and slender, cylindrical 
stuffed, somewhat bulbous 
at the base, commonly 
whitish but at times bears 
yellow stains toward the 
base, tapering toward the 
cap. The veil is quite in- 
teresting. It is broad and 
double, loosely joined to- 
gether by threads, the 
lower or outer veil break- 
ing first into regular radi- 
ating portions. The spores 
are elliptical, 5-6.5^ long. 
The caps are two to four 
inches broad and the stem 
is three to five inches long. 

They are found in lawns 
or in thin woods. They are 
much more abundant in 
hemlock woods though 
they are frequently found 
in mixed woods in which 
there are hemlock trees. 
The behavior of the veil 
is very similar to A. arven- 

FigurE 256. Agaricus placomyces. Two-thirds natural size. 



sis and A. silvicola and in- 
deed this plant seems to be 
very closely related t i these 
species. It is found from 
July to September. 

4garicus cretaceus. Fr. 

Tiif: Chalk Agaric. 



Figure 257. Agaricus placomyces. Two-thirds natiral size. 


The pileus is entirely 
white, fleshy, obtuse, dry ; 
sometimes even, sometimes 
marked with fine lines 
around the margin. 

The gills are free, re- 
mote, quite ventricose. nar- 
rowed toward the stem, 
crowded, white, and only 
in mature plants do they 
become brownish. Spores, 
5-6x3. 5 M . 

The stem is two to three 
inches long, even, smooth, 
firm, tapering toward the 
cap, hollow, or stuffed 
with a fine pith, white. 

It is found on lawns 
and in rich places. I find 
it more frequently in rich 
stubble fields. It makes 
a rare dish. Found in 
August and September. 

Agaricus subrufescens. Pk. 

Tin: Slightly Kid .Mushroom. Edible. 

Subrufescens, sub, under; rufescens, becoming red. The pileus is at first 
inclined to be hemispherical, becoming convex or broadly expanded; silky fibril- 


lose and minutely or obscurely scaly, whitish, grayish, or dull reddish-brown, 
usually smooth and darker on the disk. Flesh white and unchangeable. 

The gills are at first white or whitish, then pink, finally blackish- 

The stem is rather long, often somewhat thickened or bulbous at the base, at 
first stuffed, then hollow, white, the ring is scaly on the under side, mycelium 
whitish, forming slender branching root-like strings. The spores are elliptical. 
Peck, 48th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

The reddish-brown color is due to the coating of fibrils that covers the cap. 
In the center it does not separate into scales, hence it is smoother and more dis- 
tinctly reddish-brown than the rest. Its veil resembles that of the A. placomyces, 
but instead of the lower surface breaking into radial portions it breaks into small 
floccose flakes or scales. 

This species is found about greenhouses, and is frequently found in large 

Dr. Mcllvaine says : "This species is now cultivated and has manifest ad- 
vantages over the market species it is easier to cultivate, very productive, pro- 
duces in less time after planting the spawn, is free from attacks of insects, 
carries better and keeps longer.*'' 

Mushroom beds in cellars are becoming quite popular and many are having 
very good results. 

Agaricus halophilus. Pk. 
Ska-loving Agaricus Edible. 

Halophilus is from two Greek words meaning sea and loving, or fond of. 

This is a large fleshy plant and does not readily decay. At first it is quite 
round, then becomes broadly convex. All specimens that I have examined were 
covered with adpressed scales of a reddish-brown color, becoming grayish-brown 
when old. The flesh is white, becoming pink or reddish when cut. The margin 
has a peculiar angular turn, often retaining portions of the rather fragile 

The taste is pleasant, and the odor is distinctly that of the seashore. 

The gills are quite narrow, as will be seen in Figure 258, much crowded, 
free, pinkish at first, becoming purplish-brown as the plant matures. The edge 
of the gills is whitish. 

The stem is short, stout, solid, firm, equal, or occasionally slightly bulbous. 
The ring is rather delicate and in older specimens it is frequently wanting. The 
spores are broadly elliptical and purplish-brown, 7-8x5-6^. 

The specimens in figure 258 were sent to me from Boston, Mass.. by Mrs. 



Blackford, and on opening- the box the odor of the seashore was plainly noticed. 
The flesh when cut quickly turned to a pinkish or reddish hue and the water in 
which the plants were prepared for cooking- was changed to a faintly pink tinge. 
These plants were sent me the first of June, but the stems were free from worms 
and were as easily cooked as the caps. I regard it as one of the very best mush- 
rooms for table use, while also easy to distinguish. 

It seems to delight in sandy soil near salt water. This was formerly called 
Agaricus maritimus. 

Pilosacc. Fr, 

Pilosace is from two Greek words, pilos, felt ; sakos, garment. 

Hymenophore is distinct from the stem. Gills are free, and at first remote, 
from the stem. The general and partial veil are both ^bsent, hence it is without 
ring or volva. This genus seems to have the habit of Agaricus but no ring. 

I'iGui.E 259. 1 ilosace eximia. 

Pilosacc eximia. Pk. 

Eximia means choice, distinguished. 

The pileus is fleshy, thin, convex or broadly campanulate, at length expanded 
and subumbonate, smooth, dark sooty-brown. 

The gills are close, broad, ventricose, rounded behind, free, dull-red, or 
brownish-pink, then brown. 

The stem is slender, hollow, a little thicker at the base, dull-red. The spores 
are elliptical, .004 inch long. 



These plants are small and quite rare, yet I have found the plants in 
Haynes' Hollow on three different occasions. Dr. Peck writes that it is a very 
rare plant. It grows on old stumps and decayed logs. The plants in figure 
were found in Haynes' Hollow and photographed by Dr. Kellerman. 

Stropharia. Fr. 

Stropharia is from the Greek, strophos, a sword belt. The spores are bright 
purple-brown, brown or slate color. The flesh of the stem and the pileus is 
continuous. The veil, when ruptured, forms a ring on the stem. The gills 

are rounded and are 
not free. 

The genus can be dis- 
tinguished from all the 
genera of the purple- 
spored plants except 
the Agarics by the pres- 
ence of a ring and by 
the united flesh of the 
stem and the cap and 
by the attachment of 
the gills. They grow- 
on the ground or are 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 
Figure 260. Stropharia semiglobata. 

Stropharia semiglobata. 

Thk Semiglobose 

!" di 1:1.1:. 

Semiglobata semi, 
halt; globus, a ball. 
The pileus is somewhat 

fleshy at the center, thin 
at the margin, hemis- 
pherical, not expanded, 
even, viscid when 




The stem is hollow, slender, straight, smooth, glutinous, yellowish, veil 

The gills are firmly attached to the stem, broad, plane, sometimes inclined to 
be ventricose, clouded with black. 

This plant is very common on the Dunn farm on the Columbus Pike, north 
of Chillicothe, but is found everywhere in grassy places recently manured, or 
on dung. 

This plant has been under the ban for a number of years, but like many 
others its bad reputation has been outlived. Found from May to November. 

Figure 261. Stropharia Hardii. 

Stropharia Hardii. Atkinson n. sp. 

Hardii is named for the collector and author of this book. 

Plant 10 cm. high ; pileus 9 cm. broad ; stem 1J/2 cm. thick. 

Pileus pale bright ochraceous ; gills brownish, near Prout's brown (R) ; stem 
pale-yellow tinge. 

Pileus convex to expanded, thick at the center, thin toward the margin, 
smooth ; flesh tinged yellow. 

Gills subelliptical to subventricose behind, broadly emarginate, adnexed. 
Basidia 4-spored. Spores suboblong, smooth, 5-9X3-5/X, purple-brown under the 


Cystidia not very numerous on side of gills, varying from clavate to sub- 
ventricose and sublanceolate, the free end more or less irregular when narrow, 
rarely branching below the apex, and usually with a prominent broad apiculus or 
with two or several short processes. Similar cells on edge of gills, but somewhat 
smaller and more regular. 

Stem 'even at the base, tapering to a short root, transversely floccose, scaly 
both above and below the ring. The ring membranaceous, not prominent but 
still evident, about 2 cm. from the apex. Atkinson. 

The specimens in Figure 261 are very old plants. While the plant was in 
season I did not photograph it, but when Prof. Atkinson named it I hastened to 
find some good specimens but only two had survived sufficiently to photograph. 
They were found October 15, 1906, on Mr. Miller's farm in Poke Hollow near 

Stropharia ster cor aria. Fr. 
The Dung Stropharia. Edible. 

Stercoraria is from stercus, dung. The pileus is slightly fleshy at the center 
but thin at the margin ; hemispherical, then expanded, even, smooth, discoid, 
slightly striate on the margin. 

The gills are firmly attached to the stem, slightly crowded, broad, white, 
umber, then olive-black. 

The stem is three inches or more long, stuffed with a fibrous pith, equal, ring 
close to cap, flocculose below the ring, viscid when moist, yellowish. 

This species is distinguished from the S. semiglobata by the distinct pithy 
substance with which the stem is stuffed, also by the fact that the cap is never 
fully expanded. It is found on dung and manure piles, in richly manured fields, 
and sometimes in woods. 

Stropharia ccruginosa. Curt. 
Tin: Green Stropharia. 

^ruginosa is from aerugo, verdigris. The pileus is fleshy, plano-convex, sub- 
umbonate, clothed with a green evanescent slime, becoming paler as the slime 

The gills are firmly attached to the stem, soft, brown, tinged with purple, 
slightly ventricose, not crowded. 

The stem is hollow, equal, fibrillose or squamose below the ring, tinged 
with blue. 


This species is quite variable in form and color. The most typical forms are 
found in the fall, in very wet weather and in shady woods. This is one of the 
species from which the ban has not been removed but its appearance will lead 
no one to care to cultivate its acquaintance further than name it. It is claimed 
by most writers that it is poisonous. Found in meadows and woods, from July 
to November. 

Hypholoma. Fr. 

Hypholoma is from two Greek words, meaning- a web and a fringe, referring 
to the web-like veil which frequently adheres to the margin of the cap, not forming 
a ring on the stem and not always apparent on old specimens. 

The pileus is fleshy, margin at first incurved. The gills are attached to the 
stem, sometimes notched at the stem. The stem is fleshy, similar in substance to 
the cap. 

They grow mostly in thick clusters on wood either above or under the ground. 
The spores are brown-purple, almost black. 

This genus differs from the genu3 Agaricus from the fact that its gills are 
attached to the stem and its stem is destitute of a ring. 

Hypholoma incertum. Pk. 
The; Uncertain Hypholoma. Edible. 

Incertum, uncertain. Prof. Peck, who named this species, was uncertain 
whether it was not a form of H. candolleanum, to which it seemed to be very 
closely related ; but as the gills of that plant are at first violaceous and of this one 
white at first, he concluded to risk the uncertainty on a new species. 

The pileus is thin, ovate, broadly spreading, fragile, whitish, margin often 
wavy and often adorned with fragments of the woolly white veil, opaque when 
dry, transparent when moist. 

The gills are thin, narrow, close, fastened to the stem at their inner extremity, 
white at first, then purplish-brown, edges often uneven. 

The stem is equal, straight, hollow, white, slender, at least one to three inches 
long. The spores are purplish-brown and elliptical. . It is found in lawns, 
gardens, pastures, and thin woods. It is small but grows in such profusion that 
one can obtain quantities of it. The caps are very tender and delicious. It appears 
as early as May. 



Hypholoma appendiculatum. Bull. 
The Appendiculate Hypholoma. Edible. 

Appendiculatum, a small appendage. This is so called from the fragments 
of the veil adhering to the margin of the cap. 

The pileus is thin, ovate, expanded, watery, when dry, covered with dry 
atoms ; margin thin and often split, with a white veil ; the color when moist dark- 
brown, when dry nearly white, often with floccose scales on the cap. 

The gills are firmly attached to the stem, crowded, white, then rosy-brown, 
and at length dingy-brown. 

The stem is hollow, smooth, equal, white, fibrous, mealy at the apex. The 
veil is very delicate and only seen in quite young plants. 

The plant grows in the spring and the summer and is found on stumps and 
sometimes on lawns. It is a favorite mushroom with those who know it. The 
plant can be dried for winter use and retains its flavor to a remarkable degree. 

Hypholoma candolleanum, Fr., resembles the H. appendiculatum in many 
features, but the gills are violaceous, becoming cinnamon-brown and in old plants 
nearly free from the stem. It 
has more substance. The caps, 
however, are very tender and 
delicious. Found in clusters. 

Hypholoma lachrymabundum. 

The Weeping Hypholoma. 

Lachrymabundum full of 
tears. This plant is so called be- 
cause in the morning or in damp 
weather the edge of the gills re- 
tain very minute drops of water. 
The plant in Figure 263 was 
photographed in the afternoon 
yet there can be seen a number 
of these minute drops. 

The pileus is fleshy, companu- 
late, then convex, sometimes 
broadly umbonate, spotted with 
hairy scales; flesh white. 

The gills are closely attached 

Figure 263. Hypholomo lachrymabundum. 
Two-thirds natural size. 



Figure 264. Hypholoma laclirymabundtini. 

to the stem, notched, crowded, 
somewhat ventricose, unequal, 
whitish, then brown-purple, dis- 
tilling- minute drops of dew in 
wet weather or in the morn- 

The stem is hollow, somewhat 
thickened, at the base, quite scaly 
with fibrils, often becoming 
brownish-red, two to three inches 
long. The spores are brownish- 

I have never found the plant 
elsewhere than on the Chillicothe 
high school lawn, and then not in 
sufficient numbers to test its edi- 
ble qualities. When I do, I shall 
try it cautiously, but with full 
faith that I shall be permitted to 
try others. Found on the 
ground and on decayed wood. It 
often grows in clusters. Septem- 
ber to October. 

Hypholoma sublalcritium. Schacff. 
The Brick-Red Hypholoma. Edible. 

Sublateritium is from sub, under, and later, a brick. The pileus is brick-red. 
with pale yellowish border; the surface is covered with fine silky fibres; fleshy, 
moist, and firm ; the cap is from two to four inches broad ; remnants of the veil 
are often seen on the margin ; flesh creamy, firm, and bitter. 

The gills are creamy when young, olive when old: attached to the stem at 
inner extremity, rather narrow, crowded, and unequal. 

The stem is creamy when young, lower part slightly tinged with red. hollow 
or stuffed, having silky fibres on the surface, two to four inches long, often 
incurved because of position. The spores are sooty-brown and elliptical. 

It grows in large clusters around old stumps. It is especially plentiful about 
Chillicothe. It is not equal to many others of the Hypholomas as an esculent. 
Sometimes it is bitter even after it is cooked. Captain Mcllvaine gives a plausible 
reason when he says it may be due to the passage of larva- through the flesh of the 
plant. It is found from September to early winter. 



Figure 265. Hypholoma sublateritium. Natural size. 

Hypholoma perplcxum. Pk. 
The Perplexing Hypiioloaia. Edibij:. 

Perplexum means perplexing-; so called because it is quite difficult to dis- 
tinguish it from H. sublateritium, also from H. fascicularis. From the latter 
it may be known by its redder cap, its whitish flesh, purple-brown tint of the 
mature gills and mild flavor. Its smaller size, the greenish and purplish tint of 
the gills, and the slender hollow stem will aid in distinguishing it from H. 

The pileus is complex, fleshy, expanded, smooth, sometimes broadly and 
slightly umbonate, brown with a pale-yellow margin, disk sometimes 

The gills are rounded, notched, easily separating from the stem, pale-yellow, 
greenish ash-color, finally purplish-brown, thin, quite close. 

The stem is nearly equal, firm, hollow, slightly fibrillose, yellowish or whitish 
above and reddish-brown below. The spores are elliptical and purplish 

This plant is very abundant in Ohio. It grows about old stumps, but a 
favorite habitat seems to be upon old sawdust piles. I have found it after we have 
had considerable freezing weather. The plants in the figure were frozen when 



I found them, the 27th of November. Dr. Mcllvaine says in his book, "If the col- 
lector gets puzzled, as he will, over one or all of these species, because no 
description fits, he can whet his patience and his appetite by calling it H. perplexum 
and graciously eating it." 

I'iclke 266. Hypholonaa perplexum. One-half natural size. Caps brown, with a pale 

yellow margin. 

Psilocybe. Pers. 

Psilocybe is from two Greek words, naked and head. The spores are purple- 
brown or slate color. The pileus is smooth, at first incurved, brownish or purple. 
The stem is cartilaginous, ringless, tough, hollow, or stuffed, often rooting. 
Generally growing on the ground. 

Psilocybe fcenisecii. Pers. 
Tiik Brown Psiixkybe. 

Foenisecii means mown hay. 

The pileiis is somewhat fleshy, smoky-brown or brownish, convex, cam- 
panulate at first, then expanded; obtuse, dry, smooth. 

The gills are firmly attached to the stem, ventricose, not crowded, brownish- 



The stem is hollow, straight, even, smooth, not rooting, white, covered with 
dust, then brownish. 

Quite common in grassy lawns and fields after summer rains. I have never 
eaten it, but I have no doubt of its esculent qualities. 

Figure 267. Psilocybe foenisecii. One-half natural size. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 

Psilocybe spadicca. Schaeff. 
The Bay Psilocybe. Edible. 

Spadicea means bay or date-brown. 

The pileus is fleshy, convex-plane, obtuse, even, moist, hygrophanous, bright 
bay-brown, paler when dry. 

The gills are rounded behind, attached to stem, easily separating from it, 
narrow, dry, crowded, white, then rosy-brown or flesh-color. 

The stem is hollow, tough, pallid, equal, smooth, one to two inches long. 
They grow in dense clusters where old stumps have been or where wood has 
decayed. The caps are small but very good. They are found from September to 
frost or freezing weather. 



Psilocybe ammophila. Mont. 

Ammophila is from two Greek words; amnios, sand, and philos, loving; BO 
called because the plants seem to delight to grow in sandy soil. 

The pileus is small, convex, expanded, umbilicate, at first hemispherical, 
rather fleshy, yellow, tinged with red. fibrfllose. 

Figure 268. Psilocybe ammophila. Two-thirds natural size, showing the sand 

on the base. 

The gills are smoky in color, with a decurrent tooth, powdered with the 
blackish spores. 

The stem is soft, rather short, hollow, lower half clavate and sunk into the 
sand, striate. The spores are 12x8. 

They are found in August and September. They delight in sandy soil, as the 
specific name indicates. The plants in the photograph were found near Columbus 
and photographed by Dr. Kellerman. It is quite common in sandy soil. I do 
not think it is edible. I should advise great caution in its use. 



The genera belonging to this series have black spores. There is an entire 
absence of purple or brown shades. The genus Gomphidius, placed in this 
series for other reasons, has dingy-olivaceous spores. 

Co pr'm us. Pers. 

Corpinus is from a Greek word meaning dung. This genus can be readily 
recognized from the black spores and from the deliquescence of the gills and cap 
into an inky substance. Many of the species grow in dung, as the name implies, 
or on recently manured ground. Some grow in flat rich ground, or where there 
has been a fill, or on dumping grounds; some grow on wood and around old 

Figure 269. Coprinus comatus. 

Photo by Prof Shaftner. 



The pileus separates easily from the stem. The gills are membranaceous, 
closely pressed together. The spores, with few exceptions, are black. Most of 
the species are edible, but many are of such small size that they are easily over- 

Coprinus comatus. Fr. 

The Shaggy Mane; Coprinus. Edible. 

Comatus is from coma, having long hair, shaggy. It is so called from a 
fancied resemblance to a wig on a barber's block. A description is hardly 
necessary with a photograph before us. They always remind us of a congregation 

Figure 270. Coprinus comatus. One-half natural size. 

of goose eggs standing on end. This plant cannot be confounded with any other, 
and the finder is the happy possessor of a rich, savory morsel that cannot be 
duplicated in any market. 

The pileus is fleshy, moist, at first egg-shaped, cylindrical, becoming bell- 
shaped, seldom expanded, splitting at the margin along the line of the gills, adorned 
with scattered yellowish scales, tinged with purplish-black, yet sometimes entirely 
white ; surface shaggy. 



The gills are free, crowded, equal, creamy white, becoming pink, brown, then 
black, and dripping an inky fluid. 

The stem is three to eight inches long, hollow, smooth, or slightly fibrillose, 
tapering upward, creamy-white, brittle, easily separating from the cap, slightly 
bulbous at the base. The ring is rarely adherent or movable in young plants, later 
lying on the ground at the base of the stem or disappearing altogether. The 
spores are black and elliptical, and are shen in liquid drops. 

Found in damp rich ground, gardens, rich lawns, barnyards, and dumping 
grounds. They often grow in large clusters. They are found everywhere in 
great abundance, from May till late frost. A weak stomach can digest any of 
the Coprini when almost any other food will give it trouble. I am always pleased 
to give a dish of any Coprini to an invalid. 

Figure 271. Coprinus atramentarius. Two-thirds natural size. 

Coprinus atramentarius. Fr. 
The Inky Coprinus. Edible. 

Atramentarius means black ink. The pileus is at first egg-shaped, gray or 
grayish-brown, smooth, except that there is a slight scaly appearance ; often 
covered with a marked bloom, margin ribbed, often notched, soft, tender, becoming 
expanded, when it melts away in inky fluid. 

The gills are broad, close, ventricose, creamy-white in young specimens, 
becoming pinkish-gray, then black, moist, melting away in inky drops. 

The stem is slender, two to four inches in length, hollow, smooth, tapering 
upward, easily separating from the cap, with slight vestige of a collar near the 



base when young but soon disappearing. The spores are elliptical, I2x6/x., and 
black, falling away in drops. 

I have found it abundantly all over the state, from May till late frost. Ii 
Figure 271 the one in the center will show the spot-like scales; on the others the 
bloom referred to is quite apparent; the section to the right shows the broad, 
ventricose gills cream-white though slightly tinged with pink also the shape 
of the stem. The plant at the extreme right has expanded and begun to deliquesce. 
C. atramentarius is very abundant, growing in rich soil, lawns, filled places, and 

Figure 273. Coprinus micaceus. Two-thirds natural size. 

Co prin us micaceus. Fr. 
This Glistening Coprinus. Edible. 

Micaceus is from mica/re, to glisten, and refers to the small scales on the 
pileus which resemble mica scales. The pileus is tawny-yellow, tan or light buff, 
ovate, bell-shaped ; having striations radiating from near the center of the disk 
to the margin ; glistening mica-like scales covering undisturbed young specimens 
the margin somewhat revolute or wavy. 



The gills are crowded, rather narrow, whitish, then tinged with pinkish or 
purplish-brown then black. 

The stem is slender, fragile, hollow, silky, even, whitish, often twisted, one 
to three inches long. The spores are blackish, sometimes brown, elliptical, ioxs>. 

The Glistening Coprinus is a small but common and beautiful species. ( )ne 
cannot fail to recognize a Coprinus from a photograph. It is somewhat bell-shaped 
and marked with impressed lines or striations from the margin to or beyond 
the center of the disk and sprinkled with fugacious micaceous granules all of 
which show in Figure 273. For eating, this is without doubt the best mushroom 
that grows. The specimens in Figure 273 grew around an old peach stump in 
Dr. Miesse's yard, in Chillicothe. You will find them around any stump, especially 
just before a rain. If you secure a good supply and wish to keep them, partially 
cook them and warm them for use. 

Fk.i'rK 274. Coprinus ebulbosus. One-half natural size. 

Coprinus ebulbosus. Pic 

Ebulbosus, without being bullions. This seems to be the difference between 
the American and the European plants, the latter being bulbous. 

The pileus is membranaceous, at first ovate, bell-shaped, striate, variegated 
with broad white scales, or white patches; one to two inches broad. 


The gills are free, broad, ventricose, grayish-black, soon deliquescing. 

The stem is hollow, equal, fragile, smooth, four to five inches long. 

Usually found where old stumps have been cut off under the ground, leaving 
the roots in the ground. It is very abundant. The collector will have no trouble 
to recognize it from Figure 274. They are found from June to October. Edible, 
but not as good as C. atramentarius. 

Coprinus ephemerus. Fr. 
The: Ephemeral Coprinus. Edible;. 

Ephemerus, lasting for a day. This plant lasts only for a short time. It 
comes up in the early morning or at night and as soon as the sun's rays touch 
it it deliquesces into an inky fluid. 

The pileus is membranaceous, very thin, oval, slightly covered with bran-like 
scales, disk elevated, even. 

Gills are adnexed, distant, whitish, brown, then black. The stem is slender, 
equal, pellucid, smooth, from one to two inches high. 

When this plant is fully developed it is quite a beautiful specimen, striated 
from margin to center. Found on dung and dung heaps and in well manured 
grass plots from May to October. It must be cooked at once, Its chief value 
is its excellent mushroom flavor. 

Coprinus ovatus. Fr. 
The; Ovate; Coprinus. Edible. 

Ovatus is from ovum, an egg. It is so called from the shape of the pileus, 
which is somewhat membranaceous, ovate, then expanded, striate ; at first woven 
into densely imbricated, thick, concentric scales ; is bulbous, rooting, flocculose, 
hollow above, the ring deciduous ; gills free, remote, slightly ventricose, for 
sometime white, then umber-blackish. 

This plant is much smaller and less striking than the C. comatus, yet its edible 
qualities are the same. I have eaten it and found it delicious. It is found 
in about the same locality in which you would expect to find the C. comatus. 



Coprinus Hmetarius. Fr. 
The Shaggy Dung Coprinus. 

Fimetarius is from timet uni, a dunghill. The pileus is somewhat mem- 
branaceous, clavate, then conical, at length torn and revolnte ; at first rough with 
floccose scales, then naked ; longitudinally cracked and furrowed, even at the apex. 
The stem is inclined to be scaly, thickened at the base, solid. The gills are free, 
reaching the stem, at first ventricose, then linear, brownish-black. Fries. 

This is quite a variable plant. There are a number of varieties classed 
under this species. It is said to be of excellent flavor. I have never eaten it. 

Pancrolus. Fr. 

Panseolus is from two Greek words, all ; varigated. This genus is so called 
from the mottled appearance of the gills. The pileus is somewhat fleshy, margin 
even, but never striate. The margin always extends beyond the gills and the 
gills are not uniform in color. The mottled appearance of the gills is due to the 
falling of the black spores. The gills do not deliquesce. 

The stem is smooth, sometimes scaly, at times quite long, hollow. The veil, 
when present, is interwoven. 

This plant is found on rich lawns recently manured, but principally on clung. 

There are only two edible species. P. retirugis and P. solidipes. The other 
species would not be likely to attract the attention of the ordinary collector. 

Pancrolus retirugis. Fr. 
The Rnsp.Kn Panakolus. Enir.LE. 

Retirugis is from rete, a net ; ruga, a wrinkle. The pileus is about one inch 
in diameter, inclined to be globose, then hemispherical, slightly umbonate, center 
darker, with united raised ribs, sometimes sprinkled with opaque atoms ; veil torn, 

The gills are fixed, ascending, broad in middle ; and in the expanded forms 
the gills are separated more and more from the stem and finally appear more or 
less triangular ; cinerous-black, frequently somewhat clouded. 

The stem is equal, covered with a frost-like bloom, cylindrical, sometimes 
tortuous, cartilaginous, becoming hollow, pinkish-purple, always darker below and 
paler above, bulbous. 

The veil in young and unexpanded plants is quite strong and prominent; 
as the stem elongates it loosens from the stem, and as the cap expands it breaks 

B v 

< -5 

o c 


. .a 



into segments, frequently hanging to the margin of the cap. By close observation 
one will sometimes detect a black band on the stem, caused by the falling of tht 
black spores, when the plant is damp, before the pileus has separated from the 
stem. The spores are black and elliptical. 

I have found it a number of times on the Chillicothe high school lawn, especial- 
ly after it was fertilized in the winter. It is found mostly on dung from June to 
October. I do not recommend it as a delicacv. 

Figure 277. Panaeolus epimyces. Note black spores in central foreground. Note also huge masses of 

abortive stuff upon which it grows. 

Panceolus epimyces. Pk. 

Epimyces is from epi, upon ; myces, a mushroom ; so called because it is 
parasitic on fungi. There are a number of species of mushrooms whose habitat 
is on other mushrooms or fungus growths ; such as Collybia cirrhata, C. racemosa, 
C. tuberosa, Volvaria loveiana and the species of Nyctalis. 

The pileus is fleshy, at first subglobose. then convex, white, silky, fibrillose, 
flesh white or whitish, soft. 

The gills are rather broad, somewhat close, rounded behind, adnexed, dingy- 
white, becoming brown or blackish, with a white edge. 

The stem is short, stout, tapering upwards, strongly striate and minutely 
mealy or pruinose ; solid in the young plant, hollow in the mature, but with the 


cavity small ; hairy, or substrigose at the base. The spores elliptical and black, 
.0003 to .00035 or an mcn l n g> -0002 to .00025 broad. Peck. 

The plants are small, about two thirds to an inch broad and from an inch to 
an inch and a half high. It is referred to this genus because of its black spores. 
It has other characteristics which would seem to place it better among Hypholomas. 
It is not common. Found in October and November. The specimens in Figure 
277 were found in Michigan and photographed by Dr. Fisher. 

Panccolus campanulatus. Linn. 
Bell-Shaped Panaeolus. 

Campanulatus is from campanula, a little bell. 

The pileus is an inch to an inch and a quarter broad, oval or bell-shaped, 
sometimes slightly umbonate, smooth, somewhat shining, grayish-brown, some- 
times becoming reddish-tinted, the margin often fringed with fragments of the veil. 

The gills are attached, not broad, ascending, variegated with gray and black. 

The stem is three to five inches long, hollow, slender, firm, straight, often 
covered with frost-like bloom and often striate at the top, the veil remaining only 
a short time. The spores are subellipsoid, 8-9x6^. 

The gills do not deliquesce. It is widely distributed and is found in almost 
any horse pasture. 

Captain Mcllvaine says in his book that he has eaten it in small quantities, 
because larger could not be obtained, and with no other than pleasant effect. I 
have found it alxnit Chillicothe quite frequently but have never eaten it. It is 
found from June to August. 

Panccolus fimicolus. h'r. 

The Dung Panaeolus. 

Fimicolus is from fimus. dung; colo, to inhabit. The pileus somewhat fleshy, 
convex-bell-shaped, obtuse, smooth, opaque; marked near the margin with a 
narrow brown zone; the stem is fragile, elongated, equal, pallid, covered with 
frost-like bloom above: the gills are firmly attached to the stem, broad, varigated 
with gray and brown. Fries. 

The plant is very small and unimportant. It is found on dung, as its name 
indicates. Prom June to September. The caps appear lighter in color when dry 
than when wet. 



Panceolus solidipes. Pk. 
Thl Solid Foot Panalolus. Edible. 

Solidipes is from solidus, solid ; pes, foot ; and is so called because the stem 
of the plant is solid. The pileus is two to three inches across ; firm ; at first hemis- 
pherical, then subcampanulate or convex ; smooth ; white ; the cuticle at length 
breaking - up into dingy-yellowish, rather large, angular scales. The gills are broad, 
slightly attached, whitish, becoming black. The stem is five to eight inches long 
and two to four lines thick, firm, smooth, white, solid, slightly striate at the 
top. The spores are very black with a bluish tint. Peck. 23d Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

This is a large and beautiful plant and easily distinguished because of its solid 

Figure 279. Panacolus papilionaceus. Natural size. 

stem, growing on dung. Sometimes minute drops of moisture will be seen on the 
upper part of the stem. The plant is said to be one of the best of mushrooms 
to eat. 


Panceolus papilionaceus. Fr. 
The Butterfly Panaeolus. 

Papilionaceus is from papilio, a butterfly. 

The pileus is about an inch broad, somewhat fleshy, at first hemispherical, 
sometimes subumbonate, the cuticle breaking up into scales when dry, as will be 
seen in the photograph, pale-gray with a tinge of reddish-yellow especially on the 
disk, sometimes smooth. 

The gills are broadly attached to the stem, quite wide, at length plane, blackish 
or with varying tints of black. 

The stem is three to four inches long, slender, firm, equal, hollow, powdered 
above, whitish, sometimes tinged with red or yellow, slightly striate at the top, 
as will be -seen in the photograph with a glass, generally stained with the 

The specimens in Figure 279 were found in a garden that had been strongly 
manured. It is usually found on dung and on grassy lawns during May and 
June. Captain Mcllvaine in his book speaks of this mushroom producing hilarity 
or a mild form of intoxication. I should advise against its use. 

Ancllaria. Karst. 

Anellaria is from (melius, a little ring. This genus is so called because of 
the presence of a ring on the stem. 

The pileus is somewhat fleshy, smooth, and even. The gills are adnexed, 
dark slate-colored, variegated with black spores. The stem is central, smooth, firm, 
shining, ring persistent or forming a zone around the stem. 

Anellaria separata. Karst. 

Separata means separate or distinct. 

The pileus is somewhat fleshy, bell-shaped, obtuse, even, viscid, at first 
ochraceous, then dingy-white, shining, smooth, wrinkled when old. 

The gills are firmly attached to the stem, broad, ventricose, thin, crowded, 
clouded, cinerous, margin nearly white, slightly deliquescent. 

The stem is long, straight, shining, white, thickened downward, ring distant, 
top somewhat striate, bulbous at the base. The spores are broadly eliptic-fusiform, 
black, opaque, 10x7^. 

It : s found on dung from May to October. It is not poisonous. 


Bolbitius. I'r. 

Bolbitius is from a Greek word meaning cow-dung, referring to its place of 

The pileus is membranaceous, yellow, becoming moist ; gills moist but not 
deliquescing, finally losing their color and becoming powdery; stem hollow and 
confluent with the hymenophore. As the generic name implies the plant usually 
grows on dung, but sometimes it is found growing on leaves and where the ground 
had been manured the year before. The spores are of a rusty-red color. 

Bolbitius fragilis. (L.) Fr. 

Fragilis means fragile. 

The pileus is membranaceous, yellow, then whitish, viscid, margin striate, 
disk somewhat umbonate. 

The gills are attenuated, adnexed. nearly free, ventricose, yellowish, then pale 

The stem is two to three inches long, naked, smooth, yellow. The spores are 
rust-colored, 7x3.5, Massee. 14-15X8-9/X. Saccardo. 

This species is much more delicate and fragile than B. Boltoni. I find it often 
in dairy pastures. It is well flavored and cooks readily. Found from June to 

Bolbitius Boltoui. Fr. 
Bolton's Bolbitius. Edible. 

The pileus is somewhat fleshy, viscid, at first smooth, then the margin sulcate, 
disk darker and slightly depressed. 

The gills are nearly adnate, yellowish, then livid-brown. 

The stem is attenuated, yellowish, ring fugacious. This is rather common in 
dairy pastures and is found from May to September. 

Psathyrella. I'r. 

Psathyrella is from a Creek word meaning fragile. The members of this 
genus are mebranaceous, striated, margin straight, at first pressed t<> the stem, not 
extending beyond the gills, ('.ills adnate or free, sooty-black, not varigated. The 
stem is confluent with, but different in character from, the sp ire-bearing surface. 
Veil inconspicuous and generally absent. 



Psathyrella disseminata. Pers. 

The Clustered Psathyrella. Edible. 

Disseminata is from dissemino, to scatter. Pileus is about a half inch across, 
membranaceous, ovate, bell-shaped, at first scurvy, then naked ; coarsely striated, 
margin entire ; yellowish then gray. Gills adnate, narrow, whitish, then gray, 
finally blackish. Stem one to one and a half inches long, rather curved, mealy 
then smooth, fragile, hollow. Massee. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 

Figure 280. Psathyrella disseminata. Natural size. 

This is a very small plant, growing on grassy lawns, and very common on old 
trunks, and about decaying stumps. 

A cluster about two yards square shows itself at intervals all summer on the 
Chill'cothe High School lawn. The grass shows itself to be greener and thriftier 
there on account of fertilization by the mushroom. The entire plant is very fragile 
and soon melts away. I have eaten the caps raw many times and they have a rich 
flavor. They are found from May till frost. 



Psathyrella hirta. Pk. 

Hirta means hairy, rough or shaggy. 

Pileus thin, hemispherical or convex, adorned when young with erect or spread- 
ing tufts of white, easily determined and quickly evanescent hairs; hygrophanotis. 
brown or reddish-brown and slightly striatulate when moist, pale grayish-brown 
or dingy-whitish when dry, flesh subconcolorous ; lamella? broad, moderately close, 

Figum 281. Psathyrella hirta. 

adnate and often furnished with a decurreni tooth, at first pallid, becoming black- 
ish-brown or black; stem flexuose. squamose, hollow, shining, white: spores 
elliptical, black, .0005 to .00055 inch long. .OOO25 to 0003 broad. 


Subcsespitose ; pileus 4 to 6 lines broad; stem 1 to 2 inches long to 1 1-5 lines 
thick. The specimens in Figure 281 were found in the greenhouse at the State 
University. When quite young tufts of white hair were very conspicuous. They 
are scarcely observed in mature specimens. The plants were photographed by 
Dr. Kellerman. 

Gomphidius. Fr. 

Gomphidius is from a Greek word meaning a wooden bolt or peg. 

The hymenophore is decurrent on the stem. The gills are decurrent, distant, 
soft, somewhat mucilaginous ; edge acute, pruinate with the blackish fusiform 
spores ; veil viscoso-floccose, forming an imperfect ring around the stem. 

A small, but distinct, genus, with great difference among species ; intermediate 
by its habits between Cortinarius and Hygrophorus. 

Gomphidius viscidus. Fr. 
Viscid Gomphidius. 

The pileus is two to three inches broad, viscid, convex, then depressed round 
the disk, obtusely umbonate, margin acute, reddish-brown to yellowish-brown in 
the center, the margin liver-color, flesh yellowish-brown. 

The gills are decurrent, distant, somewhat branched, firm, elastic, rather thick, 
purple-brown with an olive tinge. 

The stem is two to three inches high, subequal or slightly ventricose; pale 
yellowish-brown, fibrillose, firm, solid, slimy from the remains of the veil, which 
form an obsolete filamentose ring. 

The spores are elongato-fusiform, 18-20x6^. 

Its favorite habitat is under pine and fir trees. Its taste is sweet and it has the 
mushroom smell. It is edible, but not first-class. 

Found in September and October. 



In this family the cap has no gills on the upper surface, but, instead, there 
are small tubes or pores. This class of plants may be naturally divided into two 
groups: The perishable fungi with the pores easily separating from the cap and 
from each other, which may be called Boletaceae; and the leathery, corky, and 
wood} 7 fungi, with pores permanently united to the cap and with each other, 
making the family Polyporaceae. 

In each group the spores are borne on the lining of the pore. A spore print 
may be made in the same manner as from mushrooms having q-jH s . The color of 
the spores does not enter into the classification as in the case of the Agaricini. 
The distinctive characteristics of these genera may be stated as follows : 

Pores compacted together and forming a continuous stratum i 

Pores each a distinct tube, standing closely side by side Fistulina 

i. Stem central, and stratum of spores easily separable from the 

cap Boletus 

i. Stratum of tubes not separating easily, cap covered with 

coarse scales Strobilomyces 

Stratum of tubes separating, but not easily ; tubes arranged in 
distinct, radiating lines. In Boletinus porosus the tubes do 

not separate from the cap Boletinus 

Stratum of pores not separable from cap; plant soft when 

young, but becoming hard, corky, stipitate, shelving Polyporus 

Boletus. Pill. 

Boletus, a clod. There are very many species under this genus and the be- 
ginner will experience much trouble in separating the species with any degree 
of assurance. The Boletus is distinguished from the other pore-bearing fungi by 
the fact that the stratum of tubes is easily separable from the cap. In the 
Polyporus the stratum of tubes cannot be separated. 

Nearly all Boleti are terrestrial and have central stems. They grow in warm 
and rainy weather. Many are very large and ponderous; fleshy and putrescent. 
decaying soon after maturity. It is important to note whether the flesh changes 




color when bruised and whether the taste is pleasant or otherwise. When I first 
began to study the Boleti there were but few species that were thought to be edible, 
but the ban has been removed from very many, even from the most wicked, 
Boletus Satanus. 

Boletus scabcr. Fr. 
The Rough-Stem med Boletus. Edible. 

The pileus is from 
two to five inches in 
diameter, rounded con- 
vex, smooth, viscid 
when moist, minutely 
woolly, velvety or 
scaly, color from near- 
ly white " to almost 
black, the flesh white. 

The tubes are free 
from the stem, white, 
long, mouths minute 
and round. 

The stem is solid, 
tapering slightly up- 
ward, long, dingy- 
white ; roughened with 
blackish-brown or red- 
dish dots or scales, this 
being the most pro- 
nounced characteristic 
by which to distinguish 
the species ; three to 
five inches long. The 
spores are oblong fusi- 
form and brown. 

Prof. Peck has de- 
scribed a number of 
varieties under this 
species, most of which 
depend on the color of the cap. All are edible and good. 

This is a common plant, usually found in woods and shady waste places, from 
June to October. Photographed by Prof. H. C. Beardslee. 

Figure 282. Boletus scaber. Two-thirds natural size. 

;5. r >2 


Boletus granulatus. L. 

The Granulated Boletus. Edible. 

The pileus is two to three inches broad, hemispherical, then convex ; at first 
covered with a brownish gluten, then turning 1 yellowish ; flesh thick, yellowish, 

does not turn blue ; margin 
involute at first. 

The tubes are adnate ; at 
first white, then light yel- 
low ; the margin distilling 
a pale watery fluid which 
when dry gives the granu- 
lated appearance. 

The stem is short, one to 
two inches high, thick, 
solid, pale yellow above, 
white below, granulated. 
The spores are spindle- 
shaped, rusty-yellow. 

This plant grows abund- 
antly in pine regions, but 
I have found it where only 
a part of the trees were pine. The brownish gluten, always constant on the 
pileus, and the gummy juice drying upon the stem, like granules of sugar, will 
be strong features by which to identify the species. 
They are found from July to October. 

Figure 283. Boletus granulatus. One-half natural size. 

Boletus bicolor. Pk. 
The Two-colored Boletus. Edible. 

The pileus is convex, smooth or merely downy, dark red, fading when old, 
often marked with yellow; flesh yellow, slowly changing to blue when bruised. 

The tubes are bright yellow, attached to the stem, the color changing to 
blue when bruised. 

The stem is solid, red, generally red at the top, one to three inches long. 

The spores are pale, rusty-brown color. 

Found in wopdls and open places, from July to October. 



Boletus subtomentosus. L. 
The Yellow-Cracked Boletus. Edible. 

Subtomentosus, slightly downy. The pileus is from three to six inches 
broad, convex, plane ; yellowish-brown, olive or subdued tan color ; cuticle soft 
and dry, with a fine pubescence; the cracks in the surface become yellow. The 
flesh is creamy white in mature specimens, changing to blue, and at length 
leaden, on being bruised. 

The tube surface is yellow or yellowish green, becoming bluish when 
bruised; opening of tubes large and angular. 

Figure 284. Boletus subtomentosus. One-half natural size. 

The stem is stout, yellowish, minutely roughened with scurvy dots or faintly 
striped with brown. The spores are a rusty-brown. 

The cracks in the cap become yellow, on which account this species is called 
the Yellow-cracked Boletus. The taste of the flesh is sweet and agreeable. 
Palmer compares it with the taste of a walnut. The plant should not be feared 



because the flesh turns blue when bruised. I first found this species in Whin- 
nery's woods, Salem, Ohio. The specimens in Figure 284 grew near Chillicothe 
and was photographed by Dr. Kellerman. July to August. 

Boletus chrysenteron. Fr. 

The Red-cracked Boeetus. EdibeE. 

Chrysenteron means gold or golden within. The pileus is two to four inches 
broad, convex, becoming more flattened, soft to the touch, varying from light 

to yellowish - brown 
or bright brick-red, 
more or less fissured 
with red cracks ; the 
flesh yellow, chang- 
ing to blue when 
bruised or cut, red 
immediately beneath 
the cuticle. 

The tube surface 
is olive-yellow, be- 
coming bluish when 
bruised, tube-open- 
ings rather large, 
angled and unequal 
in size. 

The stem is gen- 
erally stout, straight, 
yellowish, and more 
or less streaked or 
spotted with the 
color of the cap. 
The spores are light 
brown and spindle- 
shaped. This spe- 
cies will be easily 
distinguished from 
R. subtomentosus 
because of its bright 
color and the cracks 
in the cap turning 
red, wlu-nce the 
name of the "Red- 
cracked Boletus." 

Figure 285. 

-Boletus chrysenteron. One-half natural size. Caps yellowish 
to red. Flesh yellow. 

Plate XLII. Figure 286. Boletus edulis. 
Pileus light brown, tubes yellowish or greenish-yellow. Stem bulbous and faintly reticulate. Natural size. 


The cap of this species strongly resembles Boletus alveolatus, but the latter 
has rose-colored spores and a red pore surface, while the' former has light brown 
spores and an olive-yellow pore surface. Tolerton's and Bower's woods, Salem, 
Ohio, July to October. 

Boletus edulis. Bull. 
The Edible Boletus. 

This is quite a large and handsome plant and one rather easily recognized. 
The firm caps of the young plant and the white tubes with their very indistinct 
mouths, and the mature plants with the tubes changing to a greenish yellow with 
their mouths quite distinct, are enough to identify the plant at once. 

The pileus is convex or nearly plane; variable in color, light brown to dark 
brownish-red. surface smooth but dull, cap from three to eight inches broad. 
The flesh is white or yellowish, not changing color on being bruised or broken. 

The tube-surface is whitish in very young plants, at length becoming yellow 
and yellowish-green. Pore openings angled. The tubes depressed around the 
stem, which is stout, bulbous, often disproportionately elongated ; pale-brown ; 
straight or flexuous, generally with a fine raised net-work of pink lines near junc- 
tion of cap, sometimes extending to the base. The taste is agreeable and nutty, 
especially when young. Woods and open places. July and August. Common 
about Salem and Chillicothe. Ohio. 

It is one of our best mushrooms. Captain Mcllvaine says : "Carefully 
sliced, dried, and kept where safe from mold, it may be prepared for the table at 
any season." 

'Boletus speciosus. Frost. 
The Handsome Boeetus. Edible. 

Speciosus means handsome. 

The pileus is three to six inches broad, at first very thick, subglobose. com- 
pact, then softer, convex, glabrous or nearly so, red or deep scarlet. The flesh 
is pale yellow or bright lemon-yellow, changing to blue where wounded. 

The tubes are adnate, small, subrotund, plane, or slightly depressed around 
the stem ; bright lemon-yellow, becoming dingy-yellow with age, changing to 
blue where bruised. 



The stem is two to 
four inches long, 
stout, subequal or 
bulbous, reticulated, 
bright lemon - yellow 
without and within, 
sometimes reddish at 
the base. The spores 
are oblong-fusiform, 
pale, ochraceous- 
brown, 10-12.5x4-5)11. 

The young speci- 
men can be recog- 
nized by the whole 
plant's being of a 
vivid lemon - yellow 
except the surface of 
the cap. The plant 
quickly turns to 
green, then blue, 
wherever touched. It 
has a wide distribu- 
tion in the Eastern 
and Middle states. 
The plant in Figure 
287 was found in 
Haynes' Hollow by 
Dr. Chas. Miesse and 
photographed by Dr. 
Keller man. 

Figure 287. Boletus speciosus. Natural size. Cap red or deep scarlet. 
Tubes bright lemon-yellow. 

As an edible it is among the best. Found from August to October. 

Boletus cyanescens. Bull. 

Cyanescens is from cyaneus, deep blue, so called the moment you touch it, 
it turns a deep blue. 

Pileus is two to four inches across, convex, then expanded, sometimes nearly 
plane, frequently wavy, covered with an appressed tomentum ; opaque, pale-buff, 
grayish-yellow, or yellowish, flesh thick, white, quickly changing to a beautiful 



Figure 288. Boletus cyanescens. 

asure-blue where cut 
or wounded. 

The tubes are quite 
free, openings small, 
white, then pale-yel- 
low, round, changing 
color the same as the 

The stem is two to 
three inches long, ven- 
tricose, hoary with fine 
hair, stuffed at first, 
then becoming hollow, 
colored like the pileus. 
The spores are 
sub-elliptical, 10-12.5X 

The specimens in 
Figure 288 were found 
on rather steep wooded 
hillsides, Sugar Grove, 
Ohio. They were all 
solitary. I have found 
a few specimens about 
Chillicothe. They are 
widely distributed in 
the Eastern states. 

Captain Mcllvaine 
says in his book the 
caps make an excel- 
lent dish cooked in 
any way. I have never 
tried them. Found on 
hilly ground in Aug- 
ust and September. 

Boletus indecisus. Pk. 

The Undecided Boletus. Edible. 

Indecisus means undecided ; so called because it favors very closely Boletus 
felleus. There is a difference in the style of the two plants by which, after 
continued tasting, the student can readily separate them. 



The pileus is three to four 
inches broad, dry, slightly 
downy, convex, ochraceous- 
brown, plane, often irregular 
on the margin, sometimes 
wavy, flesh white, and un- 
changeable, taste mild or 

The tube surface is nearly 
plane and firmly set against 
the stem, grayish, becoming 
tinged with flesh color in age, 
changing to a brown when 
bruised; the mouths small 
and nearly round. The stem 
is covered with a fine mealy 
substance, straight or flexu- 
ous, sometimes reticulated 
above. The spores are ob- 
long, brownish flesh color, 

The B. indecisus can be 
readily told from B. felleus by its sweet taste and brownish spores. It is my 
favorite of all the Boleti, indeed I think it equals the best of mushrooms. Its 
favorite habitat is under beech trees in the open. It is widely distributed from 
Massachusetts to the west. Found in July and August. 

Figure 2J 

-Boletus indecisus. One-half natural size. 

Boletus edulis. Bull. Var. clavipes. Pk. 
Club-Footld Boletus. Edible. 

Clavipes means club-footed. Pileus fleshy, convex, glabrous, grayish-red or 
chestnut-color. Flesh white, unchangeable. The tubes at first concave or nearly 
plane, white and stuffed, then convex, slightly depressed around the stem, 
ochraceous-yellow. Stem mostly obclavate, inversely club-shaped, and reticulate to 
the base. The spores oblong- fusiform, 12-15x4-5//,. Peck. 51st Rep. 

The club-footed Boletus is very closely related to B. edulis. It differs, per- 
haps, in a more uniform color of the cap, and in having tubes less depressed 
around the stem, and less tinted with green when mature. The stem is more 
club-shaped and more completely reticulated. 


The pileus in the young plant is much more highly colored and fades out 
in age, but the margin does not become paler than the disk as is often the case 
with B. edulis. The specimens in Figure 290 were found in Michigan and 
photographed by Dr. Fischer. They are quite as good as B. edulis. 

Figure 290. Boletus edulis, var. clavipes. Two-thirds natural size. Note confluent caps on right. 

Boletus Sullivantii. B. & M. 

Sullivantii is named in honor of Professor Sullivant, an early Ohio 

The pileus is three to four inches broad, hemispherical at first, glabrous, 
reddish-tawny or brown, brownish when dry, cracked in squares. 

The tubes are free, convex, medium size, angular, longer toward the margin, 
their mouths reddish. 

The stem is solid, violaceous at the thickened base, red-reticulated at the 
apex, expanded into the pileus. 

The spores are pallid to ochraceous, oblong-fusiform, 10-20/x long. Peck's 
Boleti in U. S. 

This species is very close to Boletus scaber and Boletus edulis. It differs 
from B. scaber in its reticulated stem and from B. edulis in its larger tubes. The 
specimens in Figure 291 were found by Hambleton Young near Columbus, and 
were photographed by Dr. Kellerman. 



Figure 291. Boletus sullivantii. 

Boletus parvus. Pk. 

Parvus means small ; so named from the smallness of the plant. 

The pileus is one to two inches broad, convex, becoming plane, often slightly 
umbonate, subtomentose, reddish. Flesh yellowish-white, slowly changing to 
pinkish when bruised. 

The tubes are nearly plane, adnate, their mouths rather large, angular, at first 
bright-red, becoming reddish-brown. 

The stem is equal or slightly thickened below, red, from one to two inches 
long. The spores are oblong, 12.5x4/*. 

They are found in thin woods, July and August. 



Boletus eximius. Pk. 

The Select Boletus. Edible. 

Eximius means select. 
The pileus at first is very compact, 
nearly round, somewhat covered 
with a mealy substance, purplish- 
brown, or chocolate color, sometimes 
with a faint tinge of lilac, becoming 
convex, soft, smoky red, or pale- 
chestnut, flesh grayish or reddish- 

The tube surface is at first con- 
cave or nearly plane, stuffed, colored 
nearly like the pileus, becoming 
paler with age and depressed around 
the stem, the mouths minute, round. 
The stem is stout, generally short, 
equal or tapering upward, abruptly 
narrowed at the base, minutely 
branny, colored like or a little paler 
than the cap, purplish-gray within. 
The spores are subferruginous, 
12.5-15X5-6/X. This plant is found 
in open woods where there are beech trees. I found it frequently on Cemetery 
Hill, Chillicothe. It is widely distributed, being found from the east to the west. 
July and August. 

Figure 292. Boletus eximius. Two-thirds natural size. 

Boletus pallidus. Frost. 
The Pallid Boletus. Edible. 

Pallidus, pale. The pileus is convex, becoming plane or centrally depressed, 
soft, smooth, pallid or brownish-white, sometimes tinged with red. Flesh is white. 
Tubes plane or slightly depressed around the stem, nearly adnate, very pale or 
whitish-yellow, becoming darker with age, changing to blue where wounded, the 
mouths small. The stem 1 is equal or slightly thickened toward the base, rather 
long, smooth, often flexuous ; whitish, sometimes streaked with brown, often tinged 
with red within. Spores pale ochraceous-brown. Pileus two to four inches broad. 
Stem three to five inches long. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

This species is very good, tender, and appetizing. I found it quite abundant 
in the woods of Gallia County and near Chillicothe. Ohio. 



Boletus alveolatus. B. and C. 

The Alveolate Boletus. 

Alveolatus is from alveolus, a small hollow, referring to the pitted form of 
the pore-surface, which is one of the characters of this species. The pileus 
is convex, smooth, polished, usually rich crimson or maroon, sometimes varied 
with paler yellowish 
tints ; substance solid, 
changing to blue on 
being fractured or 
bruised, three to six 
inches broad. 

The tube - surface 
reaches the stem prop- 
er, undulate with un- 
even hollows, maroon, 
the tubes in section be- 
ing yellow beyond their 
dark red mouths. 

The stem is usually 
quite long, covered 
with depressions or pit- 
ted dentations, with in- 
termediate coarse net- 
work of raised ridges, 
red and yellow. The 
spores are yellowish- 
brown. I found this 
species in the woods 
near Gallipolis, Ohio, 
also near Salem, Ohio. 
The bright, color of its 
cap will command the 
attention of any one 
passing near it. It has 
been branded as a rep- 
robate, but Captain Mc- 
Ilvaine gives it a good 
reputation. Found in 
the woods, especially 
along streams, August 
and September. Photo- 
graphed by Prof. H. C. 

Figure 293. Boletus alveolatus. 



Boletus felleus. Bull. 

The Bitter Boletus. 

Felleus is from fel, gall, bitter. The pileus is convex, nearly plane, at first 
rather firm in substance, then becoming soft and cushion-like, smooth, without 
polish, varying in color from pale ochre to yellowish or reddish-brown or chestnut, 

Figure 294. Boletus felleus. Natural size. 

Photo by Prof. Atkinson. 

flesh white, changing to flesh-color when bruised, taste exceedingly bitter, cap 
three to eight inches in diameter. 

The tube-surface is white at first, becoming dull pinkish with age or upon 
being cut or broken ; rounded upward as it reaches the stem, attached to the stem, 
mouths angular. 

The stem is variable, tapering upward, rather stout, quite as smooth as the 



cap and a shade paler in color, toward the apex covered with a network which 
extends to the base, often bulbous. 

The flesh is not poisonous but intensely bitter. No amount of cooking will 
destroy its bitterness. I gave it a thorough trial, but it was as bitter after cooking 
as before. It is a common 
Boletus about Salem, Ohio. 1 
have seen plants there eight to 
ten inches in diameter and very 
heavy. They grow in woods 
and wood margins, usually 
about decaying stumps and logs, 
sometimes in the open fields. 
July to September. 

Boletus versipellis. Fr. 

The Orange-Cap Boletus. 

Versipellis is from vcrto, to 
change, and pellis, a skin. The 
pileus is two to six inches in 
diameter, convex, orange-red, 
dry, minutely woolly or downy, 
then scaly or smooth, margin 
containing fragments of the 
veil, flesh white or grayish. 

The tube-surface is grayish- 
white, tubes long, free, mouths 
minute and gray. 

The stem is equal or tapering 
upward ; solid, white with scaly 
wrinkles; three to five inches 
long; and is frequently covered 
with small reddish or blackish 
dots or scales. The spores are 
oblong spindle-shaped. 

This plant can be easily dis- 
tinguished by the remnant of 
the veil which adheres to the 
margin of the cap and is of the 
same color. It is frequently 

Figure 295. Boletus versipellis. Natural size. 



turned under the margin adhering- to the tubes. It is a large and imposing plant 
found in sandy soil and especially among the pines. I found it in J. Thwing 
Brooke's woods, Salem, Ohio. August to October. 

Boletus gracilis. Pk. 

The Slender-Stemmed Boletus. Edible. 

Gracilis means slender, referring 
to the stem. 

The pileus is one to two inches 
broad, convex, smooth or minutely 
tomentose, the epidermis frequent- 
ly cracked as in the illustration ; 
ochraceous-brown, tawny, or red- 
dish brown ; flesh white. 

The tube surface is convex to 
plane, depressed around the stem, 
nearly free, whitish, becoming 

The stem is long and slender, 
equal or slightly tapering upward 
usually curved ; pruinose or mealy. 
The spores are subferruginous, 
.0005 to .0007 inch long, .0002 to 
.00025 inch broad. 

This is quite a pretty plant, but at first sight it will not be taken for a 
Boletus. They are not plentiful in our woods. I find them only occasionally and 
then sparsely. They are found in July and August, the months for the Boleti. 
They grow in leaf mold in mixed woods, especially among beech timber. 


jBM^fl?^^^ %' 



Figure 296. Boletus gracilis. Two-thirds natural size. 

Boletus stricepes. Seer. 

Striaepes means striate stem. 

The pileus is convex or plane, soft, silky, olivaceous, the cuticle rust-color 
within, flesh white, yellow next the tubes, sparingly changing to blue. 

The tubes are adnate, greenish, their mouths minute, angular, yellow. 

The stem is firm, curved, marked with brownish-black striations, yellow, and 
brownish-rufescent at the base. 

The spores are 10-13X4./A. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 



I found some beautiful specimens in a mixed woods on the Edinger hillside, 
near Chillicothe. I located them here, but observing that this species was not 
common I sent some to Prof. Atkinson, who placed them under this species. 

Boletus radiants. Pers. 

The pileus is convex, dry, subtomentose, olivaceous-cinereus, becoming pale- 
yellowish, the margin thin, involute. Flesh pale-yellow, taste bitterish. 

The tubes are adnate, their mouths large, unequal ; lemon-yellow. 

'The stem is two to three inches long, even, tapering downward and radiating, 
flocculose with a reddish bloom, pale-yellow, becoming naked and dark with a 

The spores are fusiform, olive, 10-12.5X5/X. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

I found these specimens in the same locality with the B. strisepes. 

The olivaceous cap with its peculiar involute margin and its radiating stem 
will greatly assist in its determination. August. 

Figure 297. Boletus subluteus. Natural size. 



Boletus subluteus. Pk. 

The Yellow Boletus. Edible. 

Subluteus is from sub, under, nearly ; luteus, yellow. 

Pileus is two to three inches broad, convex, becoming plane, quite viscid 

when moist, dull yellowish to reddish brown, frequently more or less streaked. 

The flesh is whitish or dull yellow. 

The tube surface is plane or convex, the tubes set squarely against the stem, 

being small, nearly round, yellowish or ochraceous, becoming darker in age. 

The stem is rather long, nearly equal, about the color of the cap, dotted 

both above the ring and below it ; the ring is membranaceous, quite variable and 

persistent, usually collapsing as a narrow ring on the stem. The spores are 

ochraceous-brown, oblong or elliptical, 8-10x4-5. 

Prof. Atkinson has made a careful study of both the American and the 

European plants called in this country B. luteus and B. subluteus, and has come 

to the conclusion that they 
should all be called B. 
luteus. In distinguishing 
the two we usually say 
those having much gluten 
and dotted above the ring 
are B. luteus, and those 
dotted both above and be- 
low the ring are B. sub- 
luteus. The specimens in 
Figure 297 were collected 
at the State Farm at Lan- 
caster, Ohio, and photo- 
graphed by Dr. Kellerman. 
They are found in July and 

Ficure 298. Boletus parasiticus. 

Boletus parasiticus. Bull. 

Parasiticus means a par- 
asite: so called because it 
grows on a Scleroderma. 
It is a small plant and 
quite rare. 

The pileus is one to two 
inches broad, convex, or 
nearly plane, dry, silky, 



becoming glabrous, soon tessellately cracked, grayish or dingy yellow. Tubes 
decurrent, medium size, golden yellow. 

The stem is equal, rigid, incurved, yellow within and without. The spores 
are oblong- fusiform, pale-brown, 12.5-15x4/*.. Peck. 

The tubes are rather large and unequal, and inclined to run down upon 
the stem. 

This plant was found near Boston, Mass., by Mrs. E. B. Blackford and 
photographed by Dr. Kellerman. Captain Mcllvaine says it is edible but not 
of good flavor. It is found in July and August. 

Boletus separans. Pk. 

The Separating Boletus. Edibee. 

Separans, separating, alluding to the tubes sometimes separating from the 
stem by the expansion of the pileus. 

The pileus is convex, thick, smooth, subshining, often pitted or corrugated; 
brownish-red or dull-lilac, sometimes fading to yellowish on the margin; flesh 
white and unchangeable. 

Figure 299. Boletus separans. One-half natural size. 



Tubes at first are nearly plane, adnate, white and stuffed, then convex, de- 
pressed around the stem, ochraceous-yellow or brownish-yellow and sometimes 
separating- from the stem by the expansion of the pileus. 

The stem is equal or slightly tapering upward ; reticulated, either wholly 
or in upper part only ; colored like the pileus or a little paler, sometimes slightly 
furfuraceous. Spores subfusiform, brownish-ochraceous. Peck, Boleti of U. S. 

The specimens in Figure 299 were found at Londonderry, about fifteen miles 
east of Chillicothe, in a grassy woods near a stream. The taste is agreeable 
when raw and quite good when cooked. This might appropriately have been 
called the lilac Boletus, for that shade of color is usually present in it, some- 
where. August to October. 

Boletus auripes. Pk. 
Yeixow- stem mud Boletus. Edible. 

Auripes is from aureus, yellow or golden; pes, foot; so called from its 
yellow stem. 

The pileus is three to four inches broad, convex, nearly smooth, yellowish- 
brown, the flesh often cracking in areas in old plants ; flesh yellow at first, 
fading to a lighter color, in age. 

The tubes are nearly plane, their mouths small, nearly round, at first 
stuffed, yellow. 

The stem is two to four inches long, nearly equal, often reticulated, solid, 

a bright yellow on the 
surface and a light yel- 
low within. The spores 
are ochraceous - brown, 
tinged with green, 12x5/1. 
The whole plant ex- 
cept the upper surface 
of the cap, is a golden 
yellow, and even the 
surface of the cap is 
more or less yellow. It 
favors one form of the 
B. edulis. It is some- 
times found in mixed 
woods, especially if there 
are mountain laurels in 
the woods ( Kahuia lati- 
folia). It is found in 
July and August. 

Figure 300. Boletus auripes. One-half natural size. Caps yellowish- 
brown. Tube surface and stem yellow. 



Boletus retipes. B. and C. 

The Beautiful-stemmed Boletus. Edible. 


Retipes is from rete, a net ; pes, a foot ; so called from the delicate net-work 
seen on the stem. 

The pileus is convex, dry, powdered with yellow, sometimes rivulose or 
cracked in areas. The tubes are adnate, yellow. 

The stem is sub-equal, cespitose, reticulate to the base, pulverulent below. 
The spores are greenish-ochraceous, 12- 15x4-5/*. Peck, Boleti. 

B. retipes is very close to B. ornatipes, but its manner of growth, its pul- 
verulent cap, and its greenish-ochraceous spores will at once distinquish it. I 
have found them on Ralston's Run, a number from the same mycelial cluster, 
as in Figure 301. The caps only are good. The specimens in the figure were 
found near Ashville, N. C, and photographed by Prof. H. C. Beardslee. 

Figure 301. Boletus retipes. Natural size. 



Figure 302. Boletus griseus. Two-thirds 
natural size. 

Boletus griseus. Frost. 
The Gray Boletus. 

Griseus means gray. The pileus is 
broadly convex, firm, dry, almost smooth, 
gray or grayish black. The flesh is whitish 
or gray. 

The tubes are attached to the stem and 
slightly depressed around the stem, nearly 
plane, their mouths being small, nearly 
round, white or whitish. 

The stem is slightly unequal, tapering 
downward, distinctly reticulated, whitish 
or yellowish, sometimes reddish toward 
the base. The spores are ochraceous- 
brown, 10-14x4-5^. Peck. 

This plant, with us, grows singly and it 
is infrequently found. I have found it 
always in beech woods along Ralston's Run. 
It is found in August and September. 

Figure 303. Boletus nigrellus. Two-thirds natural size. 

Boletus nigrellus. 

The Blackish 
Boletus. Edible. 

Nigrellus is a di- 
minutive of niger, 
black. The entire 
plant is blackish 
except the pore 

The pileus is 
three to six inches 
broad, rather 
broadly convex or 
nearly plane, dry, 
blackish. The flesh 
is soft and un- 



The tube-surface is rather plane, adhering- to the stem, sometimes slightly 
depressed around the stem, the mouths being small, nearly round ; whitish, be- 
coming flesh-colored, changing to black or brown when wounded. 

The stem is equal, short, even, black or blackish. The spores are dull flesh- 
color, 10-12X5-6/A. 

When I first found this specimen I was inclined to call it B. alboater, but 
its flesh-colored tubes served to distinguish it. I found the specimens in Figure 
303 on Edinger's Hill, near Chillicothe. The taste is mild and fairly good. 
August and September. 

Boletus Americanus. Pk. 

This species will attract the attention of the collector because of its very 
viscid cap. I found the specimens in Figure 304 growing on Cemetery Hill, 
near Chillicothe, in company with Lactarius deliciosus. They were growing 
near and under pine trees, both in dense groups and separately. The caps were 
very viscid, yellow with a slight tinge of red. The stem is covered with nu- 
merous reddish-brown dots. 

The pileus is one to three inches broad, thin ; at first rather globose, convex, 

Figure 304. Boletus Americanus. One-half natural size. 



then expanded, sometimes broadly umbonate ; very viscid when moist, especially 
on the margin ; yellow or becoming- dingy or streaked with red in age. 

The tube-surface is nearly plane and the tubes join squarely against the 
stem ; quite large, angular, pale yellow, becoming a dull ochraceous. 

The stem is slender, equal or tapering upward, firm, with no trace of a ring ; 
yellow, often brownish toward the base, covered with numerous brown or reddish- 
brown quite persistent granular dots ; yellow within. The spores are oblong, 
ochraceous-ferruginous, 9-1 1x4-5/*,. 

The veil is only observed in the very young specimens. Only caps are good 
to eat. The specimens were photographed for me by Dr. Kellerman. 

Boletus M or gam. Pk. 

Morgan's Boletus. Edible. 

Morgani is named in honor of Prof. Morgan. 

The pileus is one and a half to two inches broad, convex, soft, glabrous, 
viscid ; red, yellow, or red fading to yellow on the margin ; flesh white, tinged 

with red and yellow, unchangeable. 

The tube-surface convex, depressed 
around the stem, tubes rather long and 
large, bright yellow, becoming greenish- 

The stem is elongated, tapering up- 
ward, pitted with long and narrow de- 
pressions, yellow, red in the depressions, 
colored within like the flesh of the 
pileus. The spores are olive-brown, 
1 8-22,11, about half as broad. Peck. 

This plant is found in company with 
P>. Russeli, which it resembles very 
closely. Its smooth, viscid cap and 
white flesh will distinguish it. Its stem 
is much more rough in wet weather 
than in dry. The peculiar color of the 
stem will help to identify the species. 
I found it frequently on Ralston's Run, 
near Chillicothe. It is found in many 
of the states of the Union. July and 

Figure 305. Boletus Morgani. One-half \,, rr ,, c ,t- 

natural size. /MlgUSt. 



Boletus Russelli. Frost. 
Russeli/s Boletus. Edible. 

The cap is thick, hemispherical or convex, dry, covered with downy scales or 
bundles of red hairs, yellowish beneath the tomentum, often cracked in areas. 
The flesh is yellow and unchangeable. 

The tubes are subadnate, often depressed around the stem, rather large, 
dingy-yellow, or yellowish-green. 

The stem is very long, equal or tapering upward, roughened by the lacerated 
margins of the reticular depressions, red or brownish red. The spores are 
olive-brown, 1 8-22x8- lOfi. 

Figure 306. Boletus Russelli. One-half natural size. 

The pileus is one and a half to four inches broad, the stem is three to seven 
inches long, and three to six lines thick. This is distinguished from the other 
species by the dry squamulose pileus and the color of the stem. The latter is 
sometimes curved at the base. Peck. 

I have found this species frequently in the woods and open places about 



Chillicothe. It is one of the easiest of the Boleti to determine. The plants here 
have a bright brownish-red pileus, with a shade lighter color on the stem ; the 
latter quite rough and tapering toward the cap. They are usually solitary. The 
plants in Figure 306 were collected in Michigan and photographed by Dr. Fischer. 

Boletus vermiculosus. Pk. 

Figure 307. Boletus vermiculosus. One-half natural size. 

Vermiculosus means full of 
small worms. The pileus is 
broadly convex, thick, firm, 
dry ; smooth, or very minutely 
tomentose; brown, yellowish- 
brown or grayish-brown, some- 
times tinged with red. The 
flesh is white or whitish, quick- 
ly changing to blue where 
wounded. The tubes are plane 
or slightly convex, nearly free, 
yellow ; their mouths small, 
round, brownish-orange, be- 
coming darker or blackish with 
age, changing promptly to blue 
where wounded. 

The stem is nearly equal, 
firm, even, paler than the pileus. 
The spores are ochraceous- 
brown, 10-12x4-5/*. Peck. 

The plant represented in Figure 307 grew under the beech trees on 
Cemetery Hill. I found it frequently in the woods, from July to September. 

Boletus Froslii. Russell. 

Frostii is named in honor of Mr. Frost, a noted mycologist. 

The pileus is three to four inches broad; convex, polished, shining, blood-red; 
the margin is thin, the flesh scarcely changing to blue. 

The tubes are nearly free, greenish-yellow, becoming yellowish-brown with 
age, their mouths blood-red or cinnabar-red. 

The stem is two to four inches long, three to six lines thick, equal or tapering 
upward, distinctly reticulated, firm, blood-red. The spores are 12.5-15x5//.. Peck, 
Boleti of U. S. 



This is a beautiful plant. It is not plentiful, yet it is found frequently on 
some of our hillsides. The plants in Figure 308 were found in Hayne's Hollow 
near Chillicothe, and photographed by Dr. Kellerman. The plant is found in 

Figure 308. Boletus Frostii. Caps blood-red and shining. Natural size. 

New England and through the Middle West. I have had beautiful plants sent 
me from Vermont. It is not edible, so far as I know. Found in August and 



Boletus luridus. Schaeff. 

The Lurid Boletus. 

Luridus means pale-yellow, sallow. The pileus is convex, tomentose, brown- 
olivaceous, then somewhat viscous, sooty. The flesh is yellow, changing- to blue 
when wounded. Tubes free, yellow, becoming greenish, their mouths round, 
vermilion, becoming orange. The stem is stout, vermilion, somewhat orange at 
the top, reticulate or punctuate. The spores are greenish-gray, 15X9/X,. 

Figure 309. Boletus luridus. One-half natural size. 

The lurid Boletus, though pleasant to the taste, is reputed very poisonous. 
Boletus rubeolarius, Pers., having a short, bulbous, scarcely reticulated stem, is 
regarded as a variety of this species. The red-stemmed Boletus, B. erythropus, 
Pers., is also indicated by Fries as a variety of luridus. It will be seen on the 
right in Figure 309. It is smaller than B. luridus, has a brown or reddish-brown 
pileus and a slender cylindrical stem, not reticulated but dotted with squamules. 
Peck, Boleti of the U. S. The plant is quite abundant in our woods. Found in 
July and August. 



Boletus castaneus. 

The Chestnut Boletus. 

Castaneus, pertaining to 
a chestnut. The pileus is 
dry, convex, then expand- 
ed, minutely velvety ; cin- 
namon or reddish-brown, 
from one to three inches 
in diameter; the flesh white, 
not changing when bruised, 
cap frequently turned up- 

The tube-surface is white, 
becoming yellow, tubes small 
and short, free from the 

The stem is equal or 
tapering upward, colored and 
clothed like the cap, short 
and not always straight ; 
when young it is spongy 
in the center but becomes 
hollow with age. The spores 
are pale-yellow, oval or broad- 
ly elliptical, which is a 
feature to distinguish the 

I found a number of 
specimens in James Dunlap's 
woods, near Chillicothe, Ohio. 
A great majority seemed 
to be attacked by the parasitic 
fungi, Sepedonium chrysso- 

The caps are very fine 
eating. Care should be tak- 
en to use only young 
specimens. Found in open 
woods from June to Septem- 

igikk 310. Boletus castaneus. One-half natural size. 

Figure 311. Boletus castaneus. 


Boletus satanus. Lenz. 
Satanic Boletus. 

Pileus convex, smooth, somewhat gluey, brownish-yellow or whitish; flesh 
whitish, becoming 1 reddish or violaceous where wounded. Tubes free, yellow, 
their mouths bright red, becoming orange-colored with age. The stem thick, 
ovate-ventricose, marked above with red reticulations. Peck, Boleti of U. S. 

Hamilton Gibson and Captain Mcllvaine seem to give his Satanic majesty 
a good reputation, but I would say "Be cautious." His looks always deterred 
me. Found in woods from June to September. 

Strobilomyces. Berk. 

Strobilomyces is from two Greek words meaning a pine-cone and a fungus. 
The hymenophore is even, tubes not easily separable from it, large and equal. It 
is of a brownish-gray color, its shaggy surface more or less studded with deep- 
brown or black woolly points, each at the center of a scale-like segment. The 
tubes beneath are covered at first with a veil which breaks and is often found on 
the rim of the cap. It is a plant that will quickly attract attention. 

Strobilomyces strobilaccus. Berk. 
The Cone-Like Boletus. Edible. 

Strobilaceus, cone-like. This is especially emphasized from the fact that 
both the genus and the species are named from the fancied resemblance of the 
cap to a pine cone. It is ever readily recognized because of this character of 
the cap. 

The pileus is convex, rough with dark umber scales drawn into regular 
cone-like points tipped with dark-brown ; margin veiled, flesh grayish-white, 
turning red when bruised, and finally black. 

Pore-surface grayish-white in young specimens, and usually covered with 
the veil; tubes attached to the stem, angular, turning red when bruised. 

The stem is equal or tapering upward, furrowed at the top, covered with a 
woolly down. Spores dark-brown, 12-13x9/1.. Found at Londonderry. Common 
in woods. August to September. 



Figure 312. Strobilomyces strobilaceus. Two-thirds natural size. 

Boletinus. Kalchb. 

Boletinus is a diminutive of Boletus. 

Hymenium composed of broad radiating lamellae, connected by very numerous 
and narrow anastomosing- branches or partitions, forming large angular 
pores. Tubes somewhat tenacious, not easily separable from the hymenophore and 
from each other, adnate or subdecurrent, yellowish. Peck. 

Boletinus pictus. Pk. 
The Painted Boletinus. Edible. 

Pictus, painted. This plant seems to delight in damp pine woods, but I have 
found it only occasionally about Chillicothe, under beech trees. It is readily recog- 
nized by the red fibrillose tomentum which covers the entire plant when young. As 
the plant expands the reddish tomentum is broken into scales of the 
same color, revealing the yellowish color of the pileus beneath. The flesh is 
compact, yellow, often changing to a dull pinkish or reddish tint where wounded. 

The tube-surface is at first pale yellow, but becomes darker with age, often 
changing to pinkish, with a brown tinge where bruised. 



The stem is solid, equal, and covered with a cottony layer of mycelium- 
threads like the pileus, though often paler. The spores are ochraceous, 15-18x6-8/11. 
The plants are two to four inches broad, and one and a half to three inches high. 
Found from July to October. 

Figure 313. Boletinus pictus. 

Boletinus cavipcs. Kalchb. 
Hollow-Stemmed Boletinus. Edible. 

Cavipes is from two Latin words meaning a hollow stem. 

The pileus is broadly convex, rather tough, flexible, soft, subumbonate, 
fibrillose-scaly, tawny-brown, sometimes tinged with reddish or purplish, flesh 
yellowish. The tubes are slightly decurrent, at first pale-yellcw, then darker and 
tinged with green, becoming dingy-ochraceous with age. The stem is equal or 
slightly tapering upward, somewhat fibrillose or floccose, slightly ringed, hollow, 
tawny-brown or yellowish-brown, yellowish at the top and marked by the 
decurrent dissepiments of the tubes, white within. Veil whitish, partly 



adhering - to the margin of the pilens, 
soon disappearing. The spores are 
8-iox4/x. Peck, in Boleti of the 
U. S. 

This plant grows in New York and 
the New England states, under pine and 
tamarack trees. The caps are convex, 
covered with a tawny-brown fibrillose 
tomentum. The stems of those I have 
seen are hollow from the first. The 
plants in Figure 314 were sent me from 
Massachusetts by Mrs. Blackford. 

Boletinus porosus. (Berk.) Pk. 

These form a small but interesting 
species, not usually exceeding three and 
a half inches in diameter nor more than 
two inches in height. 

The cap is somewhat fleshy, nut- 
brown, or yellowish-brown, shading 

tO olivaceOUS in Color in mOSt of the Figure 3 U.-Boletinus cavipes. 

specimens which I have found; when fresh and moist, somewhat sticky and 
shining. The margins are thin, rather even, and inclined to be in- 
volute; the shape of the cap is more or less irregular, in many cases almost 

The stem is laterally attached, tough, and gradually expands into 
the pileus which it resembles in color; it is markedly reticulated at 
the top by the decurrent walls of the spore-tubes. The spore-surface 
is yellow, the tubes arranged in radiating rows, some being more 
prominent than others, the partitions often assuming the form of 
gills which branch and are connected by cross partitions of less prom- 
inence. The stratum of tubes, while soft, is very tenaceous, not separating 
from the flesh of the pileus. 

The odor and taste of all the specimens found were pleasant. Found in 
damp woods in July and August. When a sufficient number can be found they 
make an excellent dish. 

It is found in abundance about Chillicothe. 



Figure 315. Boletinus porosus. Two-thirds natural size. Caps nut-brown, yellowish-brown or olivaceous. 

Fistulina. Bull. 

Fistulina means a small pipe ; so called because the stand close together 
and separate easily one from another. 

The hymenophore is fleshy and hymenium inferior. When first seen springing 
from a stump or root it looks like a large strawberry. It soon developes into the 
appearance of a big red tongue. When young the upper side is quite velvety 
and peach-colored, later it becomes a livid red and loses its velvety appearance. 
The under surface is flesh-colored and is rough like the surface of a tongue, owing 
to the fact that the tubes are free from one another. When it is moist it is very 
viscid, making your hands quite blood-stained in appearance. 



Fistulina hepatica. Fr. 

The Liver Fungus. Edibee. 

This is a beautiful plant, quite common where there are chestnut stumps and 
trees. I have found it on chestnut oak, quite large specimens, too. It is one of my 
favorite mushrooms ; one cannot afford to pass it by. Its beautiful color will 
attract attention at once, and having once eaten it well prepared, one will never 
pass a chestnut stump without examining it. 

Figure 317. Fistulina hepatica. One-half natural size. 

The pileus is fan-shaped or semicircular, red-juicy, flesh when cut somewhat 
mottled like beet-root and giving forth a very appetizing odor ; the cap is moist 
and somewhat viscid, the color varying from a red (somewhat beefy) to a 
reddish-brown in older plants ; while the spore surface varies from strawberry- 
pink through a light- and dark-tan to an almost chestnut-brown. 

In young plants the color is much richer and more vivid than in those of 
greater maturity. The spore surface resembles nothing so much as a very fine 
sponge, the spore-tubes being short, crowded, yet distinct. 

The marked peculiarity of its mode of growth is in the attachment of the stem ; 
somewhat thick, fleshy, and juicy, coming from the side of the pileus like the 
handle of a fan, it looks as if some one had taken hold of the cap and given 
it a partial twist to the tight or to the left, as may he seen in Figure 317. 
Vnother peculiarity 1 have noticed in this species consists of the nerve-like lines, 



or veinlets, radiating from the stem and streaking the upper surface of the cap. 
The taste, when raw, is slightly but pleasantly acid. Its favorite habitat 
seems to be injured places on chestnut trees, and about chestnut stumps. It is 
known as Liver Fungus, Beefsteak Fungus, Oak-Tongue, Chestnut-Tongue, etc. 
It is found from July to October. 

I have found it plentiful about Chillicothe on chestnut stumps, and quite 
generally over the state. I found some very fine specimens on the chestnut oaks, 
about Bowling Green, Ohio. 

When properly prepared it is equal to any kind of meat. It is one of our 
best mushrooms. 

Figure 318. Fistulina pallida. Natural size. 

Fistulina pallida. B. and Rav. 

Pallida means pale. Pileus kidney-shaped, pallid-red, fawn or clay-color, 
thick at the base and thinning toward the margin, which is often crenate and 
inflexed ; pulverulent, firm, flexible, tough ; flesh white. 

The tubes are long and slender, mouths somewhat enlarged, whitish, the tube 



surface a pale cream-color and minutely mealy, pores not decurrent but ending 
with the beginning of the stem. 

The stem is uniformly attached to the concave margin of the cap; attenuated 
downward ; whitish below, but near the cap it changes to the same tint. The 
peculiar manner of attachment of the stem will serve to identify the species, 
which I have found several times near Chillicothe. The specimen in the illustra- 
tion was found on the State farm, and photographed by Dr. Kellerman. 

Polyporus. Fr. 

Polyporus is from two Greek words meaning many and pores. Tn this genus 
the stratum of the pores is not easily separated from the cap. Most of the 
species under this genus are tough and corky. Many grow on decayed wood, a 
few on the ground, but even these are inclined to be tough. Very few of those 
growing on wood have a central stem and many have apparently no stem at all. 

Figure 319. Polyporus picipes. Two-thirds natural size. Note the black stem, which gives name to the species. 

Polyporus picipes. Fr. 
The Black-Footed Polyporus. 

Picipes is from pix, pitch or black, and pes, foot. 

The pileus is fleshy, rigid, coriaceous, tough, even, smooth, depressed either 
behind or in the center ; livid with a chestnut-colored disk. 

The pores are decurrent, rounded, small, tender, white, finally reddish-gray. 


The stem is eccentric and lateral, equal, firm ; at first velvety, then naked ; 
punctate with black dots, becoming black. 

The stem at the base is pitch-black, as will be seen in Figure 319. The 
margin of the cap is very thin and the caps are irregularly funnel-form. This 
plant is widely distributed over the United States and is quite common about 
Chillicothe. Found in damp woods on decayed logs from July to November. 
When very young and tender it can be eaten. 

Polyporus unibclhrtus. Fr. 
The Sun-Shade Poeyporus. Edible. 

Umbellatus is from umbella, a sun-shade. Very much branched, fibrous- 
fleshy, toughish. The pileoli are very numerous, one-half to one and a half inches 
broad, sooty, dull-red, united at the base. Pores are minute and white. 
White pileoli have sometimes occurred, fries. 

The tufts, as will be observed from Figure 320, are very dense, and there 
seems to be no limit to their branching. Notice that every cap is depressed or 
umbilicate. The specimen in Figure 320 was collected near Mammoth Cave, 
Kentucky, by Mr. C. G. Lloyd, Cincinnati, and through his courtesy I have used 
his print. I have found the plant about Chillicothe and Sidney, Ohio. It is 
found on decayed roots on the ground, or on stumps. When the caps are fresh 
they are quite good. 

May to November. 

Polyporus frondosus. Fr. 
The Branched Poeytokis. Edible. 

Frondosus, full of leafy branches. The tufts are from six inches to over a 
foot broad, very much branched, fibrous-fleshy, toughish. 

The pileoli are very numerous, one-half to two inches broad, sooty-gray, 
dimidiate, wrinkled, lobed. intricately recurved. Flesh white. Stems, growing 
into each other, white. 

The pores are rather tender, very small, acute, white, commonly round, but 
in oblique position, gaping open and torn. Fries. 

The specimen in Figure 32] was found near Chillicothe. When tender it is 
very good. Found on stumps and roots from September till the coming of frost 

We are told that in the Roman markets this mushroom is frequently sold 
as an article of food. 



Figure 321. Polyporus frondosus. One-fifth natural size. 

Polyporus leucomclas. Fr. 

Leucomeias is from two Greek words, leucos, white, and melas, black. 
The pileus is two to four inches broad, fleshy, somewhat fragile, irregularly 
shaped, silky, sooty-black ; flesh soft, reddish when broken. 

The pores are rather large, unequal, ashy or whitish, becoming black when 

The stem is one to three inches long, stout, unequal, somewhat tomentose, 
sooty-black, becoming black internally. The pileus and stem become black in 

The spores are cylindric-fusoid, pale-brown, 10-12x4-5^. 

They are usually found in pine woods. The caps are often deformed and 
are easily broken. The pores resemble those of a Boletus. The plant is quite 
widely distributed. The one in Figure 322 was found in Massachusetts by Mrs. 
Blackford, and I photographed it after it was partially dry. It is probably the 
same as P. griseus, P. 



Figure 322. Polyporus leucomelas. 

Polyporus Berkelyi. Fr. 
Berkeley's Poeyporus. Edibee. 

The pileoli are fleshy, tough, becoming hard and corky, many times imbricated, 
sometimes growing very large, with many in a head ; subzonate, finally tomentose ; 
the plant very much branched, alutaceous. 

The stem is short or entirely wanting, arising from a long and thick caudex. 

The pore surface is very large, the pores are large and irregular, angular, 

I have seen some very large specimens of this species. The natural size 
of the specimen in Figure 323 is two and one-fourth feet across. When young 
it is edible, but not equal to P. sulphureus. It is found growing on the ground 
near trees and stumps, and is a widely distributed plant. 

Figure 323. Polyporus Berkeleyi. One-fifth natural size. 



Polyporus gfganteus. Fr. 

The Giant Polyporus. Edible. 

Giganteus is from gigas, a giant. The pileoli are very numerous, imbricated, 
fleshy, tough, somewhat coriaceous, flaccid, somewhat zoned ; color a grayish- 
brown in young specimens, the deep cream pore surfaces tipping the pileoli, 
rendering it a very attractive plant ; this cream-color is quickly changed to> black 
or deep-brown by touching it. 

The pores are minute, shallow, round, pallid, at length torn. 

The stem is branched, connate from a common tuber. 

This is a large and certainly a very attractive plant, being very often two to 
three feet across. When young and tender it is edible. Found growing on decayed 
stumps and roots, it is somewhat common in our state. I have found some quite 
large specimens about Chillicothe. It is easily distinguished by its pore surface 
turning black or dark-brown to the touch. When young and tender it makes a 
good stew, but it must be well cooked. 

Polyporus squamosus. Fr. 

The Scaly Polyporus. 

Squamosus means abounding in scales. The pileus is from three to eighteen 
inches broad, fleshy, fan-shaped, expanded, flattened, somewhat ochraceous, var- 
iegated, with scattered, brown, adpressed scales. 

The stem is eccentric and lateral, blunt, reticulated at apex, blackish 
at the base. 

The pores are thin, variable ; at first minute, then broad, angular and torn ; 
pallid. Spores are white and elliptical, 14x6/*. 

It is found from Massachusetts to Iowa, and grows very large. Specimens 
have been reported seven feet in circumference and attaining a weight of 40 

The specimen in Figure 325 was found by Mr. C. G. Lloyd in the woods 
at Red Bank, near Cincinnati. It is quite a common plant in Europe. 

It is tough, but it is prepared for eating by being cut fine and stewed for a 
half hour or more. 

In Figure 325 the angular and torn pores are obvious, as well as the scales 
which give rise to its name. Found on trunks and stumps from May to 

Figure 325. 1'olyporus squamosus. Natural size. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 



Polyporus sulphur eus. I'r. 
The Sulphur-colored Polyporus. Edible. 

Sulphureus, pertaining to sulphur, so called from the color of the tube- 
bearing surface. In mature specimens the growth is horizontal, spreading fan- 
like from the stem, undulating with radiating flutings. The upper surface is 
salmon, orange, or orange-red; flesh cheesy, light-yellow, the edge being smooth 
and unevenly thickened with nodule-like prominences. In young specimens the 
ascending, under yellow surface outwardly exposed. 

The pore surface is a bright sulphur-yellow, which is more persistent than 
the color of the cap ; pores very minute, short, often formed of inflexed masses. 

The stem is short, a mere close attachment for the spreading growth. The 
taste is slightly acid and mucilaginous when raw. The spores are elliptical and 
white, 7-8X4-5/X. 

It grows on decayed logs, on stumps, and 011 decayed places in living trees. 
The mycelium of this species will frequently be found in the hearts of trees and 
remain there for years before the tree is injured sufficiently for the mycelium to 
come to the surface. It may take months, or a century, to accomplish this. 

When this plant is young and tender it is a prime favorite with all who know 
it. It is found from August to November. Its favorite host is an oak stump 
or log. 

Figure 327. Polyporus flavovirens. Two-thirds natural size. 



Polyporus flavovirens. B. & Rav. 

Flavovirens means yellowish-green or olivaceous. 

The pileus is quite large, three to six inches broad, convex, expanded, funnel- 
form or repand, fleshy, tomentose, yellowish-green or olivaceous ; frequently the 
pileus is cracked when old; flesh white. 

The pores are not large, toothed, white or whitish, decurrent upon the stem, 
which is tapering. 

This plant is very common on the oak hillsides about Chillicothe. The 
plants in Figure 327 were found by Miss Margaret Mace on the Governor 

Figure 328. Polyporus heteroclitus. One-fourth natural size. ThePileoli bright orange. 

Tiffin farm, about twelve miles north of Chillicothe, growing in large groups under 
oak trees. It is edible though often tough. It is found in August and Sep- 
tember. It is very abundant in this region. 



Polyporus hcteroclitus. I'r. 
The Bouquet Poi/vporus. Edible. 

Heteroclitus is from two Greek words; one of two and to lean, referring to 
its habit of growth, leaning apparently upon the ground or the base of a tree or 
stump. It is csespitose and coriaceous. The pileoli are two and a half inches 
broad, orange and sessile, expanded on all sides from the radical tubercle, lobed, 
villous, zoneless. 

The pores are irregularly shaped and elongated, golden yellow. Fries. 

The specimen in Figure 328 was found by Mr. Beyerly at Richmond Dale, 
Ohio. It was over a foot in diamter and eight inches high, growing in many 
caespitose layers, on the ground under an oak tree, from a radical tubercle. The 
flesh was juicy and tender, breaking easily. The radical tubercle from which it 
grew was filled with a milky juice. The flesh was somewhat lighter in color than 
the outside pilei, which extended horizontally from the tubercle. It is a very 
showy and attractive plant, and as Captain Mcllvaine remarks, it looks like a 
"mammoth dahlia" in bloom. When young and tender it is good, but in age it 
becomes rank. This plant was found July 1st. It grows in the months of June 
and July. 

Polyporus radicatus. Schw. 

Radicatus, from the long root the plant has. 
The pileus is fleshy, quite tough, cushion- 
shaped, slightly depressed, pale sooty, some- 
what downy. 

The pores are decurrent, quite large, obtuse, 
equal, white. 

The stem is very long, often eccentric, 
tapering downward, sometimes ventricose as 
in Figure 329, rooting quite deep, black below. 

It is found on the ground in the woods and 
in old clearings beside old trees and stumps. 

The blackish or brown pileus, which is more 
or less tomentose, with a black stem more or 
less deformed, will serve to distinguish the 
species. Found from September to November. 

FicurE 329. Polyporus radicatus. One- 
third natural size. 

Polyporus perplexus. Pk. 

The pileus is spongy-fleshy, fibrous, sessile, 
commonly imbricated, and somewhat confluent, 


irregular, hairy-tomentose to setose-hispid, grayish-tawny, or ferruginous, the 
margin subacute, sterile, the substance within tawny-ferruginous, somewhat 

The pores are two to three lines long, unequal, angular, the dissepiments 
becoming brownish-ferruginous with age or where bruised. The spores are 
ferruginous, broadly elliptical, .00024 to -0003 inch long and about .0002 broad. 

Figure 330. Polyporus perplexus. Two-thirds natural size. 

This is ver> r abundant on beech logs, growing quite large, massive, imbri- 
cated, and confluent, the pileoli being often two to four inches broad. It is very 
closely related to P. cuticularis and P. hispidus. It can be easily distinguished 
from P. cuticularis by means of its straight margin, and from P. hispidus by its 
small size and smaller pores. Found from September to November. 

Polyporus hispidus. Fr. 

Pileus is very large, eight to ten inches broad and three to four inches thick, 
compact, spongy, fleshy but fibrous, dimidiate, with occasionally a very short 
stem ; generally very hairy, but sometimes smooth ; the pileus is often marked 
with concentric lines which seem to indicate arrested vegetation ; brown, blackish, 
yellowish or reddish brown, below pale-yellow or rich sienna-brown, margin paler. 

The pores are minute, round, inclined to separate, fringed, paler. The spores 
are yellowish, apiculate, 10x7^. Often found on living trees, the plant gains 
entrance to the living stem through the bark, by means of a wound made by 
some agency, as a bird or a boring insect; soon a mass of mycelium is formed, 
and from this the fruiting body is produced. 


Polyporus cuticidaris. l'r. , 

Pileus is quite thin, spongy, fleshy, then dry; plane, hairy-tomentose, ferru- 
ginous, then blackish-brown ; margin fibrous, fimbriate, internally loose and par- 
allel, fibrous. 

The pores are long, quite small, pale, then ochraceous ; pores longer than 
the thickness of the flesh. The spores are yellow or ochraceous, very abundant, 
7X4-5/X. The hairs on the pileus are three-cleft. 

This is very frequent in beech woods about Chillicothe. Found in Sep- 
tember and October. 

Polyporus circinatus. Pr. 
Thk Round Polyporus. Ediblk. 

Circinatus is from circiuus, a pair of compasses, hence means rounded like 
a circle. 

The pileus is three to four inches across, with a double cap, one cap within 
another, both being compact, thick, round, plane, zoneless, velvety, rusty-yellow 
to reddish-brown, the flesh being of the same color. The upper cap is pliable, 
compact, soft, and covered with a soft tomentum, the lower cap, contiguous with 
the stem, is woody and corky. 

The pores are decurrent, extending down the stem, entire, rather small, 

The stem is short and rather thick, often swollen, covered with a reddish- 
brown tomentum. 

This is an odd but handsome species and easily determined because of its 
double cap. It is said to prefer fir woods, but T have frequently found it in oak 
woods. It grows on the ground, and when young and fresh the pilei are said 
to be good. I have never found more than one specimen at a time and never 
in a condition to eat, though good authorities say it is edible when young and 
tender. Found in September and October. 

Polyporus adustus. Fr. 

Adustus means scorched, so called from the blackish color of margin. 

The pileus is often imbricated: fleshy, tough, firm. thin, villous, ash-color; 
margin straight, blackish. 

The pores are minute, round, obtuse, whitish, soon ashy-brown. 

It is abundant everywhere on fallen beech or on beech stumps. It is very 
close to P. fumosus if it is not identical with it. Tt is found from August to 
late fall. 



Poly poms resinosus. 

Pileus from three to six, and frequently eight, inches long; rich-brown, vary- 
ing from bright cinnamon to red, handsomely marked with delicate pencilings 
radiating from the axis of growth ; the color of the pileus seems to form a binding 
about the edge of the light-gray pore surface, which is closely punctured with 
minute elliptical pores. 

The color of the pore surface readily changes to brown upon slight pressure. 
The whole plant is full of a brownish juice which exudes freely upon pressure. 
The plant is shelving and imbricated upon the side of a log, without any apparent 

Taken altogether the Polyporus resinosus presents one of the handsomest 

Figure 331. Polyporus resinosus. One-fourth natural size. 

specimens of fungus growth that one will be likely to find in a long day's tramp. 
When fresh and growing it has rather a pleasant taste. 

It is found during October and November, growing on decayed logs, being 
partial to the beech. Its abundance is equal to its beauty. 

Polyporus lucidus. Fr. 

The pileus is two to three or more inches broad, usually very irregular, 
brownish-maroon, with a distinct double zone of duller dark-brown and tan. 
Cap glazed especially in the center, wrinkled. 

The spore surface is a very light grayish-brown in the young plant, changing 
to almost a tan in older ones, pores labyrinthiform. 

The stem is irregular, knotted and swollen with protuberances somewhat re- 
sembling buds, from which develope the caps which in some cases appear as if 



stuck on the stem like barn- 
acles on a stick. Contrary to 
most mushrooms the upper 
surface of the cap and the 
stem are of nearly the same 
color, the stem being - usually 
of a more brilliant red. The 
stem has a distinct root ex- 
tending into the ground sev- 
eral inches. The whole plant 
is almost indescribably ir- 
reglar. It is quite an attract- 
ive plant when seen growing 
among the weeds and beside 
stumps. The plants in Figure 
332 I found growing among 
Datura stramonium beside old 
I have found the same species growing on oak stumps. It 

It is found 

Figure 332. Polyporus lucidus. One-third natural size. 

stumps in a pasture 

is known as Ganoderma Curtisii, Berk., G. pseudoboletus, Merrill. 

from August till late fall. 

Polyporus obliquus. Pers. 

Obliquus means slanting, ob- 
lique. This species is widely cir- 
cumfused, usually hard, quite 
thick, uneven, pallid, elegant choc- 
olate-brown, then blackish ; con- 
versely encircled crested border. 

The pores are long, very minute, 
obtuse, slightly angular. It grows 
on dead branches of iron-wood and 
wild cherry. The deep chocolate- 
brown and the oblique form of its 
pores will serve to identify the 

It grows, with us, in the spring. 
I gathered this specimen in June. 
In the fall I visited the same trunk, 
but found they had begun to de- 
cay. It is sometimes called Poria 

FlGtnjtS 33.?- PolyportU obliquus. Two-thirds natural size. 



Polyporus gravcolcns. Fr. 

Graveolens means strong scented, 
closely imbricated and connate, 
forming a subglobose polyceph- 
alous mass, Figure 334. Pileoli in- 
numerable, infkxed and appressed, 
plicate, blown. 

Pores concealed, very minute, 
round, pale-brown, the dissepiments 
thick and obtuse. Morgan. 

This is a very interesting plant 
because of its peculiar mode of 
growth. It is found in woods or 
clearings on dead logs or .on stand- 
ing dead trees. In some parts of 
the state it is quite common. From 
the illustration. Figure 334, it will 
be seen that the plant consists of an 
innumerable number of pileoli form- 
ing a subglobose or elongated mass. 
They are frequently three to six 
inches in diameter and several 
inches long. I have seen them very 
much elongated on standing trees. 
When it is young and growing it 
is shiny in appearance and has a 
reddish and sometimes a purplish 
tint. The inner substance is fer- 
ruginous but covered with a hard 
brown crust. The pores are brown, 
and when examined with the glass 
are seen to be lined with a very fine 
pubescence. The imbricated form 
of the pileoli show very plainly in 
the illustration. 

Corky or woody and extremely hard, very 

Polyporus brumalis. Fr. 

The Winter Polyporus. 

Brumalis is from bruma, which 
means winter ; so called because it 

Figure .334. Polyporus graveolens. 



appears late, in cold weather. 

The specimens in Figure 335 
were found in December. 

The pileus is from one to 
three inches broad, nearly 
plane, slightly depressed in the 
center; somewhat fleshy and 
tough; dingy-brown, clothed 
with minute scales, becoming 
smooth, pallid. 

The pores are oval, slightly 
angular, slender, acute, den- 
ticulate, white, 5-6x2^. 

The stem is short, thin, 
slightly bulbous at the base, 
hirsute or squamulose, pale, 

It usually occurs singly but 

Figure tis. Polyporus brumalis. < ,1 -n r j 

jji. yi frequently you will find sev- 

eral in a group. Found on sticks and logs, they are quite hard to detach from 
their hosts. Too tough to eat. It equals Polyporus polyporus, (Retz) Merrill. 

Polyporus rufescens. Pr. 

The Rufescent Polyporus. 

Rufescens, becoming red. The pileus is flesh-colored, spongy, soft, unequal, 
hairy or woolly. 

The pores are large, sinuose and torn, white or flesh-colored. 

The stem is short, irregular, tuberous at the base. Spores elliptical, 6x4-5^. 

Rather common about Chillicothe on the ground about old stumps. 

Polyporus aratlarius. Putsch. 

The pileus is dark-brown, minutely scaly, depressed in the center, margin 
covered with stiff hairs. 

The tube surface is of a dingy cream color, openings oblong, almost diamond- 
shaped, resembling the meshes <:' a net, the meshes being smaller on the margin. 
shallow, simply marked out at the top of the stem. 

The stem is dark-brown, minutely scaly, mottled, with a ground work of cream- 
color ; hollow. Common in the spring of the year on sticks and decayed wood 
in fields or in old clearings. It is quite generally distributed. Edible but tough. 



Figure 336. Polyporus arcularius. Two-thirds natural size, showing dark brown and depressed 
center; also dark brown stems. 

Polyporus elegans. Fr. 

The pileus is fleshy, soon becoming woody ; expanded, even, smooth, pallid. 

Pores are plane, minute, nearly round, pallid, yellowish-white. 

The stem is eccentric, even, smooth, pallid ; base from the first abruptly black. 
This is quite common on rotten wood in the forests. It resembles P. picipes 
both in appearance and habitat. 

Polyporus uicdulla-pauis. Fr. 

Effused, determinate, subundulate, firm, smooth, white, circumference naked, 
submarginate, wholly composed of middle sized, rather long, entire pores, the 
whole becoming yellowish in age. 

I found this species on an elm log along Ralston's Run. 

Polyporus albellus. Pk. 

The pileus is thick, sessile, convex or subungulate, subsolitary, two to four 
inches broad, one to one and a half thick, fleshy, rather soft ; the adnate cuticle 
rather thin, smooth or sometimes slightly roughened by a slight strigose tomentum, 
especially toward the margin; whitish, tinged more or less with fuscus ; flesh pure 
white, odor acidulous. 

The pores are nearly plane, minute, subrotund, about two lines long; white, 
inclining to yellowish, the dissepiments thin, acute. 

The spores are minute, cylindrical, curved, white, .00016 to .0002 inch long. 

This species is quite common here and is very widely distributed in the 
United States. 



Polyporus epileucus. Br. 

This is quite a large and beautiful plant. It apparently grows without a 
stem, its color being an unequal gray. The pileus is somewhat coriaceous, 
firm, pulvinate, villous. 

The pores are round, elongated, obtuse, entire, white. 

This is not common with us, but I have met it a few times and always on elm 
logs or stumps. 

Figure 337. Polyporus betulinus. 

Polyporus betulinus. Fr. 

Thl Birch Polyporus. Edible. 

Betulinus is from betulina, birch. 

The pileus is from four to ten inches across, fleshy, soon corky, ungulate, 
obtuse, smooth, pale reddish-brown when mature, often mottled, roundish, or 



somewhat reniform, zoneless, the oblique vertex in the form of an umbo ; pellicle 
thin, separating; flesh white, very thick. 

The pores are short, round, minute, unequal, separable from the pileus when 
fresh, but really concrete with it; white or tinged with brown, developing slowly; 
when mature there are peculiar hair-like scales attached to the pore-surface, 
making the plant look like a Hydnum when viewed from the side. It is found 
wherever the birch tree grows. When young and fresh it is edible, but with a 
strong flavor unpleasant to many. In this state the deer eat it. The specimen 
in Figure 337 was found in Wisconsin, and photographed by Dr. Kellerman. 
This species is the Piptoporus suberosus (L.) of Merrill. 

Polyporus cinnabarinus. Schw 
Cinnabar Polyporus. 

Cinnabarinus like cinnabar (vermilion). The pileus is dry, more or less 
spongy, pliant, rather thick, fibrous on top ; flesh light or yellowish-red, shelving. 

The pores are carmine, quite small, round, entire. 
This species is quite common 
in the woods about Chillicothe. 
It is easily identified by the beau- 
tiful carmine color of the pileus 
and the pore surface, the latter 
being a shade darker than the 
former, as will be seen in Figure 


The specimens photographed 
were found in December. They 
grow on dead logs and branches, 
commonly on the oak and wild 
cherry, sometimes on maple. It is 
called by some authors Trametes 

Figure 338. Polyporus cinnabarinus. One-third 
natural size. 

Polyporus vulgaris. Fr. 
Common Effused Polyporus. 

Vulgaris, common. Quite broadly effused, very thin, adheres closely to its 
host; even, white, dry. Circumference soon smooth and the whole surface com- 
posed of firm, crowded, small, round, nearly equal pores. 

Effused on dead wood, fallen branches, and frequently on moist boards. 



Polyporus lacteus. Fr. 

The pileus is white, or whitish, fleshy, somewhat fibrous, fragile, triangular 
in form, pubescent, azonate, margin somewhat inflexed, acute. 

The pores are thin, acute, dentate, finally lacerate and labyrinthiform. 

This species is found in the woods, on beech logs. It is small and thin, not 
much more than an inch in width but sometimes elongated. Steep and gibbous 
behind, becoming at length smooth and equal. It is not abundant in our woods, 
but I have found it often. August and September. 

Polyporus cccsius. Schrad. 

The pileus is white, with a bluish tinge occasionally upon its surface, soft, 
tenaceous, unequal, silky. 

The pores are small, unequal, long, flexuous, dentate, lacerate. 

It is found in woods on partially decayed sticks. I have only occasionally 
found a specimen in our woods. 

Polyporus pubcsccns. Seine. 

Pubescens means downy; so called from the satiny finish of its pileus, 
which is fleshy, quite tough and corky, soft, convex, subzonate, pubescent and 

shiny ; white without 
and within; the mar- 
gin acute, becoming 
at length yellowish 
and hard, with a 
shiny lustre. 

The pores are 
short, minute, nearly 
round and plane. 

The pileus is from 
one to two inches 
in width, laterally 
confluent and usually 
very much imbri- 
cated. Quite plenti- 
ful in woods on 
beech logs. July to 

Figure 339. Polypcd-us pubescens. White without and within, November 

pubescent and shiny. 



Polyporus volvatus. Pk. 

Volvatus, bearing a volva. This is a most interesting species. The pileus 
seems to be prolonged, making a volva-like protection of the spore surface. 
When this volva is ruptured small heaps of spores will often be seen on the 
volva, having been protected from the wind. 

The plant is small, somewhat round, and before the volva is ruptured it is 
very like a puff ball ; fleshy, smooth, attached by a small point, whitish, slightly 
tinged with yellow, 
red or reddish- 
brown ; the cuticle 
of the pileus envel- 
oping the entire 
pore-surface, thick 
and firm. The 
pores are rather 
long, small, the 
mouths yellowish, 
with a tinge of 
brown. The spores 
are elliptical and 
flesh-colored, .0003 
to .00035 inch long 
and about .0002 

This plant has a 

wide distribution, being found in the New England and Eastern States, and the 
States of the Pacific slope. I presume it will be found wherever the spruce tree 
is a native. 

The specimens in Figure 340 were found near Boston and were sent me 
about the first of May by Mrs. Blackford. The first package I took, before 
examining them, to be a new puffball, which they seemed to resemble in their 
undeveloped state. 

Figvrk 340. Polyporus volvatus. Natural size. 

Polystictus bi form is. Vr. 

Biformis means two shapes or appearances ; referring to the condition of the 
pores in the young and the old plant. 

The pileus is two to three inches wide, projecting from one to three inches, 
often imbricated so as to cover a larg'e surface ; laterally confluent, coriaceous, 
flexible, tough, subzonate, with innate radiating fibres, the cortex fibrillose, 

The pores at first very large, simple, compound, or confluent, round, elon- 



Figure 341. Polystictus biformis. Xatural size. Frequently covered with green lichen. 

gated, flexuous; the dissepiments dentate, then lacerate, the hymenium finally 
resolved into teeth. 

When I first found this plant the hymenium had resolved into teeth, and I 
supposed that I had found an Irpex. It is found in woods on logs and stumps. 
Very common with us. Frequently covered with a green lichen. July to 

Figure 342. Polystictus hirsutus. Natural size. 



Polystictus hirsutus. Fr. 
The Bristly Polystictus. 

Hirsutus means hairy or bristly. The pileus is corky, coriaceous, convex, 
then plane, hairy with rigid bristles, zoned with concentric furrows ; of one color, 
whitish, sometimes these zones are quite marked as in Figure 342. 

The pore surface is at first white, or whitish, becoming dark or brownish 
in age. The pores are round, the walls rather thick. It is found on logs and 
stumps in the woods. It is a very common plant and widely distributed. 

Polystictus versicolor. Fr. 
The Common Zoned Polystictus. 

is coriaceous, thin, 

even and shining, 

white or grayish- 

or woolly, and the 

Versicolor means varying colors. The pileus 
rigid, plane, depressed behind ; quite velvety, nearly 
variegated with colored zones, sometimes entirely 
white, not unfrequently the whole surface is villous 
zones mere de- 

The pores are 
minute, round, 
acute, lacerated, 
white or cream- 

It is very com- 
mon, as well as 
very variable in 
form and color. 
It is frequently 
found on logs 
and is then 
densely imbri- 
cated. On our 
hillsides it fre- 
quently grows 
on a small bush 
as in Figure 343. 
It is one of the 
most beautiful 
plants in the 

WOOC1S. Figure 343. Polystictus versicolor. One-half natural size. 



rolyporus gilvus. Schw. 

Gilvus means pale-yellow or deep-reddish flesh-color. 

The pileus is corky, woody, hard, effuso-reflexed, imbricate, concrescent, 
subtomentose, then scabrous, uneven, reddish-yellow, then subferruginous, the 
margin acute. 

The pores are minute, round, entire, brownish-ferruginous. Morgan. 

It is very abundant throughout the state, being found on all kinds of logs 
and stumps. 

Polystictus cinnamoncus. Jacq. 

The pileus is an inch and a half, or less, broad, coriaceous, slightly depressed 
in the center; rather rough on the surface, but with a beautiful satiny lustre, and 
more or less zoned ; caps often growing together, but with separate stems; shining, 

a light cinnamon-brown. 

The spores are rather 
large, angular, torn with 
age; cinnamon-brown, 
growing darker in older 

The stem is one to 
two inches long, equal, 
or slightly tapering up- 
ward, cinnamon-brown, 
hollow or stuffed, tough, 
frequently sending forth 
branches from the side 
and base of the stem. 

This is quite a beauti- 
ful plant, growing usual- 
ly in patches of moss. 
The caps have quite a 
glossy cinnamon-brown 
surface, which will at- 
tract the attention of any 
one. They are very 
small and easily over- 
looked. Found in Aug- 
ust and September. 

This plant is called P. 
,. ,, , subsericeus bv Dr. Peck. 

I' ic-.iki: 344. Polystictus cmnamoneus. 



Polystictus pcrcnnis. Vr. 

The pilens is thin, pliant when fresh but somewhat brittle when dry. It is 
minutely velvety on the upper surface, reddish-brown or cinnamon in color; 
expanded or umbilicate to nearly funnel-shaped. The surface is beautifully 
marked by radiations and fine concentric zones. 

The stem is also velvety. The spore-tubes are minute, the walls thin and 
acute, and the mouths angular, and at last more or less torn. The margin of the 
cap is finely fimbriate, but in old specimens those hairs are apt to become rubbed 
off. Atkinson. 

I found specimens by the roadside near Lone Tree Hill, near Chillicothe. 

Figure 345. Polystictus pergamenus. 

It is the only place in which I have found this plant. I have found Polystictus 
subsericeus, or, as Prof. Atkinson calls it, P. cinnamomeus, in a number of 


Polystictiis pcrgamenus. Fr. 

Pergamenus means parchment. 

The pileus is coriaceous, thin, effused, reflexed, villous, zoned, cinereous-white, 
with colored zone ; pliant when fresh. 

The pores are unequal, torn, violaceous, then pallid. It is very common here 
on beech, maple, and wild cherry. The pores become torn so that they resemble 
the teeth of the Hydnum. This is one of the most common fungi in our woods. 

The photograph is by Prof. J. D. Smith, of Akron, O. 

Fomes leucophccus. Mont. 

This has been called by many authors in America Fomes applanatus or 
Polyporus applanatus. It is very common in this country but very rare in Europe, 
while Fomes applanatus, which is common in Europe, is very scarce in the United 
States. In general appearance they are much alike, the applanatus having a 
softer tissue and echinulate spores, but our common species, leucophaeus, has 
smooth spores. 

The pileus is expanded, tuberculose, obsoletely zoned, purverulent, or smooth ; 
cinnamon, becoming whitish ; cuticle crustaceous, rigid, at length fragile, very 
soft within ; loosely floccose, margin tumid ; white, then cinnamon. The pores are 
very small, slightly ferruginous, orifice whitish, brownish when bruised. The 
spore surface when fresh is soft and white. 

This attractive plant is very common in our woods and furnishes an excellent 
stencil surface for drawing. Found all the year round. 

Fomes fomentarius. Fr. 

The Bracket Fomes. 

This species is very common in our woods. The brackets resemble a horse's 
hoof in shape. They are smoky, gray, and of various shades of brown. The 
upper surface of the bracket is quite strongly zoned and furrowed, so as to show 
each year's growth. The margin is thick and blunt, and the tube surface is 
concave ; the openings of the tubes quite large, so that they can be readily seen by 
the naked eye. The tube surface is reddish-brown when mature. The inside 
was formerly used in making tinder-sticks, which were made by rolling the 
fungus wood until it was perfectly flexible and then dipping it into saltpetre. 



Pomes rimosus. Berkeley. 
Cracked Fomes. 

Rimosus means cracked. The fine checks in the pileus are clearly seen in 
the halftone. 

The pileus is pulvinate-ungulate, much dilated, deeply sulcate ; cinnamon, 
then brown or blackish ; very much cracked or rimose. It is very hard, fibrous, 
tawny-ferruginous ; the margin broad, pruinate-velvety, rather acute. 

Figure 347. Fomes rimosus 

The pores are minute, indistinctly stratified, tawny-ferruginous, the mouths 
rhubarb-color. Morgan. 

This plant is very common on the locust trees about Chillicothe. I have 
never found it on other wood. 



Fomes pinicola. (Szvarts.) Fr. 

Pinicola means dwelling- on pine. It is found on dead pine, spruce, balsam, 
and other conifers. It resembles Fomes leucophaeus but is somewhat stouter and 

Figure 348. Fomes pinicola. 

does not have as hard and firm a crust. The young growth is at the margin, and 
is whitish or tinged with yellow, while the old zones are reddish. The tube surface 
is whitish-yellow or yellowish. This is frequently called Polyporus pinicolus. 
(Swartz.) Fr. 



Fomes igniarius. Fr. 

This is rather a common species in our state ; black or brownish-black in 
color, somewhat triangular in shape, and frequently hoof-shaped. The zones 
indicating the yearly growth are plainly marked, and the tubes are quite long 
and of a dark brown color. Their growth is rather slow, and it requires years 

Figure 349. Fomes igniarius. 

to produce some of the moderate sized specimens. Prof. Atkinson of Cornell 
University found a specimen which he believed to be over 80 years old. 

This is called by many authors Polyporus igniarius (L.), Fr. Murrill calls 
it Pyropolyporus igniarius. This plant is widely distributed over the- United 
States, and is met frequently in every wood in Ohio. 



Fomes fraxinophilus. Fr. 

Fraxinophilus means ash-loving; rather common in this country, but does 
not grow in Europe. 

Figure 350. Fomes fraxinophilus. 

The pileus is between corky and woody, smooth, somewhat flattened, at first 
zoneless ; white when young, then reddish-brown, white around the margin ; at 
first even, then concentrically sulcate, pale within. 



The tubes are short, pores minute, rusty-red but covered from the first with a 
white pubescence and continuous with the margin ; the spores nearly 
round, 6-y/x. 

The specimens in Fgure 350 were found in Haynes' Hollow on a living ash, 
growing at intervals of five or six feet, one above another, to a height of thirty feet. 

Tratnetes. Fr 

In case of the genus Trametes the hymenophorum descends into the trama 
of the pores without any change, and is permanently concrete with the pileus. 
The pores are entire. There are, however, a few of the Polypori which are quite 
thin that have the trama of the same structure with the hymenophorum. These 
have been separated by Fries and have been called Polystictus. They are dis- 
tinguished by the fact that the pores develop from the center out and are perpen- 
dicular to the fibrillose stratum above the hymenophorum while in the genus 
Trametes the hymenophorum is not distant from the rest of the pileus. 

Trametes rubescens. Fr. 

Figure 351. Trametes rubescens. 

This is one of the neatest 
plants of this structure in our 
woods. It grows on the small 
branches and many times covers 
them quite well. It is resup- 
inate, the cap being beautifully 
zoned as you see in Figure 
351. Frequently they grow from 
the side of a small tree that 
has fallen to the ground and 
in this case they are shelv- 

The pore surface is usually 
reddish or flesh-color, the pores 
being long and irregular and 
inclined to be labyrinthiform 
in older specimens as will be 
seen in Figure 352. 

The whole plant is reddish or 



pale flesh-color. No one will 
fail to recognize it from 
these cuts. 

Trametes scutellata. Schzv. 

Scutellata means shield- 
bearing. It is frequently quite 
small, an inch or less ; coria- 
ceous, dimidiate, orbiculate or 
ungulate, fixed by the apex; 
the pilei quite hard; white, * ICTWt 35*-Tite. ntaeu. 

then brownish and blackish, becoming rugged and uneven, with white margin; 
hymenium disk-shaped, concave, white-pulverulent becoming dark ; pores minute, 
long, with thick obtuse dissepiments. This is found on fence posts. 

Trametes Ohiensis. Berk. 

The pilei are pulvinate, narrow, zoned, often laterally confluent ; ochraceous- 
white, tomentose, then smooth, laccate. This plant resembles T. scutellata in 
many points, both in habit and in form. 

Trametes suaveolcns. (L.) Fir. 

Soft at first, pulvinate, white, villous, zoneless ; pores rotund, rather large, 
obtuse, white, then darker ; anise-scented. Found on willows. 

Merulius. Fr. 

Merulius means a blackbird ; from the color of the fungus. 

Hymenophore covered with the soft waxy hymenium, which is incompletely 
porus, or arranged in reticulate, sinuous, dentate folds. This genus grows on 
wood, at first resupinate, expanded ; the hymenophore springing from a mucous 



Merulius rubellus. Pk. 

Rubellus is the diminutive of ruber, reddish. The pileus grows in tufts, 
sessile, confluent and imbricated, repand, thin, convex, soft, dimidiate, quite 
tenacious ; tomentose, evenly red, margin mostly undulately inflexed, growing 
pale in age. Hymenium whitish or reddish, folds much branched, forming 

Figure 353. Merulius rubellus. Natural size. 

anastomosing pores. The spores are elliptical, hyaline, minute, 4-5x2. 5-3/x.. The 
pileus is two to three inches long and an inch and a half broad. 

It is found very frequently on decayed beech and sugar trees and I have found 
it growing on a live oak. The specimens in Figure 353 were collected near 
Columbus and photographed by Dr. Kellerman. It is probably the same as M. 
incarnati, Schw. 



Merulius tremellosus. Schrad. 

Tremellosus, trembling. Resupinate ; margin becoming free and more or 
less rerlexed, usually radiately-toothed, fleshy, tremelloid, tomentose, white; 
hymenium variously wrinkled and porus, whitish and subtranslucent-looking, 
becoming tinged with brown in the center. The spores are cylindrical, curved, 
about 4x1^. From one to three inches across, remaining pale when growing in 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 

Figure 354. Merulius tremellosus 

dark places. The margin is sometimes tinged with a rose-color, radiating when 
it is well developed. Massee. 

This plant grows in woods on wood and is quite common in our woods both 
the rose-colored and the translucent-brown. Captain Mcllvaine calls Merulius 
tremellosus and M. rubellus emergency species. He says they are rather 
tasteless, tough, slightly woody in flavor. They are found in October and 


Meralius corium. Fr. 

Resupinate, effused, soft, papery, circumference at length free, reflexed, 
white, villous below. Hymenium netted, porus, pallid, tan-color. 
Found on decaying- branches. Quite common. 

Merulius lacrymans. Fr. 

Resupinate, fleshy, spongy, moist, tender, at first very light, cottony and 
white; when the veins appear they are of a fine yellow, orange or reddish-brown, 
forming irregular folds, so arranged to have the appearance of pores (but never 
anything like tubes), distilling when perfect drops of water which give rise to the 
specific name "weeping." 

Dr. Charles W. Hoyt of Chillicothe, brought to my office two or three plants 
of this species that had grown on the under side of the floor in his wash-house. 
When he took up the floor the workmen discovered a number of pendant processes, 
some oval, some cone-shaped. Some were eight inches long, very white and 
beautiful but clearly illustrating the weeping process. The doctor called them 
white rats suspended by their tails. 

Dcrdalea. Pers. 

Daedalea is used with reference to the labyrinthiform pores ; so named after 
Daedalos, the builder of the labyrinth of Crete. 

The hymenophore decends into the trama without any change, pores firm, 
when fully grown sinuous and labyrinthiform, lacerated, and toothed. The habits 
of Daedalea are very much the same as Trametes, but they are inodorous. Care 
should be taken not to confound them with the species of Polyporus that have 
elongated curved pores. 

Dcedalea ambigua. Berk. 

The pileus is white, corky, horizontal, explanate, reniform, subsessile, azonate, 
finely pubescent, becoming smooth. 

Pores from round to linear and labyrinthiform, the dissepiments always 
obtuse and never lamellate. 

It is a very common growth in Ohio, found on old logs of the sugar maple. 
You will see the' beginning of the growth in the spring as a round white nodule 



which develops slowly. If the 
same plant is observed in the 
summer it will be found to be 
gibbous or convex in form. It 
finishes its growth in the fall 
when it has become explanate 
and horizontal, depressed above 
and with a thin margin. When 
fresh and growing it is of a rich 
cream-color and has a soft and 
velvety touch and a pleasant 
fragrance. In Figure 355, show- 
ing the surface of the cap, the 
growth of the plant shows in 
the form of the zones. Figure 
356 shows the form of the 
dissepiments. In younger speci- 
mens these are frequently 
round, much like a Polyporus. 
There is one locality in Poke 
Hollow where the maple logs 
are white with this species, ap- 
pearing, in the distance, to be 
oyster mushrooms. 

... - 





Figure 355. Daedalea ambigua. One-third natural size, 
showing upper surface. 

Figure 356. Daedalea ambigua. One-third natural size, 
showing the pore surface. 

Dwdalea quercina. Pk. 

The; Oak Dafdalf,a. 

The pileus is a pallid wood 
color, corky, rugulose, uneven, 
without zones, becoming 
smooth ; of the s,ame color within as without ; the margin in full-grown specimens 
thin, but in imperfectly developed specimens swollen and blunt. 

The pores are at first round, then broken into contorted or gill-like labyrinthi- 
form sinuses, with obtuse edges of the same color as the pileus, sometimes with 
a slight shade of pink. 

They grow to be very large, from six to eight inches broad, being found 
on oak stumps and logs, though not as common in Ohio as D. ambigua. The 
specimen in Figure 357 were found in Massachusetts by Mrs. Blackford and 
photographed here. . 



Figure 357. Daedalea quercina. 

Dccdalca unicolor. Fr. 

Villose-strigose, cinereous with concolorous zones ; hymenium with flexuous, 
winding, intricate, acute dissepiments, at length torn and toothed. The pores are 
whitish cinereous, sometimes fuscous ; variable in thickness, color, and character 
of hymenium ; sometimes with white margin ; often imbricated and fuliginous 
when moist. Widely distributed over the states and found on nearly all deciduous 

D&dalea confragosa. Boton. 
The Willow Daedalea. 

Confragosa means broken, rough. The pileus is rather convex, corky, rough, 
slightly zonate, reddish-brown, unicolorous, somewhat of a rust-red within. 

The pores are frequently round, like those of the Polyporus, but sometimes 



they are elongated into 
gills like the Lenzites ; 

I have seen quite old 
specimens that were very 
difficult to distinguish 
from some of the forms 
of Lenzites. The young 
plants resemble very 
closely Trametes rubes- 
cens. It grows on 
Crataegus, willow and 
sometimes on other 
trees, and is widely dis- 
tributed. The specimen 
in Figure 358 was found 
in Massachusetts by Mrs. 
Blackford, and photo- 
graphed in my study. 

Figure 358. Dredalea confragosa. 

Favolus. Fr. 

Favolus is a diminutive of favits, honey-comb. 

The hymenium is alveolate, radiating, formed of 
uniting gills ; elongated, diamond-shaped. Spores white, 
somewhat stipitate. 

the densely irregularly 
Semicircular in outline, 

Figure 359. Favolus Canadensis. 



Faz'olus canadensis. Klotsch. 

The pileus is fleshy, tough, thin, kidney-form, fibrillose, scaly, tawny, becom- 
ing pale and smooth. 

The pores or alveoli are angular elongated, white at first, then straw- 

The stem is eccentric, lateral, very short or lacking altogether. 

This plant is very common around Chillicothe on fallen branches in the 
woods, especially on hickory. Found from September to frost. Not poisonous 
but too tough to eat. I do not believe there is any difference between F. 
canadensis and Favolus Europeus. I notice that our plant assumes dif- 
ferent colors in different stages of its growth, and the form of the pores also 

Cyclomyces. Kunz & Fr. 

Cyclomyces is from two Greek words, meaning a circle and fungus. This 
genus is very distinct from other tube-bearing genera. The pileus is fleshy, 
leathery or membranaceous, and usually cushion-formed. Upon the lower surface 
are the plate-like bodies resembling the gills of Agarics but which are composed 
of minute pores. These pore bodies are arranged in concentric circles around 

the stem. 

Cyclomyces Greenii. Berk. 

The pileus is two to three inches broad, 
globose at first, convex, sometimes undulate, 
somewhat zoned, tomentose, dry, cushion- 
formed, cinnamon-brown, rather showy. 

The gills are in concern ric circles around the 
stem, growing larger and larger as they reach 
the margin of the cap. In the young plant the 
gills are divided into long divisions but in 
the older plant these division lines disappear 
as will be seen in Figure 361. The edges of 
the gills are white at first, as will be seen in 
Figure 361, but finally becoming cinnamon- 

The stem is central, tapering upward, quite 
large and swollen at times very much like 
Hydnum spongiosipes ; the color is the same as 
the pileus. 



This is a very 
interesting- plant 
and quite rare in 
Ohio, however, 
I found several 
plants in the fall 
of 1905, on 
Ralston's Run. 
In the same lo- 
cality I found 
Boletus badius, 
and when I first 
saw C. Greenii I 
came near mis- 
taking- it for the 
same plant and 
so neglecting it, 
the caps being 
at first glance so 
much alike. 

Figure 361. Cyclomyces Greenii. Old specimens. 

Glceoporus. Mont. 

Gloeoporus is from two Greek words, meaning gluten and pore. The plants 
of this genus resemble the polyporus and are frequently placed under that genus. 

Gloeoporus conchoides. Mont. 

Conchoides means like a shell. 

The pileus is leathery or woody, at first fleshy, soft, effused, with upper 
margin reflexed ; thin, silky, whitish, with edge of the margin often reddish. It 
has a trembling, gelatinous, spore-bearing surface, often somewhat elastic. 

The pores are short, very small, round, cinnamon-brown. 

There are several synonyms. Polyporus dichrous, Fr., and P. nigropur- 
purascens, Schw. Montgomery places it in the above genus because of its gelatin- 
ous hvmenium. 



There is, perhaps, no family in mycology that has a greater variety in form, 
size, and consistency than this. Some species are very large, some are small, 
some fleshy, and some are corky or woody. The fruiting surface is the special 
characteristic marking the family. This surface is covered with spines or teeth 
which nearly always point to the earth. 

Many of the Hydnaceae are shelving, growing on trees or logs ; some grow 
on the ground on central, but usually eccentric, stems. The genera of Hydnaceae 
are distinguished by the size, shape, and attachment of the teeth. The following 
genera are included : 

Hydnum Spines discrete at the base. 

Irpex Resupinate ; with gill-like teeth concrete with the pileus. 

Mucronella Plants with teeth only and no basal membrane. 

Radulum Hymenium with thick, blunt, irregular spines. 

Sistotrema Fleshy plants with caps and flattened teeth, on ground. 

Phlebia Plants spread over the host with crowded folds or wrinkles. 

Grandinia Covered with granules, more or less smooth, and excavated. 

Odontium Covered with crested granules. 

Hydnum. Linn. 

Hydnum is from a Greek word meaning an eatable fungus. The genus is 
characterized by awl-shaped spines which are distant at the base. These spines 
are at first papilliform, then elongated and round. They form the fruiting surface 
and take the place of the gills in the family Agaricaceae and of the pores in the 
family of Polyporaceae. The spines are simple or in some cases the tips are more 
or less branched. 

This is the greatest genus in the family and it includes many important edible 
species. It may be divided into two groups : one, those species having a cap and 
a central or lateral stem ; the other, the species growing with or without a distinct 
cap, in large imbricated masses. Some imitate coral in structure and some seem 
to be a mass of spines. Many of these plants grow to be very large and massive, 
frequently weighing over ten pounds. 




Hydnum rcpandum. Linn. 

The Spreading Hydnum. Edible. 

Repandum, bent backward, referring to the position of the stem and the cap. 
The pileus is two to four inches broad, generally irregular, with the stem eccentric ; 
fleshy, brittle, convex or nearly plane, compact, more or less repand, nearly 

Figure 362. Hydnum repandum. Two-thirds natural size. 

smooth; color varying from a pale buff the typical hue to a distinct brick-red; 
flesh creamy-white, inclining to turn brown when bruised ; taste slightly aromatic, 
margin often wavy. 

The spines are beneath the cap, one-quarter to one-third of an inch long, 
irregular, entire, pointed, rather easily detached, leaving small cavities in the 
fleshy cap, soft, creamy, becoming darker in older specimens. 

The stem is short, thick, solid in young specimens, hollow in older specimens ; 
paler than the pileus, rather rough, often set eccentrically into the cap ; one to 
three inches long, sometimes thickened at the base, sometimes at the top. The 
spores are globose or a broad oval, with a small papilla at one end. 

The usual color of the cap is buff, sometimes very pale, almost white. The 
color and smoothness of the cap have given rise to the name of "doe-skin 
mushroom." I found this plant occasionally in the woods about Salem, Ohio. It 
is very variable in size and color, and is quite fragile, growing alone or in clusters. 
It is one of our best mushrooms if properly cooked, and may be dried and kept 
for winter use. Found in woods and open places from July to October, sometimes 
earlier. Specimens in Figure 362 were found in Poke Hollow. 



Hydmim imbricatum. Linn. 
The Imbricated Hydnum. Edible. 

Imbricatum is from imbrex, a tile, referring to the surface of the cap being 
torn into triangular scales, seeming to overlap one another like shingles on a roof. 

The pileus is fleshy, plane, slightly depressed, tessellated scaly, downy, not 
zoned, umber in color or brownish as if scorched, flesh dingy-white, taste slightly 
bitter when raw, margin round. 

The spines are decurrent, entire, numerous, short, ashy-white, generally 
equal in length. 

The stem is firm, short, thick, even, whitish. The spores are pale yellow- 
brown, rough. 

The bitter taste entirely leaves the plant when well cooked. It seems to 
delight in pine or chestnut woods. I found it in Emmanuel Thomas' woods, east of 
Salem, Ohio. It is found from September to November. 

Figure 364. Hydnum erinaceum. Young state. 

Hydnum erinaceum. Bull. 

The Hedgehog Hydnum. Edible. 

Erinaceum, a hedgehog. Two to eight inches or more across. Tufts pendul- 
ous. White and yellowish-white becoming yellowish-brown ; fleshy, elastic, tough, 
sometimes emarginate (broadly attached as if tuft were cut in two or sliced off 
where attached), a mass of latticed branches and fibrils. Spines one and a half 



inches to four inches long, crowded, straight, equal, pendulous. The stem is some- 
times rudimentary. The spores are subglobose, white, plain, 5-6/x,. Peck, 22 N. Y. 

The spines when just starting are like small papillae, as will be seen in 
Figure 364. Figure 363 represents a very fine specimen found on the end of a 
beech log, on the Huntington Hills, near Chillicothe. It made a meal for three 
families. I have found several basketfuls of this species on this same log, within 
the past few years. I have also found on the same log large specimens of Hydnum 

The photograph at the beginning of the book represents the largest specimen 
I ever saw of this species. It measured eighteen inches one way and thirteen the 
other, and was found on a maple tree on top of Mount Logan. It grew from a 
central stem, while the one in Figure 363 grew from a crack in a log, apparently 
without a stem. Plate I, Figure 1 was photographed after it was dried. The 
specimen can be seen in the Lloyd Library in Cincinnati. Found from July to 

Figure 365. Hydnum caput-ursi. 



Hydnum caput-ursi. Fr. 
The Bear's Head Hydnum. Edible. 

Caput-ursi means the head of a bear. 

This is a very beautiful plant but not as common as some other species of 
Hydnum. It grows in very large pendulous tufts, as Figure 365 will indicate. It 
is found frequently on standing oak and maple trees, sometimes quite high up in 
the trees. It is more frequently found on logs and stumps, as are its kindred 
species. The plant arises out of the wood by a single stout stem which branches 
into many divisions, all of which are covered by long pendant spines. When it 
grows on top of a log or stump the spines are frequently erect. It is white, 
becoming in age 
yellow and 
brownish. It has 
a wide distribu- 
tion through the 
states. As an es- 
culent it is fine. 
The specimen in 
Figure 365 was 
found near Ak- 
ron, Ohio, and 
was photographed 
by Mr. G. D.- 
Smith. I t i s 
found from July 
to October. 

Hydum caput- 
Medusce. Bull. 

The Medusa's 
Head Hydnum. 

head of Medusa. 
This is a very 
striking plant 
when seen in the 
woods. The tufts 
are pendulous. 









m IHf^l 


$1 JP^" s 


Figure 366. Hydnum caput-Medusse. One-third natural size. 



The long wavy spines resemble the wavy locks of Medusa, hence the name. The 
long soft spines cover the entire surface of the fungus, which is divided into 
fleshy branches or divisions, each terminating in a crown of shorter drooping 

The color at first is white, changing in age to a buff or a dark cream, which 
distinguishes it from H. caput-ursi. The taste is sweet and aromatic, sometimes 
slightly pungent. The stem is short and concealed beneath the growth. 

I found this plant growing on a hickory log, on Lee's hill, near 
Chillicothe, from which came the specimen in Figure 366. I have also found it on 
elm and beech. Found from July to October. 

It is both attractive and palatable. 

Figure 367. Hydnum coralloides. One-fourth natural size. Entire plant white. 

Hydnum coralloides. Scop. 

The Coral-like Hydnum. Edible. 

This species grows in large, beautiful tufts on decaying logs, in damp woods. 
It grows from a common stem, dividing into many branches and then sub-dividing 
into many long and coral-like shoots, composed wholly of attenuated interlacing 

Plate XLIX. Figure 368. Hydnum septentrionale. 
Grew from a small opening in a living beech tree. 


branches tapering to a point. The spines grow from one side of the flattened 
branches. It only needs to be seen once to be recognized as a coral-like mush- 
room. It is pure white at first, becoming creamy or dingy-white with age. It 
seems to delight in damp, hilly places, yet I found it to be abundant at Sidney, 
and to some' extent about Bowling Green, Ohio, where it was very level. It is 
plentiful around Chillicothe. One hickory log, from which the specimen in the 
figure was taken, furnished me several basketfuls of this plant during three 
seasons, but at the end of the third season the log crumbled away, mycelium 
having literally consumed it. It is one of the most beautiful fungi that Dame 
Nature has been able to fashion. It is said that Elias Fries, when a mere boy, 
was so impressed with the sight of this beautiful fungus, which grew abundantly 
in his native woods in Sweden, that he resolved when he grew up to pursue the 
study of Mycology, which he did ; and became one of the greatest authorities of 
the world in that part of Botany. In fact, he laid the foundation for the study 
of Basidiomycetes, and this beautiful little coral-like fungus was his inspiration. 
It is found principally on beech, maple and hickory in damp woods, from 
July to frost. I have eaten it for years and esteem it among the best. 

Hydnum septentrionale. Fr. 
The Northern Hydnum. 

Septentrionale, northern. This is a very large, fleshy, fibrous plant, growing 
usually upon logs and stumps. 

There are many pilei growing one above the other, plane, margin straight, 
whole. The spines are crowded, slender and equal. 

I have found a number of specimens about Chillicothe that would weigh 
from eight to ten pounds each. The plant is too woody to eat. Besides, it seems 
to have but little flavor. I have always found it on beech logs, from September 
to October. 

A very large plant grows every year on a living beech tree on Cemetery Hill. 

Hydnum spongiosipes. Pk. 

Spongiosipes means a sponge-like foot. Pileus convex, soft, spongy-tomen- 
tose, but tough in texture, rusty-brown, the lower stratum firmer and more 
fibrous, but concolorous. 

The spines are slender, one to two lines long, rusty-brown, becoming darker 
with age. 

The stem is' hard and corky within, externally spongy-tomentose ; colored 



like the pileus, the central substance often transversely zoned, especially near the 
top. Spores globose, nodulose, purplish-brown, 4-6 broad. Pileus one and a 
half to four inches broad. Stem one and a half to three inches long, and four 
to eight lines thick. Peck, 50th Rep. 

Figure 369. Hydnum spongiosipes. One-third natural size. 

It is found in the woods, quite plentifully, about Chillicothe. I referred it 
to H. ferrugineum for a long time, but not being satisfied, sent some specimens 
to Dr. Peck, who classified it as H. spongiosipes. It is edible but very tough. 
Found from July to October. 

Hydmim zonatum. Batsch. 
The Zoned Hydnum. 

Zonatum, zoned. Ferruginous ; pileus equally coriaceous, thin, expanded, 
subinfundibuliform, zoned, becoming smooth ; tough, almost leathery in texture, 
having a surface of beautiful brown, silky lustre, and with radiating striae ; margin 
paler; sterile. 



The stem is slender, nearly equal, floccose, bulbous at the base. 
The spines are slender, palid, then of the same color as the pileus, equal. 
The spores are rough, globose, pale, 4/a. 

The spore-bearing spines are shown in the upper plants in Figure 370. Two 

Figure 370. Hydnum zonatum. 

of them show coalesced caps, though the stems are separate. This is the case 
with H. scrobiculatum and H. spongiosipes. The plants in Figure 370 were 
collected by the roadside in woods on the State Farm, near Lancaster, and pho- 
tographed by Dr. Kellerman. 



Hydnum scrobiatlatitm. Fr, 

Scrobiculatum means marked with a ditch or trench ; so called from the 
rough condition of the cap. The pileus is from one to three inches broad, corky, 
convex, then plane, sometimes slightly depressed ; tough in texture, rusty-brown ; 
the surface of the cap usually 
quite rough, marked with ridges 
or trenches, flesh ferruginous. 

The spines are short, rusty- 
brown, becoming dark with age. 

The stem is firm, one to two 
inches long, unequal, rusty- 
brown, often covered with a 
dense tomentum. 

This species is very plentiful 
in our woods, among the leaves 
under beech trees. They grow 
in lines for some distance, the 
caps so close together that they 
are very frequently confluent. 
I found the plant at Salem, and 
in several other localities in the 
state, although I 
have never seen a 
description of it. 
Any one will be 
able to recognize it 
from Figure 371. It 
grows in the woods 
in August and Sep- 

FlGURS 371. Ilydnum scrobiculatum. 


Hydnum Black- 
fordce. Pk. 

The pileus is 
fleshy, convex, glab- 
rous, grayish or 
greenish-gray, flesh 
whitish with reddish 
stains, slowly be- 
coming darker on 
exposure; aculei 

Figure 372. Ilydnum fennicum. Natural size, showing the teeth. 



subulate, 2-5 mm. long, yellowish-gray, becoming brown with age or drying; 
stem equal or stuffed, becoming hollow in drying; glabrous, colored like the 
pileus; spores brown, globose, verrucose, 8-10/x broad. 

The pileus is 2.5-6 cm. broad ; stem 2.5-4 cm. long, 3-4 mm. thick. 

Mossy ground in low springy places in damp mixed woods. August. Peck. 

This species was found at Ellis, Mass., and was sent to me through courtesy 
of the collector, Mrs. E. B. Blackford, Boston, for whom it was named. 

Hydnum fennicum. Karst. 

Pileus fleshy, fragile, unequal ; at first scaly, at length breaking up ; reddish- 
brick color becoming darker ; margin undulately lobed, two to four inches broad. 
Flesh white.- 

The teeth decurrent, equal, pointed, from white to dusky, about 4 mm. long. 
The stem is sufficiently stout, unequal below, attenuated, flexuous or curved, 
smooth, of the same color as the cap, base acute, white tomentum outside, 
inside light pale-blue, or dark-gray. 

The spores are ellipso-spheroidical or subspheroidical, rough, dusky, 4-6/x 

long, 3-5^ broad. 

The plants in 
Figures 372 and 
373 were found in 
Haynes' Hollow. 

The plant is quite 
bitter and no 
amount of cooking 
will make it edible. 
Found in woods 
from August to 

Hydnum adustum. 

Adustum means 
scorched, burned. 
The pileus is two to 
three inches broad, 
yellowish - white, 

Figure 373. Hydnum fennicum. Natural size, showing the scaly cap. blarkish around the 

margin, coriaceous, slightly zoned; plane at first, then slightly depressed; tomen- 


tose, thin ; frequently a plant will be found growing on the top of another plant. 
The spines are at first white, adnate, short, turning flesh-color and when 
dried almost black. 

The stem is short, solid, tapering upward. 

Figure 374. Hydnum adustum. Natural size. 

The plant is found growing in the woods on trunks and sticks after a rain 
in July, August, and September. It is not as plentiful as Hydnum spongiosipes 
and H. scrobiculatum. It is an attractive plant when seen in the woods. 

Hydnum ochraccum. P. 
Ochrey Hydnum. 

Small, at first entirely resupinate, gradually reflexed, and somewhat repand, 
at first sparingly clothed with dirty-white down, at length rugose ; one to three 
inches broad. The spines are short, entire, becoming pale. Fries. 

It is occasionally found on decayed sticks in the woods. 



Hydnum pulcherrimum. B. & C. 

Most Beautiful Hydnum. 

Pulcherrimum is the superlative of pulcher, beautiful. 

The pileus is fleshy, somewhat fibrous, alutaceus, hirsute ; the margin thin, 
entire, incurved. 

The aculei short, crowded, equal. 

Figure 375. Hydnum pulcherrimum. Showing the under side of one of the pileoli. 

It is found on ibeech wood, frequently imbricated and laterally confluent; a 
single pileus two to five inches in breadth and projecting two to four inches. The 
spines are rather short, not exceeding a quarter of an inch. 

The entire plant is quite fibrous and has a hirsute surface. The color varies 
from whitish to alutaceous and yellowish. It is not common with us. Figure 375 
represents one of the pilei showing the spines. 


Hydnum graveolens. Del. 
Fragrant Hydnum. 

Graveolens means sweet-scented. 

The pileus is coriaceous, thin, soft, not zoned, rugose, dark-brown, brown 
within, margin becoming whitish. The stem is slender and the spines are de- 
current. The spines are short, gray. 

The whole plant smells of melilot ; even after it has been dried and kept for 
years it does not lose this scent. 

I found two specimens in Haynes's Hollow. 

Irpex. Fr. 

Irpex, a harrow, so called from a fancied resemblance of its teeth to the 
teeth of a harrow. It grows on wood ; toothed from the first, the teeth are 
connected at the base, firm, somewhat coriaceous, concrete with the pileus, 
arranged in rows or like net-work. Irpex differs from Hydnum in having the 
spines connected at the base and more blunt. 

Irptx carnens. Fr. 

This plant, as its specific name indicates, resembles the color of flesh. Red- 
dish, effused, one to three inches long, cartilaginous-gelatinous, membranaceous, 
adnate. Teeth obtuse and awl-shaped, entire, united at the base. Fries. 

Found on the tulip-tree, hickory, and elm. September and October. 

Irpex lac tens. Fr. 

Growing on wood, membranaceous, clothed with stiff hair, more or less 
furrowed, milk-white, as its specific name indicates. 

The spine* are compressed, radiate, margin porus. Found on hickory and 
beech logs and stumps. 



Irpex tulip if era. Schw. 

Coriaceous membranaceous, effused ; hymenium inferior, at first toothed, 
teeth springing from a porus base, somewhat coriaceous, entirely concrete with the 
pileus, netted and connected at the base, white or whitish, turning yellowish with 


Figure 376. Irpex tulipiferva. 

This plant is very abundant here on fallen tulip trees. I have seen entire 
tree tops and trunks covered with this plant. The branches after they have 
been penetrated with the mycelial threads become very light and brittle. 

Phlebia. Fr. 

Lignatile, resupinate, hymenium soft and waxy, covered with folds or 
wrinkles, edges entire or corrugated. 

Phlebia radiata. Fr. 

Somewhat round, then dilated, confluent, fleshy and membranaceous, reddish 
or flesh-red, the circumference peculiarly radiately marked. The folds in rows 
radiating from the center. 



The spores are cylindric-oblong, curved, 4-5x1-1.5^1. 

This is quite common on beech bark in the woods. Its bright color and mode 
of growth will attract attention. 

Figure 377. Phlebia radiata. 

Grandinia. Fr. 
Lignat.ile, effused, waxy, granulated, granules globular, entire, permanent. 

Grandinia granulosa. Fr. 

Effused, rather thin, waxy, somewhat ochraceous, circumference determinate, 
granules globular, equal, crowded. 

Found on decayed wood. Quite common in our woods. 



Thelephoraceae is from two Greek words, a teat and to bear. The hymenium 
is even, coriaceous, or waxy, costate, or papillose. There are a number of genera 
under this family but I am acquainted with only the genus Craterellus. 

Craterellus. Fr. 

Craterellus means a small bowl. Hymenium' waxy-membranaceous, distinct 
but adnate to the hymenophore, inferior, continuous, smooth, even or wrinkled. 
Spores white. Fries. 

Figure 378. 'Craterellus cantharellus. Caps and stems yellow. 




Craterellus cantharellus. (Schzv.) Fr. 
Yellow Craterellus. Edible. 

Cantharellus is a diminutive from a Greek word meaning a sort of drinking- 

The pileus is one to three inches broad, convex, often becoming depressed 
and funnel-shaped, glabrous, yellowish, or pinkish. Flesh white, tough, elastic. 

Hymenium slightly wrinkled, yellow or faint salmon color. 

The stem is one to three inches high, tapering downward, smooth, solid, yel- 
low. The spores are yellowish or salmon color when caught on white paper, 
7.5-10X5-6/X. Peck. 

This plant resembles Cantharellus cibarius very closely. The color, form 
of growth, and the odor are very similar to the latter. It may be readily 
distinguished from C. cibarius by the absence of folds on the under or fruiting 
surface. The caps are often large and wavy, resembling yellow cauliflower. 
It is quite abundant about Chillicothe during the months of July and August. 
I have frequently gathered bushels of it for my mushroom-friends. It will be 
easily recognized from Figure 378, bearing in mind that the caps and stems are 

Craterellus comucopioides 

The Horn of Plenty 
Craterellus. Edible. 

Comucopioides is from 
cor nu, a horn, and copia, 

The pileus is thin, flexi- 
ble, tubiform, hollow to 
the base, blackish^P'own, 
sometimes a little scaly, 
the hymenium even or 
somewhat wrinkled, 

The stem is hollow, 
smooth, black, short, al- 
most wanting. The spores 
are elliptical, whitish, 

Figure 379. Craterellus comucopioides. One-third natural size. 



No one will have any trouble in recognizing this species, having once seen 
its picture and read its description. Its elongated or trumpet-shaped cap, and 
its dingy-gray or sooty-brown hue, will at once distinguish it. The spore-bearing 
surface is often a little paler than the upper surface. The cup is often three 
to four inches long. I have found it in quite large clusters in the woods near 
Bowling Green, and Londonderry, though it is found rather sparingly on the 
hillsides about Chillicothe. It has a wide distribution in other states. It does not 
look inviting, on account of its color, but it proves a favorite whenever tested, and 
may be dried and kept for future use. It is found from July to September. 

Craterellus dubins. Ph. 

Dubius means uncertain, from its close re- 
semblance to C. cornucopoides. 

The pileus is one to two inches broad, 
infundibuliform, subfibrillose, lurid-brown, 
pervious to the base, the margin generally 
wavy, lobed. Hymenium dark cinereous, 
rugose when moist, the minute crowded ir- 
regular folds abundantly anastomosing ; near- 
ly even when dry. The stem is short. The 
spores are broadly elliptical or subglobose, 
6-7. 5/n long. Peck. 

It differs from C. cornucopioides in manner 
of growth, paler color, and smaller spores. 

It is distinguished from Craterellus sinu- 
osus by its pervious stem, while very similar 
in color to Cantharellus cinereus. 

This plant, like C. cornucopoides, dries 
readily, and when moistened expands and 
becomes quite as good as when fresh. It 
needs to be stewed slowly till tender, when it 
makes a delightful dish. . 
The plants in Figure 380 were collected near Columbus by R. H. Young and 
photographed by Dr. Kellerman. They are found from July to October. 

Figure 380. Craterellus dubius. 


Corticiam. Pr. 

Entirely resupinate, hymenium soft and fleshy when moist, collapsing when 
dry, often cracked. 


Corticium 1 act cum. Fr. 

This is a very small plant, resupinate, membranaceous, and it is so named 
because of the milk-white color underneath. The hymenium is waxy when moist, 
cracked when dry. 

Corticium oakesii. B. & C. 

The plant is small, Waxy-pliant, somewhat coriaceous, cup-shaped, then ex- 
planate, confluent, marginate, externally white-tomentose. 

The hymenium is even, contiguous, becoming pallid. Spores elliptical, appen- 

I found very fine specimens of this plant on the Iron-wood, Ostrya Virginica, 
which grows on the high school lawn in Chillicothe. In rainy weather in Octobet 
and November the bark would be white with the plant. It resembles a small 
Peziza at first. 

Corticium incarnatum. Fr. 

Waxy when moist, becoming rigid when dry, confluent, aglutinate, radiating. 
Hymenium red or flesh-color, covered with a delicate flesh-colored bloom. Some 
fine specimens were found on dead chestnut trees in Poke Hollow. 

Corticium sambucum. Pk. 

Effused on elder bark, white, continuous when growing, when dry cracked 
or flocculose and collapsing. It grows on the bark or the wood of the elder. 

Corticium cinercum. Fr. 

Waxy when moist, rigid when dry, agglutinate, lurid. The hymenium is 
cinerous, with a verv delicate bloom. Common on sticks in the woods. 

Thelephora. Fr. 

The pileus is without a cuticle, consisting of interwoven fibres. Hymenium 
ribbed, of a tough, fleshy substance, rather rigid, then collapsing and flocculent. 



Thelephora Schzveinitzii. 

Schweinitzii is named in 
honor of the Rev. David 
Lewis de Schweinitz. Caes- 
pitose, white or pallid. 
Pilei soft-corinaeeous, much 
branched; the branches flat- 
tened, furrowed and some- 
what dilated at the apex. 

The stems are variable in 
length, often connate or 
fused together into a solid 

The hymenium is even, 
becoming darker colored 
when older. Morgan. 

This plant is known as T. 
pallida. It is very abundant on our hillsides in Ross County, and in fact through- 
out the state. 

Figure 381. Thelephora Schweinitzii. 

Thelephora laciniata. P. 

The pileus is soft, somewhat coriaceous, incrusting, ferruginous-brown. 
pilei are imbricated, fibrous, scaly, margin fimbriated, at first dirty white, 
hymenium is inferior and papillose. 


Thelephora palmata. Fr. 

The pileus is coriaceous, soft, erect, palmately branched from a common 
stalk ; pubescent, purplish-brown ; branches flat, even, tips fimbriated, whitish. The 
scent is very noticeable soon after it is picked. They grow on the ground in 
July and August. 

Thelephora cristata. Fr. 

The pileus is incrusting, rather tough, pallid, passing into branches, the 
apices compressed, expanded, and beautifully fringed. The plant is whitish, 
grayish, or purplish-brown. It is found on moss or stems of weeds. I found 
beautiful specimens at Bainbridge Caves. 



Thelephora sebacea. Fr. 

The pileus is effused, fleshy, waxy, becoming hard, incrusting, variable, 
tuberculose or stalactitic, whitish, circumference similar ; hymenium flocculose, 
pruinose, or evanescent. 

It is found effused over grass. One meets with it often. 

Stereum. Fr. 

The hymenium is coriace- 
ous, even, rather thick, con- 
crete with the intermediate 
stratum of the pileus, which 
has a cuticle even and vein- 
less, remaining unchanged 
and smooth. 

Stereum versicolor. 

Versicolor means changing 
color, referring to the differ- 
ent bands of color. The 
pileus is effused, reflexed, 
having a number of different 
zones ; in some plants the 
zones are more marked than 
in others, the zones appear- 
ing very much like those in 
Polyporus versicolor. 

The hymenium is even, smooth and brown. 

This is a very common plant, found everywhere on old logs and stumps. It is 
widely diffused and can be found at any time of the year. 

Figure 382. Stereum versicolor. 

Stereum spadieeum. Fr. 

Pilei coriaceous and spreading, reflexed, villous, somewhat ferruginous ; 
margin rather obtuse, whitish, even beneath ; smooth, brownish, and bleeding 
when scratched or bruised. 



Stcreum hirsutum. Fr. 

Hirsutum means shaggy, hairy. The pilei are coriaceous and spreading, 
quite hairy, imbricated, more or less zoned, quite tough, often having a greenish 
tinge from the presence of a minute algse; naked, juiceless, yellowish, unchanged 
when bruised or scratched. The hymenium is pale-yellow, smooth, margin entire, 
often lobed. I find it usually on hickory logs. 

Stcreum fasciatum. Schw. 

Fasciatum means bands or fillets. 

Pileus is coriaceous, plane, villous, 
zonate, grayish ; hymenium, smooth, 
pale-red. Growing on decayed 
trunks. Common in all of our 

Figure 383. Stereum sericeum. 

Stcreum sericeum. Schw. 

Sericeum means silky or saiinv : 
so called from its satin lustre. The 
plant is very small and easily over- 
looked, usually growing in a re- 
supinate form ; sessile, orbiculate, 
free, papyraceous, with a bright 
satin lustre, shining, smooth, pale- 
grayish color. 

The plant grows on both sides of 
small twigs as is shown in the 
photograph. I do not find it on 
large trunks but it is quite common 
on branches. No one will fail 
to recognize it from its specific 

When I first observed it I 
named it S. sericeum, not know- 
ing that there was a species by 
that name. I afterwards sent 
it to Prof. Atkinson and was 
surprised to find that I had cor- 
rectly named it. 


Stereum rugosum. Fr, 

Rugosum means full of wrinkles. 

Broadly effused, sometimes shortly rerlexed; coriaceous, at length thick and 
rigid ; pileus at length smooth, brownish. 

The hymenium is a pale grayish-yellow, changing slightly to a red when 
bruised, pruinose. The spores are cylindrico-elliptical, straight, 11-12X4-5/A. 

This is quite variable in form, and agrees with S. sanguinolentum in becoming 
red when bruised; but it is thicker and more rigid in substance, its pores are 
straighter and larger. 

Stereum purpureiim. Pers. 

Purpureum means purple, from the color of the plant. 

Coriaceous but pliant, effuso-reflexed, more or less imbricated, tomentose, 
zoned, whitish or pallid. 

The hymenium is naked, smooth, even ; in color a pale clear purple, becoming 
dingy ochraceous, with only a tinge of purple, when dry. The spores are elliptical, 

I found the plant to be very abundant in December and January, in 1906-7, on 
soft wood corded up at the paper mill in Chillicothe, the weather being mild and 

Stereum compactum. 

Broadly effused, coriaceous, often imbricated and often laterally joined, pileus 
thin, zoned, finely strigose, the zones grayish-white and cinnamon-brown. 
The hymenium is smooth, cream-white. 
This species is found on decayed limbs and trunks of trees. 

Hymenochcete. Lev. 

Hymenochaete is from two Greek words, hymen, a membrane; chcete, a bristle. 

In this genus the cap or pileus may be attached to the host by a central stem, 
or at one side, but most frequently upon its back. The genus is known by the 
velvety or bristly appearance of the fruiting surface, due to smooth, projecting, 
thick-walled cells. I have found several species but have only been sure of three. 


Hymenochfute rubiginosa. (Schr.) Lev. 

Rubiginosa means full of rust, so called from the color of the plant. 

The pileus is rigid 1 , coriaceous, resupinate, effused, reflexed, the lower margin 
generally adhering firmly, somewhat fasciated; velvety, rubiginous or rusty in 
color, then becoming smooth and bright brown, the intermediate stratum tawny- 
ferruginous. The hymenium ferruginous and velvety. It is found here upon soft 
woods such as chestnut stumps and willow. 

Hymenochcetc Curtisii. Berk. 

Curtisii is named in honor of Mr. Curtis. 

The pileus is coriaceous, firm, resupinate, effused, reflexed, brown, slightly 
sulcate ; the hymenium velvety with brown bristles. This is common on partially 
decayed oak branches in the woods. 

Hymenochccte corrugata. Berk. 

Corrugata means bearing wrinkles or folds. 

The pileus is coriaceous, effused, closely adnate, indeterminate, cinnamon 
colored, cracked and corrugated when dry, which gives rise to its name. The 
bristles are seen, under the microscope, to be joined. Found in the woods on 
partially decayed branches. 



Hymenium not distinct from the hymenophore, covering entire outer surface, 
somewhat fleshy, not coriaceous ; vertical, simple or branched. Fries. 

Most of the species grow on the ground or on well rotted logs. The following 
genera are included here : 

Sparassis Fleshy, much branched, branches compressed, plate-like. 

Clavaria Fleshy, simple or branched, typically round. 

Calocera Gelatinous, then horn-like. 

Typhula Simple or club-shaped, rigid when dry, usually small. 

Sparassis. Fr. 

Sparassis, to tear in pieces. The species are fleshy, branched with plate-like 
branches, composed of two plates, fertile on both sides. 

Sparassis Hcrbstii. Pk. 

This is a plant very much branched, forming tufts four to five inches high, 
and five to six inches broad ; whitish, inclining to creamy-yellow ; tough, moist ; 
the branches numerous, thin, flattened, concrescent, dilated above, spathulate or 
fan-shaped, often somewhat longitudinally curved or wavy ; mostly uniformly 
colored, rarely with a few indistinct, nearly concolorous, transverse zones near the 
broad, entire apices. 

The spores are globose, or broadly elliptical, .0002 to .00025 mcn l n g'> -00016 
to .0002 broad. 

This species was first found by the late Dr. William Herbst of Trexlertown, 
Pa., and was named by Dr. Peck in his honor. The specimen in Figure 384 was 
found at Trexlertown, Pa., and photographed by Mr. C. G. Lloyd. The plant 
delights in open oak woods, and is found through August and September. It is 
edible and quite good. 




Figure 384. Sparassis Herbstii. 

Sparassis crispa. Fr. 

Crispus, curly. This is a beautiful rosette-like plant, growing quite large at 
times, verv much branched, whitish, oyster-colored, or pale yellow ; branches 
intricate, flat and leaf-like, having a spore surface on both sides. The entire plant 
forms a large round mass with its leaf-like surface variously curled, folded, and 
lobed, with a crest-like margin, and springing from a well-marked root, most of 
which is buried in the ground. 

No one will have any trouble to recognize it, having once seen its photograph. 
I found the plant quite frequently, in the woods about Bowling Green. It is not 
simply good, but very good. 



Clavaria. Linn. 

Clavaria is from claims, a club. This is by far the largest genus in this 
family, and contains very many edible species, some of which are excellent. 

The entire genus is fleshy, either branched or simple ; gradually thickening 
toward the top, resembling a club. 

In collecting clavaria special attention should be given to the character of the 
apices of the branches, color of the branches, color of spores, the taste of the 
plant, and the character of the place of its growth. This genus is readily recog- 
nized, and no one need to hesitate to eat anv of the branching forms. 

Figure 385. Clavaria flava. Natural size. 

Clavaria flaz>a. Schaeff. 
Pale- yellow Clavaria. Edible. 

Flava is from flazms, yellow. The plant is rather fragile, white and yellow, 
two to five inches high, the mass of branches from two to five inches wide, the 
trunk thick, much branched. The branches are round, even, smooth, crowded, 



nearly parallel, pointing- upward, whitish or yellowish, with pale yellow tips of 
tooth-like points. When the plant is old, the yellow tips are likely to be faded 
and the whole plant whitish in color. The flesh and the spores are white, and 
the taste is agreeable. 

I have eaten this species since 1890, and I regard it as very good. It is 
found in woods and grassy open places. I have found it as early as June and 
as late as October. 

Clavaria aurca. Pers. 

The Golden Clavaria. Edible. 

This plant grows from three to four inches high. Its trunk is thick, elastic, 
and its branches are uniformly a deep golden yellow, often longitudinally 
wrinkled. The branches straight, regularly forked and round. 

The stem is stout but 
thinner than in C. flava. 
The spores are yellowish 
and elliptical. It is found 
in woods during August 
and September. 

Clavaria botrytes. Pers. 

The Red-tipped Clavaria. 

Botrytes is from a Greek 
word meaning a cluster of 
grapes. This plant differs 
little from C. flava in size 
and structure, but it is 
easily recognized from the 
red tips of its branches. It 
is whitish, or yellowish, or 
pinkish, with its branches 

The stem is short, thick, 
fleshy, whitish, unequal. 
The branches are often 
somewhat wrinkled, crowd- 
ed, repeatedly branched. 

Figure 386. Clavaria botrytes. One-half natural size. 



In older specimens the red tips will be somewhat faded. The spores are white 
and oblong-elliptical. It is found in woods and open places, during- wet weather. 
I found this plant occasionally near Salem, from July to October, but it is not 
a common plant in Ohio.. 

Clavaria muscoides. Linn. 

Forked Yellow Clavaria. Edible. 

Muscoides means moss-like. This plant is inclined to be tough, though 
graceful in growth ; slender-stemmed, two or three time forked ; smooth ; base 
downy, bright yellow. The branchlets are thin, crescent-shape, acute. The 
spores are white and nearly round. The plant is usually solitary, not branching 
as much as some other species ; quite dry, very smooth, except at the base, which 
is downy, in color resembling the yolk of an egg. It is frequently found in 
damp pastures, especially those skirting a wood. 

Figure 387. Clavaria amethystina. 



Clavaria amethystina. Bull. 
The Amethystine Clavaria. Edible. 

Amethystina means amethyst in color. This is a remarkably attractive plant 
and easily recognized by its color. It is sometimes quite small yet often grows 
from three to five inches high. The color of the entire plant is violet ; it is very 
rruch branched or almost simple ; branches round, even, fragile, smooth, obtuse. 
The spores are elliptical, pale-ochraceous, sub-transparent, 10-12x6-7^. 

This plant is quite common around Chillicothe, and it has a wide distribu- 
tion over the United States. The specimens in Figure 387 were found in Poke 

Clavaria stricta, Pers. 

The Straight Clavaria. 

Stricta is a participle 
from stringo, to draw to- 
gether. The plant is very 
much branched, pale, dull- 
yellow, becoming brownish 
when bruised ; the stem 
somewhat thickened; 
branches very numerous 
and forked, straight, even, 
densely pressed, tips point- 
ed. The spores are dark 
cinnamon. It is found on 
the Huntington hills near 
Chillicothe. Look for it in 
August and September. 

Clavaria pyxidata. Pers. 

The Cup Clavaria. Edible. 

Pyxidata is from pyxis, a 
small box. This plant is 
quite fragile, waxy, light- 

<v*jB ^Pf JpH 


J 1 

0* J 


Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 
Figure 388. Clavaria stricta. 



tan in color, with a thin main stem, whitish, smooth, variable in length, branch- 
ing and rebranching, the branches ending in a cup. The spores are. white. 

It is found on rotten wood and is readily recognized by the cup-like tips. 
The specimen in Figure 389 was found near Columbus and photographed by 
Dr. Kellerman. Found from June to October. 

Figure 389. Clavaria pyxidata. Natural size. 

Clavaria abietina. Schum. 
The Fir-wood Clavaria. 

Abietina means fir-wood. 

This plant grows in dense tufts, very much branched, ochraceous, trunk 
somewhat thickened, short, clothed with a white down ; branches straight, 
crowded, longitudinally wrinkled when dry, branchlets straight. 

The spores are oval and ochraceous. 



Figure 390. Clavaria abietina 

It can be readily identified by its changing to green when bruised. 
It is very common on our wooded hillsides. It is found from August to 


Figure 391. Clavaria spinulosa. 

Clavaria spinulosa, Pers. 

Spinulosa means spiny or full of 

The trunk of this plant is rather 
short and thick, at least one-half to 
one inch thick, whitish. The branches 
are elongated, crowded, tense' and 
straight ; attenuated, tapering up- 
ward ; color somewhat cinnamon- 
brown throughout. 

The spores are elliptical, yellowish- 
brown, 11-13x5/*. 

It is usually eiven as found under 



pine trees, but I find it about Chillicothe in mixed woods, in which there are 
no pine trees at all. It is found after frequent rains, from August to October. As 
an edible, it is fairly good. 

Clavaria fornwsa. Pcrs. 
Beautiful Clavaria. Ediblk. 

Formosa is from formosus, meaning finely formed. 

This plant is two to six inches high, trunk rather thick, often over an inch in 

Figure 392. Clavaria formosa. Three-fourths its natural size. 



thickness ; whitish, or yellowish, elastic, the branches numerous, crowded, elongated, 
divided at the ends into yellow branchlets, which are thin, straight, obtuse or toothed. 

The spores are elongated-oval, rough, buff-colored, i6x8/x. 

This is an extremely beautiful plant, very tender or brittle. When the plant 
is quite young, just coming through the ground, the tips of the branches are often 
of a bright red or pink. This bright color soon fades, leaving the entire plant 
a light yellow in color. 

The plant has a wide distribution, and is found on the ground in the woods, 
frequently growing in rows. While the handsomest of the Clavarias, it is not the 
best, and only the tender parts of the plant should be used. It is found from 
July to October. The specimen in Figure 392 was found in Poke Hollow. 

Clavaria cristata. Pers. 

The Crested Ceavaria. Edible. 

Cristata i s 
from cristatus, 
crested. This is 
a smaller plant 
than the C. flava 
or C. botrytes. 
It is usually two 
to three inches 
high, white or 
whitish, the 
tufts of broad 
flattened branch- 
es, sometimes 
tinged with a 
dull pink or 
creamy - yellow. 
The branches 
are numerous, 
widened and 

flattened above, deeply cut into several finger-like points, sometimes so numerous 

as to give it a crested appearance. This peculiar characteristic distinguishes it 

from C. coralloides. When the plant is old the tips usually turn brown. 

Sometimes a form will be found in which the crested appearance is wanting, 

and in that case the branches terminate in blunt points. The stem is short and 

inclined to be spongy. 

It is found in the woods, in cool, moist, shady places. While it is tougher 

than some of the other species, if cut fine and well cooked it is very good. I have 

eaten it for years. It is found from June to October. 

Figure 393. Clavaria cristata. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 



Clavaria coronata. Schzv. 
The Crowned Clavaria. Edible. 

Pale yellow, then fawn color; divided immediately from the base and very 
much branched; the branches divergent and compressed or angulate, the final 
branchlets truncate-obtuse at apex and there encircled with a crown of minute 
processes. Morgan 

This plant is found on decayed wood. It is repeatedly branched in twos 
and forms clusters sometimes several inches in height. It resembles in form C. 
pyxidata, but it is quite a distinct species. In some localities it is found quite 
frequently. It is plentiful about Chillicothe. Found from July to October. 

Figure 394. Clavaria coronata. 

Clavaria vermicnlaris. Scop. 
White-Tufted Ceavaria. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 

Small, two to three inches high ; csespitose, fragile, white, club-shaped ; clubs 
stuffed, simple, cylindrical, subulate. 

Found on lawns, short pastures or in paths in woods. Someone has said they 
"look like a little bundle of candles." Edible, but too small to gather. June and 



Figure 395. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 
-Clavaria vermicularis. 

Clavaria crisp ula. Fr. 
FlExuous Clavaria. Edible. 

Very much branched, tan- 
colored, then ochraceous ; trunk 
slender, villous, rooting ; 
branches flexuotts, having many- 
divisions, branches of the same 
color, divaricating, fragile. 

The spores are creamy-yel- 
low, slightly elliptical. This 
plant is slightly acrid to the 
taste and retains a faint trace 
of acridity even after it is 
cooked. It is very plentiful in 
our woods. Found from July 
to October. 

Clavaria Kunzei. Fr. 

Kunze's Clavaria. 

Rather fragile, very much 
branched from the slender 
crespitose base ; white ; branches 
elongated, crowded, repeatedly 
forked, subfastigiate, even, 
equal ; axils compressed. Speci- 
mens were found on Cemetery 
Hill under beech trees, and 

identified by Dr. Herbst. The spores are yellowish. 

Clavaria cinerca. Bull. 

Ash-Colored Clavaria. Edible. 

Cinerea, pertaining to ashes. This is a small plant, growing in groups, 
frequently in rows, under beech trees. The color is gray or ashy ; it is quite 
fragile ; stem thick, short, very much branched, with the branches thickened, some- 
what wrinkled, rather obtuse. Its gray color will distinguish it from the other 



Clavaria pistillaris. L. 
Indian-Club Clavaria. Edible. 

Pistillaris is from pistillum, a pestle. 

They are simple, large, stuffed, fleshy, everywhere smooth, three to ten inches 
high, attaining to one inch in thickness ; light yellow, ochraceous, brownish, 
chocolate, club-shaped, ovate-rounded, puckered at the top ; flesh white, spongy, 
The spores are white, 10x5/*. 

Figure 396. Clavaria pistillaris. One-half natural size. 

They are found in the leaf-mold of mixed woods, and you will sometimes 
find several growing together. They are found from July to frost. 

The dark variety, which is frequently vertically wrinkled, is slightly acrid 
when raw, but this disappears upon cooking. The plant is widely distributed but 
abundant nowhere in our state. I found it occasionally in the woods near Chilli- 
cothe. The plants in Figure 396 were found near Columbus, and were photo- 
graphed by Dr. Kellerman of Ohio State University. 



Clavaria fusiformis. Sow. 
Spindle-Shaped Clavaria. Edible. 


Figure 397. Clavaria fusiformis. Natural size. 

Fusiformis is from fusus, a 
spindle, and forma, a form. 

The plant is yellow, smooth, 
rather firm, soon hollow, 
csespitose; nearly erect, rather 
brittle, attenuated at each 
end ; clubs somewhat spindle- 
shaped, simple, toothed, the 
apex somewhat darker; even, 
slightly firm, usually with 
several united at the base. 

The spores are pale yellow, 
globose, 4-5/*. 

They are found in woods 
and pastures. The plants in 
the figure were in the woods 
beside an untraveled road, on 
Ralston's Run. 

They strongly resemble C. 
insequalis. When found in 
sufficient quantities they are 
very tender and have an ex- 
cellent flavor. 

Clavaria incequalis. Mull. 
The Unequal Clavaria. Edible. 

Insequalis means unequal. 

Somewhat tufted, quite fragile, from one to three inches high, often com- 
pressed, angular, often forked, ventricose ; yellow, occasionally whitish, sometimes 
variously cut at the tip. The spores are colorless, elliptical, 9-10x5^. 

One can readily distinguish it from. C. fusiformis by the tips, these not being 
sharp pointed. It is found in clusters in woods and pastures from August to 
October. As delicious as C. fusiformis. 



Clavaria mucida. Pers. 

Mucida means slimy, so named from the soft and watery condition of the 

The plants are quite small, usually simple yet sometimes branched, club- 
shaped, one-eighth to an inch high, white, sometimes yellowish, frequently pinkish 
or rose-tinted. 

Figure 398. Clavaria mucida. 

These plants are very small and easily overlooked. It is found on decayed 
wood. I have found it late in the fall and early in the spring. You can look for 
it at any time of the year after warm rains or in damp places, on well decayed wood. 
The specimens in Figure 398 were photographed by Prof. G. D. Smith, Akron, 



Calocera. Fr. 

This plant is gelatinous, somewhat cartilaginous when moist, horny when 
dry, vertical, simple or branched, csespitose or solitary. 

The hymenium is universal ; the basidia round and two-lobecl, each lobe 
bearing a single one-spored sterigma. The spores are inclined to be oblong and 

This genus resembles Clavaria, but is identified by being somewhat gelatinous 
and viscid when moist and rather horn-like when dry, but especially by its two- 
lobed basidia. 

Calocera cornea. Fr. 

Figure 399. Calocera cornea. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 

This is unbranched, caespitose, rooting, even, viscid, orange-yellow or pale 
yellow ; clubs short, subulate, connate at the base. The spores are round and 
oblong, 7-8x5/.*. 

Found upon stumps and logs, especially upon oak where the timber is cracked, 
the plants springing from the cracks. When dry they are quite stiff and rigid. 

Calocera stricta. Fr. 

These plants are unbranched, solitary, about one inch high, elongated, base 
somewhat blunt, even when dry, yellow. 

Its habitat is very similar to C. cornea but more scattered. C. striata, Fr., 
is very similar to C. cornea, but is distinguished by its being solitary, and striate 
or rugose when dry. 

Typhula. Fr. 

Epiphytal. Stem filiform, flaccid ; clubs cylindrical, perfectly distinct from 
hymenium, sometimes springing from a sclerotium ; hymenium thin and waxy. 



This is distinguished from Clavaria and Pistillaria by having its stem distinct 
from the hymenium. It is a small plant resembling, in minature, Typha, hence 
its generic name. 

Typhula crythropus. Fr. 

Simple ; club cylindrical, slender, smooth, white ; stem nearly straight, dark 
red, inclining to be black, springing usually from a blackish and somewhat wrinkled 
sclerotium. The spores are oblong, 5-6x2-2.5/11. 

This plant has a wide distribution, and is found in damp places upon the 
stems of herbaceous plants. 

Typhula incarnata. Fr. 

Simple ; club cylindrical, elongated, smooth ; whitish, more or less tinged with 
pink above ; one to two inches high, base minutely strigose, springing from a 
compressed brownish sclerotium. The spores are nearly round, 5x4^. 

This is a common and beautiful little plant and easily distinguished both by 
its color and the size and form of its spores. If the collector will watch the dead 
herbaceous stems in damp places, he will not only find the two just described, 
but another, differing in color, size, and form of spores, called T. phacorrhiza, Fr. 
It has a brownish color and its spores are quite oblong, 8-9x4-5^. 

Lachnocladium. Lev. 

Lachnocladium is 
from two Greek 
words meaning a 
fleece and a branch. 

Pileus coriaceous, 
tough, repeatedly 
branched ; the 
branches slender or 
filiform, tomentose. 
Hymenium amphi- 
genous. Fungi slen- 
der and much 
branched, terrestrial, 
but sometimes grow- 
ing on wood. 

Figure 400. Lachnocladium semivestitum. 



Lachnocladium semivestitum. B. & C. 

Pileus, much branched from a slender stem of variable length, expanded at 
the angles ; the branches filiform, straight, somewhat fasciculate, smooth at the 
tips and paler in color. 

This is quite a common specimen on our north hillsides. It is white and 
quite fragile. Found in damp places in August and September. 

Lachnocladium Micheneri. B. & C. 

Figure 401. Lachnocladium Micheneri. 

Coriaceous, tough, pale or whitish ; stem well marked, branching from a 
point, branches numerous, tips pointed ; white tomentum at the base of the stem. 

This plant is very abundant here and is found very generally over the 
United States. It grows on fallen leaves in woods, after a rain, being found from 
July to October. 



Tremellini is from tremo, to tremble. The whole plant is gelatinous, with 
the exception, occasionally, of the nucleus. The sporophores are large, simple or 
divided. Spicules elongated into threads. Berk. 

The following genera are included : 

Tremella Immarginate. Hymenium universal. 

Exidia Margined. Hymenium superior. 

Hirneola Cartilaginous, ear-shaped, attached by a point. 

Tremella. Fr. 

This plant is so called because the entire plant is gelatinous, tremulous, and 
without a definite margin, and also without nipple-like elevations. 

Tremella lutescens. Fr. 

Yellowish Tremella. Edible. 

This is a small gelatinous cluster, tremulous, convoluted, in wavy folds, 
pallid, then yellowish, with its lobes crowded and entire. Quite common over the 
state. It is found on decaying limbs and stumps from July to winter. It dries 
during absence of rain but revives and becomes tremulous during wet weather. 
It is called lutescens because of its yellowish color. 

Tremella mesenterica. Retz. 

Mesenterica is from two Greek words meaning the mesentery. Phe plant 
varies in size and form, sometimes quite flat and thin but generally ascending and 
strongly lobed ; plicated, and convoluted ; gelatinous but firm ; lobes short, smooth, 
covered with a frost-like bloom by the white spores at maturity. The spores are 
broadly elliptical. Common in the woods on decaying sticks and branches. 




Tremella albida. Hud. 
The Whitish Tremella. Edible. 

Albida, whitish. This plant is very common in the wood's about Chillicothe, 
and everywhere in the state where beech, sugar-maple, and hickory prevail. 

It is whitish, becoming- dingy-brown when dry ; expanded, tough, undulated, 
even, more or less gyrose, pruinose. It breaks the bark and spreads in irregular 
and scalloped masses ; when moist it has a gelatinous consistency, a soft and 
clammy touch, yielding like a mass of gelatine. Its spores are oblong, obtuse, 
curved, marked with tear-like spots, almost transparent 1 , 12-14x4-5^. The speci- 
men represented in Figure 402 was found near Sandusky and photographed by 
Dr. Kellerman. 

Figure 402. Tremella albida. Natural size. 

Tremella mycetophila. Pk. 

Mycetophila is from two Greek words, mycctes, fungi: phila, fond of. The 
plant is so called because it is found growing upon other fungi. 

Often nearly round, somewhat depressed, circling in folds, sometimes in 
quite large masses about the stems of the plant, as will be seen in Figure 403, 
tremelloid-fleshy, slightly pruinose, a dirty white or yellowish. 

I have found it frequently growing on Collybia drophila, as is the case in 
Figure 403. Captain Mcllvaine speaks in his book of finding this plant parasitic 
on Marasmius oreades in quite a large mass for this plant. I can verify the 
statement for I have found it on M. oreades during damp weather in August and 
September. It has a pleasant taste. 




Figure 403. Tremella mycetophila. 

Tremella fimbriata. Pars. 

Fimbriata is from frimbricc, a fringe. 

It is very soft and gelatinous, olivaceous inclining to black, tufted, two to 
three inches high, and quite as broad, erect, lobes flaccid, corrugated, cut at the 
margin, which gives rise to the name of species ; spores are nearly pear shaped. 
Found on dead branches, stumps, and on fence-rails in damp weather. Easily 
known bv its dark color. 

Tremellodon. Pcrs. 

Tremellodon means trembling tooth. 

These plants are gelatinous, with a cap or pileus ; the hymenium covered with 
acute gelatinous spines, awl-shaped and equal. The basidia are nearly round 
with four rather stout, elongated sterigmata, spores very nearly round. 

Tremellodon gelatinosum. Pers. 

Gelatinosum means full of jelly or jelly-like, from gelatina, jelly. 

The pileus is dimidiate, gelatinous, tremelloid, one to three inches broad, 
rather thick, extended behind into a lateral thick, stem-like base, pileus covered 
with a greenish-brown bloom, very minutely granular. 



The hymenium is watery-gray, covered with hydnum-like teeth, stout, acute, 
equal, one to two inches long, whitish, soft, inclined to be glaucous. The spores 
are nearly round, 7-8/x. 

These plants are found on pine and fir trunks and on sawdust heaps. They 
grow in groups and are very variable in form and size but easily determined, 
being the only tremelloid fungus with true spines. The plants in Figure 405 were 
photographed by Prof. G. D. Smith of Akron, Ohio. They are edible. Found 
from September to cold weather. 

Figure 405. Tremellodon gelatinosum. 

Exidia. Fr. 

Gelatinous, marginal, fertile above, barren below. Exidia may be known by 
its minute nipple-like elevations. 

Exidia grandulosa. Fr. 

This plant is called "Witches' Butter." It varies in color, from whitish to 
brown and deep cinereous, at length blackish ; flattened, undulated, much wrinkled 
above, slightly plicated below ; soft at first and when moist, becoming film-like 
when dry. Found on dead branches of oak. 



Himeola. Fr. 

Hirneola is the diminutive of hirnca, a jug. Gelatinous, cup-shaped, horny 
when dry. Hymenium wrinkled, becoming cartilaginous when moistened. The 
hymenium is in the form of a hard skin which covers the cup-shaped cavities, and 
which can be peeled off after soaking in water, the interstices are without papillae 
and the outer surface is velvety. 

Himeola auricula- J udce. Berk. 

The Jew's Ear Hirneola. Edibee. 

Auricula-Judae, the ear of the Jew. The plant is gelatinous; one to four 
inches across ; thin, concave, wavy, flexible when moist, hard when dry ; blackish, 
fuzzy, hairy beneath ; when covered with white spores it is cinereous. The 
hymenium by its corrugations forms depressions such as are found in the human 
ear. One will not fail to recognize it after seeing it once. It is not common in 
our woods, yet I have found it on several occasions. It is found on almost any 
timber but most frequently on the elm and elder. The plant in Figure 406 was 
found near Chillicothe. Its distribution is general. 

Figure 406. Hirneola auricula-Judae. 

Plate LI. Figure 407. Hirneola auricula-judae. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 



Guepinia. Fr. 

Gelatinous, inclining- to 
cartilaginous, free, different 
on the two sides, variable in 
form, substipitate. Hymeni- 
um confined to one side. 

Guepinia spathularia. 

Yellow, cartilaginous, es- 
pecially when dry, spathulate, 
expanded above, hymenium 
slightly ribbed, contracted 
where it issues from a log. 

It is quite common on 
beech and maple logs. I 
have seen beech logs, some- 
what decayed, quite yellow 
with this interesting plant. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 
Figure 408. Guepinia spathularia. Entire plant a light yellow. 

Hymenula. Fr. 

Effused, very thin, macu- 
laeform, agglutinate, between 
wavy or gelatinous. Berk. 

Hymenula punctiformis. B. & Br. 

Point-Like Hymenula. 

Dirty white, quite pallid, gelatinous, punctiform, slightly undulated; con- 
sisting of erect simple threads ; frequently there is a slight tinge of yellow. The 
spores are very minute. It looked very much like an undeveloped Peziza when 
I found it, in fact I thought it P. vulgaris until I had submitted a specimen to 
Prof Atkinson. 



Ascomycetes is from two Greek words : ascos, a sack ; mycetes, a fungus or 
mushroom. All the fungi which belong to this class develope their spores in small 
membranous sacs. These asci are crowded together side by side, and with them are 
slender empty asci called paraphyses. The spores are inclosed in these sacs, 
usually eight in a sac. They are called sporidia to separate them from the Basid- 
iomycetes. These sacs arise from a naked or inclosed stratum of fructifying 
cells, forming a hymenium or nucleus. 

Family Helvellaceae. 

Hymenium at length more or less exposed, the substance soft. The genera 
are distinguished from the earth-tongues by the cup-like forms of the spore body, 
but especially by the character of the spore sacs which open by a small lid, instead 
of spores. The following are some of the genera : 

Morchella . . . Pileus deeply folded and pitted. 

Gyromitra. . .Pileus covered with rounded and variously contorted' folds. 

Helvella .... Pileus drooping, irregularly waved and lobed. 

Morchella. Dill. 

Morchella is from a Greek word meaning a mushroom. This genus is easily 
recognized. It may be known by the deeply pitted, and often elongated, naked 
head, the depressions being usually regular but sometimes resembling mere fur- 
rows with wrinkled interspaces. The cap or head varies in form from rounded 
to ovate or cone shape. They are all marked by deep pits, covering the entire 
surface, separated by ridges forming a net-work. The spore-sacs are developed 
in both ridges and depressions. All the species when young are of a buff-yellow 
tinged with brown. The stems are stout and hollow, white, or whitish in color. 

The common name is Morel, and they appear during wet weather early in 
the spring. 




Morchella esculenta. Pers. 
The Common Morel. Edible. 

Figure 409. Morchella esculenta. 
natural size. 


The Common Morel has a cap a 
little longer than broad, so that it 
is almost oval in outline. Some- 
times it is nearly round but again 
it is often slightly narrowed in its 
upper half, though not pointed or 
cone-like. The pit's in its surface 
are more nearly round than in the 
other species. In this species the 
pits are irregularly arranged so 
that they do not form rows, as 
will be observed in Figure 409. 

It grows from two to four 
inches high and is known by most 
people as the Sponge mushroom. 
It grows in woods and wood 
borders, especially besde wood 
streams. Old apple and peach 
orchards are favorite places for 
Morels. It makes no difference 
if the beginner cannot identify the 
species, as they are all equally 
good. I have seen collectors have 
for sale a bushel basketful, in 
which half a dozen species were 
represented. They dry very easily 
and can be kept for winter use. 
It is said to grow in great profu- 
sion over burnt districts. The 
German peasants were reputed to 
have burned forest tracts to insure 
an abundant crop. I find that 
more people know the Morels than 
any other mushroom. They are 
found through April and May. 
after warm rains. 



Morchella deliciosa. Fr. 
The Delicious Morel. Edible. 

This and the preceding species would indicate by their names that they have 
been held in high esteem for a long time, as Profs. Persoon and Fries, who 
named them, lived more than a hundred years ago. The Delicious Morel is 
recognized by the shape of its cap, which is generally cylindrical, sometimes 
pointed, and slightly curved. The stem is rather short and, like the stem of all 
Morels, is hollow from the top to the bottom. 

It is found associated with other species of Morels, in woods and wood 
borders, also in old apple and peach orchards. They need to be cooked slowly 
and long. Coming early in the spring, they are not likely to be infested with 
worms. The flesh is rather fragile and not very watery. They are easily dried. 
Found through April and May. 

Figure 410. Morchella deliciosa. Two-thirds natural size. 

Morchella esculenta var. conica. Pers. 
The Conical Morel. Edible. 

The Conical Morel is very closely related to M. esculenta and M. deliciosa, 
from which it differs in having the cap longer than it is wide, and more pointed, 
so that it is conical or oblong-conical. The plant, as a general thing, grows to 



Figure 412. Morchella esculenta var. conica. Two-thirds natural size. 

be larger than the other species. It is, however, pretty hard to distinguish these 
three species. The Conical Morel is quite abundant about Chillicothe. I have 
found Morels especially plentiful about the reservoirs in Mercer County, and in 
Auglaize, Allen, Harden, Hancock, Wood and Henry Counties. I have known 
lovers of Morels to go on camping tours in the woods about the reservoirs for 
the purpose of hunting them, and to bring home large quantities of them. 

Morchella angnsticeps. Pk. 

The Narrow-Cap Morel. Edible. 

Angusticeps is from two Latin words : angustus, narrow ; caput, head. This 
species and M. conica are so nearly alike that it is very difficult to identify them 
with any degree of satisfaction. In both species the cap is considerably longer 
than broad, but in angusticeps the cap is slimmer and more pointed. The pits, 
as a general thing are longer than in the other species. They are often found 
in orchards but are also frequently found in low woods under black ash trees. 
I have found some typical specimens about the reservoirs. The specimens in 



Figure 413 were collected in 
Michigan, and photographed 
by Prof. B. O. Longyear. 
They appear very early in 
the spring, even while we 
are still having frosts. 

Figure 413. Morchella angusticeps. 

Morchella scinilibera. D. C. 

The Hybrid Morel. 

Semilibera means half 
free, and it is so called be- 
cause the cap is bell-shaped 
and the lower half is free 
from the stem. The cap is 
rarely more than one inch 
long, and is usually much 
shorter than the stem, as is 
indicated in Figure 414. 
The pits on the cap are 
longer than broad. The 
stem is white or whitish 
and somewhat mealy or 
scurvy, hollow, and often 
swollen at the base. I found 

the specimens in Figure 414 about the last of May under elm trees, in James 
Dunlap's woods. They are quite plentiful there. I do not detect any difference 
in the flavor of these and other species. 

Morchella bispora. Sor. 
The Two-Spored Morel. Edible. 

Bispora, two-spored, differs from the other species in the fact that the 
cap is free from the stem quite to the top. The distinguishing character- 
istic which gives name to the species, can be seen only by the aid of a 
strong microscope. In this species there are only two spores in each ascus or 
sac, and these are much larger than in the other species, which have eight spores 



in a sac or ascus. 
The ridges, as will 
be seen in Figure 
415, run from the 
top to the bottom. 
The stem is much 
longer than the cap, 
hollow, and some- 
times swollen at the 
base. The whole 
plant is fragile and 
very tender. The 
plants in Figure 415 
were collected in 
Michigan by Prof. 
Longyear. Those in 
the full page dis- 
play were found 
near Columbus and 
were photographed 
by Dr. Kellerman. 
It seems to have a 
wide range, but is 
nowhere very plen- 

The spores can be readily obtained from morels by taking a mature speci- 
men and placing it on white paper under a glass for a few hours. 

The beginner will find much difficulty in identifying the species of Morels ; 
but if he is collecting them for food he need not give the matter any thought, 
since none need be avoided, and they are so characteristic that no one need be 
afraid to gather them. 

Figure 414. Morchella semilibera. One-half natural size. 

Morchclla crassipes. Pcrs. 
The Gigantic Morel. Edible. 

Crassipes is from crassus, thick ; pes, foot. 

The cap resembles the cap of M. esculenta in its form and irregular pitting, 
but it is quite a little larger. The stem is very stout, much longer than the pileus, 
often very much wrinkled and folded. I have found only a few specimens of 
this species. Found in April and May. 



Verpa, Swartz. 

Verpa means a rod. As- 
cospore smooth or slightly 
wrinkled, free from the 
sides of the stem, attached 
at the tip of the stem, bell- 
shaped, thin ; hymenium 
covering the entire surface 
of the ascospore; asci cylin- 
drical, 8-spored. The spores 
are elliptical, hyaline ; par- 
aphyses septate. 

The stem is inflated, 
stuffed, rather long, taper- 
ing downward. 

Verpa digitaliformis. Pers. 

Digitaliformis is from 
digitus, a finger, and forma, 
a form. 

The pileus is bell-shaped, 
attached to the tip of the 
stem, but otherwise free 
from it ; olive-umber in 
color; smooth, thin, closely 
pressed to the stem, but al- 
ways free ; the edge some- 
times inflexed. 

The stem is three inches 
high, tapering downward, 
furnished at the base with 
reddish radicels ; white, with 
a reddish tinge ; apparently 
smooth, but under the glass quite scaly ; loosely stuffed. The asci are large, 8- 
spored, the spores being elliptical. The paraphyses are slender and septate. 

Figure 417 represents several plants, natural size. The one in the right- 
hand corner is old, with a ragged pileus ; the vertical section shows the pithy 
contents of the stem. The plants are found in cool, moist, and shady ravines 
from May to August. Edible, but not very good. 

Figure 415. Morchella bispora. One-half natural size. 

Plate LIII. 
The two-spored Morel. Edible. 

Figure 416. Morchella bispora. 

Showing the cap free from the stem quite to the top. 



Figure 417. Verpa digitaliformis. 

Gyromitra. Fr, 

Gyromitra is from gyro, to turn; mitra, a hat or bonnet. This genus is so 
called because the plants look like a hood that is much wrinkled or plaited. 

Ascophore stipitate ; hymenophore sub-globose, inflated and more or less 
hollow or cavernous, variously gyrose and convolute at the surface, which is 
everywhere covered with the hymenium ; substance fleshy ; asci cylindrical, 8- 
spored ; spores uniseriate, elongated, hyaline or nearly so, continuous ; paraphyses 
present. Massee. 

Gyromitra esculenta. Fr. 

Esculenta means edible. This is the largest spore-sac fungus. The original 
name was Helvella esculenta. It is bay-red, round, wrinkled or convoluted, 
attached to the stem, irregular, with brain-like convolutions. 

The stem is hollow when mature, often very much deformed, whitish, scurvy, 
frequently enlarged or swollen at the base, sometimes lacunose, frequently atten- 
uated upward, at first stuffed; asci cylindrical, apex obtuse, base attenuated, 
8-spored; spores obliquely uniseritate, hyaline, smooth, continuous, elliptical, 17- 
25x9-1 i/x; paraphases numerous. 

This plant will be readily recognized from Figure 418, and its bay-red or 
chestnut-red cap with its brain-like convolutions. The books speak of its being 

Plate LIV. Figure 418. Gyromitra esculenta. 



found in pine regions, but I have found it frequently in the woods near Bowling 
Green, Sidney, and Chillicothe. Many authors give this plant a bad reputation, 
yet I have eaten it often and when it is well prepared it is good. I should advise 
caution in its use. It is found in damp sandy woods during May and June. The 
plant in Figure 418 was found near Chillicothe. 

Figure 419. Gyromitra brunnea. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 



Gyromitra brunnea. Underwood. 

The Brown Gyromitra. Edible. 

Brunnea is from brunnens, brown. A stout, fleshy plant, stipitate, three to 
five inches high, bearing- a broad, much contorted, brown ascoma. Stem is Y^ 
to 1.5 inch thick, more or less enlarged and spongy, solid at the base, hollow 
below, rarely slightly fluted, clear white; receptacle two to four inches across 
in the widest direction, the two diameters usually more or less unequal, irregu- 
larly lobed and plicate ; in places faintly marked into areas by indistinct anasto- 
mosing ridges ; closely cohering with the stem in the various parts ; color a rich 
chocolate-brown or somewhat lighter if much covered with the leaves among 
which it grows ; whitish underneath ; asci 8-spored. Spores oval. This plant is 
found quite frequently about Bowling Green. The land is very rich there and 
produced both G. esculenta and G. brunnea in greater abundance than I have 
found elsewhere in the state. It is quite tender and fragile. The specimen in 
Figure 419 was found near Cincinnati and photographed by Mr. C. G. Lloyd. 

Helvetia elastica. Bull. 

The Peziza-uke Helvelea. 

Elastica means elastic, re- 
ferring to its stem. The pileus 
is free from the stem, droop- 
ing, two to three lobed, cen- 
ter depressed, even, whitish, 
brownish, or sooty, almost 
smooth underneath, about 2 
cm. broad. 

The stem is two to three 
and a half inches high, and 
three to five lines thick at the 
inflated base ; tapering upward, 
elastic, smooth, or often more 
or less pitted ; colored like the 
pileus, minutely velvety or fur- 
furaceous ; at first solid, then 
hollow. Spores hyaline, con- 
tinuous, elliptical, ends obtuse, 
often i-guttulate, 18-20x10-11; 
1 -serrate ; paraphyses septate, 
clavate. Massee. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 
Figure 420. Helvella elastica. 



The plants in the figure were found near Columbus and photographed by 
Dr. Kellerman. I have not found the plant as far south as Chillicothe, though 
I found it frequently in the northern part of the state. It grows in the woods 
on leaf-mould. 

Helvetia lacunosa. Afs. 
The Cinereous Helveela. Edible. 

Figure 421. Helvella lacunosa. 

Lacunosa, full of pits or 
pitted. This is a beautiful 
plant, very closely related to 
the Morchellas. 

The pileus is inflated, lobed, 
cinereous black, lobes deflected, 

The stem is hollow, white or 
dusky, exterior ribbed, forming 
intervening cavities. 

The asci are cylindrical, and 
stemmed. The sporidia are 
ovate and hyaline. 

The deep longitudinal 
grooves in the stem are charac- 
teristic of this species. The 
plants from which the half- 
tone was made were collected 
near Sandusky and photo- 
graphed by Dr. Kellerman. 
They grow in moist woods. I 
found the plants frequently in 
the woods near Bowling Green 
and occasionally about Chilli- 
cothe, growing about well- 
decayed stumps. 

Hypomyces. Tul. 

Hypomyces means upon a mushroom, 
byssoid ; perithecia small ; asci 8-spored. 

It is parasitic on fungi. Mycelium 



Hypomyccs lactifluorum. Schzv. 

Lactifluorum means milk-flowing - . It is parasitic on Lactarius, probably 
piperatus, as this species surrounded it. It seems to have the power to change 
the color into an orange-red 
mass, in many cases entirely 
obliterating the gills of the 
host-species, as will be seen 
in Figure 422. 

The asci are long and 
slender. The sporidia are in 
one row, spindle - shaped, 
straight or slightly curved, 
rough, hyaline, uniseptic, cus- 
pidate, pointed at the ends, 

This very closely resem- 
bles Hypomyces aurantius, 
but the sporidia are larger, 
rough and warted and the 
felt-like mycelium at the base 
is wanting. 

It occurs in various colors, 
orange, red, white, and pur- 
ple. It is not plentiful, 
occuring only occasionally. 
Capt. Mcllvaine says, "When 
it is well cooked in small 
pieces it is among the best." Photo by c G Lloyd 

It is found from July to Figure 422. Hypomyces lactifluorum. The entire plant is a 

October bright yellow. Natural size. 

Leptoglossum hiteum. - (Pk.) Sac. 

Leptoglossum is from two Greek words, meaning thin, delicate, and tongue ; 
luteum means yellowish. 

The club is distinct from the stem, smooth, compressed, generally with a 
groove on one side ; luteous, often becoming brown at the tip or apex. 

The stem is equal or slightly enlarged above, stuffed, luteous, minutely 

The spores are oblong, slightly curve<C in a double row, 1-1000 to 1-800 
inch long. Peck. 

These are found quite frequently among moss, or where an old log has 
rotted down, on the north hillsides about Chillicothe. The plants were first 



Figure 423. Eeptoglossum luteum. 

described by Dr. Peck as "Geoglossum luteum," but afterwards called by Sac- 
cardo "Leptoglossum luteum." The plants in Figure 423 were found in August 
or September, on Ralston's Run, near Chillicothe, and were photographed by 
Dr. Kellerman. 

Spathularia. Pers. 

This is a very interesting genus, and one that will attract the attention of 
any one at first sight. It grows in the form of a spathula, from which it receives 
its generic name. The spore-body is flattened and grows down on both sides 
of the stem, tapering downward. 

Figure 424. Spathularia flavida. 

Spathularia flavida. 

The Yellow 



The spore body 
is a clear yellow, 
sometimes tinged 
Photo by c. g. Lloyd, with red, shaped 
like a spathula, the 


apex blunt, sometimes slightly cleft, the surface wavy, somewhat crisp, growing 
clown the stem on opposite sides further than V. velutipes. 

The stem is thick, hollow, white, then tinged with yellow, slightly com- 
pressed ; asci clavate, apex somewhat pointed, 8-spored ; spores arranged in par- 
allel fascicles, hyaline, linear-clavate, usually very slightly bent, 50-60x3.5-4^; 
paraphyses filiform, septate, often branched, tips not thickened, wavy. While 
this is a beautiful plant it is not common. Found in August and September. 

Spathularia velutipes. C. & F. 
Velvet-foot Spathularia. Edible. 

Velutipes is from velutum, velvet; pes, foot. 

The spore body is flattened, shaped like a spathula, spore surface wavy, grow- 
ing on the opposite sides of the upper part of the stem, tawny-yellow. The stem 
is hollow, minutely downy or velvety, dark brown tinged with yellow. It will 
dry quite as well as Morchella. It is found in damp woods on mossy logs. It 
is not a common plant. Found in August and September. 

Leotia. Hill. 

Receptacle pileate. Pileus orbicular, margin involute, free from the stem, 
smooth, hymenium covering upper surface. 

The stem is hollow, central, rather long, continuous with pileus ; the whole 
plant greenish-yellow. 

Asci club-shaped, pointed, 8-spored. The spores are elliptical and hyaline. 
The paraphyses are present, usually slender and round. 

Leotia htbrica. Pers. 

Lubrica means slippery ; so called because the plants are usually slimy. 

The pileus is irregularly hemispherical, somewhat wrinkled, inflated, wavy, 
margin obtuse, free from the stem, yellowish olive-green, tremelloid. 

The stem is one to three inches long, nearly equal, hollow, and continuous 
with the cap ; greenish-yellow, covered with srfiall white granules. 

The asci are cylindrical, slightly pointed at the apex, 8-spored. The spores 
are oblong, hyaline, smooth, sometimes slightly curved, 22-25x5^. The para- 
physes are slender, round, hyaline. 



The plants are gregarious and grow among moss or among leaves in the 
woods. This species is quite plentiful about Chillicothe. It is distinguished 
from Leotia chlorocephala by the color of its stem and cap. The color of the 
latter is green or dark green. They are found from July to frost. They are 
edible but not choice. 

Figure; 425. Leotia lubrica. 

Leotia chlorocephala. Schzv. 

Figure 426. Leotia chlorocephala. 

Chlorocephala means green head. How- 
ever, the entire plant is green. 

They grow in clusters, pileus round, de- 
pressed, somewhat translucent, more or 
less waxy, margin incurved, dark- 
verdigris-green, sometimes rather dark- 

The stem is rather short, almost equal; 
green, but often paler than the cap, covered 
with fine powdery dust, often twisted. 

Asci cylindric-clavate, apex rather nar- 
rowed, 8-spored, spores smooth, hyaline, 
ends acute, often slightly curved, 

The specimens in Figure 426 were 


found in Purgatory Swamp, near Boston, by Mrs. Blackford. Both cap and 
stem were a deep verdigris-green. They were sent to me during the warm 
weather of August. 

Peziza. Linn. 

Peziza means stalkless mushroom. This is a large genus of discomycetous 
fungi in which the hymenium lines the cavity of a fleshy membranous or waxy cup. 
They are attached to the ground, decaying wood, or other substances, bv the 
center, though sometimes they are distinctly stalked. They are often beautifully 
colored and are called fairy cups, blood cups, and cup fungi. They are all cup- or 
saucer-shaped ; externally warted, scurvy or smooth ; asci cylindrical, 8-spored. 
The genus is large. Prof. Peck reports 150 species. Found early in spring till 
early winter. 

Peziza acetabulum. Linn. 
Reticulated Peziza. Edible. 

Acetabulum, a small cup or vinegar cup. The spore-bearing body stipitate, 
cup-shaped, dingy, ribbed externally with branching veins, which run up from 
the short, pitted and hollow stem ; mouth somewhat contracted ; light umber with- 
out and darker within. Found on the ground in the spring. 

Peziza badia. Pers. 

Large Brown Peziza. Edible. 

Gregarious in its habits ; sessile, or narrowed into a very short stout stem, 
more or less pitted ; nearly round and closed at first, then expanded until cup- 
shaped ; margin at first involute ; externally covered with a frost-like bloom ; disk 
darker than the external surface, very changeable in color ; lobes more or less split 
and wavy, somewhat thick ; spore-sacs cylindrical, apex truncante, sporidia oblong- 
ovate, epispore rough, 8-spored. Found on the ground in the grass or by the 
roadside in open woods. I found my first specimens in a clearing at Salem, but 
I have since found it at several points in the state. It should be fresh 
when eaten. 



Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 
Figure 427. Peziza badia. 

Peziza coccinea. J acq. 

The Carmine; Peziza. 

Coccinea means scarlet or crimson. Usually growing two or three on the 
same stick, the color is a very pure and beautiful scarlet, attractive to children ; 
school children frequently bring me specimens, curious to know what they are. 
Specimens not large, disk clear and pure carmine within, externally white, as is 
the stem ; tomentose, with short, adpressed down ; sporidia oblong, 8-spored. It is 
readily recognized by the pure carmine disk and whitish tomentose exterior. 
It is found in damp woods on decayed sticks, being very common all over 
the state. 



Figure 428. Peziza coccinea. One-third natural size. 

Peziza odorata. Pk. 

The Odorous Peziza. Edibee. 

Gregarious in its habits. Cup yellowish, sessile, translucent, becoming dull 
brown when old, brittle when fresh, flesh moist and watery ; the frame of the cup 
is separable into two layers ; the outer one is rough, while the inner one is smooth. 
The disk is yellowish-brown. The asci are cylindrical, opening by a lid. On 
ground in cellars, about barns and outbuildings. A very beautiful cluster grew 
upon a water-bucket in my stable. The cups were quite large, two and a half to 
three inches across. Its odor is distinctive.- It is very similar to Peziza Petersii 
from which it is distinguished by its larger spores and peculiar odor. Found in 
May and June. 

Peziza Stevensoni. 

This plant is sessile or nearly so, growing on the ground in dense clusters. 
The specimens in Figure 429 grew in Dr. Chas. Miesse's cellar, in Chillicothe. 
They grow quite large at times ; are ovate, externally grayish-white, covered with 



a minute down or tomentum, internally reddish-brown, the rim of the cup finely 
serrated, as will be seen in the figure below. Thev are found from Mav to 


Figure 429. Peziza Stevensoni. 

Figure 430. Peziza semitosta. 



Peziza scmitosta. 

Semitosta, from its scorched appearance, or umber-like color. 

The cup is one to one and a half inches across, hemispherical, hirsute-velvety 
without, date-brown within ; margin inflexed. 

The stem is ribbed or wrinkled. Sporidia are subfusiform, .00117 inch long. 

These plants are found on the ground in damp places. It was formerly 
called Peziza semitosta or Sarcoscypha semitosta. The plants in Figure 430 were 
found in August or September on the north side of the Edinger Hill, near Chilli- 
cothe, and were photographed by Dr. Kellerman. No doubt edible, but the writer 
has not tried them. This is called Macropodia semitosta. 

Figure 431. Peziza repanda. 

Peziza aurantia. Fr. 

Orange-Ground Peziza. Edible. 

Aurantia means orange color. 

Subsessile, irregular, oblique, externally somewhat pruinose, whitish. The 
sporidia are elliptic, rough. 

Found on the ground in damp woods. The cups are often quite large and' 
very irregular. Found in August and September. 



Pez'xza repanda. Wahl. 

Repanda means bent backward. These plants are found in dark moist woods, 
growing on old, wet logs, or in well wooded earth. The cups are clustered or 
scattered, subsessile, contracted into a short, stout, stem-like base. When very- 
small they appear like a tiny white knot on the surface of the log. This grows, so 
that soon a hollow sphere with an opening at the top is produced. The plant 
now begins to expand and flatten, producing an irregular, flattened disk with 
small upturned edges. The margin often becomes split and wavy, sometimes 
drooping and revolute ; disk pale or dark brown, more or less wrinkled toward 
the center ; externally the cup is a scurvy-white. The asci are 8-spored, quite 
large. The paraphyses are few, short, separate, clavate, and brownish . at the 

tips. The spores 
are elliptical, thin- 
walled, hyaline, 
non-nucleate, 14X 

Found from May 
to October. Edible. 

Figure 432. Peziza vesiculosa. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 

Peziza vesiculosa. 

The Bladdery Pe- 
ziza. Edibee. 

Often in thick 
clusters. Those in 
the center are fre- 
quently distorted 
by mutual pres- 
sure ; large, entire, 
sessible, at first 
globose ; closed at 
first, then expand- 
ing ; the margin of 
the cup more or 
less incurved, 
sometimes slightly 
notched ; disk pal- 
lid-brown, exter- 
nally ; surface is 



covered with a coarsely granular or warty substance which plainly shows in the 
photograph. The hymenium is generally separable from the substance of the 
cap. The spores are smooth, transparent, continuous, elliptical, ends obtuse. 

They are found on dung-hills, hot-beds or wherever the ground has been 
strongly fertilized and contains the necessary moisture. This is an interesting 
plant and often found in large numbers. Vesicolosa means full of bladders, as 
the picture will suggest. 

I found a very nice cluster on the 25th of April, 1904, in my stable. 

Peziza scutellata. Linn. 

The Shield-Like Peziza. 

Becoming plane, vermillion-red, externally paler, hispid towards the margin 
with straight black hairs. Spores ellipsoid. Found on damp rotten logs from 
July to October. Very plentiful and very pretty under the magnifying glass. 

Figure 433. Peziza scutellata. Very small but will show form under the glass. 



Pcziza tuber osa. Bull. 
The Tuberous Peziza. 

Tuberosa, furnished with a tnber or sclerotium. The cup is thin, infundi- 
buliform, bright brown, turning- pale. 

The stem is elongated, springing from an irregular black tuber, called 
sclerotium. The stems run deep into' the earth and are attached to a sclerotium, 
which will be seen in the halftone. Many fungus plants have learned to store 
up fungus starch for the new plant. 

Figure 434. Peziza tub 

Natural size. 

The sporidia are oblong-ellipsoid, simple. It is called by some authors 
Sclerotinia tuberosa. It grows on the ground in the spring and may be known 
by its bright brown color and its stem running deep into the earth and attached 
to a tuber. 

Peziza hemisphericQ. IVigg. 

Sessile, hemispherical, waxy, externally brownish, clothed with dense, 
fasciculate bairs ; disk glaucous-white. This is called by Gillet Lachnea hemis- 
pherica. The cups are small, varying much in color and the sporidia are 
ellipsoidal. They are found on the ground in September and October. Found 
in Poke Hollow. 



Peziza leporina. Batsch. 

Substipitate, elongated on one side, ear-shaped, sub-ferruginous, externally 
farinose internally ; base even. It is sometimes cinerous or yellowish. Sporidia 
ellipsoidal. This is called frequently Otidea leporina, (Batsch.) F'ckl. It is found 
on the ground in the woods during September and October. Found in Poke 

Pcziza venosa. P. 

This plant is saucer-shaped, sometimes many inches broad ; sessile, somewhat 
twisted, dark umber, w r hite beneath, wrinkled with rib-like veins. Odor often 
strong. Found growing on the ground in leaf mold. Found in the spring, about 
the last of April, in James Dunlap's woods, near Chillicothe. This is also called 
Discina venosa, Suec. 

Figure 435. Peziza floccosa. Natural size. 

Peziza floccosa. Schw. 

This is a beautiful plant growing upon partially decayed logs. I have 
always found it upon hickory logs. The cap is cup-shaped, very much like a 
beaker. The stem is long and slender, rather woolly ; the rim of the cap is 



fringed with long, strigose hairs. The inner surface of the cup represents the 
spore-bearing portion. 

The inside and the rim of the cup are very beautiful, being variegated with 
deep scarlet and white. Also called Sarcoscypha floccosa. 

The plant is found from June to September. 

Peziza occidentalis. 

This is another very showy plant, quite equal in attractiveness to P. floccosa 
and P. coccinea. 

The cup is infundibuliform, the outside as well as the stem whitish, and 

Figure 436. Peziza occidentalis. Natural size. 

downy, the bowl or disk is reddish-orange. This is known by some authors as 
Sarcoscypha occidentalis. It grows on rotten sticks upon the ground. May and 

Pesiza nebulosa. Cooke. 

Nebulosa means cloudy or dark, from nebula, a cloud ; from its color. 

Ascophore stipitate, rather fleshy, closed at first, then cup-shaped, becoming 
somewhat plane, the margin slightly incurved, externally pilose or downy, pale 
gray or sometimes quite dark. 

Asci are cylindrical ; spores spindle-shaped, straight or bow-shaped, rough, 



35 8; paraphyses 

These plants are 
found on decayed 
stumps or log's in 
the wood. The 
woods where I 
have found them 
have been rather 
dense and damp. 
The plants in Fig- 
ure 437 were 
found in Haynes' 
Hollow and photo- 
graphed by Dr. 

Figure 437. Peziza nebulosa. 


^i mm 

Figure 438. Urnula craterium. Two-thirds natural size. 



Urnula craterium. (Schw.) Fr. 

Urnula means burned; craterium means a small crater; hence the translation 
is a burned-out crater, which will appear to the student as a very appropriate 
name. It is a very common and conspicuous Ascomycetous, or cup fungus, 
growing in clusters on rotten sticks that lie in moist places. When the plants 
first appear they are small, black stems with scarcely any evidence of a cup. In a 
short time the end of the stem shows evidence of enlargement, showing lines 
of separation on the top. It soon opens and we have the cup as you see it in 
Figure 438. The hymenium, or spore bearing surface, is the interior wall of the 
cup. The cup is lined inside with a palisade of long cylindrical sacs, each con- 
taining eight spores with a small amount of liquid. These sacs are at right 
angles to the inner surface, and are provided with lids similar to that of a 
coffee-pot ; at maturity the lid is forced open and the spores are shot out of 
these sacs, and, by jarring the fungus when it is ready to make the discharge, they 
can be seen as a little cloud an inch or two above the cup. Place a small slip of 
glass over the cup and you will see spores in groups of eight in very small drops 
of liquid on the glass. This species appears in April and May, and is certainly 
a very interesting plant. It is called by some Peziza craterium, Schw. 

Helotium. Fr. 

Disc always open, at 
first punctiform, then 
dilated, convex or con- 
cave, naked. Excipulum 
waxy, free, marginate, 
externallv naked. 

Figure 439. Helotium citrinum. Disc-fungus, yellow growing on 
rotten logs. Slightly magnified. 

Helotium citrinum. Fr. 

Lemon-Colored Helo- 

This is a beautiful 
little Disc-fungus, yel- 
low, growing upon rot- 
ten logs in damp woods. 
They often grow in 


dense clusters ; a beautiful lemon-yellow, the head being plane or concave, with a 
short, thick, paler stem, forming - an inverted cone. Asci elongated, narrowly 
cylindrical, attenuated at the base into a long, slender, crooked pedicel, 8-spored. 

Sporidia oblong, elliptical, with two or three minute nuclei. 

This is quite a common plant in our woods during wet weather or in damp 
places, growing upon old logs and stumps, in woods, in the fall. Figure 439 will 
give an idea of their appearance when in dense clusters. The plants photographed 
by Dr. Kellerman. 

Helotium lutesccns. Fr. 
Yellowish Helotium. 

Lutescens means yellowish. The plants are small, sessile, or attached by a 
very short stem; closed at first, then expanding until nearly plane; disk yellow, 
smooth ; asci clavate, 8 spored ; spores hyaline, smooth. 

Gregarious or scattered. Found on half-decayed branches. 

Helotium oeruginosum. Fr. 
The Green Helotium. 

^ruginosum means verdigris-green. Gregarious or scattered, staining the 
wood on which they grow to a deep verdigris-green ; ascophore at first turbinate 
and closed, then expanding, the margin usually wavy and more or less irregular ; 
flexible, glabrous, even, somewhat contracted, and minutely wrinkled when dry ; 
every part a deep verdigris-green, the disc often becoming paler with a tinge of 
tan color; 1-4 mm. across; stem 1-3 mm. long, expanding into the ascophore; 
hypothecium and excipulum formed of interlaced, hyaline hyphaef 3-4/*. thick, 
these becoming stouter and colored green in the cortex ; asci narrowly cylindric- 
clavate, apex slightly narrowed, 8-spored ; spores irregularly 2-seriate, hyaline or 
with a slight tinge of green, very narrowly cylindric-fusiform, straight or curved, 
10-14x2.5-3.5^. 2-gutullate, or with several minute green oil globules; paraphyses 
slender, with a tinge of green at the tip. Masscc. 

Massee calls this Chlorosplenium seruginosum, De Not. It is quite common 
on oak branches, staining to a deep green the wood upon which it grows. It is 
widely distributed, specimens having been sent me from as far east as Massa- 
chusetts. The mycelium-stains in the wood are met more frequently than 
me fruit. 



Bulgaria. Fr. 

Bulgaria probably first found in that principality. 

Receptacle orbicular, then truncate, glutinous within, at first closed ; hymenium 
even, persistent, smooth. 

Bulgaria inquinans. Fr. 
The Blackish Bulgaria. 

Figure 440. Bulgaria inquinans. Two- 
thirds natural size. 

Inquinans means befouling or polluting ; 
so called because of the blackish, gelatinous 
coating of the cap. 

Receptacle orbicular, closed at first, then 
opening, forming a cup, as shown on the 
right in Figure 440 ; disk or cup becoming 
plane ; black, sometimes becoming lacunose ; 
tough, elastic, gelatinous, dark-brown, or 
chocolate, almost black, wrinkled, and 
rough externally ; stem very short, almost 
obsolete ; cup light umber ; sporidia large, 
elliptical, brown. 

This plant is quite plentiful in some lo- 
calities near Chillicothe. It is found in 
woods, on oak trunks or limbs partially de- 



Spores produced on sporophores, compacted into one or more globose or 
disciform bodies, contained within a distinct peridium. Berkeley. 
There are four genera included in this order. 

Cyathus Peridium cup-shaped, composed of three different membranes. 
Crucibulum Peridium of a uniform spongy membrane. 
Nidularia Peridium globose, sporangia enveloped in mucus. 
Sphaerobolus Peridium double, sporangia ejected singly. 

Cvathus. Pers. 

Cyathus is from a Greek word meaning a cup. 

The peridium is composed of three membranes very closely related, closed at 
first by a white membrane, but finally bursting at the top. Sporangia plane, 
umbilicate, attached to the wall bv an elastic cord. 

Cyathus striatus. Hoffm. 

Striate Cyathus. 

The plants are small, obconic, truncate, broadly open ; externally ferruginous, 
with a hairy tomentum, internally lead-color, smooth, striated. 

The sporangia are somewhat trigonous, whitish, broadly umbilicate ; covering 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 
Figure 441. Cyathus striatus. 




of the cup thin, evanescent, somewhat thicker underneath, and cottony, often 
covered with down-like meal. 

The spores are thick and oblong. 

This is a very interesting - little plant. It is quite widely distributed. I have 
had it from several states, including New England. It is easily identified by the 
striations, or lines, on the inside of the cup, being the only species thus marked 
by internal striae. The peridioles of the species fill only the lower part of the 
cup, below the striations. 

Figure 442. Cyathus verrucosus. 

Cyathus vernicosus. D. C. 
Varnished Cyathus. 

Vernicosus means varnished. It is bell-shaped, base narrowly subsessile. 
broadly open above, somewhat wavy; externally rusty-brown, silky tomentose, 
finally becoming smooth, internally lead-colored. 

The sporangia are blackish, frequently somewhat pale, even ; covering rather 



thick, sprinkled with a grayish meal. Spores elliptical, colorless, 12-14x10^. 
I have frequently seen the- ground in gardens and stubble-fields covered with 
these beautiful little plants. The quite firm, thick, and flaring cup will easily 
distinguish the species. The eggs Or peridioles are black and quite large, appearing 
white because covered with a thin white membrane. Found in late summer and 
fall. The plants in Figure 442 were photographed by Prof. G. D. Smith. 

Cyothus stercorals. 

Figure 443. Cyathus stercoreus. 

Stercoreus is from stercus, dung. This species, as the name suggests, is 
found on manure or manured grounds. Mr. Lloyd gives the following description : 
"The cups are even inside, and with shaggy hairs outside. When old they be- 
come smoother, and are sometimes mistaken for Cyathus vernicosus. However 
when once learned, the plants can be readily distinguished by the cups. Cyathus 
stercoreus varies considerably, however, as to shape and size of cups, according to 
habitat. If growing on a cake of manure, they are shorter and more cylindrical ; 
if in loose manured ground, especially in grass, they are more slender and 
inclined to a stalk at the base." The peridioles or eggs are blacker than other 
species. They are found in late summer and fall. 



Crucibulum. Titl. 

The peridium consists of a uniform, spongy, fibrous felt, closed by a flat 
scale-like covering of the same color. 

The sporangia are plane, attached by a cord, springing from a small nipple- 
like tubercle. 

This genus is distinguished from Cyathus, its nearest ally, by the peridial 
wall, consisting of two layers only. 

Crucibulum vulgare. Titl. 

The peridium is tan-colored, thick externally nearly even, internally quite 
even, smooth, shining; mouths of young plants are covered with a thin yellowish 

Figure 444. Crucibulum vulgare. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 

membrane called the epiphragm. When old the cups bleach out and lose their 
yellow color. The peridioles or eggs are white, that is they are covered with a 
white membrane. Their yellowish color, and white eggs will readily distinguish 
this species. 

They are found on decayed weeds, sticks, and pieces of wood. The specimens 
in the halftone grew on an old mat and were photographed by Mr. C. G. Lloyd. 



Nidularia. Tul. 

The peridium is uniform, consisting of a single membrane ; globose, at first 
closed, finally ruptured or opening with a circular mouth. 

The sporangia are quite small and numerous, not attached by a funiculus to 
the peridium, enveloped in mucus. 

Figure 445. -Nidularia pisiformis. 

Nidularia pisiformis. Tul. 
Pea-Shaped Nidularia. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 

Pisiformis is from two Latin words meaning pea and form. 

The plant is gregarious, nearly round, sessile, rootless, hairy, brown or 
brownish, splitting irregularly. 

The sporangia are subrotund or discoidal in form, dark brown, smooth, shining. 

The spores are colorless, round or elliptical or pear-shaped, produced on 
sterigmata, 7-8x8-9/*. Sometimes found on the ground and on leaves, but their 
favorite home is an old log. Found from July to September. 




Gastromycetes is from two Greek words : gaster, stomach ; mycctcs, fungus. 
We have already seen that, in the group, Hymenomycetes, the spore-bearing 
surface is exposed as in the common mushroom or in the pore-bearing varieties, 
but in the Gastromycetes the hymenium is inclosed in the rind or peridium. The 
word peridium comes from pcridio ( I wrap around) ; because the peridium entirely 
envelops the spore-bearing portion, which, in due time, sheds the inclosed spores 
that have been formed inside the basidia and spicules, as will be seen in Figure 2. 
The cavity within the peridium consists of two parts : the threaded part, called 
the capillitium, which can be seen in any dried puffbali, and' a cellular part, called 
the gleba, which is the spore-bearing tissue, composed of minute chambers lined 
with the hymenium. The peridium breaks in various ways to permit the spores 
to escape. When children pinch a puffbali to "see the smoke," as they say, issue 
from it, little do they know that they are doing just what the puffbali would have 
them do, in order that its seeds may be scattered to the winds. 

In case of the Phalloides, the hymenium deliquesces, instead of drying up. 

Berkeley, in his "Outlines," gives the following characterization of this family : 
"Hymenium more or less permanently concealed, consisting in most cases of 
closely packed cells, of which the fertile ones bear naked spores in distinct spicules, 
exposed only by the rupture or decay of the investing coat or peridium." 

The following families will be treated here : 
I. Phalioideae Terrestrial. Hymenium deliquescent. 

II. Lycoperdacese Cellular at first. Hymenium drying up in a mass of 
threads and spores. 

III. Sclerodermace?e Peridium inclosing sporangia. 

Phalloidccc. Fr. 

Volva universal, the intermediate stratum gelatinous. Hymenium deli- 
quescent. Berkeley's Outlines. 

The following genera will be represented: 

I. Phallus Pilcus free around the stem. 

II. Mutinus Pileus attached to the stem. 


r 1 

'A ' 
St ^ 

3 c 

* K 



Phallus duplicatus. Bosc. 

Laced Stinkhorn. 

Volva egg-shaped, thick, whitish, frequently having a pinkish tinge. 

The stem is cylindrical, 
cellulose, tapering up- 
ward. The veil is reticu- 
late, frequently surround- 
ing the whole of the stem 
from the pileus to the 
volva, often torn. The 
pileus is pitted, deliques- 
cent, six to eight inches 
high, apex acute. Spores 

I am sure I never saw 
finer lace-work than I 
have seen on this plant. 
A few years ago one of 
these plants insisted up- 
on growing near my 
house, where a fence post 
had formerly been, with 
the effect of almost driv- 
ing the family from 
home. One can hardly 
imagine so beautiful a 
plant giving off such an 
odor. It is not a com- 
mon plant in our state. 

Figure 447. 

-Phallus Ravenelii. Natural size, showing volva at base, 
receptacle and cap. 

Phallus Ravenelii. 
B. & C. 

This plant is extremely 
abundant about Chilli- 
cothe. I have seen hun- 
dreds of fully developed 
plants on a few square 
yards of old sawdust; 
and one might easily 
think that all the bad 



smells in the world had been turned loose at that place. The eggs in 
the sawdust can be gathered by the bushel. In Figure 449 is represented a cluster 
of these eggs. The section of an egg in the center of the cluster shows the 
outline of the volva, the pileus, and the embryo stem. Inside of the volva, in the 
middle, is the short undeveloped stem ; covering the upper part and sides of the 
stem is the pileus ; the fruit-bearing part, which is divided into small chambers, 
lies on the outside of the pileus. The spores are borne on club-shaped basidia as 

Figure 448. Phallus Ravenelii. Two-thirds natural size. 

shown in Figure 448, within the chamber of the fruit-bearing part, and when the 
spores mature, the stem begins to elongate and force the gleba and pileus through 
the volva, leaving it at the base of the stem, as will be seen in Figure 448. The large 
egg on the left in the background of Figure 449 is nearly ready to break the volva. 
I brought in a large egg one evening and placed it on the mantle. Later in the 
evening, the room being warm, while we were reading my wife noticed this egg 
beginning to move and it developed in a few minutes to the shape you see in Figure 
447- The development was so rapid that the motion was very perceptible. The 



pileus is conical in shape, and after the disappearance of the gleba the surface 
of the pileus is merely granular. The plants are four to six inches high. The 
stem is hollow and tapers from the middle to each end. This plant is also known 
as Dictyophora Ravenelii, Burt. 


"jBuSS^ Wr. *< '^H 


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If \_ ( 

Jfni K '^ J ^w*j f jSBj|jJ*-^ ilHfp 

r BjbW ' t fc '' gp^i- r" - ^*H 


Figure 449. Phallus Ravenelii. Two-thirds natural size, showing the egg stage. 

Lysurus borealis. Burt. 

The receptacle is borne on a stalk, hollow, attenuated toward the base, divided 
above into arms, which do not join at their apices, and which bear the spore mass 
in their inner surfaces and sides, inclosing the spore mass when young, but later 

The stem of the phalloid is white, hollow, attenuated downward ; the arms are 
narrow, lance-shaped, with pale flesh-colored backs, traversed their entire length 
by a shallow furrow. 

The egg in the center is about ready to break the volva and develop to a full 
grown plant The plants in Figure 450 were found near Akron, Ohio, and 
photographed by G. D. Smith. 

Mulimts. Fr. 

The gleba is borne directly on the upper portion of the stem, which is hollow 
and composed of a single layer of tissue ; and the plant has no separate pileus, 
by which characteristic the genus differs from Phallus. 



Figure 450. Lysurus borealis. 

Mutinus caninus. V<r. 

The gleba-bearing portion is short, red or flesh-colored, subacute, wrinkled, 
the cap or gleba forming the spore-bearing mass which is usually conical, some- 



times oblong or ovoid, covering one-fourth to 
one-sixth the total length of the stem. 

The stem is elongated, spindle-shaped, hollow, 
cylindrical, cellular, white, sometimes rosy. The 
spores are elliptical, involved in a green mucus, 
6x4/x. The plant comes from an egg, which is 
about the size of a quail's egg. You can find 
them in the ground if you will mark the place 
where you have seen them growing. They are 
found in gardens and in old woods and thickets. 
I have found this species in several localities 
about Chillicothe, but always in damp thickets. 
Mr. Lloyd thought this more nearly resembled 
the European species than any he had seen in 
this country. Found in July, August, and 

Mutinus elegans. Montague. 

The pileus is acuminate, perforated at apex. 
The stem is cylindrical, tapering gradually to the 

Figure 451.- Mutinus caninus. _ 1 ,- 1 1 r t, 1 "1 i_ 1 a. 1 

apex, whitish or pinkish below, pileus bright red. 

The volva is oblong-ovoid, pinkish, segments two or three. The spores are 
elliptical-oblong. Morgan. 

The odor of this plant is not as strong as in some of the Phalloids. The 
eggs of Phallus and Mutinus are said to be very good when fried properly, 
but my recollection of the odor of the plant has been too' vivid for me to try 
them. It is usually found in mixed woods, but sometimes in richly cultivated 
fields. I have found them frequently about Chillicothe six to seven inches 
high. In Figure 452 on the right is shown an egg and above it is a section 
of an egg containing the embryonic plant. This plant is called by Prof. 
Morgan Mutinus bovinus. After seeing this picture the collector will not fail 
to recognize it. It is one of the curious growths in nature. Found in July 
and August. 

Plate LVI. Figure 452. Mutinus elegans. 
Natural size, showing an egg and a section of an eg 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 

Figure 453.- 

-Mutinus elegans. One-third natural size, showing volva, white 
receptacle and red cap. 



This family includes all fungi which have their spores in closed chambers 
until maturity. The chambers are called the gleba and this is surrounded by the 
peridium or rind, which in different puffballs exhibits various characteristic ways 
of opening to let the spores escape. The peridium is composed oi two distinct 
layers, one called the cortex, the other the peridium proper. The plant is gen- 
erally sessile, sometimes more or less stemmed, at maturity filled with a dusty 
mass of spores and thread, 

It affords many of our most delicious fungus food products. The following 
genera are considered here : 

I. Calvatia The large puffball. 
II. Lycoperdon The small puffball. 
III. Bovista The tumbling- puffball. 
IV. Geaster Earth Star. 
V. Scleroderma The hard puffball. 

Calvatia. fr. 

This genus represents the largest sized puffballs. The)' have a thick cord- 
like mycelium rooting from the base. The peridium is very large, breaking away 
in fragments when ripe and exposing the gleba. The cortex is thin, adherent, 
often soft and smooth like kid leather, sometimes covered with minute squamules ; 
the inner peridium is thin and fragile, at maturity cracking into- areas. The 
capillitium is a net-work of fine threads through the tissues of spore-bearing 
portion ; tissue, snow white at first, turning greenish-yellow, then brown ; the 
mass of spores and the dense net- work of threads (capillitium) attached to the 
peridium and to the subgleba or sterile base which is cellulose ; limited and con- 
cave above. Spores small, round, usually sessile. 

Calvatia gigantea. Batsch. 

The Giant Puffball. Edible 1 . 

This species grows, to an immense size (often twenty inches in diameter) ; round 
or obovoid, with a thick mycelial cord rooting it to the ground, sessile, cortex 
white and glossy, sometimes slightly rougened by minute floccose warts, becoming 




yellowish or brown. The inner peridinm is thin and fragile, after maturity break- 
ing- up into fragments, apparently without any subgleba ; capillitium and spores 
yellowish-green to dingy-olive. The spores are round, sometimes minutely warted. 
Not common about Chillicothe, but in the northwestern part of the state they 
are very plentiful in their season, and very large. Standing in Mr. Joseph's wood- 
pasture, east of Bowling Green, I have counted fifteen giant puffballs whose 
diameters would average ten inches, and whose cortex was as white and glossy 
as a new kid glove. A friend of mine, living in Bowling Green, and driving home 
from Deshler, saw in a wood-pasture twenty-five of these giant puffballs. Being 

Figure 455. Calvatia gigantia. One-fifth natural size, showing how they grow in the grass. 

impressed with the sight and having some grain sacks in his wagon he filled them 
and brought them home. He at once telephoned for me to come to his house, as 
the mountain was too big to take to Mohammed. He was surprised to learn that 
he had found that proverbial calf which is all sweet-breads. That evening we 
supplied twenty-five families with slices of these puffballs. 

They can be kept for two or three days on ice. The photograph, taken by 
Prof. Shaffner of Ohio State University, will show how they look growing in the 
grass. They seem to delight to nestle in the tall bluegrass. This species has been 
classed heretofore as Lycoperdon giganteum. Found from August to October. 

Plate LA'III. Figure s<,6. Calvatia lilacina 
Natural size in a growing state. 



Calvatia Marina. Berk. 
Lilac Puffbaix. Edible. 

The peridium is three to six inches in diameter ; globose or depressed globose ; 
smooth or minutely floccose or scaly ; whitish, cinereous-brown or pinkish-brown, 
often cracking into areas in the upper part ; commonly with a short, thick, stemless 
base ; capillitium and spores purple-brown, these and the upper part of the peridium 
falling away and disappearing when old, leaving a cup-shaped base with a ragged 
margin. Spores globose, rough, purple-brown, 5-6.5 broad. Peck, 48th Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

It is very common all over the state. I have seen pastures in Shelby and 

1 iW' ' ni * 




> ^Ht ;'. 


\ tfytfjj 

'- ^B| 


for ' jfc 

Sf sflBI 


fWfr, Jfij}* 


y 1 

Figure 457. Calvatia lilacina. 

Defiance counties dotted all over with this species. When the inside is white, they 
are very good and meaty. No puftball is poisonous, so far as is known, but if the 
inside has turned yellowish at all it is apt to be quite bitter. It will often be seen 
in pastures and open woods in the form of a cup, the upper portion having 
broken away and the wind having scooped out the purple spore-mass, leaving 
only the cup-shaped base. The specimens in Figure 457 are just beginning to 
crack open and to show purplish stains. They represent less than one-fourth of 
the natural size. They look very much like the smaller sized C. gigantea, but the 
purple spores and the subgleba at once distinguish the species. This species, 
found from July to October, is sometimes classed as Lycoperdom cyathiforme. 
The photograph was taken by Prof. Longyear. 



Calvatia ccclata. Bull. 

The Carved Pufebael. Edible. 

Cselata, carved. Peridium large, obovoid or top-shaped, depressed above, 
with a stout thick base and a cord-like root. Cortex a thickish floccose layer, with 
coarse warts or 
spines above, whitish 
then ochraceous or 
finally brown, at 
length breaking' up 
into areola which 
are more or less per- 
sistent ; inner per- 
idium thick but frag- 
ile, thinner about the 
apex, where it finally 
ruptures, forming a 
large, irregular, torn 
Dpening. Subgleba 
occupying nearly 
half the peridium, 
cup-shaped above 
and for a long time 
persistent ; the mass 
of spores and capil- 
litium compact, far- 
inaceous, greenish- 
yellow or olivaceous, 
becoming pale to 
dark - brown- ; the 
threads are very 
much branched, the 
primary branches 
two or three times 
as thick as the 

Figure 459. Calvatia caslata. 

spores, very brittle, soon breaking up into fragments. Spores globose, even, 4-4.5 
in diameter, sessile or sometimes with a short or minute pedicel. Peridium is 
three to five inches in diameter. Morgan. 

This species is much like the preceding but can be easily distinguished by the 
larger size and the yellowish-olive color of the mature spore-mass. The sterile base 
is often the larger part of the fungus and, as will be seen in Figure is anchored 

Plate LX. Figure 460. Calvatia craniiformis. 



Hy a heavy root-like growth. It is found growing on the ground in fields and 
thin woods. When white through and through, sliced, rolled in egg and cracker 
crumbs, and nicely fried, you are glad you know 7 a puffball. Found from August 
to October. 

Figure 461. The sterile part of C. craniiformis. 


Calvatia craniiformis. Schw. 
Thl Brain-Shaped Calvatia. Edible. 

Craniiformis is from Cranion, a skull; forma, a form. 

The peridium is very large, obovoid or top-shaped, depressed above, the base 
thick and stout, with a cord-like root. The cortex is a smooth continuous layer, 
very thin and fragile, easily peeling off, pallid or grayish, sometimes with a reddish 
tinge, often becoming folded in areas ; the inner peridium is thin, ochraceous to 
bright-brown, extremely fragile, the upper part, after maturity, breaking into 
fragments and falling away. 

The subgleba occupies about one-half of the peridium, is cup-chaped above 
and for a long time persistent ; the mass of spores and capillitium is greenish- 
yellow, then ochraceous or dirty olivaceous ; the threads are very long, about as 
thick as the spores, branched. The spores are globose, even, 3-3.5^ in diameter, 
with minute pedicels. Morgan. 



It is difficult to distinguish 
this from C. lilacina when fresh, 
but when ripe the color will tell 
the species. Figure 460 shows 
the plant as it appears on the 
ground, and figure 461 shows 
the subgleba or sterile base, 
which is frequently found on 
the ground after weathering 
the winter. This plant is very 
common on the hillsides under 
small oak shrubbery. I have 
gathered a basketful within a 
few feet. They grow very large, 
often five to six inches in di- 
ameter, seeming to delight in 
rather poor soil. When the 
spore-mass is white this is an 
excellent fungus, but exceed- 
ingly bitter after it has turned 
yellow. Found during October 
and November. 

Calvatia elata. Massee. 

The Stemmed Calvatia. 

Elata means tall ; so> called 
from its long stem. 

The peridium is round, often 
slightly depressed above, plicate 
below, where it is abruptly con- 
tracted into a long stem-like 
base. The base is slender, 
round, and frequently pitted ; 
mycelium rather plentiful, 
fibrous and thread-like. When 
in good condition it is a rich 
cream color. The cortex con- 
sists of a coat of minute per- 



3 M 

* J& 






1 % 


1 %. *** '% 


L %6 ' ' 

1 ; 

5i " \ 


v'v.KaP' ' ** Sl-i %-' 3 


Figure 462. Calvatia elata. 


sis tent granules or spinules. The inner peridium is white or cream-colored, 
becoming- brown or olivaceous, quite thin and fragile, the upper part at maturity 
breaking up and falling away. The subgleba occupies the stem. The mass of 
spores and capillitium is usually brown or greenish-brown. The threads are very 
long, branched, branches slender. Spores round, even, sometimes slightly warted, 
4-5/x, with a slight pedicel. 

The plant grows on low mossy grounds among bushes, especially where it is 
inclined to be swampy. The plant in Figure 462 was found in a sphagnum swamp 
near Akron and was photographed by Prof. G. D. Smith. I am inclined to think 
it the same as Calvatia saccata, Fr. 

Lycoperdon. To urn. 

Mycelium fibrous, rooting from the base. Peridium small, globose, obovoid 
or turbinate, with a more or less thickened base ; cortex a subpersistent coat of soft 
spines, scales, warts or granules; inner peridium thin, membranaceous, becoming 
papyraceous, dehiscent by a regular apical mouth. Morgan. 

This genus includes puffballs with apical openings and is divided into 
two series, a purple-spored and an olive-spored series. The microscope shows 
that the gleba is composed of a great number of spores mixed with simple or 
branched threads. There are two sets of threads ; one set arises from the peridial 
wall and the other from the subgleba or columella. 


Lycoperdon pulcherrimum. B. & C. 

The Most Beautiful Puffball. Edible. 

Pulcherrimum, most beautiful. The peridium is obovoid, with a short base, 
the mycelium forming a cord like a root. The cortex is covered with long white 
spines, converging at the apex, as will be seen in Figure 463. The spines soon fall 
from the upper part of the peridium, leaving the inner peridium with a smooth 
purplish-brown surface, often slightly scarred by the base of the spine. The sub- 
gleba occupies at least a third of the peridium. The spores and the capillitium are 
at first olivaceous, then brownish-purple, the spores rough and minutely warted. 
The plant is one to two inches in diameter. It is found in low, rich ground, in 
fields and wood margins. Only young and fresh plants are good. 

The lower plant in Figure 463 shows where the spines have begun to fall, 
also the strong mycelial cord referred to in the description. I am indebted to Mr 
Lloyd for the photograph. Found in September and October. 




^/S&Hki&^i.. - 

Specimen from A. P. Morgan. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd- 

Figure 463. Lycoperdon pulcherrimum. 

Lycoperdon umbriiutm. Pers. 

The Smooth Puffball. Edible. 

Umbrinum, dingy umber. Peridium obovate, nearly sub-turbinate, with a 
soft, delicate, velvety bark; yellowish; inner peridium smooth and glossy, opening 
by a small aperture. The spores and capillitium, olivaceous, then purplish-brown. 
The capillitium with a central columella. A very attractive little plant, not fre- 
quently found. This plant is also called L. glabellum. In woods, September 
and October. 




Lycopcrdon gcmmatum. Batsch. 

The Gummed Pueebaix. Edible. 

The peridium is turbinate, depressed above ; the base short and obconic, or 
more elongated and tapering, or subcylindric, arising from a fibrous mycelium. 
The cortex consists of long, thick, erect spines or warts of irregular shape, with 
intervening smaller ones, whitish or gray in color, sometimes with a tinge of red 


h* - 








r, : H> * 


Figure 464. Lycoperdon pulcherrimum. 

or brown ; the larger spines first fall away, leaving pale spots on the surface, and 
giving it a reticulate appearance. The subgleba is variable in amount, usually 
more than half the peridium; mass od: spores and capillitium greenish-yellow, 
then pale-brown ; threads simple or scarcely branched, about as thick as the 
spores. Spores globose, even, or very minutely warted. Morgan. 

The species is readily recognized by the large erect spines which, because 
of their peculiar form and color, have given the notion of gems, whence the name 
of the species. These and the reticulations can be seen in Figure 465 by the aid 
of a glass. They are frequently found about Chillicothe. 



Lycopcrdon subincarnatum. Pk. 
The Pinkish Pueebael. Edible. 

Subincarnatum means pale flesh-color. The peridium is globe-shaped, sessile, 
without a stem-like base. Not large, rarely over one inch in diameter. The 
subgleba is present but small. The outer peridium is pinkish-brown, with minute 
short, stout spinules, which fall away at maturity, leaving- the inner ash-colored 
peridium neatly pitted by the falling - off of the spinules of the outer coat,, the 
pits not being surrounded by dotted lines. The capillitium and spores are first 
greenish-yellow, then brownish-olive. The threads are long, simple, and trans- 
parent. The columella is present and the spores are round and minutely warted. 

They are often found in abundance on decayed logs, old stumps, and on the 
ground about stumps where the ground is especially full of decayed wood. They 
are found from August to October. 

Figure 466.- Eycoperdon subincarnatum. 

Lycoperdon cruciatum. Roth. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 

Peridium broadly ovate, often much depressed, plicate underneath, with a 
cord-like root,; cortex a dense white coat of convergent spines, which at maturity 
peel off in flakes, as can be seen in the photograph, revealing a thin furfuraceous 
layer of minute yellowish scales covering the inner peridium. The subgleba broad, 
occupying about one-third of the cavity. The spores and capillitium are dark- 



brown. This species is very hard to distinguish from Wrightii. It was once called 
separaiis because of the fact that the outer coat separates, or peels off, so readily 
from the inner peridium. Found in open woods, or along paths in open woods 
or pastures. 

From July to October. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 
FIGURE 467. Lycoperdon cruciatum. 

Lycopcrdon Wrightii. B. & C. 

The specific name is in honor of Charles Wright. The peridium is globe-like, 
sessile, white, minutely spinulose, often converging at the apex; when denuded, 
smooth or minutely velvety. 

The spores and capillitium greenish-yellow, then brown-olive; the columella 
present, but very small. Spores small, smooth, 3-4^. 

The plants are very small, scarcely more than two cm. in diameter. They 
are generally csespitose in short grass, along paths, and in sandy places. 

I have frequently seen the ground white with them on Cemetery Hill where 
the specimens in Figure 468 were found. They were photographed by Dr. 
Kellerman. Found from July to the last of October. 



Lycoperdon pyriforme. Schaeff. 

The Pear-Shaped Puffball. Edible. 

Pyriforme means pear-shaped. The peridium is ovate or pear-shaped, with a 
profusion of mycelial threads, as will be seen in Figure 470. 

The cortex is 
covered with a thin 
coat of minute 
brownish scales or 
granules, which are 
quite persistent. 
These can be seen 
in the photograph 
by the aid of a 
glass. They are 
sessile or have a 
short stem-like 
base ; the subgleba 
is small and com- 
pact. ; the capil- 
litium and spores 
are first white, then 
greenish - yellow, 
then dingy olivace- 
ous ; the inner coat 
is smooth, papery, 
whitish - gray or 
brownish, opening 
by an apical 
mouth ; the spores 
are round, even, 
greenish-yellow to 

They grow in 
dense clusters, as 
will be seen in Fig- 
ure 470. An entire log and stump, about four feet high, and the roots around it, 
were covered, as shown in Plate LXII. I gathered about three pecks, at this one 
place, to divide with my friends. It is one of the most common puffballs, and you 
may usually be sure of getting some, if you go into the woods where there are 
decayed logs and stumps. A friend of mine, who goes hunting with me occa- 
sionally, eats them as one would eat cherries. 
Found from July to November. 

Figure 468. Lycoperdon Wrightii. Natural size. 

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ft. K 

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Lycopcrdon pusillum. Fr. 
The Small LYcorERDON. Edible. 

Pusillum means small. 

Peridium is one-fourth to one inch broad, globose, scattered or cespitose, 
sessile, radicating - , with but little cellular tissue at the base, white, or whitish, 
brownish when old, rimose-squamulose or slightly roughened with minute floccose 
or furfuraceous persistent, warts ; capillitium and spores greenish-yellow, then 
dingy olivaceous. Spores smooth zUt in diameter. Peck. 

These are found from June to cool weather in the fall, in pastures where the 
grass is eaten short. When mature they dehisce by a small opening, and when 
broken open will disclose the olive or greenish-yellow capillitium. The spores are 
of the same color, smooth and round. 

Figure 470. Lycoperdon pyriforme. Natural size. 

Lycopcrdon acuminatum. Bosc. 
Tlie Pointed Lycoperdon. Edible. 

Acuminatum means pointed. 

The peridium is small, round, then egg-shaped ; with a plentiful mass of 
mycelium in the moss in which the plants seem to delight. The plant is white 
and the outer rind is soft and delicate. There is no subgleba ; the spores and 


cap-illitium are pale-greenish-yellow, then a dirty gray. The thread are simple, 
transparent, much thicker than the spores. The spores are round, smooth, 3/j, in 

I have found the plants frequently about Chillicothe on damp, moss-covered 
logs and sometimes at the base of beech trees, when covered with moss. They are 
very small, not exceeding one-half inch in diameter. The small ovoid form, with 
the white, soft, delicate cortex, will serve to distinguish the species. Found from 
September to October. 

B ovist a. Dill. 

The genus Bovista differs from Lycoperdon in several ways. When the 
Bovista ripens it breaks from its moorings and is blown about by the wind. It 
opens by an apical mouth, as does the genus Lycoperdon, but the species of 
Bovista have no sterile base. They are puffballs of small size. The outer coat 
is thin and fragile and at maturity peels off, leaving an inner coat firm, papery, 
and elastic, just such a coat as is suitable for the dispersion of its spores. Leaving 
its moorings at maturity, it is blown about the fields and woods, and with every 
tumble it makes it scatters some of its spores. It may take years to accomplish 
this perfectly. The species of the Lycoperdon do not leave their moorings natural- 
ly ; their spores are dispersed through an apical mouth by a collapse of the walls 
of the peridium, after the fashion of a bellows, by which spores are driven out to 
the pleasure of the wind. In Bovista the threads are free or separate from the 
peridium, but in Lycoperdon they arise from the peridium and also from the 

Bovista pila. B. & C. 
The Ball-Like Bovista. 

Pila means a round ball. The peridium is globe-like, sessile, with a stout 
mycelium, a cortex thin, white at first, then brown, 'forming a smooth continuous 
coat, breaking up at maturity and rapidly disappearing. 

The inner peridium is tough, parchment-like, elastic, smooth, persistent, 
purplish-brown, fading to gray. The dispersion of spores takes place through 
an apical mouth. The capillitium is firm, compact, persistent, at first clay-colored, 
then purple-brown ; threads small-branched, the ends being rigid, straight, pointed. 
There is something so noticeable about this little tumbler that you will know it 
when you see it, and if you often ramble over the fields you will soon meet it. 
However, I have as yet seen only the matured specimens. 

s E 

5L G 

3 c 



Bovista plumb ca. Pcrs. 
Lead-Colored Bovista. Edible. 

The plant is small, never growing to more than an inch and a fourth in di- 
ameter. The peridium is depressed globose, with a fibrous mycelium. The outer 
peridium is rather thick and when the plant is nearing maturity it breaks up readily 
unless handled very carefully ; at maturity it scales off, except a small portion 
about the base. The outer peridium is white and comparatively smooth, the 
inner is thin, tough, smooth, lead-colored, dehiscent at the apex by a round or 
oblong mouth. Mass of spores and capillitium not solid or hard ; yellowish-brown, 
or olivaceous, then purplish-brown ; the threads three to five times branched, the 
ends of the branches slender and tapering to a point. The spores are oval and 
smooth, with long transparent pedicels. 

This species grows on the ground in old pastures, being quite plentiful after 
warm rains, from the first of May till fall. It is one of the best of the puffballs. 
but should be eaten before the inner peridium begins to assume the tough form. 

Figuer 472. Bovista plumbea. Natural size. White when young. 

Bovistella. Morgan. 

Bovistella, a diminutive of Bovista, though the plants are usually larger than 
the Bovistas. 

The mycelium, is cord-like ; peridium nearly round, cortex a dense floccose 
coat ; inner peridium thin, strong, elastic, opening by an apical mouth ; subgleba 
present, cup-shaped ; threads free and separate, branched ; spores white. The 
genus Bovistella has the internal character of Bovista, and the habits of Lycoperdon. 



Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 
Figure 473. Bovistella Ohiensis. Natural size. 

Boinstella Ohiensis. Morgan. 

Peridium globe-like or broadly obovoid, sometimes much depressed, with 
small plications or wrinkles underneath, and a thick cord-like base or root, as 
will be seen in Figure 473. The outer coat is dense, floccose, or with soft warts 
or spines, white or grayish, drying to a buff color, and in time falling away; the 
inner coat is smooth, shining, with a pale brown or yellowish surface. The sub- 
gleba is large, occupying half of the peridium, extending up on the walls of the 
peridium, making it cup-shaped, and quite persistent. The spores and capillitium 
are rather loose, friable, clay-color to pale-brown. The threads, originating 
within the spore mass, and having no connection with the inner coat, are free, 



short, three to five times branching- ; branches tapering to the end. The spores are 
round to oval, with long translucent pedicels. 

This can be readily distinguished from the species of Bovista because it has 
a sterile base ; and from Lycoperdon because its threads are separate and free, 
while those of the Lycoperdon are attached both to the tissues of the inner peridium 
and to the columella or sterile base. 

They are found growing on the ground in old pastures, or in open woods. 

Scleroderma. Pcrs. 

Scleroderma is 
from two Greek 
words : scleros, 
hard ; derma, skin. 

The peridium is 
firm, single, gener- 
ally thick, usually 
bursting irregular- 
ly, and exposing 
the gleba, which is 
of uniform texture 
and consistency. 
There is no capil- 
litium, but yellow 
flocci are found in- 
terspersed with the 
spores. The spores 
are globose, rough, 
usually mixed with 
the hyphse tissue. 

Scleroderma aur'an- 
tium. Pers. 

The .Common 



Aurantium means 
colored like an or- 
ange. This is usu- 
ally called S. vul- 
gare. The peridium 

Figure 475. Scleroderma aurantium. 



is rough, warty, depressed, globose, corky and hard, yellowish, opening by irregu- 
lar fissures to scatter the spores ; inner mass bluish-black, spores dingy. The plant 
remains solid until it is quite old. It is sessile, with a rooting base which is never 

I have followed Mr. Lloyd's classification in separating the species, calling 
the rough-surfaced one S. aurantium, and the smooth-surfaced S. cepa. 

In labeling it edible I wish only to indicate that it is not poisonous, as it is 
generally thought to be ; however, it cannot be claimed as a very good article of 

It has a wide distribution over the states. The plants in Figure 475 were 
found on Cemetery Hill, Chillicothe, and photographed by Dr. Kellerman. 

Found from August to Novem- 


Photo by C. G. Lloyd 
Figure 476. Scleroderma tenerum. 

Scleroderma tenerum. Berk. 

This species is often regarded 
as a small form of S. verrucosum, 
but it always seemed strange to 
me that this rather smooth plant 
should be called "verrucosum" 
when its frequently near neigh- 
bor, S. aurantium, is very verru- 

S. tenerum is a very widely 
distributed species in the United 
States, somewhat constant as to 
form and quite frequent in occur- 
rence. Mr. Lloyd, in his Myco- 
logical Notes, gives a very clear 
photograph of a plant that is 
quite local in this country and 
which he thinks should be called 
S. verrucosum of Europe. 

The plant differs very widely 
from the one we find so com- 
monly which by many authors 
has been called S. verrucosum. 
Some have even called it Sclero- 
derma bovista. 

The plant is nearly sessile, 
somewhat irregular, peridium 


thin, soft, yellowish, densely marked with small scales, dehiscence irregular, 
fiocci yellow and spores dingy olive. 

The species may he known by the thin and comparatively smooth peridium 
and yellow flocci. It is quite common in the United States, while the typical 
plant, S. verrucosum, is confined to a few localities along the Atlantic coast. 

Scleroderma Cepa. Pers. 

Cepa meaning an onion ; having very much the appearance of an onion. 

The peridium is thick, smooth, reddish-yellow to reddish-brown, opening by 
an irregular mouth. The plant is sessile and quite strongly rooted with fine root- 
lets. Its habitat, with us, is along the banks of small brooks in the woods. It has 
been classed heretofore as S. vulgare, smooth variety. I sent some to Prof. Peck, 
who quite agrees that they should be separated from S. vulgare. Found from 
August to November. 

Scleroderma geaster. Fr. 

Geaster, so called because it has a star-like opening somewhat similar to the 
genus Geaster. 

Peridium subglobose, thick, with a very short stem, or almost sometimes 
entirely sessile ; hard, rough, splitting into irregular stellate limbs ; frequently 
well buried in the ground. Inner mass dark-brown or blackish, sometimes with 
rather a purplish tinge. Some grow quite large with the peridium very thick. 
My attention was first attracted by some of the peridium shells upon the ground on 
Cemetery Hill. The plant is quite abundant there from September to December. 

Cat as torn a. Morgan. 

This is a small pufifball-like plant, growing just beneath the ground and at- 
tached to its bed by very small threads which issue from every part of the cortex, 
which is quite thick. Breaking away at maturity in a circumscissle manner, 
the lower part is held fast to the ground, while the upper part remains attached 
to the inner peridium as a kind of cup. The inner peridium, with the top part 
of the outer peridium attached, becomes loose and tumbles over the ground, the 
mouth being in the base of the plant as it grew. 



Catastoma circumscissum. B. & C. 

Circumscissum means divided into halves. 

The peridium is usually round, more or less depressed, commonly rough 
because of the soil attached ; the larger part of the plant remaining in the soil as 
a cup; the upper part with the inner peridium, depressed-globose, thin, pallid, 
becoming gray, with branny 

scales, with a small basal mouth. 
A thin spongy layer will fre- 
quently be seen between the outer 
and inner peridium. The mass 
of the spores is olivaceous, chang- 
ing to pale-brown. The spores 
are round, minutely warted, 
4-5/x. in diameter, often with very 
short pedicels. 

The plants are usually found in 
pastures along paths. I have 
seen them in several parts of 
Ohio. They are found from 
Maine to the western mountains. 
This is called Bovista circum- 
scissa by Berkeley. 

There is a species of a western 
range called C. subterraneum. 
This differs mainly in having larger spores. It seems to be confined to the middle 
west. However, it does not grow under the ground, as its name would suggest. 

There is also another species called C. pedicellatum. This species seems to 
be confined to the southern states and differs mainly in the spores having marked 
pedicels and closely warted. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 
Figure 478. Catastoma circumscissum. 


This tribe is characterized by having a stalk continuous with the apex of the 
peridium, forming an axis. Some of the plants are short stalked, some long 
stalked. The tribe forms a natural connecting link between the Gastromycetes 
and the Agarics. Thus : Podaxon is a true Gastromycetes, with capillitia mixed with 
spores ; Caulogossum, with its permanent gleba chambers, is close to the Hymeno- 
gasters ; Secotium is only a step from Caulogossum, the tramal plates being more 
sinuate-lamellate ; and Montagnites, which is usually placed with the Agarics, is 
only a Gyrophramium with the plates truly lamellate. 




Gleba with irregular, persistent chambers 

Peridium, elongated club-shaped Cauloglossum. 

Peridium, round or conical, and dehiscing by breaking 

away at the base Secotium. 

Gleba with sinuate-lamellate plates Gyrophragmium. 

Walls of gleba chambers not persistent Podaxon. 


Secotium. Kuns. 

This is a very interesting genus. When I found my first specimen I was 
much in doubt whether it was an Agaric or a puffball, as it seemed to be a sort of 
connecting link between the two classes. The genus is divided into' smooth-spored 
and rough-spored species, both having a stalk continuing, as an axis, to the apex 
of the plant. The peridium is round or conical and it dehisces by breaking away 
at the base. Secotium is from a Greek word meaning chamber. 




. ft 

' Jpq 

" "-I 


^ Jid 

V ' ''~*m 




A, -i 


Figure 479. Secotium acuminatum. Life size of small specimens. 

Secotium acuminatum. Montague. 

This is an exceedingly variable species, as found about Chillicothe, yet the 
variability extends only to the outward appearance of the plant; some are almost 
round, slightly depressed, some (and a large majority) are inclined to be irregu- 
larly cone-shaped. 

The peridium is light-colored, of a soft texture, not brittle ; it slowly expels 
its spores by breaking away at the base; the stalk is usually short, but distinct 
and prolonged to the apex of the peridium, forming an axis for the gleba. The 


surface of the peridium is smooth, dingy-white or ash-colored, with minute white 
spots, due to scales. It is of various shapes ; acute-ovate, sometimes obtuse, nearly 
spherical, sometimes slightly depressed and irregular cone-shaped. The gleba is 
composed of semi-persistent cells, plainly seen with a glass or even with the naked 
eye. It has no capillitium. The spores are globose and smooth, often apiculate. 
This plant is quite abundant about Chillicothe, and I have found it from the first 
of May to the last of October. 

This species is widely distributed in America, and occurs in Northern Africa 
and Eastern Europe. 

Polysaccum. DeC. 

Polysaccum is from polus, many, and saccus, a sack. Peridium irregularly 
globose, thick, attenuated downward into a stem-like base, opening by disintegra- 
tion of its upper portion ; internal mass or gleba divided into distinct sac-like cells. 

Allied to Scleroderma and distinguished by the cavities of the gleba containing 
distinct peridioles. Massee. 

Polysaccum pisocarpinm. Fr. 

Pisocarpium is from two Greek words meaning pea and fruited. 

Peridium irregularly globose, indistinctly nodulose, passing downward into 
a stout stem-like base, peridioles irregularly angular, 4-5x3^, yellow. Spores 
globose, warted, coffee-color, 9-13^. Massee. 

I have found this plant only a few times about Chillicothe. Mr. Lloyd 
identified it for me. It has very much the shape of a pear. The skin is quite 
hard, smooth, olivaceous-black with yellow mottling patches not unlike the skin 
of a rattlesnake. The peridioles, which are small ovate sacs bearing the spores 
within, are very distinct. The interior of the plant when mature is dark, and it 
breaks and disintegrates from the upper part very like C. cyathiformis. This 
is a very interesting plant whose ovate sac-like cells will easily distinguish it. 
Found from August to October, it delights in sandy soil, in pine or mixed woods. 

Mitremyces. Nees. 

Mitremyces is made up of two words : mitre, a cap ; myces, a mushroom. 
It is a small genus, there being but three species found in this country. The 
spore-mass or gleba, in its young state, is surrounded by four layers. The outer 
layer is gelatinous and behaves itself somewhat differently in each species. This 
outer layer is known as the volva or volva-like peridium, which soon disappears. 



The next layer is called the exoperidium and is composed of two layers, the inner 
one quite thin and cartilaginous in M. cinnabarinus it is a bright red ; this is 
attached to a rather thick, gelatinous, outer layer which soon falls away, exposing 
the endoperidium, which is the layer seen in older specimens. Within the endoper- 
idium are the spores, which are pale ochraceous or sulphur color, globose or 
elliptical in shape. They are contained in a separate membrane or sac ; when they 

Figure 480. Polysaccum pisocarpium. 

mature the sac contracts and forces the spores out into the air. The mycelium 
of this plant is especially peculiar, being composed of a bundle of root-like strands, 
translucent and jelly-like when young and fresh, but becoming tough and hard. 
This genus is called by some authors Calostoma, meaning a beautiful mouth, a very 
appropriate name, as the mouths of all American species are red and quite 

Mitremyces cinnabarinus. Dcs:\ 

The rooting strands are long, compact, dark when dry. Exporidium bright 
red, smooth internally ; the outer layer thick, gelatinous when fresh, finally break- 
ing - into areas and curling inward. The separation is caused by the fact that the 
cells of the thick gelatinous portion expand by the absorption of water, 
while those of the inner layer do not, hence the rupture occurs. The endoperidium 



and rayed mouth are 
bright red when fresh, 
partially fading in old 

The spores are elliptical- 
oblong, punctate-sculp- 
tured, varying much as to 
size in specimens from 
different localities ; 6-8x 
10-14 in West Virginia 
specimens. Massachusetts 
specimens, 6 - 8 x 12 - 20. 

I have seen these speci- 
mens growing in the 
mountains in West Vir- 
ginia. They quickly ar- 
rest the attention because of their bright red caps. They seem not, as yet, to have 
crossed the Alleghenies at least I have not found it in Ohio. It has a number 
of synonyms : Scleroderma calostoma, Calostoma cinnabarinum, Lycoperdon 
heterogeneum, L. calostoma. 

The plants in Figure 481 were photographed by Dr. Kellerman. Mr. Geo. E. 
Morris of Waltham, Mass., sent me some specimens early in August, 1907. 

Figure 481. Mitremyces cinnabarinus. Xatural size. 

C caster. Mich. 

Geaster, an earth-star; so called because at maturity the outer coat breaks its 
connection with the mycelium in the ground and bursts open like the petals of a 
flower; then, becoming reflexed, those petals lift the inner ball from the ground 
and it remains in the center of the expanded, star-like coat. The coat of the inner 
ball is thin and papery, and opens by an apical mouth. The threads, or capillitium, 
which bear the spores proceed from the walls of the peridium and form the central 
columella. The threads are simple, long, slender, thickest in the middle and 
tapering towards the ends, fixed at one end and free at the other. 

The Geaster is a picturesque little plant which will arrest the attention of the 
most careless observer. It is abundant and is frequently found in the late summer 
and fall in woods and pastures. 

G caster minimus. Schw. 

The outer coat or exoperidium recurved, segments acute at the apex, eight to 
twelve segments divided to about the middle. Mycelial laver usually attached, 



generally shaggy with fragments of leaves or grass, sometimes partly or entirely 
separating. Fleshy layer closely attached, very light in color, usually smooth on 
the limb of the exoperidium but cracked on the segments. Pedicel short but 

distinct. The inner 
peridium ovoid-, one- 
fourth to one-half 
inch in diameter ; 
white to pale-brown, 
sometimes almost 
black. Mouth lifted 
on a slight cone, lip 
bordered with a 
hair-like fringe ; 
columella slender, as 
are also the threads. 
Spores brown , 
^^m |L JS** xJ jn lwfcfc ^!^ globe-shaped, and 

minutely warted. 
Found in the sum- 
mer and early fall 

Nature seems to 
give it the power to 
lift up the spore- 
bearing body, the 
better to eject its 

spores to the wind. It is very frequently found in pastures all over the state. I 
have found it in many localities about Chillicothe. It is called "minimus" because 
it is the smallest Earth-star. 

Figure 482. Geaster minimus. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 
Natural size. 

Geaster hygrometriens. Pers. 
Water-Measuring Earth-Star. 

The unexpanded plant is nearly spherical. The mycelial layer is thin, tearing 
away as the plant expands, the bark or skin falling with the mycelium. The outer 
coat is deeply parted, the segments, acute at the apex, four to twenty; strongly 
hygrometric, becoming reflexed when the plant is moist, strongly incurved when 
the plant is dry. The inner coating is nearly spherical, thin, sessile, opening by 
simply a torn aperture. There is no columella. The threads are transparent, much 
branched, and interwoven. The spores are large, globose, and rough. 

The plant ripens in the fall and the thick outer peridium divides into seg- 
ments, the number varying from four to twenty. When the weather is wet the 
lining of the points of the segments become gelatinous and recurve, and the points 



rest upon the ground, holding- the inner ball from the ground. In dry weather the 
soft gelatinous lining becomes hard and the segments curve in and clasp the inner 
ball. Hence its name, "hygrometricus," a measurer of moisture. The plant is 
quite general. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 
Figure 483. Geaster hygrometricus. Natural size. 

Geaster Archeri. Berk. 

Young plant acute. Exoperidium cut beyond the middle into seven to nine 
acute segments. In herbarium specimens usually saccate but sometimes revolute. 
Mycelial layer closely adherent, compared to previous species relatively smooth. 
As in the previous species the mycelium covers the young plant but is not so 
strongly developed, so that the adhering dirt is not so evident on the mature plant. 
Fleshy layer when dry, thin and closely adherent. Endoperidium globose, sessile. 
Mouth sulcate, indefinite. Columella globose-clavate. Capillitium thicker than 
the spores. Spores small, 4 mc. almost smooth. Lloyd. 

I "first found the plant in the young state. The acute point, which will be seen 
in the photograph, puzzled me. I marked the place where it grew and in a few 
days found the developed Geaster. The plant is reddish-brown and it differs from 
other species "with sulcate mouths, in its closely sessile endoperidium." I have 
found the plant several times in Hayne's Hollow, near Chillicothe. I found it in 
the tracks of decayed logs. 

The plant has been called Geaster Morganii in this country but had previously 
been named from Australia. 



Figure 484. Geaster Archeri. 

Geaster aspcr. Michelius. 

Exoperidium revolute, cut to about the middle in eight to ten segments. 
Both mycelial and fleshy layers are more closely adherent than in most species. 
Pedicel short and thick. Inner peridium subglobose, verrucosa. Mouth conical. 
beaked, strongly sulcate, seated on a depressed zone. Columella prominent, per- 
sistent. Capillitium threads simple, long tapering. Spores globose, rough. 

The characteristic of this plant is the verrucose inner peridium. Under a 
glass of low power it appears as though the peridium were densely covered with 
grains of sharp sand. This plant alone has this characteristic, to our knowledge; 
and althouQ-h it is indicated in the figures of G. cornatus of both Schaeffer and 



Schmidel, we think that there it is only an exaggeration of the very minute 
granular appearance cornatus has. The word "asper" is the first descriptive 
adjective applied by Michelius. Fries included it in his complex striatus. Lloyd. 
I have found the plant frequently about Chillicothe. The plants represented 
were photographed by Mr. Lloyd. 

Figure 485. Geaster asper. Natural size. 

G caster triplex. Jung. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 

The unexpanded plant acute. Exoperidium recurved (or, when not fully 
expanded, somewhat saccate at base), cut to the middle (or usually two-thirds) 
in five to eight segments. Mycelial layer adnate. Fleshy layer generally peeling 
off from the segments of the fibrillose layer but usually remaining partially free, 
as a cup at base of inner peridium. Inner peridium subglobose, closely sessile. 
Mouth definite, fibrillose, broadly conical. Columella prominent, elongated. 
Threads thicker than spores. Spores globose, roughened, 3-6 mc. Lloyd, in 
Mycological Notes. 

The color of Geaster triplex is reddish-brown. Notice the remains of a fleshy 
layer forming a cup at base of inner peridium, a point which distinguishes this 
species and which gives name to the species triplex, three folds or apparently 
three layers. The photograph was made by Dr. Kellerman. 

Plate LXVI. Figure 486. Geaster triplex. 



G easier saccatus. Fr. 

The unexpanded plant is globose. Mycelium is universal. Exoperidium cut 
in six to ten segments about half way, the limb deeply saccate. Mycelial layer 
adnate to fibrillose. Fleshy layer, when dry, thin, adnate. Inner peridium sessile, 
globose, with a determinate fibrillose mouth. 

The spores are globose, almost smooth. Lloyd. 

Mr. Lloyd thinks this plant is practically the same as the G. fimbriatus of 
Europe, differing from it in being more deeply saccate and having a determinate 

Figure 487. Geaster saccatus. Natural size. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 

mouth. This plant is very common on all the wooded hillsides about Chillicothe. 
I have seen the ground on the top of Mt. Logan almost completely covered with 
them. They are identified by Mr. Lloyd, Prof. Atkinson, and Dr. Peck. The 
plants in Figure 487 were photographed by Mr. Lloyd from typical specimens. 

Geaster mammosus. Chcv 

Exporidium thin, rigid, hygroscopic, smooth, divided almost to the base into 
about ten linear segments, often umbilicate at the base ; inner peridium globose, 
smooth, sessile, furnished with a conical, even, protruding mouth, seated on a 
definite area. 

Columella short, globose, evident (though distinct in mature plants). 



Capillitium simple, tapering, hyaline, often flattened, slightly thinner than the 
spores. Spores globose, roughened, 3-7 mc. Lloyd. 

This plant is found in the woods from July till late in the fall. It differs from 
G. hygrometricus by its even, conical mouth. I found specimens several times in 
Havnes's Hollow. 

& Ik. 

Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 

Figure 488. Geaster mammosus. 

Gcastcr velutinus. Mor 

Unexpanded plants globose, sometimes slightly pointed at apex. Mycelium 
basal. Outer layer rigid, membranaceous, firm, light colored in the American plant. 
The surface is covered with short, dense, appressed velumen, so that to the eye 
the surface appears simply dull and rough, but its true nature is readily seen under 
a glass of low power. 

The outer surface separates from the inner as the plant expands, and in 
mature specimens is usually partly free. The thickness and texture of the two 
layers are about the same. The fleshy layer is dark reddish-brown when dry, a 
thin adnate layer. Inner peridium sessile, dark colored, globose, with a broad 
base and pointed mouth. Mouth even, marked with a definite circular light-colored 
basal zone. Columella elongated, clavate. Spores globose, almost smooth, small, 
25^-3^2 mc. Lloyd. 



Photo by C. G. Lloyd. 
Figure 489. Geaster velutinus. 

Myriostoma col if or mis. Dick. 

Exporidium usually recurved, cut to about the middle into six to ten lobes ; if 
collected and dried when first open, rather firm and rigid ; when exposed to weather 
becoming- like parchment paper by the peeling off of the inner and outer layers. 
Inner peridium, subglobose, supported on several more or less confluent pedicels. 
Surface minutely roughened ; mouths several, appressed fibrillose, round, plain or 
slightly elevated ; columella? several, filiform, probably the same in number as the 
pedicels ; spores globose, roughened, 3-6 mc. ; capillitium simple, unbranched, long, 
tapering, about ( half diameter of spores. 

The inner peridium with its several mouths can be, not inaptly, compared to a 
'"pepper-box." The specific name is derived from the Latin colum, a strainer, and 
the old English name we find in Berkeley "Cullender pufrball" refers to a cullender 
(or colander more modern form) now almost obsolete in English, but meaning a 
kind of strainer. Lloyd. 

Found in sandy soil. It is quite rare. Both the generic and specific names 
refer to its many mouths. The specimens in Figure 490 were found on Green 
Island, Lake Erie, one of the points where this rare species is found. It is found 
at Cedar Point, Ohio, also. The plant was photographed by Prof. Schaffner of 
the Ohio State University. 

Figure 490. Myriostoma coliformis. Natural size. 



Perithecia carbonaceous or membranaceous, sometimes confluent with the 
stroma, pierced at the apex, and mostly papillate; hymenium diffluent. Berkeley 

There are four tribes in this family, viz : 


Under Nectriaei we have the following genera : 

Clavate or capitate Cordyceps. 

Head globose, base sclerotioid Claviceps. 

Parasitic on grass 

Stroma myceloid . Epichlce. 


Sporidia double, finally separating Hypocrea. 

Sporidia double, ejected in tendrils, parasitic on fungi Hypomyces. 

Stroma definite, perithecia free, clustered or scattered . . . Nectria. 

Perthecia erect, in a polished and colored sac Oomyces. 

Under Xylarisei we have : 

Stroma corky, subclavate Xylaria. 

Stroma somewhat corky, discoid Poronia. 

Cordyceps. Fr. 

Gordyceps is from a Greek word meaning a club and a Latin word meaning 
a head. It is a genus of Pyrenomycetous fungi of which a few grow upon other 
fungi, but by far the greater number are parasitic upon insects or their larva, as 
will be seen in Figure 491. 

The spores enter the breathing openings along the sides of the larva and the 
mycelium grows until it fills the interior of the larva and kills it. 




In fructification a stalk rises from the body of the insect or larva and in the 
enlarged extremity of this the perithecia are grouped. The stroma is vertical and 
fleshy, head distinct, hylaine or colored ; sporidia repeatedly divided and sub- 

Cordyccps Hcrculco. (Schw,) Sacc. 

Herculea is so called from its large size. 
The halftone will readily identify this species. 
The plant is quite large, clavate in form, the 
head oblong, round, slightly tapering up- 
ward with a decided protuberance at the 
apex, as will be seen in Figure 491. The 
head is a light yellow in all specimens I 
found, not alutaceous as Schw. states, nor is 
the head obtuse. I found several specimens 
on a sidehill in Haynes's Hollow in August 
and September, all growing from bodies of 
the large white grubs which are found about 
rotten wood. They were found during wet 
weather. They were identified by both Dr. 
Feck and Dr. Herbst. 

Cordyccps 111 Hit oris: Pr. 

This is much smaller and more common 
than C. Herculea. Conidia Subcsspitose, 
white ; stem distinct, simple, becoming 
smooth ; clubs incrassated, mealy ; Conidia 
globose. Ascophore Fleshy, orange-red ; 
head clavate, tuberculose ; stem equal; 
sporidia long, breaking up into joints. This is frequently called Torrubia militaris. 
It is known as the caterpillar fungus. Its spores are cylindrical and are 
produced upon orange-red fruiting bodies in the fall. As soon as the spore falls 
on the caterpillar it sends out germ-threads which penetrate the caterpillar. Here 
the threads form long narrow spores which break off and form other spores until 

Figure 491. Cordyccps herculea. Showing 
the grub upon which this species grows. 



the body-cavity is entirely filled. The caterpillar soon becomes sluggish and dies. 
The fungus continues to grow until it has completely appropriated all of the 
insect's soft parts, externally a perfect caterpillar but internally completely filled 
with mycelial threads. Under favorable conditions this mycelial caterpillar, which 
has become a storage 
organ, will send up an 
orange-red club-shaped 
body, as will be seen in 
Figure 492, and will 
produce the kind of 
spores described above. 
Under some conditions 
this mycelial caterpillar 
may be made to pro- 
duce a dense growth of 
threads from its entire 
surface, looking like a 
small white ball, and 
from these threads an- 
other kind O'f spore is 
formed. These spores 
are pinched off in great 
numbers and will ger- 
minate in the larva the 
same as the sac spore. 
The specimens were 
found by Mrs. E. B. 
Blackford near Boston, 
and photographed by 
Dr. Kellerman. figure 492. Cordyceps military. 

Cordyccps capitata. Fr. 

This plant is fleshy, capitate, head ovate, bay-brown, stem yellow, then 

This plant is parasitic on Elaphomyces granulatus. It is shown at the base 
of the stem of the plant. It grows two or three inches under the surface and 
somewhat resembles a truffle in appearance. 



Both are very interesting plants. The plant in Figure 493 was found near 
Boston, Mass. They are usually found in pine woods, often in tufts. The stems 
are from one to four inches long, nearly equal, smooth, lemon-colored, at length 
fibroso-strigose and blackish. 

It is sometimes called Torrubia capitata. 

Figure 493. Cordyceps capitata. 

Photo by C. G. 
Natural size. 




The plants under this head belong to the slime-moulds and at first are wholly 
gelatinous. All the species and genera are small and easily overlooked, yet they 
are intensely interesting when carefully observed. In the morning you may see 
a mass of gelatinous matter and in the evening a beautiful net work of threads and 
spores, the transformation being so rapid. This gelatinous mass is known as 
protoplasm or plasmodium, and the motive power of the plasmodium has sug- 
gested to many that they should be placed in the animal kingdom, or called fungus 
animals. The same is true of Schizomycetes, to which all the bacteria, bacillus, 
spirillum, and vibrio, and a number of other groups belong. I have only a few 
Myxomycetes to present. I have watched the development of a number of plants 
of this group, but because of the scarcity of literature upon the subject I have been 
unable to identify them satisfactorilv. 

Figure 494. Lycogala epidendrum. 

Lycogala epidendrum. Fr. 

This is called the Stump Lycogala. It is quite common, seeming in a certain 
stage to be a small puffball. The peridium has a double membrane, papery, per- 




sistent, bursting irregularly at the apex ; externally minutely warty, nearly round, 
blood-red or pinkish, then brownish ; mouth irregular ; spores becoming pale, or 

Rcticularia maxima. Fr. 

This is quite common on partially decayed logs. The peridium is very thin, 
tuberculose, effused, delicate, olivaceous-brown ; spores olive, echinulate or spiny. 

Didymius xanthopus. Fr. 

These are very small yellow-stemmed plants, found on oak leaves in wet 
weather. The sporangium has an inner membranaceous peridium ; the whole is 
round, brown, whitish. The stem is elongated, even, yellow. The columella is 
stipitate into the sporangia. 

Figure 495. Xylaria polymorpha. Natural size. 



D. cinereum. Fr. 

Sporangia sessile, round, whitish, covered with an ashy-gray scurf. Spores 
black. Very small. On fallen oak leaves. Easily overlooked. 

Xylaria. Schrank. 

Xylaria means pertain- 
ing to wood. It is usu- 
ally vertical, more or less 
stipitate. The stroma is 
between fleshy and 
corky, covered with a 
black or rufous bark. 

Xylaria polymorpha. 

Polymorpha means 
many forms. It is nearly 
fleshy, a number usually 
growing together, or 
gregarious ; thickened as 
if swollen, irregular ; 
dirty-white, then black; 
the receptacle bearing 
perithecia in every part. 

This plant is quite 
common in our woods, 
growing about old 
stumps or on decayed 
sticks or pieces of wood. 
The spore-openings can 
be seen with an ordinary 

Figure 496. Xylaria polymorpha var. spathularia. Natural size. 

Xylaria polymorpha, var. spathularia. 

Spathularia means in the form of a spathula or spatula. It is vertical and 
stipitate, the stem being more definite than in the X. polymorpha, the stroma being 



between fleshy and corky, frequently growing in numbers or gregarious, turgid, 
fairly regular, dirty-white, then brownish-red, finally black. An ordinary hand 
glass will show how it bears perithecia in all its parts. This will be clearly seen 
in the section on the right. 

These plants are not as common as the X. polymorpha, but are found in 
habitats similar to those of the other plant, particularly around maple stumps 01 
upon decayed maple branches. 

Stemonitis. Gled. 

Stemonitis is from a Greek word which means stamen, one of the essential 
organs of a flower. This is a genus of myxomycetous fungi, giving name to the 
family Stemonitaceae, which has a single sporangium or sethalium ; without the 
peculiar deposits of lime carbonate which characterize the fructification of other 
orders, and the spores, capillitium, and columella are usually uniformly black, or 

Figure 497. Stemonitis fusca. Natural size. 



Stemonitis fusca. Roth. 

Fusca means dark-brown, smoky. The sporangia are cylindrical and pointed 
at the apex, peridia fugacious, exposing the beautiful network of the capillitium. 
The reticulate capillitium springs from the dark, penetrating stem. 

This is a very beautiful plant when studied with an ordinary hand-glass. 
I have frequently seen an entire log covered with this plant. 

Stemonitis ferriiginea. Ehrb. 

Ferruginea means rust color. The sporangia is very similar to that of S. 
fusca, cylindrical, peridium fugacious, exposing the reticulate capillitium, but 
instead of being dark-brown it is a yellowish or rusty-brown color. 







Stewed Mushrooms. No. i. 

Choose them as nearly as possible of uniform size and free from insects. Drop 
them in salt water for five minutes to free them from any insects that may be 
hidden in the gills ; drain them and wipe dry and clean with a rather rough cloth ; 
cut off the stems close to the cap. Put them into a granite or porcelain saucepan, 
cover closely and stew gently fifteen minutes. Salt to taste. Rub a tablespoonful 
of butter into about a tablespoonful of flour, and stir this into the mushrooms, 
letting boil three or four minutes ; stir in three tablespoon fuls of cream, mixed 
with a well-beaten egg, and stir the whole for two minutes without letting it boil, 
and serve either on toast or as a vegetable. 

Stewed Mushrooms. No. 2. 

Clean mushrooms as directed above and stew in water ten minutes ; then 
drain off part of the water and put in as much warm milk as you have poured off 
water ; let this stew for five to ten minutes ; then add some drawn butter, or veal or 
chicken gravy, and salt and pepper to taste. Thicken with a little corn starch wet 
in cold milk. Serve hot. 

In cooking mushrooms they should always be kept as closely covered as 
possible in order the better to retain the flavor, and they should never be subjected 
to too great heat. 

Baked Mushrooms. 

Be sure your mushrooms are fresh and free from insects ; cut off the stems 
close to the caps and wipe the tops with a wet cloth. Arrange them in a pie dish 
with the gills uppermost, laying a little bit of butter on each ; sprinkle pepper, salt, 
and a very little mace upon them. Put them into a hot oven and bake from 
fifteen minutes to half an hour, according to the tenderness of the mushrooms ; if 
they are in danger of getting too dry baste them occasionally with butter and 
water. Pour over them some maitre d'hotel sauce and send to the table in the dish 
in which they were baked. 



Broiled Mushrooms. 

Select the finest and freshest you can get and prepare as for baking; put into 
a deep dish and pour over them some melted butter, turning them over and over in 
it. Salt and pepper and let them lie for an hour and a half in the butter. Put 
them, gills uppermost, on an oyster gridiron over a clear hot fire, turning them 
over as one side browns. Put them on a hot dish, having them well seasoned with 
butter, pepper, and salt and with a few drops of lemon juice squeezed upon each, 
if liked. 

Mushroom and Veal Ragout. 

Take equal quantities of cold veal steak or roast veal and small puffballs or 
other mushrooms, and mince all fine ; mince a small onion and put with the mush- 
rooms and meat into a pan with some cold veal gravy, if you have it, and water 
enough to cover the mixture. Add a tablespoonful of butter, pepper and salt 
well, and let the mixture cook until it is almost dry, stirring it frequently to keep 
it from scorching; it should cook fully half an hour. When almost done, add a 
large tablespoonful of good catsup, or Worcestershire sauce if preferred. 
Serve hot. 

Mushroom Pates. 

Wash mushrooms well, cut them into small pieces and drop them in salt 
water for five minutes. Have ready in a pan upon the stove about two ounces of 
butter to each pint of mushrooms, having pan and butter very hot but not scorch- 
ing; dip the mushrooms from the salt water with a skimmer and drop them into 
the hot butter ; cover them closely to retain the flavor, shaking the pan or stirring 
them over to keep them from scorching or sticking. Let them cook with moderate 
heat from fifteen to thirty minutes, according to the tenderness of the mushrooms. 
Remove the cover from the pan, draw the mushrooms to one side and lift the pan 
on one side so that the gravy will run down to the opposite side ; stir into the 
gravy a level tablespoonful of sifted flour, and rub this smooth with the gravy ; 
then add a half a pint of rich milk or cream ; stir the mushrooms into this and 
allow it to boil for a minute. Have ready in the oven some pate shells, fill them 
with the mushrooms, seasoned to taste with salt and pepper, and set back in the 
oven for a few minutes to heat before serving. These are especially fine when 
made of Tricholoma personatum or Pleurotus ostreatus, but many other varieties 
will answer well. 

Baked Beefsteak With Mushroom Sauce. 

Have your sirloin steak cut an inch or more thick, put into an exceedingly hot 
baking pan on top of the stove, in one minute turn steak over so that both sides will 
be seared. Put the pan into an exceedingly hot oven and allow it to remain for 
twenty minutes. 

Have ready in a saucepan two tablespoonfuls of melted butter, heat well and 


add two cupfuls of fresh, clean mushrooms which have been allowed to stand in 
salt water for a period of five minutes ; cover closely and cook briskly without 
burning for ten minutes; set on the back of the stove (after having seasoned them 
properly with salt and pepper) to keep hot until ready to use. Place the steak 
upon a hot dish, pour the mushrooms over it and send to the table at once. It is a 
dish fit for a king. 

Stuffed Morels. 

Choose the freshest and best morels ; cleanse them thoroughly by allowing 
the water from the faucet to run on them ; open the stalk at the bottom ; fill with 
veal stuffing, anchovy or any rich forcemeat you choose, securing the ends and 
dressing between slices of bacon ; bake for a half an hour, basting with butter and 
water, and serve with the gravy which comes from them. 

Fried Morels. 

Wash a dozen morels carefully and cut off the ends of the stems. Split the 
mushrooms and put them into a pan in which two tablespoonfuls of butter have 
been melted. Cover closely and cook with a moderate heat for fifteen minutes. 
Mix two teaspoonfuls of corn starch in a half a pint of fresh milk and pour into 
the pan with the mushrooms, allowing it to boil for a minute or two ; salt and 
pepper to taste and serve hot, upon toast if liked. 

To Cook Boletl 

Cut off the stems, and remove the spore-tubes, after having wiped the caps 
clean with a damp cloth. They may be broiled in a hot buttered pan, turning them 
frequently until done, which will be about fifteen minutes. Dust with salt and 
pepper and put bits of butter over them as you would on broiled beefsteak. 

They may be stewed in a little water in a covered saucepan, after being cut 
into pieces of equal size. Stew for twenty minutes and when done add pepper, 
salt, butter or cream. 

Or they may be fried, after being sliced as you would egg plant, and dipped 
in batter or rolled in egg and cracker crumbs. 

In preparing Boleti the spore tube should be removed unless very young, as 
they will make the dish slimy. 

Mushroom Catsup. 

To two quarts of mushrooms allow a quarter of a pound of salt. The full 
grown mushrooms are better in making this as they afford more juice. Put a 
layer of mushrooms in the bottom of a stone jar, sprinkle with salt; then another 
layer of mushrooms till you have used all ; let them lie thus for six hours, then 
break them into bits. Set in a cool place for three days, stirring thoroughly every 
morning. Strain the juice from them, and to every quart allow half an ounce of 
alspice, the same quantity of ginger, half a teaspoon ful of powdered mace and 


half a teaspoonful of cayenne. Put it into a stone jar, cover it closely, set 
it in a saucepan of water over the fire, and boil hard for five hours. Take it off, 
empty it into a porcelain kettle and let it boil slowly for half an hour longer. Set 
it in a cool place and let it stand all night until settled and clear, then pour off 
carefully from the sediment, into small bottles, filling them to the mouth. Cork 
tightly and seal carefully. Keep in a dry, cool, dark closet. 

Mushrooms With Bacon. 

Take some full-grown mushrooms, and, having cleaned them, procure a few 
rashers of nice streaky bacon and fry it in the usual manner. When nearly done 
add a dozen or so of mushrooms and fry them slowly until they are cooked. In 
the cooking they will absorb all the fat of the bacon, and with the addition of a 
little salt and pepper will form a most appetizing breakfast relish. 


The Hydnums are sometimes slightly bitter and it is well to boil them for a 
few minutes and then throw away the water. Drain the mushrooms carefully ; 
add pepper and salt, butter, and milk ; cook in a covered saucepan slowly for 
twenty or twenty-five minutes ; have ready some slices of toast, pour the 
mushrooms over these and serve at once. 

OYSTER Mushrooms. 

( )ne of the best ways to cook an Oyster mushroom is to fry it as you fry an 
oyster. Use the tender part of the Oyster mushroom ; clean thoroughly ; add 
pepper and salt; dip in beaten egg and then bread crumbs and fry in fat or butter. 
Or parboil them for forty-five minutes, drain, roll in flour and fry. 

The Oyster mushroom is also excellent when stewed. 

Lepiota PROCERA. 

Clean the caps with a damp cloth and cut off the stem close to the caps ; broil 
lightly on both sides over a clear fire or in a very hot pan, turning the mushrooms 
carefully three or four times ; have ready some freshly-made, well-buttered toast ; 
arrange the mushrooms on the toast and put a small piece of butter on each and 
sprinkle with pepper and salt ; set in the oven or before a brisk fire to melt the 
butter, then serve quickly. 

Some persons think that slices of bacon toasted over the mushrooms improve 
the flavor. 

Beefsteak Smothered in Mushrooms. 

Have ready a sufficient quantity of full-grown mushrooms, carefully cleaned ; 
cut them in pieces and put into a baking pan with a tablespoon ful of butter to 
two cupfuls of mushrooms, sprinkle with pepper and salt, and bake in a moderate 
oven forty-five minutes. Broil your steak until it is almost done; then put it into 
the pan with a part of the mushrooms under and the remainder over the steak ; 
put it into' the oven again and allow it to remain for ten minutes ; turn out upon a 
hot dish and serve quickly. 

Agaricus, Lepiota, Coprinus, Lactarius, Tricholoma, and Russula are espec- 
ially fine for this method of preparation. 



The American Spawn Co., St. Paul, Minn. 




GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. Commercially, and in a restricted sense, 
the term "mushroom" is generally used indiscriminately to designate the species 
of fungi which are edible and susceptible of cultivation. The varieties which 
have been successfully cultivated for the market are nearly all derived from 
Agaricus campestris, Agaricus villaticus, and Agaricus Arvensis. They may be 
white, cream or creamy-white, or brown; but the color is not always a perma- 
nent characteristic, it is often influenced by surrounding conditions. 

Mushrooms are grown for the market on a large scale in France and in 
England. It is estimated that nearly twelve million pounds of fresh mushrooms 
are sold every year at the Central Market of Paris. A large quantity of mush- 
rooms are canned and exported from France to every civilized country. This 
industry has recently made remarkable progress in the United States, and fresh 
mushrooms are now regularly quoted on the markets of our large cities. They 
are sold at prices ranging from twenty-five cents to one dollar and fifty cents 
per pound, according to season, demand and supply. 

Figure 498. Mushroom Beds in a Cellar. 

ESSENTIAL CONDITIONS. Mushrooms can be grown in any climate 
and in any season where the essential conditions may be found, obtained or con- 
trolled. These conditions are, first, a temperature ranging from 53 to 60 F., 
with extremes of 50 to 63 ; second, an atmosphere saturated (but not dripping) 
with moisture ; third, proper ventilation ; fourth, a suitable medium or bed ; fifth, 
good spawn. It may be seen that in the open air, these conditions are rarely 
found together for any length of time. It is therefore necessary, in order to 
grow mushrooms on a commercial basis, that one or more of these elements be 
artificially supplied or controlled. This is usually done in cellars, caves, mines, 



greenhouses, or specially constructed mushroom houses. A convenient disposi- 
tion of the shelves in a cellar is shown in Fugure 498. A large installation for 
commercial purposes is shown in Figure 500, and a specially constructed cellar is 
shown in Figure 499. Where abandoned mines, natural or artificial caves are 
available, the required atmospheric conditions are often found combined and may 
Be uniformly maintained throughout the year. 



Figure 499. Specially Constructed Mushroom Houses. 

TEMPERATURE. Within the limits prescribed, the temperature should 
be uniform throughout the growth of the crop. When too cold, the development 
of the spawn will be retarded or arrested. A high temperature will favor the 
development of molds and bacteria which will soon destroy the spawn or the 
growing crop. The cultivation of the mushroom, as a summer crop, is therefore 
greatly restricted. As a fall, winter or spring crop it may be grown wherever 
means are at hand to raise the temperature to about 58 F. Many florists are 
utilizing the waste space under the benches for that purpose ; they have the ad- 
vantage of being able to use the expended material of mushroom beds in grow- 
ing flowers. 

MOISTURE. Moisture is an important factor in the cultivation of the 
mushroom, and demands intelligent application. The mushroom requires an 
atmosphere nearly saturated with moisture, and yet the direct application of 
water on the beds is more or less injurious to the growing crop. It is therefore 
essential that the beds, when made, contain the requisite amount of moisture, 
and that this moisture be not lost by excessive evaporation. They should be 
protected from a dry atmosphere or strong draughts. Where watering becomes 
necessary, it should be applied in a fine spray around the beds with a view of 
restoring the moisture to the atmosphere, and on the beds after the mushrooms 
have been gathered. 



VENTILATION. Pure air is essential to a healthy crop. Provision should 
therefore be made for a gradual renewal of the air in the mushroom house. 
However, draughts must be avoided as tending to a too rapid evaporation and 
cooling of the beds, an unfortunate condition which cannot thereafter be entirely 

THE BEDS. The most common type of beds is known as the "flat bed." 
It is made on the floor or on shelves as shown in the illustrations. It is usually 
about 10 inches deep. Another type, principally used in France, is known as 
the "ridge bed," and requires more labor than the flat bed. The mushroom house 
and shelves, if used, should be frequently disinfected and whitewashed in order 
to avoid danger from insects and bacteria. The preparation of the beds and 
subsequent operations will be shown in connection with the other subjects. 

PREPARATION OF THE MANURE. The best manure is obtained from 
horses fed with an abundance of dry and nitrogenous food. The manure of 
animals fed on greens is undesirable. Growers do not all follow the same method 
of fermenting or composting the manure. When first unloaded, the manure is 
left in its original state for a few days. It is then piled in heaps about three 
feet deep and well pressed down. In this operation the material should be care- 
fully forked and well mixed, and wherever found too dry, it should be lightly 
sprinkled. It is allowed to remain in that condition for about six days when 
it is again well forked and turned. In the latter operation it receives an addi- 

Figure 500. Mushroom Houses, Flat Beds. 

tional light sprinkling; the dry portions are turned inside in order that the whole 
mass may be homogenous and uniformly moist, and the heap is again raised to 
about three feet. About six days later the operation is repeated, and in about 
three days the manure should be ready for the beds. It is then of a dark brown 
color mixed with white, free from objectionable odor. It is unctuous, elastic and 
moist, though not wet, and should not leave any moisture in the hand. 


Of course, the above rules are subject to modification according to the con- 
dition of the manure, its age and previous handling. 

SPAWNING. The manure, having been properly composted, is spread 
evenly on the floor or shelves and firmly compressed in beds about ten inches 
in depth. The temperature of the bed is then too high for spawning and will 
usually rise still higher. It should be carefully watched with the aid of a special 
or mushroom thermometer. When the temperature of the beds has fallen to 
about 75 or 8o, they may be spawned. The beds must be spawned when the 
temperature falls, never when it rises. The bricks of spawn are broken into 
eight or ten pieces, and these pieces are inserted from one to two inches below 
the surface, about nine to twelve inches apart. The bed is then firmly com- 
pressed. An advantage is found in breaking and distributing the spawn over 
the surface of the bed a few days before spawning; this allows the mycelium to 
absorb some moisture and swell to some extent. If the bed is in proper con- 
dition it should not require watering for several weeks. 

Figure 501. Brick Spawn, Pure Culture. 

CASING THE BEDS. As soon as the spawn is observed to "run," or 
from eight days to two weeks, the beds are "cased" or covered with a layer of 
about one inch of light garden loam, well screened. The loam should be slightly 
moist, and free from organic matter. The beds should now be watched and 
should not be allowed to evaporate or dry out. 

PICKING. Mushrooms should appear in from five to ten weeks after 
spawning, and the period of production of a good bed ranges from two to four 
months. In picking the mushrooms an intelligent hand will carefully twist it 
from the soil and fill the hole left in the bed with fresh soil. Pieces of roots or 
stems should never be allowed to remain in the beds, otherwise decay might set 



in and infect the surrounding plants. A good mushroom bed will yield a crop 
of from one-half to two pounds per square foot. Mushrooms should be picked 
every day or every other day ; they should not be left after the veils begin to break. 
For the market the mushrooms are sorted as to size and color, and packed 
in one, two or five-pound boxes or baskets. Since they are very perishable, they 
must reach the market in the shortest time. 

OLD BEDS. It is not practicable to raise another crop of mushrooms in 
the material of an old bed, although this material is still valuable for garden 
purposes. The old material should be entirely removed, and the mushroom 
house thoroughly cleaned before the new beds are made. If this precaution be 
omitted the next crop may suffer from the diseases or enemies of the mushrooms. 

Figure 502. A Cluster of 50 Mushrooms on One Root, Grown from "Lambert's Pure Culture Spawn" of 

the American Spawn Co., St. Paul, Minn. 

SPAWN. The cultivated mushroom is propagated from "spawn," the com- 
mercial name applied to the mycelium ; the term "spawn" includes both the myce- 
lium and the medium in which it is carried and preserved. Spawn may be pro- 



cured in the market in two forms, flake spawn and brick spawn. In both forms 
the mycelium growth is started on a prepared medium mainly consisting of 
manure and then arrested and dried. The flake spawn is short-lived by reason 
of its loose form, in which the mycelium is easily accessible to the air and de- 
structive bacteria. It deteriorates rapidly in transportation and storage and can 
only be used to advantage when fresh. Growers, especially in the United States, 
have therefore discarded it in favor of brick spawn, which affords more protec- 
tion to the mycelium and can be safely transported and stored for a reasonable 

Until recently the manufacturer of spawn was compelled to rely entirely 
upon the caprice of nature for his supply. The only method known consisted 
in gathering the wild spawn wherever nature had deposited it and running the 
same into bricks or in loose material, without reference to variety. Neither the 
manufacturer nor the grower had any means of ascertaining the probable nature 
of the crop until the mushrooms appeared. 

Figure 503. Agaricus villaticus. 

PURE CULTURE SPAWN. The recent discovery of pure culture spawn 
in this country has made possible the selection and improvement of varieties of 
cultivated mushrooms with special reference to their hardiness, color, size, flavor 
and prolificness, and the elimination of inferior or undesirable fungi in the crop. 



The scope of this article precludes a description of the pure culture method of 
making spawn. It is now used by the large commercial growers and has in 
many sections entirely superseded the old English spawn and other forms of 
wild spawn. As now manufactured it resembles much in appearance the old 
English spawn (see Figure 501). Some remarkable results have been obtained 
by the use of pure culture spawn. We illustrate a cluster of fifty mushrooms 
on one root grown by Messrs. Miller & Rogers, of Mortonville, Pa., from "Lam- 
bert's Pure Culture Spawn" produced by the American Spawn Company, of St. 
Paul, Minn. (Figure 502). Several promising varieties have already been de- 
veloped by the new method, and can now be reproduced at will. Figure 503 is a 
good illustration of Agaricus villaticus, a fleshy species in good demand. Figure 
504 shows a bed of mushrooms grown from pure culture spawn in a sand rock 
cave, using the flat bed. 

..f *& r * r *; V* &&& * "S3: ' 

. ^ 

r ";'' * 

1* <v 

"4 4# 

# 1 % 

* v 

V ^ 

Figure 504. A Mushroom Cave, Showing One of the Test Beds of the American Spawn Co., St. Paul, Minn. 


HOW TO COOK MUSHROOMS. To the true epicure there are but four 
ways of cooking mushrooms broiling, roasting, frying them in sweet butter and 
stewing them in cream. 

In preparing fresh mushrooms for cooking, wash them as little as possible, 
as washing robs them of their delicate flavor. Always bear in mind that the 
more simply mushrooms are cooked the better they are. Like all delicately 
flavored foods, they are spoiled by the addition of strongly flavored condiments. 

Broiled Mushrooms. Select fine, large flat mushrooms, and be sure that 
they are fresh. If they are dusty just dip them in cold salt water. Then lay 
on cheese cloth and let them drain thoroughly. When they are dry cut off the 
stem quite close to the comb. Or, what is better, carefully break off the stem. 
Do not throw away the stems. Save them for stewing, for soup or for mush- 
room sauce. Having cut or broken off the stems, take a sharp silver knife and 
skin the mushrooms, commencing at the edge and finishing at the top. Put 
them on a gridiron that has been well rubbed with sweet butter. Lay the mush- 
rooms on the broiling iron with the combs upward. Put a small quantity of 
butter, a little salt and pepper in the center of each comb from where the stem 
has been removed and let the mushrooms remain over the fire until the butter 
melts. Then serve them on thin slices of buttered and well browned toast, which 
should be cut round or diamond shape. 

Serve the mushrooms just as quickly as possible after they are broiled, as 
they must be eaten when hot. So nourishing are broiled mushrooms that with 
a light salad they form a sufficient luncheon for anyone. 

Fried Mushrooms. Clean and prepare the mushrooms as for broiling. 
Put some sweet, unsalted butter in a frying pan enough to swim the mushrooms 
in. Stand the frying pan on a quick fire, and when the butter is at boiling heat 
carefully drop the mushrooms in and let them fry three minutes, and serve them 
on thin slices of buttered toast. 

Serve a sauce of lemon juice, a little melted butter, salt and red pepper with 
fried mushrooms. 

Stewed Mushrooms. Stewed mushrooms after the following recipe make 
one of the most delicious of breakfast dishes : It is not necessary to use large 
mushrooms for stewing small button ones will do. Take the mushrooms left 
in the basket after having selected those for broiling, and also use the stems cut 
from the mushrooms prepared for boiling. After cleaning and skinning them 
put them in cold water with a little vinegar, and let them stand half an hour. If 
you have a quart of mushrooms, put a tablespoonful of nice fresh butter in a 
stewpan and stand it on the stove. When the butter begins to bubble drop the 
mushrooms in the pan, and after they have cooked a minute season them well 
with salt and black pepper. Now take hold of the handle of the stewpan and, 
while the mushrooms are gently and slowly cooking, shake the pan almost con- 
stantly to keep the butter from getting brown and the mushrooms from sticking. 
After they have cooked eight minutes pour in enough rich, sweet cream to cover 
the mushrooms to the depth of half an inch, and let them cook about eight or 
ten minutes longer. Serve them in a very hot vegetable dish. Do not thicken 
the cream with flour or with anything. Just cook them in this simple way. You 
will find them perfect. 



Abortive, imperfectly developed. 

Aberrant, deviating from a type. 

Acicular, needle-shaped. 

Aculeate, slender pointed. 

Acuminate, terminating in a point. 

Acute, sharp pointed. 

Adnate, gills squarely and firmly attached 
to the stem. 

Adnexed, gills just reaching the stem. 

Adhesion, union of different organs or 

Adpressed, pressed into close contact, as 
applied to the gills. 

Agglutinated, glued to the surface. 

Alveolate, honey-combed. 

Alutaceous, having the color of tanned 

Anastomosing, branching, joining of one 
vein with another. 

Annual, completing growth in one year. 

Annular, ring-shaped. 

Annulate, having a ring. 

Annulus, the ring around the stem of a 

Apex, in mushrooms the extremity of the 
stem next to the gills. 

Apical, close to the apex. 

Apiculate, terminating in a small point. 

Appendiculate, hanging in small fragments. 

Applanate, flattened out or horizontally ex- 

Arachnoid, cobweb-like. 

ArcuXate, bow-shaped. 

Areofate, pitted, net-like. 

Ascus, spore case of certain mushrooms. 

Ascomycetes, a group of fungi in which 
the spores are produced in sacs. 

Ascospore, hymenium or sporophore bear- 
ing an ascus or asci. 

Atomate, sorinkled with atoms or minute 

Atro (ater, black), in composition "black" 
or "dark." 

Atropurpureous, dark purple (purpura, 

Aurantlaceous, orange-colored (aurantium, 
an orange). 

Aureous. golden-yellow. 

Auriculate, ear-shaped. 

Azonate, without zones or circular bands. 

Badious, bay, chestnut-color, or reddish- 

Basidium (pi. basidia), an enlarged cell on 
which spores are borne. 

Basidiomycetes, the group of fungi that 
have spores borne on a basidium. 

Bifid, cleft or divided into two parts. 

Booted, applied to the stem of mushrooms 
when inclosed in a volva. 

Boss, a knob or short rounded protuber- 

Bossed, furnished with a boss or knob, 

Byssus, a fine filamentous mass. 

Caespitose, growing in tufts. 

Calyptra, applied to the portion of volva 
covering the pileus. 

Campanulate, bell-shaped. 

Cap, the expanded, umbrella-like receptacle 
of a common mushroom. 

Capillitium, spore-bearing threads, often 
much branched, found in puffballs. 

Carnose, flesh-color. 

Cartilaginous, hard and tough. 

Castaneous, chestnut-color. 

Ceraceous, wax-like. 

Cerebriform, brain-shaped. 

Cespitose, growing in tufts. 

Cilia, marginal hair-like processes. 

Ciliate, fringed with hair-like processes. 

Cinereous, light bluish gray or ash gray. 

Circumscissile, breaking at or near the mid- 
dle on equatorial line. 

Circinate, rounded. 

Clavate, club-shaped, gradually thickened 

Columella, a sterile tissue rising column- 
like in the midst of the Capillitium. 

Concrete, grown together. 

Continuous, without a break,, one part run- 
ning into another. 

Cordate, heart-shaped. 

Coriaceous, of a leathery or a cork-like tex- 

Cortex, outer or rind-like layer. 

Cortina, the web-Ike veil of the genus Cor- 

Cortinate, with a cortina. 

Costate, with a ridge or ridges. 

Crenate, notched, indented or escalloped 
at the edge. 

Cryptogamia, applied to the division of 
non-flowering plants. 

Cyathiform, cup-shaped. 

Cyst, a bladder-like cell or cavity. 

Cystidium (pi. cystidia), sterile cells of the 
hymenium, bladder-like. 

Deciduous, of leaves falling off. 

Decurrent, as when the gills of a mushroom 
are prolonged down the stem. 

Dehiscent, a closed organ opening of itself 
at maturity. 

Deliquescent, melting down, becoming 




Dendroid, shaped like a tree. 

Dentate, toothed. 

Denticulate, with small teeth. 

Dichotomous, paired, regularly forked. 

Dimidiate, halved, applied to gills not 

Disc (disk), the hymenial surface, usually 

Discomycetes, Ascomycetes with the 
hymenium exposed. 

Dissepiments, dividing walls. 

Distant, applied to gills which are not 

Discrete, distinct, not divided. 

Echinate, furnished with stiff bristles. 

Effused, spread over without regular form. 

Emarginate, when the gills are notched or 
scooped out at junction with stem. 

Ephemeral, lasting but a short time. 

Epidermis, the external or outer layer of 
the plant. 

Epiphytal, growing upon another plant. 

Eccentric, out of the center; stem not at- 
tached to center of pileus. 

Exoperidium, outer layer of the peridium. 

Exotic, foreign. 

Explanate, flattened or expanded. 

Farinaceous, mealy. 

Farinose, covered with a mealy powder. 

Falcate, hooked or curved like a scythe. 

Fasciculate, growing in bundles. 

Fastigiate, bundled together with a sheath. 

Ferruginous, rust-colored. 

Fibrillose, clothed with small fibers. 

Fibrous, composed of fibers. 

Filiform, thread-like. 

Fimbriated, fringed. 

Fissile, capable of being split. 

Fistula r, fistulose, with the stem hollow or 
becoming hollow. 

Flabelliform, fan-shaped. 

Flaccid, soft and flabby. 

Flavescent, turning yellow. 

Flexuose, wavy. 

Flocci, threads as of mold. 

Floccose, downy. 

Flocculose, covered with flocci. 

Free, said of gills not attached to the stem. 

Friable, easily crumbling. 

Fugacious, disappearing quickly. 

Fuliginous, sooty-brown or dark smoke- 

Furcate, forked. 

Furfuraceous, with bran-like scales or 

Fuscous, dingy, brownish or brown tinged 
with gray. 

Fusiform, spindle-shaped. 

Gasteromyces, Basidiomycetes, in which 
the hymenium is inclosed. 

Gelatinous, jelly-like. 

Genus, a group of closely related species. 

Gibbous, swollen at one point. 

Gills, plates radiating from the stem on 
which the basidia are borne. 

Glabrous, smooth. 

Glaucous, with a white bloom. 

Gleba, the spore-bearing tissue, as in puff- 
balls and ohalloids. 

Globose, nearly round. 

Granular, with a roughened surface. 

Gregarious, growing in numbers in the 
same vicinity. 

Habitat, the natural place of growth of a 

Hirsute, hairy. 

Host, the plant or animal on which a 
parasitic fungus grows. 

Hyaline, transparent, clear like glass. 

Hygrophanous, looking watery when moist 
and opaque when dry. 

Hygrometric, readily absorbing water. 

Hymenium, the fruit-bearing surface. 

Hymenophore, the portion which bears the 

Hypha, one of the elongated cells or 
threads of the fungus. 

Imbricate, overlapping like shingles. 

Immarginate, without a distinct border. 

Incarnate, flesh-color. 

Indehi scent, not opening. 

Indigenous, native of a country or a place. 

Indurated, hardened. 

Indusium, a veil beneath the pileus. 

Inferior, the ring low down on the stem 
of Agarics. 

Infundibuliform, funnel-shaped. 

Innate, adhering by growth. 

Involute, edges rolled inward. 

Isabelline, color of sole leather, brownish- 

Laccate, varnished or coated with wax. 

Lacerate, irregularly torn. 

Laciniate, divided into lobes. 

Lacunose, pitted or having cavities. 

Lamella (lamellae), gills of a mushroom. 

Lanate, wooly. 

Leucospore, white spore. 

Livid, bluish-black. 

Luteous. vellowish. 

Maculate, spotted. 

Marginate, having a distinct border. 

Micaceous, covered with glistening scales, 

Micron, one-thousandth of a millimeter, 
nearly .00004 of an inch. 

Mycelium, the delicate threads from ger- 
minating spores, called spawn. 

Nigrescent, becoming black. 

Obconic, inversely conical. 

Obovate, inversely egg-shaped. 

Obese, stout, plump. 

Ochraceous, ochre-yelllow, brownish-yellow. 



Pallid, pale, undecided in color. 

Papillate, covered with soft tubercles. 

Paraphyses, sterile cells found among the 
reproductive cells of some plants. 

Parasitic, growing on and deriving support 
from another plant. 

Pectinate, toothed like a comb. 

Peridium, the outer covering of a puff- 
ball, simple or double. 

Perithecia, bottle-like receptacles contain- 
ing asci. 

Peronate. used when the stem has a dis- 
tinct stocking-like coat. 

Persistent, inclined to adhere firmly. 

Pileate, having a cap or pileus. 

Pileolus (pi. pileoli), a secondary pileus, 
arising from the primary one. 

Pileus (pileus, a hat), the cap-like head 
of a fungus. 

Pilose, covered with hairs, furry. 

Pore, the opening of the tubes of a poly- 

Pruinose, covered with a frost-like bloom. 

Pubescent, downy. 

Pulverulent, covered with dust. 

Pulvinate, cushion-shaped. 

Putrescent, soon decaying. 

Punctate, dotted with points. , 

Refiexed, bent backwards. 

Reniform, kidney-shaped. 

Repand, bent or turned up or back. 

Resupinate, attached to the matrix by the 

Reticulate, marked with cross-lines, like 
the meshes of a net. 

Revolute, rolled backward or upward. 

Rimose, cracked or full of clefts. 

Rimulose, covered with small cracks. 

Ring, a part of the veil adhering to the 
stem of Agarics. 

Rubescent, tending to a red-color. 

Rubiginous, rust-color. 

Rufescent, reddish in color. 

Rugose, wrinkled. 

Rufous, brownish-red. 

Sapid, agreeable to the taste. 

Saprophyte, a plant that lives on decaying 
animal or vegetable matter. 

Scrobiculate. marked with little pits or de- 

Serrate, saw-toothed. 

Sinuate, wavy margin of gills or sinus 
where they reach the stem. 

Spa thu late, in the form of a spathula. 

Spawn, the popular name for mycelium, 
used in growing mushrooms. 

Spores, the reproductive bodies of mush- 

Sporophore, name given to the basidia. 

Squamose, having scales. 

Squamulose. covered with small scales. 

Squarrose, rough with scales. 

Stigmata, the slender supports of the spores. 

Stipitatc, having a stem. 

Striate, streaked with lines. 

Strigose, covered with lines sharp and rigid. 

Strobiliform, pineapple-shaped. 

Stuffed, stem filled with different material 
from the walls. 

Sulcate, furrowed. 

Tawny, nearly the color of tanned leather. 

Terete, top-shaped. 

Tesselated, arranged in small squares. 

Tomentose, downy, with short hairs. 

Trama, the substance between the plates of 

Truncate, cut squarely off. 

Tubercle, a small wart-like excrescence. 

Turbinate, top-shaped. 

Umbillicate, having a central depression. 

Umbo, the boss of a shield, applied to the 
central elevation of cap. 

Umbonate, having a central boss-like ele- 

Uncinate, hooked. 

Undulate, wavy. 

Vaginate, sheathed. 

Veil, a partial covering of stem or margin 
of pileus. 

Veliforim, a thin veil-like covering. 

Venate or veined, intersected by swollen 
wrinkles below and on the sides. 

Ventricose, swollen in the middle. 

Vernicose, shining as if varnished. 

Verrucose, covered with warts. 

Villose, villous, covered with long, weak 

Viscid, covered with a shiny liquid which 
adheres to the fingers ; sticky. 

Viscous, gluey. 

Volute, rolled up in any direction. 

Volva, a universal veil. 

Zoned, zonate, marked with concentric 
bands of color. 


It is customary to write, after the name of the plant, the name, or an abbreviation of 
it, of the person who gave the name. Below will be found a brief history and the name 
in full of each abbreviation. 

Atk Prof. Geo. F. Atkinson, at the head of the Botanical Department of Cor- 
nell University and an authority on Mycology. 

Afz Adam Afzelius, a Swedish Botanist, 1750-1836; a pupil of Linnaeus. 

Ban Miss Banning of Maryland, a student of Mycology. 

Batsch Augustus Batsch, a -German Botanist and Mycologist, 1761-1802. 

Berk Rev. J. M. Berkeley, a leading Mycologist of England. 

Bolt James Bolton, a prominent Botanist of Halifax. 

Bosc Louis Bosc, an early American Botanist, 1759-1828. 

Barl J. B. Barla, a French Mycologist. 

Bull Pierre Bulliard, one of the first French Mycologists, 1742-1790. 

Curt Rev. M. A. Curtise, State Botanist of North Carolina. 

D. C Augustin P. de Candolle, a Swiss Botanist, 1778-1841. 

Dill Johann Jakob Dillenius, an eminent German Botanist. 

Ellis J. B. Ellis, Newfield, New Jersey, an eminent Mycologist. 

Fr Elias Magnus Fries (pron. Freece), a Swedish Botanist and Mycologist, 

1 794- 1 878. 

Gill C. C. Gillet, a French Botanist. 

Herbst The late Dr. William Herbst, Trexlertown, Pa., an authority on Mycology. 

Hoffn Hoffman, a German Mycologist. 

Holmsk Theodor Holmskiold, a Danish Mycologist, 1732-1794. 

Huds William Hudson, an eminent English Botanist, 1730-1795. 

Jung Franz W. Junghuhn, a prominent German Botanist, 1812-1864. 

Kauff Dr. C. H. Kauffman, Botanical Department Michigan University. 

Lasch William Lasch, a German Mycologist. 

Lenz Harald Othmar Lenz, a German Botanist. 

Lk Heinrich Friedrich Link, a prominent German Mycologist. 

Lloyd C. G. Lloyd, Cincinnati, Ohio, one of the finest mycologists of the present 


Lev Joseph Henri Leveille, a French Mycologist. 

Let Jean Baptiste Louis Letellier, a French Mycologist. 

L. or Linn Carl von Linnaeus, a Sweedish Botanist who is the author of the Linnaean 

classification and who adopted the binomial nomenclature, viz. : the generic 

name which is the substantive, or a word used as such, and the specific 

name, an adjective, 1707-1778. 
Mass George Massee, an English Botanist, Principal Assistant, Royal Gardens, 

Kew ; author of several works on Mycology. 
Morg Prof. A. P. Morgan, Preston, Ohio, a well-known Botanist and an 

authority on Mycology. 

Mont Montagne, a French Botanist and Mycologist. 

Pk Dr. Charles Horton Peck, the State Botanist of New York ; an eminent 

authority on Mycology and Botany generally. 

Pers Christian Hendrik Persoon, a German Botanist, 1755-1837. 

Rav W. H. Ravenel, leading Mycologist of South Carolina. 

Roze Ernest Roze, a French Mycologist. 

Schw Rev. Louis David de Schweinitz, Bethlehem, Pa., a pioneer American 


Schroet Schroeter, a German Botanist and Mycologist. 

Schaeff ...Jacobi C. Schaeffer, a German Botanist, 1718-1790. 

Scop Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, an Italian Botanist, 1725-1788. 

Schum Schumacher, a German Botanist and Mycologist. 

Sacc P. A. Saccardo, an Italian Botanist, the author of Sylloge Fungorum, a 

work of several volumes written in Latin, describing over forty thousand 


Sow James Sowerby, an English Botanist. 

Vahl Martin Vahl, a Norwegian Botanist. 1749-1804. 

Vitt Carlo Vittadini, an Italian Mycologist. 

Wulf Wulfen, a German Botanist. 



Atkinson's Studies of American Fungi. 

Cooke's Hand-book of British Fungi. 

Massee's European Fungus Flora. 

Mcllvaine's One Thousand American Fungi. 

Our Edible Toadstools and Mushrooms W. H. Gibson. 

Herbst's Fungal Flora of the Lehigh Valley. 

Berkeley's Outlines of British Fungology. 

The Mushroom Book Nina L. Marshall. 

Morgan's North American Fungi. 

Lloyd's Mycological Notes. 

Peck's Reports of New York. 

Kellerman's Mycological Bulletins. 

Kauffman's Genus Cortinarius. 

Longyear's Michigan Mushrooms. 

Cooke's British Fungi. 

Minnesota Plant Diseases Freeman. 


Clitocybe metachroa, page Q5. 

Boletus parvus, page 361. 

Polyporus Berkeleyi, page 392. 

Tricholoma resplendens, page 600. This page of the manuscript was used in making 
the sample pages and for some reason was not replaced, which will account for its coming 
out of order. 



Tricholoma resplendens. Fr. 

The Shining Tricholoma. Edible. 

Resplendens means shining brightly. 

The pileus is fleshy, convex, then nearly plane, even, bare, viscid, white, 
sometimes hyaline-spotted or yellowish on the disk, shining when dry, margin 
straight. Flesh white, taste mild, odor pleasant. 

FIGURE 504 Tricholoma resplendens. Kntire plant white. 

The gills are nearly free when young, then emarginate, somewhat crowded, 
rather thick, entire, white. 

The stem is solid, bare, subbulbose, even, white, dry. The spores are 

The caps are two to four inches broad ; the stem is two to four inches 
long. Peck. 

This is a beautiful plant, entirely white, smell and taste pleasant, and found 
in Poke Hollow and in the woods along Ralston 's Run, near Chillicothe. 

This plant is found very generally over the United States. 


Agaricus 307 

Amanita 20 

Amanitopsis 43 

Anellaria 345 

Armillaria 56 

Bolbitius 346 

Boletinus 381 

Boletus 350 

Bovista 550 

Bovistella 552 

Bulgaria 516 

Calvatia 531 

Calostoma 562 

Calocera 474 

Catastoma 558 

Cantharellus 198 

Chlorosplenium 515 

Claudopus 256 

Clavaria 461 

Claviceps 573 

Clitocvbe 88 

Clitopilus 247 

Collybia 107 

Coprinus 331 

Uorticium 452 

Cortinarius 290 

Craterellus 460 

Crepidotus 279 

Crucibulum 520 

Cyclomyces 430 

Cyathus 517 

Dcedalea 426 

Didymms 578 

Discina 511 

Dictyophora 526 

Eccilia 252 

Entoloma . ."> 243 

EpichlcE '. 573 

Exidia 481 

Favolus 429 

Fistulina 384 

Flammula 284 

Fomes 417 

Galera 275 

Ganoderma 404 

Geaster 563 

Gloeoporus 431 

Gomphidius 349 

Grandinia 449 

Guepinia 484 

Gyromitra 494 

Hebeloma 272 

Heliomyces 152 

Helotium 514 

Helvclla 497 

Hirneola 482 

Hydnum 432 

Hygrophorus 204 

Hymenochaete 457 

Hvmenula -. . . . . ..".". : . . . . 484 

Hypholoma 323 

Hypocerea 573 

Hypomyces 498 

1 tiocybe 268 

[rpex 447 

Lacbnocladium 475 

Laccaria 106 

Lachnea 510 

Lactarius 164 

Lentinus ' 226 

Lenzites 231 

Leotia 501 

Lepiota 46 

Leptoglossum , 499 

Leptonia 254 

Lycogala 577 

Lycopcrdon 541 

Macropodia 507 

Marasmius 136 

Merulius 423 

Mitremvces 561 

Morcbella ; 485 

Mucronella 432 

Mutinus 526 

Mycena H8 

Myriostoma 571 

Naucoria 281 

Nidulana 521 

Nolanea 255 

Nectrea 573 

Nyctalis 204 

Oomyces 573 

Ompbalia 130 

Otidea 511 

Panaeolus 339 

Panus 222 

Paronia 573 

Paxillus 287 

Peziza 503 

Phallus 522 

Phlebia 448 

Pboliota 257 




Pilosace 319 

Piptoporus 409 

Pleurotus 153 

Pluteolus 274 

Pluteus 235 

Podaxon 5G0 

Polyporus 388 

Polysaccum . 561 

Polystictus 414 

Psathyrella 346 

Psilocybe 328 

Radulum 432 

Reticularia 578 

Russula 182 

Sarcoscypha 512 

Secotium 560 

Schizophyllum 232 

Scleroderma 555 

Sclerotina 510 

Sparassis 459 

Spathularia 500 

Sphaerobolus 517 

Stemonitis 580 

Stereum 455 

Strobilomvces 380 

Stropharia 322 

Thelephora 453 

Torrubia 576 

Trametes 422 

Tremella 477 

TremeUodon 479 

Trioholoma 60 

Trogia 235 

Typhula 474 

Urnula 514 

Verpa 492 

Volvaria 238 

Xvlaria 579 


abietina (Clavaria) 465 

abortivus (Clitopilus) 249 

abruptus (Agaricus) 311 

absconders (Pleurotus) 162 

acerbum (Tricholoma ) 70 

acervata (Collybia) 117 

acetabulum (Peziza) 503 

acuminatum (Secotium) 560 

acuminatum (Lycoperdon) 549 

acutesquamosa (Lepiota) 55 

adiposa (Pholiota) 259 

Adriondackensis (Clitocybe) 95 

adusta (Russula) 183 

adustus (Polyporus) 402 

adustum (Hydnum) 444 

aegerita (Pholiota) 266 

aeruginosa (Stropharia ) 322 

aeruginosum (Heliotium) 515 

geruginosum ( Chlorosplenium ) 515. 

astites f Mycena) 125 

alba (Amanitopsis) 44 

albellum (Tricholoma) 83 

albellus (Polyporus) 407 

albipes (Russula) 187 

albida (Tremella) 478 

alboflava ( Omphalia ) . 135 

alboater (Boletus) 373 

alboviolaceus (Cortinarius) 295 

album (Tricholoma) 72 

alkalina (Mycena) 123 

alutacea (Russula) 186 

alveolatus (Boletus ) 363 

ambigua (Daedalea) 426 

ambusta (Collybia) 114 

Americana (Lepiota) 50 

Americanus (Boletus) 373 

amethystina (Clitocybe) 106 

amethystina (Clavaria) 464 

amianthinus (Lepiota) 54 

ammophila (Psilocybe) 330 

androsaceus (Marasmius) 138 

angusticeps (Morchella) 489 

anomalus (Marasmius)' 145 

appcndiculata (Armillaria) 60 

appendiculatum (Hypholoma) 325 

applicatus (Pleurotus) 161 

Archeri (Geaster) 565 

argyraceum (Tricholoma) 77 

arcularius (Polyporus ) 406 

armillatus (Cortinarius) 30l 

asterophora (Nyctalis) 204 

arvensis (Agaricus) 310 

asper (Geaster) 566 

aspera ('Amanita) 39 

Atkinsonianus (Cortinarius) 302 

atramentarius (Coprinus > 333 

atrata (Collybia) 113 

atratoides (Collybia) 116 

atroviridus (Lactarius) 175 

atrotomentosus (Paxillus) 288 

atrosquamosum (Tricholoma) 77 

aurantia (Peziza) 507 

aurantius (Hypomyces ) 199 

aurantium (Scleroderma) 555 

aurantiacus (Cantharellus) 200 

aurea (Clavaria) 462 

aurevella (Pholiota) 264 

auricula-Judae (Hirneola) 482 

auripes (Boletus) 370 

autumnalis (Cortinarius) 294 

Badhami (Lepiota) 50 

badia (Peziza) 503 

Berkeleyi (Poylporus) 392 

betulina (Lenzites) 231 

betulinus (Polyporus) 408 

bicolor (Boletus) 352 

biformis (Polystictus) 411 

bispora (Morchella) 490 

Blackfordae (Hydnum) 443 

bolaris (Cortinarius) 296 

Boltoni (Bolbitius) 346 

bombycina (Volvaria) 238 

borealis (Lvsurus) 526 

botrytes (Clavaria) 462 

bovinus (Mutinus) 528 

bovista (Plumbea) 552 

brevis (Clitopilus^ 253 

brevipes (Cantharellus) 202 

brumalis (Polyporus) 405 

brunnea (Gyromitra) 497 

bull)igera (Armillaria) 59 

caelata (Calvata) . 537 

caerulescens (Cortinarius ) 292 

CVsarea (Amanita) 40 

cnesius (Polvporus) 410 

ca?spitosa (Omphalia) 132 

calceolum (Tricholoma) 68 

calopus (Marasmius) 145 

calostoma (Lycoperdon) 563 

campanella (Omphalia) 130 

camnanulatus (Panaeolus) 342 

campestris (Agaricus) 307 

Canadensis (Favolus) 430 

candicans (Clitocybe) 100 

candidus (Marasmius) 142 

caninus (Mutinus) 527 

cantharellus (Craterellus) 451 

cantharellus (Hygrophorus) 208 

capitata (Torrubia) 576 

caperata ( Pholiota) 260 

capitata (Cordyceps) 575 

capillaris (Mycena) 122 

caprinus (Hygrophorus) 213 

caput-Medusae (Hydnum) 437 




caput-ursi (Hyclnum) 437 

carbonaria ( Flammula ) 285 

carneo-grisae (Eccilia) 252 

carneus (Iroex) 447 

cartilaginea (Tricholoma) 78 

castaneus (Boletus) 379 

castaneus (Cortinarius) 305 

cavipes (Bolctinus) 382 

Cecilia (Agaricus) 46 

cepa (Scleroderma) 558 

cepaestipes (Lepiota) 54 

ceraceus (Hygrophorus) 218 

cervinus ( Pluteus) 237 

chlorocephala (Leotia) 502 

chlorophanus (Hygrophorus) 208 

chrysenteron (Boletus) 354 

chrysites (Tricholoma) 77 

chrysorrheus (Lactarius) 181 

cibarius (Cantharellus) 198 

cinereus (Lactarius) 173 

cinerea (Clavaria) 470 

cinereum ( Didymius) 579 

cinereum (Corticium) 453 

cinereus (Hygrophorus) 206 

cinereus (Cantharellus) . 452 

cinereus ( Lactarius) 173 

cinerascens (Tricholoma) 71 

cincinnata (Inocybe) 271 

cinnabar inum (Calostoma) 563 

cinnabarinus (Cortinarius) 203 

cinnabarinus (Cantharellus) 203 

cinnabarinus (Polyporus) 409 

cinnabarinus (Metremyces) 562 

cinnamoneus (Cortinarius) 297 

cinnamoneus (Polystictus) 414 

circinatus ( Polyporus) 402 

circinatus (Pleurotus) 163 

circumscissum (Catastoma) 559 

circumscissa (Bovista) 559 

cirrhata (Collybia) 341 

citrinum ( 1 leliotium) 514 

clavata (Spathularia) . 

clavipes (Clitocybe) 94 

clypeatum (Entoloma) 247 

coccinea (Peziza) 504 

cohaerens (Marasmius) 140 

coccineus (Hvgrophorus) 209 

cohaerens (Mycena) 141 

cochleatus (Lentimis) 229 

coliformis (Myriostoma) 571 

collinitus (Cortinarius) 293 

colorea (Collybia) 115 

columbetta (Tricholoma) 68 

comatus (Coprinus) 332 

commune (Schizophyllum) 233 

compactum (Stereum) 457 

comtulus (Agaricus) 313 

conchatus (Panus) 223 

conchoides (Cleeoporus) 431 

Condolleanum (Hypholoma) 325 

confluens (Collybia) 114 

confragosa (Daedalea) 428 

conica (Nolanea) 255 

conicus (Hygrophorus) 209 

conica (Morchella) 487 

corraloides (Hydnum) 438 

corium ( Merulius ) 426 

cornea (Calocera) 474 

coronata (Clavaria) 469 

cornucopoides (Craterellus) 451 

corrugata (Hymenochaete) . 458 

corrugis (Lactarius) 178 

corticola (Mycena) 125 

cossus (Hygrophorus) 207 

cothurnata, Amanita) 37 

craniiformis (Calvatia) 537 

crassipes (Morchella) 491 

craterium (Urnula) 514 

crenulata (Amanita) 36 

cretaceus (Agaricus) 316 

crispa (Trogia 234 

crispa (Galera) 278 

crispa (Sparassis) 460 

crispula (Clavaria) -4(0 

cristatella (Lepiota) 52 

cristata (Helephora) 454 

cristata (Clavaria) 468 

croceocolor (Cortinarius) 304 

crustuliniforme (Hebeloma) 273 

cruciatum (Lycoperdon) 545 

Curtisii (Polyporus) 403 

Curtisii (Hymenochaete) 158 

Curtisii (Ganoderma) 404 

curvipes (Pholiota) 204 

cuticularis (Polyporus) 402 

cyanescens ( Boletus ) 357 

cyanoxantha (Russula) 188 

cyathiformis (Calvatia) 535 

cyathiformis (Clitocybe) 1 ( "> 

cyphellaeformis (Pleurotus) 162 

dealbata (Clitocybe) 104 

deceptivus (Lactarius) 166 

dehca (Russula) 182 

delectans (Marasmius) 151 

deliciosa (Morchella) 487 

deliciosus (Lactarius) 179 

densifolia (Russula) 197 

dichrous (Polyporus) 431 

digitali formis (Verpa) 492 

disseminata ( Psathyrella) 347 

distans (Lactarius) 174 

ditopoda (Clitocybe) 99 

dryophila (Collybia) 11<> 

dubius (Craterellus) 452 

dulcamara (Inocybe) 271 

duplicatus (Phallus) 424 

dura (Pholiota) 258 

I : | : ! : : ! i 

ebulbosus (Coprinus) 336 

eburneus (Hygrophorus) 206 

edulis (Boletus) 356 

edulis var. clavipes (Boletus) 359 

elata (Calvatia) ..540 

elastica (Helvella) 497 



elegans ( Minimis) 529 

elegans ( Polyporus ) 407 

emetica (Russula) 193 

eoichysia (Omphalia) 130 

ephemerus (Coprinus) 339 

epidendrum (Lycogala) 577 

epiphyllus (Marasmius) 151 

cpipterygia (Mycena) 129 

epileucus (Polyporus) 408 

epimyces ( Panaeolus) 341 

equestre (Tricholoma) 61 

erinaceum (Hydnum) 435 

erythropus (Typhula) 475 

erythopus (Boletus) 378 

esculenta (Gyromitra) 494 

esculenta (Helvella) 494 

esculenta (Morchella) 486 

Europeus (Favolus) 430 

eutheles (Inocybe) 272 

evernius (Cortinarius) 304 

eximia (Pilosace) 319 

eximius (Pluteus) 238 

eximius (Boletus"* 362 

fagineus (Marasmius) 148 

fasciatum (Stereum) 456 

fascicularis (Hypholoma) 327 

fastibile (Hebeloma) 273 

felleus (Boletus) 364 

fennicum (Hydnum) 444 

ferrugineum (Hydnum) 441 

ferruginea (Stemonites) 581 

fibula (Omphalia) 134 

fillius (Flammula) 286 

filopes (Mycena) 124 

fimbriata (Tremella) 479 

fimbriatus (Geaster) 569 

fimetarius (Coprinus) 339 

fimicolus (Panaeolus) 342 

fistulina (Hepatica) 386 

flaccida (Clitocvbe) 101 

flaccida (Lenzites) 232 

flava (Clavaria) 461 

flavida (Flammula) 284 

flavida (Spathularia) 500 

flaviceps (Hygrophorus) ... 209 

flavines (Hygrophorus) 209 

flavus (Hygrophorus) 208 

flavobrunneum (Tricholoma ) 81 

flavodiscus (Hygrophorus) 210 

flavovireus (Polyporus) 399 

floccosus (Cantharellus) 200 

floccosa (Peziza) 511 

floccosa (Sarcoscypha) . 512 

fcetidus (Marasmius) 139 

foenisecii ( Psilocybe) 328 

fcetens (Russula) 186 

foetens (Heliomyces) 134 

fomentarius (Fomes) 417 

formosa (Clavaria) 467 

fragilis (Bolbitius) 346 

fragilis (Russula) 192 

fraxineus (Fomes) 421 

frondosus (Polyporus) 390 

Frostiana (Amanita) 27 

Frostii (Boletus) 376 

fuligineus (Hygrophorus) 212 

fulva (Amanitopsis) 44 

fumescens (Tricholoma) 75 

fumidellum (Tricholoma) 74 

furcata (Russula) 19.4 

fusus (Flammula) 286 

fusca (Stemonites) 580 

fusiformis (Clavaria) 472 

galericulata (Mycena) 120 

gambosum (Tricholoma) 86 

geaster (Scleroderma) 558 

gelatinosum (Tremellodon) 481 

gemmatum (Lycoperdon) 543 

geophylla, var. violacea (Inocybe) .... 270 

gigantea (Calvatia) 531 

giganteum (Lycoperdon) 533 

giganteus (Polyporus) 395 

gilva (Clitocybe) 101 

gilvus ''Polyporus) 414 

glabellum (Lycoperdon) 542 

glutinosum (Hebeloma) 273 

gracilis (Boletus) 366 

graminum (Marasmius) 146 

grande (Tricholoma) 81 

garnosa (Lepiota) 52 

granulans (Pluteus) 238 

granulosa (Lepiota) 52 

granulosa (Grandinia) 449 

granulosa ( Exidia) 481 

granulatus (Boletus) 352 

grammopodium (Tricholoma) 63 

graveolens (Polyporus) 405 

graveolens (Tricholoma) 80 

graveolens (Hydnum) 447 

grayanum (Entoloma) 244 

Greenei (Cyclomyces) 430 

grisea (Entoloma) 245 

griseus (Boletus) 372 

griseus (Lactarius) 174 

griseus (Polyporus) 3yl 

griseo pallida (Cyphella) 162 

hsematosperma (Xeoiota) 50 

hsematooa (Mycena) 122 

halophilus (Agaricus) 317 

hamadryas (Naucoria) 281 

Hardii (Stropharia) 321 

hariolarum 'Collybia) 108 

hemisrjherica (Peziza) 510 

hemispherica (Lachnea) 510 

Herbstii- (Sparassis) 459 

herpeticus (Cortinarius) 292 

heteroclitus (Polyporus) 400 

heteroclita ( Pholiota) 263 

heterogeneum (Lycoperdon) 563 

hepatica (Fistulina) 386 

Herculea (Cordyceps) 574 



hiemalis (Mycena ) 126 

hirta (Psathyrella) 348 

hirsutus (Polystictus) 413 

hirsutum (Stereum) 456 

hispidus (Polyporus) 401 

hygrometricus (Geaster) 564 

hypnorum (Galera) 275 

ianthina (Mycena) 129 

ignarius (Fomes) 420 

illudens (Clitocybe) 91 

lmbricatum (Hydnum) 435 

imbricatum (Tricholoma) 73 

immaculata (Collybia) 113 

insequalis (Clavaria) 472 

incana (Leptonia) 254 

incarnatum (Corticium) 453 

incarnata (Tvphula) 475 

incertum (Hypholoma) 323 

indecisus (Boletus) 358 

indigo (Lactarius) 167 

ingrata (Collybia) 108 

infundibuliformis (Cantharellus) .... 203 

infundibuliformis (Clitocybe) 90 

inquinans (Bulgaria) 516 

insulsus (Lactarius) 171 

integra (Russula) 191 

involutus (Paxillus) 287 

Iris (Mycena) 128 

Kunzei (Clavaria) 470 

Kellermani (Galera) 277 

laccata (Clitocybe) 105 

laccata (Laccaria) 106 

laciniata (Thelephora) 454 

lachnophylla (Collybia) 141 

lacera (Inocybe) 269 

lachrymabundum (Hypholoma) 325 

lacteum (Corticium) 452 

lacrymans (Merulius) 426 

lacteus (Irpex) 447 

lacteus (Polyporus) 410 

lactifluorum (Hypomyces) 499 

lacunosa (Helvella) 498 

lascivum (Tricholoma) 70 

laevis (Panus) 226 

laterarium (Tricholoma) 67 

lateritia (Galera) 276 

Laurae (Hygrophorus) 213 

Lecomtei (Lentinus) 224 

Leaiana (Mycena) 127 

lepida (Russula) 187 

lepideus (Lentinus) 228 

leporina (Peziza) 511 

leporina (Otidea) 511 

leporinus (Hygrophorus) 206 

leucophseus (Fomes) 417 

leucocephalum (Tricholoma) 74 

leucomelas (Polyporus) 391 

levis (Panus) 220 

lilacina (Calvatia) 535 

lignyotus (Lactarius) 17:5 

livida (Amanitopsis) 44 

lignatilis (Pleurotus) 164 

lilacinus (Cortinarius) 296 

lixivium (Tricholoma) 65 

longipes (Marasmius) 146 

Loveiana (Volvaria) 341 

lubrica (Leotia) 501 

lucidus (Polyporus) 403 

luridus (Boletus) 378 

lutescens (Tremella) 477 

lutescens (Helotium) 515 

luteum (Leptoglossum) 499 

maculata (Collybia) 112 

maculatescens (Tricholoma) 79 

magnivelaris (Amanita) 28 

mammosus (Geaster) 569 

mappa (Amanita) 35 

marginatus (Hygrophorus) 218 

marginata (Pholiota) 265 

maritimus (Agaricus) 319 

maxima (Reticularia) 578 

media (Clitoc-be) 88 

medulla-panis (Polyporus) 407 

mellea (Armillaria) 57 

var. flava 58 

var. obscura 58 

var. exanulata 58 

var. radicata 58 

var. glabra 58 

var. bulbosa 58 

melaleucum (Tricholoma) 69 

mesenterica (Tremella) 477 

metachroa (Clitocybe) 95 

micaceus (Coprinus) 335 

micropus (Hygrophorus) 213 

Micheneri (Lachnocladium) 476 

militaris (Cordyceps) 574 

militaris (Torrubia) 574 

miniatus (Hygrophorus) 215 

miniatus sphagnophilus (Hygrophorus) 217 

minimus (Geaster) 565 

mollis (Crepidotus) 280 

monadelpha (Clitocybe ) 102 

Morgani (Lepiota) 50 

Morgani (Geaster) 565 

Morgani (Boletus) 374 

Morrisii (Cortinarius) 300 

mucida (Clavaria) 473 

multiceps (Clitocybe) 93 

muscaria (Amanita) 23 

muscoides (Clavaria) 463 

mutabilis (Pholiota) 263 

mycetophila (Tremella) 478 

myriadophylla (Collybia) 115 

nardosmia (Armillaria) 59 

naucina (Lepiota) 48 

naucinoides (Lepiota) 48 

nebularis (Clitocybe) 88 

nebulosa (Peziza) 512 



nidulans (Claudopus) 256 

nigrellus (Boletus) 372 

nigripes (Marasmius) 152 

nigripes (Heliomyces) 152 

nigricans (Russula) 184 

niveus (Hygrophorus) 220 

Noveboracensis (Clitopilus) 252 

var. brevis (Clitopilus) 252 

nudum (Tricholoma) 86 

oakesii (Corticium) 453 

obbata (Clitocybe) 101 

obliquus (Polyporus) 404 

Ohiensis (Trametes) 423 

Ohiensis (Bovistella) 553 

occidentalis (Peziza) 512 

ochroleucus (Cortinarius) 299 

ochropurpurea (Clitocybe) 97 

ochrophylla (Russula) 187 

ochraceum (Hydnum) 445 

odorata (Peziza) 505 

odora (Clitocybe) 90 

olivaceo-stramineus (Cortinarius) .... 291 

oniscus (Omphalia) 132 

orcellus (Clitopilus) 249 

oreades (Marasmius) 136 

orirubens (Tricholoma) 77 

ornatipes (Boletus) 371 

ostreatus (Pleurotus) 153 

ovalis (Galera) 279 

ovatus (Coprinus) 337 

paedidum (Tricholoma) 64 

pallida (Fistulina) 387 

pallida (Thelephora) 454 

pallidus (Boletus) 362 

pallidus (Hvgrophorus) 206 

pallidifolia (Clitocybe) 106 

palmata (Thelephora) 454 

paludosella (Naucoria) 282 

papilionaceus (Panaeolus) 345 

panaeolum (Tricholoma) 67 

narasiticus (Boletus) 368 

parvus (Boletus) 361 

parvula (Volvaria) 242 

pascua (Nolanea) 255 

pascuense (Hebeloma) ." 274 

pediades (Naucoria) 281 

pelianthina (Mycena) 128 

pedicellatum (Catastoma) 559 

pellucidula (Amanita) 28 

pelliculosa (Mycena) 129 

penarius (Hygrophorus) 221 

perennius (Polystictus) 415 

pergamenus (Polystictus) 417 

^ergamenus (Lactarius) 166 

peronatus (Marasmius) 148 

perplexum (Hypholoma ) 327 

perplexus (Polyporus) 400 

personatum (Tricholoma) 84 

petaloides XPleurotus) 157 

Petersii (Peziza) 505 

phalloides (Amanita) 20 

phyllophila (Clitocybe) 104 

picipes (Polyporus) 388 

pictus (Boletinus) 381 

pila (Bovista) 550 

pinicola (Forties) 419 

piperatus (Lactarius) 165 

pisiformis (Nidularia) 421 

pisocarpium (Polysaccum) 561 

pistillaris (Clavaria) 471 

pithyophila (Clitocybe) 99 

placomyces (Agaricus) 315 

placorrhiza (Typhula) 475 

platyphylla (Collybia) 109 

plumbea (Bovista) 552 

polita (Eccelia) 253 

polymorpha (Xilaria) 579 

popinalis (Clitopilus) 252 

porosus (Boletinus) 383 

porphria (Amanita) 23 

porreus (Marasmius) 145 

portentosum (Tricholoma) 86 

prsecox (Pholiota) 257 

pratensis (Hygrophorus) 206 

prasiosmus (Marasmius) 145 

procera (Lepiota) 46 

prolifera (Mycena) 120 

prunulus (Clitopilus) 248 

prunuloides (Entoloma) 245 

pseudo-pura (Mycena) 129 

pseudo-boletus (Ganoderma) 404 

^ubescens (Polyporus) 410 

pulcherrimum (Lycoperdon) 541 

pulcherrimum (Hydnum) 446 

punctiformis (Hymenula) 484 

puniceus (Hygrophorus) 215 

pura (Mycena) 128 

purpurascens (Cortinarius) 291 

purpurium (Stereum) 457 

purpurina (Russula) 196 

pusilla ( Volvaria) 242 

pusillum (Lycoperdon) 549 

pyriforme (Lycoperdon) 547 

pyriodora (Inocybe) 272 

pyxidata (Omphalia) 133 

pyxidata (Clavaria) 464 

quletii (Hygrophorus) 222 

quinquepartitum (Tricholoma) 67 

quercina (Daedalea) 427 

racemosa (Collybia) 341 

radiata (Phlebia) 448 

radicans (Boletus) 367 

radicata (Amanita) 33 

radicata (Collybia) 108 

radicatus (Polyporus) 400 

ramealis (Marasmius) 149 

Ravenelii (Dictyophora) 526 

Ravenelii (Phallus) 524 

regalis (Lactarius) 169 

resinosus (Polyporus) 403 



recutita (Amanita) 23 

repanda (Peziza) 508 

repandum (Hydnum) 433 

resplendens (Tricholoma) 600 

reticulatus (Pluteolus) 275 

retipes (Boletus) .' 371 

retirugis (Panseolus) 339 

rhodopolium (Entoloma) 244 

rhodoxanthus (Paxillus) 289 

rimosa (Inocybe) 272 

rimosus (Forties) 418 

Rodmani (Agaricus) 308 

rosea (Hygrophorus) 209 

roseipes( Russula) 191 

rotula ( Marasmius) 143 

rubeolarius (Boletus) 378 

rubellus (Merulius) 424 

rubescens (Amanita) 38 

albescens (Trametes) 422 

rubra (Russula) 195 

rudis ( Panus) 224 

rufescens (Polyporus) 406 

rubiginosa (Hymenochsete) 458 

rugosa (Mycena) 120 

rugosum (Stereum) 457 

Russelli (Boletus) 375 

Russula (Tricboloma) 70 

saccata (Calvatia) 541 

saccatus (Geaster) 569 

saccharinus (Marasmius ) 150 

sseniaria (Lenzites) 232 

salignus (Pleurotus) 156 

salmonea ( Entoloma) 245 

sambucum (Corticium) 453 

sanguinolentum (Stereum) 457 

sapidus (Pleurotus) 159 

saponaceum (Tricholoma) 77 

Satanus, (Boletus) 380 

scaber (Boletus) 351 

scaber (Inocybe ) 269 

Schumacher! (Tricholoma) 81 

Scbweintzii (Thelephora) 454 

scorodonius (Marasmius) 144 

scrobiculatus (Lactarius) 170 

scrobiculatum (Hydnum) 443 

scutellata (Peziza) 509 

scutellata (Trametes) 423 

sebacea (Thelephora) 455 

sejunctum (Tricholoma) 82 

semilibera (Morchella) 490 

semiglobata (Stropharia) 320 

semihirtipes (Marasmius) 145 

semisanguineus (Cortinarius) 298 

semivestitum (Lachnocladium) 476 

semiorbicularis (Naucoria) 281 

semitosta ( Peziza) 507 

semitosta (Macropodia) 507 

separans (Boletus) 369 

senarans ( Lycoperdon) 546 

separata (Anellaria) 345 

seotentrionale (Hydnum ) 440 

serotinoides (Pleurotus) 161 

serotinus (Pleurotus) 161 

serotinus (Hygrophorus) 221 

serifluus (Lactarius) 178 

serrulata (Leptonia) 255 

sericeum (Stereum) 456 

setosa (Mycena) 122 

siccus (Marasmius) 146 

silvaticus (Agaricus) 313 

silvicola (Agaricus) 309 

sinuosus (Craterellus) 452 

solidipes (Panseolus) 344 

solitaria (Amanita) 29 

sordidum (Tricholoma) 62 

sordidus (Hygrophorus) 220 

spadicea (Psilocybe) 329 

spadiceum (Stereum) 455 

spathularia (Guepinia) 484 

spathularia (Xylaria) 579 

speciosus (Boletus) 356 

speciosus (Hygrophorus) 211 

spectabilis (Pholiota) 265 

sphagnophilus (Hygrophorus) 217 

spinulosa (Clavaria) 466 

spinulifera (Collybia) 141 

spongiosipes (Hydnum) 440 

spreta (Amanita) 43 

spumosa (Flammula) 286 

squalida (Flammula) 286 

squamosus (Polyporus) 395 

squarrosa (Pholiota) 268 

squarrosoides (Pholiota) 266 

squarrulosum (Tricholoma) 78 

stannea (Mycena) 124 

stercoraria (Stropharia) 322 

stercoreus (Cyathus) 519 

Stevensoni (Peziza) 505 

stipitaria (Collybia) 112 

striata (Calocera) 474 

striates (Cyathus) 517 

striatula (Clitocybe) 106 

strangulata (Amanitopsis) 46 

strisepes (Boletus) 366 

stricta (Clavaria) 464 

stricta (Calocera) 474 

strigosus (Panus) 223 

strobillaceus (Strobilomyces) 380 

styptus (Panus) 223 

stypticus (Panus) 223 

strobiliformis (Amanita) 33 

suaveolens (Trametes) . . . 423 

subdulcis (Lactarius) 176 

subcostatum (Entoloma) 245 

subditopoda (Clitocybe) 99 

suberosu.s (Piptoporus) 409 

subochracea-Burtii ( Inocybe) 270 

subochracea (Inocybe) 270 

subsericeus (Polystictus) 415 

subincarnatum (Lycoperdon) 545 

sublateritium (Hypholoma) 326 

subluteus (Boletus) 368 

subterraneum (Catastoma) 559 



subrufescens (Agaricus) 316 

subrufescens (Hygrophorus) 222 

subtomcntosus (Boletus) 353 

subvilis (Clitopilus) 251 

Sullivantii (Boletus) S6U 

sulphurus (Polyporus) 398 

sulphureum (Tricboloma) 65 

tabescens (Clitocybe) 104 

tergihus (Marasmius) 145 

temperata (Volvaria) 242 

tenera (Galera) 276 

var. pilosella (Galera) 276 

tenerum (Scleroderma) 556 

terreum (Tricholoma) 76 

terriferum ( Tricboloma) 74 

torminosus (Lactarius) 164 

torulosus (Panus) 225 

tornata (Clitocybe) 95 

transmutans (Tricholoma) 61 

tremellosus (Merulius) 425 

trivialis (Lactarius) 170 

turmalis (Cortinarius) 291 

triolex (Geaster) 567 

tuberosa (Collybia) 341 

tuberosa (Peziza) 510 

tuberosa (Sclerotinia") ' 510 

tulipifera (Irpex) 448 

ulmarius (Pleurotus) 157 

umbellatus (Polyporus) 390 

umbellifera (Omphaba) 132 

umbonata (Volvaria) '241 

umbrinum (Lycoperdon) 542 

umidicola (Cortinarius) 303 

unicolor (Pholiota) 262 

unicolor (Da?dalea) 428 

unifactum (Tricboloma) 83 

urens (Marasmius) 138 

uvidus (Lactarius) 180 

vaginata (Amanitopsis) 43 

variabilis (Claudopus) 256 

variata (Russula) 190 

varius < Cortinarius) 292 

vellereus (Lactarius) 181 

velutipes (Collybia) 118 

velutipes (Spathularia) 501 

velutipes (Marasmius) 140 

velutinus (Geaster) 570 

venosa (Peziza) 511 

venosa (Discina ) 511 

versutus (Crepidotus) 279 

versicolor (Polystictus) 413 

versicolor (Stereum) 455 

vernicosus (Cyathus) 518 

vermicularis (Clavaria) 469 

vermiculosus (Boletus) 376 

verna (Amanita) 27 

verrucosum (Scleroderma) 556. 

versipeles (Boletus) 365 

vesca (Russula) 189 

vesiculosa (Peziza) 508 

vialis (Lenzites) 232 

villaticus Agaricus) 592 

violaceus (Cortinarius) 296 

virescens (Russula) 190 

virgineus (Hygropborus) 219 

virosa (Amanita) 23 

viscidus (Gomphidius) 349 

vitrea (Mycena) 125 

volemus (Lactarius^ 178 

volvacea (Volvaria) 242 

volvatus (Polyporus) 411 

vulgaris (Mycena) 129 

vulgaris (Polyporus) 409 

vulgare (Crucibulum) 520 

vulgare (Scleroderma) 555 

vulpinus (Lentinus) 226 

Wrightii (Lycoperdon) 546 

zanthopus (Didymius) 578 

zepbira (Mycena) ' 129 

zonata (Coflybia) 112 

zonatum (Hvdnum) 441