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** Contemporary jfmerzcan. Composers ," c 

e Affairs of JlsfusiciansJ 9 cc Gyges* 

Containing a pronouncing and defining 
Dictionary of Terms, Instruments, 6?c., in- 
cluding a Key to the Pronunciation of 
sixteen Languages; many Charts; an Ex- 
planation of the Construction of Music 
for the Uninitiated; a pronouncing Bio- 
graphical Dictionary; the Stories of the 
Operas; and numerous biographical and 
critical Essays by distinguished Authorities 














For the fuller treatment of Foreign Pronunciations, see Volume I 

a as in father ; a as in fate ; a as in 
fat ; an and ah as in French /tan and 
fin; see note i, vol. I, page 396. 

b as in bob. 

c used only in ch, as in church. The 
Scotch and German guttural as in kch 
and ich is indicated by kh ; see note 
3, vol. I. 

d as in deed ; dh as th in these ; dj as 
in adjoin. 

e as in bean ; / as in pet at the end of 
words it is almost like it. 

/as in fife. 

ff as in gig. 

h as in hate. 

?as in fight ; / as in pin. 

j as in jug. 

k as in kick ; kh is used here to indicate 
the German or Scotch ch or g; see 
note 3, vol. I. 

/as in lull. 

m as in mum. 

n as in nun ; indicates the French 

nasal n or m; see note i, vol. I. 
d as in note ; oi as in noise ; oo as in 

moon or foot ; 6 as in wrong ; ow as 

in cow; 6n as in French ban; see 

note i, vol. I. 
p as in pop. 
r as in roar, 
j as in sense. 
/ as in tot ; th as in think ; the sound of 

th in these is indicated by dh. 
n always with the sound of you ; the 

French u and the German long u are 

both indicated by U; see note 2, 

vol. I. 

v as in revive. 
iv as in will. 
x as in fix. 
y as in yoke. 
z as in zone. 

iJronouwtttg tttionarj 



abbate (ab'-ba-te), /. abbe" (abba), F. 
Abbot (often honorary). 

1'aine" (len-a), F. The elder, cadet 
(ka-da), F. The younger. Usually of 

camerlingo (ka-me'r-len'-go), /. Cham- 

cantab(rigiensis). Of Cambridge Uni- 

cavaliere (ka-val-ya'-re'), 7. Knight, 

chevalier (shu-viil-ya), F. Knight. 

cie, F. Company ;" et cie (a se). & Co. 

comte (kont), F. 

conte (kon'-te), 7. Count. 

detto or -a (deY-to). "Called." 

due (diik), F. duca (doo'-ka), 7. 

Edler von(at'-ler fon). Nobleman of. 

fils (fes), F. Son. 

Frau (frow), G. Mrs. Fraulein (fri'- 
lin). Miss. 

Freiherr (fri'-har), G. Baron. 

Geheimrath (ge-hlm'-rat), G. Privy 

Gesellschaft (ge-zeT -shaft), G. Asso- 
ciation, society. 

Graf(graf), G. Count. Grafin (gra- 
fm). Countess. 

Herr (har), G. Mr. 

Hauptkirche (ho\vpt-keV-khe), G. 
Chief church. 

Hofkapellmeister (mi-shter). Court- 
conductor. Hofmusik'intendant 
(moo-zek'), G. Supt. of court-music. 

le jeune (lu zhiln), F. The younger. 

Justizrath (yoos'-tets-rfit), G. Coun- 
sellor of justice ; often honorary. 

Kammersanger (zengk-^r), G, Cham- 
ber-singer (to the court). 

maestro (ma-as'-tro), 7. Master. 

il maggiore (el mad-jo -re), 7. The 

maistre (old French), or maitre 
(metr), F. Master. 

marchesa (mar-ka'-za), 7. Marchion- 

il minore (el-me-no'-re'), 7. The lesser. 

mus, bach(elor) and mus. doc(tor). 
Vide the D. D. 

oxon(ensis). Of Oxford University. 

pere (par), F. Father. 

Reichsfreiherr (rikhs'-fn-har), G. 
Baron of the empire. 

Hitter (rit'-ter), G. Knight, chevalier. 

sieur (s'yur), F. Sir, Mr. 

und Sonn (oont zon), G. & Son. und 
Sohne (oont za'-nfi), G. & Sons. 

van (van), Dutch, von (fon), G. de 
(du), F. di (de), 7. and Sp. From, 

vicomtesse (ve-kon-tes). Viscountess. 

le vieux (lu v'ytt), F. The elder. 

y (e), Sp. " And," used in joining t\vo 
proper names somewhat as we use a 
hyphen ; the Spaniard keeping his 
mother's, as well as his father's, name. 

zu (tsoo), G. To. 

(Others will be found in the D. D.) 

NOTE. In the Biographical Diction- 
ary, given names are regularly abbrevi- 
ated as in the following list, the same 
abbreviation serving for one name in its 
different forms in different languages. 

Abramo (a" -bra-mo), 7. 
Adam (a'-dam), G. 
Adalbert (a -dal-bert), G. 
Adelaide (i-do-la-e'-de 1 ), 7. and G. 
(Ad.) Adolf (a'-dolf), G. 
(Ad.) Adolph, G. 
(Ad.) Adolphe (ad-f.lf), F. 
(Adr.) Adriano (a-drt-a -no), 7. 
Adrien (3d'-rX-an), F. 
Agathon (a'-ga-ton), G. 


(Ag.) Agostino (a-gos-te'-no), /. 

Aimable (em-ab"l), P. 

(Alb.) Albrecht (al'-brekht), G. 

(Ales.) Alessandro (a-les-san'-dro),'/. 

(Alex,) Alexander. 

(Alex,) Alexandra (al-ex-andr'), F. 

Alexis (al-ex-es), F. 

Aloys (a'-Iois). 

Aloysia (aL-loi'-zK-fi), G. 

Amadeo (am-a-da'-6), /, -deus (da- 

oos), G. 

Amalie (a-mal-e), G. 
Arabroise (an-bwaz), F. 
Amde"e (am'-a-da), F. 
Am6Iie (am'-a-le), F. 
Anatole (an-a-tol), F. 
Andre" (an-dra), F. 
(And.) Andrea (Sn'-dra-a), /. 
(Ands) Andreas (an'-dra-as), G, 
Ange (anzh), F. 
Angelica (an-ja -le-ka), /. 
(Ang.) Angelo (Sn'-jaJ6), /. 
(A. or Ant.) Antoine (an'-twin), F. 
(Ant.) Anton (an'-ton), G. 
(A. or Ant.) Anto'nio, /. 
(Ap.) Apollon (ap-61-ion), F. 
Anstide (ar-fe-ted), F. 
Armin (Sr'-men), G. 
Arnaud (ar-no), F. 
Arrigo (ar'-re-go), /. 
Arsene (ir-sSn), F. 
Arthur (ir-tiir), F. 
Attilio (at-te -l*-6), /. 
(Aug.) August (ow'-goost), G. 
Auguste (6-gust), F. 
Augustin (ow'-goos-ten, G.) (5-gUs- 

tan,/ 1 .). 
(Aug.) Augusto (a-oo-goost'-o), /. 

Baldassare (bal-dfis-sa'-re), /. 
(Bal.) Balthasar (bal-ta-zaY), F. 
(Bap.)Baptiste(ba-test), F. 
(Bart.) Bartolommeo (bar-to-L 

raa'-o), /. 

(Bat.) Battista (bat-te -sta), /. 
Benedikt (ba'-ne-dekt), G. 
Beniamino (ban-yS-me'-no), /. 
(Bv.) Benvenuto (ban-ve-noo'-to), /. 
(Bdo.) Bernardo (br-na'r'-do), /. 
(Bd.) Bernhard (bara'-hart), (7. 
Bertrand (bar-tran), F. 
Bianca (be-an'-ka), /. 


Blasius (bla'^-oos), G. 
Bonaventure (bon-av-an-tilr'), F. 
Bonifacio (bo-ne-fa -cho), /. 
Bonafazio (bon-e-fa-tst-6), 7. 
Brigida (bre'-je-da), /. 

Camille (kam-e'-yil), F. 

Carlo (kar'-ld), /. 

Casimir (kas-Hner), F. 

Catherino (kat-ter-re'-no), /, 

Caytan (ka'-e-tan), Sp. 

C6sar (sa-zar), F. 

Cesare (cha-za -r), 7. 

(Chas.) Charles (sharl), F. 

Chrisostomus (kre-sos'-to-moos), G. 

(Chr.) Christian (krest'-K-an), G. 

(Chp.) Christoph (kres'-toph), G. 

Cinthie (san-te), F. 

Claude (klod), F. 

CHment (kla-mah), F. 

Clotilde (klo-tel'-d^), G. 

Colin (ko-lan), F. 

Constanze (k6n-stan'-tse), G. 

Cornelius (k6r-na r -ll-oos). G. 

Costanzo (ko-stan'-tsS), 7. 

Damaso (da-ma'-so), Sp. 

(D.) David (da-ved), F. 

(D.) David (da'-fet), G. 

Delphin (dSl-fan), F. 

Dietrich (det'-rtkh), G. 

Dieudonn^ (d'yfi-diin-na), F. 

Diogenio (de-o-ja-ne'-6), 7. 

Dipma (de-6'-ma), 7. 

(Dion.) Dionisio (de-5-ne'-st-6), Sp. 

Dionys (de'-o-nes), G. 

(Dom.) Domenico (dd-ma'-nt-ko), /. 

(Dom.) Dominique (dom-I-nek), F. 

Dufresne (du-frtn), /: 

(Edm.) Edmond (ed-m6n) T F. 
(Edm.) Edmund (at'-moont), G. 
(Edw.) Edward (ad-var), /'. 
Egidio (a-je'-dl-o), 7. 
Eleonore (a-la-o-no'-re), G. 
Eldonore (a-Ia-6-nor), /'. Also a mas- 

culine name. 
Elias (a-le'-as), G. 
Eligio (a-le'-jo), 7. 
Eliodoro (a-h-o-do'-ro), 7. 
Eliseo (a-le'-za-o). 7. 


Eliza (a-le-za), /. 

(Em.) Emanuel (a-man-wel), F. 

Emil (a-mel), G. 

Emiiie (a'-ml-le), F. 

(Em.) Emilio (a-mel'-yo), /. 

(Emm.) Emmanuele (em-man-oo-a- 

le), /- 

(Eng.) Engelbert (eng'-Sl-bert), G. 
Enrico (en-re' -ko), /. 
Erasmc ^a-ras'-mo), /. 
Ercole (ar'-ko-la'), /. 
(Erh.) Erhard (aV-hart), G. 
Ernst (arnst), G. 
Errico (gr'-il-ko), 7. 
(Et.) Etienne (at'-yen), F. 
(Eug.) Eugen (oi'-gan), U. 
(Eug.) Eugene (ti-zhfin'), F. 
(Eug.) Eugenic (a-oo-ja'-ne-o), /. 
Eustache (iis-tash), F. 
Evarista (a-va-re'-sta), /. 

Fabio (fab'-yo), /. 

(F.) Felice (fa-le'-chg). 

F61icien (fa-igs-yan), F. 

(F.) F&ix (fa'-tex), F. 

(F.) Felix (fa-lex), G. 

(Fd.) Ferdinand (far'-d^-nant, G.) 

(far-dl-nan, F.}. 

(Fdo.) Ferdinando (fe"r-de-nan'-do), /. 
Ferencz (f^r'-Sns), Hung. 
Fdr6ol (fa-ra-61), F. 
Fernandez (f^r-nan'-d^th), 3/>. 
Fernando (f^r-nan'-do), 7. 
Ferruccio (fer-root'-cho), 7. 
Firmin (fer-man), F. 
Florence (flor-ans), F. Commonly a 

masculine name. 

Florian (fi6r-yan, F.) (flor'-t-an, G.). 
(Ft.) Fortunate (f6r-too-na'-to), 7. 
(Fran.) Francesco (fran-chas'-ko), 7. 
Francesco (fran-thas'-ko), Sp. 
Francisco (fran-thes'-ko), Sp. 
(Fran.) Francois (fran-swa), F. 
Frantisek (fran'-tt-sh^k), Bohemian. 
(Fz.) Franz (frants), G. 
(Fr.) Fr6d6ric (fra-da-rek), F. 
Fridolin (fre'-do-len), G. 
(Fr.) Friedrich (fret'-rikh), G. 

Gabriele (ga-bri-a'-le), G. 
(Gaet.) Gaetano (ga-a-ta-no), 7. 
(Gasp.) Gasparo (gas-pa'-ro), 7. 

Gellio (jeT-H-6), 7. 

Geminiano (jem-en-!-a'-no), 7. 

Gennaro (gen-na'-ro), 7. 

(G.) Georg (ga-orkh'), G. 

(G.) George, E. 

(G.) Georges (zhorzh), F. 

(Ger.) Gerolamp (jg-ro'-la-mo), 7. 

(Geron.) Geronimo (je-ro-nt-mo), 7. 

Gervais (zh^r-ve f ), F, 

Gesu (ha'-zoo), Sp. 

Ghislein (ges-l^n), F. 

Giacinto (ja-chen'-to), 7. 

Giacomo (jak'-6-m5), 7. 

Gialdino (jal-de'-no), 7. 

Gioacchino (jo-a-ke'-no), 7. 

Giordano (jor-da-no), 7. 

Gioseffo (jo-s^f-fo), 7. 

(Giov.) Giovanne (jo-van'-ne), 7. 

Giuditta (joo-dtt'-ta), 7. 

Giulia (jool'-ya), 7. 

Giulio (jopl'-yo), 7. 

(Gius.) Giuseppe (joo-s^p'-pe), 7. 

Gjula (gu'-la), Hung. 

Gotifredo (go-te-fra'-do), 7. 

(Gf.) Gottfried fedt'-fret), G. 

Gotthard (got' -hart), G. 

(Gh.)Gotthilf(got'-htlf), G. 

(Gl.) Gottlieb (got'-lep), G. 

Gottlob (got'-lop), G. 

Gregorio (gra-go'-rt-6), 7. 

Guido (goo-e'-do), 7. 

(Guil.) Guillaume (ge-yom), F. 

(Gv.) Gustav (goos'-taf), G. 

(Gve.) Gustave (giis-tSv), F. 

Hamish (ha'-mesh), Gaelic. 

Hans (bans), G. 

(H.) Heinrich (hm'-rtkh). 

(H.) Henri (an-re), F. 

(H.) Hen'ry. 

(Hn.) Hermann (bar' -man), G. 

Hieronymus (he-er-6n'-e-moos), G. 

(Hip.) Hippolyte (ep-o-let), F. 

Hugo (hoo -go, G.) (u-go, F.). 

(Ign.) Ignace (en-yas), F. 
(Ign.) Ignazio (en-yat'-sK-o), 7 
(I.) Igraz (ekh'-rats), G. 
Hitch (e'-Ktsh). Rus. 
Ilja (el'-ja), JRus. 
Ingeborg (Kng'-S-b6rkh), G. 
(Ipp.) Ippolito (ep-po-le'-to), 7* 



Isidore (e-ze-dor), F. 
Italo (et'-a-lo), /. 

Jacob (yak' -op), G. 
Jacopo (yak'-o-po), /. 
(Jac.) Jacques (zhak), F. 
Jan (yan), Dutch. 
Jan (yan), Polish. 
Javier (hav-yar), Sp. 
<J.) Jean (zhan), F. 
Jefte (yf -te), /. 
Jerome (zha-rom), F. 
(Joa.) Joachim (yb'-a-khem), G. 
Joaquin (wa'-ken), Sp. 
(Jn.) Johann (yo'-han), <?. 
(Jus.) Johannes (yo-han'-nes), 
(J.) John. 
Jos (ho-za), Sp. 

(Jos.) Josef, or Joseph (yd'-zef, G.) 
(zho-zef, F.). 

'osquin (zhos-kan), 7% 

uan (hoo-an'), Sp. 

ules (zhiil), F. 

ulie(zhtt-ie), F. 

ulien (zhiil-yan), F. 

uliette (zhttl-ySt), 7% 

ulius (yoo'-ll-oos), 6*. 

uste (zhttst), ^l 

ustin (zhus-tah), F. 

Karl (karl), G. 
Karoline (ka-ro-le -ne), 6^. 
Kasper (kas'-pSr), (7. 
(Kd.) Konrad (kon'-rat), G. 
(Konst.) Konstantin (kon-stan-ten), 

Ladislaw (Ud'-Is-laf), Pol. 
Laure (lor), F. 
Laurent (Id-ran), F. 
Leberecht (la'-be-r^kht), G. 
Lon (la'-on), F. 
Leonard (la-6-nSr), F. 
-6once (Ia-6ns), F. 


Ld.) Leopold (Ia-i[-p61d) F. 
Ld.) Leopold (la -6-polt), G. 
,opez (lo'-p^th), Sp. 
lor.) Lorenz (lo'-rents), G. 
-.) Louis (loo-e), F. 
,ouise (loo-ez), F. 

Luca (loo'-ka), /. 
Lucien (lus-yan), F. 
Lucrezia (loo-kra'-tse-a), /. 
(Lud.) Ludovico (loo-do-ve'-ko), /. 
(L.) Ludwigf (loot'-vlkh), G. 
(L.) Luigi (loo-e'-je), /. 
Luigia (loo-e'-ja), 7. 
Luise (loo-e'-zg), Q, 

Manfredo (man-fra'-dS), /. 

Manuel (man'-oo-gl), G. 

Marcello (mar-chel'-lo), 7. 

Marco (mar'-ko), /. 

Marguerite (mai-gu-ret'), F. 

(M.) Maria (ma-re'-a), G., I. and Sp. 

Commonly a masculine name. 
Marie (mii-re), F. Commonly a mas* 

culine name. 

Mathias (ma-le'-as), F. and G. 
Mathieu (mat-yu), F. 
(Mat.) Matteo (mat-ta'-o), 7. 
Matthaus (mat-ta'-oos), G. 
Mattia (mat-te'-a), 7. 
Maturin (mat-ii-ran), F. 
Maurice (mo-res), F. 
Max (max), G. 

Maximilian (max-I-meT-l-a'n), G. 
Melchior (mel-sW-6r), F. 
Melchiore (mei-klf-o'-re 1 ), 7. 
Michael (me'-ka-el), 7. 
Michel (me-shel), F. 
Michele (me-ka'-le), 7. 
Miroslaw (me'-ro-slaf), Russian. 
Modeste (mo-dest), F. 
Moritz (mo'-rets), G. 
Muzio (moo'-tslf-o), 7. 

Napoleon (na-po'-la-on), F. 
Natale (na-ta'-le), 7. 
Nepomuk (na'-po-mook), G. 
Niccola (nek'-ko-la), 7. 
(N.) Nich'olas, . 
(N.) Nicolas (nc-ko-las), F. 
(N.) Nicold (nc-ko-16'), 7. 
Nikolai (ne'-ko-Ia'), 6*. 
(N.) Nikolaus (ne'-ko-lo\vs), G. 

Octave (6k-tav), F. 
Orazio (o-ra'-tst'-o), 7. 
Otto (6t'-to), G. 
Ottokar (ot'-to-kar), Pol. 


Pantaleon (pan-ta-la-6n), F. 
Paolo (pa'-o-lo), /. 
Pascal (pas-kil), F. 
Pasquale (pas-kwa -le), /, 
Paul (p6l), F. 
Pedro (pa-dhro), Sf. 
Peregrine (pa-ra-gre'-no), /. 
(P.) Peter, 

(P.) Peter (pa-ter), G. 
Philibert (fe-lt-bar), F. 
(Ph.) Philipp (fe-llp), G. 
(Ph.) Philippe (fe-lep), F. 
Pierluigi (pe-ar-loo-e'-je), /. 
(P.) Pierre (pl-ar 1 ), F. 
(P.) Pietro (pt-a'-tro), /. 
Polibio (po-le'-be-6), /. 
Pompeo (pom-pa-o), /. 
Primo (pre'-mo), /. 
Prosper (pros-par), F. 
Prudent (prtt-dan), F. 

Rafael (ra'-fa-el), /. and #. 

Regnault (rto-yo), F. 

Reichardt (rikh'-art), G, 

Reinhold (rtn'-hott), G. 

Re'ne' (ra-na), F. 

(R.) Rob'ert, E. (in F. ro'-b^r, in (7. 


Roberte (rd-Wirt), F. 
(R.) Rober'to, 7, 
Romano, /. 

Romualdo (r6m-oo-aT-d5), /, 
Rose (roz), F. 

(Rod.) Rudolf (roo'-dolf), G. 
Ruggicro (rood-ja'-ro), /, 
Ruprecht (roo'-prekht), G. 

Sabine (riUbe'-nQ, <7. 

(S.) Salvatore (sal-va-to -re), /. 

(Sml.) Samuel (zam'-oo-el), G. 

Scipione (she-pK-o'-ne), /. 

Sebald (za'-balt), G. 

(Se"b.) Sibastiaii (sa-bast-yan), F. 

(Seb.) Sebastiano (sa-bas-tl'-a -no), /. 

and Sf. 

Siegfried (zekh'-fret), G. 
Siegmund (zekh'-moont), G. 
Simon (ze'-mou), G. 
(Sim,) Simone (se'-mo-ne), /. 
Spiro (spe'-ro). 
Steffano (stef-fa'-no), /. 
Sylvain (sel-vSn), F. 

Teodulo (ta-o-doo'-lo), /. 
Teresa (ta-ra'-sa), /. 
Theobald (ta-o-balt), G. 
Theodor (ta'-o-dor), G. 
(The.) Theodore (ta-ti-dor), F. 
(T.) Thomas, 
Thueskon (too-es'-kon), G. 
(Tim.) Timoth6e (te-md-ta 1 ), F. 
(T.) Tomraasso (tom-mas'-so), /, 
Traugott (trow'-got), G. 
Turlogh (toor'-16kh), G. 

(Val.) Valentin (val^-tan), /. 
Venanzio (va-nan'-tsl-o), /. 
(V.) Vincent (van-san), F. 
(V.) Vincent (fen'-tsent), G. 
(V.) Vincenzo (ven-chan'-tso), /. 
Vincesleo (ven-ches-la-6), /. 
Violante (ve-o-lan'-t^), /. 

Wendela (vfo'-deMa), G. 
Wenzel (vfa r -tsl), G. 
Werner W-ner), C?. 
Wilhclmine (vel-hel-me'-nQ, G. 
Wilibald (ve'-lMlt), G. 
Willem (vfl'-l&n), ZH^ ( 
(Wm.) William, E. 
Woldcniar (vol'-d^-mar), G. 
(Wg.) Wolfgang (volf-gang), G. 

(X.) Xavier (ksSv-ya), F. 
(X,)Xayier(za-fer'), G. 

38iograpJ)ical Bictumarp 


N.B. The German modified vowels 
a, 6, u, are often spelled ae, oe, ue. 
For convenience they will here be ar- 
ranged alphabetically as if a, o, u. 

For the system on which given names 
are abbreviated, and for their pronun- 
ciation, see the pages devoted to them. 

The word " Gerbert," or " Cousse- 
maker " in a parenthesis means that 
some of the composer's works are in 
the great collections of Gerbert or Cous- 
semaker (q. v.). Where not otherwise 
stated the man is a composer. 


Aaron (a'-ron), (i) d. Cologne, 1052 ; 
abbot and theorist. (2) (or Aron), 
Pietro, Florence, 1480 or '90 bet. 
1545-62; theorist, 

Abaco (del a'-ba-ko), E. Fel. dell', 
Verona, 1662 Munich, 1726, court- 
conductor and composer. 

Abba-Cornaglia (ab-ba' kor-nal'-ya), 
Alessandria, Piedmont, 18511894; 
composed operas and church-music. 

Abbadia (ab-ba-de-a), (i) Natale, 
Genoa, 1792 Milan, ca. 1875; dram, 
and ch. composer. (2) Luigia, daugh- 
ter of above, b. Genoa, 1821 ; mezzo- 

Abbatini(ab-ba-te'-ne), A. M., Castel- 
lo, 1595? 1677; composer. 

Abbe* (ab-ba), (i) Philippe P. de St. 
Sevin, lived i8th cent.; 'cellist. (2) 
Pierre de St. Sevin, bro. of above ; 

Ab'bey, J., Northamptonshire, 1785 
Versailles, 1859 '. organ-builder. 

Ab'bott, (i) Emma, Chicago, 1 8 so- 
New York, 1888 ; operatic soprano ; 
toured America with great popular 
success. (2) Bessie (Pickens), b. 
America ; soprano ; pupil of Mrs. 
Ashford, N. Y. f and of Koenig, 

Paris ; debut 1902 at the Opera there, 
after singing in ballad concerts in 

Abd el Kadir (Abdolkadir) (ka'-der), 
Ben Isa, lived I4th cent. ; Arabian 
theorist and collector. 

Abd El Mumin (or Abdolmumin). 

Abeille (a-bi'-le 1 ), Jn. Chr. L., Bay- 
reuth, 1761 Stuttgart, 1838, com- 
poser and court-conductor. 

Abel (a'-bel), (i) Clamor H., b. 
Westphalia i?th cent.; court-mus. 
(2) Chr. Fd,, gambist at Kb 1 then, 
1720-37. (3) Ld. Aug., b. Kothen, 
1720, son of above; court-violinist. 
(4) K. Fr., Kothen, 1725 London, 
1787 ; bro. of above and the last vir- 
tuoso on the gamba. (5) L., Eckarts- 
berga,Thuringia, Jan. 14, 1835 Neu- 
Pasing, Aug. 13, 1895 ; violinist. 

Abela (a-ba-la), (i) Don Placido 
(don pla-the'-do), Syracuse, 1814 
Monte Cassino, 1876 ; prior. (2) K. 
Gl., Borne, Saxony, 1803 Halle, 
1841 ; cantor and composer. 

Abel la, singing-teacher; lived in New 
York, 1867. 

Abell', J., London, ca, 1660 Cam- 
bridge (?) ca. 1724 ; alto (musico) 
and lutenist ; collector and composer. 

Abenheim (a'-be'n-him), Jos., Worms, 
I8o4--Stuttgart, 1891 ; conductor and 

Abert (a'-bSrt), Jn. Jos., b. Kocho- 
witz, Bohemia, Sept. 21, 1832 ; 
double-bass virtuoso and important 
composer for the instr. ; also com- 
posed operas, etc. 

Abes'ser, Edm., Matgolitz, Saxony, 
1837 Vienna, 1889 ; dram, com- 

Abos (a -bos) (or Avos, Avos'sa), 
Gir., Malta, ca. 1700 Naples, 
1786 (?) ; composer of operas, etc. 


3 8o 


A'braham, (i) John. Vide BRAHAM. 

(2) (Dr.) Max. Vide PETERS, c. F. 
A'brams, three English sisters, 1775- 

84. (i) Harriet, soprano and com- 
poser. (2) Theodosia, contralto. 

(3) Eliza. 

Abranyi (a-bran'-ye), Kernel, b. Szent 
Gyorgz Abranyi, 1822 ; Hungarian 
nobleman ; editor and composer. 
Abt (apt), (i) Franz, Eilenburg, Dec. 
22, 1819 Wiesbaden, March 31, 
1885 ; court-conductor at Bernburg, 
Zurich and Brunswick ; visited Amer- 
ica, 1872 ; immensely popular as a 
vrriter in the folk-song spirit, of such 
simple and pure songs as " When the 
Swallows Homeward Fly" etc. ; c. 
500 works comprising over 3,000 num- 
bers (the largest are 7 secular can- 
tatas) and numerous choruses and 
other cantatas. (2) Alfred, Bruns- 
wick, 1855 (of consumption) Ge- 
neva, April 29, 1888 ; son of above ; 

Ab'yngdon, Henry, d, Wells, Eng- 
land, 1497 ; composer. 
Achard (a-shar), L6on, b. Lyons, Feb. 

16, 1831 ; tenor. 
Achenbach, Vide ALVARY. 
Ack'ermann, A. J., b. Rotterdam, 

April 2, 1836 ; composer. 
Ac'ton, J. B., b, Manchester (?), 1863 ; 

singing-teacher and composer. 
Adam (Sd-an), (i) Louis, Mutter- 
sholtz, Alsatia, 1758 Paris, 1848 ; 
teacher and composer. (2) Adolphe 
Charles, Paris, July 24, 1802 May 
5, 1856 ; son of above ; c, many suc- 
cessful operas ; Pierre et Catherine 
(1829), Le Chalet (1834), Postilion 
de Longfumeau (1836), Le Fidek 
Berger t Le Brasseur de Preston 
(1838), Le Roi (fYvitot (1842), La 
Poup/e de Nuremberg, Cagliostro^ 
and Richard en Palestine (1844), the 
ballets Ciselle, Le Corsaire, Faust, 
etc. ; in 1847 he founded the Thea- 
tre National, but was made bank- 
rupt by the revolution of 1848, and 
entered the Conservatoire as prof, 
of composition to succeed his 

Adam (a't'-am), K. F., Zadel, 1806 
Leisnig, 1868 ; cantor and composer. 
Adam de la Hale (or Halle) (ad-an 
dti la al), Arras, ca. 1240 Naples, 
1287; called "Le bossu d ' Arras " 
(Hunchback of Arras) ; a picturesque 
trouvere of great historical impor- 
tance; c. chansons, jeux (operettas) and 
motets ; his works were pub. 1872. 

Adam Von Fulda (at'-am f5n fool'- 
da), ca. 1450 ca. 1537. (Gerbert.) 

Adamberger (at'-am-bgrkh-er), Valen- 
tin (not Joseph), Munich, 1743 Vi- 
enna, 1804 ; dram, tenor ; assumed 
name "Adamonti"; Mozart wrote 
the role of Belmonte, etc., for him. 

Adam! da Bolsena (or da Volterra) 
(a'-da-me da bol-sa'-na), And., Bo- 
logna, 1664 Rome, 1742 ; theorist. 

Adamon'ti. Vide ADAMBERGER. 

Adamowski (ad-a-mof'-shkf), (i) 
Timothe"e, b. Warsaw, March 24, 
1858 ; violinist and composer ; pupii 
of Kontchi, Warsaw Cons, and Mas- 
sart, Paris Cons. ; 1879 travelled to 
America as soloist with Clara Louise 
Kellogg, and later with a company 
of his own 1885-86; teacher, New 
Engl. Cons., Boston ; organised the 
Adamowski String-quartet (1888). (2) 
Joseph, bro. of above. ; 'cellist ; 
member of the same quartet ; married 

Ad'ams, (i) Th., London, 17851858; 
organist. (2) Charles R., Charleston, 
Mass., ca. 1834 July 3, 1900 ; tenor. 
(3) Stephen. Vide MAYBRICK, M. 

Ad'cock, Jas., Eton, England, 1778 
Cambridge, 1860 ; choir-master and 

Ad'dison, J., London, 1765 1844 ; 
double-bass player, dram, composer. 

Adelboldus (a -dgl-bol-doos), d. 1027 ; 
Bishop of Utrecht; theorist. (Ger- 

Adelburg (fon a'-d^l-boorkh), Aug., 
Ritter von, Constantinople, 1830 
(insane) Vienna, 1873 J violinist. 

Adler (at'-ler), (r) G., b. Ofen, 1806 ; 
violinist, pianist, teacher and com- 
poser. (2) Guido, b. EibenschUtz, 
Moravia, Nov. i, 1855 ; pupil at 


Academic Gym. in Vienna, and Vien- 
na Cons.; ('78) Dr. jur., and ('80) 
Ph. D.; 1885 prof, of mus. science 
Prague Univ.; ('95) prof, of mus. 
history, Univ. of Vienna (vice Hans- 
lick). (3) V., Raab, Hungary, April 
3, 1826 Geneva, Jan. 4, 1871; son 
of above ; teacher and composer. 

Adlgasser (at'-'l-gas-sSr), Anton Ca- 
jotan, Innzell, Bavaria, 17281777 ; 

Adlung (at'-loongk), or A'dehmg, Ja- 
kob, Bindersleben, near Erfurt, 
1699 1 7 2 J organist, teacher and 

Adolfati (a-dol-fa-te), And., Venice, 
1711 Genoa (?) 1760 ; composer. 

Adras'tos, lived Philippopolis ca. 330 
B.C.; pupil of Aristotle, and theorist. 

Adriano di Bologna. Vide BAN- 


Ad'riansen (or Hadrianus), Eman- 
uel ; lived Antwerp i6th cent. ; 
lutenist and collector. 

Adrien (ad-rt-an) or Andrien. (t) 
Martin Joseph (called la Neu- 
ville, or TAin6) t Liege, 1767 
Paris, 1832 ; bass and composer ; he 
had two brothers. (2) Name un- 
known, b. Liege, 1765. (3) Ferdi- 
nand, chorus-master Paris Opera 
(1799-1801), composer. 

^Egid'ius Zamoren'sis, Joannes, 
Franciscan monk, Zamora, Spain, 
1270; theorist. 

^gid'ius de Muri'no, isth cent.; 
theorist. (Coussemaker.) 

^Elsters (eT-sters), Georges Jacques, 
Ghent, 1770 1849. 

Mris (erts), (i) Egide, Boom, Ant- 
werp, 1822 Brussels, 1853. (2) 
Felix, St. Trond, Belgium, 1827 
Nivelles, 1888 ('89?); violinist and 

Affilard (laf-fe-laY), Michel 1', 1683 
1708 ; singer to Louis XTV. 

Afranio (a-fra"-nl-o), b. Pavia, end of 
I5th cent; canon at Ferrara ; inv. 
the bassoon. 

Afzelius (af-tsa'-U-oos), Arvid A., 
Enkoping, Sweden, 17851871 ; col- 

Agazza'ri (a-gad-za'-re), Ag., Siena, 
1578 1640 ; church-conductor. 

Agela'os of Tegea, lived 559 B.C.; 
considered the first solo virtuoso on 
the cithera. 

Agnelli (an-yeT-le), Salv., b. Paler- 
mo, 1817; pupil of Naples Cons.; 
lived Marseilles and c. operas, can- 
tata Apothfose de Napotion /., 

Agnesi (dan-ya'-se), (i) M. Theresia 
d', Milan, 17241780 (?) ; pianist and 
dram, composer. (2) Luigi (right- 
ly F. L. Agniez), Erpent, Namur, 
1833 London, 1875 ; bass. 

Agniez (a'n-yez). Vide AGNESI (2). 

Agobar'dus, d. Saintonge, 840; arch- 
bishop of Lyons ; theorist. 

Agostini (ag-6s-te"-ne), (i) Lud. 
Ferrara, 1534 1590; court-conduc- 
tor. (2) Paolo, Vallerano, 1593 
Rome, 1629 ; wonderful contrapun- 
tist, some of his works being in 48 
parts. (3) P. Simone, b. Rome, 
ca. 1650. c. an opera, etc. 

Agramonte (ag-ra-mon'-ta), Emilio, 

b. Puerto Principe, Cuba, Nov. 28, 
1844; eminent vocal teacher, lect- 
urer, conductor, and friend of Amer- 
ican music ; studied comp. under 
Maiden in Spain, and David in 
Paris ; piano in Paris ; singing under 
Roger, Selva, and Delle Sedie ; 1865 
LL.B. at Univ. of Madrid; taught 
singing in Barcelona, 1865, Cuba, 
1866-68 ; lived since in New York ; 

c. (in MS.) a Stabat Mater, etc. 
Agrel (a'-grel), J., Loth, Sweden, 1701 

NUrnberg, 1769; court- violinist and 

Agric'ola, (i) Alex., Germany (?) 
ca. 1470 Valladolid, Spain, 1530 ; 
court-singer and church-composer. 
(2) Martin, Sorau, Saxony, 1486 
Magdeburg, June 10, 1556 ; emi- 
nent writer and theorist. (3) Jn. ? b. 
NUrnberg ca. 1570 ; prof, and com- 
poser. (4) Wolfgang Chp., Ger- 
man composer (1651); (5) G. L., 
Grossfurra, 1643 Gotha, 1676 ; 
conductor. (6) Jn. Fr., Dobitschen, 
1720 Berlin, 1774; court-cond. 


Agthe (fikh'-te 1 ), K. Ch., (i) Hettstadt, 
1762 Ballenstedt, 1797 ; composer. 
(2) W. Jos. Albrecht, Ballenstedt, 
1790 ca. 1848 ; son of above ; teach- 
er. (3) Fr. W., Sangershausen, 
1794 (insane) Sonnenstein, ca. 1828 ; 

Aguado (a-gwa'-dho), Diomsio, Ma- 
drid, 17841849 ; performer and 
composer for guitar. 
Aguilar (a'-gwe-lar), Emanuel, b. 

1824 ; composer. 

Aguiari, Lucrezia. Vide AGUJARI. 
Aguilera de Heredia (a-gwl-la'-ra da 
a-ra'-dhe-a), Seb., b, Sargossa, I7th 
cent. ; monk and composer. 
Agujari (a'-goo-ha'-re), Lucrezia 
(called La Bastardina, or Bastar- 
deila, being the natural daughter of 
a nobleman), Ferrara, 1743- Parma, 
May 18, 1783; a phenomenal singer ; 
Mozart remarked her " lovely voice, 
flexible throat, and incredibly high 
range," which reached from middle C 
three octaves up ; she could shake on 
f" (vide CHART OF PITCH) ; she m. 
Colla, 1780, and retired from the stage, 
Agus (a-zhus), H., France, 1749 
1798 ; singing-teacher and composer. 
Ahle (a'-le 1 ), (i) Jn. Rd., Muhl- 
hausen, 16251673 ; theorist and 
church-composer. (2) Jn. G., Mul- 
hausen, 16501706; son of above; 
organist, poet and theorist. 
AhJstrom (al'-shtram), (r) A. J. R,, 
Stockholm, 1762 ca. 1827; organist. 
(2) Johan Niklas, Wisby, Sweden, 
June 5, 1805 Stockholm, May 14, 
1857 ; probably son of above ; dram, 

Ahna. Vide DE AHNA. 
Aibl (i'-bl), Jos., founded publishing 
firm, Munich, 1824 ; later heads were 
Eduard Spitzweg (1836) and his sons, 
Eugen and Otto. 

Aiblinger (i'-blfrig-e'r), Jn. Kasper, 
Wasserburg, Bavaria, 1779 Munich, 
1867 ; court-conductor, collector and 

Aichineer (I'-khftig-er), Gregor, Augs- 
burg (?) ca. 15611628; canon and 

Aide" (a-e-da'), Hamilton, b, Paris, 
1830, of Greek parents ; poet, com- 
poser of pop. songs. 
Aigner (fkh'-ner), Engelbert, Vienna, 

1798 ca. 1852 ; dram, composer. 
Aimo (a'-e-mo). Vide HAYM, N. r. 
Aimon (Sin-on), Pamphile Ld. Fran., 
b. L'Isle, near Avignon, 1779 ; 'cel- 
list, conductor, theorist. 
Aireton (ar'-tun), Edw., London, 

17271807 ; violin-maker. 
Ajolla. Vide LAYOLLE, 
A Kem'pis, Florentino ; org. at Brus- 
sels, 1650. 
Akeroyde (ak'--roid), Samuel, b. 

Yorkshire ca. 1650 ; song-writer. 
Ala (a'-la), Giov. Bat., Monza, 1580 

1612 (?) ; organist and composer. 
Alabieff (a-la-M-gf), Alex., Moscow, 

18021852 ; composer. 
Alard (ai-ftr), (i) C<5sar, b. Gosse- 
lies, Belgium, May 4, 1837 ; 'cellist, 
entered Brussels Cons, at 9, as vio- 
linist ; took up the 'cello and won 
prizes; travelled as soloist. (2) J. 
Delphin, Bayonne, March 8, 1815 
Paris, Feb. 22, 1888 ; violinist, teach- 
er and composer. 

Alary (al-a'-re), Giulio Eugenio 
Abramo, Mantua, 1814 Paris i8qr 

Al'ayrac. Vide DALAYRAC. 
Albanese (al-ba-na'-ze), Albano, 1729 
Paris, 1800 ; musico and com- 

Albanesi (al-ba-na'-ze), Carlo, b. Na- 
ples, 1856 London, 1803 ; piano, 
prof. R. A. M. 

Albani (al-ba'-nl) (stage name of Ma- 
rie Louise Cecilia Emma La 
Jeunesse), b. Chambly, near Mon- 
treal, Nov. r, 1852; operatic soprano; 
sang in Cathedral, Albany, N. Y., 
whence her name was mistakenly 
supposed to have been taken ; pupil 
of Duprez, and of Lamperti ; debut 
at Messina in 1870. 

Albani, Mathias, Bozen, 16211673 ; 
famous father of more famous son of 
same name and trade, violin-making ; 
the younger A.'s violins (1702-9) 
rival Amati's. 


Albeniz (al-ba'-neth), (i) Pedro, Lo- 
groiio, 1795 Madrid, 1855 ; court-or- 
ganist. (2) Isaac, b. Camprodon, 
Spain, May 20, 1861 ; grandnephew 
of above ; lives in London as pianist ; 
composed operas, etc. (3) Pedro, b. 
Biscay, San Sebastian, 1821 ; monk, 
church-cond. and composer. 

Albergati (dal-ber-ga'-te), (i) Pirro 
Capacelli, Conte d'. Lived in Bo- 
logna, I7th cent. ; composer. (2) Al- 
dobrandini, lived in Bologna, ryth 
cent.; dram, composer. 

Al'bert, Prinz von Sachsen-Coburg 
Gotha, Schloss Rosenau, 1819 1861; 
consort of Queen Victoria, patron of 
music and composer of an opera, 
Jean U Fol (Bagnieres de Bigorre, 
1865), an operetta, masses, etc. 

Albert (al'-bert), (i) H., Lobenstein, 
Saxony, 1604 Kbnigsberg, 1651 ; 
poet, organist and composer ; called 
the father of the German Lied, and, 
as he alludes to a " Combdien-musik " 
(1644), he must have been, with 
Schultz, one of the founders of Ger- 
man opera. (2) Max, Munich, 1833 
Berlin, 1882 ; zither-virtuoso and 
inventor. (3) Charles L. N. d', 
Nienstetten, near Hamburg, 1809 
London, 1866 ; dancing master and 
composer. (4) Eugen d', rightly 
Eugene (Francis Charles) (dal- 
bar, or dal'-bert), b. Glasgow, April 
10, 1864 ; son and pupil of above; 
pianist; Newcastle scholar in the 
London Nat. Training School, 1876 ; 
pupil of Pauer (pf.) and Stainer, 
Proutand Sullivan (harm, and comp.); 
1881, Mendelssohn scholar and pu- 
pil of Richter and Liszt, who called 
him "the young Tausig" ; 1881, he 
played the Schumann concerto at the 
Crystal Palace, London; Oct. 24, 
a concerto of his own, at a Richter 
concert; he performed 5 Beethoven 
sonatas (op. 31, 53, 90, 109, no) at a 
Gewandhaus recital, 1893 ; he mar- 
ried the pianist Carreno in 1892 (di- 
vorced 1895) ; first conductor at Wei- 
mar, vice Lassen, but soon resigned ; 
composed a symphony, 2 overtures, 

(Hyperion and Esther), z pf.-concer- 
tos, libretto and music of the operas 
Der Rubin (Carlsruhe, Oct. 12, 1893), 
Ghismonda (Dresden, 1895), Gernot 
(Mannheim, 1897), i-actmus. comedy 
DieAbreise (Frankfort, 1898), etc. 

Albertazzi (al-bSr-tad'-ze), Emma 
(nee Howson), London, 18141847 ; 
operatic contralto. 

Alberti (al-beV-te),(i)Jn. Fr.,Tonning, 
1642 Merseburg, 1710; organist. 
(2) Giuso Matteo, Bologna, 1685 
1746; violinist and composer. (3) 
Domenico, Venice, 1707 Formio, 
1740 ; singer then pianist ; in his 
piano music he made use of the since- 
called " Alberti bass " (vide D. D.). (4) 
K. Edm. Robt., Danzig, 1801 Ber- 
lin, 1874 ; writer. 

Alberti'ni (al-ber-te'-ne), (i) Gioac- 
chino, b. 1751 Warsaw, April, 
1811 ; conductor and dram, com- 
poser. (2) Michael (called Momo- 
let'to), soprano musico at Cassel, 
i8th cent., where his sister (3) Gio- 
vanna (called Romanina) was prima 

Albicas'tro, Henrico (rightly, Weis- 
senburg), b. Switzerland, ifth cent. ; 
court- violinist. 

Albino'ni, Tommaso, Venice, 1674 
1745 ; violinist. 

Albo'ni, Marietta, Cesena, Romagna, 
March 10, 1823 Ville d'Avray, near 
Paris, June 23, 1894 ; eminent dram, 
contralto, compass g-g" (vide PITCH, 
D. D.) ; pupil of Rossini ; debut La 
Scala, Milan, 1843; ^- Count Pe- 
poli, 1854. 

Albrecht (al'-brgkht), (i) Jn. Lor., 
Gormar (Thuringia), 1732 Miihl- 
hausen, 1773 ; writer. (2) Jn. Matt., 
Osterbehringen, near Gotha, 1701 
Frankfort, 1769 ; organist. (3) Karl, 
Breslau, 1817 (?) Moscow, 1893 ; 
court-conductor. (4) Eugen Maria, 
St. Petersburg, 1842 1894 ; son of 
(3) ; violinist and conductor. 

Jn. G., Klosternenburg, near Vi- 
enna, Feb. 3, 1736 Vienna, March 
7, 1809 ; eminent composer, court- 


organist, theorist and teacher (Bee- 
thoven was his unappreciated pupil). 

Albri'ci (al-bre'-che), V., Rome, 1631 
Prague, 1696 ; court-conductor. 

Alcarrot'ti, Giov. Fran., lived in 
Italy i6th cent. ; organist, 1740-91. 

Al'coclc, (i) John, London, 1715 
Lichfield, 1806 ; organist. (2) J., son 
of above; organist. 

Alday (al-de ), French family, (i) The 
father (b. Perpignan, 1737), a man- 
dolinist. His two sons (2) A. k 
vietix (b. 1763) ; violinist. (3) A. 
hjeune (b. 1764) ; violinist. 

Al'den, J. Carver, b. Boston, Mass., 
Sept. u, 1852 ; pupil of Carl Fael- 
ten, and of Paul, Plaidy, and Pap- 
peritz in Leipzig ; teacher at the N. 
E. Cons., later at Wollaston, Mass. ; 
c. pf.-concerto, etc. 

Aldovrandini (al-do-vran-de'-ne), 
Gius. A. V., b. Bologna, 1665 ; 
court-conductor and dram, composer. 

Al'drich, (i) H., Westminster, 1647 
Oxford, 1710 ; theorist and composer. 
(2) Richard, b. Providence, R. I., 
July 31, 1863; graduated Harvard, 
1885, where he took several scholar- 
ships and honours; studied music 
under J. K. Paine ; 1885 he went on 
the staff of the Providence Jotirnal, 
soon reaching an editorial position, 
and being put in charge of the musi- 
cal and other critical departments of 
the paper; 1888 he spent in study 
abroad, chiefly of music; 1889 to 
1891, private secretary to U. S. Sena- 
tor N. F. Dixon; 1891 joined the 
staff of the New York Tribune as 
associate musical critic with H. E. 
Krehbiel, and as collaborator in their 
"History of the Philharmonic Soci- 
ety ; " author of various magazine ar- 
ticles, and editor of a series of musical 
biographies to be published in New 
York, the volume on Schumann being 
in preparation by him. 

Alembert (dal-an-bSr), J. Le Rond 
d', Paris, 1717 -1783 ; theorist. 

Alessan'dri, (i) Giulio, c. an orato- 
rio (ca. 1690). (2) Felice, Rome, 
1742 Berlin (?), 1811. 

Alessan'dro Merlo (or Alless. Ro- 
mano), called Delia Viola, b. 
Rome (?) ca. 1530 ; monk, singer and 

Alexander, John (or Joseph), 'cellist 
at Duisburg, 1801. 

Alfarabi (al-fa-ra"-be), or Alphara'- 
bius, properly El Farabi (abbr. 
Farabi) Farab (now Othrax,) 900 (?) 
Damascus, 950 ; Arabian theorist 
who vainly advocated Greek theories. 

Alfieri (al-fe-a'-re), Abbate Pietro, 
Rome, 1801 1863 ; Camadulian 
monk ; teacher and theorist. 

Al'ford, J., lutenist at London, 1568. 

Algarot'ti, Count Fran., Venice, 1712 
Pisa, 1764 ; writer. 

Aliani (aU-a'-ne), Francesco, b. Pia- 
cenza ; 'cellist, 1820 ; son and pupil of 
a violinist. 

Alipran'di, (i) Bdo., b. Tuscany, 
Bavaria, ca. 1730 ; his son (2) Bdo., 
'cellist at Munich, 1780. 

Alizard (ai-l-zar 1 ), Ad. Jos. L., Paris, 
1814 (of consumption) Marseilles, 
1850 ; bass, later barytone. 

Alkan (Sl-kan), (i) Chas. H. Val. 
(Fainf), Paris, Nov. 30, 1813 March 
29, 1888; pianist, teacher, and brilliant 
composer for piano. (2) Napole'on- 
Morhange (mor-anzh) (bjeune), b. 
Paris, Feb. 2, 1826 ; brother of above; 

Allacci (al-lat'-che), Leone (or Leo 
Allatius), Chios, '1586 Rome, 1669; 

Al'lanson, 1690 1705 ; English or- 
ganist, and church-composer. 

All'chin ; conductor Oxford Music So- 
ciety, 1869-81. 

Allegran'ti, Maddalena ; dram, so- 
prano ; debut, Venice, 1771. 

Allegri (al-la'-gre), (i) Gregorio, 
Rome, 1584 Feb. 18, 1662 ; pupil 
of Nanini; composed a celebrated 
Miserere in 9 parts, sung during 
Holy Week at the Sistine" Chapel ; 
its publication was forbidden on pain 
of excommunication ; but Mozart 
after twice hearing it, wrote it out, 
and it has since been frequently pub- 
blished. (2) Dom.; lived 1610-29 at 


Rome ; one of the first to write in- 
strumental accompaniments not in 
mere unison with the voices. 

AHen, (i) H. R., Cork, 1809 Lon- 
don, 1876; bass. (2) G. B., Lon- 
don, 1822 Brisbane, Queensland, 
1897 ; singer, organist, conductor, 
manager, and composer. (3) Na- 
than H., b. Marion, Mass., 1848 ; 
pupil of Haupt, Berlin ; organist and 
teacher in Hartford, Conn. ; compos- 
er of cantatas, etc. 

Allihn (al-len'), H. Max., b. Halle-on- 
Saale, Aug. 31, 1841 ; writer on or- 

Allison, (i) Richard, teacher at 
London, 1592. (2) Robt., member 
of Chapel Royal till 1609. 

Al'litsen, Frances, English singer and 
composer; debut, London, 1882. 

All'woode, , English church- 
composer, i6th cent. 

Alma'gro, A. Lopez, b. Murcia, 
Spain, Sept. 17, 1839 J pianist and 

Almeida (dal-ma-e-dha), Fernando 
d', Lisbon, ca. 1618 1660; monk 
and church-composer. 

Almenrader (aT-men-ra-der), Karl, 
Ronsdorf, 1786 Nassau, 1843; virtu- 
oso and manufacturer of the bassoon. 

Aloysius, Baini's name for PALESTRINA 

Alphara'bius. Vide ALFARABI. 

Alquen (dal-kan or daT-kwan), (i) P. 
Jn. d', Arnsberg, Westphalia, 1795 
Mulheim-on-Rhine, 1863 ; com- 
poser. (2) Fz. d', Arnsberg, 1810 
London, 1887, bro. of above; 

Al'sager, Thos. Massa, Cheshire, 
1779 1846; English amateur and 

Alshala'bi, Mohammed, isth cent.; 
Arabian theorist. 

Alsleben (als'-la-ben), Julius, Berlin, 
1832 1894 ; editor and writer. 

Alsted(t) (al'-shtat), Jn. H., Herborn, 
Nassau, 1588 Weissenburg, 1638; 

Altenburg (al'-ten-boorkh), (i) Mi- 
chael, Alach, near Erfurt, 1584 Er- 

furt, 1640 ; pastor and composer. (2) 
Jn. Ernst, Weissenf els, 1734 Bitter- 
field, 1796 ; trumpet- virtuoso ; son of 
(3) Jn. Kasper, do. 

Altes (al-tgs), (i) Jos. H., Rouen, 1826 
Paris, 1895 ; flutist. (2) Ernest- 
Eugene, b. Paris, March 28, 1830, 
bro. of above ; pupil Paris Cons.; 
violinist and conductor ; 1871 deputy 
conductor of the Opera; 1879-87, 

Altnikol (alt'-ne-k61), Jn. Chp., d. 
Naumberg, 1759; son-in-law and pu- 
pil of J. S. Bach ; organist and com- 

Alvary (al-va'-re), Max (rightly 
Achenbach), Hamburg (?) 1858 
Datenberg, Thuringia, Nov. 8,^1898; 
eminent Wagnerian tenor ; debut at 

Alvsleben, Melitta. Vide OTTO-ALVS- 


Alyp'ios, lived ca. 360 B.C.* Greek 

Amad< (am-a-da'), (i) Ladislaw, 
Baron von, Kaschau, Hungary, 1703 
Felbar, 1764 ; poet and composer. 
(2) Thaddaus, Graf von Pressburg, 
1783 Vienna, 1845 ; pianist. 

Amadei (am-a-da'-e), R., b. Loreto, 
Italy, Nov. 29, 1840 ; succeeded his 
father as organist and conductor. 

Amalia (a-ma'-ll-a). the name of three 
princesses who composed, (i) Anna 
A., sister of Frederick the Great, 
1723 1782. (2) Anna A., mother 
of the Grand Duke Ernst August, 
17391807. (3) Marie A. Fried- 
erike, sister of King John of Saxony, 
Dresden, 17941870. 

Amati (a-ma'-te), a family of famous 
violin-makers at Cremona, Italy, (i) 
Andrea, 1520 (?) 1577 (?), evolved 
the violin from the viol ; his younger 
bro., (2) Niccold, made fine bass-viols, 
1568-86. A.'s 2 sons, (3) Antonio, 
1550 1635, and (4) Geronimo, d. i 
1638, produced violins of the same ( 
style. The most ^amous was Gero- 
nimo's son, (5) Niccold, Sept. 3, 
1596 Aug. 12, 1684, who built the 
41 Grand Amatis," large violins of 



powerful tone; his label is "Nico- 
laus Amati Cremonens. Hieronimi 
filius Antonii nepos. Fecit anno 
16-"; he trained Andrea Guarneri 
and Antonio Stradivari. (6) His son 
Geronimo, the last of the family, was 
inferior. (7) Giuseppe A., b. iyth 
cent., Bologna, a violin-maker, may 
have been of the same family. 
(8) V. (called Amatus), Cimmina, 
Sicily, 1629 Palermo, 1670; con- 
ductor and composer. (9) Antonio 
and (10) Angelo, brothers, and or- 
gan-builders at Pavia, ca. 1830. 
Ambragetti (am-bra-jet'-te), G., 1817 

1838; basso-buffo. 
Ambros (am'-bros), Aug. W. f Mauth, 
near Prague, Nov. 17, 1816 Vienna, 
June 28, 1876; eminent historian 
and critic. 

Ambrose (Ambro'sius), Treves, A.D. 
333 Milan, April 4, 397 ; Bishop of 
Milan ; regulated (384), and devel- 
oped Western church-music by intro- 
ducing ritual as practised in the East- 
ern Church ; the adoption of the four 
authentic church-modes was probably 
due to him ; he has been called " The 
Father of Christian Hymnology," 
though his authorship of the so-called 
Ambrosian Hymn is discredited, fur- 
ther than the translation of the text 
into the " Te Deum" ; it is improb- 
able that he was acquainted with the 
use of letters for notation. 
Ames, John Carlowitz, b. Bristol, 
England, 1860; composer of opera 
The Last of the Incas (1898). 
Ameyden (a'-ml-den), Christ, i6th 

century church-composer. 
Am(m)erbach (am'-er-bakh), Elias 
Nikolaus, ca. 1540 Leipzig, 1597 ; 
organist, theorist, and composer. 
Axniot (am-yo), Father, b. Toulon, 
1718 ; Jesuit missionary and writer 
on Chinese music. 

Am(m)on (am'-mon), (i) Blasius, b. in 
the Tyrol d. Vienna, June, 1590; 
court-sopranist, later Franciscan 
friar; composer. (2) Jn. Ands., 
Bamberg, 1763 Ottingen, 1825 ; vir- 
tuoso on the Waldhorn, 

Am'ner, (i) John, b. late i6th cent. 
d. 1641 ; organist. (2) His son 
Ralph, bass at Windsor, 1623 1663. 

Amphi'on, the earliest traditional 
Greek musician. 

Amorevoli (a-mo-ra'-vo-le), Angelo, 
Venice, 1716 Dresden, 1798 ; singer. 

Anacker (a"-nak-er), Aug. Fd., Frei- 
berg, Saxony, 17901854; cantor 
and composer. 

Ancot (an-ko), a family of pianists 
and composers at Bruges, (i) Jean 
(fere), 17791848. His two sons, 

(2) Jean (fits), 1799 Boulogne, 1829, 

(3) Louis, 1803 Bruges, 1836. 
Ander (an'-der), Aloys, Liebititz, Bo- 
hemia, 1824 Bad Wartenberg,i864; 

An'ders, Gf. Eng., Bonn, 1795 
Paris, 1866 ; writer. 

An'dersen, Joachim, b. Copenhagen, 
April 29, 1847 ; flute-virtuoso ; soloist 
at 14; toured widely; 1877, court- 
musician, Petersburg; 1881, Berlin, 
soloist court-opera ; from 1895 lived 
in Copenhagen as court-conductor; 
composed notable flute-pieces, etc. 

Anderson-Boker, Orleana, b. New 
York, 1835 ; pianist and composer. 

An'derson, (i) Lucy, nee Philpot, 
Bath, 1790 London, 1878 ; pianist. 
(2) Geo. Fr., King's bandmaster in 
England, 1848. (3) Angela, b. 
New York ; great-granddaughter of 
da Ponte ; pianist, pupil of Stojowski 
and Paderewski ; debut, Paris. 1899. 

An'derton, Thps., b. Birmingham, 
England, April 15, 1836; organist, 
critic and composer. 

An'ding, Jn. Michael, near Meining- 
en, 1810 Hildburghausen, 1879; 

Andrade (dan-dra'-dhe 1 ), Fran, d', b. 
Lisbon, 1859; barytone; studied 
with Miraglia and Ronconi ; sang 
leading roles in many European 

Andre* (an-dra), a musical family of 
Offenbach, (i) Jn., 17411799; pub- 
lisher and pianist ; he originated in 
1783 the durchkomponirte Ballade 
(videD.D.). (2) Jn. Ant., 1775- 


1842; third son of above; pianist, 
publisher, theorist. (3) Karl" Aug., 
1806 Frankfort, 1887; publisher 
and writer. (4) Julius, 1808 
Frankfort, 1880 ; organist. (5) Jn. 
Aug., 1817- 1887 ; publisher ; his 2 
sons, (6) Karl (b. 1853) and (7) 
Adolf (b. 1885), are the present pro- 
prietors. (8) Jean Baptiste (de St. 
Gilles), 1823 Frankfort, 1882 ; pian- 
ist and composer. 

Andreoli (an-dra-6'-le), (i) Evanga- 
lista, 1810 1875 ; organist at Mi- 
randola ; his two sons, (2) Guglieno 
(Modena, 1835 Nice, 1860) and (3) 
Carlo (b. Mirandola, 1840), were 
pianists, the latter also organist and 
composer. (4) Giuseppe, Milan, 
17571832; double-bassist and harp- 

Andreozzi (an-dra-od'-ze), Gaetano, 
Naples, 1763 Paris, 1826; dram, 

Andrevi (an-dra'-ve), Fran., Sana- 
buya, near Lerida, 1786 Barcelona, 
1853 ; critic and writer. 

Andrien. Vide ADRIEN. 

An'dries, Jean, Ghent, 17981872; 
teacher and writer. 

Andriessen. Vide STAHMER. 

Anerio (a-na'-re-6), (i) Felice, Rome, 
ca. 1560 ca. 1630 ; successor to Pa- 
lestrina. (2) Giovanni Fran., 
Rome, ca. 15691620 (?), bro. of 
above; conductor and church-com- 

Anet, Baptiste. Vide BAPTISTE. 

Anforge (an'-forkh-S), Kd., b. Buch- 
wald, near Liebau, Oct. 15, 1862; 
pianist ; pupil, Leipzig Cons, and of 
Liszt ; toured Europe and America ; 
lives in Berlin ; composer. 

Anfos'si, Pasquale, Taggia, near 
Naples, 1727 Rome, 1797; pupil 
and rival of Piccinni; composed 54 
operas, etc. 

Angelet (an'-zhu-la), Chas. Fran,, 
Ghent, 1797 Brussels, 1832. 

Angrelmi (an-ja-le'-nl), Bontempi 
Giov. And., Perugia, ca. 1624 
1705; court-singer and dram, com- 

Angeloni (an-ja-lo'-nt), Luigi, Frosi- 
none, Papal States, 1758 London, 
1842 ; writer. 

Anglebert (dan-glu-biir), J. Bapt. H. 
d 1 , 1628 (?) Paris, 1691 ; court-cla- 
vicembalist to Louis XIV. 

Animuccia(an-e-moot'-cha), (r) Giov., 
Florence, ca. 1500 Rome, March, 
1571 ; wrote the first Laudi spirituali 
for the lectures of Neri in the oratory 
of S. Philippe, has hence been called 
"Father of Oratorio"; he was Pa- 
lestrina's predecessor as conductor at 
the Vatican. (2) Paolo, d. Rome, 
1563, bro. of above. 

Ankerts, D'. Vide BANKERS, GHISE- 


Anna Amalia. Vide AMALIA. 

Annibale (an-nt-ba'-le), (i) (called Ii 
Padova'no, or Patavi'nus, from 
Padua, where he was born in the 
I5th cent.) organist and composer. 
(2) Domenico, Italian sopranist in 
London, 1756. 

Ansani (an-sa'-ne). Giovanni, b. Rome, 
i8th cent.; dram, tenor. 

Anschiitz (an'-shiits), (i) Jn. And., 
Coblenz, 17721858; pianist. (2) 
K., Coblenz, 1815 New York, 1870; 
son of above ; cond. and composer. 

Anselrn of Parma (Anselmus Par- 
mensis), b. Parma, 1443 ; theorist. 

Antegnati (an-tan-ya'-tl), Costanzo, 
Brescia, ca. 1550 ca. 1620; organ- 
builder, etc. 

An'tico, Andrea. Vide ANTIQUUS, 


Antiquis (an'-te-kwes), Johannes (or 
Giovanni) de, I. 1574, Ban, Na- 
ples ; composer. 

Antiquus (an'-te-kwoos), Andreas (or 
A. de Antiquiis Venetus, or 
Andrea Antico), b. Montana 
(Istria), I5th cent.; music-printer in 

Anton (an'-ton), Konrad G., Lauban, 
Prussia, 17461819; writer. 

Anto'nio da Bologna (bo-lon'-ya), 
1543 ; organist and composer. 

Antony (an'-to-ne), (i) Joseph, 1758 
1836; writer and composer. (2) 
Fz. Jos., Miinster, Westphalia, 


!7go 1836; son of above; organ- 
ist, conductor, and composer. 
Apel (a'-pel), Jn. Aug., Leipzig, 1771 

1816; writer. 

Apell (S-peT), Jn. D. von, Cassel, 
1754 1833 ; conductor and dram, 
Apol'lo, Greek sun-god, and god of 


Appel (ap'-pel), K., b. Dessau, 1812; 
violinist, court-leader, composed 
opera Die Raiiberbraut (Dessau, 
1840), and humorous male quartets. 
Appun (ap-poon'), G. A, I., Hanau, 
1816 1885 ; versatile performer on 
nearly every instr. ; writer on and ex- 
perimenter in acoustics; made an 
harmonium of 53 degrees to the oc- 

Aprile (a-pre'-le), Gius, Bisceglia, 
1738 Martins, 1814 ; celebrated con- 
tralto musico and vocal teacher; 
writer and composer. 
Ap'thorp, W. Foster, b. Boston, 
Mass., Oct. 24, 1848. Harvard, '69, 
studied piano, harmony, cpt. with J. 
K. Paine, and B. J. Lang ; teacher 
of theory, and for many years distin- 
guished critic and writer on music; 
author of "Hector Berlioz ' y "Musi- 
cians and Music-Lovers^ and other 
Essays"; " By the Way, About Mu- 
sic and Musicians" (1899) ; "Opera 
and Opera Singers " (1901), etc. 
Aptom'mas, (i) John, (2) Thomas, 
brothers; b. Bridgend, England, 1826, 
and 1829; harp-players and teach- 

Araja (a-ra'-ya), Fran., Naples, ca. 
1700 Bologna, ca. 1770; dram, 
composer; composed the first opera 
written in Russian. 

Aranaz (ar-a-nath'), Pedro, d. Cuen- 

ca, Spain, 1825 ; priest and composer. 

Aranda d' (da-ran'-dha), Pasha, b. 

Spain ; contemporary court-conductor 

to the sultan with rank of General de 


Aranda (a-ran'-da), Matheo de, 

Portuguese prof, of mus. (1544). 
Arando (dar-an'-do), del Sessa d', 
Italian composer, i6th cent. 

Arauxo (a-ra-ooks'-6) (or Araujo (a- 
ra'-oo'-ho)), Francisco Correa de, 

ca. 1581 Segovia, 1663 ; bishop, the- 

Arban (ar-ban), Jos. J. Bap. Lau- 
rent, Lyons, 1825 Paris, 1889; 
cornet-virtuoso ; teacher at Paris Con- 

Arbeau, Thoinot (twa-no ar-b5). 

Ar'buckle, Matthew, 1828 New 
York, 1883 ; cornetist and bandmas- 

Ar'cadelt, Jacob (or Jachet Arka- 
delt, Archadet, Arcadet, Harca- 
delt), 1541 bet. 1570-75 ; distin- 
guished Flemish composer and teach- 
er; 1540, singer in Paris; 1557, 
Regius musicus ; composed masses, 

Arcais (dar-ka-es), Fran., Marchese 
d', Cagliari, Sardinia, 1830 near 
Rome, 1890 ; writer and composer. 

Archadet (Vcha-da'). Vide AKCA- 

Archambeau (dar'-shan-bo), J. Mi- 
chel d', b. Herve, Belgium, March 
3, 1823 ; organist and composer. 

Ar'cher, Fredk., Oxford, England, 
June 16, 1838 Pittsburg, Pa., Oct. 
22, 1901 ; pupil of his father ; stud- 
ied in London and Leipzig; or- 
ganist and opera-director in London; 
1881, organist of Plymouth Church, 
Brooklyn, later in New York ; 1887, 
conductor of Boston Oratorio Soc.; 
1895-98, Pittsburg (Pa.) Orchestra ; 
composed cantata, organ-pieces, etc. 

Archy'tas, Tarentum, ca. 400365, 
B.C.; Greek mathematician. 

Arditi (ar-dc'-te), (i) Michele, Mar- 
chese, Naples, 17451838; com- 
poser. (2) Luigi, b. Crescentino, 
Piedmont, July 16, 1822; pupil of 
Milan Cons. ; violinist, then director 
of opera, 1843, Milan, Turin, and 
Havana, lie visited New York with 
the Havana opera company; has 
since travelled widely. Composed 
3 operas, vocal waltzes, // Bacio, 
etc.; wrote "My Reminiscences" 
(London, 1896). 


Arefls (a'-rens), Fz. Xavier, b. near 
the Mosel, Germany, Oct. 28, 1856; 
came to America early in youth ; pu- 
pil of jis father, and of Rheinberger, 
etc.; conductor, organist; composer 
of symphonic fantasia, etc. 

Arensky (a-ren'-shM), Anton Step- 
anovitch, b. Novgorod, Russia, 
July 30, 1862 ; composer and pianist; 
pupil of Johanssen and Rimsky-Kor- 
sakov; Prof. Imp. Cons. Moscow, 
and conductor Imperial Court Choir ; 
composed a symphony, 4 suites for 
orch., i-act opera Rafaello, string 
quartets, concerto for piano, etc., in- 
cluding " Essais sur des rythmes 0- 
ttits" f. pf. 4 hands. 

Aretino. Vide GUIDO D'AREZZO. 

Argine (dal ar'-je-ne'), Constantino 
dall', Parma, 1842 Milan, 1877; 
composed pop. operas and ballets. 

Aria (a'-rf-a), Cesare, Bologna, 1820 
1894; singing-teacher. 

Aribo (a-re'-bo), Scholas'ticus, d. ca. 
1078 ; probably from the Nether- 
lands; writer. (Gerbert.) 

Arien'zo (dar-t-en'-tso), Nicola d', b. 
Naples, Dec. 24, 1843 (or '42) ; 
composed 5 operas in Neapolitan dia- 
lect, Monzu Gnazio (Naples, 1860), 
and / Due Mariti (Naples, i860, 
the most successful, realistic and orig- 
inal; also an oratorio, a Pensiero 
Sinfonico, overtures, etc.; wrote a 
treatise (1879) advocating pure in- 
tonation instead of temperament, and 
a third mode (the Minor Second), be- 
sides the usual major and minor. 

A'rion, partly traditional Greek singer 
and lyrist (7th cent., B.C.); hence, the 
name of a vocal society. 

Arios'ti, Attilio, Bologna, 1660 ca. 
1740; composed 15 operas; 1716 a 
rival of Buononcini, and of Handel ; 
in London in 1720, the three com- 
posed the opera Muzio Scaevola. 

Aristi'des Quintilia'nus, Greek teach- 
er and writer on music, ca. 160. 

Ar'istotle, (i) Stagyra, 384 B.C. 
322 B.C.; Greek philosopher, whose 
works include valuable information 
concerning Greek music, (2) Pseu- 

donym of a writer on mensurable 
music, I2th I3th cent. 

Aristox'enos, b. Tarentum, ca. 354 
B.C.; one of the first Greek writers on 

Armbrust (arm'-broost), K. F., Ham- 
burg, 1849 Hanover, 1896; teacher 
and critic. 

Armbruster (arm'-broo-ste'r), K., b. 
Andernach-on-Rhine, July 13, 1846 ; 
pupil of Hompesch ; pianist and lect- 
urer; Hans Richter's assistant con- 
ductor at the Wagner concerts, 1882- 
84 ; later conducted at various Lon- 
don theatres. 

Armes, Philip, b. Norwich, England, 
1836; Mus. Doc. Oxon, 1864; or- 
gan composer. 

Armingaud (aY-man-go), Jules, b. Ba- 
yonne, May 3, 1820 ; was refused ad- 
mission to the Paris Cons, at 19 since 
he was " too far advanced" ; leader 
of a string quartet enlarged to the 
Societ^ Classique ; said to have intro- 
duced Beethoven's quartets into Paris. 

Arnaud (ar-no), (i) Abbe Fran., Au- 
bignan, 1721 Paris, 1784; writer. 
(2) J. Et. Guil., Marseilles, 1807 
Jan., 1863 ; composer. 

Arne (am), (i) Dr. Thomas Augus- 
tine, London, March 12, 1710 March 
5, 1778 ; by secret nightly practice he 
learned the spinet and violin, his fa- 
ther wishing him to study law ; 1736, 
m. Cecilia Young, a favourite singer 
of Handel's ; 1738, he was composer 
to the Drury Lane Th. and set Dai- 
ton's adaptation of Milton's Comus j 
in his masque A If 'red (1740) is " Rule 
Britannia " ; in Dublin (1742-44) he 
produced two operas, Britannia and 
Eliza, and a musical farce Thomas 
and Sally ; 1745, composer to Vaux- 
hall Gardens, London ; set to mu- 
sic the songs in As You Like It, 
" Where the Bee Sucks" in The 
Tempest, etc.; Mus. Doc. Oxon, 
1759 ; he was the first to use female 
voices in oratorio-choruses (Judith] ; 
composed 2 oratorios, many masques, 
orch. overtures, vln. -sonatas, organ- 
music, harpsichord-sonatas, glees, 



catches, canons, etc. (2) Michael, 
London, 1741 Jan. 14, 1786 (not 
1806) ; natural son of above ; con- 
ductor and dram, composer. 

Arneiro (dar-na'-e-ro), Jose Aug. 
Ferreira Veiga, Viscount d', b. 
Macao, China, Nov. 22, 1838. of 
Portuguese parents; composed 2 

Arnold (ar'-n6lt), (i) G., b. Welds- 
berg, Tyrol, I7th cent.; organist. 

r (2) Samuel, London, 17401802; 
organist Westminster Abbey. (3) Jn. 
Gottf., near Oehringen, 1773 
Frankfort, 1806; 'cellist, etc. (4) 
Ignaz Ernst Fd., Erfurt, 1774 
1812 ; writer. (5) K., near Mergen- 
theim, WUrtemberg, 1794 Christia- 
nia, 1873 ; son of (3) J. G. ; pianist 
and composer. (6) K., b. St. Peters- 
burg, 1820 ; son of (5) ; 'cellist in 
Royal Orch. ; studied Stockholm. 
(7) Fr. W., near Heilbronn, 1810 
Elberfeld, 1864 ; collector and com- 
poser. (8) Yourij von, St. Peters- 
burg, i8n Simferopol, Crimea, 
1898; singing-teacher and dram, 
composer. (9) Richard, b. Eilen- 
burg, Jan. 10, 1845 ; at 8 taken to U. 
S.; pupil of Fd. David, 1869-76 ; 1st 
violinist of Theo. Thomas' orch., 
1878 ; leader New York Philh. Club, 
1891 ; ^ 1897, organised a sextet. (10) 
Maurice (real name Strothotte), b. 
St. Louis, Jan. 19, 1865 ; pupil of 
his mother; then at the Cincinnati 
Coll., 1883 ; Vierlingand Urban, Ber- 
lin ; Cologne Cons, and Max Bruch, 
Breslau ; lived St. Louis, then New 
York as teacher in the Nat. Cons, and 
pupil of Dvorak; composed notable 
"Plantation Dances" a "Dramatic 
Overture" 2 comic operas, etc. Wrote 
" Some Points on Modern Orchestra- 
tion? (n) Hubert, talented violin- 
ist; lives in N. Y. 

Ar'noldson, (i) Oscar, 1843 (?) 
Stockholm, 1881 ; tenor. (2) Sigrid, 
b. Stockholm, ca. 1865, daughter of 
above; operatic soprano; pupil of 
Maurice Strakosch ; debut, Moscow, 
1886 ; has sung in Europe and Amer- 

ica with success, particularly in Rus- 
sia ; m. Alfred Fischof ; lives in Paris, 
singing at the Op. Com., 1901-2. 

Arnould (ar-noo), Madeleine Sophie, 
Paris, 17441803; soprano, created 
Gluck's "IpkigJnie." 

Ar'nulf von St. Gillen, isth cent.; 
theorist. (Gerbert.) 

Arquier (iir-kK-a'), Jos., Toulon, 1763 
Bordeaux, 1816 ; 'cellist and dram, 

Arrhen (ar'-en), V. K., Swedish song- 
composer ; early part of igth cent. 

Arriaga y Balzola (dar-rf-a'-ga ebaT- 
tho-la), Juan C. J. A. d'. Bilboa, 

Arrieta (ar-rf-a'-ta), J. Emilio, Puenta 
la Reina, 1823 Madrid, 1894 ; dram, 

Arrigo (ar-re'-go), Tedesco (Henry 
the German), pseud, of Isaac, in 

Arrigoni (ar-re-go'-ne), Carlo, Flor- 
ence, ca. 1705 Tuscany (?) ca. 1743 ; 
lutenist and composer, rival in Lon- 
don to Handel. 

Arrange (laY-rorizh), Adolf 1', b, 
Hamburg, March 8, 1838 ; pupil of 
Genee, and! at Leipzig Cons.; 1874, 
theatre-manager, Breslau ; composed 
comic operas, " Singspiek" etc. 

Artaria (ar-ta-re'-a), music publishing 
house in Vienna, founded by Carlo 
A., 1780. 

Artchibousheff (art-she'-boo-shef), 
Nicholas Vassilievitch, b. Tsars- 
koje-Sielo, Russia, March 7, 1858 ; 
lawyer, pianist and composer; pupil 
of Soloviev and Rimsky-Korsakov. 

Arteaga (ar-ta-ag'-a), Stefano, Ma- 
drid (?), 1730 (?) Paris, 1799 ; Span- 
ish Jesuit ; theorist. 

Ar'thur, Alfred, b. near Pittsburg, 
Pa., Oct. 8, 1844 ; studied in Boston; 
1869-71, tenor; since 1878 as choir- 
master, Cleveland, 0. ; conductor 
since 1873 Vocal Society; director 
Cleveland School of Music ; com- 
posed three operas, etc. 

Artot (5r-to), (i) Maurice Montag- 
ney (ancestor of a line of musicians 
named Montagney), Gray (Haute- 


39 1 

Saone), 1772 Brussels, 1829; band- 
master. (2) J. De"sire" M,, Paris, 1803 
St. Josse ten Noode, 1887 ; son of 
above ; horn-player and teacher. (3) 
Alex. Jos., son of Maurice, Brussels, 
1815 Ville-d'Avray, 1845; notable 
violinist and composer. (4) Margue- 
rite Josephine De*sire"e, b. Paris, 
July 21, 1835 ; daughter of (2) Jean- 
Desire ; dram.-soprano, pupil of Viar- 
dot-Garcia (1855-57); debut Brus- 
sels, 1857 ; sang Grand Opera, Paris, 
1858, etc., m. the Spanish baritone, 
Padilla, in 1869. 
Artschibuschew. Vide ARTSCHIBOUS- 

Artusi (ar-too'-ze), Gio7. M., Bologna 
ca. 15501613; canon and theo- 

Asantchevski (Asantschewski, 
Assantchevski) (a-sant-shef'-shki), 
Michael Pavlovitch, Moscow, 1838 
1 88 1 ; composer. 

Aschenbren'ner (a'-she'n-) Chr. H., 
Altstettin, 1654 Jena, 1732 ; violin- 
ist and court-conductor. 

Ascher (ash'-er), Jos., Groningen, Hol- 
land, 1829 London, 1869 ; pianist. 

Ash'down, Edwin, London music- 
publisher, succeeded (1884) Ashdown 
& Parry, who succeeded (1860) Wes- 
sel & Co. 

Ashe, Andrew, Lisburn, Ireland, ca. 
1759 London after 1822 ; flutist and 
conductor ; 1799 m arried Miss Comer, 
who, as Mrs. Ashe, was a public 
singer ; their two daughters were harp- 
ist and pianist. 

Ash'ley, (i) John, b. 1805 ; bassoonist 
and manager ; his three sons were (2) 
General, d. 1818, violinist. (3) 
Chas. Jane, 17731843, 'cellist and 
manager. (4) J. Jas., 17711815, 
organist and singing teacher. (5) J., 
"Ashley of Bath," 17801830, bas- 
soonist. (6) Richard, 17751837, 
London viola-player. 

Ash'ton, Algernon Bennet Lang- 
ton, b. Durham, England, Dec. 9, 
1859 ; pupil of Leipzig Conservatory, 
pf. teacher, R. C. M., London ; com- 

Ash'well, Thos., i6th cent., organist 
and composer in England. 

Asioli (as-e-o-le), Bonifacio, Cor- 
reggio, 17691832 ; at the age of 8 
he had composed 3 masses, 20 other 
sacred works, a harpsichord-concerto, 
a vln. concerto, with orch., and 2 
harp-sonatas for 4 hands ; pupil of 
Morigi ; successful cembalist, impro- 
viser ; his first opera buffa, La, Volu- 
bile (1785) was successful ; his opera 
Cinna, favourably received in 1793 ; 
prof, of cpt. at Milan Cons. 

Asola (or) Asula (a'-so-la), Giov. 
Mat., Verona ca. 1560 Venice, 
1609 ; church-composer. 

Aspa (a's'-pa), Mario, Messina, 1799 
1868 ; composed 42 operas. 

As'pull, G., 1814 (of consumption), 
Leamington, England, 1833 ; pianist 
and composer. 

Assantsheffsky. Vide ASANTCHEVSKI. 

Assmayer (as'-mi-er), Ignaz, Salz- 
burg, 1790 Vienna, 1862 ; conduc- 

Astarit'ta, Gennaro, Naples, ca. 1749 
1803 ; composed 20 operas. 

As'ton, Hugh, English organist and 
composer in reign of Henry VIII. 

Astorga (das-tor'ga), Emmamiele, 
Baron d', Palermo, 1681 Prague, 
1736 ; church-composer. 

Attaignant (it-tin' -ya'n), Pierre (also 
Attaingnant, Atteignant), i6th 
cent, music-printer. 

Attenhofer (at'-ten-h6f-er), K., b. 
Wettingen, Switzerland, May 5, 
1837 ; pupil of Leipzig Cons.; cond., 
organist, and teacher ; notable com- 
poser of male choruses. 

At'terbury, LufFmann, d. London, 
1796 ; ct.-mus. and composer. 

At'tey, J., d. Ross, England, ca. 1640 ; 

Attrup (at'-troop), K., b. Copenhagen, 
March 4, 1848 : pupil of Gade, whom 
he succeeded as organ-teacher Copen- 
hagen Cons.; composed studies for 

Att'wood, Thos., London, Nov. 23, 
1765 Chelsea, March 24, 1838 ; im- 
portant English composer ; chorister 

39 2 


and court-organist ; pupil of Mozart ; 
1796 organist St. Paul's Cathedral, 
composed 19 operas, anthems, sonatas 
for piano, etc. 

Auber (6-bar), Daniel Francois Es- 
prit, Caen, Normandy, Jan. 29, 1782 
Paris, May 14, 1871; notable 
opera-composer ; his father an art- 
dealer in Paris, sent him to London 
to learn the trade ; but in 1804 he re- 
turned to Paris ; composed opera 
Julie, produced by amateurs in 1812 
with an orch. of six stringed instrs. ; 
Cherubini heard of it, recognised A.'s 
talent and taught him ; 1842 dir. the 
Cons, of Music, Paris, as Cherubi- 
m's successor; 1857 imperial conduct- 
or to Napoleon III. A.'s first public 
productions were 2 unsuccessful 
operas ; La Berglre Chatelaine (1820) 
was a success ; before 1869, he com- 
posed over forty operas ; his one se- 
rious opera, Masanidlo ou la Muette 
de Portia (1828), with Meyerbeer's 
Robert h Diable and Rossini's Guil- 
lawm Tell, established French grand 
opera ; its vivid portrayal of popular 
fury caused riots in Brussels ; his 
comic operas (to Scribe's librettos) 
are the best of France ; his last opera 
Reves d" 1 Amour, was produced when 
he was 87 years old. Other operas 
are : La Marquise de Brinvillitrs 
(1831 with eight other composers), 
Le Domino Noir (1837), Zanetta 
(1840), Les Diamants de la Couronne 
(1841), La Sir em (1844), Haydte 
(1847), UEnfant Prodigue (1850), 
Zerline, Manon Lescaut (1856). 

Aubert (o-bar), (i) Jac. ("levieux"), 
b. 1668 Belleville, 1753 ; violinist. 
(2) Louis, 1720 after 1771 ; son of 
above ; violinist, etc. (3) T. Fran. 
Olivier, b. Amiens, 1763 ; 'cellist 
and composer. 

Aubery du Boulley (5-ba-re' du bool- 
le"), Prudent-L., Verneuil, Eure, 
17961870 ; teacher and composer. 

Audran (6-dran), (i) Marius-P., Aix, 
Provence, 1816 Marseilles, 1887 ; ist 
tenor at the Paris Opera-Comique. 
(2) Edmond, Lyons, April n, 

1842 Tierceville, n. Gisors, Aug. 
17, 1901 ; son of above ; pupil of 
Ecole Niedermeyer, Paris; Marseilles, 
1862, his first opera ; produced 36 
others, chiefly of a light character. 
Among his most pop. works are, OU- 
vette, La Mascotte (iSSo), given over 
1700 times ; MissIIelyt'tt, La Poupte, 

Auer (ow'-er), (T) Ld., b. Vcszprem, 
Hungary, May 28, 1845; vln. -virtuoso; 
pupil of Khonetol at Pesth, of Dont, 
Vienna, then of Joachim ; soloist to 
the Czar, who conferred on him the 
order of St. Vladimir, carrying hered- 
itary nobility ; violin-Prof, at the St. 
Petersburg Cons. (2) Carl, vide 


Au'gener & Co., London firm of 
music pub., founded by G. A., 1853. 

Auletta (a-oo-lct'-ta), (i) Dom., 
dram, composer, Maples, 1760. (2) 
Pietro, ct.-cond., 1728-52 ; prod, n 

Aulin (ow'-len), Tor, b. Stockholm, 
Sept. 10, 1866 ; violinist ; pupil of 
Sauret and Ph. Scharwenka ; from 
1889 Konzertmeistcr Stockholm, 
court-opera ; 1887 organised the 
Aulin Quartet. 

Aulnaye, de 1*. Vide DE L'AULNAYE. 

Aurelia'nus Reomen'sis, gth cent, 
theorist. (Gerbert.) 

Aurenhammer (ow-ren-ham-mer), 
Josepha, 17761814; pianist. 

Aus der Ohe (ows'-der o'-e), Adele, 
contemporary pianist ; pupil of 
Kullak and Liszt ; composed 2 piano 
suites, concert etude, etc. Has toured 
widely with great success. 

Auspitz-Kolar (ow'-shpfls-ko-lar 1 ), 
Auguste, Prague, ca. 1843 Vienna, 
1878 ; pianist and composer. 

Auteri-Manzocchi (a-oo-ta'-rf man- 
tsok'-ke), Salv., b. Palermo, Dec. 25, 
1845 ; pupil of Platania at Palermo, 
and Mabellini at Florence ; com- 
posed successful operas, among them 
Grazialla (Milan, 1894) ; lives in 

Auvergne (do-vCrn), A. d', Clermont- 
Ferrand, Oct. 4, 1713 Lyons, Feb. 


f(6) Johannes 
(1604-1673), town 
musician at Er- 
furt and com- 

(1) Hans Bach, 
b. Wechmar, n. 
Gotha, 1561; 
had 3 sons, 

(2) Caspar ? and 

(3) Veit Bach ; 
son of above, 
a baker who 
played the cyth- 
ringen (the 
zither?); he had 
2 sons, 

(4) Lips B,, 

d. 1620, and 

(5) Hans B., 
called "the 
player" (der 
bpielmann), a 
carpet- weaver 
and strolling vio- 
linist. His three 
sons were : 

(7) Jn. Christoph 
(1613-1661), court 
org. at Eisenach ; 
c. organ pieces. 

(( 9 ) Jn. Christian (1640-1732) 
(10) Jn. Aegidius (i6 45 -i 7 i 7)i 
town mus. at Erfurt ; c. a Q. 
part motet for double choir 

6) Jn- B 

Nov. 23. it 
?, 1789). < 
1703, as s 
( I4) ; cem 
Saxe - tist 
guifahed or, 
nent even 
asac., his 
maining in 
Jn. Sebasti 
ii 7 )Jn.Chn 
succ. to in! 

(8) H e i n r i c h 
(Wechmar, 1615- 
Arnstadt, 1692), 
org. at Amstadt ; 
c. organ-pcs. and 

(n) Georg Christoph (Eisen- 
ach, 1642-1697), cantor at 
Schweinfurt ; c. motet for 2 
tenors and bass with 3 'celli, 
violin and bass. 

(12) Jn. Christoph (Erfurt, 
Feb. 22, 164 5- Arnstadt, 1694), 
court-vt. and Stadtpfeifer at 
Arnstadt from 1671. 

(13) Jn. Ambrosius (Erfurt, 
i645-Eisenach, 1695), org. (18) Jn. C 
and twin of Jn. Chs., June 16, 
whom he so much resembled 22, 1721). 
that the wives of the two taught hi 
could not distinguish them ex- chord, 
cept by the colour of their (19) Jn. 

* garb. V 1750) (vie 

(14) Jn. Christoph (Arnstadt, 
1642 (or '43)-Eisenach, March 
31, 1703), chief Bach of this 
generation, court and town- (20) Jn.N 
mus. at Eisenach, 1665-1703; eldest of 
many MSS. extant (in the own son 
Bach archives and the Berlin Jena, an 
Royal^ Library) of beautiful c. J insts. ; a 
including a wedding hymn for equal I 
is voices, "s erh-uf sick tin D. D.); 
Strcit" a motet for 22 voices and a co 
for the festival of St. Michael, college-li 
an oratorio-like work, greatly > VVein- u 
admired, produced by Jn. 
Sebastian; and other motets 

for 4 and 8 ; a sarabande with 
variations, etc. 

(15) Jn. Michael (Arnstadt, 

Aug. 9, i648-Gehren, May, (21) Jn. L 

1694), org. and town clerk at cond. at 

Gehren ; maker of violins, ingen ; 

harpsichords, etc. ; as a c. choirs (ir 

was better liked than his elder (22) M ari 

brother, but now placed below 1 720) ; 

him for inferior form; had 6 daughtei 

children; c. motets, fugues, bastian 1 
preludes, etc., of much feel- 

) Jn. Bernhard (Erfurt, 
Jov. 23. i676-Eisenach, June 
, 1789), org. at Eibenach, 
703, as succ. of Jn. Chp 
14); cembalist to Duke of _ 
>axe - Eisenach, a distin- " 
;uished organist and promi- 
lent even among the Bachs 
s a c., his orchestral suits re- 
naining in the copy made by 
n. Sebastian. 
) Jn. Christoph (1685-1717), 

("(23) Jn. Ernest (1722- 
1777 (or "81)). a lawyer, 
then org. at Eisenach ; 
1756 honorary cond. at 
Weimar; c. sonatas for 

lice. LU iiia latiici ctt Hiriurt. 

f(24) Wm. Friedmann 

(Weimar, Nov. 22, 1710- 
Berlin, July i, 1784), 
;* Bach of Halle," brill- 

i a n t mathematician, 

virtuoso and musician ; 

org. at Dresden and at 

Halle (1747-1764). His 

great gifts did not keep 

him from losing his post 
through dissipation, 

and dying in want ; his 

c. show great facility. 

(25) Karl Phil. Eman- 

uel (1714-1788), vide 

special article. 

(28) Wm. Fr. 
Ernst (Biicke- 

burg, May 27, 

1759 - Berlin, 

Dec. 25, 1845); 

8) Jn. Christoph (Erfurt, 
June 16, i67i-Ordruff, Feb. 

(26) Jn. Christoph, 

studied with his 
father and uncle 

22, 1721), org. at Ordruff . 
taught his brother the clavi- 
9) Jn. Sebastian (1685- 
1750) (vide special aiticle). 

Fr. (Leipzig, June 29, 
i732-Buckeburg, Jan. 
26, 1795), " the Bu'cke- 
burg Bach , " studied 
law, then took up 

in London ; org. 
and teacher 
there; 1782, 
Paris; 1789, 
cond. to Fr. 

music ; cond. at Biicke- 

Wm. II. at Ber- 

burg ; c. oratorio Res- 

lin and music- 

urrection of Lifizarus^ 

master to Royal 

sacred cantatas, the- 

Family ; c. can- 

o) Jn. Nicolaus (1669-1753), 
eldest of Jn. Chp.'s sons ; his 

atrical cantata "Pyg- 
malion" an opera 

tatas, songs, etc., 
little of it pub. ; 

own sons all died; org. at 

* 4 D i e A 

left a daughters, 

Jena, and mf. and improved 

erinj' etc. 

but no sons, so 

insts. ; active in furthering 

that with him 

equal temperament (vide 

the lineage end- 

D. D.); c. suites, motets, 
and a comic opera based on 

(27) Jn. Christian!, ed. 
(Leipzig, Sept., 1735- 

college-life, " Der Jenaiscke 
Wein- und Bicr-Rufer." 

London, Jan. i, 1782), 
" the Milanese " or 

"the English Bach"; 

studied with his broth- 

er, K. P. E. B. 1754, 

org. Milan cathedral; 

1759, concert-dir. Lon- 

n) Jn. Ludwig (1677-1730), 

don and mus. master 

cond. at court of Saxe Mein- 

to the Royal Family; 

ingen; c. requiem for 2 
choirs (in Berlin R. Library). 

c. elegant pianoforte 
comp., good sacred 

12) Maria Barbara (1684- 

music and popular op- 

1720) ; youngest of five 

eras, the first " Orione" 

daughters; married Jn, $e- I (1763). 

bastian B. (No. 19), 


12, 1797; violinist and dram, com- 

Aventi'nus, Jns* (rightly Thurnmay- 
er, or Turmair), Abensberg (whence 
Aventinus), July 4, 1477 Jan. 9, 
1534; writer. 

A'very, J., d. England, 1808 ; organ- 

Av'ison, Chas., Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
1710 May g, 1770 ; organist, writer 
and composer ; vide Robert Brown- 
ing's " PARLEYINGS." 

Avoglio (a-vol'-yo), Italian so- 
prano in England, 1741. 

Aylward (al'-ward), Th., ca. 1730 
1801 ; teacher and composer. 

Ayrer (i'-rer), Jakob, lived in Ger- 
many 1618 ; reformed the SingspieL 
(Vide D. D.) 

Ayrton (ar'-ttin), (i) Edm,, Ripon, 
Yorks, 1734 Westminster, 1808 ; 
composer. (2) W., London, 1777 
1858 ; son of above; writer and ed- 

Ayton (a'-tun), Fanny, b. Maccles- 
field, 1806 ; English dram, singer. 

Azzopardi (ad-zo-par'-de), Frances- 
co, conductor and theorist at Malta, 

Azvedo (ath-va'-dho), Alexis Jacob, 
Bordeaux, 1813 Paris, 1875 ; writer. 


Baader (ba'-d^r), K., viola-player, 
lived in Vienna and Liverpool, re- 
tired 1869. 

Baban (ba'-ba"n), Gracian, cathe- 
dral conductor and composer, Valen- 
cia, 1650-65. 

Ba'bell, Wm., ca. 1690 Canonbury, 
England, 1723 ; organist, teacher and 
composer ; son of a bassoon-player. 

Babbi (bab'-be), Christoph (or Cris- 
toforo), Cesena, 1748 Dresden, 
1814 ; violinist and composer. 

Babini (ba-be'-ne), Mat., Bologna, 
17541816 ; tenor ; debut, 1780. 

Bacchi'us (Senior), ca. ISOA.D., Greek 

Baccusi (bak-koo'-se), Ippolito, monk ; 

composer and cathedral cond., Ve- 
rona, 1590. 

Bac'fart (or Bacfarre), Valentin 
(rightly Graew (grav)), Transylvania, 
1515 Padua, 1576; lutenist and 

Bach (bakh), the name of a Thurin- 
gian family prominent for two centu- 
ries in music and furnishing so many 
organists, Kapellmeisters and cantors 
that town musicians were called ' ' the 
Bachs," after them. See the CHART* 
(19) Bach, Jn, Sebastian, Eisenach, 
March 21, 1685 Leipzig, July 28, 
1750 ; youngest son of Jn. Ambro- 
sius B. and Elizabeth (ne'e Lam- 
merhit), of Erfurt (vide CHART OF 
'BACKS) ; both parents died when he 
was 10, his father having begun teach- 
ing him the violin. He went to the 
home of his brother Jn. Christoph, 
who taught him the clavichord, but 
forbade him inspection of a MS. vol. of 
works by Frohberger, Buxtehude, etc., 
obtaining it secretly B. copied it by 
moonlight for 6 months, though near- 
sighted, with results fatal to his eyes 
in later life. This desire to study 
other men's work characterised his 
whole career. At 15 his fine soprano 
voice secured him free tuition at St. 
Michael's Ch. in Llineberg (he hav- 
ing already attended the Ohrdruff 
Lyceum). He went on foot on holi- 
days to Hamburg to hear the great 
Dutch organist Reinken, and at Celle 
he heard the French instr. music used 
in the Royal Chapel He studied 
also the work of Bb'hm, organist at 
Ltlneberg, and practised violin, clavi- 
chord and org. often all night ; 1703, 
in the Weimar ct.-orch. ; 1704, or- 
ganist at Arnstadt ; 1705, walked 50 
miles to Liibeck to hear Buxtehude, 
and stayed till a peremptory recall from 
the Church at Arnstadt ; 1707, organ- 
ist at Muhlhausen. On Oct. 17, he 
m. Maria Barbara Bach, his cousin, 
who bore him 7 children, of whom 
4 died, leaving a daughter, Wm. 
Friedemann, and K. P. E. (See 
below.) 1708, he played before the 



Duke at Weimar, and was made ct- 
organist ; 1714 Konzertmeister. In 
his vacations he made clavichord and 
org. tours. 1714, he furnished the 
organ-music for a service conducted 
in the Thomaskirche, Leipzig, and 
produced a cantata. Dresden, 1717, 
he challenged Marchand, a French 
organist of high reputation, who was 
afraid to compete. 1717 Kapellmeis- 
ter to Prince Leopold of Anhalt, at 
Kothen, and composed much orch.- 
and chamber-music. In 1719 he re- 
visited Halle, to meet Handel, but he 
had just gone to England. 1720, his 
wife died. He applied for the organ of 
the Jacobskirche, Hamburg. B. was 
now famous, but a young rival offered 
to pay 4,000 marks for the place and 
got it. In 1721 he m. Anna Magda- 
lene Wtilken, daughter of the ct.- 
trumpeter at Weissenfels. She bore 
him 13 children, 9 of them sons, of 
whom only 2 survived him : Jn., 
Christoph, Fr., and Jn. Christian. 
His second wife had a fine voice and 
musical taste, and wrote out the parts 
of many of his cantatas ; for her he 
prepared 2 books of music. In May, 
1723, cantor at the Thomasschule, 
Leipzig, vice Jn. Kiihnau; also or- 
ganist and dir. of mus. at the Thom- 
askirche and the Nicolaikirche, con- 
tinuing as " Kapellmeister vom Haus 
aus." to Prince Leopold. He was 
made, 1736, hon. cond. to the Duke 
of Weissenfels, and court-composer 
to the King of Poland, and Elector 
of Saxony. He kept his place at 
Leipzig for twenty-seven years, and 
there wrote most of his sacred music. 
He often visited Dresden, where he 
could hear the Italian opera, cond. by 
Hasse. Frederick the Great having 
asked to hear him, on May 7, 1747, 
with his son Wilhelm Friedemann, B. 
arrived at Potsdam. He improvised 
upon the various Silbermann pianos 
in the palace, followed from room to 
room by the king and his musicians. 
The next day he tried the principal 
organs in Potsdam, improvising a 6- 

part fugue on a theme proposed by 
the king. He afterward wrote a 3- 
part fugue on this theme, a Ricercare 
in 6 parts, several canons inscribed 
" Thematis regii elaborationes canon- 
icae,"and a trio for flute, violin, and 
bass, dedicating the " Musikalisches 
Opfer " to the king. 1749, ^ wo oper- 
ations to restore his sight, weakened 
by copying his own and other men's 
works and engraving his" Art of 
Fugue," left him totally blind and 
ruined his previous vigour. His sight 
was suddenly restored, July 10, 1750 ; 
but 10 days later he died of apoplexy. 
He dictated the choral " Vor del- 
nen Thron tret 1 ich hiemit, shortly 
before his death. 

Among his distinguished pupils were 
Krebs, Homilius, Agricola, Kirnber- 
ger, Goldberg, Marpurg; J. Kasper 
Vogler ; Altnikol, his son-in-law, and 
his sons, for whom he wrote the 
" Klavierbuchldn" and the " JCunst 
der Fuge" He engraved on copper ; 
invented the "viola pomposa" and 
the " Lauten-ClavicembaUim " ; he 
advocated equal temperament (vide 
D. D.), tuning his own pianos and writ- 
ing "jDas Wohlttmperirte Klavier" to 
further the cause. This work (known 
in English as " The well-tempered 
Clavichord" or " The 48- Fugues") 
is a set of 48 preludes and fugues, 
two of each to each key, major and 
minor. The works are very chromatic 
and use the keys enharmonically. 
Some of his improvements in finger- 
ing still survive. Bach was little 
known as a composer during his life, 
and few of his works were published 
then. He was not indeed established 
on his present pinnacle till Mendels- 
sohn took up his cause, in 1829 ; 
Franz was also an important agent in 
preparing his scores for general use. 
In 1850, a hundred years after his 
death, the BACH-GESELLSCHAFT be- 
gan to publish his complete works. 
Many other Bach societies now exist. 
B's. enormous list of works includes : 
VOCAL, 5 sets of church Cantatas for 


Sundays and feast-days, " Gottcs Zeit 6 " small " French suites ; 6 "large " 
ist die beste Zeit" etc., secular be- English suites ; Preludes and Fugues, 
trothal cantatas, 2 comic cantatas, the incl. ' 'Das Wohltemperirte Klavier " y 
"Bauern Cantate " and ' ' Coffee-Can- pf .-sonatas with instrs. , incl. 6 famous 
tate" a protest against the excessive sonatas for pf. and vln. ; solo son- 
use of the beverage, and Trauerode, atas for vln. and 'cello ; solos, trios, 
on the death of the Electress of Sax- etc., for various combinations of 
ony; 5 Passions, incl. the St. Mat- instrs., concertos for I to 4 pfs., vln. 
then), the St. John, and the St. Luke and other instrs. , concertos with orch. 
(doubtful) ; a Christmas Oratorio, in overtures and suites, and fantasias, 
5 parts ; 4 small masses and the toccatas, preludes, fugues, and chor- 
Grand Mass in B min. ; motets ; 2 ale-arrangements for organ. The 
Magnificats; 5 Sanctus. INSTRU- best biography of B. is by Spitta 
MENTAL, numerous pieces for clav- (Leipzig, 1873-80, 2 vols.; Eng. 
ichord : inventions in 2 and 3 parts ; transl,, London, 1884-85). 

The Art of Johann Sebastian Bach. 


FOR more than a century before J. S. Bach came upon the scene, a 
succession of exceptionally gifted and earnest composers had been hard 
at work developing the methods and style of organ-music. Andrea 
Gabrieli and his nephew Giovanni Gabrieli and Claudio Merulo in Venice 
and Ian Pieterzoon Swelinck in Amsterdam had already done much to define 
its true sphere and style before the era of pure choral-music was ended. The 
early years of the seventeenth century saw Frescobaldi in the zenith of his 
fame, and his pupil Froberger following worthily in his footsteps ; and through- 
out the century rapid progress in the accumulation of artistic methods and the 
development of true instrumental forms was made by such famous organists as 
Scheldt, Scheidemann, Pachelbel, Muffat, Reinken, and Buxtehude. And 
when it is considered that this branch of art already enjoyed an advantage 
over the new secular form of art which began to be cultivated at the end of 
the sixteenth century, through having its foundation securely laid in the old 
style of sacred choral-music, it seems natural that by the beginning of the 
eighteenth century it should appear to be the most mature of all the branches of 
art then cultivated. ^[These circun stances had profound and far-reaching 
influence upon J. S. Bach's musical character. In unravelling the secrets of 
art he was naturally attracted by that branch which possessed methods most 
fully developed for the formulation of the artistic impulses which were urging 
him to utterance. But the attraction was enhanced by the fact that organ- 
music had already become a kind of appanage of German composers, and 
had proved the one special form of art in which the fervent religion of Teutonic 
Protestants found the highest artistic expression. ^[ Hence it came about 


that, great as his powers were as a composer of choral-music and of suites 
and secular instrumental music, he was first and foremost a writer of organ- 
music, and inasmuch as organ-music was the only branch of art which was 
even approximately mature in his youthful and most impressionable days, the 
methods and diction of organ-music permeated and served as the foundation 
of his style in all branches of art which he attempted. In his earlier years 
he copied out and studied the works of great composers for the organ, and 
watched with critical appreciation the performances of great organists such as 
Reinken and Buxtehude. It is easy to trace in his own work the impression 
made on him by the interlinked suspensions of Frescobaldi and Froberger 
and by the vivacity of their fugue subjects ; by the treatment of chorale melo- 
dies with elaborate figuration of accompanying counterpoint in which Pachelbel 
excelled, by the copious picturesqueness of detail and the richness and emo- 
tional force of the harmonisation of Buxtehude. ^f He brought all such special- 
ities of earlier composers into the sphere of his own operations, and fused 
them into consistency by the force of his personality, and this assimilation be- 
came the foundation of his life's work. Most of his best organ-music, such 
as the sonatas, preludes, fugues, fantasias, canzonas and movements founded 
on chorales, and the great passacaglio in C minor, belong to comparatively 
early years, and his concentration on this branch of work was only relieved 
by the production of a few church cantatas, which showed that he had begun 
to consider other forms of art, in which in later years he attained such com- 
prehensive mastery. After many years spent in several organistships, came 
the singular central episode of his life, when the appointment as Capellmeister 
to the Prince of Anhalt-Cothen caused him to apply his mind almost exclu- 
sively for some years to secular instrumental music, mainly of a domestic kind. 
*f[He sought for his models and types of procedure in the suites and ordres 
of the French composers, such as Couperin and Dieupart ; and among the 
examples of the so-called French overture, which came into prominence in 
Lulli's operas, and had found such a brilliant imitator in Muffat. He 
studied also the instrumental compositions of the Italians, such as the con- 
certos of Vivaldi, and the sonatas for stringed instruments of other Italian 
composers such as Albinoni and Legrenzi and even German imitations of 
such works like Reinken' s " Hortus MM tut" ; and the outcome was a per- 
fect outpouring of suites and partitas for the domestic keyed instruments, solo 
sonatas for violin, flute, viole de gamba and concertos for strings and various 
combinations of orchestral instruments ; and last and perhaps most notable of 
all, the collection of the twenty -four preludes and fugues in all keys, which 
he calledas a sort of manifesto of his belief in the system of equal tempera- 
ment, which made all keys equally available for the purposes of the com- 
poser Das Wobltemperirte Ckwier" Underlying a very large pro- 


portion of the works of various kinds, even dance tunes or movements for a 
solo instrument like the violin, fugue principles of procedure are predominant. 
The lightest dance tunes have a contrapuntal texture, and in the more serious 
and artistic examples it is so woven as to display beautiful combinations of 
ornament and melodic designs, ingenious sophistications of accent and subtleties 
of rhythm such as are only possible in the style of instrumental counterpoint 
which had sprung up in the development of the artistic requirements of organ 
fugues. ^| In the famous collection of preludes and fugues, which he ultimately 
increased to forty-eight by the addition of a second collection, the style of in- 
strumental counterpoint which had been developed for organ-music found a 
new but most congenial sphere. As the works are written for the domestic 
keyed instruments such as the tender expressive clavichord, or the pict- 
uresque harpsichord, they necessarily illustrated different artistic intentions 
from such as characterised genuine organ-music. Large scope of design and 
powerful effects of tune were obviously out of place, and more subtle treat- 
ment and greater intrinsic interest of detail were inevitable. ^[Thus the 
fugue became much more compact than the organ-fugues, and the treatment 
of melodic line and expressive harmony more intimately human. The com- 
poser deals with more variety of style than in his organ-compositions, and 
many of the fugues may be taken as studies in human moods, such a play- 
fulness and gaiety, pathos and melancholy, contemplation and fervour, 
merriment, dignity, and confidence. The adaptation of known principles of 
artistic procedure to a purpose, at that time so novel, was characteristic of 
Bach's attitude toward art ; and this is as true of the preludes as of the 
fugues. The genealogy of the preludes may in some cases be traced back as 
far as the figurate preludes and little fantasias of such early types as were 
produced by the Elizabethan composers of virginal music and their con- 
temporaries in other countries ; though the form is enormously enhanced in 
J, S. Bach's hands by the skilful use of more definite and attractive figures, 
and a higher balance of organisation in each work. However, the forms of 
the preludes are extremely various. Some seem to be almost without prec- 
edent. As, for instance, the rapturous instrumental song with solo part and 
accompaniment all combined for one instrument. ^[Among the preludes are 
also a few of the rare anticipations of complete sonatas of the harmonic kind, 
movements with distinct contrast of key in the first half, "working out," 
and modulation in the central part, and a recapitulation of the concrete 
material of the opening portion to conclude with. These occasional excur- 
sions out of what seemed to be his most congenial ground, are often thoroughly 
successful, but all the same his venture into the Italian manner and the 
Italian type of form prove rather that he grasped their artistic meaning fully 
than that he believed in their efficiency as vehicles for the highest aspirations 


of the composer. In the latter part of his life J. S. Bach dealt more in the 
grand forms which bring into play the methods and resources of many 
subordinate forms of art, both instrumental and vocal such as the noble 
settings of the Passion, the masses especially the great one in B minor the 
work known as the " Christmas Oratorio" and the immense collection of 
church cantatas written for Sundays and festivals in the churches in Leipzig. 
In all of these branches of art he had precursors, and the types of various 
kinds had been explored. The Italian aria-form had been more or less 
transformed for German purposes before he gave it his own exceptional 
character and high artistic organisation, ^f The peculiar form of expressive 
recitative, so earnest and deeply emotional, which became a characteristic 
feature of German music and prefigured much in its latest dramatic mani- 
festations, had found worthy exposition. The treatment of chorales with 
rich harmonisation and elaborate part-writing and the development of the so- 
called motet choruses and choral fugues and even the peculiar contrapuntal 
treatment of the accompanying instruments had all found characteristic Ger- 
man exponents. Moreover, the form of Passion music had engaged the at- 
tention of composers for nearly two hundred years and had arrived at a 
considerable degree of development recently in the hands of Kuhnau, Keiser 
and Handel himself. But Bach's treatment of the scheme so immeasurably 
distanced all those who went before him that in later time his settings " ac- 
cording to St. Matthew " and " St. John " seem to stand almost alone in 
their pre-eminent glory. The same is the case with his church cantatas. 
^The best work even of such composers as Buxtehude and John Christophe 
Bach seems singularly bald by the side of the copious variety and the inven- 
tive vigour of his work of this kind. True it is that in all such cases, and 
even in such mighty phenomena as the choruses in the B minor mass, he 
built upon the foundation his predecessors supplied and with methods they 
had helped to make available, ^f His peculiar quality was to divine how the 
resources of art which he found in being could be applied to purposes so 
grand and comprehensive that it is difficult to realise that the methods were 
in truth the same as had been used by his forerunners. His artistic powers 
and insight were at such an immeasurably higher plane than those who pre- 
ceded him that music seems at once to have stepped out of childishness into 
maturity at his bidding. [[In a sense his work is final and isolated. His 
work stands alone as the summing-up of a long period of preparation ; and 
the summing-up in his characteristically Teutonic direction seemed so com- 
plete that nothing remained to be said in the lines which he had illustrated. 
No composer followed in his footsteps. Those who understood him saw 
that they could not approach him ; and the world in general wanted a more 
easy-going and accommodating standard of art. So the succeeding generation 


of composers cultivated the more plausible Italian manner and the easily manip- 
ulated Italian form. ^[It was not for a century that his style and methods be- 
gan to exert influence, and they came back to regenerate the world growing 
stale with the overpersistency of harmonic forms of the sonata order. ^"In- 
deed it was the rise of what was called the romantic movement which 
brought J. S. Bach back into the hearts of men, and made his ways of pro- 
cedure suggestive of new developments. The foremost prophets of the 
Romantic movement, Schumann and Chopin, were his most ardent admirers. 
^|To the Classicists the style of J. S. Bach had seemed somewhat archaic. 
But as men began to long for human expression in art and the greater elasticity 
of form which helps to closer characterisation of mood and feeling, the richness 
of possibilities and the greater pliancy of the forms Bach used became more 
and more apparent. At the same time the perfect adaptation of means to 
ends which his perfect self-containment manifest may serve as a corrective 
and a counterpoise in the turbulent times which follow the opening of the 
floodgates of dramatic passion. Those who cherish a constant love of the 
human art of John Sebastian Bach have still a guiding light which will not 
betray them. 

(25) Karl Philipp Emanuel ("the 
Berlin "or " Hamburg Bach "), Wei- 
mar, March (8?) 14, 1714 Hamburg 
(Sept. ?) Dec. 14, 1788. Son of above 
(vide CHART OF BACKS). Studied phi- 
losophy and law at Leipzig and 
Frankfort ; cond. a singing society at 
Frankfort, for which he composed. 
1737 (38 ?) in Berlin. Chamber-mus. 
and clavecinist to Frederick the Great, 
1746-57 [or 1740-67?]. 1757 Ham- 
burg as Ch. mus.-dir. ; 1767 as Musik- 
director of the principal church there, 
vice Telemann, a position held till 
death. He was one of the chief vir- 
tuosos of the day. He was the found- 
er of the modern school of piano- 
playing, and a pioneer of greatest 
importance in the sonata and sym- 
phony-forms and orchestration, his 
works having a graceful modernity 
not possessed even by most of his 
father's. He wrote '* Versuch iiber 
die wahr e Art das Clavier zu spie- 
Zen" (2 parts, 1753-62), an impor- 
tant work containing detailed expla- 
nations concerning ornaments. His 
very numerous comps. include 210 

solo pieces ; 52 concertos with orch. ; 
quartets, trios, duets, sonatas, son- 
atinas, minuets, polonaises, solfeggi, 
fugues, marches, etc., for clavier; 18 
symphonies ; 34 miscellaneous pieces 
for wind-instrs. , trios ; flute-, 'cello-, 
and oboe-concertos; soli for flute, 
viola di gamba, oboe, cello, and harp, 
etc., and 2 oratorios (" Die hraeliten 
in der Wtiste" and " Die Auftnteh- 
ung und Himmelfahrt /esu"), 22 
Passions ; cantatas, etc. 
(26) Aug. Wm., Berlin, 17961869 ; 
organist, teacher, and composer. (27) 
(Rightly Bak), Albert Ed., b. 
Gyula, Hungary, March 22, 1844; 
teacher, critic, writer and dram, bass ; 
debut, 1871. (28) (Dr.) Otto, Vienna, 
1833 Unter-Waltersdorf, 1893 ; con- 
ductor and composer. (29) Leon- 
hard Emil, b. Posen, March n, 
1849; pianist, pupil of Kullak, Wuerst 
and Kiel; 1874, court-pianist to 
Prince George of Prussia ; ca. 1890, 
London. Composed opera Irmen- 
gard (London, 1892) ; succ. i-act 
opera, The Lady of Longford (Lon- 
don, 1894) ; succ. i-act comic opera, 


Des Komgs Garde (Cologne, 1895), 

Bache (bach), (i) Francis Edw., Bir- 
mingham, 18331858 ; violinist. (2) 
Waiter, Birmingham, 1842 Lon- 
don, 1888, bro. of above ; pianist and 
teacher. (3) Constance, b. Birming- 
ham, sister and pupil of above ; pupil 
of Klindworth and Hartvigson ; since 
1883 teacher, translator, and com- 
poser in London. 

Bachmann (bakh'-mim), (i) Anton, 
1716 1800 ; court-musician at Ber- 
lin, instr. -maker ; inv. the machine- 
head. His son and successor, (2) 
Karl L., 17431800, court-violinist, 
player, married the pianist and singer 

(3) Charlotte Karoline Wilhel- 
mine Stowe, Berlin, 17571817. 

(4) Pater Sixtus, Ketterhausen, Ba- 
varia, July 18, 1754 Marchthal, near 
Vienna, 1818 ; organist and pianist of 
unusual precocity, and memory ; said 
to have played by heart over 200 
pieces at 9 ; at 12 equalled Mozart, 
then 10 years old, in organ-competi- 
tion, at Biberach ; became a Premon- 
strant monk, composed masses, etc. 

(5) G, Chr., Paderborn, 1804 Brus- 
sels, 1842 ; clarinet-maker, soloist and 
teacher. (6) Georges, ca. 1848 
Paris, 1894. (7) Gottlob, Bornitz, 
Saxony, 1763 Zeitz, 1840, organ- 

Bachpfen (bakh'-6f-en), Jn. Kaspar, 
Zurich, 1692 1755 ; organist. 

Bachrich (bakh'-rlkh), Sigismund, b. 
Zsambokreth, Hungary, Jan. 23, 
1841 ; violinist, pupil and now teach- 
er at Vienna Cons.; composed 4 
comic operas incl. Der Fucks-Major 
(Prague, 1889), etc. 

Ba(c)ker-Gr<5ndahl (bak'-er gron'-dal), 
Agathe, b. Holmestrand, Norway, 
Dec. I, 1847 ; pianist and composer ; 
pupil of Kjeralf , Billow and Liszt ; 
she married 1875, Grondahl, singing- 
teacher in Christiania. 

Backers, Americus. Vide BROAD- 

Back'ofen, Jn. G. H., Durlach, Baden, 
1768 Darmstadt, 1839 ; virtuoso 

and manufacturer of \vind-instrs. at 
Darmstadt ; writer and composer, 

Ba'con, Richard Mackenzie, Nor- 
wich, Engl., 17761844; teacher 
and writer. 

Badarczevska (biUlar-chef'-shku), 
Thela, Warsaw, 1838 1862 ; she 
composed " Laprih-e d'une i'iergc" 

Bader (ba'-der), K. Adam, Jlambcr^, 
1789 Berlin, 1870; cathedral-organ- 
ist, Bambercr (1807) ; later first tenor 
Berlin court opera (1820-45). 

Badia (ba-de'-a), (T) Carlo Ag., Ven- 
ice, 1672 Vienna, 1738 ; court-com- 
poser at Vienna. (2) Luigi, Tirano, 
Naples, 1822 Milan, 1899 ; com- 
posed 4 operas. 

Bagge (bag'-ge), Selmaf, Coburg, 
1823 Basel, 1896 ; editor and com- 

Bagnolesi (bfin-yo-hV-zc), Italian con- 
tralto in London, 1732. 

Bahn, Martin. Vide TKAUTWKIN. 

Bahr (or Bar, or Beer) (bar), Jn., St. 
Georg (Austria), 1(152 1770; court- 
conductor and writer of satirico- 
musical pamphlets signed kl Cnus 
murmttrat" " L'rsus triumphal" 

Bai (or Baj) (ba'-G), Tommaso, Crc- 
valcuore, near JJolo^na, ca. iGOo 
Rome, Dec. 22, 1714 ; tenor at the 
Vatican; conductor, 1713 ; composed 
a Miserere, sun^ in the 1'apal Chap- 
el, during Holy Week, alternately 
with those by Alle^ri and liaini. 

Baif (bif), Jn. A. de, Venice, 1532 
Paris, 1589 ; composer. 

Baildon (bal'-dun), d. London, 1774, 
Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, and 

Bai'ley, Marie Louise, b. Nashville-, 
Tenn., Oct. 24, 1876 ; Leipzijr, Cons. 
Pupil of C. Reincckc, winning a 
scholarship, and with Lescru-ti/ky ; 
debut, 1893, Gewandhaus, Leipzig; 
Chamber-virtuoso to Kinjr Albert of 
Saxony ; now lives in Vienna. 

Baillot (bl'-yo), (i) P. M. Fran, de 
Sales, Passy, Oct. i, 1771 Paris', 
Sept. 15, 1842 ; eminent violinist, pupil 


of Polidori, Sainte, Marie, and Poll- 
am ; later prof, of vln. at the Paris 
Cons.; toured Europe ; 1821, leader at 
the Grand Opera ; 1825, solo violinist, 
Royal Orch. ; wrote famous " L'Art 
du Violon" (1834) an ^ " Methods du 
Violon;" composed 10 vln. concer- 
tos, 3 string-quartets, 24 preludes in 
all keys, etc. (2) R6n6 Paul, Paris, 
18131889 ; son of above, Prof, at 
Paris Cons. 

Baini (ba-e'-ne), Abbate, Gins., 
Rome, 1775 1844; composer and 
conductor at St. Peter's ; wrote famous 
life of Palestrina. 

Baj (ba'-e). Vide BAI. 

Bajetti (ba-yet'-te), Giov., Brescia, ca. 
1815 Milan, 1876 ; violinist, con- 
ductor and dram, composer. 

Ba'ker., (i) G., Exeter, England, 1773 
Rugeley, 1847 ; organist, violinist, 
and composer. (2) Benj. Franklin, 
b. Wenham, Mass., July 10, 1811 ; 
singer, teacher, and editor. 

Balakirew (ba-la-ke'-rgf), Mily Al- 
exejevitch, b. Nijni-Novgorod, 
Russia, 1836; studied at Kasan 
Univ., as a musician, self-taught; 
debut as pianist in St. Petersburg, 
1855; founded the "Free Music 
School," 1862 ; 1866, opera-conductor 
Prague ; 1867-70, conductor Imp. 
Music Society, St. Petersburg, re- 
tired 1872 ; composed a symph. 
poem " Tamara" ; music to " King 
Lear " ; Russian, Czech and Spanish 
overtures; an Oriental fantasia, 
"Istamei," for pf., etc. ; pub. 1866, a 
coll. of Russian Folk-songs. 1901, 
Symphony in C. 

Balart (ba-lart'), Gabriel, Barcelona, 
1824 1893 ; studied in Paris ; con- 
ductor, later director Barcelona Cons.; 
composed zarzuelas (Vide D. D.). 
Balat'ka, Hans, Horlnungsthal, Mo- 
ravia, 1827 Chicago, 1899 ; studied 
at Vienna; 1849, America; 1851, 
founded the Milwaukee Musikverein ; 
1860, conductor of Chicago Philh. 
Soc.; composed cantatas, etc. 
Balbatre or Balbastre (bal-batr), 
Claude Louis, Dijon, 1729 Paris, 

1799 ; pupil and friend of Rameau ; 
organist and composer. 

Balbi (bal'-be), (i) Ludovico, com- 
poser and conductor at S. Antonio, 
Padua ; ca. 1606, Franciscan mon- 
astery, Venice. (2) (Cav.), Melchi- 
ore, Venice, 1796 Padua, 1879; 
church-conductor, theorist and com 

Baldassari (bal-das-sa -re), Benedet- 
to, Italian tenor in London, 1721. 

Bal'denecker, (i) Nikolaus, b. 
Mayence, 1782 ; violinist. (2) Kon- 
rad, b. 1828 ; pianist. 

Baldewin (bal-de-ven). Vide BAUL- 

Balfe (balf), Michael Wm., Dublin, 
May 15, 1808 Rowney Abbey, HerU 
fordshire, Oct. 20, 1870; operatic 
composer; pupil of O'Rourke, Ire- 
land, and C. F. Horn, London; 
1824, violinist Drury Lane; also 
sang in London ; went to Italy with 
his patron Count Mazzara, and stud- 
ied comp. with Frederici at Rome, 
and singing with F. Galli at Milan ; 
his ballet La P^rouse, prod, there 
(1826) ; pupil of Bordogni, and first 
barytone at the Ital. Opera, Paris 
(1828), and elsewhere till 1835 ; com- 
posed several Italian operas ; m. the 
Hungarian singer Lina Rosen (1808 
London, 1888) ; he ret. to England, 
1835, and prod. The Siege of Ro- 
chelle (Drury Lane) ; failed as man- 
ager ; went to Paris, returned 1843, 
and prod. The Bohemian Girl, very 
successful everywhere; prod. Paris, 
1856, in 5-act version as "La, JBohd- 
mienne" In 1857, his daughter 
Victoria made her debut in Italian 
opera ; 1864, he retired to his country- 
sea,t, Rowney Abbey; he composed 
31 operas in all, including The Rose 
of Castile (1857) ; Satanella (1858); 
// Talismano (1874) ; biog. by C. L. 
Kenny (London, 1878), and W. A. 
Barrett (do. 1882). 

Ballabene (bal-la-ba'-ne), Gregorio, 
lived i8th cent. (?) ; composed a re- 
markable Kyrie and Gloria in 48 real 
parts, performed at Rome, 1770. 


Ballazarini (bal-la-tsa-re'-ne) (or Bal- 
tagerini), Italian violinist; came 
from Piedmont to Paris, 1577, and 
was court-intendant to Catherine de 
Medicis, who gave him the name " M. 
de Beaujoyeulx " ; founder of the 
ballet, and indirectly of French 

Ballard (baT-lar'), a family of French 
music-printers; founded 1552 by 
Robert B,, with a patent, from 
Henri II, as "Seul imprimeur de la 
musique de la chambre, chapelle et 
menus plaisirs du roy." The patent 
expired 1776 after being held^by R., 
and his brother-in-law, Adrien la 
Roy; by Pierre B., 1633 ; Robt. 
Ed, Christophe, 1673; J. Bapt. 
Christophe, 1695 ; Chp. J. Fraa., 
1750 ; P. Robt, Chp., 1763. 

Baltagerini. Vide BALLAZARINI. 

Balthasar (called Balthasar-Flo- 
rence) (bal-ta^ar flo-rans), H. Mat., 
b. Arlon, Belgium, Oct. 21, 1844; 
pupil of Fe'tis ; m. (1863) a daughter 
of the instr.-maker Florence; com- 
posed operas, etc. 

Baltzar (balt'-tsar), Thos,, Liibeck, 
ca. i630London, 1663 ; eminent 
court-violinist in England from 1656. 

Balt'zell,WillardJ., b. Philadelphia, 
U. S. A., d. igoo ; teacher Ohio Wes- 
leyan University, Ohio ; composed 

Banchieri (ban-ld-a'-re), Adr., Bo- 
logna, 1567 (?) 1634; theorist and 

Banck (bank), K., Magdeburg, 1809 
Dresden, 1889; critic and vocal 

Banderali (ban-da-ra'-le), Davidde, 
Lodi, 1780 Paris, 1849 I buff o tenor, 
then teacher at Paris Cons. 

Bandini (ban-de'-ne), (i) Primo, b. 
Parma, Nov. 29, 1857; pupil R. 
School of Music there ; composed 
successful operas Eufemio di Messi- 
na (Parma, 1878), Fausta (Milan, 
1886), Janko (Turin, 1897). (2) 
Uberto Rieti, b. Umbria, March 
28, 1860; pupil of Giustiniani, Bol- 
dpni, Rossi Tergiani, and Sgambati ; 

composed prize overture " Eleanor a" 
symphony, etc. 

Bandrowski (ban-drof'-shkf), Alex. 
Ritter von, b. Lubackzon, Gaiida, 
April 22, 1860 ; operatic tenor, stud- 
ied Cracow University, then with San- 
giovanni, Milan, and Salvi, Vienna: 
debut Berlin ; for some years leading 
tenor Cologne opera ; has sung also 
in Russia, and oratorio in England ; 
sang Paderewski's Manni at Warsaw 
and in New York 10,02. 

Banes (ba-nes), A. Anatole, b. Paris, 
June 8, 1856; pupil of E. Durand; 
officer of pub. instruction ; composer 
of operettas ; lives in 1 \aris. 

Ban'ester, Gilbert, i6th cent.; Eng- 
lish composer of Flemish influences. 

Ban'ister, (i) J., London, 1630 
1676(79 ?); court- violinist and compos- 
er. (2) J. (Jr.), d. 1735 ; son of above ; 
court-violinist. (3) Chas. Wm., 1 768 
1831; composer. (4) Hy. Joshua, 
London, 1803 1847. (5) Hy. Chas., 
London, 1831 1897, son of (3); 
pianist, teacher, and writer ; pub. 
* Lectures on Musical Analysis" 

Banks, (i) Benj,, vln.-maker, Lon- 
don, 1750 1795, succeeded by his 
son (2) Benj. (Jr.). Two other sons, 
(3) James, and (4) H., were also vln.- 

Bannelier (bil-ncl-ya), Chas., Paris, 
18401899; writer. 

Banti-Giorgi (ban'-te-jor'-jc), Bri- 
gida, Crema, Lombardy, 1759 Bo- 
logna, Feb. 1 8, 1806 ; dram, soprano; 
first a chanteuse m a Paris cafe, later 
engaged at the Grand Opera ; toured 
Europe with great success ; her voice 
was remarkable in compass and even- 
ness, but she was musically illiterate ; 
m. the dancer Zaccaria Hanti. 

Ban'tock, Granville, b. London, Aug. 
7, 1868; studied K. A. M., took ist. 
Macfarren 1'rixe for comp.; his first 
work, dram, cantata " The Fire- Wor- 
shippers" successfully prod., 1889; 
successful i-act romantic opera Qicd- 
mar (London, 1892) ; conductor of 
Gaiety Theatre Troupe ; composed 


other operas (text and mus.), also 
symph. overture ",&#/"; dram, 
symphony in 24 parts, " The Curse 
of Kehama," etc. 

Bap'tie, David, b. Edinburgh, Nov. 
30, 1822 ; lives in Glasgow ; com- 
posed anthems, etc. ; compiled hymn- 

Baptiste (rightly Baptiste Anet) 
(bap-test-a-na), violinist at Paris, 
1700, where he introduced Corelli's 

Barbaco'la. Vide BARBIREAU. 

Barbedette (ba'rb-de't), H,, b. 1825 ; 
writer and composer. 

Barbaja (bar-ba'-ya), Domenicp, Mi- 
lan, 1778 Posilippo, 1841; impre- 

Barbarieu. Vide BARBIREAU. 

Barbarini (bar-ba-re'-ne), Manfredo 
Lupi ; lived i6th cent. ; composed 
motets under the name of "Lupi" 

Barbel'la, Emanuele, d. Naples, 
1773 ; violinist and composer. 

Barbereau (bar-bii-ro), (i) Maturin- 
Aug. Bal., Paris, 17991879 ; con- 
ductor and theorist. (2) Vide BAR- 

Barbier (barb-ya), (i) Fr. Et, Metz, 
1829 Paris, 1889 ; teacher and lead- 
er ; composed over 30 operas. (2) 
Jules Paul, Paris, 1825 Jan., 1901. 
collaborator with Carre, in the lib- 
retti of many operas, including Les 
Noces de Jeanne tie (Masse) ; Le Par- 
don de Ploermtl (Meyerbeer) ; Faust 
(Gounod) ; PhiUmon et Bauds (Gou- 
nod) ; JKom/o et Juliette (Gounod) ; 
Hamlet (Ambr. Thomas). (3) Paul, 
b. Paris, 1854, son of above, libret- 

Barbieri (bar-M-a-re), (i) Carlo 
Emm. di, b. Genoa, 1822 Pesth, 
1867 ; conductor and dram, compos- 

f 1 er. (2) Francisco Asenjo, Ma- 
drid, 18231894 ; very pop. com- 
poser of Zarzuelas (Vide D. D.). 

Barbireau (bar-bt-ro) (or Barbiriau, 
Barbarieu, Barbyria'nus, Barbe- 
rau, Barbingaut (bS.r-ba.n-go), or 
Parbaco'la), d. Aug. 8, 1491 ; from 

1448 choirmaster of Notre-Dame, 
notable cptist., composed masses, etc. 

Barbot (bar-bo), Jos. Th. D6sire", 
Toulouse, 1824 Paris, 1897 ; tenor ; 
created " Faust" 1859; 1875, prof! 
' Paris Cons. 

Bardi (bar' -de), Giov., conte del Ver- 
nio, Florentine nobleman and patron 
of the i6th cent., under whose influ- 
ence the attempted revival of the 
Greek lyric drama led to modern 
opera. At his house "Dafne " was 
performed. (Vide PERI.) 

Bargaglia (bar-gal' -y a), Scipione, 
Neapolitan composer, said to have 
first used the word " concerto " (1587). 

Barge (bar'-ge), Jn. H. Wm., b. 
Wulfsahl, Hanover, Nov. 23, 1836 ; 
self-taught flutist ; 1867-95 first flute, 
Leipzig Gewandhaus Orch., retired 
on pension ; teacher Leipzig Cons. ; 
wrote "Method for Flute"; com- 
posed 4 orchestral flute-studies, etc. 

Bargheer (bar'-khar), (i) K. Louis, b. 
Buckeburg, Dec. 31, 1833 ; violinist ; 
pupil of Spohr, David, and Joachim ; 
1863, court-conductor at Detmold, 
made concert-tours ; 1879-89, leader 
Hamburg Phil. Soc., teacher in the 
Cons.; later leader in Billow orch, 
(2) A., b. Buckeburg, Oct. 21, 1840, 
brother of above, pupil of Spohr ; 
court* violinist Detmold ; since 1866, 
Prof. Basel Sch. of Music. 

Bargiel (bar' -gel), Woldemar, Ber- 
lin, Oct. 3, 1828 Feb. 23, 1897; 
important composer ; pupil, Leipzig 
Cons. ; later Prof, in Cologne Cons.; 
1865, dir. and cond. of the Mus. 
Sch., Amsterdam; 1874 Prof. R. 
Hochschule, Berlin; 1882, Pres. 
" Meisterschule fur musikalische 
Komposition " ; composed 3 overtures 
" Zu einem Trailer spiel (Romeo and 
Juliet} " "Prometheus" " Medea. "/ a 
symphony ; 2 psalms for chorus and 
orchestra ; pf.-pcs. , etc. 

Baril'H, A., 1826 Naples, 1876 ; half- 
brother of Adelina Patti. 

Bar'ker, Chas. Spackmann, b. Bath, 
1806 Maidstone, 1879 ; organ-build- 
er ; invented the pneumatic lever. 



Barman (bar'-mim), (i) H. Jos., Pots- 
dam, 1784 Munich, 1847 ; clarinet- 
virtuoso and composer. His brother 

(2) K., 17821842, was a bassoonist, 

(3) K., (Sr.), son of H. J. B., was a 
clarinettist ; his son (4) K., (Jr.), b - 
Munich, July 9, 1839 ; pupil of Liszt 
and Lachner ; teacher at Munich 
Cons., lives in Boston, Mass., as 
pianist and teacher ; composed piano 

Bar'nard, (i) Rev. Jn., canon St. 
Paul's Cathedral, London ; pub. 1641 
the first coll. of cathedral-music. (2) 
Mrs. Chas. (nee Alington), 1830 
Dover, 1869; composed popular 
songs, etc., under name " Clari- 

Barn'by, (i) Rob., York, England, 
1821 London, 1875 ; alto-singer, 
Chapel Royal. (2) Sir Jos., York, 
Engl., Aug. 12, 1838 London, Jan. 
28, 1896 ; choirboy at 7 ; at ro taught 
other boys ; at 12 organist ; at 15 
music-master ; 1854 entered tne R- A. 
M., London ; then organist various 
churches and cond. ; 1875, precentor 
and dir. at Eton ; 1892 Principal of 
Guildhall Sch. of Mus. ; knighted, 
July, 1892; composed, " JRebekah" 
a sacred idyll (1870) ; Psalm 97 ; Ser- 
vice in E, etc. 

Barnes, Robt,, violin-maker, London, 

Barnett, (i) J., Bedford, England, 
July i, 1802 Cheltenham, April 17, 
1890," The father of English opera " ; 
pupil of C. E. Horn, Price, and 
Ries; brought out his first opera 
"Before Breakfast," 1825; "The 
t Mountain Sylph " (1834) ; the very 
succ. " Fair Rosamond " (1837), and 
" Farinelli" (London, 1838); 1841, 
singing teacher at Cheltenham ; left 
2 unfinished oratorios, a symphony, 
etc. (2) Jos. Alfred, London, 1810 
(?), 1898 ; bro. of above ; compos- 
er. (3) J. Francis, b. London, Oct. 
16, 1837, nephew of above ; studied 
with Dr. Wylde (1849) I and at R. A. 
M., and Leipzig Cons. ; debut as 
pianist, 1853 ; 1883, prof, at R. Coll. 

of Mus. ; composed oratorio ** The 
Raising of Lazarus " (1876), sympho- 
ny in A min., "OuverUire sympho- 
niquc" (1868), overture to Winter's 
Tale (1871), cantatas, etc. 

Baron (ba'-rdn), Ernst Gl., Hreslau, 
1696 Berlin, 1760; court-lutenist 
and theorbist ; writer and composer. 

Barre" (or Barra) (lnir-ra or bar'-ra), 

(1) Leonard, b. Limoges; singer in 
Papal Chai)cl (153?) ami special mu- 
sical envoy to the Council of Trent 
(1545) ; composed madrigals and 
motets. (2) A., printer, etc., Koine, 
1555-70, kiter Milan. 

Barret (b&r-ra), A. M. Rose, 1804 
Paris, 1879 I oboist. 

Bar'rett, (i) J., 1674 London, 1735 
(8 ?) ; organist. (2) Thos., violin- 
maker, London, 1710-30. (3) Wm. 
Alex., Hackney, Middlesex, 1836 
London ('), iSi)i ; editor and writer; 
co-editor with Sir John Stumer of a 
" Diet, of Music. Terms." 

Barrien'tos, Maria, b. Harcelona, ca. 
1884 ; sinking with wonderful suc- 
cess in Rome nL 1 1 years ; took two 
medals for violin-playing. 

Bar'rington, Daines, London, 1727 
1800 ; lawyer and musical essay- 

Bar'ry, Chas. Ainslie, h. London, 
June 10, 1830; pupil of Cologne 
Cons, and Leip/ig Cons. ; editor and 
organist ; composed a symphony, 2 
overtures, etc. 

Barsanti (Iur-sa.n'-te), Fran., Lucca, 
ca. 1691) j 7(10 ; flutist, oboist, and 
composer; 1750, viola-playei ut Lon- 

Barsot'ti, Tomraaso G. F., Flor- 
ence, 1786 Marseilles, 1868; teach- 
er and composer. 

Bartay (bar'-la-C-), (i) Andreas, 
vSzeplak, .Hungary, 1798 Mayence, 
1856; 1838 l)ir. Nat. Th. f'eslh; 
com])oscd Hungarian operas, etc. 

(2) Ede, Oct. 6, 1825 Sept., Kpi; 
son of above ; pupil Nat. Mus. Acad- 
emy, Pesth ; founded pension-fund for 
musicians ; composed overture, *' Ars 
cits" etc. 


Bartei (bar-ta'-e), Girolamo, general of 
Augustinan monks at Rome ; pub- 
lisher and composer (1607-18). 

Bartei (bar'-tel), (i) Aug., Sonders- 
hausen, 18001876; son of (2) H, 
B., trumpeter in the court-band ; and 
brother to (3) Adolf, 18091878, 
member of the same band. Aug. 
was an excellent teacher, and trained 
as 'cellists, his sons, (4) Ernst, 1824 
Remschied, 1868, and (5) Gun- 
ther, b. 1833 ; pupil also of Dehn ; 
lives in Dusseldorf, as writer and 

Bart (bart), (i) Chr. Samuel, Glau- 
chen, Saxony, 1735 Copenhagen, 
1809; oboist. (2) F. Phil. K. 
Ant., b. Cassel, ca. 1773 ; son of 
above ; composer. (3) Jos. Jn. Aug., 
b. Grosslippen, Bohemia, 1781 ; 
1810-30, tenor, Vienna. (4) Gus- 
tav, Vienna, 1800 Frankfort, 1897 ; 
son of (3) ; pianist and conductor. 
(5) K. H., b. Pillau, Prussia, July 
12, 1847 ; pianist, pupil of Von 
Bulow, Bronsart, and Tausig ; 1871, 
teacher at R. Hochschlile fur Musik, 
conductor of the I'hilh. concerts at 
Hamburg (vice von Bulow). (6) 
Richard, left-handed violin-virtuoso ; 
Univ. Mus. Dir. Marburg, till 1894 ; 
since then Dir. of Hamburg Philh. 

Barthe, Grat-Norbert (gra-nor-ber- 
bart), b. Bayonne, France, June 7, 
1828 ; pupil Paris Cons., 1854 : won 
the Grand Prix de Rome ; wrote can- 
tata " Francesco, da Rimini " ; com- 
posed operas " Don Carlos" and 
" La Fianctc (TAbydos " (1865) ; ora- 
torio, "Judith" etc. 

Barthel (bar'-tcl), Jn. Chr., Plauen, 
Saxony, 1776 Altenburg, 1831 ; 

Barthe" lemon (bar-ta-lu-mon) (in Eng- 
lish Bar'tleman), Fran. Hip., Bor- 
deaux, 1741 London, 1808 ; violin- 
ist and composer. 

Bartholdy (bar-tol-de), Jakob Salo- 
mon (of Jewish parents), Berlin, 
1779 Rome, 1825 ; diplomatist and 

Bartholomew, Wm.,|London, 1793 
1867 ; translator. 

Bart'lett, (i) J., r?th century, English 
composer. (2) Homer Newton, b. 
Olive, N. Y., Dec. 28,1846; pupil 
of S. B. Mills, Max Braun, Jacob- 
son, etc. From 14 organist New 
York churches ; now at Madison Av. 
Bapt. Ch.; published a sextet, a can- 
tata " The Last Chieftain" many 
songs, etc.; opera, "La Valliere? 
oratorio, " Samuel" etc., in MS. 

Bartoli (bar-to'-le), Padre Erasmo, 
Gaeta, 1606 Naples, 1656 ; church- 
composer under the name "Padre 

Bartolini (le'-ne), V., Italian male so- 
prano, in London, 1782. 

Bartolo (bar-to-16), Padre Daniele, 
Ferrara, 1608 Rome, 1685 ; Jesuit 

Baselt (ba -z&t), Fritz (Fr. Gv. 0.), 
b. Oels, Silesia, May 26, 1863 ; pupil 
of Kbhler and Bussler ; music-dealer, 
teacher and conductor Breslau, Essen 
and Nurnberg ; since 1894, director 
of Philh. Verein, and "Sa'ngerver- 
einigung" (ca. 1,200 voices), Frank- 
fort-on-Main ; composed 9 operettas, 
nearly 100 male choruses, etc. 

Basevi (ba-sa'-ve), Abramo, Leghorn, 
1818 Florence, 1885; journalist and 

Ba'sil (Saint), The Great, Caesarea, 
329 Cappadocia, 379 ; bishop ; re- 
puted introducer of congregational 
(atitiphonal) singing into the Eastern 
Ch., preceding St. Ambrose in the 

Basil! (ba-ze'-le), (i) Dom. Andrea, 
1720 Loreto, 1775; conductor and 
composer ; his son (2) Fran., Loreto, 
1766 Rome, 1850; prod, n operas, 
and several dram, oratorios in Rome ; 
1837, conductor at St. Peter's, Rome ; 
composed also symphonies, etc. 

Basiron (ba'-st-ron), Giovanni, devel- 
oped the motet, ca. 14301480. 

Bassani (bas-sa-ne), (i) Giov., ca. 
1600 ; conductor at St. Mark's, Ven- 
ice. (2) (or Bassiani), Giov. Bat., 
Padua, ca. 1657 Ferrara, 1716 ; vio- 


linist, conductor and composer. (3) 
Geron., b. Padua, lythcent.; singer, 
teacher and composer. 

Bassano (bas-sa'-no) , ; woman 

pianist; debut, London, Philh. So- 
ciety, 1842. 

Basselin (bas-lan), Olivier, lived at 
Vire, France, I5th cent.; a fuller 
whose songs were said to have been 
first given the name " Vau de Vire," 
whence, vaudeville. 

Bassevi (bas-sa-ve), Giacomo, Vide 


Bass'ford, Wm. Kipp, b. New York, 
April 23, 1839 ; pupil of Samuel Jack- 
son; toured the U. S. as pianist; 
now organist at East Orange, N. J.; 
also composer. 

Bassi (has -se), Luigi, Pesaro, 1766- 
Dresden, 1825 ; barytone and direc- 
tor ; Mozart wrote the role of u Don 
Giovanni " for him. 

Bassiron (bas-s!-ron), Ph., i$th cent.; 
Netherland contrapuntist ; composed 

Bastardella. Vide AGUJARI. 

Bastiaans (bas'-te-ans), (i) J. G. f 
Wilp, 1812 Haarlem, 1875 ; organist 
and teacher at Amsterdam and at St. 
Bavo's; his son and successor (2) 
Jn., 18541885; teacher and com- 

Baston (b&s-ton), Josquin, lived, 
1556, Netherlands ; contrapuntist. 

Batch'elder, J. C., b. Topsham, Vt., 
1852 ; pianist and organist ; pupil of 
Haupt, Ehrlich, Loeschhora, Berlin ; 
organ-teacher in Detroit (Mich.) 

Bates, (i) Joah, Halifax, 1741 
London, 1799; conductor; promoter 
and conductor of the famous " Han- 
del Commemoration" festivals in 
London (1784-91). (2) His wife was 
a singer. (3) Wm., 17201790 (?) ; 
English opera composer. 

Ba'teson, T., England, ca. 1575 
after 1611 ; organist and composer 
of madrigals. 

Bathe (bath), Wm., Dublin, 1564- 
Madrid, 1614 ; writer. 

Batiste (ba-test), A. d., Paris, 1820- 

1876; organist, teacher and com- 

Batistin (bct-tcs-Um). Vide STRUCK, 
j. u. 

Baton (ba-toh). (r) H., iSth cent, 
musette-player. 1 1 is brother (2) 
Chas. (le jeune) performed on the 
vielle ; also composer and writer, 


Batta (bat'-ta), (i) Pierre, Maas- 
tricht, Holland, 1795 Brussels, 1876; 
'cellist and teacher. His sons were 
(2) Alex., b. Maastricht, July 9, 
1816 ; 'cellist and composer. (3) J. 
Laurent, Maastricht, 1817 Nancy, 
1880 ; pianist and teacher. (4) Jos., 
b. Maastricht, April 24, 1824 ; 'cellist ; 
pupil of Brussels Cons., took 2d 
Grand Prix for comp. in 1 845 ; since 
1846 player at the Opcra-Comique, 
Paris ; composed symphonies, etc. 

Battaillc(biit-tl'-yu), Chas. Aimable, 
Nantes, 1822 Paris, 1872 ; dram, 

Batanchon (b^it-tan-shon), F., Paris, 
1814 18()3; 'cellist; inv. (i$4<>) a 
small 'cello, the "barytone." 

Bat'tan, Adrian, ca. 1585 ca. 1637; 
English organist. 

Bat'tishill, Jonathan, London, 1738 
Islington, 1801 ; conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Battista (bat-tcs'-ta), V., Naples, 1823 
1873 ; dram, composer. 

Battistini (bat-tcs-tC -ne), Mattia, h. 
Rome(?) Nov. 27, 1857 ; dram, bary- 
tone; debut, Home, 1878; sanjj at 
Buenos Ayres and principal theatres 
in Europe. 

Battmann (bat'-man), Jacques L., 
Maasmunster, Alsatia, 1818 Dijon, 
1886 ; organist. 

Batton (bat-ton), De"sir6 Alex., Paris, 
1797 Versailles, 1855; teacher and 
dram, composer. 

Battu (bat-tu), Pantaloon, Paris, 
1799 T S7 ', violinist and com]X)ser. 

Baudet (bo-da), Hubert Cyrille ; in- 
vented "piano-violin," or " piano- 
quatuor," 1865. 

Baudiot (bod-yo), Chas. N., Nancy, 
1773 Paris, 1849 5 'cellist. 


Baudoin (or Baudouyn) (bo-dw&n). 

Bauer (bow'-er), (i) Chrysostomus, 
1 8th cent, organ-builder at Wiirtem- 
berg. (2) Harold, b. London, 1873, 
of English mother and German father; 
played violin in public at 9 ; studied 
with Gorski, Paris ; then the piano, 
in 1892, under Paderewski ; debut 
as pianist, Paris, 1893 ; has toured 
Europe and, since 1900, America, 
with great success. 

Bauldewijn (bod-wan) (or Baulduin, 
Baldewin, Balduin, Baudoin, 
Baudouyn), Noel (Natalis), Ant- 
werp, 1513 (or 1518 ?) 1529 ; conduc- 
tor at N6tre Dame ; and composer. 

Baumbach (bowm'-bakh), (i) Fr. 
Aug., 1753 Leipzig, 1813 ; con- 
ductor and writer. (2) Ad., Ger- 
many, 1830(7) Chicago, 1880; 
teacher and composer. 

Baumfelder (bowm'-felt-er), Fr., b. 
Dresden, May 28, 1836 ; pianist ; pu- 
pil of J. Otto, and Leipzig Cons. 

Baumgart (bowm'-gart), E. Fr., Gross- 
glogau, 1817 Warmbrunn, 1871 ; 

hilf von, Berlin, 1741 Gross-Stre- 
litz, Silesia, 1813 ; composed 3 operas. 
(2) K. Fr., Germany, 1754 Lon- 
don, 1824 ; violinist and dram, com- 

Baumgartner (bowm'-ge'rt-ne'r), (i) 
Aug., Munich, 1814 1862 ; writer on 
" musical shorthand," etc. (2) Wm. 
(Guillaume), 1820 Zurich, 1867 ; 
composer and mus. dir. at St. Gallen. 

Baumker (blm'-ker), Wm., b. Elber- 
feld, Oct. 25, 1842; chaplain and 
school-inspector, Niederkriichten ; 
wrote biogs. of Palestrina, Lassus,etc. 

Bausch (bowsh), (i) L. Chr. Aug., 
Naumburg, 1805 Leipzig, 1871 ; 
maker of violins and bows. His 2 
sons were also vln. -makers : (2) 
Ludwig(i82g Leipzig, 1871) ; lived 
New York, then in Leipzig ; and (3) 
Otto, 18411874. 

Bausznern (bows' -neYn), Waldemar 
von,b. Berlin, Nov. 29, 1866 ; studied 

at Kronstadt, Pesth, Vienna and with 
Bargiel and Fr. Kiel at the Berlin 
Hochschule ; since 1894 lives in Dres- 
den, as dir. Singakademie and Leid- 
ertafel ; composed a symphony, over- 
tures, a Zigeuner suite, a music-drama 
" Dicht&r und Wdt " (Weimar, 1897), 

Bayer (bl'-er), Josef, b. Austria, ca. 
18511871; 2d violinist, Court 
Opera, Vienna, 1882, ballet-director, 
composed operettas, etc. 

Bay'ly, Rev. Anselm, 17191792; 
English writer. , 

Bazin (ba-zan), Fran. Em. Jos., Mar- 
seilles, 1816 Paris, 1878; dram, 

Bazzini (bad-ze'-ne), A., Brescia, 
March n, 1818 Milan, Feb. 10, 
1897 ; violinist ; pupil of Camisani ; 
at 17 conductor Church of S. Filippo, 
where he prod, masses and vespers, 
and 6 oratorios with full orch., and 
gave successful concert-tours through 
Europe. 1873, prof, of comp., 1882, 
dir. of Milan Cons. In his compo- 
sitions his native melodiousness gained 
unusual value from a German solidity 
of harmony. 

Bazzino (bad-ze'-no), (i) Fr. M., 
Lovere (Bergamo), 1593 Bergamo, 
1660 ; theorbo virtuoso. (2) Natale, 
d. 1639 ; composed masses. 

B6, Le. Vide LE BE. 

Beach, Mrs. H, H. A. (nee Amy 
Marcy Cheney), b. Henniker, N. 
H., Sept. 5, 1867 ; pianist and com- 
poser; pupil of E. Perabo and K, 
Baermann (pf.) and Junius W. Hill 
(harmony) ; self-taught inept., comp. 
and orchestration, having transl. 
Berlioz and Gevaert for her own use ; 
Pres. Board of Councillors, N. E. 
Cons., Boston; composed "Gaelic" 
symphony, Mass with orch., songs, 

Beale, (i) Wm., Landrake, Cornwall, 
1784 London, 1854 ; famous glee- 
composer. (2) J., London, ca. 1796 ; 
pianist. (3) Thos. Willert, b. Lon- 
don, 1828 ; a lawyer and pupil of 
Roeckel ; one of the founders of the 


New Philh. Soc. ; composed operettas ; 
used pen-name "Walter Maynard." 

BiSanon (ba-a-noh), Lambert de, con- 
ductor at Sistine Chapel, Rome, be- 
fore Josquin des Pre's. 

Beard, J., England, ca. 1717 Hamp- 
ton, 1791 ; eminent tenor for whom 
Handel wrote the tenor roles in his 
chief oratorios. 

Beauchamps (b5-shan), P. Fran. 
Godard de, Paris, ca. 16891761 ; 

Beaujoyeulx (b5-zhwa-yu), de. Vide 


Beaulieu (rightly Martin) (bol-yu', or 
mar-tan), M. Desire, Paris, 1791 
Niort, 1863 ; patron, writer and com- 

Beaumavielle (bo-mav-ygl), d. Paris, 
1688 ; barytone ; he sang in the first 
French opera, 1671. 

Beauquier (bok-ya), Chas,, b. ca. 
1830 ; writer of " Philosophic de mu- 
sique" (1865), and librettist. 

Beaz'ley, Jas. Chas., b. Ryde, Isle 
of Wight, 1850 ; lives there as com- 
poser ; pupil of R. A. M. 

Beccatel'li, Giov. Fran., d. Florence, 
1734 ; cond. at Prato and writer. 

Becher (bekh'-er), (i) Alfred Julius, 
Manchester, 1803 Vienna, 1848 ; 
editor. (2) Jos., b. Neukirchen, Ba- 
varia, Aug. i, 1821 ; composed over 
60 masses, etc. 

Bechstein(bekh'-shtln), Fr. Wm.K., 
b. Gotha, June i, 1826 ; 1856, worked 
in German factories ; later established 
the well-known piano factory in 

Beck, (r) David, Germany, ca. 1590 ; 
organ-builder. (2) Reichardt K., 
lived in Strassburg, ca. 1650; com- 
poser. (3) Jn. Philip, 1677 ; editor. 

(4) Michael, b. Ulm, 1653 ; writer. 

(5) Gf. Jos., Podiebrad, Bohemia, 
1/23 Prague, 1787; Dominican 
(later Provincial) friar ; organist. (6) 
Chr. Fr., b. Kirchheim, ca. 1755 ; 
composer. (7) Fz., Mannheim, 1730 
Bordeaux, 1809 ; court- violinist. 
(8) Fr. Ad., pub. at Berlin, "Dr. 
M. Luther's Gedanken tiber die 

Musilt? 1825. (9) K., 1814 Vi. 
enna, 1879; tenor ; created " Lohen- 
grin." (10) Jn. Nepomuk, J'esth, 
1828 Vienna (?) 1893 ; tlram. bary- 
tone, (n) Jos., b. June n, 1850; 
son of above ; barytone, sang hi 
Austria, Iterlin (1876), and Frankfort 
(1880). (12) Johann Heinrich, b. 
Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 12, 1856 ; 
violinist; pupil Leipzig Cons.; lives 
Cleveland; founded the "Schubert 
Quartet " ; composed overtures to 
Byron's "Lara" to "Romeo and 
Juliet ;" cantata " Dcukalion" (Bay- 
ard Taylor), etc. 

Becke" (bek'-a), Jn. Baptist, b. Niirn- 
berg, 1743 ; court-flutist, in Munich, 

Beck'el, James Cox, b. Philadelphia, 
Dec. 20, 1811; pupil there of Tra- 
jetta ; later music-publisher in Phila., 
and editor of " Musical Clipper" 
composed cantatas, etc. 

Beck'er, (r) Dietrich (1668), com- 
poser at Hamburg, 1668. (2) Jn., 
Helsa, near Casscl, 1726 1803; 
court-organist. (3) K. Fd., Leipzig, 
1804 1877 ; organist and writer. 
(4) Konstantin Julius, Freiberg, 
Saxony, i8n Gberlnssuit/, 1859; 
editor. (5) Val. Ed., Wurzburg, 
1814 Vienna, 1890; dram, com- 
poser. (6) Georg, b. Frankenthal, 
Palatinate, June 24, 1^24; pianist 
and writer; lives in (leneva; pub. 
"Zrt Musique en Sidsse" (1874), etc. 
(7) Albert Ernst Ant., Quedlin- 
burg, June 13, 1834 Berlin, Jan. 10, 
1899; pupil of Konicke and Dehn ; 
1881, teacher of comp. at Schar- 
wenka's Cons. ; also conductor Berlin 
cathedral choir; composed a note- 
worthy symphony, a Grand Mass in 
B^min. (1878), and oratorio * l Ss/ig 
aus Gnade" etc. (8) Jean, Mann- 
heim, May it, 1833 Oct. 10, 1884; 
violinist, leader Mannheim orch.; 
after concert -tours, lived in Florence 
and founded the famous " Florentine 
Quartet"; toured with his children. 
(9) His daughter Jeanne, b. Mann- 
heim, June 9, 1859; pianist, pupil of 



Reinecke and Bargiel. (10) Hans,, 
b. Strassburg, May 12, 1860; viola- 
player, pupil of Singer, (n) Hugo, 
b. Strassburg, Alsatia, Feb. 13, 1833; 
noted 'cellist, son and pupil of (8), pu- 
pil of Kundiger, then of Grutzmacher ; 
1884, soloist at opera, Frankfort ; since 
1894, Prof, at the Hoch Cons, there ; 
toured, U. S. 1900-1901. (12) Rhein- 
hold, b. Adorf, Saxony, 1842 ; vio- 
linist ; lives in Dresden ; composed 
succ. operas Frauenlob (Dresden, 
1892), and Ratbold (Mayence, 1896), 
r-act ; symph. poem Der Prinz -von 
Hamburg, elc. (13) K., b. Kirr- 
weiler, near Trier, June 5, 1853; 
teacher at Neuwied; pub. song- 
books. (14) Jakob, founder (1841) 
of large Russian pf .-factory ; present 
head (since 1871), Paul Petersen. 

Beck' matin, Jn. Fr. Gl., 1737 Celle, 
1792 ; organist, harpsichord-virtuoso, 
and dram, composer. 

Beck'with, J. Christmas, Norwich, 
England, 17501809 ; organist and 

Becquie" (bc-k-ya), (i) Jean Marie (?), 
Toulouse, ca. 1800 Paris, 1825; 
flutist. His brother (2) ("De Peyre 
Ville"), Jean Marie, Toulouse, 
1797Paris, 1876 ; violinist. 

Becvarovsky (bcch'-var-shof'-shkt), 
Ant. F., Jungbunzlau, Bohemia, 
1754 Berlin, 1823 ; organist and 

Bed'ford, Mrs. H. Vide LEHMANN, 


Bedos de Celles (bu-do r du se*l), Caux, 
near Bezieres, 1706 -St. Maur, 1779; 
Benedictine monk and writer. 

Beechgard (or Beehgard) (bakh'- 
gart), Julius, b. Copenhagen, Dec. 
19, 1843 ; pupil Leipzig Cons., and 
of Gadc ; lives at Copenhagen ; com- 
posed operas " Frode" "Fran 
Inge " (Prague, 1894), etc. 

Beecke (ba'-ke'), Ignaz von, ca. 1730 
Wallerstein, 1803 ; captain of dra- 
goons, then " Musikintendant " to 
Prince of Otting-Wallerstein ; harp- 
sichordist; composer of 7 operas, 

Beellaerts (bal-larts), Jean. Vide 


Beer (bar), (i) Jacob Liebmann. 
Vide MEYERBEER. (2) Josef, Grun- 
wald, Bohemia, 1744 Potsdam, 
1811 ; player of the clarinet, for which 
he invented the fifth key. (3) Jules, 
b. ca. 1833 ; lives in Paris ; com- 
posed 5 comic operas, etc. (4) Max 
Josef, b. Vienna, Aug, 25, 1851 ; 
pianist ; pupil of Dessoff ; lives in 
Vienna ; composed 4 operas, inch the 
succ. ^Der Striek der Schmiede" 
(Augsburg, 1897), etc. (5) Anton, b. 
Kohlberg, June 29, 1864; studied 
with Rheinberger ; leader in Regens- 
burg orch.; later lived in Munich ; 
composed an opera " Stihne" etc. 

Beeth (bat), Lola, b. Cracow, 1864 ; 
soprano ; pupil of Dustman, Viardot- 
Garcia, and De'siree Artot; debut, 
1882, at Berlin Court Opera, then 
Vienna, after various tours ; sang in 
New York ; engaged at Vienna, 1897, 
for 5 years. 

Beethoven (bat' -ho-f en, not ba-to'-v^n), 
Ludwig van, b. Bonn-on-Rhine, 
Dec. 16 (baptised, Dec. 17, 1770) 
(Beethoven said Dec. 16, 1772), d. 
Vienna, March 26, 1827; grandson of 
Ludwig van B. (a native of Maes- 
tricht, bass singer, opera composer, 
and conductor to the Elector Clemens 
August, at Bonn), 2d child of Jn. 
van B. (a tenor singer in the Elec- 
toral choir), who had m. a widow, 
Magdelena Laym (nee Keverich), a 
daughter of the chief cook at Ehren- 
breitstein. B. studied at the public 
schools at Bonn till 14. From his 
fourth year, his father taught him 
music with great severity till 1779. 
He played the vln. well at 8 ; at ir 
he knew Bach's " Wohltemperirte 
Clavier." Became pupil of Pfeiffer, 
a music-dir. and oboist ; and Van der 
Eeden, court-organist, who predicted 
that he would be "a second Mo- 
zart" ; 1785, studied vln. with Franz 
Ries ; 1787, took a few lessons of Mo- 
zart; 1792, Haydn, passing through 
Bonn, praised a cantata of his (now 



lost). The Elector sent B, to Vienna, 
where he studied cpt. with Haydn, 
who seemed to neglect him, so that 
he secretly studied with Schenck ; 
later he went to Albrechtsberger, who 
said "he has learnt nothing, and will 
never do anything in decent style " ; 
he studied the vln. with Schuppanzigh 
and consulted Salieri and Aloys For- 
ster; 1781, he is believed to have 
written a Funeral Cantata in memory 
of the English charge 1 d'affaires at 
Bonn, who had advanced money 
to the family; 1781 (1782?), his first 
publication, 3 pf.-sonatas; 1782, 
deputy organist ; 1783, cembalist for 
rehearsals of the opera-orch., without 
compensation ; 1784-92, asst. organ- 
ist at an annual salary of 150 florins 
(about $63) ; from 1788 also 2d vio- 
la of the theatre orch. Visited Vien- 
na, 1787, and made a sensation by 
extemporising, Mozart exclaiming 
11 He will make a noise in the world 
some day." In July his tender- 
hearted mother died of consumption ; 
his father lost his voice and became a 
sot. B.'s only home was in the fam- 
ily of the widow von Breuning, to 
whose daughter and son he gave les- 
sons. Here he acquired his passion 
for English literature. He now made 
acquaintance of young Count Wald- 
stein, who became his life-long pa- 
tron, and in 1792 sent him to Vienna, 
where he henceforward lived. The 
decade 1782-92 does not show much 
fertility in composition : half a dozen 
songs, a rondo, a minuet, and 3 pre- 
ludes for pf., 3 pf. -quartets, a pf.- 
trio ; a string-trio, op. 354 sets of 
pf . variations ; a rondino for wind ; 
the " Ritter Ballet" with orch. (pub. 
1872) ; "The bagatelles" op. 33 ; 
2 vln.-rondos, op. 51; the " Serenade 
Trio 11 op. 8 ; the lost cantata, a lost 
trio for pf., flute, and bassoon, and 
an Allegro and Minuet for 2 flutes. 
1792, he was sent to Vienna by the 
Elector, who paid him his salary for 2 
years ; he had growing royalties from 
his comps., also 600 florins annually 

from Prince Lichnowsky, his warmest 
admirer. March 29, 1795, he played 
his C major pf. -concerto in the Burg- 
theater, his first public appearance ; 
1796, he played before King Kr. Wm. 
II.; 1798, at Prague, he gave 2 sen- 
sational concerts and met two piano- 
virtuosi : Steibelt, who challenged 
B. to extemporise and was sadly 
worsted, and Wullll, who became his 
friend. 1800 ends what is called 
(after von Lenz's book ' ' JJ. et ses trois 
styles"} his " first period," of compo- 
sition; the "second period," extend- 
ing to 1815 ; the "third" to 1827. 
This first period includes op. 1-18, 
pf. and string-trios, string-quartets, 
9 pf.-sonatas, 7 variations on " God 
Save the Queen" and 5 on "Rule 
Britannia" the aria "Ah perfido" 
etc. Now a severe and early vene- 
real trouble affected his liver, and be- 
gan to ruin his hearing, which by 
1822 was entirely gone. Though he 
had always been brusque (especially 
with the aristocracy, among whom he 
had an extraordinarily long list of 
friendships and love-affairs), his for- 
mer generosity and geniality speedily 
developed into atrocious suspicious- 
ness and violence toward his best 
friends. The wild life of a nephew 
whom he supported, brought him 
great bitterness. Until the begin- 
ning of the ' third period," however, 
he had large stores of joy in life, 
open-air Nature, and the details of 
his compositions, which were worked 
up with utmost care from ' ' sketch- 
books," always carried with him, and 
still extant as a unique example 
of genius at work. In the arbitrary 
but somewhat convenient von Lenz 
classification, the ad period includes 
the symphonies III VIII; the 
opera " JFidelio" ; the music to " Rg- 
mont"; the ballet "Prometheus"', 
the Mass in C, op. 8(> ; the oratorio 
" Chris tits am Oelberg" (1803) ; the 
" Coriolanus " overture; 2 pf. -con- 
certos ; I vln.-concerto ; 3 quartets ; 
4 pf. -trios, and 14 pf.-sonatas 



(among them op. 27, op. 28, 31, No. 
2, 53, 57, and 81) ; the " Lieder- 
kreis" etc. The "third period" 
incl. the five pf. sonatas, op. 101, 
Hi; the " Missa solcnnis" the 
Ninth Symphony, the overture 
"Ruins of AtJiens"; the overtures 
op. 115, 124; the grand fugue for 
string-quartet, and the string-quar- 
tets op. 127, 130, 131, 132, 135 (F). 
"Fidelia" first named " Leonore" 
was prod. Nov. 20, 1805, just a week 
after the French army entered Vien- 
na. It was withdrawn after three 
consecutive performances ; revised 
and prod. March 29, 1806, but with- 
drawn by B. after two performances. 
Once more revised, it was revived in 
1814, very successfully ; the present 
overture is the result of various ver- 
sions known as the Leonore overtures 
I, 2, and 3. The " Eroica" sym- 
phony (No. 3) was called " Sinfonia 
grande Napoleon Bonaparte " in hon- 
our of his advocacy of "liberty, 
equality, and fraternity." When 
Napoleon proclaimed himself em- 
peror, B. tore up the title-page in 
wrath and changed the name to 
" Sinfonia eroica composta per fcs- 
teggiare il souvenir e d'un gran 
uomo" (Heroic symphony, com- 
posed to celebrate the memory of a 
great man). In the Ninth Sym- 
phony, a choral Finale is used as 
the final addition to the orchestral 
climax of ecstasy (the words from 
Schiller's ' ' Hymn to Joy ") . In 1809 
Jerome Bonaparte invited B. to be- 
come conductor at Cassel with a 
salary of 600 ducats (about $1,500) ; 
but his Viennese patrons Archduke 
Rudolf, and the Princes Lobkowitz 
and Kinsky, settled on him an annu- 
ity of 4,000 florins ($2,000). Dec., 
1826, a violent cold resulted in pneu- 
monia ; dropsy followed, B. saying 
to the doctors who tapped him three 
times and drew out the water, " Bet- 
ter from my belly than from my pen." 
After an illness of 3 months he took 
the Roman Catholic sacraments, a 

two-days' agony of serai-consciousness 
followed and he died, just after shak- 
ing his clenched fist in the air, during 
a terrific thunderstorm, the evening 
of March 26, 1827. 20,000 persons 
attended his funeral. 
His complete works comprise 138 
opus-numbers, and about 70 unnum- 
bered comp. The following are 
those published. INSTRUMENTAL. 
9 Symphonies. No. i, op. 21, in C ; 
2, op. 36, in D; 3, op. 55, in Ep (the 
" Eroica ") ; 4, op. 60, in Bb; 5, op. 
67, in C min.; 6, op. 68, in F (" Pas- 
toral ") ; 7, op. 92, in A ; 8, op. 93, in 
F ; 9, op. 125, in D min. (" Choral"}. 
" The Battle of Vittoria" (op. 91); 
music to the ballet "Prometheus" 
(op. 43), and to Goethe's " Egmont" 
(op. 84), both with overtures, besides, 
nine overtures " Coriolanus"\ "Leo- 
nore" (Nos. i, 2, and 3); "Fidelio"\ 
"King Stephen"', "Ruins of Ath- 
ens" \ " Namensfder" op. 115; 
" Weihedes Hauses " (op. 124). Also 
for orch. : Allegretto in E(? ; March 
from " Tarpda" in C ; Military 
March, in D ; " Ritter-Balkt" ; 12, 
Minuets; 12, "deutsche Tanze"; 
12, Contretanze ; violin - concerto, op. 
61. Five pf. -concertos, the last 
op. 73, in E ^Emperor"}; also a 
pf. -concerto arranged from the vio- 
lin-concerto. A triple-concerto, op. 
56, for pf., vln., 'cello and orch.; a 
" Choral Fantasia" for pf., chorus 
and orch. ; a Rondo in B, for pf . and 
orch.; cadences to the pf. -concertos. 
Two Octets for wind, both in E|?. 
Septet for strings and wind. Sextet 
for strings and 2 horns. One sextet 
for wind, E|>. Two quintets for 
strings; fugue for string-quintet; 
also quintet arr. from pf.-trio in C 
min. Sixteen string-quartets: Op. 
18, Nos. 1-6 in F, G, D, C min., A and 
Bj? (first period) ; op. 59, Nos. 1-3 ; 
op. 74, in Eb(the " Harfenquartett"}\ 
op. 95 (second period) ; op. 127 ; op. 
130 ; op. 131 ; op. 132 ; op. 135. A 
grand fugue for string-quartet, op. 133, 
in Bb (third period). One pf.-quartet 



(arr. from the pf. -quintet) ; 3 juvenile 
pf .-quartets ; five string-trios ; eight 
pf. -trios, that in E{> being juvenile ; 
an arr. of the " Eroiea" symphony. 
Grand trios for pf., clar. and 'cello 
op. ii ; in 3fy and in E|j (arr. from 
septet, op. 20) ; trio for 2 oboes and 
cor anglais, in C op. 87. 
Ten sonatas for pf. and violin, incl. 
op. 47 ("JCreutxer"); rondo for pf. 
and vln. ; 12 variations for do. Five 
sonatas and 31 variations for pf . and 
'cello. Sonata for pf . and horn. So- 
nata for pf., 4 hands. 
38 Sonatas for piano, incl. op. 27, 
Nos. i and 2 (" Quasi Fantasia "), 
op. 28 (" Pastorale ") in D ; op. 53 
(" Waldstein" ) in C ; op. 57 (" Appas- 
sionata ") in F min, ; op. 8l (" Carac- 
ttrisiique" " Les adieux, V absence, 
k retour"} in E|>. Also 6 easy so- 
natas, 3 of them composed at age of 
10 ; 21 sets of variations for pf. ; 3 
sets of bagatelles ; 4 rondos ; fantasia 
in G min. ; 3 preludes ; polonaise ; 
andante in F (' ' Favori "); 7 minuets ; 

13 Landler. for 4 hands ; 3 marches ; 

14 variations. 

VOCAL. Opera " Fidelio" in 2 acts, 
op. 72. 2 Masses, in C and D 
"" Oratorio " Christus 

am Oelberg" op. 85. Cantata " Der 
glorreiche AugfiiMick" op. 136 
(1814) ; also arr. as I'rtis der Ton- 
kunst. Mecrcsstillc und Cl/ickliclie 
Fa/irt.Q]). 112 (poem by Goethe). 
Scena and aria tor soprano, "Ah. 
Perfido" with orch., op. 65. Trio 
for soprano, tenor and bass, " Tre- 
mate, Empl, Trtmati" op. 1 16. ' ' Op- 
ferlitd" for soprano solo, chorus and 
orch. "Bundestit'it" for 2 solo voices. 
3-part chorus and wind. ' ' fikgiscker 
Gesang" for 4 voice-parts and strings. 
66 songs with pf .-accomp. ; one duet, 
" Gesang der Monche " ; 3 voice-parts 
acapp. 18 vocal canons. 7 books of 
English, Scotch, Irish, Welsh and 
Italian songs, with pi., vln. and 'cello. 
The best biography is Alex. W. 
Thayer's "Z. van Beethoven's Le- 
ben" 3 vols. in Gorman, transl. from, 
the English MS. by 11. Dcitcrs ; last 
vol. in preparation. Partial collec- 
tions of Beethoven's letters are pub. 
and his sketch-books are discussed in 
Ignaz von Seyfried's " I.ndwig van 
Beethoven! s Stttd'n'ii I in Gencralbass, 
Kontra^unkt ttnd in der Komposi- 
tionslehre" Diogs. also by Schindler, 
Nohl, Crowest, etc. Wagner wrote 
an estimate. 

Beethoven : A Study of Influences. 


IN one respect Beethoven stands alone in the history of music. The 
influence of all his fellows, from Bach to Wagner and Brahms, can be 
determined in matter as well as manner, and set down in plain terms; 
his full significance is yet to be grounded. Beethoven was a gigantic reser- 
voir into which a hundred proud streams poured their waters ; he is a mighty 
lake out of which a thousand streams have flowed through all the territories 
which the musical art has peopled, and from which torrents arc still pouring 
to irrigate lands that are still terras Incognitas. ^[In some respects his genius 
is an enigma. Whence came his profound knowledge of the musical art as it 
existed before him ? He was not precocious as Mozart was. He was a 
diligent pupil, but not an orderly one. Except in childhood he was unruly, 
and impatient of discipline. The sternness and cruelty of a dissipated father 


made his earliest studies a suffering and an oppression. In later years he 
performed his duties toward Albrechtsberger, but refused to yield himself to 
that teacher's domination as he had already refused to bow to the authority of 
Haydn an authority which he felt was too carelessly exercised. Yet the world 
knows how conscious he was of the potency of the learned forms into which 
Albrechtsberger strove to induct him, and the charm of romantic expression 
exemplified in Haydn. *[jHe refused to acknowledge these men as his teachers, 
while they returned the compliment by refusing to own him as their pupil. 
Haydn condemned his first trios ; Albrechtsberger advised his other pupils to 
have nothing to do with him because, as he said, " he had never learned 
anything, and would never do anything in decent style." Yet Beethoven 
was proud of his ability in the department of study for which he had gone to 
this teacher of counterpoint. In his old age he considered Cherubim* the 
greatest of his living contemporaries, and Handel the greatest of the great 
dead. Note the significance : both were masters in the severe forms. 
Taking no account of the canons, fugues, and variations which occur incident- 
ally in his symphonies, sonatas, and quartets, we find that Beethoven left an 
extraordinarily large number of compositions in these forms behind him no 
less than thirty-five canons, five independent fugues and thirty-two sets of 
variations for different instruments. Could there be a more convincing dem- 
onstration of his devotion to the scientific side of his art ? <J[But he was no 
more and no less an iconoclast in these forms than in the romantic. Proof 
of another kind I found in an anecdote recorded in Mr. Thayer's note-book 
as related to him by the nephew of the observer of the incident, ^fln 1 809 
Wilhelm Rust sat in a coffee-house in Vienna with Beethoven. A French 
officer happening to pass, Beethoven doubled up his fist and exclaimed : " If 1 
were a general and knew as much about strategy as I know about coun- 
terpoint, being a composer I'd cut out some work for you fellows." 
^[The great difference between him and his teachers was one of conception 
touching the uses to which counterpoint and fugue should be put. To 
Albrechtsberger the sciences existed for their own sake ; for Beethoven they 
existed only as a medium of expression. There was nothing sacrosanct about 
them. As he himself said, it was a good thing to learn the rules in order 
afterward to know what was contrary to them, and, he might have added, 
also to know how to violate them when musical expression could thereby be 
promoted. ^[Yet Beethoven's greatest significance as an influence is not as a 
destroyer of forms and contemner of rules, as so many would have us believe 
who justify all manner of lawlessness to-day and quote Beethoven as an excuse ; 
but as a widener of forms and a creator of rules for the development of 
expression, which is and must ever remain the aim of musical art. He was 
the prototype of Wagner's Hans Sachs, who wished due respect paid to the 



laws of the poet's craft so that poetical creation might go on within the lines 
of beauty, but who also wished spontaneous creative impulse to have its rights. 
Where he differed from the pedants who sought to stem the original flow of 
his utterance, was in realising better than they, that art-works are the source 
of rules quite as much as their outcome. He felt, with Faust, that "In the 
beginning was the Deed," neither the "Word," nor the " Thought," nor 
the "Power," but the "Deed," ; from that can be deduced the other 
potencies. *j[ " Beethoven was not only the embodiment of all that was 
before him, but also of that which was yet to come. In his works music 
returned to its original purpose with its power raised a hundred-fold." I 
have said this before and elsewhere, but as I cannot say it better and want it 
said again, I say it again, and here. It is easy rhetoric to descant upon the 
tremendous strides which music has made in the last half century, the trans- 
formation of forms, the augmentation of expressive potencies (rhythmic, 
melodic, harmonic, instrumental), the widening of the horizon of the things 
proper to musical expression and much else ; but he has not yet learned his 
Beethoven who does not see all that has yet appeared to be essential in these 
things distinctly foreshadowed in the music of the master who, in a larger, 
more comprehensive, more luminous sense than was dreamed of before or 
since, was priest, king, hero, and seer. A priest unceasing in his offerings in 
the Temple Beautiful ! A king whose dominion is over the despotic rulers 
in man's emotional nature ! A hero who knew his mission and subordinated 
to it himself, his longings, his loves, his very life ! A seer, as Ruskin says 
of Imagination, " in the prophetic sense, calling the things that are not as 
though they were, and forever delighting to dwell on that which is not 
tangibly present. ' ' ffLike Faust he ever heard the dread words ringing in his 
ears: " Entbebren soils t du, sollst entbebren!" His art asked his all; 
he knew it and gave his all ; and then the Gotfbeit which he was wont to 
invoke, hushed the noises of the material world that he might the better hear 
the whisperings of the spirit pervading it ; and raised a barrier between him 
and mankind to force him to be a witness and historian of the struggle 
between the human and the divine reflected in his own soul. All the mis- 
anthropy which rilled his later years could not shake his devotion to an ideal 
which had sprung from truest artistic appreciation and been nurtured by 
enforced introspection. This is the key to Beethoven's music. ^[ But it 
will not serve the purposes of this study merely to generalise. If the con- 
tention set forth is to be maintained, there must be some martialling of 
evidence. Confining ourselves to the cyclical form, the symphony, we note 
that Beethoven introduced a wider range and a freer use of keys than were 
employed by his models, Haydn and Mozart ; abolished much of what 
sounds like mere remplissage in the connecting portions between themes, 


substituting therefor phrases developed out of the themes themselves ; intro- 
duced original episodic matter ; extended the free fantasia and coda ; devel- 
oped the old minuet into the scherzo, which could better carry on the psycho- 
logical story which he wished to tell in the four chapters of his instrumental 
poem ; infused unity into his works, not only by bringing the spiritual bonds 
between the movements more clearly before our percipience, but also by 
making the material bonds obvious and incontrovertible. This last achieve- 
ment has its simplest as well as most eloquent illustrations in the community 
of rhythms between the first, third, and last movements of the Fifth Sym- 
phony, and all the movements of the Seventh; the recurrence of themes 
in different movements of the Fifth and Ninth; the family likenesses, 
physiognomical resemblances, between the principal melodies of the Ninth ; 
finally the programmatic conceit back of the Sixth. IJThe acceptance and 
continuation of the hints contained in these innovations is published in the 
abolition of pauses between the movements in the "Scotch" symphony of 
Mendelssohn, the adoption of the same device by Schumann, together with 
community of theme in the symphony in D minor, the invention of " I* idee 
fxe" by Berlioz for his " Symphonie Fantastique" and the successive 
recapitulation of material already used in the second, third, and fourth move- 
ments in the symphony, <f From the New World" by Dvorak, ^f It has 
not been necessary to go far afield for examples ; the proofs are surely con- 
vincing and come down to our own day. Moreover we find an illustration 
of the same principle, coupled with an exposition of Beethoven's system of 
thematic, instead of melodic, development another form of variation, in brief 
in all the symphonic poems of Liszt and his imitators down to Richard 
Strauss. ^[Beethoven's license may have degenerated into lawlessness, but he 
pointed a way that has been followed in all the particulars enumerated, and 
also broke down the barriers between voices and instruments in the symphonic 
forms to the delight of many successors. His revolutionary proceeding in the 
Ninth symphony found imitation by Mendelssohn in his " Hymn of Praise " 
by Berlioz in his "Romeo and Juliet" by Liszt in his "Faust" and 
" Dante " symphonies, by Nicod6 in " Das Meer" and by Mahler in his 
symphony with contralto solo. 

Beffara (bef'-fa-ra), Louis Francois, Begnis (ban'-yes), (i) Gius or Wffl. 

Nonancourt, Eure, 1751 Paris, de, Lugo, Papal States, i793Bath(?) 

1838; 1792-1816, commissaire de England, 1849 ; buffo singer -in 1816, 

police, at I'aris ; musical historian. he m. (2) Signora Ronzi, Paris, 

Beffroy de Reigny (bef-frwa du rcn f - 1800 (?) Italy, 1853; comic so- 

ye), Louis Abel (called "Cousin prano. 

Jacques"), Laon, Nov. 6, 1757 Begrez (ba'-gr&z), Pierre Ignace, 

Paris, Dec. rS, 1811 ; composed very Namur, 1783 Brunswick, Ger. ; 

succ. operettas, 1863, dram, tenor. 


Behm (bam), Eduard, b. Settin, April 
8, 1862 ; studied with Paul, Weiden- 
bach, Reinecke, Hartel, Raif and 
Kiel ; pianist and teacher in various 
cities, then at Berlin as dir. Schwan- 
tzer Cons.; composed an opera, 
" Schelm von Bergen" (Dresden, 
1899), a symphony, pf.-concerto, etc. 

Behnke (ban'-ke), Emil, Stettin, 1836 
Ostend, 1892 ; teacher and writer. 

Behr (bar), (i) Fz., b. Lubtheen, 
Mecklenburg, July 22, 1837 ; com- 
posed pf. -pieces, under pseud, of 
"William Cooper," "Charles Mor- 
ley," or "Francesco d'Orso." (2) 
Therese, b. Stuttgart, Sept. 14, 
1876 ; alto ; pupil of J. Stakhausen, 
of Schulz Demberg and of Etelka 
Gerster ; lives in Mainz. 

Behrens (ba'-rens), Konrad, 1835 
New York, 1898 ; operatic bass. 

Beier (bi'-er), Dr. Fz,, b. Berlin, April 
18, 1857 Cassel, 1889, son of a mil- 
itary band-master; pupil Stern and 
Kullak Cons. ; cond. at the Royal 
Theatre; composed succ. opera " Der 
Posaunist von Scherkingen " (Cassel, 
1889), a parody on Nessler's well- 
known " Der Trompeter von Sdk- 
kingen; " succ. comic operetta " der 
Gaunerkonig" (Cassel, 1890), etc. 

Belce. Vide REVSS-BELCE. 

Belcke (beT-kg), (i) Fr. Aug., Lucka, 
Altenburg, 1795 1874; the first trom- 
bone virtuoso. (2) Chr. Gl., Lucka, 
1796 1875 ; bro. of above ; flutist. 

Beldoman'dis (or Beldeman'dis, Bel- 
deman'do), Prosdo'cimus de, b. 
Padua, I4th cent. ; prof, of philoso- 
phy, ca. 1422 ; theorist. 

Beliczay (ba'-H-cha-e 1 ), Julius von, 
Komorn, Hungary, 1835 Pesth, 
1893 ; violinist. 

Belin (or Bellin) (bu-lan), (i) Guil., 
ca. 1547 ; tenor Chapelle Royale, 
Paris. (2) Julien, b. Le Mans, ca. 
1530; lutenist. 

Beliso'nius, Paul, a canon said to 
have inv. quills for harpsichords, i6th 

Bella (deT-la beT-la), Dom, della, 'cel- 
list, Venice, 1704. 

Bel'la, Jn., Ld., b. St. Nicholan, Up- 
per Hungary, 1843 ; canon at Neu- 
sohl ; composed church-music, etc. 

Bel'lamy, (i) Richard, d. London (?) 
1813 ; church-composer. (2) His son, 
Thos. Ludford, Westminster, 1770 
London, 1843, bass. 

Bellasio (bSl-la'-sf-o), Paolo, 1579- 
95 ; pub. madrigals, etc., at Venice. 

Bel'lasis, Edw., b. Jan. 28, 1852 ; 
English writer and composer. 

Bell'avere (or Bell'haver) (bel-a-va"- 
re), V., Venice, 1530 (?) 1588 (?) ; 
organist and composer. 

Bellazzi (bel-lad'-ae), Fran. C., at 
Venice, 1618-28. 

Bellere (bel-laY) (or Belle'rus, rightly 
Beellaerts) (baMarts'), (i) Jean, d. 
Antwerp, ca. 1595 ; publisher. His 
son and successor was (2) Balthasar. 

Bel'Ierraann, (i) Konstantin, Er- 
furt, 1696 M unden, 1763 ; rector 
and composer. (2) Jn. Fr., Erfurt, 
1795 Berlin, 1874 ; writer on Greek 
music. His son (3), Jn. Gf. H., b. 
Berlin, March 10, 1832; pupil R. 
Inst. for Cli.-music, 1866 ; prof, of 
mus. Berlin U. (vice Marx.) ; theorist 
and composer. 

Bellet'ti, Giov. Bat., b. Sar/ana, 
1815 ; barytone ; pupil of Pilotti at 
Bologna ; debut, 1838, Stockholm ; 
sang with Jenny Lind on tour ; re- 
tired, 1862. 

Belleville-Oury (bel-ve'-yu-oo'-re), 
Emilie, Munich, 1808 1880 ; pian- 

Bell'haver, V. Vide BKLL'AVERK. 

Belli (bel'-le), (i) Gir., pub., 1586- 
94, madrigals, etc. (2) Giulio, b. 
Longiano, ca. 1560; oh. -composer 
and cond. (3) Dom., 1616 ; court- 
musician at Parma. 

Bellin, G. Vide UKLIN. 

Bellincioni (Wl-Kn-cho'-ne), Gemma, 
notable Italian soprano ; toured U. S. 
in opera, 1899 ; lives in Florence. 

Bellini (bfiUe'-ne), (i) Vincenzo, Cata- 
nia, Sicily, Nov.3,iSo2 Puteaux.near 
Paris, Sept. 23, 1835 ; opera compos- 
er ; son and pupil of an organist ; a 
nobleman sent him (1819) to the 



Cons, at Naples ; studied under 
Furno, Tritto, and Zingarelli, until 
1827 ; privately studied with Haydn 
and Mozart, and chiefly Pergolesi; 
as a student composed a symphony, 2 
masses, several psalms, a cantata, etc.; 
his first opera, "Addson e Salvini" 
was performed by Cons, pupils, 1825, 
whereupon the manager of La Scala, 
Milan, commissioned him to write an 
opera ; 1826, " Bianco, e Fernando" 
was prod, with succ., 1827, " // Pi- 
rata ; " 1829, " La Stranier" The 
librettist of the latter 2 was Felice 
Romani, who wrote the books of all 
B.'s operas, except "/ Puritam? 
" Zaira" (1829) was a failure; "/ 
Capuleti e Montecclii" written in forty 
days (1830), was a great succ. ; " La 
Sottnamlwla" an.6. " Norma" (1831), 
with Malibran in the title-role, estab- 
lished his fame; "Beatrice di Ten- 
da" (Venice, 1833) failed ; " / Purl. 
tani" (libretto by Count Fepoli), 
written to order 1834, for the Theatre 
Italien, Paris, was a great success, 
and his last finished work. B.'s work 
is a compendium of all the virtues 
and vices of Italian opera, passionate 
and eminently vocal lyrics with empty 
and slovenly accompaniment. He 
died youngest of all prominent com- 
posersat the age of 33, from dysen- 
tery due to overwork. Biog. by 
Scherillo (Milan, 1885), Pougin 
(Paris, 1868), etc. (2) Carmelo, 
Catania, 18021884; brother of 
above ; composed Church-music. 

Bell'man, (i) Carl Mikael, Stock- 
holm, 1740 1795 ; Swedish poet who 
set his own burlesques to music. (2) 
K. Gf., Schellenberg, Saxony, 1760 
Dresden, 1816 ; pf.- and bassoon- 
maker. (3) K. Gl., Muskau, 1772, 
Schleswig, 1862 ; organist. 

Belloc (bel-16k'), Teresa (G. Trom- 
bet'ta-Belloc), San Begnino, Can- 
avese, 17848. Giorgio, 1855; mezzo- 
soprano ; repertoire of 80 operas. 

Belloli (bel-lo'-le), (i) Luigi, Castel- 
franco, Bologna, 1770 Milan, 1817; 
horn-player and composer. (2) Ag., 

b. Bologna ; first horn (1819-29) at 
La Scala, Milan, and dram, composer. 

Bemberg (ban-berg), Hermann, b. 
Paris, March 29, 1861 ; pupil of 
Dubois, Franck and Massenet, Paris 
Cons. ; 1887 took Rossini prize ; 
composed i-act opera " Le Baiser de 
Suzon " (Paris, Op.-com., 1888), mod. 
succ. ; opera Elaine (London, 1892 ; 
New York, 1894), and songs. 

Bemetzrieder (ba'-mets-re-dSr), T., b. 
Alsatia, 1743 ; Benedictine monk ; 
then composer and writer. 

Ben'da, (i) Franz, Alt-Benatek, Bo- 
hemia, Nov. 25, 1709 Potsdam, 
March 7, 1786 ; court-violinist to 
Frederick II., whom he accompanied 
for 40 years in flute-concertos ; 
composed symphonies, etc. His 3 
brothers (2) Jn., Alt-Benatek, 1713 
Potsdam, 1752 ; violinist. (3) G M 
Jungbunzlau, Bohemia, 1722 Koes- 
tritz, Nov. 6, 1795 ; court-cond., 1748 
(Gotha) ; 1764-66, Italy ; prod, at 
Gotha 10 operas in which he orig- 
inated the idea of spoken words with 
orchestral accompaniment, literal 
" melodrama." (4) Jos., 1724 Berlin, 
1804 ; violinist. His sister, (5) Anna 
Frangiska, b. 1726 Gotha, 1780; 
singer. (6) Fr. Wm. H., Potsdam, 
17451814 ; son and pupil of (i) ; 
composed operas, etc. (7) Fr. L., 
Gotha, 1746 Konigsberg, 1793 ; son 
of (3) ; cond. and composer. (8) K. 
Hermann H., Potsdam, 1748 
1836 ; son of rich father ; court.- 
violinist and composer. 

Ben'dall, Wilfred Ellington, b. 
London, April 22, 1850 ; pupil of 
Lucas, Silas and Leipzig Cons. ; com- 

Ben' del, Fz., Schonlinde, northern 
Bohemia, March 23, 1833 Berlin, 
July 3, 1874; pianist; composed 
symphonies, 4 masses, songs, etc., and 
piano pieces of great lusciousness of 
harmony and fervour of melody. 

Ben'deler, Jn. Ph., Riethnordhausen, 
near Erfurt, 1660 Quedlinburg 
1708 ; clavecinist, organist and 


Ben'der, (i) Jakob, Bechtheim, 1798 
Antwerp, 1844 ; dir. Antwerp wind- 
band ; clarinettist and composer. (2) 
Jean Val., Bechtheim, near Worms, 
1801 Brussels, 1873 ; bro. of above ; 
clarinet-virtuoso and band-master. 
Ben'dix, (i) Otto, b. Copenhagen, 
1850 ; pupil of Ree and Gade, Kul- 
lak and Liszt ; pf. -teacher in Copenh. 
Cons, and oboist in theatre-orch. ; 
lives in Boston, Mass., since 1880, as 
teacher and composer. (2) Victor 
E., b. Copenhagen, 1851; pianist, 
pupil and protege of Gade ; lives in 
Copenh. as pf.-teacher and cond. ; 
composed 3 symphonies, inch " Zur 
Hbhe," in C (1891) (also named 
" Felstnsteigung"}\ and " Sommer- 
klange atis Sudrussland" in D. 
Ben'df(bent'-'l), K., Prague, April 16, 
1838 Sept. 20, 1897; important 
Czech composer ; pupil of Blazokand 
Pitsch, at Prague; chorus-master, 
Amsterdam (1864); 1866, cond. 
Prague choral society, "Hlahol"; 
composed Czech operas incl. "Dite 
Tdbora" (Child of the Camp), 1892, 
(3 acts) ; still given at Prague ; 3 
masses, cantatas, an overture, a 
"Dithyramb" "Slavonic Rhap. 
^."fororch., etc. 
Bendler (bent'-ler), Salmon, Quedlin- 

burg, 16831724 ; singer. 
Ben'edict, (i) Sir Julius, Stuttgart, 
Nov. 27, 1804 London, June 5, 
1885 ; son of ajewish banker ; pupil of 
Abeille, Hummel, and Weber, 1825 at 
Naples, where his first opera was 
prod. 1829, without success ; his next 
(Stuttgart, 1830) was not a success ; 
settled in London as pf.-teacher and 
concert-giver; 1836, cond. opera 
buffa ; 1837 at Drury Lane, there his 
first English opera, " The Gypsy's 
Warning," was prod. (1838) ; he ac- 
companied Jenny Lind to America 
then cond. at Her Majesty's Th., and 
Drury Lane; 1859 at Covent Garden ; 
and "Monday Popular Concerts"; 
cond. also Norwich festivals, and 
(1876-80) the Liverpool Philhar- 
monic ; knighted in 1871 ; composed 

II operas ; 2 oratorios, " St. Cecilia " 
(1866), and "St. Peter" (1870); 2 
symphonies, 2 pf. -concertos, etc 
wrote a biog. of Weber. (2) Miio 
Ellsworth, b. Cornwall, June a 
1866; pupil of C. Petersilea (pf.), j' 
K. Paine (theory); 1883-84111 Europe' 
spending 3 mos. with Liszt ; lives in 
Boston, as pf. -teacher and composer 
Benedic'tus Appenzelders (ap'-p&i- 
tselt-ers) (B. of Appenzell), b. Ap- 
penzeil, Switzerland ; choir-master in 
Brussels (1539-55) and composer; 
often confused with liuncdictus 

Benel'li, (i) Alemanno. Vide T-.OT- 
TRIGARI. (2) A. Peregrino, Forli, 
Romagna, 1771 Uornichuu, Saxony 
1830; tenor. 

Benes (ba'-n&h) (Gcr. Benesch), 
Josef, b. Batelov, Moravia, 1793- 
conductor, violinist and composer. ' 
Benevoli (ba-na -vf.-lG), Orazio, Koine, 
16021672; natural son of L>uke 
Albert of Lorraine, but lived in pov- 
erty; cond. at the Vatican (1646); 
remarkable contrapuntist ; in writ- 
ing chorals with iuslrs. he was a 
pioneer; his Salzburg mass beino- 
written on 54 slaves. & 

Benfey (ben-fi'), Theodor, Norton, 
near Gottingen, 18091881 ; writer.' 
Bemni (ba-nc'-ne), Sit>nora ? Italian 
singer in London, 1787, comic opera ; 
exquisite sweetness but JitUe power 
Beninco'ri, Ang. M., Urcscia, 1779- 

Paris, 1821 ; dram, composer. 
Bennat, Fz., b. lircijcnz, Aug. 17 
1844; 'cellist; studied Munich Cons] 
and with Semis; since 1864 in 
Munich court-orch. ; since 1888 in the 
Walter Quartet, chamber-mus. 
Ben net, (i) J., Kn^lish composer 
(1599)- (2) Saunders, d. 1809 
English organist and composer, fo) 
Theodore. VidcTii. RITTKR 
Bennett, (i) Wm., b. Teignniouth 
ca. 1767; organist. (2) Thos., ca. 
17741848 ; organist. (3) Alfred 
1805-1830; English organist. (4) 
bir Wm. Sterndale, Sheitield, April 
13, i8i6-London, Feb. i, 1875 ; 


son of an organist (who died 1819) ; 
at 8 entered the choir of King's Col- 
lege Chapel ; at 10 pupil of R. A. M.; 
at 17 played there an original pf.- 
concerto, later pub. by the Academy; 
sent 1837 by the Broadwoods to Leip- 
zig for one year ; friend of Schumann 
and Mendelssohn; 1844 m. Mary 
Anne Wood, founded the Bach So- 
ciety, 1849; cond. Philh. Society, 
1856-66; 1856, Mus. Doc. Cam- 
bridge and prof, of mus. there ; 1866, 
Principal there; 1871, knighted; 
buried in Westminster Abbey ; com- 
posed i symphony, an oratorio " The. 
Woman of Samaria" music to So- 
phokles' "Ajax" ; 5 overtures, " Pa- 
risina," " Tlie Naiads" " The 
Wood-nymph" "Paradise and the 
Peri" "Merry Wives of Windsor" 
sonatas, etc. (5) Jos., b. Berkeley, 
Gloucestershire, Nov. 29, 1831; or- 
ganist of Westminster Chapel ; then 
music critic for various London news- 
papers; finally The Telegraph; 
wrote various libretti ; pub. "Letters 
from Bayreuth" (1877); "The 
Musical Year" (1883), etc. 

Bennewitz (ben'-ne-vets), (i) Wm., 
Berlin, 1832 1871 ; dram, composer. 
(2) Anton, b. Privat, Bohemia, 
March 26, 1833 ; violinist ; 1882, dir. 
of Prague Cons. 

Benois (bun-wa), Marie, b. St. Peters- 
burg, Jan. 1, 1861 ; pianist ; pupil of 
Leschetizky (1876), won gold medal 
St. Petersburg Cons. ; toured with 
success ; (1878) m. her cousin Wassi- 
ly Benois. 

Benoist (bun-wa), Frai^ois, Nantes, 
1794 Paris, 1878; organ-prof. Paris 
Cons. ; composed operas, etc. 

Benoit (bun-wa), Pierre Leonard 
Ld., Harlebecke, Belgium, Aug. 17, 
1834 Antwerp, Mar.4,i90i; Flemish 
composer and writer ; pupil Brussels 
Cons., 1851-55; at same time prod. 
a small opera and wrote music for 
Flemish melodramas; 1856, cond. 
Park Th. ; 1857, won the Prix de 
Rome, with the cantata " Le Meurtre 
d'Abel" ; studied at Leipzig, Dres- 

den, Munich, and Berlin, and wrote a 
thesis for the Brussels Academy 
"Lecole de musique famande et son 
avemr." In 1861 his opera " Le Roi 
des Aulnes" was accepted by Theatre 
Lyrique, Paris, but not given ; cond. 
at the Bouffes-Parisiennes ; from 
1867, dir. Antwerp Cons. ; 1882, 
member of the R. A., Berlin; com- 
posed Messe solennelle (1862) ; Te 
Deum (1863) ; Requiem (1863) ; 2 
oratorios "Lucifer" and " De 
Schelde" j 2 operas " Het Dorp int 
Gebergte" and " Isa" ; "Drama 
Christi" a sacred drama in Flemish ; 
a cantata " De Oorlog War " ; " Chil- 
dren's Oratorio" ; a choral sym- 
phony, "DeMaaiers" (The Reap- 
ers); music to "Charlotte Cor day" 
and to u Willem de Zwijger" (1876) ; 
the "Rubens cantata" "Flandcrens 
kunstroem "/ "Antwerpen" for triple 
male chorus (1877) ; vocal works 
with orch. incl. * Joncfrou Kathe- 
lijne" scena for alto (1879) ; " Muse 
der Geschiednis " (1880) ; and " Hue- 
bald," " Triomfmarsch" (1880); 
grand cantata u De Rhyn" (1889) ; a 
mass, etc. Wrote " De vlaamsche 
M usiek-school van Antwerpen" 
(1873), " Verhandelung over de na- 
tionale Toonkunde" (2 vols., 1877- 
79), etc. 

Ben'son, Harry, b. Birmingham, Eng- 
land, Dec. 14, 1848 ; pupil of Dea- 
kin and Browning in England and 
at N. E. Cons., Boston, where he 
was for years instructor ; since 1891 
with Boston Training School of Mu- 
sic ; cond. of various choral societies ; 
active devotee of Tonic Sol-fa. 

Benvenuti (ben-va-noo'-te), Tomma- 
so, b. Venice, 1832; dram, com- 

Berardi(ba-rar'-de), Aug., b. Bologna, 
1681 ; conductor and theorist. 

Be"rat (ba-ra), Fr., Rouen, 1800 
Paris, 1855 ; composer. 

Berbiguier (ber-Wg-ya), Benoit 
Tranquille, Caderousse, Vaucluse, 
1782 -near Blois, 1838; flute-vir- 
tuoso and composer. 



Berchem (or Berghem) (berkh'-Sm), 
Jachet de (also Jaquet, Jacquet, 
and Giachetto di Mantova), Ber- 
chem (?) near Antwerp, ca. 1500 
1580 ; contrapuntist and conductor. 

Berens (ba-rens), (i) Hermann, 
Hamburg, 1825 (?) Stockholm, 
1880 ; son and pupil of (2) K. B. 
(1801 1857) 5 court-conductor and 

Beret'ta, Giov. Batt, Verona, 1819 
Milan, 1876; theorist, editor, and 

Berg (berkh), (i) Adam, 15401599 ; 
music-printer, Munich. (2) Jn. von, 
1550; music-printer, Ghent, Niirn- 
berg. (3) G., German composer in 
England, 1763-71. (4) Kon, Mat., 
Colmar, Alsatia, 1785 Strassburg, 
1852 ; violinist, pianist, and writer. 

Berger (beV-geY). (i) L., Berlin, 
1777 1839; fr m I ^ I 5 pf.-teacher 
and composer. (2) Francesco, b. 
London, June 10, 1834; pupil of 
Ricci and Lickl (pf.), Hauptmann 
and Plaidy; pf.-prof. R. A. M., and 
Guildhall Sen. of Mus.; for years 
dir., now sec., Philh.; composed an 
opera, a mass (prod, in Italy), etc.; 
wrote "First Steps at the Piano- 
forte.'" (3) Wm., b. Boston, Mass., 
U. S. A., Aug. 9, 1861 ; taken by 
parents to Bremen; pupil of Kiel, 
etc.; lives Berlin as teacher and com- 
poser ; 1898 won a prize of 2,000 
marks, with a setting of Goethe's 
" Mdne Gdttin" (op. 72); composed 
<c Gesang der Gdster fiber den Was- 
sern" mixed choir and orch. in over- 
ture form, a dram, fantasy, etc. (4) 
Siegfried. Vide CHELIUS. (5) Otto, 
Machau, Bohemia, 1873 (?) 1897 ; 

Berggreen (berkh'-gran), Andreas P., 
Copenhagen, 18011880 ; teacher. 

Berghem. Vide BERCHEM. 

Bergmann (bgrkh'-man), K., Ebers- 
bach, Saxony, 1821 New York, Aug. 
16, 1876; in America, 1850, with 
" Germania" Orch., later its cond., till 
1854 ; cond. " Handel and Haydn" 
Soc., Boston, 1852-54 ; in 1855 alter- 

nate cond. Philh. Soc., New York; 
1862-76, sole cond ; also cond. 
" Arion" Society ; active in introduc- 
ing Wagner, Liszt, etc., to America. 

Bergner (be"rkh'-ner), Wm., b. Riga, 
Nov. 4, 1837 ; organist ; founded a 
Bach Society and a cathedral choir. 

Bergonzi (ber-gon'-tse), (i) Carlo, 
1716-1755 ; vln.-maker at Cremona, 
best pupil of Stradivari. His son (2) 
Michelangelo, and his 2 nephews, 
(3) Niccold and (4) Carlo, were less 
important. (5) Benedetto, Cremona, 
1790 1840 ; horn-player and invent- 

Bergson (bSrkh'-zon), Michael, b. 
Warsaw, May, 1820; pianist and 
composer ; pupil of Schneider, Run- 
genhagen, and Taubcrt, Paris (1840); 
Italy, 1846, where his opera "Louisa 
di Montfort" was succ. (Florence, 
1847) ; Paris, 1859, prod, a T-act op- 
eretta ; 1863, ist pf. -teacher and 
soon dir. Geneva Cons.; later in Lon- 
don as teacher. 

Bergt (berkht), Chr. Gl. Aug., b. 
Oderan, Saxony, 1772 Bautzen, 
1837 ; organist, violinist and con- 

Beringer (ba'-rfng-er), (i) Robert, b. 
Furtwangen, June 14, 1841 ; 1861 
pianist at the Crystal Palace ; cond. 
of societies, and lecturer. (2) Oscar, 
b. Furtwangen, July 14, 1844 ; bro. of 
above ; pupil of Plaidy, Moscheles, 
Leipzig Cons., 1864-66 ; later of 
Tausig, Ehrlich, and Weitzmann, 
Berlin; teacher there, 1869; London, 
1871 ; since 1873 pf.-prof. in R. A. 
M. ; composed Technical Exercises, 

Be~riot (du bar-yo), (i) Chas. Auguste 
de, Louvain, Feb. 20, 1802 Brus- 
sels, April 8, 1870 ; vln. -virtuoso ; 
pupil of Viotti and Haillot, but chiefly 
of his guardian, Tiby ; at 9 he played 
a concerto; 1821, made a brilliant 
debut, Paris ; chamber-violinist to 
the King of France, solo-violinist to 
the King of the Netherlands (1826-30) ; 
1830-35 toured Europe with Mmc. 
Garcia-Malibran, whom he m, in 


1836 ; from 1843-52, prof, at Brussels 
Cons.; became blind and paralysed 
in left arm ; pub. method and 7 con- 
certos, etc., for vln. (2) Chas, Vil- 
fride de, b. Paris, Feb. 12, 1835 ; son 
of above ; pupil of Thalberg ; prof, 
of pf., Paris Cons. ; composed sym- 
phonies, etc.; wrote with his father 
a "Methode d'accompagnement" 

Berlijn (or Berlyn) (bar'-len), Anton 
(or Aron Wolf (?), Amsterdam, 1817 
1870 ; conductor. 

Berlin (bar'-len), Jn. Daniel, Memel, 
1710 Drontheim, Norway, 1737 ; 
organist and writer. 

Berlioz (bar-tt-6s not bar-lt-o), Hec- 
tor (Louis), Cote-Saint-Andre, near 
Grenoble, France, Dec. n, 1803 
Paris, March 9, 1869; "Father of 
modern orchestration " ; conductor, 
critic, writer of verse and electric 
prose ; sent to Paris to study med- 
icine, he accepted disinheritance and 
took up music, though he could never 
play any instr. save the guitar and 
flageolet ; while pupil at the Cons., he 
earned a bare living ; joined the chorus 
of the Gymnase Dramatique ; left the 
Cons, in disgust with Reicha's forma- 
lism, and plunged with characteristic 
energy or rather fury into the cause 
of romanticism ; 1825, an orchestral 
mass given at St. Koch brought the 
ridicule he usually had in France 
where he was little thought of as a 
composer though admired as a writer ; 
1828 saw the production of two over- 
tures " Wavcrley" and " Les Francs- 
Jugs s" and a Symphonic fantastique, 
" fipisode de la vie d'un artiste" ; 
1829, his " Concerts des Sylphes" 
publicly produced at 26, show him 
an ardent believer in programme- 
music (vide D. B.) and a marvellous 
virtuoso in instrumentation. He re- 
entered the Cons, under Lesueur, in 
spite of Cherubini, who fought his ad- 
mission ; 1830, he took the Prix de 
Rome with a cantata, " Sardana- 
pale" ; after 18 months in Italy 
he returned to Paris and took up 
journalism with marked success. His 

symphony " Harold en Italic " (1834), 
the " Messe des Moris " (1837), the 
dram, symphony " Romto et Juli- 
ette" with vocal soli and chorus 
(1839), and the overture " Carnhal 
romain" were well received, but the 
2-act opera semi-seria " Benvenuto 
Cellini " failed both in Paris and in 
London, 1838. In 1839 he was made 
Conservator of the Cons. ; librarian, 
1852, but was never made professor 
as he desired. Concert tours through 
Germany and Russia, 1843-47, were 
very successful and are described in 
his book " Voyage musical." London 
(1852) he cond. the _" New Philh. 
Concerts "; prod, comic opera " B Pat- 
rice et Btnddict " (1862, Baden-Ik- 
den) ; 1865, member of the Academie, 
and decorated with cross of Legion 
of Honour. He m. Henrietta Smith- 
son, an Irish actress who made a sen- 
sation in Paris in Shakespearian 
roles, but later was hissed off, and 
became a peevish invalid. His opera, 
"Les Troyens a Carthage" (1863) 
was a failure. His son Louis died 
1867. "Les Troyens," in two 
parts ; La Prise de Troie, 3 acts, 
and Les Troyens & Carthage, in 5 
acts was given complete for the first 
time, at Carlsruhe, 1897. His most 
succ. work was his "oratorio," "La 
Damnation de Faust" (1846). His 
" Traits' ^instrumentation " is a clas- 
sic in orchestration, though its then 
sensational modernity is lost. B. 
strangely despised Wagner, who, how- 
ever, confessed his large indebtedness 
to B. Other books are " Soirees 
d'orchestre" (1853), "Grotesques de 
la mttsiqite" (1859), "A travers 
chants" (1862), and an autobiogra- 
phy, " Memoir es" from 1803-65. 
In original verse are the text to the 
sacred trilogy " VEnfance du Christ " 
(Part /., Lesonge d'Herode; II., La 
fuite en Egypte ; ///., EArrivde a 
Sais] ; and his operas "Les Troy- 
ens " and ' ' Beatrice et Bfo/dict. " He 
composed also a " Te Deum" for 3 
choirs, orch. and org. ; a " Grande 


symphonie funebre et triomphak" for Corsaire" y " Le Cinq Mai,'" for 
full military band, with strings and chorus and orch. (on the anniversary 
chorus ad lib.; overture to " Le of Napoleon's death), etc. 



kERLIOZ'S early influences were as much literary as musical. His 
reading was mainly romantic ; his musical gods were Beethoven, 

Weber, and Gluck, whose orchestral works influenced him most. 

He knew little of Beethoven's piano writings, and did not like Bach. ^[ Into 
the intellectual world of the Beethoven symphony and the operas of Gluck 
and Weber he breathed the newer, more nervous life of the French Roman- 
ticists. Colour and sensation became as important as form and the pure idea. 
^[ These influences and his literary instincts led him to graft the programme 
form on the older symphony. All his music aims at something concrete. 
Instead of the abstract world of the classical symphonists he gives us definite 
emotions, or paints definite scenes. Colour, passion, and veracity were the 
prime needs ; form had to follow their guidance. Hence both his suc- 
cesses and his failures. His virtue is truth and vivacity of expression ; his 
defect the pursuit of these to the detriment of the musical interest. *[f All 
modern prograrnmists have built upon him Liszt, Richard Strauss, and 
Tschaikowsky. Wagner felt his influence, though he belittled it. *|[His 
own words, "I have taken up music where Beethoven left it," indicate his 
position. He is the real beginner of that interpenetration of music and the 
poetic idea which has transformed modern art. 

Berlyn, Anton. Vide BERLIJN. Bernard (ber-nar, in f.\ (i) Emery, b. 

Bermudo (ber-moo'-dho), Juan, As- Orleans, France, i6th cent.; wrote 

torga, ca. 1510; writer. method of singing. (2) (ber'-nart, in 

Bernabei (ber-na-ba'-e), (i).Gius. Er- .), Moritz, Kurland, 17948^ 

cole, Caprarola, ca. 1620 Munich, Petersburg, 1871; pianist and teacher. 

1687; 1672 cond. at the Vatican; (3) Paul, Poitiers, 1827 Paris, 1879 ; 

1674 cond. at Munich; composed composer and writer. (4) Daniel, 

three operas (prod, in Munich), etc. 1841 Paris, 1883 ; writer. (5) 

(2) Gius. A., Rome, 1659 Munich, ^rnile, b. Marseilles, Aug. 6, 1845 ; 

1732 ; son of above and his successor organist of Notre-Dame-des-Champs, 

at Munich. ^ Paris ; important composer of vln.- 

Bernacchi (ber-nak'-ke), A., Bologna, concerto ; concert-stuck for pf. with 
ca. 1690 1756 ; soprano-musico, en- orch.; overture "Beatrice"; 2 can- 
gaged by Handel for London, 1729, tatas ; much chamber-music, etc. 
as the greatest living dram, singer ; Bernardel. Vide LUPOT. 
1736 founded a singing-school at Bo- Bernar'di, (i) Steffano, ca. 1634 ; 
1 canon at Salzburg ; theorist and com- 


poser. (2) Francesco. VidesENE- 
SINO. (3) Enrico, b. Milan, 1838 
1900; conductor and dram, com- 

Bernardini (ber-nar-de'-ne), Marcello 
(" Marcello di Capua "), b. Capua, 
ca. 1762 ; dram, composer. 

Bernasco'ni, (i) Andrea, Marseilles, 
1712 Munich, 1784; court-conduc- 
tor. (2) P., d. Varese, May 27, 
1895 ; organ-builder. 

Berneli'nus, lived in Paris, 1000; 
probably a Benedictine monk ; theo- 
rist and writer. 

Ber'ner, Fr. Wm., Breslau, 1780 
1827 ; organist. 

Bernhard (ber-nar), (St.), Fontaines, 
Burgundy, 1091 1153 ; abbot and 

Bernhard (bern'-hart), (i) der 
Deutsche (der doit'-she) ; organist, 
Venice, 1445-59; known as "Ber- 
nado di Steffanino Murer " ; perhaps 
inv., certainly introduced, into Italy, 
the organ-pedal. (2) Chr., Danzig, 
1612 Dresden, 1692 ; court-con- 
ductor and notable contrapuntist. 

Bernicat (ber-nX-ka), Firmin, 1841 
Paris, 1883 ; dram, composer. 

Ber'no, Augien'sis, d. Riechenau, 
1048 ; abbot and theorist. 

Bernoulli! (bar-noo-e'-ye), (i) Jn., 
Basel, 16671747. His son (2) 
Daniel, Groningen, 1700 Basel, 
1782, also was prof, and writer on 

Berns'dorf, Eduard, Dessau, March 
25, 1825 1901 ; Leipzig critic and 

Bernuth (bar'-noot), Julius von, b. 
Rees, Rhine Province, Aug. 8, 1830 ; 
studied law and music at Berlin, 
1854 ; studied at Leipzig Cons, till 
1857; founded the "Aufschwung 
Society," and 1859 "Dilettante's Or- 
chestral Society " ; also cond. 3 other 
societies ; later cond. at Hamburg ; 
1873, dir. of a cons, there; 1878, 
" Royal Prussian Professor." 

Berr (ber), Fr., Mannheim, 1794 
Paris, 1838 ; bandmaster ; 1831, prof. 
of clar., Paris Cons. ; 1836, dir. School 

of Military Music ; writer and com- 

Berr 6 (ber-ra), F., b. Ganshoren, near 
Brussels, Feb. 5, 1843; composed 

Bersel'li, Matteo, Italian tenor ; 
London, 1720-21. 

Bertali (ber-ta'-le), Ant., Verona, 
1605 Vienna, 1669 ; court-conductor 
and dram, composer. 

Bertani (ber-ta -ne), Telio, i6th cent.; 

Ber'telmann, Jan. G., Amsterdam, 
1782 1854 ; prof, and composer. 

Ber'telsmann, K. Aug., Gutersloh, 
Westphalia, 1811 Amsterdam, 1861; 
director and composer. 

Berthaurae (ber-tom), Isidore, Paris, 
1752 St. Petersburg, 1802 ; violinist 
and conductor. 

Berthelier (ber-tel-ya), H., solo-violin- 
ist, Paris Opera, 1894. 

Berthold (ber'-tolt), K. Fr. Theodpr, 
Dresden, 1815 1882 ; court-organist. 

Berti (bgr-te), M. A., Vienna, 1721 
1740 ; barytone-player. 

Bertin (ber'-tan), Louise Ang61ique, 
Roches, near Paris, 1805 Paris, 
1877 ; singer, pianist and dram, com- 

Bertini(ber-te'-ne), (i) AbbateGius., 
Palermo, 1756 1849 (?); court-cond. 
and lexicographer. (2) Benoit 
Auguste, b. Lyons, 1780; writer. 
(3) H. Jerome, London, 1798 
Meylau, near Grenoble, 1876 ; bro. 
and pupil of above; pianist and 
composer ; at 12, toured the Nether- 
lands and Germany; retired, 1859; 
wrote technical studies. (4) Dom., 
Lucca, 1829 Florence, 1890 ; teach- 
er, critic, theorist and director. 

Bertinot'ti, Teresa, Piedmont, 1776 
Bologna, 1854 ; operatic soprano ; m. 
Felix Radicati, a violinist and 

Bertolli (tol'-lt), Fran., Italian singer 
in Handel's operas, London, 1729- 

Berton (ber-toh), (i) P. Montaa, 
Paris, 1727 1780; conductor grand 
opera and dram, composer. (2) H. 


Montan, Paris, 17671844 ; son of 
above; composer. (3) Frangois, 
Paris, 17841832 ; natural son of 
(2) ; pupil, later prof, of singing, at 
Cons. ; composed operas and songs. 

Berto'ni, Fdo. Giu., Venice, 1725 
Desenzano, 1813 ; organist and dram, 

Bertram (beV-tram), Th., b. Stutt- 
gart, Feb. 12, 1869 ; barytone ; 
studied with his father ; sang in various 
German cities lately with his wife, 
Fanny Moran Olden. 

Bertrand (ber-tran), J. Gv., Vaugi- 
rard, near Paris, 1834 Paris, 1880 ; 
writer and critic. 

Berwald (ber'-valt), (i) Jn. Fr., Stock- 
holm, 1788 1861 ; precocious violin- 
ist, etc. ; pupil of Abbe Vogler ; com- 
posed a symphony at 9. (2) Fz., 
Stockholm, 17961868; nephew of 
above ; dram, composer. 

Berwillibald (ber'-vlWl-balt), G. G., 
German singer in London, 1716. 

Berwin (ber'-ven), Adolf, Schwersenz, 
near Posen, 1847 Rome, 1900 ; dir. 
Cecilia Academy, Rome ; writer. 

Besard (bu-ziir), Jn. Bap., b. Besan- 
con, ca. 1576 ; writer. 

Beschnitt (bg-shnft'), Jns., Bockau, 
Silesia, 1825 Stettin, 1880; con- 

Besekirsky (ba-ze-ker'-shM), Vasil 
Vasllevitch, b. Moscow, 1836 ; con- 
cert violinist and composer. 

Besler (bas'-lei), (i) Samuel, Brieg, 
Silesia, 1574 Breslau, 1625 ; rector 
and composer. (2) Simon, cantor 
at Breslau, and composer, 1615-28. 

Besozzi (ba-sod'-ze), the name of 4 
brothers, all oboists except (3). (i) 
Ales., Parma, 1700 Turin, 1775. 
(2) Antonio, Parma, 1707 Turin, 
1781; (3) Hieronimo, Parma, 1713 
Turin (?), bassoonist. (4) Gaeta- 
no, b. Parma, 1727. (5) Carlo, b. 
Dresden, 1745 ; oboist, son of (2). 
(6) Hieronimo, d. 1785 ; son of (3) ; 
oboist. His son (7) Henri was a 
flutist, and father of (8) Louis De"- 
sire", Versailles, 1814 Paris, 1879; 
teacher and composer. 

Bessems (bes'-sams), A., Antwerp, 
jgog igGS ; violinist and composer. 

Besson (bus-s6n), Gv. Aug., Paris, 
1820 1875 ' improver of valves in 

Best, Wm. T., Carlisle, Engl., Aug. 
13, 1826 Liverpool, May 10, 1897 ; 
org. -virtuoso ; pupil of Young ; or- 
ganist at various ch.,ancl the Philh. 
Society; in 1880, declined knight- 
hood, but accepted Civil- List pen- 
sion of ;loo per annum ; 1894, 
retired; 1890 went to Sydney, Aus- 
tralia, to inaugurate the organ in the 
new Town Hall ; composed overtures, 
sonatas, preludes, etc., for organ, 
also 2 overtures and march for orch. ; 
andpf.-pcs. ; wrote " The Art of Or- 
gan-playing" etc. 

Betts, J. & Edward, London ; vln.- 
makers ; pupils and successors of R. 
Duke, 1760-80. 

Betz (bets), Fz., Mayencc, March 19, 
1835 Berlin, Aug. 12, 1900 ; bary- 
tone ; created " Wotan, " and "Hans 

Beuer (boi'-er), Elise, b. Carlsbad; 
soprano, studied in 1892 at Vienna ; 
City-Theatre, Leipzig ; 1899, Ham- 
burg City Theatre. 

Beunter (boin'-ter), Benj., Miihl- 
hausen, 1792 1837 ; organist and 

Bev'an, Fr. Chas., b. London, July 3, 
1856 ; pupil of Willing and 1 loyte ; 
organist various churches ; then stud- 
ied singing with Schira, Deacon and 
Walker ; 1877 Gentleman of the 
Chapel Royal ; composed pop. songs. 

Bevignani (ba-ven-ya'-ne), Cavalicre 
Enrico, b. Naples, Sept. 29, 1841 ; 
pupil of Albanese, Lillo, etc., ist 
opera, " Cater -ina Rloom" succ. ; 
Czar made him Knight of the Order 
of St. Stanislas, which gives nobility 
and a life-pension ; chiefly noted as 
cond. in London, Moscow and New 

Bev'in, Elway, Wales, tsfx>(-7o?) 
1640(7) ; Gentleman of the Chapel 
Royal ; organist, writer and com- 


Bex'field, Wm. Rd., Norwich, 1824 
London, 1853 ; organist and com- 

Beyer (bi'-er), (i) Jn. Samuel, 
Gotha, 1669 Carlsbad, 1744; direc- 
tor. (2) Rudolf, Wilther, 1828 
Dresden, 1853 ; composer. (3) Fd., 
Querfurt, 1805 Mayence, 1863; 

Biaggi (be-ad'-je), Gir. Ales., Milan, 
1815 Florence, 1897; prof., dram, 
composer, writer under pseudonym 
" Ippolito d'Albano." 

Bial (be'-al), (r) Rudolf, Habelschwerdt, 
Silesia, 1834 New York, 1881 ; vi- 
olinist, writer and cond. (2) K., 
Habelschwerdt, 1833 Steglitz, near 

, Berlin, 1892 ; bro. of above ; pianist. 

Bianchi (bc-an'-ke), (i) Fran., Cre- 
mona, 1752 Bologna, 1811 ; organist; 
composed 47 operas. (2) Valentine, 
Wilna, 1839 Candau, Kurland, 
1884; dram, soprano; debut, 1855. 
(3) Bianca (rightly Schwarz), b. in 
a village on the Neckar, June 27, 
1858 ; dram. -soprano ; pupil of Wil- 
czek and Viardot-Garcia ; Pollini 
paid her tuition and then engaged 
her for 10 years; debut Carlsruhe, 
1873. (4) Eliodoro, composed 
operas; " Cara d' A wore" (Bari, 
1873); "Sarah" ; " Almanzor." 

Bianchini (be-an-ke'-ne), P., b. Ven- 
ice, Oct., 18, 1828 ; violinist, cond., 
1878-87, teacher at Trieste, then dir. 
School of the Padri Armeni, Venice ; 

Biber (be'-ber), (i) H. Jn. Fz. von, 
Wartenberg, Bohemia, 1644 Salz- 
burg, May 3, 1704 ; violinist, and 
one of the founders of the German 
school of vln. -playing ; Leopold I. 
ennobled him. (2) Aloys, Ellingen, 
1804 Munich, 1858 ; piano-maker. 

Bibl (beb'-'l), (i) Andreas, Vienna, 
1797 ; organist and composer, as was 
his son (2) Rudolph, b. 1832. 

Biedermann (be'-der-man), (i) , 

about 1786 tax-receiver at Beichlingen, 
Thuringia ; a real virtuoso on, and 
improver of, the hurdygurdy. (2) 
Edw. Julius, b. Milwaukee, Wis., 

Nov. 8, 1849 (son and pupil of (3) 
A. Julius) ; studied in Germany ; 
since 1888 organist St. Mary's R. C. 
Church, New York. 

Biehl (bel), Albert, b. Rudolstadt, 
Germany, Aug. 16, 1833 ; writer of 
valuable works on finger technic ; and 

Bierey (ber'-i), Gl. Benedikt, Dres- 
den, 1772 Breslau, 1840 ; conductor 
and dram, composer. 

Biese (be'-ze), Wm., b. Rathenow, 
1822 ; piano-maker, Berlin, 

Bigaglia (be-gal'-ya), Padre Dio- 
genio, 1725 ; Benedictine monk and 

Bignami (ben-ya'-me), (i) Carlo, Cre- 
mona, Dec. 6, 1808 Voghera, Aug. 
2, 1848; cond., violinist and dir., 
Cremona ; Paganini called him " the 
first violinist of Italy." (2) Enrico, 
1842(7) Genoa, 1894; violinist, 
dram, composer. 

Bignio (ben'-yo), Louis von, b. Pesth, 
1839 ; lyric barytone ; Vienna Court- 
Opera ; pensioned, 1883. 

Bigot (be-go), M. (ne'e Kiene), Col- 
mar, Upper Alsatia, 1786 Paris, 
1820; pianist. 

Bilhon (or Billon) (be-yon), J. de, 
i6th cent. ; composer and singer in 
the Papal Chapel. 

Billema (bel-la'-ma), (i) Carlo (b. 
Naples, ca. 1822) and (2) Raffaele 
(Naples, 1820 Saintes, Dec. 25, 
1874), brothers ; pianists, and com- 

Billert (bel'-lert), K. Fr. Aug., Alt- 
stettin, 1821 Berlin, 1875 ; painter 
and writer. 

Billet (be-ya), Alex. Ph., b. St. 
Petersburg, March 14, 1817 ; pianist 
and composer. 

Billeter (be-yfi-ta), Agathon, Manne- 
dorf, Lake of Zurich, Nov. 21, 1834; 
organist, conductor and composer of 
pop. part-songs. 

Billings, Wm., Boston, Mass., 
Oct. 7, 1749 Sept. 29, 1800; com- 
posed hymns; introduced the pitch- 
pipe and the 'cello into American 
church-choirs, and is said to have 



given the first concert in New Eng- 

Bil'lington, (i) Th., pianist, harp- 
ist and composer, latter part of i8th 
cent. (2) Elizabeth (nee Weichsel), 
London, ca. 1768 near Venice, Aug. 
23, 1818 ; pupil of her father, a clar- 
inettist ; then of J. Chr. Bach ; hand- 
some operatic soprano, had a compass 
of 3 octaves, a-a!" (Vide PITCH, D. D.), 
1784, Dublin ; 1786, Covent Garden ; 
retired, 1818. 

Billrot(h) (bel'-rot), (i) Jn. Gv Fr., 
Halle, near Lubeck, 1808 Halle, 
1836; composer and writer. (2) 
Theodor, Bergen, Isle of Riigen, 
1829 Abbazia, 1894; surgeon and 

Bilse (beT-se), Benj., b. Liegnitz, Aug. 
17, 1816 ; " Stadtmusikus " at Lieg- 
nitz, and trained a remarkable or- 
chestra ; retired 1894 as "Hofmusi- 

Binchois (Gilles de Binche, called 
Binchois) (bansh-wa), Binche, in 
Belgian Hainault, ca. 1400 Lille, 
1460; one of the early Netherland 
composers; 3-part chanson, ron- 
deaux, etc. , of his are extant. 

Binder (btnt'-er), (i) K. Wm. Fd., 
b. Dresden, 1764; harp-maker at 
"Weimar, ca. 1797. (2) K,, Vienna, 
18161860 ; conductor and dram, 

Bini (be'-ne), Pasqualino, b. Pesaro, 
ca. 1720 ; violinist. 

Bioni (be-o'-ne), A., b, Venice, 1698 ; 
composed 26 operas. 

Biordi (be-6r'-de), Giov., Commis- 
sioned by Pope Benedict XIII. to 
supplement Palestrina's service ; this 
was used till 1731. 

Birch, (i) C. Anne, b. ca. 1815 ; pop. 
singer ; retired 1856. (2) Eliza, ca. 
1830 1857 ; sister of above ; sopra- 

Birch'all, Robt., d. 1819 ; music-pub- 
lisher, London. 

Birckenstock (beY-ken-shtok), Als- 
feld, 1687 Eisenach, 1733 ; con- 

Bird, (i) Wra. Vide BYRD, (2) Arthur, 

b. Cambridge, Mass., July 23, 1856; 
pupil of Haupt, Lbschhorn, and 
Rohde, Berlin, 1875-77 ; organist and 
teacher at Halifax, N. S.; founded 
the first male chorus in N. S., 1881 ; 
studied comp. and orchestration with 
Urban, Berlin ; 1885-86 with Liszt at 
Weimar ; 1886, gave a successful 
concert, and has lived since, in Berlin, 
Griinewald ; composed symphony and 
3 suites for orch. ; various pieces for 
piano ; comic opera " Daphne " (New 
York, 1897) ; and a ballet, " Riibe- 

Birkler (ber'-kler), G. Wm., 1820 
1877 ; composer and writer. 

Birnbach (bern'-bakh), (i) K. Jos., 
Kopernick, Silesia, 1751 Warsaw, 
1805; conductor. (2) Jos. Benj. 
H., Breslau, 1795 Berlin, 1879; 
pianist and composer ; son and pupil 
of above. 

Bisaccia (be-sat'-cha), Giov., 1815 
Naples, 1897 ; singer, conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Biscaccianti (bes-kLit-chiin'-tc), Eli- 
za (nee Ostmelli), Boston, Mass., 
1824 (7?) 1896; sang in America 
and Europe, in opera and concert ; 
teacher in Rome and elsewhere ; m. 
Marquis B. 

Bischoff (besh'-6f), (i) G. Fr.,Ellrich, 
Harz Mts., 1780 Hildesheim, 1841 ; 
conductor ; founded the German mus. 
festivals. (2) L. Fr. Ch., Dessau, 
1794 Cologne, 1867; translator; 
son of (3) K. B., court-mus., Dres- 
den. (4) Kasper Jakob, Ansbach, 
1823 Munich, 1893; .teacher and 
composer. (5) Hans, Berlin, 1852 
NiederschSnhausen, near Berlin, 1889; 
pf.-teacher, conductor and editor. 

Bish'op, (i) Sir H. Rowley, London, 
Nov. 18, 1786 April 30, 18^55 ; noted 
Engl. composer ; pupil of Bianca ; his 
first opera, " The Circassian Bride'" 
was prod. Drury Lane, when he was 
20 ; 1810-11 comp. and cond. at Co- 
vent Garden ; 1813 alternate cond. 
Philh. Soc.; 1825 cond. at Drury 
Lane ; 1830 musical dir. at Vauxhall; 
1841-43, prof, music, Edinburgh; 



knighted, 1842 ; 1848 prof, of music 
at Oxford; 1853, Mus. Doc. (Oxon); 
prod, over 80 operas, farces, ballets, 
an oratorio, cantata, etc. (2) J., 
b. Cheltenham, 1814 ; organist, editor 
and composer. 

Bispham (ttsp'-ham), David, b. Phil- 
adelphia, ca. 1860 ; dram, barytone ; 
sang in church and oratorio ; 1885-87 
pupil of Vannuccini and Wm. Shakes- 
peare ; from 1891 in opera at Covent 
Garden, and America, with much 
success and versatility; and also in re- 
citals, in both of which fields his high 
dramatic intelligence plays an unusual 
part; is brilliant in comic or tragic 
situations ; knows more than 40 roles. 

Bit'ter, K. Hermann, Schwedt-on- 
Oder, 1813 Berlin, 1855 ; Prussian 
Minister of Finance, and writer. 

Bitto'ni, Bdo., Fabriano, 17551829; 

Bizet (be-za), G. (Alex. Csar Leo- 
pold), Paris, Oct. 25, 1838 Bougi- 
val, June 3, 1875 ; brilliant pianist 
and distinguished composer. At 9, 
pupil at Paris Cons, of Marmontel 
(pf.), Benoist (org.), Zimmerman 
(harm.), and Halevy (whose opera 
" Noe" he finished, and whose 
daughter Genevieve he m.) ; i$57, 

took Offenbach 1st prize for an opera 
buff a, " Le JDocteur Miracle," prod, 
at Bouffes Parisiens, 1863 ; also won 
the Grand Prix de Rome. In place of 
the Mass prescribed he sent from 
Rome a 2-act Ital. opera buff a "Don 
Procopio " ; 2 movements of a sym- 
phony, "La Chasse D Ossian" an 
overture; and "La Guzla de VE- 
mir" a comic opera. 1836, his grand 
opera " Les Pecheurs de Perles" 
was prod. Paris (Th. Lyrique) ; it 
failed, as did "La Jolie Mile de 
Perth " (1867), and the i-act " Dja- 
mileh " (1872). In all his music B. 
revealed a strong leaning toward 
Wagner, then so unpopular in 
France ; but 1872, his overture "Pa- 
trie" the 2 symphonic movements, 
and incidental music to Daudet's 
U ArUsienne, brought him success ; 
and " Carmen" (Opera-Corn., March 
3, 1875) brought him a fame, which 
he hardly knew, as he died three 
months later of heart disease ; he com- 
posed also 2 operas, " Numa" (1871) 
and "Ivan k Terrible" ; I5opf.-pcs., 
songs, etc.; collaborated with De- 
libes, Jonah and Legouix in opera 
" Malbrough, sen va-t*en-guerre" 
Biog. by Pigot, 1886. 



AS Bizet's last work was his best, it is logical to argue that his un- 
timely death has cheated us of compositions more valuable than 
"Carmen;" but beyond mere conjecture such an estimate can 
have no value and his rank among opera-composers must be determined by 
Carmen. That the stage was his real field, is proven clearly by the per- 
sistency with which he composed for it, and a study of his different efforts 
proves the wisdom of his choice, for there are no masterpieces among his 
songs, or among his piano-compositions, and even his most successful orches- 
tral number is the " First Suite" compiled for his incidental music to 
Daudet's V Arlesienne" ^[His early letters confess his musical creed : 
Mozart and Beethoven, Rossini and Meyerbeer ; this is catholic, to say 
the least, but later he acknowledged his preference for the Germans in gen- 


eral and Beethoven as the master of all. But Bizet was a stranger to the 
larger forms in music for two years he toiled intermittingly at a symphony 
and produced only the " Roman Suite ' J as a result and his work shows 
more tendency to follow Gounod's teaching than that of his high ideals. 
He was bitterly accused of being a follower of Wagner ; Paris, knowing so 
lamentably little of Wagner's music, then condemned that of Bizet's, which 
it did not like or could not understand, by labelling it " Wagnerian," and 
thus put it hopelessly beyond the possibility of discussion. As a matter of 
fact there is no trace of Wagner to be found in Bizet's music, and the only 
resemblance between the two is that both were innovators who presented 
their theories about dramatic art in practical forms, proving them by their 
operas. ^Bizet realised the sorry state of the French operatic stage, but 
contented himself with an effort at reforming the minor stage of the Opera- 
Comique, and it is doubtless due in a great measure to the precedent of 
" Carmen 3 ' that to-day the Opera- Comique is on a higher artistic plane 
than the Opera. ^[A direct musical influence it would be difficult to trace 
to Bizet. As an orchestral colourist he had been outdone and outdared by 
even his contemporaries ; nor did he bequeath to us a new art-form. But 
because he demanded a more sincere libretto than any of those with which 
that maker of marionette opera-books, Scribe, had conjured all Paris, and 
because in his music he did not fear contact with throbbing life, he com- 
mands our respect. His work shows a musical sincerity foreign to French 
composers generally, and he deserved a better fate than a sequence of failures 
ending with an early death. 

Blaes (bias), (i) Arnold Jos,, Brus- Blake, (i) Rev. Ed., b. Salisbury, d. 

sels, 18141892 ; clarinettist. (2) 1765. (2) Chas. Dupee, b. Walpole, 

M. Elisa, Antwerp, 1820, wife of Mass., Sept. 13, 1847; pupil of J. C. 

above ; teacher. D. Parker, J. K. Paine, etc. ; organist 

Bla' grove, (i) H. Gamble, Netting- Union Ch., Boston, and composer, 

ham, 1811 London, 1872 ; violinist. Blamont (bl-moh), Fran. Colin de, 

(2) Richard Manning, Netting- Versailles, 16901760 ; supt. of the 

ham, 1827 London, 1895 ; bro. of King's music and composer, 

above ; viola prof. R. A. M. Blanc (blan), Adolphe, b. Manosque, 

Blahag (bla-hakh) (or Blahak), Jo- Basses-Alpes, June 24, 1828 ; pupil 
sef, Raggendorf, Hungary, 1779 Paris Cons, and of Ilalevy; corn- 
Vienna, 1846 ; tenor, conductor, and posed 3 operas, 
composer. Blanchard (blan-sh&r), H. L., Bor- 

Blahetka^or Plahet'ka), Marie- deaux, 1778 Paris, 1858; violinist 

LSopoldine, Guntramsdorf, near and critic. 

Vienna, 1811 Boulogne, 1887; pi- Blanckenburgh (blank'-gn-boorkh), 

anist and dram, composer. Gerbrandt van, organist at Gouda, 

Blainville (blan-ve'-yti), Chas. H., i7th century. Vide HLANKKNHUKGH. 

near Tours, 1711 Paris, 1769; 'eel- Blancks, Edw,, English composer, 

list, writer and composer. i6th cent. 


Bland (blant), (i) Maria Theresa 

(nee Romanzini), 17691838 ; pop. 
Italian singer in England ; married 
an actor, Bland, and had two sons. 
(2) Chas,, tenor. (3) James, 1798 
1861, bass. 

Blangini (blan-je'-ne), Giu. Marco, 
M. Felice, Turin, 1781 Paris, 
1841; organist. 

Blankenburg (blank-Sn-boorkh), (i) 
Quirin van, Gouda, Holland, 1654 
The Hague, 1749; probably son 
BURGH(q. v.) ; organist and writer. (2) 
Chr. Fr. von, Kolberg, Pomerania, 
1744 Leipzig, 1796 ; Prussian offi- 
cer and composer. 

Blaramberg (bla'-ram-bgrkh), Paul I., 
b. Orenburg, Russia, Sept. 26, 1841 ; 
pupil of Balakirew ; lawyer, then ed- 
itor ; composed succ. operas, "Maria 
Tudor" (St. Petersburg, 1882); " The 
First Russian Comedian " y " Tusch- 
insky " (Moscow, 1895). 

Bias. Vide BLAES. 

Blasius (blaz'-yus), Mathieu Fr., 
Lauterburg, Alsatia, 1758 Ver- 
sailles, 1829; cond. Op. Comique, 
Paris ; composer. 

Blassmann (blas'-man), Ad. Jos, M., 
Dresden, 1823 Bautzen, 1891 ; pi- 
anist, court-conductor and writer. 

Blatt (blat), Fz. Thaddaus, Prague, 
1793 (?) ; clarinettist and writer. 

Blauwaert (blow'-vart), Emil, St. 
Nicholas, Belgium, 1845 Brussels, 
1891 ; barytone. 

Blauvelt (blou'-f&t), Lillian, b. Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., i87o(?) ; soprano ; studied 
Nat. Cons., N. Y., and in Paris; af- 
ter years of success at home, toured 
Europe since 1900 ; decorated in Italy 
with the order of St. Cecilia ; m. Royal 
Smith (1898 divorced) ; m. again 1901. 

Blaze (blaz), (i) (Called Castil-Blaze) 
Fran. H. Jos., Cavaillon Vaucluse, 
1784 Paris, 1857; "The father of 
modern French musical criticism " ; 
son and pupil of Henri Sebastian B. ; 
wrote scathing " L' Optra en France " 
(1820) ; was made critic on "Journal 
where his articles were 

signed " XXX" ; transl. libretti of 
German and Italian operas; com- 
posed 3 operas, several "pastiches," 
etc. (2) H., Baron de Bury, Avig- 
non, 1813 Paris, 1888 ; son of above ; 

Bletzacher (blat'-tsiikh-er), Jos., 
Schwoich, Tyrol, 1835 Hanover, 
1895; bass. 

Bleuer (bloi'-er), L., Buda-Pesth, 1863 
Berlin, 1897 ; violinist ; 1883-93, 
leader of Philh. orch., Berlin ; 1894, 
of Philh. Club, Detroit (Michigan). 

Blew'itt, (i) Jonathan, London, 
17821853 ; organist and director ; 
son and pupil of (2) Jonas, organist 
and writer. 

Blied (blet), Jacob, Bruhl-on-Rhine, 
18441884 ; teacher and composer. 

Blitheman, Wra., d. 1591; organist, 
etc., at Oxford. 

Bloch (bl&kh), G., b. Breslau, Nov. 2, 
1847 ; pupil of Hainsch, J. Schubert, 
Taubert, and F. Geyer ; teacher in 
Breslaur's Cons., Berlin; founded 
Opera Society, 1879 ; composer. 

Blockx (b!6x), Jan., b. Antwerp, Jan. 
25, 1851 ; pianist and composer; pu- 
pil, Flemish Mus. School ; from 1886, 
teacher of harm, there ; 1901 suc- 
ceeded Benoit, at Antwerp cons. ; 
composed succ. operas, incl. " Maitre 
Martin'" etc. 

Blodek (blod-Sk), (i) P. Aug. L., Paris, 
17841856; viola-player and dram, 
composer. (2) Wm,, Prague, 1834 
1874 ; P r f- an d dram, composer. 

Bloom' field-Zeisler (tsis'-ler), Fanny, 
b. Bielitz, Austrian Silesia, July 16, 
1866 ; pianist ; at 2 was brought to 
Chicago, where she still lives ; played 
in public at 10 ; was pupil of Ziehn 
and Karl Wolfsohn, and 1876-81 of 
Leschetizky; from 1883 has toured 
America with distinction ; from 1893, 
Germany, Austria, England and 
France with great success. 

Blow, John (Mus. Doc. Oxon.), Col- 
lingham, Nottinghamshire, 1648 
Westminster (London), Oct. i, 1708 ; 
organist Westminster Abbey, 1680; 
was superseded by Purcell, whom he 



in turn succeeded ; he is buried in 
the Abbey ; 1674, organist and (1699) 
composer to the Chapel Royal ; be- 
ginning to compose as a boy, he 
achieved a vast amount of church- 

Blum (bloom), K. L., Berlin, 1786- 
July 2, 1844 ; actor, singer, poet, or- 
ganist, 'cellist, cond., and composer; 
chamber-musician to the Prussian 
Ct., 1822 ; stage mgr. ; prod, nearly 
30 operas, ballets, songs, etc.; also 
vaudevilles, which he introduced to 
the German stage. 

Blumenfeld (bloo' -men-felt), F., b. 
Kovalevska, Russia, April 7, 1863 ; 
pianist, pupil of Th. Stein ; took gold 
medal at St. Petersburg Cons.; com- 
posed ''Allegro de Concert" with or- 
chestra, etc. 

Blumenthal (bloo'-men-tal), d) Jos. 
von, Brussels, 1782 Vienna, 1850; 
violinist and dram, composer. (2) 
Jacob (Jacques), b. Hamburg, Oct. 
4, 1826; pupil of Grand, Bocklet, 
and Sechter (Vienna), and 1846 of 
Herz and HaleVy ; after 1848 in Lon- 
don ; pianist to the Queen, and com- 
poser. (3) Paul, b. Steinau-on- 
Oder, Silesia, Aug. 13, 1843 ; pupil 
of R. A., Berlin, 1870; organist, 
Frankfort-on-Oder ; from 1870, " R. 
mus. dir. " ; composed masses, mo- 
tets, etc. 

Blumner (bloom'-ner), (Dr.) Martin, 
Furstenberg, Mecklenburg, Nov. 
21, 1827 Berlin, Nov. 6, 1901 ; pupil 
of S. W. Dehn ; 1876, cond. of Berlin 
Singakademie ; titles " R. Musik-dir." 
and " Prof."; composed 2 oratorios, 
"Abraham" (1860), and " Der Fall 
Jerusalem* " (1881) ; cantata Colum- 
bus (1853); Te Deum< etc. 

Bliithner (bllit'-ne'r), Julius Fd., b. 
Falkenhain, near Merseburg, March 
n, 1824; piano-maker, Leipzig, 
from 1853. 

Boccabadati (bok-ka-ba-da-te), Lui- 
gia, Parma Turin, 1850 ; soprano. 

Boccherini (bok-kg-re'-ne), Luigi, 
Lucca, Italy, Feb. 19, 1743 -Madrid, 
May 28, 1805; 'cellist; toured with suc- 

cess ; 1797, made chamber-composer 
to Friedrich Wilhelm II. , of Prussia, 
in return for a dedication ; after the 
king's death B.'s fortune left him, and 
he died in dire poverty. His prolific 
and often fascinatingly graceful com- 
positions include 20 symphonies, an 
opera, an orchestral suite, a 'cello- 
concerto, 2 octets, 16 sextets, 125 
string-quintets, 12 pf. -quintets, 18 
quintets for strings and llute (or oboe), 
91 string-quartets, 54 string-trios, 42 
trios, sonatas and duets for vln., etc.; 
biog. by Picquot (Paris, 1851), and 
Schletternd (Leipzig). 

Boch (bokh), Fz. de, b. Potenstein, 
Bohemia, Feb. 14, 1808 ; 'cellist. 

Bochkoltz-Falco'ni (bokh'-kolts), An- 
na (rightly Bockholtz), Frankfort, 
1820 Paris, 1870 ; singer and com- 

Bochsa (bokh'-sii), (i) K., Bohemia- 
Paris, 1821 ; oboist ; music-seller. 
(2) Rob. Nic. Chas., Montmedy, 
Meuse, Aug. 9, 1789 Sydney, Aus- 
tralia, Jan, 6, 1856 ; son and pupil of 
above ; composed a symphony at 9, 
an opera at 16 ; pupil of Fr. Beck ; 
harpist to Napoleon and to Louis 
XVIII.; he eloped with Sir Henry 
Bishop's wife, made tours in Europe 
and America, and finally to Australia ; 
composed 9 French operas, prod, in 
Lyons (1804), and in I'aris (1813-16) ; 
4 ballets ; an oratorio, etc. ; wrote a 
standard method for harp. 

Bockeler (bek'-e-ler), H., b. Cologne, 
July n, 18361862 ; cond. at Aix- 
le-Chapelle ; editor and composer. 

Bockh (bekh), Aug., Carlsruhe, 1785 
Berlin, 1867; writer. 

Booklet (bok'-let), K.M. von, Prague, 
iBoi Vienna, 1881 ; violinist. 

Bockmiihl (bok'-mul), Robt, Emil, 
Frankfort, 1820 rSSi ; 'cellist. 

Bockshorn (boks'-lnVn) ("Capricor- 
nus"), Samuel, Germany, 1629 
Stuttgart, 1669 (?) ; composer and 

Bocquillon-Wilhem (bok'-O-yofi-ve- 
a'h), G. L. Vide WILIIEM. 

Bode (bo'-de), Jn. Jos. Chp., Barum, 


Brunswick, 1730 Weimar, 1793 ; 
oboist, publisher and composer. 

Bodenschatz (bo'-d'n-shats), Erhard, 
Lichtenberg, Saxony, 1570 Gross- 
Osterhausen, near Querfurt, 1638 ; 

Boedecker (ba'-dek-er), Louis, Ham- 
burg, 1845 1899; teacher, critic, 
and composer. 

Boehm, Boehme. Vide BOHM (E). 

Boekelman (ba'-kel-man), Bernar- 
dus, b. Utrecht, Holland, 1838 ; pu- 
pil and son of A. J. B. ; director, 
studied with Moscheles, Richter and 
Hauptmann, at Leipzig Cons. ; von 
Bulow, Kiel, and Weitzmann, at 
Berlin ; from 1866, lives in New 
York ; founded and cond. (till 1888) 
the N. Y. Trio Club ; 1883-97, mus. 
dir. Miss Porter's School, Farming- 
ton, Conn. ; later pianist and teacher 
in New York; composed orch.-pcs., 
etc. ; ed. an analytical edition of 
Bach's " Well-tempered Clavichord" 
in colours, etc. 

Boellmann (bwcl'-man), L6on, Ensi- 
sheim, Alsatia, 1862 Paris, 1897; 
composer and teacher. 

Boely (bwel'-e), Alex. P. Fran., 
Versailles, 1785 Paris, 1858 ; pian- 
ist and composer. 

Boers (boors), Jos. Karel, Nymwe- 
gen, Holland, 1812 Delft, 1896 ; 
cond. and writer. 

Boesset (bwos-sa), (i) A., Sicur de 
Villedieu, ca. 15851673 ; intendant 
of music to Louis XIII. (2) J. B., 1612 
1685 ; son and successor of above ; 
and in turn succeeded by his son. (3) 
C. J. B., b. ca. 1636. 

Boe'tius (or Boethius), Ani'cius 
Man'lius Torqua'tus Severi'nus, 
Rome ca. 475 executed 524(?) ; em- 
inent poet and writer on music. 

Bohlmann (bol'-man), Th. H. Fr., b. 
Osterwicck am Harz, Germany, June 
23, 1865 ; pianist ; pupil of Dr. 
Stade, Barth, Klindworth, Tiersch, 
d' Albert, and Moszkowski ; debut 
Berlin, 1890 ; toured Germany ; since 
1890 pf. - prof. Cincinnati Cons. 
U. S. A. 

Bohm (bom), K., b. Berlin, Sept. n, 
1844; pupil of Lbschhorn, Reiss- 
mann and Geyer ; pianist and com- 
poser in Berlin. 

Bohm < (bam), (i) G., Goldbach, 
Thuringia, 1661 Liineburg, 1734 ; 
organist andclavichordist ; composed 
important organ preludes and suites. 
(2) Elizabeth Riga, 17561797 ; 
soprano, m. the actor B. (3) Theo- 
bald, Munich, April 9, 1794 Nov. 
15, 1881 ; inv. the "Bohm flute" 
(vide D. D.) ; flutist and composer for 
flute ; " Hofmusikus," and player in 
royal orch. (4) Jos., Pesth, 1795 
Vienna, 1876 ; son and pupil of above ; 
violinist and prof. (5) Heinrich, b. 
Blassia, Bohemia, 1836 ; composed 
35 operas in Bohemian. (6) Jos., 
Kuhnitz, Moravia, 1841 Vienna, 
1893 ; organist, cond. and director. 

Bohme (ba'-me), (i) Jn. Aug., 1794 ; 
founder of pub. house at Hamburg. 
His son, (2) Justus Eduard, suc- 
ceeded him in 1839 ; and his grand- 
son, (3) August Eduard, in 1885. 

(4) Aug. Julius Fd., Ganderheim, 
Brunswick, 1815 1883; conductor. 

(5) Fz. Magnus, Wellerstedt, near 
Weimar, 1827 Dresden, 1898; 
teacher, Dresden, later prof. ; com- 
poser, writer and collector. 

Bohmer (ba'-mSr), K. (Hermann 
Ehrfried), The Hague, 1799 Ber- 
lin, 1884 ; dram, composer. 

Bonn (bon), Emil, b. Bielau, near 
Neisse, Jan. 14, 1839 ; organist, 1884, 
founded the Bohn Choral Society, 
giving historical concerts ; lecturer, 
writer, critic and composer ; R. Prof, 
of Music. 

Bohner (ba'-ner), Jn. L., Tottelstedt, 
Gotha, 1787 near Gotha, 1860; 
composer ; led a roving life of drunk- 
enness and talent; said to be the 
original of Hofmann's " R-reishr" 
[vide SCHUMANN] ; composed opera, 

Bohrer (b5'-rer), (i) Anton, Munich, 
1783 Hanover, 1852 ; violinist ; 
composer for vln. ; a co-member of 
the Bavarian Court-orch. and concert- 

43 2 


giver with his brother, (2) Max, 
Munich, 1785 Stuttgart, 1867 ; 'cel- 

Boie (boi'-e 1 ), (i) John, b. Altona, 
March 8, 1822 ; violinist. (2) H., 
Altona, Sept. 16, 1825; bro. of 
above ; violinist and dram, composer. 
Bo'ieldieu (bo-eld-yu'), (i) Fran. 
Adrien, Rouen, Dec. 16 (not 15), 
I 775 Jarcy, near Grosbois, Oct. 8, 
1834 ; son of secretary of Archp. 
Larochefoucauld and a milliner ; ap- 
prenticed to the intemperate, brutal 
cathedral organist Broche, he ran 
away, at 12, and walked to Paris, 
but was brought, back. He is not 
known to have had other teaching. 
At 18, he prod. succ. "La fille 
coupable'" (Rouen, 1793) ; 1795, "Ro- 
salie et Myrza" text of both by his 
father. Discouraged in a planned 
Cons, at Rouen, he again walked to 
Paris, and subsisted as teacher and 
piano-tuner to Erard. The tenor 
Garat sang his still pop. songs, in 
public, and won him a publisher. 
I79 6 , "La Dot de Suzette," in one 
act, was prod, with succ. (Opera- 
Corn.) ; 1797, "La famiHe Suisse" 
(ran 30 nights at the Th. Feydeau) ; 
1798, he pub. sonatas, and a pf. -con- 
certo, etc. ; 1800, prof, of piano, Paris 
Cons. " Zoraime etZulnare" (1798), 
"Beniowski" and " Le Calif e de 
Bagdad" (1800) were succ. and 
ended his first period, one of light 
gracefulness. He now studied cpt. 
seriously, probably with Cherubim, 
who had criticised him. After 3 
years' silence, he reappeared with en- 
larged powers, succ. in " Ma Tante 
Aurore" (Th. Feydeau, 1803). In 
1802 he m. Clotilda Mafleuroy, a 
ballet-dancer ; 1803, he went to St. 
Petersburg, partially perhaps (but not 
surely) because of domestic unhappi- 
ness, and became cond. of the Im- 
perial Opera, writing by contract 
3 operas annually, and a number of 
marches. He returned to Paris, 
1811 ; had immense succ., particularly 

prof, of comp. at the Cons, and 
member of Institut ; 1821, Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honour ; 1818, " Lc 
Petit Chaperon rouge" was succ'., fol- 
lowed, after 7 years' silence, by " La 
Dame Blanche" his masterpiece. His 
last opera, " Les Deux Nuits" 
(1829), failed. His wife d. 1825 and 
1827 he m. Mile. i'hillis, a sing- 
er, who was a devoted wife. The 
poverty of their last years was re- 
lieved by Thiers, minister of Louis 
Philippe, who made him an annuity 
of 6.000 francs. lie died at his 
country-home, of pulmonary trouble. 
B.'s work has great vivacity and 
vitality combined with musical sweet- 
ness, and rhythm without jingle. His 
large gifts in the construction of 
ensembles are seen in the septet and 
chorus at the end of the 2d act of 
"La Dame Blanche'' which up to 
1875 had been performed 1340 times 
at the same theatre ; its libretto is a 
combination of 2 of Scott's novels 
"The Monastery" and " Guy Man- 
nering." He collaborated with Che- 
rubini in "La Prisonnicre" (1799); 
with Mehul, Kreutxer, and others,' 
in ' ' Le Baiscr et la Quittance " (i 802); 
with Cherubim, Cutel, and Niccolo' 
Isouard, in "Bayard & Mhihes" 
with Kreutzer in " Hmn IV. en 
Voyage " (1814) ; with Mme. Gail 
in Angela (1814); with He'rold in 
Charles de France" ; with Cheru- 
bim, Berton, and others, in "La 
Cour des F&s " (1821) and " P&ara- 
mond" ,- with Auber, in " Les Trots 
Genres" ; with Berton, and others, 
m " La Marquise d? Brinvilliers" 
Biog.byA.Pougin, 1875. (2) Adri- 
en L. V., b. Paris, 1816 near Paris, 
1883 ; son and pupil of above ; dram' 

Boisdeffre (bwa-defr), Chas. H. R<n6 
de, b. VesouI(Ilaute-Savoie), 1838; 
Chev. of Legion of Honour; com- 
poser of religious and chamber music, 
the latter taking Chartier prize, 1883 ' 
lives in Paris. 


Ohio, Aug. 13, 1845 ; organist ; 1861 
pupil of Hauptmann, Richter, Mos- 
cheles, etc., Leipzig ; 1864, of Kullak, 
at Berlin ; 1864-70 organist and 
teacher in Cleveland; 1870-76, in 
New York ; 1876-78, spent _ in Eu- 
rope; for some years prominent in 
Berlin as a teacher ; 1901, settled in 
Baltimore; composed symphonies, 
overtures, pf. -concertos, etc., wrote 
"Music audits Masters " (1902), etc. 
Boisselot (bwas-lo), (i) J. Louis, 
Montpellier, 1785 Marseilles, 1847 ; 
piano-maker at Marseilles ; his eldest 
son, (2) Louis (18091850), was 
the manager. His grandson, (3) 
Francois, is the present proprietor. 
(4) Xavier, Montpellier, 1811 Mar- 
seilles, 1893 ; second son of above ; 

Boito (bo-e'-to), Arngo, b. Padua, 
Feb. 24, 1842 ; poet, soldier, novel- 
ist, editor, essayist, librettist, and- 
composer ; son of an Italian painter 
and a Polish woman. Pupil, 1853- 
62, of Milan Cons., almost dismissed 
for mus. incompetence (cf. VKRDI) ; 
composed 2 cantatas, " II 4 di Giug- 
no" (i860), and "/-* Sorellc d7ta- 
/zV (1862), i n collab. with Faccio ; 
they met with such great succ. that 
the Govt. gave F, and B. funds for 2 
years in Paris and Germany. B.had 
already taken up Goethe's "Faust" 
long before Gounod, at the suggestion 
of his bro. Camillo, an eminent ar- 
chitect. B, brought back from Ger- 
many a passion for Beethoven, then 
little heeded in Italy. 1867 at Paris, 
as journalist ; then Poland, where he 
sketched out text and music of "Mef- 
istofeUs" which was prod, at Milan, 
1868 (La Scald], after 52 rehearsals, 
and with great hopes; but it was 
then in a rather shapeless state, and 
Gounod's "Faust" having mean- 
while been prod, at Milan with succ., 
B.'s work was hissed by some, and 
having provoked riots and duels was 
withdrawn by order of the police. _ It 
was remodelled with more attention 
to stage requirements and prod, with 

great succ. at Bologna, Oct. 4, 1875. 
An earlier opera, " Ero e Leandro" 
was never prod., B. lending his own 
libretto to Bottesini, and later to 
Mancinelli. Other libretti of his are, 
Ponchielli's " Gioconda" Verdi's 
" Otello" and " Falstaf" Faccio's 
"Amleto" and Coronaro's "/ Tra- 
monfo." Two operas diligently pre- 
pared but still refused to the public 
are " Nerone" and " Orestiade" He 
has translated 2 of Wagner's libretti 
into Italian, and writes often under 
the pseud. "Tobios Gorria." The 
King made him "Cavaliere," and 
" Commendatore " ; 1892, Inspector- 
Gen, of Technical Instruction in the 
Italian Cons, and Lyceums; 1895 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. 
He lives in Milan. 

Bolck (bolk), Oskar, Hohenstein, 
1837 Bremen, 1888; dram, com- 

Bol'la, , Italian prima buffa so- 
prano ; last of 1 8th century. 
Bolsetti (bol-set'-te), 1789; buffo; 
with his wife played principal roles in 
comic operas, London. 
Bolte (bol'-te), Jns., contemporary 

German writer. 

Bomtempo (bom-tam'-po), Joao Do- 
mingos, Lisbon, 17751842 ; pian- 
ist, director and writer. 
Bona (bo'-na), Giov.,Mondovi, 1609 
Rome, 1674 ; cardinal and composer. 
Bonawitz (bo'-na-vets) (or Bonewitz), 
Jn. H., b. Durkheim-on-Rhine, Dec. 
4, 1839 ; pupil Liege Cons, till 1852, 
then brought to America; 1872-73 
cond. " Popular Symphony Concerts," 
New York; 1873, toured U. S.; prod. 2 
operas in Philadelphia ; 1876, ret. to 
Europe ; lives in Vienna and London. 
Bond, Hugh, d. England, 1792 ; or- 

Bonicke (ba'-nf-ke), Hermann, En- 
dorf, 1821 Hermannstadt, Transyl- 
vania, 1879; conductor, composer 
and writer. 

Boniventi (bo-nf-ven'-te) (or Bone- 
venti), Gius, b. Venice, ca. 1660 ; 
conductor and dram, composer. 



Bonnet (bun-na), (i) Jacques, Pans, 
16441724 ; writer. (2) J. Bap, f 
b. Montauban, 1763; organist and 

Bonno (bon'-no) (or Bono), Jos., Vi- 
enna, 17101788; court-cond. and 
dram, composer. 

Bonomet'ti, Giov. Bat., Italian com- 
poser; pub. motets, Venice, 1615. 


Bonondni (bo-non-che'-ne), (i) Giov. 
M., Modena, 1640 Nov. 19, 1678 ; 
conductor, composer and writer of Bo- 
logna. (2) Who usually wrote it Buo- 
noncini (boo-o-non-che'-ne), Giov. 
Bat., Modena, i66oVenice (?), 
1750 (?) ; son and pupil of above ; 
studied with Colonna and Buoni 
('cello), at Bologna ; 1685-91, pub.^7 
vols. masses and instr. mus. ; in 
1690, court 'cellist of Vienna ; 1694, 
Rome, prod. 2 operas " Tullo Osti- 
Ko" and " Serse" j 1699-1701 prod. 
2 operas at Vienna; 1703-5, at Ber- 
lin as court-composer ; prod. *' Poli- 
femo" (1703) ; ret. to Vienna, where 
6 new operas were prod. In 1716, 
invited to London as cond. and com- 
poser for the new King's Theatre, 
and to rival Handel ; this provoked a 
famous and bitter war with some suc- 
cess for B., who prod. 8 operas, 1702- 
27 ; but in 1731 he was caught in a 
plagiarism from A. Lotti (a crime of 
which Handel was by no means guilt- 
less himself) ; 1733 an alchemist 
swindled him from affluence to bank- 
ruptcy. Later he appeared in Paris 
and prod, a motet for the u Chapelle 
royale," playing the 'cello-accomp. 
before the King; 1737 his opera 
" Alessandro in Sidone" and an ora- 
torio, " Eztchia" were prod, in Vien- 
na ; 1748, he was called to Vienna to 

write peace-festival music and later 
went to Venice as theatre-composer, 
a post retained at least till he was 90. 
(3) Marco An., Modena, 1675 (?) 
1726; bro. of above; court-cond. 
there ; prod, ir operas highly rated 
by Padre Martini ; also composed an 

Bonporti (bon-por'-te), F. A., Trient, 
ca. 1660; Imperial Counsellor and 

Bontempi (bon-tem'-pe) (surnamed 
Angelini), Giov. Andrea, Perugia, 
ca. 1624 Bruso, near Perugia, 1705 ; 
dram, composer and writer. 

Bonvin (bon-van), L., b. Siders, Switz- 
erland, Feb. 17, 1850 ; mainly self- 
taught; studied medicine, Vienna; 
entered Jesuit novitiate in Holland ; 
became organist and choirmaster; 
from 1887, mus. dir. Canisius College, 
Buffalo, N. Y.; pub. 3 masses, etc. 

Boom (bom), (i) Jan. E. G. van 
(Senior), b. Rotterdam, April 17, 
1783 ; flutist and composer for flute. 
(2) Jan. (Jns.) van, Utrecht, 1807 
Stockholm, 1872 ; son of above ; pian- 
ist, professor and dram, composer. (3) 
Hermann M. van, Utrecht, 1809 
1883 ; son and pupil of (i) ; flutist. 

Boom (born), Eduard van den, 1831 
Liege, 1898 ; pianist and critic. 

Boo'sey, Thos. (1825), founded the 
London pub. house of Jioosey & Co. 

Boott, Francis, b. l.oston, Mass., 
June 21, 1813 ; pupil of L. Picchi- 
anti, in Florence ; lived in Cam- 
bridge, Mass. ; composed under pseud 

Bord(bor), Antoine, Toulouse, 1814 
Paris, 1888 ; pf. maker and inventor. 

Bordese (bor-da'-zc), Luigi, Naples, 
1815 Paris, i8S6; singing teacher 
and dram, composer. 

Bordier (bord-ya),(i) L. Chas., Paris, 
1700 1764; abbe, conductor, com- 
poser and writer. (2) Jules, 1846 (?) 
Paris, 1896 ; dram composer. 

Bordogni (bor-doa'-ye), Giulio Mar- 
co, Gazzaniga, Uergamo, 1788 
Paris, July 31, 1856 ; distinguished 
tenor and singing teacher ; prof. 
Paris Cons. ; pub. standard " Vocal- 

Bordo'ni, Faustina. Vide HASSE, FAU- 

Borghi (bor'-ge), Luigi, Italian violin- 
ist, came to London, ca. 1780 ; pub. 
symphonies, excellent music for vln., 



Borghi-Mamo (ma-mo), (i) Adelaide, 
Bologna, 1829 1901; mezzo-soprano; 
debut, 1846, at Urbino, where she 
was engaged ; then in Vienna and 
Paris ; later lived in Florence ; her 
daughter (2) Erminia, soprano ; de- 
but 1875, Bologna; sang in Italy and 

Borjon (b6r-zh6n),C. E., 1633 Paris, 
1691 ; musette -virtuoso and compos- 

Borodin (bo -ro-den), Alex. Porphyr- 
jevitch, St. Petersburg, Nov. 12, 
!834 Feb. 27 (28?), 1887 ; composer 
of the neo-Russian school ; Prof, at 
the St. P. medico-surg. Institute; 
Counsellor of State ; Knight ; pres. 
of Mus. Soc. of Amateurs ; at Balaki- 
rev's suggestion studied music ; com- 
posed opera, "Prince Igor" (fin- 
ished after his death by Rimsky- 
Korsakov, and prod. succ. 1891) ; 
3 symphonies; symphonic poem; 
scherzo for orch., 2 string-quartets, 
pf, pcs., etc.; biog. by A. Habets, 
in English, London, 1895. 

Boroni (bo-ro'-ne) (or Buroni), A., 
Rome, 1738 1797 ; court-conductor. 

Bortnianski (bort-nyan'-shkl) ( O r 
Bartiiansky), Dimitry Stefano- 
vitch, Gluchov, Ukraine, 175281. 
Petersburg, Sept. 28 (Oct. 9), 1825 ; 
choir dir. and dram, composer, called 
" the Russian Palestrina ; " pupil of 
Galuppi, under patronage of Empress 
Catherine ; 1779-96 dir. of her choir; 
then of her orchestra. 

Bor'wick, Leonard, b. Walthamstow, 
Essex, EngL, 1868; London pian- 
ist; pupil H. R. Bird, and Clara 
Schumann, B. Scholtz, and Ivan 
Knorrat Frankfort Cons. ; debut, at 
London Philh. Concert, 1890 ; toured 
Germany, 1895-96. 

Bos (bos), Coenraad V., b. Leiden, 
Dec. 7, 1875 ; studied Amsterdam 
Cons. ; played in Berlin, a member 
of the " Dutch Trio" with J. M. van 
Veen and T. van Lier. 

Boschi (bos -ke), (i) Gius, celebrated 
basso, 1 8th cent.; his wife was (2) 
Franceska Vanini, contralto. 

Bb'sendorfer (ba-zen-doTf-er), firm of 
Vienna pf. -makers founded by (i) 
Ignaz B., Vienna, I795--I859 ; later 
managed by his son (2) Ludwig, b. 
Vienna, 1835. 

Bosio (bo'-zf-6), Angiolina, Turin, 
1830 St. Petersburg, 1859 ; niezzo- 

Bos'si (bos'-se), (i) Pietro B., Mor- 
begno, 18341896; organist, (2) 
Marco Enrico, b. Salo, Brescia, 
Italy, April 25, 1861 ; son and pupil 
of above ; 1881-91, conductor and 
organist at Como Cath.; then till 
1895, prof, of org. and harm. Naples ; 
since 1896, dir. and prof. Liceo Ben- 
edetto Marcello, Venice ; member of 
the permanent govt. commission for 
musical art ; Chevalier of the Italian 
Crown and of the Spanish order of 
Isabella la Catolica; composed 2 
i-act operas, " Paquita" and "// 
Veggente " ; 4-act melodrama " L* An- 
gela Delia Notts " (Como) ; symph. 
poem " // Cisco" (1897), with tenor 
solo, and chorus ; " Westminster 
Abbey" Inno di Gloria, for chorus 
and organ ; Requiem Masses, etc. ; 
wrote important '* Metodo di Studio 
per rOrgano moderno" with G. Te- 
baldini (Milan, 1893). 

Bote und Bock (bo'-tS oont bok), 
firm of mus. pubs., Berlin, est. 1838 
by Eduard Bote and Gustav Bock. 
(2) Hugo Bock, present head. 

Botel (ba-tel), H., b. Hamburg, May, 
1858 ; tenor ; as cab-driver was " dis- 
covered " by Pollini ; now leading 
lyric tenor, Hamburg City Thea- 

Botgorschek (bSt-gfir'-she'fc), Fz., 
Vienna, 1812 The Hague, 1882; 
teacher, flutist, and composer. 

Bott (bot), Jean Jos., Cassel, March 
9, 1826 New York, April 30, 1895 ; 
violinist ; son and pupil of a court- 
musician ; 1852, court-conductor ; 
1878 pensioned ; 1885 came to New 
York ; composed 2 operas, etc. 

Botte'e, de Toulmon (du toomon bot- 
ta'), Aug., Paris, 17971850; 'cel- 
list and writer. 


Bottesini (bot-te-se -ne), Giov., Cre- 
ma, Lombardy, i823-Parma, 1889 ; 
double-bass virtuoso ; conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Bot'tomley, Jos,, b. Halifax, York- 
shire, 1786 ; organist, violinist and 

Bottrigari (b6t-tre-ga-re), Ercolc, 
Bolo|na, Aug. 1531-8- A j b * rt ' 
Sept 30, 1612 ; wrote 3 learned theo- 
retical treatises, each called by the 
name of a friend (a) Patrizio, (b) De- 
siderio, and (c) Melone. . 

Boucher (boo-sha), Alex J., Pans, 
April 11,1778-080.29, 1861; Tin- 
virtuoso ; a charlatan but amazing in 
technic ; played before the court at 6; 
composed vln. -concertos ; his wife 
was a clever harpist, also eccentric, 
playing duets with one hand on harp 
and one on a piano. ,. 
Bouichere (bwe-shar), Emile, 1860 
(?) Paris, Sept. 4, 1895 ; pupil of G. 
Lefevre's Acad. ; est. a vocal acad. 
1892 ; composed valuable sacred and 
chamber music. . 

Boulanger (boo-lan-zha), (i) Mane 
Julie (nee Halliger), 1786-1850; 
dram, singer. (2) Henri Alex. An- 
dre" Ernest, b. Paris, Dec. 16, 1815. 
Son of above. Pupil of Lesueur and 
Halevy at the Cons., taking Grand 
Prix de Rome, 1835; prof, there 
1871. Composed many operettas for 
Opera Comique. Legion of Honour, 

Bourgault-Ducoudray (boor-go-du- 
koo-drS), Louis-Albert, b. Nantes, 
Feb. 2, 1840. Pupil of Thomas at 
Paris Cons., taking, Grand Prix de 
Rome, 1862 ; prof, of mus. hist, at 
the Cons. 1878 ; wounded as volun- 
teer at siege of Paris ; later visited 
Greece and wrote on Oriental music. 
Bourgeois (boor'-zhwa), (i) Loys 
(Louis), Paris, ca, 1510?; disciple 
of Calvin ; 1545-57, Geneva; one of 
the first to harmonise the French 
melodies ; wrote " Le droict chemin 
de musique" proposing the naming 
the tones after solmisation-syllables, 
a system since prevalent in France. 

(2) Louis Thomas, Fontaine !'- 
veque, 1676 Paris, 1750 ; tenor and 
composer ; d. in poverty. 
Bourges (boorzh), (i) Clementine de, 
d. 1561 ; notable woman-composer. 
(2) J. Maurice, Bordeaux, 1812 
Paris, 1881 ; critic and dram, compos- 

Bousque" (boos-ka), G., Perpignan, 
1818 St. Cloud, 1854 ; conductor at 
the Paris Opera (1847) ; critic and 
dram, composer. 

Bove"ry (bo-va-re), Jules (rightly 
BoTy (bo've), A. Nic. Jos.), Liege, 
1808 Paris, 1868 ; self-taught violin- 
ist conductor and dram, composer. 
Bovicelli (bo-vI-cheT-10), Giov. Bat., 

b Assisi ; writer at Milan, 1594. 
Bovy (bo'-ve), (i) Chas. Sml. (known 
under pseud. Lysberg), Lysberg, 
near Geneva, 1821 Geneva, 1873; 
composer. (2) Vide BOVERY. 
Bow'ley, R. K., London, 18131870 ; 

conductor and composer. 
Bow'man, Ed. Morris, b. Barnard, 
Vt., July 18, 1848 ; pupil Wm. Ma- 
son', and J. P. Morgan, at New York, 
1866 ; 1867-70, organist St. Louis, 
Mo. ; studied in Ucrlin and Paris, 
1873; 1874, St. Louis; iSSi studied 
under Bridge, Macfarren, Turpin, and 
Guilmant ; was the first American to 
pass the examination of the London 
R. Coll. for Organists ; 1884, one of 
the founders of Amer. Coll. of Mu- 
sicians ; organist, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; 
1891-95, prof, of music Vassar Coll. ; 
1895 founded the "Temple Choir," 
Brooklyn (200 voices) ; cond. also the 
Newark Harmonic Soc. and the Ce- 
cilian Choir. 

Boyce (boh), Wm., London, 1710 
Kensington, 1779 ; organist and com- 

Boyer (bwa-ya) (L. Jos. Victor), 
Georges, b. Paris, July 21, 1850; 
won Prix Rossini, with libretto o 
" Ilfrodt" (vide CIIAUMKT), wrote 
libretti for " U Portrait de Manon " 
(Massenet), etc. 

Brad'bury, Wm. Batchelder, York, 
Me., i8i6-Montclair, N. J., 1868 ; 


teacher, conductor, piano-maker, and 

Brade (bra'-de), Wm., b. England, 
lived and died at Frankfort, 1647 I 
player of the viol. , etc. 

Bradsky (brdt'-shke), Wenzel Th., 
Rakovnik, Bohemia, 1833 1881 ; 
dram, composer. 

Braga (bra'-ga), Gaetano, b. Giulia- 
nova, Abruzzi, June 9, 1829 ; 'cellist, 
pupil of C. Gaetano (1841-52) ; lived 
at Florence, Vienna, Paris, and Lon- 
don and toured Europe ; dram, com- 
poser; also wrote " Metodo di Vio- 

Braham (rightly Abraham), J., b. 
London, 1774 Feb. 17, 1856 ; noted 
tenor ; compass 3 octaves ; composed 
pop. ballads. 

Brahmig (bra'-nrfkh), Julius Bd., 
Hirschfeld (Merseburg), 1882 Det- 
mold, 1872 ; teacher and writer. 

Brahms (brams), Jns., Hamburg, 
May 7, 1833 -Vienna, April 3, 1897; 
son and pupil of a double-bass 
player in the Hamburg City Theatre, 
later studied with Marxsen of Altona ; 
debut Hamburg, at 14, playing his 
own variations on a folk-song; 1853, 
toured with Remenyi. Joachim heard 
him and sent him to Schumann, at 
Diisseldorf. Schumann, with charac- 
teristic openness of mind and enthusi- 
asm, pub. an article in the Neue 
Zeitschrift fur Musik, greeting B. as 
the new Messiah of music, a welcome 
that was a mixture of blessing and 
bane,embarrassing the young Brahms 
with a mission that was a white ele- 
phant on his hands ; for he forsook 
the romanticism which Schumann, 
and later Liszt expected of him, and 
took up a determined classicism in the 
matter of form, in which, however, 
he made many modifications to suit 
his enormous intellectuality and tech- 
nical resource. This early welcome 
also gave him over to be bandied be- 
tween believers like Hanslick who 
were frantic to find an opponent to 
the progress of Wagner, and sceptics 
who would not have him praised for 

any quality. Schumann's advocacy did 
not save B.'s publication and concert 
performance of his 3 pf.-sonatas and 
3 books of songs from failure. After 
serving for a time as cond. to the 
Prince of Lippe-Detmold, he retired 
for study to Hamburg, 1858-62. 1862 
Vienna ; 1863-64 cond. of the Sing- 
akademie there ; 1864-69 Hamburg, 
Zurich, Baden-Baden, etc., and 
made tours with Stockhausen ; 1869, 
Vienna, which was afterward his 
head-quarters. In 1871-74, cond. 
" Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde." 
In 1877 Cambridge University offered 
him the degree of Mus. Doc., which 
offer he ignored, accepting, 1881, Dr. 
phil. from Breslau and writing in 
acknowledgment the " Akademische 
Festouverture ; " 1886, a knight of the 
Prussian Ordre pour le Merite, with 
voting privilege, and a member of 
the Berlin Acad. of Arts. 1889 pre- 
sented with the freedom of Hamburg. 
His '* German Requiem" op. 45 (the 
first 3 choruses given in Vienna, 1867), 
was given complete in the Bremen 
cathedral, April, 1868, and estab- 
lished him on a peak where he has 
since remained while the storms of 
debate rage below him. He wrote in 
almost every form but opera (he had 
considered that at one time) but ad- 
mitted he "knew nothing about the 
theatre." He valued Wagner's 
scores, and owned several Wagner 
autographs; Wagner, however, said 
"Brahms is a composer whose im- 
portance lies in not wishing to create 
any striking effect." His first sym- 
phony, on which, he had spent 10 
years, made a sensation when prod. 
1876. His vln.-concerto when first 
shown to Joachim was so impossible 
to the vln. that J. laughed at it till 
tears poured down his cheeks ; he is 
said to have materially assisted in its 
revision. Brahms was' a brilliant pian- 
ist in his youth ; in his 20th year, at a 
concert with Remenyi, the piano was 
discovered to be a semitone below 
concert-pitch; B., playing without 



notes, transposed the accompaniment 
to Beethoven's " Kreutzer" sonata, a 
semitone higher throughout. [Beet- 
hoven similarly transposed his own 
concerto in C to Cl at a rehearsal.] 
Biog. by H. Deiters (Leipzig, 
1880, Part II., 1898, in Engl., Lon- 
don, 1888); B. Vogel (Leipzig); 
Widmann (Berlin, 1898) ; A. Dietrich 
(Leipzig, 1898). 

COMPOSITIONS (exclusive of Songs for 
one voice with pf.). For o f ch. 
Symphonies, Op. 68, in C minor, Op. 
73, D, op. 90, F, op. 98, E minor ; 
overtures, op. 80, Akademische Fest- 
overtiire; op. 8 1, Pragische Ouver- 
Mre ; op. n 16, serenades ; op. 56, 
variations on a theme of Haydn's. 
CHAMBER Music. Op. 8, trio for 
pf., vln., 'cello; 18, 36, sextet for 
strings ; 40, trios, pf., vln., horn ; 114, 
pf., clar. and 'cello; 51, two string- 
quartets; 67, string-quartet ; 88, ill, 
string-quintet ; 115, quintet for clar. 
and strings. 

For Piano, op. I, 2 and 5, sonatas ; 4, 
scherzo ; 9, variations on a theme by 
Schumann; 10, four ballads ; 15, 83, 
concertos ; 21, 35, variations ; 24, 
variations and fugue on theme by 
Handel ; op. 76, 8 pcs.; 79, 2 Rhap- 
sodies ; 116, Fantasien; 117, 3 Inter- 
mezzi ; 118, 6 Clavierstticke (3 Inter- 
mezzi, Ballades, Romanze) ; 119, 4 
ClavierstUcke (3 Intermezzi, Rhapso- 

dic ; unnumbered Gluck's gavotte, 
and 2 studies). For piano, 4 hands, op. 
23, variations on a theme by Schu- 
mann ; 34, sonata arr. from op. 34 ; 
39, 16 waltzes ; op. 25, 26, 60, pf.l 
quartets ; 34, pf.-quintet ; 87, 101, pf.. 
trios. For piano and 'cello, op. 38, 
and 99 ; sonatas; for vln., 77, con- 
certo; 78, loo 108, sonatas pf. 
and vln ; for vln. and 'cello, op. 
102, concerto ; for clarinet (or 
viola) and pf., op. 120, 2 sonatas ; for 
organ, Prelude and fugue, and fugue 
(unnumbered). For voices, op. 50, 
"Rinaldo" cantata (Goethe); 63, 
Rhapsodic (from Goethe's ' ' Harz- 
reise "), for alto solo, male chor. and 
orch.; 54, " Schicksahlied" (Song of 
Destiny), for chor. and orch.; 55, 
" Triumphlied" (Revelations, chap. 
XIX.), for 8-part chor. and orch.; 82, 
" Nanic" (Schiller), for chor. and 
orch.; 8g, " Gt'saHg dcr Parzen" 
(Goethe), for 6-part chor. and orch. ; 
op. 12, "Aw Afaria" female chor. 
with orch. (or org.) ; 13, funeral 
hymn, 109, Deutsche Fest-und Ge- 
denkspruche, for double chorus, also 
numerous works for choruses of all 
sorts accompanied or a cappella. 
Brahms' songs are generally ad- 
mired even by those opposed to him ; 
they are very numerous and are pub. 
in sets, op. 121 being his last pub- 
lished work. 

Johannes Brahms. 


SCHUMANN, in his much- discussed article "New Paths," called 
Brahms the true successor to Beethoven. His prediction was veri- 
fied. To-day Johannes Brahms stands for the ultra-classic in sym- 
phonic music, though singularly enough he is really a hardy romanticist, 
who has widened and deepened the symphonic form. The career of 
Brahms compared to Wagner's was a quiet, scholarly, uneventful one. A 
severe student and self-critic, he made his way slowly, for the Wagner 
furor was at hand, and the modest writer of chamber-music, of songs and 
symphonies, was completely eclipsed by the glory of his so-called rival, ^f It 


was Von Bulow's audacious epigram, " The three B's, Bach, Beethoven, 
and Brahms," that drew down upon the head of the innocent composer the 
ire of the Wagner camp. As a matter of record Brahms never posed as an 
opponent, much less as a rival of the Bayreuth hero ; indeed he was an ad- 
mirer, and knew his scores as only he could know a score absolutely. 
BUE he was not in the least affected by Wagner how could he be, working 
as he did in such a totally different genre ? This genre, however, was not the 
out-worked vein it was so contemptuously christened by the new men. 
To-day Brahms is a modern among the moderns indeed his has also been 
called the music of the future. ^[To old forms like the symphony, to the 
smaller forms, he has brought an abounding invention, a vitality in execu- 
tion, and a musical intellect the most profound since Beethoven's. To 
the complex symphonic structure of Beethoven he had superadded a poly- 
phony almost Bachian in its mastery of intricate voicing and the weaving of a 
marvellous contrapuntal web. The dignity of his themes, the depth and 
sweetness of his cantitena, the massiveness of his musical architecture he is 
in music the born builder combined with a fecund fantasy, a grim but 
elastic humour, and no little susceptibility, mark Brahms as one of the elect, 
a master among masters. His control of the orchestra is absolute in its elo- 
quence, though he is no painter, no seeker after the unique word, the only 
colour. ^[He has been reproached for a colour monotone by those critics 
who are easily moved by brilliant and showy externals. But that reproach 
falls to earth when the adaptability of the garb to the musical idea is dis- 
covered. Brahms never erred in this matter ; his taste was impeccable. 
^jHe had a message and he delivered it in tones that befitted its weight, its 
importance. He is a symphonist primarily ; his themes as if carven from 
granite are symphonic and not dramatic themes, and in his development of 
them he is second only to Beethoven. A philosopher, he views his subject 
from every possible side, and the result is an edifice of tone comparable to a 
Gothic Cathedral. In his songs he is the sweet-voiced, the tender German 
lyrist, deep in feeling, capricious, noble and moving as Schumann or Schu- 
bert. He will rank with these song writers. In chamber-music, in the 
amiable conjunction of piano and strings, trios, quartettes, quintettes, horn-trio 
and two clarinet-quintettes, Brahms is supreme. He has written a sterling 
violin-concerto dedicated to Joachim and played first by him. His two piano- 
concertos in D minor and B flat major, introduced here by Rafael Joseffy, 
are masterpieces ; though pianists complain of the dearth of display passages, 
they are sincere in feeling and perfect concertos in the balance of the solo 
instrument with the orchestra. ^[The Brahms solo piano-music is a new and 
independent literature. He wrote three sonatas ; of these the last is the most 
popular ; its andante and scherzo are beautiful specimens of piano-writing. 



The solo scherzo in E flat minor, opus 4, was a great favourite with Liszt, 
who saw in it trace of Chopin. The little pieces written during the clos- 
ing years of the composer's life are exquisite and poetic gems, conceived 
by a poet, executed with all the dainty cunning of a lapidary. These 
miniatures are Brahms in his most genial mood. The forger ot thunderbolts 
was now resting and plotting lovely little gardens of fragrant flowers, ^f His 
extraordinary technical invention is nowhere better evidenced than in his 
Paganini variations for the piano, the Ultima Thule of pianists. These 
variations are paralleled in his St. Anthony variations for orchestra, a noble 
disapproval of the assertion that Brahms had no intimate feeling for the 
orchestra. His German Requiem written in 1868 is tremendous in its 
scope and elemental power. It is the apotheosis of a nation's grief. [[He 
was not uniformly successful little wonder, for his published works number 
130, But if this Titian stumbled, was intermittent in his inspiration, the 
main body of his work stands out marmoreal, of overwhelming grandeur, 
truly German, and withal, sounding the big note as no one has sounded it 
in music since Beethoven. 

Bran-Muller (bra-mul'-ler) (rightly 
Muller), K. Fr. Gv,, Kritschen, 
Silesia, 1839 Berlin, 1878; 1867, 
dramatic composer. 

Brambach (bram'-bakh), (i) Kas- 
par Jos., b. Bonn, July 14, 1833 ; 
pupil in Comp, of A. zur Nieden, 
then of Cologne Cons.; won Mozart 
scholarship, and studied under Fd. 
Hiller, Frankfort; 1858-61, teacher 
Cologne Cons.; 1861-69, dir. at Bonn, 
where he composed important secular 
cantatas; also an opera "Ariadne" ; 
concert - overture " Tasso" ; pf.- 
concerto, etc. (2) Wm., b. Bonn, 
Dec. 17, 1841 ; since 1872, librarian 
Carlsruhe ; writer. 

Brambilla (bram-bel'-la), (i) Paolo, 
Milan, 1786 (?); dram, composer. 
(2) Marietta, Cassano D'Adda, 
1807 Milan, 1875 ; singer, teacher, 
and composer; contralto and eldest 
of five singers. (3) Teresa, Cassano 
d'Adda, 1813 Milan, 1895 ; sister of 
above, soprano; she created "Gil- 
da" in " Rigoletto" 1851. 

Branca (bran'-ka), Guglielmo, b. Bo- 
logna, April 13, 1849; P u pil f A. 
Busi, Bologna Cons. ; composed succ. 

operas "La Catalatia" (Florence, 
1876) ; u ffennosa" (Florence, 1883); 
and "La Figlitt di Jono " (Cremona 

Brancaccio (brrin-k;it'-cho), A., Na- 
ples, 1813 1846 ; dram, composer. 

Brandeis (bran'-dls), Fr., Vienna, 
1835 New York, i8cj9; toured the 
U. S., then lived in N. Y., later 
Brooklyn, as organist and prolific 

Brandenburg (bran'-den-boorkh), Fd., 
b. Erfurt d. Rudolstaclt, 1850; 
violinist and dram, composer. 

Brandes (bran'-des), Emma, b. near 
Schwerin, Jim. 20, 1854; pianist, 
pupil of Aloys Sell mitt and Goltcr- 
mann ; m. Prof. Kn^elmunn, Utrecht. 

Brandl (brant'-'l), (\) Jn., Klostcr, 
Rohr, near Katisbon, 1760 Carls- 
ruhe, 1837 ; dir. and dram, composer. 
(2) Jn., composer of operettas, living 
in Vienna; has prod. 15 or 20 pop. 
works since 1869. 

Brandstetter. Vide OARBRECHT. 

Brandt (brant), Marianne (rightly 
Marie Bischof), b. Vienna, Sept. 12, 
1842 ; dram, contralto ; pupil Frau 
Marschner and of Viardot-Garcia ; 


1868-86 at Berlin Ct. Opera ; created 
" Kundry " in Parsifal at Bayreuth, 
1882 ; 1886 sang in New York. 

Brandt-Buys (brant-bois), (i) Corne- 
lius Alex., b. Zalt-Bomrnel, April 3, 
1812 ; from 1840 lived in Deventer as 
organist and cond. His sons are (2) 
Marius Adrianus (b. 1840) ; (3) L. 
F. (1847), organist and conductor at 
Rotterdam; (4) H. (1851), conduc- 
tor at Amsterdam and dram, com- 

Brandus, Dufour et Cie, Paris firm 
of mus.-pubs. founded 1834, by M. 
Schlesinger, and bought in 1840 by 
the brothers Louis (d. 1887) and 
Gemmy B. (d. 1873). 

Brant (brant), Jobst (or Jodocus) 
vom, Junior, i6th cent, captain 
and gov. of Liebenstein ; cptist. 

Brassin (bras-san), (i) Louis, Aix- 
la-Chapelle, 1840 St. Petersburg, 
1884 ; pianist. (2) Ld., Strassburg, 
1843 Constantinople, 1890 ; bro. 
and pupil of above; pianist. (3) 
Gerhard, b. Aix-la-Chapelle, June 
10, 1844 ; leader ; teacher at Stern 
Cons., Berlin ; 1875-80, cond. of 
Tonkunstlerverein in Breslau ; since 
then, St. Petersburg. 

Bratsch (bratsh), Jn. G., Zell, 1817 
Aschaffenburg, 1887; director. 

Brauer (brott'-Sr), Max, b. Mannheim, 
May 9, 1855 ; pupil of V. Lachner, 
Hiller, Jensen and De Lange ; from 
1880-88, dir. Kaiserslaulern ; since 
1888, dir. court-church at Carlsruhe ; 
prod. " Der Lotse" succ. i-act opera, 
Carlsruhe, 1885. 

Brebos, Gilles. Vide GILLES. 

Bree (bra) (Jn. Bernardus), J. Ber- 
nard van, Amsterdam, 1801 1857 ; 
violinist ; 1840, founded the " Ce- 

Breidenstein (bri'-den-shtln), H. 
K., Steinau, Hesse, 1796 Bonn, 
1876 ; dir., composer and writer. 

Breitkopf und Hartel (brit'-kopf 
oont hgrt"-!), mus. -publishers, found- 
ed (as a printing-office) 1719 by B. 
C. Breitkopf; Klausthal, Harz, 
16951777. His son, J. G. Im- 

manuel Breitkopf (1719 1794), suc- 
ceeded and revived Petrucci's inven- 
tion of movable types and took up 
music printing. 1795, Gottfr. Chr. 
Hartel (Schneeberg, 17631827), 
added a piano-factory, founded the 
"Aug. musikalische Zeitung " (1798) ; 
later heads were Florenz Hartel 
(1827-35), Dr. Hermann Hartel (d. 
1882), and his bro. Reimund (d. 
1888) ; two nephews, Wm. Volkmann 
(18371893?) and Dr. Oskar von 
Hase (b. 1846). 

Breitner (brit'-ner), Ludovic, b. 
Triest, March 22, 1855; pianist and 
composer ; studied Milan Cons., and 
with Rubinstein and Liszt ; toured, 
Germany; Chev. of the Legion of 
Honour, officer of Public Instruction, 
etc., composed music to " Wilhdm 
Meister," song cycles, etc. 

Brema (bra'-ma), Marie, b. of German 
parents, in England ; notable dra- 
matic soprano in pop. concerts Lon- 
don ; debut in opera, Shaftesbury 
Theatre, 1891 ; sang in New York 
in frequent seasons; 1897 at Bay- 

Brem'ner, Robt., Scotland, 1720 
Kensington, 1789 ; teacher. 

Brendel (brenf-'l), K. Fz., Stolberg, 
iSii Leipzig, 1868; critic, prof. 
and writer. 

Brenet (brii-na), Michel, b. France, 
1882 ; wrote " Histoire de la sym- 
phonic a orchcstre depuis ses orig~ 
ines" (prize-essay), etc. 

Brenner (bren'-ngr), L., Ritter von, 
Leipzig, 18331902; pupil of the 
Cons. ; toured the Continent ; 15 years 
member of the Imp. orch. ; 1872-76, 
cond. Berlin Symphony Orch.; 1897, 
cond. Meyder's Conceit Orch., Bres- 
lau ; composed 4 grand masses ; sym- 
phonic poems. 

Brent, Charlotte, d. 1802, Engl. ; 
soprano ; m. Pinto, a violinist, 1766. 

Breslaur (bras'-lowr), Emil, b. Kott- 
bus, May 20, 1836 ; pupil Stern 
Cons., Berlin ; 1868-79, teacher Kul- 
lak's Acad. ; since 1883 choirm., Re- 
formed Synagogue ; founder and dir. 



Piano - Teachers' Seminary ; ed. 
" Klamerlehrer" ; wrote technical 
works, etc. 

Breuer (broi'-er), Hans, b. Cologne, 
1869 ; tenor ; studied at the Cons, at 
Stolzenberg. Sang "Mime" and 
"David" at Bayreuth. 
Breuning (broi'-nlng), Fd., Brotterode, 
Thuringia, 1830 Aix-la-Chapelle, 
1883 ; pf. prof., Cologne Cons. ; 
1865, director. 

Bre-val (bra-val), (i) J. Bap., Dept. 
of 1'Aisne, France, 1765 Chamouille, 
1825 ; 'cellist and teacher. (2) Lu- 
cienne, b. France, 1870 (?) ; notable 
dramatic soprano at Grand Opera, 
Paris, for years ; debut there in jL'Af- 
ricaim, 1892; created Brunnhilde 
in French ; has sung at Covent Gar- 
den, and 1900 in New York. 
Brew'er, (i) Thos., 16091676 ; viol.- 
player, " father of the glee." (2) J. 
Hyatt, b. Brooklyn, N. Y. ( 1856 ; for 
7 years boy-soprano ; studied with 
Dudley Buck and others ; since 1871 
organist various churches, since 1881 
at the Lafayette Av. Presby. Ch. ; 
cond. various vocal societies; com- 
posed cantatas, etc. 

Briccialdi (bret-chaT-de), Giulio, 
Terni, Papal States, 1818 Florence, 
1881 ; flutist. 

Bridge, (i) Sir J. Fr., b. Oldbury, 
Worcestershire, Engl., Dec. 5, 1844; 
son and pupil of J. Bridge, lay- 
clerk ; pupil later of J. Hopkins and Sir 
J. Goss ; organist 1869 Manchester 
cathedral ; 1882 of Westminster Ab- 
bey ; 1868 Mus. Bac. (Oxford), with 
the oratorio ' ' Mount Moriah " 
now prof, of harm, and cpt. R. A. 
M. ; cond. Western and the Madrigal 
Societies; 1897, knighted ; composed 
cantatas, overtures, etc. (2) Jos. 
Cox, b. Rochester, Engl. , 1853 ; 
pupil and bro. of above ; since 1877 
organist of Chester cathedral ; Mus. 
Bac. Oxon., 1876 ; Mus. Doc., 1884 ; 
composed oratorios, etc. 
Bridge'tower, G. A. P., Poland, 1779 
ca. 1845 ; son of an African father 

and European mother ; brilliant vio- 

Briegel (bre'-gSl), Wg. K., Ger- 
many, 1626 Darmstadt, 1712 ; con- 
ductor and composer. 

Brighenti (or Brighetti) (brc-get'-te), 
Mana (ne'e Giorgi), b. Bologna, 
1792; soprano; created "Rosina" 
in " Bar Here di Siviglia." 

Brind, Richard, d. 1718; organist St. 
Paul's Cathedral from 1707. 

Brink, Jules Ten (tan brenk), Am- 
sterdam, 1838 Paris, 1889 ; director 
and dram, composer. 

Brins'mead, (i) J., b. North Devon, 
Oct. 13, 1814 ; 1835, founded piano- 
factory, London; inv. "Perfect 
Check Repeater Action " ; in 1863 
his sons (2) Thomas and (3) Edgar 
were taken in partnership. 

Brissler (bres'-ler), Fr. Fd., Insrer- 
burg, 1818 Berlin, 1893 ; pianist 
and dram, composer. 

Brisson (brfs'-son), Fr., b. Angou- 
letne, Charente, 1821 Orleans, 1900 ; 
teacher and dram, composer. 

Bris'tow, (i) W. R., England, 1803 
N. Y., 1867 ; cond. in New York. 
(2) G. Fr., Brooklyn, N. Y., Dec. 
19, 1825 New York, Dec. 13, 1898 ; 
son of above ; violinist N. Y. Philh. 
Soc.; cond. of the Harmonic Soc., 
later of the Mendelssohn Union; or- 
ganist various churches ; composed 
operas, oratorios, etc. 

Brito (bre'-to), Este*ban de, ca. 1625. 
Portuguese director and composer. 

Brit'ton, Thos., 16511714; called 
" Musical Small-coal Man," because 
he earned his living by hawking coal ; 
gave concerts in a room over his shop, 
which were patronised by the aristoc- 
racy ; Handel and Pepusch were per- 
formers at these concerts. 

Brixi (brex'-e), Fz. Xaver, Prague, 
1732 1771 ; conductor and com- 

Broad'wood & Sons, firm of London 
pf. -makers ; cst. 1730 by the Swiss 
harpsichord-maker B urkhard Tschu- 
di (or Shudi), succeeded by his son- 
in-law J. Broadwood (1732 1812), 



later by James and Thos. Shudi ; 
they by H. Fowler Broadwood (d. 

London, 1893). 

Brock'way, Howard A., b. Brooklyn, 
N. Y., Nov. 22, 1870; studied pf. 
with Kortheuer; 1890-95, Berlin; 
pupil of Barth (pf.) and 0. B. Boise 
(comp.) ; since 1895, 1. N. Y. teach- 
ing and touring ; his symphony in D 
succ., prod. Berlin; composed also 
cantata, Ballade and Scherzo for 
orch., etc. 

Brod (br5), H., Paris, 18011839; 
oboist and conductor. 

Erode (bro'-de), Max, b. Berlin, Feb. 
25, 1850 ; studied with Paul Mendels- 
sohn and at Stern Cons., Leipzig 
Cons, and Berlin Hochschule; de- 
but Frankfort-on-Main ; prof, and 
teacher at Konigsberg. 

Bro'derip, (i) Wm., England, 1683 
1726; organist, etc., Wells Cathe- 
dral. (2) J., d. 1770; son of above 
organist ; (3) Robt., d. 1808 ; bro. of 
above ; writer and composer. 

Brodsky (br6d'-shkl), Adolf, b. Ta- 
ganrog, Russia, March 21, 1851 ; vio- 
linist ; pupil of J. Hellmesberger and 
Vienna Cons.; member Hellmes- 
berger Quartet ; 1868-70 Imp. Opera- 
orch.; pupil of Laub, Moscow, later 
prof, at the Cons.; 1879, cond. sym- 
phony concerts at Kiev ; toured, 1881 ; 
1883, vln.-prof. at Leipzig Cons.; 
1891-94, N. Y.; 1894 in Berlin; 
1895, prof, of vln., later dir. R. C. 
M., Manchester, England. 

Broekhoven (brak'-ho-fen), J. A., b. 
Holland, 1852 ; prof, of harm, and 
comp. Cincinnati Coll. of Mus.; com- 
posed grand overture ''''Columbia" etc. 

Bror (brar), Ernst, Silesia, 1809 
Tarnopol, 1886 ; 'cellist, organist, and 
singing teacher. 

Bronsart (bron'-zart), (i) von Schel- 
lendorf, Hans (Hans von Bron- 
sart), b. Berlin, 1830 ; pupil, Dehn, 
Kullak, Liszt ; concerts in Paris ; 
1867, intendant R. Th. at Hanover ; 
1887 " Hofmusikintendant," Berlin; 
composed opera, cantata, symphony 
" In den Alpen" etc. (2) Ingeborg, 

von (nee Starck), b. St, Petersburg, 
1840; wife (since 1862) of above; 
pupil of Liszt; composed 3 operas, 

Brooks, Walter M., b. Birmingham, 
March 19, 1861 ; pupil of King Edw. 
School, later of Prout ; lives in Lon- 
don as writer and teacher ; composed 
Allegro for orch. (prize at Belfast, 
1891), etc. 

Bros (bros), Juan, Tortosa, Spain, 
1776 Oviedo, March 12, 1852 ; con- 
ductor ; composed important masses, 

Brosig (bro'-zlkh), Moritz, Fuchs- 
winkel, Upper Silesia, 1815 Bres- 
lau, 1887 ; organist and theorist. 

Brossard (dti bros-sar), (i) Se"bastien 
de, 1660- Meux, France, 1730 ; con- 
ductor, lexicographer, and composer. 
(2) Noel Matthieu, Chalon-sur- 
Sa6ne, Dec. 25, 1789 after 1853; 
magistrate and theorist. 

Brouck (brook), Jakob de (or de 
Prugg), collector, Antwerp, 1579. 

Broustet (broo-sta), Ed., b. Toulouse, 
April 29, 1836 ; pupil of Stamaty, 
Litolff and Ravina ; pianist and com- 
poser; toured Russia, etc.; lives in 

Brown, (i) Dr. J., Northumberland, 
17151766; writer. (2) Obadiah 
Bruen, b. Washington, D. C., July 
2, 1829 ; pupil of Zerrahn, Parker, 
Kreissmann, Hause and D. Paine, 
and of Lobe and Plaidy, Leipzig, 
1869 ; teacher and organist ; pub. 
school-songs, etc. 

Browne, Lennox, Dr., b. London, 
1841; prominent throat-specialist and 
writer on the voice ; lives in London. 

Brown'smith, J, Leman, Westmin- 
ster, 1809 1866; organist. 

Brozel', Philip, b. in Russia ; tenor ; 
studied at R. A. M., London ; debut 
1896 at Covent Garden in I Pagliac- 
d ; 1901 in New York. 

Bruch (brookh), Max, b. Cologne, 
Jan. 6, 1838 ; Jewish pianist and 
composer ; at first, pupil of his moth- 
er (nee Almenrader), a singer ; later 
with Breidenstein, Bonn.; 1853 he 


gained the four-year scholarship of 
the Mozart Foundation at Frankfort, 
and studied with Killer, Reinecke, 
and Breuning ; at 14, prod, a sym- 
phony, Cologne ; 1858, his first dram, 
work, Goethe's Singspiel, "Scherz 
List und Racks " (op. i) ; 1864, prod, 
opera " Loreky" etc.; male chorus 
" Frithjof" \ 1865-67, at Coblenz, 
composed his first pop. vln.-concerto 
(G minor) ; 1867-70, court-cond. at 
Sondershausen ; in 1878 cond. Stern 
Choral Union, Berlin; in 1880, 
cond. Liverpool Philh. Soc.; 1883, 
dir. Breslau Orchestral Soc.; 1881, 
m. Frl. Tuczek, of Berlin, a 
singer; lived in Breslau till 1890; 
1892, with K. Hochschule in Berlin ; 
prod. 1872, opera " Htrmione" based 
on " Winter's Tale"; 1873-78, 
prod, the chorals " Arminius" and 
"Lied von der Glocke" and the 2d 
vln.-concerto; 1883, came to U. S. 
and prod, his " A rminius" Boston. 
The epic cantata is his special field ; 
among his works of this sort, are 
" Odysseus, Arminius, Lied von der 
Glocke, and Achilleus" ; for male 
chorus, u Frithjof, Salami* , Nor- 
mannenzug and Leonidas" (op. 
66). He arranged the old Hebrew 
melody Kol Nidre, and composed 
a cantata "Das Feuerkreuz" (op. 
52, 1888); three symphonies; ora- 
torio, "Moses" (1895); 3 vln.- 

Bruck (brook) (or Brouck), Arnold 
von (a German Swiss (?)), d. 1545; 
conductor and composer. 

Briickler (bruk'-ler), Hugo, Dresden, 
1845 1871 ; composer. 

Bruckner (brook'-ner), Anton, Aus- 
felden, Upper Austria, Sept. 4, 1824 
Vienna, Oct. II, 1896; mainly self- 
taught as organist; 1867, court-or- 
ganist at Vienna ; prof, of org., harm, 
and cpt. at Vienna Cons.; 1875, 
"Lektor" of music at Vienna Univ.; 
1891, Dr. hon. causa; one of the 
chief contemporary organ-virtuosi, and 
a disciple of Wagner ; he composed 
Q symphonies, the 4th called "Ro- 

mantic" Biog. by Fz. Brunner 
(Linz-on-Danube, 1895). 

Bruckner (brilk r -ner), Oscar, b. Er, 
furt, Jan. 2, 1857; 'cellist; pupil of 
Griitzmacher and Draeseke ; toured 
Germany, Russia, etc. ; Ducal cham, 
ber- virtuoso at Strelitz ; since 1889 
teacher in the Wiesbaden Cons., and 

Bruhns (broons), Nikolaus, Schwab- 
stadt, Schleswig, 1665 Husum, 
1697 ; organist and violinist. 

Briill (brXl), Ignaz, b. Moravia, Nov. 7, 
1846 ; pianist ; pupil of Epstein, Ru- 
finatscha and Dessoff ; 1872-78, pf.- 
prof. Horak Institute, Vienna ; his 
first opera "Die Bcttltr von Sam- 
mar kand" (1864) was not succ., but 
"Das Goldene Kreiiz" (Berlin), 
1875) was very pop. ; followed by 6 
other operas and the succ. comic 
opera " Der Husar " (Vienna, March 
2, 1898) ; composed also hunting 
overture " I in \Yalde" etc. 

Brumel(broo'-mcl), Anton, ca. 1480 
ca. 1520 ; Flemish cptist. 

Bruneau (bru-no) (Louis Chas. 
Bonaventure), Alfred, b. Paris, 
March 3, 1857 , pupil of Franchomme 
at the Cons. ; took first 'cello prize, 
1876 ; studied with Savart and Mas- 
senet ; iSSi, took first prize with can- 
tata " Sainte Genwicve " ; composed 
operas "Kerim " (Opera- Populaire, 
1887), " Le AVrv" (1'aris, 1892), and 
the very succ. dramc lyrique " L'At- 
taqite du Moulin " (Ope'ra-Comiquc, 
Paris, 1893) ; unsucc. drame lyrique 
" Messidor" (l j aris, Cr. Opera, Feb. 
IQ, 1897) ; the last three are on texts 
from Zola, some of the music being 
set to plain prose, as also in the songs 
set to Catulle Mendos' "Z/tv/j en 
prose"] 1 893-95, critic of "Gil 
Bias" 1895 of 'Le Figaro" Chev. 
of Legion of I lonour ; composed also 
Heroic overture; k'gende " Pen- 
thtsitie, Reinc des Amazones" 

Brunelli (broo-nel'-lG), A., I7th cent.; 
conductor to Duko of Florence; 
writer and composer. 


Brunetti (broo-net'-te), Gaetano, Pisa, 
1753 Madrid, r8o8 ; composer. 

Bruni (broo'-ne), A. Bart., Coni, Pied- 
mont, 1759 1823 ; violinist, cond. 
and dram, composer. 

Brunner (broon-ner), Chr. Trau- 
gott, Briinlos, 1792 Chemnitz, 
1874 ; organist and conductor. 

Bruyck (broik), K. Bebroid van, b. 
Brilnn, March 14, 1828 ; studied law, 
Vienna, 1850 ; and theory with Rufi- 
natscha ; writer on Bach, etc. 

Bry'cison Bros., London; organ- 

Bryen'nius, Manuel, lived ca. 1320 ; 
last Greek theorist. 

Bryne, Albertus, ca. 1621 after 1677; 
organist St. Paul's and Westminster 
Abbey, London. 

Buchholz (bookh'-holts), (i) Jn. Si- 
meon, Schlosswippach, 1758 Berlin, 
1825 ; founded firm of organ-builders ; 
succeeded by his son (2) K. Aug. 
(17961884), whose son (3) K. Fr., 
d. Feb. 17, 1885. 

Biichner (bukh'-ner), Emil, b. Oster- 
field, near Naumburg, Dec. 25, 1826; 
pupil of Leipzig Cons. ; 1865, court- 
conductor ; composed 2 operas, etc. 

Buck, (i) Zechariah, Norwich, Eng- 
land, 1798 Newport, Essex, 1879; 
organist Norwich Cathedral ; teacher 
and composer. (2) Dudley, b. Hart- 
ford, Conn., March 10, 1839; pupil 
W. J. Babcock (pf.), then of Plaidy 
and Moscheles (pf.) ; Hauptmann 
(comp.) and J. Reitz (instrumenta- 
tion), Leipzig Cons. ; later Dresden, 
under Reitz and Johaun Schneider 
(organ); and 1861-62 in Paris; 1862, 
organist of the Park Ch., Hartford, 
U. S. A.; St. James, Chicago, 1872, 
St. Paul's and of the Music Hall As- 
sociation, Boston; 1875, organist 
Cincinnati May Festival ; then, asst. 
cond. to Th. Thomas, New York; 
since organist of Holy Trinity Ch., 
Brooklyn ; director Apollo Club ; 
composed comic opera " Desent" 
(prod. 1880) ; symphonic overture 
" Marmion " (1880) , many cantatas ; 
the 4&th Psalm; " The Christian 

Year" a series of 5 cantatas ; wrote 
2 books of Pedal-phrasing Studies, 
and "Illustrations on Choir-accompa- 
niment, with Hints on Registration "; 
pub, " The Organist's Repertoire" 
(with A. P. Warren) ; " The Influ- 
ence of the Organ in History" (1882) ; 
and a "Dictionary of Musical 

Buhler (bti'-ler), Fz. P. Gregorius, 
Schneidheim, 1760 Augsburg, 1824 ; 
Benedictine monk, 1794 ; conductor 
at Botzen ; dram, composer and theo- 

Bull, John, Dr., Somersetshire, Eng- 
land, 1563 Antwerp, March 12, 
1628; 1582, organist; 1592, Mus. 
Doc. Oxon.; 1596, Prof, of music at 
Gresham Coll. on Queen Elizabeth's 
recommendation ; resigned on his 
marriage, 1607 ; 1617, organist Notre 
Dame, Antwerp ; an early English 
composer whom Oscar Bie credits 
with remarkable originality in the 
midst of over-ornamentation. 

Bull (bool), Ole (Bornemann), Ber- 
gen, Norway, Feb. 5, 1810 Lysoen, 
Aug. 17, 1880 ; enormously popular 
and brilliant violin-virtuoso, a whit 
charlatanic ; pupil of Paulsen ; then 
self-taught, using a bridge almost 
level and a flat fingerboard ; studied 
theology, but failed in examinations ; 
1828, dir. Philh. and Dram. Soc., 
Bergen ; 1829, studied with Spohr 
briefly ; 1832, debut, Paris, after liv- 
ing there a year observing Paganini's 
methods; toured Europe frequently, 
and North America 5 times (1843- 
79) : he died at his country-seat. He 
played his own comps. almost alto- 
gether ; wrote 2 concertos, and charac- 
teristic solos ; biog. by Sara C. Bull, 
his second wife, Boston, 1883, and by 
Vlik (Bergen, 1890). 

BuTlard, Fred. F., b. Boston, Mass., 
Sept. 21, 1864. 1888-92, studied 
comp. under Rheinberger, Munich; 
teacher of comp. , critic and composer, 
Boston ; has pub. many successful bal- 
lads and four-part songs for male 
voices, also sacred music, 


Billow (fon bii' -15), Hans Guido von, 
Dresden, Jan. 8, 1830 Cairo, Egypt, 
Feb. 12, 1894 ; versatile and influen- 
tial musician ; pianist and conductor 
of remarkable accuracy and memory, 
popularising the custom of conducting 
without score ; often called the best 
interpreter of Beethoven, but rather 
cold as a pianist ; at 9, studied pf . 
with Fr. Wieck ; harmony with Ebe- 
wein ; 1848, entered Leipzig Univ. 
as law-student, but studied cpt. with 
Hauptmann; 1849, Wagner's "Die 
ICunst und die Revolution" stirred 
him deeply, and having heard 
"Lohengrin" at Weimar under 
Liszt's direction, he joined Wagner, 
then exiled at Zurich, 1850-51 ; stud- 
ied conducting with him, and acted as 
cond. in theatres at Zurich and St. 
Gallen, and later with Liszt; 1853 
and 1855 toured Germany and Aus- 
tria, with success; 1855-64, first pf.- 
teacher Stern Cons., Berlin. 1857, 
m. Cosima, Liszt's natural daughter, 
whom he later surrendered to his 
friend Wagner (q. v.); 1858, court- 
pianist ; 1863, Dr. Phil. hon. causa, 
Univ. of Jena ; 1864, court-pianist. 
Munich ; 1867-69, court-conductor 
and dir. School of Music ; 1869-72, 
teacher and pianist in Florence; 
i 8 75-76, gave 139 concerts in Amer- 
ica; 1878-80, court-conductor at 
Hanover; then till 1885, Hofmusik- 
intendant, Saxe-Meiningen ; 1882, 
m. Marie Schanzer; 1885-88, teach- 
er Raff Cons., Frankfort, Klindworth 
Cons,, Berlin, and dir. Berlin Philh. 
Concerts ; in 1888, founded the succ. 
"Subscription Concerts." Composed 
music to "Julius Ccssar" (op. 10) ; a 
Ballade for orch., " Des Sdngers 
Fluch" (op. 16); " Nirwana?' a 
symphonic Stimmungsbild (op. 20); 
4 Charakterstucke for orch. (op. 23) ; 
a few pf.-pcs. and songs ; also many 
piano arrangements. His critical ed. 
of Beethoven's sonatas, and Cramer's 
etudes, are standard; biog. by his 
2d wife (Leipzig, 1895). 
Bulss (bools), Paul, Birkholz Man- 

or, Priegnitz, Dec. 19, 1847 Temes- 
var, Hungary, March 20, 1902 ; pupil 
of G. Engel ; barytone at Dresden 
(1876-89), later at Berlin court opera 
Bulthaupt (boolt'-howpt), H., b! 
Bremen, Oct. 26, 1849 ; wrote a valu- 
able " Dramaturgic der Oper " (Leip- 
zig, 1887). 

Bungert (boong'-ert), August, b. 
Muhlheim-on-Ruhr, March 14, 1846 
pupil of Kufferath (pf.), later at Co- 
logne Cons. ; for 4 years at Paris 
Cons.; then (1869) with Mathias- 
lived (1873-81) at Berlin, and stud- 
ied cpt. with Kiel ; since lives near 
Genoa. His life-work has been 
"Das Homerische Wdt" in 2 Ho- 
meric opera-cycles, occupying 6 
"evenings" (Abends], each with a 
1 ' Vorspiel ; " The Iliad (' ' Die Ilias ") 
is unfinished : (a) Achilles ; (b) Kly- 
temnestra. The Odyssey ^ Die 
Odyssee"} consists of Circe; Nau- 
sikaa; Odysseus' Heimkehr (Berlin 
March 31, 1898; succ.), and Odys- 
seus 1 Tod (Dresden, 1902). Other 
comp. are (comic opera) "Die Stu- 
denten von Salamanca" (Leipzig 
1884); symph. poem, "Aufder Wart- 
burg"; " jfofies Lied der Liebe" 
with orch.; overture, "Tasso" pf. 
quartet, op. 18 ; Florentine quartet 
(prize, 1878); " Italimisht Reise- 
bilder" etc., for pf.; songs to Car- 
men Sylva's " Lieder einer Koniffin " 
etc. ' 

Bun'nett, Edw., b. Norfolk, England 
1834 ; articled to Dr. Buck, 1849 ; or- 
ganist various churches, Mus. Doc 
Oxon, 1869, 1871-92, cond. Nor 
wich Mus. Union ; since 1872 organ 
1st of the Norwich Festivals; com 
posed cantata, etc. 

Bun'ning, Herbert, b. London, Ma< 
2, 1863; pupil of V. Ferroni; c 
Italian sccna, " Ludovico il Mora 
(prod, with succ., 1892), also 2 sym 
phonic poems, opera " The Lai 
Days of Pompdi " (MS.), etc. 
Bun'ting, Edw., Armagh, Feb., 177 
Belfast, 1843; historian and co 
lector of Irish music. 


Buonamente (boo-o-na-me'n'-te), Giov. 
Bat., cond. Franciscan monastery at 
Assisi ; early and important composer 
for violin, also cornetti (1623-36); 
confused by Fetis with Bonometti. 

Buonamici (boo-d-na-me'-che), Giu., 
b. Florence, 1846 ; pianist ; pupil of 
his uncle Ceccherini, and of Btilow 
and Rheinberger at Munich; 1873, 
cond. Florentine Choral Society 
u Cherubini " ; founded the Flor. 
"Trio Society" ; pub. etudes, etc. 

Buononcini. Vide BONONCINI. 

Burbure de Wesembeck (bur-bur du 
va-zan-bek), Le"onPh. M., Chevalier 
de,Termonde, 1812 Antwerp, 1889; 
Flemish nobleman ; writer and com- 

BUrde-Ney (bur'-dS-m'), Jenny, 
Graz, 1826 Dresden, 1886; so- 
prano; 1855, m. the actor E. 

Burette (btl-re't), P. J., Paris, 1665 
1747 ; Prof, of Medicine, Paris Univ.; 
writer on Greek music. 

Biirgel (bur'-gel), Konstantin, b. 
Silesia, June 24, 1837 ; pupil of Bro- 
sig and Kiel ; 1869-70 pf . teacher in 
Kullak's Acad., now private teacher ; 

Burger (bur'-ger), Sigmund, b. Vien- 
na, 1856; pupil of Popper; 'cel- 
list ; since 1887 soloist at R. Opera, 
Pesth, and teacher in the Cons. 

Burgk (boorkh'), Joachim Moller (or 
Miiller), called Joachim A. Burgk 
(or Burg, or Burck), Burg, near 
Magdeburg; ca. 1541 Miilhausen, 
Thuringia, May 24, 1610 ; organist 
and eminent composer of Protestant 

Burgmein, J,, pen-name of "Giulio 

Burgmiiller (boorkh' -mul-ler), (i) Jn. 
Fr. Fz., Ratisbon, 1806 Beaulieu, 
1874 ; composer. (2) Norbert, Dtis- 
seldorf, iSio Aix-la-Chapelle, 1836 ; 
pianist and composer. 

Burgstaller (boorkh' -shtal-ler), Alois, 
b. Holzkirchen, Sept. 27, 1871; 
tenor; studied with Bellurth and 
Kniese ; sang small roles at Bayreuth 

from 1894, "Siegfried" (1897); 
u Siegmund " (1899). 

Burke, Jos., Ireland, 1818 New 
York, Jan. 19, 1902 ; came to Amer- 
ica at 12 as prodigy violinist ; pupil 
of de Beriot ; retired about 1855. 

Burkhard (boorkh' -hart), Jn. Andreas 
Chrn., Pastor, Leipheim, Swabia; 
theorist and editor. 

Burmeister (boor'-ml-shter), (i) Rich- 
ard, b. Hamburg, Dec. 7, 1860; pian- 
ist ; pupil of Liszt, accompanying him 
as he travelled; teacher Hamburg 
Cons.; for 12 years head of pf. dept., 
Peabody Inst. , Baltimore; 1898, dir. 
N. Y. Scharwenka Cons.; c. pf.-con- 
certo(op. i), " The Chase after Fort- 
une " ("Diejagd nach dem Gluck "), 
a symphonic fantasy in 3 movements ; 
rescored Chopin's F minor concerto, 
and wrote orch. accomp. for Liszt's 
"Pathetic" concerto. (2) Dory 
(nee Peterson), b. Oldenburg, 1860 ; 
pianist ; wife of above. 

Burmester (boor'-ma-shter), Willy, b. 
Hamburg, 1869 ; violin-virtuoso ; 
studied with his father and Joachim ; 
toured with his sister, a concert-pian- 
ist. Von Billow aided him and brought 
public attention to his abilities; has 
toured Europe, and 1899, America. 

Bur'ney, Chas., Shrewsbury, Eng- 
land, 1726 Chelsea, 1814; toured 
Europe; Mus. Doc. Oxon, 1769; 
pub. very interesting and gossipy 
" The Present State of Music in 
France and Italy'' etc. (1771); 
" do. in Germany, the Netherlands" 
etc. (1773); "General History of 
Music" (4 vols., 1776-89), etc. 

Burr, Willard, b. Ohio, Jan. 17, 1852; 
graduated Oberlin Cons. ; pupil of 
Haupt, Berlin ; lives in Boston, Mass. ; 
composed grand sonata for pf. and 
vln., etc. 

Bur'rowes, J. Freckleton, London, 
^87 1852; organist, pianist and 

Bur'ton, (i) Avery, composer in reign 
of Henry VIII. (a) J. Yorkshire, 
17301785 ; harpsichord. (3) Fred- 
erick R,, graduated at Harvard ; 1, 


Yonkers,N.Y.; founded there, 1896, 
a choral society; c. pop. cantata 
"Hiawatha" etc. 

Bur'tius (or Burci (bopr'-che)) or Bur- 
zio (boor'-tsl-6), Nicolaus, Parma, 
1450 ca. 1520; wrote the earliest 
specimen of printed mensural music. 

Bus'by, Thos., Westminster, Eng- 
land, 1755 London, 1838 ; Mus. 
Doc. ; composer and writer. 

Busi (boo'-ze), (r) Giu., Bologna, 1808 
1871 ; Prof. (2) Alessandro, Bo- 
logna, 18331895; son of above; 
'cellist and conductor. 

Busnois (bttn-wa), A. (rightly de 
Busne (da bun)), d. 1481 ; Nether- 
land contrapuntist. 

Busoni (boo-so -ne), Ferruccio Ben- 
venuto, b. Empoli, near Florence, 
April I, 1866; pianist; pupil of his 
father (Fdo.), clarinettist, and his 
mother (nee Weiss), a pianist ; at 8, 
debut at Vienna ; then studied with 
W. A. Remy; 1881, toured Italy; at 
15, elected a member of the Reale 
Accademia Filarmonica, Bologna ; 
1886, Leipzig, where he c. a fantastic 
opera, a string-quartet (D min.), sym- 
phonic suite, etc. ; 1888-89, prof - 
Helsingfors Cons.; 1890, won Rubin- 
stein prizes for comp. and pf. -play- 
ing, with a Concertstuck for pf. and 
orch., op. 3ia ; sonata for pf. and 
vln.; pf. arr. of Bach's El? Organ 
Prelude, and Fugue ; and other pf. 
pcs. incl. 2 Cadenzas to Beethoven's 
Concerto in G; 1890, Prof, in the 
Moscow Imp. Cons.; 1891-93 at New 
England Cons., Boston, U. S. A.; 
1895, toured ; now lives in Berlin ; 
edited Bach's " Well-tempered Clavi- 
chord" with etudes; other comps., 
" Lust spiel Qiwerture" ; 4 choruses 
with orch. ; 2 suites for orch. ; a 
" Symphonisches Tongedicht" for 
orch., etc. 

Bttsser (btis-sa), H. Paul, b. Tou- 
louse, 1872; pupil of Guiraud and 
Gounod; took first Grand Prix de 
Rome, with cantata "Antigone"; 
since 1892, organist at St. Cloud ; c. 
<snrn. i-act oastorale " Daphnis et 

Chloe" (Paris, Op. Com.), 1897 ; can- 
tata " Amadis de Gaule" 1892 (tak- 
ing 2d Grand Prix de Rome); orches- 
tral suite "A la Villa Medicis"; a 
lyric drama " Colombo" and opera, 
" Le Mirack dcs Perks" 

Busshop (bus-shop), Aug. Guil. 
Paris, 1 8 10 Bruges, 1896; self- 
taught; c. prize-cantata, u Le Dra- 
peau Beige" 1834, etc. 

Bussler (boos'-ler), L., Berlin, Nov. 
26, 1838 Jan. 18, IQOO ; theorist; 
son of the painter-author, Robert 
Bussler; pupil of von Hertzberg, 
Dehn, Grell, and Wieprecht; 1865, 
teacher of theory, Ganz School of 
Music ; from 1879, at tne Stern Cons. , 
Berlin; critic and writer of various 

Bussmeyer (boos'-mi-er), (i) Hugo, b. 
Brunswick, 1842 ; pianist ; pupil of 
K. Richter, Litolff (pf.), and Meth- 
fessel (comp.) ; 1860, toured in South 
America ; 1860, N. Y. ; composer 
and writer. (2) Hans, b. Brunswick, 
1853 ; bro. of above ; pianist ; pupil 
of Royal School of Music at Munich, 
and teacher there since 1874; a ls 
studied with Liszt ; toured S. Amer- 
ica, 1872-74 ; 1879, founded Munich 
Choral Society. 

Bustini (boos-te'-ne), Aless. ; young 
Italian composer, prod. succ. opera 
''''Maria Dit/cis," Rome, 1902; li- 
bretto by Luigi Ilica. 

Buths (boots), Julius, b. Wiesbaden, 
May 7, 1851 ; pianist; pupil of his 
father (an oboist), also of Gernshei*n, 
Killer and Kiel ; 1871-72, cond. the 
" Cecilia," at Wiesbaden ; 1873, wor 
Meyerbeer Scholarship, and lived ir 
Milan and Paris ; 1875-79, cond. ir 
Breslau ; in Elberfcld, 1879-90; sinc< 
cond. Mus. Soc. at Elberfeld ; c 
concerto, etc., for pf. 

Butt, Clara, Kng. contralto; won ; 
scholarship at London R. C. M.; de 
but, London, r8c)2 ; toured America 
1899 ! m - Kenncrly Rumford, bar} 
tone, 1900. Her great success ha 
been emphasised by her imposin 
beauty (she is 6 ft. 2^ inches tall), 


Buttstedt (boot'-shtet), Jn. H., Bin- 
dersleben, 1666 Erfurt, 1727 ; writer 
of a famous defence of sol-mi-sa-tion ; 
also organist and composer. 

Buus (boos), Jachet (Jacques) de, 
b. Bruges (?), 1510; Flemish cptist ; 
1541, asst. organist, San Marco. 

Buxtehude (boox'-te-hoo-de), Die- 
trich, Helsingor (Elsinore), Den- 
mark, 1639 Lilbeck, 1707; organist; 
1673, he established the "Abend- 
musiken," which J. S. Bach walked 
50 miles to hear ; great composer of 
fugues and suites. 

Buzzola (bood-zo'-la), A., Adria, 1815 
Venice, 1871; conductor at San 
Marco and dram, composer. 

Byrd (Byrde, Bird, or Byred), Wm. ; 
according to his will, discovered in 
1897, he was born London, 1542, or 
1543 (not 1538 or 1546, as stated) ; d. 
July 4, 1623 ; organist and notable 
English composer, in whose work there 
is much modernity; 1554, organist; 
1563, choirmaster and organist Lin- 
coln Cathedral ; 1575, procured with 
Tallis, his former teacher, an exclu- 
sive patent for the privilege of print- 
ing music and selling music-paper. 

Caballero (ka-bal-la-ro), Manuel 
Fernandez, b. Murcia, March 14, 
1835 ; pupil of Fuertes (harm.) and 
Eslava (comp.), Madrid Cons. ; c. 
pop. Zarzuelas (v. D,D.) and church- 

Cabel (ka-bel), rightly Cabu, (i) Ed., 
singer Op. Com., Paris. (2) Marie 
Josephe (nee Dreulette), Liege, 
1827 1885 ; sister-in-law, or perhaps 
mother, of above ; soprano. 

Cabo (kii'-bo), Francisco Javier, b. 
Naguera, near Valencia, 1832 ; or- 
ganist, conductor and composer. 

Caccini (kat-che-ne), Giulio (called 
Romano), Rome, ca. 1546 Flor- 
ence, ca. 1615 ; a Revolutionary com- 
poser well called l ' The father of a new 
style of music " ; studied singing and 
flute-playing with Scipione della Pal- 

la. Wrote and sang "Musica in Stile 
Rappresentatwo" and c. "// Rapti- 
mento di Cefalo" (Oct. 9, 1600), the 
first opera ever publicly prod. ; he 
had also set to music other works by 
Bardi (q. v.), and collaborated with 
Peri (q. v.) in " Dafne" the first 
opera ever composed. He c. also 
a novel set of madrigals justly called 
" Le nuove musicke," and other 
works of notable originality and im- 
portance to progress. 

Cadaux (ka-do), Justin, Albi, France, 
1813 Paris, 1874; dram, composer. 

Cadiac (kad-yak), P., choirmaster at 
Auch, France, and composer (1543- 

Cadore (ka-do'-re'), Arturo, young 
Italian composer, prod, comic opera 
" / Vespri " (Milan, 1898 ?) and succ. 
l-act " // Natale" (Milan, 1902). 

Caesar, Julius, M.D., b. Rochester, 
England; amateur composer, I7th 

Cafaro (ka-fa'-ro), Pasq. (called Caf- 
fariel'lo), San Pietro, Galatina, Italy, 
1706 Naples, 1797 ; noted composer; 
c. operas, oratorios, a notable " Stabat 
mater" etc. 

Caffarelli (rightly Gaetano Majora- 
no) (kaf-fa-reT-W), Bari, April 16, 
1703 Santo-Dorato, near Naples, 
Nov. 30, 1783 ; famous male so- 
prano ; discovered as a peasant boy, 
by Caffaro, a musician, he took the 
name Caffarelli out of gratitude ; he 
studied 5 years with Porpora ; was a 
skilful sight-reader and harpsichord- 
ist, a marvellous singer of florid mu- 
sic, and also gifted with pathos ; had 
most successful debut, Rome, 1724, 
in a female role, and sang with enor- 
mous success everywhere except Lon- 
don ; made money enough to buy a 

Caffi (kaf'-fe), Fran., Venice, 1786 
Padua, 1874 ; writer. 

Caffiaux (kaf-fl-6), Dom. Phillippe 
Jos., Valenciennes, 1712 Paris, 
1777 ; abbe and writer. 

Cagniar de la Tour (kin'-yar dti la 
toor'), Baron, Chas., Paris, 1777 


1850; improved the "Syren" (v. 
D. D.)- 

Cagnoni (kan-yo'-nl), A., Godiasco, 
j-828 Bergamo, 1896; conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Cahen (ka-an), (i) Ernest, Paris, 
1828 1893 ; pianist and dram, com- 
poser. (2) Albert, b. Paris (?), Jan. 
8, 1846; pianist; pupil of Mme. 
Szarvady and Cesar Franck ; c. 
"Jean le Pr&urseur" biblical poem 
(1874) ; com. opera " Le Boh " (1880, 
Op. Com.) ; fairy opera ll La Belle au 
Bois Dormant" (Geneva, 1886); 4- 
act opera ' ' Le Venitien " (Rouen, 
1890) ; unsucc. opera " La Femme de 
Claude" (Paris, Op. Com., 1896); 
lives in Paris. 

Caillot (kl-yo), Jos., Paris, 1732 
1816; tenor-barytone. 

Cain (kan), Henri, b. Paris, 1859; 
painter ; and librettist to Massenet, 

Caimo (ka'-e-m5), Joseffo, b. Milan, 
ca. 1540 ; composer. 

Cal'ah, J., 17581798, English organ- 

Caldara (kal-da'-ra), A., Venice, 1678 
Vienna, Dec. 28, 1763 ; court-con- 
ductor and noted composer, Vienna ; 
c. operas, 70 sacred dramas, etc. 

Cal'dicott, Alfred Jas., Worcester, 
England, 1842 near Gloucester, Oct. 
24, 1897 ; organist of St. Stephen's 
Church, Worcester, and Corporation 
organist ; 1883, prof, at R. C. M., 
London ; from 1885, cond. at the 
Albert Palace ; c. cantatas, 13 oper- 
ettas, etc. 

Cale^ari (kal-a-ga-re), (i) (or Calle- 
gari) Fran. A., d. Padua, 1742; 
a Franciscan monk, 1702-24; con- 
ductor and writer at Venice, then 
Padua. (2) A., Padua, 17581828 ; 
dram, composer and writer. 

Cal'kin, J. Bapt., b. London, March 
16, 1827 ; pianist, organist and com- 
poser; prof. Guildhall School of 
Mus. ; pub. services, etc. 

Call, Leonard de, 1779 Vienna, 
1815 ; guitar virtuoso and compos- 

Callaerts (kaT-larts), Jos., b. Ant- 
werp, Aug. 22, 1838; pupil at Brus- 
sels Cons, of Lemmens ; organist at 
Antwerp Cathedral, and teacher at 
the Music School from 1867; c. a 
prize symphony and pf. trio, comic 
opera ; " Le Retour Imprtvu " (Ant- 
werp, 1889), etc. 

Call'cott, (i) J. Wall, Kensington, 
Nov. 20, 1766 May 15, 1821; main- 
ly self-taught ; organist ; 1789 he 
won all the prizes offered by the 
11 Catch Club; " 1790, pupil of Haydn; 
1800, Mus. Doc. (Oxon) ; 1806, lect- 
ured at the Royal Institute ; over- 
work on an unfinished musical 
dictionary destroyed his reason ; his 
"Grammar of Music" (1806) is 
standard. (2) Wm. Hutchins, Kens- 
ington, 1807 London, 1882; son of 
above ; organist and pianist. 

Calliope (kal-H'-o-pe 1 or kal-le'-o-pa). 
the Greek muse of heroic verse. 

Calo'ri, Angiola, Milan, 17321790 ; 

Calsabigi (kal-sa-be'-je), Ranieroda, 
Livorno, 1715 Naples, 1795 ; 
Gluck's librettist and aide in opera- 

Calve" (kal-va), Emma (de Roquer), 
b. Madrid, 1864 ; eminent operatic 
actress and soprano ; pupil of Mar- 
chesi and Pugets; 1882, debut in 
Massenet's " Iltrodiade" Th. de la 
Monnaie, Brussels ; 1884, Paris Th. 
Italien ; 1885, Op. Com. ; has sung 
constantly in New York, London, etc. ; 
she is an Officier d'Academie.and lives 
in Paris. 

Calvis'ius, Sethus (rightly Seth 
Kallwitz(kaT -vets)), Feb. 21, 1556 
Leipzig, Nov. 24, 1615 ; son of a 
peasant ; singer for alms, then as a 
teacher obtained funds to study; 
(1581) mus. dir. ; writer of important 
treatises and composer. 

Calvor (kaT-far), Kaspar, Hildesheim, 
1650 Clausthal, 1725 ; theorist. 

Cambert (kan-bar), Rob., Paris, ca. 
1628 London, 1677 ; first composer 
of French operas ; organist at St. 
Honore; 1659, " La Pastorale" was 


succ. prod, at the Chateau d'Issy ; 
and followed by others on the texts of 
Perrin, who received letters patent for 
establishing the " Acade'mie royale de 
musique " (now the Gr. Opera) ; with 
Perrin he also wrote the first genu- 
ine opera, " Pomonc? prod, 1671, 
before Lully, who later took the pat- 
ent for himself ; he went to England 
where he died as Master of the Music 
to Charles II. 

Cambini (kam-be'-ne), Giov. Giu., 
Leghorn, 1746 Bicetre, 1825 (?); 
cond. at Paris, and prolific but cheap 
composer of over 60 symphonies, 144 
string-quartets, several operas, etc. ; 
he died in the almshouse. 

Camerana (kam-a-ra'-na), Luigi,b. in 
Piedmont, 1846 ; theatre - cond. in 
Savona; dram, composer. 

Cam'idge, (i) J., ca. 1735 York, 
Engl., 1803 ; organist York cath., 47 
years; composer. (2) Mat., York, 
1758 1844; son and successor of 
above. (3) J., York, 17901859; 
son and successor of (2). 

Campagnoli (kam-pan-yo'-le), Bart., 
Cento, 1751 Neustrelitz, 1827; vio- 
linist and court-conductor. 

Campana (kam-pa'-na), Fabio, Leg- 
horn, 1819 London, 1882 ; singing- 
teacher and dram, composer. 

Campanari (kam-pa-na'-re), (r) Lean- 
dro, b. Rovigo, Italy, Oct. 20, 1857 ; 
pupil at Milan Cons. ; toured Europe 
2 years ; America, 1879 ; lived in 
Boston ; organised " C. String-quar- 
tet"; 1883 ist prof, of vln. in N. 
E. Cons. ; 1890, ist prof, of vln. 
and head of orch. dept. Cincinnati 
Cons. ; since 1897 conductor at 
Milan ; writer and composer. (2) 
Giuseppe, eminent dram, barytone, 
bro. of above, sings at Met. Op.,' N.Y. 

Campanini (kam-pa-ne'-ne), Italo, 
Parma, 1845 Vigatto, near Parma, 
Nov. 22, 1896; operatic tenor, a 
blacksmith when discovered ; debut, 
1869, at Odessa, without much suc- 
cess; then studied with Lamperti, 
and reappeared, Florence, 1871, as 
" Lohengrin," with great succ. ; 

toured Europe and XL S. with Nils- 
son, Patti, etc. 

Camp'bell, Alex., organist, editor, 
and publisher, i8th century. 

Campenhout (kam'-pen-oot), Fran- 
ois van, Brussels, 17791848 ; vio- 
linist, then tenor, then dram, com- 

Campio'H A. Gualandi, called Cam- 
piole, b. Germany, of Sp. parents ; 
male contralto ; debut Berlin, 1708. 

Cam'pion, (i) Thos., d. London, Feb. 
1619 ; English physician, poet, dram- 
atist and noteworthy writer and 
composer ; pub. two books of Ayres, 
etc. (1610); 2 more (1612). (2) Fran., 
1703-19, theorbist, Paris Gr. Opera. 

Campio'ni, Carlo A., Leghorn, ca. 
1720 Florence, 1793; court-conduc- 

Camporese (kam-po-ra'-ze 1 ), Violante, 

b. Rome, 1785 ; operatic sopr. of 
Napoleon's private music ; debut, 
London, 1817 ; retired, 1829. 

Campos (kam'-pos), Joao Ribeiro de 
Almeida de, b. Vizen, Portugal, ca. 
1770 ; cond., and professor. 

Campra (kah-pra), (i) Andr6, Dec. 4, 
1660 Versailles, July 29, 1744 ; cond. 
at Notre Dame ; prod. 2 succ. operas 
under his bro's name and gave up 
church-mus. ; cond. Royal Orch. and 

c. 1 8 operas. (2) Jos., bro. of above ; 
double-bass player. 

Camps y Soler (kamps e so'-lar), Os- 
car, b. Alexandria, Egypt, Nov. 21, 
1837; Spanish pianist ; pupil of Dohler 
and Mercadante ; played in public at 
13; lives in Madrid ; writer and theo- 

Candeille (kan-de"-yu), (i) P. Jos., 
Estaires, 1744 Chantilly^ 1827; 
dram, composer. (2) (Simons- 
Candeille) Ame"He Julie, Paris, 
1767 1834 ; operatic sopr., actress, 
and composer; daughter of above; 
lived in Paris as teacher ; she wrote 
libretto and music of the succ. oper- 
etta " Ld Belle Fermiere " (1792) ; 
she played the leading role and sang 
to her own accomp. on piano and 


Cange (du kanzh), Chas.-Dufresne, 

sieur du, Amiens, 1610 Paris, 1688 ; 
lawyer and lexicographer. 

Cannabich (kan'-na-ttkh), (i) Chr., 
Mannheim, 1731 Frankfort, 1798 ; 
noteworthy violinist and conductor, 
a pioneer in orchestral diminuendo ; 
son of (2) Mathias, a flutist in the 
Electoral Orch. at Mannheim of 
which Chr. C. became leader in 1765, 
and cond. 1775- (3) K., Mannheim, 
1769 Munich, 1805 ; son of (l) ; 
court-conductor. (4) Rose, b, about 
1762 according to Mozart, whose pu- 
pil she was ; daughter of (i) ; notable 

Canniciari (kan-ne-cha'-re), Don 
Pompeo, Rome, 16701744; con- 
ductor and composer. 

Canthal (kan'-tal), Aug., b. Liibeck (?); 
flutist 1832 Hamburg Th,; 1847, succ. 
concerts, Copenhagen ; 1848, band- 
master, Leipzig ; composer. 

Can'tor, Otto, Engl. song-writer, lives 
in London. 

Campel'la Martianus Minucius 
(Mmeus), Felix, 5th cent., Latin 
scholar at Carthage ; writer. 

"Capel'li," pen-name of Ja, D. von 

Capocci (ka-pot'-che), (i) Gaetano, 
Rome, Oct. 16, 1811 Jan. n, 1898 ; 
notable teacher ; pub. much sacred 
music. (2) Filippo, b. Rome, May 
n, 1840 ; son of above ; Italian or- 
ganist, perhaps the best living ; since 
1875 organist of San Giovanni in 
Laterano ; c. for organ. 

Caporale (ka-po-ra'-le), Andrea, d. 
London, ca. 1756 ; 'cellist. 

Capoul (ka-pool) (Jos. Ame"de"e), Vic- 
tor, b. Toulouse, Feb. 27, 1839 5 
tenor ; pupil of Revial and Mocker, 
Paris Cons. ; 1861-72 at the Op. 
Com. ; 1892 prof, of operatic singing 
in Nat. Cons., New York; asst. dir. 
Gr. Opera, Paris, 1899 J IQ2 (?) di- 
rector Op. Com., Paris. 

Caraccio^ka-rat'-cho) (or Caravac- 
cio), Giov,, Bergamo, ca. 1550 
Rome, 1626; conductor, 

Caraccioli (ka-rat-cho'-le), Luigi, 

Adria (Bari), 1849 London, 1887 ; 
dram, composer. 

Carado'ri- Allan, Maria C. R. (nee 
de Munck), Milan, 1800 London, 
1865 ; soprano. 

Carafa de Colobrano (ka-ra-fa da 
ko-lo-bra'-nd), Michele Enrico, 
Naples, Nov. 17, 1787 Paris, July 
26, 1872 ; son of Prince Colobrano ; 
while very young c. an opera, 2 can- 
tatas, etc., with much success ; 1837, 
member of the Academy ; 1840, prof, 
of comp. at Cons. ; c. also ballets, 
cantatas, and good church-music. 

Caramuel' de Lob'kowitz (vets), 
Juan, Madrid, 1606 Vigevano, Italy, 
1682 ; bishop and writer. 

Cardon (kar-doii). (i) Louis, Paris, 
1747 Russia, 1805 ; harpist. (2) 
P.,b. Paris, 1751 ; 'cellist and singer. 

Cardo'so, Manuel, Fronteira, 1569 ; 
Spanish priebt and composer. 

Caresana (kar-a-sa'-na), Cristoforo, 

b. Tarentum, 1655 ; lives in Naples 
as composer. 

Carestini (ka-ras-te'-nc), Giov. (stage 
name Cusanino), Mcnte Filatrano 
(Ancona), ca. 1705 1760 ; male so- 
prano (musico). 

Ca'rey, Henry, 1685 (?)London, Oct. 
4, [743 ; a reputed natural son of 
Marquis of Halifax, and disputed 
composer of " God save the King" ; 

c. the song " Sally in our Alley" ; 
ballad operas, etc. 

Cario (ka'-rl-o), Jn. H,, Eckernforde, 
Holstein, 1736 after 1800; trum- 

Carissimi (ka-rts'-so-me), Giacomo, 
Marino, near Rome, ca. 1604 Rome, 
Jan. 12, 1674 ; ca. 1624, church- 
conductor at Rome; important ch.- 
composer and writer ; many of his 
MSS. arc lost ; 5 oratorios and other 
pieces remain. 

Carl, Wm. Crane, b. Hloomfield, N. 
J., March 2, 1865 ; pupil of S. P. 
Warren (org. and theory), Mad. 
Schiller (pf.) and Guilmant, Paris ; 
since 1892, organist First Presby. 
Ch., N. Y. ; cond. of N. Y. " Gamut 
Club " ; tours as concert-organist. 


Car'michael, Mary Grant, b. Birken- 
head, Engl. ; pupil of 0. Beringer, 
W. Bache, and F. Hartivigson (pf.) 
and E. Prout (comp.) ; accompanist ; 
c. operetta, " The Snow Queen" 1 ; 
a pf.-suite ; and many pop. songs. 

Car'naby, Wra., London, 17721839 ; 
organ composer. 

Carnicer (kar'-ne-thar), Ramon, Tar- 
egge, Catalonia, Oct. 24, 1789 
Madrid, March 17, 1855 ; cond. 
Royal Opera, Madrid, 1830-54, prof, 
of comp. Madrid Cons.; one of 
the creators of the Zarzuela (v. 
D. D.). 

Caron (ka'-ron), (i) Firmin, isth cent., 
cptist. of Netherlands ? (2) Rose, 
noted soprano Gr. Opera, Paris. 

Carpani (kar-pa'-ne), Gin. A., b. Vil- 
albese (Como), 1752 Vienna, 1825 I 

Carpentras (II Carpentras'so). 


Carr, Frank Osmond, b. Yorkshire, 
ca. 1857 ; 1882 Mus, Bac. Oxon ; 
1891, Mus. Doc. ; c. farces, bur- 
lesques, and comic operas ; "Joan of 
Arc" (1891), "Blue-Eyed Susan" 
(London, 1892), " In Town" (1892), 
"His Excellency" (1894, libretto by 
W. Gilbert), etc. 

Carre" (kar-ra), (i) Louis, Clofontaine 
Brie, 1663 Paris, 1711 ; writer. (2) 
Albert, b. Strassburg, June 22, 1852; 
1898, dir. Op.-Com., Paris; lib- 

Carreno (kar-ran'-yo), Teresa, b. Ca- 
racas, Venezuela, Dec. 22, 1853 ; 
pupil of L. M. Gottschalk, and G. 
Mathias ; notable pianist ; played in 
public at 12 ; at 22 toured the U. S. ; 
1889-90 toured Germany with much 
success ; for some years wife of E. 
Sauret ; then of Giov. Tagliapietra ; 
1892-95, wife of Eugen d' Albert ; 
1902, m. Arturo Tagliapietra, bro. of 
Giov. T. ; c. a string-quartet and pf. 
salon pieces. Her daughter Teresita 
Tagliapietra is a pianist. 

Carro'dus, J. Tiplady, Keighley 
(Yorkshire), 1836 London, 1895 ; 

Car'ter, (i) Thos., Ireland, ca. 1735 
London, 1804; composer. (2) H., 
b. London, March 6, 1837 ; organ- 
ist ; pupil of Haupt (org.), Pauer (pf .), 
Kiel and Killer (comp.) ; at 9, church 
organist; later at Quebec, Boston, 
etc.; 1880, prof, in Coll. of Music, 
Cincinnati ; 1883 organist Brooklyn, 
later N. Y. ; composer. 

Cartier (kart-ya), J. Bap., Avignon, 
1765 Paris, 1841; violinist and dram, 

Carulli (ka-rool'-le), (i) Fdo., Naples, 
I770~-Paris, 1841 ; self-taught gui- 
tar-virtuoso and teacher; c. 400 
concertos, (2) Gustavo, Leghorn, 
1880 Boulogne, 1877; son of above; 
teacher and dram, composer. 

Caruso (ka-roo'-zo), Luigi, Naples, 
1754 Perugia, 1821 ; conductor ; c. 
69 operas. 

Carvalho (kar-val'-o) (rightly Car- 
vaille), (i) Le"on, in a French colony, 
1825 Paris, 1897 ; from 1875 dir. 
Op. Com. (2) Carvalho-Miolan 
(me-6-lan), Caroline M.-Fe*lix, 
Marseilles, 1827 Puys, near Dieppe, 
1895 ; soprano ; wife of above ; de- 
but 1849. 

Ca'ry, Annie Louise, b. Wayne (Ken- 
nebec County, Me.), Oct. 22, 1842 ; 
distinguished operatic and concert 
contralto ; studied in Boston and 
Milan, and with Viardot-Garcia, etc.; 
debut 1868, at Hamburg ; later 
Stockholm, Copenhagen, Brussels, 
London, New York (1870), St. Pet- 
ersburg (1875) ; l882 m ' C. M. Ray- 
mond, Cincinnati. 

Casali (ka-sa'-le), Giov. Bat., d. 1792; 
conductor and dram, composer. 

Casamorata (ka-sa-mo-ra-ta), Luigi 
Fdo., Wiirzburg, 1807 Florence, 
1881 ; editor, writer, and compos- 

Casarini (or -a) (ka-sa-re'-ne), Italian 
soprano in Handel's operas, London, 

Casel'la, P., Pieve (Umbria), 1769 
Naples, 1843 ; dram, composer. 

Caser'ta, Philippe de, Neapolitan 
theorist, isth century. 



Casini (ka-se -ne), G. Iff., b. 1675 (?) ; 
Florentine priest ; he tried to revive 
Greek modes. 

Cassell, Guillaume, Lyons, 1794 
Brussels, 1836 ; singer and teacher. 

Cassiodo'rus Magnus Aurelius, b. 
Syllaceum (Lucania), ca. 470 ; writer. 

Castel (kas-tel), Louis Bertrand, 
Montpellier, 1688 Paris, 1757 J a 
Jesuit writer who attempted without 
success to construct a "Clavecin 
oculaire," to prod, colour harmonies. 

Castellan (kas-tel-lan), Jeanne A., b. 
Beaujeu, Oct. 26, 1819; retired, 
1859 J singer. 

Castel'li, (i) Ignaz Fz., Vienna, 1781 
1862; editor. (2) , so- 
prano in London, 1825-28. 

Castelmary (kas-te'l-ma-re) (stage 
name of Comte Armand de Cas- 
tan), Toulouse, Aug. 16, 1834 
New York, Feb. 9, 1897 ; barytone ; 
died on the stage of the Met. Op., 
N. Y., just after the first act of 

Cas'tro, Jean de, played Lyons, 1570; 
composer and lutist, 

Castil-Blaze. Vide BLAZE, F. H. j. 

Castrucci (kas-troot'-che), P., Rome, 
1689 London, 1769 ; violinist ; lead- 
er of Handel's opera-orch. ; inv. and 
played the violetta marina. His 
bro. (2) Prospero (d. London, 1769); 
violinist and composer. 

Catalan* (kat-a-la'-ne), Angelica, 
Sinigaglia, Oct., 1779 Paris, June 
12, 1849 ; famous operatic soprano of 
great beauty ; her voice was notably 
flexible and reached to g'" (v. CHART 
OF PITCH) ; in 1806, at London, she 
earned over ^"16,000 ($80,000) in one 
year; 1814-17, she took up manage- 
ment of the Th. Italien, Paris, without 
succ. After final appearance, York 
festival, in 1828, she retired to her 
country-seat, near Florence. 

Catalim (ka-ta-le'-ne), Alfredo, Luc- 
ca, July 19, 1854 Milan, Aug. 7, 
1893 ; pupil of his father a musician 
at Milan ; gained admission without 
exam, to Paris Cons. ; 1886 prof, of 
comp., Milan Cons. ; c. 6 operas, of 

which the most succ. were, " Deja- 
nire" " Loreley" and "La Wally" 

Catel (ka-tel), Chas. Simon, L'Aigle, 
Orne, 1773 Paris, 1830; dram, 
composer and writer. 

Catelani (kat-a-la'-ne), Angelo, Guas- 
talla, iSir S. Martino di Mugnano, 
1866 ; dram, composer and writer. 

Catenhausen (ka'-ten-how'-zgn), 
Ernst, b. Ratzeburg, 1841 ; conduc- 
tor and composer. 

Cat'ley, Anne, London, 17451789; 
soprano, debut, 1762 ; m. Gen. Las- 

Catrufo (ka-troo'-fo), Giu., Naples, 
1771 London, 1851 ; dram, com- 

Caurroy (kdr-wa), Fran. Eustache 
du, sieur de St.-Fremin, Gerberoy, 
1549 Paris, 1609 ; singer and con- 

Caus'ton, Thos., d. Oct. 28, 1569 ; of 
the Chapel Royal ; English com- 

Cavaccio (ka-vat'-cho), Giovanni, 
Bergamo, ca. 1556 Rome, 1626; 

Cavaill6-Coll. (kl-vl'-ya-kol') (Dom 
Hyacinthe), Aristide, Montpellier, 
1811 Paris, 1899; son of famous 
org. -builder ; 177: 1862, org.-build- 
er and inv. of separate wind-chests 
with different pressures, etc. 

Cavalieri(delka-val-ya-re), (i) Emilio 
del, Rome, ca. 1550 Florence (?), 
1599 (?) ; " Inspector-Gen, of Art and 
Artists" to the Tuscan court; ad- 
vocated non-polyphonic music ; his 
" Rappre sentazione di Anima e di 
Corpo " (Rome, iCop) is the first ora- 
torio. (2) Katherina, Vienna, 1761 
iSoi ; singer, whom Mozart wrote 
for and praised. (3) Lina, b. Rome, 
Dec. 24, 1874, daughter of a laun- 
dress ; won notoriety as beauty and 
singer in cafes chantants ; then 
studied with Mme. Mariani-Marsi ; 
succ. debut in " Pagliacci" Lisbon, 
1900; sang Naples, Warsaw, and 
1902, engaged at Dal Verme Th., 

Caval'li, Fran., Crema, ca. 1600 


Venice, Jan. 14, 1676 (rightly Pier 
Francesco, Caletti-Bruni), son of 
Giambatt. Caletti, called Bruni, 
Maestro at Crema. A Venetian 
nobleman, Federigo Cavalli, had him 
taught and he took his name. He sang 
at S. Marco, 1665 ; first organist 
there; 1668, conductor; he was a pu- 
pil of Monteverde and developed M.'s 
principles, composing 41 operas, the 
most succ. being " Giasone" (Venice, 
1649); " Serse" (1654); " Ercok 
Amante" (Paris, 1662) ; he c. also a 
notable requiem, and other church- 

Cavallini (le'-ne), Ernesto, Milan, 1807 
1873 ; clarinettist and composer. 

Caval'lo, Peter, Munich, 1819 Paris, 
1892 ; organist. 

Cav'endish, Michael, English com- 
poser, 1599. 

Cavos (ka'-vos), Catterino, Venice, 
1775 St. Petersburg, 1840; 1799, 
court-conductor; c. 13 Russian operas; 
also others. 

Caylus (ke'-lus), Anne Claude Phi- 
lippe de Tubieres, comte de, Paris, 
1692 1765 ; writer. 

Cazzati (kad-za'-te), Maurizio, Man- 
tua, 1625 1677 ; composer and con- 

Cecil'ia (Saint), d. Rome, A.D. 230, in 
Christian martyrdom ; her feast-day 
is Nov. 22d ; legendary inventor of the 
organ, and patron saint of Christian 

Celestino (cha-le's-te'-no), Eligio, 
Rome, 1739 Ludwigslust, 1812 ; 
violinist and conductor. 

Celler, Ludovic. Vide LECLERQ. 

Cellier (seT-yer), Alfred, Hackney, 
London, Dec. I, 1844 Dec. 28, 
1891 ; conductor in London, etc. ; c. 
15 operettas, incl. the very succ. 
"Dorothy" (1886); " The Mounte- 

v banks" (London, 1892), etc. 

Cernohorsky (or Czernohorsky), 
(cher-no-hor'-shkt), Bohuslav, Nim- 
burg, Bohemia, I7th cent. Italy, 
1740 ; a Minorite monk ; conductor ; 
his comps. are still sung in Bohemian 

Cerone (cha-ro'-ne 1 ), Dom. P., b. Ber- 
gamo, ca. 1566 ; theorist. 

Cerreto (cher-ra -to), Scipione, Na- 
ples, 155 1 ca. 1632 ; lutist and the- 

Certon (seVton), P., i6th cent., con- 
trapuntist; choirm. Sainte Chapelle, 

Cerii (cha-roo'), Dom. Ag,, b. Lucca, 

Aug. 28, 1817 ; engineer and writer. 

Cenreny (char'-va-ne), V. F. (Wen- 
zel Fz.), Dubec, Bohemia, 1819 
Koniggratz, Jan. 19, 1896; maker 
and improver of brass instrs. and inv. 
of the important "roller" cylinder 
mechanism, also of the contrabass 
(1845), metal contrafagotto ('56), alt- 
horn obbligato ('59), primhora ('73), 
and the complete waldhorn quartet 
(primhorn, Ett alto, waldhorn in F, 
tenor in Bk, basso, n in Dt), sub- 
contrabass and subcontrafagotto ; im- 
proved the family of cornets, the eu- 
phonion, the screwdrum, and the 
church-kettledrum, etc. 

Cervera (ther-va'-ra), Fran., b. Val- 
encia, i6th cent. ; theorist. 

Cervetti. Vide GELINEK. 

Cervetto (cher-vet'-to), (i) Giacomo 
(rightly Bassevi), Italy, ca. 1682 
London, Jan. 14, 1783 ; 'cellist. (2) 
Giacomo, d. Feb. 5, 1837 ; son of 
above ; 'cellist and composer. 

Cesbron (se"-bron), Suzanne Cathe- 
rine, b. Paris, May 29, 1879, soprano; 
pupil of the Cons., taking prizes 1899, 
1900, 1901 ; debut, 1901, Opera Co- 
mique as Griseldis in Massenet's op- 

Cesi (cha'-ze), Beniamino, b. Naples, 
Nov. 6, 1845 ; pupil of Naples Cons, 
under Mercadante and Pappalardo, 
pf.-pupil of Thalberg ; since, 1866, 
prof. Naples Cons. ; c. an opera, 
" Vittor Pisani" (not prod.), etc. 

Cesti (chas'-te), Marc A., Arezzo, 
1620 Venice, 1669 ; Franciscan 
monk; conductor and tenor singer; 
first opera, " Orontea" succ. at Ven- 
ice, 1649 1 wrote I0 other P eras 
mainly succ.; all lost now except "La 
Dori " (Venice, 1663) ; his cantatas 


are better preserved ; he wrote them 
for the stage. 

Cevallos (the-v&l'-los), Fran., i535~ 
itfz ; Spanish composer. 

Chabrier (shab-rf-a), Alexis Emm., 
Auvergne, Jan. 18, 1842 Paris, Sept. 
13, 1894 ; studied law in Paris, then 
music ; 1881, choirm. under Lamou- 
reux ; c. operettas, a rhapsodic " Es- 
pafia" fororch., etc. 

Chad'wick, G, Whitfield, b. Lowell, 
Mass., Nov. 13, 1854 ; studied organ, 
etc., under Eugene Thayer at Boston; 
1876 head of mus. dept. of Olivet 
Coll., Mich.; 1877-78 studied Leipzig 
Cons. (Reinecke, Jadassohn), his 
graduation piece being an overture to 
"Rip Van Winkle ;" studied at 
Munich with Rheinberger ; 1880, or- 
ganist Boston and teacher of harm., 
comp. and instrumentation at the N. 
E. Cons., of which he is dir. ; cond. 
the Worcester Mus. Festivals, re- 
signed, 1902 ; c. 3 symphonies ; 4 
overtures, "Rip Van Winkle" ('79), 
" Thalia " ('83), " Melpomene" ('fy), 
" The Miller's Daughter" ('88); 3 
symphonic sketches for orch. ; comic 
opera "Tabasco" (New York, '94); 
many choral works ; " The Colum- 
bian Ode" (Chicago, '93), etc.; wrote 
a text-book on " Harmony" (Boston, 

Challier (shal'-W-gr), Ernst, b. Berlin. 
July 9, 1843; music-publisher, Berlin. 

Cham'berlain, Houston Stewart, b. 
Portsmouth, England, Sept. 9, 1855 ! 
son of a British Admiral, took doc- 
tor's degree in Germany, and lived at 
Vienna because of his health ; pub. 
famous book " Richard Wagner " 
(Leipzig, 1892), followed by others. 

Chambonnieres (shan-bun-y&r), 
Jacques Champion (called " Cham- 
pion de Chamb."), d. ca. 1670 ; first 
chamber cembalist to Louis XIV. 

Chaminade (sham'-USd'), Ce"cfle 
(Louise Stephanie), b. Paris, Aug. 
8, 1861; pianist and composer of 
unusual spirit and originality ; pupil 
of Lecouppey, Savard, Marsick and 
Godard ; she lives in Paris ; c. the 

succ. ' ' baUet-symphonie" ' ' Callirhoe " 
(Marseilles, 1888) ; the " symphonic 
lyrique" "Let Aniazones " (Anvers, 
1888) ; 2 suites for orch. ; " Concert- 
stuck " for pf . with orch. and many 
pop. songs and pf. -pieces; opera in 
MS., book by A. Silvester. 

Champein (shan-pah), Stanislas, 
Marseilles, 1753 Paris, 1830 ; dram, 

Champion (shaap.yon), Jacques. 


Champ'ington, J., English organ- 
builder; 1597. 

Channay (shan-ne), Jean de, i6th 
cent, music-printer, Avignon. 

Chanot (sha-no), Fran., Mirecourt, 
1787 -Brest, 1823 ; retired as a naval 
engineer; designed a violin which 
the Academy pronounced equal to 
Stradivari's ; his bro. , a Paris luth- 
ier, manufactured it, but found it im- 

Chap'man, Wm. Rogers, b. Hano- 
ver, Mass., Aug. 4, 1855; lives in 
New York as chorus-leader, conduc- 
tor and composer. 

Chap' pel & Co,, music-publishers, 
London; founded 1812 by (i) Sam- 
uel C., the pianist, Cramer, and F. 
T. Latour (18091888). (2) Wm. 
C. became the head of the firm ; in 
1840 he founded the " Antiquarian 
Society," and pub. colls, of Old Engl. 
music. His brothers, (3) Thomas, 
founded, and (4) Arthur, conducted, 
the Monday and Saturday Pop. Con- 

Chap' pie, Samuel, Crediton (Devon), 
1775 Ashburton, 1833 ; organist and 
pianist, blind from infancy ; compos- 

Chapuis (shap-we), Aug. Paul J. 
Bap., b. Dampierre - sur - Salon, 
France, April 20, 1862 ; pupil of 
Dubois, Massenet, and Cesar Franck, 
Paris Cons., took first prize in harm., 
ist prize for org., and the Rossini 
prize ; organist at Saint-Roch. ; from 
1894, prof, of harm, at the Cons. ; 
since 1895, inspector-gen, of music 
instruction in Paris schools ; c. un- 


succ. lyric drama, " Enguerrande" 
(Op. Com., 1892); lyric drama 
"Tanertd" (Op. Com., 1898?); an 
oratorio ; a pf. -suite " on the oriental 
scale " etc.; pub. a treatise on harm. 

Char (khar), Fr. Ernst (" Fritz "), b. 
Cleve-on-Rhein, May 5, 1865 ; pupil 
of C. Kistler, Wullner and Neitzel ; 
cond. opera at Zwichau, Stettin, and 
St. Gallen ; now at (Jim ; wrote book 
and music of succ. opera " Der 
Schelm von Bergen " (Zwickau, 1895); 
c cantata ' Spielmann," etc. 

Chard, G. W., ca. 1765 May 23, 
1849 ; English organist and compos- 

Charpentier (shar-paht-ya), (i) Marc 
A., Paris, 1634 March, 1702 ; con- 
ductor to the Dauphin ; c. 16 operas 
for the stage and many "tragedies 
spirituelles " for the Jesuits, masses, 
etc. (2) Gustave, b. Dieuze, Lor- 
raine, June 25, i860 ; pupil of Mas- 
sart, Pessard, and Massenet, Paris 
Cons. ; 1887, took grand prix de 
Rome; c. orch. suite "Impressions 
d* Italic n ; scene lyrique " Didon"; 
symphonic drama (or concert opera) 
''La Viedu Poete" (Grand Opera, 
1892), and "Italien" (Hamburg, 
1902) ; symph. poem " Napoli 
(189 1 ) ; book and music of succ. op- 
era Louise (Op. Com., 1900); alsoc. 
"Marie" " Orpke'e" and "Tub 
Rouge" unprod. ; and songs, " Les 
Fkurs du Mai" " Quinze poemes" 
some of them with chorus and orches- 

Chat'terton, J. B., Norwich, 1810 
London, 1871; court-harpist and com- 

Chaulieu (shol-yu), Chas., Paris, 
I7 8S London, 1849 ; pianist, teacher 
and composer. 

Chaumet (sho-ma), J. B. Wm., b. 
Bordeaux, April 26, 1842 ; won the 
Prix Cressent, with the comic opera 
"Bathyle" (prod. 1877), also the Prix 
Rossini ; c. comic operas ; lyric drama 
Mauprat (MS.), etc. . 

Chauvet (sho-va), Chas.- Alexis, 
Marnes, June 7, 1837 Argentan, 

Jan. 28, 1871; organist; c. noteworthy 
org. -music. 

Chavanne (sha-van'-ne'), Irene von, 

b. Gratz, ca. 1867 ; contralto ; pupil, 

Vienna Cons., 1882-85 ; since 1885 at 

the Dresden court-Opera. 

Cheese, G. J., organist, London, 

1771 ; writer. 

Chelard (sml-lar), Hippolyte Andre" 
J. Bap., Paris, Feb. i, 1789 Wei- 
mar, Feb. 12, 1861 ; 1815, prod, his 
first opera, "La Casa a Vender e" 
Naples ; entered the Paris Operatic 
orch. as violinist; in 1827 m>s P- 
era "Macbeth'" (text by Rouget de 
Lisle), was prod., but failed; he 
went to Munich, and 1828 prod, a 
revised version of "Macbeth" with 
such succ. that he was made court- 
conductor; he returned to Paris, 
1829, and failed with 3 other operas ; 
conducted the German Opera in Lon- 
don, which failed; returned to Mu- 
nich, and prod, his best work, "Die 
Hermannsschlacht" 1835 ; 1836, 
court-conductor at Weimar, where he 
prod. 2 comic operas. 
Chelleri (kel'-ig-re), Fortunate (right- 
ly Keller), Parma, 1686 Cassel, 
1757 ; court-conductor and dram, 

Ch6ri (sha-re), Victor (rightly Cizos), 
Auxerre, 1830 suicide, Paris, 1882 ; f 
cond. and dram, composer. 
Cherubim (ka-roo-be'-ne) (M.) Luigi 
(Carlo Zenobio Salvatore), Flor- 
ence, Sept, 14, 1760 Paris, March 
15, 1842 ; one of the greatest masters 
of counterpoint ; pupil of his father, 
(cembalist, at the Pergola Th.), then 
of B. and A. Felici, Bizarri and Cas- 
trucci ; 1779 sent (under patronage of 
the future Emperor Leopold III.) to 
Milan, to study cpt. with Sard ; at 13, 
had c. a mass and an intermezzo for a 
society theatre ; at 15, another inter- 
mezzo; 1780, " Quinto JFabfo " w&s 
prod, without succ. though with better 
results in a revised version (1783) J ne 
had succ. with 6 other operas, and 
was in 1784 invited to London, where 
he prod, an opera buffa, with some 


success, and another with none ; he 
was court composer for one year; 
1788 he prod. " Ifigenia in Aulid&" 
at Turin ; and then lived in Paris, 
where his French opera il Dtmophon " 
(Grand Opera, 1788) failed ; he then 
cond. at a small opera house, until 
1792. His opera " Lodoiska" 1791, 
showed a new style of emotional 
strength, powerful ensemble, and 
novel orchestral colour that founded 
a school of imitators. 7 other op- 
eras and a ballet followed, incl. his 
masterpiece (1800), " Les deux jour- 
ntes" (in Germany called " Der 
Wassertrager" ; in England, "The 
Water-carrier"). 1795 he had been 
made one of the inspectors of the new 
Cons., Paris, but was not liked by 
Napoleon, whose musical opinion he 
had not flattered. On invitation he 
wrote for Vienna " Faniska" a great 
succ. (1806) ; an invitation to write 
a mass for the Prince of Chimay, re- 
sulted in the famous 3-part mass in 
F. He wrote 4 more operas, but 
found church-music more satisfactory. 
1815, visited London ; wrote a sym- 
phony, an overture, and a Hymn to 
Spring, for the Philh. Soc. After 
many vicissitudes he became in 1816 
prof, of corap. at the Cons. , Paris, 
and 1821-41 dir. His enormous list 
of works includes 15 Italian and 14 
French operas, 17 cantatas, n sol- 
emn masses, 2 requiems, i oratorio ; 
i symphony, r overture ; 6 string 
quartets ; 6 pf.-sonatas, and a mass 
of smaller works, mus. for pf . , etc. 
The best biog. is by Bellasis (Lon- 
don, 1874). 

Chevg (shfl-va), Emile Jos. Maurice, 
Douarnenez, Finistere, 18041864 ; 
a physician ; wrote pamphlets attack- 
ing the methods at the Paris Cons. His 
wife (ne'e Manine, Paris) collaborat- 
ed with him. 

Chevillard (shtt-ve-y^r), Camille, b. 
Paris, Oct., 1859; Pupil of G. Ma- 
thias ; took 2d pf. prize at Cons.; till 
1897, asst.-cond. of the Lamoureux 
Concerts ; then cond. ; c. a symph. 

ballade, " Le chtne et k roseau " y a 
symph. poem, a symph. fantasie, etc. 

Chiabran (sha-bra'h) (or Chabran or 
Chiabrano), Fran., b. Piedmont, 
ca. 1723 ; violinist and composer. 

Chiaromonte (ke-ar-6-mon -t), b. 
Castrogfovanni, Sicily, 1809 Brus- 
sels, 1886 ; tenor ; prof, of singing 
and dram, composer. 

Chic (shek), Leon, b. April 28, 1819 ; 
son and pupil of army musician, di- 
rector of marine and military bands ; 
c. various pieces. 

Chick'ering & Sons, American firm of 
pf. -makers, est. 1823, by (i) Jonas 
Chickering (New Ipswich, N. H,, 
1798 Boston, 1853); his son (2) 
Col. Thos. E. C. (Boston, 1824 
1871), was named Chev. of the Le- 
gion of Honour, and took first pf.- 
prize at the Paris Exposition, 1867 ; 
he was in turn succeeded by his sons, 
the present firm. 

Chilcot (chtl'-kot), Thos., organist, 
Bath, 1733, till end of century. 

Child, Wm., Bristol, 1606 Windsor, 
1697 ; organist. 

Chilesotti (ke-la-sot'-te), Oscare, b. 
Bassano, Italy, July 12, 1848 ; law 
graduate Padua Univ. ; flutist and 
'cellist ; self-taught in harm.; lives in 
Milan; wrote important historical 

Chimenti (ke-men'-le), Margarita 
(called la Dragherina), sang in 
London, 1737. 

Chipp, Edm. Thos. (Mus. Doc.), 
London, 1823 Nice, 1886 ; organist. 

Chladni (khlat'-ne), Ernst Florens 
Fr., Wittenberg, Nov. 30, 1756 
Breslau, April 3, 1827 ; prof, of law 
and investigator in physics and acous- 
tics; discovered the sound-figures 
which sand assumes on a vibrating 
plate, and which bear his name ; inv. 
the euphonium and clavicylinder (v. 

Chollct (shoUa), J. B. M., b. Paris, 

; violinist " " 
_ opera. 

and singer in 

May, 1798 ; 

Chopin (sho-pan) (Fran$ois) 
ric, Zelazowa Wola (Jeliasovaya Vo 


lia), near Warsaw, March i, 1809 
(Natalie Janotha declares it to be 
Feb. 22, 1 8 10) Paris, Oct. 17, 1849; 
eminent composer for the piano ; son 
of Nicholas C. (a native of Nancy, 
France, who was at first bookkeeper 
in a cigar factory, then teacher in the 
Warsaw Gymnasium), and a Polish 
woman (ne'e Justine Kryzanowska). 
C.studied at his father's private school, 
among young Polish noblemen ; Al- 
bert Zwyny taught him pf. and Jo- 
seph Eisner, harm., etc. At 9 he 
played in public a pf.-concerto and 
improvisations; c. polonaises, ma- 
zurkas, and waltzes ; in 1825, pub. 
as op. i a rondo ; op. 2 a fantasie 
with orch. He played in German 
cities and had at 19 an individual 
style of comp., having written his 2 
pf.-concertos, mazurkas, nocturnes, 
rondos, etc. He started for London, 
and played in Vienna, 1829, with such 
success that a critic called him " one 
of the most remarkable meteors blaz- 
ing on the musical horizon " : and at 
Paris he had such succ. in his first 
concert, 1831, that he settled there 
for life as a teacher of the pf. and 
occasional giver of concerts. His 
pupils were of the most aristocratic, 
and his friends included Liszt, Ber- 
lioz, Meyerbeer, Bellini, Balzac, and 
Heine. Schumann with typical spon- 
taneity (cf. BRAHMS) was moved in 
1831 by Chopin's op. 2, to say," Hats 
off, gentlemen : a genius " ; and in 
1839, in reviewing certain of his prel- 
udes, mazurkas, and valses, to say 
11 He is and remains the keenest and 
staunchest poet-soul of the time." 
C.'s liaison with Mme. Dudevant 
(" George Sand "), begun in 1836 and 
ended in 1844, has caused endless 
controversy. In 1838 an attack of 

bronchitis drove him to Majorca, 
where she seems to have been a de- 
voted nurse, but the peevishness and 
weakness due to his developing con- 
sumption caused bitter quarrels, and 
she is believed to have caricatured 
him as Prince Karol in her novel 
1 ' Lucrezia Floriani. " Concert tours 
and social life in England and Scot- 
land in 1841 - 49 destroyed his 
strength. A collection of his letters 
was pub. (Dresden, 1877). His many 
biographers include Liszt, M. Kara- 
sowski (Dresden, 1877), M. A. Aud- 
ley, Fr. Niecks (Leipzig, 1889). The 
latest, in many ways the best balanced, 
estimate of C. and his works, is 
James Huneker's " Chopin " (New 
York, 1900). His comps. include 
beside those mentioned (74, with opus- 
number 12 lacking) : "Don Giovan- 
ni" fantasia, op. 2; " Krakoviak" 
rondo, op. 14 ; ffl Polonaise, op. 22 ; 
and a fantasia on Polish airs for pf . 
with orch ; duo concertant on themes 
from u Robert le Diable "; an introd. 
et Polonaise, op. 3, and a sonata, op. 
65 for pf. and 'cello ; pf. trio, op. 8 ; 
and a rondo for 2 pfs. op. 73. FOR 
PF. SOLO: Allegro de concert; 4 
ballades ; barcarolle, op. 60 ; ber- 
ceuse, op. 57 ; bolero, op. 19 ; 3 e'cos- 
saises, op. 72 ; 12 grandes etudes, op. 
10 ; 12 etudes, op. 25 ; 3 etudes ; 4 
fantasies ; 3 impromptus ; marche 
funebre, op. 72 ; 52 mazurkas. 
" Morceau de concert sur la Marche 
des Puritains de Bellini " ; 1C; noc- 
turnes, ii polonaises; 24 preludes, 
op. 28 ; prelude, op. 45 ; 3 rondos ; 
4 scherzos; 3 sonatas; tarantelle, 
op. 43 ; 13 valses ; variations on "Je 
vends des scapulaires" op. 12 ; 
44 Variation dans THexame'ron" ; 16 
Polish songs op. 74. 



Frederic Francois Chopin. 


HOPIN'S home education doubtless preserved in him a certain femi- 
nine delicacy which never deserted him. *[[ At the age of nine 
_ he played a Gyrowetz concerto in public and improvised, but 
seemed more solicitous about the impression his new collar made on the 
audience, than for the success of his music. ^|As a composer of nineteen he 
was remarkable and far in advance of his critics and audiences. The dis- 
turbed political atmosphere of Poland coupled with an unsuccessful love 

affair he vainly adored the singer Constantia Gladowska decided him on a 

residence in Vienna. There his playing did not create any enthusiasm, and 
in the fall of the year he went to Stuttgart en route for Paris. It was in the 
German city that he heard of the downfall of Warsaw and of his patriotic 
hopes ; for Chopin was a fierce patriot, but because of his slender physique, a 
non-combatant. He journeyed at once to Paris and settled there, ^j" His 
intimacy with the famous novelist George Sand lasted ten years, and her 
influence, hurtful according to some, and valuable according to others, was 
most potent and enduring. His sensitive nature was subject to many rude 
shocks during his companionship with the coarser-fibred and more intellectual 
woman. Yet it cannot be denied that from his most ardent pangs, he, 
artist-like, contrived to wring some of his sweetest and most subtle music. 
The shock of the separation, a separation that was inevitable, shattered 
Chopin's bruised spirit, and two years later he died, if not of a broken heart, 
partially of disappointment, chagrin, and spleen. His lungs, always weak, 
became hopelessly diseased, and after a profitless tour in England and Scotland, 
where he was really too weak to play, he died of consumption and was 
buried in Pere-Lachaise, near the graves of Cherubim and Bellini. His 
funeral, an imposing one, called out the representative artistic spirits of the 
city. Seldom has genius been so accompanied to its last resting-place. 
^[ During his lifetime Chopin was the centre of a circle of wit, talent, and 
fashion. Balzac, Delacroix, Liszt, Meyerbeer, Heine, Bellini, Berlioz, 
Mendelssohn, were a few among his intimate associates. His spiritual and 
original piano-playing admitted him into the inner circle of aristocracy, and 
he was sought for persistently until his life was sapped by sorrow and constant 
social duties, ^f Chopin played but seldom in public, for he was unfitted by 
nature to cope with the audiences of the larger concert halls. That task he 
gratefully resigned to Liszt. But in the twilight of the salon among the 
favoured choice souls, his playing took on almost unearthly qualities. His 
touch, light in weight, was exquisite in timbre; his tone ranged from forte to 
a feathery pianissimo, while his style was absolutely unique. Tender, martial, 


ironical, capricious, gay, and sad, this young Pole held in bondage the entire 
emotional gamut. Never had the piano sounded so before, sounded so 
aerial, so witty, so passionate ; and it may be doubted if it has sounded thus 
since ; for, while Liszt, Rubinstein, Tausig, Joseffy, Heyman, DePachmann, 
EssipofF, Rosenthal, and Paderewski were, and are, remarkable interpreters, 
yet those who heard Chopin the pianist despair in their efforts to describe his 
spiritual performances. His light, finely articulated hand explains some of 
the characteristics of his technics ; the wide-spread harmonies, the changeful 
play of inner voices ; the novel figuration ; and the lovely melodic life. 
^f Chopin is the poet of his instrument, the musical poet of Poland. He 
caught up and treasured the folk-songs of his country, and gave them to the 
world in an idealised form. His mazurkas are tiny poems full of caprice, 
wounded pride, ecstatic moments ; his four ballads are epical in scope, con- 
taining noble melodies, the form absolutely original ; the four scherzos are 
evidences of Chopin' s creative powers, for here the form is again novel ; the 
content startling. Bitterness, frantic and cruel, followed by rapturous out- 
bursts of melody arouse in the listener the most vivid emotions. It is Chopin 
at the apex of his power. The polonaises are passionate and patriotic, or 
else fantastic and graceful, but always wonder-breeding. His waltzes are for 
the salon, and for the soul like the mazurkas. Of the three sonatas, the 
one in B flat minor is the most satisfactory. Without organic unity it never- 
theless astonishes by its originality and depth. Its slow movement is the 
funeral march, now a banal concert number. In his four Impromptus Chopin 
is full of charm, while in the Barcarolle and in the Fantaisie, Opus 4$ he 
almost achieves perfection. The nocturnes and Cradle Song, now for the 
most part war-worn from repetition, contain much beautiful music. The 
Studies, opus 10 and 25 with the Preludes, opus 28 are Chopin in all his 
dazzling invention, his never-failing fancy, poetry, daring harmonic innova- 
tions and moving melodic richness. [[He changed the modern map of 
music by his subtle and profound experimentings with the possibilities of 
chromatic harmonies, and for this ranks among the great composers. Within 
his range he is the most perfect lyrist that ever sang, and the ethereal sono- 
rities of his style, his discreet and original use of the tempo rtibato, make him 
a forerunner of all that is free, individual and exotic in latter-day music. 
^[Chopin was not happiest in writing for ochestra or for piano in conjunction 
with violin or violoncello. His two concertos contain charming episodes, but 
do not cohere, do not make the eloquent appeal of the smallest of his 
mazurkas. He was not fashioned for the epic, this master of intimate moods. 
He wrote variations, fantasies, a 'cello-sonata, a piano-trio and bolero, a tar- 
antelle and songs. <J]~We have forgotten them ; but never so long as the piano 
remains the piano, will Chopin be forgotten. H[e is, as Rubinstein said, its 


Chor'ley, H. Fothergill, Blackley 
Hurst, Lancashire, 1808 London, 
1872 ; critic and widely travelled 
writer, r 

Choron (sho-ron), Alex. Et., Caen, 
Oct. 21, 1772 Paris, June 29, 1834 ; 
an ardent student of musical theory 
and practice, historian and benefactor 
who devoted his fortune to the ad- 
vance of the art. 

Choudens (shoo-dans). A,, b. Paris, 
1849 ; son of a music publisher ; c. 
2 operas, " Grasiella" (Paris, 1877) ; 
and " La Jeunesse de Don Juan" 

Chouquet (shoo-ka), Ad. Gv., Havre, 
1819 Paris, 1886; teacher and writer 
of historical works. 

Christian! (kres-ti-a-ne), (i) Ad. Fr., 
Cassel, 1836 Elizabeth, N. J., 1885 ; 
pianist and writer; lived in Lon- 
don, then America. (2) Elise, Paris, 
1827 Tobolsk, 1853 ; remarkable 
'cellist ; debut, Paris, 1845. 

Christ'mann, (i) Jn. Fr., Ludwigs- 
burg, Wurtemberg, 1752 Heuting- 
sheim, 1817; composer and writer. 
(2) Fz. X., Austrian organ-builder, 
d. Rottenmann, Styria, 1875. 

Chrysander (kre'-zant-Sr), Fr., Ltib- 
theen, Mecklenburg, July 8, 1826 
1902 ; editor and writer of the stand- 
ard biography of Handel, etc. 

Chrysan'thos of Madyton ; writer 
1 9th century ; teacher of church sing- 
ing, Constantinople, later Archbishop 
of Durazzo in Albania. 

Church, J., Windsor, 1675 Jan. 5, 
1741 ; composer. 

Chwatal (khwa-tal), (i) Fz. Xaver, 
Rumburg, Bohemia, 1808 Elmen 
(Soolbad), 1879; teacher and com- 
poser. (2) Jos., b. Rumburg, Jan. 
12, 1811, bro. of above; org.-builder 
in Merseburg; inv. minor improve- 

Ciaja (cha'-ya), Azzolino Bdo. della, 
b. Siena, 1671 ; organist, amateur 
org.-builder, and composer. 

Ciampi (cham'-pe), Legrenzio V., 
b. Piacenza, 1719; dram, composer. 

Cianchettini (chan-ket-te'-ne), (i) Ver- 

onica (ne'e Dussek), Czaslau, Bohe- 
mia, 1779 ; composer and teacher. 
(2) Pio, London, 1799 1849 ; son of 
above ; composer and pianist ; first 
appearance at 5 years; at 10 per- 
formed an original concerto in public. 

Cibber (slb'-bSr), Susanna M. (ne'e 
Arne), 17141766; great English 
actress and notable singer, sister of 
Dr. Arne. 

Cieutat (s'yu-ta), H. Maurice, b, 
Paris, July 15, 1861 ; pupil of S. 
Rousseau ; c. vaudevilles and com. 
ops. from 1885. 

Cifra (che'-fra), A., Rome, ca. 1575 
Loreto, ca. 1636 ; important com- 
poser of the Roman School ; pupil 
of Palestrina and B. Nanini ; court- 

Cimador (che'-ma-dor), Giambattis- 
ta, Venice, 1761 London, ca. 1808 ; 
violinist, 'cellist, pianist and com- 

Cimarosa (che-ma-ro'-sa), Domenico, 
Aversa, near Naples, Dec. 17, 1749 
Venice, Jan. n, 1801 ; the orphan of 
a poor mason ; studied at Minorite 
charity-school, his first teacher being 
Polcano, monastery organist ; when 12 
years old was given a scholarship in 
the Cons, di S. Maria di Loreto, 
where he studied singing with Manna 
and Sacchini, cpt. with Fenaroli, and 
comp. with Piccinni. 1770 his ora- 
torio "Giuditta " was prod, in Rome ; 
1772, his first opera, " Le Strava- 
ganze del Conte" at Naples, without 
succ., which was won, however, next 
year by "La Finta Parigina" Of 
phenomenal facility, he c. 76 operas in 
29 years. He lived alternately in 
Rome and Naples. 1781, he prod, 
two operas in Naples, one in Rome, 
and two in Turin ; invited 1789 to be 
court-composer at St. Petersburg 
(vice Paesiello), he spent 5 months of 
triumphal progress thither, being 
lionised at various courts ; he stayed 
there 3 years, prod. 3 operas and wrote 
500 pieces of music for the court; 
but he could not tolerate the climate, 
and was reluctantly released, being 


engaged as cond. to Emperor Leo- 
pold at Vienna, with a salary of 12,- 
ooo florins. He prod. 3 operas incl. 
his masterpiece "// fifatrimonio Se- 
greto" (1787), which won an all- 
effacing success. 1793, he returned to 
Naples. 1799, he took part in the 
Neapolitan revolutionary demonstra- 
tion on the entrance of the French 
army, and was condemned to death 
by King Ferdinand, but banished in- 
stead ; he died suddenly at Venice. 
It being everywhere claimed that he 
had been poisoned by order of Queen 
Caroline of Naples, the Pope's phy- 
sician made an examination, and 
swore that he died of a gangrenous 
abdominal tumour. Particularly in 
comic, but at times also in serious 
opera, C. almost challenges compari- 
son with Mozart for fluency of melo- 
dy and orchestral richness. His best 
operas are "La Finta" (Naples, 1773), 
" L 'Italiana inLondra" (Rome, 1774), 
' '// Fanaticoper gli A ntichi Romani " 
(Naples, 1777), in which were intro- 
duced dramatically vocal-trios and 
quartets, "La Ballerina Amante" 
(Naples, 1782), "Le Tramt Deluxe" 
(Naples, 1786), " L Impresario in An- 
gustie" (Naples, 1786), " Giannina e 
-#&*" (Naples, 1788), "La Ver~ 
gine del Sole " (St. Petersburg, 1791), 
"// Matrimonio Segreto" (Vienna, 
1792), "Le Astuzie Femminik" (Na- 
ples, 1794). He also prod. 2 orato- 
rios, 7 symphonies, several cantatas ; 
masses, etc. 

Cipollini (che-p61-le'-ne), Gactano, b. 
Tropea, Italy, Feb. 8, 1857; pupil of 
Francesco Coppa ; now lives at Mi- 
lan as dram, composer. 

Cipollone (che-pol-lo-ne'), Alfonso, b. 
Fara S. Martino (Chieti), Nov. 25, 
1843; pupil of M. Rute; lives at 
Terano as teacher and composer. 

Ciprandi (che-pran'-de), Ercole, ca. 
1738 after 1790 ; tenor. 

Claassen (klSs'-sen), Arthur, b. Star- 
gard, Prussia, Feb. 19, 1859 ; grad- 
uated from Danzig Gym. ; 1875, 
studied under Mttller-Hartung, Gott- 

schalk and Sulze, Weimar Music 
School; 1880-84, cond. Gottingen 
and Magdeburg ; 1884, cond. "An- 
on " and other societies of Brooklyn, 
N. Y. ; est. the "Claassen Mus. 
Inst."; c. choruses, incl. "Der Kam- 
erad" (prize); and symph. poem 
41 ffohenfriedberg" &tc. 

Clag'get, Chas., London, 1755 
1820 ; violinist and inventor. 

Clapisson (kla-pls-s6n), Antoine L., 
Naples, 1808 Paris, 1866 ; violinist, 
professor and dram, composer. 

Clari (kla'-re), Giov. M., Pisa, 1669 
Pistoia, ca. 1745 ; conductor and 

Clar'ibel. Vide MRS. CHAS. BARNARD. 

Clark(e), (i) Jeremiah, London, 1670 
(?), ca. 1707 ; organist and dram, 
composer; a suicide for love. (2) 
Richard, Datchet (Bucks), 1780 
London, 1856 ; composer and writer. 

Clarke, (i) Jas. Peyton, Scotland, 
1808 Toronto, Canada, 1877; or- 
ganist and professor. (2) Hugh 
Archibald, b. near Toronto, Can- 
ada, Aug. 15, 1839 ; son and pupil of 
above ; organist in Philadelphia 
churches ; 1875, prof, of music in the 
Univ, of Pennsylv.; made Mus. Doc. 
(1886) by the Univ. when his music 
to Aristophanes' " Ackarnians" was 
prod. ; also c. an oratorio, "Jeru- 
salem" (Phila., 1891), etc. (3) 
J, (Whitfield-Clarke), Gloucester, 
England, 1770 Holmer, 1836 ; or- 
ganist, professor and editor. (4) 
James Hamilton Smee, b. Bir- 
mingham, England, Jan. 25, 1840; at 
12 organist; 1866 at Queen's College, 
Oxford; Mus. Bac., 1867; cond. 
various theatres; 1893, cond. Carl 
Rosa Opera Co. ; c. operettas, 2 sym- 
phonies, etc. (5) Wm. Horatio, b. 
Newton, Mass., March 8, 1840; 1878- 
87, organist at Tremont Temple, 
Boston, then retired to Reading, 
Mass,, where he has an estate and a 
chapel of music, Clarigold Hall, con- 
taining a large 4-manual organ with 
ioo stops ; wrote 15 instructive works 


" Outline of the Structure of the 
Pipe-Organ" (1877), etc. (6) Ma- 
ria Victoria (Cowden-Clarke). 

Clarus (kla-roos), Max., b. Mtthl- 
berg-on-Elbe, March 31, 1852 ; pu- 
pil of his father, the municipal mus. 
dir. there, and of Haupt, Schneider, 
and Loschorn, Berlin ; cond. in va- 
rious German, Austrian and Hunga- 
rian theatres ; 1890, mus. dir. Bruns- 
wick court; from 1884 cond. the 
4 'Orpheus, "and from 1890 the "Chor- 
gesangverein "; c. " Patriotic spectac- 
ular" opera, " Des Grossen Konigs 
Rekrut" (Brunswick, 1889); succ. 
romantic opera "Use" (Brunswick, 
1895) ; ballets, etc. 

Casing (kla -zing), Jn. H., Hamburg, 
1779 1829 ; teacher and dram, com- 

Claudin (klo-dan), (i). Vide SERMISY. 
(2) Le Jeune. Vide LEJEUNE. 

Claudius (klow'-dl-oos), Otto, Ka- 
menz, Saxony, 1793 Naumburg, 
1877 ; cantor and dram, composer. 

Claussen (klows'-sen), Wm,, Schwe- 
rin, 18431869; composer. 

Wilhelmine, Prague, 1834 Paris, 
1882; pianist. 

Clay, Fr. (of English parents), Paris, 
1840 Great Marlow, near London, 
1889 ; dram, composer. 

Cleaver, Mrs. Eleanor (ne'e Beebe), 
b. Detroit, Mich. ; alto ; sang two 
years as soprano in New York ; after 
short stage career, studied with Delle 
Sedie, and Bertin (acting), Paris; 
concert debut, London, 1900 ; has 
sung there frequently with much suc- 
cess ; 1902, sang in New York. 

Cleeman (kla-ma'n), Fr. Jos. Chp., 
Kriwitz, Mecklenburg, 1771 Par- 
chim, 1827 ; writer. 

Clegg, J., Ireland (probably), 1714 
Nisane, 1742 ; remarkable violinist 
and composer. 

Clem'ens, Jacob (called "CI. Non 
Papa" ) (i. e., " not the Pope" Clem- 
ent VII.) ; d. ca. 1557 (?) ; played 
several instrs. and composed. 

Clement (kla'-ment), Fz., Vienna, 
1784 1842 ; violinist and dram, com- 

Clement (kla-man), (i) Chas. Fran., 
b. in Provence, ca. 1720 ; lived in 
Paris as pf. -teacher, writer and dram, 
composer. (2) Felix, Paris, 1822 
1885 ; organist. 

Clementi (kla-mn'-te), Muzio, Rome, 
175 2 near Evesham, England, 
March 10, 1832 ; son of a goldsmith 
and musical amateur who had him 
taught by A. Buroni, then by the 
organist Condicelli. At 9 he was 
chosen as an organist in competition 
with older players ; until 14, studied 
under G. Carpani (comp.) and Sar- 
tartelli (voice); 1766, an Englishman 
named Beckford secured permission to 
educate him in England, and till 1770 
he lived and studied in Dorsetshire ; 
then made a sensation as pianist in 
London. 1773, pub. pf .-sonatas ded- 
icated to Haydn, and highly praised 
by Emmanuel Bach ; 1777^80, cem- 
balist at the Italian Opera ; 1781 
toured the continent, meeting Mozart 
in "friendly" rivalry, without victory 
for either; lived in London, 1782- 
1802 ; he amassed a fortune as a 
teacher, pianist and composer in spite 
of losses from the failure of Long- 
man and Broderip, instr.-makers ; he 
estab. a succ. piano-factory and pub. 
house (now Collard's). 1802, he 
made a brilliant tour with his pupil 
Field ; he taught other famous pupils, 
incl. Moscheles, Kalkbrenner, Meyer- 
beer. His comps. incl. symphonies 
and overtures; 106 pf.-sonatas (46, 
with vln., 'cello, or flute); fugues, 
preludes and exercises in canon form, 
toccatas, etc. His book of etudes, 
the " Gradus ad Parnassum" 1817, 
is a standard ; biog. by Giov. Frojo 
(Milan, 1878) ; O. Chilesotti (Milan, 
1882), and Clement (Paris, 1878). 

Clement y Cavedo (kla'-ment e ka- 
va'-dho), b. Gandia, Spain, Jan. i, 
1810 ; organist at Valencia ; 1840- 
52, at Gueret, France ; lived in Mad- 
rid as composer. 


Clarice (kla-res), Justin, b. Buenos 
Ayres, Oct. 16, 1863 ; 1882, pupil of 
Delibes and Pessard, Paris Cons. ; 
lives in Paris ; prod. 4 comic operas, 

Clicquot (kle-ko), Fran. H., Paris, 
1728 1791 ; organ-builder. 

Clifford, Rev. Jas., Oxford, 1622 
London, 1698 ; composer. 

Clifton, J. Chas., London, 1781 
Hammersmith, 1841 ; teacher, con- 
ductor and dram, composer ; inv. the 
Eidomusicon (v. D. D.). 

Clive, Catherine (ne'e Raftor) (called 
" Kitty Clive ") London, 1711 Dec. 
6, 1785 ; famous actress, also singer. 

Clu'er, J., d. London, 1729, English 
publisher, reputed inventor of engrav- 
ing on tin plates. 

Cobb, Gerard Francis, b. Nettle- 
stead, Kent, Oct. 15, 1838 ; Fellow 
Trinity Coll., Cambridge, 1863; 
studied music, Dresden; 1877-92, 
chairman Board of Music Studies, 
Cambridge ; c. Psalm 62, with orch., 

Cocchi (kok'-ke), Gioacchino, Padua, 
1720 Venice, 1804; dram, composer. 

Coccia (kot'-cha), Carlo, Naples, 
1782 Novara, 1873; cond. and dram, 

Coccius (kok'-tst-oos), Th., Knaut- 
hain, near Leipzig, 1824 Leipzig, 
1897 ; pf.-teacher. 

Coccon (kok-kon), Nicold, b. Venice, 
Aug. 10, 1826 ; pupil of E. Fabio ; 
1856 organist, 1873 conductor at San 
Marco ; c. over 450 numbers, an 
oratorio, " Saul" 8 requiem masses, 
30 "messe da gloria," 2 operas, 

Cochlaus(k6kh'-le-oos), Jns, (rightly 
Jns. Dobnek, pseud. "Wendel- 
stein "), 1479 Breslau, 1552 ; writer; 
opponent of Luther. 

Cocks, Robt., & Co., firm of London 
mus. publishers, founded, 1827, by 

(1) Robt. C., succeeded by his sons, 

(2) Arthur Lincoln C., and (3) 
Stroud Lincoln C., d. 1868; (4) 
Robt. Macfarlane C. is now in 

Coclico (ko'-kle-ko) (Co'clicus), Ad- 
rian Petit, b. in the Hennegau 
(Hainaut), ca. 1500 ; singer and com- 

Coenen (koo'-nen), (i) Jns. Meinar- 
dus, b. The Hague, Jan. 28, 1824 ; 
bassoonist, pupil of Liibeck Cons. 
1864, cond. at Amsterdam; later 
municipal mus. dir.; c. ballet-mus., 2 
symphonies, cantatas, etc. (2) Fz., 
b. Rotterdam, Dec. 26, 1826 ; violin- 
ist; pupil of Vieuxtemps and Molique; 
lived in Amsterdam, 1895, dir. of the 
Cons, and prof, of vln. and comp. ; 
eolo violinist to the Queen ; leader of 
a quartet ; and composer of a notable 
symphony, cantatas, etc. (3) Wil- 
lem, b. Rotterdam, Nov. 17, 1837 ; 
bro, of above; pianist, toured S. 
America, and W. Indies ; since 1862, 
concert-giver in London ; c. oratorio, 
11 Lazarus " (1878), etc. (4) Corne- 
lius, b. The Hague, 1838 ; violinist ; 
1859, cond, at Amsterdam; 1860 
bandm. Garde Nationale, Utrecht ; c. 
overtures, etc. 

Coerne (keY-ne'), Louis Adolphe, b, 
Newark, N. J., 1870; 1876-80 
studied at Stuttgart and Paris, then 
entered Harvard College and studied 
with Paine and Kneisel, Boston, U. 
S. A.; 1890 studied with Rheinberger 
and Hieber, Munich; 1893 organist 
at Boston, also at the Columbian 
Exposition ; 1893-96 dir. Liedertafel, 
Buffalo ; c. an opera " The Maid of 
Marblehead" symph. poem "Hia- 
watha" etc. 

Co'gan, Phillip, b. Cork, 1750; or- 
ganist, teacher and composer. 

Cohen (kow'-en or ko'-en), (i) H., 
Amsterdam, 1808 Brie-sur-Marne, 
1880; writer. (2) LSonce, b. Paris, 
Feb. 12, 1829; violinist and dram, 
composer ; pupil Leborne Cons.; 
1851 Gjand prk de Rome. (3) 
Jules Emile David, b. Marseilles, 
Nov. 2, 1835 ; pupil of Zimmerman, 
Marmontel, Benoist, and Hale'vy, 
Paris Cons. ; won first prize for pf., 
organ, cpt. and fugue ; 1870, teacher of 
ensemble singing at the Cons. ; since 


1877 Chef de Chant, and chorus- 
master Gr. Opera ; prod. 4 operas ; 
c. 3 cantatas, several symphonies, 
masses, oratorios, etc. (4) K. Hu- 
bert, b. Laurenzkirg (near Aix), Oct. 
18, 1851; a priest, studied at Aix 
and Raliston, 1879-87 cond. Barn- 
berg ; now at Cologne Cath. ; c. 
masses, etc. (5) Isidore, Vide 


Colasse (ko-l&s), Pascal, Rheims (or 
Paris), 1639 (?) Versailles, 1709; 
cond. and dram, composer. 

Col'bran, (i) Gianni, court-musician 
to King of Spain, iSth century. (2) 
Isabella A., Madrid, 1785 Bou- 
logne, 1845, daughter of above; singer 
and composer. 

Cole, Blanche, d. London, 1888, con- 
cert-singer ; 1868, m. Sidney Naylor. 

Co'leridge-Taylor, Samuel, b. Lon- 
don, Aug. 15, 1875 (of African de- 
scent ; his father a native of Sierra 
Leone, his mother, English) ; one of 
the leading living English composers; 
pupil (vln.) of the R. A. M., 1890; 
won composition-scholarship in 1893; 
until 1896 pupil of V. Stanford ; 1892 
pub. an anthem ; c. a nonet for pf. , 
strings, and wind (1894) ; a sympho- 
ny (1896) ; a quintet for clar. and 
strings (1897), a string-quartet, and a 
Morning and Evening Service ; pub. 
a ballade for viola andorch., operetta 
' ' Dream Lovers" 4 waltzes for orch. ; 
succ. cantata "Hiawatha" etc. 

Colin (ko-lan), P. Gilbert (Colinus, 
Colinaus, Chamault), singer and 
notable composer, Paris, 1532. 

Colins (ko-lans), Jean Bapt., b. 
Brussels, Nov. 25, 1834; pupil of 
Wery; from 1863 teacher at the Cons. , 
from 1888 also at Antwerp school of 

Col'la, cond. at Parma, 1780, when 
he m. Agujari, who preferred his 
compositions to all others. 

Collard (kol-lar'), a London family of 
pf. -makers, (i) Fr. W. Collard 
(17721860), in partnership with 
Clementi, bought out Longman & 
Broderip, 1798, then C, bought out 

Clementi; he inv. various devices; 
the firm name now Collard & Collard, 
(2) Chas. Lukey C. being the head. 

Collins, (i) Isaac, 1797 -London, 
1871 ; violinist, gave concerts with 
his 5 children, (2) Viotti (violin- 
ist) and (3) G. ('cellist, d. 1869) 
being the best known. 

Col'man, (i) Chas., d. in Fetter Lane, 
London, in 1664 ; teacher and com- 
poser. (2) Edward, d. Aug. 19, 
1669, son of above ; teacher, com- 
poser and singer. 

Colombani (ko-lom-ba'-ne), Orazio, 
monk, conductor, and cptist. at Vero- 
na, 1576-92. 

Colom bi, Vincenzo, Italian organ- 
builder, Rome, 1549. 

Colonna (ko-16n'-na), Giov. Paolo, 
Bologna (or Brescia), ca. 1640 Bo- 
logna, 1695 ; organist, conductor, 
and dram, composer. 

Colonne (ko-lfin'), Edouard (rightly 
Judas), b. Bordeaux, July 23, 1838 ; 
pupil of Girard and Sauzay (vln.), 
Elwart, and A. Thomas (comp.), 
Paris Cons. ; 1874, founded the fa- 
mous " Concerts duChatelet"; 1878, 
cond. official Exposition concerts ; 
1892 cond. at the Gr. Opera ; cond. 
often in London, and 1902, Vienna. 

Coltellini (le'-ne), C61este, b. Leg- 
horn, 1764 retired, 1795 ; celebrated 
mezzo-sopr. ; m. Melicofre. 

Combs, Gilbert Raynolds, b. Phila- 
delphia, Jan. 5, 1863, son and pupil 
of a pianist, organist and composer ; 
organist and conductor in Philadel- 
phia ; 1885 founded the Broad St. 
Cons, of Mus. 

Comes (ko'-mas), Juan Baptista, Va- 
lencia, ca. 1560 ; conductor and com- 

Comettant (kom-et-tan), (J. P.) Os- 
car, Bordeaux, Gironde, 1819 
Montvilliers, 1898 ; writer and com- 

Commer (kom'-mer), Fz., Cologne, 
1813 Berlin, 1887 ; editor and com- 

Compenius (kom-pa'-nt-oos), (i) H., 
b. Nordhausen, 1540 ; organ-builder, 


etc. His bro. (?), (2) Esajas, organ- 
builder, inv. the " Duiflbte" pipe. 

Compare (kon-par), Louis (diminutive, 
Loyset), Flanders, isth cent. St. 
Quentin, Aug. 16, 1518 ; famous con- 

Co'nacher & Co., organ-builders, 
Huddersfield, since 1854. 

Concone (kon-ko'-ne), Giu., Turin, ca. 
1810 June, 1861 ; organist, famous 
singing-teacher in Paris, 1832-48, 
later court-organist Turin; c. 2 operas 
and famous vocal exercises. 

Con'dell, H., d. June, 1824 ; English 
violinist and composer. 

Conforti (kon-for'-te), Giov., b. near 
Mileto, 1560; singer. 

Confrerie de St. Julien, a musical 
society, Paris, 1330-1761. 

Co'ninck, (i) Jacques Fe"lix de, Ant- 
werp, 1791 Schaerbeck-les-Brux- 
elles, 1866; conductor at Berlin, and 
composer. (2) Fran, de, b. Leb- 
beke, Belgium, Feb. 20, 1810; pian- 
ist ; pupil of Pixis and Kalkbrenner, 
Paris ; teacher and composer, at 
Brussels. (3) Jos. Bernard de, b. 
Ostend, March 10, 1827 ; dram, com- 
poser ; son of (i) ; pupil of de Leun, 
Antwerp, and Leborne, Paris Cons. ; 
lived in Paris. 

Conradi (kon-ra-de), (i) Jn. G., I7th 
cent. ; conductor ; one of the first 
composers of German opera, his 
works prod, at Hamburg. (2) Jo- 
han G., Norway, ca. 1820 Christi- 
ania, 1896 ; composer. (3) Aug., 
Berlin, 1821 1873 ; organist and 
dram, composer. (4) Jules, b. Liege, 
Jan. 27, 1834 ; pupil of Decharneux 
and of Daussoigne-Mehul at Liege 
Cons, (comp.) ; he won second grand 
prix de Rome at Brussels ; 1864, prof. 
of solfeggio at the Cons. ; c. 5 i-act 
comic operas, etc. 

Constantin (kon-stafi-tari), Titus 
Chas., b. Marseilles, Jan. 7, 1835 ; 
pupil of Thomas, Paris Cons., 1860; 
cond. of the " Fantasies Parisi- 
ennes"; 1875, Op. Com.; c. a 
comic - opera, " Dqns 1$ Forit" 
(1872), etc, 

Conti (kon'-te), (i) Fran. Bart., Flor- 
ence, 16811732; court -theorbist 
and dram, composer. (2) (" Conti- 
ni ") Ignazio, Florence, 1699 
Vienna, 1759 ; son an d successor of 
above; composer. (3) Gioacchino 
(named Gizziello, after his teacher 
Dom. Gizzi), Arpino, Naples, 1714 
Rome, 1761 ; famous male soprano ; 
1739, ' m London with Handel; re- 
tired to Arpino in 1753. (4) Carlo, 
Arpino,Naples, 1797 Naples, 1868 ; 
prof, and dram, composer. (5) Gia- 
cmto, Brescia, 1815 1895; violin- 
ist and composer ; son and pupil of 
(6) Defendente, theatre -dir. at 

Continuo (kon-te'-noo-6), Giov., d. 
Mantua, 1556 ; conductor and con- 

Con'verse, Chas. Crozat (pen-names, 
K. Redan, C. Nevers, etc.), b. 
Warren, Mass., Oct. 7, 1832; pupil 
of Richter, Plaidy, Leipzig Cons. ; 
lawyer, Erie, Pa. ; pub. Amer. Con- 
cert-overture, "Hail Columbia" for 
orch. (Paris, 1869) ; Fest-Ouvertun 
(1870) ; cantata (on the I26th Psalm) 
for soli, chorus and orch. (iSSS), 
"Jesus, lover of my soul" (very 
pop.) ; in MS. 2 symphonies, 2 ora- 
torios, etc. 

Cooke, (i) H., d. July 13, 1672 ; buried 
Westminster Abbey ; court-composer 
and teacher. (2) Nathaniel, b. 
Bosham, 1773 ; organist. (3) Benj., 
London, 1734 1793 ; conductor and 
composer. (4) Thos. Simpson, 
Dublin, 1782 London, 1848 ; con- 
ductor, later tenor, then prof, at the 
R. A. M. ; prod, nearly 20 operas at 
Drury Lane. (5) H. Angelo Mi- 
chael (called Grattan), son of above; 
oboist and bandmaster. 

Coorabe, Wm. Francis, b. Plymouth, 
1786 ; son of a singing teacher ; com- 

Coombs, (i) Jas. Morrison, Salis- 
bury, 17691820 ; organist and com- 
poser. (2) Chas. Whitney, b. 
Bucksport, Maine, Dec. 25, 1859; 
pupil of Speidel (pf.) and Max Sei- 


friz, Draeseke (comp.), Hermann 
John, P. Janssen, and Lamperti ; 
1887-91, organist Amer. Ch, in 
Dresden; returned as organist Church 
of the Holy Communion, New York, 
still there ; pub. " The Vision of St. 
John" cantata with orch. and org., 
songs, etc. 

Coo'per, (i) H. Christopher, Bath, 
Engl., 1819 Glasgow, iSSi, con- 
ductor. (2) G., Lambeth, London, 
1820 London, 1876; organist and 

Coote, Chas,, England, 1809 Lon- 
don, 1880 ; bandmaster, etc. 

Coperario (ko-pe'r-a-rf-o) (rightly J. 
Cooper), famous English lutenist 
and viola-da-gambist, i6th century. 

Cop'pola, (i) Giu., singer in London, 
1777. (2) P. A, (Pierantonio), 
Castrogiovanni, Sicily, 1793 Canta- 
nia, 1877 ; dram, composer and con- 

Coquard (ko-kSr), Arthur, b. Paris, 
1846 ; pupil of Cesar Franck ; mus. 
prof. Nat. Inst. of the Young Blind ; 
critic for " Le Monde" ; c. operas 
" LEpee du Koi" (Angers, 1884); 
" Le Mari d'un Jour" (Paris, 
1886) ; lyric dramas, "L'oiseau bleu" 
(Paris, 1894) ; " La Jacquerie" (Monte 
Carlo and Paris, 1895), etc. 

Corbet (k&r-ba), Francisque, Pavia, 
ca. 1630 Paris, 1700; guitar virtu- 
oso and composer. 

Cor'bett, Wm., 1669 (?) London 
(?), 1748 ; Engl. violinist and com- 

Cordans (kor-dans), Bart., Venice, 
1700 Udine,i757; Franciscan monk, 
then conductor and dram, composer. 

Cordel'la, Giacomo, Naples, 1786 
1846 ; dram, composer. 

Cor'der, Fr., b. Hackney, London, 
Jan. 26, 1852 ; pupil of R. A. M. ; 
1875, won the Mendelssohn Scholar- 
ship ; 1875-78, pupil of Ferd. Killer ; 
1880, cond. of Aquarium Concerts 
at Brighton where he lives as a transl. 
and critic, and composer of operas, 
cantatas, etc.; wrote " The Orchestra 
and how to write for it" etc. 

Cordier (kord-ya), Jacques, Lorraine, 
ca. 1580 Paris, ca. 1629; violin- 

Corel'li, Arcangelo, Fusignano, near 
Imola, Italy, Feb. i, 1653 Rome, 
Jan. 13, 1713 ; pupil of Bessani and 
Simonelli; toured Germany, then 
lived under patronage of Cardinal 
Ollobone ; one of the founders of 
vln.-style, systematiser of bowing and 
shifting, introducer of chord-playing ; 
a composer for the vln. whose works 
still hold favour. On invitation from 
the King of Naples he gave a succ. 
court-concert, but at a second made 
various blunders and returned to 
Rome, in chagrin, increased with 
fatal results on finding or imagining 
himself supplanted there by a poor 
violinist named Valentini. His mas- 
terpieces "Concerti grossi," were pub. 
just before his death. Many spuri- 
ous comps. were issued under his 

Corfe, (i) Jos., Salisbury, 17401820; 
organist and composer. (2) Arthur 
T., Salisbury, 1773 -1863 ; son of 
above ; pianist, organist and writer. 
(3) Chas. W., son of above ; organ- 
ist Christ Church, Oxford. 

Cornelius (kor-na'-ll-oos), Peter, Ma- 
yence, Dec. 24, 1824 Oct. 26, 1874, 
unsucc. actor ; then studied cpt with 
Dehn at Berlin, and joined the Wag- 
nerian coterie at Weimar. His opera 
11 Der Bar bier von Bagdad" was a 
failure through organised opposition 
which led Liszt to leave the town, 
but in 1886-87 it succeeded. C. 
wrote his own libretti and transl. 
others. 1886-87,' at Dresden, and 
other cities; 1859, with Wagner at 
Vienna, and Munich, where he be- 
came reader to King Ludwig, and 
prof.; prod, the opera " Dsr Cid" 
Weimar, 1865; he left " Gunlod" 
unfinished ; Lassen completed it, and 
it was prod., Strassburg, 1892; he 
pub. many songs. Biog. by Sand- 
berger (Leipzig, 1887). 

Cornell', J.' H., New York, 1828 
1894 ; organist, composer and writer. 


Cor'nyshe, (i) Wm., d. before 1526 ; 
English teacher and composer. (2) 
Wm., son of above ; composer. 

Cornet (kor'-nat), (i) Julius, S. Can- 
dido, Tyrol, 1792 Berlin, 1860 ; 
tenor and dir. His wife, (2) Franz- 
iska (1806 1870) was also a singer. 

Coronaro (ko-ro-na'-ro), (i) Gaetano, 
b. Vincenza, Italy, Dec. 18, 1852; vio- 
linist ; till 1873, pupil, Milan Cons., 
then in Germany; prod, the succ. 
opera " Un Tramonto" (Milan Cons. 
Th., 1873); 3-act "La Creola" 
(Bologna, 1878); " // Malacarne" 
(Brescia, 1894) ; for several years 
prof, of harm., and since 1894, 
prof, of comp., Milan Cons. (2) 
Gellio Bv., b. Italy, ca. 1863 ; pian- 
ist (protege of Sonzogno) ; debut at 8 ; 
at 9, organist in Vincenza ; at 13, th. 
cond., Marosteca; at 15, chorusm. ; 
at 16, pupil Bologna Cons., graduat- 
ing with first prizes ; c. a symphony ; 
opera, "Jolanda" (1889?); unsucc. 
" Claudia" (Milan, 1895). 

Corri (kor'-re), Dom., Rome, 1744 
London, 1825 ; dram, composer and 

Cor' si, Jacopp, b. ca. 1560 ; Florentine 
nobleman, in whose house and in 
Bardi's, Peri, Caccini, Emilio del 
Cavaliere, Galilei, Rinuccini, and 
others met and inaugurated modern 
opera (v. PERI) ; C. was a skilful gra- 

Corteccia (k6r-tet'-cha), Fran. Bdo. 
di, Arezzo, i6th cent., Florence, 
1571 ; organist, conductor and com- 

Coss'mann, B., b. Dessau, May 17, 
1822 ; 'cellist ; pupil of Espenhahn, 
Drechsler, Theo. Miiller and Kum- 
mer; 1840, member of Gr. Opera 
Orch., Paris; 1847-48, solo 'cellist at 
Gewandhaus, Leipzig; then studied 
comp. under Hauptmann ; 1850, at 
Weimar, with Liszt ; 1866, prof. Mos- 
cow Cons.; 1870-78 at Baden-Baden ; 
since prof, of 'cello, Frankfort Cons.; 

Cos'ta, (i) Sir Michael (rightly 
Michele), Naples,, . Feb. 4, 1810 

(1807 ?) Brighton, England, April 
29, 1884; son and pupil of (2) Pas- 
quale C. (composer ch.-mus.) ; pupil 
also of Tritto, Zingarelli (comp.), 
and Crescentini (singing) at the 
Naples Cons. ; prod. 4 succ. operas 
at Naples, was sent to Birmingham, 
England, to cond. a psalm of Zin- 
garelli's, but through a misunder- 
standing, had to sing the tenor part ; 
he thereafter lived in England as dir. 
and cond. of King's Th., London, 
where he prod, three ballets ; 1846, 
cond. of the Philh. and the new ltd. 
Opera ; 1848, Sacred Harmonic So- 
ciety ; from 1849, cond. Birmingham 
festivals; from 1857, the Handel festi- 
vals ; knighted in 1869 ; 1871 dir. of 
the music and cond. at H. M.'s 
Opera; c. 3 oratorios, 6 operas, 3 
symphonies, etc. (3) Andrea, b. 
Brescia, settled London, 1825 ; com- 
poser and teacher. (4) Carlo, Naples, 
18261888; teacher Naples Cons. 
(5) P. Mario, b. Taranto, July 26, 
1858, nephew of above ; c. cham- 
ber-music and pop. songs in Neapoli- 
tan dialect ; also 2 pantomimes, " Le 
ModttcReve" and the succ. ' L'His- 
toire d'tai Pierrot" (Paris, 1894?). 

Costantini (te'-ne), Fabio, b. Rome, 
ca. 1570 ; composer and teacher. 

Costanzi (ko-stan'-tsf), Juan (or Gio- 
annino), Rome, 1754 1778; con- 

Coste (kost), Gaspard, composer at 
Avignon, 1530. 

Cost'eley, Wm,, Scotland, 1531 Er- 
reux, 1606 ; organist and writer. 

Cotta (kot'-ta), Jn., Ruhla, Thuringia, 
1794 Willerstet, near Weimar, 1868; 
pastor and comrjoser. 

Cot'to (Cotto'nius), Jns., nth to 
I2th cent. ; writer. 

Cottrau (kot-tro, or kot-tra'-oo), (i) 
Guillaume (Guglielmo), Paris, 1797 
Naples, 1847; composer. His 
sons (2) Teodoro (pen-name Euta- 
lindo Martelli) (Naples, 1827 
1879) and (3) Giulio (Jules), also 
song-composers; the latter c. 2 



Cotumacci (ko-too-mat'-che), Carlo, 
Naples, 1698 1775 ; organist and 

Coucy (dti koo-se), Regnault, Chate- 
lain, de, d. Palestine, 1192 ; trouba- 
dour to Richard Cceur de Lion; a 
poem of ca. 1228 tells that he begged 
that his heart be sent to his love, 
whose husband intercepted it, and 
had it roasted and served up to his 
wife, who died broken-hearted on be- 
ing told of her menu ; his songs are in 
MSS. in the Paris Library, and have 
been re-published. 

Couperin (koo-pti-ra'n), a family of 
French musicians, famous for two 
centuries. The first known were 
three brothers: (i) Louis, 1630 
1665; organist of St. Gervais and 
composer. (2) Fran. (Sieur de 
Crouilly), 1631 1701 ; organist and 
composer. (3) Chas., 16381669; 
organist ; his son, (4) Fran, (called 
Le Grand), Paris, 16681733 1 the 
first great composer to write exclusive- 
ly for the harpsichord (or clavecin); 
pupil of Thomelin, and successor of 
his uncle Francois, at St. G., 1698 ; 
1701, clavecinist and organist to the 
King ; c. brilliant and fascinating mu- 
sic pub. at Paris, and wrote " L'Art 
de toucher du Clavecin " (1711). (5) 
His son Nicholas, Paris, 1680 
1748, was organist. (6) Arraand 
Louis, Paris, 17211789, son of (5), 
a remarkable org.- virtuoso. His wife 
(7) Elisabeth Antoinette (nee 
Blanchet), b. 1721, was an organist 
and clavecinist, and played in public 
at 8 1. They had 2 sons (8) P. Louis 
(d. 1789), his father's asst. organist, 
and (9) Geryais Fran., his father's 

Courtois (koor-twa), Jean, i6th cent., 
French contrapuntist ; conductor and 

Courtville (koort'-vtt), (i) Raphael, 
d. 1675 ; of the Chapel Royal. (2) 
d. ca. 1735 ; organ-composer, son of 
above. (3) Raphael, d. 1771, son 
of (2) ; organist and writer. 
Courvoisjer (koor-vwas-ya, or koor'- 

foi-ser), K., b. Basel, Nov. 12, 1846 ; 
violinist ; pupil of David, Rontgen 
and Joachim ; 1871, a member of the 
Thalia Th., orch., Frankfort; then, 
till 1875, cond. of singing with Gus- 
tav Earth; '76, cond. Diisseldorf 
Th., orch., and choral societies; 
since 1885 singing-teacher at Liver- 
pool ; c. a symphony, 2 concert-over- 
tures, a vln.-concerto (MS.), etc. ; 
wrote "Die Violintechmk" (transl. 
by H. E. Krehbiel ; N. Y., 1896) ; 
an " cok de la -velodti" and a "J//- 
thode" (London, 1892). 
Coussemaker (koos-md-kaV), Chas. 
Ed. H., Bailleul, Nord, April 19, 
1805 Bourbourg, Jan. 10, 1876; a 
remarkable sight-reader, studied cpt. 
with V. Lefebvre ; while serving as a 
judge he made musical research his 
avocation, and pub. important works 
on Hucbald and medieval instru- 
ments, theory and composers, incl. his 
" Scriptores de musica medii evi, 
nova series" (1864-76, 4 vols.), a 
great collection intended as supple- 
ment to Gerbert. 
Cousser. Vide KUSSER. 
Coverley (kuv'-r-U), Robert, b. 
Oporto, Portugal, Sept. 6, 1863, of 
Scotch father and aristocratic Portu- 
guese mother; studied cpt., orch. and 
vln. with Hill, Ludwig, and Jacqui- 
not, in London ; lived in New York 
many years, since 1898 in London ; 
pub. many graceful and succ. songs, 
orch. and pf .-pieces ; c. the immense- 
ly succ. march " The Passing Regi- 
ment " and a comic opera (MS.). 
Cow'ard, (r) Jas., London, 1824 
1880 ; organist, conductor and com- 
poser. (2) H., b. Liverpool, Nov. 
26, 1849; grad. Tonic-sol-fa Coll. 
1889 Mus. Bac.; 1894 Mus. Doc. 
Oxon ; singing-teacher and cond. at 

Cow' en, Frederic Hymen, b. Kings- 
ton, Jamaica, Jan. 29, 1852 ; at 4 
brought to London to study, pupil of 
Benedict and Goss, then of Haupt- 
mann, Moscheles, Reinecke, Richter, 
an4 Plaidv, Leipzig ; and Kiel, Bey- 


lin ; 1882, dir. Edinburgh Acad. of 
Music ; 1887, cond. London Philh. ; 
1888-9, mus.-dir. Melbourne Centen- 
nial Exhibition ; 1896, cond. Liver- 
pool Phil., and the Manchester 
Concerts ; prod, four operas ; two 
oratorios, The Deluge (1878), and 
Ruth (1887) ; 7 cantatas ; 6 sympho- 
nies (No. 3 " Scandinavian " (1880), 
4 " Welsh? 6 " Idyllic"} ; four or- 
chestral suites, " The Language of 
Flowers" "/ the Olden Time" 
"In Fairyland" Suite de Ballet ; 
Sinfonietta in A for orch. ; 2 over- 
tures ; pf.-concerto ; pf.-trio ; pf.- 
quartet ; pf.-pcs.; over 250 songs. 

Cramer (kra'-mer or kra'-me'r), (i) 
Wm., Mannheim, 1745 (1743?) 
London, 1799 (1800?); violinist and 
conductor. (2) K. Fr., Quedlinburg, 
1752 Paris, Dec. 1807; professor. (3) 
Jn. Bap., Mannheim, Feb. 24, 1771 
London, April 16, 1858 ; eldest son 
and pupil of (i). Brought to London 
when a year old; pupil of Benser, 
Schroeter, then of Clementi; in comp., 
chiefly self-taught ; toured as concert- 
pianist at 17 ; in 1828 est. a mus.- 
pub. firm (now Cramer & Co.) in 
partnership with Addison ; managed 
it till 1842 ; 1832-45, lived in Paris ; 
pub. "a Method for pf. (" Gross* 
praktische Pfte.-Schule"}, in 5 
parts," the last containing the cele- 
brated " 84 Studies " (op. 50), still a 
standard; c. 7 concertos, 105 sonatas, 
quartet, quintet, and many pf.-pcs. 
(4) Fz., b. Munich, 1786 ; nephew of 
(i), first flute in the Munich orch., 
and composer. (5) Josef Hubert, 
b. Wageningen, Holland, Feb. 29, 
1844 ; violinist ; studied with Graven- 
stein and van Bree, Leonard and 
David ; at 12 played in public at 
Amsterdam where he now lives as 
teacher in the Cons., and com- 

Crane, Helen, American composer; 
pupil of Ph. Scharwenka, Berlin, for 
3 years; c. symphonic poem " The 
Last Tournament," suite and sere- 
nade for orch., etc. 

Crang & Hancock, organ-builders in 
London during iSth cent. 

Cranz (krants), August, Hamburg, 
mus.-pub. firm, founded 1813 by A. 
H. Cranz (1789-1870). His son Al- 
win (b. 1834), is now the head. 

Craywinckel (kri'-rfnk-el), Fd. Ma- 
nuel Martin Louis Barthe*lemy 
de, b. Madrid, Aug. 24, 1820 ; pupil 
of Bellon ; cond. St. Bruno, at Bor- 
deaux, where he lived from 1825 ; c. 
excellent masses and other church- 

Cre(c)quillon (krgk-we-yon), Thos., 
n. Ghent, (?) Be'thune, 1557; ca. 
1544-47 conductor and compos- 

Crescentini (kra-shen-te'-ne), Giro- 
lamo, Urbania, near Urbino, Feb. 2, 
1766 Naples, April 24, 1846; fa- 
mous male soprano and composer. 

Crespel (kres-peT), Guillaume, Bel- 
gian composer isth cent. 

Cressent (kres-san), Anatole, Argen- 
teuil, 1824 Paris, 1870 ; lawyer and 
founder of the triennial prize "prix 
Cressent," endowed with 120,000 
francs, to be equally divided between 
the librettist, and the composer of the 
best opera; first awarded to Chaumet, 

Creyghton (kra r tun), Rev. Robt., b. 
ca. 1639 ; English composer. 

Cristofo'ri, Bart, (wrongly Cristo- 
fali and Cristofani), Padua, May 4, 
1653 Florence, March 17, 1731; inv. 
the first practical hammer-action to 
which he gave the name "piano- 
forte" (v. D. D.) ; in 1711 he substi- 
tuted for the plucking quills " a row 
of little hammers striking the strings 
from below," the principle adopted by 
Broadwood, and called the " English 

Crivel'li, (i) Arcangelo, Bergamo, (?) 
1610; tenor and composer. (2)Giov. 
Bat., Scandiano, Modena (?) Mo- 
dena, 1682 ; organist and conductor. 
(3) Gaetano, Bergamo, 1774 Bres- 
cia, 1836 ; famous tenor. (4) Dom., 
b. Brescia, 1794; son of above , dram, 


Croce (kro'-chg), Giov. dalla (called 
" II Chiozzotto "), Chioggia, ca. 1560 
Venice, 1609 ; conductor and com- 

Croes (kroos), H. Jas. de, Antwerp, 
1705 Brussels, 1786; violinist and 

Croft(s), Wm., Nether-Eatington, 
Warwickshire, Engl., 1678 Bath, 
1727 (buried Westm. Abbey) ; 1704, 
joint organist, 1707, sole organist 
Westm. Abbey; pub. " Musica 
sacra " (the first English church-music 
engraved in score on plates). 

Crogaert (kro'-gart), J. Ed., b. Ant- 
werp ; pupil of Benoit ; 1882 cond. 
at Antwerp, since 1882 lives in Paris; 
writer of treatises. 

Croisez (krwa-sa), Alex., b. Paris (?), 
1816 ; composer and writer. 

Cros'dill, J., London, 1751 Escrick, 
Yorkshire, 1825 ; 'cellist. 

Cross, Michael Hurley, Philadelphia, 
1833 1897; composer and director. 

Cross'ley, Ada, Australian soprano; 
debut, Melbourne as a girl ; has sung 
with succ. in London for many years, 
also in Paris, etc. 

Crotch, Wm., Norwich, Engl., July 5, 
1775 Taunton, Dec. 29, 1847 ; at 
the age of 2& he played on a small 
organ, built by his father, a master- 
carpenter ; at 10 played in public at 
London ; at the age of n asst. or- 
ganist of Trinity and King's Colleges 
Cambridge; at 14 c. an oratorio, 
" The Captivity of Judah" (perf. 
1789), became organist of Christ Ch., 
Oxford; 1797, prof, of mus. Oxford ; 
1799, Mus. Doc. there; 1822 principal 
of the new R.A.M., c. 2 oratorios. 

Crouch, (i) Mrs. Anna M. (nee Phil- 
lips), 1763 Brighton, 1805 ; Engl. 
operatic singer. (2) Fr. Nicholls, 
London, July 31, 1808 Portland, 
Me., Aug. 18, 1896 ; basso, 'cellist 
and singing-teacher ; c. 2 operas, and 
songs, incl. * l Kathleen Mavourneen" 

Crow, Ed. J., b. Sittingbourne, Engl., 
Sept. II, 1841 ; organist Leicester, 
1861-73 i siace, atRipon Cath. ; 1882, 
Mus, Doc. Cantab. ; c. oratorio, 

"Harvest-time"; Psalm CXLVI, 
for orch. and chorus, etc. 

Cro'west, Fr. F., b. London, 1850 ; 
organist Christ's Church, Kilburn; 
writer and composer. 

Cro'ziar, Wm., b. Upper Norwood, 
Dec. 20, 1870; celebrated Engl. 

Criiger (kni'-ger), Jns., Gross-Breesen, 
near Guben, 1598 Berlin, 1662 ; 

Crussel (kroos'-sel), Bernhard, Fin- 
land, 1775 1838 ; composer. 

Cruvel'li (rightly Criiwell) (krti'-vel), 
(i) Friederike M., Bielefeld, West- 
phalia, 18241868 ; contralto in Lon- 
don, but lost her voice and died of a 
broken heart. (2) Jne. Sophie Char- 
lotte, b. Bielefeld, Mar. 12, 1826, 
sister of above ; also contralto, and 
ill-trained, but had enormous success 
Paris Gr. Opera, 1854, at a salary of 
100,000 francs ; in 1856 m. Comte 
Vigier, and left the stage. 

Cud more, Richard, Chichester, 1787 
Manchester, 1840 ; organist, vio- 
linist and conductor. 

Cui (kwe), Ce"sar Antonovitch, b. 
Vilna, Russia, Jan. 6, 1835 ; one of 
the most important of Russian com- 
posers ; pupil of Moniuszko and Ba- 
lakirev ; a military engineer ; Prof, 
of fortification at the St. Petersburg 
Engineering Acad. ; from 1864-8, 
critic of the St. P. "Gazette" ; 
1878-9, pub. articles in Paris, on 
" La musique en Russie" / c. 5 op- 
eras, " William Ratcti/e" (St. P., 
1869); " The Prisoner in the Cau- 
casus" (1873); "Angela" (1876); 
" The Mandarins Son" (l8j%) ; ly- 
ric comedy, " Le Filibustier" (Paris, 
1894) ; the very succ. "Sarazin" (St. 
P., 1899) I symphonies, etc., 2 scher- 
zos and a tarantella for orch. ; suite 
for pf. and vln. ; pf.-pcs. ; 50 songs. 
" Esguisse critique " on Cui and his 
works by the Comtesse de Mercy- 

Cunlmings, Wm. Hayman, b. Sud- 
bury, Devon, Eng., Aug. 22, 1831 ; 
organist Waltham Abbey ; prof, of 


singing R. Coll. for the Blind, Nor- 
wood ; 1896, principal of Guildhall 
Sch. of Mus. ; founded the Purcell 
Society, edits its pubs. ; wrote biog. 
of Purcell (London, 1882) ; has also 
pub. a music "Primer" 1877 ; and 
a " Biog. Dictionary of Musicians" 
(1892) ; c. a cantata, " The Fairy 
Ring? etc. 

Curci (koor'-che), Giu., Barletta, 1808 
1877 ; singing teacher and dram, 

Curioni (koo-rl-d'-ne), (i) ( ), so- 
prano in London, 1754, perhaps the 
mother of (2) Alberico, b. ca. 1790, 
Italian tenor. 

Curschmann (koorsh'-man), K. Fr., 
Berlin, 1805 Langfuhr, near Dan- 
zig, 1841 ; singer, dram, composer 
and pop. song-writer. 

Curti (koor'-te), Fz. (or Francesco), 
Cassel, 1854 Dresden, 1898 ; dram, 

Curtis, Dr. H. Holbrook, b. New 
York, Dec. 15, 1856; grad. Yale, 
1877 ; 1880, M.D. ; vice-pres. Am. 
Social Science Assn. .prominent throat 
specialist and writer on the voice, 
pub. "Voice Building and Tone 
Placing," 1898. 

Cur'wen, (i) Rev. J., Heckmondwike, 
Yorkshire, Engl., 1816 near Man- 
chester, 1880 ; 1862, resigned his pas- 
torate, and founded a college, also a 
pub. -house, to exploit Tonic-sol-fa. (2) 
J. Spencer, b. Plaistow, 1847 ; son 
and pupil of above ; pupil also of G. 
Oakeyand R.A.M.; writer, and since 
1880 pres. Tonic-sol-fa Coll. 

Cusani'no. Vide CARESTINI. 

Cusins (kuz'-ms), Sir Wm. G., London, 
1833 Remouchamps (Ardennes), 
1893 ; pf.-prof. R.A.M. ; knighted 
1892 ; conductor and composer. 

Cutell, Richard, English writer of 
1 5th century. 

Cut'ler, Wm. H., b. London, 1792 ; 
organist and singer. 

Cuvillon (ku-ve-yon), J. Bapt. Phil6- 
mon de, b. Dunkirk, 1809 ; pupil, 
later prof. Paris, Cons. ; notable vio- 
linist and teacher. 

Cuzzoni (kood-zd'-ne), Fran., Parma, 
1700 Bologna, 1770 ; debut 1719 ; 
m. the pianist Sandoni ; very success- 
ful contralto till her latter days, when 
it is said she earned a pittance by 
covering silk buttons. 

Czartpryska (char-to-re'-shka), Mar- 
celline (ne'e Princess Radziwill), 
b. Vienna, 1826 ; pianist ; lives since 
1848 in Paris ; pupil of Czerny. 

Czarwenka (char-ven'-ka), Jos,, Be- 
madek, Bohemia, 1759 Vienna, 
1835 ; oboist and professor. 

Czerny (Cerny) (char'-ne), Karl, Vi- 
enna, Feb. 21, 1791 July 15, 1857 ; 
pupil of his father Wenzel C., later 
of Beethoven ; and had advice from 
Clementi and Hummel ; made an 
early reputation as pianist and was an 
eminent teacher from his i6th year ; 
Liszt, DQhler, and Thalberg were 
among his pupils; pub. over 1,000 
works, his pf.-studies, still standard, 
incl. many such works as " Die Schule 
der Gelaitjigkeit" (School of Velocity) 
(op. 299) ; c. also masses, sympho- 
nies, overtures, etc. 

Czersky (char'-shkl). Vide TSCHIRCH. 

Czibulka (che-bool'-ka), Alphons, 
Szepes-Varallya, Hungary, May 14, 
1842 Vienna, Oct. 27, 1894 ; pianist 
and conductor ; c. 5 operettas, incl. 
"Der Bajazzo" (Vienna, 1892), 
waltzes, etc. 


Daase (da'-zS), Rudolf, b. Berlin, 
Feb. 21, 1822 ; pupil of A. W. Bach, 
Marx and Wilsing ; lives in Berlin as 
conductor and teacher ; c. orch. and 
choral-pieces, etc. 

Dachs (dakhs), Jos., Ratisbon, t 1825 
Vienna, 1896 ; teacher and pianist. 

Dachstein (dakh'-shtin), Wolfgang, 
ex-priest and composer at Strass- 
burg, 1554. 

Dalayrac (or D'Alayrac) (dal-g-rak), 
Nicolas, Muret, Haute-Garonne, 
June 13, 1753 Paris, Nov. 27, 1809 ; 
prod, about 60 operas. 



Dalberg (dal'-b&rkh), Jn. Fr. Hugo, 
Reichsfreiherr von, Aschaffenburg, 
1752 1812 ; writer and composer. 

D'Albert, Eugen. Vide ALBERT, d'. 

Dall (dal), Roderick, lived at Athol, 
1740 ; the last of the Scotch " wan- 
dering harpists." 

Dal'lam, Engl, family of organ-build- 
ers 1 7th cent, (also spelled Dallans, 
Dallum, Dalham). 

Dal'lery, organ-builders i8th cent, at 

Dall' Argine (dal-ar'-zhe-na), Const., 
Parma, 1842 Milan, 1877; dram, 

Dahrimare (dal-ve-ma'-re) or d'Alvi- 
mare (dai-vK-mar), Martin P., 
Dreux, Eure-et-Loire, 1772 Paris, 
1839; composer. 

Damascene (da-ma'-sha'-ne), Alex., 
Italian, b. in France ; d. July 14, 
1719; alto singer and song-writer in 

Damcke (dam'-kg), Berthold, Han- 
over, 1812 Paris, 1875; conduc- 

Daram (dam), (i) Fr,, b. Dresden, 
March 7, 1831 ; pianist and compos- 
er ; pupil of Kragen, J. Otto, and 
Reichel; lived in North Germany, 
then in the U. S., then in Dresden. 


Damoreau (d&m-o-ro), Laure-Cinthie 
(ne'e Montalant, first known as 
" Mile. Cinti"), Paris, 1801 Chan- 
tilly, 1863 ; soprano, later prof, of 
singing, Paris Cons. ; wrote Mdthode 
de chant" 

Damrosch (dam'-rosh), (i) Dr. Leo- 
pold, Posen, Prussia, Oct. 22, 1832 
New York, Feb. 15, 1885 ; 1854, 
M.D. ; took up music as solo-violin- 
ist ; then as cond. at minor theatres ; 
1855, solo violinist Grand Ducal 
Orch., at Weimar ; here he m. Hel- 
ene von Heimburg, a singer; 1859- 
60 cond. Breslau Phil. Soc., etc.; 
1871, invited to New York to con- 
duct the Arion Society, made his 
first appearance as conductor and 
composer and violinist ; 1873, found- 
ed the Oratorio Society; 1878 the 

Symphony Society ; 1880 Mus. Doc. 
Columbia' Coll. ; 1884, cond. German 
opera at Met. Op. ; c. 7 cantatas ; 
symphony; music to Schiller's "Joan 
of Arc'' etc. (2) Frank, b. Breslau, 
June 22, 1859 ; son and pupil of 
above ; pupil of Pruckner, Jean Vogt, 
and von Inten (pf.), Moszkowski 
(comp.); 1882-85, cond. Denver 
(Col.) Chorus Club ; 1884-85, super- 
visor of music in public schools, also 
organist in various churches ; 1885- 
91, chorusm. Met. Op.; till 1887 
cond. the Newark Harmonic Society; 
1892 organized the People's Singing 
Classes ; 1897, supervisor of music, 
N. Y. City public schools ; now cond. 
the " Musurgia," Oratorio Society, 
and Mus. Art Soc. (N. Y.), Oratorio 
Soc., Bridgeport (Conn.) "Orpheus" 
and "Eurydice" Phila., etc.; pub. a 
few songs and choruses, and a meth- 
od of si^ght - singing. (3) Walter 
(Johannis), b. Breslau, Silesia, Jan. 
30, 1862 ; son and pupil of (i) ; pu- 
pil of Rischbieter and Draeseke 
(harm.), von Inten, Boekelman, and 
Max Pinner, (pf.), von Billow (con- 
ducting) ; 1885-99 cond. N. Y. Ora- 
torio and Symphony Societies ; 1892 
founded the N. Y. Symphony Orch. ; 
1894, organized and cond. the Dam- 
rosch Opera Co. ; 1899, cond. at 
Philadelphia; 1902, cond. N. Y. 
Philh. (vice Paur); prod, opera, 
" The Scarlet Letter " (Boston, 1896), 
text by Geo. Parsons Lathrop ; c. 
MS. opera "Cyrano de Bergerac," 
text by W. J. Henderson ; "Manila 
Te Deum " ; "Danny Dtever" etc, 

Da'na, (i) Chas. Henshaw, West 
Newton, Mass., 1846 Worcester, 
1883 ; pianist, organist and compos- 
er. (2) Wm. H., b. Warren, O., 
June ro, 1846 ; pupil of Haupt, and 
Kullak's Cons., also R.A.M., Lon- 
don ; dir. Dana's Mus. Inst., Warren, 
Ohio; wrote text-books; c, " De 
Profundis " for ch. and orch. 

Danb6 (dan-ba), Jules, b. Caen, 
France, Nov. 15, 1840 ; violinist ; 
pupil of Paris Cons.; till 1892 2nd 


dir. of the Cons. Concerts ; 1895, 
cond. Op. Com., Paris ; composer. 

Dan' by, j., 1757 London, May 16, 
1798 ; English organist and compos- 

Dance, Wm., 1755 1840, musician ; 
one of the founders of the Phil. 
Soc., London. 

Dan'do, Jos. H. B., b. Somers Town, 
London, 1806 ; violinist. 

Dancla (dan-kla), (i) J. Bap. Chas., 
b, Bagneres-de-Bigorre, Dec. 19, 
1818 ; 1828 pupil of Baillot, Halevy, 
and Berton, Paris Cons.; 1834, 2nd 
solo vln. Op.-Com.; 1857, prof, of vln. 
at the Cons., giving famous quartet 
soirees ; c. four symphonies, over 130 
works for vln., etc.; wrote 5 techni- 
cal books, " Les compositors chefs 
d'orchestre" etc. (2) Arnaud, Bag- 
neres-de-Bigorre, 1820 1862, bro. of 
above ; 'cellist and writer. (3) Le*o- 
pold, Bagneres-de-Bigorre, 1823 
Paris, 1895, bro. of above ; compos- 

Danel (da-nel), L. A. J., Lille, 1787 
1875 ; a printer who inv. a nota- 

Danhauser (dan-how r -zer or dan-6- 
za), Ad. Ld., Paris, 18351896; 
prof, of solfeggio at Cons, and dram, 

Danican. V. PHILIDOR. 

Daniel, (i) Hn. Adalbert, b. Cdthen, 
1812 ; theologian and writer. (2) 
Salvador, for a few days dir. Paris 
Cons. , under the Commune ; killed 
in battle, May 23, 1871 ; writer. 

Danjou (dan'-zhoo), J. L, F., Paris, 
1812 Montpellier, 1866; 1840, or- 
ganist and erudite historian. 

Dan'kers (or Danckerts), Ghiselin, 
b. Tholen, Zealand ; chorister in Pa- 
pal chapel, 1538-65 ; composer and 

Danks, Hart Pease, b. New Haven, 
Conn., April 6, 1834 ; bass and mus. 
dir. in various churches ; pupil G. E. 
Whiting; c, over 1200 hymns and 
songs, and operetta "Pauline" 

Danneley (dan'-ll), John Felthara, 

Oakingham, Berkshire, England, 1786 
London, 1836; organist and' pub- 

Dannreuther (dan'-roi-ter), (i) Ed- 
ward, b. Strassburg, Nov. 4, 1844 ; 
at 5 taken to Cincinnati, where he 
studied with F. L. Ritter ; later, pupil 
of Richter, Moscheles, Hauptmann, 
Leipzig Cons.; 1863, London, as 
pianist; 1872 founded and cond. 
London Wagner Society; wrote 
"Richard Wagner, His Tendencies 
and Theories" (London, 1873) ; also 
composer. (2) Gustav, b. Cincin- 
nati, July 2r, 1853; pupil of de 
Anna and Joachim (vln.) and Heitel 
(theory), Berlin ; lived in London till 
1877; joined Mendelssohn Quintet 
Club of Boston, where in 1880 he 
settled as a member of the newly 
formed Symphony Orch. ; 1882-84 
dir. Philh. Soc. Buffalo, N. Y. ; 
founded the * ' Beethoven String- 
Quartet" of N. Y. (called "Dannr. 
Q." from 1894) ; for 3 years leader 
Symphony and Oratorio Societies, 
N. Y. ; wrote "Chord and Scale 
Studies for Young Players" 

Danzi (dan'-tse), (i) Fz., Mannheim, 
May 15, 1763 Carlsruhe, April 13, 
1826 ; dram, composer ; son and pu- 
pil of (2) Innocenz D., 'cellist to the 
Elector. (3) Franziska. VideLE- 

Da Ponte (da p&n'-te 1 ), Lorenzo, Cen- 
eda, near Venice, March 10, 1749 
New York, Aug. 17, 1838 ; of Jew- 
ish race ; poet-laureate to Joseph II. 
at Vienna, until 1792 ; wrote text of 
Mozart's ** Don Giovanni " and " Cost 
Fan Tutte"; London, 1803, teacher 
of Italian and poet to the Italian 
Opera ; made a failure of different 
pursuits in the U. S. A., and was 
finally teacher of Italian at Columbia 
College, N. Y. ; pub. '* Memorie" 
(Memoirs). There is a sketch of his 
life in Krehbiel's ' ' Music and Man- 
ners" (N. Y., 1899). 

Daquin (dS-kan), L. Claude, Paris, 
16941772; notable organist and 


Darcours (dar-koor), Charles. Vide 


Dargomyzsky (dSr - go - mesh' - shke) , 
Alex. Sergievitch, Toula, Feb. 2, 
1813 St. Petersburg, Jan. 29, 1869; 
pianist and composer ; pupil of Scho- 
berlechner; his opera " Esmeralda " 

(c. 1839) was P rod< l8 47 with succ ' ; 
his best opera " Russalka" followed 
in 1856; in 1867, at Moscow, an 
opera-ballet, " The Triumph of JBac- 
chus" (written 1847), was instrument- 
ed ; left an unfinished opera, " JCam- 
mennoi Cost" ("The Marble 
Guest ") (finished by Rimsky-Korsa- 
kov). "Rogdana"* fantasy-opera, 
was only sketched; it follows the 
latest operatic creeds ; c. also pop. 
orch. works. 

Da(s)ser (da'-ser), (Dasserus) Lud- 
wig, until 1562 conductor and com- 
poser at Munich, predecessor of Las- 

Daube (dow'-be 1 ), Fr., Cassel (Augs- 
burg ?), 1730 Vienna, 1797 ; com- 
poser and writer. 

Daublaine et Callinet, Paris firm of 
org. -builders, founded 1838. 

Daucresme (do-krem), Lucien, El- 
beuf, Normandy, 1826 Paris, 1892 ; 
dram, composer. 

Dau'ney, Wm., Aberdeen, 1800 
Demerara, 1843 ; writer. 

Dauprat (do-pra), L. Fr., Paris, 1781 
July 16, 1868 ; notable horn-player 
and composer. 

Daussoigne-Me~hul (dos'-swan-ma'- 
iil). L. Jos., Givet, Ardennes, 1790 
Liege, 1875 ; dram, composer. 

Dauvergne (do-vem), Ant. C., Fer- 
rand, 1713 Lyons, 1797 ; violinist 
and dram, composer. 

Davenport, Francis W., b. Wilders- 
lowe, near Derby, England, 1847; 
pupil of Macfarren, whose daughter 
he m. ; 1879, prof. R. A. M., and 
1882 Guildhall Sch. of Music ; c. two 
symphonies (the ist winning ist prize 
at Alexandra Palace, 1876), and 
other comps. ; wrote text-books, 

David (da'-fet), (i) Fd., Hamburg, Jan. 
19, 1810 near Klosters, Switzerland, 


18, 1873 ; pupil of Spohr and 
auptmann ; at 15 played in the Ge- 
wandhaus, Leipzig ; 1827, in Kb'nig- 
stadt Th. orch., Berlin; at 19, ist 
vln. in the private quartet of the 
wealthy Baron von Liphardt, at Dor- 
pat, whose daughter he m. ; gave 
concerts till 1835 in Russia; at 26 
leader of the Gewandhaus Orch. at 
Mendelssohn's invitation; his rigor- 
ous precision of drill is still a terrify- 
ing tradition. In the composition of 
Mendelssohn's vln. -concerto he was 
almost a collaborator (cf . Joachim and 
Brahms). The Cons, was estab. in 
1843, and D.'s unsurpassed gifts as 
a teacher had a large influence in 
making its reputation, among his pu- 
pils being Wilhelmj and Joachim ; as 
a leader he had a wonderful faculty 
of inspiring the players with his own 
enthusiasm. His student editions of 
classical works embrace nearly all 
compositions of standard vln. litera- 
ture ; edited many classics, including 
the "ffofo Schuk des Violinspieh" 
His comp. include an opera, ' ' Hans 
Wacht" (Leipzig, 1852) ; 2 sympho- 
nies; 5 vln. -concertos, etc.; wrote a 
standard meth. for vln. (2) Peter 
Paul, b. Leipzig, Aug. i, 1840, son 
of above; violinist; 1862-65, leader 
Carlsruhe orch.; then teacher at Up- 
pingham, England. 

David (da-ved), (3) Fe-licien C^sar, 
Cadenet, Vaucluse, April 13, 1810 
St. Germain-en- Laye, Aug. 29, 1876 ; 
at 7 a pupil and chorister in the mai- 
trise of Saint-Sauveur at Aix; c. 
hymns, motets, etc.; 1825-28 studied 
in the Jesuit college, but ran away to 
continue his music, and became asst- 
cond. in the theatre at Aix, and at 
19 cond. at Saint-Sauveur; 1830 
Paris Cons., under Be'noist (org.), 
Reber and Millot, (harm.), Fctis (cpt. 
and fugue). 1831, his rich uncle with- 
drew his allowance of 50 francs a 
month, and he took up Saint- Simon- 
ism, composing hymns for this social- 
istic sect, which coming under ban of 
the law in 1833, he went with other 


members on a tour through Turkey, 
Egypt, etc.; he returned in 1835 with 
a fund of Oriental musical impres- 
sions, resulting in an unsucc. volume 
of " Mttodies Orientalist He re- 
tired to the country home of a friend 
and c. 2 symphonies, 24 string-quin- 
tets, etc. 1838 his first symphony 
was prod. ; and 1844, his ode-sym- 
phonie " Le D&ert" had a "deliri- 
ous succ." ; the oratorio, "Moise au 

and the Evill prize for declamatory 
Engl. singing; 3 years with Carl 
Rosa Opera-troupe ; most prominent 
in oratorio; since 1893 has often sung 
in U. S. (2) David Ffrangcon, b. 
Bethesda, Carnarvonshire, Dec. n, 
1860 ; barytone ; M. A. Oxford ; pu- 
pil of Shakespeare ; debut Manches- 
ter, 1890 ; sang with Carl Rosa Op- 
era Co., then oratorio ; toured U. S. 

oussucc."; the oratorio, "Moise au (3) Fanny, b, Guernsey, June 17, 
Sinai" 1846 ; a second symphonic- 1861 ; pianist ; pupil of Reinecke, 
ode " Christophe Colombe" and Paul and Jadassohn, Leipzig Cons. ; 

" L'Eden," a " mystery " in 2 parts 
(Grand Opera, 1848) had no succ.; 
his opera " La Perk du BrhiF (Th. 
Lyrique, 1851), is still popular; the 
opera "La Fin du Monde" was re- 
jected by the Gr. Opera, and put in 
rehearsal, but not produced, by the 
Th. Lyrique, and in 1859 produced 
at the Gr. Opera as " Herculaneum" 
the great state prize of 20,000 francs 
being awarded it in 1867; " Lalla 
Rookh" (1862) was a decided succ., 
but " Le Saphir" (1865) also at the 
Op. Com., failed, and he now aban- 
doned dram, comp., withdrawing "Z# 
Captive'' 1869, Academician and li- 
brarian of the Cons. Biog. by Aze- 
vedo (Paris, 1863). (4) Samuel, 
Paris, 1838 1895 ; professor, direc- 
tor and dram, composer. (5) Ad. 
Isaac, Nantes, 1842 Paris, 1897 ; 
dram, composer. (6) Ernst, Nancy, 
1844 Paris, 1886 ; writer, 

Davide (da-ve'-deO.(i) Giacomo (called 
le pere), Presezzo, near Bergamo, 
1750 Bergamo, 1830 ; famous tenor. 
(2) Giovanni, 1789, St. Petersburg, 
ca. 1851 ; son of above ; tenor of 
remarkable range Bk-b". 

Davidoff(da'-vl-dof), Karl, Goldingen, 
Kurland, 1838 Moscow, 1889 ; solo 
'cellist to the Czar ; 1876-87, dir. St. 
Petersburg Cons. ; c. symph. poem, 
14 The Gifts ofPerek" etc. 

Davies (da -vis), (i) Ben, b. Ponadawz, 
near Swansea, Wales, Jan. 6, 1858 ; 
operatic and concert tenor ; 1880-3 
pupil of Randegger at R. A. M. ; 
won bronze, silver, and gold medals, 

Paul and Jadassohn, Leipzig Cons. ; 
later of Frau Schumann and Dr. 
Scholz; debut Crystal Palace, Lon- 
don, 1885 ; has toured m England, 
Germany and Italy. (4) Henry Wai- 
ford, b. Oswestry, Engl., Sept. 6, 
1869 ; pupil and asst. of Sir Walter 
Parratt ; 1898 organist of the Temple 
Church ; 1898, Mus, Doc., Cantab. ; 
1895 prof, of cpt. R. C. M.; c. Sym- 
phony in D, cantata " Hervj Rid" 

Da'vison, (i) Arabella. Vide GOD- 
DARD. (2) J. W., London, 1815 
Margate, 1885 ; pianist, critic and 

Da'vy, (i) Richard, Engl, comp. i6th 
century. (2) John, Upton-Helion, 
Exeter, 1765 London, 1824 ; violin- 

Day, Dr. Alfred, London, 18101849; 
physician and theorist. 

Dayas (dl'-as), W. Humphries, b. 
New York, Sept. 12, 1864 ; pupil of S. 
Jackson, Warren, S. B. Mills and 
Joseffy ; organist of various churches ; 
then studied with Kullak, Haupt, 
Erlich, Urban, and Liszt; made 
concert-tour 1888 ; 1890 pf. -teacher 
Helsingfors Cons. ; in Diisseldorf 
(1894), Wiesbaden Cons., and Co- 
logne Cons. ; c. organ and piano 
sonatas, etc. 

De Ahna (da-a'-na), (i) H. K. Her- 
mann, Vienna, 1835 Berlin, 1892 ; 
violinist, teacher and composer. His 
sister (2) Eleonore, Vienna, 1838 
Berlin, 1865 ; mezzo-soprano. 

De Angelis (da an'-ja-les), Girolamo, 
b. Civita Vecchia, Jan. i, 1858 ; pupil 


of Bazzini, Milan Cons. ; 1881, prof, 
there of vln. and via. ; 1879-97, solo 
violinist at La Scala ; 1897 teacher 
Royal Irish Acad. of Music, Dublin ; 
c. (text and music) " Llnnocente" 
(Novi Ligure, 1896). 

Deane, Thos., English organist, vio- 
linist and composer, 17th cent. 

Debain (du-ban), Alex. Fran., 
Paris, 1809 Dec. 3, 1877; 1834 
made pianos and organs in Parisj 
inv, the harmonium 1840, also "anti- 
phonel" and " harmonichorde " ; im- 
proved the accordion. 

Debillemont (du-be'-yu-mon), J. 
Jacques, Dijon, 1824 Paris, 1879 ; 
dram, composer. 

Debois (du-bwa), F., Briinn, 1834 
1893 ; cond. and composer. 

Debussy (du-bus-se), Achilla Claude, 
b. Paris (?), 1862, French composer of 
much individuality; prod. " P elites et 
Mttisande" libretto based on Maeter- 
linck's play, Op. Comique. Paris, 
Apr. 30, 1902, with sensational ef- 
fect ; he was a pupil of Guiraud, Paris 
Cons., took grand Prix de Rome, 
1884, with cantata " L^Enfant pro- 
digue"; began " Pelleas et M." in 
1893 ; c. also orch. prelude "VApres- 
midi d'un Faune ; " pf. suite for 4 
hands ; " Chansons dt Bilitis" 
"Proses lyriques" etc. 

Dechert (dSkh'-ert), Hugo, b. Pots- 
chappel near Dresden, Sept. 16, 1860; 
'cellist ; studied with his father, then 
with H. Tiets, and at the Berlin 
Hochschule ; toured ; since 1894 solo- 
ist court-chapel, Berlin. 

Deck'er, Konst., Ftirstenau, Bran- 
denburg, 1810 Stolp, Pomerania, 
1878 ; pianist and dram, composer. 

Dedekind (da'-de-kfot), (i) Henning, 
abt. 1590 cantor, theorist and com- 
poser at Langensalza, Thuringia. (2) 
Konst. Chr,, Reinsdorf, Anhalt- 
Kothen, 1628 ca. 1697 comp. 

Dedler (dat'-ler), Rochus, Oberam- 
mergau, Jan. 15, 1779 Vienna, Oct. 
15, 1822 ; c. music still used in the 

D(e)r'ing, Richard, b. Kent, d. Lon- 

don (?), 1630 ; studied in Italy ; court- 
organist ; pub. the oldest extant 
comp. with basso continuo, etc. 

Defesch (da-fesh'), Wm., d. ca. 1758 ; 
Flemish organist and violinist. 

Deffes (duf-fes), L. P., b. Toulouse, 
July 25, 1819 ; pupil of Halevy and 
Barbereau, Paris Cons., took Grand 
prix de Rome for cantata " UAnge 
et Tobie"; hisi-act com.-op. "I'An- 
neau d' argent " was prod. Paris, 
1855 ; 14 others since, the last very 
succ., "Jessica" (Toulouse, 1898); 
now dir. of the Toulouse branch of 
the Cons. ; c. also masses, etc. 

Degele (da-ge-le), Eugen, Munich, 
1834 Dresden, 1866 ; barytone and 

De Giosa (da jo'-sa), Nicola, Bari, 
1820 1885 ; cond. and composer. 

De Haan, (i) Willem, b. Rotterdam, 
Sept. 24, 1849 ; pupil of Nicolai, de 
Lange, and Bargiel, also at Leipzig 
Cons. ; 1873 dir. at Bingen ; cond. 
" Mozartverein " at Darmstadt, 
1876 ; 1895 court-conductor there ; 
c. 2 operas ' ' Die Kaiser stockier " and 
the succ. "Die Inkasohne" (Darm- 
stadt, 1895) ; 3 cantatas. (2) Mani- 
farges, A. Pauline, b. Rotterdam, 
April 4, 1872 ; concert and oratorio 
alto, pupil of Julius Stockhausen. 

Dehn (dan), Siegfried Wm., Altona, 
Feb. 25, 1796 Berlin, April 12, 1858; 
noteworthy theorist and teacher ; 
among his pupils Rubinstein, Kul- 
lak, Glinka, Kiel, Hofmann, etc. 

Deiters (dl'-tgrs), Hermann, b. Bonn, 
June 27, 1833 ; 1858, Dr. jur., and 
Dr. phil.,at Bonn; dir. of gymnasia 
at Bonn, 1858, and other cities ; 1885 
of the "Provincial Schulrath" at 
Coblentz ; writer and translator. 

De Ko'ven (Henry Louis) Reginald, 
b. Middletown, Conn., April 3, 1859; 
educated in Europe, took degree at 
Oxford, Engl., 1879 ' P u pil ^ W. 
Speidel (pf.) at Stuttgart, Lebcrt 
(pf.), and Pruckner (harm.), Dr. 
Hauff (comp.), Vanuccini (singing), 
Genee (operatic comp.) ; 1902 organ- 
ised and cond. Philharmonic Orch. at 


Washington, D. C., where he has 
lived since 1900 ; c. many succ. 
comic operas, incl. "Robin Hood" 
(Chicago, 1890) ; " The Fencing 
Master " (Boston, 1892) ; " The High- 
wayman " (New Haven, 1897) ; 
" Maid Marian" (1901); also many 
songs ; an orch. suite, and a pf .- 
sonata in MS. 

Delaborde (du-la-bord), (i) J. Benj., 
Paris, 1734 guillotined, 1794 ; dram, 
composer and writer. (2) Elie Mi- 
riam, b. Chaillot, France, Feb. S, 
1839 ; pupil of Alkan, Liszt, and Mo- 
scheles ; pf.-prof. at Paris Cons, and 
dram, composer. 

Delacour (dii-la-koor'), Vincent Con- 
rad F61ix, Paris, 1808 1840 ; harp- 
ist and composer. 

Delatre (du-l&t'r), (i) Olivier, Belgian 
music-pub. Antwerp, (1539-55). (2) 
Claude Petit Jan., conductor and 
composer at Liege, 1555. 

De Lattre (dii-latr), Roland. Vide 


De 1'Aulnaye (dti-151-na), Fran. 
Stanislas, Madrid, July 7, 1739 
Chaillot, 1830; writer and theor- 

Deldevez (dul-du-ve's), Ed. Ernest, 
Paris, 18171897 ; 1859, asst.-cond. 
Gr. Ope'ra and Paris Cons. ; dram, 
composer and writer. 

Deledicque (dgl-dek), Ld., b. La 
Haye, Feb. 7, 1821 ; violinist and 
teacher ; pupil Paris Cons. ; founder 
and cond. "Soc. des Symphonistes," 
1861-83 ; c. vln. pieces, etc, 

De Leva (da-la-va), Enrico, b. 
Naples, Jan. 19, 1867 ; pupil of Pan- 
nani and Rossomandi (pf.) ; Puzzoni 
and d'Arienzo (harm.) ; his Canzo- 
netta Napoletana " E Spingole Fran- 
gese," was very succ., as are many of 
his songs ; c. opera " La Carmargo " 
(not prod.). 

Delezenne (du-lii-zen), Chas. Ed. 
Jos., Lille, 17761866 ; writer, 

Delhasse (dSl-iis), F&ix, b. Spaa, 
Jan. 8, 1809 ; lives in Brussels ; 

Delibes (dii-leb'), Ctement Philibert 

L6o, St. Germain-du-Val, Sarthe, 
Feb. 21, 1836 Paris, Jan. 16, iSgi ; 
a composer of fascinating grace and 
polish ; entered the Paris Cons, in 
1848, Le Couppey, Bazin, Adam, and 
Benoist being his chief teachers ; 1853 
organist at the Ch. of St. -Jean et St.- 
Fraucois ; his first operetta "Deux 
Sacs de Charbon" was followed by 12 
more; 1865, 2nd chorus-master Gr. 
Opera ; his first ballet "La Source" 
was prod, here 1866, later in Vienna 
SLS^Naila"; the second, " Coppe- 
lia " (Gr. Opera, 1870), is still popu- 
lar, as is "Sylvia" (1876); 1881, 
prof, of comp. at the Cons. ; c. 
also the succ. opera " Lakmj" (v. 
STORIES OF OPERAS), and others. 

Delicati (da-lt-ka'-te), Margherita, 
Italian soprano in London with her 
husband, 1789. 

Delioux (De Savignac) (dul-yoo dti 
sav-en-ya"k), Chas., b. Lorient, Mor- 
bihan, April, 1830; self-taught as 
pianist; studied harmony with Barbe- 
reau, and comp. with Halevy ; 1846 
took Grand Prix for cpt.; prod, i-act 
comic opera " Yvonne et Lou " (Gym- 
nase, 1854); c. pf.-pcs and wrote tech- 
nical works. 

Delia Maria (deT-la ma-re'-a), Do- 
minique, Marseilles, 1768 Paris, 
March 9, 1800 ; son of an Italian 
mandolinist ; played mandolin and 
'cello; at 18 prod, a grand opera; 
studied comp. in Italy, and c. 7 operas, 
incl. the very succ, '* Le Prisonnier" 

Delle Sedie (dSl-lS sad'-y$), Enrico, 
b. Leghorn, June 17, 1826 ; pupil of 
Galeffi, Persanola, and Domeniconi ; 
1848, imprisoned as a Revolutionist ; 
then studied singing; debut, Flor- 
ence, 1851 ; later prof, of singing 
Paris Cons. ; has lived in Paris since 
as singing teacher. 

Dellinger (deT-lmg-e'r), Rudolf, b. 
Graslitz, Bohemia, July 8, 1857; 
1883, conductor at Hamburg ; 1893, 
Dresden Ct. Opera ; c. operettas, incl. 
succ. "CapitdnFracasse" (Hamburg, 
1889), and " Die Chansanette " (Dres* 


den, 1894); Prague, 1895, "Die Sang- 

Dell' Orefice (del 6-ra-fe'-chg), Giu., 
Fara, Abrazzio, Chietino, 1848 
Naples, 1889 ; cond. and dram, com- 

Del Mela (del ma'-la), Don Dpmeni- 
co, an Italian priest ; 1730, inv. the 
" upright " piano. 

Delmotte (del-mot), Henri Florent, 
Mons, Belgium, 17991836; writer. 

Delprat (dul-pra 1 ), Chas., 1803 Pau, 
Pyrenees, 1888 ; singing-teacher and 
writer there. 

Delsarte (dul-sSrt), Fran. Alex. 
Nicholas Che'ri, Solesme, Nord, 
1811 Paris, 1871; tenor; teacher of 
a well-known physical culture; 1855 
inv. the Guide-Accord, or Sonotype, 
to facilitate piano-tuning. 

Del Valle de Paz (del val'-la da piltz), 
Edgardo, b. Alexandria, Egypt, 
Oct. 18, 1861 ; pf. -pupil at Naples 
Cons., of Cesi (pf.), and Serrao 
(comp.) ; at 16 toured in Italy and 
Egypt, now prof, in Florence Cons. ; 
pub. pf. -method, etc.; c. orchestral 
suites, etc. 

Deraantius (da-man'-tsf-oos), Chr., 
Reichenberg, 1567 Freiburg, Sax- 
ony, 1643 ; prolific composer of 
church-music and songs; wrote a 
vocal method. 

Demelius (da-ma'-tt-oos), Chr.,Schlet- 
tau, Saxony, 1643 Nordhausen, 
1711 ; composer. 

Demeur (du-miir'), (r) Anne Arsene 
(nee Charton), Sanjon, Charente, 
1827 Paris (?), 1892 ; soprano ; m. 
(2) J. A. Demeur, flutist and com- 

Demol (du-mol), (i) Pierre, Brussels, 
1825 Alost, Belgium, 1899; dir. 
and composer. (2) Fran. M., Brus- 
sels, 1844 Ostend, 1883 ; nephew of 
above ; cond., prof., and dram, com- 

Demunck', (i) Frangois, Brussels, 
18151854; 'cellist and prof. (2) 
Ernest, b. Brussels, Dec. 21, 1840; 
son and pupil of above; pupil of 
Servais ; lived in London, then Paris ; 

1870, 'cellist Weimar Court orch.; 
1879 m. Carlotta Patti; 1893, prof. 
R.A.M., London. 

Demuth (da-moot'), Ld., b. Briinn, 
Nov. 2, 1 86 1 ; barytone ; studied 
Vienna Cons., with Gansbachers, 
sang at Halle, etc., later Hamburg 
and Vienna. 

Denefve (dti-nuf), Jules, b. Chimay, 
1814 ; 'cellist and dram, composer, 

DennSe (den-na), Chas., b. Oswego, 
N. Y., Sept. i, 1863 ; studied with 
Emery, Boston ; lives there as teacher 
and composer of comic operas, etc. 

Dengremont (da'n-grii-moh), Maurice, 
b. of French parents, Rio de Janeiro, 
1866 Buenos Ayres, 1893 ; violinist; 
at ii played with succ. in Europe. 

Den'ner, Jn. Chp., Leipzig, 1655 
Niirnberg, 1707 ; maker of wind- 
insts.; inv. 1690 or 1700 the clarinet, 
perhaps also the Stockfagott and the 

Denza (deV-tsa), Luigi, b. Castellam- 
mare di Stabbia, Feb. 24, 1846 ; pu- 
pil of Naples Cons. ; c. opera ' ' Wai- 
hnstdn " (Naples, 1876), many pop. 
songs (some in Neapolitan dialect), 
incl. " Funiculi-Funicula." 

Deppe (dep'-pe), Ludwig, Alverdissen, 
Lippe, 1828 Pyrmont, Sept. 5-6, 
1890 ; notable pf. -teacher and con- 

Depres (or Despr6s) (dti-prS' or da- 
pra), Josse' (known as Josquin), 
Conde (?) in Hainault, Burgundy, ca. 
1450 Conde,Aug. 27,1521. [His epi- 
taph reads " Joss6 Despres "; other 
spellings are Despres, De(s)prez, 
Depret, De(s)pret(s), Dupre, and by 
the Italians, Del Prato, Latinized as 
a Prato, a Pratis, Pratensis, etc. ; 
Josquin appears as Josse, Jossien, 
Jusquin, Giosquin, Josquinus, Jaco- 
bo, Jodocus, Jodoculus, etc.] One 
of the most eminent of musicians and 
the chief contrapuntist of his day ; 
pupil of Okeghem ; 1471-84 a singer 
in the Sistine Chapel, and about 
1488 in Ferrara ; he was already now 
accepted as " princeps musicorum," 
and had international vogue. He was 


received with honour by various 
princes, and was court-musician to 
Louis XII., many amusing anecdotes 
of his musical humour being told. He 
finally returned to Conde as Provost 
of the Cathedral Chapter. Buraey 
called him " the father of modern 
harmony." The florid and restless 
cpt. of his church-works and the sec- 
ular cantus firnius (v. D.D.) that was 
the basis of most of them, brought 
his school into disfavour and disuse 
when the revolutionary Palestrina ap- 
peared. But he was at least the culmi- 
nation of his style, and his erudition 
was moulded into suave and emo- 
tional effects, so that Ambros says 
that he was the " first musician who 
impresses us as being a genius." His 
period coinciding with the use of 
movable types for music, his works 
are preserved in large quantities in 
volumes and in the collections of Pe- 
trucci and Peutinger. His French 
chansons were pub. by T. Susato, 
1545, P. Attaignant, 1549, and Du 
Chemin, 1553; excerpts in modern 
notation are in the ' ' Bibliotkek fur 
Kirchenmusik" 1844 ; in Commer's 
" Colkctio^ Rochlitz' " Sammlung 
vorzuglicher Gesangstucke" 1838, 
Choron's " Collection" and in the 
histories of Ambros, Burney, Haw- 
kins, etc. 

Deprosse (dS-pros'-se), Anton, Mu- 
nich, 1838 Berlin, 1878 ; dram, com- 

De Reszk< (du resh'-ka), (i) Jean, b. 
Warsaw, Jan. 14, 1852 ; perhaps the 
chief tenor of his generation, great in 
opera of all schools ; pupil of Ciaf- 
fei, Cotogni, etc. ; 1874, debut as 
barytone at Venice, as Alfonso in 
" La Favoritci," under the name ' ' De 
Reschi " ; after singing in Italy and 
Paris and studying with Sbriglia, he 
made his debut as tenor in "Robert 
If Liable" (Madrid, 1879) : * 88 4, Th. 
des Nations ; 1885 at the Gr. Opera, 
Paris, creating Massenet's " Le Cid"; 
since '87 has sung constantly in Lon- 
don, and since '95 in New York. (2) 


lldouard, b. Warsaw, Dec. 23, 1855, 
bro. of above ; pupil of his broth- 
er, of Ciaffei, Steller, and Coletti ; 
debut, Paris, April 22, 1876, as the 
King in " Aida" (Th. des Italiens), 
sang there two seasons, then at Tu- 
rin and Milan ; 1880-84 at the Italian 
Opera, London ; since then, Paris, 
London, America ; a magnificent 
basso of enormous repertory and 
astonishing versatility as an actor; 
a master in tragic, comic, or buffa 
opera. His sister, (3) Josephine, 
was a soprano of greatest promise, 
but left the stage on her marriage. 

Bering, v. DEERING. 

De Sanctis (da sank'-tes), Cesare, b. 
Allbano, Rome, 1830; 1876, prof, of 
harm, in the Liceo ; c. overture, 
Requiem Mass, " roo fugues," a cap- 
pella in strict style ; pub. treatises. 

De'saugiers (da-s5-zha), Marc Ant., 
Frejus, 1742 Paris, 1793 ; prod, nu- 
merous succ. short operas. 

Deshayes (duz-ez), Prosper Didier, 
prod., 1780, oratorio " Les Macha- 
be'es "y c. operettas and ballets, etc. 

Desmarets (da-ma-ra), H., Paris, 1662 
Luneville, 1741 ; dram, composer. 

Desormes (da-zorm), L. C., Algiers, 
1845 Paris, 1898 ; composer and 

Dessau (deV-sow), Bd., b. Hamburg, 
March I, 1861 ; violinist ; pupil of 
Schradieck, Joachim, and Wieni- 
awski ; leader at various theatres ; 
1898 Konzertmeister at the court- 
opera, Berlin, and teacher Stern cons. 

Dessauer (dfa'-sow-er), Jos., Prague, 
May 28, 1798 Modling, near Vien- 
na, July S, 1876 ; c. 5 operas and 
many pop. songs. 

Dessoff (des'-s&f), Felix Otto, Leip- 
zig. 1835 Frankfort, 1892 ; court- 
cond. at Carlsruhe. 

Destinn (da'-shtm), Emmy, b. Prague, 
Feb. 26, 1878 ; soprano ; studied 
with Loewe-Destinn ; 1898 court 
opera, Berlin. 

Destouches (da-toosh), (i) Andre* 
Cardinal, Paris, 1672 1749; dram, 
composer. (2) Franz Seraph von, 


b. Munich, 1772 1844; dram, com- 

Desvignes (da-ven'-yu), Frai., Trier, 
1805 Metz, 1853 ; violinist ; founded 
conservatory at Metz ; dram, com- 

Deswert (da-var), (i) Gaspard Isi- 
dore, Louvain, 1830 Schaerbeck, 
near Brussels, 1896 ; 'cellist ; prof. 
Brussels Cons. (2) Jules, Louvain, 
1843 Ostend, iSgr, brother of above; 
conductor and dram, composer. 

Deszczynski (desh-chen'-shkt), Jos., 
b. Wilno, 1781 ; Polish composer. 

Dett'mer, Wm., b. Breinum, near 
Hildesheim, 1808 ; operatic bass ; 
son of a peasant ; joined a troupe of 
players ; sang minor roles at Han- 
over ; 1842 engaged for leading roles 
Dresden ; retired 1874. 

Deutz (doits). Vide MAGNUS. 

Devienne (duv-ySn), Fran., Joinville, 
Haute - Marne, Jan. 31, 1759 
(insane), Charenton, Sept. 5, 1803; 
flutist and bassoonist ; important in 
improving wind instr. ; prof., com- 
poser and writer. 

Dew'ey, Ferdinand, Montpelier, Vt., 
U. S. A., 1851 Beverley, U. S. A., 
1900 ; pianist, composer, and teacher. 

Dezede (or Dezaides) (du-zed), 
Lyons (?) 1740 Paris, 1792 ; prod. 
15 pop. operas and operettas. 

Diabelli (de-a-beT-le), Antonio, 
Mattsee, near Salzburg, Sept. 6, 
1781 Vienna, April 8, 1858 ; pf.-and 
guitar-teacher ; partner of Cappi, the 
music-publisher ; c. opera and pop. 
sonatinas, etc. 

Diamandy. Vide NUOVINA. 

Diaz (de la PeSa) (de'-^th diUa-pan'- 
ya), Eugfene Emile, Paris, Feb. 27, 
1837 Oct., 1901 ; son of the painter; 
pupil of Paris Cons. (Halevy, Reber); 
prod, the com. opera " Le Roi Can- 
daule" (1865, Th. Lyrique) ; 1867 
won the prize for opera, "La Coupe 
du Roi de Thule " (Grand Opera) ; 
1890 prod, lyric drama " Benvenuto " 
(Op. -Com.) ; pub. many songs. 

Dib'din, (i) Chas., Dibdin, near 
Southampton, 1745 London, 1814 ; 

composer, singer, accompanist, actor, 
manager and writer. (2) Henry Ed- 
ward, Sadlers Wells, ^8131866; 
harpist, organist, violinist and com- 
poser ; youngest son of above. 

Dick, Chas. Geo. Cotsford, b. 
London, Sept. r, 1846; law-student 
at Worcester Coll., Oxford ; later 
musician ; produced succ. operettas, 
and 2 comic operas, a "children's 
opera," etc. 

Dic'kons, Mrs. (nee Poole), London, 
ca. 1770 May 4, 1833 ; soprano. 

Did'ymus, b. Alexandria, Egypt, 63 
B.C. ; wrote 4,000 works in all, incl. 
a treatise on harmony. Vide TETRA- 
CHORDS and COMMA (D. D.). 

Diehl (del), Louis, b. Mannheim, 1838; 
1863, m. Alice Mangold ; composer. 

Diem (dem), Jos., Kellmunz, near 
Memmingen, 1836 Constance, 1894 ; 

Dimmer (d'ya-ma), Louis, b. Paris, 
Feb. 14, 1843; pianist; pupil at Cons, 
of Marmontel ; took ist pf. -prize at 
13, later ist harm., 2nd org. and ist 
cpt. -prizes ; pupil Ambr. Thomas 
and Bazin ; 1887 pf.-prof. at the 
Cons, (vice Marmontel) ; besides 
brilliant concerts of modern music, 
he has organised most delightful con- 
certs of ancient music played on an- 
cient instrs. ; c. pf. -concerto, cham- 
ber-music, etc., ed. collections. 

Dienel (de'-ncl), Otto, b. Tiefenfurth, 
Silesia, Jan. n, 1839; pupil Gorlitz 
Gym., Bunzlau Seminary, R. Inst. 
for church music, Berlin, and R. 
Academy ; organist Marienkirche, 
Berlin; 1881 "Royal Musikdirec- 

Diener (de'-ne'r), Fz., Dessau, 1849 
1879 ; tenor. 

Dierich (de'-rlkh), Carl, b. Heinrich- 
au, March 31, 1852; tenor in con- 
cert, opera and oratorio ; studied with 

Dies (de'-es), Albert K., Hanover, 
1755 Vienna, 1832 ; writer. 

Diet (de-a), Edmond M., b. Paris, 
Sept. 25, 1854 ; pupil of Cesar Franck, 
and Guiraud ; officier of the Academy ; 


prod. 3 operas, incl. u Sir atonies" 
(1887), many ballets and pantomimes, 

Diet(t)er (de'-ter), Chr. L., Ludwigs- 
burg, 1757 Stuttgart, 1822 ; dram, 

Dietrich (de'-trikh) (or Dieterich), (i) 
Sixtus, Augsburg (?) 1490 (95) St. 
Gallen, Switzerland, 1548 ; composer. 
(2) Albert Hn., b. Golk, near Meis- 
sen, Aug. 28, 1829 ; important com- 
poser; pupil of J. Otto, Moscheles, 
Reitz and Schumann ; 1855-61, con- 
cert-cond., 1859, principal mus.- 
dir. at Bonn ; 1861, court-cond. at 
Oldenburg ; 1894 Leipzig ; c. succ. 
opera 'Robin Hood" (Frankfort, 
1879) ; a notable symphony ; over- 
ture, " Normannenfahrt " / cantatas 
with orch., 'cello- and vln. -concertos, 
etc. (3) Marie, b. Weinsberg ; 
studied Stuttgart and with Viardot- 
Garcia ; colorature soprano at Stutt- 
gart court-opera ; then at Berlin. 

Dietsch (detsh), Pierre L. Ph., Di- 
jon, rSoS 1865 ; composer and con- 

Dietz (dets), (i) Jn. Chr., Darmstadt, 
1788 in Holland, 1845 ; instr. -mak- 
er; inv. melodeon (1805), etc.; his 
son and assistant (2) Chr., a famous 
pf. -maker, inv. the Polyplectron. 

Dieupart (d'yu-par), Chas., 1 8th cent., 
violinist and harpsichordist. 

Diez (dets), Sophie (nee Hartmann), 
Munich, 1820 1887 ; soprano. 

Dig'num, Chas., Rotherhithe, 1765 
1837 ; Engl. singer and composer. 

Dil'liger, Jn., Eisfeld, 1590 Coburg, 
1647 , cantor and composer. 

Dingelstedt (dfng'-el-shtet), Jenny 
(nee Lutzer), Prague, 1816 Vienna, 
1877 ; a colorature singer ; m. the poet 
Fz. D. 

Dippel (drp'-pel), Andreas, b. Cassel, 
Nov. 30, 1866 ; notable tenor ; stud- 
ied with Hey, Leoni and Rau ; 1887- 
92, Bremen opera, then in New York 
for several seasons, also in Breslau, 
Vienna; 1889 at Bayreuth, from 1897, 
at Co vent Garden, 

Diruta (de-roo'-ta), (i) Gin, b. Perugia, 

ca. 1560 ; organist ; pub. technical 
books on org., cpt., etc. (2) Ag., b. 
Perugia, 1622 ; Augustine monk ; 

Dis'tin, (i) John, 17931863 ; Engl. 
trumpeter, mv. key-bugle. (2) Theo- 
dore, Brighton, England, 1823 -Lon- 
don, 1893 ; son of above ; barytone ; 
later bass singer and composer'. 

Dit'son, (i) Oliver, iSn iSSS ; 
founder of the music-pub, firm 0. 
Ditson Co., at Boston, Mass.; 1867, 
his eldest son, (2) Chas., took charge 
of N. Y. branch (C. H. Ditson & 
Co.). Since 1875 (3) J. Edward 
Ditson hascond. Philadelphia branch 
(J. E. D. & Co.). A branch for the 
importation of instrs., etc., wasest. at 
Boston in 1860 as John C. Haynes & 
Co. } and since 1864 a Chicago 
branch, Lyon & Healy. 

Ditters (dlt'-ters) (von Dittersdorf), 
Karl, Vienna, Nov. 2, 1739 Neu- 
haus, Bohemia, Oct. 24, 1799; note- 
worthy as forerunner of Mozart, and 
early writer of programme-music (v. 
D. ).) ; pupil of Konig and Ziegler, 
of Trani (vln.), and Bono (comp.); he 
played in the orch. of his patron 
Prince Joseph of Hildburghausen, 
1759, and then in the ct.-Th. at Vienna 
(1761) ; toured Italy with Gluck, and 
made great succ. as violinist ; 1764- 
69 conductor to the Bishop of Gross- 
Wardein, Hungary. Prod, his first 
opera, " Amore in Musica" 1767; 
followed by various oratorios, and 
much orchestral and chamber-music. 
Later conductor to the Prince-Bishop 
of Breslau ; built a small theatre and 
prod, several pieces. 1770 the Pope 
bestowed on him the Order of the 
Golden Spur; 1773 the Emperor en- 
nobled him as "von Dittersdorf." 
Prod. 28 operas; " Doctor and Apo- 
theker" (Vienna, 1786), still pop. ; 
several oratorios and cantatas; 12 
symphonies on Ovid's " Metamor- 
phoses'''' (Vienna, 1785) (noteworthy 
as early attempts at programme-mu- 
sic) ; 41 other symphonies ; a " Con- 
certo grosso " for n concerted instrs. 


with orch. ; 12 vln. -concertos, etc. 
Autobiography (Leipzig, 1801). 

Divitis (de'-vl-tes), Antonius (rightly 
Antoine Le Riche), French contra- 
puntist and singer, loth century. 

Dizi (de-ze), Fran. J., Namur, France, 
Jan. 14, 1780 Paris, Nov., 1847; 
composer and harpist. 

Dlabacz (dla'-bach), Gottf. J., Boh- 
misch-Brod, Bohemia, 1758 Prague, 
1820 ; pub. a biog. diet., etc. 

Djemil, Bey (j&n'-el ba), b. Constan- 
tinople ca. 1858 ; court-'cellist to the 

Dobrzynski (do-brii-tsen'-shld), Igna- 
cy F61ix, Romanoff, Volhynia, Feb. 
25, 1807 Oct. 9, 1867; pupil of 
Eisner ; pianist and dram, composer. 

Doebber (dep'-bfr), Js., b. Berlin, 
March 28, 1866 ; pupil of Radecke, 
Bussler and Agghazy, Stern Cons.; 
taught the ist pf.-class in Kullak's 
Cons. ; then conductor at Kroll's 
Th.; at Darmstadt ct.-Th.; since 1895 
cond. at the ct.-Th. in Coburg-Gotha, 
and tutor to Princess Beatrice; c. 
succ. operas, "Die Strassensange- 
rin" (Gotha, 1890); " Der Schmied 
-von Gretna-Grecn " (Berlin, 1893) ; 
burlesque-opera " Doketta" (Bran- 
denburg, 1894) ; " Die Rose von Gen- 
xeuuf" (Gotha, 1895) ; " Die Grille" 
(Leipzig, 1897), etc. 

Dbhler (da'-ler), Th., Naples, 1814 
Florence, 1856 ; pianist and dram, 

Dohnanyi (do-nan'-ye), Ernst von, b. 
Pressburg, Hungary, July 27, 1877 ; 
notable pianist and promising, com- 
poser ; first lessons from his father, 
an amateur 'cellist ; later studied with 
Foerstner, Kessler, Thoman, and 
Eugen D'Albert; ddbut, Vienna; 
1898, won prize there with his pf.- 
concerto. 1900 and 1901 toured in 
America with great succ. ; began corn- 
posing early and was favorably no- 
ticed by Brahms ; c. also symphony, 
pf. -quintet, pf.-pcs., etc. 

Doles (do'-les), J. Fr., Steinbach, 
Saxe-Meiningen, 1715 Leipzig, 1797; 
director and composer. 

Dominiceti (do-me-ne-cha'-te), Ce- 
sare, Desenzano, Lago di Garda, 
1821 Sesto di Monza, 1888 ; prof, 
of comp. at Milan Cons., and dram, 

Dom'mer, Arrey von, b. Danzig, Feb. 
9, 1828 ; pupil of Richter and Lobe 
(comp.), and Schallenburg (org.) ; 
1863 Hamburg as a lecturer, critic, 
and (1873-79) sec. to the Town Li- 
brary; 1892, Dr. phil. hon. causa 
(Marburg Univ.) ; writer and com- 

Donati (do-na'-te), (i) Ignazio, Casal- 
maggiore, near Cremona, i6th cent., 
composer and conductor. (2) Bal- 
dassaro, d. Venice, 1603 ; cond. and 

Done (d5n), Win., Worcester, 1815 
1895 ; Engl. organist and conductor, 

Doni (do'-ne), (i) A. Fran., Florence, 
1519 Monselice, near Padua, 1574 ; 
pub. a "Dialogue on Music" (2) 
Giov. Bat., 15931647; Florentine 
nobleman of great learning and re- 
search in ancient music ; inv. the 
Lyra Barberina or Amphichord. 

Donizetti (do-ne-tset'-te), (i) Gaeta- 
no, Bergamo, Nov. 25, 1797 April 8, 
1848 ; son of a weaver ; pupil of Sa- 
lari (voice), Gonzales (pf. and ac- 
comp.), and Mayr (harm.) ; Pilotti 
and Padre Mattel (cpt.) ; his father 
opposing his making mus. a profes- 
sion, he entered the army, was posted 
at Venice, where he c. and prod, with 
succ. " Enrico di JBorgogna " (1819) ; 
11 // Fakgname di Livonia " (Venice, 
1820), first given as " Pit fro il 
Grande" also succeeded ; " Le Nozze 
in Villa " (Mantua, 1820) failed ; 
" Zoraide di Granata" (1822) suc- 
ceeded and he left the army ; 1823 he 
m. Virginie Vasselli (d. 1837) ; 1822- 
29 he c. 23 operas, none of them of 
great originality or importance. With 
"Anna Bolma" (Milan, 1830), he 
began a better period, incl. the 
great successes "EEKsir d'Amore" 
(Milan, 1832), " Lucrezia Borgia" 
(La Scala, Milan, 1833), " Lucia di 
Lammermoor" (Naples, 1835). 1835 


at Paris he prod. " Marino Faliero." 
1837 dir. Naples Cons. The censor 
forbade his " Poliuto " (it was prod, 
at Naples after his death, 1848), and 
in wrath he left for Paris, where he 
prod, with much succ. "La Fille du 
Regiment" (Op.-Com., 1840), " Les 
Martyrs " (a new version of Poliuto) 
(Opera, 1840)? and "La Favorita" 
(Opera, 1840). Returned to Italy, 
and succ. prod. " Adelasia" (Rome, 
1841), and " Maria Padilla " (Milan, 
1841). At Vienna, 1842, c. and prod, 
with great succ. "Linda di Chamou- 
nix" The Emperor made him Court 
Composer and Master of the Imperial 
Chapel ; c. a Miserere and an Ave 
Maria in strict style. "Don Pas- 
quale" was prod, in Paris, 1843. 
Violent headaches and mental depres- 
sion now assailed him, but he contin- 
ued to write and prod. " Caterino 
Cornaro" (Naples, 1844), his last 
work ; he was found stricken with 
paralysis, never recovered, and died 
in 1848 at Bergamo. Besides 67 
operas, all of them produced, he c. 6 
masses, a requiem ; cantatas ; 12 
string-quartets ; pf.-pcs. and songs. 
Biog. by Cicconetti (Rome, 1864). 
(2) Alfredo, b. Smyrna, Sept. 2, 
1867 ; pupil of Ponchielli and Domi- 
niceti, Milan Cons., graduating with 
a noteworthy " Stabat Mater " with 
orch. ; lives at Milan as cond. and 
teacher of cpt. ; c. i-act operas 
"Nana" (Milan, 1889), and " Dopo 
TAve Maria" (Milan, 1897), very 
succ., "La Locandiera" (comedy in 
3 acts), a symphony, etc. 

Dont (dont), (i) Jos. Val., Georgen- 
thal, Bohemia, 1776 Vienna, 1833 ' 
'cellist. (2) Jakob, Vienna, 1815 
1888; son of above; violinist and com- 

Dongelli (don-jeT-le), Dom., Berga- 
mo, 1790 Bologna, 1873 ; tenor. 

Door (dor), Anton, b. Vienna, June 
20, 1833 ; pupil of Czerny and Sech- 
ter ; court pianist at Stockholm ; 1859 
teacher at the Imp. Inst., Moscow; 
1864 prof, at the Cons. ; 1869 ist 

prof. Vienna Cons., resigned 1901 ; 
has edited classical and instructive 

Dopp'ler, (i) Albert Fr,, Lemberg, 
1821 Baden, near Vienna, 1883 ; 
flutist, conductor, professor, and 
dram, composer. (2) Karl, b. Lem- 
berg, 1826 ; bro. of above ; flutist, 
and conductor; c. operas, incl. " Er- 
zebetk" in collab. with his bro. and 
Erkel. (3) Arpad, b. Pesth, June 
5, 1857 ; son and pupil of (2) ; pupil 
of Stuttgart Cons., later pf.-teacher ; 
1880-83 New York ; returned to 
Stuttgart Cons., also since iSSg 
chorusm. at the ct.-Th. ; c. opera 
" Viel Ldrm wn Nichts" (Leipzig, 
1896) ; suite, Festouverture, etc. 

Dorffel (dM'-fel), Alfred, b. Walden- 
burg, Saxony, Jan. 24, 1821 ; pupil 
at Leipzig of Fink, Muller, Mendels- 
sohn, etc, ; mus.-libr. Leipzig City 
Library ; critic and editor ; 1885 Dr. 
phil. h. c. , Leipzig U. 

Do'ria, Clara, (i) v. MRS. c. K, 


Doring (da'-rmg), (i) G., Pomeren- 

dorf, near Elbing, 1801 1869 ; can- 
tor ; pub. choral books and historical 
essays. (2) Karl, b. Dresden, July 
4, 1834 ; pupil Leipzig Cons. ; 1858, 
Dresden Cons. ; 1875, prof. ; c. suites 
for string-orch., Grand Mass, etc. 
Dorn, (i) H. (L. Edm.), Konigsberg, 
Nov. 14, 1804 Berlin, Jan. 10, 1892; 
pupil of Berger, Zelter, and Klein, 
Berlin ; ct.-cond. at K6nigsberg ; 
cond. Cologne ; founded the " Rhein- 
ische Musikschule," which, 1850, be- 
came the Cologne Cons. ; cond. Royal 
Opera, Berlin ; teacher and critic ; 
notable composer of 12 operas, sym- 
phonies, etc. (2) Julius Paul, b. 
Riga, June 8, 1833 ; son and pupil of 
above ; pianist ; teacher in Poland, 
Cairo, and Alexandria; 1865-68 
cond. the Crefeld " Liedertafel" ; 
since pf.-teacher at the R. Hoch- 
schiile, Berlin, with title "Royal 
Prof." ; c. over 400 works, incl. 3 
masses with orch. (3) Otto, b. Co- 
logne, Sept. 7, 1848 ; son and pupil 



of (i); studied at Stern Cons., took 
the Meyerbeer scholarship (ist prize), 
1873 ; lives in Wiesbaden ; c. succ. 
opera " Afraja" (Gotha, 1891); 
symphony, ' ' Prometheus " ; over- 
tures, " Hermanns scklacht" and 
14 Sappho" etc. (4) Edward, 
Pen-name of J. L. Rb'ckel. 

Dorner (deV-ner), Armin W., b. 
Marietta, Ohio, June 22, 1852; 
studied in Berlin, Stuttgart and Paris ; 
pf.-prof. Cincinnati Coll. of Music; 
pub. " Technical Exercises." 

Dornheckter (dorn'-hek-ter), Robert, 
Franzburg, Pomerania, 1839 Stral- 
sund, 1890 ; conductor, organist and 

Dorus - Gras (do - rtt - gras), Julie 
Aime*e ^ Josephe (rightly) Van 
Steenkiste (Dorus, stage-name) ; 
Valenciennes, 1805 Paris, 1896 ; 
operatic soprano ; created important 

Doss (dos), Adolf von, Pfarrkirchen, 
Lower Bavaria, 1825 Rome, 1886 ; 
Jesuit priest and dram, composer. 

Dotssch (dStsh), Aug., 1858 Wies- 
baden, 1882 ; 'cellist. 

Dotzauer (dot'-tsow-er), (i) Justus J. 
Fr., Hasselrieth, near Hildburghau- 
sen, 1783 Dresden, 1860; 'cellist, 
and dram, composer. (2) Justus B. 
Fr., Leipzig, 1808 Hamburg, 1874 ; 
son of above ; teacher. (3) K. L. 
(" Louis "), b. Dresden, Dec. 7, 
1811 ; son and pupil of (i); 'cel- 

Douay (doo-e"), Georges, Paris, Jan. 
7, 1840 ; pupil of Duprato ; amateur 
composer of operettas, etc. 

Dourlen (door-Uln), Victor Chas. 
Paul, Dunkirk, 1780 Batignolles, 
near Paris, 1864 ; prof, and dram, 

Dow'land, (i) John, Westminster, 
London, 1562 London, April, 1626 ; 
lutenist and composer to Christian 
IV. of Denmark. (2) Robert, 1641 ; 
son of above ; lutenist and editor. 

Draeseke (dra'-ze-ke), Felix Aug. 
Bhd., b. Coburg, Oct. 7, 1835 ; im- 
portant composer; pupil of Rietz, 

Leipzig Cons., and of Liszt at Wei- 
mar; 1864-74 Lausanne Cons., ex- 
cept 1868-69, in the R. M. S. at Mu- 
nich ; 1875 Geneva, then Dresden as 
teacher ; 1884 prof, of comp. at the 
Cons.; c. 4 operas; "Sigurd" 
" Gudrun" (Hanover, 1884), " Ber- 
tram! de Bom " (book and music), 
and the succ. " Herrat" (Dresden, 
1892) ; 3 symphonies (op. 40 " Trag- 
ica" in C) ; Grand Mass with orch. ; 
" Akademische Festouverture "y sym- 
phonic preludes to Calderon's "Life 
a Dream" Kleist's " Fenthesilea " 
(both MS.), etc.; wrote treatises and 
a " Harmony " in verse. 

Draghi (dra'-ge), (i) Antonio, Ferrara, 
1635 Vienna, 1700 ; c. 87 operas, 
87 festival plays, etc. (2) Gio. Bat., 
16671706, harpsichordist, organist 
and composer, London. 

Dragonnet'ti, Dom., Venice, April 
7, 1763 London, April 16, 1846 ; 
called " the Paganini of the contra- 
basso " ; composed, played and 

Drath (drat), Th., b. Winzig, Silesia, 
June 13, 1828 ; pupil of Marx ; can- 
tor at Bunzlau Seminary ; Royal 
"Musikdirector" ; composer and the- 

Draud (drowt) (Drau'dius), Georg, 
Davernheim, Hesse, 1573 Butzbach, 
1635 ; pub. " Bibliothcca Classica" 
and other musical works of great in- 
formational value. 

Drechsler (drekhs'-ler), (i) Jos., Wall- 
isch-Birken (Vlachovo Brezi), Bohe- 
mia, 1782 Vienna, 1852 ; organist, 
conductor and dram, composer. (2) 
Karl, Kamenz, 1800 Dresden, 
1873 ; 'cellist teacher. 

Dregert (dra'-gert), Alfred, Frank- 
fort-on-Oder, 1836 Elberf eld, 1893 ; 
conductor, dir. and composer. 

Dresel (dra'-zfil), Otto, Andernach, 
1826 Beverly, Mass., 1890; com- 

Dress'ler, (i) Louis Raphael, b. New 
York, 1861 ; son and pupil of (2) 
Wm. (a conductor at N. Y.) ; lives 
there as pianist and composer. 


Dreszer (dresh'-er), Anastasius W., 
b. Kalisch, Poland, April 28, 1845 ; a 
brilliant pianist at 12 ; studied with 
Doring, Krebs, and Fruh, Dresden 
Cons.; lived in Leipzig ; 1868, Halle ; 
founded a music-school of which he is 
still dir. ; c. 2 symphonies, opera 
11 Valmoda" etc. 

Dreyschock (dri'-shok), (i) Alex., 
Zack, Bohemia, Oct. 15, 1 8 18 Ven- 
ice, April i, 1869 ; one of the most 
dextrous of pf. -virtuosi ; c. an opera, 
etc. (2) Raimund, Zack, 1824 
Leipzig, 1869, br. of above ; leader. 
His wife (3) Elisabeth (ne'e Nose), 
Cologne, 1832, a contralto. (4) Felix, 
Leipzig, Dec. 27, 1860 ; son of (i) ; 
pianist ; student under Grabau, Ehr- 
lich, Taubert, and Kiel at the Ber- 
lin Royal Hochschule ; prof. Stern 
Cons., Berlin; c. a vln, -sonata (op. 
16), etc. 

Drieberg (dre'-bSrkh), Fr. J. von, 
Charlottenburg, 17801856; writer 
on Greek music ; dram, composer. 

Drobisch (dro-Wsh), (i) Moritz W., 
b. Leipzig, Aug. 16, 1802; from 1842 
prof, of phil., Leipzig Univ. ; pub. 
important treatises on the mathemat- 
ical determination of relative pitches. 
(2) Karl L., Leipzig, 1803 Augs- 
burg, 1854 ; bro. of above ; c. 3 ora- 

Drobs (dreps), J. And., near Erfurt, 
1784 Leipzig, 1825 ; organist. 

Drouet (droo-a), L. Frang. Ph., Am- 
sterdam, 1792 Bern, Sept. 30, 1873 ; 
flutist and composer. 

Dubois (dtt-bwa) (i) (Clement Fran,) 
Th., b. Rosnay, Marne, Aug. 24, 
1837 ; studied at Rheims, then under 
Marmontel, Be'noist, Bazin, and 
Thomas (fugue and cpt.) at Paris 
Cons. ; took Grand prix de Rome 
with the cantata " Atala"; also first 
prizes in all departments ; sent from 
Rome a Solemn Mass (perf. at the 
Madeleine in 1870), a dram, work, 
" La Prova d'un Opera Seria" and 
2 overtures ; returned to Paris as a 
teacher ; cond. at Saint-Clotilde ; 
since organist at the Madeleine ; 

1871 prof, of harm, at the Cons. ; 
1891 prof, of comp. ; 1894, elected to 
Acad. ; 1896, dir. of the Cons., and 
officier of the Legion of Honour ; c. 
4 operas ; oratorios : " Les Septs Pa- 
roles du Christ" (1867), " Le Para- 
dis Ptrdu" (1878) (city of Paris 
prize), and " N6tre Dame de la Mer" 
(1897) ; cantatas ; masses, etc. ; 3 
overtures, incl. " Frithioff" (2) 
Le'on, b. Brussels, Jan. 9, 1849 I P U P^ 
of the Cons., took Grand prix de 
Rome. Since 1890 second cond., 
Th. de la Monnaie, Brussels ; c. 3 
operas, ballet, symphonic poem, 
"Atala" etc. 

Duburg', Matthew, London, 1703 
1767 ; violinist and conductor. 

Ducange. Vide CANGE, DU. 

Ducis (dti-se), Benoit (Benedictus 
Ducis), b. Bruges, 1480; important 
composer ; not to be confused with 
Benedictus of Appenzell. 

Dufay (du-fe"), Guill., ca. 1400 Cam- 
brai, Nov. 27, 1474 ; a canon ; said 
to have inv. white (open) notes. 

Dugazon (dii-ga-zon), Louise-Rosa- 
lie (nee Lefevre), Berlin, 1753 
Paris, 1821 ; untrained singer in light 
opera, so charming in both young 
and old roles as to give rise to the 
descriptive terms " Jeunes Duga- 
zon," and "Meres Dugazon." 

Dug'gan, Jos. Francis, b. Dublin, 
July 10, 1817 ; opera-conductor and 
teacher in various cities in America, 
also Paris and London ; c. succ. 
operas, "Pierre" and " Lfonie" 
and 3 not produced ; 2 symphonies, 

Duiffopruggar (rightly Tieffenbriick- 
er) (dwef'-fo-proog'-gar or tef'-fen- 
bruk-er), (i) Caspar, Freising, Ba- 
varia, 1514 Lyons, 1572; long con- 
sidered the first vln. -maker ; went to 
Lyons in 1553, naturalised in 1559, 
and made violas da gamba and lutes. 
Other instr. -makers of the same sur- 
name were (2) Wendelin, (3) Leon- 
hard, (4) Leopold, (5) Ulrich, and 
(6) Magnus. The latest made lutes 
at Venice, 1607. 


Dulcken (door-ken), (i) Louise (nee 
David), Hamburg, 1811 London, 
1850, a sister of Fd. David ; pianist. 
(2) Fd. Quentin, London, June i, 
1837 Astoria, N. Y,, 1902 ; son of 
above ; pupil of Mendelssohn, Mo- 
scheles, Gade, Hauptmann, Becker 
and F. Killer ; prof. Warsaw 
Cons. ; toured in Europe ; lived for 
years in New York ; c. an opera, 
" Wieslav" ; a mass, etc. 

Dulon (doo'-lon), Fr. L., Oranienburg, 
near Potsdam, 1769 Wurzburg, 
1826 ; a blind flutist and composer. 

Dulong (doo'-longk), (i) Fz. Henri 
von, b. Hamm, Westphalia, Feb. 26, 
1 86 1 ; tenor, studied with Vannucini 
in Florence ; toured as concert-singer. 
(2) Magda von (nee John), b. Halle, 
Feb. 29, 1872 ; wife of above ; con- 
cert-alto; studied with Hromada, 
Frau Joachim, and Gerster ; first 
sang as Magda Lossen. 

Dun, Finlay, Aberdeen, 17951853 ; 
viola-player, singing-teacher, editor 
and composer. 

Dun'ham, H. Morton, b, Brockton, 
Mass., July 27, 1853 ; pupil N. E. 
Cons., and Boston Univ. Coll. of 
Mus. ; has taught in both places 
since; pub. "Organ School" '; 2 or- 
gan-sonatas, etc. 

Duni (doo'-ne), Egidio Romualdo, 
Matera, near Otranto, Feb. 9, 1709 
Paris, June n, 1775 ; pupil of Du- 
rante; his first opera, " Nerone" 
prod. Rome, 1735, with great succ., 
triumphing over Pergolesi's last ope- 
ra " Olimpiado" which the generous 
Duni said was too good for the pub- 
lic, declaring himself "frenetico 
contre il pubblico Romano " ; he c. 
French operettas with such succ. that 
he settled in Paris, where he is con- 
sidered the founder of French opera- 
bouffe; c. 13 Italian operas and 20 

Dunk'ley, Fd. (Louis), b. London, 
England, July 16, 1869 ; pupil of G. 
A. Higgs, Bainbridge, J. Higgs(cpt), 
and E. H. Turpin (compj; and at 
R. A. M. (Scholarship), under Parry, 

Bridge, Martin, Gladstone, Sharpe 
and Barnet ; 1893, dir. at St. Agnes' 
School, Albany, N. Y. ; also organ- 
ist since 1897 at Trinity M. E. Ch. ; 
pub. " The Wreck of the Hesperus," 
ballade for soli, chor., and orch., 
etc. ; 1889 took prize of 50 guineas 
with orch. suite. 

Dunoyer (dun-wa-ya'). Vide GAUC- 

Dun'stable (Dunstaple), John, Dun- 
stable, Bedfordshire, England, 1400 
(?) Walbrook, Dec. 24, 1453 ; called 
by Tinctor one of the "fathers "of 

Dupont (du-poh), (i) Pierre, Roche- 
taillee^near Lyons, April 23, 1821 
Saint-Etienne, July 25, 1870 ; c. the 
words and tunes of popular and 
political songs which Reyer wrote 
out ; provoked such riots that Napo- 
leon banished him, 1851. (2) Jo- 
seph (aine), Liege, 1821 1861 ; vio- 
linist; prof, and dram, composer. 
(3) J. Fran., Rotterdam, 1822 
Niirnberg, 1875 ; violinist and dram, 
composer. (4) Aug., Ensival, near 
Liege, 1828 Brussels, 1890 ; com- 
poser. (5) Alex., Liege, 18331888 ; 
bro. of above ; pub. a " Rfytrtoirc 
dramatiqud Beige" (6) Jos. (le 
jeune), b. Ensival, near Liege, Jan. 
3, 1838 ; bro. of (3), pupil at Liege 
and Brussels Cons., took Grand prix 
de Rome at Brussels ; 1867 cond. at 
Warsaw; 1871, in Moscow; 1872, 
prof, of harm., Brussels Cons. ; cond. 
Th. de la Monnaie, the Society of 
Musicians, and the Popular Concerts. 
(7) Jos. D., d. The Hague, June 26, 
1867 ; bro. of above ; dir. German 
Op. at Amsterdam. 

Duport (du-p6r), (i) J. P., Paris, 1741 
Berlin, 1818 ; 'cellist. (2) J. L., 
Paris, 17491819; more famous 
bro. of above ; also 'cellist ; composer 
and writer. 

Duprato (du-pra'-to), Jules Laurent, 
Nimes, 1827 Paris, 1892 ; prof, of 
harm, and dram, composer. 

Duprez (dii-pra), L.Gilbert, Paris, 
1806 1896 ; tenor and composer. 


Dupuis (dli-pwe), (i) Jos6 (Joseph 
Lambert), Liege, 1833 Nogent- 
sur-Marne, 1900; opera-bouffe singer. 
(2) Sylvain, Liege, Nov. 9, 1856 ; 
pupil Liege Cons. , I S3 1 Prix de Rome; 
now teacher of cpt. and cond. of a 
singing-society ; c. 3 operas, incl. 
the succ. com, opera " Lidylk" 3 
cantatas, symphonic poem, "Mac- 
beth" etc. 

Dupuy (dii-pwe). Vide PUTEANUS. 

Durand (rightly Duranowski) (dfl- 
rafi or dpo-ran-6f -shkl), (i) Auguste 
Fre"de"ric, b. Warsaw, 1770 ; violin- 
ist and cond., son of a court-mus. (2) 
mile, b. St.-Brieue, Cotes du Nord, 
Feb. 16, 1830 ; while still a pupil at 
the Paris Cons, he was appointed 
teacher of an elementary singing- 
class; 1871 prof, of harm; dram, 
composer and writer. (3) Marie 
Auguste, Paris, July 18, 1830 ; pu- 
pil of Benoist, 1849-74 organist at 
various churches ; 1870 est. mus.-pub. 
business of "Durand et Schdne- 
werk," later "Durand et Fils " ; a 
critic and composer. 

Durante (doo-ran'-te), Fran., Fratta 
Maggiore, Naples, March 15, 1684 
Naples, Aug. 13, 1755 ; director and 
conductor, with salary of less than 
$100 per annum ; he is an important 
teacher and composer of the " Nea- 
politan School " ; c. 13 masses, etc. 

Durastanti (doo-ra-stan'-te), Mar- 
garita, ca. 1695 Italian prima don- 
na, of wonderful popularity in Lon- 

D'Ur'fey, Thos., Exeter, ca. 1649 
Feb. 26, 1723 ; operatic composer 
and editor. 

Diirrner (dlr'-ner), Ruprecht Jns. 
Julius, Ansbach, Bavaria, 1810 Ed- 
inburgh, 1859 ; composer, writer, ed- 

Durutte (du-rttt), Fran. Camille 
Ant., Ypres, East Flanders, 1803 
Paris, 1881 ; wrote a new but errone- 
ous system of harm. ; c. operas, etc. 

Du(s)sek (Dusek, Duschek) (doos'- 
sk or better doo'-shek), (i) Fz.,Chot- 
jborz, Bohemia, 1736 Prague, 1799 ' 

composer, pianist and teacher. (2) 
Josephine, b. Prague, 1756 ; pianist, 
composer, singer. (3) J. Ladislaus, 
Caslav (Tschaslau), Bohemia, Feb. 
9, 1761 Saint- Germain -en- Laye, 
March 20, 1812; a boy-soprano ' at 
Iglau, pupil of Father Spenar at the 
Jesuit College; organist Jesuit 
Church, Kuttenburg, for 2 years; 
studied theology at Prague Univ., 
also music ; became organist of Saint- 
Rimbaut's, Mechlin ; lived Bergen- 
op-Zoom ; Amsterdam ; The Hague, 
1783 ; studied with C. P. E. Bach, 
Hamburg ; became famous pianist 
and performer on Hessel's " Har- 
monica, " Berlin and St. Petersburg ; 
lived in Lithuania a year at Prince 
Radziwill's Court ; lived Italy, 
Paris, London ; 1792 m. (4) Sofia 
Corri (b. Edinburgh, 1775 ; a singer, 
harpist and composer). He entered 
a mus.-business with his father-in- 
law, 1800, failed and fled to Ham- 
burg to escape creditors. He was in 
the service of various Princes, and 
(1808) of Prince Talleyrand in Paris. 
A pioneer among Bohemian and Po- 
lish virtuosi and composers he dis- 
puted with Ciementi the invention of 
the "singing-touch." Prod. 2 English 
operas in London with success, and 
pub. a Mass (comp. at the age of 13), 
oratorios and church - music ; pub. 
nearly TOO works for pf . , incl. 12 con- 
certos, 80 sonatas with vln. ; 53 so- 
natas for pf.-solo, etc, ; pub. a 

Dustmann(doost'-man), Marie Luise 
(nee Meyer), Aix-la-Chapelle, 1831 
1899; soprano. 

Dutch (diitsh), b. Denmarkd. Frank- 
furt-on-Main, 1863 ; prominent Rus- 
sian composer. 

Duval (dti-vaT), Edmond, b. Enghien, 
Hainault, Aug. 22, 1809 ; pupil Paris 
Cons., 1828-32, when he was dis- 
missed for irregular attendance; at 
Mechlin became interested in Jans- 
sen's studies of Gregorian music; 
was commissioned by the Bishop to 
revise the church-ritual, and visited 


Rome; he pub. "revised version," 
etc. , of ecclesiastical song, which Fe- 
tis declares altogether wrong. 

Duvernoy (or Duvernois) (dil-vern- 
wa), (i) Fr., Montbe'liard, 1765 
Paris, 1838 ; prof, at the Cons. ; com- 
poser. (2) Charles, Montbe'liard, 
1766 Paris, 1845 ; bro. of above ; 
clarinettist ; prof, and composer. (3) 
Chas. Fran., Paris, 17961872 ; 
singer. (4) H. L. Chas., b. Paris, 
Nov. 16, 1820 ; son of (3) ; pupil 
of Hale'vy and Zimmermann, Paris 
Cons.; 1839, assist. -prof.; 1848, prof, 
there of solfeggio ; composer. (5) 
Victor Alphonse, Paris, Aug. 31, 
1842 ; pupil of Bazin and Marmontel 
Paris Cons. ; took first pf . prize ; now 
teacher of piano at the Cons. ; a 
Chev. of the Legion of Honour, and 
officier of public instruction; 1892 
prod, the succ. opera " Sardanapale" 
(Lyons), also opera " Helle" (Gr. 
Opera, 1896) ; hissymph. poem, " La 
Tempete" won the City of Paris prize. 
(6) J. Bapt., composer and pf.- 
teacher, Paris, 1825. 

Duysen (doi'-s&i), Jes Lewe, b. Flens- 
burg, Aug. i, 1820; 1860 founded a 
pf. factory at Berlin. 

Dvorak (dv6r'-shak),Antonin,b.Muhl- 
hausen, Bohemia, Sept. 8, 1841 ; 
chief of Bohemian composers ; son of 
an inn-keeper, who wished him to be 
a butcher, but he learned the vln. 
from the schoolmaster, and at 16 en- 
tered the Prague Org.-Sch. under 
Pitzsch, earning a livelihood as vio- 
linist in a small orchestra ; graduated 
in 1862, became via. -player at the 
Nat. Theatre. He was 33 before an 
important comp. was prod., a hymn for 
male chorus and orch. , which attract- 
ed such attention that 1875 he re- 
ceived a government stipend and de- 
voted himself to composition. 1891 
Mus. Doc, Cambridge Univ.; 1892- 
95 dir. Nat. Cons., New York ; since 
has lived at Prague ; 1901, director 
of the Prague Cons ; 1902, prod, opera 
"Armida" Pilsen Nat. Th. He is a 
strong believer in nationalism in mu- 

sic, and provoked much controversy by 
advising American composers to found 
their school on the harmonic and mel- 
odic elements of plantation-music. 
In his 5th symphony, op. 95, "From 
the Netv World" he made some use 
of such a manner. His other comp. 
are: Bohemian operas " The King 
and the Charcoal-Burner " (Prague 
1874); "Wanda" (1876); " Selma 
Sedldk" (1878); "Turtle Palice" 
(1881); "Dimitrije" (1882); "The 
Jacobins" (1889); " Rusalka, the 
Water Nixie" (Nat. Th. Prague, 
1901); oratorio " St. Ludmila" 
(Leeds Mus. Fest., 1886); Requiem 
Mass, op. 89, with orch. (Birming- 
ham Fest., 1891); cantatas " The 
Spectres Bride" op. 69, with orch. 
(Birmingham Fest., 1885), and " The 
American Flag" (N. Y., 1895) ; 
Hymn of the Bohemian Peasants, 
for mixed ch. ; hymn for mixed ch. 
and orch.; " Stabat Mater" with 
orch. (London, 1883); Psalm 149 
with orch. ; 5 symphonies ; 3 or- 
chestral ballades, " Der Wasser- 
mann" "Die Mittagshexe" and 
"Das goldene Spinnrad" ; 2 sets of 
symphonic variations for orch. ; over- 
tures, " Mein Heim" " Husitska" 
"In der Natur," "Othello" " Car- 
neval" ; concertos for 'cello, pf., vln.; 
" Slavische Tanze" and " Slavische 
Rhapsodien " ; scherzo cappriccioso 
for orch. ; string-sextet ; 2 string- 
quintets; pf. -quintet; 6 string-quar- 
tets ; 2 pf. -quartets ; a string-trio ; 2 
pf. -trios ; mazurek for vln. with 
orch. ; serenade for wind with "cello 
and double-bass; notturno for 
string-orch. ; pf. music, ^Legenden" 
" Dumka " (Elegy), ' ' Furiante " 
(Boh. natl. dances); " Klange aus 
Mahren" and " Silhouctten" for pf. 
4-hands ; violin-sonata, op. 57 ; 
songs, etc. 

Dwight, J. Sullivan, Boston, Mass., 
1813 1893 ; editor and critic ; one 
of the founders of the Harvard Musi- 
cal Association ; was a member of 
the Brook Farm Community ; 1852- 


81, edited " D wight's Journal of 

Dykes (Rev.), J. Bacchus, Kingston- 
upon-IIull, Eng., 1823 St. Leon- 
ard's, 1876 ; conductor. 

Dyne, John, suicide, Oct. 30, 1788; 
English alto singer and composer. 

Eager, John, b. Norwich, 1782 ; violin- 
ist and teacher. 

Eames (amz), Emma, b. (of American 
parents) at Shanghai, Aug. 13, 1867 ; 
at 5 went with her mother, her first 
teacher, to Bath, Maine; pupil of 
Miss Munger at Boston ; IS86-SS at 
Paris, of Madame Marches! (voice), 
and Pluque (acting, etc.) ; iSSS, en- 
gaged at the Op. -Com., but made de- 
but with succ. at the Gr. Opera, 
March 13, 1889, as Juliette in Gou- 
nod's "Romeo et Juliette'' a role pre- 
viously sacred to Patti ; sang at the 
Opera for 2 years, creating " Co- 
lombe" in St.-Saens 1 " Ascania" and 
as "Zaire" in De La Nux's opera; 
1891, Covent Garden in "Faust/' ra. 
the painter Julian Story the same year, 
and in Oct. appeared in New York ; 
since then she has sung regularly in 
N. Y. and London, except 1892-93, 
at Madrid, and 1895-96, during ill- 
health ; her "Sieglinde" is perhaps 
her best role. 

East'cott, Richard, Exeter, 1740 
Livery Dale, Devonshire, 1828 ; writ- 
er and composer. 

Eb'den, Thos., Durham, 1738 iSn ; 
organist and composer. 

Ebeling (a'-be-lmg), (i) J. G., Liine- 
burg, ca. 1620 Stettin, 1676 ; prof, 
and composer. (2) Chp. Daniel, 
Garmissen, near Hildesheim, 1741 
Hamburg, 1817 ; prof, and writer. 

Ebell (a'-bel), H. K., Neuruppin, 
1775 Oppeln, 1824 ; conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Eberhard (i) von Freisingen (a'-ber- 
hart fon fri'-zlng-en), Eberhar'dus 
Frisengen'sis, Benedictine monk, 
nth cent. ; wrote on the scale of 

pipes and bell-founding. (2) J. 
Aug., Halberstadt, 1739 Halle, 
1809 ; professor. 

Eberl (a'-berl), Anton, Vienna, June 
13, 1766 March n, 1807; famous 
pianist, conductor and dram, com- 

Eberlin (a'-ber-len), (i) Daniel, Niirn- 
berg, ca. 1630 Cassel, 1691 ; con- 
trapuntist and violinist ; famous as a 
composer in his day. (2) (or Eber- 
le) J. Ernst, Jettenbacht, Swabia, 
1702 Salzburg, 1762; conductor and 

Ebers (a'-bers), K. Fr., Cassel, 1770 
Berlin, 1836 ; conductor and dram, 

Eberwein (a-ber-vln), (r) Traugott 
Maximilian, Weimar, 1775 Rudol- 
stadt, 1831 ; dram, composer. (2) 
Karl, Weimar, 17861868, bro. of 
above ; dram, composer. 

Eccard (ek'-kart), J., Miihlhausen, 
Thuringia, 1553 Berlin, 1611 ; im- 
portant composer of church-music. 

Eccles (ek'-kels), (i) John, London (?), 
1668 Kingston, Surrey, 1735 ; son 
and pupil of the violinist, (2) Solo- 
mon E. C. His brother (3) Henry, 
was violinist and composer. (4) 
Solomon Thomas, bro. of above, 
also violinist. 

Eck (ek), (i) J. Fr., Mannheim, 1766 
Bamberg (?), 1809 (1810?); violinist 
and composer. (2) Fz., Mannheim, 
1774 insane, Strassburg, 1804; bro. 
and pupil of above ; violinist. 

Eckelt (ek'-elt), J. Val., Wernings- 
hausen, near Erfurt, 1680 Sonders- 
hausen, 1734 ; writer. 

Ecker (eV-er), (i) K., Freiburg, Bad- 
en, 1813 1879; composer. (2) 
Wenzel, pen-name of W. Gericke. 

Eckert (ek'-ert), K. Ant. Florian, 
Potsdam, 1820 Berlin, 1879; at 10 
c. an opera, at 13 an oratorio ; court- 
conductor and dram, composer. 

Ed'dy, Clarence H., b. Greenfield, 
Mass., June 23, 1851 ; pupil of J. G. 
Wilson and Dudley Buck ; 1871 of 
Haupt and Lbschhorn (pf.) ; toured 
in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, 



and Holland ; 1874, organist, Chica- 
go; 1876, dir. Hershey School of 
Musical Art ; later m. its founder 
Mrs. S. B. H. ; toured America and 
Europe, 1879 gave 100 recitals at 
Chicago without repeating a number; 
for some years cond. Chicago Philh. 
Vocal Soc. ; c. ojrgan and church 
music, etc.; pub. " The Church and 
Concert Organist" " The Organ in 
Church " (1887), and transl. Haupt's 
" Cpt. and Fugue " (1876). 

Ed'son, Lewis, Bridgewater, Mass., 
1748 Woodstock, N. Y., 1820 ; pub, 
a coll. of hymns, etc. 

Ed'wards, Julian, b. Manchester, 
England, 1855 ; pupil Sir H. Oakley, 
Edinburg, then of Macfarren, Lon- 
don ; 1875, pianist to Carl Rosa Opera 
Co.; 1877, cond. Royal Eng. Opera 
Co. and prod. " Victorian' 1 Covent 
Garden. 1880, prod. " Corinne" at 
St. James's Hall, London ; cond. 
Engl. Opera at Covent Garden, and 
prod. 2 operas, "Corinne" and 
"Victorian" at Sheffield, 1883; 
came to the U. S., 1889, and prod, 
with success various comic operas, 
incl. " Madeleine or the Magic Kiss " 
(Boston, 1894), and " Brian B or u" 
(N. Y., 1896); "The Wedding 
Day," " The Jolly Musketeer" 
"Princess ^"(1899), "Dolly Var- 
den" (N. Y., 1902), and "When 
Johnny Comes Marching Home"; 
prod, also romantic opera "King 
Rt^nhs Daughter" ; c. gr. opera "Elfi- 
nella" (MS.), symphonies, overtures, 

Eeden (a'-den), Jean Baptiste van 
den, b. Ghent, Dec. '26, 1842 ; pupil of 
Ghent and Brussels Cons. ; ist prize 
for comp. (1869) with the canta- 
ta " Faust's Laaste Nacht " / 1878 
dir. of Cons, at Mons.; c. opera, "Nu- 
mance" (Antwerp, 1897), 4 orato- 
rios and the trilogy "Judith" 2 can- 
tatas with orch., a symph. poem, "La 
Lutteau XVL Stick," etc. 

E'gan, Eugene, Irishman, less than 
four feet tall ; 1740 built organ in 
Lisbon Cathedral, 

Egenolff (or Egenolph) (a-gen-61f), 
Chr., ca. 1485 ; a slovenly and pirat- 
ical German mus.-printer. 

Eggeling (Sg'-gS-llng), (Eduard, 
Brunswick, 181:3 Harzburg, 1885; 
pf. -teacher, writer and composer. 

Egghard (eg '-hart), Julius (pen-name 

of Connt Hardegen), Vienna, 1834 

1867 ; composer. 

Egli (al'-ye or a'-gle), Johann Hein- 
rich, Seegraben, canton Zurich, 1742 
1810 ; c. " Oden" etc. 

Ehlert (a -lert), Louis, Konigsberg, 
1825 Wiesbaden, 1884; teacher and 
critic ; conductor and composer. 

Ehmant (a'-mant), Anselm, 1832 
Paris, 1895 ; conductor, teacher and 

Ehnn-Sand (an'-zant), Bertha, b. 
Pesth, 1 848 ('45?) ; dramatic soprano, 
pupil of Frau Andriessen. 

Ehrlich (ar'-Wkh), (i) Chr. Fr., Mag- 
deburg, 1810 1887 ; conductor, sing- 
ing-teacher, and dram, composer. (2) 
Alfred H., b. Vienna, Oct. 5, 1822 ; 
pupil of Henselt, Bocklet, Thalberg 
(pf.), and Sechter (comp.) ; court- 
pianist to King George V.; 1864-72 
pf. -teacher Stern Cons., and 1866-98 
critic in Berlin ; composer and editor. 

Eibenschiitz (I'-ben-shuts), (i) Albert, 
b. Berlin, April 15, 1857 ; pianist ; pu- 
pil of Reinecke and Paul, Leipzig 
Cons., won the Diploma of Honour. 
1876-80, prof, in Charkoff (Russia) ; 
1880-84 at Leipzig Cons., then Co- 
logne Cons.; 1893, dir. Cologne Lie- 
derkranz ; 1896, ist pf.-prof. Stern 
Cons., Berlin ; c. pf. -sonatas, etc. 
(2) Ilona, Pesth, May 18, 1872; 
cousin of above ; pianist ; at 5 she 
played in a concert with Liszt ; 1878- 
85; pupil of Hans Schmitt ; 1885-89, 
studied with Frau Schumann; lives 
in Vienna and makes tours thence. 

Eichberg (Ikh'-bcrkh or ich'-burg), (i) 
Julius, b. Dusseldorf , June 13, 1824 
Boston, Mass., Jan. 18, 1893 ; violin- 
ist and notable teacher ; c. 4 operet- 
tas, etc. (2) Oskar, Berlin, 1845 
1898 ; singing- teacher, conductor, 
critic, editor, and composer. 


Eichborn (Ikh'-born), H. L., b. Bres- 
lau, Oct. 30, 1847 ; studied pf., flute, 
trumpet, horn, etc., at an early age ; 
at 14 pupil of the trumpeter Ad. 
Scholz ; studied theory with Dr. E. 
Bohn ; became a Waldhorn virtuoso; 
1882 inv. the Oktav (or soprano) 
Waldhorn ; wrote musical essays, 
etc. ; cond. at Gries, near Bozen ; 
editor, writer and composer. 

Eichhorn (Ikh'-horn), (i) J. Paul E., 
1787 1823 ; court-musician, Coburg; 
his sons (2), J. G. Ernst, 1822-44, 
and (3) J. K. Ed,, 1823-97, per- 
formed on the vln. respectively at 6 
and 7. 

Eilers (I'-lers), Albert, 1831 Darm- 
stadt, 1896 ; basso cantante. 

Eisfeld (is'-felt), Th., Wolfenbuttel, 
April n, 1816 Wiesbaden, Sept. 
1 6 (?), 1882 ; important figure in New 
York music ; 1848-66 previously con- 
ductor at Wiesbaden ; then of " Con- 
certs Viviennes," Paris. 

Eissler (Is'-lgr), (i) Marianne, b. 
Brilnn, Nov. 18, 1865 ; violinist, pu- 
pil of Hessler ; her sister, (2) Emma, 
is a pianist. 

Eitner (it'-ner), Rob., b. Breslau, Oct. 
22, 1832 ; pupil of Brosig ; 1853, 
teacher at Berlin ; est. a pf.-sch., 
1863 ; important for work in musical 
literature, and research in i6th and 
I7th centuries, Dutch music, etc. ; c. 
" Biblical opera," "Judith"; over- 
ture to " Der Cid" ; etc. 

Elandi (a-lan'-de), Rita, b. Cincinnati, 
0. ; soprano ; pupil of Marches!, 
Paris ; sang in Italy, Spain, and Ger- 
many ; created "Santuzza" in U 7 
Pagliaeci " in English with Carl Rosa 
Opera Co.; 1900, in N. Y. with Amer- 
ican Opera Co. 

El'dering, Bram, b. Groningen, 
Holland, July 8, 1865; violinist; 
studied with Poortmann, Hubay, and 
Joachim ; Konzertmeister Berlin 
Philh. ; then do. in Meiningen ct.- 

Elers (a'-lers) (called El'erus), Fz., 
Uelzen, ca. 15001590, Hamburg ; 
teacher, director, and composer, 

Elewyck (van a'-ltt-vek), Xavier Vic- 
tor (Chevalier) van, Ixelles les Brux- 
elles, Belgium, 1825 in an insane 
asylum, Zickemont, iSSS ; writer. 

El'gar, Edw. Wm., b. Broadheath, 
Worcester, Engl., June 2, 1857 ; im- 
portant English composer, violinist, 
and organist ; cond. Worcester In- 
strumental Soc., 1882-89; 1885-89, 
organist at St. George's ; 1891, lived 
in Malvern ; c. oratorio, " The Light 
of Life " (1896) ; " The Dream of 
Gerontius" (1900); 2 cantatas; a 
choral suite ; concert - overtures, 
*'/ir0ttJflr*,"and "Cockaigne" (1901); 
6 Scenes from the Bavarian High- 
lands, for chorus and orch. (1896) ; 
Spanish serenade for ch. and orch. ; 
romance for vln. and orch. ; church- 
music ; pcs. for vln. and pf, ; organ- 
sonata ; songs, etc. 

Elias (a'-U-as), Salomonis, monk at 
Saint- Aste" re, Perigord, wrote in 1274 
the oldest extant book of rules for im- 
provised counterpoint. 

Elisi (a-le'-ze), Filippo, Italian tenor 
in London, 1765. 

El'la, John, Thirsk, Yorkshire, 1802 
London, 1888 ; violinist, lecturer and 

El'ler, Louis, Graz, 1819 Pau, 1862; 
vln. -virtuoso; c. " Valse Diabolique" 
a "Rhapsodic Hongroise" etc., for 

El'lerton, J, Lodge, Chester, 1807 
London, 1873 '> dram, composer. 

Elliott, Jas. Wm., Warwick, Engl., 
Feb. 13, 1833 ; pupil of Macfarren ; 
organist various churches; since 1874 
at St. Mark's, London ; c. 2 operet- 
tas, etc. 

Ellis, Alex. J., London, 1814 Ken- 
sington, 1890; writer on musical 

Elmblad (glm'-blat), Jns., b. Stock- 
holm, Aug. 22, 1853 ; bass ; studied 
with Stockhausen and Garcia; 1876, 
Wagner chose him for "Donner" 
(Rheingold). but his father, a prof, of 
theology, objected; 1880, he went into 
opera and sang in various cities, as 
well as in London and America ; 


1896, sang " Fafner " at Bayreuth ; 
since 1897 at ct.-Th., Stockholm. 

Elmenreich (eT-men-rlkh), Albert, 
1856, actor in the Court Th. at 

Elsenheimer (el'-zen-hl-mer), Nicho- 
las J M b. Wiesbaden, 1866 ; pupil of 
his father and of Jakobsthal, Strass- 
burg, LL.D., Heidelberg; 1890, 
America ; 1891, prof, at Coll. of Mu- 
sic, Cincinnati ; c. cantata " Vale- 
rian" with orch. '"Bdshazzar" etc. 

Eisner (els'-ner), Jos. Xaver, Grott- 
kau, Silesia, 1769 Warsaw, 1854; 
writer and composer of 19 operas. 

El'son, Louis Chas., b. Boston, April 
17, 1848 ; writer and teacher ; pupil of 
Kreissmann (singing), Boston, and 
Gloggner-Castelli (theory), Leipzig; 
edited the Vox Humana; then on 
the Music Herald ; for years critic 
of the Boston Courier, now of the 
Advertiser ; since iSSl prof, of theo- 
ry and lecturer on the orch. and musi- 
cal history at N. E. Cons. ; has lect- 
ured on music with much success ; 
pub. " Curiosities of Music" " The 
History of German Song"' " The 
Theory of Music" " 27*? Realm of 
Music" "German Songs and Song- 
writers" "European Reminis- 
cences" " Syllabus of Musical His- 
tory" and " Great Composers and 
Their Work " (1899), " The National 
Music of America (1900), "Home 
and School Songs"; c. operettas, 
songs, and instr.-works ; transl. and 
arranged over 2,000 songs, operas, 

El'terlein, Ernst von. Vide GOTT- 


El'vey, (i) Stephen, Canterbury, 1805 
Oxford, 1860 ; organist. (2) Sir 
George (Job), Canterbury, 1816 
Windlesham, Surrey, 1893 ; bro. of 
above ; c. oratorios. 

Elwart (eT-vart), Antoine Aimable 
Elie, Paris, 18081877; violinist 
and dram, composer. 

Em'erson, Luther Orlando, b. Par- 
sonsfield, Mass., Aug. 3, 1820 ; cond. 
and composer. 

Em'ery, Stephen Albert, Paris, 
Maine, Oct. 4, 1841 Boston, April 
15, 1891 ; prof, of harm, and cpt. ; 
asst.-ed. Musical Herald ; graceful 
composer and pop. theorist. 

Emmerich (em'-mer-lkh), Robt., 
Hanau, 1836 Stuttgart, 1891 ; com- 

Encke (enk'-e), H., Neustadt, Bava- 
ria, 1811 Leipzig, 1859 ; pianist 
and composer. 

Enckhausen (enk r -how-zen), H. Fr., 
Celle, 1799 Hanover, 1885 ; court- 
organist, pianist and director. 

Engel ^ng'-el), (i) Jn. Jakob, Par- 
chim, Mecklenburg, 1741 1802 ; dir. 
and composer. (2) David Hn., 
Neuruppin, 1816 Merseburg, 1877; 
organist, writer and dram, composer! 
(3) K., Thiedenweise, near Hanover, 
1818 suicide, London, 1882 ; organ- 
ist and writer. (4) Gv. Ed., Ko- 
nigsberg, 1823 Berlin, 1895 ; sing- 
ing-teacher, composer and theorist. 
(5) Pierre Emile, b. Paris, Feb. 15, 
1847 ; tenor ; studied with Duprez ; 
debut, Th. Italien, 1869 ; then sang 
in New Orleans, Brussels, and since 
1889 at Paris. 

En'na, Aug., b. Nakskov, Denmark, 
May 13, 1860; grandson of an Italian 
soldier in Napoleon's army ; son of a 
shoemaker ; self-taught in pf . and in- 
strumentation, and had almost no 
teaching in vln. or theory ; went with 
a small orch. to Finland (1880) ; 
played various insts., even a drum be- 
fore a circus-tent; returned to Copen- 
hagen; prod, the operetta "A Vil- 
lage Tale " (1880) in provincial the- 
atres ; played at dancing-lessons, and 
gave pf. -lessons at 12 cents an hour ; 
1883, cond. for a small provincial 
troupe, for which he wrote act-tunes, 
and 10 overtures ; pub. songs, pf.- 
pcs., an orchl. suite, and a symphony; 
this gained him, through Cade's in- 
terest, the Ancker scholarship, enab- 
ling him to study in Germany (1888- 
89). After producing an operetta 
" Areta," he prod, with unequalled 
succ. for a Dane, the opera " The 


Witch" 1892, at the R. Opera House, 
Copenhagen. The opera ' ' Cleopa- 
tra " (Copenhagen, 1894) failed, but 
1895, with new cast, was succ. as 
also " Aucassin and Nicoldte" (Co- 
penhagen, 1896 ; Hamburg, 1897). 
Opera " Aglaia" in MS. Pub. a 
vln. -concerto, etc. 

E'noch & Co., London music-pub. 

, firm, est. 1869. 

Epine (de-la-pe-nS), Francesca Mar- 
gerita de 1'., extremely popular 
Italian singer and harpsichordist in 
London, from ca. 1698 1718, when 
she m. Dr. Pepusch ; her sister sang 
in London from 1703-1748 as Maria 

Epstein (ep'-shtin), (i) Julius, b. 
Agram, Aug. 14, 1832 ; pupil of 
Lichtenegger, Halm (pf.), and Rufi- 
natscha (comp.) ; from 1867 prof, of 
pf. Vienna Cons. His two daugh- 
ters, (2) Rudolfine ('cellist), and (3) 
Eugenie (violinist), toured Austria 

, and Germany, 1876-77. 

Erard (a'-rar), (i) Se~bastien, Strass- 
burg, April 5, 1752 near Paris, Aug. 
5, 1831 ; notable piano-maker and in- 
ventor; inv. a " Clavecin Me'can- 
ique"; the "Piano organise," fin- 
ally the double-action mechanism, 
which made a new instr. of the harp 
(v. D. D.) ; perfected in 1811 his 
greatest achievement, the repetition 
action of the piano (v. D. D.). His 
successor as a piano-maker was 
his nephew, (2) Pierre (1796 1855), 
succeeded by Pierre Schaffer (d. 1878); 
the present head is the Count de 

Eratos'thenes, Cyrene, 276 Alex- 
andria, Egypt, 195 B.C. ; writer. 

Erb (Sip), M. Jos., b. Strassburg, 
Oct. 23, 1860 ; pupil of St.-Saens, 
Gigout, and Loret, Paris ; now lives 
in Strassburg as teacher and or- 
ganist at the Johanniskirche and 
the Synagogue ; c. a symphony ; 
a symphonic suite ; sonatas and 
"dram, episode" " Der letzte Ruf" 
(Strassburg, 1895), with some succ. 

Er'ba, Don Dionigi, nobleman and 
composer at Milan, 1694; Handel 
appropriated some of his best works. 

Erbach (er'-bakh), Chr., Algesheim, 
Palatinate, ca. 1560 Augsburg, 
1628 ; composer and organist. 

Er'ben, Robert ; 1894, conductor at 
Frankfort-on-M.; 1896, at Mann- 
heim ; prod, the succ. i-act opera 
"Enoch Arden" (Frankfort-on-M., 
1895), and a "fairy comedy," "Die 
Heinzelmdnnchen " (Mayence, 1896). 

ErdmannsdorfFer (ert'-mans-derf-fer), 
(i) Max, b. Nurnberg, June 14, 
1848; pupil Leipzig Cons., and in 
Dresden of Rietz ; 1871-80, ct.-cond., 
Sondershausen ; 1882, dir. Imp. 
Mus. Soc. at Moscow, and prof, at 
the Cons. ; 1885, founded a students' 
orch. society ; returned to Germany, 
cond. the Bremen Philh. Conceits till 
1895 ; 1896, cond. Symphony Con- 
certs St. Petersburg ; 1896, cond. at 
the ct.-Th., Munich; c. ' Prinzessin 
Ike" "a forest-legend"; and other 
works for soli, chor. and orch.; over- 
ture to Brachvogel's "Narciss," etc.; 
1874 he m. (2) Pauline Fichtner 
Oprawik, b. Vienna, June 28, 1847 
(1851 ?); pupil of Pirkhert and Liszt ; 

Erhard (er'-hart) (called Erhar'di), 
Laurentius, b. at Hagenau, Alsatia, 
1598 ; cantor at Frankfort-on-Main, 

Erk (frk),' (i) Adam Wm., Herpf, 
Saxe-Meiningen, 1779 Darmstadt, 
1820; organist and composer. (2) 
Ludwig (Chr.), Wetzlar, 1807 Ber- 
lin, 1883; son of above; conductor. 
(3) Fr. Albrecht, Wetzlar, 1809 
Dlisseldorf, 1879 ; bro. of above ; 
pub. the " Lehrer Commersbuch" 

Erkel (eY-kgl), (r) Franz (or Ferencz), 
Gyula, Hungary, Nov. 7, 1810 
Pesth, June 15, 1893 ; the father of 
Hungarian opera; conductor and 
prof., composer of operas incl. 
" Hunyddy Ldzld" and "Bank 
Bdn." (2) Alexander (or Alexius), 
Pesth, 18461900, son of above; 


dir. of Philh. Cone., Pesth, 1875-93 ; 
1896, dir. Royal Opera, Pesth ; prod, 
opera " Tempefoi" (Pesth, 1883). 
(3) Gyula, son of (i), prof, at Acad. 
of Mus., Pesth ; conductor for many 
years at R. Opera. 

Erlanger (er-lan-zha), (i) Camille, b. 
Paris, May 25, 1863 ; pupil of Delibes, 
Paris Cons. ; 1888 took Grand prix 
de Rome with cantata " Velleda" ; c. 
symphonic piece, "La Chasse Fan- 
tastique"; dram, legend, "Saint 
Julien Hospitalier" (Paris, 1896); 
the succ. lyric drama " Kermaria" 
(Paris, Op.-Com., 1897), etc. (2) 
Baron Fre"de"ric d' (pen-names Fr, 
Regnal or Federico Ringel), son 
of a banker; prod. succ. opera "Je- 
han de Saintr/" Hamburg (1894), 
and mod. succ. opera "/ Mendo" 
(London, 1897). 

Er'ler, (i) Hermann, b. Radeberg, 
near Dresden, June 3, 1844; 1873 
est. a mus.-pub. business (now Ries 
and Erler) ; editor and critic. (2) 
Ernst II., Duke of Saxe-Coburg- 
Gotha, Coburg, 1818 Keinhards- 
brunn, 1893 ; dram, composer. (3) 
Fz. Anton, Georgenthal, Bohe- 
mia, 1745 Gotha, 1805 ; violinist 
and orch. -leader. (4) H. Wffl., 
Bninn, 1814 Nice, 1865 ; vln.-vir- 
tuoso ; toured, then lived in London ; 
composer. (5) Heinrich, b. Dresden, 
Sept. 19, 1846 ; nephew of above ; 
pupil of Pesth Cons., 1872; barytone 
Leipzig Th., then studied with Reb- 
ling and became tenor; 1875, R 7 al 
Opera, Berlin. (6) Alfred, ca. 1855 
Paris, 1898 ; writer. 

Errani (fr-ra'-ne), Achtlle, Italy, 1823 
New York, 1897 ; operatic tenor 
and notable singing-teacher in N. Y. 

Errera (Sr-ra-ra), Ugo, b. Venice, Oct. 
25, 1843 ; composer. 

Ert'mann, Baroness, ca. 1778 Vien- 
na, 1848 ; pianist ; intimate friend of 

Eschmann (esh'-man), Jn. K., Win- 
terthur, Switzerland, 1826 Zurich, 
1882 ; pianist, teacher and composer 
at Leipzig. 

Escudier (es-kttd-ya), two brothers, 
of Castelnaudary, Aude, (i) Marie, 
1819 1880, and (2) Le*on, 1821 
Paris, 1881 ; journalists. 

Eslaya (es-la'-va), Don Miguel Hi- 
lario, Banlada, Navarra, 1807 Ma- 
drid, 1878 ; court-conductor, editor 
and theorist. 

Espagne (es-pakh'-ne), Fz., Mttnster, 
Westphalia, 1828 Berlin, 1878 ; di- 
rector and editor. 

Es'ser, H., Mannheim, 1818 Salz- 
burg, 1872 ; court-conductor. 

Es'sipoff (or Essipova) (es-sl-pof'-a), 
Annette, b. St. Petersburg, Feb. i, 
1851; pianist; pupil of Wielhorski 
and Leschetizky, whom she m. 1880; 
debut, 1874, St. Petersburg; toured 
Europe with great succ. ; toured 
America (1876) ; 1885, pianist to the 
Russian Court ; 1893, pf.-prof. St. 
Petersburg Cons. 

Este (or Est, East, Easte), (i) 
Thomas, London music-printer, 
ca. 15501625. (2) Michael, son 
of above ; I7th cent, composer. 

Esterhazy (esh'-ter-ha-ze), Count 
Nicholas, 1839 Castle Totis, Hun- 
gary, 1897 ; generous patron of mu- 

Est'wick, Rev. Sampson, D.D., 
1657 1739 ; English composer. 

Ett (t), Kaspar, Erringen, Bavaria, 
1788 Munich, 1847 ; court-organist 
and composer. 

Eulenburg (tsoo oi'-ln-boorkh), Ph., 
Graf zu, b. Konigsberg, Feb. 12, 
1847 I Royal Prussian Ambassador, 
Stuttgart; c. songs (words and music). 

Eulenstein (oi'-len-shtm), Chas., 
b. Heilbronn, WUrtemberg, 1802 ; 
virtuoso on the Jew's harp and guitar. 

Euler (oi'-ler), Leonhardt, Basel, 
1707 St. Petersburg, 1783 ; acousti- 

Euter'pe, patroness of flute-players, 
the Muse of Music. 

Ev'ans, Chas. S., 17781849 ; Eng- 
lish alto and composer. 

Everard (ev-ti-rar), Camille Fran., 
b. Dinant, Belgium, Nov. 15, 1825 ; 
basso; pupil of Liege Cons., Paris 


Cons. (Ponchard), and of Rossi and 
Manzini, Naples ; sang Naples, 1847- 
50 ; studied with Lamperti ; sang in 
various cities ; 1870-90, prof, of sing- 
ing St. P. Cons. ; 1890, Kiev Conser- 

Evers (a'-vers), K,, Hamburg, 1819 
Vienna, 1875 ; pianist and composer. 

Evesham (evz'-am), Monk of. Vide 

Ew'er & Co., London mus. -publish- 
ers ; founded 1820 by J. J. Ewer, 
succeeded by E. Buxton ; 1860, W. 
Witt; 1867, became Novello, Ewer 

Eweyck (a-v!k), Arthur van, b. Mil- 
waukee, U. S. A., May 27, 1866; 
studied with Felix Schmidt, Berlin, 
where he lives as concert and oratorio 

Eximenio (ex-I-ma'-nf-6), Ant., Bal- 
bastro, Aragon, 1732 Rome, 1798 ; 
Jesuit priest ; had historical contro- 
versy with Padre Martini. 

Eybler (I'-bler), Jos. (later, in 1834, 
Edler von Eybler), Schwechat, near 
Vienna, 1765 Schonbrunn, 1846 ; 
conductor and composer. 

Eyken (I'-ken), (i) Simon van (or 
Eycken ; du Chesne). Vide QUER- 
cu. (2) (Eijken), Jan Albert van, 
Amersfoort, Holland, 1822 Elber- 
feld, 1 868 ; organist and composer ; 
c. valuable chorals, etc. (3) Gerard 
Isaac van, bro. of above ; organist 
and teacher at Utrecht from 1855. 

Eymieu (em'-yu), Henri, b. Saillans 
Drome, France, May 7, i860 ; a law- 
yer, but studied with E. Gazier 
(theory) and Widor (comp.) ; now 
lives in Paris as writer and critic for 
" Le Menestrel" etc. ; c. a stage- 
piece, " Un Manage sous Nfron" 
(Paris, 1898), and an oratorio, " Mar- 
the et Marie "(Asnieres, 1898), etc. 

Faber (fa'-Wr), (i) Nikolaus (Nicol), 

priest at Halberstadt, 1359-61, built 
there what is considered the first 

organ made in Germany. (2) Niko- 
laus (II.), a native of Botzen, Tyrol ; 
pub. " Rudimenta musicae," Augs- 
burg, 1516. (3) Heinrich, " Magis- 
ter," d. Lichtenfels, Oelsnitz, Saxony, 
1552 ; rector of a school, whence he 
was expelled for satirical songs 
against the Pope ; then rector of 
Brunswick ; pub. a pop. book of ru- 
diments. (4) Benedikt, Hildburg- 
hausen, 1602 Coburg, 1631 ; com- 

Fabozzi (fa-bod'-ze), Genaro, b. 
Italy ; blind pianist ; court-pt. to 
Dowager Queen, prof, at Inst. for 
Blind, Naples. 

Fabio. Vide URSILLO. 

Fabri (fa'-bre), (i) Stefano (il mag- 
giore], b. Rome, ca. 1550; 1599 
1601, conductor. (2) Stefano (il 
minort), Rome, 1606 1658 ; conduc- 
tor and composer. (3) Annibale Pio 
(called Balino), Bologna, 1697 Lis- 
bon, 1760 ; tenor, etc. 

Fabricius (fa-bre'-tsl-oos), (i) Werner, 
Itzehoe, 1633 Leipzig, 1679 ; com- 
poser. (2) J. Albert, Leipzig, 1668 
Hamburg, 1736, son of above ; pro- 

Faccio (fa't'-chd), Franco, Verona, 
March 8, 1841 Monza, July 23, 
1891; an important composer; criti- 
cised as Wagnerite ; notable cond. ; 
prof, at Milan Cons, (harmony, later 
cpt.) Vide BOITO. 

Faelten (feT-ten), K., b. Ilmenau, 
Thuringia, Dec. 21, 1846; studied as 
a school-boy with Montag ; for 6 
years orchestra-violinist ; 1867 studied 
with J. Schoch, Frankfort, and was 
for 10 years friend of Raff ; 1868-82 
Frankfort ; 1878 Hoch Cons. ; 1882- 
85 Peabody Institute, Baltimore, 
U. S. A. ; 1885-97 N. E. Cons., 
Boston ; dir. 1890-97 ; 1897 founded 
the Faelten Pf. -School (Teachers' 
Seminary), at Boston; pub. text- 

Fago (fa -go), Nicola (called " II Ta- 
rentino"), Tarento, 1674 1730 (?) ; 
c. oratorio, masses; prod, several 
very succ. operas. 


Fahrbach (far'-bakh), (i) Jos., Vienna, 
18041883 ; flutist, conductor, and 
composer. (2) Ph. (Sr.), Vienna, 
1815 : 8S5 ; conductor and dram, 
composer. (3) Win., Vienna, 1838 
1866 ; conductor and composer. 
(4) Ph. (Jr.), Vienna, 18431894; 
son of (2) ; conductor. 

Faignient (fln-yan), Noe, b. Antwerp, 
ca. 1570, Flemish contrapuntist. 

Fair'lamb, J. Remington, b. Phil- 
adelphia, Jan. 23, 1837 ; studied in 
Paris and Florence ; 4 years in Zurich 
as consul ; organist Phila., etc., and 
from 1884 New York, St. Ignatius ; 
c. grand opera " Valtrie" (MS.), 

Faiszt (fist), Immanuel G. Fr., Es- 
sligen, WUrtemberg, 1823 Stutt- 
gart, 1894 ; organist. 

Falcke (falk), Henri, Paris, 1866 
May, 1901; pupil of Saint-Saens, 
Massenet, Dubois, and Mathias, Paris 
Cons. ; won rst prizes in pf. and 
harm. ; studied in Germany ; pub. a 
useful text-book on arpeggios. 

Falcon (f&l-k6n), M. Commie, Paris, 
1812 1897 ; soprano singer. 

Faliero (fal-l-a'-ro), Nina, b. Naples, 
April 10, 1878 ; studied with Mme. 
Kraus ; toured widely in concert ; 
lives at Geneva. 

Falk Mehlig (falk ma'-ltkh), Anna, b. 
Stuttgart, June n, 1846; studied at 
the Cons., also with Liszt ; toured as 
concert pianist throughout Germany, 
England, and America ; court-pianist 
to the king of Wurtemberg. 

Faltin (faT-ten), R. Fr., b. Danzig, 
Jan. 5, 1835 1 P u pi} of Markell, 
Schneider, and Leipzig Cons. Since 
1869 lives at Helsingfors, Finland, as 
cond.; pub. "Finnish Folk-Songs" 
and a " Finnish Song-Book." 

Faminzin (fa'-men'-tsen), Alex. Ser- 
gievitch, Kaluga, Russia, 1841 
Ligovo, near St. Petersburg, 1896; 
critic and dram, composer. 

Fan'ing, Eaton, b. Helston, Cornwall, 
May 20, 1850 ; pupil of the R. A. M., 
took Mendelssohn Scholarship in 
1873 and the Lucas Medal in 1876 ; 

1894 Mus. Bac., Cantab.; since 1885 
dir. music at Harrow School ; c. 3 
operettas, cantata for female voices, 
symphony in C minor, overture, " The 
Holiday" etc. 

Farabi. Vide ALFARABI. 

Fargas y Soler (far-gas e so-lar'), 
Antonio, Spanish writer, pub. " Bi- 
ograjias de los J\Insicos" etc. (issued 
since 1866, in parts), etc. 

Farinel'li, (t) Carlo Broschi (bros'- 
ke), Naples, June 24, 1 705 Bologna, 
July 15, 1782 ; famous male soprano ; 
debut 1722 at Rome ; he sang with 
the utmost brilliancy and success, be- 
ing only once overcome by a rival 
(Bernacchi) from whom he immedi- 
ately took lessons ; he joined the op- 
position to Handel in London, and 
Handel went into bankruptcy and 
took to oratorio. He amassed great 
wealth and became the chief adviser 
of Philip V. of Spain ; biog. by 
Sacchi (Venice, 1784). (2) Giu., 
Este, 1769 Trieste, 1836 ; org. ; c. 
60 operas. 

Farkas (far'-klsh), Edmund (Hung., 
Odon), b. Puszta-Monostor (Heves), 
Hungary, 1852 ; important figure in 
national Hungarian music ; of noble 
family, intended to be a civil engi- 
neer ; but studied 3 years at the R. 
Mus. Acad., Pcstli ; next year be- 
came dir. at the Cons, at Klausen- 
burg, Transylvania ; was for a time 
op. cond. and wrote mus. articles; 
1876, while still studying engineering, 
he prod, a i-act opera "Bayadfa" 
(Pesth) ; won the Haynald prize of 
300 florins with a mass ; c. also 
mixed choruses, and the orch. works 
"Dawn" (yirradai), "Evensong" 
(Estidal\ " Twilight" (Alkony), 
and "Dies ira" ; a pop. symphony 
and 5 string-quartets ; a prize " Fest- 
ouwrture" ; and the operas "Fairy 
fountain" (T under horrds], i-act, 
(Klausenburg, 1892); "The Peni- 
tent"(VeseklbK) (Pesth, 1893); " Ba- 
lassa Balint" comic (Pesth, 1896); 
and " The Blood-ordeal" (Tetemre 
Hivds) (not prod.). 


Far'mer, (r) H., Nottingham, England, 
1819 1891 ; violinist and organist. 
(2) J., Nottingham, Aug. 16, 1836 
July, 1901; nephew of above; pupil of 
Leipzig Cons, and of Spath; teach- 
er iu Zurich for some years ; 1862-85 
mus.-master at Harrow School, then 
organist at Balliol Coll., Oxford, 
where he founded a mus. society ; 
edited song-books, etc.; c. an orato- 
rio ; a fairy opera ; comic cantata ; a 
requiem, etc. 

Far'naby, Giles, English composer, 

Far'rant, (i) John, English organist, 
ca. 1600. (2) John, English organist, 
Salisbury cath., ca. 1600. (3) Rich- 
ard, d. Nov. 30, 1580 ; English or- 
ganist and notable composer of 

Farrenc (far-rank), Jacq. Hipp, 
Aristide, Marseilles, 1794 Paris, 
1865 ; teacher and composer. (2) 
Jeanne Louisa (ne'e Dumont), 
Paris, 18041875 ; wife of above, 
pf. -professor. 

Far' well, Arthur, American composer; 
pupil of H. A. Norris, Boston, and of 
Humperdinck; founded at Newton 
Center, Mass., 1901, the " Wawan 
Press " for the artistic pub. of supe- 
rior comps. by Americans ; c. ballade 
for vln. and pf . , and songs, etc. 

Fasch (fash), (i) Jn. Fr., Buttlestadt, 
near Weimar, 1688 Zerbst, 1758 (?); 
court-conductor, composer. (2) K. 
Fr. Chr., Zerbst, 1736 Berlin, 
1800 ; cembalist ; son of above ; con- 

Fauchey (fo-she), Paul, former "chef 
du chant," Op. Com. Paris ; prod, 
comic opera, 1897. 

Faugues, Vincent (or Fauques, Fa'- 
gus, La Fage) (fog, fok, la fazh), 
I5th cent, contrapuntist. 

Faure (for), J. Bapt., b. Moulins, 
Allier, Jan. 15, 1830 ; 1841, Paris 
Cons.; choir-boy at the Madeleine, 
and studied with Trevaux ; took 1st 
prize for comic opera ; 1852-76, at 
the Op, Com. as leading barytone 
with great succ. ; 1857, teacher in the 

Cons.; since 1876 sang in concert; 
pub. " LArtdu Chant" 

Faure (fo-ra), Gabriel Urbain, b. Pa- 
miers, Ariege, May 13, 1845 ; pupil 
of Niedermayer, Dietsch, and Saint- 
Saens ; 1866, organist at Rennes, 
then at St.-Sulpice and St.-Honorc ; 
1885 took Prix Chartier for chamber- 
music ; 1896 organist at the Made- 
leine, and prof, of comp., cpt., and 
fugue at the Cons, (vice Massenet) ; 
c. i-act opera " L "Orgamste" (1887); 
''"La Naissance de Venus" for soli, 
chorus, and orch.; " Ch&ur dt 
Djinns" ; requiem; symphony ; vln.- 
concerto ; ^orchestral suite ; 2 pf.- 
quartets ; Elegie, for 'cello ; Berceuse 
and Romance \ for vln. and rch., a 
vln.-sonata (1878), etc. 

Faust (fowst), K., Neisse, Silesia, 
1825 Bad Cudowa, 1892 ; bandm. 
and composer. 

Faustina. Vide HASSE, FAUSTINA. 

Favarger (fa-var-zha), Rend, Paris, 
1815 Etretat, 1868 ; composer. 

Favre (favr), Jules, Vide v. M. WAT- 

Faw'cett,(i)J.,Kendal, 'England, 1789 
Bolton, Lancashire, 1867; teacher 
and composer. (2) J. (jr.), Bolton, 
1824 Manchester, 1887, son of above; 
organist and composer. 

Fay, Amy, b. Bayou Goula, Miss., May 
21, 1844 ; pianist and teacher, Chica- 
go ; pupil of Tausig, Kullak, Liszt ; 
wrote the popular " Music-Study in 
Germany" (Chicago, 1881). 

Fayolle(fi-yol), Fran. Jos. M., Paris, 
1774 1852 ; mus. biographer and 

Fayr'fax, Robt., Mus. Doc., Cantab 
and Oxon, 1504-11 ; organist and 

Fechner (fgkh'-ne'r), Gv. Th., Gross- 
Sarchen, Niederlausitz, 1801 Leip- 
zig, 1887 ; writer, 

Fedele (fa-da'-le). Vide TREU. 

Federici (fa-da-re'-che), V., Pesara, 
1764 Milan, 1827 ; went to London, 
where he became cembalist ; returned 
to Italy in 1803 a &d prod, many succ. 


Federlein (fa'-der-Hn), G. (H.), b. 
Neustadt-an-der-Aisch, near Nurn- 
berg, Nov. 5, 1835 ; pupil of Munich 
Cons.; lives in New York; singing- 
teacher, composer ajid writer. 

Felstein (fel'-shtin) (called Felsti- 
nen'sis), Sebastian von, ca. 1530 ; 
church-conductor and composer, Cra- 

Feltre (dtt fel'tr), Alphonse Clarke, 
Corate de, Paris, 18061850 ; dram, 
composer, etc. 

Fenaroli (fa-na-ro'-le), Fedele, Lan- 
ciano, Abruzzi, 1730 Naples, 1818 ; 
teacher and composer. 

Fen'ton, Lavinia, d. Greenwich, 1760 ; 
singer and actress at London. 

Feo (fa'-o), Francesco, b. Naples, ca. 
1685 ; composer and teacher. 

Ferlen'dis , b. Rome, ca. 1778 ; 

operatic contralto. 

Fer(r)abosco (fer-ra-bos'-ko), (i) Al- 
fonso, Italy, 1515 ; c. madrigals. (2) 
Dom. M., Rome, i6th cent., mem- 
ber Papal Choir; composer. (3) 
Costantino, court-musician and 
composer at Vienna, 1591. (4) Al- 
fonso, Greenwich, England, ca. 1580 
1652 ; probably son of (r) ; com- 
poser. (5) John, d. 1682, son of 
(4) ; organist Ely Cathedral. 

Ferrari, (i) Benedetto (called del- 
la Tiorba "the theorbist") (fer- 
ra'-re del-la te-6r'-ba), Reggio d'Emi- 
lia, 1597 Modena, 1681 ; court-con- 
ductor and dram, composer. (2) 
Domenico, Piacenza, (?) Paris, 
1780; violinist, conductor and com- 
poser. (3) Carlo, Piacenza, ca. 
1730 Parma, 1789, bro. of above ; 
'cellist. (4) Giacorao Gotifredo, 
Roveredo, Tyrol, 1759 London, 
1842 ; cembalist, writer, teacher, and 
composer. (5) Francisca, Chris- 
tiania, ca. 1800 Gross-Salzbrunn, 
Silesia, 1828; harpist. (6) Sera- 
fino Amadeo de', Genoa, 1824 
1885 ; pianist and dram, composer. 
(7) Carlotta, b. Lodi, Italy, Jan. 27, 
1837 ; pupil of Strepponi and Panzi- 
ni (1844-50) of Mazzucato at Milan 
Cons.; wrote text and music of succ. 

operas "Ugo" (Milan, 1857); " So- 
fa" (Lodi, 1866); "Ekanora d'- 
Arborea" (Cagliari, 1871); also 
masses ; a Rtquiem for Turin, 1868, 

Ferreira (fer-ra'-c-ra),Da Costa, Rod- 
rigo, d. 1834(37?); Portuguese writer. 

Fer(r)et'ti, Giov., b. Venice, ca. 1540; 

Ferri (feV-re), (i) Baldassare, Peru- 
gia, 1610 Sept. 8, 1680 ; one of the 
most gifted and successful of singers ; 
through a boyhood accident became 
a male soprano ; possessed extraor- 
dinary endurance of breath, flexibil- 
ity of voice, and depth of emotion ; 
at 65 returned to Perugia ; on his 
death left 600,000 crowns for a pious 
foundation. (2) Nicola, Mola di 
Ban, Italy, 1831 London, 1886; 
Naples, singing teacher and dram. 

Ferrier (fer-rl-a), Paul Raoul Mi- 
chel M., b. Montpelier, March 28, 
1843 ; c. light operas for Paris. 

Ferron (fer'-ron), Ad., 1892, conduc- 
tor Th. Unter den Linden, Berlin; 
1897 at Carl Th., Vienna; prod, at 
Berlin the burlesque '''Adam und 
Eva " (1891), and other operettas. 

Ferro'ni, V. Emidio Carmine, b. 
Tramutola, Italy, Feb. 17, 1858 ; pupil 
Paris Cons.; ist prize in harm, and 
comp., 1880-83 ; 1881, asst.-prof. of 
harm, at the Cons. ; since 1888 prof. 
of comp. at Milan Cons., and mus. 
dir. of the " Famiglia Artistica." 
1897, Chevalier of the Ital. Crown; 
c. operas " Ruddlo" (Milan, 1892) ; 
and (text and mus. of) " Ettore Fie- 
ramosca" (Como, 1896). 

Fes'ca, (i) Fr. Ernst, Magdeburg, 
1789 Carlsruhe, 1826 ; violinist and 
composer. (2) Alex. Ernst, Carls- 
ruhe, May 22, 1820 Brunswick, Feb. 
22, 1859 ; son of above ; brilliant pi- 
anist and dram, composer. 

Fes'ta, (i) Costanzo, Rome, ca. 1490 
April 10, 1545 ; singer and contra- 
puntist. (2) Giu. M., Trani, 1771 
Naples, 1839 ; violinist, conductor 
and composer. (3) Francesca, 


Naples, 1778 St. Petersburg, 1836 ; 
operatic singer ; m. Maffei. 

Resting, Michael Christian, Lon- 
don (?) 16801752 ; son of a flutist, 
of same name ; conductor, violinist, 
and composer. 

Feszler (fesh'-ler), Eduard, b. Neu- 
berg, Bavaria, Oct. 5, 1841 ; oper- 
atic barytone ; studied with Fz. 
Hauser, Munich. 

F6tis (fa-tes), (i) Franfois Joseph, 
Mons, Belgium, March 25, 1784 
Brussels, March 26, 1871 ; indefatig- 
able scholar and historian ; he worked 
16-18 hours a day ; his father, organ- 
ist and conductor at the Cathedral, 
was his first teacher ; he learned the 
vln,, and c. at 9 a concerto forvln. 
and orch. ; the same year became or- 
ganist to the Noble Chapter of Saint 
Waudra ; 1800-03 in the Paris Cons. ; 
1803, Vienna, for study of fugue, and 
master-work of German music ; here 
began an investigation of Guido 
d'Arezzo's system and the history of 
notation. 1804 he started a short-lived 
mus. periodical. 1806 he began the 
30 years' task (still unpub.) of revis- 
ing the plain-song and entire ritual of 
the Roman Church. He m. a wealthy 
woman, and was enabled to pursue 
his studies comfortably till 1811, 
when her fortune was lost. He re- 
turned to the Ardennes and made re- 
searches into harmony, which led to 
his formulating the modem theory of 
tonality. 1813, organist and teacher 
at Douai ; wrote " La Science de 
I Organist'' and " Mtthode dlemen- 
taire d'harmonie et d ' accompagne- 
ment" 1818, Paris, where he prod, 
various operas with succ. 1821, 
prof, of comp. at the Cons., later li- 
brarian. 1827-35 founded and edit- 
ed "La Revue Musicale" In 1832 
began historical lectures and concerts. 
1833, cond. to King Leopold I., 
Brussels, and for 39 years dir. of the 
Cons. Cond., and 1845 member of, 
the Belgian Academy. On his wed- 
ding-jubilee a Mass of his was sung, 
and his bust was unveiled. In 1806, 

he began collecting and preparing for 
his great " Biographie -univtrselle des 
musicicns et bibliograp hie generals de 
la musique " in 8 volumes (1837-1844). 
This invaluable monument is, like 
everything else of its kind, bristling 
inevitably with error, bias, and excess ; 
yet is a standard of highest repute. 
Pub. many treatises and c. 6 operas 
(1820-32); 2 symphonies, an overture 
for orch.; masses, a requiem, motets, 
etc. Biog. in his Dictionary' by L. 
Alvin (Brussels, 1874) ; and Gollmick 
(Leipzig, 1852). (2) Ed. L. Fran., 
D. Bouvignes, near Dinant, May 16, 
1812 ; son of above ; editor ; for 
years libr., Brussels Library; pub. 
" Les musicicns Beiges'" (1848). (3) 
Adolphe L. Eugene, Paris, 1820 
1873 5 son an d pupil of (i) ; pianist, 
teacher and dram, composer. 

Feurich (foi'-rtkh), Julius, Leipzig, 
1821 1900; founded pf. factory, 

Fevin (fa-van), Ant. (Antonius) de, 
ca. 1490 (?) 1515 (?); Netherlandish 
(?) contrapuntist ; contemporary with 
Josqum Despres, and rated second 
only to him. (2) Robert (Robertus), 
Cambrai, I5th cent. ; c. masses. 

Fiala (fe'-a-la), Lobkowitz, Bohemia, 
1749 Donauschingen, 1816; oboist, 
'cellist, composer, and conductor. 

Fibich (fe'blkh), Zdenko, Seborschitz, 
Bohemia, Dec. 21, 1850 Prague, 
Oct. 1900 ; pupil at Prague, Leipzig 
Cons. (1865), and of Lachner ; 1876 
asst. cond. at the National Th., 
Prague ; 1878, dir. Russian Church 
Choir; notable Czech dram, com- 
poser. Prod, at Prague 6 operas incl. 
" Sarka" (1898); c. the symphonic 
poems " Othello" " Zaboj and Sla- 
voj" " Toman and the Nymph" 
and "Vesna"; " Lustspid Ouver- 
tilre," etc. "A Night on Kaarl- 
stein" and other overtures. 

Fiby (fe'-be), Heinrich.b.Vienna, May 
15, 1834; pupil of the Cons.; from 
1857 city mus. dir., Znaim ; founded 
a music-school and a society; c. 3 
operettas ; pop. male choruses, etc. 


Ficher (fekh'-er), Fd,, Leipzig, 1821 
New York, 1865 ; pianist and com- 

Fiedler (f et'-ler), August Max, b. Zit- 
tau, Dec. 3, 1859 ; piano pupil of his 
father, and studied organ and theory 
with G. Albrecht ; 1877-80 Leipzig 
Cons.; won the Holstein Scholarship ; 
since 1882 teacher, Hamburg Cons.; 
c. a symphony, etc. 

Field, (i) John, Dublin, July 16, 1782 
Moscow, Jan. ir, 1837 ; a great though 
gentle revolutionist of music, to whom 
much of Chopin's glory belongs, for 
Field developed the more lyric manner 
of pf.-playing and carried it into his 
composition, in which he gave the 
piano-song or poem its first escape 
from the old stiff forms. He created 
the Nocturne, and many of his comps. 
in this form have practically every 
quality and mannerism characteristic 
of those of Chopin, who excelled him 
in passion, resource, and harmonic 
breadth. He was the son of a violinist, 
and grandson and pupil of an organ- 
ist, who compelled him to practise 
so hard that he ran away, but was 
brought back and later was appren- 
ticed to dementi as a salesman. He 
also had lessons from C., and went 
with him to Paris in 1802, making a 
great stir with his interpretation of 
Bach's and Handel's fugues ; he was 
kept at his salesman's tasks till 1804, 
when he settled at St. Petersburg as 
a teacher and pianist of great vogue. 
After touring Russia, in London, 1832, 
he played a concerto of his own at 
the Philh.; then to Paris; 1833 Bel- 
gium, Switzerland, Italy, where he 
was not a succ. Intemperance and 
fistula kept him nine months in a Na- 
ples hospital; whence he was rescued 
by a Russian family Raemanow and 
taken to Moscow, playing in Vienna 
with greatest succ. ; but his health 
was lost and he died a few years later 
and was buried in Moscow. Besides 
20 nocturnes (of which only 12 were 
so named by Field) he c. 7 concertos 
(No. 4 in E flat the most popular) ; 

4 sonatas ; ' ' A ir ntsse " / ' 1 A ir 
russe varie" (4 hands) ; " Chanson 
russe variJ" in D min. ; polonaise 
" Reviens, reviews" Romanza and 
Cavatina in E ; 4 romances ; 7 ron- 
deaux ; rondeau with 2 vlns., viola 
and bass ; variation in C ; 2 diver- 
tissements with 2 vlns., viola, and 
bass; 2 fantasias ; and pf. -exercises 
in all keys. (2) Henry, "Field of 
Bath," Dec. 6, 1797 May 19, 1848 ; 
pianist and teacher. 

Fielitz (fun fe'-llts), Alexander von, 
b. Leipzig, Dec. 28, 1860; pupil in 
Dresden of J. SchulhofT(pf.) and Kret- 
schmer (comp.) ; he became opera- 
cond. in Zurich, Lubeck, and Leipzig 
(City Th.) ; a nervous disorder com- 
pelled his retirement ; lives in Italy 
as a composer of sacred choruses, 
orch. pcs., songs, etc. His songs 
have attained much solid popularity. 

Filippi (fe-lTp'-pI) 0) Giu. de, Milan, 
1825 Neuilly, near Paris, 1887 ; 
writer. (2) Filippo, Vicenza, 1830 
Milan, 1887 ; critic, writer, and 

Fill'more, J. Comfort, Franklin, 
Conn., 1843 1898 ; studied at Ober- 
lin (0.) Coll., and Leipzig Cons.; 
1884-95 founder and dir. of Sch. of 
Mus. in Milwaukee ; then mus. dir. 
Pomona Coll., Cluremonl, Cal. ; pub. 
" A Study of Omaha Indian Music " 
(with Miss Fletcher and F. La 
Flesche; Peabody Museum, 1893); 

Filtsch (feltsh), Karl, Hermannstadt, 
Transylvania, 1831. Vienna, 1845; 
pianist ; pupil of Chopin and Liszt ; 
died at 15. 

Finck (fink), (i) Heinrich, 1482, con- 
ductor to John Albert I., Cracow; 
eminent contrapuntist. (2) Hermann, 
Pirna, Saxony, 1527 Wittenburg, 
1558, grand-nephew of above ; com- 
poser and writer. (3) Henry The- 
ophilus, b. Dethcl, Missouri, Sept. 
22, 1854 ; prominent American critic 
and essayist ; influential advocate of 
Wagner; lived in Oregon, then (1876) 
graduate of Harvard, having studied 


theory and hist, of mus. with J. K. 
Paine ; 1876, attended the first Bay- 
reuth festival, and studied at Munich; 
pub. the valuable " Wagner and His 
Works" (N. Y., 1893, 2 vols., Germ, 
transl., Breslau, 1897) ; 1877-78, 
studied anthropology at Harvard ; re- 
ceived a Fellowship and spent 3 years 
at Berlin, Heidelberg, and Vienna, 
studying comparative psychology and 
sending mus. letters to N. Y. Nation; 
has since been mus.-ed. of the N. Y. 
Evening Post ; pub. u Chopin, and 
other Mus. Essays" " Paderewski 
and his Art" " Songs and Song' 
Writers " (1901) ; 3 books of travel : 
" Pacific Coast Scenic Tour" "Lo- 
tos-time in Japan" " Spain and Mo- 
rocco " ; and 2 important books on 
the psychology of love, "Romantic 
Love and Personal Beauty" having 
reached 4 editions ; " Primitive Love 
and Love Stories " (1900). 

Fincke (flnk'-g), Fritz, b. Wisraar, 
May i, 1846; pupil Leipzig Cons,; 
theorist and violinist, Frankfort, then 
organist at Wismar ; 1879, teacher of 
singing, Peabody Inst., Baltimore; 
writer and composer. 

Findeisen (fmt'-I-zen), Otto, 1890, 
conductor Wilhelm-Th. , Magdeburg, 
prod. succ. operetta " Der Alte Des- 
sauer" (Magdeburg, 1890); and the 
succ. folk -opera " Henings von 
Treffenfeld" (ib. 1891). 

Finger (flng'-er), Gf., b. Olmtttz, Ba- 
varia ; in England, 1685-1701 ; then 
chamber-mus. to Queen of Prussia, 
till 1717. 

Fink, Gf. Wm., Suiza, Thuringia, 
1783 Halle, 1846 ; editor, writer, 
and composer, (2) Chr., b. Detting- 
en, Wurtemberg, Aug. 9, 1831; pupil 
Esslingen Seminary ; Leipzig Cons., 
and Schneider, Dresden; till 1860 
lived as organist and teacher, Leip- 
zig ; then teacher and organist, Ess- 
lingen, and prof, in 1862 ; composer. 

Fink'enstein (shtin), Jettka, b. Seni, 
Russia, March 22, 1865 ; alto ; stud- 
ied at Berlin Hochschule, and with 
Viardot Garcia ; ist. alto at Darm- 

stadt ct.-theatre till 1891, then 
toured ; lives in Breslau. 

Fioravanti (fe-or-a-van'-te), (^Valen- 
tino, Rome, 1764 Capua, June 16, 
1837 ; opera-cond. and composer. 
(2) Vincenzo, Rome, 1799 Naples, 
1877, son of above ; conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Fiorillo (fe-o-rll'-lo), (i) Ignazio, 
Naples, 1715 Fritzlar, near Cassel, 
1787 ; court-conductor and composer. 
(2) Federigo, b. Brunswick, 1753 (?); 
son and pupil of above ; viola player 
and composer. 

Fique (fe-ka), Karl, b. Bremen, 1861 ; 
pupil of Leipzig Cons. ; lives in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. ; pianist and composer. 

Fischel (ftsh'-el), Adolf, b. Konigs- 
berg, 1810 ; pupil of Spohr; cigar- 
dealer in Berlin ; violinist and com- 

Fischer (ftsh'-er), (i) Chr. Fr., Lti- 
beck, 1698 Kiel, 1752 ; cantor and 
writer. (2) Jn. Chr., Freiburg,Ba- 
den, 1733 London, 1800 ; oboist and 
composer. (3) Chr. Wm., Konrads- 
dorf, near Freiburg, 1789 Dresden, 
1859; basso buffo. (4) Ludwig, 
Mayence, 1745 Berlin, 1825 ; oper- 
atic bass, of great range (D - a'). (5) 
Michael Gotthard, Alach, near 
Erfurt, 1773 Erfurt, 1829; cond. 
and composer. (6) Anton, Ried, 
Swabia, 1777 Vienna, 1808; com- 
poser. (7) Ernst Gf., Hoheneiche, 
near Saalfeld, 1754 Berlin, 1831; 
prof, and acoustician. (8) Gf. Erail, 
Berlin, 17911841, son of above; 
singing-teacher and writer. (9) K. 
L., Kaiserslautern, Bavaria, 1816 
Hanover, 1877 ; court-conductor and 
composer. (10) Ad., Uckermunde, 
Pomerania, 1827 Breslau, 1893 ; or- 
ganist and composer, (n) K. Aug., 
Ebersdorf, Saxony, 1828 Dresden, 
1892 ; organist. (12) Fz., b. Munich, 
July 29, 1849 ; 'cellist, pupil of H. 
Muller; 1870 soloist National Th., 
Pesth, under Hans Richter ; later at 
Munich and Bayreuth with Wagner ; 
1877-79, court-conductor at Mann- 
heim, then Munich. (13) Paul, 


Zwickau, 1834 Zittau. 1894 ; cantor 
and writer. (14) Ad., Brussels, 1847 
insane in Brussels, 1891 ; 'cellist. 
(15) Ignaz, 1828 Vienna, 1877; 
conductor ct.-opera, Vienna. (16) 
Josef, 1828 Stuttgart, 1885 ; com- 
poser. (17) Emil, b. Germany, ca. 
1835; notable German basso in Wag- 
nerian roles; debut 1849; san at 
Met. Op. N. Y. many years ; 1899 m. 
Camille Seygard ; divorced 1902. 

Fischhof (ftsh'-6f), Jos., Butschowitz, 
Moravia, 1804 Vienna, 1857; P rof - 
composer and writer. 

Fish, Wm., Norwich, 1775 ca. 1863; 
violinist and oboist. 

Fish'er, (i) John A,, b. Dunstable, 
1774, pf.-and organ-virtuoso ; violin- 
ist and composer. (2) Wm. Arms, 
b. San Francisco, April 27, 1861 ; pu- 
pil of J. P. Morgan (org. and pf.), 
H. W. Parker, and Dvorak, New 
York ; also studied singing in Lon- 
don ; lives in Boston as teacher, 
composer of songs, and editor. 

Fissot (ffs-so) Alexis Henri, Air- 
aines (Somme), 1843 Paris, 1896 ; 
pf. and organ-virtuoso and com- 

Fitzenhagen (flts'-en-hakh-en), Wm. 
K. Fr., Seesen, Brunswick, 1848 
Moscow, 1890 ; 'cellist. 

Fitzwilliam, Edward F., 1824 Jan. 
30, 1857 ; English composer. 

Fladt (flat), Anton, b. Mannheim, 
1775 ; oboist and composer. 

Flag'ler, Isaac van Vleck, b. Albany, 
N. Y., May 15, 1844 ; pupil of Beale 
at Albany, Batiste in Paris, etc. ; 
organist various churches, then (1899) 
a publisher and concert-organist; 
Chautauqua-lecturer for 13 years ; 
teacher at Syracuse and Cornell Uni- 
versities and Utica Cons. ; composer, 

Flaxland (flax-Ian), Gve. Alexandre, 
Strassburg, 1821 Paris, 1895 ; pub., 

Fle"gier (fla-zha), Ange, b. Marseilles, 
Feb. 25, 1846 ; pupil of Marseilles 
Cons, and Paris Cons. 1870 ; returned 
to Marseilles ; c. i-act comic opera, 
"Fatima" (Mars. 1875), " Ossian" 

and " Fran$oise de Rimini" cantata, 
with orch., etc. 

Fleischer (fli'-sher), (i) Reinhold, b. 
Dansau, Silesia, April 12, 1842 ; 
pupil of the R. Inst. for Church- 
music, and R. Akademie, at Berlin ; 
1870, organist at Gorlitz and dir. 
Singakademie ; 1885, Royal Mus. 
Dir. ; c. a cantata, "Holda"tte. (2) 
Oskar, b. Z6rbig, Nov. i, 1856; 
studied in Italy on govt. stipend; 
pupil and, since 1896, successor of 
Spitta as Prof. Extraordinary, at the 
Berlin Univ., also custodian of the 
Royal Coll. of Mus. Instrs., and 
teacher of history at the Hochschule 
fur Musik ; pub. a study of neumes, 
1895, etc. (3) Fleischer-Edel(a'-del), 
Katharina, b. Mulheim, Sept. 27, 
1873 ; soprano ; studied with Iffert ; 
sings at court-opera, Dresden. 

Flem'ming, Fr. Fd., Neuhausen, 
Saxony, 1778 Berlin, 1813; c. pop. 
" Integer vita" etc. 

Floersheim (flars'-hlm), Otto, b. Aix- 
la-Chapelle, March 2, 1853 ; pupil of 
Fd. Hiller, Cologne; 1875, N ew 
York ; 1880, edited The Musical 
Courier, since 1894 manager of its 
Berlin Branch; c. "Prelude and 
Fugue" "Scherzo'' for orch., etc. 

Floridia (flo-red'-ya), (Napolmo) Pie- 
tro, b. Modica, Sicily, March 5, 1860 ; 
pianist, pupil of S. Pietro a Majello, 
Naples ; while there he pub. succ. 
pf.-pcs. ; prod. succ. comic opera 
" Carlotta. Clepier " (Naples, 1882), 
later burned the score, retired for 
3 years to Sicily ; toured 1885-86 ; 
1888-90, prof, of pf. Palermo Cons. ; 
1889, his grand symphony won ist 
prize of the Soc. del Quartette, Mil- 
an ; w. text and music of succ. opera 
" Maruzza " (Venice, 1894); lives in 
Milan ; c. (with Luigi Illica) " La Co- 
Ionia Liber a "/ also "Festouvertiire " 
serenata, etc. 

Florimo (flo'-rf-mo), Fran., San Gior- 
gio Morgeto, Calabria, 1800 Naples, 
1888 ; writer, teacher, and composer. 

Flo'rio, Caryl, pen-name of Wm. Jas. 


Flor'izel. Vide REUTER. 

Flotow (flo'-to), Friedrich, Freiherr 
von, Teutendorf, Mecklenburg, April 
27, 1812 Darmstadt, Jan. 24, 1883 ; 
composer of 2 extremely popular and 
melodious, also extremely light, op- 
eras ; son of a landed nobleman ; 
studied composition with Reicha, 
Paris ; he fled from the July Revolu- 
tion to Mecklenburg, where he c. 2 
operettas ; returning to Paris, he 
prod. " Straphine" 1836, "Rob 
Roy'' and the succ. " Le N'a^tfrag^ 
de la M/duse" 1839, (given Ham- 
burg, 1845, as " Die Matrosen "), in 
which he collaborated with Paloti and 
Grisar ; 3 later works failed, incl. the 
ballet "Lady Harriet" (Opera, 
1843) ; afterwards rewritten with 
great succ. as*' Martha" (Vienna, 
1847). " Akssandro Stradella "(Ham- 
burg, 1844 ! rewritten from a "piece 
lyrique, "Stradella'' Paris, 1837), 
made his name in Germany. He fled 
from the March Revolution (1848), 
and prod. " Die Gross-furstin " (Ber- 
lin, 1853), and " Indra" (Berlin Op- 
era, 1850) ; 3 later works failed. 
1856-63, he was intendant of court- 
music, Schwerin, and c. a " Torch- 
Dance " and excellent music to Shake- 
speare's "Winter's Tale" ; 1863-68, 
he prod. 2 operettas, 2 operas, and 2 
ballets, without succ. ; 1868, he re- 
tired to one of his estates, near Vien- 
na, made visits to Vienna, Paris, It- 
aly ; 1870, "L* Ombre" (Paris, Op. 
Com., 1870 ; prod, in London, 1878, 
as the "Phantom") was very succ.; 
" Natda" (Milan, 1873) and " // 
Fior d'Hariem. " (Turin, 1876) were 
revisions, and he rewrote " Indra " as 
"/' ' En chanter ess e" (Paris and London, 
1878); Italy, "Almaflncancatrice"; 
Germany " Die ffexe"; after his 
death " Rose liana" " Der Graf 
Saint-M/grin" (Cologne, 1884), and 
"Die Musi kanten" (Hanover, 1887) 
were produced. 

Flow'ers, Geo. French, Boston, Eng- 
land, 18111872, organist, teacher, 
composer, and writer. 

Fliigel (flu-gel), (i) Gustav,Nienburg- 
on-Saale, July 2, 1812 Stettin, 1900; 
cantor, organist, writer, and compos- 
er. (2) Ernest Paul, b. Stettin, Aug. 
31,1844; son and pupil of above; 
studied at the R. Inst. for Church- 
music, and the Akademie, Berlin; 
private pupil of von Billow ; 1867, 
organist and teacher at the Prenzlau 
Gymnasium; in 1879, cantor, Bres- 
lau, and founded the " Flugelverein " ; 
writer and composer. 

Fo'dor, (i) Jos., Vanlos, 1752 1828 ; 
violinist and composer. (2) Jo- 
sephine, b. Paris, 1793 ; soprano ; 
retired, 1833; daughter of above; 
m. the actor Mainvielle. 

Foerster (feY-shter), Ad. Martin, b. 
Pittsburg, Pa., Feb. 2, 1854; impor- 
tant American composer ; pupil of his 
mother and of Leipzig Cons.; 1875- 
76, teacher at Ft. Wayne (Ind.), 
Cons., then Pittsburg, Pa., where he 
still lives as a teacher of singing and 
pf.; c. "Faust" overture; march- 
fantasia ; festival music, 2 suites (No. 
i, " The Fakoner"), festival march 
(May festival, 1891, under Seidl); 
*' Symphonic Ode to Byron" and 
"Dedication March " (Carnegie Hall, 
Pittsburg); "Thusnelda" etc. 

Foggia (fod'-ja), Fran., Rome, 1604 
1688, composer and conductor. 

Fogliani (fol-ya-ne), Ludovici, Mo- 
dena, i$th cent. ca. 1540 ; theorist 
and composer. 

Foignet (fwan'-ya), (i) Chas. Gabriel, 
Lyons, ca. 1750 Paris, 1823 ; teach- 
er. (2) Fran., Paris, ca. 1780 
Strassburg, 1845 ; tenor, later bary- 
tone and dram, composer. 

Foldesy (fuT-de'-she), , b. Hun- 
gary ; young 'cellist, succ. in London, 
1902 ; son of a military bandman at 
Budapest ; pupil of Becker. 

Fo'ley (" Signer Foli "), Allan Jas., 
Cahir, Tipperary, Ireland, 1842 
Southport, England, Oct. 20, 1899 ; 
concert and operatic bass. 

Folville (fol-ve'-yu), (Eugenie Emi- 
lie) Juliette, b. Liege, Jan. 5, 1870; 
brilliant pianist, violinist, teacher, 


conductor and composer; pupil of 
her father, a distinguished lawyer; 
studied vln. with Malherbes, Musin, 
and Cesar Thomson ; in 1879, debut 
at Liege as concert-violinist ; fre- 
quently directs her own orchestral 
works ; annually conducts at Liege 
Cons, a concert of ancient music, and 
gives clavecin-recitals; prod. 1893, 
very succ. opera " Atafa" (Lille, 
1892 ; Rouen, 1893) ; 1898, pf. prof, 
at Liege Cons. ; c. 3 orchestral suites : 
" Semes (a) champfares, (b) de la 
mer, (c) d'hiver" etc. 

Fonda, (Mrs.) G. A., 1837 Louis- 
ville, 1897; wrote "Life of Gott- 
schalk? etc., under pseud., " Octavia 

Fontaine (foi'-tSn), (i) Mortier de, 
v. MORTIER. (2) Hendrik, b. Ant- 
werp, April 5, 1857; concert-bass; 
pupil of the Cons, and singing-teach- 
er, 1883. 

Fontana (fon-ta-na), Giov. Bat., d. 
Brescia, 1630 ; composer. 

Foote, Arthur Wm., b. Salem, Mass., 
March 5, 1853 J prominent American 
composer ; pupil of B. J. Lang (pf.), 
S. A. Emery, and J. K. Paine (comp.) 
1875, A. M. Harvard (for mus.) ; 
since 1878, organist of the first Uni- 
tarian Ch. , Boston ; pub. overture, 
"/ the Mountains" symphonic pro- 
logue, "Francesco, da Rimini"' 'cel- 
lo concerto ; orch. suite and choral 
works, " Farewell of Hiawatha," 
" The Wreck of the Hesperus" and 
" The Skeleton in Armour" ; pf.- 
quintet, quartet in C ; pf,-trio in C 
min.; sonata for pf. and vln.; 2 
string-quartets; pcs. for vln. and 
'cello, and pf.-pcs.; 2 suites, and 

Forberg (for'-berkh), Robt,, Liitzen, 
1833 Leipzig, 1880; mus. pub. at 

Forbes, H M 18041859 ; Engl. organ- 
ist, pianist, and dram, composer. 

Forchhammer (forkh'-ham-me'r), Th., 
b. Schiers, Gray Cantons, July 29, 
1847 ; pupil of Stuttgart Cons.; 1885, 
organist at Magdeburg Cath. ; 1888, 

Royal Mus. Dir.; writer and com- 

Ford, (i) Thos., England, ca. 1580 
1648; composer and writer. (2) 
Ernest A. C., b. London, Feb. 17, 
1858 ; pupil of vSuIlivan and Lalo 
cond. Empire Th., London; prod. 2 
operas ; comic-opera, "Jane Annie" ; 
a cantata ; motet ' ' Domine Deus " 
(for 250th anniv. of Harvard Univ.), 

For'kel, Jn. Nikolaus, Meeder, near 
Coburg, 1749 Gottingen, 1818 ; 
historian, organist, harpist, and 

For'mes, K. Jos., Miilheim-on-Rhine, 
1816 San Francisco, 1889 ; opera- 
bass. His wife (2) a notable con- 
tralto in N. Y. (3) Theodor, Mul- 
heini, 1826 Endenich, near Bonn, 
1874 ; tenor, bro. of above. 

Formschneider (form'-shnl'-de'r). Vide 


Fornari (for-na'-re), V., b. Naples, 
May 11,^848; pupil of Sira (pf.) 
and Battista (comp.) ; c. operas, 
"Maria di Torre " (Naples, 1872), 
" Salammbo" " Ziiwa" (Naples, 
1881), and i-act opera-seria " Un 
Drammain Vendemmia" (Florence, 
180,6), succ. 

Fornasari (for-na-sn'-re), Luciano, 
Italian bass ; debut ca. 1828 ; toured 
widely and retired 1846. 

Forner (fer'-ner), Chr., Wettin, 1610 
1678 ; organ- builder ; ca. 1675, inv. 
the "wind-gauge." 

Forqueray (f Ark-re 1 ), //r, contempo- 
rary French composer. 

Forster (f6r'-shtcr), G. f (i) Amberg(?) 
Nuraberg, 1568 ; editor and coll. 
(2) G., (II), d. Dresden, 1587; 
double-bass ; conductor. (3) Niko- 
laus (called Fortius), 14991535 ; 
contrapuntist. (4) (or Forster) Kas- 
par, Danzig, 1617 1673 ; composer, 
theorist and conductor. (5) Wm. 
(Sr.), Brampton, Cumberland, 1739 
London, 1808 ; vln. -maker; his son 
and successor was (6), Wm., Lon- 
don, 17641824. 

Fbr'ster (feY-shte'r), (i) v. FORSTER 


(4). (2) Chr., Bebra, Thuringia, 
1693 Rudolstadt, 1745 ; organist, 
conductor and composer, (3) Eman- 
uel Aloys, Neurath, Austrian Sile- 
sia, 1748 Vienna, 1823; theorist 
and composer. (4) Jos., b. Osojnitz, 
Bohemia, Feb. 22, 1833 ; Prague 
School of Organists; organist in various 
churches; since 1887, Prague Cath. ; 
prof, of theory, Prague Cons.; c. masses 
and requiems, org.-pcs ; wrote a trea- 
tise on harmony. (5) Vide FOERSTER. 
(6) Alban, b. Reichenbach, Saxony, 
Oct. 23, 1849 I violinist ; pupil R. 
Blume, later of Dresden Cons. ; lead- 
er at Carlsbad, Breslau, Stettin; 1871, 
court mus., and cond. Neustrelitz, 
1881, teacher in Dresden Cons., 
cond. of the Liedertafel ; since 1882, 
court-cond. at Neustrelitz, 1875 ; c. 
comic operas, ballet pantomime, orch. 
and chamber music, etc. 

Forsyth', Bros., mus. publishers, 
London and Manchester. 

Forti (for'-te), Anton, Vienna, 1790 
1859 ; barytone. 

Fortlage (fort'-la-geO, K,, Osnabruck, 
1806 Jena, 1881; writer. 

Fortsch (fertsh), Jn. Ph., Wertheim, 
Franconia, 1652 Eutin, 1732 ; con- 
ductor, singer, and dram, composer. 

Fos'ter, (i) Stephen Collins, Law- 
renceville (Pittsburg), Pa., July 4, 
1826 New York, Jan. 13, 1864; 
chiefly self-taught as flageolet-play- 
er and composer ; a writer of words 
and music of genuine American folk- 
song ; he enjoyed enormous vogue, 
receiving $500 for the privilege of 
singing "Old Folks at Home" (or 
" Suwanee River") before its publi- 
cation ; c. 160 songs, incl. " My Old 
Kentucky Home," " Nellie was a 
Lady," and many war-songs ; his 
melody, though simple, was rarely 
banal and has elements of immortal- 
ity. (2) (Myles) Birket, b. London, 
Nov. 29, 1851 ; organist and com- 
poser ; pupil of Hamilton Clarke, and 
at R. A. M. of Sullivan, Prout, and 
Westlake ; 1873-74, organist at Ha- 
weis' Church ; 1880-92, at the Found- 

ling Hospital; then mus.-ed. for 
Boosey & Co.; c. 2 Evening Ser- 
vices ; symphony, "hit of Arran " ; 
overtures, etc. 

Fouqu< (foo-ka), P. Octave, Pau, Bas- 
ses-Pyrenees, 18441883; libr., Paris 
Cons.; critic and writer. 

Fourneaux (foor-no), Napole"on, 
Leard, 1808 Aubanton, 1846; im- 
prover of the reed instruments. 

Fournier (foorn-ya), (i) P. Simon, 
Paris, 17121768 ; introducer of 
round-headed notes, and writer on 
history of music-types. (2) femile 
Eugene Alex., Paris, 1864 Toin- 
ville-le-Pont, 1897 ; pupil of Delibes 
and Dubois at Cons.; 1891 took 2d 
Grand prix de Rome, and 1892 Prix 
Cressent, for i-act opera "Stratonice" 
(Gr. Opera, Paris, 1892); c. opera 
" Carloman" etc. 

Fox, Geo., b. 1854, Eng. (?) ; bary- 
tone, with various opera troupes in 
London and the provinces and c. pop. 
operettas, "Robert Macaire" 1887 ; 
" The Corsica^ Brothers" 1888, and 
" Nydia" 1892 all prod, at the Crys- 
tal Palace ; c. cantatas, songs, etc. 

Fradel (fra'-del), Chas. (Karl), b. 
Vienna, 1821 ; music-teacher New 
York, then London ; composer. 

Framery (f rim-re), Nicolas t., 1745 
Paris, 1 8 10 ; writer. 

Francesco. Vide LANDING. 

Francesina (la fran-cha-se'-na), La 
(rightly Elizabeth Duparc), French 
singer in Italy, and, 1738-45, London, 
where she created Handelian roles. 

Franchetti (fran-keY-te), (i) Alberto 
(Baron) ; b. Turin, Sept. 18, 1850 ; 
pupil of N. Coccon and F. Magi ; 
then of Draeseke, and at the Munich 
Cons.; prod. "dram, legend" 
" Asraele" (Brescia, 1888); opera, 
" Cristoforo Colombo" (Genoa, 1892), 
" Fior d'Alpe" (Milan, 1894), "// 
Signor di Pourceaugnac" (Milan, 
1807), allsucc.; c. a symphony, etc. 
(2) Valerio, b. Italy; violinist; 
nephew of above; opposed by his 
family he made succ. as " Oliveira " j 
played with succ. Berlin, 1892. 


Franchitius (fran-ke'-noos). Vide 

Franchi - Verney (fran'-ke-veY-na), 
Giu. Ip.,Conte della Valetta ; b. Tu- 
rin, Feb. 17, 1848 ; 1874 gave up law for 
music ; 1875-77 under the pen-name 
41 Ippolito Valetta" contributed to 
various papers ; 1893 (?), m. Teresina 
Tua ; c. succ. lyric sketch "// 7al- 
dese " (Turin, 1885), and succ. ballet, 
"II Mulatto" (Naples, 1896). 

Franchomme (fran-shum), Auguste, 
Lille, April 10, 1808 Paris, Jan. 
21, 1884; 'cellist; teacher at the 
Cons, and composer. 

Franck (frank), (i) Melchior, Zittau, 
ca. I58oCoburg, June i, 1639; 
from 1603 court-cond. at Coburg ; a 
prolific and important c. of secular 
and church- music, a pioneer in im- 
proving instrumental accompaniment; 
two of his chorales "Jerusalem, das 
hochgebaute Stadt" and " Wenn ich 
Todesnothen bin" are still sung ; he 
is said to have written the text for 
many hymns. (2) Jn. W., Hamburg, 
1641 Spain, 1688 (or later) ; opera- 
cond.; c. 14 operas. (3) (fran), Ce"- 
sar Auguste, Liege, Dec. 10, 1822 
Paris, Nov. 8, 1890 ; important 
and influential French composer; 
pupil Liege Cons., then of Paris 
Cons,, where he took ist prize for 
piano, and 2d for comp., also suc- 
ceeding his organ-teacher, Benoist, as 
prof, there in 1872, and as organist 
at Ste. Clothilde; c. a notable symph. 
poem with chorus "Lts latitudes" 
symph. poem " Le chasseur maudit" 
a symphony in D minor, a succ. com. 
opera " Hulda " (Monte Carlo, 1894), 
2 oratorios, an unfinished opera 
"Ghisella" a sonata for pf. and 
vln.; pf.-pcs.; chamber-music, songs, 
etc. ; biog. by Derepas (Paris, '97), 
and by Destranges. (4) Eduard, 
Breslau, 1817 Berlin, 1893 ; pro- 
fessor and composer. (5) Jos., b. 
Liege, ca. 1820 ; bro. of (3) ; organ- 
ist and teacher, Paris ; pub. Ode to 
St. Cecilia (with orch.); cantatas, 

Francke (frank'-e 1 ), Aug. Hn., 1865, 
founded Leipzig pf. -factory. 

Fran' co, a name honoured in mensural 
music and probably belonging to two, 
perhaps three, men : (i) F. of Paris 
(the elder], cond. at Notre-Dame, 
Paris, ca. noo (?) A.D.; and (2) F. 
of Cologne, Dortmund and prior of 
the Benedictine Abbey at Cologne in 
1190, author of 2 treatises. 

Francteur (fran-kur), (i) Franois, 
Paris, 16981787; violinist and 
dram, composer. (2) Louis Jos., 
Paris, 17381804 ; nephew of above; 
violinist, conductor and dram, com- 

Frank (i) Melchior. Vide FRANCK. 
(2) Ernst, Munich, 1847 (insane), 
Oberdobling, near Vienna, 1889; 
court-organist and dram, composer. 

Franke (frank'-e), Fr. W., b. Bar- 
men, June 21, 1862 ; studied Berlin 
Hochschule; organist at Stralsund, 
later at Cologne, also teacher in the 

Frankenberger (frank'-en-berkh-er), 
H.,Wumbach, Schwarzburg-Sonders- 
hausen, 1824 Sondershausen, 1885 ; 
conductor, violinist, and dram, com- 

Frank'lin, Benj., Boston, Mass., 
1706 Philadelphia, 1790; the emi- 
nent philosopher ; inv. the harmonica 
(v. D. D.), and wrote wittily on 
Scotch and contemporary music, etc. 

Franz (f rants), (i) K., Langenbielau, 
Silesia, 1738 Munich, 1802; virtu- 
oso on the waldhorn, and the bary- 
ton. (2) J. H., pen-name of Count 
B. von Hochberg. (3) Robt. , Halle, 
June 28, 1815 Oct. 24, 1892 ; 1847, 
changed his family-name Knauth, 
by royal permission ; long opposed 
by his parents, he finished his musi- 
cal studies 1835-37, under Fr. Schnei- 
der, Dessau ; returned to Halle, and 
spent six years studying Bach, etc.; 
1843, his first album of 12 songs ap- 
peared, and was cordially rec'd by 
Liszt and Mendelssohn, and by Schu- 
mann, who wrote about him in his 
periodical. He became organist at 


the Ulrichskirche, and later cond. of the old musical shorthand of Bach 
the Singakademie, and mus. dir. at and Handel, by full scores with mod- 
Halle Univ., which made him Mus. ern instrumentation has been of in- 
Doc., 1861. In 1868, deafness at- valuable service. He also pub. es- 
tacked him, and nervous disorders says and " open letters " to Hanslick 
prevented his writing further. His on Bach and Handel. He pub. 257 
distress was relieved by the receipt of songs ; the uyth Psalm, for double 
$25,000, from a series of concerts or- chorus a cappella; Kyrie for soli and 
ganised 1872, in Germany, by Helene 4-part chorus, a cappella, a liturgy for 
Magnus, Joachim, Liszt, and in 6 chorals, 6 part-songs for mixed 
America, by Dresel, Schlesinger, and chorus, and 6 do. for male chorus. 
B. J. Lang. His wife (4) Marie (nee Biog. sketches, by Ambros, Liszt, 
Hinrichs, 1828-91), pub. many ex- Dr. W. Waldmann (Leipzig, 1895), 
cellent songs. His supplementing of etc. 

Robert Franz. 


NEXT to Schubert, Robert Franz is undoubtedly the most original of 
German song-writers. Unlike Schubert, he was a specialist, con- 
fining himself almost entirely to the field of art-songs, of which he 
wrote 279. These short songs represent, however, mult urn in parvo. As 
he himself once remarked, they are ** like a mirror reflecting the development 
of music from a to z." By their simple strophic structure they remind one 
of the early folk-song. Many of them are as stately and majestic as the Prot- 
estant chorals of the time from Luther to Bach. ^[Like Bach's music, the 
pianoforte parts of Franz's songs are polyphonic ; that is, the melody is not 
confined to the voice, but each part of the instrumental accompaniment is a 
melody, too, and these diverse melodies are interwoven with magic art. At 
the same time his harmonies and tone-colours are as modern as Chopin's, espe- 
cially in the use of chords widely extended with the aid of the pedal. ^[Franz 
admitted he could never have become what he was, had it not been for Schu- 
mann and Schubert ; yet his style is entirely different from theirs. He was 
also more critical than any of his predecessors, retaining in his desks all songs 
that did not please him ; hence the proportion of good ones is greater in his 
case than in any other. His songs are a happy blending of the romantic 
spirit and the classical style, of the modem declamatory style and a genuine 
bel canto. 

Franzl (frents'l), (i) Ignaz, Mann- Frauenlob (frow'-e'n-lo'p). Vide VON 

heim, 1734 1803 ; violinist, conduc- MEISSEN. 

tor and composer. (2) Fd., Schwet- Frauscher (frow'-sher), Moritz, b. 

zingen, Palatinate, 1770 Mannheim, Mattighafen, Austria, 1861; studied 

1833; son and pupil of above ; con- withjn. Ress, sang Fog ner (" Meis- 
ductor and dram, composer. 


tersinger"}, Bayreuth, 1892; since 
1899, Vienna, ct.-opera. 

Frasi (fra'-ze), Giulia, Italian singer in 
England, 1743-58 in Handel's works. 

Frederick II. (the Great), of Prussia ; 
Berlin, 1712 Potsdam, 1786 ; flute- 
player and composer of remarkable 
skill for a king. 

Fre"de"rix (fra-da-rex), Gv., Liege, 
1834 Brussels, 1894; critic. 

Frege (fra -ge), Livia (nee Gerhard), 
Gera, b. June 13, 1818 ; singer; pu- 
pil of Pohlenz; debut at 15 with 
Clara Wieck, who was then 13, at the 
Gewandhaus, Leipzig. 

Freiberg (fri'-berkh), Otto, Naum- 
burg, April 26, 1846 ; studied, Leip- 
zig Cons.; from 1865, violinist in 
court-orch., Carlsruhe ; studied with 
V. Lachner ; became mus. dir. Mar- 
burg Univ.; 1887, mus. dir. and prof. 

Frene (frgn), Eugene H., Strassburg, 
1860 (?) Paris, 1896 ; conductor. 

Frere (Mr), Marguerite Jeanne 
(called Hatto), b. Lyons, Jan. 30, 
1879; soprano; pupil of the Cons., 
took 2 opera prizes, 1899 ; debut Ope- 
ra, 1899 ; created " Floria " in Saint- 
Sae'ns' " Les JSarbares" sang at 
Monte Carlo, etc. 

Freschi (fres'-ke), Giov. Dom., Vi- 
cenza, 16401690; conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Frescobaldi (frSs-ko-baT-de), Girola- 
mo, Ferrara, 1583 (buried) Rome, 
March 2, 1644 ; the greatest organist 
of his time, a revolutionist in harmo- 
ny and important developer of fugue 
and notation ; he was so famous 
that 30,000 people attended his first 
performance as organist of St. Peter's, 
Rome (1610, or -14) ; pupil of Luz- 
zacchi ; organist at Mechlin probably 
1607; c. org.-pcs., fugues, double- 
choir church-music, etc.; biog. by 

Freudenberg (froi'-den-berkh), Wm,, 
b. Raubacher Hiitte, Prussia, March 
n, 1838 ; studied in Leipzig ; th.- 
cond. in various places ; 1865, cond. 
of the Cecilia Singing Society, and the 

Synagogenverein, Wiesbaden ; 1870, 
founded a Cons., and till 1886, cond! 
the Singakademie ; later opera-cond. 
at Augsburg and (1889) Ratisbon; 
c. many operas, chiefly comic ; symph.' 
poem, etc. 

Freund (froint), Robt., b. Buda-Pesth, 
April 7, 1852; pianist; studied with 
Moscheles, Tausig, and Liszt ; lives 
in Zurich. 

Frey (fri), M., d. Aug. 10, 1832 ; vio- 
linist, court-cond. at Mannheim, and 
dram, composer. 

Freystatter (fri'-shtet-te'r), Wm., 
1836 Munich, 1892, critic. 

Frezzolini (fred-zo-le'-ne), Erminia, 

b. Orvieto, 1818 ; soprano ; debut 

Friberth (fri'-bert), K., Wullersdorf, 
Lower Austria, 1736 Vienna, 1816; 
tenor ; conductor. 

Frick (or Frike) (frit, or fre'-ke 1 ), 
Ph. Jos., near Wiirzburg, 1740 
London, 1798 ; organist and com- 

Fricke (frfk'-e 1 ), Aug. Gf., Brunswick, 
1829 Berlin, 1894 ; bass. 

Frickenhaus (frlk' -en-hows), Fanny 
(nee Evans), b. Cheltenham, Eng- 
land, June 7, 1849 : pianist ; pupil 
of G. Mount, Aug. Dupont (Brussels 
Cons.), and Wm. Bohrer ; 1869, de- 
but, London. 

Friedheim (fret'-hlm), Arthur, b. St. 
Petersburg, Oct. 26, 1859 ; pianist 
and conductor; pupil of Rubinstein 
one year, and of Liszt, 8 years ; c. 
concerto, etc. 

Friedlander (fret'-lent-e u r), Max., b. 
Brieg, Silesia, Oct. 12, 1852 ; concert- 
bass and editor; pupil of Manuel 
Garcia and Stockhausen ; debut, 
1880, London; 1881-83, Frankfort ; 
since in Berlin; 1882, Dr. Phil. h. 

c. (Breslau). 

Friedrich II. Vide FREDERICK. 

Fries (fres), Wulf (Chr. Julius), 
Garbeck, Holstein, Ger. Jan. 10, 
1825 Roxbury, Mass., April 29, 
1902 ; self-taught 'cellist ; at 17 in 
the Bergen Th. orch. and Ole Bull's 
concerts; 1847, Boston, Mass., one 


of the founders of the Mendelssohn 
Quintet Club ; later a member of the 
Beethoven Q. Club. 

Frike. Vide FRICK. 

Frimmel (frtm'-mel), Th., b. Amstet- 
ten, Lower Austria, Dec. 15, 1853 ; 
M. D. (Vienna) ; writer. 

Fritze (frft'-ze 1 ), Wra., Bremen, 1842 
Stuttgart, 1881 ; conductor, writer, 
and composer. 

Fritzsch (frftsh), Ernst Wm., b. 
Lutzen, Aug. 24, 1840 ; pupil Leip- 
zig Cons. ; acquired the music-pub, 
business of Bomnitz in Leipzig; 
since 1870, ed. the radical " Musi- 
kalisches Wochenblatt" and 1875 
started the " Musikalische Hausbldt- 
ter " ; is a member of the Gewand- 
haus Orch. ; pub. the works of Wag- 
ner, Grieg, etc., and aided progress. 

Froberger (fro'-berkh-er), Jn. Jakob, 
1605 (?) Hericourt, France, May 
7, 1667 ; chief German organist of 
the I7th cent. ; son of a cantor at 
Halle ; studied in Rome with Fresco- 
baldi ; court organist at Vienna ; trav- 
elled, and in England, being robbed, 
became a bellows-treader ; he over- 
blew during Chas. II's marriage and 
was beaten by the organist Gibbons ; 
he fell to improvising shortly after, 
and was recognised by a pupil who 
presented him to the king. 

Fro(h)lich (fra-Hkh), (i) Jos., Wiirz- 
burg, 17801862 ; musical director ; 
writer and dram, composer. (2) The 
name of three sisters b. Vienna, (a) 
Nanette (Anna), 1793? pianist, 
teacher, and singer, (b) Barbara, 
1697 ?, contralto and painter, m. F. 
Bogner. (c) Josephine, 18031878, 
notable singer and teacher. 

Fromm (from), Emil, b. Spremberg, 
Niederlausitz, Jan. 29, 1835 ; pupil 
of R. Inst. for Church-music, Berlin ; 
1866, Royal Mus. Dir. ; 1869, organ- 
ist and conductor at Flensburg ; c. 2 
Passion cantatas, an oratorio, etc. 

Frontini (fron-te'-ne), F. Paolo, b. 
Catania, Aug. 6, 1860 ; pupil of P. 
Platania, and Lauro Rossi ; now 
dir. Catania Mus. Inst. ; c. succ. 

opera " Malia" (Bologna, 1893); 
oratorio " Sansone" (1882), etc. 

Froschauer (frosh'-ow-e'r), Jn., printer 
at Augsburg; said to have printed 
the first music with movable type in 

Frost, (i) Chas. Jos., b. Westbury- 
on-Tyne, Engl., June 20, 1848 ; son 
and pupil of an organist at Tewkes- 
bury, also pupil of Cooper, Goss, and 
Steggall ; organist various churches ; 
1882, Mus. Doc. Cantab. ; 1880 prof, 
of organ Guildhall Sch. of Mus. ; 
c. oratorio, " Nathan's Parable " 
(1878) ; a symphony, etc. (2) H. Fr., 
London, March 15, 1848 June.igoi ; 
studied organ with Seb. Hart. ; 1865- 
91, organist of the Chapel Royal, 
Savoy; 1880-88, pf.-prof. Guildhall 
Sch. of Mus. ; from 1877 critic of 
" The Academy? later of "TheAtlie- 
naum" and "The Standard"; pub. 
biog. of Schubert, and the " Savoy 
Hymn-tunes and Chants" 

Frotz'ler (frSts'-ler), Carl ( Auer "), 
b. Stockerau, Lower Austria, April 
10, 1873 ; pupil of his father ; at 15, 
had c. a grand mass, an offertory, 
etc. ; then entered Vienna Cons, 
studying under Krenn ; 1887-93, or- 
ganist at the Pfarrkirche, Stockerau, 
and chamber-pianist to Prince Hein- 
rich Reuss IV; 1893-97, cond. to 
Count Esterhazy at Totis, Hungary ; 
since, cond. City Th. , Linz-on-Dan- 
ube ; c. operas " Arnelda " (Totis, 
1894 ; took Philh. Ger.-Amer. Opera 
Society's prize) ; u Der Liebesring " ; 
" Mathias Cormnus " (Pesth, Royal 
Opera, 1896) ; 3 masses ; a symphony, 

Frugatta (froo-gat'-ta), Giu., b. Ber- 
gamo, May 26, 1860 ; pianist ; pupil 
of Bazzini (comp.) and Andreoli (pf.) 
at Milan Cons. ; became prof, there ; 

, also at the " Collegio reale delle Fan- 
ciulle " ; composer. 

Friih (frii), Armin Lebrecht, Mtthl- 
hausen, Thuringia, Sept. 15, 1820 
Nordhausen. Jan. 8, 1894; dram, 
composer ; inv. 1887, of the " Semeio- 
melodicon " (vide D. D.). 


Fruytiers (froi'-ters), Jan., Flemish 
composer at Antwerp i6th century. 

Fry, Wffl. H., Philadelphia, 1813 
Santa Cruz, 1864 ; dram, composer ; 
critic N. Y, Tribune. 

Ftichs (fookhs), (i) G. Fr., Mayence, 
1752 Paris, 1821 ; clarinettist and 
bandm. (2) Aloys, Raase, Austrian 
Silesia, 1799 Vienna, l8 53 i co1 ' 
lector and writer. (3) K. Dorius, 
Ja., b. Potsdam, Oct. 22, 1838 ; pupil 
of his father and v. Bulow, Weitz- 
mann and Kiel ; Dr. phil., Greifswald; 
1871-75, concert pianist, teacher and 
critic, Berlin ; 1875-79, Hirschberg ; 
1879, Danzig ; since '86, organist at 
the Petrikirche, there , Pub. numerous 
valuable musical treatises. (4) Jn. 
Nepomuk, Frauenthal, Styria, May 
5, 1842 Vienna, Oct. 5, 1899 ; from 
1893, dir. of Vienna Cons. ; dir. and 
dram, composer. (5) Robt., b. Frau- 
enthal, Feb. 15, 1847 ; bro. of above ; 
pupil, since 1875 prof., at Vienna 
Cons. ; pub. a symphony, 3 valuable 
serenades, etc.; prod. 2 operas : succ. 
"Spieloper" "Die Teufelsgkcke" 
(Leipzig, 1893) and the succ. com. 
opera "Die Konigsbraut" (Vienna, 
1889). (6) Albert, b. Basel, Aug. 6, 
1858 ; pupil of Leipzig Cons. ; 1880, 
mus. dir. at Trier ; 1889, owner and 
manager Wiesbaden Cons.; composer. 
(7) Anton, b. Munich, Jan. 29, 1849 ; 
barytone; studied with Hey and 
Milner ; sang at the court-opera; 
since 1882 at Bayreuth, first as singer 
then as manager. 

Fuchs (fuks), Fd. K., Vienna, 1811- 
1848 ; dram, composer. 

Fuentes (foo-an'-tSs), (i) Don Pas- 
quale, b. Albayda, Valencia, d. there 
1768 ; conductor and composer. (2) 
Francisco De Santa Maria de, 
Franciscan monk and writer at Ma- 
drid, 1778. 

Fuertes, M, S. Vide SORIANO. 

Fuhrer(fli'-re J r) ) Robt., Prague, 1807 
Vienna, Nov., 1861 ; organ-com- 

Fuhrmann (foor'-man), (i) G. Ld. f 
wrote work on the lute, Ntirnberg, 

1615. (2) Martin H., ca. 167003. 
1736 ; theorist and writer, 

Fulda, Adam von. Vide ADAM. 

Fulsztynski (foolsh-ten'-shkl), Se- 
bastian, Polish theorist, i6th c. 

Fumagalli (foo-ma-gal'-le), name of 
four bros. b. at Inzago, Italy; (j) 
Disma, 1826 Milan, 1893 ; profes- 
sor and composer. (2) Adolfo, 1828 
Florence, May 3, 1856 ; pianist. 
(3) Polibio, b. Oct. 26, 1830; pia- 
nist and composer. (4) Luca, b. 
May 29, 1837 ; pupil Milan Cons. ; 
concert-pianist ; prod, opera " Luigi 
^/"(Florence, 1875). 

Fumagal'lo, Mario L6on, b. Milan, 
Sept. 4, 1864 ; studied with Ceina ; 
barytone of wide travel. 

Fumi (foo'-me), Vinceslao, Monte- 
pulciano, Tuscany, 1823 -Florence, 
1880; conductor, violinist, dram, 
composer and collector. 

Fur'ker, one of the best vln.-makers, 
London, 17801840. 

Furlanetto (foor-la-net'-to), Bona- 
ventura (called Musin), Venice, 
1738 1817 ; singing-teacher, con- 
ductor and composer. 

Furno(foor'-no), Giov., Capua, 1748 
Naples, 1837; professor and dram. 

Fursch-Madi (foorsh'-ma-de), Emmy, 
Bayonne, France, 1847 Warrenville, 
N. J., Sept. 20, 1894 ; pupil of Paris 
Cons., debut Paris; came to America, 
1874, with the New Orleans French 
Opera Company; 1879-81, Covent 
Garden, London; her final appear- 
ance was as " Ortrud," N. Y., 1894. 

Fiirstenau (fursht'-g-now), (i) Kas- 
par, Munster, Westphalia, 1772 Ol- 
denburg, 1819 ; flute-virtuoso ; com- 
poser. (2) Anton B., Milnster, 1792 
Dresden, 1852 ; son and pupil of 
above; flutist and composer. (3) 
Moritz, Dresden, 18241889 ; son 
and pupil of (2) ; flutist and writer. 

Fiirstner (fursht'-ngr), Ad., b. Berlin, 
Jan. 2, 1835 ; founded (1868) a mus.- 
pub. house, Berlin. 

Fux (foox), Jn. Jos., Hirtenfeld, 
Upper Styria, 1660 Vienna, Feb. 


14, 1741 ; eminent theorist, organist, 
and court-conductor and writer; c. 
405 works (few pub.), incl. 18 operas, 
10 oratorios, 50 masses, incl. missa 
canonica. He wrote the famous 
treatise on cpt. " Gradus ad Parnas- 
sum " in dialogue form ; it is based 
on the church-modes. Biogr. by 
KOchel (Vienna, 1872). 


Gabler (gap'-leY), Jn., d. ca. 1784 ; or- 
gan builder at Ulm. 

Gabriel (i) (gi'-brWl), Mary Ann 
Virginia, Banstead, Surrey, Engl., 
1825 London, 1877 ; c. cantatas, 
operas, etc. (a) (ga'-brf-e'l), Max, 
1890, cond. Residenz Th., Hanover; 
prod, the succ. 3-act operettas, 
"Stiffen Langer" (Magdeburg, 
1889); u Dcr Frtiwerber " (Hanover, 
1890); " Der Garde- Uhlan" (Bres- 
lau, 1892; Berlin, 1893, as " Der 
Gar-de-Husar "). 

Gabrieii (ga-brl-a'-le), (i) Andrea, 
Venice, ca. 1510 1586 ; eminent or- 
ganist and teacher and composer of 
the first " real" fugues (v. D.D.). (2) 
Giov., Venice, 1558 Aug. 12, 1613 
(ace. to his monument) ; nephew and 
pupil of above, and equally famous ; 
an extraordinary contrapuntist, his 
"symphonise sacrae" employing 3 
simultaneous choirs independently 
handled; he has been called "the 
father of the chromatic style" be- 
cause of his bold modulations. (3) 
Dom. (called " Menghino del violon- 
cello "), Bologna, ca. 1640 ca. 1690; 
'cellist, conductor, and composer. 

Gabrielli (ga-brf-el'-le), (i) Catterina, 
Rome, Nov. 12, 1730 April, 1796 ; 
daughter of Prince G.'s cook (and 
hence called "La Cochetta," or 
" Cochettina ") ; one of the most 
beautiful and brilliant of singers ; her 
extraordinarily flexible voice had a 
"thrilling quality" (Burney) ; her 
caprices and her high-handed treat- 
ment of the nobility and royalty ena- 
moured of her make her a most pict- 

- uresque figure ; she sang with great- 
est succ. all over Europe and retired 
wealthy. Her sister (2) Francesca 
(called " La Gabriellina," or " La 
Ferrarese"), Ferrara, 1755 Ven- 
ice, 1795, was a celebrated prima 
donna buffa. (3) Conte Nicolo, 
Naples, 18141891 ; prod. 22 operas 
and 60 ballets. 

Gabriels'ki, (i) Jn. Wm,, Berlin, 1791 
1846; flutist and composer. (2) 
Julius, Berlin, 18061878 ; bro. and 
pupil of above ; flutist. (3) Ad., ist 
flutist, Berlin Royal orch., son of (2). 

Gabrilowitsch (ga-bre-lo'-vftsh), Os- 
sip, b. St. Petersburg, Jan. 26, 1878; 
studied at the Cons, with Tolstoff 
and Rubinstein ; at 16 took the Ru- 
binstein prize ; studied with Les- 
chetizky at Vienna, 1894-96; 1896 
began touring with success ; 1900-02 
America; c. pf.-pieces. 

Gabussi (ga-boos -se), V., Bologna, 
1800 London, 1846; teacher and 

Gade (ga'-de), Niels Wm., Copen- 
hagen, Feb. 22, 1817 Dec. 21, 1890; 
son of an instr.-maker ; at 15 refused 
to learn his father's trade, and be- 
came pupil of Wexschall (vln.) Berg- 
green (theory) ; at 16 a concert-violin- 
ist His overture, " Naekkldnge 
von Ossian" took first prize at the 
Copenhagen Mus. Soc. competition 
(1841) and won for him a royal stipend. 
In 1842 the C min. symphony, and 
1846 the cantata "Contain" were prod, 
by Mendelssohn at the Gewand- 
haus. He travelled in Italy; then, 
1844, lived in Leipzig as sub-cond. to 
Mendelssohn, and regular cond. at 
his death (1847) ; 1848, he returned 
to Copenhagen as cond. of the Mus. 
Soc. and as organist; 1861, court- 
cond., made Prof, by the King, and 
Dr. Phil. h. c. by the Univ. ; 1886, 
Commander in the Order of Dane- 
brog; 1876 the govt. voted him a 
life-pension. Autobiog. " Aufzeich- 
nungen und Brief e " (Basel, 1893). 
Pub. 7 symphonies (D minor, No. 5 
with pf .) ; 5 overtures, " Nach- 



kldnge von Ossian" " Im Hock- 
lande" "Hamlet," "Michelangelo," 
octet, sextet, and quartet for strings ; . 
8 cantatas, ' ' Elver skind '"(Erl-King's 
daughter) , ' ' Fruhlingsbotschaft, " 
"Die Heilige Nacht," " Zion," 
" Kalanus" "Die Kreuzfahrer" 
"Psyche" etc.; 2 vln.-concertos ; pf. 
sonata and pcs., songs, etc. 

Gads'by, H. Robt.,b. Hackney, Lon- 
don, Dec. 15, 1842 ; pupil of Wm. 
Bayley,-but mainly self-taught; or- 
ganist at St. Peter's, Brockley ; 1884, 
prof, of harm. Queen's Coll. London; 
also at Guildhall Sch. of Mus. ; c. 
41 Festival Service " ; 3 symphonies ; 
3 overtures, "Andromeda," "The 
Golden Legend" and " The Witches' 
Frolic" etc. 

Gad'sky, Johanna, b. Anclam, Prus- 
sia, June 15, 1871; soprano, edu- 
cated at Stettin ; 1892, ra. H. Pausch- 
er ; sang in U. S. A. for many years, 
1899 Covent Garden and as " Eva " 
(Meistersinger), at Bayreuth. 

Gaforio (ga-fo'-rl-o) (or Gafori, Gafu- 
ri, Gaffurio), Franchino (Latinized 
"Franchinus Gafurius," or "Fran- 
chinus"), Lodi, Jan. 14, 1451 
Milan, June 24, 1522 ; priest, emi- 
nent theorist, choirmaster and singer. 

Gagliano (gal-ya'-no), (i) Marco di 
Zanobi da, b. Florence ; d. there, 
Feb. 24, 1642 ; conductor and com- 
poser. (2) A family of Naples vln.- 
makers, (a) Alessandro, pupil of 
Stradivari, worked ca. 1695 1725. 
His sons, (b) Nicold (1700-40), and 
(c) Gennaro (1710-50), and his 
grandson, (d) Ferdinando (1736-81) 
succeeded him ; later descendants est. 
factory of strings, still famous. 

Gahrich (ga-rtkh), Wenzel, Zercho- 
witz, Bohemia, 1794 Berlin, 1864; 
violinist, ballet-master, and dram, 

Gail (ga-el), Edme"e Sophia (nee 
Garre), Paris, Aug. 28, 1775 July 
24, 1819; singer and dram, com- 

Galeazzi (ga-la-ad'-ze), Fran., Turin, 
1758 Rome, 1819; violinist. 

Galerat'ti, Catterina, Italian contral- 
to, in London 1714-21. 

Galilei (ga-lt-la -e), V., Florence, ca. 
1533 ca. 1600; lutenist, violinist 
and theorist ; father of the astrono- 

Galin (ga-lan), P., Samatan Gers, 
France, 1786 Paris (?), 1821 ; wrote 
pop. method " Meloplaste " (v, D. D.). 

Galitzin (ga-le'-tshen), (i) Nicolas 
Borissovitch, d. Kurski, 1866; a 
Russian prince, to whom Beethoven 
dedicated an overture, and 3 quartets; 
he advanced Beethoven liberal sums 
for his dedications ; a skilful 'cellist. 
(2) G. (Prince), St. Petersburg, 1823 
1872 ; son of above ; composer 
and cond. ; maintained in Mos- 
cow (1842) a choir of 70 boys ; later 
an orchestra. 

Gallay (gal-le), (i) Jacques Fran., 
Perpignan, 1795 Paris, 1864; horn- 
virtuoso and composer. (2) Jules, 
Saint- Quentin, 1822 Paris, 1897 ; 
amateur 'cellist of wealth ; made re- 
searches and pub. valuable treatises. 

Gallenberg (gaMen-berkh), Wenzel 
Robt., Graf von, Vienna, 1783 
Rome, 1839 ; c. ballets. 

Galle'tius, Fran, (rightly Francois 
Gallet (gal-la)), b. Mons, Hainault, 
i6th cent.; contrapuntist. 

Gal'li, (i) Filippo, Rome, 1783 Paris, 
June 3, 1853 ; first most successful 
as a tenor ; illness changed his voice, 
and he achieved great success as a 

bass. (2) , d. 1804 ; Italian 

mezzo-soprano in London from 1743. 

Gal'lia. Vide EPINE. 

Galliard (gal'-lK-Srt), Jn. Ernst, Celle, 
Hanover, 1687 London, 1749; oboist 
and organist. 

Gal'lico, Paolo, b. Trieste, May 13, 
1868 ; at 15 gave a pf.-recital at 
Trieste; then studied Vienna Cons, 
with Julius Eppstein ; at 18 graduat- 
ing with first prize and " Gesell- 
schafts " medal ; toured Europe ; 
since 1802 pianist and teacher, New 

Gallic'ulus, Jns., contrapuntist at 
Leipzig, 152048, 


Galli-Mari< (gal-U mar-ya), Celes- 
tine (nee Marie de 1'Isle), b. 
Paris, Nov., 1840 ; mezzo-soprano; 
daughter of an opera-singer; debut 
Strassburg, 1859; sang Toulouse, 
1860, Lisbon, 1861, Rouen, 1862; 
1862-78, and 1883-85, Paris Opera 
Comique; she created "Mignon" 
(1866), " Carmen " (1875), etc. 

Gal'lus, (i) Jacobus (rightly Jacob 
Handl, Handl or Hahnel) ; Caraio- 
la, ca. 1550 Prague, 1591 ; compos- 
er and conductor. (2) Jns. (Jean le 
Cocq, Maitre Jean, or Mestre 
Jhan), d. before 1543 ; a Dutch con- 
trapuntist, conductor and composer. 

rano, near Venice, Oct. 18, 1706 
Venice, Jan. 3, 1784; harpsichord 
virtuoso ; organist 1765-68 ; conduc- 
tor ; c. 54 comic operas. 

Gambale (gam-ba'-lg), Emm., music- 
teacher, Milan ; pub. " La riforma 
musicals" (1840), etc., advocating a 
scale of 12 semitones. 

Gambini (gam-be" -ne), Carlo Andrea, 
Genoa, 1819 1865 ; c. operas, etc. 

Gam'ble, John, English violinist and 
composer, I7th century. 

Gamucci (ga-moot'-che), Baldassare, 
Florence, 18221892 ; pianist and 

Ganassi (ga-nas'-se), Silvestro, b. 
Fontego, near Venice, ca. 1500 
(called " del Fontego ") ; editor and 
writer on graces. 

Gand (gan), Ch. Nicolas Eugene, 
ca. 1826 Boulogne-sur-Seine, 1892 ; 
vln. -maker. V. LUPOT. 

Gandillot (gan-de-yo), Le"on, b. Paris, 
Jan. 25, 1862 ; writer of comedies 
and composer of Parisian vaudevilles. 

Gandini (gan-de'-ne), (i) A., Modena, 
1786 Formigine, 1842; conductor 
and dram, composer. (2) Alessan- 
dro, Modena, ca. 18071871 ; son, 
pupil (1842) and successor of above ; 
dram, composer and writer. 

Ganne (gan), L. Gaston, b. Buxieres- 
les-Mines, Allier, April 5, 1862; pupil 

of Dubois and Franck, Paris Cons. ; 
c. comic opera "Rabelais" (1892), 
vaudeville operetta, ballets, etc. 

Gansbacher (gens' -bakh-gr), Jn., 
Sterzing, Tyrol, 1778 Vienna, 1844 ; 
conductor and composer. 

Gan'tenberg (-bfrkh), H., b. Berlin, 
Nov. 29, 1823 ; flutist ; studied with 
Gabrielsky; from 1860 chamber-mus., 
pensioned 1893 ; from 1872 teacher 
at the Hochschule. 

Gantvoort (gant'-vort),. Arnold J., 
b. Amsterdam, Dec. 6, 1857 ; 1876, 
in America as teacher in various col- 
leges ; 1894, Coll. of Mus., Cincin- 
nati ; pub. school music-readers. 

Ganz (gants), (i) Ad., Mayence, 1796 
London, 1870 ; violinist and cond. ; 
his 2 brothers were, (2) Moritz, 
Mayence, 1806 Berlin, 1868 ; 'cel- 
list; (3) Ld., Mayence, 1810 Ber- 
lin, 1869 ; violinist and composer ; 
Adolf's 2 sons were, (4) Eduard, 
Mayence, 1827 1869; pianist. (5) 
Wilhelm, b. Mayence, Nov. 6, 1833; 
pianist, professor, conductor. 

Garat (jl-ra), P. J., Ustaritz, Basses- 
Pyrenees, April 25, 1764 Paris, 
March I, 1823 ; most remarkable 
French singer of his time, a barytone 
of great compass and amazing mem- 
ory and mimicry ; professor and com- 

Garaudg (gar-o-da), Alexis de, Nan- 
cy, 1779 Paris, 1852 ; professor, 
composer and writer. 

Garbini (gar-be'-ne), Edoardo, b. 
Parma ; stable-boy there, when dis- 
covered ; now pop. tenor in opera. 

Garbrecht (ga/brekht), Fr. F. W. 
(d. 1875), founded at Leipzig (1862) 
a music engraving establishment, 
owned since 1880 by Os. Brandstetter. 

Garcia (gar-the'-a), a notable family of 
Spanish vocal teachers, (i) Don 
Fran. Saverio (Padre Garcia, called 
u lo Spagnoletto "), Nalda, Spain, 
1731 Saragossa, 1809 ; conductor 
and composer. (2) Manuel del Po- 
polo Vicente, Sevilla, Jan. 22, 1775 
Paris, June 2, 1832 ; eminent as 
tenor, teacher, and progenitor of sing- 


ers; successful as manager, cond. 
and composer ; took his family, his 
wife, son (3), and daughter (5) and 
others to America for a v. succ. opera 
season, 1825-26. Produced 43 ope- 
ras and c. others. (3) Manuel, b. 
Madrid, March 17, 1805; son of 
above ; bass (in Paris) ; he was a scien- 
tific investigator, and inv. the laryn- 
goscope, receiving Dr. Phil, h, c. 
KSnigsberg Univ.; 1847, prof, at the 
Cons., 1850, London, R.A.M. Jenny 
Lind was one of his pupils; pub. 
41 Traitt compkt de Vartdu chant" 
1847. (4) Eugenie (nee Mayer), 
Paris, 18181880 ; wife and pupil of 
(3) ; soprano and teacher. (5) M. 
Fe'licite', v. MALIBRAN. (6) Pauline, 
v. VIARDOT GARCIA. (7) Mariano, 
b. Aoiz, Navarra, July 26, 1809 ; not 
related to the others ; dir. of the 
Pampeluna School of Music; com- 
poser of church-music. 

Garcin (gai-san), Jules Aug. Salo- 
mon, Bourges, 1830 Paris, 1896 ; 
violinist, conductor and professor. 

Gardano (gar-da'-no), (i) A. (till 1557 
called himself Gardane), ca. 1500 
Venice, 1571 (?) ; early Italian mus.- 
printer, succeeded by sons, (2) Ales- 
sandro and (3) Angelo. 

Gar'den, Mary, b. Aberdeen, Feb. 
20, 1877; soprano; as a child 
brought to America ; pupil of Mrs. 
Duff ; (1896), Paris with Trabadello 
and Fugere ; debut, 1900, Paris Op. 
Com. ; has created various roles there, 
including " Melisande" in Debussy's 
" P elites et M/tisande" 1902; sang 
at Covent Garden, 1902. 

Gardo'ni, Italo, b. Parma, 1821 ; re- 
tired, 1874 ; operatic singer. 

Gargiulo (gar-joo'-lo), (i) Chevalier 
Enrico, b. Ban, Italy, March 31, 
1865 ; mandolinist ; son and pupil of 
a dram, barytone (2) Eugenio. 

Garibol'di, Giu., b. Maccerato, Italy, 
March 17, 1833 ; flutist and compos- 
er of operettas. 

Garlan'dia, Johannes de, ca. 1210- 
32 ; French theorist. 

Gamier (gam-ya), Fran. Jos,, Lauris, 

Vaucluse, 1759 ca. 1825 ; oboist and 

Gar'rett, Geo. Mursell, Winchester, 
England, 1834 Cambridge, 1897 ; 
pianist, conductor, composer and lect- 

Gartner (ggrt'-ner), Jos., Tachau, 
Bohemia, 1796 Prague, 1863 ; org.- 
builder and writer, Prague. 

Gas'par van Weerbeke (var'-be-ke), 
b. Oudenarde, Flanders, ca. 1440; 
eminent contrapuntist and teacher. 

Gaspari (gas-pa-re), Gaetano, Bo- 
logna, 18071881; librarian, pro- 
fessor and composer. 

Gasparini (or Guasparini) (gas-pa-re'- 
ne), (i) Fran., Camaiore, near Lucca, 
1668 Rome, 1737 ; director, con- 
ductor and theorist. (2) Michelan- 
gelo, Lucca, 1685 Venice, 1732; 
male contralto and dram, composer. 
(3) Don Quirino, 'cellist at Turin ; 
1749-70 ; conductor and composer. 

Gasparo da Salo (gas-pa -ro da sa -15) 
(family name Bertolot'ti), Salo, 
Brescia, Italy, ca. 1542 Brescia (?), 
1609 ; famous maker of , viols. 

Gassier (gas-ya), L. Ed., France, 
1822 Havana, 1871 ; barytone. 

Gassmann (gas' -man), Florian L., 
Brux, Bohemia, 1723 Vienna, 1774; 
court-conductor and dram, composer. 

Gass'ner, F. Simon, Vienna, 1798 
Carlsruhe, 1851 ; violinist, teacher, 
editor and composer. 

Gast, Peter. Vide KOSELITZ. 

Gastaldpn (gas-tat '-don), Stanislas, 
b. Turin, April 7, 1861 ; at 17 pub. 
nocturnes, ballabili, songs, etc., some 
of them v. pop.; c. succ. i-act opera- 
seria, " II Pater" (Milan, 1894), etc. 

Gastinel (gas-tr-ncl), Le'on G. Cyp- 
rien, b. Villers, near Auxonne, Aug. 
15, 1823 ; pupil of Halevy, Paris 
Cons. ; took first Gr. prix de Rome 
with cantata "Velasquez"', prod, 
comic operas; ballet " Le Revc" 
(Gr. Opera, 1890), etc. 

Gastoldi (gas-tol'-de), Giov. Giaco- 
mo, Caravaggio, ca. 1556 Milan (?), 
1622 ; conductor, contrapuntist and 


Gatayes'(gS-teY), (i) Guill. P. A., 
Paris, 17741846; guitar-player and 
composer. (2) Jos. Le*on, Paris, 
1805 1877 ; son of above ; harpist, 
critic and composer. (3) Fe'lix, b. 
Paris, 1809 ; bro. of above ; pianist, 
chiefly self-taught ; for 20 years 
toured Europe, America and Austra- 
lia ; c. excellent symphonies and over- 
tures ; military music, etc. 

Gathy (ga-te), Aug., Liege, 1800 
Paris, 1858 ; editor, teacher and com- 

Gat'ty, Alfred Scott, b. Ecclesfield, 
Yorks., April 25, 1847; 1880 Pour- 
suivant of Arms, Heralds' Coll. Lon- 
don ; c. 2 operettas, many pop. songs, 
particularly in imitation of American 
Plantation songs, pf.-pieces. 

Gaucquier (gok-ya), Alard (rightly 
Dunoyer, Latinized Nuceus), called 
du Gaucquier and Insulanus from 
Lille-l'isle, court-bandm. to Maxi- 
milian II. ; famous i6th cent, contra- 

Gauden'tios, a Greek writer, 1652. 

Gaul (gol), Alfred Robt., b. Norwich, 
England, April 30, 1837 ; at 9 a 
cath. chorister articled to Dr. Buck ; 
1863, Mus. Bac. Cantab.; 1887, cond. 
Walsall Philh.; later teacher and 
cond. at the Birmingham and Mid- 
land Inst., etc.; c. oratorio " Heze- 
kiak" (1861); cantatas, incl. "Ruth" 
and " The Holy City" etc. 

Gau(l)tier (got-ya), (i) Jacques (G. 
dAngkterre, or Fanden], Lyons, ca. 
1600 Paris, ca, 1670 ; lutenist. (2) 
Denis (le jeune, or rillustrd], Mar- 
seilles, i6oo(-io ?) d. Paris ; cousin 
of above, and his partner in a lutenist 
school ; famous lutenist and collector 
of lute-music. (3) Pierre, b. Orleans ; 
c. suites for lute (1638). (4) Exme- 
mond, Vienne, Dauphine, 1635 be- 
fore 1680 ; son of (i) ; lutenist. (5) 
Pierre, Cioutat, Provence, 1642 
drowned, Cette, 1697; dram, com- 
poser. (6) Aloysius Ed. Ca- 
raille, (Abbe) Italy, ca. 1755 Paris, 
18x8; wrote a method for teach- 

Gaunt'lett, H. J., Wellington, Shrop- 
shire, 1805 London, 1876; organ- 
ist and composer. 

Gauthier (got-ya), Gabriel, b. in 
Soane-et-Loire, France, 1808; be- 
came blind when n months old ; was 
pupil and (1827-40) teacher Paris 
Inst. for the Blind, then organist of 
St. iitienne-du-Mont, Paris; pub. 

Gautier (got-ya), (i) v. GAULTIER. (2) 
J. Fran. Eug., Vaugirard n. Paris, 
1822 Paris, 1878 ; conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Gaveaux (g3-vo), P., Beziers, He- 
rault, Aug., 1761 insane, Paris, 1825 ; 
tenor; c. operas, incl. " Leonore" 
(1788), the same subject afterwards 
used in Beethoven's " Fidelio" 

Gavinies (ga-ven-ySs), P., Bordeaux, 
1726 Paris, 1800; violinist, pro- 
fessor and dram, composer. 

Gaztarobide (gath-tam-be'-dhe), (i) 
Joaquin, Tudela, Navarra, 1822 
Madrid, 1870; composer, teacher 
and conductor. (2) Xavier, a young 
relative, also c. zarzuelas (see D. D.). 

Gazzaniga (gad-zan-e'-ga), Giu., 
Verona, 1743 Crema, 1819; con- 
ductor and dram, composer. 

Gear (ger), Geo. Fr., b. London, May 
21, 1857; pianist; pupil of Dr. Wylde 
and J. F. Barnett ; 1872 scholarship 
London Acad. of Mus., now prof, 
there; 1876-92 mus.-dir. German- 
Reed Company ; composed scena for 
sopr. solo and orch., etc. 

Gebauer (zhu-bo-a), (i) Michel Jos., 
La Fere, Aisne, 17631812, on the 
retreat from Moscow ; oboist, violin- 
ist and viol-player ; also extraordi- 
nary virtuoso on the Jew's harp. He 
had 3 brothers, (2) Francois Re"ne*, 
Versailles, 1773 Paris, 1845; bas- 
soonist, prof., writer, and composer. 
(3) P. Paul, b. Versailles, 1775 ; died 
young ; pub. 20 horn-duets. (4) Et. 
Fran., Versailles, 1777 Paris, 1823; 
flutist and composer. (5) (ge-bow'- 
r), Fz. X., Eckersdorf, near Glatz, 
1784 Vienna, 1822; 'cellist, con- 
ductor, teacher and composer, 


Gebel (ga'-bel), (i) Georg (Sr.), Bres- 
lau, 1685 1750 ; organist ; inv. 
clavichord with quarter tones and 
clavicymbalutn with pedal-keyboard ; 
composer ; he had 2 sons, (2) Georg 
(Jr.), Brieg, Silesia, 1709 Rudol- 
stadt, 1753 ; son of above ; conduc- 
tor, organist and composer. (3) 
Georg Sigismund, d. 1775 ; organ- 
ist and composer. (4) Fz. X., Fiir- 
stenau, near Breslau, 1787 Moscow, 
1843 ; conductor, pf.-teacher, and 

Gebhard (gep'-hart), Martin Anton, 

b. Bavaria, 1770 ; Benedictine monk, 
then, 1831, a priest at Steinsdorf ; 

Gebhar'di, Ludwig Ernst,Nottleben, 
Thuringia, 1787 Erfurt, 1862; or- 
ganist, composer and teacher. 

G6dalge (zha-dalzh), Andre", b. Paris, 
Dec. 27, 1856 ; pupil of Guiraud at the 
Cons.; took 2nd Grand prixde Rome, 
1885 wrote lyric drama "jy/AW 1 / 

c. pantomime " Le Petit Savoyard" 
(Paris, 1891) ; a succ. i-act opera- 
bouffe " Pris au Pilge" (Paris, 
1895) ; 2 symphonies, etc. 

Gehring (ga'-rmg), F., 1838 Pen- 
zing, near Vienna, 1884; writer. 

Geijer (gi'-Sr), Erik Gustaf, Ran- 
satter, Wermeland, 1783 Upsala, 
1847 ; coll. of Swedish folk-songs. 

Geisler (gis'-ler), (i) Jn. G., d. Zittau, 
1827 ; writer. (2) Paul, b. Stolp, 
Pomerania, Aug. 10, 1856 ; grandson 
and pupil of a mus.-dir. at Mecklen- 
burg ; studied also with K. Decker ; 
1 1881-82 chorusm. Leipzig City Th., 
then with Neumann's Wagner Co. ; 
1883-85 at Bremen (under Seidl) ; 
then lived in Leipzig ; prod. 5 ope- 
ras ; c. 12 symphonic poems, incl. 
"Der Rattenf anger von Hameln" 
(1880), " Till Euknspiegd" etc. 

Geistinger (gls'-tmg-er), Maria 
("Marie") Charlotte Cacilia, b. 
Graz, Styria, July 26, 1836 ; soprano, 

Gelinek (ga'-U-nek), (i) Hn. Anton 
(called Cervetti), Horzeniowecs, 
Bohemia, 1709 Milan, 1779; ex- 

priest, violinist and composer. (2) 
Joseph, Abbe ; Selcz, Bohemia, 
1758 Vienna, 1825 ; teacher and 

Geller-Wolter (gel'-lSr-vol-te'r), Lu- 
ise, b. Cassel, March 27, 1863 ; op- 
era and concert alto ; studied with 
Frau Zottmayer and Mme. Marchesi. 

Geminiani (jem-e-n!-a'-ne), Fran., 
Lucca, 1680 Dublin, Dec. 17, 1762; 
brilliant and eccentric violinist of 
great importance in English progress, 
and the author of the first vln. method 
pub. (1740). 

Gemiinder (ge-munt'-er), Ingelfingen, 
Wiirtemberg, March 22, 1814 New 
York, Sept. 7, 1895 ; a maker whose 
vlns. were of the very highest per- 
fection ; his sons succeed him. 

Genast (ge-nast'), Ed., Weimar, 1797 
Wiesbaden, 1866 ; barytone and 

Gene (zhu-na), Franz Friedrich 
Richard, Danzig, Feb. 7, 1823 
Baden, near Vienna, June 15, 1895 ; 
pupil of Stalleknacht, Berlin; theatre- 
conductor various cities ; a student, 
then conductor and operatic composer; 
1868-78 at Th. an der Wien, Vienna; 
wrote libretti for many of his own 
works and for Strauss and others ; 
c. light operas with succ., incl. " Der 
Geigcr aus Tirol" " Nanon" etc. 

General! (ja-ne-ra'-le), Pietro (rightly 
Mercandet'ti), Masserano, Pied- 
mont, 1783 Novara, 1832; conduc- 
tor and dram, composer. 

Genet (zhfi-na), Eleazar (called il 
Carpentras'so, or Carpentras (kar- 
pan-tras)), Carpentras Vaucluse, ca. 
1745 Avignon (?) ca - T 53 2 I singer, 
then cond. , then bishop ; his ad- 
mired masses, etc., were the first 
printed in round notes without liga- 

Gengenbach (geng'-cn-bakh), Niko- 
laus, b. Kolditz, Saxony ; cantor at 
Zeitz, and writer, 1626. 

Genss (gens), Hermann, b. Tilsit, 
Jan. 6, 1856 ; pianist ; pupil of the 
Royal Hochsch. fur Mus., Berlin; 
teacher in various cities; 1893, co* 


dir. Scharwenka-Klindworth Cons., 
Berlin ; c. orch. works, etc. 

Georges (zhorzh), Alex., b. Arras, 
France, Feb. 25, 1850; pupil, now 
prof, of harm., Niedermeyer Sch., 
Paris; c. operas " Le Printemps" 
(1888) and " Poemes tf Amour" 
(1892) ; " Charlotte Corday" (1901) ; 
2 oratorios, a mystery " La Passion" 
(1902) ; symph. poem, etc. 

Gerard (zha-rar), H. P., Liege, 1763 
Versailles, 1848 ; teacher and writer. 

GSrardy (zha-rar-de), Jean, b. Ltit- 
tich, Dec. 6, 1878 ; notable 'cellist ; 
studied with Bellmann; a pupil of 
Grlitzmacher ; played as a child in 
England; at 13 in Dresden; 1899, 
etc., toured America ; lives at Spa. 

Ger'ber, (i) H. Nikolaus, Wenigen- 
Ehrich, near Sondershausen, 1702 
Sondershausen, 1775 ; organist and 
composer. (2) Ernst L., Sonders- 
hausen, 1746 1819; son, pupil and 
successor (1775) of above ; 'cellist, 
organist, lexicographer and compos- 

Gerbert (ger'-bert), (von Hornau) 
Martin, Hor-bon-Neckar, Aug. 12, 
1720 St. Blaise, May 13, 1793 ; col- 
lector of the invaluable " Scriptores 
ecclesiastici de musica sacra potissi- 
mum" noteworthy treatises of the 
Middle Ages, reproduced exactly (the 
compilation was continued by Cousse- 
maker). The work is briefly referred to 
in this book as " Gerbert." He be- 
came in 1736 cond. at St. Blaise; 
when he died, the peasants erecting a 
statue to him ; pub. also other very 
important works, and c. offertories, 

Gericke (ga'-ri-ke)/Wilhelm,b. Graz, 
Styria, April 18, 1845 ; pupil of Des- 
soff, Vienna, Cons., then cond. at 
Linz ; 1874, 2d. cond. Vienna ct.- 
opera (with Hans Richter) ; 1880, 
cond. of the " Gesellschaftsconcerte " 
(vice Brahms) ; also cond. the Sing- 
erverein ; 1884-89, cond. Boston 
(Mass) Symphony Orch., resuming 
the post 1898 (vice Emil Paur) after 
being dir. " Gesellschaftsconcerte " at 

Vienna until 1895 ; pub. several cho- 
ruses, pf.-pcs. and songs; also c. 
operetta " Schdn Hanncfisn " (Linz, 
1865) ; a Requiem ; a concert-over- 
ture, etc. 

Gerlach (ger'-lakh), (i) Dietrich, d. 
Niirnberg, 1574 ; music - printer, 
1566-1571. (2) Theodor, b. Dres- 
den, June 25, 1 86 1 ; pupil of Wull- 
ner ; at 22 prod, a notable cantata, 
" Luther 's Lob der Musica" 1884 1 
Italy, 1885 ; cond. Sondershausen 
Th. , then of German Opera in Posen ; 
his "Epic Symphony'" caused his ap- 
pointment as ct.-cond. in Coburg, 
1891; 1894, cond. at Cassel; c. succ. 
opera (book and music) " Matteo Fal- 
cone" (Hanover, '98, Berlin, 1902), 
orch. pieces, etc. 

Gerle (geY-16), (i) Konrad, d. Ntirn- 
berg, 1521; lute-maker. (2) Hans, 
d. Niirnberg, 1570 ; probably son of 
above ; violinist and vln. -maker. 

Ger'man, J. Edw., b. Whitchurch, 
Shropshire, England, Feb. 17, 1862 ; 
violin pupil of R. A. M. ; 1889, dir. 
Globe Th., London ; 1901 completed 
Arthur Sullivan's unfinished opera 
"The Emerald Isle," prod, with 
succ. London, 1901 ; c. operetta ; 2 
symphonies ; various suites, including 
the "Gipsy" suite, chamber-music, 
songs, etc. His incidental music to 
Shakespeare's plays is especially no- 

Germer (ger / -mer), H., b. Sommers- 
dorf, Province of Saxony, Dec. 30, 
1837 ; pupil Berlin Akademie ; teach- 
er, pianist and writer. 

Gern, August, organ-builder, London. 

Gernsheim (gerns'-him), Fr., b. 
Worms, July 17, 1839, of Hebrew 
parents ; pupil of Rosenhain and 
Hauff, Frankfort, and Leipzig Cons.; 
1865, teacher of comp. and pf. Co- 
logne Cons.; 1872, Prof.; 1874, dir. 
of the Cons, at Rotterdam and cond. 
" Winter Concerts " ; since 1890 at 
Stern Cons., Berlin ; c. 4 symphonies, 
overtures, etc. 

Gero (ga'-ro), Jhan (Johann) (called 
Maister Jan or Jehan, or Joannes 


Gall us), conductor and composer at 
Orvieto Cath., i6th cent. 

Gersbach (geW-bakh), (i) Joseph, 
Sackingen, Baden, 1787 Carlsruhe, 
1830 ; teacher and composer. (2) 
Anton, Sackingen, 1801 Carlsruhe, 
1848 ; bro., pupil and successor of 

Gerson (gfr-son), J. Charlier de, 
Gerson, near Rethel, 1363 Lyons, 
1429 ; writer. 

Gerster (ger'-shter), Etelka, b. Ka- 
schau, Hungary, June 16, 1857 ; one 
of the most remarkable coloratura- 
sopranos of her time ; 1874-75, a 
pupil of Marches!, Vienna Cons. ; v. 
succ. debut Venice, Jan. 8, 1876 ; m. 
her impresario Dr. Carlo Gardini and 
toured Europe and America; lost 
her voice .suddenly and opened (1896) 
a singing-school, in Berlin. 

Gervasoni (jr-va-so'-ne), Carlo, Mi- 
lan, 1762-1819; writer and theor- 

Gervinus (gfr-ve'-noos), Georg Gf., 
Darmstadt, 1805 Heidelberg, 1871 ; 
professor and writer. 

Geselschap (gg-zSl'-shap), Marie, b. 
Batavia, Java, 1874 (?) ; pianist ; pu- 
pil of X. Scharwenka, Berlin ; played 
in America, etc. ; 1895 in London. 

Gesius (rightly (Joss) (ga'-sl-oos; 
ggs), Bartholomaus, Mtincheberg, 
ca. 1555 Frankfort-on-Oder, 1613; 
cantor and composer. 

Gesualdo (ja-zoo-al'-dd), Don Carlo, 
Prince of Venosa, d. 1614; one of 
the most intellectual and progressive 
mus. of his time ; wishing to revive 
the chromatic and enharmonic genera 
of the Greeks, he strayed out of the 
old church-modes and, becoming one 
of the " chromaticista," wrote almost 
in modern style. 

Gevaert (zntt-vart'), Fran$ois Au- 
guste, b. Huysse, near Oudenarde, 
July 31, 1828 ; pupil of Sommere (pf.) 
and Mengal (comp.) at Ghent Cons., 
taking Gr. prix de Rome for comp.; 
1843, organist at the Jesuit church ; he 
prod. 2 operas ; lived in Paris (1849- 
50) ; then went to Spain and c. 

" Fantasia sobre motivos espanoks" 
still pop. there, for which he was 
given the order of Isabella la Catolica ; 
he sent back reports on Spanish mu- 
sic (pub. by the Academy, 1851) ; he 
returned to Ghent 1852, prod. 9 ope- 
ras, 2 of them, " Georgette " and " Le 
billet de Marguerite" with much suc- 
cess; in 1857 his festival cantata 
" De Nationale Verjaerdag" brought 
him the Order of Leopold ; 1867-70 
chef de chant Gr. Opera, Paris ; 1871, 
dir. Brussels Cons, (vice Fetis) ; pub. 
colls, of Italian music, also the valu- 
able fruits of much research in old 
plain-song. His " Traittd' instrumen- 
tation" (1863) revised as " Nouveau 
traiti" etc. (1885), threatens to sup- 
plant Berlioz' great work ; he prod, 
also 3 cantatas, " Missa pro Defunc- 
tis" and " Super Flumina Baby- 
lonis" for male chorus and orch.; 
overture " Ffandre ait Lion" etc. 

Geyer (gi'-r), Flodoard, Berlin, 1811 
1872 ; prof., critic, theorist and 
dram, composer. 

Gheyn (gen), Matthias van den, Tirle- 
mont, Brabant, 1721 Louvain, 1785 ; 
one of a Flemish family of bell found- 
ers; organist. Of his 17 children his 
son Josse* Thos. (b. 1752) was his 
successor as organist. 

Ghiselin(g) (ge-ze-lung) (or Ghise- 
linus), Jean, Netherlandish ; contra- 
puntist is-i6th cent. 

Ghislanzoni (ges-lan-tso'-ne), A., Lec- 
co, 1824 Caprino-Bergamasco, 1893; 
barytone and writer. 

Ghizeghem. Vide HEYNE. 

Ghizzolo (ged'-zo-lo), Gio., b. Bres- 
cia, 1560 (?) ; monk and composer. 

Ghymers (ge'-mers), Jules Eugene, 
b. Liege, May 16, 1835; pupil of 
Lie"ee Cons. ; pianist and critic. 

Gys (ges), Joseph, Ghent, 1801 St. 
Petersburg, 1848; violinist, teacher 
and composer. 

Giacche (jak'-ke). Vide BERCHEM. 
Giacchet'to. Vide BUUS. 

Giacomelli (jak-o-mel'-le), Geminiano, 
Parma, 1686 Naples, 1743 ; dram, 


GUldifli (jal-de'-ne), Gialdino.b Pes- 
cia Nov. 10, 1843 ; pupil of Mabel- 
Hni Florence; his first opera, "tfw- 
munda" won prize offered by the Per- 
gola Th., Florence, but was unsuc.; 
?868, prod. 2 "opere buffe" in 
collaboration, then devoted himself to 
cond. with great succ.; prod, opera 
"/ Due Sod" (Bologna, 1892) and 
"La PupiUa" (Trieste, 1896) with 

Gi S anelH'(ja-nel'-le), Pietro, (Abbate) 
Friuli, Italy, ca. 1770 Venice, 1822 
(?); lexicographer. 

Gianettini (ja-nSt-te'-ne) (or Zanet- 
tini), A., Venice, 1649 Modena, 
1721 ; dram, composer. 

Gianotti (ja-n6t'-te), P., Lucca- 
Paris, 1765 ; double-bassist, composer 
and writer. 

Giardini Gar-de'-ne), Felice de, Tu- 
rini I7 i6 Moscow, 1796; violinist 
and dram, composer. 

Gib'bons, (i) Rev. Edw.^ca. 1570 
ca. 1650; organist, (2) Ellis G., d. ca. 
1650 ; bro. of above ; organist Salis- 
bury cath. (3) Orlando, Cambridge, 
England, 1583 Canterbury, June 5, 
1625; bro. of above; one of the 
foremost of Engl. organists and com- 
posers ; Mus. Doc. Oxon ; 1604, or- 
ganist Chapel Royal ; 1623, organist 
Westminster Abbey. (4) Chris- 
topher, London, 1615 Oct. 20, 
1676 ; son of (3), organist and com- 

GibeTfee-be'l) (or Gibe'lius), Otto, 

Island of Fehmarn (Baltic), 1612 

Minden, 1682 ; composer. 
Gibellini (je-bel-le'-ne), Eliseo.b. Osi- 

mo, Ancona, ca. 1520; until 1581 

composer and conductor. 
Gibert (zhe-bai), Paul CSsar, Ver- 

sailles, 1717 Paris, 1787; dram. 

Gibert (he'-bert) (or Gisbert, Gispert), 

Francisco Xavier, Granadella, 

Spain Madrid, 1848; priest, cond. 

and composer. 
Gibso'ne, Guillaume Ignace, b. Lon- 

don, ca. 1826; pianist; pupil of 

Moscheles ; also dram, composer. 

Gide (zhed), Casimir, Paris, 1804 

1868 ; composer. 

Gigout (zhe-goo), Eugene, b. Nancy, 
France, March 23, 1844 ; organ-virt- 
uoso, critic, etc.; pupil in the mat- 
trise of Nancy cath.; at 13 entered 
Niedermeyer Sch., Paris, and was 
later teacher there for over 20 years ; 
studied also with Saint-Saens ; 1863, 
organist at the Ch. of St. Augustin ; 
succ. concert organist throughout 
Europe; 1885, founded an organ- 
sch. subsidized by the govt.; com- 
mander of the order of Isabella la 
Catolica ; 1885, officier of pub. in- 
struction ; 1895, Chev. of the Legion 
of Honour ; pub. over 300 Gregorian 
and plain-song compositions. 
Gil (hel), Francisco Assis, b. Cadiz, 
1829 ; pupil of Fetis ; prof, of har- 
mony, Madrid ; writer, theorist 'and 
dram, composer. 

Gil y Llagostera (hel e la-gos-ta'-ra), 
Caytan, b. Barcelona, Jan. 6, 1807 ; 
first flute at the theatre and cath., 
Barcelona ; c. symphonies, etc. 
Gil'christ, W. Wallace, b. Jersey 
City, N. J., Jan. 8, 1846; pupil of 
H. A. Clarke at the U. of Penn.; 
from 1877 organist and choirm. Christ 
Ch., Germantown; from 1882 teach- 
er Phila. Mus. Acad.; cond, of vari- 
ous choral societies ; c. prize Psalm 
xlvi. for soli, chorus, orch. and org. 
(Cincinnati Festival, 1882), " Song of 
Thanksgiving " for chorus and orch.; 
a cantata " The Jtw" (1887), etc. 
Giles (jilz), Nathaniel, near Wor- 
cester, Engl., ca. 1550 Windsor, 
Jan. 24, 1633 ; organist ; Mus. Doc. 
Oxon ; writer and composer. 
Gille (gel'-leO, Karl, 1897 conductor 
at Hamburg City Th.; previously con- 
ductor at the Ct.-Th., Schwerin. 
Gilles (rightly, G. Brebos) (zhel brti- 
alled Mait 


bo), called Maitre G., or "Mase- 
giles," d. 1584; organ builder at 
Lou vain and Antwerp. 
Gillet (zhe-ya), Ernest, b. Paris, 
Sept. 13, 1856; pupil Niedermeyer 
Cons.; solo 'cellist Gr. Opera; then 
lived in London; c. "Loin du bal" 


and other pop. and graceful pf.- 

Gillmeister (gfl'-mi-shter), Carl, b. 
Schbnebeck, Dec. 25, 1856 ; bass ; 
studied at the Hochschule, Berlin ; 
debut at Augsburg; 1888 at Bay- 
reuth, 1900 at Hanover. 

Gil' more, Patrick Sarsfield, near 
Dublin, Dec. 25, 1820 St. Louis, 
Mo., Sep. 24, 1892 ; an immensely 
popular conductor, some of whose 
influence went to the popularising of 
good music ; on occasions he cond. 
an orch. of 1,000 and a chorus of 
10,000, also an orch. of 2,000 and a 
chorus of 20,000, reinforced with can- 
non fired by electricity, an organ, an- 
vils, chimes, etc. (cf . Sarti) ; he c. 
pop. military and dance music. 

Gilson (zhel-son), Paul, b. Brussels, 
1869 ; self-taught ; his cantata " Si- 
nai " won the Grand prix de Rome, 
1892; 1896 prod, opera "Alvar" 
Brussels ; completed Ragghianti's 
opera "Jean-Marie" j c. symph. 
sketches "La, Mer" etc. 

Ginguene" (zhan-gu-na), P. L., Rennes, 
1748 Paris, 1816 ; writer. 

Giordan! (jor-da'-ne), name of a family, 
father, 3 sisters and 2 brothers, all 
singers in comic opera at Naples, till 
1762 when they came to London (ex- 
cept Giuseppe) ; one of the brothers 
wrote the still pop. song ' ' Caro mio 
ben." (i) Tommasa (rightly Car- 
mine), Naples, ca, 1740 Dublin 
after 1816; dram, composer. (2) 
Giuseppe (called Giordanel'lo), 
Naples, 1744 Fermo, 1798 ; bro. of 
above ; conductor ; c. 30 operas. 

Giordano (jor-da-no), Umberto, b. 
Foggia, Aug. 27, 1867 ; studied 
with Paolo Cerraos at the Naples 
Cons. ; notable neo-Italian, living at 
Milan ; c. operas ; very succ. " An- 
drea Ch/nier" (La Scala, Milan, 
1896 ; also in Berlin, 1898, and U. S.); 
also ''Marino" unsucc., " Regina 
Diaz " (Naples, 1894) ; and succ. 3- 
act melodrama "Mala Vita" (Rome, 
1892, prod, as " // Voto" Milan, 
1897) ; " Fddora" and " Siberia." 

Giorgi (jor'-]e). Vide BANTI. 

Giornovichi. Vide JARNOVIC. 

Giorza (jor'-tsa), Paolo, b. Milan, 
1838 ; son and pupil of an organist 
and dram, singer ; studied cpt. with 
La Croix; lived New York some 
years, later London ; prod, unsucc. 
opera " Corrado " (Milan, 1869), and 
many very succ. ballets at La Scala. 

Giosa, Nicola de. Vide DE GIOSA. 

Giovanelli (jo-va-neT-lc), Ruggiero, 
Velletri, ca. 1560 Rome, ca. 1620 ; 
1599 successor of Palestrina as con- 
ductor at St. Peter's, Rome ; an im- 
portant composer. 

Giraldoni (zhe-ral-do'-ne), Leone, 
Paris, 1824 Moscow, 1897; bary- 

Girard (zhe-rar), Narcisse, Nantes, 
France, 1797 Paris, 1860; conduc- 
tor and violin professor. 

Girardeau (zhe-rar-do), Isabella, 
called la Isabella, Italian singer in 
London, ca. 1700. 

Girelii-Aguilar, , Italian singer 

in Vienna and London, ca. 1771. 

Gismonde (zhes-mond), Celeste, d. 
1735 ; mezzo-soprano. 

Giuglini (jool-ye-nc), Antonio, d. in- 
sane, Pesaro, 1865 ; Italian tenor. 

Gizziello (gld-zI-eT-16), Gioacchino. 
Vide CONTI. 

Glad'stone, Francis Edw., b. Sum- 
mertown, near Oxford, May 2, 1845 ; 
pupil of S. Wesley; one of chief Engl. 
contemporary organists; organist vari- 
ous churches, then became a Catholic 
and was until 1894 choir-dir. St. Mary 
of the Angels, Bayswater; 1879 Mus. 
Doc., Cantab; iSSi, prof, of cpt. 
Trinity Coll., London; prof, of 
harm, and cpt. R.C.M.; c. an over- 
ture, chamber-music, etc. 

Glarea'nus, Henricus (rightly Hein- 
rich Lo'ris, Latinised, Lori'tus), 
Glarus, 1488 Freiburg, Baden, 
March 28, 1563 ; poet and impor- 
tant theorist. 

Glasenapp (gla'-ze-nap), Karl Fr., 
b. Riga, October 3, 1847 ; studied 
philosophy at Dorpat ; since 1875 
head-master at Riga ; wrote on Wag- 


ner, a biography in 3 vols., a lexi- 
con, and a Wagner Encyclopedia, 

Glaser (gla'-zer), (i) K. G.> Weissen- 
fels, 1784 Barmen, 1829 ; mus. dir. 
and later dealer, composer and 
writer. (2) Fz., Obergeorgenthal, 
Bohemia, 1798 Copenhagen, 1861 ; 
conductor, violinist, and dram, com- 

Glaz(o)unow (gla'-tsoo-nof), Alex,, 

b. St. Petersburg, Aug. 10, 1865 ; 
studied till 1883 at Polytechnic Inst, 
then took up music ; studied with 
Rimsky - Korsakov ; 1881 his first 
symphony was produced, repeated 
under Lis2t in 1884 at Weimar ; he 
cond. his second symphony in Paris, 
1889 ; his fourth symphony, London 
Phil., 1896-97, with Rimsky- Korsa- 
kov and Liadov, cond. Russian Sym- 
phony Concerts at St. P. ; c. 5 sym- 
phonies, 2 overtures on Greek themes ; 
overture " Carnaval" ; Elegie "A la 
mlmoire (fun hlros "; symphonic 
poem u Stenka Rasinc "y symphonic 
picture " The Forest"; " Chopini- 
ana " orch. suite ; and other orchl. 
pcs., string-quartets, pf.-pcs., suite 
on S. A. C. H. A. (his nickname) for 
pf., etc. 

Gleason (gle'-sun), Pr. Grant, b. 
Middletown, Conn., Dec. 17, 1848 ; 
pupil of Dudley Buck and at Leip- 
zig Cons. ; later at Berlin, of Loesch- 
orn, Weitzmann and Haupt; later 
with Beringer (pf.) in London ; 1875 
organist Hartford ; 1877, teacher 
Hershey Sch. of Music, Chicago; 
critic for years of Chicago Tribune ; 

c. (text and music) grand operas 
"Otho Visconti" and "Montezuma "y 
cantata " The Culprit Fay" with 
orch.; "Praise-song to Harmony," 
symphonic cantata ; " Auditorium 
Festival Ode," symph. cantata with 
orch.; op. 21, " Edris" symphonic 
poem (after the prologue to " Ar- 
dath " by Marie Corelli), etc. 

Gleich (glikh), Ed., Erfurt, 1816 
Langebrlick, near Dresden, 1898 ; 
critic and writer ; c. symphonies. 

Gleichmann (gllkh'-man), Jn. G., 
Steltzen, near Eisfeld, 1685 lime- 
nau, 1770; organist. 

Gleissner (glis'-ner), Fz., Neustadt- 
on-the-Waldnab, 1760 Munich, after 
1815 ; printed songs of his own by 
lithographic process, the first music 
so printed. 

Gleits (glits), K., b. Hetzerode, near 
Cassel, Sept. 13, 1862 ; studied Leip- 
zig Cons, and Munich Music School, 
and in Berlin ; c. symph. -poem "Fa- 
ta Morgana " (played by Nikisch at 
the Berlin Philh. concerts, 1898); 
11 Akasuerus" " Venus and Btllona" 
etc. , for orch. ; ' 'Hafbur and Signild" 
for chorus ; " Inlichter" a pf. -fanta- 
sy with orch.; vln.-sonata, etc. 

Glinka (glmk'-a), Michail Ivan- 
ovitch, Novospasko'i, near Smolensk, 
Russia, June i (new style), 1804 
Berlin, Feb. 15, 1857; piano-virtuoso 
and composer, father of the new na- 
tionalistic Russian Musical School; 
of noble birth ; pupil of Bohm 
(vln.), Mayer (theory and pf.), John 
Field (pf.). Of very weak health, he 
studied vocal composition in Italy ; 
1834 with Dehn in Berlin ; prod, at 
St. Petersburg, 1836, the first Russian 
national opera "A Life for the Czar" 
(Zarskaja Bkisu or Ivan l Sussanina), 
with succ. still lasting; the nest 
opera "Russian and Ludmilla " (St. 
P., 1842) was also succ. (book by 
Pushkin) ; 1844 in Paris he gave orch. 
concerts strongly praised by Berlioz ; 
1845-47, Madrid and Seville, where 
he c. "JotaAragonese" a " Capricdo 
brillante" for orch., and "Souvenir 
d'une mdt d'tte a Madrid" for 
orch.; 1851, Paris; 1854-55, near 
St. Petersburg writing his autobiog- 
raphy, planning a never-attempted 
opera ; he visited Dehn at Berlin in 
1856, and died there suddenly ; Glin- 
ka's other comp. incl. 2 unfinished 
symphonies ; 2 polonaises for orch. ; a 
fantasia, "Za Kamarinskaja "; a 
septet; 2 string-quartets; trio for 
pf., clar. and oboe ; dramatic scenes ; 
vocal-quartets, songs and pf.-pcs. 



Gloggl (gleg'-gl), (i) Fz. X., Linz- 
on-Danube, 1764 after 1832; con- 
ductor, mus. dir.; writer. (2) Fz., 
Linz, 1797 Vienna, 1872; son of 
above; est. music business, 1843; 
writer and mus. director. 

Glover (gluv'-^r), (i) Sarah Ann, Nor- 
wich, Engl., 1785 Malvern, 1867; 
inv. the Tonic Sol-fa system of nota- 
tion and wrote about it. (2) Chas. 
W., Feb., 1806 London, 1863; 
violinist, etc. (3) Stephen, Lon- 
don, 1812 Dec. 7, 1870; teacher 
and composer. (4) W. Howard, 
London, 1819 New York, 1875; 
violinist and critic; sang in opera. 
(5) William, b. London, 1822 ; or- 
ganist, etc. 

Gluck (glook), Christoph Wilibald 
(Ritter von), Weidenwang, near Neu- 
markt, Upper Palatinate, July 2, 
1714 Vienna, Nov. 25, 1787; son of 
head-gamekeeper to Prince Lobko- 
witz; at twelve sent to the Jesuit 
Coll. at Komotau (1726-32), where he 
learnt the violin, clavecin, and or- 
gan, and was chorister in the Ch. of 
St. Ignaz; at eighteen he went to 
Prague, earning a living by playing 
at rural dances, giving concerts and 
singing and playing in various 
churches; under the tuition of Fa- 
ther Czernohorsky he mastered sing- 
ing and the 'cello, his favourite instr.; 
1736 entered the service of Prince 
Melzi, Vienna, who took him to Mi- 
lan and had him study harm, and cpt. 
with Sammartini. After four years' 
study he prod, " Artaserse" (La 
Scala, 1741) with great succ. and was 
commissioned to c. for other thea- 
tres; prod. 8 operas 1742-45. On in- 
vitation he went to London 1745 as 
composer for the Haymarket, in op- 
position to Handel. "La Caduca 
dei Giganti" was given on the defeat 
of the Pretender, 1746," Artamene" 
followed by *' Piramo e Tisbe" a 
pasticcio of his best arias had no succ. 
and led Handel to say that the music 
was detestable, and that Gluck knew 
no more counterpoint than his cook. 

The operas G. had written up to this 
time were thoroughly Italian. The in- 
fluence of Handel and Rameau's works 
heard at Paris awakened him, and 
led him to that gradual reform which 
made him immortal, though it 
brought on him the most ferocious 
opposition. "La Semiramide Rico- 
nosciuta" (Vienna, 1748) began the 
change to more serious power. 1750- 
62 he prod. " Telemaco" (Rome, 
1750), "La Ckmenza di Tito" (Na- 
ples, 1751), and 4 others. 1754-64 
he was dir. court-opera Vienna and 
prod. 6 more works. He made great 
succ. in spite of opposition with 
"Orfeo ed Euridice" (1762), " AL 
ceste" (1767), " Paride ed Elena" 
(1769), libretti by Calzabigi. 2 other 
inferior works were performed by 
members of the royal family (1765). In 
the dedicatory prefaces to " Alceste " 
and "Paride ed Elena" G. ex- 
pressed his protest against the Italian 
school, and declared for dramatic con- 
sistency unhampered by rigid formu- 
lae for' arias, duets, etc., and inter- 
polated cadenzas. He had such 
harsh criticism at home and such en- 
couragement from du Rollet of the 
French Embassy at Vienna in 1772 
that he went to Paris. But here also he 
met such opposition, that all his diplo- 
macy and all the power of his former 
pupil, Queen Marie Antoinette hard- 
ly availed to bring about the presenta- 
tion of "IphigJnie enAulide" (1774); 
its great succ. was repeated in " Or- 
$heds" (Aug., 1774), "Alecste" (1776), 
and Armide (1777). Piccinni was 
brought to Paris as a rival, and prod. 
u Roland" while Gluck was preparing 
the same subject. Gluck burned his 
score and published a letter which 
precipitated an unimaginably fierce 
war of pamphlets. Both men now 
set to composing " Iphigtnie en Tau- 
ride "/ here Gluck forestalled his rival 
by two years (1779), an ^ Piccinni's 
work on appearing was not a succ., 
while Gluck's succeeded enormously. 
His last opera, "Echo et Narcisse" 


wasnotsucc. (Sept. 21, 1779); 1780, he an incomplete cantata, "Das liingstt 

retired to Vienna and lived on his well- Gericht? finished by Salieri, and 7 

earned wealth, till apoplexy carried odes for solo voice and pf. Biog by 

him off. He wrote a De profundis A. Schmidt (1854) ; Marx (1863) 

for chorus and orch., 6 overtures and Desnoiresterres (1872). 



TAKEN up in his twenty-second year by an amateur of Italian music, 
and put under Sammartini at Milan, Gluck' s earliest models were 
Italian. Though his first works showed slight, unconscious traces of 
Northern origin, he probably thought, for twenty years, of little more than 
producing opera after opera in the Italian style. The intellectual changes 
that led to the reform of the opera with Orfeo were perhaps due in part to 
the influence of Rameau and Handel. The French light opera, also, and 
his own attempts in it, seem to have taught him something of direct, con- 
temporary expression, as distinguished from the conventional operatic mouth- 
ing of antique sentiments. Apart from these musical influences, he was 
strongly swayed by the general aesthetics of the eighteenth century, whose 
ideal of art was the veracious imitation of Nature. He had probably read 
Algarotti's book on the Opera (1763), which advocates many of the reforms 
he afterwards carried out. ^[ Three rich currents intercrossed in him when 
he came to consciousness of himself. His Italian practice had given him ease 
and grace of style ; his Northern nature and training made him at home in the 
world of grave and dignified passion ; from the French opera he had learned 
to seek in musical tones the natural correlatives to the verbal idea. To these 
three musical qualities he added the power of penetrating reflection upon the 
essence of his art. *[| The opera, when he took it up, was the laughing-stock 
of Europe. It left his hands a serious form of art, carefully thought out in 
all its details, with a new method and unity of purpose. The overture was 
made to throw light on the coming drama ; the libretto was kept on as high 
a level as the taste and subjects of those days would permit ; the old distinc- 
tion of aria and recitative was undermined, the aria becoming more dramatic 
while not ceasing to be lyrical when required, and the recitative being raised 
from its previous conventional lines into a living, organic musical speech ; the 
orchestra no longer merely accompanied the singer, but helped in the expres- 
sion of the emotions of the actor ; the senseless vocal ornaments of the Italian 
opera were discarded, and the singers taught to exist for the opera instead of 
the opera existing for them ; in a word, brains and a purpose occupied the 
field hitherto filled only by vanity and imbecility. ^[ Had Europe not under- 
gone such startling changes at the end of the last century, Gluck' s influence 


would have borne great fruit. But the new social and intellectual life brought 
in a new world, for which a new music had to be found ; while elsewhere his 
influence was lost sight of in the dazzling artificiality of the later Italian opera. 
Still, all the serious dramatists Beethoven, Wagner, Weber, Berlioz had 
their way made easier by the labour of Gluck, ^f Like Wagner and Bach, 
he stands in a category of his own, seeming almost to be without ancestors 
and without descendants. His place is among the masters of dramatic grip 
and veracious poetic expression. Even yet, indeed, some of his work is 
incomparable in these respects. 

Gmeiner (g'ml'-ner), Lula, b. Kron- 
stadt, Aug. 16, 1876 ; alto ; studied 
vln. with Olga Grigorourcz ; then 
studied voice with Gr. Walter and 
Emilie Herzog ; lives in Berlin. 

Gnecco (n'yek'-ko), Francesco; 
Genoa, 1769 Milan, 1810; dram, 

Gobbaerts (gub'-barts), Jean Louis, 
Antwerp, 1835 Saint Gilles, near 
Brussels, 1886; pianist and com- 

Gobbi (g6V-be), (i) Henri, b. Pesth, 
June 7, 1842 ; pupil of R. Volkmann, 
and Liszt ; music-teacher and critic, 
Pesth ; c. a festival cantata celebrat- 
ing Liszt's public career, etc. (2) 
Aloys, b. Pesth, Dec. 30, 1844; bro. 
of above ; violinist and teacher. 

Gobel (ga'-bel), K. H., Berlin, 1815 
Bromberg, 1879; pianist, conductor, 
and dram, composer. 

Gockel (gok'-el), Aug., Willibadessen, 
Westphalia, 18311861 ; pianist and 

Godard (gS-dar), Benjamin (Louis 
Paul), Paris, Aug. 18, 1849 Cannes, 
Jan. n, 1895 ; studied vln. with 
Hammer and played in public at 9 ; 
then studied with Reber (comp.) and 
Vieuxtemps (vln.), Paris Cons.; 1865 
pub. a vln. -sonata, later other cham- 
ber - compositions ; rec'd the Prix 
Chartier from the Institut de France 
for merit in the department of cham- 
ber-music ; prod. 5 operas, incl. u jo- 
celyrf (Brussels, 1888), and the very 
succ. posthumous " La Vivandiere " 
(Paris Op. -Com., 1895), the last 2 

acts orchestrated by Paul Vidal ; 2 
operas not prod.; he c. also incid. 
mus. and 6 symphonies; " Le Tasse" 
(Tasso), dram, symphony with soli 
and chorus took the city of Paris 
prize in 1878 ; concerto for vln. ; a 
pf. -concerto, songs and pf.-pcs. 

God'dard (Davison), Arabella, b. St. 
Servan, near Saint Malo, Brittany, 
Jan. 12, 1838 ; at 4 played in public, 
at 6 studied with Kalkbrenner at 
Paris, at 8 played to Queen Victoria; 
pub. 6 waltzes and studied with Mrs. 
Anderson and Thalberg ; at 12 
played at the Grand National Con- 
certs ; 1850-53 pupil of J. W. Davi- 
son, whom she m. (1860) ; toured 
Germany and at 17 played at Leip- 
zig Gewandhaus 1855; 1873-76 
toured the world ; retired 1 8 80 and 
lived in Tunbridge Wells. 

Godebrye. Vide JACOTIN. 

Godefroid (god-fwa), (r) Jules Jo- 
seph, Namur, Belgium, 1811 -Paris, 
1840 ; harpist and dram, composer. 
(2) Dieudonne* Jos. Guil. Fe"lix, 
Namur, 1818 Villers-sur-mer, 1897; 
bro. of above ; harpist and dram, 

God'frey, (i) Chas., Kingston, Surrey, 
1790 1863 ; bassoonist and con- 
ductor. (2) Daniel, b. Westminster, 
Engl., Sept. 4, 1831 ; son of above; 
pupil R.A.M., later Fellow and Prof, 
of Military Mus.; 1856 bandm. of 
the Grenadier Guards ; 1872 and 
1898 toured the U. S. with his band ; 
composer. (3) Adolphus Fred., 
b. 1837, son of (i) ; conductor. (4) 


Charles, b. 1839, son of (i) ; con- 

Godowski (go-dof'-shke), Leopold, 
b. Wilna (Yilno), Russian f Poland, 
Feb. 13, 1870 ; pianist ; debut and 
tours at 9; pupil of Wilna, and iSSi- 
84 R, Hochschule, Berlin ; at 14 
toured America ; 1887-90 studied 
with Saint-Saens; 1890-91 toured 
America again; 1894 dir. pf.-dept., 
Broad St. Cons., Phila.; 1895-99 
head of pf.-dept., Chicago Cons.; 
then toured Europe ; since 1902 lives 
in Berlin ; began first comp. at 7 ; 
pub. Moto Perpetuo, Polonaise in C.; 
elaborations of Chopin, etc. 

Goepfart (gep'-fart), (r) Chr. H., Wei- 
mar, 1835 Baltimore, Md., 1890 ; 
organist and composer. (2) Karl 
Eduard, b. Weimar, March 8, 1859; 
son of above ; since 1891 cond. 
Baden-Baden Mus. Union; c. " Sa- 
ras tro" a sequel to Mozart's "Magic 
Flute," etc. (3) Otto Ernst, b. 
Weimar, July 31, 1864 ; bro. of 
above ; since 1 8 88 Weimar town can- 
tor and composer. 

Goering (ga'-rmg), Th., b. Frankfort- 
on-Main, Oct. 2, 1844 ; critic, 1880- 
83 Paris, then Munich ; now music 
correspondent Cologne Zeitung. 

Goes (go'-es), Damiao de, Alemquer, 
Portugal, 1501 Lisbon, 1573 ; am- 
bassador, theorist and composer. 

Goethe (ga'-te 1 ), Walther Wg. von, 
Weimar, 1818 Leipzig, 1885; grand- 
son of the poet ; c. 3 operettas, etc. 

Goetschius (gSt'-shl-oos), Percy, b. 
Paterson, N, J., Aug. 30, 1853; pupil 
Stuttgart Cons.; 1876 teacher there ; 
1885 Royal Prof. ; critic for various 
German music papers ; 1890-92 prof. 
Syracuse (N. Y.) Univ. and Mus. 
Doc, ; 1892-96, taught comp. and 
lectured on mus. hist., etc., N. E, 
Cons., Boston ; since 1896 private 
teacher Boston, and essayist ; since 
1897 organist First Parish Ch. , Brook- 
line; pub. important and original 
treatises ; c. 2 Concert-Fugues, etc. 

Goetz (gSts), Hn., K6nigsberg, Prus- 
sia, 1840 Hottingen, near Zurich, 

1876 ; 1863, organist and conductor ; 
c. operas, songs, etc. 

Gogavi'nus, Ant. Hn., Dutch phy- 
sician at Venice 1552 ; writer 

Goldbeck (golt'-bek), Robert, b. 
Potsdam, April 19, 1839; pupil of 
Kohler and H. LitolfE ; gave v. succ. 
concerts in London and prod, oper- 
etta ; 1857-67 in New York as teach- 
er; 1 868 founded a Cons, at Chicago; 
dir. till 1873 ; cond. the Harmonic 
Society, and co-dir. Beethoven Cons., 
St. Louis ; New York, 1885 ; c. 2 
operas; cantata, Burger's " Leonore" 

Goldberg (golt'-berkh), (i) Jn. G. 
(Theophilus), Konigsberg, ca. 1730 
Dresden (?), 1760 (?) ; organ and 
clavichord player. (2) Jos. Pas- 
quale, Vienna, 1825 1890; vln. -pupil 
of May seder and Seyfried, then oper- 
atic bass and teacher. His 2 sisters, 
(3) Fanny G.-Marini and (4) Cath- 
erine G.-Strossi, are singers. 

Golde (gol'-de 1 ), (i) Ad., Erfurt, 1830 
1880 ; son and (1872) successor of (2) 
Joseph G., dir. Seller Singing-So- 
ciety, Erfurt. 

Goldmark (golf-mark), (i) Karl, b. 
Keszthely, Hungary, May 18, 1830 
(not 1832, as usually stated); violinist 
and pianist, pupil of Jansa (vln.), 
later of Bohm (theory) at the Vienna 
Cons. , then mainly self-taught ; de- 
but 1858, Vienna, with his own pf.- 
concerto ; the popular overture "Sa- 
kuntala " (op. 13); and a Scherzo, 
Andante, and Finale for Orch. (op. 
19) won him success strengthened by 
his opera ' ' Die Konigin von Saba " 
(Vienna, 1875); c. also operas "Mer- 
lin" (Vienna, 1886) v. succ. ; "Das 
Hdmchen am Herd" based on Dick- 
ens' "Cricket on the Hearth" (Vi- 
enna, 1896) ; " Die Kriegsgefangene " 
(Vienna Ct. -opera, 1899); " Der 
Fremdling" (not prod.) and " Gotz 
von Berlichingen ; " c. also 2 sympho- 
nies, incl. " Landliche Hochzeit" ; 
overtures," Im Fruhling" " Prome- 
theus Bound" and " Sappho" etc. 
(2) Rubin, b. New York City, 1872 ; 


composer ; nephew of above ; at 7 
began to study with A. M. Livonius, 
with whom he went to Vienna, 1889 ; 
studied there also with Door and 
Fuchs ; later in New York with Jo- 
seffy and Dvorak ; since 1892 lives 
in Colorado Springs, Colorado; 
founder and dir. of a Coll. of Mus. 
there. At 19 c. " Theme and Varia- 
tions " for orch. (performed by Seidl, 
1895) ; c. a pf.-trio, cantata with 
orch. " Pilgrimage to Kevlaar," over- 
ture " Hiawatha " (played by Boston 
Symph. Orch.), vln. -sonata, etc. 

Goldner (golt'-ne'r), Wm., b. Ham- 
burg, June 30, 1839 ; pupil Leipzig 
Cons. ; lives in Paris as a pianist and 

Goldschmidt (golt-shmlt), (i) Sigis- 
muad, Prague, 1815 Vienna, 1877, 
pianist and composer. (2) Otto, b. 
Hamburg, Aug. 21, 1829 ; pianist ; 
pupil of Jakob Schmitt and F. W. 
Grund, Mendelssohn, and Chopin ; 
1849 London with Jenny Lind, whom 
he accompanied on her American 
tour and m. (Boston, 1852) ; 1852-55 
Dresden; 1858-87 London; 1863 
vice-principal of the R.A.M., 1875 
founded Bach Choir, also cond. mus. 
festivals at Dusseldorf (1863) and 
Hamburg (1866); c. oratorio " Ruth " 
(Hereford, 1867) ; pf. -concerto and 
trio, etc. (3) Adalbert von, b. 
Vienna, 1853; pupil Vienna Cons.; 
amateur composer ; prod, with great 
succ. cantata "Die Sieben Tod- 
silnden" (Berlin, 1875), and succ. 
opera " Helianthus" (Leipzig, 1884); 
prod, trilogy " Gaea " 1889. (4) 
Hugo, b. Breslau, Sept. 19, 1859 ; 
1884 Dr. jur.; studied singing with 
Stockhausen (1887-90) ; 1893 co-dir. 
Scharwenka-Klindworth Cons., Ber- 
lin ; writer. 

Gold' win, John, d, Nov., 1719 ; Engl. 
organist and composer, 

Golinel'K, Stefano, b. Bologna, Oct. 
26, 1818 ; pianist ; pupil of B. Do- 
nelli and N. Vaccai ; pf.-prof. Li ceo 
Musicale till 1870 ; c. 5 pf .-sonatas, 

Gollmick (gol'-mlk), (i) Fr. K., Ber- 
lin, 1774 Frankfort-on-Main, 1852; 
tenor. (2) Karl, Dessau, 1796 
Frankfort-on-Main, 1866; son of' 
above; theorist and writer. (3) 
Adolf, Frankfort-on-M., 1825 Lon- 
don, 1883 ; pianist ; son and pupil of 
(2) ; studied also with Riefstahl, 
1844 ; c. comic operas, etc. 

Goltermann (gol -ter-man), (r) G. 
Ed., Hanover, 1824 Frankfort-on- 
M., 1898 ; 'cellist and composer. (2) 
Jn. Aug. Julius, Hamburg, 1825 
Stuttgart, 1876 ; 'cellist. (3) Aug., 
1826 Schwerin, 1890; court pianist. 

Gombert (gom'-be'rt), Nicolas, Bru- 
ges, ca. 1495 after JS? ,' a most im- 
portant i6th cent, composer, one of 
the first to take up secular music 
seriously; a lover of Nature and a 
writer of descriptive and pastoral 
songs of much beauty ; his motet 
''''Paster Noster " was prod, at Paris 
by Fetis with imprebsive effect. 

Gomes (or Gomez) (gs'-mas), Anto- 
nio Carlos, Campinas, Brazil, July 
II, 1839 Para, Sept. 16, 1896; pu- 
pil of Rossi, Milan Cons. ; Dir. of 
Para Cons.; c. succ. operas " Safoa- 
tor Rosa" " Lo Schiavo" "Maria 
Tudor" etc. 

Good'ban, (i) Thos., Canterbury, 
1780 1863 ; writer and cond. His 
3 sons were (2) Chas., (3) Henry 
Wm., 'cellist, and (4) Thos., violin- 
ist. (5) Jas. F., nephew of (i), violin- 
ist and organist. 

Good'groome, (i) John, b. ca. 1630; 
composer. (2) John, probably son of 
above ; organist, 1735. (3) Theo- 
dore, Pepys' teacher ; probably bro. 
of (i). 

Good'rich, (i) Alfred John, b. Chile, 
Ohio, May 8, 1847; eminent theorist ; 
except for a year's instruction from 
his father, wholly self-taught ; teacher 
theory Grand Cons., N. Y., 1876; 
voice, pf. and theory Fort Wayne 
Cons. ,Ind. ; dir. vocal-dept. Beethoven 
Cons., St. Louis; 2 years at Martha 
Washington Coll., Va.; lived in Chi- 
cago, now in New York as teacher ; 


pub. theoretical essays and books of 
radical and scholarly nature, the im- 
portant products of research and in- 
dividuality, incl. " Complete Musical 
Analysis " (1889), ' ' Analytical Har- 
mony" (1894), " Theory of Inter- 
pretation" (1898), "Counterpoint" 
(2) John Wallace, b. Boston, 
1870 (?) ; notable organist ; studied 
Boston, Munich and with Widor, 
Paris; teacher N. E. Cons., Boston ; 
tours in concert ; 1902 chorusmaster 
Worcester Festival. 

Good'son, (r) Richard, d. 1718 ; or- 
ganist and professor at Oxford. (2) 
Richard, d. 1741; son and successor 
of above; organist. 

Good'win, Amina Beatrice, b. Man- 
chester, Engl. ; pupil of her father ; 
at 6 played in public, then studied 
with Reinecke, Jadassohn, Delabord, 
Liszt and Frau Schumann ; 1895 
founded a pf.-coll. for Ladies, Lon- 
don; m. an American, W. Ingram- 
Adams ; pub. a work on technic and 
c. pf. -pieces. 

Goovaerts (go'-varts), Alphonse, J. 
M. Andre", b. Antwerp, May 25, 
1847 ; 1866, assist, librarian, Ant- 
werp ; founded an amateur cathedral 
choir to cultivate Palestrina and the 
Netherland cptists ; 1887 royal ar- 
chivist, Brussels; writer and composer. 

Gopfert (gep'-fert), (i) K. And., Rim- 
par, near Wurzburg, 1768 Meining- 
en, 1818 ; clarinetist and dram, com- 
poser. (2) K. G., Weesenstein, near 
Dresden, 1733 Weimar, 1798; vln. 
virtuoso ; conductor and composer. 

Gordigiani (gor-ded-ja'-ne), (i) Giov. 
Bat., Mantua, 1795 Prague, 1871; 
son of a musician ; dram, composer. 
(2) Antonio, a singer. (3) Luigi, 
Modena, 1806 Florence, i860; bro. 
of (i); dram, composer. 

Gor'don, (i) John, Ludgate, 1702 
1739; Prof. (2) W., Swiss flutist 
of Engl. descent; 1826 began im- 
provements on the flute, which later 
Bohm carried to success, though W. 
G. went insane 1836 from discourage- 


Goria (go-re'-a), Alex. Ed., Paris, 
1823 1860; teacher and composer. 

Gorno (gor'-no), Albino, b. Cassalmo- 
rano (Cremona), Italy; pupil Milan 
Cons., graduating with 3 gold medals ; 
pianist and accompanist to Adelina 
Patti on Amer. tour 1881-1882 ; then 
pf.-prof. Cincinnati Coll. of Music; 
c. opera, cantata " Garibaldi," etc. 

Goroldt (ga'-rolt), Jn. H., Stempeda, 
near Stolberg (Harz), 1773 after 
1835 ; mus. dir., writer and com- 

Gorria, Tobio. Vide BOITO, ARRIGO. 

Gorter (gor'-ter), Albert, b. Nilrnberg, 
Nov. 23, 1862; studied medicine; 
then music at R. Mus. Sch., Mu- 
nich ; took 3 prizes for composition ; 
studied a year in Italy ; assist, cond. 
Bayreuth Festivals; cond. Breslau, 
etc.; 1894-99 assist, cond. Carlsruhe 
Ct-Th., then cond. Leipzig City Th.; 
c. (text and mus.) opera "'Harold" 
and comic opera " Der Schatz des 
Rhampsinnit" (Mannheim, 1894); 2 ' 
symphonic poems, etc. 

Goss, (i) John Jeremiah, Salisbury, 
17701817; alto. (2) Sir John, 
Fareham, Hants, England; 1800 
London, 1880; organist; knighted, 
1872 ; composer and writer. 

Gossec (gos'-sgk) (rightly Goss6, Gos- 
set or Gossez) (gos-sa), Fran$ois 
Joseph, Vergniers, Belgium, Jan. 
I7> 1734 Passy, near Paris, Feb. 16, 
1829; 1741-49 chorister Antwerp 
cath. ; for 2 years he then studied vln. 
and comp.; 1751 Paris, cond. private 
orch. of La Popeliniere ; then fer- 
mier-gMral ; 1754 he pub. his first 
symphonies (5 years before Haydn's); 
1759 m 's first string-quartets which 
became pop.; 1769 his " Messe des 
Marts" made a sensation (the "Tuba 
mirum" being written for 2 orch., 
one for wind, instrs., concealed, a new 
effect he repeated in his first oratorio); 
1762 cond. of Prince Conti's orch. 
at Chantilly ; from 1764 prod. 3-act 
operas " Le Faux Lord" etc., incl. 
succ. " Les Ptcheurs" (Comedie It., 
1766) ; 1770 founded Concerts des 


Amateurs; 1773 reorganised and 
cond. the Concerts Spirituels till 
1777; 1780-82 assist, cond. Acade- 
mie de Musique (later Gr. Opera) ; 
1784 founded and dir. Ecole Royale 
de Chant, the beginning of the Cons, 
of which (1795) he was an inspector 
and prof, of comp. ; c. 26 symphonies, 
3 symphonies for wind, " Symphonic 
concertante" for n insts., overtures, 
3 oratorios, etc.; masses with orch.; 
string-quartets, etc. 

Gost'ling, Rev. John, d. 1733 ; bass, 
famous for his range ; Purcell wrote 
for him a song ranging from D-e' (v. 
PITCH, D. D.). 

Gottschald (got'-shalt), Ernst, b. El- 
terlein, Saxony, Oct. 19, 1826 ; a ju- 
rist and writer under pen-name 
"von Elterlein." 

Gottschalg (got' -shaikh), Alex. W., 
b. Mechelrode, near Weimar, Feb. 
14, 1827; pupil Teachers' Seminary, 
Weimar ; succeeding Gopfer there 
later ; court organist, teacher, editor 
and writer. 

Gottschalk (gots'-cholk), (i) Louis 
Moreau, New Orleans, La., May 8, 
1829 Rio de Janeiro, Dec. 18, 1869; 
brilliant and original pianist and com- 
poser ; studied in Paris ; began c. at 
10 ; c. operas, etc., and 90 pf.-pcs. of 
distinct and tropical charm. (2) 
Gaston, bro. of above, singer and 
for years teacher in Chicago. 

Gotze (get'-ze), (i) Jn. Nik. K., Wei- 
mar, 1791 1861 ; violinist and dram, 
composer. (2) Fz., Neustadt-on- 
Orla, 1814 Leipzig, 1888 ; tenor, 
teacher and composer. (3) Karl, 
Weimar, 1836 Magdeburg, 1887 ; 
pianist and dram, composer. (4) H., 
b. Wartha, Silesia, April 7, 1836; 
studied singing with (2) ; lost his 
voice ; teacher in Russia and Bres- 
lau ; 1885 Ziegenhals, Silesia ; 1889 
Royal Mus. Dir.; wrote 2 technical 
books ; c. a mass with orch., etc. 
(5) Auguste, b. Weimar, Feb. 24, 
1840 ; daughter of (2) ; teacher Cons., 
Dresden ; founded a school there ; 
1891 taught at Leipzig Cons. ; wrote 

under name "Auguste Weimar." 

(6) Emil, b. Leipzig, July 19, 1856 ; 
pupil of Scharfe, Dresden ; 1878-81,' 
tenor Dresden Ct.-Th., then at Co- 
logne Th., then toured as " star," 
1900 lived in Berlin as court-singer 

(7) Otto, 1886, conductor at Essen-on- 
Ruhr; prod. succ. opera " Riscatto" 
(Sondershausen, 1896). (8) Fz., 1892, 
prod. Volksoper " Utopia" (Stettin^ 
1892) and i-act opera " Die Rose von 
Thiessow" (Glogau, 1895). fa) 
Marie, b. Berlin, Nov. 2, 1865 ; 
alto, studied Stern Cons, and with 
Jenny Meyer and Levysohn ; sang 
Berlin opera, then at Hamburg City 
Th. ; 2 years in America; 1892 Berlin 
ct. -opera. 

Goudimel (goo-dt-mcl), Claude, Vai- 
son, near Avignon, ca. 1505 killed in 
St. Bartholomew massacre, Lyons, 
Aug. 24, 1572 ; pupil perhaps of Jos- 
quin Despres ; cat. a school and 
formed Falestrina and other pupils, 
winning name ; " Father of the Ro- 
man School " ; a music printer for a 
time; his important comp. incl. " The 
Psahns of David" complete. 

Gould, Nathaniel Duren, Chelms- 
ford, Mass., 1781 Boston, 1864; 
conductor mid writer. 

Gounod (j-oo-no), Charles Fran- 
$ois, Paris, Juno 17, 1818 Oct. 17, 
1893 ; son of a talented painter and 
engraver ; his mother taught him the 
pf. and he entered the Lyce'e Saint- 
Louis ; 1836 studied at the Paris 
Cons, with Reicha (harm.), Hale'vy 
(cpt. and fugue), Lesueur and Paer 
(comp.) ; took 2nd Prix de Rome 
with cantata ' ' Marie Stuart ct Riz- 
sio" in 1837; his cantata "Fernan- 
da " won the Grand Prix de Rome in 
1839, an d nc studied church music at 
Rome ; 1841 his orch. mass was per- 
formed ; in 1842 he cond. his Re- 
quiem at Vienna with great succ. ; 
returned to Paris as precentor and or- 
ganist of the Missions Etrangeres; 
studied theology 2 years, intended to 
take orders and was called 1'Abbe 
Gounod by a publisher in 1846; after 


5 years of seclusion, parts of his 
Messe Solennelle were played with 
profound succ. in London ; he prod, 
a symphony, but his opera "Sappho " 
failed (Gr. Opera, 1851); revised 
1884, it failed again ; a gr. opera, 
" La Nonne Sanglante " (1854.), and 
a comic opera, " Le Medecin Malgrt 1 
Lui" (played in London as "The 
Mock Doctor") (1858), both failed; 
1852-60 cond. the " Orpheon," Paris, 
and c. choruses and 2 masses. The 
opera "Faust" (Th. Lyrique, 1859) 
was and still is a great succ. " Phill- 
mon et Bauds " (1860); *' La Reinede 
Saba " (in London as ' ' Irene ") (1862); 
11 Mireille" (1864), "La Colombe" 
(1866), were not great works, but 
" Rome's et Juliette " (1867) still holds 
the stage ; 1866 member of the Insti- 
tut de France and commander of the 
Legion of Honour. In 1870, during 
the war he lived in London ; founded 
Gounod's Choir. In 1871 he prod. 
" Gallia" a cantata based on " Lam- 
entations " ; 1875 returned to Paris, 
prod. " &' Mars " (Opera Comique, 

^" (Gr. Opera, 1878), 
and " Le Tribut de Zamora" (1881), 
none succ. The sacred trilogy " La 
Redemption " (Birmingham, 1882) 
(music and French words), and "Mars 
et Vita" (Birmingham, 1885) (Latin 
text arranged by Gounod) are stand- 
ard. He also c. " Messe Sokmulle h, 
Ste. Cecils "; masses; " Angeli custo 
des " (1882) ; "Jeanne d'Arc " (1887) ; 
a Stabat Mater with orch. ; the orato- 
rios " Tobie" " Les Sept Paroles de 
Jesus" "Jdsus snr h Lac de Tibe- 
riade" ; the cantatas "A la Fron- 
tiere " (1870, Gr. Opera), " Le Vin 
des f Gaulois" and "La Dame de 
VEph" the French and English 
songs, etc. He left 2 operas, "Mai- 
tre Pierre" (incomplete) and 
" Georges Dandin " (said to be the 
first comic opera set to prose text, 
cf. Bruneau). He wrote " Me'thode 
de cor a pistons" essays, etc. Biog. 
by Jules Claretie (Paris, 1875); Mme. 
Weldon (London, 1875) I Paul v oss 
(Leipzig, 1895) ; " Memoires " (Paris, 



GOUNOD'S music belongs entirely to a world of its own. In a 
word, he made that world, and then he set his music in it. You 
would not say that it was first-rate by any means, and you would not 
have the heart to say that it was second-rate. But, just as the old writers con- 
ceived a condition after death in which man received neither reward nor pun- 
ishment, a sort of midway house where the dross of the flesh had not been 
expunged and where the fire of the spirit had not entirely departed, so Gounod 
is a kind of mingled spirit in music. He is the idol of gold with the feet of 
clay, ^[Yet he had one note, one separate characteristic in his music which 
does certainly divide him from every other musician in the world. None 
has sounded as he has sounded the peculiar note of eroticism which is absolutely- 
sexual. Instance it by one example (the song of Marguerite at the end of 
the second act of *' Faust" when she throws open the window to give ex- 
pression to her emotion) as a creation of sexualness which no other song in 
the world has probably possessed. I have heard it said that the performance 


of Gounod* s masses in Paris used to be regarded by ladies of fashion and 
quality as something in the light of an orgy. For this was Gounod's dom- 
inant note, his dominant quality. ^"He was not a master of melody, but he 
wrote quite beautiful melodies. He was not a master and in each case I 
am using the word " master " in the superlative sense of technique, but he 
had a mystic-second-rate mystic, but, all the same, mystic, quality in his 
work. He was not really dramatic ; "Philemon et Bauds" "Faust" and 
Romeo" are there to prove so much ; but he was charming in just not the 
great way. As a song-writer, though, he often achieved something like 
greatness. The much- hackneyed " Quand tu chantes" "Nazareth" but, 
above all, "Le Juif Errant " prove that in little flights of emotion, separate 
swingings into the sky, as it were, Gounod could do as well as anybody. 
But he was not a great master ; he was a great contemporary, as I have said 
elsewhere, and his death was mourned by contemporaries. Whether future 
generations will rank him any higher than Emanuel Bach, time alone can 
prove. ^Gounod's personality can scarcely be said to have made any im- 
pression upon the world, and his influence died like a bright " exhalation of 
the evening." You can prove it to-day only in mediocre song-writers. 

Gouvy (goo-ve), Louis Theodore, Grabert (gra'-beri), Martin, b, Arns- 
Goffontaine, Rhenish Prussia, 1819 walde, May 15, 1868 ; studied with 
Leipzig, 1898 ; pianist and composer. Rargiel and Itollcrman, Berlin, R. I., 

Gow, (i) Niel, Strathband, 1727 for church-music, 189 [ winning Mey- 
Inver, Scotland, 1807 ; violinist and erbeer-stipend, 1894 Mendelssohn 
composer. (2) Nathaniel, 1766 prize; lived in Berlin as organist, chor- 
1831 ; son of above, also violinist and dir. and composer of choruses, etc. 

composer. (3) Donald, brother of (i), Grabu(t) (gra-bii), Louis (or Lewis), 
was a 'cellist. And (4) Niel, Jr., French operatic composer at the Eng- 
1795 1823, son of (2), was violinist lish court, 1666-90. 

and composer. (5) George Cole- Gradener (gra-dc-ner), (i) K. G. P., 
man, b, Ayer Junction, Mass., Nov. Rostock, 1812 Hamburg, 1883; 
27, 1860; studied with Blodgett, dir., conductor, writer, and dram. 
Pittsfield and Story (Worcester) ; composer. (2) Hermann (Th. Otto), 
graduate Brown Univ., 1884, and b. Kiel, May 8, 1844 ; son and pupil 
Newton Theol. Seminary, 1889 ; then of above; later studied Vienna Cons.; 
teacher of harm, and pf. Smith Col- 1873 teacher harmony Ilorak's Pf. 
lege ; studied with BUssler in Berlin; Sch., later Vienna Cons.; from 1890 
1895 prof, of music Vassar Coll.; lecturer on harm, and cpt. Vienna 
composer and writer. Univ. ; cond. Singakadcmic ; c. Ca- 

Graan (gran), Jean de, Amsterdam, priccietta and Sinfonietta for orch. 
1852 The Hague, 1874 ; violinist. (op. 14), etc. 

Graben-Hoffmann (gra'-bSn hof '- Graew (grav). Vide IIACFATIT. 

man), Gustav (rightly Gustav Hoff- Graffigna (jrraf-fen'-ya), Achille, San 
mann), Bnin, near Posen, March 7, Martino Dal I'Ar^ine, Italy, 1816 
1820 Potsdam, May 21, 1900; sing- Padua, 1896; conductor, teacher, 
ing teacher, writer and composer. and dram, composer. 


Gra'ham, Geo. F., Edinburgh, 1790 
1867 ; composer and writer. 

Grammann (gram' -man), Karl, Lti- 
beck, 1844 Dresden, 1897 ; dram, 
composer and writer. 

Grandi (gran'-de), Ales, de, Venice (?) 
Bergamo, 1630; singer and com- 

Grandval (gran-v&l), Mme. Marie 
Fe"licie Cle"mence de Reiset, 
Vicomtesse de, b. Saint- Remy-des- 
Monts (Sarthe), France, Jan. 20, 
1830 ; pupil of Flotow and Saint- 
Sae'ns (comp.) ; prod, the operas 
" Piccolini " (Op.-Com., 1868), " Les 
Fiances des Rosa" (Th.-Lyr., 1863), 
"Atote" (Paris, 1888), " Mazeppa " 
(Bordeaux, 1892) and others ; won 
the Prix Rossini with oratorio u La 
Filk de Jaire" tl drame sacre," 
" Sainte-Agnh " in MS.; has prod, 
symph. works and songs ; sometimes 
wrote under pen-names " Tesier, 
Valgrand, Jasper, Banger," etc. 

Gran'inger, Chas. Alb., b. Cincin- 
nati, Jan. 2, 1861 ; pupil Coll. of 
Mus. ; dir. several / mus. societies ; 
prof, in the College for Music. 

Granjon (gran-zhoh), Robert, music- 
printer, Paris, Lyons and Rome, 1582. 

Gran'om, Louis C. A., English com- 
poser, 1751. 

Graphaus (gra"-fe-oos), Hieronymus, 
d. May 7, 1556; music-printer Niirn- 
berg from 1533. 

Grassini (gras-se'-ne), Josephina, 
Varese, Lombardy, 1773 Milan, 
1850 ; Italian soprano of remarkable 
talent and beauty. 

Gras (dortt-gras), Mme. Julia AimSe 
Dorus, Valenciennes, 1807 retired, 
1850 ; operatic singer Paris and Lon- 

Grasse (gras), Edwin, b. New York 
City, 1874 (?) J blind violinist ; pupil 
ot f Carl Hauser, N. Y.; at 13, of 
Cesar Thomson, Brussels, then at 
the Cons., taking ist prize ; 1901 
took " Prix de Capacite " ; debut 
Berlin, Feb. 22, 1902, with great 

Grasset (gras-sa), J. Jacques, Paris, 

ca. 17671839 ; violinist, conductor, 
professor, etc. 

Gratiani. Vide GRAZIANI. 

Graumann (grow' -man), Mathilde. 

Graun (grown), (i) Aug. Fr., 1727- 
71, tenor, cantor. (2) Jn. Gl., 1698 
Berlin, 1771; bro. of above; vio- 
linist ; pupil of Pisendel and Tartini; 
in service of Fredk. the Great and 
cond. of Royal band ; c. 40 sympho- 
nies, etc. (3) K. H., Wahrenbriick, 
Prussian Saxony, May 7, 1701 Ber- 
lin, Aug. 8, 1759 I bro. of above ; or- 
ganist, singer, court-conductor, and 

Graupner (growp'-ngr), Chp., Kirch- 
berg, Saxony, 1683 Darmstadt, 
1760 ; dram, composer. 

Graziani (gra-tse-a-ne), (i) (Padre) 
Tommaso, b. Bagnacavallo, Papal 
States; conductor and composer of 
i6th cent. (2) (or Gratiani) Boni- 
face, Marino, Papal States, ca. 1606 
Rome, 1664 ! cond. and composer. 
(3) Ludovico, Fermo, Italy, 1823 
1885 ; tenor. (4) Francesco, Fer- 
mo, April 16, 1829 Fermo, June 30, 
1901, bro. of above ; barytone, sang 
in Italy, Paris, New York. 

Grazzini (grad-ze'-ne), Reginaldo, 
b. Florence, Oct. 15, 1848; studied 
R. Cons, with T. Mabellini ; op.- 
cond. in Florence, later prof, of mus. 
theory and artistic dir. Liceo Bene- 
detto Marcello, Venice ; c. sympho- 
nies ; a mass with orch., etc. 

Great'orex, Thos,, North Wingfield, 
Derby, Engl., 1758 Hampton, near 
London, 1831 ; organist, teacher, and 
composer (1789-93) ; then conductor. 

Greco (gra'-ko) (orGrec'co), Gaetano, 
b. Naples, ca. 1680 (?) ; composer 
and teacher. 

Greef (graf), (i) Wm., Kettwig-on- 
Ruhr, 1809 Mors, 1875; organist 
and singing teacher. (2) Greef- An- 
driessen. Vide STAHMER, A. 

Green, Samuel, London, 1730 Isle- 
worth, 1796 ; organ-builder. 

Greene, (i) Maurice, London, 1696 
(1695 ?) 1755 ; teacher and compos- 


er. (2) (Harry) Plunket, b. Old 
Connaught House, Co. Wicklow, 
Ireland, June 24, 1865 ; basso ; stud- 
ied with Hromada and Goetschius, 
Stuttgart, 1883-86, and 6 months 
with Vannuccini of Florence; later 
with J. B. Welch and Alf. Blume, 
London ; debut, Jan. 21, 1888, in 
"Messiah" ; debut in opera at Cov- 
ent Garden, 1890 ; excels in recitals ; 
has sung frequently in America. 

Greeting, Thos., teacher of flageo- 
let, London, latter half lyth cent. ; 
taught Pepys. 

Grefinger (or Grafinger) (gra'-ftng-er), 
Jn. W,, Vienna, i6th cent, com- 

Gregh (greg), Louis, Paris music-pub- 
lisher; 1894 prod, pantomime ; vaude- 
ville operettas, etc. 

Gregoir (grug-wftr), (i) Jacques Ma- 
thieu Joseph, Antwerp, 1817 Brus- 
sels, 1876 ; teacher and dram, com- 
poser. (2) 6d., Turnhout, near 
Antwerp, Nov. 7, 1822 Wyneghem, 
June 28, 1890; bro. and pupil of 
above ; pianist, dram, composer and 

GregoroVitch, Charles, b. St. Pet- 
ersburg, Oct. 25, 1867; violinist; 
pupil of Wieniawski, Dont and Joa- 
chim; 1896-97 toured Europe and 

Greg'ory I. ("The Great"), Rome, 
540-604 ; Pope from 590 ; reformer 
and reviser of Roman Catholic ritual. 

Grell, Ed. Aug., Berlin, 1800 Steg- 
litz, near Berlin, 1886 ; organist, con- 
ductor, prof, and composer. 

Grenie" (grun-ya), Gabriel Jos., Bor- 
deaux, 1757 Paris, 1837 ; inv. of 
the orgtte expressif (v. HARMONIUM, 
D. D.), which Erard improved. 

Gresnich (gren-fsh), Ant. Frederic, 
Ltege, 1755 Paris, 1799 ; conductor 
and dram, composer. 

Gre"ta (gra'-ta), Jeanne (nee Greta 
Hughes), b. Lancaster, Mo. ; colora- 
tura soprano ; studied with Gott- 
schalk, Chicago, Agramonte, New 
York, Mme. La Grange, Critikos, 

and Dubulle, Paris ; debut St. James' 
Hall, London, 1897 ; toured England 
and Scotland with great success, when 
at a concert before the Princess of 
Teck she caught a severe cold, neces- 
sitating a long retirement ; now sing- 
ing again in New York ; 1899, m. 
Herbert Witherspoon. 
Gretry (gra-trwe), (i) Andre Ernest 
Modeste, Liege, Feb. 9, 1741- 
Montmorency, near Paris, Sept. 24, 
1813 ; dram, composer ; son of a vio- 
linist. Chorister at 6, but dismissed 
for incapacity at n, then pupil of 
Leclerc and Renekin. R. failing to 
keep him to the strict course of cpt. 
Moreau later tried with equal failure; 

1758 he prod. 6 symphonies at Liege; 

1759 a mass for which the Canon du 
Harlez sent him to study in Rome, 
to which he walked ; he studied cpt. 
and comp. with Casali and Martini 
for 5 years, bat was again dismissed 
as impossible ; a dramatic intermezzo, 
" Le Vendewmiatricc" was succ. 
1765, but reading Monsigny's " Rose 
et Colas,'" he decided that his restless 
dramatic longings were best adapted 
for French opera comique. He was a 
long time finding a fit librettist (Vol- 
taire declining his invitation). He 
reached Paris slowly via Geneva, 
where he taught singing a year and 
prod, the succ. i-act " Isabelle et 
Gertrude" In Paris after 2 years' 
hardships his " Les Manages Sam- 
nites " was rehearsed, and though not 
prod., won him a patron in Count 
Creutz, the Swedish Minister, who 
secured him as libretto Marmontel's 
comedy " Lc Huron." This was 
prod. (Op.-com., 1768) with a great 
succ., enjoyed also in extraordinary 
degree by an aslounding series of 
works, mostly comic and mostly suc- 
cessful, the best of which are "Z- 
dk" " Le Tabkau Parlant" (1769), 
" Les Deux Avar as" " Zthnire tt 
Azor" (1771), " Lt Magnifiqw" 
(i773); La Roticre de Salnuy" 
(1774) ; " La Fausse Afagie" (1775), 
" Le Jugement de Midas" (in which 


he satirised the old French music 
and its rendition at the Academic), 
and " LAmant Jaloux" (1778); 
the grand opera " Andromaque" 
(1780) (in which the chief role is ac- 
companied by, 3 flutes throughout) ; 
" La, Double Epreuve" (or 4i Colinet- 
te a la cour ") (1782) ; /' Theodore et 
Pauline''' (or ^LEpreiive mlla- 
geoise")\ and "Richard Cceur de 
Lion" (his best work, still played in 
Paris) ; the gr. opera U Z0 Caravans 
du Ca'ire" (1785, performed 506 times; 
(libretto by the Comte de Provence, 
later Louis XVIII.) ; "La Rosiere 
Republicaine" (1793) ; " La F$te de 
la Raison" (prod. 1794 during the 
Revolution) ; " Lisbeth" ; '* Anacre- 
on chez Polycrate " (1797) ; c. 50 
operas in all, remarkable for sponta- 
neity, grace and fervour of melody, 
dramatic effect and general charm, 
but open to serious criticism as 
works of formal art. He was called 
"the Moliere of music." Mozart and 
Beethoven wrote Variations on themes 
of his. Once launched, his progress 
was a triumph of honour of all kinds; 
in 1802 Napoleon made him. Chev- 
alier of the Legion of Honour with 
a pension of 4,000 francs. He bought 
Rousseau's former residence at Mont- 
morency and retired there ; wrote 
Memoirs, etc. He had several chil- 
dren, including the gifted Lucille (v. 
infra}, all of whom he outlived. He 
left 6 unprod. operas and c. also 6 
symphonies ; 6 pf. -sonatas, 6 string- 
quartets, church-mus., etc. Biog;, by 
his nephew, A. J. G. (1815); Gre'goir 
(1883) ; Brunet (1884), etc. (2) Lu- 
cille, Paris, 1773-93 ; daughter of 
above, who instrumented her opera 
" Le Manage d' Antonio" written 
and prod, at the Op.-Com., with 
succ. when she was only 13 ; the next 
year her opera " Toinette et Louis" 
was not a success ; she married un- 
happily and died at 20. 
Greulich (groi'-llkh), (i) .K. W., 
Kunzendorf, Silesia, 1796 1837; 
teacher and composer, (2) Ad,, 

Posen, 1819 Moscow, 1868; teach- 
er and composer. (3) Ad., Schmiede- 
berg, Silesia, 1836 Breslau, 1890; 
conductor, bass., organist and com- 

Grieg (greg), Eduard Hagerup, 
b. Bergen, June 15, 1843 ; pupil of 
his mother, a pianist ; at 15 entered 
Leipzig Cons.; pupil of Hauptmann 
and Richter (harm, and cpt.) ; Rietz 
and Reinecke (comp.) ; Wenzel and 
Moscheles (pf.) ; then with Gade, 
Copenhagen. With the young Nor- 
wegian composer Rikard Nordraak, 
he conspired, as he said, "Against 
the effeminate Mendelssohnian-Gade 
Scandinavianism, turning with enthu- 
siasm into the new, well-defined path 
along which the Northern School is 
now travelling." 1867 Grieg founded 
a Musical Union in Christiania and 
was cond. till 1880 ; 1865 visited 
Italy, again in 1870, meeting Liszt in 
Rome. 1879 he performed his pf.- 
concerto at the Gewandhaus, Leipzig. 
Since 1880 lives chiefly in Bergen; 
lately cond. the Christiania Phil.; 
1888 played his concerto and cond. 
his 2 melodies for string-orch. at Lon- 
don Phil. 1894 Mus. Doc. Cantab. 
C, concert-overture "/ Autumn" ; 
op. 20, " Vor der Klosterp forte, " for 
solo, female voices and orch,; 
" Lander kenrtung " for male chorus 
with orch.; " Der Einsame" for bary- 
tone, string orch. and 2 horns ; op. 
35, " Norwegische Tanze," for orch.; 
op. 40, "Aus Hohbergs Zeit" suite 
for string orch.; " Bergliot" melo- 
drama with orch.; "Peer Gynt" 
suites i and 2 for orch.; op. 50, 
"Olav Trygvason" for solo, chorus, 
and orch.; " Sigurd Jorsalfar " for 
orch., etc.; op. 22, 2 songs for male 
voices and orch.; various pcs, ^for 
string orch., string-quartet in G min.; 
pf. -concerto ; pf. -sonatas, 3 vln.-so- 
natas, a 'cello-sonata, also for pf.- 
" Poetische Tonbilder" Romanzen 
and Balladen ; several sets of " Ly- 
rische Stiieke" " Symphonische 
Stuck" (4 hands), " Norwegischt 


Volkslieder und Tattae" " Bitter incl. song-cycle to Garborg's " Haug. 
aiisdem Volksleben" Peer 6^ suite tussa" Biog. by Ernest Closson 
No. I (4 hands), and many songs, (Fischbacher, Paris, 1892). 

Eduard Grieg. 


WHEN Hans von Bulow called Grieg the Norwegian Chopin he 
doubtless had in mind the melodic fertility, the harmonic origi- 
nality and boldness, the eloquence of style, and the almost exclu- 
sive devotion to the shorter forms of composition, which these two masters 
have in common. There is another point of resemblance. For a long time 
musicians believed that the striking peculiarities of Chopin's music were due 
to the influence on him of the Polish folk-music, whereas, in truth, they are 
only the product of his own genius. The same must be said of Grieg with 
reference to the Norwegian folk-songs, which are generally supposed to have 
been the sources of his inspiration. It is only necessary to study these folk-songs 
of Norway to see how utterly erroneous this idea is. He caught their spirit 
half melancholy, half wild but his melodies and harmonies are his own, and 
they are more beautiful than any folk-music, ^j As a youth he came under 
the influence of Schubert, Schumann, Chopin, and Wagner, but in his songs 
(beginning with the third Grieg Album in the Peters edition) he is all Grieg, 
and the same is true of his pianoforte and other instrumental pieces. Apart 
from a concerto for the pianoforte, three sonatas for piano and violin, one for 
piano and 'cello, a few choruses, an overture and a few orchestral suites 
(among which the two Peer Gynt are best known), he has written only songs 
(120 up to date), and a large number of short pianoforte pieces. Half a 
dozen of his songs have been arranged with pianoforte accompaniments. ^[ 
As a harmonist Grieg is even bolder than Wagner and Liszt ; he has spoken 
the last word in modulation. His best productions are still far too little 
known. His music has influenced nearly all the younger Scandinavian com- 
posers, and not a few others, who sometimes help themselves to his ideas, in 
the innocent belief that they are simply copying Norwegian folk-melodies. 
A kindred spirit to Grieg is the most original of American composers, Edward 

Griepenkerl (gre'-penk-e'rl), (i) F. Windsor, 1798 London, 1875 ; son 

K., Peine, Brunswick, 1782 Bruns- of the 'cellist. (2) J. C. G., pianist, 

wick, 1849 ; Prof. (2) W. Rob., 'cellist, dir. and writer. 

Holwyl, 1 8 lo Brunswick, 1868 ; son Griesinger (gre -zYng-er), G. Aug., d. 

of above ; teacher and writer. Leipzig, 1828 ; writer. 

Griesbach (gres'-bakh), (i) John Hy., Griffin, (i) Thos., English organ- 


builder i8th cent. (2) George Eu- 
gene, 1781 London, 1863; Engl. 
pianist and composer. 
Grill, (i) F., d. Odenburg, Hungary, 
ca. 1795; composer, etc. (2) Leo, 

b. Pesth, Feb. 24, 1846 ; pupil of F. 
Lachner ; since 1871 teacher of cho- 
ral singing and theory Leipzig Cons. ; 

c, overture " Hilarodia" 1892. 
Grillet (gre-ya), Laurent, b. Sancoins, 

Cher, France, May 22, 1851 ; pupil of 
A. Martin ('cello), E. Mangin (harm.), 
and Ratez (cpt. and fugue); cond. 
various theatres ; 1886 Nouveau- 
Cirque, Paris ; writer ; c. comic opera 
" Graciosa " (Paris 1892), ballets, etc. 

Grimm, (i) Fr. Melchior, Baron von, 
Ratisbon, 1723 Gotha, 1807 ; one 
of the advocates and controversial- 
ists for the Ital. opera buffa. (2) 
Karl, Hildburghausen, 1819 Frei- 
burg, Silesia, 1888 ; 'cellist and com- 
poser. (3) K. Konst., lived in Ber- 
lin, 18201882; harpist. (4) Ju- 
lius Otto, b. Pernau, Livonia, March 
6, 1827 1 pianist ; pupil of Leipzig 
Cons. ; founded vocal society at 
Gottingen, then R. Mus. Dir. Mun- 
ster Academy and cond.; c. a sym- 
phony, 2 suites in canon-form, etc. 

Grim'mer, Chr. Fr., Mulda, Saxony, 
1800 1850; composer. 

Grisar (gre-zar), Albert, Antwerp, 
Dec. 26, 1808 Asnieres, near Paris, 
June 15, 1869; prolific dram, com- 
poser ; biog. by Pougin, Paris. 

Grisart (gre-zar), Chas. J. Bapt., 
prod, light operas in minor theatres, 
the last "Le Petit Bolt" (1893) and 
11 VoiteleRoi" (1894). 

Grisi (gre'-ze), (i) Giuditta, Milan, 
July 28, 1805 near Cremona, May i, 
1840 ; famous mezzo-soprano ; pupil 
of Milan Cons. ; m. Count Barni, 
1834. (2) Giulia, Milan, July 28, 
1811 Berlin, Nov. 29, 1869; sister 
and pupil of above ; famous dra- 
matic soprano ; pupil of Giacomelli, 
Pasta and Marliani ; m. Count Mel- 
cy, later m. Mario. 

Grit2inger (grfts'-mg-e'r), Le"on, b. 
Bojan, Austria, Sept. 20, 1856; 

tenor ; studied in Vienna and sang 
10 years at the opera house there ; 
then in various cities, 1900 Bruns- 
wick court-theatre. 

Groninger (gro'-nmg-fr), S. van, b. 
Deventer, Holland, June 23, 1851- 
pupil of Raif and Kiel, Berlin ; pian- 
ist ; teacher in Zwolle, The Hague ; 
now at Leyden ; composer. 

Grosheim (gros'-him), G. Chr., Cassel, 
1764 1847 J dram, composer. 

Grosjean (gro-zhan), (i) J. Romary, 
Rochesson, Vosges, France, 1815 
St. Die, 1888 ; org. composer and 
writer. (2) Ernest, b. Vagney, Dec. 
18, 1844 ; nephew of above ; organist 
at Verdun. 

Gross (gros), Jn. Benj., Elbing, West 
Prussia, 1809 St. Petersburg, 1848 ; 
'cellist and composer. 

Gros'si (gr6s'-se), (i) G. F. Vide SI- 
FACE. (2) Carlotta (rightly Char- 
lotte Grossmuck), b. Vienna, Dec. 
23, 1849 ! coloratura singer ; studied 
in the Cons, there ; 1869-78 at the 
Berlin Opera. 

Gross'man, Louis, b. Kalisz, Po- 
land, 1835 ! c - overtures "Lear " 
and "Marie," and succ. operas 
" Fisherman of Palermo " (Warsaw, 
1866) and " Woyewoda's Ghat" 

Grove, Sir George, Clapham, Surrey, 
Aug. 13, 1820 London, May 28, 
1900 ; civil engineer ; Sec. to the So- 
ciety of Arts ; 1852, Sec., and 1873 a 
member of the Board of Directors, 
Crystal Palace; edited Macmillads 
Magazine; later dir. of the Royal 
Coll. of Mus.; 1883, knighted; 1875 
D.C.L. Univ. of Durham; 1885 
LL.D., Glasgow; wrote important 
book "Beethoven and His Nine 
Symphonies" (1896), etc., and was 
the editor-in-chief 1879-89 of the mu- 
sical dictionary known by his name. 

Grua (groo'-a), (i) C. L. P., court- 
conductor at Mannheim and com- 
poser, 17001755. (2) Paul, Mann- 
heim. 1754 Munich, 1833 ; son of 
above; conductor and dram, com... 


Gruber (groo'-bSr), Jn. Sigismund, 

Nurnberg, 17591805 ; lawyer and 

Gruenberg (grun'-be'rkh), Eugene, b. 
Lemberg, Galicia, Oct. 30, 1854.; 
violinist ; pupil at Vienna Cons. ; for 
10 years member Leipzig Gewand- 
haus Orch.; then (till 1898) Boston 
Symph.Orch. ; for 3 years vln. -teach- 
er at the Boston Cons.; later at the 
N. Engl. Cons. ; pub. " Theory of Vio- 
lin Playing " ; studies, essays, etc. ; c. 
a symphony (performed at the Ge- 
wandhaus), etc. 

Grim (griin),Friederike, b. Mannheim, 
June 14, 1836; soprano, at first in 
the opera-chorus, then sang solo parts 
at Frankfort, later (1863) at Cassel 
and 1866-69 Berlin ; 1869 m. Russian 
Baron von Sadler ; studied with Lam- 
perti at Milan and continued to sing 
with success. 

Griinberg (grun'-be'rkh), (i) Paul Emil 
Max, b. Berlin, Dec. 5, 1852 ; vio- 
linist ; leader at Sondershausen, later 
at Prague ; now teacher in Berlin. 

(2) Vide GRUENBERG. 

Griinberger (griin'-berkh-e'r), Lud- 
wig, Prague, 1839 l %& ; pianist 
and composer. 

Grund (groont), Fr. Wm,, Hamburg, 
17911874; conductor and dram, 

Griinfeld (grun'-fSlt), (i) Alfred, b. 
Prague, July 4, 1852 ; pianist and 
composer ; pupil of Hoger and Krej- 
ci, later at Kullak's Academy, Berlin ; 
1873, chamber-virtuoso, Vienna ; 
toured Europe and the U. S. (2) 
Heinrich, b. Prague, April 21, 1855 ; 
bro. of above; 'cellist; pupil of 
Prague Cons. ; 1876, teacher in Kul- 
lak's Academy ; 1886 'cellist to the 

Griming (gru-nmgk), Wilhelm, b. 
Berlin, Nov. 2, 1858 ; tenor, studied 
Stem Cons.; sang in various thea- 
tres ; toured America ; then 1889-97 
at Bayreuth as Parsifal, Siegfried, 
etc. ; 1900 Berlin court-opera. 

Grus (grtis), Le"on, 1835 Paris, July, 
1902, Publisher ; also c. under name 

Griitzmacher (griits'-makh-gr) M 
Fr. Wm. L., b. Dessau, March i, 
1832 ; eminent 'cellist ; son and pu- 
pil of a chamber-musician at Dessau ; 
later studied with Drechsler ('cello) 
and Schneider (theory) ; at 16 joined 
a small Leipzig orch.; was " discov- 
ered " by David, and at 17 made ist 
'cello, Gewandhaus orch. and teach- 
er at the Cons.; 1869 Dresden, later 
Cologne ; 1902 Philadelphia ; c. con- 
certo for 'cello, orch.- and chamber- 
music, pf.-pcs., songs, etc. (2) Ld., 
b. Dessau, Sept. 4, 1835 ; bro, and 
pupil of above ; studied with Drechs- 
ler ('cello) and Schneider (theory); 
played in the Gewandhaus orch., 
Leipzig; then ist 'cello Schwerin 
court-orch. ; 1876 chamber virtu- 
oso at Weimar. (3) Friedrich, 
son and pupil of (2) ; ist 'cello 
Sondershausen court-orch. , then Pesth 
(1890) ; 1892-94 prof, at the Cons., 
Pesth ; 1894 in the Gurzenich Orch. 
and teacher at the Cons., Cologne. 

Guadagni (goo-a-dan'-ye), (i) Gaeta- 
no, Lodi, 1725 1785 (97 ?) ; male 
contralto (later a soprano) of iSth 
cent. ; Gluck wrote ' ; Tekmaco " for 

him. (2) ; sister of above; sangin 

London ; m. F. Alessandri. 

Guadagnini (goo-a-dan-ye'-ne), family 
of vln. -makers of the Cremona school, 
(i) Lorenzo and (2) John Baptiste, 
worked 1690-1740. (3) J. B., the 
younger (son of Lorenzo), also made 
excellent violins. 

Guarducci (goo-ar-doot'-che), Monte- 
fiascone, ca. 1720(7); Italian singer 
in London, 1766-71. 

Guarneri (goo-ar-na'-re) (Latinised 
Guarne'rius), family of famous vln.- 
makers at Cremona, (i) Pietro An- 
drea, b. ca. 1630 ; worked 1650-95 ; 
pupil of N. Amati ; his label Andreas 
Gitarnerius Cremona- sub titolo San- 
ta Thcresiiz 16 . (2) Giuseppe, b. 
1660 ; son of above ; worked 1690- 
1730 ; his label Joseph Guarnerius 
filius Andreas fecit Cremona! sub ti- 
tolo St. Theresitc 16 . (3)P.,b. ca. 
1670 ; son of (i) ; worked 1690-1700, 


(4) P., son of (2) ; worked 1725-40. 

B' ) Giuseppe Antonio (known as 
uarneri del Gesu, i.e., "the Je- 
sus," from the " I H S " on his labels), 
June 8, 1683 ca. 1745 ; the best of 
the family, nephew of (i) ; his label, 
Joseph Guarnerius Andreas Nepos 
Cremona 17 , I H S. 

Gudehus (goo'-de-hoos), H., b. Alten- 
hagen, Hanover, March 30, 1845 ; tenor, 
son of a village schoolmaster ; pupil 
of Frau Schnorr von Karolsfeld at 
Brunswick ; 1870-73 engaged for the 
court opera, Berlin; 1872, studied 
with Louise Ress, Dresden ; reap- 
peared 1875 1 1880-90 at Dresden 
ct.-opera, creating " Parsifal " at Bay- 
reuth, 1882 ; in New York 1890-91, 
later at Berlin ct.-opera. 

Gue"nin (ga-nan), Marie Alex., Mau- 
beuge (Nord), France, 1744 Paris, 
1819 ; violinist and composer. 

Guercia (goo-ar-che'-a), Alphonso, b. 
Naples, Nov. 13, 1831; pupil of Mer- 
cadante ; dram, barytone for a time ; 
since 1859 vocal teacher, Naples; 
c. succ. opera "Rita" (Naples, 1875), 

Giie*rin (ga-riin), Emmanuel, b. Ver- 
sailles, 1779; 'cellist. 

Guerrero (ger-ra'-ro), Francisco, Se- 
villa, Spain, 1528 1599 ; conductor, 
singer and composer. 

Guest, (i) Ralph, Basely, Shrop^ire, 
1742 1830 ; organist aad composer. 
(2) George, Bury St, Edmunds, 
1771 Wisbeach, 1831 ; organist and 

Gueymard (ge"-mar), (i) Louis, Chap- 
ponay (Isere), France, 1822 Cor- 
beil, near Paris, 1880 ; tenor, 1848- 
68^ at the Gr. Opera. (2) Pauline 
(nee Lauters), b. Brussels, Dec. i, 
1834 ; wife of above ; mezzo-soprano ; 
pupil of the Cons.; debut 1855, Th. 
Lyrique, Paris ; later at Gr. Opera. 

Guglielmi (gool-yel'-me), (i) Pietro, 
cond. to Duke of Modena. His son 
(2) P., Massa di Carrara, Italy, 1727 
(1720 ?) Rome, Nov. 19, 1804 ; con- 
ductor, teacher and composer of over 
Soo operas, (Perhaps the (3) Signora 

G. who sang in London 1770-72 was 
the wife he treated so shamefully.) 
Rival of Passiello and Cimarosa; 
1793 cond. at the Vatican, composed 
only church-music. (4) Pietro Car- 
lo (called Guglielmini), Naples, ca. 
1763 Massa di Carrara, 1827 ; son 
of above ; dram, composer, teacher 
and conductor. 

Guicciardi (goo-et-char'-de), Giuliet- 
ta (or Julie), Countess (or Grafin), 
Nov. 24, 1784 March 22, 1855 ; pi- 
anist; pupil of Beethoven and his 
enamoured inamorata; a Viennese 
woman, m. Count Gallenberg, 1803. 

Gui de Chalis (ge dti shal-es) (Gui- 
de), end of the I2th cent. ; writer. 

Guidetti (goo-e-deY-te), Giov., Bo- 
logna, 1532 Rome, 1592 ; pupil and 
assistant of Palestrina; conductor 
and composer. 

Guido d'Arezzo (gpo-e -do dar-re'd'- 
zo) (Latinised Areti'nus), Arezzo, Ita- 
ly, ca. 995 Avellano (?), May 17 (?), 
1050 (?) ; eminent revolutionist in 
music; a Benedictine monk at 
Pomposo, near Ferrara, later per- 
haps at Arezzo ; his abilities as 
a singing-teacher and musician led 
Pope John XIX. to summon him 
to Rome; he was later probably 
a Prior at Avellano; though he 
is being stripped of many of his 
early honours, it seems true that he 
introd. the 4-line staff, and ledger- 
lines and Solmisation (v. ARETINIAN ; 


Guido de Chalis. Vide GUI DE 


Guignon (gen-y6n), J. P., Turin, 1702 
Versailles, 1775; violinist and 

Guilmant (gel-man), (i) Alex. Fe*lix, 
b. Boulogne, March 12, 1837; son 
and pupil of the org. (2) Jean Bap- 
tiste G. (Boulogne, 17931800); 
later pupil of Lemmens and G. Carul- 
li (harm.) ; at 12 substituted for his 
father at the church of St. Nicolas ; 
at 16 organist at St. Joseph ; at 18 
prod, a solemn mass ; at 20 choirm. 
at St. Nicholas, teacher in Boulogne 


Cons, and cond. of a mus. soc.; 1871 
organist of Ste. Trinite ; 1893 chev. 
of Legion of Honour; 1896 org.- 
prof., Paris Cons.; 1893, 1897-98 
toured Europe and U. S. with much 
succ.; 1901 resigned from Ste. Tri- 
nite ; c. symphony for organ and 
orch. ; " lyric scene " " Belsatar " for 
soli, chorus and orch.; " Christus 
Vimit? hymn for chorus, orch., 
harps and org.; 4 org. sonatas, etc. 

Guindani (goo-en-da' -ne), Ed., Cre- 
mona, 1854 1897 ; dram, composer. 

Guiraud (ge-ro), (i) Ernest, New 
Orleans, June 23, 1837 Paris, May 
6, 1892 ; son of (2) Jean Baptiste 
G. (Prixde Rome, Paris Cons., 1827), 
at 12 in Paris ; at 15 prod, opera 
" Le roi David" at New Orleans; 
studied Paris Cons., and took Grand 
prix de Rome ; later prof, of accom- 
paniment Paris Cons, and dram, com- 

Gulbranson (gool'-bran-zon), Ellen, 
b. Stockholm ; notable soprano ; 
studied with Marchesi, sang in con- 
cert ; 1889 entered opera, singing 
Brunhilde, iSggKundry at Bayreuth 
and other roles in other cities ; lives 
on her estate near Christiania. 

Gumbert (goom'-bert), Fd., Berlin, 
1818 1896; tenor and barytone; 
also critic and dram, composer. 

Adam, Trostberg, Bavaria, 1559 
Augsburg, 1625 ; composer and theo- 

Gumpert (goom'-pert), Fr. Ad,, b. 
Lichtenau, Thuringia, April 27, 
1841; pupil of Hammann ; from 1864 
ist horn Gewandhaus Orch. , Leipzig; 
writer and composer. 

Gumprecht fgoom'-prekht), Otto, b. 
Erfurt, April 4, 1823 ; studied law, 
Dr. jur. ; 1849 critic and writer. 

Gungl (or Gun^'l) (goong'-l), (i) Jo- 
seph, Zsambek, Hungary, Dec. I, 
1810 Weimar, Jan. 31, 1889; oboist, 
bandmaster and composer of pop. 
dance-music. (2) Virginia, daughter 
of above; opera-singer; debut ct. -ope- 
ra, Berlin, 1871 ; later at Frankfort. 

(3) Jn., Zsambek, 1828 Pecs, Hun- 
gary, 1883; nephew of (i) ; com- 

Gunn, (i) Barnabas, d. 1743 ; Engl. 
organist. (2) Barnaby, 1730-53] 
organist. (3) John, Edinburgh (?)| 
1765 (?) ca. 1824 ; Chelsea Hos- 
pital, 1730-53; 'cello-teacher and 

Gunther (gun'-ter), (i) Hermann, 
Leipzig, 1834-71; a physician; c. 
opera under name " F. Hesther." (2) 
Otto, Leipzig, 18221897; bro. of 
above; dir. (3) Giinther-Bach- 
mann, Karoline, Diisseldorf, 1816 
Leipzig, 1874 ; singer. 

Gunz (goonts), G., Gaunersdorf, Low- 
er Austria, 1831 Frankfort, 1894; 

Gura (goo'-ra), (i) Eugen,b. Pressern, 
n. Saatz, Bohemia, Nov. 8, 1842 ; 
barytone ; pupil of Polytechnic and 
the Akademie, Vienna ; then Munich 
Cons., debut 1865, Munich, 1867-70 
Breslau ; 1870-76 Leipzig with great 
succ.; 1876-83 Hamburg, Munich, 
1883-95. His son (2) Hermann is a 

Gurlitt (goor'-lU), Cornelius, Alto- 
na, near Hamburg, Feb. 10, 1820 
Berlin, 1901 ; pupil of the elder Rei- 
necke and Weysc ; army mus. dir. in 
the Schleswig-liolslein campaign ; 
prof. Hamburg Cons.; 1874 Royal 
Mus. Dir.; c. 3 operas, inch "Die 
romische Majur" (Altona, 1860), 

Giirrlich (gur'-Ukh), Jos. Augustin, 
Munsterberg, Silesia, 1761 Berlin, 
1817; organist, bass, court-conduct- 
or and dram, composer. 

Gusikow (goo'-zl-kof), Michael Jos., 
Sklow, in Poland, Sept. 1806 Aix-la- 
Chapclle, Oct., 1837; remarkable virt- 
uoso on the xylophone. 

Gutmann (goot'-man), Ad., Heidel- 
berg, 1819 Spezia, 1882 ; composer. 

Gyrowetz (go' -ro- vets), Adalbert, 
Budweis, Bohemia, Feb. 19, 1763 
Vienna, March 19, 1850 ; son and 
pupil of a choirm.; c. symphonies, 
operettas, etc.; court-conductor. 



Habeneck (ab'-e-nek), Frangois 
Ant M Mezieres (Ardennes), France, 
June i (Jan. 25 ?), 1781 Paris, Feb. 
8, 1849 ; son and pupil of a German 
musician ; studied Paris Cons. ; later 
cond. of its concerts and vln.-prof.; 
introd, Beethoven's symphonies to the 
French public ; composer. 

Haberbier (ha'-bgr-ber), Ernst, Ko- 
nigsberg, Oct. 5, 1813 Bergen, Nor- 
way, March 12, 1869 ; son and pupil 
of an organist; court-pianist at St. 
Petersburg ; later toured with great 
success; composer. 

Haberl (ha-berl), Fz. X., b. Oberel- 
lenbach, Lower Bavaria, April 12, 
1840 ; took orders 1862 ; 1862-67 
cath. cond. and mus. dir. Passau 
Seminary ; 1867-70 organist, Rome ; 
1871-82 cath. -cond. at Ratisbon ; 
1875 founded famous sch. for church- 
music; edited Palestrina's works, etc.; 
1889, Dr. Theol //. c. , Univ. of Wtirz- 
burg; 1883, Pope Leo XIII. in- 
trusted him with the cataloguing of 
the invaluable archives of the Sistine 
Chapel, of which he published a no- 
table bibliography and thematic cata- 
logue; his pub. works are of the 
greatest importance in the history of 

Habermaim (ha'-ber-man), Fz. Jn., 
K5nigswarth, Bohemia, 1706 Eger, 
1783 ; conductor, teacher and com- 

Habert (ha'-bert), Jns. Evangelista, 
Oberplan, Bohemia, 1833 Gmunden, 
1896 ; editor and collector. 

Hackel (ha'-ke 1 !), Anton, Vienna, 1779 
1846 ; composer. 

Hackh (hak), Otto (Chp.), b. Stutt- 
gart, Sept. 30, 1852 ; pupil of Stutt- 
gart Cons, and of A. de Kontski (pf .), 
at New York ; 1872-75 teacher at 
the Cons.; 1877-78 toured; 1878 
teacher in London ; in 1880-89 Gr. 
Cons., New York; later private 
teacher and composer. 

Had'ley, Henry K., b. Somerville, 
Mass., U. S. A., 1871 ; notable com- 

poser, son and pupil of a music- 
teacher ; also studied with Chadwick, 
Heindl and Allen, Boston ; 1894-96 
at Vienna with Mandyczewski; 1896 
in charge of music St. Paul's school, 
Garden City, N. Y. ; c. 2 symphonies 
" Youth and Life" (prod, by Seidl, 
1897), and " The Seasons" a ballet, 
suite, cantata ; 2 comic operas, etc. 
Had'ow, Wm. H., b. Ebrington, 
Gloucestershire, Dec. 27, 1859; com- 
poser, lecturer and writer of ' ' Studies 
in Modern Music" etc. 
Hadria'nus. Vide ADRIANSEN. 
Haffner (hgf'-nSr), Jn. Chr. Fr., Ober- 
schdnau, near Suhl, 1759- Upsala, 
Sweden, 1833 ', organist, court-con- 
ductor, dram, composer and collec- 

Hagemann (ha'-ge-man), (i) Fran- 
9013 Willem, b. Zutphen, Holland, 
Sept. 10, 1827 ; 1846 royal organist 
Appeldoorn; 1848 cond. at Nijkerk; 
studied 1852 Brussels Cons.; organist 
and composer at Batavia. (2) Mau- 
rits Leonard, b. Zutphen, Sept. 23, 
1829 ; bro. of above ; violinist and 
pianist; pupil of Brussels Cons.; 
1865-75 dir. Cons., Batavia; 1875 
founder and dir. of a Cons., Leu- 
warden ; c. oratorio " Daniel" etc. 
Hagen (ha'-gen), (i) Fr. H. von 
der, Schmiedeberg, Ukraine, 1780 
Berlin, 1856 ; prof, and writer. (2) 
Jn. Bapt., Mayence, 1818 Wies- 
baden, 1870 ; conductor and com- 
poser. (3) Ad., b. Bremen, Sept. 
4, 1851 ; son of above ; violinist ; 
1879-82 cond. Hamburg Th.; 1883, 
court cond. Dresden, and 1884 man- 
ager of the Cons.; c. comic op- 
era " Zwei Komponisten" Hamburg, 
1882, etc. (4) Theodor, Hamburg, 
1823 New York, 1871 ; teacher, 
critic and composer. 
Hager, Jns. Vide HASSLINGER-HAS- 


Hague (hag), (i) Chas., Tadcaster, 
1769 Cambridge, 1821 ; prof, and 
composer. (2) Harriet, 17931816 ; 
daughter of above ; pianist and com- 


Halm (han), (i) Bd., Leubus, Silesia, 
1780 Breslau, 1852 ; cath. -conduct- 
or and writer. (2) Albert, Thorn, 
West Prussia, 1828- Lindenau, near 
Leipzig, 1830; teacher. (3) Rey- 
naldo, b. Caracas, Venezuela, Aug. 
9, 1874; pupil of Massenet, Paris 
Cons.; lives in Paris ; c. 3-act "idylle 
polynesienne " " L'Jle du Reve" 
(Paris, Op.-com., 1898); opera, " La 
Carmelite " (MS.) ; songs of remark- 
able beauty and originality, etc. 

Hahnel (ha'-nel). Vide CALLUS, j. 

Haigh, Thos., b. 1769 ; Engl. violin- 
ist, pianist and composer. 

Haines, Napoleon J., London, 1824 
New York, 1900 ; founder of 
Haines Bros. Piano Mfrs., N. Y. 

Hainl (ail), Georges Francois, Is- 
soire, Puy-de-D6me, 1807 Paris, 
1873 ; 'cellist ; conductor, writer and 

Haizinger (hi'-tsmg-e'r), Anton, Wilf- 
ersdorf, Lichtenstein, 1796 Vienna, 
1869 ; tenor. 

Hale (i), Philip, b. Norwich, Vt., 
March 5, 1854; notable American 
critic and essayist ; as a boy, organ- 
ist Unit. Ch., Northampton, Mass.; 
1876 grad. Yale Univ.; 1880 ad- 
mitted to the Albany bar ; pupil of 
D. Buck, 1876 ; 1882-87 studied or- 
gan and comp. with Haupt, Faiszt, 
Rheinberger and Guilmant, Urban, 
Bargiel, Raif and Scholz ; 1879-82 
organist St. Peter's, Albany ; 1887- 
89 St. John's, Troy ; since 1889 of 
First Religious Soc. , Roxbury, Mass. ; 
1887-89 also cond. of vSchubert Club 
at Albany; 1889-91 critic successively 
of the Boston Home Journal, Post ; 
1891, Journal; 1897-1901 edited 
Mus. Record ; 1901, Ed. Musical 
World ; lecturer on mus. subjects ; 
1884 m. at Berlin (2) Irene Baum- 
gras, b. Syracuse, N. Y., U. S. A. ; 
pupil Cincinnati Coll. of Mus. ; tak- 
ing gold medal 1881 ; then studied 
with Moszkowski and Raif, Berlin; 
ruined her health by overwork ; lives 
in Boston ; c. songs and pf.-pcs. 
under pen-name "Victor Rene*." 

Hale (or Halle). Vide ADAM DE LA 


Hale-vy (i-la-ve), Jac. Franc.. Fro- 
mental Elie, Paris, May 27, 1799 
of consumption, Nice, March 17, 
1862 ; of Jewish parentage ; pupil of 
Cazot, Lambert (pf.), and Berton 
(harm.), Cherubini(cpt.); Paris Cons, 
winning 2nd harmony prize; 1816 
and 1817, 2nd Prix de Rome; 1819 
won Prix de Rome ; 1827 prof, of 
harmony and accomp. at the Cons. ; 
1833 prof, of cpt. and fugue ; 1829 
prod. 2 succ. operas ; 1830 succ. bal- 
let " Manon Lescaut " ; 1830-46 chef 
de chant at the Opera ; 1832 he com- 
pleted Ilcrold's " Ludovic" with 
succ. ; 1835 he wrote and prod. 2 great 
successes, his master - piece "La 
Juivt " (Gr. Opera) and a comic opera 
" L 'Eclair "; Chevalier of the Le- 
gion of Honour ; 1836 member of the 
Academic ; 1854, secretary for life. 
In 1836 Meyerbeer appeared, and in 
efforts to rival his prestige H. wrote 
too much with inferior librettos, 
among his works being (1841) " La 
Reine de Chypre" He collaborated 
with Adam, Aubcr and Carafe in 4 
operas ; he left 2 unfinished operas, 
" Vanina d*0rnano" (completed by 
Bizet) and " Le DJlnge" Biogr. by 
his brother Leon (1862), etc. 

Halir (ha-ler), (i) Karl, b. Hohen- 
elbe, Bohemia, Feb. 1,1859; violin- 
ist; pupil of Bcnncwitz, Prague Cons, 
and Joachim in Berlin ; 1884 leader 
of the ct.-orch., Weimar; 1896 
toured the U. S. His wife (2) The- 
resa (ne'e Zerbst), b. Berlin, Nov. 
6, 1859, and m. in 1888 ; soprano ; 
pupil of Otto Eichberg. 

Hall, (i) Henry, Windsor, ca. 1655 
1707 ; organist and composer. (2) 
Henry, Jr., d. 1763 ; son of above ; 
organist and composer. (3) Wm., 
iyth cent, violinist and composer. 
(4) Chas. King, London, 1845 (?) 
Sept. I, 1895 ; organist, dram, com- 
poser. (5) Glen, b. Chicago (?), 1876; 
tenor ; pupil of I Tcnschel, etc. 

Halle (il). Vide ADAM DE LA H. 


Halle (hal'-lS), Jn. Samuel, Batten- 
stein, Prussia, 1730 ~ l8l 5 P rof - 

Halite W @i e -te), Sir Charles (rightly 
Karl Halle), Hagen, Westphalia, 
April II, 1819 Manchester, Oct. 25, 
1895 ; pianist and conductor, Paris, 
1836-48 ; later pop. cond. at Man- 
chester and dir. of "Gentlemen's 
Concerts" there; also closely con- 
nected with London Popular Con- 
certs; 1888 m. Mme. Nenida (q. 


Hailen (hal'-len), Anders, b. Goten- 
burg, Dec. 22, 1846 ; pupil of Kei- 
necke, Rheinberger, and Rietz ; cond. 
of the Mus. Union, Gotenburg ; 1892 
cond. Royal Opera, Stockholm ; c. 3 
ooeras, " Harald der Viking ' (Leip- 
zig, 1881 ; Stockholm, 1883); v succ 
-Hex/alien" (" Der Hexenfang") 
(Stockholm, 1896); "^f^ 
(Stockholm, 1899) ; 2 Swedish Rhap- 
sodies ballad cycles with orch. ; sym- 
phonic poem "Ein Sommermar- 
tJun" ; romance for vln. with orch.; 
German and Swedish songs, etc. 
Haller (hal'-ler), Michael, b. Neusaat 
(Upper Palatinate), Jan. 13, 1840; 
1864 took orders; studied with 
Schrems; 1866 cond. " Realinsti- 
tut"- teacher of vocal comp. and 
cpt. 'at the Sch. of Church-music ; 
writer and composer ; completed the 
lost srd-choir parts of six 12-part 
comps. of Palestrina's. 
Hallstrom (hal'-stram), Ivar, Stock- 
holm, June 5, 18261901; dram, 
composer; librarian to the Crown 
Prince, now King of Sweden ; 1861 
dir. of Sch. of Music. His first opera 
failed having 20 numbers in minor 
keys his 2d also ; but others were 
succ.', incl. "Nyaga" (1885; book 
by " Carmen Sylva "). 
Halm (halm), Anton, Altenmarkt, 
Styria, 1789 Vienna, 1872 ; pianist 
and composer. 

Hambourg (ham'-boorg), Mark, t). 
Gogutschar-Noronez, Russia, June 
i, 1879; notable piano-virtuoso; 
studied with his father (now a teacher 

in London), and with Leschetizky ; 
has toured widely with brilliant suc- 
cess; 1900, America; lives in Lon- 

Ham'boys. Vide HANBOYS. 
Hamel (a-mel), (i) M. P., Auneuil 
(Oise), France, 1786 Beauvais, after 
1870 ; amateur expert in organ-build- 
ing ; writer. (2) "Eduard, b. Ham- 
burg, 1811; violinist and pianist; 
Grand Opera orch., Paris ; from 1846 
at Hamburg as teacher and com- 
poser. (3) Margarethe. Vide 

Ham'erik, Asger, b. Copenhagen, 
April 8, 1843 ; pupil of Gade, Mat- 
thison-Hansen and Haberbier ; 1862 
of von Billow ; c. two operas ; 1870 at 
Milan prod, an Ital. opera " La Ven- 
detta'"; 1871 dir. of the Cons, of the 
Peabody Institute and of the Pea- 
body symphony concerts, Baltimore, 
Md.; 1890 knighted by the King of 
Denmark ; c. 1866 a festival cantata 
to commemorate the new Swedish 
constitution, "Der Wanderer" 
(1872); 1883 "Ofer ohm Worte"; 
a choral work " Christliche Trilo- 
gie" (a pendant to a " Tribgie ju- 
daique " brought out in Paris) ; 5 
symphonies, etc. 

Ham'erton, Win. H.,b. Nottingham, 

1795 ' singing-teacher and composer. 

Hamilton, Jas, Alex., London, 1785 

1845 ; writer. 

Harama (ham' -ma), (i) Bcnj., b. 
Friedingen, Wiirtemberg, Oct. 10, 
1831; studied with Lindpaintner 
(comp.) at Stuttgart ; then at Pans 
and Rome ; till 1870 cond. and teach- 
er at KSnigsberg ; now dir. sch. of 
mus. at Stuttgart ; dram, composer. 
(2) Fz. X., b. Wehingen, Wiirtem- 
berg, Dec. 3, IS35 i bro. of above ; 
organist at Basel ; then at Obersta- 
dion; now teacher at Metz ; com- 

Hammerschmidt (ham'-mer-shmtt), 
Ands., Briix, Bohemia, i6n Zit- 
tau, Oct. 29, 1675 ; organist, 1639, 
at Zittau ; c. important and original 
concertos, motets, madrigals, etc. 


Hampel (ham'-pel), Hans, Prague, 
1822 1884; organist and composer. 

Han'boys (or Hamboys), John, Eng- 
lish theorist ca. 1470. 

Hand (hant), F, G., b. Plauen, Sax- 
ony, 1786 Jena, 1851 ; writer. 

Handel (or Handel, Handl). (i) Vide 


Handel (hent'-l) (Hendel, Hendeler, 
Handeler or Hendtler), Georg 
Friedrich (at first spelt Hendel in 
England; later he anglicised it to 
George Frederic Handel (han ( - 
del, the form now used in England), 
Halle, Feb. 23, 1685 London, April 
14, 1759 ; son of a barber (afterwards 
surgeon and valet to the Prince of 
Saxe-Magdeburg) and his second wife 
Dorothea Taust. Intended for a 
lawyer ; in spite of bitter opposition 
he secretly learned to play a dumb 
spinet. At 7 on a visit to his elder 
step-brother, valet at the court of 
Saxe-Weissenfels, Handel while play- 
ing the chapel-organ, was heard by 
the Duke, who persuaded the father 
to give the boy lessons. Zachau, or- 
ganist of Halle, taught him cpt., ca- 
non and fugue, and he practised the 
oboe, spinet, harpsichord and organ ; 
he soon c. sonatas for 2 oboes and 
bass, became assist, organist, and for 
3 years wrote a motet for every Sun- 
day. In 1696 his skill on organ and 
harpsichord won him at Berlin the 
friendship of Ariosti, and the jealousy 
of Bononcini. The Elector offered to 
send him to Italy ; but his father 
took him back to Halle; the next 
year his father died, and he went to 
Halle Univ. (1702-03) to study law, 
at the same time serving as organist 
at the cathedral at a salary of $50 a 
year. 1703 he went to Hamburg as 
violino di ripieno. He fought a duel 
with Mattheson, later his friend and 
biographer, and was saved by a but- 
ton. When Keiser the dir. fled from 
debt, H. was engaged as clavecinist. 
He c. a " Passion " and prod. 2 op- 
eras, "Almira" (succ,) and " Wero" 
(1705) ; he was also commissioned to 

write "Florindound Daphne" (1708), 
an opera filling two evenings. In 
1706, with 200 ducats earned by 
teaching, he went to Italy and made 
success and powerful acquaintances, 
incl. the Scarlattis. In Florence 
(1707) he prod, with succ. "Rodrigo" 
(Venice, 1708), and u Agrippina" 
with great succ. In Rome he prod. 
2 oratorios, and in Naples a serenata, 
" Ad, Galatea, c Polifemo? in which 
is a bass solo with a compass of 2 oc- 
taves and a fifth. 1709, in Germany 
as cond. to the Elector of Hanover ; 
1710 visited England on leave of ab- 
sence. In 2 weeks he c. the opera 
" Rinddo" a pasticcio of his older 
songs. It was prod, at the Haytnarket 
Th. with great succ.; 1712 he returned 
to London on leave ; but stayed. 
His first two operas were not succ. ; 
but an ode for the Queen's birthday, 
and a Te Deum and Jubilate in cele- 
bration of the Peace of Utrecht won 
him royal favour and an annuity of 
^200; 1714 his Hanover patron 
became George T. of England, and 
only the good offices of Baron Kil- 
manseck and the production of the 25 
pieces called the " Water-Music? at 
a royal aquatic fete, restored him to 
favour. 1716-18 he went to Hanover 
with the King. He there c. his only 
German oratorio, the "Passion"; 
1718 cond. to the Duke of Chandos 
and c. the English oratorio "JEsther" 
the secular oratorio ""Ads and Gala- 
tta? and the Chandos Te Deums and 
Anthems. lie taught the Prince of 
Wales' daughters, and c. for Princess 
Anne " Strifes dc fit'ccs" for harpsi- 
chord (The Lessons] including " The 
Harmonious Blacks in ith . ' ' 

He was dir. of new R. A, of M. 
1720 prod, the succ. opera " Rada- 
misio " (prod. 1721 in Hamburg as 
" Zenobia"}. Now Bononcini and 
Ariosti appeared as rivals and a fa- 
mous and lasting feud arose round the 
three after they hud prod, one opera. 
" Muzio Scawtila" in which each 
wrote an act. B. had rather the bet- 


ter of it, when he was caught in 
a plagiarism (a crime not unknown 
in Handel's works (v. LOTTI). B. 
left England without reply (1731). 
Up to this time H. had prod. 12 

1726 he was naturalised. 1729-31 
he was in partnership with Heidegger, 
proprietor of the King's Th., where 
he prod. " Lotario" followed by 4 
more operas. 1732 he prod, his two 
oratorios revised; 1733 the oratorios 
" Deborah " and "Athaliah " at Ox- 
ford, when he was made Mus. Doc. h.c. 
1733 he began a stormy management 
of opera, quarrelled with the popular 
singer Senesino, and drove many of 
his subscribers to forming a rival 
troupe " The Opera of the Nobility," 
with Porpora and afterwards Hasse 
as composer and conductor; 1737 the 
companies failed, H. having prod. 5 
operas; the ode " Alexanders Feast" 
(Dryden), and the revised " Trionfo 
del Tempo e della Verita" Over-ex- 
ertion brought on a stroke of paraly- 
sis in one of his hands and he went 
to Aix-la-Chapelle, returning to Lon- 
don with improved health. He now 
prod., under Heidegger, 5 operas, 
incl. " Faramondo" " &/?* "(1738), 
and " Deidamia" (1741). 

Now he abandoned the stage and 
turned to oratorio, producing " Saul" 
and "Israel in Egvpt" (1739) \ the 
" Ode for St. Cecilia's Day" and in 
1740 " L' Allegro and II Penseroso" 
(Milton), and a supplement " II Mo- 
derato" written by Chas. Jennens, who 
also wrote the text of the Messiah. 

1741 he visited Dublin and prod, 
there his masterpiece the " Messiah " 
April 13, 1742. This re-established 
him in English favour and raised him 
from bankruptcy. It was followed by 
" Samson" the " Dettingen Te De- 
um" " Semele" " Joseph" (1743), 
" Belshazzar" and "Heracles" 
(1744)- His rivals worked against 
him still, and in 1745 he was again 
bankrupt, writing little for a year and 
a half, when he prod, with renewed 
success and fortune his " Occasional 
Oratorio" and "Judas Maccabaeus" 
(1)46); "Joshua" (1747), "Solo- 
mon " (1748) ; " Susannah " (1748) ; 
"Theodora" (1749); "The Choice 
of Hercuks" (1750); and " Jepk- 
thah" (1752), his last. During the 
comp. of " ' Jephthah" he underwent 
three unsuccessful operations for cat- 
aract. He was practically blind the 
rest of his life, but continued to play 
org. -concertos and accompany his ora- 
torios on the organ up to 1759. He 
was buried in Westminster Abbey. 
His other comp. inct. the "Forest 
Mustek" (Dublin, 1742), etc., for 
harps.; the "Fireworks Mustek" 
(1749) for strings; 6 organ-concertos; 
concertos for trumpets and horns ; 
and for horns and side drums (MS.) ; 
sonatas for vln., viola and oboe, etc. 
A complete edition of his works in 
100 vols. was undertaken in 1856 for 
the German Handel Soc. by Dr. 
Chrysander as editor. Biog. bv Mat- 
theson (1740) ; Mainwaring (1760) ; 
Forstemann (1844); Schblcher (1857); 
Rockstro (1883). 



IF Handel cannot be called the greatest of the musicians, he is without 
doubt the greatest man who ever wrote music. The resource and 
energy of the man and the splendour of his personality altogether threw 
into the shade the magnificence of his music. The man eclipses the music as 
the sun eclipses the moon ; the music indeed seems merely to reflect a small 


part of the light issuing from that miraculous sun, the man. Had he devoted 
the whole of his life to music, his music would have been a wonderful 
achievement; had he devoted his whole life to his business enterprises 
and to fighting the aristocracy, it would still seem a life wonderfully and 
greatly lived ; and when one remembers that he wrote most of the glorious 
music the same time that he was fighting aristocracy and trying to run opera 
in England, he does indeed appear as one of the most astounding phenomena 
the world has produced and stared at. [[ Born in Germany towards the end 
of the seventeenth century (1685), he promptly entered upon an infantile 
struggle on the question of whether or not he should become a musician. 
His father, a doctor, thought it a more honourable it was everywhere 
thought a more respectable proceeding to earn a livelihood by sending 
people slowly or swiftly to the next world than by making them miserable in 
this, through playing on instruments tuned according to the old "natural" 
temperament. The fact that the child Handel found a means of carrying his 
point, is characteristic of the man. He was apprenticed after the old-world 
German fashion to an old-world German organist, Zachau, and learned to 
play the organ and a few other instruments, studied all the music in use at 
his master's church or known to his master, and was taught to write anthems 
at a moment's notice. When he considered the time ripe he set out on his 
travels to learn all that could be learned elsewhere. He was for a time 
attached to an opera-house ; he visited Italy, and finally came to England. 
He returned to Germany for a short time after his first English trip, but 
returned and made England his permanent home. ^J He acquired the con- 
trol of opera, at first having the aristocracy at his back. The aristocracy 
quarrelled with him and tried to crush him. They started a rival opera- 
house ; and the result was that the two enterprises failed for want of sufficient 
support. Handel became bankrupt and lost his health. He took a trip 
abroad and returned to try his luck with opera once more. His aristocratic 
rivals never tried again. They were wise. Even Handel, without com- 
petitors, was not able to succeed. <e The Beggar's Opera" was all the 
rage. All the world rushed night after night to hear it. Italian opera (old- 
fashioned Italian opera, of course) was in pretty much the same condition in 
London, as Middle- Victorian Italian opera is in to-day in London and 
America. People were sick of its inanities and went to something not, per- 
haps, much more reasonable, but at any rate more interesting and intelligible. 
" The Beggar's Opera " was not a very stimulating concoction ; but com- 
pare" the libretto with the perfectly idiotic drivel that Handel had to set 
drivel of which the bulk of his audiences understood nothing save that it was 
drivel and one can easily see why all the world gave it the preference. 
So Handel, beaten, not by the aristocracy, but by the changing taste of the 


time, reluctantly relinquished opera, and, going in for oratorio, immediately 
became once again a popular favourite and made a fortune, ^j" It is neces- 
sary to consider these roughly selected details of his life. As has been 
indicated, no estimate of Handel can afford to leave out the man. Moreover 
his purely artistic development is very hard to understand if we forget the 
life led by the man as apart from the life led by the composer. In his youth 
he acquired the German technique of his day. The same technique as John 
Sebastian Bach acquired. That is the foundation of all his art. But whereas 
Bach remained in Germany, an obscure and all but unknown schoolmaster 
and organist, and evolved his perfected mode of expression out of the German 
technique, Handel immediately went to Italy and learned something that 
could be added to it. He learned, that is, tie value of Italian song ; and 
the lesson immediately bore splendid fruit. ^| No one ever wrote more 
magnificently for the voice than Bach ; but Handel learned to write beauti- 
fully, simply, plausibly. His first Italian operas are full of wonderful tunes. 
Italian melodic outlines grafted on German harmony, and shaped so as to 
become infinitely more dignified and expressive than any Italian music save 
Palestrina's had ever been. Then he came to London, where Purcell's 
music was all the vogue, and it was from Purcell that he learned the art of 
handling the chorus and of writing picturesque music for chorus or solo voice 
or orchestra. ^[ Had he never come to England, had he never known Pur- 
cell's music, his name might indeed have lived as the author of a few divinely 
inspired songs, but it is safe to say that Handel, the gigantic chorus writer, 
would never have been heard of. *j[ There is scarcely a thing in the later 
Handel, in the Handel all England knows and adores, that does not derive 
from Purcell. His method of painting musical pictures, as used throughout 
such portions of (s Israel in Egypt " as are his own, as used in such *' Mes*- 
stab" choruses as " All we like sleep have gone astray" is simply a more 
elaborate development of Purcell's plan of writing a chorus. His trick, 
always certain of its effect, of hurling enormous tone-masses at his hearers had 
also been extensively used by Purcell, ^[ His music may be said to be made 
up of the old German technique or trickery in writing flowing parts, of Italian 
singable melody, of Purcell, and of Handel. Not that apart from his 
undeniable theftshe can be called a thief. These thefts after all, only so- 
called need not detain us more than a moment. ^[ All his life, as has been 
pointed out, Handel was greatly occupied by other matters than the writing 
of music ; he had again and again to throw together an oratorio at a few days' 
notice ; he did it and probably never thought of " immortality ' ' or any of 
his pieces d* occasion being regarded a century later as masterpieces. If in his 
hurry he put in a few choruses by this, that, or the other German or Italian 
forgotten no- or little- body, he did it quite openly. Of course, as Handel 


has turned out to be so much vaster a genius than he himself suspected, it is 
well that we should know precisely how much of his music really is his and 
now that Dr. Chrysander has finally settled the whole question it might be 
dropped, ^f Handel never stole. What he learned from Italy he assimi- 
lated and made his own ; he assimilated and made his own Purcell's methods ; 
and what he brought into music was a very notable thing. It was a splendid 
radiant spiritual robustness, a magnificent sense of the sublime, and a tender- 
ness that is not surpassed even by the tenderness of Mozart, Beethoven, or 
Wagner. There is also a quality of electric speed in many of his choruses, 
and a power of heaping climax on climax until one's very nerves yield to the 
strain put on them. Two very familiar choruses, " For unto us a child is 
born" and " Worthy is the Lamb" exemplify this power in an astounding 
way. His tenderness, his sheer strength, his sublimity, may all be found in 
the well-known oratorio, ^f But one cannot but believe that in the long run 
Handel will be better known by his songs than by anything else. It was in 
the writing of these songs of strings of them called Italian operas that he 
found his most congenial occupation, and he only gave it up when he was 
fairly driven out of it. Great as his choruses are, they are not greater than 
his songs. There are hundreds of them only waiting to be sung once again 
to be appreciated. Beyond what may be called the strictly personal qualities 
that Handel brought to music, Handel added nothing. Consequently he 
left no field unworked for any successors. Consequently, also, English 
musicians ever since have gone on imitating his successes without any success 
whatever. He killed for many generations any chance there ever was of an 
Englishman becoming an original composer. Nevertheless, he was a great 
man and even an Englishman may forgive him. 

Hand'lo, Robert de, Engl. theorist of 18121892 ; organist, teacher and 

I4th century. composer. 

Hand'rock, Julius, Naumburg, 1830 Hanke (hank'-e), K., Rosswalde, 

Halle, 1894 ; teacher and compos- Schleswig, 1754 Hamburg, 1835; 

er. conductor and composer. 

Hanel von Cronenthal (ha'-nel fon Hans'com,E. W.,b. Durham, Maine, 

kro'-nen-tal), Julia, b. Graz, 1839 ; U. S. A., Dec. 28, 1848 ; studied 

wife of the Marquis d'Hericourt de there and in London, Berlin, and 

Valincourt ; studied in Paris ; c. 4 Vienna; organist and composer at 

symphonies, 22 pf.-sonatas, etc. Auburn, Maine. 

Hanfstangel (hanf'-shteng-e'l), Marie Hanslick (hans'-Uk), Eduard, b. 

(nee Schroder), b. Breslau, April Prague, Sept. 11, 1825; eminent 

30,1848; soprano ; pupil of Viardot- critic and writer; Dr. Jur., 1849; 

Garcia ; debut, 1867, Paris ; studied studied piano under Tomaschek at 

1878 with Vannucini ; 1882-97 Stadt- Prague 1848-49 ; critic for the Wien- 

theatre, Frankfort. er Zeitung; among his many books 

Hanisch (ha'-nteh), Jos., Ratisbon, his first is most famous, " Vom Mu- 


sikalisch-Sckonen" (Leipzig, 1854); a 
somewhat biassed, yet impressive plea 
for absolute music as opposed to pro- 
gramme (v. D. D.) or fallaciously 
sentimental music ; he has been a 
bitter opponent of all Wagnerianism 
and an ardent Brahmsite ; 1855-64 
mus. editor Presse; since, of the Neue 
frde Presse ; lecturer on mus. hist, 
and aesthetics Vienna Univ.; 1861 
prof, extraordinary, 1870 full prof.; 
1895 retired. 

Hanssens (hans'-sgns), (i) Chas. L. 
Jos. (aine), Ghent, 1777 Brussels, 

' 1852 ; conductor and composer. (2) 
Chas. L. (cadet), Ghent, 1802 
Brussels, 1871 ; conductor, professor, 
'cellist and composer. 

d'Hardelot (ge-daid'-lo), Guy (Mrs. 
Rhodes), b. Chateau d'Hardelot, 
near Boulogne, France ; lives in Lon- 
don ; c. operetta ' ' Elle et Lui " and 
many pop. songs. 

Har'ington, Henry, Kelston, Eng- 
land, 17271816 ; composer. 

Hark'nes. Vide SENKRAH. 

Harms'ton, J. Wm., London, 1823 
Lubeck, 1881 ; teacher and compos- 

Harp'er, (i) Thos., Worcester, 1787 
London, 1853 ; trumpet virtuoso. 
His 3 sons were (2) Thomas, his 
successor. (3) Charles, horn-player. 
(4) Edward, pianist. 

Har'raden, Samuel, Cambridge, 
EngL, 1821 (?) Hampstead, Lon- 
don, 1897 ; org.-professor. 

Harriers-Wippern (har'-rt-ers v!p'- 
pgrn), Louise (nee Wippern), Hil- 
desheim, 1837 Grobersdorf, Silesia, 
1878; soprano. 

Har'ris, (i) Jos. M., London, 1799 
Manchester, 1869 ; organist and com- 
poser. (2) Augustus (Sir), Paris, 
1852 Folkestone, Engl., June 22, 
1896; an actor, debut as Macbeth in 
Manchester, 1873 ; then stage man- 
ager ; 1879 leased Drury Lane Th. 
for spectacle ; 1887 he took up 
opera and controlled successively H. 
M.'s Th., the Olympia, etc., finally 
Covent Garden. (3) (Wm.) Victor, 

b. New York, April 27, 1869 ; pupil 
of Charles Blum (pf.), Wm. Court- 
ney (voice), Fredk. Schilling (harm, 
and comp.), Anton Seidl (cond.) ; 
1889-95 org. various churches; 1892- 
95 rfye'titeur and coach at Met. 
Op.; 1893-94 cond. Utica Choral 
Union ; 1895-96 asst.-cond. to Seidl, 
Brighton Beach Concerts ; now lives 
as vocal teacher and accompanist, 
N. Y.; c. a pf. -suite, a cantata, an 
operetta "Mile. Mai et M. de Sem- 
dre" songs, etc. (4) Chas. Albert 
Edw., b. London, Dec. 15, 1862 ; 
(son and pupil of (5) Edwin H., or- 
ganist) ; Ouseley scholar St. Michael's 
Coll., Tenbury, 1875 I 1881 private 
organist to the Earl of Powis ; since 
1883 he lives with his father at Mon- 
treal, Canada, as organist ; c. an op- 
era, a cantata, etc. 

Har'rison, (i) Wm., London, 1813 
London, 1868; tenor. (2) Annie 
Fortescue (wife of Lord Arthur 
Wm. Hill), contemporary English 
composer ; c. operetta (London, 
1884), a cantata, songs, etc. 

Hart, (i) James, d. 1718 ; Engl. bass 
and composer. (2) Philip, d. ca. 
1749; Gentleman of Chapel Royal; 
son of above (?) ; organist and com- 
poser ; wrote music for ' ' The Morn- 
ing Hymn " from Book V. of Milton's 
"Paradise Lost." (3) J. Thos., 
1805 London, 1874 ; vln. maker. 
(4) George, London, 18391891 ; 
son of above ; writer. 

Hartel (heY-tel), (i) Vide BREITKOPF 
UND HARTEL. (2) G. Ad., Leipzig, 
1836 Homburg, 1876 ; violinist, 
conductor and dram, composer. (3) 
Benno, b. Jauer, Silesia, May r, 
1846 ; pupil of Hoppe (pf.), Jappsen 
(vln.), Kiel (comp.) ; 1870 teacher of 
theory, Berlin Royal High Sch. for 
Music ; c. an opera, over 300 canons, 
etc. (4) Luise (nee Hauffe), Diiben, 
1837 Leipzig, 1882 ; pianist ; wife 
of (5) Hermann H. Vide BREIT- 

Hart'mann, (i) Johan Peder Emili- 
US, Copenhagen, May 14, 1805 


Copenhagen, March 10, 1900; or- 
ganist and dram, composer; grand- 
son of a German court-cond. (d. 
1763) ; son of an organist at Copen- 
hagen. (2) Erail (jr.), Copenhagen, 
1836 1898 ; son and pupil of above, 
and court-organist; composer. (3) 
Ludwig, b. Neuss-on-Rhine, 1836 ; 
pianist, composer and critic (son and 
pupil of (4) Friedrich, song-com- 
poser, b. 1805) ; also studied at Leip- 
zig Cons, and with Liszt ; lives in 
Dresden ; prominent Wagnerian 
champion ; c. an opera, etc. (5) 
Arthur, b. Philadelphia, July 23, 
1882; violinist. (6) Ferdinand, 
clarinettist ; lives in Munich as court- 
musician. (7) Peter, Franciscan 
monk of Hochbrunn-on-the-Lahn, 
prod. succ. oratorio " Sankt Fran- 
ziskus" (Munich, 1902). 

Har'tog, (i) Edouard de, b. Amster- 
dam, Aug. 15, 1826 ; pupil of Hoch, 
Bartelmann, Litolff, etc.; 1852 in Paris 
as teacher of pf., comp., and harm. ; 
decorated with the orders of Leopold 
and the Oaken Crown ; c. operas, the 
43rd psalm with orch., etc. (2) 
Jacques, b. Zalt-Bommel, Holland, 
Oct. 24, 1837 ; pupil of Wilhelm and 
Fd. Hiller ; prof. Amsterdam Sen. 
of Music. 

Hartvigson (hart'-vlkh-zon), (i) Frits, 
b. Grenaa, Jutland, May 31, 1841 ; 
pianist; pupil of Gade, Gebauer, 
Ree, and von Bttlow; since 1864, 
London ; 1873 pianist to the Princess 
of Wales ; 1875 prof, at the Norwood 
Coll. for the Blind ; 1887 pf.-prof. 
Crystal Palace. (2) Anton, b. Aar- 
hus, Oct. 16, 1845 ; bro. of above ; 
pianist; pupil of Tausig and Neu- 
pert ; lives in London. 

Har'wood, Edw., Hoddleson, 1707 
Liverpool, 1787 ; composer. 

Hase (Dr.), Oskar von. Vide BREIT- 

Haser (ha'-zer), (t) Aug. Fd., Leip- 
zig, 1779 Weimar, 1844; theorist, 
conductor, writer and composer. (2) 
Charlotte Henriette, b. Leipzig, 
1784 ; sister of above ; singer ; m. a 

lawyer Vera. (3) Heinrich, b. Rome, 
Oct. 15, 1811 ; bro. of above; prof, 
of med. at Jena ; writer. 

Hasert (ha'-zert), Rudolf, b. Greifs- 
wald, Feb. 4, 1826 ; studied with Kul- 
lack (pf.), and Dehn (comp.) ; 1860 
Berlin as teacher; 1873 pastor at 

Has(s)ler (h&s'-ler), (i) Hans Leo 
von, Nurnberg, 1564 Frankfort, 
June 5, 1612 ; the eldest of 3 sons of 
((2) Isaac H., town-mus., Niirnberg) ; 
pupil of his father ; organist and com- 
poser. (3) Jakob, Nurnberg, 1566 
Hechingen (?), 1601 ; bro. of (i), 
conductor, organ virtuoso and com- 
poser. (4) Kaspar, Nurnberg, 1570 
1618 ; bro. of above ; organist. 

Haslinger (has'-Hng-cr), (i) Tobias, 
Zell, Upper Austria, 1787 Vienna, 
1842 ; conductor and publisher. (2) 
Karl, Vienna, 18161868 ; son and 
successor of above ; pianist ; c. 
opera u Wanda" etc. 

Hasse (has'-sc), (r) Nikolaus, ca. 
1650 ; organibt and writer at Ros- 
tock. (2) Jn. Ad., Bergedorf, near 
Hamburg, March 25, 1699 Venice, 
Dec. 16, 1783 ; famous tenor and v. 
succ. operatic cond. ; rival of Porpora ; 
c. over TOO operas, etc. (3) Faustina 
(nee Bordoni), Venice, 1693 (1700) 
1783 ; of noble birth ; one of the 
most cultivated mezzo - sopr. ; m. 
the above 1730, n happy union, she 
collaborating in his success. (4) 
Gustav, b. Peit/,, Brandenburg, Sept. 
4, 1834; studied Leipzig Cons., after- 
ward with Kiel find F. Kroll; 
settled in Berlin as teacher and com- 

Has'selbeck, Rosa. Vide SUCKER. 

Hasselt-Barth (hus'-sSlt-bart), Anna 
Maria Wilhelmine (nee van Has- 
selt), b. Amsterdam, July 15, 1813 ; 
soprano ; debut Trieste (1831). 

Hassler (h&'-ler), (j) Jn. Wm., Er- 
furt, March 29, 1747 Moscow, 
March 25 (29?), 1822 ; organist and 
composer; important link between 
Bach and Beethoven. (2) Sophie, 
wife of above ; singer. 


Hasslinger-Hassingen (has'-ling-er 
has'-smg-en), Jos., " Hofrath" Frei- 
herr von Vienna, 18221898 ; dram, 
composer. Used pen-name "Jos. 

Hast' ings, Thos., Washington, 
Conn., 1787 New York, 1872; 
editor and composer. 

Hastreiter (hast'-ri-ter), Helene, b. 
Louisville, Ky., Nov. 14, 1858 ; op- 
eratic contralto, popular in Italy; 
pupil of Lamperti, Milan ; m. Dr. 
Burgunzio ; lives in Genoa. 

Hatto, Vide FRERE. 

Hat'ton, J. Liphot, Liverpool, Oct. 
20, 1809 Margate, Sept. 20, 1886 ; 
cond. and dram, composer. 

Hattstadt (hat'-shtet), J. J., b. Mon- 
roe, Mich., Dec. 29, 1851; studied in 
Germany ; pf.-teacher and writer in 
Detroit, St. Louis, and for n years, 
Chicago Coll. of Mus.; 1886, dir. 
Amer. Cons., Chicago. 

Hau(c)k (howk), Minnie, b. New 
York, Nov. 16, 1852 (53 ?) ; notable 
soprano ; pupil of Errani and Moritz 
Strakosch; debut 1869, N. Y., as 
"Norma"; 1868-72 Vienna ct-opera; 
1875, Berlin; has sung with great 
sacc. in Europe and America. She 
is court-singer in Prussia, Officier 
d' Academic, Paris, and member of 
the Roman Mus. Academy. 

Hauer (how'-er), K. H. Ernst, Hal- 
berstadt, iS28-Berlin, 1892 ; organ- 
ist and composer. 

Hauff (howf), Jn. Chr., Frankfort, 
18111891 ; founder and prof., 
Frankfort School of Music; writer 
and composer. 

Hauffe (howf'-fe), Luise. Vide HAR- 


Haupt (howpt), K. Aug., b. Kunern, 
Silesia, Aug. 25, 1810 Berlin, July 
4, 1891; pupil of A. W. Bach, Klein, 
andDehn; famous as organist and 
teacher at Berlin ; composer. 

Hauptmann (howpt'-man), Moritz, 
Dresden, Oct. 13, 1792 Leipzig, 
Jan. 3, 1868; violinist; pupil of 
Spohr ; famous as theorist and teach- 
er; from 1842 prof, of cpt. and 

comp. Leipzig Cons., and dir. Tho- 
masschule. His canon was "unity 
of idea and perfection of form," 
exemplified in his comps., enforced 
upon his many eminent pupils 
and exploited in many essays and 
standard works, incl. "Die Natur 
der Harmonik und Metrik " (1833) i 
the posthumous, " Die Lehre von der 
Harmonik" 1868, etc.; c. opera, 
" Mathilde" (Cassel, 1826); quar- 
tets, masses, etc. 

Hauptner (howpt'-ner), Thuiskon, 
Berlin, 18251889; conductor and 

Hauschka (howsh'-ka),Vincenz, Mies, 
Bohemia, 1766 Vienna, 1840; 'cel- 
list and barytone player ; composer. 
Hause (how-ze), Wenzel, b. Bohe- 
mia, ca. 1796 ; prof, of double-bass, 
Prague Cons. ; writer. 
Hausegger(hows'-eg-ger), (i)Fr. von, 
b. Vienna, April 26, 1837 ; pupil of 
Salzmann and Dessofl; barrister at 
Graz; 1872 teacher of history and 
theory, Univ. of Graz ; writer. (2) 
Siegmund von, German composer of 
notable symphony " Barbarossa" 
(Munich, 1900); 2d cond. Munich 
Kaim orch.; 1902, cond. Frankfort 
Museum (vice Kogel) ; 1903, ist 
cond. Munich Kaim orch. 
Hauser (how'-zer), (i) Fz., b. Craso- 
witz, near Prague, 1794 Freiburg, 
Baden, 1870 ; bass-barytone ; teach- 
er. (2) Miska (Michael), Press- 
burg, Hungary, 1822 Vienna, 1887; 
vln.-virtuoso ; composer. 
Hauser (hi'-zer), Jn. Ernst, b. Dit- 
tchenroda, near Quedlinburg, 1803 ; 
teacher, Q. Gymnasium ; writer. 
Hausmann (hows'-man), Valentin, 
the name of five generations, (i) V. 
I., b. Niirnberg, 1484; a friend of 
Luther; composer and conductor. 
His son (2) V. II., organist and 
composer. His son (3) V. III., or- 
ganist at LSbejun, expert in org.- 
building. His son (4) V. IV or- 
ganist and court-conductor at Kbth- 
en; writer. His son (5) V. V. Vide 
BARTHOLOMAUS ; Lobejun t 1678 


Lauchstadt, after 1740 ; cath. organ- 
ist and theorist. (6) Robt., b. Rot- 
tleberode, Harz Mts., Aug. 13, 1852 ; 
'cellist ; pupil of Th. Miiller, and 
Piatti in London; teacher, Berlin 
Royal "Hochschule"; since 1879, 
member Joachim quartet. 

Hau(l)tin (6-taii), P., La Rochelle, 
ca. 1500 Paris, 1580 ; first French 
founder of musical types. 

Hav'ergal, Rev. Wm. H., Bucking, 
hamshire, 17931870 ; composer. 

Haweis (hoz), Rev. H. R., Egham, 
Surrey, 1838 London, Jan. 30, 1901; 
amateur violinist and popular writer 
on music. 

Hawes (hoz), Wm., Engl., London, 
1785 1846 ; conductor and com- 

Haw'kins (Sir), J., London, March 
30, 1719 Spa, May 14, 1789 ; an at- 
torney ; eminent historian of music ; 
knighted, 1772. 

Haw ley, Chas.B., b.Brookfield, Con- 
necticut, U. S. A., Feb. 14, 1858; 
organist at 13 there ; studied with G. 
J. Webb, Revarde, Dudley Buck, 
Mosenthal, etc., N. Y.; bass singer, 
organist and composer of excellent 
songs, New York. 

Hay' den, Geo., Engl., organist and 
composer, 1723. 

Haydn (hld'-'n), (2) (Fz.) Josef, Roh- 
rau-on-Leitha, Lower Austria, March 
31, 1732 Vienna, May 31, 1809 ; sec- 
ond son of a wheelwright who was the 
sexton and organist of the village 
church, and a fine tenor, and whose 
wife, Maria Koler, had served as 
cook for Count Harrach. She sang 
in the choir. At 5, H. was taken to 
the home of a paternal cousin, Frankh, 
who taught him Latin, singing, the 
vln. and other instrs. He was en- 
gaged as a chorister for St. Stephen's, 
and taught by Reutter the cond. , who 
gave him no encouragement and dis- 
missed him in 1748. At 8, he went 
to Vienna, and studied singing, vln. 
and clavier, with Finsterbusch and 
Gegenbauer. He studied harmony 
chiefly from Fux 1 "GradusadParnas- 

sum" and Mattheson's ... _ 

ner Kappellnteister ." At 13 he c. a 
mass. He obtained a few pupils, 
and a Viennese tradesman lent him 
150 florins, with which he rented an 
attic-room and an old harpsichord. He 
practised C. P. Bach's first 6 sonatas 
and the vln.; Metastasio taught him 
Italian, and recommended him to a 
Spanish family as teacher for their 
daughter, who was studying with 
Porpora. From Porpora, in return 
for menial attentions, H. received 
some instruction in comp. and a rec- 
ommendation to the Venetian ambas- 
sador for a stipend of 50 francs a 
month. At 20, he had c. 6 trios, 
sonatas, his first mass, and a comic 
opera " Der neiie krumme Teufel" 
(Stadttheater, 1752), a satire on the 
lame baron Affligi the ct. -opera dir.; 
this work was suppressed but revived 
afterwards, and he received 24 ducats 
for it. He began to make powerful 
friends, and became Musikdirektor 
and Kammercompositeur to Count 
Fd. Maximilian Morzin. 1759 Prince 
Paul Anton Esterhazy heard his ist 
symph. and 1760 took him into his 
service as 2d (later ist) conductor ; the 
same year H. m, Maria Anna, the 
elder sister of the girl whom he loved 
and who had entered a convent. 
This marriage was as unhappy as 
one would expect. Prince Nikolaus 
Esterhazy, who succeeded his bro. in 
1762, retained H. as conductor and 
in his service H. c. 30 symphonies, 
40 quartets, a concerto for French 
horn, 12 minuets, most of his operas, 
etc. He was soon very pop. through 
Europe, and royalty sent him gifts. 
1785 commissioned to write a mass, 
" The Sevan Words on the Cross'' 
for the Cath. of Cadiz ; in 1790 
Prince Nikolaus was succeeded by his 
son Anton, who kept H. as cond. 
and increased his stipend of 1,000 flo- 
rins to 1,400. In 1791 on a pressing 
invitation brought by Salomon, he 
went to England and was for 18 
months the lion of the season. Ox- 


ford made him Mus. Doc.; and he c. 
the so-called " Salomon Symphonies,' 11 
for his concerts. On his way home, 
he visited his native place to witness 
the unveiling of a monument erected 
in his honour by Count Harrach. In 
this year Beethoven became his pu 
pil. 1794, he revisited London, with 
renewed triumph, the King urging 
him to stay, but, at the invitation of 
a new Prince Esterhazy, he returned. 
1797, he c. the Austrian national 
Anthem. At 65, he prod, his great 
oratorio "The Creation" ("Die 
Schopfimg"} ; in 1801 " The Sea- 
sons" (''Die Jahreszeiten "). His 
health failing he went into retire- 
ment, appearing in public only once 
in 1808, when he was carried in a 
chair to hear a special performance 
of the " Creation.''' His agitation 
was so great that he had to be taken 
away after the first half ; the throng 
giving him a sad farewell, and Beet- 
hoven bending to kiss his hands and 
forehead. In 1809, his death was 
hastened by the shock of the bom- 
bardment of Vienna by the French. 
His astounding list of works in- 
cludes besides those mentioned, 125 

symphonies and overtures, incl. the 

symph.}, "La Chasse" (1870), the 
"Oxford 1 (1788), the "Surprise" 
(" S. mit dtm Pattkmschlag" 1791) ; 
" S. with the drum-roll" (" S. mit 
dem Paubentuirbel" 1795); 51 con- 
certos for harpsichord, vln., 'cello, 
lyre, barytone, double-bass, flute and 
horn; 77 string-quartets; 175 num- 
bers for barytone ; 4 vln. -sonatas ; 
38 pf. -trios ; 53 sonatas and diverti- 
menti; an oratorio "II Ritorno di 
Tobia v ; 14 masses ; 4 operas ; 4 
Italian comedies ; 14 Ital. opere 
buffe, and 5 marionette-operas ; mu- 
sic to plays ; 22 arias ; cantatas, incl. 
" Ariana a Naxos" " Deutschlands 
Klage auf den Tod Friedrichs des 
Grossen" " The 10 Commandments" 
in canon-form ; 36 German songs ; 
collections of Scotch and Welsh folk- 
songs, etc. Biog. by S. Mayr, 1809 ; 
K. F. Pohl (Leipzig, 1875, 1882; 
completed by E. von Mandyczewski). 
Haydn's diary is quoted from ex- 
tensively in Krehbiel's "Music and 
Manners " (New York, 1898). 

Joseph Haydn. 


WHILE the relative station in musical history of Bach, Handel, 
Gluck, Mozart, and Beethoven is universally and definitely agreed 
upon, various opinions may still be entertained of the merits and 
subsequent influence of Joseph Haydn's work as a composer. *[f This is all 
the more remarkable as he never met with much opposition. Only at one time 
during his life, a few rather inferior critics earnestly tried to belittle him; how- 
ever, these were insignificant attempts, wholly unworthy of the closer attention 
of the historian. Nowhere has the musical public been slow in acknowledg- 
ing Haydn' s genius. Even at the time when he was Kapellmeister in the remote 
little town of Eisenstadt, his fame spread all over Europe, and his compositions 
were loved, played, and sung in all the big and small cities. Nor has there even 
been a violent partisanship pro and contra Haydn. All of which is easy enough to 
comprehend, inasmuch as he did not offend anybody's taste, even where he was 


most progressive in his compositions, and remained with his feet on the ground 
when his ideals were ever so lofty. IJThe source of his musical inventions was 
the song and the dance of the people, yes, one might say, the children's song, 
and his artistic development was as slow as it was steady, thus allowing his 
admirers time to grow with him. Even where he reaches the very summit of , 
his art, his melodic invention bears the ear-mark of childlike naivete, ^f And 
yet it seems impossible to have any two musicians determine the value of 
Joseph Haydn for the development of music, both entirely alike. Was he a 
reformer? The one will answer, "Yes," and point out that there was no 
real symphony before Haydn ; that the old Italian symphony was nothing 
else but an introduction to, or an interlude during, the opera ; that what there 
was of instrumental music before Haydn, was either in the way of fugues, and 
in the style of the concerto, or purely descriptive music. He will, further- 
more, assert that Haydn created a thoroughly novel oratorio, doing away 
almost entirely with the old Italian style, and holding up his individuality in 
spite of the tremendous influence of the Handel oratorio. ^[ The other one 
will deny him the exalted title of a reformer, and, while he may readily 
admit that Haydn has added the Menuetto to the symphony, and fortunately 
got rid of the clavicembalo, that he, moreover, succeeded in giving the solo- 
sonata and the string-quartette a concise and plastic shape, he will probably 
insist that Haydn has done only very little that was essentially new, and that, 
in musical history, he can only rank as the man who paved the way for the 
giant Beethoven. ^J But no matter how opinions may differ on this point, 
one must own of Haydn, that he was the first great musician to introduce an 
element of subjectiveness into instrumental music. And in so far one cannot 
deny him the instinct of a reformer, though he hardly was conscious of it. 
He never abandoned traditions just because he had decided to create a new 
musical language ; he simply followed the inner voice of his genius, ^f And 
he could do so all the more freely, since he had never enjoyed a thorough and 
severe musical education. He learned from here and there, he had models 
like Philipp Emanuel Bach, or Porpora, and Handel, etc., bat he followed 
none of them so closely as to restrict his own individuality in the least. On 
the other hand, there was no trace of the spirit of revolt in his system. His 
very life is a strong proof for his peaceful and benevolent nature. When his 
sweetheart took the veil, he allowed himself to be persuaded to marry her 
older sister, who was three years his senior, and a Xantippe. This, and the 
fact that he lived with her for more than forty years, stamps the man as of an 
almost angelic character. 

Haydn (hid'-'n), (2) Jn. Michael, Roh- chorister, with compass of 3 octaves, 
ran, Sept. 14, 1737 Salzburg, Aug. at St. Stephen's, Vienna, replacinghis 
10, 1806 ; bro. of above ; soprano brother Josef. Studied vln. and or- 


gan, and became asst. - organist ; 
1757, cond. at Grosswardein ; 1762, 
dir. to Archbishop Sigismund , Salz- 
burg; 1777, organist of the Cath. 
and St. Paul's Ch. He m. Maria 
Magdalena Lipp, an excellent sopra- 
no ; 1880 he lost his property, by the 
French occupation, but was aided by 
his bro. and 2 others, and the Em- 
press Maria Theresa rewarded him 
for a mass c. at her command, in 
which she sang the soprano solos. He 
founded a school of composition, and 
had many pupils, inci. Reicha and 
Weber. Prince Esterhazy twice 
offered to make him vice-cond. ; but 
H. refused, hoping to reorganise the 
Salzburg Chapel. His best works 
were sacred music, which his brother 
esteemed above his own. He declined 
publication, however ; c. 360 church- 
comps., incl. oratorios, masses, etc., 
30 symphonies ; operas, etc. Biog. 
by Schinn and Otter (Salzburg, 1808). 

Hayes (haz), (i) Wm., Hanbury, Wor- 
cestershire, Dec., 1706 Oxford, July 
27, 1777 ; organist, conductor and 
writer. (2) Philip, Oxford, April, 1738 
London, March rg, 1797 ; son and 
pupil of above, and his successor as 
Univ, Prof, of Mus. at Oxford ; also 
organist there; c. oratorio ; a masque; 
6 concertos, etc. (3) Catherine, 
Ireland, 1825 (or 6) Sydenham, 1861; 

Hayra (him), (i) (or Hennius), Gilles, 
Belgian composer i6th cent. (2) 
Italian composer, Aimo (a"-e-mo), (3) 
Niccolo Franc., Rome, ca. 1679 
London, 1729 ; 'cellist and librettist. 

Haynes, Walter B., b. Kempsey, 
Engl., 1859; studied Leipzig Cons. ; 
organist various churches ; prof, 
of harm, and comp., R. A. M. 

Hays, Wm. Shakespeare, b. Louis- 
ville, Ky., July 19, 1837; pub. nearly 
300 pop. songs. 

Heap, Chas. Swinnerton, Birming- 
ham, Engl., April 10, 1847 June n, 
1900 ; won the Mendelssohn scholar- 
ship and studied at Leipzig Cons. ; also 
organ with Best ; Mus, Doc. Cam- 

bridge, 1872; cond. Birmingham 
Phil. (1870-86), and other societies ; 
c. an oratorio " The Captivity " ; can- 
tatas, etc. 

Hebenstreit (haV-'n-slitrit), Pantale- 
on, Eisleben, 1660 (9?) Dresden, 
1750; conductor; improved the dul- 
cimer as the "Pantalon" (v. D. D.). 

Hecht (hekht), Ed., Durkheim, Rhine 
Palatinate, 1832 Didsbury, near 
Manchester, 1887; pianist; prof, 
and composer. 

Heckel (he^'-el), Wolf, lutenist at 
Strassburg, i6th cent. 

Heckmann (hSk'-man), (i) G, Julius 
Robt,, Mannheim, 1848 Glasgow, 
1891 ; violinist. His wife (2) Marie 
(ne'e Hartwig), Greiz, 1843 Co- 
logne, 1890 ; pianist. 

Hedge'land, Wm., organ - builder, 
London, 1851. 

He"douin (ad-wan), P., Boulogne, 
1789 Paris, 1868 ; lawyer, writer, 
librettist and composer. 

Heermann (har'-man), Hugo, b. Heil- 
bronn, March 3, 1844; violinist; 
studied with J. Meerts Brussels Cons, 
since 1865 ; lives in Frankfort as so- 
loist and teacher at the Hoch Cons. 

Heeringen (ha-rfng-e'n), Ernst von, 
Grossmehlza, near Sondershausen, 
1810 Washington, U. S. A., 1855 ,' 
unsuccessful innovator in notation 
and scoring. 

Hegar (ha'-gar), (i) Fr., b. Basel, 
Oct. n, 1841; studied Leipzig Cons., 
1861 ; from 1863 cond. Subscription 
Concerts, and of the Choral Soc., 
Zurich ; 1875 founded Cons, at 
Ziirich ; c. vln. -concerto in D ; succ., 
dram, poem, " Mattasse" for soli, 
chorus and orch.; " Festouverture" 
etc. (2) Emil, b. Basel, Jan. 3, 1843; 
bro. of above ; pupil, later 'cello- 
teacher at Leipzig Cons., and ist 
'cello Gewandhaus Orch. ; then stud- 
ied singing, now vocal-teacher Basel 
Sch. of Mus. (3) Julius, bro. of 
above ; 'cellist at Zurich. 

Hegediis (heg-S-dush), Ferencz, b. 
Hungary, 1872 (?) ; violinist ; succ. 
debut, London, 1901. 


Hegner (hakh'-ner), (r) Anton, b. 
Copenhagen, March 2, 1861 ; 'cellist; 
studied Copenh. Cons. ; at 14 played 
with great succ.; now teacher N. Y.; 
c. 4 quartets ; 2 concertos for 'cello, 
etc. (2) Otto, b. Basel, Nov. 18, 
1876 ; pianist ; pupil of Fricker, Hu- 
ber, and Glaus; made debut very 
early at Basel (1888), England and 
America, at the Gewandhaus, Leip- 
zig, 1890 ; c. pf.-pcs. 

Heide, von der. Vide VON DER H. 

Heidingsfeld (hl'-dlngs-felt), L., b. 
Jauer, Prussia, March 24, 1854 ; pu- 
pil, later teacher Stern Cons., Berlin; 

H eight' ington, Musgrave, 1680 
Dundee, 1774 ; organist and com- 

Heinefetter (hl'-ne'-fet-te'r), (i) Sa- 
bine, Mayence, 1805 (1809?) (in- 
sane) Illenau, 1872 ; noted soprano ; 
m. Marquet; her five sisters also sang 
with succ. : (2) Clara (Mme. Stock- 
el), Mayence, 1 8 16 (insane), Vienna, 
1857. (3) Kathinka, 18201858. 
(4) Fatima, m. a nobleman, Miklo- 
witz. (5) Eva, and (6) Nan- 

Heinemeyer (hi'-ng-ml-er), (i) Chr. 
H., 1796 1872; flutist at Hanover; 
composer. (2) Ernst Win., Han- 
over, 1827 Vienna, 1869; son of 
above ; flutist and composer. 

Heinichen (hl'-nikh-en), Jn. D.,Kros- 
suln, near Weissenfels, 1683 Dres- 
den, 1729; dram, composer and 

Heinrich (hm'-rfkh), (i) Jn. G., 
Steinsdorf (Silesia), 1807 Sorau, 
1882 ; organist, writer and composer. 
(2) Heinrich XXIV., Prince Reuss 
j. L., b. Dec. 8, 1855 ; pianist ; c. a 
symphony, a pf.-sonata, etc. 

Heinrichs (hin'-rfkhs), (r) Jn. Chr., 
b. Hamburg, 1760; lives in St. Pet- 
ersburg; writer on Russian music. 
(2) Anton Ph., Schonbuchel, Bohe- 
mia, 1781 New York, 1861 ; known 
as " Father H." ; composer. 

Heinroth (hin'-rot), (i) Chp. Gl., for 
62 years organist at Nordhausen. (2) 

Jn. Aug. Giinther, Nordhausen, 
1780 GSttingen, 1846 ; son of 
above ; director and composer. 

Heintz (hints), Albert, b. Eberswalde, 
Prussia, March 21, 1882 ; organist 
" Petrikirche," Berlin ; writer on 
Wagner; composer. 

Heinze (hlnts'-e), (i) Wm. H. H., b. 
1790 ; clarinettist in the Gewandhaus 
Orch. (2) Gv. Ad., b. Leipzig, Oct. 
i, 1820 ; son and pupil of above ; at 
15 clarinettist in the Gewandhaus; 
1844, 2d cond. Breslau Th., and 
prod, 2 operas (of which his wife 
wrote the libretti) ; 1850, Amsterdam 
as cond. ; c. 5 oratorios, 3 masses, 3 
overtures, etc. (3) Sarah (ne'e Mag- 
nus), b. Stockholm, 1839 ; pianist ; 
pupil of Kullak, Al. Dreyschock, and 
Liszt ; lives in Dresden. 

Heise (hl'-ze), Peder Arnold, Copen- 
hagen, 1830 1879 ; teacher and 
dram, composer. 

Heiser (hl'-zer), Wm., Berlin, 1816 
Friedenau, 1897; singer, bandmaster, 
and composer. 

Hek'king, Anton, 'cello virtuoso and 
teacher at the Stern Cons. 

Hel'ler, Stephen, Pesth, May 15, 
1815 Paris, Jan. 14, 1888 ; notable 
composer who, like Chopin, confined 
his abilities to the pf. Lacking the 
breadth, passion and colour of Cho- 
pin's, his music has a candour and 
vivacity and a fascinating quaintness 
that give it peculiar charm; his 
etudes, simpler than Chopin's, are as 
well imbued with art and personal- 
ity. Studied piano with F. Brauer ; 
at 9 played in pub. with succ. ; then 
studied with Czcrny and Halm; at 
12, gave concerts in Vienna, and 
toured ; at Pcsth studied a little 
harmony with Czibulka ; at Augs- 
burg, fell ill, and was adopted by a 
wealthy family, who aided his studies; 
1838, Paris. Schumann praised his 
first comp. highly. 1849, London, 
he played with succ. though infre- 
quently because of nervousness ; 
thereafter lived in Paris. C. several 
hundred pf.-pcs., incl. 4 sonatas and 


the famous Etudes. Biogr. by H. 
Barbadette (1876), 

Helimesberger (heT-mes-berkh-e-r), 
(i) G. (Sr.), Vienna, i8ooNeuwal- 
degg, 1873 ; violinist, conductor and 
composer. (2) G. (Jr.), Vienna, 
1830 Hanover, 1852 ; son and pupil 
of above ; violinist and dram, com- 
poser. (3) Rosa, daughter of (2), 
was a singer, debut 1883, ct. -opera, 
Vienna. (4) Jos. (Sr.), Vienna, 1829 
1893 ; son of (r) ; conductor, vio- 
linist and professor. (5) Jos. (Jr.), 
b. Vienna, April 9, 1855 ; son of (4); 
violinist and composer of operettas, 
ballets, etc. 1902, cond. Vienna 
Philh. Orch. (6) Fd., b. Vienna, 
Jan, 24, 1863 ; bro. of above ; 'cellist 
in ct.-orch. from 1879; from 1883 with 
his father's quartet ; 1885 teacher at 
the Cons. ; 1886, solo 'cellist, ct. -opera. 

Hellwig (heT-vIkh), K. Fr. L., Ku- 
nersdorf, 1733 Berlin, 1838 ; con- 
ductor and dram, composer. 

Helm, Theodor, b. Vienna, April 9, 
1843 ; studied law, entered govt. 
service ; since 1867 critic for various 
journals, and writer; 1874, teacher of 
mus. hist, and aesthetics, Horak's 
School of Music. 

Helmholtz (helm'-holts), Hermann L. 
Fd., Potsdam, Aug. 31, 1821 
Charlottenburg, Sept. 8, 1894 ; emi- 
nent scientist ; pub. famous treatises 
such as " Sensations of Tone as a 
Physiological Basis for the Theory of 
Music " (Lehre von den Tonempfin- 
dungen als physiokgische Grundlage 
fur die Theorie der Musik) (Bruns- 
wick, 1863 ; English trans, by Ellis, 
1875) ; this work, the result of much 
experiment, is the very foundation of 
modern acoustics, though Riemann, 
who was in some opposition to H., 
says his conclusions are not infallible, 
and attacks are increasing upon him. 
H. inv. also a double harmonium 
with 24 vibrators to the octave ; this 
lacks the dissonant 3rds and 6ths of 
equal temperament (v. D. B.) and 
permits the same modulation into all 

Hel'more, Rev. Thos., b. Kidder- 
minster, May 7, 1811 ; composer. 

Henderson, Wm. Jas., b. New- 
ark, N. J., Dec. 4, 1855 ; prom- 
inent American critic and writer ; 
graduated Princeton Univ., 1876; 
mainly self-taught in music ; 1883 re- 
porter, from 1887 critic, N. Y. Times; 
lecturer on mus. hist, N. Y. Coll. of 
Mus.; c. various light operas, songs, 
etc.; pub. a " Story of Music" "Prel- 
udes and Studies" " What is Good 
Music?" (1898), "How Music De- 
veloped" (New York, 1899), " The 
Orchestra and Orchestral Music" 
(1899), "Wagner" (1902). 

Henkei (henk'-el), (i) Michael, 
Fulda, 17801851 ; composer. (2) 
G. Andreas, Fulda, 18051871 ; 
organist and composer. (3) H., b. 
Fulda, Feb. 14, 1822 ; son and pupil 
of (i), also studied with Aloys 
Schmitt, and theory with Kessler and 
Anton Andre; 1849, teacher, etc., 
Frankfort. (4) K., son of (3) ; stud- 
ied in Berlin Hochschule ; lives in 
London, as violinist. 

Hen'ley, Rev. Phocion, Wooten Ab- 
bots, 17281764 ; English composer. 

Henneberg (hen' -ne-berkh) , Jn. Bapt. , 
Vienna, 1768 1822 ; organist, con- 
ductor and composer. 

Hen'nen, (i) Arnold, b. Heerlen, Hol- 
land, 1820; pianist; 1845 took first 
pf.-prize, Liege Cons.; lives at Heer- 
len ; composer. (2) Fr., b. Heerlen, 
Jan. 25, 1830; bro. of above; 1846 
took first vln. -prize Liege Cons.; 
1847, medal 1850-71, soloist in va- 
rious London orchestras ; then re- 
tired to Strythagen, near Heerlen ; 
composer. (3) Chas., b. Dec. 3, 
1861 ; son of (2) ; violinist at Ant- 
werp. (4) Mathias, b. Heerlen, 
1828 ; bro. of (i) ; 1852, first pf.- 
prize Liege Cons.; since 1860 teacher 
at Antwerp, and prof, at the Cons. ; 
composer, etc. 

Hennes (hen'-ngs), (i) Aloys, b. Aix- 
la-Chapelle, 1827 Berlin, 1889; 
pf. -teacher at various places ; com- 
poser. (2) Therese, his daughter, b, 


Dec. 21, 1 86 1 ; pianist ; studied with 

Hennig (hen'-nlkh), (i) K., Berlin, 1819 
1873 ; organist, air. and composer. 
(2) K, Rafael, b. Jan. 4, 1845 ; son 
of above ; pupil of Richter and Kiel; 
1869-75, organist Posen ; 1873, 
founder of "Hennig" Vocal Soc.; 
1883, Royal Mus. Dir. ; 1892, R. 
Prof. ; composer and writer. 

Hen'nius. Vide HAYM, GILLES. 

Henschel (hen'-shgl), (i) (Isidor) 
Georg, b. Breslau, Feb. 18, 1850; 
prominent barytone, pianist, and 
teacher ; pupil of Wandelt and 
Schaeffer, Breslau ; of Leipzig Cons, 
also Kiel and Ad. Schulze (singing); 
Berlin ; 1877-80, lived in London ; 
1881-84, cond. Boston (U. S. A.) 
Symph. Orch.; since 1885, London; 
founded the "London Symphony 
Concerts " ; 1886-88, prof, of singing 
R. C. Mus.; c. operas, "Friedrich der 
Schone" and ".AfafoVV operetta, "A 
Sea Change, or Love's Castaway"; 
an oratorio, etc. (2) Lillian (nee 
Bailey), Columbus, Ohio, Jan., 1860 
London, Nov. 4, 1901 ; pupil and 
1881 wife of above ; also studied 
with C. Hayden and Viardot-Garcia ; 
concert-soprano ; she and her hus- 
band gave recitals with great art and 
success. (3) Helen ; daughter of 
above, soprano ; sang N. Y. 1902. 

Hensel (hen'-zel), (i) Fanny Cacilia 
(nee Mendelssohn), Hamburg, Nov. 
14, 1805 Berlin, May 14, 1847 ; 
eldest sister of FELIX M., whose de- 
voted companion she was, and who 
died six months after her sudden 
death. He said she was a better 
pianist than he, and six of her songs 
are pub. under his name : viz., his op. 
8 (Nos. 2, 3, 12), and op. 9 (7, 10, 
12) ; she pub. under her own name 
" Gartenlieder" part-songs and 
songs ; c. also pf . -trios and pcs. (2) 
Octavia. Vide FONDA. 

Henselt (hen'-zelt), Ad. von, Schwa- 
bach, Bavaria, May 12, 1814 Warm- 
brann, Silesia, Oct. 10, 1889 ; eminent 
pianist who played with remarkable 

sonority and emotion ; to obtain his 
remarkable reach he c. and prac- 
tised incessantly very difficult studies ; 
he c. a famous pf. -concerto, etudes,' 

Hentschel (hent'-shSl), (i) Ernst Ju- 
lius, Langenwaldau, 1804 Weissen- 
fels, 1875. (2) Fz., Berlin, 1814 
1889 ; teacher and dram, composer. 
(3) Theodor, Schirgiswalde, Upper 
Lusatia, 1830 Hamburg, 1892 ; 
conductor, pianist and dram, com- 

Herbart (heY-bart), Jn. Fr., Olden- 
burg, 1776 Gottingen, 1841; writer. 

Herbeck (heY-bek), Jn. Fz. von, Vi- 
enna, Dec. 25, 1831 Oct. 28, 1877 J 
important cond., mainly self-taught ; 
dir. 1866, ct.-cond. at Vienna and 
prof, at the Cons. 

Her'bert, Victor, b. Dublin, Ireland, 
Feb. i, 1859 ; a grandson of Samuel 
Lover, the novelist ; at 7, sent to 
Germany to study music; 1st 'cello 
ct.-orch. Stuttgart, and elsewhere; 
1886 solo 'cellist, Metropolitan Orch. 
New York ; later Theodore Thomas' 
and Seidl's orchs. (also associate- 
cond.) ; 1894, bandm. 22dRegt.,vice 
Gilmore; 1898, cond. of Pittsburg, 
(Pa.) Orch. (70 performers); c. spirited 
pcs. for orch. and 'cello ; a 'cello- 
concerto ; an oratorio, " The Cap- 
tive" (Worcester Festival) ; and nu- 
merous comic operas, incl. "Prince 
Ananias" a failure, " The Wizard 
of the Nile" v. succ., " The Sere- 
nade," " The Idol's Eye" " The 
Fortune Teller" and "The Singing 
Girl" all v. succ., in which the un- 
usual combination of Irish musical 
humour and German scholarliness 
justifies their great success. 

Hering (ha -ring), (i) K. Gl.,Schan- 
dau, Saxony, 1765 Zittau, 1853 ; 
teacher, editor and composer. (2) 
K. E., b. Oschatz, Saxony, 1809 
Bautzen, 1879 ; son and pupil of 
above and successor as editor; also 
dram, composer. (3) K. Fr. Aug., 
Berlin, 1819 Burg, near Magdeburg, 
1889 ; violinist and composer. 


Herion (ha'-rt-on), Abraham Adam, 

Schonau, Odenwald, 1807 -Dresden, 
1893 ; pf. -teacher. 

Heritte - Viardot (ur-et-v'yai-do), 
Louise Pauline Marie, b. Paris, 
Dec. 14, 1841 ; daughter of Viardot- 
Garcia; vocal-teacher St. Petersburg 
Cons.; later at Frankfort, and Ber- 
lin ; m. Consul-General Heritte ; c. 
opera " Lindora" (Weimar, 1879), 
and cantatas. 

Hermann (her'-man), (i) Matthias, 
called Verrecoiensis, or Verreco- 
rensis, from his supposed birthplace, 
Warkenz or Warkoing, Holland; 
Netherland cptist. i6th cent. (2) 
Jn. D., Germany, ca. 1760 Paris, 
1846 ; pianist and composer. (3) 
Jn. Gf. Jakob, Leipzig, 17721848 ; 
writer. (4) Fr., b. Frankfort, Feb. 
I, 1828; pupil of Leipzig Cons.; 
1846-75, viola-player, Gewandhaus 
and theatre orchs. ; 1848, vln.-teacher 
at the Cons.; 1883 Royal Saxon Prof.; 
c. symphony, etc. ; editor and collec- 
tor. (5) Rheinhold L., b. Prenz- 
lau, Brandenburg, Sept. 21, 1849 ; 
pupil of Stern Cons., Berlin ; 1878-81 
dir. of it ; 1871-78 singing-teacher 
and cond. New York; 1884, cond. 
N. Y. " Liederkranz " ; 1887, prof, 
of sacred history at the Theol. Semi- 
nary ; 1898, cond. Handel and Haydn 
Soc., Boston; 1900 returned to Ber- 
lin; c. 4 operas incl. "Vineta" 
(Breslau, 1895), and " Wtilfrin" (Co- 
logne, 1896) ; 5 cantatas, overtures, 
etc. (6) Robt., b. Bern, Switzer- 
land, April 29, 1869 ; studied Frank- 
fort Cons r ; previously self-taught in 
zither, pf., comp. and had c. works 
of much originality in which Grieg 
encouraged him ; 1893, studied with 
Humperdinck, then went to Leipzig 
and Berlin, where (1895) his sym- 
phony, and a concert-overture were 
prod, at the Philh., provoking much 
critical controversy ; now lives in 
Leipzig ; c. also ' ^Petites variations 
flour rire" for pf. and vln.; etc. 
(7) Hans, b. Leipzig, Aug. 17, 1870; 
contrabassist and composer ; left an 

orphan, he had a struggle with pov- 
erty ; studied with Rust, Kretz, Scho- 
ner and von Herzogenberg ; lives in 
Berlin, and c. string-quartets, pf.. 
pcs., etc., and many notable songs. 
(8) J. 2. Vide ZENNER. (9) Vide 


Herman'nus (called Contrac'tus or 
"der Lahme," for his lameness), 
Graf von Vehrihgen, Sulgau, Swabia, 
July 18, 1013 Alleshausen, near Bi- 
berach, Sept. 24, 1054; important 
writer and theorist. 

Hermes (he'r'-me's), Ed., b. Memel, 
May 15 (?), 1818 ; merchant, and com- 
poser in KOnigsberg, Prussia. 

Trier (Treves), 18331885 ; organ- 
ist, composer and editor. 

Hermstedt (herm'-shte't), Jn. Simon, 
Langensalza, near Dresden, 1778^- 
Sondershausen, 1846 ; composer. 

Hernandez (er-nan'-deth), Pablo, b. 
Saragossa, Jan. 25, 1834; pupil of 
Madrid Cons.; organist and (1863) 
auxiliary prof, there ; c. zarzuelas ; 
a mass, symphony, etc. 

Hernando (er-nan'-do), Rafael Jos6 
M., b. Madrid, May 31, 1822 ; pu- 
pil of R. Carnicer, Madrid Cons.; 
1848-53, he prod, several succ. zar- 
zuelaS) some in collab.; later dir. 
and composer to Th. des Varietes; 
1852, secretary, later prof, of harm., 
Madrid Cons.; founded a Mutual 
Aid Mus. Soc. 

Harold (a-rol), (i) Louis Jos. Fd., 
Paris, Jan. 28, 179i(of consumption) 
Themes, near Paris, Jan. 19, 1833 ; 
son of (2) Fran. Jos. H. (d. 1802 ; 
pf. -teacher and composer, pupil of 
P. E. Bach), who opposed his study- 
ing music, though Fetis taught him 
solfege and L. Adam, pf. After his 
father's death (1802), he studied piano 
with Louis Adam, Paris Cons, (first 
prize, 1810) ; harmony with Catel 
and (from 1811) comp. with Mehul; 
[812 won the Prix de Rome, with 
cantata "Mile, de la Valliere" ; 
studied at Rome and Naples, where 
he was pianist to Queen Caroline, 


and prod, opera "La Giovent& di 
Enrico Quinto " (1815) J ?aris l8l 5 
finished Boieldieu's " Charks de 
France " (prod, with succ. 1816, Op. 
Com.); "Les Rosier es" and "La 
Clockette" followed 1817, both v. 
succ.; others followed; the last (1820) 
failing, he imitated Rossini in several 
operas, but recovered himself in the 
succ. "Marie" (1826) ; 1824, pianist, 
later chorusm. at the Ital. Opera, 

' but soon relinquished. 1827 Chef du 
Chant, at the Gr. Opera, for which 
he wrote several succ. ballets, incl. 
44 La Somnambule" which gave a 
suggestion to Bellini ; 1828, Legion of 
Honour. "Zampa" (1831) gave him 
European rank and is considered his 
best work by all except the French, 
who prefer his last work " Le Pre 
aux Ckrcs " (1832) ; he prod, also 
" LAuberge d'Airey" (1830) (with 
Carafa), "La Marquise de Brinvil- 
liers" (1831), with Auber, Boieldieu, 
Cherubmi, and 5 others; and "La 
Mtdidne sans MJdecin" (1832) ; he 
left "Ludovic " unfinished, to be com- 
pleted by Halevy with succ. ; c. also 
much pf.-mus. Biogr. by Jouvin 
(Paris, 1868). 

Herrmann (heY-man), (i) Gf.,Sonders- 
hausen, 1808 Liibeck, 1878 ; violin- 
ist, pianist, organist and dram, com- 
poser. (2) K., d. Stuttgart, 1894; 
'cellist. (3) Klara, daughter of (2) ; 
pupil of Leipzig Cons.; pianist ; lives 
in Liibeck. 

Herschel (her-shel), Fr. Wm. (Angli- 
cised, Sir William Herschel, K.C. 
H. , D, C. L.) f Hanover, 1738 Slough, 
near Windsor, 1822 ; oboist ; organ- 
ist at Bath ; astronomy, in which he 
won such fame, was till 1781 only his 

Hertel (heV-t'l), (i) Jn. Chr., Oetting- 
en, Swabia, 1699 Strelitz, 1754 ; sing- 
er, viola da gambist, violinist and 
composer. (2) Jn. Wm., Eisenach, 
1727 Schwerin, 1789 ; son and pu- 
pil of above ; violinist, conductor 
and composer. (3) K., 1784-1868 ; 
violinist. (4) Peter L., Berlin, 

18171899; son of above; com- 

H either (heY-te'r), F., pen-name of 
H. Gunther. 

Hertz (hertz), Alfred, b.Frankfort-on- 
Main, July 15, 1872 ; studied Raff 
Cons.; from 1895 2d-cond. various 
cities; 1899 cond. city theatre Breslau- 
1899 London ; 1902 Met. Op., N. Y' 

Hertzberg (herts'-berkh), Rudolph 
von, Berlin, 1818 1893; conductor 
and editor. 

Herve" (rightly Florimond Ronger 
(r-va or ron-zha), Houdain, near 
Arras, June 30, 1825 Paris, Nov. 4, 
1892 ; singer, then organist, con- 
ductor ; in Paris acting as librettist, 
composer and actor, and producing 
flippant but ingenious little works in 
which French operetta finds a real 
origin; c. over 50 operettas, also 
heroic symphony " The Ashantee 
War' 1 and ballets. (2) Gardel, son 
of above, prod. 1871 operetta " Ni t 
ni, c'estjini" 

Hervey (har'-vl), Arthur, b. of Irish 
parents, Paris, Jan. 26, 1855 ; pupil 
of B. Tours (harm.) and Ed. Marlois 
(instr.) ; intended for the diplomatic 
service, till 1880 ; critic of u Vanity 
Fair" ; from 1892, London " Post"; 
c. a i-act opera, a dram, overture 
" Love and Fata" etc. 

Herz (herts or ers) , (i) Jacques Simon, 
Frankfort, Dec. 31, 1794 Nice, 
Jan. 27, 1880 ; of Jewish parentage ; 
studied at Paris Cons, with Pradher ; 
pianist and teacher in Paris; then 
London; 1857, acting-prof. Paris 
Cons.; c. vln.-sonatas, etc. (2) 
Henri, Vienna, Jan. 6, 1806 Paris, 
Jan. 5, 1888; 1st prize pf.-pupil 
Paris Cons. ; very popular as touring 
pianist ; succ. as mfr. of pianos ; ob- 
tained extravagant prices for his 
comps.; prof, at the Cons. ; writer. 

Herzberg (herts'-berkh), Anton, b. 
Tarnow, Galicia, June 4, 1825 ; pia- 
nist; pupil of Bocklet and Prever, 
Vienna ; toured Europe, and received 
many decorations; 1866, pf.-teacher 
Moscow ; composer. 


Herzog (her'-tsokh), (i) Jn. G., b. 

Schmolz, Bavaria, Sept. 6, 1822 ; 
pupil of JBodenschatz, and at Altdorf 
Seminary ; 1842, organist at Munich ; 
1848, cantor ; 1850, organ - prof, 
at the Cons.; 1854, mus. dir. Er- 
langen Univ. ; 1866, Dr. Phil. ; 
later prof. ; retired 1888 ; lives in 
Munich ; composer. (2) Emilie, b. 
Diessenhofen, Thurgau, ca. 1860 ; 
soubrette coloratura singer ; pupil 
Zurich Sch. of Mus., then of Glogg- 
ner, and Ad. Schimon, Munich ; de- 
but, Munich (1879?); 1889, Berlin 

Herzogenberg (her'-tsokh-en-berkh), 
(i) H. von, Graz, Styria, June 10, 
X 843 Wiesbaden, 1900 ; prof, at 
Berlin, etc.; director, professor and 
composer. (2) Elizabeth (nee von 
Stockhausen) (?) 1848 San Remo, 
1892 ; pianist, wife of above. 

Hes'eltine, Jas., d. 1763; English or- 
ganist and composer. 

Hess, (i) Joachim, organist, writer and 
carillonneur, Gouda, Holland, from 
17661810. (2) A. H., organ-builder 
at Gouda ; bro. of above. (3) Willy, 
b. Mannheim, July 14, 1859 I violin- 
ist, pupil of his father and Joachim ; 
at 19 Konzertmeister at Frankfort, 
1886 at Rotterdam, then England ; 
1895 ist vln.-prof. Cologne Cons., 
and 1st vln. Gttrzenich Quartet. 

Hesse (hes'-sg), (i) Ernst Chr., 
Grossen-Gottern, Thuringia, 1676 
Darmstadt, 1762 ; viola-da-gambist, 
conductor. (2) Ad. (Fr.), Breslau, 
1809 1863 ; org. -virtuoso and com- 
poser. (3) Julius, Hamburg, 1823 
Berlin, 1881 ; introduced the present 
measurement for pf.-keys ; and pub. 
a method. (4) Max, b. Sonders- 
hausen, Feb. 18, 1858 ; 1880 founded 
mus. pub. house in Leipzig ; in 1883, 
founded H. und Becker. 

Hetsch (h^tsh), K. Fr. L., Stuttgart, 
1806 Mannheim, 1872 ; pianist, 
violinist and dram, composer. 

Heuberger (hoi'-berkh-er), Richard 
Fz. Jos., b. Graz, Styria, June 18, 
1850 ; a civil engineer ; in 1876 took 


up music, which he had previously 
studied; diorusm., Vienna academi- 
cal Gesangverein; 1878 cond. Sing- 
akademie; c. operas " Abtnteiur 
finer Neujalirsnacht " (Leipzig, 
1886); "Manuel Venegas"(do.,iS%g) t 
remodelled as " Mir jam" (Vienna, 
'94) ; 2 operettas ; overture to Byron's 
" Cain," etc. 

Heubner (hoip'-ner), Konrad, b. 
Dresden, 1860; pupil of the " Kreuz- 
schule" there; 1878-79, at Leipzig 
Cons, and writer ; with Riemann, lat- 
er Nottebbhm, Vienna ; Wiillner, 
Nicode and Blassmann, Dresden; 
1882, cond. Leipzig Singakademie ; 
1884, asst. cond. Berlin Singakade- 
mie; 1890, dir. Coblenz Cons, and 
Mus. Soc.; c. a symphony, overtures, 

Heugel (u-zhel), Jacques Ld., La 
Rochelle, 1815 Paris, 1883; editor 
and publisher. 

Heumann (hoi'-man), Hans, b. Leip- 
zig, Aug. 17, 1870; at 18, double- 
bass in orch. at Cassel ; studied with 
W. Rust, at Leipzig Cons, and 
Kretschmer at Dresden; later with 
von Herzogenberg at Berlin ; lives in 
Berlin ; pub. a suite in sonata-form 
for vln. and pf.; over 100 songs of 
all kinds, etc. 

Hew'itt, J. H., b. New York, 1801; 
from 1845 lived in Baltimore ; c. 
oratorios, incl. " Jephtha" operas, 

Hey (hi), Julius, b. Irmelshause, 
Lower Franconia, April 29, 1832 ; 
studied with Lachner (harm, and 
cpt.), and F. Schmitt (singing) ; later 
with von Billow at the Munich Sch. 
of Mus. (estab. by King Ludwig 
II. on Wagner's plans); attempted a 
reform in the cultivation of singing, 
but resigned at Wagner's death 
(1883), and pub. important vocal 
method, "Deutscher Gesangsunter- 
richt" (4 parts, 1886), exploiting 
Wagner's views. Wagner called him 
"the chief of all singing-teachers." 
1887, Berlin; later Munich; com- 


Heyberger (hl'-bSrkh-er), Jos,, Hett- 
stadt, Alsatia, 1831 Paris, 1892 ; 
organist, composer and conductor. 

Heyden (hi'-d'n), (i) Sebald, Niirn- 
berg, 1498 (1494?) 1561; cantor, 
writer. (2) Hans, Nilrnberg, 154 
1613 ; son of above ; organist ; inv. 
the " Geigenclavicimbal." 

Heydrich (hf-drfkh), Bruno, b. Leu- 
ben, near Lommatzsch, Saxony, 1865; 
pupil of Dresden Cons.; 1879-82, 
took prizes as double-bass player, 
pianist and composer; for a year in 
von Bulow's Weimar orch.; 4 years 
Dresden ct.-orch.; also .studied sing- 
ing with Scharfe, Hey and v. Milde ; 
succ. debut as tenor at Sonders- 
hausen theatre ; prod. v. succ. i-act 
opera-drama, with pantomimic pro- 
logue, "Arnen" Cologne, 1895; c. 

Heyraann (hl'-man), (i) Karl, pianist, 
b. Filehna, Posen, Oct. 6, 1854. Son 
of (2) Isaac H. (cantor) ; pupil of 
Hiller, Gernsheim, Breunung and 
Cologne Cons, and of Kiel ; ill-health 
ended his promising career as virtu- 
oso ; till 1822, mus. dir. at Bingen ; 
court-pianist to the Landgrave of 
Hesse, 1877-80, HochCons., Frank- 
fort; c. concerto "Elfenspiel" 
' ' Mummmscham" ' ' Phantasie- 
stiicke" etc., for piano. 

Heymann-Rheineck (hi'-man-ri'-nek) 
(K. Aug. Heymann), b. Burg-Rhei- 
neck on Rhine, Nov. 24, 1852 ; pian- 
ist; pupil Cologne Cons., and R. 
Hochschule, Berlin; since 1875, 
teacher there ; composer. 

HeyneVanGhizeghem (also Hayne, 
or Ayne, "Henry"); Netherland 
contrapuntist and court-singer, ca. 

Hiebsch (hepsh), Josef, Tyssa, Bohe- 
mia, 1854 Carlsbad, 1897; teacher 
and writer in Vienna. 

Hiedler (het'-ler), Ida, b. Vienna, 
Aug. 25, 1867; soprano ; studied with 
Ress ; debut, Berlin ct. -opera, 1887. 

Hientzsch (hentsh), Jn. Gf., Mo- 
krehna, near Torgau, 1787 Berlin, 
5856 ; teacher, composer and writer. 

Hieron'ymus de Morvia, ca. 1260, 
Dominican friar, Paris ; writer. 

Hignard (en-yar) (J. L.), Aristide, 
Nantes, 1822 Vernon, 1898 ; the 
preface to his " Hamlet" written 
1868, not prod, till Nantes, 1888, 
shows him to have attempted a new 
and serious manner, but he found 
production only for comic operas 
which were usually succ. 

Hildach (tnT-dakh), (i) Eugen, b. Wit- 
tenberg-on-the-Elbe, Nov. 20, 1849 ; 
barytone ; pupil of Frau Prof. El. 
Dreyschock. (2) Anna (ne'e Schu- 
bert, b. Konigsberg, Prussia, Oct. 5, 
1852; wife of above; mezzo-soprano; 
teacher Dresden Cons., 1880-86. 

Hildebrand (heT -de-brant), (i) Za- 
charias, Saxony, 1680 1743 ; org.- 
builder. His son, (2) Jn. Gf., was 
equally eminent. 

Hiles (hilz), (i) J., Shrewsbury, 1810 
London, 1882 ; organist, writer 
and composer. (2) H., b. Shrews- 
bury, Dec. 31, 1826 ; bro. and pupil 
of above ; organist various churches ; 
1867, Mus. Doc. Oxon ; 1876, lect- 
urer; later, prof. R, Manchester 
Coll. of Music ; 1885, editor and 
writer ; c. 2 oratorios, 3 cantatas, an 
historic opera, etc. 

Hilf (helf), (i) Arno, b. Bad Elster, 
Saxony, March 14, 1858 ; vln. -virtu- 
oso ; son and pupil of (2) Win. Chr. 
H. ; from 1872 he also studied with 
David, Rontgen, and Schradieck, 
Leipzig Cons.; second concertm., 
1878, and teacher at Moscow Cons., 
(1888) Sondershausen ; 1878, leader 
Gewandhaus orch., Leipzig; ist vln. 
prof, at the Conservatorium. 

Hill, (i) Wm., London, 18001870; 
org.-builder. (2) Wm. Ebsworth, 
London, 1817 llanley, i8gg ; vln.- 
maker. (3) Thos. H. Weist, Lon- 
don, 1828 1891; violinist, conduc- 
tor and composer. (4) Ureli C., 
New York, 1802 (?) 1875 ; violinist. 
(5) Wm., b. Fulda, March 28, 1838 ; 
pianist ; pupil of H. Ilenkel and 
Hauff ; since 1854 lives in Frankfort; 
c. prize-opera ' Alona" ; vln.-sona- 


tas, etc. (6) Junius Welch, b. 
Hingham, Mass., Nov. 18, 1840; pu- 
pil of J. C. D. Parker, Boston, and 
of Leipzig Cons.; organist various 
churches ; till 1897, prof, of Mus. 
at Wellesley Coll. ; now teacher and 
editor. (7) K., Idstein, Nassau, 
1840 insane asylum, Sachsenberg, 
Mecklenburg, 1893 ; barytone ; cre- 
ated " Alberich" at Bayreuth. 

Hille (hfl'-le 1 ), (i) Ed,, Wahlhausen, 
Hanover, 1822 Gbttingen, 1891 ; 
cond. and teacher. (2) Gv., b. Jeri- 
chow-on-Elbe, near Berlin, May 31, 
1851; violinist; pupil of R. Wiierst 
(theory), Kullak's Acad., 1869-74 w. 
Joachim (vln.) ; lives in Berlin, as a 
solo-player; 1879, invited to the 
Mendelssohn Quintet Club, Boston, 
Mass. ; toured ; then teacher at Mus. 
Acad., Phila.; c. 5 vln. -concertos 
with orch., etc. 

Hillenmacher (htt'-lgn-makh-er, or el- 
an-mi-sha), two brothers, (i) Paul 
Jos. Wm., b. Paris, Nov. 25, 1852. 
(2) Lucien Jos. Ed., b. Paris, June 
10, 1860 ; both studied at the Cons., 
and took the first Grand Prix de 
Rome, (i) in 1876; (2) in 1880. 
They write all their scores in collab- 
oration. C. symph. legend " Lore- 
fy" (1882, City of Paris prize) ; succ. 
opera " St. Megrin " (Brussels, 
1886), etc.; " Or sola" (Gr. Opera, 
Paris, 1902). 

Killer (Htiller) (htt'-lSr), (i) Jn. 
Adam, Wendisch-Ossig, near Gor- 
litz, Dec. 25, 1728 Leipzig, June 
16, 1804 ; pupil of Hornilius (Kreuz- 
schule) and U. of Leipzig ; flutist in 
concerts, and teacher ; 1754 tutor to 
the son of Count Briihl ; 1758, ac- 
companied him to Leipzig, where he 
lived thereafter ; 1763, revived, at 
his own expense, the subscription 
concerts, which developed into the 
famous "Gewandhaus" concerts, of 
which he was cond.; 1771, founded a 
singing-school ; 1789-1801, cantor 
and dir. Thomasschule. He founded 
the " Singspiel" from which German 
" comedy-opera " developed, contem- 

poraneously with opera buffo, and 
Optra comique. In his dram, works 
the aristocratic personages sing arias, 
while the peasants, etc., sing simple 
ballads, etc. His Singsptele, all 
prod, at Leipzig, had immense vogue, 
some of the songs being still sung ; 
1766-70, he wrote, edited collections, 
etc.; c. also a Passion cantata, funer- 
al music (in honour of Hasse), sym- 
phonies and partitas, the looth 
Psalm, etc. Biog. by Carl Peiser 
(Leipzig, 1895). (2) Fr. Adam, 
Leipzig, 1768 Ktfnigsberg, Nov. 23, 
1812; violinist and tenor; son and 
pupil of above ; nms. dir. of Schwe- 
rin Th.; 1803, cond. of Kdnigsberg 
Th.; c. 4 operettas, etc. (3) Fd. 
von, Frankfort, Oct. 24, 1811 Co- 
logne, May 12, 1885 ; of wealthy Jew- 
ish parentage ; a pupil of Hofmann 
(vln.), Aloys Schmitt (pf.) and Voll- 
weiler (harm, and cpt.) ; at ip played 
a Mozart concerto in public, at 12 
began comp.; from 1825 pupil of 
Hummel ; at 16 his string-quartet 
was pub. Vienna ; at 15, he saw Beet- 
hoven on his death-bed; 1828-35, 
taught Choron's School, Paris ; then 
independently giving occasional con- 
certs ; 1836, he returned to Frank- 
fort, and cond, the Cacilien-Verein ; 
1839, prod. succ. opera " Romilda? 
at Milan; oratorio, "Die Zerstdr- 
ung Jerusalem* " (Gewandhaus, 
1840); 1841, studied church-music 
with Baini, Rome ; 1843-44 h cond. 
the Gewandhaus ; prod, at Dresden, 
2 operas; 1847, municipal cond. at 
Dusseldorf ; 1850 at Cologne, where 
he organised the Cons. ; cond. Gurze- 
nich Concerts, and the Lower Rhine 
Festivals ; 1852-53, cond. Opera Ita- 
lian, Paris; 1868, Dr. Philh. h. c. 
Bonn Univ. ; 1884 he retired. He 
was a classicist in ideal of the Men- 
delssohn type and his comp. are of 
precise form and great clarity. He 
was also a lecturer and writer on 
music. He c. 3 other operas, 2 orato- 
rios, 6 cantatas, 3 overtures, 3 sym- 
phonies, a ballad "Richard Lowgn- 


&," with orch. (1883), etc. (4) 
Paul, b. Seifersdorf, near Liegnitz, 
Nov., 1830; 1870, asst.-organist, 
and since iS8i organist St. Maria- 
Magdalena, Breslau ; composer. (5) 
Emma, b. Ulm; studied with Sit- 
tard and Hroraada ; court-singer at 

Hiii'mer, (i) Fr., Berlin, ca. 1762- 
1847 ; viola-player ; a son of his (2) 
was a siaging- teacher in Berlin. 

Hil'pert, W. Kasimir, Fr,, Nurn- 
berg, 184.1 Munich, 1896 ; 'cellist. 

Hilton, J., d. 1657 ; English organist 
and composer. 

Him'mel, Fr. H., Treuenbrietzen, 
Brandenburg, 1765 Berlin, 1814; 
court-cond. and dram, composer. 

Hind'le, J., Westminster, 17611796 ; 

Hine, Wm., Oxfordshire, 16871730; 
composer and organist, 

Hings'ton, J., d. 1683 ; Engl. organ- 
ist to Chas. I. ; and composer. 

Hinke (hink'-e 1 ), (i) Gv. Ad., Dresden, 
1844 Leipzig, iSgs; oboist. Son of 
(2) Gf. H., d. 1851. 

Hinrichs (hln'-rlkhs), Fz., Halle-on- 
the-Saale, ca. 1820 Berlin, 1892; 
composer and writer on music. His 
sister (2) Maria. Vide FRANZ. 

Hip'kins, Alfred Jas., b. West- 
minster, June 17, 1826 ; writer ; an 
authority on ancient instrs., etc. ; 
was for a time in business with 
Broad wood ; wrote many articles for 
the "Encyclopedia JSritannica" and 
" GrovJs Dictionary of Music ,'* also 
books on old instr. and pitch. 

Him .(hern), Gv. Ad., Logelbach, near 
Coliuar(Alsatia), 1815 Colmar, 1890; 

Hirsch (hersh), (i) Dr., Rudolf, Napa- 
gedl, Moravia, 1816 Vienna, 1872 ; 
critic, poet and composer. (2) Karl, 
b. Werading, Bavaria, March 17, 
1858 ; studied in Munich ; 1885-87, 
church mus.-dir., Munich; 1887-92, 
Mannheim; then Cologne; since 
1893, dir. various societies, etc. ; c. 
numerous pop. a cappella choruses, 
cantatas ; " Werinker" a dram. 

poem with orchestration (op. ng), 

Hirschbach (hersh'-bakh), H., Berlin, 
1812 Gohlis, 1888 ; editor and com- 

Hirschfeld (hersh'-f&t), Robt., b. Mo- 
ravia, 1858 ; studied Vienna Cons. ; 
later lecturer there ; 1884 teacher of 
musical aesthetics ; took Dr. Phil, 
with dissertation on "Johannes de 
Muris "/ he wrote a pamphlet against 
Hanslick in defence of ancient a cap. 
j>ella music, and founded the " Re- 
naissance- Abende " to cultivate it. 

Hitz'ler, Daniel, Haidenheim, Wur- 
tenberg, 1756 Stuttgart, 1635 ; writer. 

Hobrecht (ho-brekht) (or Obrecht, 
Obreht, Ober'tus, Hober'tus), Ja- 
kob, Utrecht, ca. 1430 Antwerp, 
ca. 1506 ; church composer of great 
historical importance. 

Hobbs, J. Wm., Henley, 1799 Croy- 
don, 1877 ; tenor and composer. 

Hochberg (hokh'-berkh), Bolko, Graf 
von (pseud. J. H. Franz), b. Fiirsten- 
stein Castle, Silesia, Jan. 23, 1843 ; 
maintained the H. quartet at Dresden; 
1876 founded the Silesian music festi- 
vals; 1886, general intendant Prus- 
sian Ct. Th.; prod. 2 operas; c. 
symphonies, etc. 

Hod'ges, (i) Edw., Bristol, Engl., 1796 
Clifton, 1867 ; organist and writer. 
(2) Faustina Hasse, daughter of 
above, d. New York, Feb., 1896 ; 
organist and composer. (3) Rev. J. 
Seb. Bach, D.D., son of above; 
rector St. Paul's Ch., Baltimore; or- 

Hoffmann (hof'-man), (i) Eucharius, 
b. Heldburg, Franconia, cantor at 
Stralsund ; writer and composer, 
1577-84. (2) Ernst Th. (Ama- 
deus) Wm. (he added Amadeus from 
love of Mozart), Konigsberg, 1776 
Berlin, 1822; gifted poet, caricaturist, 
and dram, composer. (3) H. Aug. 
(called H. von Fallersleben), Fal- 
lersleben, Hanover, 1798 Castle 
Korvei, 1874 ; writer. (4) Richard, 
b. Manchester, Engl., May 24, 1831; 
pianist and teacher ; pupil of his 


father, and de Meyer, Pleyel, Mosch- 
eles, Rubinstein, Dbhler, Thalberg, 
and Liszt; since 1847, New York; 
solo pianist with Jenny Lind on 
tours, etc.; also with von Billow, 
in N. Y. (1875); c. anthems, pf.- 
pcs., etc. (5) Karl, b. Prague, Dec. 
12, 1872; violinist; studied Prague 
Cons. ; founder and ist vln, the fa- 
mous "Bohemian String-quartet." 
(6) Baptist, b. Garitz, July 9, 1864 ; 
barytone; studied with Tipka and 
Stockhausen ; 1888-94 at Cologne ; 
1897 ct.-opera, Berlin. 

Hoffmeister (hSf'-ml-shter), Fz, An- 
ton, Rotenburg-on-Neckar, 1754 
Vienna, 1812 ; conductor and dram, 
composer, etc. 

Hof haimer (hof-hl-mSr) (Hoffheimer, 
Hoffhaimer, Hoff haymer), Paulus 
von, Radstadt, Salzburg, 1459 Salz- 
burg, 1537 ; eminent organist ; luten- 
ist, composer and teacher. 

Hofmann (hof'-man), (i) Chr., ca. 
1668 ; cantor at Krossen ; writer. 
(2) H. (K. Jn.), Berlin, Jan. 13, 
1842 July 19, 1902; pupil of Wilrst, 
Kullak's Academy; famous pf.-vir- 
tuoso and teacher; prod. succ. op- 
eras "Cartouche" (Berlin, 1869) 
and " Donna Diana" and 4 others ; 
and succ. orch. works, "Hungarian. 
Suite " (1873) an d u Frithjof" symph. 
(1874) ; is a Prof., 'and a member of 
the Berlin R. Acad. of Arts ; c. 6 
other operas, "secular oratorio" 
"Prometheus " (1896) ; cantatas ; 
" Sckauspiel" overture ; " Trauer- 
marsch" etc., for orch.; a vln.-so- 
nata, etc. (3) Richard, b. Delitzsch, 
Prussian Saxony, April 30, 1844 ; son 
of municipal mus.-dir.; pupil of 
Dreyschock and Jadassohn ; lives in 
Leipzig as teacher ; pub. a valu- 
able " Praktische Instrumentations- 
schule" (Leipzig, 1893), a catechism 
of instrs., etc. (4) Casimir (rightly 
Wyszkowski) (wesh-k&f'-shkl), b. 
Cracow, 1842 ; pianist ; prof, of 
harm, and comp. at Cons. , and cond. 
of opera, Warsaw. (5) Josef, b. 
Cracow, Jan. 20, 1877. Son and 

(till 1892) pupil of (4) ; at 6 played in 
public ; at 9 toured Europe ; 'at 10 
gave 52 concerts in America ; then 
studied 2 years with Rubinstein and 
made new debut in Dresden, 1894, and 
has toured Europe since and (1899) 
America ; from being a sensational 
prodigy, he has developed into a solid 
artist of ^great power, virtuosity and 
charm ; lives in Berlin ; c. concerto, 

Hofmeister (hdf-ml-shte'r), (i) Fr., 
17811864; publisher; his son and 
successor (2) Ad. H., ca. 1818 Leip- 
zig, 1870 ; was succeeded by Albert 
Rothing, b. Leipzig, Jan. 4, 1845. 

Ho'garth, G., Carfrae Mill, near Ox- 
ton, Berwickshire, 1783 London, 
1870; 'cellist and composer; his 
daughter m. Charles Dickens. 

Hohlfeld (hol'-felt), Otto, Zeulenroda, 
Voigtland, 1854 Darmstadt, 1895 ; 
vln. -virtuoso and composer. 

Hohnstock (hon'-shtok), Carl, Bruns- 
wick, 1828 1889; teacher, violinist, 

1 pianist and composer. 

Hoi, Richard, b. Amsterdam, July 23, 
1825 ; pupil Martens (org.) and of 
Bertelman (harm, and cpt.) ; teacher 
at Amsterdam ; 1862, city mus.-dir., 
Utrecht ; 1869, cath.-organist ; 1875, 
dir. Sen. of Mus.; also cond. " Dili- 
gentia " Concerts at The Hague, Clas- 
sical Concerts at Amsterdam ; 1878, 
officer of the French Academy; c. 
oratorio "David" (op. 81) ; 2 operas ; 
2 symphonies, etc. 

Hol'borne, Antony and Win., Eng- 
lish composers, 1597. 

Hol'combe, (i) H., Salisbury, ca. 
1690 ca. 1750 ; singer, teacher and 
composer. (2) Josephine, soprano, 
N. Y., and (3) Philip G., harp- 
maker, London, both descendants 
of (i). 

Hol'den, Oliver, Charlestown, Mass.; 
before 1792, publisher; composer, 
his comp. incl, the hymn-tune " Cor- 

Hol'der, (i) Rev. Wra., Nottingham- 
shire, ca. 1614 Amen Corner, 1697 ; 
writer, editor and composer. (2) 



Jos. Wra., St. John's Clerkenwell, 
17641823 ; organist and composer. 

Hold'rich, Geo. M,, English org,- 
builder, 1838. 

Hollander (hol'-lant-er), (i) Jans (de 
Hollandere), or Jean de Holland, 
Netherland contrapuntist (i 543-5). 
(a) Chr. Janszone, Dordrecht (?), 
Holland, ca. 1520 Munich, ca. 
1570; son of above; conductor and 
composer. . 

Hollander (hol'-lent-er), (i) Alexis, 
b. Ratibor, Silesia, Feb. 25, 1840; 
pianist ; pupil of Schnabel and Hesse 
at Breslau ; cond. of the Gymnasium 
Singing Society; 1858-61, studied 
with Grell and A. W. Bach, and K. 
Bohmer, Berlin, R. Akad.; 1861, 
teacher at Kullak's Acad.; 1864, 
cond.; 1870, cond. the "Cacilien- 
verein 11 ; iSSS, professor; c. 6 pf. 
Intermezzi for left hand, etc. (2) 
Gv., b. Leobschutz, Upper Silesia, 
Feb. 15, 1855 ; played in public very 
early; pupil of David, of Joachim 
(vln.), and Kiel (theory) ; 1874, prin- 
cipal teacher Kullak's Acad. and 
royal chamber-mus. ; toured Austria 
with Carlotta Patti ; iSSi, teacher at 
the Cons., Cologne; 1884, leader at 
the Stadttheater ; 1894, dir. Stern 
Cons., Berlin; 1896, concertraeister 
of a new orch., Hamburg; c. vln. 
and pf.-pcs. (3) Victor, b. Leob- 
schutz, April 20, 1866 ; pupil of Kul- 
lak ; c. the succ. i-act comic operas 
" Carmosindla " (Frankf. - on - M., 
iSSS) ; " The Bey of Morocco " (Lon- 
don, 1894) and piano-pieces. 

Hollangue. Vide MONTON. 

Hollmann (hol'-man), Josef, b. Maes- 
tricht, Holland, Oct. 16, 1852 ; not- 
able 'cellist ; studied with Gervais ; 
toured Europe, England and Amer- 
ica ; court-mus. , Holland, and wears 
many decorations. 

Hol'ly, Fz, Andrs., Luba, Bohemia, 
1747 Breslau, May 4, 1783 ; dir. 
and writer at various theatres ; com- 

Holmes (homz), (i) Edw., near Lon- 
don, 1797 U. S., 1859 ; pf.-teacher, 

editor and critic. (2) Wm. H., 
Sudbury, Derbyshire, 1812 London, 
1885 ; pianist and professor. (3) 
Alfred, London, 1837 Paris, 1876 ; 
son of above ; dram, composer. (4) 
Hy., b. London, Nov. 7, 1839; br o. 
of above ; vln. -prof. R. C. M.; 0.4 
symphonies, etc. 

Holmes (ol'-mes) (rightly Holmes), 
Augusta Mary Anne, b. (of Irish 
parents) Paris, Dec. 16, 1847; at 
first a pianist ; studied comp. with 
Lambert, Klose and Cesar Franck ; 

1873, prod, a psalm, "InExitu"; 

1874, a i-act symphony " Htro et 
Leandre " (Chatelet) ; the sympho- 
nies " Lutece" and " Les Argo- 
nautes" 1883; symph. " Irlande" 
1885 ; unsucc. drama " La Montague 
Noire" (Gr. Opera), 1895 ; symphonic 
poems, ' ' Roland, " ' ' Pologne" "Ait 
Pays Bleu" ; 2 operas, etc.; she 
sometimes uses pseud. "Hermann 

Hoist (hoist), Edvard, Copenhagen, 
1843 N. Y., 1899; lived in N. Y., 
was an actor, stage-dancer, dancing- 
master and playwright ; also com- 
poser of pop. song and pf.-pcs., over 
2,000 works in all. 

Holstein (hol'-shtm), Fz. (Fr.) von, 
Brunswick, 1826 Leipzig, 1878 ; 
dram, composer. 

Holten (hol'-ten), K. von, b. Ham- 
burg, July 26, 1836 ; pianist ; pupil 
of J. Schmitt, Ave-Lallemant and 
Gradener, and at Leipzig Cons.; 
since 1874, teacher Hamburg Cons.; 
c. a Kinder symphonie, etc. 

Holy (o -15), Alfred, b. Oporto, Aug. 
5, 1866 ; harp-virtuoso ; son and pu- 
pil of a cond. and teacher from 
Prague; studied at Prague Cons., 
and lived there till 1896, when he 
went to the Berlin ct. -opera. 

Holyoke (hol'-yok), Samuel, Box- 
ford, Mass., 1771 Concord, N. H., 
1816 ; teacher. 

Holz (holts), K., Vienna, 17981858 ; 
violinist and composer. 

Holzbauer (holts' -bow-er), Ignaz, Vi- 
enna, 1711 Mannheim, 1783 ; court- 



conductor and dram, composer ; high- 
ly praised by Mozart. 

Hoizel (hel'-tsel), (i) K,, Linz-on- 
Donau, 1808 Pesth, 1883; composer. 
(2) Gustav, Pesth, 1813 Vienna, 
1883 ; bass and composer. 

Hoizl (heT-ts'l), Fz. Severin, Malacz- 
ka, Hungary, 1808 Funikirchen, 
1884 ; conductor and composer. 

Homeyer (hd'-ml-er), name of a mu- 
sical family. The most prom, of 
them is (i) Paul Joseph M., b. Os- 
terode, Harz, Oct. 26, 1853 ; famous 
organist at the Gewandhaus, and 
teacher Leipzig Cons. (2) Jn. Just. 
Adam, editor. His son (3) H. H. 
(1832 1891), was organist at Lam- 
springe ; st. Leipzig Cons. ; and also 
with his uncle (4) J. M. H. (d. Oct. 5, 
1894), organist at Duderstadt. 

Homilius (hd-me"-l!-oos), Gf. Aug., 
Rosenthal, Saxony, 1714 Dresden, 
1785 ; eminent organist and com- 

Hood, Helen, b. Chelsea, Mass., June 
28, 1863 ; pupil of B. J. Lang (pf.) 
and Chadwick (comp.), Boston ; and 
Moszkowski (pf.) ; lives in Boston ; 

Hook, Jas., Norwich, 1746 Boulogne, 
1827 ; organist and composer. 

Hoop'er, Edmond, Halberton, De- 
von, ca. 1553 1621 ; composer. 

Hope'kirk, Helen, b. near Edinburgh; 
studied with Lichtenstein and A. C, 
Mackenzie ; for 2 years at Leipzig, 
later with Leschetizky ; debut as 
pianist at Gewandhaus, Leipzig, 
1878 ; gave concerts in Great Britain 
and (1883-84) U. S.; 1897-1901, 
teacher N. E. Cons.; now private 
teacher, Boston, Mass.; c. Concert- 
stuck for pf. and orch.; 1894, orch. 
pcs.; a pf .-concerto ; sonata for pf. 
and vln,, and songs. 

Hopffer (hop'-fe'r), L. Bd., Berlin, 1840 
Niederwald, near Rudesheim, 1877; 
dram, composer. 

Hop'kins, (i) Edw. J., Westminster, 
June 30, 1818 - London, Feb. 4, 
igor ; self-taught organist at various 
churches ; 1843-1898, to the Temple 

Ch., London; wrote " The Organ; 
its History and Construction " (Rirn- 
bault) ; contributed to Grove's Diet. 
of Mus. ; c. 3 prize anthems, hymn- 
tunes, chants and church - services. 

(2) Edw. Jerome, Burlington, Vt., 
1836 Athenia, N. J., 1898; self- 
taught in harmony ; began composing 
at 4 ; organist, editor and lecturer. 

(3) Harry Patterson, b. Baltimore ; 
graduated Peabody Inst, 1896; 
studied with Dvorak in Bohemia ; 
lives in New York ; c, a symphony, 
songs, etc. 

Hoplit. Vide POHL, R. 

Horak (ho'-rak), (r) Wenzei (Vaclav) 
Emanuel, Mscheno-Lobes, Bohe- 
mia, 1800 Prague, 1871 ; organist, 
teacher and composer. (2) Ed., Ho- 
litz, Bohemia, 1839 Riva, Lake of 
Garda, 1892 ; teacher and writer. (3) 
Ad., b. Jankovic, Bohemia, Feb. 
15, 1850 ; bro. of abo\e and co- 
founder, " Horak " Pf. -School, Vi- 
enna ; writer. 

Horn, (i) K. Fr., Nordhausen, Saxony, 
1762 Windsor, Engl., 1830 ; organ- 
ist, writer and theorist. (2) Chas. 
Edw., London, 1786 Boston, 
Mass., 1849; son f above; singer, 
teacher, cond., and composer. (3) 
Aug., Freiberg, Saxony, 1825 
Leipzig, 1893 ; dram, composer. 

Horneman (hor'-ne-man), (i) Johan 
OleEmil, Copenhagen, 18091870; 
composer. (2) Chr. F. Emil, b. 
Copenhagen, Dec. 17, 1841 ; son and 
pupil of above ; studied at Leipzig 
Cons. ; dir. of sch. of mus. in Copen- 
hagen ; c. overtures "Aladdin" and 
" Hddenleben" etc. 

Hornstein (horn'-shtm), Robt. von, 
Stuttgart, 1833 Munich, 1890 ; 
dram, composer. 

Hors'ley, (i) Wm., London, 1774 
1858 ; organist, theorist and com- 
poser. (2) Chas. Edw., London, 
1822 New York, 1876 ; son and pu- 
pil of above ; organist, writer and 

Horwitz (hor'-vlts), Benno, b. Berlin, 
March 17, 1855 ; violinist and com- 



b Martinoves, Bohemia, Jan. 
1817 ' Dr. Phil., Prague ; writer 

Ottobi) John (or Johannes), d. 
London, Nov., i^T, English Carmel- 
itemonk; famous for science. 
Hotteterre (ut'-tar), (i) Henri, d. 
1683 ; mstr.-maker, muset te player 
ct.-musician. (2) Louis (called Le 
Remain ." having lived in Rome) 
son of above; notable flutist and 
^ter (3) Nicolas, d K i6o 5 ; noted 
bassoonist and oboist ; bro.jof (2). 
Ho'ven, J., pen-name of V. von 


How'ard, (i) Samuel, 1710-1782; 
English organist and composer. (2; 
G H., b. Norton, Mass., Nov. 12 
18*43 pupil of J. Tufts (theory), and 
B F. Baker (singing), also at Leip- 
zig Cons.; teacher in Boston; 1891, 
founder and dir. School for Teach- 
ers: composer. 

How'eli, (i) Jas,, b. R^J, Eng- 
land, d. 1879 ; singer and double-bass 
plaver. His 2 sons t (2) Arthur, d. 
1885 ; double-bass player and bass 
singer. (3) Edw., 'cellist. _ 
HowVll, Wm., Engl. organist and 

composer. 1794- 

Hoy land, (i) J., Sheffield, 178371827; 
organist and composer. (s^Wxn., d. 
18*7 ' son of above ; organist. 
Hrimaly (h'rtm'-u-le), Adalbert, b. 
Pilsen, Bohemia, July 30, 1842 ; vio- 
linist ; pupil of Mildner, Prague 
Cons., 1861; cond. Gothenburg orch., 
1868; National Th., Prague; at the 
German Th., there in 1873. and 
at Czernowitz, Bukowina, in 1875 ; 
his succ. opera " Der Vcrzauberte 
Prim" (1871) is still played at 

Hromada (h'ra'-mft-du), A., Kladno, 
Bohemia, Dec. 23, 18411901 ; not- 
able bass-barytone ; pupil of Pivoda, 
Stockhausen and Fra Lamperti; debut 
ct -opera, Stuttgart, 1866 ; has sung 

there since ; has also toured and is 
heavily decorated. 

Hubay (hoo'-ba-e) (or Huber), (i) 
K Varjas, Hungary, 1828 Pesth, 
1885- vln.-prof., Pesth Cons.; con- 
ductor and dram, composer. (2) 
Teno (known as Eugen Huber in 
Germany), b. Budapesth, Sept. 15, 
1858 ; violinist ; son and pupil of 
above, and 1886 his successor as 
prof.; also studied with Joachim; 
gave' succ. concerts in Hungary 
and at Paris; 1882 principal vln.- 
prof., Brussels Cons.; 1894, m. 
Countess Rosa Cebrian ; c. succ. 
opera "Der Geigenmacher -von Crt- 
wona" (Pesth, 1893); opera " AKe- 
nor" (Pesth, 1892) ; succ. Hungarian 
opera " A Falu Rossza " (The Town- 
loafer) (Budapesth, 1896); a sym- 
phony, etc. 

Huber (hoo'-ber), (i) F., d. Berne, 
Feb 23, 1810; poet and song-com- 
poser. (2) Fd., 1791 St. Gallen, 
1863; Swiss song-writer. (3) K. 
Vide HUBAY. (4) Jos., Sigmaringen, 
1837 Stuttgart, 1886 ; violinist and 
dram, composer. (5) Hans, b. 
Schbnewerd, Switzerland, June 28, 
1852; pupil Leipzig Cons.; teacher 
at Wesserling for 2 years, then at 
Thann (Alsatia), later Basel Music 
School; 1892, Dr. Phil. h. c., Basel 
Univ. ; 1896, dir. of the Mus. Sch. ; 
c. succ. operas " Weltfriihling" 
(Basel, 1894); and " Gudrun" 
(Basel, 1896); cantatas, sonatas^ 
concertos, overtures " Lustspiel" 
symph. " Tell" etc. (6) Eugen. 

Hu'bermann, Bronislaw, Polish vio- 
linist; succ. debut as prodigy; re- 
tired for five years' study; reap- 
peared, Bucharest, 1902. 
Hubert (hoo'-bert), Nikolai Alberto- 
vitch, 18401888 ; prof, and writer, 
at Moscow. 

Hubert! (ii-beY-te), Le~on Gve., b. 
Brussels, April 14, 1843 ; pupil Brus- 
sels Cons. ; 1865, won Prix de Rome; 
1874-78, dir. of Mons. Cons. ; 1880- 
89, Antwerp ; since prof, at Brussels 


Cons., and dir. of the Mus. -School of 
St. Josse - ten - Noode - Schaerbeek ; 
1891, member of the Belgian Aca- 
demy; 1893, chevalier of the 
Legion of Honour. C. 3 oratorios, 
the dram, poem " Verlichting" 
("Fiat lux "), with orch.; symphonic 
poem " Kinderlust en Leed," chorus 
and orch., etc.; symphonic funebre, 
festival marches, etc. 

Hucbald (hook'-balt, oruk-bal) (Hug- 
bar dus, Ubal' dus, Uchubal'dus) 
de S. Amand(o), ca. 840 St. Amand, 
near Tournay, June 25 (or Oct. 21), 
930 (or June 20, 932). He is perhaps 
credited with some works belonging 
to a monk of the same name living a 
century later ; pupil of his uncle, 
Milo, a mus.-dir., whose jealousy 
drove him to Nevers, where he taught 
singing ; 872 he succeeded his uncle ; 
ca. 893, the Archbishop of Rheims 
invited him to reform the music of 
the diocese. His works (Gerbert) 
contain the first known notation 
showing difference of pitch on lines. 

Hud'son, (i) Robt., 1731 Eton, 
1815 ; singer, organist and composer. 
(2) Mary, daughter of above ; organ- 
ist and composer, 1801. 

Hue (tl), Georges Ad., b. Versailles, 
May 6, 1858; pupil of Paris Cons., 
took ist Grand prix de Rome ; later 
Prix Cressent ; 1. Paris as teacher ; 
c. op. com. " Les Pantins" (Op.- 
Com., 1881) ; "Riibezahl" symphonic 
legend in 3 parts (" Concerts Co- 
lonne," 1886); succ. " Feerie drama- 
tique " "La Belle au Bois Dormant"'' 
(Paris, 1894); "episode sacre" 
''''Ressurreetion" y a symphony, a 
symphonic overture ; 2 operas u Va- 
zanta," and *' Le Roi de Paris " (not 
prod.), etc. 

Hueffer (hilf'-fe'r), Francis, Mtinster, 
1843 London, Jan. 19, 1899 ; 1869, 
lived in London ; from 1878, critic of 
The Times ; librettist and writer. 

Hugo von Reutlingen (hoo'-go fon 
roit'-Hng-en) (called "Spechzhart"), 
1285 (1286?) 1359 (1360?) ; writer. 

Huguenet (ug-na). Vide GIRARD. 

Huhn (hoon), Charlotte, b.Lunebur*- 
Sept. 15, iS6S ; alto ; studied with 
Hoppe, Hey, and Marianne Brandt ; 
sang 2 years at. the New York Opera,' 
then at Cologne; 1895 Dresden; 1900 
Vienna ct, -opera. 

Hul'lah, John Pyke, Worcester, June 
27, 1812 London, Feb. 21, 1884 ; 
professor, conductor, writer and 
dram, composer. 

Hiiller, J. A. Vide KILLER. 

Hiillmandel (hfl'-mant-'l), (i) Nicho- 
las Jos., Strassburg, 1751 Lon- 
don, 1823 ; pianist and harmonica- 
player. (2) Rodolphe, famous horn- 
virtuoso and composer, uncle of 

Hiillweck (hfl'-vek), (i) Fd., Dessau, 
1824 Blasewitz, 1887 ; concert-vio- 
linist and composer. (2) K., b. Dres- 
den, April 15, 1852 ; son of above ; 
pupil of Fr. Grtttzmacher ('cello) ; 
Reichel and Merkel (harm, and cpt.); 
1877-82 'cellist Dresden ct.-orch. ; 
'cello-teacher, Dresden Cons. ; com- 

Hiilskamp (Mls'-kamp), Henry (or 
Gv. Hemrich), b. Westphalia ; 1850 
established a factory at Troy, N. Y.- 
1866, N. Y. 

Hume, Lobias,Eng1. viol da gambist, 
etc., 1 7th cent. 

Hum'frey (Humphrey, Humphrys), 
Pelham, London, 1647 Windsor, 
July 14, 1674; important English 
composer. Charles II. sent him to 
Paris to study with Lully ; 1672 
master Chapel Royal children and 
with Purcell ct. -composer. 

Hummel (hoom'-mel), (i) Jos., music- 
master Wartberg Military Acad. ; 
1786, conductor at Vienna. (2) Jn. 
Nepomuk, Pressburg, Nov. 14, 1778 
Weimar, Oct.i?, 1837; son of above; 
a famous pianist and improviser, and 
a composer of once popular pieces in 
which ornament outweighs matter ; 
and form, interest ; protege of Mo- 
zart ; debut 1787 ; toured Europe fre- 
quently; 1793 studied with Albrechts- 
berger ; asst.-cond. to Haydn, 1804- 
ri ; 1830 and 1833 cond. German 



opera in London ; c. operas, canta- 
tas, ballets, 3 masses, sonatas; he pub. 
a notable pf. -method ; c. dram, pcs., 
concertos, sonatas, septet in D minor, 
etc. (3) Elisabeth (nee Rbckl), 
1703 Weimar. i333 ; wife of above; 
opera-singer. (4) Jos. Fr., b. Inns- 
bruck, Aug. 14, 1841 ; pupil Munich 
Cons., i86i-3o; th.-cond. Vienna, 
since iSSo dir. Mozarteum at Salz- 
burg, and cond. Liedertafol. ($) 
Fd., b. Berlin, Sept. 6, 1855 ; son 
and pupil of a musician ; at 7 a harp 
virtuoso; 1864-67 toured Europe, 
and received a royal grant for study 
at Ivullak's Akademie, Berlin ; 1871- 
75, studied R. High Sch. of Mus., 
then at Akademie ; c. succ. operas, 
" Mara" (Berlin, 1893); " Ein 
Treuer Schelm " (Prague, 1894) ; 
" Assarpai " (Gotha, 1898) ; a sym- 
phony, sonatas, etc. 
Htimperdinck (hoora'-per-dtnk), En- 
gelbert, b. Siegburg, near Bonn, 
Sept. i, 1854 ; studied architecture, 
Cologne, then mus. at the Cons. ; 
won Mozart scholarship at Frank- 
fort ; studied 2 years with Franz 
Lachner, Munich, also with Rhein- 
berger and Barmann at the Cons. ; 
pub. Humoreske for orch. and " Die 
Wdlfakrt nach Kwelaar" for cho- 
rus ; 1878 won the Mendelssohn 
prize (3,000 marks), 1880 the Meyer- 
beer prize (7,600 marks) ; 1885-86, 
prof. Barcelona Cons.; 1881-82, a 
special protege of R. Wagner in Bay- 
reuth ; made pf . -scores, and aided in 
the preparation of " Parsifal" Re- 
turned to Cologne, 1887, went to 
Mayence in the employ of Schott & 
Co.'; 1890 teacher 'Hoch Cons., 
Frankfort. Critic on the Frankfort 
Zdtung, since lives at Boppard-on- 
Rhine. His first international succ, 
was the graceful 2-act fairy-opera 
"Hansel und Gretel" Munich, 
1893 (prod, at Milan, 1897, as Nino 
e Rita); c. also " Dornrdscken" ; 
" Die Konigskinder " (1896) ; ' ' Saint- 
Cyr ;" " Die 7 Gdeslein " (" March- 
enspiel fur die Kleinen ") ; symph. 

incid. mus., "Moorish Rhapsodic" 
for orch. , etc. 

Huneker(hu-nek-er), Jas. (Gibbons), 
b. Philadelphia, Jan. 31, 1860; 
prominent critic and writer ; at first 
intended for the priesthood ; pupil of 
Michael Cross (pf.) at Philadelphia, 
1878, with Th. Ritter and Ld. Dou- 
treleau, Paris ; since 1888 lives in 
New York as pf. -teacher at the Nat. 
Cons. ; for some time mus. and dram, 
critic of the Commercial Advertiser 
and The Recorder; 1901 of the N. Y. 
Sun ; has for many years written the 
brilliant " Raconteur" department of 
the Mus. Courier. Many of his es- 
says were reprinted with great succ. 
as ' ' Mezzotints in Modern Music " 
(New York, 1899) ; his biogr. and 
critical "Chopin, the Man and his' 
Music" (N, Y., 1900) is an impor- 
tant book ; and his ' ' Melomaniacs " 
(1901), studies of musical personalities 
and moods in the form of short sto- 
ries, is a work of unique insight and 
ingenuity. He is preparing a life of 

Hungar (hoong'-ar), Ernst, b. Schfin- 
bach, Aug. 5, 1854; barytone; pupil 
of Stockhausen ; teacher at Dresden 
and Cologne Cons.; sang at Schwerin 
ct. -opera ; lives in Leipzig. 

Hunke (hoon'-ke), Jos., Josephstadt, 
Bohemia, 1801 St. Petersburg, 1883; 
choirm. Russian ct. -chapel ; com- 

Hiinten (hm'-ten), (i) Fz., Coblenz, 
17931878; c. pop. pf.-pcs., etc. 
His brothers, (2) Wm., pf. -teacher, 
Coblenz, and (3) Peter Ernst, at 
Duisburg, also c. pop. pieces. 

Hurel de Lamare (u'-rfl-dfl-la-mar), 
Jacques Michel, Paris, 1772 Caen, 
1823 ; 'cellist and composer ; his 
friend Auber pub. some comp. under 
H.'s name. 

Huss (hoos), (i) G. J., b. Roth, near 
Niirnberg, Sept. 25, 1828; son and 
pupil of (2) Jn. Michael (pianist), 
also studied org. with Lambrecht; 
1848, America as organist various 
churches. 1856, New York, org. pf .- 


teacher and composer. (3) H. Hold- 
en, b. Newark, N. J., June 21, 1862 ; 
concert-pianist and teacher ; son and 
pupil of (i) ; studied with 0. B. 
Boise (cpt. and comp.), also at Mu- 
nich Cons.; lives in N. Y. as teacher 
of pf., comp. and instr.; pub. pf.- 
concerto, ballade " Haidenroslein" 
etc.; he has also works in MS., but 
performed with succ. : rhapsody for 
pf. and orch., "Festival Sanctus" 
for chorus and organ, with orch.; a 
vln. -concerto ; romanze and polonaise 
for vln. with orch.; a pf.-trio, ^ Cleo- 
patra's Death" etc. 
Hutch'inson, (i) J., organist and com- 
poser Durham cath., lyth cent. (2) 
Francis, English composer under 
pseudonym "Francis Ireland" 

' 1771. 

Hutschenruijter (hoot'-shen-roi-ter), 
(i) Willera, Rotterdam, 17961878 ; 
horn- and trumpet-virtuoso ; profess- 
or, conductor, director and dram, 
composer. (2) Willem, b. March 
22, 1828 ; son of above ; horn-virtu- 

Hiittenbrenner (hit' - ten - bren - ner), 
Anselm, Graz, Styria, 1794 Ober- 
Andritz, 1868 ; pianist, conductor 
and dram, composer. 

Hykaert (or Ycaert) (e-kart), Bd., 
cantor in Belgium, ca. 1480 ; theorist 
and composer. 

Hyllested (huT-lg-stadh), Aug., b. (of 
Danish parents) Stockholm, June 17, 
1858 ; violinist ; at 5 played in pub- 
lic; studied with Holger Dahl till 
1869, and then made succ. tour 
through Scandinavia ; entered the 
Royal Cons, at Copenhagen; 1876, 
organist of the Cath., and dir. of a 
mus. soc.; 1879, studied with Kullak, 
Kiel, and later Liszt ; 1885, toured U. 
S.; 1886-91, asst.-dir. Chicago Mus. 
Coll.; 1891-94, Gottschalk Lyric 
Sch.; 1894-97, toured Europe ; prod, 
in London, symph. poem "Eliza- 
beth" with double chorus; 1897, 
Chicago; c. romantic play "Die 
Rheinnixe" orch. "suite roman- 
tique," etc. 


Ibach (e'-biikh), (i) Jns. Ad., 1766 
1848; pf. and organ-builder. Ilisson 
(2) C. Rudolf (d. 1862), and (3) 
Richard, joined the firm ; a third 
son (4) Gustav J., founded another 
business 1869. (5) Rudolf (d. Herren- 
alb, Black Forest, July, 1892), son of 
(2), continued the pf. -factory, and 
Richard, the organ-factory. 

Iliffe (I'-ltf), Fr., b. SmeetonlWesterby, 
Leicester, Engl., Feb. 21, 1847; since 
1883, organist and choirm. St. John's 
Coll., Oxford ; cond. of Queen's 
Coll. Mus. Soc. 1873, Mus. Bac. 
Oxon.; wrote " Critical Analysis of 
Bach's Clavichord" (London^ 1896 ; 
4 parts) ; c. oratorio, " The Visions 
of St. John the Divine r ; cantata 
with orch. "Lara" etc. 

Ilinski (e-ttn'-shkl), Count Jan Stanis- 
law, b. Castle Romanov, 1795 '< 

Im'myns, (i) J., 1700 (?) London, 
1764 ; lutenist. (2) J., d. 1794 ; son 
of above ; organist. 

Inc'ledon, Chas., Bery St. Kevern, 
Cornwall, 17631826 ; tenor, called 
41 The Wandering Melodiste." 

Indy (dan-de), Paul M. Th. V. d', 
b.^ Paris, March 27, 1851; pupil of 
Cesar Franck (comp,) and at the 
Cons., 1875, chorusm. with Co- 
lonne ; played drum-parts for 3 years 
to learn instrumentation ; he is pres. 
of various concert-societies; mus.- 
inspector of Paris schools ; chev. of 
the Legion of Honour ; c. a 3-part 
symph. poem " Wallenstein" (Part 
II., "/ Piccolomini" prod. 1874 by 
Pasdeloup) ; symphonies (i) "On a 
French mountaineer-song" and (2) 
"Jean Hunyadi" symphonic legend 
"La foret tnchantee" ; overture to 
"Antony and Cleopatra" ; "La Che- 
vauche'e du Cid" for orch. ; sym- 
phonic pf.-concerto ; prod, i-act com- 
ic opera, " Attendtx-moi sous fOrme" 
(Op.-com., 1882); c. text and mus.; 
succ. mus. drama/ ' k ftrvaal" (Brus- 
sels, 1897); "EEtranger" (do. 1902). 

57 2 


Ingegneri (en-gan-ya'-re), Marco A., 
Venice (or Cremona), ca. 1540 Fer- 
rara (?), 1603 ; conductor, composer 
and publisher. 

Ing'lott, Wm., 15441621; Eng. 

Insanguine (en-san-gwe'-na), Giaco- 
mo (called Monopoli), Monopilo, 
1744 Naples, 1795; teacher and 
dram, composer. 

Ireland, Francis. Pen name of Hutch- 
inson (2). 

Irgang(er'-gang),Fr. Wm,, b. Hirsch- 
berg, Schleswig, Feb. 23, 1836 ; pu- 
pil of Grell and A. \V. Bach, R. 
Acad., Berlin, 1856-59; then teacher 
in Proksch's Sch., Prague; 1863, 
founded sen. at Gorlitz ; also organ 

Isaak (e'-zak), H. (or Isaac, Izak, 
Yzac, Ysack; in Italy Arrigo Te- 
desco, Henry the German; Low; 
Lat. Arrighus), ca. 1450 ca, 1517 
famous contrapuntist doubtless of 
Netherlandish birth; conductor and 

I'sham, J., d. London, 1726 ; organist 
and composer. 

Isido'rus (Hispalen'sis), Saint, Car- 
tagena, ca. 570636; writer (Gerbert). 

Isnardi (es-nar'-dc), Paolo, b. Ferrara, 
ca. 1525 ; conductor and composer. 

Isouard (e-zoo-ar), Niccol6 (called 
Niccolo de Malte), Malta, 1775 
Paris, March 23, 1818 ; pupil of 
Amendola, Sala, and Guglelmi ; or- 
ganist, conductor and prolific dram, 

Israel (es'-ra-e'l), K,, Heiligenrode, 
Electoral Hesse, 1841 -Frankfort- 
on-M., 1881; critic and bibliographer. 

I'van(h)ofF, Nicholas, b. 1809 ; Rus- 
sian tenor. 

Ives, Simon, d. London, 1662 ; Engl, 
singer and composer. 

Ivry (dev-re), Paul Xavier Desire", 
Marquis Richard d', b. Beaune, 
Cote D'Or, Feb. 4, 1829 ; pupil of 
A. Hignard and Leborne ; since 1854 
lives in Paris as amateur ; c. operas, 
" F&tma" " QuentinMetzys " (1854), 
"La Maison du Docteur" (Dijon, 

1855), " Omphaleet Ptnekpt" "Les 
Amants de Verone" (1867), under 
the pen-name " Richard Irvid;" 
revised as "Romeo et Juliette" 
1878; "Perseverance I? Amour" 
(MS.) ; concert-overture, songs, etc. 
Izac. Vide ISAAK. 


Tachet. Vide BERCHEM. 
Jachmann- Wagner (ya'kh'-man). Vide 


Jack'son, (i) Wm., Exeter, 1730 
1803 ; organist, writer, and dram, 
composer. (2) Wm., Masham, 
Yorks, Engl., 1815 Bradford, 1866; 
organist, conductor, writer and com- 
poser. (3) Samuel P., Manchester, 
Engl., 1818 Brooklyn, N. Y., 1885; 
composer; son of (4) James J., or- 
gan-builder. (5) Edwin W., Eng- 
lish justice of the peace, pub. in 
German (Leipzig, 1866) a valuable 
manual of finger-gymnastics. (6) J. 
P., English writer ; pub. books and 
transl. of Wagner's operas. 

Ja'cob, (i) Benj., London, 17781829; 
organist, conductor and composer. 
(2) F. A. L. , Vide JAKOB. 

Jacobs (zha-ko), Edouard.b. Hal, Bel- 
gium, 1851 ; pupil of Servais, Brus- 
sels Cons.; 'cellist Weimar ct. orch., 
for some years; 1885 prof. Brussels 

Jacobsohn (yak'-6p-zon), Simon E,, 
b. Mitau, Kurland, Dec. 24, 1839 1 
violinist ; pupil Leipzig Cons. ; 1860 
leader Bremen orch.; 1872, of Theo- 
dore Thomas's orch., N. Y.; teacher 
Cincinnati Cons., then Chicago. 

Jacobsthal (yalc'-ops-tal), Gv., b. Py- 
ritz, Pomerania, March 14, 1845 ; 
1872, lecturer on music Strassburg 
Univ.; 1875 professor extraordinary; 

Jacotin (rightly Jacques Godebrye), 
(zhSk-o-tan) (or god-bre), ca. 1445 
March 24, 1529; famous Flemish 
cptist. ; singer and composer at Ant- 


Jacquard (zhak-k&ri, Le*on J., Pans, 
1026 iS56 ; 'cellist ; composer. 

Jadassohn (ya-uas-zGn), Salomon, 
Breslau, Aug". 13, 1331 Leipzig, Feb. 
I, 1901 ; eminent theorist ; pupil of 
Hesse (pf.), Lustner (vlnJand Bro- 
sig (harm.); later Leipzig Cons., then 
with Liszt, and Hauptmann (comp.); 
from 1852 lived in Leipzig ; 1866 
cond. " Balterion" choral soc.; 1867- 
69 cond.' 1 Euterpe"; from 1871, prof. 
of pf.,harm., cpt., comp. and instru- 
mentation at the Cons. 1077, Dr. 
Phil., h t c.\ 1893 Royal Prof. He m. 
a singing-teacher. Wrote occasion- 
ally under name " Liibenau " (lu'- 
be-now). Pub. very succ. text-books 
all trans, in English. '* Harmonie- 
hhre" (Leipzig, 1833); " Kontra- 
funkf" (1884) ; " Kanon and Fuge" 
(1884); " Dit Formen in dui Werk- 
eti der 2'onkunst" (iSSg) ; " Lehr- 
buch der Instrzomni&tion " (1889) ; 
" A llgtmdm Musihkhrc" (1895). 
His comps. are notable for form, par- 
ticularly his many works in canon 
incl. serenade for orch. (op. 35), and 
ballet-mus.; which have won him the 
name " Musical Krupp " ; c. also 
4 symphonies ; 2 overtures ; a pf .- 
concerto ; The zooth Psalm, for 
double chorus with orchestration, 

Jadin (zha-dSn), (i) Louis Emman- 
uel, Versailles, 1768 Paris, 1853; 
prof., conductor and dram, compos- 
er. Son and pupil of (2) Jean J., 
violinist. (3) Hyacinthe, Versailles, 
1769 Paris, 1802 ; prof, and com- 
poser ; bro. and teacher of (i). 

Jaell (yal), (i) Alfred, Trieste, March 
5, 1832 Paris, Feb. 27, 1882 ; noted 
touring pianist and composer, son of 
(2) Eduard J. (d. Vienna, 1849). (3) 
Jaell-Trautmann, Marie, b. Stein- 
seltz, Alsatia, 1846 ; wife of (i) ; 
pianist, composer and writer. 

JarlS (yaf'-fa), Moritz, b. Posen, Jan. 
3, 1835; violinist; pupil of Ries Boh- 
mer (harm.), of Maurin and Massard, 
Laub, Wuerst and Bussler ; c. ope- 
ras, etc. 

Jahn (van), (Y) Otto, Kiel, June v\ 
iSis GOtilrigen. Sept. 9, i^; 
prof, of archeology, lionrt Univ. ; 
wrote a model biog. of Mu^art (1^5?;- 
59, 4vols.), etc., also composed. 12) 
Wm., Hof, Moravia, Nov. 24,1*3; 
Vienna, April 21, 1900; 1854 con- 
ductor ; dir. ct.-opera, Vienna, etc. 

Jahns (vans), Fr. Wm., Berlin, 1^09 
i33S' ; singer, composer and writer. 

Jakob (ya-kop), Fr. Auff. Lebe- 
recht, 'Kroitzsch, 1803 Liegnitz, 
1884 ; collector. 

Jakubowski (yak-oo-bof'-shkt). Sam- 
son, b. Kow'no, iSoi ; Polish com- 
poser; inv. and played the xylophone. 

James, (i) J., d. 1745 ; Engl. organ- 
ist and composer. (2) W. N., Kng. 
flutist and writer, 1824. 

Janiewiecz (yan'-e-vech), Felix, AVil- 
na, 1762 Edinburgh, 1848 ; violinist 
and composer. 

Jan (van), (i) Maistre. Vide CAL- 
LUS,' J. (2) K. von, b. Schweinfurt, 
1836 ; Dr. phil,, Berlin, 1859 ; writer. 

Jankd (yiing'-ko), Paul von, b. Totis, 
Hungary, June 2, 1856 ; pupil Poly- 
technic, Vienna, and at the Cons, 
with Hans Schmitt, Krenn, and 
Bruckner; iSSi-S2, mathematics at 
Berlin Univ., pf. with Ehrlich ; inv. 
in 1882 the admirable keyboard 
known by his name (v. D. D. ) ; 
taught in Leipzig Cons., etc. 

Jan(n)akoni (yan-na-ko'-ne), Gius., 
Rome, 1741 March 16, 1816 ; emi- 
nent church-composer ; conductor at 
St. Peter's ; pupil of Rinaldini and 

Jannequin (or Janequin, Jennekin) 
(zhan-kan), CUment, a French (or 
Belgian) contrapuntist of the i6th 
cent. ; nothing is known of him ex- 
cept that he lived to be old and poor ; 
c. genuine " programme " music. 

Janotha (ya-no'-ta), Nathalie, b. 
Warsaw ; pupil of Joachim and Ru- 
dorff, Clara Schumann, Brahms, and 
Princess Czartoryska, F. Weber 
(harm.) and Barglel ; debut at the 
Gewandhaus, Leipzig. 1874; 1885, 
ct. -pianist to the German Emperor, 



and decorated with many orders; 
pub. a trans, with additions of Mec- 
zvnski's " Chopin "; c. tl Ave Maria 
(dedicated to Pope Leo), Moun- 
tain Seems" (to Frau bchumann), 
gavottes, etc., for piano. . 

Jatowka(ya-n6f-ka), Thos. Baltha- 
sar, b. Kuttenberg, Bohemia ; or- 
rrnnist and writer at Prague ca. 1000. 
Tansa (van'-sa), Ld., Wildenschwert, 
J Bohemia, I 7 g4-Vienna, iS?5; vio- 
linist, teacher and composer. 
Jansea (van'-zi-n), F. Gv., b. Jever, 
J Hanover, Dec. 15, 1831; pupil of 
Coccius and Riccius; teacher at 
Guttingen ; 1855, organist Verden 
Cath.; 1861, Royal Mus. Dir.; com- 
poser and writer. 

Tanssen (vans' -zen), (i) N. A., ^ar- 
J thusianmonk; organist and writer at 
Louvain, 1845- (2) Julius, b. Yen- 
lo Holland, June 4, 1852 ; studied 
Cologne Cons.; 1876, cond. Mus. 
Soc Minden; later cond. at Dort- 
mund; 1890, city mus. dir.; cond. 
the ist and 2d Westphahan Mus. 
Festivals; pub. songs. 
Janssens (yans'-zens), Jean Fran. 
Jos., Antwerp, 1801 insane, 1835 ; 
dram, composer. 

Januschowsky (yan-oo-shof -shkK), 
(Frau) Georgine von, b, Austria, ca. 
1859- 1875, soprano in operetta at 
Sizmaringen; 1877, soubrette, Th. 
an derWien, Vienna; 1879-80, Leip- 
zio- ; 1880, Germania Th., New^ork ; 
13*92, at Mannheim and Wiesbaden ; 
1893-95, prima donna, Imp. Opera, 
Vienna; sang Wagner, etc., as well 
as leading soubrette-roles in over 60 
comic operas and operettas ; m. Ad. 

Japha (ya-fa), (r) G. Jos., Kfinigs- 
berg, 1835 Cologne, 1892; violin- 
ist. (2) Louise, b. Hamburg, Feb. 
2, '1826 ; pianist and composer ; pu- 
pil of Warendorf (pf.), Cross and 
Grund (comp.) and Robt and Clara 
Schumann; 1858, she m. W. Lang- 
hans, with whom she gave v. succ. 
concerts; since 1874, Wiesbaden; 
c. an opera, etc. 

Jarnefelt, b. Finland, 1869 ; stud- 
ied with Massenet, Paris ; composer. 

Jaquet (zha-ka). Vide BUUS. 

Jarecki (ya-rets'-ke), Henri, b. War- 
saw, 1846 ; dir. at Lemberg ; c. 
operas, incl. " Wanda" etc. 

Jarnowic (or Giornovi(c)chi) (yar -no- 
vek, or jor-no-ve'-ke), Giov. M., Pa- 
lermo, 1745-**. Petersburg, Wov. 
21, 1804; violinist and composer; 
pupil of Sully whose intolerable ec- 
centricities and immorality, as well as 
virtuosity, he adopted with disastrous 
results; J. B. Cramer challenged him, 
but he would not fight. 

Jar'vis, (i) Stephen, 1834 ?-London, 
iSSo; composer. (2) Chas. H., 
Philadelphia, 18371895 ; pianist 
and conductor. 

Jay, J., Essex, 1770 London, 1849 ; 

Jean le Coq, or Jehan. Vide CALLUS, 


Jedliczka (yat-lech'-ka), Ernest, b. 
Poltawa, Russia, June 5, 1855 ; pia- 
nist ; pupil of Moscow Cons. ; teacher 
there till 1888, then teacher Berlin, 
Stein Cons. 

Jeff cries, (i) G., organist to Chas. 
I., 1643. Had a son (2) Chris- 
topher, organist and composer. (3) 
Stephen, 16601712 ; Engl. organ- 
ist and composer. 

Je*hin (zha-an), Le"on, b. Spa, Bel- 
gium, July 17, 1853 ; violinist ; pu- 
pil of Leonard, Brussels Cons.; cond. 
at Antwerp and Vauxhall, Brussels ; 
1879-89, asst.-prof. of theory, Brus- 
sels Cons.; since cond. at Monaco; 

Je"hin (Je'hin-Prume) (zha-an-prum), 
Fz. H., Spa, Belgium, April 18, 
1839 Montreal, May 29,^1899; one 
of the most eminent violinists of Bel- 
gian sch. ; composer. 
Jelensperger (ya - len - shpSrkh - er), 
Daniel, near Mtihlhausen, Alsatia, 
1797 1831; writer. 

Jelinek (ye -It-nek), Fz. X., b. Kau- 
rins, Bohemia, 181 8 Salzburg, 1880; 
oboist and composer. 
Jenk'ins, (i) J., Maidstone, 1592 


Kimberley, Norfolk, 1678 ; court-lu- 
tist and lyra-violist to Chas. I. and 
II.; composed. "12 Sonatas for 2 
Vlns. and a Base, with a Thorough 
Base for the Organ or Theorbo" the 
first Engl. comp. of the sort; the 
pop. " The Lady Katherine Aiidley's 
Bells, or The Five Bell Consort'' 
etc. (2) David, b. Trecastell, Bre- 
con, Jan. i, 1849 1 pupil of Dr. Jos. 
Parry; 1878, Mus. Bac. Cantab.; 
1885, cond. America ; now prof. Univ. 
Coll. of Wales ; c. operetta, 2 ora- 
torios, 3 cantatas, A Psalm of Life, 

Jennekin (zhen-kan). Vide JANNE- 

Jensen (yen'-sgn), (i) Ad., Kdnigs- 
berg, Jan. 12, 1837 of consumption, 
Baden-Baden, Jan. 23, 1879 ; one of 
the most original and poetical of com- 
posers for piano and voice ; his pf .- 
pcs. have an unexcelled lyricism, al- 
most an elocution. Self-taught, but 
advised by L. Ehlert and Fr. Mar- 
burg ; before 20 had c. overtures, a 
string-quartet, sonatas and songs. 
1856, teacher in Russia ; then studied 
with Schumann ; 1857, cond. Posen 
City Th.; 1858-60, studied with 
Gade; 1860, returned to Konigs- 
berg; 1866-68, teacher at Tausig's 
Sch. in Berlin; compelled by ill- 
health to retire to Dresden, 1870 to 
Graz, finally to Baden-Baden. C. 
opera " Turandot" (finished by 
Kienzl) ; " Nonnengesang" and 
" Brautlicd" for solo and chorus with 
2 horns, harp and a piano, "Jephthds 
Toehter" and " Adonis-Feier" 
"Donald Caird ist ivieder da" 
and other vocal works with orch.; 
concert-overture ; " Geistliches Ton- 
sttiek"; " Hochzeitsmusik" " Abend- 
musik" " Lebensbilder " b "Silhouet- 
ten" and u Landliche Festnmsik" 
forpf. (4 hands); and " Inner -e Stim- 
men" " Wanderbilder" a sonata ; 6 
German Suites, " Idytten" " Eroti- 
kon " (7 pcs.), a scherzo, " Wald- 
Idylle" op. 47, "Scenes carnava- 
le$q^les" for pf.-solo ; and 160 solo 

songs. Biog. by Niggli. (2) Gus- 
tav, Konigsberg, 1843 Cologne, 
1895 ; pupil of Dehn (comp.) and 
Laub and Joachim (vln.) ; violinist 
Konigsberg Th.; 1872-75, prof, of 
cpt., Cologne Cons.; c. symphony, 

Jew'itt, R., d. 1675 ; Engl. organist 
and composer. 

Jimmerthal (yftn'-mer-tal), Hn., Lu- 
beck, 18091886 ; organist, org.- 
builder and writer. 

Joachim (yo'-a-khem), (i) Jos,, b. 
Kittsee, near Pressburg, June 28, 
1831 ; eminent violinist ; studied at 
5 with Szervadnski, Pesth, with 
whom he appeared in public at 7; 
from 1841, at Vienna Cons, with 
Bohm ; at 12, played in Leipzig, and 
soon after at the Gewandhaus, with 
muchsucc.; frequently leader of the 
Gewandhaus Orchestra ; 1844, made 
his first of many appearances in Lon- 
don ; 1849, Comer tmeister of the 
Weimar orch.; 1854, cond. and solo- 
violinist to the King of Hanover ; 
1863 m. Amalie Weiss (v. infra); 1868 
head of the new " Hochschule fur 
ausiibende Tonkunst," Berlin; later 
artistic dir.; 1895, dir.; 1877, Mus. 
Doc. //. c., Cambridge Univ.; has 
had many degrees from German Uni- 
versities, and various orders of 
knighthood ; holds undisputed pre- 
eminence as a classicist and solo-per- 
former; his famous J. Quartet includes 
De Ahna, Wirth and Hausmann, He 
c. the notable ' ' Hungarian " concerto, 
and 2 others, and famous variations 
with orch., also overture to "Ham- 
let"; 4 overtures incl. "DemAttden- 
kenKleists"; Hebrew Melodies, for 
via. and pf.; Op. 14, " Szene der 
Mar fa" (from Schiller's Demetrius), 
for contralto solo with orch.; three 
cadenzas to Beethoven's vln.-concer- 
tp, etc. (2) Amalie (nee Weiss, 
rightly, Schneeweiss), Marburg, 
Styria, May 10, 1839 Berlin, Feb. 
3, 1899; eminent concert and oper- 
atic soprano; then contralto and 
teacher ; wife of above. 


Joao IV. (zhown), King of Portugal, 
Villa-Vicosa, 1604 Lisbon, 1656 ; 
theorist and composer. 

Jocher (yekh'-er), Chr. GL, Leipzig, 
1694 1758 ; professor and writer. 

Johan'nes, (i) Cottp. Vide COTTO. 

(2) Damasce'nus (rightly Jns. Chry- 
sorrho'os), of Damascus, ca. 700 
ca. 760; composer, editor and writer. 

(3) De Garlan'dia. Vide GARLAN- 
DIA. (4) De Mu'ris. Vide MURIS. 
(5) Callus. Vide CALLUS. 

Johns, Clayton, b. New Castle, Del., 
Nov. 24, 1857 ; pupil of J. K. Paine, 
and W. H. Sherwood, Boston ; later 
with Kiel, Grabow, Raif, and Rum- 
mel (pf .) in Berlin ; since lives in 
Boston, Mass., as a concert-pianist 
and teacher; c. a Berceuse and 
Scherzino for string-orch. (played by 
Boston Symph. orch.) ; many pop. 
songs, etc. 

John'son, (i) Edw., English composer, 
1594. (2) Robert, Engl. i6th cent, 
ecclesiastic and church composer. 
(3) Robert, lutenist and prominent 
composer, 15731625. 

Jommelli (yom-meT-ft), Niccolo, 
Aversa, near Naples, Sept. II, 1714 
Naples, Aug. 28, 1774; eminent 
operatic and church-composer ; pupil 
of Canon Mozzillo, Durante, Feo, 
Leo, Prato and Mancini. C. ballets 
and songs, then dram, cantatas ; at 
23 prod, opera " L Err ore Amoroso " 
(Naples, 1737), under the name 
" Valentino " ; its succ. relieved his 
anxiety and removed his anonymity 
and he followed it with other succ. 
works in various cities under various 
patronage. He was made Dir, of 
the Cons, del Ospedaletto, Venice ; 
1748-54 asst. Maestro at St. Peter's, 
Rome, until 1754 ; cond. to the Duke 
of Wilrtemberg. Lived in Germany 
15 years and made great succ. He 
profited artistically by German influ- 
ence, but when the Stuttgart opera 
was disbanded and he retired to Italy 
his style was too serious and perhaps 
his best works " Armida Abbando- 
nata" (1770), " Demofoonte " (1770), 

and " Ifigenia in Tauride" (1771), 
were failures when prod, at Naples. 
The humiliation after such long tri- 
umph brought on apoplexy (1773), 
from which he recovered only long 
enough to write a cantata on the 
birth of a prince, and his masterpiece, 
a " Miserere." The King of Portu- 
gal commissioned him to write 2 
operas and a cantata ; but he did not 
live to finish them ; he c. over 50 
known operas and divertissements, 
and equally fine sacred mus., incl. 4 
oratorios, a magnificat, with echo, etc. 

Jonas (zho-nils), (i) Emile, b. Paris, 
March 5, 1827 ; pupil of Carafa at 
the Cons. ; from 1847 teacher there 
also mus.-dir. Portuguese synagogue. 
(2) (ho'-na's), Alberto, b. Madrid, 
June 8, 1868; pf. pupil of Olave and 
Mendizabal ; also at the Cons.; at 18 
with Gevaert, Brussels Cons.; won 
ist prize for pf., and later 2 first 
prizes in harm. ; debut, Brussels, 
1880; 1890, studied St. Petersburg 
Cons, under Rubinstein's tuition ; 
since toured Europe and America; 
1894 head of the pf.-dcp. Univ. of 
Michigan ; composer and writer. 

Joncieres (zhon-st-ars), F. Ludger 
Victorin de, b. Paris, April 12, 1839; 
studied painting, then mus. with El- 
wart at the Cons.; an ardent Wagne- 
rian, he left the Cons, because of El- 
wart's adverse opinion ; he is pres. 
"Soc. des Compositeurs de mu- 
sique," Chev. of the Legion of Hon- 
our, and officer of public instruction; 
since 1871 critic of La Libert^ etc. ; 
prod. 4 operas, incl. "Z<? Chevalier 
Jean" (Op. -com., 1885), a symph. 
ode, " La Mer "/ a " Symphonic ro- 
mantique" ; "Li Tsift," a Chinese 
theme for soil and orch, etc. 

Jones, (i) Robt, Engl. lutenist and 
composer, 1601-16; one of his songs, 
"Farewell dec re love," is alluded to 
in " Twelfth Night:' (2) Wm. 
(" of Nayland "), Lowick, Northamp- 
tonshire, 1726 Nayland, Suffolk, 
1 800 ; writer and composer. (3) J., 
1728 London, 1796 ; organist and 


composer. (4) (Sir) Wm., London, 
1746 Calcutta, 1794; writer. (5) 
Edw. (" Brady Brenin "), Llander- 
fel, Merionethshire, April 18, 1752 
London, April 18, 1824; Welsh 
harpist, writer and composer. (6) 
Griffith Rhys (or Caradog), b. 
Trecynon, Wales, Dec. 21, 1834; 
Welsh conductor ; as a youth cond. 
the choir " Cor Caradog," whence his 
sobriquet; 1872-73, cond. the succ. 
choir in the Crystal Palace competi- 
tions. (7) Griffith, British writer, 
pub. "A History of the Origin and 
Progress of Theoretical and Practi- 
cal Music" 1819. (8) Arthur Bar- 
clay, b. London, Dec. 16, 1869; pupil 
of Wingham and Banister; and at 
Guildhall Sch. of Mus., won a schol- 
arship ; 1889, Associate ; 1892, prof, 
of pf.; c. symphony, concert-over- 
ture, etc. (9) Sidney, Engl. compos- 
er of the succ. operetta " The Gaiety 
Girl" (London, 1893); " An Artist's 
Model" (Daly's Th., London, 1895); 
" The Geisha" (ibid., 1896), etc. 

Jor'dan, Jules, b. Willimantic, Conn., 
Nov. 10, 1850 ; studied singing with 
Osgood, Boston, Shakespeare, Lon- 
don, and Sbriglia, Paris; for 13 
years choirm. of Grace Ch., Provi- 
dence ; since 1880 cond. Arion 
Club ; c. comedy-opera "Rip Van 
Winkle" (pub. 1898); cantata with 
orch.; songs, etc. 

Joseffy (yo-zei'-fl), Rafael, b. Mis- 
kolcz, Hungary, July 3, 1853 ; emi- 
nent pianist ; pupil of Moscheles, 
Leipzig Cons., and Tausig ; toured 
Europe with succ. ; lived in Vienna ; 
for many years at New York; since, 
teacher Nat. Cons. ; c. pf .-pcs. 

Josquin. Vide DESPRES. 

Jouret (zhoo-ra), (i) Th., Ath, Belgi- 
um, 1821 Kissingen, 1887; critic and 
dram, composer. (2) Lon, b. Ath, 
Oct. 17, 1828 ; bro. of above ; pupil 
Brussel Cons, and since 1874 vocal 
teacher there ; c. 2 operas, cantatas, 

Journet (zhoor'-na), Marcel, b. Paris, 
1869; bass; pupil of the Cons.; debut 


Th. de la Monnaie, Brussels ; has 
sung often at Covent Garden;' and 
since 1900 at Met. Op., N. Y. 

Jousse (zhoos), J., Orleans, France, 
1760 1837 ; teacher and writer. 

Judenkunig (yoo' - den - koo - n!kh), 
Hans, b. Schwabisch-Gmimd ; luten- 
ist, violist and composer at Vienna, 

Jue (zhu), Edouard, b. Paris, 1794 
(?) ; violinist and writer. 

Jul(l)ien (zhul-yah), (i) Marcel Bd., 
Paris, 17981881 ; writer. (2) Jean 
Lucien Ad., b. Paris, June i, 1845 ; 
son of above; prominent critic and 
writer. (3) Louis Ant., Sisteron, 
Basses-Alpes, April 23, 1812 insane, 
Paris, March 14, 1860 ; pop. con- 
ductor and composer of dance music, 
etc. (4) Paul, Brest, France, Feb. 
12, 1841 at sea, 1866 ; violinist ; 
pupil Paris Cons., took ist prize; 
toured America, 1853^66. 

Jumilhac (zhu-mel-yak), Dom P. Be- 
noit de, near Limoges, 1611 St.- 
Germain-des-Pres, 1682 ; writer. 

Junck (yoonk), Benedetto, b. Turin, 
Aug. 24, 1852 ; pupil of Bazzini and 
Mazzucato ; lives in Milan ; c. string- 
quartet, etc. 

Jungmann (yoong'-man), (i) Albert, 
Langensalza, Prussia, 1824 Pan- 
dorf, near Vienna, 1892 ; professor 
and composer. (2) Ludwig (or 
Louis), Weimar, 18321892; teacher 
and composer. 

Jiingst (ytnkst), Hugo, b. Dresden, 
Feb. 26, 1853 ; studied at Cons, there; 
founded the Julius Otto Soc.; and 
cond. Male Choral Soc. ; 1898 made 
prof, by King of Saxony ; c. male 

Junker (yoonk'-er), K. L., Ohringen, 
ca, 1740 Kirchberg, 1797 ; writer 
and composer. 

Jupin (zhii-pan), Chas. Fran., Cham- 
be'ry, 1805 Paris, 1839; violinist, 
professor, conductor, and dram, com- 

Jurgenson (yur'-gn-zon), Peter, b. 
Reval, 1836 ; founded mus.-pub. 
house, Moscow, 1861. 




Kaan (kan) ("AlWst-Kaha "), H. 
von, b. Tarnopol, Galicia, May 29, 
1852 ; pianist ; pupil of Blodek and 
Skuhersky, Prague; since 1890, prof. 
at the Cons, there ; c. ballets, sym- 
phonic poem " Sakuntala "; etc. 

Kade (ka'-de 1 ), Otto, Dresden, 1825 
Schwerin, 1900; ct. -conductor, writer 
and composer. 

Kaff'ka (or Kawka) (kaf'-ka), Jn. 
Chr., b. Ratisbon, 1759 ; dram - com - 

Kafka (kaf'-ka), Jn. Nepomuk, Neu- 
stadt, Bohemia, 1819 Vienna, 1886; 

Kahl (kal), H., Munich, 1840 Ber- 
lin, 1892 ; conductor. 

Kahlert (ka'-lert), K. Aug. Timo- 
theus, Breslau, 18071864; writer 
and composer. 

Kahn (kan), Robt., b. Mannheim, 
July 21, 1865 ; pianist ; pupil of 
Ernst Frank and V. Lachner, Kiel, 
and Jos. Rheinberger (Munich, 1885); 
1891 founded Ladies' Choral Union, 
Leipzig; 1893 teacher of pf. Berlin 
Hochschule fur Musik ; c. serenade 
for orch., etc. 

Kahnt (kant), Chr. Fr., 1823 Leip- 
zig, 1897 ; mus. -publisher. 

Kaiser (ki'-zer), (i) K., Leipa, Bohe- 
mia, 1837 Vienna, 1890 ; founded 
sch. continued by his son (2) Rudolf. 
(3) Fr. Emil, b. Coburg, Feb. 7, 
1850 ; regimental bandm. Prague ; 
prod. 5 operas, incl. " Der Trompeter 
von Sakkingen " (Olmlitz, 1882). 

Kajamis (ka-ya'-noos), Robt., con- 
temporary cond. Philh. Orch. of Hel- 
singfors, Finland. 

Kal'beck, Max, b. Breslau, Jan. 4, 
1850 ; studied Munich Sch. of Mus. ; 
1875, writer, critic at Breslau ; now 
on the Wiener Montags-Revue, and 
the N&ues Tageblatt. 

Kalisch (ka'-llsh), Paul, b. Berlin, 
Nov. 6, 1855 ; tenor ; studied with 
Leoni ; sang Berlin ct. -opera ; m. 
Lilli Lehmann ; sang at Cologne and 
6 times in America, 

Kalischer (ka'-llsh-er), Alfred, b. 
Thorn, March 4, 1842; Dr. Phil., 
Leipzig LJ. ; studied with Burgel and 
Bohmer ; lives in Berlin, as a writer 
and teacher ; editor Neue Berliner 
Musikzeitung ; pub. " Lessing als 
Musikasthctlkcr " / " Musik und 
Moral" etc. 

Kalkbrenner (kalk'-bren-ner),(i) Chr., 
Minden, Hanover, 1755 Paris, 1806; 
writer and dram, composer. (2) Fr. 
Win. Michael, b. on a journey from 
Cassel to Berlin, 1788 d. of cholera 
Enghien-les-Bains, near Paris, June 
10, 1849 ; son and pupil of above ; 
very succ. pianist and teacher ; de- 
veloped modern octave-playing, left- 
hand technique and pedalling ; wrote 
valuable etudes and other comps.; 
also studied Paris Cons, and with 
Clementi and Albrechtsberger. (3) 
Arthur, d. near Paris, 1869 ; son of 
(2) ; composer. 

Kalliwoda (kal' - It - v5 - da), (i) Jn. 
Wenzel, Prague, 1801 Carlsruhe, 
1866 ; pianist, conductor and dram, 
composer. (2) Wm., Donaueschin- 
gen, 1827 Carlsruhe, 1893 ; son and 
pupil of above; dir., ct. -conductor, 
pianist and composer. 

Kallwitz, or Kalwitz. Vide CALVI- 


Kal'tenborn, Fz., violinist, conductor; 
member Seidl's and other orchestras 
at New York; asst.-cond. of Seidl 
Soc., Brooklyn, N. Y.; 1894 founded 
Kaltenborn quartet; 1899 founded 
the succ. K. orchestra, which gives 
summer concerts in N. Y. 

Kamienski (kam-T-en'-shkl), Mathias, 
Odenburg, Hungary, 1734 Warsaw, 
1821 ; teacher and composer of the 
first Polish Opera " The Wretched 
Made Happy" (1778), etc. 

Kammerlander (kSm'-mfr-lant-e'r), K., 
Weissenhorn, Swabia, 1828 Augs- 
burg, 1892; conductor and composer. 

Kandler (kant'-lSr), Fz. Sales, Klos- 
terneuberg, Lower Austria, 1792 
Baden, 1831 ; writer. 

Kaps (kaps), Ernst, Dsbeln, Saxony, 
1826 Dresden, 1887 ; est. piano 


factory, Dresden, 1859 ; succeeded 
by his sons. 

Kapsberger (kaps'-berkh-er), Jn. 
Hieronymus von, b. of noble Ger- 
man family, d. Rome, ca. 1650 ; 
virtuoso on theorbo, chitarrone, lute, 
and trumpet ; notable composer. 

Karajan (ka-ra-yan), Th. G. von, 
Vienna, 1810 1873 ; writer. 

Karasowski (ka-ra-shof'-shkl), Mo- 
ritz, Warsaw, 1823 Dresden, 1892; 
'cellist, writer and composer. 

Karganoff (kar-gan-yof), Genari, 
Kashetin, Caucasus, 1858 Rostroff- 
on-Don, 1890 ; pianist and composer. 

Karl, Tom, b. Dublin, Jan. 19, 1846 ; 
tenor; studied with H. Phillips, San- 
giovanni and Trivulzi ; sang in Ital- 
ian opera for years, went to America 
with Parepa-Rosa, then with "The 
Bostonians" in comic opera many 
years ; retired 1896 ; now vocal 
teacher, N. Y. 

Karow (ka'-rof), Karl, Alt-Stettin, 
1790 Bunzlau, Silesia, 1863 ; teach- 
er and composer. 

Kaskel (kas'-kel), Freiherr K. von, 

b. Dresden, Oct. 10, 1866; studied 
law at Leipzig, also mus. in the Cons, 
with Reinecke and Jadassohn (1886- 
87), and later with Wiillner and Jen- 
sen, Cologne ; now lives in Dresden ; 

c. succ. i-act opera " Hochzeitsmor- 
gen " (Hamburg, 1893) ; v. succ. 
opera '* Sjiua " (Cologne, 1895), etc. 

Kassraeyer (kes'-ml-gr), Moritz, Vi- 
enna, 1831 1885 ; violinist ; c. 5 
string-quartets, some of them hu- 

Kastner (kast'-neV), (i) Jn. G.,Strass- 
burg, March 9, 1810 Paris, Dec. 19, 
1867; pupil of Maurer and Romer; 
at 10, organist; at 20, bandm.; at 
25 had prod. 4 operas, and was sent 
by the town council to Paris, to study 
with Berton and Reicha ; 1837, 
pub. treatise " On Instrumentation" 
among others ; also methods adopted 
at the Paris Cons. ; lived there- 
after at Paris as teacher ; wrote 
learned essays and an " Encyckptdie 
de latmtsique" C. 3 later operas, 

incl. " Le dernier roi de Juda" his 
masterpiece, also 3 symphonies, 5 
overtures, 10 serenades for wind; 
" Litres-partitions " (symphony-can- 
tatas, prefaced by brilliant historical 
essays, incl. " Les dances des marts"), 
a vol. of 310 pages; "Z0 harpe 
dlole " (1856) ; "Les voix dt Paris" 
followed by " Les cris de Parts," 
grande symphonie humoristique voc. 
et instr. (1857); "Les Sirems" 
etc. Biogr. by Jan (Leipzig, 1886). 
(2) G. Fr. Eugen, Strassburg, 1852 
Bonn, 1882 ; son of above ; inv. 
the pyrophone (v. D. D.), and pub. 
work on it. (3) Emmerich, b. Vi- 
enna, March 29, 1847; editor and 

Kate (ka'-te), Andre" Ten, Amster- 
dam, 1796 Haarlem, 1858 ; 'cellist 
and dram, composer, 

Katzmayr (kats'-mlr), Marie, b. Vi- 
enna, March 6, 1869; colorature so- 
prano; pupil Frau Niklass-Kempner ; 
sang in Holland, then at Berlin, etc. 

Kauders (kow'-drs), Albert, critic in 
Vienna, and composer of comic opera. 

Kauer (kow'-er), Fd., Klein-Thaya, 
Moravia, Jan. 8, 1751 Vienna, 
April 13, 1831; prolific c. of Sing- 
spiele ; organist, conductor, 'cellist ; 
c. 2,000 operas and operettas. 

Kauffmann (kowf'-man), (i) Ernst 
Fr,, Ludwigsburg, 1803 Stuttgart, 
1856; pianist and composer. (2) Enril, 
b. Ludwigsburg, Nov. 23, 1836; violin- 
ist ; son of above ; pupil of Stuttgart 
Cons.; since musical dir. Tubingen 
Univ.; Dr. phiL, 1885. (3) Fritz, b. 
Berlin, June 17, 1855 ; a druggist, 
Leipzig and Hamburg ; took up mu- 
sic, 1878, entered the Akademische 
Hochschule at Berlin, won Mendels- 
sohn prize for comp. 1881; till 1889, 
lived in Berlin as a teacher and cond. 
of the " Gesellschaftsconcerte " at 
Magdeburg ; 1893, Royal Musik-Di- 
rector ; c. comic opera, "Die Herz- 
krankheit"; symphony, etc. 

Kaufmann (kowf'-man), (i) G. Fr., 
Ostramondra, Thuringia, 1679 Mer- 
seburg, 1735; organist, director, 


writer and composer. (2) Jn. Gf., 
Siegmar, Saxony, 1751 Frankfort, 
1818 ; maker of musical clocks. (3) 
Fr., Dresden, 17851866; son of 
above ; inv. the " Belloneon," etc. 
His son (4) Fr. Theodor, Dresden, 
18231872, developed the " Orches- 
trion." (5) Robert, b. Basel, and 
later there studied with Rossi, Du- 
prez and Stockhausen ; oratorio tenor ; 
has sung in many capitals. 

Kayser(kl'-zer), (i) Ph. Chr., Frank- 
fort, 1755 Zurich, 1823; pianist. 
(2) H. Ernst, Altona, 1815 Ham- 
burg, 1888, violinist and teacher. (3) 
Fr. Emil. Vide KAISER. 

Kazynski (ka-zen'-shkl), Victor, b. 
Wilna, Lithuania, Dec. 18, 1812 ; pu- 
pil of Eisner, Warsaw ; prod. 3 op- 
eras ; 1843, cond. Imp. Th. St. Peters- 

Kearns (karnz), Wm. H., Dublin, 
1794 Kennington, 1846; violinist 
and composer. 

Keck von Giengen (kSk f on geng'-en), 
Jn., Benedictine monk at Tegernsee, 
Upper Bavaria, ca. 1450; writer. 

Kee'ble, J., Chichester, 17111786; 
organist, teacher and composer. 

Kee'ley, Mrs. M. A.,b. Ipswich, 1805; 
English soprano. 

Keinspec (or Keinsbeck, Kiin- 
speck, and wrongly Reinspeck) 
(kin'-shpe'k), Michael, of Nurnberg ; 
pub. one of the first theoretical works 
printed at Basel, 1496. 

Keiser (ki'-ze'r), Reinhard, Teuchern, 
near Weissenfels, Jan. 9, 1674 
Hamburg^ Sept. 12, 1739 ! tne father 
of German opera, the first to employ 
popular subjects and to leave the 
Italian and French pattern ; also note- 
worthy for his instrumentation and 
dramatic force ; pupil of his father ; c. 
116 operas at Hamburg from 1694; 
mgr. the opera there, ct. cond. and 
later canon and cantor ; c. also orato- 
rios, masses, etc. 

Keler Bela (rightly Albert von Ke- 
ler) (ka'-lSr ba'-la), Bartfeld, Hun- 
gary, Feb. 13, 1820 Wiesbaden, 

Nov. 20, 1882; violinist, conductor 
and composer. 

Keller, (i) Gottfried (called God- 
frey), b. in Germany ; teacher and 
writer in London, 1707. (2) Max, 
Trostberg, Bavaria, 1770 Allotting, 
1855 ; organist and composer. (3) 
K., Dessau, 1784 Schaffhausen, 
1855 ; ct.-flutist, conductor and com- 
poser. (4) F. A. E., inv., 1835, the 
unsucc. " pupitre-improvisateur " (v. 
D. D.), and pub. a method. 

Kellermann, (i) Berthold, b. Nurn- 
berg, March 5, 1853 ; pianist ; pupil 
of his parents and of Liszt ; 1878-81 
Wagner's secretary ; 1882, teacher 
Munich R. Mus. Sch.; conductor and 
ct.-pianist. (2) Chr., Randers, Jut- 
land, 1815 Copenhagen, 1866; 'cel- 
list and composer. 

Kel'ley, Edgar Stillman, b. Sparta, 
Wis., April, 14, 1857 ; one of the 
most original and brilliant of Amer- 
ican composers ; pupil of F. W, 
Merriam, Clarence Eddy, and N. 
Ledochowski (Chicago), and 1876-80 
of Seifriz (corap.), Kriiger and Spei- 
del (pf.) and Fr. Finck (org.), at 
Stuttgart ; organist at Oakland and 
San Francisco, Cal.; cond. comic 
opera, 1890-91; teacher pf., org., 
and corap. in various schools ; lately 
N. Y. Coll. of Mus.; critic for the 
Examiner, San Francisco, 1893-95 ; 
and essayist (or various periodicals ; 
since 1896 lecturer on music for the 
Univ. of New York; 1901-02 at 
Yale University; c. " Gulliver" 
humorous symph.; Chinese suite, 
" Aladdin" for orch. ; comic opera, 
" Puritatiia" (Boston, 1892); succ. 
incid. music to Macbeth and to Beit. 
Hur, both for chorus and orch.; 
string-quartet, op. i (MS.) ; " Wed- 
ding-Ode" for tenor solo, male chorus 
and orch. (MS.) ; 6 songs, " Phases 
of Low" ; notable songs, "Eldo- 
rado " and " hrafcl" and others. 

Kel'lie, Lawrence, b. London, April 
3, 1862 ; tenor and composer ; stud- 
ied at R. A. M. and with Kandegger; 
debut Covent Garden, 1886. 


Kell'ner, (i) David, dir. German ch. 
and Th. at Stockholm, 1732. (2) 
Jn. Peter, Grafenroda, Thuringia, 
jyog !78S ; organist and composer. 
(3) Jn. Chp., Grafenroda, 1735 
Cassel, 1803 ; son of above ; ct-or- 
ganist and dram, composer. (4) G. 
Chr., d. Sept., 1808; teacher and 
writer at Mannheim. (5) Ernst 
Aug., Windsor, England, 1792 
London, 1839 ; probably a grandson 
of (3); barytone, pianist and organist. 

Kel'logg, Clara "Louise, b. Sumter- 
ville, S. C., July, 1842; noted so- 
prano ; 1856-61, studied in New 
York ; debut Acad. of Mus. (1861) ; 
debut, London, at H. M's. Th. 
(1867), as Margherita, with great 
succ.; sang in many capitals. 

Kel'ly, Michael, Dublin, 1762 Mar- 
gate, 1826 ; tenor and dram, compos- 
er ; friend of Mozart ; wrote musical 
" Reminiscences." 

Kel'way, (i) Thos., d. 1749 5 Engl. 
organist and composer. (2) Joseph, 
d. 1782 ; bro. of above ; organist, 
harpsichordist, and composer. 

Kem'ble, Adelaide, b. 1814 ; retired 
1843 ; daughter of the actor Chas. 
Kemble ; operatic singer. 

Kemp, (i) Jos., Exeter, 1778 Lon- 
don, 1824 , organist and composer. 
(2) Robert (called "Father Kemp"), 
Wellfleet, Mass., 1820 Boston, 
1897 ; organised and cond, pop. 
"Old Folks' Concerts" ; wrote auto- 

Kemp'is, Nicholas A., organist and 
composer at Brussels, 1644-50. 

Kemp'ter, (i) K., Limbach, Bavaria, 
1819 Augsburg, 1871 ; conductor. 

(2) Lothar, b. Lauingen, Bavaria, 
Feb. 5, 1844; cond., professor, and 
dram, composer; son and pupil of 

(3) Fr. K. (music-teacher) ; studied 
Munich Univ., then with Rhein- 
berger; chorus-dir.; since 1886 prof, 
of mus. theory, Zurich Mus. Sch. 

Ken'dall, J., organist and composer, 

London, 1780. 
Kenn, P., German horn- virtuoso and 

composer ; 1782 at Paris. 

Ken'nedy, David, Perth, 18251886; 

Kent, Jas,, Winchester, Engl.,i7oo 
1776 ; organist and composer. 

Kepler (ka -pier), Jns., Weil, Wurtem- 
berg, 1571 Ratisbon, 1630 ; astron- 
omer ; writer. 

Kede (kerl), Jacques de, b. Ypres, 
Flanders, i6th cent. ; conductor and 

Kerl(l) (Kherl, Cherl), Jn. Caspar, 
Gaimersheim, near Ingolstadt, 1621 
Munich, Feb. 13, 1693 ; organist, 
ct. -conductor, teacher, and notable 
composer of the " Missa nigra " (all 
in black notes), etc. 

Kes (kas), Willem, b. Dordrecht, 
Holland, Feb. 16, 1856 ; violinist ; 
pupil of Bbhm, etc., then of David, 
and, under royal patronage, of Wien- 
iawski, and Joachim ; 1876, leader 
Park Orch. and Felix Meritis Soc., 
Amsterdam; then cond. "Society" 
concerts, Dordrecht ; 1883-95 cond, 
at Amsterdam ; 1895 Glasgow orch. ; 
1898 cond. Philh. and dir. Moscow 

Kes'sel, Fz., th.-cond., 1889, at Frei- 
burg-in-the-Breisgau ; c. a symph. 
and succ. opera, " Die Schwestern" 
(Trier, 1895). 

Kess ler, (i) Fr., preacher and writer. 
(2) Fd., Frankfort-on-Main, 1793 
1856 ; violinist and composer. (3) 
(rightly Kotzler) (kets'-ler), Jos. 
Chp., Augsburg, 1800 Vienna, 
1872 ; teacher, organist and compos- 

Ket'ten, H., Baja, Hungary, 1848 
Paris, 1883 ; pianist and composer. 

Kettenus (ket-ta'-noos) (or ket-nus), 
Aloys, Verviers, 1823 London, 
1896 ; violinist and dram, composer. 

Ketterer (kgt-tu-ra), Eugfene, Rouen, 
1831 Paris, 1870 ; pianist and com- 

Keurvels (kur'-vels), Edw. H. J., b. 
Antwerp, 1853 ; pupil of Benoit ; 
till 1882, chorusm, Royal Th. ; since 
cond. Nat. Flemish Th., Antwerp ; 
c. operas, cantatas, etc. 

Kewitsch (Kiewics) (ka-vftsh or 


ke-vech), (Karl) Theodor, b. Po- 
silge, W. Prussia, Feb. 3, 1834 ; son 
and pupil of an organist; studied 
with Maslon ; oboist, then teacher 
and organist in different towns ; pen- 
sioned 1887, then editor, etc. 

Kiel (kel), Fr., Puderbach, near Sie- 
gen (Rh. Prussia), Oct. 7, 1821 
Berlin, Sept 14, 1885; notable 
teacher and composer of classic sch. ; 
self-taught as pianist and composer ; 
vln. -pupil of Prince Karl von Wittgen- 
stein and later, on stipend from Fr. 
Wm. IV., studied with Derm; lives 
in Berlin ; 1868 " Royal Prof." ; c. 
oratorios, etc. 

Kiene (ke'-ne 1 ). Vide BIGOT. 

Kienle (ken'-le 1 ), Ambrosius, b. Sieg- 
maringen, May 8, 1852 ; Benedictine 
monk and writer. 

Kienzl (kents'-'l), Wm., b. Waizen- 
kirchen, Upper Austria, Jan. 17, 
1857; pupil of Buwa, Uhl, Rerny, 
Mortier de Fontain, Jos. Krejci, and 
later, Liszt; 1879 Dr. Phil, at Vienna; 
1880 lectured at Munich; 1881-82 
toured as pianist; 1883-84 chief cond. 
of German Opera, Amsterdam ; 1886 
m. the concert-singer Lili Hoke ; 
1886-90 dir. Styrian Musikverein at 
Graz and cond.; 1890-92, ist cond. 
Hamburg Opera ; 1892-93, at Mu- 
nich ; 1899-1901 at Graz as com- 
poser. His first opera " Urvasi" 
(Dresden, 1886) was succ., as was 
" Hdlmar, der Narr" (Munich, 
1892), and still more so " Der Evan- 
gelimann "/ c. also " Heilmann the 
Fool" "Don Quichote" a "musical 
tragi-comedy " ; he finished Jensen's 
" Turandot" and c. also 90 songs, 

Kiesewetter (ke -ze'-ve't-te'r), Rapha- 
el G. (Edler von Wiesenbrunn), Hol- 
leschau, Moravia, 1773 Baden, near 
Vienna, 1850; important coll. of 
mus. MSS. and historian of many ob- 
scure periods, etc. ; later ennobled. 

Kiewics. Vide KEWITSCH. 

Kim'ball, Josiah, Topsfield, Mass., 
1761 1826; teacher and composer 
of psalm-tunes, etc. 

Kind (ktnt), J. F. ? Leipzig, 1768 
Dresden, 1843; librettist of "Der 
Freiscktitz," afterwards composer. 

Kindermann (klnt'-e'r-man), (i) Jn. 
Erasmus, b. Nurnberg, 1616 after 
1652 ; organist and composer. (2) 
Aug., Potsdam, 1817 Munich, 1891; 
barytone. (3) Hedwig, daughter of 
above. Vide REICIIER, K. 

King, (i) Wm., 16241680; Engl, 
organist and composer. (2) Robt., 
d. after 1711 ; Engl. composer. (3) 
Chas., Bury St. Edmunds, 1687- 
London, 1748 ; composer. (4) Mat- 
thew Peter, London, 1773 1823 ; 
theorist and dram, composer. (5) 
Oliver A., b. London, 1855; pianist; 
pupil of "W. H. Holmes, and Rei- 
necke, Leipzig Cons. ; pianist to the 
Princess Louise, 1879; toured Can- 
ada and New York; 1899 pf.-prof. at 
R. A. M.; c. cantatas, I47th Psalm, 
with orch. (Chester Festival, 1888), 
a symphony, "Night" (6) Julie, 

Kink' el, Johanna (nee Mockel, di- 
vorced Matthieux), Bonn, 1810 ; 
London, 1858 ; writer and dram, 

Kipke (ktp'-kc), K., b. Breslau, Nov. 
20, 1850 ; editor. 

Kip'per, Hn., b. Coblenz, Aug. 27, 
1826 ; pupil of Anschutz and H. 
Dorn ; teacher and critic at Cologne; 
c. operettas. 

Kircher (kerkh'-er), Athanasius, 
Geisa (Buchow ?), near Fulda, 1602 
Rome, 1680 ; Jesuit archceologist and 
coll. of airs, some of them supposed 
to have curative effects. 

Kirchl (kerkh'-'l), Ad., b. Vienna, 
June 16, 1858 ; choirm. " Schubert- 
bund," Vienna ; c. male choruses, 

Kirchner (kerkh'-ner), (i) Fz., b. Pots- 
dam, Nov. 3, 1840 ; pianist ; pupil 
Kullak's Acad., where he taught 
1864-89, then in the Madchenheim 
sch., Berlin ; c. pf.-pcs., etc. (2) 
Hn., b. Wolfis, Thuringia, Jan. 23, 
1861 ; concert-tenor, and composer at 
Berlin. (3) Theodor, b. Neukirchen, 


near Chemnitz, Saxony, Dec. 10, 
1824. ; pupil of J. Knorr (pf.), K. F. 
Becker (org.), Jn. Schneider, and at 
Leipzig Cons.; 1843-62, organist 
Winterthur ; 1862-72, teacher Zurich 
Mus. Sch., and cond.; 1873-75, dir. 
Wiirzburg Cons., Leipzig ; 1883, 
Dresden ; 1890, Hamburg ; c. 90 pf.- 
pcs., etc. 

Kirk'mann, (i) Jacob (rightly Kirch- 
mann), d. London, 1778 ; founder 
(before 1740) of the firm of harpsi- 
chord-makers, K. & Son, the " son " 
being his nephew, (2) Abraham K. 
(3) Jan., b. Holland, d. Norwich, 
1799 ; organist and composer, Lon- 
don, 1782. 

Kirnberger (kern'-berkh-er), Jn. Ph., 
Saalfeld, Thuringia, 1721 Berlin, 
1783 ; eminent theorist, conductor 
and composer. 

Kist (kest), Florent Corneille (Flo- 
rens Cornelius), Arnheim, 1796 
Utrecht, 1863 : horn-player and flut- 
ist ; editor, conductor and composer. 

Kist'ner, (i) Fr., Leipzig, 17971844; 
pub. His son (2) Julius succeeded 
him. (3) Cyrill, b. Grossaitingen, 
near Augsburg, March 12, 1848 ; 
school-teacher; studied with Wiill- 
ner, Rheinberger, and Fr. Lachner ; 
1883 teacher Sondershausen Cons.; 
since 1885 lives in Bad Kissingen as 
principal of a sch., pub. of text-books, 
incl. "A Harmony, based on Wag- 
ner," etc.; c. 2 operas; a succ. 
* ' musical comedy " " Eulenspiegel" 
(Wiirzburg, 1893) ; etc. 

Kitch'iner, Win., London, 1775 
1827 ; a wealthy physician ; writer 
and dram, composer. 

Kittel (k!t'-tel), Jn.Chr., Erfurt, Feb. 
12, 1732 May 9, 1809 ; J. S. Bach's 
last pupil; organist in Erfurt; famous 
but ill-paid virtuoso and teacher. 

Kittl (kft'-'l), Jn. Fr., b. Schloss, Wor- 
lik, Bohemia, 1806 Lissa, 1868 ; 
conductor and dram, composer. 

Kitzler (klts'-lSr), Otto, b. Dresden, 
March 16, 1834 ; pupil of Schneider, 
Otto, and Kummer ('cello), later of 
Servais and Fetis, Brussels Cons. ; 

'cellist in opera-orchs. at Strassburg 
and Lyons; cond. at various theatres; 
1868 dir. Brunn Mus. Soc. and Mus. 
Sch., also cond. of the Mannerge- 
sangverein; pub. orch.-mus., pf.- 
pcs., etc. 

Kjerulf (k'yi'-roolf), Halfdan, Sept. 
17, 1818 Christiania, Aug. n, 1868; 
teacher and composer ; gave up the- 
ology for music ; studied at Leipzig ; 
settled in Christiania ; c. songs and 

Klafsky (Lohse-Klafsky) (klaf 1 - 
shkl), Katharina, St. Johann, Hun- 
gary, 1855 Hamburg, 1896; sopr.; 
pupil of Mme. Marches! ; sang in 
comic opera chorus, later leading 
Wagnerian roles in Europe and Amer- 
ica ; m. Otto Lohse. 

Klauser (ktow'-zfr), (i) K., b. of 
Swiss parents, St. Petersburg, Aug. 
24, 1823 ; chiefly self-taught ; 1850, 
New York; 1856, Mus. -Dir. Far- 
mington Cons.; editor. (2) Julius, 
b. New York, July 5, 1854 ; pupil of 
Wenzel, Leipzig Cons. ; mus. -teacher, 
Milwaukee; pub. " The Septonate 
and the Centralization of the Tonal 
System" (1890). 

Klauwell (klow'-vel), (i) Ad.,Langen- 
salza, Thuringia, 1818 Leipzig, 
1879 ; teacher, writer, etc. (2) Otto, 
b. Langchsalza, April 7, 1851 ; 
nephew of above ; pupil of Schulp- 
forta, and at Leipzig Cons. ; Dr. 
Phil. ; 1875 P r f- Cologne Cons. ; 
since 1885, dir. Teachers' Seminary; 
writer and dram, composer. 

Klee (Ida), L., b. Schwerin, April 13, 
1846 ; pupil of Th. Kullak, and until 
1875, teacher Kullak's Acad. , then dir. 
of his own sch.; " Musik-Direktor," 
writer and editor. 

Kleeberg (kla-br), Clotilda, b. Paris, 
June 27, 1866 ; pianist ; pupil of 
Mmes. Retz and M assart at the Cons., 
won ist prize; debut, at 12, with 
Pasdeloup orch. ; toured Europe with 
great succ. ; 1894, Officier de 1' Acad- 

Kleeraann (kla'-man), K., b. Rudol- 
stadt, Sept. 9, 1842 ; pupil of Miiller; 


1878, studied in Italy; then 2nd 
opera cond. and ct. mus.-dir. Des- 
sau ; c. 2 symphonies, etc. 

Kleffel (klef'-fel), Arno, b. Possneck, 
Thuringia, Sept. 4, 1840; studied 
Leipzig Cons., and with Hauptmann ; 
1863-67, dir. Riga Mus. Soc.; then 
th. cond. in Cologne ; later teacher of 
theory, Stern's Cons. , Berlin ; 1895, 
professor; c. opera, Christmas le- 
gend, overtures, etc. 

Klein (kiln), (i) Jn. Jos., Arnstadt, 
1740 Kahla, near Jena, 1823 ; writ- 
er. (2) Bd., Cologne, 1793 Ber- 
lin, 1832 ; teacher and composer. 
(3) Joseph, 180262, bro. of above ; 
lived as composer in Berlin and Co- 
logne. (4) Bruno Oscar, b. Osna- 
briick, Hanover, June 6, 1858 ; sou 
and pupil of (5) Carl K. (organist 
Osnabrilck Cath.); (4) studied at Mun- 
ich Cons.; 1878, gave concerts in 
America; 1883, New York; 1884, chief 
pf.-teacher Convent of the Sacred 
Heart; also, 1884-94, organist St. 
Francis Xavier, and 1887-92, prof, 
of cpt. and comp. Nat. Cons.; 1894- 
95, gave concerts in Germany; prod, 
succ. gr. opera, *' Kenilwortk" 
(Hamburg, 1895), vln.-sonata, etc. 
(6) Hermann, b. Norwich, Eng. ; 
critic and teacher ; studied law ; 1874 
singing with Manuel Garcia; 1881- 
1901, critic London Sunday Times; 
1887, prof, of singing at Guildhall ; 
1896, dir. opera-class (vice Weist 
Hill) ; 1902, New York. 

Kleinmichel (klm'-mlkh-'l), (i) Her- 
mann; (?) 1816 Hamburg, 1894; 
bandmaster. (2) Richard, Posen, 
Dec. 31, 1846 Sept., 1901; son and 
pupil of above ; studied also at Ham- 
burg and at Leipzig Cons. ; teacher, 
Hamburg ; 1876, Leipzig; 1882, mus. 
dir. City Th. ; c. 2 operas ; 2 sym- 
phonies ; chamber-music, valuable 
etudes, etc. ; m. a dramatic soprano, 
(3) Clara Monhaupt. 

Klengei (kleng'-el), (i) Aug. Alex. 
(" Kanon-Klengel "), Dresden, 1784 
1852 ; organist and composer of an 
attempt to rival Bach's "Well-tem- 

pered Clavichord," etc. (2) Paul, b. 
Leipzig, May 13, 1854; pianist and 
violinist; Dr. phil., Leipzig; 1881- 
86, cond., Leipzig, "Euterpe" con- 
certs; 1888-93, 2nd ct-cond., Stutt- 
gart; cond. " Arion," Leipzig; 1898, 
New York. (3) Julius, b. Leipzig, 
Sept. 24, 1859 ; bro. of above ; 'cel- 
list, pupil of Emil Hegar ('cello) and 
Jadassohn (comp.); ist 'cello in Ge- 
wandhaus Orch., and teacher at the 
Cons.; composer. 

Kliebert (kle'-bSrt), K., b. Prague, 
Dec. 13, 1840 ; pupil of Rheinberger 
and Wullner, Munich ; 1876, dir. R. 
Sch. of Mus., Wurzburg. 

Klinck'erfuss (-foos), Johanna, b. 
Hamburg, March 22, 1856 ; pupil of 
Beer and Liszt ; notable ct.-pian- 

Klindworth (klmt'-vort), K., b. Han- 
over, Sept. 25, 1830 ; pianist, emi- 
nent teacher and editor ; self-taught 
pianist ; at 6 played in public ; at 17, 
cond. of an opera-troupe ; 1849, 
teacher at Hanover ; 1852, a Jewish 
woman advanced him money to study 
with Liszt ; 1854, music-debut, Lon- 
don ; Wagner admired him, and they 
became friends. 1854-68, he gave 
concerts and lessons, London ; then 
pf.-prof. Imp. Cons. Moscow ; while 
here he completed two monument- 
al works, his pf. -scores of Wagner's 
"Ring des Nibelungen" and a rev. 
ed. of Chopin. 1882-92, cond. at 
Berlin the Wagnerverein and (with 
Joachim and Wullner) the Philharm. 
Concerts. Est. a ' ' Klavierschule " 
(Sch. of Pf. -playing), later united 
with the Scharwenka Cons., 1893, 
when he retired to Potsdam ; com- 
rjosed piano-pieces. 

Kling, H., b. Paris, Feb. 17, 1842; 
prof. Geneva Cons, and teacher in 
city schools ; writer and dram, com- 

Klingenberg (kttng-en-beYkh), Fr. 
Wm., b. Sulau, Silesia, June 6, 1809 J 
1840-85, cantor, Peterskirche, Gor- 
litz ; c. a symphony, etc. 

Klitzsch (klltsh), K. Emannd, 


Schonhaide, Saxony, iS 12 Zwickau, 
1889 ; writer and composer. 

Klose" (klo-za), Hyacinthe Eteonore, 
Isle of Corfu, iSoS Paris, iSSo; 
clarinettist and prof., Paris Cons.; 

Klous (kloos), Augusta (stage-name 
Doria) ; b. Boston, U. S. A. ; con- 
tralto ; pupil of Hey, Berlin, 1895, 
Vannuccini, Florence, and Bax, 
Paris ; debut, Monte Carlo, 1899, 
taking name " Doria " ; has sung at 
Brussels and Rouen. 

Klotz (klots), family of Bavarian vio- 
lin-makers at Mittenwald. The first 

(1) jEgidius, sen., the best; his son 

(2) Matthias (ca. 166096). Mat- 
thias's sons were (3) Sebastian and 
(4) Joseph, and their sons (5) Georg, 
(6) Karl, (7) Michael, and (8) JEgi- 
dius, Jr. 

Klughardt (klookh'-hart), Aug. (Fr. 
Martin), b. Kothen, Nov. 30, 1847 ; 
pupil of Blassmann and Reichel, 
Dresden ; ct.-cond. at Neustrelitz and 
later at Dessau ; prod. 4 operas, the 
notable symphonic poem, " Leonore" ; 
3 symph. (i. "Waldwelen"}, over- 
tures " Im Frilhling "y " Sophonis- 
be" " Siegesouvertiire" and " Fest- 
oimertiire" etc. 

Knabe (k'na'-be), (i) Wm., Kreuz- 
burg, Prussia, 1803 Baltimore, 1864; 
founder of pf. -factory at Baltimore, 
Md.; succeeded by his sons (2) Will- 
iam (184189) and (3) Ernest, and 
they by (4) Ernest J. (b. July 5, 1869) 
and (5) Wm. (b. March 23, 1872). 

Knauth (knowt). Vide FRANZ, ROBT. 

Knecht (knelht), Justin H., Biberach, 
Wtirtemberg, Sept. 30, 1752 Dec. i, 
1817; rival of Vogler as organist, and 
important theorist, conductor and 

Kneisel (km'-zel), Fz., b. of German 
parents in Roumania, 1865 ; violin- 
ist ; pupil of Grtin and Hellmesberg- 
er, Vienna ; Konzertmeister, H of burg 
Th.-Orch.; then of Bilse's Orch., Ber- 
lin ; since 1885, leader and soloist, Bos- 
ton Symphony Orch. ; 1887, founded 
the "Kneisel Quartet," which has 

played with greatest succ, in Amer- 
ica and Europe ; 1902, cond. Worces- 
ter (Massachusetts) Festival. 

Kniese (kne'-ze), Julius, b. Roda, near 
Jena, Dec. 21, 1848 ; pianist and or- 
ganist ; pupil of Stade, at Altenburg, 
Brendel and C. Riedel, Leipzig ; 
1884-89, mus.-dir. at Aix ; 1882, 
chorusm. at Bayreuth, where he lived ; 
1889, dir. Preparatory Sch. for Stage- 
Singers ; c. opera, " Konig Witti- 
c/iis"; symphonic poem, " Frith- 
jof" etc. 

Knight (nit), Jos. Philip, Bradford- 
on-Avon, 1812 Great Yarmouth, 
1887 ; organist and composer of 
songs incl. " Rocked in the Cradle of 
the Deep" 

Knorr (knor), (i) Julius, Leipzig, 1805 
1861 ; pf. -teacher and deviser of 
standard rudimentary exercises ; pub. 
" Methods" etc. (2) Ivan, b. Mewe, 
West Prussia, Jan. 3, 1853 ; studied 
Leipzig Cons, with Richter, Rein- 
ecke ; 1883, prof, of theory, Hoch 
Cons, Frankfort-on-Main ; c. 2 suites, 

Kny'vett, (i) Chas., England, 1752 
London, 1822 ; tenor and organist, 
(2) Chas., 1773 1852 ; son of above ; 
organist and teacher. (3) Wm., 
1779 Ryde, 1856 ; bro. of above ; 
composer and conductor. 

KobbS (kob-ba), Gustav, b. New 
York, March 4, 1857; studied pf. 
and comp. with Adolf Hagen, Wies- 
baden; later with Jos. Mosenthal, 
New York ; 1877, graduated Colum- 
bia Coll.; 1879, Sch. of Law; lives 
in Morristown, N. J.; pub. essays in 
leading magazines and newspapers; 
also ' ' Wagner's Life and Works " 
(N. Y., 1890), " The Ring of the Ni- 
belung" (1889), "Plays for Ama- 
teurs" (1892), "My Rosary and 
other Poems" (1896), "New York 
and its Environs " (1891) ; teacher ; 
pub. a few songs. 

Kobelius (ko-ba-W-oos), Jn. Augus- 
tin, Wahlitz, near Halle, 1674 Wei- 
senfels, 1731; ct.-cond. and dram, 


Koch (kokh), (i) H. Chp., Rudolstadt, 
1749 1816 ; violinist ; writer and 
composer. (2) Eduard Emil, 
Schloss Solitude, near Stuttgart, 1809 
Stuttgart, 1871; writer. (3) Em- 
ma, b. Mayence; pianist; pupil of 
Liszt, Moskowski, etc. ; since 1898, 
teacher Stern Cons. (4) Fr., b. Ber- 
lin, 1862; pupil of the Hochschule ; 
conductor, 'cellist and c. of 2 operas, 
"Die Halligtr" and "Lea" (Co- 
logne, 1896), etc. 

Kb'chel (kfikh'-'l), L. Ritter von, 
Stein-on-Danube, Lower Austria, 
1 800 Vienna, 1877 ; writer. 

Kocher (kokh'-er), Conrad, Ditzingen, 
near Stuttgart, 1786 Stuttgart, 1872 ; 
mus.-dir. and dram, composer. 

Kocian (ko-tsl-un), Jaroslav, b. 
Wildenschwert, Bohemia, Feb. 22, 
1884 ; violinist, son and pupil of a 
school-teacher; studied violin at 3! 
years; at 12, Prague Cons, under 
Sevcik (vln,), and Dvorak (comp.) ; 
debut, 1901 ; has toured Europe with 
much succ. ; 1902, America. 

Koczalski (ko-chal'-shki), Raoul(Ar- 
mand G.) b. Warsaw, Jan. 3, 1885 ; 
studied pf. with his mother ; then 
with Godowski at Warsaw; at 4 
played in public with great succ.; at 
7, played at Vienna, St. Petersburg, 
etc., 600 concerts up to 1892 ; ct.- 
pianist to the Shah of Persia, with 
annuity of 3,000 francs ; c. i-act op- 
eras, " Hagar? "Rymond" etc. 

Koemmenich (ke'm'-me'-nfkh), Louis, 
b. Elberfeld, Germany, Oct. 4, 1866 ; 
pupil of Anton Krause, Barmen and 
at Kuilak's Acad. 1890, New York, 
as conductor and teacher ; since 1894, 
cond. Brooklyn Sangerbund ; 1898, 
organised an Oratorio Soc. ; c. a can- 
tata, male choruses, etc. 

Koenen (ka'-nSn), Fr., Rheinbach, 
near Bonn, 1829 Cologne, 1887; 
conductor and composer. 

Kofler (kof'-ler), Leo, b. Brixen, Aus- 
trian Tyrol, March 13, 1837; from 
I S?7, organist and choirm. of St. 
Paul's Chapel, New York; writer 
and composer. 

Kogel (ko'-ggl), Gv., b. Leipzig, Jan. 
16, 1849; pupil of the Cons.; th.- 
cond. various cities; 1891-1902, cond. 
Museum Concerts, Frankfort ; editor 
and composer. 

Kohler(kr-ler), (i) Ernst, Langenbie- 
lau, Silesia, 1799 Breslau, 1847 ; 
organist .and composer. (2) (Chr.j 
Louis (H.), Brunswick, 1820 
Konigsberg, 1886 ; pianist, teacher 
and dramatic composer, also notable 

Kohut (k5-hoot'), Ad., b. Mindszent, 
Hungary, Nov. 10, 1847 ; lives in 
Berlin ; writer. 

Kohout (ko-hoot'), Fz., b. Hostin, 
Bohemia, May 5, 1858 ; pupil of Sku- 
hersky, Prague Org.-Sch.; now con- 
ductor " Deutsches Th," at Prague, 
and organist Weinberger synagogue ; 
c. v. succ. i-act (German) opera 
" Stella" (Prague, 1896), etc. 

Kolbe (kCl'-be), Oskar, Berlin, 1836 
1^78 ; composer and writer. 

Kolff (kolf), J. Van Santen, Rotter- 
dam, 1848 Berlin, 1896 ; writer. 

KolHng (kol'-ling), K. W. P., b. 
Hamburg, Feb. 28, 1831; teacher, 
and composer of v. succ. operetta, 
" Schmetterhnge" (1891, Hamburg). 

Kollmann (kol'-man), Aug. Fr. K., 
Engelbostel, Hanover, 1756 Lon- 
don, 1824; organist, theorist and 

Kompel (kern'-pel), Aug., Bruckenau, 
1831 Weimar, 1891; violinist. 

Konigslbw (ka'-nKkhs-lav), (i)Jn. Wm. 
Cornelius von, Hamburg, 1745 
1833; organist and composer. (2) 
Otto Fr. von, b. Hamburg, Nov. 13, 
1824; pupil of Fr. Pacius and K. 
Hafner, and at Leipzig Cons. ; toured 
for 12 years ; 1858-81, leader Gurze- 
nich Orch., Cologne; vice-dir. and 
vln.-prof . at the Cons. ; Royal Prof. ; 
retired to Bonn. 

Koning(ko'-ntng), David, Rotterdam, 
1820 Amsterdam, 1876 ; pianist, 
conductor and composer. 

Konradin (kon'-rat-en), K. Fd., St. 
Helenenthal, near Baden, 1833 Vi- 
enna, 1884 ; dram, composer. 


Kontski (kont'-shke), (i) Antoine de, 
b. Cracow, Oct. 27, 1817; pianist; 
pupil of Markendorf and Field ; 
made v. succ. tours ; teacher, Lon- 
don ; lived in Buffalo, N. Y. ; at 80 
toured round the world ; c. an opera, 
an oratorio ; symph, ; very florid and 
pop. pf.-pcs., incl. " Le Revdl du 
Lion" etc. (2) Chas., 1815 Paris, 
1867 ; violinist. (3) Apollinaire de, 
Warsaw, 1825 1879 ; violinist ; bro. 
and pupil of (2). (4) Stanislas, 
b. Cracow, Oct. 8, 1820; bro. of 
above ; vln.-teacher and composer, 

Kopecky (ko-peY-ske), Ottokar, b. 
Chotebor, Bohemia, April 29, 1850; 
violinist ; pupil of Prague Cons. ; 
leader Philh. Orch., cond. " Shaeffer " 
Orch,, and teacher in the Cons., 
Hamburg ; now ct.-cond. to King of 

Kopylow (ko'-pe-l&f), Alex, b. St. 
Petersburg, 1854; studied in the Imp. 
Chapel, where he is now vocal teach- 
er ; c. orch.- and pf.-pcs., etc. 

Korbay (kor'-ba-e), Francis Alex, 
b. Pesth, Hungary, May 8, 1846; 
tenor ; pupil of Roger, and pf. -pu- 
pil of Liszt ; 1865-68, Hungarian 
Opera, Pesth ; toured as pianist ; 
since 1871 New York as teacher of 
voice and pf . ; composer. 

Korn, Mrs. Clara A., teacher and 
composer ; lives Orange, New Jersey, 
U. S. A. 

Kbrner (keV-ner), (i) Chr. Gf., Leip- 
zig, 1756 Berlin, 1831 ; composer. 
(2) Gotthilf Wm., Teicha, near 
Halle, 1809 Erfurt, 1865 ; pub- 

Koschat (ko'-shat), Thos,, b. Vik- 
tring, near Klagenfurt, Aug. 8, 1845; 
studied science at Vienna ; joined the 
ct.-opera chorus, soon became leader; 
1874, joined cath. -choir ; 1878, the 
Hofkapelle. 1871, he began the pub. 
of original poems in Carinthian dia- 
lect, which he set to music for male 
quartets ; these have had great pop- 
ularity. 1875, founded the famous 
"Kamthner Quintett"; prod. 4-act 

" Volksstiick tnit Gesang," "Die Ro- 
senthaler Nachtigall" and succ. 
" Singspiel " Der Bur germeister von. 
St. Anna " (Prague, 1893), etc. 

Koselitz (ka'-ze-llts), H.,b. Annaberg, 
Saxony, 1854; pupil of Richter, 
Leipzig Cons, and Nietzsche, Basel, 
lived in Italy ; under the name 
"Peter Cast" prod, opera, "Die 
Heimliche Ehe " (Danzig, 1891). 

Kosleck (kos'-lek), Julius, b. Neu- 
gard, Pomerania, Dec. 3, 1835 ; 
trumpet- and cornet-virtuoso ; mem- 
ber of the royal band, Berlin; teacher. 

Kossak (kos'-sak), Ernst, Marien- 
wer'der, 1814 Berlin, 1880 ; writer. 

Kossmaly (kos'-ma-le), Karl, (?) 1812 
Stettin, 1893 ; teacher, conductor 
and writer. 

Kbstlin (Wst'-len), (i) K, Rheinhold, 
Urach, Wurtemberg, 1819 1894 ; 
prof, and writer. (2) H. Ad., b. 
Tubingen, Oct. 4, 1846 ; preacher ; 
1875 he united the choirs of three 
towns, which became in 1877 the 
Wurtemberg Evangelical " Kirchen- 
gesangverein," and which he cond.; 
1891, Darmstadt ; writer. 

Kotek (ko-tek), Jos., Kamenez-Po- 
dolsk, Govt. of Moscow, 1855 
Davos, Switz., 1885 ; violinist, teach- 
er and composer ; c. vln.-pcs. 

Kothe (ko'-tg), (i) Bd., Grbbnig, Sile- 
sia, 1821 Breslau, 1897; teacher 
and composer. (2) Aloys, b. Grob- 
nig, 1828 Breslau, 1868 ; bro. of 
above; teacher and composer. (3) 
Wm., b. Grbbnig, Jan. 8, 1831; bro. 
of above; pupil of R. Orgel-Inst., 
Berlin, since 1871 ; teacher, writer 
and composer, Habelschwerdt, Sile- 

KotthofF (k&t'-h&f), Lawrence, b. 
Eversberg, Dec. II, 1862; pupil of 
Breslaur, Grunike, and Buchholz, 
Berlin ; 1886, St. Louis, U. S. A. ; 
critic and teacher. 

Kottlitz (kSt'-lfts), (i) Ad., Trier, 
1820 Siberia, 1860; dir. and com- 
poser. His wife (2) Clothilde (nee 
Ellendt), 1822-67, was an excellent 


Ko(t)ze'luch (kot'-ze-lookh or ko'-zhS- 
lookh), (i) Jn. A. (rightly Jan An- 
tonin), Wellwarn, Bohemia, 1738 
Prague, 1814; mus.-dir.; conductor 
and dram, composer. (2) Ld. An- 
ton, Wellwarn, 1752 Vienna, 1811 ; 
pupil and cousin of above ; conduct- 
or, teacher and composer. 

Kotzolt (kot'-tsolt), H., Schnellewalde, 
Upper Silesia, 1814 Berlin, 1881 ; 
conductor and composer. 

Kotzschmar (kotsh'-mar), Hn., b. 
Finsterwalde, Germany, July 4, 1829; 
his father taught him various instrs. ; 
studied also with his uncle Hayne 
and Jut. Otto, Dresden; in the opera- 
orch.; 1848, America, with Saxonia 
Band; since 1849 li ves Portland, 
Me.; cond. "Haydn Assoc.," etc. 

Kotzwara (kots-va'-ra), Fz., b. 
Prague suicide, Ireland, 1791; tenor- 
player and composer of "Battle of 
Prague'' etc. 

Kowalski (ko-val'-shkf), H., b. Paris, 
1841 ; pianist and composer ; pupil 
of Marmontel (pf.) and Reber 
(comp.) ; composer. 

Kraft (kraft), (r) Anton, Rokitzan, 1752 
Vienna, 1820 ; 'cellist and compos- 
er. (2) Nicolaus, Esterhaz, Hun- 
gary, 1778 Stuttgart, 1853 ; 'cellist 
and composer; son and pupil of 
above ; became a member of the 
famous " Schuppanzigh Quartett." 
(3) Fr., b. Feb. 12, 1807 ; son of 
above; for years 'cellist Stuttgart 

Krai (kral), Jn. Nepomuk, (?) 1826 
Tulln, near Vienna, 1895 (?) ; band- 

Krantz (krants), Eugen, Dresden, 
1844 1898 ; pianist and critic, 
teacher and composer. 

Krause (krow'-z), (i) Chr. Gf., Win- 
zig, 1719 Berlin, 1770; writer. (2) 
Karl Chr. Fr., Eisenberg, Alten- 
berg, 1781 Munich, 1832 ; writer. 
(3) Theodor, b. Halle, May i, 1833; 
rector at Berlin ; cond. Seiffert Soc. ; 
R. Mus.-Dir., 1887; composer. (4) 
Anton, b. Geitham, Saxony, Nov. 9, 
1834 ; at 6 pupil of cantor Dietrich ; 

then of Fr. Wieck, Reissiger, and 
Spindler, Dresden, later Leipzig 
Cons., debut, as pianist, Geitham, 
1846; 1853-59, teacher and cond. 
Leipzig Liedertafel ; 1859-97, dir. 
Singverein and the Concertgesell- 
schaft (retired) ; 1877 Royal Mus.- 
Dir.; prof.; c, " Prinzes sin Ike'' 
" Rtibezahl Legend." (5) (Prof. Dr.) 
Eduard, Swinemunde, 1837 Berlin, 
1892 ; pianist, teacher and composer. 
(6) (Dr.) Emil, Schassburg in Tran- 
sylvania, 1840 Hamburg, 1889 ; 
barytone. (7) Emil, b. Hamburg, 
July 30, 1840; pupil of Leipzig 
Cons.; since i860, teacher of pf. and 
theory at Hamburg; since 1885 at 
the Cons.; c. an Ave Maria at 6, 
etc. (8) Martin, b. Lobstedt, near 
Leipzig, June 17, 1853 ; pianist and 
teacher ; son and pupil of a cantor, 
then studied with Fuchs Borna Teach- 
ers' Sem., and at Leipzig Cons. ; toured 
Holland and Germany, then had 
nervous prostration 2 years ; had the 
friendship and advice of Liszt for 
years; 1885, with Siloti and others, 
founded the Leipzig " Lisztverein ;" 
1892, professor; 1901, Munich Cons. 

Kraushaar (krows'-har), Otto, Cassel, 
1812 1866 ; writer and composer. 

Krauss (krows), (i) Dr. Felix, b. 
Vienna, Oct. 3, 1870; bass; pupil of 
Stockhausen ; sang Hagen and Cur- 
nemanz at Bayreuth, 1899. (2) Ga- 
brielle Marie, b. Vienna, March 24, 
1842 ; soprano; pupil of Vienna Cons, 
and Marchesi ; 1860-67, Vienna ct. 
opera ; 1867 Th. des Italians, Paris ; 
1875-86, Gr. Opera, Paris; since then 
a teacher at Paris and officier d'Aca- 

Krebs (kraps), (i) Jn. L., Buttelstadt, 
Thuringia, 1713 Altenburg, 1780; 
organist and composer. (2) Karl 
Aug. (rightly, Miedcke, changed 
after adoption by his teacher the 
opera-singer J. B. Krebs), Nurn- 
berg, 1804 Dresden, 1880; c. ope- 
ras. (3) Marie (Frau Brenning), 
Dresden, Dec. 5, 1851 June 28, 
1900; daughter of above; pianist 


and teacher. (4) K., b. near Hanse- 
berg, Wtirtemberg, Feb. 5, 1857 ; 
studied R. Hochschule, Berlin ; lives 
in Berlin as critic and writer. 

Krecman. Vide KRETSCHMANN. 

Krehbiel (kra'-bel), H. Edw., b. Ann 
Arbor, Mich., March 10, 1854; prom- 
inent American critic ; studied law at 
Cincinnati, but entered journalism; 
1874-78, mus.-critic Cincinnati Ga- 
zette ; later editor New York Mtis. 
Review, and since then critic of the 
Tribtme; pub. manysucc. books, incl. 
" Studies in the Wagnerian Drama" 
(1891); "How to Listen to Music" 
(1896); ''''Annotated Bibliography 
of Fine Art" with R. Sturgis (1897); 
" Music and Manners in the i8th 
century" (1898), etc. 

Krehl (kral), Stephen, b. Leipzig, July 
5, 1864; studied Leipzig Cons, and 
Dresden Cons., 1889; teacher of pf. 
and theory, Carlsruhe Cons. ; c. Char- 
akterstucke, sonata, etc., for piano. 

Kreipi (krl'-pl), Jos., 1805 Vienna, 
1866 ; tenor. 

Kreisler (kris'-ler), (i) Jns. Vide E. 

T. A. HOFFMANN. (2) Fritz, b. 

Vienna, Feb. 2, 1875 ; violinist; pupil 
of Massart and Delibes ; debut 
Paris; toured Europe and U. S.; 
lives in Vienna. 

Kreissle von Hellborn (kris'-le fon 
heT-born), H., Vienna, 18031869 ; 
writer ; wrote " Biog. of Schtibert" 

Krejci (kra'-che), Josef, Milostin, 
Bohemia, 1822 Prague, 1881 ; or- 
ganist and composer. 

Krempelsetzer (krSm'-p'l-ze'ts-e'r), G., 
Vilsbiburg, Bavaria, 18271871 ; 
cond. and dram, composer. 

Kremser (krem'-zer), Eduard, b. Vi- 
enna, April 19, 1838 ; from 1869, 
chorusm. the Vienna "Mannerge- 
sangverein" ; c. operettas, a cantata, 
with orch., famous " Altniederlan- 
dische Volkslieder" and other part- 
songs, etc. 

Krenn (krgn), Fz., Dross, Lower 
Austria, 1816 St. Andra vorm Ha- 
genthal, 1897 ; organist, composer 
and conductor. 

Kretschmann (or Krecman) (kretch'- 
man), Theobald, b. Vinos, near 
Prague, 1850; solo 'cellist, Vienna 
ct. -opera. 

Kretschmer (kretsh'-mer), (i) Ed- 
mund, b. Ostritz, Saxony, Aug. 31, 
1830; pupil of Otto and Schneider, 
Dresden; ct. -organist ; founder and 
till 1897 cond. the Cacilia Singing- 
Soc., etc.; teacher in the R. " Ka- 
pellknaben-Institut," where his son 
(2) Fz. succeeded him; E. K.c. text 
and music of 2 important operas, 
"Die Folkunger" (Dresden, 1874) 
and " Heinrich der Lowe " (Leipzig, 
1877); operetta, "Der Fhtchtling" 
(Ulm, 1881); a romantic opera 
" Schb'n Rohtraut" (Dresden, 1887); 
" Geisterschlacht" (prize, Dresden, 
1865) ; 3-part mass for male chorus 
(Brussels Acad, prize, 1868) ; an orch. 
suite " Hochzeitsmitsik" etc. 

Kretzschmar (kretsh'-mar) (Aug. 
Ed.), Hermann, b. Olberhau, Sax- 
ony, Jan. 19, 1848 ; organist and 
conductor; pupil of Otto at the 
Kreuzschule, Dresden, and at Leip- 
zig Cons.; 1871 Dr. Phil, at Leipzig, 
with a thesis on notation prior to 
Guido d' Arezzo; then teacher of org. 
and harm, at the Cons, and cond. 
several societies ; 1887, mus.- dir. of 
Leipzig Univ. and cond. "' Paulus." 
1888-97, cond. of the " Riedel-Ver- 
ein," retired because of ill-health; 
1890, prof., critic, lecturer and 
writer ; c. org.-pcs. and part-songs. 

Kreub (kru-ba), Chas. Frederic, 
Luneville, 1777 at his villa, near St. 
Denis, 1846; cond. at Paris Op. 
com.; c. 10 comic operas. 

Kreu(t)zer (kroi'-tser), (i) Conradin, 
Mosskirch, Baden, Nov. 22, 1780 
Riga, Dec. 14, 1849 ; pupil of Rie- 
gard, Weibrauch and Albrechtsber- 
ger ; toured as pianist; ct.-cond. ; c. 
30 operas, incl."Z>flj Nachtlage von 
Granada" (1834) and "Jerry und 
Bately," still played, etc. His daughter 

(2) Cacilie was an operatic singer. 

(3) (pron. in France, krut-zar), Ro- 
dolphe, Versailles, Nov. 16, 1766; 



Geneva, Jan. 6, 1831 ; famous vio- 
linist to whom Beethoven dedicated 
the " Xreutzer Sonata"; son and 
pupil of a German violinist and of 
Stawitz; prof, at the Cons.; ct. -vio- 
linist to Napoleon and to Louis 
XVIII. , 1802-26 ; prod, at Paris 
over 40 operas, incl. " Lodoiska" 
also collaborated with Rode and Bail- 
lot in a standard method and c. 
famous vm.-etudes, etc. (4) Aug., 
Versailles, 1781 Paris, Aug. 31, 
1832 ; bro. of above, and 1826, his 
successor as vln. -prof, at the Cons. ; 
composer. (5) L6on (Chas. Fran.), 
Paris, 1817 Vichy, 1868. Son of 
(3) ; writer and composer. 
Krieger (kre'-ger), (i) Adam, Drie- 
sen, Neumark, 1634 1666 ; ct.-or- 
ganist and composer. (2) (Jn.) Phil- 
lip, Niirnberg, 1649 Weissenf els, 
1725; ct.-organist, ct.-cond., and 

of above, and his succ. as ct.-cond. 
(4) Fd., b. Waldershof, Franconia, 
Jan. 8, 1843; studied Eichstatt Teach- 
ers Seminary and Munich Cons. ; from 
1867, teacher Normal Sch. at Ratis- 
bon ; writer and composer. 

Kriesstein (kres'-shtin), Melchior, 
printer at Augsburg (1545). 

Krigar (kre'-gar), (Julius) H., Berlin, 
1819 rS8o ; pianist, conductor and 

Krisper (kre'-shper)-, Dr. Anton L., b. 
Graz, 1882 ; writer. 

Krizkowsky (kresh-k6f'-shkl), Paul, 
1820 Brunn, 1885 ; Czech composer. 

Kroeger (kra'-geY), Ernest R., b. 
St. Louis, U. S. A., Aug. 10, 1862 ; 
at 5 studied pf. and vln. ; lives St. 
Louis as teacher ; c. a symph., 5 
overtures, a fugue, etc. 

Kroll (IcrSl), Fz., Bromberg, 1820 
Berlin, 1877 ; pianist and composer. 

Krolop (kro'-lop), Fz., Troja, Bohe- 
mia, 1839 Berlin, 1897 ; bass. 

Krommer (kr6m'-mr), Fz., Kame- 
nitz, Moravia, 1760 Vienna, 1831 ; 
violinist, organist and conductor. 

Kronach. Vide KLITZSCH. 

Kronke (kronk'-e), Emil, b. Danzig, 
Nov. 29, 1865 ; pianist ; pupil of 
Reinecke and Paul, Nicode and Th. 
Kirchner, Dresden ; 1886 won pf.. 
prize, Dresden Cons.; 1887, diploma 
of honour; editor of an edition of 
Liszt's complete works ; also com- 

Krii(c)kl (kriik'-'l), Fz., Edispitz, Mo- 
ravia, Nov. 10, 1841 Strassburg, 
Jan. 13, 1899 ; barytone, teacher and 

Krug (krookh), (i) Fr., Cassel, 1812- 
Carlsruhe, 1892 ; op. barytone and 
dram, composer. (2) Dietrich, Ham- 
burg, 1821 1880; pianist and com- 
poser. (3) Arnold, b. Hamburg, 
Oct. 16, 1849 ; son and pupil of 
above ; studied also with Gurlitt and 
Reinecke ; won Mozart scholarship, 
1869; studied with Kiel and Ed. 
Franck, Berlin ; 1872-77, pf.-teach- 
er, Stern Cons. ; won Meyerbeer schol- 
arship, and studied in France and 
Italy; 1885, ct.-cond. at the Ham- 
burg Cons.; pub. a symph., symph. 
prologue " Otdlo" and orch. suite; 
choral works, etc. (4) (Wenzel) 
Jos. (called Krug-Waldsee), b. 
Waldsee, Upper Swabia, Nov. 8, 
1858 ; chiefly self-taught until 1872, 
then studied vln., pf., singing and 
comp. with Faiszt, at Stuttgart 
Cons.; 1882-89, cond. at Stuttgart; 
1889, chorusm., mus.-dir. Municipal 
Th., Hamburg ; 1892, th.-cond. vari- 
ous cities ; 1889, Munich ; 1900, 
Niirnberg; 1901, Magdeburg; c. 
important concert-cantatas, " Dorn- 
rose/ten" " Hochzdtslied" " Griger 
zuGmund" and " Seebilder "; succ. 
opera ' ' Asiorrc " (Stuttgart, 1896) ; 
" secular oratorio" ^Konig Rother" 

Kriiger (krii'-gcr), (r.) Eduard, Liine- 
burg, 1807 Gottingen, 1885 ; prof, 
and writer, (2) Wm., Stuttgart, 
1820 1883 ; pianist, teacher and 
editor. (3) Gl., Stuttgart, 1824 
1895 ; bro. of above ; harpist. 

Kruis (kris), M. H. van, b. Oude- 


water, Holland, March 8, 1861; pu- 
pil of Nikolai at The Hague ; 1884, 
organist, teacher and writer, Rotter- 
dam ; 1886, founded monthly " Het 
Orgel " ; c. an opera " DeBloem Van 
Island'' 3 symph., 8 overtures, etc. 

Krurapholtz (kroomp' -holts), (i) Jn, 
Bap., Zlonitz, near Prague, ca. 1745 
Feb. 19, 1790; harpist and com- 
poser; he m. his i6-year old pupil, 
Frl. Meyer, a brilliant harpist ; they 
gave concerts together, until her elope- 
ment, when he drowned himself in 
the Seine. (2) Wenzel, 1750 Vi- 
enna, 1817 ; bro. of above ; violinist 
and composer. 

Kruse (kroo'-ze 1 ), Jn. S., b. Mel- 
bourne, Australia, March 31, 1859 ; 
violinist ; pupil of Joachim ; leader 
of the Philh. Orch., Berlin; 1892, 
leader, Bremen orchestra. 

Kubelik (W-bS-llk), Johann, b. 
Michle, near Prague, July 5, 1880 ; 
prominent violinist ; son and pupil of 
a Bohemian gardener ; pupil for 6 
years of Sevcik, Prague Cons. ; studied 
later at Vienna ; debut there 1898 ; 
then toured Europe, played at Milan, 
London, 1900, and 1901 America 
with great success ; 1902, London 
Philh. Society awarded him its Bee- 
thoven medal. 

Kucharz" (koo'-charzh), Jn. Bap., 
Chotecz, Bohemia, 1751 Prague, 
1829 ; organist and conductor. 

Kticken (klk'-'n), Fr. Wm M Bleck- 
ede, Hanover, 1810 Schwerin, 1882 ; 
composer of operas and pop. songs ; 
for some time cond. at Stuttgart. 

Kuczynski (koo-chen'-shkl), Paul, 
b. 1846 ; Polish composer ; pupil of 
von Btilow; c. succ. cantata " Ari- 

Kudelski (koo-det-shkl), K. Mat., 
Berlin, 1805 Baden-Baden, 1877 ; 
violinist, composer and conductor. 

Kufferath (koof'-ffr-at), (i) Jn, Hn., 
Miihlheim-on-the-Ruhr, 1797 Wies- 
baden, 1864 ; conductor. (2) Louis, 
Muhlheim, 1811 near Brussels, 1882; 
pianist, teacher and composer. (3) 
Hubert Fd,, Muhlheim, June n, 

18 1 8 Brussels, June 23, 1896 ; noted 
pianist ; bro. and pupil of above ; 
writerand composer. (4) Maurice, b! 
Brussels, Jan. 8, 1852. Son and pu- 
pil of (3) ; studied with Servais (pere 
and fils) 'cello ; 1873, editor ^ Guide 
musicals" later, proprietor; writer 
and translator under the name 
" Maurice Reymont." 

Kiiffner (ktf'-ner), Jos., Wtirzburg, 
1776 1856 ; dram, composer. 

Kugelmann (koo'-ggl-man), Hans, d. 
Kbnigsberg, 1542; trumpeter and 

Kuhe (koo'-e), Wm., b. Prague, Dec. 
10, 1823 ; pianist ; pupil of Proksch, 
Tomaschek and Thalberg; 1845, 
London ; from 1886 prof, the R. A. 
M.; composer. 

Kuhlau (koo'-low), Fr., TJTlzen, Han- 
over, Sept. n, ^1786 Copenhagen, 
March 13, (18?), 1832; ct.-flutist, 
dram, composer, teacher and com- 
poser of important technical pf.-pcs., 

Kuhmstedt (ktim'-shtet), Fr., Oldis- 
leben, Saxe-Weimar, 1809 Eise- 
nach, 1858 ; theorist, composer, writ- 
er and teacher. 

Kuhnau (koo'-now), Jn., Geysing, 
Saxony, April, 1667 (?) Leipzig, 
June 5, 1722 ; pupil of Henry, Al- 
brici and Edelmann ; organist at the 
Thomaskirche, Leipzig, and 1700 
cantor, before Bach ; pub. the first 
sonata for harpsichord, of which he 
was a noted player ; also famous Bib- 
lical sonatas ; composer and writer. 

Kiihner (kii'-ner), Konrad, b. Markt- 
streufdorf, Meiningen, March 2, 
1851 ; pupil Stuttgart Cons. ; lives in 
Brunswick as teacher, writer and 

Kulenkampf (koo'-l'n-kampf), Gus., b. 
Bremen, Aug. n, 1849; concert 
pianist and teacher; pupil of Rein- 
thaler, Earth and Bargiel, Berlin 
Hochschule; organised the succ. 
11 Kulenkampscher Frauenchor " ; dir. 
Schwantzer Cons, at Berlin for a few 
years ; c. succ. comic operas " Der 
Page" (Bremen, 1890} and " Der 



Mohrenfiirst" (Magdeburg, 1892) ; 
" Die Braut von Cypern (Schwenn, 
1807) ; male choruses, etc. 

toscbin, Posen, Sept. 12, i8i8-Ber- 
lin, March i, 1882 ; eminent teacher ; 
Prince Radziwill had him taught by 
the pianist Agthe ; at n he played at 
a ct.-concert ; studied with Dehn, 
Czerny, Sechter and Nicolai ; then 
teacher to the royal family ; 1846 ct ,.- 
pianist, Berlin ; 1850, founded (with 
Tulius Stern and Bern. Marx) the 
Berlin (later Stern) Cons.; 1855, re- 
signed established his famous "Neue 
Akademie der Tonkunst ; " 1861, royal 
prof wrote standard works, tl Sch. 
of Octave-playing," "Seven Studiet 
in Octave-playing:' etc. ; c. a concerto, 
sonata and other brilliant pf.-pcs., 
etc incl. " Kinderkben." (2) Ad., 
Meseritz, i823-Berlin, 1862; bro. 
of above ; writer and composer. (3) 
Fz., Berlin, April 12, 1842 ; son and 
pupil of (i) ; studied with Wieprecht 
and Liszt ; 1867, pf.-teacher and dir. 
orch.-class in Acad. of his father, on 
whose death he became dir. in 1890^; 
writer ; c. an opera ' ' IMS de Castro 
(Berlin, 1877), etc. 

Kummer (koom'-m'r), (i) Kaspar, 
Erlau, 1795-Coburg, 1870; flute- 
virtuoso. (2) Fr. Aug., Meiningen, 
Aug. 5, 1797 Dresden, May 22, 
1879; notable 'cellist and composer 
for 'cello ; wrote method. (3) Alex., 
b. Dresden, July 10, 1850; son of 
above ; pupil of Leipzig Cons., vln.- 
virtuoso ; lives in England. 
Kummerle (klm'-mer-le), Salomon, 
Malmsheim, near Stuttgart, 1838 
Samaden, 1896; prof, and compos- 

KUndinger (kin'-dlng-fr), (i) G. 
Wm., b. Konigshofen, Bavaria, 
Nov. 28, 1800; 1831 Stadtcantor at 
Nordlingen ; 1838, Nurnberg ; com- 
poser of church music. His 3 sons, 
(2) Alex, b. Kitzingen, Feb. 13, 
1827 ; ct.-violinist and composer, St. 
Petersburg. (3) Kanut, b. Kitzingen, 
Nov. n, 1830 ; 'cellist, since 1849 in 

Munich ct.-orch.; and (4) Rudolf, b. 
Nordlingen, May 2, 1832 ; pianist ; 
pupil of his father and Blumrbder; 
since 1850 lives in St. Petersburg; 
teacher at the court and to the Em- 
press ; 1879 prof, at the Cons. ; com- 

Kunkel (koonk'-'l), (i) Fz. Jos., Drie- 
burg, Hesse, 1804 Frankfort-on- 
Main, 1880 ; theorist and composer, 
(2) K. Bros., music publishers, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Kuntze (koon'-tsg), K., Trier, 1817- 
Delitzsch, Saxony, 1883 ; teacher and 

Kunz (koonts), Konrad Max, Schwan- 
dorf, Bav. Palatinate, 1812 Munich, 
1875 ; conductor and composer, 
Kunzen(koonts'-'n),(i) Jn. Paul, Leis- 
nig, Saxony, 1696 Lilbeck, 1770; 
organist and composer. (2) Ad. K., 
Wittenberg, 1720 Lubeck, 1781; or- 
ganist, pianist and composer. (3) 
Fr. L. -flimilius, Lubeck, 1761 
Copenhagen, 1817; ct. -conductor and 

Kupfer-Berger (koop'-f'r-berkh-'r), 
Ludmilla, b. Vienna, 1850; pupil of 
the Cons.; debut Linz-on-Danube, 
1868, then at the Berlin Ct. -opera ; 
m. the Berlin merchant Kupfer ; later 
at Vienna, ct. -opera as alternate with 

Kurpinski (koor-pto'-shkl), Karl (Ka- 
simir), Luschwitz, Posen, 1785 
Warsaw, 1857 ; conductor and dram, 

Kurth (koort), (Martin Alex.) Otto, 
b. Triebel, Brandenburg, Prussia, 
Nov. n, 1846 ; pupil of Haupt, 
Loschhorn, and Jul. Schneider, Ber- 
lin ; a,mce 1871, teacher Teachers' 
Seminary, Luneburg ; 1885, R. Mus.- 
Dir.; c. 3 operas, oratorio, advent 
cantata, with orch., symph., etc. t 
Kus'ser (or Cous'ser), Jn. Sieg- 
mund, Pressburg, ca. 1657 Dublin, 
1727 ; conductor and dram, composer. 
Ktister (kts'-te'r), Hn., Templin, 
Brandenburg, 1817 Herford, West- 
phalia, 1878 ; ct.-organist, theorist, 
and composer. 


Kwast (kwast), Jas., b. Nijkerk, Hoi- 
land, Nov. 23, 1852 ; pianist ; pupil 
of his father and Fd. Bohme ; Rei- 
necke and Richter, Kullak and 
Wuerst, Brassin and Gevaert, Brus- 
sels; 1874 teacher Cologne Cons.; 
1883, Hoch Cons., Frankfort; com- 

Labarre (la-Mr), Th., Paris, 1805 
1870 ; harpist and dram, composer. 

Labatt (la-bat'), Leonard, Stockholm, 
18381897; tenor. 

Labitzky(la-b?t'-shkK), (i) Jos., Sch5n- 
feld, near Eger, 1802 Carlsbad, 
1881 ; violinist. Two sons (2) Aug., 
b. Petschau, Saxony, Oct. 22, 1832; 
pupil of Prague Cons., of David and 
Hauptmann, Leipzig; 1853, cond. 
and composer at Carlsbad. (3) Wm., 
violinist ; lives in Toronto, Canada. 

Lablache (la-blash), Luigi, son of 
French father and Irish mother, 
Naples, Dec. 6, 1794 Jan. 23, 1858; 
eminent bass, with powerful and flex- 
ible voice with compass (E^ -e') ; pu- 
pil of Valesi, pupil Cons, della Pieti ; 
debut Naples as buffo ; later in heroic 
roles throughout Europe ; wrote 
"Methodede chant.*' 

Labor (la'-bor), Josef, b. Horowitz, 
Bohemia, June 29, 1842 ; a blind 
pianist and organist ; pupil of Sechter 
,and Pirkjer, Vienna Cons.; chamber- 
pianist and teacher of the princess of 
Hanover; c. a Paternoster with orch. ; 
an Ave Maria in canon-form for 
female voices, etc. 

Laborde, Vide DELABORDE. 

Lachaume (la'-shom), Aim6, b. Paris ; 
pianist and composer ; came to New 
York, 1890 (?) ; lives there as teacher, 
accompanist, cond. and composer of 
pantomimes, incid. mus., etc. 

Lachmund (lakh'-moont), Carl V., b. 
Booneville, Mo., U. S. A., 1854; at 
13 studied in Cologne with Heller, 
Jensen and Seiss ; then Berlin, also 4 
years with Liszt at Weimar ; c. trio 
(played by Berlin Philh. orch.), 


"Japanest" overture (perf. by 
Thomas and Seidl), etc.; lives in 
New York as teacher, conductor and 

Lachner (lakh'-ner), (i) Theodor, b. 
1798; son of a poor organist at Rain, 
Upper Bavaria ; organist at Munich. 
(2) Thekla, b. 1803; sister of above, 
organist at Augsburg. (3) Christi- 
ane, b. 1805 5 sister of above ; or- 
ganist at Rain. (4) Fz., Rain, April, 
2, 1804 Munich, Jan. 20, 1890; 
half-brother of above; studied with 
Eisenhofer (comp.), and with Ett; 
1882, organist Protestant Church, 
Vienna, and studied with Stadler, 
Sechter, and Weigl ; a friend of 
Schubert and Beethoven; 1826, cond. 
Karthnerthor Th. ; 1834, Mannheim ; 
1836, the production of his D minor 
symph. at Munich won him the ap- 
pointment of ct.-cond.; from 1852, 
was gen. mus. dir.; 1868 retired with 
pension in protest against the growing 
Wagnerianism at court ; his eight 
orch. suites are his best work, show- 
ing his contrapuntal gifts at their 
best ; he prod. 4 operas, 2 oratorios, 
8 symphs., incl. the "Appassionato." 
chamber-music, etc. (5) Ignatz, 
Rain, Sept. n, 1807 Hanover, Feb. 
24, 1895. Bro. of (4) and his successor 
as organist, 1825. 2d cond. of court- 
opera, later ct.-mus.-dir., Stuttgart ; 
1858, ct.-cond., Stockholm; c. ope- 
ras, pop. Singspiele, etc. (6) Vin- 
cenz, Rain, July 19, 1811 -Carls- 
ruhe, Jan. 22, 1893 ; bro. of above ; 
his successor as organist and later 
successor of Fz., as ct.-cond.; teach- 
er and composer. 

Lacknith (lak'-nlt), L. Wenzel, b. 
Prague, 1746 ; horn-player, and de- 
ranger of famous works. 

Lack (lak), Theodore, b. Quimper, 
France, Sept. 3, 1846 ; pupil of Mar- 
montel (pf.) and Bazin (harm.) Paris 
Cons. ; teacher at Paris ; 1881 officier 
of the Academic; officier of public in- 
struction ; c. much light and grace- 
ful pf. -music. 

Lackowitz (lak'-o-vtts), Wm M Treb- 


bin, near Berlin, Jan. 13, 1837; pupil 
of Erk, Kullak, and Dehn ; editor. 

Lacombe (Ia-k6hb), (i) Louis 
(Brouillon - Lacombe), Bourges, 
France, Nov. 26, iSi8 St. Vaast-Ia- 
Hougue, Sept. 30, 1884; pianist; pupil 
of Paris Cons. ; writer and dram, com- 
poser. (2) Paul, b. Carcassonne, 
Oude, France, July n, 1837; studied 
with Teysseyre, but mainly self- 
taught ; 1880 won the Prix Chartier, 
for chamber-mus., in which field he is 
most famous ; c. also 3 symphs., a 
symph. overture, etc. 

Lacome (la-kum), Paul (P. J, Jac. 
Lacome de L'Estaleux), b. Hou- 
ga, Gers, France, March 4, 1838; 
lives since 1860, Paris ; essayist and 
composer of many light operas, incl. 
"Jeanne, feannette et Jeanneton" 
(1876); orchestral suites ; songs, incl. 
" L'Estudiantina," etc. 

La'cy, (i) J,, bass, at London, 1818. 
His wife (2), Mrs. Bianchi Lacy, was 
a soprano. (3) Michael Rophino, 
Bilbao, 1795 Pentonville, 1867 ; 
English violinist and composer. 

Ladegast (la'-de'-gast), Fr., b. Hoch- 
hermsdorf, near Leipzig, Aug. 30, 
1818; org.-builder. 

Ladurner (la-door' -ngr), Ignaz Ant. 
Fz., Aldein, Tyrol, 1766 Villain 
(Massy), 1839; pianist and compos- 

Lafage (la-fSzh), Juste Adrien Le- 
noir de, Paris, 1801 Charenton In- 
sane Asylum, 1862 ; singing-teacher, 
conductor, composer and writer. 

Lafont (la-foii), Chas. Philippe, Paris, 
1781 near Tarbes, 1839; violinist 
and composer. 

La Grange (la granzh), Mme. Anna 
(Caroline) de, b. Paris, July 24, 
1825 ; colorature soprano of remark- 
able range and flexibility ; pupil of 
Bordogni and Lamperti ; debut 1842, 
at Varese ; m. the wealthy Russian 
Stankowich, has since lived in Paris as 

La Harpe (la-jlrp), J. Fran, de, Paris, 
17391803; critic. 

Lahee', H., b. Chelsea, England, April 

n, 1826; pupil of Bennett, Potter 
and J. Goss (comp.) ; concert-pian- 
ist ; lives in Croydon as teacher ; c. 
5 cantatas, etc. 

Lahire (la-er'). Ph. de, Paris, 1640 
1719; writer. 

Laid'law, Anna Robena (Mrs. 
Thomson), Bretton, Yorkshire, April 
30, 1819 May, 1901; successful con- 
cert-pianist until her marriage, 1852. 

Lais. Vide LAYS. 

Lajarte (la-zhart), Th. Ed. Dufaure 
de, Bordeaux, 1826 Paris, 1890; 
writer and dram, composer. 

Lajeunesse, M. Vide ALBANI. 

Lalande (la-lahd), (i) Michel Rich- 
ard de, Paris, 1657 1726 ; organ- 
ist, conductor and composer. (2) 
(M6ric-Lalande) Henriette Cle"- 
mentine, Dunkirk, 1798 Paris, 
1867 ; brilliant soprano. 

Lalo (la-15), Ed. (V.), Lille, Jan. 27, 
1823 Paris, April 22, 1892 ; violinist 
and viola. -virtuoso ; c. 2 vln.-concer- 
tos ; "Symphonic espagnole" ; rhap- 
sody for orch. , opera " Le Roi d' Kr," 
chamber-music, etc. 

Lamb, Benj., Engl. organist i8th 

La Mara. Vide LIPSIUS, MARIE. 

Lambert (lan-b^r), (i) Michel, Vi- 
vonne, Poitou, 1610 Paris, 1696 ; 
conductor and composer. (2) Lu- 
cien, b. Paris, Jan., 1861 ; pupil of 
Paris Cons. ; 1883, took Prix Rossini 
w. cantata " Prometh/e Enckaine"; 
c. lyric dram. " Le Spahi" (Op.- 
com., 1897), overture, etc. 

Lambert (lam'-bert), (i) Jn. H., Muhl- 
hausen, Alsatia, 1728 Berlin, 1778 ; 
writer. (2) Geo., b. Beverley, 1795 ; 
organist there, succeeded by his son 
(3) Geo. Jackson in 1818 ; retired, 
1874. (4) Alex., b. Warsaw, Po- 
land, Nov. i, 1862 ; son and pupil of 
(5) Henry L. ; (4) studied at Vienna 
Cons. ; graduated at 16 ; studied with 
Urban, Berlin ; toured Germany and 
Russia ; studied some months at Wei- 
mar with Liszt *, 1884, America ; 
since 1888, dir. N. Y. Coll. of Mus.; 


Lamberti (lam-ber'-te), Gius., Cuneo, 
Italy, 1820 (?) Turin, 1894 ; dram, 

Lam'beth, H. A., b. Hardway, near 
Gosport, 1822 ; organist. 

Lambillotte (lan-bl-yot), Pere Louis, 
Charleroi, Hainault, 1797 Vaugi- 
rard, 1855 ; organist, conductor and 

Laramers (lam'-mers), Julius, Leip- 
zig, 1829 1888 ; composer and teach- 

Lamond', (i) Fr. A., b. Glasgow, Jan. 
28, 1868 ; concert-pianist (pupil of 
his bro. (2) David) ; 1882 at Raff 
Cons., Frankfort; later with von 
Billow and Liszt; debut, Berlin, 
1885 ; toured Europe; 1902, America; 

- c. symph., overture "Aus dem schot- 
tischenHochlande" etc. 

Lamothe (la-mot), G., France, 1837 
Courbevoie, 1894 ; composer. 

Lamoureux (l&m-oo-ru'), Chas., Bor- 
deaux, Sept. 28, 1834 Paris, 1900; 
eminent conductor ; pupil of Girard, 
Paris Cons.; later with Tolbecque, 
Leborne and Chauvet ; co-founder of 
a soc. for chamber-mus. ; 1872, or- 
ganist " Societe de musique sacre'e ; " 
1876, assist.-cond. Paris Opera ; 
1878, first cond.; 1872-78, also 
assist.-cond. the Cons. Concerts ; re- 
signed from the Opera, 1881, and est. 
the celebrated " Concerts Lamou- 
reux " (Nouveaux Concerts). 

Lampada'rius, (i) Jns., chapel-singer, 
St. Sophia, Constantinople, I4th 
cent.; writer. (2) Petrus, b. Tripo- 
litza, Morea, ca. 1730 ; composer. 

Lampadius (lam-pa'-d!-oos), Wm. 
Ad., 1812 Leipzig, 1892 ; writer. 

Lampe (lam'-pe), J. F., Saxony, 1703 
Edinburg, 1751; bassoonist and 
operatic composer. 

Lamperen (lan'-pS-ran), Michel 
van, b. Brussels, Dec. 6, 1826 ; 1859, 
libr. Brussels Cons.; composer. 

Lampert (lam'-pert), Ernst, Gotha, 
1818 1879 J pianist, violinist, ct.- 
conductpr and dram, composer. 

Lamperti (la'm-peY-te), Fran., Sa- 
vona, Italy, March II, 1813 Como, 

May i, 1892 ; eminent singing-teach- 
er ; pupil of Milan Cons, and teacher 
there, 1850-76 ; pub. treatises. 

Lampugnani (lam-poon-ya'-ne), Giov. 
Bat., Milan, 1706 ca. 1780; dram. 

Land (lant), Dr. Jan Pieter Nico- 
laas, Delft, 1834 Arnhem, 1897; 
professor ; pub. important results of 
research in Arabian and Javanese 
mus., etc. 

Landgraf (lant'-graf), J. Fr. Bd., 
Dielsdorf, Weimar, 1816 Leipzig, 
1885 ; clarinettist. 

Landi (lan'-de), Stefano, Rome, ca. 
1590 ca. 1655; conductor, com- 
poser and singer. 

Landino (lan-de'-no), Fran, (called 
Francesco Cieco "the blind," or 
Degli Organi), Florence, ca, 1325 
1390 ; notable organist and composer. 

Landolfi (lan-dol'-fe) (or Landul'- 
phus), (i) Carlo Fdo., 1. Milan, 
1750-60 ; maker of 'cellos, etc. (2) 
Pietro, instr.-maker at Milan ca. 
1760, probably son or bro. of above. 

Lang (lang), (i) (Lang-Kostlin), Jo- 
sephine, Munich, 1815 Tubingen, 
1880 ; composer. (2) Benj. John- 
son, b. Salem, Mass., Dec. 28, 1837 ; 
prominent pf. -teacher and conductor; 
pupil of his father and of F. G. Hill 
at Boston, Jaell and Satter, later in 
Berlin, and with Liszt ; since 1852, 
organist various churches, Boston; 
for over 25 years organist Handel and 
Haydn Soc. and cond. since 1895 ; 
also cond. the Apollo Club and the 
Cecilia, etc.; c. an oratorio "David" ; 
symphs., etc. (3) Margaret Ruth- 
ven, b. Boston, Nov. 27, 1867 ; 
daughter and pupil of above ; studied 
also with Schmidt of Boston, Drechs- 
ler and Abel (vln.) and Gluth (comp.) 
in Munich ; pub. many original and 
important songs and pf.-pcs. (4) 
Karl, b. Waiblingen, June 24, 1860 ; 
tenor at Schwerin; pupil of Dr. 

Langbecker (lang'-be'k-e'r), Emanuel 
Chr. Gl., Berlin, 17921843 ; writ- 



Lang'don, Richard, Exeter, Engl., 
ca. 1729 1803 ; organist and com- 

Lange (lang'-e'), (i) Otto, Graudenz, 
1815 Cassel, 1879 ; editor and writ- 
er. (2) Gustav, Schwerstedt, near 
Erfurt, 1830 Wernigerode, 1889 ; 
pianist and composer. (3) Samuel 
de, Rotterdam, Feb. 22, 1840 ; son 
and pupil of the organist, (4) Sam- 
uel de L. (18111884); later stud- 
ied with Winterberger, Vienna, and 
Damcke and Mikuli, Lemberg; 1863 
organist and teacher Rotterdam 
Mus. Sch., often touring Europe; 
1876 teacher Cologne Cons., also 
cond.; 1885-93, cond. at The Hague, 
later teacher and vice-dir, Stuttgart 
Cons., and since 1895, cond. ; c. 
oratorio "Moses" (The Hague, 
1889), a symph., etc. (5) Daniel 
de, b. Rotterdam, July 11, 1841; 
bro. of above ; studied with Ganz 
and Servais ('cello), Verhulst and 
Damcke (comp.), at Lemberg Cons. 
1860-63, then studied pf. with Mme. 
Dubois at Paris ; chiefly self-taught 
as organist; 1895, dir. Amsterdam 
Cons., and cond.; also critic; c. 
opera " De Val Van Kuilenburg " y 
two symphs. ; overture, " Willtm van 
Holland? etc. (6) Aloysia. Vide 

WEBER (4). 

Langer (lang'-gr), (i) Hn., Hocken- 
dorf, near Tharandt, Saxony, 1819 
Dresden, 1889 ; organist, conductor 
and teacher. (2) Fd., b. Leimen, 
near Heidelberg, Jan. 21, 1839 ! 'cel- 
list at Mannheim ct.-Th.; and later 
2nd cond. ; prod, there 5 succ. operas. 
(3) Victor, b. Pesth, Oct. 14, 1842 ; 
pupil R. Volkmann, and Leipzig 
Cons, ; lives in Pesth as teacher, th.- 
cond. and editor; pub. under the 
name of " Aladar Tisza " very pop. 
songs, etc. 

Langert (lang'-ert), (i) (Jn.) Aug. 
(Ad,), b. Coburg, Nov. 26, 1836; 
dram, composer; th.-cond. Coburg; 

1872, teacher of comp. Geneva Cons.; 

1873, ct.-cond., Gotha, reappointed 
1893 ; prod. 7 operas. 

Langhans (lang'-hans), (Fr.) Wm., 
Hamburg, 1832 Berlin, 1892; writer. 

Langle* (lan'-la), Honore" Fran. M., 
Monaco, 1741 Villiers-le-Bel, near 
Paris, 1807; m us. -dir., theorist and 

Lang'shaw, (i) J., d. 1798; Engl. or- 
ganist. (2) J., London, 1763 ; or- 
ganist ; son and successor of above. 

Laniere (Lanier or Lanieri) (lan-yar, 
lan-er', or lan-t-a-re), (i) Nicholas, 
Italy (?), ca. 1588 London, 1665 
(1668?); son of (2) Jos., and nephew 
of (3) Nicholas. (2) and (3) came to 
England, were mus. to Queen Eliza- 
beth, (i) was ct. -musician to Charles 
I. ; a prolific composer and singer 
who introduced the recitative style 
into England. 

Lanner (lan'-ner), (i) Jos. (Fz. K.), 
Oberdobling, near Vienna, 1801 
1843 ; violinist, composer and con- 
ductor. (2) Aug. (Jos.), 1834 1855; 
son of above ; violinist, conductor 
and dance-composer of prominence. 

Lans (Michael), J. A., b. Haarlem, 
July IS, 1845 ; a R. C. priest, from 
1869 teacher in Voorhout Seminary ; 
from 1887, pastor at Schiedam ; 1876 
founded church-mus. periodical, and 
1878, the Gregorian Soc. ; c. a mass, 

Lapicida (la-p*-che'~da), Erasmus, 
i6th cent, composer. 

Laporte (la-port), Jos. de, Befort, 
1713 Paris, 1779; Jesuit abbe; 

Lara (la r -ra), Isidore de (rightly Co- 
hen), b. in Ireland, 1862, of English 
father and Portuguese mother; studied 
at Milan Cons.; took ist prize for 
comp. at age of 17; has written songs 
and the following operas: "La Luce 
deir Asia, 1 ' founded on Sir Edwin 
Arnold's poem (London, 1892); 
"Amy Robsart" (1893); " Moina" 
(1897); "Mtssa line" Monte Carlo 
(1899), very successful. 

Laroche (la-rosh), (i) Jas. (called 

"Jemmy"), ca. 1680 singer, Lon- 

1 don. (2) Hermann Augustovitch, 

b. St. Petersburg, 1845 ; studied in 


the Cons.; since 1866 teacher of 
theory and history at Moscow Cons. ; 
writer and composer. 

La Rue (la-rii), Pierre de (Latinised 
Petrus Platensis; also called 
Perisone, Pierchon, Pierson, 
Pierzon, or Pierazon de la Ruel- 
lien), eminent i6th cent. Netherland 
contrapuntist and composer ; fellow- 
pupil (with Despres) of Okeghem; 
ct. -singer and favourite of Margaret of 

Laruette (la-ru-ft), J. L., Toulouse, 
17311792 ; composer. 

La Salette (la-sa-leV), Joubert de, 
Grenoble, 1762 1832 ; writer. 

Lasner (laV-ne'r), (i) Ignaz, Brosau, 
Bohemia, 1815 Vienna, 1883; 'cellist. 
(2) K., b. Vienna, Sept. II, 1865 ; son 
of above ; 'cellist Laibach Philh.Orch. 

Lassalle (las-sal), Jean, b. of French 
parents, London, 1847 ; studied 
Paris Cons.; notable barytone ; debut, 
Brussels, 1871 ; sang at Paris opera, 
in America, etc. 

Lassen (las'-s^n), Eduard, b. Copen- 
hagen, April 13, 1830; at 2 was 
taken to Brussels and at 12 studied in 
the Cons, there ; won first pf. -prize, 
1844 ; harm, prize, 1847 ; 2nd prize 
in comp. and 1851 Prix de Rome ; 
travelled in Germany and Italy and 
made a long stay in Rome; 1858, ct.- 
mus.-dir. at Weimar; Liszt procured 
the prod, of his opera " Landgraf 
Zudwig's Brautfahrt" (Weimar, 
1857) ; 1861-95, Liszt's successor as 
ct.-cond. at Weimar; then pensioned; 
c. operas " Frauenlob" (Weimar, 
1860) \"Le Captif" (Brussels, 1865; 
in German, Weimar, 1868) ; n char- 
acteristic orch.-pcs.; Bible-scenes with 
orch. ; cantatas, 2 symphs., pop. songs, 

Lasserre (l&s-sar), Jules, b. Tarbes, 
July 29, 1838 ; pupil Paris Cons. ; 
took ist and 2nd prize as 'cellist; 
1869 End. composer. 

Lasso (las -so), (i) Orlando di (rightly 
Roland de Lattre, Lat. Orlan'dus 
Las'sus), Mons (Hainault), 1520 
Munich, June 14, 1594; most emi- 

nent of Netherland, and (except Pal- 
estrina) of i6th cent., composers and 
conductors. C. 2,500 compositions, 
many of which are still beautiful to 
modern ears, as his melodic suavity 
was not smothered by the erudition 
which gave him even among contem- 
poraries the name "Prince of Music." 
Befriended by various noblemen and 
given much Italian travel, he became 
1541-48 cond. at S. Giovanni in La- 
terano at Rome ; then visited Mons 
and ca. 1554, England, settling in 
Antwerp the same year ; 1557 joined 
on invitation the ct. -chapel of Albert 
V., Duke of Bavaria; from 1562 he 
was cond. there, full of honours. His 
complete works (in course of pub. by 
Breitkopf & Hartel) include his fa- 
mous " P salmi Davidis poenitenti- 
aks" masses, psalms, and secular 
compositions of occasionally humor- 
ous vein. Biogr. by Dehn (1837), 
Baumkehr (1878), and Sandberger. 
(2) Fd. di, d. Munich, Aug. 27, 1609, 
eldest son of above ; ct.-cond. (3) 
Rudolf di, d. Munich, 1625 ; second 
son of (i) ; organist and composer. 
(4) Fd. di, d. 1636 ; son of (2) ; con- 
ductor and composer. 

Latilla (la-til' -la'), Gaetano, Ban, 
Naples, 1713 Naples, 1789; con- 
ductor, teacher and composer. 

Latrobe, (i) Rev. Chr. I., Fulnes, 
Leeds, 1*758 Fairfield, near Liver- 
pool, 1836 ; composer. (2) J. Antes, 
London, 1792 Gloucester, 1787; son 
of above ; organist and composer. 

Lattre, de. Vide LASSO. 

Laub (lowp), Fd., Prague, 1832 
Gries, Tyrol, 1875 ; vln.-virtuoso ; 
teacher and composer. 

Laubner (lowp'-ner), Julius, 1896, 
cond. Municipal Th., Stettin, prod, 
there succ. r-act opera " Gunare" 

Laurencin (low'-ren-sen), Graf Fd. 
P., Kremsier, Moravia, 1819 Vien- 
na, 1890; writer. 

Laurens (16-rans), Edraond, b. Berge- 
rac, France, Sept. 2, 1851 ; pupil of 
E. Guiraud, Paris Cons. ; c. operas ; 
a suite japonaise, etc. 


Laurent de Rille (lo-ran du re'-yti), 
Fran. Anatole, b. Orleans, France, 
1828; pupil of Comoghio and Elwart; 
inspector of vocal instruction, Paris 
pub. schools, etc. ; wrote a mus. nov- 
el "Olivier Vorpheoniste" ; prod, 
about 25 operettas, male choruses 
(chceurs orpheoniques), etc. 

Laurenti (la-oo-ren'-te), (i) Bart. 
Gir., Bologna, 16441726; violin- 
ist and composer. (2) Gir. Nicold, 
b. Bologna, pec. 26, 1752 ; son of 
above ; violinist and composer. 

Lauska (la-oos'-ka), Fz. (Seraphinus 
Ignatius), Brunn, Moravia, 1764 
Berlin, 1825; teacher and com- 

Lauterbach (low'-ter-bakh), Jn. Chr., 
b. Culmbach, Bavaria, July 24, 1832; 
pupil Wiirzburg Mus. Sch., and of 
Fetis and de Beriot at Brussels (1850), 
won gold medal for vln.-playing, 
1851; 1853 Munich Cons.; 1860-77 
Dresden Cons.; 1889, pensioned; 

Lavaltee (la-val-la), Calixa, Ver- 
cheres, Canada, 1842 Boston, 
Mass,, 1891 ; concert-pianist; toured 
U. S., singing, giving frequent con- 
certs of American composers' works, 
1886-87 ; c. 2 operas, an oratorio, a 
symph., etc. 

La'venu, Louis H., London, 1818 
Sydney, 1859 5 'cellist and dram, 

Lavigna (la-ven'-ya), V., Naples, 
1777 Milan, ca. 1837 ; teacher and 
dram, composer. 

Lavignac (la-ven-yal), Albert, prof, of 
harmony, Paris Cons.; writer; pub. 
a " Cours complet thdorique et pra- 
tique de dictit musicak" 1882, which 
led to the general adoption in mus. 
schs. of courses in mus. dictation ; 
also "La musique et Us musiciens" 
(Paris, 1895, Engl. ed., 1899), y 

Lavigne (la-ven), (i) Jacques Emile, 
Pau, 17821855 ; tenor. (2) A. 
Jos., b. Besan90n, France, March 
23, 1816 ; oboist ; pupil Paris Cons.; 
from 1841 in Drury Lane Promenade 
Concerts, later in Halle's Manchester 

orch.; he partially adapted Bbhm's 
system to the oboe. 

Lavoix (la-vwa), H. M. Fran., 
Paris, 1846 1897; writer and com- 

Law, Andrew, Cheshire, Conn., 1748 
1821 ; singing-teacher, writer and 
composer of hymn-tunes, etc. 

Lawes (loz), (i) Wm., Salisbury, Wilt- 
shire, 1582 killed at the siege of 
Chester, 1645 ; composer. (2) H., 
Dinton, near Salisbury, Dec., 1595 
London, Oct. 21, 1662 ; bro. of 
above ; one of the most original and 
important of song-writers, forestalling 
in his principles those of Franz, etc., 
in that he made his music respect the 
poetry he was setting ; Milton, Her- 
rick and others accordingly praised 
him. Pupil of Coperario. 1625, 
Epistler and Gentleman, Chapel 
Royal ; on Charles I.'s execution he 
lost his places but re-found them in 
the Restoration in 1660; buried in 
Cloisters of Westminster Abbey; c. 
the music to Milton's " Comus," etc. 

Lawrowskaja (or Lavrovskaja (laf- 
rof-shka'-ya)), Elizabeth Andre- 
jevna (Princess Zerelelev), b. Kashin, 
Russia, Oct. 12, 1845 ; sopr.; pupil of 
Fenzi and of Mme. Nissen-Saloman, 
St. Petersburg Cons.; debut as Or- 
pheus, 1867. 

Layol(l)e (or dell'Aiole, Ajolla) (li- 
yol', or a-yo'-le), Fran., Florentine 
composer i6th cent. 

Lays (rightly Lay) (l(s)), Fran., 
Gascony, 1758 Angers, 1831 ; noted 
singer and teacher. 

Lazare (lii-za'r), Martin, Brussels, 
18291897 ; pianist. 

Laz'arus, H., London, 18151895; 

Lazzari (lad-za'-re), (i) Sylvio, b. 
Bozen, 1858 ; studied with Cesar 
Franck, Paris Cons.; lived in Paris 
as a teacher; c. opera "Armor" 
pantomimic ballets, etc. (2) Raf- 
faele, c. succ. opera "La Contessa 
d'Egmont" (Trieste, 1902). 

Lazzarini (lad-za-rc'-ne), Gustavo, 
b. Padua, or Verona, 1765 ; singer. 


Leach, Jas., Yorkshire, 17621797 ; 
tenor and composer. 

Le Be" (Ifi-ba), Guil., i6thcent. French 

Le Beau (Iti-bo), Louise Adolpha, 
b. Rastatt, Baden, April 25, 1850; 
concert-pianist; pupil of Kalliwoda, 
Frau Schumann, Sachs, Rheinberger 
and Fr. Lachner ; lives since 1890 in 
Berlin; c. choral works " Hadu- 
moth" (1894), etc. 

Lebeau (11-bo), Fran., b. Liege, Aug. 
4, 1827 ; pupil of Michelot (pf.) and 
Rosselet (harm.) ; Sec. administra- 
tion commission Brussels Cons. ; c. 
opera " Esmeralda" text by Victor 
Hugo (Liege, 1856). 

Lebegue (lu-beg), Nicolas A,, Laon, 
1630 Paris, 1702 ; ct.-organist and 

Lebert (la'-bert) (rightly Levy), Sieg- 
raund, Ludwigsburg, near Stuttgart, 
1822 Stuttgart, 1884 ; teacher, 
writer and composer ; co-founder of 
Stuttgart Cons. (1856-57). 

Lebeuf (lu-buf), Abbe Jean, Auxerre, 
16871760; writer. 

Leblanc (lu-bla'n), Georgette, b. 
Rouen; pupil of Bax ; debut Op. Com. 
Paris, 1893, in " LA Hague de Mou- 
lin" 1895, Th. de la Monnaie, Brus- 
sels ; then gave song recitals in cos- 
tume with much effect. 

Leborne (hl-born), (i) Aim 6 Am- 
broise Simon, Brussels, 1797 Paris, 
1866 ; teacher and writer. (2) (or Le 
Borne), Fd., b. Paris, March 10, 
1862 ; pupil of Massenet, Saint-Saens, 
and Franck, Paris Cons. ; lives in Paris 
as critic; c. pastoral dramas, " fled- 
da, "a symph. legende; symphs., etc. 

Lebouc (lu-book), Chas. Jos., Besan- 
9on, 1822 Hyeres, 1893 ; 'cello-virt- 

Lebrun (le-broon'), (i) L. Aug., 
Mannheim, 1746 Berlin, 1790 ; 
greatest oboist of the iSth cent. ; com- 
poser. (2) (nee Danzi), Franciska, 
Mannheim, 1756 Berlin, 1791 ; wife 
of above ; soprano. Their two 
daughters, (3) Sophie and (4) Ro- 
sinej were distinguished singers. 

Lebrun (Hi-brun),(i) Jean, Lyons, 1759 
suicide, Paris, 1809; horn- virtuoso. 
(2) Louis S6bastien, Paris, 1764 
1829 ; tenor and teacher. (3) Paul 
H. Jos., b. Ghent, April 21, 1861; 
pupil of the Cons, there; 1891 won the 
Prix de Rome for composition and the 
Belgian Academie ist prize for a 

Le Carpentier (Itt kar-pant-ya), Ad. 
Clair, Paris, 18091869; pianist 
and composer. 

Lechner (lekh'-ner), Ld., b. The 
Etschthal, Switzerland (?) Stuttgart, 
1604 ! ct.-cond. and composer. 

Le"clair (la-klar), J. M., Lyons, 1697 
assassinated, Paris, 1764; violin- 
ist ; c. operas, 48 notable vln. -sona- 
tas, etc. ; his wife, a singer, engraved 
his compositions. 

Leclerq (lu-klar), L., b. Paris, 1828 ; 
wrote under pen name " L. Celler." 

Lecocq (Itt-kdk), (Alex.) Chas., b. 
Paris, June 3, 1832 ; studied at the 
Cons., won ist prize for harm., and 
2d prize for fugue ; his first work, 
" Le Docteur Miracle" in conjunc- 
tion with Bizet (prod., 1857), won a 
prize offered by Offenbach for opera 
buffa ; smaller succ. culminated in 
"FleurdeTM" (1868); followed 
by the sensational succ. " La Fille de 
Mme.Angot" (Brussels, 1872 ; Paris, 
iSys). which ran uninterruptedly 
over a year ; its succ. was equalled 
by " GiroJti-Girofla" (1874); 1894, 
chev. of the Legion of Honour; 
prod, over 40 operas-bouffes, comic 
operas and operettas, written with 
scholarship and brilliant instrumenta- 
tion ; sacred and other songs, etc. 

Le Couppey (lu koop'-pe"), Fdlix, 
Paris, April 14, 1814 July 5, 1887 ; 
prof., pf. -teacher and composer. 

Ledebur (la'-de'-boor), K. Freiherr 
von, b. Schildesche, near Bielefeld, 
April 20, 1806 ; Prussian cavalry offi- 
cer and lexicographer. 

Ledent (lu-dan), F. Et., Liege, 1816 
1886 ; pianist and composer. 

Lederer(la'-dg-rer), Georg, b. Marien- 
burg, May 2, 1843 ; notable tenor ; 


pupil of Mantius and Louise Ress ; 
sang in various cities ; 1891-99, Zu- 
rich, then at Riga. 

Leduc (lu-dtik), Alphonse, Nantes, 
1804 Paris, i365 ; pianist, bassoon- 
ist and composer. 

Lee (la), (i) G. Alex., 1802-1851; 
tenor and composer. (2) Sebastian, 
Hamburg, 18051887; 'cellist and 
composer. (3) Louis, b. Hamburg, 
Oct. 19, 1819 ; bro. of above ; 'cell- 
ist ; pupil of J. N. Prell ; at 12 gave 
concerts; 'cellist in the Hamburg 
Th. ; lived several years in Paris ; or- 
ganist, chamber-mus. soirees, Ham- 
burg ; until 1884, teacher in the Cons, 
and ist 'cello ; c. symphonies, over- 
tures, etc. (4) Maurice, Hamburg, 
1821 London, 1895 5 b>- * above i 
pf. -teacher, and composer. (5) (le) 
Geo. Alex., d. 1851, English mgr., 
tenor and composer. 

Leeves, Rev. Wm., 1748 Wrighton, 
1828; probable composer of " Auld 
Robin Grey" etc. 

Lefe~bure (lu-fa-bur), L. Fran. H., 
Paris, 17541840; composer and 

Lefe'bure-We'ly (lu-fa-bur-va-le), L. 
Jas. Alfred, Paris, 18171869; 
noted organist; c. opera, masses, 

Lefebvre (lu-feV-r) (i) (Le Febvre), 
Jacques (called Jacobus Faber), 
also Stapulensis, from his birth- 
place, Staples, near Amiens (?) 
Nerac, 1537 (47 ?) 5 writer. (2) 
Chas. Edouard, b. Paris, June 19, 
1843 ; pupil of Ambr. Thomas, Paris 
Cons.; 1870, Grand prix de Rome; 
1873, after touring the Orient settled 
in Paris; c. succ. opera, "Djelma" 
(1894); "Zaire" (1887), etc. 

Lefevre (Iti-feV-r), J. X., Lausanne, 
1763 Paris, 1829 ; clarinettist, com- 
poser and professor. 

LefFler, Adam, 18081857; Engl. 

Lefort (Iti-f&r), Jules, 1821 Paris, 
1898 ; tenor-barytone. , 

Legouix (Iti-gwex), Isidore Ed., b. 
Paris, April i, 1834 pupil of Reber 

and Thomas at the Cons. ; prod. 4 op- 
eras, etc. 

Legrenzi (la-gren'-tse), Giov., Clu- 
sone, near Bergamo, ca. 1625 Ve- 
nice, 1690; organist, conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Lehmann (la-man), (i) T. Marie, 
(I.) prima donna at Cassel under 
Spohr ; (2) Lilli, b. WUrzburg, May 
15, 1848; daughter and pupil of 
above ; eminent soprano ; debut at 
Prague as " First Boy" in " Die Zau- 
berflote"; 1868, at Danzig, and Leip- 
zig, 1870 ; in the same year obtained 
a life-engagement at the Royal Opera, 
Berlin, with the title (1876) of Imp. 
Chamber-singer; she sang "Wog- 
linde," " Helmwige " and the " Bird," 
at their first performance, 1876 ; 
1885, broke her contract, and sang in 
the U.S., etc. (3) Geo., New York, 
July 31, 1865 ; violinist ; pupil of 
Leipzig Cons, and of Joachim ; won 
the Helbig prize at the Gewand- 
haus, 1883 ; 1886-89, leader of the 
Cleveland Symph. Orch.; lives in 
New York as soloist and teacher; 
pub. " True Principles of the Art of 
Violin-Playing" (New York, 1899). 
(4) Marie (II.), b. Hamburg, May 
15, 1851, daughter and pupil of (T); 
at 16 sang in Leipzig City Th. ; for 
many years, till 1897, Vienna ct.-op- 
era ; lives in Berlin. (5) Liza (Mrs. 
Herbert Bedford), b. in London; 
concert-soprano ; pupil of Randegger 
and Raunkilde at Rome (voice) and 
of Freudenberg (Wiesbaden), and 
Hamish MacCunn (comp.) ; debut, 
Nov. 23, 1885, at a Monday Pop. 
Concert; 1887, sang at the Norwich 
Festival; 1894, m. and retired; c. 
many songs incl. the very pop. song- 
cycle from Omar Khayyam, " In a 
Persian Garden" also *' In Memo- 
riam" etc. 

Leibrock (Hp'-rok), Jos. Ad., Bruns- 
wick, 1808 Berlin, 1886 ; writer and 

Leidesdorf (U'-des-dorf), Max. Jos., 
d. Florence, 1840 ; 1804-27 member 
of the mus.-pub. firm of Sauer & 


L., which published Schubert's 

Leighton (la -tun), Sir Wm., Engl. 
composer, 1641. 

Leisinger (li'-zlng-fr), Elisabeth, b. 
Stuttgart, May 17, 1864 ; sopr. ; 
studied at the Cons., and later with 
Viardot-Garcia, Paris ; 1884, Berlin 
ct. -opera. 

Leite (li'-te 1 ), Antonio da Silva, 
1787 1826; cond. Oporto Cath., 
and composer. 

Leitert (H'-t&t), Jn. G., Dresden, Sept. 
29, 1852 1901 ; pianist ; pupil of 
Kragen and Reichel (pf.) and Risch- 
bieter (harm.) ; debut Dresden, 1865; 
studied with Liszt ; 1879-81 teacher 
Horak Mus. Sen., Vienna; composer, 

Leitgeb. Vide LEUTGEB. 

Le Jeune (lii-zhun), Claudin, Valen- 
ciennes, ca. 1530 1598 or 1603 ; 
French contrapuntist and composer. 

Lekeu (lu-ku), Guillaume, Belgium, 
1869 1884; composer whose early 
death cut short a promising career ; 
c. adagio in C minor for orch. etc. 

Lemaire (or Le Maire) (lii-maY), (i) 

, French musician, i6th-i7th 

cent.; believed to have advocated the 
adoption of a seventh syllable of sol- 
misation (v. D.D.). (2) Th6ophile, 
b. Essigny-le- Grand, Aisne, March 
22, 1820 ; pupil of Paris Cons.; sing- 
ing-teacher and writer. 

Le Maistre (lii-metr) (or Le Maitre), 
Matthews, d. 1577 ; Netherland 
contrapuntist ; ct.-conductor and 

Lemiere de Corvey (lum-ya'r dti kor- 
ve"), J. Fr. Aug., Rennes, 1770 
Paris, 1832; French officer and dram, 

Lemmens (lem'-me'ns), Jacques Nic- 
olas, Zoerle-Parwys, Belgium, 1823 
Castle Linterport, near Malines, 
1881 ; organist, professor and com- 

Lemoine (lum-wan), (i) Ant. Marcel, 
Paris, 1763 1817; publisher, ct.- 
conductor and writer. (2) H., Paris, 
1786 1854 ; son of above and his suc- 
cessor in business ; writer, (3) Aime", 

b - , *795 (?) ; pub. " Methode du 
Meloplaste " ; teacher. 

Leraoyne (lum-wan) (rightly Moyne) 
(mwan), J. Bap., Eymet, Ferigord, 
1751 Paris, 1796; conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Lenaerts (lu-naYts), Constant, b. 
Antwerp, March 9, 1852 ; pupil of 
Benoit ; at 18 dir. Flemish National 
Th. , now teacher Antwerp Cons. 

Lenepveu (lti-nup'-vu), Chas. Fd., b. 
Rouen, Nov. 4, 1840 ; studied with 
Servais, in 1861 won ist prize at 
Caen ; studied with Thomas at the 
Cons. , 1865 took Grand prix de Rome, 
rt. from Rome ; won a prize with opera 
11 Le Fkrentin" (Op. -com., 1874); 
prod. gr. opera " Velkda," (Covent 
Garden, 1882) ; 1891 harm. -prof, in 
the Cons, and 1893 prof, of comp. ; 
1896, Academic des Beaux- Arts ; is 
Chev. of the Legion of Honour, and 
officer of pub. instruction ; c. lyric 
drama '''Jeanne d^Arc" (Rouen 
Cath., 1886); " Hymne funebre et 
trwmphal" (V. Hugo) (Rouen, 1889), 

Len'ton, J., d. after 1711 ; band-mu- 
sician and composer, London. 

Lenz (ISnts), Wm. von, Russia, 1804 
St. Petersburg, Jan. 31, 1883; pian- 
ist ; wrote genial and enthusiastic 
studies of musicians, " Beethoven et 
ses trois styles " (1852), etc., being the 
first so to divide B.'s art. 

Leo (la-6), Leonardo, Brindisi, 1694 
Naples, 1746 ; eminent pioneer in 
the Neapolitan Sch. and noted teach- 
er, conductor and organist ; pupil of 
Aless. Scarlatti, Fago, and Pitoni ; 
ct.-organist ; c. 60 operas, also re- 
ligious mus., incl. a noble 8-part 
" Miserere" a cappella. 

Leonard (la-o-na>), Hubert, Beliaire, 
near Liege, April 7, 1819 Paris, 
May 6, 1890 ; eminent violinist; pub. 
technical studies. 

Leoncavallo (la-on-ka'-val'-lo), Rug- 
giero, b. Naples, March 8, 1858 ; 
studied Naples Cons., and at 16 
made a tour as pianist ; his first 
opera " Tommaso Chatterton," failed 


at first but was succ. revived at Rome, 
1896 ; a disciple whom Wagner per- 
sonally encouraged, he spent 6 years 
in researches, resulting in an "his- 
toric" trilogy "Crepusculum" 
("Twilight"), I. Media, II. Giro- 
latno Savonarola, III. Cezare Bor- 
gia ; toured as pianist through Egypt, 
Greece, Turkey, etc.; lived in Paris 
some years and had an opera " Songe 
J'vru N'uit d'jfcti" privately per- 
formed, and many songs published ; 
he prod. 2-act opera seria " / Pagli- 
acci" (Milan Dal Verme Th., 1892, 
in Germany 1893, as "Der Bajazzo ) 
of which he wrote the masterfully 
constructed libretto as well as the 
strenuous music that made it a uni- 
versal succ. The first part of the 
trilogy, the 4-act "I Medici" was not 
succ. (La Scala, Milan, 1893); the 4- 
act opera "La Boklme" (Venice) 
was a succ. (cf. PUCCINI); and he c. 
also a symph. poem, " Serafittts 
Strafoa" ; c. operas "La Tosca" 
and " Trilby"; u Zaxa" (Antwerp, 
1902) succ.; in preparation, opera 
''Roland" libretto by Emperor Wil- 
helm II. of Germany. 

Leonhard (la-on-ha'rt), Julius Emil, 
Lauban, 1810 Dresden, 1883 ; pro- 
fessor and composer. 

Leoni (la-6 f -ne), (i) Leone, cond. Vi- 
cenza Cath., 15881623, and com- 
poser. (2) Carlo, Italian composer ; 
prod. 3-act operetta "Per un 
Bacio" (Siena, 1894), and text and 
music of succ. comic opera " (7rda- 
no " (Pienza, 1896). (3) Franco, prod, 
cantata " Sardanapalus " (London, 
1896) and romantic opera "Rip Van 
Winkle " (London, 1897). 

Leonowa (or Leonova) (la-6-no'-va), 
Dapya Mikailovna, Russia, 1825- 
St. Petersburg, 1896 ; contralto. 

Leroux (lu-roo), X. H. Napoteon, b. 
Velletri, Papal States, Oct. n, 1863- 
pupil of Paris Cons., took Grand Prix 
deRome, 1885; c. opera " Ctopatn" 
(I8go), ( lyric drama " Evangeline," a 
dramatic overture "Harold," and 
operas " William Rttdiff" and 

"ZEpavo" (not prod.) ; " AstarM" 
(Gr Opera, 1901), " La Rdnt Mam. 
ette (1902), a mass, etc. 
Le Roi (lur-wa), Adrien, i7th cent. 
partner of Ballard (q. v.). ' ' 

Lesage de Richee (lu-sazh-du-re- 
sha), Philipp Fz.j lutenist and 

Leschetizky (Ig-she-tft'-shkl), Theo. 
dor, b. Langort, Austrian Poland 
1830 ; eminent pfs. teacher ; son and 
pupil of a prominent teacher in Vi- 
enna; studied with Czerny (nf.) 
and Sechter (comp.) ; at 15 began 
teaching; 1842 made succ. tours- 
1852 teacher in the St. Petersburg 
Cons.; 1878 toured; 1880 m. his 
former pupil Annette Essipoff, and 
settled as a tea cher in Vienna; c. succ. 
opera, " Die Ersts Pake" (Prague* 
1867), etc. ' 

Les'lie, (i) H. David, London, 1822 
Wales, 1896 ; 'cellist, cond. and 
composer. (2) Ernest, pen-name of 
Brown, 0. B. 
Les'sel, Fz., Warsaw, ca. 1780 

Petrikow, 1839; composer 
Less'man (W. J ), Otto, b. Riiders- 
dorf, near Berlin, Jan. 30, 1844; 
critic ^ and composer; teacher at 
Stern's Cons. ; then at Tausig's Acad. 
until 1871 ; organised a piano-sch. of 
his own ; since 1882 proprietor and 
ed. AUgm. Musik-Zcitnng. 
Le Sueur (lii-siir) (or Lesueur) J.- 
Fran., Drucat-Plessiel, near Abbe- 
ville, France, Jan. 15, 1764 Paris, 
Oct. 6, 1837; chiefly self-taught; 
1786 cond. at Notre Dame, Paris, 
where he drew crowds and criticism 
by his progammatic mus.; he pub. 
pamphlets defending- "dramatic and 
descriptive " church-mus. ; the oppo- 
sition prevailed, however, and he re- 
tired to the country for 4 years ; 1793 
he prod. succ. opera " La Caverne? 
followed by others; 1804 Napoleon 
raised him from distress to the post 
of ct.-cond. 

Leuckart (loik'-art), F. Ernst Chp., 
founded mus. business at Breslau. 
1782, bought 1856 by C, Sanders, 


Leutgeb (Leitgeb) (lit'-gap), Josef, 
d. Vienna, 1811 ; horn-player; friend 
of Mozart. 

Levasseur (Iti-vas-stir), (i) P. Fran., 
b. Abbeville, France, 1753 ; 'cellist, 
Paris Grand Opera; composer. (2) 
J. H., Paris, 1765 (?) ; a 'cellist. 
(3) Rosalie, soprano, Paris Opera, 
1766-85. (4) Nicholas Prosper, b. 
in Picardy, March 9, 1781 ; dram.- 
bass and professor. 

Levens (lu-vans), , church-cond. 

and mathematician and theorist at 
Bordeaux (1743). 

Lev'eridge, Richard, 16701758; 
Engl. bass singer. 

Lev'ey, Wm. Chas., Dublin, 1837 
London, 1894 ; dram, composer. 

Levi (la'-ve), (i) Hermann, b. Gies- 
sen, Nov. 7, 1839 ; eminent conduc- 
tor; pupil of V. Lachner and of 
Leipzig Cons. ; 1859-61, mus.-dir., 
Saarbrucken; 1861-64, cond. Ger- 
man Opera at Rotterdam ; 1864-72, 
ct.-cond. at Carlsruhe ; from 1872, 
ct.-cond. at Munich ; 1894, Gen. mus. 
dir. Munich ; 1896, pensioned. (2) 
Levi (or Levy, Lewy). Vide LE- 


Lewandowski (la-van-dof'-shkl), 
Louis, Wreschen, Posen, 1823 
Berlin, 1894; singing- teacher and com- 

Lew'is, Thos. C., org. -builder, Lon- 
don, 1861. 

Lewy (la'-ve),(i) Eduard Constantin, 
Saint-Avoid, Moselle, 1796 -Vienna, 
1846; horn-virtuoso and prof. (2) 
Jos. Rodolphe, Nancy, 1804 Ober- 
lissnitz, near Dresden, 1881; bro.and 
pupil of above; horn- virtuoso. (3) 
Chas., Lausanne, 1823 Vienna, 
1883 ; son of (i) ; pianist and com- 
poser. (4) Richard Levy, Vienna, 
1827 1883 ; son of (T) ; horn-player, 
singing-teacher. (5) Vide LEBERT. 

Leybach (H'-bakh), Ignace, Gambs- 
heim, Alsatia, 1817 Toulouse, 
1891; pianist, teacher and composer. 

Liadoff (or Liadow) (le'-a-dof), Ana- 
tole, b. St. Petersburg, April 29, 
1855; pupil Johansen (cpt, and 

fugue) and Rimsky-Korsakov (form 
and instr.) at St. P. Cons.; since 1878, 
prof, of harmony there ; also at the 
Imp. Chapel ; since 1894, cond. 
Mus. Soc.; c. brilliant and original 
pf.-pcs., etc. 

Liapunov (or Liapounow) (le-a'-poo- 
nof), Serge Michailovitch, b. Jaro- 
slavi, Russia, Nov. 18, 1859 ; pupil, 
Klindworth and Pabst (pf .) and Hu- 
bert (comp.) Moscow Cons.; sub-dir. 
Imp. Choir, St. Petersburg, and a 
member of the Imp. Geographical 
Soc M which 1893 commissioned him 
to collect the folk-songs of Vologda, 
Viatna and Kostroma, which he pub. 
1897 ; since 1894, mus.-master to the 
Grand Duke ; pub. concerto, a 
symph., etc. 

Libe'lius, incorrect form of Sibelius, 

Lich'fild, H., Engl. composer, 1614. 

Lichner (Hkh'-ner), H., Harpersdorf, 
Silesia, 1829 Breslau, 1898; organ- 
ist and conductor. 

Lichtenberg (Hkh'-t'n-berkh), b. San 
Francisco, Cal., Nov. 22, iSoi ; vln.- 
virtuoso ; pupil of Beaujardin ; at 8 
played in public ; at 12 pupil of Wie- 
niawski, and his aide on a U. S. 
tour ; studied 6 months with Lambert 
in Paris, then studied again with 
Wieniawski 3 years ; won first prize of 
honour at the * ' National concourse "; 
toured America and Europe ; mem- 
ber of Boston Symph. Orch.; 1899, 
vln. prof. Nat. Cons., New York 

Lichtenstein (llkh'-t'n-shtln), K. 
Aug., Freiherr von, Lahm, Franco- 
nia, 1767 Berlin, 1845 ; c. operas. 

Lichtenthal (llkh'-t'n-tal), Peter, 
Pressburg, 1780 Milan, 1853 ; dram, 
composer and writer on mus. 

Lie (le), Erica (Mme. Nissen), b. 
Kongsvinger, near Christiania, Jan. 
17, 1845; pianist, pupil of Kjerulf, and 
of Th. Kullak ; teacher at the Kul- 
laks' Acad., toured Germany, etc.; 
member R. Acad., Stockholm. 

Liebau (le'-bow), (i) Julius, b. Lun- 
denburg, Feb. 19, 1857; tenor-buffo; 
studied with Gansbacher ; won Wag- 
ner's praise as "Mime"; 1882, ct. 


opera, Berlin. (2) Liebau-Globig, 

Helene, b. Berlin, March 31, 1866 ; 
soprano ; sang " Yum- Yum " in "D'er 
Mikado" Berlin, 1889 ; since 1898 at 
ct. -opera. 

Liebe (le'-be 1 ), Ed. L., Magdeburg, 
Nov. 19, 1819 Coire, Switz., 1900; 
pianist, organist and dram, com- 

Liebich (le'-bfkh), Ernst (Jn. Gott- 
lob), Breslau, 18301884; eminent 
vln. -maker. 

Liebig (le-bfeh), (i) K., Schwedt, 
1808 Berlin, 1872; staff oboist in a 
Regt.; 1843, est. Berlin "Sympho- 
niekapelle"; 1860, R. Mus. Dir. 
(2) Julius, 18381885, son of 
above ; cond. at Ems. 

Liebling (lep'-lmg), (i) Emil,b. Pless, 
Silesia, April 12, 1851 ; concert-pian- 
ist ; pf. -pupil of Ehrlich and Th. 
Kullak, Berlin ; Dachs, Vienna, Liszt 
and Dorn ; since 1867, America, and 
since 1872, Chicago, as reviewer and 
concert-pianist, teacher and writer. 
Co-ed, in a " Dictionary of Terms "y 
pub. pf.-pcs. and songs. (2) G,, b. 
Berlin, Jan. 22, 1865 ; pupil of Th., 
and Fr. Kullak, and Liszt (pf.), H. 
Urban and H. Dorn (comp.) ; 1880- 
85, teacher in Kullak's Acad.; 1881- 
89 toured Germany and Austria, with 
success ; 1890, ct, -pianist to Duke of 
Coburg. (3) Leonard, pianist ; stud- 
ied in Germany ; also writer and hu- 
morist on musical topics. 

Lienau (le'-now), Robt., b, Neustadt, 
Holstein, Dec. 28, 1838; mus.-pub., 

Liliencron (le'-tt-en-kron), Rochus, 
Freiherr von, b. Plon, Holstein, Dec. 
8, 1820 ; prof.; commissioned by the 
Historical Commission of Munich to 
collect the mediaeval German folk- 
songs, and pub. them. 

Lillo (ffl'-lo), Gius., Galatina, Lecce, 
Italy, 1814 Naples, 1863; teacher 
and dram, composer. 

Limnan'der de Nieuwenhpve (na - 
ven-ho-ve 1 ), Armand Marie Ghis- 
lain, Ghent, 1814 Moignanville, 
1892 ; dram, composer. 

Lim'pus, Richard, 18241875 ; Engl. 
organist and composer, 

Lincke (tfnk'-e), Jos., Trachenberg, 
Silesia, 1783 Vienna, 1837 ; 'cellist, 

Linc'oln, H. C., 17391864 ; org.- 
builder, London. 

Lind (Imt), Jenny, Stockholm, Oct. 6, 
1820 at her villa, Wynds Point, 
Malvern Wells, Nov. 2, 1887; "The 
Swedish Nightingale," one of the 
most eminent and pop. of sopranos ; 
had a remarkably sympathetic voice 
of great compass (d -e"', v. CHART 
OF PITCH), remarkable purity, 
breath, endurance and flexibility; 
studied with Berg and Lindblad, at 
the court where she made her very 
succ. debut, 1838, in " Der Frd- 
schUte"; 1841, studied with Manuel 
Garcia, in Paris, for nine months; 
1842, sang at the Opera, but was not 
engaged ; 1844, studied German at 
Berlin, and sang with greatest succ. 
in Germany and Sweden ; 1847, made 
a furore in London ; 1849, sne kft 
the operatic stage, and created even 
greater sensations in concert ; 1850- 
52, under the management of P, T. 
Barnum, she toured the U. S., earn- 
ing $120,000 ; 1852, she m. Otto Gold- 
schmidt in Boston ; lived in Dresden ; 
1856, London, appearing especially 
with the Bach Choir which her hus- 
band cond. Her last pub. appear- 
ance was in his oratorio "' 1 

Diisseldorf, 1870. Her private life 
was unusually serene, impeccable, 
and generous. Her bust is in West- 
minster Abbey. Biogr. by A. J. 
Becher (1847). 

Lindblad (Itnt'-blat) Ad. Fr., Lof- 
vingsborg, near Stockholm, 1801 
1878 ; teacher of Jenny Lind ; c. ex- 
cellent Swedish songs and an opera, 

Linden (Imt'-'n), K. van der, b. Dor- 
drecht, April 24, 1839 I prominent 
Dutch cond.; pupil of Kwast (pf.) 
and F. Bohme (theory) ; 1860 cond. 
Dordrecht ; later bandm. the Nat. 
Guard (1875) ; cond. Netherland 
Musicians' Assoc.; c. cantatas with 
orch., 3 operas, etc. 


Under (lln'-der), Gf., b. Ehingen, July 
22, 1842; pupil Stuttgart Cons.; 
from 1868 teacher there ; 1879 pro- 
fessor; c. 2 operas; overture " ' Aus 
nordischer Heldenzeit" etc. 

Lind'ley, (i) Robert, Rotherham, 
Yorkshire, 1777 London, 1855 ' 
'cellist. (2) Wm., 1802 Manchester, 
1869 ; son of above ; 'cellist. 

Lindner (llnt'-ner), (i) Fr., Liegnitz, 
ca. 1540 Niirnberg ; composer. (2) 
. , Lobenstein, 1808 Leipzig, 
1867 ; horn-player. (3) Ernst Otto 
Timotheus, Breslau, 1820 Berlin, 
1867 ; conductor and writer. (4) 
Aug., Dessau, 1820 Hanover, 1878; 
'cellist and composer. 

Lindpaintner (Itnt'-pmt-ner), Peter 
Jos. von, Coblenz, Dec. 8, 1791 
Nonnenhorn, Aug. 21, 1856 ; emi- 
nent conductor, ct. -conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Lind'say, M. (now Mrs. J. W. Bliss), 
English composer of pop. songs. 

Lin'ley, (i) Thos., Sr., Bath, 1725 
London, 1795 ; conductor and dram, 
composer ; owner with Sheridan of 
Drury Lane Th., 1776; he had 3 
daughters and 3 sons. (2) Thos., 
Jr., Bath, 1756 drowned at Grims- 
thorpe, Lincolnshire, 1778 ; violinist 
and composer. (3) Eliza Ann, 
^54 Bristol, 1792 ; brilliant sopra- 
no. (4) Mary, d. 1787 ; singer. 

(5) Maria, d. Bath, 1784 ; singer. 

(6) Ozias, 1765 1831 ; organist and 
composer. (7) Wm., ca. 1767 1835; 
composer and editor. (8) Francis, 
Doncaster, 17741800 ; organist and 
composer. (9) G., Leeds, 1798 
London, 1865 ; writer and dram, 

Linnarz (tfn'-narts), Robt., b. Pots- 
dam, Sept. 29, 1851; pupil of Haupt, 
Berlin; teacher in Bederkesa semi- 
nary ; do. at Alfeld ; wrote methods, 
etc.; c. a festival cantata " AIL 
Deutschland" etc. 

Lintermans (lln'-te'r-mans), Fran. 
Jos., Brussels, 1808 Ixelles, 1895 ; 
singing-teacher and composer. 

Lipinski (ll-pln'-shki), K. Jos., Rad- 

zyn, Poland, Nov. 4 (Oct. 30 ?), 1790 
Urlow, near Lemberg, Dec. 16, 
1861 ; noted violinist and composer ; 
pupil of Paganini ; lived in Dresden, 

Lipsms (Wp'-st-oos), Marie, b. Leip- 
zig, Dec. 30, 1837 ; wrote under pen- 
name " La Mara." 

Lirou (le-roo), J. Fran. Espic, 
Chev. de, Paris, 1740 1806 ; writer 
and composer; pub. a "Harmony" 
(1785), the first French book to de- 
sert Rameau for the modern laws of 

Lischin (lesh'-fo), Grigory Andree- 
vitch, 185381. Petersburg, June 
27, 1888; c. operas, incl. "Don C/- 
sar de Sazan" 

Lissmann (les'-man), (i) H. Fritz, 
Berlin, 1847 Hamburg, 1894 ; bary- 
tone ; m. the sopr. (2) Anna 
Marie Gutzschbach. 

Listemann (fts'-te-man), (i) Fritz, b. 
Schlotheim, Thuringia, March 25, 
1839 ! violinist ; pupil of his uncle 
Ullrich, and of David, Leipzig Cons., 
1858, chamber-virtuoso to the Prince 
of Rudolstadt ; 1867 lived in New 
York ; 1871, ist vln. Thomas Orch.; 
from 1878, ist vln. Philh. Orch. ; 
1881-85 Symph. Orch. ; since 
taught and toured with " Liste- 
mann Concert Co." ; c. 2 vln.-con- 
certos, etc. (2) Bernhard, b. Schlot- 
heim, Aug. 28, 1841 ; bro. of above ; 
pupil of Ullrich, and David, Vieux- 
temps and Joachim. 1859-67, ist. 
vln. in Rudolstadt ct.-orch. ; came to 
America with his bro., lived in Bos- 
ton ; 1871-74, leader Thomas Orch.; 
1874 founded the " Philharm. Club," 
and toured the country; 1878 founded 
Boston Philh. -Orch.; cond. till 1881, 
then 4 yrs. leader of the New 
" Symph.-Orch." ; founded " Liste- 
mann Quartet " ; 1883 - 93, dir. 
of the " Listemann Concert Co."; 
from 1893, prof. Chicago Coll. of 
Mus.; pub. a "Method" (3) Paul, 
b. Boston, Oct. 24, 1871 ; son and 
pupil of (2); studied also with (i) 
and was a member of the Quar- 


tet and Concert Co., 1890-93; 
studied with Brodsky and Hilf , Leip- 
zig, and with Joachim, at Berlin; 
leader of the Pittsburg (Pa.) Orch. ; 
1896, of the "American Orch.," N. 
Y.; since soloist of the " Redpath 
Concert Co." (4) Fz., b. New York, 
Dec. 17, 1873 ; bro. of above ; 'cel- 
list ; pupil of Fries and Giese at Bos- 
ton, of Julius Klengel, Leipzig ; and 
Hausmann, Berlin; ist 'cello Pitts- 
burg Orch. for a year, since lives in N. 
Y. as teacher and concert-performer. 
Liszt (list), Franz (originally Per- 
encz), Raiding, near Odenburgh, 
Hungary, Oct. 22,. 1 8 1 1 Bayreuth, 
July 31, 1886; in many ways the 
most brilliant of all pianists, and a 
composer whose poorest works are 
too popular, while he is not granted 
the credit due his more solid achieve- 
ments ; as great a patron of art, also, 
as he was creator. Son and pupil of 
an amateur ; at nine played in public, 
at Oedenburg, Ries' Efr concerto. A 
group of Hungarian counts sub- 
scribed a 6 years' annuity of 600 flor- 
ins, and the family moved to Vienna, 
where L. studied with Czerny (pf.), 
and Salieri (theory) for 18 months. 
Beethoven hearing .iim play his trio 
op. 97, embraced him. At 12 he gave 
v. succ. concerts in Vienna and his 
father took him to Paris, where he 
was refused as a foreigner because 
of Cherubini's objections to " infant 
phenomena ; " hereafter L. was his 
own teacher, except in comp. which 
he studied with Paer and Reicha. At 
14, his i-act operetta, "Dm San- 
cho " had 5 performances at the Acad. 
royale de musique. On his father's 
death in 1827 he supported his 
mother by teaching, soon becoming 
the salon-idol he always remained. 
He was strongly influenced by Cho- 
pin, von Weber, Paganini and Ber- 
lioz. He had a brilliant series of 
heart-affairs, beginning with the lit- 
erary Countess d'Agoult (Daniel 
Stern "), with whom he lived in 
Geneva (1835-39). She bore him a 

son and three daughters ; Cosima, 
the youngest, became the wife of 
von Bulow, later of Wagner. 1839, 
he successfully undertook to earn by 
concerts money enough for the com- 
pletion of the Beethoven monument 
at Bonn. 1849, ct.-cond. at Weimar, 
with royal encouragement to aid mus. 
progress. He made himself the 
greatest patron among creative artists, 
aiding Wagner materially by pro. 
ductions of his works at Weimar and 
by pf. transcriptions, aiding also 
Raff, Schumann, and Berlioz, finally 
resigning before the opposition to, 
and failure of, an opera by Cornelius 
(q. v.). 1859-70, he lived chiefly at 
Rome, where in 1866 the Pope, Pius 
IX., made him an abbe. 1870 he 
was reconciled with the Weimar 
Court. 1875 pres. of the new Acad. 
of Mus. at Peslh ; he spent his 
last years at Weimar, Pesth, and 
Rome, followed by a large retinue of 
disciples and pupils whom he taught 
free of charge. He died during a 
Bayreuth Festival. C. 2 SYMPHS.: 
" Dante " (after the " Divina Corn- 
media " with female chorus) ; " Eine 
Faustsymphonie" ("Faust," "Gret- 
chen," " Mephistopheles," with male 
chorus) ; SYMPH. POEMS: <l Ce qu'on 
entend sur la montagne" (Victor 
Hugo) ; ' ' Tasso, lamento t trionfo "; 
' ' Les Prttudes " ; " Orpheus " ; 
"Prometheus"; "Mazeppa"; "Fest- 
klange " " Hdroide funHre " / 
"Hungaria"; "Hamlet"; " Hun- 
nenschlacht" ; "Die Ideale" (Schil- 
ler) ; and " Von. der Wiegc bis zum 
Grabe" (Michael Zichy) ; ALSO FOR 
ORCH. " Zwei Episoden aus Lenaus 
Faust" (Der nachtliche Zug, 2 Me- 
phisto-walzer), etc. FOR PIANO: 
2 concertos ; " Danse macabre" with 
orch. ; "Concerto patMique" ; 15 
' ' Rhapsodies hongroises "; ' ' Rhap- 
sodie espagnok "y ' ' Sonata in B. 
Min"; " Fantasia and Fugue on 
B-A-C-H"; variations on a theme 
from Bach's B-min. mass ; Ib" Har- 
monics potiiques et rfligieuses"; 


" Ann&s de ptterinage "y 3 "Ap- 
paritions" 2 ballades ; 6 " Consola- 
tions"; 2 elegies; 2 le'gendes (&. 
Francois D'Assise and .SY. Francois 
de Paul) ; ," Liebestraume" (Not- 
turnos) ; ft Etudes <T execution tran- 
scendante "y "^<5 tVa/0, //^tr de per- 
fectionnement "; concert-etudes, 
" Waldesrauschtn " and " Gnomen- 
reigen"; " Technische Studien" (12 
books), etc., and many transcriptions 
of symphs., overtures, 50 songs by 

Schubert, etc. Vocal comps. : 4 
masses, incl. Missa soknnis (the 
" Graner " Festival Mass) ; requiem ; 
3 oratorios, "Die Legende von der 
Heiligen Elisabeth" " Stanislaus," 
and " Christm"; Psalms I3th, i8th, 
etc., with orch. and other church- 
music; 3 cantatas with orch.; male 
choruses, 60 songs, etc. Wrote life 
of Chopin, of Franz, etc. Complete 
ed. of his writings in 6 vols. Biogr. 
by L. Ramann, 1880. 

Franz Liszt. 


THERE are two great paradoxes in the career of Liszt. The first is 
that just as Rossini, the most popular opera composer of his day, 
ceased writing operas thirty-nine years before his death, so Liszt, 
the greatest and most adored pianist of all times, ceased playing in public (ex- 
cept for an occasional charitable purpose) about the same number of years 
before his end came. He had, with his inimitable art, familiarised concert- 
goers with nearly all the best compositions for the piano, created by other 
masters. He had transcribed for the same instrument a large number of songs, 
operatic melodies and orchestral works (the number of these transcriptions at his 
death was 371), thereby vastly increasing their vogue. He also wrote al- 
together 1 60 original compositions for the pianoforte, many of them as new 
in form as in substance ; unique among them being the fifteen Hungarian 
rhapsodies collections of Magyar melodies with gypsy ornaments, moulded 
by him into works of art, after the manner of epic poets. But and here 
lies the second paradox Liszt, the greatest of all pianists, was not satisfied 
with the piano. In many of his pieces for it, he endeavours to impart to it 
orchestral power and variety of tonal effect ; and finally, when he became 
conductor at Weimar (1849), ^ e transferred his attention chiefly to the or- 
chestra, ^f Of his thirty-four orchestral works, the most important are the 
"Faust" and "Dante" symphonies, and thirteen symphonic poems, in 
which he deviated from the old symphonic form in a spirit similar to Wag- 
ner's operatic reforms abolishing the mosaic of unconnected movements and 
allowing the underlying poetic idea (programme) to shape the form of the 
music. Of great importance and beauty also are his sixty songs, which rep- 
resent the climax of the tendency to mirror in the music, not only the general 
spirit of the poem, but every line and word. The last period of his life was 
largely given up to the writing of sacred compositions. Among these, the 


most original in substance is the "Legend of St. Elizabeth" the most original 
in form "Cbristns" in which the last remnants of the opera (the aria and 
recitative) are eliminated from the oratorio, and little remains besides choruses 
and instrumental numbers. Liszt's genius in early life was shaped largely by 
Schubert, Chopin, Berlioz, and Wagner. His own influence on the pianists 
and orchestral writers of Germany, France, and Russia, can hardly be over- 

Litolff (le'-tolf), H. Chas., London, 
Feb. 6, iSiS Paris, Aug. 5, 1891; 
prominent pianist, conductor, pub- 
lisher and composer. 

Litta (llt'-ta), Duca Giulo, Visconte 
Arese, Milan, 1822 Vedano, near 
Monza, 1891; dram, composer. 

Litvinae (let'-vm), Felia, b. Russia ; 
soprano ; pupil of Mme. Barth-Ban- 
deroli and Maurel ; debut Th. des 
Italians, Paris; later sang Wagner 
at Met. Op., N. Y. ; then in St. Peters- 
burg ; sister-in-law of Ed. de Reszke. 

Litzau (let'-tsow), Jns. Barend, Rot- 
terdam, 1822 1893 ; pianist, organ- 
ist and composer. 

Liverati (le-vM'-te), Giov,, Bologna, 
1772 after 1817; noted tenor, con- 
ductor and dram, composer, 

Lloyd (bid), (i) Edw., b. London, 
March 7, 1845 ; noted concert tenor ; 
choir-boy, Westminster Abbey, with 
Jas. Turle, till 1860; from 1874, 
first tenor, Leeds Festival ; sang at 
Cincinnati Festival 1888, and has 
toured the U. S. ; gave farewell con- 
cert, London, 1900. (2) Chas. 
Harford, b. Thornbury, Gloucester- 
shire, Engl., Oct. 16, 1849; I ^9 1 ' 
Mus. Doc. Oxford; 1876, organist 
Gloucester Cath.; 1892 precentor and 
mus.-teacher Eton Coll.; founded 
Oxford Univ. Mus.-Club ; 1877-80, 
cond. Gloucester Festivals ; now Ox- 
ford Symph. Concerts ; c. 7 cantatas, 
mus. to Alcestis (Oxford, 1887) ; full 
cath. service, etc. 

Lobe (Id'-beO, Jn. Chr M Weimar, May 
30, 1797Leipzig, July 27, 1881 ; 
flutist, vla.-player, and dram, com- 
poser ; wrote important treatises. 

Lobkowitz. Vide CARAMUEL DE L. 

Lo'bo (or Lopez) (lo'-ps) (or Lupus), 
Duarte, Portuguese composer at 
Lisbon, 1600. 

Locatel'li, Pietro, Bergamo, 1693 
Amsterdam, 1764 ; vln. -virtuoso, re- 
garded as marvellous for his double- 
stopping and effects procured by 
changed accordature (v. D. D.) in 
which Paganini imitated him. 

Locke, Matthew, Exeter, England, 
1632 (33 ?) London, 1677 J com- 

Lock'ey, Chas., succ. Engl. tenor; 
retired, 1859. 

Lo'der, (i) J. Fawcett, 18121853 1 
violinist and conductor. (2) Edw. 
Jas., Bath, 1813 London, 1865; 
dram, composer. (3) J., violinist, 
d. ca, 1860 (?). (4) Wm., 'cellist ; 
d. ca. 1860; bro. of above. (5) 
Emily Woodyat, wife of above. 

Loeb (lap), Jules, b. Strassburg, 1857; 
pupil of Chevillard, Paris Cons. , won 
ist prize ; solo 'cellist at the Opera, 
and the Cons. Concerts ; member of 
the Marsick Quartet, and the "So- 
ciete pour instrs. a vent et a cor- 

Loeffler (lef'-ler), Chas. Martin Tor- 
nov, b. Muhlhausen, Alsatia, 1861; 
violinist and notable composer ; pupil 
of Massart, Leonarti, Joachim and 
Guiraud (comp.) ; played in Pasde- 
loup's orch.; later in Prince Dervier's 
orch.; now 2d leader and soloist Bos- 
ton (U. S. A.) Symph. Orch.; c. 
symph. poem "La mort de Tinta- 
giles" (after Maeterlinck), with viole 
d'amore obbligato ; suite " Les Veil- 
l&s de T Ukraine " (after Gogol) for 


vln. and orch,; concerto in I move- 
ment for orch. ; divertimento for vln. 
with orch.; string quartet ; songs 
with viola obbl., etc. 

Loeillet (lwa-ya'), J. Bap., Ghent- 
London, 1728 ; noted virtuoso on 
flute and harp ; composer. 

Loewe. Vide LOWE. 

Logier (lo-jer), Jn. Bd., Cassel, 
1777 Dublin, 1846 ; flutist, writer 
and composer ; invented the ' ' chiro- 

P last -". 

Logrosdno (16-gro-she'-n6), Nicola, 
Naples, ca. 1700 1763; professor of 
cpt.; composer; pupil of Durante; 
1747, prof, of cpt. at Palermo, then 
lived in Naples and prod, some 20 
light operas ; he was brilliantly suc- 
cessful, and was the first to close acts 
with an ensemble. 

Lohmann (lo'-man), Peter, b. 
Schwelm, Westphalia, April 24, 1833 ; 
since 1856, lives in Leipzig ; 1858-^61, 
writer for Neue Ztitschrift fur MU- 
sik ; he believes that the drama 
should be of universal appeal without 
localism, patriotism or other alleged- 
ly narrowing influence ; wrote trea- 
tises and several dramas set to music 
by Huber, Goebel, etc. 

Lohr (lor), Jn,, b. Eger, May 8, 1828 ; 
org. -virtuoso and teacher ; pupil of 
his father, and of Pitsch ; 1858, or- 
ganist, Szegedin, Hungary ; lives in 
Pesth ; played with succ. in London, 

Lohr (lar), (i) G. Augustus, Norwich, 
Engl., 1821 Leicester, 1897; or- 
ganist and conductor. (2) Richard 
H., Leicester, Engl., June 13, 1856 ; 
studied R. A. M. won two medals ; 
organist, London ; since 1882, con- 
cert-pianist ; c. oratorios ; wrote 
' ' Primer of Music \ " etc. 

Lohse (iS'-ze 1 ), Otto, for years cond. 
Hamburg City Th., 1895-96, Dam- 
rosch Op. Co., in which the prima 
donna was his wife Klafsky (q. v.); 
cond. Covent Garden, 1901 ; now 
cond. City Th., Strassburg; prod, 
succ. opera " Der Prinz Wider 
Wilkn" (Cologne, 1898). 


Lolli (16MK), Ant., Bergamo, ca. 1730 
('40 ?) Palermo, 1802; violinist and 
leader ; composer and writer. 

Lomagne, B. de. Vide SOUBIES. 

Long'hurst, (i) Wm, H., b. Lam- 
beth, Engl., Oct. 6, 1819; chorister 
in Canterbury Cath.; later asst.-or- 
ganist, master of the choristers and 
lay-clerk; 1873, organist; 1875, 
Mus. Doc. and mus. -lecturer ; c. ora- 
torios, cath. service, etc. (2) J. 
Alex., 18091855 ; operatic and 
concert-singer ; bro. of above. 

Loo'mis, Harvey Worthington, b. 
Brooklyn, U. S. A., Feb. 5, 1865 ; 
notable composer; pupil of Dvorak 
at the National Cons., New York, 
1892, winning a 3-years' scholarship ; 
lives in New York ; c. several excel- 
lent pantomimes and notable pro- 
gramme music in the form of "mu- 
sical backgrounds " to poems ; original 
pf.-pcs. and songs. 

Loose'more, (i) H., d. 1667 ; organist 
at Cambridge, and composer. (2) 
G., son of above ; organist. (3) J., 
d. 1681; son of (i), org.-builder. 

Lopez. Vide LOBO. 

Lorenz (lo'-rents), (i) Fz., Stein, Lower 
Austria, 1805 Vienna, 1883 ; writer. 
(2) Karl Ad., b. Koslin, Pomerania, 
Aug. 13, 1837 ; c. quartets, etc., as a 
sch.-boy; studied with Dehn, Kiel 
and Gehrig, Berlin, and at Berlin 
Univ.; 1861, Dr. Phil.; 1866, Munic- 
ipal Dir., Stettin, cond. symph. 
Concerts, etc.; teacher in two gym- 
nasiums ; founded the " Stettin Mu- 
sikverein" (for oratorio); 1885, pro- 
fessor ; c. 2 succ. operas, overtures, 
etc. (3) Julius, b. Hanover, Oct. 
I, 1862 ; from 1884, cond. Singaka- 
demie, Glogau ; 1895, of the "Arion," 
New York; c. an opera "Die Re- 
kruten" and overtures. 

Lo'ris, Lori'tus. Vide GLAREANUS. 

Lortzing (lort'-tsmg) (Gv.), Albert, 
Berlin, Oct. 23, 1803 Jan. 21, 1851; 
an actor, son of actors, and m. an 
actress, 1823. Had a few lessons 
with Rungenhagen ; chiefly self- 
taught; 1826, actor at Detmold; 



prod. 2 vaudevilles with succ. ; 1833- 
44, tenor at Leipzig th. ; prod. succ. 
"Die beiden Scfiiitzen"; 1837 and 
1839, " Czar und Zimmerman"; 4 
others followed, then " Der Wild- 
schiitz" 1842; cond. at Leipzig Op., 
then travelled, producing 6 more op- 
eras, inch "Undine'' (1845); "'Der 
Waffemchmied" (1846); his melo- 
dious unction keeps those works men- 
tioned still popular, and his " Regina " 
was posthumously prod. Berlin, 1899, 
with succ,; he lived in poverty in 
spite of his succ., and a benefit was 
needed for his family after his death ; 
c. also an oratorio, etc.; biogr. by 
Diiringer (Leipzig, 1851). 

Loschhorn (lesh'-horn), Albert, b. 
Berlin, June 27, 1819; pupil of L. 
Berger, Kollitschgy, Grell and A. W. 
Bach at the R. Inst. for Church-mu- 
sic; 1851, as pf. -teacher there; 1859, 
professor ; noted teacher also ; writer 
and composer. 

Los'sen, Magda. Vide DULONG. 

Los'sius, Lucas, d. Llineberg, 1852 ; 
writer and composer. 

Lett, Edwin M., b. St. Helier Jersey, 
Jan. 31, 1836 ; at 10 yrs. organist ; 
later various London churches; c. 
sacred mus. 

Lotti (16t'-te), Ant., Hanover (?), ca. 

1667 Venice, Jan. 5, 1740; son of 
\ the ct.-cond. at Hanover ; pupil of 
Legrenzi ; at 16 prod, an opera at 
Venice ; 1697 organist there ; prod. 
20 operas with general succ. ; was 
noted as an organist, and more 
famed as a composer of church-music. 

Lotto (lot' -to), Isidor, b. Warsaw, 
Dec. 2, 1840 ; pupil of Massart (vln.) 
and Reber (comp.), Paris Cons. ; 
1862, solo- violinist, Weimar ; 1872, 
teacher Strassburg Cons., later at 
Warsaw Conservatorium. 

Lotze (lot'-tse), Rudolf Hn., Bautzen, 
1817 Berlin, 1881 ; professor and 

Louis (loo'-es), Fd., Friedrichsfelde, 
near Berlin, 1772 Saalfeld, 1806 ; 
Prince of Russia, nephew of Frede- 
rick II. ; composer. 

Louli6 (loo-ya), 6t., i;th cent. ; inv. 
the ' ' chronometre " (forerunner of 
the metronome) and a "sonometre." 

Lovattini (-te'-ne), Giov., Ital. tenor 
in London, 1767. 

Lov'er, Samuel, Dubiin, 1797 Jer- 
sey, 1868 ; famous novelist ; also 

Low (lav), Jos., Prague, Jan. 23, 1834 
Oct., 1886 ; pianist and composer 
of light pf.-pcs. 

Lowe (16), Edw., Salisbury, Engl,, 
1610 (-15?) Oxford, 1682 ; organist^ 
professor and composer. 

Lowe (la'-ve) (Jn.) Karl (Gf.), Lfibe- 
jiin, near Halle, Nov. 30, 1796 
Kiel, April 20, 1869 5 son an d pupil 
of a cantor ; studied with Turk on a 
royal stipend ; 1821-66 town mus.- 
dir. at Stettin ; toured Europe sing- 
ing his own fine " ballades" or dra- 
matic solos ; also c. 5 operas, 17 
oratorios, etc., wrote a " Selbst-bio- 
graphie (1870)." 

Low'thian, Caroline (Mrs. Cyril A. 
Prescott), English composer. 

Liibeck (lli'-bek), (i) Vincentius, Pad- 
dingbtlttel, near Bremen, 1654 Ham- 
burg, Feb. 9, 1740 ; famous organist. 
(2) Jn. H., Alphen, Holland, 1799 
The Hague, 1865; violinist and ct.- 
conductor. (3) Ernst, The Hague, 
1829 Paris, 1876 ; son of above ; 
pianist. (4) Louis, b. The Hague, 
1838 ; bro. of above ; pupil of Jac- 
quard ; 1863-70, 'cello-teacher, Leip- 
zig Cons. ; then in Frankfort. 

Lii'benau, L. Vide JADASSOHN, s. 

Lubrich (loo'-brtkh), Fritz, b. Bars- 
dorf, July 29, 1862 ; 1890 cantor at 
Peilau, Silesia ; editor and com- 

Lucantoni (loo-kan-to'-ne), Giov., b. 
Rieti, Italy, Jan. 18, 1825 ; pupil of 
Milan Cons.; 1857 lived in Paris, 
then London as vocal teacher ; c. an 
opera, a symph. , etc. 

Lu cas, (i) Chas., Salisbury, 1808 
London, 1869 ; 'cellist and composer. 
(2) Stanley, since 1861 secretary to 
the R. Soc. of Mus. ; and 1866-80 of 
the Philh. Soc. (3) Clarence, b. Can- 


ada, 1866 ; studied Paris Cons. ; c. 
opera, " Anne Hathaway" etc. 

Lucca (look'-ka), Pauline, b. Vienna, 
April 25, 1841 ; soprano ; studied 
with Uschmann and Lewy ; in chorus 
Vienna Op.; 1859 won attention as 
First Bridesmaid in " Der Frei- 
schiitz" engaged at Olmtitz, for 
leading roles ; Meyerbeer chose her 
to create " Selika " in " UAfricaine" 
at Berlin, where she was engaged as 
ct.-singer for life; sang in London 
annually, and broke her Berlin en- 
gagement to sing in the United 
States for two years ; 1869 m. Baron 
von Rhaden (divorced, 1872) ; m. von 
Wallhofen in America ; lives in Vi- 

Lucchesma (look-kas'-ma), Maria A. 
M., Ital. mezzo-soprano, London, 


Luck (ttk), Stephan, Linz-on-Rhine, 
1806 Trier, 1883 ; reformer in Cath- 
olic church-music. 

Ludwig (loot'-vlkh), Otto, Eisfeld, 
Thuringia, 1813 Dresden, 1865; 
dram, composer. 

Luhrsz (loorsh), K., Schwerin, 1834 
Berlin, 1882 ; composer. 

Lully (rightly Lulli) (lul-le, or lool'-H), 
(i) J. Bap. de, Florence, 1633 
Paris, March 22, 1687. A Franciscan 
monk taught him the violin and gui- 
tar. His parents were noble but 
poor; the Chev. de Guise took the 
boy in 1646 to France to entertain 
Mile, de Montpensier, but he was 
set to work in the scullery, where 
Count de Nogent heard him play 
the vln. and placed him in the 
private band. L., however, set to 
music a satirical poem on Mile, de 
M. and she dismissed him. He stud- 
ied the harps, and comp. with Metri, 
Roberdet, and Gigault, and became 
a member of the King's private or- 
chestra ; 1652, he became head of the 
" 24 violins " ; he organised a second 
group, " les petits violons," of 16 
instrs. and made it the best orchestra 
in France. 1653, ct. -composer and 
prod, masques and ballets in which 

Louis XIV. took part and Lully as 
" M. Baptiste," danced and acted. 
1672, the king held him in such favour 
that he gave him letters patent for 
an "Academic royale de musique" 
(now the Gr. Opera) ; a rival theatre 
was closed by the police (v. CAMPRA). 
With this opportunity (cf, Wagner's 
Bayreuth, Theatre) the transplanted 
Italian proceeded to found French 
opera idiomatic mus. to texts in the 
vernacular, and free of the super- 
ornamentation of the Italian Sch. He 
held the vogue till Gluck put him in 
eclipse. L. was dir., stage-manager, 
conductor, and even at times machin- 
ist, as well as composer. He was 
fortunate in his librettist, Quinault. 
He developed the overture, and intro- 
duced the brass into the orch. He 
was famous for his temper and once 
while cond. furiously struck his own 
foot with the baton, producing a 
fatal abscess. His works, mainly on 
classical subjects, include "Les FStes 
de V Amour et de Bacchus"; a pas- 
toral pasticcio (1672); " Cadmus et 
Hermione "; " Alceste"; " The'sfa"; 
"Le Car naval" opera-ballet ; "Aiys, 
7j, Psyche"; " BelUrophon" ; "Pro- 
serpine" ; " Le Triomphe de 
L Amour" ; "Perste "y " Phaeton "/ 
" Amadis de Gaule" ; "Roland"; 
" Armide et Renaud" ; "Ads et 
Galatite" historic pastoral (1686), 
etc., also symphs., a mass, etc. (2) 
Louis de, Paris, 1664 after 1713; 
son of above; dramatic com- 

Lum'bye, Hans Chr., Copenhagen, 
1810 1874; conductor and compos- 
er of pop. dance-mus. His son and 
successor (2) G., c. opera " The 
Witch's Flute." 

Lum'ley, Benj., 18121875 ; London 
operatic manager. 

Lu'pi. Vide LUPUS. 

Lupi (loo'-pe), Italianised form of 
" Wolf"; frequent i6th cent, surname 
worn by Lupus Lupi, Didier, Jo- 
hannes (Jean), and Manfred Lupi, 
of whom nothing remains except their 


works (detached motets for the 
greater part). Also see LOBO. 

Luporini (loo-po-re'-ne), Gaetano, b. 
Lucca, Italy ; pupil of Primo Quilici, 
graduating from the Pacini Mus. 
Inst; c. opera " Marcclla" succ. 
lyric comedy, " I Dispetti Amorosi" 
(Turin, 1894); v. succ. opera "La Col- 
lana di Pasqua " (Naples, 1896), etc. 

Lupot (lii-po), (i) Nicolas, Stuttgart, 
1758 Paris, 1824; chief of a French 
family of vln-makers, incl. his great 
grandfather (2) Jean; his grandfather 

(3) Laurent (b. 1696), his father 

(4) Francois, his bro. (5) Fran$ois 
(d. 1837), and his son-in-law, Cnas. 
Fr. Gand of Gaud & Bernardel, 

Lupus (loo'-poos) (Christian name fre- 
quently occurring among i6th cent, 
composers). Among those who wore 
it are, (i) L. Hellinck, (2) L. Lupi. 

Lusci'nius (Latin form of Nachtgall 
or Nachtigall (nakht'-OO-gal), 
" Nightingale "), Ottomar, Strass- 
burg, 1487 ca. 1536 ; organist, theo- 
rist and composer. 

Lussan (dtt lus-san), Ze*He de, b. New 
York, 1863 ; pupil of her mother ; de- 
but in concert and stage, 1886 ; 1889 
Carl Rosa Co., London ; from 1894, 
Met. Op. N. Y., also in Spain, etc. 

Lussy (ioos'-se), Mathis, b. Stans, 
Switz., April 8, 1828; pupil of Bu- 
singer and Nageli; pf. -teacher, Paris, 
and writer. 

Liistner (Ifet'-n'r), (i) Ignaz P., 
Poischwitz, near Jauer, 1792 Bres- 
lau, 1873; violin teacher. His five 
sons were (2) K., b. Breslau, Nov. 
10, 1834 ; pianist and 'cellist ; since 
1872 teacher in Wiesbaden. (3) Otto, 
Breslau, 1839 Barmen, 1889 ; town 
mus.-dir. at Barmen. (4) Louis, b. 
Breslau, June 30, 1840 ; violinist, 
and since 1874 cond. at Wiesbaden. 

(5) G., b. Berlin, 1887 ; 'cellist; ct.- 
cond. at Berlin. (6) Richard, b. 
Breslau, Sept. 2, 1854 ; harpist and 

Luther (loo'-ter), Martin, Eisleben, 
Nov. 10, 1483 Feb. 18, 1546 ; the 

great reformer concerned himself also 
with church-mus., issuing "Formula 
missae" (1523), and a new order 
for the German mass. He wrote the 
words of at least 36 chorals, and is 
generally believed to have c. 13 cho- 
ral-tunes (incl. the famous " EinfesU 
Burg ist unser Gott" and "Jesaia 
den Propheten das gescha "), his meth- 
od being to play them on the flute 
(which he played well) while his 
friends and assistants, the cond. Kon- 
rad Rupff and cantor Jn. Walther, 
wrote them out. 

Liitschg (Htshkh), Waldemar, b. St. 
Petersburg, May 16, 1877 ; pianist ; 
pupil of his father a prof, at the Cons, 
there; after his father's death he 
toured Germany ; lives in Berlin. 

Lutz (loots), Wm. Meyer, b. Man- 
nerstadt, 1829 ; pianist and dram, 
composer; from 1848, conductor at 

Lutzel (liit'-tsel), Jn. H., Iggleheim, 
near Speyer, 1823 Zweibrucken, 
1899 ; writer and composer. 

Lutzer, Jenny. Vide DINGELSTEDT. 

Lux (looks), Fr., Ruhla, Thuringia, 
1820 Mayence, 1895 ; conductor, 
organist, pianist and dram, composer. 

Luzzi (lood'-zc), Luigi, Olevano di 
Lomellina, 1828 Stradella, 1876 ; 
dram, composer. 

Lvoff (or Lwoff) (1'vof), Alex, von, 
Reval, 1799 on his estate, Govt. of 
Kovno, 1870; violinist and conduc- 
tor ; c. the Russian national hymn and 
4 operas. 

Lwowezyk (l'vo'-ve-zek), Martin 
(Leopolitas), d. 1589, Polish com- 

Lynes (linz), Frank, b. Cambridge, 
Mass., May 16, 1858 ; pupil N. E. 
Cons, and Leipzig Cons.; lives in 
Boston as organist, conductor and 

Lyra (le'-ra), Justus W., OsnabrUck, 
1822 Gherden, 1882 ; composer. 

Lysberg (les'-berkh) (rightly Bovy), 
Chas. Samuel, Lysberg, near Ge- 
neva, 1821 Geneva, 1873 ; pianist 
and dram, composer. 



Maas (mas), (i) Jos., Dartford, 1847 
1886; tenor. (2) Louis (Ph. 0.), 
Wiesbaden, 1852 Boston, 1889 \ 
pianist, conductor and composer. 

Mabellini (ma-be'l-le'-ne), Teodulo, 
Pistoia, Italy, 1817 Florence, 1897 ; 
ct.-conductor and dram, composer. 

Mabillon (ma-be-yon), Jean, St. 
Pierremont, 1632 St. Germain-des- 
Pre's, 1707 ; writer and editor. 

Macbeth', Allan, b. Greenock, Scot- 
land, March 13, 1856 ;' pupil of Leip- 
zig Cons. ; organist in Glasgow ; 
since 1890, principal sch. of mus., 
Glasgow Athenseum ; c. an operetta, 
2 cantatas, chamber-mus. , etc. 

Maccherini (mak-ke'-re'-ne), Bologna, 
17451825, soprano, wife of An- 

MacCunn', Hamish, b. Greenock, 
Scotland, March 22, 1868 ; notable 
British composer ; pupil of Parry, R. 
A. M., having won a scholarship for 
comp.; at 19, several of his orch.- 
pcs. were prod, by Manns; at 20 
commissioned to c. a cantata for the 
Glasgow Choral Union ; gave con- 
certs at the studio of John Pettie, 
whose daughter he m., 1889; 1888- 
94, prof, of harm. R. A. M.; 1898, 
cond. Carl Rosa Op. Co.; c. operas, 
"Jeanie Deans" (Edinburgh, 1894), 
" Diarmid and Ghrine"" (Covent 
Garden, 1897); 5 cantatas incl. "The 
Death of Parry Reed" (male chorus 
and orch.), overtures " dor Mhor" 
" The Land of the Mountain and the 
Flood" ballad overture, " The Dowie 
Dens 0' Yarrow"; ballade, "The 
Ship tf the Fiend," with orch.; 8th 
Psalm with orch., etc. 

MacDow'ell, Edw. Alex., New York, 
Dec. 18, 1861; eminent American 
composer and one of the most orig- 
inal and virile 'of contemporary cre- 
ators, "having given the sonata a 
new enlargement and spontaneity, 
and written programme-mus. of espe- 
ciaJ dignity ; pupil of J. Buitrago, P. 
Desvernine and Teresa Carreiio, N. 

Y.; 1876, Paris Cons.; 1879, with 
Heymann (pf.) and Raff (comp.), 
Frankfort ; 1881-82, chief pf.. 
teacher at Darmstadt Cons.; at 21, 
Raff (who was deeply interested 
in his progress) and Liszt pro- 
cured the performance of his works 
at the annual festival of the " Allge- 
meiner deutscher Musikverein " ; lived 
in Wiesbaden ; 1888, Boston ; 1896, 
prof, of mus. in Columbia Univ., 
New York ; Mus. Doc. h. c,, Prince- 
ton Univ. and 1902, Penn. U. 
also ; he gives frequent pf. -recitals, 
and has played his concertos with 
the Boston Symph. and other 

2 poems "Hamlet" and " Ophelia"; 
symph. poems, "Lancelot and 
Elaine" "Lamia" and "Roland" 
op. 35, romance for 'cello with orch.; 

3 orch. suites incl. " In October" and 
"Indian Suite" FOR PIANO: 4 
sonatas ' ' Tragica" ' ' Eroica ' ' 
("Flos regum Arthur-its"), " Scan- 
dinavian" and "Celtic"; prelude 
and fugue, modern suite ; forest 
idyls, 3 poems, "Moon-pictures" 6 
poems after Heine, 4 "Little Poems"; 
technical exercises (3 books), and 12 
virtuoso-studies, etc., and many songs 
of great charm and individuality. 

Mace,Thos., 1613 after 1675; Engl. 
lutenist, inventor and writer. 

Macfar'ren, (i) Sir G. Alex., Lon- 
don, March 2, 1813 Oct. 31, 1887 ; 
notable English composer and schol- 
ar ; son and pupil of the playwright 
G. Macfarren ; also studied with Ch. 
Lucas and C. Potter, R. A. M.; 
1834, prof, there, even after blindness 
overtook him; from 1875 P r f- at 
Cambridge Univ., Mus. Doc. there 
1876; from 1876, also principal of 
the R. A. M.; 1883, knighted; c. 13 
operas, 9 of them prod.; 4 oratorios, 
6 cantatas, 8 symphonies, 7 over- 
tures, incl. " Chevy Chase" "Don 
Carlos" "Hamlet" and "Festival" 
concertos, sonatas, etc.; wrote text- 
books, articles; ed. old texts, etc.; 
biog. by Banister (London, '91), (2) 


Natalia, b. Ltibeck, wife of above ; 
contralto, translator and writer. (3) 
Walter Cecil, b. London, Aug. 28, 
1826 ; bro. and pupil (in comp.) of 
(i) ; studied with Turle, Holmes (pf.) 
and Potter (comp.) ; from 1846, pf.- 
prof. at the R. A. M., of which he is 
a Fellow ; 1873-80, cond. Acad. Con- 
certs ; dir. and treasurer Philharm. 
Soc. ; pianist, lecturer, editor, and 
composer of a symph., 7 overtures, a 
cantata u The Song of the Sunbeam" 
services, etc. 

Machault (or Machau, Machaud, 
Machut) (ma-sho), Guillaume 
(Gulielmus) de Mascandio, Ma- 
chau in the Champagne (?) ca. 1284 
1370 ; troubadour ; composer. 

Machtig (mgkh'-ttkh), K., Breslau, 
18361881; organist and composer. 

Macirone (raa-che-ro'-ne), Clara An- 
gela, b. London, Jan. 20, 1821; pi- 
anist ; pupil of R. A. M. ; later teach- 
er there and elsewhere ; c. " Te 
Deum" and " Jubilate" anthem 
"By the Waters of Babylon" etc. 

Mackenzie, Sir Alex. Campbell, b. 
Edinburgh, Aug. 22, 1847 ; notable 
British composer ; pupil of Ulrich 
(pf .) and Stein (comp.),Sondershausen 
Cons. ; at 14 a violinist in the Ducal 
Orch.; 1862, won the King's schol- 
arship, R. A. M., and studied with 
Sainton, Jewson, and Lucas ; from 
1865 teacher and cond. Edinburgh ; 
iSS8 of Cambridge ; 1896 of Edin- 
burgh U.; 1894 knighted; since 1888, 
principal R. A. M. (vice Macfarren); 
1892 cond. Philh. Soc.; c. operas, 
" Colombo, " (Drury Lane, 1883), 
" The Troubadour " (ibid. 1886), and 
" His Majesty, or the Court of Vin- 
golia" (1897; comic), ''Cricket on 
the Hearth" (MS.); oratorios, " The 
Rose of Sharon " (Norwich Festival, 
1884), and " Bethlehem " (1894); 
cantatas, Jason (Bristol Festival, 
1882), " The Bride'' " The Story of 
Sayid" (Leeds Festival, '86), " The 
New Covenant " "The Dream of Ju- 
bal" "The Cotter's Saturday^ Night" 
and " Vem, Creator Spiritus" ; 2 

Scottish rhapsodies, a ballad, with 
orch., "La belle dame sans merci"; 
overtures " Cervantes,'' 1 " To a com- 
edy," " Tempo di ballo" " Twelfth 
Night," "Britannia"; a vln. -con- 
certo, a "Pibroch" for vln. and 
orch.; "Scottish Concertos" for pf., 

Mackintosh (i) J., 17671840 (?); 
bassoonist. (2) Alphonso, son of 
above; violinist. 

McGuck'in, Barton, b. Dublin, July 
28, 1852 ; pupil of Turle and Tre- 
vulsi; pop. oratorio and operatic 

McLean, Alick, b. Eton, Engl., July 
20, 1872; c. opera " Qtientin Dur- 
ward " (London, 1895) ; i-act opera 
" Petruccio " (Covent Garden, 1895 ; 
Moody Manners prize of ^100), etc. 

McMur'die, Jos., London, 1792 
Merton, Surrey, 1878 ; composer and 

Mader (ma'-der), Raoul (M.), b. Press- 
burg, Hungary, June 25, 1856 ; stud- 
ied Vienna Cons. ; took ist prize for 
pf. and comp., and the great silver 
medal and the Liszt prize as best 
pianist in the Cons. ; 1882-95, ist 
"coach" for solo singers, Vienna 
ct. -opera, also asst.-cond. From 1895 
cond. Royal Opera, Pesth; c. 2 comic 
operas, 4 ballets, incl. " Die Sirenen- 
insel" and " She " (after Rider Hag- 
gard), parody on Mascagni's Cental* 
leria Rusticana (Th. an der Wien, 
1892), choruses, songs, etc. 

Mag(g)ini (mad-je'-ne) (or Magino), 
Giov. Paolo, Botticino - Marino, 
Italy, 1580 Brescia, ca. 1631 ; vln.- 
maker, rivalling Stradivari and Guar- 
neri; his double-basses particularly 
good ; label, " Gio. Paolo Maggini, 

Mag'nus, De"sire" (rightly Magnus 
Deutz), Brussels, 1828 Paris, 
1884 ; teacher, composer and critic. 

Mahillon (ma-e-yon), Chas. Victor, 
b. Brussels, March 10, 1841 ; since 
1877 custodian of mus. instrs., Brus- 
sels Cons.; editor and writer; man- 
ager wind-inst. factory of his father. 


Mahler (ma'-ler), Gus., b. Kalischt, 
Bohemia, July 7, i860 ; studied with 
Bruckner at Vienna Cons.; cond. at 
Cassel, 1885-86, Leipzig, 1888-91 ; 
dir. Royal Opera, Pesth, 1891-97, 
cond. Hamburg City Th.; 1897, ct- 
cond. Vienna Ct.-Opera, later dir. ; c. 
opera "Die drd Fintos" (after 
Weber's sketches) (Leipzig, 1888) ; 
cantata "Das klagende Litd" fairy 
play, 3 notable symphonies, etc. 

Mahu (ma'-oo), Stephan, b. Germany, 
ct.-singer and composer, 1538. 

Maier (mi'-er), (i) Jos. Fr. Bd. Cas- 
par, cantor at Schwabish Hall 1718- 
41. (2) Julius Jos., Freiburg, 
Baden, 1821 Munich, 1889 ; teacher 
and writer. 

Mailhac (rmT-ak), Pauline, b. Vienna, 
May 4, 1858 ; pupil of Uffmann, so- 
prano at Carlsruhe many years. 

Maillart (mi - yar), Louis (called 
Aime"), Montpellier, Herault, France, 
1817 Moulins, Allier, 1871 ; dram, 

Mailly (mi-ye), Alphonse J. Ernest, 
b. Brussels, Nov. 27, 1833 ; pianist, 
and organ virtuoso ; pupil of Girsch- 
ner, Brussels Cons.; 1861 pf.-teacher 
there ; 1868 organ-teacher ; com- 

Mainzer(mln'-tser), Abbe" Jos., Trier, 
1807 Manchester, 1851; singing- 
teacher, writer and dram, composer. 

Maitland (mat'-land) (J. Alex.), Ful- 
ler, b. London, April 7, 1856; 1882, 
M.A. Trinity Coll., Cambridge; 
lecturer and critic for various papers, 
now of London Times ; ed. the Ap- 
pendix to Grove's Diet.; pianist at 
the Bach choir concerts; wrote 
" Masters of German Music " (1894), 
and many authoritative works. 

Majo (ma'-yo), Fran, di (called Cic- 
cio di Majo), Naples, 1745 (?) 
Rome, 1770; organist and noted 
composer of operas and church-mus. 

Majorano. Vide CAFFARELLI. 

Mal'colm, Alex,, British writer, 1721. 

Malder (mal'-deY), Pierre van, Brus- 
sels, 1724 1768 ; violinist and com- 

Malherbe (mal-arb), Chas, The> 
dore, b. Paris, April 21, 1863 ; at 
first a lawyer, then studied with Dan- 
hauser, Wormser, and Massenet; 
also pub. some original comps., and 
transcriptions ; Danhauser's sec. ; 
1896, asst.-archivist, Gr. Opera ; 
Officer of the Acad. and of Pub. In- 
struction; Chev. of various orders. 
Ed., Le Mhiestrel, and is prolific 
writer on Wagner, etc.; owns what is 
probably the best private coll. of mus.- 
autographs in the world; ed. Ra- 
meau's complete works. 

Malibran (mal-1-brah), (i) M. Feli- 
tita (nee Garcia), Paris, March 24, 
1808 Manchester, Sept. 23, 1836 
(from singing too soon after being 
thrown and dragged by a horse). In 
some respects the greatest of all 
women vocalists ; she had a contralto 
voice with an additional soprano reg- 
ister and several well - concealed 
"head tones " between ; she impro- 
vised frequently on the stage, and 
also c. ; at 5 she played a child's 
part and one evening broke out sing- 
ing the chief role to the amusement 
of the audience ; at 7 studied with 
Pauseron; at 15 studied with her 
father (v. GAUCIA) ; debut, London, 
1825 ; she had a personality that 
compelled extraordinary homage. 
She m. Malibran ; when he became 
bankrupt she divorced him, and 1836 
m. de Bcriot, ct.-violinist with whom 
she had lived since 1830. (2) Alex., 
Paris, 1823 1867; violinist and com- 

Mallinger (mal'-ttng-e'r), Mathilde 
(ne'e Lichtenegger), b. Agram, 
Feb. 17, 1847 ; soprano ; pupil of 
Giordigiani and Vogl, Prague Cons., 
and Lewy, Vienna ; debut, Munich, 
1866 ; 1868, created " Eva " in the 
Meister singer ; m. Baron von Schim- 
melpfennig; since 1890 singing-teach- 
er, Prague Cons. 

Malten (mal'-ten), Therese, b. In- 
sterburg, East Prussia, June 21, 1855; 
soprano ; pupil of Engel (voice), and 
Kahle (action), Berlin ; at 18 debut, 


Dresden as Pamina, and engaged 
there for life; created "Kundry" 
(Parsifal) at Bayreuth, 1882 ; 1898, 
ct. -chamber singer. 

Malzel (mel'-tsel), Jn. Nepomuk, Rat- 
isbon, 1772 on a voyage, July 31, 
1838; mus-teacher ; inv. "panhar- 
monion" (a sort of orchestrion), an 
automaton-trumpeter, and an auto- 
matic chess-player; while experiment- 
ing with his " chronometer," a sort of 
metronome (v. D.D.), he saw Wink- 
el's invention, adopted its chief feat- 
ures and patented the result as Mael- 
zel's metronome (v. B.D.). 

Mancinelli (man-chi-neT-H), Luigi, 
b. Orvieto, Papal States, Feb. 5, 
1848 ; intended for commerce, self- 
taught on the pf., and ran away from 
home; was brought back, but per- 
mitted to study at 14 with Sbolci 
(Florence, 'cello) ; at 15, 3rd 'cellist 
Pergola Th., earning his living the 
next 8 years ; studied with Mabellini 
(comp.) ; 1870 in the orchestra of the 
opera at Rome ; 1874, 2nd cond. ; 
1875, cond. ; 1881, dir. Bologna 
Cons., which he made one of the best 
in Italy; 1886-88, cond. at Drury 
Lane, London; 1888-95, Royal Th. 
Madrid ; since at Covent Garden, 
London, and Met. Op., New York ; 
in Italy called " il Wagnerista " for 
his advocacy; c. opera " Isora di 
Provenza, " (Bologna, 1884) ; succ. 
" Ero e Leandro" (Madrid, 1897, 
New York, 1899) ; an oratorio, etc. ; 
overture and entr'acte-mus. to Cos- 
sa's Cleopatra. 

Mancini (man-che'-ne), (i) Fran., 
Naples, 1674 1730, ; cond. and dram, 
composer. (2) Giambattista, As- 
coli, 1716 Vienna, 1800 ; writer. 

Mancio (man'-cho), Felice, Turin, 
1840 Vienna, 1897; singer and 

Mangeot (man-zho), Ed. Jos., Nantes, 
France, 1834 Paris, 1898; pf.- 
raaker and editor; inv. piano "a 
double clavier renverse." 

Mangold (man'-golt), (i) G. M., 1776 
1835 ; violinist. (2) (Jn,) Wm., 

Darmstadt, 17961875; conductor 
and dram, composer. (3) K. (L. 
Amand), Darmstadt, 1813 Oberst* 
dorf, Algau, 1889 ; bro. of above ; 
dir., conductor and composer. (4) 
K. G., 1812 London, 1887; pianist, 
composer and teacher. 

Mann, (i) Arthur Henry, b. Nor- 
wich, EngL, May 16, 1850; chorister 
at the cath. with Dr. Buck ; organist 
various churches ; since 1876, King's 
Coll., Cambridge ; 1871, F. C. 0., 
1882, Mus. Doc., Oxford; Handel 
scholar; with Prout discovered the 
original wind-parts of the Messiah ; 
ed. the Fitzwilliam Catalogue with 
Maitland, etc.; c. " Eccc Homo" 
withorch.; " Te Deum" "Evening 
Service" for orch., etc. (2) Jn. Gi. 
Hendrik, b. The Hague, July 15, 
1858 ; pupil R. Sch. of Mus. there; 
bandm., Leyden ; composer. 

Man'ney, Chas. Fonteyn, b. Brook- 
lyn, 1872 ; studied with Wm. Arms 
Fisher and J. Wallace Goodrich, 
Boston ; composed a cantata, songs, 

Manns (mans), Aug. (Fr.), b. Stolzen- 
berg, near Stettin, March 21, 1825 ; 
noted conductor; son of a glass- 
blower, who with his sons formed a 
quintet (vlns., 'cello, horn, and flute); 
at 15, apprenticed to Urban, of El- 
bing ; later 1st clar. of a regimental 
band, Dantzig ; 1848, at Posen. 
Wieprecht got him a place as 1st vln. 
in Gungl's orch. at Berlin ; 1849-51, 
cond. Kroll's Garden; regimental 
bandm. Kftnigsberg and Cologne 
(1854) ; joined Crystal Palace band, 
London as asst.-cond. to Schallen, 
who pub. as his own M.'s arrange- 
ment of certain quadrilles; where- 
upon M. resigned, publicly stating 
the reason; 1859 ^ e succeeded S. , 
he later made the band a full orch., 
giving famous and very popular Sat- 
urday Concerts till 1900, when the 
public ceased to support it; he 
has also cond. 7 Triennial Handel 
Festivals, concerts of the Glasgow 
Choral Union, 1879-92, etc. 


Mannsfeldt (mans'-felt), Hn., Erfurt, 
1833 Ems, 1892 ; conductor. 

Mannstadt (man'-shte't), (i) Fz., b. 
Hagen, Westphalia, July 8, 1852 ; 
pupil Stern Cons., Berlin; 1874, 
cond. at Mayence ; 1876, Berlin 
Symph. Orch.; 1879, pf.-t. Stern 
Cons.; 1893-97, cond. Berlin Philh.; 
then returned to Wiesbaden, where 
he had been as conductor and teacher 
1883-97. (?) (2) Wm., b. Bielefeld, 
May 20, 1837 ; bro. of above ; con- 
ductor and stage manager, Berlin 
Th.; editor; c. (text and music) 
farces and operettas. 

Mansfeldt, E. Vide PIERSON, H. H. 

Mantius (man'-tsl-oos), Ed,, Schwe- 
rin, 1806 Bad Ilmenau, 1874 ! tenor. 

Mantovano, Al. Vide RIPA. 

Manzuoli (man-tsoo-d'-le), Giov., b. 
Florence, ca. 1725 ; famous soprano- 

Ma'pleson, Col. Jas. H., London, 
May 4, 1830 Nov. 14, 1901 ; fa- 
mous impresario; studied R. A. M., 
London ; a singer, and via. -player 
in an orch.; 1861, managed Italian 
Opera at the Lyceum ; 1862-68, was 
at H. M.'s Th.; 1869, Drury Lane ; 
1877, reopened H. M.'s Th. ; gave 
opera at Acad. of Mus., New York, 
with varying succ. in different seasons. 

Mara (ma'-ra), Gertrud Elisabeth, 
(nee Schmeling), Cassel, Feb. 23, 
1749 Reval, Jan. 20, 1833 ; phe- 
nomenal soprano, with compass, 
g-e"' (v. PITCH, D.D.), who reached a 
high pinnacle of art over difficulties 
(ranging from rickets to the Moscow 
fire) not surpassed in the wildest fic- 
tion; she m. in 1773, the 'cellist 
Mara, divorced him 1799 '> teacher. 

Mara, La, Vide LIPSIUS, MARIE. 

Marais (mfc-re"), (i) Marin, Paris, 
March 31, 1656 Aug. 15, 1728; the 
greatest viola-da-gambist of his time ; 
c. symphonies, etc. (2) Roland, 
son of above ; solo gambist ; pub. 
pcs. for gamba. 

Mar'beck, J. (or Merbecke), 1523 
ca. 1581; Engl. organist and com- 

Marceau (mar-so), Jas. Herbert, b. 

Napierville, Canada, Oct. 31, 1859; 
studied singing with Willard, N.Y., 
and with de Padilla and Ch. Doual- 
lier, Paris ; teacher Mansion Sch., 
Wollaston, Mass. 

Marcello (mar-cheT-lo), Benedetto, 
Venice, Aug. I, 1686 Brescia, July 
24, 1739 ; noted composer, pupil of 
Gasparini and Lotti; he!4 gov't po- 
sitions ; pub. satires, and c. 50 psalms, 

Marchand (mar-shan), Louis, Lyons, 
1669 ' m poverty, Paris, 1732; an 
org. -virtuoso whose fame wilted be- 
fore his failure to meet J. S. Bach in 
a duel of virtuosity. 

Mar' chant, Arthur Wm., b. London, 
Oct. 18, 1850; organist in several 
English churches; 1880-82, St. 
John's Cath., Denver, Col.; since 
Z 895, organist, Dumfries, Scotland ; 
wrote text-books ; c. Psalm 48, with 
orch.; "A Morning Service" and an 
''''Evening Service," etc. 

Marches! (mar-ka'-ze), (i) Luigl 
(" Marchesi'ni "), Milan, 1755 * n - 
zago, Dec. 14, 1829 ; soprano mu- 
sico. (2) Salvatore, Cavaliere De 
Castrone (da-kas-tro'-ne) (Mar- 
chese Delia Rajata), b. Paler- 
mo, Jan. 15, 1822 ; studied mus. 
with Raimondi, Lamperti and Fon- 
tana ; exiled after the Revolution of 
1848, and debut as barytone, N. Y.; 
then studied with Garcia, London; 
a succ. concert -singer ; 1852 m. Ma- 
thilde Graumann (v. infra], and 
they sang together in opera, later 
taught together at Vienna Cons., 
1865-69, Cologne Cons.; 1869-81, 
Vienna, since then in Paris ; pub. a 
vocal method, translations, etc.; c. 
songs. (3) Mathilde (nee Grau- 
mann), b. Frankfort-on-M., March 
26, 1826; famous singing-teacher; 
pupil of Nicolai, Vienna, and Garcia, 
Paris ; sang in concert ; wife of above 
(q. v.) ; pub. a vocal method, vocal- 
ises, and autobiog. " Marchesi and 
Music," enlarged from "Ausmeinem 
Leben" (Dusseldorf, 1887 ?). 



Marchetti (mar-ket'-tl), Filippo, Bo- 
lognola, Italy, Feb. 26, 1835 Rome, 
Jan. 18, 1902 ; pupil of Lillo and 
Conti, Royal Cons., Naples; at 21 
prod. succ. opera, " Gentile da Vara- 
no" (Turin), "La Demente" (1857); 
singing-teacher, Rome ; went to Mi- 
lan and prod. succ. " Giulietta e 
Romeo" (1865), and " Ruy-Blas" 
(La Scala, 1869). From 1881, dir. 
R. Accad. di Santa Cecilia, Rome; 
prod. 3 other operas, symphonies, 
and church-music. 

Marchet'tus of Padua (Marchetto 
da Padova), lived in Cesena, ca. 
1270 ca. 1320; learned theorist, 

March! (mar'-ke), Emilio de, Cheva- 
lier (rightly Peano), b. Voghera, 
Piedmont, 1866 ; prominent tenor ; 
son of Italian general ; entered army 
and served with distinction in Africa 
as lieutenant, then studied voice with 
Landi, Florence ; debut, Milan, 
1866, as Alfredo in " La, Tramata "; 
sang with great success throughout 
Europe ; 1896-97 and 1901-02 in the 
U. S. 1900 created "Cavardossi" 
in Puccini's "La Tosca." 

Marcolini (-le'-ne), Marietta ; Italian 
soprano, 1805-18 ; created Rossini 

Marshal (mar-a-shal), H. Chas., b. 
Paris, Jan. 22, 1842 ; pupil of Cons., 
1870, won Grand prix de Rome ; 
prod, i-act op. -com. " Les Amour eux 
de Catherine" (Op.-Com., 1876); also 
3-act op.-com. "La Traverne des 
Trabans" (ibid., '8 1); " D&damit" 
(Gr. Opera, '93) ; "Calendal" (Rouen, 
'94); c. sacred drama " Le Miracle 
de Nairn" ('91), etc. 

Marek', Louis, Galicia, 1837 Lem- 
berg (?); pianist, pupil of Liszt. 

Marenco (ma-ren'-ko), Romualdo, b, 
Novi Ligure, Italy, March 1, 1841; 
violinist ; then 2d bassoon, Doria Th., 
Genoa, where he prod, a ballet ; 
studied cpt. with Fenaroli and Mat- 
tei ; 1873, dir. of ballet at La Scala, 
Milan ; has prod. 4 operas, and over 
20 ballets. 

Marenzio (ma-ren'-tsl-o), Luca, Coc- 
caglio, near Brescia, ca. 1550 ("of 
love dispri2ed") Rome, Aug. 22, 
1599 ; famous composer of madrigals \ 
also v of motets, etc. 

Mares (ma'-resh), John A., Chotebor, 
Bohemia, 1719 St. Petersburg, 1794'; 
invented the Russian "hunting-horn 
mus.," each horn sounding one tone 

Maretzek (ma-reY-shek), Max, 

Brunn, Moravia, June 28, 1821 

Pleasant Plains, Staten Island, N. Y., 
May 14, 1897; well-known impresa- 
rio ; also dram, composer and teacher. 

Mariani (ma-rt-a'-ne), Angelo, Raven- 
na, Oct. ii, 1822 Genoa, June 13, 
1873 ; famous conductor. 

Marimon (ma-re-mon), Marie, b. 
Liege, 1839 ; pupil of Duprez ; de- 
but, 1857; soprano. 

Marin (ma-ran), M. Martin Mar- 
celle de, b. Bayonne, France, Sept. 
8, 1769 ; harpist and composer. 

Marini (ma-re'-ne), (i) Biagio, Bres- 
cia Padua, ca. 1660 ; violinist and 
composer. (2) Carlo A., b. Berga- 
mo ; violinist and composer, 1696. 

Mario (ma'-ri-o), Giuseppe, Conte di 
Candia, Cagliari, Sardinia, Oct. 17, 
1810 Rome, Dec. n, 1883; emi- 
nent tenor ; pupil of Bordogni and 
Poncharde; debut, Paris Opera, 
1838 ; toured Europe and America 
with greatest success ; m. Giulia Grisi. 

Ma'rius, clavecin-maker, Paris, i7th 

Mark, Paula, b. ca. 1870 ; soprano ; 
pupil Vienna Cons., debut, Leip- 
zig, 1890 ; in 1897 m. the physician, 
Neusser (who had cured her of a 
throat trouble), and retired from the 

Markull (mar-keel'), Fr. Wm.,Reich- 
enbach, near Elbing, 1816 Danzig, 
1887 ; pianist, critic and dram, com- 

Markwort (mark'-vort), Jn. Chr., 
Riesling, near Brunswick, 1778 
Bessungen, 1866 ; tenor and writer. 

Marmontel (mar-mon-tSl), Ant. 
Fran., Clermont-Ferrand, Puy-de. 
Dome, July 18, 1816 Paris, Jan. 17, 


1898 ; pupil Paris Cons., 1848 ; pf.- 
teacher there, noted for famous pu- 
pils; writer of historic and didactic 
treatises ; composer. 

Mar'ny, Elsa ; contralto ; pupil of 
Marchesi ; at S sang in concert, later 
in opera ; 1900 in New York. 

Marpurg (mar'-poorkh), (i) Fr. Wm., 
Seehausen, Altmark, Oct. I, 1718 
Berlin, May 22, 1795 ; important 
theorist ; wrote treatises of great his- 
toric and theoretic value, much trans- 
lated. (2) Fr., Paderborn, 1825 
Wiesbaden, 1884 ; great-grandson of 
above ; violinist, pianist, cond. and 
dram, composer. 

Marschner (marsh'-ner), (i) H. (Au- 
gust), Zittau, Saxony, Aug. 16, 1795 
(not 1796) Hanover, Dec. 14, 1861; 
eminent opera-composer of Weber's 
school but great modernity, and re- 
markable brilliance of instrumenta- 
tion ; studied piano from age of 6 ; 
sang as a boy, then pupil of Bergt 
(org.); studied law Leipzig U. 1813, 
then turned to mus. entirely; pupil 
of Schicht ; the Graf von Amadee be- 
came his patron, and he went to Vi- 
enna ; later taught at Pressburg ; c. 3 
operas, the last prod. 1820 at Dres- 
den by C. M. von Weber ; 1823, he 
became co.-dir. of opera there with 
von W. and Morlacchi ; 1826, cond. 
Leipzig Th. and prod. " JDer Vam- 
pyr" (1828) and " JDer Templer und 
diejildin ;" both widely succ. and still 
heard , 1831-59, ct.-cond. Hanover, 
when he was pensioned; while ct.- 
cond. he prod. "Hans Herling " (Ber- 
lin, 1833), also very succ. and still alive; 
he prod. 8 other operas ; c. incidental 
music, choruses, etc. (2) Fz., b. 
Leitmeritz, Bohemia, March 26, 1855; 
pupil Prague Cons., and Bruckner, 
Vienna; since 1886, teacher Female 
Teachers' Seminary, Vienna ; pub. a 
treatise on piano-touch. 

Marsh, J., Dorking, 17501828; com- 
poser and violinist. 

Mar'shall, Wm., Oxford, 1806 
Handsworth, 1875 ; organist, writer 
and editor. 

Marsick (mar-slk), Martin P. Jos., b. 
Jupille, near Liege, Belgium, March 
9, 1848 ^prominent violinist; pupil 
of Desire Haynberg, Liege Cons. ; at 
12 organist of the cath., and a vocal- 
ist; pupil of Leonard, Brussels 
Cons., later of Massenet at Paris 
Cons, (taking ist vln. prize) ; and of 
Joachim at Berlin; debut, Paris, 
1873 ; toured Europe and (1895-96) 
U. S.; 1892, vln. -prof., Paris Cons.; 
c. 3 vln. -concertos, etc. 

Mar'ston, George W., Sandwich, 
Mass., U. S. A., 1840 Feb., 1901 ; 
studied with Tufts at Portland ; 1. 
Boston as teacher and composer of 
pop. songs and pf.-pcs. 

Marteau (mar-to), H., b. Rheims; 
excellent violinist ; pupil Paris Cons. ; 

1892, took ist prize ; toured U. S., 

1893, 1898; Russia, 1899; then 
compelled to spend a year in the 
French army; founded "Marteau 
Prize for vln.-sonata c. by a na- 
tive-born American " ; 1900 toured 

Martelli, E. Vide COTTRAU, T. 

Martin (mar-tan), (i) Jn. BlaisS, 
Paris, 17691837; barytone. (2) 
P. Alex, d. Paris, Dec., 1879 ; org.- 
builder, and inv. of the "percussion" 
action in the harmonium. (3) (mar'- 
tto), Jonathan, 1715 London, 1737; 
organist and composer. (4) G. Wm., 
1828 Wandsworth, 1881 ; Engl, 
composer, editor and publisher. (5) 
Sir George Clement, b. Lambourne, 
Berks, Sept. n, 1844; organist vari- 
ous churches ; teacher in R. Coll. of 
Mus. ; c. anthems ; knighted, Easter, 

Martin y Solar (mar-ten'-e-so-lar'), 
Vicente, Valencia, Spain, 175481. 
Petersburg, May, 1810; organist at 
Alicante; prod, operas in Italy in 
succ. rivalry with Cimarosa and Pai- 
siello and in Vienna with Mozart; his 
best work was " La Cosa Rara" 
1785 ; 1788-1801, dir. Italian Op. at 
St. Petersburg ; then teacher ; c. 10 
operas, ballets, etc. 


Martines (mar-te'-nes) (or Martinez) 
(mar-te'-ne'th), Marianne di, Vienna, 
1744 1812; singer, pianist and com- 

Martini (mar-te'-ne), (i) Giambat- 
tista (or Giov. Bat.) (known as 
Padre M.), Bologna, April 25, 1706 
Aug. 3, 1784 ; son and pupil of a 
\riolinist ((2) Antonio Maria M.), he 
studied with Predieri and Riccieri 
Zanotti and Perti ; took orders 1729; 
cond. from 1725 at church of San 
Francisco, Bologna ; as a composer 
of church-mus. , a theorist and teacher 
he won European fame ; he also pub. 
a history of ancient mus. , and trea- 
tises. (3) (rightly Schwarzendorf) 
(shvarts'-en-dorf), Jean Paul Egide, 
Freistadt, Palatinate, 1741 Paris, 
1816 ; dram, composer. 

Martucci (mar-toot'-che), Gius., b. 
Capua, Jan. 6, 1856 ; son and pupil 
of a trumpet-player ; debut as pianist 
Naples, 1867; studied at the Cons.; 
1874, P r f- there ; cond. the orch. 
and concerts estab. by Prince d'Ar- 
dore, and dir. of the Societa del Quar- 
tetto ; from 1875, toured with succ. 
as pianist ; 1886-1902, dir. Bologna 
Cons.; 1902, Naples; c. symph., pf.- 
concerto, etc. 

Marty (mar-te), G. Eugene, b. Paris, 
Mayi6, 1860; studied at the Cons. 
1882 ; won the Grand Prix de Rome 
with cantata "Edith"; since 1894, 
prof, for ensemble singing there ; 
1895-96, chorusm. and cond. of the 
Concerts de 1'Opera ; 1901, dir. con- 
certs of the Cons. ; c. several suites 
for orch., pantomime, " Le Due de 
Ferrare" 3-act opera (1896), etc. 

Marx (marx), Ad. Bd M Halle, May 
*5i 1799 Berlin, May 17, 1866; 
eminent theorist ; founded with 
Schlesinger, "Berliner allgemeine 
musikalische Zeitung" ; editor, prof, 
and mus. -dir., 1832 ; c. opera ; 
wrote v. succ. and important treatises. 

Marxsen (marx'-zen), Eduard, Nien- 
stadten, near Altona, 1806 Altona, 
1887 (8?) ; organist and teacher. 

Marzials (mar-tst-als'), Theodor, b. 

Brussels, Dec. 21, 1850 ; pupil of M. 
L. Lawson, London ; studied later 
in Paris and Milan ; since 1870, supt. 
mus.-dept. British Museum ; bary- 
tone and composer of pop. songs. 

Marzo (mar'-tso), Ed., b. Naples; pu- 
pil of Nacciarone, Miceli and Pappa- 
lardo ; 1867, New York, as boy- 
pianist; became opera and concert- 
cond., and accompanist to Carlotta 
Patti, Sarasate, etc.; organist at St. 
Agnes' Church, N. Y.; later at AH 
Saints ; 1884, knighted by the King 
of Italy ; 1892, member of the R. 
Acad. of S. Cecilia ; 1. N. Y. and 
teaches singing ; pub. 6 masses (3 
with orch.), etc. 

Mascagni (miis-kan'-ye), Pietro, b. 
Leghorn, Dec. 7, 1863. Son of a 
baker who wished him to study law 
he secretly studied the piano, later at 
Soffredini's Mus.-Sch.; studied pf., 
harm., cpt., and comp.; his father, 
finding him out, locked him in the 
house, whence he was rescued at 
14 by an uncle ; upon the uncle's 
death he was befriended by Count 
Florestan, while studying with Pon- 
chielli and Saladino, at Milan Cons. 
He was cond. of various small troupes, 
finally cond. of the mus.-soc. at Cerig- 
nola ; he won the prize offered by the 
mus. -pub. Sonzogno, for a i-act 
opera, with " Cavalleria Rusticana" 
which had a sensational succ. (Cos- 
tanzi Th., Rome, 1890) and has been 
universally performed ; while fiercely 
assailed by the critics it has produced 
a school of short operas showing a 
tendency to excessive realism and 
strenuousness, yet offering a much- 
needed relief from the eternal classic, 
mythologic or costume-play plots and 
bringing serious opera as close home 
to real life as comic opera; 1895, 
dir. of the Rossini Cons, at Pe- 
saro. M.'s later operas have not 
fared so well as his " Cawlleria Rus- 
ticana"; they include: " LA mice 
Fritz" (Rome and Berlin, 1891), 
"/ ' Rantmu" (Florence, 1892), fairly 
succ. ; " Giiglislmo Ratcliff" (Milan, 


La Scala, 1895), " Silvano " (ibid., 
1895) ! I - act " bozzetto " " Zanetto" 
(Pesaro, 1896) ; and the fairly succ. 
"Iris" (Rome, 1898; revised La 
Scala, Milan, 1899); " Le Maschere" 
simultaneously prod, without succ. 
in 6 cities in Italy, Jan., 1901, thus 
killing six opportunities with one 
stone ; he c. also (previously to Cav. 
Rust.} 2-act opera "// Filanda" 
and Schiller's " Hymn to Joy "/ also 
a " Hymn, in Honor of Admiral 
Dewey, U. S. N." Quly, 1899), etc. 
1902, toured America with his own 

Maschek (ma-shak'), (i) Vincenz, 
Zwikovecz, Bohemia, 1755 Prague, 
1831 ; pf. and harmonica-virtuoso ; 
organist and dram, composer. (2) 
Paul, 1761 Vienna, 1826 ; bro. of 
above ; pianist. 

Masetti (ma-seT-te), Umberto, b. 
Bologna, Feb. 18, 1869 ; studied at 
the Cons., and since 1895 prof, of 
singing there; member of the R. 
Phil. Acad.; c. the succ. " Vindice" 
(Bologna, 1891) ; a requiem with 
orch., etc. 

Masini (ma-se'-ne), Fran., Florence, 
1804 in extreme poverty, Paris, 
1863 ; c. songs. 

Ma'son, (i) Rev. Wm,, Hull, Engl., 
1725 Aston, 1797 ; writer and com- 
poser. (2) Lowell, Boston, Mass., 
Jan. 24, 1792 Orange, N. J., Aug. 
II, 1872 ; pioneer in American comp. 
and teaching ; c. v. succ. and remu- 
nerative colls., principally of sacred 
music. (3) Wm., Boston, Mass., Jan. 
24, 1829; prominent American teacher 
and technician; son of above; studied 
with Henry Schmidt (pf.) in Boston ; 
at 17, debut as pianist there ; 1849, 
studied with Moscheles, Hauptmann 
and Richter, at Leipzig ; with Drey- 
schock at Prague; and Liszt, at Wei- 
mar ; he played in Weimar Prague, 
and Frankfort, London, and 1854-55 
in American cities ; since 1855 lives 
in New York as teacher ; 1872, Mus. 
Doc, h. c., Yale ; pub. the important 
and influential " Touch and Tech- 

nic, a Method for Artistic Piano- 

son's Pf. -Technics" (1878); and 
'* Memoirs " (New York, 1901); c. a 
serenata for 'cello and many pf.-pcs. 
in classical form. (4) L uther Whit- 
ing, Turner, Maine, 1828 Buckfield, 
Maine, 1896 ; devised the v. succ. 
"National System" of mus. -charts 
and books; wrote "Die neue Ge- 

Massa (mas'-sa), Nicold, Calice, Li- 
gure, Italy, 1854 Genoa, 1894; c. 

Massaini (mas-sa-e'-ne), Tiburzio, b. 
Cremona, i6th cent. ; Augustine 
monk ; cond. and composer. 

Massart (mas-sir'), (i) Lambert Jos., 
Liege, July 19, i8n Paris, Feb. 13. 
1892 ; violinist and prof. Paris Cons. 
(2) Louise Aglae (nee Masson), 
Paris, 1827 1887; wife of above; 
pianist and, 1875, teacher at the 

Masse" (mas-sa), Felix M. (called 
Victor), Lorient, Mar. 7, 1822 Paris, 
July 5, 1884 ; pupil Paris Cons. ; won 
Grand prix de Rome, prof, of cpt. 
there 1872; c. 18 operas, 13 prod., 
incl. the still succ. " Les noces de 
Jeannette " (Op. Com. 1853). ^ 

Massenet (mas-na), Jules JEmile 
Fr.), b. Montreaux, near St. 3tienne, 
France, May 12, 1842 ; eminent 
French opera - composer ; pupil of 
Laurent (pf.), Reber (harm.), Savard 
and Ambr. Thomas (comp.) at the 
Cons, ; took first prizes for piano and 
fugue ; 1863, the Grand prix de Rome 
with cantata " David Rizzio "; 1878- 
96 prof, of comp. at the Cons. ; 
1878, member of the Academic, Com- 
mander of the Legion of Honour. C. 
operas, almost all of them succ. and 
constantly in the repertory of the 
Paris Opera and Op. Com., i-act 
comic opera "La Grand Tanta" 
(1867); the operas, "Don Char de 
Bazan " (1872) ; " Le Roi de Lahore " 
(1877); "fffrnadt" (1884); "Ma* 



non Lescaut" (one of the greatest 
successes in the history of the Op.- 
Com.), " Le Cid" (1885) ; -er 
(1880) ' ' Eschrmonde "/ 
180? "Werther" (1892); 
comedy, "7***" (1894); 
op " Le Portrait de Manon 
lyric episode, "La Nam 
(London, 1894 ; Paris, 1895) ; Sa- 
tho" (Op.-Com., 1897); "Cendnl- 
k" (Op.-Com., 1899); also 4? ct 
drama " Marie-Madeleine' (Odeon 
Th 1873); "Eve" a mystery, 1875; 
oratorio, " La rtirg*" 1880; conte 
lyrique " Gristldis" (Op - Com 
1901); opera, " Le Jongleur de 
mtre-Dame" (Monte Carlo, 1902) ; 
orch. suites; overtures incl. " Phl- 
<fo";pf.-pcs., songs, etc. 
Massol (mas-s61), J. Etienne A. 
Lodeve, Herault, 1802 Pans, 1887; 

Mas'son, Elizabeth, 1806-1865; 
English mezzo-soprano ; teacher, and 

Masutto (ma-soot' -to), (i) Giov., Tre- 
viso, 1830 Venice, 1894 ; critic, and 
writer. (2) Renzo, b. Treviso, April 
25, 1858 ; son of above ; bandm. 
2ytli Italian Infantry regiment ; con- 
cert-pianist, violinist and dram, com- 

Maszkowsky (mash-kof'-shkl), Ra- 
phael, b. Lemberg, 1838 ; pupil of 
the Vienna and Leipzig Cons. ; 1885, 
cond. at Schaffhausen ; 1889, mus.- 
dir. Coblenz; 1890 cond. of Orch, 
Soc. Breslau. 

Materna (ma-ter'-na), Amalie, b. St. 
Georgen, Styria, July 10, 1847; noted 
soprano ; daughter of a sch.-master ; 
sang in church and concert at Graz ; 
debut 1865 in opera as soubrette ; m. 
an actor, K. Friedrich, and sang with 
him in operetta at the Carl Th., ( Vien- 
na; 1869-96 prima donna, Vienna, 
ct. -opera ; toured America later ; she 
created " Briinnhilde," at Bayreuth, 
1876, and "Kundry" in "Parsi- 
fal? 1882. 

Math'er, (i) Wm., 1756 1808 ; or- 
ganist St, Paul's, London. (2) Sam- 

uel, 17831824 ; organist and com- 

Math'ews, Wm. Smyth Babcock, 
b. New London, N. H., May 8, 1837; 
prominent teacher and writer ; studied 
at New London ; later at Lowell and 
Boston ; 1860-63, pf. -teacher Macon, 
Ga.; 1867-93, organist Chicago; 1868- 
72, ed. 'Musical Independent;" 
1878-86, critic of Chicago " Times" 
4 ' Morning News" and ' ' Tribune ; " 
1891, founded and since ed. the mag- 
azine " Music; " pub. many books of 
educational value. 

Mathias (ma-te'-as), Georges (Ame"- 
d6e St. Clair), b. Paris, Oct. 14, 
1826; pupil of Kalkbrenner and 
Chopin (pf.) and of Paris Cons.; 1862, 
pianist and prof, there; c. symph., 
overtures, etc. 

Mathieu (mat-yti), (i) Adolphe Chas. 
Ghislain, b. Mons, Belgium, June 
22, 1840-; custodian of MSS., ^Brus- 
sels Library ; writer. (2) Emile 
(Louis V.), b. of Belgian parents, 
Lille, France, Oct. 18, 1844 ; studied 
Louvain Mus. Sch. and Brussels 
Cons.; won 1st harm, prize, and ist 
pf. prize, 1869, and 1871, won 2nd 
Grand prix de Rome ; 1867-73, prof, 
pf. and harm., Louvain Mus. Sch.; 
1881-98, dir. Louvain Mus.-Sch.; 
since 1898, dir. R. Cons, at Ghent; 
c. 7 operas, mostly comic, a ballet, 4 
cantatas and 2 children's cantatas, 3 
(text and music) " Palmes lyriques et 
symphoniques" 3 symph. poems, etc. 
Mattel (mat-ta'-e), (i) Abbate Stan- 
islao, Bologna, 17501825 ; profes- 
sor, conductor and writer. (2) Tito, 
b. Campobasso, near Naples, May 
24, 1841; pianist to the King of Italy; 
pupil at ii and later " Professore," 
Accad. di Santa Cecilia, Rome ; re- 
ceived a gold medal from Pius IX. ; 
toured Europe; 1865, cond. at H. 
M.'s Th., London ; c. 3 operas incl. 
"Maria, di Gand" (H. M's 
Th., 1880) ; ballet, pop. songs, etc. 
Matteis (mat-ta'-es), (i) Nicola, Ital- 
ian violinist, 1672, London. (2) M- 
cola, d. 1749, son of above ; teacher, 


Matthai (mat-ta-e), H. Aug., Dres- 
den, 1781 Leipzig, 1835; violinist 
and composer. 

Mat(t)heson (mat'-te'-zon), Jn,, Ham- 
burg, Sept. 28, i68_i April 17, 1764; 
an "admirable Crichton" of music ; 
a singer, composer and player on the 
org. and harps. ; operatic tenor ; im- 
portant in the development of the 
church cantata afterward advanced 
by Bach ; the first to introduce women 
into church-service; pub. valuable 
and controversial and progressive 

Matthias (or Mattheus), Le Mai- 
tre. Vide LE MAISTRE. 

Matthieux, Jna. Vide KINKEL. 

Matthison-Hansen (mat'-tt-zon-han'- 
zgn), (i) Hans, Flensburg, Den- 
mark, 1807 Roeskilde, 1890; organ- 
ist and composer. (2) Godfred, b. 
Roeskilde, Nov. 30, 1832 ; son of 
above ; 1859, organist German Frie- 
drichskirche, Copenhagen ; 1862, 
won the Ancker scholarship, and 
studied at Leipzig ; 1867, organist at 
St. John's and organ-teacher Copen- 
hagen Cons.; from 1877, asst. -organ- 
ist to his father; later organist of 
Trinity Ch.; c. vln. sonata, 'cello 
sonata, etc. 

Mattiolo (mat-tt-o'-lo), Lino, b. Par- 
ma, Italy, 1853 ; graduated from the 
Cons, with high honours ; 'cellist and 
singing-teacher at Cincinnati, U. S, 
A.; c. songs. 

Maurel (mo-rel), Victor, b. Mar- 
seilles, June 17, 1848 ; eminent bary- 
tone; studied Marseilles and with 
Vauthrot at the Paris Cons., gaining 
ist prizes in singing and opera ; de- 
but, 1869 (?), at the Gr. Opera as " de 
Nevers " in " Les Huguenots"; 1870, 
sang at La Scala, Milan, then in 
New York, Egypt, Russia with Patti, 
London, etc.; 1883, co-director Th. 
Italien, Paris, without succ. ; has sung 
in all the capitals as the supreme dra- 
matic artist of his operatic generation; 
his splendid impersonation and vocal 
art carrying conviction after his voice 
lost its youth; he created "lago" 

in Verdi's " Otello" 1887, and has 
stamped " Don Giovanni" and other 
r61es with his own personality as a 

Maurer (mow'-reV), L. Wra., Pots- 
dam, Feb. 8, 178981. Petersburg, 
Oct. 25, 1878 ; distinguished violinist 
and dram, composer. 

Maurin (mo-ran), Jean Pierre, Avi- 
gnon, 1822 Paris, 1894; violinist 
and teacher. 

May, (i) Edw. Collett, Greenwich, 
1806 London, 1887 ; vocal teacher 
and writer. (2) Florence, pianist, 
London ; daughter of above. 

May'brick, Michael (pseud. Ste- 
phen Adams), b. Liverpool, 1844; 
opera and concert barytone ; pupil of 
Best (org.) and of Leipzig Cons.; 
vocal pupil of Nava, Milan; 1884, 
toured the U. S. and Canada; c. 
popular songs, including "Nancy 

Mayer (mi'-er), (i) Chas., KSnigsberg, 
1799 Dresden, 1862; pianist and 
composer. (2) Emilie, b. Fried- 
land, Mecklenburg, May 14, 1821; 
pupil of L6we, Marx and Wieprecht; 
lives in Berlin ; c. 7 symphonies, 12 
overtures, an operetta, "Die Fisch- 
trin" etc. (3) Wm. (pseud. W. 
A. Remy), Prague, 1831 Graz, 
1898 ; excellent teacher of cpt. and 
comp.; composer. (4) Vide MAYER. 
(5) Karl, b. Sondershausen, March 
22, 1852 ; concert barytone ; pupil of 
Gotze ; lives in Schwerin. 

Mayerhoff (ml'-er-hof), Fz., b. Chem- 
nitz, Jan. 17, 1864; pupil Leipzig 
Cons. ; theatre-cond. various cities ; 
from 1885, Chemnitz; 1888, cantor 
Petrikirche, and cond. Mus. Soc.; c. 
sacred choruses, etc. 

Mayerl (or Maierl) (mi'-erl), Anton 
von, Botzen (?) Innsbruck, 1839; 
pupil of Ladurner and Ett ; c. a Sta- 
bat Mater, etc. 

Maylath (ml'-lat), H., b. Vienna, Dec. 
4, 1833 ; pupil of his father (pf.) ; 
toured, 1865; lived in Russia till 
1867 ; then New York ; teacher and 



May'nard, Walter. Vide BEALE, 

TH. W. 

Mayr (or Mayer) (mir), (Jn.) Simon, 
Mandorf, Bavaria, June 14, 1763 
blind, Bergamo, Dec. 2, 1845; fa " 
mous teacher and dram, composer; 
pupil of Lenzi and Bertoni ; lived in 
Venice as church- composer ; 1794 
prod. v. succ. opera "Saffo" followed 
by 70 more ; 1802, cond. Santa Maria 
Maggiore, Bergamo, and 1805, dir. 
Mus. Inst.; wrote a life of Haydn, 
treatises and verse ; he is said to have 
been the first to use the orchestral 
crescendo in Italy ; biogr. by Albor- 
ghetti and Galli (Bergamo, 1875). 

Mayrberger (mlr'-berkh-er), K., Vien- 
na, 1828 Pressburg, iSSi ; conduct- 
or and dram, composer. 

May seder (m!'-za-der), Jos., Vienna, 
Oct. 26, 1789 Nov. 21, 1863 ; emi- 
nent violinist, teacher and composer ; 
2nd vln. of famous " Schuppanzigh 

Mazas (ma-zas), Jacques Fe're'ol, 
Beziers, France, 1782 1849 ; violin- 
ist, writer and dram, composer. 

Mazzinghi (mad-zen'-gl), Jos., of 
noble Corsican family, London, 1765 
Bath, 1844 ; organist, teacher and 
dram, composer. 

Mazzocchi (mad-zok'-kl), Dom., 
Civiti Castellana, Rome, ca, 1590 
ca. 1650 ; composer. 

Mazzucato (mad-zoo-kat'-to), Alber- 
to, Udine, 1813 Milan, 1877 ; vio- 
linist, teacher, editor and composer. 

Mead, Olive, b. Cambridge, Mass., 
Nov. 22, 1874; concert- violinist ; 
pupil of J. Eichberg and Fr. Knei- 

Mear(e)s, Richard, d. London, ca. 
1743 ; son and successor of instru- 
ment-maker and publisher. 

Mederitsch (ma'-de'-rftsh), Jn. (called 
Gallus), b. Nimburg, Bohemia, ca. 
1765 after 1830, Lemberg; pianist 
and composer. 

Meerens (ma-rans), Chas., b. Bruges, 
Dec. 16, 1831 ; 'cellist and acousti- 

Meerts (marts), Lambert (Jos.), Brus- 

sels, 18001863 ; violinist, professor 
and composer. 

Mees (maz), Arthur, b. Columbus, 
Ohio, Feb. 13, 1850 ; pupil of Th. 
Kullak (pf .), Weitzmann (theory), and 
H. Dorn (cond.), Berlin ; cond. Cin- 
cinnati May Festival Chorus ; asst.- 
cond. various societies in New York, 
Albany, etc.; 1896, asst.-cond. Thom- 
as Orch., Chicago ; since 1901, cond. 
Mendelssohn Glee Club, New York ; 
writes analytical programmes, and c.' 
pf. -studies ; pub. " Choirs and Cho- 
ral Music" 1901. 

Mehlig (ma'-Hkh), Anna, b. Stuttgart, 
June n, 1843; pianist, pupil of Le- 
bert and Liszt; m. Antwerp mer- 
chant Falk. 

Mehrkens (mar'-kens), Fr. Ad., b. 
Neuenkirchen, near Otterndorf-on- 
Elbe, April 22, 1840 ; pupil, Leipzig 
Cons.; lives in Hamburg as pianist, 
teacher and conductor; from 1871, 
cond, of the Bach-Gesellschaft ; c. a 
symph., a Te Deijm, etc. 

M6hul (ma-til), Etienne Nicolas, 
(Henri), Givet, Ardennes, June 22, 
1763 of consumption, Paris, Oct. 
18, 1817; one of the great masters of 
French opera, a student of orch. 
effects, and a special master of the 
overture ; son of a cook ; pupil of an 
old blind organist ; at 10, studied 
with Wm. Hauser ; at 14, his asst. ; 
1778, taught in Paris and studied 
with Edelmann (pf. and comp.); 
Gluck's advice and assistance turned 
him to dram, comp., after a succ. 
cantata with orch. (1782). He c. 3 
operas, never prod., and now lost, a 
4th was accepted but not performed 
until after the succ. of the op. -com. 
" Eupkrosym et Coradin" (Th. Ita- 
lien, 1790) ; 15 other operas followed 
with general succ. incl. "Stratonice" 
(1792), " Le Congres des Rois " (1793) 
with ii collaborators ; 1705, inspect- 
or of the new Cons., and a member 
of the Academic; 1797, " Le Jeune 
Henri " was hissed off as irreverent 
toward Henri IV., though the fine 
overture had been demanded three 


times; the opera buffa " L'irato, ou 
Vemporti" (1801) made great succ. 
and lightened the quality of later op- 
eras; his best work was "Joseph " 
(1807) ; for four years he wrote only 
ballets ; he left 6 unprod. operas incl. 
" Valentine de Milan'' completed by 
Daussoigne-Mehul, and prod. 1822 ; 
he c. also inferior symphs. and pf.- 
sonatas, and very pop. choruses 
"Chant du depart" "C 1 . de victoire" 
" Chant de retour" etc. Biogr. by 
Vieillard, 1859, and A. Pougin, 

Meibom (mi'-bom) (or Meibo'mius), 
Marcus, Tonning, Schleswig, 1626 
(?) Utrecht, 1711; theorist and col- 
lector ; his great work is a valuable 
historical coll. of old composers. 

Meifred (me-fra), Jos. J. P. Emile, 
Colmars, Basses-Alps, 1791 Paris, 
1867 ; horn-virtuoso, professor and 

Meiland (ml'-lant), Jakob, Senften- 
berg, Upper Lusatia, 1542 Celle, 
1577 ; important contrapuntist. 

Meinardus (ml-nar'-doos), L. Sieg- 
fried, Hooksiel, Oldenburg, 1827 
Bielefeld, 1896 ; writer and dram, 

Meiners (mi'-ners), Giov. Bat., Milan, 
JI826 Cortenova, Como, 1897 ; con- 
ductor and dram, composer. 

Meissen (mls'-sen), H. von (called 
Frauenlob, "woman-praise"); I4th 
cent. German singer, poet, and re- 
puted founder of the Meistersinger 
(v. D. D.) at Mainz, 1311. 

Meister (mi'-shter), K. Severin, Ks- 
nigstein (Taunus), 1818 Montabaur, 
(Westerwald), 1881 ; teacher and 
mus. director. 

Mel (mel), Rinaldo del, Flemish 
musician, i6th cent. 

Mela (ma'-la), (i) del M. Vide DEL 
MELA. (2) Vincenzo, Verona, 1821 
Cologna, Vaneta, 1897 ; dram, 

Melani (ma-la -ne), Amelia, b. Pistoia, 
1876 ; soprano ; pupil of Galetti ; 
debut, Florence, 1896 (?) ; has sung 
elsewhere with success. 

Melba (meT-ba), Nellie (rightly Mit- 
chell, " Melba" being a stage-name 
from her birthplace), b. Melbourne, 
Australia, 1865 ; one of the chief 
colorature-sopranos of her time, with 
a voice of great range, purity and 
flexibility ; pupil of Mme. Marches! ; 
debut Th. de la Monnaie, Brussels, 
1887, as "Gilda" in " Rigoletto"; 
has sung in Europe and America with 
greatest succ. in both opera and con- 

Melcer(meT-tser), H. von,b. Warsaw, 
Oct. 25, 1869; pianist and composer ; 
1895 won Rubinstein prize with Con- 
certstuck for pf. and orch. 

Melchior (mel'-kl-6r), Edw. A., b. 
Rotterdam, Nov. 6, 1860; teacher 
and lexicographer. 

Melchiori (me'l-kX-o'-re), Ant., Parma, 
1827 Milan, 1897; violinist and 

Melgunow (nier-goo-n6f)Julius von, 
b. Kostroma, Russia, 1846 ; pupil of 
Henselt and the Rubinsteins; also 
of Moscow Cons, and R. Westphal, 
whose system he adapted to Bach's ; 
pub. a coll. of folk-songs. 

Mell, Davis, English violinist and 
composer, 1657. 

Melone. Vide BOTTRIGARI. 

Meluzzi (ma-lood'-ze), Salvatore, 
Rome, July 22, 1813 April 17, 1897; 
eminent organist, composer and con- 

Membr6e (man-bra), Edmond, Valen- 
ciennes, 1820 Chateau Damont, near 
Paris, 1882 ; dram, composer. 

Mendel (men' -del), Hn., Hatte, 1834 
Berlin, 1876 ; writer and lexicogra- 

Mendelssohn, (i) (Jakob Ludwig) 
Felix (rightly Mendelssohn-Bar- 
tholdy) (men'-d'l-zon-bar-tol'-de), 
Hamburg, Feb. 3, 1809 Leipzig, 
Nov. 4, 1847 ; eminent composer of 
remarkably early maturity. Great- 
grandson of a Jewish sch.-master, 
Mendel, who adopted Christianity 
and had his children reared in the 
Christian faith; grandson of the 
prominent philosopher Moses ; soa of 


the banker Abraham M. Pf, -pupil 
of his mother, Lea Salomon-Bar- 
tholdy, as was also his elder sister 
Fanny (v. HENSEL). The family-life 
of the Mendelssohns is almost unique 
in history for its happiness and mutual 
devotion. M. studied also with L. 
Berger, Zelter (theory), Hennings 
(vln.) and Mme. Bigot (pf.). At 10 
he entered the Singakademie, as an 
alto ; the same year his setting of the 
igth Psalm was performed by the 
Akademie. Every Sunday a small 
orch. performed at his father's house, 
and his comps. were heard here early 
and often; he usually cond. these 
concerts even as a child. 1825 his 
father took him to Paris to consult 
Cherubim, who offered to teach him, 
but the father preferred to have him 
at home. At 12 he began the series 
of 44 vols., in which he kept copies of 
his comps. This year he c. bet. 50 
and 60 pcs., incl. a cantata, a mus. 
comedy, a pf.-trio, 2 pf. -sonatas, a 
vln.-sonata, songs, etc. At 9 he had 
played the pf. in public ; at 12 he 
was a notable improviser (while play- 
ing a Bach-fugue at Goethe's request 
he extemporised the Development 
which he had suddenly forgotten). 
At 17 he c. the remarkably original, 
beautiful and (in advance) Wagnerian- 
overture to " A Midsummer Nighfs 
Dream" and the superb octet for 
strings (op. 20). This same year he 
matriculated at Berlin Univ. with a 
translation of Terence, said to be 
the first German attempt to render 
Terence in his own metres. He 
also painted, and was proficient in 
gymnastics and billiards. At 18 
he prod, the succ. opera " Die Hoch- 
zeit dts Camacho"- at the Berlin 
Opera, in which he used the leit- 
motif (v. D. D.). At 20 he com- 
pelled and conducted the first per- 
formance since the composer's death 
of the Bach "Passion according to St. 
Matthew " at the Singakademie. This 
was the first step in the great crusade 
he waged, taking Bach out of obso- 

lescence into the pre-eminence he 
now keeps. 1830, M. declined the 
chair of mus. at the Berlin Univ. 
The year before he had made the 
first of nine voyages to England, 
where he has stood next to Handel in 
popularity and influence. He cond. 
his symph. in C minor, at the London 
Philh., which gave him his first offi- 
cial recognition as a composer. The 
same year he was invited (in vain) to 
c. a festival hymn for the anniversary 
of the emancipation of the natives of 
Ceylon, and in his letters (in which his 
sunny nature finds free play) he re- 
ferred to himself as "Composer to 
the Island of Ceylon." He appeared 
also with brilliant succ. as pianist and 
organist. He now travelled in Scot- 
land, Switzerland, and elsewhere, and 
returning to London, conducted the 
"Hebrides" overture, played his 
G min. concerto and B min. Capric- 
cio brillant, and pub. his first 6 
" Songs without Words " (c. in Ven- 
ice, 1830). His race and his amazing 
energy and succ. made him much op- 
position at Berlin, and he was re- 
fused the conductorship of the Sing- 
akademie in 1833, although he had 
arranged a series of concerts for the 
benefit of the Orch. Pension Fund. 
1833, he cond. the Lower Rhine 
Mus. Festival at Diisseldorf, and be- 
came Town Mus. Dir. of the ch.- 
mus., the opera, and two singing-so- 
cieties, for a salary of 600 Thaler 
(about $450). 1835, he became cond. 
of the Gewandhaus Orch., Leipzig, 
which (with Fd. David as leader) he 
raised to the highest efficiency; the 
Univ. made him, in 1836, Dr. Phil., 
h. c. ; 1836, he cond. his oratorio 
"Paufas" the Lower Rhine Festival, 
Diisseldorf, in 1837 also at the Bir- 
mingham Festival. 1837, he m. 
Ce'cile Charlotte Sophie Jeanrenaud 
of Frankfort, daughter of a French 
Protestant clergyman. She bore him 
five children, Karl, Marie, Paul, Fe- 
lix, and " Lili" (Elisabeth). In 1841 
Friedrich Wilhelm IV. invited him to 


take charge of the grand orch. and 
choral concerts at Berlin. The hostil- 
ity to him was however so general 
that he wished to resign, but at the 
King's request organised the cath. 
mus., later famous as the " Dom- 
chor " (cath. choir). He was made 
R. Gen. Mus. Dir. With Schumann, 
Hauptmann, David, Becker, and 
Pohlenz, in the faculty, he organised 
the since famous Conservatorium of 
Mus. at Leipzig (since 1876 the " R. 
Cons."); he again cond. the Gewand- 
haus Concerts. 1845 he cond. " Eli- 
jah " at Birmingham. He resigned the 
Gewandhaus conductorship to Gade, 
and the plano-dept. to Moscheles, 
whom he invited from London. Upon 
hearing the news of the sudden death 
of his idolised sister, Fanny Hensel, 
he fell insensible and lived only 6 

M. was kept from opera by inabil- 
ity to find a satisfactory libretto. 
Besides " Die Hochztit des Camacho" 
he left an unfinished opera " Lorelei" 
an operetta " Son and Stranger" 
and 5 small unpub. operas. He c. 
3 oratorios, " Paulus" (St. Paul), 
" Elias" (Elijah), and " Christus" 
(unfinished), the symph. cantata 
" Lobgesang" op. 52 ; the ballade, 
with orch. "Die erste Walpurgis- 
nacht" op. 60 ; 2 " Fes tgts tinge" 
"An die K dustier " (for male chorus 
and brass), and " Zur Sacularfeier 
der Buchdnickerkunst " (" Gutenberg 
Cantata"), with orch.; mus. to the 
plays '"Antigone" (op. 55), " Atha- 
lie" (op. 74), " (Edipus in Colonos" 
(op. 93), and "A Midsummer 
Nighfs Dream " (op. 61) ; c. also 
vocal works with orch., hymn, " Tu 
es Petrus" Psalms 114, 115, and 95, 
prayer " VerleiK uns Frieden" and 
sopr. concert-aria " Infelice" (op. 

4 SYMPHONIES, in C min.; A 
min. (or "Scotch")] A (or "Ital- 
ian"); D (or " Reformation "). 
OVERTURES, " Sommernachts- 
traum" ("A Midsummer Night's 

Dream"), op. 21; "Hebrides? 
"Die Fmgalsfio'hle" (or "Fingal's 
Cave"), op. 26; "Meerstille und 
glilckliche /a/W'( u Calm Sea and 
Prosperous Voyage"), "Die Schone 
Melusine" (" The lovely Melusine") 
(op. 32), "Rity Bias" (op. 95), 
" Trztmpet " overture, and an over- 
ture for wind-band (op. 24) ; c. also 
andante, scherzo, capriccio, and 
fugue, for string-orch. (op. 81), funer- 
al march (op. 103), and march (op. 
108) ; 2 pf. -concertos, in G min. and 
D min.; capriccio brillant; rondo 
brillant, and serenade and allegro 
giojoso, for pf. with orch.; vln. -con- 
certo in E min. (op. 64) ; a string 
octet, quartets, 2 quintets, a pf. -sex- 
tet, 7 string-quartets, 3 pf.-quartets, 
2 pf. -trios, 2 trios for clar., basset 
horn, and pf.; 2 'cello-sonatas, a so- 
nata for vln., variations concertantes 
(op. 17) and "Lied ohm Worte" 
(op. 109), for 'cello with pf., relig- 
ious and secular choruses, 13 vocal 
duets, and 83 songs. FOR PIANO 3 
sonatas ; capriccio ; Charakterstticke; 
rondo capriccioso ; 4 fantasias, incl. 
" The Last Rose of Summer"; 
" Licder ohne IVorte " (" Songs with- 
out Words ") in 8 books ; " Sonate 
ecossaise" 6 preludes and fugues, 
" Variations serieiises" etc.; 6 Kin- 
derstlicke, 3 preludes and 3 studies, 
op. 104; " Albumblatt" " Perpetu- 
uin mobik" etc. 4-hand variations ; 
4-hand allegro brillant; duo con- 
certant (with Moscheles), for 2 pfs. 
on the march - theme in Weber's 
11 Predosa" FOR ORGAN, 3 preludes 
and fugues ; 6 sonatas, op. 65 ; prel- 
udes in C min. 

Biogr. by his eldest son Karl 
(1871) ; by Killer (1874) ; S. Hensel 
(1879) ; Eckardt (1888) : an extended 
article by Grove (in his Dictionary), 
etc. Numerous editions of his letters 
are published. See also next page. 

(2) Arnold, b. Ratibor, Dec. 26, 
1855 ; grand-nephew of above ; stud- 
ied with Haupt, Kiel, Grell, Tau- 
bert; organist and teacher in the 


Univ. at Bonn; then teacher at Co- City Th., 1894), and " Der Baren- 
logne Cons. ; then at Darmstadt pro- hauler" " Der Hagestolz " for chorus 
fessor. C. operas " Elsi " (Cologne and orch. 




in the precocity of his genius. Music came to him, as it were, 

straight out of the skies. He played with it from boyhood, and at 

the age of nineteen wrote his greatest work. I refer, of course, to the over- 
ture to "A Midsummer Night's Drsam" It would be difficult to say 
exactly whence Mendelssohn derived the leading motives of his musical ten- 
dency. Mozart, of course, did much for him, but he was a brilliant, though, 
I should imagine, a superficial, student of the great John Sebastian and of the 
train of German and Austrian composers, including Haydn, which succeeded 
the period of that great master, Beethoven, with whom, of course, he was 
intimate from his childhood. One remembers the story of his playing one 
of the symphonies to Goethe ; but I doubt if Beethoven had a very serious 
influence over this gay, companionable, brilliant musician to whom music 
was hot so much a spiritual as a pantheistic influence. ^[The external world 
to him fired his brain } and his delicate genius responded to the influence. 
His personality was neither commonplace nor profoundly interesting. There 
is a certain class of German youth which makes a point of exuberance, of 
high spirits and somewhat boisterous assertiveness of the bright side of life. 
Such a temperament is usually accompanied by a certain shallowness of spirit, 
and by a certain naif outlook which is just a trifle irritating to the serious 
man. ^JHis place hi the art of music has not, I should imagine, been quite 
definitely settled even at this day. While Sir George Grove would place 
him among the archangels of musical creation, there are others who prefer to 
rank him as quite in the front rank of the second class. On the whole, my 
judgment ranges with the latter, although there are times, of course, when he 
strayed into the really great things of his art, as for example in the " Watch- 
man" from the " Hymn of Praise " or " How Lovely are the Messengers" 
from "St. Paul" There will be none, however, I imagine, not even Sir 
George Grove himself, to rank Mendelssohn with Mozart, John Sebastian 
Bach, and Handel, and that alone may be taken as a test as to whether he 
really may be placed among the great gods, ^flf I were asked to assign his 
position, in the flash of a phrase, I should call him the Ganymede, the cup- 
bearer of Jupiter's table. He was in the company of the gods, and he served 
them, he pleased them well ; and his dwelling-place was in the palace of 


Jove ; but he was not of royal rank, though he wore the livery of the great 
kings of art. And his influence has been confined chiefly to the more elegant 
song- writers of the time, to the composers of graceful and forgotten oratorios, 
and to the brilliant comic opera record of Sir Arthur Sullivan. And this, 
though Mendelssohn, after arriving at man's estate, never wrote a note that 
indicates him as possessing one flash of genuine humour. The disciple has 
here indeed outstripped the master. 

Mendes (man-des), Catulle, b. Bor- 
deaux, May 22, 1841. Poet ; libret- 
tist of pop. poems and operettas. 

Mengal (man-gal), Martin Jos,, 
Ghent, 17841851 ; horn-virtuoso 
and dram, composer. 

Mengelberg (meng'-el-berkh), Wm. 
Jos., b. Utrecht, May 28, 1870; 
pupil of Umlandj Hoi, Wurff, and 
Petre at Amsterdam, then at Cologne 
Cons., 1891, dir. at Lucerne, 1895, 
Amsterdam ; at 8 began to compose. 

Mengewein (me'ng'-e-vln), K., b. 
Zaunroda, Thuringia, Sept. 9, 1852 ; 
from 1881-86, teacher at Freuden- 
berg's Cons. Wiesbaden ; co-founder 
of a Cons, at Berlin, 1886 ; c. orato- 
rio, festival cantata, operetta, over- 
ture " Dornroschen" etc. 

Mengozzi (men-god' -ze), Bdo., Flor- 
ence, 1758 Paris, March, 1800; 
tenor, writer and composer of 13 op- 

Menter (me'n'-te'r), (i) Jos., Deuten- 
kofen, Bavaria, 1808 Munich, 1856; 
'cellist. (2) (Menter-Popper) So- 
phie, b. Munich, July 29, 1848; 
daughter of above; eminent pianist; 
pupil of Schb'nchen, Lebert and Niest; 
debut, 1863; in 1867, studied with 
Tausig; 1869, with Liszt; 1872, m. 
the 'cellist Popper (divorced 1886); 
ct. -pianist to the Emperor of Austria; 
1878-87, prof. St. Petersburg Cons. ; 
lives at her country-seat, Castle Itter, 
in the Tyrol. 

Merbecke, J. Vide MARBECK. 

Mercadante (mer-ka-dan'-tg), Fran. 
Saverio, Altamura, Sept. 17, 1795 
Naples, Dec. 17, 1870 ; pupil of Zin- 
garelli and in 1840 his successor as 

dir. of Naples Cons.; in 1819 prod, 
an opera with great succ. and fol- 
lowed it with 60 others, incl. u Ettsa 
e Claudia " (Naples, 1866), " // Giu- 
ramento" (Milan, 1837) ; he lived in 
various cities ; 1833 cond. at Novara 
Cath. ; 1862 he went blind ; he c. also 
2 symphonies, 4 funeral symphonies, 
20 masses, etc. 

Mercadier (mSr-kad-ya), J. Bap., Bel- 
esta, Ariege, France, April 18, 1750 
Foix, Jan. 14, 1815 ; theorist. 

Merck, Louis, Landau, 1832 Brus- 
sels, April 15, 1900 ; horn-virtuoso. 

Mer'cy (orMerci), Louis, Engl. virt- 
uoso on the beak-flute, 1735 ; com- 

Mereaux (ma-ro), (i) J. Nicolas 
Amede"e Lefroid de, Paris, 1745 
1797 ; organist and dram, composer. 

(2) Jos. N. L. de, b. Paris, 1767 ; 
son of above ; organist, and pianist. 

(3) J. A. L. de, Paris, 1803 Rouen, 
1874 ; son of above ; pianist, com- 
poser and writer. 

Merian (ma'-ri-an), Hans, d. Leipzig, 
1902 ; writer. 

Me"ric (ma-rfk). Vide LALANDE. 

Muriel (ma-rf-el), Paul, Mondoubleau, 
1818 Toulouse, 1897 ; violinist, 
cond. and dram, composer ; dir. Tou- 
louse Cons. 

Merighi (ma-re'-ge), Antonia, Italian 
contralto profondo in Handel's op- 
eras, London, 1729-38. 

Merk (m&rk), Jos., Vienna, 1795 
Ober-Dbbling, 1852 ; violinist and 

Merkel (maY-kel), (i) Gustav (Ad.), 
Oberoderwitz, Saxony, Nov. 12, 1827 
Dresden, Oct. 30, 1885 ; org. and 



composer. (2) K. L., wrote treatises 
on throat, etc. 

Merklin (mar'-klen), Jos., b. Oberhau- 
sen, Baden, Jan. 17, 1819 ; org.- 
builder at Brussels ; son of an org.- 
builder ; took his brother - in - law, 
F. Schutze, into partnership, as 
" Merklin-Schutze," 1858 ; in 1855, 
est. a branch in Paris. 

Mersenne (mer-seV), Marie, Oize 
(Maine), France, Sept. 8, 1588 
Paris, Sept. i, 1648 ; writer of mus. 

Mertens (mar'-tgns), Jos,, Antwerp, 
Feb. 17, 1834 Brussels, July, 1901; 
ist vln. at the opera there and teach- 
er at the Cons.; 1878-79, cond. 
Flemish Opera, Brussels ; later, dir. 
at Royal Th., The Hague; prod, 
succ. Flemish and French operettas 
and operas, incl. " De Zwarte Kapi- 
tdn " (The Hague, 1877). 

Mertke (mert'-ke), Ed., Riga, 1833 
Cologne, 1895 ; pianist, violinist, 
composer and collector. 

Mertz (marts), Jos. K., Pressburg, 
Hungary, 1806 Vienna, 1856 ; gui- 

Merula (ma-roo'-la), Tarquinio, b. 
Bergamo ; violinist and composer, 

Merulo (ma-roo'-15) (rightly Merlot'ti), 
Claudio (called " Da Coreggio"), 
Coreggio, April 8, 1533 Parma, 
May 4, 1604 ; eminent organist, 
dram, composer and famous teacher ; 
pupil of Menon and G. Donati ; he 
was a leader of the Venetian sch. and 
bordered on the new tonality. 

Merz (marts), K., Bensheim, near 
Frankfort-on-Main, 1836 Wooster, 
Ohio, 1890 ; teacher and writer. 

Messager (me's-sa-zha), Andre" (Chas. 
Prosper), b. Montlucon, Allier, 
France, Dec. 30, 1853 ; pupil of Nie- 
dermeyer School and of Saint-Saens ; 
1874, organist of the choir, St. Sul- 
pice; cond. at Brussels; organist at St. 
Paul-Saint-Louis ; Paris, cond. at 
Sainte Marie des Batignolles ; 1898, 
cond. Op. Com. ; Chev. of the Legion 
of Honour ; 1901, mus. -dir. Covent 

Garden, London ; completed Berni- 
cat's unfinished score, ' ' Francois ks 
Bas Bleus" (Folies - Dramatiques, 
1883), following it with about 20 
other comic operettas, and operas, 
incl. the succ. " Lc CJievalier d'lfar- 
mentaV (Op. -Com., 1896); "Za 
Basoche" (Op. -Com., 1890, Bremen, 
1892, as Zwei Konige) ; m. Hope 
Temple (q. v.). 

Messerschmidt - Griinner (mes'-se'r- 
shmtt-grfn'-ncr) (Fran), Vienna, ca. 
1847 J^S ; founded at Vienna the 
first "Ladies' Orchestra." 

Mestrino (mas-tre'-no), Niccol6, Mil- 
an, 1748 Paris, 1790; violinist, con- 
ductor, and composer. 

Metastasio (ma-tas-la-zl-o) (rightly 
Trapassi, but changed to M., a 
pun. on T. to please his patron Gravi- 
na), P. Ant. Dom. Bonaventura, 
Rome, Jan. 3, 1698 Vienna, April 
12, 1782 ; poet and dramatist ; wrote 
librettos set to mus. by Gluck and 

Methfessel (mat'-fes-sel), (i) Albert 
Gl., Stadtilm, Thuringia, 1785 
Heckenbeck, 1869 ; dram, composer. 
(2) Fr., Stadtilm, 17711807 ; bro. 
of above ; composer. (3) Ernst, 
Mulhausen, 1802 Berne, 1878, rel- 
ative of above ; conductor. (4) 
Ernst M., 18111886, conductor. ' 

M6tra (ma-tra), (Jules Louis) Olivier, 
Rheims, 1830 Paris, 1889 ; violinist 
and double-bass player, conductor 
and dram, composer. 

Mettenleiter (met'-ten-ll-ter), (i) Jn. 
G., studied Ulrich, near Ulm, 1812 
Ratisbon, 1858 ; organist and compos- 
er. (2) Dominicus, Tannenhausen, 
Wiirtemberg, 1822 Ratisbon, 1868 ; 
brother of above; writer and compos- 
er. (3) Bernhard, cousin of above ; 
composer at Kempten, Bavaria. 

Metzdorff (mets'-dorf), Richard, b. 
Danzig, June 28, 1844 ; pupil of Fl. 
Geyer, Dehn, and Kiel, Berlin ; cond. 
at various cities ; c. opera " Rosa- 
munde" (Weimar, 1875); succ." Hag- 
bart und Signe " (Weimar, 1893) ; c. 
also 3 symph. incl. " Tragic" ; over- 


ture ' ' King Lear " j * ' Fran A lice," 
ballade, with orch., etc. 

Metzler (mets'-ler), (i) & Co., Lon- 
don, mus.-pubs. , founded by Valen- 
tine M., 1790. (2) Metzler-Lowy 
(mgts'-ler-la'-ve), Pauline, b. The- 
resienstadt, 1850(7) ; contralto ; 1875- 
87, Leipzig City Th.; 1881, m. the 
pf. -teacher, (3) Fd M. 

Meurs, de. Vide MURIS, DE. 

Meursius (mur'-st-oos), Jns., Looz- 
duinen, near The Hague, 1579 
Denmark, 1639 ; prof, and writer. 

Meusel (moi'-zel), Jn. G., Eyrichshol, 
1743 Erlangen, 1820; writer and 

Meyer (mi'-er), (i) Joachim, Perle- 
berg, Brandenburg, 1661 Gottingen, 
1732 ; prof, and writer. (2) Ld. von 
(called u De Meyer"), Baden, near 
Vienna, 1816 Dresden, 1883; pia- 
nist and composer. (3) Julius Ed., 
Altenburg, Germany, 1822 Brook- 
lyn, U. S. A., 1899 ; vocal-teacher, 
from 1852, at Brooklyn. (4) Jenney, 
Berlin, 18341894; concert-singer; 
1865 teacher, 1888 proprietress Stern 
Cons. Berlin. (5) Felix, b. Berlin, 
Feb. 5, 1850; son of (6) Bernard 
(mus. -director) ; pupil of David ; vio- 
linist in ct. chapel, Berlin. (7) Wal- 
demar, b. Berlin, Feb. 4, 1853 J vio- 
linist, pupil of Joachim ; 1873-81, 
member of the Berlin ct. orch. (8) 
Gustav, b. Konigsberg, Prussia, 
June 14, 1859 ; pupil of Leipzig 
Cons. ; cond. various cities ; 1895, 
Leipzig City Th.; c. 4-act farce, bal- 
let-pantomime, etc. 

Meyerbeer (mi'-er-bar), Giacomo 
(rightly Jakob Liebmann Beer; 
by adding the name *' Meyer" he se- 
cured a large inheritance from a 
wealthy relative ; he then Italianised 
"Jacob " as "Giacomo"), Berlin, Sept. 
5, 1791 (94?) Paris, May 2, 1864; 
son of a Jewish banker ; a precocious 
and remarkable pianist ; pupil of 
Lauska and Clementi ; at 7 played in 
public ; studied with Zelter, Anselm, 
Weber; 1810, was invited by Abbe 
Vogler to live in his house as a son 

and pupil ; did so for 2 years, one of 
his fellow-pupils being his devoted 
friend C. M. von Weber. Here he 
c. an oratorio and 2 operas "Jeph- 
thas Geliibde" (Ct.-Op., Munich, 
1813) and " Abimilek" (Munich, 
1813), the first a failure, the latter 
accepted for Vienna, whither he went 
and made a great succ. as pianist 
though his opera was not a succ. In 
his discouragement Salieri told him 
he needed only to understand the 
voice, and advised an Italian jour- 
ney. He went to Venice in 1815 
and, carried away with Rossini's 
vogue, c. 6 Italian operas which had 
succ. , especially " // Crociato in git- 
to" (Venice, 1824). While writing 
this last he went to Berlin hoping to 
prod. 3-act German opera, "Das 
Brandenburger Thor"; though he 
found no hearing, Weber begged him 
not to give himself up to Italian in- 
fluences. In the 6 years of silence 
that followed, occurred his marriage, 
his father's death, and the death of 
his two children. In 1826, he went to 
Paris to live, and made a profound 
and exhaustive study of French op- 
era from Lully down, forming his 
third style, in which ace. to Mendel 
u he united to the flowing melody of 
the Italians and the solid harmony of 
the Germans the pathetic declama- 
tion and the varied, piquant rhythm 
of the French." He made a coali- 
tion with the sophisticated librettist, 
Scribe, and his first French opera, 
"Robert h Diable" (Gr. Opera, 
1831), was an enormous succ., finan- 
cially establishing the Opera itself, 
though M. had had to pay the man- 
ager Veron a large sum to secure its 
production. Less pop. succ. at first, 
but more critical favour attended 
" Les Huguenots" (&i&)\ its prod, 
at Berlin, 1842, led KingFr. Wm. IV. 
to call him there as Gen. Mus.-Dir. 
His opera ' ' Das Feldlager in Sclik- 
sien" (1843), had only mod. succ. 
until Jenny Lind sang it in 1844. 
1847, he visited Vienna and London; 



returning to Berlin he prod. Wagner's 
new work "Rienzi"; later he ob- 
tained " The Flying Dutchman" 
performance, after its rejection else- 
where. The extent to which he be- 
friended Wagner is matter of bitter 
controversy, some claiming that he 
gave only formal assistance while 
Wagner was obscure, and fought him 
with underhanded methods and a 
"press-bureau," when Wagner at- 
tained power. At any rate Wagner 
despised and publicly assailed the 
music of Meyerbeer. Yet, wheth- 
er or no Wagner borrowed money 
from M., he certainly borrowed num- 
berless points of artistic construction 
from him. In 1849, st Le Prophete" 
(finished 1843) was prod, at the Paris 
Gr. Opera (1849) followed by the 
successes l 'L'toile du Nord^ (Op.- 
Com., 1854), some of it taken from his 
"Das Feldlagerin Schlesien" ; and 
" D'morah, ou le Pardon de JPloe'r- 
mel" (Op. Com., 1859). " ' EA/ri- ' 
caine " (worked on with constant and 
characteristic changes from 1838) was 
prod, at the Paris Gr. Opera, 1865, a 
year after his death. M. left by will 
10,000 thaler ($7,500) for the founda- 
tion of a Meyerbeer Scholarship, for 
which only Germans under 28, and 
pupils of the Berlin " Hochschule," 
the Stern Cons., and the Cologne 
Cons., are eligible. Competitors 
must submit a vocal fugue a 8 (for 
double chorus), an overture for full 

orch., and a dram, cantata a j, with 
orch. (text of cantata, and text and 
theme of fugue being given). The 
fund gives six months in Italy, six in 
Paris, and six more in Vienna, Mu- 
nich and Dresden together. M. c. 
alsoincid. music to " Struensee" (the 
tragedy by his brother, Michael Beer; 
Berlin, 1846), choruses to ^Eschylus 1 
1 ' Eumenides "/ festival-play ' ' Das 
Hoffest von Ferrara"; mo'nodrama 
" Thevelindem Liebe" for sopr. solo, 
chorus with clar. obbligato (Vienna,' 
1813); cantatas, " Gutenberg" and 
"Maria und ihr Genitis " (for the 
silver wedding of Prince and Princess 
Carl of Prussia); " Der Genius der 
Musik am Grabe Beethoven "/ sere- 
nade ' 'Brautgeleite aus der Heimath " 
(for the wedding of Princess Louise of 
Prussia) ; ode to Rauch (the sculptor), 
with orch.; 7 sacred odes a cappella; 
Fesihymnits (for the King of Prus- 
sia's silver wedding); 3 "Fackel- 
tanze," for wind-band, also scored 
for orch. (for the weddings of the 
King of Bavaria, and the Princesses 
Charlotte and Anna of Prussia); 
grand march tor the Schiller Centen- 
ary (1859) ; overture in march-form 
(for opening of London Exhibition, 
1862) ; coronation march for King 
Wilhelm I. (1863); church-music; 
pf.-pcs., etc. Biog. by A. de La- 
salle (1864); H. Blaze de Bury 
(1865); Ella (1868); H. Mendel 
(1868), and J. Schucht, 1869. 



WITHIN a decade or so, especially since the Wagnerian measuring- 
rule was applied right and left, up and down, to almost all the 
lyric drama, more in enthusiasm than in good judgment, and 
also since opera-making has come to be talked of as a sort of exact 
science Meyerbeer has been ungraciously handled by a certain school of 
criticism. This school is rich in Podsnaps. If we can believe these arbi- 
ters and observers, Meyerbeer was a feeble charlatan in French opera, or in 


any kind of opera, a vulgar and bawdy melodist and a commonplace orches- 
trator. Moreover, we must, by such critics, believe that the public as well 
as the critics have so thoroughly " found him out," that the popular interest in 
his works is over ; that " The Huguenots" " U Africaine" and " LePro- 
pbete" are works that bore everybody of true musical intelligence " the souls 
of them fumed forth, the hearts of them torn out." ^[Unfortunately for 
these undiscerning prophets, their premises are obviously wrong, and their 
results are short-sighted. Meyerbeer is a composer full of faults. His 
inconsistencies are a continual irritation. His shortcomings are plain to 
the ear. His superficial, emotional side, too, is indisputable. He was 
never sure of himself, or rarely so ; and that is fatal often to artistic strength. 
But when all is counted against him, Meyerbeer is still a great composer, an 
operatic master to be reckoned with for a long operatic time to come ; and 
as for the world in general it is far from setting him aside when his best 
scores are the question. *f[His splendid subtler mastery of true dramatic effect 
is, after all, as emphatic as his cheaper method of making a point. He does 
not, alas ! sustain his melodies. He does not work out good themes as 
they deserve, over and over. He gives-out, he resorts to noise and clap- 
trap. His favourite rhythm HH | is tedious. ^fBut notwithstanding all, 
he is a genius in dramatic, pathetic - melody. He is constantly able to 
move us legitimately by his beautiful art as an orchestral colourist. He 
writes for the operatic actor as a singer,, perfectly and consistently, as well 
as for the operatic artist as a declaimer. He is a king at great musical 
phrases, words and music so linked that we cannot think of them as not 
together. And as a merely French composer Meyerbeer is of the first 
rank. A sincere and learned musician himself, especially influenced by 
the greatest and even severest German and Italian musicians, he is distinctly 
a descendant in artistic speech of no less than Gluck. One often finds 
a Gluck-like nobility of phrase in Meyerbeer's dialogue, a Gluck-like out- 
start of melody, to atone for all that is savoury of Offenbach or worse. ^[As 
for Meyerbeer's influence on not only the French opera but in far wider range, 
that is undeniable. French opera since his day has never set his monitions 
aside, from Halevy to Reyer : and Wagner (heretical as it sounds to say so) 
never quite drew away from the French principles in dramatic opera that he 
often most repudiated exactly as he repudiates his eternal practical debts to 
Meyerbeer for no vague kindness. ^[Meyerbeer is the Scott, the Jokai, of 
opera, forever. Just as we forgive technical error or error of sentiment in both 
here and there, so must we forgive Meyerbeer : and in admiring his best 
scenes much indeed is to be forgot ! ^[Personally, he was a large-souled and a 
good man as well as a man of finest cultivation and polish. His charities 
were numberless and his large bequests have continued them. Take him 


all in all, he is a creator and an influence! of, we may say, permanent 
dignity and honour in the general gallery of the really great, not merely the 
pseudo-great, operatic sovereigns. 

Meyer-Helmund (mi'-Sr-hSl-moont), 
Erik, b. St. Petersburg, April 13 
(25 new style), 1861; pupil of his father 
and of Kiel and Stockhausen ; prod. 
3 comic operas, inch the succ. " Der 
Liebeskampf" (Dresden, 1892) ; succ. 
ballet " Rftbezahl" (oc " Der Berg- 
geist"} (Leipzig, 1893) ; i-act bur- 
lesque " Tischka" (Riga, 1894) ; and 
pop. songs. 

Meyer-Lutz (mi'-Sr-loots), Wm., b. 
Miinnerstadt, near Kissingen, 1829 ; 
pupil of Eisenhofer and Keller, 
Wiirzburg ; 1848, in England, organ- 
ist at Birmingham, then Leeds, later 
St. George's R. C. Ch., London; 
1869, cond. at Gaiety Th.; c. 8 op- 
eras, masses, etc. 

Meyer-Olbersleben (ml'-gr-dl'-bers- 
la-ben), Max, b. Olbersleben, near 
Weimar, April 5, 1850 ; pupil of his 
father, of Muller-Hartung and Liszt, 
on whose recommendation he was 
given a stipend by the Duke, and 
studied with Rheinberger and Wull- 
ner ; 1877, teacher of cpt., and comp. 
R. Cons, of Mus., Wurzburg; 1879, 
cond. the " Liedertafel" j 1885, 
" Royal Prof." ; 1896, dir. "Deutsch- 
er S&ngerbund" and co-dir. the Fifth 
National Sdngerfest, Stuttgart; c. 
succ. romantic opera " Ctitre Dettin" 
(Wurzburg, 1896), and a comic op- 
era " Der Hauben Krieg" t (Munich 
Opera); overtures, " Feurkl&nge" 
and " Festouuerture "y fine choruses ; 
chamber-mus., etc. 

MSzeray (maz-re"), L. Chas. Lazare 
Costard de, Brunswick, 1810 As- 
nieres, near Paris, April, 1887; bary- 
tone and dram, composer. 

Miceli (me-cha'-le), Giorgio, Reg- 
gio di Calabria, 1836 Naples, 1895 ; 
c. 6 operas, 2 biblical operas, etc. 

Michaelis (me-kha -a-les).(i) Chr. Fr., 
Leipzig, 17701834; writer. (2) 

Gustav, Ballenstedt, 1828 Berlin, 
1887 ; cond. and composer, M 
Theodor, Ballenstedt, 1831 Ham- 
burg, 1887; bro. of above; organist. 

Micheli (me-ka'-le), Romano, Romej 
ca. 1575 ca. 1660 ; conductor, writer 
and composer of notable canons, etc. 

Mickwitz (mlk'-vlts), Harald von, b] 
Helsingfors, May 22, 1859; pianist; 
pupil of Brassin and Rimsky-Korsa- 
kov, St. Petersburg Cons., and of 
Leschetizky, Vienna ; 1886, pf.-prof. 
Carlsruhe Cons. ; 1893, Wiesbaden 
Cons. ; composer. 

Mierzwinski (mirzh-vm'-shkf), La- 
dislas, b. Warsaw, Oct. 21, 1850 ; 
untrained tenor of short-lived fame. ' 

Mihalovich (me-ha'-lo-vfch), Edmund 
von, b. Fericsancze, Slavonia, Sept. 
13, 1842; pupil of Hauptmann and 
von Billow; dir. R. Acad. of Mus., 
Pesth; c. romantic opera " Hagbarth 
und Signe" (Dresden, 1882) ; succ. 
opera " Toldi " (Pesth, 1893) ; baL 
lads for full orch. ("Das Geister- 
schiff" "Hero and Leander" "La 
rowdt; du sab bat" "Die Nixe")> a 
symph., etc. 

Miksch (meksh), Jn. Aloys, Georg- 
enthal, Bohemia, 1765 Dresden, 
1845 ; barytone and celebrated 

Mikuli (me'-koo-le), Karl, Czernowitz, 
Bukowina , 1821 Lemberg, 1897 ; 
pupil of Chopin and ed. of standard 
edition of his works ; composer. 

Milanollo (mi-lan-ol'-lo), (i) Teresa, 
b. Savigliano, near Turin, Aug. 28, 
1827 ; at 4 hearing a vln. at church 
she became so frantic for one that 
she was given lessons ; studied with 
Ferrero, Gebbaro, and Mora, at Tu- 
rin, and played in public at 6 ; after- 
wards touring with great succ. till in 
1857 she m. military engineer, Par- 
mentier; lived in Toulouse, Her 


companion on her tours was her sis- 
ter (2) Maria, 1832 (of consump- 
tion) Paris, 1848. Also a violin- 

Milchmeyer (mflkh'-ml-er), Ph. Ja- 
kob, Frankfort - on - Main, 1750 
Strassburg, 1813, pf. -teacher ; inv. a 
3-manuaipf.; composer. 

Milde (mel'-de), (i) Hans Feodor 
von, b. Petronek, near Vienna, April 
13, 1821 ; pupil of Hauser and Man- 
uel Garcia ; created " Telramund " in 
Lohengrin, Weimar, 1850 ; life-mem- 
ber of the Weimar ct.-opera. (2) 
Rosa (nee Agthe), b. Weimar, 
June 25, 1827 ; wife of above ; cre- 
ated " Elsa," sang at Weimar till 
1876. (3) Fz. von, b. Weimar, 
March 4, 1855 ; son and pupil of (i) 
and (2) ; barytone, since 1878 at Han- 
over ct.-th. (4) Rudolf von, b. Wei- 
mar, Nov. 29, 1859 ; son and pupil 
of (i) and (2) ; barytone ; debut 1883 
at the ct.-th. and sang there till 1886, 
then in the New York Opera till 1888 ; 
teacher Stern Cons, till 1894, then 
sang at Dessau ct.-opera ; 1897 sang 
" Gunther " at Bayreuth. 

Milder-Haup_tmann (meT-de'r-howpt r - 
man), Pauline Anna, Constantino- 
ple, 1785 Berlin, 1838 ; soprano ; 
Beethoven wrote the role of ' ' Fide- 
lio " for her. 

Mildner (melt'-ner), Moritz, Turnitz, 
Bohemia, 1812 Prague, 1865 ; vln.- 

Mililotti (me-le-lot'-te), (i) Leopoldo, 
b. Ravenna, Aug. 6, 1835 ; studied 
at Rome and lives there as singing- 
teacher; pub. songs and writes. His 
brother (2) Giuseppe, 18331883, 
prod. 2 operettas. 

Millard', Harrison, b. Boston, Mass., 
Nov. 27, 1830; studied in Italy; 
tenor concert-singer; toured Great 
Britain ; lived in New York from 1856, 
as singer and teacher ; c. an opera, 
grand mass; and many pop. songs, 
incl. " Waiting," 

Mil'ler, Edw., Norwich, 1735 Don- 
caster, 1807 ; organist, composer, and 

Milleville (mtt-lS-vtt'-le), (i) Fran., b. 
Ferrara, ca. 1565 ; conductor and 
composer ; son and pupil of (2) Ales- 
sandro M., organist, and composer 
to the Ducal Court. 

Mil'lico, Giuseppe, b, Modena, 1739; 
male soprano, and dram, composer. 

Millocker (mn'-lek-er), K., b. Vienna, 
March 29, 1842 ; pupil of the Cons. ; 
1864, th.-cond. at Graz ; 1866, Har- 
monie-TL, in Vienna ; from 1869, 
Th. an der Wien ; c. many graceful 
and succ. operettas, and comic op- 
eras, incl. 2 prod, at 23, " Der 
todte Cast" and " Die beiden Binder " 
(Pesth, 1865); "Das verwiinschene 
Schloss " (1878"), with songs in Upper 
Austrian dialect ; the widely pop. 
" Der Bettelstudmt" (Dec. 6, 1881 ; 
in Italian as " // Guitarrera" in 
English " The Beggar Student ") ; 
"Die sieben Schiuaben" (1887, in 
Engl. "The 7 Swabians"); "Der 
arme Jonathan" (1890, in Engl. 
"Poor Jonathan"); "Das Sonn- 
tagskind " (1892) ; " Nordlicht " 
(1897) ; c. also pf.-pcs. 

Mills, (i) Sebastian Bach, Cirences- 
ter, England, March i, 1838 Wies- 
baden, Dec. 21, 1898 ; organist ; pf.- 
teacher, New York. (2) Watkin, b. 
Painswich, Engl., ca. 1861 ; oratorio 
and concert basso cantante, range 
Efe-/' (v. PITCH, D.D.) ; pupil of Ed- 
win Holland at the R. A. M., and of 
F. Blasco, Milan ; of Sir J. Barnby, 
Randegger, and Blume ; debut, Crys- 
tal Palace, 1884 ; in America, 1894- 


Milon (me-lon). Vide TRIAL. 

Mil'ton, J., d. 1646(7?); father of the 
English poet ; a scrivener in London, 
and an excellent musician and com- 

Mingotti (men-got'-tf), Regina (ne'e 
Valentini); b. Naples, 1728; so- 

Minoja (me-no'-ya), Ambrosio, Ospe- 
'daletto, 1752Milan, 1825 ; singing- 
teacher and composer. 

Mirande (me-rand), Hippolyte, b. 
Lyons, May 4, 1863 ; pupil of Du 

6 3 6 


bois and Guiraud, Paris Cons.; 1886- 
90, prof, Geneva Cons.; 1890, Sec.- 
Gen. Gr. Th., Lyons, and prof, of 
mus. history, Lyons Cons. ; critic ; 
organist at the synagogue ; c. v. succ. 
ballet, " Une Fete Direetoire. " (Ly- 
ons, 1895); overtures, " Rodogwie" 
" Frithjof" "Macbeth" " Promt- 
thee" and " La mort de Roland" etc. 

Minis (me'-roos), b. Klagenfurt, 1856; 
studied in Italy ; barytone and com- 
poser ; since 1891, lives in Vienna. 

Miry (me'-re), Karel, Ghent, 1823 
1889 ; professor and dram, composer. 

Missa (rats' - sa), Edmond Jean 
Louis, b. Rheims, June 12, 1861 ; 
pupil of Massenet, Paris Cons. ; won 
Prix Cressent ; lives in Paris, as 
teacher ; c. an op.-com., "Jugc et 
Partie " (Op. -Com., 1886), followed 
by others, also pantomimes, revieus, 
Ninon deLenelos, lyric episode (1895), 

Mitterwurzer (raft' - ter - voor - tsgr), 
Anton, Sterzing, Tyrol, 1818 Dob- 
ling, near Vienna, 1872 ; barytone. 

Mizler (mlts'-l^r), Lorenz Chp. (en- 
nobled as M. von Kolof), Heiden- 
heim, Wtirtemberg, 1711 Warsaw, 
1778 ; writer, editor and composer. 

Mlynarski (m'le-nar'-shkl), Emil, b. 
Poland, 1850; violinist; dir. opera, 

Modernus (mo-der'-noos), Jacobus 
(rightly Jacque Moderne; called 
Grand Jacques, or J. M, de Pin- 
guento, because of his stoutness) ; 
cond. at Notre Dame, Lyons ; pub. 
and composer, 1732-58. 

Mof'fat, Alfred E., b. Edinburgh, 
Dec. 4, 1866 ; pupil of L. Bussler, 
Berlin ; c. cantatas. 

Mohr (mor), Hn., Nieustadt, 1830 
Philadelphia, 1896 ; composer. 

Mohring (ma'-rmg), Fd., Alt-Ruppin, 
1816 Wiesbaden, 1887 ; organist, 
teacher, and dram, composer. 

Moir, Frank Lewis, b. Market Har- 
borough, Engl., April 22, 1852 ; 
studied painting at S. Kensington, 
also mus.; won scholarship Nat. 
Training Sen, (1876); c, a comic 

opera, church - services, madrigal 
" When at C/iloe's Eyes I Gaze" 
(Madr. Soc. prize, 1881), many pop. 
songs, etc. 

Mol, de. Vide DEMOL. 

Molique (mol-Gk'), Wm. Bd., Niirn- 
berg, Oct. 7, 1802 Cannstadt, May 
10, 1869 ; eminent violinist ; son and 
pupil of a town-musician ; studied 
with Rovelli on royal stipend ; 1820, 
successor of R. as leader of Munich 
orch. ; studied with Spohr ; 1826, 
" Musik-direktor " at Stuttgart; 1849- 
66, London ; also toured with great 
succ.; c. an oratorio, 6 famous vln.- 
concertos, etc. 

Mollenhauer (mol'-len-how-Sr), three 
brothers, b. at Erfurt, (i) Fr., 1818 
1901; violinist and composer. (2) H., 
1825 ; 'cellist. (3) Ed., April 12 
1827; violinist; pupil of Ernst, and of 
Spohr; 1853, New York, founded a 
vln.-sch.; one of the originators of 
the "Conservatory System" in 
America ; c. 2 operas ; 3 symphonies, 
incl. the "Passion" string-quartets, 
vln.-pcs., etc. (4) Emil, b. Brookl 
lyn, U. S. A., 1855 ; son of (i) ; vio- 
linist at 9, then with Boston Symph. 
Orch., now cond. Boston Handel 
and Haydn Societies. 

Moller (or M oiler) (mol'-ler, or me'l- 
ler), Joachim. Vide BURGK. 

Molloy', Jas. Lyman, b. Cornolore, 
Ireland, 1837 ; c. operettas ; pub. 
Irish melodies with new accompani- 
ments and c. pop. songs. 

Momigny (mo-men'.ye), Je"rome Jos. 
de, Philippe ville, 1762 ? ; organist, 
theorist and dram, composer. 

Momolet'to. Vide ALBERTINI, M. 

Monasterio (mo-na's-ta'-rl-o), Gesu, 
b. Potes, Spain, March 21, 1836; 
violinist ; debut at 9, then pupil of 
De Be'riot, Brussels Cons.; made v. 
succ, tours ; 1861 founded Quartet 
Soc., Madrid; ct. -violinist, prof., and 
(1894) dir. Madrid Cons.; c. pop. 

Monbelli (mon-bel'-le), Marie, b. 
Cadiz, Feb. 13, 1843 ; soprano ; pu- 
pil of Mme, Garcia, Paris, 


Mondonville (mon-don-ve -yu), J. 
Jos. Cassanea de (de M. being his 
wife's maiden name), Narbonne, 
1711 Belleville, near Paris, 1772 ; 
violinist, conductor and dram, com- 

Moniuszko (mo-nf-oosh'-kd), Stanis- 
law, Ubiel, Lithuania, May 5, 1813 
Warsaw, June 4, 1872 ; pupil of 
Freyer and Rungenhagen ; 1. Berlin, 
then at Wilna ; c. 15 notable Polish 
operas, also masses, songs, etc.; or- 
ganist, director, professor. Biogr. by 
A. Walicki (Warsaw, 1873). 

Monk, (i) Edwin G., b. Frome, 
Engl., December 13, 1819; pupil of 
G. A. Macfarren ; Mus. Doc. Oxon, 
1856; 1859-83, organist York Minster; 
ed. choral books, etc.; c. 2 odes, 
unison service, etc. (2) Wm. H., 
London, 1823 Stoke Newington, 
London, 1889 ; organist, professor of 
vocal mus.; editor. 

Monpou (moh-poo) (Fran. L.) Hip., 
Paris, 1804 Orleans, 1841 ; c. of 
light operas and songs. 

Monro', H., b. Lincoln, 1774 ; Engl. 
organist and composer. 

Monsigny (moh-sen-ye), P. Alex., 
Fauquembergue, near St.-Omer, Oct. 
17, 1729 Paris, Jan. 14, 1817 ; ill- 
trained but melodious French comic 
opera writer of noble birth but left 
poor on his father's death ; became a 
clerk, later steward to the Duke of 
Orleans ; he had studied the vln. as 
a child and now studied harm, for 5 
months with Gianotti ; at 30 prod. 
a succ. i -act op., followed by 12 
others, the last, " Fdlix, ou V enfant 
trouvt" (1777), the greatest succ. of 
all ; immediately m., ceased to write; 
his stewardship and his royalties had 
brought him riches, which the Revo- 
lution swept away ; he was given a 
pension of 2,400 francs ($480) a 
year by the Op. Com.; 1800-02, in- 
spector at the Cons. ; 1813, member 
of the Acad.; 1816, Legion of Hon- 
our. Biogr. by Alexandre (1819), 
and Hedouin, 1820. 

Montaubry (m&n-to-bre), Achille P., 
Niorte, Nov. 12, 1816 Angers, 1898; 

Monte (m6n'-tS), Filippo (or Philip- 
pus de) (Philippe de Mons) (dtt- 
m6hs), probably at Mons (or Ma- 
lines), 1521 Vienna, July 4, 1603 ; 
conductor and celebrated composer. 

Mont Eclair (mon-ta-klar), Michel 
Pignolet de, Chaumont, 1666 
Saint -Denis, n. Paris, Sept., 1737 ; 
double-bass player; dram, composer 
and writer of methods. 

Monteverde (mon-ta-ver'-dg) (he 
signed his name, Monteverdi), Clau- 
dio (Giov. A.), Cremona (bapt., 
May 15), 1567 Venice, Nov. 29, 
1643 ; eminent composer ; when 
young, via. -player in the orch. of Duke 
Gpnzaga, Mantua, and studied cpt. 
with Ingegneri. At 17 and at 20 
pub. Canzonette a 3, and madrigals, 
in which appeared (among many un- 
intentional or unbeautiful effects) the 
harmonic innovations for which he is 
famous and which led Rockstro to 
call him ' ' not only the greatest mu- 
sician of his own age, but the in- 
ventor of a system of harmony which 
has remained in uninterrupted use to 
the present day.' 1 His progressions 
include the unprepared entrance of 
dissonances, the dominant seventh 
and the ninth (v. D. D., CHORD, PRO- 
TION, etc.). He was bitterly assailed 
in pamphlets, particularly by Artuso, 
and he replied in kind. The outcome 
was his complete triumph and the es- 
tablishment of the new school of 
song and accompaniment. His vic- 
tory, while salutary for art in general 
and dramatic song in particular, was 
too complete ; for the bigoted defend- 
ers of polyphonic music dragged 
down with them in their ruin the 
splendid edifice of church-ams. built 
to perfection by Palestrina and 
others. 1603, M. became his teach- 
er's successor as Maestro to the 
Duke and c. for the wedding of the 

, Duke's son to Margherita of Savoy 



the opera " Aria nne" in which Ari- 
adne's grief moved the audience to 
tears. In 1608 he prod, his opera 
" Orfeo " with the unheard-of orches- 
tra of 36 pieces (Riemann states that 
"Ariamu" was the 2d work and 
Orfeo the first). Orfeo was published 
in 1609 and in 1615, and the score 
shows great modernity, Rockstro 
comparing its preludes with one bass- 
note sustained throughout to the In- 
troduction to "Das Rheingold" and 
its continual recitative also to that of 

In 1608 appeared his mythological 
spectacle " Ballo delle Ingrate" 
Vespers and motets (pub. 1610) gave 
him such fame that he was in 1613 
made Maestro di Cappella at San 
Marco, Venice, at the unprecedented 
salary of 300 ducats (the usual salary 
had been 200), but it was raised to 
500 in 1616, and a house and travel- 
ling expenses given him. 1621, his 
very romantic Requiem was given with 
effect. In 1624, he introduced the 
then startling novelty of an instru- 
mental tremolo (which the musicians 
at first refused to play) into his 
Dramatic Interlude; "// Combat- 
timento di Tancredi e Clorinda"j 
1627 he c. 5 dramatic episodes incl. 
" Bradamante " and " Dido" for the 
court at Parma ; 1630, opera " Pro- 
serpine Rapita "/ in 1637 in the first 
opera-house opened at Venice, the 
Teatro di S. Cassiano, operas having 
hitherto been performed at the pal- 
aces of the nobility (v. PERI), M. 
prod, the operas "Adone" (Venice, 
1639) ; " Le Nozze di Eneta con La- 
wnia " (1641), " // Ritorno di Ulisse 
in Patria " (1641), and " L'lncorma- 
zione di Popped " (1642). He earned 
the title of " the father of the art of 
instrumentation" ; was the most pop- 
ular and influential composer of his 

In 1663 he joined the priesthood 
and is heard of no more. C. masses, 
psalms, hymns, magnificats, motets, 
madrigals, etc. 

Monticelli (mon-tl-cheT-le), Angelo 
Maria, Milan, 1710 Dresden, 1764; 
soprano musico. 

Montigny-Remaury (mon-ten-ye-ra- 
mo-re), Caroline, b. Farmers, Jan. 21, 
1843 ; sister and pupil of Mme. Am- 
broise Thomas ; studied at the Cons, 
and took 3 prizes ; one of the best 
French pianists of her time ; 1866, m. 
Leon M., a journalist. 

Moore, (i) Thos., Dublin, 1779 near 
Devizes, 1852 ; famous poet ; pianist 
and singer. (2) Homer, b. America ; 
teacher at St. Louis, Mo.; prod. 

there 1902, opera " The Puritans." 

i, opera 
i J- b - 

Ireland d. 1804 ; 

Mooser (mo'-zer), Aloys, Fribourg, 
1770 1829; Swiss org.-builder. 

Morales (mo-ral'-as) (Cristofero), 
Cristofano, b. Sevilla ; entered the 
Papal chapel ca. 1540 ; eminent 
Spanish contrapuntist and composer. 

Moralt (mo 1 -rait), the name of four 
brothers famous at Munich as a quar- 
tet, (i) Jos., Schwetzingen, near 
Mannheim, 1775 Munich, 1828 ; 
ist violinist. (2) Jn. Bpt., Mann- 
heim, 1777 Munich, 1825 ; 2d vio- 
linist ; composer. (3) Philipp, Mu- 
nich, 17801829 ; 'cellist. (4) G., 
Munich, 17811818 ; vla.-player. 

Moran-Olden (rightly F. Tappen- 
horn) (mo'-ran-ol'-den), Fanny, b. 
Oldenburg, Sept. 28, 1855 ; pupil of 
Haas and Gbtze ; debut as " Fanny 
Olden" at the Gewandhaus, 1877; 
1878, leading sopr., Frankfort ; 1888- 
89, New York ; m. in 1879 the tenor 
K. Moran ; 1897, m. Bertram, ct.- 
singer at Munich. 

Morel (mo-rel), Auguste Fran., Mar- 
seilles, 1809 Paris, 1881; dir. of the 
Marseilles Cons, and dram, compos- 

Morelli (mo-reT-le), (i) Giacomo, 
Venice, 17451819; librarian, San 
Marco. (2) Giov., Italian bass, in 
London, 1787. 

Morelot (mor-16), Stephen, b. Dijon, 
Jan. 12, 1820; from 1845, co-ed. 
11 Revue dc la Musique" '; 1847, sent 


by the Ministry of Pub. Instruction 
to study church-mus. in Italy ; wrote 
a work on plain-chant, an attempt to 
revive ancient harmonisation, etc. 

Morret'ti, Giov., Naples, 1807 Ceg- 
lie, near Naples, 1884 ; cond. and 
dram, composer. 

Mor'gan, (i) G. Washbourne, Glou- 
cester, Engl. , 1822 Tacoma, U. S. 
A., 1892; organist and conductor, 
(a) J. Paul, Oberlin, Ohio, 1841 
Oakland, CaL, 1879; organist and 

Mori (mo'-re), (i) Nicolas, London, 
17931839; violinist. (2) Frank, 
d. Aug., 1873; son of above; com- 

Moriani (mo-rf-a'-ne), Napoleon, 
Florence, 18061878; tenor. 

Morichelli (mo-rf-kel'-le), Anna Bo- 
sello, Reggio, 1760 ; violinist ; after 
1794, opera-singer. 

Morja, pen-name of Moriz Jaffe 
(q. v.). 

Morlacchi (mor-lak'-ke), Fran., Peru- 
gia, June 14, 1784 Innsbruck, Oct. 
28, 1841; pupil of Zingarelli, Padre 
Martini, etc., from 1810 cond. of Ital- 
ian opera, Dresden ; c. many succ. 
operas, also church-music, incl. Tuba 
Minim, inspired by Michelangelo's 
" Last Judgment"; biog. by Count 
Rossi-Scotti (1870). 

Mor'ley, (i) Thos., 15571604; pu- 
pil of Byrd; 1588, Mus. Bac., Ox- 
ford ; 1592, Gentleman of the Chapel 
Royal ; also Epistler and Gospeller ; 
c. the only contemporary Shakespear- 
ean song extant, ' ' It Was a Lover 
and His Lass" from "As You Like 
It" pub. 1600 in one of his very 
numerous colls.; he wrote the first 
English treatise on mus. (1597) still 
valuable, and ed. (1599) a curious 
treatise on ensemble playing ; some of 
his madrigals and melodious ballets 
are still heard. (2) Win., d. 1731 ; 
Mus. Bac. Oxford, 1713 ; 1715, Gent, 
of the Chapel Royal ; c. one of the ear- 
liest known double-chants, songs, etc. 

Morn'ington, Garret Colley Welles- 
ley, Earl of ; Dangan, Ireland, 1735 

1781; father of the Duke of Wel- 
lington ; prof, of music at Dublin U. 
and composer. 

Morse, Chas. H., b. Bradford, Mass., 
Jan. 5, 1853; 1873, graduate New 
Engl. Cons.; studied with Perabo, 
and Baermann, 1879; 1873, teacher N. 
E. Cons.; 1875-84, Mus. Dir. Wei- 
lesley Coll.; from 1891, organist 
Plymouth Church, Brooklyn; pub. 
collections of organ-pieces and com- 

Mortier de Fontaine (mort-ya du 
fort-ten), H. Louis Stanislas, Wis- 
niewiec, Russia, 1816 London, 
1883; pianist. 

Mor'timer, Peter, Putenham, Surrey, 
1750 Dresden, 1828; a Moravian 
brother; writer. 

Mosca (mos'-ka), (i) Giuseppe, Na- 
ples, 1772 Messina, 1839 ; conduc- 
tor and dram, composer. (2) Luigj, 
Naples, 1775 J 824 ; bro. of above ; 
prof, of singing. 

Moscheles (mo'-she'-le's), Ignaz, 
Prague, May 30, 1794 Leipzig, 
March 10, 1870; son of a Jewish mer- 
chant ; at 10 pupil of Dionys Weber, 
Prague Cons. ; at 14 played publicly 
a concerto of his own ; studied with 
Albrechtsberger and Salieri while 
earning his living as a pianist and 
teacher ; at 20 was chosen to prepare 
the pf. -score of " Fiddio" under 
Beethoven's supervision ; as a pianist 
a succ. rival of Hummel and Meyer- 
beer; he could not comprehend or 
play Chopin or Liszt, but had large 
influence on subsequent technic; 
after tours, he lived in London 1821- 
46, when Mendelssohn, who had 
been his pupil, persuaded him to join 
the newly founded Leipzig Cons., of 
which he became one of the pillars ; 

phonique" for pf. 4 hands, and 
' ' Sonate caracteristique^ " " So na te 
tntiancolique" and many standard 
studies; biog. (1872) by his wife 
Charlotte (nee Embden). 



Mosel (mo'-zel), Ignaz Fz., Edler 
von, Vienna, 17721844 ; conduc- 
tor, writer and dram, composer. 

Mosenthal (mo'-zen-tal), Jos., Cassel, 
Nov. 30, 1834 -New York, Jan. 6, 
1896; from 1867, cond. Mendelssohn 
Glee Club, New York, also violinist, 
organist and composer. 

Moser (mo'-z^r), (i) K., Berlin, 1774 
1851; violinist and conductor. (2) 
Aug., Berlin, 1825 (while touring 
America) 1859 ; son of above ; com- 
poser and violinist. 

Mosewius (mo-za-vl-oos), Jn. Th., 
Konigsberg, 1788 Schaffhausen, 
1858 ; opera-singer and writer. 

Moson'yi (rightly Michael Brandt), 
Boldog-Aszony, Hungary, 1814 
Pesth, 1870 ; pf.-teacher and com- 

Mos'sel, Jan., b. Rotterdam, April 22, 
1870 ; 'cellist ; pupil of Kohler and 
Eberle ; 1886 toured ; since 1888 lives 
in Amsterdam as soloist and teacher 
in the Cons. 

Moszkwa (moshk'-va), Prince de la 
(Jos. Napoleon Ney), Paris, 1803 
St. Germain-en-Laye, 1857 ; eldest 
son of Marshal Ney ; a senator, Brig- 
adier Gen. under Napoleon III., also 
a finished musician ; cond. and dram, 

Moszkowski (mosh-k6f-shkl), (i) 
Moritz, b. Breslau, Aug. 23, 1854; 
son of a wealthy Polish gentleman; 
pupil of Dresden Cons., Stern and 
Kullak Cons. ; teacher Stern Cons, for 
years ; later debut with succ. as pi- 
anist, Berlin, 1873 ; until 1897 Ber- 
lin then Paris, as a composer, prod, 
succ. opera, " Boabdil der Mauren- 
konig" (Berlin, 1882) ; symph. poem 
"Jeanne d'Arc " ; " Pkantastischer 
Zug" for orch.; 2 orchestral suites and 
a vln.-concerto ; c. many pop. pf .- 
pcs., incl. " A us. alien Herren Lan- 
der" and " Spanische Tanze." (2) 
Alex., b. Pilica, Poland, Jan. 15, 
1851 ; bro. of above ; critic, editor 
and writer at Berlin. 

Mottl (mot'-'l), (i) Felix, b. Unter-St. 
Veit, near Vienna, Aug. 24, 1856 ; 

prominent conductor ; as a boy-so- 
prano, entered Lbwenberg " Kon- 
vikt," then studied at the Vienna 
Cons., graduating with high honours ; 
cond. the Academical Wagnerverein 
for some time ; 1880, ct.-cond. at 
Carlsruhe, also, until 1892, cond. 
Philh. Concerts; 1893 the Grand 
Duke app. him Gen. Mus. Dir.; 1886, 
cond.-in-chief, Bayreuth; invited to 
be ct.-cond. but he declined; 1898 
declined a similar call to Munich; 
gives succ. concerts London and 
Paris; 1892, he m. (2) Henriette 
Standhartner (b. Vienna, Dec. 6, 
1866, now ct. opera singer at Weimar 
and Carlsruhe). He c. succ. operas, 
" Agnes JBernauer " (Weimar, 1880); 
and the i-act '* Furst und Stinger" 
(Carlsruhe, 1893), prod, also a " Fest- 
spiel," " Eber stein" songs, etc. 

Moun'sey, (i) Ann Shephard, b. 
London, 1811 ; composer, teacher, 
and organist. (2) Elizabeth, b. Lon- 
don, 1819 ; organist, pianist, guitar- 
player and composer. 

Moimt-Edg'cumbe, Richard, Earl 
of, 1764 Richmond, Surrey, 1839; 
wrote "Reminiscences of an Am- 
ateur" ; c. opera " Zenobia" 

Mouret (moo-rjL), J. Jos., Avignon, 
1682 insane asylum, Charenton, 
1738 ; conductor and composer. 

Moussorgsky. Vide MUSSORGSKI. 

Mouton Jmoo-ton) (Jean de Hollin- 
gue (ol'-lang) (called "Mouton")), 
Holh'ng(?), near Metz St. Wuentin, 
Oct. 30, 1522 ; important contrapun- 

Mouzin (moo-zan), P. Nicolas (called 
Edouard), b. Metz, July 13, 1822 ; 
studied at Metz branch of the Paris 
Cons. ; 1842, teacher there, 1854, 
dir.; 1871, teacher at the Paris Cons.; 
writer; c. 2 operas, symphs., etc. 

Mozart (mo'-tsart) (originally Mot- 
zert), (i) (Jn. G.) Ld., Augsburg, 
1719 Salzburg, 1787 ; father of W. 
A. M.; dram composer. (2) (Maria) 
Anna (called "Nannerl"), Salz- 
burg, 1751 1829; daughter and pu- 
pil of above ; pianist ; c. org. pcs. 


(3) Wolfgang Amadeus (bap- 
tised Jus. Chrysostomus Wolf- 
gangus Theophilus), Salzburg, 
Jan. 27, 1756 Vienna, Dec. 5, 1791 ; 
son of (i), and bro. of (2) ; one of 
the major divinities of music. Of un- 
rivalled precocity in performance, 
composition, and acoustic sensitive- 
ness ; at 3 his talent and his discov- 
ery of thirds (v. D.D.), led his father 
to teach him. He began at once to 
compose little minuets which his fath- 
er and later he himself noted down. 
He and his sister made a joint debut 
at Munich, when he was barely 6, 
though he had appeared as a per- 
former 4 months before in a comedy 
at the Univ. at Salzburg. He ap- 
peared the same year in Vienna, fas- 
cinating the court. He now learned 
the vln. and org. without instruction. 
At 7 he was in Paris, where his first 
works were pub., " // Sonates pour h 
clavecin." The next year he was in 
London, delighting royalty, winning 
the honest praise of musicians and 
coming victoriously out of remark- 
able tests of his ability as sight-read- 
er and improviser. During his fath- 
er's illness, while silence was required, 
he c. his first symph. Here his 6 
sonatas for vln. and harps, were 
pub. and his first symph. performed 
frequently. He won the friendship 
of J. Chr. Bach, and was given sing- 
ing lessons by Manzuoli. Before 
leaving England he wrote a motet to 
English words in commemoration of 
a visit to the British Museum. The 
family stopped at various cities on 
the way home, the children playing 
at courts with constant succ. , a con- 
cert being given at Amsterdam in 
1766, at which all the instrumental 
music was M.'s. At Biberuch he 
competed as organist without result 
against a boy 2 years older, Sixtus 
Bachmann. Returning to Salzburg, 
in 1766, M. was set to studying Fux, 
etc. 1767 he c. an oratorio, 1768, an 
opera, "La Finta Semplice" at the 
Emperor's request. Its production 


was postponed by the now jealous 
musicians till 1769. Meanwhile a 
German opera ' ' Bastien und Basti- 
enne " had been performed, and M. 
made his debut as cond. in 1768 (aged 
12), with his solemn mass. The Arch- 
bishop made him Konzertmeister, 
with salary, but his father wished him 
to enjoy study in Italy. His concerts 
were sensations, the Pope gave him 
the order of the Golden Spur (also 
given to Gluck), and at his father's 
behest he signed a few compositions 
by his new title Signor Cavaliere 
Amadeo, but soon dropped this. 
After tests he was elected a member 
of the Accademia Filarmonica of Bo- 
logna. At 14 he gave a concert at 
Mantua in which according to the 
programme he promises to play "a 
Symphony of his own composition ; 
a Clavichord-concerto, which will be 
handed to him, and which he will im- 
mediately play at sight ; a Sonata 
handed him in like manner, which he 
will provide with variations, and after- 
wards repeat in another key ; an 
Aria, the words for which will be 
handed to him, and which lie will im- 
mediately set to music and sing him- 
self, accompanying himself on the 
clavichord ; a Sonata for clavi- 
chord on a subject given him by the 
leader of the violins ; a Strict Fugue 
on a theme to be selected, which he 
will improvise on the clavichord ; a 
trio, in which he will execute a violin- 
part all 1 improTimso ; and finally, the 
latest Symphony composed by him- 
self." In Rome, after twice hearing 
Allegri's famous "Miserere'' long 
kept secret, he correctly wrote out the 
entire score from memory. At Milan 
he prod. 3-act opera seria " Mitridate^ 
re di Ponto " (1770), which had 20 con- 
secutive performances under his di- 
rection. 1771, he brought out a. 
dramatic serenade, " Ascanio in. 
Alba" for the wedding of Archduke 
Ferdinand. 1772 his friendly protec- 
tor, the Archbishop of Salzburg, died ; 
his successor, Hieronymous, Count of 


June 25, 1838, were devoted to found- 
ing a Mozart Scholarship, the interest 
amounting in 1896 to 1500 marks, 
applied quadrennially to the aid of 
talented young composers of limited 
means. At Salzburg the Mozarteum, 
a municipal musical institute founded 
in his memory, consists of anorch. soc. 
pledged to perform his church-music 
in the 14 churches of the town, to 
give 12 concerts yearly, and to sus- 
tain amus.-sch. in which the musicians 
of the orch. give instruction. 

A complete ed. of M.'s works pub. 
by Breitkopf & Hartel (1876-86), con- 
tains much church-mus. inc. 15 masses, 
cantatas " Davidde penitente " (ma- 
sonic), " Maurerfreude " and "Kleine 
Freimaurrercantate" etc. ; stage- 
works, besides those mentioned, "Die 
Schitldigkeit des ersten Gebots " (only 
partially his own), ' ' Apollo et Hyacin- 
tlnis " (Latin comedy with mus.) ; 
" Zai'de" (unfinished;; " Thamos, 
Komg in Aegypten" (choruses and 
entr'actes ; Berlin, 1786) ; " Ido- 
meneOj re di Creta, ossia Ilia ed Ida- 
mantel ORCH. WORKS : 4isymph.; 
2 symph. movements ; 31 diverti- 
menti, serenades, and cassations ; 9 
marches; 25 dances, " Masonic Fu- 
neral-Music " ; "A Musical Jest " for 
string-orch. and 2 horns; a sonata 

for bassoon and 'cello ; phantasie for 
Glockenspiel ; andante for barrel-or- 
gan, etc.; 6 vln. -concertos, bassoon- 
concerto, a concerto for flute and 
harp, 2 flute-concertos, horn-concer- 
tos, a clarinet- concerto, 25 pf. -con- 
certos, a double concerto for 2 pfs. , a 
triple concert for 3 pfs. CHAMBER- 
MUSIC : 7 string-quintets ; 26 string- 
quartets ; " Nachtmusik " for string- 
quintet ; 42 vln. -sonatas, etc. PF.- 
Music : for 4 hands ; 5 sonatas, and 
an andante with variations ; for 2 
pfs., a fugue, and a sonata ; 17 solo 
sonatas ; a fantasie and fugue ; 3 
fantasias ; 36 cadenzas to pf. -con- 
certos; rondos, etc.; 17 organ sona- 
tas, etc. VOCAL Music : 27 arias, and 
I rondo for sopr. with orch. ; German 
war-song ; a comic duet ; 34 songs ; 
a song with chorus and org. ; a 3-part 
chorus with org. ; a comic terzet with 
pf.; 20 canons. 

The best of many biographies 
is by Otto Jahn (1856-59, 4 vol- 
umes in English, London, 1882), 

His letters have also been published 
and translated in two volumes. One 
of his two overtures was found at the 
Paris Cons. 1901. Six unpublished 
sonatas were found in Buckingham 
Palace, 1902. 



the son of a tolerably good musician, by name Leopold, from his ear- 
liest years displayed the most extraordinary sense of musical precocity. 
At the age of three years he was able to pick out harmonies on the 
harpsichord ; by the time he was seven, he had already burdened his young 
soul with the responsibility of various compositions which are more interesting 
than such compositions might be expected to be. The darling of courts in his 
childhood (for his father took him early on his travels for purposes of exhibi- 
tion as a musical prodigy), the intensely industrious youth, the creator of a 
dramatic art in music, separate and by itself in the world, the greatest master 


of melody that this earth has ever seen, the writer ofinrmmerable symphonies, 
innumerable songs, innumerable sonatas, the possessor of a musical memory 
such as had never been conferred on the son of man before, he was the brill- 
iant artist of high spirits, the man who lived life to the very last drop of the 
glass, ^fln a word, a genius, in art and in living, of the highest flower. He 
went down to his grave before he was forty years of age, buried no man 
knows where, deserted of friends, deserted even in his last journey to the 
Vienna cemetery by his wife ; abjectly poor, with not a soul to weep for 
him, not a soul to care what became of these sacred relics. Here was, in- 
deed, a combination of glory and the darkest tragedy which can scarcely be 
found outside the Attic drama, ^f Yet, from the critical point of view, it can 
scarcely be said that Mozart was in any sense a revolutionary ; he was the 
glorious link which combined the music of the last century with the music of 
this. The strictest formalist, the impeccable master of counterpoint, the 
respecter in every way of traditions, you can see him, as it were, on the 
tiptoe of the future, bearing on his brilliant soul, and bearing it lightly, all the 
burdens of the past. ^[But it is as a writer of opera that his fame is like to last 
longest, for it is here that he brought the brilliant qualities of the consummate 
musician to combine with the scarcely less brilliant qualities of the dramatist. 
Many men who might have written music equally noteworthy could not have 
touched the dramatic significance of it. "Don Giovanni" that glory of our 
blood and state, "Le Nozze di Figaro" "Cost Fan Tutte" "Die Zauber- 
jldte" these remain as noble a testimony of his great genius in the musico- 
dramatic world as the centuries are likely to bring forth. Then consider the 
G minor symphony so different in quality from the quality of Beethoven at 
his best, and therefore not comparable to the great nine, but in its way the 
very flower of musical genius. Then again, such work as he brought into 
the Requiem declares Kim to be, as a master of the emotions, of supernatural 
terror, unsurpassed ; I would almost say unsurpassable. In a word, here 
was the golden child of music, adding to the simplicity of his childishness the 
complex wisdom of the serpent. ^[Poor Mozart ! Yet, who is ordinary man 
that he should say "poor" of such an immortal creature? Poor as it seems 
to us, yet it is not likely that he would have given up one golden moment of 
his glorious inspiration in exchange for the comforts of a Sultan. He was an 
artist, every inch of him. 

(4) Wolfgang Amadeus, Vien- Muck (mook), K., b. Darmstadt, Oct. 

na, July 26, 1791 Carlsbad, July 22, 1859; Dr. Philh., Leipzig; pupil of 

30,1844; son of above; pianist, Leipzig Cons., cond. at various cities; 

teacher and composer of pf.-concer- since 1892, ct.-cond. Royal Op., Ber- 

tos, sonatas, etc. 1m. 


Mu'die, Thos. Molleson, Chelsea, 
1809 London, 1876; teacher, or- 
ganist and composer. 

Muffat (moof'-fat), (r) G., b. Passau, 
1704 ; organist, conductor and com- 
poser. (2) Aug. Gl., 1683 Vienna, 
1770; son of above; organist and 

Miihldorfer (mul'-deYf-er), (i) Win., 
1803 Mannheim, 1897 ; ct.-inspector 
of theatres, Mannheim. (2)Wm.K., 
b. Graz, Styria, March 6, 1837 ; son 
of above ; studied at Linz-on-Dan- 
ube and Mannheim ; actor ; 1855, th.- 
cond., Ulm; 1867-81, 2d cond. at 
Cologne ; c. 4 operas, incl. success- 
ful " lolantke" (Cologne, 1890), over- 
tures, etc. 

Muhlfeld (mul'-feit), Richard, b. 
Salzungen, Feb. 28, 1856; clarinet- 
tist for whom Brahms c. a trio and 
sonata; studied with Buchner at 
Meiningen, where he lived since 1873, 
also 1875-96, ist clarinet at Bay- 

Miihling (mu'-lmg), Aug., JRaguhne, 
1786 Magdeburg, 1847; organist 
and composer. 

Miihlberger-Leisinger (li'-zfrig-er), 
Elizabeth, b. Stuttgart, May 17, 
1863 ; colorature-soprano ; studied 
with Viardot- Garcia ; debut, R. op- 
era, Berlin ; sang in Paris, 1887. 

Miiller (mul'-ler), (i) Chr., org.-builder 
at Amsterdam, ca. 1720-70. (2) 
Wm. Chr., Wassungen, Meiningen, 
1752 Bremen, 1831; mus. director 
and writer. (3) Aug. Eberhard, 
Nordheim, Hanover, 1767 Weimar, 
1817; son and pupil of an organist; 
organist, ct.-conductor and dram, 
composer. (4) Wenzel, Tyrnau, 
Moravia, 1767 Baden, near Vienna, 
1835 ; conductor and composer of 
200 operas. (5) Fr., Orlamunde, 
1786 Rudolstadt, 1871; clarinettist, 
conductor and composer. (6) Ivan 
(Iwan), Reval, 1786 Biickeburg, 
1854 ; inv. of the clarinet with 13 
keys, and altclarinet; finally ct.-mus. 
(7) Peter, Kesselstadt ; Hanau, 1791 
r Langen, 1877; c. operas, and fa- 

mous " Jugendlieder? etc. (S) Two 
famous German quartet parties (a) 
The bros. K. Fr. (1797-1873), 
Th. H. Gus. (17991855), Aug. 
Th. (1802 1875), and Fz. Fd. 
G. (18081855), sons of (9) Aegi- 
dius Chp. M. (d. 1841, Hofmus. 
to Duke of Brunswick), all b. Bruns- 
wick, and in the orch. there K. 
as Konzertmeister, Th. ist 'cello, 
Gv. symph. -director, and G. con- 
ductor, (b) The four sons of the 
Karl Fr. above, who organised 1855 
a ct.-quartet. Hugo, 2d vln. (1832 
1886); Bd., b. Feb. 24, 1825, 
viola ; Wm., b. June i, 1834, 'cello; 
Karl, jr., b. April 14, 1829, ist vln. 
Since 1823 this last lives in Stutt- 
gart and Hamburg ; m. Elvina Berg- 
haus and took name Miiller-Berg- 
haus, under which he has c. a symph., 
etc. (10) (Rightly Schmidt) Ad. 
Sr., Tolna, Hungary, 1801 Vienna, 
1886 ; singer, conductor and dram, 
composer, (u) Ad., Jr., Vienna 
18391901, son of above; 1875, 
cond. German opera at Rotterdam; 
prod. 4 operas and 5 operettas, incl. 
the succ. ' ' Der Blondin von Namur " 
(Vienna, 1898). (12) Jns., Coblenz, 
1801 Berlin, 1858; writer. (13) 
Fz. K. Fr., Weimar, 18061876; 
one of the first to recognise Wagner ; 
pub. treatises on his work. (14) 
Aug., 18101867 ; eminent double- 
bass. (15) K., Weissensee, near 
Erfurt, 1818 Frankfort, 1894 ; con- 
ductor and composer. (16) Bd., 
Sonneberg, 1824 Meiningen, 1883 ; 
cantor. (17) K. Chr., b. Saxe- 
Meiningen, July 3, 1831; pupil of 
F. W. and H. Pfeiffer (pf. and org.) 
Andreas Zollner (comp.) 1854, New 
York ; since 1879, P ro * * narm - N. 
Y. Coll. of Mus.; translator, etc. 

(18) Richard, b. Leipzig, Feb. 25, 
1830 ; pupil of Zollner, Hauptmann 
and Reitz; until 1893, cond. 
"Arion," then the "Hellas," and the 
" Liedertafel ; " teacher singing, Ni- 
kolai Gymnasium; c. motets, etc. 

(19) Jos., 1839 Berlin, 1880 ; writer. 



(20) Wm., b. Hanover, Feb. 4, 
1845 ; tenor at the ct. -opera, Berlin. 

(21) Hans, Cologne, 1854 Berlin, 
1897; prof, and writer. (22) Gus- 
tav. Vide BRAH-MULLER. 

Miil'ler-Hartung, K. (Wm.), b. Sui- 
za, May 19, 1834 ; pupil of Kuhm- 
stedt, Eisenach ; mus. -dir. and teach- 
er at the Seminary; 1864, prof.; 
1869, opera-cond. Weimar; 1872, 
founder and dir. Gr. Ducal "Or- 
chester-und-Musikschule ; " wrote a 
system of music theory (vol. i. " Har- 
moniekhre" appeared in 1879); com- 

Miiller-Reuter (roi-tgr), Theodor, 
b. Dresden, Sept. 1, 1858 ; pupil of 
Fr. and Alwin Wieck (pf.) ; J. Otto 
and Meinardus (comp.) ; and the 
Hoch Cons., Frankfort; 1879-87, 
teacher Strassburg Cons.; 1887, 
cond. at Dresden; 1892, teacher in 
the Cons,; c. 2 operas, Paternoster, 
with orch ; ' ' ' Hackelberend 's Funeral" 
for chorus and orchestra (1902), 

Miiller von der Werra (rightly Fr. 
Konrad Miiller), Ummerstadt, 
Meiningen, 1823 Leipzig, 1881 ; 
popular poet and ed., founded 
" Deutscher Sangerbund." 

Miinchhoff (mlnsh'-hof), Mary, b. 
Omaha, U.S.A.; colorature soprano ; 
studied in Germany 1897 ; sang in 
Austria, etc.; 1902, U.S.A. 

Munck, de. Vide DEMUNCK. 

Munzinger (moonts'-fng-er), Edgar, 

b. Olten, Switz., Aug. 3, 1847; stud- 
ied Leipzig Cons, and with Kiel and 
Ehrlich, Berlin, where he is pf. -teach- 
er, and 1893-98 dir. Eickelberg Cons. ; 

c. 3 symphonies: No. I "/ der 
Nacht" No. 3 " Nero" an opera, 2 
symphonic poems, etc. 

Muris (du mu'-res), Jns. de (or de 
Meurs) (dii murs), eminent theorist ; 
wrote treatise " Speculum Musicae" 
(probably ca. 1325) (Coussemaker). 

Murschhauser (moorsh'-how-aer), Fz. 
X. Anton, Zabern, near Strassburg, 
ca. 1670 Munich, 1724 ; conductor 
and theorist. 

Murska (moor'-shka), lima di, Croa- 
tia, 1836 Munich, Jan. 16, 1889; 
famous dramatic soprano, with re- 
markable compass of nearly 3 octaves 

Musard (mii-zar), (i) Philippe, Paris', 
17931859; c. pop. dances. (2) 
Alfred, 1828 iSSi ; orch.-cond., 
and composer ; son of above. 

Musin (moo-zcn), Bonaventura. 


Musin (mii-zah), Ovide, b. Nandrin, 
n. Liege, Sept. 22,1854; violinist; 
pupil of Liege Cons.; at n took ist 
vln. -prize; studied then at Paris 
Cons.; at 14 won the gold medal for 
solo and quartet playing; taught a 
year at the Cons, then toured Europe 
with great succ.; later organised a 
concert-troupe and toured America, 
then the world ; 1897, returned to 
Liege as vln. -teacher at the Cons.; 
1898, vln. -professor. 

Musiol (moo'-zt-ol), Robt. Paul Jn., 
b. Breslau, Jan. 14, 1846; from 1873- 
91 teacher and cantor at Rbhrsdorf, 
Posen ; pub. mus. lexicons ; c. part- 
songs, etc. 

Mussorgski (moos-sorg'-shkl), Mo- 
dest Petrovitch, Toropetz, Russia, 
March 28, 1839 St. Petersburg, 
March 28, iSSi ; army officer, then 
pupil of Balakirev; c. operas, "'Boris 
Godunoff" (Imp. Opera, St. P., 1874), 
" Chovanstchina " (1893); c. pf.- 
pcs., etc. 

Mustel (mus-tel), Victor, b. Havre, 
1815 ; mfr. and improver of the har- 

Muzio (moo'-tsf-o), Emanuele, b. 
Zibello, near Parma, Aug. 25, 1825; 
pupil of Provesi and Verdi, and (for 
pf.) of Verdi's first wife, Margherita 
Barezzi ; 1852, cond. It. Opera, 
Brussels ; later, London, New York 
(Acad. of Mus.) ; 1875 noted singing 
teacher, Paris ; c. 4 operas, etc. 

Myrzwinski (mersh-vfn'-shkl), ; 

tenor in Paris. 

Mysliweczek (me-sle'-va-chek), Jos. 
(called " II Boemo," or " Venatori- 
ni"), near Prague, March 9, 1737 
Rome, Feb. 4, 1781 ; prod, about 30 


pop. operas in Italy; c. symphs., pf.- 
sonatas praised by Mozart, etc. 


Naaff (naf), Anton E. Aug., b. Wei- 
tentrebelitzsch, Bohemia, Nov. 28, 
1850 ; mus. editor and poet at Vi- 

Nachbaur (nakh'-bowr), Fz., Schloss 
Giessen, near Friedrichshafen, March 
25, 1835 Munich, March 21, 1902; 
pupil of Pischek ; sang at theatres in 
Prague and other cities ; i866-go, 
" Kammersanger," Munich. 

Nachez (na'-ches) (Tivadar (Theo- 
dor) Naschitz (na -shits)), b. Pesth, 
May i, 1859 ; vln. -virtuoso ; pupil of 
Sabatil, Joachim and Leonard; 
toured the continent ; lived in Paris 
and (1889) London; c. 2 concertos for 
vln., 2 Hungarian Rhapsodies, requi- 
em mass, with orch., etc. 

Nadaud(na-dd), Gv., Roubaix, France, 
Feb. 20, 1820 Paris, 1893 ; cele- 
brated poet, composer of chansons ; 
also c. 3 operettas. 

Nadermann (na'-der-man), Francois 
Jos., Paris, 17731835 ; harpist, 
teacher and composer. (2) H., b. 
1780; bro. of above and his asst.- 
harpist in the King's music, and asst.- 

Nagel (na' - gel), (i) Julius, Gotha, 
1837 St. Petersburg, 1892 ; 'cellist, 
teacher and composer. (2) Dr. Wil- 
libald, German writer; pub. " Ge- 
schichte der Musik in England''' 

Nageli (na'-gel-e), Jn. Hans G., 

Wetzikon, near Zurich, 1773 1836 ; 

mus. -publisher, writer and composer. 
Nagiller (na-gtt-ler), Matthaus, 

Miinster, Tyrol, 1815 Innsbriick, 

1874; conductor and dram, composer. 
Naldi (nal'-de), (r) Giuseppe, Bologna, 

1770 Paris, ca. 1820 ; actor, singer, 

pianist, 'cellist and composer. (2) 

daughter of above singer ; 

debut, 1819 ; retired, 1824 ; m. Conte 

di Sparre. 

Nal'son, Rev. Valentine, d. 1722; 
Engl. composer. 

Nanini (na-ne'-nc) (incorrectly Nani- 
no), (i) Giov. M., Vallerano, Italy, 
ca. 1540 Rome, March n, 1607; 
noted Italian composer; pupil of 
Goudimel ; cond. at Vallerano, 
I 57i-75, at Santa Maria Maggiorei 
Rome (vice Palestrina); 15 75 founded 
a pub. mus.-sch. in which Palestrina 
was one of the teachers ; 1577, papal 
singer; 1604 cond. Sistine Chapel; 
his 6-part motet " Ifodie nobis mlo- 
rum rex " is still sung there every 
Christmas morning. (2) Giov. Ber- 
nardino, Vallerano, ca. 1560 Rome, 
1624; younger bro. (Riemann says 
nephew) and pupil of above; con- 
ductor and notable composer. 

Nantier - Didiee (naht-ya ded-ya), 
Constance Betsy R., He de la Re- 
union, 1831 Madrid, 1867 ; v. succ. 

Napo'le'on, Arthur, b. Oporto, March 
6, 1843; pianist and cond.; at 9 
made a sensation at the courts of 
Lisbon, London (1852), and Berlin 
1854), then studied with Halle, at 
Manchester ; toured Europe, and N. 
and S. America. 1868 (1871?) settled 
in Rio de Janeiro as mus.-seller, etc. 

Napravnik (Naprawnik), (na-praf- 
nek) Eduard, b. Bejst, near Konig- 
gratz, Aug. 24, 1839 ; pupil Prague 
Org.-Sch.; from 1856 teacher Maydl 
Inst. for Mus., Prague; 1861, cond. 
to Prince Yussupoff at St. Peters- 
burg; then organist and 2nd cond. 
Russian Opera ; from 1869 ist cond.; 
1870-82, cond. the Mus. Soc.; c. 4 
operas, incl. the succ. " Dubroffsky" 
(St. P., 1895); symph. poem " TAt 
Demon" overtures, incl. " Vlasta" 
(1861), etc. 

Nardini (nar-de'-ne), Pietro, Fibiana, 
Tuscany, 1722 Florence, May 7, 
1793 ; noted violinist ; pupil of Tar- 
tini; ct.-musician at Stuttgart and 
Florence ; composer. 

Nares (narz), Jas., Stanwell, Middle- 
sex, 1715 London, Feb. 10, 1783 ; 
organist and composer. 


Naret-Konitig (na-ret-ko-nmg), Jn. 
Jos. D., b. Amsterdam, Feb. 25, 
1838 ; violinist ; pupil of David, 
Leipzig : from 1878 leader City Th., 
Frankfort ; pub. songs, etc. 

Nasolini (na-so-le'-ne), Sebastiano, 
Piacenza, ca. 1768 (?); prod. 30 
operas in Italy. 

Natale (na-ta'-le), Pompeo, choir- 
singer and composer at S. Maria 
Maggiore, Rome, 1662. 

Na'than, Isaac, Canterbury, 1792 
Sydney, Australia, 1864 ; writer. 

Natorp (na'-torp), Bd. Chr. L., 
Werden-on-Ruhr, Nov. 12, 1774 
Munster, Feb. 8, 1846 ; reformer of 
church and sch.-mus.; writer. 

Nau (na'-oo), Mana Dolores Bene- 
dicta Josefina, b. of Spanish par- 
ents, New York, March 18, 1818 ; 
soprano ; pupil of Mme. Damoreau- 
Cinti, Paris Cons., taking ist prize in 
1834 ; debut at the Opera, 1836 ; 
sang minor roles there 6 years, etc. ; 
1844-48 and 1851-53, leading rdles, 
singing in other cities ; retired, 1856. 

Naubert (now'-bert), Fr. Aug., 
Schkeuditz, Saxony, 1839 Neubran- 
denburg, 1897 ; organist and singing- 

Naudin (na'-oo-den), Emilio, b. Par- 
ma, Oct. 23, 1823 ;^ tenor; pupil of 
Panizza, Milan; debut, Cremona. 
Meyerbeer in his will requested him 
to create the role of "Vasco" in 
" EAfricaine" (1865), which he did. 

Naue (now'-e), Jn. Fr., Halle, 1787 
1868 ; organist and composer. 

Nauenburg (now'-gn-boorkh), Gv., b. 
Halle, May 20, 1803 ; barytone and 
singing-teacher ; writer and com- 

Naumann (now'-mim), (i) Jn. Gl. 
(Italianised as Giov. Araadeo), 
Blasewitz, near Dresden, April 17, 
1741 Dresden, Oct. 23, 1801; pupil 
of Tartini and Padre Martini ; 1764, 
ct.-cond., Dresden; 1776, cond.; 
prod. 23 operas and excellent church- 
music. (2) Emil, Berlin, Sept. 8, 
1827 Dresden, June 23, 1888; 
grandson of above; court church 

mus.-dir., Berlin ; c. an opera, a fa- 
mous oratorio ik Christ us der Fne- 
densbote "y pub. many valuable trea- 
tises. (3) K. Ernst, b. Freiberg, 
Saxony, Aug. 15, 1832 ; grandson of 
(i), studied with Hauptmann.Richter, 
Wenzel and Langer, Leipzig (1850), 
Dr. Philh. at the Univ. , 1858 ; stud- 
ied with Joh. Schneider (org.) in 
Dresden; mus.-dir. and organist, 
Jena; prof., 1877; pub. many valu- 
able revisions of classical works, for 
the Bach-Gesellschaft ; c. the first so- 
nata for via., much chamber-mus. , etc. 

Nava (na'-va), (i) Ant. Maria, Italy, 
1775 i 82 ^; teacher and composer 
for guitar. (2) Gaetano, Milan, 
1802 1875 ; son and pupil of above ; 
prof, at the Cons, and composer. 

Naval (na-vaT), Fz., b. Laibach, Aus- 
tria, Oct. 20, 1865 ; tenor at Vienna ; 
pupil of Gansbacher. 

Nawratil (na-vra'-tel), K., b. Vienna, 
Oct. 7, 1836; pupil of Nottebohm 
(cpt.) ; excellent teacher ; pub. Psalm 
XXX with orch. , an overture, cham- 
ber mus., etc. 

Nay'lor, (i) J., b. Stanningly, near 
Leeds, 1838 at sea, 1897 ; organist 
and composer. (2) Sidney, Lon- 
don, 18411893 ; organist. 

Neate (net), Chas., London, 1784 
Brighton, 1877 ; pianist, 'cellist and 

Nebe (na'-be), Karl, bass ; pupil of 
Jahn at Wiesbaden ; 1890, at Carls- 
ruhe; sang "Alberich" and "Beck- 
messer" at Bayreuth and London; 
1900, Berlin. 

Ned'bal, Oscar, b. Tabor, Bohemia, 
March 25, 1874; via. -player in the 
"Bohemian" string-quartet; studied 
Prague Cons. (comp. with Dvorak) ; 
c. a scherzo-caprice for orch., etc. 

Neeb (nap), H., Lich, Upper Hesse, 
1807 Frankfort, 1878 ; conductor 
and dram, composer. 

Need'ler, H., London, 16851760; 
pianist, violinist and composer. 

Neefe (na'-fe), Chr. Gl., Chemnitz, 
1748 Dessau, 1798; mus.-director 
and conductor. 


Nef (naf), (Dr.) K., Swiss writer ; pub. 
a treatise on the amateur musical as- 
sociations of the 1 7th and iSth cen- 

Neff, Fritz, notable composer, lives at 
Munich; c. "Chorus of the Dead" 
with orch. (1902), etc. 

Nehrlich (nar'-llkh), Chr. Gf., Ruh- 
land, Upper Lusatia, 1802 Berlin, 
1868 ; teacher and writer. 

Neidhardt (mt'-hart), Jn. G., d. Ko 1 - 
nigsberg, 1739 ; writer. 

Neidlinger (mt'-llng-cr), Wm. Ha- 
rold, b. Brooklyn, N. Y., July 20, 
1863 ; pupil of Dudley Buck and 
Muller ; teacher of singing in Paris, 
then Chicago; c. a mass, etc., pop. 
songs and valuable books of mus. 
for children. 

Neithardt (mt'-hart), Aug. H., 
Schleiz, 1793 Berlin, 1861; oboist, 
teacher of singing, conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Neitzel (nit'-tsel), Otto, b. Faiken- 
burg, Pomerania, July 6, 1852 ; pu- 
pil of Kullak's Acad., Berlin; Dr. 
Philh., 1875, at the Univ.; toured as 
pianist; 1879-81, teacher Moscow 
Cons.; then Cologne Cons.; since 
1887, also critic; prod. 3 operas: 
" Angela " (Halle, 1887), text and mu- 
sic of, "Dido" (Weimar, 1888) and 
11 Der Alte Dessauer" (Wiesbaden, 

Nel'H, Romilda, b. Italy, i882(?); 
colorature and operatic soprano ; pu- 
pil of Galletti. 

Nen'na, Pomponio, b. Ban, Naples ; 
pub. madrigals, 1585 1631. 

Neri (na'-re), Filippo, Florence, July 
21, 1515 Rome, May 26, 1595 ; 
preacher in the oratory (It. oratorio) 
of San Girolamo. From the music c. 
for illustrations by Animuccia and 
Palestrina arose the term " oratorio." 

Neruda (na-roo'-da), (i) Jakob, d. 
1732 ; violinist. (2) Jn. Chrysos- 
tora, Rossiez, 17051763 ; violinist; 
son of above. (3) Jn. Baptist G., 
Dresden, 1707 1780; composer, son 
of Jakob. (4) (Normann-Neruda) 
(or Lady Halle") Wilma Maria 

Fran., b. Briinn, March 29, 1639; 
noted violinist (daughter of (5) Josef, 
an organist) ; she studied with Jansa ; 
at 7 played in public at Vienna with 
her sister (6) Amalie (a pianist) ; 
then toured Germany with her 
father, sister and bro. (7) Fz. (a 'cel- 
list) ; 1864, in Paris, she m. L. Nor- 
mann ; since 1869 has played annu- 
ally in London ; she m. Halle (q.v.), 
1888, and toured Australia with him, 
1890-91; 1899, America. 

Ness'ler, Victor E., Baldenheim, Al- 
satia, Jan. 28, 1841 Strassburg, May 
28, 1890; studied with Th. Stern at 
Strassburg ; 1864, prod. succ. opera, 
" Fleurette" ; studied in Leipzig, be- 
came cond. of the " Sangerkreis " 
and chorusm. City Th., where he 
prod, with general succ. 4 operettas 
and 4 operas, incl. two still pop. ' 'Der 
Rattenf anger von Hameln" (1879), 
" Der Trompeter von Sakkingtn" 
(1884) ; c. also " Der Blumen Racke" 
ballade, with orch. ; pop. and comic 
songs, etc. 

Nesvad'ba, Jos., Vyske?, Bohemia, 
1824 Darmstadt, 1876 ; conductor 
and dram, composer. 

Nesvera (nesh-va-ra), Jos., b. Pros- 
koles, Bohemia, Oct. 24, 1842 ; now 
cond. Olmiitz Cath. ; c. succ. opera 
" Perdita" (Prague, 1897); masses, 
De Profundis, with orch., etc. 

Netzer (net'-tser), Jos., Imst. Tyrol, 
i8oS Graz, 1864; teacher, con- 
ductor and dram, composer. 

Neubauer (na'-oo-bow-e'r), Fz. Chr., 
Horzin, Bohemia, 1760 Buckeburg, 
I 795 ! violinist, conductor and com- 

Neuendorff (noi'-en-dorf), Ad., Ham- 
burg, June 13, 1843 New York, 
Dec. 4, 1897 ; at 12 taken to Ameri- 
ca ; pianist, concert-violinist, promi- 
nent conductor and composer of comic 

Neukomm (noi'-kom), Sigismund, 
Ritter von, Salzburg, 1778 Paris, 
1858 ; organist, conductor and com, 

Neumann (noi'-man), Angelo, b. Vi- 



enna, Aug. 18, 1838 ; studied sing- 
ing with Stilke-Sessi, debut as lyric 
tenor, 1859; 1862-76, Vienna ct.- 
opera; 1876-82, Leipzig opera; as 
manager of a travelling company 
prod. Wagner operas ; 1882-85, man- 
ager Bremen opera; then German 
opera, Prague. 

Neumark (noi'-mark), G., Langensalza, 
1621 Weimar, 1681 ; composer. 

Neusiedler (noi'-zet-ler) (or Newsid- 
ler), (i) Hans, b. Pressburg, Nlirn- 
berg, 1563 ; lute-maker. (2) (or 
Neysidler) Melchior, d. Nilrnberg, 
1590 ; lutenist and composer at Augs- 
burg ; 2 books of lute mus. (Venice, 
1566), etc. 

Nevada (ng-va'-da) (rightly Wixon), 
Emma, b. Austen, Nevada, U. S.A., 
1862 ; eminent colorature-soprano ; 

Ejpil of Marches! in Vienna ; debut 
ondon, 1880; sang in various Italian 
cities ; 1883 and 1898 Paris, Op.- 
Com. ; 1885 sang Opera Festival 
Chicago, and again in 1889 ; 1898, 
Op.-Com., Paris ; 1885 m. Dr. Ray- 
mond Palmer; sang "Mignon" a 
whole year in Paris; 1900 America. 
Nevin (nev'-m), (i) Ethelbert (Wood- 
bridge), Edgeworth, Penn., Nov. 
25, 1862 New Haven, Conn., Feb. 
17, 1901 ; prominent American com- 
poser ; pupil of von der Heide and 
E. Gunther (pf.) at Pittsburg ; of 
von Bshme (voice), at Dresden, 1877- 
78 ; of Pearce (N. Y.), B. J. Lang 
and Stephen A. Emery (Boston) ; 
von Bulow, Klindworth, and K. Bial, 
Berlin; lived in Florence, Venice, 
Paris, and New York as teacher and 
composer ; after 1900 at Sewickley, 
near Pittsburg, Pa.; c, a pf. -suite ; 
song-cycles "In Arcady," and a 
posthumous " The Quest of Heart's 
Desire " ; highly artistic piano pieces 
and many song albums of well-de- 
served popularity. His songs are 
genuinely lyrical, with an exuberance 
of musical passion, and accompani- 
ments full of colour, individuality and 
novelty. (2) Arthur, b. Sewickley, 
Pa., 1871 ; bro. of above ; from 1891 

studied Boston, then at Berlin with 
Boise and Klindworth ; lives in New 
York ; c. songs, etc. 

New'man, Ernest, b. Liverpool, Nov. 
30, 1868 ; prominent critic ; studied 
for the Indian Civil Service, but his 
health broke down from over-study ' 
engaged in business in Liverpool 
where he has since lived ; in 1888 
wrote " Cluck and the Oj>era, " which 
was published in 1895 ; "A Study of 
Wagner" 1899. Has contributed nu- 
merous scholarly essays on musical 
and other topics to various magazines, 

Newsidler, Neysidler. Vide NEU- 

Ney. Vide MOSZKVA. 

Niccold de Malta, Vide ISQUARD. 

Nichelmann (nikh'-e'l-man), Chp., 
Treuenbrietzen, Brandenburg, 1717 
Berlin, 1762 ; cembalist and writer. 

Nicholl (n!k'-61), Horace Wadham, 
b. Tipton, near Birmingham, Engl., 
March 17, 1848 ; notable contempo- 
rary contrapuntist ; son and pupil of 
a musician John N.; studied with 
Samuel Prince; 1867-70 organist at 
Dudley ; 1871 organist at Pittsburg, 
Pa., U. S. A.; 1878 editor New York. 
1888-95 prof, at Farmington, Conn.; 
contributed to various periodicals; 
pub. a book on harmony ; his most 
notable compositions are his 12 sym- 
phonic preludes and fugues for organ, 
displaying his remarkable contrapun- 
tal ability (i in quadruple cpt, i in 
triple, 4 in double) ; he c. also a 
suite for full orch. (op. 3) ; a cycle of 
4 oratorios with orch.; symph. poem 
" Tartarus" ; 2 symphonies ; a psy- 
chic sketch "Hamlet" etc. 

Nich'olson, Chas., Liverpool, 1795 
London, 1837 ; flutist and composer. 

Nick'lass-Kempt'ner, Sehna, b. 
Breslau, April 2, 1849 ; noted colora- 
ture soprano and teacher ; studied at 
Stern Cons.; debut, 1867; sang in 
Rotterdam ro yrs. ; then teacher 
Vienna Cons.; 1893, Berlin " Profis- 

Nicod6 (ne'-ko-da), Jean Louis, b. 
Jerczik, near Posen, Aug. 12, 1853 ; 


pupil of his father and the organist 
Hartkas, and at Kullak's Acad.; lives 
in Berlin as a pianist and teachet.; 
1878-85 pf. -teacher Dresden Cons.; 
1897, cond. Leipzig " Riedel Verein"; 
c. symph. poem "Maria Stuart"; 
" Faschingsbilder " " Sinfoniscke 
Variationen" op. 27; " Das Metr" 
symph. ode, for full orch.; "Erbar- 
men," hymn for alto with orch., etc. 

Nicolai (ne'-ko-li), (i) Otto, Konigs- 
berg, June 9, 1810 of apoplexy, 
Berlin, May n, 1849 ; son and pupil 
of a singing-teacher ; studied with 
Zelter and Klein, later with Baini at 
Rome, where he was organist at the 
embassy chapel; 1837-38 theatre- 
cond. at Vienna ; again in Rome ; 
1841-47 ct.-cond. at Vienna and 
founded the Phil., 184.2 ; 1847 cond. 
of the opera and cath. -choir, Berlin ; 
prod. 5 v. succ. operas, incl. " // 
Templario" (Turin, 1840; known in 
Germany as " Der Te mpltr" based 
on Scott's "Ivanlioe") ; and the unct- 
uous and still popular opera ' ' Die 
lustigen Wdber von Windsor" based 
on and known in English as " The 
Merry Wives of Windsor " (Berlin, 
1849); he c - also a svm ph- etc.; biog. 
by Mendel (Berlin, 1868) ; his diary 
(" Tagebucher ") was pub. Leipzig, 
1893. (2) Win. Fr. Gerard, Ley- 
den, Nov. 20, 1829 The Hague, 
April 25, 1896; professor; notable 
conductor and composer. 

Niccolini (nek-ko-le-ne), (i) Giusep- 
pe, Piacenza, Jan. 29, 1762 Dec. 
18, 1842 ; conductor and operatic 
composer. (2) (Rightly Ernest 
Nicholas) Tours, France, Feb. 23, 
1834 Pau, Jan. 19, 1898 , tenor ; 
1886 m. Adelina Patti. 

Nic'olson, Richard, d. 1639 ; Engl. 

Niecks (neks), Frederick (Friede- 
rich), b. Dusseldorf, March 3, 1845 ; 
lecturer, critic, etc.; pupil of Lang- 
hans, Grlinewald, and Auer (vhi.) ; 
debut at 12 ; 1868, organist, Dum- 
fries, Scotland, and viola-player in a 
quartet with A. C. Mackenzie ; stud- 

ied in Leipzig Univ. (1877), an< 3 
travelled Italy; critic, London; 1891, 
Ried Prof, of Mus., Edinburgh Univ. ; 
pub. notable biog, of " Frederic 
Chopin as a Man and a Musician " 
(1888); a "Diet, of Mus. Terms" 

Nieden, Zur. Vide ZUR NIEDEN. 

Niedermeyer (ne-der-rm-er), Louis, 
Nyon, Switzerland, 1802 Paris, 
1861 ; dramatic composer and theo- 

Niedt (net), Fr. Erhardt, d. Copen- 
hagen, 1717 ; writer. 

Niemann (ne'-man), (i) Albert, b. 
Erxleben, near Magdeburg, Jan. 15, 
1831 ; 1849, without study sang in 
minor roles at Dessau ; then studied 
with F. Schneider, and the bar. 
Nusch ; sang at Hanover, then stud- 
ied with Duprez, Paris ; 1860-66, 
dram, tenor, Hanover, since at the 
ct. -opera, Berlin ; Wagner chose him 
to create "Tannhauser" (Paris, 
1861), and "Siegmund" (Bayreuth, 
1876) ; retired iSSg. (2) Rudolf 
(Fr.), Wesselburen, Holstein, 1838 
Wiesbaden, 1898 ; pianist and com- 

Nietzsche (net'-she 1 ), Fr., Rbcken, 
nearLutzen, Oct. 15, 1844 (insane) 
Aug. , 1900 ; prof, at Basel Univ. ; 
notable, if eccentric, philosopher ; as 
a partisan of Wagner he pub. u Die 
Geburt der Tragodie aus dem Geiste 
der Musik" "Richard Wagner in 
Bayreuth"; while "Der Fall Wag- 
ner" and " Nietzsche contra Wag- 
ner'' attack Wagner as violently as 
he once praised him ; his philosophi- 
cal work " Also sprach Zarathustra " 
provides the title of R. Strauss' 
symph. poem. 

Niggli (nlg'-gle), Arnold, b. Aarburg, 
Switzerland, Dec. 20, 1843; since 
1875 sec. to the Aarau town council; 

Nikisch (rrtk'-feh), Arthur, b. Szent, 
Miklos, Hungary, Oct. 12, 1855; 
eminent conductor ; son of the 
head-bookkeeper to Prince Lichten- 
stein; pupil of Dessoff (comp.) and 

6 5 2 


Hellmesberger (vln.), Vienna Cons., 
graduating at 19 with prizes for vln. , 
and for a string-sextet; violinist in 
the ct.-orch.; then 2nd cond. Leipzig 
Th.; 1882-89, ist. cond.; 1889-93, 
cond, Symph. Orch., Boston (U. S. 
A.) ; 1893-95, dir. Royal Opera, 
Pesth, and cond. Philh. Concerts ; 
since 1895 cond. Gewandhaus Con- 
certs, Leipzig (vice Reinecke), also 
Phil, concerts, Berlin ; he conducts 
usually without score; 1902, dir. 
Leipzig Cons. 

Nikita (nl-ke'-ta) (stage-name of 
Louisa Margaret Nicholson), b. 
Philadelphia, Aug. 18, 1872 ; colora- 
ture-soprano ; pupil of M. Le Roy, 
Washington; sang in various cities, 
with an opera-troupe, then studied 
with Maurice Strakosch, Paris ; sang 
in concerts with much succ. ; 1894, 
prima donna soprano, Paris Opera. 

Nikom'achus (called Gerasenus), b. 
Gerasa, Syria ; Greek writer on mus., 
2nd century, A.D. 

Nilsson (nels'-son), Christine, b. on 
the estate Sjoabel, near Wexio, 
Sweden, Aug. 20, 1843 ; eminent so- 
prano, compass 2-J octaves (g-d"); 
pupil of Baroness Leuhausen and 
F. Berwald, Stockholm; later, in 
Paris, of Wartel; debut, 1864, Th.- 
Lyrique, Paris, engaged for 3 years 
there; 1868-70, Opera; toured 
America and Europe ; 1872, she m. 
Auguste Rouzaud (d. 1882); 1887, 
m. Count Casa di Miranda. 

Nini (ne'-ne), Ales., Fano, Romagna, 
1805 Bergamo, 1880; cond. and 
dram, composer. 

Nisard (ne-zar), Theodore (pen-name 
of Abbe Thodule Eleazar X. 
Norman), b. Quaregnon, near Mons, 
Jan. 27, 1812 ; chorister at Cambrai ; 
studied in Douay ; 1839, dir. En- 
ghien Gymnasium, and 1842, 2d chef 
de chant and organist St. -Germain, 
Paris; then confined himself to writ- 
ing valuable treatises on plain-chant, 

Nissen (nfe'-sen), (i) G. Nicolaus 
von, Hardebsleben, Denmark, 1761 

Salzburg, March 24, 1826; coun- 
cillor of State ; m. the widow of Mo- 
zart, 1809, and aided her in preparing 
his biog. (1828). (2) (Nissen-Salo- 
man) Henriette, Gothenburg, Swe- 
den, March 12, 1819 Harzburg, 
Aug. 27, 1879; great singer and 
teacher; pupil of Chopin and Ma- 
nuel Garcia ; de'but Paris, 1843; 
1850, m. Siegfried Saloman, from 
1859 teacher St. Petersburg Cons. 
(3) Erica. Vide LIE. 

Nivers (ne-vars), Guillaume Gabriel, 
Melun, 1617 after 1701; organist, 
singer and composer. 

Nix'on, (i) H. G., Winchester, 1796 
1849 5 organist and composer. (2) 
Jas. Cassana, 18231842 ; violin- 
ist ; son of above. (3) H. Cotter, 
b. London, 1842 ; organist and com- 
poser at St. Leonard's. 

Nob (nap), Victorine. Vide STOLTZ. 

Nohl (nol), (K. Fr.) L., Iserlohn, 
1831 Heidelberg, 1885 ; 1880, pro- 
fessor and writer ; wrote biogs. of 
Beethoven, Mozart, etc., and pub- 
lished many colls, of the letters of 

Nohr (nor), Chr. Fr., Langensalza, 
Thuringia, 1800 Meingen, 1875 ; 
violinist and dram, composer. 

Norblin (nor-blan), (i) Louis Pierre 
Martin, Warsaw, 1781 Chateau 
Conantre, Marnp, 1854; 'cellist and 
professor. (2) Emile, 1821 1880; 
son of above ; 'cellist. 

Nor'dica, Lillian (stage-name of 
Mrs. Lillian Norton (Gower) 
Doeme), b. Farmington, Me., 1859; 
pupil of John O'Neill and of N. E. 
Cons. , Boston ; concert-debut, Bos- 
ton, 1876 ; 1878, toured Europe with 
Gilmore's Band ; studied opera with 
San Giovanni, Milan; debut at 
Brescia, 1880; 1881, Gr. Opera, 
Paris ; 1882, m. Frederick A. Gower ; 
1885, he made a balloon ascension 
and never returned ; she retired till 
1887, then sang Covent Garden, Lon- 
don, 1893 ; since then has sung reg- 
ularly in U. S., England, etc.; 1894 
chosen to sing " Elsa" at Bayreuth; 


1896, m. Zoltan F. Doeme, Hunga- 
rian singer. 

Norman. Vide NISARD. 

Nor'man(n), L., Stockholm, 1831 
1884 ; conductor, professor and com- 
poser. Vide NERUDA. 

Nor'ris, (i) Wm., d. ca. 1710; Eng- 
lish composer. (2) Thos., ca. 1745- 
1790 ; English male soprano, organist 
and composer. (3) Homer A., b. 
Wayne, Maine, U. S. A.; notable 
theorist ; studied with Marston, Hale, 
Chadwick and Emery, Boston ; lives 
there as teacher ; also studied 4 
years in Paris with Dubois, Godard, 
Gigout and Guilmant ; c. overture 
"Zoroaster" cantata "Wain" and 
songs; pub, "Harmony" and 
" Counterpoint" on French basis. 

North, (i) Francis, Lord Guilford, 
Rougham, Norfolk, ca. 16401685 ; 
amateur musician and writer. (2) 
Hon. Roger, Rougham Lane, 1650 
1733 ; bro. of above ; writer. 

Noszkowski (n6sh-kof'-shkl), Sigis- 
mund (Zygismunt von), b. Warsaw, 
May 2, 1846 ; pupil of Warsaw Mus. 
Inst.; inv. a mus. -notation for the 
blind, and was sent by the Mus. Soc. 
to study with Kiel and Raif , Berlin ; 
1876. cond.; iSSi, dir, of the Mus. 
Soc., Warsaw, and (1888) prof, at the 
Cons.; prod. succ. opera " Lima" 
(Lemberg, 1898) ; c. symph., over- 
ture " Das Meerauge" etc. 

Noszler (nosh'-ler), K. Eduard, b. 
Reichenbach, Saxony, March 26, 
1863; pupil of Leipzig Cons.; 1888- 
93, organist Frauenkirche, Bremen ; 
since 1887, cond. Male Choral Union; 
also (since 1893) organist Bremen 
Cath., and since 1896, cond. Neue 
Singakademie ; c. symph., "Lust- 
spiel-Ouvertiire," etc. 

Notker (not'-ker) (called Balbulus, 
"the stammerer"), 840 912, monk 
at St. Gallen ; important writer and 
composer of sequences. (V. D. D.) 

Notot (nii-to), Jos., b. Arras, Pas de 
Calais, 1755 ; d. in England ; pupil 
of Leclerc, Paris, noteworthy organ- 
ist there and at Arras ; c. important 

symphonies, pf.-concertos, sonatas, 

Nottebohm (not'-te-b5m), Martin 
Gv., Ludenscheid, Westphalia, 1817 
Graz, 1882 ; teacher and writer 
chiefly of valuable Beethoven works 
and discoveries ; also composer. 

Nourrit (noor-re), (i) Louis, Mont- 
pellier, 1780 Brunoy, 1831 ; leading 
tenor Gr. Opera, Paris. (2) Ad., 
Paris, 1802 suicide, Naples, 1839 ; 
eminent tenor; son and successor 
(1825) of above ; pupil of Garcia and 
teacher at the Cons. ; also composer. 

Novello (n5-vel'-l6), (i) Vincent, Lon- 
don, Sept. 6, 1781 Nice, Oct. 9, 
1861 ; son of Italian father and Eng- 
lish mother ; founded, 1811, the pub. 
firm Novello & Co. (now Novel- 
lo, Ewer & Co., London); no- 
table organist, pianist and com- 
poser. (2) Mary Sibilla, London, 
1809 Genoa, 1898; daughter of 
above ; m. Cowden Clarke ; transl. 
treatises into English ; wrote Shake- 
speare Concordance, etc. (3) Jos. 
Alfred, London, iSio Genoa, July 
17, 1896 ; son of (i) ; bass singer 
and organist. (4) Clara Anasta- 
sia, b. London, June 19, 1818 ; 4th 
daughter of (i) ; pupil Paris Cons., 
succ. operatic debut Padua, 1841, 
but made her best succ. in oratorio ; 
1843, m. Count Gigliucci; retired 

Noverre (no-var), J. G., Paris, April 
29, 1727 St. Germain, Nov. 19, 
1810; solo-dancer at Berlin; ballet- 
master at the Op.-Com., Paris; inv. 
the dramatic ballet. 

Nowakowski (no-va-kof'-shW), Jozef, 
Mniszck, 1805 Warsaw, 1865 ; pf.- 
teacher, professor and composer. 

Nowowiejski (no-vo-ve'-shkl), Felix, 
b. Poland ; 1902, won Berlin Meyer- 
beer prize with oratorio " Die Rtick- 
kehr des verlorenen Sohnes" 

Nuceus. Vide GAUCQUIER. 

Nux (nux), Paul V6ronge de la, b. 
Fontainebleau, June 29, 1853 ; pupil 
of F. Bazin, Paris Cons.; took 2d 
Grand prix, 1876 ; prod. succ. 2-act 


grand opera "Zaire" (Opera, 1889; 
Stuttgart, 1895); c. music-drama 
" Labdaddes" etc. 

Oakcley (ok'-H), Sir Herbert Stan- 
ley, b. Baling, Middlesex, July 22, 
1830 ; while at Oxford, studied with 
Elvey (harm.), later at Leipzig Cons., 
with Schneider, Dresden, and Brei- 
denstein, Bonn.; 1865-91, Ried 
Prof, of Mus., Edinburgh Univ., 
developing the annual Ried Concerts 
into a 3-days' Festival ; his org.-reci- 
tals had a large influence ; knighted 
1876; Mus. Doc., Cantab., 1871; 
Oxon., Dublin, 1887; 1892, Emeritus 
Professor ; composer to the Queen in 
Scotland, and since 1887, Pres., 
Cheltenham Mus. Festival ; pub. a 
cantata "Jubilee Lyric" " Suite in 
the Olden Style" "Pastorale" Festi- 
val March, and a Funeral March (op. 
23) for orch.; pf, -sonata, etc. 

Oberthiir (o'-bfr-tiir), K., Munich, 
1819 London, 1895 ; harpist, teach- 
er and dramatic composer. 

Obin (o-ban), Louis H., Ascq., near 
Lille, 1820 Paris, 1895 ; basso can- 

O'Car'olan, Turlough, Newton, 
Meath, 1670 Roscommon, 1738 ; 
Irish harpist. 

Ochs (6khs), (i) Traugott, b. Alten- 
feld, Schwerin-Sondershausen, Oct. 
19, 1854 ; pupil of Stade, Erdmanns- 
dorfer, Kiel, and the R. Inst. for 
Church-mus. ; 1899, artistic dir. Mus.- 
Union and the Mus. -Sen., Briinn ; c. 
" Deutsches Aufgebot" for male cho- 
rus and orch. ; requiem, etc. (2) 
Siegfried, b. Frankfort-on-Main, 
April 19, 1858; studied R. Hoch- 
schule far Musik, Berlin, later with 
Kiel and Urban, and von Billow, 
who brought into publicity a small 
choral union, the " Philharmonischer 
Chor," of which he was cond., and 
which is now the largest singing-so- 
ciety in Berlin ; he is also a singing- 
teacher and writer, 1901, Munich ; c. 

succ. comic opera (text and music) 
' l fm Namen des Gesetzes " (Hamburg 
1888) ; 2 operettas ; etc. 

Ochsenkuhn (okh'-zan-koon), Sebas- 
tian, d. Heidelberg, Aug. 2, 1574 ; 
lutenist and composer. 

Ockenheim. Vide OKEGHEM. 

Odenwald (o'-den-valt), Robt. Th., 
b. Frankenthal, near Gera, May 3, 
1838 ; since 1882 teacher Hamburg 
and cond. a succ. church-choir ; c. 
Psalms and part-songs. 

O'dington, Walter de ("Monk of 
Evesham "), b. Odington, Gloucester- 
shire ; d. ca. 1316 ; important theorist. 

O'do de Clugny (dtt klun'-ye) (Saint), 
became in 927 abbot of Clugny, where 
he d. 942 ; writer. (Gerbert.) 

Oeglin (akh'-len), Erhard, i6th cent. 
German printer of Augsburg, the first 
to print figured mus. with types. 

Oelschlagel (al'-shla-gel), Alfred, b. 
Anscha, Bohemia, Feb. 25, 1847; 
Prague Org.-Sch.; th.-cond. at Ham- 
burg, etc., and Karltheater, Vienna ; 
later bandm. Klagenfurt ; c, operet- 
tas "Prinz wid Maurer" (Klagen- 
furt, 1884) ; succ. "Die Raubritter" 
(Vienna, 1888) ; succ. Der Land- 
stretcher (Magdeburg, 1893). 

Oelsner (ls'-ner), (Fr.) Bruno, b. 
Neudorf, near Annabergi, Saxony, 
July 29, 1861; pupil of Leipzig Cons.; 
solo- via., ct.-orch. Darmstadt; stud- 
ied with de Haan (comp.) ; since 
1882, vln.-teacher Darmstadt Cons., 
with title Grand Ducal Chamber- 
mus.; prod, at Darmstadt i-act op- 
eras, incl. succ. ' ' Der Brautgang " 
(1894); also a cantata with orch., etc. 

Oesten (a'-shtSn), Theodor, Berlin, 
1813 1870; pianist and composer. 

Oesterle (as-ter'-le), Otto, St. Louis, 
Mo., 1861 Darien, Conn., 1894; 
ist flute Thomas Orch., the Philh. of 
New York and Brooklyn, and Seidl 
Orch.; teacher the Nat. Cons., N. Y. 

Osterlein (a-shter-lm), Nikolaus, 
1840 Vienna, 1898 ; maker of the 
coll. known as the " Wagner Mu- 


Oettingen (et'-tfag-en), Arthur Joa- 
chim von, b. Dorpat, March 28, 
1836 ; 1866, prof, of physics in ordi- 
nary there ; pres. of the'Dorpat Mus. 
Soc., and cond. an amateur orch.; 

Offenbach (of'-fen-bakh), Jacques, 
Cologne, June 21, 1819 Paris, Oct. 
5, 1880; eminent writer of light op- 
era ; studied 'cello at the Cons., then 
joined Op.-Com. orch., Paris; c. 
chansonnettes (parodying La Fon- 
taine), played the 'cello in concerts, 
and c. 'cello-pcs.; 1849, cond. TL- 
Franjais, prod, unsucc. i-act oper- 
etta " Pepito" (Op.-Com., 1853); 
others followed till 1855-66 he had a 
theatre for his own work ; 1872-76, 
manager Th. de la Gaite ; 1877, 
toured America with little succ. de- 
scribed in his ' ' Notes (Fun musid&n 
en voyage" (1877); his 102 stage- 
works include the ballet-pantomime 
*' Le Papillon" and the v. succ. 
operas, "Orph/e aux Enfers" 1858 ; 
"La Belle Ht&nt," 1864; " Barbe- 
Bku" and "La Vie Parisienne" 
1866; "La Grande Due hesse de Ge~ 
rolstdn" 1867; "Madame Favart" 

Oginski (o-gen'-shkl), (i) Prince Mi- 
chael Cleophas, Guron, near War- 
saw, 1765 Florence, 1833; com- 
poser. (2) Michael Casimir, War- 
saw, 1731 1803; uncle of above; 
said to have inv. the pedals of the 

O'keghem (or Okekem, Okenghem, 
Ockegheim, Ock'enheim), Jean de 
(or Joannes), probably Termonde, 
East Flanders, ca. 1430 Tours (?), 
1 49 5 1513; eminent contrapuntist ; 
the founder of the Second (or New) 
Netherland Sch. Chorister, Antwerp 
cathedral; studied with Dufay ; 1454, 
ct-cond. and composer to Charles 
VII. at Paris ; 1467, royal cond. to 
Louis XL ; toured Spain and Fland- 
ers on stipend; c. masses, motets, 
canons, etc. 

O'Leary (6-la'-rf), (i) Arthur, b. n. 
y, Ireland, 1834 ; pianist and 

composer. (2) Rosetta, wife of 
above ; composer. 
Olib'rio, Flavio Anicio. Vide j. F. 


Ol'iphant, Thos., Condie, Perthshire, 
1799 London, 1873 ; theorist and 

Olitz'ka, Rosa, b. Berlin, Sept. 6, 
1873; contralto; studied with Artot 
and Hey ; sang at Briinn, Hamburg, 
then Covent Garden and New York 
opera ; then in Russia, etc. 

Ol'iver, H. Kemble, Beverley, Mass., 
1800 Boston, 1885; boy soprano; 
organist, mus. dir. and composer. 

Olsen (ol'-ze'n), Ole, b. Hammerfest, 
Norway, July 4, 1851 ; c. symph. 
poem "Asgaardsrsien" 1891, etc. 

Ondriczek (6n p -drf-chek), Fz., b. 
Prague, April 29, 1859; violinist; 
pupil of his father, and at 14 member 
of his small orch. for dance mus.; 
then studied Prague Cons, and with 
Massart, Paris Cons., took first prize 
for vln. -playing ; toured Europe and 
America ; lives in Boston. 

Ons'low, G., Clermont-Ferrand, 
France, 17841852; grandson of the 
first Lord Onslow; amateur 'cellist 
and pianist ; prod. 4 succ. comic op- 
eras; 34 string-quintets; 36 quar- 
tets ; and other chamber-music. 

Opelt (o-pelt), Fr. Win., Rochlitz, 
Saxony, 1794 Dresden, 1863; writer. 

Ordenstein (or'-den-shfin), H., b. 
Worms, Jan. 7, 1856 ; pianist ; pupil 
of Leipzig Cons., also in Paris ; 1879- 
Si, teacher at Carlsruhe ; 1881-82, at 
Kullak's Acad., Berlin; 1884, founded 
Carlsruhe Cons.; made prof, by 
Grand Duke of Baden. 

Orefice, dell'. Vide DELL' OREFICE. 

Orgeni (6r-ga'-ne) (Orejenyi) (6r-gan f - 
ye), Anna Maria Aglaia, b. Tis- 
menice, Galicia, Dec. 17, 1843 ; 
colorature soprano ; pupil of Mme. 
Viardot-Garcia ; debut, 1865, Berlin 
Opera ; 1886, teacher Dresden Cons. 

Orlando, or Orlandus. Vide LASSO. 

Orlow (6r'-16f), Count Gregor Vladi- 
mir, 1777 St. Petersburg, 1826; 



Ornithopar'cus (Greek form of Vogel- 
sang) (fo'-gel-zang), Andreas, b. 
Meiningen ; early loth cent, theorist. 

Orpheus (6rf'-yoos), mythical Greek 
singer; son of Apollo, and best of 
singers to the lyre, 1350 B. c. 

Or'ridge, Ellen Amelia, London, 
1856 Guernsey, 1883 ; contralto, 

Ortigue (or-teg), Jos. Louis de, Ca- 
villon Vaucluse, 1802 Paris, 1866; 

Orto (6r'-to), Giov, de (Italian form of 
Jean Dujardin) (dti-zhar'-dan); Lat- 
inised as de Hor'to (called "Mar- 
briano"); contrapuntist and com- 
poser i $th and i6th centuries, 

Os'borne, (i) G. Alex., Limerick, 
Ireland, 1806 London, 1893 ; com- 
poser. (2) (rightly Eisbein (is'-bm)), 
Adrienne, b. Buffalo, N. Y.; pupil 
of Augusts Gotze and Max Stage- 
mann in Leipzig; dram, soprano; 
now at Leipzig City Th. ; has sung 
at the Gewandhaus. 

Os'good, Geo. Laurie, b. Chelsea, 
Mass., April 3, 1844; graduated 
Harvard, 1886 ; dir. of the Glee Club, 
and the orch. there ; studied singing 
with Sieber and Haupt, and German 
song and chorals with R. Franz; 
studied with the elder Lamperti in 
Italy 3 years ; made a succ. tour of 
Germany; then, under Thomas, of 
America ; since 1872, lived Boston as 
vocal-teacher and conductor; pub. 
" Guide in the Art of Singing" (8 
editions); c. anthems, etc. 

Osiander (d'-ze-ant-gr), Lucas, Niirn- 
berg, 1534 Stuttgart, 1604; writer 
and composer. 

Othmayer (St'-mi-fr), Kaspar, Am- 
berg, 1515 Ntirnberg, 1553 ; com- 

Otho. Vide ODO. 

Ott(o) (or Ottl), Hans, ca. 1533- 
1550; pub. in Nilrnberg. 

Ottani (6t-ta'-ne), Abbate Bernardi- 
no, Bologna, 1735 -Turin, 1827; 
dram, composer. 

Otto (6t f -to), (i) Vide OTT. (2) 
(Ernst) Julius, KSnigstein, Saxony, 
Sept. i, 1804 Dresden, March 5, 

1877 ; notable composer of cycles for 
male chorus, songs, operas, etc. (3) 
Fz., KSnigstein, Saxony, 1809 
Mayence, 1841; c. pop. songs. (4) 
Rudolph K. Julius, b. Berlin, April 
27, 1829; solo boy-soprano at the 
Domchor, Berlin ; from 1848, tenor 
there; 1852, teacher singing Stern 
Cons.; 1873 at R. Hochschule fur 

Otto-Alvsleben (6t'-to-alf'-sla-ben) 
Melitta (ne'e Alvsleben), Dresden] 
1842 1893 ; soprano ; married, 1866. 

Oudin (oo-dan), Eugene (Espe"- 
rance), New York, 1858 London, 
1894; barytone, pianist and com- 

Oudrid jr Segura (oo-dredh' e sa-goo'- 
ra), Cristobal, Badajoz, 1829 Mad- 
rid, Match 15, 1877; conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Oulibichef. Vide ULIBISHEV. 


Ouse'ley, Sir Fr. Arthur Gore, Lon- 
don, Aug. 12, 1825 Hereford, April 
6, 1889; notable theorist and com- 
poser; pianist and organist remark- 
able for fugal improvisation ; wrote 
important treatises, etc. ; c. an opera 
at 8 ; M. A. Oxford, 1840, Mus. Doc. 
there, 1854 ; also from Durham and 
Cambridge, 1862 ; from 1855 Prof, of 
Music at Oxford, vice Sir H. R. 
Bishop; c. 2 oratorios incl. "ffa- 

OVerend, Marmaduke, d. 1790; 
Engl. organist and composer of ser- 
vices, 70 anthems, 18 organ preludes 
and fugues, etc.; biog. by Joyce 
(London, 1896). 

Owst, Wilberfoss G., b. London, 
June 13, 1861; pupil of Eaton Fan- 
ing and H. Gadsby, and of Stuttgart 
Cons., 1893-95; organist, Baltimore, 
U. S. A.; pub. Communion Service, 
anthems, etc. 

Pabst (papst), (i) Aug., Elberfeld, 
May 30, 1811 Riga, July 21, 1885 ; 
director and composer of operas, 


(2) Louis, b. Konigsberg, July 18, 
1846 ; son of above ; pianist and 
composer. From 1899, head pf.- 
teacher Moscow Philh. Sch. (3) 
Paul, Konigsberg, 1854 Moscow, 
1897; son of (i); pf.-prof.; direc- 

Pacchiarotti (pak-kl-a-rot'-te), Gas- 
paro, Fabriano, Ancona, 1744 Pad- 
ua, Oct. 28, 1821; one of the great- 
est and most succ. of iSth cent, sing- 
ers ; soprano-musico. 

Pachelbei (pakh'-el-bel), (r) J., Niim- 
berg, Sept. i, 1653 March 3, 1706 ; 
org.-virtuoso and composer. (2) 
Wm. Hieronymus, b. Erfurt, 1685 ; 
son of above; organist and com- 

Pacher (pakh'-r), Jos. Adalbert, 
Daubrawitz, Moravia, 1816 Gmun- 
den, 1871 ; composer. 

Pachmann (pakh -man), Vladimir de, 
b. Odessa, July 27, 1848; notable 
pianist especially devoted to Chopin's 
mus. ; son and pupil of a prof, at Vi- 
enna Univ. ; a good vio