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(A.D. 14501883) 










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MRS. WALTER CARR .... M. C. ( 



M. GUSTAVE CHOUQUET, Keeper of the Museum of the Con 
servatoire de Musique, Paris 

ARTHUR DUKE COLERIDGE, ESQ., Barrister-at-Law . . A. D. C, 

FREDERICK CORDER, ESQ., Mendelssohn Scholar, 1875-79 .. 
GEORGE ARTHUR CRAWFORD, Major . . . . . . G. A. C. 

WILLIAM H. CUMMINGS, ESQ. . . . . . . . W. H. C. 

W. G. CUSINS, ESQ., late Conductor of the Philharmonic 

Society; Master of the Music to the Queen W. G. C. 

EDWARD DANNREUTHER, ESQ. . . . . . . . . E. D. 


JAMES W. DAVISON, ESQ. . . . . . . . . J. W. D. 

HARRY COLLINS DEACON, ESQ. . . . . . . H. C. D. 


H. SUTHERLAND EDWARDS, ESQ. . . . . . . . . H. S. E. 

HENRY FREDERICK FROST, ESQ., Organist of the Chapel Eoyal, Savoy H. F. F. 

J. A. FULLER-MAITLAND, ESQ. .. .. .. .. .. J. A. F.-M. 

JOHN T. FYFE, ESQ. . . . . . . . . . . . . J. T. F. 

CHARLES ALLAN FYFFE, ESQ., Barrister-at-Law . . . . C. A. F. 

DR. FRANZ GEHRING, Vienna . . . . . . . . . . F. G. 

J. C. GRIFFITH, ESQ. . . . . . . . . . . . . J. C. G. 

REV. THOMAS HELMORE, Master of the Children of the Chapels Royal 

WILLIAM HENDERSON, ESQ. . . . . . . . . . . W. H. 



DR. FERDINAND HTLLER, Cologne . . . . . . . . H. 

A. J. HIPKINS, ESQ. . . . . . . . . . . . . A. J. H. 

EDWARD JOHN HOPKINS, ESQ., Organist to the Temple . . E. J. H. 

REV. CANON PERCY HUDSON . . . . . . . . . . T. P. H. 

FRANCIS HUEFFER, ESQ. . . . . . . . . . . F. H. 

JOHN HULLAH, ESQ., LL.D. . . . . . . . . . . J. H. 

WILLIAM H. HUSK, ESQ., Librarian to the Sacred Harmonic Society W. H. H. 

F. H. JENKS, ESQ., Boston, Mass., U. S. A. . . . . . . F. H. J. 

JAMES LECKY, ESQ. . . . . . . . . . . . . J. L. 

HENRY ,T. LINCOLN, ESQ. . . . . . . . . . . H. J. L. 

STANLEY LUCAS, ESQ., late Secretary to the Philharmonic Society S. L. 

HERCULES MAC!)ONNELL, ESQ. . . . . . . . . H. M. D. 


Music in the University of Cambridge, &c., &c. . . G. A. M. 

CHARLES MACKESON, ESQ., F.S.S. . . . . . . . . C. M. 

HERR A. MACZEWSKI, late Concert-director, Kaiserslautern . . A. M. 

JULIAN MARSHALL, ESQ. . . . . . . . . . . J. M. 

MRS. JULIAN MARSHALL .. .. .. .. .. F. A. M. 

RUSSEL MARTINEAU, ESQ. . . . . . . . . . . R. M. 


REV. JOHN HENRY MEE, Mus. Bac., M.A. . . . . . . J. H. M. 

Miss LOUISA M. MIDDLETON . . . . . . . . . . L. M. M. 

EDWIN G. MONK, ESQ., Mus. Doc., Organist of York Cathedral E. G. M. 
SIR HERBERT S. OAKELEY, Mus. Doc., Professor of Music in the 

University of Edinburgh . . . . . . . . H. S. 0. 


of Music in the University of Oxford . . . . . . F. A. G. O. 

C. HUBERT H. PARRY, ESQ., Mus. Doc. . . . . . . C. H. H. P. 

HERR ERNST PAUER . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 

EDWARD JOHN PAYNE, ESQ., Barrister-at-Law. . .. .. E. J. P. 

REV. HUGH PEARSON, late Canon of Windsor . . H. P. 



HERR C. FERDINAND POHL, Librarian to the Gesellschaft der 

Musikfreunde, Vienna . . . . . . C. F. P. 

WILLIAM POLE, ESQ., F.R.S., Mus. Doc W. P. 



EBENEZER PKOUT, ESQ. . . . . . . . . . . . . E. P. 

REV. WILLIAM PULLING . . . . . . . . . . "W. Pg. 

CHAELES H. PURDAY, ESQ. . . . . . . . . . . C. H. P. 

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT, ESQ., LL.D. . . . . . . . . E. F. R. 

LUIGI RICCI, ESQ. . . . . . . . . . . . . L. R. 

W. S. ROCKSTRO, ESQ. . . . . . . . . . . . . W. S. R. 

DESMOND LUMLEY RYAN, ESQ. . . . . . . . . . . D. L. R. 

CARL SIEWERS, ESQ. . . . . . . . . . . . . C. S. 

DR. PHILIPP SPITTA, Berlin ; Professor in the University ; Se 
cretary to the Royal Academy of Arts ; and Managing- 
Director of the Royal High-School for Music.. .. P. S. 

W. BARCLAY SQUIRE, ESQ. .. .. .. .. .. W. B. S. 

JOHN STAINER, ESQ., Mus. Doc., Oxon . . . . . . J. S. 

H. H. STATHAM, ESQ. . . . . . . . . . . . . H. H. S. 

SIR ROBERT P. STEWART, Mus. Doc., Professor of Music in Dublin 

University . . . . . . . . . . . . R. P. S. 

T. L. STILLIE, ESQ., Glasgow . . . . . . . . T. L. S. 

WILLIAM H. STONE, ESQ., M.D. . . . . . . . . W. H. S. 

SIR ARTHUR SEYMOUR SULLIVAN, Mus. Doc., late Principal of the 

National Training School of Music . . . . . . S. 


ALEXANDER W. THAYER, ESQ., United States Consul, Trieste, 

Author of the Life of Beethoven .. .. .. A. W. T. 

Miss BERTHA THOMAS . . . . . . . . . . . . B. T. 

C. A. W. TROYTE, ESQ. C. A. W. T. 

COLONEL H. WARE, Public Library, Boston, Mass., U. S. A. H. W. 


J. Mum WOOD, ESQ., Glasgow J. M. W. 


29 Bedford Street, Covent Garden, 
July, 1883. 



scent, born in London Feb. 27, i 796 ; made Eouge 
Croix Pursuivant of Arms 1854, and Somerset 
Herald 1866 ; died in London, May 30, 1880. 
Mr. Planches many dramas and extravaganzas 
do not call for notice in these pages ; but he 
requires mention as the author of the librettos 
of Maid Marian, or the Huntress of Harlingford, 
an Historical Opera/ for Bishop (Covent Garden, 
Dec. 3, 1822), and Oberon, or The Elf-King s 
Oath, a Romantic and Fairy Opera, for Weber 
(Covent Garden, April 12, 1826). In 1838 he 
also wrote for Messrs. Cliappell a libretto founded 
on the Siege of Calais by Edward III., with a 
view to its being set by Mendelssohn. Mendels 
sohn however was not satisfied with the book, 
and it was ultimately transferred to Mr. Henry 
Smart, by whom a large portion was composed. 
The correspondence between Mendelssohn and 
Planche may be read in the Autobiography of 
the latter (1872 ; chap. 21). [G.] 

PLANQUETTE, ROBERT, born in Paris, 
July 31, 1850 ; passed rapidly through the 
Conservatoire, and first appeared as a composer 
of songs and chansonettes for the Cafes -concerts. 
Encouraged by the popularity accorded to the 
bold rhythm and slightly vulgar melody of these 
songs, he rose to operettas, Valet de cour, 
Le Serment de Mme. Grdgoire, and Paille 
d avoine. The decided progress evinced by this 
last piece was confirmed by Les Cloches de 
Corneville, a 3-act operetta, produced with im 
mense success at the Folies dramatiques on 
April 19, 1877, adapted to the English stage by 
Farnie and Reece, and brought out at the Folly 
Theatre, London, Feb. 23, 1878, with equally 
extraordinary good fortune. Planquette has 
since composed and published Le Chevalier 
Gaston, i act (Monte Carlo, Feb. 8, 1879), and 
Les Voltigeurs de la 32me. 3 acts (Theatre 
de la Renaissance, Jan. 7, 1880). It is to be 
hoped that he will aim higher than he has 


hitherto done, and add refinement to his un 
doubted gift of melody. [G. C.] 
toise, Oct. 14, 1764; was admitted at 8 to the 
school of the king s Pages de la musique, where 
he learned singing and the cello. On leaving this 
he studied composition with Honore Langle" (born 
at Monaco, 1741, died at Yilliers leBel, 1807), a 
popular singing-master, the pianoforte with Hull- 
mandel (born at Strassburg, 1751, died in London, 
1823), an excellent teacher, and the harp, then a 
fashionable instrument, from Petrini (born in 
1744, died in Paris, 1819). Having started as a 
teacher of singing and the harp, he published a 
number of romances, and nocturnes for 2 voices, 
the success of which procured him admission to the 
stage, for at that time the composer of Te bien 
aimer, ma chere Zelie, or some such simple 
melody, was considered perfectly competent to 
write an opera. Between I79 1 a]Q d 1815 Plan- 
tade produced a dozen or so dramatic works, 
three of which, Palma, ou le voyage en Grece, 
2 acts (1798), Zoe, ou la pauvre petite (1800), 
and Le Mari de circonstance (1813), I act each, 
were engraved. The whole of this fluent but in 
sipid music has disappeared. His numerous 
sacred compositions are also forgotten ; out of 
about a dozen masses, the Messe de Requiem 
alone was published, but the Conservatoire has 
the MS. of a Te Deum (1807), several motets, 
and 5 masses. From these scores it is evident 
that with an abundance of easy-flowing melody, 
Plantade had neither force nor originality. He 
had a great reputation as a teacher, was a 
polished man of the world, and a witty and bril 
liant talker. Queen Hortense, who had learned 
singing from him, procured his appointment as 
Maitre de Cbapelle to her husband, and also as 
professor at the Conservatoire (i 799) . He gave up 
his class in 1807, but resumed it in 1815; was dis 
missed on April 1, 1816, reinstated Jan. I, 1818, 
and finally retired in 1828. He was decorated 


with the Legion of Honour by Louis XVIII. 
in 1814. His best pupil was the celebrated 
Mme. Cinti-Damoreau. He died in Paris, Dec. 18, 
1839, leaving two sons, one of whom, CHAKLES 
FRANCIS, born in Paris April 14, 1787, died 
March 25, 1870, composed numerous chansons 
and chansonnettes, some of which have been 
popular. [G.C.] 

PLAYFORD, JOHN, stationer, bookseller, mu- 
sicseller and publisher, is commonly said to have 
been born in 1613. He was really born in 1623, 
as is evidenced by portraits taken at various 
dates on which his age is stated. He carried on 
business at his shop in the Inner Temple, near 
the Church door. In middle life, probably from 
about 1663 to 1679, he had a house at Islington, 
where his wife kept a ladies school, and after 
wards, from 1680, resided in Arundel Street, 
near the Thames side, over against the George. 
His first musical publications were issued in 
1652, and comprised Hilton s Catch that catch 
can, Select Musicall Ayres and Dialogues, and 
* Musick s Recreation on the Lyra Violl. On 
Oct. 29, 1653, he was chosen clerk of the Tem 
ple Church. In 1654 he published his Breefe 
Introduction to the Skill of Musick for Song and 
Viall. Of that impression but one copy is now 
known, which was for many years in the posses 
sion of the late Dr. Rimbault, and produced 10 
guineas at the sale of his library in 1877. In 
1655 Playford published an enlarged edition of 
it, which long passed as the first. It is divided 
into two books, the first containing the principles 
of music, with directions for singing and playing 
the viol ; the second the art of composing music 
in parts, by Dr. Campion, with additions by 
Christopher Sympson. The book acquired great 
popularity; in 1730 it reached its I9th edition, 
independent of at least six intermediate unnum 
bered editions. There are variations both of the 
text and musical examples, frequently extensive 
and important, in every edition. In the loth edi 
tion, 1683, Campion s tract was replaced by A 
brief Introduction to the Art of Descant, or compos 
ing Music in parts, without author s name, which 
in subsequent editions appeared with considerable 
additions, by Henry Purcell. The 7th edition 
contained, in addition to the other matter, * The 
Order of performing the Cathedral Service, which 
was continued, with a few exceptions, in the 
later editions. Five different portraits of the au 
thor, taken at various periods of his life, occur in 
the several editions. In 1 66 7 Playford republished 
Hilton s Catch that catch can, with extensive 
additions and the second title of The Musical 
Companion, and a second part containing Dia 
logues, Glees, Ayres, and Ballads, etc. ; and in 
1672 issued another edition, with further addi 
tions, under the second title only. Some com 
positions by Playford himself are included in this 
work. In 1671 he edited Psalms and Hymns 
in solemn musick of four parts on the Common 
Tunes to the Psalms in Metre : used in Parish 
Churches ; and a few years later, The Whole 
Book of Psalms, with the .... Tunes .... in 
three parts, which passed through many editions. 


In 1673 he took part in the Salmon and Lock 
controversy, by addressing a letter to the former, 
by way of Confutation of his Essay, etc., which 
was printed with Lock s Present Practice of 
Musick Vindicated. The style of writing in this 
letter contrasts very favourably with the writings 
of Salmon and Lock. In place of abuse we have 
quiet argument and clear demonstration of the 
superiority of the accepted notation. Playford 
published the greater part of the music produced 
in his day, besides reprints of earlier works. His 
last publication appears to have been the sth book 
of Choice Ayres and Dialogues/ published in 
1684-5, i n tne P re f ace to which he says that age 
and infirmity compel him to leave his business to 
his son and Carr, the publisher s son. He died 
in 1693 or 94. In his will (made in 1686, proved 
Aug. 14, 1694) he expresses fear that owing to 
losses and crosses his estate will disappoint the 
expectations of those who succeed him. His 
burial-place has eluded all inquiry. [See Musio- 
PRINTING, vol. ii. p. 435.] 

HENRY, his second, but eldest surviving son, 
born May 5, baptized May 14, 1657, had for 
godfathers Henry Lawes and Henry Playford. 
He succeeded to his father s business in 1685 in 
partnership with Robert, son of John Carr, music 
publisher at the Middle Temple Gate, and one 
of the King s band of music. Their first publica 
tion was The Theater of Music, 1685. After a 
few years Henry Playford removed to the Tem 
ple Change, Fleet Street, and carried on business 
alone. In 1698 he advertised a lottery of music 
books. He published several important musical 
works, among which were Purcell s Ten Sonatas, 
and Te Deum and Jubilate for St. Cecilia s day, 
1697; Orpheus Britannicus, 1698-1702; and 
Blow s Ode on the Death of Purcell, 1696, and 
Amphion Anglicus, 1700. In 1703 he issued 
proposals for publishing monthly collections of 
songs and instrumental music by an annual sub 
scription of one guinea. He resided in his father s 
house in Arundel Street, and is supposed to have 
died about 1710, but the precise date cannot be 

JOHN, the youngest child of John Playford, 
baptized at Islington Oct. 6, 1665, was a printer 
of music. About 1 68 1 he entered into business 
with Anne, widow of William Godbid, of Little 
Britain, and with her, and afterwards alone, 
printed several of the publications of his father. 
He died early in 1686. An elegy on his death, 
by Nahum Tate, with music by Henry Purcell, 
was published in 1687. [W.H.H.] 

PLEAS ANTS, THOMAS, born 1648, became 
about 1676 organist and master of the choristers 
of Norwich Cathedral. He died Aug. 5, 1689, 
and was buried in the cathedral. [W.H.H.] 

PLEYEL, IGNAZ JOSEPH, a most prolific instru 
mental composer, born June I, 1757, the 24th 
child of the village schoolmaster at Ruppersthal 
in Lower Austria. His musical talent showed 
itself early. He learnt to play the clavier and 
violin in Vienna, the former from Van Hal, or 
Wanhall, and found a patron in the then Count 
Erdody, who put him under Haydn, as a pupil 


in composition, in 1774. After remaining several 
years with Haydn he went to Italy, where he 
fully imbibed the taste of the Italian opera, and 
lived in intercourse with the best singers and 
composers. In 1783 he was called to Strassburg 
as Capellmeister to the cathedral. In 1791 he 
was invited to London to take the control of the 
Professional Concerts of the following season. 
He was probably not aware of the fact that his 
appointment was a blow aimed at Salomon, and 
that he would be in competition with Haydn. 
The blow, however, missed its aim. Pleyel con 
ducted his first Professional Concert Feb. 13, 
1792. Haydn was present, and the programme 
contained 3 symphonies, by Haydn, Mozart, 
and Pleyel himself (composed expressly for the 
concert). On May 14 he took his benefit. The 
visit was a satisfactory one, both in an artistic 
and a pecuniary point of view. On his return 
to France he found himself denounced as an 
enemy to the Republic, and was forced to fly. 
He succeeded in clearing himself from the charge, 
and at length settled in Paris as a music-seller. 
In 1 800 the musicians of the opera proposed to 
perform Haydn s Creation, and Pleyel was 
selected to arrange that Haydn should himself 
conduct the performance. He got as far as 
Dresden on the road to Vienna, but all the in 
fluence of Haydn and Artaria failed to obtain 
a pass for him any further, and the direction 
of the performance came finally into the hands 
of Steibelt. The evening of the concert 3 Ni- 
v6se, or Dec. 24, 1800 was a memorable one, 
since on his road to the opera house, in the Rue 
Nicaise, Bonaparte nearly met his death from an 
infernal machine. Pleyel was the first to publish 
the complete collection of Haydn s quartets 
(except the three last, of which two had not then 
been printed, and the third was not composed 
till some time afterwards). The edition, in sepa 
rate parts only, has a portrait of Haydn by 
Darcis after Guerin, and is dedicated to the First 
Consul. It was followed by 30 quartets and 5 
symphonies in score. In 1807 Pleyel founded 
the pianoforte factory which has since become so 
widely celebrated. [See PLEYEL & Co.] He died 
Nov. 14, 1831. 

Haydn considered Pleyel as his dearest and 
most efficient pupil. He writes from London: 
Since his arrival (Dec. 23, 1791), Pleyel has 
been so modest to me that my old affection has 
revived ; we are often together, and it does him 
honour to find that he knows the worth of his 
old father. We shall each take our share of 
success, and go home satisfied. Pleyel dedicated 
to Haydn his opera 2, six quartets in segno di 
perpetua gratitudine. When Pleyel s first six 
string quartets, dedicated to his patron, Count 
Ladislaus Erdody, appeared in Vienna, Mozart 
wrote to his father (April 24, 1784): Some 
quartets have come out by a certain Pleyel, 
a scholar of Jos. Haydn s. If you don t already 
know them, try to get them, it is worth your 
while. They are very well written, and very agree 
able ; you will soon get to know the author. 
It will be a happy thing for music if, when the 


time arrives, Pleyel should replace Haydn for 
us. This wish was not destined to be fulfilled. 
In his later works Pleyel gave himself up to 
a vast quantity of mechanical writing, vexing 
Haydn by copying his style and manner without 
a trace of his spirit, and misleading the public 
into neglecting the works of both master and 
scholar, including many of Pleyel s own earlier 
compositions, which were written with taste and 
care, and deserve a better fate than oblivion. 

Pleyel was emphatically an instrumental com 
poser, and wrote an enormous number of sym 
phonies, concertanti, and chamber pieces, of 
which a list will be found in Fe tis, comprising 
29 symphonies ; 5 books of quintets ; and 7 of 
quartets, some of them containing as many as 
1 2 compositions each ; 6 flute quartets ; 4 books 
of trios ; 8 concertos ; 5 symphonies concertanti ; 
8 books of duets for strings ; 10 books of sonatas 
for PF. solo, and 12 sonatas for PF. and violin. 
When in Italy he wrote an opera, Iphigenia 
in Aulide, which was performed at Naples. 
A Hymn to Night, probably a revolutionary 
piece, was published by Andre^ at Offenbach in 
1797- A series of 12 Lieder, op. 47, was pub 
lished at Hamburg by Giinther and Bohme. 
It has never yet been mentioned that his intro 
duction to the world as a vocal composer was 
with an opera for the Marionette theatre at 
Esterha"z in 1 7 76, Die Fee Urgele, containing 
a quantity of vocal pieces. A portrait of him, 
painted by H. Hardy and engraved by W. 
Nutter, was published by Bland during Pleyel s 
residence in London. 

CAMILLE, eldest son of the foregoing, born at 
Strassburg 1792, took over the music business in 
1824, associating himself with Kalkbrenner for 
the pianoforte department. He had had a good 
musical education from his father and Dussek ; 
he lived for some time in London, and published 
several pieces which evince considerable talent. 
He died at Paris May 4, 1855, leaving AUGUST 
WOLFF at the head of the firm. 

His wife, Marie Felicite" Denise Moke, known 
as MADAME PLEYEL, was born at Paris, July 4, 
1811, and at an early age developed an extraor 
dinary gift for playing. Herz, Moscheles, and 
Kalkbrenner, were successively her masters, and 
she learnt much from hearing Thalberg ; but her 
own unwearied industry was the secret of her 
success. Her tourndes in Russia, Germany, Au 
stria, Belgium, France, and England, were so 
many triumphal progresses, in which her fame 
continually increased. Mendelssohn in Leipzig, 
and Liszt at Vienna, were equally fascinated by 
her performances ; Liszt led her to the piano, 
turned over for her, and played with her a duet 
by Herz. Not less marked was the admiration 
of Auber and Fe tis, the latter pronouncing her 
the most perfect player he had ever heard. In 
this country she made her first appearance at 
the Philharmonic, June 27, 1846, in Weber s 
Concertstiick. To Brussels she always felt an 
attraction, and in 1848 took the post of teacher 
of the PF. in the Conservatorium there, which she 
retained till 1872. Her pupils were numerous, 

B 2 


and worthy of her remarkable ability. She died 
near Brussels, March 30, 1875. [C.F.P.] 

PLEYEL & CO. This distinguished Parisian 
firm of pianoforte-makers is now styled PLEYEL 
WOLFF ET CIE., and from particulars supplied by 
M. Wolff formerly a pianist and professor at 
the Conservatoire, and for many years head of 
the house its founder was Ignaz Pleyel, the 
composer, who established it in 1807. The 
Pleyel firm is remarkable for having always been 
directed by musicians, such as Camille Pleyel, 
who became his father s partner in 1821, and 
Kalkbrenner, who joined them three years later. 
At starting, the pianoforte-maker, HENRI PAPE, 
lent valuable aid. The influence of Chopin, who 
made his debut in Paris at Pleyel s rooms, in 1831, 
has remained a tradition in the facile touch and 
peculiar singing tone of their instruments. Camille 
Pleyel was succeeded in the control of the business 
by M. A. Wolff above mentioned, who has much 
improved the Pleyel grand pianos in the direction 
of power, having made them adequate to the 
modern requirements of the concert room, with 
out loss of those refined qualities to which we 
have referred- The firm has had since 1876 an 
agency in London. [A.J.H.] 

PLICA (literally, a Fold, or Plait). A cha 
racter, mentioned by Franco of Cologne, Joannes de 
Muris, and other early writers, whose accounts 
of it are not always very easily reconciled to each 
other. Franco describes four kinds : (i) the Plica 
longa ascendens, formed by the addition, to a 
square note, of two ascending tails, of which that 
on the right hand is longer than that on the left ; 
(2) the Plica longa descendens, the tails of which 
are drawn downwards, that on the right being, 
as before, longer than that on the left ; (3) the 
Plica brevis aseendens, in which the longer of 
the ascending tails is placed on the left side ; 
and (4) the Plica brevis descendens, in which 
the same arrangement obtains with the two de 
scending tails. 

1. 2. 3. 4. 




Joannes de Muris describes the Plica as a 
sign of augmentation, similar in effect to the 
Point. Franco tells us that it may be added 
at will to the Long, or the Breve ; but to the 
Semibreve only when it appears in Ligature. 
Some other writers apply the term Plica to 
the tail of a Large, or Long. The Descending 
Plica is sometimes identified with the Cephalicus, 
which represents a group of three notes, whereof 
the second is the highest. [See NOTATION, vol. ii. 
pp. 467, 468.] [W.S.R.] 

PLINTIVO, plaintive. A direction in use 
among the sentimental class of writers for the 
pianoforte, of which, however,no specimen isfound 
in the works of the great masters. [J.A.F.M.] 

PLUS ULTRA. A sonata in Ab by Dussek 
for pianoforte solo, op. 71. The motto Plus 
Ultra appears to have been provoked by that of 
WoelfTs sonata, NON PLUS ULTRA; but whether 


it was affixed by the composer or by the pub 
lishers is not certainly known ; probably by the 
latter, as the work was first published in Paris, 
to which Dussek had recently returned, with the 
title Le Retour a Paris. The title-pages of the 
two works are as follows : 

Non Plus Ultra. A Grand Sonata for the 
Pianoforte, in which is introduced the favourite 
Air Life let us Cherish, with Variations. Com 
posed and dedicated to Miss E. Binny by J. 
Woelfl. Op. 41. London : Printed and sold for 
the author by J. Lavenu. 

Plus Ultra. A Sonata for the Pianoforte, 
composed and dedicated to Non Plus Ultra,* 
by J. L. Dussek. Op. 71. London: Cianchetti 
and Sperati. 

* It alludes to a Sonata published under this title.* 

The dates of publication of the two works are 
probably 1800 and 1808 respectively. [G.] 

PNEUMA (from the Greek irvevfjia, a breath 
ing; Lat. Pneuma, velNeuma). Aform of Ligature, 
sung at the end of certain Plain Chaunt Melo 
dies, to an inarticulate vowel-like sound, quite 
unconnected with the verbal text ; in which par 
ticular it differs from the Perielesis, which is 
always sung to an articulate syllable. [See LIGA 

The use of the Pneuma can be traced back to a 
period of very remote antiquity quite certainly 
as far as the age of S. Augustine (350-430). 
Since then, it has been constantly employed in the 
Offices of the Roman Church ; more especially 
at High Mass, on Festivals, in connection with 
the Alleluia of the Gradual, from which it takes 
its Tone, as in the following Alleluia (Tone i), 
sung on Easter Sunday : 

Al - le - 

- - lu - - - - ia. 


^ J 

The Alleluia is first sung twice by two Cantors, 
and then repeated, in full Choir, with the ad 
dition of the Pneuma, also sung twice through. 
The two Cantors then intone the Versus, and the 
Choir respond ; after which the Alleluia is again 
sung by the Cantors, and the Pneuma by the Choir. 
The Preface to the Ratisbon Gradual directs that 
the Pneuma shall be sung upon the vowel A. 
There is no connection between this kind of 
Neuma and that described under NOTATION, 
vol. ii. p. 467. [W.S.R.] 

PNEUMATIC ACTION. A contrivance for 
lessening the resistance of the keys, and other 
moveable parts of an organ, previously attempted 
by others, and brought into a practical shape by 
CHAKLES S. BARKER between 1832 and 41, in 
which latter year it was first applied by Cavaille - 
Coll to the organ of S. Denis. The necessity of 
some such contrivance may be realised from the 
fact that in some of the organs on the old sys 
tem, a pressure of several pounds was required to 
force down each key. In Willis s Organ at the 


Alexandra Palace, London, if there were no 
pneumatic levers, the resistance to the finger at 
middle C with the couplers drawn would be 25 Ibs. 
For a description of the invention see ORGAN, 
vol. ii. p. 599. [&] 

POCO, a little ; rather ; as poco adagio, not 
quite so slow as adagio itself; poco sostenuto, 
somewhat sustained. It is the opposite of Assai. 
POCHETTINO is a diminutive of poco and implies 
the same thing but in a smaller degree. This is 
a refinement of very modern invention. [G.] 

PODATUS (Pedatus, Pes. A Foot, or Footed- 
note). A form of Ligature, much used in Plain 
Chaunt, and derived from a very antient Neuma, 
which will be found figured at vol. ii. p. 467. 

The Podatus consists of two notes, of which the 
second is the highest ; and, in the square form of 
Notation now in use, is represented thus 
Written. Sung. 

The two notes may be of the same, or different 
lengths ; but, as a general rule, the second note 
is the longest, more especially when the Liga 
ture ascends only one Degree. [See LIGATURE, 

POELCHATJ, GEORG, a distinguished ama 
teur, born July 5, 1773, at Cremon in Livonia, 
left Russia during the reign of the Emperor Paul, 
and settled in Hamburg, where he formed an 
intimacy with Klopstock. On the death of Em 
manuel Bach he bought the whole of his music, 
which contained many autographs of his father s. 
In 1813 he settled in Berlin, in 1814 became a 
member of the Singakaclemie, and assumed the 
charge of its library in 1833. At the request of 
the Crown Prince he searched the royal libraries 
for the compositions of Frederic the Great, and 
found 1 20 pieces. He died in Berlin, on Aug. 12, 
1836, and his collection, of music was bought by 
the Royal Library and the Singakademie. In 
1855 the Singakademie sold their collection of 
the autographs of the Bach family to the Royal 
Library, which now has a larger number of these 
treasures than any other institution. There is a 
bust of Poelchau in one of the rooms. [F.G.] 

POHL, CARL FERDINAND, writer on musical 
subjects, born at Darmstadt, Sept. 6, 1819, comes 
of a musical family, his grandfather having been 
the first maker of glass harmonicas, his father 
(died 1869) chamber-musician to the Duke of 
Hesse at Darmstadt, and his mother a daughter 
, of the composer Beczwarzowsky. In 1841 he 
settled in Vienna, and after studying under 
Sechter became in 1849 organist of the new 
Protestant church in the Gumpendorf suburb. 
At this date he published Variations on an old 
Nachtwachterlied (Diabelli), and other pieces. 
He resigned the post in 1855 on account of his 
health, and devoted himself exclusively to teach 
ing and literature. In 1862 he published in 
Vienna an interesting pamphlet On the history 
of the Glass harmonica. From 1863 to 1866 he 
lived in London, occupied in researches at the 
British Museum on Haydn and Mozart ; the 


results of which he embodied in his Mozart und 
Haydn in London, 2 vols. ( Vienna, Gerold, 1867), 
a work full of accurate detail, and indispensable 
to the student. Through the influence of Jahn 
and von Kochel, and of his intimate friend 
the Ritter von Karajan, Mr. Pohl was appointed 
in January 1866 to the important post of ar 
chivist and librarian to the Gesellschaft der 
Musikfreunde in Vienna. [See vol. i. 591.] To 
his care and conscientiousness the present highly 
satisfactory condition of the immense collections 
of this great institution is due. In connection 
therewith he has published two works, which, 
though of moderate extent, are full of interest, 
and are marked by that accuracy and sound 
judgment which distinguish all Mr. Pohl s works, 
namely, Die Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde und 
ihr Conservatorium in Wien (Braumtiller, 1871), 
and Denkschrift aus Anlass des 100 jahrigen 
Bestehens der Tonkiinstler Societat in Wien 
(Gerold, 1871). He has been for many years 
occupied on a biography of Haydn, which he un 
dertook at the instigation of Jahn, and of which 
vol. i. was published in 1875 (Berlin, Sacco ; since 
transferred to Breitkopf & Hartel). The main 
facts are contained in his article on Haydn in 
this Dictionary (vol. i. 702-722). The summaries 
of the musical events of each year which Mr. 
Pohl furnishes to the Signale fur die musikalische 
Welt/ of which he is the Vienna correspondent, 
are most careful and correct, and it would be a 
boon to the student of contemporary music if 
they could be republished separately. Mr. Pohl s 
courtesy to students desiring to collate MSS., and 
his readiness to supply information, are well known 
to the musical visitors to Vienna. [F. G.] 

POHL, DR. RICHARD, a German musical critic 
well known for his thoroughgoing advocacy of 
Wagner. We learn from M. Pougin s supplement 
to Fe"tis that he was born at Leipzig, Sept. 12, 
1826, that he devoted himself to mathematics, 
and after concluding his course at Gottingen 
and Leipzig was elected to a professorial chair 
at Gratz. This he vacated for political reasons, 
and then settled at Dresden and Weimar as a 
musical critic. He is one of the editors of the 
Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik, and a frequent 
contributor to the musical periodicals. He began 
his Autobiography in the Mus. Wochenblatt 
for Dec. 30, 1880. [G.] 

POINT or DOT (Lat. Punctus, vel Punctum ; 
Ital. Punto ; Germ. Punct ; Fr. Point}. A very 
antient character, used in mediaeval Music for 
many distinct purposes, though its office is now 
reduced within narrower limits. 

The Points described by Zarlino and various 
early writers are of four different kinds. 

in combination with notes naturally Imperfect, 
was exactly identical, both in form, and effect, 
with the modern Dot that is to say, it 
lengthened the note to which it was appended 
by one -half, and was necessarily followed by a 
note equivalent to itself in value, in order to 
complete the beat. The earliest known allu 
sion to it is to be found in the Ars Cantus 


mensurabilis of Franco of Cologne, the analogy 
between whose Tractulus, and the Punctus aug- 
mentationis of later writers, is so close that the 
two may be treated as virtually identical. 

fectionis) was used in combination with notes, 
Perfect by the Time Signature, but rendered Im 
perfect by Position, for the purpose of restoring 
their Perfection. In this case, no short note 
was needed for the purpose of compensation, as 
the Point itself served to complete the triple 
beat. Now, in mediaeval Music, a Breve, pre 
ceded or followed by a Semibreve, or a Semi- 
breve by a Minim, though perfect by virtue 
of the Time Signature, becomes Imperfect by 
Position. As the following example is written in 
the Greater (or Perfect) Prolation, each of its 
Semibreves is naturally equal to three Minims ; 
but, by the rule we have just set forth, the 
second and fourth notes become Imperfect by 
Position i. e. they are each equal to two Mi 
nims only. The fourth note is suffered to remain 
so, but the second is made Perfect by a Point of 


The term Punctus Perfections is also applied 
to the Point placed, by mediaeval Composers, 
in the centre of a Circle, or Semicircle, in order 
to denote either Perfect Time, or the Greater 

Duplication (Punctus Alterationis, vel Punctus 
Duplicationis), differs so much, in its effect, from 
any sign used in modern Music, that it is less 
easy to make it clear. In order to distinguish it 
from the Points already described, it is sometimes 
written a little above the level of the note to 
which it refers. Some printers, however, so place 
it, that it is absolutely indistinguishable, by any 
external sign, from the Point of Augmentation. 
In such cases it is necessary to remember that 
the only place in which it can possibly occur is 
before the first of two short notes, followed by a 
longer one or placed between two longer ones 
in Perfect Time, or the Greater Prolation ; that 
is to say, in Ternary Rhythm, of whatever kind. 
But its chief peculiarity lies in its action, which 
concerns, not the note it follows, but the second 
of the two short ones which succeed it, the value 
of which note it doubles as in the following 
example, from the old melody, L Homme arme, 
in which the note affected by the Point is dis 
tinguished by an asterisk. 

Written. * 


-A n j 

rTj f^. 


1 ^ * 


IV. The POINT OF DIVISION, sometimes called 
the Point of Imperfection (Punctus Divisionis, 
vel Imperfectionis ; Divisio Modi), is no ^ less 
complicated in its effect than that just described, 
and should also be placed upon a higher level 
than that of the notes to which it belongs, though, 
in practice, this precaution is very often neg 
lected. Like the Point of Alteration, it is only 
used in Ternary Measure; but it differs from 
the former sign, in being always placed be 
tween two short notes, the first of which is 
preceded, and the second followed, by a long one. 
Its action is, to render the two long notes Im 
perfect. But, a long note, in Ternary Rhythm, 
is always Imperfect by Position, when either 
preceded or followed by a shorter one : the use 
of the Points, therefore, in such cases, is alto 
gether supererogatory, and was warmly resented 
by mediaeval Singers, who called all such signs 
Puncti asinini. 


In spite, however, of its apparent complication, 
the rationale of the Sign is simple enough. An 
examination of the above passage will show that 
the Point serves exactly the same purpose as the 
Bar in modern Music ; and we can easily under 
stand that it is called the Point of Division, 
because it removes all doubt as to the division 
of the Rhythm into two Ternary Measures. 

The Composers of the I5th and i6th centuries 
frequently substituted, for the Points of Aug 
mentation, Alteration, and Division, a peculiar 
intermixture of black and white notes, which 
will be found fully described in vol. ii. pp. 
472, 473 of this Dictionary; and the Student 
will do well to make himself thoroughly ac 
quainted with them, since, without a clear 
understanding of these and other similar expe 
dients, it is impossible to decipher Music, either 
MS. or printed, of earlier date than the be 
ginning of the 1 7th century. [W.S.R.] 

POINT D ORGUE, organ point, appears to 
have two different meanings in French, and to be 
used (i) for an organ point or pedal, that is, a 
succession of harmonies carried over a holding 
note [PEDAL] ; and (2), with what reason is not 
plain, for the cadenza in a concerto the flourish 
interpolated between the chords of the 6-4 and 
7-3 of the cadence the place for which is indi 
cated by a pause T\. Rousseau gives a clue to the 
origin of the term by explaining (under Cou- 
ronne ) that when the above sign, which he de 
nominates Couronne, was placed over the last 
note of a single part in the score it was then 
called Point d orgue, and signified that the sound 
of the note was to be held on till the other parts 
had come to the end. Thus the note so held on 
became a pedal, and is so in theory. [G.] 


POINTS. A term applied, in modern Music, 
to the opening notes of the Subject of a Fugue, 
or other important Motive, to which it is neces 
sary that the attention of the Performer should 
be particularly directed by the Conductor. 

For instance, one of the most striking Subjects 
in the Hallelujah Chorus, is that adapted to the 
words For the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth. 
After this has been twice enuntiated by the whole 
body of Voices, in unison, the Point is taken 
up at the 22nd Bar by the Sopranos, at the 25th 
by the Tenors and Basses in unison, and at the 
29th, by the Altos and Tenors. These, then, are 
three of the most important Points in the 
Hallelujah Chorus. 

The term Point is also applicable to features 
of quite another kind. Thus, the entrance of 
the Horns in the First Movement of the Over 
ture to Der Freischiitz, and that of the First 
Clarinet at the 6oth Bar of the Molto Vivace, are 
Points of such vital importance that a careless 
reading on the part of their interpreters would 
entirely fail to convey the Composer s meaning, 
and render the performance spiritless and unin 
teresting to the last degree. 

These remarks concern, not only the performance 
of Orchestral and Church Music. They apply, 
with equal force, to Solo Performances of every 
kind : to Pianoforte Sonatas, and Organ Fugues, 
Violin Concertos, and Solos for the Flute or Oboe. 
In these, the Performer, having no Conductor 
to prompt him, must think for himself, and 
the success of his performance will depend en 
tirely upon the amount of his capacity for 
doing so. [W.S.R.] 

POISE, FERDINAND, born at Nlmes, June 3, 
1828, as a child showed a turn for music, but was 
only allowed to adopt it after taking his degree 
as a bachelier-es-lettres of Paris. He entered the 
Conservatoire in 1850, and in 1852 gained the 
second prize for composition, under Adolphe 
Adam, from whom he derived his taste for easy, 
flowing melody. Bonsoir Voisin, a pleasing 
little opera produced at the Theatre Lyrique, 
Sept. 18, 1853, was followed at the same theatre 
by Les Charmeurs (March 15, 1855), also a suc 
cess. He next produced Polichinelle (1856) at 
the Bouffes Parisiens ; and at the Opera Comique, 
Le Roi Don Pedre 2 acts (1857) ; ^e J ar " 
dinier Galant, 2 acts (March 4, 1861); Les 
Absents, a charming piece in one act (Oct. 26, 
1864) ; Corricolo 3 acts (Nov. 28, 1868) ; Les 
trois Souhaits (1873) ; La Surprise de 1 Amour, 
2 acts (Oct. 31, 1878); and L Amour Me"decin 
(Dec. 20, 1880). The two last, arranged by Poise 
and Monselet from Marivaux and Moliere, give a 
high idea of his powers. He has also composed 
another pretty little opera, Les deux Billets 
(1858), revived at the Athende in Feb. 1870. 
In their ease and absence of pretension his works 
resemble those of Adolphe Adam, but there the 
comparison ends ; the latter had a real vein of 
comedy, while Poise s merriment has the air of 
being assumed to conceal his inward melancholy. 
Nevertheless his music is flowing and happy; 
and being well-scored, and never vulgar, it is 


listened to with pleasure, and is remembered. It 
would be more generally popular if M. Poise 
exerted himself more ; but his health is delicate, 
he lives in retirement, writes only when so dis 
posed, and instead of aspiring to fame and fortune, 
seeks only to secure his independence, and to en 
joy the refined pleasures of music. [G.C.] 

POLACCA (Italian for POLONAISE). Polac- 
cas may be defined as Polonaises treated in an 
Italian manner, but still retaining much of the 
rhythm characteristic of their Polish origin. Po- 
laccas are both vocal and instrumental, and are 
generally of a brilliant and ornate description, 
gaining in brilliancy what they lose in national 
character. Thus Chopin, in a letter from War 
saw, dated Nov. 14, 1829 (Karasowski, vol. i.), 
speaks of an Alia Polacca with cello accom 
paniment that he had written, as nothing more 
than a brilliant drawing-room piece suitable for 
the ladies, and although this composition is pro 
bably the same as the Introduction et Polonaise 
Brillante pour Piano et Violoncello (op. 3) in 
C major, yet from the above passage it seems as 
if Chopin did not put it in the same class as his 
poetical compositions for the pianoforte which 
bear the same name. [W.B.S.] 

POLE, WILLIAM, Mus. Doc., F.E.S, an instance 
of the successful union of science, literature, and 
music. He was born at Birmingham in 1814, and 
was bred to the profession of Civil Engineer 
ing, in which he has become eminent. He has 
written many works and papers on scientific sub 
jects, and is a contributor to the leading Reviews, 
and an F.R.S. of London and Edinburgh. 

His taste for music developed itself early ; he 
studied hard at both theoretical and practical 
music, and was organist in a London West End 
church for many years. He graduated at Oxford 
as Mus. Bac. in 1860, and as Mus. Doc. in 1867. 
He was appointed Reporter to the Jury on Mu 
sical Instruments at the International Exhibition 
of 1862, and is one of the Examiners for Musical 
Degrees in the University of London, author of 
a Treatise on the Musical Instruments in the 
Exhibition of 1851, The Story of Mozart s Re 
quiem, 1879, The Philosophy of Music, 1879, 
and various minor critical essays, three of which, 
written in 1858, on certain works of Mozart and 
Beethoven have been mentioned in the article 
ANALYSIS. His only musical compositions printed 
are a well-known motet for 8 voices on the 
Hundredth Psalm, and some four-handed PF. 
accompaniments to classical songs. [G.] 

POLIUTO. An opera in 3 acts ; the libretto 
conceived by Adolphe Nourrit (who designed 
the principal r6le for himself), and carried out 
by Cammarano ; the music by Donizetti. It 
was completed in 1838, but the performance was 
forbidden by the Censure of Naples. It was 
then translated into French by Scribe, and under 
the title of Les Martyrs/ was produced at the 
Grand Opdra (4 acts), April 10, 1840; at the 
Theatre Italien, as I Martiri, April 14, 1859; 
in London, as I Martiri, at the Royal Italian 
Opera, April 20, 1852. [G.] 



POLKA, a well-known round dance, said to 
be of Bohemian origin. According to Alfred 
Waldaw ( Bohmische Nationaltanze, Prague, 
1859 an d I 86o) the polka was invented in the year 
1830 by a servant girl who lived at Elbeteinitz, 
the music being written down by a local musician 
named Neruda. The original name by which 
the polka was known in its birthplace and in the 
neighbourhood of Jicin, Kopidlno, andDimokury, 
was the Nimra. This was derived from the 
song to which it was danced, the first lines of 
which ran as follows : 

Strejcek Nimra 

Kou^il simla 

Za pul pta tolaru. 1 

In 1835 it was danced in Prague, where it first 
obtained the name of Polka, which is probably 
a corruption of the Czech pulka (half), a char 
acteristic feature of the dance being its short half- 
steps. According to another account the polka 
was invented in 1834 by a native of Moksic, near 
Hitschin in Bohemia, and was from that place in 
troduced into Prague by students. In 1839 it was 
brought to Vienna by the band of a Bohemian 
regiment under its conductor, Pergler ; in 1840 it 
was danced at the Ode on in Paris by the Bohemian 
Kaab ; and in 1844 ** found its way to London. 
Wherever the polka was introduced, it suddenly 
attained an extraordinary popularity. Vienna, 
Paris, and London were successively attacked 
by this curious polkamania ; clothes, hats, and 
streets were named after the dance, and in Eng 
land the absurdity was carried so far that public 
houses displayed on their signs the Polka Arms. 
In the Illustrated London News for March 23, 
1844, will be found a polka by Offenbach, a, 
celebrated French artiste, headed by two rather 
primitive wood-cuts, to which the following de 
scription of the dance is appended : The Polka 
is an original Bohemian peasant dance, and was 
first introduced into the fashionable saloons of 
Berlin and St. Petersburg about eight years 
since. 2 Last season it was the favourite at 
Baden-Baden. The Polka is written in 2-4 time. 
The gentleman holds his partner in the manner 
shown in the engraving ; each lift first the right 
leg, strike twice the left heel with the right 
heel, and then turn as in the waltz a perform 
ance which must have presented a rather curious 
appearance. On April 13 the same paper, re 
viewing a polka by Jullien, says : It is waste 
of time to consider this nonsense. The weather 
cock heads of the Parisians have been delighted 
always by any innovation, but they never im 
ported anything more ridiculous or ungraceful 
than this Polka. It is a hybrid confusion of 
Scotch Lilt, Irish Jig, and Bohemian Waltz, and 
needs only to be seen once to be avoided for 
ever ! In spite of this criticism the popularity 
of the dance went on increasing, and the papers 
of the day are full of advertisements professing 
to teach * the genuine polka. It was danced at 
Her Majesty s Opera by Cerito, Carlotta Grisi, 

1 Translation: Uncle Nimra bought a -white horse for five and a 
half Thalers. 

2 If this is true, the dates of Waldau s account of the origin of the 
dance can hardly be correct. 


and Perrot, and the following was published as 
the much celebrated Polka Dance, performed at 
Her Majesty s Theatre, by Carlotta Grisi and M. 
Perrot, composed and arranged for the Pianoforte 
by Alberto Sowinsky. 



Many ways of dancing the polka seem to have 
been in use, and in order to settle all disputes 
on the important matter, the Illustrated London 
News on May 1 1 (having changed its opinions 
since April) was much gratified in being enabled 
to lay before its readers an accurate descrip 
tion of the veritable, or Drawing-room Polka, as 
danced at Almack s, and at the balls of the nobility 
and gentry in this country. According to this 
description, which is accompanied by three very 
amusing illustrations, the polka began with an 
introduction (danced vis a vis), and consisted 
of five figures. Of these, the heel and toe step, 
which was the most characteristic feature of the 
dance, has been quite abandoned, probably owing 
to the difficulty in executing it properly, which 
(according to Punch, vol. vii. p. I72 3 ) gene 
rally caused it to result in the dancers stamping 
their own heels upon other people s toes. The 
account of the polka concludes as follows : In 
conclusion we would observe that La Polka is 
a noiseless dance ; there is no stamping of heels, 
toes, or kicking of legs in sharp angles forward. 
This may do very well at the threshold of a 
Bohemian auberge, but is inadmissible into the 
salons of London or Paris. La Polka, as danced 
in Paris, and now adopted by us, is elegant, 
graceful and fascinating in the extreme ; it is 
replete with opportunities of showing care and 
attention to your partner in assisting her through 
its performance. The rage for the polka did 
not last long, and the dance gradually fell into 
disuse in England for many years. It has how 
ever recently come once more into vogue, but 
the toe and heel step has happily not been 
revived with it. 

The music of the polka is written in 2-4 time ; 
according to Cellarius ( La Danse des Salons, 
Paris, 1847) the tempo is that of a military 
march played rather slowly ; Maelzel s metro 
nome, J = iO4. The rhythm is characterised by 
the following 2-bar figures : 

3 See also Punch, vol. vi, for an admirable cartoon by Leech, 
representing Lord Brougham dancing the polka with the woolsack. 



The music can be divided into the usual 8-bar 
parts. In all early polkas the figure 

9* 2. 

& p p 

p 1 

^4 _ 

is found in the accompaniment of the 4th and 
8th bars of these parts, marking a very slight 
pause in the dance, but in recent examples this 
pause has disappeared, owing to the dance being 
performed somewhat faster, and more in the spirit 
of a waltz or galop. The first polka which was 
published is said to have been composed by Franz 
Hilmar, a native of Kopildno in Bohemia. The 
best national polkas are those by Labitzky, Lieb- 
mann, Prochaska, Swoboda, and Titl. [W.B.S.] 

nent violinist, was born at Piova" near Turin 
June 10, 1781 (or according to another source 
1776). He received his first instruction from local 
musicians, at 15 studied for a short time under 
Pugnani, and soon entered the royal band at 
Turin. In 1804 ^ e became first violin in the 
Theatre at Bergamo, and after a short stay there 
began to travel. In Russia he remained for 
five years, and in 1814 accepted the appointment 
of leader of the band at Dresden, where he 
remained till 1824. In that year he accepted a 
brilliant engagement as Director general of the 
royal orchestra at Turin. He died at his native 
village Aug. 15, 1853. 

Polledro was an excellent violinist and sound 
musician. He had the great tone and dignified 
style of the classical Italian school. All con 
temporaneous critics praise his faultless and 
brilliant execution not less than the deep feel 
ing with which he played. In 1812 he met 
Beethoven at Carlsbad, and played with him 
one of Beethoven s violin-sonatas (see Thayer s 
Life of Beethoven, iii. 208). His published com 
positions consist of three concertos, some airs 
varies, trios and duos for stringed instruments, 
and a set of exercises for the violin ; a Miserere 
and a Mass for voices and orchestra, and a 
Sinfonia pastorale for full orchestra. [P. D.] 

POLLINI, FRANCESCO, born at Lubiano, in 
Ulyria, in 1763 (1774 or 1778), and a pupil of 
Mozart. He became a skilful pianist at an early 
age, his style having combined some of the dis 
tinguishing characteristics of that of his pre 
ceptor, of dementi and of Hummel, each of whom 
he surpassed in some forms of the mere mechan 
ism of the art. Pollini indeed may, in this respect, 
be considered as an inventor, having anticipated 
Thalberg in the extended grasp of the keyboard 
by the use of three staves (as in Thalberg s 
Fantasia on God save the Queen, and Rule 
Britannia ) thus enabling the player to sustain 
a prominent melody in the middle region of the 
instrument, while each hand is also employed 
with elaborate passages above and beneath it. 
This remarkable mode of producing by two hands 

POLO. 9 

almost the effect of four, appears indeed to have 
been ^originated by Pollini in his Uno de tren- 
tadue Esercizi in forma di toccata, brought out in 
1820. This piece was dedicated to Meyerbeer; 
the original edition containing a preface ad 
dressed to that composer by Pollini, which 
includes the following passage explanatory of 
the construction of the Toccata : I propose to 
offer a simple melody more or less plain, and 
of varied character, combined with accompani 
ments of different rhythms, from which it can be 
clearly distinguished by a particular expression 
and touch in the cantilena in contrast to the 
accompaniment. Dehn appears to have been the 
first to draw attention to Pollini s specialty, in 
his preface to the original edition of Liszt s 
pianoforte transcriptions of the six great organ 
Preludes and Fugues of Bach. 

Pollini s productions consist chiefly of piano 
forte music, including an elaborate instruction 
book, many solo pieces, and some for two per 
formers. These works are included in the 
catalogue of Ricordi, of Milan. Pollini also 
produced some stage music, and a Stabat Mater. 
He was highly esteemed professionally and 
personally by his contemporaries. Bellini de 
dicated his Sonnarnbula al celebre Francesco 
Pollini. The subject of this notice died at Milan 
in April 1847. [H.J.L.] 

POLLY, a Ballad-opera, written by John Gay 
as a second part of his Beggar s Opera. When 
about to be rehearsed a message was received 
from the Lord Chamberlain that the piece was 
not allowed to be acted but commanded to be 
suppressed, the prohibition being supposed to 
have been instigated by Sir Robert Walpole, 
who had been satirised in The Beggar s Opera. 
Failing to obtain a reversal of the decree Gay 
had recourse to the press, and in 1729 published 
the piece in 4to., with the tunes of the songs, 
and a numerous list of subscribers, by which he 
gained at least as much as he would have done 
by representation. Like most sequels, Polly 
is far inferior to the first part, and when in 1777 
it was produced at the Haymarket theatre, with 
alterations by the elder Colman, it was so un 
successful that it was withdrawn after a few 
representations. It was revived at the same 
theatre June II, 1782, and again at Drury Lane 
(for Kelly s benefit), June 16, 1813. [W.H.H.] 

POLO or OLE, a Spanish dance accompanied 
by singing, which took its origin in Andalusia. 
It is said to be identical with the Romalis, 
which is danced to an old religious Eastern 
tune, low and melancholy, diatonic, not chro 
matic, and full of sudden pauses, which are 
strange and startling, and is only danced by 
the Spanish gipsies. It resembles the oriental 
dances in being full of wild energy and contor 
tions of the body, while the feet merely glide or 
shuffle along the ground. The words ( coplas ) 
of these dances are generally of a jocose char 
acter, and differ from those of the Seguidilla 
in wanting the estrevillo, or refrain; several 

i Walter Thornbury, Life in Spain. 



examples of them may be found in Preciso s 
Coleccionde Las Mejores Coplasde Seguidillas, 
Tirauas y Polos (Madrid, 1816). They are 
sung in unison by a chorus, who mark the time 
by clapping their hands. Some characteristic 
examples of the music of the Polo will be found in 
J. Gansino s La Joya de Andalucia (Madrid, 
Bomero). [W.B.S.] 

POLONAISE, a stately dance of Polish origin. 
According to Sowinski ( Les Musiciens Polo- 
nais ) the Polonaise is derived from the ancient 
Christmas carols which are still sung in Poland. 
In support of this theory he quotes a carol, 
W zlobie lezy, which contains the rhythm and 
close characteristic of the dance ; but the fact 
that although in later times they were accom 
panied by singing, yet the earliest Polonaises 
extant are purely instrumental, renders it more 
probable than the generally received opinion as 
to their courtly origin is correct. According to 
this latter view, the Polonaise originated under 
the following circumstances. In 15 73, Henry III. 
of Anjou was elected to the Polish throne, and 
in the following year held a great reception at 
Cracow, at which the wives of the nobles 
marched in procession past the throne to the 
sound of stately music. It is said that after 
this, whenever a foreign prince was elected to 
the crown of Poland the same ceremony was 
repeated, and that out of it the Polonaise was 
gradually developed as the opening dance at 
court festivities. If this custom was introduced 
by Henry III., we may perhaps look upon the 
Polonaise, which is so full of stateliness, as the 
survival of the dignified Pavans and Passomezzos 
which were so much in vogue at the French 
court in the I5th century. Evidence is not 
wanting to prove that the dance was not always 
of so marked a national character as it assumed 
in later times. Book vii. of Be~sard s The 
saurus Harmonious Divini Laurencini Romani 
(Cologne 1603) consists of * Selectiores aliquot 
chorese quas Allemande vocant, germanico saltui 
maxime accomodatee, una cum Polonicis aliquot 
et aliis ab hoc saltationis genere haud absimi- 
libus, and these chorese Polonicse (which are 
principally composed by one Diomedes, a natural 
ised Venetian at the court of Sigismund III.) ex 
hibit very slightly the rhythm and peculiarities of 
Polish national music. During the 1 7th century, 
although it was no doubt during this time that 
it assumed the form that was afterwards destined 
to become so popular, the Polonaise has left no 
mark upon musical history, and it is not until 
the first half of the iSth century that examples 
of it begin to occur. 1 In Walther s Lexicon 
(1732) no mention is made of it, or of any Polish 
music ; but in Mattheson s Volkommener Ca- 
pellmeister (1739) we ^^ ^ ( as * ne author 
himself tells us) described for the first time. 
Mattheson notices the spondaic character of the 

i In the Koyal Library at Berlin there is preserved a MS. volume 
which bears the date 1725, and formerly belonged to Bach s second 
wife, Anna Magdalena. In it are six Polonaises, written in the 
owner s autograph ; but it is improbable that they are all of Se 
bastian Bach s composition. 


rhythm, and remarks that the music of the Polo 
naise should begin on the first beat of the bar : 
he gives two examples (one in 3-4, the other 
in common time) made by himself out of the 
chorale Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ. At 
this time the Polonaise seems suddenly to have 
attained immense popularity, probably owing to 
the intimate connexion between Saxony and 
Poland which was caused by the election (1733) 
of Augustus III. to the Polish throne. In 1 742- 
43 there was published at Leipzig a curious 
little collection of songs entitled, Sperontes 
Singende Muse, which contains many adapta 
tions of Polish airs : in the following example 
(from the second part of the work) some of the 
peculiarities of the Polonaise may be traced. 





Deine Blicke Sind die Stricke, All - er - an - ge 

nehmstes Kind, Die die Liebe so bezwingend nicht 

Nimmt mehr Herzen ein, Als des Mo - gols Macht 

Volk an sich gebracht, TJnd der grOsste Feldherr und Sol - dat. 

Noch zur Zeit jemals be - zwungen hat. 

From this time the Polonaise has always been 
a favourite form of composition with instru 
mental composers, and has not been without 
influence on vocal music, especially in Italian 
opera. [SeePoLACCA.] Bach wrote two Polonaises 
(orchestral Partita in B minor, and French Suite, 
No. 6), besides a Polacca (Brandenburg Con 
certos, No. i, Dehn); and there are also ex 
amples by Handel (Grand Concerto, No. 3, in 
E minor), Beethoven (op. 89, Triple Concerto, and 
Serenade Trio, op. 8), Mozart ( Kondeau Polo 
naise, Sonata in D minor), Schubert (Polonaises 
for 4 hands), Weber (op. 21, and the Polacca 
Brillante, op. 72), Wagner (for 4 hands, op. 2), 
as well as by the Polish composers Kurpinski 
and Ogniski, and above all by Chopin, under 
whose hands it reached what is perhaps the 
highest development possible for mere dance- 
forms. Attracted by its striking rhythmical capa 
bilities, and imbued with the deepest national 
sympathy, Chopin animated the dry form of the 
old Polonaise with a new and intensely living 
spirit, altering it as (in a lesser degree) he 
altered the Waltz and the Mazurka, and chang 
ing it from a mere dance into a glowing tone- 




picture of Poland, her departed glory, her many 
wrongs, and her hoped-for regeneration. Kara- 
sowski (Life of Chopin, vol. ii.) divides his 
Polonaises into two classes. The first (which 
includes those in A major, op. 40, No. i ; F$ 
minor, op. 44, and Ab major, op. 53) is charac 
terised by strong and martial rhythm, and may 
be taken to represent the feudal court of Poland 
in the days of its splendour. The second class 
(including the Polonaises in Cjf minor and 
Eb minor, op. 26 ; in C minor, op. 40, No. 2 ; 
in D minor, Bb major and F minor, op. 71) is 
distinguished by dreamy melancholy, and forms 
a picture of Poland in her adversity. The 
Fantaisie Polonaise (Ab major, op. 61) is dif 
ferent in character to both classes, and is said 
to represent the national struggles ending with 
a song of triumph. 

As a dance, the Polonaise is of little interest : 
it consists of a procession in which both old and 
young take part, moving several times round the 
room in solemn order. It does not depend upon 
the execution of any particular steps, although 
it is said to have been formerly danced with 
different figures, something like the English 
country dances. It still survives in Germany, 
and is danced at the beginning of all court balls. 
In Mecklenburg a sort of degenerate Polonaise 
is sometimes danced at the end of the evening ; 
it is called Der Auskehr ( The Turn-out ), 
and consists in a procession of the whole com 
pany through the house, each person being armed 
with some household utensil, and singing in 
chorus Un as de Grotvare de Grotmoder nahm. 

The tempo of the Polonaise is that of a march, 
played between Andante and Allegro : it is 
nearly always written in 3-4 time, 1 and should 
always begin on the first beat of the bar. It 
generally consists of two parts, sometimes fol 
lowed by a trio in a different key ; the number 
of bars in each part is irregular. The chief 
peculiarity of the Polonaise consists in the strong 
emphasis falling repeatedly on the half-beat of 
the bar, the first beat generally consisting of a 
quaver followed by a crotchet (see the Polo 
naise given below). Another peculiarity is 
that the close takes place on the third beat, 
often preceded by a strong accent on the second 
beat. The last bar should properly consist of 
four semiquavers, the last of which should fall on 
the major seventh, and be repeated before the 
concluding chord, thus : 


The accompaniment generally consists of quavers 
and semiquavers in the following rhythm : 

r r r r 

The following example, although not conforming 
entirely with the above rules, is nevertheless 
interesting as a genuine Polonaise danced and 

i Mattheson says it may be written in common time. 

sung at weddings in the district of Krzeszowice 
in Poland at the present day. 

Poja 7 lem sobie nieprzeplacona, Ksiedza plebana 

ryf^f , | J j JpJb 

|CJ ^_tJ4-i ug 

siostrg rodgona. Dal ci mi tyle da tyle wiana, ocipke sloniny 

i wiaz kg siana. Moji sa siedzi osadz cie lepiej. 

niechze mi choc da zagonek rzepy.2 

The notes printed in small type are variations 
of the tune which are performed in some dis 
tricts. [W.B.S.] 

POLONINI, ENTIMIO, a singer who began 
his career in England April 13, 1847, a ^ Covent 
Garden as Eaimondo in Lucia, with fair suc 
cess, and displayed a very sonorous voice which 
told well in the concerted music. 3 He next 
played, May 8, De Fiesque, on the production 
in England of Donizetti s Maria di Bob an, 
Fiorello ( II Barbiere ), Antonio ( Le Nozze ) 
etc. He has a fine bass voice and sings like 
a thorough musician. 4 For the space of 21 
years he sang at the Royal Italian Opera, and 
proved of great service in small but not altogether 
unimportant parts, besides the above, such as, 
Masetto, II Ministro (Fidelio), Melcthal, Mathi- 
sen (Prophete) Alberto (La Juive), Borella 
(Masaniello) etc., and occasionally in those of 
more importance, with success, viz. Orbazzano 
and Alidoro, on the revivals of Tancredi, La 
Cenerentola/ Leporello, St. Bris, etc. The rest of 
the year he was engaged either at Paris, or St. 
Petersburg, etc. The enumeration of his parts is 
sufficient to show that Signer Polonini, in addition 
to his good qualities as a singer, was a versatile 
actor. He was characterised by Mr . Chorley as one 
of the most valuable artists of a second class ever 
possessed by a theatre. He has for some years 
retired from public life. A son of his, ALES- 
SANDRO, a baritone, has appeared in Italy and 
elsewhere. [A.C.] 

POLSKA, a national Swedish dance, popular 
in West Gothland, something like a Scotch reel 
in character. Polskas are usually written in 
minor keys, although they are occasionally found 
in the major. The example which is given below 
( Neckens Polska ) is well known, as Ambroise 

2 Translation:! have taken for my wife the reverend Parson s 
own sister. He gave me as her marriage portion a piece of bacon and 
a bundle of hay. My neighbours, what do you think ? The fellow 
has refused to give me even a little plot of land sown with turnips. 

J Musical World, April 17, 1847. 4 Ib. Aug. 21, 1847. 



Thomas has introduced it in Ophelia s mad scene 
in Hamlet. Other examples will be found in 
Ahlstrom s Walda Svenska Folksanga (Stock 
holm, 1850). 



POLYEUCTE. Opera in 5 acts ; the words 
(founded on Corneille s tragedy) by Barbier and 
Carre , the music by Gounod. Produced at the 
Opera, Paris, October 7, 1878. The name is the 
same as POLIUTO. [G,] 

^ POLYPHONIA (Eng. Polyphony, from the 
Gr. TTO\.VS, many, </>o>i/7), a voice). A term ap 
plied, by modern Musical Historians, to a cer 
tain species of unaccompanied Vocal Music, in 
which each Voice is made to sing a Melody 
of its own; the various Parts being bound 
together, in obedience to the laws of Counter 
point, into an harmonious whole, wherein it is 
impossible to decide which Voice has the most 
important task allotted to it, since all are 
equally necessary to the general effect. It is in 
this well-balanced equality of the several Parts 
that Polyphonia differs from Monodia ; in 
which the Melody is given to one Part only, 
while supplementary Voices and Instruments 
are simply used to fill up the Harmony. ("See 

The development of Polyphony from the first 
rude attempts at Diaphonia, Discant, or Orga- 
num, described by Franco of Cologne, Guido 
d Arezzo, and others, was so perfectly natural, 
that, notwithstanding the slowness of its progress, 
we can scarcely regard the results it eventually 
attained in any other light than that of an in 
evitable consequence. The first quest of the 
Musicians who invented < Part -Singing wa s 
some method of making a Second Voice sing 
notes which, though not identical with those of 
the Canto fermo, would at least be harmonious 
with them. While searching for this, they dis 
covered the use of one Interval after another, 
and employed their increased knowledge to so good 
purpose, that, before long, they were able to assign 
to the Second Voice a totally independent Part. 
It is true, that, to our ears, the greater number of 
their progressions are intolerable ; less, however, 
because they mistook the character of the Inter 
vals they employed, than because they did not 


at first understand the proper method of using 
them in succession. They learned this in course 
of time ; and, discarding their primitive Sequences 
of Fifths and Fourths, attained at last the power 
of bringing two Voice parts into really harmoni 
ous relation with each other. The rate of their 
progress may be judged by the two following 
examples, the first of which is from a MS. of 
the end of the nth or beginning of the I2th 
century, in the Ambrosian Collection at Milan ; 
and the second, from one of the I4th, in the Paris 

(i) llth or 12th cent. 


yi h o 


|(1V :> 



22 <^ 






Mi - ra le - 


mi - ro mo - do, De 



" i O 


- - (j & 









for - 


"T" "^ :s: 

ho - mi - nem. 

c-i ^ F-* "^ H 


1 H 


Now, in both these cases, the two Parts are equally 
melodious. There are no long chains of reiterated 
notes, merely introduced, as Guido would have 
introduced them, for the purpose of supporting 
the Melody upon a Pedal-Point : but, each Part 
has its own work to do ; and it cannot fairly be 
said that one is more important than the other. 
[See ORGANTJM.] Equal care was taken to pre 
serve an absolutely independent Melody, in each 
several Part, when, at a later period, Composers at 
tempted the production of Motets, and other similar 
works, in three and four Parts. We find no 
less pains bestowed upon the Melody of the Tri- 
plum, 1 in such cases, than upon that of the 
Tenor, or Motetus ; and very rarely indeed does 
the one exhibit more traces of archaic stiffness 
than the other. The following example from 
a Mass composed by Guillaume de Machault 
for the Coronation of Charles V, in the year 
1364, shews a remarkable freedom of Melody 
for the time in all the Parts. 

A Triplum. 

f\ (~\ J 


^ Motetus. M 




^1 ^^ 


t ^^"^ 

1 That is, the Third Part whence our English word, Treble. The 
Fourth Part was sometimes called Quadruplum, and the Fifth 
Quincuplum. The principal part, containing the Canto fermo was 
sometimes called Tenor, and sometimes Motetus. The term Contra- 
tenor was applied to the part which lay nearest the Tenor, whether 
immediately above, immediately below, or exactly of equal compass 
with it. This part was also frequently called Medius. 





! i 

IT i i 

1 J 

5C p ^ 

J J 



<ZJ tl 9 m 

ii ~ . I-TI 

>in - 



J I ! 

-0 ^ 



. j hZi 

\- k " 1 



1 i i 1 


^ * J 


i i i 

CG3 3CZ22 

- nse vo - 

Ib 1 Ib 
lun - ta - tis. 

] J J 


Lau - damus Te, etc. 

>TJ ? >T3 . 

^-^ *--i i 

S B * . s: 

& P & P 

|C5 1- 

Rude as this is, it manifests a laudable de 
sire for the attainment of that melodious motion 
of the separate Parts, which, not long after the 
death of its Composer, became the distinguishing 
characteristic of mediaeval Music. With all their 
stiffness, and strange predilection for combina 
tions now condemned as intolerable, we cannot 
but see that the older writers did their best to 
provide every Singer with an interesting Part. 
Nevertheless, true Polyphony, was not yet in 
vented. For that, it was necessary, not only 
that every Voice should sing a melodious strain ; 
but, that each should take its share in the 
elucidation of one single idea, not singing for 
itself alone, but answering its fellow Voices, and 
commenting, as it were, upon the passages sung 
by them. In other words, it was necessary that 
every voice should take up a given Subject, 
and assist in developing it into a Fugue, or 
Canon, or other kind of composition for which 
it might be best suited. This was the one 
great end and aim of true Polyphony; and, 
for the practical realisation of the idea, we are 
undoubtedly indebted to the Great Masters of 
the early Flemish School, to whose ingenuity 
we owe the invention of some of the most attrac 
tive forms of Imitation and Fugal Device on re 
cord. The following quotation from a Chanson 
a trois voix by one of the earliest of them, 
Antonius Busnois, who is known to have been 
employed as a Singer in the Chapel of Charles 
the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, in the year 1467, 
will serve to shew the enormous strides that Art 
was making in the right direction. 


y .y 

i 1 1 r 

1 ) 

^ f 


:):,(* ^. 

suis venut vers mon 

-. r~^> F^\ f-f - ^ ] 

Je suis 

^ b v -^- 


1 1 

* m^ 

ve - nut vei 

~^ ^^~ f^ 

s a mon a -my etc. 

Here we see a regular Subject started by the 
lenor, and answered by the Triplurn, note for 

note, with a clearness which at once shews the 
unity of the Composer s design. When this stage 
was reached the Polyphonic School, may be said 
to have been fairly established ; and it only re 
mained to bring out its resources by aid of the 
genius of the great writers who practised it. The 
list of these Masters is a long one ; but certain 
names stand out before all others, as borne by men 
whose labours have left an indelible impression 
upon the Schools to which they belonged. Of 
these men, Guillaume Dufay was one, and Ocken- 
heim another; but the greatest genius of the I5th 
century was undoubtedly Josquin des Prds, the in 
genuity of whose contrupuntal devices has never 
been exceeded. Uberto Waelrant, Jacques Arch- 
adelt, and Adrian Willaert, wrote in simpler 
form, but bequeathed to their successors an 
amount of delicate expression which was turned 
to excellent account by their scholars in Italy. 
Their gentler fervour was eagerly caught up 
by Costanzo Festa, Giovanni Croce, Luca Ma- 
renzio, and a host of others whos.e talents were 
scarcely inferior to theirs ; while, facile prin- 
ceps, Palestrina rose above them all, and clothed 
Polyphony with a beauty so inimitable, that 
his name has been bestowed upon the School as 
freely as if he had lived in the 1 5th century to 
inaugurate it. 

A careful study of the works of this great 
writer will shew that, when regarded from a 
purely technical point of view, their greatest 
merit lies in the strictness with which the Poly 
phonic principle has been carried out, in their 
development. Of course, their real excellence 
lies in the genius which dictated them : but, 
setting this aside, and examining merely their 
mechanical structure, we find, not only that 
every Part is necessary to the well-being of the 
whole, but, that it is absolutely impossible to say 
in which Part the chief interest of the Com 
position is concentrated. In this respect, Pales 
trina has carried out, to their legitimate con 
clusion, the principles we laid down in the 
beginning of our article, as those upon which 
the very existence of Polyphony depended. It 
would seem impossible that Art could go beyond 
this ; and, in this particular direction, it never has 
gone beyond it. It is impossible, now, even to 
guess what would have happened had the Poly 
phonic School been cultivated, in the 1 7th 
century, with the zeal which was brought to 
bear upon it in the i6th. That it was not so 
cultivated is a miserable fact which can never be 
sufficiently deplored. Palestrina died in 1594; 
and, as early as the year 1600, his work was 
forgotten, and its greatest triumphs contemned 
as puerilities. Monteverde sapped the founda 
tions of the School by his contempt for contra 
puntal laws. Instrumental Accompaniment was 
substituted for the ingenuity of pure vocal 
writing. The Choir was sacrificed to the Stage. 
And, before many years had passed, the Poly 
phonic School was known no more, and Monodia 
reigned triumphant. Happily, the laws to which 
Palestrina yielded his willing obedience, and to 
the action of which his Music owes so much of 



its outward and technical value, are as well 
understood now as in the days in which he 
practised them. There is, therefore, no reason 
why the practice of the purest Polyphony should 
not, some day, be revived among us. We see 
but little promise of such a consummation at the 
present moment; but it is something to know 
that it is not impossible. [W.S.R.] 

POMPOSO, pompously, is used by Schumann 
in the Humoreske, op. 20, for pianoforte. He 
marks the last movement but one Mit einigem 
Pomp, or Un poco pomposo. Handel had 
employed the term a century before in the first 
movement of the overture to Samson. It is also 
used by Sterndale Bennett as the title of the trio 
in the Symphony G- minor, op. 43. [J.A.F.M.] 

Paderno Fasolaro, Cremona, Sept. I, 1834. In 
Nov. 1843 he entered the Conservatorio of Milan, 
and remained there till Sept. 1854. Two years 
afterwards, on Aug. 30, 1856, he was able to 
produce at the Concordia at Cremona his first 
opera, I promessi Sposi. His next were La 
Savojarda, Cremona, Jan. 19, 1861 ; Roderico, 
Piacenza, 1864 ; and La Stella del Monte, 
in 1867. Hitherto Signor Ponchielli s reputa 
tion had been confined to the provinces; but in 
1872 he was fortunate enough to find an oppor 
tunity of coming before the general public at 
the opening of the New Theatre Dal Verme 
at Milan, where his Promessi Sposi was per 
formed Dec. 5. He rewrote a considerable por 
tion of the opera for the occasion, and its success 
was immediate and complete. The managers 
of the theatre of La Scala at Milan at once 
commissioned him to write a ballet, Le due 
Gemelle/ which was produced there Feb. 1873, 
received with frantic enthusiasm, and immedi 
ately published (Ricordi). This was followed 
by a ballet, Clarina (Dal Verme, Sept. 1873) ; 
a ( Scherzo or comedy, II parlatore eterno 
Lecco, Oct. 18, 1873); and a piece in 3 acts, 
I Lituani, given with immense success at the 
Scala, March 7, 1874. In the following year he 
wrote a cantata for the reception of the remains 
of Donizetti and Simone Mayr at Bergamo, a 
work of some extent and importance, which was 
performed there Sept. 13, 1875. On April 8, 
1876, he produced a new opera at the Scala 
called Gioconda, with the same success as 
before; and on Nov. 17, 1877, he gave at the 
Dal Verme, the scene of his first triumph, a 
3-act piece called Lina, which was a r6chauff& 
of his early opera La Savojarda, and does not 
appear to have pleased. His last opera, II 
Figliuol prodigo, was produced at the Scala, 
Dec. 26, 1880, with astonishing success. 

Signor Ponchielli is married to Teresina Bram- 
billa, a singer, and a member of the musical 
family of that name. He enjoys a position 
in Italy second only to Verdi, whose successor 
he is universally regarded as being. Out of 
Italy his works have as yet hardly begun to 
penetrate. In England, the Danze delle Ore, 
some brilliant and elegant ballet music from his 


Gioconda, played at the Crystal Palace, Oct. 25, 
1879, and a selection from Le due Gemelle, 
also played at the Crystal Palace, Nov. 5, 1880, 
are probably the only productions of his that have 
been heard in public. 

The above notice is indebted to Paloschi s An- 
nuario and Pougin s Supplement to Fe*tis. [G.] 

FRANCIS JOHN nephew of the Prince Poniatow- 
ski who was a marshal of the French army and died 
in the battle of Leipzig, Oct. 19, 1812, and whose 
portrait was found by Mendelssohn at Wyler 1 
inscribed Brinz Baniadofsgi Prince of Monte 
Rotondo, born at Rome, Feb. 20, 1816. He 
devoted himself so entirely to music that he can 
hardly be called an amateur. He regularly 
attended the musical classes at the Lyce e at 
Florence, and also studied under Ceccherini. He 
made his de*but at the Pergola, Florence, as a 
tenor singer ; produced his first opera, Giovanni 
da Procida in which he sang the title role at 
Lucca in 1838, and from that time for more than 
30 years supplied the theatres of Italy and Paris 
with a large number of operas. After the Revo 
lution of 48 he settled in Paris as plenipotentiary 
of the .Grand Duke of Tuscany, and was made 
Senator under the Empire. After Sedan he fol 
lowed his friend Napoleon III. to England, pro 
duced his opera Gelmina at Covent Garden, 
June 4, 1872, his operetta * Au travers du mur 
at St. George s Hall, June 6, 1873, and selections 
from his Mass in F at Her Majesty s Theatre, 
June 27, 1873, and died July 3 of the same year. 
He was buried at Chislehurst. 

His operas are Giovanni da Procida (Florence 
and Lucca 1838); Don Desiderio (Pisa 1839, 
Paris 1858); Ruy Bias (Lucca 1842); Boni- 
fazio (Rome 1844); I Lambertazzi (Florence 
1845) ; Malek Adel (Genoa 1846) ; Esmeralda 
(Leghorn 1847); La Sposa d Abido (Venice 
1847); Pierre de Medicis (Paris 1860); Au 
travers du mur (Ibid. 1861); L A venturier 
(Ibid. 1865); La Contessina (Ibid. 1868). 

His music evinces much melody and knowledge 
of the voice, considerable familiarity with stage 
effect, fluency and power of sustained writing 
everything in short but genius and indivi 
duality. His manners were remarkably simple 
and affable, and he was beloved by all who knew 
him. [G.C.] 

PONS, JOSE, a Spanish musician, born at 
Gerona, Catalonia, in 1768. He studied under 
Balins, chapel-inaster at Cordova. Pons was 
chapel-master of the cathedral of his native town, 
a post which he left for that at Valentia, where he 
died in 1818. He is distinguished for his Vilhan- 
cicos or Christmas pieces, a kind of oratorios for 
voices with orchestra or organ, which are said to 
be still extensively performed in his own country. 
He wrote also Misereres for the Holy Week. 
Eslava (Liro Sacro-hispana iv.) gives a Letrida 
of his, madre, for 8 voices, and characterises 
him as the typical composer of the Catalan school, 
as opposed to that of Valencia. [G.] 

i Letter, Aug. 9, 1831. 


PONTE, LORENZO DA, 1 the elegant poet who 
wrote the words for three of Mozart s operas 
Figaro, Don Giovanni, and Cosl fan tutte was 
born at Ceneda, in the Venetian States, March 
10, 1749. He borrowed his name from a bishop, 
his benefactor, but was the child of very poor 
parents, and was left without any education 
till he was fourteen. He was then allowed to 
enter the Seminary of his native town, and after 
studying five years went to Venice to seek his 
fortune by the aid of his pen. In this gay city, 
the home of theatres and every kind of pleasure, 
he had a number of amorous adventures, and 
was at last obliged to escape to Treviso, where he 
was appointed professor of rhetoric. But having 
spoken against the government of the Republic, 
he was ordered to leave. He then took refuge 
in Vienna, where Salieri 2 presented him to the 
Emperor Joseph II., who made him court poet in 
place of Metastasio recently deceased. Here, not 
withstanding the difference of their characters, he 
became an intimate friend of Mozart, and wrote 
the libretti for the three operas above named. 
Michael Kelly, then in Vienna, says 3 that he was 
a great coxcomb, supposed to be originally a Jew 
who had turned Christian and dubbed himself 
an abbe". After the death of the Emperor, Feb. 
20, I79> he was obliged to quit Vienna, and at 
Trieste married an English lady. Finding no 
prospect of permanent employment in Austria, 
he took his wife to Paris in August 1792. Bat 
Paris was then too stormy for him, and he soon 
left for London. Here he became a favourite 
teacher of the Italian language, and was ap 
pointed poet to the Italian Opera, then under 
Taylor s management. As part of his duty he 
travelled in Italy in 1798* in search of singers. 
In 1 80 1 he took a part of Domenico Corri s music 
shop to sell Italian books, but this soon ended in 
pecuniary difficulties. He was in the habit of 
getting bills discounted for Taylor, and was im 
prudent enough to endorse them, thus making 
himself liable for several thousand pounds. As 
Taylor was not accustomed to pay his debts, 
Da Ponte naturally got into great difficulties, 
and his only resource was to join his wife at 
New York. So on March 5, i8o3, 5 this strange 
man sailed for America, and after a miserable 
passage of 86 days arrived at Philadelphia en 
route to New York. Here he was unsuccessful 
as a dealer in tea, tobacco, and drugs, but became 
a great favourite as professor of Italian. In 1 8 1 1 
he wenttoSunbury (Pennsylvania) to manufacture 
liqueurs, but as usual lost his money, and returned 
to his pupils at New York. He now began to 
feel the weight of years and the disrepute into 
which his conduct had brought him, when in 
1826 Manuel Garcia arrived with his family 
in New York. Though they had never met, Da 

1 -In his autobiography ( Memorie di L. da Ponte, New York 1829-30) 
he spells his name thus, and so do all other writers, except M. de la 
Chavanne, his translator ( Memoires de L. d Aponte, Paris 1860). 

2 P. Scudo, in his charming account of Da Ponte and society in 
Venice in the 18th century ( Critique et Litte rature Musicales, Paris 
1856), says Sarti, but Da Ponte in his autobiography says Salieri. 

3 Reminiscences, London 1826. 

* Date in Meyer s Grosses Conversations Lexicon, Hilburghausen 
5 Mendel, Musikalisches Conversations Lexicon, says 1805. 



Ponte rushed to Garcia s lodgings, and announced 
himself as Da Ponte, author of the libretto of 
Don Giovanni, and the friend of Mozart. Garcia 
embraced the poet, singing Fin ch han dal 
vino, and ultimately the opera was performed 
at New York, Garcia playing the part of Don 
Giovanni, and his daughter (afterwards Madame 
Malibran) that of Zerlina. This was the last 
happy day for Da Ponte. He died at New York 
August 17, 1838, aged 89, neglected and in the 
deepest misery. [V. de P.] 

PONTICELLO (Ital. for the bridge of a 
stringed instrument) or STJL PONTICELLO a 
term indicating that a passage on the violin, 
tenor, or violoncello, is to be played by crossing 
the strings with the bow close to the bridge. In 
this way the vibration of the string is partially 
stopped, and a singular hissing sound produced. 
It occurs in solo pieces as well as in concerted 
music. The closing passage of the Presto, No. 5 
of Beethoven s Quartet in Cfl minor, op. 131, is a 
well-known instance. [P-D.] 


POOLE, ELIZABETH, a very favourite English 
actress and mezzo-soprano singer, born in London 
April 5, 1820, made her first appearance in a 
pantomime at the Olympic Theatre in 1827, and 
continued for some years to play children s parts 
Duke of York to Kean s Richard; Albert to 
Macready s Tell ; Ariel, etc. In 1834 she came 
out in opera at Drury Lane, as the Page in 
Gustavus ; in 1839 visited the United States 
and sang in Sonnambula and other operas ; 
in 1841 was engaged by Mr. Bunn for his English 
operas at Drury Lane. Here she sang many 
parts, especially Lazarillo in Maritana. At 
the same time her ballads and songs were highly 
popular at concerts, both in London and the Pro 
vinces. Miss Poole appeared at the Philhar 
monic, June 15, 1846. She was a leading singer 
in the operas brought out at the Surrey Theatre 
by Miss Homer, in 1852, where she sang in The 
Daughter of the Regiment, "Huguenots, etc., and 
was also much engaged by Charles Kean, F. Chat- 
terton, and German Reed. Miss Poole (then Mrs. 
Bacon) retired from public life in 1870, and is still 
living. She was a clever, indefatigable, artist, 
always to be relied upon. Her voice was good, 
extensive, and very mellow and sympathetic in 
quality ; her repertoire in opera was very large, 
and in English songs and ballads she had no 
rival. Her portrait is preserved in the collection 
of the Garrick Club. [G.] 

POOLE, Miss. See DICKONS, MBS., vol. i. 
p. 444 6. 

POPPER, DAVID, born June 18, 1846, at 
Prague, in the Conservatorium of which place he 
received his musical education. He learnt the 
violoncello under Goltermann, and soon gave 
evidence of the possession of a remarkable talent. 
In 1863 he made his first musical tour in Ger 
many, and quickly rose to very high rank as 
a player. In the course of the journey he met 
von Billow, who was charmed with his playing, 




performed with him in public, and induced Prince 
Hohenzollern to make him his Kammervirtuos. 
Popper afterwards extended his tour to Holland, 
Switzerland, and England. At the festival 
conducted by Liszt at Carlsruhe in 1 864, he was 
allowed to be the best of all the solo-players. In 
1867 he played for the first time in Vienna, 
where he was made first solo-player at the Hof- 
oper, a post, however, which he resigned after a 
few years, that he might continue his concert 
tours on a great scale. His tone is large and full 
of sentiment ; his execution highly finished, and 
his style classical. His compositions are eminently 
suited to the instrument, and are recognised as 
such by the first living cello-players. His most 
popular pieces are the Sarabande and Gavotte 
(op. 10), Drei Stiicke (op. n), and a Concert 
Polonaise (op. 28). [C.F.P.] 

Early in 1872 Popper married Fraulein SOPHIE 
MENTER, a very distinguished pianoforte-player, 
daughter of Joseph Menter the cellist, who was 
born at Munich July 29, 1848, and after a 
childhood of great precocity entered the Munich 
Conservatorium under Professor Leonhard. At 
1 3 she left that establishment for private tuition 
under Niest, and at a later period under Liszt ; 
in her 1 5th year took her first artistic tournie ; 
in 1867 appeared at the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, 
and has since taken her place throughout Ger 
many as one of the great players of the day. [G.] 


The classical work on this subject is 1 entitled 
Popular Music of the Olden Time : a Collection 
of the Ancient Songs, Ballads, and Dance Tunes, 
illustrative of the National Music of England. 
With short introductions to the different reigns, 
and notices of the Airs from writers of the 1 6th 
and 1 7th centuries. Also a Short Account of the 
Minstrels. By W.Chappell,E.S.A. The whole of 
the airs harmonized by G . A. Macfarren. London: 
Cramer, Beale and Chappell. The foundation of 
the above work was published in 1838-40 under 
the title of A Collection of National English Airs, 
consisting of Ancient Songs, Ballads and Dance 
Tunes, interspersed with remarks and anecdote, 
and preceded by an Essay on English Minstrelsy. 
The Airs harmonized for the Pianoforte, by W. 
Crotch, Mus. Doc., G. Alex. Macfarren, and J. 
Augustine Wade. Edited by W. Chappell. This 
work contains 245 tunes, and was out of print 
in about 14 years time from the date of its pub 
lication. The Popular Music was published 
in 17 parts (2 large 8vo. volumes, and 797 pages) 
and contains more than 400 airs with five fac 
similes of music and two copious Indexes. The 
following are the headings of the chapters : 

VOL. I. 

Minstrelsy from the Saxon pe 
riod to the reign of Edward I. 
Music of the Middle Ages, and 
Music in England to the end of 
the 13th century. 

English Minstrelsy from 1270 to 
1480, and the gradual extinction 
of the old minstrels. 

Introduction to the reigns of 
Henry VII., Henry VIH., Edward 
VI., and Queen Mary. 

Songs and Ballads of the reigns 
of Henry VII., Henry VIII., Ed 
ward VI., and Queen Mary. 

Introduction to the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth. 

Songs and Ballads of the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth. 

Introduction to the reign of 
James I. 

Songs and Ballads of the reigns 
of James 1. and Charles I. 

i The title has been somewhat modified In later editions. 

VOL. n. 

Conjectures as to Eobin Hood. 

Ballads relating to the adven 
tures of Kobin Hood. 

Puritanism in its effect upon 
Music and its accessories ; and In 
troduction to the Commonwealth 

Songs and Ballads of the Civil 
War, and of the time of Cromwell. 

Charles II. 

to the reign of 

Songs and Ballads from Charles 
II. to William and Mary. 
Bemarks onAnglo-Scotch Songs. 
of Anglo - Scotch 

Introduction to the reigns of 
QueenAnne, George I., and George 

Songs and Ballads of the reigns 
of Queen Anne, George I., and 
George II. 

Traditional Songs of uncertain 

Keligious Christmas Carols. 

Appendix, consisting of addi 
tions to the Introductions, and of 
further remarks upon the tunes 
included in both volumes. 

Characteristics of National Eng 
lish Airs, and summary. 



composer and celebrated teacher of singing, was 
born at Naples August 19, 1686. His father, a 
bookseller with a numerous family, obtained ad 
mission for him at a very early age to the Con- 
servatorio of S. M. di Loreto, where he received 
instruction from Gaetano Greco, of Venice, Padre 
Gaetano of Perugia, and Francesco Mancini, all 
former pupils of the same school. His first opera 
was Basilio, re di Oriente, writtenfor the theatre 
de Fiorentini. On the title-page of this work 
he styles himself chapel-master to the Portu 
guese Ambassador. The opera of Berenice, 
written in 1710 for the Capranica theatre at 
Rome, attracted the notice and elicited the com 
mendation of Handel. It was followed by Flavio 
Anicio Olibrio (1711) ; by several masses, mo 
tets and other compositions for the church ; by 
Faramondo (1719) and Eumene (1721), on 
the title-page of which last work he calls him 
self Virtuoso to the Prince of Hesse Darmstadt. 
Having been appointed master of the Conser- 
vatorio of San Onofrio, he wrote for it an oratorio, 
La Martiria di Santa Eugenia, which had 
much success on its first performance there in 
1722. In 1723 he wrote for the wedding of 
Prince Montemiletto a cantata, in which Farinelli 
sang. He had, before this time, established the 
school for singing whence issued those wonder 
ful pupils who have made their master s name 
famous. After L Imeneo came Amare per 
regnare and Semiramide (according to Villa- 
rosa) ; and a MS. in the Conservatoire of Paris 
gives evidence of another opera, Adelaida, be 
longing to 1723 and performed at Rome. In 
1724 Hasse arrived at Naples, with the avowed 
intention of becoming Porpora s pupil. After a 
short trial however he deserted this master hi 
favour of Alessandro Scarlatti, a slight which 
Porpora never forgave, and for which, in later 
years, he had abundant opportunity of revenging 
himself on Hasse. [See HASSE.] 

Porpora s natural gifts were united to an 
extremely restless, changeable disposition. He 
seems never to have remained very long in one 
place, and the dates of many events in his life 
are uncertain. It appears that in 1 7 2 5 he set off 
for Vienna, but he must have stopped at Venice 
on his way, as there is evidence to show that he 
was appointed to the mastership of one of the 
four great singing-schools for girls there, that of 
La Pieta. He hoped to get a hearing for some 

i In his autographs Niccola, but on the title-pages of works pub 
lished by himself, and in contemporary MS. copies, Niccolo. 


of his music at Vienna, but the Emperor Charles 
VI. disliked his florid style and profuse employ 
ment of vocal ornament, and gave him no en 
couragement to remain. He therefore returned 
as far as Venice, where he produced his opera 
Siface, and was appointed master to another of 
the schools above mentioned, that of the In- 
curabili. For his pupils at this institution he 
wrote the vocal cantatas, twelve of which he pub 
lished in London in 1735, and which are among 
his best compositions. 

In 1728 he set out for Dresden, where the 
Electoral Princess, Marie Antoinette, was eager 
to receive instruction from the famous maestro. 
On the way thither he revisited Vienna, hoping 
for a chance of effacing the unfavourable impres 
sion he had formerly made ; but the Emperor s 
prejudice against him was so strong, and carried 
so much weight, as to make it seem probable 
that he would once more find nothing to do. He 
found a friend, however, in the Venetian am 
bassador, who not only received him under his 
own roof, but succeeded in obtaining for him an 
Imperial commission to write an oratorio, ac 
companied by a hint to be sparing in the use of 
trills and flourishes. Accordingly, when the 
Emperor came to hear the work rehearsed, he 
was charmed at finding it quite simple and 
unadorned in style. Only at the end a little 
surprise was reserved for him. The theme 
of the concluding fugue commenced by four 
ascending notes, with a trill on each. The 
strange effect of this series of trills was increased 
as each part entered, and in the final stretto 
became farcical outright. The Emperor s gravity 
could not stand it, he laughed convulsively, but 
forgave the audacious composer and paid him 
well for his work. The name of this oratorio 
is lost. 

Porpora was warmly received at Dresden, 
where he was specially patronised by his pupil, 
the Electoral Princess, to whom he taught not 
only singing, but composition. So it happened 
that when H asse, with his wife Faustina, appeared 
on the scene in 1730, he found his old master, 
who had never forgiven his pupil s defection, in 
possession of the field. A great rivalry ensued, 
the public being divided between the two maestri, 
who themselves lost no opportunity of exchanging 
offices anything but friendly. The erratic Por 
pora however did not by any means spend his 
whole time in the 8axon capital. Early in 1729 
he had produced Semiramide riconosciuta at 
Venice, and in April of the same year had 
obtained leave of absence in order to go to Lon 
don, there to undertake the direction of the opera- 
house established by an aristocratic clique in 
opposition to that presided over by Handel. 
The speculation was a failure, and both houses 
suffered serious losses. Porpora never was popu 
lar in England as a composer, and even the 
presence of Senesino among his company failed 
to ensure its success, until, during a sojourn in 
Dresden, he succeeded in engaging the great 
Farinelli, who appeared in London in 1734, 
with Senesino and Signora Cuzzoni, and saved 



the house. Porpora got his Dresden engagement 
cancelled in order to remain in London, but that 
he must have paid several visits to Venice is cer 
tain, as Annibale was produced there by him 
in 1731, and Mitridate was written there in 
1733. It seems that he finally quitted England 
in 1736, at the end of Farinelli s third and last 
season in that country, and that he established 
himself again at Venice ; for on the title-page 
of a MS. in the Conservatoire at Paris dated 
1 744, he is described as director of the Ospeda- 
letto schqol of music there. About 1 745 he once 
more went to Vienna, this time in the suite of 
the Venetian ambassador, Correr. During a 
sojourn there of some years he published a set 
of twelve sonatas for violin, with figured bass, 
one of his most esteemed compositions, of which 
he says in the dedicatory epistle that they are 
written in the diatonic, chromatic and enhar 
monic styles ; describing himself as now chapel- 
master to the King of Poland. At this time he 
became acquainted with the young Haydn, whom 
he helped with instruction and advice. [See vol. i. 
p. 7046.] 

He returned to Naples, his native town, be 
tween 1755 and 1760. Gazzaniga, his pupil, in 
a biographical notice, says it was in 1759, and 
that in 1760 he succeeded Abos in the chapel- 
mastership of the cathedral of Naples and of 
the Conservatorio of San Onofrio. In the same 
year his last opera Camilla was represented, 
with no success, After that he wrote nothing 
but one or two pieces for the Church. He had 
outlived his reputation as a composer. His latest 
years were passed in extreme indigence, a fact 
hard to reconcile with that of his holding the 
double appointment named above, but which is 
vouched for by contemporary writers, and by 
Villarosa, and is a disgrace to the memory of 
his pupils, especially Farinelli and Caffarelli, 
who owed their fame and their vast wealth in 
great measure to his instructions. Villarosa 
says that he died of pleurisy in 1767: Gazza 
niga affirms that his death was the result of an in 
jury to his leg in i 766. Both may be true : it 
is at least certain that a subscription was raised 
among the musicians of the town to defray the 
expenses of the poor old maestro s burial. 

Thirty-three operas of Porpora s are mentioned 
by Florimo, but he probably wrote many more. 
They may have been popular with singers as show 
ing off what was possible in the way of execution, 
but he was devoid of dramatic genius in composi 
tion. Nothing can be more tedious than to read 
through an opera of his, where one conventional, 
florid air succeeds another, often with no change 
of key and with little change of time ; here and 
there a stray chorus of the most meagre descrip 
tion. When not writing for the stage he achieved 
better things. His cantatas for a single voice, 
twelve of which were published in London in 
1735, have merit, and elevation of style, and the 
same is asserted of the sonatas published at 
Vienna, for violin, with bass. The six free 
fugues for clavichord (first published by Clementi 
in his Practical Harmony, afterwards by M. 




Farrenc, in the first number of the Tresor des 
Pianistes ) will repay attention on the part of 
the modern student. There is a freshness and 
piquancy about them which contrasts strangely 
with his operas, and give an idea of what the 
talent was that so impressed his contemporaries. 
Specimens of his violin music will be found in 
Choron s Principes, David s Hoheschule, and 
Alard s Maitres classiques 1 ; and 6 Latin duets 
on the Passion, and some Solfeggi, were edited by 
Nava and published by Breitkopfs. 

Porpora was well educated, and conversant 
with Latin and Italian literature ; he wrote 
verses with success, and spoke with ease the 
French, German, and English languages. In 
his youth he was bold, spirited, and gay, full of 
wit and vivacity, but in age his disposition and 
temper became soured by misfortune. He was 
celebrated for his power of repartee. The fol 
lowing anecdote, extracted from the Dictionary 
of Musicians, has been told of other people 
since his time, but seems to be true of him : 
Passing one day through an abbey in Germany, 
the monks requested him to assist at their office, 
in order to hear their organist, whose talents 
they greatly extolled. The office finished, 
Well, what think you of our organist ? said the 
prior. Why, replied Porpora, he is a clever man. 
And likewise, interrupted the prior, a good and 
charitable man, and his simplicity is really evan 
gelical. Oh ! as for his simplicity, replied Por 
pora, I perceived that ; for his left hand knoweth 
not what his right hand doeth. 

In one department he has earned for himself 
an unique and lasting fame. He was the greatest 
singing-master that ever lived. No singers, be 
fore or since, have sung like his pupils. This is 
made certain by the universal contemporary testi 
mony as to their powers, by the music which was 
written for them and which they performed, and 
by the fact that such relics of a grand pure style of 
vocalisation as remain to us now, have been handed 
down in direct succession from these artists. He 
has left us no written account of his manner of 
teaching, and such solfeggi of his as we possess 
differ only from those of his contemporaries by 
being perhaps more exclusively directed than 
others are towards the development of flexibility 
in the vocal organ. In musical interest they 
are inferior to those of Scarlatti and Leo, and 
to some of those of Hasse. There is little dif 
ference between them and his songs, which are 
for the most part only so many solfeggi. The 
probability is that he had no peculiar method of 
his own, but that he was one of those artists 
whose grand secret lies in their own personality. 
To a profound knowledge of the human voice in its 
every peculiarity, and an intuitive sympathy with 
singers, he must have united that innate capacity 
of imposing his own will on others which is a 
form of genius. Powerful indeed must have been 
the influence that could keep a singer (as he is 
said to have kept Caffarelli) for five years to one 
sheet of exercises. And if we are inclined to 
think that when Caffarelli was dismissed with 
the words You may go, you are the greatest 


singer in Europe, there must still have been a 
good deal for him to learn which that sheet 
of exercises could not teach him, still, no mechan 
ical difficulty then stood between him and the 
acquisition of these qualities ; the instrument 
was perfect. And the best proof of this is that 
when Charles VI. expressed to Farinelli his 
regret that so consummate a vocalist should de 
vote himself entirely to exhibitions of skill and 
bravura, and Farinelli, struck by the truth of 
the criticism, resolved to appeal more to emotion 
and less to mere admiration, the vocal instrument 
proved adequate to the new demand made upon 
it, and its possessor became the most pathetic, as 
he had been the most brilliant of singers. 

Porpora himself aspired to be remembered by 
his compositions rather than by the solid work 
which has immortalised his name. To be useful 
to others was a lot not brilliant enough to satisfy 
his restless ambition, and that in this usefulness 
lay his real genius was a truth he never could 
willingly accept. 

Lists of his works are to be found in Villa- 
rosa s notice of his life, and in those by Farrenc 
(Tre"sor des Pianistes, i.) and Fetis. Probably 
the most complete is that given in Florimo s 
Cenno storico sulla Scula di Napoli, 1869, 
pp. 376-80. [F.A.M.] 

church composer, born in Milan about 1590, 
as is conjectured from his having published in 
1619 a collection of Villanelle a i, 2, e 3 voci, 
accommodate per qualsivoglio stromento (Rome, 
Robletti). This fact seems to confute Fe"tis and 
Mendel, who place his birth in the beginning of 
the 1 7th century. His master was Ripalta, 
organist of Monza, and he became organist and 
maestro di capella of more than one church in 
Milan, where he died in 1666. He published 
Salmi a capella, motets, ricercari, etc. ; and was 
one of the first composers to make practical use 
of the basso continue. [F. G.] 

PORTAMENTO (Fr. Porte de voix). A 
gradual carrying of the sound or voice with 
extreme smoothness from one note to another* 
[see vol. i. p. 43, note], which can only be really 
executed by the voice or by a bowed instrument. 
It is of frequent occurrence as a musical direction 
in vocal music or in that for stringed instru 
ments, and also appears in music for keyed in 
struments. In old music one of the AGREMENS 
(see article before referred to) was so called, 
though of course it was always a very poor re 
presentation of the proper effect. [J.A.F.M.] 

is a vast collection of church music published by 
BODENSCHATZ in 1603 and 1621. He belonged 
to Schulpforta near Leipzig, and hence the name 
of his collection. For the list of its contents see 
vol. i. p. 253. [G.] 

PORTER, SAMUEL, born at Norwich in 1733, 
was a pupil of Dr. Greene. In 1757 he was 
elected organist of Canterbury Cathedral. In 
1803 he resigned in favour of Highmore Skeats, 
organist of Salisbury Cathedral. He died Dec. 1 1 , 


1810, and was buried in the cloisters at Canter 
bury. A volume of his Cathedral Music, con 
taining 2 Services, 5 Anthems, a Sanctus, Kyrie, 
Suffrages, and 9 chants, with his portrait on the 
title, was published by his son, Rev. WILLIAM 
JAMES PORTER, Head Master of the College 
School, Worcester, who also published two an 
thems and four chants of his own composition, on 
the title-page of which he is described as of the 
King s School, Canterbury. Porter s Service in 
D, which is of a pleasing character, is still (1880) 
frequently performed. [W. H.H.] 

PORTER, WALTER, son of Henry Porter, 
Mus. Bac. Oxon. 1600, was on Jan. 5, 1616, 
sworn gentleman of the Chapel Royal without 
pay, for the next place that should fall void by 
the death of any tenor ; a contingency which 
happened on Jan. 27, I Ji J, in the person of 
Peter Wright, and Porter was sworn in his 
place on Feb. I. In 1632 he published Madri- 
gales and Ayres of two, three, foure and five 
voyces, with the continued bass, with Toccatos, 
Sinfonias and Rittornelles to them after the 
manner of Consort Musique. To be performed 
with the Harpsechord, Lutes, Theorbos, Basse- 
Violl, two Violins or two Viols. Both Hawkins 
and Burney mention a collection bearing the 
title of Airs and Madrigals for two, three, four 
and five voices, with a thorough bass for the 
organ or Theorbo Lute, the Italian way, dated 
1639, which may probably have been a second 
edition of the same work. In 1639 Porter was 
appointed Master of the Choristers of West 
minster Abbey. After losing both his places on 
the suppression of choral service in 1644 he found 
a patron in Sir Edward Spencer. In 1657 he 
published Mottets of Two Voyces for Treble or 
Tenor and Bass with the Continued Bass or Score. 
To be performed to an Organ, Harpsycon, Lute, 
or Bass-Viol. 

Porter was buried at St. Margaret s Church, 
Westminster, Nov. 30, 1659. His work, The 
Psalms of George Sandys set to Music for two 
Voyces with a Thorough-bass for the Organ, was 
published about 1670. [W. H.H.] 

PORTMAN, RICHARD, a pupil of Orlando 
Gibbons, in 1633 succeeded Thomas Day as 
organist of Westminster Abbey. In 1638 he 
was admitted a gentleman of the Chapel Royal 
upon the death of John Tomkins. A complete 
Service by him, including a Venite, is contained 
in the Tudway Collection (Harl. MS. 7337), 
where his Christian name is erroneously given 
as William ; some of his anthems are extant in 
cathedral choir books and elsewhere, and the 
words of some may be found in Clifford s Divine 
Services and Anthems, 1663, and in Harl. MS. 
6346. It is presumed that he was deprived of 
his appointments on the suppression of choral 
service in 1644. [W.H.H.] 

writer on the theory of music, born Dec. 4, 1739, 
at Ober-Lichtenau near Konigsbriick in Saxony. 
He received his musical education at the Kreuz- 
schule in Dresden, and then went to Darmstadt, 



where he became first court-singer, and in 1768 
Cantor, and Collaborator of the Padagogium. 
He died at Darmstadt, Sept. 28, 1798. His theo 
retical works, which were not unknown in Eng 
land, are full of thought, and as a rule clear and 
helpful to the student of harmony and counter 
point. They include Kurzer musikalischer Un- 
terricht fur Anfanger, etc. with 28 plates of 
examples engraved by himself (Darmstadt, pub 
lished by himself, 1785; 2nd ed., enlarged by 
Wagner; Heyer, Darmstadt, 1799); Leichtes 
Lehrbuch der Harmonie, Composition, und Gene- 
ralbass, etc., with numerous examples (Darm 
stadt, 1789; 2nd ed., Heyer, 1799); and Die 
neuesten und wichtigsten Entdeckungen in der 
Harmonie, Melodie, und Contrapunkt (Darm 
stadt, 1798). He also published the following 
compositions Neues Hessen-Darmstadtisches 
Choralbuch (Darmstadt 1786); Musik auf das 
Pfingstfest, in score (about 1793) ; and a Mag 
nificat (1790). As a contributor to the Allge- 
meine deutsche Bibliothek/ he was much 
dreaded for the severity of his criticisms. Among 
his pupils were G. A. Schneider born in Darm 
stadt 1770, became Kapellmeister to the King of 
Prussia, and bandmaster of the Guards, and died in 
Berlin, Jan. 19, 1839 and Carl Wagner, a horn- 
player, Hofmusikus, and afterwards Capellmeister 
at Darmstadt, where he died in 1822. [C.F.P.] 

PORTOGALLO. The sobriquet of a Portu 
guese musician named SIMAO, who, residing in 
Italy, was known as II Portogallo the Portu 
guese. He was born at Lisbon in 1763, learned 
singing from Borselli of the Opera, and counter 
point from Orao, maitre de chapelle in the Cathe 
dral. At 20 years of age he followed Borselli to 
Madrid, and became accompanyist at the opera 
there. The Portuguese ambassador sent him to 
Italy in 1 78 7, and he began his career with L Eroe 
Cineso (Turin, 1 788) and LaBachettaportentosa 
(Genoa, 1788). After composing other operas 
and gaining a reputation, he paid a visit to Lisbon 
in 1 790, and was made chapel-master to the king. 
He returned to Italy and composed opera after 
opera with great success at Parma, Rome, Venice, 
and Milan. Fetis quotes Fernando in Messico, 
written for our Mrs. Billington (Rome, 1797) as 
his chef-d oeuvre. His duties called him occa 
sionally to Lisbon, but Italy was the country of 
his choice. In 1807, however, the royal family 
were driven to Brazil by the French invasion. 
Portogallo accompanied them, and remained at 
Rio Janeiro till 1815. He then returned to Italy 
and resumed his position at Milan with Adriano 
in Siria. On the return of the king he again 
went to Lisbon, and died there at the end of 1829 
or beginning of 1830. Fe"tis gives a list of 26 of 
his operas. 

Portogallo was not unknown in London. His 
Fernando in Messica was played at Mrs. Bil- 
lington s benefit, Mar. 31, 1803; his Argenide 

Serse, Jan. 25, 1806; Semiramide, Dec. 
13, 1806; La rnorte di Mitridato, at Catalani s 
benefit, April 16, 1807; and Barseni, Regina di 
Lidia, June 3, 1815. His brother wrote for the 




POSAUNE. The German name for the Trom 
bone, also occasionally used for organ reedstops 
of a like character. [See TROMBONE.] [W. H. S.] 

POSITIONS, or Shifts. In order to reach the 
different parts of the fingerboard of the violin, 
the left hand must be moved about, or placed 
in various positions. The hand is said to be 
in the first position, when the thumb and ist 
finger are at the extreme end of the neck of the 
violin, close to the nut. In this, the first position, 
on an instrument which is tuned in the usual 
way (as at No. i), the ist finger produces the 
four notes shown at No. 2, or their chromatic 
alterations. The compass 1 thus attainable by the 
four fingers in the first position extends from A 
to B (as at No. 3). The open strings are in 
dependent of the position of the left hand. 

If by an upward movement of the hand the 
1st finger is put on the place which, in the first 
position, was occupied by the 2nd finger, and the 
whole hand is similarly advanced, the four notes 
shown at No. 4 will be produced, and the hand 
(No. 1) (No. 2) (No. 3) (No. 4) 




(No. 6) .a. 

(No. 7) ^ 




is said to be in the second position ; and while in 
this position an additional note is reached on 
the ist string (see No. 5), on the other hand, the 
low A produced in the first position by the ist 
finger on the 4th string is lost. The notes which 
were taken in the first position on the other three 
strings by the ist finger, are now produced by 
the 4th finger on the next lower string ; the 2nd 
finger takes the place of the 3rd, and the 3rd the 
place of the 4th. 

The third position extends from C to D (see 
No. 6), and stands in exactly the same relation 
to the second position, as the second stood to the 
first. And so does every following position to 
the one below it. 

Eleven different positions exhaust all capabil 
ities of the violin, and represent a compass from 
G to E in altissimo (see No. 7). Notes beyond 
this compass are almost always reached from 
lower positions, or harmonics are substituted for 
them. But even the positions above the seventh 
are but rarely employed. 

The term half -position (German Sattel-Lage) 
is used for a modified first position, in which 
the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th finger takes the places 
generally taken by the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd finger. 
It facilitates the execution of pieces in certain 
keys. A passage like this 


i Besides the natural compass of a position, notes which really lie 
beyond it are frequently reached by extension of the fingers, without 
the hand leaving its position. 


is best played in the half-position, with the 
fingering as marked. 

It wiU appear from the above that the same 
note can be produced in different positions, 
on different strings, and by different fingers. 


For example : the note 

, naturally taken 

in the first position by the 2nd finger on the 1st 
string, can also be produced 

1. On ist string by ist finger in 2nd position. 

2. On 2nd string by 4th 3rd 

3 rd 4 th 
2nd fth 

ist 6th 

3. On 3rd string by 4th 7th 

3rd 8th 

4. On 4th string by 4th nth 2 
Theoretically every single note lying within 

the compass of a position can be produced in 
that position; but practically the choice of position 
for the rendering of a given phrase or passage 
is made 

1. On grounds of absolute mechanical ne 

cessity, or 

2. of convenience, or 

3. to satisfy the requirements of good phrasing, 

or of a special musical character. 
I. Absolute necessity. Many double-stops 
formed by notes within the compass of the 
first or any other position, cannot be executed 
in that position 

(a) if, in that position, both notes li^on the 

same string. Such double-stops as 33 

must be played in the second position (2nd and 
4th finger) or in the third position (ist and 3rd 
finger), in either of which positions each note 
lies on a separate string, while in the first position 
they are both on one and the same string, and 
cannot therefore be sounded simultaneously. 

(6) Double-stops formed by notes which He 
in one position on non-contiguous strings (ist 
and 3rd, or 2nd and 4th) cannot be played in 
that position, but must be played in a position 
where the notes lie on strings that can be sounded 

together. This double-stop 

is there 

fore impossible in the first position, where F lies 
on the ist and G on the 3rd string. But it is 
easily given in the third position, where F lies 
on the 2nd and G on the 3rd string. 
Again, in a passage like this 

MOZART, Violin Concerto. 

in order to sound the open G-string at the same 
time, the whole of the upper part must be played 
on the 3rd string, thereby necessitating an ascent 
to the seventh position. 

2 Generally taken as a harmonic. 


2. Convenience. Many passages, especially 
those in which notes of widely different range 
succeed each other rapidly, would be impractic 
able but for the use of higher positions, even 
for those notes which might, theoretically speak 
ing, be taken in lower positions. 

In a passage like this 



the three lower notes of each group might be 
played in the first position, if by themselves ; 
but in connexion with the two high notes, the 
jump from the first to the fifth position, which is 
absolutely necessary in order to reach them, would 
make a smooth execution of the phrase, even at 
a moderately rapid pace, quite impossible. If 
started at once in the fifth position there is no 
difficulty at all. 

3. The tasteful and characteristic rendering of 
many phrases and passages requires a careful 
choice of positions, based on the distinct and 
contrasting qualities of sound of the four dif 
ferent strings. Where sameness of sound is 
required, the change from one string to another 
will, if possible, be avoided ; where contrast is 
wanted, different strings will be used even in 
cases where one string could give all the notes. 

A phrase like this 


Kreutzer Sonata. 



though lying entirely within the compass of the 
first position, must, in order to sound as cantabile 
as possible, be played entirely on the 2nd string, 
in the first and third or second position alter 
nately. In the first position a constant change 
from the 1st to the 2nd string would be necessary, 
and the phrase would thereby sound jerky and 
uneven, the very opposite of what it ought to be. 
Or this passage in Spohr s Scena Cantate 

if not played entirely on the sonorous 4th string, 
would absolutely lose its peculiar character. In 
other instances the meaning of a passage is only 
made intelligible by its being played in the proper 
position. The following is from Bach s Preludium 
in E (bars 13 and 14) : 

ooooo oooooo 
1st string 

. 2nd string 

In this instance, unless the whole of the lower 
part is played on the 2nd string in higher positions, 
the necessary contrast to the pedal note E, 
which is strongly given by the open string, 

cannot be properly marked. It will thus clearly 
appear that a complete command of the finger 
board in all positions is one of the chief tech 
nical requirements of the art of violin-playing, 
and that the right choice of position, on which 
a truly musical, tasteful, and characteristic 
rendering of every composition largely depends, 
is one of the main tests of a violinist s artistic 
feeling and judgment. Studies in all the usual 
positions are given in every good violin school. 
The best known are those in Baillot s L art du 
Violon, but they have the defect of being all 
written in C major. [P.D.] 

POSITIVE ORGAN (Fr. Positif; Ger. Posi- 
tiv). Originally a stationary organ, as opposed 
to a portative or portable instrument used in 
processions. [See ORGAN, p. 575&.] Hence the 
term positive came to signify a chamber organ ; 
and later still, when in a church instrument a 
separate manual was set aside for the accom 
paniment of the choir, this also was called a 
positive, owing no doubt to the- fact that it 
generally had much the same delicate voicing as 
a chamber organ, and contained about the same 
number and disposition of stops. By old English 
authors the term is generally applied to a chamber 
organ ; the positive of our church instru 
ments being called from its functions the choir 
organ. When placed behind the player (Ger. 
Riickpositiv) it was often styled a chair organ, 
but it is difficult to say whether this name 
arose from a play upon the terms choir and 
chair, or from a misunderstanding as to the 
origin of its distinctive title. With the French 
the Clavier de positif is our Choir manual. 
Small portable organs were called Regals. [See 
REGAL.] [J.S.] 


POSTHORN. A small straight brass or 
copper instrument, varying in length from two to 
four feet, of a bore usually resembling the conical 
bugle more than the trumpet, played by means 
of a small and shallow-cupped mouthpiece. 
Originally intended as a signal for stage-coaches 
carrying mails, it has to a limited extent been 
adopted into light music for the production of 
occasional effects by exceptional players. 

Its pitch varies according to length from the 
four-foot C to its two-foot octave. The scale con 
sists of the ordinary open notes, commencing 
with the first harmonic. The fundamental sound 
cannot be obtained with the mouthpiece used. 
Five, or at most six, sounds, forming a common 
chord, are available, but no means exist for 
bridging over the gaps between them. In a 
four-foot instrument such as was commonly used 
by mail guards, the sequence would be as 



A post -horn galop was played on this instrument 
by the late Mr. Koenig. Mr. T. Harper, the 
eminent trumpet-player, has composed another, 



named Down-tlie-road Galop, with obbligato 
parts for two posthorns, one in F and another 
in A. Beethoven has quoted a post-horn solo. 

POSTHUMOUS. A term applied to works 
published after the death of the author. It is 
frequently used with reference to Beethoven s 
last five quartets, though the term is in no way 
applicable to the first of the five op. 127, in 
Eb which was published by Schott & Sons, 
on March 26, 1826, exactly a year before Bee 
thoven s death, March 26, 1827. The following 
table of the order of composition, date of publica 
tion, and opus-nuinber, of these five exceptional 
works may be useful. 


Date of publication. 



March 26, 1826 

Op. 127 

A minor 

Sept. 1827 



May 7, 1827 


C# minor 

April, 1827 



Sept. 1827 

,, 135 

Schubert died Nov. 19, 1828, and all works 
by him after op. 88 are Posthumous, excepting 
Winterreise part I (1-12) ; op. 90 (nos. i and 
2); ops. 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, TOO, 101, 105, 
1 06, 1 08. Mendelssohn s posthumous works be 
gin with op. 73; Schumann s with op. 136. [G.] 

opeVa-comique in 3 acts, or rather perhaps an 
extravaganza ; words by De Leuven and Bruns 
wick, music by A. Adam. Produced at the Opdra 
Comique, Oct. 13, 1836. [G.] 

POSTILLONS. Symfonie allegro Postilions 
is Handel s autograph inscription to the piece of 
orchestral music which precedes the entry of the 
Wise Men in Belshazzar, and begins as follows : 




^ f 

- -*- 

I | 

TJ > 


KS\/ *-|- ^ 




1 LLi 

A. X" 





i "" 

i i 

- < 



It is written for the strings, with oboes in 
unison ; no horn is employed ; some of the later 
passages resemble those which can be played on 
the ordinary posthorn ; but there is nothing to 
say whether this was the origin of the indication, 
or whether it refers to the haste in which the 
Wise Men may be supposed to have arrived, or 
contains some allusion now lost. 

Sebastian Bach, in his Capriccio describing 
the departure of his brother, has introduced an 
Aria di Postiglione and a Fuga all imita- 
zione delle cornetta di Postiglione. One of the 
figures in the former has some likeness to that 
quoted above. 

Beethoven, in a sketch-book of 1812, quoted 
by Nottebohm (Mus. Wochenblatt, April 25, 


1879), has quoted a nourish of the Postilion 
von Karlsbad : 

But this is a mere ordinary phrase, and may be 
heard from many a postilion or driver in Germany 
of less renown than the one from whose instru 
ment Beethoven is supposed to have taken it 
down. (See Thayer, Beethoven, iii. 183, with 
the remarks of Nottebohm, as above.) [G.] 

POSTLUDE, a piece played after service, an 
outgoing voluntary. The term is an adaptation 
from the Latin-German Postludium. Henry 
Smart has occasionally employed it. [G.] 

POT-POURRI. A name first given by J. B. 
Cramer to a kind of drawing-room composition 
consisting of a string of well-known airs from 
some particular opera, or even of national or 
other familiar tunes having no association with 
each other. These were connected by a few 
showy passages, or sometimes by variations on 
the different themes. The pot-pourri was a less 
ambitious form of composition than the (modern) 
fantasia, as there was little or no working-out of 
the subjects taken, and very little fancy was 
required in its production. It had its own class 
of admirers, and was at one time a very popular 
form of composition. Peters s Catalogue contains 
38 by V. Felix, and 64 by Ollivier, on all the 
chief operas. Chopin, in a letter, calls his op. 13 
a Potpurri on Polish airs. The pot-pourri 
has been invaded by the transcription, which 
closely resembles it in form although taking only 
one subject as a rule, instead of many. Olla 
podrida was another name for the same sort of 
production. [J.A.F.M.] 

POTT, AUGUST, born November 7, 1806, at 
Nordheim, Hanover, where his father was Stadt- 
musikus. He adopted the violin as his instrument, 
and shortly after Spohr s appointment to be Hof- 
Capellmeister at Cassel, went there as his pupil, 
and there made his first public appearance in 
1824. He occupied the next few years in travel 
ling through Denmark and Germany. In 1832 he 
was appointed Concertmeister to the Duke of 
Oldenburg, and afterwards advanced to the post 
of Capellmeister at the same court. This he 
resigned in 1861, and is now (1880) living at 
Gratz. In 1838 he visited England, and played 
Lipinski s concerto in B minor at the Philhar 
monic on May 21 with great applause. The 
critic of the Musical World speaks with enthu 
siasm of the extraordinary power of his tone, 
his great execution, and the purity of his style. 
He has published two Concertos, and various 
smaller pieces for the violin with and without 
orchestra. [G.] 

London in 1792, began his musical education at 7, 
under his father, a teacher of the pianoforte. He 

i He derived this name from his godmother, a sister of J. B. Cipriani 
the painter. 


afterwards studied counterpoint under Attwood, 
and theory under Callcott and Crotch, and on 
Woelfl s arrival in England received instruction 
from him during five years. In 1816 an overture 
by Mr. Potter was commissioned and performed 
(March n) by the Philharmonic Society, and 
on April 29 of the same year he made his first 
public appearance as a performer at the Society s 
concert, and played the pianoforte part in a 
sestet of his own composition, for pianoforte and 
stringed instruments. He again performed March 
10, 1817. Shortly after this he went to Vienna 
and studied composition under Forster, receiving 
also friendly advice from Beethoven. Writing 
to Hies in London, on March 5, 1818, the 
great man says, Potter has visited me several 
times: he seems to be a good man, and has 
talent for composition. After visiting other 
German towns he made a tour in Italy, and 
returned to London in 1821, when he performed 
Mozart s Concerto in D at the Philharmonic 
(Mar. 12). In 1822 he was appointed professor 
of the pianoforte at the Royal Academy of Music, 
and on the resignation of Dr. Crotch in June 
1832 succeeded him as Principal. The latter 
office he resigned in 1859, in favour of Stern- 
dale Bennett. 

Mr. Potter s published works extend to op. 29, 
and include 2 sonatas, 9 rondos, 2 toccatas, 6 sets 
of variations, waltzes, a polonaise, a Targe num 
ber of impromptus, fantasias, romances, amuse 
ments, etc., and two books of studies 1 composed 
for the Royal Academy of Music all for PF. 
solo. Also a Duet Symphony in D, and 4 other 
duets, besides arrangements of 2 of his symphonies 
and an overture all for 4 hands ; a fantasia and 
fugue for 2 PFs. ; a trio for 3 players on the PF. ; 
a sestet for PF. and instruments ; a duo for PF. 
and V. ; a sonata for PF. and horn, 3 trios, etc., etc. 
His MS. works comprise 9 symphonies for full 
orchestra, of which 6 are in the Philharmonic 
Library ; 4 overtures (3 ditto) ; 3 concertos, PF. 
and orch. (ditto) ; a concertante, PF. and cello ; 
a cantata, Medora e Corrado ; an Ode to Har 
mony ; additional accompaniments to Acis and 
Galatea, and many other pieces of more or less 
importance. These compositions, though well 
received, 2 and many of them in their time 
much in vogue, are now forgotten, except the 

As a performer he ranked high, and he had 
the honour to introduce Beethoven s Concertos 
in C, C minor, and G, to the English public at 
the Philharmonic. As a conductor he is most 
highly spoken of, and it may be worth mentioning 
that he beat time with his hand and not with a 
baton. He died Sept. 26, 1871. His fresh and 
genial spirit, and the eagerness with which he 
welcomed and tried new music from whatever 
quarter, will not be forgotten by those who had 

1 Recently analysed by Mr. W. H. Holmes in Notes upon Notes 
(1880). The studies are 24 in number and are arranged for a key and 
its relative minor No. 1, C major; 2, A minor ; 3, Db major ; 4, Bb 
minor, etc. 

2 The Symphonies were played at the Philharmonic as follows: 
In , May 29, 1826, Jan. 8, 35 ; in A, May 27, 33 ; in G minor, May 19, 
34. May 28. 55; in D, Mar. 21, 36, Ap. 22, 50. May 3, 69. 



the pleasure and profit of his acquaintance. One 
of the last occasions on which he was seen in 
public was assisting in the accompaniment of 
Brahms s Requiem, at its first performance in 
London, not three months before his death. He 
contributed a few papers to periodicals Recol 
lections of Beethoven, to the Musical World, 
April 29, 1836 (reprinted in Mus. Times, Dec. i, 
1861) ; Companion to the Orchestra, or Hints 
on Instrumentation, Musical World, Oct. 28, 
Dec. 23, 1836, Mar. 10, May 12, 1837. Mr. 
Potter edited the Complete Pianoforte Works of 
Mozart, for Messrs. Novello; and Schumann s 
Album fur die Jugend (op. 68) for Messrs. 
Wessel & Co. in 1857. 

In 1860 a subscription was raised and an 
Exhibition founded at the Royal Academy of 
Music in honour of Mr. Potter. It is called 
after him, and entitles the holder to one year s 
instruction in the Academy. [W.H.H.] 

POUGIN, ARTHUR, born Aug. 6, 1834, at 
Chateauroux, where he is registered as Francois 
Auguste Arthur Paroisse-Pougin. As the son 
of an itinerant actor he had few educational 
advantages, and his literary attainments are 
therefore due to his own exertions alone ; his 
knowledge of music was partly obtained at the 
Paris Conservatoire, where he passed through 
the violin-class and harmony with Henri Reber. 
From the age of 13 he played the violin at a 
theatre ; and at 21 became conductor of the 
Theatre Beaumarchais, which however he soon 
quitted for Musard s orchestra. From 1856 to 
59 he was vice- conductor and r&pititeur (or con 
ductor of rehearsals) at the Folies Nouvelles. 
Pougin soon turned his attention to musical 
literature, beginning with biographical articles 
on French musicians of the i8th century in the 
Revue et Gazette Musicale. Musical biography 
remains his favourite study, but he has been an 
extensive writer on many other subjects. At 
an early period of his career he gave up teach 
ing, and resigned his post among the violins at 
the Opdra Comique (1860 to 63) in order the 
better to carry out his literary projects. Besides 
his frequent contributions to the Me nestrel, 
La France musicale, L Art musical, and 
other periodicals specially devoted to music, he 
edited the musical articles in the Dictionnaire 
universel of Larousse, and has been succes 
sively musical feuilletoniste to the * Soir, the 
Tribune, L Evenement, and, since 1878, to 
the Journal Officiel where he succeeded Eugene 

Among his numerous works, the following may 
be specified : Meyerbeer, notes biographiques 
(1864, I2mo); F.HaleVy, e crivain (1865, Svo) ; 
W. Vincent Wallace, e"tude biographique et 
critique (1866, 8vo); Bellini, sa vie, ses ceuvres 
(1868, I2mo); Albert Grisar, <Stude artistique 
(1870, I2mo) ; Rossini, notes, impressions, etc.* 
(1871, 8vo); <Boieldieu,sa vie, etc (1875, i2mo); 
Figures d ope ra-comique : Elleviou; Mme. Du- 
gazon ; la tribu de Gavaudan (1875, 8vo) ; Ra- 
meau, sa vie et ses ceuvres (1876, i6mo); 
Adolphe Adam, sa vie, etc. (1876, I2mo), all 



published in Paris ; and finally the Supplement 
et Complement to the Biographic Universelle 
des Musiciens of Fetis, a work of great extent 
and industry, and containing a mass of new 
names and information (2 vols. Svo, Paris, 
1878-80). [G.C.] 

POWELL, WALTER, born at Oxford in 1697, 
was on July I, 1704 admitted a chorister of 
Magdalen College. In 1714 he was appointed a 
clerk in the same college. On April 16, 1718 he 
was elected Yeoman Bedell of Divinity and on 
Jan. 26, 1732 Esquire Bedell of the same faculty. 
He was also a member of the choirs of Christ 
Church and St. John s Colleges. In July 1733 
he sang in the oratorios given by Handel during 
his visit to Oxford, and later in the year at the 
Meeting of the Three Choirs at Gloucester. He 
is said, but erroneously, to have been afterwards 
appointed a gentleman of the Chapel Royal. His 
voice (countertenor) and singing were greatly ad 
mired. He died Nov. 6, 1 744, and was buried at 
St. Peter s in the East, Oxford. [W.H.H.] 

TO. The title of a treatise, and collection of 
pieces by masters of different schools, edited 
and arranged by Muzio dementi, in 4 volumes, 
oblong quarto. The original title is dementi s 
Selection of Practical Harmony, for the Organ or 
Piano Forte ; containing Voluntaries, Fugues, 
Canons and other Ingenious Pieces. By the 
most eminent composers. To which is prefixed 
an Epitome of Counterpoint by the Editor. 
(Here follow 5 lines from Paradise Lost, Bk. xi). 
London printed by Clementi, Banger, Hyde, 
Collard & Davis, No. 26 Cheapside. The price 
of each volume was one guinea. Vols. i and 2 
alone are in the British Museum. The following 
is a complete catalogue of the contents. 

Vol. I. 

Treatise on Harmony and Coun 

terpoint by Clementi. 
Kirnberger. 2 Voluntaries in F 
4 Fugues, in Cjf minor, 
minor, Bb, and D minor 
Gavotte in D minor. Fugu 
in D. Prelude and Fugue in 
G. Fugue and Polonaise in 
Eb. Fugue and Polonaise 
in F minor and major. Pre 
lude and Fugue in C. 
A set of Canons by C. P. E. Bach 
Fasch.Turini.Padre Martini 
and A. da Vallerano. 
Caresano. Double Fugue in C. 
Perti, Antonio. Fugue in D. 
Bach, C. P. E. Canon in G- 
Haydn, Joseph. Minuet and Trio 

in E minor. 

Bach, C. P. E. Two minuets. 
Handel. Fugue in B minor. 
Porpora. 6 Fugues, in A, G, D, 

Bb, G minor and C. 
Albrechtsberger. 9 Fugues, in B 
minor, E, A minor, F, C, 
E b, 0, A minor, and A. 
Telemann. Fughetta in D. 
Eberlin, J. E. 5 Voluntaries and 
Fugues, in D minor, A minor, 
E minor, C, and F. 
Umstatt. Voluntary and Fugue 

in G minor. 

Sfarpurg. Prelude and Fugue in G. 
Mozart. Fugue in D minor from 
the Requiem, arranged by 

Bach, C. P. E. 2 Voluntaries and 
Fugues, in A and D minor. 
Fantasia and Fugue in G 

minor. Voluntary and Fugue 

in F minor. 
Bach, Ernest. Fantasia and 

Fugue in F. 
Bach, Job. Seb. Organ Fantasia 

in G, arranged. Suite (5th 

French) in G. 

Vol. II. 

Albrechtsberger, 6 Fugues, in G, 
B minor, G, G minor, D, and 
D minor. 
Eberlin. 4 Voluntaries and Fugues, 
in G minor, D, G, and E 

Mozart. Fantasia in F minor, ar 

Bach, C. P. E. Fantasia and 
Fugue in C minor. Fantasia 
in C. Voluntary and Fugue 
in minor. Organ Sonata 
Bach, Joh. Seb. Toccata and 

Fugue in D minor. 
Handel. 11 Fugues, in G minor, 
C minor, B , A minor, G, 
B minor, G minor, F$ minor, 
D minor, F, and F minor, 
adre Martini. 4 Sonatas, in F 
minor, G minor, A and E 

Scarlatti, A. Fugue in F minor. 
Scarlatti, D . 2 Fugues in D minor 
and G minor (the Cat s 
Fugue ). 

Frescobaldi. 2Canzone in G minor 
and G. 3 Fugues, in D minor, 
G minor, and E minor. Can- 
zona in F. Corrente in F 
minor. Toccata in F. 

Vol. III. 

Bach, W. F. Fugue and Capriccio 
in D minor. 2 Polonaises in 
F. Fugue in D. Adagio in 
B minor. Vivace in D. 
Polonaise in D. Fugue and 
Polonaise in C. 2 Fugues, in 
C minor and Bb. 2 Polon 
aises in Bb and G minor. 
Fugue and Polonaise in 
Eb. Fugue and Polonaise 
in E minor. Polonaise in E. 
Fugue and Polonaise in F 
minor. Fugue and Polon 
aise in C minor. 

Bach, C. P. E. Fantasia in C 
minor. Fugue in C minor 
for organ [by J. S. Bach, 
wrongly attributed to C.P.E. 
Bach]. Kondo in C minor, 
Fantasia in C. Fugue in C 
minor on the name Bach. 
Allegro in C. Andantino in 
minor. Presto in C minor. 
Allegro in C. Sonata in F, 
and Sinfonia in F. 

Bach, J. C. F. Fugue in C minor. 

Eondo fn C. Minuet in C. 

Polonaise in G. Sonata in C. 
Bach, J. Christoph (third son of 

J. S. Bach). 2 Sonatas, in E 

and C minor. 
Bach, J. S. 2 Fugues, in A minor 


Vol. IV. 

Padre Martini. 9 Sonatas in E 
minor, B minor, D, D minor, 
B b, G, C minor, C and F. 

Albrechtsberger. 21 Fugues in 
F, F minor, G, G minor. A 
and A minor; (these preceded 
by Cadenzas or Preludes ) 
in D, A, E, E minor, G, Bti 
and C ; (these with Preludes) 
in D minor, E minor, G. A 
minor, B minor ; (the rest 
without Preludes)inD minor 
Christus resurrexit, in C 
Alleluja, inC Alleluja 
Ite Missa est. 


son of Heinrich Aloys Praeger, violinist, com 
poser, and capellmeister, was born at Leipzig, 
Jan. 22, 1815. His musical gifts developed them 
selves very early ; at nine he played the cello 
with ability, but was diverted from that instru 
ment to the piano by the advice of Hummel. At 
sixteen he established himself as teacher at the 
Hague, meanwhile strenuously maintaining his 
practice of the piano, violin, and composition. 
In 1834 he settled in London, where he still re 
sides, a well-known and much esteemed teacher. 
But though living in London Mr. Praeger has 
not broken his connexion with the Continent : he 
is still correspondent of the Neue Zeitschrift fur 
Musik, a post for which he was selected by Schu 
mann himself in 1842. In Jan. 1851 he gave 
a recital in Paris of his own compositions with 
success; in 1852 he played at the Gewandhaus, 
Leipzig, and at Berlin, Hamburg, etc. ; and later, 
in 1867, a new PF. trio of his was selected by the 
United German Musicians, and performed at their 
festival at Meiningen. He has always been an 
enthusiast for Wagner, and it was partly owing to 
his endeavours that Wagner was engaged to con 
duct the Philharmonic Concerts in 1855. H e i g 
beloved by his numerous pupils, and a concert of 
his compositions was organised by them in his 
honour, on July 10, 1879, * n London. An over 
ture from his pen entitled Abellino was played 
at the New Philharmonic Concerts of May 24, 
1854, and July 4, 1855 (under Lindpaintner and 
Berlioz) ; and a Symphonic Prelude to Manfred 
at the Crystal Palace, April 17, 1880. A selec 
tion of his best pieces is published in 2 vols. 
under the title of the Praeger Album (Kahnt, 
Leipzig). [G.] 

PR^NESTINUS. The Latinised form of the 
name of the great Italian composer, derived from 
the town of Prseneste, one of the most ancient 
cities of Italy, and now called Palestrina. 
Johannes Petrus Aloisius Praanestinus answers 
to the Italian Giovanni Pier Luigi da Pales 

assumed surname of more than one family of 


distinguished German Musicians, whose true 
patronymic was Schultz. 1 

Of the numerous Composers whoso works are 
published under this name, the most celebrated 
was MICHAEL PR.ETORIUS, a learned and indus 
trious writer, of whose personal history very little 
is known, beyond the facts, that he was born at 
Creutzberg in Thuringia, on Feb. 15, 157*! that 
he began his artistic career, in the character of 
Kapellmeister, at Luneburg ; that he afterwards 
entered the service of the Duke of Brunswick, 
first as Organist, and then as Kapellmeister and 
Secretary; was appointed Prior of the Monastery 
of Ringelheim, near Gozlar, without necessity of 
residence ; and died at Wolfenbuttel, on his fiftieth 
birthday, Feb. 15, 1621. 

The Compositions of Michael Praetorius are 
very voluminous. He himself has left us, at the 
end of his Syntagma Musicum, a catalogue, the 
most important items of which are, 15 volumes 
of Polyhymnia, adapted partly to Latin, and 
partly to German words ; 16 volumes of Musse 
Sioniae, of which the first five are in Latin, and 
the remainder in German ; 9 volumes of a saecular 
work, called Musa Aonia, of which the several 
books are entitled Terpsichore (2 vols.), Cal 
liope (2 vols.), Thalia (a vols.), Erato (i vol.), 
Diana Teutonica (i vol.), and Regensburgische 
Echo (i vol.) ; and a long list of other works, 
partly printed, and partly, through God s mercy, 
to be printed. The first of these is the Syntagma 
Musicum (Musical Treatise) itself a book the 
excessive rarity and great historical value of 
which entitle it to a special notice. 

The full title of this remarkable work is, 
Syntagma Musicum ; ex veterum et recentiorum 
Ecclesiasticorum autorum lectione, Polyhistorum 
consignatione, Variarum linguarum notatione, 
Hodierni seculi usurpatione, ipsius denique 
Musicae artis observatione : in Cantorum, Or- 
ganistarum, Organopceorum, ceterorumque Mu- 
sicam scientiam amantium & tractantium gratiam 
collectum ; et Secundum generalem Indicem toti 
Operi praefixum, In Quatuor Tomos distributum, 
a Michaele Praetorio Creutzbergensi, Coenobii 
Ringelheimensis Priori, & in aula Brunsvicensi 
Chori Musici Magistro. [VVitteberge(stc),Anno 
1615.] Notwithstanding this distinct mention 
of four volumes, it is morally certain that no more 
than three were ever printed, and that the much 
coveted copy of the fourth, noticed in Forkel s 
catalogue, was nothing more than the separate 
cahier of plates attached to the second. 

TOM. I. (Wittenberg, 1615), written chiefly in 
Latin, but with frequent interpolations in Ger 
man, is arranged in two principal Parts, each sub 
divided into innumerable minor sections. Part I. 
is entirely devoted to the consideration of Ec 
clesiastical Music ; and its four sections treat, 
respectively, (i) of Choral Music and Psalmody, 
as practised in the Jewish, ^Egyptian, Asiatic, 2 
Greek, and Latin Churches ; (2) of the Music of 
the Mass ; (3) of the Music of the Antiphons, 

1 The word SchuUze signifies the Head-man of a village or small 
town ; and may therefore be translated by Praetor. 

2 Called, in the German index, the Arabian Church. 



Psalms, Tones, Responsoria, Hymns, and Can 
ticles, as sung at Matins and Vespers, and the 
Greater and Lesser Litanies ; and (4), of Instru 
mental Music, as used in the Jewish and early 
Christian Churches, including a detailed descrip 
tion of all the Musical Instruments mentioned 
either in the Old, or the New Testament. Part II. 
treats of the Ssecular Music of the Antients, in 
cluding, (i) Dissertations on the Invention and 
Inventors of the Art of Music, its most eminent 
Teachers, its Modes, and Melodies, its connection 
with Dancing and the Theatre, its use at Funeral 
Ceremonies, and many other kindred matters; 
and (2), Descriptions of all the Instruments used 
in antient Saecular Music, on the forms and pecu 
liarities of some of which much light is thrown by 
copious quotations from the works of Classical 

Ton. II., printed at Wolfenbuttel in 15 18, 3 
and written wholly in German, is called Organo- 
graphia, and divided into five principal sections. 
Part I. treats of the nomenclature and classifica 
tion of all the Musical Instruments in use at the 
beginning of the I7th century that critical 
period in the History of Instrumental Music 
which witnessed the first development of the 
Operatic Orchestra, and concerning which we are 
here furnished with much invaluable information. 
Part II. contains descriptions of the form, com 
pass, quality of tone, and other peculiarities of 
all these Instruments, seriatim ; including, among 
Wind Instruments, Trombones of four different 
sizes, the various kinds of Trumpet, Horns (Jager 
Trommetten), Flutes, both of the old and the 
transverse forms, Cornets, Hautboys, both Treble 
and Bass (here called Pommern, Bombardoni, 
andSchalmeyen), Bassoons and Dolcians, Double 
Bassoons and Sordoni, Doppioni, Racketten, and 
the different kinds of Krumhorn (or Lituus), 
Corna-muse, Bassanello, Schreyerpfeiffe, and Sack- 
pfeiffe, or Bagpipes. These are followed by the 
Stringed Instruments, divided into two classes 
Viole da Gamba, or Viols played between the 
knees, and Viole da Brazzo, played upon the arm. 
In the former class are comprised several different 
kinds of the ordinary Viol da Gamba, the Viol- 
bastarda, and the Violone, or Double Bass: in the 
latter, the ordinary Viola da Braccio, the Violino 
da Braccio, the Violetta picciola, and the Tenor 
Viola da Braccio. The Lyres, Lutes, Theorbas 
(sic), Mandolins, Guitars, Harps, and other In 
struments in which the strings are plucked by the 
fingers or by a Plectrum, are classed by them 
selves ; as are the Keyed Instruments, including 
the Harpsichord (Clavicymbalum), Spinet (Vir- 
ginall),Clavicytherium, Claviorganum, Arpichor- 
dum, the Niirmbergisch Geigenwerck, and 
Organs of all kinds, beginning with the antient 
Regall, and Positieff. Part III., carrying on the 
subject with which the former division ended, 
treats of antient Organs, in detail, giving much 
valuable information concerning their form and 
construction. Part IV. gives a minute description 
of modern Organs i. e. Organs which were con 
sidered modern 260 years ago with details of 

s Fe~tis says, 1519 ; but this is an error. 



their construction, the form of their Pipes, the 
number and quality of their Stops, or Registers, 
and other equally interesting and important 
matters relating to them. Part V. treats of certain 
individual Organs, celebrated either for their size 
or the excellence of their tone, with special ac 
counts of more than 30 Instruments, including 
those in the Nicolaikirche and Thomaskirche at 
Leipzig, the Cathedrals of Ulm, Liibeck, Magde 
burg, and Brunswick, and many other well-known 

It would be difficult to exaggerate the interest 
of this part of the work, which is rendered still 
more valuable by an Appendix, printed at Wolfen- 
biittel in 1620, two years after the publication 
of Tom. II. and III., under the title of Theatrum 
Instrumentorum, seu Sciagraphia, Michaelis 
Prsetorii, C. This consists of 42 well-executed 
plates, exhibiting woodcuts of all the more im 
portant instruments previously described in the 
text, drawn with sufficient clearness of detail to 
give a fair idea of many forms now so far obso 
lete that it would be difficult to find a real 
specimen in anything like working order. Among 
these, there are few more curious than the en 
graving of the Nurmbergisch Geigenwerck, in 
which the clumsiness of the Treadle (mentioned 
under PIANO-VIOLIN, vol. ii. pp. 745-746), is 
brought into very strong relief. 

TOM. III., also printed at Wolfenbiittel, in 1618, 
is arranged in three main sections. Part I. treats 
of all the different kinds of Saecular Composition 
practised during the first half of the i7th century, 
in Italy, France, England, and Germany; with 
separate accounts of the Concerto, Motet, Faux- 
bourdon, Madrigal, Stanza, Sestina, Sonnet, Dia 
logue, Canzone, Canzonetta, Aria, Messanza, 
Quodlibet, Giustiniano, Serenata, Ballo or 
Balletto, Vinetto, Giardiniero, Villanella, Pre"- 
lude, Phantasie, Capriccio, Fuga, Ricercare, 
Symphonia, Sonata, Intrada, Toccata, Padovana, 
Passamezzo, Galliarda, Bransle, Courante, Volta, 
Allemanda, and Mascherada, the distinctive 
peculiarities of each of which are described with 
a clearness which throws much light on cer 
tain forms now practically forgotten. Part II. 
deals with the technical mysteries of Solmisation, 
Notation, Ligatures, Proportions, Sharps, Flats, 
Naturals, Modes or Tones, Signs of all kinds, 
Tactus or Rhythm, Transposition, the Arrange 
ment of Voices, the Management of Double, 
Triple, and Quadruple Choirs, and other like 
matters. Part III. is devoted to the explanation 
of Italian technical terms, the arrangement of a 
complete Cappella, either Vocal, or Instrumental, 
the Rules of General-Bass (Thorough-Bass), and 
the management of a Concert for Voices and 
Instruments of all kinds ; the whole concluding 
with a detailed list of the author s own Com 
positions, both Sacred and Saecular ; and a com 
pendium of rules for the training of Boys Voices, 
after the Italian Method. 

TOM. IV., had it been completed, was to have 
treated of Counterpoint. 

The chief value of the Syntagma Musicum 
lies in the insight it gives us into the technical 


history of a period lying midway between the 
triumphs of the Polyphonic School and the full 
development of Modern Music an epoch less 
rich in such records than either that which pre 
ceded, or that which followed it. It has now 
become exceedingly scarce. There is no copy 1 in 
the British Museum, nor, so far as we have been 
able to discover, in any other Library in London ; 
but one is preserved in the Euing Library in 
Anderson s University, Glasgow. For the use of 
the remarkably fine examplar which served as 
the basis of our description, we are indebted to 
the Rev. Sir F. A. Gore Ouseley, who placed it 
unreservedly at our disposal. One of the volumes 
contains the autograph of a Bach, and another 
of Telemann. Not less scarce and costly are 
the Author s Compositions. There is rather an 
extensive collection of separate volumes in the 
British Museum ; but, of Part IX. of the Musse 
Sioniaa, embracing several of the last volumes, 
it is doubtful whether a copy is anywhere to 
be found. 

Of the other Composers, who have written 
under the name of Prsetorius, one of the most 
celebrated was GODESCALCUS PR.ETORIUS (or 
SCHULZ), born at Salzburg, in 1528, and for many 
years Professor of Philosophy at Wittenberg. He 
published, at Magdeburg, in 1556, a volume 
entitled Melodise Scholasticse, in the prepara 
tion of which he was assisted by Martin Agricola. 
He died July 8, 1573. 

The famous Organist, HIERONTMUS PR^ETORIUS 
(JEROM SOHULZ), was born, in 1560, at Hamburg, 
where, after attaining an extraordinary reputa 
tion, he died, in 1629. Among his numerous 
Compositions, the best-known is a Christmas 
Carol for 8 voices, Ein Kindelein so losbelich, 
Hamburg, i6i3 2 . 

JACOB PR2ETORius (or SCHULZ), the son of 
Jerom, whose talent as an Organist he richly 
inherited, was born at Hamburg, in the year 
1600; attained a great reputation in his native 
city; and died there in 1651. He is best known 
by a Choralbuch, which, in conjunction with 
Hieron. Praetorius, Joachim Becker, and David 
Scheidemann, he published at Hamburg in 1604. 

BARTHOLOM^EUS PR^TORIDS is known as the 
Composer of Newe liebliche Paduanen, und 
Galliarden, mit 5 Stimmen. Berlin, 1617. 

JOHANN PRJETORIUS, a man no less remarkable 
for the depth of his learning than for his great 
musical talent, was born at Quedlinburg, in 
1634; and, after holding several important ap 
pointments at Jena, Gotha, and Halle, produced 
an Oratorio called David in the last-named 
city, in 1681, and died there in 1705. [W.S.R.] 

PRATT, JOHN, son of Jonas Pratt, music- 
seller and teacher, was born at Cambridge in 
1772. In 1780 he was admitted a chorister of 
King s College. After quitting the choir he 
became a pupil of, and deputy for, Dr. Randall, 
the college organist, and on his death in March 
1 799 was appointed his successor. In September 
following he was appointed organist to the Uni- 

1 Except of the cahier of Plates. 

2 Gerber erroneously attributes this work to Michael Prsetorius. 


versity, and in 1813 organist of St. Peter s College. 
He composed several services and anthems. He 
published A Collection of Anthems, selected 
from the works of Handel, Haydn, Mozart, Clari, 
Leo and Carissimi (an adaptation to English 
words of detached movements from the masses, 
etc. of those composers), and a selection of psalm 
and hymn tunes entitled Psalmodia Canta- 
brigiensis. He died March 9, 1855, possessed of 
a good local reputation. [W.H.H.] 

PRATTEN, ROBERT SIDNEY, a very distin 
guished English flute-player, born Jan. 23, 1824, 
at Bristol, where his father was a professor of 
music. The boy was considered a prodigy on 
the flute, and in his I2th year was much in 
request at the Concerts at Bath and Bristol. 
From thence he migrated to Dublin, where he 
played first flute at the Theatre Royal and 
musical societies. In 1846 he came to London, 
and was soon engaged as first flute at the Royal 
Italian Opera, the Sacred Harmonic and Phil 
harmonic Societies, the Musical Society of Lon 
don, Mr. Alfred Mellon s Concerts, etc. Through 
the kindness of the Duke of Cambridge, Mr. 
Pratten passed some time in Germany in the 
study of theory and composition, and became 
a clever writer for his instrument. His Con- 
certstuck and Fantasia on Marie Stuart are 
among the best of his productions. He died at 
Ramsgate, Feb. 10, 1868, beloved by a large 
circle. Mr. Pratten had a very powerful tone 
and remarkable power of execution. His ear 
was extraordinarily sensitive, and in consequence 
his intonation and the gradation of his nuances 
were perfect, though his taste was perhaps a trifle 
too florid. His widow is a well-known professor 
of the guitar. His brother, Frederick Sidney 
Pratten was an eminent contrabassist, engaged 
in the same orchestras as himself. He died in 
London, Mar. 3, 1873. [G.] 


PRE ATJX CLERCS, LE. An opdra comique 
in 3 acts ; words by Planard, music by Hdrold. 
Produced at the Ope ra Comique, Dec. 15, 1832, 
a few weeks before the composer s death, Jan. 19, 
1833. The loooth representation, Oct. 10, 1871. 
Given in London (in French) at the Princess s, 
May 2, 1849, and in Italian (same title) at Covent 
Garden, June 26, 1880. [G.] 

PRECENTOR (Greek, Protopsaltes and Ca- 
nonarcha ; French, Grand Ckantre ; Spanish, 
Chantre, Caput scholae or Capiscol ; German, Pri- 
micier; at Cologne, Chorepiscopus). The director 
of the choir in a cathedral, collegiate, or monastic 
church. In the English cathedrals of the old 
foundation, as well as in the cathedrals of France, 
Spain, and Germany, the Precentor was always a 
dignitary, and ranked next to the Dean, although 
in a few instances the Archdeacons preceded him. 
At Exeter the Precentor installed the Canons ; 
at York he installed the Dean and other dig 
nitaries ; and at Lichfield even the Bishop re 
ceived visible possession of his office from his 
hands. At Paris the Precentor of Notre Dame 
divided with the Chancellor the supervision 



of the schools and teachers in the city, and of the 
respondents in the university. The dignity of 
Precentor was established at Exeter, Salisbury, 
York, and Lincoln in the nth century; at 
Rouen, Amiens, Chichester, Wells, Lichfield, and 
Hereford in the I2th century ; and at St. David s 
and St. Paul s (London) in the I3th century. In 
cathedrals of the new foundation (with the excep 
tion of Christ Church, Dublin) the Precentor is a 
minor canon appointed by the Dean and Chapter, 
and removable at their pleasure. The duties of the 
Precentor were to conduct the musical portion of 
the service, to superintend the choir generally, to 
distribute copes and regulate processions ; on Sun 
days and great festivals to begin the hymns, 
responses, etc., and at Mass to give the note to 
the Bishop and Dean, as the Succentor did to the 
canons and clerks. In monasteries the Precentor 
had similar duties, and was in addition generally 
chief librarian and registrar, as well as super 
intendent of much of the ecclesiastical discipline 
of the establishment. In some French cathedrals 
he carries a silver or white staff, as the badge of 
his dignity. In the Anglican Church his duties 
are to superintend the musical portions of the 
service, and he has the general management of 
the choir. His stall in the cathedral corresponds 
with that of the Dean. (Walcott, Sacred Archae 
ology ; Hook, Church Dictionary. ) [W. B. S.] 

PRECIOSA. A play in 4 acts by P. A. Wolff, 
with overture and music by Weber ; music com 
pleted July 15, 1820- Produced in Berlin, Mar. 
14, 1821, at the Royal Opera-house. In Paris, 
in 1825, at the Ode"on, adapted and arranged by 
Sauvage and Cremont ; and April 16, 1858, at 
Theatre Lyrique, reduced to one act by Nuitter 
and Beaumont. In London, in English, at Covent 
Garden, April 28, 1825. 

In the autograph of the overture the March 
is stated to be from a real gipsy melody. [Gr.] 

PREDIERI, LUC-ANTONIO, born at Bologna, 
Sept. 13, 1688, became maestro di capella of the 
cathedral, and on the recommendation of Fux 
was appointed by the Emperor Charles VI. vice- 
Capellmeister of the court-chapel at Vienna in 
Feb. 1 739. He was promoted to the chief Capell- 
meistership in 1746, but dismissed in 1751 with 
title and full salary, apparently in favour of 
Reutter. He returned to Bologna, and died there 
in 1769. Among the MSS. of the Gesellschaft 
der Musikfreunde at Vienna are many scores of 
his operas, oratorios, feste di camera, serenatas, 
etc., which pleased in their day, and were for the 
most part produced at court. [C. F.P.] 

PREGHIERA, a prayer. A name which 
some modern writers for the pianoforte (Rubin 
stein among them) have chosen to prefix to 
drawing-room pieces, consisting, as a rule, of a 
well-defined melody, adorned with more or less 
showy passages. The form of piece is, as its 
name implies, supposed to be solemn in character, 
but the display which for some unaccountable 
reason is seldom separate from it quite destroys 
any devotional feeling which may have given rise 
to the piece and to its name. [J.A. F.M.] 



PREINDL, JOSEPH, born 1758 at Marbach 
on the Danube, a pupil of Albrechtsberger in 
Vienna, became in 1790 choirmaster of the 
Peterskirche, and in 1809 Capellmeister of St. 
Stephen s, in which post he died Oct. 26, 1823. 
He was a solid and correct composer, a skilled 
pianist and organist, and a valued teacher of 
singing. His compositions include masses, a 
requiem, smaller church pieces, and pianoforte 
and organ-music, partly published in Vienna. 
He also printed a Gesanglehre (2nd ed. Stei- 
ner), and Melodien aller deutschen Kirchen- 
lieder welche in St. Stephansdom in Wien 
gesungen werden, with cadences, symphonies, 
and preludes, for organ or pianoforte (Diabelli, 
3rd ed. revised and enlarged by Sechter). Sey- 
fried edited his posthumous work Wiener Ton- 
schule, a method of instruction in harmony, 
counterpoint, and fugue (Haslinger, 1827; 2nd 
ed. 1832). [C.F.P.] 

PRELLEUR, PETER, was of French extrac 
tion and in early life a writing master. About 
1728 he was elected organist of St. Alban, Wood 
Street, and shortly afterwards engaged to play 
the harpsichord at Goodman s Fields Theatre, 
which he continued to do until the suppression of 
the theatre under the Licensing Act in 1 737, com 
posing also the dances and occasional music. In 
1730 he published The Modern Musick Master, 
or, the Universal Musician/ containing an intro 
duction to singing, instructions for playing the 
flute, German flute, hautboy, violin, and harpsi 
chord, with a brief History of Music, and a 
Musical Dictionary. In 1735 he was elected 
the first organist of Christ Church, Spitalfields. 
After the closing of Goodman s Fields Theatre 
he was engaged at a newly opened place of 
entertainment in Leman Street close by, called 
the New Wells, for which he composed some 
songs, and an interlude entitled Baucis and 
Philemon, containing a good overture and some 
pleasing songs and duets, the score of which he 
published. Fifteen hymn tunes by him were 
included in a collection of twenty-four published 
by one Moze, an organist, in 1758, under the 
title of Divine Melody, in which he is spoken 
of as if then dead. [W. H. H.] 

PRELUDE (Fr. Prdude; It. Preludio; Lat. 
Preludium; Ger. Vorspiel). A preliminary move 
ment, ostensibly an introduction to the main body 
of a work, but frequently of intrinsic and indepen 
dent value and importance. [See INTRODUCTION, 
OVERTURE.] The term is rarely used in connec 
tion with oratorio^ cantata, or opera, either as a 
synonym for overture or as a title for the in 
strumental introduction taking the place of an 
overture in regular form. Wagner, however, 
employs the word Vorspiel in the majority of 
his music dramas, notably in Lohengrin and 
Die Meistersinger. In each of these several 
instances the movement so denominated is not 
only of extreme significance, but is capable, like 
an overture, of being performed apart from the 
opera. In Tristan und Isolde he prefers 
Einleitung (Introduction), but in the four sections 


of Der Ring des Nibelungen we have Vorspiel, 
and the terms in an operatic sense may be con 
sidered practically interchangeable. 

The Prelude was for a long period a charac 
teristic portion of the Sonata or Suite. For 
example, Corelli in his Sonate da Camera, 3 com 
mences almost invariably with a Preludio, that 
is, an introduction of 8, 12, or 16 bars, largo or 
adagio, leading generally into an Allemande. 
In the works of Corelli s successors, Italian and 
German, we find the Prelude more developed, but 
it seems to have been a matter of choice with the 
composer whether a movement so named should 
precede the Allemande. Bach, whose command 
ing genius led him to improve upon the lines of 
his predecessors, has left some masterly preludes 
in what is generally known as the ancient binary 
or sonata form ; these movements being as im 
portant and interesting as any in his suites. [See 
SONATA, SUITE.] But the term is used in another 
sense, which must be dealt with here that is, as 
a title to the movement introductory to a fugue. 
The Wohltemperirte Clavier of Bach affords 
a great variety of forms and styles included 
under the same heading. In some instances, as 
for example Book I. No. i in C, No. 2 in C 
minor, and No. 3 in Cj, the prelude is a mere 
study in arpeggios ; in others it is in regular 
form, as in Book II. No. 5 in D and No. 9 in E. 
Sometimes it is of greater length than the suc 
ceeding fugue, of which Book II. No. 17 in Ab, 
is an instance in point. 

The organ preludes of Bach are of far greater 
interest than even his masterly compositions for 
the clavichord. In Book II. of the complete organ 
works there are some magnificent preludes, es 
pecially those in A minor, E minor, G minor and 
B minor. The contrapuntal ingenuity and musical 
beauty of the one last-named are greater than 
they are in the fugue following. But perhaps 
the finest of the entire series is that in Eb, 
Book III., associated with the fugue popularly 
known as St. Ann s/ The form of the move 
ment is very nearly that of the modern rondo, 
and in regard to symmetrical proportion, melodic 
beauty, and depth of feeling, it has few rivals in 
the instrumental works of any composer. But a 
lengthy treatise might be penned on the organ 
preludes of John Sebastian JBach. Among the 
multitudinous imitations by recent composers 
the three preludes of Mendelssohn in op. 37 hold 
the foremost place. His six Preludes (and Fugues) 
for piano (op. 35) are also interesting, more 
especially that in E minor No. I, which almost 
deserves a place among the Lieder ohne Worte/ 
Chopin, who was a law unto himself in many 
things, has left a series of Preludes, each of which 
is complete in itself, and not intended as an 
introduction to something else. The apparent 
anomaly may be forgiven, out of consideration to 
the originality of the pieces, which whether they 
were suggested by his visit to Majorca or not, 
are among the most characteristic of Chopin s 
compositions. It will be seen by the foregoing 
remarks that the title of Prelude has never been 
associated with any particular form in music, but 




is equally applicable to a phrase of a few bars or 
an extended composition in strict or free style. 

Occasionally the synonymous word PREAM- 
BULUM is employed, of which the most salient 
modern instance occurs in Schumann s Carnaval, 
op. 9. Prelude is sometimes used to signify the 
introductory bars of symphony in a song or other 
vocal piece ; also the brief improvisation of a player 
before commencing his performance proper. Bee 
thoven s two Preludes through the 12 keys, op. 
39, are in the improvisatory style. [H.F.F.] 

PRELUDES, LES. The third of Liszt s 
Symphonic Poems (Symphonische Dichtnngen) 
for full orchestra ; probably composed in the 
winter of 1849, and first performed at Weimar, 
Feb. 23, 1854. [G-] 

PREPARATION. The possibility of using a 
very large proportion of the dissonant combina 
tions in music was only discovered at first through 
the process of suspension, which amounts to the 
delaying of the progression of a part or voice out of 
a concordant combination while the other parts 
move on to a fresh combination ; so that until 
the delayed part moves also to its destination a 
dissonance is heard. As long as the parts which 
have moved first wait for the suspended notes to 
move into their places before moving further, the 
group belongs to the order of ordinary suspensions 
(Ex. i) ; but when they move again while the 
part which was as it were left behind moves into 
its place, a different class of discords is created 
(Ex. 2). In both these cases the sounding of the 



A * * 



"V (^ 


) r r 

r r 

* V 






. 19 

discordant note in the previous combination (i. e. 
the upper C in the first chord of both examples) 
is called the preparation of the discord, and the 
latter class are sometimes distinguished especially 
as prepared discords. The note which prepares 
a discord must be ultimately capable of being 
taken without preparation ; hence for a long- 
while only absolutely concordant notes could be 
used for the purpose. But when by degrees the 
Dominant seventh, and later the major and 
minor ninths of the Dominant, and some similarly 
constructed chromatic chords of seventh and ninth, 
came to be used as freely as concords, their dis 
cordant notes became equally available to prepare 
less privileged discords. [C.H.H.P.] 

PRESA (literally, a Taking ). A sign, used 
to indicate the places at which the Guida (or 
Subject) of a Canon is to be taken up by the 
several Voices. 

The following are the forms most frequently 
adopted : 

S- :S: $ + % 

In the famous Enimme, or ^Enigmatical 
Canons, of the I5th and i6th centuries, an In 

scription is usually substituted for the Presa, 
though in many cases even this is wanting, and 
the Singer is left without assistance. [See INSCRIP 
TION.] [W.S.R.] 

PRESTISSIMO, very quickly, indicates the 
highest rate of speed used in music. It is used, 
like Presto, generally for the whole movement, 
which is as a rule the finale. Examples in 
Beethoven s sonatas are, Op. 2, No. i, and 
Op. 53. It is used for the second movement of 
Op. 109. [J.A.F.M.] 

PRESTO, fast, indicates a rate of speed 
quicker than allegro, or any other sign except 
prestissimo. It is generally used at the begin 
ning of movements, such movements being as 
a rule the last of the work, or the finale, as for 
instance, Beethoven s sonatas, Op. 10, No. 2; Op. 
27, No. 2 ; Op. 31, No. 3. It is used as the ist 
movement in Sonata, Op. 10, No. 3, and in Op. 
79. When the time becomes faster in the 
middle of a movement, Piti presto is used, as for 
instance in Beethoven s Quartet in Eb (Op. 74), 
3rd movement (Presto), where the direction for 
the part of the movement that serves as the trio 
is Piu presto quasi prestissimo. A curious 
instance of the use of this direction is in the 
pianoforte sonata of Schumann, Op. 22, where 
the ist movement is headed II piu presto 
possibile, and in German below So rasch wie 
mbglich. At 41 bars from the end of the move 
ment comes Piu mosso," translated Schneller, 
and again, 25 bars from the end, Ancora piu. 
mosso, Noch schneller. [J.A.F.M.] 

PREVOST, EUGENE, born in Paris, Aug. 23, 
1809, studied harmony and counterpoint at the 
Conservatoire with Seuriot and Jelensperger, 
and composition with Lesueur ; took the second 
Grand prix in 1829, and the Prix de Rome in 
1831 for his cantata Bianca Capella. Previous 
to this he had produced L Hotel des Princes, 
and Le Grenadier de Wagram i-act pieces 
containing pretty music both with success, at 
the Ambigu-Comique. On his return from 
Italy, Cosimo, an ope ra-bouffe in 2 acts, was 
well received at the Opera Comique, and followed 
by Le bon Gar9on, I act, of no remarkable 
merit. After his marriage with Eleonore Colon, 
sister of the favourite singer Jenny Colon, PreVost 
left Paris to become conductor of the theatre 
at Havre. His unusually retentive memory 
proved a disadvantage in this post, for in con 
stantly studying the works of others he lost his 
originality. In 1838 he left Havre for New 
Orleans, where he remained 20 years. He was 
in great request as a singing-master, conducted 
the French theatre at New Orleans, and produced 
with marked success a mass for full orchestra, and 
several dramatic works, including Esmeralda, 
which contained some striking music. None of 
these were engraved. When the war broke out 
he returned to Paris, and became favourably 
known as a conductor. He directed the concerts 
of the Champs Elysees, and the fantasias which he 
arranged for them show great skill in orchestration. 



L lllustre Gaspard (i act) was produced at the 
Op^ra Comique (Feb. IT, 1863), but the fellow 
pupil of Berlioz, Reber, and A. Thomas, had vir 
tually fallen out of the race. His son Leon, also a 
good conductor, recalled him to New Orleans, 
where he settled finally towards the end of 1867, 
and died July 1872. [G.C.] 

PREYER, GOTTFRIED, born at Hausbrunn in 
Lower Austria, March 15, 1808. He studied at 
Vienna with Sechter, became in 1835 organist of 
the Reformed Church, in 1844 supernumerary 
vice-Capellmeister to the court, in 1846 court- 
organist, in 1862 vice-Capellmeister, and retired 
on a pension in 1876. Since 1853 he has been, 
and still is (1880), Capellmeister of the Cathedral. 
His connection with the Conservatorium dates 
from 1838, when he became professor of harmony 
and counterpoint, and conductor of the pupils 
concerts ; from 1844 to 48 he directed the insti 
tution. The Tonkunstler-Societat performed his 
oratorio Noah in 1842, 45, and 51. He has 
printed a symphony, op. 16 (Diabelli); several 
masses and smaller church pieces ; music for 
pianoforte and organ, choruses, and a large quan 
tity of popular Lieder (chiefly Diabelli) ; and 
Hymns for the Orthodox Greek Church, in 3 
vols., Vienna, 1847 ; a grand mass for four male 
voices with organ, op. 76, etc. He has a grand 
opera among his MSS. [C.F.P.] 

PRICK SONG. The name given by old 
writers upon music to divisions or descant upon 
a Plain-song or Ground, which were written, 
or pricked, down, in contradistinction to those 
which were performed extemporaneously. (See 
Morley s Introduction, Second Part.) The term 
is derived from the word prick, as used to ex 
press the point or dot forming the head of the 
note. Shakspere (Romeo and Juliet, Act ii. 
Sc. 4) makes Mercutio describe Tybalt as one 
who fights as you sing prick song, keeps time, 
distance, and proportion ; rests me his minim rest 
one, two, and the third in your bosom. The 
term pricking of musick bookes was formerly 
employed to express the writing of them. Pay 
ments for so doing are frequently found in the ac 
counts of cathedral and college choirs. [W.H. H.] 

PRIEST, JOSIAS, a dancing-master connected 
with the theatres in the last quarter of the 1 7th 
century, who also kept a boarding-school for 
gentlewomen in Leicester Fields, which he re 
moved in 1680 to Chelsea. Priest s claim to 
notice is his having engaged Henry Purcell to 
compose his first opera, Dido and ^Eneas, for 
performance at his school. He invented the 
dances for Purcell s operas, The Prophetess, 
King Arthur, and The Fairy Queen, and other 
pieces. [W. H. H.] 

PRIME (Lat. Prima ; Hora prima. Officium 
(vel Oratio) ad Horam primam). The first of 
the Lesser Hours in the Roman Breviary. 

The Office of Prime consists of the Versicle 
and Response, Deus in adjutorium ; a Hymn, 
Te lucis orto sidere, which never changes ; 
and three Psalms, sung under a single Antiphon. 


These are followed, on Sundays, by the Hymn 
Quicunque vult, commonly called the Creed of 
S. Athanasius. On other occasions the Antiphon 
is immediately succeeded by the Capitulum and 
Responsorium breve. The disposition of the 
next division of the Office, including the Preces 
and the Martyrologium for the day, depends 
entirely upon the rank of the Festival on which 
it is sung. Certain Prayers are said, next in 
order ; and the whole concludes with the Lectio 
brevis and the Benediction. 

The Plain Chaunt Music for Prime will be 
found in the Antiphonarium Romanum and 
the Directorium Chori. [W.S.R.] 

PRIMER from primus, first a first or ele 
mentary book for beginners. The first of Messrs. 
Novello & Go s. Music Primers, edited by Dr. 
Stainer, was issued Aug. I, 1877, and the 
following have appeared to Dec. 31, 1880: 
Pianoforte (Pauer), Rudiments of Music (Cum- 
mings),0rgan (Stainer), Harmonium (King Hall), 
Singing (Randegger), Speech in Song (Ellis), 
Musical Forms (Pauer), Harmony (Stainer), 
Counterpoint (Bridge), Fugue (Higgs), Scientific 
Basis of Music (Stone), Church-Choir Training 
(Troutbeck), Plain Song (Helmore), Instrumen 
tation (Prout), Elements of the Beautiful in 
Music (Pauer), The Violin (Berthold Tours), 
Tonic Sol-fa (J. Curwen), Lancashire Sol-fa 
(Greenwood), Composition (Stainer), Musical 
Terms (Stainer and Barrett). 

That on Pianoforte Playing by Mr. Franklin 
Taylor forms one of Messrs. Macmillan s series 
of Shilling Primers, and was issued Sept. 26, 1877. 
(Published inGerman by J.J.Weber, Leipzig.) [G.j 

PRIMO, first, is used in two ways in music, 
(i) In pianoforte duets, Primo or imo is gene 
rally put over the right-hand page, and then 
means the part taken by the treble player, 
while Secondo or 2do is put over that for the 
bass. (2) In the reprise of the first section of a 
movement, a few bars are often necessary before 
the double-bar to lead back to the repetition, 
which are not required the second time of play 
ing the section. The words Primo, imo, ima 
volta, or 1st time are then put over all these 
bars, so that when the repeated portion reaches 
this direction, the player goes on to the part 
after the double-bar, leaving out the bars over 
which Primo is written. The first few bars 
after the double-bar are frequently, but not 
always, labelled Secondo, 2do, or 2nd time. The 
Primo varies greatly in length. Beethoven 
often does without it at all (C minor and Pastoral 
Symphonies) ; in his No. 2 Symphony it is 2 bars 
long, in his No. 4 it is 14 bars long, and in Men 
delssohn s Italian Symphony 23 bars (ist move 
ment in all cases). [J.A.F.M.] 

LEON NET, eldest son of Marshal Ney, born in 
Paris, May 8, 1803. As a lad he showed great 
aptitude for music, and composed a mass, which 
was performed at Lucca, where he lived after 
his father s death. In 1831 he was made Pair 
de France, but sought distinction in a totally 




different line from that of his brother the Due 
d Elchingen. He contributed to various period 
icals, especially some articles in the Revue des 
deux Mondes and the Constitutional, which 
excited considerable interest. His love of sport 
was great, and he was one of the founders of the 
Jockey Club of Paris. In 1828 he married the 
only daughter of Laffitte, the banker. The ser 
vices rendered by the Prince to music are con 
siderable. In connexion with Adolphe Adam he 
founded the Socie"te des Concerts de musique 
religieuse et classique, an association for the 
practice of vocal music, and to this he devoted 
a great amount of learning, taste, and judgment. 
We append a catalogue of the works contained 
in this fine collection (n vols. 8vo.), published 
for the Society by the Prince, which has now 
become very scarce. 1 The Prince lived on in 
timate terms with Delsarte the singer, and 
with Niedermeyer the composer, whom he ma 
terially assisted in the foundation of his Ecole 
de musique religieuse. In 1831 a mass of his 
for voices and orchestra was executed by the 
pupils of Choron, and called forth the strong 
encomiums of M. Fe tis. Although naturally 
inclined to the madrigal style and sacred music, 
he also attempted the theatre, producing at the 
Ope ra Comique, Le Cent - Suisse (June 7, 
1840), a one-act piece, which had a considerable 
run, and Yvonne (March 16, 1855), a one-act 
op^ra comique, a clever imitation of the antique 
style. The Prince died July 25, 1857, at St. 

Recueil des morceaux de mu.iique ancienne, etc., 
vols. i to xi, 8vo. 

Allegri . . . . 


Anerio . . . . 


Anonymous . . 





Arcadelt . . . 


J.Sebastian Bach 


Barbieri . . . 
Benevoli . . . 
Buononcini . . 
Carissimi . . . 








Du Caurroy . . 
Colonna . . . 
Donate .... 
Don Juan IV. . 
Durante . . . 
Gabrieli A, . . 
Gabrieli G. 





Gastoldi . . . 
Gesualdo . . . 


Gibbons, Orlando 

De Lamentatlone Jeremise, 4 4 .... il. 153 

Miserere, 2 choirs ii. 168 

Ave regina coelorum, 2 choirs vi. 18S 

Adoramus, a 4 vi. 203 

Songs of the Moravian Brothers, a 4 . . ii. 235 

Alia Trinita beata, a 4 ii. 248 

Belle qui tiens ma vie. Pavane a 4 ... v. 82 

From an old Noel, sop. solo and chor. . . x. 95 

Se questa valle di miseria x. 115 

Ave Maria, a 4 ii. 251 

II bianco e dolce cigno, a 4 v. 97 

Tantum ergo, a 4 ii. 279 

Qui presso (Matthew Passion) iv. 426 

Veni de Libano, a 6 vi. 271 

Sanctus, a 16 xi. 289 

In te Domine, a 4 v iii. 461 

1 elix anima, a 3 vi. 266 

Gaudeamus, a 4 viii. 429 

Surgamus, eamus, a 3 viii. 450 

Conjugation of hie and hoc, a 4 .... xi. 309 

Cantando un dl, 4 2 .......... jjj. 295 

Non te sdegnar, a 2 m. 303 

Addio compagne amene, a3 ii. 312 

Gratias agimus, a 5 v iij. 535 

Noel ! Noel ! a 4 x. 107 

Domine, a 5 viii. 478 

Villote neapolitana, a 4 x. 119 

Crux fidelis, a 4 vi. 263 

Christe eleison, a 4 vi. 278 

Magnificat, 3 choirs vi. 135 

Benedictus, do vi. 163 

Sento un rumor, a 8 xi. 389 

Magnificat, a 8 ix. 105 

Miserere, a 6 ix. 129 

Media vita, 2 choirs vi. 211 

Adoramus, a 6 vi. 223 

Eccequomodo moritur Justus, a 4 ... vi. 228 

Vivsr lieto voglio, a 5 x. 123 

Gelo ha ma donna, a 5 v. 102 

Come esser suo, a 5 v. 108 

Le vieux chasseur (I tremble not) ... xi. 357 

There is a espy of this Collection in the British Museum, 

Gibbons, Orlando Le croise 1 captif (The silver swan) 

ii. 369 

Handel . 

Do. . 

Do. . 

Do. . 

Do. . 
Haydn . 

Do. . 

Do. . 

Do. . 

Do. . 

Do. . 

Do. . 

Do. . 
Josquin des Pre"s 

Madrigal (Orphf!e) iii. 399 

Lascia ch io pianga, aria iii. 341 

Ah ! mio cor, aria (Alcina) iii. 346 

Tutta raccolta ancor, aria iii. 352 

Che vai cercando, duet iii. 355 

Alleluia, chorus iii. 375 

E Dio, air (Creation) iv. 444 

Trio and chorus (Creation) iv. 459 

Insanse et vanse curse, a 4 iv. 483 

Vidit suum dulcem natum, air (Stabat) . iv. 515 

Fac me vere, air (Stabat) iv. 520 

Virgo virginum, 4tet (Stabat) iv. 527 

Quando corpus, 4tet and chorus (Stabat) . jy. 58 

Labataille de MarignaYi, a 4 v. 13 

Le chant des oiseaux, a 4 xl. 333 

La defloration de Jean Ockeghem, chorus v. 2 

O filii, 2 choirs ii. 26 

Leo Sicut erat, a 10 viii. 489 

Lotti Spirto di Dio, madrigal, a 4 


Do. . 
Do. . 

Lupus . 
Maill art 

Do. . 

Do. . 
Nanini . 
Orlando Lasso 

Miserere, a 4 . . . 
Benedictus, a 4 . . 
Christe Eleison, a 5 

v. 120 
x. 51 
x. 79 

xl. 305 

Audivi vocem, a 6 vi. 233 

Tout au rebours, Canon a 5 xi. 382 

Donde cotanto fremito. chorus .... iii. 322 

I cieli immensi, solo and chorus .... iii. 333 

Ei fuor dell acque, a 3 bassi v. 114 

Ahi dispietata xi. 442 

Diffusa est, motet, a 4 vi. 173 

Regina cceli, a 4 ii. 186 

Do Salve regina, a 4 

Do. . Miserere, a 4 





Sais-tudirel Ave? a4. . . . 
Si le long temps, a 4 .... 

Ce faux amour, a 4 

Fuyons tous d amour le jeu, a 4 

Do Bonjour mon cceur, a 4 

Do Le temps peut bien, a 4 

ii. 192 
ii. 199 
v. 44 
v. 49 
v. 55 
V. 56 
T. 67 
v. 73 
v. 76 
vi. 176 
ix. 150 
i. 1 
i. 69 
i. 131 
i. 146 
v. 92 
vii. 282 

Do Je 1 aime bien, a 4 

Do. . . . , Si vous n 6tes en bon point, a 4 ... 

Do Per pianto, madrigal, a 5 

Do Quia cinerem, a 5 

Do De Psalmls poenitentialibus.a 3 and a 4 

Palestrina . . . Messe du pape Marcell, a 6 

Do Messe Sterna Christ!, a 4 .... 

Do Stabat, 2 choirs 

Do Fratres ego enim, 2 choirs 

Do Adoramus, a 4 

Do Pleni sunt, a 3 

Do Alia riva del Tebro, madrigal, a 4. . . 

Do Vaghi pensier, a 4 

Do La ver 1 aurora, a 4 

Do Tribularer si nescirem, a 6 

Do Agnus Dei, a 8 vii. 312 

Do Popule meus, 2 choirs vii. 331 

Do Canite tuba, a 5 vii. 351 

Do Vinea mea, a 4 vii. 355 

Do Una hora, a 4 vii. 355 

Do Tantum ergo, a 5 vii. 363 

Do In monte Oliveti, a 4 vii. 367 

Do Tristis est anima, a 4 vii. 378 

Do Esurientes, a 5 vii. 373 

Do Corporis mysterium, a 4 vii. 383 

Do O bone Jesu, a 4 vii. 388 

Do Sicut erat, a 6 vii. 390 

Do Dei mater alma, a 4 vii. 369 

Do Lauda anima, a 5 vii. 399 

Do Hodie Christus natus est, 2 choirs . . . vii. 407 

Do. .... Gloria Patri, 2 choirs vii. 426 

Do Missa canonica, a 4 

Do Requiem, a 5 

Do. . . 

Do. . . 

Do. . . 

Do. . . 

Do. . . 

Scarlatti . 

Stradella . 

Tall is . . 

Vittoria . 

Do. . . 

Do. . . 


ix. 1 

ix. 49 
x. 11 

X. 17 
x. 23 
x. 31 

ii. 269 

Dies sanctiflcatus, a 4 

Sicut cervus, a 4 

Idem (in Ah) 

Laus, honor, a 6 

Veni sponsa, a 4 

Cor mio, madrigal a 5 

Pieta, Signore, aria iii. 283 

Kyrie eleison, a 4 iii. 283 

Jesu dulcis memoria, a 4 vi. 207 

Pueri Hebrseorum, a 4 ii. 254 

O vos omnes, a 4 ii. 259 

Gloria Patria, a 6 vi. 253 

Do O quam gloriosum, a 4 vi, 259 

Do Vere languores, a 4 x. 45 

Vulpius . . . Exultate justi, &4 vi. 240 


PRINCIPAL. A word with various mean 

I. An organ stop. In Germany the term 
is very properly applied to the most important 



8-feet stops of open flue-pipes on the manuals, 
and to open i6-feet stops on the pedals, thu 
corresponding to our ; open diapasons. But in 
this country the Principal is, with very few 
exceptions, the chief open metal stop of 4-feel 
pitch, and should more properly be termed an 
Octave or Principal octave, since it sounds an 
octave above the diapasons. [J.S. 

employed in many of Handel s scores for the 
third trumpet part. This is not usually in 
unison with the first and second trumpets, which 
are designated as Tromba i mo and 2 Bdo . It is 
often written for in the old soprano clef with C 
on the lowest line, and has a range somewhat 
lower than the trombe. The older works on in 
strumentation, such as those of Schilling, Koch, 
Schladebach and Lichtenthal, recognise the dif 
ference and draw a distinction between Principal- 
Stimme and Clarin-Stimme. It is obvious 
that whereas the tromba or clarino represented 
the old small-bored instrument now obsolete, for 
which the majority of Handel s and Bach s high 
and difficult solos were composed, the Principal, 
in tone and compass, more nearly resembled the 
modern large-bored military trumpet. The con 
trast can easily be recognised by an examination 
of the overture to the Occasional Oratorio 
Arnold s edition, or that of the Dettingen Te 
Deum as published by the German Handel 
Society. In the latter the old soprano, in the 
former the usual treble clef, is adopted. 

III. Principals, in modern musical language, are 
the solo singers or players in a concert. [W.H.S.] 

Mus. Doc.; and ISAAC, Mus. Bac., sons of James 
Pring, were all choristers of St. Paul s under 
Robert Hudson. 

JACOB CUBITT PRING, born at Lewisham in 
1771, was organist of St. Botolph, Aldgate. He 
graduated at Oxford in 1797, was the composer 
of several anthems, glees, and other vocal pieces, 
and one of the founders of the Concentores So- 
dales. He published a set of eight anthems. 
Seven glees and a catch by him are included in 
Warren s Collections. He died 1 799. 

JOSEPH PRING, born at Kensington, Jan. 15, 
1776, was on April i, 1793 appointed organist 
of Bangor Cathedral on the resignation of Olive, 
but not formally elected until Sept. ?8, 1810. 
In 1805 he published Twenty Anthems, and 
on Jan. 27, 1808 accumulated the degrees of 
Mus. Bac. and Mus. Doc. at Oxford. In June 
1813 he and three of the vicars-choral of Bangor 
Cathedral presented a petition to the Court" of 
Chancery for the proper application of certain 
tithes which had, by an act of Parliament passed 
in 1685, been appropriated for the maintenance 
of the cathedral choir, but had been diverted by 
the capitular body to other purposes. The suit 
lasted until 1819, when Lord Chancellor Eldon, 
setting at naught the express provisions of the 
Act, sanctioned a scheme, which indeed gave to 
the organist and choir increased stipends, but 
yet kept them considerably below the amounts 
they would have received if the Act had been 


fully carried out. Dr. Pring, in 1819, printed 
copies of the proceedings in the suit, and other 
documents, with annotations, forming a history 
of the transactions, which has long been a scarce 
book. He died at Bangor, Feb. 13, 1842. 

ISAAC PRING, born at Kensington, 1777, be 
came in 1794 assistant organist to Dr. Philip 
Hayes at Oxford, and on his death in 1797 
succeeded him as organist of New College. 
He graduated at Oxford in March, 1799, an( ^ 
died of consumption Oct. 18, in the same 
year. [W.H.H.] 

PROCH, HEINRICH, well-known composer of 
Lieder, Capellmeister, and teacher of singing, 
born July 22, 1809, in Vienna ; was destined for 
the law, but studied the violin with enthusiasm, 
and in 1833-34 frequently played- in public in 
Vienna. He became in 1837 Capellmeister of 
the Josephstadt theatre, Vienna, and in 1840 
of the Court opera, retiring with a pension in 
1870. On the foundation of the shortlived Comic 
Opera in 1874 he was appointed its Capellmeister. 
His popularity is mainly due to his Lieder, 
among the best-known of which we may cite 
Das Alpenhorn. He trained a large number 
of celebrated singers among others Dustmann, 
Csillag, and Tietjens. Several good German 
translations of Italian operas the Trovatore for 
example are from his pen. Proch died Dec. 18, 
1878. His daughter LOUISE is a singer and 
actress of some ability, with a powerful mezzo- 
soprano voice. [F.G.] 

PRODIGAL SON, THE. An oratorio by 
Arthur Sullivan, composed for the Worcester 
Festival, 1869, and produced there Sept. 8. The 
subject has been treated by Gaveaux, Auber, and 
others, under the title of L Enfant prodigue ; 
and by Ponchielli, whose Figliuol prodigo was 
produced at the Scala, Milan, Dec. 26, 1880. 
[See vol. i. 488 a.] [G.] 

PROFESSOR. At Oxford, the Professorship 
of Music was founded by Dr. William Heather 
in 1626. The first Professors were college 


organists, not known outside the University. 
Crotch, who took the office in 1797, and held it 
till 1848, was the first musician of eminence. 
His successor was Bishop. The present Professor, 
Sir F. A.G.Ouseley, Bt.,was appointed on Bishop s 
death in 1855. During a long period the office 
was a sinecure. In the reforms carried out about 
25 years ago, it was attempted to restore reality to 
the School of Music at Oxford by requiring the 
Professor to lecture at least once in each term, 
and by instituting musical performances under 
the superintendence of the Choragus. [See CHO- 
RAGUS.] The latter part of the scheme has totally 
failed; so that the Professor s lectures, about 
three a year, and the examinations for Musical 
degrees, are the only form in which the Uni 
versity advances the study of music. The terminal 
lectures, which are usually illustrated by an 
orchestra, bear rather the character of an inter 
esting public entertainment than that of technical 
nstruction. The more strictly academic work 
of the Professor consists in the examination for 


Musical degrees. [See DEGREES.] The endow 
ment of the chair is little more than nominal. 

The Cambridge Professorship was founded by 
the University in 1684, and has been held by 
Staggins (1684), Tudway (1705), Greene (1730), 
Randall (1755), Hague (1799), Clarke -Whitfeld 
(1821), Walmisley (1836), Sterndale Bennett 
(1856), andG. A. Macfarren (1875), successively. 
The duties, like those at Oxford, consist chiefly 
in examining candidates for Musical degrees, and 
in prescribing those objects of musical study in 
which changes are made from time to time. The 
salary of the Professor is 200 per annum. 

The Edinburgh Professorship was endowed by 
General Reid in 1839. The Professor is ap 
pointed by the University Court. Sir Herbert 
Oakeley, the present occupant of the chair, was 
elected in 1865 : his predecessors were John 
Thomson, 1839; Sir H. R. Bishop, 1841; H. 
H. Pierson, 1844; John Donaldson, 1845. Un 
like the non-resident Professors at Oxford and 
Cambridge, the Professor at Edinburgh is a mem 
ber of the educational staff of the University. He 
receives a salary of 420 per annum, and a further 
sum of 200 per annum is allowed for assistants 
and for class-expenses. There is a regular double 
course of musical instruction : (i) Lectures by 
the Professor on the history and development of the 
art and science of music ; the various schools and 
styles ; the history and construction of the prin 
cipal musical instruments ; the modern orchestra, 
etc., or on the works of the great masters. Or 
gan performances, with instructive remarks in 
programmes, are given from time to time during 
the session. (2) Separate and individual instruc 
tion in organ or pianoforte-playing is given to a 
certain number of the younger students. To 
these the theory of music is practically imparted. 
Sir Herbert Oakeley is also president and con 
ductor of the Edinburgh University Musical 
Society, established in 1867. 

The Dublin Professorship was dormant till 
1764, when Lord Mornington was appointed. 
He held office for ten years, after which time 
the Professorship again sank into oblivion. It 
was revived in 1 845, in the person of Dr. Smith, 
and a few examinations of a rudimentary charac 
ter were held, and degrees given. It was, how 
ever, reserved for the present Professor, Sir 
Robert Stewart, elected in 1862, to raise the 
standard of musical science in Dublin by ex 
amining in history, counterpoint, orchestration, 
and all that is included in modern musical study. 
Although the statutory duties of the Professor 
are conh ned to examinations and to the conduct 
of business relating to Musical degrees, and 
although there exists no endowment at Dublin 
like that which defrays class-expenses at Edin 
burgh, yet the actual condition of musical study 
at Dublin resembles that of Edinburgh rather 
than the two English Universities. Sir Robert 
Stewart* who is resident at the University, and 
is the organist of Trinity College Chapel, both 
delivers courses of lectures and imparts practical 
instruction by training the University Choral 
Society, and conducting the orchestral concerts, 




which, after weekly rehearsals, are held from 
three to five times during the season. The im 
portant change lately made at Oxford and Cam 
bridge, by introducing literary elements into the 
examination for Musical degrees, was effected at 
Dublin by the present Professor many years 
before. [C.A.F.] 

PROGRAMME(from7r/><$, before, and7/>a/^a, 
a writing ). A list of the pieces to be performed 
at a concert, usually accompanied by the names 
of the performers. The term seems to have come 
into use in this connexion in the present century, 
and is now often further applied to the books 
containing the words, and the remarks on the 
pieces, which are becoming so usual. It is not 
however used for the book of words of an oratorio 
or opera. 

Programmes are now commonly restricted in 
length to 2 hours or 2^. The concerts of the 
Philharmonic Societies of London and Vienna, 
the Gewandhaus at Leipsic, and the Conservatoire 
at Paris, are of that length, usually containing a 
symphony and a smaller orchestral piece, a solo 
concerto, two or three vocal pieces for solo or 
chorus, and one or two overtures. This is some 
times divided into two parts, sometimes goes on 
without break. 

Formerly concerts were of greater length. In the 
old days of the Philharmonic two symphonies were 
de rigueur, and even such colossi as Beethoven s 
Eroica, No. 7, and No. 9, were accompanied by a 
symphony of Haydn, Mozart, or Spohr, besides 
4 vocal pieces, 2 overtures (the concluding one 
often styled a Finale ), a concerto, and some 
such trifle as Beethoven s Septet. This was a 
survival from an older order of things. The 
Haydn-Salomon Concerts of 1792-6 contained 
each 2 (once at least 3) Symphonies, and a final 
orchestral piece, 2 concertos, and 4 vocal pieces ; 
and these again were modelled on the programmes 
of the petty German Concerts. Jahn in his Life of 
Mozart (i. 294) mentions that at Vienna about 
1778, Count Firmian s soire es lasted for 6 hours ; 
at one of them several symphonies by Christian 
Bach, and four by Martini, were performed ; at 
another twelve new Violin Concertos by Benda. 
At a private concert at Dresden, Sept. 21, 1772, 
given for the benefit of Dr. Burney (Tour, ii. 44), 
the programme was in two parts, each containing 
a symphony, a violin solo, a flute concerto, and an 
oboe concerto; and, in addition, by way of a bonne 
boucke, Fischer s well-known rondeau minuet. 
It must be remembered that these pieces were 
probably not nearly so long as those which now 
go by the same names. Our next instance, how 
ever, contains pieces of which we can all judge. 
It is the programme of a concert given by 
Mozart at Vienna, on March 22, 1783. All the 
pieces are by him. 

1. The Hafner Symphony (Allegro and Andante). 

2. Air from Idomeneo Se il padre. Mad. Lange. 

3. PF. Concerto in C. 

4. Scena and Aria, Misera dove son. Herr Adam- 


5. Andante grazioso and Rondo allegro, from Serenade 

in D ; for orchestra. 

6. The favourite PF. Concerto in D. 

7. Scena, Parto (Lucio Silla. . Mad. Teyber. 



8. Extempore Fantasia on the PF. on an air by Paisiello ; 

encored, when Mozart again extemporised on an air 
by Gluck (10 variations). 

9. Scena and Aria, Mia speranzaadorata. Mad. Lange- 
10. The Hafner Symphony (Minuet and Finale). 

Beethoven indulged in long programmes when 
his own compositions were concerned. At the con 
cert, in March 1807, at which his Bb Symphony 
was first performed, the new work was preceded by 
all the three foregoing ones ! Later, on Nov. 29, 
1813, he gave the Symphony in A, the Glor- 
reiche Augenblick (7 nos.), and the Battle of 
Vittoria, in the same programme. But then, 
these were his own music, and orchestral con 
certs were rare. That his judgment on this 
subject, when unbiassed, was as sound as it was 
elsewhere, is evident from the note prefixed to 
the score of the Eroica Symphony, in which he 
requests that it may be played near the begin 
ning of the programme, and be accompanied only 
by an Overture, an Air and a Concerto, that it 
may not fail to produce its own intended effect. 
If this was his sober judgment we may doubt 
whether he would have approved such a pro 
gramme as that in which a great artist lately played 
the whole of the five last Sonatas (op. 101, 106, 
109, no, in) consecutively, without any relief 
magnificent interpretations, but surely an undue 
strain on both player and hearer. A recent 
performance of the Choral Symphony twice in 
one programme, with an interval of half an hour, 
is more excusable, for who ever heard that mag 
nificent work without wishing to hear it all over 
again ? The arrangement of a programme is not 
without its difficulties, as the effect of the pieces 
may be much improved by judicious contrast of 
the keys, the style, and the nature of the compo 
sition. We have elsewhere mentioned Mendels 
sohn s fastidious care on these points, and all are 
agreed that his Programmes when he conducted at 
the Gewandhaus were models. [See vol. ii. 297 6.] 
He is said to have proposed to write the music for 
an entire Programme, in which he would no doubt 
have completely satisfied his canons of taste. 

Of Benefit Concerts we say nothing. They 
have been known in this country (1840-50) to 
contain 40 pieces, played or sung by nearly as 
many solo artists, and to last more than 5 hours ! 

It was once the custom in France, and even 
in Germany, occasionally to divide the piece de 
resistance of the programme into two, and play 
half a symphony at the beginning of the concert 
and half at the end. Mozart himself gives an 
example in the programme quoted above. But 
now-a-days such an attempt would be treated 
by any good audience with merited displeasure. 

When Beethoven s Violin Concerto was first 
played (Dec. 23, 1806) by Clement, to whom it 
is dedicated, the selection was as follows : 

Overture .... Clement 
Violin Concerto . . Beethoven 
Extempore piece . . Clement 
Sonata on one string, with the Violin 

But the curiosities of programmes are endless. [G.] 

PROGRAMME-MUSIC is an epithet origin 
ally intended to apply to that small but interest 
ing class of music which, while unaccompanied 


by words, seeks to pourtray. or at least suggest 
to the mind, a certain definite series of objects 
or events. But the term is also applied, with 
deplorable vagueness of meaning, to all dra 
matic, characteristic, or imitative music what 
ever. It must always remain an open question 
how far music is able of itself to influence the 
mind s eye, for the simple reason that some 
imaginations are vastly more susceptible than 
others, and can therefore find vivid pictures 
where others see and hear nothing. Also, in 
programme-music of all kinds, the imagination 
is always turned in the required direction by 
the title of the piece, if by nothing else. It is 
held by some that music should never seek to 
convey anything beyond the concourse of sweet 
sounds, or at least should only pourtray states 
of feeling. But what is the opinion of the bulk 
of audiences, who, though artistically ignorant, 
are not of necessity vulgar-minded? To the 
uninitiated a symphony is a chaos of sound, re 
lieved by scanty bits of tune ; great then is 
their delight when they can find a reason and 
a meaning in what is to them like a poem in 
a foreign tongue. A cuckoo or a thunderstorm 
assists the mind which is endeavouring to conjure 
up the required images. And two other facts 
should be bDrne in mind : one is that there is a 
growing tendency amongst critics and educated 
musicians to invent imaginary programmes 
where composers have mentioned none as in 
the case of Weber s Concertstiick and Schubert s 
C major Symphony, for instance and another, 
that music, when accompanied by words, can never 
be too descriptive or dramatic, as in Wagner s 
music-dramas and the Faust of Berlioz. 

May it not at least be conceded that though 
it is a degradation of art to employ music in 
imitating the sounds of nature illustrious ex 
amples to the contrary notwithstanding it is a 
legitimate function of music to assist the mind, 
by every means in its power, to conjure up 
thoughts of a poetic and idealistic kind ? If this 
be granted, programme-music becomes a legiti 
mate branch of art, in fact the noblest, the nature 
of the programme being the vital point. 

The Leit-motif is an ingenious device to 
overcome the objection that music cannot paint 
actualities. If a striking phrase once accom 
pany a character or an event in an opera, such a 
phrase will surely be ever afterwards identified 
with what it first accompanied. The Zarniel 
motive in Der Freischiitz is a striking and 
early example of this association of phrase with 
character. [For a full consideration of this sub 
ject see LEIT-MOTIF.] 

But admirable as this plan may be in opera, 
where the eye assists the ear, it cannot be said 
that the attempts of Liszt and Berlioz to apply 
it to orchestral music have been wholly suc 
cessful. It is not enough for the composer to 
label his themes in the score and tell us, as in the 
Dante Symphony for instance, that a mono 
tone phrase for Brass instruments represents 
All hope abandon, ye who enter here, or that 
a melodious phrase typifies Francesca da Rimini. 


On the other hand, it is quite possible for a 
musical piece to follow the general course of a 
poem or story, and, if only by evoking similar 
states of mind to those induced by considering 
the story, to form a fitting musical commentary 
on it. Such programme pieces are Sterndale 
Bennett s Paradise and the Peri overture, Von 
Billow s Sanger s Fluch/ and Liszt s Mazeppa. 
But as the extent to which composers have 
gone in illustrating their chosen subjects differs 
widely, as much as the Eroica differs from 
the Battle Symphony, so it will be well now 
to review the list of compositions not a very 
bulky one before the present century written 
with imitative or descriptive intention, and let 
each case rest on its own merits. 

Becker, in his Hausmusik in Deutschland 
mentions possessing a i6-part vocal canon on 
the approach of Summer/ by a Flemish com 
poser of the end of the I5th century, in which 
the cuckoo s note is imitated, but given incor 
rectly. This incorrectness D C instead of Eb C 
may perhaps be owing to the fact (discussed 
some time ago in the Musical Times ) that this 
bird alters her interval as summer goes on. 1 It 
is but natural that the cuckoo should have 
afforded the earliest as well as the most frequent 
subject for musical imitation, as hers is the only 
bird s note which is reducible to our scale, 
though attempts have been made, as will be 
seen further on, to copy some others. Another 
canonic part-song, written in 1540 by Lemlin, 
Der Gutzgauch auf dem Zaune sass, Becker 
transcribes at length. Here two voices repeat 
the cuckoo s call alternately throughout the 
piece. He also quotes a part-song by Antonio 
Scandelli (Dresden, 1570) in which the cackling 
of a hen laying an egg is comically imitated 
thus : Ka, ka, ka, ka, ne-ey ! Ka, ka, ka, ka, 
ne-ey ! More interesting than any of these is the 
Dixieme livre des chansons (Antwerp, 1545) 
to be found in the British Museum, which con 
tains La Bataille a Quatre de Clem. Jannequin 
(with a 5th part added by Ph. Verdelot), Le 
chant des oyseaux by 1ST. Gombert, La chasse 
de lievre, anonymous, and another Chasse de 
lievre by Gombert. Two at least of these part- 
songs deserve detailed notice, having been re 
cently performed in Paris. The first has been 
transcribed in score by Dr. Burney 2 in his Mu 
sical Extracts (Add. MS. 11,588), and is a descrip 
tion of the battle of Marignan. Beginning in the 
usual contrapuntal madrigal style with the words 
Escoutez, tous gentilzGallois, la victoire du noble 
roy Franfoys/ at the words Sonney trompettes 
et clairons the voices imitate trumpet-calls thus, 


war-cries. Two bars of quotation will perhaps 
convey some idea. 

"fc 1 1 1-1 1 i i 

* . 

, i 

t 3 p 

r i 



i * 

1 1 



flj chippe choppe torche lorgne 

chippe choppe torche 


1 4 


t ~ -i P 

i r 



1 1 


t i 


pa -ti-pa -toe trique trique trac pa-ti-pa. 

Sfr 1 1 i 




fS 1? 


4-?J J 





pa -ti-pa -toe trique trac 

lu i i 

zin zin 


"11 h. 1 

i i - 

1 1 

u \n j j 



ni i 



la pa-ti - pa-toe pa-ti-pa- toe pa 

-ti-pa - toe pa-ti - pa- 


i j 

. m j 


h J i 

* r 

r M 1 

2 5 

. .! . 


* ( 

Frere-le-le Ian fan, frere-le-le Ian fan 

and the assault is described by a copious use of 
onomatopeias, such as pon, pon, pon/ patipatoc/ 
and farirari, mixed up with exclamations and 

1 Spohr, In his Autobiography, has quoted a cuckoo in Switzerland 
vhich gave the intermediate note G, F, E. 
i Reprinted in the Prince de la Moskowa s collection. 

pa-ti-pa - toe pa-ti-pa - toe pa-ti - pa- 

This kind of thing goes on with much spirit for 
a long while, ending at last with cries of Vic 
toire au noble roy Frai^ois ! Escampe toutte 
frelon bigot ! Jannequin is said to have written 
some other descriptive pieces, in the list of which 
the Chant des oyseaux of Gombert is wrongly in 
cluded. [See JANNEQUIN.] This latter composition 
is chiefly interesting for the manner in which the 
articulation of the nightingale is imitated, the song 
being thus written down : Tar, tar, tar, tar, tar, 
fria, fria, tu tu tu, qui lara, qui lara, huit huit 
huit huit, oyti oyti, coqui coqui, la vechi la vechi, 
ti ti cu ti ti cu titi cu, quiby quiby, tu fouquet 
tu fouquet, trop coqu trop coqu, etc. But it is a 
ludicrous idea to attempt an imitation of a bird 
by a part-song for Soprano, Alto, Tenor and Bass, 
although some slight effort is made to follow the 
phrasing of the nightingale s song. The Chasse 
de lievre describes a hunt, but is not otherwise 

The old musicians do not display much ori 
ginality in their choice of subjects, whether for 
imitation or otherwise. * Mr. Bird s Battle is 
the title of a piece for virginals contained in a 
MS. book of W. Byrd s in the Christ Church 
Library, Oxford. The several movements are 
headed The soldiers summons the March of 
footmen of horsemen the Trumpets the Irish 
march the Bagpipe and Drum etc. and the 
piece is apparently unfinished. Mention may 
also be made of La Battaglia by Francesco 
di Milano (about 1530) and another battle- 
piece by an anonymous Flemish composer a 
little later. Eckhard or Eccard (1589) is said 
to have described in music the hubbub of the 
Piazza San Marco at Venice, but details of this 
achievement are wanting. The beginning of the 
1 7th century gives us an English Fantasia on 
the weather, 1 by John Mundy, professing to de 
scribe Faire Wether, Lightning, Thunder/ 
and A faire Day. This is to be seen in Queen 
Elizabeth s Virginal Book. The three subjects 
quoted overleaf alternate frequently, giving thir 
teen changes of weather, and the piece ends 
with a few bars expressing a cleare day. 

D 2 



]. Faire wether. 



2. Lightning. 

There is also A Harmony for 4 Voices by 
Ravenscroft, expressing the five usual Recrea 
tions of Hunting, Hawking, Dancing, Drinking, 
and Enamouring : but here it is probable that 
the words only are descriptive. A madrigal by 
Leo Leoni (1606) beginning Dimmi Clori gen til 
contains an imitation of a nightingale. Then 
the Viennese composer Froberger (d. 1667) is 
mentioned by several authorities to have had a 
marvellous power of pourtraying all kinds of 
incidents and ideas in music, but the sole speci 
men of his programme-music quoted by Becker 
another battle-piece is a most feeble produc 
tion. Adam Krieger (1667) gives us a four-part 
vocal fugue entirely imitative of cats, the subject 
being as follows 

mi ------- au, 

- - - - - au! 

Titles now begin to be more impressive, and the 
attempt of Buxtehude (b. 1637) to describe the 
Nature and Properties of the Planets in a series 
of seven Suites for Clavier would be very ambi 
tious had it extended further than the title-page. 
Kuhnau s Biblische Historien are more notice 
able. These were six Organ Sonatas describing 
various scenes in the sacred narrative. David 
playing before Saul is one a good musical sub 
ject ; Jacob s wedding is more of a programme 
piece, and contains a bridal song for Rachel. 
Gideon is of the usual order of battle-pieces, and 
Israel s death is not very descriptive. Burney 
gives David and Goliath and The ten plagues 
of Egypt as the titles of the other two. 

Amongst descriptive vocal pieces of this 
period should be noticed the Frost scene in 


Purcell s King Arthur, in which the odd effect 
of shivering and teeth -chattering is rendered by 
the chorus. Also the following aria from an 
opera by Alessandro Melani (1660-96) : 

Talor la granochiella nel pantano 
Per allegrezza canta qua qua re, 
Tribbia il grille tri tri tri, 
L Agnellino fa be be ; 
L Usignuolo chiu chiu chiu, 
Ed il gal curi cbi chi. 

These imitations are said to have created much 
delight among the audience. Coming now to 
the great masters we find singularly few items for 
our list. J. S. Bach has only one, the Capriccio 
sopra la lontananza del suo fratello diletissimo, 
for pianoforte solo, in which occurs an imitation 
of a posthorn. We cannot include the descriptive 
choruses which abound in cantatas and oratorios, 
the catalogue would be endless. We need only 
mention casually the Schlacht bei Hochstadt of 
Em. Bach, and dismiss Couperin with the remark 
that though he frequently gives his harpsichord 
pieces sentimental and flowery names, these 
have no more application than the titles be 
stowed so freely and universally on the drawing- 
room music of the present day. D. Scarlatti 
wrote a well-known Cat s Fugue. Handel has 
not attempted to describe in music without the 
aid of words for the Harmonious Blacksmith 
is a mere after-invention, but he occasionally 
follows not only the spirit but the letter of his 
text with a faithfulness somewhat questionable, 
as in the setting of such phrases as the hail 
ran along upon the ground, we have turned, 
and others, where the music literally executes 
runs and turns. But this too literal following 
of the words has been even perpetrated by 
Bach ( Mein Jesu ziehe mich, so will ich 
laufen }, and by Beethoven (Mass in D, et 
ascendit in ccelum ) ; and in the present day 
the writer has heard more than one organist 
at church gravely illustrating the words The 
mountains skipped like rams in his accompani 
ment, and on the slightest allusion to thunder 
pressing down three or four of the lowest 
pedals as a matter of course. Berlioz has ridi 
culed the idea of interpreting the words high 
and low literally in music, but the idea is 
now too firmly rooted to be disturbed. Who 
would seek to convey ethereal or heavenly ideas 
other than by high notes or soprano voices, and 
a notion of the great deep or of gloomy subjects 
other than by low notes and bass voices t 

A number of Haydn s Symphonies are distin 
guished by names, but none are sufficiently de 
scriptive to be included here. Characteristic music 
there is in plenty in the Seasons/ and Creation, 
but the only pieces of actual programme-music 
and those not striking specimens are the 
Earthquake movement, II Terremoto, in the 
Seven Last Words/ and the Representation of 
Chaos in the Creation/ by an exceedingly un- 
chaotic fugue. Mozart adds nothing to our list, 
though it should be remembered how greatly he 
improved dramatic music. We now come to 
the latter part of the i8th century, when pro 
gramme pieces are in plenty. It is but natural 




that the numerous battles of that stormy epoch 
should have been commemorated by the arts, 
and accordingly we find Battle Sonatas and Sym 
phonies by the dozen. But first a passing mention 
should be made of the three symphonies of 
Ditters von Dittersdorf (1789) on subjects from 
Ovid s Metamorphoses, viz. The four ages of the 
world ; The fall of Phaeton ; and Action s Me 
tamorphosis into a stag. 

In an old volume of pianoforte music in the 
British Museum Library (g. 138) may be seen 
the following singular compositions : 

i. Britannia, an Allegorical Overture by D. 
Steibelt, describing the victory over the Dutch 
Fleet by Admiral Duncan. In this, as well as all 
other similar pieces, the composer has kindly sup 
plied printed stage directions throughout. Thus 
Adagio : the stillness of the night. The waves 
of the sea. Advice from Captain Trollope 
(which is thus naively depicted) : 

- 1- m 

<= n . . -~ 

f=> H 

;*=; II 


SSU -. - 

- i- C 


1 7- 


Sailing of the Dutch Fleet announced (by a 
march!). Beat to arms. Setting the sails, " Britons, 
strike home." Sailing of the Fleet. Songs of the 
sailors. Roaring of the sea. Joy on sight of 
the enemy. Signal to engage. Approach to the 
enemy. Cannons. Engagement. Discharge of 
small arms. Falling of the mast (a descending 
scale passage). Cries of the wounded : 


Heat of the action. Cry of victory. " Rule 
Britannia," (interrupted by) Distress of the Van- 
quished. Sailing after victory. Return into port 
and acclamation of the populace. " God save the 
King." This composer has also written a well- 
known descriptive rondo, The Storm, as well 
as other programme pieces, the titles of which will 
be found under PIANOFORTE Music [vol.ii. 7256]. 
2. The Royal Embarkation at Greenwich, a 
characteristic Sonata by Theodore Bridault. 
This piece professes to describe Grand Saluta 
tion of Cannon and Music. The barge rowing off 
to the Yatch. " Rule Britannia." His Majesty 
going on board. Acclamations of the people 
(apparently not very enthusiastic). 

3. The Battle of Egypt, by Dr. Domenico 
Briscoli. This is a piece of the same kind, with 
full descriptions, and ending, as usual, with God 
save the King. 

4. The Landing of the Brave 42nd in Egypt. 
Military Rondo for Pianoforte, by T. H. Butler. 
The programme is thus stated : Braving all 
opposition they land near Fort Aboukir, pursue 
the French up the sand-hills, and in a bloody 
battle conquer Buonaparte s best troops. 

5. Another Admiral Duncan s Victory, by 
J. Dale. 

6. Nelson and the Navy, a Sonata in com 
memoration of the glorious 1st of August, 1798, 
by J. Dale. A similar sea-piece, in which the 
blowing up of L Orient is represented by a grand 
ascending scale passage. 

7. A third Admiral Duncan, by Dussek. 

8. The Sufferings of the Queen of France, 
by Dussek. This is a series of very short move 
ments strung together, each bearing a name. 
A deep mourning line surrounds the title-page. 
The Queen s imprisonment (largo). She re 
flects on her former greatness (maestoso). They 
separate her from her children (agitato assai). 
Farewell. They pronounce the sentence of death 
(allegro con furia). Her resignation to her fate 
(adagio innocente). The situation and reflections 
the night before her execution (andante agitato). 
The guards come to conduct her to the place of 
execution. They enter the prison door. Funeral 
March. The savage tumult of the rabble. The 
Queen s invocation to the Almighty just before 
her death (devotamente). The guillotine drops 
(a ^ZissawcZo descending scale). The Apotheosis. 

9. A complete delineation of the Procession 
.... in the Ceremony of Thanksgiving, 1797, 
by Dussek. The full title nearly fills a page. 
Here we have horses prancing and guns firing, 
and the whole concludes with Handel s Corona 
tion Anthem. 

10. A Description in Music of Anacreon s 
L Amour piqud par une abeille, by J. Mugnie". 
This is perhaps the first attempt to illustrate 
a poem, and as such is commendable. 

11. The Chace, or Royal Windsor Hunt, by 
H. B. Schroeder ; a descriptive hunting-piece. 

12. 13. The Siege of Valenciennes, and 
Nelson s Victory, anonymous. 

Far more famous, though not a whit superior 
to any of these, was Kotzwara s Battle of 
Prague. It seems to be a mere accident that we 
have not a piece of the same kind by Beethoven 
on the Battle of Copenhagen ! x There is also a 
Conquest of Belgrade, by Schroetter ; and a 
composition by Bierey, in which one voice is ac 
companied by four others imitating frogs qua- 
qua ! belongs also to this period. Mr. Julian 

i See his letters to Thomson, in Thayer, iii. 448, 9. He asked 50 gold 
ducats for the job. 



Marshall possesses a number of compositions of 
an obscure but original-minded composer of this 
time (though perhaps a Prince), Signor Sampieri. 
He appears to have been a pianoforte teacher 
who sought to make his compositions interest 
ing to his pupils by means of programmes, and 
even by illustrations placed among the notes. 
One of his pieces is A Grand Series of Musical 
Compositions expressing Various Motions of the 
Sea. Here we have Promenade, Calm, Storm, 
Distress of the Passengers, Vessel nearly lost, 
etc. Another is modestly entitled A Novel, 
Sublime, and Celestial, Piece of Music called 
NIGHT ; Divided into 5 Parts, viz. Evening, 
Midnight, Aurora, Daylight, and The Rising of 
the Sun. On the cover is given A short Ac 
count how this Piece is to be played. As it is 
supposed the Day is more Chearful than the 
Night, in consequence of which, the Evening, 
begins by a piece of Serious Music. Midnight, 
by simple and innocent, at the same time shew 
ing the Horror & Dead of the Night. Aurora, 
by a Mild encreasing swelling or crescendo 
Music, to shew the gradual approach of the Day. 
Daylight, by a Gay & pleasing Movement, the 
Rising of the Sun, concludes by an animating & 
lively Rondo, & as the Sun advance into the 
Centre of the Globe, the more the Music is 
animating, and finishes the Piece. 

In this composition occur some imitations of 
birds. That of the Thrush is not bad : 




The Blackbird and the Goldfinch are less happily 
copied. Other works of this composer bear the 
titles of The Elysian Fields, The Progress of 
Nature in various departments," New Grand 
Pastorale and Rondo with imitation of the bag 
pipes ; and there is a curiously illustrated piece 
descriptive of a Country Fair, and all the 
amusements therein. 

Coming now to Beethoven, we have his own 
authority for the fact, that when composing he 
had always a picture in his mind, to which he 
worked. 1 But in two instances only has he de 
scribed at all in detail what the picture was. 
These two works, the Pastoral and the Battle 
Symphonies, are of vastly different calibre. The 
former, without in the slightest degree departing 
from orthodox form, is a splendid precedent for 
programme-music. In this, as in most works of 
the higher kind of programme-music, the composer 
seeks less to imitate the actual sounds of nature 
than to evoke the same feelings as are caused by 
the contemplation of a fair landscape, etc. And 
with such consummate skill is this intention 
wrought out that few people will be found to 
agree with a writer in the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica (former edition) who declares that if 
this symphony were played to one ignorant of 
the composer s intention the hearer would not 

i In a conversation with Neate, in the fields near Baden (Thayer, 
lii. 343). Ich habe immer ein Gemalde in meinen Gedanken, weun 
ich am componiren bin, uad arbeite nach demselben. 


be able to find out the programme for himself. 
But even were this the case as it undoubtedly 
is with many other pieces it would be no ar 
gument against programme-music, which never 
professes to propound conundrums. It may be 
worth mentioning that the Pastoral Symphony 
has actually been illustrated by scenes, ballet 
and pantomime action in theatres. This was 
done at a festival of the Kiinstler Liedertafel of 
Diisseldorf in 1863 by a series of living and 
moving tableaux in which the situations de 
scribed by the Tone-poem are scenically and 
pantomimically illustrated. 2 A similar enter 
tainment was given by Howard Glover in Lon 
don the same and following year. 

Another interesting fact concerning the Pas 
toral Symphony is the identity of its pro 
gramme with that of the Portrait Musical de 
la Nature of Knecht, described below. The 
similarity however does not extend to the 
music, in which there is not a trace of resem 
blance. Mention has elsewhere been made of 
an anticipation of the Storm music in the Pro 
metheus ballet music, which is interesting to 
note. Some description of the little-known 
Battle Symphony may not be out of place 
here. It is in two parts ; the first begins 
with English drums and trumpets followed by 
Rule Britannia, then come French drums 
and trumpets followed by Malbrook. More 
trumpets to give the signal for the assault on 
either side, and the battle is represented by an 
Allegro movement of an impetuous character. 
Cannon of course are imitated Storming March 
Presto and the tumult increases. Then 
Malbrook is played slowly and in a minor key, 
clearly, if somewhat inadequately, depicting the 
defeat of the French. This ends the ist part. 
Part 2 is entitled Victory Symphony and 
consists of an Allegro con brio followed by God 
save the King a melody, it may be remarked, 
which Beethoven greatly admired. The Allegro 
is resumed, and then the anthem is worked up 
in a spirited fugato to conclude. 

Of the other works of Beethoven which are 
considered as programme, or at least characteristic 
music, a list has been already given at p. 206 & of 
vol. i. It is sufficient here to remark that the 
Eroica Symphony only strives to produce a 
general impression of grandeur and heroism, and 
the Pathetic and Farewell Sonatas do but 
pourtray states of feeling, ideas which music is 
peculiarly fitted to convey. The title Wuth 
liber den verlorenen Groschen, etc., given by 
Beethoven to a Rondo (op. 1 29) is a mere joke. 

Knecht s Symphony here demands a more de 
tailed notice than has yet been given it. The 
title-page runs as follows 

Le Portrait Musical de la Nature, ou Grande Simphonie . . . (For 
ordinary orchestra minus clarinets.) Laquelle va exprimer par le 
moyen des sons : 

1. Une belle Contre e ou le Soleil luit, les doux Zephirs voltigent, 
les Kuisseaux traversent le vallon, les oiseaux gazouillent, un torrent 
tombe du haut en murmurant, le berger siffle, les moutons sautent, 
et la bergere fait entendre sa douce voix. 

2. Le ciel commence devenir soudain et sombre, tout le voisin- 
age a de la peine de respirer et s effraye, les images noirs montent. 

2 See Beethoven im Malkasten by Jahn, Gesam. AufsStze. 


les vents se mettent a faire un bruit, le tonnerre gronde de loin et 
1 orage approche a pas lents. 

3. L orage accompagne 1 des vents murmurans et des pluies bat- 
tans gronde avec toute la force, les sommets des arbres font un murm, 
et le torrent roule ses eaux avec un bruit e pouvantable. 

4. L orage s appaise peu a peu les nuages se dissipent et le ciel 
devient clair. 

5. La Nature transported de la joie e"le"ve sa voix vers le ciel et 
rend au cre"ateur les plus vives graces par des chants doux et agre ables. 

Dedie"e a Monsieur 1" Abbe" Vogler Premier Maitre de Chapelle Elec 
torate de Palatin-Bavar, par Justin Henri Knecht. 

[See KNECHT, vol. ii. p. 66.] 

In spite of these elaborate promises the sym 
phony, regarded as descriptive music, is a sadly 
weak affair ; its sole merit lying in the oi igin- 
ality of its form. In the first movement (G 
major, Allegretto) instead of the working out 
section there is an episode, Andante pastorale, 
D major (a), formed from the first subject (6) by 
metamorphosis, thus 




The Abb^ Vogler, to whom this composition is 
dedicated, was himself a great writer of pro 
gramme-music, having described in his Organ 
Concertos such elaborate scenes as the drowning 
of the Duke Leopold in a storm, the Last Judge 
ment, with graves opening, appearance of the 
mystic horsemen and choruses of damned and 
blessed and a naval battle in the fashion of 
Dussek and the rest. 

Coming now to modern times, we find a perfect 
mania for giving names to pieces showing the 
bias of popular taste. Every concert overture 
must have a title, whether it be programme- 
music or not. Every drawing -room piece, every 
waltz or galop, must have its distinctive name, 
till we cease to look for much descriptiveness in 
any music. It cannot be said that all Mendels 
sohn s overtures are programme-music. The 
Midsummer Night s Dream, with its tripping 
elves and braying donkey, certainly is, but the 
Meeresstille, Hebrides, and Melusine are 
only pieces which assume a definite colour or 
character, the same as his Italian and Scotch 
symphonies. To this perfectly legitimate extent 
many modern pieces go ; and some term like 
tinted music should be invented for this large 
class of compositions, which includes the greater 
part of Schumann s pianoforte works, for instance. 
The Carneval is decidedly programme-music, 
so are most of the Kinderscenen and Wald- 
scenen ; while others, despite their sometimes 
extravagant titles, are purely abstract music : for 
it is well known that Schumann often invented 
the titles after the pieces were written. Such 
pieces as the Fantasia in C and the longer 
Novelletten, from their poetic cast and free 
form give a decided impression of being intended 
for descriptive music. 

Spohr s Symphony Die Weihe der Tone (The 
Consecration of Sound) bears some relation to the 

Pastoral Symphony in its first movement ; the 
imitations of Nature s sounds are perhaps some 
what too realistic for a true work of art, but 
have certainly conduced to its popularity. For 
no faults are too grave to be forgiven when 
a work has true beauty. His Seasons and 
Historical Symphonies are less characteristic. 

Felicien David s wonderful ode-symphonie Le 
Desert must not be omitted, though it is almost 
a cantata, like the Faust of Berlioz. Modern 
dramatic music, in which descriptiveness is car 
ried to an extent that the old masters never 
dreamed of, forms a class to itself. This is not 
the place to do more than glance at the wonder 
ful achievements of Weber and Wagner. 

Berlioz was one of the greatest champions of 
programme -music ; he wrote nothing that was 
not directly or indirectly connected with poetical 
words or ideas ; but his love of the weird and 
terrible has had a lamentable effect in repelling 
public admiration for such works as the Francs 
Juges and King Lear overtures. Music 
which seeks to inspire awe and terror rather than 
delight can never be popular. This remark 
applies also to much of Liszt s music. The 
novelty in construction of the Symphonische 
Dichtungen would be freely forgiven were simple 
beauty the result. But such subjects as Pro 
metheus and The Battle of the Huns, when 
illustrated in a sternly realistic manner, are too 
repulsive, the latter of these compositions having 
indeed lately called forth the severe remark from 
an eminent critic that These composers (Liszt 
etc.) prowl about Golgotha for bones, and, when 
found, they rattle them together and call the 
noise music. But no one can be insensible to 
the charms of the preludes Tasso, Dante, 
and Faust, or of some unpretentious pianoforte 
pieces, such as St. Fra^ois d Assise predicant 
aux oiseaux, Au bord d une source, * Waldes- 
rauschen, and others. 

Stern dale Bennett s charming Paradise and 
the Peri overture is a good specimen of a work 
whose intrinsic beauty pulls it through. An un 
musical story, illustrated too literally by the 
music, yet the result is delightful. Raff, who 
ought to know public taste as well as any man, has 
named seven out of his nine symphonies, but they 
are descriptive in a very unequal degree. The 
Lenore follows the course of Burger s well- 
known ballad, and the Im Walde depicts four 
scenes of forest life. Others bear the titles of 
The Alps, Spring, Summer, etc., but are 
character-music only. Raff, unlike Liszt, re 
mains faithful to classical form in his symphonies, 
though this brings him into difficulties in the 
Finale of the Forest symphony, where the 
shades of evening have to fall and the Wild 
Hunt to pass, twice over. The same difficulty 
is felt in Bennett s Overture. 

That the taste for music that means some 
thing is an increasing, and therefore a sound 
one, no one can doubt who looks on the enormous 
mass of modern music which comes under that 
head. Letting alone the music which is only 
intended for the uneducated, the extravagant 



programme quadrilles of Jullien, and the clever, 
if vulgar, imitative choruses of Offenbach and his 
followers, it is certain that every piece of music 
now derives additional interest from the mere 
fact of having a distinctive title. Two excellent 
specimens of the grotesque without vulgarity in 
modern programme-music are Gounod s Funeral 
March of a Marionette and Saint- Saens Danse 
Macabre. In neither of these is the mark over 
stepped. More dignified and poetic are the other 
Poemes Symphoniques of the latter composer, 
the Rouet d Omphale being a perfect gem in 
its way. We may include Goldmark s Land- 
liche Hochzeit symphony in our list, and if the 
Characteristic Studies of Moscheles, Liszt, Henselt 
and others are omitted, it is because they belong 
rather to the other large class of character-pieces. 
It will be noticed, on regarding this catalogue, 
how much too extended is the application of the 
term programme-music in the present day. If 
every piece which has a distinct character is to 
be accounted programme-music, then the Eroica 
Symphony goes side by side with Jullien s 
British Army Quadrille, Berlioz s Episode de 
la vie d un Artiste with Dussek s Sufferings of 
the Queen of France, or Beethoven s Turkish 
March with his Lebewohl sonata. It is ab 
surd, therefore, to argue for or against programme- 
music in general, when it contains as many and 
diverse classes as does abstract music. As 
before stated, theorising is useless the result is 
everything. A beautiful piece of music defies the 
critics, and all the really beautiful pieces in the 
present list survive, independently of the ques 
tion whether programme-music is a legitimate 
form of art or not. [F.C.] 

PROGRESSION is motion from note to note, 
or from chord to chord. The term is sometimes 
used to define the general aspect of a more or less 
extended group of such motions. It is also used 
of a group of modulations, with reference to 
the order of their succession. The expression 
progression of parts is used with special re 
ference to their relative motion in respect of one 
another, and of the laws to which such relative 
motion is subject. [See MOTION.] [C.H.H.P.] 

PROLATION (Lat. Prolatio; Ital. Prola- 
zione). A subdivision of the rhythmic system, 
which, in Mediaeval Music, governed the pro 
portionate duration of the Semibreve and the 

Prolation was of two kinds, the Greater, and 
the Lesser called by early English writers, the 
More, and the Lesse, and by Italians, Prolazione 
Perfetta, and Imperfetta. In the former usually 
indicated by a Circle, or Semicircle, with a Point 
of Perfection in its centre the Semibreve was 
equal to three Minims. In the latter distin 
guished by the same signs, without the Point 
it was equal to two. [See POINT.] The signs, 
however, varied greatly at different periods. In 
the latter half of the i6th century, for instance, 
the Circle was constantly either used in con 
nection with, or replaced by, the figure 3, to which 
circumstance we owe the presence of that figure 


in our own Time-Signatures, the Time now 
known as 3-2 being, in fact, the exact modern 
equivalent of the Greater Prolation, and that 
commonly called Alia Breve, (, of the Lesser. 
The Greater Prolation. The Lesser Prolation. 

Prolation was generally intermixed with Mode, 
and Time, in curiously intricate proportions, 
which however were greatly simplified by the 
best Masters of the best Period. [See MODE, 

concerts given at Yauxhall, Ranelagh, Maryle- 
bone, and other public gardens, might be placed 
under this head, the class of entertainment now 
so well known in this country under the name 
was introduced into London from Paris. In 
1838 some of the leading London instrumen 
talists gave concerts at the English Opera House 
(Lyceum) under the title of Promenade Concerts 
a la Musard. The pit was boarded over and an 
orchestra erected upon the stage in the manner 
now familiar to all, though then so strange. 
The band consisted of 60 performers, including 
many of the most eminent professors; Mr. J. T. 
Willy was the leader, and Signer Negri the 
conductor; the programmes were composed ex 
clusively of instrumental music, each consist 
ing of 4 overtures, 4 quadrilles (principally by 
Musard), 4 waltzes (by Strauss and Lanner), 
and a solo, usually for a wind instrument. The 
first of the concerts was given on Dec. 12, and 
they were continued, with great success, daring 
the winter. Early in 1 839 the band of Valen 
tino, the rival of Musard, came to London, and 
gave concerts at the Crown and Anchor Tavern ; 
the programmes being composed of music of a 
higher class, the first part usually including a 
symphony ; but they met with little support. In 
Oct. 1839 the original speculators resumed opera 
tions at the Lyceum. On June 8, 1840, Concerts 
d Ete" were commenced at Drury Lane under 
the conductorship of Eliason, the violinist, with 
Jullien as his assistant, and a band of nearly 
100, and a small chorus. Some dissensions 
among the original managers led to concerts of 
the same class being given by Mr. Willy in the 
autumn and winter at the Princess s Theatre, 
the majority of the band however still perform 
ing at the Lyceum. About the same period 
promenade concerts were given at Drury Lane, 
and M usard was brought over to conduct them. In 
Jan. 1841 Concerts d Hiver were given in the 
same house by Jullien, who soon firmly esta 
blished himself in public favour ami continued 
to give this class of concerts until 1859. [^ ee 
JULLIEN.] In 1851 promenade concerts conducted 
by Balfe were given at Her Majesty s Theatre 
under the title of National Concerts ; a large 
band and chorus and some eminent principal 
-singers were engaged, but the speculation proved 
unsuccessful. Since Jullien s retirement, pro 
menade concerts have been annually given in the 
autumn at Covent Garden, with Alfred Mellon 


as conductor until 1866, and afterwards under 
various conductors, Signer Arditi, M. Hervd, 
Mr. Arthur Sullivan, M. Riviere, etc. [W.H.H.] 

PROMETHEUS. Beethoven s only Ballet 
(op. 43) ; designed by Salvatore Vigano ; com 
posed in 1800, and produced, for Mile. Casentini s 
benefit, March 28, 1801, in the Burg- theater, 
Vienna, under the title of Die Geschb pfe des 
Prometheus. It contains an overture, an Intro 
duction, and 1 6 numbers. The title of the first 
edition, an arrangement for the piano (Vienna, 
1801, numbered in error op. 24), is Gli Uomini 
di Prometeo ; English edition, The men of 
Prometheus. If Beyle who under the name 
of Bombet wrote the famous letters on Haydn 
may be trusted, the representation of Chaos from 
the Creation was interpolated by Vigano into 
Beethoven s Ballet at Milan, to express the first 
dawn of sentiment in the mind of beauty (what 
ever that may mean). 1 

No. 5 is a very early instance of the use of 
the Harp with the Orchestra. The Introduction 
contains a partial anticipation of the Storm in 
the Pastoral Symphony. The Finale contains 
two tunes which Beethoven has used elsewhere; 
the first of these, in Eb, appears as a Contre- 
tanz, No. 7 of 12 ; as the theme of 15 variations 
and a fugue for the PF. in Eb (op. 35, composed 
in 1802); and as the principal theme in the 
Finale to the Eroica Symphony. The second 
in G appears as a Contretanz, No. n of the 
set first mentioned. Such repetitions are rare in 
Beethoven. The autograph of Prometheus has 
disappeared, but the Hofbibliothek at Vienna 
possesses a transcript with Beethoven s cor 
rections. [G.] 

PROPHETS, LE. Opera in 5 acts ; words by 
Scribe, music by Meyerbeer. Produced at the 
Opera, Paris, April 16, 1849. I Q Italian, in 
4 acts, at Covent Garden, July 24, 1849. [G-] 

PROPORTION (Lat. Proportio; Ital. Pro- 
porzione). A term used in Arithmetic to express 
certain harmonious relations existing between the 
several elements of a series of numbers; and trans 
ferred from the terminology of Mathematics to 
that of Music, in which it plays a very prominent 
part. In Music, however, the word is not always 
employed in its strict mathematical sense : for, 
a true Proportion can only exist in the presence 
of three terms ; in which point it differs from the 
Ratio, which is naturally expressed by two. Now, 
the so-called Proportions of Musical Science are 
almost always expressible by two terms only, and 
should therefore be more correctly called Ratios ; 
but we shall find it convenient to assume, that, 
in musical phraseology, the two words may be 
lawfully treated as synonymous as, in fact, they 
actually have been treated, by almost all who have 
written on the subject, from Joannes Tinctor, who 
published the first Musical Dictionary, in the 
year 1474,2 to the Theorists of the i8th and ipth 

Of the three principal kinds of Proportion 

1 Lettres sur Haydn, No. 18 ; May 31, 1809. 

a PROPORTIO est duorum numerorum habitudo (Joannis Tinctoris , 
Terminorum Musicas Diffinitorium. Lit. P.) 



known to Mathematicians, two only the Arith 
metical and Geometrical species are extensively 
used in Music : the former in connection with 
differences of Pitch and Rhythm ; the latter, in 
the construction of the Time-table, the Scale of 
Organ Pipes, and other matters of importance. 

Thomas Morley, in his Plaine and easie In 
troduction to Practicall Musicke (London 1597), 






















































2 4 















































gives a Table, which exhibits, at one view, all the 
different kinds of Proportion then in general use ; 
thereby saving so much time and trouble, in the 
way of reference, that we have thought it well to 



reproduce his Diagram, before proceeding to the 
practical application of our subject. 

To use this Table, (i) When the name of the 
Proportion is known, but not its constituents, 
find the name in the upper part of the Diagram ; 
follow down the lines of the lozenge in which it 
is enclosed, as far as the first horizontal line of 
figures ; and the two required numbers will be 
found under the points to which these diagonal 
lines lead. Thus, Tripla Sesquialtera lies near 
the left-hand side of the Diagram, about mid 
way between the top and bottom ; and the 
diagonal lines leading down from it conduct us 
to the numbers 2 and 7, which express the re 
quired Proportion in its lowest terms. (2) When 
the constituents of the Proportion are known, 
but not its name, find the two known numbers 
in the same horizontal line; follow the lines 
which enclose them, upwards, into the diagonal 
portion of the Diagram ; and, at the apex of the 
triangle thus formed will be found the required 
name. Thus the lines leading from 2 and 8 con 
duct us to Quadrupla. 

The uppermost of the horizontal lines comprises 
all the Proportions possible, between the series of 
numbers from I to 10 inclusive, reduced to their 
lowest terms. The subsequent lines give their 
multiples, as far as 100 ; and, as these multiples 
always bear the same names as their lowest re 
presentatives, the lines drawn from them lead 
always to the apex of the same triangle. 

By means of the Proportions here indicated, 
the Theorist is enabled to define the difference of 
pitch between two given sounds with mathema 
tical exactness. Thus, the Octave, sounded by 
the half of an Open String, is represented by the 
Proportion called Dupla ; the Perfect Fifth, 
sounded by 2-3 of the String, by that called 
Sesquialtera ; the Perfect Fourth, sounded by 
3-4, by Sesquitertia. These Ratios are simple 
enough, and scarcely need a diagram for their 
elucidation ; but, as we proceed to more complex 
Intervals, and especially to those of a dissonant 
character, the Proportions grow far more intri 
cate, and Morley s Table becomes really valuable. 

A certain number of these Proportions are also 
used for the purpose of defining differences of 
Rhythm; and, in Mediaeval Music, the latter class 
of differences involves even greater complications 
than the former. 

The nature of MODE, TIME, and PROLATION 
will be found fully explained under their own 
special headings ; and the reader who has care 
fully studied these antient rhythmic systems will 
be quite prepared to appreciate the confusion 
which could scarcely fail to arise from their un 
restrained commixture. [See NOTATION.] Time 
was, when this commixture was looked upon as 
the cachet of a refined and classical style. The 
early Flemish Composers delighted in it. Jos- 
quin constantly made one Voice sing in one 
kind of Rhythm, while another sang in another. 
Hobrecht, in his Missa Je ne demande, uses 
no less than five different Time-signatures at the 
beginning of a single Stave an expedient which 
became quite characteristic of the Music of the 


1 5th and earlier years of the i6th centuries. It 
was chiefly for the sake of elucidating the mys 
teries of this style of writing that Morley gave 
his Table to the world ; and, by way of making 
the matter clearer, he followed it up by a setting 
of Christes Crosse be my speed, for Three Voices, 
containing examples of Dupla, Tripla, Quadrupla, 
Sesquialtera, Sesquiquarta, Quadrupla-Sesqui- 
quarta, Quintupla, Sextupla, Septupla, Nonupla, 
Decupla, and Super tripartiens quartas, giving it 
to his pupil, Philomathes, with the encouraging 
direction Take this Song, peruse it, and sing it 
perfectly ; and I doubt not but you may sing any 
reasonable hard wrote Song that may come to 
your sight. 

Nevertheless, Morley himself confesses that 
these curious combinations had fallen quite into 
disuse long before the close of the i6th century. 

Ornithoparcus, writing in I5I7, 1 mentions 
eight combinations of Proportion only, all of 
which have their analogues in modern Music, 
though, the Large and Long being no longer in 
use, they cannot all be conveniently expressed in 
modern Notation, (i) The Greater Mode Per 
fect, with Perfect Time; (2) the Greater Mode 
Imperfect, with Perfect Time ; (3) the Lesser 
Mode Perfect, with Imperfect Time; (4) the 
Lesser Mode Imperfect, with Imperfect Time; 

(5) the Greater Prolation, with Perfect Time; 

(6) the Greater Prolation, with Imperfect Time ; 

(7) Perfect Time, with the Lesser Prolation ; 

(8) Imperfect Time, with the Lesser Prolation. 







7. 8. 

Adam de Fulda, Sebald Hey den, and Hermann 
Finck, use a different form of Signature ; distin 
guishing the Perfect, or Imperfect Modes, by a 
large Circle, or Semicircle ; Perfect, or Imperfect 
Time, by a smaller one, enclosed within it ; and 
the Greater, or Lesser Prolation, by the presence, 
or absence, of a Point of Perfection in the centre 
of the whole ; thus 

In his First Book of Masses, published in 1554, 
Palestrina has employed Perfect and Imperfect 
Time, and the Greater and Lesser Prolation, 
simultaneously, in highly complex Proportions, 
more especially in the Missa Virtute magna, 
the second Osanna of which presents difficulties 
with which few modern Choirs could cope ; while, 
in his learned * Missa L homme arme, he has 
produced a rhythmic labyrinth which even Jos- 
quin might have envied. But, after the pro 
duction of the Missa Papae Marcelli, in the year 
1565, he confined himself almost exclusively to 
the use of Imperfect Time, with the Lesser Pro 
lation, equivalent to our Alia Breve, with four 
Minims in the Measure ; the Lesser Prolation, 
alone, answering to our Common Time, with four 
Crotchets in the Measure; Perfect Time, with 
the Lesser Prolation, containing three Semibreves 

i Micrologus, lib. li. cap. 5. 


in the Measure ; and the Greater Prolation, alone 
represented by our 3-2. A very little considera 
tion will suffice to shew that all these combina 
tions are reducible to simple Dupla, and Tripla. 
Our modern Proportions are equally unpreten 
tious, and far more clearly expressed ; all Simple 
Times being either Duple, or Triple, with Duple 
subdivisions; and Compound Times, Duple, or 
Triple, with Triple subdivisions. Modern Com 
posers sometimes intermix these different species 
of Rhythm, just as the Greater and Lesser Pro 
lation were intermixed, in the Middle Ages ; but, 
the simplicity of our Time-signatures deprives the 
process of almost all its complication. No one, 
for instance, finds any difficulty in reading the 
Third and Fourth Doubles in the last Movement 
of Handel s Fifth Suite (the Harmonious Black 
smith ), though one hand plays in Common Time, 
and the other in 24-16. Equally clear in its 
intention, and intelligible in the appearance it 
presents to the eye, is the celebrated Scene in 
Don Giovanni, in which the First Orchestra 
plays a Minuet, in 3-4 ; the Second, a Gavotte, 
in 2-4 ; and the Third, a Yalse, in 3-8 ; all 
blending together in one harmonious whole a 
triumph of ingenious Proportion worthy of a 
Netherlander of the I5th century, which could 
only have been conceived by a Musician as re 
markable for the depth of his learning as for the 
geniality of his style. Spohr has used the same 
expedient, with striking effect, in the Slow Move 
ment of his Symphony Die Weihe der Tone ; 
and other still later Composers have adopted it, 
with very fair success, and with a very moderate 
degree of difficulty for our Rhythmic Signs are 
too clear to admit the possibility of misappre 
hension. Our Time-table, too, is simplicity itself, 
though in strict Geometrical Proportion the 
Breve being twice as long as the Scmibreve, the 
Semibreve twice as long as the Minim, and so 
with the rest. We have, in fact, done all in our 
power to render the rudiments of the Art intelli 
gible to the meanest capacity : and only in a very 
few cases such as those which concern the Sec 
tion of the Canon, as demonstrated by Euclid, 
and other writers on the origin and constitution 
of the Scale ; the regulation of Temperament ; 
the Scale of Organ Pipes ; and others of like nature 
are we concerned with Proportions sufficiently 
intricate to demand the aid of the Mathematician 
for their elucidation. [W.S.R.] 

PROPOSTA (Lat. Dux; Eng. Subject). A 
term applied to the Leading Part, in a Fugue, 
or Point of Imitation, in contradistinction to the 
Risposta, or Response (Eng. Answer ; Lat. 
Comes). The Leading Part of a Canon is usually 
called the Guida, though the term Proposta 
is sometimes applied to that also. [W.S.R.] 

PROPRIETAS, propriety (Germ. Eigenheit). 
A peculiarity attributed, by Mediaeval writers, 
to those Ligatures in which the first note 
was sung as a Breve : the Breve being always 
understood to represent a complete Measure 
(Lat. Tactus-, Old Eng. Stroke). Franco of 
Cologne describes Ligatures beginning with 



Breves, Longs, and Semibreves, as Ligaturrv 
cum, sine, and cum opposita Proprietate, respec 
tively. [W.S.R.] 

PROSKE, KARL, editor of the celebrated 
collection of ancient church-music called MUSICA 
DIVINA, born Feb. 1 1, i 794, at Grb bing in Upper 
Silesia, where his father was a wealthy land 
owner. Having studied medicine he made the 
campaign of 1813-15 as an army surgeon, but 
being compelled to retire by his health, he took 
his degree as Doctor of Medicine at Halle, and 
settled as government physician at Oppeln in 
Upper Silesia. Here he suddenly became a reli 
gious enthusiast, a change to which his devotion 
to church music doubtless contributed. On 
April n, 1826, he was ordained priest by Bishop 
Sailer at Ratisbon, where he became vicar-choral 
in 1827, and Canon and Capellmeister of the 
Cathedral in 1830. From this time, with the 
aid of his private fortune, he began his cele 
brated collection of church music, residing for 
long in Italy exploring the great MS. collections 
there, and scoring from the voice-parts many 
very beautiful, but hitherto unknown works, and 
publishing them in a cheap, accurate, and legible 
form as Musica Divina [see vol. ii. p. 411]. 
Each volume is preceded by introductory remarks, 
biographical and bibliographical. Attention has 
been repeatedly called in this Dictionary to the 
merits of this collection. [See among others 
MASS; IMPROPERIA."] Proske died of angina 
pectoris, Dec. 20, 1861, bequeathing his collec 
tion to the episcopal library of Ratisbon, of which 
it forms one of the chief ornaments. [F.G.] 

PROUT, EBENEZER, B.A., born % at Oundle, 
Northamptonshire, March I, 1835, graduated 
at London, 1854. He studied the pianoforte 
under Charles Salaman. In 1862 he gained the 
first prize of the Society of British Musicians for 
the best string quartet, and in 1865 their first 
prize for pianoforte quartet. From 1871 to 1874 
he was editor of "The Monthly Musical Record, 
and since then has been successively music 
critic of The Academy and The Athenaeum. 
He is conductor of the Borough of Hackney 
Choral Association, and Professor of harmony 
and composition at the Royal Academy of 
Music and the National Training School of 
Music. His compositions include String Quartet 
in Eb, op. i ; PF. Quartet in C. op. 2 ; PF. Quin 
tet in G, op. 3 ; Concert for Organ and Orchestra, 
op. 5 ; Magnificat in C, op. 7 ; and Evening 
Service in Eb, op. 8, both with orchestra ; Here- 
ward, dramatic cantata, op. 12 (produced at 
St. James s Hall, June 4, 1879); and two MS. 
symphonies in C major and G minor. [W. H.H.] 

PRUDENT, EMILE, born at AngoulSme, April 
3, 1817, never knew his parents, but was adopted 
by a piano-tuner, who taught him a little music. 
He entered the Paris Conservatoire at 10, and 
obtained the first piano prize in 1833, and the 
second harmony prize in 1 834. He had no patrons 
to push him, and his want of education not being 
supplied by natural facility, he had a long struggle 



with the stern realities of life, but by dint of pa 
tience and perseverance he overcame all obstacles. 
His first performance in public was at a concert 
with Thai berg, whose style he imitated, and the 
success of his fantasia on Lucia di Lammermoor 
(op. 8) established him with the public. He then 
made constant excursions in France, and occa 
sional trips abroad, but his home continued to be 
in Paris, and there he composed and produced his 
new pieces. His compositions, about 70 in num 
ber, include a trio for PF., violin, and cello ; a 
concerto- symphonic Les trois Reves (op. 67); 
several brilliant and pleasing morceaux de genre, 
such as Les Bois, and La Danse des Fees ; fan 
tasias on opera-airs, or themes by classical com 
posers ; transcriptions with and without varia 
tions, cleverly calculated to display the virtuosity 
of a pianist ; and finally Etudes de genre, also 
intended to show off manual dexterity. His 
music is clear, melodious, and correct ; pleasing 
the ear without straining the attention. Prudent 
is no fiery or original genius, but an artist with a 
real love for his instrument, and a thorough 
understanding of its resources, and a musician of 
taste and progress. From Thalberg to Mendels 
sohn is a long way to traverse, and Prudent 
was studying the latter composer with enthusiasm 
when he was carried off after 48 hours illness, 
by diphtheria, on May 14, 1863. His kind and 
generous disposition caused him to be universally 
. regretted. He was a good teacher, and formed 
several distinguished pupils, especially ladies ; 
among these Mile. Louise Murer, who took the 
first piano prize at the Conservatoire in 1854, was 
the best interpreter of his works. In England 
he was well known. He played a concerto in 
Bb of his own composition at the Philharmonic, 
May I, 1848; returned in 1852 and introduced 
his elegant morceau La Chasse, which he re 
peated at the New Philharmonic Concert June i, 
1853- [G.C.] 

PEUME, FRANCOIS HUBERT, violinist, was 
born in 1816 at Stavelot near Liege. Having 
received his first instruction at Malme dy, he 
entered in 1827 the newly opened Conservatoire 
at Liege, and in 1830 that at Paris, where he 
studied for two years under Habeneck. Re 
turning to Liege he was appointed professor at 
the Conservatoire, although only seventeen years 
of age. In 1839 ne began to travel, and visited 
with much success Germany, Russia, and the 
Scandinavian countries. He died in 1849 at 
Stavelot. Prume was an elegant virtuoso, with 
most of the characteristic qualities of the modern 
Franco-Belgian school. He is chiefly remem 
bered as the composer of La Melancholie a 
sentimental piece de salon which for- a time 
attained an extraordinary popularity, without 
however possessing the artistic worth of the rest 
of Prume s compositions. [P. D.] 

PRUMIER, ANTOINE, born in Paris July 2, 
1794, learned the harp from his mother, and 
afterwards entered the Conservatoire, and ob 
tained the second harmony prize in Catel s class 
in 1812. After this however he was compelled 


by military law to enter the Ecole poly technique ; 
but in 1815 he gave up mathematics, re-entered 
the Conservatoire, and finished his studies in 
counterpoint under Eler. He then became harpist 
in the orchestra of the Italiens, and, on the death 
of Nadermann in 1835, professor of the harp at 
the Conservatoire. In the same year he migrated 
to the Ope"ra Comique, but resigned his post in 
1840 in favour of his son, the best of his pupils. 
Prumier composed and published about a hundred 
fantasias, rondeau x, and airs with variations for 
the harp all well written but now antiquated. 
He received the Legion of Honour in 1845, and 
was vice-president of the Association des Artistes 
Musiciens for 17 years consecutively. He died 
from the rupture of an aneurism at a committee 
meeting of the Conservatoire, Jan. 21, 1868. 
He had retired on his pension the year before, 
and been succeeded by Labarre, at whose death 
(April 1870) the professorship devolved upon 

CONRAD PRUMIER, born in Paris, Jan. 5, 1820, 
and laurdat in 1838. Like his father he writes 
well for the instrument, and is considered a 
skilled performer and a musician of taste. [G.C.] 

PSALTERY (faXTfjpiov; Old English Sautry; 
French Psalterion ; Ital. Salterio ; Ger. Psalter). 
A dulcimer, played with the fingers or a 
plectrum instead of by hammers. The French 
have adopted the Greek name without change. 
There exists a classic sculptured representation 
of the Muse Erato, holding a long ten-stringed 
lyre, with the name AATPIAN cut on its base. 
From this it has been inferred that the strings of 
this lyre were touched by the fingers without 
the usual plectrum of ivory or metal. Chaucer s 
sautrie in the Miller s Tale 1 came direct from 
the East, perhaps imported by returning Cru 
saders, its kinship to the Persian and Arabic 
santir and kanun being unmistakable. The 
psaltery was the prototype of the spinet and 
harpsichord, particularly in the form which is 
described by Praetorius in his Organographia, 
as the Istromento di porco, so called from its 
Hkeness to a pig s head. 

The illustration is drawn from a 15th-century 
painting by Filipino Lippi in the National Gal 
lery, and represents a^stromento di porco strung 
vertically, a mode less usual than the hori 
zontal stringing, but more like that of a harp 
sichord or grand piano. Notwithstanding the 
general use of keyed instruments in 1650 we 
read in the * Musurgia of Athanasius Kircher, 
that the psaltery played with a skilled hand 
stood second to no other instrument, and Mer- 
senne, about the same date, praises its silvery 
tone in preference to that of any other, and its 
purity of intonation, so easily controlled by the 

No Istromento di porco being now known to 
exist, we have to look for its likeness in painted 
or sculptured representations. The earliest occurs 
in a 13th-century MS. in the library at Douai. 
It is there played without a plectrum. From 

1 And all above ther lay a gay sautrie 

On which he made on nightes melodic, 
So swetely, that all the chambre rong, 
And Angelus ad viryi nem he song. 


the 1 4th century there remain frequent examples, 
notably at Florence, in the famous Organ Podium 
of Luca della Robbia, a cast of which is in the 
South Kensington Museum. 



But other forms were admired. Exactly like 
an Arabic Jcanun is a psaltery painted A.D. 1348 
by that loving delineator of musical instruments, 
Orcagna, himself a musician, in his Trionfo della 
Morte, at Pisa. The strings of the instrument 
are in groups of three, each group, as in a grand 
piano, being tuned in unison to make one note. 
Sometimes there were groups of four, a not 
unfrequent stringing in the DULCIMER. There is 
a good coloured lithograph of Orcagna s fresco in 
Les Arts au Moyen Age/ by Paul Lacroix (Paris, 
1874, p. 282); it is there called Le songe de 
la Vie. A fine representation of such a psaltery, 
strung in threes, by Orcagna, will be found in our 
National Gallery (Catalogue No. 569). [A.J.H.] 

PUCITTA, VINCENZO, was born at Rome, 
1778, and brought up at the Pieta, at Naples, 
under Fenaroli and Sala. He wrote his first 
opera for Sinigaglia, near Ancona, and from that 
time till his death composed for the stage dili 
gently. I due Prigionieri (Rome 1801) was 
the first to make him widely known. He was, 
however, often away from Italy, first at Lisbon, 
where he brought out L Andromacca, and then 
in London, where he became for a time Director 
of the Music at the Opera. 

His name first appears in 1809, when three of 
his operas were performed I Villeggiaturi bi- 
zarri, La Caccia d Enrico IV, and Le quattro 
Nazioni. In 1810 we find his La Vestale, in 
1811 La tre Sultane, in 1812 La Ginevra di 
Scozia, in 1813 Boadicea, and in 1814 Aristo- 
demo. He then left the Opera and travelled with 
Madame Catalani ; and when, in 1 8 1 3, she took the 
direction of the Italian Opera at Paris, he became 
accompanyist, and three of his works were brought 
out there in 1815, 16 and 17. He then went to 
Rome, and remained in Italy till his death, at 

Milan, Dec. 20, 1861. Fe tis gives a list of 23 of 
his operas, and says that his music shows great 
facility but no invention. Ten volumes of his 
songs, entitled Mille Melodie, are published by 
Ricordi. [G.] 

PUGET, LoiSA, born at Paris about 1810; 
though an amateur, achieved an extraordinary 
popularity in the reign of Louis Philippe by her 
songs, composed to Gustave Lemoine s words. 
Among the best known of these were, A la 
gr,ce de Dieu, Ave Maria, Le Soleil de ma 
Bretagne, Ta dot, Mon pays, Les reves 
d une jeune fille, etc. Musically speaking they 
are inferior to those of Panseron, Labarre, or Ma- 
sini ; but the melodies were always so natural 
and so suited to the words, and the words them 
selves were so full of that good, bourgeois cha 
racter, which at that time was all the fashion in 
France, that their vogue was immense. En 
couraged by her success, Puget aspired to the 
theatre. She took lessons from Adolphe Adam, 
and on Oct. i, 1836, produced at the Opera 
Comique a one-act piece, Le mauvais (Eil, 
which was sung to perfection by Ponchard and 
Mme. Damoreau. In 1842 she married Le- 
moine, and finding the popularity of her songs 
on the wane, had the tact to publish no more. 
She broke silence only once again with an oper 
etta called La Veilleuse, ou les Nuits de Mi 
lady, produced at the Gymnase,. Sept. 27, 1869. 
Madame Lemoine has for some time resided at 
Pau, where she is still living (1881). [G.C.] 

PUGNANI, GAETANO, celebrated violinist, 
was born at Turin (or according to another 
source at Canavese) in 1727. He must be con 
sidered as one of the best representatives of the 
Piedmontese School of violin-playing. Being a 
pupil first of Somis, who studied under Corelli, 
and afterwards of Tartini, he combined the pro 
minent qualities of the style and technique of 
both these great masters. He was appointed 
first violin to the Sardinian court in 1752, and 
began to travel in 1754. He made lengthened 
stays at Paris and in London, where he was 
for a time leader of the opera band, produced an 
opera of his own (Burney, Hist. iv. 494), and 
published trios, quartets, quintets, and sympho 
nies. In 1770 Burney found him at Turin, and 
there he remained as leader, conductor, teacher 
and composer,, for the rest of his life. He died 
in 1803. 

To Pugnani more than to any other master 
of the violin appears to be due the preservation 
of the pure gjand style of Corelli, Tartini and 
Vivaldi, and its transmission to the next genera 
tion of violinists. Apart from being himself 
an excellent player he trained a large number 
of eminent violinists such as Conforti, Bruni, 
Polledro and, above all, Viotti. He was also a 
prolific composer : he wrote a number of operas 
and ballets, which however appear not to have 
been very successful. Fe tis gives the names of 
9, and a list of his published instrumental compo 
sitions : one violin-concerto (out of 9), 3 sets of 
violin-sonatas, duos, trios, quartets, quintets, and 
12 symphonies for strings, oboes and horns. [P.D.] 



PUPPO, GIUSEPPE, eminent violinist, was 
born at Lucca in 1749. He was a pupil of the 
Conservatorio at Naples, and when still very 
young gained considerable reputation in Italy as 
a virtuoso. He came to Paris in 1775; thence 
he went to Spain and Portugal, where he is 
reported to have amassed a fortune. After 
having stayed for some years in England he 
returned to Paris in 1 784, and remained there 
till 1811, occupying the post of leader, first at 
the Theatre de Monsieur, which was then 
under Viotti s direction, then at the Theatre 
Feydeau, and finally conducting the band at the 
Theatre Fran9ais. As he was an excellent ac- 
companyist, he was much in request in the 
musical circles of the rich and noble, and might 
have secured for himself a competency if it had 
not been for his eccentricity and unsteadiness, 
which brought him into constant troubles. In 
1811 he suddenly left Paris, abandoning his wife 
and children for ever. Arrived at Naples he 
was lucky enough to secure the leadership of the 
band at a theatre. He however did not stay 
long, but went to Lucca, thence to Florence, 
and finally found employment as teacher at a 
music school at Ponfcremoli. After two years 
he threw up this appointment and returned 
to Florence, was there found, utterly destitute, 
by Mr. Edward Taylor, Gresham Professor of 
Music, and by his generosity was placed in a 
hospice, where he died in 1827. Fe"tis gives 
interesting details of his adventurous life, and 
several of his bon mots. It was he who so 
happily described Boccherini as the wife of 
Haydn. His published compositions are few 
and of no importance. [P. D.] 

PURCELL. The name of a family of musi 
cians in the I7th and i8th centuries, which 
included amongst its members the greatest and 
most original of English composers. 

1. The name of Pursell, presumably HENRY 
PURCELL the elder, is first found in Pepys s diary, 
under date Feb. 21, 1660, where he is styled 
4 Master of Musique. Upon the re-establishment 
of the Chapel Royal (in 1660) Henry Purcell was 
appointed one of the Gentlemen. He was also 
Master of the Choristers of Westminster Abbey. 
On Dec. 21, 1663, he succeeded Signor Angelo 
as one of the King s Band of Music. He died 
Aug. n, 1664. and was buried in the east cloister 
of Westminster Abbey, Aug. 13. There is a three- 
part song, Sweet tyranness, I now resign my 
heart, inPlayford s Musical Companion, 1667, 
which is probably of his composition, although it 
is sometimes attributed to his more celebrated son. 
It was reprinted in Burney s History, iii. 486. 

2. His eldest son, EDWARD, born 1653, was 
Gentleman Usher to Charles II, and afterwards 
entered the army and served with Sir George 
Rooke at the taking of Gibraltar, and the Prince 
of Hesse at the defence of it. Upon the death of 
Queen Anne he retired and resided in the house 
of the Earl of Abingdon, where he died June 20, 
1717. He was buried in the chancel of the church 
of Wytham, near Oxford. 

3. HENRY PURCELL, the second eon of Henry 


Purcell the elder, is traditionally said to have 
been born in Old Pye Street, Westminster, in or 
about 1658. He lost his father before he was 
six years old, 1 and soon afterwards was admitted 
a chorister of the Chapel Royal under Capt. 
Henry Cooke, after whose death, in 1672, he 
continued under Pelham Humfrey. He is said 
to have composed anthems whilst yet a chorister, 
but there are now no means of verifying the 
fact, although it is highly probable. He may 
possibly have remained in the choir for a brief 
period after the appointment of Blow as successor 
to Humfrey as Master of the Children, but the 
probability is that, after quitting the choir on 
the breaking of his voice, he studied composition 
under Blow as a private pupil, and so justified 
the statement on Blow s monument that he was 
master to the famous Mr. H. Purcell. In 
1675, when only 17 years of age, Purcell was 
engaged by Josias Priest, a dancing-master 
connected with the theatres, who also kept a 
boarding school for young gentlewomen in 
Leicester Fields, to compose an opera written by 
Nahum Tate, called Dido and JEneas, for per 
formance at his school. Purcell executed his 
task in a manner which would have added to the 
reputation of many an older musician. The opera 
is without spoken dialogue, the place of which 
is supplied by recitative ; it contains some beau 
tiful airs, and some spirited choruses, especially 
that beginning To the hills and the vales. 
The work, although not performed on the public 
stage, acquired considerable popularity, as is 
evident from the number of manuscript copies 
in existence; but, with the exception of one 
song, printed in the Orpheus Britannicus, and 
the rondo Fear no danger, printed by Warren 
and others, it remained unpublished until 1840, 
when it was printed by the Musical Antiquarian 
Society. 2 The production of Dido and ^Eneas 
led to Purcell s introduction to the public 
theatre. In 1676 he was engaged to write 
music for Dry den s tragedy Aurenge-Zebe, and 
for Shadwell s comedy Epsom Wells, and part 
of the music for his tragedy The Libertine. 1 
The latter contains the pleasing air Nymphs 
and Shepherds, and the well-known chorus In 
these delightful pleasant groves. In the same 
year a song by him appeared in the new edition 
of Book I. of Playford s publication, Choice 
Ayres, Songs and Dialogues/ In 1677 ne ^ ur " 
nished an overture, eight act and other tunes, 
and songs for Mrs. Behn s tragedy Abdelazor, 
and composed an elegy on the death of Matthew 
Lock, printed in Book II. of the Choice Ayres, 
etc., 1679. In 1678 he composed the overture and 
instrumental music and the masque in ShadwelTs 
alteration of Shakspere s Timon of Athens, 
representing the contest between Cupid and 
Bacchus for supremacy over mankind, and their 

1 His mother, Elisabeth, survived to -witness the -whole of her son s 
career, and died in August 1699. 

2 Priest removed his school in 1680 to Chelsea, -where Dido and 
.ffCneas -was again performed, as appears from an undated printed 
sopy of the words published in London. This copy contains a pro- 
ogue for music -which Purcell does not appear to have set. The 
>iece was revived at the R.A.AI. Concert-room, London, Julj 10, 1878, 
>y Mr. Malcolm Lawsun. 


ultimate agreement to exercise a joint influence; 
a very beautiful and characteristic composition. 
He does not appear to have produced anything 
for the theatre in 1679, but several of his songs 
were published in that year in Playford s second 
Book just named; and an extant letter, dated 
Feb. 8, 1678-9, from his uncle Thomas, to the 
Rev. John Gostling, the celebrated bass singer, 
then at Canterbury, shows that he then produced 
something for the church ; the writer telling 
Gostling that his son, Henry (as he affectionately 
called his nephew), was then composing and that 
the composition was likely to cause Gostling to 
be called to London. Gostling was appointed a 
gentleman extraordinary of the Chapel Royal Feb. 
25, 1679, an d a gentleman in ordinary soon after 
wards. It would be very interesting to know 
which of Purcell s anthems was then produced, but 
at present there seems no clue. In 1680, however, 
he composed music for Lee s tragedy Theodosius, 
and the overture and act tunes for D Urfey s 
comedy The Virtuous Wife, and produced the first 
of his numerous odes, viz. An Ode or Welcome 
Song for his Royal Highness [the Duke of York] 
on his return from Scotland, and A Song to 
welcome home His Majesty from Windsor. In 
the same year he obtained the appointment of 
organist of Westminster Abbey, and then gave 
up his connection with the theatre, which he 
did not renew for six years. In this interval 
it may be assumed that much of his church 
music was composed. In 1681 he composed 
another Ode or Welcome Song for the King, 
Swifter, Isis, swifter flow. On July 14, 1682, 
he was appointed organist of the Chapel Royal 
in the place of Edward Lowe, deceased, but was 
not sworn in until Sept. 16 following. He com 
posed an Ode or Welcome Song to the King on 
his return from Newmarket, Oct. 21, The 
summer s absence unconcerned we bear, and 
some songs for the inauguration of the Lord 
Mayor, Sir William Pritchard, Oct. 29. In 1683 
Purcell came forward in a new capacity, viz. as 
a. composer of instrumental chamber music, by 
the publication of Sonnatas of III parts, two 
Viollins and Basse to the Organ or Harpsichord, 
with an engraved portrait of himself, at the age 
of 24, prefixed. These sonatas are 1 2 in number, 
and each comprises an adagio, a canzone (fugue), 
a slow movement, and an air ; they are avowedly 
formed upon Italian models, as the composer in 
his preface says, For its author he has faithfully 
endeavoured a just imitation of the most famed 
Italian masters, principally to bring the serious 
ness and gravity of that sort of musick into vogue 
and reputation among our countrymen, whose 
humour tis time now should begin to loath the 
levity and balladry of our neighbours. The 
attempt he confesses to be bold and daring ; 
their being pens and artists of more eminent 
abilities, much better qualified for the imploy- 
ment than his or himself, which he well hopes 
these his weak endeavours will in due time 
provoke and enflame to a more accurate under 
taking. He is not ashamed to own his unskilful- 
ness in the Italian language, but that is the 



unhappiness of his education, which cannot justly 
be counted his fault ; however he thinks he may 
warrantably affirm that he is not mistaken in 
the power of the Italian notes, or elegancy of 
their compositions. In the same year he com 
posed an Ode or Welcome Song for the King, 
Fly, bold Rebellion, and in July an Ode to 
Prince George of Denmark on his marriage with 
the Princess, afterwards Queen, Anne, From 
hardy climes. He likewise composed an Ode 
by Christopher Fishburn, Welcome to all the 
pleasures, which was performed Nov. 22 at the 
annual celebration on St. Cecilia s^ Day, the score 
of which he published in the following year. 
He also composed another Ode, Raise, raise the 
voice, and a Latin Ode or motet, Laudate 
Ceciliam, in honour of St. Cecilia, both of which 
still remain in MS. In 1684 ne composed an 
Ode or Welcome Song, by Thomas Flatman, on 
the King s return to Whitehall after his Summer s 
progress From these serene and rapturous 
joys the last production of the kind he was to 
address to Charles. In 1685 he greeted the new 
king, James, with an Ode or Welcome Song, 
Why are all the Muses mute? For the coro 
nation of James and his queen on April 23 he 
produced two anthems, I was glad, and My 
heart is inditing, both remarkably fine com 
positions. He was employed in superintending 
the erection of an organ in the Abbey expressly 
for the coronation, and was paid out of what 
was then termed the secret service money, but 
was really the fund for defraying extraordinary 
royal expenses, 34 I2S. od. for so much money 
by him disbursed and craved for providing and 
setting up an organ in the Abbey church of 
Westm r . for the solemnity of the coronation, and 
for the removing the same, and other services 
performed in his said Ma ties chappell since the 
25th of March, 1685, according to a bill signed 
by the Bishop of London. In 1686 he returned 
to dramatic composition, and produced the music 
for Dryden s revived tragedy Tyrannic Love, 
in which is the fine duet of the spirits, Nakar 
and Damilcar (or, as Purcell has it, Doridcar), 
Hark ! my Doridcar, hark ! and the pleasing 
air, Ah ! how sweet it is to love. He also 
produced an Ode or Welcome Song for the King, 
Ye tuneful Muses. In 1687 he composed an 
other Ode of the same kind, Sound the trumpet, 
beat the drum, in which is the duet for altos, 
Let Cesar and Urania live, which continued 
so long in favour that succeeding composers 
of odes for royal birthdays were accustomed to 
introduce it into their own productions until 
after the middle of the i8th century. Later in 
the year Purcell wrote his anthem Blessed 
are they that fear the Lord, for the thanksgiving 
for the queen s pregnancy, in January 1687-8. 
In 1688 he composed the songs for D Urfey s 
comedy, A Fool s Preferment. With one ex 
ception they all belong to the character of Lionel, 
a young man mad for love, and they express in 
the most admirable manner the varied emotions 
which agitate his mind disdain, despondency, 
tender affection and wild fantastic delusion. 



They were sung by William Mountford, the 
unfortunate actor who was murdered in the 
street by the ruffians Lord Mohun and Capt. 
Hill in revenge for his having frustrated their 
attempted forcible abduction of the celebrated 
actress Mrs. Bracegirdle, and who, we learn from 
Colley Gibber, sung a clear countertenor, and 
had a melodious warbling throat. The music 
was published in 4to in the same year, and 
appended to the printed copy of the comedy. 
To this year also belongs a solo anthem for a 
bass voice with chorus, The Lord is king (one 
of the very few of Purcell s church compositions 
of which the date of production is known), and 
a Welcome Song for the King, the last he wrote 
for James II. In 1689 he composed an Ode, 
Celestial Music, which was performed at Mr. 
Maidwell s, a schoolmaster s, on the 5th of August, 
and A Welcome Song at the Prince of Denmark s 
coming home. He also composed for the annual 
gathering in London of the natives of the county 
of York the famous Ode in praise of that county 
and the deeds of its sons, particularly the part 
taken by them at the Revolution, which is com 
monly known as The Yorkshire Feast Song, 
and which D Urfey (the author of the words) 
justly calls one of the finest compositions he 
ever made. It was performed at an expense of 
100 sit the County Feast held in Merchant 
Taylors Hall, March 27, 1690. Many parts of 
it were printed in the Orpheus Britannicus ; 
it was printed entire by Goodison about 1788, 
and by the Purcell Society 90 years later, under 
the editorial care of Mr. W. H. Cummings. In 
this year Purcell became involved in a dispute 
with the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. He 
had received money from persons for admission 
into the organ-loft to view the coronation of 
William and Mary, considering the organ-loft as 
his, in right of hi s office ; but the Dean and Chapter 
claimed the money as theirs, and called upon him 
to pay it over ; and, upon his declining, went the 
length of making an order, dated April 18, 1689, 
that unless he paid over the money his place 
should be declared null and void, and his stipend 
detained by the Treasurer. It is presumed that 
the matter was in some way accommodated, as he 
retained his appointment until his death. In 
1690 Purcell composed new music for Shadwell s 
version of The Tempest, in which the advan 
tageous result of his study of the great Italian 
masters is strikingly apparent. Smooth and 
easy flowing, yet nervous melodies, clearness 
and distinctness of form, and more varied ac 
companiment, are conspicuous. Two of the songs, 
Come unto these yellow sands, and Full fathom 
five, have retained uninterrupted possession of 
the stage from the time they were composed till 
this day, and much of the remainder of the 
music, especially that of the concluding masque, 
has only been laid aside because it is allied to 
verses not by Shakspere, and which the better 
judgment of our time has decreed shall no longer 
be permitted to supplant his poetry. In the 
same year Purcell produced the music for the 
alterations and additions after the manner of 


an opera which Betterton had made to Beau 
mont and Fletcher s play, The Prophetess, or, 
The History of Dioclesian. Here again the 
great advance made by the composer is visible. 
He calls into play larger orchestral resources 
than before ; some of the movements are scored 
for two trumpets, two oboes, a tenor oboe, and a 
bassoon, beside the string quartet, and the wood 
wind instruments are occasionally made responsive 
to the trumpets and strings in a manner that 
was then new. The vocal music comprises some 
fine songs and bold choruses. Among the songs 
may be named What shall I do to show how 
much I love her? (the air of which was long 
known from its adaptation to the words Virgins 
are like the fair flower in its lustre, in The 
Beggar s Opera ) and Sound, Fame, thy brazen 
trumpet, with its bold and difficult obbligato 
trumpet accompaniment. Purcell published the 
score of this opera by subscription in 1691, with 
a dedication to the Duke of Somerset, in which 
he says, Musick and Poetry have ever been ac 
knowledged sisters, which, walking hand in hand, 
support each other ; As Poetry is the harmony 
of words so Musick is that of notes ; and as 
Poetry is a rise above Prose and Oratory, so is 
Musick the exaltation of Poetry. Both of them 
may excel apart, but surely they are most ex 
cellent when they are joyn d, because nothing is 
then wanting to either of their proportions ; for 
thus they appear like wit and beauty in the 
same person. Poetry and Painting have arriv d 
to perfection in our own country ; Musick is yet 
but in its nonage, a forward child, which gives 
hope of what it may be hereafter in England 
when the masters of it shall find more encourage 
ment. Tis now learning Italian, which is its 
best master, and studying a little of the French 
air, to give it somewhat more of gayety and 
fashion. Thus being further from the sun we 
are of later growth than our neighbour countries, 
and must be content to shake off our barbarity by 
degrees. The present age seems already disposed 
to be refin d, and to distinguish between wild 
fancy and a just, numerous composition. Here 
we see PurcelPs modest estimate of the state of 
English musical art in his day, but we may see 
also that although he viewed his countrymen as 
standing only upon the threshold of the temple 
of music, he felt the strong conviction that it 
would be within their power to enter and explore 
its innermost recesses. The composer s desire to 
please his subscribers occasioned him to fix the 
subscription at so moderate a rate that it scarcely 
sufficed to meet the expense of the publication. 
He also wrote in 1690 the fine bass song, Thy 
genius, lo ! from his sweet bed of rest, for Lee s 
tragedy The Massacre in Paris, and the over 
ture, act-tunes and songs for Dryden s comedy 
Amphitryon. Besides these he set D Urfey s 
Ode for the queen s birthday, April 29, Arise, 
my Muse, an admirable composition and an 
Ode for King William, Sound the trumpet. 

The next year witnessed the production of 
Purcell s dramatic chef-d oeuvre, King Arthur. 
He had previously composed music for some of 


Dryden s plays, but had had merely to set such 
verses as the poet had handed him. It is how 
ever apparent from Dryden s dedication of King 
Arthur that in constructing that drama he had 
followed a different course, and had consulted 
Purcell as to where, when, and how music could 
be effectively introduced, and had acted upon 
his suggestions. He had supplied the composer, 
at his desire, with variety of measure, and dis 
posed the scenes so as to afford striking contrasts. 
Purcell s music is a succession of beauties ; 
the sacrificial scene of the Pagan Saxons ; the 
martial song of the Britons, Come if you dare ; 
the scene with the spirits, Philidel and Grim- 
bald ; the songs and dances of the shepherds ; 
the admirably bold and original frost scene ; the 
lovely duet of the Syrens in the enchanted forest, 
Two daughters of this aged stream, and the 
songs of the other spirits ; and the varied and 
well contrasted pieces in the concluding masque 
(including the beautiful melody Fairest isle, all 
isles excelling ), form a combination which no 
contemporary musician was able to equal, and 
which for long afterwards remained unrivalled. 
All contemporary testimony tells of the great 
success of King Arthur, yet, with the exception 
of about a dozen songs which were included in 
the Orpheus Britannicus, and those portions of 
the music which Arne retained in the version 
made in 1770, it remained unpublished until 
1 843, when it was printed by the Musical Anti 
quarian Society, four songs, however, having 
been lost in the interval. Purcell s other dramatic 
compositions in 1691 were the overture and act 
tunes for Elkanah Settle s tragedy Distressed 
Innocence, and songs in the comedy The Gor- 
dian knot untyed, and Southerne s comedy Sir 
Antony Love. He also composed the Ode for 
the queen s birthday, Welcome, glorious morn. 
In 1692 he composed the music for Howard and 
Dryden s * Indian Queen, in which are the 
recitative Ye twice ten hundred deities (which 
Burney considered to be perhaps the best piece 
of recitative in our language ), with the air By 
the croaking of the toad, and the beautiful little 
rondo I attempt from Love s sickness to fly. The 
greater part of the songs in The Indian Queen 
were printed in 1695 by May and Hudgebutt, 
who prefixed to their publication a curious letter 
to the composer informing him that as they had 
met with the score of his work they had printed 
it, lest others should put out imperfect copies, 
and craving his pardon for their presumption. 
The entire work was printed by Goodison. He 
also composed songs tor Dryden s Indian Em 
peror (a sequel to The Indian Queen ) and 
Cleomenes/ Southerne s comedy The Wives 
Excuse, and D Urfey s comedy The Marriage 
Hater match d, and the music in the third act 
of Dryden and Lee s tragedy (Edipus. But per 
haps the most important dramatic composition he 
produced this year was the opera of The Fairy 
Queen, an anonymous adaptation of Shakspere s 
Midsummer Night s Dream which was very 
well received by the public, although the great 
expense incurred for scenery, dresses, etc., ren- 



dered it but little productive to the managers. 
The composer published in the same year Some 
Select Songs as they are sung in The Fairy 
Queen/ 10 in number ; 10 other pieces are in 
the Orpheus Britannicus/ and the instrumental 
music is in the Ayres for the Theatre ; the 
Sacred Harmonic Society possesses a MS. of 
nearly the whole of the fourth act, but the 
remainder of the choral portions and two or 
three more songs are irretrievably lost. The 
score was lost in or before I7> * n October of 
which year the patentees of the theatre offered 
a reward of 20 for the recovery of it or a copy 
of it. That they did not recover it may be 
inferred from the piece never having been revived. 
One of the songs which has been preserved, If 
love s a sweet passion/ long remained in favour : 
Gay wrote one of the songs in The Beggar s 
Opera to the air. In the same year Purcell set 
Sir Charles Sedley s Ode for the queen s birth 
day, Love s Goddess sure was blind/ One of 
the airs in this Ode, May her blest example 
chase/ has for its bass the air of the old song 
Cold and raw ; the occasion of which was 
thus : Queen Mary had one day sent for Arabella 
Hunt and Gostling to sing to her, with Purcell 
as accompanyist. After they had performed 
several fine compositions by Purcell and others, 
the queen asked Arabella Hunt to sing the 
ballad of Cold and raw. Purcell, nettled at 
finding a common ballad preferred to his music, 
but seeing it pleased the queen, determined that 
she should hear it again when she least expected 
it, and adopted this ingenious method of effecting 
his object. He also set Brady s Ode Hail! 
great Cecilia/ which was performed at the annual 
celebration on St. Cecilia s day, Purcell himself 
singing the alto song Tis Nature s voice/ This 
Ode one of the finest of its composer s works of 
that class was printed by the Musical Anti 
quarian Society. In 1693 Purcell composed an 
overture and act-tunes for Congreve s comedy 
The Old Bachelor/ and songs for D Urfey s 
comedy The Richmond Heiress/ Southerne s 
comedy The Maid s Last Prayer/ and Bancroft s 
tragedy Henry the Second. He also set Tate s 
Ode for the queen s birthday, Celebrate this 
festival (printed by Goodison), and his Ode in 
commemoration of the centenary of the foundation 
of Trinity College, Dublin, Great Parent, hail ! 
(also printed by Goodison), said to have been 
performed at Christ Church, Dublin, Jan. 9, 
1693-4. Strange to say, Trinity College register 
does not contain any record of or allusion to the 
centenary celebration. In 1694 Purcell composed 
portions of the music for Parts I. and II. of 
D Urfey s Don Quixote (Part {.containing the 
duet Sing, all ye Muses/ and the fine bass song 
Let the dreadful engines ), an overture, act- 
tunes and songs for Congreve s comedy, The 
Double Dealer/ and songs for Crovvne s comedy 
The Married Beau/ Southerne s tragedy The 
Fatal Marriage/ and Dryden s play Love 
triumphant. He also composed the Ode for the 
queen s birthday, Come, come, ye Sons of Art ; 
and, for the Cecilian celebration, his celebrated 




Te Deum and Jubilate in D, with orchestral 
accompaniments the first of the kind produced 
in this country. Queen Mary dying on Dec. 28 
in this year, Purcell, immediately afterwards, 
composed for her funeral the passage from the 
Burial Service, Thou knowest, Lord, the secrets 
of our hearts, in a manner so solemn, pathetic, 
and devout, that Croft, when setting the Burial 
Service, abstained from resetting the passage, 
and adopted Purcell s setting. Purcell also com 
posed for the funeral an anthem, Blessed is the 
man. Early in 1695 he composed two Elegies 
upon the queen s death, which were published 
with one by Dr. Blow. He composed an Ode 
for the birthday of the young Duke of Gloucester, 
son of the Princess Anne, July 24, Who can 
from joy refrain ? and also the music for Powell s 
adaptation of Beaumont and Fletcher s tragedy 
Bonduca, 1 including the famous war-song 
Britons, strike home 1 ; and songs for Scott s 
comedy The Mock Marriage, Gould s tragedy 
The Rival Sisters, Southerne s tragedy Oroo- 
noko, Ravenscroffc s comedy c The Canterbury 
Guests/ Beaumont and Fletcher s play The 
Knight of Malta, and Part III. of D Urfey s 
Don Quixote. In the latter is contained the 
last Song that Mr. Purcell sett, it being in his 
sickness. This was none other than the fine 
cantata From rosy bowers/ one of the greatest 
compositions he ever produced, and a most 
striking proof that, however the composer s 
frame might be enfeebled by disease, his mental 
powers remained vigorous and unimpaired to 
the last. 

Purcell died at his house in Dean s Yard, 
Westminster, Nov. 21, 1695. On the day of his 
death he made his will, whereby he bequeathed 
the whole of his property to his loveing wife, 
Frances Purcell/ absolutely, and appointed her 
sole executrix. It was said that he contracted the 
disorder of which he died through his wife having 
purposely caused him to be kept waiting outside 
his own door because he did not return home 
until a late hour. But this seems inconsistent 
with the fact of his having made her his sole 
legatee, and with her expressions respecting him 
in the dedication of the Orpheus Britannicus. 
Sir John Hawkins s conjecture that he died of a 
lingering, rather than an acute disease, probably 
consumption, is much more likely- to be correct, 
and more in accordance with the recorded fact of 
Purcell s ability to continue to compose during 
his mortal sickness. He was buried Nov. 26 
in the north aisle of Westminster Abbey, under 
the organ. A tablet to his memory, attached to 
a pillar, and placed there by his pupil, Lady 
Howard, wife of Sir Robert Howard, bears this 
inscription, attributed, bub upon insufficient 
grounds, to Dryden Here lyes Henry Purcell, 
Esq. ; who left this life, and is gone to that 
blessed place where only his harmony can be ex 
ceeded. Obiit 2 imo die Novembris, Anno ^Etatis 
suss 37mo, Anno q : Domini, 1695. 2 On a flat 

i This was printed by the Musical Antiquarian Society, 
a Other eminent composers have died ahout the same a?e a.s Fur- 
cel , e.g. Pergolesi, Mozart, Schubert, Mendelssohn, and Weber. 


stone over his grave was inscribed the following 
epitaph : 

Plaudite, felices sxiperi, tanto hospite, nostris 

Praefuerat, vestris addite ille choris : 
Invida nee vobis Purcellum terra reposcat, 

Questa decus secli, deliciasque breves. 
Tam cito decessisse, modo cui singula debet 

Musa, prophana suos religiosa suos. 
Vivit lo et vivat, dum vicina organa spirant, 

Dumque colet numeris turba canora Deilm. 3 

This having long become totally effaced was, 
a few years ago, renewed in a more durable 
manner by a subscription originated by Mr. 
James Turle, the present organist of the Abbey. 
Purcell had six children, three of whom pre 
deceased him, viz. John Baptist, baptized Aug. 
9, 1682, buried Oct. 17, following; Thomas, 
buried Aug. 3, 1 686 ; and Henry, baptized 
June 9, 1687, buried Sept. 23, following. His 
other children are mentioned hereafter. His 
widow survived him until Feb. 1706. She died 
at Richmond, Surrey, and was buried on Feb. 14, 
in the north aisle of Westminster Abbey, near 
her husband. 

The compositions of Purcell not before men 
tioned, and irrespective of his sacred music, were 
Ten Sonatas in four parts/ published by his 
widow in 1697, the ninth of which, called, for its 
excellence, the Golden Sonata, is given in score 
in Hawkins s History (Novello s edit. 755); 
Lessons for the Harpsichord or Spinnet, pub 
lished in 1696; numerous catches included in 
The Catch Club, or Merry Companions, and 
other collections ; and many single songs which 
are to be found in all the collections of songs of 
the period. In 1697 his widow published, under 
the title of A Collection of Ayres composed for 
the Theatre and upon other occasions/ the in 
strumental music in the plays of Abdelazor/ 
The Virtuous Wife/ The Indian Queen/ 
Dioclesian/ King Arthur, Amphitryon/ 
The Gordian Knot unty d/ Distressed Inno 
cence/ The Fairy Queen/ The Old Bachelor/ 
The Married Beau/ The Double Dealer/ and 
Bonduca. In 1698 she published, under the 
title of Orpheus Britannicus/ a collection of 
Purcell s songs for one, two, and three voices, 
chiefly selected from his odes and dramatic 
pieces, but including also several single songs, 
amongst them the famous Bess of Bedlam. A 
second book was published in 1702. A second 
edition of the first book, with large additions and 
some omissions, appeared in 1 706, and a second 
edition of the second book, with six additional 
songs, in 1 7 1 1 . A third edition of both books, 
now very rare, was issued in 1721. There is 
another composition, which is now pretty gene 
rally admitted to be the work of Purcell, viz. 
the music for the first act of Charles Davenant s 
tragedy Circe. MS. scores are in the Fitz- 
william Museum at Cambridge, the Sacred Har- 

* Which has been thus rendered in English : 

Applaud so great a guest, celestial pow rs, 
Who now resides with you, but once was ours ; 
Yet let invidious earth no more reclaim 
Her short-liv d lav rite and her chiefest fame ; 
Complaining- that so prematurely died 
Good-nature s pleasure and devotion s pride. 
Died ? no, he lives while yonder organs sound, 
And sacred echoes to the choir rebound. 


monic Society s Library, and elsewhere. It was 
probably composed for some projected revival of 
the play, but, for reasons which cannot now be 
discovered, the completion of the work by the 
composition of music for the remainder of 
the piece was not effected. Purcell also made 
some valuable additions to the tract upon com 
position in the later editions of Playford s In 
troduction to the Skill of Musick. 

Purcell s sacred music consists of his church 
services and anthems, hymns, songs, duets, etc., 
and Latin psalms. His church music may be 
divided into two classes, viz. services and 
anthems, with orchestral accompaniments, and 
those with organ accompaniment only. The 
former, with two or three exceptions already 
mentioned, were composed for the Chapel Royal, 
the latter for Westminster Abbey. Many of the 
songs, duets, etc., and a few anthems were 
printed in the several editions of Harmonia 
Sacra, 1688, 1693, 1714, etc., and several of the 
services and anthems in the collections of Boyce, 
Arnold, and Page. The noble collection edited 
by Vincent Novello (1829-1832), under the title 
of Purcell s Sacred Music, includes the Te 
Deum and Jubilate for St. Cecilia s day, 3 
services, 5 chants by different members of the 
Purcell family, a psalm-tune known as Burford, 
20 anthems with orchestral accompaniments, 32 
anthems with organ accompaniment, 19 songs, 
some with choruses, 2 duets, a trio, n hymns 
for three and four voices, 2 Latin psalms, and 
5 canons. MS. copies of 3 other anthems, a 
hymn, and 2 Latin motets, which Novello was 
unable to meet with, are now known to be in 

It will have been observed that Purcell es 
sayed every species of composition. He wrote 
for the church, the theatre, and the chamber. 
His church music exhibits his great mastery of 
fugue, canon, imitation, and other scholastic de 
vices, combined with fine harmony and expres 
sive melody, and the introduction of novel and 
beautiful forms, enriching it whilst preserving 
its broad and solemn style. His secular music 
displays his imaginative faculty, his singular 
dramatic instinct and skill in marking character, 
his rare gift of invention, and great powers of 
expression. Although viewed by the light of 
our own day, his instrumental chamber composi 
tions appear of an inferior order, they will yet, 
when compared with those of his predecessors 
and contemporaries, be found greatly in advance 
of his time. We see in him the improver of our 
cathedral music ; the originator of English me 
lody, as the term is now understood ; the esta- 
blisher of a form of English opera which was 
almost universally adopted for upwards of a 
century and a half ; the introducer of a new and 
more effective employment of the orchestra in 
accompaniment ; the man who excelled all others 
in his accurate, vigorous, and energetic setting of 
English words; and the most original and ex 
traordinary musical genius that our country has 
produced. It is scarcely possible to estimate 
the loss to English art by the early death of 



Henry Purcell. Had his life been prolonged for 
him to have witnessed the introduction into Eng 
land of the Italian opera and the early career in 
this country of Handel, what might not have 
been expected from him ? 

Several portraits of Purcell are extant ; one, 
taken when a chapel boy, was formerly in Dul- 
wich College ; another, by Sir Godfrey Kneller 
(engraved for Novello s Purcell s Sacred Music ), 
was in the possession of the descendants of Joah 
Bates ; a third was engraved as a frontispiece 
to the Sonatas, 1683. John Closterman painted 
two one, now in the possession of the Royal 
Society of Musicians, and engraved in mezzotint 
by Zobel ; the other engraved by White for the 
* Orpheus Britannicus, which we have here repro 
duced. Another, formerly in Dulwich College, 
and engraved by W. N. Gardiner, has now dis 

4. EDWARD, youngest, but only surviving, son of 
the great Henry Purcell, was baptized in West 
minster Abbey, Sept. 6, 1689. He was therefore 
(like his father) only six years old when his 
father died. When sixteen years old he lost 
his mother, who by her nuncupative will stated 
that, according to her husband s desire, she had 
given her deare son good education, and she alsoe 
did give him all the Bookes of Musick in generall, 
the Organ, the double spinett, the single spinett, 
a silver tankard, a silver watch, two pairs of gold 
buttons, a hair ring, a mourning ring of Dr. 
Busby s, a Larum clock, Mr. Edward Purcell s 
picture, handsome furniture for a room, and he 
was to be maintained until provided for. Em 
bracing the profession of music, he became organ 
ist of St. Clement, Eastcheap. On July 8, 1726, 
he was appointed organist of St. Margaret s, 
Westminster. He died about the end of July 
or beginning of August, 1740. He left a 
son, HENRY, who was a chorister of the Chapel 
Royal, under Bernard Gates. On the death of 
his father he succeeded him as organist of 




St. Clement, Eastcheap. He afterwards became 
organist of St. Edmund the King, Lombard Street, 
and of St. John, Hackney. He died about 1750. 
Hawkins says Edward Purcell wasagood organist, 
but his son a very indifferent one. 

5. FRANCES, eldest daughter of Henry Purcell, 
the composer, was baptized in Westminster 
Abbey May 30, 1688. In 1706 her mother 
appointed her her residuary legatee and her ex 
ecutrix, when she should reach the age of 18. 
She proved the will July 6, 1706. She married, 
shortly after her mother s death, Leonard Wel- 
sted, Gent., poet and dramatist, and died 1724- 
Her only daughter, FRANCES, born 1708, died 
unmarried 1726. Her younger sister, MARY 
PETERS, was baptized in Westminster Abbey, 
Dec. 10, I693. 1 It is presumed that she survived 
her father, but predeceased her mother, as she is 
not named in the latter s will. 

6. DANIEL, the youngest son of Henry Purcell 
the elder, born probably about 1660, was also a 
musician, but from whom he received instruction 
is unknown. - In 1688 he was appointed organist 
of Magdalen College, Oxford. In 1693 he com 
posed the music for Thomas Yalden s Ode on 
St. Cecilia s Day, which was probably performed 
at Oxford. In 1695 he resigned his appointment 
at Magdalen College, and came to London. In 
1696 he composed songs for Mary Pix s tragedy 
Ibrahim XII. and Gibber s comedy Love s 
Last Shift, and the masque in the fifth act of 
The Indian Queen. In 1697 he composed the 
music for Powell and Verbruggen s opera Brutus 
of Alba, Settle s opera The New World in the 
Moon/ and the instrumental music for D Urfey s 
opera Cynthia and Endymion. In 1698 he 
composed the songs inGildon s tragedy Phaeton, 
or, The Fatal Divorce, an Ode for the Princess 
Anne s birthday, and Bishop s Ode on St. Cecilia s 
Day. In 1699 he joined with Jeremiah Clark 
and Richard Leveridge in furnishing the music 
for Motteux s opera The Island Princess, and 
also set Addison s second Ode on St. Cecilia s 
Day for Oxford. In 1700 he set Oldmixon s 
opera The Grove, and gained the third of 
the four prizes given for the composition of Con- 
greve s masque The Judgment of Paris, the 
others being awarded to John Weldon, John 
Eccles, and Godfrey Finger. In 1701 he wrote 
the instrumental music for Catherine Trotter s 
tragedy The Unhappy Penitent, and in 1702 
that for Farquhar s comedy The Inconstant. 
In 1707 he composed an Ode for St. Cecilia s 
Day, which was performed at St. Mary Hall, 
Oxford. In 1713 he was appointed organist 
of St. Andrew, Holborn, but was displaced in 
Feb. 1717. He published The Psalmes set 
full for the Organ or Harpsicord, as they are 
plaid in Churches and Chappels in the maner 
given out, as also with their Interludes of great 
Variety ; a very singular illustration of the 
manner in which metrical psalms were then per 
formed. Six anthems by him are in the choir 
books of Magdalen College, and songs in The 

i One B. Peters was one of the witnesses to Purcell s will ; 
probably he was godfather to this girl. 


Banquet of Musiek, 1689 ; Thesaurus Musicus 
and Deliciee Musicae, 1696; and Thesaurus 
Musicus, circa 1750. He composed A Lamen 
tation for the Death of Mr. Henry PurceD, 
written by Tate, the words of which are prefixed 
to the Orpheus Britannicus. He was also 
author of some sonatas for flute and bass and 
violin and bass. He died in 1718. He was held 
in great repute in his day as a punster. 

7. KATHERINE, daughter of Henry Purcell the 
elder, was baptized in Westminster Abbey, 
March 13, 1662. She married in June 1691 
the .Rev. William Sale, of Sheldwich, Kent, and 
was her mother s administratrix, Sept. 7, 1699. 

8. THOMAS, brother to Henry Purcell the elder, 
was appointed Gentleman of the Chapel Royal in 
1660. In 1 66 1 he was lay vicar of Westminster 
Abbey and copyist. On Aug. 8, 1662, he was 
appointed, jointly with Pelham Humfrey, Com 
poser in Ordinary for the Violins to His Majesty, 
and on Nov. 29 following, Musician in Ordinary 
for the Lute and Voice in the room of Henry 
Lawes, deceased. In 1672 he was, with Hum 
frey, made Master of the King s Band of Music. 
He died July 31, and was buried in the cloisters 
of Westminster Abbey, Aug. 2, 1682. He had 
probably been long before in ill-health, as on 
May 15, 1681, he granted a power of attorney 
to his son Matthew to receive his salary as 
Gentleman of the Chapel Royal. He was the 
composer of the well-known Burial Chant and 
other chants. 2 [W.H.H.] 

PURCELL CLUB, THE, was constituted at a 
meeting held in August 1836 : the first members 
were Messrs. Turle (conductor), King, Bellamy, 
Fitzwilliam, J. W. Hobbs, and E. Hawkins 
(secretary). The club was limited to twenty pro 
fessional and twenty non-professional members, 
who met twice a year ; on the second Thursday 
in February, when they dined together, and on 
the last Thursday in July, when they assembled 
in Westminster Abbey, at the morning service, 
by permission of the Dean, for the purpose of 
assisting in such Purcell music as might be 
selected for the occasion. On the evening of the 
same day the members again met to perform 
secular music composed by Purcell ; the soprano 
parts were sung by the chorister-boys from West 
minster Abbey, the Chapel Royal, and St. Paul s 
Cathedral, but ladies were admitted amongst the 

On Feb. 27, 1842, a special meeting was held, 
when Professor Taylor was elected President, and 
the dates of meeting were changed to Jan. 30 
and the first Thursday in July. Interesting 
performances of many of Purcell s works were 
given year by year, and a book of words of 194 
pages was privately printed for the use of the 
members, under the editorship of Professor 
Taylor. The Club was dissolved in 1863, and 
the valuable library, which had been acquired 

2 I am Indebted to Colonel Chester s Westminster Abbey Registers 
for much of the family history contained in the above article, and 
I gladly avail myself of this opportunity ot acknowledging my 
obligations to that gentleman for the very kind and ready manner 
In which he has furnished me with much valuable information on 
many other occasions. 


by gift and purchase, was deposited at West 
minster Abbey, under the guardianship of the 
organists of Westminster Abbey and St. Paul s 
Cathedral. [W.H.C.] 

was held on Jan. 30, 1858, to celebrate the 
bicentenary of Purcell s birth : the members of 
the Purcell Club and a large number of pro 
fessors of music and of eminent amateurs, anxious 
to do honour to the greatest of English musi 
cians assembled in the evening at the Albion 
Tavern, Aldersgate Street, London, when, after 
a banquet, a selection of Purcell music was per 
formed, and some interesting addresses were 
given by Professor Taylor, who presided. The 
programme consisted entirely of music composed 
by Purcell, and was as follows : Grace, Gloria 
Patri ; anthems give thanks, God, thou 
hast cast us out, sing unto the Lord ; song and 
chorus, Celebrate this festival ; a selection from 
King Arthur ; cantata, Cupid the slyest rogue 
alive ; song, Let the dreadful engines ; chorus, 
Soul of the world, inspired by thee. [W.H.C.] 

21, 18 76, for the purpose in the words of the pro 
spectus of doing justice to the memory of Henry 
Purcell, firstly by the publication of his works, 
most of which exist only in MS., and secondly, 
by meeting for the study and performance of his 
various compositions. The Permanent Com 
mittee consists of the Rev. Sir F. A. G. Ouseley, 
Bart.; G. A. Macfarren; Sir Herbert S. Oakeley; 
Sir John Goss ; Sir George Elvey ; Joseph Barnby ; 
Joseph Bennett ; J. F. Bridge ; W. Chappell ; 
W. H. Cummings ; J. W. Davison ; E. J. Hop 
kins ; John Hullah ; Henry Leslie ; A. H. 
Littleton, Hon. Secretary ; Walter Macfarren ; 
Julian Marshall; E. Prout; E. F. Rimbault; 
Henry Smart; JohnStainer; Rev. J. Troutbeck; 
James Turle. The prospectus, issued May 16, 
1876, contains a list of Odes and Welcome Songs 
(28), and of Operas and Dramas (45), by Purcell ; 
and an announcement that the first works pub 
lished would be the Yorkshire Feast Song, and 
the masque in Timon of Athens, both in full 
score. The Yorkshire Feast Song was issued on 
Oct. 14, 1878, edited, with a preface, by Mr. 
Cummings, and beautifully engraved and printed. 
Timon of Athens, edited by the Rev. Sir F. A. G. 
Ouseley, with a preface by Mr. Julian Marshall, 
is now due. The subscription to the Society is 
2 is. a year for the publications, and 105. 6d. 
extra for the music meetings. [G.] 

PURFLING (Fr. pourfiler}. The ornamental 
border with which the backs and bellies of stringed 
instruments are usually finished. It is the only 
remnant of the elaborate decoration with which 
stringed instruments were anciently covered. It 
usually consists of a slip of maple or sycamore 
glued between two slips of ebony. Some makers 
used whalebone, as more pliable. A groove is 
carefully cut all round the edges for its insertion, 
and the purfling is then let in. Next to cutting 
the scroll this is the most difficult operation in 
nddle-inaking, as the purfling invariably breaks 

PYE. 53 

to pieces in the hands of the unskilled workman. 
The secret consists in getting it well bent to the 
required shape before letting it into the groove. 
In the works of the best makers the purfling 
is bold, even, solid, perfectly finished, and 
accurately joined in the angles. The prince of 
purflers was Stradivarius. Many, old instru 
ments have a painted border instead of structural 
purfling, and modern fiddles of the commonest 
class have often only a double line in ink or 
paint round the edges. Only a single strip of 
purfling is usually employed ; but double pur 
fling, which in general injures the tone without 
improving the looks of an instrument, is often 
found ; and instruments may be seen with a 
second row of purfling by a different hand. The 
purfling is not merely ornamental, as the groove 
protects the body of the violin by checking frac 
tures proceeding from the edge. In ornamental 
instruments the purfling is sometimes inlaid with 
mother of pearl. [E.J.P.] 

PURITANI DI SCOZIA,!. Opera in 2 acts; 
words by Count Pepoli, music by Bellini. Written 
for Grisi, Rubini, Tamburini, and Lablache, and 
produced at the Theatre Italien, Paris, Jan. 25, 
1835. In London, at the King s Theatre, as I 
Puritani ed I Cavalieri, May 21, 1835. [G-] 

romantic drama in 3 acts ; words by J. V. Bridge- 
man, music by Balfe. Produced at the English 
Opera House, Covent Garden, London, Nov. 30, 
1861 (Pyne and Harrison). [G.] 

PUTZLI. Prince Fitzli Putzli was Beetho 
ven s nickname for his friend Prince Lobkowitz. 
See Thayer s Beethoven, iii. 239. [G.] 

PYE, KELLOW JOHN, well known in London 
musical circles ; the son of a merchant ; was 
born at Exeter, Feb. 9, 1812. His musical ten 
dencies showed themselves early. He entered 
the Royal Academy of Music, London, in Feb. 
1823, immediately after its foundation, and took 
the first pianoforte lesson ever given within its 
walls. This was under Cipriani Potter. He 
also studied harmony, counterpoint, and compo 
sition there, under Dr. Crotch, the Principal, and 
remained a pupil till 1829. He then returned 
to Exeter, and for some years enjoyed consider 
able local fame in the south-west of England. 
In 1834 he gained the Gresham medal for his 
full anthem Turn Thee again, Lord * (No- 
vello), which with other anthems of his are in 
use in the Cathedrals. In 1842 he took the 
degree of Mus. Bac. at Oxford. Soon after this 
he came to London, and though forsaking the 
profession of music for business, retained his 
connexion with the art by joining the direction 
of the R.A.M. where he succeeded Sir G. Clerk 
as chairman of the committee of management 
(1864-67). He is also a member of the Execu 
tive and Finance Committees of the Royal and 
National College of Music (President H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales). His published works, besides 
those mentioned, comprise Stray Leaves, 1 2 nos. 
(Lamborn Cock& Co.), 4 Full Anthems (Novello), 
3 Short Full Anthems (Do.), Songs, etc. [G.] 

54 PYNE. 

PYNE, LOUISA FANNY, daughter of George 
Pyne (alto singer, born 1790, died March 15, 
1877), and niece of James Kendrick Pyne (tenor 
singer, died Sept. 23, 1857), was born in 1832. 
At a very early age she studied singing under Sir 
George Smart, and about 1842 appeared in public 
with her elder sister, Susan (afterwards Mrs. 
Galton), with great success. In 1847 the sisters 
performed in Paris. In Aug. 1849 Louisa made 
her first appearance on the stage at Boulogne as 
Amina in La Sonnambula. On Oct. I follow 
ing she commenced an engagement at the 
Princess s Theatre as Zerlina, in an English ver 
sion of Don Juan. Her first original part was 
Fanny in Macfarren s Charles the Second, pro 
duced Oct. 27, 1849. Q U March 1850 she sang 
at the Philharmonic ; was engaged the same year 
at Liverpool, and in 1851 at the Hay market. 
On Aug. 14, 1851, she performed the Queen 
of Night in II Flauto Magico at the Royal 
Italian Opera. She also sang in oratorios and 


at concerts. In Aug. 1854 she embarked for 
America in company with her sister Susan, W. 
Harrison, and Borrani. She performed in the 
principal cities of the United States for three 
years, being received everywhere with the 
greatest favour. On her return to England she, 
in partnership with Harrison, formed a company 
for the performance of English operas, which 
they gave first at the Lyceum and afterwards 
at Drury Lane and Covent Garden Theatres, 
until 1862, when the partnership was dissolved. 
[See HARRISON, WILLIAM, vol. i. p. 6926]. Miss 
Pyne subsequently appeared at Her Majesty s 
Theatre. In 1868 she was married to Mr. Frank 
Bodda, the baritone singer. She has now retired 
from public life, and devotes herself to teaching. 
Her voice was a soprano of beautiful quality 
and great compass and flexibility ; she sang 
with great taste and judgment, and excelled 
in the florid style, of which she was a perfect 
mistress. [W.H.H.] 

PAPPENHEIM, EUGENIE, a soprano singer 
who excited some attention in London for a 
couple of years. She is an Austrian by birth, 
and was first heard of at Mannheim, and then at 
Hamburg, where she was one of the opera troupe 
in 1872-75, and in 74 gave some Gastspiele 
at Kroll s Theatre, Berlin, with great success, 
especially as Leonora (Fidelio). She next went 
to America as a member of a German company 
under Wachtel, and remained there till 1878, when 
on June 1 5 she made a successful d^but in London, 
at Her Majesty s Theatre, as Valentine in The 
Huguenots. She followed this with a perform 
ance of Leonora in Fidelio, and also appeared 
in the following seasons as Donna Anna, the 
Countess (Figaro), Leonora (Trovatore), Aida, 
Eeiza, Agatha, and Elsa (Lohengrin). Though 
not endowed with a voice of remarkable quality 
or compass, Madame Pappenheim is thoroughly 
good and careful both as a singer and an actress. 
Her parts are always studied with care and con 
scientiousness, and she is capable of considerable 
dramatic intensity. She is now a member of the 
German Theatre at Pesth. [A.C.] 

PISCHEK, JOHANN BAPTIST, a fine baritone 
singer, born Oct. 14, 1814, at Melnick in Bo 
hemia, made his de"but on the boards at the age 
of 21. In 1844 h e was appointed Court-singer to 
the King of Wurtemberg at Stuttgart, an appoint 
ment which he retained until his retirement 
July i, 1863. He entered on his duties May i, 

1 844. At a later date he was also made Kam- 
mersanger. Pischek travelled a great deal, and 
was known and liked in all the principal towns 
of North and South Germany, especially at 
Frankfort, where we find him singing, both oil 
the stage in a variety of parts, and in concerts, 
ytar after year from 1840 to 1848. In England 
he was a very great favourite for several years. 
He made his first appearance here on May i, 

1845, at a concert of Madame Caradori Allan s ; 

sang at the Philharmonic on the following Mon 
day and thrice besides during the season there. 
He reappeared in this country in 1846, 47, and 
49, and maintained his popularity in the concert- 
room, and in oratorio, singing in 49 the part of 
Elijah at the Birmingham festival with great 
energy, passion, and effect. On the stage of the 
German opera at Drury Lane during the same 
year his Don Juan was not so successful, his act 
ing being thought exaggerated. He was heard 
again in 1853 at the New Philharmonic Concerts. 
He died at Stuttgart, Feb. 16, 1873. 

In voice, enunciation, feeling, and style, Pischek 
was first-rate. His repertoire was large, embracing 
operas and pieces of Gluck, Mozart, Me hul, Bee 
thoven, Spohr, Weber, Donizetti, HeVold, Lach- 
ner, Kreutzer, Linclpaintner. In his latter days 
one of his most favourite parts was Hassan in 
Benedict s Der Alte vom Berge (Crusaders) ; 
others were Hans Heiling, Ashton (Lucia), and 
the Jager, in the Nachtlager von Granada. He 
also sang Mendelssohn s Elijah, as already men 
tioned. As an actor he was prone to exaggera 
tion. But it was in his ballads, especially in 
Lindpaintner s Standard-bearer, that he carried 
away his audience. His taste, as in Beethoven s 
Adelaide, was by no means uniformly pure, but 
the charm of his voice and style always brought 
down the house. His voice was a fine rich bass, 
with a very pure falsetto of 3 or 4 notes, which he 
managed exquisitely. He does not seem to have 
attempted any of the songs of Schubert, Schu 
mann, or Mendelssohn, which are now so well 
known. [A.C.] 

1790, at Saalgast in Lower Lusatia. In 1829 
we find him well established in Leipzig as a 
singing-master, a conductor of concerts, organist, 
director of the Singakademie and the Musik- 
verein, etc. At the end of 1834 he resigned the 
post of Conductor of the Gewandhaus subscription 


concerts, which he appears to have held for nine 
years, and in which he was succeeded by Men 
delssohn in the following October. After the 
death of Weinlig, on March 6, 1842, and before 
the appointment of Hauptmann later in the same 
year, Pohlenz filled the office of Cantor at the 
St. Thomas s School. Indeed, in the then state of 
music at Leipzig, he seems to have been a person 
of consideration, which is confirmed by the fact 
of Mendelssohn s having chosen him as teacher of 



singing in the new Conservator! um there, in the 
prospectus of which his name appears, in the Allg. 
Musikalische Zeitung of Jan. 1 8, 1843. He was 
not however destined to take part in that good 
work, for he died of apoplexy at Leipzig on 
March 9, 1843, just three weeks before the oper 
ations were begun. He published Polonaises for 
the PF., but his best works are part-songs for equal 
voices, of which one or two good specimens are 
given in ORPHEUS. [See vol. ii. p. 613.] [G.] 


QUADRILLE (German Contretanz), a 
dance executed by an equal number of 
couples drawn up in a square. The name 
(which is derived from the Italian squadra) was 
originally not solely applied to dances, but was 
used to denote a small company or squadron of 
horsemen, from 3 to 15 in number, magnificently 
mounted and caparisoned to take part in a 
tournament or carrousel. The name was next 
given to 4, 6, 8, or 12 dancers, dressed alike, 
who danced in one or more companies in the 
elaborate French ballets 1 of the i8th century. 
The introduction of contredanses into the 
ballet, which first took place in the 5th act of 
Rousseau s Fetes de Polymnie (1745), and 
the consequent popularity of these dances, 
are the origin of the dance which, at first 
known as the Quadrille de Contredanses was 
soon abbreviated into quadrille. The quadrille 
was settled in its present shape at the begin 
ning of the i pth century, and it has undergone 
but little change, save in the simplification 
of its steps. It was very popular in Paris 
during the Consulate and the first Empire, and 
after the fall of Napoleon was brought to 
England by Lady Jersey, who in 1815 danced 
it for the first time at Almack s 2 with Lady 
Harriet Butler, Lady Susan Ryde, Miss Mont 
gomery, Count St. Aldegonde, Mr. Montgomery, 
Mr. Montague, and Mr. Standish. The English 
took it up with the same eagerness which they 
displayed with regard to the polka in 1845, 
and the caricatures of the period abound with 
amusing illustrations of the quadrille mania. It 
became popular in Berlin in 1821. 

The quadrille consists of five distinct parts, 
which bear the name of the contredanses to 
which they owe their origin. No. I is Le 
Pantalon, the name of which is derived from 
a song which began as follows : 

Le pantalon 
De Madelon 
N a pas de fond, 

and was adapted to the dance. The music 
consists of 32 bars in 6-8 time. No. a is L EteV 
the name of a very difficult and graceful 

1 The Ballets were divided into 5 acts, each act into 3, 6, 9, or 12 
entries, and each entnSe was performed by one or more 
quadrilles of dancers. 

2 See Captain Gronow s Keminiscences (1861). 

contredanse popular in the year 1800; it con 
sists of 32 bars in 2-4 time. No. 3 is La 
Poule (32 bars in 6-8 time) which dates from 
the year 1802. For No. 4 (32 bars in 2-4 time) 
two figures are danced, La Tre nise, named 
after the celebrated dancer Treriitz, and La 
Pastourelle, perhaps a survival of the old 
Pastorale. No. 5 Finale consists of three 
parts, repeated four times. In all these figures 
(except the Finale, which sometimes ends with 
a coda) the dance begins at the 9th bar of the 
music, the first 8 bars being repeated at the end 
by way of conclusion. The music of quadrilles 
is scarcely ever original ; operatic and popular 
tunes are strung together, and even the works 
of the great composers are sometimes made use 
of. 3 The quadrilles of Musard are almost the 
only exception; they may lay claim to some 
recognition as graceful original musical com 
positions. [W.B.S.] 

QUANTITY. The duration of syllables, and 
therefore the varieties of metrical feet. This is 
fully explained under the head of METRE. [G.] 

QUANTZ, JOHANN JOACHIM, celebrated flute- 
player and composer, born, according to his 
autobiography in Marpurg s Beitrage zur Auf- 
nahme derMusik, Jan. 30, 1697, at Oberscheden, 
a village between Gb ttingen and Miinden. His 
father, a blacksmith, urged him on his death-bed 
(1707) to follow the same calling, but, in his 
own words, Providence, who disposes all for the 
best, soon pointed out a different path for my 
future. From the age of 8 he had been in the 
habit of playing the double-bass with his elder 
brother at village fetes, and judging from this 
that he had a talent for music, his uncle Justus 
Quantz, Stadtmusikus of Merseburg, offered to 
bring him up as a musician. He went to Merse 
burg in August 1708,* but his uncle did not long 
survive his father, and Quantz passed under the 
care of the new Stadtmusikus, Fleischhack, who 
had married his predecessor s daughter. For the 
next 5 1 years he studied various instruments, 

3 Some of our readers may recollect the clever Bologna Quadrilles 
on themes from Rossini s Stabat Mater, which were published 
shortly after the appearance of that work. The plates of these quad 
rilles were destroyed on the publishers learning the source from 
which the author had obtained the melodies. 

* Not 1707, as Mendel states. 



Kiesewetter being his master for the pianoforte. 
In Dec. 1713 he was released from his apprentice 
ship, and soon after became assistant, first to Knoll, 
Stadtmusikus of Radeberg, and then to Schalle of 
Pirna near Dresden. Here he studied Vivaldi s 
violin-concertos, and made the acquaintance of 
Heine, a musician in Dresden, with whom he 
went to live in March 1716. He now had 
opportunities of hearing great artists, such as 
Pi^endel, Veracini, Sylvius Weiss, Richter and 
Buffardin, the flute-player. In 1717 he went, 
during his three months leave, to Vienna, and 
studied counterpoint in the octave with Zerlenka, 
a pupil of Fux. In 1718 he entered the chapel 
of the King of Poland, which consisted of 12 
players, and was stationed alternately in War 
saw and Dresden. His salary was 150 thalers, 
with free quarters in Warsaw, but finding no 
opportunity of distinguishing himself either 
on the oboe, the instrument for which he was 
engaged, or the violin, he took up the flute, 
studying it with Buffardin. In 1723 he went 
with Weiss to Prague, and the two played in 
Fux s opera Costanza e Fortezza performed in 
honour of the coronation of Charles VI. Here 
also he heard Tartini. In !724Quantz accom 
panied Count Lagnasco to Italy, arriving in 
Rome on July II, and going at once for lessons 
in counterpoint to Gasparini, whom he describes 
as a goodnatured and honourable man. In 
1725 he went on to Naples, and there made the 
acquaintance of Scarlatti, Hasse, Mancini, Leo, 
Feo, and other musicians of a similar stamp. 
In May 1726 we find him in Regeio and Parma, 
whence he travelled by Milan, Turin, Geneva, 
and Lyons to Paris, arriving on Aug. 15. In 
Paris where his name was remembered 1 as 
Quouance he remained seven months, and 
occupied himself with contriving improvements 
in the flute, the most important being the ad 
dition of a second key, as described by himself 
in his Versuch einer Anweisung die Flote zu 
spielen/ vol. iii. chap. 58 (Berlin, 1752). He was 
at length recalled to Dresden, but first visited 
London for three months. He arrived there on 
March 20, 1727, when Handel was at the very 
summit of his operatic career, with Faustina, 
Cuzzoni, Castrucci, Senesino, Attilio, and Tosi in 
his train. He returned to Dresden on July 23, 
1727, and in the following March re-entered the 
chapel, and again devoted himself to the flute. 
During a visit to Berlin in 1728 the Crown Prince, 
afterwards Frederic the Great, was so charmed 
with his playing, that he determined to learn the 
flute, and in future Quantz went twice a year to 
give him instruction. In 1 741 his pupil, having 
succeeded to the throne, made him liberal offers 
if he would settle in Berlin, which he did, 
remaining till his death on July 12, 1773. He 
was Kammermusicus and court-composer, with 
a salary of 2000 thalers, an additional pay 
ment for each composition, and 100 ducats for 
each flute which he supplied. His chief duties 
were to conduct the private concerts at the 
Palace, in which the king played the flute, .and 

i In Boivin s Catalogue. 


to compose pieces for his royal pupil. He left in 
MS. 300 concertos for one and two flutes of 
which 277 are preserved in the Neue Palais at 
Potsdam and 200 other pieces ; flute solos, and 
dozens of trios and quatuors, of which 37 are 
to be found at Dresden. His printed works are 
three Sei Sonats* dedicated to Augustus III. 
of Poland, Dresden, 1734; Sei duetti, Berlin, 
1 759 ; a method for the flute Versuch einer 
Anweisung die Flote traversiere zu spielen dedi 
cated to Frederick Konige in Preussen, Berlin, 
1752, 4to, with 24 copper-plates. This passed 
through three (or four) German editions, and was 
also published in French and Dutch. He left 
also a serenata, a few songs, music to 22 of 
Gellert s hymns, Neue Kirchenmelodien, etc. 
(Berlin, 1760), and an autobiography (in Mar- 
purg s Beitragen). Three of the Melodien are 
given by von Winter feld, Evang. Kircheng. iii. 
272. Besides the key which he added to the 
flute, he invented the sliding top for tuning the 
instrument. His playing, which was unusually 
correct for the imperfect instruments of the day, 
delighted not only Frederic, but Marpurg, a more 
fastidious critic. He married, not happily, in 
1737 ; and died in easy circumstances and gener 
ally respected at Potsdam, July 12, 1773. 

All details regarding him may be found in 
Leben und Werken, etc., by his grandson Albert 
Quantz (Berlin, 1877). [F.G.] 

QUARLES, CHARLES, Mus. Bac., graduated 
at Cambridge in 1698. He was organist of 
Trinity College, Cambridge. He was appointed 
organist of York Minster, June 30, 1722 ; and 
died early in 1727. A Lesson for the harp 
sichord by him was printed by Goodison about 
1788. [W.H.H.] 

AND REVIEW, conducted by R. M. BACON of 
Norwich. [See vol. i. 288 a ; vol. ii. 427(1.] [G.] 

QUARTET (Fr. Quatuor ; Ital. Quartetto). A 
composition for four solo instruments or voices. 

I. With regard to instrumental quartets the 
favourite combination has naturally been always 
that of 2 violins, viola, and cello, the chief repre 
sentatives since the days of Monteverde of soprano, 
alto, tenor, and bass, in the orchestra : in fact, 
when quartet only is spoken of, the string 
quartet is generally understood ; any other com 
bination being more fully particularised ; and it 
is to the string quartet we will turn our principal 
attention. The origin of the quartet was the 
invention of four-part harmony, but it was long 
before a composition for four instruments came 
to be regarded as a distinct and worthy means 
for the expression of musical ideas. Even the 
prolific J. S. Bach does not appear to have favoured 
this combination, though he wrote trios in plenty. 
With the symphony was born the string quartet as 
we now understand it the symphony in minia 
ture; and both were born of the same father, 
Haydn. Although 24 bars comprise all the first 
part of the first movement of Haydn s ist Quartet, 
we see there the embryo which Beethoven de 
veloped to such gigantic proportions, 




Presto (1st subject.) ^ 

/> K~75 1 t^H r~ 



/ u" ft : 



-j i 



((V) 1 ft h s- 



- 1" 1 


/-f -fr 1 f U 1 p 



FT-P d^?j-r 

H n5TTf* r 

- - 





(Episode modulating into the dominant.) 

(2nd subject.) 



These first quartets of Haydn seem to us 
sadly feeble in the present day ; there is not 
enough flesh to cover the skeleton, and the joints 
are terribly awkward ; but there is the unmis- 
takeable infant quartet, and certainly not more 
clumsy and unpromising than the human infant. 
The due proportions are all there too in fact, 
there are 5 movements instead of 4, Haydn 
usually writing two minuets to these early 
works. In the course of his long life and in 
cessant practice in symphonic composition, Haydn 
made vast progress, so that the later quartets 
(op. 71, etc.) begin to show, in the lower parts, 
some of the boldness which had before been only 
allowed to the 1st violin. 83 quartets of Haydn 
are catalogued and printed, while of the 93 of his 
contemporary Boccherini, scarcely one survives. 

Mozart, with his splendid genius for poly 
phony as well as melody, at once opened up a 
new world. In the set of 6 dedicated to Haydn 
we notice, besides the development in form, the 
development of the idea, which it has only been 
given to Beethoven fully to carry out the mak 
ing each part of equal interest and importance. 
Theoretically, in a perfect quartet, whether vocal 
or instrumental, there should be no principal 
part. The six quartets just spoken of were so 
far in advance of their time, as to be considered 
on all sides as hideous stuff. In our time we 
find little that is startling in them, except perhaps 

the famous opening of No 6, which will always 
sound harsh from the false relations in the 2nd 
and 4th bars. 


Mozart s 26 quartets all live, the 6 dedicated 
to Haydn, and the last 3 composed for the King 
of Prussia, being immortal. 

Those writers whose quartets were simply the 
echo of Mozart s such as Romberg, Onslow, 
Hies, and Fesca made no advance in the treat 
ment of the four instruments. 

It is not our province here to speak of the 
growth of the symphonic form as exhibited in the 
string quartet, this subject having been already 
discussed under FORM, but rather to notice the 
extraordinary development of the art of part- 
writing, and the manner in which the most ela 
borate compositions have been constructed with 
such apparently inadequate materials. In these 
points the quartets of Beethoven so far ellipse 
all others that we might confine our attention 
exclusively to them. In the very first (op. 18, 
No. i) the phrase 


- "!J .^r 1 



V-W ! 

C . , 


- -^- 

of the ist movement is delivered so impartially 
to each of the four players, as though to see what 
each can make of it, that we feel them to be on 
an equality never before attained to. If the 1st 
violin has fine running passages, those of the 2nd 
violin and viola are not a whit inferior. Does 
the ist violin sing a celestial adagio, the cello is 
not put off with mere bass notes to mark the 
time. All four participate equally in the merri 
ment of the scherzo and the dash of the finale. 
This much strikes one in the earlier quartetsj 
but later, when such writing as the following- 
selected at random is frequent, 

we find that we are no longer listening to four 
voices disposed so as to sound together harmo 
niously, but that we are being shown the outline, 




the faint pencil sketch, of works for whose actual 
presentation the most perfect earthly orchestra 
would be too intolerably coarse. The post 
humous quartets are hardly to be regarded as 
pieces written for violins, but we are rather forced 
to imagine that in despair of finding colours deli 
cate and true enough the artist has preferred to 
leave his conceptions as charcoal sketches. This 
fancy is borne out when we note how large a com 
pass the four parts are constantly made to cover, 
a space of nearly five octaves sometimes being 
dashed over, with little care for the poorness and 
scratchiness of tone thus produced. 

The 1 6 quartets of Beethoven are all con 
stantly before the musical public, the last four 
naturally Jess frequently than the others. 

There is a wide contrast between these stu 
pendous works of genius and the polished and 
thoroughly legitimate workmanship of Schubert s 
quartets. Here we find everything done which 
ought to be done and nothing which ought not. 
They are indeed irreproachable models. One 
little point deserves notice here as illustrating 
the comparative strength of two great men : Bee 
thoven gives frequent rests to one or two of the 
players, allowing the mind to fill in the lacking 
harmony, and thus producing a clearness, bold 
ness and contrast which no other composer has 
attained ; Schubert, on the other hand, makes all 
four parts work their hardest to hide that thinness 
of sound which is the drawback of the quartet. 

Mention of Spohr s quartets might almost be 
omitted in spite of their large number and their 
great beauty. Technically they are no more ad 
vanced than those of Haydn, the interest lying 
too often in the top part. They also lose much 
through the peculiar mannerism of the com 
poser s harmon}-, which so constantly occupies 
three of the parts in the performance of pedal 
notes, and portions of the chromatic scale. 

Still more than Schubert does Mendelssohn 
seem to chafe at the insufficiency of four stringed 
instruments to express his ideas. Not only this, 
but he fails, through no fault of his own, in 
one point needful for successful quartet-writing. 
Beethoven and Schubert have shown us that 
the theoretically perfect string-quartet should 
have an almost equal amount of interest in each 
of the four parts ; care should therefore be taken 
to make the merest accompaniment-figures in the 
middle parts of value and character. Tremolos 
and reiterated chords should be shunned, and 
indeed the very idea of accompaniment is barely 
admissible. The quartet, though differing from 
the symphony only in the absence of instru 
mental colouring and limitation of polyphony, 
is best fitted for the expression of ideas of a cer 
tain delicacy, refinement and complexity, any 
thing like boldness being out of place, from the 
weakness of the body of tone produced. Now 
the chief characteristic of Mendelssohn s music 
is its broad and singing character, passage-writing 
is his weak point. Consequently, however good 
his quartets, one cannot but feel that they would 
sound better if scored for full orchestra. Take 
the opening of Op. 44, No. i, for instance 

jT f 

In the first place, this is not quartet-writing at 
all ; there is a melody, a bass, and the rest is 
mere fill-up matter : in the second, we have here 
as thorough an orchestral theme as could be de 
vised the ear yearns for trumpets and drums in 
the fourth bar. A similar case occurs in the 
F minor Quartet (op. 80), and the expression 
symphony in disguise has accordingly often been 
applied to these works. This is curious, because 
Mendelssohn has shown himself capable of ex 
pressing his ideas with small means in other 
departments. The 4-part songs for male voices, 
for instance, are absolutely perfect models for 
what such things ought to be. Schumann (op. 41) 
is the only writer who can be said to have fol 
lowed in the wake of Beethoven with regard to 
using the quartet as a species of shorthand. All 
his three quartets have an intensity, a depth 
of soul, which, as with Beethoven, shrinks from 
plainer methods of expression. 

Of the earnest band of followers in this school 
Brahms (op. 51, 67), Bargiel, Bheinberger 
all that can be said is that they are followers. 
If the quartet is yet capable of new treatment, 
the second Beethoven who is to show us fresh 
marvels has not yet come. 

II. Quartets for strings and wind instruments 
are uncommon, but Mozart has one for oboe, 
violin, viola, and cello. Next to the string 
quartet ranks the pianoforte quartet, which, 
however, is built on quite a different principle : 
here the composition becomes either equivalent 
to an accompanied trio, or to a symphony in 
which the piano takes the place of the string 
quartet, and the other instruments usually 
violin, viola, and cello the place of wind in 
struments. In any case the piano does quite 
half the work. Mozart has written two such 
quartets, Beethoven only one, besides three early 
compositions, Mendelssohn three, while Brahms 
(op. 23, 26, 60) and the modern composers have 
favoured this form of quartet still more. 


III. Vocal quartets are so called whether 
accompanied by instruments or not. The 4 -part 
songs of Mendelssohn have been mentioned. 
No modern oratorio is considered complete with 
out its unaccompanied quartet, Spohr having set 
the fashion with his exquisite Blest are the de 
parted in the Last Judgment. Modern opera is 
learning to dispense with concerted music, Richard 
Wagner having set the fashion. To enumerate the 
fine operatic quartets from Don Giovanni to 
Faust, would be useless. In light opera the Spin 
ning- wheel quartet in Marta standspre-eminent. 

IV. The whole body of stringed instruments 
in the orchestra is often incorrectly spoken of as 
the Quartet, from the fact that until the time 
of Beethoven the strings seldom played in other 
than four-part harmony. It is now the usual 
custom to write the parts for cello and double 
bass on separate staves, and in Germany these 
instruments are grouped apart, a practice which 
is decidedly unwise, seeing that the double bass 
requires the support of the cello to give the tone 
firmness, more especially the German four- 
stringed instrument, the tone of which is so 
wanting in body. 

V. The term is also applied to the performers 
of a quartet, as well as to the composition 
itself. [F.C.] 

QUARTET, DOUBLE for 4 violins, 2 violas, 
and 2 cellos. This variety of quartet should bear 
the same relation to an octet that a double 
chorus bears to an 8-part chorus ; the parts 
being divided into two separate sets of four. 
Spohr s three Double Quartets (Op. 65, 77, 87) 
are probably the only specimens in print. [F.C.] 

society for the performance of chamber music, 
started in 1852 by Messrs. Sainton, Cooper, Hill, 
and Piatti, with such eminent artists as Sterndale 
Bennett, Mile. Clauss, Mme. Pleyel, Miss God- 
dard, Pauer, Charles Halle, etc., at the pianoforte. 
They gave six concerts each season at Willis s 
Rooms, but ended with the third season, the time 
not having yet arrived for a sufficient support of 
chamber music by the London public. The pro 
grammes were selected with much freedom, em 
bracing English composers Bennett, Ellerton, 
Loder, Macfarren, Mellon, etc. ; foreign musicians 
then but seldom heard Schumann, Cherubini, 
Hummel, etc., and Beethoven s Posthumous 
Quartets. The pieces were analysed by Mr. 
Macfarren. [G.] 

QUASI, as if i. e. an approach to. Andante 
quasi allegretto or Allegretto quasi vivace 
means a little quicker than the one and not so 
quick as the other answering to poco allegretto, 
or piu tosto allegro. [G.] 

comique ; words by MM. Leuven and Brunswick, 
music by Balfe. Produced at the Opera Comique, 
Paris, July 15, 1844, and at the Princess s Theatre, 
London, as The Castle of Aymon, or The Four 
Brothers, in 3 acts, Nov. 20, 1844. [G.] 

QUAVER (Ger. Achtelnote ; Fr. Croche ; Ital. 
Croma). A note which is half the length of a 



crotchet, and therefore the eighth part of a semi- 
breve ; hence the German name, which signifies 
eighth-note. It is written thus I*, its Rest be 
ing represented by ;. 

The idea of expressing the values of notes by 
diversity of form has been ascribed by certain 
writers to De Muris (about 1340), but this is 
undoubtedly an error, the origin of which is 
traced by both Hawkins (Hist, of Music) and 
Fdtis (art. Muris) to a work entitled L antica 
Musica ridotta alia moderna Prattica, by Vicen- 
tino (1555), in which it is explicitly stated that 
De Muris invented all the notes, from the Large 
to the Semiquaver. It is however certain that 
the longer notes were in use nearly 300 years 
earlier, in the time of Franco of Cologne [NOTA 
TION, vol. ii, p. 470], and it seems equally clear 
that the introduction of the shorter kinds is of 
later date than the time of De Muris. The fact 
appears to be that the invention of the shorter 
notes followed the demand created by the general 
progress of music, a demand which may fairly 
be supposed to have reached its limit in the 
quarter-demisemiquaver, or ^ of a quaver, 
occasionally met with in modern music. 

The Quaver, originally called Chroma or Fiisa, 
sometimes Unca (a hook), was probably invented 
some time during the I5th century, for Morley 
(i 597) saystbat there were within these 200 years 
(and therefore in 1400) but four 1 (notes) known 
or used of the musicians, those were the Long, 
Breve, Semibreve, and Minim ; and Thomas de 
Walsingham, in a MS. treatise written somewhat 
later (probably about 1440), and quoted by Haw 
kins, gives the same notes, and adds that of late 
a New character has been introduced, called a 
Crotchet, which would be of no use, would 
musicians remember that beyond the minim no 
subdivision ought to be made. Franchinus Ga- 
furius also, in his Practica Musicae (1496) 
quoting from Prosdocimus de Beldemandis, who 
flourished in the early part of the I5th century, 
describes the division of the minim into halves 
and quarters, called respectively the greater and 
lesser semiminim, and written in two ways, white 
and black (Ex. i). The white forms of these notes 
soon fell into disuse, and the black ones have be 
come the crotchet 2 and quaver of modern music. 

Greater Lesser 

Semiminim. Semiminim. 


l ^ N 

The subdivision of the quaver into semiquaver 
and demisemiquaver followed somewhat later. 
Gafurius, in the work quoted above, mentions 
a note ^ of a minim in length, called by various 

I* 1 

names, and written either ^ or 4 , but the true 


1 There were really five, including the Large, which Morley calls 
the Double Long. 

2 It is worthy of notice that in the ancient manuscript by Eng 
lish authors known as the Waltham Holy Cross MS., a note is 
mentioned, called a simple, which has the value of a crotchet, but 
is written with a hooked stem like a modern quaver. That a note half 
the value of a minim should at any period have been written with a 
hook may help to account for the modern name crotchet, which 
being clearly derived from the French croc, or crochet, a hook, is 
somewhat anoma ous as applied to *he note in its present form, 
which has no hook. 



semiquaver or semickroma, the earliest form of 
which was P , does not appear until later, while 

the demisemiquaver must have been a novelty as 
late as 1697, at least in this country, judging 
from the I3th edition of Playford s Introduction 
to the Skill of Musick, in which, after describing 
it, the author goes onto say but the Printer 
having none of that character by him, I was 
obliged to omit it. 

When two or more quavers (or shorter notes) 
occur consecutively, they are usually grouped 
together by omitting the hooks and drawing a 
thick stroke across their stems, thus JjjJ. The 
credit of having invented this great improvement 
in notation is due, according to Hawkins, to John 
Playford, whose example in this matter was soon 
followed by the Dutch, and afterwards by the 
French and Germans. In Playford s Introduc 
tion etc. the notes are described as Tyed together 
by a long stroke on the Top of their Tails , and it 
is curious that in the example he gives (Ex. 2)the 
characteristic hook of the quaver or semiquaver 
is allowed to appear at the end of each group. 

As late as the I3th edition, however (1697), the 
examples throughout Playford s book, with the 
single exception of the one just quoted, are 
printed with separate quavers and semiquavers 
and it is not until the I5th edition (1703) which 
is announced as Corrected, and done on the 
New Ty d-Note, that the notes are grouped as 
in modern music. 

In vocal music, notes which have to be sung 
to separate syllables are written detached, while 
those which are sung to a single syllable are 
grouped ; for example 

The peo-ple that walk-ed in dark - - - ness, that 


bone player, was born of poor parents at Doben, 
near Leipzig, Jan. n, 1800. His turn for music 
showed itself early, and he soon mastered all the 
ordinary orchestral instruments. He ultimately 
confined himself to the viola, and to the trombone, 
which he may really be said to have created, since, 
for instance, the solo in the Tuba mtrum of 
Mozart s Requiem was before his time usually 
played on a Bassoon. In 1817 he was appointed 
to play violin and trombone in the town 
orchestra, and by 1830 had worked his way 
into the other orchestras of Leipzig, including 
that of the Gewandhaus. He played the viola 
in Matthai s well-known quartet for many years ; 
was one of the founders of the Leipzig Euterpe, 
and led its orchestra for a long time ; and in short 


was one of the most prominent musical figures 
in Leipzig during its very best period. 

As a solo trombone-player he appeared fre 
quently in the Gewandhaus Concerts, with con 
certos, concertinos, fantasias and variations, 
many of them composed expressly for him by 
C. G. Miiller, F. David, Meyer, Kummer, and 
others ; and the reports of these appearances rarely 
mention him without some term of pride or 
endearment. For fulness, purity and power of 
tone, lightness of lip, and extraordinary facility 
in passages, says his biographer, 1 he surpassed 
all the trombone-players of Germany. There 
was a Leipzig story to the effect that at the first 
rehearsal of the Lobgesang, Queisser led off the 
Introduction as follows : 



-pp. f "^lE 

^-U^ ^ 

to Mendelssohn s infinite amusement. Se non. e 
vei o, e ben trovato. 

Queisser was well-known throughout Germany, 
but appears never to have left his native country. 
He died at Leipzig June 12, 1846. [U.] 

QUICK-STEP (Fr. Pas redouble, Ger. Gesch- 
wind Marscli) is the English name for the music 
of the Quick march in the army, a march in which 
116 steps of 30 inches go to the minute. (See 
Boost s Journal of Marches. Quicksteps, Dances, 
etc.) It may be well to mention that in the 
Slow march there are 75 steps of 30 inches, and 
in the Double 165 of 33 inches. [See MARCH, 
vol. ii. p. 212.] [G.] 

QUILISMA. An antient form of Neuma, 
representing a kind of Shake. [See NOTATION, 
p. 4 68a.] [W.S.E.] 

QUINAULT, PHILIPPE, eminent French dra 
matist, born in Paris 1635, died Nov. 26, 1688, 
may be considered the creator of a new branch 
of the drama, the lyric tragedy. The numerous 
operas which he wrote for Lully long served as 
models to other French dramatic authors, and 
are still worthy of notice for their literary merit, 
and the smoothness and melody of the versifica 
tion. [G.C.] 

QUINTA FALSA (False Fifth). The for 
bidden Interval, between Mi, in the Hexachordon 
durum, and Fa, in the Hexachordon naturale 
the Diminished Fifth of modern Music. [See Mi 

QUINTET (Fr. Quintuor-, Ital. Quintette). A 
composition for five instruments or voices with 
or without accompaniment. 

I. Quintets for strings have been far less written 
than quartets, owing to the greater complexity 
demanded in the polyphony. Boccherini, however, 
published 125, of which 12 only were written for 
2 violins, 2 violas, and I cello, the others having 
2 cellos and i viola. The former is the more 
usual choice of instruments, probably because the 
lower parts are apt to be too heavy sounding 
with two cellos, owing to the greater body of 

1 Allg. muslkalische Zeitung, July 8. 1846. 


tone in this instrument. Schubert s noble Quintet 
in C (op. 163), is for 2 cellos, but the first cello 
is used constantly in its upper octave, soaring 
above the viola. Onslow s 34 in number are 
for a double bass and cello. 

Beethoven s two Quintets, in Eb and C, be 
long to his earlier periods, and have therefore 
none of the extraordinary features of the later 
quartets. Mendelssohn s Quintet in Bb (op. 87), 
is so orchestral as to seem almost a symphony in 
disguise, but that in A (op. 18) is an exquisite 
specimen of what a string quintet should be. 

Many other combinations of five instruments 
have found favour with musicians, mostly in 
cluding a pianoforte. Thus there is Mozart s 
Quintet in Eb for oboe, clarinet, horn, bassoon, 
and piano which the composer esteemed the 
best thing he ever wrote, the beautiful one for 
clarinet and strings, and another for the piquant 
combination of flute, oboe, viola, cello, and 
musical glasses. Perhaps the most effective 
association is that of piano, violin, viola, cello, 
and double bass, as in Schubert s well-known 
Trout Quintet (op. 114). Beethoven s Quintet 
for piano and wind instruments (op. 16), in Eb, 
is a noble representative of a very small class. 
Hummel has also written a well-known one. 

II. In vocal music none who have ever heard 
it can forget the admirable quintet (for 2 soprani, 
contralto, tenor, and bass) which forms the 
finale to Act I of Spohr s Azor and Zemira. 
In modern opera two most striking specimens 
occur in Goetz s Widerspanstige Zahmung, 
and Wagner s Meistersinger. Five-part har 
mony has a peculiarly rich effect, and deserves 
to be more practised than it is, especially in 
oratorio chorus. It is, however, by no means 
easy to write naturally. [F.C.] 

QUINTOYER (Old Eng. Quinible). To sing 
in Fifths a French verb, in frequent use among 
extempore Organizers during the Middle Ages. 

QUINTUS (the Fifth). The Fifth Part in 
a composition for five Voices : called also Pars 
quinta and Quincuplum. In Music of the I5th 
and 1 6th centuries, the Fifth Part always 
corresponded exactly, in compass, with one of 
the other four ; it would, therefore, have been 
impossible to describe it as First or Second 
Cantus, Altus, Tenor, or Bassus. [W.S.R.] 

QUINTUPLE TIME. The rhythm of five 
beats in a bar. As a rule, quintuple time has 
two accents, one on the first beat of the bar, and 
the other on either the third or fourth, the bar 
being thus divided into two unequal parts. On 
this account it can scarcely be considered a dis 
tinct species of rhythm, but rather a compound of 
two ordinary kinds, duple and triple, employed 
alternately. Although of little practical value, 
quintuple time produces an effect sufficiently 
characteristic and interesting to have induced 
various composers to make experiments therein, 
the earliest attempt of any importance being 
probably an air to the words Se la sorte mi 
condanna in the opera of Ariadne by Adolfati, 



written in 1750, and it is also met in some of the 
national airs of Spain, Greece, Germany, etc. 
Thus Reicha, in a note to No. 20 of his set of 36 
fugues (each of which embodies some curious 
experiment in either tonality or rhythm), states 
that in a certain district of the Lower Rhine, 
named Kochersberg, the airs of most of the 
dances have a well-marked rhythm of five beats, 
and he gives as an example the following waltz 


In the above example the second accent falls on 
the third beat, the rhythm being that of 2-8 fol 
lowed by 3-8, and the same order is observed in a 
very charming movement by Hiller, from the Trio 
op. 64, in which the quintuple rhythm is expressed 
by alternate bars of 2-4 and 3-4, as follows 

Non troppo vivo 


In Reicha s fugue above referred to, the reverse 
is the case, the fourth beat receiving the accent, 
as is shown by the composer s own time-signature, 
as well as by his explicit directions as to per 
formance. The following is the subject : 


Other instances of quintuple rhythm are to be 
found in a Trio for strings by K. J. Bischoff, for 
which a prize was awarded by the Deutsche 
Tonhalle in 1853, in Chopin s Sonata in C minor, 
op. 4, in Killer s Rhythmische Studien op. 52, 
etc. ; but perhaps the most characteristic example 
occurs in the Gypsies Glee, by W. Reeve (i 796), 
the last movement of which runs as follows. 

==*=: " 

Come, stain your cheeks with nut or 


ber - ry. 

N > 



Come, stain your cheeks with nut or ber - ry. 

This may fairly be considered an example of 
genuine quintuple rhythm, for instead of the 
usual division of the bar into two parts, such as 
might be expressed by alternate bars of 3-4 and 
2-4, or 2-4 and 3-4, there are five distinct beats 
in every bar, each consisting of an accent and a 
non- accent. This freedom from the ordinary 
alternation of two and three is well expressed by 
the grouping of the accompaniment, which varies 
throughout the movement, after the manner 
shown in the following extract : 



QUIRE. Another mode of spelling CHOIR. [G.] 

QUODLTBET (Lat. What you please ), also 
called QUOTLIBET ( As many as you please ), 
and in Italian MESSANZA or MISTICHANZA ( A 
mixture ). This was a kind of musical joke in 
the 1 6th and early part of the I7th centuries, the 
fun of which consisted in the extempore juxta 
position of different melodies, whether sacred or 
secular, which were incongruous either in their 
musical character, or in the words with which 
they were associated ; sometimes, however, the 
words were the same in all parts, but were sung 
in snatches and scraps, as in the quodlibets of 
Melchior Franck. (See Prsetorius, Syntagma 
Musicum, torn. iii. cap. v.) There were two ways 
of performing this : one was to string the melodies 
together simply and without any attempt at con 
necting them by passages such as those found in 
modern fantasias ; the other, the more elaborate 
method, consisted in singing or playing the melo 
dies simultaneously, the only modifications al 
lowed being those of time. The effect of this, 
unless only very skilful musicians engaged in it, 
must have been very like what we now call a 
Dutch chorus. This pastime was a favourite 
one with the Bachs, at whose annual family 
gatherings the singing of quodlibets was a great 
feature. (See Spitta, J. S. Bach, i. 152, ii. 
654.) Sebastian Bach himself has left us one 
delightful example of a written-down quodlibet, 
at the end of the 30 variations in G- major, 
for a detailed analysis of which see Spitta, ii. 654. 
The two tunes used in it are Ich bin so lang bei 
dir nicht gewest, and Kraut und Ruben, Haben 
mich vertrieben. One of the best modern ex 
amples, although only two themes are used, is in 
Reinecke s variations for two pianos on a gavotte 
of Gluck s, where, in the last variation, he brings 
in simultaneously with the gavotte the well-known 
musette of Bach which occurs in the third Eng 
lish suite. A good instance, and one in which the 


extempore character is retained, is the singing of 
the three tunes Polly Hopkins, Buy a broom, 
and The Merry Swiss Boy, together, which is 
sometimes done for a joke. A very interesting 
specimen of a 16th-century quodlibet by Johann 
Goldel, consisting of five chorale-tunes viz. (i) 
Erhalt uns. Heir bei deinem Wort, (2) Ach 
Gott, vom Himmel, (3) Vater unser im Himmel- 
reich, (4) Wir glauben all, 3 (5) Durch Adam s 
Fall is given as an appendix to Hilgenfeldt s 
Life of Bach. We quote a few bars as an 
example of the ingenuity with which the five 
melodies are brought together : 

au^-j-j.yi M j 

J " 1 " 





1-^ 1 " la J & 

?~ ^^ J 

J b.I 

p* " 







RAAFF, ANTON, one of the most distin 
guished tenors of his day; born 1714 in 
the village of Holzem, near Bonn, and 
educated for the priesthood at the Jesuit College 
at Cologne. There he learned his notes for the 
first time at 20 years old, having previously 
sung by ear. His fine voice so struck the 
Elector Clement Augustus, that he offered to 
have him trained for a singer, and after making 
him sing in an oratorio, took him to Munich, 

where Ferrandini brought him forward in an 
opera. Raaff then determined to devote himself 
entirely to music, and after studying for a short 
time with Bernacchi at Bologna, became one of 
the first tenors of the day. In 1738 he sang at 
Florence on the betrothal of Maria Theresa, and 
followed up this successful de"but at many of the 
Italian theatres. In 1742 he returned to Bonn, 
and sang at several of the German courts, par 
ticularly at Vienna, where he appeared in 


Jomelli s Didone (1749), to Metastasio s great 
satisfaction. In 1752 ne passed through Italy 
to Lisbon, where he was engaged for three years 
on highly advantageous terms. In 1755 he ac 
cepted a summons to Madrid, where he remained 
under Farinelli s direction, enjoying every possible 
mark of favour from the court and public. In 
1759 he accompanied Farinelli to Naples, where 
he afterwards met with Naumann, and where his 
fine singing cured the Princess Belmonte Pigna- 
telli of a profound melancholy into which she 
had fallen on the death of her husband. In 1770 
he returned to Germany and entered the service 
of the elector, Karl Theodor, at Mannheim. In 
1778 he was in Paris with Mozart, and in 17 79 
he followed the court to Munich, where Mozart 
composed the part of Idomeneo for him. Soon 
afterwards he quitted the stage, and took to 
teaching singing, but his pupils left him on 
account of his extreme strictness. Towards the 
close of his life he gave up music entirely, giving 
away his piano and his music, and abandoning 
himself to contemplation. He died in Munich, 
May 27, 1797. RaafF s voice was the finest 
possible tenor, full, pure in tone, and even 
throughout the register, from deep bass to ex 
treme high notes. He was moreover a complete 
master of the art of singing, as is shown by his 
extraordinary power of reading at sight, by the 
skill with which he introduced variations and 
cadenzas, and by his wonderful expression, which 
made his singing seem an accurate reflection of 
his mind and heart. Another admirable quality 
was his pure and distinct pronunciation of the 
words, every syllable being audible in the largest 
space. Mozart in his letters speaks of him as 
his best and dearest friend, especially in one 
from Paris, dated June 12, 1778. He composed 
for him in Mannheim the air, Se al labro mio 
non credi (Kochel 295). [C.F. P.] 

CLASSICHE MUSICALI. A collection of pieces of 
which the full title is as follows : Collection 
ge"ne"rale des ouvrages classiques de musique, ou 
Choix de chefs d oeuvres, en tout genre, des plus 
grands compositeurs de toutes les Ecoles, recu- 
eillis, mis en ordre et enrichis de Notices bis- 
toriques, par Alex. E. Choron, pour servir de 
suite aux Principes de Composition des e"coles 
d ltalie. A notice on the wrapper further 
says that the price of the work to subscribers 
is calculated at the rate of 5 sous per page, thus 
curiously anticipating Mr. Novello s famous re 
duction of his publications to 2\d. per page. The 
numbers were not to be issued periodically, but 
the annual cost to subscribers was fixed at from 
36 to 40 francs. The work was in folio, en 
graved by Gille fils, and published by Leduc & Co., 
Paris, Rue de Richelieu, 78, with agents at Bor 
deaux, Marseilles, Leipzig, Munich, Vienna, Ly on, 
Turin, Milan, Rome and Naples. It was got up 
with great care and taste. The parts are in 
blue-gray wrappers, with an ornamental title. 
The only numbers which the writer has been 
able to discover are as follows : No. I, Miserere 
a 2 core, Leo ; No. 2, Missa ad fugam, Pales- 



trina (a 4) ; No. 3, Stabat, Palestrina (8 voices); 
No. 4, Stabat, Josquin (a 5) ; No. 5, Miserere a 
cinque voci, Joinelli ; No. 6, Missa pro defunctis, 
Jomelli. It is probable that the issue of the 
work did not continue beyond these six pieces. 

For ALFIERI S Raccolta di inusica sacra see 
Appendix. [G.] 

RADICAL CADENCE. A term applied, in 
modern Music, to a Close, either partial or com 
plete, formed of two Fundamental Chords. [See 

Royal Prussian Statthalter of the Grand Duchy 
of Posen, born at Wilna, June 13, 1775, married 
in 1 796 the Princess Luise, sister of that dis 
tinguished amateur Prince Louis Ferdinand of 
Prussia. [See vol. ii. p. 1686.] Radziwil was 
known in Berlin not only as an ardent admirer 
of good music, but as a fine violoncello player, 
and a singer of such taste and ability as is 
very rarely met with amongst amateurs. l Bee 
thoven was the great object of his admiration. 
He played his quartets with devotion, made a 
long journey to Prince Galitzin s on purpose to 
hear the Mass in D, was invited by Beethoven 
to subscribe to the publication of that work, and 
indeed was one of the seven who sent in their 
names in answer to that appeal. To him Bee 
thoven dedicated the Overture in C, op. 115 
(known as Namensfeier ), which was published 
as Grosses Ouverture in C &UT gedichtet etc., by 
Steiner of Vienna in 1.825. 

Further relations between the Prince and the 
composer there must have been, but at present 
we know nothing of them. No letters from Bee 
thoven to him are included in those hitherto pub 
lished, nor has Mr. Thayer yet thrown any light 
on the matter in his biography of the composer. 

Radziwil was not only a player, a singer, 
and a passionate lover of music, he was also a 
composer of no mean order. Whistling s Hand- 
buch (1828) names 3 Romances for voice and 
PF. (Peters), and songs with guitar and cello 
(B. & H.), and Mendel mentions duets with PF. 
accompaniment, a Complaint of Maria Stuart, 
with PF. and cello, and many part-songs com 
posed for Zelter s Liedertafel, of which he was an 
2 enthusiastic supporter, and which are still in MS. 
But these were only preparations for his great 
work, entitled Compositions to Goethe s dramatic 
poem of Faust. This, which was published in 
score and arrangement by Trautwein of Berlin 
in Nov. 1835, contains 25 numbers, occupying 
589 pages. A portion was sung by the Sing- 
akademie as early as May I, 1810 ; the choruses 
were performed in May 1816, three new scenes 
as late as Nov. 21, 1830, and the whole work 
was brought out by that institution after the 
death of the composer, which took place April 
8, 1833. The work was repeatedly performed 
during several years in Berlin, Dantzig, Han 
over, Leipzig, Prague, and many other places, as 
maybe seen from the index to the A.M. Zeitung. 

1 A.M.Z. 1831, July 27. See also 1R09, June 28 ; 1814, Sept. 28. 

2 Zelter s Correspondence with Goethe teems with notices of the 



It curiously made its appearance in a performance 
at Hyde Park College, London, on May 21, 1880, 
under the direction of L. Martin-Eiffe. A length 
ened analysis of it will be found in the A. M. 
Zeitung for 1836, pp. 601, 617; and there is a 
copy in the British Museum. [G.] 

RAFF, JOSEPH JOACHIM, born May 2 7, i822,at 
Lachen on theLake of Zurich. He received his early 
education at Wiesenstetten in Wiirtemberg, in the 
home of his parents, and then at the Jesuit Lyceum 
of Schwyz, where he carried off the first prizes 
in German, Latin, and mathematics^ Want of 
means compelled him to give up his classical 
studies, and become a schoolmaster, but he stuck 
to music, and though unable to afford a teacher, 
made such progress not only with the piano and 
the violin, but also in composition, that Men 
delssohn, to whom he sent some MSS.,gave him in 
1843 a recommendation to Breitkopf & Hartel. 
This introduction seems to have led to his ap 
pearing before the public, and to the first drops 
of that flood of compositions of all sorts and 
dimensions which since 1844 he has poured forth 
in an almost unintermitting stream. Of Opus I 
we have found no critical record ; but op. 2 is 
kindly noticed by the N. Zeitschrift (Schumann s 
paper) for Aug. 5, 1844, the reviewer finding in 
it something which points to a future for the 
composer. Encouraging notices of ops. 2 to 6 
inclusive are also given in the A. M. Zeitung for 
the 2 ist of the same month. Amidst privations 
which would have daunted any one of less deter 
mination he worked steadily on, and at length 
having fallen in with Liszt, was treated by him 
with the kindness which has always marked his 
intercourse with rising or struggling talent, and 
was taken by him on a concert-tour. Meeting 
Mendelssohn for the first time at Cologne in 
1846, and being afterwards invited by him to 
become his pupil at Leipzig he left Liszt for that 
purpose. Before he could carry this project into 
effect, however, Mendelssohn died, and Raff re 
mained at Cologne, occupying himself inter alia 
in writing critiques for Dehn s Cacilia. Later 
he published Die Wagneifrage/ a pamphlet 
which excited considerable attention. Lizst s 
endeavours to secure him a patron in Vienna 
in the person of Mechetti the publisher, were 
frustrated by Mechetti s death while Raff was 
actually on the way to see him. Undismayed 
by these repeated obstacles he devoted himself 
to a severe course of study, partly at home and 
partly at Stuttgart, with the view to remedy the 
deficiencies of his early training. At Stuttgart 
he made the acquaintance of Bu low, who be 
came deeply interested in him, and did him a 
great service by taking up his new Concertstiick, 
for PF. and orchestra, and playing it in public. 

By degrees Raff attached himself more and 
more closely to the new German school, and in 
1850 went to Wtitnar to be near Liszt, who had 
at that time abandoned his career as a virtuoso 
and was settled there. Here he remodelled an 
opera Konig Alfred, which he had composed 
in Stuttgart three years before, and it was pro 
duced at the Court Theatre, where it is still 


often performed. It has also been given else 
where. Other works followed a collection of 
PF. pieces called Fruhlingsboten in 1852, 
the first string quartet in 1855, and the first 
grand sonata for PF. and violin (E minor) in 
1857. In the meantime he had engaged himself 
to Doris Genast, daughter of the well known actor 
and manager, and herself on the stage ; and in 
1856 he followed her to Wiesbaden, where he 
was soon in great request as a pianoforte teacher. 
In 1858 he composed his second violin-sonata, 
and the incidental music for Bernhard von Wei 
mar, a drama by Wilhelm Genast, the overture 
to which speedily became a favourite, and was 
much played throughout Germany. In 1859 he 
married. In 1863 his first symphony An das 
Vaterland obtained the prize offered by the 
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna (out 
of 32 competitors), and was followed by the 2nd 
(in C) and the 3rd (in F, Im Walde ) in 1869, 
the 4th (in G minor) in 1871, the 5th ( Lenore ) 
in 1872, the 6th ( Gelebt, gestrebt, gelitten, ge- 
stritten, gestorben, umworben ) in 1876, and the 
7th ( Alpensinfonie ) in 1877, the 8th ( Friih- 
lingsklange ) in 1878, and the Qth Im Sommer- 
zeit in 1 880. A loth ( Zur Herbstzeit ) was lately 
played at Wiesbaden. In 1870 his comic opera 
Dame Kobold was produced at Weimar. A 
serious opera in 5 acts entitled Samson, for which 
he himself wrote the libretto, has not yet been 
performed in public. Two cantatas, Wachet auf 
and another written for the Festival in com 
memoration of the battle of Leipzig, were his 
first works for men s voices, and are popular with 
the choral societies. His arrangement of Bach s 
6 violin sonatas for PF. is a work of great merit. 
Detailed analyses of the first six of these Sym 
phonies will be found in the Monthly Musical 
Record for 1875, and from these a very good 
idea of the composer s style may be gathered. 
Remembering his struggles and hard life it is 
only a matter for wonder that he should have 
striven so earnestly and so long in a path that 
was not his natural walk. A glance at the 
nearly complete list of his works at the foot of 
this notice will explain our meaning. The enor 
mous mass of drawing-room music tells its own 
tale. Raff had to live, and having by nature a 
remarkable gift of melody and perhaps not much 
artistic refinement, he wrote what would pay. 
But on looking at his works in the higher branch 
of music his symphonies, concertos, and chamber 
music one cannot but be struck by the conscien 
tious striving towards a very high ideal. In the 
whole of his nine published Symphonies the slow 
movements, without a single exception, are of 
extreme melodic beauty, although weak from a 
symphonic point of view : the first movements 
are invariably worked out with surprising tech 
nical skill, the subjects appearing frequently in 
double counterpoint and in every kind of canon. 
And however modern and common his themes 
may appear, they have often been built up with 
the greatest care, note by note, to this end; 
showing that he does not, as is often said, put 
down the first thing that comes into his mind. 


Observe the following treatment of the first sub 
ject in his ist Symphony An das Vaterland : 











a canon in augmentation and double augmenta 
tion. Such instances as this are numerous, and 
the art with which these contrapuntal devices 
are made to appear spontaneous is consummate. 
In the Pianoforte Concerto in C minor (op. 185), 
in each movement all the subjects are in double 
counterpoint with one another, yet this is one of 
Raff s freshest and most melodious works. To 
return to the Symphonies: the Scherzos are, as 
a rule, weak, and the Finales without exception 
boisterous and indeed vulgar. Writing here, as 
ever, for an uneducated public, Raff has for 
gotten that for a symphony to descend from a 
high tone is for it to be unworthy of the name. 

A remarkable set of 30 Songs (Sanges-Friihling, 
op. 98) deserves notice for its wealth of fine 
melodies, some of which have become national 
property ( Kein Sorg um den Weg ; Schon* 
Else, etc.) ; and among his pianoforte music is a 
set of 20 Variations on an original theme (op. 1 79) 
which displays an astonishing fertility of resource, 
the theme of an almost impossible rhythm of 
5 and 7 quavers in the bar being built up into 
canons and scherzos of great variety and elegance. 

Raff s Pianoforte Concerto is very popular, 
and his Suite for Violin and Orchestra (op. 180) 
only little less so. His versatility need not be 
enlarged upon. In all the forms of musical com 
position he has shown the same brilliant qualities 
and the same regretable shortcomings. His gift 
of melody, his technical skill, his inexhaustible 
fertility, and above all his power of never repeat 
ing himself all these are beyond praise. But 
his very fertility is a misfortune, since it renders 
him careless in the choice of his subjects ; writing 
pot-boilers has injured the development of a 
delicate feeling for what is lofty and refined : in 
short, he stands far before all second-rate com 
posers, yet the conscientious critic hesitates to 
allow him a place in the front rank of all. 

Even those who have least sympathy with 


Raffs views on art must admire the energy and 
spirit with which he has worked his way upwards 
in spite of every obstacle poverty could throw 
in his way. He is a member of several societies, 
and has received various orders. In 1877 he was 
appointed with much e*clat director of the Hoch- 
conservatoire at Frankfort, a post he still retains. 
The first of his large works performed in this 
country was probably the Lenore Symphony at 
the Crystal Palace, Nov. 14, 1874. This was 
followed by the ( Im Walde, and the PF. Concerto 
in C minor (Jaell), at the Philharmonic ; the 
Symphonies in G minor, Im Walde, Fruhlings- 
klange and Im Sommerzeit, with the Concertos 
for cello and violin, and the Suite for PF. and 
orchestra, at the Crystal Palace. His Quintet 
(op. 107), 2 Trios (op. 102, 112), Sonata (op. 128), 
and other pieces, have been played at the Monday 
Popular Concerts. [F.G.] 

Catalogue of Raff s works. 1 


















Serenade. PP. solo. Andre. 
Trois pieces caracterist- 

iques. PF. solo. B. & H.2 
Scherzo (0 minor). PF.solo. 

B. &H. 
Morceau de Salon . . . sur 

Maria de Kudenz. PF. 

solo. B. & H. 
4 Galops. PF. solo. B.&H. 
Morceau inst. Fantaisio et 

Varns. PF. solo. B. & H. 
Kondeau sur Io son ricco. 

PF. solo. B. & H. 
12 Komances en form d E- 

tudes; en 2 Cahiers. PF. 

solo. B. &, H. 
Impromptu brillant. PF. 

solo. B. & H. 
Hommage au N6oromant- 

isme, Grand Caprice. PF. 

solo. B. tc H. 
Air suisse, transcrit. PF. 

solo. B. & H. 
Morceau de Salon. Fant. 

gracieuse. PF. solo. B. & H . 
Valse. Eondino sur les 

Huguenots. PF. duet. 

B. &H. 
Sonata & Fugue (Eb minor). 

PF. solo. B. & H. 
6 Poemes. PF. solo. Schott. 
Rondeau on Saloman s Dia- 

mantkreuz. PF. 
Album Lyrique. PF. solo. 

Schuberth (4 books con 
taining 9 pieces). 
Paraphrases (2). PF. solo. 

Fantaisie dramatique. PF. 

solo. Litolff. 

2 Morceaux de Salon. Sere 
nade italienne ; Air Bhe- 

nan. PF. solo. Litolff. 
Eoreley, Dichtung ohne 

Worte. PF. solo. Spina. 

2 Bhapsodies ele giaques. 
PF. solo. Spina. 

3 Pieces caracteristlques. 
PF. solo. Kistner. 

Valse me lancolique. PF. 

solo. Spina. 
Eomance-e tude. PF- solo. 

Den Manen Scarlattis. 

Scherzo. PF. solo. Spina. 
Angelens letzter Tag im 

Kloster. Bin Cyclus etc. (12 

pieces in 2 books). PF. solo. 


6 Llederubertragen. PF.solo. 














Am Bhein, Bomanze. 
solo. Spina. 


Capriccietto (on motifs from 
Freischiitz ). PF. solo. 

Fantaisie Militaire (on mo 
tifs from Huguenots ). 
PF. solo. Schuberth. 

Melange (on motifs from 
Sonnambula ). PF. solo. 

Grand Mazourka. PF. solo. 

Nocturne (on romance by 
Liszt). PF. solo. Kistner. 

Capriccietto a la Boh^mi- 
enne. PF. solo. Kistner. 

Bomance. PF. solo. Kistner. 

LePretendant . . deKtick- 
en (3 Nos.). PF. solo. 

Divertissement sur La 
Juive. PF.solo. Schubertli. 

Fantasina sur Le Barbier 
de Seville. PF. solo. Schu 

Sou veni r de Don Giovanni. 
PF. solo. Schuberth. 

La derniere Bose (The 
last rose of summer). Im 
promptu. PF. solo. Cranz. 

S Lieder (by J . G.Fischer) for 
Bar. or Alto and PF. Senff. 

2 Lieder for Voice and PF. 

3 Lieder (by J. G. Fischer) 
for Voice and PF. Hein- 

2 Italienische Lieder (by 
Sternau) for Voice and PF. 

5 Lieder for Voice and PF. 

3 Lieder for Voice and PF. 

2 Lieder vom Ehein forVoice 
and PF. Schloss. 

Tanz-capricen (4). PF. solo. 

Friihlingsboten 12 short 
pieces for PF. solo. Schu 

3 Salon Stilcke. PF. solo. 

Aus der Schweiz. Fantas- 

tische Egloge. Bachmann. 
2Nocturnes. PF. and Violin. 

Duo in A. PF. and Cello. 

Schweizerweisen (9 Nos.). 

PF. solo. Schuberth. 

1 The Editor desires to express his obligations to Messrs. Augener ft 
Co. for great assistance kindly rendered him in the difficult task of 
drawing up this list. 2 B. & H.=Breitkopt & Hartel. 





Op. 61. No. 1. Wagner s Lohen 
grin, Lyrische Fragments. 
PF. solo. No. 2. Do. Tann- 
hauser, Fantasie. PF. solo. 
No. 3. Do. Fliegende Hol 
lander, Beminiscenzen. 
PF. solo. No. 4. Schu 
mann s Genoveva. PF. 
solo. Schuherth. 

62. Salon -Etuden from Wag 

ner s operas. PF. solo. 
Schlesinger. No. 1. An 
dante from Fliegende 
Hollander. No. 2. Sestet 
from Tannhftuser. No.3. 
Lohengrin s farewell. 

63. Duos on motifs from Wag 

ner s operas. PF. and V. 
Siegel. No. 1. Fliegende 
Hollander. No. 2. Tann- 
hftuser. No. 3. Lohen 

64. Capricclo in F minor. PF. 

solo. Leuckart. 

65. No. 1. Fantaisie on motifs 

from Berlioz s Benvenuto 
Cellini. PF. solo. No. 2. 
Caprice on motjfs from 
Baff s Alfred. PF. solo. 

66. Traum - KOnig und sein 

Lieb (Geibel). Voice and 
PF. Schott. 

67. La Feted Amour Morceau 

caracteristique pour Vio 
lin de Concert avec PF. 

68. 5Transcriptions(Beethoven, 

Gluck, Mozart, Schumann 
Spohr). PF. solo. Peters 

69. *uite. PF. solo. Korner. 

70. 2 Paraphrases de Salon (Tro- 

vatore, Traviata). PF. solo 

71. Suite in C. PF.solo. Kuhn 

72. Suite in E minor. PF. solo 


73. 1st Grand Sonata. PF. and 

V. (E minor). Schuberth. 

74. 3 Clavier solos (Ballade 

Scherzo, Metamorphosen) 
PF. Schuberth. 

75. Suite de(12) Morceaux pour 

les petites mains. PF. solo 

76. OdeauPrintemps. Morceau 

de Concert. PF. and Orch 

77. Quatuor (No.l) in D minor 

for Strings. Schuberth: 

78. 2nd Grand Sonata for PF 

and V. (in A). Schuberth 

79. Cachoucha, Caprice. PF 

solo. Peters. 

80. Wachetauf (Geibel). Men ; 

voices, Solo Chorus, am 
Orchestra. Schott. 

81. No. 1. Sicilienne de 1 Opera 

des Vepres Siciliennes. 
No. 2. Tarantelle de ditto 
PF.solo. Peters. 

82. Suite de (12) Morceaux pou 

les petites mains. PF 
duets. Schuberth. 

83. Mazourka-Caprice. PF.solo 


84. Chant de 1 Ondin, Grand 

Etude de 1 Arpeggio tremo 
lando. PF. solo. Peters 

85. 6 Morceaux. PF. and V 


86. 2Fantaisiestucke, PF. an 

Cello. B.B.1 

87. Introduction and Allo scher 

zoso. PF. solo. B. B. 

88. Am Giessbach, Etude. PF 

solo. B. B. 

89. Vilanella. PF. solo. B. B 

90. Quartet, No. 2, in A, fo 

Strings. Schuberth. 

91. Suite in D. PF.solo. Peter 

92. Capriccio in D minor. PF 

solo. Peters. 

93. Dans la nacelle, Beverie- 

Barcarolle.PF.solo. Peter 

94. Impromptu Valse. PF. solo 


95. La Polka de la Eeine, 

Caprice. PF.solo. Peters. 

96. An das Vaterland. Prize 

Symphony (No. 1). Schu 

97. 10 Lieder for Male Voices. 


98. Sanges-Fruhling. 30 Eo- 

manzen, Lieder, Balladen, 
and GesSnge, for Sopr. and 
PF. Schuberth. 

99. 3 Sonatilles (A minor ; G ; 

C). PF. solo. Schuberth. 

100. Deutschlands Auferste- 

hung. Fest Cantate on the 
50th anniversary of the 
Battle of Leipzig, for Male 
Voices and Orch. Kahnt. 

101. Suite for Orchestra. Schott. 

102. 1st Grand Trio, for PF., V. 

and Cello. Schuberth. 

103. Jubilee Overture, for Or 

chestra. Kahnt. 

104. Le Galop, Caprice. PF. 

solo. Peters. 

105. 5Eglogues. PF.solo. Peters. 

106. Fantaisie - Polonaise. PF. 

solo. Peters. 

107. Grand Quintuor (A minor). 

PF., 2 W. Viola and Cello. 

108. Saltarello. PF. solo. B. B. 

109. Be verie-Nocturne. PF. solo. 


110. La Gitana, Danse Espagn. 

Caprice. PF. solo. B. B. 

111. Boleros and Valse, 2 Ca 

prices. PF. solo. Schu 

112. 2nd Grand Trio (in G). PF. 

V. and Cello. B. B. 

113. Ungarische Bhapsodie. PF. 

solo. Forberg. 

114. 12 Songs for 2 Voices and 

PF. Forberg. 

115. 2 Morceaux lyriques. PF. 

solo. Forberg. 

116. Valse Caprice. PF. solo. 


117. Festival Overture (In A), for 

Orchestra. Kistner. 

118. Valse favorite. PF. solo. 


119. Fantasie. PF. solo. Kistner. 

121. Illustrations de L Afri- 

caine (4 Nos.). PF. sol 
B.B. 2 

122. 10 Songs for Men s Voices. 


123. Concert - Overture (in F). 


124. Festival-Overture on 4 fa 

vourite Student-songs, for 
the 50th anniversary of 
the Deutschen Burschen- 
schaft. PF. 4 hands. Prae- 

125. Gavotte; Berceuse; Espiegle; 

Valse. PF. solo. Siegel. 

126. 3 Clavierstiicke Menuet, 

Bomance, Capriccietto.PF. 
solo. Praeger. 

127. Ein feste Burg, overture 

to a drama on the 30-years 
war. Orchestra. Hofmeis- 

128. 3rd Grand Sonata. PF. and 

V. (in D). Schuberth. 

129. 4th Grand Sonata. PF. and 

V. Ohrom. Sonate in i- 
nem Satze. (G minor). 

130. 2 Etudes miSlodiques. PF. 

solo. Schuberth. 

131. Styrienne. PF. solo. Hof- 


132. Marche brillante. PF. solo. 


133. Ele"gie. PF. solo. Hofmeis 


134. Vom Bhein, 6 Fantasie- 

stiicke. PF. solo. Kistner. 

135. Blatter und Bliithen, 12 

pieces for PF.solo. Kahnt. 

136. 3rd String quartet (E minor) 



E. B.=Bieter-Biedennann & Co. 

B. B.=Bote & Bock. 

137. 4th String quartet (A 

minor). Schuberth. 

138. 5th String quartet (G). 


139. Festmarsch. PF. solo. 


140. 2nd Symphony (In C) for 

Orchestra. Schott. 

141. Psalm 130 ( De Profundis ) 

8 voices and Orch. Schu 

142. Fantaisie (Fjf). PF. solo. 


143. Barcarolle (Eb). PF. solo. 


144. Tarantella (C). PF. solo. 


145. 5thGrand Sonata. PF.andV. 

(C minor). Schuberth. 

146. Capriccio (Bb minor). PF. 

solo. B.B. 

147. 2 Meditations. PF. solo. 


148. Scherzo in Eb. PF. solo. 


149. 2 Elegies for PF. solo. B. B. 

150. Chaconne ( A minor). 2PFs. 


151. Allegro agitato. PF. solo. 


152. 2 Bomances. PF. solo. B.B. 

153. 3rd Symphony. Im Walde 

(F). Orchestra. Kistner 

154. Dame Kobold, Comic 

opera. B. B. 

155. 3rd Grand Trio. PF. V. and 

Cello. B.B. 

156. Valse brillante (Eb). PF. 

solo. Bies. 

157. Cavatine (Ab) and Etude 

La Fileuse. PF. solo. 

158. 4th Grand Trio (D). PF 

V. and Cello. Seitz. 

159. 1st Humoreske (D) in Waltz 

form. PF. duet. B.B. 

160. Beisebilder (10 Nos.). PF 

duet. Siegel. 

161. Concerto for Violin & Orch 

(B minor). Siegel. 

162. Suite in G minor. PF. solo 


163. Suite in G major. PF. solo 


164. Sicilienne, Bomanze, Tar 

antelle. PF. solo. B. B. 

165. La Cicerenella, Nouveau 

Carnaval. PF.solo. Siegel 

166. Idylle; Valse champetre 

PF. solo. Seitz. 

167. 4th Symphony (G minor) 

Orchestra. Schuberth. 

168. Fantaisie-Sonate (D minor) 

PF. solo. Siegel. 

169. Eomanze ; Valse brillante 

PF. solo. Siegel. 

170. La Polka glissante, Caprice 

PF. solo. Siegel. 

171. Im Kahn and Der Tanz 

2 songs for Mixed Choi 
and Orchestra. Siegel. 

172. Maria Stuart, ein Cyclu 

von Gesangen for Voic 
and PF. (11 Nos.) Siegel 

173. 8 Gesange for Voice & PF 


174. Aus dem Tanzsalon, Phan 

tasie Stiicke (12 Nos.). PF 
4 hands. Seitz. 

175. Orientales, 8 Morceaux 

PF. solo. Forberg. 

176. Octet for strings (C). Seitz 

177. 5th Symphony Lenore 

Orch. Seitz. 

178. Sestet. 2 VV., 2 Violas, 

Cellos. Seitz. 

179. Variations on an origina 

theme. PF. solo. Seitz. 

180. Suite for Solo V. and Orch 


181. 2nd Humoreske in Walt 

form, Todtentanz (Dans 
macabre). PF.duet. Siege 

182. 2 Bomances for Horn (o 

Cello) and PF. Siegel. 

183. Sonata for PF. and Cellc 


184. Six songs for 3 women 

voices and PF. Siegel. 

185. Concerto. PF. and Orch. (C 
minor). Siegel. 

186a. Morgenlied.for mixed choir 
and Orch. Siegel. 

1866. Einer entschlai enen. So 
prano solo, Chor. and Orch. 

187. Erinnerung an Venedig (6 
Nos.). PF. solo. Siegel. 


189. 6th Symphony (D minor) 

Gelebt, gestrebt, gelitten, 
gestritten, gestorben, um- 
worben. Orch. B.B. 

190. Feux follets, Caprice-etude. 

PF. solo. Siegel. 

192. 3 String Quartets. No. 6. (C 

minor) Suite alterer Form. 
No. 7. (D) Die schong 
Mullerin. No. 8. (C) Suits 
in Canon-form. Kahnt. 

193. Concerto (D minor). Cello 

and Orch. Siegel. 

194. 2nd Suite in Ungarischer 

Weise (F). Orch. Bahn. 

195. 10 GesSnge for men s voices. 


196. Etude am Schilf ; Ber 

ceuse ; Novelette ; Im 
promptu. PF. solo. Seitz. 

197. Capriccio (Db). PF. solo. 


198. 10 Gesange for mixed choir. 


199. 2 Scenes for Solo Voice and 

Orch. jager-braut and 
Die Hirtin. Siegel. 

200. Suite in Eb for PF. and 

Orch. Siegel. 

201. 7th Symphony, In the Alps 

(Bb). Orch. Seitz. 

202. 2 Quartets for PF. V. Va. 

and Cello (G). Siegel. 

203. Volker. cyclischeTondich- 

tung (9 Nos.). V. and PF. 

204. Suite (Bb). Orch. Challier. 

205. 8th Symphony Fruhlings- 

kiange (A). Orch. Siegel. 

206. 2nd Concerto for V. and 

Orch. (A minor). Siegel. 
207a. Phantasie (G minor). 2PF. 

2076. The same arranged for PF. 

and Strings. Siegel. 
208. 9th Symphony (E minor). 

ImSommer. Orch. Sie- 


211. Blondel de Nesle, Cyclus 

von GesSngen, Barit. &PF. 
B. &H. 

212. 10th Symphony. Zur 


Works without Opus-number. 

Valse-rondino on motifs from 
Saloman s Diamantkreuz. 

Beminiscences of the Meister- 
singer (4 Pts.). Schott. 

Valse-impromptu a la Tyrol- 
ienne. Schott. 

Abendlied by Schumann. Con 
cert-paraphrase. Schuberth. 

Berceuse on an Idea of Gounod s. 

Improvisation on Damrosch s 
Lied Der Lindenzweig. Lich- 

Valse de Juliette (Gounod). 

4 Capriccios on Wallachian (2) 
and Servian (2) themes. Siegel. 

Introduction and Fugue for Or 
gan (E minor). B. B. 

Baff-Album containing Op.156; 
157, Nos. 1, 2 : 166, No. 2 ; 196, 
Nos. 11 ; 197. Seitz. 

Oper im Salon containing Op. 
35-37, 4315, 61, 65. Schu 

Fruhlings-Lied. Mez. Sop. and 
PF. Schott. 

Standchen for Voice and PF. 


EAIMONDI, PIETRO, an Italian composer, 
Maestro di Capella at St. Peter s, who is charac 
terised by Fe"tis as possessing an extraordinary 
genius for musical combination. He was born 
at Rome of poor parents, Dec. 20, 1786. At 
an early age he passed six years in the Con- 
servatorio of the Pietk de Turchini at Naples, 
and after many wanderings, mostly on foot 
from Naples to Rome, from Rome to Florence, 
from Florence to Genoa and many years, he at 
length found an opportunity of coming before 
the public with an opera entitled Le Bizarrie 
d Amore, which was performed at Genoa in 1807. 
After three years there, each producing its opera, 
he passed a twelvemonth at Florence, and brought 
out two more. The next 25 years were spent 
between Rome* Milan, Naples, and Sicily, and 
each year had its full complement of operas 
and ballets. In 1824 he became director of the 
royal theatres at Naples, a position which he 
retained till 1832. In that year the brilliant 
success of his opera buffa II Ventaglio (Na 
ples, 1831) procured him the post of Professor of 
Composition in the Conservatorio at Palermo. 
Here he was much esteemed, and trained several 
promising pupils. In March 1850 he was called 
upon to succeed Basil! as Maestro di Capella 
at St. Peter s ; a post for which, if knowledge, 
experience, and ceaseless labour of production 
in all departments of his art could qualify him, 
he was amply fitted. Shortly before this, in 1848, 
he had after four years of toil completed three 
oratorios, Potiphar, Pharaoh, and Jacob, 
which were not only designed to be performed in 
the usual manner, but to be played all three in 
combination as one work, under the name of 
Joseph. On Aug. 7, 1852, the new Maestro 
brought out this stupendous work at the Teatro 
Argentini. The success of the three single oratorios 
was moderate, but when they were united the 
three orchestras and the three troupes forming an 
ensemble of nearly 400 musicians, the excitement 
and applause of the spectators knewno bounds, and 
so great was his emotion that Raimondi fainted 
away. He did not long survive this triumph, 
but died at Rome Oct. 30, 1853. 

The list of his works is astonishing, and all the 
more so when we recollect that Raimondi s exist 
ence was all but unknown on this side of the 
Alps. It embraces 55 operas ; 21 grand ballets, 
composed for San Carlo between 1812 and 1828 ; 
7 oratorios ; 4 masses with full orchestra ; 2 ditto 
with 2 choirs h. capella; 2 requiems with full 
orchestra; i ditto for 8 and 16 voices; a Credo 
for 1 6 voices; the whole Book of Psalms, a la 
Palestrina, for 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 voices ; many Te 
Deums, Stabats, Misereres, Tantum ergos, psalms 
and litanies ; two books of 90 partimenti, each 
on a separate bass, with three different accom 
paniments ; a collection of figured basses with 
fugued accompaniments as a school of accom 
paniment ; 4 fugues for 4 voices, each indepen 
dent but capable of being united and sung 
together ; 6 fugues for 4 voices capable of com 
bination into I fugue for 24 voices ; a fugue for 
1 6 choirs j 16 fugues for 4 voices; 24 fugues for 



4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 voices, of which 4 and 5 separate 
fugues will combine into one. Besides the above 
feat with the 3 oratorios he composed an opera 
seria and an opera buffa which went equally well 
separately and in combination. Such stupendous 
labours are, as M. Fe"tis well remarks, enough to 
give the reader the headache : what must they 
have done to the persevering artist who accom 
plished them ? But they also give one the heart 
ache at the thought of their utter futility. 
Raimondi s compositions, with all their ingenuity, 
belong to a past age, and we may safely say that 
they will never be revived. His operas especially 
belong to the prae-Rossinian epoch, and it would 
have been good for them if they had never been 
made. [G. ] 

1814, studied singing under George Perry and 
T. Cooke, and acting under Mrs. Davison, the 
eminent comedian. After having fledged her 
wings at minor concerts, she appeared upon the 
stage at the St. James s Theatre, Oct. 27, 1836, 
as Mandane, in Arne s Artaxerxes, with com 
plete success. She performed there for the re 
mainder of the season, and then removed to the 
English Opera House. Subsequently to her public 
appearance she took lessons from Crivelli. In 
1837 she sang in oratorio at the Sacred Harmonic 
Society, and continued to do so for several years. 
She made the first of many appearances at the 
Philharmonic, March 18, 1839. In 1840 she was 
introduced at the Concert of Ancient Music, and 
in 1843 sang at the Birmingham Festival. After 
performing at Covent Garden from 1838 to 1843 
she transferred her services to Drury Lane, where 
she made a great hit by her performance of 
Arline, in Balfe s Bohemian Girl, on its pro 
duction, Nov. 27, 1843. In 1844 she had a most 
successful season in Dublin. She was engaged as 
prima donna at the Worcester Festival of 1845. 
She continued to perform in the metropolis until 
about 1852, when she removed to Edinburgh, 
where she remained until about 1856. She then 
quitted public life, and in 1858 went to reside 
at Old Windsor, under the wing of her friend 
Miss Thackeray, and taught music in Windsor and 
its neighbourhood until her complete retirement 
in March 1871, when she removed to her father s 
at Bristol. Her voice was a high soprano, even 
and sweet in quality, but deficient in power, and 
she possessed great judgment and much dramatic 
feeling. Although her limited power prevented 
her from becoming a great singer, her attain 
ments were such as enabled her to fill the first 
place with credit to herself, and satisfaction to 
her auditors. She died at Redland, Bristol, 
Sept. 22, 1877. [W.H.H.] 

TENENTE, RITENUTO Becoming slow 
again, Slackening, Holding back, Held back. 
The first two of these words are used quite in 
differently to express a gradual diminution of the 
rate of speed in a composition, and although the 
last is commonly used in exactly the same way, 
it seems originallv and in a strict sense to have 




meant a uniform rate of slower time, so that the 
whole passage marked ritenuto would be taken at 
the same time, while each bar and each phrase in 
a passage marked rallentando would be a little 
slower than the one before it. That there exists 
a difference in their uses is conclusively proved 
by a passage in the Quartet op. 131 of Beethoven, 
where in the 7th movement (allegro) a phrase of 
three recurring minims, which is repeated in all 
five times, has the direction Espressivo, poco ri 
tenuto for its first three appearances, which are 
separated by two bars a tempo, and for the last 
two times has ritardando, which at length leads 
into the real a tempo, of which the former separ 
ating fragments were but a presage. This is one 
of the very rare instances of the use of the word 
ritenuto by Beethoven. The conclusion from it 
is confirmed by a passage in Chopin s Rondo, 
op. 16, consisting of the four bars which im 
mediately precede the entry of the second subject. 
Here the first two bars consist of a fragment 
of a preceding figure which is repeated, so that 
both these bars are exactly the same ; the last 
two bars however have a little chromatic cadence 
leading into the second subject. The direction 
over the first two bars is poco ritenuto and over 
the last two rallentando, by which we may be 
quite sure that the composer intended the repeated 
fragment to be played at the same speed in each 
bar, and the chromatic cadence to be slackened 

Ritenente is used by Beethoven in the PF. 
Sonata, op. no, about the middle of the first 
movement, and again in the Sonata, op. in, 
in the first movement, in the seventh and fif 
teenth bars from the beginning of the Allegro 
con brio. It would seem that the same effect 
is intended as if ritenuto were employed ; in 
each case, the words meno mosso might have 
been used. Beethoven prefers Ritardando to 
Rallentando, which latter is common only in his 
earlier works. [J.A.F.M.] 

RAMANN, LINA, musical litterateur and 
educationist, was born at Mainstockheim, near 
Kitzingen, in Bavaria, June 24, 1833. Her turn 
for music and her determination to succeed were 
evident from a very early age. It was not, how 
ever, till her seventeenth year that she had any 
instruction in music. At that time her parents 
removed to Leipzig, and from 1850 to 1853 she 
there enjoyed the advantage of pianoforte lessons 
from the wife of Dr. F. Brendel, herself formerly 
a scholar of Field s. From this period she adopted 
the career of a teacher of music, and studied 
assiduously, though without help, for that end. 

In 1858 she opened an institute in Gluckstadt 
(Holstein) for the special training of rnusic- 
mistresses, and maintained it till 1865, in which 
year she founded a more important establish 
ment, the Music School at Niirnberg, in con 
junction with Frau Ida Volkmann of Tilsit, and 
assisted by a staff of superior teachers, under 
MissRamann s own superintendence. With a view 
to the special object of her life she has published 
two works Die Musik als Gegenstand der 
Erziehung (Leipzig, Merseburger, 1868), and 


Allgemeine Erzieh- und Unterrichts-lehre der 
Jugend (Leipzig, H. Schmidt, 1869; 2nd ed. 
1873), which were both received with favour by 
the German Press. Since 1860 Miss Ramann 
has been musical correspondent of the Hamburg 
Jahreszeiten. A volume of her essays con 
tributed to that paper has been collected and 
published, under the title of Aus der Gegenwart 
(Niirnberg, Schmid, 1868). In the early part of 
1880 she published a study of Liszt s Christus 
(Leipzig, Kahnt), and later in the year the first 
volume of a Life of Liszt (1811-1840; Leipzig, 
Breitkopf & Hartel). This is an important work. 
It suffers somewhat from over- enthusiasm, but it 
is done with great care, minuteness, and intelli 
gence, and has obviously profited largely by direct 
information from Liszt himself. Her cousin, 

BRUNO RAMANN, was born about 1830 at Er 
furt, and was brought up to commerce, but his 
desire and talent for music were so strong, that 
in 1857 or 58 he succeeded in getting rid of his 
business and put himself under Dr. F. Brendel 
and Riedel, for regular instruction. He then for 
five years studied under Hauptmann at Leipzig, 
and is now a resident teacher and composer at 
Dresden. His works have reached beyond op. 50, 
but they consist almost entirely of songs for one 
or more voices, and of small and apparently senti 
mental pieces for the pianoforte. He does not appear 
yet to have attempted any large composition. [G.] 

RAME AU, JEAN PHILIPPE, eminent composer, 
and writer on the theory of music, born at Dijon, 
Sept. 25, 1683, in the house now No. 5 Rue St. 
Michel. His father, 1 Jean, was a musician, 
and organist of Dijon cathedral, in easy circum 
stances. He intended Jean Philippe, the eldest 
of his three sons, to be a magistrate, but 
his strong vocation for music and obstinacy of 
character frustrated these views. According to 
his biographers he played the clavecin at seven, 
and read at sight any piece of music put before 
him : music indeed absorbed him to such an 
extent when at the Jesuit College that he neg 
lected his classical studies, and was altogether 
so refractory that his parents were requested to 
remove him. Henceforth he never opened a 
book, unless it were a musical treatise. He 
quickly mastered the clavecin, and studied the 
organ and violin with success, but there was no 
master in Dijon capable of teaching him to write 
music, and he was left to discover for himself 
the laws of harmony and composition. 

At the age of 1 7 he fell in love with a young 
widow in the neighbourhood, who indirectly did 
him good service, since the shame which he felt 
at the bad spelling of his letters drove him to write 
correctly. To break off this acquaintance his 
father sent him, in 1701, to Italy, where how 
ever he did not remain long, a mistake which, 
in after life, he regretted. He liked Milan, and 
indeed the attractions of so great a centre of 
music must have been great ; but for some un 
known reason he soon left with a theatrical 
manager whom he accompanied as first violin 
to Marseilles, Lyons, Nimes, Montpellier, and 

i His mother s name was Claudine Demartindcourt. 


other places in the south of France. How long 
the tour lasted it is impossible to ascertain, as 
no letters belonging to this period are to be 
found. From his Premier Livre de pieces de 
clavecin (Paris, 1706) we learn that he was 
then living in Paris, at a wig-maker s in the 
Vieille Rue du Temple, as Haydn did at Keller s, 
though without the disastrous results which fol 
lowed that connexion. Meantime he was organist 
of the Jesuit convent in the Rue St. Jacques, and 
of the chapel of the Peres de la Merci. No 
particulars, however, of the length of his stay 
in Paris are known, nor how he occupied the 
interval between this first visit and his return 
about 1717- I n that year a competition took 
place for the post of organist of the church of 
St. Paul, and Rameau was among the candidates. 
Marchand, then at the head of the organists in 
Paris, was naturally one of the examiners ; and 
either from fear of being outshone by one whom he 
had formerly patronised, or for some other reason, 
he used his whole influence in favour of Daquin, 
who obtained the post. Mortified at the unjust 
preference thus shown to a man in all points his 
inferior, Rameau again left Paris for Lille, and 
became for a short time organist of St. Etienne. 
Thence he went to Clermont in Auvergne, where 
his brother Claude * resigned the post of organist 
of the cathedral in his favour. In this secluded 
mountain town, with a harsh climate predis 
posing to indoor life, he had plenty of time for 
thought and study. The defects of his education 
drove him to find out everything for himself. 
From the works of Descartes, Mersenne, Zarlino, 
and Kircher he gained some general knowledge 
of the science of sound, and taking the equal 
division of the monochord as the starting-point 
of his system of harmony, soon conceived the 
possibility of placing the theory of music on a 
sound basis. Henceforth he devoted all his 
energies to drawing up his Treatise on Harmony 
reduced to its natural principles, and as soon 
as that important work was finished he deter 
mined to go to Paris and publish it. His en 
gagement with the chapter of Clermont had 
however several years to run, and there was 
great opposition to his leaving, owing to the 
popularity of his improvisations on the organ, 
in which, contrary to the usual course, his 
theoretical studies, instead of hampering his 
ideas, seemed to give them greater freshness and 

Once free he started immediately for Paris, 
and brought out his Traits de 1 Harmonie 
(Ballard, 1722, 4to, 432 pp.). 2 The work did not 
at first attract much attention among French 
musicians, and yet, as Fe tis observes, it laid 
the foundation for a philosophical science of 

1 Claude Rameau, a man of indomitable will and capricious temper, 
and a clever organist, lived successively at Dijon, Lyons, Marseilles, 
Clermont, Orleans, Strassburg, and Autun. His son Jean Francois, a 
gifted musician, but a dissipated man, is admirably portrayed by 
Diderot in his Neveu de Rameau. He published in 1766 a poem in 5 
cantos called LeRame"ide, followed in the same year by La nouvelle 
Rame"ide, a parody by his schoolfellow Jacques Cazotte. He is 
mentioned by Mercier in his Tableau de Paris. 

2 The Third Part of this was translated into English 15 years later 
with the title A Treatise of Music, containing the Principles of 
Composition. London, no date, 8vo, 180 pp. 



harmony. Rameau s style is prolix and obscure, 
often calculated rather to repel than attract the 
reader, and the very boldness and novelty of 
his theories excited surprise and provoked criti 
cism. His discovery of the law of inversion in 
chords was a stroke of genius, and led to very 
important results, although in founding his 
system of harmony on the sounds of the common 
chord, with the addition of thirds above or 
thirds below, he put both himself and others 
on a wrong track. In the application of his 
principle to all the chords he found himself 
compelled to give up all idea of tonality, since, 
on the principles of tonality he could not make 
the thirds for the discords fall on the notes 
that his system required. Fe tis justly accuses 
him of having abandoned the tonal successions 
and resolutions prescribed in the old treatises 
on harmony, accompaniment, and composition, 
and the rules for connecting the chords based on 
the ear, for a fixed order of generation, attractive 
from its apparent regularity, but with the serious 
inconvenience of leaving each chord disconnected 
from the rest. 

Having rejected the received rules for the 
succession and resolution of chords which were 
contrary to his system, Rameau perceived the 
necessity of formulating new ones, and drew 
up a method for composing a fundamental bass 
for every species of music. The principles he 
laid down for forming a bass different from the 
real bass of the music, and for verifying the 
right use of the chords, are arbitrary, insufficient 
in a large number of cases, and, as regards many 
of the successions, contrary to the judgment of the 
ear. Finally, he did not perceive that by using 
the chord of the 6-5-3 ^>oth as a fundamental 
chord and an inversion he destroyed his whole 
system, as in the former case it is impossible to 
derive it from the third above or below. 3 After 
more study, however, particularly on the subject 
of harmonics, Rameau gave up many of his earlier 
notions, and corrected some of his most essential 
mistakes. The development and modification of 
his ideas may be seen by consulting his works, 
of which the following is a list: Nouveau 
systems de musique theorique . . . pour servir 
d Introduction au traits d Harmonie (1726, 
4to) ; Ge ne ration harmonique etc. (1713, 8vo) ; 
Demonstration du principe de 1 harmonie ( 1 750, 
8vo) ; Nouvelles reflexions sur la demonstration 
du principe de 1 harmonie (1752, 8vo) ; Ex- 
trait d une re ponse de M. Rameau k M. Euler 
sur I identite des octaves/ etc. (1753, 8vo) all 
published in Paris. To these specific works, all 
dealing with the science of harmony, should be 
added the Dissertation sur les differentes me - 
thodes d accompagnement pour le clavecin ou 
pour 1 orgue (Paris, Boivin, 1732, 4to), and 
some articles which appeared in the Mercure 
de France, and in the Memoir es de Trevoux. 

The mere titles of these works are a proof of 
the research and invention which Rameau brought 
to bear on the theory of music ; but what was 

3 FfHis has explained, detailed, and refuted Rameau s system in his 
Esquisse de 1 Histoire de 1 Harmonie, which has been used by the 
writer, and to which he refers his readeis. 



most remarkable in his case is that he succeeded 
in lines which are generally opposed to each 
other, and throughout life occupied the first 
rank not only as a theorist, but as a player and 
composer. Just when his Traitd de 1 Har- 
inonie was beginning to attract attention he 
arranged to make music for the little pieces 
which his fellow-countryman, Alexis Piron, was 
writing for the Theatre de la Foire, and ac 
cordingly, on Feb. 3, 1723, they produced L En- 
driague, in 3 acts, with dances, divertissements, 
and grand airs, as stated in the title. In Jan. 
1724 he obtained the privilege of publishing 
his cantatas, and various instrumental com 
positions, amongst others his Pieces de clavecin, 
avec une Me"thode pour la me"canique des doigts, 
etc., republished as Pieces de Clavecin, avec 
une table pour les agrdments 1 (Paris, 1731 and 
1736, oblong folio). 

As the favourite music-master among ladies 
of rank, and organist of the church of Ste. Croix 
de la Bretonnerie, Rameau s position and pro 
spects now warranted his taking a wife, and on 
Feb. 25, 1726, he was united to Marie Louise 
Mangot, a good musician with a pretty voice. 
The disparity of their ages was considerable, the 
bride being only 1 8, but her loving and gentle 
disposition made the marriage a very happy one. 

A few days later, on Feb. 29, Rameau pro 
duced at the Theatre de la Foire a i-act piece 
called L Enr6lement d Arlequin, followed in 
the autumn by Le faux Prodigue, 2 acts, both 
written by Piron. Such small comic pieces as 
these were obviously composed, by a man of his 
age and attainments (he was -now 42), solely with 
the view of gaining access to a stage of higher 
rank, but there was no hope of admission to 
the theatre of the Academic without a good 
libretto, and this it was as difficult for a be 
ginner to obtain then as it is now. There is a 
remarkable letter still extant from Rameau to 
Houdar de Lamotte, dated Oct. 1727, asking 
him for a lyric tragedy, and assuring him that 
he was no novice, but one who had mastered 
the art of concealing his art. The blind poet 
refused his request, but aid came from another 
quarter. La Popeliniere, the fermier gtntral, 
musician, poet, and artist, whose houses in Paris 
and at Passy were frequented by the most 
celebrated artists French and foreign, had chosen 
Rameau as his clavecinist and conductor of the 
music at his fetes, and before long placed at his 
disposal the organ in his chapel, his orchestra, 
and his theatre. He did more, for through his 
influence Rameau obtained from Voltaire the 
lyric tragedy of Samson, which he promptly 
set to music, though the performance was pro 
hibited on the eve of its representation at the 
Academie an exceptional stroke of ill-fortune. 
At last the Abb Pellegrin agreed to furnish 
him with an opera in 5 acts, Hippolyte et 
Aricie, founded on Racine s Phedre. He 
compelled Rameau to sign a bill for 500 livres 
as security in case the opera failed, but showed 

1 Both Fetis and Pougin have fallen into the mistake of considering 
this a separate work. 


more sagacity and more heart than might have 
been expected from one 

Qut dlnait de 1 antel et soupait d^ 

Le matin catholique et le soir idolatre, 2 

for he was so delighted with the music on its 
first performance at La Popeliniere s, that he 
tore up the bill at the end of the first act. The 
world in general was less enthusiastic, and after 
having overcome the ill-will or stupidity of the 
performers, Rameau had to encounter the astonish 
ment of the crowd, the prejudices of routine, and 
the jealousy of his brother artists. Campra alone 
recognised his genius, and it is to his honour 
that when questioned by the Prince de Conti on 
the subject, he replied, There is stuff enough in 
Hippolyte et Aricie for ten operas ; this man 
will eclipse us all. 

The opera was produced at the Academic 
on Oct. i, 1733. Rameau was then turned 50 
years of age, and the outcry with which his 
work was greeted suggested to him that he had 
possibly mistaken his career ; for a time he con 
templated retiring from the theatre, but was 
reassured by seeing his hearers gradually accus 
toming themselves to the novelties which at first 
shocked them. The success of Les Indes galantes 
(Aug. 23, 1735), of Castor et Pollux, his master 
piece (Oct. 24, 1737), and of Les Fetes d He"be" 
(May 21, 1739), however, neither disarmed his 
critics, nor prevented Rousseau from making him 
self the mouthpiece of those who cried up Lully at 
the expense of the new composer. But Rameau 
was too well aware of the cost of success to be 
hurt by epigrams, especially when he found that 
he could count both on the applause of the 
multitude, and the genuine appreciation of the 
more enlightened. 

His industry was immense, as the following 
list of his operas and ballets produced at the 
Acade"mie in 20 years will show : 

Dardanus. 5 acts and prologue 
(Nov. 19, 1739). 

Les Ffrtes de Polymnie, 3 acts 
and prologue (Oct. 12, 1745). 

Le Temple de la Gloire, Fte, 
in 3 acts and prologue (Dec. 7, 

Za is, 4 acts and prologue (Feb. 
29, 1748). 

Pygmalion, 1 act (Aug. 27, 1748). 

Les Ftes de 1 Hymen et de 
1 Amour, 3 acts and prologue (Nov. 
6. 1748). 

Plate"e, 3 acts and prologue (Feb. 
4, 1749). 

Na is, 3 acts and prologue (April 
22, 1749). 

Zoroastre, 5 acts (Dec. 5, 1749). 

La Guirlande, ou les Fleurs en- 
chanties, 1 act (Sept. 21, 1751). 

Acanthe et Ce~phise, 3 acts (Nov. 
18, 1751). 

Les Surprises de 1 Amour, 3 acts 
(May 31, 1757). 

Les Paladins. 3 acts (Feb. 12, 

Besides these, Rameau found time to write di 
vertissements for Les Courses de TempeY a 
Pastoral (Theatre Franais, Aug. 1734), and La 
Rose (Theatre de la Foire, March, 1744), botl1 
by Piron. From 1 740 to 1 745 the director of the 
Opera gave him no employment, and in this 
interval he published his Nouvelles Suites de 
Pieces de clavecin and his Pieces de clavecin en 
concerts avec un violon ou une flute (1741), re 
markable compositions which have been reprinted 
by Mme. Farrenc ( Le Tre"sor des Pianistes ) and 
M. Poisot. He also accepted the post of conductor 
of the Ope ra-Comique, of which Monnefc 3 was 

2 Who dined at the altar and supped at the theatre ; Catholic in 
the morning, and Idolater at night. 

3 See Monnet s Supplement au Koman comique, 51. This fact 
seems to have escaped all Rameau s biographers. 


manager, probably in the hope of attracting 
public attention, and forcing the management of 
the Acade mie to alter their treatment of him. 
Finally he composed for the Court Lysis et 
Delie, Daphnis et EgleY Les Sybarites (Oct. 
and Nov. 1753); La Naissance d Osiris, and 
Anacreon (Oct. 1754), all given at Fontaine- 
bleau. Some years previously, on the occasion 
of the marriage of the Dauphin with the Infanta, 
he had composed La Princesse de Navarre 
to a libretto of Voltaire s (3 acts and prologue, 
performed with great splendour at Versailles, 
Feb. 23, 1745). This was the most successful 
of all his operas de circonstance, and the authors 
adapted from it Les Fetes de Ramire a i-act 
opera-ballet, also performed at Versailles (Dec. 
22, 1745). 

In estimating Rameau s merits we cannot in 
justice compare him with the great Italian and 
German masters of the day, whose names and 
works were then equally unknown in France ; 
we must measure him with contemporary French 
composers for the stage. These writers had 
no idea of art beyond attempting a servile copy 
of Lully, with overtures, recitatives, vocal pieces, 
and ballet airs, all cast in one stereotyped form. 
Rameau made use of such a variety of means as 
not only attracted the attention of his hearers, but 
retained it. For the placid and monotonous har 
monies of the day, the trite modulation, insignifi 
cant accompaniments, and stereotyped ritornelles, 
he substituted new forms, varied and piquant 
rhythms, ingenious harmonies, bold modulations, 
and a richer and more effective orchestration. He 
even ventured on enharmonic changes, and instead 
of the time-honoured accompaniments with the 
strings in 5 parts, and flutes and oboes in 2, and 
with tuttis in which the wind simply doubled the 
strings, he gave each instrument a distinct part 
of its own, and thus imparted life and colour to 
the whole. Without interrupting the other 
instruments, he introduced interesting and un 
expected passages on the flutes, oboes, and 
bassoons, and thus opened a path which has 
been followed up with ever-increasing success. 
He also gave importance to the orchestral pieces, 
introducing his operas with a well-constructed 
overture, instead of the meagre introduction of 
the period, in which the same phrases were re 
peated ad nauseam. Nor did he neglect the 
chorus; he developed it, added greatly to its musi 
cal interest, and introduced the syllabic style with 
considerable effect. Lastly, his ballet-music 
was so new in its rhythms, and so fresh and 
pleasing in melody, that it was at once adopted 
and copied in the theatres of Italy and Germany. 

We have said enough to prove that Rameau 
was a composer of real invention and originality. 
His declamation was not always so just as that 
of Lully ; his airs have not the same grace, 
and are occasionally marred by eccentricity and 
harshness, and disfigured by roulades in doubtful 
taste; but when inspired by his subject Rameau 
found appropriate expression for all sentiments, 
whether simple or pathetic, passionate, dramatic, 
or heroic. His best operas contain beauties 



which defy the caprices of fashion, and will 
command the respect of true artists for all time. 

But if his music was so good, how is it that it 
never attained the same popularity as that of 
Lully ? In the first place, he took the wrong line 
on a most important point ; and in the second, he 
was less favoured by circumstances than his 
predecessor. It was his doctrine, that for a 
musician of genius all subjects are equally good, 
and hence he contented himself with uninteresting 
fables written in wretched style, instead of taking 
pains, as Lully did, to secure pieces constructed 
with skill and well versified. He used to say 
that he could set the Gazette de Hollande to 
music. Thus he damaged his own fame, for a 
French audience will not listen even to good music 
unless it is founded on an interesting drama. His 
ballet-music, too, often only serves to retard the 
action of the piece and destroy its dramatic 

Much as Rameau would have gained by the 
cooperation of another Quinault, instead of having 
to employ Cahusac, there was another reason for 
the greater popularity of Lully. Under Louis 
XIV. the king s patronage was quite sufficient 
to ensure the success of an artist ; but after 
the Regency, under Louis XV., other authorities 
asserted themselves, especially the philosophes. 
Rameau had first to encounter the vehement 
opposition of the Lullists ; this he had suc 
ceeded in overcoming, when a company of 
Italian singers arrived in Paris, and at once 
obtained the attention of the public, and the 
support of a powerful party. The partisans of 
French music rallied round Rameau, and the 
two factions carried on what is known as the 
Guerre des Bouffons, but when the struggle 
was over, Rameau perceived that his victory was 
only an ephemeral one, and that his works would 
not maintain their position in the repertoire of 
the Acade mie beyond a few years. With a frank 
ness very touching in a man of his gifts, he said 
one evening to the Abbd Arnaud, who had lately 
arrived in Paris, If I were 20 years younger 
I would go to Italy, and take Pergolesi for iny 
model, abandon something of my harmony, and 
devote myself to attaining truth of declamation, 
which should be the sole guide of musicians. 
But after sixty one cannot change ; experience 
points plainly enough the best course, but the 
mind refuses to obey. No critic could have 
stated the truth more plainly. Not having 
heard Italian music in his youth, Rameau never 
attained to the skill in writing for the voice that 
he might have done ; and he is in consequence 
only the first French musician of his time, in 
stead of taking his rank among the great com 
posers of European fame. But for this, he might 
have effected that revolution in dramatic music 
which Gluck accomplished some years later. 

But even as it was, his life s work is one of which 
any man might have been proud ; and in old age 
he enjoyed privileges accorded only to talent 
of the first rank. The directors of the Ope ra 
decreed him a pension; his appearance in his 
box was the signal for a general burst of applause, 



and at the last performance of Dardanus 
(Nov. 9, 1760) he received a perfect ovation 
from the audience. At Dijon the Academic 
elected him a member in 1761, and the autho 
rities exempted himself and his family for ever 
from the municipal taxes. The king had named 
him composer of his chamber music in 1745 > 
his patent of nobility was registered, and he 
was on the point of receiving the order of St. 
Michel, when, already suffering from the in 
firmities of age, he took typhoid fever, and 
died Sept. 12, 1764. All France mourned for 
him ; Paris gave him a magnificent funeral, and 
in many other towns funeral services were held 
in his honour. Such marks of esteem are ac 
corded only to the monarchs of art. 

Having spoken of Rameau as a theorist and 
composer, we will now say a word about him as 
a man. If we are to believe Grimm and Diderot, 
he was hard, churlish, and cruel, avaricious 
to a degree, and the most ferocious of egotists. 
The evidence of these writers is however sus 
picious ; both disliked French music, and Diderot, 
as the friend and colluborateur of d Alembert, 
would naturally be opposed to the man who 
had had the audacity to declare war against the 
Encyclopedists. 1 It is right to say that, though 
he drew a vigorous and scathing portrait of the 
composer, he did not publish it. 2 As to the 
charge of avarice, Rameau may have been 
fond of money, but he supported his sister 
Catherine 3 during an illness of many years, and 
assisted more than one of his brother artists- 
such as Dauvergne, and the organist Balbatre. 
He was a vehement controversialist, and those 
whom he had offended would naturally say hard 
things of him. He was scrupulous in the use of 
his time, and detested interruptions ; at the 
rehearsals of his operas he would sit by himself in 
the middle of the pit, and allow no one to speak 
to him ; in the street he would walk straight on, 
and if a friend stopped him, he seemed to awake 
as if from a trance. Tall, and thin almost to 
emaciation, his sharply-marked features indicated 
great strength of character, while his eyes burned 
with the fire of genius. There was a decided 
resemblance between him and Voltaire, and 
painters have often placed their likenesses side 
by side. Amongst the best portraits of Rameau 
may be specified those of Benoist (after Restout), 
Caffieri, Masquelier, and Carmontelle (full length). 
In the fine oil-painting by Chardin in the Museum 
of Dijon, he is represented seated, with his 
fingers on the strings of his violin, the instru 
ment he generally used in composing. The bust 

1 Kameau was asked to correct the articles on music for the Ency- 
clope die, but the M.SS. were not submitted to him. He published in 
consequence: Erreurs sur la musique dans 1 Encyclope die (1755) ; 
Suite des Erreurs etc. (1756) ; RiSponse de M. Kameau a MM. les 
e"diteurs de 1 Encyclopedie sur leur Avertissement (1757) ; Lettre de 
M. d Alembert a M. Rameau, concernant le corps sonore, avec la 
re"ponse de M. Rameau (undated, but apparently 1759) all printed in 

2 We refer to Diderot s violent satire on the morals and philosophic 
tendencies of the 18th century, entitled Le Neveu de Rameau. It is 
a curious fact that this brilliantly written dialogue was only known 
in France through a re-translation of Goethe s German version. The 
first French edition, by Saur, appeared in Paris only in 1821. 

3 A good player on the clavecin; she lived in Dijon, and died there 


which stood in the foyer of the Ope ra was de 
stroyed when the theatre was burnt down in 
1781 ; that in the library of the Conservatoire is 
by Destreez (1865). A bronze statue by Guil- 
laume was erected at Dijon in 1880. The fine 
medal of him given to the winners of the grand 
prix de Rome was engraved by Gatteaux. 

There are many biographies of Rameau ; the 
most valuable are, among the older, Chabanon s 
Eloge (1764); Maret s Eloge historique 
(1766) ; and the very curious details contained 
in De Croix s L Ami des Arts (1776); among 
the more modern, the notices of Adolphe Adam, 
Fe tis, Poisot (1864), and Pougin (1876). 

Rameau had one son and two daughters, none 
of them musicians. He left in MS. 4 cantatas, 
3 motets with chorus, and fragments of an opera 
Roland, all which are now in the BibliothSque 
Nationale in the Rue Richelieu. None of his 
organ pieces have survived ; and some cantatas 
mentioned by the earlier biographers, besides 
two lyric tragedies Abaris and Linus, and a 
comic opera, Le Procureur dupe, are lost; but 
they would have added nothing to his fame. 

Some of his harpsichord pieces have been pub 
lished in the Tremor des Pianistes ; in the Alte 
Klaviermusik of Pauer (Ser. 2, pt. 5) and of 
Roitsch ; also in Pauer s Alte Meister, and in 
the Perles Musicales (51, 52). [G.C.] 

RAMM, FKIEDRICH, eminent oboe-player, born 
Nov. 1 8, i744> in Mannheim. He was a member 
of the Elector s celebrated band under Cannabich, 
first in Mannheim, and then in Munich, whither 
the court removed, and where he celebrated his 
fiftieth year of service in 1808. His tone was 
particularly pure and true, with great roundness, 
softness, and power in the lower notes ; and he was 
also a master of the legato style. Ramm is a 
downright good fellow, writes Mozart, amusing 
and honourable too ; he plays finely, with a pretty 
delicate tone. Mozart sent him the oboe-concerto 
(Kochel, 293) composed for Ferlendi (which be 
came his cheval de bataille), and when in Paris 
composed a symphonie concertante for Wendling, 
Ramm, Punto, and Ritter, to be played at the 
Concerts Spirituels. It was however never per 
formed, and all trace of it is lost ( Jahn, i. 476). 
Ramm played in London at the Professional 
Concerts in 1 784. In Vienna he gave a concert at 
the Karnthnerthor Theatre in 1787, and played 
three times at the concerts of the Tonkunstler- 
Societat between the years 1776 and Si. 

He was in Vienna again, after April I797> an< ^ 
assisted to accompany Beethoven at a perform 
ance of his PF. Quintet, op. 16. At one of the 
pauses of the Finale Beethoven went off into a 
long improvisation, and it was, says Ries,* most 
amusing to see the players putting up their in 
struments to their lips as they thought that 
Beethoven was approaching the reprise of the 
theme, and as regularly putting them down in 
disappointment as he modulated off in another 
direction. Ramm was especially annoyed. [C.F.P.] 

4 Biogr. Notizen, p. 80. The beginning of this anecdote Am nSm- 
lichen Abend on the same evening would seem to show that Ries s 
recollections are not printed iu the order ill which he wrote them. 


EAMSEY, EGBERT, organist of Trinity Col 
lege, Cambridge, from 1628 to 1644 inclusive, 
and Magister Choristarum from 1637 to 1644 
inclusive ; but whether before or after those dates 
is not certain in either case. He took the degree 
of Mus. Bac. at Cambridge about 1639. ^ Morn 
ing and Evening Service in F by him is contained 
in the Tudvvay Collection (Barl. MS. 7340) and 
in the Ely Library, where, and at Peterhouse Col 
lege, Cambi idge, there are also two anthems of 
his. Add. MS. 11,608 in the British Museum 
also contains a dialogue between Saul, the witch, 
and Samuel In guiltie night. Tudway mis 
calls him John. [G.] 

RANDALL, JOHN, Mus. Doc., born 1715, was 
a chorister of the Chapel Royal under Bernard 
Gates. He was one of the boys who shared in 
the representation of Handel s Esther at Gates s 
house, Feb. 23, 1732, he himself taking the part 
of Esther. He graduated as Mus. Bac. at Cam 
bridge in 1744, hi 8 exercise being an anthem. 
About 1 745 he was appointed organist of King s 
College, and on the death of Dr. Greene in 1755 
was elected Professor of Music at Cambridge. 
In 1756 he proceeded Mus. Doc. He composed 
the music for Gray s Ode for the Installation of the 
Duke of Grafton as Chancellor of the University 
in 1768, and some, church music. He died March 
18, 1799. His name is preserved in England by 
his two Double Chants. [W.H.H.] 

RANDALL, RICHARD, a tenor singer, born 
Sept. I, 1736, whose life is sufficiently described 
in the inscription to his portrait, published May 
1812 : This celebrated tenor singer so remark 
able for his great strength of voice and unrivalled 
comic humour was born Sep br I st 1736 and edu 
cated under M r Bern d Gates in the Chapel Royal 
where he was early noticed and became a great 
favourite of his late Majesty George the second, 
by whose command he sung many Solo Anthems, 
he is the only remaining chorister who sung with 
M. Handel in his Oratorios, and whose composi 
tions he still performs with most wonderfull effect 
at the age of 76. 

Randall died April IE;, 1828, aged 92. In his 
last days he was an object of much curiosity as 
having known Handel, regarding whom he told 
several anecdotes. [G.] 

RANDALL, WILLIAM, an eminent publisher 
of music. [See WALSH, JOHN.] 

RANDALL. The name of Randall is attached 
to an anthem for 6 voices in the British Museum, 
Add. MS. 17,792, probably dating from the be 
ginning of the 1 8th century. [G.] 

RANDEGGER, ALBERTO, composer, con 
ductor, and singing-master, was born at Trieste, 
April 13, 1832. He began the study of music at 
the age of 13, under Lafont for the PF., and 
L. Ricci for composition, soon began to write, and 
by the year 1852 was known as the composer of 
several masses and smaller pieces of Church music, 
and of two ballets La Fidanzata di Castella- 
mare and LaSposad Appenzello, both produced 
at the Teatro grande of his native town. In the 
latter year he joined three other of Ricci s pupils 



in the composition of a buffo opera to a libretto 
by Gaetano Rossi, entitled II Lazzarone, which 
had much success, first at the Teatro Maurona at 
Trieste, and then elsewhere. The next two years 
were occupied as musical director of theatres at 
Fiume, Zera, Sinigaglia, Brescia, and Venice. In 
the winter of 1854 he brought out a tragic opera in 
4 acts called Bianca Capello at the chief theatre 
of Brescia. At this time Signor Randegger was 
induced to come to London. He gradually took 
a high position there, and has become widely 
known as a teacher of singing, conductor, and com 
poser, and an enthusiastic lover of good music of 
whatever school or country. He has resided in 
England ever since, and is one of the most 
prominent musical figures in the metropolis. In 
1864 he produced at the Theatre Royal, Leeds, 
The Rival J^taities, a comic operetta in 2 acts, 
which has hac^much success in London and 
many other places. In 1868 he became Pro 
fessor of Singing at the Royal Academy of 
Music, and has since been made a director of 
that institution and a member of the Committee 
of Management. In the autumn of 1857 Be con " 
ducted a series of Italian operas at St. James s 
Theatre, and in 1879-80 the Carl Rosa company 
at Her Majesty s Theatre. He has recently been 
appointed conductor of the Norwich Festival 
vice Sir Julius Benedict resigned. 

Mr.Randegger s published works are numerous 
and important. They comprise a large dramatic 
cantata (words by Mad. Rudersdorff), entitled 
Fridolin, composed for the Birmingham Festi 
val, and produced there with great success, Aug. 
28, 1873 (Chappell) ; two soprano scenas 
Medea, sung by Mad. Rudersdorff at the 
Gewandhaus, Leipzig, in 1869, and Saffo, sung 
by Mad. Lemmens at the British Orchestral 
Society, March 31, 1875 ; the I5oth Psalm, for 
soprano solo, chorus, orchestra and organ, for the 
Boston Festival, 1872 ; Funeral Anthem for the 
death of the Prince Consort, twice performed in 
London ; and a large number of songs and con 
certed vocal music for voice and orchestra or 
PF. He is also the author of the Primer of 
Singing, in Dr. Stainer s series (Novello). As a 
teacher of singing Mr. Randegger has a large 
number of pupils now before the English public 
as popular singers. [G.] 

trian musician, memorable for his connexion 
with Schubert. He was born at Ruprechtshofen, 
in Lower Austria, July 27, 1802 ; at 10 years 
old came to the Konvict school at Vienna, and 
was then a pupil of Salieri s. He afterwards 
studied for the law, and for ten years was 
Secretary to Count Sze chenyi, an official about 
the Court. But he forsook this line of life for 
music; in 1832 entered the Court Chapel as a 
tenor singer ; in 1844 became Vice-Court-Capell- 
meister, and in 1862, after Assmayer s death, 
entered on the full enjoyment of that dignity. 
His compositions are more than 600 in number, 
comprising an opera, Konig Enzio ; 20 masses ; 
60 motets ; symphonies ; quartets, etc. ; 400 songs, 
76 4-part songs, etc. Of all these, 1 24, chiefly songs, 



are published ; also a vol. of Greek national songs, 
and a vol. of Greek liturgies. His acquaintance 
with Schubert probably began at the Konvict, and 
at Salieri s ; though as he was Schubert s junior 
by five years, they can have been there together 
only for a short time ; but there are many slight 
traces of the existence of a close friendship 
between them. He was present, for example, 
at the first trial of the D minor String Quartet 
(Jan. 29, 1826), and he was one of the very few 
friends if not the only one who visited Schu 
bert in the terrible loneliness of his last illness. 
But for Randhartinger it is almost certain that 
Schubert s Schone Miillerin would never have 
existed. He was called out of his room while 
Schubert was paying him a visit, and on his 
return found that his friend had disappeared 
with a volume of W. Miiller s poems which he 
had accidentally looked into while waiting, and 
had been so much interested in as to carry off. 
On his going the next day to reclaim the book, 
Schubert presented him with some of the now 
well-known songs, which he had composed during 
the night. This was in 1823. It is surely enough 
to entitle Randhartinger to a perpetual memory. 
He had a brother JOSEF, of whom nothing is 
known beyond this that he was probably one of 
the immediate entourage of Beethoven s coffin at 
the funeral. He, Lachner, and Schubert are said 
to have gone together as torch-bearers (Kreissle 
von Hellborn s Schubert, p. 266). [G.] 


were situated on the bank of the Thames, east 
ward of Chelsea Hospital. They were erected 
and laid out about 1690 by Richard Jones, Vis 
count (afterwards Earl of) Ranelagh, who resided 
there until his death in 1712. In 1733 the pro 
perty was sold in lots, and eventually the house 
and part of the gardens came into the hands of 
a number of persons who converted them into a 
place of public entertainment. In 1741 they com 
menced the erection of a- spacious Rotunda (185 
feet external, and 150 feet internal diameter), 
with four entrances through porticos. Surround 
ing it was an arcade, and over that a covered 
gallery, above which were the windows, 60 in 
number. In the centre of the interior and sup 
porting the roof was a square erection containing 
the orchestra, as well as fireplaces of peculiar 
construction for warming the building in winter. 
Forty-seven boxes, each to contain eight persons, 
were placed round the building, and in these the 
company partook of tea and coffee. In the garden 
was a Chinese building, and a canal upon which 
the visitors were rowed about in boats. Ranelagh 
was opened with a public breakfast, April 5, 1 742. 
The admission was 2s. including breakfast. On 
May 24 following it was opened for evening 
concerts ; Beard was the principal singer, Festing 
the leader, and the choruses were chiefly from 
oratorios. Twice a week ridottos were given, 
the tickets for which were i is. each, including 
supper. Masquerades were shortly afterwards in 
troduced, and the place soon became the favourite 
resort of the world of fashion. Ranelagh was 
afterwards opened about the end of February for 


breakfasts, and on Easter Monday for the evening 
entertainments. On April 10, 1746, a new organ 
by Byfield was opened at a public morning re 
hearsal of the music for the season, and Parry, 
the celebrated Welsh harper, appeared. In 1749, 
in honour of the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, an en 
tertainment called A Jubilee Masquerade in 
the Venetian manner, was given, of which Horace 
Walpole, in a letter to Sir Horace Mann, dated 
May 3, 1749, gave the following lively descrip 
tion : 

It had nothing Venetian about it, but was by far the 
best understood and the prettiest spectacle I ever saw ; 
nothing in a fairy tale ever surpassed it. ... It began 
at three o clock, and about five, people of fashion began 
to go. When you entered you found the whole garden 
filled with masks and spread with tents, wliich remained 
all night very commodely. In one quarter was a May 
pole dressed with garlands, and people dancing round it 
to a tabor and pipe and rustic music, all masqued, as 
were all the various bands of music that were disposed 
in different parts of the garden, some like huntsmen 
with French-horns, some like peasants, and a troop of 
Harlequins and Scaramouches in the little open temple 
on the mount. On the canal was a sort of gondola 
adorned with flags and streamer3 } and filled with music, 
rowing about. All round the outside of the amphitheatre 
were shops, filled with Dresden china, Japan, etc., and 
all the shopkeepers in mask. The amphitheatre was 
illuminated ; and in the middle was a circular bower, 
composed of all kinds of firs in tubs from twenty to 
thirty feet high ; under them orange trees with small 
lamps in each orange, and below them all sorts of the 
finest auriculas in pots ; and festoons of natural flowers 
hanging from tree to tree. Between the arches, too, 
were firs, and smaller ones in the balconies above. 
There were booths for tea and wine, gaming-tables and 
dancing, and about two thousand persons. In short it 
pleased me more than anything I ever saw. It is to be 
once more, and probably finer as to dresses, as there has 
since been a subscription masquerade, and people will 
go in their rich habits. 

This proved so attractive that it was repeated 
several times in that and succeeding years, until 
the suppression of such entertainments after the 
earthquake at Lisbon in 1755. In 1751 morning 
concerts were given twice a week, Signora Frasi 
and Beard being the singers. At that date it had 
lost none of its charm. You cannot conceive, says 
Mrs. Ellison, in Fielding s Amelia, what a sweet 
elegant delicious place it is. Paradise itself can 
hardly be equal to it. In 1754 an entertain 
ment of singing, recitation, etc. was given under 
the name of Comus s Court, which was very 
successful. In 1755 a pastoral, the words from 
Shakspere, the music by Arne, was produced; 
Beard and Miss Young were the singers ; Han 
del s L Allegro ed II Pensieroso was introduced 
on Beard s benefit night, and Stanley was the 
organist. In 1759 Bonnell Thornton s burlesque 
Ode on St. Cecilia s day was performed with great 
success. In 1762 Tenducci was the principal male 
singer. In 1764 a new orchestra was erected in 
one of the porticos of the Rotunda, the original 
one being found inconvenient from its height. 
On June 29, 1764, Mozart, then eight years old, 
performed on the harpsichord and organ several 
pieces of his own composition for the benefit of a 
charity. In 1770 Burney was the organist. Fire 
works were occasionally exhibited, when the price 
of admission was raised to 53. In 1 777 the fashion 
able world played one of its strange, unreasoning 
freaks at Ranelagh. Walpole wrote on June 18 : 
It is the fashion now to go to Ranelagh two hours 
after it is over. You may not believe this, but it 


is literal. The music ends at ten, the company 
go at twelve. This practice caused the concert 
to be commenced at a later hour than before. In 
1 790 a representation of Mount .ZEtna in eruption, 
with the Cyclops at work in the centre of the 
mountain, and the lava pouring down its side, was 
exhibited. The mountain was 80 feet high. In 
1793 the Chevalier d Eon fenced in public with 
a French professor, and about the same time re 
gattas on the Thames in connection with the place 
were established. In 1802 the Installation Ball 
of the Knights of the Bath was given at Rane- 
lagh, and also a magnificent entertainment by the 
Spanish Ambassador. These were the last occur 
rences of any importance; the fortunes of the place 
had long been languishing, and it opened for the 
last time July 8, 1803. On Sept. 30, 1805, the 
proprietors gave directions for taking down the 
house and rotunda ; the furniture was soon after 
sold by auction, and the buildings removed. The 
organ was placed in Tetbury Church, Gloucester 
shire. No traces of Ranelagh remain : the site now 
forms part of Chelsea Hospital garden. [W.H.H.] 

RANK. A rank of organ-pipes is one com 
plete series or set, of the same quality of tone 
and kind of construction from the largest to the 
smallest, controlled by one draw-stop, acting on 
one slider. If the combined movement of draw- 
stop and slider admits air to two or more such 
series of pipes, an organ-stop is said to be of two 
or more ranks, as the case may be. Occasionally 
the twelfth and fifteenth, or fifteenth and twenty- 
second, are thus united, forming a stop of two 
ranks; but, as a rule, only those stops whose 
tones are reinforcements of some of the higher 
upper-partials of the ground-tone are made to 
consist of several ranks, such as the Sesquialtera, 
Mixture, Furniture, etc. These stops have 
usually from three to five ranks each, reinforc 
ing (according to their special disposition) the 
ground-tone by the addition of its ijth, I9th, 
22nd, 24th, 26th, 2gth, that is, of its 3rd, 5th, 
and 8th in the third and fourth octave above. 

RANSFORD, EDWIN, baritone vocalist, song 
writer, and composer, born March 13, 1805, at 
Bourton-on-the- Water, Gloucestershire, died in 
London July 1 1, 1876. He first appeared on the 
stage as an extra in the opera chorus at the 
King s Theatre, Haymarket, and was afterwards 
engaged in that of Covent Garden Theatre. 
During Mr. Charles Kemble s management of 
that theatre he made his first appearance as Don 
Caesar in The Castle of Andalusia, on May 2 7, 
1829, and was engaged soon afterwards by Mr. 
Arnold for the English Opera House (now the 
Lyceum). In the autumn of 1829, and in 1830, 
he was at Covent Garden. In 1831 he played 
leading characters under Elliston at the Surrey 
Theatre, and became a general favourite. In 1832 
he was with Joe Grimaldi at Sadler s Wells, 
playing Tom Truck, in Campbell s nautical drama 
The Battle of Trafalgar, in which he made a 
great hit with Neukomm s song of The Sea. At 
this theatre he sustained the part of Captain 
Cannonade in Barnett s opera The Pet of the 



Petticoats. He afterwards fulfilled important 
engagements at Drury Lane, the Lyceum, and 
Covent Garden. At Covent Garden he played 
the Doge of Venice in Othello/ March 25, 1833, 
when Edmund Kean last appeared on the stage, 
and Sir Harry in The School for Scandal on 
Charles Kemble s last appearance as Charles 
Surface. His final theatrical engagement was 
with Macready at Covent Garden in 1837-38. 
He wrote the words of many songs, his best being 
perhaps In the days when we went gipsying. 
In later years his entertainments, Gipsy Life, 
Tales of the Sea, and Songs of Dibdin, etc., 
became deservedly popular. As a genial bon 
camarade he was universally liked. [W.H.] 

RANZ DES VACHES, (Kuhreihen, Kuhrei- 
gen ; Appenzell patois Chuereiha), a strain of an 
irregular description, which in some parts of 
Switzerland is sung or blown on the Alpine horn 
in June, to call the cattle from the valleys to the 
higher pastures. Several derivations have been 
suggested for the words ranz and reihen orrelgen. 
Ranz has been translated by the English rant, 
and the French rondeau, and has been derived 
from the Keltic root renk or rank, which 
may also be the derivation of reihen, in which 
case both words would mean the procession, or 
march, of the cows. Stalder ( Schweizerisches 
Idiotikon ) thinks that reihen means to reach, 
or fetch, while other authorities say that the 
word is the same as reigen (a dance accompanied 
by singing), and derive ranz from the Swiss patois 
ranner, to rejoice. 

The Ranz des Vaches are very numerous, and 
differ both in music and words in the different 
cantons. They are extremely irregular in char 
acter, full of long cadences and abrupt changes 
of tempo. It is a curious fact that they are 
seldom strictly in tune, more particularly when 
played on the Alpine horn, an instrument in 
which, like the BAGPIPE, the note represented 
by F is really an extra note between F and F$. 
This note is very characteristic of the Ranz des 
Vaches ; passages like the following being re 
peated and varied almost ad infinitum. 

Though of little musical value, a fictitious 
interest has been long attached to the Ranz 
des Vaches owing to the surroundings in which 
they are generally heard. Sung to a piano 
forte accompaniment in a concert-room, they 
would sound little better than a string of semi- 
barbarous cadences, but heard at dawn or at 
sunset in some remote Alpine valley, and sung 
with the strange gradations of falsetto and chest 
voice softened by distance, they possess a peculiar 

1 There is a curious analogy between the above and the following 
strain, which is sung with infinite variations in the agricultural dis 
tricts near London to frighten away the birds from the seed. In both 
passages the F is more nearly F$ 



and undeniable charm. The most celebrated of 
them is that of Appenzell, a copy of which is said 
to have been sent to our Queen Anne, with whom 
it was a great favourite. The first work in which it 
was printed is Georg Rhaw s Bicinia (Witten 
berg, 1545). It is also to be found in a dissertation 
on Nostalgia in Zwinger s Fasciculus Disserta- 
tionum Medicarum (Basle, 1710). Eousseau 
printed a version in his Dictionnaire de Musique, 
which Laborde arranged for 4 voices in his Essai 
BUT la Musique. It was used by Gretry in his 
Overture to Guillaume Tell, and by Adam in 
his Methode de Piano du Conservatoire. l It 
has been also arranged by Webbe, Weigl, Eossini 
( Guillaume Tell ) and Meyerbeer. The following 
example is sung in the Alps of Gruyere in the 
Canton of Friburg: 

~7f ?J W~f 


r P 3 1- 

f \ \ i A P 



vi> n " ^ 


Le" z armailli del Co - lorn 

p r * 

^ V 

- bet - t6 

| g ~ 

=--= P 

tp U gS 

" "5 

Di5 bon ma - tin s& s&n 16 - - 

^ - P 

ha. Ha 


.p" P - 


P 1 


- P t 


__ptKK^- ^ 


1* I* 


ha! Ha ha! v^^ Liauba! Liauba! por a - ri- 
r^ Allegro. 

m UP 


P A 


1 1 P 





f ^* 

. *_. L. 

a ! Vi - en - d(5 to - t6, Bliantz et na i - re". 

1 ^ - m - 

P P 


r-r-f r 

r r p * " 


k* ^ " V* i* 
Rodz et mot-ai - 16, Dz jouvenet o - tro. 

D6 - zo on tsch^-no 

s~ ^ /T\ /T\ 

- A 

p p 

s ^ .. n 

^S- L ^f-^- 

, - *- *- - . . ^- ^_ - ^ : B 
Jo i6 voz ar - io Dt zo on treinblio io "ie tieintzo ! 

Andante. ^ /T\ /r\ 

m i A 

r*T I _L*n S 


i*rr f ^ 

f W"*I^J 

9 L 

P f ^ tKi^l 

C3^"^ Liauba ! Liauba ! por ar - i - a ! 

j c ^ 

6-^*^ Liauba! 




Liauba! por ari - a! 2 fW B S 1 

EAPPOLDI, EDUARD, born at Vienna, Feb. 
21, 1839. He was placed by his father at an 
early age under Doleschall, and made his first 
appearance in his ^th year as violinist, pianist, 
and composer. His talent for the pianoforte was so 
great as to induce the Countess Banffy to put him 

1 Other examples and descriptions will be found Jn the follo-sviag 
works: Cappeller s Pilati Montis Historia (1757); Stolberg s Eeise 
in Deutschland, der Schweiz, etc." (1794) ; EbeFs Schilderung der 
GebirgsvOlker der Schweiz (1798); Sigmund von Wagner s Acht 
Schweizer Kuhreihen* (1805); the article on Viotti in the Decade 
Philosophique (An 6) ; Castelnau s Considerations sur la Nostalgie 
1806) ; Edward Jones s Musical Curiosities (1811) ; Tarenne s Samm- 
lung von Schweizer Kuhreihen und Volksliedern (1818); Huber s 
Recueil de Kanz de Vaches (1830); and Tobler s Appenzellischer 
Sprachschatz (1837). 

2 Translation, by Fenimore Cooper: The cowherds of Colombette 
arise at an earJy hour, Ha, ha! Ha, ha! Liauba! Liauba! in order to 
milk ! Come s,ll of you, Black and white, Ked and mottled, Young and 
old ; Beneath this oak I am about to milk you. Beneath this poplar 
I am about to press. Liauba ! Liauba ! in order to milk ! 


under Mittag, Thalberg s teacher. But the violin 
was the instrument of his choice, and he suc 
ceeded in studying it under Jansa, who induced 
him to go to London in 1850. Here he made no 
recorded appearance. On his return to Vienna 
he was so far provided for by the liberality of the 
same lady, that he became a pupil of the Conser 
vatoire under Hellmesberger from 1851 to 1854. 
He then put himself under Bb hm, and shortly 
began to travel, and to be spoken of as a promis 
ing player. The first real step in his career was 
conducting a concert of Joachim s at Rotterdam 
in 1866. At the end of that year he went to 
Liibeck as Capellmeister, in 1867 to Stettin in 
the same capacity, and -in 1869 to the Landes- 
theater at Prague. During this time he was 
working hard at the violin, and also studying com 
position with Sechter and Hiller. From 1870 to 
77 he was a colleague of Joachim s at the Hoch- 
schule at Berlin where he proved himself a 
first-rate teacher and a member of his Quartet 
party. In 1876 he was made Eoyal Professor, 
and soon after received a call to a Concertmeister- 
ship at Dresden. This however his love for 
Joachim and for Berlin, where he had advanced 
sufficiently to lead the Quartets alternately with 
his chief, induced him for a long time to hesitate 
to accept, notwithstanding the very high terms 
offered. At length, however, he did accept it, 
and is now joint Concertmeister with Lauterbach 
at the Dresden opera, and chief teacher in the 
Conservatorium. Though a virtuoso of the first 
rank, he has followed in the footsteps of Joachim 
by sacrificing display to the finer interpretation 
of the music, and has succeeded in infusing a 
new spirit into chamber-music at Dresden. He 
has composed symphonies, quartets, sonatas, and 
songs, some of which hav been printed. They 
are distinguished for earnestness, and for great 
beauty of form, and a quartet was performed in 
Dresden in the winter of 1878 which aroused 
quite an unusual sensation. In 1874 Rappoldi 
married a lady who is nearly as distinguished as 
himself Miss LAURA KAHEER, who was born in 
Vienna in 1853, and whose acquaintance he made 
many years before at Prague. Her talent, like 
his, showed itself very early. On the nomination 
of the Empress Elisabeth she became a pupil of 
the Conservatorium at Vienna, under Dachs and 
DessofF, from 1866 to 69. After taking the first 
prize, she made a tournee to the principal towns of 
Germany, ending at Weimar. There she studied 
under Liszt, and matured that beauty of touch, 
precision, fire, and intelligence, which have raised 
her to the first rank of pianists in Germany, and 
which induced Herr von Biilow no lenient critic 
to praise her playing of Beethoven s op. 106 in 
the highest terms. She is the worthy colleague 
of her husband in the best concerts of Dres 
den. Mme. Kahrer-Eappoldi has not yet visited 
England. [G.] 

VITSCH, a Eussian nobleman to whom Beethoven 

3 Pronounced Rasumoffsky, -which is Beethoven s spelling in the 
dedication of the 5th and 6th Symphonies ; Rasoumoflsky in that of 
the Quartets. 


dedicated three of his greatest works, and whose 
name will always survive in connexion with the 
Rasoumowsky Quartets (op. 59). He was the 
son of Kyrill (i.e. Cyril) Rasum, a peasant of 
Lemeschi, a village in the Ukraine, who, with 
his elder brother, was made a Count (Graf) by 
the Empress Elisabeth of Russia. Andreas was 
born Oct. 22, 1752, served in the English and 
Russian navies, rose to the rank of admiral, and 
was Russian ambassador at Venice, Naples, Copen 
hagen, Stockholm, and Vienna. In England his 
name must have been familiar, or Foote would 
hardly have introduced it as he has in The Liar 
(1762). At Vienna he married, in 1788, Elisabeth 
Countess of Thun, one of the three Graces, 
elder sister of the Princess Carl Lichnowsky 
[see vol. ii. 132 a]; and on March 25, 1792, 
had his audience from the Emperor of Austria 
as Russian ambassador, a post which he held 
with short intervals for more than 20 years. He 
was a thorough musician, an excellent player 
of Haydn s quartets, in which he took 2nd 
violin, not improbably studying them under 
Haydn himself. That, with his connexion with 
Lichnowsky, he must have known Beethoven is 
obvious ; but no direct trace of the acquaintance 
is found until May 26, 1806 (six weeks after the 
withdrawal of Fidelio), which Beethoven in his 
usual polyglott has marked on the first page 
of the Quartet in F of op. 59, as the date on 
which he began it Quartet to angefangen am 
26ten May 1806. 

In 1808 the Count was in possession of his 
own palace, in the Landstrasse suburb, on the 
Donau Canal, an enormous building on which for 
nearly 20 years he lavished all his means, now 
the Geological Institute; and in the summer 
or autumn of the same year formed his famous 
quartet party Suhuppanzigh, 1st violin ; Weiss, 
viola ; Lincke, cello ; and he himself 2nd violin 1 
which for many years met in the evenings, and 
performed, among other compositions, Beethoven s 
pieces, hot from the fire, under his own im 
mediate instructions. 

In April 1809 appeared the C minor and 
Pastoral Symphonies (^Nos. 5 and 6), with a dedi 
cation (on the Parts) to Prince Lobkowitz and 
son excellence Monsieur le Comte de Rasum- 
offsky (Breitkopf & H artel). These dedications 
doubtless imply that Beethoven was largely the 
recipient of the Count s bounty, but there is 
no direct evidence of it, and there is a strange 
absence of reference to the Count in Beethoven s 
letters. His name is mentioned only once July 
24, 1813 and there is a distant allusion in a 
letter of a much later date (Nohl, Briefe B. 1865, 
No. 354). How different to the affection, the 
jokes, the grumbling, the intimate character, of 
his notes to his other friends and supporters ! 
In the autumn of 1814 came the Vienna Congress 
(Nov. 1, 1814 June 9, 1815), and as the Empress 
of Russia was in Vienna at the time, the Am 
bassador s Palace was naturally the scene of 
special festivities It was not however there 
that Beethoven was presented to the Empress, 

1 Afterwards played by Sina. 



but at the Archduke Rodolph s. 2 The Count s 
hospitalities were immense, and, vast as was his 
palace, a separate wooden annexe had to be con 
structed capable of dining 700 persons. 

On June 3, 1815, six days before the signa 
ture of the final Act of the Congress, the Count 
was made Prince (Flirst), and on the 3ist of the 
following December the dining-hall just mentioned 
was burnt down. The Emperor of Russia gave 
400,000 silver roubles (40,000) towards the 
rebuilding, but the misfortune appears to have 
been too much for the Prince ; he soon after sold 
the property, pensioned his quartet, and disappears 
from musical history. The quartet kept together 
for many years after this date, Sina playing 2nd 
violin. Beethoven mentions them a propos to 
the Gallitzin Quartets in the letter to his nephew 
already referred to, about 1825. [A.W. T.] 

The three quartets to which Rasoumowsky s 
name is attached form op. 59, and are in F, E 
minor, and C respectively. The first of the three, 
as already mentioned, was begun May 26, 1806, 
and the whole three were finished and had 
evidently been played before Feb. 27, 1807, the 
date of a letter in the Allg. mus. Zeitung de 
scribing their characteristics. 3 They were pub 
lished in Jan. 1808 (Vienna Bureau des Arts ; 
Pesth, Schreyvogel), and the dedication (on the 
Parts) begins Trois Quatuors tres humblement 
dedides a son Excellence Monsieur le Comte, 
etc. Beethoven himself mentions them in a letter 
to Count Brunswick, which he has dated May 1 1 , 
1806, but which Mr. Thayer (iii. u) sees reason 
to date 1807. 

The Quartet in F is the one which Bernard 
Romberg is said to have thrown on the ground 
and trampled upon as unplayable. The slow 
movement is entitled in the Sketchbook Einen 
Trauerweiden oder Akazienbaum aufsGrabmeines 
Bruders A weeping willow or acacia tree over 
the grave of my brother. But which brother ? Au 
gust died in 1783, 23 years before, Carl not till 
10 years after, and Johann not till 1848. Carl s 
marriage-contract had however been signed only 
on May 25, 1806. Is it possible that this in 
scription is a Beethovenish joke on the occasion ? 
If so, he began in fun and ended in earnest. 
Mendelssohn was accustomed to say that this 
Quartet, and that in F minor (op. 95), were the 
most Beethovenish of all Beethoven s works. 
The finale has a Russian theme in D minor for 
its principal subject : 

Thme russe. Allegro. 


2 Schindler, i. 233 (quoted by Thayer, iii. 321). The statement under 
BEETHOVEN [vol. i. 192 a] is incorrect, 

3 They are again alluded to in the number for May 5 as more and 
more successful, and possibly to be soon published ; and then, with 
astonishing na ivett, follows Eberl s newest compositions, too, ara 
anticipated with great pleasure I 



The 2nd of the three has a Russian theme in 
E major as the Trio of its third movement : 

(Allegretto). Theme russe. 





It would be interesting to know the original 
names and forms of these two themes: they do 
not appear to have been yet identified. [G.] 

RATAPLAN, like Rub-a-dub, appears to be 
an imitative word for the sound of the drum, as 
TAN-TA-RA is for that of the trumpet, and Tootle- 
tootle for the flute. 1 It is hardly necessary to 
mention its introduction by Donizetti in the 
Fille du Regiment, or by Meyerbeer in the 
Huguenots ; and every Londoner is familiar with 
it in Sergeant Bouncer s part in Sullivan s Cox 
and Box, especially in his first song, Yes, yes, 
in those merry days. Rataplan, der kleine 
Tambour is the title of a Singspiel by Pillwitz, 
which was produced at Bremen in 1831, and had 
a considerable run both in North and South 
Germany between that year and 1836. [G.] 

RAUZZINI, VENANZIO, born 174^, in Rome, 
where he made his dbut in 1765, captivating 
his audience by his fine voice, clever acting, 
and prepossessing appearance. In 1767 he 
sang in Vienna, and then accepted an engage 
ment in Munich, where four of his operas were 
performed. In London he made his first ap 
pearance in 1774. Here also he distinguished 
himself as an excellent teacher of singing, Miss 
Storace, Braham, Miss Poole (afterwards Mrs. 
Dickons), and Incledon, being among his pupils. 
In 1778 an d 79 ne gave subscription concerts 
with the violinist Lamotte, when they were as 
sisted by such eminent artistes as Miss Harrop, 
Signor Rovedino, Fischer, Cervetto, Stamitz, 
Decamp, and Clementi. He also gave brilliant 
concerts in the new Assembly Rooms (built 1771) 
at Bath, where he took up his abode on leaving 
London. Here he invited Haydn and Dr. Burney 
to visit him, and the three spent several pleasant 
days together in 1794. On this occasion Haydn 
wrote a four-part canon (or more strictly a round) 
to an epitaph on a favourite dog buried in Rauz- 
zini s garden, Turk was a faithful dog and not a 
man. a Rauzzini s operas performed in London 
were La Regina di Golconda (1775); Armida 
(1778); Creusa in Delfo (1782); and La 
Vestale (1787). He composed string-quartets, 
sonatas for PF., Italian arias and duets, and 
English songs ; also a Requiem produced at the 
little Haymarket Theatre in 1801, by Dr. Arnold 
and Salomon. He died, universally regretted, at 
Bath in 1810. His brother 

MATTEO, born in Rome 1754, made his first 
appearance at Munich in 1772, followed his 
brother to England, and settled in Dublin, where 

1 Other forms are Patapataplan, Palalalalan, Bumberumbumbum. 
gee the Dictionnaire Encyclope dique of Sachs & Villatte. 

2 For this Round see Pohl, Haydn in London, p. 276. 


he produced an opera, II Re pastore. He 
employed himself in teaching singing, and died 
in 1 79 1. [C.F.P.] 

RAVENSCROFT, JOHN, one of the Tower 
Hamlets waits, and violinist at Goodman s Fields 
Theatre, was noted for his skill in the composi 
tion of hornpipes, a collection of which he pub 
lished. Two of them are printed in Hawkins s 
History. He died about 1 740. [W.H.H.] 

about 1582, was a chorister of St. Paul s under 
Edward Pearce, and graduated at Cambridge in 
1607. I B J 6o9 he edited and published Pam- 
melia. Musickes Miscellanie: or Mixed Varietie 
of pleasant Roundelayes and delightful Catches 
of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Parts in one the earliest 
collection of rounds, catches and canons printed 
in this country. A second impression appeared 
in 1618. Later in 1609 he put forth Deutero- 
melia ; or the Second Part of Musick s Melodic, 
or melodius Musicke of Pleasant Roundelaies; 
K. H. mirth, or Freemen s Songs and such de- 
lightfull Catches ; containing the catch, Hold 
thy peace, thou knave, sung in Shakspere s 
Twelfth Night. In 1611 he published Me- 
lismata. Musicall Phansies, fitting the Court, 
Citie, and Countrey Humours, to 3, 4 and 5 
Voyces. In 1611 he published A Briefe Dis 
course of the true (but neglected) use of 
Charact ring the Degrees by their Perfection, 
Imperfection, and Diminution in Mensurable 
Musicke against the Common Practise and Cus- 
tome of these Times ; Examples whereof are 
exprest in the Harmony of 4 Voyces Concerning 
the Pleasure of 5 usuall Recreations. I. Hunt 
ing. 2. Hawking. 3. Dancing. 4. Drinking. 
5. Enamouring a vain attempt to resuscitate 
an obsolete practice. The musical examples were 
composed by Edward Pearce, John Bennet, and 
Ravenscroft himself. In 1621 he published the 
work by which he is best known, The Whole 
Booke of Psalmes : With the Hymnes Evan- 
gelicall and Spirituall. Composed into 4 parts 
by Sundry Authors with severall Tunes as have 
been and are usually sung in England, Scotland, 
Wales, Germany, Italy, France, and the Nether 
lands. Another edition newly corrected and 
enlarged was published in 1633. Four anthems 
or motets by Ravenscroft are among the MSS. 
in the library of Christ Church, Oxford. The date 
of his death is not known. It is said by some 
to have been about 1630, and by others about 
1635- [W.H.H.] 

RAVINA, JEAN HENRT, a pianoforte com 
poser, was born May 20, 1818, at Bourdeaux, 
where his mother was a prominent musician. At 
the instance of Rode and Ziminermann the lad 
was admitted to the Conservatoire of Paris in 
1831. His progress was rapid 2nd prize for 
PF. in 1832; 1st prize for the same in 1834; 
1st for harmony and accompaniment in 1835, 
a joint professorship of PF. Nov. 1835. I n Feb. 
1837 ne l e ft ^ e Conservatoire and embarked on 
the world as a virtuoso and teacher. He has 
resided exclusively at Paris, with the exception 


of a journey to Russia in 1853, and Spain in 
1871. He received the Legion of Honour in 
1 86 1. His compositions of which the latest is 
op. 80 are almost all salon pieces, many of them 
very favourite in their time, graceful and effective, 
but with no permanent qualities. He has also 
published a 4-hand arrangement of Beethoven s 
nine symphonies. Ravina is still living in Paris. 
The above sketch is indebted to M. Pougin s sup 
plement to Fe tis. [G-] 
about 1703, was a pupil of Dr. Pepusch, and 
a member of Handel s orchestra at both opera 
and oratorio performances. On March 14, 1753? 
he was appointed organist of Chelsea Hospital. 
He died in 1 767. His son, ROBERT, born in 1 742, 
was a pupil of his father, and afterwards of Bar- 
santi. At 17 he was appointed musical page to 
the Duke of York, with whom he travelled on 
the continent until his death in 1767, when he 
returned to England and became a violinist in 
the King s band and Queen s private band. He 
died in 1814, leaving a son, THOMAS A., born 
in 17/5, who studied music under his father 
and Dittenhofer. He composed some instru 
mental music performed at the Professional 
Concerts, became a violinist at the Opera and 
the best concerts, and a teacher of the pianoforte, 
violin and thorough-bass. He composed and 
arranged many pieces for the pianoforte, and 
some songs. [W.H.H.] 

RAYMOND AND AGNES, a grand ro 
mantic English Opera in 3 acts ; words by E. 
Fitzball, music by E. J. Loder. Produced at St. 
James s Theatre, London, June n, 1859. [G-.] 

RE. The second note of the natural scale in 
solmisation and in the nomenclature of France 
and Italy, as Ut (or Do) is the first, Mi the 
third, and Fa the fourth 

r/ queant laxis resonare film s 
Ifrra gestorum, /amuli tuorum. 

By the Germans and English it is called D. 

The number of double vibrations per second 
for D is ; Paris diapason 580-7; London 
Philharmonic pitch 606-2. [G.] 

RE A, WILLIAM, born in London March 25, 
1827; when about ten years old learnt the 
pianoforte and organ from Mr. PITTMAN, for 
whom he acted as deputy for several years. In 
about 1843 he was appointed organist to Christ- 
church, Watney Street, and at the same time 
studied the pianoforte, composition, and instru 
mentation under Sterndale Bennett, appearing 
as a pianist at the concerts of the Society oi 
British Musicians in 1845. On leaving Christ- 
church he was appointed organist to St. Andrew 
Undershaft. In 1849 he went to Leipzig, 
where his masters were Moscheles and Richter ; 
lie subsequently studied under Dreyschock at 
Prague. On his return to England, Mr. Rea.gave 
chamber concerts at the Beethoven Rooms, and 
became (1853) organist to the Harmonic Union. 
In 1856 he founded the London Polyhymnian 
Choir, to the training of which he devoted much 
time, and with excellent results; at the same time 



ae conducted an amateur orchestral society. In 
1858 he was appointed organist at St. Michael s, 
Stock well, and in 1860 was chosen by competition 
organist to the corporation of Newcastle on Tyne, 
where he also successively filled the same post at 
three churches in succession, and at the Elswick 
Road Chapel. At Newcastle Mr. Rea has worked 
hard to diffuse a taste for good music, though 
he has not met with the encouragement which 
his labours and enthusiasm deserve. Besides 
weekly organ and pianoforte recitals, he formed 
a choir of eighty voices, which in 1862 was 
amalgamated with the existing Sacred Harmonic 
Society of Newcastle. In 1867 he began a 
series of excellent orchestral concerts which were 
carried on every season for nine years, when 
he was compelled to discontinue them, owing to 
the pecuniary loss which they entailed. In 1876 
he gave two performances of Antigone at the 
Theatre Royal, and since then has devoted most 
of his time to training his choir (200 voices), 
the Newcastle Amateur Vocal Society, and other 
Societies on the Tyne and in Sunderland, be 
sides giving concerts at which the best artists 
have performed. Mr. Rea s published works com 
prise four songs, three organ pieces, and some 
anthems. At the close of 1880 he was appointed 
organist of St. Hilda s, S. Shields. [W.B.S.] 

READING, JOHN. There were three mu 
sicians of these names, all organists. The first 
was appointed Junior Vicar choral of Lincoln 
Cathedral, Oct. 10, 1667, Poor Vicar, Nov. 28, 
1667, and Master of the Choristers, June 7, 1670. 
He succeeded Randolph Jewett as organist of 
Winchester Cathedral in 1675, and retained the 
office until 1681, when he was appointed organist 
of Winchester College. He died in 1692. He was 
the composer of the Latin Graces sung before 
and after meat at the annual College election 
times, and the well-known Winchester School 
song, Dulce Domum ; all printed in Dr. Philip 
Hayes s Harmonia Wiccamica. The second 
was organist of Chichester Cathedral from 1674 
to 1720. Several songs included in collections 
published between 1681 and 1688 are probably 
by one or other of these two Readings. The third, 
born 1677, was a chorister of the Chapel Royal 
under Dr. Blow. In 1700 he became organist of 
Dulwich College. He was appointed Junior Vicar 
and Poor Clerk of Lincoln Cathedral, Nov. 21, 
1702, Master of the Choristers, Oct. 5, 1703, and 
Instructor of the choristers in vocal music, Sept. 
28, 1704. He appears to have resigned these 
posts in 1707 and to have returned to London, 
where he became organist of St. John, Hackney, 
St. Dunstan in the West, St. Mary Woolchurchaw, 
Lombard Street, and St. Mary Woolnoth. He pub 
lished A Book of New Songs (after the Italian 
manner) with Symphonies and a Thorough Bass 
fitted to the Harpsichord, etc., and, whilst 
organist of Hackney, A Book of New Anthems. 
He was also the reputed composer of the hymn 
Adeste fideles. He died Sept. 2, 1764. 

There was another person named Reading, 
who was a singer at Drury Lane in the latter 
part of the I7th century. In June 1695 he and 



Pate, another singer at the theatre, were removed 
from their places and fined 20 marks each for 
being engaged in a riot at the Dog Tavern, Drury 
Lane, but were soon after reinstated. 

A Rev. John Reading, D.D., Prebendary of 
Canterbury Cathedral, preached there a sermon 
in defence of church music, and published it in 
1663. [W.H.H.] 

REAL FUGUE. That species of Fugue in 
which the intervals of the Subject and Answer 
correspond exactly, without reference as in Tonal 
Fugue to the Tonic and Dominant of the scale 
in which they are written. Thus, in the follow 
ing example, the Answer is an exact reproduction 
of the Subject, in the fifth above : 



whereas, according to the laws of Tonal Fugue, 
the Tonic in the Subject should have been re 
presented in the Answer by the Dominant, and 
vice versd ; thus 




Real Fugue is an invention of much older date 
than its tonal analogue ; and is, indeed, the only 
kind of Fugue possible in the Ecclesiastical Modes. 
For, in those antient tonalities, the Dominant 
differs widely from that of the modern Scale, and 
exercises widely different functions ; insomuch 
that the Answer to a given Subject, constructed 
with reference to it, would, in certain Modes, be 
so distorted as to set all recognition at defiance. 
The idea of such a Dominant as that upon 
which we now base our harmonic combinations, 
is one which could never have suggested itself 
to the mediaeval contrapuntist. Accordingly, 
the composers of the I5th and i6th centuries 
regulated their Subjects and Answers in con 
formity with the principles of the system of 
Hexachords. When a strict Answer was in 
tended, its Solmisation was made to correspond 
exactly, in one Hexachord, with that of the 
Subject in another. Where this uniformity of 
Solmisation was wanting as was necessarily the 
case when the Answer was made in any other 
Interval than that of the Fourth or Fifth above 
or below the Subject the reply was regarded 
as merely an imitative one. 1 [See HEXACHOBD.] 
But, even in imitative replies, the laws of Real 
Fugue required that a Fifth should always be 
answered by a Fifth, and a Fourth by a Fourth ; 
the only license permitted being the occasional 
substitution of a Tone for a Semitone, or a Major 
for a Minor third. In practice both the strict 
and the imitative Answer were constantly em 
ployed in the same composition : e.g. in the Kyrie 
of Palestrina s Missa Brevis, already quoted as 
an example under HEXACHORD, the Subject is 
given out by the Alto in the Hexachord of C ; 

1 See the admirable exposition of the Laws of Fugue, by J. J. Fux, 
"Gradus ad Parnassum, Vienna 1725, pp. 143, et seg. 


answered strictly by the Bass in that of F; again 
answered, in the same Hexachord, by the Treble; 
and then imitated, first by the Tenor, and after 
wards by the Bass, with a whole Tone, instead 
of a Semitone, between the second and third 
notes. Among the best writers of the best period 
of Art we find these mixed Fugues which 
would now be called Fugues of Imitation in 
much more frequent use than those which con 
tinued strict throughout, and forming the founda 
tion of some of the finest polyphonic Masses and 

When the Imitation, instead of breaking off at 
the end of the few bars which form the Subject, 
continues uninterruptedly throughout an entire 
movement, the composition is called a Perpetual 
Fugue, or, as we should now say, a Canon. A 
detailed classification of the different varieties 
of Real Fugue, perpetual, interrupted, strict, or 
free, in use during the I4th and I5th centuries, 
would be of very little practical service, since the 
student who would really master the subject must 
of necessity consult the works of the great masters 
for himself. In doing this, he will find no lack 
of interesting examples, and will do well to begin 
by making a careful analysis of Palestrina s 
Missa ad Fugam, which differs from the work 
published by Alfieri and Adrien de Lafage under 
the title of Missa Canonica, in one point only, 
and that a very curious one. In the Missa 
Canonica, in the First or Dorian mode, two 
Voices lead off a Perpetual Real Fugue, which 
the two remaining Voices supplement with an 
other, distinct from, but ingeniously interwoven 
with it ; the two Subjects proceeding uninter 
ruptedly together until the end of each several 
Movement a style of composition which is tech 
nically termed Canon, four in two. In the 
Missa ad Fugam, in the Seventh Mode, the 
four Voices all start with the same Subject, but 
after a few bars separate themselves into two 
Choirs, each of which diverges into a Perpetual 
Real Fugue of its own, which continues unin 
terruptedly to the end of the Movement, after 
the manner of the Missa Canonica. 2 

Though less esteemed by modern Composers 
than Tonal Fugue, Real Fugue is still practised 
with success even in modern tonalities. John 
Sebastian Bach has left us many masterly ex 
amples, both for Voices as in the Mass in B 
minor and for the Organ. Handel has done 
the same in some of his finest Choruses, as The 
earth swallowed them in Israel in ^gypt, 
and the matchless Amen in the Messiah; 
while in no less than five of his six beautiful 
Fugues for the Pianoforte (op. 25), Mendelssohn 
has forsaken the Tonal for the Real method of 

The converse practice, on the part of antient 
Composers, is exceedingly rare, though instances 
of pure Tonal Fugue may be found, even in the 

2 Choron s edition of the Missa ad Fugam is out of print; but 
several copies of the work are preserved in the Library of the British 
Museum. [See KACCOLTA GENERALS.] Albrechtsberger gives the 
Second Agnus Dei as an example in his Griindliche Anweisung zur 
Composition, vol. ii. p. 330 of Merrick s Eng. Transl. (Cocks & Co.) 
The Missa Canonica is printed in the Cinq Messes de Palestrina, 
edited by Adrien de Lafage (Paris, Launer ; London, Schott & Co.) 




1 6th century ; as in Palestrina s beautiful, though 
almost unknown Madrigal, Vestiva i colli. l 


-I I- 



Ves - ti-va i col - li 



I s> r j ._[_ , -p 


Ves - ti - va i col - li 

The subject, in the Hypodorian Mode, here 
passes directly from the note which, in modern 
Music, would be the Dominant, to the Final ; 
while the Answer, in the Dorian Mode, proceeds 
from the Final to the Authentic Dominant a 
method of treatment which anticipates the sup 
posed invention of Modern Fugue by more than 
a century. Other instances may occasionally be 
found among the works of cinque cento Com 
posers as in the Qui tollis of J. L. Hassler s 
Missa Dixit Maria 2 but they are very un 
common ; and indeed it is only in certain Modes 
that they are possible. [W.S.R.] 

REAY, SAMUEL, born at Hexham, Mar. 17, 
1828 ; was noted for his fine voice and careful 
singing as a chorister at Durham Cathedral; and 
under Henshaw the organist, and Penson the pre 
centor there, became acquainted with much music 
outside the regular Cathedral services. After 
leaving the choir he had organ lessons from Mr. 
Stimpson of Birmingham, and then became suc 
cessively organist at St. Andrew s, Newcastle 
(1845); St. Peter s, Tiverton (1847); St. John s, 
Hampstead (1854) St. Saviour s, Southwark 
(1856) ; St. Stephen s, Paddington ; Radley Col 
lege (1859, succeeding Dr. E. G. Monk) ; Bury, 
Lancashire (1861) ; and in 1864 was appointed 
Song-schoolmaster and organist of the parish 
Church, Newark, a post which he still holds. In 
1871 Mr. Reay graduated at Oxford as Mus. 
Bac. In 1879 he distinguished himself by pro 
ducing at the Bromley and Bow Institute, 
London, two comic cantatas of J. S. Bach s 
( Caffee-cantate and Bauern-cantate ), which 
were performed there certainly for the first time 
in England on Oct. 27, under his direction, to 
English words of his own adaptation. Mr. Reay 
is noted as a fine accompanyist and extempore 
player on the organ. He has published a Morn 
ing and Evening Service in F, several anthems, 
and 2 madrigals (all Novello) ; but is best known 
as a writer of part-songs, some of which ( The 
clouds that wrap, The dawn of day ) are de 
servedly popular. [G.] 

REBEC (Ital. Ribeca, Rilelia , Span. Rate, 
Rabel.) The French name (.said to be of Arabic 
origin) of that primitive stringed instrument 
which was in use throughout western Europe in 
the middle ages, and was the parent of the viol and 
violin, and is identical with the German geige 
and the English fiddle ; in outline something 

1 Printed, with English words, beginning, Sound out my voice, in 
N. Yonge s Musica transalpina (Lond. 1558). 

2 Nuremberg, 1599. Keprinted in vol. i. of Proske s Mus ca 
divina. Katisbon 1853. 


like the mandoline, of which it was probably the 
parent. It was shaped like the half of a pear, and 
was everywhere solid except at the two extremities, 
the upper of which was formed into a peg-box 
identical with that still in use, and surmounted 
by a carved human head. The lower half was 
considerably cut down in level, thus leaving the 
upper solid part of the instrument to form a 
natural fingerboard. The portion thus cut down 
was scooped out, and over the cavity thus formed 
was glued a short pine bell} 7 , pierced with two 
trefoil -shaped soundholes, and fitted with a 

bridge and sounclpost. The player either rested 
the curved end of the instrument lightly against 
the breast, or else held it like the violin, between 
the chin and the collar-bone, and bowed it like 
the violin. It had three stout gut strings, tuned 
like the lower strings of the violin (A. D, G). 
Its tone was loud and harsh, emulating the female 
voice, according to a French poem of the I3th 
century : 

Quidam rebecam arcuabant, 
Muliebrem vocem confingentes. 

An old Spanish poem speaks of el rabe* gri- 
tador, or the squalling rebec. This powerful 
tone made it useful in the mediaeval orchestra ; 
and Henry the Eighth employed the rebec in 
his state band. It was chiefly used, however, to 
accompany dancing ; and Shakspere s musicians 
in Romeo and Juliet, Hugh Rebeck, Simon 
Catling (Catgut), and James Soundpost, were 
undoubtedly rebec-players. After the inven 
tion of instruments of the viol and violin type 
it was banished to the streets of towns and to 
rustic festivities, whence the epithet jocund 
applied to it in Milton s L Allegro. It was 
usually accompanied by the drum or tambourine. 
It was in vulgar use in France in the last cen 
tury, as is proved by an ordinance issued by 
Guignon in his official capacity as Roi des 
Violons in 1742, in which street-fiddlers are 
prohibited from using anything else; II leur 
sera permis d y jouer d une espece cVinstrument 
a trois cordes seulement, et connu sous le nom. 




de rebec, sans qu ils puissent se servir d un 
violon a quatre cordes sous quelque pre"texte que 
ce soit. A similar order is extant, dated 1628, 
in which it is forbidden to play the treble or bass 
violin, dans les cabarets et les mauvais lieux, 
but only the rebec. The rebec was extinct in 
England earlier than in France. It is now totally 
disused, and no specimen is known to exist. Re- 
presentations of it in sculpture, painting, manu 
scripts, etc., are abundant. The illustration is 
from an Italian painting of the I3th cent, engraved 
in Vidal s Instruments a Archet. [E. J.P.] 

REBEL, JEAN FERRT, born in Paris, 1669. 
After a precocious childhood entered the Opera 
as a violinist, speedily became accompanyist, and 
then leader. In 1 703 he produced Ulysse, opera 
in 5 acts with prologue, containing a pas seul for 
Franoise PreV6t, to an air called .Le Caprice, for 
violin solo. The opera failed, but the Caprice 
remained for years the test-piece of the ballerine 
at the Ope"ra. After this success, Rebel composed 
violin solos for various other ballets, such as La 
Boutade, Les Caracteres de la Danse, Terpsi 
chore, LaFantaisie, LesPlaisirs Champetres, 
and Les Elements. Several of these were en 
graved, as were his sonatas for the vioiln. Rebel 
was one of the 24 violons, and compositeur de 
la chambre to the King. He died in Paris, 
1747. His son, 

FRANCIS, born in Paris, June 19, 1701, at 
13 played the violin in the Ope"ra orchestra. He 
thus became intimate with Fra^ois Francoeur, 
and the two composed conjointly, and produced 
at the Acaddmie, the following operas : Py- 
rame et Thisbe" (1726); Tarsis et Zelie 
(1728); Scanderheg (1735); Ballet de la 
Paix (1738) ; Les Augustales and f Le Re- 
tour du Roi (1744); Zelindor, Le TropheV 
(in honour of Fontenoy, 1745) ; Ismene (1750); 
Les Ge"nies tute laires (1751); and Le Prince 
de Noisy (1760) ; most of which were composed 
for court f6tes or public rejoicings. 

From 1733 to 44 Rebel and Francoeur were 
joint leaders of the Academic orchestra, and in 
1753 were appointed managers. They soon how 
ever retired in disgust at the petty vexations 
they were called upon to endure. Louis XV. 
made them surintendants of his music, with the 
order of St. Michel. In March 1757 these 
inseparable friends obtained the privilege of the 
Ope"ra, and directed it for ten years on their own 
account, with great administrative ability. 

Rebel died in Paris Nov. 7, 1775. He com 
posed some cantatas, a Te Deum, and a De 
Profundis, performed at the Concerts spirituels, 
but all his music is now forgotten, excepting a 
lively air in the first finale of Pyrame et ThisbeV 
which was adapted to a much-admired pas seul 
of Mile, de Camargo, thence became a popular 
contredanse the first instance of such adapta 
tion and in this form is preserved in the Clef du 
Caveau under the title of La Camargo. [G.C.] 

hausen, Oct. 21, 1807 ; at 20 entered the Conser 
vatoire, studying counterpoint and fugue under 


Seuriot and Jelensperger, and composition unde? 
Lesueur. His simple manners and refined tastes, 
high sense of honour, and cultivated mind, gave 
him the entree to salons where the conversation 
turned on art and intellectual subjects, instead of 
on the commonplaces of ordinary circles. This led 
him to compose much chamber-music, and to set 
poems by the best French poets of the period. 
The success of these elegant and graceful works 
induced him to attempt symphony and opera. 
His music to the 2nd act of the charming ballet 
Le Diable amoureux (Sept. 23, 1840) excited 
considerable attention, and was followed at the 
OpeVa-Comique by La Nuit de Noel, 3 acts 
(Feb. 9, 1848), Le Pere Gaillard, 3 acts (Sept. 
7, 1852), Les Papillotes de M. Benolt, I act 
(Dec. 28, 1853), and Les Dames Capitaines 
3 acts (June 3, 1857). In these works he strove 
to counteract the tendency towards noise and 
bombast then so prevalent both in French and 
Italian opera, and to show how much may be 
made out of the simple natural materials of the 
old French ope ra-comique by the judicious use 
of modern orchestration. 

In 1851 he was appointed Professor of har 
mony at the Conservatoire, and in 1853 the 
well-merited success of Le Pere Gaillard pro 
cured his election to the Institut as Onslow s 
successor. Soon after this he renounced the 
theatre, and returned to chamber-music He 
also began to write on music, and his Trait 
d Harmonic (1862), now in its 3rd edition, is 
without comparison the best work of its kind 
in France. The outline is simple and methodical, 
the classification of the chords easy to follow and 
well-connected, the explanations luminously clear, 
the exercises practical and well calculated to 
develop musical taste in a word, everything 
combines to make it the safest and most valuable 
of instruction-books. The second part especially, 
dealing with accidental notes or, notes foreign 
to the constitution of chords contains novel 
views, and observations throwing light upon 
points and rules of harmony which before were 
obscure and confused. 

In 1862 M. Reber succeeded HaleVy as Pro 
fessor of composition at the Conservatoire ; since 
1871 he was also Inspector of the succursales or 
branches of the Conservatoire. He died in Paris, 
after a short illness, Nov. 24, 1880, and was 
succeeded as Professor by M. Saint-Saens. 

His compositions comprise 4 symphonies, a 
quintet and 3 quartets for strings, I PF. ditto, 
7 trios, duets for PF. and violin, and PF. 
pieces for 2 and 4 hands. Portions of his ballet 
Le Diable amoureux have been published for 
orchestra, and are performed at concerts. In 
1875 he produced a cantata called Roland, but 
Le Me"netrier h la cour/ ope ra-comique, and 
Nairn, grand opera in 5 acts, have never been 
performed, though the overtures are engraved. 
His best vocal works are his melodies for a single 
voice, but he has composed choruses for 3 and 4 
men s voices, and some sacred pieces. 

There is an admirable portrait of this dis 
tinguished composer by Henri Lehmann. [G.C.] 



RECITAL, a term which has come into use 
in England to signify a performance of solo music 
by one instrument and one performer. It was 
probably first used by Liszt at his performance 
at the Hanover Square Rooms, June 9, 1840, 
though as applying to the separate pieces and 
not to the whole performance. The advertise 
ment of the concert in question says that 
M. Liszt will give Recitals on the Pianoforte 
of the following pieces. The name has since been 
adopted by Mr. Charles Halle and others. 

The term Opera Recital is used for a concert 
in which the music of an opera is sung without 
costume or acting. [G.] 

RECITATIVE (Ital. Recitative; Germ. Re- 
citativ; Fr. Rtcitatif; from the Latin recitare). 
A species of declamatory Music, extensively 
used in those portions of an Opera, an Oratorio, 
or a Cantata, in which the action of the Drama 
is too rapid, or the sentiment of the Poetry too 
changeful, to adapt itself to the studied rhythm 
of a regularly-constructed Aria. 

The invention of Recitative marks a crisis in 
the History of Music, scarcely less important 
than that to which we owe the discovery of 
Harmony. Whether the strange conception in 
which it originated was first clothed in tangible 
form by Jacopo Peri, or Emilio del Cavaliere, 
is a question which has never been decided. 
There is, however, little doubt, that both these 
bold revolutionists assisted in working out the 
theory upon which that conception was based ; 
for, both are known to have been members of 
that aesthetic brotherhood, which met in Flo 
rence during the later years of the i6th century, 
at the house of Giovanni Bardi, for the purpose 
of demonstrating the possibility of a modern 
revival of the Classic Drama, in its early purity ; 
and it is certain that the discussions in which 
they then took part led, after a time, to the 
invention of the peculiar style of Music we are 
now considering. The question, therefore, nar 
rows itself to one of priority of execution only. 
Now, the earliest specimens of true Recitative 
we possess are to be found in Peri s Opera, 
Euridice, and Emilio s Oratorio, LaRappre- 
sentazione dell Anima e del Corpo, both printed 
in the year 1600. The Oratorio was first pub 
licly performed in the February of that year, at 
Rome : the Opera>, in December, at Florence. 
But Peri had previously written another Opera, 
Dafhe, in exactly the same style, and caused 
it to be privately performed, at the Palazzo 
Corsi, in Florence, in 1597. Emilio del Cava 
liere, too, is known to have written at least 
three earlier pieces II Satiro/ La Dispera- 
zione di Fileno, and II Giuoco della Cieca. 
No trace of either of these can now be found : 
and, in our doubt as to whether they may not 
have contained true Recitatives, we can scarcely 
do otherwise than ascribe the invention to Peri, 
who certainly did use them in Dafhe, and 
whose style is, moreover, far more truly de 
clamatory than the laboured and half rhythmic 
manner of his possible rival. [See OPERA, vol. ii. 
498-500 ; ORATORIO, vol. ii. 534, 535.] 



Thus first launched upon the world, for the 
purpose of giving a new impetus to the progress 
of Art, this particular Style of Composition has 
undergone less change, during the last 280 years, 
than any other. What Simple or Unaccom 
panied Recitative (Recitative secco) is to-day, it 
was, in all essential particulars, in the time of 
Euridice. 5 Then, as now, it was supported by 
an unpretentious Thorough-Bass (Basso con- 
tinuo), figured, in order that the necessary Chords 
might be filled in upon the Harpsichord, or 
Organ, without the addition of any kind of Sym 
phony, or independent Accompaniment. Then, 
as now, its periods were moulded with reference 
to nothing more than the plain rhetorical de 
livery of the words to which they were set ; 
melodious or rhythmic phrases being everywhere 
carefully avoided, as not only unnecessary, but 
absolutely detrimental to the desired effect so 
detrimental, that the difficulty of adapting good 
Recitative to Poetry written in short rhymed 
verses is almost insuperable, the jingle of the 
metre tending to crystallise itself in regular form 
with a persistency which is rarely overcome ex 
cept by the greatest Masters. Hence it is, that 
the best Poetry for Recitative is Blank Verse : 
and hence it is, that the same Intervals, the 
same Progressions, and the same Cadences, have 
been used over and over again, by Composers, 
who, in other matters, have scarcely a trait in 
common. We shall best illustrate this by select 
ing a few set forms from the inexhaustible store 
at our command, and shewing how these have 
been used by some of the greatest writers of the 
1 7th, 1 8th, and I9th centuries: premising that, 
in phrases ending with two or more reiterated 
notes, it has been long the custom to sing the 
first as an Appoggiatura, a note higher than the 
rest. We have shewn this in three cases, but 
the rule applies to many others. 


Typical forms. 
(&) (c) 

N N 






Examples of their occurrence. 

PERI (1600). (a) CAVALIERE (1600). 



chetra pungenti spini. 

se fu meglior pen-siero. 

6 ft 


in victo - 

(Sunp) Is - ra - el. 






(a) ^^jt^:^?: m +.-p. (c) |g--*- -*- . (1816). 

cur e - go te Pa - ter de - ce - pi ? 

vediam cosa scrive. S apre il bal - cone. 

""> ^ .f-. || 

-^ p= j2 (| : 

^-b^~ -- p- -B 


J. S. BACH (1734). 

? ^ IP F~U 

b * 

(6) (C) SPOHR(i8l 3 ). 

i Srlffr: 

gs-^t-^ u p M-5-^ -s *-,- 

^~&~ P"^^^* 1 1 - h "i g i* P F s*~^~~p j=- H 

S3Z * 1 II ^ 
they re- j oiced ex - ceedingly (Suns) ceed-ing-ly. 

1= ^ VJ~ P ^ ^ P- 

war das mein Ziel ? was Hohes du ersonnen ! 

"^~JZ 5 8~ 

e $ 
( ) 


1 T f^"" n"f ^ r- i* 1 J| 

(6) MENDELSSOHN (1836). 

7T~f- 1* m im JT~ff~r~|~~P 

= B- 

which shall be to all the people 

. r " 1 -f \> f ff* I (^ " B 

in Temples made with hands. 

*"p 1 n 

-1^ 11 

ft d tf 
() (*) 

F H 


HANDEL (1713). 

3 )?;, . j ^ -| 

6 B J 
^> ^ 

^ "k^^r zp~j*~L~ihr ~i v L 

Witt"-, r=-fl 

/f * sr sr= jT~ji F= 

il nemi - co trascorre A mi dunque Agi- lea ? 

and did nei - ther eat, nor drink. 

b 5 
-. () HAYDN (1798). 

gg: p=3qp4fr_p-^-H -tut*- 

*} - 3}*-^ F H 1 

i i f * 5 

(a) . p . WAGNER (i47). 

tff i*-* pfcE5E=EBi==!^=fc= 

praising God, and say -ing: (Sttnj) say -ing. 

*^ m6g Gott bei dei - nem Schwerte stehn! 

6 * 

-f~ H 



He made the stars at - so. 

^^~ -&- -- ^ =B- 

so oft aus Os - ten traf? 

1 J_L U 

* i * 

, } ( a ) (c) MOZART (1786). 

^ # 

Q -p- -*- - m -* /7\ 

che carta 6 quella ? Se il conte viene 
.r\: S . ... ^^ <^ ~ i n 

er - scheine hier zur Stell . 

3^ ; =5^==t- 

1^=. ^-^ 

__Q ( a ) (<- ) BEETHOVEN (io<). 

The universal acceptance of these, and similar 
figures, by Composers of all ages, from Peri down 
to Wagner, sufficiently proves their fitness for 
the purpose for which they were originally de 
signed. But, the staunch conservatism of Red- 
tativo secco goes even farther than this. Its Ac 
companiment has never changed. The latest 
Composers who have employed it have trusted, 
for its support, to the simple .Basso continuo, 
which neither Peri, nor Carissimi, nor Handel, 
nor Mozart, cared to reinforce by the introduction 

Ich murre nicht! besSnftigt wallt 

mein Blut. etc. 

3 p -=j M i r- LP- 

- If 51 " Hj* B 


I V 


of a fuller Accompaniment. The only modifi 
cation of the original idea which has found 
favour in modern times has been the substitution 
of Arpeggios, played by the principal Violoncello, 
for the Harmonies formerly filled in upon the 
Harpsichord, or Organ and we believe we are 
right in asserting that this device has never been 
extensively adopted in any other country than 
our own. Here it ppevailed exclusively for many 
years. A return has however lately been made 
to the old method by the employment of the 
Piano, first by Mr. Otto Goldschmidt at a per 
formance of Handel s L Allegro in 1863, and 
more recently by Dr. Stainer, at St. Paul s, in 
various Oratorios. 

Again, this simple kind of Recitative is as 
free, now, as it was in the first year of the 1 7th 
century, from the trammels imposed by the laws 
of Modulation. It is the only kind of Music 
which need not begin and end in the same Key. 
As a matter of fact, it usually begins upon some 
Chord not far removed from the Tonic Harmony 
of the Aria, or Concerted Piece, which preceded 
it ; and ends in, or near, the Key of that which is 
to follow : but its intermediate course is governed 
by no law whatever beyond that of euphony. 
Its Harmonies exhibit more variety, now, than 
they did two centuries ago ; but they are none 
the less free to wander wherever they please, 
passing through one Key after another, until 
they land the hearer somewhere in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the Key chosen for the next 
regularly-constructed Movement. Hence it is, 
that Recitatives of this kind are always written 
without the introduction of Sharps, or Flats, at 
the Signature ; since it is manifestly more con 
venient to employ any number of Accidentals 
that may be needed, than to place three or four 
Sharps at the beginning of a piece which is 
perfectly at liberty to end in seven Flats. 

But, notwithstanding the unchangeable cha 
racter of Becitativo secco, declamatory Music has 
not been relieved from the condition which im 
poses progress upon every really living branch 
of Art. As the resources of the Orchestra in 
creased, it became evident that they might be no 
less profitably employed, in the Accompaniment 
of highly impassioned Recitative, than in that 
of the Aria, or Chorus : and thus arose a new 
style of Rhetorical Composition, called Accom 
panied Recitative (Eecitativo stromentato), in 
which the vocal phrases, themselves unchanged, 
received a vast accession of power, by means of 
elaborate Orchestral Symphonies interpolated 
between them, or even by instrumental passages 
designed expressly for their support. The in 
vention of this new form of impassioned Mono 
logue is generally ascribed to Alessandro Scar 
latti (1659-1725), who used it with admirable 
effect, both in his Operas and his Cantatas ; 
but its advantages, in telling situations, were so 
obvious, that it was immediately adopted by 
other Composers, and at once recognised as a 
legitimate form of Art not, indeed, as a sub 
stitute for Simple Recitative, which has always 
been retained for the ordinary business of the 



Stage, but, as a means of producing powerful 
effects, in Scenes, or portions of Scenes, in which 
the introduction of the measured Aria would 
be out of place. 

It will be readily understood, that the sta 
bility of Simple Recitative was not communicable 
to the newer style. The steadily increasing 
weight of the Orchestra, accompanied by a 
correspondent increase of attention to Orchestral 
Effects, exercised an irresistible influence over 
it. Moreover, time has proved it to be no 
less sensitive to changes of School, and Style, 
than the Aria itself ; whence it frequently happens 
that a Composer may be as easily recognised by 
his Accompanied Recitatives as by his regularly- 
constructed Movements. Scarlatti s Accompani 
ments exhibit a freedom of thought immeasur 
ably in advance of the age in which he lived. 
Sebastian Bach s Recitatives, though priceless, 
as Music, are more remarkable for the beauty of 
their Harmonies, than for that spontaneity of 
expression which is rarely attained by Composers 
unfamiliar with the traditions of the Stage. 
Handel s, on the contrary, though generally 
based upon the simplest possible harmonic found 
ation, exhibit a rhetorical perfection of which 
the most accomplished Orator might well feel 
proud : and we cannot doubt that it is to this 
high quality, combined with a never-failing 
truthfulness of feeling, that so many of them 
owe their deathless reputation to the unfair 
exclusion of many others, of equal worth, which 
still lie hidden among the unclaimed treasures of 
his long-forgotten Operas. Scarcely less success 
ful, in his own peculiar style, was Haydn, whose 
Creation and Seasons, owe half their charm 
to their pictorial Recitatives. Mozart was so 
uniformly great, in his declamatory passages, 
that it is almost impossible to decide upon their 
comparative merits ; though he has certainly 
never exceeded the perfection of Die Weiselehre 
dieser Knaben, or Non temer. Beethoven at 
tained his highest flights in Abscheulicher ! wo 
eilst du hin ? and Ah, perfido ! Spohr, in 
Faust, and Die letzten Dinge. Weber, in 
Der Freischutz. The works of Cimarosa, Ros 
sini, and Cherubini, abound in examples of Ac 
companied Recitative, which rival their Airs in 
beauty : and it would be difficult to point out 
any really great Composer who has failed to 
appreciate the value of Scarlatti s happy in 

Yet, even this invention failed, either to meet 
the needs of the Dramatic Composer, or to ex 
haust his ingenuity. It was reserved for Gluck 
to strike out yet another form of Recitative, 
destined to furnish a more powerful engine for 
the production of a certain class of effects than 
any that had preceded it. He it was, who first 
conceived the idea of rendering the Orchestra, 
and the Singer, to all outward appearance, en 
tirely independent of each other : of filling the 
Scene, so to speak, with a finished orchestral 
groundwork, complete in itself, and needing no 
vocal Melody to enhance its interest, while the 
Singer declaimed his part in tones, which, however 



artfully combined with the Instrumental Har 
mony, appeared to have no connection with it 
whatever ; the resulting effect resembling that 
which would be produced, if, during the inter 
pretation of a Symphony, some accomplished 
Singer were to soliloquise, aloud, in broken 
sentences, in such wise as neither to take an 
ostensible share in the performance, nor to 
disturb it by the introduction of irrelevant 
discord. An early instance of this may be 
found in Orfeo. After the disappearance of 
Euridice, the Orchestra plays an excited Cres 
cendo, quite complete in itself, during the course 
of which Orfeo distractedly calls his lost Bride, 
by name, in tones which harmonise with the 
Symphony, yet have not the least appearance of 
belonging to it. In Iphigenie en Tauride, 
and all the later Operas, the same device is 
constantly adopted ; and modern Composers have 
also used it, freely notably Spohr, who opens 
his Faust with a Scene, in which a Band 
behind the stage plays the most delightful of 
Minuets, while Faust and Mephistopheles sing 
an ordinary Recitative, accompanied by the usual 
Chords played by the regular Orchestra in front. 
By a process of natural, if not inevitable 
development^ this new style led to another, in 
which the Recitative, though still distinct from 
the Accompaniment, assumed a more measured 
tone, less melodious than that of the Air, yet 
more so, by far, than that used for ordinary 
declamation. Gluck has used this peculiar kind 
of Mezzo Recitativo with indescribable power, in 
the Prison Scene, in Iphigdnie en Tauride. 
Spohr employs it freely, almost to the exclusion 
of symmetrical Melody, in Die letzten Dinge. 
Wagner makes it his cheval de bataitle, intro 
ducing it everywhere, and using it, as an ever- 
ready medium, for the production of some of his 
most powerful Dramatic Effects. We have al 
ready discussed his theories on this subject, so 
fully, that it is unnecessary to revert to them 
here. [See OPERA, vol. ii. pp. 526-529.] Suffice 
it to say that his Melos, though generally pos 
sessing all the more prominent characteristics of 
pure Recitative, sometimes approaches so nearly 
to the rhythmic symmetry of the Song, that - 
as in the case of Nun sei bedankt, mein lieben 
Schwann ! it is difficult to say, positively, to 
which class it belongs. We may, therefore, fairly 
accept this as the last link in the chain which 
fills up the long gap between simple Recitative 
secco, and the finished Aria. [W.S.R.] 

RECITING-NOTE (Lat. Kepercussio, Nota 
dominans). A name sometimes given to that 
important note, in a Gregorian Tone, on which 
the greater portion of every Verse of a Psalm, or 
Canticle, is continuously recited. 1 

As this particular note invariably corresponds 
with the Dominant of the Mode in which the 
Psalm-Tone is written, the terms, Dominant, and 
Reciting-Note, are frequently treated as inter- 

i In accordance with this definition, the term should also be ap 
plied to the first notes of the first and third sections of a Double 
Ohaunt ; but, as the selection of these notes is subject to no rule 
whatever, the word is very rarely used in connection with them. 


vol. ii. p. 342.] The Reciting-Notes of the first 
eight Tones, therefore, will be A, F, C, A, C, A, 
D, and C, respectively. 

The Reciting-Note makes its appearance twice, 
in the course of every Tone : first, as the initial 
member of the Intonation, and, afterwards, as 
that of the Ending; as shewn in the following 
example, in which it is written, each time, in the 
form of a Large. 
Tone I. 

The only exception to the general rule is to be 
found in the Tonus Peregrinus (or Irregularis), 
in which the true Dominant of the Ninth Mode 
(E) is used for the first Reciting-Note, and D 
for the second. 

The Reciting-Notes of Tones III, V, VII, VIII, 
and IX, are so high that they cannot be sung, at 
their true pitch, without severely straining the 
Voice ; in practice, therefore, these Tones are 
almost always transposed. An attempt has been 
sometimes made so to arrange their respective 
pitches as to let one note generally A serve 
for all. This plan may, perhaps, be found practi 
cally convenient : but it shews very little concern 
for the expression of the words, which cannot but 
suffer, if the jubilant phrases of one Psalm are to 
be recited on exactly the same note as the almost 
despairing accents of another. [W. S. R.] 

RECORDER. An instrument of the flute 
family, now obsolete. Much fruitless ingenuity 
has been exercised as to the etymology of the 
name ; a specimen of which may be seen in 
the Pictorial Edition of Shakespeare, on the 
passage in Hamlet, Act iii, Sc. 2. The English 
verb to record may be referred to the Latin 
root Cor. Recordare Jesu pie forms the opening 
of one of the hymns of the ancient church, em 
bodied in the requiem or funeral mass. Here 
it has simply the sense of to remember 2 or to 
take note of a signification which has descended 
to the modern words Records and Recorder. But 
there was evidently from early times a parallel 
meaning of to sing, chant, or to warble like 
birds. This appears plainly in the beautiful 
passage of Shakespeare 3 

To the lute 

She sang, and made the night-bird mute 

That still records with moan. 

To record, says an old writer, among fowlers, 
is when the bird begins to tune or sing within 

It is possibly from this that the name of the 
instrument is derived. In any case it appears 
in one of the proverbis written about Henry 
VII. s time on the walls of the manor house 
at Leckingfield. It is there said to desire 
the mean part, but manifold fingering and stops 
bringeth high notes from its clear tones. In the 
catalogue of instruments left by Henry VIII. are 
Recorders of box, oak, and ivory, great and 

2 Compare the expression, to get by heart. 

3 Pericles, Act. iv. 


small, two base Recorders of walnut, and one 
great base Recorder. 

The passage in Hamlet referring to the instru 
ment (Act iii. Sc. 2), is well known, and in the 
Midsummer Night s Dream, Shakespeare says : 
He hath played on his prologue like a child on 
a recorder. Sir Philip Sidney describes how the 
shepherds, pulling out recorders, which possessed 
the place of pipes, accorded their music to the 
others voice. Bacon, in the Sylva Sylvarum, 
Century III. 221, goes a.t length into the mechan 
ism of the instrument. He says it is straight, 
and has a lesser and a greater bore both above 
and below ; that it requires very little breath 
from the blower, and that it has what he calls 
a fipple or stopper. He adds that the three 
uppermost holes yield one tone, which is a note 
lower than the tone of the first three. This last 
paragraph begets a suspicion that the learned 
writer was not practically acquainted with the 
method of playing this instrument. Milton 1 
speaks of 

The Dorian mood 
Of flutes and soft recorders. 

But the most definite information we possess 
as to the instrument is derived from two similar 
works published respectively in 1683 and 1686. 
The former is named The Genteel Companion, 
being exact directions for the Recorder, with a 
collection of the best and newest tunes and 
grounds extant. Carefully composed and gathered 
by Humphrey Salter, London. Printed for 
Richard Hunt and Humphrey Salter at the 
Lute in St. Paul s Churchyard, 1683. The latter 
is entitled The delightful Companion, or choice 
New Lessons for the Recorder or Flute, etc. 
London : printed for John Playford at his shop 
near the Temple Church, and for John Carr at 
his shop at the Middle Temple Gate 1 686. Second 
edition corrected. 

The first of these works has a frontispiece show 
ing a lady and gentleman sitting at a table, with 
two music books; the gentleman, with his legs 
gracefully crossed, is playing a recorder. The 
lower end rests on his knee, and the flageolet- 
shaped mouthpiece at the top end is between 
his lips. The book describes the peculiarity of 
the instrument, from which Mr. Chappell considers 
the name to have been derived namely, a hole 
situated in the upper part, between the mouth 
piece and the top hole for the fingers, and ap 
parently covered with thin bladder, or what is 
now termed goldbeater s skin, with a view of 
affecting the quality of tone. Two scales or 
gamuts are given in the usual G clef, the former 
containing 13, the other 16 notes. The lowest 
note in both cases is F, and the highest is D in 
the first case, and G in the second. There is no 



evidence of any keys for producing semitones, 
which are shown by the scales to have been 

i Paradise Lost, i. 550. 

obtained by cross-fingering. The keys in which 
the tunes are set comprise C, with G, D and A 
on the sharp side, F and Bb on the flat side. 

The edition of The delightful Companion 
printed three years later gives very explicitly the 
number of holes, but omits mention of the closed 
intermediate orifice. It will be remarked that 
Recorder and Flute are used synonymously 
on this title-page. Observe , says the writer, 
there is eight holes upon the pipe, viz. seven 
before, and one underneath which we call the 
uppermost, and is to be stopped with your 
thumb, the next with your forefinger, etc. Cross- 
fingerings are here also given to produce the 
first two or there intermediate semitones on 
either side of the natural key. 

Mr. Chappell quotes the late Mr. Ward as his 
authority for having seen old English flutes 
with a hole bored through the side in the upper 
part of the instrument, and covered with a thin 
piece of skin. An English Recorder of the 1 7th 
century was shown in the Loan Exhibition of 
Musical Instruments at South Kensington. It 
was 26 inches in length agreeing well with 
the frontispiece of the Genteel Companion and 
therefore not at all like the little pipe usually 
brought on the stage in Hamlet. Near the top, 
about an inch from the mouth-hole, it was fur 
nished with a hole covered with thin bladder as 
above described. [W.H.S.] 

RECTE ET RETRO, PER (Imitatio can- 
crizans, Imitatio per Motum retrogradum, Imi 
tatio recurrens ; Ital. Imitazione al Rovescio, o 
alia River sa ; Eng. Retrograde Imitation). 
A peculiar kind of Imitation, so constructed 
that the melody may be sung backwards as well 
as forwards ; as shewn in the following Two- 
Part Canon, which must be sung, by the First 
Voice, from left to right, and by the Second, 
from right to left, both beginning together, but 
at opposite ends of the Music. 




The earliest known instances of Retrograde 
Imitation are to be found among the works of 
the Flemish Composers of the I5th century, who 
delighted in exercising their ingenuity, not only 
upon the device itself, but also upon the Inscrip 
tions prefixed to the Canons in which it was 
employed. The Netherlanders were not, however, 
the only Musicians who indulged successfully in 
this learned species of recreation. Probably the 
most astonishing example of it on record is the 
Motet, 2 Diliges Dominum, written by William 
Byrd for four voices Treble, Alto, Tenor, and 
Bass and transmuted into an 8 -part composition, 
by adding a Second Treble, Alto, Tenor, and Bass, 
formed by singing the four First Parts backwards. 
It is scarcely possible to study this complication 
attentively, without feeling one s brain turn 

2 Keprinted by Hawkins, History. ch. 96. 



giddy ; yet, strange to say, the effect produced 
is less curious than beautiful. 

There is little doubt that the idea of singing 
music from right to left was first suggested by those 
strange Oracular Verses 1 which may be read either 
backwards or forwards, without injury to words 
or metre; such as the well-known Pentameter 
Roma tibi subito motibus ibit amor. 

or the cry of the Evil Spirit 

In girum imus noctu ecce ut consuminiur igni. 
The Canons were frequently constructed in exact 
accordance with the method observed in these 
curious lines ; and innumerable quaint conceits 
were invented, for the purpose of giving the 
Singers some intimation of the manner in which 
they were to be read. Canit more Hebraeorum 
was a very common Motto. Misericordia et ver- 
itas obviaverunt sibi indicated that the Singers 
were to begin at opposite ends, and meet in the 
middle. In the Second Agnus Dei of his Missa 
Grsecorum, Hobrecht wrote, Aries vertatur in 
Pisces Aries being the first Sign of the Zodiac, 
and Pisces the last. In another part of the same 
Masshehasgivenafarmore mysterious direction 

Tu tenor cancriza et per antifrasin canta, 
Cum furcis in capite antifrasizando repete. 


This introduces us to a new complication ; the 
secret of the Motto being, that the Tenor is not 
only to sing backwards, but to invert the inter 
vals ( per antifrasin canta ), until he reaches 
the Horns that is to say, the two cusps of 
the semicircular Time-Signature after which he 
is to sing from left to right, though still continu 
ing to invert the Intervals. This new Device, in 
which the Intervals themselves are reversed, as 
well as the sequence of the notes, is called Retro 
grade Inverse Imitation (Lat. Imitatio cancri- 
zans motu contrario ; Ital. Imitazione al contrario 
riverso). It might have been thought that this 
would have contented even Flemish ingenuity. 
But, it did not. The Part-Books had not yet 
been turned upside down ! In the subjoined 
example, we have endeavoured to show, in an 
humble way, the manner in which this most 
desirable feat may also be accomplished. The 
two Singers, standing face to face, hold the book 
between them ; one looking at it from the ordin 
ary point of view, the other, upsidedown, and both 
reading from left to right that is to say, begin 
ning at opposite ends. The result, if not strikingly 
beautiful, is, at least, not inconsistent with the 
laws of Counterpoint. 

tuna - 

saj - aaS sau - mo 

saurao ranuimod 

j - vp - 

Lau-da-te Dominum, om - nes gen - tes, om - nes gen - tes, lau-da-te Do -mi -num. 

This species of Imitation was indicated by the 
Inscriptions, Respice me, ostende mihi faciem 
tuam, Duo adversi adverse in unum, and others 
equally obscure. The last-named Motto graces 
Morton s Salve Mater a triumph of ingenuity 
which, no doubt, was regarded, in its time, as an 
Art-Treasure of inestimable value. The style 
was, indeed, for a long time, exceedingly popular ; 
and, even as late as 1690, Angiplo Berardi thought 
it worth while to give full directions, in his 
Arcani Musicali, for the manufacture of Canons 
of this description, though the true artistic feel 
ing to say nothing of the plain common-sense 
of the School of Palestrina had long since banished 
them, not only from the higher kinds of Eccle 
siastical Music, but from the Polyphonic Chan 
son also. This reform, however, was not effected 
without protest. There were learned Composers, 
even in the Golden Age, who still clung to the 
traditions of an earlier epoch ; and, among them, 
Francesco Suriano, the Second Agnus Dei of 
whose Missa Super voces musicales contains 
a Canon, with the Inscription, Justitia et Pax 
osculatee sunt, in which the Guida, formed on 
the six sounds of the Hexachordon durum, is 
sung, by the First Tenor, in the usual way, and 
in the Alto Clef, while the Cantus Secundus re 
plies, reading from the same copy, in the Treble 
Clef, backwards, and upsidedown. But, in this 
instance, the simple notes of the Guida are ac- 

i Versus recurrentes, said to have been first invented by the 
Greek Poet, Sotades. during the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus. The 
examples we have quoted are, however, of much later date ; the 
oldest of them being certainly not earlier than the 7th century. 

companied by six Free Parts, by the skilful 
management of which the Composer has pro 
duced an effect well worthy of his reputation. 2 

Retrograde Imitation has survived, even to our 
own day ; and, in more than one very popular 
form. In the year 1791. Haydn wrote, for his 
Doctor s Degree, at the University of Oxford, a 
Canon cancrizans, a tre ( Thy Voice, Har 
mony ) which will be found in vol. i. p. 7106; 
and he has also used the same Device, in the 
Minuet of one of his Symphonies. Some other 
modern Composers have tried it, with less happy 
effect. But, perhaps it has never yet appeared 
in a more popular form than that of the well- 
known Double Chaunt by Dr. Crotch. 

XI "~"^ C^-i* ,- ? II I 

EH F^ ^ -^ 


V^U 1 H TJ ,-J 


-^3 ^ "" ^- 

, i 

^ P , P 1 


It would be difficult to point to two Schools 
more bitterly opposed to each other than those of 
the early Netherlanders, and the English Cathe 
dral writers of the I9th century. Yet, here we 
see an Artifice, invented by the former, and used 
by one of the latter, so completely con amore, 
that, backed by the Harmonies peculiar to the 
modern free style, it has attained a position 
quite unassailable, and will probably last as long 
as the Anglican Chaunt itself shall continue in 

2 The entire Mass is reprinted, from the original edition of 1609, in 
vol. i. of Proske s Selectus novus Missarum ; and the Canon is there 
shewn, both in its senigmatical form, and in its complete resolution. 


use. With this fact before us, we shall d6 well 
to pause, before we consign even the most 
glaring pedantries of our forefathers to obli 
vion. [W.S.R.] 

contralto singer, who made her first appearance 
iu London at the Philharmonic Concert of June 
IQ, 1876, and remained a great favourite until 
she retired from public life on her marriage, 
Oct. 19, 1879. She was born at Duingen, Han 
over, Jan. 19, 1853, and from 1870 to 73 
studied in the Conservator! um at Leipzig, chiefly 
under Konewka. She sang first in public at 
Bremen in 1873. In 1874 she made the first 
of several appearances at the Gewandhaus, and 
was much in request for concerts and oratorios 
in Germany and other countries during 74 and 75. 
In England she sang at all the principal concerts, 
and at the same time maintained her connexion 
with the Continent, where she was always well 
received. Her voice is rich and sympathetic ; she 
sings without effort and with great taste. [G.] 

REDFORD, JOHN, was organist and almoner, 
and master of the Choristers of St. Paul s 
Cathedral in the latter part of the reign of 
Henry VIII (1491-1547). Tusser, the author 
of the Hundred good points of Husbandrie was 
one of his pupils. An anthem, Rejoice in the 
Lorde alway, printed in the appendix to Haw 
kins s History and in the Motett Society s 
first volume, is remarkable for its melodv and 


expression. Some anthems and organ pieces by 
him are in the MS. volume collected by Thomas 
Mulliner, master of St. Paul s School, afterwards 
in the libraries of John Stafford Smith and 
Dr. Rimbault, and now in the British Museum. 
A motet, some fancies and a voluntary by him 
are in MS. at Christ Church, Oxford. His 
name is included by Morley in the list of those 
whose works he consulted for his Introduc 
tion. [W.H.H.] 

REDOUTE. Public assemblies at which the 
guests appeared with or without masks at 
pleasure. The word is French, and is explained 
by Voltaire and Littre as being derived from the 
Italian ridotto perhaps with some analogy to 
the word resort. The building used for the 
purpose in Vienna, erected in 1748, and rebuilt 
in stone in 1754, forms part of the Burg or 
Imperial Palace, the side of the oblong facing 
the Josephs-Platz. There was a grosse and a 
Meine Redoutensaal. In the latter Beethoven 
played a concerto of his own at a concert 
of Haydn s, Dec. 18, 1795. The rooms were 
used for concerts till within the last ten years. 
The masked balls were held there during the 
Carnival, from Twelfth Night to Shrove Tuesday, 
and occasionally in the weeks preceding Advent ; 
some being public, i. e. open to all on payment of 
an entrance fee, and others private. Special nights 
were reserved for the court and the nobility. The 
Redoutentanze Minuets. Allemandes, Contre- 
danses, Schottisches, Anglaises, and Landler 
were composed for full orchestra, and published 



(mostly by Artaria) for pianoforte. * Mozart, 
Haydn, 2 Beethoven, Hummel, Woelfl, Gyrowetz, 
and others, have left dances written for this pur 
pose. Under the Italian form of Ridotto, the 
term was much employed in England in the last 
century. [C.F.P.] 

REDOWA, a Bohemian dance which was 
introduced into Paris in 1846 or 47, and quickly 
attained for a short time great popularity, both 
there and in London, although now seldom 
danced. In Bohemia there are two variations 
of the dance, the Rejdovak, in 3-4 or 3-8 time, 
which is more like a waltz, and the Rejdovacka, 
in 2-4 time, which is something like a polka. 
The following words are usually sung to the 
dance in Bohemian villages : 

Kami nicht frei n, well Eltern 
Nicht ihr Jawort gaben : 
Weil ich kommen k6nnte, 
Wo kein Brot sie haben 
Wo kein Brot sie haben, 
Keine Kuchen backen, 
Wo kein Heu sie niahen 
Und kein Brennholz hacken. 

The ordinary Redowa is written in 3-4 time 
(Maelzel s Metronome J = i6o). The dance 
is something like a Mazurka, with the rhythm 
less strongly marked. The following example is 
part of a Rejdovak which is given in Kbhler s 
Volkstanze aller Nationen 


~ i* - - 

^ . ii 






REED (Fr.Anche; Ital. Ancia ; Germ. Blatt, 
Rolir*). The speaking part of many instruments, 
both ancient and modern ; the name being de 
rived from the material of which it has been 
immemorialiy constructed. This is the outer 
silicious layer of a tall grass, the Arundo Donax 
or Sativa, growing in the South of Europe. The 
substance in its rough state is commonly called 
cane, though differing from real cane in many 
respects. The chief supply is now obtained from 
Frejus on the Mediterranean coast. Many other 
materials, such as lance-wood, ivory, silver, and 
ebonite, or hardened india-rubber, have been ex 
perimentally substituted for the material first 
named; but hitherto without success. Organ 
reeds were formerly made of hard wood, more 
recently of brass, German silver, and steel. The 
name Reed is, however, applied by organ -builders 
to the metal tube or channel against which the 

1 See Kochel s Catalogue, Xo. 599. etc. 

2 See Mottebohm s Thematic Catalogue. Section ii, pages 135 1S7. 



vibrating tongue beats, rather than to the vibra 
tor itself. 

Reeds are divided into the Free and the 
Beating ; the latter again into the Single and the 
Double forms. The Free reed is used in the 
harmonium and concertina, its union with Beat 
ing reeds in the organ not having proved success 
ful. [See FREE-REED, vol. i. p. 562.] The vibra 
tor, as its name implies, passes freely through 
the long slotted brass plate to which it is adapted ; 
the first impulse of the wind tending to push it 
within the slot and thus close the aperture. In 
percussion harmoniums the vibrator is set 
suddenly in motion by a blow from a hammer 
connected with the keyboard. [See HARMONIUM, 
vol. i. p. 667 &.] The Beating reed is that 
of the organ and clarinet. In this the edges 
of the vibrator overlap the wind-passage so as 
to beat against it. In the organ reed, how 
ever, the brass tongue is burnished backwards 
so as to leave a thin aperture between it 
and the point of the channel against which it 
strikes ; this the pressure of wind at first tends 
to close, thus setting it in vibration. In the 
clarinet, the reed is flat and spatula-like (hence 
the German name JBltitt opposed to Bohr in 
the oboe and bassoon), the mouthpiece being 
curved backwards at the point to allow of vibra 
tion. [See CLARINET.] The Double reed has 
already been described under oboe and bassoon 
[See OBOE ; BASSOON.] It is possible to replace 
it in both these instruments by a single reed of 
clarinet shape, beating against a small wooden 
mouthpiece. The old Dolcino or Alto-fagotto 
was so played in the band of the Coldstream 
Guards by a great artist still living, Mr. Henry 
Lazarus, when a boy. The double reed, however, 
much improves the quality of tone, and gives 
greater flexibility of execution to both the instru 
ments named above. [W.H.S.] 

REEDSTOP. When the pipes controlled by 
a draw-stop produce their tone by means of a 
vibrating reed, the stop is called a Reedstop; 
when the pipes contain no such reeds, but their 
tone is produced merely by the impinging of air 
against a sharp edge, the stop is called a Flue- 
stop. Any single pipe of the former kind is 
called a Reed-pipe, any single pipe of the latter 
kind, a Flue-pipe. Pipes containing Free reeds 
are seldom used in English organs, but are 
occasionally found in foreign instruments under 
the name of Physharmonika, etc. [See REED.] 
The reedstops consisting of striking-reeds are 
voiced in various ways, to imitate the sounds of 
the Oboe, Cor Anglais, Clarinet, Bassoon, Horn, 
Cornopean, Trumpet, etc., all of which are of 
8ft. pitch (that is, in unison with the diapason). 
The Clarion 4-ft. is an octave-reedstop. The 
Double Trumpet i6-ft. is a reedstop one octave 
lower in pitch than the diapason ; it is also 
called a Contra-posaune, or sometimes a Trom 
bone. Reedstops of the trumpet class are often 
placed on a very high pressure of wind under 
such names as Tuba mirabilis, Tromba major, 
etc. ; such high-pressure reedstops are generally 
found on the Solo-manual ; the reedstops of the 


Great organ being of moderate loudness ; those 
on the Choir organ altogether of a softer cha 
racter. A very much larger proportion of reed- 
stops is usually assigned to the Swell organ 
than to any other manual, owing to the brilliant 
crescendo which they produce as the shutters of 
the swell-box open. Reedstops are said to be 
harmonic when the tubes of the pipes are 
twice their normal length and perforated half 
way with a small hole. Their tone is remarkably 
pure and brilliant. The best modern organ 
builders have made great improvements in the 
voicing of reedstops, which are now produced 
in almost infinite variety both as to quality and 
strength of tone. [J.S.] 

REED, THOMAS GERMAN, born at Bristol 
June 27, 1817. His father was a musician, and 
the son first appeared, at the age of ten, at the 
Bath Concerts as a PF. player with John Loder 
and Lindley, and also sang at the Concerts and at 
the Bath Theatre. Shortly after, he appeared at 
the Haymarket Theatre, London, where his father 
was conductor, as PF. player, singer, and actor 
of juvenile parts. In 1832 the family moved to 
London, and the father became leader of the 
band at the Garrick Theatre. His son was his 
deputy, and also organist to the Catholic Chapel, 
Sloane Street. German Reed now entered eagerly 
into the musical life of London, was an early 
member of the Society of British Musicians, 
studied bard at harmony, counterpoint, and PF. 
playing, composed much, gave many lessons, and 
took part in all the good music he met with. His 
work at the theatre consisted in great measure 
of scoring and adapting, and getting up new 
operas, such as Fra Diavolo in i837. In 1838 
he became Musical Director of the Haymarket 
Theatre, a post which he retained till 1851. In 
1838 he also succeeded Mr. Tom Cooke as Chapel- 
master at the Royal Bavarian Chapel, where the 
music to the Mass was for long noted both for 
quality and execution. Beethoven s Mass in C 
was produced there for the first time in England, 
and the principal Italian singers habitually took 
part in the Sunday services. At the Haymarket, 
for the Shakespearian performances of Macready, 
the Keans, the Cushmans, etc., he made many ex 
cellent innovations, by introducing, as overtures 
and entractes, good pieces, original or scored by 
himself, instead of the rubbish usually played at 
that date. During the temporary closing of the 
theatre Reed did the work of producing Pacini s 
opera of Sappho at Drury Lane (April i. 1843 
Clara Novello, Sims Reeves, etc.). In 1844 he 
married Miss Priscilla Horton, and for the next 
few years pursued the same busy, useful, miscel 
laneous life as before, directing the production of 
English opera at the Surrey, managing Sadler s 
Wells during a season of English opera, with his 
wife, Miss Louisa Pyne, Harrison, etc., conduct 
ing the music at the Olympic under Mr. Wigan s 
management, and making prolonged provincial 

In 1855 h e started a new class of performance 
which, under the name of Mr. and Mrs. German 
Reed s Entertainment, has made his name widely 




and favourably known in England. Its object 
was to provide good dramatic amusement for a 
large class of society who, on various grounds, 
objected to the theatres. It was opened at St. 
Martin s Hall, April 2, 1855, as Miss P. Hor- 
ton s Illustrative Gatherings, with two pieces 
called Holly Lodge and The Enraged Musi 
cian (after Hogarth), written by W. Brough, and 
presented by Mrs. Heed, with the aid of her 
husband only, as accompanyist and occasional 
actor. In Feb. 1856 they removed to the Gallery 
of Illustration, Regent Street, and there produced 
A Month from Home, and My Unfinished 
Opera (April 27, 57) ; The Home Circuit and 
SeasideStudies (June20,59) all by W. Brough; 
After the Ball, by Edmund Yates ; Our Card 
Basket, by Shirley Brooks ; An Illustration on 
Discord ( The Rival Composers ) by Brough 
(Ap. 3, 61) ; and The Family Legend, by Tom 
Taylor (Mar. 31, 62). They then engaged Mr. 
John Parry, and produced the following series 
of pieces specially written for this company of 
three, and including some of Mr. Parry s most 
popular and admirable songs, in the characters of 
Paterfamilias at the Pantomime, Mrs. Roseleaf, 
etc., etc. 

The Charming Cottage. Ap. 6, 

The Pyramid. Shirley Brooks . 
Feb. 7, 64. 

The Bard and his Birthday. 
W. Brough. Ap. 20, 64. 

The Peculiar family. Do. Mar. 
15, 65. 

The Yachting Cruise. P. C. 
Burnand. Ap. 2, 66. 

A Dream in Venice. T. W. 
Robertson. Mar. 18, 67. 

Our Quiet Chateau. B. Beece. 
Deo. 26. 67. 

Inquire within. P. C. Bur 
nand. July 22, 68. 

Last of the Paladins. R. Keece. 
Dec. 23, 68. 

At this period the company was further in 
creased by the addition of Miss Fanny Holland 
and Mr. Arthur Cecil, and soon after by Mr. 
Corney Grain and Mr. Alfred Reed. The follow 
ing was the repertoire during this last period : 

Lischen and Fritschen. Offen 
bach. Feb. 8. 59. 

No Cards, W. S. Gilbert, and 
Cox and Box." Burnand and Sul 

(A. Cecil s 1st 

livan. Mar. 29, 69. 

Ages Ago. W. S. Gilbert and 
F. Clay. Nov. 22, 69. 

Beggar my Neighbour. F. C. 
Burnand. Mar. 28, 70. 

Our Island Home. W. S. Gil 
bert. June 20, 70. 

The Bold Becruit. F. Clay. 
July 19, 70. 

A Sensation Novel." Do. Jan. 

Near Relations. Arthur Sketch- 
ley. Aug. 14, 71. 

King Christmas. PIanch<5. Dec. 
26, 71. 

Charity begins at Home. B. 
Bowe and Cellier. Feb. 7, 72. 

My Aunt s Secret. Burnand 
and Molloy. Mar. 3, 72. 

Happy Arcadia, W. S. Gilbert 
and F. Clay. Oct. 28, 72. 

Very Catching. Burnand and 
Molloy. Nov. 18, 72. 

Mildred s Well. Burnand and 
German Beed. May 5, 73. 

When the lease of the Gallery of Illustration 
expired, the entertainment was transferred to 
St. George s Hall, and there the following enter 
tainments were produced : 

He s Coming. F. 0. Burnand 
and German Reed. 

Too Many by One. F. C. Bur- 
nand and F. Cowan. 

The Three Tenants ; Ancient 
Britons. Gilbert a Beckett and 
German Beed. 

A Tale of Old China. F. 0. 
Burnand and Molloy. 

Eyes and no Eyes. W. B. GI1- 
bert and German Reed. 

A Spanish Bond ; An Indian 
Puzzle ; The Wicked Duke. Gil 

bert a Beckett and German 

Matched and Match. F. C. 
Burnand and German Reed. 

A Puff of Smoke. 0. J. Rowe 
and Mme. Goetz. 

Our Dolls House." C. J. Rowe 
and Cotsford Dick. 

A Night s Surprise. West Cro- 
mer and German Reed. 

Foster Brothers. F. C. Bur 
nand and King Hall. 

Happy Bungalow." A. Law. 

During the Galley of Illustration period a diver 
sion was made by the introduction of Opere di 
Camera, for four characters. These comprised : 

Jessy Lea. Oxenford and Mac- Widows bewitched. Virginia 

farren. Gabriel. 

Too Many Cooks. Offenbach. A Fair Exchange ; A Happy 

The Sleeping Beauty. Balfe. Result ; Ching Chow Hi. All 

The Soldier s Legacy. 1 Oxen- three by Offenbach. 

ford and Macfarren. 

While the entertainment still remained at the 
Gallery of Illustration, Reed became lessee of St. 
George s Hall for the production of Comic Opera. 
He engaged an orchestra of 40 and a strong 
chorus, and The Contraband! sta (Burnand and 
Sullivan), L Ambassadrice (Auber), Ching 
Chow Hi and the Beggar s Opera 1 were pro 
duced, but without the necessary success. Mr. 
Reed then gave his sole attention to the Gallery 
of Illustration, in which he has been uniformly 
successful, owing to the fact that he has carried 
out his entertainments, not only with perfect 
respectability, but always with great talent, much 
tact and judgment, and constant variety. 

His brothers, ROBERT HOPKB and WILLIAM, 
are violoncello players; Robert has been Principal . 
Cello in the Crystal Palace Band for many years. 

was born at Birmingham, Jan. I, 1818. From a 
very early age she showed unmistakable qualifi 
cations for a theatrical career, in a fine strong 
voice, great musical ability, and extraordinary 
power of mimicry. She made her first appearance 
at the age of ten, at the Surrey Theatre, under 
Elliston s management, as the Gipsy Girl in Guy 
Mannering. After this she was constantly en 
gaged at the principal metropolitan theatres in 
a very wide range of parts. Her rare combination 
of great ability as a singer, with conspicuous gifts 
as an actress, and moat attractive appearance, 
led to a very satisfactory step in her career. On 
Aug. 16, 1837, she signed an agreement with 
Mr. Macready for his famous performances at 
Covent Garden and Drury Lane, in which she 
acted Ariel, Ophelia, the Fool 1 in Lear, the 
Attendant Spirit in Comus, Philidel in King 
Arthur, and Acis in Acis and Galatea. After 
the conclusion of this memorable engagement, 
Miss Horton became the leading spirit in 
Planche s graceful burlesques at the Haymarket 
Theatre. On Jan. 20, 1844, she married Mr. 
German Reed, and the rest of her career has been 
related under his name. [G.] 

REEL (Anglo-Saxon hreol, connected with the 
Suio-Gothic rulla, to whirl). An ancient dance, 
the origin of which is enveloped in much ob 
scurity. The fact of its resemblance to the 
Norwegian Hattung, as well as its popularity 
in Scotland, and its occurrence in Denmark, the 
north of England, and Ireland, has led most 
writers to attribute to it a Scandinavian origin, 
although its rapid movements and lively character 
are opposed to the oldest Scandinavian dance- 
rhythms. The probability is that the reel is of 
Keltic origin, perhaps indigenous to Britain, and 
from there introduced into Scandinavia. In Scot 
land the reel is usually danced by two couples ; 
in England where it is now almost only found in 
connection with the Sword Dance, as performed 
in the North Riding of Yorkshire it is danced 

i See Macready s Reminiscences, by S.r F. Pollock, ii. 97. 



by three couples. The figures of the reel differ 
slightly according to the locality ; their chief 
feature is their circular character, the dancers 
standing face to face and describing a series of 
figures of eight. The music consists of 8-bar 
phrases, generally in common time, but occa 
sionally in 6-4. The Irish reel is played much 
faster than the Scotch ; in Yorkshire an ordinary 
hornpipe-tune is used. The following example, 
Lady Nelson s Reel, is from a MS. collection 
of dances in the possession of the present writer. 

An example of the Danish reel will be found in 
Engel s National Music (London, 1866). 

One of the most characteristic Scotch reels is 
the Reel of Tulloch (Thulichan) : 

Others, equally good, are Colonel M c Bean s 
Reel, Ye re welcome, Charlie Stuart, The 
Cameronian Rant, Johnnie s friends are ne er 
pleased, and Flora Macdonald. 

For the slow Reel see STRATHSPEY. [W.B.S.] 
REEVE, WILLIAM, born 1757 ; after quitting 
school, was placed with a law stationer in Chan 
cery Lane, where his fellow writer was Joseph 
Munden, afterwards the celebrated comedian. 
Determined however upon making music his 
profession, he became a pupil of Richardson, 
organist of St. James, Westminster. In 1781 
he was appointed organist of Totnes. Devonshire, 
where he remained till about 1783, when he was 
engaged as composer at Astley s. He was next 
for some time an actor at the regular theatres. 
In 1791, being then a chorus singer at Covent 
Garden, he was applied to to complete the com- 


position of the music for the ballet-pantomime 
of Oscar and Malvina, left unfinished by Shield, 
who, upon some differences with the manager, 
had resigned his appointment. Reeve thereupon 
produced an overture and some vocal music, 
which were much admired, and led to his being 
appointed composer to the theatre. In 1792 
he was elected organist of St. Martin, Lud- 
gate. In 1802 he became part proprietor of 
Sadler s Wells Theatre. His principal dramatic 
compositions were Oscar and Malvina, and 
Tippoo Saib, 1791; Orpheus and Eurydice, 
partly adapted from, Gluck, 1792; The Ap 
parition, British Fortitude, Hercules and 
Omphale, and The Purse, 1794; Merry 
Sherwood, 1795 ; Harlequin and Oberon, 1796; 
Bantry Bay," The Round Tower, and Harle 
quin and Quixote, 1 797 ; Joan of Arc, Ramah 
Droog (with Mazzinghi), 1798 ; The Turnpike 
Gate (with Mazzinghi), and The Embarkation/ 

1 799 ; Paul and Virginia (with Mazzinghi), 

1800 ; Harlequin s Almanack, The Blind Girl 
(with Mazzinghi), 1801 ; The Cabinet (with 
Braham, Davy, and Moorehead), and Family 
Quarrels (with Braham and Moorehead), 1802; 
The Caravan, 1803; The Dash, Thirty 
Thousand (with Davy and Braham), 1804; Out 
of Place (with Braham), 1805; The White 
Plume, and Au Bratach, 1806; Kais (with 
Braham), 1808 ; Tricks upon Travellers (part), 
1 8 10 ; .and The Outside Passenger (with Whita- 
ker and D. Corri), 1811. He wrote music for 
some pantomimes at Sadler s Wells; amongst 
them Bang up," by C. Dibdin, jun., containing 
the favourite Clown s song, Tipitywichet, for 
Grimaldi. He was also author of The Juvenile 
Preceptor, or Entertaining Instructor, etc. He 
died June 22, 1815. [W.H.H.] 

REEVES, JOHN SIMS, son of a musician, was 
born at Shooter s Hill, Kent, Oct. 21, 1822. He 
received his early musical instruction from his 
father, and at 14 obtained the post of organist 
at North Cray Church, Kent. Upon gaining 
his mature voice he determined on becoming a 
singer, and in 1839 made his first appearance 
in that capacity at the Newnastle-upon-Tyne 
Theatre, as Count Rudolpho in La Sonnambula, 
and subsequently performed Dandini in La 
Cenerentola/ and other baritone parts. The 
true quality of his voice, however, having asserted 
itself, he placed himself under Hobbs and T. 
Cooke, and in the seasons of 1841-42 and 1842-43 
was a member of Macready s company at Drury 
Lane, as one of the second tenors, performing such 
parts as the First Warrior in Purcell s King 
Arthur, Ottocar in Der Freischiitz, and the 
like. He then went to the continent to prose 
cute his studies, and in a short time afterwards 
appeared at Milan as Edgardo in Donizetti s 
Lucia di Lammermoor with marked success. 
Returning to England he was engaged by Jullien 
for Drury Lane, where he made his first appear 
ance on Monday, Dec. 6, 1847, as Edgar in The 
Bride of Lammermoor, and at once took position 
as an actor and singer of the first rank. His 
voice had become a pure high tenor of delicious 


quality, the tones vibrating and equal throughout, 
very skilfully managed, and displaying remark 
ably good taste. His deportment as an actor was 
natural and easy, his action manly and to the 
purpose, and exhibiting both passion and power, 
without the least exaggeration. A fortnight later 
he performed his first original part, Lyonnel in 
Balfe s Maid of Honour. In 1848 he was en 
gaged at Her Majesty s Theatre, and came out 
as Carlo in Donizetti s Linda di Chamounix. 
In the autumn he was engaged at the Norwich 
Musical Festival, where he showed his ability 
as an oratorio singer by an extraordinarily 
fine delivery of The enemy said in Israel in 
Egypt. On Nov. 24 following he made his first 
appearance at the Sacred Harmonic Society in 
Handel s Messiah. The rapid strides which he 
was then making towards perfection in oratorio 
were shown to take a few instances only 
by his performance in Judas Maccabeus and 
Samson, Elijah, St. Paul/ and Lobgesang, 
and Eli and Naaman (both composed ex 
pressly for him). But his greatest triumph 
was achieved at the Handel Festival at the 
Crystal Palace in 1857, when, after singing 
in Messiah and Judas Maccabeus with in 
creased reputation, he gave The enemy said 
in Israel in Egypt with such remarkable 
power, fire, and volume of voice, breadth of style, 
and evenness of vocalisation, as completely elec 
trified his hearers. He repeated this wonderful 
performance at several succeeding festivals. On 
the stage he has been uniformly successful in 
all styles, from the simplest old English ballad 
opera to the most complex modern grand pro 
duction. A recent letter from Mr. Reeves, pub 
lished in the Times in Nov. 1880, speaks of 
his intended retirement from public life as an 
artist in 1882, and shows in its whole tenor how 
deep an interest is felt by this great singer in the 
welfare, in his own country, of the art in which 
he himself has been so successful. Mr. Reeves 
married, Nov. 2, 1850, Miss EMMA LUCOMBE, 
soprano singer, who had been a pupil of Mrs. 
Blane Hunt, and appeared at the Sacred Har 
monic Society s concert of June 19, 1839, an d 
sang there and at other concerts until 1845, when 
she went to Italy. She returned in 1848, and 
appeared in opera as well as at concerts. Mrs. 
Reeves has for some years past retired from public 
life and occupied herself as a teacher of singing, 
for which she has a deservedly high reputation. 
His son HERBERT, after a careful education under 
his father and at Milan, made his successful debut 
at one of Mr. Ganz s concerts (June 12,1 880), and 
has already met with great favour from the public. 
His voice, though not yet so strong as his father s, 
is of beautiful quality, and in taste, intelligence 
and phrasing he is all that might be expected 
from his parentage and education. [W.H.H.] 

Mendelssohn s own name, and that adopted in 
England, for his Symphony in D minor, written 
with a view to performance at the Tercentenary 
Festival of the Augsburg Protestant Confession, 
which was intended to be celebrated throughout 



Germany on June 25, 1830. The first mention 
of it appears to be in a letter of his own from 
North Wales, Sept. 2, 1829. On May 15, 1830, 
he writes from Weimar that it is finished, and 
when copied will be sent to Leipzig. It was not 
however then performed ; the political troubles 
of that year prevented any festive demonstra 
tions. In January and March, 1832, it was in 
rehearsal in Paris, but it did not come to actual 
performance till Nov. 1832, when it was played 
under his own direction at Berlin. It was not 
repeated during his life, but was revived at the 
Crystal Palace, Sydenham, Nov. 30, 1867. It 
was published in score and parts by Novello 
& Co., and by Simrock as Symphony No. 5 
Op. 107, No. 36 of the posthumous works. The 
first Allegro is said to represent the conflict 
between the old and new religions, and the 
Finale is founded on Luther s Hymn, Ein 
veste Burg ist unser Gott. [G.] 

REFRAIN (Fr. Refrain; Germ. ReimJcehr}. 
This word is used in music to denote what in 
poetry is called a burden, i. e. a short sentence 
or phrase which recurs in every verse or stanza. 
It was probably first employed in music in order 
to give roundness and unity to the melody, and 
was then transferred to the poetry which was 
written especially for music. Such collections as 
the Echos du temps passe" give an abundance 
of examples in French music, where songs with 
refrains are most frequently to be found. Lil- 
liburlero may be cited as one English instance 
out of many. [See vol. ii. p. 138.] [J. A.F.M.] 

REGAL (Fr. Regale; It. Regale or Ninfale). 
An old German name for a very small organ 
also called Bibelorgan or Bibelregal, because 
it was sometimes so small as to fold up into the 
size of a Church Bible. It had a single rank of 
reed-pipes only. Praetorius in his Syntagma, 
vol. iii. pi. iv. gives a view of one, which in its 
extended condition, bellows and all, appears to be 
about 3 ft. 6 in. by 3 ft. He ascribes (ii. p. 73) the 
invention to a nameless monk ; others give it to 
Roll, an organ-builder at Nuremberg in 1575. 
The specimen preserved in the Muse e of the 
Conservatoire at Paris is said to date from the 
end of the i6th century, and has a compass of 

4 octaves. The instrument has been long since 
extinct, but the name regal is still applied in 
Germany to certain reedstops. 

In the inventory of Henry VIII s musical 
instruments we find 13 pairs of single regalls 
(the _ pair meant only one instrument) and 

5 pair of double regalls (that is with two pipes 
to each note). The name continued in use at 
the English Court down to 1773, the date of 
the death of Bernard Gates, who was tuner of 
the Regals in the King s household. [G.] 

REGAN, ANNA, soprano singer. [See 

Renaix in Belgium, April 6, 1835, received his 
first lessons in music from his father, who was 
director of the choir of the College of St. Hermes 
in that town. From infancy Regibo showed a 



great inclination to music. In 1848 lie entered 
the Conservatoire at Ghent, where he was placed 
for piano under Max Heyndericks ; and in two 
years, while following the instruction of Joseph 
Mengal, he obtained the prize for harmony. Ge- 
vaert gave him lessons in counterpoint. In 1854 
his father removed him to the Conservatoire at 
Brussels, where Lemmens taught him the organ, 
and Fe"tis composition. Among his numerous 
compositions, the fruit of these studies, there is 
a trio for piano, harmonium, and cello, dedicated 
to Eetis. A second trio for the same combina 
tion is dedicated to Gevaert. In 1856 Regibo 
contracted for two years with Messrs Mercklin 
and Schiitze to display their organs and har 
moniums, and was publicly heard on the latter 
in Holland, in London and in Paris. Having 
found in a garret of his father s house a spinet 
by Albert Delin of Tournai, dated 1756, which 
had been the musical instrument of his childhood, 
he conceived the idea of collecting all the old 
Belgian clavecins, spinets and dulcimers possible 
an idea the successful carrying out of which is 
likely to make his name widely known. Regibo 
has proposed to himself the patriotic task of re 
deeming the works of the old Belgian makers from 
their unmerited obscurity, and after a quarter 
of a century s research he has now the largest 
collection existing of the clavecins of the great 
Antwerp makers, including the greatest of all, the 
family of Ruckers. [See RUCKERS ; also COLLEC 
TIONS in the Appendix.] To justify the import 
ance of his object he is now engaged upon a 
technical treatise, soon to be published, upon the 
last three centuries of this instrumental art of his 
native country, which has no early rival even of 
approximate importance except the still earlier 
efforts of Northern Italy in the same direction. 
In 1872 Regibo was summoned to his native town 
to take the direction of the School of Music, a 
post which he still holds (1881). [A. J.H.] 

REGISTER, of an organ. Literally, a set 
of pipes as recorded or described by the name 
written on the draw -stop ; hence, in general, an 
organ-stop. The word register is however not 
quite synonymous with stop, for we do not say 
pull out, or put in, a register, but, a stop, 
although we can say indifferently a large 
number of registers or of stops. The word is 
also used as a verb ; for example, the expression 
skill in registering or registration means 
skill in selecting various combinations of stops 
for use. The word stop is however never used 
as a verb, in this sense. [J.S.] 

REGISTER is now employed to denote a 
portion of the scale. The soprano register, 
the tenor register, denote that part of the 
scale which forms the usual compass of those 
voices ; the head register means the notes 
which are sung with the head voice ; the chest 
register, those which are sung from the chest ; 
the upper register is the higher portion of the 
compass of an instrument or voice, and so on. 
How it came to have this meaning, the writer 
has not been able to discover. [G.] 


the only convenient term for indicating the art of 
selecting and combining the stops or registers 
in the organ so as to produce the best effect and 
contrast of tone, and is to the organ what or 
chestration is to the orchestra. The stops of 
an organ may be broadly clased under the two 
divisions of flue-stops and reed-stops. [See 
OKGAN.] The flue-stops again may be regarded 
as classed under three sub-divisions those which 
represent the pure organ tone (as the diapasons, 
principal,, fifteenth, and mixtures), those which 
aim at an imitation of string or of reed tone (as 
the viol one, viola, gamba, etc.), and those which 
represent flute tone. In considering the whole 
of the stops en masse, a distinction may again be 
drawn between those which are intended to com 
bine in the general tone ( mixing stops ) and 
those, mostly direct imitations of orchestral in 
struments, which are to be regarded as solo 
stops to be used for special effects, as the 
clarinet, orchestral oboe, vox humana, etc. Some 
stops, such as the harmonic flute, are capable of 
effective use, with certain limitations, in either 

The use of the pure solo stops is guided by 
nearly the same aesthetic considerations as the 
use in the orchestra of the instruments which 
they imitate [see OKCHESTKATION], by suitability 
of timbre for the expression and feeling of the 
music. These stops form, however, the smallest 
and on the whole the least important portion of 
the instrument. 

In the combination of the general mass of stops 
there are some rules which are invariable e. g. a 
mutation stop, such as the twelfth, can never be 
used without the stop giving the unison tone next 
above it (the fifteenth), and the mixtures can 
never be used without the whole or the principal 
mass of the stops giving the sounds below them, 
except that on the swell manual the mixture 
may sometimes be used with the 8-feet stops 
only, to produce a special effect. On the great- 
organ manual it is generally assumed that the 
stops are added in the order in which they are 
always placed, the unison diapason stops and the 
i6-feet stops lowest, the principal, twelfth, fif 
teenth, and mixtures in ascending order above 
them ; and the reeds at the top, to be added last, 
to give the full power of the instrument. But 
this general rule has its exceptions for special 
purposes. If it be desired to play afugato passage 
with somewhat of a light violin effect, the fif 
teenth added to the 8-feet steps, omitting the 
principal and twelfth, has an excellent effect, 1 
more especially if balanced by a light i6-feet 
stop beneath the diapasons. The 8-feet reeds, 
again, may be used with the diapasons only, with 
very fine effect, in slow passages of full harmony. 
The harmonic flute of 4-feet tone is usually 
found on the great manual, but should be used 
with caution. It often has a beautiful effect in 
addition to the diapasons, floating over them and 

1 For this reason the twelfth and fifteenth should never be com 
bined on one slide, as is occasionally done for the sake of economy 
in mechanism. 


brightening up their tone, but should be shut off 
when the 4-feet principal is added, or when the 
full to fifteenth is used, as the two tones do not 
amalgamate. The 1 6-feet stops on the manuals 
are intended to give weight and gravity of tone, 
and are always admirable with the full or nearly 
the full organ. In combination with the diapasons 
only their use is determined by circumstances ; 
with a very full harmony they cause a muddy 
effect ; with an extended harmony in pure parts 
they impart a desirable fullness and weight of 
tone, and seem to fill in the interstices of the 
unison stops : e. g. 







No. I would be injured by the addition of a 
i6-feet stop below the diapasons ; No. 2 would 
be improved by it. 

The swell organ stops are very like the great 
organ in miniature, except that the reed-stops 
predominate more in tone, and are more often 
used either alone or with diapasons c::ly, the 
stronger and more pronounced tone of the reeds 
being requisite to bring out the full effect of 
the crescendo on opening the swell box. The 
oboe alone, in passages of slow harmony, has a 
beautiful effect, rich yet distant. The choir 
organ is always partially composed of solo stops, 
and the bulk of its stops are usually designed 
for special effects when used separately, though 
with a certain capability of mixing in various 
combinations. It may be observed that qualities 
of tone which mix beautifully in unison will often 
not mix in different octaves. The union of one 
of the soft reedy-toned stops, of the gamba class, 
with an 8-feet clarabella flute, has a beautiful 
creamy effect in harmonised passages, but the 
addition of a 4-feet flute instead is unsatisfactory ; 
and the combination with the clarabella, though 
so effective for harmony, would be characterless 
as a solo combination for a melody. The effect 
of a light 4-feet flute over a light 8-feet stop of 
not too marked character is often admirable for 
the accompanying harmonies to a melody played 
on another manual ; Mendelssohn refers to this 
in the letter in which he speaks of his delight in 
playing the accompaniment in Bach s arrange 
ment of the chorale Schmucke dich in this way ; 
the flute, he observes, continually floating above 
the chorale. This class of effect is peculiar to 
the organ ; it is quite distinct from that of dou 
bling a part with the flute an octave higher in the 
orchestra; in the organ the whole harmony is 
doubled, but in so light and blending a manner 
that the hearer is not conscious of it as a dou 
bling of the parts, but only as a bright and liquid 

In contrasting the stops on the different 
manuals, one manual may be arranged so as to 

# 1 * 













V # 5 




"" J * 

* r 

Swell with Reeds, 8-feet 

be an echo or light repetition of the other, as when 
a selection of stops on the swell manual is used 
as the piano to the forte of a similar selection on 
the great manual ; but more often the object is 
contrast of tone, especially when the two hands 
use two manuals simultaneously. In such case 
the stops must be selected, not only so as to stand 
out from each other in tone, but so that each 
class of passage may have the tone best fitted 
for its character. In this example, from Smart s 
Theme and Variations in A, for instance- 
Great Organ Flute, &. 
8-feet. -!- _ 

if the registering were reversed, the chords played 
on the flute-stop and the brilliant accompaniment 
on the swell reeds, it would not only be ineffec 
tive but aesthetically repugnant to the taste, from 
the sense of the misuse of tone : this of course 
would be an extreme example of misuse, merely 
instanced here as typical. The use of flute tone 
over reed tone on another keyboard is often 
beautiful in slow passages also ; e. g. from 1 Rhein- 
berger s Sonata in Fjf : 

Adagio non troppo 

A ft 



y #. o 




r f 



ff\ \ * 



xNL/ i ~f 


*J 8-feet Flute, 

Great or Solo Organ. 

? ^^^^ 


) Su. 9 


f J- 

1 *& 


Z J Tt 


* 4- 







i i 

Swell, Soft 8-feet Reed only. 

~\* ^L *f 



Pedal Bourdon, coupled to Swell. 

where the flute seems to glide like oil over the 
comparatively rough tones of the reed. Differing 
tones may sometimes be combined with good 
effect by coupling two manuals ; swell reeds 
coupled to great-organ diapasons is a fine com 
bination, unfortunately hackneyed by church 
organists, many of whom are so enamoured of it 
that they seldom let one hear the pure diapason 
tone, which it must always be remembered is 
the real organ tone, and the foundation of the 
whole instrument. Special expression may some 
times be obtained by special combinations of 
pitch. Slow harmonies played on 1 6-feet and 8-feet 
flutes, or flute-tuned stops, only, produce a very 
funereal and weird effect. 2 Brilliant scale pas 
sages and arpeggios, accompanying a harmony 
on another keyboard, may be given with an 
effect at once light and bizarre, with the 1 6-feet 
bourdon and the fifteenth three octaves above 
it, Saint-Saens, in his first Rhapsodic, writes 

1 The registering is our own ; the composer gives no indication. 

2 See a little piece entitled Adagio Elegiaeo, in Best s Organ 
Pieces for Church Use. 



an arpeggio accompaniment for flutes in three 

Flutes, 8. 4, and 2 feet. 

Swell Eeed. 

though it is perhaps better with the 4-feet flute 
omitted. The clarinet, though intended as a solo 
stop, may occasionally be used with great effect 
in harmonised passages (in combination with a 
light flue-stop to fill up and blend the tone), and 
should therefore always be carried through the 
whole range of the keyboard, not stopped at 
tenor C, as most builders do with it. The 
vox-humana should never be combined with any 
other stop on the same manual ; the French 
organists write it so, bufc it is a mistake ; and, it 
may be added, it should be but sparingly used 
at all. It is one of the tricks of organ effect, 
useful sometimes for a special expression, but 
very liable to misuse. The modern introduction 
of a fourth keyboard, the solo manual, entirely 
for solo stops, puts some new effects in the hands 
of the player, more especially through the medium 
of brilliant reed-stops voiced on an extra pressure 
of wind. These give opportunity for very fine 
effects in combination with the great-organ 
manual ; sometimes in bringing out a single em 
phatic note, as in a passage from Bach s A minor 

tr Solo Organ, Tuba Reed, ff 



Great Organ, Full to Mixtures. 


Pedal ff 

where the long blast from the solo reed, sounding 
above the sway and movement of the other parts, 

i In this case the solo reed is supposed to be coupled to the choir 
manual (immediately below the great manual), and the lower notes 
on the treble stave are taken by the first finger ot the right hand, the 
fourth finger ot the same hand continuing to hold the E on the lower 
manual. In some modern organs the solo manual is placed imme 
diately above or below the great manual, in order to facilitate such a 
combination, which is often exceedingly useful. 

has a magnificent effect. The solo reeds may be 
used also to give contrast in repeated phrases in 
full harmony, as in this passage from the finale 
of Mendelssohn s first Sonata 

Solo Organ 

Great Organ ff Reeds. 

1 Great Organ. 


1 i 



^n *~i 

Za J 


^ m 1 J 


j f ^ 

-M-. -^H-. ? 

~^-. ..-->.; * . 

-F - -1- 
1 -^ -^ -^ 

p , 

r ?w 

- * J- J ! -T3 

-^i L- 


p S P 

w g w-- 

r v i 




1 1 




r P 



S h 


1 r 

PL_ _ 


Combinations and effects such as these might 
be multiplied ad infinitum ; in fact, the possible 
combinations on an organ of the largest size are 
nearly endless ; and it must be observed that 
organs vary so much in detail of tone and balance, 
that each large instrument presents to some ex 
tent a separate problem to the player. 

It is remarkable that in the great organ works 
of Bach and his school there is hardly an indi 
cation of the stops to be employed. It is perhaps 
on this account that it was long the custom, and is 
so still with a majority of players, to treat Bach s 
fugues for the organ as if they were things to be 
mechanically ground out without any attempt at 
effect or colouring ; as if, as we heard a distin 
guished player express it, it were sufficient to 
pull out all the stops of a big organ and then 
wallow in it. It is no wonder under these cir 
cumstances that many people think of organ 
fugues as- essentially dry. The few indications 
that are given in Bach s works, as in the Toccata 
in the Doric mode, show, however, that he was 
fully alive to the value of contrast of tone and 
effect ; and with all the increased mechanical 
facilities for changing and adjusting the stops in 
these days, we certainly eught to look for some 
more intelligent scoring of these great works 
for the organ, in accordance with their style and 
character, which is in fact as various as that of 
any other branch of classical music, and to get 
rid of the idea that all fugues must necessarily 
be played as loud as possible. Many of Bach s 
organ works are susceptible of most delicate and 
even playful treatment in regard to effect ; and 
nearly all the graver ones contain episodes which 
seem as if purposely intended to suggest variety 
of treatment. There must, however, be a dis 
tinction made between fugues which have epi 
sodes/ and fugues which proceed in a regular 
and unbroken course to a climax. Some of Bach ?! 
organ fugues, and nearly all of Mendelssohn s, 
are of the latter class, and require to be treated 

In arranging the effective treatment of organ 
music of this class, it is necessary often to make 
a special study of the opportunities for changing 
the stops so as to produce no perceptible break 
in the flow of the whole. The swell-organ is the 
most useful bridge for passing from loud to soft 


and back again ; when open it should be powerful 
enough to be passed on to from the great organ 
without a violent contrast, when the tone can be 
reduced gradually by closing it ; the reverse pro 
ceeding being adopted in returning to the great- 
manual. It is possible to add stops on the great- 
manual in the course of playing, so as hardly to 
make any perceptible break, by choosing a mo 
ment when only a single note is being sounded ; 
the addition of a stop at that moment is hardly 
noticed by the hearer, who only finds when the 
other parts come in again that the tone is more 
brilliant. If it be a flue-stop that is to be 
added, a low note is the best opportunity, as 
the addition of a more acute stop of that class 
is least felt there ; if a reed is to be added, it 
should be drawn on a high note, as the reed 
tone is most prominently felt in the lower part 
of the scale. It should be added that it is abso 
lutely inadmissible to delay or break the tempo 
to gain time for changing a stop ; the player must 
make his opportunities without any such license. 

Tolerably close imitations of orchestral effects 
are possible on the organ, and an immense num 
ber of arrangements of this kind have been 
made ; but as it is at best but an imperfect 
imitation, this is not a pursuit to be encouraged. 
On the other hand, arrangements of piano music 
for the organ, provided that a careful selection is 
made of that which is in keeping with the charac 
ter of the instrument, may often be very inter 
esting and artistically valuable, as giving to the 
music a larger scale and new beauties of tone and 
expression, and affording scope for the unfettered 
exercise of taste and feeling in the invention of 
effects suitable to the character of the music. 

The foregoing remarks may, we hope, afford 
some answer to the question so often asked by 
the uninitiated, how do you know which stops 
to use ? but it must be added that a sensitive 
ear for delicacies of timbre is a gift of which it 
may be said, nascitur, non fit ; and no one will 
acquire by mere teaching the perception which 
gives to each passage its most suitable tone- 
colouring. [H.H.S.] 

REGONDI, GIULIO, of doubtful parentage, 
bora at Geneva in 1822. His reputed father was 
a teacher in the Gymnasium of Milan. The child 
appears to have been an infant phenomenon on 
the guitar, and to have been sacrificed by his 
father, who took him to every court of Europe, 
excepting Madrid, before he was nine years old. 
They arrived in England in 1831 or 1832; and 
Giulio seems never to have left the United King 
dom again except for two concert tours in Ger 
many, one with Herr Lidel, the violoncello player 
in 1841, the other with Mad. Dulcken in 1846. 
On the former of these tours he played both the 
guitar and the melophone (whatever that may 
have been), and evoked enthusiastic praises from 
the correspondents of the A. M. Zeitung in 
Prague and Vienna for his extraordinary execu 
tion on both instruments, the very artistic and 
individual character of his performance, and the 
sweetness of his cantabile. The concertina was 
patented by Sir Charles Wheats tone in 1829 [see 




CONCERTINA"!, but did not come into use till 
Regondi took it up. He wrote two concertos 
for it, and a very large number of arrange 
ments, as well as of original compositions, 
among which a graceful piece, Les Oiseaux, 
was perhaps the most favourite. He also 
taught it largely, and at one time his name was 
to be seen in almost all concert programmes. 
He was a great friend of Molique s, who wrote 
for him a Concerto for the Concertina (in G) 
which he played with great success at the Concert 
of the Musical Society of London, Apr, 20, 1864. 
When he went abroad for his second tour, his 
performance and the effect which he got out of 
so unpromising and inartistic an instrument as 
tonished the German critics. (See the A. M. 
Zeitung for 1846, p. 853.) Regondi appears to 
have been badly treated by his father and to 
have had wretched health, which carried him 
off on May 6, 1872. He was a fine linguist 
and a very attractive person. His talent was 
exquisite, and in better circumstances he might 
have been one of the really great artists. [G.] 

REHEARSAL (Fr. Edpetition, Ger. Probe). 
In the case of Concerts, a performance pre 
liminary to the public one, at which each piece 
included in the programme is played through 
at least once, if in MS. to detect the errors in 
evitable in the parts, and in any case to study 
the work and discover how best to bring out 
the intentions of the composer, and to ensure 
a perfect ensemble on the part of the performers. 
In England, owing to many reasons, but princi 
pally to the over-occupation of the players, suffi 
cient rehearsals are seldom given to orchestral 
works. The old rule of the Philharmonic Society 
(now happily to be altered) was to have one re 
hearsal on Saturday morning for the performance 
on Monday evening, and this perhaps set the ex 
ample. Unless the music is familiar to the players 
this is not enough. No new works can be effici 
ently performed with less than two rehearsals ; 
and in the case of large, intricate, and vocal works, 
many more are requisite. We have it on record 
that Beethoven s Eb Quartet, op. 127, was re 
hearsed seventeen times before its first perform 
ance ; the players therefore must have arrived at 
that state of familiarity and certainty which a 
solo player attains with a concerto or sonata. 

An ingenious method of adding to the attrac 
tion of a series of concerts has been sometimes 
adopted in England of late years by making the 
rehearsals public ; but a rehearsal in face of a 
large well-dressed audience, unless the conductor 
and performers are above ordinary human weak 
nesses, is no rehearsal in the true sense of the 
word, and can be of little or no avail for the 
efficient performance of the music. 

In the case of Operas, every practice of either 
chorus, principals, or orchestra, separately or 
together, is termed a rehearsal. These will some 
times continue every day for six weeks or two 
months, as the whole of the voice-music, dialogue, 
and action has to be learnt by heart. Whilst the 
chorus is learning the music in one part of the 
theatre, the principals are probably at work with 




the composer at a piano in the Green-room, and 
the ballet is being rehearsed on the stage. It is 
only when the music and dialogue are known by 
heart that the rehearsals on the stage with action 
and business begin. The orchestra is never used 
until the last two or three rehearsals, and these 
are termed Full Band Rehearsals (Germ. General- 
probe). Last of all, before the public production 
of the work, comes the Full Dress Rehearsal, 
exactly as it will appear in performance. [G.] 

REICHA, ANTON JOSEPH, born at Prague, 
Feb. 27, 1770, lost his father before he was a year 
old ; his mother not providing properly for his 
education he left home, and took refuge with his 
grandfather at Glattow, in Bohemia. The means 
of instruction in this small town being too limited, 
he went on to his uncle Joseph Reicha (born in 
Prague, 1746, died at Bonn, 1795), a cellist, con 
ductor, and composer, who lived at Wallerstein 
in Bavaria. His wife, a native of Lorraine, speak 
ing nothing but French, had no children, so 
they adopted the nephew, who thus learned to 
speak French and German besides his native Bo 
hemian. He now began to study the violin, 
pianoforte, and flute in earnest. On his uncle s 
appointment, in 1788, as musical director to the 
Elector of Cologne, he followed him to Bonn, 
and entered the Chapel of Maximilian of Austria 
as second flute. The daily intercourse with good 
music roused the desire to compose, and to become 
something more than an ordinary musician, but 
his uncle refused to teach him harmony. He 
managed, however, to study the works of Kirn- 
berger and Marpurg in secret, gained much 
practical knowledge by hearing the works of 
Handel, Mozart, and Haydn, and must have 
learned much from his constant intercourse with 
Beethoven, who played the viola in the same 
baud with himself and was much attached to him. 
At length his perseverance and his success in 
composition conquered his uncle s dislike. He 
composed without restraint, and his symphonies 
and other works were played by his uncle s 
orchestra. 1 

On the dispersion of the Elector s Court in 
1794, Reicha went to Hamburg, where he re 
mained till 1799. There the subject of instruc 
tion in composition began to occupy him, and 
there he composed his first opera, Obaldi, ou 
les Fran9ais en Egypte (2 acts). Though not 
performed, some numbers were well received, and 
on the advice of a French e migre , he started for 
Paris towards the close of 1799, in the hope of 
producing it at the Theatre Feydeau. In this 
he failed, but two of his symphonies, an overture, 
and some Scenes italiennes, were played at 
concerts. After the successive closing of the 
Theatre Feydeau and the Salle Favart, he went 
to Vienna, and passed six years (1802-1808), in 
renewed intimacy with Beethoven, and making 
friends with Haydn, Albrechtsberger, Salieri, and 
others. The patronage of the Empress Maria 
Theresa was of great service to him, and at her 
request he composed an Italian opera, Argina, 

See an interesting uotice Dj Ka.stner. quoted ty Tbajei; Bee- 

i. I.Vfc 


regina di Granata. During this happy period 
of his life he published symphonies, oratorios, a 
requiem, 6 string quintets, and many solos for 
PF. and other instruments. He himself attached 
great importance to his 36 Fugues pour le piano, 
dedicated to Haydn, but they are not the inno 
vations which he believed them to be ; in placing 
the answers on any and every note of the scale 
he merely reverted to the Ricercari of the I7th 
century, and the only effect of this abandonment 
of the classic laws of the Real fugue was to 
banish tonality. 

The prospect of another war induced Reicha 
to leave Vienna, and he settled finally in Paris in 
1808. He now realised the dream of his youth, 
producing first Cagliostro (Nov. 27, 1810), an 
ope*ra-comique composed with Dourlen ; and at 
the Academic, Natalie (3 acts, July 30, 1816), 
and Sapho (Dec. 16, 1822). Each of these 
works contains music worthy of respect, but they 
had not sufficient dramatic effect to take with 
the public. 

Reicha s reputation rests on his chamber- 
music, and on his theoretical works. Of the 
former the following deserve mention : a die- 
cetto for 5 strings and 5 wind instruments ; an 
ottet for 4 strings and 4 wind instruments ; 24 
quintets for flute, oboe, clarinet, horn, and baa- 
soon ; 6 quintets and 20 quartets for strings; 
i quintet for clarinet and strings ; I quartet for 
PF., flute, cello, and bassoon ; I do. for 4 flutes; 
6 do. for flute, violin, tenor, and cello ; 6 string 
trios; i trio for 3 cellos; 24 do. for 3 horns; 
6 duets for 2 violins; 22 do. for 2 flutes; 11 
sonatas for PF. and violin, and a number of 
sonatas and pieces for PF. solo. He also com 
posed symphonies and overtures. These works 
are more remarkable for novelty of combinatioa 
and striking harmonies, than for abundance and 
charm of ideas. Reicha was fond of going out of 
his way to make difficulties for the purpose of 
conquering them ; for instance, iAthe ottet the 
strings are in G, and the wind in E minor, and 
in the sestet for 2 clarinets concertanti one is in 
A, and the other in B. This faculty for solving 
musical problems brought him into notice among , 
musicians when he first settled in Paris, and in 
1818 he was offered the professorship of counter 
point and fugue at the Conservatoire. Among 
his pupils there were Boilly, Jelensperger, Bien- 
aime, Millaut, Lefebvre, Elwart, Pollet, Lecar- 
pentier, Dancla, and others ; Barbereau, Seuriot, 
Blanchard, Mme. de Montgeroult, Bloc, Musard, 
and George Onslow, were private friends. 

His didactic works, all published in Paris, 
are : /Traite" de Melodic, etc. (4to, 1814) ; Cours 
de composition musicale, etc. (1818) ; Trait^ de 
haute composition musicale (ist part 1824, 2n ^ 
1826), a sequel to the two first; and Art du 
compositeur dramatique, etc. (410, 1833). 

Ftis has criticised his theories severely, and 
though highly successful in their day, they are 
now abandoned, but nothing can surpass the 
clearness and method of his analysis, and those 
who use his works will always find much to 
be grateful for. Czerny published a German 


translation of the Traitd de haute composition 
(Vienna, 1834, 4 vols. folio), and in his Art 
d iinproviser obviously made use of Reicha s 
Art de varier 57 variations on an original 

Reicha married a Parisian, was naturalised in 
1829, and received the Legion of Honour in 1831. 
He presented himself several times for election 
to the Institut before his nomination as Boiel- 
dieu s successor in 1835. H- e on ^J enjoyed his 
honours a short time, being carried off by in 
flammation of the lungs, May 28, 1836. His 
death was deplored by the many friends whom 
his trustworthy and honourable character had 
attached to him. A life-like portrait, somewhat 
spoiled by excessive laudation, is contained in the 
Notice sur Reicha (Paris, 1837, 8vo), by his 
pupil Delaire. 1 [G.C.] 

REICHARDT, ALEXANDER, a tenor singer, 
was born at Packs, Hungary, April 17, 1825. 
He received his early instruction in music from 
an uncle, and made his first appearance at the 
age of 1 8 at the Lemberg theatre as Rodrigo in 
Rossini s Otello. His success there led him to 
Vienna, where he was engaged at the Court Opera, 
and completed his education under Gentiluomo, 
Catalani, etc. At this time he was much re 
nowned for his singing of the Lieder of Beethoven 
and Schubert, and was in request at all the 
soire es ; Prince Esterhazy made him his Kammer- 
sanger. In 1846 he made a townee through Ber 
lin, Hanover, etc., to Paris, returning to Vienna. 
In 1851 he made his first appearance in England, 
singing at the Musical Union, May 6, and at 
the Philharmonic May 12, at many other con 
certs, and lastly before Her Majesty. In the 
following season he returned and sang in Ber 
lioz s Romeo and Juliet, at the new Philharmonic 
Concert of April 14, also in the Choral Symphony, 
Berlioz s Faust, and the Walpurgisnight, and 
enjoyed a very great popularity both in songs 
and in more^-ious pieces. From this time until 
1857 he passed each season in England, singing 
at concerts, and at the Royal Opera, Drury Lane, 
and Her Majesty s Theatre, where he filled the 
parts of the Count in The Barber of Seville, Raoul 
in The Huguenots, Belmont in The Seraglio, 
Florestan in Fidelio, Don Ottavio in Don Juan, 
etc. etc. His Florestan was a very successful 
impersonation^ and in this part he was said to 
have laid the foundation of the popularity which 
he has so honourably earned and maintained in 
London. He also appeared with much success 
in oratorio. In the provinces he became almost 
as great a favourite as in London. In 1857 he 
gave his first concert in Paris, in the Salle Erard, 
and the following sentence from Berlioz s report 
of the performance will give an idea of his style 
and voice. M. Reichardt is a tenor of the first 
water sweet, tender, sympathetic and charming. 
Almost all his pieces were rederuanded, and he 
sang them again without a sign of fatigue. Shortly 
after this he settled in Boulogne, where he is now 

DELAIRE, JACQDES AUOCSTE, died in 1864, is kncmn as the 
author oi a Histoire de la Romance and other pamphlets on 



residing. Though he has retired from the active 
exercise of his profession, he is not idle. He has 
organised a Philharmonic Society at Boulogne ; 
he is President of the Academic Communale de 
Musique, and his occasional concerts for the 
benefit of the hospital where one ward is en 
titled Fondation Reichardt are not only very 
productive of funds but are the musical events of 
the town. M. Reichardt is a composer as well 
as a singer. Several of his songs, especially Thou 
art so near, were very .popular in their day. [G.] 
and writer on music ; son of a musician ; born 
Nov. 25, 1752, at Kb nigsberg, Prussia. From 
childhood he showed a great disposition for music, 
and such intelligence as to interest influential 
persons able to further his career. Under these 
auspices he was educated and introduced into 
good society, and thus formed an ideal both of 
art and of life which he could scarcely have 
gained had he been brought up among the petty 
privations incident to his original position. Un 
fortunately, the very gifts which enabled him to 
adopt these high aims, fostered an amount of 
conceit which often led him into difficulties. His 
education was more various than precise ; music 
he learned by practice rather than by any real 
study. His best instrument was the violin, on 
which he attained considerable proficiency, under 
Veichtner, a pupil of Benda s; but he was also a 
good pianist. Theory he learned from the organist 
Richter. On leaving the university of Konigs 
berg he started on a long tour, ostensibly to see 
the world before choosing a profession, though he 
had virtually resolved on- becoming a musician. 
Between 1771 and 1 774 he visited Berlin, Leipzig, 
Dresden, Vienna, Prague, Brunswick, and Ham 
burg, made the acquaintance of the chief nota 
bilities musical, literary, and political in each 
place, and became himself in some sort a celebrity, 
after the publication of his impressions in a series 
of confidential letters Vertraute Briefen eines 
aufmerksamen Reisenden/ in 2 parts (1774 and 
76). On his return to Konigsberg he went into 
a government office, but hearing of the death of 
Agricola of Berlin, he applied in person to Frederic 
the Great for the vacant post of Capellmeister 
and Court-composer, and though barely 24 ob 
tained it in 1776. He at once began to introduce 
reforms, both in the Italian opera and the court 
orchestra, and thus excited much opposition from 
those who were more conservative than himself. 
While thus occupied he was indefatigable as 
a composer, writer, and conductor. In 1783 he 
founded the Concerts Spirituels for the perform 
ance of unknown works, vocal and instrumental, 
which speedily gained a high reputation. He 
published collections of little-known music, with 
critical observations, edited newspapers, wrote 
articles and critiques in other periodicals, and 
produced independent works. But enemies, who 
were many, contrived to annoy him so much in 
the exercise of his duties, that in 1 785 he obtained 
a long leave of absence, during which he visited 
London and Paris, and heard Handel s oratorios 
and Gluck e operas, both of which he heartily 




admired. In both places lie met with great success 
as composer and conductor, and was popular for 
his social qualities ; but neither of his two French 
operas Tamerlan and Panthe e, composed for 
the Academic, were performed. On the death of 
Frederic the Great (1786) his successor confirmed 
Reichardt in his office, and he produced several 
new operas, but his position became more and 
more disagreeable. His vanity was of a peculiarly 
offensive kind, and his enemies found a weapon 
ready to their hand in his avowed sympathy with 
the doctrines of the French Revolution. The 
attraction of these views for a buoyant, liberal 
mind like Reichardt s, always in pursuit of high 
ideals, and eager for novelty, is obvious enough ; 
but such ideas are dangerous at court, and after 
further absence, which he spent in Italy, Ham 
burg, Paris, and elsewhere, he received his dis 
missal from the Capellmeistership in 1794.* He 
retired to his estate, Giebichenstein, near Halle, 
and occupied himself with literature and com 
position, and occasional tours. In 1 796 he became 
inspector of the salt works at Halle. After the 
death of Frederic William II. he produced a few 
more operas in Berlin, but made a greater mark 
with his Singspielen, which are of real importance 
in the history of German opera. In 1808 he 
accepted the post of Capellmeister at Cassel to 
Jerome Bonaparte, refused by Beethoven, but 
did not occupy it long, as in the same year we 
find him making a long visit to Vienna. On his 
return to Giebichenstein he gathered round him 
a pleasant and cultivated society, and there, in 
the midst of his friends, he died, June 17, 1814. 
Reichardt has been, as a rule, harshly judged ; 
he was not a mere musician, but rather a com 
bination of musician, litterateur, and man of the 
world. His overweening personality led him into 
many difficulties, but as a compensation he was 
endued with great intelligence, and with an ardent 
and genuine desire for progress in everything 
music, literature, and politics. As a composer his 
works show cultivation, thought, and honesty ; 
but have not lived, because they want the ne 
cessary originality. This is specially true of his 
instrumental music, which is entirely forgotten. 
His vocal music, however, is more important, and 
a good deal of it might well be revived, especially 
his Singspielen and his Lieder. The former ex 
ercised considerable influence in the development 
of German opera, and the latter are valuable, 
both as early specimens of what is now written 
by every composer, and for their own individual 
merit. The Goethe-Lieder in particular show a 
rare feeling for musical form. Mendelssohn was 
no indulgent critic, but on more than one occasion 
he speaks of J:\eichardt with a warmth which he 
seldom manifests even towards the greatest mas 
ters. He never rested until he had arranged for 
the performance of Reichardt s Morning Hymn, 
after Milton, .at the Cologne Festival of 1835; 

i There was apparently some dissatisfaction with Keichardt s 
efficiency as a musician as well as with his political opinions, for 
Blozart s remark that the King s band contains great virtuosi, but 
the effect would be better if the gentlemen played tog-ether, certainly 
implied a reflection on the conductor. Neither does Beichardt seem 
to have appreciated JZozart iJ aim s Mozart, ii. 410), 


and his enthusiasm for the composer and his wrath 
at those who criticised him, are delightful to read. 3 
Years afterwards, when his niind had lost the 
ardour of youth, and much experience had sobered 
him, he still retained his fondness for this com 
poser, and few things are more charming than 
the genial appreciation with which he tells 
Reichardt s daughter of the effect which her 
father s songs had had, even when placed in 
such a dangerous position as between works of 
Haydn and Mozart, at the Historical Concert 
at the Gewandhaus in Feb. 1847. It is the 
simplicity, the naivete", the national feeling of 
this true German music that he praises, and the 
applause with "which it was received shows that 
he was not alone in his appreciation. Amongst 
Reichardt s numerous works are 8 operas; 8 
Singspielen, including 4 to Goethe s poems, Jery 
und Bately, Erwin und Elmire, Claudine von 
Villabella and Lilla ; 5 large vocal works, 
including Milton s * Morning Hymn/ translated 
by Herder, his most important work, in 1835 ; a 
large number of songs, many of which have 
passed through several editions, and been pub 
lished in various collections. 

Reichardt s writings show critical acumen, 
observation, and judgment. Besides the letters 
previously mentioned, he published Das Kunst- 
magazin, 8 numbers in 2 vols. (Berlin, 1782 and 
91) ; Studien fiir Tonkiinstler und Musik- 
freunde/ a critical and historical periodical with 
39 examples (i 792) ; Vertraute Briefe aus Paris, 
3 parts (1802-3); Vertr.iute Briefe auf einer 
Reise nach Wien, etc. (1810); fragments of 
autobiography in various newspapers ; and in 
numerable articles, critiques, etc. The Briefe 
are specially interesting from the copious details 
they give, not only on the music, but on the 
politics, literature, and society of the various 
places he visited. A biography, J. F. Reichardt, 
sein Leben und seine musikalische Thatigkeit/ 
by Herr Schletterer, Capellmeister of the cathe 
dral of Augsburg, is in progress, the ist vol. having 
been published at Augsburg in 1865. [A.M.] 

REID, GENERAL JOHN, born towards the 
middle of last century, formerly Colonel of the 
88th Regiment, a great lover of music. By 
his will made in 1803 he directed his trustees, in 
the event of his daughter dying without issue, to 
found a Professorship of Music in the Univer 
sity of Edinburgh, for the purpose also, after 
completing such endowment as hereinafter is 
mentioned, of making additions to the library of 
the said University, or otherwise promoting the 
general interest and advantage of the University 
in such . . . manner as the Principal and Profes 
sors . . . shall . . . think most fit and proper. In 
a codicil, dated 1 806, he adds After the de 
cease of my daughter ... I have left all my 
property ... to the College of Edinburgh where 
I had my education . . . and as I leave all my 
music books to the Professor of Music in that 
College, it is my wish that in every year after his 
appointment he will cause a concert of music to 
be performed on the 1 3th of February, being my 

2 Letters. Dec, 28, 1833; April S, 1835. 


birthday. He also directed that at this annual 
Reid Concert some pieces of his own compo 
sition should be performed by a select band. 

When by the death of General Reid s daughter 
in 1838 some 70,000 became available, it seems 
to have been handed over to the University au 
thorities without sufficient attention to the itali 
cised portion of the following instruction in the 
will : that . . . my said Trustees . . . shall and 
do, by such instrument or instruments as may be 
required by the law of Scotland make over the 
residue of my . . . personal estate to the Principal 
and Professors of the said University. And as 
no particular sum was specified for foundation 
and maintenance of the Chair of Music, con 
siderable latitude being allowed to the discretion 
of the University authorities, the secondary object 
of the bequest received far greater care and 
attention than the primary one, and for years the 
Chair was starved. The Professorship was insti 
tuted in 1839, when the first Professor, Mr. John 
Thomson, was appointed. He lived only a short 
time after his election, and in 1842 was succeeded 
by Sir Henry Bishop, who resigned after two years. 
Mr. H. H. Pierson was elected in 1844, but he also 
resigned shortly after. In 1 845 Mr. John Donald 
son, an advocate, and a good theoretical musician, 
received the appointment, and from the first seems 
to have resolved to obtain a more just and satis 
factory bestowal of the bequest. It would be 
out of place to allude further to the state of mat 
ters existing up to 1855. Suffice it to say that 
in 1851, anticipating Mr. Donaldson s intention 
of petitioning Parliament, the Edinburgh Town 
Council, as Patrons of the University, raised an 
action against the Principal and Professors for 
alleged mismanagement and misappropriation of 
the Reid Fund. A long litigation followed, and by 
decree of the Court of Session in 1855 the Uni 
versity authorities were ordered to devote certain 
sums to the purchase of a site, and the erection of 
a building for the Class of music. The class-room 
and its organ were built in 1861, and the Pro 
fessor s salary which had been fixed at the very 
lowest sum suggested by the Founder, viz. 
300 as well as the grant for the concert, were 
slightly raised, and a sum set apart, by order of 
the Court, for expenses of class-room, assistants, 
instruments, etc. 

These hardly-earned concessions are mainly due 
to the determined energy of Prof. Donaldson, who 
seems to have considered them sufficient when 
compared with what formerly existed. He at all 
events obtained for the Chair a far better position 
than that which it occupied before the lawsuit. 
But the disappointments and mortifications to 
which he was subjected by such long and painful 
conflicts not improbably shortened his life, and he 
died in 1865. In that year Mr. Herbert Oakeley 
was elected, who has held the appointment up to 
the present time. [H.S.O.] 

REID CONCERTS. These concerts have not 
reached their present high position without vicis 
situdes almost as unfortunate as those to which 
the Reid Professorship was subjected. The earliest 
concerts under Professors Thomson and Bishop, 



considering the then musical taste of Scotland, 
were not unworthy of General Reid s munifi 
cent bequest. The 200 allowed out of the 
Reid Fund was wholly inadequate to the cost of 
a grand concert 400 miles from London. The 
Senate therefore decided that, besides this grant, 
all the tickets should be sold, and that the pro 
ceeds should assist Professor Thomson in giving 
a fine concert ; and the following note was printed 
in the first Reid Concert Book 1 in 1841 : The 
Professors desire it to be understood that the 
whole of these sums i.e. the grant and the pro 
ceeds is to be expended on the concert; and 
th;it in order to apply as large a fund as possible 
for the purpose, they have not reserved any right 
of entry for their fa-iuilies or friends. 

This system was continued by Sir H. ^. 
Bishop, and in 1842 and 43 the sale of tickets 
enabled him to give concerts which were at 
least creditable for the time and place. 

Upon Professor Donaldson s accession, a plan 
was initiated by him which proved most un 
fortunate. He altered the system of admission 
by payment to that of invitation to the whole 
audience ; and in consequence the Reid Concerts 
began to decline, and became an annual source 
of vexation to the University, public, and Pro 
fessor. The grant, which under legal pressure 
afterwards seems to have been raised to 300, 
was then only 200, and therefore not only was 
it impossible to give an adequate concert with 
out loss, but the distribution of free tickets 
naturally caused jealousies and heartburnings to 
town and gown, and the Reid Concert became 
a byword and the hall in which it was held a 
bear-garden. Matters seem to have culminated in 
1865, when a large number of students, who 
thought that they had a right of entry, broke into 
the concert-hall. 

Such was the state of matters on Professor 
Oakeley s appointment in 1865. Finding it 
impossible after twenty years to return to the 
original system of Thomson and Bishop, he 
made a compromise, by giving free admissions 
to the Professors, the University Court, the stu 
dents in their fourth year at college, and a few 
leading musicians in the city, and admitting the 
rest of the audience by payment. From this date 
a new era dawned on the Reid Concerts ; the 
university and the city were satisfied, and the 
standard of performance at once rose. 

In 1867 a practical beginning was made, by 
the engagement of Mr. Manns and a few of the 
Crystal Palace orchestra, with very good results. 

Since 1 869 Mr. C. Halle and his band have been 
secured, and each year the motto seems Excel 
sior. The demand for tickets soon became so 
great that the present Professor organised two 
supplementary performances on the same scale 
as the Reid, and thus, from concerts which on 
some occasions seem to have been a mere per 
formance of ballads and operatic music by a 
starring party, the Reid Concert has grown into 
the Edinburgh Orchestral, or Reid Festival, 

i Remarkable as the first programme issued la Great Britain with 
analytical uotes. 



an annual musical gathering on the cotnpletest 
and most satisfactory scale as to materials, selec 
tion, and execution one which would do 
honour to any city either of Great Britain or Ger 
many. To have achieved so splendid a result in 
the teeth of so many difficulties does honour to 
the tact, ability, and devotion of Sir Herbert 
Oakeley, and is sufficient, even without his popu 
larisation of the organ, to perpetuate his name 
in Scotland. [&] 

REINAGLE, JOSEPH, son of a German 
musician resident in England, was born at 
Portsmouth. He was successively trumpeter and 
horn-player, violoncellist, violinist, and violon 
cellist again, and a very able performer. About 
1 785 he visited Dublin, where he remained two 
years. Returning to London he obtained a 
prominent position in the best orchestras, and 
was principal cello at Salomon s concerts when 
directed by Haydn. He afterwards settled at 
Oxford. He composed violin concertos, violon 
cello concertos, string quartets, duets and trios 
for violin and pianoforte, etc., and was author 
of A Treatise on the Violoncello. 

His younger brother, HUGH, an eminent vio 
loncellist, died at an early age at Lisbon, where 
he had gone for the benefit of his health. 

His son, ALEXANDER ROBERT, born atBrighton, 
Aug. 21, 1799, for some time organist of St. 
Peter -in-the East, Oxford, was the composer of 
several psalm and hymn tunes. He retired to 
Kidlington, near Oxford, where he died April 6, 
1877. [W.H.H.] 

REINE DE CHYPRE, LA. Opera in 5 acts ; 
words by Saint-Georges, music by Hale vy. Pro 
duced at the Grand Ope ra, Paris, Dec. 22, 
1846. [G.] 

HEINE DE SABA, LA. Opera in 4 acts ; 
words by Barbier and Carrd, music by Gounod. 
Produced at the Ope ra Feb. 28, 1862. It was 
adapted to English words under the title of 
Irene by H. B. Farnie, and in this form was 
produced as a concert at the Crystal Palace, 
Aug. 12, 1865. The beautiful A"irs de ballet 
contain some of Gounod s best music, and are fre 
quently played at the same place. [G.] 

REINE TOPAZE, LA. Opera comique in 3 
acts ; words by Lockroy and Battes, music by 
Victor Masse". Produced at the The atre Lyrique 
Dec. 27, 1856. In English, as Queen Topaze, at 
Her Majesty s Theatre, Dec. 24, 1860. [-G.] 

REINECKE, KARL, composer, conductor, and 
performer, director of the Gewandhaus concerts 
at Leipzig, the son of a musician, born June 23, 
1827, at Altona, was from an early age trained 
by his father, and at II performed in public. 
As a youth he was a first-rate orchestral violin 
player. At 18 he made a concert tour through 
Sweden and Denmark, with especial success at 
Copenhagen. In 1843 he settled in Leipzig, 
where he studied diligently, and eagerly em 
braced the opportunities for cultivation afforded 
by the society of Mendelssohn and Schumann, 
with a success which amply shows itself in his 
music. In 1 844 he made a professional tour with 


Wasielewski to Riga, returning by Hanover and 
Bremen. He was already in the pay of Christian 
VIII. of Denmark, and in 1846 he again visited 
Copenhagen, and played before the court. On 
both occasions he was appointed court-pianist. 
In 1851 he went with Otto von Konigslow to 
Italy and Paris ; and on his return Hiller secured 
him for the professorship of the piano and coun 
terpoint in the conservatoire of Cologne. In 
1854 he became conductor of the Concertgesell- 
schaft at Barmen, and in 1859 Musikdirector to 
the University of Breslau. On Julius Rietz s de 
parture from Leipzig to Dresden in 1 860 Reinecke 
succeeded him as conductor at the Gewandhaus, 
and became at the same time professor of com 
position in the Conservator] um. Between the 
years 1867 and 1872 he made extensive tourne es; 
in England he played at the Musical Union, 
Crystal Palace, and Philharmonic, on the 6th, 
1 7th, and 1 9th of April, 1869 respectively, and 
met with great success both as a virtuoso and 
a composer. He reappeared in this country in 
1872 and was equally well received. 

Reinecke s industry in composition is great, 
his best works, as might be expected, being those 
for piano ; his three PF. sonatas indeed are ex 
cellent compositions, carrying out Mendelssohn s 
technique without indulging the eccentricities of 
modern virtuosi ; his pieces for 2 PFs. are also 
good ; his PF. Concerto in F# minor is a well- 
established favourite both with musicians and the 
public. Besides other instrumental music quin 
tets, quartets, concertos for violin and cello, etc. 
he has composed an opera in 5 acts, Kb nig Man 
fred, and two in one act each Der vierjahrigen 
Posten (after Korner) and Ein Abenteuer Han 
del s ; incidental music to Schiller s Tell ; an 
oratorio, Belsazar ; a cantata for men s voices, 
Hakon Jarl ; overtures, Dame Kobold, Ala- 
din, Friedensfeier ; 2 masses, and 2 symphonies; 
and a large number of songs and of pianoforte 
pieces in all styles, including valuable studies and 
educational works, numbering in all more than 
1 60. His style is refined, his mastery over counter 
point and form is absolute, and he writes with 
peculiar clearness and correctness. He has also 
done much editing for Breitkopf s house. His 
position at Leipzig speaks for his ability as a 
conductor ; as an accompanyist he is first-rate ; 
and as an arranger for the pianoforte he is recog 
nised as one of the first of the day. [E.G.] 
REINHOLD, HUGO, a very promising young 
Austrian musician, born at Vienna March 3, 
1854. He began, like Haydn and Schubert, by 
being a choir -boy in the Imperial Chapel, after 
which, in 1868, at the instance of Herbeck, he 
entered the Conservatorium, under the endow 
ment of the Duke of Coburg-Gotha, where he was 
put under Bruckner, Dessoff, and Epstein, re 
mained till 1874, an< ^ obtained a silver medal. 
His published works have reached op. 18. They 
consist of pianoforte music and songs ; of a suite 
in five movements for pianoforte and strings, of 
a prelude, minuet and fugue also for stringed 
orchestra, and of a string-quartet in A (op. 18). 
The two larger works were played at the Vienna 


Philharmonic concerts of Dec. 9, 1877, and Nov. 
17, 1878, respectively. The composer was loudly 
called for on both occasions, and they are praised 
by the intelligent and impartial Vienna critic of 
the Monthly Musical Record for their delicate 
character and absence of undue pretension. The 
quartet was recently executed by Hellmes- 
berger. [G.] 

REINHOLD, THOMAS, born at Dresden about 
1690, was the reputed nephew, or, as some 
said, son, of the Archbishop of that city. He 
had an early passion for music, and having met 
Handel at the Archbishop s residence conceived 
so strong a liking for him that after a time he 
quitted his abode and sought out the great 
composer in London, who received him with 
favour. In July 1731 he appeared at the Hay- 
market Theatre as a singer in The Grub Street 
Opera, and afterwards sang at the King s 
Theatre. He was one of the original singers 
of The Lord is a man of war, in Handel s 
1 Israel in Egypt, and the original representative 
of the following characters in Handel s works : 
Harapha in Samson ; Somnus in Semele ; 
Cyrus and Gobryas in Belshazzar ; Chelsias 
and the Second Elder in Susanna ; Caleb in 
Joshua ; Simon in Judas Maccabeus ; the 
Levite in Solomon ; and Valens in Theodora. 
He died in Chapel Street, Soho, in 1751. 

His son, CHARLES FREDERICK, born in 1737, 
received his musical education first in St. Paul s, 
and afterwards in the Chapel Royal. On Feb. 3, 
1755, he made his first appearance on the stage 
at Drury Lane as Oberon in J. C. Smith s opera, 
The Fairies, being announced as Master Rein- 
hold. He afterwards became organist of St. 
George the Martyr, Bloomsbury. In 1759 he 
appeared as a bass singer at Marylebone Gardens, 
where he continued to sing for many seasons. 
He afterwards performed in English operas, and 
sang in oratorios, and at provincial festivals, etc. 
He was especially famed for his singing of 
Handel s song, ruddier than the cherry. 
He was one of the principal bass singers at the 
Commemoration of Handel in 1784. He retired 
in 1797, and died in Somers Town, Sept. 29, 
1815. [W.H.H.] 

REINKEN, JOHANN ADAM, eminent German 
organist, born at Deventer, in Holland, April 
27, 1623, a pupil of Swelinck at Amsterdam, 
became in 1654 organist of the church of St. 
Catherine at Hamburg, and retained the post 
till his death, Nov. 24, 1722, at the age of 99. 
He was a person of some consideration at Ham 
burg, both on account of his fine playing, and of 
his beneficial influence on music in general, but 
his vanity and jealousy of his brother artists are 
severely commented on by his contemporaries. 
So great and so widespread was his reputation 
that Sebastian Bach frequently walked to Ham 
burg from Liineburg (1700 to 1703), and Cothen 
(1720), to hear him play. Reinken may be con 
sidered the best representative of the North- 
German school of organists of the i7th cen 
tury, whose strong points were, not the classic 



placidity of the South-German school, but great 
dexterity of foot and finger, and ingenious com 
binations of the stops. His compositions are 
loaded with passages for display, and are de 
fective in form, both in individual melodies and 
general construction. His works are very scarce ; 
Hortus Musicus, for 2 violins, viola and bass 
(Hamburg 1 704) is the only one printed ; and 
even in MS. only five pieces are known 2 on 
Chorales, i Toccata, and 2 Variations (for Clavier). 1 
Of the first of these, one on the chorale An 
Wasserfliissen Baby Ions -- is specially interest 
ing, because it was by an extempore perform 
ance on that chorale at Hamburg in 1722 that 
Bach extorted from the venerable Reinken the 
words, I thought that this art was dead, but 
I see that it still lives in you. [A. M.] 

REINTHALER, KARL, conductor of the 
Private Concerts at Bremen, born Oct. 13, 1822, 
in Luther s house at Erfurt, was early trained in 
music by G. A. Ritter, then studied theology in 
Berlin, but after passing his examination, devoted 
himself entirely to music. His first attempts at 
composition, some psalms sung by the Cathe 
dral choir, attracted the attention of King Frede 
ric William IV., and procured him a travelling 
grant. He visited Paris, Milan, Rome, and 
Naples, taking lessons in singing from Geraldi 
and Bordogni. On his return in 1853 he ob 
tained a post in the Conservatoire of Cologne, and 
in 1858 became organist in the Cathedral of Bre 
men. He had already composed an oratorio 
Jephta (performed in London by Mr. Hullah, 
April 1 6, 1856, and published with English 
text by Novellos), and in 1875 his opera Edda 
was played with success at Bremen, Hanover, 
and elsewhere. His Bismarck -hymn obtained 
the prize at Dortmund, and he has composed a 
symphony, and a large number of part-songs. 
Reinthaler s style bears a considerable resem 
blance to that of Mendelssohn and Gade. [F.G.] 

Gottlieb Reissiger, who published 3 symphonies 
for full orchestra in 1790. Born Jan. 31, 1798, 
at Belzig near Wittenberg, where his father was 
Cantor, he became in 1 8 1 1 a pupil of Schicht at the 
St. Thomas School, Leipzig. In 1818 he removed 
to the University with the intention of studying 
theology, but some motets composed in 1815 an ^ 
1816 had already attracted attention, and the 
success of his fine baritone voice made him de 
termine to devote himself to music. In 1821 he 
went to Vienna and studied opera thoroughly. 
Here also he composed Das Rockenweibchen. 
In 1822 he sang an aria of Handel s, and played 
a PF. concerto of his- own composition at a con 
cert in the Karnthnerthor theatre. Soon after 
he went to Munich, where he studied with Peter 
Winter, and composed an opera Dido, which 
was performed several times at Dresden under 
Weber s conductorship. At the joint expense 
of the Prussian government and of his patron 
von Altenstein, a musician, he undertook a tour 
through Holland, France, and Italy, in order to 

1 Spitta s Bach, 1. 195, 196. 



report on the condition of music in those coun 
tries. On his return he was commissioned to 
draw up a scheme for a Prussian national Conser 
vatoire, but at the same time was offered posts 
at the Hague and at Dresden. The latter he 
accepted, replacing Marschner at the opera, where 
he laboured hard, producing both German and 
Italian operas. In 1827 he succeeded C. M. von 
Weber as conductor of the German Opera at 
Dresden. Among his operas, Ahnenschotz, 
Sibella, Turandot, Adele von Foix, and Der 
Schiffbruch von Medusa, had great success in 
their day, but the term Kapellmeistermusik 
eminently describes them, and they have almost 
entirely disappeared. The overture to the Fel- 
senmiihle, a spirited and not uninteresting piece, 
is occasionally met with in concert programmes. 
Masses and church music, a few Lieder, and par 
ticularly some graceful and easy trios for PF. 
violin and cello, made his name very popular for 
a period. He is generally supposed to have been 
the composer of the piece known as Weber s Last 
Waltz. Reissiger died Nov. 7, 1859, an ^ was 
succeeded at Dresden by Julius Rietz. [F.G.] 

REISSMANN, AUGUST, musician and writer 
on music, born Nov. 14, 1825, at Frankenstein, 
Silesia, was grounded in music by Jung, the 
Cantor of his native town. In 1843 he removed 
to Breslau, and there had instruction from 
Mosewius, Baumgart, Ernst Richter, Liistner, 
and Kohl, in various branches, including piano 
forte, organ, violin, and cello. He at first pro 
posed to become a composer, but a residence in 
1850-52 at Weimar, where he came in contact 
with the new school of music, changed his plans 
and drove him to literature. His first book was 
From Bach to Wagner (Berlin, 1861) ; rapidly 
followed by a historical work on the German 
song, Das deutsche Lied, etc. (1861), rewritten 
as Geschichte des Deutschen Liedes (1874). 
This again was succeeded by his General History 
of Music Allg. Musikgeschichte (3 vols. 1864, 
Leipzig), with a great number of interesting 
examples; and that by Compositionslehre (3 
vols. Berlin, 1866-70). His recent works have 
been of a biographical nature, attempts to show 
the gradual development of the life and genius 
of the chief musicians Schumann (1865), Men 
delssohn (1867), Schubert (1873), Haydn (1879). 
All books about these great men are inter 
esting, especially when written by practical and 
intelligent musicians; and Dr. Reissmann s are 
illustrated by copious examples (in Schubert s 
case from MS. sources), which much increase 
their value. In 1877 he published a volume of 
lectures on the history of music, delivered in the 
Conservator! um of Berlin, where he has resided 
since 1863. His chief employment since 1871 
has been the completion of the Musik Conver- 
sationslexikon, in which he succeeded Mendel 
as editor, after the death of the latter. The 
nth volume, completing the work, appeared in 
1879, and it will long remain as the most com 
prehensive Lexicon of music. Dr. Reissmann 
unfortunately thought it necessary to oppose the 
establishment of the Royal High School for 


Music at Berlin in 1875, and to enforce his 
opposition by a bitter pamphlet, which however 
has long since been forgotten. [See MUSIK, 

KONIGLICHE HOCHSCHULE FUR, vol. ii. p. 4376.] 

As a practical musician Dr. Reissmann has been 
almost as industrious as he has been in literature. 
The list given in the Lexicon comprises 2 grand 
operas and one comic ditto ; an oratorio ; 2 dra 
matic scenes for solos, male chorus, and orchestra ; 
a concerto and a suite for solo violin and or 
chestra ; 2 sonatas for pianoforte and violin ; and 
a great quantity of miscellaneous pieces for piano 
solo and for the voice in all nearly 50 published 
works. He is now (1881) at Leipzig, editing an 
Illustrated History of German music. [G.] 

RELATION is a general term implying con 
nection between two or more objects of consider 
ation, through points of similarity and contrast. In 
other words, it is the position which such objects 
appear to occupy when considered with reference 
to one another. It is defined by its context. 

The relations of individual notes to one another 
may be described in various ways. For instance, 
they may be connected by belonging to or being 
prominent members of the diatonic series of any 
one key, and contrasted in various degrees by 
the relative positions they occupy in that series. 
A further simple relation is established by mere 
proximity, such as may be observed in the 
relations of grace-notes, appoggiaturas, turns, 
and shakes to the essential notes which they 
adorn ; and this is carried so far that notes alien 
to the harmony and even to the key are freely 
introduced, and are perfectly intelligible when 
in close connection with characteristic diatonic 
notes. The relations of disjunct notes may be 
found, among other ways, by their belonging to 
a chord which is easily called to mind ; whence 
the successive sounding of the constituents of 
familiar combinations is easily realised as melody; 
while melody which is founded upon less obvious 
relations is not so readily appreciated. 

The relations of chords may be either direct or 
indirect. Thus they may have several notes in 
common, as in Ex. I, or only one, as in Ex. 2, 
Ex. 1. Ex. 2. Ex. 8. 

to make simple direct connection, while the diver 
sity of their derivations, or their respective de 
grees of consonance and dissonance, afford an 
immediate sense of contrast. Or they may be 
indirectly connected through an implied chord or 
note upon which they might both converge ; as 
the common chord of D to that of C through G, 
to which D is Dominant, while G in its turn is 
Dominant to C (Ex. 3). The relation thus es 
tablished is sufficiently clear to allow the major 
chord of the supertonic and its minor seventh 
and major and minor ninth to be systematically 
affiliated in the key, though its third and minor 
ninth are not in the diatonic series. 


A further illustration of the relations of 
chords is afforded by those of the Dominant and 
Tonic. They are connected by their roots being 
a fifth apart, which is the simplest interval, 
except the octave, in music ; but their other com 
ponents are entirely distinct, as is the compound 
tone of the roots, since none of their lower and 
more characteristic harmonics are coincident. 
They thus represent the strongest contrast in 
the diatonic series of a key, and when taken 
together define the tonality more clearly than any 
other pair of chords in its range. 

The relations of keys are traced in a similar 
manner ; as, for instance, by the tonic and perfect 
fifth of one being in the diatonic series of another, 
or by the number of notes which are common to 
both. The relations of the keys of the minor third 
and minor sixth to the major mode (as of Eb and 
Ab with reference to C) are rendered intelligible 
through the minor mode ; but the converse does 
not hold good, for the relations of keys of the major 
mediant or submediant to the minor mode (as of 
E minor and A minor with reference to C minor) 
are decidedly remote, and direct transition to them 
is not easy to follow. In fact the modulatory 
tendency of the minor mode is towards the con 
nections of its relative major rather than to those 
of its actual major, while the outlook of the 
major mode is free on both sides. The relation 
of the key of the Dominant to an original Tonic 
is explicable on much the same grounds as that 
of the chords of those notes. The Dominant key 
is generally held to be a very satisfactory com 
plementary or contrast in the construction of a 
piece of music of any sort, but it is not of uni 
versal cogency. For instance, at the very out 
set of any movement it is almost inevitable that 
the Dominant harmony should early and empha 
tically present itself; hence when a fresh section 
is reached it is sometimes desirable to find another 
contrast to avoid tautology. With some such 
purpose the keys of the mediant or. submediant 
have at times been chosen, both of which afford 
interesting phases of contrast and connection ; 
the connection being mainly the characteristic 
major third of the original tonic, and the contrast 
being emphasised by the sharpening of the Dom 
inant in the first case, and of the Tonic in the 
second. The key of the subdominant is avoided 
in such cases because the contrast afforded by it 
is not sufficiently strong to have force in the total 
impression of the movement. 

The relations of the parts of any artistic work 
are in a similar manner those of contrast within 
limits of proportion and tonality. For instance, 
those of the first and second section in what is 
called first movement or sonata form are 
based on the contrast of complementary tonal 
ities as part of the musical structure, on the one 
hand ; and on contrast of character and style in 
the idea on the other ; which between them 
establish the balance of proportion. The rela 
tion of the second main division the working- 
out section to the first part of the movement is 
that of greater complexity and freedom in con 
trast to regularity and definiteness of musical 



structure, and fanciful discussion of characteristic 
portions of the main subjects in contrast to formal 
exposition of complete ideas ; and the final section 
completes the cycle by returning to regularity in 
the recapitulation. 

The relations of the various movements of a 
large work to one another are of similar nature. 
The earliest masters who wrote Suites and Senate 
di Camera or di Chiesa had but a rudimentary 
and undeveloped sense of the relative contrasts 
of keys ; consequently they contented themselves 
with connecting the movements by putting them 
all in the same key, and obtained their contrasts 
by alternating quick and slow movements or 
dances, and by varying the degrees of their seri 
ousness or liveliness: but the main outlines of the 
distribution of contrasts are* in these respects 
curiously similar to the order adopted in the 
average modern Sonata or Symphony. Thus they 
placed an allegro of a serious or solid character 
at or near the beginning of the work, as typified 
by the Allemande ; the slow or solemn movement 
came in the middle, as typified by the Sarabande ; 
and the conclusion was a light and gay quick 
movement, as typified by the Gigue. And further, 
the manner in which a Gourante usually followed 
the Allemande, and a Gavotte or Bourre e or 
Passepied, or some such dance, preceded the final 
Gigue, has its counterpart in the Minuet or 
Scherzo of a modern work, which occupies an 
analogous position with respect either to the slow 
er last movement. In modern works the force of 
additional contrast is obtained by putting central 
movements in different but allied keys to that of 
the first and last movements; the slow movement 
most frequently being in the key of the Sub- 
dominant. At the same time additional bonds 
of connection are sometimes obtained, both by 
making the movements pass without complete 
break from one to another, and in some cases 
(illustrated by Beethoven and Schumann especi 
ally) by using the same characteristic features or 
figures in different movements. 

The more subtle relations of proportion, both 
in the matter of the actual length of the various 
movements and their several sections, and in the 
breadth of their style ; in the congruity of their 
forms of expression and of the quality of the 
emotions they appeal to ; in the distribution of 
the qualities of tone, and even of the groups of 
harmony and rhythm, are all of equal import 
ance, though less easy either to appreciate or to 
effect, as they demand higher degrees of artistic 
power and perception; and the proper adjust 
ment of such relations are as vital to operas, 
oratorios, cantatas, and all other forms of vocal 
music, as to the purely instrumental forms. 

The same order of relations appears in all 
parts of the art ; for instance, the alternation of 
discord and concord is the same relation, implying 
contrast and connection, analogous to the relation, 
between suspense or expectation and its relief; 
and to speak generally, the art of the composer 
is in a sense the discovery and exposition of 
intelligible relations in the mutifarious material 
at his command, and a complete explanation of 



the word would amount to a complete theory of 
music. [C.H.H.P.] 

RELFE, JOHN whose father, Lupton Relfe 
(died, Oct. 1805), was f r fifty years organist of 
Greenwich Hospital was born about 1 766. He 
received his first instruction from his father, and 
at eighteen was articled to Keeble, organist of 
St. George s, Hanover Square. About 1810 he 
was appointed one of the King s band of music. 
He had much reputation as a teacher of the 
pianoforte, and composed some sonatas, a popu 
lar ballad, Mary s Dream, and other pieces. 
In 1 798 he published The Principles of Har 
mony, in which nearly the whole theoretical 
plan of Logier, so far as it was connected with 
offering elementary instruction through the 
medium of exercises, was anticipated. He was 
also author of Remarks on the Present State 
of Musical Instruction, 1819, and Lucidus 
Ordo, an attempt to divest thorough-bass and 
composition of their intricacies, 1819. He died 
about 1837. [W.H.H.] 

RELLSTAB. Two remarkable people, father 
and son. The father, JOHANN KAKL FRIEDRICH, 
was one of those active intellects who are so 
influential in their locality ; he was born in Berlin 
Feb. 27, 1759. His father, a printer, wished him 
to succeed to the business, but from boyhood his 
whole thoughts were devoted to music. He was 
on the point of starting for Hamburg to complete 
his studies with Emmanuel Bach when the death 
of his father forced him to take up the business. 
He then added a music printing and publishing 
branch ; was the first to establish a musical lend 
ing library (1783); founded a Concert-Society, 
on the model of Killer s at Leipzig, and called it 
Concerts for connoisseurs and amateurs, an un 
usually distinctive title for those days. The first 
concert took place April 1 6, 1787, at the Englische 
Haus, and in course of time the following works 
were performed: Salieri s Armida, Schulz s 
Athalia, Naumann s Cora, Basse s Conver- 
sione di San Agostino, Bach s Magnificat, and 
Gluck s Alceste, which was thus first introduced 
to Berlin. The Society at last merged in the Sing- 
akademie. He wrote musical critiques for the 
Berlin paper, signed with his initials ; and had 
concerts every other Sunday during the winter at 
his own house, at which such works as Haydn s 
Seasons were performed; but these meetings 
were stopped by the entry of the French in 1806, 
when he frequently had 20 men, and a dozen 
horses quartered on him ; lost not only his music 
but all his capital, and had to close his printing- 
press. In time, he resumed his concerts ; in 1 809 
gave lectures on harmony; in 1811 travelled to 
Italy, and his letters in Voss s newspaper first 
drew attention to Fraulein Milder, and thus 
brought about her invitation to Berlin. Not long 
after his return he was struck with apoplexy while 
walking at Charlottenburg, Aug. 19, 1813, and 
found dead on the road some hours afterwards. 
As a composer he left 3 cantatas, a Passion, 
a Te Deum, and a Mass. Also an opera ; songs 
too numerous to specify ; vocal scores of Graun s 


Tod Jesu, and Gluck s Iphigenie ; a German 
libretto of Gluck s Orphe"e apparently from his 
own pen. Of instrumental music he published 
marches for PF., symphonies and overtures; a 
series of pieces with characteristic titles, Ob 
stinacy, Sensibility, etc.; 24 short pieces for 
PF., violin and bass, etc. Also A Treatise 
on Declamation ; A Traveller s observations on 
church-music, concerts, operas, and chamber-music 
at the Palace in Berlin (i 789); and A guide to 
Bach s system of fingering for the use of pianists 
(1790). These works, for the most part biblio 
graphical curiosities, are very instructive. 

Rellstab had three daughters, of whom CARO 
LINE, born April 18, 1793 or 94, was a singer, dis 
tinguished for her extraordinary compass. His son, 

1799, in Berlin, though delicate in health, and 
destined for practical music, was compelled by 
the times to join the army, where he became 
ensign and lieutenant. In 1816, after the peace, 
he took lessons on the piano from Ludwig 
Berger, and in 1819 and 20 studied theory with 
Bernhard Klein. At the same time he taught 
mathematics and history in the Brigadeschule 
till 1821, when he retired from the army to 
devote himself to literature. He also composed 
much part-music for the jiingere Liedertafel 
which he founded in conjunction with G. Rei- 
chardt in 1819, wrote a libretto, Dido, for B. 
Klein, and contributed to Marx s Musikzeitung. 
A pamphlet on Madame Sontag procured him 3 
months imprisonment in 1825, on account of its 
satirical allusions to a well-known diplomatist. 
In 1826 he joined the staff of Voss s newspaper, 
and in a short time completely led the public 
opinion on music in Berlin. His first article was 
a report on a performance of Euryanthe, Oct. 31, 
1826, followed on Nov. 13 by another on a soiree 
at the Jagor Hall, at which Mendelssohn played 
Beethoven s 9th Symphony on the piano, and 
thus introduced that gigantic work to Berlin. 
Twenty -two years later Rellstab wrote : 

That evening made an indelible impression on my 
mind, and the recollection of it is as fresh as of an event 
of yesterday nay of to-day. The most accomplished 
musicians of Berlin, including Berger and Klein, were 
present. The wonderful, almost awe-inspiring wcrk, 
exacted the homage due to it, but the attention of all 
present was rivetted upon the young artist dealing with 
unmistakeable mastery with that mighty score, as I 
related at the time, though in far too measured terms, 
my pen being then unpractised. His eager glance took 
in the whole of each page, his ear penetrated like a 
gimlet (to use an expression of Zel ter s) into the very 
essence of the music, his fingers never erred. 

Two years later he wrote a cantata for Hum- 
boldt s congress of physicists, which Mendelssohn 
set to music. 

Rellstab was a warm supporter of classical 
music, and strongly condemned all undue at 
tempts at effect. He quarrelled with Spontini 
over his Agnes von Hohenstauffen (Berlin 
Musikalische Zeitung for 1827, Nos. 23, 24, 
26, and 29), and the controversy was maintained 
with much bitterness until Spontini left Berlin, 
when Rellstab, in his pamphlet Ueber mein 
Verhaltniss als Kritiker zu Herm Spontini, 
acknowledged that he had gone too far. 


Rellstab s novels and essays are to be found 
for the most part in his Gesammelte Schriften 
24 vols. (Leipzig, Brockhaus). A musical peri 
odical, Iris im Reiche der Tonktmst, founded by 
him in 1830, survived till 1842. His recollections 
of Berger, Schroeder - Devrient, Mendelssohn, 
Klein, Dehn, and Beethoven (whom he visited 
in March 1825) will be found in Aus meinem 
Leben (2 vols. Berlin, 1861). He was thoroughly 
eclectic in his taste for music, and, though not an 
unconditional supporter, was no opponent of the 
modern school of Liszt and Wagner. He died 
during the night of Nov. 27, 1860. [E.G.] 

REMENYI, EDUARD, a famous violinist, was 
born in 1830 at Hewes (according to another 
account at Miskolc") in Hungary, and received 
his musical education at the Vienna Conservatoire 
during the years 1842-1845, where his master 
on the violin was Joseph Bb hm, the same who 
instructed Joachim. In 1848 he took an active 
part in the insurrection, and became adjutant to 
the famous general Gorgey, under whom he took 
part in the campaign against Austria. After 
the revolution had been crushed he had to fly his 
country, and went to America, where he resumed 
his career as a virtuoso. In 1853 he went to 
Liszt in Weimar, who at once recognised his 
genius and became his artistic guide and friend. 
In the following year he came to London and 
was appointed solo violinist to the Queen. In 
1860 he obtained his amnesty and returned to 
Hungary, where some time afterwards he received 
from the Emperor of Austria a similar distinction 
to that granted him in England. After his return 
home he seems to have retired for a time from 
public life, living chiefly on an estate he owned in 
Hungary. In 1865 he appeared for the first time 
in Paris, where he created a perfect furore in the 
salons of the aristocracy. Repeated artistic tours 
in Germany, Holland, and Belgium further tended 
to spread his fame. In 1875 he settled temporarily 
in Paris, and in the summer of 1877 came to 
London, where also he produced a sensational 
effect in private circles. The season being far 
advanced he appeared in public only once, at Mr. 
Mapleson s benefit concert at the Crystal Palace, 
where he played a fantasia on themes from the 
Huguenots. In the autumn of 1878 he again 
visited London, and played at the Promenade 
Concerts, He was on his way to America, where 
he has been giving concerts for the last three 
years and still resides (1881). As an artist 
M. Remenyi combines perfect mastery over the 
technical difficulties of his instrument with a 
strongly pronounced poetic individuality. His 
soul is in his playing, and his impulse carries him 
away with it as he warms to his task, the impres 
sion produced on the audience being accordingly 
in an ascending scale. He never tires, and one 
never tires of him. The stormier pieces of 
Chopin transferred by him from the piano to the 
violin are given by Reme nyi with overpowering 
effect. But tenderer accents are not wanting; 
the nocturnes of Chopin and Field, arranged in 
the same way, he gives with the suavest dreami 
ness, interrupted at intervals only by accents of 



passion. Another important feature in Reme nyi a 
playing is the national element. He strongly 
maintains against Liszt the genuineness of Hun 
garian music, and has shown himself thoroughly 
imbued with that spirit by writing several Hun 
garian melodies, which have been mistaken for 
popular tunes and adopted as such by other com 
posers. The same half-Eastern spirit is ob 
servable in the strong rhythmical accentuation of 
Remenyi s style, so rarely attained by artists of 
Teutonic origin. For this and other reasons the 
arrangements of Chopin s mazurkas and similar 
pieces are more congenial to him than the 
classical works of Beethoven, Schumann, Men 
delssohn, which, as a matter of course, are in his 
re pertoire. Altogether his genius will be most 
appreciated in a drawing-room, where his marked 
individuality is felt more immediately than 
in a large concert-hall. Reme nyi s fame is ac 
cordingly of a somewhat peculiar kind. It re 
sembles that of our non-exhibiting painters. 
Most English amateurs have heard his name 
and know that he ranks amongst the leading 
artists of the day, but few can vouch for the 
general impression by their personal experience. 
Moreover, Remenyi is of too migratory a nature 
to follow up his success in any given place. He 
is the wandering musician par excellence, and at 
intervals, when the whim takes him, will disap 
pear from public view altogether. But although 
somewhat of the nature of a comet, he is un 
doubtedly a star of the first magnitude in his 
own sphere. Reme nyi s compositions are of no 
importance, being mostly confined to arrange 
ments for his instrument and other pieces written 
for his own immediate use. 

REMPLISSAGE, filling up. A term some 
times met with in musical criticism, which means 
what is colloquially called padding, or passages 
generally of a florid and modulatory character 
put by composers of inferior degree into their 
compositions, whether from barrenness of ideas, 
or from want of skill in using those they have, 
whereby the bulk of the work is increased, but 
not its interest or value. [J.A.F.M.1 

RENDANO, ALFONSO, born April 5, 1853, at 
Carolei, near Cosenza, studied first at the Con- 
servatorio at Naples, then with Thalberg, and 
lastly at the Leipzig Conservatorium. He played 
at the Gewandhaus with marked success on Feb. 
8, 1872. He then visited Paris and London, per 
formed at the Musical Union (April 30, 1872), the 
Philharmonic (March 9, 73), the Crystal Palace, 
and other concerts, and much in society; and 
after a lengthened stay returned to Italy. He 
was a graceful and refined player, with a delicate 
touch, a great command over the mechanism of 
the piano, and a pleasing melancholy in his ex 
pression. His playing of Bach was especially 
good. He has published some piano pieces of no 
importance. [G.] 

RE PASTORE, IL. A dramatic cantata to 
Metastasio s words (with compressions), com 
posed by Mozart at Salzburg in 1775, in honour 
of the Archduke Maximilian. First performed 



April 23, 1775. It contains an overture and 
14 numbers. The autograph is in the Royal 
Library at Berlin, and the work is published in 
Breitkopf s complete edition as Series V. No. 10. 

Aminta s air, L amerb, was at one time a 
favourite with Madame Lind-Goldschmidt. [G.] 


Wiederholung ; Fr. Repetition, which also means 
rehearsal ). In the so-called sonata-form, there 
are certain sections which are repeated, and 
are either written out in full twice over, or are 

at the 

written only once, with the sign H 

end, which shows that the music is to be repeated 
either from the beginning or from the previous 
occurrence of the sign. The sections which, ac 
cording to the strict rule, are repeated, are the 
first section of the first movement, both sections 
of the minuet or scherzo at their first appear 
ance, and both sections of the trio, after which 
the minuet or scherzo is gone once straight through 
without repeats. The last half of the first move 
ment, and the first, or even both, of the sections 
in the last movement, may be repeated ; see for 
instance Beethoven s Sonatas Op. 2, No. 2; Op. 10, 
No. 2 ; Op. 78 ; Schubert s Symphony No. 9. Also, 
where there is an air and variations, both sections 
of the air and of all the variations, should, strictly 
speaking, be repeated. Although it is a regular 
custom not to play the minuet or scherzo, after the 
trio, with repeats, Beethoven thinks fit to draw 
attention to the fact that it is to be played straight 
through, by putting after the trio the words Da 
Capo senza repetizione, or senza replica, in one 
or two instances, as in Op. 10, No. 3, where more 
over the trio is not divided into two sections, and 
is not repeated; in Op. 27, No. 2, where the 
Allegretto is marked La prima parte senza re 
petizione (the first part without repeat). In his 
4th and 7th Symphonies he has given the trio 
twice over each time with full repeats. [J. A.F.M.] 

reiteration of a note is called repetition ; a 
special touch of the player facilitated by me 
chanical contrivances in the pianoforte action ; 
the earliest and most important of these having 
been the invention of SEBASTIAN ERARD. [See the 
diagram and description of Erard s action under 
PIANOFORTE, vol. ii. p. 722.] By such a con 
trivance the hammer, after the delivery of a blow, 
remains poised, or slightly rises again, so as to allow 
the hopper to fall back and be ready to give a 
second impulse to the hammer before the key has 
nearly recovered its position of rest. The parti 
cular advantages of repetition to grand pianos have 
been widely acknowledged by pianoforte makers, 
and much ingenuity has been spent in inventing 
or perfecting repetition actions for them : in up 
right pianos however the principle has been rarely 
employed, although its influence has been felt 
and shown by care in the position of the check 
in all check action instruments. The French have 
named the mechanical power to rapidly repeat a 
note, double echappement ; the drawbacks to 
double escapement which the repetition really 


is are found in increased complexity of me 
chanism and liability to derangement. These 
may be overrated, but there always remains the 
drawback of loss of tone in repeated notes ; the 
repetition blow being given from a small depth 
of touch compared with the normal depth, is 
not so elastic and cannot be delivered with 
so full a forte, or with a piano or pianissimo of 
equally telling vibration. Hence, in spite of the 
great vogue given to repetition effects by Herz 
and Thalberg, other eminent players have dis 
regarded them, or have even been opposed to 
repetition touches, as Chopin was and L)r. Hans 
von Billow is see p. 7, 10 of his commentary 
on selected studies by Chopin (Aibl, Munich, 
i88o\ where he designates double escapement 
as a deplorable innovation. 

A fine example of the best use of repetition 
is in Thalberg s A minor Study, op. 45 : 






1 ol 



where the player, using the first two fingers 
and thumb in rapid succession on each note, 
produces by these triplets almost the effect of 
a sustained melody with a tremolo. It is this 
effect, produced by mechanical means only, that 
is heard in Signer Caldera s MELOPIANO as made 
by Herz in Paris, and Kirkman in London. 
Repetition is however an old device with stringed 
instruments, having been, according to Bunting, 
a practice with the Irish harpers, as we know 
it was with the common dulcimer, the Italian 
mandoline and the Spanish bandurria. 

A remarkable instance may be quoted of the 
effective use of repetition in the Fugato (piano 
solo) from Liszt s Todtentanz (Danse Macabre) 


But there need be no difficulty in playing this 
on a well-regulated and checked single escape 
ment. With a double escapement the nicety of 
checking is not so much required. [A. J.H.] 

REPRISE, repetition ; a term which is occa 
sionally applied to any repetition in music, but is 
most conveniently confined to the recurrence of 
the first subj/ect of a movement after the conclu 
sion of the working out or Durchfuhrung. In 
that sense it is used in this work. [G.] 

REQUIEM (Lat. Missa pro Defunctis ; Ital. 
Messa per i Defonti; Fr. Hesse des Morts; 
Germ. Todtenmesse). A solemn Mass, sung, an 
nually, in Commemoration of the Faithful De 
parted, on All Souls Day (Nov. 2) ; and, with 
a less general intention, at Funeral Services, 
on the anniversaries of the decease of particular 
persons, and on such other occasions as may be 
dictated by feelings of public respect, or indi 
vidual piety. 

The Requiem takes its name 1 from the first 
word of the Introit Requiem eeternam dona 
eis, Domine. When set to Music, it naturally 
arranges itself in nine principal sections : (i) The 
Introit Requiem teternam ; (2) the Kyrie ; 
(3) the Gradual, and Tract Requiem aeter- 
nam, and Absolve, Domine ; (4) The Sequence 
or Prose Dies irse ; (5) The Offertorium 
Domine Jesu Christi ; (6) the Sanctus ; (7) the 
Benedictus ; (8) the Agnus Dei ; and (9) the 
Communio Lux seterna. To these are some 
times added (10) the Responsorium, Liberame, 
which, though not an integral portion of the 
Mass, immediately follows it, on all solemn oc- 
,. casions; and (n) the Lectio* Tsedet animam 
meam, of which we possess at least one example 
of great historical interest. 

The Plain Chaunt Melodies adapted to the 
nine divisions of the Mass will be found in the 
Gradual; together with that proper for the 
Responsorium. The Lectio, which really belongs 
to a different Service, has no proper Melody, but 
is sung to the ordinary Tonus Lectionis. [See 
ACCENTS.] The entire series of Melodies is of 
rare beauty ; and produces so solemn an effect, 
when sung, in Unison, by a large body of Grave 
Equal Voices, that most of the great Polyphonic 
Composers have employed its phrases more freely 
than usual, in their Requiem Masses, either as 
Canti fermi, or, in the form of unisonous 
passages interposed between the harmonised 
portions of the work. Compositions of this kind 
are not very numerous ; but most of the examples 
we possess must be classed among the most 
perfect productions of their respective authors. 

Palestrina s Missa pro Defunctis, for 5 Voices, 
first printed at Rome in 1591, in the form of a 
supplement to the Third Edition of his First 
Book of Masses, was reproduced in 1841 by 
Alfieri, in the first volume of his Raccolta di Mu 
sica Sacra ; again, by Lafage, in a valuable Svo. 
volume, entitled Cinq Messes de Palestrina ; 2 

1 That is to say, its name as a special Mass. The Music of the 
ordinary Polyphonic Mass always bears the name of the Canto feimo 
on which it is founded. 

2 Paris, Launer et Cie. ;. London, Bchott A Co. 



and by the Prince de la Moskowa in the gth 
volume of his collection [see p. 31 of the present 
vol.], and has since been advertised, by Messrs. 
Breitkopf & Hartel, of Leipzig, as part of the 
contents of their complete edition. This beautiful 
work is, unhappily, very incomplete, consisting 
only of the Kyrie/ the Offertorium , the Sanctus, 
the Benedictus, and the Agnus Dei. We must 
not, however, suppose that the Composer left his 
work unfinished. It was clearly his intention 
that the remaining Movements should be sung, in 
accordance with a custom still common at Roman 
Funerals, in unisonous Plain Chaunt : and, as a 
fitting conclusion to the whole, he has left us two 
settings of the Libera me, in both of which the 
Gregorian Melody is treated with an indescribable 
intensity of pathos. 3 One of these is preserved, in 
MS., among the Archives of the Pontifical Chapel, 
and the other, among those of the Lateran Basilica. 
After a careful comparison of the two, Baini ar 
rived at the conclusion that that belonging to 
the Sistine Chapel must have been composed very 
nearly at the same time as, and probably as an 
adjunct to, the five printed Movements, which are 
also founded, more or less closely, upon the original 
Canti fermi, and so constructed as to bring their 
characteristic beauties into the highest possible 
relief in no case, perhaps, with more touching 
effect than in the opening Kyrie, the first few 
bars of which will be found at page 78 of our 
second volume. 

Next in importance to Palestrina s Requiem, 
is a very grand one, for 6 Voices, composed by 
Vittoria, for the Funeral of the Empress Maria, 
widow of Maximilian II. This fine work un 
doubtedly the greatest triumph of Vittoria s 
genius comprises all the chief divisions of the 
Mass, except the Sequence, together with the 
Responsorium, and Lectio ; and brings the Plain 
Chaunt Subjects into prominent relief, through 
out. It was first published, at Madrid, in 1605 
the year of its production. In 1869 the Lectio- 
was reprinted at Ratisbon, by Joseph Schrems, 
in continuation of Proske s Musica divina. A 
later cahier of the same valuable collection con 
tains the Mass and Responsorium ; both edited 
by Haberl, with a conscientious care which would 
leave nothing to be desired, were it not for the 
altogether needless transposition with which 
the work is disfigured, from beginning to end. 
The original volume contains one more Move 
ment Versa est in luctum which has never 
been reproduced in modern notation ; but, as 
this has now no place in the Roman Funeral 
Service, its omission is not so much to be re 

Some other very fine Masses for the Dead, 
by Francesco Anerio, Orazio Vecchi, and Giov. 
Matt. Asola, are included in the same collection, 
together with a somewhat pretentious work, by 
Pitoni, which scarcely deserves the enthusiastic 
eulogium bestowed upon it by Dr. Proske. A 
far finer Composition, of nearly similar date, is 
Colonna s massive Requiem for 8 Voices, first 
printed at Bologna in 1684 a copy of which 

3 See Alfieri, Raccolta dl Musica Sacra. Tom. vii. 



is preserved in the Library of the Sacred Har 
monic Society. 

Our repertoire of modern Requiem Masses, if 
not numerically rich, is sufficiently so, in quality, 
to satisfy the most exacting critic. Three only 
of its treasures have attained a deathless reputa 
tion; but, these are of such superlative excel 
lence, that they may be fairly cited as examples 
of the nearest approach to sublimity of style that 
the i Qth century has as yet produced. 

(l.) The history of Mozart s last work is sur 
rounded by mysteries which render it scarcely less 
interesting to the general reader than the Music 
itself is to the student. Thanks to the attention 
drawn to it by recent writers, the narrative is 
now so well known, that it is needless to do 
more than allude to those portions of it which 
tend to assist the critic in his analysis of the 
Composition. Its outline is simple enough. In 
the month of July, 1791, Mozart was com 
missioned to write a Requiem, by a mysterious- 
looking individual, whom, in the weakness con 
sequent upon his failing health and long-con 
tinued anxiety, he mistook for a visitant from 
the other world. It is, now, well known that 
the Stranger was, really, a certain Herr 
Leutgeb, steward to Graf Franz von Walsegg, 
a nobleman residing at Stuppach, who, having 
lately lost his wife, proposed to honour her 
memory by foisting upon the world, as his own 
Composition, the finest Funeral Mass his money 
could procure. This, however, did not tran 
spire until long after Mozart s death. Suspect 
ing no dishonourable intention on the part of 
his visitor, he accepted the commission ; and 
strove to execute it, with a zeal so far beyond 
his strength, that worn out with over-work and 
anxieties, and tormented by the idea that he was 
writing the Music for his own Funeral, he died 
while the MS. still remained unfinished. His 
widow, fearing that she might be compelled to 
refund the money already paid for the work in ad 
vance, determined to furnish the Stranger with 
a perfect copy, at any risk ; and, in the hope of 
accomplishing this desperate purpose, entrusted 
the MS., first, to the Hofkapellmeister, Jos. von 
Eybler, and afterwards to Franz Xavier Siiss- 
mayer, for completion. Von Eybler, after a few 
weak attempts, gave up the task in despair. 
Sussmayer -was more fortunate. He had watched 
the progress of the Requiem through each suc 
cessive stage of its development. Mozart had 
played its various Movements to him on the 
Pianoforte, had sung them with him over and 
over again, and had even imparted to him his 
latest ideas on the subject, a few hours, only, 
before his death. Sussmayer was an accomplished 
Musician, intimately acquainted with Mozart s 
method of working : and it would have been hard, 
if, after having been thus unreservedly admitted 
into the dying Composer s confidence, he had 
been unable to fill up his unfinished sketches with 
sufficient closeness of imitation to set the widow s 
fears of detection at rest. He did in fact, place 
in her hands a complete Requiem, which Count 
Walsegg accepted, in the full belief that it 


was in Mozart s handwriting throughout. The 
Requiem and Kyrie were really written by 
Mozart ; but the remainder was skilfully copied 
from sketches now generally known as the 
Urschriften which, everywhere more or less 
unfinished, were carefully filled in, as nearly as 
possible in accordance with the Composer s 
original intention. The widow kept a transcript 
of this MS., and afterwards sold it to Messrs. 
Breitkopf & Hartel, of Leipzig, who printed it, 
in full score, in 1800. But, notwithstanding the 
secrecy with which the affair had been con 
ducted, rumours were already afloat, calculated 
to throw grave doubts upon the authenticity of 
the work. Sussmayer, in reply to a communica 
tion addressed to him by Messrs. Breitkopf & 
Hartel, laid claim to the completion of the 
Requiem, Kyrie, Dies irse, and Domine, 
of which he said that Mozart had fully com 
pleted the four Vocal Parts, and the Fundamental 
Bass, with the Figuring, but only here and there 
indicated the motivi for the Instrumentation, 
and asserted that the Sanctus, Benedictus, 
and Agnus Dei, were entirely composed by 
himself (ganz nea von mir verfertigt). This bold 
statement, however, did not set the dispute at 
rest. It was many times revived, with more or 
less acerbity; until, in 1825, Gottfried Weber 
brought matters to a climax, by publishing a 
virulent attack upon the Requiem, which he 
denounced as altogether unworthy of Mozart, 
and attributed almost entirely to Sussmayer. 
To follow the ensuing controversy through its 
endless ramifications would far exceed our present 
limits. Suffice it to say, that we are now in 
possession of all the evidence, documentary or 
otherwise, which seems at all likely to be brought 
forward on either side. With the assistance of 
Mozart s widow (then Madame von Nissen), 
Joh. Andre , of Offenbach, published, in 1826, 
a new edition of the Score, based upon that 
previously printed by Messrs. Breitkopf & Hartel, 
but corrected, by careful comparison, in the 
presence of the Abbs Stadler, with that originally 
furnished to the Graf von Walsegg, and marked, on 
the Abbe"s authority, with the letters, M. and 
S. to distinguish the parts composed by Mozart 
from those added by Sussmayer. In 1829, Herr 
Andre conferred another benefit upon the artistic 
world by publishing, with the widow s per 
mission, Mozart s original sketches of the Dies 
irse, Tuba mirum, and Hostias, exactly as the 
Composer left them. All these publications are 
still in print, together with another Score, lately 
published by Messrs. Breitkopf & Hartel in 
their complete edition of Mozart, in which the dis 
tinction between Mozart s work and Sussmayer s 
is very clearly indicated, as in Andre s earlier edi 
tion, by the letters M. and S. Happily, the 
original MSS. are now in safe keeping, also. In 
1834, the Abbs Stadler bequeathed the autograph 
sketch of tbe entire Dies irse, with the exception 
of the last Movement, to the Imperial Library 
at Vienna. Hofkapellmeister von Eybler soon 
afterwards presented the corresponding MSS. 
of the Lacrymosa, the Doruine Jesu, and 


the Hostias. The collection of Urschriften, 
therefore, needed only the original autographs of 
the Requiem and Kyrie, to render it com 
plete. These MSS, alone, would have been a 
priceless acquisition; but, in 1838, the, same 
Library was still farther enriched by the purchase, 
for 50 ducats, of the complete MS. originally 
sold to Count von Walsegg ; and it is now con 
clusively proved that the Requiem and Kyrie, 
with which this MS. begins, are the original 
autographs needed to complete the collection of 
Urschriften ; and, that the remainder of the 
work is entirely in the hand-writing of Stiss- 
mayer. It is, therefore, quite certain, that, 
whatever else he may have effected, Siissmayer 
did not furnish the Instrumentation of the 
Requiem and Kyrie, as he claims to have 
done. 1 

In criticising the merits of the Requiem as a 
work of Art, it is necessary to weigh the import 
of these now well-ascertained facts, very care 
fully indeed, against the internal evidence af 
forded by the Score itself. The strength of this 
evidence has not, we think, received, as yet, full 
recognition. Gottfried Weber, dazzled, perhaps, 
by the hypothetic excellence of another Requiem 
of his own production, roundly abused the 
entire Composition, which he described as a dis 
grace to the name of Mozart. Few other 
Musicians would venture to adopt this view; 
though many have taken exception to certain 
features in the Instrumentation more especially, 
some Trombone passages in the Tuba mirum 
and Benedictus even , in one case, to the 
extent of doubting whether they may not have 
been purposely introduced, as a mask, to screen 
the fraud of an impostor. Yet, strange to say, 
the first of these very passages stands, in the 
Vienna MS. in Mozart s own handwriting. 3 

k-. V 




Trombone Tenore, solo 





_p . 


- - - ba mi-rum spar-gens 

r r 




1 The full details of the remarkable history, which we have here 
given in the form of a very rapid sketch, will be found in a delightful 
little brochure, entitled The Story of Mozart s Requiem, by William 
Pole. F.R.S., Mus. Doc., Oxon. (NoreUo & Co.) 

2 We make this statement on the authority of Messrs. Breitkopf & 
Hfirtel s latest Score, having had no opportunity of verifying it, by 
comparison with the original MS., before going to press. 

so-num, Fer se-pul-chra regi - 

* r r f ? r r 4 

o - num, Coget 

J r r i etc. 

, a 


I* T^ 


f* r r 

i r r \ 

- i- r 

i 1 

i i 

Such passages as these, though they may, per 
haps, strengthen Siissmayer s claim to have filled 
in certain parts of the Instrumentation, stand on 
a very different ground to those which concern the 
Composition of whole Movements. The Lacry- 
mosa is, quite certainly, one of the most beau 
tiful Movements in the whole Requiem and 
Mozart is credited with having only finished the 
first 8 bars of it ! Yet it is impossible to study 
this movement, carefully, without arriving at 
Professor Macfarren s conclusion, that the whole 
was the work of one mind, which mind was 
Mozart s. Siissmayer may have written it out, 
perhaps ; but it must have been from the recol 
lection of what Mozart had played, or sung to 
him ; for, we know that this very Movement 
occupied the dying Composer s attention, almost 
to the last moment of his life. In like manner, 
Mozart may have left no Urschriften of the 
Sanctus, Benedictus, and Agnus Dei 
though the fact that they have never been dis 
covered does not prove that they never existed 
and yet he may have played and sung these 
Movements often enough to have given Siiss 
mayer a very clear idea of what he intended to 
write. We must either believe that he did this, 
or that Siissmayer was as great a genius as he ; for 
not one of Mozart s acknowledged Masses will 
bear comparison with the Requiem, either as a 
work of Art, or the expression of a devout religious 
feeling. In this respect, it stands almost alone 
among Instrumental Masses, which nearly always 
sacrifice religious feeling to technical display. 

(2.) Next in importance to Mozart s immortal 
work are the two great Requiem Masses of Cheru- 
bini. The first of these, in C minor, was written 
for the Anniversary of the death of King Louis 
XVI. (Jan. 21, 1793), and first sung, on that 
occasion, at the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, in 
1817 ; after which it was not again heard until 
Feb. 14, 1820, when it was repeated, in the same 
Church, at the Funeral of the Due de Berri. 
Berlioz regarded this as Cherubini s greatest 
work. It is undoubtedly full of beauties. Its 
general tone is one of extreme mournfulness, per 
vaded, throughout, by deep religious feeling. Ex 
cept in the Dies irae and Sanctus this style 
is never exchanged for a more excited one ; and, 
even then, the treatment can scarcely be called 
dramatic. The deep pathos of the little Move 
ment, interposed after the last Osanna, to fulfil 
the usual office of the Benedictus which is 
here incorporated with the Sanctus * exhibits 
the Composer s power of appealing to the feelings 
in its most affecting light. 



The second Eequiem, in D minor, for three 
Male Voices, is. in many respects, a greater work 
than the first ; though the dramatic element per 
vades it so freely, that its character as a Reli 
gious Service is sometimes entirely lost. It was 
completed on Sept. 24, 1836, a few days after the 
Composer had entered his 7 7th year ; and, with the 
exception of the Sixth Quartet, and the Quintet 
in E minor, was his last important work. The 
Dies irae was first sung at the Concert of the 
Conservatoire, March 19, 1837, and repeated on 
the 24th of the same month. On March 25, 1838, 
the work was sung throughout. In the January 
of that year, Mendelssohn had already recom 
mended it to the notice of the Committee of 
the Lower Rhine Festival; and, in 1872 and 
1873, it was sung, as a Funeral Service, in the 
Roman Catholic Chapel, in Farm Street, London. 
It is doubtful whether Cherubini s genius ever 
shone to greater advantage than in this gigantic 
work. Every Movement is replete with interest ; 
and the whirlwind of sound which ushers in 
the Dies irse produces an effect, which, once 
heard, can never be forgotten. 






ff Di - 


i - r 




(3.) It remains only to notice a work, which, 
though a Requiem only in name, takes high rank 
among the greatest productions of the present day. 

The German Requiem of Johannes Brahms 
is, in reality, a Sacred Cantata, composed to 
words selected from Holy Scripture, in illustra 
tion of the joys of the Blessed, and the glories of 
the Life to Come. It prefers no claim to be 


considered as a Religious Service, in any sense 
of the word ; and must, therefore, be criticised, 
like the great Mass of Sebastian Bach, as a 
shorter form of Oratorio. So considered, it 
is worthy of all praise ; and exhibits, through 
out, a" striking originality, very far removed 
from the eccentricity which sometimes passes 
under that name, and too frequently consists 
in the presentation of forms rejected by older 
Composers by reason of their ugliness. The 
general style is neither dramatic, nor sensu 
ously descriptive: but, in his desire to shadow 
forth the glories of a higher state of existence, 
the Composer has availed himself of all the 
latest resources of modern Music, including the 
most complicated Orchestral Effects, and Choral 
Passages of almost unconquerable difficulty. In 
the first Movement, an indescribable richness of 
tone is produced by the skilful management of 
the Stringed Band, from which the violins are alto 
gether excluded. In the Funeral March, a strange 
departure from recognised custom is introduced, 
in the use of Triple Time, which the Composer 
has compelled to serve his purpose, so completely, 
that the measured tramp of a vast Procession is 
as clearly described, and as strongly forced upon 
the hearer s attention, as it could possibly have 
been by the ordinary means. The next division of 
the work introduces two Choral Fugues, founded 
upon Subjects which each embrace a compass of 
eleven notes, and differ, in many very important 
points, both of construction and treatment, 
from the Motivi employed by other adepts in 
this particular style of Composition. The Cre 
scendo which separates these two Movements, is, 
at the same time, one of the most beautiful, and 
one of the most fearfully difficult passages in the 
entire work. No. 4 is an exquisitely melodious 
Slow Movement, in Triple Time ; and No. 5, 
an equally attractive Soprano Solo and Chorus. 
No. 6 is a very important section of the work, 
comprising several distinct Movements, and de 
scribing, with thrilling power, the awful events 
connected with the Resurrection of the Dead. 
Here, too, the f ugal treatment is very peculiar ; 
the strongly characteristic Minor Second in the 
Subject, being most unexpectedly represented by 
a Major Second in the Answer. The Finale, 
No. 7, concludes with a lovely reminiscence of 
the First Movement, and brings the work to an 
end, with a calm pathos which is the more effec 
tive from its marked contrast with the stormy 
and excited Movements by which it is preceded. 
It is impossible to study this important Com 
position in a truly impartial spirit without 
arriving at the conclusion that its numerous 
unusual features are introduced, not for the sake 
of singularity, but, with an honest desire to pro 
duce certain effects, which undoubtedly are pro 
ducible, when the Chorus and Orchestra are equal 
to the interpretation of the author s ideas. The 
possibility of bringing together a sufficiently 
capable Orchestra and Chorus has already been 
fully demonstrated, both in England and in Ger 
many. The Deutsches Requiem, first produced 
at Bremen, on Good Friday, 1 868, was first heard, 


in this country, at the house of Lady Thompson, 
London, July 7, 1871, Miss Began and Stock- 
hausen singing the solos, and Lady Thompson 
and Mr. Cipriani Potter playing the accompani 
ment d quatre mains. It was next performed at 
the Philharmonic Society s Concert, April 2, 1873, 
and has since been most effectively given by 
the Bach Choir, and the Cambridge University 
Musical Society. The excellence of these per 
formances plainly shows that the difficulties of 
the work are not really insuperable. They may, 
probably, transcend the power of an average coun 
try Choral Society ; but we have heard enough to 
convince us that they may be dealt with suc 
cessfully by those who really care to overcome 
them, and we are thus led to hope that after a 
time the performance of the work may not be 
looked upon as an unusual occurrence. [W.S.R.] 

RESOLUTION is the process of relieving 
dissonance by succeeding consonance. All dis 
sonance is irritant and cannot be indefinitely 
dwelt upon by the mind, but while it is heard 
the return to consonance is awaited. To conduct 
this return to consonance in such a manner that 
the connection between the chords may be intel 
ligible to the hearer is the problem of resolution. 

The history of the development of harmonic 
music shows that the separate idea of resolution 
in the abstract need not have been present to 
the earliest composers who introduced discords 
into their works. They discovered circumstances 
in which the flow of the parts, moving in con 
sonance with one another, might be diversified 
by retarding one part while the others moved on 
a step, and then waited for that which was left 
behind to catch them up. This process did not 
invariably produce dissonance, but it did conduce 
to variety in the independent motion of the 
parts. The result, in the end, was to establish 
the class of discords we call suspensions, and 
their resolutions were inevitably implied by the 
very principle on which the device is founded. 
Thus when Josquin diversified a simple succes 
sion of chords in what we call their first position, 
as follows 




it seems sufficiently certain that no such idea as 
resolving a discord was present to his mind. The 
motion of D to C and of C to B was predeter 
mined, and their being retarded was mainly a 
happy way of obtaining variety in the flow of the 
parts, though it must not be ignored that the 
early masters had a full appreciation of the 
actual function and effect of the few discords 
they did employ. 

Some time later the device of overlapping the 
succeeding motions of the parts was discovered, 
by allowing some or all of those which had gone 
on in front to move again while the part which 


had been left behind passed to its destination ; 
as by substituting (b) for (a) in Ex. 2. 


This complicated matters, and gave scope for 
fresh progressions and combinations, but it did 
not necessarily affect the question of resolution, 
pure and simple, because the destination of the 
part causing the dissonance was still predeter 
mined. However, the gradually increasing fre 
quency of the use of discords must have habituated 
hearers to their effect and to the consideration 
of the characteristics of different groups, and so 
by degrees to their classification. The first 
marked step in this direction was the use of the 
Dominant seventh without preparation, which 
showed at least a thorough appreciation of the 
fact that some discords might have a more inde 
pendent individuality than others. This appears 
at first merely on this side, of occasionally dis 
carding the formality of delaying the note out of 
a preceding chord in order to introduce the 
dissonance ; but it led also towards the consider 
ation of resolution in the abstract, and ultimately 
to greater latitude in the process of returning to 
consonance. Both their instinct and the par 
ticular manner in which the aspects of discords 
presented themselves at first led the earlier com 
posers to pass from a discordant note to the 
nearest available note in the scale, wherever the 
nature of the retardation did not obviously imply 
the contrary; and this came by degrees to be 
accepted as a tolerably general rule. Thus the 
Dominant seventh is generally found to resolve on 
the semitone below ; and this, combined with the 
fact that the leading note was already in the chord 
with the seventh, guided them to the relation of 
Dominant and Tonic chords ; although they early 
realised the possibility of resolving on other har 
mony than that of the Tonic, on special occasions, 
without violating the supposed law of moving the 
seventh down a semitone or tone, according to the 
mode, and raising the leading note to what would 
have been the Tonic on ordinary occasions. How 
ever, the ordinary succession became by degrees so 
familiar that the Tonic chord grew to be regarded 
as a sort of resolution in a lump of the mass of 
any of the discords which were built on the top 
of a Dominant major concord, as the seventh and 
major or minor ninth, such as are now often called 
Fundamental discords. Thus we find the follow 
ing passage in a Haydn Sonata in D 
Ex. 3. 

Ss=? J 1 2 J ~ 

tftf frJ-fT- 9 * 


fj -jgg-g^ 

.vli. -^ - " " 

- **j* r 


1 4 




in which the Dominant seventh is not resolved 
by its passing to a near degree of the scale, but 
by the mass of the harmony of the Tonic fol 
lowing the mass of the harmony of the Dominant. 
Ex. 4 is an example of a similar use by him of a 
Dominant major ninth. 

Ex. 4. 


Tonic; so that no actual harmony is heard in 
the movement after the seventh has been sounded. 
An example of treatment of an inversion of the 
major ninth of the Dominant, which is as un 
usual, is the following from Beethoven s last 
Quartet, in F, op. 135. 

/U J = 






r I 

-Ir + 

1 etc. 



There remain to be noted a few typical devices 
by which resolutions are either varied or ela 
borated. One which was more common in early 
stages of harmonic music than at the present 
day was the use of representative progressions, 
which were in fact the outline of chords which 
would have supplied the complete succession of 
parts if they had been filled in. The following 

A more common way of dealing with the 
resolution of such chords was to make the part 
having the discordant note pass to another posi 
tion in the same harmony before changing, and 
allowing another part to supply the contiguous 
note ; as in Ex. 5, from one of Mozart s Fantasias 
in C minor. 

Ex. 5. Ex. 5 a. 

A In r" 1 Hi] 

is a remarkable example from the Sarabande c 
J. S. Bach s Partita in Bb. 

Ex. 8. -w w __U._ 

-^-rtr-^-jiT jj ^ i * ij " \>t>, n~^n~"i^""J~ 

i i . etc 

*^y u 8*5- t ! - ti i 

i i n # r ,.,-.. w. . | 

" b " ] *^ 

Y \ u LI J II y i nm 1 

p - 

/I b K d * II /K b (" 

which might be interpreted as follows : 

itn " "fr _r HfuV 1 

V-U H -i | ^ HVMy I 

1 1 

fl f 4 

t% zzr^i ^_ J H^fc 3 ^ 

^HJ F- n^s 

f/^=its~ P -d "^ : ==l 

U. 1- 1 1 U J 

Some theorists hold that the passage of the 
ninth to the third as Db to E in Ex. 5 a (where 
the root C does not appear) is sufficient to con 
stitute resolution. That such a form of resolu 
tion is very common is obvious from theorists 
having noticed it, but it ought to be understood 
that the mere change of position of the notes of 
a discord is not sufficient to constitute resolution 
unless a real change of harmony is implied by 
the elimination of the discordant note ; or unless 
the change of position leads to fresh harmony, 
and thereby satisfies the conditions of intelligible 
connection with the discord. 
A much more unusual and remarkable resolu 
tion is such as appears at the end of the first 
movement of Beethoven s F minor Quartet as 
Ex 6 

^ "3 ifc" ~ s~~$* 

^ - -cjf f 

-n.- , ferfl J c ,-J 1 


^ b 

i; 1 . . , m ..| 

Another device which came early into use, anc 
was in great favour with Bach and his sous anc 
their contemporaries, and is yet an ever fruitfu 
source of variety, is that of interpolating notes 
in the part which has what is called the discor- 
.dant note, between its sounding and its final 
resolution, and either passing direct to the note 
which relieves the dissonance from the digression, 
or touching the dissonant note slightly again at 
the end of it. The simplest form of this device 
was the leap from a suspended note to another 
note belonging to the same harmony, and then 
back to the note which supplies the resolution, 
as in Ex. 10 ; and this form was extremely com 
mon in quite the early times of polyphonic music. 
Ex. 10. . ^ 

1 } i h b j i n 

gt_ J_, * ^-^^===: 

y b ijj ^ 1 y 

: k-Jr- ~f- 

r T^r J 

where the chord of the Dominant seventh con 
tracts into the mere single note which it repre 
sents, and that proceeds to the note only of the 

Kff; i i r i ^ 

But much more elaborate forms of a similar 
nature were made use of later. An example 
from J. S. Bach will be found at p. 678 of vol. i, 


of this Dictionary ; the following example, from 
a Fantasia by Emanuel Bach, illustrates the same 
point somewhat remarkably, and serves also as 
an instance of enharmonic resolution. 




The minor seventh on C in this case is ulti 
mately resolved as if it had been an augmented 
sixth composed of the same identical notes accord 
ing to our system of temperament, but derived 
from a different source and having consequently 
a different context. This manner of using the 
same group of notes in different senses is one of 
the most familiar devices in modern music for 
varying the course of resolutions and obtaining 
fresh aspects of harmonic combinations. [For 
further examples see MODULATION, CHANGE, EN 

An inference which follows from the use of 
some forms of Enharmonic resolution is that the 
discordant note need not inevitably move to reso 
lution, but may be brought into consonant rela 
tions by the motion of other parts, which relieve 
it of its characteristic dissonant effect ; this is 
illustrated most familiarly by the freedom which 
is recognised in the resolution of the chord of the 
sixth, fifth and third on the subdominant, called 
sometimes the added sixth, and sometimes an in 
version of the supertonic seventh, and sometimes 
an inversion of the eleventh of the Dominant, or 
even a double -rooted chord derived from Tonic 
and Dominant together. 

It is necessary to note shortly the nse of 
vicarious resolutions that is, of resolutions in 
which one part supplies the discordant note and 
another the note to which under ordinary cir 
cumstances it ought to pass. This has been 
alluded to above as common in respect of the 
so-called fundamental discords, but there are 
instances of its occurring with less independent 
combinations. The Gigue of Bach s Partita in 
E minor is full of remarkable experiments in 
resolution ; the following is an example which 
illustrates especially the point under consider 

P- 1 25* >- 

The inference tobe drawn from the above examples 
is that the possible resolutions of discords, espe 
cially of those which have an individual status, 
are varied, but that it takes time to discover 
them, as there can hardly be a severer test of a 
true musical instinct in relation to harmony 
than to make sure of such a matter. As a rule, 
the old easily recognisable resolutions, by motion 
of a single degree, or at least by interchange of 
parts of the chord in supplying the subsequent 
consonant harmony, must preponderate, and the 
more peculiar resolutions will be reserved for 
occasions when greater force and intensity are 
required. But as the paradoxes of one genera 
tion are often the truisms of the next, so treat 
ment of discords such as is utterly incredible to 
people who do not believe in what they are not 
accustomed to, is felt to be obvious to all when 
it becomes familiar ; and hence the peculiarities 
which are reserved for special occasions at first 
must often in their turn yield the palm of specialin- 
terest to more complex instinctive generalisations. 
Such is the history of the development of musical 
resources in the past, and such it must be in the 
future. The laws of art require to be based 
upon the broadest and most universal generalisa 
tions; and in the detail under consideration it 
appears at present that the ultimate test is 
thorough intelligibility in the melodic progres 
sions of the parts which constitute the chords, or 
in a few cases the response of the harmony repre 
senting one root to that representing another, 
between which, as in Examples 3 and 4, there is 
a recognised connection sufficient for the mind to 
follow without the express connection of the flow 
of the parts. Attempts to catalogue the various 
discords and their various resolutions must be 
futile as long as the injunction is added that such 
formulas only are . admissible, for this is to insist 
upon the repetition of what has been said before ; 
but they are of value when they are considered 
with sufficient generality to help us to arrive at 
the ultimate principles which underlie the largest 
circle of their multifarious varieties. The imaofin- 


ationcan live and move freely within the bounds 
of comprehensive laws, but it is only choked by 
the accumulation of precedents. [C.H.H.P.] 

PtESPONSE, in English church music, is, in 
its widest sense, any musical sentence sung by 
the choir at the close of something read or 
chanted by the minister. The term tlius in 
cludes the Amen after prayers, the Kyrie 3 after 
each commandment in the Communion Service, 
the Doxology to the Gospel, and every reply to 
a Versicle, or to a Petition, or Suffrage. In its 
more limited sense the first three of the above 
divisions would be excluded from the term, and 




the last-named would fall naturally into the 
following important groups : (i) those which im 
mediately precede the Psalms, called also the 
Preces ; (2) those following the Apostles Creed 
and the Lord s Prayer ; (3) those following the 
Lord s Prayer in the Litany ; (4) and the Re 
sponses of the first portion of the Litany, which 
however are of a special musical form which will be 
fully explained hereafter. Versicles and Responses 
are either an ancient formula of prayer or praise 
as, Lord, have mercy upon us, etc., Glory be 
to the Father, etc., or a quotation from Holy 
Scripture, as, 

V. O Lord, open Thou our lips. 

R. And our mouth shall shew forth Thy praise. 

which is verse 15 of Psalm li ; or a quotation from 
a church hymn, as, 

V. O Lord, save Thy people. 

R. And bless Thine inheritance. 

which is from the Te Deum ; or an adaptation of 
a prayer to the special purpose, as, 

V. Favourably with mercy hear our prayers. 
R. O Son of David, have mercy upon us. 

The musical treatment of such Versicles and 
Responses offers a wide and interesting field of 
study. There can be little doubt that all the 
inflections or cadences to which they are set 
have been the gradual development of an original 
monotonal treatment, which in time was found 
to be uninteresting and tedious (whence our 
term of contempt monotonous ), or was designedly 
varied for use on special occasions and during 
holy seasons. At the time of the Reformation 
the musical system of the Roman Church, with 
its distinct and elaborate inflections for Orations, 
Lections, Chapters, Gospels, Epistles, Antiphons, 
Introits, etc., etc. [see the article on PLAIN - 
SONG], was completely overthrown, and out of 
the wreck only a few of the most simple cadences 
were preserved. Even the response Alleluia 
was sometimes extended to a considerable length : 
here is a specimen 


Al - lo - - - lu 


The word Alleluia is found as a Response in 
the Prayer-book of 1549, for use between Easter 
and Trinity, immediately before the Psalms ; 
during the remainder of the year the translation 
of the word was used. Here is Marbecke s 
music for it (1550) : 

Prayse ye the Lorde 

When this was in later editions converted into 
a Versicle and Response, as in our present 
Prayer-book, the music was, according to some 
uses, divided between the Versicle and Response, 


" V, Praise ye the Lord. B. The Lord s name be praised. 

But as a matter of fact these Preces in our 
Prayer-book which precede the daily Psalms 


have never been strictly bound by the laws of 
* ecclesiastical chant, hence, not only are great 
varieties of plain-song settings to be met with, 
gathered from Roman and other uses, but 
also actual settings in service-form (that is, 
like a motet), containing contrapuntal devices 
in four or more parts. Nearly all the best 
cathedral libraries contain old examples of this 
elaborate treatment of the Preces, and several 
have been printed by Dr. Jebb in his Choral 

As then the Preces are somewhat exceptional, 
we will pass to the more regular Versicles and 
Responses, such as those after the Apostles 
Creed and the Lord s Prayer. And here we at 
once meet the final fall of a minor third," which 
is an ancient form of inflection known as the 
Accentus Medialis : 

This is one of the most characteristic progres 
sions in plain-song versicles, responses, con 
fessions, etc., and was actually introduced by 
Marbecke into the closing sentences of the Lord s 
Prayer. It must have already struck the reader 
that this is nothing more or less than the note 
of the cuckoo. This fact was probably in Shake- 
spere s mind when he wrote, 

The finch, the sparrow, and the lark, 
The plain-song cuckoo gray. 

This medial accent is only used in Versicles 
and Responses when the last word is a poly 
syllable ; thus 

Medial Accent. 

R. And grant us Thy salva-tion 

When the last word is a monosyllable, there 
is an additional note, thus 

Moderate Accent. 

B. As we do put our trust ia Thee. 

This may be said to be the only law of the 
Accentus Ecclesiaslicus which the tradition of our 
Reformed Church enforces. It is strictly observed 
in most of our cathedrals, and considering its 
remarkable simplicity, should never be broken. 
The word prayers was formerly pronounced as 
a dissyllable ; it therefore took the medial accent 

Favourably with mercy hear our pray-ers. 

but as a monosyllable it should of course be 
treated thus 

Favourably with mercy hear our prayers. 

In comparing our Versicles and Responses with 
the Latin from which they were translated, it is 
important to bear this rule as to the final word 
in mind. Because, the Latin and English of the 




same Versicle or Response will frequently take 
different accents in the two languages. For 
example, the following Versicle takes in the 
Latin the medial accent ; but in the translation 
will require the moderate accent. 

Latin form. 

Ab inimicis nostris defende nos Chris - te. 
English form. 

From our enemies defend us. O Christ. 

It has been just stated that the early part of 
the Litany does not come under the above laws 
of accent. The principle melodic progression 
is however closely allied to the above, it having 
merely an additional note, thus 



This is the old and common Response 

O - ra pro no-bis 

and to this are adapted the Responses, Spare us, 
good Lord ; Good Lord, deliver us ; We beseech 
Thee to hear us, good Lord ; Grant us Thy peace ; 
Have mercy upon us ; O Christ hear us (the 
first note being omitted as redundant) ; and Lord 
have mercy upon us ; Christ have mercy upon us. 
At this point, the entry of the Lord s Prayer 
brings in the old law of medial and moderate 
accents; the above simple melody therefore is 
the true Response for the whole of the first (and 
principal) portion of the Litany. It is necessary 
however to return now to the preliminary sen 
tences of the Litany, or the Invocations, as they 
have been called. Here we find each divided by 
a colon, and, in consequence, the simple melody 
last given is lengthened by one note, thus : 



This is used without variation for all the Invo 
cations. The asterisk shows the added note, 
which is set to the syllable immediately pre 
ceding the colon. It happens that each of the 
sentences of Invocation contains in our English 
version a monosyllable before the colon ; but it 
is not the case in the Latin, therefore both Ver- 
fiicle and Response differ from our use, thus 

Pater de ccBlis De - us 

In the petitions of the Litany, the note marked 
with an asterisk is approached by another addition, 
for instead of 

we hav 






with us for ever. 

The whole sentence of music therefore stands 

(Petition chanted by 

(Response by Choir and 

We have now shortly traced the gradual growth 
of the plain-song of the whole of our Litany, and 
it is impossible not to admire the simplicity and 
beauty of its construction. 

But the early English church-musicians fre 
quently composed original musical settings of 
the whole Litany, a considerable number of 
which have been printed by Dr. Jebb ; nearly 
all however are now obsolete except that by 
Thomas Wanless (organist of York Minster at 
the close of the iyth century), which is occa 
sionally to be heard in our northern cathedrals. 
The plain-song was not always entirely ignored 
by church-musicians, but it was sometimes in 
cluded in the tenor part in such a mutilated 
state as to be hardly recognisable. It is gene 
rally admitted that the form in which Tallis 
responses have come down to us is very impure, 
if not incorrect. To such an extent LS this the 
case that in an edition of the people s part of 
Tallis, published not many years since, the editor 
(a cathedral organist) fairly gave up the task of 
finding the plain-song of the response, We be 
seech Thee to hear us, good Lord, and ordered 
the people to sing the tuneful superstructure 

*> We be - seech Thee to bear us, good Lord. 

It certainly does appear impossible to combine 
this with 


"We beseech Thee to hear us, good Lord. 

But it appears that this ancient form existed- 

Chris - te ex - au - di nos. 

This, if used by Tallis, will combine with his 
harmonies; thus 

/h J ^ 3 


-3 1 

>. ,) <9 a 

? & & - 

tst j ri &-4 

V\) 5= 

^" T r~? r r 

W be - seech Thee to 

-) J J ^_J -! 

-^ * . &u 


hear us, good Lord. 
| | _l 

( God the 1 . ( have mercy upon 1 
1 Father, of } : I us, miser- j a ble slnners - 


^. f^-^^ f* 

I K_ 
1 - 

T^ 1 1 f^ 


i 1 1 

(Plain-sone in Tenor 

* l 

L. . - 

Having now described the Preces, Yersicles 
and Responses, and Litany, it only remains to 
say a few words on (i) Amens, (2) Doxology to 
Gospel, (3) Responses to the Commandments, 



all of which we have mentioned as being responses 
of a less important kind, (i) Since the Reforma 
tion but two forms of Amen have been used in our 
church, the monotone, and the approach by a 
semitone, generally harmonised thus 



A - men. 


A - men. 

is 1 

-^ ^ \ : 

The former of these Amens in early times was 
used when the choir responded to the priest ; the 
latter, when both priest and choir sang together 
(as after the Confession, Lord s Prayer, Creed, 
etc.). Tallis, however, always uses the mono- 
tonic form, varying the harmonies thrice. In 
more modern uses, however, the ancient system 
has been actually reversed, and (as at St. Paul s 
Cathedral) the former is only used when priest 
and choir join ; the latter when the choir re 
sponds. In many cathedrals no guiding prin 
ciple is adopted ; this is undesirable. 

(2) The Doxology to the Gospel is always mono 
tone, the monotone being in the Tenor, thus 

{?! 1 < aa y ks} betoThee OLord - 

There are, however, almost innumerable original 
settings of these words used throughout the 

(3) The Responses to the Commandments are 
an expansion of the ancient 

Kyrie eleisqn, 

Christe eleison, 
Kyrie eleison, 

made to serve as ten responses instead of being 
used as one responsive prayer. The ancient 
form actually appears in Marbecke (1550), and 
the so-callod Marbecke s Kyrie now used is an 
editorial manipulation. Being thrown on their 
own resources for the music to these ten re 
sponses, our composers of the reformed church 
always composed original settings, sometimes 
containing complete contrapuntal devices. At 
one period of vicious taste, arrangements of 
various sentences of music, sacred or secular, 
were pressed into the service. The Jomelli 
Kyrie is a good or rather, a bad example. It 
is said to have been adapted by Attwood from a 
chaconne by Jomelli, which had already been 
much used on the stage as a soft and slow 
accompaniment of weird and ghostly scenes. The 
adaptation of Open the heavens from Elijah 
is still very popular, and may be considered a 
favourable specimen of an unfavourable class. 

The re-introduction of choral celebrations of 
Holy Communion has necessitated the use of 
various inflections, versicles, and responses, of 
which the music or method of chanting has, 
almost without exception, been obtained from 
pre-Reformation sources. [ J. S.] 


RESPONSORIUM. A species of Antiphon, 
sung in many parts of the Roman Office, 
and particularly after each of the nine Lessons at 
Matins, in which Service it forms a very im 
portant feature, more especially during Holy 
Week, when the Lessons are taken from the 
Lamentations of Jeremiah, and the Responsoria 
are so arranged as to explain their connection 
with the sad History of the Passion. [See 

The number of Responsoria used throughout 
the Ecclesiastical Year is very great. The 
Plain Chaunt Melodies adapted to them will be 
found in the Antiphonarium, the Directorium 
Chori, the Officium Hebdomadae Sanctse, and 
other similar Office Books. They have also been 
frequently treated in the Polyphonic Style, with 
very great effect, not only by the Great Masters 
of the 1 6th century, but even as late as the time 
of Colonna, whose Responsoria of the Office for 
the Dead, for 8 Voices, are written with intense 
appreciation of the solemn import of the text. 

A large collection of very fine examples in 
cluding an exquisitely beautiful set for Holy 
Week, by Vittoria will be found in vol. iv. of 
Proske s < Musica Divina. [W.S.E.] 

REST (Fr. Silence, Pause ; Ger. Pause ; Ital. 
Pausa ]. The sign of silence in music, the dura 
tion of the silence depending upon the form of 
the character employed to denote it. The employ 
ment of the rest dates from the invention of 
measured music, that is, music composed of 
notes of definite and proportionate values. [See 
earlier times the cantus was sung without pauses, 
or with only such slight breaks as were necessary 
for the due separation of the sentences of the 
text, but so soon as the relative duration of the 
notes was established, the employment of rests of 
like proportionate values became a necessity. 
Franchinus Gafurius, in his Practica Musics; 
(1496), says that the Rest was invented to give 
a necessary relief to the voice, and a sweetness 
to the melody ; for as a preacher of the divine 
word, or an orator in his discourse, finds it neces 
sary oftentimes to relieve his auditors by the 
recital of some pleasantry, thereby to make them 
more favourable and attentive, so a singer, inter 
mixing certain pauses with his notes, engages 
the attention of his hearers to the remaining 
parts of his song. (Hawkins, * Hist, of Music, 
chap. 63.) Accordingly we find rests correspond 
ing in value to each of the notes then in use, as 
shown in the following table. 



= i 







i i 

Maxima. Longa perlecta. Longa imperfecta. Pausa. Semipausa. 





|= =F~- 







Pausa Fusee. 

Fausa Semifusa. 


Of these rests, two, the semipausa and suspi- 
rium, have remained in use until the present 
day, and appear, slightly increased in size but of 
unchanged value, as the semibreve and minim 
rests. Two of the longer rests are also occasion 
ally used in modern music, the pausa, or breve 
rest, to express a silence of two bars duration, 
and the longa imperfecta a silence of four. These 
rests are called in French batons, and are spoken 
of as baton a deux mesures, a quatre mesures. 

The rests employed in modern music, with 
their names and values in corresponding notes, 
are shown in the table below. 1 

By a license the semibreve rest is used to ex 
press a silence of a full bar in any rhythm (hence 
the German name Taktpause) ; its value is 
therefore not invariable, as is the case with all 
the other rests, for it may be shorter than its 
corresponding note, as when used to express a 
bar of 2-4 or 6-8 time, or longer, as when it occurs 

(o) (> 00 00 



in 3-2 time. To express a rest of longer duration 
than one bar, either the bdtons of two or four 
bars are employed (Ex. a), or, more commonly, 
a thick horizontal line is drawn in the stave, and 
the number of bars which have to be counted in 
silence is written above it (Ex. &). 
00 (&) 10 


Like the notes, the value of a rest can be in 
creased by the addition of a dot, and to the same 
extent, thus -- is equal to ---[-, [ to j- *i , and 
so on. 

In the earlier forms of the ancient measured 
music rests were used as a part of the time- 
signature, and placed immediately after the clef. 
In this position they did not denote silence, 
but merely indicated the description of Mode 
to be counted. [See NOTATION, MODE, TIME- 






c n 


1 i j 



(a) Semibreve rest. 
(I) Minim rest. 

(c) Crotchet rest. 

(d) Quaver rest. 

(e) Semiquaver rest. 

(/) Demisemiquaver rest. 
(g) Semidemisemiquaver rest. 

(a) Pause. 
(6) Demi-pause. 

(c) Soupir. 

(d) Demi-soupir. 

(e) Quart-de-soupir. 

(/) Demi-quart-de-soupir. 
(g) Seizieme-de-soupir. 

(a) Taktpause. 
(6) Halbe Pause. 

(c) Viertelpause. 

(d) Achtelpause. 

(e) Sechszentelpause. 

(/) Zweiunddreissigstheilpause. 
(g) Vierundsechszigstheilpause. 


(a) Pausa della Semibreve. 
(6) Pausa della Minima. 

(c) Pausa della Semiminima, or Quarto. 

(d) Pausa della Croma, or Mezzo Quarto. 

(e) Pausa della Semicroma, or Respiro. 
(/) Pausa della Biscroma. 

(gr) Pausa della Semibiscroma. [FT] 

RESULTANT TONES (Fr. Sons rdsultans ; 
Ger. Combinationstone) are produced when any 
two loud and sustained musical sounds are heard 
at the same time. There are two kinds of re 
sultant tones, the Differential and the Summa- 
tional. The Differential tone is so called be 
cause its number of vibrations is equal to the 
difference between those of the generating sounds. 
The Summational tone is so called because its 
number of vibrations is equal to the sum of those 
of the generating sounds. The following dia 
gram shows the pitches of the differential tones 
of the principal consonant intervals when in per 
fect tune. 


-10 r-v*^ v u 



1 II 

,^ /b 

S>- 5 


- 9 -&- 4 

V J 1 1 

U -4 



h fl 


If the interval be wider than an octave, as in 
the last two examples, the differential is inter 
mediate between the sounds which produce it. 
These tones can be easily heard on the ordinary 
harmonium, and also on the organ. They are 
not so distinct on the piano, because the sounds 
of this instrument are not sustained. By prac- 

" The German form of the crotchet rest differs from the English, 
being usually written thus j . Rousseau also gives Italian forms of 
the semiquaver and demisemiquaver rests, thus f and T; these 
ar however not common. 

tice, however, the resultant tones can be dis 
tinguished on the piano also. 

Dissonant as well as consonant intervals pro 
duce resultant tones. Taking the minor Seventh 
in its three possible forms the differentials are as 
follows : 

The ist form of minor Seventh is obtained by 
tuning two Fifths upwards (C-G-D) and then a 
major Third downwards (D-/Bb) : its differential 
tone is /Ab, an exact major Third below C. The 
2nd form is gob by two exact Fourths upwards 
(C-F-Bb) : the differential is then \Ab, which 
is flatter than the previous /Ab by the interval 
35 : 36. The 3rd form is the so-called Harmonic 
Seventh on C, whose differential is G, an exact 
Fourth below C. The marks \, /, here used to 
distinguish notes which are confused in the or 
dinary notation, will be found explained under 

Hitherto we have spoken only of the differen 
tial tones which are produced by the funda 
mentals or prime partial tones of musical sounds. 
[See PARTIAL TONES.] But a differential may 
also arise from the combination of any upper 
partial of one sound with any partial of the other 
sound ; or from the combination of a differential 
with a partial, or with another differential. 



Thus the major Third C-E 
ing differential tones : 

may have the follow- 

y u 

f[ J II 

V \s .* ! U 



All these tones are heard simultaneously ; but 
for convenience the differentials of the ist, and, 
3rd, and 4th orders are written with notes of 
different length. We see, then, that the number 
of possible resultant tones is very great ; but only 
those which arise from the primes of musical 
sounds are sufficiently strong to be of practical 

In enabling the ear to distinguish between 
consonant and dissonant intervals, the differential 
tones are only less important than the upper 
partials. Thus if the chord G-E-C be accurately 
tuned as 3:5:8, the differential of G-C coin 
cides with E, and that of E-C with G. But if 
the intervals be tempered the differentials are 
thrown out of tune, and give rise to beats. 
These beats are very loud and harsh on the or 
dinary harmonium, tuned in equal temperament. 
Again, in the close triad C-E-G- the differentials 
of C-E and of E-G coincide and give no beats if 
the intervals be in perfect tune. On a tempered 
instrument the result is very different. If we 
take C to have 264 vibrations, the tempered E 
has about 332|, and the tempered G about 39 5 1 
vibrations. The differential of C-E is then 68|, 
and that of E-G 63. These two tones beat 5 
times each second, and thus render the chord to 
some extent dissonant. 

In the minor triad, even when in just intona 
tion, several of the resultant tones do not fit in 
with the notes of the chord, although they may 

be too far apart to beat. In the major triad, on 
the contrary, the resultant tones form octaves 
with the notes of the chord. To this difference 
Helmholtz attributes the less perfect consonance 
of the minor triad, and its obscured though not 
inharmonious effect. 

The origin of the differential tones has been 
the subject of much discussion. Thomas Young 
held that when beats became too rapid to be 
distinguished by the ear, they passed into the re 
sultant tone. This view prevailed until the pub 
lication in 1856 of Helmholtz s investigations, 
in which many objections to Young s theory were 
brought forward. To explain what these ob 
jections are, it would be necessary to treat at 
some length of the nature of beats, and the reader 
is therefore referred to the Appendix, Article 
BEATS, for this side of the question. The new 


mathematical theory given by Helmholtz is too 
abstruse to admit of popular exposition. 

It was also part of Young s theory that the 
differential tone was produced in the ear alone, 
and not in the external air. But Helmholtz 
found that stretched membranes and resonators 
responded very clearly to differentials produced 
by the siren or the harmonium. This he con 
siders to prove the existence of vibrations in the 
external air corresponding to the differential 
tones. But when the two generating tones were 
produced by separate instruments, the differential, 
though powerfully audible, hardly set the reso 
nator in vibration at all. Hence Helmholtz con 
cludes that the differential tone is for the most 
part gen erated in the ear itself. He further points 
out that certain features in the construction of 
the ear easily permit the action of the law which 
he has stated. The unsymmetrical form of the 
drum-skin of the ear, and the loose attachment 
of the ossicles are, he thinks, peculiarly favour 
able to the production of resultant tones. 

As a consequence of his theory, Helmholtz de 
duced a different series of resultant tones, which 
he calls summational tones, because their number 
of vibrations is the sum of those of the generators. 
The existence of the summational tones which 
Helmholtz believes he has verified experimentally, 
has recently been called in question by Dr. 
Preyer. He points out that in some intervals, as 
for instance, 1:2, 1:3, 1:5, there will be a 
partial tone present of the same pitch as the 
presumed summational tone, and these cases 
therefore prove nothing. Again, if we take 2 : 3, 
the note 5 is not necessarily a summational tone, 
but may be the differential of 4 and 9 which are 
the 2nd partial of 2 and the 3rd of 3 respectively. 
Dr. Preyer was unable to find any trace of the 
summational tones when care had been taken to 
exclude the upper partials. But to do this he 
could only use sounds of tuning-forks gently 
bowed, which were far too weak to produce any 
resultant tones in the air. The question, how 
ever, is one of theoretic interest merely. 

Not only the origin, but also the discovery of 
differential tones has been disputed. The earliest 
publication of the discovery was made by a 
German organist named Sorge in 1745. Then 
came Romieu, a French savant, in 1751. Lastly, 
the great Italian violinist Tartini made the 
phenomenon the basis of his Treatise on Harmony 
in 1754. But Tartini explicitly claims priority 
in these words : In the year 1714, when about 
twenty-two years of age, he discovered this phe 
nomenon by chance on the violin at Ancona, 
where many witnesses who remember the fact 
are still living. He communicated it at once, 
without reserve, to professors of the violin. He 
made it the fundamental rule of perfect tuning 
for the pupils in his school at Padua, which was 
commenced in 1728 and which still exists; and 
thus the phenomenon became known throughout 
Europe. 1 

Tartini in some cases mistook the pitch of the 
differential tone ; but there does not appear to 

i De Principii dell Annonia, Padova, 1767. p. 36. 


be any reason for taking from him the credit of 
the discovery which has so long been associated 
with his name. [J. L.] 

RETARDATION is a word used by some 
theorists to distinguish a small group of discords 
which are similar in nature to suspensions, but 
resolve upwards, as in Ex. i. 
Ex. 1. Ex. 2. 


J Jft-^rF3 

S35 = -*ZZ^- ^^2 

The ground for making this sub-class is that 
it appears inaccurate to describe as suspensions 
notes which are delayed or retarded in ascending. 
A comparison of Ex. 2, which would be distin 
guished as a suspension, with Ex. I will show 
the identity of principle which underlies the two 
discords ; while the fact of their ascending or 
descending is clearly not an attribute but an 
accident. So in this case there is no other 
ostensible reason for breaking up a well-defined 
class but the fact that the common designation in 
use is supposed, perhaps erroneously, to be insuffi 
cient to denote all that ought to come under it. On 
the other hand it requires to be noted that as all 
discords of this class are discords of retardation, 
and as those which rise are very much less com 
mon than those which descend in resolution, the 
name which might describe the whole class is 
reserved for the smallest and least conspicuous 
group in that class. [C.H.H.P.] 

REUTTER, GEORG, born 1656 at Vienna, 
became in 1686 organist of St. Stephen s, and in 
1 700 Hof- and Kammer-organist. He also played 
the theorbo in the Hof-Kapelle from 1697 to 
1703. In 1712 he succeeded Fux as Capell- 
meister to the Gnadenbild in St. Stephen s, and 
in 1715 became Capellmeister of the cathedral 
itself. He died Aug. 29, 1738. His church 
music was sound, without being remarkable. In 
Jan. 1695 he was knighted in Rome by Count 
Francesco Sforza, on whose family Pope Paul III. 
bestowed the privilege of conferring that honour 
in 1539. The name of Reutter is closely con 
nected with that of Haydn, through his son, 

GEORG KARL (generally known by his first 
name only), who, according to the cathedral 
register, was born in Vienna April 6, 1 708, be 
came Court-composer in I73 I > an d succeeded his 
father in 1738 as Capellmeister of the cathedral. 
In 1746 he was appointed second Court-capell- 
meister, his duty being to conduct the music of 
the Emperor s church, chamber, and dinner- table. 
On Predieri s retirement in 1^51 Reutter exer 
cised the functions of chief Court-capellmeister, 
but did not receive the title till the death of the 
former in 1769. As an economical measure he 
was allowed the sum of 20,000 gulden (2,000) 
to maintain the court-capelle (the whole body of 
musicians, vocal and instrumental), and he enjoys 
the melancholy distinction of having reduced the 
establishment to the lowest possible ebb. Reutter 


composed for the court numerous operas, cantatas 
d occasion, and Italian oratorios for Lent ; also a 
requiem, and smaller dramatic and sacred works. 
His grand masses are showy, with rapid and 
noisy instrumentation, so much so that rushing 
(rauschende) violins d. la Reutter became a 
proverb. Burney heard one of them during his 
visit to Vienna in 1772, and says it was dull, 
dry, stuff; great noise and little meaning cha 
racterised the whole performance. (Present 
State of Music in Germany, i. 36I.) 1 In 1731 
Reutter married Theresia Holzhauser, a court 
singer of merit, who died in 1782. His own 
death took place March 12, 1772. He was much 
favoured at court owing to his great tact ; and 
Maria Theresa ennobled him in 1 740 as Edler 
von Reutter. As stated above, his name is in 
separably associated with that of Haydn, whom 
he heard sing as a boy in the little town of 
Hainburg, and engaged for the choir of St. 
Stephen s, where he sang from 1740 to 1748. 
His treatment of the poor chorister, and his 
heartless behaviour when the boy s fine voice 
had broken, are mentioned under HAYDN, vol. i. 
703- [C.F.P.] 



oldest and most complete of French musical pe 
riodicals. This branch of literature has taken 
root in France with great difficulty. So far back 
as Jan. 1770, M. de Breuilly and other amateurs 
founded the Journal de Musique (monthly, Svo), 
which after a troubled existence of three years was 
dropped till 1777, and then resumed for one year 
more. In 1810 Fayolle started Les Tablettes 
de Polymnie (Svo), but it did not survive beyond 
1 8 1 1 . Undeterred by these failures, Fe"tis brought 
out the first number of the Revue musicale in 
January 1827. It appeared four times a month, 
each number containing 24 pages 8vo., till Feb. 5, 
1831, when it was published weekly, in small 4to, 
double columns. La Gazette musicale de Paris, 
started Jan. 5, 1834, was similar in size to Fe tis s 
Revue, and also weekly, but issued on Sunday 
instead of Saturday. The two were united on 
Nov. i, 1835, since which date the Revue et 
Gazette musicale, has twice enlarged its form, 
in 1841 and in 1845, a ^ which date it became 
what it was till its last number, Dec. 31, 1880. 

The property of the publishers Schlesinger and 
Brandus, this periodical has always been noted 
for the reputation and ability of its editors. 
Amongst its regular contributors have been : 
Anders, C. Bannelier, C. Beauquier, Berlioz, 
P. Bernard, H. Blanchard, A. Botte, M. Bourges, 
Chouquet, Comettant, Cristal, Danjou, Ernest 
David, F. J. Fetis, 0. Fouque, Heller, He"quet, 
A. Jullien, Kastner, Lacome, A. de La Fage, 
Lavoix fils, Liszt, de Monter, d Ortigues, Pougin, 
Monnais ( Paul Smith ), Richard Wagner, and 
Johannes Weber. A careful reader of the 47 
volumes will easily recognise the sentiments 

i It is Burney who is responsible for the absurd dleeresis with which 
this name is usually spelt in England Beiitter. 


of the various editors through whose hands it 
passed ; among those deserving special mention 
are Fe"tis, Edouard Monnais, and M. Charles 
Bannelier, who conducted it from 1872 with equal 
learning and taste. The indexes given with each 
volume are a great boon, and constitute one of 
its advantages over other French periodicals of the 
same kind. 

The cessation of this excellent periodical is an 
event which all lovers and students of music will 
deeply regret. We trust that the hope of a pos 
sible revival, held out by the publishers in their 
farewell address, may be speedily fulfilled. [G-.C.] 

REYER, ERNEST, whose real name is Rey, 
was born at Marseilles, Dec. I, 1823. As a child 
he learned solfeggio at the free school of music 
founded byBarsotti (born in Florence 1786, died 
at Marseilles 1868), and became a good reader, 
though he did not carry his musical education far. 
At 1 6 he went to Algiers as a government official, 
but continued his pianoforte practice, and began 
to compose without having properly learned 
harmony and counterpoint. He was soon able 
to write romances which became popular, and 
composed a mass which was solemnly performed 
before the Duke and Duchess d Aumale. Had 
he remained in Algiers he would probably never 
have been anything beyond a mere amateur, but 
the Revolution of 1848 depriving him of the 
support of the Governor-General, he returned to 
Paris, and placed himself in the hands of his 
aunt Mme. Louise Farrenc, who completed his 
musical education, and before long he found an 
opportunity of coming before the public. From 
his friend Theophile Gautier he procured the 
libretto of Le Selam, an oriental Symphony in 
4 parts, on the model of David s Le Ddserfc. It 
was produced with success April 5, 1850, and then 
Me"ry furnished him with Maitre Wolfram, 
a i -act opera, which was also successful, at the 
Theatre Lyrique, May 20, 1854. His next work 
was Sacountala (July 20, 1858), one of the 
charming ballets of The ophile Gautier ; but his 
full strength was first put forth in La Statue, 
a 3-act opera produced at the Theatre Lyrique, 
April ii, 1 86 1, and containing music which is 
both melodious and full of colour. Erostrate 
(2 acts) was performed at Baden in 1862, and 
reproduced at the Academic, Oct. 1 6, 1871, for 
two nights only. The revival of La Statue at 
the Opera in 1878 was also a failure, and M. 
Reyer may find it difficult to secure the per 
formance of Sigurd, of which the overture and 
some of the more important numbers have been 
heard. To complete the list of his compositions 
we may mention Victoire, a cantata (the Opera, 
June 27, 1859) ; a Recueil de 10 Melodies for 
voice and PF. ; songs for a single voice; and some 
pieces of sacred music. 

Besides being reckoned among the most poetical 
of French musicians, M. Reyer is an accom 
plished feuilletoniste. After writing successively 
for the Presse, the Revue de Paris, and the 
Courrier de Paris, he became musical critic to 
the Journal des De"bats after the death of 
Berlioz. His articles are not only pleasant reading, 


but evince both intellect and culture. He is 
librarian to the Ope*ra, and succeeded his first 
model, David, at the Institufc in 1876. [G.C.] 

REYNOLDS, JOHN, gentleman of the Chapel 
Royal from 1765 to 1770, was composer of the 
pleasing anthem, My God, my God, look upon 
me, printed in Page s Harmonia Sacra, Hul- 
lah s Part Music, vol. ii. and elsewhere. Nothing 
more of his is known. [W.H.H.] 

RHEINBERGER, JOSEPH, born March 17, 
1859, a * Vaduz, the capital of the principality 
of Liechtenstein. He was so precocious that he 
began to learn the pianoforte at the age of five; 
at seven years old he was organist at the church 
of his native place, where, as his legs were too 
short to reach down to the pedals, a second set 
of pedals was fixed above the ordinary ones; 
and very shortly afterwards he composed a mass 
in three parts with organ accompaniment. His 
first teacher was Herr Pohly, who still resides 
and teaches in the Tyrol. At the age of twelve 
Rheinberger was sent to the Munich Conserva- 
torium, where he studied until he was nineteen, 
under Herzog, Leonhard, and J. J. Maier ; he was 
then appointed pianoforte teacher in the same 
institution, and, about the same time, became 
organist in the Hofkirche of St. Michael, and 
subsequently Director of the Munich Oratorien- 
verein. He is at present professor of counterpoint 
and of the higher school of organ-playing in the 
Royal School of Music, and conductor of the 
court band (not of the opera) at Munich. Up 
to the present time he has published 116 com 
positions, among which are 2 symphonies, Wai- 
lenstein and Florentinische Sinfonie ; 2 operas, 
Die sieben Raben and Thti rmer s Tochter- 
lein ; incidental music to a drama of Calderon s, 
and to one of Raimond s ; several overtures, 
The Taming of the Shrew, Demetrius, etc. ; 
many pianoforte works ; a concerto for piano and 
orchestra ; much chamber music and church 
music (among the latter a Grand Requiem for 
those who fell in the war of 1870-71), a Stabat 
Mater and a Mass in 8 parts (dedicated to Pope 
Leo XIII.) ; 5 organ sonatas, and various works 
for chorus and for male voices. Many of his pupils 
have attained eminence in their profession. His 
Quartet in Eb (op. 38) for PF. and strings 
is a favourite work at the Monday Popular 
Concerts, and has been performed there almost 
annually since 1874. -^ Sonata for PF. and 
violin in the same key (op. 77) has also been 
played there. [J.A.F.M.] 

RHEINGOLD, DAS. The Vorspiel, or Pre 
lude, of the Tetralogie of Wagner s Niebelungen 
Ring Rheingold, Walkure, Siegfried, and 
Gotterdammerung. It was first performed at 
Munich, Sept. 22, 1869, under the baton of 
Herr Franz WtiUner. [G.] 


ISCHE MUSIKFESTE, vol. ii. p. 455. 

RHYTHM. This much-used and many- 
sided term may be defined as the systematic 
grouping of notes with regard to duration. It 
is often inaccurately employed as a synonym for 


its two sub-divisions, ACCENT and TIME, and 
in its proper signification bears the same relation 
to these that metre bears to quantity in poetry. 

The confusion which has arisen in the em 
ployment of these terms is unfortunate, though 
so frequent that it would appear to be natural, 
and therefore almost inevitable. Take a number 
of notes of equal length, and give an emphasis to 
every second, third, or fourth, the music will 
be said to be in rhythm of two, three, or four- 
meaning in time. Now take a number of these 
groups or bars and emphasize them in the same 
way as their sub-divisions : the same term will 
still be employed, and rightly so. Again, instead 
of notes of equal length, let each group consist 
of unequal notes, but similarly arranged, as in the 
following example from Schumann 

or in the Vivace of Beethoven s No. 7 Symphony: 
the form of these groups also is spoken of as the 
prevailing rhythm, though here accent is the 
only correct expression. 

Thus we see that the proper distinction of the 
three terms is as follows : 

Accent arranges a heterogeneous mass of notes 

into long and short ; 

Time divides them into groups of equal dura 
tion ; 
Rhythm does for these groups what Accent does 

for notes. 

In short, Rhythm is the Metre of Music. 
This parallel will help us to understand why 
the uneducated can only write and fully compre 
hend music in complete sections of four and 
eight bars. 

Rhythm, considered as the orderly arrange 
ment of groups of accents whether bars or parts 
of bars naturally came into existence only after 
the invention of time and the bar-line. Barbarous 
music, though more attentive to accent than 
melody, plain-chant and the polyphonic church 
music of the i6th century, fugues and most 
music in polyphonic and fugal style, all these 
present no trace of rhythm as above defined. 
In barbarous music and plain-chant this is be 
cause the notes exist only with reference to the 
words, which are chiefly metre-less : in poly 
phonic music it is because the termination of 
one musical phrase (foot, or group of accents) 
is always coincident with and hidden by the 
commencement of another. And this although 
the subject may consist of several phrases and 
be quite rhythmical in itself, as is the case in 
Bach s Organ Fugues in G minor and A minor. 
The Ehythmus of the ancients was simply the 
accent prescribed by the long and short syllables 
of the poetry, or words to which the music was 
set, and had no other variety than that afforded 
by their metrical laws. Modern music, on the 
other hand, would be meaningless and chaotic 
a melody would cease to be a melody could we 
not. plainly perceive a proportion, in the length 
of the phrases. 



The bar-line is the most obvious, but by no 
means a perfect, means of distinguishing and 
determining the rhythm ; but up to the time of 
Mozart and Haydn the system of barring was 
but imperfectly understood. Many even of 
Handel s slow movements have only half their 
proper number of bar-lines, and consequently 
terminate in the middle of a bar instead of at 
the commencement ; as for instance, He shall 
? eed His flock (which is really in 6-8 time), and 
Surely He hath borne our griefs (which should 
be 4-8 instead of ). Where the accent of a 
piece is strictly Unary throughout, composers, 
3ven to this day, appear to be often in doubt about 
the rhythm, time, and barring of their music. 
The simple and unmistakable rule for the latter 
is this : the last strong accent will occur on the 
first of a bar, and you have only to reckon back 
wards. If the piece falls naturally into groups 
of four accents it is four in a bar, but if there is 
an odd two anywhere it should all be barred as 
two in a bar. Ignorance or inattention to this 
causes us now and then to come upon a sudden 
change from (3 to 2-4 in modern music. 

With regard to the regular sequence of bars 
with reference to close and cadence which is 
the true sense of rhythm much depends upon 
the character of the music. The dance-music of 
modern society must necessarily be in regular 
periods of 4, 8, or 16 bars. Waltzes, though 
written in 3-4 time, are almost always really in 
6-8, and a dance -music writer will sometimes, 
from ignorance, omit an unaccented bar (really 
a half-bar), to the destruction of the rhythm. 
The dancers, marking the time with their feet, 
and feeling the rhythm in the movement of their 
bodies, then complain, without understanding 
what is wrong, that such a waltz is not good 
to dance to. 

In pure music it is different. Great as are 
the varieties afforded by the diverse positions 
and combinations of strong and weak accents, the 
equal length of bars, and consequently of musical 
phrases, would cause monotony were it not that 
we are allowed to combine sets of two, three, 
and four bars. Not so freely as we may combine 
the different forms of accent, for the longer divi 
sions are less clearly perceptible ; indeed the 
modern complexity of rhythm, especially in Ger 
man music, is one of the chief obstacles to its 
ready appreciation. Every one, as we have 
already said, can understand a song or piece 
where a half-close occurs at each fourth and a 
whole close at each eighth bar, where it is ex 
pected ; but when an uneducated ear is con 
tinually being disappointed and surprised by 
unexpected prolongations and alterations of 
rhythm, it soon grows confused and unable to 
follow the sense of the music. Quick music 
naturally allows indeed demands more variety 
of rhythm than slow, and we can scarcely turn 
, to any Scherzo or Finale of the great composers 
, where such varieties are not made use of. Taking 
two-bar rhythm as the normal and simplest form 
just as two notes form the simplest kind of 
, accent the first variety we have to notice is 



where one odd bar is thrust in to break the con 
tinuity, as thus in the Andante of Beethoven s C 
minor Symphony : 



-JJ ::r -. 


this may also be effected by causing a fresh 
phrase to begin with a strong accent on the 
weak bar with which the previous subject ended, 
thus really eliding a bar, as for instance in the 
minuet in Haydn s Reine de France Symphony : 



Here the bar marked (a) is the overlapping of 
two rhythmic periods. 

Combinations of two-bar rhythm are the 
rhythms of four and six bars. The first of these 
requires no comment, being the most common of 
existing forms. Beethoven has specially marked 
in two cases (Scherzo of 9th Symphony, and 
Scherzo of CjJ minor Quartet) Ritmo de 4 bat- 
tute, because, these compositions being in such 
short bars, the rhythm is not readily perceptible. 
The six-bar rhythm is a most useful combination, 
as it may consist of four bars followed by two, 
two by four, three and three, or two, two and two. 
The well-known minuet by Lulli (from Le Bour 
geois Gentilhomme ) is in the first of these com 
binations throughout. 

1st lime. 2nd time. 



And the opening of the Andante of Bee 
thoven s ist Symphony is another good example. 
Haydn is especially fond of this rhythm, es 
pecially in the two first-named forms. Of the 
rhythm of thrice two bars a good specimen is 
afforded by the Scherzo of Schubert s C major 
Symphony, where, after the two subjects (both 
in four-bar rhythm) have been announced, the 
strings in unison mount and descend the scale 
in accompaniment to a portion of the first theme, 
thus : 




\ r 



r+t*=E =B^ 

A still better example is the first section of 
God save the Queen. 

This brings us to triple rhythm, uncombined 
with double. 


Three -bar rhythm, if in a slow time, conveys 
a very uncomfortable lop-sided sensation to the 
uncultivated ear. The writer remembers an in 
stance when the band could hardly be brought 
to play a section of an Andante in 9-8 time and 
rhythm of three bars. The combination of 3 x 3 x 3 
was one which, their sense of accent refused to 
acknowledge. Beethoven has taken the trouble 
in the Scherzo of his 9th Symphony to mark 
Ritmo di tre battute, although in such quick 
time it is hardly necessary ; the passage, 



. ^^ 1* 











being understood as though written 

Numerous instances of triple rhythm occur, 
which he has not troubled to mark ; as hi the 
Trio of the C minor Symphony Scherzo : 

Rhythm of five bars is not, as a rule, produc 
tive of good effect, and cannot be used any 
more than the other unusual rhythms for long 
together. It is best when consisting of four bars 
followed by one, and is most often found in 
compound form that is, as eight bars followed 
by two. 

Minuet, Mozart s Symphony in C (No. 6). 

n p ^ 1 ! . , J V- , 

^ j 




4 ( 

v. iy 

i- > 



F F 

O ^- ---- r i l 11 

1 r 7 

tr tr 



i E-t- 

- - 


^-p - 

I f 

A very quaint effect is produced by the un 
usual rhythm of seven. An impression is con 
veyed that the eighth bar a weak one has got 
left out through inaccurate sense of rhythm, as 
so often happens with street-singers and the like. 
Wagner has taken advantage of this in his Tanz 
der Lehrbuben ( Die Meistersinger ), thus: 

It is obvious that all larger symmetrical groups 
than the above need be taken no heed of, as they 
are reducible to the smaller periods. One more 
point remains to be noticed, which, a beauty in 
older and simpler music, is becoming a source of 
weakness in modern times. This is the disguising 
or concealing of the rhythm by strong accents or 
change of harmony in weak bars. The last move- 



ment of Beethoven s Pianoforte Sonata in D 
minor (op. 31) affords a striking instance of this. 
At the very outset 

^ ~~ 

i r 

a 1 

J\ n ft 

r H 


CO) R * 1 

-L - *-4 9 

2 * 

Us*- 1 


m A 

i* i ft *( H 

r- .^ > 

^ h K *\ 

1* p 

* ^ 



__^ x s 


f m * 

1 1 * 1 

P a 

i H 1 

i H 


r P 



f - P 

" .-1 

i --, ,< 

^ - r 

> P 

> > 




we are led to think that the change of bass at 
the fourth bar, and again at the eighth, indicates 
a new rhythmic period, whereas the whole move 
ment is in four-bar rhythm as unchanging as the 
semiquaver figure which pervades it. The device 
has the effect of preventing monotony in a move 
ment constructed almost entirely on one single 
figure. The same thing occurs in the middle of 
the first movement of the Sonatina (op. 79, Presto 
alia Tedesca). Now in both of these cases the 
accent of the bars is so simple that the ear can 
afford to hunt for the rhythm and is pleased by 
the not too subtle artifice ; but in slower and less 
obviously accented music such a device would be 
out of place: there the rhythm requires to be 
impressed on the hearer rather than concealed 
from him. 

On analysing any piece of music it will be 
found that whether the ultimate distribution of 
the accents be binary or ternary, the larger divi 
sions nearly always run in twos, the rhythms 
of three, four, or seven being merely occasionally 
used to break the monotony. This is only na 
tural, for, as before remarked, the comprehensi- 
bility of music is in direct proportion to the 
simplicity of its rhythm, irregularity in this 
point giving a disturbed and emotional character 
to the piece, until, when all attention to rhythm 
is ignored, the music becomes incoherent and 
incomprehensible, though not of necessity dis 
agreeable. In Tristan and Isolde Wagner has 
endeavoured, with varying success, to produce 
a composition of great extent, from which rhythm 
in its larger signification shall be wholly absent. 
One consequence of this is that he has written 
the most tumultuously emotional opera extant j 
but another is that the work is a mere chaos to, 
the hearer until it is closely- studied. Actual 
popularity and general appreciation for such 
music is out of all question for some generations 
to come. [F. C.] 

RIBATTUTA (re-striking), an old contrivance 
in instrumental music, gradually accelerating the 
pace of a phrase of two notes, until a trill was 
arrived at. Beethoven has preserved it for ever in 
the Overture to Leonore No. 3 (bar 75 of A llegro). 

#/P A/P */f / 

. fe A- -S*- ^~f-S=& fir ff rf- ^> 

-^H V,; p^^p^-TT^FgB^ 

See too another passage further on, before the 
Flute solo. [See TRILL.] [G.] 

EIBS (Fr. Eclisses ; Germ. Zarge). The sides 
of stringed instruments of the violin type, con 
necting the back and the belly. They consist 
of six (sometimes only five) pieces of maple, and 
should be of the same texture as the back, and 
if possible cut out of the same piece. After 
being carefully planed to the right thickness, 
they are bent to the required shape, and then 
glued together on the mould by means of the 
corner and top and bottom blocks, the angles 
being feather-edged. The back, the linings and 
the belly are then added, and the body of the 
violin is then complete. The ribs ought to be 
slightly increased in depth at the broader end of 
the instrument, but many makers have neglected 
this rule. The flatter the model, the deeper the 
ribs require to be ; hence the viol tribe, having 
perfectly flat backs and bellies of slight elevation, 
are very deep in the ribs. The oldest violins were 
often very deep in the ribs, but many of them 
have been since cut down. Carlo Bergonzi and 
his contemporaries had a fashion of making 
shallow ribs, and often cut down the ribs of 
older instruments, thereby injuring their tone 
beyond remedy. Instruments made of ill-chosen 
and unseasoned wood will crack and decay in the 
ribs sooner than in any other part : but in the 
best instruments the ribs will generally outlast 
both belly and back. Some old makers were in 
the habit of glueing a strip of linen inside the 
ribs. [E.J.P.] 

RICCI, LUIGI, born in Naples June 8, 1805, 
in 1814 entered the Royal Conservatorio, then 
under Zingarelli, of which he became in 1819 
one of the sub-professors together with Bellini. 
His first work, L Impresario in angustie, was 
performed by the students of the Conservatorio 
in 1823, and enthusiastically applauded. In 
the following four years he wrote La Cena fra- 
stornata, L Abate Taccarella/ still very popular, 
II Diavolo condannato a prender moglie, and 
La Lucerna d Epitteto, all for the Teatro Nuovo. 
In 1828 his Ulisse, at the San Carlo, was a 
failure. In 1829 II Colombo in Parma and 
L Orfanella di Ginevra in Naples were both 
successful, the latter being still performed in 
many Italian theatres. The winter of 1829-30 
was disastrous for Ricci, his four new operas ( II 
Sonnambulo, L Eroina del Messico, Annibale 
in Torino, and La Neve ) being all unsuccessful. 
In the autumn of 1831 he produced at La Scala 
of Milan Chiara di Rosemberg, and this opera, 
performed by Grisi, Sacchi, Winter, Badioli, etc., 
was greatly applauded, and soon became successful 
in all the theatres of Italy. II nuovo Figaro 



failed in Parma in 1832. In it sang Rozer, who 
afterwards married Balfe. The same fate at 
tended I due Sergenti at La Scala in 1833, 
where the following year he gave Un Av ventura 
di Scaramuccia, which was a very great success, 
and was translated into French by Flotow. The 
same year Gli esposti/ better known as Eran 
due ed or son tre, was applauded in Turin, whilst 
Chi dura vince, like Rossini s immortal Bar- 
biere/ was hissed at Rome. It was afterwards 
received enthusiastically at Milan and in many 
other opera-houses of Europe. It was dedicated 
to Louise Vernet, the wife of the great painter 
Paul Delaroche, the friend of Ricci. In 1835 
Chiara di Montalbano failed at the Scala, while 
La serva e 1 ussero was applauded in Pavia. 
Ricci had thus composed twenty operas when 
only thirty years old ; and although many of his 
works had met with a genuine and well-deserved 
success, he was still very poor and had to accept 
the post of Kapellmeister of the Trieste Cathedral 
and conductor of the Opera. In 1838 his Nozze 
di Figaro was a fiasco in Milan, where Rossini 
told him that its fall was due to the music being 
too serious. 

For the next six years Ricci composed nothing. 
In 1844 he married Lidia Stoltz, by whom he had 
two children, Adelaide, who in 1867 sang at the 
Theatre des Italiens in Paris, but died soon after, 
and Luigi, who resides in London. La Solitaria 
delle Asturie was given in Odessa in 1844; 
II Birraio di Preston in Florence in 1847; 
and in 1852 La Festa di Piedigrotta was very 
successful in Naples. His last opera II Diavolo 
a quattro was performed in Trieste in 1859. 

Luigi Ricci composed in collaboration with his 
brother FEDERICO II Colonnello, given in Rome, 
and M. de Chalumeaux, in Venice, in 1835 ; in 
1836 II Disertore per amore for the San Carlo 
in Naples, and L Amante di richiamo given in 
Turin in 1 846. Of these four operas, II Colon 
nello alone had a well-deserved reception. But 
Ricci s masterpiece, the opera which has placed 
him in a very high rank among Italian com 
posers, is Crispino e la Comare, written in 1850 
for Venice, and to which his brother Federico 
partly contributed. This opera, one of the best 
comic operas of Italy, is always and everywhere 
applauded, being a happy mixture of fairy tales, 
laughter, grace, and comicality. 

Shortly after the production of II Diavolo a 
quattro in 1859, however, symptoms of insanity 
showed themselves, and the malady soon became 
violent. He was taken to an asylum at Prague, 
his wife s birthplace, and died there Dec. 31, 
1859. He was much mourned at Trieste; a 
funeral ceremony was followed by a performance 
of selections from his principal works, his bust 
was placed in the lobby of the Opera-house, and 
a pension was granted to his widow. He pub 
lished two volumes of vocal pieces entitled Mes 
Loisirs and Les inspirations du The (Ricordi), 
and he left in MS. a large number of composi 
tions for the cathedral service. His brother, 

FEDERICO, was born in Naples, Oct. 22, 1809, 
entered the Royal Couservatorio of that town, 


where his brother was then studying, and had the 
good-fortune to receive his musical education from 
Bellini and Zingarelli. In 1829 he went to live 
with his brother until the marriage of the latter 
in 1844. In 1837 he gave * La Prigione d Edim- 
burgo in Trieste. The barcarola of this opera, 
Sulla poppa del mio brick, is one of the most 
popular melodies of Italy. In 1839 his Duello 
sotto Richelieu was only moderately successful 
at La Scala, but in 1841 Michelangelo e Rolla 1 
was applauded in Florence. In it sang Signora 
Strepponi, who afterwards married Verdi. Cor- 
rado d Altamura, a lyric drama of some merit, 
was given at La Scala before delighted audiences. 
At the personal request of Charles Albert he 
composed in r 842 a cantata for the marriage of 
Victor Emmanuel, and another for a court festival. 
In 1843 his Vallombra failed at La Scala. 
Isabella de Medici (1844) in Trieste, Estella" 
(1846) in Milan, Griselda (1847) and I due 
ritratti (1850) in Venice, were all failures. II 
Marito e 1 Amante was greatly applauded in 
Vienna in 1852, but his last opera, II paniere 
d amore, given there the following year, did not 
succeed. He was then named Musical Director 
of the Imperial Theatres of St. Petersburg, which 
post he occupied for many years. Of the operas 
written in collaboration with his brother we have 
already spoken. 

He however did not give up composing, but 
brought out at the Fantaisies-Parisiennes, Paris, 
Une Folie a Rome Jan. 30, 1869, with great 
success. Encouraged by this he produced an 
opera-comique in 3 acts, Le Docteur rose 
(Bouffes Parisiens, Feb. 10, 1872) and Une Fete 
a Venise, a reproduction of his earlier work, H 
Marito e 1 Amante (Athene e, Feb. 15, 1872), 
but both were entire failures. Shortly after this 
Federico left Paris and retired to Conegliano in 
Italy, where he died Dec. 10, 1877. He was 
concerned partially or entirely in 19 operas. Of 
his cantatas we have spoken. He also left 2 
masses, 6 albums or collections of vocal pieces 
(Ricordi), and many detached songs. [L.B.] 

care, to search out ), an Italian term of the 
1 7th century, signifying a fugue of the closest 
and most learned description. Frescobaldi s 
Ricercari (1615), which are copied out in one 
of Dr. Burney s note-books (Brit. Mus. Add. 
MS. 11,588), are full of augmentations, diminu 
tions, inversions, and other contrivances, in fact 
recherchts or full of research. J. S. Bach has 
affixed the name to the 6-part Fugue in his 
Musikalisches Opfer, and the title of the whole 
contains the word in its initials Regis lussu 
Cantio Et Reliqua Canonica Arte Resoluta. But 
the term was also employed for a fanta-da on some 
popular song, street-cry, or such similar theme. 
Mr. Cummings has a MS. book, dated 1580-1600, 
containing 22 ricercari by Cl. da Coreggio, Gia- 
netto Palestina, A. Vuillaert, 0. Lasso, Clemens 
non Papa, Cip. Rore, and others fugues in 4 and 
5 parts, on Ce moy de May, Vestiva i colli, 
La Rossignol, Susan un jour, and other appar 
ently popular songs. This use of the word appear* 


to have been earlier than the other, as pieces of 
the kind by Adriano (1520-67) are quoted. [G.] 

RICH, JOHN, son of Christopher Rich, patentee 

of Drury Lane Theatre, was born in 1692. His 

father, having been compelled to quit Drury 

Lane, had erected a new theatre in Lincoln s Inn 

Fields, but died in 17 14 when it was upon the 

eve of being opened. John Rich then assumed 

the management and opened the house about six 

weeks after his father s death. Finding himself 

unable to contend against the superior company 

engaged at Drury Lane, he had recourse to the 

introduction of a new species of entertainment 

pantomime in which music, scenery, machinery 1 , 

and appropriate costumes formed the prominent 

features. In these pieces he himself, under the 

assumed name of Lun, performed the part of 

Harlequin with such ability as to extort the 

admiration of even the most determined opponents 

of that class of entertainment. [See LINCOLN S 


645 6.] Encouraged by success he at length decided 

upon the erection of a larger theatre, the stage of 

which should afford greater facilities for scenic 

and mechanical display, and accordingly built 

the first Covent Garden Theatre, which he opened 

Dec. 7, 1732. Hogarth produced a caricature on 

the occasion of the removal to the new house, 

entitled Rich s Glory, or his Triumphal Entry 

into Covent Garden, a copy of which will be 

found in Wilkinson s Londina Illustrata. He 

conducted the new theatre with great success 

until his death, relying much upon the attraction 

of his pantomimes and musical pieces, but by no 

means neglecting the regular drama. In his 

early days he had attempted acting, but failed. 

He died Nov. 26, 1761, and was buried Dec. 4 in 

Hillingdon churchyard, Middlesex. [W.H.H.] 

coinique in 3 acts ; words by Sedaine, music by 
Gre"try. Produced at the Opdra Comique Oct. 21, 
1784. The piece has a certain historical value. 
One of the airs, Une fievre brulante, was for 
long a favourite subject for variations. Beetho 
ven wrote a set of 8 upon it (in C major), pub 
lished in Nov. 1798, having probably heard the 
air at a concert of Weigl s in the preceding March. 
Another set of 7 (also in C) were for long attri 
buted to Mozart, but are now decided not to be 
by him. The air O Richard, o mon roi, 1 univers 
t abbandonne was played on a memorable occa 
sion in the early stage of the French Revolution 
at the banquet at Versailles on Oct. 1, 1 789. [G.] 

RICHARDS, BRINLET, son of Henry Richards, 
organist of St. Peter s, Carmarthen, was born in 
1819, and intended for the medical profession, 
but preferred the study of music, and became a 
pupil of the Royal Academy of Music, where 
he obtained the King s scholarship in 1835, and 
again in 1837. He soon gained a high position in 
London as a pianist. As a composer he has been 
very successful, his song God bless the Prince of 

1 Most of Rich s machinery was invented by John Hoole. the trans 
lator of Tasso s Gerusalemme Liberata and other works, and his 
father, Samuel Hoole, an eminent -watchmaker. 



Wales having reached a high pitch of popularity, 
even out of England, and his sacred songs, part 
songs, and pianoforte pieces having been most 
favourably received. He compooed additional 
songs for the English version of Auber s Crown 
Diamonds, when produced at Drury Lane in 
1846. He has especially devoted himself to the 
study of Welsh music (upon which he has 
lectured), and many of his compositions have 
been inspired by his enthusiastic love for his 
native land. He exerted himself greatly in pro 
moting the interests of the South Wales Choral 
Union on its visits to London in 1872 and 1873, 
when they successfully competed at the National 
Music Meetings at the Crystal Palace. As a 
teacher Mr. Richards is deservedly esteemed anu 
has a very large clientele in London. [W.H.H.] 

RICHARDSON, JOSEPH. An eminent flute- 
player, born in 1814, and died March 22, 1862. 
He was engaged in most of the London orchestras, 
was solo player at Jullien s concerts for many 
years, and afterwards became principal flute in the 
Queen s private band. His neatness and rapidity 
of execution were extraordinary, and were the 
great features of his playing. He composed 
numerous fantasias for his instrument, usually 
of an extremely brilliant and difficult character. 
Some of his variations are still popular among 
flute-players, such as * There s nae luck about the 
house to which no one but Richardson himself 
has ever done justice, Auber s Les Montagnards, 
the Russian National Hymn, etc. [G.] 

RICHARDSON, VAUGHAN, was in 1685 a 
chorister of the Chapel Royal, under Dr. Blow. 
He was possibly a nephew of Thomas Richard 
son (alto singer, gentleman of the Chapel Royal 
from 1664 to his death, July 23, 1712, and lay 
vicar of Westminster Abbey), and a brother of 
Thomas Richardson, who was his fellow chorister. 
About 1695 he was appointed organist of Win 
chester Cathedral. In 1701 he published A 
collection of Songs for one, two and three voices, 
accompany d with instruments. He was author 
of some church music : a fine anthem, Lord 
God of my salvation, and an Evening Service in 
C (composed in 1713), are in theTudway Collec 
tion (Harl. MSS. 7341 and 7342), and another 
anthem, O how amiable, also in Tudway, and 
printed in Page s Harmonia Sacra ; others are 
in the books of different cathedrals. He was also 
composer of An Entertainment of new Musick, 
composed on the Peace [of Ryswick], 1697 ; A 
Song in praise of St. Cecilia, written for a cele 
bration at Winchester about 1700, and a set of 
vocal and instrumental music, written for a like 
occasion in 1703. He died in 1729, and not, as 
commonly stated, in 1715. [W.H.H.] 

family of celebrated French music-publishers, 
born at Chartres, May 10, 1780, came early to 
Paris, and served his apprenticeship in the music- 
trade with J. J. Momigny. From him he ac 
quired a taste for the literature of music and 
chamber compositions ; and when he set up for 
himself at No. 7, Rue Grange Bateliere in 1805, 



the first works lie published were classical. He 
soon perceived that there was an opening in 
Paris for editions of the best works of German 
musicians, and the early efforts of French com 
posers of promise. His calculation proved cor 
rect, and his judgment was so sound that his 
business increased rapidly, and he was soon 
obliged to move into larger premises in the Boule 
vard Poissonniere, first at No. 16, and then at 
No. 26. Here he published Mozart s Concertos 
in 8vo score, and other works of the classical 
composers of Germany, and acquired the bulk of 
the stock of the firms of Frey, Naderman, Sieber, 
Pleyel, Petit, Erard, and Delahante. He moved 
in 1862 to No. 4 in the Boulevard des Italiens, 
at the precise spot where the Boulevard Hauss- 
mann would have come in if it had been finished. 
In this house he died, Feb. 20, 1866, well-known 
as a publisher of judgment and ability, a man 
of keen intellect, and a pleasant social companion. 
His son, 

GUILLAUME SIMON, born in Paris Nov. 2, 
1806, had long been his father s partner, and 
continued in the old line of serious music. At 
the same time he realised that in so important a 
business it was well that the Italian school should 
be represented, and accordingly bought the stock 
of the publisher Pacini. On the death of this good 
man, Feb. 7, 1877, his son, 

LEON, born in Paris Aug. 6, 1839, resolved to 
give a fresh impetus to the firm, which already 
possessed 18,000 publications. Bearing in mind 
that his grandfather had been the first to publish 
Beethoven s Symphonies and Mozart s Concertos 
in score ; to make known in France the oratorios 
of Bach and Handel, and the works of Schubert, 
Mendelssohn, and Schumann ; to bring out the 
first operas of Ambroise Thomas and Victor 
Masse" ; to encourage Berlioz when his c Dam 
nation de Faust was received with contempt, 
and to welcome the orchestral compositions of 
Reber and Gouvy ; M. Le"on Bichault above all 
determined to maintain the editions of the Ger 
man classical masters which had made the for 
tune of the firm. Retaining all the works 
didactic, dramatic, sacred, vocal, and instru 
mental which still do honour to his establish 
ment, he has carefully eliminated all obsolete 
and forgotten music. He has moreover already 
begun to issue new editions of all compositions 
of value of which the plates are worn out. His 
intelligent administration of his old and honour 
able business procured him a silver medal at the 
International Exhibition of 1878, the highest 
recompense open to music-publishers, the jury 
having refused them the gold medal. 

A new catalogue of Richault s publications is 
in preparation, the old ones having long become 
obsolete. It will form a large volume, and will 
not in all probability be ready till 1882. [G. C.] 

a schoolmaster, born Oct. 24, 1808, at Grosschonau 
in Lusatia ; from his eleventh year attended the 
Gymnasium at Zittau, managed the choir, and 
arranged independent performances. In 1831 he 
went to Leipzig to study with Weinlig, the then 


Cantor, and made such progress that soon after 
the foundation of the Conservatorium, in 1843, 
he became one of the professors of harmony and 
counterpoint. Up to 1847 he conducted the Sinff. 
akademie ; he was afterwards organist of the 
Nicolai and Peters Neukirchen. After Haupt- 
mann s death, Jan. 3, 1868, he succeeded him as 
Cantor of the St. Thomas school. Of his books, 
the Lehrbuch der Harmonielehre (i2th ed. 
1876) has been translated into Dutch, Swedish, 
Italian, Russian, Polish, and English. The Lehre 
von der Fuge has passed through three editions, 
and Vom Contrapunct through two. The Eng 
lish translations of all these are by Franklin 
Taylor, and were published by Cramer & Co. in 
1864, 1878, and 1874 respectively. Richter also 
published a Catechism of Organ-building. Of 
his many compositions de circonstance the best 
known is the Cantata for the Schiller Festival 
in 1859. Other works are an oratorio, Christus 
der Erloser (March 8, 1849), masses, psalms, 
motets, organ-pieces, string-quartets, and sonatas 
for PF. He became one of the King s Professors 
in 1868, died at Leipzig, April 9, 1879, and was 
succeeded as Cantor by W. RUST. [E.G.] 

RICHTER, HANS, celebrated conductor, born 
April 4, 1843, at Raab in Hungary, where his 
father was Capellmeister of the cathedral. His 
mother was also musical, and is still a teacher of 
singing at Pesth. The father died in 1853, and 
Hans was then placed at the Lowenburg Convict- 
School in Vienna. Thence he went into the choir 
of the Court chapel, and remained there for four 
years. In 1859 he entered the Conservatorium, 
and studied the horn under Kleinecke, and theory 
under Sechter. After a lengthened engagement as 
horn-player in the orchestra of the Karnthnerthor 
opera he was recommended by Esser to Wagner, 
went to him at Lucerne, remained there from 
Oct. 1866 to Dec. 1867, ar| d made the first fair 
copy of the score of the Meistersinger. In 1868 
he accepted the post of conductor at the Hof- und 
National Theatre, Munich, and remained there 
for some length of time. He next visited Paris, 
and after a short residence there, proceeded 
to Brussels for the production of Lohengrin 
(March 22, 1870). He then returned to Wagner 
at Lucerne, assisted at the first performance 
of the Siegfried Idyll (Dec. 1870), and made 
the fair copy of the score of the Niebelun- 
gen Ring for the engraver. Early in 1871 he 
went to Pesth as chief conductor of the National 
Theatre, a post to which he owes much of his 
great practical knowledge of the stage and stage 
business. In Jan. 18/5 he conducted a grand 
orchestral concert in Vienna, which had the effect 
of attracting much public attention to him, and 
accordingly, after the retirement of Herbeck 
(April 1875) from the direction of the Court 
Opera Theatre where he was succeeded by 
Jauner and of Dessoff from the same theatre, 
Richter was invited to take the post vacated by 
the latter, which he entered upon in the autumn 
of 1875, concurrently with the conductorship of 
the Philharmonic Concerts. He had already been 
conducting the rehearsals of the Niebelungen 



Ring at Bayreuth, and in 1876 he directed the 
whole. of the rehearsals and performances of the 
Festival there, and, at the close of the third set 
of performances, received the order of Maximilian 
from the King of Bavaria, and that of the Falcon 
from the Grand Duke of Weimar. In 1877 he 
produced the Walkyrie in Vienna, and followed 
it in 1878 by the other portions of the tetralogie. 
In 1878 he was made capellmeister, and received 
the order of Franz Josef. In 1879 (May 5-12), 
80 (May 10- June 14), and 81 (May 9 -June 23) 
he conducted important orchestral concerts in 
London, which excited much attention, chiefly for 
his knowledge of the scores of Beethoven s sym 
phonies and other large works, which he con 
ducted without book. 

Herr Richter is certainly one of the very first 
of living conductors. He owes this position in 
great measure to the fact of his intimate practical 
acquaintance with the technik of the instruments 
in the orchestra, especially the wind, to a degree 
in which he stands alone. As a musician he is 
a self-made man, and enjoys the peculiar advan 
tages which spring from that fact. His devotion 
to his orchestra is great, and the present high 
standard and position of the band of the Vienna 
opera house is due to him. He is a great master 
of crescendo and decrescendo. Perhaps he leans 
too much to the encouragement of virtuosity in 
his orchestra. But as a whole, what he directs 
will always be finely played. 

In correction of a previous statement we may 
say that his mother, Mine. Richter von Innffeld, 
formerly a distinguished soprano singer, now lives 
in Vienna as a teacher of singing. Her method of 
producing the voice affecting especially the soft 
palate and other parts of the back of the mouth 
has been very successful, and attracted the notice 
of Prof. Helmholtz, who in 1872 investigated it, 
and wrote her a letter of strong approval. [F. G.] 

RICORDI, GIOVANNI, founder of the well- 
known music-publishing house in Milan, where 
he was born in 1785, and died March 15, 1853. 
He made his first hit with the score of Mosca s 
Pretendenti delusi." Since that time Ricordi 
lias published for all the great Italian maestri, 
down to Verdi and Bo ito, and has far out 
stripped all rivals. His Gazetta musicale, 
edited with great success by Mazzucati, has 
had much influence on his prosperity. The 
firm possesses the whole of the original scores of 
the operas they have published a most inter 
esting collection. Giovanni s son and successor 
TITO further enlarged the business, and at this 
moment the stock consists of over 40,000,000 
pages, or nearly 50,000 items, of music. The 
catalogue issued in 1875 contains 738 pages large 
8vo. For some years past Tito has been disabled 
by illness, and the present head of the firm is 
his son GIDLIO DI TITO, born in 1835, who is a 
practised writer, a skilled draughtsman, a com 
poser of drawing-room music, and in all respects 
a thoroughly cultivated man. 

This notice must not end without a mention of 
Paloschi s Annuario musicale, a useful and ac 
curate calendar of musical date,s, published by 

VOL. III. PT. 2. 



this excellent firm, the second edition of which 
was issued in 1878. [F.G.] 

RIDOTTO, an Italian term for an assembly 
with music, and usually with masks. 

They went to the Kidotto tis a hall 
"Where people dance and sup and dance again ; 
The proper name, perhaps, were a mask d ball, 
But that s of no importance to my strain, 

says Byron in Beppo, writing from Venice in 
1817. They were known in Italy much earlier 
than that, and had spread to both Germany and 
England. They are frequently mentioned by 
Horace Walpole under the name Ridotto, and 
were one of the attractions at Vauxhall and 
Ranelagh in the middle of the last century. In 
Germany and France a French version of the 
name was adopted REDOUTE. [See p. 89]. [G.] 

RIEDEL, CARL, born Oct. 6, 1827, at Kronen- 
berg in the Rhine provinces. Though always 
musically inclined he was educated for trade, 
and up to 1848 pursued the business of a silk 
dyer. Being in Lyons during the Revolution of 
that year the disturbance to his business and the 
excitement of the moment drove him to the 
resolution of forsaking trade and devoting him 
self to music as a profession. He returned 
home and at once began serious study under the 
direction of CARL WILHELM, then an obscure 
musician at Crefeld, but destined to be widely 
known as the author of the Wacht am Rhein. 
Late in 1849 Riedel entered the Leipzig Con- 
servatorium, where he made great progress under 
Moscheles, Hauptmann, Becker, and Plaidy. 
After leaving the Conservatorium the direction 
of his talent was for some time uncertain. He 
had however for long had a strong predilection 
for the vocal works of the older masters of 
Germany and Italy. Early in 1854 ne practised 
and performed in a private society at Leipzig 
Astorga s Stabat, Palestrina s Improperia/ 
and Leo s Miserere, and this led him to found 
a singing society of his own, which began on 
May 17, 1854, with a simple quartet of male 
voices, and was the foundation of the famous 
Association which, under the name of the 
4 Riedelsche Verein, was so celebrated in Leip 
zig. Their first public concert was held in Novem 
ber, 1855. ^ ne reality of the attempt was soon 
recognised ; members flocked to the society ; 
and its first great achievement was a performance 
of Bach s B minor Mass, April 10, 1859. At 
that time Riedel appears to have practised only 
ancient music, but this rale was by no means 
maintained; and in the list of the works per 
formed by the Verein we find Beethoven s Mass 
in D, Kiel s Christus, Berlioz s Requiem, and 
Liszt s Graner Mass and St. Elizabeth. Rie- 
del s devotion to his choir was extraordinary: 
he was not only its Conductor, but Librarian, 
Secretary, Treasurer, all in one. . His interest 
in societies outside his own, and in the welfare 
of music, was always ready and always effective, 
and many of the best Vocal Associations of 
North Germany owe their success to his advice 
and help. The programmes of the public per 
formances of his society show the fin mes of many 




composers who were indebted to him for their 
first chance of being heard, and of much music 
which but for him would probably have slum 
bered on the shelf till now. He was one of 
the founders of the Beethovenstiftung, and 
an earnest supporter of the Wagner perform 
ances at Bayreuth in 1876. His own compo 
sitions are chiefly part-songs for men s voices, 
but he has edited several important ancient 
works by Praetorius, Franck, Eccard, and other 
old German writers, especially a Passion by 
Heinrich Schutz, for which he selected the best 
portions of 4 Passions by that master a pro 
ceeding certainly deserving all that can be said 
against it. [G.] 

in Thuringia, Feb. 17, 1779, was one ^- ^- ^&~ 
ler s pupils in the St. Thomas school at Leipzig. 
In 1807 he was made organist of the Reformed 
church there, and in 1814 of the St. Thomas 
school itself. In 1822 he was called to Bremen to 
take the cathedral organ and be Director of the 
Singakademie, where he remained till his death, 
April 20, 1837. He was an industrious writer. 
His cantata for the anniversary of the Augs 
burg Confession 1830 (for which Mendelssohn s 
Reformation Symphony was intended) is dead ; 
so are his quintets, quartets, trios, and other 
large works, but some of his 8 sonatas and 12 
sonatinas are still used for teaching purposes. 
He left 2 books of studies for the PF., which 
are out of print, and 16 progressive exercises. [G.] 


(the last of the Tribunes). An opera in 5 acts ; 
words (founded on Bulwer s novel) and music by 
Wagner. He adopted the idea in Dresden in 
1837 ; two acts were finished early in 1839, and 
the opera was produced at Dresden Oct. 20, 1842. 
Rienzi was brought out in French (Meitter and 
Guillaume) at the Theatre Lyrique, April 6, 1 869, 
and in English at Her Majesty s Theatre, London 
(Carl Rosa), Jan. 27, 1879. [G.] 

RIES. A distinguished family of musicians. 

I. JOHANN RIES, native of Benzheim on the 
Rhine, born 1723, was appointed Court trumpeter 
to the Elector of Cologne at Bonn, May 2, 1 747, 
and violinist in the Capelle, Mar. 5, 1754. On 
April 27, 1764, his daughter Anna Maria was 
appointed singer. In 1 774 she married Ferdinand 
Drewer, violinist in the band, and remained 
first soprano till the break-up in 1794. Her 
father died 1786 or 7. Her brother, FRANZ 
ANTON, was born at Bonn, Nov. 10, 1755, an( ^ 
died there Nov. i, 1846. He was an infant 
phenomenon on the violin ; learned from J. P. 
Salomon, and was able to take his father s 
place in the orchestra at the age of n. His 
salary began when he was 19, and in 1779 it was 
1 60 thalers per annum. At that date he visited 
Vienna, and made a great success as a solo and 
quartet player. But he elected to remain, on 
poor pay, in Bonn, and was rewarded by having 
Beethoven as his pupil and friend. During the 
poverty of the Beethoven family, and through the 


misery caused by the death of Ludwig s mother 
in 1787, Franz Ries stood by them like a real 
friend. In 1794 the French arrived, and the 
Elector s establishment was broken up. Some of 
the members of the band dispersed, but Ries 
remained, and documents are 1 preserved which 
show that after the passing away of the invasion 
he was to have been Court-musician. Events 
however were otherwise ordered ; he remained 
in Bonn, and at Godesberg, where he had a little 
house, till his death ; held various small offices, 
culminating in the Bonn city government in 
1800, taught the violin, and brought up his 
children well. He assisted Wegeler in his No 
tices of Beethoven, was present at the unveiling 
of Beethoven s statue in 1845, had a Doctor s 
degree and the order of the Red Eagle conferred 
on him, and died, as we have said, Nov. I, 1846, 
aged 91 all but 9 days. 

2. Franz s son FERDINAND, who with the Arch 
duke Rudolph enjoys the distinction of being 
Beethoven s pupil, was born at Bonn Nov. 28, 
1784. He was brought up from his cradle to 
music. His father taught him the pianoforte and 
violin, and B. Romberg the cello. In his child 
hood he lost an eye through the small-pox. After 
the break-up of the Elector s band he remained 
three years at home, working very hard at theo 
retical and practical music, scoring the quartets 
of Haydn and Mozart, and arranging the Creation, 
the Seasons, and the Requiem with such ability 
that they were all three published by Simrock. 

In 1801 he went to Munich to study under 
Winter, in a larger field than he could com 
mand at home. Here he was so badly off as to 
be driven to copy music at ^d. a sheet. But 
poor as his income was he lived within it, and 
when after a few months Winter left Munich 
for Paris, Ries had saved 7 ducats. With this he 
went to Vienna in October 1801, taking a letter 
from his father to Beethoven. Beethoven re 
ceived him well, and when he had read the 
letter said, * I can t answer it now ; but write 
and tell him that I have not forgotten the time 
when my mother died" ; and knowing how miser 
ably poor the lad was, he on several occasions 
gave him money unasked, for which he would 
accept no return. The next three years Ries spent 
in Vienna. Beethoven took a great deal of pains 
with his pianoforte-playing, but would teach him 
nothing else. He however prevailed on Albrechts- 
berger to take him as a pupil in composition. 
The lessons cost a ducat each ; Ries had in some 
way saved up 28 ducats, and therefore had 28 
lessons. Beethoven also got him an appointment 
as pianist to Count Browne the Russian charg^ 
d affaires, and at another time to Count Lich- 
nowsky. The pay for these services was prob 
ably not over-abundant, but it kept him, and the 
position gave him access to the best musical 
society. Into Ries s relations with Beethoven we 
need not enter here. They are touched upon in 
the sketch of the great master in vol. i. of this 
work, and they are fully laid open in Ries s own 

1 See the curious and important lists and memorandums, pub 
lished for the first time in Thayer s Beethoven, i. 248. 


invaluable notices. He had a great deal to bear, 
and considering the secrecy and imperiousness 
which Beethoven often threw into his intercourse 
with every one, there was probably much un 
pleasantness in the relationship. Meantime ^ of 
course Hies must have become saturated with 
the music of his great master ; a thing which 
could hardly tend to foster any little originality 
he may ever have possessed. 

As a citizen of Bonn he was amenable to the 
French conscription, and in 1805 was summoned 
to appear there in person. He left in Sept. 1805, 
made the journey on foot via Prague, Dresden, and 
Leipzig, reached Coblentz within the prescribed 
limit of time, and was then dismissed on account 
of the loss of his eye. He then went on to Paris, 
and existed in misery for apparently at least two 
years, at the end of which time he was advised 
to try Russia. On Aug. 27, 1808, he was again 
in Vienna, and soon afterwards received from 
Eeichardt an offer of the post of Kapellmeister 
to Jerome Bonaparte, King of Westphalia, at 
Cassel, which Reichardt alleged had been re 
fused by Beethoven. Hies behaved with perfect 
loyalty and straightforwardness in the matter. 
Before replying, he endeavoured to find out 
from Beethoven himself the real state of the 
case ; but Beethoven having adopted the idea 
that Ries was trying to get the post over his 
head, would not see him, and for three weeks 
behaved to him with an incredible degree of 
cruelty and insolence. When he could be made 
to listen to the facts he was sorry enough, but 
the opportunity was gone. 

The occupation of Vienna (May 12, 1809) by 
the French was not favourable to artistic life. 
Ries however, as a French subject, was free to 
wander. He accordingly went to Cassel, pos 
sibly with some lingering hopes, played at Court, 
and remained till the end of February 1810, 
very much applauded and feted, and making 
money but had no offer of a post. From Cassel he 
went by Hamburg and Copenhagen to Stockholm, 
where we find him in Sept. 1810, making both 
money and reputation. He had still his eye on 
Russia, but between Stockholm and Petersburg 
the ship was taken by an English man-of-war, 
and all the passengers were turned out upon an 
island in the Baltic. In Petersburg he found 
Bernhard Romberg, and the two made a successful 
townee, embracing places as wide apart as Kieff, 
Reval and Riga. The burning of Moscow (Sept. 
1812) put a stop to his progress in that direction, 
and we next find him again at Stockholm in April 
1813, en route to England. By the end of the 
month he was in London. 

Here he found his countryman and his father s 
friend, Salomon, who received him cordially and 
introduced him to the Philharmonic Concerts. 
His first appearance there was March 14, 1814, 
in his own PF. Sestet. His symphonies, over 
tures, and chamber works frequently occur in the 
programmes, and he himself appears from time 
to time as a PF. player, but rarely if ever with 
works of Beethoven s. Mr. Ries, says a writer 
in the Harmonicou of March 1824, is justly 



celebrated as one of the finest pianoforte per 
formers of the day ; his hand is powerful and his 
execution certain, often surprising ; but his playing 
is most distinguished from that of all others by 
its romantic wildness. Shortly after his arrival 
he married an English lady of great attractions, 
and he remained in London till 1824, one of the 
most conspicuous figures of the musical world. 

His sojourn here was a time of herculean labour. 
His compositions numbered at their close nearly 
1 80, including 6 fine symphonies; 4 overtures; 
6 string quintets, and 14 do. quartets; 9 con 
certos for PF, and orchestra ; an octet, a septet, 

2 sextuors, and a quintet, for various instruments ; 

3 PF. quartets, and 5 do. trios; 20 duets ^ for 
PF. and violin ; 10 sonatas for PF. solo ; besides 
a vast number of rondos, variations, fantasias, 
etc., for the PF. solo and a 4 mains. Of thevse 
38 are attributable to the tune of his residence 
here, and they embrace 2 symphonies, 4 concertos, 
a sonata, and many smaller pieces. As a pianist 
and teacher he was very much in request. He 
was an active member of the Philharmonic 
Society. His correspondence with Beethoven 
during the whole period is highly creditable to 
him, proving his gratitude towards his master, 
and the energy with which he laboured to promote 
Beethoven s interests. That Beethoven profited 
so little therefrom was no fault of Ries s. 

Having accumulated a fortune adequate to the 
demands of a life of comfort, he gave a farewell 
concert in London, April 8, 1824, and removed 
with his wife to Godesberg, near his native town, 
where he had purchased a property. Though 
a loser by the failure of a London Bank in 
1825-6, he was able to live independently. About 
1830 he removed to Frankfort. His residence 
on the Rhine brought him into close contact with 
the Lower Rhine Festivals, and he directed the 
performances of the years 1825, 29, 30, 32, 34, 
and 37, as well as those of 1826 and 28 in con 
junction with Spohr and Klein respectively. [See 
the list, vol. ii. p. 457.] In 1834 he was appointed 
head of the town orchestra and Singakademie 
at Aix-la-Chapelle. But he was too independent 
to keep any post, and in 1836 he gave this up 
and returned to Frankfort. In 1837 he assumed 
the direction of the Cecilian Society there on the 
death of Schelble, but this lasted a few months 
only, for on Jan. 13, 1838, he died after a short 

The principal works which he composed after 
his return to Germany are Die Rauberbraut 
(the Robber s bride), which was first performed 
in Frankfort probably in 1829, then in Leipzig, 
July 4, and London, July 15, of the same 
year, and often afterwards in Germany ; another 
opera, known in Germany as Liska, but pro 
duced at the Adelphi, London, in English, as 
The Sorcerer, by Arnold s Company, Aug. 4, 
1831 ; an oratorio, Der Sieg des Glaubens (the 
Triumph of the Faith), Berlin, 1835 ; and a 
second oratorio, Die Kb nige Israels (the Kings 
of Israel), Aix-la-Chapelle, 1837. All these 
works however are dead. Beethoven once said 
of his compositions. he imitates me too much. 




He caught the style and the phrases, but he 
could not catch the immortality of his master s 
work. Technically great as much that he com 
posed was, that indescribable something, that 
touch of nature, which, in music as elsewhere, 
makes the whole world kin, was wanting. One 
work of his, however, will live the admirable 
Biographical Notices of Ludwig van Beethoven, 
which he published in conjunction with Dr. 
Wegeler (Coblentz, 1838). The two writers, 
though publishing together, have fortunately kept 
their contributions quite distinct; Ries s occupies 
from pp. 76 to 163 of a little duodecimo volume, 
and of these the last 35 pages are occupied by 
Beethoven s letters. His own portion, short as 
it is, is excellent, and it is hardly too much to 
say that within his small limits he is equal to 
Boswell. The work is translated into French by 
Le Gentil (Dentu, 1862), and partially into Eng 
lish by Moscheles, as an Appendix to his version 
of Schindler s Life of Beethoven. [ A.W.T.] 

3. HUBERT, brother of the preceding, was born 
at Bonn in 1802. He made his first studies as a 
violinist under his father, and afterwards under 
Spohr. Hauptmann was his teacher in composi 
tion. Since 1824 he has lived at Berlin. In that 
year he entered the band of the Konigstadter 
Theatre, and in the following year became a mem 
ber of the Royal band. In 1835 he was appointed 
Director of the Philharmonic Society at Berlin. 
In 1 836 he was nominated Concertmeister, and in 
1839 elected a member of the Royal Academy of 
Arts. A thorough musician and a solid violinist, 
he has ever since been held in great esteem as a 
leader, and more especially as a methodical aftd con 
scientious teacher. His Violin-School for beginners 
is a very meritorious work, eminently practical, 
and widely used. He has published two violin- 
concertos, studies and duets for violins, and some 
quartets. An English edition of the Violin-School 
appeared in 1873 (Hofmeister). Three of his sons 
have gained reputation as musicians : 

Louis, violinist, born at Berlin in 1830, pupil 
of his father and of Vieuxtemps, has, since 1852, 
been settled in London, where he enjoys great 
and deserved reputation as violinist and teacher. 
He was a member of the Quartet of the 
Musical Union from 1855 to 1870, and has 
held the second violin at the Monday Popular 
Concerts from their beginning in 1859, to the pre 
sent time. He played a solo at the Crystal Palace 
Oct. 29, 1864. 

ADOLPH, pianist, born at Berlin in 1837. He 
is a pupil of Kullak for the piano, and of Boehmer 
for composition, and lives in London as a piano 
forte teacher. He has published a number of 
compositions for the piano, and some songs. 

FRANZ, violinist and composer, was born at 
Berlin in 1846. He studied first under his 
father (violin), and under Boehmer and Kiel 
(composition). He afterwards entered the Con 
servatoire at Paris as a pupil of Massart, and 
gained the first prize for violin-playing in 1868. 
Some of his compositions, especially two suites 
for violin, have met with considerable success, i 
He visited London in 1870 and played at the 


Crystal Palace. He has published an overture, two 
quartets, a quintet, and a large number of songs. 
Compelled by ill -health to give up violin -playing 
entirely, he established a music-publishing busi 
ness at Dresden in 1874. [P-D-] 

German firm of music-publishers. The founder 
was Jacob Melchior Rieter-Biedermann (born 
May 14, 1811 ; died Jan. 25, 1876), who in 
June 1849 opened a retail business and lending- 
library at Winterthur. The first work published 
by the house was Kirchner s Albumblatter/ 
op. 7, on April 29, 1 856 ; since then the business 
has continually improved and increased. On 
March i, 1862, a publishing branch was opened 
at Leipzig. The stock catalogue of the firm 
includes music by Berlioz, Brahms (PF. Concerto, 
PF. Quintet, Requiem, Magelone, Romanzen, 
May-songs, etc.) ; A. Dietrich ; J. 0. Grimm ; 
Gernsheim ; Herzogenberg ; F. Hiller ; Holstein ; 
Kirchner ; Lachner ; F. Marschner ; Mendels 
sohn (op. 98, nos. 2, 3 ; op. 103, 105, 1 06, 108, 115, 
116); Raff; Reinecke ; Schumann (op. 130, 
137, 138, 140, 142) ; Schultz-Beuthen, etc. in 
all more than 1 200 works. [G.] 

RIETZ (originally RITZ l ) EDUAED, the elder 
brother of Julius Rietz, an excellent violinist, 
was born at Berlin in 1801. He studied first 
under his father, a member of the royal band, and 
afterwards for some time under RODE. He died 
too young to acquire a more than local reputa 
tion, but his name will always be remembered 
in connection with Mendelssohn, who had the 
highest possible opinion of his powers as an 
executant, 2 and who counted him amongst his 
dearest and nearest friends. It was for Ritz that 
he wrote the Octet, which is dedicated to him, 
as well as the Sonata for PF. and Violin, op. 4. 
For some years Rietz was a member of the royal 
band, but as his health failed him in 1824 he 
had to quit his appointment and even to give up 
playing. He founded and conducted an orchestral 
society at Berlin, with considerable success but 
continued to sink, and died of consumption Jan. 
23, 1832. Mendelssohn s earlier letters teem 
with affectionate references to him, and the 
news of his death, which he received at Paris on 
his birthday, affected him deeply. 3 The Andante 
in Mendelssohn s String Quintet, op. 1 8, was 
composed at Paris in memory of E. Ritz, and 
is dated on the autograph Jan. 23, 1832, and 
entitled Nachruf. [P.D.] 

RIETZ, JULIUS, younger brother of the pre 
ceding, violoncellist, composer, and eminent con 
ductor, was born at Berlin Dec. 28, 1812. 
Brought up under the influence of his father and 
brother, and the intimate friend of Mendelssohn, 
tie received his first instruction on the violoncello 
Prom Schmidt, a member of the royal band, and 
afterwards from Bernhard Romberg and Moritz 

1 Uniformly so spelt by Mendelssohn. 

2 I long earnestly, says he, in a letter from Rome, for his vioMnand 
lis depth of feeling ; they come vividly before my mind when I see 

his beloved neat handwriting. 

; :\lt-n<1elssohn s Letters from Italy and Switzerland, English Trans 
lation, p. 327. 


Ganz. Zelter was his teacher in composition. 
Having gained considerable proficiency on his 
instrument, he obtained, at the age of 16, an 
appointment in the band of the Konigstadter 
Theatre, where he also achieved his first success 
as a composer by writing incidental music for 
Holtei s drama, Lorbeerbaum und Bettelstab. 
In 1834 he went to Diisseldorf as second con 
ductor of the opera. Mendelssohn, who up to 
his death showed a warm interest in Rietz, was 
at that time at the head of the opera, and on his 
resignation in the summer of 1835, R-ietz became 
his successor. He did not however remain long 
in that position, for, as early as 1836, he accepted, 
under the title of Stadtischer Musikdirector, 
the post of conductor of the public subscription- 
concerts, the principal choral society, and the 
church-music at Diisseldorf. In this position he 
remained for twelve years, gaining the reputation 
of an excellent conductor, and also appearing as 
a solo violoncellist in most of the principal towns 
of the Rhine-province. During this period he 
wrote some of his most successful works inci 
dental music to dramas of Goethe, Calderon, 
Immermann and others ; music for Goethe s Lie- 
derspiel Jery and Bately a kind of drawing- 
room opera, and a very graceful work ; his 1st 
Symphony in G minor ; three overtures Hero 
and Leander, 1 Concert overture in A major, 
Lustspiel-overture the latter two perhaps the 
freshest and most popular of his compositions ; 
the Altdeutscher Schlachtgesang and Dithy- 
rambe both for men s voices and orchestra, and 
still stock-pieces in the repertoires of all German 
male choral societies. He was six times chief 
conductor, of the Lower Rhine Festivals in 1845, 
56, and 69 at Diisseldorf; in 1864, 67 and 73 at 
Aix. [See vol. ii. p. 547.] 

In 1847, after Mendelssohn s death, he took 
leave of Diisseldorf, leaving Ferdinand Hiller as 
his successor, and went to Leipzig as conductor 
of the opera and the Singakadeniie. From 1848 
we find him also at the head of the Gewand- 
haus orchestra, and teacher of composition at the 
Conservator! urn. In this position he remained 
for thirteen years. Two operas, Der Corsar 
and Georg Neumark, were failures, but his 
Symphony in Eb had a great and lasting success. 
At this period he began also to show Ms eminent 
critical powers by carefully revised editions of 
the scores of Mozart s symphonies and operas, of 
Beethoven s symphonies and overtures for Breit- 
kopf & Hartel s complete edition, and by the 
work he did for the Bach and German Handel 
Societies. His editions of Handel s scores con 
trast very favourably with those of some other 
editors. An edition of Mendelssohn s complete 
works closed his labours in this respect. 

In 1860 the King of Saxony appointed him 
Conductor of the Royal Opera and of the music 
at the Roman Catholic Court-church at Dresden. 
He also accepted the post of Artistic Director 
of the Dresden Conservator! um. In 1876 the 
title of General-Musikdirector was given to him. 
The University of Leipzig had already in 1859 
i See Mendelssohn s Letters, ii. p. 234 (Eng. ed,). 



conferred on him the honorary degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy. 

Rietz was for some time one of the most influ 
ential musicians of Germany. He was a good 
violoncellist, but soon after leaving Diisseldorf 
he gave up playing entirely. As a composer he 
showed a rare command of all the resources of the 
orchestra and a complete mastery of all techni 
calities of composition. Mendelssohn^ in his 
friendly but candid criticism in the published 
letter already referred to, says, There is some 
thing so genuinely artistic and so genuinely 
musical in your orchestral works ; and further 
on, You understand how to give a really musical 
interest to every second oboe or trumpet. Indeed 
some of his music, especially the two overtures 
already mentioned, the Symphony in Eb, and 
some of his choral works, has won general and 
deserved success, mainly by the qualities Men 
delssohn praises in them, and by a certain vigour 
and straightforwardness of style. Yet we gather 
clearly enough from Mendelssohn s friendly re 
marks the reason why so few of Rietz s works 
have shown any vitality. As a composer he can 
hardly be said to show distinct individuality ; 
his ideas are wanting in spontaneity, his themes 
are generally somewhat dry, and their treatment 
often rather diffuse and laboured. In fact Rietz 
was an excellent musician, and a musical intellect 
of the first rank but not much of a poet. His 
great reputation rested, first, on his talent for con 
ducting, and secondly on his rare acquirements 
as a musical scholar. An unfailing ear, imper 
turbable presence of mind, and great personal 
authority, made him one of the best conductors 
of modern times. The combination of practi 
cal musicianship with a natural inclination for 
critical research and a pre-eminently intellectual 
tendency of mind, made him a first-rate judge 
on questions of musical scholarship. After 
Mendelssohn and Schumann, Rietz has probably 
done more than anybody else to purify the scores 
of the great masters from the numerous errors 
of text by which they were disfigured. He was 
an absolute and uncompromising adherent of the 
classical school, and had but little sympathy 
with modern music after Mendelssohn 4 and even 
in the works of Schubert, Schumann and Brahms 
was over-apt to see the weak points. As to the 
music of the newest German School, he held it in 
abhorrence, and would show his aversion on every 
occasion. He was, however, too much of an opera- 
conductor not to feel a certain interest in Wagner, 
and in preparing his operas would take a special 
pride and relish in overcoming the great and pecu 
liar difficulties contained in Wagner s scores. 

Rietz had many personal friends, but, as will 
appear natural with a man of so pronounced a 
character and opinions, also a number of bitter 
enemies. He died at Dresden Oct. i, 1877, leaving 
a large and valuable musical library which was 
sold by auction in Dec. 1877. Besides the works 
already mentioned he published a considerable 
number of compositions for the chamber, songs, 
concertos for violin and for various wind-instru 
ments. He also wrote a great Mass. [P-D.] 



RIGADOON (French Rigadon or Rigaudon), 
a lively dance, which most probably came from 
Provence or Languedoc, although its popularity 
in England has caused some writers to suppose 
that it is of English origin. It was danced 
in France in the time of Louis XIII, but does 
not seem to have become popular in England 
until the end of the i7th century. According 
to Rousseau it derived its name from its inventor, 
one Rigaud, but others connect it with the 
English rig, i. e. wanton, or lively. 

The Rigadoon was remarkable for a peculiar 
jumping step (which is described at length in 
Compan s Dictionnaire de la Danse, Paris, 
1802); this step survived the dance for some 
time. The music of the Rigadoon is in 2-4 or C 
time, and consists of three or four parts, of which 
the third is quite short. The number of bars is 
unequal, and the music generally begins on the 
third or fourth beat of the bar. The follow 
ing example is from the 3rd Part of Henry 
Playford s Apollo s Banquet (6th edition, 
1690). The same tune occurs in The Dancing 
Master, but in that work the bars are incor 
rectly divided. 




RIGBY, GEORGE VERNON, born Jan. 21, 1840, 
when about 9 years old was a chorister of St. Chad s 
Cathedral, Birmingham, where he remained for 
about 7 years. In 1860, his voice having changed 
to a tenor, he decided upon becoming a singer, 
and tried his strength at some minor concerts in 
Birmingham and its neighbourhood, and succeeded 
so well that in 1861 he removed to London, and 
on March 4 appeared at the Alhambra, Leicester 
Square (then a concert room, managed by E. T. 
Smith), and in August following at Mellon s 
Promenade Concerts at Covent Garden. In 1865 
he sang in the provinces as a member of H. Corri s 
Opera Company, until November, when he went 
to Italy and studied under San Giovanni at Milan, 
where in Nov. 1866 he appeared at the Carcano 
Theatre as the Fisherman in Rossini s Guglielmo 
Tell. He next went to Berlin, and in Jan. 1867 
appeared at the Victoria Theatre there, in the 
principal tenor parts in Don Pasquale, La 
Sonnambula, and L ltaliana in Algieri. He 
then accepted a three months engagement in Den 
mark, and performed 11 Conte Almaviva in the 


Barbiere, II Duca in Rigoletto, and other 
parts, in Copenhagen and other towns. He re 
turned to England in Sept. 1867, and sang at 
various places. In 1868 he was engaged at the 
Gloucester Festival with Sims Reeves, whose 
temporary indisposition afforded him the oppor 
tunity of singing the part of Samson in Handel s 
oratorio, in which he acquitted himself so ably 
that he was immediately engaged by the Sacred 
Harmonic Society, where he appeared, Nov. 27, 
1868, with signal success, and immediately es 
tablished himself as an oratorio singer. In 1869 
he appeared on the stage of the Princess s 
Theatre as Acis in Handel s Acis and 
Galatea. 5 He has since maintained a prominent 
position at all the principal concerts and festivals 
in town and country. His voice is of fine quality, 
full compass, and considerable power, and he 
sings with earnestness and care. [W.H.H.] 

RIGHINI, VINCENZO, a well-known conductor 
of the Italian opera in Berlin, born at Bologna 
Jan. 22, 1756. As a boy he had a fine voice, 
but owing to injury it developed into a tenor 
of so rough and muffled a tone, that he turned 
his attention to theory, which he studied with 
Padre Martini. In 1776 he sang for a short 
time in the Opera buffa at Prague, then under 
Bustelli s direction, but was not well received. 
He made a success there however with three 
operas of his composition, La Vedova scaltra, 
La Bottega del Caffe, and Don Giovanni, 
also performed in Vienna (Aug. 1777), whither 
Righini went on leaving Prague. There he be 
came singing-master to Princess Elisabeth of 
Wiirtemberg, and conductor of the Italian opera. 
He next entered the service of the Elector 
of Mayence, and composed for the Elector of 
Treves Alcide al Bivio (Coblenz) and a mass. 
In April 1 793 he was invited to succeed Ales- 
sandri at the Italian Opera of Berlin, with a 
salary of 3000 thalers (about 450). Here 
he produced Enea nel Lazio and II Trionfo 
d Arianna (1793), Armida (1799), Tigrane 
(1800), Gerusalemme liberata, and La Selva 
incantata 3 (1803). The last two were pub 
lished after his death with German text (Leipzig, 

In 1794 Righini married Henriette Kneisel 
(born at Stettin in 1767, died of consumption at 
Berlin Jan. 25, 1801), a charming blonde, and, 
according to Gerber, a singer of great expression. 
After the death of Friedrich Wilhelm II. (179?) 
his post became almost a sinecure, and in 1806 
the opera was entirely discontinued. Eighini 
was much beloved. Gerber speaks in high terms 
of his modesty and courtesy, and adds, It 
is a real enjoyment to hear him sing his own 
pieces in his soft veiled voice to his own ac 
companiment. As a composer he was not of 
the first rank, and of course was eclipsed by 
Mozart. His best point was his feeling fur 
ensemble, of which the quartet in Gerusalemme 
is a good example. He was a successful teacher 
of singing, and counted distinguished artists 
among his pupils. After the loss of a promising 
son in 1810, his health gave way, and in 1812 he 


was ordered to try the effects of his native air at 
Bologna. When bidding goodbye to his colleague, 
Anselm Weber, he said, It is my belief that I 
shall never return; if it should be so, sing a 
Requiem and a Miserere for me touching words 
too soon fulfilled by his death at Bologna, Aug. 
19, 1812. His own Requiem (score in the Berlin 
Library), was performed by the Singakademie in 
his honour. 

Besides 20 operas, of which a list is given by 
Fe tis, Righini composed church music a Te 
Deum and a Missa Solennis are published and still 
known in Germany several cantatas, and innu 
merable Scenas, Lieder, and songs; also a short 
ballet, Minerva belebt die Statuen des Dadalus, 
and some instrumental pieces, including a sere 
nade for 2 clarinets, 2 horns, and 2 bassoons 
(i799,Breitkopf & Hartel). One of his operas, 
II Convitato di pietra, osia il dissoluto, will 
always be interesting as a forerunner of Mozart s 
Don Giovanni. It was produced at Vienna, 
Aug. 21, 1777 (ten years before Mozart s), and 
is described by Jahn (Mozart, ii. 333). His 
best orchestral work is his overture to Tigranes, 
which is still occasionally played in Germany 
and England. Breitkopf & Hartel s Catalogue 
shows a tolerably long list of his songs, and 
his exercises for the voice (1804) are amongst 
the best that exist. English amateurs will 
find a duet of his, Come opprima, from Enea 
nel Lazio, in the Musical Library, vol. i. 
p. 8, and two airs in Lonsdale s Gemme d Anti- 
chita. He was one of the 63 composers who 
set the words In questa tomba oscura, and 
his setting was published in 1878 by Ritter of 
Magdeburg. [F.G.] 

RIGOLETTO. An opera in 3 acts ; libretto 
by Piave (founded on V. Hugo s Le Roi 
s n amuse ), music by Verdi. Produced at the 
Teatro Fenice, Venice, March n, 1851, and 
given in Italian at Covent Garden, May 14, 1853, 
and at the Italiens, Paris, Jan. 19, 1857. [G.] 

of Stephen Francis Rimbault, organist of St. 
Giles in the Fields, was born in Soho, June 13, 
1816. He received his first instruction in music 
from his father, but afterwards became a pupil 
of Samuel Wesley. At 16 years old he was 
appointed organist of the Swiss Church, Soho. 
He early directed his attention to the study 
of musical history and literature, and in 1838 
delivered a series of lectures on the history of 
music in England. In 1840 he took an active 
part in the formation of the Musical Antiquarian 
and Percy Societies, of both which he became 
secretary, and for both which he edited several 
works. In 1841 he was editor of the musical pub 
lications of the Motett Society. In the course 
of the next few years he edited a collection of 
Cathedral Chants ; The Order of Daily Service 
according to the use of Westminster Abbey ; a 
reprint of Low s Brief Direction for the per 
formance of Cathedral Service; Tallis s Re 
sponses; Merbeck s Book of Common Prayer, 
noted ; a volume of unpublished Cathedral 
Services; Arnold s Cathedral Music ; andtheora- 



torios of Messiah, Samson, and Saul, for the 
Handel Society. In 1842 he was elected an 
F.S.A. and member of the Academy of Music 
in Stockholm, and obtained the degree of Doctor 
in Philosophy. He was offered, but declined, 
the appointment of Professor of Music in Har 
vard University, U. S. A. In 1848 he received 
the honorary degree of LL. D. He lectured on 
music at the Collegiate Institution, Liverpool ; 
the Philosophic Institute, Edinburgh ; the Royal 
Institution of Great Britain, and elsewhere. He 
published The History and Construction of the 
Organ (in collaboration with Mr. E. J. Hopkins), 
Notices of the Early English Organ Builders^ ; 
History of the Pianoforte, Bibliotheca Mad- 
rigaliana, Musical Illustrations of Percy s 
Reliques, The Ancient Vocal Music of England, 
The Rounds, Catches and Canons of England 
(in conjunction with Rev. J. P. Metcalfe), two 
collections of Christmas Carols, * A Little Book 
of Songs and Ballads, etc., etc. He edited North s 
Memoirs of Musick, Sir Thomas Overbury s 
Works, the Old Cheque Book of the Chapel 
Royal, and two Sermons by Boy Bishops. He ar 
ranged many operas and other works, was author 
of many elementary books, and an extensive 
contributor to periodical literature. His com 
positions were but few, the principal being an 
operetta, The Fair Maid of Islington, 1838, 
and a posthumous cantata, Country Life. His 
pretty little song, Happy land, had an extensive 
popularity. After his resignation of the organist- 
ship of the Swiss Church, he was successively 
organist of several churches and chapels. He 
died, after a lingering illness, Sept. 26, 1876, 
leaving a fine musical library, which was sold 
by auction. [W.H.H.] 

RINALDO. Handel s first opera in England; 
composed in a fortnight, and produced at the 
King s Theatre in the Haymarket Feb. 24, 1711. 
The libretto was founded on the episode of 
Rinaldo and Armida in Tasso s Jerusalem De 
livered (the same on which Gluck based his 
Armida ). Rossi wrote it in Italian, and it was 
translated into English by Aaron Hill. The 
opera was mounted with extraordinary magnifi 
cence, and had an uninterrupted run of 1 5 nights 
at that time unusually long. The march, and 
the air II tricerbero, were long popular as Let 
us take the road (Beggar s Opera), and Let the 
waiter bring clean glasses. Lascia ch io pianga 
made out of a saraband in Handel s earlier 
opera Almira (1704) is still a favourite with 
singers and hearers. [G.] 

RINFORZANDO, reinforcing or increasing 
in power. This word, or its abbreviations, rinf. 
or rfz. is used to denote a sudden and short-lasting 
crescendo. It is applied generally to a whole 
phrase however short, and has the same meaning 
as sforzando, which is only applied to single notes. 
It is sometimes used in concerted music to give a 
momentary prominence to a subordinate part, as 
for instance in the Beethoven Quartet, op. 95, in 
the Allegretto, where the violoncello part is 
marked rinforzando, when it has the second 



section of the principal subject of the move 
ment. [J.A.F.M.] 

BICH, the celebrated organist and composer for 
his instrument, born at Elgersburg in Saxe-Gotha, 
Feb. 1 8, 1770, and died at Darmstadt, Aug. 7, 
1846. His talent developed itself at an early 
period, and, like JOHANN SCHNEIDER [see that 
name], he had the advantage of a direct tradi 
tional reading of the works of Sebastian Bach, 
having studied at Erfurt under Kittel, one of 
the great composer s best pupils. Rink having sat 
at the feet of Forkel at the University of Gottin- 
gen, obtained in 1 789 the organistship of Giessen, 
where he held several other musical appointments. 
In 1806 he became organist at Darmstadt, and 
professor at its college; in 1813 was appointed 
Court organist, and in 1817 chamber musician 
to the Grand Duke (Ludwig I). Rink made 
several artistic tours in Germany, his playing 
always eliciting much admiration. At Treves, in 
1827, he was greeted with special honour. He 
received various decorations, in 1831 member 
ship of the Dutch Society for Encouragement 
of Music ; in 1838 the cross of the first class 
from his Grand Duke ; in 1840 Doctor of Philo 
sophy and Arts from the University of Giesseu. 
Out of his 125 works a few are for chamber, 
including sonatas for PF., violin, and violoncello, 
and PF. duets. But his reputation is based 
on his organ music, or rather on his Practical 
Organ School, a standard work. Rink s compo 
sitions for his instrument show no trace of such 
sublime influence as might have been looked for 
from a pupil, in the second generation, of Bach ; 
indeed throughout them fugue-writing is con 
spicuous by its absence. But without attaining 
the high standard which has been reached by 
living composers for the instrument in Ger 
many, his organ-pieces contain much that is 
interesting to an organ student, and never de 
generate into the debased and flippant style of 
the French or English organ-music so prevalent 
at present. 

Rink s name will always live as that of an 
executant, and of a safe guide towards the form 
ation of a, sound and practical organ-player ; 
and his works comprise many artistic studies. 
Amongst these the more important are the 
Practical Organ School, in six divisions (op. 
55), and Preludes for Chorales, issued at vari 
ous periods. He also composed for the church 
a Pater Noster for four voices with organ 
(op. 59) ; motets, Praise the Lord (op. 88) 
and God be merciful (op. 109); 12 chorales for 
men s voices, etc. [H.S.O.] 

RIOTTE, PHILIPP JACOB, born at St. Mendel, 
Treves, Aug. 16, 1776. Andre of Offenbach was 
his teacher in music, and he made his first 
appearance at Frankfort in Feb. 1 804. In 1 806 
he was music-director at Gotha. In 1808 he 
conducted the French operas before the assembled 
royalties at the Congress of Erfurt. In April 
1809 his operetta Das Grenzstadtchen was 
produced at the Karnthnerthor Theatre, Vienna, 
and thenceforward Vienna was his residence. In 


1818 he became eonductor at the Theatre an- 
der-Wien, beyond which he does not seem to 
have advanced up to his death, Aug. 20. 1856. 
The list of his theatrical works is immense. 
His biography in Wurzbach s Lexicon enumer 
ates, between 1809 and 1848, no less than 48 
pieces, operas, operettas, ballets, pantomimes, 
music to plays, etc., written mostly by himself, and 
sometimes in conjunction with others. In 1852 
he wound up his long labours by a cantata The 
Crusade, which was performed in the great 
Redoutensaal, Vienna, with much applause. In 
other notices he is said to have produced an 
opera called Mozart s Zauberflote at Prague 
about 1820. He left also a symphony (op. 25), 
9 solo-sonatas, 6 do. for PF. and violin, 3 con 
certos for clarinet and orchestra, but these are 
defunct. He became very popular by a piece 
called The Battle of Leipzig, for PF. solo, which 
was republished over half Germany, and had a 
prodigious sale. 

In a letter to the Archduke Rudolph (Thayer, 
iii. 195), Beethoven mentions that the fineness of 
the day and his going in the evening to Wanda 
at the theatre had prevented his attending to 
some wish of the Archduke s. Wanda, Queen of 
the Samartians was a tragedy of Z. Werner s, 
with music by Riotte, played from March 16 to 
April 20, 1812. [G.] 

RIPIENO, supplementary. The name given 
to the accompanying instruments in the orches 
tras, and especially in the orchestral concertos of 
the 1 7th and i8th centuries, which were only 
employed to fill in the harmonies and to support 
the solo or concertante parts. [See CONCER- 
TANTE, vol. i. p. 3856.] [J.A.F.M.] 

RISELEY, GEORGE, born at Bristol, Aug. 28, 
1 845 ; elected chorister of Bristol Cathedral in 
1852, and in Jan. 1862 articled to Mr. John Davis 
Corfe, the Cathedral organist, for instruction in 
the organ, pianoforte, harmony, and counterpoint. 
During the next ten years he was organist at 
various churches in Bristol and Clifton, at the 
same time acting as deputy at the Cathedral. In 
1870 he was appointed organist to the Colston 
Hall, Bristol, where he started weekly recitals of 
classical and popular music, and in 1876 suc 
ceeded Mr. Corfe as organist to the Cathedral. 
During the last five years, Mr. Riseley has 
devoted his energies to the improvement of 
orchestral music in Bristol, where he has now 
collected an excellent orchestra of fifty players. 
In 1877 he started his orchestral concerts, which 
have won for him a well- deserved reputation. 
Notwithstanding considerable opposition, and^no 
small pecuniary risk, he has continued, during 
each season, to give fortnightly concerts, at which 
the principal works of the classical masters have 
been well performed, and a large number of 
interesting novelties by modern writers, both 
English and foreign, produced. [W.B.S.] 

RISPOSTA (Lat. Comes; Eng. Answer). The 
Answer to the Subject of a Fugue, or Point of 
Imitation. [See PROPOSTA.] 

In Real Fugue, the Answer imitates the 


Subject, Interval for Interval. In Tonal Fugue 
the Tonic is always answered by the Dominant, 
and vice versa. In both, the Imitation is usually 
conducted, either in the Fifth above the Proposta, 
or the Fourth below it, when the Subject begins 
upon the Tonic ; and, in the Fourth above, or 
the Fifth below, when it begins upon the Domi 


RITORNELLO (Abbrev. Eitornel, Eitor. 
Fr. Ritournelle). I. An Italian word, literally 
signifying, a little return, or repetition ; but 
more frequently applied, in a conventional sense, 

(1) to a short Instrumental Melody, played 
between the Scenes of an Opera, or even during 
their action, either for the purpose of enforcing 
some particular dramatic effect, or of amusing 
the audience during the time occupied in the 
preparation of some elaborate Set-Scene ; or, 

(2) to the symphonies introduced between the 
vocal phrases of a Song, or Anthem. 

i . The earliest known use of the term, in its 
first sense, is to be found in Peri s Euridice, 
in connexion with a melody for 3 flutes, which, 
though called a Zinfonia on its first appear 
ance, is afterwards repeated under the title of 
Ritornello. 1 Euridice was first printed at 
Florence in 1600, and at Venice in 1608. [For 
the Zinfonia, see vol. ii. of this Dictionary, p. 

499-1 . 

A similar use of the term occurs soon after 
wards in Monteverde s Orfeo, printed at Venice 
in 1609, and republished in 1615. In this work, 
the Overture there called Toccata is followed 
by a Ritornello in 5 parts, the rhythmic form 
of which is immeasurably in advance of the age 
in which it was produced. 



I is 

















J L 

* At this mark, the two upper Parts cross, and remain inverted, 
until the sign 0. 

2. When Vocal Music with Instrumental Ac 
companiment became more extensively culti 
vated, the word was brought into common use, in 
its second sense, as applied to the Instrumental 

Symphonies of a Song, or other Composition for 
a Solo Voice. Ritornelli of this kind were freely 
used by Cavalli, Cesti, Carissirni, and many other 
Composers of the early Venetian Dramatic School, 
who imitated their manner. An example from 
Cavalli s II Giasone, will be found at page 503 
of our second volume. Towards the close of the 
1 7th century such instrumental interpolations 
became very common, in all styles and countries. 
For instance, in early editions of the Verse 
Anthems of Croft, Greene, and other English 
Composers, of the iyth and i8th centuries, we 
constantly find the words Ritornel. , Ritor. , or 
Rit. , printed over little Interludes, which, un 
known in the more severe kind of Ecclesiastical 
Music, formed a marked feature in works of this 
particular School, frequently embodying some of 
its choicest scraps of Melody, as in Dr. Boyce s 
Anthem, The Heavens declare the glory of 
God : 





r t t 



& 7^ 

^l i 
* * 

. L [ 





In later editions the term disappears, its place 
being supplied, in the same passages, by the 
words Organ, or Sym. ; which last abbre 
viation is almost invariably found in old copies 
of Handel s Songs, and other similar Music, in 
which the Symphonies are interpolated, as often 
as opportunity permits, upon the line allotted to 
the Voice. 

IL An antient form of Italian Verse, in which 
each Strophe consists of three lines, the first and 
third of which rhyme with each other, after the 
manner of the Terza rima of Dante. Little Folk- 
Songs of this character are still popular, under 
the name of Ritornelli or Stornelli/ among 
the peasants of the Abruzzi and other mountain 
regions of Italy. [W. S. R.] 

RITTER, FKEDERIO Louis, born at Strasburg, 
1834. His paternal ancestors were Spanish, and 
the family name was originally Caballero. His 
musical studies were begun at an early age under 
Hauser and Schletterer, and continued at Paris 
(whither he was sent when 16 years of age) under 
the supervision of his cousin, Georges Kastner. 
Possessed with the idea that beyond the Rhine 
he would find better opportunities for the study 
of composition, he ran away to Germany, where 
be remained for two years, assiduously pursuing 
bis studies with eminent musicians, and attending 
concerts whenever good music could be heard. 
Returning to Lorraine, aged 1 8, he was nominated 
Drofessor of music in the Protestant seminary of 
Fenestrange, and invited to conduct a Socie"t de 



Concerts at Bordeaux. The representations made 
by some of his family who had settled in America 
induced him to visit the New World. He spent 
a few years in Cincinnati, where his enthusiasm 
worked wonders in the development of taste. The 
Cecilia (choral) and Philharmonic (orchestral) 
Societies were established by him, and a large 
number of important works presented at their 
concerts for the first time in the United States. 
In 1862 Hitter went to New York, becoming 
conductor of the Sacred Harmonic Society for 
seven years, and of the Arion Choral Society 
(male voices), and instituting (1867) the first 
musical festival held in that city. In 1867 he 
was appointed director of the musical department 
of Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, whither he re 
moved in 1874 on resigning his conductorships. 
The University of the City of New York con 
ferred on him the degree of Doctor of Music in 
1878. He still retains (1881) the directorship of 
the musical studies ab Vassar College. Hitter s 
literary labours have included articles on musical 
topics printed in French, German and American 
periodicals. His most important work is A 
History of Music, in the Form of Lectures 
vol. i. 1870 ; vol. ii. 1874, Boston J both repub- 
lished by W. Keeves, London, 1876; vol. iii. is 
in preparation. As a composer, Hitter may be 
classed with the modern Franco-German school. 
The following works have appeared in the 
catalogues of Hamburg, Leipzig, Mayence and 
New York publishers : 

Op. 1. Hafis, cyclus of Persian 

2. Preambule Scherzo, PF. 

3. 10 children s songs. 

4. Fairy Love. 

5. 8 PF. pieces. 

6. 6 songs. 

7. 5 choruses, male voices. 

8. Psalm xxiii, female voices. 

Op. 10. 6 songs. 10 Irish Melodies, 
with new PF. acct. 

11. Organ fantasia and fugue. 

12. Voices of the Night, PF. 
Salutaris, baritone, organ. 

Ave Maria, mezzo-sopr., organ. 
Parting, song, mezzo-soprano. 
A Practical Method for the In 
struction of Chorus-classes. 

The following are his most important un 
published compositions : 

3 Symphonies A, E minor, E b. 
Stella, Poeme-symphonique, 
d apres V. Hugo. 
Overture, Othello. 

Concerto, PF. and orch. 
Fantasia, bass clarinet and orch. 
1 string quartet ; 3 do. 
Psalm xlvi, solo, chor. and orch. 

All of the above were produced at the concerts 
of the New York and Brooklyn Philharmonic 
Societies, 1867-1876. 

Dr. Hitter s wife, ne Raymond, is known 
under the name of FANNY RAYMOND HITTEK as 
an author and translator of works on musical 
subjects. She has brought out translations of 
Ehlert s Letters on Music, to a Lady ; and of 
Schumann s Essays and Criticisms Music and 
Musicians ; and a pamphlet entitled Women 
as a Musician all published by Reeves, 
London. [F.H.J.] 

ROBERT BRUCE. A pasticcio adapted by 
Niedermeyer from four of Rossini s operas 
Zelmira, the Donna del Lago, Torvaldo e 
Dorliska, and Bianca e Faliero. Produced 
without success at the Academic Royale, Dec. 
30, 1846. It is published in Italian as Roberto 
Bruce by Ricordi. [G.] 

ROBERT LE DIABLE. Opera in 5 acts; 
words by Scribe, music by Meyerbeer. Pro- 


duced at the Acade mie, Paris, Nov. 21, 1831. 
In London, and in English, imperfectly, as The 
Demon, or the Mystic Branch at Drury Lane, 
Feb. 20, 1832, and as The Fiend Father, or 
Robert of Normandy at Covent Garden the 
day following ; as Robert the Devil at Drury 
Lane (Bunn), March I, 1845. In French, at 
Her Majesty s, June n, 1832, with Nourrit, 
Levasseur, Damoreau. In Italian, at Her Ma 
jesty s, May 4, 1847 (first appearance of Jenny 
Lind and Staudigl Mendelssohn was in the 
house). [G.] 

SEX. An opera in 3 acts ; libretto by Camerano 
from Thomas Corneille s Comte d Essex, music 
by Donizetti. Produced in Naples in 1836 ; at the 
Italiens, Paris, Dec. 27, 1838 ; at Her Majesty s 
Theatre, London, June 24, 1841. The overture 
contains the air of God save the King. [G.] 

ROBERTS, J. VAKLEY, Mus. Doc., native of 
Stanningley, near Leeds, born Sept. 25, 1841. 
He exhibited much early ability for music, and 
at twelve was appointed organist of S. John s, 
Farsley, near Leeds. In 1862 he became organist 
of S. Bartholomew s, Armley, and in 1868 re 
ceived his present appointment of organist and 
choirmaster of the parish church, Halifax, after 
a competitive trial, Dr. E. G. Monk acting as 
umpire. In 1871 he graduated Mus. Bac., and 
in 1876 Mus. Doc., at Christ Church, Oxford. 
During his organistship at Halifax, upwards of 
3000 have been raised to enlarge the organ, 
originally built by Snetzler the instrument 
upon which Sir Wm. Herschel, the renowned 
astronomer, formerly played and it is now- 
one of the finest and largest in the North of 

In 1876 Dr. Roberts became a Fellow in the 
College of Organists, London. He has pub 
lished a sacred cantata, Jonah/ for voices and 
orchestra (Novello); an Appendix and a Sup 
plement to Cheetham s Psalmody ; a Morning 
Communion and Evening Service in D; an 
Evening Service in F ; anthems, organ volun 
taries, and songs. [G.] 

air first became popular in England in the second 
half of the last century, through the eminent 
Italian singer Tenducci. He was one of the 
original singers in Arne s opera of Artaxerxes/ 
produced in 1762, and was afterwards engaged 
by Dr. Arne to accompany him to Ireland, where 
he probably learnt this song. It is certain that 
he sang Eileen Aroon in the Irish language, 
the words being written out phonetically for him. 
He sang also at Ranelagh Gardens, and an edi 
tion with the Irish words sung by Signer Ten 
ducci, was published in London with music on 
a half sheet. In Ireland he had drawn especial 
attention to the air, and among the English- 
speaking part of the population several songs of 
local interest were written to it, making Robin 
Adair the burthen. For these, which do not 
in any way concern the tune, the curious are 
referred to the indexes to the 3rd, 4th, and 5th 


series of Notes and Queries. It is here sufficient 
to show by the correspondence between the poet 
Burns and George Thomson, that the air was 
known as Robin Adair before Braham reintro- 
duced it here. In the published correspondence 
between Thomson the music publisher, for whom 
Haydn and Beethoven both harmonized Scotch 
airs, and Burns, Thomson, writing in August, 
1793, says, I shall be glad to see you give 
Robin Adair a Scottish dress. Peter [Pindar] is 
furnishing him with an English suit for a change, 
and you are well matched together. Robin s air 
is excellent, though he certainly has an out-of- 
the-way measure as ever poor Parnassian wight 
was plagued with. To this Burns answered in 
the same month : I have tried my hand on 
"Robin Adair," and, you will probably think 
with little success ; but it is such a cursed, cramp, 
out-of-the-way measure, that I despair of doing 
anything better to it. He then sends Phillis 
the fair, and, a few days later, writes again, 
That crinkum-crankum tune, " Robin Adair," 
has been running in my head, and I succeeded 
so ill on my last attempt, that I have ventured, 
in this morning s walk, one essay more. He 
then encloses Had I a cave. 

It is difficult to tell who wrote the words of 
the present song of Robin Adair. The name of 
the author is not upon the original title-page. 
Peter Pindar s songs (Dr. John Wolcott s) are 
not included in his collected works, being then 
the copyright of Messrs Goulding & D Al- 
maine, who bought all for an annuity of 250, 
and, as Peter was christened in 1738 and died 
in 1819, it was a dear bargain. The popularity 
of Robin Adair dates from Braham s benefit at 
the Lyceum Theatre on December 17, 1811. 
He then sang the air with great applause, but 
as the vowels are long in Eileen, and short in 
Robin, he introduced the acciaccatura, which 
Dr. Burney calls the Scotch snap. The change 
will be more intelligible in notes than in de 
scription. Thus : 





Tuc-ee non von - ee tu, Ei - leen A - roon. 


fl 3- 


What s this dull town to me, Bo - bin s not near. 

We give the line in its accurate translitera 
tion, as kindly supplied by Dr. P. W. Joyce, the 
eminent Irish collector : 

Tiocu-faidh n6 n bhfan faidh tu, Eibhlin a ruin ? 


ROBIN DES BOIS. The title of the French 
version of Der Freischtitz at its first appear 
ance in Paris (Ode~on, Dec. 7, 1824; Ope"ra 
Comique, Jan. 15, 1835 ; Lyrique, Jan. 24, 1855). 
The libretto was made by Sauvage ; the names 
of the characters were changed, the action and 
the story were altered, portions of Preciosa and 
Oberon were introduced, and the piece was 
made to end happily. The alterations were due 
to Castil Blaze, who to save expense scored the 

music himself from a PF. copy. Nevertheless, 
with all these drawbacks, so great was the popu 
larity of the music that Castil Blaze made a large 
sum of money by it. For the translation by Pacini 
and Berlioz see FBEISCHUTZ, vol. i. p. 562. [G.] 

ROBIN HOOD. An opera in 3 acts ; words 
by John Oxenford, music by G. A. Macfarren. 
Produced at Her Majesty s Theatre, London, 
Oct. n, 1860, and had a very great run. [G.] 

ROBINSON, ANASTASIA, was daughter of a 
portrait painter, who, becoming blind, was com 
pelled to qualify his children to gain their own 
livelihood. Anastasia received instruction from 
Dr. Croft, Pier Giuseppe Sandoni, and the singer 
called The Baroness, successively. She appeared 
as Ariana in Handel s Amadigi, May 25, 1715; 
and in 1720 at the King s Theatre as Echo in 
Domenico Scarlatti s opera, Narcisso. She 
afterwards sang in the pasticcio of Muzio Scse- 
vola. in Handel s Ottone, Floridante, Flavio, 
and Giulio Cesare ; in Buononcini s Crispo 
and Griselda, and other operas. Her salary was 
1000 for the season, besides a benefit-night. She 
possessed a fine voice of extensive compass, but 
her intonation was uncertain. She quitted the 
stage in 1723, on being privately married to the 
Earl of Peterborough, who did not avow the mar 
riage until shortly before his death in 1735, al 
though, according to one account, she resided 
with him as mistress of the house, and was 
received as such by the Earl s friends. Accord 
ing to another account, she resided with her 
mother in a house near Fulham, which the Earl 
took for them, and never lived under the same 
roof with him, until she attended him in a 
journey in search of health, a short time before 
his death. The Countess survived until 1750. 
There is a fine portrait of her by Faber after 
Vanderbank, 172 7- 

Her younger sister, MARGARET, intended for a 
miniature painter, preferred being a singer. She 
studied under Buononcini, and afterwards at Paris 
under Rameau ; but though an excellent singer, 
was said to have been prevented by timidity from 
ever appearing in public. 1 A fortunate marriage, 
however, relieved her from the necessity of ob 
taining her own subsistence. [W. H. H.] 

ROBINSON, JOHN, born 1682, was a chorister 
of the Chapel Royal under Dr. Blow. He subse 
quently became organist of St. Lawrence, Jewry, 
and St. Magnus, London Bridge. Hawkins, in 
his History, describes him as a very florid and 
elegant performer on the organ, inasmuch that 
crowds resorted to hear him ; and elsewhere 
says : In parish churches the voluntary between 
the Psalms and the First Lesson was anciently a 
slow, solemn movement, tending to compose the 
minds and excite sentiments of piety and devo 
tion. Mr. Robinson introduced a different prac 
tice, calculated to display the agility of his fingers 
in allegro movements on the cornet, trumpet, 

l A Miss Rohinson, jun., appeared at Drury Lane, Jan. 2, 1729, as 
Ariel in The Tempest. It is possible that this was Margaret Eobin- 



sesquialtera, and other noisy stops, degrading the 
instrument, and instead of the full and noble 
harmony with which it was designed to gratify 
the ear, tickling it with mere airs in two parts, 
in fact solos for a flute and a bass. On Sept. 30, 
1727, Robinson was appointed to succeed Dr. 
Croft as organist of Westminster Abbey. He 
had an extensive practice as a teacher of the 
harpsichord, and will be long remembered in the 
English Church by his double chant in Eb. He 
died April 30, 1762, and was buried, May 13, in 
the north aisle of Westminster Abbey. He 
married, Sept. 6, 1716, Ann, youngest daughter 
of William Turner, Mus. Doc. She was a singer, 
and appeared at the King s Theatre in 1720 in 
Domenico Scarlatti s opera Narcissus, being de 
scribed as Mrs. Turner-Bobinson to distinguish 
her from Anastasia Robinson, who sang in the 
same opera. She died Jan. 5, and was buried 
Jan. 8, 174!) in the west cloister of Westminster 
Abbey. Robinson had a daughter, who was a 
contralto singer and the original representative of 
Daniel in Handel s oratorio Belshazzar, 1745, 
and also sang in others of his oratorios. [W.H.H.] 

ROBINSON, JOSEPH, was the youngest of 
four brothers, born and resident in Dublin. 
Their father Francis was an eminent professor 
of music, and in 1810 was mainly instrumental 
in founding the Sons of Handel, probably the 
earliest society established there for the execution 
of large works. His son Francis, Mus. Doc., 
had a tenor voice of great beauty and sympathetic 
quality ; was a vicar-choral of the two Dublin 
Cathedrals ; and, at the Musical Festival in 
Westminster Abbey, in June 1834, sang a prin 
cipal part. Another son, William, had a deep 
bass of exceptional volume; while John, the 
organist of both Cathedrals and of Trinity Col 
lege, had a tenor ranging to the high D. The 
four brothers formed an admirable vocal quartet, 
and were the first to make known the German 
Part-songs then rarely heard either in England 
or Ireland. 

JOSEPH ROBINSON born in Aug. 1816 was 
a chorister of St. Patrick s at the early age of 
eight, and afterwards a member of all the choirs, 
where his fine delivery of recitative was always 
a striking feature. He also played in the 
orchestra of the Dublin Philharmonic. But it 
is as a conductor that his reputation is best 
established. In 1834 he founded the Antient 
Society, of which he was conductor for 29 years, 
and which ceased to exist soon after his resigna 
tion. It commenced its meetings in a private 
house, then took a large room, now the Royal 
Irish Academy of Antiquities, and in 1843 had 
made such progress that it purchased and re 
modelled the building since known as the Antient 
Concert Rooms. Many of the standard works of 
the old masters were produced, but thos&of modern 
genius were not excluded. Thus Mendelssohn s 
Elijah was performed in 1 847, the year after its 
first production at Birmingham. The Hymn of 
Praise, The Sons of Art, and St. Paul were all 
given at early dates. The society was not large ; 
rather a, choir than a chorus ; but it was the first , 


to teach the Dublin public what beauty could be 
developed in the execution of a work, by attention 
to the conductor s baton, with every gradation 
of effect. Amongst the last things written by 
Mendelssohn was the instrumentation of his 
Hear my Prayer (originally composed for 
voices and organ only), expressly for Mr. 
Robinson to produce at the Antients. It did 
not reach him till after the composer s death. 
[See MENDELSSOHN, vol. ii. 2836.] In 1837116 
became conductor of the University Choral So 
ciety, founded by the students. At one of its 
concerts the music of Antigone was given for 
the first time out of Germany. He continued to 
conduct the Society for 10 years, and it still 
flourishes under Sir Robert Stewart. 

In 1849 a y un o pianiste, Miss FANNY 
ARTHUR (born Sept. 1831), arrived in Dublin 
from Southampton, and made her first successful 
appearance there Feb. 19, 1849. Mr. Robinson 
and she were married July 17 following, and 
she continued for 30 years to be an extraordinary 
favourite. Her first appearance in London was 
at the Musical Union, June 26, 1855, when she 
played Beethoven s Sonata in F (op. 24), with 
Ernst, and received the praises of Meyerbeer ; 
also at the New Philharmonic, where she played 
Mendelssohn s Concerto in D. In 1852, at the 
opening of the Cork Exhibition, Mr. Robinson 
conducted the music, which was on a large 
scale, and included a new cantata by Sir Robert 
Stewart. In 1853, an International Exhibi 
tion was opened in Dublin ; there he assembled 
1000 performers, the largest band and chorus 
yet brought together in Ireland, and produced 
a fine effect. 

In 1856 efforts were made to revive the 
Irish Academy of Music, founded in 1848, but 
languishing for want of funds and pupils. Mr. 
and Mrs. Robinson joined as Professors, and 
created Vocal and Pianoforte Schools of great 
excellence. Nearly all the Irish artists, in both 
lines, who appeared during their tune, owed both 
training and success to their teaching ; and when, 
after 20 years, Mr. Robinson resigned, the In 
stitution was one of importance and stability. 

In 1859, f r the Handel Centenary, he gave 
the Messiah, with Jenny Lind and Belletti 
among the principals. The net receipts amounted 
to 900, an unprecedented sum in Dublin. In 
1865 the large Exhibition Palace was opened 
by the Prince of Wales, and Mr. Robinson con 
ducted the performance with a band and chorus 
of 700. 

After the cessation of the Antients, there was 
no society to attempt systematically the worthy 
production of great works. To remedy this a 
chorus was trained by Mr. Robinson, and estab 
lished in 1876 as the Dublin Musical Society. 
It gives three concerts each year, with 300 per 
formers. It produces great choral works, new 
and old, is attracting a regular audience, and is 
steadily educating the public to a higher tone. 
Some time since, the members presented Mr. 
Robinson with an address and a purse of 100 
sovereigns. The purse was returned by him with 




warm expressions of gratitude, but with the cha 
racteristic words While I think a professional 
man should expect his fair remuneration, yet his 
chief object may be something higher and nobler 
the advancement of art in his native city. 

He has written a variety of songs, concerted 
pieces and anthems, beside arranging a number 
of standard songs and Irish melodies. 

Mrs. Robinson also passed a very active musi 
cal life, though often interrupted by nervous ill 
ness. In teaching she had a peculiar power of 
infusing her own ideas into others. She played 
from time to time at concerts of a high class, 
and herself gave a very successful concert in 
Paris, at the Salle Erard (Feb. 4, 1864). Her 
pianoforte compositions are numerous and 
graceful. Her sacred cantata, God is Love, has 
been repeatedly performed throughout the king 
dom, and has realised for charities about 1000. 

On Oct. 31, 1879, she met a sudden and tragic 
end, which caused profound regret. On her 
tomb is inscribed the motivo of the Chorus of 
Angels from her own Cantata : 



Rest in the Lord, Blessed in the Lord. 


ROBINSON, THOMAS, was author of a curious 
work published at London in folio in 1603, bear 
ing the following title The Schoole of Musicke: 
wherein is taught the perfect method of the true 
fingering of the Lute, Pandora, Orpharion, and 
Viol de Gamba; with most infallible general 
rules both easie and delightfull. Also, a method, 
how you may be your own instructer for Prick- 
song by the help of your Lute without any other 
teacher; with lessons of all sorts for your further 
and better instruction. Nothing is known of his 
biography. [W.H.H.] 

ROCHE, EDWARD, born at Calais Feb. 20, 
1828, died at Paris Dec. 16, 1861, began life as 
a violin player, first as Habeneck s pupil at the 
Conservatoire, but quickly relinquished music 
for literature. Roche translated the libretto of 
Tannhauser under the eyes of Wagner himself, 
for its representation at the Ope"ra, March 13, 
1 86 1, and in a preface to his Poe sies post- 
humes (Paris, Le>y, 1863) M. Sardou has 
described the terrible persistence with which 
Wagner kept his translator to his task. (See the 
article in Pougin s supplement to Fe tis.) The 
opera failed, and Roche s labour was in vain ; he 
had not even the satisfaction of seeing his name 
in print, in connexion with the work, for even 
Lajarte (Bibl. Mus. de 1 Opera, ii. 230) gives 
Nuitter as the author of the French words. 
Besides the poems contained in the volume cited, 
Roche contributed critical articles to several 
small periodicals. [G.] 

founder of the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, 
born of poor parents at Leipzig, Feb. 12,1 769. His 
fine voice procured his admission at 13 to the St. 
Thomas-school, under the Cantorship of Doles, 

where he spent six years and a half. He began to 
study theology in the University, but want of 
means compelled him to leave and take a tutor 
ship, which he supplemented by writing. He also 
attempted composition, and produced a mass, a 
Te Deum, and a cantata, Die Vollendung des 
Erlb sers. In 1/98 he founded the * Allgemeine 
musikalische Zeitung (Breitkopf & Hartel), 
and edited it till 1818, during which period his 
articles largely contributed totheimproved general 
appreciation of the works of the three great 
Austrian composers, Haydn, Mozart, and Bee 
thoven, in North Germany. The best of these 
were afterwards re-published by himself under 
the title of Fur Freunde der Tonkunst 
for friends of music in 4 vols. (1824 to 1832, 
reprinted later by Dorffel). It contains, amongst 
other matter, an interesting account of a visit 
to Beethoven at Vienna in 1822. Another im 
portant work was a collection in 3 vols. (Schott, 
1838 to 1840) of vocal music, from Dufay to 
Haydn, in chronological order, of which the con 
tents are given below. The first two volumes 
of the A. M. Z. contain a series of anecdotes on 
Mozart, whose acquaintance he made during 
Mozart s visit to Leipzig ; but Jahn, in the pre 
face to his Mozart, has completely destroyed the 
value of these as truthful records. Rochlitz was 
a good connoisseur of paintings and engravings. 
In 1830 he was one of the committee appointed 
by the Council of Leipzig to draw up a new 
hymn-book, and some of the hymns are from his 
own pen. He also wrote the librettos for Schicht s 
Ende des Gerechten, Spohr s Last Judgment 
and Calvary, and for Bierey s opera Das Blu- 
menmadchen. He was a Hofrath of Saxony, and 
died Dec. 16, 1842. [F. G.] 

The following are the contents of the collec 
tion mentioned above Sammlung vorzuglicher 
Gesangstiicke vom Ursprung gesetzmassiger Har- 
monie bis auf die neue Zeit (Important Pieces 
from the origin of regular Harmony to modern 

FIRST PERIOD (1380-1550). 
1. Dufay. Kyrie, a 4. Se la face 9. O. Lasso. Angelas pastores, a 5. 

ay pale. 
Do. Kyrie, & 
arme 1 . 

4. L omme 

3. Ockeghem. Kyrie and Christe, 

a 4. 

4. Josquin de Pres. Hymnus, a 4. 

Tu pauperum refugium. 
6. Do. Zwischengesang einer der 
grOssten Messen des Meisters, 
et Incarnatus, a 4, 

6. Do. Motet, Misericordias Do 

mini, a 4. 

7. 0. Lasso. Regina Cceli, a 4. 

8. Do. Salve Regina, a 4. 

10. Do. Miserere, Amplius, Cor 

mundum, Ne proficeas, Redde 
mihi, etc., a 5. 

11. C. Goudimel. Domine quid 

multiplicati, a 4. 

12. Ch. de Morales. Kyrie et Christe, 

Do. Gloria. 

14. T. Tallis. Verba mea, a 4. 

15. L. Send. Motet on a Choral, 

Mag ich ungluck, a 4. 

16. Do. Deus propitius esto, a 5. 

17. Do. Nunc dimittis, a 4. 

SECOND PERIOD (1550-1630). 


Falestrina. Adoramus, a 4. 

Do. Gloria, 2 choirs, a 4. 
Pleni sunt, a 3. 
O bone Jesu, a 4. 

Do. Populemeus, 2 choirs, a 4. 

Do. Madrigal, Cedro gentil, 
a 5. 

Do. Lauda anima mea, a 4. 
G. M.Nanini. Stabat mater, a 4. 

Do. Exaudi nos, a 4. 

Do. Hsec dies, a 5. 
Vittoria. Jesu dulcis, a 4. 

Do. O quam gloriosum, a 4. 
F. Anerio. Adoramus, a 4. 

Do. Christus factus est, a 4. 
Allegri. Miserere, 2 choirs, a 5. 

16. Gabrieli. In excelsis. Soprano 

solo. Tenor solo and chorus, 
a 4, with 3 horns, 2 trombones 
and violins. 

17. Do. Benedictus, 3 choirs, a 4. 

18. BOhm. Briider. 2 Lieder, a 4: 

Der Tag vertreibt ; Die Nacht 
ist kommen. 

19. Do. 2 Lieder, a 4 : Verleih uns 

Frieden ; mimm von uns. 

20. Walther. ^terno gratias, a 4. 

21. Gesfinge Martin Luthers, a 4: 

Mit Fried und Freud ; Es 
vroll uns Gott : Nun komm 
der Heiden Heiland; Christ 
lag ; Jesus Christus. 



22. Callus. Eccequomodomoritur 

Justus, .1 4. 

23. Do. Adoramus, & 6. 

24. Do. Media vita, 2 choirs, a 4. 

25. Vulpius. Exultate justi, ft 4. 

26. Do. SurrexitChristus, 2 choirs, 

a 4. 

27. Walliser. Gaudent in coelis, 2 

choirs, ft 4. 

28. Prastorius. Ecce Dominus, 48. 


Palestrina. Et incarnatus, etc. 
(from mass Assumpta est ). & 6. 
Prsetorius. O vos omnes. 

THIED PERIOD (1600-1700). 


1. Caccini. Solo and chorus, Fu- 

neste piaggie. 

2. Do. Chorus, Blondo arcier. 
8. Carissimi. Eecitative and 

chorus, Turbabuntur (from 

Cantata Plaintes des re- 

4. Do. Ardens est cor, 4 solos 

and chorus. 
Do. O sacrum convivium, 3 

solo voices. 
Do. Cantemus omnes, chorus 

and scena (JeBa). 
Plorate, a 6. 

7. Benevoli. Sanctus, 4 choirs, a 4. 

8. Do. Christe, a 4. 

9. Bernabei. Alleluja, il 4. 

10. Do. Salve regina, ft 4. 

11. A. Scarlatti. Kyrie. ft 4. 

Do. Gloria, a 5. 

Do. Vacuum est, Canto solo 

and chorus, with violins. 
Do. Sanctus, ft 4,: and Agnus. 

ft 7. 

15. Caldara. Salve regina, a 3. 

16. Do. Agnus, alto and tenor. 

17. Do. Qui tollis. ft *. 



18. Astorga. Stabat. 

19. Do. Fac me. 

20. Do. O quam. 

21. Durante. Kyrie. 

22. Do. Kegina angelorum. 

23. Do. Bequiem aeternam. 

24. Do. Domine Jesu. 

25. Lotti. Crucifixus, a 6. 

26. Do. Qui tollis, a 4. 

27. Do. Crucifixus, ft 8. 

28. Marcello. TJdir le orecchie, 

Ps. xliv, ft 4. 

29. Do. Et incarnatus, ft 4. 

30. Hasler. Pater noster, ft 7. 

31. H. Schiitz. 6elig slnd die 

Todten, ft 4. 

32. Do. Chorus, Christus isthier, 

ft 4. 

33. Do. Psalm, Was betrttbst du ? 

34. Do. Vater unser. 

35. V. Leisring. Trotz sey dem 

Teufel, 2 choirs, ft 4. 

36. Grimm. Gloria, ft 5. 

37. J. J. Fux. Domine Jesu, ft 4. 

38. Do. Tremd la terra, Coro 

from oratorio La Deposi- 

FOURTH PERIOD (1700-1760). 


















Handel. Te Deum, in D, 

Glorias tuae. 

Do. He sent a thick darkness. 
He rebuked the Red Sea. 
And Israel saw. 
Behold the Lamb of God. 
He was despised. 
Thy rebuke. 
Lift up your heads. 
Hear Jacob s God. 
Zadok the Priest. 
Christoph Bach. Ich lasse dich 

J. S. Bach. :Nimm von uns 


Do. Mache dich mein Geist. 
Do. Wir setzen uns Thriinen 

Do. Wie sich ein Vater. Lobet 

den Herrn. 
Zelenka. Credo. 
Telemann. Amen, lob und 

Ehre, ft 8. 
Stolzel. Gloria." 
Homilius. Vater unser, ft 4. 
Pasterwitz. Requiem. 
Basse. Duet and Chorus, Le 

Do. Alto solo.Ad te clamamus. 

23. Basse. Miserere, and Benigni. 

24. Do. Te Deum, ft 4. 

25. Graun. Machet die Thure welt. 

26. Do. Tu rex glorias, ft 4. 

27. Do. Freuet euch (Tod Jesu). 

28. Do. Wir hier liegen. Do. 

29. Rolle. Der Herr ist KOnig. 

30. Do. Welt-Richter (Tod Abel). 

31. Wolf. Laus et perennis gloria, 

ft 4. 

32. Do. Des Lebens Fiirsten. 

33. C. P. E. Bach. Et misericordia, 

ft 6, from Magnificat. 

34. Do. Heilig, 2 choirs, ft 4. 

35. M. Haydn. Salvos fac nos. 

36. Do. Tenebrae factse. 

37. Do. Miserere. 

38. Leo. Coro, Di quanta pena. 

(S. Elena). 

39. Do. Et incarnatus. 

4ft, Do. Miserere ; Ecce enim.ft 8. 

41. Jomelli. Confirma hoc Deus, 5 

solos and chorus. 

42. Do. Miserere. 

43. Pergolesi. Eja ergo (Salve 


44. Do. Qui tollis. ft 6. 

45. Do. Stabat Mater. 


ROCK, MICHAEL, was appointed organist of 
St. Margaret s, Westminster, June 4, 1802, in 
succession to William Eock, junr., who had filled 
the office from May 24, 1774. He composed 
some popular glees Let the sparkling wine go 
round (which gained a prize at the Catch Club 
in 1 794), Beneath a churchyard yew, etc. He 
died in March, 1809. [W.H.H.] 

BODE, PIERRE, a great violinist, was born 
at Bourdeaux, Feb. 26, 1774. When 8 years of 
age he came under the tuition of Fauvel aine , a 
well-known violinist of his native town, and 
studied under him for six years. In 1788 he was 
sent to Paris. Here Punto (or Stich), the famous 
horn-player, heard him, and being struck with the 
boy s exceptional talent, gave him an introduc 
tion to Viotti, who at once accepted him as his 
pupil. With this great master he studied for two 


years, and in 1790 made his first public appear 
ance, when he played Viotti s 1 3th Concerto at 
the Theatre de Monsieur with complete success. 
Although then but 16 years of age, he was 
appointed leader of the second violins in the 
excellent band of the Theatre Feydeau. In this 
position, appearing at the same time frequently 
as soloist, he remained till 1 794, and then started 
for his first tour to Holland and the north of 
Germany. His success, especially at Berlin and 
Hamburg, was great. From the latter place 
he took passage to his native town. But the 
vessel was compelled by adverse winds to 
make for the English coast. So Rode came to 
London ; but he only once appeared in public, 
at a concert for a charitable purpose, and left 
England again for Holland and Germany. Finally 
he returned to France and obtained a professor 
ship of the violin at the newly established Con 
servatoire at Paris. In 1 799 he went to Spain, 
and at Madrid met Boccherini, who is said to 
have written the orchestration for Rode s earlier 
concertos, especially for that in B minor. On 
his return to Paris in 1800 he was appointed 
solo-violinist to the First Consul, and it was at 
that period that he achieved his greatest success 
in the French capital. A special sensation was 
created by his joint performance with Kreutzer 
of a Duo concertante of the latter s composition. 
In 1803 he went with Boieldieu to Petersburg. 
Spohr heard him on his passage through Bruns 
wick, and was so impressed that for a considerable 
time he made it his one aim to imitate his style 
and manner as closely as possible. Arrived at 
the Russian capital Rode met with a most enthusi 
astic reception, and was at once attached to the 
private music of the Emperor with a salary of 
5000 roubles (about 750?.). But the fatigues of 
life in Russia were so excessive that from this 
period a decline of his powers appears to have 
set in. On his return to Paris in 1808 his recep 
tion was less enthusiastic than in former times, 
and even his warmest friends and admirers could 
not but feel that he had lost considerably in cer 
tainty of execution and vigour of style. From 
1811 we find him again travelling in Germany 
Spohr, who heard him in 1813 at Vienna, says 
in his autobiography (i. 178) : I awaited with 
feverish excitement the performance of Rode, 
to whom ten years before I had looked up 
to as my highest ideal. But he had hardly 
finished his first solo before I thought that he 
had much fallen off. His playing appeared to 
me cold and manneristic. I missed his former 
boldness in the execution of technical difficulties, 
nor could I feel satisfied with his cantilene. 
The concerto also which he played appeared 
to me in no way equal to his 7th in A minor, 
and when he played his variations in E major 
the same I had heard him play ten years ago 
I felt sure that he had lost much of his execu 
tion ; for he not only had simplified many of the 
difficult passages, but even in this modified form 
played them in a timid and uncertain manner. 
The audience also seemed hardly satisfied. By the 
incessant repetition of the same few pieces his 


style had become to such a degree manneristic, 
as to present almost a caricature of what it used 
to be. 

In Vienna Rode came into contact with Bee 
thoven, who finished the great Sonata in G, op. 
96, expressly for him. It was played by Rode 
and the Archduke Rudolph, Beethoven s pupil, 
at a private concert, but as far as the violin part 
was concerned, not much to the composer s satis 
faction. Soon afterwards, at any rate, Beethoven 
requested the Archduke to send the violin part 
to Rode that he might play it over before a 
second performance, and he adds : he will not 
take it amiss ; certainly not ! would to God there 
were reason to beg his pardon for doing so. 1 
Fe tis s statement that Beethoven wrote a Ro 
mance for Rode, probably rests on a confusion 
of the G major Sonata with the Romanza in the 
same key. 

In 1814 Rode went to Berlin, married, and re 
mained for some time. He then retired to his 
native place. At a later date he made an ill- 
advised attempt to resume a public career. But 
his appearance at Paris proved a complete failure, 
and Mendelssohn, writing from thence in April 
1825, says that he was fixed in his resolution 
never again to take a fiddle in hand. 2 This 
failure he took so much to heart, that his health 
began to give way, and he died at Bourdeaux, 
Nov. 25, 1830. 

Rode was one of the greatest of all violinists. 
During the earlier part of his career, he displayed 
all the best qualities of a grand, noble, pure, and 
thoroughly musical style. His intonation was 
perfect ; his tone large and pure ; boldness and 
vigour, deep and tender feeling, characterised his 
performances. In fact he was no mere virtuoso, 
but a true artist. His truly musical nature shows 
itself equally in his compositions. Although his 
general musical education appears to have been, 
like that of most French violinists, deficient 
(we have already mentioned that Boccherini 
added the simple orchestration to his earlier con 
certos), yet his works, especially his concertos, 
have a noble dignified character and considerable 
charm of melody, while it need hardly be added, 
they are thoroughly suited to the nature of the 
violin. On the other hand, they hardly show high 
creative power; of thematic treatment there is 
very little, the form, though not unsymmetrical, 
is somewhat loose, and the instrumentation poor. 

He published 10 concertos ; 5 sets of quartets ; 
7 sets of variations ; 3 books of duos for 2 violins, 
and the well-known 24 caprices. 

Of his concertos, the 7th, in A minor, is 
still in the repertoire of some eminent violinists. 
The variations in G major the same which the 
famous singer Catalani and other celebrated 
vocalists after her have made their cheval de 
bataille still enjoy popularity. But above all, 
his 24 caprices or Etudes will always, along 
with Kreutzer s famous 40 caprices, hold their 
place as indispensable for a sound study of the 

Thayer, life of Beethoven, UL p. 223. 
2 Die Familie Mendelssohn, i. p. 149, 



Although, owing to his life of travel, he had 
but few direct pupils, his influence through his 
example and compositions on the violinists of 
France, and move especially of Germany, was 
very great indeed, Bohm, the master of J oachim, 
and Eduard Rietz, the friend of Mendelssohn, 
both studied under him for some time. [P-D.j 

born Nov. 15, 1800, son of Thos. Rodwell, part 
proprietor and manager of the Adelphi Theatre, 
London, and author of several dramatic pieces, 
was for many years mUsic director of the Adelphi, 
On the death of his father, in March 1825, he 
succeeded to his share in the theatre. He was 
the composer of very many operettas and other 
dramatic pieces, of which the following are the 
principal ; viz. The Bottle Imp and The 
Mason of Buda * (partly adapted from Auber s 
Le Ma9on ), 1828; The Spring Lock, The 
Earthquake, and The Devil s Elixir, 1829; 
The Black Vulture, 1830; My Own Lover, 
and The Evil Eye, 1832; The Lord of the 
Isles, 1834; Paul Clifford (with Blewitt), 
1835; The Sexton of Cologne, 1836; Jack 
Sheppard, 1839; and The Seven Sisters of 
Munich, 1847. In 1836 he was director of the 
music at Covent Garden. He was author of 
several farces and other dramatic pieces, amongst 
which were Teddy the Tiler (written for Tyrone 
Power, and eminently successful), The Chimney- 
piece, My Own Lover, The Pride of Birth, 
The Student of Lyons, My Wife s out, and 
The Seven Maids of Munich ; of three novels, 
Old London Bridge, Memoirs of an Umbrella/ 
and Woman s Love ; and of The Eirst Rudi 
ments of Harmony, 1830. He composed also 
two collections of songs : Songs of the Sabbath 
Eve, and Songs of the Birds. His compo 
sitions abound in pleasing melodies. He for 
many years persistently advocated the establish 
ment of a National Opera. He married the 
daughter of Liston, the comedian; died in Upper 
Ebury Street, Pimlico, Jan. 22, 1852, and was 
buried at Brompton Cemetery. [W.H.H.] 

born Aug. 28, 1783, at Neumburg vorm Wald, in 
the Upper Palatinate. He was originally in 
tended for the church, but in 1803 entered the 
diplomatic service of the Elector of Bavaria as 
Private Secretary to the Bavarian Charge" d Af 
faires at Salzburg. On the recall of the Salzburg 
Legation in 1804, he accepted an engagement to 
sing at the An-der-Wien Theatre at Vienna, 
where, March 29, 1806, he appeared as Florestan 
in the revival of Beethoven s Fidelio. 3 In 1823 
Roeckel was appointed Professor of Singing at 
the Imperial Opera ; in 1828 he undertook the 
direction of the opera at Aix-la-Chapelle, and in 
the following year made the bold experiment of 
producing German operas in Paris with a complete 
German company. Encouraged by the success of 
this venture, Professor Roeckel remained in Paris 
until 1832, when he brought his company to 

8 For Roeckel s own account of his intercourse with Beethoven, see 
Thayer, vol. ii. p. 294, and vol. iii. 269. 



London, and produced Fidelio, Der Freischiitz, 
and other masterpieces of the German school, at 
the King s Theatre ; the principal artists being 
Schroder -Devrient and Haitzinger, with Hummel 
(Roeckel s brother-in-law) as conductor. In 
1835 he retired from operatic life, and in 1853 
finally returned to Germany, where he died, at 
Anhalt-Cothen, in September, 1870. 

AUGUSTUS, the eldest son of the above, was 
born Dec. I, 1814, at Gratz. He was joint 
Kapellmeister at the Dresden Opera with Richard 
Wagner, but being, like the latter, involved in 
the Revolution of 1848, he abandoned music and 
devoted himself entirely to politics. He died at 
Buda Pesth on June 18, 1876. 

EDWABD, the second son of Professor Roeckel, 
was born at Treves on Nov. 20, 1816, and received 
his musical education from his uncle J. N. Hum 
mel. He came to London in 1835, and gave his 
first concert in 1836 at the King s Theatre. He 
subsequently went on a concert-tour in Germany, 
and performed with great success at the courts 
of Prussia, Saxony, Saxe-Weimar, Anhalt-Dessau, 
etc. In 1848 Mr. Roeckel settled in England, 
and resides at Bath, where he succeeded the late 
Henry Field. He is known as the composer of 
a considerable quantity of pianoforte music, and 
is otherwise much esteemed. 

JOSEPH LEOPOLD, the youngest son of Professor 
Roeckel, was born in London in the year 1838. 
He studied composition at Wiirzburg under 
Eisenhofer, and orchestration under Gotze, at 
Weimar. Like his brother, Mr. J. L. Roeckel 
has settled in England, and lives at Clifton ; he 
is well known as a teacher, and a voluminous 
composer of songs. His orchestral and instru 
mental compositions are less well known, but his 
cantatas Fair Rosamond, Ruth, The Sea 
Maidens, Westward Ho/ and Mary Stuart, 
have been received with much favour. The first 
of these was performed at the Crystal Palace in 
1871. [W.B.S.] 

RONTGEN, ENGELBERT, born Sept. 30, 1829, 
.at Deventer in Holland, entered the Conserva- 
torium at Leipzig in 1 848 ; as a pupil of David s 
became a first-rate violinist, and in 1869 took 
David s place as Concerfcmeister in the Gewand- 
haus orchestra. He is now a teacher in the 
Conservator ium. He married a daughter of 
Moritz Klengel, himself Concertmeister at the 
Gewandhaus for many years. Their son, 

JULIUS, was born at Leipzig May 9, 1855, and 
soon displayed a great gift for music. His parents 
were his first teachers, and he afterwards learned 
from Hauptmann, Richter, Plaidy and Reinecke. 
In 1872 he went to Munich, and remained there 
for some time studying counterpoint and compo 
sition under Franz Lachner. A tour with Stock - 
hausen in 1873-4, during which he played 
chiefly his own compositions, launched him fa 
vourably before the world. He now lives in 
Amsterdam. His published works amount to 18, 
almost all of a serious character. They are, for 
the PF.~ a duet for 4 hands, in 4 movements, 
(op. 16) ; two sonatas (op. 2, 10), a phantasie 
^op. 8) ; a suite (op. 7) ; a ballade (op. 5), 


a cyclus of pieces (op. 6), and a theme with 
variations (op. 17), etc. etc.; a sonata for PF. 
and violin (op. i) and for PF. and cello (op. 3); 
a concerto for PF. and orchestra (op. 18) ; a 
serenade for 7 wind instruments (op. 14) ; Tos- 
kanische Rispetti, a Liederspiel (op. 9) ; 9 songs 
(op. 15) etc. etc. The cello sonata was played 
at the Monday Popular Concert of Feb. 14, 1881, 
and was well received. [G.] 

ROGEL, JOSE, Spanish conductor and com 
poser, born at Orihuela, Alicante, Dec. 24, 1829; 
began music under Cascales and Gil, organist 
and conductor of the cathedral, and made great 
progress, till sent to Valencia by his father to 
study law. The six years which he spent there 
were however devoted much more to music than 
to law, under the guidance of Pascual Perez, a 
musician of ability, from whom he learned com 
position and other branches of practical music. 
After completing his legal course and taking his 
degree at Madrid, Rogel was able to indulge 
his taste, plunged into music without re 
straint and became, or at any rate acted as, con 
ductor and composer to several theatres. The 
notice of him in M. Pougin s supplement to Fe tis, 
from which this notice is taken, enumerates no 
less than 61 zarzuelas or dramatic pieces of his 
composition, 14 of them in three acts, 8 in two 
acts, and the remainder in one act, besides a 
dozen not yet brought out. The titles of the 
pieces are of all characters, ranging from Revista 
de un rnuerto and Un Viage de mil demonios 
to El General Bumbum. No criticism is given 
on the merits of the music, but it must at least 
be popular. [G.j 

singer, born Dec. 17, 1815, at La Chapelle-Saint- 
Denis, Paris. He was brought up by an uncle, and 
educated at the Lyce"e Charlemagne for the legal 
profession, but his studies were so neglected for 
an amateur theatre of which he was the leading 
tenor and self-constituted manager, that he was 
at length allowed to follow his real vocation. 
He entered the Conservatoire in 1836, and after 
studying for a year under Martin carried off the 
first prizes both for singing and ope ra-comique. 
He obtained an immediate engagement, and 
made his de but at the Op^ra Comique, Feb. 16, 
1838, as Georges in L Eclair. To a charming 
voice and distinguished appearance he added 
great intelligence and stage tact, qualities which 
soon made him the favourite tenor of the Parisian 
world, and one of the best comedians of the day. 
Ambroise Thomas composed for him Le Per- 
ruquier de la Re gence and * Mina, Halevy gave 
him capital parts in Les Mousquetaires de la 
Reine and Le Guitarrero, and Auber, always 
partial to gentlemanlike actors, secured him for 
Le Domino Noir, La Part du Diable, La 
Sirene, and Hayde e. Clapisson too owed to 
him the success of his Gibby la cornemuse. 1 
In Hayde e the tenor of the Theatre Favart so 
distinguished himself as Lore dan that Meyer 
beer declared him to be the only French artist 
capable of creating the part of John of Leyden. 
In consequence, after ten years of uninterrupted 


success, Koger left the Opdra Comique for the 
Academie, where on April 16, 1849, he created 
an immense sensation with Mine. Viardot, in 
Le Prophete. His acting was quite as good 
in tragedy as it had been in comedy, but his 
voice could not stand the wear and tear of the 
fatiguing repertoire he had now to undertake. 
During the next ten years however he was in 
valuable at the Ope"ra, creating new parts in 
the Enfant prodigue, 1 the Juif errant, and 
many more. His best creation after John of 
Leyden, and his last part at the Ope"ra, was 
Helios in David s Herculanum (March 4, 1859). 
In the following autumn he lost his right arm 
while shooting, by the bursting of a gun ; he 
reappeared with a false one, but with all his 
skill and bravery he could not conceal his mis 
fortune, and found himself compelled to bid fare 
well to the Academic and to Paris. 

He went once more to Germany, which he 
had been in the habit of visiting since 1850, and 
where he was invariably successful, partly owing 
to his unusual command of the language. After 
this he sang in the principal provincial theatres 
of France, and in 1861 reappeared at the Ope"ra 
Comique in his best parts, especially that of 
Georges Brown in La Dame Blanche, but it 
was evident that the time for his retirement had 
arrived. He then took pupils for singing, and 
in 1868 accepted a professorship at the Conser 
vatoire, which he held till his death, Sept. 12, 


Roger was of an amiable and benevolent dis 
position. He talked well, wrote with ease, and 
was the author of the French translation to 
Haydn s Seasons, and of the words of several 
romances and German Lieder. His book, Le 
Garnet d un tenor (Paris, 011endorff,iS8o),isapor- 
tion of his autobiography. It contains an account 
of his visits to England in 1847 (June), and 1848 
(June Nov.), when he sang at the Royal Italian 
Opera, and made an artistic tour in the provinces 
with Mile. Jenny Lind, and other artists. [G.C.] 

ROGERS, BENJAMIN, Mus. Doc., eon of Peter 
Rogers, lay-clerk of St. George s Chapel, Windsor, 
was born at Windsor in 1614. He was a chorister 
of St. George s under Dr. Giles, and afterwards a 
lay-clerk there. He next became organist of 
Christ Church, Dublin, whe"re he continued until 
the rebellion in 1641, when he returned to 
Windsor and obtained a lay-clerk s place there ; 
but on the breaking up of the choir in 1644 he 
taught music in Windsor and its neighbourhood, 
and obtained some compensation for the loss of 
his appointment. In 1653 he composed some 
airs in 4 parts for violins and organ, which were 
presented to the Archduke Leopold, afterwards 
Emperor of Germany, and favourably received 
by him. In 1658 he was admitted Mus. Bac. at 
Cambridge. In 1660 he composed a Hymnus 
Eucharisticus in 4 parts, to words by Dr. Na 
thaniel Ingelo, which was performed at Guildhall 
when Charles II. dined there on July 5. 1 About 

This hymn was different from that, bearing the same title, which 
Rogers afterwards set for Magdaien College, Oxford. 
VOL. UI. FT. 2. 



the same time he became organist of Eton College. 
On Oct. 21, 1662, he was reappointed a lay -clerk 
at St. George s, Windsor, his stipend being aug 
mented by half the customary amount ; and he 
also received out of the organist s salary i per 
month as deputy organist. On July 22, 1664, he 
was appointed Informator Choristarum and or 
ganist of Magdalen College, Oxford. On July 8, 
1669, he proceeded Mus. Doc. at Oxford. In 
Jan. 1685 he was removed from his place at 
Magdalen College on account of irregularities, 
the College however assuring to him an annuity 
of 30 for life. He survived until June, 1698, 
on the 2 ist of which month he w r as buried at St. 
Peter-le-Bailey. His widow, whom the College 
had pensioned with two-thirds of his annuity, sur 
vived him only seven months, and was laid by his 
side Jan. 5, 1699. Rogers composed much church 
music ; four services are printed in the collec 
tions of Boyce, Rimbault, and Sir F. Ouseley ; 
another, an Evening Verse Service in G, ap 
pears to be at Ely in MS. Some anthems were 
printed in Cantica Sacra, 1674, and by Boyce 
and Page ; and many others are in MS. in the 
books of various cathedrals and college chapels. 
Four glees are contained in Playford s Musical 
Companion, 1673, an( ^ niany instrumental com 
positions in Courtly Masquing Ayres, 1662. 
His Hymnus Eucharisticus (the first stanza of 
which, commencing Te Deum Patrem colimus/ 
is daily sung in Magdalen College Hall by way 
of grace after dinner, and is printed in the Ap 
pendix to Hawkins s History) is sung annually on 
the top of Magdalen tower at five in the morning 
of May i. His service in D and some of his 
anthems, which are pleasing and melodious in 
character, are still sung in cathedrals. [W.H.H.] 

ROGERS, JOHN, a famous lutenist, born in 
London, was attached to the household of Charles 
II. He resided near Aldersgate, and died there 
about 1663. [W.H.H.] 

ROGERS, SIR JOHN LEMAN.Bart., born April 
18, 1780, succeeded his father in the baronetcy in 
1797- He became a member of the Madrigal 
Society in 1819, and in 1820 was elected its 
permanent President (being the first so ap 
pointed), and held the office until 1841, when he 
resigned on account of ill health. He composed 
a cathedral service, chants, anthems, madrigals, 
glees, and other vocal music. [See Hullah s PAKT 
Music, Class A, and VOCAL SCORES.] He was 
an ardent admirer of the compositions of Tallis, 
and by his exertions an annual service was held 
for several years in Westminster Abbey, the 
music being wholly that of Tallis. He died 
Dec. 10, 1847. [W.H.H.] 

ROI DES VIOLONS King of the violins 
a title of great interest as illustrating the struggle 
between Art and Authority. On Sept. 14, 1321, 
the menestriers or fiddlers of France formed them 
selves into a regular corporation, with a code of 
laws in 1 1 sections, which was presented to the 
Prevot of Paris, and by him registered at the 
Chatelet. The Confraternity, founded by 37 
jongleurs &ndjonyleresses, whose names have been 



preserved, prospered so far as in 1330 to pur 
chase a site and erect on it a hospital for poor 
musicians. The building was begun in 1331, 
finished in 1335, and dedicated to St. Julien and 
St. Genest. The superior of this Confre rie of 
St. Julien des me ne triers was styled king, and 
the following were Hois des me ne triers in the 
I4th century : Robert Caveron, 1338 ; Copin du 
Brequin, 1349; Jean Caumez, 1387; and Jehan 
Portevin, 1392. 

In 1407 the musicians, vocal and instrumental, 
separated themselves from the mountebanks and 
tumblers who had been associated with them by 
the statutes of 1321. The new constitution re 
ceived the sanction of Charles VI., April 24, 
1407, and it was enacted that no musician might 
teach, or exercise his profession, without having 
passed an examination, and been declared suffisant 
by the Roi des me nestrels or his deputies. 
These statutes continued in force down to the 
middle of the I7th century. History however 
tells but little about the new corporation. The 
only rois whose names have been preserved in 
the charters are Jehan Boissard, called Verde- 
let, 1420 ; Jehan Facien, the elder, and Claude de 
Bouchardon, oboes in the band of Henri III, 1575 ; 
Claude Nyon, 1590 ; Claude Nyon, called Lafont, 
1600; Franfois Rishomme, 1615; and Louis 
Constantin, roi from 1624 to 1655. Constantin, 
who died in Paris 1657, was a distinguished artist, 
violinist to Louis XIII., and composer of pieces 
for strings in 5 and 6 parts, several of which 
are preserved in the valuable collection already 
named under PHILIDOR. 

In 1514 the title was changed to roi des 
me nestrels du royaume. All provincial musicians 
were compelled to acknowledge the authority of 
the corporation in Paris, and in the i6th century 
branches were established in the principal towns 
of France under the title of Confre rie de St. 
Julien des me ne triers. In Oct. 1658, Louis XIV. 
confirmed Constantin s successor, Guillaume Du- 
manoir I., in the post of Roi des violons, maitres 
a danser, et joueurs d instruments tant haut que 
bas, ordaining at the same time that the Roi 
des violons should have the sole privilege of 
conferring the mastership of the art throughout 
the kingdom ; that no one should be admitted 
thereto without serving an apprenticeship of 4 
years, and paying 60 livres to the roi, and 10 
livres to the masters of the Confre rie ; the masters 
themselves paying an annual sum of 30 sous to 
the corporation, with a further commission to the 
roi for each pupil. The masters alone were 
privileged to play in taverns and other public 
places, and in case this rule were infringed, the 
roi could send the offender to prison and destroy 
his instruments. This formidable monopoly ex 
tended even to the King s band, the famous 
24 violons, who were admitted to office by the 
* roi alone on payment of his fee. [See VINGT 

So jealously did Guillaume Dumanoir I. guard 
his rights, that in 1662 he commenced an action 
against 1 3 dancing-masters, who, with the view of 
throwing off the yoke of the corporation, had 


obtained from Louis XIV. permission to found 
an Academic de danse. The struggle gave rise 
to various pamphlets, 1 and Dumanoir was beaten 
at all points. He bequeathed a difficult task to 
his son Michel Guillaume Dumanoir II., who 
succeeded him as roi in 1668, and endeavoured 
to enforce his supremacy on the instrumentalists 
of the Academic de Musique, but, as might have 
been expected, was overmatched by Lully. After 
his difficulties with the director of the OpeYa, 
Dumanoir II., like his father, came into collision 
with the dancing-masters. In 1691 a royal 
proclamation was issued by which the elective 
committee was abolished, and its place filled by 
hereditary officials, aided by four others appointed 
by purchase. Against this decree the corporation 
and the 13 members of the Acade"mie de danse 
protested, but the Treasury was in want of funds, 
and declined to refund the purchase money. Find 
ing himself unequal to such assaults Dumanoir 
resigned in 1693, and died in Paris in 1697. He 
delegated his powers to the privileged committee 
of 1691, and thus threw on them the onus of sup 
porting the claims of the Confre rie over the clave- 
cinists and organists of the kingdom ; a parlia 
mentary decree of 1695, however, set free the com 
posers and professors of music from all dependence 
on the corporation of the mdn&t/riers. This struggle 
was several times renewed. When Pierre Guignon 
(born 1702, died 1775), a good violinist, and a 
member of the King s chamber-music, and of the 
Chapel Royal, attempted to reconstitute the 
Confrerie on a better footing, it became evident 
that the musicians as a body were determined to 
throw off the yoke of the association. Guignon 
was appointed Roi des violons by letters patent, 
June 15, 1741, was installed in 1742, and in 1747 
endeavoured to enforce certain new enactments, 
but a parliamentary decree of May 30, i75> P ut 
an end to his pretended authority over clave- 
cinists, organists, and other serious musicians. 
The corporation was maintained, but its head 
was obliged to be content with the title of Koi 
et maitre des me ne triers, joueurs d instruments 
tant haut que bas, et hautbois, et communaut^ 
des maitres a danser. Roi Guignon still preserved 
the right of conferring on provincial musicians 
the title of lieutenants ge ne raux et particuliers 
to the roi des violons, but even this was abro 
gated by a decree of the Conseil d Etat, Feb. I3 
1773. The last roi des violons at once re 
signed, and in the following month his office was 
abolished by an edict of the King dated from 

This hasty sketch of a difficult subject may be 
supplemented by consulting the following works; 
Abre ge historique de la Mdnestrandie (Ver 
sailles, 1774, i-zmo) ; Statuts et re"glements des 
maitres de danse et joueurs d instruments . . 
registry s au Parlement le 22 Aout 1659 (Paris, 

1 Of these the principal are Etablissement de 1 Academic royale de 
dance [sic] en la ville de Paris, avec un discours Acad^mique pour 
prouver que la dance, dans sa plus noble partie. n a pas besoin del 
instruments de musique, et qu elle est en tout absolumeut ind^pen- 
dante du violon (Paris, 1663, 4to), and Le mariage de la musique et 
de la dance, contenant la r6ponce [tic] au livre des treize pretendui 
academicians touchauts ces deux arts (Paris. 1664, 12mo). 


1753); Recueil d e"dits, arrets du Conaeil du roi, 
lettres paten tes, ... en faveur des musiciens du 
Royaume (Ballard, 1774, 8vo) ; and Les 
Instruments a archet by A. Vidal (i. and ii. 
Paris, 1876, 77; 4to"), which last contains nearly 
all the necessary information. [G. C.] 

Hungarian origin, the son of a celebrated phy 
sician at Vienna, where he was born, July 9, 
1836. He studied singing chiefly at Bologna 
and Milan. He first appeared in England at 
concerts in 1856. In 62 he made his de"but 
at Prague in La Juive, and fulfilled a very 
successful engagement there of two years. In 
63 he made a few appearances at Vienna, and 
in 64 obtained an engagement there, and has 
been a member of the opera company ever since. 
His voice is a basso-profondo of great compass 
and volume, very equal in all its range ; he has a 
commanding presence, and is an excellent actor. 
His operas include La Juive, Robert le Diable, 
Les Huguenots, Don Juan, Zauberflote, Guil- 
laume Tell, Le Prophete, Aida, Faust, Medea, 
and Wagner s operas. 

On June 17, 65, he reappeared in London at 
Her Majesty s as Marcel with very great success, 
and then sang there for four consecutive seasons, 
and was greatly esteemed. He played with 
success as Rocco, Sarastro, Leporello, II Commen- 
datore, Oroveso, Falstaff, Osmin (June 30, 66, on 
production in Italian of Mozart s Entfiihrung ), 
and Padre Guardiano in La Forza del Des- 
tino. He returned for the seasons of 76 and 
77 in some of his old parts, and played for the 
first time the King in Lohengrin, and Giorgio 
in I Puritani. 

From 1871 to 1880 he filled the post of 
Professor of Singing at the Conservatorium of 
Vienna, but has now relinquished that position 
for private tuition, where he employs the 
Italian method which has formed the basis 
of his own great success. [A.C.] 

ROLLA, ALESSANDRO, violinist and com 
poser, born at Pavia, April 6, 1757. He first 
studied the pianoforte, but soon exchanged it for 
the violin, which he learned under Renzi and 
Conti. He had also a great predilection for the 
viola, and wrote and performed in public con 
certos for that instrument. For some years he 
was leader of the band at Parma, and it was 
there that Paganini was for some months his 
pupil. [See PAGANINI.] In 1802 he went to 
Milan as leader and conductor of the opera at 
La Scala, in which position he gained a great 
reputation. He was also for many years a pro 
fessor at the Conservatorio of Milan, and died 
in that town, September 15, 1841, aged 84. His 
compositions, now entirely forgotten, had con 
siderable success in their time ; they consist of 
a large number of violin duets, some trios, 
quartets and quintets for stringed instruments, 
and concertos for the violin and for the viola. 
His son and pupil, ANTONIO, violinist, was 
born at Parma, April 18, 1798 ; from 1823 till 
1835 wa3 leader of the Italian Opera band at 
Dresden, and died there, May 19, 1837. He 



published concertos and other solo pieces for the 
violin. [P.D.] 


ROLLE. A German musical family. The 
father was town musician of Quedlinburg and 
of Magdeburg in 1721, and died there in 1752. 
Of his three sons, CHRISTIAN CARL, born at 
Quedlinburg in 1714, was Cantor of the Jeru 
salem Church, Berlin, but was apparently of no 
account. He had sons, of whom FRIEDRICH 
HEINRICH left a biography of his father ; while 
CHRISTIAN CARL (the younger) succeeded him 
as Cantor. 2. A second son is mentioned, but 
not named. 3. The third, JOHANN HEINRICH, 
was born at Quedlinburg, December 23, 1718, 
and at an early age began to play and to write. 
He got a good general education at the High 
School in Leipzig, and migrated to Berlin in 
hopes of some legal post ; but this failing he 
adopted music as his career, and entered the 
Court chapel of Frederick the Great as a 
chamber musician. There he remained till 1 746, 
and then took the organist s place at St. John s, 
Magdeburg. On the death of his father he 
stepped into his post as town-musician, worked 
there with uncommon zeal and efficiency, and 
died at the age of 67, December 29, 1785. His 
industry seems almost to have rivalled that of 
Bach himself. He left several complete annual 
series of church music for all the Sundays and 
Festivals ; cantatas for Easter, Whitsuntide, 
and Christmas, of which many are in the Royal 
Library at Berlin ; 5 Passions, and at least 60 
other large church compositions. Besides these 
there exist 21 large works of his, of a nature 
between oratorio and drama, such as Saul, or 
the power of Music, Samson, David and Jona 
than, The Labours of Hercules, Orestes and 
Pylades, Abraham on Moriah, The Death of 
Abel, etc. The last two were for many years per 
formed annually at Berlin, and were so popular 
that the editions had to be renewed repeatedly. 
In addition to these he left many songs and com 
positions for organ, orchestra, and separate instru 
ments. All have now as good as perished ; but 
those who wish to know what kind of music they 
were will find a specimen in Hullah s Vocal 
scores, The Lord is King. It has a good deal of 
vigour, but no originality or character. Others are 
given in the Collections of Sander and Rochlitz, 
and a set of twenty motets for 4 voices was pub 
lished at Magdeburg by Rebling (185 1-66.) [G.] 

ROMANCE (Germ. Romanze). A term of very 
vague signification, answering in music to the 
same term in poetry, where the characteristics are 
rather those of personal sentiment and expression 
than of precise form. The Romanze in Mozart s 
D minor PF. Concerto differs (if it differs) from 
the slow movements of his other Concertos in 
the extremely tender and delicate character of 
its expression ; in its form there is nothing at all 
unusual : and the same may be said of Beethoven s 
two Romances for the violin and orchestra in G 
and F (op. 40 and 50), and of Schumann s Drei 
Romanzen (op. 28). Schumann has also affixed 




the title to 3 movements for oboe and PF.(op.94% 
and to a well-known piece in D minor (op. 32, 
no. 3), just as he, or some one of his followers, 
has used the similar title, in Legendenton. The 
Romance which forms the second movement of 
his symphony in D minor, is a little poem full of 
sentimental expression. 

In vocal music the term is obviously derived 
from the character or title of the words. In 
English poetry we have few romances, though 
such of Moore s melodies as She is far from the 
land where her young hero sleeps might well bear 
the title. But in France they abound, and some 
composers (such as Puget and Panseron) have 
derived nine-tenths of their reputation from them. 
Partant pour la Syrie may be named as a good 
example, well known on this side the water. Men 
delssohn s Songs without Words are called in 
France Romances sans Paroles. [G-] 

ROMANI, FELICE, a famous Italian litte ra- 
teur, born at Genoa, January 31, 1788. He 
was educated for the law, but soon forsook it for 
more congenial pursuits, and was in early life 
appointed to the post of poet to the royal 
theatres, with a salary of 6000 lire. The fall of 
the French government in Italy drove him to 
his own resources. He began with a comedy, 
L Amante e 1 Impostore, which was very suc 
cessful, and the forerunner of many dramatic 
pieces. But his claim to notice in a dictionary 
of music rests on his opera-librettos, in which 
he was for long the favourite of the Italian com 
posers. For Simone Mayer he wrote Medea 
(1812), La Rosa bianca e la Rosa rossa, and 
others; for Rossini, Aureliano in Palmira, 
and II Turco in Italia ; for Bellini, Bianca e 
Faliero, La Straniera, La Sonnambula, II 
Pirata, Norma, I Capuletti, and Beatrice 
di Tenda ; for Donizetti, Lucrezia, Anna 
Bolena, L Elisir d amore, and Parisina ; for 
Mercadante, II Conte d Essex ; for Ricci, Un 
Avventura di Scaramuccia ; and many others, 
in all fully a hundred. As editor for many 
years of the Gazzetta Piemontese, he was a 
voluminous writer. 

In the latter part of his life he became blind, 
and was pensioned by government, and spent 
his last years in his family circle at Moneglia, 
on the Riviera, where he died full of years and 
honours, January 28, 1865. [G.] 

ROMANO, ALESSANDRO known under the 
name of ALESSANDRO BELLA VIOLA a composer 
and performer on the viola, was born at Rome 
about the year 1530. He was an ecclesiastic, 
and a member of the order of Monte Oliveto. 
His published works (according to Fe tis) are 
two books of Canzoni Napolitane for 5 voices 
(Venice, 1572 and 1575); a set of motets in 
5 parts (Venice, 1579). -A- 5-part madrigal by 
him, Non pur d almi splendori, is published in 
the Libro terzo delle Muse (Venice, Gardano, 
1561). [P.D.] 

ROMANTIC is a term which, with its anti 
thesis CLASSICAL, has been borrowed by music 
from literature. But so delicate and incorporeal 


are the qualities of composition which both words 
describe in their application to music, and so 
arbitrary has been their use by different writers, 
that neither word is susceptible of very precise 
definition. The best guide, however, to the 
meaning of romantic is supplied by its etymo 
logy. The poetic tales of the middle ages, 
written in the old Romance dialects, were called 
Romances. In them mythological fables and 
Christian legends, stories of fairyland, and ad 
ventures of Crusaders and other heroes of chivalry, 
were indiscriminately blended, and the fantastic 
figures thus brought together moved in a dim 
atmosphere of mystic gloom and religious ecstasy. 
These mediaeval productions had long been neg 
lected and forgotten even by scholars, when, 
about the close of the last century, they were 
again brought into notice by a group of poets, of 
whom the most notable were the brothers 
August Wilhelm and Friedrich von Schlegel, 
Ludwig Tieck, and Friedrich Novalis. They set 
themselves to rescue the old romances from 
oblivion, and to revive the spirit of medieval 
poetry in modern literature by the example of 
their own works. Hence they came to be called 
the Romantic School, and were thus distinguished 
from writers whose fidelity to rules and models 
of classic antiquity gave them a claim to the 
title of Classical. 

It was not long before the term Romantic was 
introduced into musical literature ; and it was 
understood to characterise both the subjects of 
certain musical works and the spirit in which 
they were treated. Its antithetical significance 
to the term Classical still clung to it ; and 
regard to perfection of form being often subordi 
nated by so-called romantic composers to the 
object of giving free play to the imaginative and 
emotional parts of our nature, there grew up 
around the epithet Romantic the notion of a 
tendency to depart more or less from the severity 
of purely classical compositions. But, in truth, 
no clear line divides the romantic from the 
classical. As we shall endeavour to show, the 
greatest names of the Classical school display the 
quality of romanticism in the spirit or expression 
of some of their works, while, on the other hand, 
the compositions of the Romantic school are fre 
quently marked by scrupulous adherence to the 
; forms of traditional excellence. Again, as the 
associations of the word Classical convey the 
highest meed of praise, works at first pronounced 
to be romantic establish, by general recognition 
of their merit, a claim to be considered clas 
sical. What is romantic to-day may thus grow, 
although itself unchanged, to be classical to 
morrow. The reader will thus understand why, 
in Reicliardt s opinion, Bach, Handel and Gluck 
were classical, but Haydn and Mozart romantic; 
why later critics, in presence of the fuller 
romanticism of Beethoven, placed Haydn and 
Mozart among the classical composers ; and why 
Beethoven himself, in his turn, was declared to 
be classical. 

The propriety of applying the term Romantic 
to operas whose subjects are taken from romantic 


literature, or to songs where music is set to 
romantic words, will not be questioned. And 
from such works it is easy to select passages 
which present romantic pictures to the mind, as, 
for instance, the Trumpet passage on the long 
Bb in the bass in the great Leonore overture, or 
the three Horn notes in the overture to Oberon, 
or the three Drum notes in the overture to Der 
Freischiitz. But in pure instrumental music the 
marks of romanticism are so fine, and the recog 
nition of them depends so much on sympathy and 
mental predisposition, that the question whether 
this or that work is romantic may be a subject 
of interminable dispute among critics. Some 
times the only mark of romanticism would seem 
to be a subtle effect of instrumentation, or a 
sudden change of key, as in the following pas 
sage from the Leonore Overture: 



Another example from B ethoven is supplied 
by the opening bars of the PF. Concerto in G 
major, where after the solo has ended on the 
dominant the orchestra enters pp with the chord 
of B major, thus 



The whole of the Slow Movement of this Con 
certo is thoroughly romantic, but perhaps that 
quality is most powerfully felt in the following 
passage : 

tion as for instance, in this passage from the 
Adagio of the gth Symphony: 

P dim 




rTTif^-fi*- r * fTr^t^^^f 1 

-fc. %-+- -Pt- T -t- *J ^9- -*-- 9- -4-^-+- 

tr T* -1r. .;*-:: y 

Yet so subtle is the spell of its presence here 
that it would be difficult to define where its 
intense romanticism lies, unless it be in the 
abrupt change both in key (A minor to F 
major), and in the character of the phrase, al 
most forcing a scene, or recollection, or image, 
upon the hearer. Indeed, to romantic music 
belongs in the highest degree the power of evok 
ing in the mind some vivid thought or concep- 

where the transition into Db seems to say, 
Vanitas vanitatum, omnia vanitas ; and again 
in the Eroica, where at the end of the Trio, the 
long holding notes and peculiar harmony in the 
horns seem to suggest the idea of Eternity: 


(5> &-- !-&--: 


Many mpre illustrations might be taken from 
Beethoven s works, and never has the romantic 
spirit produced more splendid results than in his 
five last Sonatas and in his Symphony No. 7. 
But with regard to our choice of examples we 
must remind the reader that, where the stand 
point of criticism is almost wholly subjective, 
great diversities of judgment are inevitable. 

It was not until after the appearance of 
the works of Carl Maria von Weber, who lived 
in close relation with the romantic school of 
literature, and who drew his inspirations from 
their writings, that critics began to speak of 
a romantic school of music. Beethoven had 
by this time been accepted as classical, but in 
addition to Weber himself, Schubert, and after 
wards Mendelssohn, Schumann, and Chopin were 
all held to be representatives of the romantic 
school. Widely as the composers of this new 
school differed in other respects, they were alike 
in their susceptibility to the tone of thought and 
feeling which so deeply coloured the romantic 
literature of their time. None of them were 
strangers to that weariness, approaching to dis 
gust, of the actual world around them, and those 



yearnings to escape from it, which pursued so 
many of the finest minds of the generations to 
which they belonged. To men thus predisposed, 
it was a relief and delight to live in an ideal 
world as remote as possible from the real one. 
Some took refuge in mediaeval legends, where no 
border divided the natural from the supernatural, 
where the transition from the one to the other 
was as delicate and yet as real as that in the 
passage quoted from Beethoven s Overture, 
and where nothing could be incongruous or im 
probable ; some in the charms and solitudes of 
nature ; and others in the contemplation of peace 
and beatitude beyond the grave. But in all 
there was the same impatience of the material 
and mundane conditions of their existence, 
the same longing to dwell in the midst of 
scenes and images which mortals could but 
dimly see through the glass of religious or 
poetic imagination. As might have been 
expected of works produced under such influ 
ences, indistinctness of outline was a common 
attribute of compositions of the romantic school. 
The hard, clear lines of reality were seldom met 
with in them, and the cold analysis of pure 
reason was perpetually eluded. It was equally 
natural that the creations of minds withdrawn 
from contact with the actual world and wrapt in 
the folds of their own fancies, should vividly 
reflect the moods and phases of feeling out of 
which they sprang that they should be, in 
short, intensely subjective. Nor was it sur 
prising that when impatience of reality, indis 
tinctness of outline, and excessive subjectivity ! 
co-existed, the pleasures of imagination sometimes 
took a morbid hue. Such conditions of origin 
as we have been describing could not fail to 
affect the forms of composition. It was not that 
the romanticists deliberately rejected or even \ 
undervalued classic models, but that, borne onward 
by the impulse to give free expression to their 
own individuality, they did not suffer themselves 
to be bound by forms, however excellent, which 
they felt to be inadequate for their purpose. 
Had the leaders of the romantic school been men 
of less genius, this tendency might have degene 
rated into disregard of form ; but happily in 
them liberty did not beget license, and the art 
of music was enriched by the addition of new 
forms. The extremes, says Goethe, speaking 
of the romantic school of literature, will disap 
pear, and at length the great advantage will 
remain that a wider and more varied subject- 
matter, together with a freer form, will be 
attained. Goethe s anticipations were equally 
applicable to music. 

Among masters of the romantic school, Weber 
stands second to none. In youth he surrendered 
himself to the fascination of literary romanticism, 
and this early bias of his mind was confirmed in 
later years by constant intercourse at Dresden 
with Holtei, Tieck, E. T. A. Hoffmann, and other 
men of the same cast of thought. How ex 
clusively the subjects of Weber s operas were 
selected from romantic literature, and how the 
Romantic Opera, of which Germany has so 


much reason to be proud, owed to him its 
origin and highest development, although the 
names of Spohr, 1 Marschuer, Lindpaintner, 
and others are justly associated with it, are 
points on which we need not linger, as they are 
fully discussed in the article on OPERA. Neither 
is it necessary to repeat what has been said in 
the article on ORCHESTRATION of the romantic 
effects which Weber could produce in his instru 
mentation. Never, even in the least of his 
pianoforte works, did he cease to be romantic. 

Though Weber holds the first place in the 
opera of the romantic school, he was excelled in 
other branches of composition by his contem 
porary, Franz Schubert. Pure and classic as 
was the form of Schubert s symphonies and 
sonatas, the very essence of romanticism is dis 
closed in them by sudden transitions from one key 
to another (as in the first movement of the A 
minor Sonata, op. 143), and by the unexpected 
modulations in his exquisite harmony. That 
wealth of melody, in which he is perhaps with 
out a rival, was the gift of romanticism. It 
gave him also a certain indefiniteness and, as it 
were, indivisibility of ideas, which some critics 
have judged to be a failing, but which were in 
fact the secret of his strength, because they en 
abled him to repeat and develope, to change and 
then again resume his beautiful motifs in long 
and rich progression, without pause and without 
satiety. None have known, as he knew, how to 
elicit almost human sounds from a single instru 
ment as for instance, in the well-known passage 
for the horn in the second movement of the C 
major Symphony, of which Schumann said that 
it seems to have come to us from another world. 
Many glorious passages might be pointed out in 
this Symphony, the romanticism of which it 
would be difficult to surpass ; for instance, the 
second subject in the first movement, the 
beginning of the working out in the Finale, 
etc. etc. And the complete success with which 
he produced entirely novel effects from the 
whole orchestra is the more astonishing when we 
remember that few of his orchestral works were 
ever performed in his lifetime. In Song Schu 
bert stands alone, while Schumann and Robert 
Franz come nearest to him. Even from boyhood 
he had steeped his soul in romantic poetry ; and 
so expressive was the music of his songs that 
they required no words to reveal their deeply 
romantic character. Few were the thoughts or 
feelings which Schubert s genius was unable to 
express in music. He was (to quote Schumann 
again) the deadly enemy of all Philistinism, and 
after Beethoven the greatest master who made 
music his vocation in the noblest sense of the 

Schumann s own enmity to Philistinism was 
not less deadly than that of Schubert, and ro 
manticism was its root in both men. So strongly 
did Schumann resent the popularity of Herz, 
Hiinten, and other Philistines, whose works were 
in vogue about the year 1830, that he founded 

1 Spohr s claim to priority of invention of the Romantic opera is 
discussed in OPEEA. vol. ii. p. 520 6. 


the Davidsbund to expose the hollowness of 
their pretensions. And equally dissatisfied with 
the shallow and contracted views of the musical 
critics of that day, he started his Neue Zeit- 
schrift fur Musik to vindicate the claims of 
music to freedom from every limitation, except 
the laws of reason and of beauty. Even in child 
hood Schumann was an eager reader of ro 
mantic literature, and the writings of Hoffmann 
and Jean Paul never lost their charm for him. 
He told a correspondent that if she would rightly 
understand his Papillons, op. 2, she must read 
the last chapter of Jean Paul s Flegeljahre ; 
and from Hoffmann he borrowed the title of 
Kreisleriana. It was not however the imagin 
ary sufferings of Dr. Kreissler, but the real deep 
sorrows of Schumann s own soul which expressed 
themselves in these noble fantasias. Though 
perfect in form, they are thoroughly romantic in 
thought and spirit. Not less romantic were the 
names he gave to his pianoforte pieces. These 
names, he said, were scarcely necessary for is 
not music self-sufficing ? does it not speak for 
itself? but he admitted that they were faithful 
indexes to the character of the pieces. The 
clearest tokens of the same source of inspiration 
may be found in his Fantasie, op. 1 7, which bears 
as its motto a verse from Schlegel. In the last 
part a deeply moving effect is produced by 
the abrupt change of key in the arpeggios from 
the chords of C to A and then to F. But changes 
of key were not his only resource for the produc 
tion of romantic effects. Excepting Beethoven, 
none have illustrated the power of rhythm so 
well as Schumann. He often imparts a strange 
and entirely novel significance to commonplace 
or familiar phrases by syncopated notes, by 
putting the emphasis on the weak part of the bar, 
or by accents so marked as to give the impres 
sion of a simultaneous combination of triple and 
common time. These strong and eccentric 
rhythms appear in all his works ; and the frequent 
directions Marcato assai or Molto marcato show 
what stress he laid upon emphasis. The influence 
of Jean Paul may be traced also in Schumann s 
sometimes grave and sometimes playful humour. 
Many of his pianoforte pieces are marked mit 
Humor or mit vielem Humor. And in this re 
spect he is inferior only to Beethoven, of whose 
romantic humour he so often speaks in his 
Gesammelte Schriften. The romantic bias of 
Schumann s mind was not less evident in his 
treatment of Oriental subjects. The colouring 
of his Paradise and the Peri, and of his 
Oriental Pictures (Bilder aus Osten), is vividly 
local. And of his songs we may cite the 
Waldesgesprach (Op. 39, No. 3) as an example 
of the purest essence of romance. Full as the 
poem is in itself of romantic feeling and ex 
pression, the music interprets the words, rather 
than the words interpret the music. 

The romantic spirit found a less congenial 
abode in the happy, equable disposition, and 
carefully disciplined imagination of Mendels 
sohn ; but his genius was too sensitive and deli 
cate to remain unaffected by the main currents 



of his age. 1 Take, for example, the first four 
chords in the overture to A Midsummer Night s 
Dream. And could it indeed be possible to 
illustrate Shakespeare s romantic play in music 
with fuller success than Mendelssohn has done ? 
The overtures The Hebrides, The Lovely 
Melusine, and Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage, 
are likewise full of the brightest qualities of 

Not unlike Mendelssohn was William Sterndale 
Bennett ; and the points of resemblance between 
them were strict regard to form, clearness of 
poetic thought, and cultivated refinement of taste. 
Romantic too Bennett certainly was ; as may at 
once be seen in his overtures, The Naiads and 
The Wood Nymphs. So tranquil, clear and 
perfect in detail are most of Bennett s com 
positions, so delicate was the touch which 
fashioned them, that they have been likened to 
the landscapes of Claude Lorraine : and in 
illustration of what is meant, we may mention 
his Three Musical Sketches, op. 10 ( The Lake, 
the Millstream and the Fountain ). Yet there 
were rare moments when Bennett s habitual 
reserve relaxed, and the veil was lifted from his 
inner nature. To the inspiration of such moments 
we may ascribe parts of his G minor Symphony, 
and above all his beautiful Paradise and the 
Peri overture. His Parisina overture betrays 
the latent fire which burned beneath a wontedly 
calm surface, and many romantic passages 
might be pointed out in it. One such is to be 
found at the beginning of the working out, where 
the theme, which before was in Fjf minor and 
the very soul of melancholy 

K S 


- _ . 

2Z] 3 






, I f^ 

1 ! 

1 4 

fes r^ 

1 t: 


3 r 



is now given in A major, the CjJ of the cadence 
seeming for the moment to brighten it as with 
the inspiration of hope 









f -\. ^ tf 











Notice of the modern German composers on 
whom the stamp of Schumann is so unmistake- 
able, would lead us too far. Wagner we pass by, 
because he can hardly be counted among the 
followers of the romantic school, and we could 
not, within the limits of this article, show the 
points wherein he differs from former romanticists; 

1 In describing to Eeichardt s daughter the success of her father s 
Morgengesang at the Khiue Festival, Mendelssohn adds : at the 
words Und schlich in dieser Nacht the music becomes so romantic 
and poetical that every time I hear it, I am more touched and 



but mention is made under ORCHESTRATION 
of some of the beautiful and truly romantic 
effects which he knows how to produce in his 
instrumentation. [See also OPERA, and WAGNER.] 
We may however designate one of the greatest 
living composers as one of the greatest living 
romanticists ; and it is no disparagement to the 
individuality of Johannes Brahms to say that he 
is in many respects the disciple of Schubert and 
Schumann. The romanticism of such productions 
as the beautiful romances from Tieck s Magelone 
(op. 33) or the cantata Rinaldo (op. 50) is of 
course visible at a glance, but Brahms s roman 
ticism generally lies too deep to be discovered with 
out attentive and sympathetic study. As a rule, 
he is more concerned to satisfy the judgment than 
kindle the imagination, more anxious to move the 
heart than please the ear. Close observation will 
often find an adequate reason and justification for 
seeming harshnesses in Brahms s works, and re 
flective familiarity with them will, in the same 
way, surely discover the genuine romantic spirit in 
passages where its presence would wholly escape 
the unpractised eye and ear. 

Chopin holds a solitary position in romantic 
art. No school can claim him wholly for its 
own, and the best poetic gifts of the French, 
German, and Sclavonic nationalities were united 
in him. Chopin, says Liszt, refused to be bound 
by deference to rules which fettered the play of 
his imagination, simply because they had been 
accepted as classical. But the classic training 
and solid studies of his youth, combined with his 
exquisite taste and innate refinement, preserved 
him from abuse of the liberty which he was 
determined to enjoy. The mental atmosphere of 
his life in Paris may be felt in his works. In 
hatred of whatever was commonplace and 
ordinary, he was one with the French romantic 
school ; but unlike them he would allow nothing, 
whose only merit was originality, to stand in his 
compositions. Beauty there must always be to 
satisfy him ; and he would have recoiled from 
the crudities and barbarisms which disfigure some 
works of the French romantic period. So uni 
formly romantic was Chopin in every stage of 
his career, that it would be impossible to illustrate 
this quality of his music by extracts. 

The French romantic school of literature was 
of later date than the German, and was con 
siderably affected by it. The general features 
of the two schools were very similar, but the 
French authors wrote even more than the Ger 
man in the mediaeval and mystic vein, and were 
more prone to unhealthy exaggeration. In France, 
moreover, the antagonism between the romantic 
and classical schools was carried to a pitch which 
had no parallel in Germany. The completeness 
and universality of the empire which classic ex 
ample and tradition had gained over the educated 
public of France, intensified the revolt against 
them, when at last it arrived. The revolt was 
as widespread as it was uncompromising : there 
was not a field of art or literature in which the 
rebel flag of the new school was not unfurled, 
and a revolutionary temper, inflamed perhaps by 


the political storms of that time, was manifest in 
i all that they did. In the false simplicity and 
sickly sentimentality, in the stilted diction and 
threadbare forms of expression affected by the 
reigning school, the insurgent authors had indeed 
much to provoke them. But in the vehemence 
of their reaction against such faults they were 
apt to fall into an opposite extreme; and thus, 
finish of form, clearness of outline, and coherent 
sequence of thought are too often absent from 
their works. 

With respect to music, Berlioz is the typical 
name of the renaissance of 1830 ; but Liszt, on 
whom the French school exercised so strong an 
influence, may be associated with him. So far 
were these composers and their countless fol 
lowers borne by the revolutionary impulse, that 
they did not shrink at times from a total rejection 
of the old traditional forms in their instrumental 
music ; but it cannot be said that very valuable 
results were obtained by their hardihood. They 
chose indeed romantic subjects for musical repre 
sentation, as Weber and Schumann had done, but 
there the resemblance ceased. They aimed not, 
as the earlier masters did, to reproduce the feel 
ings stirred in them by external objects, but 
rather to present the objects themselves to the 
minds of an audience ; and an undoubted loss 
of romantic effect was the consequence of their 
innovation. But while we cannot acquit the 
younger romanticists of the charge of an exces 
sive realism, which too readily sacrificed artistic 
beauty to originality and vivid representation, 
nor deny the frequent obscurity and incoherence 
of their compositions, we are unable to acquiesce 
in the imputation so often fastened upon them 
that their romanticism was merely the veil of 
ignorance, and that they violated rules because 
they knew no better. As a matter of fact, even 
those among them who pushed extravagance to 
the farthest point were thorough masters of the 
strictest rules and severest forms of musical com 

To sum up, in conclusion, our obligations to 
the romantic school, we must acknowledge that 
they saved music from the danger with which it 
was at one time threatened of being treated as 
an exact but dry and cold science ; that they 
gave it a freer and more elastic form ; that they 
developed the capabilities and technique of 
various instruments ; that being themselves 
always filled with a deep reverence for their own 
art they rescued from unmerited neglect some of 
the finest works of earlier composers ; and that by 
their own genius and labour they have added 
many a noble masterpiece to the treasures of 
music. 1 [A.H.W.] 

1 For the foregoing article the following works have been consulted : 
Schumann, Gesammelte Schritten ; Liszt, Chopin ; Hostinsky, 
Die Lehre der formalen Aesthetik ; Kiister. Populare Vortrage ; 
La Mara, Musikalische Studien-ko pfe ; Wasielewski, Schumann ; 
Weber, Max v., C. M. v. Weber ; Hoffmann, Kreisleriana ; Gautier, 
Histoire du Romantisme ; N. Zeitschrift f. Musik, 1834-1839 ; Riehl, 
Charakterkdpfe ; Brockhaus, Conversationslexicon ; Eckermann, 
Gespruche mit Goethe ; Mendel, Lexicon ; Brendel, Geschichte 
der Musik ; Marx, Musik des Neunzehnteu Jahrhunderts ; KOstlin, 
Geschichte der Musik ; Weitzmann, Geschichte des Glavierspiels ; 
Reissmann, Von Bach bis Waguer ; Letters from Dr. Zopff and Dr. 


ROMBERG. One of those musical families of 
whom, from the Bachs downwards, so many are , 
encountered in Germany. The founders were 
ANTON and HEINRICH, a pair of inseparable 
brothers, who dressed alike, and lived together in 
Bonn. They were still alive in 1792. Another 
ANTON, a bassoon-player, born in Westphalia in 
1745, lived at Dinklage (Duchy of Oldenburg), 
gave concerts at Hamburg, and died in 1812, 
living long enough to play a concerto for two 
bassoons with his youngest son ANTON, born 17/7. 
His eldest son, BERNHARD, born Nov. 1 1, 1 767, at 
Dinklage, is justly regarded as head of the school 
of German violoncellists. When only fourteen he 
attracted considerable attention in Paris during 
a visit there with his father; from 1790 to 1793 
he was in the band of the Elector of Cologne at 
Bonn, at the same time with Ferdinand Ries, 
Reicha and the two Beethovens. During the 
French invasion he occupied himself in a profes 
sional tour in Italy, Spain, and Portugal, and was 
well received, especially in Madrid, where Ferdi 
nand VII. accompanied him on the violin. His 
cousin Andreas went with him, and on their return 
through Vienna late in 1796, they gave a con 
cert at which Beethoven played (Thayer, ii. 16). 
After his return Bernhard married Catherine 
Ramcke at Hamburg. From 1801 to 1803 he 
was a professor in the Paris Conservatoire, and 
we next find him in the King s band at Berlin. 
Spohr (Autob. i. 78) met him there at the end 
of 1 804, and played quartets with him. Perhaps 
the most remarkable fact he mentions is that 
after one of Beethoven s early quartets (op. 18) 
Romberg asked how Spohr could play such 
absurd stuff (barockes Zeug). It is of a piece 
with the well-known anecdote of his tearing the 
copy of the first Rasoumowsky quartet from the 
stand and trampling on it. 

The approach of the French forces in 1 806 again 
drove Romberg on the world, and in 1807 he was 
travelling in South Russia, but returned to Berlin, 
and was Court-Capellmeister till 1817, when he 
retired into private life at Hamburg. In 1822 
he went to Vienna, in 1825 to St. Petersburg 
and Moscow, and in 1839 to x London, and Paris, 
where his Method for the cello (Berlin, Trautwein, 
1 840) was adopted by the Conservatoire. He died 
at Hamburg, August 13, 1841. 

The great importance of B. Romberg both as 
composer and executant arises from the fact that 
he materially extended the capabilities of the 
violoncello. His celebrated concertos may be 
said to contain implicitly a complete theory 
of cello playing, and there are few passages 
known to modern players the type of which may 
[ not be found there. Probably no better know 
ledge of the fingerboard could be gained than 
by studying these concertos. Although they are 
now seldom played in public, being somewhat 
too old-fashioned to hit the taste of modern 
artists and audiences, they are yet of considerable 
merit as compositions, and contain passages of 

1 He does not seem to have played in London ; but a slight trace of 
As presence is perhaps discoverable in an overture of his nephew s, 
which closes the Philharmonic programme ot June 17, 1839. 



distinct grace and charm. There is probably no 
means now of learning at first hand what Rom- 
berg s own playing was like. But it may be 
gathered from the character of his compositions, 
that his tone was not so full and powerful as 
that of artists who confined themselves more to 
the lower register of the instrument, and to pas 
sages of less complication. As an indication that 
this view agrees with that which prevailed during 
his lifetime, we find him for instance spoken of 
as follows by a correspondent of the Allgemeine 
Musikalische Zeitung for 1817, who had heard 
him play at Amsterdam: The visit of B. Rom 
berg had long been eagerly looked for. The 
immense reputation which preceded him, caused 
his first concert to be crowded to excess. He 
played a concerto (die Reise auf den Bernhards- 
berg) and a capriccio on Swedish national airs. 
In regard to the perfection and taste of his per 
formance, to the complete ease and lightness of 
his playing, our great expectations were far ex 
ceeded but not so in respect of tone this, espe 
cially in difficult passages, we found much weaker 
than the powerful tone of our own Rauppe, and 
indeed scarcely to compare with it. At a second 
concert Romberg played his well-known Military 
Concerto, and the same view was reiterated. 

Bernhard Romberg composed cello solos of vari 
ous kinds; string quartets; PF. quartets; a funeral 
symphony for Queen Louise of Prussia; a concerto 
for 2 cellos (Breitkopf & Ha rtel), his last work ; 
and operas Die wiedergefundene Statue, words 
by Gozzi von Sch wick (1790), and DerSchiffbrueh 
(1791, Bonn), Don Mendoce, with his cousin 
Andreas (Paris), Alma, Ulysses und Circe 
(July 27, 1807), and Rittertreue, 3 acts (Jan. 
31, 1817, Berlin). His son KARL, also a cellist, 
born at St. Petersburg Jan. 17, 1811, played in 
the court-band there from 1832 to 1842, and 
afterwards lived at Vienna. 

Anton Romberg the younger had a brother 
GERHARD HEINRICH, born 1748, a clarinet- 
player, and Musikdirector at Miinster, who 
lived with him for some time at Bonn, and 
had several children, of whom the most cele 
brated was ANDREAS, a violinist, born April 27, 
1767, at Vechte, near Miinster. When only 
seven he played in public with his cousin Bern- 
hard, with whom he remained throughout life 
on terms of the closest friendship. At seventeen 
he excited great enthusiasm in Paris, and was 
engaged for the Concerts Spirituels (1/84). In 
1790 he joined his cousin at Bonn, played the 
violin in the Elector s band, and accompanied him 
to Italy in 1793. In Rome they gave a concert 
at the Capitol (Feb. 17, 1796) under the patron 
age of Cardinal Rezzonico. Andreas then made 
some stay in Vienna, where Haydn showed great 
interest in his first quartet. In 179 7 he went to 
Hamburg, and in 1 798 made a tour alone. In 
1800 he followed Bernhard to Paris, and com 
posed with him Don Mendoce, ou le Tuteur 
portugais. The opera failed, and the success of 
their concerts was but partial, so Andreas left 
for Hamburg, where he married, and remained 
for fifteen yeurs. He next became Coui t-Capell- 



meister at Gotha, where he died, in very great 
destitution, Nov. 10, 18-21. Concerts were given 
in various towns for the benefit of his widow and 
children. The university of Kiel gave him a 
degree of Doctor of Music. He composed six 
symphonies, quartets, quintets, church music ; a 
Te Deum, Psalms, a Dixit, Magnificat, and 
Hallelujah, in 4, 5, 8 and 16 parts; several 
operas Das graue Ungeheuer (1790, Bonn), 
Die Macht derMusik (1791), Der Rabe, ope 
retta (1792), Die Grossmuth des Scipio, and 
Die Ruinen zu Paluzzi, the two last not per 
formed. His best-known work is the music for 
Schiller s Song of the Bell, which still keeps its 
place in concert programmes. His music is solid, 
but not original, being too closely modelled on 
Mozart. His larger works are well-known in 
England. The Lay of the Bell was, in the early 
days of the Choral Harmonists Society, to be often 
found in its programmes, and is still occasionally 
heard. That, with The Transient and the Eter 
nal, The Harmony of the Spheres, The Power 
of Song, and a Te Deum (in D), are all pub 
lished with English words by Novellos. His 
Toy- symphony is now and then played as an 
alternative to Haydn s, and was chosen for per 
formance by an extraordinary company, em 
bracing most of the great artists of London, May 
14, 1880. Two sons, CIPKIANO and HEINKICH are 
mentioned in the Allg. musikalische Zeitung. 
Andreas s brother BALTHASAR, born 1775, and 
educated for a cellist, died aged seventeen. His 
sister THERESE, born 1781, had a considerable 
reputation as a pianist. [F.G.] 

ROMEO AND JULIET. A subject often set 
by opera composers ; e. g. 

1. Romeo et Juliette; 3 acts; words by de 
Se gur, music by Steibelt. Feydeau, Paris, Sept. 

io, 1793. 

2. Giulietta e Romeo. Opera seria In 3 acts, 
by Zingarelli. Produced at the Scala, Milan, 
Carnival, 1796. It was one of Napoleon s favour 
ite operas, when Crescentini sang in it. 

3. Giulietta e Romeo, by Vaccaj. Produced 
at the Scala, Milan, spring of 1826 ; King s 
Theatre, London, April io, 1832. 

4. I Capuletti ed i Montecchi, in 3 acts ; 
libretto by Romani, music by Bellini. Produced 
at Venice, March 12,1 830. It was written for 
the two Grisis and Rubini. King s Theatre, 
London, July 20, 1833. 

5. Romeo et Juliette, in 5 acts; words by 
Barbier and Carre, music by Gounod. Produced 
at theThdatreLyrique, April27,iS67. In London, 
at Covent Garden, in Italian, July u, 1867. 

6. In addition to these it has been made the 
subject of a work by Berlioz, his 5th Symphony 
Rome o et Juliette. Symphonic dramatique, avec 
choeurs, solos de chant, et prologue en re citatif 
choral, op. 17. Dedicated to Paganini. The words 
are Berlioz s own, versified by Emil Deschamps. 
It was composed in 1839, and performed three 
times consecutively at the Conservatoire. la 
England the First Part (4 numbers) was executed 
\mder M. Berlioz s direction at the New Phil 
harmonic Concerts of March 24, and April 28, 


1852, and the entire work by the Philharmonic 
Society (Cusins) March io, 1881. [G.J 

ROMER, EMMA, soprano singer, pupil of Sir 
George Smart, born in 1814, made her first 
appearance at Covent Garden Oct. 16, 1830, as 
, Clara in The Duenna. She met with a favour 
able reception, and for several years filled the 
position of prima donna at Covent Garden, the 
English Opera House, and Drury Lane, with 
great credit. In 1852 she took the management 
of the Surrey Theatre, with a company con- 
i taining Miss Poole and other good singers, and 
brought out a series of operas in English. Miss 
Homer was rarely heard in the concert-room, 
but appeared at the Westminster Abbey Festival 
in 1834. She was the original singer of the 
title-parts in Barnett s Mountain Sylph and 
Fair Rosamond. Her performance of Amina 
in the English version of Bellini s Sonnambula 
was much admired. She married a Mr. Almond, 
and died at Margate, April n, 1868. [W.H.H.] 

RONCONI, a family of distinguished singers. 

DOMENICO, a tenor, was born July II, 1772, 
at Lendinara-di-Polesine in Venetia. He first 
appeared on the stage in 1797 at La Fenice, 
Venice, and obtained great renown both as a 
singer and actor, there and in other Italian cities. 
He sang in Italian opera at St. Petersburg and 
Munich, and afterwards became a professor of 
singing at the Conservatoires in those cities, and 
at Milan, where he died, April 13, 1839. Of Ms 
three sons, 

FELICE, born in 1811, at Venice, under the 
direction of his father devoted himself to in 
struction in singing, and became a professor in 
1837 at Wurzburg, at Frankfort, and, in 1844-8, 
at Milan. He was similarly engaged for some years 
in London, and finally at St. Petersburg, where 
he died Sept. io, 1875. He was the author of a 
Method of teaching singing, and of several songs, 
His second brother, 

GIORGIO, the celebrated baritone, was born at 
Milan, Aug. 6, 1810. He received instruction in 
singing from his father, and began his dramatic 
career in 1831, at Pavia, as Arturo in La 
Straniera, He played in some of the small 
Italian cities, then at Rome, where Donizetti 
wrote for him II Furioso, Torquato Tasso, 
and Maria di Rohan/ in which last, as Due de 
Chevreuse, he obtained one of his greatest 
triumphs- also at Turin, Florence, Naples, etc. In 
the last city Ronconi was married, Oct. 18, 1837. 
to Signorina Giovannina Giannoni, a singer who 
had played in London the previous year, in 
opera-buffa at the St. James s Theatre. He 
began his career in England at Her Majesty s, 
April 9, 1842, as Enrico in Lucia, and was 
well received during the season in that character 
and in those of Filippo (Beatrice di Tenda), 
Belcore (L Elisir), Basilio, Riccardo (Puritani), 
Tasso, etc. In the last opera his wife played 
with him, but neither then, nor five years later 
as Maria di Rohan, did she make the least im 
pression on the English public. He then made a 
provincial tour with her, Thalberg, and John 
Parry. In the winter he played at the Italians, 


Paris, with such success that he was engaged 
there for several subsequent seasons, and at one 
time was manager of the theatre, and was also 
engaged at Vienna, Pesth, Madrid (where he was 
manager), Barcelona and Naples. He reappeared 
in England April 13, 1847, a ^ Co vent Garden, 
as Enrico, and also played Figaro (Barbiere), 
May 8, De Chevreuse on the production in 
England of Maria di Rohan, and the Doge 
on the production of Verdi s I due Foscari, 
June 19, in which by his dignity and force he 
saved the opera . . . from utter condemnation* 
(Chorley). There are few instances of a voice 
so limited in compass (hardly exceeding an 
octave), so inferior in quality, so weak, so 

habitually out of tune The low stature, 

the features, unmarked and commonplace when 
silent, promising nothing -to an audience, yet 
which could express a dignity of bearing, a 
tragic passion not to be exceeded, or an exu 
berance of the wildest, quaintest, most whimsical, 

most spontaneous comedy These things 

we have seen, and have forgotten personal insigni 
ficance, vocal power beyond mediocrity, every 
disqualification, in the spell of strong, real sensi 
bility (Ib.). There have been few such examples 
of terrible courtly tragedy as Signor Ronconi s 
Chevreuse the polished demeanour of his earlier 
scenes giving a fearful force of contrast to the 
latter ones . . . . (Ib.) He sang at the Italian 
Opera every season until 1866 inclusive ex 
cepting 1855 an d 62, in all the great comic 
operas, as Don Juan, Leporello, Masetto, Na- 
bucco, Faust (Spohr), Rigoletto, Lord Allcash 
(Fra Diavolo), Dandolo (Zampa), Barberino 
(Stradella), and Crispino (Crispino e la Comare), 
etc. In the last six parts he was the original 
interpreter at the Italian Opera, and in many 
of, such as Rigoletto, the Lord, Figaro, 
and the Podesta (LaGazza) of Rossini, and those 
of Donizetti he remained a favourite. Of his 
classical parts, his Don Juan alone was a dis 
appointment. He afterwards went to America, 
and remained there some time, well received. 
He returned to Europe in 1874, and was ap 
pointed a teacher of singing at the Conservatorio 
at Madrid, which post he still holds. Some years 
previously he founded a school of singing at 
Uranada. 1 

SEBASTIANO, the other son, also a baritone, 
born May 1814, at Venice, received instruction 
from his father and the elder Romani, and made 
his first appearance in 1836, at Teatro Pantera, 
Lucca, as Torquato Tasso, in which part through 
out his career he made one of his greatest successes. 
He enjoyed considerable popularity in his own 
country, at Vienna, and in Spain, Portugal, and 
America, as an able artist in the same line of 
parts as his brother unlike him in personal 
appearance, being a tall thin man, but like him 
in the capability of his face for great variety 
of expression. He appeared in England in 1860 
at Her Majesty s, and was fairly well received as 
Rigolelto (in which he made his de"but, May 1 2th), 

l Not Cordova, as according to Ft:tis. 



Masetto, and Griletto (Prova d un Opera Seria). 
He retired from public life after a career of 35 
years, and is at the present time a, teacher of 
singing at Milan. 2 [A.C.] 

RONDEAU. The French name for a short 
poem of six or eight lines, containing but 
two rhymes, and so contrived that the open 
ing and closing lines were identical, thus form 
ing as it were a circle or round. The name 
has come to be used in music for a movement 
constructed on a somewhat corresponding plan. 
[See RONDO.] [G.] 

RONDO (Fr. Eondeau). A piece of music 
having one principal subject, to which a return 
is always made after the introduction of other 
matter, so as to give a symmetrical or rounded 
form to the whole. 

From the simplicity and obviousness of this 
idea it will be readily understood that the Rondo- 
form was the earliest and most frequent definite 
mould for musical construction. For a full tracing 
of this point see FORM [i. 541, 552]. In fact the 
First Movement and the Rondo are the two 
principal types of Form, modifications of the 
Rondo serving as the skeleton for nearly every 
piece or song now written. Dr. Marx ( Allge- 
meine Musiklehre ) distinguishes five forms of 
Rondo, but his description is involved, and, 
in the absence of any acknowledged authority 
for these distinctions, scarcely justifiable. 

Starting with a principal subject of definite 
form and length, the first idea naturally was to 
preserve this unchanged in key or form through 
the piece. Hence a decided melody of eight or 
sixteen bars was chosen, ending with a full close 
in the tonic. After a rambling excursion through 
several keys and with no particular object, the 
principal subject was regained and an agreeable 
sense of contrast attained. Later on there grew 
out of the free section a second subject in a re 
lated key, and still later a third, which allowed 
the second to be repeated in the tonic. This 
variety closely resembles the first-movement 
form, the third subject taking the place of the 
development of subjects, which is rare in a 
Rondo. The chief difference lies in the return 
to the first subject immediately after the second, 
which is the invariable characteristic of the 
Rondo. The first of these classes is the Rondo 
from Couperin to Haydn, the second and third 
that of Mozart and Beethoven. The fully deve 
loped Rondo-form of Beethoven and the modern 
composers may be thus tabulated : 


In the case of a Rondo in a minor key, the second 
subject would naturally be in. the relative major 
instead of in the dominant. 

One example perhaps the clearest as well 
as the best known in all music will suffice to 
make this plan understood by the untechnical 
reader. Taking the Rondo of Beethoven s 

2 We are indebted to him aod Mr. J. C. Griffith for much of the 
above iutormauuu with regard to his family. 




Sonata Pathetique (op. 13) we find the first the Rondo of the Sonata in A (op. 2, No. 2), the 

subject in C minor : 

this is of 1 7| bars in length and ends with a full 
close in the key. Six bars follow, modulating 
into Eb, where we find the second subject, which 
is of unusual proportions compared with the first, 
consisting as it does of three separate themes : 



After this we return to the ist subject, which 
ends just as before. A new start is then made with 
a third subject (or pair of subjects ?) in Ab : 

this material is worked out for 24 bars and 
leads to a prolonged passage on a chord of the 
dominant seventh on G, which heightens the 
expectation of the return of the ist subject by 
delaying it. On its third appearance it is not 
played quite to the end, but we are skilfully led 
away, the bass taking the theme, till, in the 
short space of four bars, we find the whole of the 
2nd subject reappearing in C major. Then, 
as this is somewhat long, the 1st subject conies 
in again for the fourth time and a Coda formed 
from the 2nd section of the 2nd subject concludes 
the Rondo with still another positively last 
appearance of No. i . 

Beethoven s Rondos will all be found to present 
but slight modifications of the above form. Some 
times a working-out or developznent of the 
2nd subject will take the place of the 3rd 
subject, as in the Sonata in E (op. 90), but in 
every case the principal subject will be presented 
in its entirety at least three times. But as this 
was apt to lead to monotony especially in the 
case of a long subject like that in the Sonata 
just quoted Beethoven introduced the plan of 
varying the theme slightly on each repetition, or 
of breaking off in the middle. It is in such 
delicate and artistic modifications and improve 
ments as these that the true genius shows itself, 
and not in the complete abandonment of old 
rules. In the earliest example we can take 

form of the opening arpeggio is altered on every 
recurrence, while the simple phrase of the third 
and fourth bars 


is thus varied : 

In the Rondo of the Sonata in E b (op. 7) again, 
we find the main subject cut short on its second 
appearance, while on its final repetition all sorts 
of liberties are taken with it ; it is played an 
octave higher than its normal place, a free varia 
tion is made on it, and at last we are startled by 
its being thrust into a distant key EJJ. This 
last effect has been boldly pilfered by many a 
composer since Chopin in the Rondo of his 
E minor Pianoforte Concerto, for instance. It is 
needless to multiply examples : Beethoven shows 
in each successive work how this apparently stiff 
and rigid form can be invested with infinite 
variety and interest; he always contradicted the 
idea (in which too few have followed him) 
that a Rondo was bound in duty to be an 
8-bar subject in 2-4 time, of one unvarying, 
jaunty, and exasperatingly jocose character. The 
Rondo of the Eb Sonata is most touchingly 
melancholy, so is that to the Sonata in E (op. 90), 
not to mention many others. There will always 
remain a certain stiffness in this form, owing to 
the usual separation of the subject from its sur 
roundings by a full close. When this is dispensed 
with, the piece is said to be in Rondo-form, but 
is not called a Rondo (e.g. the last movement of 
Beethoven s Sonata op. i, No. 3). 

Modern composers, like Chopin, with whom 
construction was not a strong point, often omit 
the central section, or third subject, together with 
the repetition of the first subject which accom 
panies it, and thus what they call a Rondo is 
merely a piece on the plan of a French overture; 
that is to say, having produced all his material 
in the first half of the piece, the composer repeats 
the whole unchanged, save that such portions as 
were in the Dominant are, in the repetition, 
given in the Tonic. Chopin s Rondeau brill- 
ante in Eb, the Adieu a Varsovie indeed all 
his Rondos show this construction, or rather, 
want of construction. [F.C.] 



Rourke, a Dublin tradesman, was born in South 
Great George s Street, Dublin, Sept. 29, 1 794. His 
bent for rnusic, which displayed itself at an early 
age, was sternly discouraged by his father, who 
wished him to follow his own avocation, but 
before he was sixteen, he was, by his father s 
death, left free to follow his own inclination. 
He studied, almost unaided, so assiduously, that 
in 1813 he took to music as a profession, learned 
counterpoint under Dr. Cogan, a Dublin professor, 
and became a teacher of the violin and piano 
forte. Among his pupils on the former in 
strument was Ealfe, then a boy. In 1817 
he was appointed chorus-master and deputy 
leader at the theatre in Crow Street, Dublin, 
and soon afterwards composed a polacca, Oh 
Glory, in thy brightest hour, which was sung 
b} 7 Braham, and met with great approbation. A 
few years later he removed to England. In 1826 
he was leading oratorios at Birmingham, and in 
the same year came to London, and sought the 
appointment of chorus-master at Drury Lane, and 
established himself as a teacher of singing. About 
this period he composed his opera, Amilie, or 
The Love Test, which, after he had waited 
many years for an opportunity of producing it, 
was brought out at Covent Garden, Dec. 2, 1837, 
with decided success, and at once established his 
reputation as a composer of marked ability. He 
immediately commenced the composition of a 
second opera, and on May 2, 1839 produced at 
Covent Garden Henrique, or, The Love Pilgrim, 
which although most favourably received, was 
withdrawn after five performances on account of 
a misunderstanding with the manager. He com 
posed a third opera entitled Cagliostro, which has 
never been performed. He died Oct. 14, 1847, and 
was buried in Brompton Cemetery. [W.H.H.] 

ROOT. The classification of the chords which 
form the structural material of modern harmonic 
music is attained by referring them to what are 
called their roots ; and it is mainly by their use 
that these harmonic elements are brought within 
the domain of intelligible order. 

As long as the purely polyphonic system was 
in full force, the chordal combinations were merely 
classified according to recognized degrees of con 
sonance and dissonance, without any clear idea 
of relationship : but as that system merged by 
degrees into the harmonic system, it was found 
that fresh principles of classification were in 
dispensable ; and that many combinations which 
at first might appear to have quite a distinct 
character must somehow be recognised as having 
a common centre. This centre was found in an 
ultimate bass note, namely, the bass note of the 
complete chord in. what would be considered its 
natural or first position ; and this was called the 
Root, and served as the common indicator of all 
the various portions of the complete chord which 
could be detached, and their test of closest pos 
sible relationship. Further, these roots were 
themselves classified according to their status in 
any given key ; and by this means a group of 



chords which were related to one another most 
closely by having the same root, might be shown 
to be related severally and collectively to the 
group which belonged to another root ; and the 
degree of relationship could be easily and clearly 
ascertained according to the known nearness or 
remoteness of the roots in question. By this 
means the whole harmonic basis of a piece of 
music can be tested ; and it must be further 
noted that it is only by such means that the 
structural principles of that kind of music which 
has been called absolute because of its dis 
sociation from words, is rendered abstractedly 

The principle upon which modern Instrumental 
Music has been developed is that a succession of 
distinct tunes or recognizable sections of melody 
or figures can be associated by the orderly distri 
bution of harmonies and keys in such a manner 
that the mind can realise the concatenation as a 
complete and distinct work of art. It is obvious 
that fine melodic material is a vital point ; but 
it is not so obvious that where the dimensions of 
the work are such that a continuous flow of 
melody of a uniform character is impossible, the 
orderly arrangement of the materials in suc 
cessions of keys and harmonies is no less vital. 
The harmonic structure requires to be clearly 
ascertainable in works of art which are felt to 
be masterpieces of form, and to be perfectly 
understood and felt by those who attempt to 
follow such models : hence, in discussing the 
structure of works of this kind, the frequent 
use of such terms as Tonic, or Dominant or Sub- 
dominant harmony, which is only a short way 
of describing harmony of which these respective 
notes are the roots. 

The simplest and most stable of complete com 
binations in music are the chords consisting of 
a bass note with its third and perfect fifth ; and 
of these the bass note is considered the root. 
In most cases such a root is held to be the funda 
mental sound of the series of harmonics which 
an essential chord may be taken to represent. 
For instance, the chord of the major third and 
perfect fifth on any note is supposed to represent 
the ground tone or generator with two of its 
most distinct and characteristic lower harmonics; 
and whatever be the positions of the individual 
notes in respect of one another, they are 
still referred to this ground-tone as a root. 
Thus the chord GBD (a) would be taken 




to be the representative of the ground-tone 
G with its second and fourth harmonics (6); 
and every transposition or inversion of the 
same notes, such as BDG, or DGB in close or 
open order (as in c), or even lesser portions 
to which the implication of a context would 
afford a clue, would be referred alike to this 
same root. If F be added (d) to the above 
chord it may be taken to represent the sixth 
harmonic (6\ and similar inversions of the 
component portions of the chord will similarly 
be referred to the note G. If A be added further 
above the F of the preceding chord, producing 
G B D F A (as in e), that is commonly taken as a 
yet more complete representation of the group 
of harmonics generated by the sounding of G, 
of which it is the eighth; and, as before, all the 
different portions which could be intelligibly 
isolated, and all the transpositions of its component 
notes, would be still referable to the one root G. 
If Ab had been taken instead of Afl, the same 
general explanation would hold good, though 
the special question might remain open whether 
it was a representative of the i6th harmonic, 
which is four octaves from the fundamental sound, 
or an artificial softening of the clear and strong 
major ninth, At]. Some theorists carry the same 
principles yet further, and include the C above 
A, and even the E and Eb above that in the 
group which represents the harmonic series of 
G, calling them respectively the eleventh and 
major and minor thirteenths of that note. 

The discords contained in the above series are 
frequently styled fundamental, from this sup 
posed representation of the group of harmonics 
generated by their fundamental or root note ; 
they are characterised among discords by the 
peculiar freedom of the notes of which they are 
composed, on both sides. It will be observed 
that they are all members of the Diatonic series 
of the key of C, major or minor ; and as G, their 
root note, is the Dominant of that key, they re 
present the scope of what is called the Dominant 
harmony of C, which of course has its counter 
part in every other key. No other note than 
the Dominant serves to this extent as the root 
of chords of this class which are Diatonic. The 
Tonic, for instance, can only supply the third and 
fifth, and even the minor seventh is a chromatic 
note. Nevertheless this chromatic chord and the 
ninths which are built upon it are commonly 
used as if they belonged to the key of C ; and the 
same remark applies to the similar discords 
founded on the Supertonic root (as D in the key 
of C) ; and these are most readily intelligible 
through their close connection as Dominant har 
mony to the Dominant of C. 

The roots of the various combinations which 
are arrived at by modifying the intervals of such 
distinct and essential harmonies as the above, are 
of course the same as those of the unmodified 
harmonies. Thus the roots of suspensions are 
the same as those of the harmonies upon which 
they are said to resolve, because they are modifi 
cations of that which follows in its complete 
state, and not of that which precedes ; and the 


same applies to the combinations produced by 
adventitious notes, such as appoggiaturas and 
the like. 

The combinations which arise from the simul 
taneous occurrence of ordinary passing notes must 
find their root in the chord which precedes, as 
that has possession of the field till new harmony 
presents itself. 

From these considerations it will be obvious 
that a very considerable variety of apparently 
different combinations are referable to a single 
root. In fact a great portion of music is built 
upon very few roots ; many examples of good 
popular music especially do not exceed the limits 
of Tonic and Dominant harmony with an occa 
sional move as far as the Sub-dominant, and 
next to no modulation. Even in works which 
belong to the domain sometimes distinguished as 
high art a great deal is often done within very 
narrow limits. For instance, the whole of the 
first section of a violin and pianoforte sonata of 
Mozart s in A is based on six successive alterna 
tions of Tonic and Dominant harmony, and 
modulation to the new key for the second section 
is effected merely by the Dominant and Tonic 
harmony of that key. 

Notwithstanding the importance which attaches 
to a clear understanding of the classification of 
chords according to their roots, there are some 
combinations upon whose derivation doctors dis 
agree ; and it must be confessed that the theory 
of music is yet far from that complete and settled 
sta.oe which would admit any hope of a decisive 
verdict in the matter at present. In such cir 
cumstances variety of opinion is not only inevit 
able but desirable ; and though the multitude of 
counsellors is a little bewildering there are 
consolations ; for it happens fortunately that 
these differences of opinion are not vital. Such 
chords, for instance, as augmented sixths have 
so marked and immediate a connection with 
the most prominent harmonies in the key, that 
the ascertainment of their roots becomes of 
secondary importance ; and even with the chord 

D ) 

which stands as A > in the key of C for instance 


F J 

(/), it is not so indispensable to decide 
whether G or F or D is the root, or whether 
indeed it is even a double-rooted chord, because, 
among other reasons, the very attention which 
has been called to it and the very character 
istics which have made it difficult to classify 
have given it a prominence and a unique indi 
viduality which relieves it of the need of being 
assigned to any category ; and even when it IB 
an important factor in the harmonic structure, 
the process of analysis need not be rendered 
doubtful because its actual position in the key is 
so thoroughly realised. Other disputed points 
there are having reference to roots, which are 
even of less importance. For instance, whether 
what is called an augmented fifth is really 
an augmented fifth or a minor thirteenth ; or 
whether the augmented octave which Mozart 




uses with such marked emphasis in the 3rd bar 
of the Allegro in the overture to Don Giovanni 
is properly a minor ninth, as some maintain 
since happily the roots would be the same in 
both cases. [C.H.H.P.J 

RORE, CIPRTANO DI, composer of the Venetian 
school, born at Mechlin in 1516. He studied 
under Willaert, 1 chapel-master of St. Mark s, 
Venice, and was probably in early life a singer 
in that cathedral. In 1542 he brought out his 
first book of madrigals (a 4), a work long held in 
favour, 2 and for the next 7 or 8 years published 
continually. 3 About 1550* he appears to have 
left Venice for the court of Hercules II. Duke 
of Ferrara, and for some years we hear nothing 
of him. 5 In 1559 he returned to Venice to assist 
Willaert in his duties at St. Mark s, and on the 
death of that master, was appointed his successor, 
Oct. 1 8, 1563. He resigned this position almost 
immediately, and went to the court of Parma, 
where in a few months he died, at the age of 49. 
He was buried in the cathedral of that city, and 
the following epitaph gives an authentic sketch 
of his life. 

Cypriano Roro, Flandro 

Artia Musicae 
Viro omnium peritissimo, 
Cujus nomen famaque 
Nee vetustate obrui 
Nee oblivione deleri poterit, 
Hercules Ferrariens. Duels II. 
Deinde Venetorum, 

Octavi Earnest Parmae et Placentise 

Duels II Chori Prsefecto. 
Ludovicus frater, fil. et hseredes 

Moestissimi posuerunt. 
Obiit anno MDLXV. setatis XLIX. 

The position to which Rore attained at St. 
Mark s, and the rank as a musician which con 
temporary writers assigned him, point to his 
having been something besides a madrigal com 
poser. Yet of his church compositions either in 
print or in MS. few have survived. 6 We only 

1 See title-page Fantesie e Recerchari etc. composts da lo Eccell. 
A. Vuigliart e tuo Ditcepolo etc. Venetiis 1549 (Brit. Mus. 
A. 287,1. 

2 The Fells library at Brussels contains imperfect copies of three 
editions 1552, 69 and 82. The edition in the British Museum is 1575. 

3 The following list of books of motets and madrigals is taken from 
Feiis Biographic, Eitner s Bibliographic, and the catalogues of the 
British Museum and F4tis libraries. Borne contain work by other 
composers, but in all cases they bear Cipriano s name, and he is the 
chief contributor. The date given is that of the supposed 1st edition. 

Motets. Bk. I, a 5, Venice 1544 (Brit. Mus.) ; Bk. II, a 4 and 5, Venice 
1547 (Fetis Biogr.) ; Bk. HI, a 5, Venice 1559 (Eitner). 

Madrigals. Bk. I, a 4, Venice 1542 (F5tis Biogr.) ; Bk. n, a 5, Venice 
1544 (Brit. Mus. The words on title-page, novamente posti in luce, 
point to this being the 1st edition, though Fetis gives the date 1543. 
Eitner knows of no edition earlier than 1551) ; Bk. Ill, a 5. Venice 
1544 (F5tis Bibl. The 1562 edition in Brit. Mus.); Bks. IV and V 
(Venice 1568, according to Eitner and Fe"tis, but title-pages prove 
these not to be 1st editions. The fifth book contains an ode to the 
Duke of Parma, and from the events of the composer s life, we may 
assume this volume to be one of his latest publications). 

Chromatic madrigals. Bk. I, a 5, 1544 (Brit. Mus. The word rls- 
tampato on title-page shows that even this is not Istedition, though 
FtStis knows of none earlier than 1560. Be quotes 5 books of these 
madrigals, Venice 156068). The first book was reprinted as late as 
1592 (F(5tis library). Burney has inserted one number in his History. 

4 In this year a reprint of his 1st book of madrigals was brought out 
at Ferra ra. 

5 Except the publication of 2 Passions (Paris 1557) with the following 
curious titles : Passio D. N. J. Ohristi in qua solus Johannes canens 

Introducitur cum quatuor vocibus and Passio inquaiutro- 

ducuntur Jesus et Oudaei canemes, cum duabus et sex vocibus. 

s Fe~tis mentions a book of Cipriano s masses, a 4, 5, 6 (Venice 1566) 
on the authority of Draudius Bibliotheca Classica. This is probably 
Liber Missarum a 4, 5, 6 (Venice 1566) to which Cipriano only con 
tributes th 1st mas* Doulce memoyre. 

know that they were held in high esteem in the 
court chapel at Munich, and were constantly 
performed there under Lassus direction. 7 Duke 
Albert of Bavaria caused a superb copy of Rore s 
motets to be made for his library, where it 
remains to this day, with a portrait of the com 
poser on the last page, by the court painter 
Mielich. [J.R.S.-B.] 

born at Hamburg, March 22, 1843, was educated 
as a violin player and made such progress as to 
be sent to the Leipzig Conservatorium, which he 
entered in 1859. ^ n J 866 he came to England 
and appeared as a solo player at the Crystal 
Palace on March 10. After a short stay in 
London he joined Mr. Bateman in a concert- 
tour in the United States, and there met 
Madame Parepa, whom he married at New York, 
in. Feb. 1867. His wife s success on the stage 
led to the formation of a company under the 
management and conductorsliip of Mr. Rose, 
which during its early campaigns could boast 
such names as Parepa, Wachtel, Santley, Ronconi 
and Formes among its artists. 

Early in 1871 Mr. Rose who by this time 
had changed his name to Rosa to avoid mistakes 
in pronunciation returned to England with his 
wife, and then made a lengthened visit to Egypt 
for health. After this they again returned to 
London, but only for the lamented death of 
Madame Parepa-Rosa, which took place Jan. 21, 
1874. Mr. Rosa however was resolved, not 
withstanding this serious blow, to test the 
fortunes of English opera in London, and on 
Sept. n, 1875, he opened the Princess s Theatre 
with a company including Miss Rose Hersee as 
prima donna, Mr. Santley, and other good 
singers. He closed on Oct. 30, having produced 
Figaro, Faust, * The Porter of Havre (Cagnoni), 
Fra Diavolo, Bohemian Girl, Trovatore, *The 
Water Carrier (Cherubini), and Siege of Rochelle. 

The season of 1876 was undertaken at the 
Lyceum (Sept. n-Dec. 2). It included The 
Water Carrier ; The Lily of Killarney (with 
additions) ; Sonnambula ; Faust ; * Giralda 
(Adam) ; Bohemian Girl ; * Flying Dutchman ; 
Zampa ; Trovatore ; Montana ; * Joconde (Ni- 
colb) ; Fidelio ; Fra Diavolo ; * Pauline (Co wen) ; 
Porter of Havre. The next season was at the 
Adelphi Theatre (Feb. n-April 6, 1878). It 
included *The Golden Cross, by Briill ; The 
Merry Wives ; The Flying Dutchman ; The Lily 
of Killarney, and others of those already named. 
For the fourth season Mr. Rosa took Her 
Majesty s Theatre (Jan. 27-March 22, 1879), 
brought out * Rienzi, * Piccolino (by Guiraud) 
and * Carmen, and played The Golden Cross, 
Huguenots, Lily of Killarney, etc., etc. His 
fifth season was at the same theatre (Jan. 10- 
March 6, 1880) ; * Mignon (Thomas), * Lohengrin 
and *Aida were all produced for the first time 
in English; and The Taming of the Shrew 

7 Discorsi delli triomphi etc. nelle nozze dell lllustr. duca Gugl. 
etc. da Massimo Trojano (Monaco, Berg. 150H). 

* Denotes that the works had not been before produced in England, 
at least in English. 



(Goetz), Carmen, Rienzi, etc. were performed. 
The artists engaged at the season of 1880 in 
cluded Miss Minnie Hauk, Miss Julia Gay lord, 
Mad. Dolaro, Herr A. Schott, Mr. Maas, etc., 
etc. The careful way in which the pieces are 
put on the stage, the number of rehearsals, the 
eminence of the performers and the excellence of 
the performances have begun to bear their 
legitimate fruit, and the Carl Rosa Opera 
Company bids fair to become a permanent 
English institution. 

ROSALIA (Germ. Vetter Michel, Schuster- 
flcck}. A form of Melody, Vocal or Instrumental, 
in which a Figure is repeated several times in 
succession, transposed a note higher at each 

The name is derived from an old Italian Canto 
popolare, Rosalia, mia cara, the Melody of which 
is constructed upon this principle. 




The well-known German Volkslied, Gestern 
Abend war Vetter Michel da, begins with a simi 
lar repetition, and hence the figure is frequently 
called in Germany, Vetter Michel. These titles, 
as well as that of Schusterfleck a cobble- 
are of course given to it in derision for writers 
on Composition regard its frequent introduction 
as indicative of poverty of inventive power. 
Nevertheless, it is frequently employed, by the 
Great Masters, with charming effect, as may be 
seen in the following example from the Minuet 
in Handel s Ariadne : 

afTS | ! qSt 






j ^ 




It will be observed that the Figure is here 
suffered to appear three 1 times only in succes 
sion. Almost all great writers have imposed 
this limit upon its employment, experience hav 
ing proved that a four-fold repetition generally 
tends to render the passage wearisome. Strik 
ingly effective instances of three-fold repetition 
will be found, in Mozart s Requiem, at the words 
Ingemisco tamquam reus ; in Spohr s Last 
Judgment, at The grave gives up its dead ; 
and in a remarkably forcible passage in the Ri- 

i Sometimes called Les trois Ke ve rences. 


gaudon from Rameau s Dardanus. Still, this 
restriction is frequently disregarded. Vallerano 
has left a Canon, 2 which ascends a Tone higher at 
each repetition, ad infinitum ; and the resulting 
effect is far from inharmonious, though the work 
must be regarded rather as a musical curiosity 
than a serious Composition. 

Closely allied to this Figure is another, in 
which the leading phrase is transposed one or 
more notes lower at each repetition ; as in 
Habbiam vinto from Handel s Scipio, in 
which the transposition proceeds by Thirds. 








Here, again, the Figure breaks off after a 
three-fold reiteration ; and, in two cases in which 
Mozart has employed the same device, in his 
Requiem at the words Qui Mariam absolvisti, 
and Oro supplex et acclinis it is relinquished 
after the second enunciation. This kind of Imita 
tion is, indeed, subject to exactly the same form 
of treatment as the true Rosalia ; though it would 
be inexact to call it by that name, and equally so 
to apply the term to the regular ascents or 
descents of a Sequence as constantly exhibited in 
the Fugues of Seb. Bach ; or to those of vocal 
Divisions as in Every valley, or Rossini s 
Quis est homo ; or to the anomalous Scene, in 
Tannhauser happily, the only instance of such 
treatment known in which the first Verse of 
Dir tone Lob is sung in Db, the second, in Dfi, 
the third, in Eb, and a still later one in E t|. 

Schumann has been recently accused of writing 
Rosalie, usque ad nauseam. He does employ them 
very frequently : but, how often as in the open 
ing ef his Arabeske (op. 18) with an effect 
which true genius alone could have dictated. 
This is not the place for a detailed criticism of 
Schumann s principles of composition : but when, 
as in a bitter article, by Joseph Rubinstein, 
which lately appeared in Wagner s Bayreuther 
Blatter, his masterly use of this particular device 
is made to serve as an excuse for its unqualified 
condemnation, as a vicious monotony-producing 
repetition of Musical Phrases on related degrees, 
which the Student of Composition loves to intro 
duce in his first exercises, we naturally revolt 
from a conclusion so illogical. That a form which 
neither Handel, nor Mozart, nor Beethoven, nor 
any other great writer has disdained to employ, 
can possibly be, in its own nature, vicious/ we 

2 Reprinted iu rol. i. of Clemeuti s Practical Harmon} . 


cannot believe. With equal reason might we 
condemn the monotony-producing effect of a 
regular Figure. It is, indeed, quite possible to 
make such a Figure monotonous to the last degree ; 
yet nearly the whole of Beethoven s Andante 
in F (op. 34), is founded on the rhythmic form 
of the first four notes of the opening Subject 



The truth is, that, in the hands of a Great 
Master, all such devices are made productive of 
pure and beautiful effects; while all are vicious, 
when viciously misused. [W.S.E.] 


(Rosamond, Princess of Cyprus). A romantic play 
in 4 acts ; written by Wilhelmine Christine 
Chezy, the overture and incidental music by 
Franz Schubert (op. 26). Produced at the Theatre 
an-der-Wien, Vienna, Dec. 20, 1823, and only 
performed twice. The music as then played is 
as follows : 

* 1. Overture (D minor). 

i 2. Entracte between Acts 1 and 2 (B minor), 
t 3. Ballo (B minors, and Andante un poco assai (&). 
4. Entracte between Acts 2 and 3 (D). 

* 5. Romance for soprano Der Vollmond strahlt 

(F minor). 

* 6. Chorus of Spirits. 

* 7. Entracte between Acts 3 and i (B b). 
8. Shepherds Melody. 

* 9. Shepherds Chorus. 
*10. Huntsmen s Chorus, 
til. Air de Ballet (G). 

The overture played at the performances was 
published in 1827, for PF. 4 hands, by Schubert 
himself, as op. 52, under the title of Alphonso 
und Estrella (now op. 69). The overture (in C), 
known as the Overture to Rosamund e (op. 26) 
was composed for the melodrama of the Zauber- 
harfe, or Magic Harp (produced Aug. 19, 1820), 
and was published by Schubert with its present 
name and opus-number for PF. 4 hands, in 1828. 
The pieces marked have been published those 
marked with * by Schubert himself, as op. 26 ; 
those marked with t more recently. For parti 
culars see Nottebohm s Thematic Catalogue, p. 46, 
84. The Entracte in B minor is one of the finest of 
all Schubert s works ; the Romance, the Entracte 
no. 7, the Shepherds Melody, and the Air de Bal 
let in G, are all admirable, the Shepherds Melody 
for 2 clarinets especially characteristic. The 2nd 
Trio to the Entracte no. 7 was previously composed, 
in May 1816, as a song, Der Leidende. [G.] 

ROSE or KNOT (Fr. Rosace; Fr. and Germ. 
Rosette ; Ital. Rosa). The ornamental device or 
scutcheon inserted in the soundhole of the belly 
of stringed instruments, such as the lute, guitar, 
mandoline, dulcimer, or harpsichord, serving 
not only a decorative purpose, but in the 
Netherlands especially as the maker s trade 
mark. In the harpsichord and spinet there was 
usually but one soundhole with its rose ; but 
owing to the origin of these keyboard instruments 
from the psaltery, their analogy with the lute, 
and the fact of the Roman lutes having three, 
several soundholes were sometimes perforated. In 
fact, a clavicembalo dated 1531 was lately seen in 

VOL. HI. JET. 2. 

Italy by the eminent art critic, Mr. T. J. GulHck, 
which possessed no less than five, each with a 
rose inserted. From the analogy above referred 
to, the old Italian harpsichord makers named 
the bottom of the instrument cassa armonica 
(soundchest) ; as if its office were like that of the 
back of the lute or viol, while the belly was the 
piano armonico (soundflat). 1 The Flemings, 
retaining the soundhole, doubtless adhered more 
or less to this erroneous notion of a soundchest. 
The Hitchcocks in England (1620 and later) 
appear to have been the first to abandon it ; 
no roses are seen in their instruments. Kivkman 
in the next century still adhered to the rose and 
trade scutcheon, but Shudi did not. In the 
Giornale cle Litterati d Italia (Venice, 1711, 
torn, v.), Scipione Maffei, referring to Cristofori, 
who had recently invented the pianoforte, ap 
proves of his retention of the principle of the rose 
in his ordinary harpsichords, although contem 
porary makers for the most part had abandoned 
it. But Cristofori, instead of a large rose, to 
further, as he thought, the resonance, used two 
small apertures in the front. Under the head 
RUCKERS will be found illustrations of the rose or 
rosace, as used by those great makers. [A. J.H.] 

ROSE OF CASTILE. An opera in 3 acts ; 
compiled by Messrs. Harris and Falconer (from 
Le Muletier de Tolecle), music by M. W. Balfe. 
Produced at the Lyceum Theatre (Pyne and 
Harrison), London, Oct. 29, 1857. [G.] 


DANIEL, was educated in the Chapel Royal under 
Pelham Humfrey. In 1693 he became organist 
of Salisbury Cathedral, which appointment he 
quitted in 1698 and was chosen organist and 
vicar-choral of St. Patrick s Cathedral, Dublin. 
He held these posts for 20 years, when he resigned 
them in favour of his son RALPH, who held them 
from April 1719 until his death in Oct. 1747. 

THOMAS, another son, received his early mu 
sical education from his father, and manifesting 
great aptitude, was allowed a pension by the 
Dean and Chapter of St. Patrick s to enable him 
to travel for improvement. He went to Italy in 
1710, and at Rome was on friendly terms with 
the Scarlattis. In 1 71 2 he composed, at Venice, 
an anthem, Arise, shine, preserved in the Tud- 
way collection (Harl. MS. 7342). In 1720 we 
find him in London, bringing out at the King s 
Theatre an adaptation of D. Scarlatti s opera 
Narcissus, with additional songs composed by 
himself. In 1725 he was selected, from seven 
competitors, as the first organist of St. George s, 
Hanover Square, at a salary of 45 per annum ; 
the judges were Drs. Croft and Pepuseh, with 
Buononcini and Geminiani, each of whom gave 
a subject upon which the candidates were to make 
an extempore fugue. Some years afterwards, a 
disappointment in love so seriously affected Rose- 
ingrave s reason that he was compelled to desist 
from his duty, and from 1737 it was performed 
by Keeble, who received half the salary. Rosein- 

1 In modern Italian we more frequently meet with tompaguo," 
tavula armonica, and fondo, meaning belly or soundboard. 




grave died about 1750. He published Volun 
taries and Fugues for the Organ or Harpsichord ; 
Italian Cantatas, 2 books of 6 each ; and 1 2 solos 
for the German flute ; also a collection of 42 Suits 
of Lessons for the harpsichord composed by Sign. 
Domenico Scarlatti, with an introduction by him 
self. He was an enthusiastic admirer of Pales- 
trina, and hung his bedroom with pieces of paper 
containing extracts from his works. [W.H.H.] 

ROSELLEN, HENRI, son of a PF. maker, born 
in Paris, Oct. 13, 181 1 ; took 2nd PF. prize at the 
Conservatoire 1827, and ist harmony do. 1828. 
Was a pupil and imitator of Herz. He published 
nearly 200 works for PF. including a Me"thode 
de Piano (Heugel), a collection of progressive 
exercises entitled Manuel des Pianistes (ibid.), 
and many separate pieces of drawing-room cha 
racter, one of which, a Reverie (op. 31, no. i), 
enjoyed an extraordinary popularity for many 
years over the whole of Europe. He died March 
20, 1876. [Gr.] 

ROSENHAIN, JACOB, eldest son of a banker, 
was born at Mannheim, December 2, 1813. His 
teachers were Jacob Schmitt, Kalliwoda, and 
Schnyder von Wartensee. His first appearance 
as a pianoforte -player was at Stuttgart in 1825, 
after that at Frankfort, where his success induced 
him to take up his residence. A one-act piece of 
his, Der Besuch im Irrenhause, was produced 
at Frankfort, December 29, 1834, with great 
success ; his second, Liswenna, 3 acts, was 
not so fortunate. In 1837 he came to London, 
played at the Philharmonic, April i7th, and was 
much heard in the concerts of the day. After 
this he took up his abode in Paris, where he 
became very prominent, giving chamber con 
certs in combination with Alard, Ernst, and other 
eminent players, and carrying on a school of piano 
forte-playing in conjunction with. J. B. Cramer. 
His early opera, Liswenna, was provided with a 
new libretto (by Bayard and Arago), and brought 
out at the Grand Opera as Le De mon de la Nuit, 
March 1 7, 1 85 1 . It had however but a moderate 
success, and was withdrawn after four represen 
tations, though afterwards occasionally played 
in Germany. Another one-act piece, Volage et 
Jaloux, produced at Baden-Baden, August 3, 
1863, completes the list of his works for the 
stage. In instrumental music he was much more 
prolific. He has composed 3 symphonies in G 
minor (op. 42), played at the Gewandhaus, Leip 
zig, under Mendelssohn s direction, January 31, 
1846; in F minor (op. 43), played at Brussels, 
and at the Philharmonic, London, April 24, 1854 ; 
Im Friihling, iu F minor (op. 61), rehearsed at 
Conservatoire, but not played. 4 trios for PF. 
and strings ; I PF. concerto ; 3 string quartets ; 
i cello sonatas ; 12 characteristic studies (op. 17) 
and 24 Etudes melodiques (op. 20), both for PF. 
solo. Also various pieces for ditto, entitled, 
Poe"mes, Reveries, etc. ; a biblical cantata, 
and various songs, etc. M. Fe"tis credits him 
with a broad and pure (style of playing, and 
with knowledge and ambition in composition. 
Schumann has criticised several of his pieces 
with kindness and liberality. [G.] 


ROSES, JOSE, priest and musician, born at 
Barcelona Feb. 9, 1791, learned music from 
Sampere, chapelmaster at Barcelona ; was first 
organist of the monastery of San Pablo and then 
succeeded his master at Santa Maria del Pino, 
a post which he held for thirty years. During 
this time he composed a large quantity of music 
masses, requiems, motets, graduals, etc., which are 
preserved in MS. in the church. Among his pupils 
may be mentioned Calvo, Puig, Rius, Casanovas, 
etc. He died at his native city Jan. 2, 1856. [G.] 

ROSIN (Fr. Colophane), a preparation applied 
to the hair of the violin bow to give it the neces 
sary bite upon the strings. Without some such 
agent, the horsehair would slip noiselessly over 
the catgut. Rosin is the residuary gum of tur 
pentine after distillation. The ordinary rosin of 
commerce is a coarse, hard substance, quite use 
less to the fiddler, for whom the rough material 
undergoes a process of refinement. The ancient 
English recipe was to boil rough rosin down in 
vinegar, a process no longer in vogue, as excellent 
French rosin is now to be had at a very trifling 
cost. It is prepared by dissolving the rough 
article in a glazed earthen vessel over a slow 
charcoal fire. As it melts, it is strained through 
coarse canvas into a second vessel also kept at a 
moderate heat, from which it is poured into paste 
board or metal moulds. The process requires some 
delicacy of eye and hand, and the greatest care in 
handling so inflammable a material, and is usually 
entrusted to women . Some players affect to prefer 
the rosin of Gand, others that of Vuillauine, but 
both are made of the same material and at the 
same factory. Rosin should be transparent, of a 
darkish yellow colour in the mass, and quite white 
when pulverised : it ought to fall from the bow, 
when first applied to the strings, in a very fine 
white dust : when crushed between the fingers it 
ought not to feel sticky. The best rosin is made 
from Venetian turpentine. The same sort of 
rosin serves for the violin, viola, and violoncello. 
The double-bass bow requires a stiffer preparation 
than pure rosin, and accordingly double-bass 
rosin is made of ordinary rosin and white pitch 
in equal proportions. Emery powder and other 
matters are sometimes added in the composition 
of rosin, but are quite unnecessary, and even in 
jurious to the tone. A liquid rosin, applied to the 
bow with a camel s-hair brush, has recently been 
invented, and has its advocates. [E.J.P.] 

ROSS, JOHN, born at Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
in 1764, was placed in his eleventh year under 
Hawdon, organist of St. Nicholas Church, a dis 
ciple of Charles Avison, with whom he studied for 
seven years. In 1783 he was appointed organist 
of St. Paul s Chapel, Aberdeen, where he re 
mained for half a century. He composed An 
Ode to Charity, pianoforte concertos and sonatas, 
songs, canzonets, hymns, waltzes, etc. [W.H.H.] 

ROSSETOR, PHILIP, a lutenist, who in 1601 
issued A Booke of Ayres, set foorth to be song 
to the Lute, Orpherian, and Base Violl, contain 
ing 42 songs, the poetry and music of the first 
21 by Campion, and the rest by Rossetor himself. 


In 1609 ne published * Lessons for Consort : Made 
by sundry excellent Authors, and set to sixe seve- 
rall instruments ; Namely, the Treble Lute, Treble 
Violl, Base Violl, Bandora, Citterne, and the 
Flute. On Jan. 4, 1610, a patent was granted 
to him and others appointing them Masters of 
the Children of the Queen s Revels, under which 
they carried on dramatic performances at the 
theatre in Whitefriars. In March, 1612, Ros- 
setor s company was joined by The Lady Eliza 
beth s Servants, but the union lasted for a year 
only. In 1616 a privy seal for a patent for the 
erection of a theatre in Blackfriars was granted 
to Rossetor, Philip Kingman, Robert Jones and 
Ralph Reeve, but the Lord Mayor and Aldermen 
compelled them to surrender it. [See JONES, 
ROBERT, vol. ii. p. 39&.J [W.H.H.] 

ROSSI, FRANCESCO, born at Bari about 1645, 
canon there 1680; author of 4 operas II Se- 
jano moderno (Venice, 1680") ; La Pena degli 
Oechi (Ib., 1688^; La Carilda (Ib., 1688); 
Mitrane (Ib., 1689). Also of Psalms and a 
Requiem, k 5, printed 1688 ; and an oratorio 
La Caduta dei Gigante. (MS.) The fine and 
well-known scena Ah ! rendimi is from Mitrane, 
and gives a high idea of Rossi s power. [G.] 

ROSSI, LAURO, an Italian composer, who, 
like Raimondi, although the author of nu 
merous operas, and famous from end to end of 
Italy, is hardly so much as known by name 
on this side the Alps. He was born 1 at Ma- 
cerata, near Ancona, February 20, 1812, and 
was taught music at the Conservatorio of Naples 
under Crescentini, Furno, and Zingarelli. He 
began to write at once, and at 1 8 had his first 
two operas Le Contesse Villane and La Vil- 
lana Contessa performed at the Fenice and 
Nuovo Theatres of Naples respectively. Other 
pieces followed ; one of them, Costanza ed 
Uringaldo, being written expressly for the San 
Carlo at the request of Barbaja. On the recom 
mendation of Donizetti, Rossi was engaged for 
the Teatro Valle at Rome, and there he remained 
for 1832 and 1833, and composed 4 operas and 
an oratorio. In 1834 he moved to Milan, and 
brought out La Casa disabitaj;a (or I falsi 
Monetari ), which, though but moderately suc 
cessful at the Scala, was afterwards considered 
his chef d ceuvre, and spoken of as Rossi s Bar- 
biere di Siviglia. It pleased Malibran so much 
that she induced Barbaja to bespeak another 
opera from Rossi for the San Carlo, in which she 
should appear. The opera was composed, and 
was named Amelia ; but owing to her caprice 
was a failure. She insisted on having a pas de 
deux inserted for her and Mathis. The theatre 
was crowded to the ceiling to see the great 
singer dance; but her dancing did not please 
the public, and the piece was damned. This 
disappointment, though somewhat alleviated by 
the success of his Leocadia (1834) seems to 
have disgusted Rossi with Italy, he accepted 
an engagement from Mexico, left Europe Oct. 

i His parents names were Vincenzo and Santa Monticelli, so that 
Lossi would seem to be a sobriquet. 



15, 1835, and arrived at Vera Cruz the 6th of 
the following January. From Mexico he went 
to the Havannah, New Orleans, and Madras ; 
married in 1841, and returned to Europe, land 
ing at Cadiz, Feb. 3, 1843. He began again at 
once to compose Cellini aParigi (Turin 1845), 
etc., but with very varying success. In 1846 he 
reappeared at the Scala at Milan with Azema 
di Granata, II Borgomaslro di Schiedam, and 
three or four other operas in following years. 
His great success however appears to have been 
made with II Domino nero, at one of the Mi 
lanese Theatres. In 1850 he was called to be 
Director of the Conservatorio at Milan. For 
this institution he published a Guida di ar- 
monia pratica orale (Kicordi 1858), and be 
tween 1850 and 1859 composed a great many 
operas, and detached pieces for voices and for 
instruments. After the death of Mercadante in 
1870, Rossi succeeded him as head of the Con 
servatorio at Naples. This office he is said to 
have resigned in 1878. Lists of his works are 
given by Florimo (Cenni Storici, p. 948-962) 
and Pougin. They comprise 29 operas, a grand 
mass, and a dozen miscellaneous compositions, 
including six fugues for strings, 2 sets of vocal 
exercises, and the Guide to Harmony already 
mentioned. His best works are Cellini a Parigi, 
I falsi Monetari, and II Domino nero. One 
of his operas, La Figlia di Figaro/ is said to have 
been produced at the Karnthnerthor Theatre, 
Vienna, April 17, 1846; and another, Biorn, 
was announced for performance at the Queen s 
Theatre, London, Jan. 17, 1877 English ver 
sion by Frank Marshall ; but no notice of either 
performance can be found. [G.] 

ROSSI, LUIGI, was a contemporary of Caris- 
simi s, born at Naples towards the end of the 
1 6th century, and found at Rome about 1620. 
His works known at present are chiefly can 
tatas, for one or more voices with clavier ac 
companiments, often of great length and in 
many movements. Thirty-five of these are to be 
found in the British Museum (Harl. MSS. 1265, 
1273, 1501, 1863), and not less than 112 in the 
Library of Christ Church, Oxford. They are 
said to be beautiful music, quite equal to that of 
Scarlatti. The Magliabecchi Library at Florence 
contains a scene extracted from a spiritual opera 
of his, Giuseppe figlio di Giacobbe ; and the 
library of the Sacred Harmonic Society of London 
contains II Palazzo incantato, overo, La Guer- 
riere amante (MS.), an opera by Giulio Ruspig- 
liosi, music by Rossi, performed at Rome 1642. 
Gevaerfc, in Les Gloires d ltalie, gives two 
cantatas for a single voice. [G.] 


di, was born Dec. 27, 1836, at Perugia, where 

he still resides. He is an amateur of taste and 

knowledge, who will be long remembered for the 

biography of his fellow - townsman, Morlacchi 

Delia vita e delle opere del Cav. Francesco 

Morlacchi .... Memorie istoriche precedute 

i dalla biografia e bibliografia musicale Perugina 

1 (Perugia; Bartelli, 1861) a copy of which is 




in the South Kensington Library. He has also 
published pamphlets on Morlacchi (1878), and 
Bontempi (1879). [G-.] 

brightest musical luminaries of the I9th century, 
was born Wednesday, February 29, 1792, at 
Pesaro, a small town on the Adriatic, N.W. of 
Ancona, and was the only child of Giuseppe 
Rossini of Lugo, and Anna Guidarini of Pesaro. 
The position of his parents was of the humblest ; 
his father was town-trumpeter (trombadore) and 
inspector of slaughter-houses, and his mother 
a baker s daughter, but their life was a happy 
one, and so irrepressible were the good humour 
and fun of the town-trumpeter that he was 
known among his friends as the jolly fellow. 
The political struggles of 1796, however, in 
vaded even this lowly household ; the elder 
Rossini declared himself for the French, and 
for republican government, and during the re 
action of the Austrian party in the States of the 
Church was naturally sent to gaol. His wife, 
thus deprived of her means of subsistence, was 
driven to turn her voice to account. She went 
with her little Gioachino to Bologna, and there 
made her de"but as prima donna buffa with 
such success as to procure her engagements in 
various theatres of the Romagna during the 
Carnival. Meantime the trombadore had re 
gained his liberty and was engaged as horn- 
player in the bands of the theatres in which 
his wife sang ; the child remaining at Bologna, 
in the charge of an honest pork butcher, while 
his parents were occupied in campaigns not un 
like those of the Roman comique of Scarron. 
Such surroundings were hardly favourable to 
education, and it is not wonderful that Gioachino s 
learning was confined to reading, writing, and 
arithmetic. Music he acquired from a certain 
Prinetti of Novara, who gave him harpsichord 
lessons for three years ; but the lessons must have 
been peculiar, for Prinetti was accustomed to 
play the scale with two fingers only, combined 
his music- teaching with the sale of liquors, and 
had the convenient habit of sleeping as he stood. 
Such a character was a ready butt for the son of 
a joker like Giuseppe Rossini ; and so incor 
rigible was Gioachino s love of mimicking his 
master that at length he was taken from Prinetti, 
and apprenticed to a smith. 

Such was his shame at this result and his 
sorrow at the distress of his mother, that he 
resolved from that time forward to amend and 
apply. In Angelo Tesei h.e fortunately found a 
clever master, able to make singing and practical 
harmony interesting to his pupil : in a few months 
he learned to read at sight, to accompany fairly 
on the piano, and to sing well enough to take solos 
in church at the modest price of three pauls per 
service. He was thus able, at the age of ten, to 
assist his parents, who, owing to a sudden change 
in his mother s voice, were again in misfortune. 
In his desire to help them he seized every oppor 
tunity of singing in public, and eagerly accepted 
an offer to appear at the theatre of the Commune 
as Adolfo in Paer s Camilla. This was his 


first and only step in the career of a dramatic 
singer, but it must have been often difficult to 
resist taking it up again, when he saw singers re 
ceiving a thousand ducats for appearing in operas 
which he both composed and conducted for fifty. 

Thus at the age of thirteen Rossini was a suf 
ficiently good singer to be well received at the 
theatre ; he also played the horn by his father s 
side, and had a fair reputation as accompanyist. 
At this time he acquired a valuable friend in the 
Chevalier Giusti, commanding engineer at Bo 
logna, who took a great affection for the lad, 
read and explained the Italian poets to him, and 
opened his fresh and intelligent mind to the 
comprehension of the ideal ; and it was to the 
efforts of this distinguished man that he owed 
the start of his genius, and such general knowledge 
as he afterwards possessed. After three years 
with Tesei he put himself under a veteran tenor 
named Babbini to improve his singing. Shortly 
after this his voice broke, at the end of the 
autumn of 1 8 06, during a tourne"e in which he 
accompanied his father as chorus -master and 
maestro al cembalo, an engagement in which the 
daily income of the two amounted to n pauls, 
about equal to 4 shillings. The loss of his voice 
cost him his engagements in church; but it 
gave him the opportunity of entering the Con- 
servatorio, or Liceo communale, of Bologna. On 
March 20, 1807, he was admitted to the counter 
point class of Padre Mattel, and soon after to 
that of Cavedagni for the cello. He little anti 
cipated when he took his first lesson that his 
name would one day be inscribed over the en 
trance to the Liceo, and give its title to the 
adjacent square. l 

His progress on the cello was rapid, and he was 
soon able to take his part in Haydn s quartets; 
but his counterpoint lessons were a trouble and a 
worry to him from the first. Before he entered 
Mattel s class he had composed a variety of things 
little pieces for two horns, songs for Zambini, 
and even an opera, called Demetrio, forhis friends 
the Mombellis. A youth at once "so gifted and so 
practised deserved a master who was not merely 
a learned musician, but whose pleasure it should 
be to introduce his pupil into the mysteries of 
the art with as little trouble as possible. Un 
fortunately Mattel was a pedant, who could see 
no reason for modifying his usual slow me 
chanical system to suit the convenience of a 
scholar however able or advanced. His one 
answer to his pupil s enquiry as to the reason 
of a change or a progression was, It is the 
rule. The result was that after a few months 

of discouraging labour Gioachino began to look 
to instinct and practice for the philosophy, or 
at least the rhetoric, of his art. The actual 

parting is the subject of an anecdote which is 
not improbably true. Mattel was explaining 
that the amount of counterpoint which his pupil 
had already acquired was sufficient for a com 
poser in the free style ; but that for church- 
music much severer studies were required; 
What, cried the boy, do you mean that I 

l By order of Count Pepoli, Aug. 21, 1864. 


know enough to write operas? Certainly, was 
the reply. Then I want nothing more, for 
operas are all that I desire to write. There 
was in this something of the practical wisdom 
which distinguished the Rossini of later life. 
Meantime it was necessary that he and his 
parents should live, and he therefore dropped 
counterpoint and returned to his old trade of 
accompanyist, gave lessons, and conducted per 
formances 01 chamber music. He was even 
bold enough to lead an orchestra, and took the 
direction of the Accadeniia dei Concordi in 
other words, of the Philharmonic Society of Bo 
logna. There is no reason to doubt that it was 
more by scoring the quartets and symphonies of 
Haydn and Mozart than by any lessons of Padre 
Matfcei s that Ptossini learned the secrets and the 
magic of the orchestra. His fame at the Liceo 
increased day by day. and at the end of his first 
year his cantata II Pianto d armonia per la 
mnrte d Orfeo -the lament of Harmony over the 
death of Orpheus was not only rewarded with 
the prize, but was performed in public, Aug. 8, 
1808. He was then in his seventeenth year. The 
cantata was followed not by a symphony, as is 
sometimes said, but by an overture in the fugued 
style, in imitation of that to Mozart s Magic 
Flute, but so weak, that after hearing it played 
he lost no time in destroying it. The same fate 
probably attended some pieces for double bass and 
strings, and a mass, both written at the instance 
of Signor Triossi of Ravenna, a distinguished 
amateur of the double bass. Rossini had hitherto 
been known at Bologna as il Tedeschino the 
little German for his devotion to Mozart ; but 
such serious efforts as composing a mass, and 
conducting a work like Haydn s Seasons at the 
Philharmonic Society, were probably intended 
as hints that he wished to be looked upon no 
longer as a scholar, but as a master waiting his 
opportunity for the stage. 

It may be easier to enter on a career in Italy 
than elsewhere, but even there it is not without 
its difficulties. Rossini by his wit and gaiety 
had, in one of his tourne es, made a friend of the 
Marquis Cavalli, who had promised him his 
interest whenever it should be wanted. The 
time was now come to claim the fulfilment of the 
promise, and Rossini s delight may be imagined 
when he received an invitation to compose an 
opera, from the manager of the San Mosfc Theatre, 
at Venice. He hastened to prepare the piece, 
and La Cambiale di Matrimonio or the Ma 
trimonial Market was produced there in the 
autumn of 1810. The piece was an opera buffa 
in one act ; it was supported by Morandi, Ricci, 
De Grecis, and Raffanelli, and had a most en 
couraging reception. After this feat he returned 
to Bologna, and there composed for Esther Mom- 
belli s benefit a cantata called Didone abban- 
donata. In 1811 he wrote for the Teatro del 
Corso of Bologna an opera buffa in two acts, 
L Equivoco stravagante, which closed the season 
with success, and in which both he and Marcolini 
the contralto were highly applauded. 

1812 was Rossini s twentieth year, and with 



it begins what may be called his Epoch of Im 
provisation. Early in that year he produced, 
at the San Mose Theatre, Venice, two buffa 
operas L Inganno felice, and L occasione 
fa il Ladro, ossia il Cambio della valigia. 
The first of these, a Farsa, a trifle in one act, 
was well sung and much applauded, espe 
cially an air of Galli s, Una voce, a duet 
for the two basses, and a trio full of force and 
original melody. After the Carnival he went 
to Ferrara, and there composed an Oratorio, 
Giro in Babilonia, which was brought out 
during Lent, and proved a fiasco. So did La 
Scala di Seta, an opera buffa in one act, pro 
duced at Venice in the course of the spring ; but 
on the other hand, Demetrio e Polibio, brought 
out at the Teatro Valle, Rome, by his old friends 
the Mombellis, was well received. The piece 
was not improbably the same that we have men 
tioned his writing at the age of fifteen to words 
by Mme. Mombelli, retouched according to his 
new lights. At any rate a quartet among its 
contents was at once pronounced a masterpiece, 
and a duet, Questo cor, which followed it, pro 
duced an excellent effect. Rossini however did 
not waste time in listening to applause. While 
the Mombellis were engaged on this serious 
opera, he flew off to Milan to fulfil an engage 
ment which Marcolini had procured for him, by 
writing, for her, Galli, Bonoldi, and Parlamagni, 
a comic piece in two acts called La Pietra del 
Paragone, which was produced at the Scala 
during the autumn of 181 2, with immense success. 
It was his first appearance at this renowned 
house, and the piece is underlined in the list as 
musica nuova di Gioachino Rossini, di Pesaro. 
The numbers most applauded were a cavatina, 
Ecco pietosa, a quartet in the second act, the 
duel-trio, and a finale in which the word Sigil- 
lara recurs continually with very comic effect. 
This finale is memorable as the first occasion of 
his employing the crescendo, which he was ulti 
mately to use and abuse so copiously. Mosca 
has accused Rossini of having borrowed this 
famous effect from his Pretendenti delusi, pro 
duced at the Scala the preceding autumn, for 
getting that Mosca himself had learned it from 
Generali and other composers. Such accusa 
tions, however, were of little or no importance 
to Rossini, who had already made up his mind 
to adopt whatever pleased him, wheresoever he 
might find it. In the meantime he took ad 
vantage of his success to pass a few days at 
Bologna with his parents, en route for Venice ; 
and thus ended the year 1812, in which he had 
produced no less than six pieces for the theatre. 

Nor was 1813 less prolific. It began with a 
terrible, mystification. He had accepted a com 
mission of 500 francs for a serious opera for the 
Grand Theatre at Venice, but the manager of 
San Mose, furious at his desertion, in pursuance 
of some former agreement, forced on him a 
libretto for that theatre, I due Brnschini, o il 
figlio per azzardo, which, if treated as intended, 
would inevitably have been the death of the 
music. From this dilemma Rossini ingeniously 



extricated himself by reversing the situations, 
and introducing all kinds of tricks. The 
second violins mark each bar in the overture 
by a stroke of the bow on the lamp shade; 
the bass sings at the top of his register and the 
soprano at the bottom of hers ; a funeral march 
intrudes itself into one of the most comical scenes ; 
and in the finale the words son pentito are so 
arranged that nothing is heard but tito, tito, tito. 
Those of the audience who had been taken into the 
secret were in roars of laughter, but the strangers 
who had paid for their places in good faith, 
were naturally annoyed and hissed loudly. But 
no complaints were of any avail with Rossini, 
he only laughed at the success of his joke. 
I due Bruschini disappeared after the first 
night, and the remembrance of it was very 
shortly wiped out by the appearance of Tan- 
credi at the Fenice during the Carnival. 
The characters were taken by Manfredini, Ma- 
lanotte, Todran, and Bianchi. A work so im 
portant and so full of spirit, effect, and melody, 
was naturally received with enthusiasm, and no 
body had time to notice that the long crescendo of 
the finale strongly resembled that of Paisiello s 
Rk Teodoro, that a phrase in the first duo, to 
the words Palesa almen, is borrowed from 
Paer s Agnese, 1 and that the allegro in E flat of 
the grand duet, Si tu sol crudel, is also borrowed 
from the Sofonisba of the same composer. 
Such criticisms as these were lost in the general 
admiration at the new and spirited character of 
the music. It was in fact the first step in the 
revolution which Rossini was destined to effect in 
Italian opera. All Venice, and very soon all 
Italy, was singing or humming Mi rivedrai, ti 
rivedro. Hardly any one now remembers that it 
is only to the happy accident that Malanotte was 
dissatisfied with her air, and insisted on its being 
rewritten, that we owe the Di tanti palpiti, 
which was nicknamed the aria de rizzi, because 
it was said to have been dashed off while waiting 
for a dish of rice. One must read the accounts 
of the day to understand the madness for it was 
nothing else which Tancredi excited among 
the Venetians. I fancied, said Rossini, with 
his usual gaiety, that after hearing my opera 
they would put me into a madhouse on the con 
trary, they were madder than I. 

Henceforward he was as much feted for his 
social qualities as for his music. But he did not 
give way to such dissipations for long. His next 
work was L ltaliana in Algeri, an opera buffa 
produced at the San Benedetto theatre, Venice, 
in the summer of 1813. Its greatest novelty was 
the famous trio Papataci, a cha,rming union of 
melody and genuine comedy; while the patriotic 
air, Pensa alia Patria, which closes the work, 
spoke not less powerfully to the hearts of his 

Aureliano in Palmira and II Turco in Italia 
both belong to 1814, and were brought out at the 
Scala, Milan, the first in the Carnival, the second 
in the autumn season, before an audience some 
what more critical than that at Venice. Aure 
liano, though it contains some fine things, which 


were afterwards utilised in Elisabetta and the 
Barbiere, was a fiasco. The Turco too was not 
received with the applause which it afterwards 
commanded. Rossini, however, was greatly feted 
during his stay in Milan, and among his ami 
able protectresses to use the expression of 
Stendhal was the Princess Belgiojoso, for whom 
he composed a cantata entitled Egle ed Irene. 
His next opera, Sigismondo, written for the 
Fenice at Venice, in the Carnival of 1815, was 
unsuccessful, and the failure so far affected him 
as to make him give up work for a time, and 
retire to his home at" Bologna. There he en 
countered Barbaja, who from being a waiter at 
a coffee-house had become the farmer of the 
public gaming-tables and impresario of the Na 
ples theatre. Barbaja though rich was still bent 
on making money ; he had heard of the success 
of the young composer, and of his brilliant talents, 
and was resolved to get hold of him ; and Ros 
sini, with the support of his parents on his hands, 
was ready enough to listen to any good proposal. 
He accordingly engaged with Barbaja to take 
the musical direction of the San Carlo and Del 
Fondo theatres at Naples, and to compose an 
nually an opera for each. For this he was to re 
ceive 200 ducats (about 35) per month, with a 
small share in the gaming-tables, amounting in 
addition to some 1000 ducats per annum, for 
which however he obtained no compensation 
after the tables were abolished in 1820. 

During Murat s visit to Bologna in April 
1815 Rossini composed a cantata in favour 
of Italian independence ; but politics were not 
his line, and he arrived in Naples fully con 
scious of this, and resolved that nothing should 
induce him to repeat the experiment. The 
arrival of a young composer with so great a 
reputation for originality was not altogether 
pleasing to Zingarelli, the chief of the Conser 
vatoire, or to the aged Paisiello. But no intrigues 
could prevent the brilliant success of Elisabetta, 
regina d Inghilterra/ which was produced before 
the Court for the opening of the autumn season, 
1815, and in which Mile. Colbran, Dardanelli, 
Manuel Garcia, and Nozzari took the principal 
parts. The libretto of this opera was by a certain 
Schmidt, and it is a curious fact that some of 
its incidents anticipate those of Kenilworth, 
which was not published till several 1 } ears later; 
a coincidence still more remarkable when the 
difference between the two authors is taken 
into account Walter Scott gay, romantic, and 
famous, Schmidt unknown and obscure, and, 
though not wanting in imagination, so gloomy 
as to have damped the spirits of Rossini by his 
mere appearance and conversation. Two his 
torical facts should be noted in regard to Elisa 
betta. It is the first opera in which Rossini so 
far distrusted his singers as to write in the or 
naments of the airs ; and it is also the first in 
which he replaced the recitative secco by a reci 
tative accompanied by the stringed quartet. The 
overture and the finale to the first act of 
betta are taken from Aureliano. 

1 January, 1821. 


Shortly before Christmas Rossini left Naples 
for Rome to write and bring out two works for 
which he was under engagement. The first of 
these, Torvaldo e Dorliska, produced at the 
Teatro Valle, Dec. 26, 1815, was coldly received, 
but the second, Almaviva, ossia 1 inutile precau- 
zione, founded on Beaumarchais Barber of 
Seville, by Sterbini, which made its first ap 
pearance at the Argentina Feb. 5, 1816, was 
unmistakeably damned. The cause of this was 
the predilection of the Romans for Paisiello, and 
their determination to make an example of an 
innovator who had dared to reset a libretto al 
ready treated by their old favourite. Rossini, 
with excellent taste and feeling, had inquired of 
Paisiello, before adopting the subject, whether his 
doing so would annoy the veteran, whose Bar- 
biere had been for a quarter of a century the 
favourite of Europe, and not unnaturally believed 
that after this step he was secure from the ill- 
will of Paisiello s friends and admirers. 1 But 
the verdict of a theatre crammed with partisans 
is seldom just. It is also as changeable as the 
winds, or as Fortune herself. Though hissed on 
the first night, Almaviva was listened to with 
patience on the second, advanced in favour night 
by night, and ended by becoming, under the title 
of The Barber of Seville, one of the most popu 
lar comic operas ever composed, and actually 
eclipsing in spirit and wit the comedy on which 
it is founded. It was acted by Giorgi-Righetti 
(Rosina), Rossi (Berta),Zamboni (Figaro), Garcia 
(Almaviva), Botticelli (Bartolo) and Vitarelli 
(Basilio). The original overture was lost, and 
the present one belongs to Elisabetta ; the open 
ing of the cavatina Ecco ridente is borrowed 
from the opening of the first chorus in Aureliano. 
It is in the delicious andante of this cavatina 
that Rossini first employs the modulation to the 
minor third below, which afterwards became so 
common in Italian music. The air of Berta, 
II vechiotto cerca moglie, was suggested by a 
Russian tune, and the eight opening bars of the 
trio Zitti, zitti are notoriously taken note for 
note from Simon s air in Haydn s Seasons. 
Indeed it is astonishing that, with his extra 
ordinary memory, his carelessness, and his ha 
bitual hurry, Rossini should not have borrowed 
oftener than he did. He received 400 scudi 
(80) for The Barber, and it was composed 
and mounted in a month. When some one told 
Donizetti that it had been written in thirteen 
days, Very possible, was his answer, he is no 

Lazy as he was, Rossini was destined to write 
twenty operas in eight years, 1815-1823. On 
his return to Naples after the Carnival of 1816, 
and the gradual success of The Barber, he 
found the San Carlo theatre in ashes, to the 
great distress of the King of Naples, who justly 
considered it one of the ornaments of his capi 
tal. Barbaja, however, undertook to rebuild it 
more magnificently than before in nine months. 

1 We have Rossini s own authority for this, and for the opera 
having been written in 13 days, in his letter to M. Scitivaux. See 
Musical World. Nov. 6, 1875, p. 751. 



He kept his word, and thus acquired not only 
the protection but the favour of the king. 
Rossini obtained the same boon by composing 
a grand cantata entitled Teti e Peleo for the 
marriage of the Duchess de Berry. No sooner 
had he completed this than he dashed off a 2-act 
comic opera entitled La Gazzetta to a libretto 
by Tottola, which was produced at the Teatro 
dei Fiorentini, Naples, and which, although in, 
the hands of a clever and charming actress like 
Chambrand, and of two such public favourites 
as Pellegrini and Casaccia, was but moderately 
successful. The work however contained some 
admirable passages, which were afterwards util 
ised by the composer. Rossini completed his 
reform of serious opera by his Otello, which 
was brought out at the Teatro del Fondo, 
Naples, in the autumn of 1816, with Isabella 
Colbran, Nozzari, Davide, Cicimarra, and Bene- 
detti as its interpreters. In this opera, of which 
the third act is the finest, the recitatives are fewer 
and shorter than before, and, in accompanying 
them, the wind instruments are occasionally added 
to the strings. Some of the most remarkable 
features of this grand work, such as the finale 
of the first act, the duet Non m inganno, a ad 
the passionate trio of defiance, were not at first 
appreciated: the touching air of Desdemona, Se 
il padre, doubly effective after the paternal curse 
which precedes it, and the romance of the Willow, 
with the harp accompaniment then quite a 
novelty were better received ; but the tragic 
termination of the whole was very distasteful 
to the public, and when the opera was taken 
to Rome, it was found necessary to invent a 
happy conclusion. This curious fact deserves 
mention for the light which it throws on the 
low condition of dramatic taste in Italy at that 

The machinery, and power of rapidly chang 
ing the scenes, were at that time so very im 
perfect in smaller Italian theatres, that Rossini 
would only accept the subject of Cinderella when 
proposed to him by the manager of the Teatro 
Valle at Rome, on condition that the super 
natural element was entirely omitted. A new 
comic piece was therefore written by Ferretti 
under the title of Cenerentola, ossia la bonta 
in trionfo ; Rossini undertook it, and it was 
produced at the beginning of 1817. Its success 
was umnistakeable, though the cast was by no 
means extraordinary Giorgi, Catarina Rossi, 
Guglielmi, De Begnis, Verni, and Vitarelli. 

In the profusion and charm of its ideas tins 
delicious work is probably equal to the Bar- 
biere, but it appears to us to be inferior in unity 
of style. No doubt this is partly owing to the 
fact that many of the pieces were originally 
composed to other words than those to which 
they are now sung. The duet Un soave non 
sb che, the drinking-chorus, and the mock pro 
clamation of the Baron, are all borrowed from 
La Pietra del Paragone ; the air Miei ram- 
polli is from La Gazzetta, where it was 
inspired by the words Una prima ballerina ; 
the air of Eamiro recalls that to Ah ! vieni in 



the trio in Otello ; the delightful stretto of the 
finale, the duet Zitto, zitto, the sestet 
Quest e un nodo avvilupato 5 a truly admir 
able morceau and various other incidental 
passages, originally belonged to the Turco in 
Italia ; and the humorous duet Un segreto is 
evidently modelled on that in Cimarosa s Ma- 
trimonio. Such repetitions answered their pur 
pose at the moment, but while thus extempor 
ising his operas Rossini forgot that a day would 
arrive when they would all be published, and 
when such discoveries as those we have men 
tioned, and as the existence of the principal 
motif of the duet of the letter in Otello in the 
Agitato of an air from Torvaldo e Dorliska, 
would inevitably be made. As he himself con 
fessed in a letter about this time, he thought he 
had a perfect right to rescue any of his earlier 
airs from operas which had either failed at the 
time or become forgotten since. Whatever force 
there may be in this defence, the fact remains 
that Cenerentola and the Barber share 
between them the glory of being Eossini s chefs 
d ceuvre in comic opera. 

From Rome he went to Milan, to enjoy the 
triumph of the Gazza ladra, libretto by Gher- 
ardini which was brought out in the spring of 
1817 at the Scala. The dignified martial cha 
racter of the overture, and the prodigious rolls of 
the drum, produced an immense effect ; and the 
same may be said of all the numbers which 
are concerned with strong emotion : give the 
public a strong impression, and it will not stop 
to discriminate. Nor did the Milanese, at these 
early representations, find any difference be 
tween the really fine parts of the opera arid 
those which are mere remplissage of which the 
Gazza ladra has several. Nor would any one 
have noticed, even had they had the necessary 
knowledge, that in the first duet and the finale 
as was the case also in the finale to the 
Cenerentola Rossini had borrowed an effect 
from the Poco adagio of Mozart s Symphony 
in C (Kochel, 425) by maintaining a sustained 
accompaniment in the wind while the strings 
and the voices carry on the ideas and the 

From Milan he returned to Naples, and pro 
duced Armida during the autumn season, a 
grand opera in 3 acts, with ballet, which was 
mounted with great splendour, and enjoyed the 
advantage of very good singers. The duet 
Amor, possente Nume ! which was soon to 
be sung though the length and breadth of Italy, 
the air Non soffiro 1 offensa, the incantation 
scene, the chorus of demons, and the airs de 
ballet, would alone have been sufficient to excite 
the Neapolitans ; but these were not the only 
pieces applauded, and the remarkable trio In 
quale aspetto imbelle, written for three tenors 
with extraordinary ease, a pretty chorus of 
women Qui tutto e calma, and a scena with 
chorus, Germano a te richiede afterwards em 
ployed in the French version of Mo ise all 
deserve mention. 

This fine work had hardly made its appear- 


ance before Rossini had to dash off two more 
< Adelaide di Borgogna, sometimes known 1 as 
Ottone Re d Italia, and an oratorio Mosfe 
in Egitto. 3 Adelaide was produced at the 
Argentina at Rome, in the Carnival of 1818, 
was well sung and warmly received. Mose 
was written for the San Carlo at Naples, and 
brought out there in Lent with an excellent cast 


Isabella Colbran, Benedetti, Porto, and Noz- 
zari. Here for the first time Rossini was so 
much pressed as to be compelled to call in 
assistance, and employed his old and tried friend 
Carafa in the recitatives and in Pharaoh s 2 air 
Aspettar nii. The scene of the darkness was 
another step onwards, and the whole work was 
much applauded, with the exception of the 
passage of the Red Sea, the representation of 
which was always laughed at, owing to the im 
perfection of the theatrical appliances already 
spoken of. At the resumption of the piece, 
therefore, in the following Lent, Rossini added 
a chorus to divert attention from the wretched 
attempt to represent the dividing waves, and it 
is to the sins of the Neapolitan stage machinists 
that we owe the universally popular prayer Dal 
tuo stellato soglio, which is not only in itself a 
most important piece of music, but shows the 
value which Rossini attached to the rest of the 
work, which is indeed one of his very finest. 

As some relaxation after this serious effort he 
undertook, in the summer of 1818, a one-act 
piece, Adina, oilCaliffo di Bagdad, for the San 
Carlos Theatre, Lisbon ; and immediately after, 
Ricciarclo e Zoraide for San Carlo, Naples, 
which was sung to perfection at the autumn 
season there by Isabella Colbran, Pisaroni 
(whose excessive plainness was no bar to her 
splendid singing), Nozzari, Davide, and Cici- 
marra. Davide s air, the trio, the duet for the 
two women, and that of the two tenors, were all 
applauded to the echo. 

Ricciardo was extraordinarily full of ornament, 
but Ermione, which was produced at San Carlo 
in the Lent of 1819, went quite in the opposite 
direction, and affected an unusual plainness and 
severity. The result showed that this was a 
mistake. Though splendidly sung, Ermione 
was not so fortunate as to please, and the single 
number applauded was the one air in which 
there was any ornamentation. So much for the 
taste of Naples in 1819 ! An equally poor re 
ception was given to a cantata written for the 
re-establishment of the health of the King of 
Naples, and sung at the San Carlo Feb. 20, 
1819. It consisted of a cavatina for Isabella 
Colbran, and an air with variations, which was 
afterwards utilised in the bnllet of the Viaggio 
a Reims. The piece was hastily thrown off, and 
was probably of no more value in the eyes of its 
author than was an opera called Eduardo e 
Cristina which was brought out at the San 
Benedetto, Venice, this same spring, and was in 
reality a mere pasticcio of pieces from Ermione, 

1 Zanolini is wrong in placing Ottone in his Catalogue as a dis 
tinct work. 

2 Omitted in the Italian score published in Paris. 


Ricciardo, and other operas, hitherto unheard in 
Venice, attached to a libretto imitated from 
Scribe. Fortunately the opera pleased the 
audience, and sent Rossini back to Naples in 
good spirits, ready to compose a new cantata 
fur the visit of the Emperor of Austria. The 
new work was performed on May 9, 1819, at the 
San Carlo, and was sung by Colbran, Davide, 
and Rubini, to the accompaniment of a military 
band. This Rossini probably accepted as a 
useful experience for his next new opera, the 
Donna del Lago/ in the march of which we hear 
the results of his experiments in writing for a wind 
band. The title of the new work seems to show 
that Scott s works were becoming popular even 
in Italy. 1 Rossini at any rate was not insensible 
to their beauties ; and in his allusions to the land 
scape of the lake, and the cavatina mattutini 
albori seems to invite attention to his use of 
local colour. Even at the present day the first 
act of the opera is well worthy of admiration, and 
yet the evening of Monday, Oct. 4, 1819, when 
it was first given, with the magnificent cast of 
Colbran, Pisaroni, Nozzari, Davide, and Benedetti, 
was simply one long torture of disappointment 
to the composer, who was possibly not aware that 
the storm of disapprobation was directed not 
against him so much as against Barbaja the 
manager, and Colbran his favourite. Felix qui 
potttit rerum cognoscere causas. 

On the following evening the hisses became 
bravos, but of this Rossini knew nothing, as by 
that time he was on his road to Milan. The 
Scala opened on Dec. 26, 1819, for the Carnival 
season with Bianca e Faliero, libretto by Ro- 
mani, which was admirably sung by Camporesi 
and others. No trace of it, however, now re 
mains except the fine duet and equally good 
quartet, which were afterwards introduced in the 
Donna del Lago, and became very popular at 

His engagement at Milan over, he hurried 
back toNaples, to produce the opera of Maometto 
secondo, befoi e the close of the Carnival. It had 
been composed in great haste, but was admirably 
interpreted by Colbran, Chaumel (afterwards 
Madame Rubini), Nozzari, Cicimarra, Benedetti, 
and F. Galli, whose Maometto was a splendid 
success. It was the last opera but one that 
Rossini was destined to give at Naples before 
the burst of the storm 2 of the 2Oth July, 1820, 
Avhich obliged the King to abandon his capital, 
ruined Barbaja by depriving him at once of a 
powerful patron and of the monopoly of the 
gambling -houses, and drove Rossini to make 
important changes in his life. But to return. 
Having for the moment no engagement for the 
Scala, he undertook to write Mathilde di 
3 Shahran for Rome. Torlonia the banker had 
bought the Teatro Tordinone, and was con 
verting it into the Apollo; and it was for the 
inauguration of this splendid new house that 
Rossini s opera was intended. The opening took 

1 The Lady of the Lake was published in 1810. 

2 Eevolt of the Carbonari, under Pepe. 

* So written, though prouounoed Sabran by the Italians. 



place on the first night of the Carnival of 1821. 
The company, though large, contained no first- 
rate artists, and Rossini was therefore especially 
careful of the ensemble pieces. The first night 
was stormy, but Rossini s friends were in the 
ascendancy, Paganini conducted in splendid style, 
and the result was a distinct success. 

On his return to Naples, Rossini learned from 
Barbaja his intention of visiting Austria, and 
taking his company of singers to Vienna. 
Rossini s next opera, Zelmira, was therefore to be 
submitted to a more critical audience than those 
of Italy, and with this in view he applied himself 
to make the recitatives interesting, the harmonies 
full and varied, and the accompaniments expres 
sive and full of colour, and to throw as much 
variety as possible into the form of the move 
ments. He produced the opera at the San Carlo 
before leaving, in the middle of December 1821. 

It was sung by Colbran, Cecconi, Da vide, Nozzari, 
Ambrosi and Benedetti, and was enthusiastically 
received. On the 27th of the same month, he took 
his benefit, for which he had composed a special 
cantata entitled La Riconoscenza ; and the day 
after left for the North. He was accompanied by 
Isabella Colbran, with whom he had been in love 
for years, whose influence over him had been so 
great as to make him forsake comedy for tragedy, 
and to whom he was married on his arrival at 
Bologna. The wedding took place in the chapel 
of the Archbishop s palace, and was celebrated by 
Cardinal Opizzoni. Rossini has been accused of 
marrying for money, and it is certain that Colbran 
had a villa and 500 a year of her own, that she 
was seven years older than her husband, and that 
her reputation as a singer was on the decline. 

However this may be, the two Rossinis, after 
a month s holiday, started for Vienna, where they 
arrived about the end of February, 1822. He 
seems to have made his debut before the Vienna 
public on the 3Oth of March, as the conductor of 
his Cenerentola, in the German version, as 
Aschenbrodel, and his tempi were found some 
what too fast for the heavy German language. 
Zelmira was given at the Karnthnerthor opera- 
house on April 13, with a success equal to that 
which it obtained at Naples. The company was 
the same, excepting Cecconi and Benedetti, who 
were replaced by Mile. Ekerlin and Botticelli. 
An air was added for the former to words fur 
nished by Carpani, who was thus secured as an 
enthusiastic partisan of the Italian composer. 
Rossini was not without violent opponents in 
Vienna, but they gave him no anxiety, friends and 
enemies alike were received with a smile, and 
his only retort was a good-humoured joke. He is 
said to have visited Beethoven, and to have been 
much distressed by the condition in which he 
found the great master. The impression which 
he made on the Viennese may be gathered from 
a paragraph in the Leipzig Allgemeine musik. 
Zeitung 4 of the day, in which he is described as 
highly accomplished, of agreeable manners and 
pleasant appearance, full of wit and fun, cheerful, 
obliging, courteous, and most accessible. He is 

* May 8, 1822, reporting the early part of March. 



much in society, and charms every one by his 
simple unassuming style. After the close of the 
Vienna season, the Rossinis returned to Bologna, 
where his parents had resided since 1798. There, 
at the end of September, he received a flattering 
letter from Prince Metternich, entreating him to 
come to Verona, and assist in the general re- 
establishment of harmony. Such invitations, so 
couched, are not to be refused, and accordingly 
the chief composer of Italy yielded to the request 
of the chief diplomatist of Austria, and arrived 
at the Congress in time fur its opening, Oct. 20, 
1822. Rossini s contribution to the Congress was 
a series of cantatas, which he poured forth 
without stint or difficulty. The best-known of 
these is II vero Omaggio ; others are L Augurio 
felice, La sacra Alleanza, and II Bardo. One 
was performed in the Amphitheatre, which will 
accommodate 50,000 spectators, and wasconducted 
by Rossini himself. Work, however, never seems 
to have prevented his going into society, and we 
find that during this occasion he acquired the 
friendship not only of Metternich, but of 
Chateaubriand and Madame de Lie"ven. 

The Congress at an end he began to work at 
Semiramide, which was brought out at the 
Fenice, Venice, Feb. 3, 1823, with Madame 
Rossini, the two Marianis, Galli, and Sinclair the 
English tenor, for whom there were two airs. 
The opera was probably written with more care 
than any of those which had preceded it ; and 
possibly for this very reason was somewhat 
coldly received. The subject no doubt would 
seem sombre to the gay Venetians, and they 
even omitted to applaud the fine quartet (which 
Verdi must surely have had in his mind when 
writing the Miserere in the Trovatore ), the 
finale, and the appearance of Ninus, the final 
trio, at once so short and so dramatic, the cava- 
tina with chorus, and all the other new, bold, 
bright passages of that remarkable work. Ros 
sini was not unnaturally much disappointed at 
the result of his labour and genius, and resolved 
to write no more for the theatres of his native 
country. The resolution was hardly formed 
when he received a visit from the manager of 
the King s Theatre, London (Sigr. Benelli), and 
a proposal to write an opera for that house, to be 
called La Figlia dell aria, for the sum of 240 
40 more than he had received for Semiramide, 
a sum at the time considered enormous. The 
offer was promptly accepted, and the Rossinis 
started for England without delay, naturally 
taking Paris in their road, and reaching it Nov. 
9, 1823. Paris, like Vienna, was then divided 
into two hostile camps on the subject of the 
great composer. Berton always spoke of him as 
M. Crescendo, and he was caricatured on the 
stage as M. Vacarmini ; but the immortal 
author of the Barbiere could afford to laugh 
at such satire, and his respectful behaviour to 
Cherubini, Lesueur, and Reicha. as the heads of 
the Conservatoire, his graceful reception of the 
leaders of the French School, his imperturbable 
good temper, and good spirits, soon conciliated 
every one. A serenade, a public banquet, tri- 


umphant receptions at the opera house, a 
special vaudeville ( Rossini a Paris, ou le Grand 
Diner ) everything in short that could soothe 
the pride of a stranger, was lavished upon him 
from the first. He in his turn was always kind 
and amiable, consenting for instance at tlie 
request of Panseron an old colleague at Rome 
to act as accompanyist at a concert with the 
object of saving Panseron s brother from the 
conscription. Under the hands of Rossini the 
piano became as effective as an orchestra ; and it 
is on record that the first time that Auber heard 
him accompany himself in a song he walked up 
to the instrument and bent down over the keys 
to see if they were not smoking. Paris how 
ever was not at present his ultimate goal, and 
on Dec. 7, 1823, Rossini and his wife arrived in 
London. They were visited immediately by the 
Russian ambassador, M. de Lieven, who gave the 
composer barely time to recover from the fatigues 
of the journey before he carried him off to 
Brighton and presented him to the King. George 
IV. believed himself to be fond of music, and 
received the author of The Barber of Seville in 
the most flattering manner. The royal favour 
naturally brought with it that of the aristocracy, 
and a solid result in the shape of two grand 
concerts at Almack s, at two guineas admission. 
The singers on these occasions were Mme. Rossini, 
Mme. Catalan!, Mme. Pasta, and other first-rate 
artists, but the novelty, the attraction, was to h^ar 
Rossini himself sing the solos 1 in a cantata which 
he had composed for the occasion, under the title 
of Homage to Lord Byron. He also took pi.rfc 
with Catalan! in a duet from Cimarosa s Matri- 
monio which was so successful as to be encored 
three times. While the court and the town were 
thus disputing for the possession of Rossini, 
Zelmira was brought out at the Opera (Jan. 
24, 1824) ; but the manager was unable to finish 
the season, and became bankrupt before dis 
charging his engagements with Rossini. Nor 
was this all. Not only did he not produce the 
Figlia dell aria, but the music of the first act 
unaccountably vanished, and has never since been 
found. It was in vain for Rossini to sue the 
manager ; he failed to obtain either his MS. or 
a single penny of the advantages guaranteed to 
him by the contract. True, he enjoyed a con 
siderable set-off to the loss just mentioned in the 
profits of the countless soire es at which he acted 
as accompanyist at a fee of 50. At the end 
of five months he found himself in possession of 
7000; and just before his departure was ho 
noured by receiving the marked compliments of 
the king at a concert at the Duke of Welling 
ton s, for which His Majesty had expressly come 
up from Brighton. 

In leaving England after so hearty ami 
profitable a reception, Rossini was not taking 
a leap in the dark ; for through the Prince de 
Pidignac, French ambassador in England, he 
had already concluded an agreement for the 

i This recalls the visit of a great composer in 1746, when Gluck g 
a concert at the King s Theatre, at which the great attraction was 
his solo on the musical glasses ! [See vol. i. p. 601 a.] 


musical direction of the Theatre Italien, Paris, 
for eighteen months at a salary of 800 per 
annum. In order to be near his work he took 
a lodging at No. 28 Rue Taitbout, and at once 
set about making a radical reform in the ages of 
the singers in his company. Knowing that Paer 
was his enemy, and would take any opportunity 
of injuring him, he was careful to retain him in 
his old post of maestro al Cembalo ; but at the 
same time he engaged He rold (then a young 
man of 25) as chorus-master, and as a check on 
the pretensions of Madame Pasta he brought to 
Paris Esther Mombelli, Schiassetti, Donzelli, and 
Rubini, successively. To those who sneered at 
his music he replied by playing it as it was 
written, and by bringing out some of his operas 
which had not yet made their appearance in 
Paris, such as La Donna del Lago (Sept. 7> 
1824), Semiramide (Dec. 8, 1825), and Zel- 
mira (Mar. 14, 1826). And he gave much 
eclat to his direction by introducing Meyerbeer s 
Crociato the first work of Meyerbeer s heard 
in Paris and by composing a new opera, II 
Viaggio a Reims, ossia 1 Albergo del giglio d oro, 
which he produced on June 19, 1825, during the 
fetes at the coronation of Charles X. The new 
work is in one act, and three parts ; it is written 
for 14 voices, which are treated with marvellous 
art. It was sung by Mines. Pasta, Schiassetti, 
Mombelli, Cinti, Amigo, Dotti, and Rossi ; 
and by MM. Levasseur, Zucchelli, Pellegrini, 
Graziani, Auletta, Donzelli, Bordogni, and Scudo 
a truly magnificent assemblage. In the ballet 
he introduced an air with variations for two 
clarinets, borrowed from his Naples cantata of 
1819, and played by Gambaro (a passionate 
admirer of his) and by F. Berr. In the hunt 
ing scene he brought in a delicious fanfare 
of horns, and the piece winds up with God 
save the King, Vive Henri quatre/ and other 
national airs, all newly harmonised and accom 

The King s taste was more in the direction of 
hunting than of music, and the result was that 
the Viaggio was only given two or three times ; 
but it had been a work of love with Rossini, and 
we shall presently see how much he valued it. 
Meantime we may ment