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Estate of 

Paul Farnsworth 


' J. ftJC>«t 


Pronouncing Dictionary 


Musical Terms 


Edward A. Mac Dowell 





(1) A Pronouncing Dictionary of Musical Terms 


(2) Biographical Dictionary of Musicians 

Edited by 

Manaffing: Editor of "Modern Music and 

Musicians ' ' 



New York 


Copyrifht, 1893, by Theo. Prener 
Copyright, 1911, bjr The University Society Inc. 


All Italian, French, and German words are written 
out phonetically, on the following system : 

A as in far, represented by ah. 

The Continental e has the sound of a in fare; it is 
represented by eh. 

The Continental i has the sound of e in deer; it is 
represented by ee. 

The following vowel sounds have no equivalents in 
English: French e, when not accented, something like 
the vowel sound in love. German o (o modified, or 
Umlaut) has nearly the same sound. German ii is 
about half-way between the sound of o in love and e in 
deer, O and u have the same sound as in English, the 
u sound being represented by oo, as in cool, Italian ae 
has the sound of long i in English. German a is the 
equivalent of a in air. German eu is sounded like oi, 
as in toil. 

The following consonantal sounds have no English 
equivalents: German hard guttural ach and soft gut- 
tural ag. The French sound of ; is represented by sh 
as nearly as possible. The French nasals an, en, in, 
on, can be represented but very unsatisfactorily in 
English only by adding a final g. 

Whenever ch is found it is to be sounded like ch ir 
chair. C always has this sound in Italian when fol- 
lowed by i or e. The Italian ch, on the contrary, al- 
ways has the sound of k, or c hard, and is thus repre- 
sented. The Italian 22 has the sound of ts or ds, and is 
thus represented. 

With this explanation of the phonetic system 
adopted to represent the foreign sounds, it is believed 
that the reader will find no difficulty in acquiring their 
proper pronunciation. 

A Pronouncing Dictionary 
of Musical Terms 


A. The 6th of the normal major scale; the ist of the normal 
minor scale; the standard by which the orchestra is tuned, 
given by the oboe. 

A, A (It. .and Fr.) (ah). At, in, by, for, with. 

Ab XGer.). Off. This word is used in organ music to sig- 
nify the discontinuance of certain stops. 

Abacus harmonicus (Lat.). A table of notes; also the 
arrangement of the keys and pedals of an instrument. 

A ballata (It.) (ah hal-laW-tah). In the style of a ballad. 

Abandon (Fr.) (ah-ban'-dong). Without restraint. 

A battuta (It.) {ah hat-too' -tah). As beaten; strictly in 

Abbandonatamente (It. ) ( ahh-bahn-do-nah-tah-men'-teh ) . 
Vehemently ; violently. 

Abbandono (It.) (ahb-bahn-do'-no). With passionate ex- 
pression; with abandon. 

Abbellimento (It.) (ab-bel-lee-men-to). Embellishment. 

Abbellire {abbel-lee-reh). To ornament. 

Abbellitura (It.) (ab-bellee-too'-ra). Embellishment. Both 
are derived from — 

Abbreviamenti (It.). Abbreviations in musical notation. 

Abbreviation^ A system frequently employed in music, by 
which a portion of a technical term is made to stand for the 
whole. The following is a list of the abbreviations in most 

fAir ottava 


common use ; the explanation of each term may be found on 
reference to the words themselves in their proper places: 

^*^^^! { Accelerando 

Accelo ......) 

Ace \ 

Accom > Accompaniment i 

Accomp ) ; 

Accres Accresciamento 

Adgo or ado .... Adagio 

Ad lib. !!!!!![ Ad libitum 

Affetto Affettuoso 

Affretto Aflfrettando 

Agito !!!!!![ Agitato 

Alio Allegro 

Allgtto Allegretto 

Air ott 

Air 8va .... 

Al seg. ...... Al segno 

Andno . . . . . . Andantino 

Andte Andante 

Animo Animato 

Arc Coll arco, or arcato 

Ardo Ardito 

Arpo Arpeggio 

At J 

A tem J. A tempo 

A temp ) 

Aug By Augmentation 

( Bass (voice) 

B -J Bassoon 

• ' Contre bass 

B. C . . . . Basso continue 
Brill. . . . c . . Brillante 

C. B. . . . . . Col basso 

CD Colla destra 

C. S Colla sinistra 

Cad. ...... Cadence 

Cal Calando * 

Can Cantoris 



Cant Canto 

Cantab Cantabile 

Cello Violoncello 

Cemb Cembalo 

Ch.. Choir organ 

Chal Chalameau 

Qar Clarinet 

Clartto Clarinetto 

Clar Clarino 

Co. so Come sopra 

Col C Col canto 

Col otta . . . . . Coir ottava 

Col. vo Col la voce 

Con esp Con espressione 

Cor Cornet or horn 

Creso ) ^ - 

Cresc [Crescendo 

C. S Colla sinistra 

C. 8va Coir ottava 

Co i™o Canto primo 

Co. in»o Come primo 

Oo Concerto 

D Destra, droite 

D. C Da capo 

Dec Decani 

Decres Decrescendo 

Delic Delicamente 

Dest Destra 

Diap Diapasons 

Dim By diminution 

Dim Diminuendo 

Div Divisi 

Dol Dolce 

Dolcis Dolcissimo 

Dopp. ped Doppio pedale 

D. S Dal segno 

Energ Energicamente 

Espr ) -, 

Espres [Espressivo 

F. or for Forte 

Fag Fagotto 


Falset. Falsetto 

Ff. or Fff Fortissimo 

Fl Flauto 

I: Org.' : : : : :(Fu11 organ 

p ^Forzando 

G Gauche 

yj* vy« •  • • • • 1 

G. Org > Great Organ 

Gt. ) 

Gr Grand 

Grando Grandioso 

Grazo Grazioso 

Hauptw J 

Hptw >Hauptwerk 

H. W ) 

Haut Hautboy 

H. C Haute contre 

Intro Introduction 

Inv Inversion 

L Left 

Leg Legato 

Leggo Leggiero 

L. H Left Hand 

Lo Loco 

Luo Luogo 

Lusing Lusingando 

M ) 

Main v- Manual 

Mano ) 

Maesto Maestoso 

Magg Maggiore 

Man Manuals 

ulndo '.'.'.','. ;}Mancando 
Marc. ...«.•• Marcato 

M. M. 1=92 


. Mano diritta 

M. D I Main droite 

( Mano destra 
M. G. . . e . Main gauche 

M. M . . . , o Maelzel's Metronome 

f The beat ot a quarter note is 
equal to the pulse of the pen- 
dulum of the Metronome 
said to be Maelzel's, with 
the weight set at 92 
M. P ... . . „ Mezzo piano 
MS. . . . o . c Manuscript or Mano sinistra 
Men. o . . . . . Meno 
Mez. . , . o . . Mezzo 
Mf. or MfF. ..00 Mezzo forte 
Modto . . . o . c Moderato 
Mus Bac . . » c Bachelor of Music 
Mus. Doc. . . u o . Doctor of Music 
M. V Mezzo voce 

Ob Oboe, or Hautbois 

Obb. . • , o . . Obbligato 
Oberst Oberstimme 

Obw^.^ .!.*!!![ Oberwerk 
Oh. iPed. ..!!.' Ohne Pedal 
Org. Organ 

8a . ; ; ; : : :(ottava 

8^» alta Ottava alta 

8va bas Ottava bassa 

P Piano 

Ped Pedal 

Perd Perdendosi 

P. F Piu forte 

Piang. Piangendo 

Pianiss Pianissimo 

Pizz Pizzicato 

pp° (Pianissimo 

PPP ' ) 

ppp'p J Pianississimo 


ima Prima (voita) 

i«no ....... Primo 

4tte ...... . Quartet 

5tte Quintet 

Rail ... . . Rallentando 

Raddol. . . c . c Raddolcendo 

Recit , . . . c Recitative 

Rf., rfz., or rinf. . . , Rinforzando 

R. H Right Hand 

Ritar. . . . c c . Rttardando 

Riten c . Ritenuto 

S Senza 

JjR c A sign 

Scherz. ,.*... Scherzando 

2^* Seconda (volta) 

2<io Secondo 

Seg Segue 

l^*" I Sempre 

Semp f *^ 

7" Septet 

6tt Sestet 

Sfz Sforzando 

Sinf. Sinfonia 

Smorz. ...... Smorzando 

S. Int Senza interruzione 

c* * J i Sensa sordini 

o. sora I 

^^'''^ [ Sostenuto 

Spir Spiritoso 

S. T Senza tempo 

Stacc Staccato 

St. Diap Stopped Diapason 

String Stringendo 

Sw Swell Organ 

Sym Symphony 

T Tenor, tutti, tempo, tendre 

T. C Tre corde 

Tem Tempo 


Tern. lo Tempo primo 

Ten Tenuto 

Timb Timballes 

Timp Timpani 

Tr Trillo 

Trera Tremolando 

30 Trio 

Tromb Trombi 

Tromb Tromboni 

T. S Tasto solo 

U Una 

U. C Una corde 

Unis Unisoni 

V Voce 

V Volti 

Va Viola 

Var Variation 

Velio Violoncello 

Viv Vivace 

Vo ) 

Vno. . . . . . . t Violino 

Violo ) 

V. S Volti subito 

^^ [ Violini 

There are other abbreviations employed in manuscript or 
printed music, the chief of which are as follows; 

In time, a dash with a figure above signifies the length of 
the pause in bars, e,g,: 


In notes, the trouble of writing a passage in full is saved 
by the use of abbreviations, e,g.: 







aj mnui:^ ^ 


uiiiiim ^^m 















Repetition phrases are thus shortened: 



Abbreviations, by signs, of musical graces: 
The Turn, 



The back Turn, 



Passing shake, 

Sung. qEZ± 















Abgestossen (Ger.) (ap-geh-stoss-en) [from abstossen, to 
knock off]. Detached; staccato. 

Absolute Music. Music independent of words, scenery, act- 
ing or "programme." 

A capella (cah-peV-la). In church style, i. e., vocal music, 

A capriccio (cah-pritcW -eo) . Capriciously; without regard 
to time in performance or to form in construction. 


Accelerando (It.) (ahchel-leh-ran-do) . Hastening the move- 
ment (tempo). 

Accent The stress which recurs at regular intervals of time. 
Its position is indicated by upright strokes called bars. The 
first note inside a bar is always accented. When the bars 
contain more than one group of notes, which happens in 
compound time, other accents of lesser force occur on the 
first note of each group; these are called secondary or sub- 
ordinate accents, whilst that just inside the bar is termed 
the primary or principal accent. Other accents can be pro- 
duced at any point by the use of the sign "^^z^ss—^ or sf. The 
throwing of the accent on a normally unaccented portion of 
the bar is called syncopation, A proper grouping of accents 
will produce rhythm. It is considered a fault if an accented 
musical note falls on a short syllable. 

Acciaccatura (It.) (at-cheea-ca-too'-ra). A short grace note, 
written thus : J^ takes the place in the harmony of the note it 
precedes; is played rapidly. [From Acciaccare {at-chee- 
ac-cd-reh), to crush or jam together.] 

Accidentals. All signs for raising or depressing letters that 
are not found in the signature. 

Accolade (Fr.) (ac-co-lahd) , A brace enclosing two or more 

staves. ] [From Latin ad, to; collum, the neck.] To 


Accompagnamento (It.) (ac'com-pan-ya-men-to), Accom- 
pagnement (Fr.) (aC'Cotn-pang-mongt) , Accompaniment. 
The separate part or parts that accompany a solo or chorus ; 
generally instrumental, but a vocal solo with vocal accom- 
paniment is frequently met with. 

Accompaniment ad libitum (Lat.). An accompaniment that 
may be omitted without injury to the musical effect. 

Accompanist or Accompanjrist. One who plays or sings an 
accompaniment to a solo. 

Accoppiato (It.) (ac-cop-pee-ah'-to). Coupled or joined to- 

Accord (Fr.). A chord; agreement in pitch. Mode of tun- 
ing a string instrument. 

Accordatura (It.) (ac-cor-da-too'-ra). The mode of tuning 
string instruments, as violin, guitar, etc. 


Accordion. A small, portable instrument with free reeds. 

Achtel (Ger.). Eighth-note. 

Achtel Pause (pow-ze). Eighth-rest. 

Acoustics (a-koos-tics) [from Greek akuo, to hear]. The 
science of sound ; that which treats of the cause, nature, and 
phenomena of sound as a branch of physical science. 

Action. The mechanism by means of which the hammers of 
the piano and the valves and stops of the organ are con- 
trolled by the performer. 

Acuta (Lat.). Acute. A mixture-stop in the organ. 

Acute. Pitched high; the opposite of grave. 

Adagietto (It.) (a-da-jee-et'-to). Diminutive of Adagio; not 
so slow as Adagio. 

Adagio (It.) (a-da'-jee-o). Slowly; also a name given to a 
movement written in that time. ^ 

Adagio assai (as-sah-e), Adagio di molto (dee ntol-to). 
Very slowly. 

Adagio cantabile (can-tah'-bee-leh). Very slow and sus- 
stained, as if being sung. 

Adagio patetico (pa-teh'-tee-co). Slow and with pathos. 

Adagio pesante (peh-san'-teh). Slow and weighty. 

Adagio sostenuto (sos-teh-noo-to). Slow and sustained. 

Adagissimo (It). Superlative of Adagio. More than usually 
slow; very slow indeed. 

Added Sixth. A name given to the subdominant chord with 
the 6th over its fundamental added, thus: F A C D. This 

explanation of this combination is not' now generally 

Addolorato (It.) (ad-do-lo-rah'-to). Sorrowful; dolorous. 

A demi-jeu (deh-tnee-sheoo). With half force or play. A 
direction to use half the power of the instrument, generally 
used of the organ. 

A deux cordes (doo-cord). On two strings. 

A deux mains (doo-mang) , By or for two hands. 

A deux temps {doo-tahm). In % time. 

Adirato (It.) (ad-ee-rah'-to). Angrily; irritated. 


Adjunct Keys or Scales. Those a fifth above and fifth below 
the given key or scale. Related scales. The scales or keys 
of the dominant and subdominant. 

Adjunct Notes. Short notes, not essential to the harmony, 
occurring on unaccented parts of a bar. [Cf. Auxiliary 
Notes, Passing Notes.] 

M libitum (Lat.). At will, (i) In passages so marked, the 
time may be altered at the will of the performer. (2) Parts 
in a score that may be omitted. 

A dur (Ger.) (dure). A major. 

^olian. The name of one of the Greek scales ; also of one of 
the ecclesiastical scales. Identical with modern A minor 
without sharped seventh. 

iEolian Harp. A shallow, oblong box with gut-strings set in 
motion by the wind, generally made to fit a window with the 
lower sash raised enough to admit it. The strings should 
be tuned in unison. 

Aussere Stimmen (Ger.) (ois-eh-reh stimmen). The outer 
parts, as soprano and bass in a chorus, or violin and violon- 
cello in a quartet. 


Ausserst (Ger.). Very; extremely. 


Ausserst rasch (rash). Very quick. 

Affabile (It.) (af-fah'-hee-leh). Pleasing; affably; agreeably. 

AfFannato (It.) (af-fah-nah'-to) [from affanno, anxiety]. 

Affannosamente (It.) (af-fah-no-sah-men'-teh). Restlessly. 

Affannoso (It.) (af-fah-no-so). Mournfully. 

Affettuosamente (It.) (af-fet'too-o-sa-men-teh), AfiFetuoso 
(It.) (af-fet-too-o-so). Affectionately. 

Affinity. Connected by relation. Relative keys. 

Afflitto (It.) (af-mf-to). Sadly; afflictedly. 

Affrettando (It.) (af-fret-tan'-do), Affrettate (It.) (af-fret- 
tah'-teh), Affrettore (It.) (af-fret-to'-reh). Hastening the 

Agevole (It.) (a-jeh'-vo-leh), Agevolezza (It.) (a-jeh-vo- 
letz'-ah). With lightness or agility. 

Agilmente (It.) (a-jiUmen'-teh), Agilmento (It). In a 
lively, cheerful manner. 


Agitamento (It.) {a-jee-tah-mefC-to). Restlessness. 

Agitato (It.) (a-jee-tah'-to). Agitated. To sing or play in 
an agitated, hurried manner. 

Air. A tune, song, melody. 

Ais (Ger.) (a-iss), A sharp. 

A la. In the manner of, as a la chasse (shass). Like a hunt; 
hunting song. 

A la mesure (Fr.) {meh-zoor). In time. Same as A tempo 
and A battuta. 

Albert! Bass. Broken chords arranged thus: 

So called from the name of its reputed inventor, Domenico 

Al' loco. At the place. Used after the direction to play 8th 
higher or lower. 

Al piacere. See A piacere. 

Al rigore di (or del) tempo (ree-go-reh dee tempo). In 
strict time. 

Al scozzese {scots-zeh-zeh) . In Scotch style. 

Al segno {sen-yo). To the sign. A direction to return to 
the sign ^ . D'al segno, from the sign, is used with the 
same intention. 

All' antico (an'-tee-ko). In ancient style. 

All' ottava (ot-tah-vah). When over the notes, play octave 
higher than written; when under, an octave lower. In or- 
chestral scores it means that one instrument is to play in 
octaves with another. 

All' unisono. At unison. 

Alia (It.). Written Al. or All. before words beginning with 
a vowel. Like; in the style of. 

Alia breve (It.) (al-lah breh'-veh). This was originally i 
rhythm, so called from the fact that one breve, or double- 
whole-note, filled each measure. To-day the teim is nr^ore 
generally applied to| rhythm, marked $. 

Alia caccia (It.) (cat-chia). In hunting style. 



Alia camera (It) (ca'-meh-rah) . In chamber-music style. 

AUa capelUu In church style. Also A capella. 

Alia deritta. By degrees. 

Alia hanacca {ha-nak-ka). In the manner of a hanacca. 

Alia marcia {ma/'Chee-d), In march style. 

Alia mente (men-teh). Extemporaneous. 

AUa militare (mee'lee'tah-reh). In military style. 

Alia modemo. In modem style. 

AUa Palestriiuu In the style of Palestrina, i.e,, strict C P. 
without instrumental accompaniment. 

AUa polacca. Like a polacca or polonaise. 

Alia quinta. At the fifth. 

AUa rovescio (ro-veh'-shee-o). By contrary motion' or re- 
verse motion, as when a phrase is imitated with the move- 
ment of the intervals inverted. Example: 

AUa sicUiana (see-chee-lee-ah'-nah). In the style of a Sici- 
liana, q.v. 

AUa stretta. Like a stretto, q, v. 

AUa turca. In Turkish style. 

AUa zingaro. In Gypsy style. 

AUa zoppa. Lamely; halting. 

AUegramente (It.) (al-leh-grah-men'-teh). Joyfully. 

Allegretto (It.) (al-leh-gret'-to). Diminutive of Allegro. 
(i) Slower than Allegro. (2) A movement in this time. 

AUegrettino (It.) {aUleh-greUtee'-no). Diminutive of Alle- 
gretto. (i) Not so fast as AUegretto. (2) A short Alle- 
gretto movement. 

Allegro (It.) (al-leh'gro). (Lit., joyful.) Quick, lively. The 
word is occasionally employed to describe a whole move- 
ment of a quartet, sonata, or symphony. In music it is 
sometimes qualified as: 
Allegro agitato (It). Quick and in an excited manner. 
Allegro assai (It). Literally, fast enough. A quicker 
motion than simple allegro. 


Allegro commodo or comodo (It.). An easy, graceful 

Allegro con brio (It). Quickly and with spirit. 

Allegro con fuoco (It). Rapidly and with fire. 

Allegro con moto (It). With sustained joyfulness. 

Allegro con spirito (It). Joyfully and with spirit 

Allegro di bravura (It). A movement full of executive 
difficulties intended to exhibit the capacity of the 
singer or player. 

Allegro di molto (It.). Exceedingly quick. 

Allegro furioso (It.). Rapidly and with fury. 

Allegro giusto (It). In quick but steady time. 

Allegro ma grazioso (It). Lively and with graceful 

Allegro ma non presto (It). Rapidly, but not too fast. 

Allegro ma non tanto (It). Quickly, but not too mUch so. 

Allegro ma non troppo (It.). Lively, but not too fast 

Allegro moderato (It). Moderately quick. 

Allegro molto (It). Very quick. 

Allegro risoluto (It.). Lively and with firmness and de- 
cision. ' 

Allegro veloce (It.). Lively and with speed. 

Allegro vivace (It). Lively and brisk. 

Allegro vivo (It). Quick and lively. 

A^Uemande (Fr.) (almain, allemaigne), A German dance (or 
some authorities say French), originally in duple time. 
Adopted as one of the movements in the Suite by Bach, 
Handel, and others, and written in | time. 

AUentamento (It.) (al'len-tgh-men-to) , Allentato (It) (a/- 
len-tah-to), AUentando (It) (al-len-tan-do). Giving 
way; slackening the time. 

Allmahlig (Ger.) (all-may-lig). Gradually; by degrees. 

Alpenhom or Alphom. A wooden horn slightly curved, 
4 to 8 feet long, used by the Swiss herdsmen. 

Alt (Cjer.). The alto voice or part 

Alt-Clarinette. Alto clarionet Its pitch is a 5th below the 
ordinary clarionet. 

Alt-Gcige. The viola. 

Alt-Oboe* Oboe de caccia, q.v, 

Alt-Posaune (po-zow-neh). Alto trombone. 


Alterato (It.) (al-teh-rah'-to), AMt€ (Ft.) ial-ielireh) 
Changed; altered. 

Altered. Said of intervals, the normal condition of which in 
a scale or chord is changed. 

Alternative (It.) {al-ter-nah-te/'Vo), An alternate A part 
of a movement to be played alternately with others. This 
name is frequently given to the second trio of a Scherzo in 
chamber music when (as is unusual) a second trio is added. 

Altissimo (It.). The highest. 

Alto (It.). High, loud. Originally applied to high male 
voices, now generally to the lowest female voice. Also 
applied to the viola (or tenor violin). 

Alto Clef. The C clef on the third line, used for the viola, 
alto trombone, and (in Europe) for the alto voice. 

Altra, Altre, Altri, Altro (It.) (masculine and feminine 
forms in the singular and plural). Other, others. 

Amabile (It) (ah'tnah'-bee-leh). Amiably, sweetly, ten- 

Amarevole (It.) (ah-tnah-reh'-vo-leh). Sad, bitter. 

Amateur (Fr.) (a-tnah-toor). A lover of art. Generally 
applied to one who does not follow it professionally. 

Ambrosian Chant. The system of church music introduced 
by Ambrose of Milan in the fourth century. 

Ambrosian Hjrmn. A name given to the Te Deum on ac- 
count of the belief — now known to be erroneous — that it 
was written by Ambrose of Milan. 

Ame (Fr.) (am). Soul. The French name for the sound- 
post of instruments of the violin family. 

American Organ. The English name for American reed 
organs, in which the air is drawn through instead of being 
forced through the reeds, as in the usual European system. 

A mezza voce (It.) (met-za vo-chee). With half voice. 

A moll (Ger.). A soft, i. e,, A minor. 

Amorevole (It.) (a-mor-eh'-vol-eh), Amorevolmente (It), 
Amorosamente (It), Amoroso (It). Lovingly; tenderly; 

Amusement (Fr.) (a-moos-mong) , A light composition; .i 


Anche (Fr.) (onsh), A reed of organ-pipe, or mouth-piece 
of oboe, clarionet, etc. Jeu-d'anche, reed-stop. Ancia (It.) 
(an-chee-ah) , Italian form of the same word. 

Anche (It.) (an-keh). Also; yet; stilL 

Anche piu moto. Still or yet faster. 

Ancor (It.). Also; yet; still; used in the same way as 

Ancora (It). Again. Fr., encore, 

AndSchtig (Ger.) (an-daych-tig). Devoutly. 

Andamento (It.) (an-da-men-to). Movement; the coda to 
a long fugue theme frequently dropped in the ^'working out." 

Andante (It.) [from andare, to walk or go slowly]. A slow 
movement; quiet, peaceful tempo. 

Andante affettuoso. Slow, with tenderness. 

Andante cantabile {can-taW-hee-leh) . Slow and singing. 

Andante con moto. Slow, but with a little motion. 

Andante grazioso. Slow and gi^aceful. 

Andante maestoso. Slow and majestic. 

Andante non troppo or ma non troppo. Slow, but not too 

Andante pastorale. Slow, in pastoral style. 

Andante sostenuto (It.) (sos-teh-noo'-to). Slow, with 

Andantemente (It.). Like an Andante. 

Andantino (It.) {an-dan-tee'-no) . A diminutive of Andante. 
A little faster than Andante (some say slower, but the 
Italian dictionaries say faster). 

Anelantemente (It.) (ah-neh-lan-teh'tnen'^teh). Ardently; 

Anfang (Ger.). Beginning. 

Anfangsgriinde (Ger.). Rudiments. 

Anfangs-Ritornel (Ger,). Introductory symphony. 

Angenehm (Ger.) (aW-geh-nehm). Pleasing; agreeable. 

Anglaise (Fr.) (on-glefis), Anglico (It.) {an' -glee-ko) . The 
English country dance. 

Angel'ica. (Lat.). The vox angelica. 


AngeHque (Fr.) (on-jeh-leek) , Voix angelique, angel voice, 
name of an organ-stop. Also called Voix Celeste (Fr.) 
(vo-a seh'lest).^ Celestial voice. 

Angosciosamente (It.) (an-gO'Shee-o-sa-men-teh), Angorci- 
080 (It.) (an-gO'Shee-o'-so). Painfully; with anguish. 

Anhang (Ger.) [anhdngen, to hang to]. Coda. 

Anima (It.) {aW-nee-mah), Animate (It.) (ah-nee-mah'-to), 
Animando (It.). Soul; spirit; life; lively with animation. 

Animosamente (It.) (ah-nee-mo-sah-fnen'-teh), Animo- 
sissimo (It.) or Animosissamente. Very energetic; boldly. 

Animoso (It). Spiritedly; energetically. 

Anlage (Ger.) (an-lah'-geh) , The plan of a composition. 

Anleitung (Ger.) {an-ley-toong). Direction; guidance; 

Anmuth (Ger.) (an-moot). Sweetness; grace; charm. 

Anmuthig (Ger.). Sweetly; gracefully. 

Ansatz (Ger.). (i) Attack. (2) Position of mouth in sing- 
ing* (3) Position of lips in blowing a wind instrument. 
See Embouchure. 

Anschlag (Ger.). Touch, as applied to piano and other keyed 

Anschwellen (Ger.) (an-shvel-len). To increase in loud- 
ness; crescendo. 

Antecedent [Lat. ante, cado, to fall before]. The subject or 
theme proposed for imitation; the subject of a fugue. The 
reply or imitation is called the consequent- 

Anthem, ""anthSme, *BxMm, s. [In A. S. ante fen, a hymn 
sung in alternate parts, an anthem ; O. Fr., anthatne, antene, 
antienne, antevene; Prov., antifene, antifona; Sp. and It., 
antifona; Low Lat., antiphona; from (jr. avru^owov (aHti- 
phdnon), an antiphon, an anthem; avri^uvoc (antiphOnos) , 
sounding contrary, . . . responsive 'to; ovri (an/t), opposite 
to, contrary to; ^uvif {phdnk), a sound, a tone.] 

*(i) Originally: A hymn sung "against" another hymn; 
in other words, a hymn in alternate parts, the one sung by 

one side of the choir, the other by the other. 

^'Anthem^ a divine song sung alternately by two opposite choirs and 
cYiOTVises.\—Glossog: Nov. ad ed. (1719). 

(2) Now: A portion of Scripture or of the Liturgy, set 

to music, and sung or chanted. 


There are three kinds of anthems: (i) A verse anthem, 
which in general has only one voice to a part; (2) a full 
anthem with verse, the latter performed by single voice, 
the former by all the choir; (3) a full anthem, performed 
by all the choir. 

Anthropoglossa [Gr. anihropos, man; glossa, the tongue]. 
Like the human voice ; the Vox humana stop in the organ. 

Anticipation [Lat. ante, before; capio, to take]. To intro- 
duce a note belonging to the next chord before leaving the 
preceding chord. 

Antiphon [Gr. anti, against; phoneo, to sing]. A short sen- 
tence or anthem sung before and after the psalter for the 

Antiphony. The responsive singing of two choirs generally 
placed on opposite sides of the chancel, one called the 
Decani, on the Dean's side of the chancel, the other the 
Cantoris, on the precentor's or leader's side. The verses of 
the psalms are sung by the choirs alternately, but the Gloria 
by the united choirs. 

Anwachsend (Ger.) (an-vach-sent) , Swelling; crescendo. 

Aperto (It.) (ah'pehr-to) . Open. Direction to use the 
damper ("loud") pedal. 

A piacere (pee-ah-cheh'-reh), or Al placer, or A piacimento 

{pee-ah-chee-men'-to) , At pleasure. 

A poco a poco (It.). Little by little. 

A poco piu lento (It.)- A little slower. 

A poco piu mosso (It ) . A little faster. 

Appassionata (It.) (ap-pas-sion-ah'-tah), Appassionamento 
(It.). With strong passion or emotion. 

Appassionatamente (It.). Impassioned. 

Appenato (It.) (ap-peh-nah'-to). Distressfully. 

Applicatur (Ger.) (ap-plee-ka-too/). The fingering of a 
musical instrument. 

Appoggiando (It.) (ap-pod-je-an-do). Leaning upon; sus- 
pended notes. 

Appoggiato (It). Retardations; syncopations. 

Appoggiatura (It) (ap-pod-jea-too'-rah). To lean against 
An ornamental note foreign to the harmony, one degree 
above or below a member of the chord, always on an accent 



or on a beat. It takes half the value of the note it precedes, 
but if the note it precedes is dotted, it takes two- thirds of 
its value. 





^ a 








1 ^^ 










The modern practice is to write as rendered, thus avoiding 
any confusion between the appoggiatura and the acciacca- 
A punto (It.). Accurate, strict time. 

A punto d'arco (It). With the point of the bow. 

A quatre mains (Fr.) (katr-mang). For four hands. 

A quattro mani (It.) (kwat-tro mah-nee). For four hands. 

Arcato (It.) (ar-kah'-to). With the bow; a direction to re- 
sume the bow after pizzicato. 

Arco (It). The bow. 

Ardente (It.) (ar-den-teh) , Ardent; fiery. 

Ardente (Fr.) {ar-dongt). Ardently. 

Ardito (It) (ar-dee-to). Ardently; boldly. 

Aretinian Syllables. Ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, given by Guido 
Aretinus to the hexachord. Ut was changed to do, as being 
a better vowel for solmization. 

Aria (It.) (aW-ree-ah). Air; song. In form the aria con- 
sists of three members : Part I, a more or less « laborate 
melody in the tonic key. Part II, another melody in a re- 
lated key. Part III, a repetition of the first melody, to 
which a coda is generally added. 


Aria buffa (It.) {hoof -f ah). An aria with humorous words. 

Aria concertante (It.) (con-cher-tan-teh). An aria with 
obbligato accompaniment of instruments. 

Aria di bravura (It.) (dee-brah-voo'-rah) or d'abilita (d'ah- 
bee-lee-tah) , An aria with difficult, showy passages. 

Aria fugato (It.) (foo-gah'-to). An aria with an accompani- 
ment written in fugue style. 

Aria parlante (It.) (par-Ian' -teh). Literally a speaking aria, 
one in which the music is designed for declamatory effect. 
The aria parlante was the precursor of the recitative. 

Arietta (It.) {ah-ree-et'-ta). A small aria, less elaborate than 
the aria. 

Arioso (It.) (ah-ree-o'-so) . A short melody at the end of 
or in the course of a recitation. 

Armenia (It.) (ar-mo'-nee-ah) . Harmony. 

Armoniosamente (It.) {ar-mo-nee-O'Sa-men'-teh), Armoni- 
oso (It.) (ar-mo-nee-o'-so). Harmonious; harmoniously. 

Arpa (It.) (ar^'pah). Harp. 

Arp^ge (Fr.) (ar-pehgh'), Arpeggio (It.) (ar-ped-jeeo). In 
harp style. In piano music a direction to play the notes of 
a chord in rapid succession from the lowest upward. Indi- 
cated by 


A reversed arpeggio is indicated by 

" r 

In old music the arpeggio is sometimes indicated thus: 



Arpeggiando (It.) (ar-ped'-jee-an-do). In harp style. 

Arpeggiato (It.) (ar-ped-jee-a'-to). Arpeggiated. 

Arrangement (Fr.) (ar-ramh-mong) . A piece of music 
written for one or more instruments or voices adapted to 
other instruments or voices. Also called Transcription. 

Ar'sis (Gk.). The unaccented or up beat; the reverse of 
Thesis, the accented or down beat. 


Articolato (It.) {ar-tik-ko-lah'-to) , Articulated distinctly. 

Artig (Ger.) (ahr-teech). Neat, pretty, unaffected. 

As (Ger.). A Hat. As dur {doohr), A flat major. As moll, 
A flat minor. 

Assai (It.) (as-sah'-ee). Very, extremely, as Allegro assai, 
very fast. Adagio assai, very slow. 

Assez (Fr.) {as-seh). Rather, as Assez vite (veet), rather 
quick, or quick enough. 

Assoluto (masc), Assoluta (fem.) (It.) (as-so-loo'-to). 
Absolute. Applied to the leading singers of an opera troupe, 
as Prima donna assoluta, flrst lady absolute; Prima uomo 
assoluto, flrst man absolute. 

A suo arbitrio (soo-oh ar-hee-tre-o). At your will. 

A tempo (tem'-po). In time. A direction to resume strict 
time after Rail, or Rit., q. v. 

A tempo giusto (joo/-to). In strict time. 

A tempo nibato (joo-hah'-to). In stolen time, ». e., retarding 
and hurrying the time irregularly. 

A tre corde {tray). On three strings. 

Attacca (It.) (at-tak'-ka). Attack. Begin the next move- 
ment with slight or with no pause. 

Attacca subito (It.) (soo-bee-to). Attack quickly, without 

Attacco (It.), Attaque (Fr.) (at-tak'). The motive or theme 
of an imitation or short fugal subject. 

Attaquer (Fr.) (at-tak-keh) , Same as Attacca. 

Attack. The manner of beginning a phrase or piece; refers 

generally to the promptness or firmness of the performer or 

Attendant Keys. The keys of the 4th and 5th above, and 

the relative minors of the principal key and these two major 

relations, as CFG 

Rel. minors A D E 

Aubade (Fr.) (o-badf). Morning music; the opposiu of 
Serenade, evening music. 

Audace (Fr.) (o-dass). Bold, audacious. 

Auffiihrung (Ger.) {owf-fee-roonk). Performance; repre- 
sentation of an opera. 


Aufgeregt (Ger.) igeh-rehgt). With agitation. 

Aufgeweckt (Gcr.) (geh-vekt). With animation. 

Aufhalten (Ger.) (hol-ten). To suspend (of dissonances). 
Also, to hold back or retard (of time). 

Aufhaltung (Ger.) (Jiol-toonk). Suspension. 

Auflosen (Ger.) (leh-sen). To let loose; resolve a dissonance. 

Aufldsungszeichen ((^er.) (leh-soonks-tseich-en) . Releasing 
sign; the Jj. 

Aufschlag (Ger.). Up beat. 

Aufschwung (Ger.) (owfshvoonk). Soaring, elevation. 

Aufstrich (Ger.). Up bow. 

Auftakt (Ger.). The unaccented part of the measure, or the 
fraction of a measure, at the beginning of a piece. 

Augmentation. When the theme of a fugue or imitation is 
given in notes of double or quadruple the length of those 
in its original form. 

Augmented, (i) Any interval greater than perfect or major. 
(2) A theme written in notes of greater value than in its 
original form. 

Augmented Sixth Chotdl Called also extreme sharp sixth ; 

superfluous sixth ; when formed thus, A|? C F||, t he Ital ian 

sixth ; thus, A|z C D F J, the French sixth ; thus, Afe C eIz f|{. 
the German sixth. 

itagmenter (Fr.) (og-tnong-^teh). To increase in force. 
Same as Crescendo. 

Ausarbeitung (Ger.) (ows'-ar-bye-toonk). Development; 
the working out of a fugue or sonata, etc. 

Ausdruck (Ger.) {drook). Expression. 

AusdrucksvoH (Ger.,). With expression; literally, full of 

Ausfiihrung (Ger.) (fee-roonk). Execution; manner of per 
formance. . 

Ausweichujng^ (Qer.) (veich-oonk). Literally, evasion ; mod 
alatioii ; change of key. 


Authentic. The Ambrosian scales. A melody that lies be- 
tween the 4ceynote and its octave is called authentic. One 
that lies between the fourth below and the fifth above the 
keynote is called plagal. These terms are only used in the 
ecclesiastical modes. 

Authentic. The church scales beginning and ending on any 
given tonic (except B). 

Authentic Cadence. Tonic preceded by dominant. 

Autoharp. A modern instrument resembling a zither, of easy 
performance. The plectrum is drawn across all the strings 
at once, and those that it is not desired to sound are silenced 
by a series of dampers controlled by the left hand of the 

Auxiliary Note. Grace note; appoggiatura. 

Auxiliary Scales. Related scales. 


B. The seventh or leading tone of the natural major scale; 
in German, the note or key of Bb, BlJ being called H. 

Baborak or Baboracka. A Bohemian dance. 

Backfall. An ornament in harpsichord or lute music, written 

i played jf" 

Badinage (Fr.) (hah-dee-naje). Banter; raillery. 

Bagatelle (Fr.) (bah-gah-iell). A trifle; a name frequently 
given to short pieces of music. 

Bagpipe. An instrument consisting of a leather bag into 
which air is forced either from a bellows or by the mouth 
of the player; furnished with from two to four pipes, one 
pipe with double reed pierced with holes, upon which the 
melody is played, called in Scotland the chanter; the re- 
maining pipes, with single reeds, called drones, sound con- 
tinuously the first and fifth of the scale or first, fifth and 

Bajadere or Bayadere (by-a-dehr). East Indian dnncing 


Bakkia (bak-kee-ah) , A Kamchadale dance. 

Balabile (It.) {bah-lah-bee-leh). Any piece of music written 
for dancing purposes. 

Ballad. A simple song, originally a song to accompany dan- 
cing ; derived from the low Latin word ballare, to dance ; in 
its French form, ballade, .it is used by modern composers 
as a title for extended lyric compositions, as the ballades of 

Balladenmassig (Ger.) (bal'la'-den-meh-sich). In ballad style. 

Ballad-opera. An opera made up of simple songs, and with- 
out recitative. 

Balafo (bah'lah'fo) . An African instrument resembling the 
xylophone ; a South American variety is called the marimba. 

Balalaika (Russ.) (bah-lah-lye'-ka). A Russian guitar with 
three or four strings, the body triangular. 

Ballata (It). A ballad. 

Ballerina (It.) (bal-leh-ree-nah), A female ballet dancer. 

Ballet (Eng.), called also Fa-la. An old form of part song 
in simple counterpoint. 

Ballet (Fr.) (bal-leh). A combination of music and dancing, 
designed to tell a story in pantomime. 

Balletto (It.) {bal'let'-to), A ballet. Used as a name for 
a movement by Bach. 

Ballo (It.). A dance; a ball. 

Ballo in maschera (mas-keh-rah). Masked ball. 

Band, (i) A company of instrumentalists. (2) The term i. 
used to distinguish the various groups of instruments in 
the orchestra; as, string band, wood band, brass band. 
(3) The commonest use of the word is as applied to a 
company of players on brass instruments. (4) A band 
composed of wood and brass instruments is called a har> 
mony band. 

Band (Ger.) (bont), A volume; a part. . 

Banda (It.) (ban-dah). A band. 

Bandola (ban-do'-lah) . A variety of mandolin. 

Bandora (Fr.) (ban-do' -rah), Bandore (Eng.), Pandoura 
(Gk). An obsolete instrument of the guitar family, 

Bandurria (Span.) (ban-door-ree-ah) , A variety of guitar 
with wire strings. 


Banger, Bania, Banja, Banjo. An instrument resemblm^jr a 
guitar, with a circular body, consisting of a broad hoop of 
wood covered with parchment, generally provided with five 
strings. The modern banjo is furnished with frets and with 
a screw mechanism to tighten the parchment. 

Bar- A line drawn across the staff or staves to divide the 
music into portions of equal duration. The portion enclosed 
between two bars is called a measure. The almost universal 
custom of musicians, however, is to use bar in the sense of 

Barbaro (It.) (bar^-bah-ro). Savagely; ferocious. 

Barbiton (Gk.). (i) A variety of lyre. (2) A string instru- 
ment resembling the violoncello (obsolete). 

Barcarole, Barcarolle (Fr.) (bar-ca-rol) , Barcarola (It) 
(bar-ca-ro-lah) , Barcaruola (It.) (bar-ca-roo-o-la) . A 
boat-song; gondolier's song; vocal or instrumental compo- 
sitions in the style of the Venetian gondoliers* songs. 

Barem (Ger.) (bah-rehm) , A soft organ-stop; closed pipes 
of eight- or sixteen-foot tone. 

Bargaret (Fr.) (bar-gah-reh) , Barginet (Fr.) (bar-zhee- 
neh ) , Berginet ( Fr. ) ( behr-zhee-neh ) , Bergiret ( Fr. ) ( behr- 
zhee-reh). A shepherd's song; pastoral song. From berger 
(Fr.), a shepherd. 

Baribasso (It.). A deep bass voice. 

Bariolage (Fr.) (bah-ree-o-laje). A medley; a series of 

Baritenor. A low tenor. 

Baritone. A brass instrument; a clarionet of low pitch; an 
obsolete variety of the viol family; the male voice ranging 
between bass and tenor (also written barytone) ; the F clef 
on the third line (not used now). 

Barocco (It), Barock (Ger.), Baroque (Fr.) (ba-rok). Ir- 
regular; whimsical; unusual. 

Barquade, Barquarde (Fr.) (bar-kad, bar-kard). Same as 

Barre (Fr.) (bar-reh'). In guitar playing, pressing the first 
finger of the left hand across all the strings ; the finger acts 
as a temporary "nut," raising the pitch of the strings. 

Barre (Fr.) (bar). Bar. 

Barre de r6petition. A double bar with repeat marks. 


Bas dessus (Fr.) (bah-des-soo'). The mezzo-soprano voice. 

Base. Old way of writing bass. 

Bass, Basso (It.)> Basse (Fr.), Bass (Ger.). Low; deep. 

Basse chantante (Fr.) (shan-tont). Baritone voice. 

Basse chiffr6e (Fr.) (shif-freh). Figured bass. 

Basse continu6 (Fr.). Same as Figured Bass. 

Basse de cremone (Fr.) {creh-tnone) . Bassoon. 

Basse d'harmonie (Fr.) id'ar-mo-nee). The ophicleide. 

Basse de hautbois (Fr.). The English horn. 

Basse de viole (Fr.). Violoncello. 

Basse de violon. The double bass. 

Basse taille (Fr.) (tah-ee). Baritone voice. 

Bass-bar. A strip of wood glued to the belly of instruments 
of the violin family under the lowest string. 

Bass Clef. The F clef on the fourth line. 

Bass-F15te (Ger.) (fla-teh). A low-pitch flute. 

Bass-Geige (Ger.). The violoncello. 

Bass-Pommer (Ger.). An obsolete ancestor of the bassoon 

Bass-Posaune (Ger.) (po-gow-neh) . Bass trombone. 

Bass-Schltissel (Ger.) (schlis-sel). Bass clef. 

Bass-Stimme (Ger.) (stim-meh), Bass voice or part. 

Bass Tuba. A brass instrument of low pitch. 

Viol. The largest viol of a set or "chest" of viols. 

Voice. The lowest male voice. 

Basset Horn. A variety of the clarionet, ranging from F be- 
low bass staff to C above treble staff; rich quality of tone" 
a favorite of Mozart, who used it in several of his operas 
and in his Requiem Mass. 

Bassetto (It.). An eight- or sixteen-foot reed-stop in the 
organ; obsolete name for viola. 

Basso (It). The lowest part; a bass singer. 

Basso bii£Fo (It). A comic bass singer. 

Basso cantante (It.) (can-tan' -teh). A vocal or singing bass. 

Basso concertante (It.) {con-cher-tan'-teh). The principal 
bass that accompanies solos and recitatives. 


Basso continuo (It.). A figured bass. 

Basso obbligato (It.) {oh-blee-gaW-to). An essentia! bai 
one that may not be dispensed with. 

Basso ostinato (It.) (os-tee-nah'-tg). Literally, obstinate 
bass; a continuously repeated bass with constant variation 
of the upper parts ; generally used as the foundation of that 
member of the suite called the Passacaglio. 

Basso prof undo (It.). A very deep, heavy bass voice. 

Basso ripieno (It.) (ree-pee-eh'-no). A "filling up" bass. 
See Ripieno. 

Bassoon, Basson (Fr.), Fagotto (It.), Fagott (Ger.). A 
wood-wind instrument with double reed; the bass of the 
wind band; compass from Bb below bass staff to Bb in 
treble staff (two or three higher notes are possible). 

Basson quinte (Fr.) (kangt). A bassoon a fifth higher than 
the preceding. 

BIton (Fr.). (i) The stick used by a conductor; also, fig- 
uratively, his method of conducting. (2) A pause of several 
measures, signified thus 


in modern music, viz. : one or two heavy diagonal lines with 
figures over to indicate the number of bars rest. 

Batteric (Fr.) (bat-teh-ree), (1) The roll on the drum. 
(2) Repeated or broken chords played staccato. (3) Strik- 
ing instead of plucking the strings of the guitar. 

Battuta (It.) {hat-too' -tah). A measure or bar. 

Bauerpfeife (Ger.) {hower-pHfeh), An 8- foot organ-stop of 
small scale. 

Baxoncillo (Sp.) (bah-hon-theef-yo). Open diapason. 

Bayadere. See Bajadere. 

Bayles (Sp.) (bahl-yehs). Comic dancing songs. 

Bearings or Bearing Notes. The notes first tuned by an 
* organ- or piano-tuner as a guide to the rest. 

Beat, (i) The motion of the hand or baton by which the 
time (rate of movement) of a piece is regulated. (2) The 
equal parts into which a measure is divided. (3) Th 


throbbing heard when two sounds not exactly in unison are 
heard together. (Beats are also produced by other intervals.) 

Bebung (Ger.) (beh-boonk). Trembling; an effect obtained 
on the obsolete clavichord by rapidly vibrating the finger 
up and down without raising it from the key; the tremolo- 
stop in an organ. 

Becken (Ger.). Cymbals. 

Begeisterung (Ger.) (be-geis'-te-roonk). Spirit; excitement 

Begleitung (Ger.) (be-glei'-toonk). Accompaniment. 

Beklemmt (Ger.) {beh-klemf). Anxious; oppressed. 

BclL (i) A cup-shaped metal instrument. (2) The cup- 
shaped end of brass and some wood instruments. 

Bell Diapason, Bell Gamba. Organ-stops with bell-shaped 

Bellezza (It.) {bel-lef-za). Beauty of expression. 

Bellicosamente (It.) (bel-le-co-sa-men'-teh). In a warlike 
manner; martially.. 

Belly. The upper side of instruments of the violin and guitar 

Bemol (Fr.) (beh-mol). The sign b. 

Ben (It.) (behn). Well; as, ben marcato, well marked. 

Bene placito (It.) (beh-neh pla-chee-to). At pleasure. 

B6quarre or B6carre (Fr.) {beh-kar). The sign t|. 

Berceuse (Fr.) (behr-soos). A cradle-song; lullaby. 

Bergomask or Bergamask. A lively dance in triple time. 

Bes (Ger.) (behs). B double flat. 

Bestimmt (Ger.). With energy; con energia. 

Bewegt (Ger.) (beh-vehgf). Moved; with emotion; con 

Bewegung (Ger.) (beh-veh'-goonk). Motion. 

Bien-chant6 (Fr.) (be-ang-shong-teh) , Literally, well sung; 
smoothly; cantabile. 

Bifara (Lat.). An organ-stop; same as Vox angelica; two 
pipes not in perfect unison. 

Binary Form. A movement founded on two principal themes. 
Binary Measure. A measure with two beats. 


Bind. A tie. The same sign, when over two or more notes 
on different degrees, is called a slur. 

Bis (Lat.). Twice. When placed over a short passage, in- 
closed thus, Bis signifies that it is to be played twice. 

Bit. A small piece of tube used to lengthen the trumpet or 
other brass instrument to alter the pitch. 

Bizzarramente (It.) (bid-jsarra-mente) , Bizzaria (It.) (bid- 
sarria)^ Bizzaro (It.) (bid-sarro). Bizarre; fantastic; 
odd; droll. 

Blanche (Fr.) (blongsh), A half-note; minim. 

Blanche pointee (poin-tfh). A dotted half-note. 

Blase-Instrument (Ger.) (blah-zeh). Wind instrument 

Bob. A technical term in bell ringing. 

Bocca (It.). The mouth. Con bocca chiusa {kee-oo-sa), 
with closed mouth; humming. 

Bocca ridente (It.) (ree-den'-teh). Smiling mouth; the 
proper position of the mouth in singing. 

Bocktriller (Ger.). A bad trill. (Literally, goat's bleat.) 

Bois (Fr.) {bo-d). Wood. Lcs bois, the wood wind. 

Bolero (Sp.) (bo-leh-ro), Spanish dance in } time; also 
called Cachuca {ka-choo-ka) . 

Bombard, An 8 or i6-foot reed-stop in the organ. 

Bombardon. A large, deep-toned brass instrument. 

Bouch6 (masc), Bouch6e (fem.) (Fr.) (boo-sheh). Closed. 
Applied to organ-stops with closed mouth. 

Bouffe (Fr.) (boof). Comic. 

Bourdon, (i) A closed organ-stop of i6 or 32-foot tone. 
(2) In France also 4 and 8-foot stops, analogous to the stop 
diapason, are so called. (3) A drone bass. (4) The largest 
bell of a chime. 

Bourr6e (Fr.) (boo-reh). A rapid dance J or } time, 
frequently used as one of the* movements in a suite. 

Bow. (i) The implement of wood and horse-hair by means 
of which the strings of the violin family of instruments are 
set in vibration. (2) The rim of a bell. 

Bowing, (i) The art of managing the bow. (2) The signs 
indicating the way in which the bow is to be used. 


Braban$onne (Fr.) (bra-ban-sonn). The Belgiati national 

Brace. The sign \ used to join two or more staves. 


Bransle (Fr.) or Branle (brongl), BrawL An ancient 
French dance in } time. 

Bratsche (Ger.) (bratch-eh). The viola. Corruption of the 
Italian Braccia {brats-chia) , the arm-viol. 

Bravo (masc.) (It), Brava (fem.) {bra-vah), Bravi (plu.) 
(Jbra-vee). Literally, brave. Used to applaud performers, 
meaning "well done." 

Bravura (It.) (bra-voo'-rah). Boldness; brilliancy. A com- 
position designed to exhibit the powers of the performer. 

Break, {i) The point at which the register of the voice 
changes. (2) The point at which the lower octave is re- 
sumed in compound organ-stops. (3) The point where the 
quality of the tone changes in wood instruments (of the 
clarionet family especially). 

Breit (Ger.) (bright). Broad; stately. 

Breve [from Lat. brevis, short]. Formerly the shortest note; 
now the longest, equal in value to two whole notes. Made 

M - M 

Bridge. A piece of wood resting on the sound-board or 
resonance box, upon which the strings of piano, violin, 
guitar, etc., rest. 

Brillante (Fr.) {bree-yant), Brillante (It.) (breel-lan-teh) . 

Brindisi (It.) (Jbrin-de/-zee), Drinking song in for | time, 
so written as to resemble the Tyrolese Jodl. 

Brio (It.) {bree-o). Fire: spirit. 

Brioso (It). Cheerfully; briskly; joyfully. 

Broken Cadence. An interrupted cadence. 

Broken Chords. See Arpeggio. 

Bnimm-Stimmen (Ckr.). Humming voices; con bocca chiusa. 

Bruscamente (It.) (broos-ka-meW-teh). Roughly; strongly 


Brustwerk (Ger.) (broost-vehrk) . The pipes in the organ 

belonging to the swell or choir organ. 
Buca (It.), Schall-Loch (Ger.). The sound-hole of a guitar, 

mandolin, etc. 

Buccolica (It.) (buk-ko'-H-ka), Bucoliquc (Fr.) (boo-ko- 
 leek). In a rustic style. 

BufiFo (piasc), Buffa (fern.). A comic opera, or air, or singer. 

Bugle, (i) A straight or curved hunting horn. (2) A keyed 
horn, generally made of copper. Chiefly used for military 

Burden. Old name for the refrain or chorus to a song. 

Burletta (It.). A musical farce. 

Busain. A 16-foot reed-organ stop. 

C. The first note in the natural major scale. Middle C, the 
C lying between the fifth line of the bass staff and first line 
of the treble staff; the C clef |^ or j(is}{: always signifies 

this C. 
Cabaletta (It). ("A little horse," so called from the rapid 
triplet accompaniment generally used with it.) ""A vocal 
rondo, the theme often repeated with elaborate variations. 

Cabinet-d'orgue (Fr.) (ca-bee-neh-d'org). Organ case. 

Cabinet Organ. A reed organ (American) in which the air 
is drawn instead of forced through the reeds. 

Cabinet Piano. An old-style lofty upright piano. 

Caccia (It.) (cat'-chia). Hunting chase. 

Cachucha (Sp.) (ca-choo'-cha). The same as Bolero, 

Cadence [from Lat. cado, to fall]. The end of a phrase, part 
piece. The principal cadences are as follows : whole, or 
perfect, dominant to tonic; half, or imperfect, tonic to 
dominant; deceptive, dominant to subdominant or sub- 







Plagal cadence, subdominant to tonic. In the perfect 
cadence the dominant is generally preceded" by the 6-4 of 
the tonic ; in the half cadence the 6-4 of the tonic before the 
dominant which is the final; half and deceptive cadences 
are used in the course of a piece ; perfect and plagal at the 
end. The Phrygian cadence consists of the following chords : 

A long, brilliant, vocal or instrumental flourish introduced 
just before the close, or before the return of the principal 
theme, is also called a cadence (in Italian, cadenza). 

Cadenz or Kadenz (Ger.). Cadence. 

Cadenza (It.). A cadence. The Italian word is generally 
used when applied to the kind of passage described abcrve. 

(a-ira (Fr.) (sah-era). That will do; lit., that will go. A 
revolutionary song in France. 

Caisse (Fr.) (case). A drum. 

Caisse claires (dare). Kettle drums. Grosse Caisse, large 

Caisse roulante. Side or snare drum. 


Caramus (Lat.). A reed. From this are derived the words 
Chalumeau (Fr.) (sha-loo-mo) , the first register of the 
clarionet, and Shawm, an obsolete reed instrument used in 
the Bible as the translation of a Hebrew instrument. 

Calan'do (It.) [from calare, to go down or decrease]. Get- 
ting both slower and softer. 

Calandrone (It.) [calandra, a lark]. A small reed instrument 
resembling the clarionet. 

Cala'ta (It.). A lively dance in} time, 

Calcan'do (It.) [from calcare, to tread upon]. Hurrying the 

Call. A military signal, given by drum or bugle. • 

Calma (It.). Calm, quiet. 

Calma'to (It.). Calmed, quieted. 

Calore (It.) (kaV-o-reh). Warmth, passion. 

Caloro'so (It.). Warmly, passionately. 

Cambiata (It.) (camb-ya'-ta) [from cambiare, to change]. 
Nota cambiata, changing note; a dissonant struck on the 
accent. . 

Camera (It.) (ka'-meh-ra). Chamber. Musica di camera, 

chamber music. 

Camminan'do (It.) [from camminare, to travel or walk]. 
Walking, flowing. Same as Andante, 

Campa'na (It.). A bell. 

Campanello (It.) (kam-pah-neV-lo). A small bell. 

Campanet'ta (It.). Instrument consisting of a series of small 
bells tuned to the musical scale, played either with small 
hammers held in the hands, or by means of a keyboard. 

Campanology. The art of making and using bells. 

Canaries. A lively dance in J time, of English origin. 

Can'crizans [Lat. cancer, a crab]. A term applied to a canon 
in which the "follower" takes the theme backward. 

Canon (Lat.). Law or rule, (i) The measurement of the 
ratios of intervals by means of the monochord. (2) A 
musical composition in which each voice imitates the theme 
given out by the leading voice ; this imitation may be at any 
interval above or below, or may begin at any point of the 
theme. There are many varieties of the canon. The follow- 


ing are the most important, if any importance attaches tc 
such dry productions: Close Canon, the entrance of the 
voices indicated by a sign ; the parts not written out. Open 
Canon, the reverse of this; i. e., written in full. Finite 
Canon, one with an ending. Infinite Canon, one without 
an ending. 

There are also canons by augmentation, by diminution, by 
inversion, by retrogression (cancrizans), etc., etc. 

Canonic Imitation. See Canon, 

Cantabile (It.) {can-taW-bee-leh) [from cantare, to sing]. 
In a singing style. 

Cantan'do (It.). Singing. 

Canta'ta. (i) A mixture of aria and recitative for one voice. 
(2) A short oratorio, or a secular work in oratorio form, 
sung without costume or action. 

Cantatore (It.) (can-ta-to'-reh), A singer, male. 

Cantatrice (It.) (can-ta-tree-cheh), A singer, female. 

Cantilina (Lat). (i) A folk-song. (2) A solfeggio. (3) A 
Anooth-flowing melody. (4) Anciently the Cantus firmus. 

Canticle (Lat). (i) A song of praise. Cantico (It.), Can- 
tique (Fr.) (kan-teek), Lobgesang (Ger.) (lope-ge-sang), 
(2) The parts of Scripture — ^Te Deum and Benedicite 
Omina Opera — that form the chief part of the musical ser- 
vice of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 

Cantino (It.). See Chanterelle. 

Canto (It). The air; the melody; upper part 

Canto a capella (It). Sacred music. 

Canto fermo (It). Cantus firmus. 

Canto figurante (It). Florid melody; melody with varia- 

Canto prime (It). First soprano. 

Canto recitativo (It). Declamatory singing. 

Canto ripieno (It) (ree-pe-eh'-no). Additional soprano 
chorus parts. 

Canto seconda (It.). Second soprano. 

Cantor (Lat), Kantor (Ger.). A precentor. 

Cantore (It). A singer; chorister. 


Cantoris (Lat). The side of a cathedral choir (the north) 
where the cantor sits is called the cantoris; the opposite 
side is called the decani side, where the dean sits. 

Cantus (Lat). Song. 

Cantus ambrosia'nus (Lat). Plain song. 

Cantus firmus. The plain song or chant 

Cantus mensura'bilis (Lat.). Measurable song; name given 

to music when first written with notes of definite length. 
Canzona (It) (cant-so' -na). (i) A part song in popular style. 

(2) An instrumental composition in the old sonata form. 

(3) An indication of lively, rapid movement. 

Canzonette (Fr.) (can-so-net) , Canzonetta (It), Canzonet 
(It). A short part song. 

Capella (It.). Church. Alia capella, in church style. 

Capellmeister (Ger.) {ka-peV-meis'-ter), Master of the 
chapel ; the head of the musical establishment of a noble or 
princely house. 

Capellmeister-Musik (Ger.). Music made to order without 
inspiration is so called in Gc:rmany. 1 

Capo (It.). Head; beginning. Da capo, from the beginning. 

Capodastro (It). Same as Capo tasto. 

Capo tasto (It). Head stop. A clamp which is screwed on 
the finger-board of the guitar, so as to "stop" all the strings, 
thus raising the pitch to any degree desired. 

Capriccietto (It) (ca-pree-chee-et'-to) . A little caprice. 

Caprice (Fr.) (ca-prees'), Capriccio (It) (caprif-chio). A 
whim ; freak ; composition without form. In German, Grille. 

Caricato (It) (ca-ree-ca'-to). Overloaded with display. 

Carillon (Fr.) (car-ee-yong) . (i) A set of bells played by 
hand or by machinery. (2) A mixture-stop in the organ. 

Carilloneur (Fr.) (ca-ree-yo-nure) , One who plays the 

Carmagnole (Fr.) {car-man-yole) . A wild song and dance 

of the French Revolution. 

Carol. A song of praise, usually sung at Christmas and at 

Carola (It). See Carmagnole. 
Carrie (Fr.). A breve. 


Carressant (Fr.) {ca-res-sawnt), Carrezzando (It.) (car- 
retz-zan'-do), Carrezzevole (It) (car-retjs-seh' -vo-leh) . 
in a caressing manner. 

Cassa grande (It.). The large drum. 

Cassatio (It.) {cas-sa-shio). A suite; cassation. 

Castanets, from castagna (It. castanya, a chestnut), Castag- 
nctte (It.) (cas-tan-yet'teh) , Castanettes (Fr.) {cas-tan- 
kO> Castaiiuelas (Sp.) (cas-tan-yu-eh-las). Small wooden 
clappers used to mark the rhythm. 

Catch. A species of canon so contrived that the meaning of 
the words is distorted. 

Catena di trilli (It.) {cat-teh-na dee triliee). A chain or 
succession of trills. 

Catgut. The usual name for gut-strings, made in reality 
from sheeps* intestines. 

Catlings. The smallest lute strings. 

Cattivo tempo (It.) (cat-tee -vo) , The weak beat; literally, 
bad beat 

Cauda (Lat). The tail or stem of a note. 

Cavalet'ta (It). See Cabal etta. 

Cavalefto (It, little horse), (i) Small bridge. (2) The 
break in the voice. 

Cavatina (It) (cah-vah-tee'-nah) , A short air; a song with- 
out a repetition of the first member. 

C Clef. See Clef. 

Cebell. A theme consisting of alternate passages of high and 
low notes, upon which "divisions" or variations were played 
on the lute or viol. 

Celere (It) {cheh'-leh-reh). Quick, rapid. 

Celerita (It.) (cheleh'-ree-tah), con. With speed. 

Celeste (Fr.). Celestial. The soft pedal of the piano. 

Cello (It) (chel'lo). Abbreviation of violoncello. 

Cembalo (It.) (chem'-ba-lo). Harpsichord; piano. 

Cembalist (It) (chem-ba-list) , A pianist 

Cembanella or Cennamella (It). A flute or flageolet 

Cercar la nota (It.) (cher-car la no-ta). To slur or slid« 
from one note to the next Same as Portamento. 


Ces (Ger.) (tsehs). Cb. 

Chacona (Sp.) (cha-co'-na), Ciaconna (It.) (chea-coH -no), 
Chaconne (Fr.) {sha-con). A slow dance in f time, writ- 
ten on a ground bass of eight measures, sometimes intro- 
duced in the suite. 

Chair Organ. Choir organ. 

Chalameau (shah-lah-mo) or Chalumeau (Fr.). See 

Chamber Music. Vocal or instrumental music suitable for 
performance in small rooms. Generally applied now to 
sonatas, trios, quartets, etc., for mstruments. 

Change of Voice, (i) Passing from one register to another. 

(2) The change from the child's to the adult's voice in 

boys. Generally occurs between fourteen and seventeen 

years of age. 
Changes. The various melodies produced by the various 

ways in which a chime is rung. 

Change Ringing. The art of ringing chimes. 

Changing Chord. A chord struck with a bass that is not a 

member of the chord. 
Changing Notes (nota cambiata, It). Dissonant notes struck 

on the beat or accent; appoggiaturas. 

Chanson (Fr.) (shan-song). A song, a part song; formerly 

a part song resembling a madrigal. 
Chansonnette (Fr.) (shan-son-net) , A little song. 

Chant. A form of composition in which reciting notes alter- 
nate with phrases sung in time. There are two fbrms of 
chant, Anglican and Gregorian. The Anglican chant may 
be single, t. e,, with the reciting notes and two inflections 
(phrases in time), or double, that is, the length of two 
single chants. The Gregorian chant consists of: (i) The 
intonation. (2) The dominant or reciting note. (3) The 
mediation (analogous to the inflection, but not in strict 
time), (4) The dominant again. (5) Ending or cadence. 
The chant was undoubtedly first sung to metrical words, 
therefore was as rhythmic as a modern melody. This 
rhythmic character has been lost by adapting prose words 
to it. 

Chant (Fr.) (shawnt). Song; melody; tune; vocal part. 

Chantant (Fr.) (shong-tawnt) . Singing. Caf6 chantant a 
cafe where singing is part of the entertainment 


Chanter, (i) A singing priest. (2) The melody pipe of the 

Chanterelle (Fr.) (shong-ta-rell) . The highest string of the 
violin, viola, and violoncello; also of the guitar and lute. 

Chanteur (Fr.) (shong-ture) . A singer (male). 

Chanteuse (Fr.) (shong-toose). A singer (female). 

Chant pastoral (Fr.). Shepherd's song. 

Characters. The signs used in written music. 

Characterstimme (Ger.). Lit, character voice; any solo- 
stop on the organ. 

Characterstucke (Ger.) (ka-rak'-ter-stee-ke). Character 
pieces; descriptive music, as the pastoral symphony. 

Chasse, i la (Fr.) (a la shass). In the hunting style. 

Chef d'attaque (Fr.) {shef d'at-tak). The chorus leader, or 
leading instrument of any division of the orchestra. 

Chef d'oeuvre (Fr.) (shef d'oovr). Master-work. 

Chef d'orchestre (Fr.) (shef d'or-kestr). Conductor of the 
orchestra; leader. 

Chest of Viols. A "chest" containing two trebles, two ten- 
ors, and two basses. Called also "consort of viols." 

Chest Tone. The lowest register of the voice — male or 

Chevalet (Fr.) (she-va-leh). Bridge of string instruments. 

Chiara (It.) (ke-ah-rah). Clear, pure. 

Chiaramente (It.) (ke-ah-rah-men'-teh). Clearly, distinctly. 

Chiarezza (It.) (ke-ah-reif-za), con. With clearness. 

Chiarina (It.) (ke-ah-ree'-na). Clarion. 

Chiave (It.) {ke-ah'-veh). Key or clef. 

Chica (Sp.) (chee-ka). Old Spanish dance. The original of 
Giga, Jigue, and Jig. 

Chiesa (It.) (ke-eh'-sa). Church. Concerto da chiesa, a 
church concert. Sonata da chiesa, a church sonata. 

Chime. A set of bells, generally five to ten. To chime; to 
play a set of bells by striking them with hammers or by 
swinging their clappers. Chime Ringing is to swing the 
bells themselves. 

Chirogymnast, Chiroplast. Obsolete machines for strength- 
ening the fingers of pianists and keeping them in position. 


Chitarra (It.) (kit-tah'-rah). Guitar. 
Choeur (Fr.) {koor). Chorus, choir. 

Choir, (i) A company of church singers. (2) The part of 
the church appropriated to the singers. In English churches 
(Anglican) the choir is divided into two parts, called the 
decani, or choir on the dean's side, and cantori, or choir on 
the cantor's side. When chanting, they usually sing antiph- 
onally, joining in the "gloria." In anthems thL words 
decani and cantoris are printed to indicate which side is to 
sing a given part. 

Choir Organ. One of the divisions of the organ, the manual 
for which is generally the lowest. Was originally called 
chair organ; called in France prestant. 

Chor (Ger.) (kore). Chorus, choir; a number of instru- 
ments of the same kind. 

Choragus (Lat.). (i) Leader of a chorus. (2) A musical 
official at Oxford University, England. 

Choral, (i) For a chorus. (2) An old form of psalm-tune. 

Choral Service. A service of which singing is the most 
prominent part. 

Chord, Akkord (Ger.), Accord (Fr.), Accord (It.). A 
combination of three or more sounds — common or perfect 
chord, or triad. Consists of any sound with its third and 
fifth; it is called major when the interval from one (or 
root) to three contains two whole tones; minor, when it 
contains a tone and a half; diminished, if there are three 
whole tones from one to five; augmented, if there are four 
whole tones from one to five. A chord is inverted when its 
root is not at the bass; chords with more than three letters 
are dissonant chords, called chords of the seventh if they 
contain four letters, chords of ninth if they contain five let- 
ters, etc., etc. Chords bear the name of the degree of the 
scale upon which they are written: First, tonic; second, 
supertonic; third, mediant; fourth, subdominant; fifth, 
dominant; sixth, submediant; seventh, leading note or 
diminished chord. 

Chorister. A chorus- or choir-singer; a precentor. ^ 

Chorus, (i) A company of singers. (2) The refrain of a 
song. (3) A composition for a company of singers. (4) 
The mixture-stops in an orcan. 


Chromatic, Chromatisch (Ger.), Chromatique (Fr.), Cro- 
matico (It.)- (i) Sounds foreign to the key. (2) A scale, 
consisting of half-tones. Chromatic chord, one including 
foreign sounds. Foreign to the key; chromatic interval, 
one not found in the major scale; chromatic half-tone, 
changing the pitch without changing the letter, as C, Of. 

Church Modes. The scales derived from the Greek, in which 
Gregorjan music or plain songs are written. 

Cimbal. A dulcimer; harpsichord. 
Cimbali (It.) (chim-ba-lee) . Cymbals. 

Cimbalo (It.) {chim'-b^-lo). See Cembalo. Also a tam- 

Cimbel (Ger.) (tsim-bel), A mixture-stop in the organ. 

Cink (Ger.) (tsink). Cinq (Fr.) (sank). A small reed-stop 
in the organ. 

Cinque pace (Fr.) (sank pace). An old French dance. In 
old English, sink a pace. 

Circular Canon. One which ends a half-tone higher than it 
begins, consequently will, if repeated often enough, go 
through all the keys. 

Circulus (Lat). A circle; the old sign for what was called 
perfect time, three beats in the measure ; for imperfect time, 
two beats in the measure, the circle was broken in half, 
thus, ۥ. It is from this the sign for common time is de- 
rived; it is not as is generally supposed the letter C. 

Cis (Ger.) (tsis). C sharp. 

Cithara (Lat.). An ancient lute. 

Citoli. Old name for the dulcimer. 

Civetteria (It.) (chee-vet-tee'-rea), con. With coquetry. 

Clairon (Fr.). Clarion. 

Clangtint. A term introduced by Tyndall to designate the 
quality of sounds (translation of Ger. Klangfarbe) ; means 
much the same thing as the French word timbre. 

Claque bois (Fr.) (clack boa). The xylophone; in German, 
StrohRedel ; straw fiddle. Italian, Organo di legno. Gradu 
ated strips of hard wood laid on supports made of straw, 
played by striking with small hammers held in the hands- 

Clarabella. An eight-foot soft organ-stop. 


Clarabel Flute. The same stop when of four-foot tone. 

ClarichorcL An old variety of the harpsichord. 

Clarinet or Clarionet (a little clarion). A wind instrument 
with a beating reed, invented in 1654 by Denner. The 
compass of the clarinet is from E third space bass to the 
second C above the treble (the highest octave is rarely 
used). Clarinets are made in several keys; those used in 
the orchestra are in C, Bb and A; the Bb clarinet sounda 
a whole tone lower than the written notes, the A clarinet a 
minor third lower ; alto and bass clarinets are also used, the 
former in F and Eb, the latter an octave below the ordinary 
clarinet. The clarinet has four wdl-marked registers: the 
first, or chalumeau, extends from the lowest note to the 
octave above; second to Bb in treble staff; third to C above 
treble staff; fourth the rest of the compass. 

Clarinetto (It.), Klarinettc (Ger.), Clarinctte (Fr.). The 

Clarino (It.) (clah-ree-no) . Clarion or trumpet; an organ- 
stop ; four-foot reed. 

Claviatur ar Klaviatur (Ger.) (kla-fee-a-too/). Keyboard. 

Clavicembalo (It.) (cla-vee-chem'-ba-lo). Keyed dulcimer; 
the harpsichord. 

Clavichord. An instrument resembling a square piano. The 
strings were vibrated by forcing wedge-shaped pieces of 
brass called tangents against them. By depressing the keys, 
the tangent acted both as a means of vibrating the string 
and as a bridge. When the finger was raised, the string 
was damped by a piece of woolen cloth wrapped round it, 
between the tangent and the pin-block. The chief interest 
in this obsolete instrument is the fact that it was the 
favorite of j. S. Bach. 

Clavigon (Fr.) (cla-vee-soong) [from Lat. clavis, a key]. 
The harpsichord. 

Clavicytherium. A variety of harpsichord. 

Clavier or Klavier (Ger.) (klah-fee/), (i) Keyboard. (2) 
Used as a name for the pianoforte. 

Clavier (Fr.) (klah-vee-eh). An organ manual. 

Clavierauszug (Ger.) (klah-feer-ows-tsoog). A pianoforte 
score or edition. 


Clef [from Lat clavis, a key]. A sign placed on the staff to 
indicate the names and pitch of the sounds. Three clefs 

are used in modern music: (i) The treble or G clef, 

also called violin clef; this is now always placed on the 
second line, (2) The C clef: 

« K ^ 

this clef, when on first line, is called soprano clef ; on second 
line, mezzo-soprano clef; on. third line, alto clef, also viola 
or alto trombone clef; on fourth line, tenor clef; used also 
for upper notes of violoncello and bassoon. The C clef 
always signifies middle C; that is, C that lies between the 
fifth line bass staff and first line treble staff. Bass or 
F clef, Qi placed on the fourth line, occasionally on the 
third, when it is called the baritone clef; used for bass 
voices and all bass instruments. 

Cloche (Fr.) (closh), A bell. 

Clochcttc (Fr.) (closhet'), A small bell. 

Close Harmony. When the sounds forming the chords are 
drawn together as much as possible. 





No. I, close harmony; No. 2, open harmony. 

Coda (It.). "Tail." A passage added after the development 
of a fugue is finished, or after the "form" of a sonata, 
rondo, or any other composition has been completed, to 
produce a more satisfactory close. 

Codetta (It.). A short coda. 

Cogli stromenti (It) (col-yee stro-men'-tee). With the 


Coi (coee), Col, Coll', Colla, Colic, CoUo (It.). With the. 

Col arco. With the bow. Used after the direction "pizzi- 

Col basso. With the bass. 

Col canto. With the melody. 

Col legno (It.) (col'lane-yo). With the wood; a direction 
to strike the strings of the violin with the back of the bow. 

Colla parte. With the principal part. 

Colla voce. With the voice. In score writing, to save the 
labor of re-writing a part which is to be played by two or 
more instruments. It is usual to write the part for one 
instrument, for instance, the violin, and write the words 
£01 violino on the staff stppropriated to the other instrument. 

Colophony. Rosin. 

Colorato (It.) (co-lo-rah'-to). Florid. 

Coloratura (It.) (co-lo-rah-too'-rah). Florid passages in 

Come (It.) (coh-meh). As; like. 

Come prima (It.) (coh'-meh pre^-mah). As at first. 

Comes (Lat.) (co-mes). The answer to the subject, dux of 
a fugue. Dux means leader; comes, follower. 

Comma. The difference between a major and a minor tone. 

Commodamen'te, Commodet'ta (It). Quietly; leisurely; 
without hurry. 

Commodo (It.) (com-mo'-do). At a convenient rate of 

Common Chord. The combination of any sound (called the 
root) with its major or minor 3d and perfect 5th. 

Common Meter, or Ballad Meter. A stanza, consisting of 
alternate lines of four and three iambuses; as, 

>m^ ^— >•/ -— >m^ ^— Nai' ^— 

How blest is he who ne'er consents 

>./ _ >./ _ \^ — 
By ill advice to walk. 

Common Time. Two beats, or any multiple of two beats, in 
the measure. The signs} C, ^, J(|, f, } rare) indicate 


simple common time ; |» f > V indicate compound common 

time, I being compounded from two measures of } ; { from 

two measures off ; and ^ from four measures of { time. 

Compass. The complete series of sounds that may be pro- 
duced by a voice or instrument. 

Compiacevole (It.) (com-pea-cheh'-vo-leh). Agreeable; 
pleasing; charming. 

Complement. The interval which, being added to another, 
will make an octave. A complementary interval is found by 
inverting any given interval that is less than an octave. 

Composer, Componlsta (It), Componist or Komponist 
(Ger.). One who composes music. 

Composition.* The sounds that make up the series of a mix- 
ture- or other compound organ-stop. 

Composition Pedal or Knob. A mechanism worked by the 
foot or by pressing a button with the finger, which throws 
on or off certain combinations of stops in the organ. 

Compound Intervals. Intervals greater than the octave. 

Compound Times. Those formed by adding together several 
measures of simple time. J, j, y, y are compound common, 
having an even number of beats ; }, { are compound triple, 
having an odd number of beats. 

Con (It.). With. 

Concert. Any musical performance other than dramatic. 

Concertante (It.) (con-cher-tan'-teh). A composition in 
which two or more parts are of equal importance. 

Concerted Music. Music for several voices or instruments, 
or for voices and instruments combined. 

Concertina. A small free-reed instrument somewhat like the 
accordion, but far superior. 

Concertmeister (Ger.). Concert master; the leader or con- 
ductor of the orchestra. 

Concerto (It.) (con-cher'-to), Conzert (Ger.), Concert 
(Fr.) (con-sehr), A composition designed to display the 
capabilities of one instrument accompanied by others. 

Concert spirituel (Fr.) {con-sehr spiri-too-el) . An associa- 
tion in Paris for the performance of sacred music, vocal 
and instrumental, founded I72.s 


ConcertstUck (Ger.) (steek). Concert piece; concerto. 

Concitato (It) (con-chee-tah'-to). Agitated. 

ConcorcL Agreeing. Literally, chording with. 

Concordant (i) Agreeing with. (2, Fn) The baritone voice. 

Conductor. The director or leader of a chorus or orchestra. 

Cone Gamba. An organ-stop with bell-shaped top. 

Conjunct (Lat, con-junctus). Joined together. Adjacent 
sounds in the scale. 

Conjunct Motion. Moving by steps. 

Consecutive. Two or more of the same intervals in succession. 

Consecutive Fifths. Two voices or parts moving together 
a fifth apart. 

Consecutive Octaves. Two voices or parts moving together 
an octave apart. Consecutive fifths and octaves are for- 
bidden by the laws of composition, but the prohibition is 
frequently disregarded by the best writers. 

Consequent. The answer to a fugue subject; comes. 

Consolante (It.) {con-soAan'-teh), Soothing. 

Consonance. Literally, sounding together. Those intervals 
that enter into the composition of the common chord and its 
inversions, viz., major and minor 3d and 6th, perfect 4th and 
5th, and octave. The major and minor 3d and 6th are called 
imperfect consonances, being equally consonant, whether 
major or minor. The perfect 4th, sth, and 8th are called 
perfect because any alteration of them produces a disso- 
nance ; i.e., an interval that requires resolution. N. B. — This 
definition of consonance applies only to the modern tem- 
pered scale. 

Con sordini (It.) {sor-de^-nee). With the mute, (i) In 
piano music, with soft pedal. (2) Instruments of the violin 
family: a direction to fasten on the bridge a small imple- 
ment of wood or metal which has the effect of deadening 
the tone. (3) Brass instruments: a direction to place a 
cone-shaped piece of wood covered with leather in the bell, 
which has the same effect. 

Consort. A chest of viols. 

Contra (It.). Against (it) ; in compound words, means a»i 
octave below, as contra-bass, contra-fagotto. 

Contra danza (It). Country dance. 


Contralto (It.). The lowest female voice, usually callea alta 

Contraposaune. A 16- or 32-foot reed-organ stop. 

Contrapuntal. Belonging to counterpoint. 

Contrapuntist. One skilled in counterpoint, or who writes 
on the subject of counterpoint. 

Contratenor. The highest male voice. 

Contra violone (It.) ivee-o-lo'-neh). Contra basse (Fr.). 
Double bass. 

Countertenor. The developed falsetto. See Alio. 

Convict of Music. An institution for musical instruction. 
[Lat., convictus, an associate, from convivere, to live to- 

Cor (Fr.). A horn. 

Cor Anglais (ong-lay), English horn; a variety of the haut- 
boy, sounding a fifth lower. 

Corale (It.) (co-rah'-leh). A choral. 

Coranto (It.), Courante (Fr.). An old dance in triple time, 
used as a movement in the suite. 

Corda (Iti) String. Una corda. Due corde, Tre corde or 
Tutte corde, one string, two strings, three strings, all the 
strings, are directions for the use of the pedal in Grand p. f. 
that shifts the action so as to strike one, two, or all of the 
strings allotted to each key. 

Comamusa (It.) (corna-moo-sa) , Cornemuse (Fr.) (corn- 
moos). Bagpipe. 

Comet, Cometto (It.), Zinke (Ger.). (i) Originally a 
coarse-toned instrument of the hautboy family. (2) A 
compound stop in the organ. (3) Cornet-^-pistons, a brass 
instrument of the trumpet family. (4) Echo cornet, a com- 
pound organ-stop with small scale pipes, usually in the swell. 

Como (It.). Horn; the French horn, or Waldhorn (Ger.). 
The horn of the orchestra. 

Como alto. High horn. Como basso, low horn. 

Como di bassetto. Bassei horn. 

Como di caccia. Hunting horn. 

Como Inglese. Cor Anglais. 

Cornopean. Same as Cornet (brass) ; a reed-stop on the 
organ, 8-foot tone. 


Coro (It.). Chorus. 

Corona (It.). "Crown" ; a pause. 

Corrente (It.) {cor-ren'-teh). Coranto. 

Cotillion (Fr., Cotillon, co-tee-yon'). A dance with numer- 
ous figures, originally rather lively, now much the same as 
the Quadrille. 

Couched Harp. The spinet. 

Count. The beats in the measure are called counts, from the 
practice of counting the time. 

Counterpoint [from Latin contra-punctus, against the point]. 
Notes were originally called points, hence when another set 
of points were added above or below the points of the 
theme, they were called counterpbints. In modern use 
counterpoint may be defined as the art of making two or 
more parts move together with such freedom that they seem 
to be independent, each one with a design of its own. 

Counter-subject. A theme employed in conjunction with the 
principal theme in a fugue. 

Coup d'archet (Fr.) {coo d'ar-shay), A stroke of the bow. 

Coupler. A mechanism in the organ, by means of which the 
keys of two manuals are joined so that the depression of the 
keys of one causes the depression of the corresponding keys 
of the other. Pedal Coupler joins pedal keys to one of the 
manuals. Octave Coupler causes the octave above or below 
each key struck to sound either on the same or on another 

Couplet (Fr.) {coo-play). Stanza; ballad. 

Couplet (Eng). A pair of rhyming lines. Two notes played 
in the time of three of the same denomination. 

Cracovienne (Fr.). Polacca. 

Cremona, (i) A town in Italy celebrated for its violin 
makers. (2) A violin made in Cremona. (3) A soft B-ft. 
reed-organ stop (corrupted from Krummhorn). 

Crescendo (It.) {cray-shen-do) . Abbreviation, cres., sign: 
'Z to increase in loudness [from It. crescere, to 

Crescendozug (Ger., hybrid of It and Ger.). The swell box 
of the organ. 

Creche (Fr.) {crosh). An eighth-note. 

Crotchet. A quarter-note. 


Crowd, Crouth, Crood, Crooth. An ancient string instru- 
ment played with a bow. Of Celtic origin. 

Crush Note. Appoggiatura. 

Cue. The last note of one voice or instrument, written in the 
part of another as a guide to come in. 

Cuivre (Fr.). Brass. Faire cuivrer (fare koo-e-vreh), a 
direction to produce a rattling, metallic note on the horn by 
inserting the hand part way in the bell. 

Cuvette (Fr.) (koo-vet'). The pedal of a harp. 

Cyclical Forms. Forms of composition in which one or more 
themes return in prescribed order, as sonata, rondo, etc. 

Csrmbals (Becken, Ger., Piatti, It), (i) Discs of metal 
clashed together or struck with drumsticks, used in the or- 
chestra and in military music (2) A shrill compound stop 
in the organ. 

Czakan (cha-kan). A cane flute. 

Czardas (char-dash), A Hungarian dance with sudden alter-* 
ations of tempo. 

Czimbel (chim-bel). A dulcimer strung with wire strings; 
a national instrument in Hungary. 

Czimken (chitn-ken). A Polish dance. 


D. Second letter in the natural scale ; the third string of the 
violin; second string of viola or cello; abbreviation of Da 
or Dal; from D. C, da capo, D. S., dal segno. 

Da (It). From. 

Da hallo (It). In dance style. 

Da camera (It). Chamber music 

Da capella (It). Church music 

Da capo (It). From the beginning; abbreviated &. C. 

Da capo al fine. From the beginning to the word fine 
(fee-neh), the end, or a double bar with ^ over it 


Da capo al segno (It) (sehn-yo). From beginning to tne 

sign J^ 
D. C. al JfJ e poi la coda* From the beginning to the sign, 

then the coda. 

D. C. sexiza repctitione (reh-peh-tee-shee-o-ueh) means the 
same as above. 

D. C. senza replica (It.) (sehntza reh'-plee-cah). From tht 
beginning without repeating the parts. 

Daina or Dainos. A Lithuanian love-song. 

Damper. A mechanism in the piano to stop the vibration of 
the strings when the finger is raised from the key. 

Damper PedaL The miscalled loud pedal, a mechanism con- 
trolled by the foot for raising all the dampers at once from 
the strings. 

Danse. A piece of music meant to accompany rhythmical 
movements of the body. 

Darabookka. An Arabian drum. 

Dash, (i) A line drawn through a figure (6) in figured 
bass signifies the note must be raised chromatically. (2) A 
short stroke over a note, signifying it is to be played 

Daumen (Ger.) (dow-men). The thumb. 

D dur (Ger.). D major. 

D6but (Fr.) (deh-boo). A first appearance. 

Decani (Lat.). (i) The dean's side in a cathedral. (2) That 
part of a choir that occupies the dean's side. 

Deceptive Cadence. One in which the dominant chord is not 
followed by the tonic. 

Decima (Lat). An organ-stop pitched an octave above the 

Decisc (It) (deh-che/'So) , Decided; energetically. 

Declamando (It) (deh-cla-man-do) . In declamatory style. 

Declamation. The correct enunciation of the words in sing- 
ing, and their rhetorical accent 

Decres. Abbreviation of Decrescendo (It.) (deh-creh-shen'- 

do). To decrease in volume of sound. Sign: ~ 
Decuplet. A group of ten notes played in the time of eight 
of the same denomination. 


Defective. The diminished 5th is sometimes so called. 

Degree. From one letter to the next, a degree may be a 
half-tone, minor * second ; whole tone, major second; tone 
and a half, augmented second. 

Del, Delia, DeUi, Dello (It). Of the. 

Deliberatamente (It.). Deliberately. 

Deliberate (It.) (deh-lee-beh^ah'-to), con. With deliberation. 

Delicatamente (It). Delicately; gently. 

Delicatezza (It.) (deh-lee-cah-tetza) , con. With delicacy. 

Delicatissimo (It.). Exceedingly delicate. 

Delicato (It) (deh-lee-cah-to) , Delicate. 

D61ie (Fr.) (deh-lee-a). The reverse of legato. Literally, 

not tied. 
Delirio (It) (deh-lee-reeo), con. With frenzy. 

Demi-baton (Fr.) (deh-mee-bah-tong). A rest of two 

Demi-croche (Fr.) (crosh). A sixteenth-note. 

Demi-jeu (Fr.) (sheu). Half play; a direction in organ- 
playing to use half the power of the instrument. 

Demi-pause (Fr.). A half-rest 

Demi-semi-quaver. Thirty-second note. 

Demi-soupir (Fr.) (soo-peer). Eighth-rest 

Derivative. Any chord of which the root is not at the bass, 
an inverted chord. 

Des (Ger.). D flat 

Descant or Discant. (i) The earliest attempts at adding 
other parts to a cantus were called descant. (2) The high- 
est part (soprano) in vocal music. 

Des dur (Ger.) Db major. 

Desiderio (It) Cdeh'See-dee'-rio). Longing. 

Des moll (Ger.). Db minor. 

Dessus (Fr.) (des-soo). The soprano part in vocal music. 

Destinto (It) ideh^stin-to) . Distinct. 

Dcsto (It). Sprightly; briskly. 

Destra (It.). Right Mano destra, the right hand. Mano 
sinistra, the left hand. Colla destra, with the right. A 
direction in piano music. 


D6tach6 (Fr.) (deh-tash-eh) , Detached; staccato. 

Determinato (It). Resolutely; with determination. 

Detto (It). The same. II detto voce, the same voice. 

Developn(ient. [In German, Durchfuhrung.] (i) The tech 
nical name of that part of a sonata form which precedes the 
return of the principal theme. In the development both the 
themes are used in fragments mixed with new matter, the 
object being to present the musical thought in every possible 
aspect. (2) The working out of a fugue. 

Devoto (It). Devout 

Devozione (It) (deh-vot-see-o'-neh) , con. With devotion. 

Di (It.) (dee). By, with, of, for. Di bravura, with bravura. 
Literally, with bravery. 

Diana (It), Diane (Fr.). A morning serenade; aubade. 

Diapason (Gr.). (i) An octave. (2) An organ-stop of 
8-foot pitch, open or closed (stopped). (3) The standard 
pitch, A = 435 vibrations per second, not yet universally 

Diatonic, (i) The major and minor scales. Strictly speak- 
ing, the modern harmonic minor is not purely diatonic, 
owing to the presence of the augmented 2d between 6 and 7. 
(2) Diatonic chords, melody, progressive modulation, are 
those in which no note foreign to the scale in which they 
are written appears. [From Gr. dia-teino, to stretch; re- 
ferring to the string of the canon or monochord.] 

Di colto (It.). Suddenly. 

Diecetto (It.) (dee-chetto), A composition for ten instru- 
Di^se (Fr.) (dee-ehs), A sharp. 

Difficile (It) (diMe^-chee-leh), Difficile (Fr.) (dif-fi-seel). 

Di gala (It). Merrily. 

Diluendo (It) [diluere, to dilute]. Wasting away; decres- 

Diminished. (i) Intervals less than minor or perfect. 
(2) A chord with diminished Sth, as on the 7th of the scale 
or the 2d of the minor scale. (3) Diminished 7th chord, a 
chord composed of three superimposed minor thirds, as 



Diitiinuendo (It.). Same as Decrescendo. 

Diminution. In canon and fugue, when the answer (comes) 
is given in notes of half (or less) the value of those in the 
subject (dux). 

Di molto (It.). Very much. Allegro di molto, very fast. 

Direct (i) A sign A/V placed at the end of a staff to 
indicate what is the first note on the next page. (2) In 
MS. music it indicates that the measure is completed on the 
next line. 

Direct Motion. Both (or all) parts ascending or descending 

Dis (Ger.). D sharp. 

Discant. See Descant, 

Discord. Cacophony ; noise. Used incorrectly for dissonance. 
Dissonance is musical, but discord never is. 

Disinvolto (It). Free; naturally; easily. 

Disjunct Motion. Moving by skips. 

Dis moll (Ger.). D# minor. 

Disperato (It.), Con disperazione (dis-peh-rats-eo'^neh). 
Despairingly; with desperation. 

Dispersed Harmony. When the members of the chords are 
separated widely. 

Disposition, (i) Of a chord, the order in which its members 
are arranged. (2) Of a score, the order in which the in- 
struments are arranged on the page. (3) Of an orchestra, 
the positions assigned to the different instruments. 

Dissonance. An interval, one or both of whose members 
must move in a certain way to satisfy the ear. All aug- 
mented and diminished intervals, seconds, sevenths, and 
ninths, are dissonances. 

Ditty. A short, simple air, originally with words that con- 
tained a moral. 

Divertimento (It.) (dee-ver-tee-men-to). Divertissement 
(Fr.) idee-vehr-tiss'tnong) . (i) A pleasing, light enter- 
tainment. (2) A composition or arrangement for the piano; 
this is the most usual meaning, (3) A suite or set with a 
number of movements for instruments, called also a serenata. 


Divisi (It). Divided; a direction that the string instruments 
must diviHe into two masses or more, as may be indicated 
by the composer. 

Divisions. An old name for elaborate variations. 

Divoto (It.). See Devoto, ^ 

D moll (Ger.). D minor. 

Do. (i) The first note in the natural scale in Italy; this syl- 
lable was substituted for ut, the first of the Guidonian syl- 
lables; ut is still retained in France. (2) In the "movable 
do" system of singing, the keynote of every scale is called 

Dodecuplet. A group of twelve notes played in the time of 
eight of the same denomination. 

Doigter (Fr.) (doy-teh). See Fingering. 

Dolcan, Dulciana. Soft eight-foot open organ-stop. 

Dolce. A stop of same character as dulciana, but softer. 

Dolce (It.) (dol-cheh). Sweet. 

Dolcemente, con dolcezza (It.) (dol-chet-sah). With sweet- 
Dolciano, Dolcino (It), Dulcan (Ger.). Dulciana stop. 

Dolcissimo (It) (dole-chis-see-mo) . As sweet as possible. 

Dolcnte (It). Afflicted. - 

Dolentimente (It). Mournfully; afflictedly. 

Polzflote (Ger.) (dolts-fla-teh) . (i) The old German flute 
with six holes and one key. (2) A soft eight-foot organ- 

Domchor (Ger.) (dome-kor). Cathedral choir. 

Dominant, (i) The fifth note in the scale. (2) The reciting 
note in Gregorian chants. 

Dominant Chord. The major triad on the fifth of the major 
or minor scale. 

Dominant Key. The usual key in which the second theme 
of a sonata or rondo in major mode is written. 

Dominant Seventh. The seventh over the root added to the 

dominant chord. 
Dopo (It). After. 

Doppio (It) (dop'-pee-o) . Double, as doppio movemento, 
double movement, i. e.» twice as fast. 


Dorian. A Greek or ecclesiastical mode, D to D. 

Dot. (i) A dot after a note or rest increases its duration 
one-half; a second dot increases the duration one-half of 
the first dot 

r=t r f 

r^t r r 6 

(2) A dot over a note signifies that it is to be played or 
sung staccato. (3) Dots combined with slur 

r f r f 

in music for bow instruments signify the notes are to be 
played with one motion of the bow with a slight stop after 
each note; in piano music, to raise the arm with stiff wrist 
after each note or chord and let it fall lightly from the 

r • • . . 

elbow on the next. (4) Dots over a note thuc P 

signify that the note is to be repeated by subdivision into as 
many notes as there are dots. 

Double, (i) An old name for variation, (2) An octave be- 
low the standard pitch, as double bass, double diapason, 
double bassoon. 

Double (Fr.) (doobl). A variation on a minuet; in Italian, 

Double Bar. Two single bars placed close together signify- 
ing: (i) The end of a part or piece. (2) A change of key 
or of time signature. (3) In hymn-tunes the end of a line. 

Double Bass. The violone [It, vee-o-lo-neh, Fr., contra- 
basse]. The largest of the violin family. Two kinds are in 
use, one with three strings tuned: 





one with four strings tuned: 




The pitch is an octave below the written notes. 
Double Bassoon. A bassoon of 16-foot pitch. 


Double Bourdon. An organ-stop of 32-foot tone. 
Double Chant. See Chant. 

Double Counterpoint. A counterpoint so contrived that it 
may be placed either above or below the theme, without pro- 
ducing any forbidden intervals. A double counterpoint is 
said to be at the octave when, if written above the theme, it 
may be moved down an octave; at the loth, if it may be 
moved down a tenth ; at the 12th, if it may be moved down 
a twelfth. Double counterpoint may also be at the gth and 
nth, but the former are much more used. 

Double Croche (Fr.) (doobl crosh), A sixteenth-note. 

Double Diapason. An organ-stop of 16- foot tone. 

Double Drum. A drum struck at both ends. 

Double Flat, bb, depresses a letter a whole tone. 

Double Main {mang). Octave-coupler in the organ. 

Double Sharp, ^, raises a letter a whole tone. 

Double Stop. In violin music, playing simultaneously on two 

Double Tonguing. Playing repeated staccato notes on the 
flute, cornet, etc., by a movement of the point of the tongue 
against the roof of the mouth. 

Double Touche (toosh), A contrivance for regulating the 
depth of the descent of the keys of the harmonium. 

Doublette (Fr.) (doo-blet), A two-foot organ-stop, the 
15th, or a compound stop of two ranks. 

Doucement (Fr.) (doos-mong) . Sweetly, softly. 

Doux (Fr.) (doo). Sweet, soft. 

Down Beat. The first beat in the measure; the principal 
accent in the measure. 

Down Bow. In instruments of the violin family, the motion 
of the bow from the nut to the point. The sign is n 
or A. In French the word tires (tee-reh), draw. 

Doxology [from Greek doxa, praise; lego, to proclaim]. A 
short ascription of praise to the Trinity, metrical or other- 

Drammatico (It), Drammaticamente (It.). Dramatic: m 
dramatic style. 

DrSlngend (Ger.) {drayn'-gent). Hurrying; accelerating 


Dritta (It). The right hand. 

Droit or Droite (Fr.) (droa). Right hand. 

Drone. The pipe that sounds one note continuously in the 

Drum. An instrument of percussion, the body hollow, made 
of wood or metal, one or both ends being covered with 
vellum or parchment drawn tight by braces. Three kinds 
of drum are used in modern music : ( i ) The kettle drum ; 
this is the only one that may be tuned to definite pitch; a 
pair are generally used in the orchestra, tuned usually to the 
1st and 5th of the key. (2) The snare drum or side drum, 
with parchment at both ends ; that at one end is crossed by 
several thick gut-strings that rattle when the drum is struck 
on the other end by the pair of drumsticks. (3) The long 
drum, double drum, grosse caisse, used chiefly in military 
music; struck on both ends. 

Drum Slade. A drummer. 

Due (It.) (doo-eh). Two. A due, by two; that is, divide, 
when marked over a string part in the orchestra ; but when 
over a wind instrument part it means that both of the pair 
are to play the notes. 

Due corde (It). Two strings. In violin music, means that 
the note is to be played on the open string and as a stopped 
note simultaneously. The only notes that may be so played 
on the violin are: 



sometimes signified by writing them as above. 

Duet, Duo (Fr.), Duetto (It). A composition for two 
voices or instruments or for two performers on the piano 
or organ. 

Duettino (It) (doo-et-te/-no). A little duet 

Dulciana. A soft, open, 8- foot organ-stop ; flue pipes ; in some 
foreign organs, a soft reed-stop. 

Dulcimer, (i) An instrument consisting of an oblong or 
square box strung with wire strings, struck by small ham- 
mers held in the hands of the performer. (2) A small toy 


instrument, in which strips of glass or metal are used in- 
stead of wire strings, played in the same way. 

Duolo (It.) (doo-o'-lo)y con doloroso (It), con dolore 
(It.) (do'lo'-reh). Plaintively; mournfully. 

Duple. Double. Duple Time, two beats in the measure. 

Dur (Ger.) (duhr). Literally, hard; major. 

Dur (Fr.). Hard; coarse; rough. 

Duramente (It.) (doo-ra-men'-teh). Roughly. 

Durchfuhrung (Ger.) (doorch'-fee-roonk). The working 
out; development of a sonata or fugue. See Development. 

Durchkomponirt (Ger.) (doorch'-kom-po-neert). Composed 
through. Applied to a song that has a separate setting for 
each stanza. 

Durezza (It.) (doo-retjs-a) , con. With sternness. 

Dur-moll Tonart (Ger.). Major-minor scale or mode; a 
diatonic scale with major 3d and minor 6th. 

Duro ( It. ) , Durante ( It. ) . Harshly. 

Dtister (Ger.) (dees-tehr). Gloomy; mournful; sad. 

Dux (Lat). Leader; the theme of a fugue. 

E. (i) The third of the natural major scale, fifth of the 
natural minor. (2) The first or highest string (chanterelle) 
of the violin. (3) The fourth or lowest string of the double 

jj. (It.) (eh). And; when the word that follows begins with 
a vowel, ed (ehd). 

Ebollimento or Ebollizione (It.) (eh-bol-Htz-ee-o'-neh) . 
Boiling over; sudden expression of passion. 

Ecclesiastical Modes. The scales called also Ambrosian and 
Gregorian, in which plain song and plain chant are written. 
They differ from the modern diatonic in the position of the 
half-tones; their position depends upon the initial note of 
the scale. 

i^chelle (Fr.) (eh-shel), A scale. 


Echo Organ. A set of pipes in old organs enclosed in a box. 

Kclat (Fr.) (eh-claw). Fire; spirit. 

Eclogue or Eglogue (Fr.) [from Greek cicAeyo to select]. A 
pastoral ; a poem in which shepherds and shepherdesses are 
the actors. 

Ecole (Fr.) (eh-cole). A school or style of music 

Ecossais (Fr.) (ek-cos-seh) or Ecossaise (ek-cos-sase) 
(i) In the Scotch style. (2) A lively dance. 

Eguale (It.) (eh-gwah'leh). Equal; steady. 

Egualmente. Equally; steadily. 

Einfach (Ger.). Simple. Einfachheit, simplicity in con- 

Einfalt (Ger.). Simplicity in manner. Mit Einfalt, in a sim- 
ple, natural manner. 

Einleitung (Ger.) (ein-lei-toonk) . Leading in; introductory. 

Einschlafen (Ger.). Diminish in power and movement. 

Eis (Ger.) (eh-is). E sharp. 

Eisteddfod (Welsh) {ice-stetW-fod), In modern usage a 
musical contest for prizes. 

Eleganza (It.) (eh-lee-gantza) , con. With grace. 

Elegy. A mournful poem commemorating the dead. 

Elevato (It.) {eh-leh-vaW-to), Elevated; exalted. 

Eligiac. In the style of an elegy. 

Embellishment. The ornaments of melody, as trill, turn, 
mordent, etc. 

Embouchure (Fr.) (om-boo-shoor), (i) The mouth-piece 
of a wind instrument. (2) The position and management 
of the mouth and lips of the player. 

E moll (Ger.). E minor. 

Empater les sons (Fr.) (om-pahteh leh song). Literally, to 
strike the sounds together; to sing extremely legato. 

Empfindung (Ger.) (emp-fin-doonk) , Emotion; passion. 

Emporte (Fr.) (om-por-teh) , Empress6 (Fr.) (om-pres- 
seh). Hurried; eager; passionate. 

Encore (Fr.) (ong-core), Ancora (It). Again; a demand 
for the re-appearance of a performer; the piece sung or 
played on the re-appearance of the performer. 


Energia (It.) (eh-nur-jea) , con. With energy. 

Energico, Energicamente, Energisch (Ger.)* Energetic; 


Enfatico (It.) {en-fa'-tee-ko). Emphatic; decided. 

Enfasi (It.) (en- f ah' -see), con. With emphasis. 

Engelstimme (Ger.). Angel voice; a soft organ-stop; vox 

Enharmonic. In modern music, a change of the letter with- 
out changing the pitch, as, Of, Db. 

Enharmonic Modulation. A modulation in which the above 
change takes place, as, 







Ensemble (Fr.) (ong-sotnbl). Together, (i) The union 
of all the performers. (2) The effect produced by this 
union. (3) The manner in which a composition for many 
performers is "put together." 

Entr'acte (Fr.) (on-trakt). Between the acts; music per- 
formed between the acts of a drama. 

Entrata (It.), Entr6e (Fr.). Entry; introduction, prelude; 
the first movement of a serenata. 

Entschlossen (Ger.) (ent-shlos-sen) . Resolute; resolutely. 

Entusiasmo (It.) {ehn-too'-see-as-mo) , con. With enthu- 

Eolian or iEolian. (i) One of the Greek and ecclesiastical 
scales. (2) A species of harp played on by the wind. 

Epicdde (Fr.), Epicedio (It.) (ep-ee-cheh'-dee-o). A funeral 

Epinette (Fr.). A spinet. 

Episode. The parts of a fugue that intervene between the 
repetitions of the main theme. 

Epithalamium. A wedding song. 

E poi (It.). And then; after. 

Equabile (It.) (eh-qua-bee-leh) . Equal; steady 

Equabilmente Equally; steadily. 


Equal Voices. A composition is said to be for equal voices 
when written for men's only or women's only. When male 
and female voices are combined the music is said to be for 
mixed voices. 

Equisono (It.). Equal sounding; unison. 

Equivocal Chords. Dissonant chords that are common to 
two or more keys, or that may be enharmonically substituted 
for each other, as the diminished 5th chord, diminished 7th 
chord, and augmented 6th chord. 

Ergriffen (Ger.). Affected; moved. 

Ergriffenheit. Emotion. 

Erhaben (Ger.). Lofty; sublime. 

Erhabenheit. Sublimity. 

Ermattet (Ger.). Exhausted. 

Ernst (Ger.). Earnest; serious. 

Eroica (It.) (eh-ro'-ee-ka). Heroic. 

Erotic* Amatory. [Gr. Eros, Cupid.] 

Ersterbend (Ger.). Dying away ; morendo. 

Es (Ger.). E flat. 

Es dur (Ger.). E flat major. 

Es-es (Ger.). E double flat. 

Es moll (Ger.). E flat minor. 

Espagnublo (It.) (ehs-pan-yu-olo). In Spanish style. 

Espirando (It.)- Dying away. 

Espressione (It.) (ehs-pres-see-o-neh), con. With expres- 

Espressivo (It). Expressive. 

Essential Dissonances. Those that are added to the domi- 
nant chord. Auxiliary notes of all kinds are non-essential 

Essential Harmony. The harmony independent of all 
melodic ornaments, etc. 

Estinguendo (It.) (es-tin-guen-do) , As soft as possible. 

Estinto (It.). Dying away; extinguishing. 

Estravaganza (It.) (es-trah-vah-gantza). A fanciful com- 
position; a burlesque. 

fetoff6 (Fr.). Full; sonorous. 

Etouff^e (Fr.). Stifled; damped. 


fetude (Fr.) (eh-tood), A study, lesson. 

Etwas (Ger.) {eUvos), Somewhat; as, etwas langsam, 
somewhat slow. 

Euphonium. A large brass instrument of the saxhorn family, 
used in military bands; a free reed-stop in the organ, six- 
teen-foot pitch. 

, Euphony [Gr., eu, good; phone, sound]. Well-sounding; 

Exercise, (i) A study designed to overcome some special 
difficulty or strengthen special muscles. (2) A lesson in 
harmony, counterpoint, or composition. (3) A compo- 
sition written as a thesis for the obtaining of a degree. 

Exposition. The giving out of the subject and answer by all 
the voices in turn at the opening of a fugue. 

Expression. The performance of music in such a manner as 
to bring out all its emotional and intellectual content. In- 
telligent, appreciative performance. 

Expression (Fr.). The name of a harmonium stop. 

Extempore (Lat.) (ex-tem'-po-reh). The gift of playing 
music composed as it is played. 

Extemporize. To play unpremeditated music. 

Extended Harmony. Reverse of close harmony, q. v. 

Extension, (i) Violin playing, to reach with the fourth or 
first finger beyond the "position" in which the hand may be. 
(2) In piano music, spreading the hand beyond the "five- 
finger" position. 

Extraneous Modulation. A modulation to a distant or nonr 
related key. 

Extreme. The outside parts, as bass and soprano. 

Extreme. Used by many writers on harmony in the sense of 
augmented; as, extreme 2d or 5th or 6th. 

P. The fourth or subdominant of the natural major or minor 

Fa. The fourth of the syllables adopted by Guido, called the 
Aretinian syllables. In "Movable Do" system the fourth 
of any scale. 


Fa bcmol,(Fr.). F flat. 

Fa burden, Falso bordone (It). Faux bourdon (Fr.). 
( I ) An ancient species of harmonization, consisting of thirds 
or sixths added to the cantus. (2) A drone bass like a 

Facile (Fr.) (fa-seel). Facile (It.) (fah-chee-leh). Easy. 

Facilment (Fr.) ifa-seel-mong), Facilmente (It.) {fa-cheeU 
men-teh). Easily; fluently. 

Facility (Fr.). Made easy; an easy version of a difficult 

Facture (Fr.) (fak-toor), Fattura (It.) (fat-too-rah) . Liter- 
ally, the making. The construction of a piece of music; 
the scale of organ-pipes. 

Fa diese (Fr.) (dee-ehs). F sharp. 

Fagotto (It), Fagott (Ger.). Bassoon (so called from its 
resemblance to a fagot or bundle of sticks). A double-reed 
instrument of great utility in the orchestra. Compass, three 
octaves (and over) from Bb below the bass staff. 

Fagottone (It) (fag-got-to'-neh). Double bassoon. 

Faible (Fr.) (faybl). Weak. Temps faible, weak beat 

False Cadence. A deceptive cadence. 

False Fifth. A name for the diminished fifth. 

False Relation. When a note sounded by one voice is given 
in the next chord, altered by jf, b, or ^, by another voice, 


Falsetto (It.). The highest register of the voice. 

Fandango (Sp.). A rapid dance in triple time. 

Fanfare (Fr.), Fanfara (It). A brilliant trumpet call or 
flourish ; a brass band. 

Fantasia (It), Fantasie (Ger.), Fantaisie (Fr.). A compo- 
sition that is not in any of the regular forms ; often used of 
pianoforte arrangements of themes from operas. 

Fantasia, Free. The name sometimes given to that part of a 
sonata that comes after the double bar; the Durchfiihrung 
or development. 


Fantasiren (Ger.) (fan-ta-see-ren). To improvise. 

Fantastico (It.), Fantastique (Fr.). Fantastic; grotesque. 

Farandola (It.), Farandole or Farandoule (Fr.). A rapid 
dance in f time, Southern France and Italy. 

Fascia (It.) (fashiah). A tie. ^'— *s 

F Clef. See Clef. 

F dur (Ger.). F major. 

Feierlich (Ger.). Festal; pompously; grandly; solemnly. 

Fcld (Ger.). Field; open air.. 

Feldmusik. Military music. 

Feldton. The key of Eb, often used for military band music. 

Fermata (It.) [from fermare, to stay]. A pause, /rs A ces- 
sation of accompaniment and time, while a soloist executes 
a cadenza. 

Fermato, Fenhamente (It). Firmly; decidedly. 

Fcroce (It.) (feh-ro'-cheh) . Wild; fierce. 

Ferocita (It.) {feh-ro'-chee-tah), con. With ferocity. 

Fertig (Ger.). Quick; ready; nimble. 

Fertigkeit. Dexterity; technical skill. 

Fcrvcnte (It.) (fer-ven-teh). Fervent; vehement 

Fes (Ger.). F flat 

Fcst (Ger.). Festival. 

Fest (Gef.). Fast; fixed. 

Fester Gesang. Canto firmo. 

Festgesang. Festival song. 

Festive (It.) (fes-tee'-vo). Festive; solemn. 

Festivamen'te (It). Festively; solemnly. 

Festivita (It) (fes-tee'-vee-ta), con. With joy fulness. 

Festo'so (It). Gay; joyful. 

Feuer (Ger.) (foy-ehr). Fire. 

Feuerig (Ger.). Fiery. 

F-holes. The openings in the belly of instruments of the 
violin family; so called from their shape, /. 

Fiacco (It.) (fee-ak'-ko). Weak; faint 

Fiasco (It). A failure; breakdown. Literally, "a flask" 

Fiato (It). Breath. 


Fiddle. This word and "violin" both come from the same 
root — the Low Latin word vitula. 

Fidicen (Lat). A harp or lute player. [From Lat. fides, a 
string, and cano, to sing.] 

Fidicinal. A general term for string instruments. 

Ficdcl (Ger.). Fiddle. 

Fieramente (It). Proudly; fiercely. 

Ficro (It.) (fee-eh-ro) , Ficr (Fr.) (fee-eh), proud; fierce. 

Fife, Fifre (Fr.), Piffero (It), Querpfeife (Ger.) (kvehr- 
pfei'feh). A small fiute without keys, an octave higher 
than the flute, used in conjunction with drums for military 

Fifteenth. An organ-stop of 2- foot pitch; open; metal. 

Fifth, (i) An interval which includes five letters. (2) The 
dominant of the key. 

Figure, (i) A form of accompaniment maintained without 
change. (2) A repeated melodic phrase. (3) Sequence. 

Figured Bass, Basso figurato (It), Basse chiffre (Fr.). A 
bass with figures over it (or under it) to indicate the chord 
each note is to bear. Invented as a species of musical short- 
hand it has been retained as a means of teaching harmony, 
although its warmest advocates admit its inadequacy to the 
indication of modern harmony. 

Filar la voce (It) (feelar-la-vocheh). Filer la voix (Fr.) 
(fee-leh-la-voa) . To sustain a sound with even tone. 
Literally, to spin like a thread. 

Fin (Fr.) (fang). Fine (It) (fee-neh). End. 

Finale (It) (fee-nah-leh) . Final. The last movement of a 
sonata or symphony or of the act of an opera. 

Fingerboard. The upper side of the neck of string instru- 
ments, generally a thin strip of ebony against which the 
strings are pressed by the fingers of the left hand. 

Fingering. The art of using the fingers systematically when 
playing an instrument; the marks or figures that indicate 
what fingers are to be used. 

Fingersetzung (Ger.). Fingering. 

Finto (It.). A feint; applied to a deceptive cadence. 

Fioretto (It) (fee-o-ret-to) . An ornament 

Fiorito (It) (fee-o-ree-to). Florid. 


Fiorituri (It.) (fee-o-ree-too-ree). Embellishments; flori<) 

Fis (Ger.). F sharp. Fisfis or Fisis, F double sharp. 

Fis dur. F sharp major. 

Fis moll. F sharp minor. 

Fixed Do. Do used as the name of C; movable do is do used 
as the keynote of any scale. 

Flageolet. A small pipe blown at the end; an organ-stop o\ 
2-foot pitch. 

Flageolet Tones. The harmonic sounds produced by touch- 
ing lightly the strings of violin, etc. 

Flat. The sign of depression (b) lowers the letter a half-tone. 

Flautando, flautato (It). Flute-like; in violin playing, a 
direction to produce flageolet tones. 

Flautino (It.) (Jiau- tee-no), A small flute; a piccolo. 

Flue Stops. Organ stops, the pipes of which are constructed 
on the same principle as the whistle or flageolet. 

Flute, Flauto (It.) (/fc:«-/o), F16te (Ger.) (flateh). (i) One 
of the most important of orchestral instruments; a cylin- 
drical tube blown at a hole in the side called the embouchure. 
The modern flute, constructed on the Boehm system, is very 
much superior to the older instrument in both tone and 
tune. Its compass is from 



(2) An organ-stop of 8 or 4-foot pitch; in French organs a 
general name for flue stops. There are many varieties of 
the flute, the major part of which are now either obsolete 
or used as names for organ-stops, as flauto traverso, trans- 
vere or German flute; flute d'amour, a soft-toned organ- 
stop; flute harmonique, an overblown flute, the pipe of 
which IS twice the length necessary to produce the sound it 
is made to give. 

F moll. F minor. 

Foco (It.). Fire. Con foco or fuoco, with fire. 

Focoso. Fiery; ardently. 


Poglietto (It.) (fol-yet'-to). The part used by the leader of 
the violins in the orchestra, containing cues, etc., of the 
other instruments, sometimes used by the conductor in 
place of a score. 

Fois (Fr.) (foa). Time; as, premiere fois, first time. 

Folia (Sp.), Follia (It.). A Spanish dance. Elaborate va- 
riations are called Follias de Espana, in French, Folies 
de'Espagne, meaning "follies of Spain" (a pun on the word 
folia), which has become a proverbial expression for trifles. 

Fonds d'orgue (Fr.) (fond-dorg). The 8-foot flue-stops of 
the .organ. The foundation stops. 

Foot, (i) A poetic measure or meter. (2) A drone bass. (3) 
The unit used in determining the pitch of organ pipes, the 
standard being 8-foot C, 


the lowest note on the manuals of the modern organ. An 
open pipe must be eight feet long to produce this sound, if 
closed it must be four feet long. Applied to other instru- 
ments it signifies that their pitch corresponds with that of 
the organ diapasons, that is, it is the same as the written 
note. All the violin family are of 8-foot pitch, except the 
double bass, which is of 16- foot pitch, that is, the notes 
sound an octave lower than written. The flute, hautboy, 
clarionet, and bassoon are also of 8- foot pitch. Of brass 
instruments, the cornets, trumpets, and trombones are of 
8-foot pitch. The high horn in C is 8- foot, but the low 
horn in C is 16-foot pitch. 

Forlana (It), Fourlaxie (Fr.) (foor-lan). A dance some- 
what similar to the tarantella. 

Form. The number, order, and key relation 01 the several 
themes that are combined to make an extended composition, 
such as the :>onata, rondo, symphony, concerto, etc. The 
lyric or dance form is the germ from which all varieties of 
instrumental music have been developed. The simplest 
form of lyric melody may be thus divided: Motive, two 
measures; Section, two motives; Phrase, two sections; 
Sentence, two phrases; Period, two sentences, making six- 
teen measures in all. The lyric form may be extended in- 
definitely by the addition of new periods in related keys. 


One of the most usual is the addition of a new period in 
the key of the dominant, subdominant, or relative minor, 
followed by a repetition of the first period. This is called 
the Aria Form. It was formerly largely used in vocal 
music, and is now one of the most usual forms for the 
lighter class of piano music. The following outlines of 
sonata and rondo forms give their main characteristics. 
The sonata form is the form of the symphony, and of the 
trio, quartet, etc., for string instruments, or for piano with 
strings, or other instruments. The same is the case with 
the rondo; this form is frequently used for the final move- 

Outline of Sonata Form in Major Key 


1st Theme. 

2d Theme. 

Tonic key. 

Dominant key. 


1st Theme. 2d Theme. 


Tonic key. Tonic key. 

Sonata in Minor Key 


1st Theme. 

2d Theme. 


Relative major. 


ist Theme. 2d Theme. 

Development. Tonic. Parallel major. 

Frequent deviations may be found from the foregoing 
schemes. The intervals between the themes are filled with 
transition passages or modulations so constructed as to 
heighten the effect of the theme that follows; codas are 
frequently added after both appearances of the second 

Modern Rondo Form, Major Key 


1st Theme. 2d Theme. ist Theme. 

Tonic. Dominant. Tonic. 


3d Theme. ist Theme. 2d Theme. Coda. 

Sub-dom. Tonic. Tonic Made from ist 

Rel. minor. theme or all 

Parallel minor. the themes. 


For an example of this kind see Beethoven's No. 2 Sonata 
of the three dedicated to Haydn, last movement. 

Same Form of Rondo in Minor Key 


1st Theme. 2d Theme. ist Thezno 

Tonic Relative major. Tonic. 


3d Theme. ist Theme. 2d Theme. Coda. 

Sub-dom. and Tonic Tonic major. Minor 

relative major. 

See last movement of Sonata Pathetique — Beethoven. 

Forte (It.) ifor-teh). Loud. Fort (Fr.), Stark (Ger.). 
Meno forte, less loud. Mezzo forte (M. F.), half loud 
Piu forte, louder. Poco forte, a little loud; rather loud. 
Sempre forte, always loud. Forte stop, a mechanism 
worked by the feet or the knee, or a draw-stop, by means 
of which the whole power of the harmonium, organ, etc., 
may be put on at once. 

Forte possibile (It) {posse/ 'hee-leh). Fortissimo (It.). 
Loud as possible. 

Fortemente (It). Loudly; forcibly. 

Forza (It.) (Jortza)^ con. With force. 

Forzando (It) {fortjsando). Forcing the sound; emphasiz- 
ing a certain note, indicated by <, A» f^, sfs. 

Forzato (It) (forUato), Sforzando, Sforzato. All have the 
same meaning as Forzando. 

Foumiture (Fr.). A mixture-stop in the organ. 

Fourth, (i) An interval embracing four letters. (2) The 

subdominant of the scale. 
Fran^aise (Fr.) (frong-says). A dance in triple time. 
Francamente (It) (frank-a-men'-teh). Frankly; boldly. 

Franchezza (It) (fran-kef-sa), Franchise (Fr.) {frong^ 
shees). Freedom; confidence. 

Freddamente (It). Frigidly; coldly. 

Fredezza (It) (freh-det'-za), con. With coldness. 

Free Fugue. One that does not conform to strict rules. 

Free Parts. Parts added to a canon or fugue that take no 
part in its development 

Free Reed. See Reed. 



Free Style. The reverse of strict contrapuntal style, 

French Horn. See Horn, 

French Sixth. The augmented 6th with augmented 4th and 
major 3d 



French Violin Clef. The G clef on the first line (obsolete). 

Frets. Pieces of wood, metal, or ivory, set across the finger- 
board of some string instruments, raised slightly above its 
surfaces, to regulate the pitch of the sounds; the finger is 
pressed on the string behind the fret, which then acts as a 

Fretta (It.), con. With haste; hurry. 

Frisch (Ger.). Fresh; lively. 

Frohlich (Ger.). Gay; cheerful. 

Frottola (It). A comic ballad. 

Fuga, Fugue (It.), Fuge (Ger.) (foo-geh), [From Lat, 
fuga, flight]. The parts seeming to fly one after another; 
the highest development of counterpoint; a composition de- 
veloped from one or two (sometimes three) short themes, 
according to the laws of imitation. The chief elements of 
a fugue are: (i) Subject, or theme. (2) Answer, imitation 
of theme at 5th above or below. (3) Counter-subject, an 
additional theme which accompanies the main theme. (4) 
Episodes; these connect the various repetitions of the 
theme together. (5) Organ point, generally used before 
the stretto. (6) Stretto, a drawing together of the subject 
and answer; the stretto is often written on an organ point. 
(7) Coda, the free ending after the development is com- 
pleted. Although all these things enter into the fugue, it is 
not necessary that every fugue should include all of them. 
There are many varieties of fugue now happily relegated to 
the limbo of musical antiquities. The most important are 
the Real fugue, in which the subject and answer are identi- 
cal, and the Tonal fugue, in which an alteration must be 
made in the theme to prevent its going out of the key. In 
the tonal fugue the subject moves from the tonic to the 
dominant, or the reverse. The answer must move from 
dominant to tonic, or the reverse. 


Fugara An open, metal pipe organ-stop, generally of 4- foot 

Fugato. In fugue style. Aria fugato, a song with fugue-like 

Fughetto (It). A slightly developed fugue. 

Full Cadence. Perfect cadence. See Cadence, 

FundamentaL The generator or root of a chord. 

Fundamental Bass. The roots of the harmonics on which a 
piece is constructed. 

Fundamental Position. A chord with its root at the bass. 

Fun^bre (Fr.) (foo-nebr), Funerale (It) (foo-neh-rah'- 

leh). Funereal; dirge-like. 
Fuoco (It) {foo'o'ko). Fire. Con fuoco, with fire. 
Furia (It) ifoo'-re-ah), con. With fury. 
Furibundo (It), Furioso (It). Furiously; savagely. 
Furlano (It.). See Forlana. 
Furniture. A mixture-stop in the organ. 
Furore (It) (foo-ro'-reh), con. With fury; passion. 
Fus6e (Fr.) {foo-seW), A slide from one sound to another. 

G. (i) The fifth or dominant of the natural major scale. 
(2) The fourth or lowest string of the violin. (3) The 
third string of the viola and violoncello; the first strmg of 
the double bass. (4) The letter represented by the G or 
treble clef, (s) Abbreviation for (jauche (Fr.) (gawsh), 

Gagliarda (It) (gal-yar-dah) , Gailliarde (Fr.) (gah-yard). 

A favorite dance in f time resembling the minuet. 

Gai (Fr.) (gay), Gaja (It) (gayah), Gaiment (Fr.) {gay- 
mong), Gajamente (It.) (gay-a-men-teh) . Gay; merry; 
gaily; merrily. 

Gala (It.) (gah'lah), di gala. Finely; bravely. Literally, in 
fine array. 


Galamment (Fr.) (gal-lah-mong) , Galantemcntc (It.) 
igalant-eh-fnen-teh) . Gracefully; freely; gallantly. 

Galant (Ger.) (gah-lanf), Galantc (Fr.) (gah-hngt). 
Galante (It.) (gah-lan-teh) , Free; gallant; graceful. 

Galliard. See Gagliarda. 

Galop (Fr.) (gah-lo), Galopade (Fr.) (galo-pahd), Galopp 
(Ger.). A rapid, lively dance inf time. 

Gamba (It.) [the leg], (i) See Viol di gamba. (2) An 
organ-stop of eight-foot pitch ; in German, Gambenstimme. 

Gamma. The Greek letter g, T ; in ancient music the letter G, 
first line bass staff ; in the hexachord system this sound was 
called gamma ut, from whence comes gamut, a scale. 

Gamme (Fr.) (gahm), A scale; gamut. 

Gang (Ger.). Passage. 

Ganz (Ger.) (gants). Whole. Ganze Note, whole note. 

Garbo (It.). Gracefulness; refinement. 

Gassenhauer (Ger.) (gas-sen-how-er) . Lit., running the 

streets. An old dance in } time. 
Gauche (Fr.) (gawsh). Left. Main gauche, left hand. 
Gavot (Fr.) igah-vo). Gavotte (gah-vot), Gavotta (It). 

An old dance in ^ time; lively, yet dignified. Frequently 

introduced in the suite. 

G Clef, fc See Clef, 

Gedeckt (Ger.) [from J^c/^^n, to close]. Closed ; the stopped 

Gedehnt (Ger.). Slow; stately. 

Gedicht (Ger.). Poem. 

Gef alien (Ger.) (geh-fal-len). Pleasure. Nach Gef alien, at 
will. See Bene placito and A piacere. 

Gefuhl (Ger.) (geh-feel). Feeling. Mit Gefiihl, with feeling. 

Gegensatz (Ger.) (geh-gen-sats) . The second theme in a 
sonata. Lit., the against or contrary theme; Hauptsatz 
being the chief or principal theme. 

Gehalten (Ckr.) (geh-hal-ten) . Held; sustained; tenuto. 

Gehend (Ger.) (geh-end). Going; andante. Etwas gehend 
(con moto), with motion. 


Geige (Ger.). Fiddle; violin. 

GeigenprincipaL An organ-stop of 8- or 4-foot pitch. 

Geist (Ger.). Spirit; mind; genius. 

Geistlich (Ger.). Sacred; spiritual. 

Gelassen (Ger.). Tranquil; calm. 

Gemachlich (Ger.) (geh-mehch-lich) . Easy; convenient 

Gemachlich commodo. Not too fast 

Gemassigt (Ger.) (geh-mehs-sicht). Moderate. Lit, meas- 

Gemshom. An 8- or 4-foot organ-stop with horn-like tone. 

Gemiith (Ger.) (geh-meet'). Heart; soul; feeling. 

Gemuthlich (Ger.). Feelingly; heartily. 

Generator. Root; fundamental of a chord. 

Genere (It) (jV-neh-reh), Genre (Fr.) (shongr). Style; 
class; mode. 

Generoso (It.) (jeh-neh-ro'-so). Freely; frankly. 

GentiUe (Fr.) (shong-til). Gentile (It.) (jen-UeAeh). 
Graceful; delicate. Con gentilezza (It) (jen'tee-leUa) , 
with grace; nobility. 

German Flute. See Flute. 

German Sixth. See Augmented Sixth. 

Ges (Ger.). G flat 

Gesang (Ger.) {geh-song'). Singing [^rom singen, to sing] ; 
song; melody; air. 

Gesangverein (Ger.). Singing society. 

Geschmack (Ger.). Taste. Mit Geschmack, with taste. 
Geschmackvoll, tasteful. 

Geschwind (Ger.) (geh-shvint^). Fast; presto. 

Gesteigert (Ger.). Raised; exalted in volume; louder; cres- 

Getragen (Ger.) (geh-tra-gen) , Sustained. [Tragen, to 
bear up.] Sostenuto. 

Gezogen (Ger.) (geh-tso-gen) [from Ziehen, to drawl]. Pro- 
longed; sustained. 



Ghazel or GazeL A short Persian poem, used by Hiller as a 
name for short pianoforte pieces, in which a simple theme 
constantly occurs. 

Ghiribizzo (It.) (gee-ree-bit/'O). Whim; grotesque. 

Giga (It.). Jig; a rapid dance in } time, used as the final 
movement in the suite, where it is often developed in fugue * 

Giochevole (It.) {jee-o-keW-vo-leh) , Giocondosa (It.) {jee- 
O'kon-do-sah) , Giocoso (It.) (jee-o-co-so), Giocondezza 
(It.) {jee-O'Con-detsa) , Joyful; merry; sportive; happy; 

Gioja (It.) (jeo-ya), con. With joy. 

Giojattte (It.) Ueo-yan-teh) , Giojosamente (It.) (feo-yos- 
a-tnen-teh), Giojoso (It.) (jeo-yo-so). Joyous; mirthfully. 

Gioviale (It.) {jeo-ve-ah'-leh). Jovial. 

Giovialita (It) {jeo-vee-ah-lee-tah) , con. With joviality. 

Gls (Ger.) (ghiss). G sharp. 

Giubilio (It) (jew-bee-leo) . Jubilation. 

Giubilioso (It.) (jew-bee-lee-oso) . Jubilant 

Giustezza (It.) (jews-tet'-sa), con. With exactness. 

Giusto (It) (jewsto). Strict; exact 

Glee. A composition for three or more voices without ac- 
companiment The glee differs from the madrigal, its pred- 
ecessor, in being constructed more on the harmonic than 
the contrapuntal system ; t. e., admits dominant, dissonances, 
and second inver^ons. The glee is the most distinctive 
form of English music. The best glees belong to the eigh- 
teenth century and the first part of the nineteenth. They 
have been largely superseded by the part song. 

GU (It) (lee). The. 

Glide, (i) To connect two sounds by sliding. (2) A modern 
variety of the waltz. 

Glissando, Glissato, Glissicato, Glissicando (It.). To play 
a scale on the pianoforte by drawing the finger along the 
keys. Only possible in the natural scale. In violin playing, 
to slide the finger rapidly from one "stop" to the next 

Gliss6 (Fr.) (glis-seh). See Glissando, 

Glisser (Fr.) (glis-seh). To slide. 


Glockenspiel (Ger.). Bell play; a small instrument consist- 
ing of bells tuned to the diatonic scale, played by small 
hammers or by means of a keyboard. Steel bars are some- 
times used in place of bells. 

Gong. A pulsatile instrument consisting of a disc of bronze, 
struck with drumstick with soft head. 

Gorgheggi (It.) (gor-ghed^-je). Florid singing, with runs, 
trills, etc. 

Grace Note. See Appoggiatura. 

Graces. The ornamental notes first used in harpsichord play- 
ing ; they are now nearly all obsolete, or if used are written 
in full by the composer. 

Gracieux (Fr.) (grah-see-oo), Gracieuse (Fr.) (grah-see^ 
00s), Gracile (It.) (gra-chee-leh) . Graceful; delicate. 

Gradevole (It.) (grah-deh'-vo-leh). Grateful. 

Graduellement (It.) (grah-doo-el-mong). By degrees. 

Gran cassa (It.). Great drum; long drum. 

Gran gusto (It.), con. With grand expression. 

Gran tamburo (It.). The big drum. 

Grand barr^ (Fr.). See BarrS. 

Grand jeu (Fr.) (zheu), Grand choeur (koor). Full organ. 

Grand Piano. Properly, the long, wing-shaped pianoforte 
with keyboard at the wide end; commonly applied to all 
varieties of piano with three strings to each key. 

Grande orgue (Fr.) (org). Great organ. 

Grandezza (It.) (gran-def-sa), con. With grandeur. 

Grandioso (It.) {gran-de-o'-so). Grandly. 

Grave [Fr., grahv; It, grah-veh]. Deep in pitch; slow; 

Gravecembalum (Lat), Gravicembalo (It), (gra-vee-chem- 
halo). The harpsichord. 

Gravement (Fr.) (grahv-mong) , Gravemente (It) (grah- 
veh-men-teh) , Slowly; seriously. 

Gravita (It) (gra-vee-tah) , con. With dignity. 

Grazia (It) (grat-se-a), con. With grace; elegance. 

Grazioso (It.) (grat-si-oso) , Graziosamentc (grat-si-Qfih 
men-teh). (JracefuUy; elegantly. 


Great Octave- The sounds from 



Great Organ. The division of an organ that contains the 
most powerful stops, generally operated by the middle key- 
board or manual, the upper being the swell organ, the lower 
the choir organ. 

Greater. Major; as, greater third, greater sixth. In old 
usage the major scale is called the scale with the greater 

Greek Music. The Greek system of music is still a subject 
of controversy about which very little is known. The best 
attempts at its elucidation may be found in Chappel's "His- 
tory of Music" and Munro's "Greek Music." Its interest is 
purely antiquarian. 

Gregorian Chant. See Plain Song. 

Groppo (It), Groppetto (It). A turn; a group. 

Grosse (Ger.) (gros-seh), (i) Major, applies to intervals. 
(2) Great or grand, as, grosse Sonate. (3) An octave below 
standard pitch, as, grosse Nazard, an organ-stop an octave 
below the twelfth. 

Grosse-caisse, Gros tambour. See Drum, 

Grosse (It). Great; large; as, grosso concerto. 

Grottesco (It.) (grot-te/-ko). Grotesque; comic. 

Ground Bass. A bass of four or eight bars, constantly re- 
peated, each time with varied melody and harmony. The 
ground bass was generally used as the basis of the chaconne 
and passacaglio. 

Group, (i) A series of rapid notes grouped together. (2) 
One of the divisions of the orchestra, as string group, brass 
group, wood group. 

Gruppo, Grupetto. -See Groppo ^ Groppetto. 

G^Schliissel (Ger.) (gay-shlues-sel) . G clef. 

Cuaracha (Sp.) (gwah-rah'-chah). A lively Spanish dance 

in triple time. 
Guerriero (It) (gwer-reeh'-ro) . Martial; warlike. 

Guida (It) (gwee-dah). Guide; the subject of a canon or 


Guidonian Hand. A diagram consisting of a hand, with the 
syllables written on the tips of the fingers and on the joints, 
intended to assist in memorizing the hexachord scales. 

Guidonian Syllables. The syllables applied by Guido to the 
notes of the hexachord, ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la. When the 
octave scale was adopted si was added for the seventh note ; 
ut was changed to do as a better syllable for vocalizing. 

Guitar. A string instrument with fretted fingerboard, played 
by plucking the strings with the fingers of the right hand, 
one of the oldest and most widespread of instruments. It 
probably originated in Persia, where it is called tar or si-tar, 
passed from thence to Greece, and to the rest of Europe 
and North Africa. The guitar now in general use is called 
the Spanish guitar. It has six strings tuned thus: 





5 "^ 

but their actual sound is an octave below the written notes. 

Gusto (It), con. With taste. 

Gustoso. Tastefully. 

Gut. The material (sheep's entrails) of which violin, guitar, 
and other strings are made, commonly called catgut. 

Gut (Ger,) (goot). Good. Guter Taktteil, lit., good bar 
part; the accented part oi the bar. 


H. Abbreviation for Hand. Hah (Ger.), the note Bfc|, Bb 
being called B (bay). It is this system of nomenclature that 
makes possible the fugues on the name of Bach, written by 
Bach, Schumann, and others: 


[^ ^ ^ i ^ 

B A C H 

Hackbrett (Ger.). Literally, chopping-board. The dulcimen 
Halb (Ger.) (halp). Half. 


Halbe Cadenz (Ger.). Half cadence. 
Halbe Note. Half-note. 
Halber Ton. Half-tone. 
Half-Note f 

Half-Rest --^ 

Half-Shift On the violin, the position of the hand between 
the open position and the first shift. 

Half-Step. Half-tone. 

Half-Tone. The smallest interval in modem music. 

Hallelujah (Heb.). The Greek form Alleluia is often used. 
"Praise ye Jehovah." 

Hailing. A Norwegian dance in triple time. 

Hals (Ger.). Neck, as of violin, guitar, etc. 

Hammerklavier (Ger.). A name for the P. F. (used by 
Beethoven in the great sonata, Op. io6). 

Hanacca. A Moravian dance in } time, somewhat like the 

Hardiment (Fr.) (har-dee-mong) . Boldly. 

Hannonic Flute. See Flute. 

Harmonic Scale. The series of natural harmonics ; the scale 
of all brass instruments without valves or pistons. 

Harmonic Stops. Organ-stops with pipes of twice the 
standard length pierced with a small hole at the middle, 
causing them to sound the first overtone instead of th<* 
sound that the whole length would produce. 

Harmonica. (i) An instrument invented by Benjamin 
Franklin, the sounds of which were produced from glass 
bowls. (2) An instrument consisting of plates of glasA 
struck by hammers. (3) A mixture-stop in the organ. 

Harmonic! (Lat.) (har-mon'-i-see). The followers of.Aris- 
toxenus, as opposed to the Canonici {ka-non-i-see) , the 
followers of Pythagoras. The former taught that music 
was governed by its appeal to the ear, the latter that it was 
a matter for mathematical and arithmetical study only. 

Harmonicon. A toy instrument with free reeds, blown by the 

Harmonics, Overtones, Partial Tones, (i) The sounds 
produced by the division of a vibrating body into equal 


parts; it is upon the presence or absence and relative inten- 
sity of the overtones that the quality of the sound depends. 
Open pipes, strings, brass instruments, and instruments with 
double reed (bassoon and hautboy) give the following 
series : 

12345 6 789 
C C G C E G Bb C D E, etc 

generator I J 1 i 1 I I J A 

Closed pipes and beating reeds (clarionet) omit all the even 
numbers in this series. (2) The sounds produced on the 
violin by touching the string lightly at one of the points of 
division; those produced by thus touching the open string 
are called natural harmonics. Artificial harmonics are pro- 
duced by stopping the string with the first finger and touching 
it lightly with the fourth, at the interval of a fourth above ; 
the resulting harmonic is two octaves above the stopped 
note. In writing music this is indicated by writing thus: 

J. 1 J. 


r T"r 



The lozenge-shaped notes indicate the notes to be lightly 
touched. Natural harmonics are frequently used on the 
harp, guitar, and mandolin. 

Harmonie-Musik (Ger.). Harmony music; music for wind 
instruments. A band composed of brass and wood instru- 
ments is called a harmony band. 

Harmonicft. One who is an expert in the art of harmony. 

Harmonium. A keyboard instrument with free reeds. It 
differs from the reed organ in that the air is forced through 
instead of drawn through the reeds, giving a stronger, 
rougher quality of tone. In harmonium music, published in 
Europe, the stops are indicated by figures placed in a circle. 
Each stop is divided at the middle. The figure in circle, 
placed below the bass staff, refers to the lower half of the 
stop; above the treble staff, to the upper half. The cor 


anglais and flute form one stop, marked ^\ below for 
cor anglais, m) above for flute. 

2 means bourdon, below; clarionet, above. 

3 means clarion, below; piccolo, abovfe. 

4 means bassoon, below; hautboy, above. 

Harmon J [from Gr. hartno, to join]. The art of combining 
sounds. The study of harmony in its fullest extent is that 
which treats of the combination of sounds, consonant and 
dissonant, and their succession. The so-called laws of har- 
mony have all been arrived at empirically, hence have been 
subject to change, each new composer of suflicient originality 
and genius modifying them to suit his purposes. Harmonic 
combinations may be either consonant or dissonant. The 
consonant combinations consist of the common (perfect) 
chord and its derivatives. The dissonant combinations all 
include some dissonant interval, viz., 7th or 2d, augmented 
4th, diminished or augmented 5th, augmented 6th or dimin- 
ished 3d, or 9th. The movement of consonant combinations 
is perfectly free; that of dissonant combinations is subject 
to the rules governing the resolution of the dissonant sounds 
they contain. Two classes of dissonances are recognized: 
(i) Those that belong to the overtone series, called essen- 
tial; (2) those that result from the employment of sus- 
pensions, retardations, changing and passing notes. 

Harp. A string instrument of very ancient origin, probably 
first suggested by the bow. The earliest forms of Egyptian 
harps resemble that weapon, the front bar or support being 
wanting. The modern harp, by means of contrivances for 
altering the tension of the strings, controlled by pedals, has 
the complete chromatic scale. The harp is extensively used 
in the modern orchestra; its clear, "glassy" tones form a 
striking and effective contrast to the rest of the orchestra. 
It is most effective when used to give "arpeggios," or broken 
chords, particularly in soft passages. Scales are ineffective 
on the harp, and the chromatic scale is impossible. The 
compass of the modern harp extends from the second Cb 
below the bass staff to the second Fb above the treble staff, 
six and one-half octaves. The natural harmonics, produced 
by touching the middle of the string lightly with one hand, 
are extremely effective in very soft passages. 

Harpe (Fr.), Harfe (Ger.). The harp. 


Harpsichord, Harpsicol, Clavicin (Fr.), Cembalo (It.)* 
Clavicembalo (It.)fFltigel (Ger.). A string instrument 
with keyboard, in shape like the modern grand piano. The 
sound was produced by pieces of quill, leather, or tortoise- 
shell, which scratched across the strings when the keys were 
struck. Harpsichords were often made with two rows of 
keys and with stops, by means of which the tone might be 

Haupt (Ger.) (howpt). Head; chief; principal. 

HauptmanuieL Great organ. - 

Hauptnote. Essential note in a turn, mordent, etc. 

Hauptsatz. Principal theme in a sonata or rondo, etc 

Hauptwerk. Great organ. 

Hautbois (Fr.) (ho-boa). See Oboe. 

Hautbois d'amour. A small variety of the hautboy. 

H dur (Ger.). B major. 

H moll (Ger.) (hah moll). B minor. 

Head. The membrane of a drum; the peg-box of violin, 
guitar, etc. 

Head Voice. See Voice. 

Heftig (Ger.). Impetuous. Literally, heavily. 

Heimlich ((kr.). Mysteriously; secretly. 

Heiss (Ger.). Ardent. 

Heiter (Ger.). Clear; calm. 

Heptachord [Gr., hepta, seven; feori^, string]. A scale or 
lyre with seven diatonic sounds. 

Herabstrich or Herstrich (Ger.). Down bow. 

Heraufstrich or Hinaufstrich (Ger.). Up bow. 

Hidden Fifths or Octaves. Called also concealed. These 
occur when two parts or voices take a 5th or 8th in parallel 


The rule forbidding hidden 5ths and 8ths is now very little 

His (Ger.). B sharp. 


Hoboe, Hoboy. See Oboe. 

Hochzeitsmarsch (Ger.) (hoch-tseits) . Literally, high time. 
A wedding march. 

Hohlflote (Ger.) (hole-Aa-teh), Hollow flute ; an organ-stop 
of 8-foot tone, soft, full quality; a stop of the same char- 
acter a fifth above the diapason is called Hohlquinte {kvin- 

Holding Note. A sustained note; a pedal point. 

Homoph'ony, Homophon'ic, Homoph'onous [Gr., homo, 
one or single; phonos, sound]. Music in which one part 
(melody) is the most important factor, the remaining parts 
being entirely subsidiary, that is, simply accompaniment. 

Horn [It., Corno; Fr., Cor; Ger., Horn or Waldhorn], A 
generic term for instruments of brass or other metal, wood, 
or animal horns sounded by means of a cup-shaped mouth- 
piece. In modern usage applied only to the orchestral horn, 
called also French horn. A brass instrument with a long, 
narrow tube bent into a number of circular curves, with a 
large bell. The modern horn is provided with pistons, 
which make it a chromatic instrument. The custom is now 
almost universal of using the horn in F, the part for which 
is written a fifth higher than the actual sounds. Before the 
application of pistons to the horn its part was always writ- 
ten in C, and the key was indicated by writing: Corni in 
Bb or Eb, etc., as the case might be. Many composers re- 
tain this method of writing, but the horn-players generally 
transpose the part a vista to suit the F-horn. 

Horn Band. In Russia, a band of performers, each one of 
whom plays but one sound on his horn. 

Hornpipe. An old English dance of a lively, rapid character. 

Horn-Sordin (Ger.). A contrivance placed in the mouth of 
the horn to deaden the tone. 

Humoresque (Fr.) (oo-nto-resk) , Humoreske (Ger.). A 
caprice; humorous, fantastic composition. 

Hunting Horn [Fr., Cor de Chasse; It, Corno di Caccia]. 
The horn from which the orchestral horn was developed. 

H3rmn Tune. A musical setting of a religious lyric poem, 
generally in four parts. 



Id6c fix^c (Fr.) (e-deh fix-eh). Fixed idea; a name given 
by Berlioz to a short theme used as the principal motive of 
an extended composition. 

Idyl [Fr., Idylle; Gr., Eidullion], A small image or form; 
a short, tender piece of music generally of a pascoral char- 

II piu (It.) (eel peu). The most. II piu forte possibile, as 

loud as possible. 

Imitando (It). Imitating; as, Imitando la voce, imitating 
the voice; a direction to the instrumentalist to imitate the 

Imitation. A device in counterpoint; a musical phrase being 
given by one voice is immediately repeated by another voice. 
There are many varieties of imitation: (i) By augmenta- 
tion, when the imitating part is in notes of twice or four 
times the value of those in the theme. (2) By diminution, 
when the value of the notes is reduced one-half or one- 
fourth. (3) By inversion, when the intervals are given by 
the imitating part in inverted order. Imitation is called 
Canonic when the order of letters and intervals is exactly 
repeated, thus: 

C D E^F G A B^C 

Strict, when the order of letters only is repeated, as: 

C D E^F A B ^ D 

Free, when the theme is slightly altered, but not enough to 
destroy the resemblance. The theme is called the antecedent ; 
the imitation, the consequent. There are other varieties of 
imitation, but they are now generally obsolete, being more 
curious than musical. 

Immer (Ger.). Ever; continuously; always. 

Impaziente (It.) (im-pah-tse-en-teh) , Impatient; restless. 

Impazientemente (It). Vehemently; impatiently. 

Imperfect Cadence. Same as Half Cadence. 

Imperfect Consonance. Major and minor thirds and sixths. 

Imperfect Fifth. The diminished fifth. 


Imperioso (It). Imperiously; with dignity. 

Impeto (It) (im'-peh-to), con. With impetuosity. 

Impetuoso (It), Impetuosamente (It.). Impetuously. 

Implied Intervals. Those not expressed in the figuring. 

Imponente (It) (im'-po-nen-teh) . Emphatic; pompous. 

Impromptu, (i) An extemporaneous performance. (2) A 
piece of music having the character of an extemporaneous 

Improvisation. Unpremeditated music. 

Improvise. To play unpremeditated music. 

Improviser (Fr.) (im-pro-vee-seh), Improwisare (It). To 

Improwisatore (It). An improviser (male). 

Improwisatrice (It) {im-prov-vi-sa-tree-cheh) . An im- 
proviser (female). 

In alt (It). The notes in the first octave above the treble 

In altissimo (It). All notes above the octave in alt 

In nomine (Lat). In the name; a sort of free fugue. 

Incalzando (It) (in-cal-tsan-do) , To chase; pursue hotly, 
with constantly increasing vehemence. 

Indeciso (It) (in-deh-chee-so) . With indecision; hesitating. 

Infinite Canon. See Canon, 

Inganno (It). Deceptive. Cadenza inganno, deceptive ca- 

Inner Parts. The parts that are neither at the top nor the 
bottom, as the alto and tenor in a chorus. 

Inner Pedal. A sustained note in an inner part. 

Innig (Ger.). Heartfelt; fervent 

Innigkeit (Ger.), mit. With fervor; nitense feeling. 

Inniglich (Ger.). See Innig, 

Inno (It). Hymn. 

Innocente (It.) (in-no-chen'-teh), Innocentemente« Inno- 
cent; natural. 

Innocenza (inno-chent'-sah) , con. With artlessness. 
Inquieto (It) (in^quee-eh-to). Unquiet; restless. 


Insensibile (It.) (in'Sen'Si-bee-leh), Insensibilmente (It.)' 
By imperceptible degrees; gradually. 

Insistendo (It), Instante (It)» Inst^ndig (Ger.). Urgent; 

Instrument. Any mechanical contrivance for the production 
of musical sounds. Instruments are classified as follows. 
String instruments, wind instruments, pulsatile instruments. 
String instruments are divided into bow instruments, violin 
class; instruments the strings of which are plucked by the 
fingers — harp, guitar, etc. ; plectral, i. e., the strings struck 
by a rod or thin strip of wood, metal, etc., as mandolin, 
zither ; strings struck by hammers held in the hand — cymbal ; 
strings struck by hammers operated by keyboard — piano- 
forte. Wind instruments are divided as follows: (i) Vi- 
brating column of air — flutes and flue-stops of organ. 
(2) Single reed — clarionet, saxophone, basset horn, reed- 
stops in the organ. (3) Double reed— oboe, bassoon, 
(4) Free reed— harmonium, vocalion, cabinet organ. (5) Brass 
instruments in which the lip of the player acts as a reed — 
trumpet, horn, etc. Pulsatile instruments— drums, triangles, 
cymbals, bells, xylophone. The small or chamber orchestra 
includes the foUowiug instruments: String— first violins, 
second violins, violas, violoncellos, contrabassi. Wood-wind 
— ^pair of flutes (It., Hauti), pair of hautboys (It, oboi), 
pair of clarionets (It, clarionetti) , pair of bassoons (It., 
fagotti). Brass-wind — ^pair of trumpets (somrtimes omit- 
ted (It., chrini), pair of hornd (It, corni), pair of kettle- 
drums (It, timpani). The addition of three trombones 
changes this to the full or grand orchestra, whurh is often 
augmented by the addition of the following instruments: 
Wood-wind — ^piccolo or octave flute, English horn (It, 
corno Inglese), alto or bass clarionet, double b^soon (It., 
contra fagotto). In the brass quartet the horns ar< increased 
to four, and the alto, tenor, and bass trombones are added 
and the bass trombone reinforced by the bass tuba. Three 
or more kettle-drums are frequently employed, also the 
following pulsatile instruments: large drum, snare drum, 
triangle, and cymbals. The harp has almost become an 
essential in the modern orchestra, whether large or *mall. 

lustnimentation. The art of using a number of instruments 
in combination; the manner of arranging music for th9 


Instrumento or Stromento (It.). An instrument. 

Instrumento or Stromento di corda (It). String instru- 

Instrumento or Stromento di fiato (It). Wind instrument 

Interlude, IntermMe (Fr.) (in-ter-made) , Intermedio (It) 
(in'ter-meh-deo). A short piece of music between the acts 
of a drama or the verses of a hymn. 

Intermezzo (It) {in-ter-medzo) . An interlude; a short 
movement connecting the larger movements of a symphony 
or sonata. 

Interrupted Cadence. See Cadence. 

IntervaL The difference in pitch between two sounds. The 
name of an interval is determined by the number of letters 
it includes (counting the one it begins with and the one it 
ends with). Seconds may be minor (E, F), major (E, Flf), 
augmented (Eb, ¥%), Thirds may be minor (E, G), major 
(E, GJf), diminished (E, Gb). Fourths may be perfect (E, 
A), augmented (E, Atf), diminished (E, Ajz). The in- 
version of an interval produces* one of the opposite kind 
except when it is perfect Inversion of minor 2d produces 
major 7th, and since all intervals lie within the octave, and 
the octave contains twelve half-tones, it follows that an 
interval and its inversion must together make an octave 
or twelve half-tones. Intervals are further divided into 
consonant and dissonant, the consonant into perfect and im- 
perfect The perfect consonances are the 4th, Sth, and 
octave. They are called perfect because any alteration of 
them produces a dissonance. The imperfect consonances are 
the major and minor 3d and 6th, called imperfect because 
equally consonant whether major or minor. All other in- 
tervals are dissonant, that is, one or both the souncfs form- 
ing them must move in a certain direction to satisfy the ear. 
If the dissonant is minor or diminished the sounds must 
approach each other (except minor 2d) ; if major or aug- 
mented they must separate (except major 7th, which may 
move either way). Intervals are augmented when greater 
than major or perfect. Intervals are diminished when less 
than major or perfect The prime or unison is often called 

an interval and if altered, as C CJf, is called an augmented 
unison or prime; it is more properly a chromatic semitone. 
Natural intervals are those found in the major scale. Chro- 


matic intervals are those found in the harmonic minor scale 
and in chords that include sounds foreign to the scale or 

Intimo (It.) (in' -tee-mo). Heartfelt; with emotion. 

Intonation, (i) The correctness or incorrectness of the pitch 
of sounds produced by the voice or by an instrument. 
(2) The notes which precede the reciting notes of the 
Gregorian chant. 

Intoning. In the Anglican Church the singing of prayers, 
etc., in monotone. 

Intrada (It). An introduction or interlude. 

Intrepido (It.) (in-tre-pee-do) , Intrepidezza, con (It.) 
(in-treh-pee-detsa) , Intrepidamente (It.) (in-treh-pee-da- 
men-teh). Boldly; with daring; dashingly. 

Introduction. A preparatory movement to a piece of music, 
symphony, oratorio, etc., sometimes very short, sometimes a 
long, elaborate movement in free style. 

Introduzione (It.) (in-tro-doo-tse-oneh). Introduction. 

Introit. A short anthem sung before the administration of 
the communion in the Protestant Episcopal Church; in the 
Roman Catholic Church before the celebration of the mass. 

Invention. A name given by Bach to a set of thirty pieces 
in contrapuntal style. 

Inversion, (i) Of intervals. See Interval. (2) Of chords, 
when any member of the chord but the root is used as a 
bass. (3) Of themes. See Imitation. 

Ira (It.) (e-rah)f con. With anger. 

Irato (It.) (e-rah'-to). Angrily. 

Irlandais (Fr.) {ir-lan-day) . In the Irish style. 

Ironico (It.) (e-ron'-e-co), Ironicamente (It). Ironically; 

Irresoluto (It) (ir-reh-so-lu'-to). Undecided; irresolute. 

Islancio (It.) (is-lan'-chee-o). Same as Slancio. 

Istesso (It). Same. L'istesso tempo, the same time, t. e., 
rate of movement. 

Italian Sixth. Sec Augmented Sixth. 

Italienne (Fr.) (e-ta-lee-en), Italiano (It) (e-tal-yah-no) 
In Italian style. 



Jack. The short, upright piece of wood at the end of the key 
of the harpsichord or spinet, to which the quill was attached 
which struck the strings. 

Jagdhorn (Ger.) (yagd-horn). Hunting horn. 

JUgerchor (Ger.) (yay-ger-kore). Hunting chorus. 

Jaleo (Sp.) {hah'leh'O). A Spanish dance in triple time. 

Janko Keyboard (yanko). The invention of Paul Janko, 
arranged like a series of steps, six in number. Each key 
may be struck in three places, some on the ist, 3d and 5th 
steps, the rest on the 2d, 4th, and 6th, thus enabling the 
performer to select the most convenient for the passage to 
be executed. The chief advantages claimed for this key- 
board are: that all scales may be fingered alike; that the 
thumb may be placed on any key, black or white; that the 
extended chords are brought within easy reach. 

Janissary Music. Instruments of percussion, as small bells, 
triangles, drums, cymbals. 

Jcu (Fr.) (shoo). Literally, play. A stop on the organ. 

Jcu d'anche (d'ongsh). Reed stop. 

Jcu dc flute. Flue stop. 

Jeudemi (deh-mee). Half power; mezzo forte. 

Jeudoux (doo). Soft stops. 

Jeu forts (fort). Loud stops. 

Jeu grand. Full organ. 

Jeuplein (plane). Full power. 

Jig [It., Giga; Fr. and Ger., Gigue; comes either from Geige, 
an obsolete variety of fiddle, or from Chica, a rapid Spanish 
national dance]. Now a rapid rustic dance of no fixed 
rhythm or figures. In the classic suite the jig is the last 
movement, written in f time and often very elaborately 
treated in fugal form. 

Jodeln (Ger.) (yo-deln). A manner of singing cultivated by 
the Swiss and Tyrolese;.it consists of sudden changes from 
the natural to the falsetto voice. 

Jota (Sp.) (ho-ta). A Spanish national dance in triple time. 


Jour (Fr.) {zhoor). Day. An open string is called corde a 

Jubal (Ger.) (yoo-bal). An organ-stop of 2- or 4-foot pitch. 
Jungfernregal (Ger.) (yung'fern'reh-gaO.Ste Vox angelica. 
Just Intonation. Singing or playing in tune. 


Kalamaika (ka-la-my-ka) , A Hungarian dance; rapid ] 

Kammer (Ger.). Chamber. 

Kammerconcert. Chamber concert 

Kammermusik. Chamber music. 

Kammerstil. Chamber-music style. 

Kammerton. Concert pitch. 

Kanon, Kanonik (Ger.). See Canon, 

Kanoon. A Turkish dulcimer, played like the psalterion by 
means of plectra attached to thimbles. 

Kantate (Ger.). Cantata. 

Kapellmeister (Ger.). The leader of a band or chorus at- 
tached to a royal or noble household. 

Kapellmeister-Musik (Ger.). A contemptuous term for 
music that is dull and unoriginal, while it may be correct 
and pedantic. 

Keckheit (Ger.). Boldness. Mit Keckheit, with boldness. 

Kehrab or Kehraus (Ger.). Lit., turn out. The last dance 
at a ball. 

Kent Bugle. A wind instrument generally made of copper, 
with cup-shaped mouthpiece, furnished with keys. It was 
named in honor of the Duke of Kent 

Keraulophon [from Gr., keras, horn; aulos, flute; and phone, 
sound]. A soft flue-stop of 8-foot pitch. 

Keren. A Hebrew trumpet 

Kettle-drum. A half- sphere of copper, the head made of 
vellum, which may be tightened or loosened by means of 
screws or braces. The kettle-drum is the only drum from 


which sounds of definite pitch may be obtained. They are 
generally used in pairs in the orchestra, and are tuned to the 
tonic and dominant of the key, but modern writers adopt 
various other methods of tuning; it is also quite usual now 
to use three drums. The larger drum may be tuned to any 
note from 

The smaller 

In old scores the drum part was always written in C and 
the sounds wished were indicated by writing Timpani in F, 
Bb, etc. The modern custom is to write the actual sounds. 

Key. (i) A series of sounds forming a major or minor scale. 
See Scale. (2) A piece of mechanism by means of which 
the ventages of certain wind instruments, as flute and clari- 
onet, are closed or opened. (3) A lever by which the valves 
of the organ are opened or the hammers of the pianoforte 
put in motion. (A table of Signatures and Names of all 
the Major and Minor Keys on the following pages.) 

Keyboard, Klavier (Ger.) (kla-feer). The rows of keys of 
the organ or piano ; those for the hands are called manuals, 
for the feet, pedals. 

Kejmote. The sound or letter with which any given scale 
begins; tonic. See Scale. 

Kinderscenen (Ger.) (kin-der-stsa-nen) . Child-pictures; a 
name given by Schumann to a collection of little pieces for 
the piano. 

Kinderstiick (Ger.). Child's piece. 

Kirchenmusik (Ger.). Church music. 

Kirchenstil. Church style. 

Kirchenton. Ecclesiastical mode. 

Kit, Pochette (Fr.), Taschengeige (Ger.). A small pocket- 
fiddle used by dancing-masters. 

Klangfarbe (Ger.). Lit., sound-color. Quality of tone; 
timbre (Fr., tambr). 



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Klavier or Klaviatur (Ger.) (kla-fee/, klah-fee-a-too/). 

Klavierauszug. Pianoforte arrangement. 
Klaviermassig. Suited to the piano. 
Klaviersatz. In pianoforte style. 
Klavierspieler. Pianist. 
Klein (Ger.). Small; minor. 
Klein gedeckt. Small stopped diapason. 

Knee-stop. A lever controlled by the knees of the performer, 
used in the harmonium or cabinet organ either to operate 
the swell or to put on or off the full power of the in- 

Koppel (Ger.). A coupler. Koppel ab, coupler off. Koppel 
an, coupler on. 

Kosakisch (Ger.). Cossack dance in } time. 

Kraft (Ger.). Force; power. 

KrILftig (Ger.). Vigorous; powerfully. 

Krakowiak (kra-ko-viak) . Cracovienne. 

Kreiiz (Ger.) {kroyts). A sharp. 

Kriegerisch (Ger.). Martial. 

Kriegerlied (Ger.). War-song. 

Krummhom (Ger.). Crooked horn; the cremona stop. 

Kunst (Ger.). Art. 

Kunstlied (Ger.). An artistic song; the reverse of a pop- 
ular song or Volkslied. 

Kurz ((jer.) (koorts). Short; staccato. 

Kurz und bestimmt. Short and emphatic. 

Kyrie [Gr., Lord], The first word of the mass; used as a 
name for the first division. 

L» H. Abbreviation for left hand ; in German, linke Hand. 

La, The sixth Aretinian syllable; the name in French and 
Italian of the sound A. 

Labial [Lat, labium, Up]. A fiue-stop. 

Labialstimme (Ger.). A fiue-stop. 


Lacrimoso or Lagrimoso (It.) [from la grima, tear]. Tear- 
fully; mournfully. 

Lamentabile, Lamentabilmente, Lamentando, Laxnentevol- 
mente, Lamentevole, Lamentato [It., from lamentare^ to 
lament]. Mournfully; complainingly. 

Lancers. The name of a variety of the contra dance. 

Landler (Ger.) (laynd-ler). A slow waltz of South German 

Langsam (Ger.). Slow. Etwas langsam, rather slow (poco 
adagio). Ziemlich (tseem-Hch) langsam, moderately slow 
(andante). Sehr langsam, very slow (adagio). 

Language. The diaphragm of a flue-pipe. 

Languendo (It.) (lan-gwen-do), Languente (It.) (Ian- 
gwen'-teh) [from lan-guire, to languish], Languemente 
(It.) (lan-gweh-men'-teh) . In a languishing style. 

Largamente (It.). Broadly; slowly; with dignity. 

Largando (It). Gradually slower and broader. 

Largement (Fr.) (larzh-mong) . Largamente. 

Larghetto (It.) (lar-get-to). Rather slow. 

Larghissimo (It.) (lar-gis-sim-mo) . Slowest possible time. 

Largo (It.). Lit., large; broad. Very slowy, stately movement 
is indicated by this term. 

Largo assai. Slow enough. 

Largo di molto. Very slow. 

Largo ma non troppo. Slow, but not too much so. 

Larigot (Fr.) (larigo). An organ-stop of ij/^ -foot pitch, that 
is, a twelfth-stop. 

Lauftanz (Ger.). Running dance; the coranto. 
Launig (Ger.) (low-nig). Gay; light; facile. 
Lavolta (It). An old Italian dance resembling the waltz. 
Lay [Ger., Lied; Fr., hi]. A song. 

Leader. Conductor; principal violinist in an orchestra; prin- 
cipal clarionet in a wind band; principal cornet in a brass 

Leading Motive. In German, Leitmotiv, q. v. 


Leading Note. The 7th note of a scale; in the Inajor scale 
the 7th is naturally a half-tone below the keynote, in the 
minor scale it is naturally a whole tone below, and must be 
raised by an accidental (see Minor Scale) ; called also sub- 

Leaning Note. See Appoggiatura, 

Leap. To move from one tone to another more than one 
degree distant; the reverse of diatonic or chromatic. 

Lebendig (Ger.) {leh-hen'-dig), Lebhaft (Ger.) {lehh'- 
hahft). Lively; with animation. 

Ledger Line. See Leger Line, 

Legato (It.) {leh-gaW-to), Legando (It.) (leh-gan'-do) 
[from legare, to tie or bind]. Passages thus marked are to 
be played with smoothness, without any break between the 
tones. Legatissimo, as smooth as possible, the notes slightly 
overlapping. Legato is indicated by this sign ^-""^ called 
a slur. The proper observance of Legato is of the utmost 
importance in phrasing. 

Legatura (It.) (leh-gah-too'-ra). A tie. 

Legatura di voce (de-vo-cheh), A group of notes sung with 
one breath; a vocal phrase. 

Legend, L€gende (Fr.) {leh-zhend), Legende (Ger.) (leh- 
ghen'-deh). A name given to an extended lyric compo- 
sition, somewhat in the manner of "program music." [Cf. 
Chopin's Legendes.] 

L^ger, L^gere (Fr.) (leh'-shehr). Light. 

Leger Line. Short lines used for notes which are above or 
below the staff. 

Leg^rment (leh-zhehr-mong) , Lightly. 

Leggeramente {led-jehr-a-meW-teh), Lightly. 

Leggerezza (It.) {led-jeh-ref-za). Lightness. 

Leggero {led-jeh-ro), Leggiero {led-jee-ro) . Light; rapid. 

Leggiadramente (It.) (led-jah-drah-men'-teh) , Leggiara- 
mente (led-jah-rah-men'-teh), Leggiermente (led-jeer- 
men'-teh). All these terms (derived from the same root — 
leggiere, light, quick, nimble) indicate a light, rapid style of 
performance without marked accent. 

Legno (It.) (lehn-yo). Wood. Col legno, with the wood. 
A direction in violin playing to strike the strings with the 
wooden part of the bow. 


Leicht (Ger.). Light; easy. 

Lcichtbcwcgt (Ger.) (beh-vehgt). Light; with motion. 

Leidenschaft (Ger.). Passion; fervency. 

Leidenschaftlich ( Ger. ) . Passionately. 

Leierkasten. Barrel-organ. 

Leiermann. Organ-grinder. 

Leise (Ger.) (lei'-seh). Soft; piano. 

Leiter (Ger.). Ladder. Tonleiter, tone-ladder; scale. 

Leitmotiv (Ger.). Leading motive; a name given by Wagner 
to certain striking phrases used to indicate certain emotions, 
characters, or situations. 

Leitton (Ger.). Leading note. 

[Note.— W in German is sounded like eye in English.] 
Lenezza (It.) (leh-nef-za). Gentleness. 
Leno (It.) (leh'-no). Faint; feeble. 
Lentamente (len-tah-men'teh) . Slowly. 
Lentando. Growing slower; retarding. 
Lentezza (len-tet-sa) Slowness. 
Lento (It.). Slow, between adagio and grave. 

Lesser. Minor is sometimes so called, as key of C with lesser 
third; C minor. 

Lesson. A name used in England for the suite, or the various 
members of it. 

Lesto (It.) {leW'Sto), Lively; brisk. 

Letter Name. The letter used to designate a degree of the 
scale, key of piano or organ, line or space of the staff. 

Lev6 (Fr.) (leh-veh). Raised; up beat. 

Leyer or Leier (Ger.). Lyre. 

Liaison (Fr.) (lee-eh-song) . A tie. 

Libellion. A variety of music-box. 

Liberamente (It.) (lee-beh-ra-men'-teh), Librement (Fr.) 
( leebr-mong ) . Freely. 

Libretto (It.) (lee-bret-to) , Little book; the book of an 
opera or oratorio, etc. 

License, Freiheit (Ger.), Licence (Fr.), Licenza (It.) (lee- 



chentza). An intentional disregard of a rule of harmony 
or counterpoint. 

Liceo (It.) (lee-cheh'-o). Lyceum; academy of music. 

Lie (Fr.) (lee-eh). Tied; bound; legato. 

Lieblich (Ger.). Sweet; lovely. 

Lieblich gedacht. Stopped diapason. 

Lied (Ger.) (leed). Song. Durchkomponirtes Lied (all 
through composed), a song with different melody, etc., to 
every stanza. Strophenlied, the same melody repeated with 
every stanza. Kunstlied, art song; high class of song. 
Volkslied, people's song; national song. 

Lieder-Cyclus. Song-circle (as Schubert's Mullerin). 

Liederkranz. A singing-society. 

Liederkreis. Song circle; collection of songs. 

LiederspieL Song-play; operetta; vaudeville. 

Liedertafel (song-table). A social singing- society. 

Ligato. See Legato, 

Ligature. A tie. See Legatura. 

Ligne (Fr.) (leen), Linea (It.) (lee'-neh-ah), Linie (Ger.) 
( lee-nee-eh ) . Line. 

Lingua (It.) {ling-waW), Tongue ; reed of organ-pipe. 

Linke Hand (Ger.). Left hand. 

Lip. The upper and lower edges of the mouth of an organ 
pipe. To lip, the act of blowing a wind instrument. 

Lippenpfeife or Labialpfeife (Ger.). A flue pipe-organ. 

Lira (It.) {leZ-ra), Lyre. 

Lirico (It.) (lee'-ree-co). Lyric. 

Liscio (It) (lee'-sho). Smooth. 

L'istesso (It.) (lis-te/so). See Istesso. 

Litany [from Gr., litaino, to pray]. A form of prayer con- 
sisting of alternate petitions and responses by priest and 
people, frequently sung or chanted. 

Livre (Fr.) (/<r^z;r). Book. A libre ouvert, "at open book" ; 
to sing or play at sight. 

Lobgesang (Ger.). Song of praise. 


Loco (It). Place; play as written. Used after 8va. 

Lontano (It.)t Da lontano. As if from a distance. 

L5sung or Auflosung (Ger.) (lay-soonk) [from Ger., losen, 
to free]. Resolution. 

Loud PcdaL A name for the damper-pedal. 

Loure (Fr.) (loor). (i) A slow dance in J or } time. (2) 
An old name for a variety of bag-pipe. 

Loure (Fr.) (looreh). Legato; slurred. 

Low. (i) Soft. (2) Deep in pitch. 

Lugubre [Fr.. loo-goobr; It, loo-goo-breh]. Mournful. 

Lullaby. Cradle song; berceuse. 

Lunga (It). Long. Lunga pausa, long pause. 

Luogo (It). See Loco. 

Lusingando (It) (loos-in-gan-do), Lusingante (It) {loo- 
sin-gan'-teh), Lusinghevolmente (It.) {loo-sing-eh-vol- 
men'-teh), Lusinghiere (It) {loo-sin-gee-eh-reh). Coax- 
ing; caressing; seductive. [From It., lusingare, to coax or 

Lustig (Ger.) (loos-tig). Merry; gay; lively. 

Lute, Luth (Ger.) (loot). A string instrument of the guitar 
family of very ancient origin. It was brought into Europe 
by the Moors. In shape it resembled the mandolin, and was 
strung with from six to twelve or more strings of gut. The 
bass strings were wire-covered and did not pass over the 
fingerboard. For several centuries the lutes held the fore- 
most place as fashionable instruments. They were made of 
several sizes. The larger varieties were called Theorbo, 
Arch Lute, or Chittarone. Music for the lute was written 
in a system of notation called tablature, q. v. 

Luth (Ger.) (loot). Lute. 

Luthier (Ger.) (loot-eer). A lute-maker: also given to mak- 
ers of all string instruments of the guitar or violin families. 

Luttosamente. Mournfully. [From It., luttare, to mourn; 

Luttoso (It) (loot-tO'So). Mournful. 

Lyre. A Greek string instrument of the harp family. 


Lyric. Song-like. In poetry, a short poem of a simple, emo- 
tional character. The term has been borrowed by music to 
designate musical works of like character. 

Ljrric Form. A composition the themes of which are not 
treated in the manner of the rondo or sonata, q. v. 

Lyric Stage. The operatic stage. This term will hardly 
apply to the modern "music drama." 


M. Abbreviation for Mano or Main, the hand. 

M. D. Abbreviation for Main Droite or Mano Destra, the 
right hand. 

M. F. Abbreviation for Mezzo Forte, half loud. 

M. G. Abbreviation for Main Gauche, left hand. 

M. M. Abbreviation for Maelzel's Metronome. 

M. V. Abbreviation for Mezzo Voce. 

Ma (It). But. 

Machine Head. The screw and wheel contrivance used in- 
stead of pegs in the guitar, etc. 

Madre (It.) {mah'-dreh). Mother; the Virgin Mary. 

Madrigal. A word of uncertain origin. A name given to 
contrapuntal compositions in any number of parts. They 
differ from the motet only in being written to secular words, 
generally amatory. This style of composition was cultivated 
with great success in England in Elizabeth's reign. 

Maesta (It.) {fnah'-es-ta), con, Maestade {maW -es-tah-deh) , 
con, Maestevole (mah'-es-ta-vo-leh), Maestevolmente 
( vol-ment-e) , Maestosamente ( mah'-es-to-sah-men'-teh ) . 
All mean the same thing: Dignified; with dignity. 

Maestoso (It.) {mah-es-to'-so). Majestic; with dignity. 

Maestrale (It.) {mah-es-trah-leh) , "Masterful"; the stretto 
of a fugue when written in canon. 

Maestro (It.) {mah-^s-tro) . Master. 


Maestro al cembalo. Old term for conductor of orchestra, 
so called because he conducted seated at the cembalo, or 

Maestro del coro. Master of the chorus or choir. 

Maestro del putti (del poot'-tee). Master of the boys (cho'n 

Maestro di capella. Chapel-master; choir-master; name also 
given to the conductor of the music in the household of a 
great personage. 

Magadis (Gr.). A string instrument tuned in octaves. 

Magas (Gr.). A bridge. 

Maggiolata (It.) (madjo-lah'-tah), A spring song (from 
Maggio— May). 

Maggiorc (It.) (mad-jo'-reh), Majeur (Fr.) (mah-zhoor) , 
Dur (Ger.) (duhr). Major. 

Maggot. Old English name for a short, slight composition 
of fanciful character. 

Magnificat (Lat). Doth magnify; opening word of the hymn 
of the Virgin Mary. 

Main (Fr.) (mang). Hand. M. D. or droite, right hand; 
M. G. or gauche, left hand. 

Maitre (Fr.) (tnehtr). Master. 

Maitrise (Fr.) (meh-trees) . A cathedral music school. 

Majestatisch (Ger.) (mah-yes-ta^-tish). Majestically. 

Major (Lat.). Greater. 

Major Chord or Triad. One in which the third over the root 
is major, i. e,, two whole tones above the root. , 

Major Scale. One in which the third of the scale is a major 
third above the keynote. M^jor Key, dr Mode, or To- 
nality, has the same meaning. 

Malinconia (It.) {mah'lin-co-nee'-a)j Malinconico, Malin- 
conoso, Malinconioso, Malinconicamente. Melancholy; 
in a sad, melancholy manner. 

Mancando (It.) [from mancare, to want; fail]. Decreasing; 
dying away in loudness and speed. 

Manche (Fr.) {mansh), Manico (It.) (mah'-nee-ko). 
Handle; neck of violin, etc. 

Mandola (It), Mandora. A larse mandolin. 


Mandolin, Mandolino (It.) (man-do-lee-no) , A string in- 
strument of the lute family, strung 'with eight wire strings 
tuned in pairs; the tuning same as the violin; played by 
means of a small plectrum; fingerboard fretted like the 

Mandolinata (It.)* Resembling the mandolin in effect. 

Manichord [from Lat, manus, hand; chorda, string]. Sup- 
posed to be the earliest form of a string instrument, with 
keyboard, possibly the same as the clavichord. 

Manier (Ger.) (mah-nee/), A harpsichord grace. 
Maniera (It.) (man-yeh'-ra). Manner; style. 
Mannerchor (Gr.) (man'-ner-kor). A men's chorus. 
Minnergesangverein. Lit., men's song-union. 

Mano (It.). Hand. D. or destra, right hand; S. or sinistra, 
left hand. 

Manual [from Lat., manus, hand]. An organ keyboard. 

Marcando, Marcato. Decided; marked; with emphasis. 

Marcatissimo. As decided as possible. 

March, Marche (Fr.) (marsh), Marcia (It.) (mar-chee-a) , 
Marsch (Ger.) (marsh). A composition with strongly 
marked rhythm, designed to accompany the walking of a 
body of men. Marches vary in tempo from the slow, 
funeral march to the "charge." The following are the prin- 
cipal varieties: Parade March (Ger., Paraden-Marsch; Fr., 
pas-ordinaire) ; QuickC-march or Quickstep (Ger., Ge- 
schwind-Marsch; Fr., pas redoubU) ; Charge (Ger., Sturm- 
Marsch; Fr., pas-de-charge) , The funeral march and 
parade march are generally in ^ time ; the quick marches 
often in f time. 

Mark. A sign, q,v, 

Markiert (Ger.) (ma/'keert), Marqu6 (Fr.) (mar-kay). See 

Marseillaise (Fr.) (mar-sel-yase) . The French national 
song, composed by Rouget de Lisle. 

MarteU (Fr.) (mar-tel-leK) , MartcUato (It.) (mar-tel-laW- 
to). Hammered. In piano music indicates a heavy blow 
with stiff wrist; in violin music, a sharp, firm stroke. 

(It.) (mart-se-a'-leh). Martial. 


Maschera (It.) (tnas-kay'-ra). A mask. 

Mascherata (It.) (mas-kay'-ra-ta). Masquerade. 

Masque. Mask. A species of musical and dramatic enter- 
tainment founded on mythical or allegorical themes. 

Mass, Missa (Lat.), Messa (It), Messe (Fr. and Ger.). 
The communion vService in the Roman Catholic Church. 
In music, that portion of the service consisting of the Kyrie, 
Gloria, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei, which are sung. The word 
mass is generally explained as being derived from the words 
"Ite missa est" used to dismiss non-communicants before the 
service. High Mass is used on feasts and festivals. Low 
Mass on ordinary occasions, sometimes without music. 

Massig (Ger.) (may'-sig). Moderate; moderato. 

Massima (It). Whole note. 

Master Chord* The dominant chord. 

Master Fugue. One without episodes. 

Master Note. The leading note. 

Masure (mah-soo-re) ^ Masurek, Masurka, Mazurka. A 

Polish dance in } time. 
Matelotte (Fr.). A sailors* hornpipe dance in } time. 

Matinee (Fr.) {ma-tee-neW) . A morning concert 

Mean. Old name for an inner part in music for voices ; also 
for inner strings of viol, lute, etc. The C clef was also 
called the mean clef. 

Measure, (i) Old name for any slow dance. (2) The por- 
tion of music enclosed between two bars. (3) Rhythm. 
(4) Tempo. 

Mechanism, Mecanisme (Fr.), Mechanik (Ger.). (i) A 
mechanical appliance. (2) Technical skill. 

Medesimo (It) (mee-deh' -see-mo). The same as. Medesimo 
tempo, the same time. 

Mediant. The third degree of the scale. 

Mediation. That part of a chant (Anglican) between the 
reciting note and the close. 

Meisterfuge (Ger.). See Master-fugue, 


MeistersMnger or Meistersinger (Ger.). Mastersinger. The 
Meistersangers were the successors of the minnesingers. 
Chief among them was Hans Sachs, the hero of Wagner's 
opera, "Die Meistersinger." The Meistersanger first ap- 
peared in the 14th century. They were for the most part 
workingmen, differing in this respect from the minnesingers, 
who numbered royal and noble singers in their ranks. The 
Meistersanger became extinct in 1839, when their last 
society in Ulm was dissolved. 

Melancolia (It), M61ancholic (Fr.). See Malinconia. 

Melange (Fr.) (meh-lonsh) . A medley. 

Melisma (Gr.). (i) A song; melody. (2) A run; roulade. 

Melismatic. Florid vocalization. A melismatic song is one 
in which a number of notes are sung to one syllable, as in 
the florid passages in Handel's solos. 

Melodeon. The precursor of the cabinet organ; an instru- 
ment with free reeds, operated by suction. 

Melodia (It.), (i) Melody. (2) An organ-stop of 8- or 
4-foot pitch; soft, flute-like quality. 

Melodic. Pertaining to melody, as opposed to harmonic. 

Melodico, Melodicoso (It.). Melodiously. 

Melodie (Fr.). Melody; air. 

Melodrama. A play abounding in romantic and dramatic 
situations, with or without musical accompaniment. Melo- 
dramatic music is music used to accompany and "intensify" 
the action of a drama. The term is also applied to instru- 
mental music abounding in startling changes of key or sud- 
den changes of loud and soft. 

Melody. An agreeable succession of single sounds, in con- 
formity with the laws of rhythm and tonality. In music 
for voices the melody is generally in the soprano, or, if for 
male voices, in the first tenor, but there are many exceptions 
to this. In orchestral music it is even less necessary that 
the melody should be in the highest part, as the varying 
"tone color" of the instruments used is enough to give it 
the necessary prominence. 

Melograph. A mechanical device for recording improvisa- 
tion on the pianoforte. Many attempts have been made 
to produce such a machine, but with only partial success. 


Melopiano. A pianoforte in which a continuous tone was 
produced by a series of small hammers which struck rapidly 
repeated blows on the strings. Invented by Caldara in 1870. 
It was re-invented in 1893 by Hlavac of St. Petersburg, and 
exhibited at the Columbian Exposition, where it attracted 
great attention. 

Melos (Gr.). Melody. Used by Wagner as a name for the 
recitative in his later works. 

Meme (Fr.) (mame). The same. 

Men. (It). Abbreviation for Meno, less; as, Meno mosso, 
slower, less motion. 

Menestral (Fr.). Minstrel; Troubadour. 

M6n6trier (Fr.) (meh-neh'-tree-eh) . A fiddler. 

Mente (It.) (men-teh). Mind. AUa mente, improvised. 

Menuet (Fr.) (me-noo-eh), Menuett (Ger.), Minuetto (It.). 
Minuet; a slow, stately dance in f time, retained as one 
of the members of the sonata, quartet, symphony, etc., until 
Beethoven changed it into the scherzo. 

Mescolanza (It.) (mes-co-lanf-sa), A medley. 

Messa di voce (It.) (messa-dee-vo-cheh) . Swelling and 
diminishing on a sustained sound; literally, ''massing of 
the voice." 

Mestizia (It.) (mes'tif-sia)^ con. With sadness. 

Mesto (It.) (mehs-to). Gloomy; mournful. 

Mestoso, Mestamente. Mournfully; sadly. 

Mesure (Fr.) (meh-soor). Measure. A la mesure, m time. 

Metal Pipeii. Organ-pipes made of tin, zinc, etc. 

Metallo (It.). Metal; a metallic quality of tone. Bel metallo 
di vpce, fine, "ringing" quality of voice. 

Meter or Metre [Gr., metron, a measure]. Properly belongs 
to poetry, from whence it is transferred to music. In poetry 
it has two meanings: (i) As applied to a group of syllables; 
(2) as applied to the number of these groups in a line. 
English prosody recognizes four groups of syllables, called 
feet: (i) The Iambus, consisting of a short or unaccented 

syllable followed by a long or accented syllable as, be-fore; 

(2) the Trochee, which is just the reverse, as mu-sic; 

(3) the Anapest, two short followed by a long, as, 


re-pro-duce ; (4) the Dactyl, which is just t'he reverse, as, 

fear-ful-ly. As applied to lines (verses), Long Meter 
signifies four iambic feet in every line; Common Meter 
(also called Ballad Meter) an alternation of four and three 
iambic feet; Short Meter, two lines of three feet, one of 
four, and one of three in every stanza. Trochaic, Anapestic, 
and Dactyllic Meters are indicated by figures giving the 
number of syllables in each line, as 8, 6, 8, 6, etc. It is 
important to the musician to become thoroughly familiar 
with prosody, lest he fall into the too common error of 
setting short syllables to the accented beats of the measure, 
or the reverse. 

Method, M6thode (Fr.) (tneh-tode), Metodo (It), (i) 
System of teaching. (2) Manner of using the voice, or of 
performing on an instrument. 

Metronome [Gr., metron, measure; nomos, rule]. A me- 
chanical device for determining the time- value of the beat. 
The one in ordinary use is attributed to Maelzel, whose 
name it bears. It consists of a pendulum with two bobs, 
one of which is movable, driven by clockwork ; back of the 
movable bob is a graduated scale. It is used as follows: 
If the metronomic indication at the beginning of a piece of 

music in | time is J =100 (%-note equal to 100), the 
movable bob is slid along the rod until it is opposite the 
figures 100, the pendulum is set in motion, and one swing — 
indicated by a sharp click — is allowed to every beat. 

Mettcx (Fr.) (met-teh). Put; in organ music used in the 
sense of "draw" or "add" any stop or stops. 

Mezzo or Mezza (It.) (med-so). Half. 

Mezzo Aria. A style of singing in which the distinctness of 
recitative is aimed at; also called Aria parlante, "speaking 

Mezzo Forte. Half loud. 

Mezzo Piano. Half soft. 

Mezzo Soprano. The female voice between the alto and 

Mezzo Tenore. A tenor with range of baritone. 

Mezzo Voce. Half voice. 


Mi (It.) (tnee). The name of E in French, Italian, and 
Spanish. Mi contra fa (mi against fa), the interval from 
F to Btl ; the tritone ; three whole tones. 

Middle C. The C half way between the fifth line of the bass 
staff and first line of the treble staff; the C always indi- 
cated by the C clef: ^f ^ 

Militairemente (Fr.) {mee-lee-tehr-mong) , Militarmente 
(It.) (mee-lee-tar-men-teh) . Military style. 

Military Band. Consists of (i) brass instruments only; 
(2) saxophones; (3) brass instruments and clarionets; 
(4) brass, wood, and saxophones. 

Minaccivole (It.) (min-nat-chee'-vo-leh), Minnacivolmente 
(min-nat-chee-vol-men'-teh), Minnacciando (min-nat-chee- 
an'-do ) , Minnacciosamente (min-nat'chee-o-sa-men'-teh ) , 
Minnaccioso (min'nat-chee'O'-so), Menacing; threatening. 

Mineur (Fr.) (mee-noor) , Minor. 

Minim. A half -note. % 

Minnesinger or Minnesinger (Get*.). German name for 
Troubadour; literally, love-singer. 

Minor (Lat.). Lesser. 

Minor Chord. The third above the root minor. 

Minor Interval. One half-tone less than major. 

Minor Scale. The third degree, a minor third above the key- 

Minstrel. See Troubadour. Minstrel has been adopted as 
the name of the imitation Ethiopians who sing songs sup- 
posed to be illustrative of the manners and customs of the 
plantation negroes in the days of slavery. 

Minuet. See Menuet, 

Mise de voix (Fr.) (meese de vo-a). See Messa di voce. 

Mise en scene (Fr.) {meese ong scayne). The "getting up"; 
putting on the stage of a play, opera, etc. 

Misteriosamente. Mysteriously. 

Misterioso (It.). Mysterious. 

Misurato (It.) (mee-soo-rah'-to). Measured; in strict time. 

Mit (Ger.). With. 

Mit Begleitiing (be-gley'-toonk). With accompaniment. 


Mixed Cadence. A close, consisting of subdominant, dom- 
inant, and tonic chords, so called because it includes the 
characteristic chords of both the plagal and authentic 
cadences, viz.: subdominant and dominant. 

M* ed Voices * I ^^^^ ^"^ female voices together. 

Mixolydian. See Mode. 

Mixture. An organ-stop with from three to six small pipes 
to each note, tuned to certain of the overtones of the funda- 
mental (diapason) used in full organ only. 

Mobile (It.) (mo'-bee-leh). With motion; mobile. 

Mode [Lat., modus, manner, way], (i) A scale 'n Greek and 
ecclesiastical music. (2) In modern music used only in 
conjunction with the terms major and minor, as Major 
Mode, Minor Mode. Greek Modes; the scale system of 
the Greeks is not yet quite satisfactorily made out. Accord- 
ing to Chappel, who is considered the best authority, the 
succession of whole and half tones was the same in all the 
modes, their only difference being in pitch. He gives the 
following as the initial notes of the principal modes : Dorian 
(the standard mode) D, Phrygian E, Lydian F#, Mixo- 
lydian G. Those modes the initial notes of which are below 
the Dorian were distinguished by the prefix hypo, beneath, 
as Hypolydian CJF, Hypophrygian B, Hypodorian A. The 
succession of sounds was like that of the natural scale of 
A minor. Church (or ecclesiastical), or Gregorian, or Am- 
brosian modes were derived from the Greek modes, but dis- 
carded the chromatic sounds. Thus the Dorian and Phry- 
gian were the same, that is, had the same initial sounds, 
but the Lydian began on F instead of Ft. There are other 
differences between the Greek and the Church modes, viz. : 
The first four are called authentic ; those the initial notes of 
which are below the Dorian are called plagal ; each plagal 
mode is considered as the relative of the authentic mode, 
beginning a 4th above it. The final of a plagal is always 
made on the initial note of its related autheiitic mode. If 
the interpretation of the Greek modes is to be trusted, the 
Church modes seem to have arisen from a misunderstanding 
of the Greek modes. 

Moderatamente {mod-e-rah-tah-men'-teh). Moderately. 

Moderatissimo (tnod-e-rah-tis' -see-mo) . Very moderate. 


Moderate (It.) {mod'e-raK'to), Moderate. 

Moderazione (It) {mo-deh-raUse-o'-neh), con. With mod- 

Modificazione (It.) (mo-dee- fee-cat-se-o'-neh). Modifica- 
tion; light and shade. 

Modinha (Port) (mo-deen'-ya). Portuguese love-song. 

Modo (It). Mode; style. 

Modulation, (i) Gradation of sound in intensity. (2) Change 
of key or tonality. Diatonic modulation moves from one 
key to another by means of chords from related keys ; chro- 
matic modulation, by means of chords from non-related 
keys; enharmonic modulation, by substituting t for h, or 
the reverse. A passing or transient modulation is one fol- 
lowed by a quick return to the original key; the signature 
is not changed in a modulation of this kind. A final mod- 
ulation is one in which the new key is retained for some 
time, or permanently; it is generally indicated by a change 
of signature following a double bar. 

Modus (Lat). Mode; scale. 

Moll (Ger.) L^at, mollis, soft]. Minor. 

MoU-Akkord. Minor chord. 

MoU-Tonart. Minor key or mode. 

Moll-Tonleiter. Minor scale; literally, tone-ladder. 

Molle (Lat). Soft; mediaeval name for Bb, B^ being called 
B durum (hard). The German words for minor and major 
(moll, dur) are derived from these terms, also the French 
and Italian names for the flat sign, viz., French, himol; 
Italian, bemolle, 

Mollemente (It) (mol-leh-men-teh) , Softly; sweetly. 

Molto (It). Very much. Di molto, exceedingly; as Allegro 
di molto, exceedingly rapid. 

Monferina (It.) (mon-fe}\-re/-nah). Italian peasant dance 
in } time. 

Monochord [Gr., monos, one; chorda, string]. An instru- 
ment consisting of a single string stretched over a sound- 
board, on which is a graduated scale giving the propor- 
tionate divisions of the string required for the production 
of perfect intervals. A movable bridge is placed at the 
points indicated on the scale. The Monochord was for- 


merly used as a means for training the ear. It is now used 
only for acoustic experiments. 

Monody, (i) A song for a single voice unaccompanied. 
(2) In modem usage it denotes a composition in which the 
melody is all-important, the remaining parts simply accom- 
paniment; called also Homophony and Monophony — ^the 
antithesis of Polyphony. 

Monotone* Recitative on a single sound. 

Montre (Fr.) {mongtr). Lit, displayed. The open diapason, 
so called because the pipes are generally placed in the front 
of the case and ornamented. 

Morceau (Fr.) (tnor-so). A "morsel"; a short piece; an 

Mordent, Mordente (It), Beisser (Gler.). A sign /\^ 

indicating a single rapid stroke of the auxiliary note below 
the principal followed by a return to the principal. Thus: 

A)f/ Played. 


When the sign is used without the dash through it, 
thus /\^/ it is called an Inverted Mordent, or Prall- 
triller, and consists of the principal and the auxiliary note 
above. Thus : 


The Mordent proper is not used in modern music, and the 
word Mordent is now by common usage applied to the 
inverted Mordent, or Pralltriller. 

Morendo (It) [from morire, to die]. Dying away; grad- 
ually growing softer and slower. 

Morisca (It). Morris dance. 

Mormorando, Mormorevole, Mormorosa (It). Murmuring. 

Morris Dance* A rustic dance of Moorish origin. 

M0S8O (It). Moved. Flu mosso, faster. Meno mosso, 


Mostra (It.). A direct ^^^/^, generally used in manu* 
script music to indicate an unfinished measure at the end 
of a brace. 

Moteggiando (It.) {mo-ted- jan' -do). Bantering; jocose.' 

Motet, Motett, Motetto (It.). A vocal composition to 
sacred words in contrapuntal style. The madrigal differs 
only in being set to secular words. Many modern compo- 
sitions to sacred words (not metric) are called motets, 
but would more properly be called anthems. 

Motif (Fr.), Motivo (It.), Motiv (Ger.). Motive, (i) A 
short, marked musical phrase. (2) A theme for develop- 
ment. See Leitmotiv, 

Motion, Moto (It). Conjunct Motion, movement by de- 
grees. Disjunct Motion, movement by skips. Direct, Sim- 
ilar, or Parallel Motion, when two parts ascend or descend 
together. Contrary Motion, when two parts move in op- 
posite directions. Oblique Motion, when one part is sta- 
tionary while the other moves. 

Mouth. The opening in the front of an organ flue-pipe. 

Mouth-organ. The harmonica; Pandean pipes. 

Mjouthpiece. In brass instruments the cup-shaped part ap- 
plied to the lips in oboe, clarionet, etc., the part held 
between the lips. [Fr., embouchure; It, imhoccatura; Ger., 

Movement, Mouvement (Fr.) (move-mong), (i) Tempo. 

(2) One of the members of a sonata, symphony, etc. 

(3) The motion of a part or parts. 

Movimento (It.). Movement; tempo. Doppio movimento, 
double movement; when a change of time signature from 

J to rt occurs, and it is desired to preserve the same rate 
of movement, or tempo, i. e., the quarter-note beat becomes 
the half -note beat 

Munter (Ger.). Lively; brisk; allegro. 
Murky. An old name for a piece of harpsichord music with 
a bass of broken octaves. 

5l[usars. Troubadour ballad singers. 

Musette (Fr.). (i) A bagpipe. (2) An old dance. (3) In 
the suite the second part or "trio" of the gavotte, etc., is 


frequently so called, and is written in imitation of bagpipe 
music. (4) A soft reed-stop in the organ. 

Music, Musica (Lat. and It), Musique (Fr.), Musik (Ger.) 
[from Gr., tnousike, from mousa, muse]. Originally any 
art over which the Muses presided, afterward restricted to 
the art that uses sound as its material. 

Music Box. An instrument in which steel tongues are 
vibrated by means of pins set in a revolving cylinder. 

Musical Glasses. An instrument consisting of a number of 
goblets, tuned to the notes of the scale, vibrated by passing 
a wetted finger around the edge. 

Musician, (i) One who makes a livelihood by playing, sing- 
ing, or teaching music. (2) A member of a regimental or 
naval band. (3) A composer of music. "Musician" is a 
very elastic term ; it includes every grade from the drummer 
and fifer to Mozart. 

Musikant (Ger.). A vagabond musician. 

Musiker, Musikus (Ger.). A musician. (Generally used in 
a derogatory sense.) 

Mutation Stop. Any organ-stop not tuned to the diapason 
or any of its octaves, as the tierce, quint, twelfth, larigot, 
etc. Stops of this kind (also mixtures, cornets, sesqui- 
alteras) are used for the purpose of **filling up" the volume 
of tone and giving it greater brilliancy. 

Mute [It, sordino; Fr., sourdine; Ger., Ddmpfer]. A small 
contrivance of wood or metal placed on the bridge of the 
violin, etc., to deaden the sound ; a cone or cylinder of paste- 
board, leather, or wood placed in the bell of a brass instru- 
ment for the same purpose. 

Mutig (Ger.) (moo-tig). Bold; spirited; vivace. 


Nacaire (Fr.) (nah-keh/), A large drum. 
Nacchera (It.) (nak-keh'-rah). Military drum. 
Nach (Ger.). After; according to; resembling. 
Nach Belieben. At pleasure; ad libitum. 
Nach und nach. By degrees ; poco a poco. 


Nachahmung. Imitation. 

Nachdruck. Emphasis. 

Nachlassend. Retarding. 

Nachsatz. Closing theme ; coda. 

Nachspiel. Postlude. 

Nachthom (Ger.). Night-horn. An organ-stop; large-scale 
closed pipes, generally 8-foot tone. 

Naif (Fr.), masc. (na/t-i/), fem. Naive (nah-eve). Simple; 
natural; unaffected. 

Naiv (Ger.) (nah^if). See Naif, 

Naivement (Fr.) (na-eve-tnong) , Artless. 

Naivet6 (Fr.) {na-eve-teh). Simplicity. 

Naker. A drum. (Obsolete.) 

Narrante (It.) (nar-ran-teh) . Narrating. A style of sing- 
ing in which especial attention is given to distinctness of 
enunciation, rather than to musical effect. 

Nasard, Nazard, or Nassat. An organ-stop tuned a twelfth 
above the diapason. 

Nason Flute. A soft, closed stop, 4-foot pitch. 

NaturaL A sign ^ which restores a letter to its place in the 
natural scale. In the ancient system of music the only 
changeable note in the scale was B. The sign for that sound 
was ]?, the old form of the letter ; it signified the sound we 
call B flat and was called B rotundum, t. e,, round B. When 
it was to be raised a half tone a line was drawn downward 
at the right side, thus Iq, and it was called B quadratum, 
t. e., square B. In our modern music these have been re- 
tained as the signs for flat and natural. 

Natural Horn or Trumpet. Those without valves^or slides. 
The sounds produced are called natural harmonics, and are 
the same as may be produced by touching lightly a vibrating 
string at any point that will cause it to divide into equal 
parts, as 2, 3, 4, etc 

Natural Major Scale. The scale of C major. 

Natural Minor Scale. A-minor; also any minor scale with 
unchanged 6th and 7th. 


Natural Pitch. The sounds produced by flute, clarionet, etc., 
without overblowing. The flute, oboe, and bassoon over- 
blow at the octave above their fundamental. The clarionet 
at the I2th. 

Naturale (It.) (nah-too-rah'-leh), Naturel (Fr.) (nah'too- 
ref). Natural; unaffected. 

Neapolitan Sixth. A name given to a chord consisting of the 
subdominant with minor 3d and minor 6th, as F, Ab, Db; 
used in both major and minor keys. 

Neben (Ger.) {neh'^hen). Subordinate; accessory. 

Neben-Dominant (Ger.). The dominant of the dominant 

Neben-Qedanken (C^er.). Accessory themes. 

NebensatE (Ger.). An auxiliary theme in sonata, etc 

Nebenwerk. The second manual of the organ. 

Neck [(^r.. Hah; Ft,, manche (mongsh)]. The "handle" 
of violin, guitar, etc; on its top is the fingerboard; at its 
end, the peg-box. 

Negli (It.) (nehl-ye/), Nei» Nel, Nell, NeUa, NeUe, Nello. 
In the manner of. 

NegUgente (It) {neg-lee-gen'-teh). Careless. 

Negligentimente (It) (neg-lee-gen-te-men-teh) , Carelessly. 

Negligenza (neg-lee-gent-sa), con. With carelessness. 

Nel battere (It) (bat-teh-reh). At the beat 

Nel stilo antico. In the antique style. 

Nenia or Naenia (Lat.). A funeral dirge. 

Nettamente (It) (nett-a-men-teh). Neatly; clearly. 

Netto (It). Neat; exact. 

Neuma, Neumes. Signs used in mediaeval notation. 

Nineteenth. An organ-stop; two octaves and a fifth above 
the diapason. 

Ninth. An interval one degree beyond the octave, being the 
second removed an octave; it may, like the second, be 
minor, major, or augmented. The minor and major ninths 
are essential dissonances, that is, sounds derived from the 
fundamental ; with the augmented ninth the lower sound is 
really the ninth, thus, G, B, D, F, A or Ab, are overtones 
of G, but C, Dt arise from B, DIP, Ft, A, C, chord of ninth. 
A chord consisting of root major 3, perfect 5, minor 7, and 
major or minor ninth may have either major or minor ninth 
in major keys, but only the minor ninth in minor keys. 


Nobile (It.) {no'hee-leh) , Noble; grand. 

Nobilita (It.) (no-bee'-lee-ta), con. With nobility. 

Nobilmente (It.) (no-bil'tnety-tch). Nobly. 

Noch ('Ger.). Still; yet; as, noch schneller, still faster. 

Nocturne (Fr.) (noc-toorn), Notturno (It), Nachtsttick or 
Nokturne (Ger.) (nok-tooZ-neh), Literally, night-piece; 
a quiet, sentimental composition, usually in Lyric form, but 
under the title Notturno important compositions for several 
instruments or full orchestra have been written containing 
several movements. 

Nocturns. Night services in the R. C. Church, at which the 
psalms are chanted in portions, also palled nocturns. 

Node. A line or point of resr in a vibrating body. A node 
may be produced in a vibrating string by touching it lightly. 
(Cf, under Natural Horn.) The sounds thus produced, 
called harmonics, are often used on instrvments of the violin 
family and on the harp. 

Noel (Fr.) (no-el), Newell (Eng.). "Good news"; "(Jos- 
pel. " Christmas eve songs or carols. 

Noire (Fr.) (no-ar). Black; quarter note 

Nonet [It., nonetto; Ger., Noneti\. A composition for nine 
voices or instruments. 

Nonuplet. A group of nine notes to be played in the time of 
six or eight of the same value. 

Normal Pitch. The pitch of a sound, generally A or C, 
adopted as a standard. This standard for the sound A. 
second place, has varied from 404 vibrations per second in 
1699 to 455 in 1859. By almost universal consent the mod- 
ern French pitch is now adopted, viz., A = 435 vibrations 
per second. 

Notation. The various signs used to represent music to the 
eye, as staff, clefs, notes, rests, etc. The earliest attempts 
at the representation of musical sounds of which we have 
any knowledge were made by the Greeks, who used the let- 
ters of their alphabet, modified in various ways to represent 
the series of sounds they employed. Their series of sounds 
is supposed to have begun on the note A, first space in the 
bass clef. From this system music has retained the name of 
A for this sound. The next development was the adoption 
of a series of signs called neumae. These signs, although 


curiously complicated, were yet very defective in precision, ' 
being inferior to the letters as indications of pitch. The 
great want, both of the letter system and the neumse, was 
that neither gave any indication of the duration of the 
sounds. The next step was the adoption of the staff. At 
first use was made only of the spaces between the lines, and, 
as notes had not yet been invented, the syllables were writ- 
ten in the spaces; this gave exactness to the relative pitch 
of the sounds but no indication of their duration. The next 
step was to use the lines only, indicating the sounds by 
small square notes called points. The letter names of the 
lines, of which eight was the number, were indicated by 
Greek letters placed at the beginning. This, though an im- 
provement on the plan of dislocating the syllables, was still 
wanting in that no duration was indicated. This desidera- 
tum was secured by the invention of the notes, attributed to 
Franco of Cologne. Invention was now on the right track. 
The expression of pitch and relative duration were now 
determined with exactness. The system of notation now in 
use is substantially the same, modified and improved to meet 
the requirements of modern musical complexity. 

Note. A sign which, by its form, indicates the relative dura- 
tion of a sound, and by its position on the staff the pitch of 
a sound. 

Notenfresser (Ger.). "Note devourer." A humorous title 
for a ready sight-reader; generally implies one whose play- 
ing is more notes than music. 

Nourri (Fr.) (nour-ree). Nourished; un son nourri, a well- 
sustained sound. Generally applied to vocal sounds. 

Novelette. A name invented by Schumann and given by him 
to a set of pieces without formal construction, with numer- 
ous constantly changing themes, giving expression to a very 
wide range of emotions. ' 

Novemole (Ger.) {no-veh-mo'-leh), Nonuplet. 

Nuance (Fr.) (noo-ongs). Shading; the variations in force, 
quality, and tempo, by means of which artistic expression is 
given to music. 

Number, (i) A movement of a symphony or sonata. (2) A 
solo, chorus, or other separate part of an opera or oratorio, 
etc. (3) A given piece on a concert programme. (4) The 
"opus" or place in the list of an author's works as to order 
of composition. 


Nunsfiddle {Ger., Nonnen-Geige]. Called also Tromba 
Marina. An instrument with a distant resemblance to a 
double bass, furnished with one string and a peculiarly con- 
structed bridge. The harmonic sounds only are used. It 
gets its name from the fact that it was formerly used in 
Germany and France in the convents to accompany the sing- 
ing of the nuns. 

Nuovo (It.) (noO'O'-vo), Di nuovo. Over again; repeat 

Nut [Ger., Sattel, saddle; Fr., sillet, button; It., capo tasto, 
head-stop], (i) The ridge at the end of the fingerboard 
next the peg-box ; its purpose is to raise the strings slightly 
above the fingerboard of instruments of violin and guitar 
families. (2) [Ger., Frosch, frog; Fr., talon, heel]. The 
piece at the lower end of violin bow, etc., in which the hair 
is inserted and tightened or slackened by means of a screw. 


O (It.). Or; also written od. 

Ob. Abbreviation of oboe and obbligato. 

Obbligato (It.) {oh-hlee-gaW-to). An essential instrumental 
part accompanying a vocal solo. 

Ober (Grer.) (o'-behr). Over; upper. 

Oberwerk. The uppermost manual of an organ. 

Oblige (Fr.) {o-hUe-zheh) , Obbligato. 

Oblique Motion. When one part is stationary while the 
other ascends or descends. 

Oboe (It.) (O'bo-eh), plural, oboi (o-bo-ee) ; (Fr.) Haut- 
bois (ho-boa) ; (Eng.) Hautboy or Hoboy [from the 
French word which means, literally, "high-wood"]. A wind 
instrument with double reed, formerly the leading instru- 
ment in the orchestra, filling the place now taken by the 
violins. A pair are generally employed in the modern or- 
chestra. The oboe is one of the most ancient and widely 
disseminated of musical instruments. It is the general opin- 
ion of students of antiquity that many of the instruments 
called by the general name "flute" by the Greeks were oboi. 


Oboe. A reed-stop in the organ, of 8-ft. pitch, voiced to re- 
semble the oboe. 
Oboe d'amore (It) (dah-mo'-reh). Oboe "of love*'; a small 
soft-toned oboe. 

Oboe di caccia (It.) (caf-cheea). Oboe of the chase; a 
large oboe, used formerly as a hunting signal. 

Oboist, Oboista (It.). An oboe player. 

Ocarine, Ocarina (It.). A small wind instrument of terra 
cotta, with flute-like quality of tone, — ^more of a toy than a 
musical instrument. 

Octave, Ottava (It.), Oktave (G^r.). (i) The interval be- 
tween a given letter and its repetition in an ascending or 
descending series. The diapason of the Greeks. (2) An 
organ-stop of 4-ft. pitch. 

Octave Flute. The piccolo. 

Ottava bassa. An octave lower than written; the sign: 8va 

Ottava alta (It.). At the octave above; indicates that the 
passage is to be played an octave higher than written, indi- 
cated by the sign: 8va 

A return to the natural position of the notes is signified by 
the word loco (place), or frequently by the cessation of the 

dotted line, thus : Sva 



Octet, Octuor, Ottetto (It), Oktett (Ger.), Octette (Fr.). 
A composition for eight solo voices or instruments. 

Octo basse (Fr.). A large double bass going a third lower 
than the ordinary instrument, furnished with a mechanism 
of levers and pedals for stopping the strings — ^an important 
addition to the orchestra. 

Octuplet. A group of eight notes played in the time of six 
of the same value. 

Ode Symphonie (Fr.). Choral symphony. 

Odeon (Or.), Odeum (Lat). A building in which public 
contests in music and poetry were held. In modern use as 
a name for a concert-hall or theater. 

Oder (Ger.). Or. 

CEuvre (Fr.) (oovr). Work; opus. 

Offen (Ger.). Open. 


Offertory, Offertorio (It), Offcrtoirc (Fr.) (of-fer-twar), 
Offertorium (Ger. and Lat.)-. (i) The collection of the 
alms of the congregation during the communion service. 

(2) The anthem or motet sung by the choir at this time. 

(3) A piece of organ music performed during this time. 
Ohne (Ger.) (o'-neh). Without, as ohne Fed., without pedal. 

Olio [Sp., olio, from Lat., olla, pot. A mixture of meat, 
vegetables, etc., stewed together]. Hence, a medley of 
various airs; a potpourri. 

Olivettes (Fr.) (o-lee-vet). Dance after the oliv€ harvest. 

Omnes or Omnia (Lat.). All. Same as Tutti. 
Omnitonic, Omnitonique (Fr.). All sounding, i.e., chro- 
matic; applied to brass instruments. 

Ondeggiamento (It.) (on-ded-ja-men'-to), Ondeggiante 
(It.) (on-ded-jan'-teh), Ondulation (Fr.) (on-doo-lah- 
siong), Ondule (Fr.) (on-doo-leh), Ondulieren (Ger.) 
{on-doo-lee'-ren). Waving, wavy; undulating; tremolo. 

Ongarese (It.) (on-gah-reh'-seh). Hungarian. 

Open Diapason. See Diapason. 

Open Harmony. An equidistant arrangement of the notes of 
the chords. 

Open Notes, (i) The sounds produced by the strings of a 
violin, etc., when not pressed by the finger. (2) The nat- 
ural sounds of horn, trumpet, etc., i. e., without valves. 

Open Pipe. An organ-pipe without stopper. 

Open Score. One in which each voice or instrument has a 
separate staff assigned to it. 

Open Strings. See Open Notes (i). 

Opera (It.) [from Lat, opus, work]. A combination of 
music and drama in which the music is not merely an inci- 
dental, but the predominant element. The opera originated 
in an attempt to revive what was supposed to be the manner 
in which the classic Greek drama was performed. The 
efforts of the group of musical enthusiasts who made this 
attempt culminated in the production of **Euridice," in 1600, 
the first Italian opera ever performed in public. The ground 
being broken, new cultivators soon appeared, and the new 
plant grew rapidly. Peri, the composer of "Euridice," was 
succeeded first by Gagliano, then by Monteverde — one of 
the great names in music. In his hands the opera developed 


with extraordinary rapidity. Before the close of the 17th 
. century a host of opera writers appeared, led by Scarlatti. 
The next important development in the form of opera was 
made by Lulli, the court musician of Louis XIV. No very 
, striking advance was now made until Handel appeared. He 
did little in the way of developing the form, but infused so 
much genius into the received form that it gave it a new life. 
In this respect Handel resembled Mozart, who, at a later 
stage of the development of the opera, was quite satisfied 
to take the then received form, which his genius sufficed 
to make immortal. The first decided departure from the 
traditional form was made by Gluck, whose theory of dra- 
matic music is strongly akin to the modern theory of 
Wagner. The opera since Mozart has grown with so much 
luxuriance, in such a diversity of forms, that even a slight 
sketch of it would be impossible in our limits. Appended 
will be found the names of the principal varieties. 

Opera BufPa. Comic opera. (Fr., OpSra Bouffe.) 

Opera Comique (Fr.). Comedy (not comic) opera. 

Opera drammatica (It.). Romantic opera. In modern Ger- 
man usage the term '*Musikdrama" has been adopted to 
distinguish the modern from the old form of opera. 

Opera Seria. Grand opera; serious opera; tragic opera. 

Operetta (It). An opera with spoken dialogue. 

Ophicleide, Oficleide (It.) [from Gr., ophis, snake, and kleis, 
key. Lit, "keyed snake," in allusion to its contorted shape]. 
A large brass instrument of the bugle family, ». e,, with 
keys, now little used. The best example of its use by a 
great composer will be found in Mendelssohn's "Midsum- 
mer Night's Dream*' music. 

Oppore (It.) {op-poo'-reh). See Ossia. 

Opus (Lat). Work; used by composers to indicate the order 
in which their works were written. 

Oratorio (It.) [from Lat., oratorius, pertaining or belonging 
to prayer; a place for prayer]. A composition consisting of 
solos and concerted pieces for voices, the theme of which 
is taken from the Bible or from sacred history. The name 
arose from the fact that St Philip Neri gave discourses 
intermingled with music in his oratory about the middle of 
the i6th century. The term Oratorio is also used for secu- 
lar works written on the same plan, such as Haydn'^ 



"Seasons," and Bruch's "Odysseus," but is manifestly inap- 
propriate. The oratorio is descended from those middle- 
age dramatic performances founded on biblical or moral 
themes, known as mysteries, moralities, or miracle plays. 
It took its rise about the same time as the opera, from which 
it differs chiefly in that it affords an opportunity for the 
highest developments of the contrapuntal art, whereas the 
opera is essentially monodic. The oratorio has not gone 
through the manifold changes and diversities that have 
marked the development of the opera, nor has it attracted 
anything like the number of composers that have devoted 
themselves to the opera. The first writer of any prom- 
inence in this field was Carissimi. He was followed by 
A. Scarlatti; then Handel appeared and stamped for all 
time the form of the oratorio. His great contemporary. 
Bach, equaled if he did not surpass him, but in a different 
style. Handel has had but two successors worthy to be 
named with him — Haydn and Mendelssohn, each of whom 
has stamped a new character on the oratorio without de- 
scending from the high plane on which this class of com- 
position should stand. The taste for the oratorio seems 
to be on the wane, as no composer of any mark has of late 
years devoted his attention to it. 

Orchestra, Orchestre (Fr.), Orchester (Ger.) [from Gr., 
orchester, a dancer]. Originally the place where the 
dancing took place in the Greek theater, (i) The place 
where the instrumentalists are placed. (2) The company 
of instrumentalists. (3) The collection of instruments used 
at any performance. See Instrument, 

Orchestrate. To write music for the orchestra. 

Orchestration. The art of writing for the orchestra. 

Orchestrion. A mechanical organ designed to imitate, by 
means of various stops, the instruments of the orchestra. 

Ordinario (It.) (or-dee-nah'-ree-o). Usual; ordinary; as 
tempo ordinario, the usual time, used in the sense of 

Organ, Organo (It.), Orgue (Fr.), Orgel (Ger.) [from Gr., 
organon, tool, implement, instrument]. An instrument con- 
sisting of a large number of pipes grouped according to 
their pitch and quality of tone into "stops." A large 
bellows supplies the compressed air or "wind" to the various 
air-tight boxes called sound-boards, on which the pipe« are 


placed. By means of a key mechanism the ''wind" is 
allowed to enter the pipes corresponding to any given pitch 
at will. The set or sets of pipes it is desired to sound are 
controlled by means of "registers," which, when drawn, 
allow the "wind" to enter the pipes of the "stop," the name 
of which is marked on the knob of the register. Organs 
are built with from one to four, and even more, "manuals," 
or keyboards, placed one above the other. Three manuals 
is the usual number. The lowest is called the "choir organ," 
the middle the "great organ," the upper the "swell organ." 
When a fourth manual is added it is called the "solo 
manual," a fifth the "echo organ" ; there is also a keyboard 
for the feet called the "pedal organ." 

Organ Point, Point d'orgue (Fr.), Orgelpunkt (Ger.). A 
succession of harmonies belonging to the key, written over 
a prolonged holding of the dominant or tonic, or both; an 
organ point is generally at the bass. 

Organetto (It.). Small organ; bird-organ. 

Organum (Lat.), Organon (Gr.). An early attempt at 
part-writing in which the parts moved in fourths or fifths 
with each other. 

Orguinette. A small mechanical reed-organ. 

Orpharion. A lute with wire strings. 

Osservanza (It.) (os-ser-van'-tsa), con. With care; with 

Ossia (It.) (o/-see-a). Or else; otherwise; as ossia piu 
facile, or else more easily. 

Ostinato (It.) (os-tee-nah'-to). Obstinate. Basso ostinato 

is a name given to a frequently repeated bass with a con- 
stantly varied counterpoint, called also ground bass; fre- 
quently used by the old composers as the foundation for 
the passacaglio. 

Otcz (Fr.) (o-teh). Take off; a direction in organ music to 
push in a given register. 

Ottavino (It.) (ot-ta-vee-no). The piccolo, 

Ottavo (It). See Octave. 

Ottetto (It). See Octet 

Ou (Fr.) (00), See Ossia. 

Guvert (Fr.) (oo-vehr). Open. See Open Notes, A livrc 
ouvert, literally, "at open book"; at sight 


Overblow. To blow a wind instrument in such a manner as 
to make it sound any of its harmonics. In the organ a 
pipe is overblown when the air-pressure is too great, causing 
it to sound its octave or twelfth. 

Overspun. Said of strings covered with a wrapping of thin 

Overstring. Arranging the stringing of a piano in such a 

way that one set crosses the rest diagonally. 

Overtone. The sounds produced by the division of a vibrat- 
ing body into equal parts. 

Overture, Overtura (It.), Ouverture (Fr.), Ouverture 
(Ger.). A musical prelude to an opera or oratorio. Inde- 
pendent compositions are also written under the name of 
concert overtures, generally with some descriptive title. 
In its highest form the overture is developed in the sonata 
form without repeating the first part. Many overtures are 
nothing but a medley of airs in various tempos. 

Owero, See Ossia, 

P. Abbreviation for piano. Soft (positive degree). 

PP. Abbreviation for piu piano. Softer (comparative de- 

PPP. Abbreviation for pianissimo. Softest (superlative de- 

P. F. Abbreviation for pianoforte (when capital letters are 
used), p. L Abbreviation for poco forte, a little loud; 
or piu forte, louder. In French organ music P. signifies 
posatif, i. e,, choir-organ. 

Padouana (It.) {pah-doo-aW-nah), Paduana, Padovana, 
' Padovane (Fr.) {pah-do-van). See Pavan, 

Paean (Gr.). A song of triumph, originally in praise of 

Paired Notes. A succession of thirds, sixths or eighths on 

the piano. 
Palco (It.). The stage of a theater. 

Pallet. The valve that controls the admission of "wind" to 
the pipes of the organ, harmonium, etc 


Pallettes (Fr.). The white keys of the piano, etc. The 
black keys are called feint es (faints). 

Pandean Pipes or Pan's Pipes. The syrinx; a series of 
small pipes made from reeds, sounded by blowing across 
the open top. An instrument of unknown antiquity and 
universal use. The ancient Peruvians carved them out of 
stone. The Fijians and the South American Indians make 
them with a double set of pipes — one set open, the other 
closed at one end, thus producing octave successions. 

Pantalon (Fr.). One of the numbers in a set of quadrilles. 
The old set of quadrilles consisted of five or six numbers 
called: (i) pantalon; (2) ete; (3) poule; (4) pastourelle; 
(5) finale. If there were six, the other was called trenis. 

Parallel Kejrs. The major and minor scales beginning on the 
same keynote. 

Parallel Motion. When two parts or voices ascend or de- 
scend together. 

Paraphrase. An elaborate arrangement of a piece of music 
for the piano, originally written for the voice, or for some 
other instrument. An orchestral paraphrase is a like 
arrangement of a vocal or pianoforte composition. 

Parlando, Parlante (It.) (par-Ian -do, par-Ian -teh). De- 
claiming; singing in recitative style; playing in imitation of 
vocal recitative. 

Part, (i) The series of sounds allotted to a single voice or 
instrument, or a group of voices or instruments of identi- 
cal kind in a musical composition. (2) One of the counter- 
points of a polyphonic composition for piano or organ, as a 
three- or four-part fugue. (3) One of the divisions of at 
extended form as indicated by double bs^rs. 

Part-Song. A composition for equal or mixed voices, unac- 
companied, consisting of a melody to which the other parts 
are subordinated, in this respect differing from the glee and 
madrigal, which are contrapuntal, i. e., all the parts are of 
equal importance. 

Part-Writing. Counterpoint. 

Partial Tones. See Overtone. 
Partita (It.) (par-tee' -tah). See Suite. 

Partition (Fr.) (par-te/syong) , Partitur (Ger.) (par-tee- 
tour'), Partitura (It.) (par-tee-too' -rah) y Partizione (It.) 


ipar-teets-eo'-neh). [From It, parHre, to dividcl In 
allusion to the division by bars of the page ; in English 
"scoring"; an orchestral or vocal score. 

Paspy [from Fr., passepied], Passamezzo (It) ipassa-med'- 
so). A dance resembling the minuet, but more rapid in its 

PassacagHo (It) (pas-sa-cal^'yo), PassacagUa (pas-sa- 
caV-ya), Passecaille (Fr.) (pass-ca-ee), Passe-nie (Fr.) 
ipass-roo), Passa-calle (Sp.) (pas-sa-cai^'leh), Gassen- 
hauer ((jer.) {gas-sen-how-er) . Literally, "running the 
street" An old dance in triple time, generally written on 
a ground bass. 

Passage, (i) A musical phrase. (2) The figure of a 
melodic sequence. (3) A brilliant run or arpeggio. 

Passaggio (It) (pas-sad' -jeo). Passage. 

Passing Note. An ornamental melodic note foreign to the 
harmony; when these notes fall on the beat or the accent 
they are called changing notes. 

Passione (It). Passion-music; a musical setting of the 
closing scenes in the life of the Saviour in the form of 
an oratorio, originally with dramatic action. The Ober- 
ammergau passion-play is a survival of this custon:L 

Passione (It) (pas-se-o'-neh), Passionato (It) (nah-to), 
Passionatamente (It), Pa8sion6 (Fr.) (pas-si-o'-neh) , 
con. With passion; intensity; impassioned; with intense 

Pasticcio (It) (pas'tif-che-o) , Pastiche (Fr.) (pas-tish). 
A "composition" made up of airs, etc., borrowed from 
different sources. 

Pastoral, Pastorale (It) (pas-to-rah'-leh). (i) A rustic 
melody in f time. (2) Used to designate an extended 
composition intended to portray the scenes and emotions of 
rustic life, as pastoral symphony, pastoral sonata. 

Pastorella (It) (pas-to-reV-lah), Pastorelle (Fr.) (pas-^ 
to-rel), A little pastoral. 

Pastourelle. A figure in the quadrille. See Pantalon, 

Pateticamente (It.) (pa-teh-tee-cah-men'-teh), Patetico (It.) 
(pa-teh'-tee-co), Path6tiquement (Fr.) {pa-teh-teek- 
tnong), Path6tique (Fr.) (pa-teh-teek) . Pathetic; pa- 


Patimento (It.) (pah-tee-men'to). Suffering. Con espret* 
sione di patimento, with an expression of suffering. 

Patouille (Fr.) (pah-too-ee). Claquebois; xylophone. 

Pauke (Ger.) (pow-keh), pi., Pauken. Kettle-drum. 

Pausa (It) ipaw'Sa),Pscaae (Fr.) (paws). A rest or pause ; 
a bar's rest. 

Pavan. A stately dance in ^ time. The name is derived 
either from pavo, a peacock, in allusion to its stately char- 
acter, or from pavana, the abbreviated form of Padovana, 
the Latin name of Padua, where the dance is said to have 

Pavana (It), Pavane (Fr.). Pavan. 

Paventato (It.) (pa-ven-tah'-to), Paventoso (pa-ven-tO'So) 
[from Lat, pavidus, fearing]. Timid; with fear; timidly. 

Pavilion (Fr.) (pa-vee-yong). The bell of a horn, clario- 
net, etc. 

Pavilion chinois (shee-no-a), A staff of small bells. Flute 
k pavilion, an organ-stop with "bell-mouthed" pipes. 

Pedal, abbreviated Ped. [from Lat, pes, a foot], (i) Any 
mechanism controlled by the foot ; in the piano, the con- 
trivance for raising the dampers; also that for shifting the 
action (una-corda). In square and upright pianos, the 
soft pedal, when depressed, interposes small strips of soft 
leather between the hammers and strings. The sostenuto 
pedal is a contrivance by means of which one or more 
sounds in the lower register of the piano may be pro- 
longed at will. In the organ, the keyboard for the feet, the 
levers for opening and closing the swell (swell pedal) and 
for operating various groups of stops (combination pedals). 

Pedal Check. A mechanism in the organ, controlled by a 
hand-knob, which prevents the movement of the pedals 
Crescendo Pedal, a mechanism in the organ by means of 
which the full power may be put on or off. Balancing 
Swell Pedal is one that remains in whatever position it may 
be when the foot leaves it. 

Pedal Harp. The mechanical contrivances by means of which 
certain strings are tightened or slackened to change the 
key, as Fl(-ped., Bb-ped.« etc 


Pedal Pipes. The organ-pipes sounded by the pedal key- 

Pedal Point or Organ Point. See Organ Point 

P6dale (Fr.). Pedal. 

Pedale doppio (It.) (peh-dah'-leh dop'-yo). Pedal in oc- 
taves; organ music. 

Pedalflugel (Ger.). A grand piano with pedal keyboard. 

Peg. The wooden or metal pins around which one end of 
the strings of the violin, etc., are wound, by turning which 
the pitch of the strings is raised or lowered; in the piano- 
forte they are generally called pins. 

Pensieroso (It.) ipen-see-eh-ro'-so). Pensive; thoughtful. 

Pentatone. An interval of five whole tones; augmented 6th. 
Pentatonic Scale. See Scale, 

Per (It.) (pehr). For, or by; as. Per il violino, for the 


Percussion Stop. A hammer which, striking the reed of a 
harmonium or organ-pipe, causes it to vibrate promptly 
when the key is depressed. 

Percussive Instruments. Drums, cymbals, ^triangles, etc. 

Perdendo (It.) {pehr-deW-do), Perdendosi (pehr-den-do'- 
see) [from perdere, to lose]. Gradually dying away, both 
in speed and power. (Abbr., Perd. or Perden.) 

Perfect Cadence. See Cadence. 

Perfect Concord. Root, minor or major 3d, and perfect 5th. 

Perfect Consonances. See Interval. 

P^rigourdine (Fr.) {peh-ree-goor-deen) ^ P6rijourdine {peh- 
ree-zhoor-deen). An old French dancing-song in } time. 

Period, P6riode (Fr.) (peh-ree-ode), Periodo (It.) (peh- 
ree-o-do), A complete musical sentence, generally eight 

Perl6 (Fr.) (per-leh), Pcrlend (Ger.), "Pearled," like a 
string of pearls. A metaphorical expression for a clear, 
delicate execution ; also a direction that the passage is to be 
played in a "pearly" manner. 

Pesante (It.) (peh-san'-teh). Heavy; weighty. 


Petite (Fr.) (peh-teet). Small; little. 

Petite Flute. The piccola 

Petite mesure k deuz tempa. | ' time. 

Petite Pedale. Soft pedal in organ music. 

Petites Notes. Grace notes. 

Petto (It). Chest. 

Pen k pcu (Fr.). (This sound cannot be reproduced in 
English; it resembles 00, but is not so broad.) Little by 
little; by degrees. 

Pezzi (It.) {pet'See). Pieces. 

Pezzi concertanti. (i) Concerted pieces. (2) A "number" 
of an opera, concert, etc. 

Pezzi di bravura (bra-voo-ra). Showy, brilliant pieces. 

Pezzo (It.) (pef-so). A piece; phrase. Beethoven uses the 
following sentence as a direction in one of his pianoforte 
sonatas : "Questo pezzo si deve trattare con piu gran dclica- 
tezza" — Every phrase must be treated with the greatest 

Pfeife (Ger.) (pfei-feh). Pipe; fife. 

Phantasie (Ger.). See Fantasia, 

Phantasieren (Grer.) {fan-ta-see'-ren). To improvise. 

Phantasiestttck. A piece devoid of form« 

Phrase. Technically, an incomplete musical sentence. 

Phrasing. The art of dividing a melody into groups of con- 
nected sounds so as to bring out its greatest musical effect, 
including also the placing of accent— cres. and decres., rail, 
and accel., rubato, etc. — ^and in pianoforte music, the vari- 
eties of touch. In vocal music, it refers chiefly to the 
breathing places ; in violin music, to the bowing. 

Phrygian Mode. One of the Greek scales, generally sup- 
posed to be E — E. In the ecclesiastical scales, the octave 
scale from 

'>'• " n 



Phrygian Cadence. 








Physharmonica. (i) The predecessor of the melodeon. 
(2) A free reed-stop in the organ. 

Piacere, k (It.) {pe-aht-chek'-reh). At pleasure, i. e., the 
tempo at the will of the performer. 

Piacevole (It.) {pe-aht-cheh'-vo-leh) . Smoothly; quietly. 

Piacevolezza (It.) (pe-aht-cheh-vo-let'-sa), con. With 

Piacevolmente (It.) (pe-aht-cheh-vol-men'-teh). Smoothly. 

Piacimento (It.) {pe-cht'chee-men'-td). See Piacere. 

Pianette (Fr.), Pianino (It.) (pee-ah-nce-no) , A small 
piano; upright piano. 

Piangendo (It.) (pee-an-jen'-do), Piangcvole {pee-mi-jeh'- 
vo-leh ) , Piangevolmente {pee-an-jeh-vol-men'-teh ) . 
"Weeping"; plaintively wailing. 

Piano (It.) (pee-ah'-no). Soft. (Abbreviation, P.; pianissi- 
mo, PP.) 

Pianoforte (It.) (fo/-teh). In common usage, piano, with- 
out the forte. An. instrument strung with steel wire (for- 
merly brass wire was largely used), provided with a key- 
board; the depression of the keys causes the hammers to 
strike the strings. The name pianoforte was given to it 
because the volume of sound was under the control of the 
performer. Three forms of pianoforte are made : The grand 
piano [in Fr., piano d queue, lit, **^iano with a tail" ; Ger., 
flugel, in allusion to its wing shape] ; the square, and the 
upright. The pianoforte is descended from the dulcimer 
in the same sense that the harpsichord is descended from 
the psalterion. In form the dulcimer and psalterion were 
identical, differing only in that the former was played by 
means of hammers, the latter by means of "plectra." The 
adaptation of mechanism to control the hammers developed 
the piano out of the dulcimer^ and the adaptation of mechan- 


ism to control the "plectra" developed the harpsichord out 
of the psalterion. The hammer action was first made prac- 
tically effective by Cristofori of Padua, in 171 1. About the 
same time an English monk, "Father Wood," made one in 
Rome. This instrument came into the possession of thi 
celebrated Fulke Greville, and became well known as Mr. 
Greville's pianoforte. In 1717, a German youth of eighteen, 
namec Schroter, invented the pianoforte independently; his 
invention was copied by Silberman of Strasburg, who sub- 
mitted two of his instruments to Bach, who liked the 
mechanism but not the tone, preferring that of the clavi- 
chord. The growth of the pianoforte has been rapid since 
the beginning of the nineteenth century, and has reached 
a point beyond which it hardly seems possible to advance. 

Piatti (It.) ipe-af-tee). Cymbals. 

Pibroch. A sort of fantasia for the bag-pipe of the Scotch 
Highlanders ; supposed to represent the incidents of a fight 

Piccolo. A small flute an octave higher than the ordinary 
flute; a 2-foot organ-stop. 

Piccolo-piano. A small upright pianoforte. 

Picco-pipe. A small instrument resembling a flageolet; 
gets its name from an Italian peasant, Picco, who produced 
astonishing results from it. 

Piece. A composition; a single instrument, as, "a band of 
twenty pieces." 

Pidce (Fr.) (pee-ace). A member of a suite, q. v. 

Pieno (It.) (pe-eh'-no). Full. 

Pietoso (It.) (pe-eh-to'-so), Pietosamente (pe-eh-to^ch 

men^'teh). Tender; pitiful; tenderly. 
Pifferaro (It.) (pif-feh-rah-ro), A player on the piffero. 

Pi£Fero or Piffaro (It). Old form of the hautboy, still used 
in Italy. The same form of instrument exists all through 
Asia — probably the "aulas'* of the Greeks. 

Pinc6 (Fr.) (pangseh'). (i) Pinched. See Pizzicato, 
(2) A mordent 

Pipe. The tubes of wood or metal in the organ. They are 
classified as follows: Open pipes, open at the top; closed 
or stopped pipes, with a movable plug; flue pipes, .those 
constructed on the principle of the whistle or flageolet ; reed 
pipes, those in which a beating reed is combined with the 


pipe. Pipes are also classified by length, the open diapason 
being the standard. An open pipe must be eight feet long 
to sound 


A closed pipe four feet long gives the same sound; both 
are said to have an 8-foot tone. If a pipe has a 4-foot tone, 
its sound is an octave higher than the diapason ; if a 2-foot 
tone, it is two octaves above the diapason. 

Piqu6 (Fr.) {pee-keW), A manner of bowing the violin, 
indicated by combined slur and dots: 

• • * w 

f r ^ r 

Piquieren (Ger.) (pik-ee'-ren). To play pique. 

Piston (Fr.), Ventil (Ger.). Valve; a device used in brass 
instruments to lengthen the tube, thus depressing the pitch. 

Pitch. Relative pitch is the interval between a given sound 
and some other sound. Absolute pitch is the number of 
vibrations per second necessary to produce a given sound. 
Standard pitch is the number of vibrations per second 
adopted as the pitch of a given sound. The standard (now 

almost universal) is 


= 435. 

which is known as the French "diapason normal." Between 
1699 and 1859 the standard rose from 404 to 455. 
Pitch Pipe. A wooden pipe used to give the keynote. A 
small tube containing a free reed is now generally used. 

Piu (If.). More; as, Piu forte, louder. 

Piva (It.) (pee-vah). A bagpipe; also a piece of music in 
imitation of the bagpipe. 

Pizzicato (It.) J,pits-e-cah' -to), Pinc6 (Fr.), Gckncipt 
(Ger.). Lit., "pinched." A direction in music for bow 
instruments to pluck the strings with the finger, as in the 
guitar. (Abbr., Pizz.) 



Placidamente (It.) iplah-chee-dah'tnen'-teh), 

Placido (It) iplah-che^'do). Placid; quiet 

Plagal Cadence. From subdominant to tonic: 




Plagal Scales or Modes. In the ecclesiastical system, those 
scales beginning a fourth below the authentic scales, but 
ending on the keynotes of their related authentic scales. 
They are distinguished by the prefix hypo [Gr., Otto, below], 
as Dorian (authentic) D-D, ending on D; Hypodorian 
(plagal) A- A, ending on D. 

Plain Chant Plain song. Cantus planus, or Cantus chor- 
alis (Lat), the early music of the church, written in the 
ecclesiastical modes (also called Ambrosian) and Gre- 
gorian scales. In the 12th century the unrhythmic melodies 
of the early forms of plain song were largely superseded 
by fhe rh3rthmic cantus mensurabilis, or measured song, 
which came into existence upon the invention of notes by 
Franco of Cologne. Before this invention the musical 
rhythm depended entirely on the rhythm of the words to 
which it was sung. 

Plaint6 (Fr.). Elegy; lament 

Plaisanteri6 (Fr.) (play-zong-te-ree) . A lively fantasia in 
which various dance-tunes are introduced. 

Planxties. Laments; music of Irish harpers to celebrate the 

Plectrum [Gr., plectron], A small rod of metal, bone, ivory, 
etc., or a flat strip of wood or tortoise shell, or a ring with 
a projecting piece, used to strike the strings of the lyre, 
Japanese guitar, mandolin, zither, etc. 

Plein jeu (Fr.) (plane shoo). Full power; full organ. 

Pneuma (Gr.). Breath. See Neuma. 


Pneumatic Action. A coiurivance in large pipe-organs by 
means of which a small bellows, called pneumatic bellows, is 
made to do the work of opening the palettes in place of the 

Pochettino (It) ipo-ket-tee-no). Very little. 

Pochetto (It.) (po-kef-to), A little; (not so much as Poco). 

Pochissimo (It.) (po-kis-see-mo). The "least little bit"; as 
Cres. pochissimo, the least degree louder. 

Poco (It.). A little; rather; as, Poco lento, rather slow. 
Poco a poco. By degrees ; as, Rail, poco a poco, 
Poggiato (It.) ipod-je-ah'-to). Dwelt upon; lit, leaned upon. 

Poi (It) (po'ee). Then; afterward. P. poi £., soft, then 

Point (Fr.) (po-ang). A dot (Eng.). A phrase for imita- 

Point d'orgue (Fr.). Pedal point 

Points (Fr.) (po-ang-teh). Dotted. 

Poitrine (Fr.) {po-a-treen). Chest Voiz de poitrine, chest 


Polacca. A Polish dance in f time; polonaise. 

Polka. A dance in time, originated among the peasants of 

Polka Mazurka. A mazurka danced with the polka-step. 

Polonaise. See Polacca, 

Polska. Swedish dance in triple time. 

Polyphonic [from Gr., polus, many; and phone, a voice]. 
Music written contrapuntally, as opposed to music written 
harmonically with a single melody. 

Polyphony. "Many voices." Counterpoint in several parts. 

Pommer. A large instrument of the hautboy family; bom- 

Pomposamente (It) (pom-po-sah-fnen'-teh). Dignified; 

Pomposo (It.). Pompous. 

Ponderoso (It). Ponderous; strongly marked. 

Ponticello (It.) {pon-tee-chel-lo). The bridge of the violin, 


Portamento (It) (por'tah-men'-to). Sliding or "carrying" 
the voice from one sound to another; also on bow instru- 
ments, sliding the finger along the string from one place to 

Portando la voce. Same as Portamento. 

Porte de voix (Fr.). (i) Portando la voce. (2) An obsolete 
grace in harpsichord music. 

Portunal Flute. Organ-stop with wooden pipes which "flare," 
1. e., get wider from the mouth to the top. 

Portunen (Ger.) (por-too'-nen). The bourdon stop. 

Posatif (Fr.) (po-sa-teef). The choir organ. 

Posato (It.) (po-sah'-to), Pos^ment (Fr.) (po-seh-mong). 
Quiet; sedate; grave. 

Posaune (Ger.) (po-zown-eh) . The trombone; a powerful 
reed-stop in the organ, of 8-, 16-, or 32-foot pitch. 

Position, (i) Of chords. The common chord may be writ- 
ten in three positions, called the octave, tierce, and quint. 

r ^ % 


Octave, Tierce, Quint, 

As given in this example it is called the close position of the 
chord; the following example is called the open position: 

a: ^ 

<g <g 


fiJ e^ ^ 

(2) On instruments of the violin and guitar family, "Po- 
sition'' refers to the part of the fingerboard on which the 
left hand is placed. 


Possibile (It.) (pos'see'-bee-leh). Possible; as, II piu forte 
possibile, as loud as possible. 

Postludc, Postludium (Lat), Nachspiel (Ger.), Cloture 
(Fr.). The concluding voluntary on the organ; lit., after- 

Potpourri (Fr.) (po-poor-ee) , A number of tunes strung 

Poule, la. See Quadrille, 

Pouss6 (Fr.) ipoos-seh), *Tush." Up bow. 

Prachtig (Ger.) (praych-Hg). Grand; majestic 

Pralltriller (Ger.). 

/W Played. 



now commonly called the Mordent. The sign for the 
mordent proper is /\^S/ • I^ always means that the auxili- 
ary note is to be below the principal. When the line that 
crosses the sign was omitted it was called the Inverted 
Mordent or Pralltriller. The original form of the mordent 
is never used by modern writers. 
Precentor. In the English Church, the clerical head of the 
choir ; his side of the chancel is called the cantoris side. In 
the Scotch Presbyterian Church, the singer who stands in 
front of the pulpit and "gives out" the psalm tunes. 

Precipitoso (It.), Precipitato (It.), Precipitazione, con 
(It), Precipitamente (It), Precipit^ (Fr.). A rapid, pre- 
cipitate, hurried style of execution. 

Prelude, Preludium (Lat.), Vorspiel (Ger.). An introduc- 
tion; an opening voluntary; a composition which may or 
may not be in some regular form. 

Premier (Fr.) {preh-mee-eh) , First Premidre fois, first 

Preparation. The prolongation, in the same voice, of a sound 
from one chord in which it is a member into a chord in 
which it is not a member. 

Prepared Trill. One preceded by a grace-note or turn. 

Pressante (It) {pres-san'-teh), Vrt&^ertn ((jer.) (pres-see'-^ 
ren). Presses (Fr.) (presseh). Pressing on; hurrying. 


Prestant (Ger. and Fr.). 4-foot metal open stop. Same as 

Prestezza (It) (pres-tet'-sa), con. With rapidity. 

Prestissimo (It.) (pres-tis' -see-mo) , Prestissimamente (It) 
{pres-tis-se-ma-men'-teh). As fast as possible. 

Presto (It). Fast 

Prick-song. Old name for written music. The first notes 
used were small, square marks without stems, called pricks, 
or points. 

Primary Accent. The first member of the measure. When 
there are two or more accents in the measure, the first is the 
primary, the rest are called secondary. 

Prima donna. First lady; the leading soprano. 

Prima vista. At first sight. 

Prima volta. First time; lit, first turn. 

Prime. The first note of a scale; keynote; the generator of 
an overtone series; unison. 

Primo (masc), Prima (fern.) (It) {pree-mo, pree-ma). 

Primo tenore. First tenor. 

Principal (Eng.). 4- foot open metal stop. 

Principale (It.) (prin-chee-pah-leh) , Principal (Fr.), Princi- 
pal (Ger.). The open diapason. 

Probe (Ger.) (pro-beh). Rehearsal. 

Program or Programme. A list of compositions to be per- 
formed at a musical entertainment. 

Program-music. Music designed to "tell a story," or illus- 
trate some action or event 

Progression, (i) Melodic — from note to note. (2) Har- 
monic — from chord to chord. 

Progressive Stop. An organ-stop in which the number of 
pipes to each key increases as the pitch rises; a variety of 

Prontamente (It) (profn-tak-fnen'-teh),PTompttment(Fr.) 
(prompt-mong) , Promptly; exactly; strictly. 

Pronto (It). Prompt; strict 


Pronunziato (It.) {pro-nuntz-ee-ah'-to), Prononc6 (Fr.) 
ipro-nong'Seh), Pronounced ; emphatic. Ben pronunziato 
(It.), Bien prononc6(Fr.),well marked; strongly* accented. 

Prova (It). Rehearsal. 

Psaltery, Psalterium (Lat), Salterio (It.), Psalterion (Fr.), 
Psalter (Ger.) [from Gr., psaltein, to harp]. Ancient in- 
strument, consisting of a square, oblong, or triangular flat 
box, with wire strings stretched across it, played by the fin- 
gers, each of which is armed with a ring with a short pro- 
jecting plectrum. The same instrument is called a dulcimer 
when played by two small hammers, held one in each hand. 

Pulsatile. Instruments played by drumsticks or by clashing 
them together ; as drums, cymbals, etc. [From Lat., pulsar e, 
to beat] 

Pulse. A beat 


Punkt (Ger.) (poonkt). Dot; point 

Punta (It) (poon'-tah). The point Colla punta d'arco, 
with the point of the bow. 

Puntato (It) (poon-tah'-to). Pointed; staccato. 

Purfling. The thin strips of wood (a white strip between 
two black) around the border of the back and belly of the 
violin, etc. 

Pyramidon. An organ-stop with pipes shaped like an in- 
verted pyramid, closed at top. From its peculiar shape a 
pipe not three feet long will produce i6-foot C. 

Pyrophone [from Gr., pur, fire, phone, sound]. An instru- 
ment the sounds of which are produced by gas jets burning 
tust inside of the lower end of glass tubes open at both ends. 
Invented by Kastner. 


Quadrate, B quadratum, i, e,, B squared. Old name for B|l 
— retained as the sign for a{j. 

Quadratum (Lat). A breve q 

Quadrible or Quatrible. An ancient species of counterpoint 
consisting of a succession of 4ths over a cantus. 


Quadrille. A "square dance." See Pantalon, 

Quadruple Counterpoint. A four-part counterpoint .90 con* 
structed that the parts may change places without involving 
any false progressions. 

Quadruple croche (Fr.) (crosh). A 64th-note. 

Quadruplet. A group of four notes played in the same time 
of three or six of the same value. 

Quality of Tone [Ger., Klangfarbe or Tonfarbe; Fr., Timbre; 
It, Timbro], That which enables us to distinguish between 
different instruments. The character of a tone quality de- 
pends largely upon the presence or absence and relative in- 
tensity of its overtones ; thus, the tone of a clarionet differs 
entirely from that of a violin, although all violins and all 
clarionets do not sound alike. The differences in tone 
quality that are found among violins, for example, depend 
on other factors, as the construction, material, weight of 
strings, individuality of the performer, and many more. The 
tone qualities of the voice are dependent largely on the 
accurate contact of the vocal cords, the size and shape of the 
cavity of the mouth and nostrils, and the management of 
the breath. 

Quart. Interval of 4th. [It. and Lat., Quarta,] 

Quart (Fr.) (kart). Quarter. 

Quart de soupir (soo-peer), A i6th-rest. 

Quart de mesure (Fr.) {meh-zoor). A 4th-rest. 

Quartfagott (Ger.). A bassoon a 4th lower than the ordi- 
nary instrument. 

Quartfl6te (Ger.). A flute a 4th higher than the ordinary 

Quarte du ton (Fr.) (kart doo tong). A 4th of the scale; 

Quarter Note ^. 

Quartet. A composition for four solo performers. String 
Quartet is composed of first and second violins, viola, and 
violoncello. Piano Quartet is composed of violin, viola, 
violoncello, and piano. Vocal Quartet may be either fol 
male or female or mixed voices. 


Qiiartett (Ger.) {kvar-tet'), Quatuor (Fr.) (qua-too-or)^ 

Quartetto (It.) (quar-tet'-to). Quartet in English, some- 
times spelled quartette. 

Quartole (Ger.) (kvar-to'-le). Quadruplet. 

Quasi (It) (quah'-see). As if; in the manner of; like; as. 
Quasi allegro, like allegro; Quasi sonata, resembling a 

Quatre mains (Fr.) (katr mang). For four. hands. 

Quatrible. See Quadrible, 

Quattro mani (It.) {quat-tro man-nee). Four hands. 

Quatuor. See Quartet * 

Quaver. An eighth-note. 

Querfldte, (Ger.) (kvehr-fla'-teh), Flauto traverse (It). 
"Cross-flute." The flute played by blowing across it, as 
distinguished from the old flute, blown at the end. 

Queue (Fr.) (kooy. Tail-piece of violin; stem of a note. 

Quickstep. A rapid march, generally in { time. 

Quinable. An old species of counterpoint, consisting of a 
succession of fifths above the cantus. 

Quint, (i) A 5th. (2) An organ-stop a 5th above the 

Quint Viola. An organ-stop of the Gamba species a 5th or 
I2th above the diapason. 

Quintaton. An organ-stop so voiced that it gives two sounds 
— the fundamental and the 12th. The pipes are of metal, 
slender and closed. 

Quinte (Ger.) (kvin-teh). (i) The interval of a 5th. (2) 
The E-string of the violin. 

Quintet. A composition for five solo performers. The string 
quintet generally consists of first and second violins, first 
and second violas, and violoncello; occasionally two violon- 
cellos are used, in which caSe it is called a Violoncello 
Quintet to distinguish it from the former. The Piano Quin- 
tet consists of a string quartet and the piano. 

Quintole (Ger.) (kvin-to'-leh), A group of five notes to be 
played in the time of four of the same value. 

Quintour (Fr.) (kang-too-or) , Quintetto (It.), Quintett 
(Ger.) (kvin-tet). Quintet, or quintette. 


Quintuplet. Quintole. 

Quire and Quiirester. Old English for choir and chorister. 

Quodlibet (Lat.) (quod-lee" -bet). "What you will." A per- 
formance in which every participant sings or plays a differ* 
ent tune; an impromptu fantasia; a musical jest. 


R. Abbreviation for Right. In French organ music, for 
Recit. (swell manual). 

Rabbia (It.) (rab'-be-a), con. With fury. 

Rackett or Rankett. An obsolete instrument resembling the 
double bassoon; a 16- or 18-foot stop in old organs. 

Raddolcendo (It.) (rad-dol-cheW-do), Raddolcente {rad- 
dol-chen'-teh), Raddolcito (rad-dol-chee'-to). Growing 
gradually softer and sweeter. 

Radiating Pedals. A fan-shaped arrangement of the pedal 
keys of the organ ; the narrow end of the fan farthest from 
the organ. Radiating pedals are generally "concave" at the 
same time, that is, the pedals at the sides are higher than 
those in the middle. 

Radical Bass. The root of a chord. 

Rallentamento (It.) {ral-len-ta-men' -to) . Slower. Same as 
Fiu lento, or Meno mosso. 

Rallentando (It.) {ral-len-tan*-do), Rallentato {ral-len-taW- 
to), Rallentare (ral-len-tah'-reh) . Gradually slower. Ab- 
breviation for the above, Rail. 

Note. — Rallentando and Ritenuto, although both mean to "get slower,* 
differ somewhat in the manner of using them : Rallentando being used at the end 
of a piece (movement) ; Riteniito in the course of a piece, followed bv "A 
Tempo,** when the original pace is to be resumed, Ritardando is used in the 
same way as Ritenuto. Abbreviation for both is Rii. 

Rank. A row of organ-pipes belonging to one stop. Mixture- 
stops are of 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 ranks, according to the number of 
pipes that "speak" for each key. 

Rant. An old dance. In Scotland many dance-tunes are called 

Ranz des vaches (Fr.) (rongs deh vash). Lit., "row of 
cows." Tunes played or sung by the Swiss as cattle calls. 


(In Ger., Kuhreihen,) As the Alpine horn is a simple tube^ 
the melodies played on it are formed from the natural har- 
monic notes. When the rang des vaches are sung, the 
melodies are varied by adding the characteristic Jodel. 
Many of these melodies are of great antiquity and exceed- 
ing beauty. 

Rapidamente (It:) (rah-pid-a-men'-teh). Rapidly. 

Rapidita (It.) (rah-pid'-ee-tah), con. With rapidity. 

Rapido (It.) {rah'-pee-do). Rapid. 

Rasgado (Sp.). In guitar-playing, a direction to sweep the 
strings v/ith the thumb. 

Rattenuto (It.) (rat-teh-noo'-to), Rattencndo (It.) (rat-teh- 
nen-do). Holding back the movement. 

Rauschquinte (Ger.) (rowsh'-kvin-teh). A two-rank mix- 

Rauscher (Ger.) (row-sher) [from rauschen, to rustle]. A 
repeated note on the piano. 

Rawivando il tempo (It.) (rav-vee-van'-do). Lit., "reviv- 
ing the time." Resuming the original tempo after a rail, 
or rit. 

Re. The second Aretinian syllable; the note D in French, 
Italian, and Spanish. In tonic sol-fa spelled Ray. 

Real Fugue. One in which the subject and answer are identi- 
cal, as opposed to Tonal Fugue, q. v. 

Rebab, Rebec, Rebeck, Rebibe, Rebible. One of the pre- 
cursors of the violin in the middle ages. 

Recheat. A hunting signal sounded on the horn to recall the 

Recht (Ger.). Right. 

Recitando (It.) {reh-chee-tan'-do) , Recitante {reh-chee-tan'' 
teh). In the style of a recitative. 

Recitative (res-i-ta-teev'), Recitatif (Fr.) (rehsee-ta-teef), 
Recitativo (It.) (reh-chee-ta-tee'-vo), Recitativ (Ger.) 
(reh'See-ta-tiv'), Declamatory singing, resembling chanting 
somewhat, and supposed, when invented in 1600, to be a 
revival of Greek art. Abbreviation Recit. 

Recitative Accompaniment. The string band is generally 
used to accompany Recitative. If the accompaniment is at 


all elaborate the freedom of the singer is greatly curtailed. 
Modern writers frequently use the whole resources of the 
orchestra to accompany Recitative. 

Recitativo secco. Dry Recitative was accompanied very 
sparingly with chords. It was customary at one time, dur- 
ing the pauses of the voice, for the violoncello to execute 
impromptu flourishes. 

Reciting Note. In Gregorian chant, the dominant, being the 
note on which the greater part of the reciting is done. 

Recorder. An obsolete instrument of the flageolet family; 
also an old name for the flute. 

Redita (It.) {reh-dee'-ta), A repeat 

Redowa, Redowak, Redowazka. A Bohemian dance in 

Redundant. Same as Augmented, 

Reed, Zunge (Ger.) (tsoon'-geh), Anche (Fr.) (onsh), 
Ancia (It) (an'-che-a). The technical name for the small 
thin strip of metal, cane, or wood, the vibration of which 
causes the sound of a variety of instruments. There are 
three kinds of reeds : ( i ) The single beating reed of instru- 
ments of the clarionet family; also of the reed-stops of the 
organ. (2) The double reed of the hautboy and bassoon 
family, also of the bagpipe; these two varieties are never 
used except in conjunction with a tube or pipe. (3) The 
free reed of the cabinet-organ, vocalion, etc. This reed may 
be used with or without a tube. The effect of the tube when 
combined with the free reed is analogous to that of a reso- 
nator, t. e., the vibration of the contained air is sympathetic^ 
whereas in the other cases the vibration of the reed is con- 
trolled by the column of air. 

Reed Instruments. Those in which the sound is produced 
by the vibration of a reed in the mouthpiece. 

Reel. A lively dance, nationalized in Ireland and Scotland; 
supposed to be of Danish origin, as the same kind of dance 
is found imder the Danish name of Hreol. 

Refrain. Burthen, (i) The chorus at the end of every stanza 
of some ballads. (2) The drone of a bagpipe. (3) The tune 
sung as an accompaniment to dancing. 

Regales de bois (Fr.) {feh-gal de bo-a). See Xylophone, 


Regals, Rigals, Rigoles. Small, portable organs with one oi 
two sets of pipes, carried by a strap round the neck of the 
player, who worked the bellows with his left hand and 
manipulated the keyboard with the right. 

Register, (i) Same as stop, or rank of pipes. (2) The pro- 
jecting knobs on which the names of the stops are marked. 
(3) The compass of a voice. (4) ' One of the divisions of 
the voice; as, chest register, head register. 

Registration. The combinations and successions of stops 
used by an organist in the performance of a piece. 

R^gle de Toctave (Fr.) (regl de loc-tav). See Rule of the 

Relative Chord. A chord whose members are found in the 

Relative Key. One whose tonic chord is one of the common 

chords found in the scale. 

Religiose (It.) {reh-lee-jo'-so), Religiosamente (reh-lee-jo- 
sa-men'-teh). In a devotional manner. 

Relish. An obsolete harpsichord grace. 

Remote Key. A non-related key. 

Remplissage (Fr.) {rom-plis-sazh) , Filling up. (i) The 
inner parts. (2) Sometimes used in the same sense as "de- 
velopment" (durchfuhrung) in the sonata or rondo. (3) 
Non-essential (ripieno) parts. (4) Used in a contemptuous 
sense of a clumsy, overloaded composition. 

Rendering. A modern term which is supposed to mean more 
than saying one "played" or "sang." 

Repeat. A double bar with dots, thus -H-| signifies that the 

part before the double bar is to be repeated. If the dots are 

on both sides -4 

it signifies that the parts before and 

after the double bar are to be repeated. 

Repercussion. The re-entry of subject and answer in a 
fugue, after an episode. 

Repetition, (i) The reiteration of a note or chord. (2) A 
pianoforte action invented by Erard, which admits of the 
re-striking of a note before the key has risen to its normal 
position. (3) The re-entry of one of the principal themes 
of a sonata or rondo. 



Rtp^tition (Fr.) (reh-peh-tts-yong) , A rehearsal. 

Repetizione (It) {reh-peh-titz-e-oW-neh). Repetition. 

Replicate. The recurrence of the same letter in an ascending 
or descending series ; the octave repetitions of a given letter. 

Reply, R6pon8 (Fr.) (reh-pong), R^ponse (Fr.) (reJu 
pongs), Report. The "answer" to a fugue subject or theme 
for imitation. 

Reprise (Fr.) (reh-prees), (i) A repeat. (2) The re-entry 
of the principal theme in the second part of a sonata ; also 
called Rentr6e (rong-treh). 

Requiem (Lat.). "Rest." The first word in the mass for the 
dead, hence called requiem mass. 

Resin or Rosin. The clarified gum of the pitch pine. 

Resolution. The movement of a dissonant to a consonant 

Rests. Signs indicating silence of the same duration as the 
notes for which they stand. In all varieties of time the 
whole rest is used to indicate a silence of one measure. 






Quarter Eighth Six- Thirty- Sixty- 
Rests Rest teenth second fourth 

Rest Rest Rest 

Three forms of quarter-rest are found. No. i is generalb 
found in music printed from type, Nos. 2 and 3 in engraved 
music. No. 2 is the most convenient form in MS. In 
orchestral parts a rest of two measures is indicated thus: 





Any number of measure rests may be expressed by combin- 
ing these three signs, but when the number exceeds six it is 


generally expressed thus : 
with numeral above it 





.... J 

a heavy diagonal line 



Retardation. The prolonging of a sound which is a membe* 
of one chord into a chord in which it is not a member, thus 
producing a dissonance. See Resolution. 

Reverie. A sentimental name used by some modern writers 
for composition of like character, generally in lyric form. 

Rhapsodie or Rhapsody [from Gr., rhabdos, a stafT]. The 
Rhapsodists were wandering reciters who carried a long 
staff. The term is now applied to an irregular, formless 
composition which **wanders" from one theme, or key, or 
tempo to another at the will of the composer. 

Rhythm. (1) The recurrence of accents at equal intervals 
of time. (2) The repetition of a group of sounds (not 
necessarily melodic) at equal intervals of time. This is an 
illustration of the first meaning: 

|) Tr - 1^ 


This, of the second : 


^Ti ^j I 






The first may be called the essential rhythm; it is never 
destroyed, no matter how much it may be divided by the 
second or ideal rhythm, thus the essential rhythm of the 
following passage is i' 2 3; the ideal rhythm varies with 
each measure: 







Rhythm is the first essential of melody ; without it we have 
only an aimless rising and falling of sounds. The essential 
rhythm is a fixed quantity which will bear very little tam- 
pering with. Witness the generally unsatisfactory effect of 
those compositions in which alternate measures of two and 
three units are used. Its pace may be changed by accelera- 
tion or retardation provided the rhythmical unit is main- 
tained. The ideal rhythm, or rhythm of the melody, is, on 
the other hand, completely under the composer's control, 
provided that its melodic motives, phrases, etc., may be 



'measured" by the rhythmical units adopted as the "time 

Ricercata (It.) (ree-cher-cah'-ta). A species of fugue very 
highly elaborated. 

Rigadoon. A rapid dance of French origin, generally in | 

Rigore (It.) (ree-go'-reh), con, Rigoroso (ree-go-ro'-so). 
With rigor; exactly; in strict time. 

Rilasciando (It.) (ree-lah-she-an'-do) , Rilasciante (ree-lah- 
she-an'-te). Relaxing the time; retarding. 

Rimettendo (It.) (ree-meMen'-do). Holding back; retard- 

Rinforzando (It.) (rin-for-tzaW-do), Rinforzarc (rin-for- 
tzah'-reh), Rinforzato (rin-for-tsah'-to). Lit., re-enforc- 
ing. Placing a strong accent on a note or passage. 

Ripieno (It.) (ree-pee-eh'-no). "Filling up." A part that is 
not essential to the score, added to increase the volume of 
a tutti. 

Ripigliare (It.) (ree-peel-yah'-reh), Riprendere (ree-pren'- 
deh-reh). To resume. 

Ripresa (It) {ree-preW-sah), Riprese (It). A repeat; the 
sign Jf? 

Risentito (It) (ree-sen-tee'-to). With energetic expression. 

Risolutamente (It.) (ree-so'lu-ta-men'-te). Resolutely. 

Risoluto (It) (ree-so-lW'to). Resolute. 

Risoluzione (It) {ree-so-loot-ze-o-neh), con. With resolu- 

Risvegliato (It) (ris-vehl-ya-to) , Animated; lively. 

Ritardando (It.) (ree-tar-dan'-do), Ritardato (ree-tar-dah'- 
to), Ritenuto (ree-ten-oo'-to), Ritenente (ree- ten-en' -teh). 
Holding back; retarding. Abbreviation Rit. 

Ritmo (It). See Rhythm, 

Ritmo a due battate. Of two measures. 

Ritmo a tre battate. Of three measures. The following 
passage, which, being written in } (scherzo) time, looks like 



a six-bar phrase, is in reality a two-bar phrase, founded on 
the triple unit: 






Ritmo a tre battaie. 


written in | time; or it may be written in. } time with 

This example is analogous to the oft-quoted one in the 
scherzo of Beethoven's ninth symphony. 

Ritornella (It.) (ree-tor-neV-la). Interlude; chorus; bur- 
den; tutti in the old concertos. 

Robusto (It.) {ro'hus'-to). Robust; bold. 

Roger dc Coverley. Old English country dance in f time. 

Rohrflote (Ger.) (rare'-fla-teh). Reed-flute; a flute-stop in 
the organ. 

Role (Fr.) (roll). The part in an opera or play assigned to 
any performer. 

Roll, Wirbel (Ger), RoUo (It), Roulcment (Fr.). The 
tremolo produced on the drum by the rapid alternation of 
blows with the drumsticks. On the kettle-drum the roll is 
produced by single alternating blows ; on the side drum, by 
double alternating blows. 

Romance, (i) A ballad. (2) An instrumental piece in lyric 
form, of romantic character; often used as the slow move- 
ment of a sonata, etc. 

Romanesca (It.) (ro-wa-nw'-ca), Romanesque (Fr.) (ro- 
man-esk). Same as Galliard. 

Romantic. A vague term for that form of art in which the 
emotional content is considered as of more importance than 
the form. The term "romantic" is often used as opposed to 
classic ; but the application of "classic" is as vague as is that 


of "romantic." The element of time seems to be an essen- 
tial of classicism, the work of a living author never being 
considered classic. The term romantic may be defined as 
roughly dividing the music written on harmonic principles 
from that written before the principles of harmonic com- 
bination and succession were discovered; but already the 
romantic school has been sub-divided into what may be 
called the classic-romantic and the new-romantic; but since 
every "new" thing must in time become "old," this last 
school must, when its day is past, give place to a newer 

Rondo, Rondeau (Fr.). One of the forms of composition 
characterized by the return of the first theme after the pres- 
entation of each new theme. The modern rondo partakes 
of the character of the sonata form, in that its second theme 
is repeated in the tonic key, having been first given in the 
dominant key. The following schemes exhibit at a glance 
the usual forms of the rondo: 
Major Key.— I Th. II Th. I Th. || III Th. I Th. II Th. I Th. 

Tonic. Dora. Tonic Subdom. Tonic. Tonic. Tonic 

Rel. min. 
Par. min. 

Minor Key.— I Th. II Th. I Th. || III Th. I Th. II Th. I Th. 

Tonic. Rel. Tonic Subdom. Tonic. Tonic Tonic* 
major. ol rel. major. major. 

Example of Rondo in Major Key — last movement of 
Op. 2, No. 2 (Beethoven). 

Example of Rondo in Minor Key — last movement of 
Sonata Pathetique. 

Root. The fundamental or generating note of a chord. 

Rosalia (It.) (ros-al-ya). The repetition of a melodic phrase 
several times, each time one degree higher or lower than the 
last. It gets its name from an Italian folk-song, "Rosalia 
Mia Cara," the melody of which is constructed in this way. 
Although not considered good writing, many examples may 
be found in the works of the greatest composers. Three 
such repetitions are generally considered allowable. In 
Germany the Rosalia has the ludicrous name of Schuster- 
Heck (cobbler's patch), also Fetter Michel (Cousin Michel), 
from its occurrence in a well-known Volkslied, "Gestern 
Abend war Vetter Michel da." 

Rose. The sound -hole in the belly of the guitar, mandoliiv 


Rosin. See Resin. 

Rota (Lat). A round. 

Rote. Hurdy-gurdy; vielle. 

Roulade (Fr.) (roo-lad). A brilliant run; an ornamental 

Round. A variety of canon, the imitation being always at the 
Sva or unison. 

Roundel, Round, Roundelay. A dance in which a ring with 
joined hands was formed. Roundelay also means a poem 
with a constantly reiterated refrain or burden. 

Rubato (It.) (roo-bah'-to). Robbed; stolen. The direction 
Rubato, or Tempo Rubato, indicates a style of performance 
in which the rhythmic flow is interrupted by dwelling 
slightly on certain melodic notes and slightly hurrying 
others. This style of performance is used with great effect 
in the modern intensely emotional school of music. 

Ruhig (Ger.) (roo'-ig). Calm ; quiet ; tranquilly. 

Rule of the Octave. An old formula for putting chords to 
the diatonic scale, major or minor. 

Run. A passage founded on the scale* generally used in vocal 
music. The run is generally sung to one syllable. 

Rusticano (It.) (rus-tee-cah'-no). Rustically. 
Rustico (It.) (rus'-tee-co). Rustic; pastoral. 

Rutscher (Ger.) (roof-sher). "Slider." Old name for the 

Ruvido (It.) {roo'-vee-do). Rough; harsh. 

Rjrthme (Fr.) (reethm), Bien rythm6 (Fr.), Ben ritmato 
(It.). Well marked; exact. 

S. Abbreviation of Segno (sign) ; Senza (without) ; Sinistra 

(left) ; Solo; Subito (quickly). 
yj A sign used to point out the place from which a repeat is 

to be made. Al SR , to the sign ; Dal Jf! , from the sign. 

Sabot (Fr.). A "shoe." Part of the mechanism of the 
double-action harp, consisting of a revolving disk of brass 


with two projecting studs; when the pedal is depressed the 
string is caught between the studs and drawn tighter, thus 
raising its pitch. 

Saccade (Fr.) (sac-cad). A strong pressure of the violin 
bow on the strings, causing two or three to sound together. 

Sackbut. An old name for a species of the trombone. Some- 
times written Sagbut. 

Sackpfeife (Ger.). Bagpipe. 

Saite (Ger.) (sy-teh), A string. 

Salicional, Salicet, Salcional [from Lat., salix, willow]. A 
soft, open metal organ-stop. 

Salonfltigel (Ger.). Parlor grand pianoforte. 

Salonstiick (Ger.). Parlor piece; salon music. 

Saltarello (It.) (sal-tah-reV-lo) [from saltare, to leap]. 
An Italian dance in triple time. 

Saltato (It). "Springing bow" in violin playing. 

Salto (It.). A skip. A counterpoint that moved by skips was 
called C. P. di salto ; in Lat, C, P. per saltern, 

Sambuca. Generally supposed to be an ancient variety of the 
harp. The Sabeca, mentioned in the Bible (Daniel iii: 5, 7, 
io» 15) » translated "sackbut" in the English version, is sup- 
posed to be the same instrument. The derivation of the 
word is not known. 

Sampogna or Zampogna (It.) (sam-pone'-ya). Bagpipe. 

Sanft (Ger.). Soft. 

Sans (Fr.). Without. 

Saraband, Sarabanda (It), Zarabanda (Sp.), Sarabande 
(Fr.). A slow, stately dance in } time, used as the "slow 
movement" in the suite. The Saraband is founded on the 
following rhythm: • 

I I U I I 

One of the finest examples is the song in "Rinaldo," by 
Handel, "Lascia ch'io pianga" which is said to have been 
written first as a Saraband, and afterward adapted to the 

Sarrusophone. A brass wind instrument with a double reed 
like hautboy. 


Satz (Ger.). (i) A theme. Hauptsatz, principal theme; 
Seitensatz, secondary theme; Nebensatz, auxiliary theme; 
Schluss-Satz, closing theme, or coda. (2) A piece; com- 

Saxhorn. A brass instrument with from three to five cylin- 
ders or pistons ; invented by A. Sax. Saxhorns are made in 
seven different keys. A saxhorn band consists of "high 
horn" (or cornet), soprano, alto, tenor, baritone, bass (or 
tuba), double bass (or bombardon). The "high horn," 
alto, and bass are in £b, the others in Bb. 

Saxophone. Brass instrument with clarionet mouthpiece, in- 
vented by A. Sax. Made in seven sizes, corresponding to 
the saxhorns, except that there are two of each kind, differ- 
ing by a whole tone in pitch; thus: Sopranino (high saxo- 
phone) in F and Eb, soprano in C and Bb, alto in F and 
Eb, tenor in C and Bb, baritone in F and Eb, bass in C 
and Bb. The saxophone is extensively used in France in 
military bands, but has not as yet found its way into the 
orchestra, as its tone quality is not of a character to mix 
well with the rest of the orchestra. 

Saxtromba. Brass instrument resembling the saxhorn, but 
differing in tone quality from having a narrower tube. 

Saxtuba. The bass saxhorn. 

Sbalzato (It.) {shalt-zah* -to) . Impetuously; dashing. 

Scale, (i) A succession of ascending or descending sounds. 
Major Scale, a series of sounds with a half-tone between 
3-4 and 7-8, reckoning upward. Minor Scale, a series of 
sounds with a half-tone between 2-3 and 5-6 in the natural 
minor, in the Melodic Minor, 7-8, ascending. The Melodic 
Minor descends, like the Natural Minor; in the Harmonic 
Minor there are half-tones between 2-3, 5-6, and 7-8, and a 
tone and a half between 6 and 7. The Minor Scale some- 
times descends with raised 6 and 7. Many examples may 
be found in Bach's music. Chromatic Scale, one formed 
wholly of half-tones. Pentatonic Scale [Gr., penta, five, 
tonos, sound], one that omits the 4 and 7. The Pentatonic 
Scale may be major or minor, thus : 


Hungarian Gypsy Scale consists of the following curious 


J tJ frJ ^ '^^^ r r 

(2) The series of overtones of a simple tube, such as the 
horn without valves. (3) Ip. organ-pipes, the proportion 
between the length and the diameter. (4) In the piano, the 
proportion between the length, weight, and tension of the 
string and the pitch of the sound it is meant to give. Pianc 
builders include many other points in the term "scale;" 
those given are the most important. 

Scemando (It.) (shay-maW-do). See Diminuendo. 

Scena (It.) (shay-nah). (i) A scene. (2) A solo for voice 
in which various dramatic emotions are expressed. 

Scenario (It.) (shay-nahr^-yo), (i) The plot of a drama. 
(2) The book of stage directions. 

Scene, (i) See Scena, (2) A division of a dramatic per- 
formance. (3) A stage-setting. 

Schablonenmusik (Ger.). "Pattern" or "stencil" music, i. e^, 
correct, but uninspired. 

SchUferlied (Grer.) {shay'-fer-leet). Shepherd song; pas- 

Schaferspiel (Ger.) {shay' -fer-s peel). Pastoral play. 

Schallbecken (Ger.). "Sound bowls"; cymbals. Frequently 
called Becken. 

Schalmay, Schalmei (Ger.). A shawm. 

Scharf (Ger.). Sharp. A mixture-stop. 

Schaurig (Ger.). Weird; dread-inspiring. 

Scherz (Ger.) (sherts). Droll; playful. 

Scherzando (It.) (sker-tsaW-do), Scherzante (sker-tzan*- 
teh), Scherzevole (sker-tzeh'-vo-leh), Scherzoso (sker- 
tzo'-so). All derived from scherzo, and signifying a light, 
playful style of performance or composition. 

Scherzhaft (Ger.). Funny; amusing. 

Scherzo (It.) {skert'-zo). A "jest." (i) A piece of music 
of a sportive, playful character. (2) A symphony or sonata 
movement of this character, taking, the place of the minuet. 
Haydn first changed the character of the minuet, while still 



retaining its name, by giving it a light, playful character 
and more rapid tempo. Beethoven discarded the name and 
adopted that of Scherbo, and still further increased the 
rapidity of the movement ; all that he retained of the minuet 
was the f time. Many composers since Beethoven have 
made still further departure, Scherzi being now \/ritten in 
S and ) time. 

Schiettamente (It.) (ske-et-ta-men'-teh). Without orna- 

Schietto (It.) (ske-et'-to). Simple; neat. 

Schleppend (Ger.). Dragging; retarding. 

Schluss (Ger.). End; close. 

Schlttssel (Ger.). Key; clef. 

Schlussfall (Ger.). Cadence. 

Schlussnote (Ger.). Last note. 

Schluss-Satz (Ger.). Last movement; last theme; coda. 

Schmeichelnd (Ger.). Coaxing; lusingando. 

Schmelzend (Ger.) (schmeV-tsend), Lit, melting; morendo, 

Schmerz (Grer.) (schmerts), Painj sorrow. 

Schmerzlich (Ger.). Painful; sorrowful. 

Schnell (Ger.). Quick. 

Schneller (Ger.). An inverted mordent (called mordent in 
modern usage) : 


' Played 



with accent on the first note. 
Schottische. A dance in } time resembling the polka. 
Schusterfleck (Ger.). See Rosalia. 
Schwach (Ger.). Weak; soft. 
SchwSLrmer (Ger.). See Rauscher. 

Schwebung (Ger.) (shveh'-boonk), A beat. (Acoustic,) 
i. e., produced by the simultaneous vibration of two sounds, 
especially prominent in unisons and octaves when not in 

Schweigezeichen (Ger.) (schvei-geh-tseich-en). Lit, "silence 
sign." A rest 


Schwellen or Anschwellen (Ger.). To swell the tone. 

Schweller (Ger.). The swell organ. 

Schwellton (Ger.). See Messa di voce* 

Schwellwerk (Ger.). See Schweller. 

Schwer (Ger.). Heavy; difficult 

Schwermiitig (Ger.), (schvehr'-mee-tig). Sad; pensive. 

Schwindend (Ger.). See Morendo. 

SchwungvoU (Ger.) (schvoong'-foll). With elevated passion. 

Scintmante (It.) (shin-til-lan'-teh), Scmtillante (Fr.) (sin- 
tee-yong). Scintillating; brilliant; sparkling. 

Sciolto (It.) (shor-to), Scioltezza (shol-tef-sa), con, Sciol- 
tamente (shol-tah-men'-teh). Freedom; fluency; with 
freedom; freely. 

Score. See Partition, 
Scoring. See Instrumentation. 

Scorrendo (It.) (skor-ren'-do), Scorrcvole (skor-reh'-vo* 
leh). Gliding; glissando. 

Scotch Snap. A short note followed by a longer one; 

thus ^T borrowed from Hungarian gypsy music 

Scozzese (It.) (skote-seh'-seh), alia. In Scotch style. 

Scroll The head of the violin, etc 

Sdegno (It.) (sdehn'-yo). Scorn; disdain. 

Sdegnosamente (It.) {sdehn'-yO'Sa-meW-teh). Scornfully. 

Sdegnoso (It.) (sdehn-yo'-so). Scornful. 

Sdrucciolando (It.) {sdroot-sho-lan'-do). See Glissando. 

Se (It.) {seh). As if. 

Sec (Fr.), Secco (It). Dry. See Recitativo secco. 

Second, (i) An interval embracing adjacent letters. (2) The 
lower of two equal voices or instruments. (3) The alto 
in a vocal quartet or chorus. 

Seconda Donna^ Second lady; the next in rank after the 
prima donna. 

Secondo (It) (seh-con'-do). Second; the lower part in a 
duet for two voices or instruments; the lower part in a 
four-hand pianoforte composition. 


Seele (Ger.) (seh'-leh), Ame (Fr.). Soul. The sotmd-post 
of the violin. 

Seg (It). Abhreviation of Segue, q, v., and of Segno. 
Segno (It). See Signs. 

Segue (It) (sehg^'Weh), Follows. Segue il coro, the 

chorus follows. 

Seguendo (It) (sehg-wen'-do), Seguente (sehg-wen'-teh). 
Following. Attacca il seguente, attack what follows. 

Seguidilla (Sp.) (seh-gwee-deel'-ya), A dance in f time. 

Sehnsucht (Ger.). Longing. 

Sehnsuchtig (Ger.). Longingly. 

Sehr (Ger.). Very. 

Semi-breve. A whole note. ^ 

Semi-chorus. Half the chorus ; a small chorus. 

Semi-grand. A small (half) grand pianoforte. 

Semi-quaver. A sixteenth note. C ^ 

Semi-tone. A half tone. A chromatic semi-tone changes the 
pitch without changing the letter; as, C — Ct; a diatonic 
semi-tone changes both, as, C — Db. 

Semplice (It.) {sem-plee'-cheh). Simple. 

Semplicimente (It) {sem-plee-chee-men'-teh). Simply; un- 

Semplicita (It) (sem-plee'-chee-tah), con. With simplicity. 

Sempre (It.) (sem'-preh). Always. 

Sensibile (It.) (sen-see'-bee-leh). Sensible (Fr.) (song- 
seebl). Nota sensibile, the leading note. Note sensible, 
"sensitive" note. 

Sensibilita (It) (sen-see-bee' -lee-tah), con. With feeling. 

Sentito (It.) (sen-tee' -to), Sentimento (sen-tee-men'-to), 
con. With feeling; with sentiment 

Senza (It) (sen-tzd). Without 

Septet, Septuor. A composition for seven solo voices or 


Septole (Ger.). Septuplet; a group of seven. 



Se piace (It.) (seh pe-ah'-cheh). "Please yourself." Ad 

Sequence, Melodic. The repetition of a melodic phrase at 
regular intervals. Harmonic Sequence, the repetition of 
a harmonic progression at regular intervals. Contrapuntal 
Sequence, a succession of common chords with roots mov- 
ing in a regular "pattern." 

j , f fjj [J- I f £^p 

Melodic Sequence. 

& — 




Harmonic Sequence, 

s^ i I i-^-s 

Contrapuntal Sequence, 

Seraphine. A free-reed instrument that preceded the har- 

Serenade, S6r6nade (Fr.), Serenata (It.), Standchen 
(Ger.). Lit., an evening song. The Italian form, Serenata, 
is also applied to an instrumental symphonic composition, 
and by Handel to his cantata **Acis and Galatea.'' 

Sereno (It.) (seh-reh'-no). Serene; tranquil. 

Serio (It) {seh-re-o). Serious. 

Serioso (It.) Gravely; seriously. 

Serpent. A nearly obsolete instrument made of wood cov- 
ered with leather, cup-shaped mouthpiece, finger-holes, and 

Service. A musical setting of the canticles, etc., of the Epis- 
copal Church. 

Sesqui-altera. A mixture-stop in the organ. In ancient 
musical nomenclature the following compounds with Sesqui 
were used: 
Sesqui-nona, t. e., the ratio of 9 to 10 : minor whole tone. 


Sesqui-octava, 8 to 9; major whole tone. 
Sesqui-quinta, 5 to 6; minor third. 
Sesqui-quarta, 4 to 5; major third. 
Sesqui-tertia, 3 to 4; perfect fourth. 
Sesqui-tone, a minor third. 

Sestet. See Sextet, 

Sestctto (It.). Stt Sextet. 

Sestole. See Sextuplet, 

Seule (Fr.) {sool). Alone. 

Seventeenth. An organ-stop sounding the octave of the 
major 3d above the diapason; called also the tierce. 

Seventh. An interval including seven letters. Seventh 
Major, seven letters and .eleven half-tones, as C: — B. Sev- 
enth Minor, seven letters and ten half-tones, as C — Bb. 
Diminished Seventh, seven letters and nine half-tones, as 
CI— Bb. 

Severamente (It.) (seh-veh-rah-men'-teh) , Severely; strictly. 

Severita (It.) (seh-ver^-ee-ta), con. With severity; exactness. 

Sextet, Sestet, Sestetto (It), Sextuor (Fr.). A composition 
for six solo voices or instruments. 

Sextuplet. A group of six notes occupying the time of four. 

Sfogato (It.) (sfo-gah'-to) [from sfogare, to evaporate]. A 
soprano voice of thin, light quality and unusually high range 
is called a soprano sfogato. 

Sforzando (It.) {sfortz-an'-do) or Sforzato, abbreviated Sf. 
or Sfz. "Forced." A strong accent immediately followed 
by piano. 

Shake. See Trill 

Sharp. The sign, #, which raises the pitch of a letter a half 
tone. Sharp is sometimes used in the sense of augmented, 
as sharp 6th for augmented 6th; popular name for the 
black keys of pianoforte and organ. 

Sharp Mixture. A mixture with shrill-voiced pipes. 
Shawm. See Calamus, 

Shift. A change in the position of the left hand on the 
fingerboard of the violin ; each shift is a fourth higher than 
the preceding one. 


SL (i) The note B in French, Italian, and Spanish. (2) The 
Italian impersonal pronoun, "one," or "they," as, si piace, 
"one" pleases, i. e., as you please. • 

Siciliana (It.) {see-cheel-ya'-nah), Sfcilienne (Fr.) (see-see- 
lee-en), A pastoral dance in slow time; slow movements, 
vocal or instrumental, are frequently called Sicilianas. 

Side Drum. See Drum. 

Siegeslied (Ger.) {see'-ges-leed). Song of victory. 

Signs. (Only the most important are here given. Complete 
information may be obtained by consulting the "Embellish- 
ments of Music," by Russell.) 



Staccato, Vibrato. Pause. Abbreviation, signifying 

Spiccato. the repetition oi the pre- 

ceding figure. 

a;§^ ^^ 

Segno. Repeat. Slur, when over or under sounds of 

different pitch, signifying legato. T ie 
when the notes are on the same degreei 

Double Sharp. Flat. Double Flat. Natural 

Decrescendo. Sforzando. 

«^ M» A«« 

Brace. Trill. Turn. Mordent. 

8f>a, Sva.Ba, o v 

After Pedal means Octave higher. Octave lower. Heel and Toe: Organ 
raise the foot from music — when above 

the pedal. the notes, right foot; 

when below, left foot. 

Signature, Signatur (Ger.), Time. The signs g ^ etc. 

Key Signature, the sharps or flats marked at the beginning 
of a part or piece. 

Simile (It.) (see-mee-leh) . The same; in the same way. 

Sinfonia (It.), Sinfonie (Ger.), Symphonie (Fr.), Sym- 
phony [from Gr., sumphonia, a sounding together]. Orig- 
inally had the same meaning that we attach to interval, 
t. e., two simultaneous sounds, (i) By the early writers of 
Italian opera it was used in the modern sense of overture. 


(2) The introduction to a song is still called the symphony. 

(3) The adaptation of the large forms of composition 
(sonata and rondo) to the orchestra. 

Singend or Singbar (Ger.). Singing; cantabile. 

Singhiozzando (It.) {sin-ghee-otz-an'-do). Sobbingly. 

Singspiel (Ger.) {sings peel). "Sing-play." Operetta; an 
opera without recitatives, the dialogue being spoken. "Der 
Freischiitz/' when first produced, was of this character, which 
may be considered as one of Germany's contributions to the 
development of the opera, the Italian operas from the be- 
ginning being largely composed of recitative. The "Sing- 
spiel" form has found its most congenial home and its 
best exponents in France. 

Sinistra (It.). Left. 

Sino, Abbr., Sin. (It.) {see' -no). As far as; used after D. C, 
or al ^ ; as al ^ , Sin' al fine, go to the sign, then as far 
as "fine.'' D. C. sin' al ^, from the beginning as far as 
the sign. 

Sixteenth Note. ( 

Sixth. An interval including six letters. 

Sixth Major. Six letters, nine half-tones. 

Sixth Minor. Six letters, eight half-tones. Augmented 
Sixth, six letters, ten half-tones. Diminished Sixth, six 
letters, seven half-tones. 

Sixty-fourth Note, g 

Slancio (It.) {slan'-che-o), con. With impetuosity. 

Slargando (It.) {slar-gaW -do) . Widening; growing slower. 

Slargandosi (It.) (slar-gan-do'-see). Slower. 

Slentando (It.) {slen-tan* -do) . Gradually slower. 

Slide, (i) The movable tube of the trombone. (2) See 

Slur. ^*-^ Legato sign. In vocal music signifies that all 
the notes it includes are to be sung to one syllable. 

Smanioso (It.) (sma-ne-o'-so). Frantic; raging. 

Smaniante (It.) (sma-ne-an'-teh). Frantically. 


Sminuendo (It.) (smin-oo-en'-do), Sminuito {smin-oo-ee'' 
to), Smorendo (stno-ren'-do). Same as Diminuendo, 

Smorzando (It.) ismor-tsan'-do). Lit., "smothering"; 

Snare Drum. See Drum, 

Soave (It.) (so-a'-veh). Sweet. 

Soavemente (It.) (so-a-veh-men'-teh). Sweetly. 

Sogetto (It). Subject; theme of a fugue. 

Sognando (It.) (sone-yan'-do). Dreaming; dreamily. 

Sol. The note G in Italian, French, and Spanish; fifth Are- 
tinian syllable. 

Solenne (It.) (so-len'-neh). Solemn. 

Solennemente (It.) (so-len-neh-men'-teh) , Solemnly. 

Solennita (It.) (so-len^-nee-ta), con. With solemnity. 

Sol-fa (verb). To sirig with the syllables. 

Solfeggio (It.) (solfed'jo). (i) A vocal exercise. (2) Used 
by Bach as a name for certain short instrumental pieces. 

Solmization. A method of learning to sing by the applica- 
tion of syllables to the scale. The earliest invention of this 
method of fixing the succession of sounds forming the scale 
in the memory is attributed to Guido of Arezzo (ah-rets-o), 
who used for this purpose the syllables ut, re, mi, fa, sol, 
la, having chanced to observe that these syllables — ^the first 
in the successive lines of a Latin hymn — were sung to six 
successive notes which formed a hexachord scale: C, D, 
E, F, G, A. There were seven hexachord scales, as follows : 

First began on G, ist line bass staff; this was called the 
hexachordum durum (hard hexachord). Second began on 
C, a 4th higher. Third began on F, another 4th higher; 
in this scale B was flat; it was called the hexachordum 
mblle (soft hexachord). Fourth, fifth, and sixth were 
respectively an octave higher than the first, second, and 
third, and the seventh was two octaves higher than the first. 
The first note of every scale was called ut (afterward 
changed to do), therefore from its inception "do" was 
"movable." Various modifications of these syllables have 
at different times been used for solmization. One exten- 
sively used at one time was the practice of using only four 
of them, viz., mi, fa, sol, la. These were so arranged that 


mi always fell upon the third note in the tetrachord, for 
example, the scale of C was sol-faed thus: 

Tetrachord. Tetrachord. 


sc/ la mi fa sol la mi fa 

It was owing to the difficulty and, to ancient ears, harsh- 
ness of the skip from the fa of the lower tetrachord to the 
mi of the upper that the expression, "mi contra fa," came 
to have a proverbial meaning. This interval, called the 
tritone (three tones), was by the ancient theorists stigma- 
tized as "tritonus diabolus est" New syllables have at 
different times been proposed; one scheme of which the 
syllables were bo, ce, di, ga, lo, ma, ni, was called bocediza- 
tion; another with da, me, ni, po, hi, la, be, was called 
damenization. The only modifications and additions to the 
syllables that have been permanently adopted are those used 
by the "Tonic Sol-faists." See Tonic Sol-fa. 

Solo (It.) (plural. Soli). Alone; a composition in which 
the principal part is taken by one voice or instrument. Solo 
Parts are those sung or played by single performers as 
distinguished from chorus or tutti passages. 

Somma (It.). Utmost; as Con somma espressione, with 
the utmost expression. 

Sonabile (It.) (so-nah'-bee-leh), Sonante (so-nan'-teh). 
Resonant; sounding; sonorous. 

Sonare (It.) {so-naW -reh) , To sound; to play upon. 

Sonata (It.) (so-nah'-tah). "Sound piece." (i) The highest 
development of musical form. (2) In modern use, an ex- 
tended composition with several movements for pianoforte, 
or pianoforte in conjunction with one other instrument. A 
composition of this class for more than two instruments is 
called trio, quartet, etc.; for full orchestra, a symphony. 
The "form" of the sonata (see Form) has undergone many 
modifications since it was first adopted, about the beginning 
of the 17th century. At first it was applied indifferently to 
any instrumental piece, such, for example, as were com- 
monly called "airs." Those written for the harpsichord or 
for viols were called "sonata da camera." Those for the 
organ (or frequently those for harpsichord or viols, if 
written in grave style), "sonata da chiesa" (church sonata). 


The distinguishing characteristic of the modern sonata form 
is the possession of two themes in different keys (see 
Scheme in article Form). The gradual growth of this 
binary development may be traced in the works of Kuhnau, 
Scarlatti, Alberti, Durante, and others. The binary form 
was first definitely fixed by K. P. E. Bach. The only changes 
made since have been the immense development given to 
the form by Beethoven, and the adoption of other keys for 
the second theme. 

Sonata di chiesa (It.) {key-eh'-sa). A church sonata; organ 

Sonatilla (It.) (so-na-HV-la), Sonatina (It.) (so-na-tee'-na), 
Sonatine (Fr.; (so-na-teen) , A short, easy, undeveloped 

Song, Gesang, Lied (Ger.), Chant (Fr.), Canto (It.), 
(i) Originally a poem. (2) A musical setting of a poem, 
especially for one voice. (3) Folk-song (Ger., Volkslied), 
A simple air containing but one member, the words lyrical 
or narrative (if the poem is a lengthy narrative it is gen- 
erally called a ballad). (4) Art songs contain several mem- 
bers, and in many cases, as in the songs of Schubert, Franz, 
Schumann, and others, rise to the highest plane of art ex- 
pression. The (jermans have a word, durchkomponirt, 
which is applied to songs every stanza of which has a sep- 
arate musical setting, so designed as to exalt and emphasize 
the expression of the words. 

Songs without words, Lieder ohne Worte (Ger.), Chants 
sans paroles (Fr.). A title invented by Mendelssohn and 
given by him to a set of pianoforte compositions. Songs 
for several voices are called part-songs. See Part-Song. 

Sonoramente (It.). Sonorously. 

Sonore (It.), Sonoro [from Lat, sonus, sound]. Sonorous; 

Sonorita (It.) (so-no'-ree-ta) , con. With resonance. 

Sopra (It.). On; above; upon. 

Soprano (It.), Sopran (Ger.), Dessus (Fr.) (des-soo). The 
female or boy's voice of the highest range. 

Soprano Clef. C clef on the ist line. 

Soprano Sfogato {sfo-gah'-to). An unusually high light 


Sordamente (It.). Veiled, dampened, muffled tone. 

Sordino (It.) (sor-dee'-no). A mute; small instruments of 
metal, wood, etc., put on the bridge of the violin, etc., to 
deaden the tone. Pear- or cylinder-shaped mutes of wood, 
cardboard, or leather are put in the bell of the horn or 
trumpet with the same object The use of sordino is indi- 
cated by Con S., their removal by Senza S. 

Sordo (It). Mute; muffled. Clarinetto sordo, muted clari- 

Sortita (It) (sor-tee'-ta), "Going out" Concluding vol- 
untary; first appearance of any character in an operatic 

Sospirando (It.) (sos-pee-ran'-do), Sospiroso (sos-pee-ro'- 
so), Sospirante (sos-pee-ran'-teh), Sospirevole (sos-pee- 
reh'-vO'leh) [from sospiro, a sigh]. Sighing; sobbing; 

Sostenuto (It) (sos-teh-noo'-to), Sostenendo (sos-teh-nen'- 
do). Sustained; without haste. 

Sotto (It.). Below. Sotto voce, in an undertone. 

Soubasse (Fr.) (soo-bass), A 32- foot organ pedal-stop. 

Soubrette (Fr.) (soo-bret). A waiting maid; a minor female 
role in comic or comedy opera. 

Sound-board. A thin sheet of spruce-pine, or fir, upon which 
the bridge that supports the strings of the pianoforte rests. 
The function of the sound-board is to increase the volume 
of the tone, which it does by taking up the vibration of 
the string. There are many unsolved problems in the rela- 
tion which subsists between the string and the sound-board, 
as to the manner in which this amplification of the sound 
takes place. It is impossible to form a conception of the 
complications in the mode of vibration of the sound-board 
that must take place when, for example, a full chord is 
struck. Yet all these complications are not only simul- 
taneous, but they obey the changing conditions of the most 
rapid execution with such swiftness and certainty that not 
a note is lost or a tone quality obscured. 

Sound-box. The body of the violin, guitar, etc. The prob- 
lems as to the function of the sound-box are even more 
complicated than those connected with the sound-board, as 
a sound-box is a combination of a sound-board and an 


enclosed mass of air, the vibrations of which have an im- 
portant bearing on the quality and intensity of the tone. 

Sound-hole. The orifice or orifices in the upper part, called 
technicsilly the "belly," of the violin, guitar, etc. In tht 
violin family they are called F-holes, from their resemblance 
to the letter f 

Sound-post. A slender, cylindrical, wooden prop between the 
belly and the back in instruments of the violin family, 
placed under the foot of the bridge on the side of the 
highest string. 

Sourdine (Fr.) (soor-deen). See Sordino. 

Spaces. The intervals between the lines of the staff or be- 
tween the leger lines. 

Spalla (It.). The shoulder. Used in the sentence, Viola da 
spalla, one of the viols in a "chest." 

Spanischer Reiter (Ger). See Spanisches Kreuz. 

Spanisches Kreuz (Ger.) (spah-nish-es kroits). Spanish 
cross; German name for double sharp ^. 

Sparta (It.) (spar-ta), Spartita (spar'-ti-ta). A score. See 

Spasshaft (Ger.). Jocose; merry; scherzando. 

Spezzato (It.) (spets-sa'-to) [from spezzare, to break in 
pieces]. Divided; broken. 

Spianato (It.) {spe-a-nah'-to). Leveled; tranquillo. 

Spianto (It.) (spe-an-to). Level; smooth. 

Spiccato (It.) (spik-kah'-to). Detached; pointed. 

Spiel (Ger.) (sped). Play. 

Spielart. Style; touch. 

Spielbar. Playable; well adapted to the instrument. 
Spieloper. Operetta; comic opera. 

Spieltenor. Light tenor; comic opera tenor. 

Spinet. The predecessor of the harpsichord, called also 
couched harp. 

Spirito (It.) (spee-ree-to), con, Spiritoso (spee-ree-to'-so), 
Spiritosamente (spee-ree-to-sa-men'-teh). With spirit; 
spirited; lively; animated. 

Spitzflote, Spindelflote (Ger.). An organ-stop of reed-like 
quality, 8-, 4-, or 2-foot pitch. 


SquiUa (It) (squiV-h). Little bell. 

Squillante (It.) (squil-lan'-teh). Bell-like; ringing. 

Stabile (It.) (stah-hee'-leh). Firm; steady. 

Stac. Abbreviation of Staccato. 

Staccatissimo (It) {stac-cah-iis' -see-mo). As detached as 
possible. The sign for staccatissimo is a pointed dot over 

the note j^- 
Staccato (It) {stac-caW-to), Detached; cut oflF; separated. 

Staff or Stave. The five lines with their enclosed spaces. 
Gregorian music is written on a staff of four lines. 

Standard Pitch. See Pitch. 

Standchen (Ger.). See Serenade- 

Stark (Ger.). Loud; strong. 

Stave. See Staff. 

Stem, Hals (Ger.), Queue (Fr.), Gambo (It). The part 
of a note consisting of a vertical line; also called tail. 

Stentato (It.) {sten-tah'-to), Stentando {sten-tan*-do) 
[from stentare, to labor]. A heavy emphasis combined with 
a dragging of the time. 

Step. From one letter to the next; a degree. Whole Step, 
a whole tone ; Half Step, half tone ; Chromatic Step, chro- 
matic half tone. • 

Sterbend (Ger.) (stair-bent). Dying; morendo. 

Steso (It) (stay-so). Extended. Steso moto, slow move- 

Stesso (It.) (stes-so). The same. 

Sticcado (It.). Xylophone. 

Stil (Ger.) (steel), Stilo (It). Style; manner. 

Stillgedacht (Ger.). Soft organ-stop with closed pipes; 
stopped diapason. 

Stimmbildung. Voice formation; voice training. 

Stimme (Ger.) (stim'-meh). (i) Voice. (2) Part. (3) 

Sound-post. (4) Organ-stop. 

Stimmen (verb). To tune. 
Stimmung. Pitch, tuning. 


Stimmungsbild. "Voicing picture," i. e,, a short composition 
designed to "voice" or express some given mood or emo- 
tion, e, g., "Warum," by Schumann. 

Stingiiendo (It) (stin-gwen'-do) [from stinguere, to ex- 
tinguish]. Fading away; becoming extinguished. 

Stirato (It) (stee-rah'-to), Stiracchiato {stee-rak-ke-ah'-to) 
[from stirare, to stretch]. Retarding the time. 

Stop, (i) To press the finger on the string of violin, guitar, 
etc. Double Stop, pressing two strings at once. (2) 
(noun) A rank or set of organ-pipes. Draw Stop, the 
arrangement of levers by means of which the "wind" is. 
admitted to the various ranks of pipes at will, called also 
register. Foundation Stop, one of 8-foot pitch. Mutation 
Stop, one sounding the major third or perfect fifth, or both, 
over the fundamental. Solo Stop, one with a tone quality 

. suited to the rendition of melody. 

Stracino (It) (strah-chee'-no) , Stracicato (strah-chee-cah'- 
to), Stracicando (strah-chee-can'-do) , Stracinando {strah- 
chee-nan'-do). A drag, or slur; sliding from one note 
to another and at the same time slightly slackening the time. 

Strain. Song, air, tune, or a part of one. 

Strathspey. A Scotch dance in i time. • 
Stravagante (It) {strah-vah-gan'-ie). Extravagant; fan- 

Stravaganza (It.) (strah-vah-ganf-sah). A fantastic com- 

Streng (Ger.). Rigid; severe. 

Strepito (It) {sir eW -pee-to), con. With noise; fury. 

Strepitosamente (It.) {streh-pee-tO'Sah-men'-teh), Furi- 
Strepitoso (It.) (streh-pee-to'so). Furious. 

Stretta, Stretto (It.). "A throng." (i) Hurrying the time 
at the close. (2) In fugue, causing the voices to follow 
one another at less distance, so that the subject and answer 
are brought closer together. 

Stridente (It) (stree-den'-teh). Strident; noisy; impetuous. 

String. Abbreviation for Stringendo. 

String. Cords made of wire, catgut, or silk, used for musical 


String Band. The violins, violas, violoncellos, and double 
bass, also spoken of collectively as the "strings" or the 
string quartet. 

String Instruments. Those in which the tone is reproduced 
by the vibration of strings. They are classified as follows : 
1st, strings plucked by the fingers — harp, guitar, etc.; 2d, 
strings struck by plectra — ^mandolin, zither, etc. ; 3d, strings 
vibrated by means of a bow — ^violin, etc. ; 4th, strings struck 
with hammers — ^pianoforte, dulcimer, etc. 

String Quartet. A composition for two violins, viola, and 

String Quintet, Sextet, Septet, Octet arc formed by com- 
bining the string instruments in various proportions. 

Stringendo (It.) (strin-jen'-do). Hurrying the time. 

Strisciando (It.) (strish-e-an'-do). Creeping; gliding. 

Stromentato (It). Instrumented; scored; orchestrated. 

Stromento (It.) (stro-men'-to). Instrument. 

Stromento di corda. String instrument 

Stromento di fiato or di vento. Wind instrument 

Stiick (Ger.) (stick). A piece. Concertsttick, concert piece. 
Salonstiick, parlor piece. 

Study, Etude (Fr.), Studio (It), (i) A composition de- 
signed to facilitate the mastering of some special difficulty. 
(2) A name often given by modern writers to pieces analo- 
gous to the old toccata, q, v. 

Stufe (Ger.) (stoo'-feh). A step; degree of the scale. 

Stiirmisch (Ger.). Stormy; furioso. 

Suave (It) (soo-a'-veh). Sweet. 

Suavemente (It) (soo-a-veh-men'-teh). Sweetly. 

Suavita (It) (soo-ah'-vee-ta), con. With sweetness. 

Sub-bass. An organ pedal-stop of 16- or 32-foot tone. 

Sub-dominant. The 4th degree of the scale ; not called sub- 
dominant because it is below the dominant, but because it 
is the same distance below the tonic that the dominant is 


Sub-mediant. The 6th of the scale. 

12 8 




4 5 

I. Tonic. 2. Mediant, i, e., half-way^ to dominant. 3. Dominant. 4 
Sub-mediant, t. e., half-way to sub-dominant. 5. Sub-dominant. 

Sub-octave. A coupler on the organ that pulls down the 
keys an octave below those struck. 

Sub-principal. Open organ-stop, 32- and 16-foot pitch. 

Sub-tonic. The leading note, 7th of the scale. 

Subito (It.) (soo'bee'-to), Subitamente. Quickly. Volti 
subito, abbreviated V. S., turn over quickly. 

Subject The theme of a fugue ; any one of the themes of a 
sonata, rondo, etc. 

Subordinate Chords. Those on the 2d, 3d, and 6th of the 

Suite (Fr.) (sweet). A set or series of movements. The 
suite originally consisted solely of dance tunes to which 
"airs" or movements, designated by the tempo terms, allegro, 
etc., were added. The classical suite contained: ist, alle- 
mand; 2d, coranto; 3d, saraband; 4th, gigue, preceded by a 
prelude. Occasionally the gavotte, pavan, loure, minuet, 
etc., may be found with or in place of some of the above 
dances. According to the rule of the suite, all the move- 
ments had to be in the same key. 

Suivez (Fr.) (swee-vey). Follow; a direction for the accom- 
panist to follow the soloist 

Sujet (Fr.) (soo-zhay). Subject 

Sul, Sull, Sulla (It). Upon; on; by; in violin music a pas- 
sage to be played on a certain string is marked Sul E, or A, 
or D, or G, as the case may be. 

Sul ponticello (It). By the bridge; in violin playing, a 

direction to play with the bow close to the bridge. 
Suonata. See Sonata. 
Superfluous. Same as Augmented. 

Super-octave, (i) An organ-stop of 2-foot pitch, same as 
fifteenth. (2) A coupler in the organ that pulls down the 
keys one octave above those struck. 


Super-tonic. The 2d degree of the scale. 
Super-dominant. The 6th degree of the scale. 

Supplichevole (It.) {sup-plee-kay''VO-leh)^ Supplichevol- 
mente (sup-plee-kay-vol-men'-teh). Pleading; supplicat- 

Suspension. Tying or prolonging a note from one chord into 
the following. See Retardation, 

Siiss (Ger.) (sees). Sweet. 

Sussurando (It.) {soos-soo-ran'-do). Murmuring. 

Sussurante (It.) (soos-soo-ran'-teh) . Whisperingly. 

Svegliato (It.) (svehl-ya'-to). Brisk; lively. 

Svelte (It.) (svel'-to). Swift; quick; easy. 

Swell Organ. A part of the organ enclosed within a box 
provided with shutters, which are opened and closed by a 
lever, called the swell-pedal, worked by the foot 

Symphony. See Sinfonia, 

Symphonic. In the manner of a S3rmphony. 

Sjrmphonic Ode. A combination of S3rmphony and chorus, 
as Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, or Mendelssohn's Lobge- 

Symphonic Poem. A modern name for an orchestral com- 
position supposed to illustrate a poem or story. 

Syncopation. A shifting of the accent, caused by tying a 
weak beat to a strong beat. 

Syrinx, (i) Pandean Pipes, q. v. (2) Part of a hymn to 
Apollo sung in the Pythian games. 

T. Abbreviation of Tasto, Tenor, Tempo, Tutti, Toe (in 

organ music). 
Taballo (It.). Kettle-drum. 

Tablature (Fr.) (tab-lah-toor) , Intavolatura (It), Tablatur 
(Ger.). An obsolete system of notation used for the lute 
principally; another form was used for the organ, harpsi- 
chord, etc. 

Table (Fr.) (tahbl). The belly or sound-board. 


Table Music, (i) Music intended to be sung by several 
people sitting around a table. {2) Music appropriate for 
entertainment during the pauses in the "serious" work of 
eating and drinking. 

Tabor, Taboret, Tabrct. A small drum, like a tambourine 
without the "jingles." It hung in front of the performer, 
who beat it with one hand and played a "pipe" or flageolet 
with the other. 

Tacet (Lat.), Tacc (It.) (tah'-cheh). Is silent, or be 
silent; signifies that the instrument thus marked is silent 
during the phrase or movement; as Tromboni tacent, the 
trombones are silent. 

Tafelclavier (Ger.). Square pianoforte. 

Tafelmusik. Table music. 

Tail, (i) Stem of a note. (2) The piece of wood to which 
the strings of the violin, etc. are attached at the base of the 

Taille (Fr.) (tah-ee). The tenor voice or part. 

Takt (Ger.). Time, as Im Takt, a tempo; measure, as Ein 
Takt, one measure (or bar) ; beat, as Auftakt, up beat. 

TaktmSssig. In time. 

Taktstrich. A bar (line, not measure). 

Talon (Fr.). The "frog" or heel of the bow. 

Tambour (Fr.)y (i) A drum. (2) A drummer. 

Tambour de basque. Tambourine. 

Tamboura, Tambura (also Pandora). An Eastern species 
of the lute. 

Tambourin (Fr.) (tam-boo-rang) . (i) A tabor. (2) A 
French rustic dance. 

Tambourine. A small variety of drum consisting of a hoop 
of wood or metal about two inches in depth, with a head of 
parchment. Small circular plates of metal called jingles are 
inserted in pairs in holes in the hoop, strung loosely on 
wires. The tambourine is held in the left hand and struck 
with the fingers or palm of the right hand ; used to accom- 
pany dancing in Spain, Italy, and Southern France; occa- 
sionally used in the orchestra in ballet music. The "roll" is 

indicated thus \ The "jingle" 

^ The "jingle" ^V 


Tamburo (It). Drum; side drum. 

Tamburone (It) (tatn-boo-ro'-neh) . The great drum. 

Tam-tam. Gong. 

Tandelnd (Ger.) (tehn-delnd). Playful. 

Tangent. The brass pin in the action of the clavichord that 
was forced against the string when the key was struck. 

Tantino (tan-tee-no) , very little. 

Tanto (It). So much; as much. Allegro non tanto, not 
so fast; lit, "fast, not too much." 

Tanz (Ger.) (tants). Dance. 

Tanzlieder. Songs to accompany dancing. See Ballad, 

Tanzstiicke. Dancing pieces. 

Tanzweisen. Dancing tunes. * 

Tarantella (It), Tarantelle (Fr.). A rapid dance in J time; 
the name is derived from tarantula (the poisonous spider). 
The dance is popularly believed to be a remedy for the bite 
of this insect. 

Tardamente (It.) (tar-dah-men'-teh). Slowly. 

Tardando (It) (tar-dan' -do). Slowing; retarding. 

Tardato (It) (tar-dah'-to). Made slower. 

Tardo (It) (tar' -do). Slow; dragging. 

Tartini Tone. An undertone produced by the simultaneous 
vibration of two strings, etc., first observec^ by Tartini, the 
violinist. Called also a differential tone. 

Tastatur (Ger.) (tas-tah-toor). Tastatura (It) (tas-tah- 
too'-ra). Keyboard. 

Taste (Ger.) (tas'-teh). A pianoforte or organ key; pedal 

Tastenbrett (Ger.), Tastenleiter. Keyboard. 

Tastiera (It) (tas-tee-eh'-ra). Fingerboard of violin, guitar, 
etc. Sulla Tastiera, a direction in violin music to play with 
the bow near the fingerboard — the opposite of Sul ponti- 
cello, q. V. 

Taste (It). A "touch." (i) A key. (2) A fret (3) 
Touch. (4) Fingerboard. The preceding words from Tas- 
tatur are all derived from Tasto. 

Tasto Solo. Literally, "key alone," i. e., one key or note at a 
time. A direction in figured bass that the notes are to be 
played without chords, ». e., unison or octaves. 



Tattoo or Taptoo. The drumbeat ordering soldiers to retire 
for the night. 

Tcchnic, Technik (Ger.), Technique (Fr.). The purely 
mechanical part of playing or singing. 

Technicon. A mechanism for strengthening the fingers and 
increasing their flexibility. 

Techniphone. See Virgil Clavier. 

Tedesco or Tedesca, alia (It.). In German style. 

Tema (It.) (teh'-mah). Theme; subject; melody. 

Temperament. The division of the octave. Equal Tem- 
perament. The modern system of tuning divides the octave 
into twelve equal parts, called semitones. Unequal Tem- 
perament (which was formerly used for all keyed instru- 
ments, and retained until quite recently for the organ) 
tuned the natural notes true, and distributed the super- 
fluous interval among the *'black" keys. The discovery of 
the art of equally tempering the scale lies at the foundation 
of modern music. Without it, the sudden excursions into 
remote keys would be impossible. Although we have lost 
something in purity of intonation, the loss is more than 
made up in the gain of twelve keys, all equally well in tune. 
Some enthusiasts, generally acousticians, express great dis- 
satisfaction with our modern scale. A sufficient reply is, 
that the scale that satisfied the ears of, and made possible 
the music of the great writers from Bach to Beethoven, 
must of necessity be the best musical scale. 

Tempestosamente (It.) (tem-pes-to'-sa-men'-teh). Impetu- 
Tempestoso (It.) (tem-pes-to'-so). Tempestuous. 

Tempete (Fr.) (tam-peht). Tempest. A French dance — 
formerly fashionable — resembling a quadrille. 

Tempo (It.). Time. "Tempo" is universally used to signify 
"rate of movement." 

Tempo Indications — 










j Allegro, 
I Presto. 


Words used to modify the above : Foco^ a littk. Before a 
word meaning slow, signifies an increase of qieed, as foco 
Unto, a little slow ; before a word meaning fast, it signifies 
a decrease of speed, as poco allegro, a little fast Pin, more. 
Before a word meaning slow, signifies a decrease of speed, 
as piu lento, slower ; before a word meaning fast, it signifies 
an increase of speed, as piu allegro, faster. Assai, reiy. 
After a word meaning slow, decreases the speed, as adagio 
assai, very slow; after a word meaning fast, increases the 
speed, as allegro assai, Molto, much ; has the same mean- 
ing as assai. 

The Diminutive Etto 
Ql j Larghetto, a little faster than Largo. 

^ \ Adagietta, a little faster than Adagio. 

Fast, Allegretto, a little slower than Allegro. 

The Supeklative Issimo 
( Larghissimo, \ 

Slow } Lentissimo, >• As slow as possible. 

( Adagissimo, i 

Fast i Allegrissimo, J ^^^^ ^^ possible, 

) Prestissimo, ( 

The Diminutive Ino 
slow, Andantino, faster than Andante. 

Andante means "going" [from andare, to go], therefore 
Andantino means "going a little." A large number of words 
are used in conjunction with the tempo indications that 
refer more to the manner or style of the performance than 
to the speed, as Appassionata, with passion; Vivace, with 

The majority of these words are preceded by con, with; as 
Con brio . . . with vigor, \ 

Con calore . . with warmth, ( After words mean- 
Con fuoco . . with fire, t ing fast. 
Con moto, etc. . with motion, ) 

Con espressione . with expression ^ 
Con dolcezza . with sweetness, f After words mean- 
Con dolore . . with sadness, J ing slow. 
Con tristezza . with sorrow, j 

Tempo commodo. Convenient; easy movement. 

Tempo di ballo. Dance time. 


Tempo giusto. Strict; exact time. 

Tempo marcia. March time. 

Tempo ordinario. Ordinary; usual. 

Tempo primo. First time, used after a ritard. or accel. to 
indicate a return to the original time. 

Tempo nibato. See Rubato, 

Tempo wic vorher (Ger.). Same as Tempo primo. 

Temps (Fr.) (/om). (i) Time. (2) Beat. 

Temps faible or lev6. Weak beat; up beat. 

Temps fort or frapp6. Strong beat ; down beat. 

Tendrement (Fr.) (tondr-mong) . Tenderly. 

Tenendo 11 canto (It.). Sustaining the melody. 

Teneramente (It.) (teh-neh-ra-men'-teh). Tenderly; deli- 

Tenerezza (It) (teh-neh-ret'-sa), con. With tenderness, 

Tenero (It.) (teh'-neh-ro). Tender; delicate. 

Tenor, Tenore (It), Taille or T6nor (Fr.). (i) The high- 
est natural male voice. (2) In the old system of music, 
the cantus or plain song. (3) A common name for the 
viola. The word tenor is supposed to be derived from Lat, 
teneo, to hold, as it held the melody. 

Tenor Clef. C clef on 4th line. 

Tenor Violin. Viola. 

Tenore buffo. A comic tenor singer. 

Tenore di grazia. A "smooth-singing" tenor singer. 

Tenore leggiero. A light tenor singer. 

Tenore robusto. A vigorous, strong tenor singer. 

Tenorino (It) (ten-o-ree'-no). "Little tenor." Falsetto 

Tenorist A tenor singer; also viola player. 

Tenoroon. (i) See Oboe di caccia. (2) Any organ-stop of 
8-foot tone that does not go below middle C. 

Tenuto (It.) (teh-noo'-to). Abbreviated Ten. Hold; a 

direction to sustain the notes for their full value. SignT 
Tepidita (It) (teh-pee'-dee-ta), cor» With indifference. 


Tepiditamente (It.) (teh-pee'dee-tch-men'-teh). Coldly; luke* 


Tercet (Fr.) (tehr-say). A triplet 

Ternary Form* Rondo with three themes. 

Ternary Measure. Simple triple time. 

Tertian. A two-rank stop, sounding the major 3d and 5th 
in the third octave above the fundamental. 

Terz (Ger.) (terts), (It) Terza. Third. 

Terzetto (It.) (tert-set'-to). A vocal trio. 

Terzfldte (Ger.). (i) A flute sounding a 3d above the writ- 
ten notes. (2) An organ-stop sounding the major 3d in 
third octave. 

Tessitura (It) (tes-see-tu'-rah). Texture. The general 
range of the voice included in a given song, etc 

Teste (It) (tehs'-to). Text (i) The "words" of any 
vocal composition. (2) The theme or subject 

Tetrachord [from Gr., tetra, chordon]. Four strings; hence, 
a succession of four sounds. The tetrachord always 'con- 
sists of two whole tones and one half-tone. These ^intervals 
may be arranged in three ways. The oldest arrangement, 
called the Pythagorean tetrachord, began with the half- 
tone, thus: 



It is generally supposed that the original four-string Ijrre 
(called the tetrachordon) was tuned to these sounds. The 
addition of another tetrachord, beginning with the highest 
note of this one, gives the scale of the heptachord, or seven- 
string lyre, thus: 

This is called the scale of conjunct tetrachords, the A being 
the note common to both. The addition of a note below this 
scale, thus: 


gives the original octave scale of the lyre. This scale is the 
normal Greek scale, called the Dorian. It is doubtless the 
origin of the modern minor scale. The tetrachord known as 
Hucbald's had the half-tone in the middle, thus:.D £ F G. 

The Hexachord scales (q. v.) were formed from the tetra- 
chord by adding one letter above and one below, thus : 

C D £> G A. 

In the modern major scale the half-tone lies between the 
third and fourth letters of the tetrachord, thus : C D E F, 

and the scale consists of two of these tetrachords separated 
by a whole tone. 

Tetrachordal System. The original name of the Tonic Sol- 
fa, q,v, 

Theil or Tell (Ger.). A part (portion, not "voice"). 

Theme, Thdme (Fr.) (tehm), Thema (Ger.) (teh-ma). 
The subject of a fugue; one of the subjects of a sonata or 
rondo. The subject of a set of variations. The "cantus" 
to which counterpoint is added. 

Theorbo, Th6orbe (Fr.). A large variety of lute. 

Third. An interval including three letters, and, if major, two 
whole tones; if minor, three half-tones; if diminished, two 
half-tones : 

$ g >^ ^ 

Thirty-second Note p 

Thorough Bass, Figured Bass, Continued Bass. A system 
of musical short-hand originally; now used as a means of 
teaching harmony. 

Threnody [Gr. threnos], A song of mourning; dirge. 
Thumb Position. Violoncello music; sign q, the thumb is 
laid across the strings, making a temporary bridge. 

Tibia (Lat.). The "shinbone." Latin name for the flute, 
which was originally made from the bone, the name of 
which it bears. 



Tibia Utricularis. Bagpipe. 

Tibicen (Lat). A flute player. 

Tie, Fascia (It), Bindebogen (Ger.), Liaison (Fr.). A 
curved line joining two notes on the same degree. The first 
note is sounded, the second is ''held." In old editions, in 
place of the tie, it was customary to write a single note on 
the bar-line,^ equal in value to the two notes that in modern 
practice are tied. Thus: 




Any number of notes may be tied. The sign must be re- 
peated for each one, thus: 

r r 


The first note is struck, but the sound is prolonged until 
the time value of all has expired. 

Tief (Ger.). beep; low. 

Tierce, (i) A third. (2) An organ-stop. See Ters. 

Tierce de picardie (Fr.). The major 3d in place of the 
minor in the final chord of a piece in the minor key. At 
one time this manner of ending was the rule. 

Tierce Position. A common chord with root in bass and 
third at top. 

Timbale (Fr.), Timballo (It.). Kettle-drum. 

Timbre (Fr.) (tantbr). Quality of tone. In German Klang- 
farbe, for which Clangtint has been proposed as an English 

Timbrel. Tambourine. 

Time, (i) The division of music into portions marked by 
the regular return of an accent. All varieties of time are 

founded on two units — ^the Binary =12, and Ternary = 

123. Time signatures for the most part are formed from 
figures written like fractions, the upper figure giving the 
rhythmic units and the number of times the value of the 
note indicated by the lower figure occurs in the measure. 
Time is Simple Binary when the upper figure is 2; Simple 
Ternary, when the upper figure is 3. Compound times are 
formed by adding together two or more of the time units. 


When the number of accents resulting from this combina- 
tion are even, it is called Compound Common time; when 
they are odd, Compound Triple time. Simple Duple time is 

indicated by this sign ^. As now used, it always means the 

value of a whole note in the measure, and is called Alia 
Capella time. Like all duple times, it must have but one 
accent in the measure, no matter how the time value of the 
measure may be divided. The first compound of Duple 
time, viz., | time, is often marked f\ and is called Common 

time, under the impression that the sign is the letter C, 
whereas it is the old sign for Imperfect time, viz., a broken 
circle, and originally meant two beats in the measure. 
Three beats was called Perfect time; the sign was ^\^ 

With the exception of the times with 4 for the upper figure, 
all the compound times are multiples of the ternary unit, as 

l» l» f» y» V» H» ^^^'* Compound Common; }, t» A» 
Compound Triple. The accents in compound times are de- 
termined by the number of units in the measure. The first 
is the strongest, third next, the second is weak, the fourth 

In Compound Triple, the second and third are both weak. 

lu Lu iu 

Timidezza (It.) (tee-mee-det'-sa), con. With timidity, 

Timorosamente (It.) (tee-mo-ro-sa-men'-teh). Timorously. 
Timoroso (It.) {tee-mo-ro'-so). Timorous; hesitating. 

Timpani (It.) {Hm' -pa-nee). Kettle-drums. Abbreviated 

Timpanista (It). Player on the kettle-drums. 

Tirade (Fr.) (tee-rad), A rapid run or scale passage. 

Tirasse (Fr.) (tee-rass). A pedal keyboard that "draws 
down" the manual keys. 

Tirata (It.) {tee-rah'-tah). See Tirade, 

Tirato (It.), Tir6 (Fr.) (tee-reh). "Drawn" bow, •. e., 
down bow. 

Toccata (It.) (tok-kah'-tah) [touched, from toccare, ta 
touch], (i) A prelude or overture. (2) A brilliant com- 


position resembling somewhat the modern "idftude" for 
piano or organ. 

Toccatina (It.) (tok-kah-tee'-nah). A little toccata. 

Toccato (It.). A bass trumpet part. 

Todtenmarsch (Ger.) (tote'-ten marsh). Funeral march. 

Ton ((jer.), Ton (Fr.). Tone; sound; pitch; scale. 

Tonal Fugue. A fugue in which the answer is slightly 
changed to avoid modulation. 

Tonality. Character or quality of tone; key. 

Tonart (Ger.). Key. 

Tonbildung. Tone production. 

Tondichter. Tone poet. 

Tondichtung. Tone poem. 

Tone, (i) Sound. (2) Quality of sound. (3) Interval of 
major second. (4) A Gregorian chant. 

Tongue, (i) See Reed, (2) (verb) To interrupt the sound 
of a wind instrument by raising and lowering the tip of the 
tongue, as in the act of pronouncing the letter T. Double- 
tonguing is produced by a like action of the tip and the 
middle of the tongue; Triple-tonguing, by the tip, the 
middle, and the tip. 

Tonkunst. Tone art; music. 

Tdnkiinstler. Composer; artist in tone. 

Tonic. The keynote of a scale, whether major or minor. 

Tonic Chord. The common chord of which the tonic is the 
root. , 

Tonic Section. Part of a piece in the tonic key; in rondo 
the chief theme, in sonata allegro the return of themes. 

Tonic Sol-fa. A system of musical notation in which the 
syllables doh, ray, me, fah, sob, lah, te, with certain modifi- 
cations, are used in place of notes, staff, clefs, and all the 
ordinary characters of musical notation. The Tonic Sol-fa 
is based on the assumption, amply proved by experience, 
that the mental association between a succession of sounds 
and a succession of syllables helps materially to fix the 
former succession in the memory. The principle of 
the Tonic Sol-fa system is as old as the time of Guido; 
the modern development of it originated with Miss Sarah 


Ann Glover, of Norwich, England, in 1812, and was per- 
fected by the Rev. John Curwen about thirty years later. 

Tonleiter. Tone ladder; scale. 

Tonsetzer. Composer; tone setter. 

TonstUck. Tone piece; composition. 

Tonstufe. Tone step ; a degree in the scale. 

Tostamente (It.) {tos-tah-men'-teh) . Quickly. 

Tostissimo (It.) (tos-tis' -see-mo), Tostissamamente (tos- 
tis-sah-tnah-men'-teh) . Fast as possible. 

Teste (It.). Quick. Piu teste, faster. 

Touch, (i) The resistance of the keys of the pianoforte or 
organ. (2) The manner in which a player strikes the keys. 

Teuche (Fr.) (toosh). Digital; key; fret; fingerboard. 

Toucher (Fr.) (too-^hay). To "touch"; play the pianoforte. 

Teujeurs (Fr.) (joo-zhoor). Always; as, Toujours piano, 
always soft. 

Tradette (It.) (trah-dot'-to). Transcribed; arranged. 

Tragen der Stimme (Ger.). Carrying of the voice. See 

Trains (Fr.) (tray-nay). Slurred; legato. 

Trait (Fr.) (t^<iy)' A run; passage; sequence. 

Tranquillamente (It.). Quietly; composedly. 

Tranquillita, cen (It.). With tranquillity. 

Tranquille (It). Tranquil; quiet. 

Transcription. The arrangement of a vocal composition for 
an instrument, or of a composition for some instrument for 

Transient Modulation. A short excursion into a non-related 

Transition, (i) An abrupt modulation. (2) The connecting 
passages between the themes of a rondo or sonata. 

Transpose. To change the key of a composition to one 
higher or lower. 

Transposing Instruments. Instruments whose sounds do 
not correspond with the written notes; as horns, clarionets, 
trumpets, etc. 

Transverse Flute. See Flute. 


Trascinando (It) (trah-shee-nan'^do) . Dragging; retarding. 

Trattenuto (It.) (trat-teh-noo'-to). Held back; retarded, 

Trauermarsch ((kr.). Funeral march. 

Traurig (Ger.) (trou'-rig). Mournful; sad. 

TraversflSte (Ger.). See Flute. 

Trc (It.) (tray). Three. 

Trc corde. Three strings, used in pianoforte music to signify 
a release of the una-corda pedal. 

Treble, (i) The highest part in vocal music for mixed or 
female voices. (2) The G clef on second line. (3) The 
first violin in quartet, and the flute, oboe, and clarinet in the 
orchestra generally. 

Treibend (Ger.). Hastening; accelerando. 

Tremando '(It.) (treh-tnan'-do), Tremolando (It.) (treh- 
mo-laW-do), Tremolo (It.) (treh'-mo-lo). Abbreviation 
Trem. The rapid reiteration of a note or chord. In music 
for string instruments written thus: 


In pianoforte music: 

""^ or 


AT" r^g » 

Tremoloso (It.) (treh-mo-lo'-so). Tremulously. 

Tremulant, Tremolante (It), Tremblant (Fr.) (trotn- 
blont). A mechanism in the organ that causes the sound to 

Tremulieren (Ger.). To trill or to sing. See Vibrato. 

Trenchmore. An old English dance in j time. 

Trenise (Fr.). A figure in the quadrille. 

Tris (Fr.) (tray). Very; as, Tr^s vite, very fast 

Triad. A chord of three sounds ; a common chord, consisting 
of root, 3d major or minor, and 5th. If the 5th is dimin- 



ished, it is called a diminished triad ; if augmented, an aug« 
mented triad. 



Maj, Min. Dim. Aug. 

Triangle. A pulsatile instrument, consisting of a steel rod 
bent into an equilateral triangle. Struck with a small steel 
rod, it gives a very clear penetrating sound. 

Trill, Tiillo (It,). Trille (Fr.), Trillcr (Ger.). The trill, or 
shake, is the rapid iteration of the written note and the note 

above, indicated by the sign, fr The trill continues 

to the end of the waved line. The oldest form or trillo was 
a mere repetition of a tone. The oldest form of the modern 
shake was held to be derived from appoggiaturas and their 
resolutions. Until the time of Beethoven, the trill begin- 
ning with upper auxiliary note was most generally used. 
However, the present method of beginning with the princi- 
pal tone was gradually gaining the attention of writers. 

The trill is generally finished with a turn. The after-turn 
is usually written out at the close of the trill, but whether or 
not this be so, the trill is not complete without this ciosmg 
beat : 




To make the trill symmetrical with an after-turn, an ad- 
ditional tone is inserted, just before the close, otherwise 
there will be a break between the last and the next to the 
last beats ; thus : 

This gap beween D and B is filled by. the insertion of an 
additional principal tone, which will make the next to the 
last beat contain three tones (a triplet) ; thus : 

This makes a satisfactory close to a trill, the two beats 
(five notes) making a complete turn of quintuplet form. 


Many writers call this (quintuplet) the turn of the trill, 
but properly speaking the after-turn of the trill is only the 
last beat, the triplet preceding being a real part of the trill. 
From this it will be seen that the beats of a trill may be 
either twofold or threefold, and the smallest complete trill, 
according with the modern acceptation of the correct form 
of the embellishment, would be with two beats, five notes; 

The rapidity of a trill is reckoned by the number of beats, 
not by the number of tones, sounded within a given note's 
time. The trill upon a long note has no positive number 
of beats, this being decided, in case there is no particular 
accompanying figure, by the character of the composition 
and also measurably by the ability of the interpreter. The 
after-turn, however, should always be played in the same 
time as the trill, regardless of the size of note used for its 
representation in the notation. 

Trinklied (Ger.). Drinking song. 

Trio (It.) (tree-o). (i) A composition for three voices or 
instruments. (2) One of the parts of a minuet or march, 
etc The origin of its application is very uncertain. 

Triolc ((kr.). Triolet (Fr.). A triplet. 

Triomphale (tree-om-fal) , Triomphant (Fr.) (tri-om-font), 

Trionfale {tree-on-faW-leh), Trionfante (It.) {tree-on- 

fan'-teh). Triumphant; triumphal. 

Triple Counterpoint. One so contrived that the three parts 
may change places, each one serving as bass, middle, or 
upper part. 

Triplet, Triolc (Ger.), Triolet (Fr.), Tripla (It), or Tri- 
pola. Three notes played in the time of two of the same 

Triple Time. See Time. 

Tristezza (It.) (tris-tet'-sa), con. With sadness; sadly. 
Tritone [Lat, tritonus, three tones], Triton (Fr.), Tritono 
(It.). The interval of the augmented 4th, as: 

|> J ^ I 


Trois (Fr.) (tro-a). Three. 

Trois temps. Triple time. 

Troll [from Ger., trollen, to roll about], (i) (verb) To sing 
a catch, or round. (2) (noun) A catch or round. 

Tromba (It.). Trumpet; a brass instrument of piercing, 
brilliant tone quality. 

Tromba marina (It). Marine trumpet. 

Trombetta (It). A small trumpet 

Trombone, Posaune (Ger.). (i) A brass instrument with 
a sliding tube, by means of which the pitch may be varied. 
Three trombones are used in the modern orchestra, viz., 
alto, tenor, and bass. A smaller trombone formerly used 
was called the Descant Trombone. (2) A reed stop of 
8-, 16-, or 32-foot pitch in the organ. 

Trommel (Ger.). Drum. 

Trompe (Fr.). Hunting horn. 

Trompe de beam. Jew's-harp. 

Trompette (Fr.). Trumpet. 

Troppo (It). Too much. Allegro non troppo, "Allegro," 
not too much. 

Troubadour, Trouvire (Fr.), Trovatore (It). The poet 
musicians of the eleventh century, in southern France, Italy, 
and Spain. The troubadours originated in Provence. From 
thence their "gentle art," or "gay science," as it was called, 
spread over Europe. 

Triibe (Ckr.) (tree'-beh). Gloomy; dismal. 
Trumpet. See Tromba, 

Tuba (Lat). (i) Trumpet (2) A bass instrument of the 
saxhorn family, frequently used with, or in place of, the 
bass trombone. 

Tuba mirabiles (Lat). Tuba "wonderful." A reed-stop in 
the organ with heavy wind pressure, 8- or 16-foot tone. 

Tumultuoso (It) (too-mul-too-o'-so). Agitated; tumultuous. 

Tune, (i) Air; melody. (2) Just intonation. 

Tuner. One %who adjusts the sounds of an instrument to the 
standard and relative pitch. 

Tuono (It), (i) Sound. (2) Mode. 

1 84 


Turca, alia (It.). In the Turkish manner. 

Turkish Music or Janissary Music. Drums, cymbals, gongs, 
etc., to produce noise. 

Turn. (Abridged from Russell's "Embellishments of Music") 
The Turn partakes in its delivery somewhat of the char- 
acter of the composition in which it appears, and should 
be played (or sung), according to Louis Kohler, broad in 
slow tempo, light and flowing in brighter movements, and 
always legato. It may be broadly divided into four classes : 

I. The symbol c^ placed over the note ( | )» or the 
note preceded by the embellishment written in full. 




A dagi o. M 



2. A turn between two notes on different degrees (or four 
small notes between). 









3. A turn between two notes of similar pitch* 









4. The turn after a dotted note. The delivery of this 
turn is the same as the third class in its effect, since the 
dot is simply another way of writing a second similar note. 




An exception to this fourth rule is made if the dotted 
note with turn directly precedes a close (possibly forming 
part of the cadence) and is followed by two notes of equal 
value leading up or down to the closing notes of the phrase. 

Tutta (It.). All. Con tutta forza. With full power. 

Tutti (It.) (too'tee). In scores, a notification to all the per- 
formers and singers to take part 

Tuyau (Fr.). Pipe. 

Tuyau d'orgue. Organ pipe. 

Tuyau k anche. Reed pipe. 

Tuyau k bouche. Flue pipe. 

Twelfth. An organ stop sounding the 12th above the diapason. 

Tjrmpani. See Timpani. 

Tyrolienne (Fr.) (tee-rol-yen) . (i) A Tyrolese song for 
dancing. (2) Tyrolese song with yodel 


U. C. Abbreviation of Una corda, one string. 

t)]>ergai]^ CCcr.'J Ce'-ber-gangk). Passage; transition; 

ttbung (Ger.) (e'-boonk). Exercise; study; practice. 


Uguale (It.) (oo'gwah'-leh). Equal. 

Ugualmente (It.) (oo-gwahl-men'-teh). Equally; evenly. 

Umfang (Ger.) (ootn-fangk). Compass. 

Umore (It.) (oo-mo'-reh), con. With humor. 

Umstimmung (Ger.) (oom'Stini'tnoonk), The change of the 
pitch of a brass instrument by the addition or change ol 
"crooks" ; the change of the pitch of kettle-drums. 

Un (It.) (oon), Una (oo'-nah), Uno (oo'-no). One; as, 
Una voce, one voice. 

Un or Une (Fr.) (ong, oon). One. 

Unda maris (Lat.). "Wave of the sea." The vox celestis, 
an organ-stop, 8-foot pitch, with a tremulous tone. 

Unessential Dissonances. Those that occur by suspension, 
the essential dissonances being the 7th and Qth, and, accord- 
ing to some authorities, the nth and 13th over the dominant. 

Unessential Notes. Passing and changing notes. 

Ungarisch (Ger.). Hungarian. 

Ungeduldig (Ger.). Impatiently. 

Ungesttim (Ger.). Impetuous; con impeto. 

Unison. Sounds consisting of the same number of vibra- 
tions per second. The term "unison passage" is applied 
to vocal or instrumental parts in the octave also. 

Unisono (It.) (oo-nee-so-no) , Unison. 

Unisson (Fr.) (oo-nis-song). Unison. 

Un p6c6 (It.). A little. 

Un pochino (It.) (po-kee'-no), Un pochettino {po-ket-tee*- 
no). A very little. 

Unruhig (Ger.) (oon-roo'-ig). Restless. 
Unschuldig (Ger.) (oon-shool-dig). Innocent. 

Up bow. In violin playing, the motion of the bow from the 
point to the nut. The sign is y ; the down bow | I . 

Ut (Fr.) {oot). The note C; the first of the Aretinian syl- 
lables, changed in Italy to do, a better vowel sound for 

Ut (Lat.). As; like. Ut supra, as before. 



V. Abbreviation of Violino, Voce, Volta. 

V-ccUo. Abbreviation of Violoncello. 

Via. Abbreviation of Viola. 

Va (It). Go; as, Va crescendo, go on getting louder. 

VaciUando (It.) {vat-chiUlan'-do). "Vacillating." A direc- 
tion to play without strict regard to time. 
Vago (It.). Vague; dreamy. 

Valse (x^'r.) {vals), Valce (It.) (val-cheh). Waltz; a dance 
of German origin in ) time. 

Vclse k deux temps (Fr.) {doo tomp). A species of waltz 
with two steps to each measure. 

Value. The value of a note or rest is its relative duration, 
the standard being the whole note or rest, which may be 
divided into half, quarter, eighth, sixteenth, thirty-second 
notes, etc. The value of a note is increased one-half by 
placing a dot after it; a second dot adds to its value an 
amount equal to half that of the first. The absolute value 
of a note depends upon the tempo, «. e., rate of movement 
of the piece in which it occurs. 

Valve. Sec Piston. 

Variante (Fr.) (vah-ree-ongt), A variant; other reading. 

Variations, Variationen (Ger.) (fch~i se-a-tse-o'-nen), Vari- 
azioni (It.) {va-rec-aUzee-o'-nee), Melodic, rhythmic, and 
harmonic modifications of a simple theme, each one more 
elaborate than the last. 

Varie (Fr.) (vah-rec), Variato (It.) (var-ya'-to). Varied; 
with variations. 

Varsovienne (Fr.) (var-so-vee-en) , Varsovianna (It.) {var- 

so-vee-an'-na), .\ dance in } time resembling the mazurka, 

invented in France. 
Vaudeville (Fr.) (vode-veel), A light operetta consisting of 

dialogue interspersed with songs ; the name is said to come 

from Vaux de Vire in Normandy. 

Veementc (It.) (veh-eh-men'-teh). Vehement; forceful. 
Veemenza (It.) {veh-eh-men'-tga) , con. With vehemence. 


Velato (It.) {veh'laW -to) , Voce velato, a veiled voice, i. e^ 
lacking in clearness and resonance. 

Vellutata (It.) (vel-loo-tah'-tah). Velvety; smooth. 

Veloce (It.) (veh-lo'-cheh). Rapid; swift 

Velocissimamente (It.) (veh-lO'chis-see-ma-men'-teh), Very 

Velocissimente (It.) (veh-lo'chis-see-men'-teh). Swiftly. 

Velocita (It.) (veh-lo'-chee-tah), con. With rapidity. 

Ventage. The holes in the tubes of wind instruments, the 
opening or closing of which' by the finger-tip or by valves 
worked by keys alters the pitch by varying the sounding 
length of the tube. 

Ventil. (i) Valve; piston. (2) In the organ a contrivance 
for cutting off the wind from a part of the organ. 

Venusto (It.) (veh-noos'-to). Graceful; fine. 

Verandeningen (Ger.) (fer-an'-de-roong-en). Variations. 

Vergniigt (Ger.) (fehr-gneegf). Pleasant; cheerful. 

Verhallend (Ger.). See Morendo, 

Verldschend (Ger.) (fehr-lesh'-end). See Morendo. 

Vermittelungsatz ((jer.) {fehr-mif-tel-oonk-sotz), A sub- 
sidiary part; episode in sonata, etc. 

Verschiebung (Ger.) (fehr-shee'-boonk), mit Use "soft 

Verschwindend (Ger.) (fehr-shwiW-dend). Dying away. 

Versetzung (Ger.) (fehr-sef-soonk). Transposition. 

Verspatung ((jer.) (fehr-spay'-toonk), Verweilend (fehr- 
wet' -lent), Verzogemd (fehr-tseh'-gernt). Delaying; re- 

Verve (Fr.) {vehrv). Spirit. Avec verve, with spirit. 

VerzweiflungsvoU (Ger.) (fehr-tsvy'-Aoonks-foll), Lit, full 
of desperation. Despairingly. 

Vezzoso (It.) (vets-so'-so), Vezzosamente (vets-so-sa- 
men'-teh). Beautiful; graceful; gracefully. 

Vibration. The rapid motion to and fro that produces the 
phenomena of sound by setting up a wave-motion in the air. 

Vibrato (It) {vee-hraW -to) , Vibrante (vee-bran'-teh). 
"Vibrating" with strong, "intense" tone ; vocal music, heavy 
accent in piano playing. 


Viel (Ger.) if eel). Much; many, 

Vielle (Fr.) {vee-el"). Rote; hurdy-gurdy. 

Vier (Ger.) (feer). Four. 

Vierstinmiig. Four-voiced. Vierfach, fourfold. 

Vif (Fr.). Lively. 

Vigorosamente (It) {vee-go-ro-sa-mfn'-teh}. Vigorously; 

VigorOBO (It) {vee-go-To'-so). Vigor; force. 
ViUancico (Sp.) (veel-lan'-tkee-co). Originally a species of 

song or madrigal, later a motet sung in church at certain 

Villanella (It). An ancient Italian folk-song. 
Viol. The precursor of the violin. Viols were made in sets 

of siK called a "chest of viols" ; the smallest was about the 

size of the modern viola, and all were provided with frets. 
Viola. The alto violin, generally called the tenor. The viola 

is slightly lai^er than the violin, and has four strings tuned 

as follows: 

Music for it is written with the C clef on the third line. 

Viola da braccia (arm viola), Viola da gamba (leg viola), 
Viola da spalla (shoulder viola), Viola pompoaa. Obso- 
lete varieties of the viola family. The last was the invention 
of J. S. Bach. 

Viole (Fr.). Viola. 

Viola d'amor (Fr.) (d'ah-moor) , Viola d'amore (It.) (d'ah- 
mo-reh), A variety of the viola with wire sympathetic 
strings in addition to the usual gut strings. 

Violin, Violon (Fr.), Violino (It.), Fiddle, Geige (Ger.), 
The words "violin" and "fiddle" both come from the Latin 
vitula or Stula, a mediEeval form of string instrument played 
with a bow. The violin has four strings, tuned as follows: 


The strings are of gut, the lowest, or G string, covered with 
thin wire. 

Violin Clef. The G clef % on the second line. 

Violina. A 4-foot organ-stop with string-like tone. 

Violino principale (It.) (prin-chee-pah'-leh). The solo 
violin, or leader of the violins. 

Violino ripieno. A violin part only used to fill up the tutti. 

Violoncello (It). The "little violone." The violoncello has 
four strings of gut, tuned an octave below the viola: 




The C and G strings are covered with wire. 

Violonar (Fr.). Double bass. 

Violonaro (Fr.). See Octo Bass. 

Violone (It.). The double bass, q, v. 

Virgil Clavier. A soundless keyboard for practice. 

VirginaL A small instrument of the harpsichord family. 

Virtuoso (masc.) (It.) (vir-too-o'-so), Virtuosa (fern.) 
(vir-ioo-o'-sah). An eminent skilled singer or player. The 
word was formerly used in the same sense as "amateur." 

Virtuos ((}er.), Virtuosin (fem.) (Ger.), Virtuose (Fr.). 


Vista (It). Sight A printa vista, at first sight. 

Vistamente (It) (vis-tah-men'-teh), Vitamente (It) (we- 
tah-men'-teh), Vive (Fr.) (veev), Vivente (It) (vee-veW- 
teh), Vivido (It.) (vee^-vee-do), Vivezza (vee'Vet'Sa)p 
con. Lively; briskly; with animation; vividly. 

Vivace (If (vee-vah'-cheh), Vivacemente (vee-vah-cheh* 
men' -teh) Vivacita (vee-vah'-chee-tah), con, Vivacezza 

(vee-vah- :het'-zah). Lively; rapid; with animation; with 

Vivacissimo (vee-vah-chis' -see-mo). Very lively and fast 

Vivo (J.) (vee-vo). Alive; brisk. 

Vocal Belonging to the voice; music meant to be sung or 
we)' designed for singing. 


Vocalion. A variety of reed organ in which the quality and 
power of the tone is much modified by resonators. 

Vocalise (Fr.) (vo-cal-ees) , Vocalizzi (It) {vo-cah-Uf^ 

zee). Vocal exercises. 

Vocalization, (i) The manner of singing. (2) The sing- 
ing of studies — solfeggio— to one or more vowel sounds. 
Voce (It.) (vo-cheh). The voice. 

Voice, (i) The sound produced by the human organs of 
speech. (2) A part in a polyphonic composition. There 
are three well-marked varieties of the male and female 
voice. Male voices are divided into bass, baritone, and 
tenor; the analogues in the female voice are alto, mezzo 
soprano, and soprano. 

Voicing. Regulating the quality and power of the tone of 

Voix (Fr.) (vo-a). Voice. 

Voix celeste (Fr.). Vox angelica. 

Volante (It.) (vo-hn'-teh). "Flying." The rapid, light exe- 
cution pf a series of notes. 

Volkslied (Ger.) {folks-leed). Popular song. 

Vol! (Ger.) {foil). Full. 

Volont6 (Fr.) (vo-lon-teh), A volenti. At will; a piacere. 

Volta (It). Turn. Una volta, first turn or first time. 

Volti (It) (vol'tee) (verb). Turn. Volti subito, abbrevi- 
ated V. S., turn over (the page) rapidly. 

Voluntary. An organ solo before, during, or after church 
service, frequently extemporary. 

Vordersatz (Ger.) (foZ-der-sots). Principal theme; sonata. 

Vorspiel (Ger.) (for-speel). Prelude; overture; introduc- 

Vox (Lat). Voice. 

Vox celestis, Vox angelica. See Unda maris. 

Vox humana. An organ-stop imitating the human voice. 
(Fr. Voix humane). 

Vttide (Fr.) (voo'eed)^ Vuoto (It) (voo-o-to). Open. 
Corde vuide, Corda vuide, open string, i.e., a string of 
instruments of violin familv sounded without being touched 
by the finger. 



Waits, Waytes, Waightes. Watchmen who "piped the 
hours" at night on a species of hautboy called a wait, or 
shawm. In modern times "Christmas waits" are parties of 
singers who go from house to house collecting pennies on 

Christmas Eve. 


Waldfldte (Ger.) (volt-Aay-teh), Forest flute; a 4-foot open 
organ-stop. Waldquinte is a 12th with the same tone 

Waldhom (Ger.). Forest horn; hunting horn; the French 
horn without valves. 

Waltz. See False, 

Walze (Ger.) (voV-tseh), A run, alternately ascending and 
descending; a "roller." 

Wankend (Ger.). Hesitating. 

Warme (Ger.) (vehr'-meh). Ardor; warmth. 

Wehmut (Ger.) {veW-moot), Sadness. 

Wehmiitig (Ger.). Sad; melancholy. 

Weich (Ger.). Weak; soft; minor. 
Weinend (Ger.). Weeping; lamenting. 

Well-tempered (Wohltemperirtes) Clavier (Ger.). A 
title given by Bach to a set of preludes and fugues in 
all the keys. See Temperament. 

Wenig (Ger.). Little; un poco. 

Whistle. A small flue-pipe or flageolet; the first step in 
advance of the pandean pipe, «. e., a tube blown across the 

Whole Note.«» 

Whole Step. A whole tone. 

Wie (Ger.). As; the same. Wie vorher, as before. 

Wiederholung (Ger.) (wee-dehr-ho'-loonk). Repetition. 

Wiegenlied (Ger.) {wee' -gen-lee d). Cradle song; berceuse. 

Wind Band, (i) The wind instruments in the orchestra. 
(2) A band composed of wind instruments only, called also 
a harmony band. 


Wolf, (i) The dissonant effect of certain chords on the 
organ or pianoforte tuned in unequal temperament See 
Temperament. (2) Certain notes on the violin or other 
bow instruments that do not produce a steady, pure tone. 

Wood-stops. Organ-stops with wooden pipes. 

Wood-wind. The flute, oboe, clarionet, and fagotto in the 

Wttchtig (Ger.). Weighty; emphatic. 

Warde (Ger.). Dignity. Mit Einfalt und Wurde, with 
simplicity and dignity. 

Wtttend (Ger.). Raging; furioso. 


Xylophone, Strohfiedel (Ger.), Claquebois (Fr.), Gigelira 
(It.). An instrument consisting of strips of wood grad- 
uated to produce the diatonic scale. They are supported 
on ropes of straw, etc, and are struck by hammers held one 
in each hand. An ingenious form of the xylophone is found 
in Africa, called the marimba. From Africa it was brought 
to South America, where it has been greatly enlarged by the 
Negroes of Guatemala. 

Yodel, Jodel, Jodeln. See Jodeln. 

Zampogna (It.) {zam-pone'^yd). A bagpipe; also a harsh- 
toned species of hautboy. 

Zapateado (Sp.) (tha-pah-te-a'-do). "Stamping." A Span- 
ish dance in which the rhythm is marked by stamping. 

Zarabanda (Sp.) (//la-ra-^an'-Ja). See Saraband. 

Zart, Zirtlich ((kr.). Tender; tenderly; suave. 

ZartflSte (Ger.). A soft-toned flute in the organ. 

Zeitmass (Crer.). Tempo. 

Zelo (It) {zeW'lo). Zeal; earnestness. 

Zelosamente (It.) {zeh-lO'Sah-men'-teh). Earnestly. 

Zeloso (It) (zeh-lo'-so) . Zealous; energetic. 
Ziemlich ((kr.) (tseem'-Uch). Moderately. Ziemlich lang* 
sam. moderately slow. 


Ziganka. A Russian peasant dance in 2 time. 
Zimbalon, Cjrmbal, CzimbaL The Hungarian dulcimer. 

Zingaresca (It.) (zin-gah-res'-ca), Zigeunerartig (Ger.) 

(tsee-goy'-ner-ar-tig) , In Gsrpsy style. 

Zinke (Ger.). Cornet; an obsolete variety of hautboy. 

Zither (Ger.) (tsit'-ter), A string instrument consisting of 
. a shallow box over which pass two sets of strings^one set 
of gut for the accompaniment, the other, of steel and brass, 
pass over a fretted fingerboard; on these the melody is 
played. The notes are stopped by the left hand, and the 
melody strings are struck by a plectrum attached to a ring 
on the thumb of the right hand; the accompaniment is 
played by the first, second, and third fingers of the right 

Zittemd (Ger.). Trembling. 

Z5gernd (Ger.). Hesitating; retarding. 

Zoppo (It.). Lame. Alia zoppo, halting; limping; synco- 

Zukunftsmusik (Ger.). Music of the future. The music 
of Wagner and his disciples is thus called by both friend 
and enemy, but with different meanings. 

Zunehmend (Ger.). Crescendo. 

Zuriickhaltend (Ckr.) (tsao-reek'-hal'tend). Retarding. 

Zwischensatz (Ger.). An episode. 

Zwischenspiel (Ger.)* "Between play"; interlude. 




A Bandora 





A Guide to the Pronunciation of 
Fourteen Languages 

(Note. — Letters not included are to be pronounced as 
in English. In general, and in most languages, accented 
vowels are long.) 


a — ^like a in far. 

ft (ae) — like a in fate. 

ai — ^like i in fine. 

au — ^like ow in cow. 

fttt (aeu) and eu — like oy in boy* 

e long — like a in fate. 

e short — like e in met. 

ei — like i in fine. 

i long — like ee in meet. 

i short — ^like i in pin. 

o— like o in note. 

6 (oe) — ^between a in fate and e in err. 

tt long — ^like oo in mood. 

tt short — like oo in foot. 

li (ue) — like ee in meet, pronounced with lips bunched as 
in whistling. 

c — like ts before e, i, or a; otherwise like k. 

eh is a hissing k (the Greek Chi), derived from c, just as 
th comes from t. The hissing ch sound is represented 
by kh in the dictionary. 

d or dt final — ^like t in pet. 

j — like y in yet. 

qu — like qv. "» 

r — strongly rolled? as in most foreign languages. 


8 before a vowel is like z. 

8t and sp are like sht and shp. 

8ch — like sh in shop. 

V — life f in fate. 

w — like V in vat. 

y — like ee in meet. 

2 — like ts. 


a long — like a in far. 

a short — somewhat like a in fat. 

ai — like a in fate. 

aZ — ^pronounced ah-ee. 

au and eau — like o in note. 

6 — ^like a in fate. 

i — ^like a in fare. 

S — ^like e in met. 

e — ^like e in err. 

e or es final — is usually silent. 

ent final — in verbs is silent. 

ei — is like e in met. 

eu — is like the German o, or the a in fate pronounced with 
the lips bunched as if for whistling. 

i long — is like ee in meet. 

i short — ^is like i in pin. 

o long and 6— like o in note. 

o short — much like o in not, with a trace of the u in but. 

oi — much like wa in swat. 

oei — like the e in err, followed by the ee in meet. 

ocu — much like the e in err. 

ou — like oo in mood. 

u — like ee in meet, pronounced with the lips bunched as 
if for whistling. 

y — like ee in meet. 

At the end of a word, or of a syllable, if the next syl- 
lable begins with a consonant, French vowels followed by 
m or n are made nasal: 


an — is between ahng and ohng, with the ng sound not 
exactly made, but the nasal quality of the vowel kept 

in, ein, ain — like the ang in fang, made nasal throughout 
without the ng. 

en — like ong in song, with wholly nasal vowel and no 
actual ng sound. « 

on — like the aw sound in long, nasal throughout and with- 
out ng. 

un — like the u of urn, made nasal throughout. 

5, or c before c, i, or y — like s; otherwise like k. 

g before e, i, or y — like zh, as of s in measure; otherwise 
like g in get. 

h — always silent. 

j — like zh, as of s in measure. 

11 — between two vowels is often like y. 

m final — after a vowel, or at ends of syllables, treated as 
if it were n final, and made to disappear in the nasal 
quality of the vowel. 

qu — like k. 

sc — like s. 

X final — ^is silent. 


a long— as in father. 

a short — as in tufa. 

e long — as a in fate. 

e short — ^as e in met. 

i long — as ee in meet. 

i short — as i in pin. 

o long — as o in note. 

6 — ^between o in note and oo in took. 

u long — like u in rule. 

u short — like u in pull. 

c or cc before e or i — ^like ch in chat; otherwise like k. 

ch — like k. 


g or gg before e or i — ^like g in gem; otherwise like g 
in get. 

gli — like lee. 

gn — ^like ni in pinion. 

gh — ^like g in get. 

j — like y, dr if used as a vowel, like ee in meet 

z — like ts. 

zz — like ds. 

In general, double consonants are given more time than 
single ones. 


a long or ft — like a in far. 

a short — like a in hat. 

e long — like a in fate. 

e short — like e in met. 

i long — like ee in meet. 

i short — like i in pin. 

o long — like o in note. 

o short — like o in not. 

tt long — ^like u in rule. 

tt short — like u in full. 

ue— like wa in wade. 

y — like ee in meet. 
Every vowel pronounced separately. 

b— somewhat like v in very. 

c before e, i, or y — like th in thank; otherwise like k. 

eh — like ch in chat. 

d — somewhat like th in then. 

e before e, i, or y — like the German ch; otherwise like g 
in get. 

j — like ye in yet. 

11 — like Hi in thrillium. 

& — like ni in pinion. 


qu — like k. 

initial x — in some names like h; otherwise like x in fix. 

X — ^like th in thank. 


Some of the vowels are like the Spanish vowels, but S, 
6 and tt are made very strongly nasal. 

c before c, i, or y — like s; otherwise like k. 

cc before e, i, or 3^ — ^like ks; otherwise like k. 

g before e, i, or y — ^like g in gem; otherwise like g in get. 

h — is silent. 

j — ^like j in jog. 

Ih — ^like Hi in trillium. 

m and n at the end of syllables often made n%sal, as in 

ph — ^like f in far. 

qu before e or i — like k; otherwise like qu in quit. 

8 between vowels — ^like z. 

X after e — like x in fox; otherwise like sh in shop. 

2 — ^at the end of syllables like s. 


a accented — like a in far. 

a unaccented — like a in fat. 

a initial — has a slight y sound before it, as in yard. 

e — ^like e in met. 

e initial, if accented — ^like yo in yodel. 

e initial, if unaccented — like ye in yes. 

i after labials (b, f, m, p, or v) — ^like i in pin; otherwise 
like ee in meet. 

o— like o in not. 

11 — like ew in few, or like 00 in loon. 

y — ^like ee in meet. 

Diphthongs as in German. 

b — ^like a hard v. 


c — ^like s or z. 

ch final — ^like the German ch; otherwise like ch in chat. 

g — ^usually like g in get; but a g final, and sometimes 
initial, like the German ch. 

j — like y in yes. 

qu before e or i — ^like k; otherwise like qu in quote. 

8 between vowels — ^like z." 

tsch — like sh in shop, followed by ch in chat. 

V — like f. 

w — like f. 

z — ^like ts^ or sometimes like ch. 

* Russian names are usually spelled phonetically in Eng- 
lish, the K of Konstantin, for instance, being replaced by 
our C. 


a — ^like a in far. 

aa — somewhat like o in north. 

au — ^like o in note. 

e final — like e in err; otherwise like a in fate. 

i — ^like ee in meet. 

o long — ^like o in note. 

o short — like o in not, or like u in pulL 

oe — ^like a in fate. 

b — ^like the French eu. 

11 — like u in rule. 

y — ^like the French u. 

g — always like g in get; except that g before j or y is 
like y in yet. 

j— like y in yet. 

k — ^before i or y is made somewhat like h. 

kv — like qu in quit. 

qu — like qu in quit. 

-like ts. 



a long — ^like a in far. 

a short — like a in tufa. 

& long — like o in note. 

& short — like a in what. 

& — ^like a in fare. 

e long — like i in film. 

c short — like e in met. 

cr — like air in fair. 

i — like ee in meet. 

o long — like o in move. 

o short — like o in not. 

6 — like the German 6. 

u long — like u in rule. 

tt short — like u in pull. 

c before e, i, or y — like s; otherwise like k. 

ch — ^like the German ch. 

d — is silent before j or t. 

f — at the end of a syllable is like v. 

g before &, e, i, o, or y, or after 1 or r— is like y in yet. 

i — like y in yet. 

qv — like k. 

sk, 8J» or 8tj — somewhat like sh in shop. 

th— like t. 

tj — ^like ch in chat. 

w — ^like V. 

z — ^like s. 


a — ^like a in far. * 

aa — ^like a in fall. 

e — like a in fate, or like ai in fair. 

cj — like i in mite. 

i — like ee in meet. 

o long — like o in move. 


o short — like o in not. 

o — like the German 6. 

6 — like e in err. 

tt long — like u in rule. 

tt short — like u in full. 

y — like y in myrrh. 

ae — like ai in sail, or like ai in said. 

ai — like i in mite. 

aur-like ow in cow. 

c before c, i, or y — like s; otherwise like k. 

ch — like k. 

d final — ^like th in this. 

ds — ^like ss in miss. 

g after e or o — like y in yet; otherwise like g in get. 

j — like y in yet. 

qv — like qu in quit. 

X — like z. 

10. DUTCH. 

a long (aa) — like a in far. 

a short — like a in mat. 

aai — like the vowel sound of why. 

e long (ee) — like a in fate. 

e short — like e in met. 

i long — somewhat like ee in meet. 

i short — like i in pin. 

ci (ij) — like e in met, followed by i in pin. 

o long (oo) — like o in note. 

o short — like o in not. 

ooi — like o in note, followed by i in pin. 

tt long (uu) — like u in rule. 

u short — like u in nut. 

y — like i in slide. 

ae— often replaces aa, with the same sound. 

att — like a in fat, followed by oo, as in loon. 

eu — ^like the German o. 


eeu (ieu) — ^like the a in fate, followed by a faint v. 

ic — like ee in meet. 

DC — like oo in loon. 

ou — like the o in not, followed by the u in rule. 

tti — ^almost like the sound of why. 

b final — like p. 

d final — like t. 

g — like g in get. 

i — like y. 

kw — ^like qu in quit. 

1 — ^before a consonant is followed by a slight e sound; 
i.e., our word eld would be pronounced "el-cd." 

ph — like f. 

8J — like sh in shop. 

ch — like the German ch, but much exaggerated. 

sch initial — like stch (s before the ch of chat). 

V final — like f. 

w — like w in wet. 

11. POLISH. 

a — ^like a in far. 

§ — like a in fall. 

e— like e in met. 

S — like the French nasal in see. 

i — ^like a in fate. 

i — like ee in meet. 

o— like o in note. 

6 — ^between the o in note and the o in move. 

u — like u in rule. 

yj — like ee in meet. 

oe — ^like a in fate. 

c — like ts. 

ch — like the German ch. 

cz — ^like ch in chat. 

di — like dge in ledge. 


j — ^like y in yes. 

8Z — ^like sh in shop. 

w — like V. 

1 — ^like z in zone. 

i — ^like zh, as the s in measure. 


a — ^like u in fun. 
4 — like a in far. 
c — ^like e in met. 
i — ^like ai in fair. 
c — like ya in yam. 
i long — like ee in meet, 
i short — ^like i in pin. 
o— -like o in note. 
6— like o in wrong. 
tt — ^like u in pull. 
ik — like u in rule. 
y — ^like i in pin. 
f — like ee in meet. 

All vowels pronounced separately, 
c — ^like ts or ds. 
j — ^like y in yes. 
n — ^like ni in pinion, 
q — ^like qu in quit. 
? — like rzh or rsh. 
s — like sh in shop. 
i — like zh, as the s in measure. 


a — like a in what. 
k — like a in far. 
e — like e in met. 
i — ^like a in fate. 


i — ^like i in pin. 

i — ^like ee in meet. 

o — like o in note, sounded briefly. 

6 — like o in note, prolonged. 

o — like the German 6. 

11 — ^like u in piill. 

6 — like u in rule. 

u — like the French u. 

cs — like ch in chat* 

cz — like ts. 

dj — like gy in orgy. 

djs — like j in joy. 

gy — like dy. 

ggy — ^with a little extra vowel sound, as gygy. 

j — ^like y in yes. 

jj — like y prolonged. 

11 or ly — like y prolonged. 

miy — ^with an extra vowel sound, as nyny. 

8 or sz — like sh in shop. 

tty — ^with an extra vowel sound, as tyty. 

14, WELSH. 

a — ^like a in mat. ^ 

a — like ai in air. 

c — like e in met. 

e — like ee in meet. 

i — like ee in meet. 

o — like o in gone. 

o^like o in note. 

u — somewhat like i in pin. 

ii — like ee in meet. 

w (here a vowel) — like oo in loon. 

y final — like y in pity; otherwise like y in myrrh. 

c — ^always like k. 

ch — like the German ch. 


dd — like th in then. 

£ — like V. 

ff— like f. 

g — always like g in get. 

11 — like 1, with a suggestion of th. 

ph — ^like f. ^ 

th — like th in thin. 

Biographical Dictionary 
of Musicians 


Abbott^ Bessie. See Abott. 

Abbott, Emma. Soprano; born Chicago, Dec. 9, 1850; died 
Salt Lake City, Utah, Jan. 5, 1891. Successful in opera. 

Abeille (Afk-bay-yeh), Johami Christian Ludwig. Pianist, 
composer; born Bayreuth, Ger., Feb. 20, 1761; died Stutt- 
gart, Ger., Mar. 2, 1838. Some of his vocal pieces still in 
use in schools. 

Abel (Ah'bel), Karl Friedrich. Viola da gamba player, 
composer; born Kothen, Ger., 1725; died London, June 20, 
1787. Pupil of J. S. Bach. 

Abel, Ludwig. Violinist, composer; born Eckartsberge, 
Ger., Jan. 14, 1835; died Neu-Pasing, Ger., Aug. 13, 1895. 

Abert, Hermann. Historian and writer; born Stuttgart, 
Ger., Mar. 25, 1871. Lives Halle, Ger. 

Abert (Ah-bert), Johann Joseph. Composer; born Kocho- 
witz, Boh., Sept 21, 1832. Wrote operas, overtures, sym- 

Abott, Bessie Pickens (Mrs. T. W. Story). Soprano; born 
Riverdale, N. Y., 1878; died New York, Feb. 9, 1919. Suc- 
cessful opera and concert singer. 

Abranyi (Ah-bran-yee), (1) Komel. Composer; born Szent 
Gyorgz Abranyi, Hun., Oct. 15, 1822; died Buda-Pesth, 

Hun., Dec. 20, 1903. Promoter of national music. 

(2) Emil. Opera composer; born Buda-Pesth, Sept 22, 

1882. Son of (1). Lives Buda-Pesth. 



Abt (Ahbt), Franz. Composer; born Eilenburg, Ger., 
Dec. 22, 1819; died Wiesbaden, Ger., Mar. 31, 1885. Wrote 
a great number of songs which are widely popular. 

Ackermann, A. J. Organist, composer; born Rotterdam, 
HoL, 1836. Lives The Hague, Hoi. 

Ackt6, Aino (Ahk-tay, I-no), Soprano; bom Helsingfors, 
Fin., Apr. 23, 1876. 

Adam, Adolphe Charles. Composer; born Paris, July 24, 
1803; died there, May 3, 1856. Best known through his 
opera Le Postilion de Longjumeau. 

Adam de la Hale (Hahl), Trouvere; born Arras, France, 
about 1240; died Naples, about 1287. Wrote Robin and 
Marian, considered by some the first comic opera. 

Adamowski {Ah^dahtn-off-skee). (1) Timoth^e. Violinist; 
born Warsaw, Pol., Mar. 24, 1858. Lives Boston. (2) 
Josef. 'Cellist; born Warsaw, Jul. 4, 1862. Brother of 
(1). Lives Boston. (3) Antoinette Szumowska (Shoo- 
moff'Skah). Pianist, teacher; born Lublin, Pol., Feb. 22, 
1868. Wife of (2). Lives Boston. 

Adams, Charles R. Tenor; born Charlestown, Mass., 
1848; died West Harwich, Mass., July 3, 1900. Success- 
ful in opera. 

Adams, Mrs. Crosby. Pianist, composer; born Niagara 
Falls, N. Y., Mar. 25, 1858. Specialist in teaching chil- 
dren. Lives Montreat, N. C. 

Adams, Stephen. See Maybrick, MichaeL 

Adams, Suzanne. Soprano; born Cambridge, Mass. Sung 
mainly in England. Lives London. 

Adler (Ahd-ler). (1) Guido. Theorist, writer; born Eiben- 
schutz, Aus., Nov. 1, 1855. Professor in University of 
Vienna. (2) Vincent. Pianist, composer; born Raab, 
Hun., Apr. 3, 1826; died Geneva, Switz., Jan. 4, 1871. 

Aegidius, Johannes. Spanish monk in thirteenth century. 
Wrote Ars Musica, 


Aerts (Airtjg). (1) Egide. Flutist, composer; born near 
Antwerp, Bel., 1822; died Brussels, 1853. (2) F^lix. Vio- 
linist, conductor; borni St. Trond, Bel., 1827; died Ni- 
velles, Bel., 1888. 

Afanassiev, NicolaL Composer; born Tobolsk, Sib., 1821; 
died Petrograd, 1895. Wrote much chamber music. 

Affemi (Ahf-f air-nee), Ugo. Pianist, conductor; born Flor- 
ence, Italy, Jan. 1, 1871. Wrote the opera Potetnkin. Lives 
Wiesbaden, Ger. 

Afranio (A-frah-nee-o), Canon at Ferrara, Italy, in the 
sixteenth century. Invented the bassoon. 

Afzdius (Ahf-say-lee-oos) , Arvid* Writer; born Enkoping, 
Swed., May 6, 1785; died Sept 25, 1871. Folk-song col- 

Agnelli (Ah-nyel-lee), Salvatore. Composer; born Pal- 
ermo, Italy, 1817; died 1874. Wrote operas. 

Agostini, Paolo. Composer; born Valerano, Italy, 1593; 
died Rome, 1629. 

Agramonte {Ah-gra-mon-teh) , Emilio. Conductor, teacher 
of singing; born Puerto Principe, Cuba, Nov. 28, 1844. 
A resident and successful teacher in New York for 
many years. 

Agricola (Ah-grik-o-la). (1) Martin. Theorist; born So- 
rau, Ger., 1486; died Magdeburg, Ger., June 10, 1556. Au- 
thor of important works. (2)Johann Friedrich. Organ- 
ist, writer; born Dobitz, Ger., Jan. 4, 1720; died Berlin, 
Dec. 1, 1774. 

Aguilar, Emmanuel Abraham. Pianist, composer; born 
London, 1824; died there, 1904. Composed symphonies, 
overtures, cantatas, ballad operas, etc. 

Agujari (Ah-goo-yah-ree), Lucrezia. Soprano; born Fer- 
rara, Italy, 1743; died Parma, Italy, May 18, 1783. Admired 
by Mozart; could reach C in altissimo, three octaves above 
middle C 

Ahlstrom (Ahl-straym) , (1) Olaf. Composer; born Stock- 
holm, Swed., 1762; died after 1827. Collected folk-music. 


(2) Johann Niklas. Composer; born Wisby, Swed, 
1805; died Stockholm, 1857. Composed operas, etc. 

Ahna, Heinrich Karl Hermann de. Violinist; born Vi- 
enna, June 22, 1835; died Berlin, Nov. 1, 1892. Member 
of famous Joachim String Quartet 

Aimon (Ay-tnong), Pamphile. Composer; born I'lsle, near 
Paris, 1779; died Paris, 1866. Composed chamber music 
and operas. 

Akimenko (Ah^kee-men-ko) , Theodor. Composer; bom 
Kharkov, Rus., Feb. 8, 1876. Composed orchestral 
and chamber music, and smaller pieces. Lives Petro- 

Alabie£F (Ah-lak-byoff), Alexander. Composer; born Mos- 
cow, Rus., Aug. 16, 1787; died there, 1852. Wrote 
operas; still known by songs, such as The Nightingale, 

Alard (Ah^lar), Delphin. Violinist, composer; born Bay- 
onne, France, Mar. 8, 1815; died Paris, Feb. 22, 1888. 
Distinguished for beauty of tone. 

Albanesi (Al-bah-nay-see) , Carlo. Pianist, composer; bom 
Naples, Italy, Oct. 22, 1858. Lives London. 

Albani (Al-bah-nee). Stage name of Marie Louise C6cile 
Emma Lajeunesse. Soprano; born Chambly, near 
Montreal, Can., Nov. 1, 1850; lived in Albany, N. Y. 
Studied in Europe. Equally fine in oratorio and opera. 
Lives London. 

Albeniz (Al-ben-ith) , Isaac. Composer, pianist; born Cam- 
prodon, Spain, May 29, 1860; died Cambo les Bains, 
France, May 19, 1910. Wrote many piano pieces, also 
operas, such as The Magic Opal, Enrico Clifford, King 
Arthur, Pepita Ximenes, 

Albert {D'aM-behr), Eugen Francis Charles d\ Pianist, 
composer; born Glasgow, Scot., Apr. 10, 1864. Works 
include two piano concertos, one 'cello concerto, two 
overtures, a symphony, chamber music, and operas, 
such as The Ruby, Ghistnonda, Gemot, The Departure, 


Kain, Der Improvisator, Tie/land (the best), and several 
others. Lives Vienna. 

Albert!, Domenico. Composer, singer, pianist; born Ven- 
ice, 171 — ; died 1740. Name given to so-called "Alberti 

Alboni, Marietta. Contralto; born Cesena, Italy, Mar. 10, 
1813; died near Paris, June 23, 1894. Famous for beauty 
of voice. 

Albrecht, Karl A. Violinist, conductor; bom Posen, Ger., 
Aug. 27, 1807; died Gatchina, Rus., Feb. 24, 1863. Con- 
ductor of Imperial Russian Opera, Petrograd. 

Albrechtsberger (Al-brekhts-bairg-er) , Johann Georg. Or- 
ganist, theorist; born Klosterneuberg, Aus., Feb. 3, 1736; 
died Vienna, Mar. 7, 1809. His Guide to Composition and 
School of Thoroughbass have outlived his compositions. 

Alda, Frances Davis. Soprano; bom New Zealand, 1883. 
Wife of Gatti-Casazza, manager of Metropolitan Opera 
Co., New York. 

Alden, John Carver. Composer, teacher ; born Boston, Sept 
11, 1852. Professor of piano. Converse College, Spartan- 
burg, S. C. 

Alder, Richard Ernst. Conductor, composer; bom Herisah, 
Switz., 1853; died Paris, 1904. 

Aldrich, Richard. Writer; born Providence, R. I.» July 31, 
1863. Author of A Guide to Parsifal, Guide to the Nibelufh- 
gen Ring, etc. Lives New York. 

AlfarabL Arabian musician theorist in the tenth century. 

Alferaky. See Alpheraky. 

Alfven, Hugo. Composer, conductor ; born Stockholm, Swed., 
May 1, 1872. Composer of three sjrmphonies, symphonic 
poem, a Swedish Rhapsody, marches, violin works, piano 
pieces, and songs. Lives Upsala, Swed. 

Alkan (pseudonym of Charles Henri Valentin Morhange). 
Composer, pianist; born Paris, Nov. 30, 1813; died there, 
Mar. 29, 1889. Composed brilliant and difficult etudes, etc 


Allegri (Al-lay-gree), Gregorio. Composer; born Rome, 
1584; died there, 1652. Wrote the celebrated Miserere for 
two choirs, which was sung in the Sistine Chapel at Rome, 
and which the youthful Mozart wrote out from memory, 
it being forbidden to furnish persons outside the choir 
with a copy of this work. 

Allen, (1) George Benjamin. Born London, 1822; died 
Brisbane, Australia, 1897. (2) Charles N. Violinist; born 
York, Eng., 1837; died Boston, Apr. 7, 1903. An artist 
and teacher of distinction. (3) Nathan Hale. Organist, 
composer; born Marion, Mass., Apr. 14, 1848. Composed 
church music, organ, piano and violin pieces. Lives Hart- 
ford, Conn. (4) PauL American composer of operas in 

Allitsen, Frances. Composer; born 1849; died London, Oct 
1, 1912. Composed many charming songs. 

Alpheraky (Ahl-fer-ah-kee), Achilles. Composer; bom 
Kharkov, Rus., June 21, 1846. Wrote piano pieces and 
songs showing the influence of the folk songs of the 

Alshalabi, Mohammed. Spanish-Arabian writer of the fif- 
teenth century. 

Alsleben, Julius. Composer; bom Berlin, Mar. 24, 1832; 
died there, Dec. 9, 1894. Composed overtures, etc. 

Altes (Ahl-tes), Joseph Henri. Flutist, composer; bora 
Rouen, France, 1826; died Paris, 1895. 

Altschuler (Ahlt'shoo-ler) , Modest. Conductor, 'cellist; 
bom Mohilev, Rus., Feb. 15, 1873. Founded Russian 
Symphony Orchestra, New York. 

Alvarez (Ahl-vah-res) (pseudonym of Albert Raymond Gour- 
ron). Tenor; born Bordeaux, France, 1861. Lives Paris. 

Alvary (Ahl-vah-ree) , Max (pseudonym of M. A. Aschen- 
bach). Tenor; born Diisseldorf, Ger., May 3, 1858; died 
Datenburg, Ger., Nov. 7, 1898. Wagnerian roles. 

Alypios. Greek musical writer, fourth century; authority 
on Greek modes. 


Amadei (Ah-mah-day-ee) , Roberto. G}niposer, organist; 
bom Loreto, Italy, Nov. 29, 1840. Sacred and operatic 
works. Lives Loreto. 

Amani (Ah-mahn-ee) , Nicolai. Composer; bom Russia, 
1875; died 1904. Piano music and songs. 

Amati {A-mah-tee) (1), Andrea. Violin-maker; bom about 
1530; died Cremona, Italy, Apr. 10, 1611. First of famous 
family of violin-makers at Cremona. (2) Antonio, 1550- 
1638. Son of (1). (3) Gcronimo, 1551-1635. Son of (1). 
(4)Nicolo. Born Cremona, Sept. 13, 1596; died Aug. 12, 
1684. Son of (3). 

Amato, Pasquale. Baritone; born Naples, Italy, Mar. 21, 
1878. Metropolitan Opera Co., New York. 

Ambros, August Wilhelm. Historian, writer; bom Mauth, 
Boh., Nov. 17, 1816; died Vienna, June 28, 1876. An active 
contributor to Schumann's Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik. 
His unfinished Musical History is a very valuable w6rk. 

Ambrose (1), Robert Steele. Organist, composer; born 
Chelmsford, Eng., 1824; died Hamilton, Ont, Mar. 31, 
1908. Wrote a popular setting of the hymn "One Sweetly 
Solemn Thought." (2) PauL Organist, composer; born 
Hamilton, Ont., Oct. 11, 1868. Lives Trenton, N. J. Son 
of (1). 

Ambrose, Saint, Bishop of Milan. Born Treves, Ger.,.333; 
died Milan, Italy, Apr. 4, 397. Systematized church sing- 
ing, basing it on his understanding of the Greek modes. 

Ambrosio, Alfredo d'. Composer, violinist; bom Naples, 
Italy, June 13, 1871 ; died Nice, France, Dec. 29, 1914. Pop- 
ular violin compositions. 

Amiot (Ah-mee-o), Father. Born Toulon, France, 1718; 
died Pekin, 1794. Missionary to China; authority on Chi- 
nese music. 

Ancoi^, Mario. Baritone; born Florence, Italy, 1870. Chi- 
cago Opera Co. 

Andersen, Karl Joachim. Flutist, composer; born Copen- 
hagen, Den., 1847; died there, 1909. 



Anderton, Thomas. Composer ; born Birmingham, £ng.» Apr. 
15, 1836; died Edgbaston, Eng., Sept. 18, 1903. Composed 
successful cantatas. 

Andrade, Francesco d'. Baritone; bom Lisbon, Portugal, 
Jan. 11, 1859. Sang in Germany. Lives in Lisbon. 

Andrews (1), George Whitfield. Organist, composer; born 
Wayne, O., Jan. 19, 1861. Oberlin University. (2) J. War- 
ren. Organist, composer; born Lynn, Mass., Apr. 6, 1860. 
New York organist. (3) Mark. Organist, composer; bom 
Gainsborough, Eng., Mar. 31, 1875. Lives Montclair, N. J. 

An6rio (Ah-nay-ree-o), Felice. Composer; bom Rome, 
about 1560; died there about 1630. Wrote sacred contra- 
puntal works, so good that some were claimed as Pales- 

Angcli (Ahn-jay-lee) , Andrea d'. Composer, writer; born 
Padua, Italy, Nov. 9, 1868. Wrote sacred works and 
an opera. Professor in Liceo Rossini, Pesaro, Italy. 

Anger (An-jer), Joseph Humphrey. Organist, composer, 
theorist; bom Ashbury, Eng., 1862; died Toronto, Ont, 
June 11, 1913. Author of valuable text-books on harmony. 

Anglebert {OngV-bare), Jean Baptiste Henri d'. Com- 
poser, clave^inist; born about 1628; died Paris, Apr. 23, 

Animnccia {Ah-nee-moot-chee-ah), Giovanni Composer; 
born Florence, Italy, about 1500; died Rome, 1571. Wrote 
masses, etc., in fluent style, and Laiidi Spirituali for Neri's 
lectures in his Oratory, thus leading the way to oratorio. 

Ansorge (Ahn-sohr-geh) y Konrad. Pianist, composer; 
bom near Liebau, Ger., Oct. 15, 1862. Pupil of Liszt. 
Teacher in Berlin. 

Antipov {Ahn-tee-poff), Constantin. Composer; born 
Russia, Jan. 18, 1859. Piano and orchestral works. 

Apthorp, William Foster. Writer; born Boston, Oct. 24, 
1848; died Vevey, Switz., Feb. 19, J912. Editor of Boston 
Symphony Orchestra program books. Author of works 
on mujic. 


Aptommas, (1) John. Harpist; born Bridgend, Wales, 1S26; 
died March 19, 1913. (2) Thomas. Harpist; born Bridg- 
end, Wales, 1829. Both remarkable harpists and teachers; 
wrote a history of the harp. 

Arban, Joseph Jean Baptiste. Cornetist ; born Lyons, France, 
Feb. 28^ 1825; died Paris, Apr. 9, 1889. Wrote a Method 
for the cornet. 

Arbos, G. Fernandez. Violinist, composer; born Madrid, 
. Spain, J3ec. 25, 1863. Royal College of Music, London. 

Arbuckle, Matthew. Cornetist; born 1828; died New YcArk, 
May 23, 1883. 

Arcadelt, Jacob. Composer; born Netherlands, about 1514; 
died Paris between 1570 and 1575. Composed masses, 
motets, madrigals, etc. 

Archer, Frederick. Organist, conductor; bom Oxford, Eng., 
June 16, 1838; died Pittsburgh, Pa., Oct. 22, 1901. Distin- 
guished concert organist 

Arditi (Ar-dee-tee), Luigi. Composer, conductor; bom Cres- 
centino, Italy, July 16, 1822; died Brighton, England, May 
1, 1903. Best known by his waltz songs, such as // Bacio 
(The Kiss). 

Arena, Franz Xaver. Conductor, teacher of singing; bora 
Neef, Ger., Oct. 28, 1856. Lives New York. 

Arensky, Anton. Composer; bom Novgorod, Rus., Jul. 
30, 1862 ; died Terioki, Fin., Feb. 25, 1906. Composed operas, 
a ballet, two symphonies and many piano pieces and songs. 

Aria, Cesare. Composer, teacher of smging; born Bologna, 
Italy, Sept. 21, 1820; died there, Jan. 30, 1894. 

Arienzo, Nicola d'. Composer; born Naples, Italy, Dec. 23, 
1842. Wrote realistic operas and scientific works on music. 
Lives Naples. 

Armbnister, Carl. Pianist, conductor; born Andemach, 
Ger., Jul. 13, 1846; died London, 1918. Authority on 
Wagner's operas. 


Annes, Philip. Organist, composer; born Norwich, Eng^ 
Aug. 15, 1836; died Durham, Eng., Feb. 10, 1908. Oratorio 

Armsheimer, Ivan. Composer; born Petrograd, Mar. 19, 
1860. Operas, orchestral works, cantatas, treatise on instru- 

Armstrong, William Dawson. Organist, composer; born 
Ahon, 111., Feb. 11, 1868. Composed opera and works for 
orchestra. Lives Alton. 

Aijfie, Thomas Augustine. Composer; born London, Mar. 
12, 1710; died there, Mar. 5, 1778. Wrote about thirty 
operas, two oratorios, and many glees, catches and songs. 
Composer of Rule Britannia. 

Ameiro, Jose, Vicomte dV Portuguese composer; born 
Macao, China, Nov. 22, 1838; died San Remo, Italy, 1903. 
Operas, ballets, and a Te Deum, 

Arnold. (1) Karl. Composer; born Mergentheim, Mar. 6, 
1794; died Christiania, Nor., Nov. 11, 1873. Chamber music, 
piano works, and the opera Irene, (2) Youri von. Com- 
poser; born Petrograd, Nov. 1, 1811; died Simferopol, 
Crimea, Jul. 19, 1898. Opera, Last Days of Pompeii, 

Amoldson, Sigrid. Soprano; born Stockholm, Swed., 
Mar. 20, 1861. Sung in principal opera houses of the 
world. Lives Stockholm. 

Arrieta (Ar-ree-ay-tah) , Don Juan Emilio. Born Punta 
la Reina, Spain, Oct 21, 1823; died Madrid, Spain, 1894. 
Composed zarzuelas (light Spanish operas). 

Ars, Nicolai. Composer, conductor; born Moscow, Rus., 
1857. Composed operettas, sjrmphonic poems. 

Artchiboutchev (Ar-chee-boot-chejf) , NicolaL Composer, 
teacher; born Tsarskoe-Selo, Rus., Man 7, 1858. Composed 
songs and piano pieces. 

Arthur, Alfred. Teacher of singing, theorist; born Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., Oct. 8, 1844. Composed church music, songs, 
etc. Director Cleveland, O., School of Music. 


Artdt (Ar'to), (1) Alexandre J. Violinist, composer; born 
Brussels, Bel., Jan. 25, 1815 ; died near Paris, Jul. 20, 1845. 
(2) D^siree. Mezzo-soprano; bom Paris, Jul. 31, 1835; 
died Berlin, Apr. 3, 1907. 

Asantchevski (Ah^sahnt-shejBf-skee), MichaeL Composer; 
born Moscow, Rus., 1838; died there, Jan. 24, 1881. Com- 
posed overtures, Camber music and piano pieces. 

Ascher, Joseph. Composer; born Groningen, Hoi., Jun. 24, 
1829; died London, Jun. 4, 1869. Composer of popular 
salon music. 

Ashton, Algemon. Pianist, composer ; born Purham, Eng., 
Dec. 9, 1859. Composed chamber music, symphonies (in 
manuscript), concertos, etc. Lives London. 

Astorga, Emmanuele Baron d'. Composer; bom Palermo, 
Italy, Dec. 11, 1681; died Prague, Boh., Aug. 21, 1736. 
Sacred music. 

Atherton, Percy Lee. Composer; bom Boston, Sept. 25, 
1871. Composed orchestral works, violin pieces, piano 
works, songs, etc Lives Boston. 

Atkins, Ivor Algemon. Organist, composer; born Cardiff, 
Wales, Nov. 29, 1869. Organist Worcester Cathedral. 

Attnip, Karl. Organist, composer; bom Copenhagen, Den., 
Mar. 4, 1848; died there, 1892. Composed organ music. 

Attwood, Thomas. Organist, composer; born London, Nov. 
23, 1765; died there. Mar. 24, 1838. Organist St. Paul's 
Cathedral, London; pupil of Mozart. 

Auber (0-bare), Daniel Francois Esprit. Composer; born 
Caen, France, Jan. 29, 1782; died Paris, May 12, 1871. 
Wrote a great number of operas — Masaniello, Le Magon, 
Fra Diavolo, Zanetta, etc. 

Aubert (O-hare)^ Louis. Composer; bom Parame, France, 
Feb. 15, 1877. Composed the opera La Foret Bleue, etc. g 
Modern French school. 

Audran (O-drong), Edmond. Composer; born Lyons, 
France, Apr. 11, 1842; died Tierceville, France, Aug. 17, 
1901. Light operas. 


Auer, Leopold. Violinist; born Veszprim, Hun., May 28, 
1845. Teacher of Elman, Heifetz in Petrograd. Located in 
New York after Russian revolution, 1917. 

Aulin (Oh-lin)f Tor. Violinist, composer; born Stock- 
holm, Swed., Sept. 10, 1866. Composed effective violin 

Aus dcr Ohc (Ous-der-Oh-eh) , AdMe. 'Pianist; born Ger- 
many, 1865. Pupil of Liszt. Wrote piano suites, etc. 

Austin, Ernest Composer; born London, Dec. 31, 1874. 
Lives London. 

Auteri-Manzocchi (0'tay-ree'Man'Sok'kee),SalvatOTe. Com- 
poser; born Palermo, Italy, Dec. 25, 1846. Composed a 
number of operas. 

Averkamp, Anton. Composer, conductor; born Langerak, 
Hoi., Feb. 18, 1861. Composed works for orchestra. Lives 

Avison, Charles. Composer; bom Newcastle-on-Tyne, Eng., 
1710; died there. May 9, 1770. Popular in his day. Re- 
ferred to by Browning in one of his poems. 

Ayres, Frederic. Composer; born Binghamton, N. Y., Mar. 
17, 1876. Composed piaqo pieces and songs. Lives Colo- 
rado Springs, CoL 


Bach family. Most famous of musical families; traced to 
Hans Bach, born 1561, and including over twenty well- 
known musicians. The great J. S. Bach himself had nine- 
teen children, seven becoming professional musicians; his 
grandson, Wilhelm Friedrioh Ernst, lived until 1845. 

Bach, (1) Johann Sebastian. Composer; born Eisenach, 
Ger., Mdr. 21, 1685 ; died Leipzig, Ger., July 28, 1770. Father 
of modern music. Equally great as composer, organist, and 
player on the clavicrfiord. His works — organ sonatas, pre- 


ludes and fugues, compositions for clavichord. Passion 
music, sacred cantatas, of which latter no fewer than 226 
are still extant, masses, etc.— constitute the fountain-head 
of modern inusic. It is a notable fact that Bach and Han- 
del were born in the same year. (2) Johann Christoph 
Friedrich, called the ''Btickeburg Badi"; born Leipzig, 
June .23, 1732; died Btickeburg, Ger., Jan. 26, 1795. In 
style of composition he approached his brother Emanuel. 

(3) Karl Philipp Emanuel. Composer, pianist; born 
Weimar, Ger., Mar. 8, 1714; died Hamburg, Ger., Dec. 
14, 1788. Third son of J. S. Bach. Musical director at 
Hamburg, 1767. His compositions mark the transition 
from his father's style to that of Haydn and Mozart. 

(4) Wilhelm Friedemann. Organist, composer; born 
Weimar, Ger., Nov. 22, 1710; died Berlin, Jul. 1, 1784. 
Son of (1). 

Bache, Walter. Pianist; born Edgbaston, Eng., Jun. 19, 
1842; died London, Mar. 26, 1888. Pupil of Liszt. 

Bachmann, Alberto. Violinist, composer; born Geneva, 
Switz., Mar. 20, 1875. Lives New York. 

Bachmann, Georges. Composer; born 1848; died Paris, 
Dec. (?), 18^. Prolific piano composer. 

Bachrich, Sigismund. Violinist, composer; born Hun- 
gary,- 1841. 

Backer-Grondahl, Agathe. Composer, pianist ; born Holme- 
strand, Nor., Dec. 1, 1847; died Christiania, Nor., Aug., 
1907. Composed attractive songs and piano pieces. 

Backhaus (Bachaus), Wilhelm. Pianist; born Leipzig, 
Ger., Mar. 26, 1884. Won Rubinstein prize, 1905. 

Badarczewska (SaJ-ar-rA^/-j^aA), Thekla. Composer ; born 
Warsaw, Pol., 1838; died there, 1862. 

Baermann. See Blbrmann. 

Bagge, Selmar. Organist, writer; born Coburg, Gen, Jan. 
30, 1823; died Basel, Switz., Jul. 15, 1896. 

Bailey, Marie Louise. Pianist; born Nashville, Teno., Oct 
24, 1876. Pupil of Leschetizky. Lives Vienna. 


Baillot (Bi-^o), Pierre Marie. Violinist, composer; bom 
Passy, France. Oct. 1, 1771; died Paris, Sept. 15, 1842. 
The principal French violinist of his day. His etudes 
and L'art du tnolon belong to the classics of violin playing. 

Baini (Bah-ee-nee) , Giuseppe. Composer, writer; bom 
Rome, Oct. 21, 1775; died there, May 21, 1844. Composed 
sacred works; wrote a monograph on Palestrina. ' 

Bainton, Edgar L. Composer, pianist; bom Coventry, Eng. 
Composed Pompilia, Celtic Sketches, etc., for orchestra. 
Lives Newcastle-on-Tyne, Eng. 

Bajeti (Bah-yay-tee) , GiovannL Composer; bom Brescia, 
Italy, 1815; died Milan, Italy, 1876. Wrote operas. 

Baker (1), Benjamin Franklin. Composer, teacher of 
singing; born Wenham, Mass., Jul. 16, 1811; died Boston, 
Mar. 11, 1889. Succeeded Lowell Mason as public 
school music teacher in Boston. Composed three can- 
tatas {The Storm King, etc.), and other vocal music. (2) 
Dalton. Baritone; born Merton, Eng., Oct. 17, 1879. 
Successful oratorio and concert artist. (3) Theodore. 
Writer; born New York, 1851. Authority on Indian 
music; writer of musical dictionaries. With G. Schirmer, 
music publisher. New York. 

Balakireff (Bah-lah-kee-reff), Mily Altxtievitch. Composer; 
born Novgorod, Rus., Dec. 31, 1836; died Petrograd, 
1910. At twenty became the center of a group of Russian 
nationalists, the others being Cui, Borodin, Moussorgsky 
and Rimsky-Korsakoff. Balakireff wrote the symphonic 
poems Tamara and Russia, music to King Lear, a sym- 
phony, some finely wrought songs and brilliant piano pieces 
(Islamey, Sonata, 2nd Scherzo, etc.). 

Balart (Bahlahr), Gabriel. Composer, conductor; born 
Barcelona, Spain, 1824; died there, 1893. Wrote zar- 
zuelas (light Spanish operas). 

Balatka, Hans. Conductor, 'cellist; born Hoffnungsthal, 
Aus., Mar. 5, 1827; died Chicago, Apr. 17, 1899. 


Balfe, Michael William. Composer; born Dublin^ Ire., 
May 15, 1808; died Rowny Abbey, Eng., Oct. 20, 1870. 
Best remembered by opera The Bohemian Girl (1843). 

Ball, Ernest R. Composer; born Cleveland, O., Jul. 21, 
1878. Many popular songs. Lives New York. • 

Balthasar, Henry Mathias. Composer; born Arlon, Bel., 
1844. Wrote operas, symphonies, cantatas, conceirtos, 

Banister, Henry Charles. Theorist, writer; born London, 
Jum 13, 1831; died there, Nov. 20, 1897. Wrote cantatas, 
overtures, chamber music, musical literature. 

Bantock, Granville. Composer; born London, Aug. 7, 1868. 
Composer of modern school; chief works: cantata The 
Fire-worshippers, operas Caedmar and The Pearl of Iran, 
overtures Saul and The Pierrot of the Minute, symphonic 
poem The Curse of Kehama. His Atalanta in Calydon is 
for voices alone, symphonic style. Professor of music, 
University of Birmingham, Eng. 

Barbieri (Bahr-bee-ay-ree), (1) Carlo Emmanuel. Com- 
poser; born Genoa, Italy, 1822; died Pesth, Hun., 1867. 
(2) Francisco Asenjo. Composer; born Madrid, Spain, 
Aug. 3, 1823; died there, Feb. 17, 1894. Composed very 
popular zarzuelas, also orchestral works. 

Barblan, Otto. Organist, composer; born Scanfs, Switz., 
Mar. 22, 1860. Teacher at the Conservatory, Geneva, 
Switz. Organ and piano works, cantata, etc. 

Bardiy Giovanni, Conte del Vemio. About 1534-1612; a 
wealthy Florentine, at whose house Peri and others 
made the first experiments in opera. 

Bargiel, Woldemar. Composer, pianist; born Berlin, Oct. 
3, 1828; died there, Feb. 23, 1897. Wrote a symphony, 
three concert overtures, and much piano music. Step- 
brother of Clara Schumann. 

Barman (Bare-man). (1) Heinrich. Clarinetist; bom Pots- 
dam, Ger., Feb. 14, 1784; died Munich, Ger., Jun. 11, 1847. 


Wrote technical works for the clarinet. (2) Karl. Pianist, 
teacher; born Munich, Ger., Jul. 9, 1839; died Newton, 
Mass., Jan. 17, 1913. Distinguished teacher in Boston. 

Barnard, Mrs. Charlotte Alington. Composer; born Dec. 
23,^1830; died Dover, England, Jan. 30, 1869. Wrote un- 
der the pen-name "Claribel." 

Bamby, Sir Joseph. Composer, conductor; born York, 
Eng., Aug. 12, 1838; died London, Jan. 28, 1896. Wrote 
admirable church music. 

Bamekow (Bahr-neh'koff) , Chrbtian. Composer; born St. 
Sauveur, 1837. Panish composer of chamber music, piano 
pieces and songs. 

Bamett. (1) John. Composer; born Bedford, Eng., Jul. 
1, 1802; died Cheltenham, Bng., Apr. 17, 1890. Wrote 
several operas, chief among them being The Mountain 
Sylph, Also a number of other compositions of various 
kinds, including nearly 4000 songs. (2) John Francis. 
Pianist, composer, conductor; born London, Oct. 16, 
1837. His works include a number of excellent cantatas. 
Royal College of Music, London. Nephew of (1). 

Barrett, William Alexander. Writer; born London, Oct. 
15, 1836; died there, Oct. 17, 1891. For a number of 
years editor of the Musical Times, 

Bartay (Bahr-tye), Andreas. Composer; born Szeplak, 
Huni., 1798; died Mainz, Ger., 1856. Composed princi- 
pally operas. 

Barth, Karl Heinrich. Pianist, conductor; born Pillau, 
Ger., Jul. 12, 1847. Royal High School of Music, Berlin. 

Bartlett. (1) Homer Newton. Composer, pianist, organist; 
born Olive, N. Y., Dec. 28, 1845. Composed a cantata The 
Last Chieftain, a sextet for strings and flute, many vocal 
and piano pieces. (2) James CarrolL Tenor, composer; 
born Harmony, Me., Jun. 14, 1850; died Apr. 3, 1920. 

Bartok, Bela. Pianist, composer; born Nagy Szent Mikles, 
Hun., 1881. Compositions in advanced modern style. 
Lives Pesth. 


Bassford, William Kipp. Pianist, composer; bom New 
York, Apr. 23, 1839; died there, 1902. 

Bassi, Amedeo Vittorio. Tenor; born Florence, Italy, Jul. 
25, 1876. Chicago Opera Co. Lives Florence. 

Bastiaans, J. G. Organist, composer; born Wilp, HoL, 
1812; died Haarlem, Hoi., 1875. 

Batchelder, John C. Pianist, organist; born Topsham, Vt., 
1852. Detroit Conservatory of Music. 

Bath, Hubert. Composer, conductor; born Barnstaple, 
Eng., Nov. 6, 1883. Guildhall School of Music, London. 

Batiste {Bah-teest), Antoine-Edouard. Organist, com- 
poser; born Paris, Mar. 28, 1820; died there, Nov. 9, 

Batta, Joseph. 'Cellist, composer; born Maestricht, Hoi., 

Bauer, Harold. Pianist; born near London, Apr. 28, 1873. 
Distinguished virtuoso. Lives New York. 

Baumbach, Adolf. Composer, teacher; born Germany, 
1830; died Chicago, 1880. 

Baumf elder, Friedrich. Pianist, composer; born Dresden, 
Ger., May 28, 1836. Conductor Singakademie, Dresdeik 

Baussnem, Waldemar von. Composer; conductor; bom 
Berlin, Nov. 29, 1866. Chief works : operas Durer in Vene^ 
dig, Herbort und Hilde, Der Bundschuh; songs with or- 
chestra, chamber music, etc. Grand Ducal Music School, 
Weimar, Ger. 

Bax, Arnold. Composer; born London, Nov. 8, 1883. 
Compositions in modern syle. Lives Rathgar, Ire. 

Bayer, Josef. Composer; born Vienna, Mar. 6, 1852. Com- 
posed principally ballets and operettas. 

Bazin (Bah-jsang), Frangois-Emanuel- Joseph. Theorist; 
born Marseilles, France, 1816; died Paris, 1878. Teacher 
of composition, etc., at Paris Conservatory. 

Bazzini (Bat-zeen-ee) ^ Antonio. Violinist, composer; born 
Brescia, Italy, Mar. 11, 1818; died Milan, Italy, Feb. 10, 


1897. Wrote orchestral works and excellent chamber 

Beach, Mrs. H. H. A. Pianist, composer; born Henniker, 
N. H., Sept. 5, 1867. Chief works, Gaelic Symphony, can- 
tatas, mass with orchestra, piano concerto, and many beau- 
tiful songs and piano pieces. Lives Boston. 

Beaumont, Paul. Composer; bom Mainz, Ger., Jsltl 13, 
1853. Fine teaching pieces and salon music. 

Beazley, James Charles. Composer, teacher; born Ryde, 
Isle of Wight, Eng., 1850. Composed cantatas, violin, 
and piano pieces. Lives Ryde. 

Beck, Johann H. Violinist, composer; born Cleveland, 
O., Sept. 12, 1856. Lives Cleveland. Works (mostly 
MS.), overtures Lara and Romeo and Juliet, music drama 
Salammbo, cantata Deucalion, chamber music, etc. 

Becker. (1) Albert Ernst Anton. Composer; born Quedlin- 
burg, Ger., Jun. 13, 1834; died Berlin, Feb. 10, 1899. Com- 
posed a symphony, a mass, an oratorio, violin concertos, 
etc. (2) Hugo. 'Cellist; born Strassburg, Alsace, Feb. 
13, 1864. Royal High School for Music, Berlin. (3) Ren6 
Louis. Pianist, organist, composer; born Bischheim, Al- 
sace, Nov. 7, 1882. Organ compositions especially valu- 
able. Lives Alton, 111. 

Bedford, Mrs. Herbert. See Lehmann, Liza. 

Beel, Sigmund. Violinist; born California, Mar. 13, 1863. 
Lives San Francisco. 

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Composer; born Bonn, Ger., Dec. 
16, 1770; died Vienna, Mar. 26, 1827. pistinguished him- 
self first as a pianist. Made various concert tours (1781- 
1796). Although a number of his youthful compositions 
had already been published it was not until his twenty-fifth 
year (1795) that Beethoven produced anything to which 
he appears to have thought it worth while to attach an 
opus number. To this year belong the three pianoforte 
trios. Op. 1, and the three piano sonatas (Op. 2) dedicated 
to Haydn. From 1795 dates the beginning of Beethoven's 


influence on musical art, an influence the extent of which 
it is impossible to set down in words. Of works bearing 
a separate opus number, Beethoven left 138, including 9 
symphonies, 7 concertos, 1 septet, 2 sextets, 3 quintets, 16 
quartets, 32 piano sonatas, 16 other sonatas, 8 piano trios, 
1 opera, 2 masses, etc. 

Behm, Eduard. Composer,, conductor; born Stettin, Ger., 
Apr. 8, 1862. Opera and orchestral composer. Lives 

Behr, Franz. Composer; born Liibtheen, Ger., Jul. 22, 
1837; died Dresden, Ger., Feb. 14, 1898. Wrote salon 
music and light pieces suitable for beginners. Used 
pseudonyms Cooper, Charles Morley, Francesco d'Orso. 

Behrend, Arthur Henry. Composer; bom Danzig, Get., 
Oct. 21, 1853. Many popular songs — Daddy, Auntie, etc 
Lives London. 

Beliczay (Bay-li-tchay) , Julius von. Composer; born Ko- 
morn, Hun., Aug. 10, 1835; died Pesth, Hun., Apr. 30, 
1893. Wrote a well-known mass, a symphony, and 
smaller works. 

Bell, William Henry. Composer; born St. Albans, Eng., 
Aug. 20, 1873. Director College of Music, Cape Town, 
South Africa. Orchestral works and chamber music 

Bellincioni (Bel-lin-chee-oh^nee) , Gemma. Coloratura so- 
prano; bom Como, Italy, Aug. 18, 1866. Lives Berlin. 

Bellini, Vincenzo. Composer; born Catania, Italy, Nov. 1, 
1801; died Puteaux, France, Sept. 23, 1835. One of the 
lights of Italian opera. His wealth of melody is evinced 
in his operas // Pirata, La Sonnambula, Norma, I Puritani, 
and others. 

Bemberg {Bern-hair), Herman. Composer; born Paris, 
Mar. 29, 1861. Composed opera Elaine, a comic opera, and 
some famous songs {Chant Indou'e, Nymphs and Fauns, 
etc.). Lives Paris. 

Benda, Georg. Composer; bom Jungbunzlau, Boh., Jun. 30, 
1722; died Kostritz, Boh., Nov. 6, 1795. Wrote Singspiele, ' 
melodramas, etc. 


Bendall, Wilfred. Composer; born London, Apr. 22, 1850L 
Composed operettas and songs. Lives London. 

Bendel, Franz. Pianist, composer; born near Rumburg, 
Boh., Mar. 23, 1833; died Berlin, Jul. 3, 1874. Pupil of 
Liszt; composed piano pieces and songs. 

Bendix. (1) Victor E. Pianist, composer; born Copen- 
hagen, Den., May 17, 1851. PupU of Gade; composed 
three symphonies, piano works, etc. Lives Copenhagen. 
(2) Max. Violinist, teacher; born Detroit, Mich., Mar. 

28, 1866. Lives Chicago. (3) Otto. Pianist, teacher; 
born Copenhagen, Den., Jul. 26, 1845; died San Fran- 
cisco, Mar. 1, 1904. 

Bendl, Karl. Composer; born Prague, Boh., Apr. 16, 1838; 
died there, Sept. 20, 1897. Wrote operas (still in reper- 
toire), masses, cantatas, orchestral works, songs, cho- 
ruses, and piano music. 

Benedict. (1) Sir Julius. Composer, conductor; born 
Stuttgart, Ger., Nov. 27, 1804; died London, Jun. 5, 
1885. Pupil of Hummel and Weber. From 1835 lived 
in London. Held various posts as conductor. Of his 
numerous compositions of all kinds, the opera The 
Lily of Killarney and the oratorio St, Peter are best known. 
(2) Milo Ellsworth. Pianist, teacher; born Cornwall, 
Vt, Jun 9, 1866. Pupil of Liszt Lives Concord, N. H. 

Bennett. (1) Joseph. Writer; born Berkeley, Eng., Nov. 

29, 1831; died Purton, Eng., Jun. 12, 1911. Musical critic, 
London Telegraph, (2) Sir William Stemdale. Com- 
poser; born Sheffield, Eng., Apr. 13, 1816; died London, 
Feb. 1, 1875. At the age of sixteen Bennett performed 
his own piano concerto, and was commended by Mendels- 
sohn. Professor of music at Cambridge University; con- 
ductor of the Philharmonic Society, London; 1866 prin- 
cipal of the Royal Academy. (3) George John. 
Composer, organist; born Andover, Eng., May 5, 1863. 
Organist Lincoln Cathedral. 

Benoist, Francois. Organist, composer; born Nantes, 
France, Sept. 19, 1794; died Paris, 1878. 


Benoit (Ben-zvah), Pierre-L6onard-L^opold. Composer; 
bom Harlebecke, Bel., Aug. 17, 1834; died Antwerp, Bel., 
Mar. 8, 1901. Leader in Belgian music. Wrote large can- 
tatas (War, Rubens Cantata, The Rhine, etc.), operas, 
marches, a choral symphony, etc. 

Berber, Felix. Violinist; born Jena, Ger., Mar. 11, 1871. 
Distinguished virtuoso. Lives Munich, Ger. 

Berens, Hermann. Pianist, composer; born Hamburg, 
Ger., Apr. 7, 1826; died Stockholm, Swed., May 9, 1880. 
Composed educational material. 

Beresowski {Be-re-soff-skee), Maxim. Composer; born 
1745; died 1777. Russian sacred music. 

Berger. (1) Francesco. Pianist, teacher; born London, 
Jun. 10, 1835. Royal Academy of Music, London. (2) 
Ludwig. Pianist, teacher; born Berlin, Apr. 18, 1777; 
died there, Feb. 16, 1839. (3) Wilhelm. Composer; 
born Boston, Aug. 9, 1861; died Meiningen, Ger., Jan. 16, 
1911. Choral works, chamber music, songs, etc. 

Berggren, Andreas Peter. Composer, teacher; born Copen- 
hagen, Den., Mar. 2, 1801 ; died there, Nov. 9, 1880. Ad- 
vocate of Danish music. 

Bergmami, KarL Conductor; born Ebersbach, Ger., 1821; 
died New York, Aug. 16, 1876. Leader of Germania 
Orchestra, New York Philharmonic, etc., pioneer in de- 
velopment of musical appreciation. Teacher of Theo- 
dore Thomas. 

Bergson, MichaeL Composer; born Warsaw, PoL, 1820; 
died London, 1898. 

Beringer, Oscar. Pianist, teacher; born Furtwangen, Ger., 
Jul. 14, 1844. Royal Academy of Music, London. 

Beriot (Bay-ree-o). (1) Charles Auguste de. Violinist, 
composer; born Louvain, Bel., Feb. 20, 1802; died Brus- 
sels, Bel., Apr. 8, 1870. One of the great violinists of 
the last century. His compositions hold an important 
place in the repertory of every violinist. (2) Ch. Vil- 


fride de. Composer; born Paris, 1833. Son of (1). 
Composed orchestral and chamber music. 

Berlioz (Bair-lee-ojs) , Hector. Composer; born La Cote 
St. Andre, France, Dec. 11, 1803; died Paris, Mar. 8, 
1869. Intended by his father, a doctor, for the medical 
profession. Arriving in Paris, Berlioz preferred to fol- 
low his own inclinations, which lay in the direction of 
music. As a consequence of this determination, his fam- 
ily left him for some time to support himself as best 
he could. Becoming reconciled to his father, he was 
afterward given full permission to continue musical 
studies. Later Berlioz made a number of very suc- 
cessful concert tours, of which he gives lively descrip- 
tions in his Autobiography. As a composer, Berlioz be- 
longs to the advanced Romantic School. Among his nu- 
merous compositions are the symphonies Symphonie faip- 
tastique, Harold, Romio et Juliet, the great dramatic legend 
Faust, the operas Benvenuto Cellini and Les Troyens; the 
immense Requiem, and a number of lesser compositions of 
all kinds. 

Bemacchi (Bare-nack-kee) , Antonio. Singer, teacher; 
born Bologna, Italy, about 1690; died there. Mar. 1756. 
Famous master of the old Italian style of singing. 

Bernard (Bare-nahr)^ Emile. Composer, organist; born 
Marseilles, France, Nov. 28, 1843; died Paris, Sept. 11, 
1902. Composed concertos, suites, cantatas, chamber 
music, etc. 

Bemecker, Konstantin. Composer; born Konigsberg, Ger., 
Oct. 31, 1844; died there, Jun. 9, 1906. Cantatas, orato- 
rios, secular choral works. 

Bertini, Henri Jerome. Composer, pianist; born London, 
Oct. 28, 1798; died Meylan, France, Oct. 1, 1876. His 
etudes are in very general use in connection with the 
earlier stages of piano study. 

Berwald (Bair-valt). (1) Franz. Composer; born Stock- 
holm, Swed., 1796; died there, 1868. Opera composer. 
(2) William Henry. Pianist, composer; bom Schwerin- 


Mecklenburg, Ger., Dec. 26, 1864. Syracuse University, 
Syracuse, N. Y. 

Besekirsky, Vassily Vassilievitch. Violinist, teacher; born 
Moscow, Rus., Jan. 27, 1835. Teacher at Conservatory 
of Moscow, and of many prominent Russian violinists. 

Besson {BeS-song), Gustave August. Musical instrument 
maker; born Paris, 1820; died there, 1875. Improved wind 

Best, William Thomas. Organist; born Carlisle, Eng., 
Aug. 13, 1826; died Liverpool, Eng., May 10, 1897. One 
of the foremost English organists of his day. 

Bevaiiy Frederick Charles. Composer; born London^ JuL 
3, 1856. Concert singer and song composer. Lives in 

mi (Behrvi-nyah-nee), Enrico Cavaliere. Conductor; 
bom Naples, Italy, Sept. 29, 1841. Italian opera conductor. 

Beyer, Ferdinand. Composer, pianist; born Querfurt, 
Ger., Jul. 25, 1803; died Mainz, Ger., May 14, 1863. Best 
known for a piano Method. 

Bianchi (Bee-ang-kee) , Bianca. Soprano, teacher; born 
Ger., Jun. 27, 1858. Akademie der Tonkunst, Munich, Ger. 

Biber (Bee-ber), Heinrich Johann Franz von. Violinist, 
compQser; born Wartenburg, Boh., Aug. 12, 1644; died 
Salzburg, Aus., May 3, 1704. Wrote some fine violin 

Biedermann, Edward Julius. Organist, composer; born 
Milwaukee, Wis., Nov. 8, 1849. Composer of masses, 
etc. Organist in New York. 

Biehl, Albert. Composer; born Rudolstadt, Ger., Aug. 16, 
1833. Wrote piano studies and pieces. Lived at Ham- 
burg, Ger. 

Bignami (Been-yah-mee), Carlo. Violinist, composer; born 
Cremona, Italy, 1808; died Voghera, Italy, 1848. Called 
by Paganini "the first violinist of Italy." 


BillingSy William. Composer; born Boston, Oct. 7, 1746; 
died there, Sept. 29, 1800. One of the first American 
composers of sacred music. 

Billington, Elizabeth. Soprano; born London, about 1768; 
died St. Artein, Aug. 25, 1818. A celebrated English 

Binchois, Egidius (or Gilles de Binche). Composer; born 
Binche, France, about 1400; died Lille, France, 1460. 
Sacred and secular composer of Flemish contrapuntal 

Bird, Arthur. Composer; born Cambridge, Mass., Jul. 23, 
1856. Composed a symphony, three orchestral suites, 
the comic opera Daphne, ballet Riibezahl, and much piano 
music. Lives in Berlin. 

Bischoff. (1) J. W. Organist, composer; born Chicago 
1850; died Washington, D. C, Jun. 2, 1909. Blind from 
infancy. (2) Herman. Composer; born Duisburg, Ger., 
Jan. 7, 1868. Composed symphonies, orchestral idyl 
Pan, etc. Lives Munich, Ger. 

K (1) Sir Henry Rowley. Composer; born London, 
Nov. 18, 1786; died there, Apr. 30, 1855. Gave early in- 
dication of musical talent. Produced his Circassian Bride 
in 1809. In consequence of its great success he was made 
conductor at Covent Garden in the following year. A 
long succession of highly successful dramatic compositions, 
overtures, and songs gradually brought him to the front 
as one of the most deservedly popular composers of his 
day. Although he wrote much excellent music of various 
kinds. Bishop is now chiefly remembered for his glees and 
part songs, and as the composer of Home, Sweet Home, 
(2) Anna. Soprano; born London, 1814; died New York, 
Mar. 18, 1884. Wife of (1). (3) John. Organist, the- 
orist; born Cheltenham, Eng., Jul. 31, 1817; died there, 
Feb. 3, 1890. He translated a number of foreign works 
into English, among others, Spohr's Violin School and 
Czerny's School of Composition, 


Bispham, David. Baritone; born Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 
5, 1857. Distinguished in opera and concert. Lives New 

Bizet, Georges. Composer; born Paris, Oct. 25, 1838; 
died Bougival, France, Jun. 3, 1875. Wrote a number of 
operas — Le docteur miracle, Les pecheurs des perils. La 
jolie fille de Perth, Numa, Djamileh, the immensely popular 
Carmen, and music to L'Arlesienne, 

Blagrove, Henry Gamble. Violinist; born Nottingham, 
Eng., Oct. 20, 1811; died Londoni, Dec. 15, 1872. 

Blahetka, Leopoldine. Pianist; born Guntramsdorf, Aus., 
Nov. 15, 1811; died Boulogne, France, Jan. 12, 1887. 

Blangini, Giuseppe Marc. Marl Felice. Vocalist; born 
Turin, Italy, Nov. 18, 1781; died Paris, Dec, 1841. Com- 
posed vocal works. 

Blaramberg, PauL Composer, teacher; born Orenburg, 
Rus., Sept. 26, 1841. Has composed operas, etc. Mos- 
cow Conservatory. 

Blasema, Pietro. Teacher, writer; born near Aquileia, 
Italy, Feb. 29, 1836. Famous acoustician. University of 

Blauvelt, Lillian. Soprano, born Brooklyn, N. Y., Mar. 
16, 1873. Opera and concert singer. Lives Brooklyn. 

Blaze {Castil-Blase) , Frangois-Henri- Joseph. Writer; born 
Cavaillon, France, Dec. 1, 1784; died Paris, Dec. 11, 
1857. A pioneer among French critical writers; treated 
opera, the dance, etc. 

Blech, Leo. Composer; born Aix, Ger., Apr. 21, 1871. 
Composed operas Das war ich, Aschenhrodel, and the 
bright Versiegelt, also three symphonic poems. 

Bleichmann, Julius. Composer, conductor; born Petrograd, 
Dec. 5, 1868; died there, 1909. Orchestral and opera com- 

Bleyle, Karl. Composer; born Feldkirch, Ger., May 7, 
1880. Composed symphony Lernt Lachen for voices and 
orchestra, Flagellantenzug, etc. Lives Munich, Ger. 


Blind, Tom (Thomas Greene Bethune). Pianist; born near 
Columbia, Ga., about 1849; died Hoboken, N. J., June 
17, 1908. A child of slaves of James Bethune. Played 
and improvised remarkably. 

Bliss, Philip Paul. Tenor, composer; born Clearfield Co., 
Pa., Jul. 9, 1838; died Ashtabula, O., Dec. 29, 1876. 
Hymn composer ("Pull for the shore," etc.). 

Bloch. (1) Ernest. Composer, teacher; born Geneva, 
Switz., Jul. 24, 1880. Composed orchestral and chamber 
music, and large choral works. Lives New York. (2) 
Josef. Violinist, composer; born Pesth, Hun., Jan. 5, 
1862. Wrote a Hungarian Overture, Hungarian Rhapsody, 
suites, violin works, etc. Buda-Pesth Conservatory. 

Blockx (Block), Jan. Composer; born Antwerp, BeL, Jan. 
25, 1851; died there, May 26, 1912. Composed operas 
The Princess of the Inn, Thyl Uylenspiegel, The Bride of 
the Sea, the ballet Milenka, and cantatas. 

Blon, Franz von. Composer, conductor; born Berlin, Jul. 
16, 1861. Popular military marches. Lives Berlin. 

Bloomfield-Zeisler, Fanny. Pianist; born Bielitz, Aus., Jul. 
16, 1866. Distinguished virtuoso. Lives Chicago. 

Blow, John. Organist, composer; born Westminister, Eng., 
1648; died there, Oct. 1, 1708. One of the many distin- 
guished musicians trained in the Chapel Royal, time of 
Charles II. 

Blumenfeld, Felix. Composer, pianist; born Kovalevska, 
Rus., Apr. 23, 1863. Composed works for orchestra, 
piano, 'cello. Petrograd Conservatory. 

Blumenthal, Jacob. Composer; born Hamburg, (jer., 1829; 

died London, May 17, 1908. A prolific song writer. 

Bobinski, Heinrich. Pianist; born Warsaw, Pol., Feb. 1, 
1861. Composed an overture, piano concerto, etc. Kiev, 
Rus., Conservatory. 

Boccherini, Luigi. Composer, 'cellist; born Lucca, Italy, 
Feb. 19, 1743; died Madrid, Spain, May 28, 1805. Wrote 


a great deal of excellent and original chamber music. 
Best known by a Minuet, 

Bochsa, Robert Nicholas. Harpist, composer; born Mont- 
medy, France, Aug. 9, 1789; died Sydney, N. S. W., Jan. 
6, 1856. 

Bodansky, Artur. Conductor; born Vienna, Dec. 16, 1877. 
Metropolitan Opera Co., New York. 

Boehe (Bay-e), Ernest. Composer; born Munich, Ger., 
Dec, 27, 1880. Composed symphonic poems Odysseus^ 
Journey, Circe's Island, Nausicaa's Lament, Odysseus^ Re- 
turn, Taortnina, a Tragic Overture, etc. Lives Odenburg, 

Boehm (Baym), Theobald. Flute-maker; born Munich, 
Ger., Apr. 9, 1794; died there, Nov. 15, 1881. Improved 
the flute. 

Boekelman (Bek-eUman), Bemardus. Pianist, teacher; 
born Utrecht, Hoi., Jun. 9, 1838. Since 1866 in U. S.; 
was musical director at Farmington (Conn.) Girls' 
School. Lives New York. 

Boellman (Bo'ell-man), L6on. Organist, composer; born » 
Ensisheim, Alsace, Aug. 25, 1862; died Paris, Oct. 11, 
1897. Composed a symphony, variations, fantaisie, etc., 
with organ. 

Boetus (Boethius), Anicius. Philosopher, writer; born 
Rome about 475; died there about 524. His De Musica 
the chief authority on Greek music. Was executed for 
alleged treason by Theodoric, whose counsellor he had 

Bohlmaim, Theodor. Pianist; born Osterwieck, Ger., Juni. 
23, 1865. Cincinnati College of Music. 

Bohm, Karl. Pianist, composer; born Berlin, Jul. 11, 1844. 
Wrote attractive music for piano, violin, voice. Lives 

Boieldieu, Frangois Adrien. Composer; born Rouen, 
France, Dec. 15, 1775; died Jarcy, France, Oct. 8, 1834. 


Wrote a number of successful operas: Zoraime et Zul- 
nare, Le Calif de Bagdad, Jean de Paris, La dame blanche, 
and others. Boieldieu's operas are distinguished by much 
charming melody, and a certain naive freshness of sentiment. 

BoisdefFre (Bzva-defr), Ch.-Henri-Ren6 de. Composer; 
born Vesoul, France, 1838; died Veselize, France, 1906. 
Composed a symphony, oratorio The Song of Songs, or- 
chestral Scenes Champetres, chamber music, etc. 

Boise, Otis Bardwell. Organist, theorist; born Oberlin, 
O., Aug. 13, 1844; died Baltimore, Md., Dec. 2, 1912. 
Composed a symphony, two overtures, piano concerto, 
etc. Teacher of harmony and composition at Peabody Con- 
servatory, Baltimore. 

Boito (Bo-ee-to), Arrigo. Composer; born Padua, Italy, 
Feb. 24, 1842; died Milan, Italy, Jun. 9, 1918. Distin.- 
guished both as poet and opera composer. His best- 
known opera is Mefistofele, 

Bolck, Oscar. Pianist, composer; born Hohenstein, Ger., 
Mar. 4, 1837; died Bremen, Ger., May 2, 1888. 

Bonawitz, J. H. Pianist, composer; born Diirkhein, Ger., 
Dec. 4, 1839. Lived in London and Vienna. 

Bonci, Alessandro. Tenor; born Cesena, Italy, 1870. Sang 
in U. S. Lives Milan, Italy. 

Bonnet, Joseph. Organist, composer; born Bordeaux, 
France, Mar. 17, 1884. Visited U. S. Lives Paris. 

Bononcini (Buononcini), Giovanni Battista. Composer; 
born Modena, Italy, 1660; died 1750. Opera composer, 
Handel's rival. 

Bonvin, Ludwig. Composer, conductor; born Siders, 
Switz., Feb. 17, 1850. In U. S. since 1887. Composed 
much Catholic church music. 

Boott, Francis. Composer; born Boston, Jun. 24, 1813; 
died Cambridge, Mass., Mar. 1, 1904. Wrote sacred 
works, a mass, etc. 

Borch, Gaston. Composer, 'cellist; born Guines, France, 
Mar. 8, 1871. Composed three operas, a symphony, a 


piano concerto, etc. Best known by songs. Lives New 

Bordogni {Bor-dohn^ee), Marco. Singer, teacher; born 
Gazzaniga, Italy, 1788; died Paris, Jul. 31, 1856. Com- 
poser of vocalises. 

Borodin, Alexander Porphyrievitch. Composer; born Pet- 
rograd, Nov. 12, 1834; died there, Feb. 27, 1887. Na- 
tional Russian School. Famous also in medicine. Com- 
posed two symphonies, a Sketch of the Steppes ^ opera Prince 
Igor, chamber music and solo works. 

Borowski (Bor-off-skee), Felix. Composer, writer, teacher; 
born Burton, Eng., Mar. 10, 1872. Composed refined piano, 
organ, and violin pieces. Chicago Musical College. 

Bortnianski (Bort-nyan-skee), Dimitri. Composer; bom 
Gloukov, Rus., 1752; died Petrograd, Sept. 25 (Oct 8), 
1825. Composer of Russian church music. 

Bos, Coenraad V. Pianist; bom Leyden, HoL, Dec 7, 1875. 
Distinguished accompanist Lives New York. 

Bossi, Marco Enrico. Organist, composer; born Salo, Italy, 
Apr. 25, 1861. Leading Italian composer. Works include 
organ concertos, cantata Paradise Lost, operas Paquita, 
The Wanderer, and The Angel, chamber music and many 
shorter pieces. Lives Como, Italy. 

Botta, Luca. Tenor; born Amalfi, Italy, Apr. 16, 1884; 
died New York, 1917. 

Bottesini (Bot-te-see-nee), Giovanni. Double-bass player; 
born Crema, Italy, Dec. 24, 1823; died Parma, Italy, Jul. 
7, 1889. Made many concert tours as a virtuoso on the 
double-bass. His command over the resources of his in- 
strument, his clearness of intonation, expression, and ex- 
ecution were wonderful. Bottesini was also a composer of 
merit, having written operas, symphonies, concertos, quar- 
tets, etc. 

Bourgault-Ducoudray (Boor-goh-Du-cooh-^ray), Louis Al- 
bert. Composer; born Nantes, France, Feb. 2, 1840; died 
Vernouillet, France, Jul. 4, 1910. Composed operas and or- 
chestral works; investigated folk-music. 


Bovy, Ch.-Samttel (pseudonym Lysberg). Composer, pia- 
nist; born Lysberg, Switz., Mar. 1, 1821; died Geneva, 
Switz., Feb. 15, 1873. Composed salon music. 

Bowen, York. Composer, teacher; born London, Feb. 22, 
1884. Composed for orchestra, and viola solos. Royal 
Academy of Music, London. 

Bowman, E. M. Organist, teacher; born Barnard, Vt, Jul. 
18, 1848; died Brooklyn, Aug. 27, 1913. Author of works 
on piano teaching. 

Boyce, 'William. Organist, composer; born London, Feb. 
7, 17IO5 died there, Feb. 7, 1779. Editor of Cathedral 
Music; composed Hearts of Oak, 

Boyle, George F. Pianist, composer ; born Sydney, N. S. W., 
Jun. 29, 1886. Composed piano concerto, cantatas, piano 
pieces. Peabody Conservatory, Baltimore, Md. 

Bradbury, William B. Composer; born York, Me., Oct 

6, 1816; died Montclair, N. J., Jan. 7, 1868. Composed 
two cantatas; much music for Sunday-school. 

Bradsky, Wenzel. Composer; born Hakovnik, Boh., 1833; 
died there, 1881. Composed operas and very popular 

Braga, Gaetano. 'Cellist, composer; born Giulianova, Italy, 
Jun. 9, 1829; died Milan, Italy, Nov. — , 1907. Best known 
by AngeVs Serenade, 

Braham, John. Tenor; born London, 1774; died there, 
Feb. 17, 1856. Equally great in opera and oratorio. 

Brahms, Johannes. Composer; born Hamburg, Ger., May 

7, 1833; died Vienna, Apr. 3, 1897. Attracted much atten- 
tion as a boy by his compositions and piano playing. Set- 
tled in Vienna in 1869. His compositions cover a wide 
range, and with the exception of opera there is scarcely a 
department of musical art in which he has not made his 
influence felt. Powerful, original, and versatile, Brahms 
ranges from the slightest to the grandest in his choice of 
form, and in sentiment he is just as catholic, passing from 


the austere grandeur of the Requiem or the Song of Des- 
tiny to the delicate charm of many of his lesser composi- 
tions — songs, piano pieces, etc. Brahms's predominant 
characteristics are great and even daring intensity, coupled, 
in the works of his maturity, with a rigid artistic reserve. 
Brahms is best known by his four symphonies, which are 
classical in form and spirit. Modern composers use a 
larger orchestra and struggle for dramatic effects, but he 
proved that great music could still be written with the 
classical forces. 

Brambach, Kaspar Joseph. Composer; born Bonn, Ger., 
Jul. 14, 1833; died there, Jun. 20, 1902. Known by his 

Brandeis, Frederick. Pianist, composer; bom Vienna, Jul. 
5, 1835; died New York, 1899. Composed salon music. 

Brandt, Marianne (really Bischoff). Contralto; born 
Vienna* Sept. 12, 1842. Lives Vienna. 

Brandts-Buys, Jan. Composer; born Zutphen, Hoi., Sept. 
1% 1868; died 1917. 

Branscombe, Gena. Composer; born Picton, Ont. Suc- 
cessful songs and choruses for women's voices. Lives 
New York. 

Brassin (Bras-sang), Louis. Pianist, composer; born Aix, 
Ger., Jun. 24, 1840; died Petrograd, May 17, 1884. Wrote 
etudes, a piano method, salon pieces, etc 

Brauer, Max. Conductor, composer; born Mannheim, 
Ger., May 9, 1855. Wrote a suite for strings, two operas, 
violin pieces, etc. Lives Carlsruhe, Ger. 

Braunfels, Walter. Composer; born Franlcfort, Ger., Dec. 
19, 1882. Composed comic operas and works for or- 
chestra. Lives Munich. 

Brecher, Gustav. Composer, conductor; born Eichwald, 
Boh., Feb. 5, 1879. Composed a symphony Aus unserer 
Zeit, the symphonic poem Rosmersholtn, etc. Lives Co- 
logne, Ger. 


Bree (Bray), Johann Bernard van. Violinist, composer; 
bom Amsterdam, Hoi., Jan. 29, 1809; died there, Feb. 14, 
1857. Best known by cantata St Cecilia's Day. 

Breithaupt, Rudolph Maria. Pianist, teacher; born Bruns- 
wick, Ger., Aug. 11, 1873. Exponent of weight-technic 
system. Lives Berlin. 

Brema (Bray-ma), Marie (really Minnie Fehrmann). Mez- 
zo-soprano; born Liverpool, Eng., Feb. 28, 1856. Famous 
Wagnerian mezzo-soprano. Royal College of Music, Man- 
chester, Eng. 

Breton y Hernandez (Her-nan^eth) , Tomas. Composer; 
born Salamanca, Spain, Dec. 29, 1850. Opera composer; 
produced also Polonaise, Scherzo, Funeral March, and 
Andalusian Pictures for orchestra. 

Br6val (Bray-vahl), Lucienne (really Bertha Schilling). 
Soprano;* born Berlin, Nov. 4, 1869. Wagnerian and 
French opera roles. Lives Paris. 

Br6ville (Bray-veel), Pierre de. Composer, teacher; born 
Bar-le-Duc, France, Feb. 21, 1861. Pupil of Cesar Franck. 
Works include masses, the oratorio 5*^ Rose de Lima, or- 
chestral Nuit de DecSmhre, overture Princess Maleine, mu- 
sic to Maeterlinck's Sept Princesses, and Kalidasa's Sakun- 
tala, also songs, piano works, etc. Schola Cantorum, Paris. 

Brewer. (1) Albert Herbert. Organist, composer; born 
Gloucester, Eng., Jun. 21, 1865. Conductor Three Choirs 
Festival, Gloucester. (2) John Hyatt. Organist, com- 
poser; born Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. 18, 1856. Composed 
organ and church music, songs, choral works, etc. 
Lives Brooklyn. 

Bridge. (1) Prank. Composer, conductor; born Brighton, 
Eng., Feb. 26, 1879. Composed works for orchestra and 
chamber music. Lives London. (2) Sir Frederick. 
Organist, composer; born Oldbury, Eng., Dec. 5, 1844. 
Composed much church music. Organist Westminster 
Abbey. (3) Joseph Cox. Organist; born Rochester, 
Eng., Aug. 16, 1853. Chester Cathedral. 


Bridgetower, George Augustus Polgreen. Violinist; born 
Biala, Pol., 1780; died London, between 1840 and 1850. Son 
of an African father and a European mother. Bridge- 
tower was the first to play the Kreutzer sonata in public. 

Brink, Jules ten. Composer; born Amsterdam, Hoi, Nov. 
4, 1838; died Paris, Feb. 6, 1889. Composed for orchestra. 

Bristow, George F. Composer; born Brooklyn, Dec. 19, 
1825; died New York, Dec. 13, 1898. Composed opera Rip 
van Winkle, 

Britten, Thomas. Musical amateur; born Northampton- 
shire, Eng., 1651; died London, Sept. 27, 1714. A re- 
markable musical enthusiast, who, from the nature of 
his calling, was commonly known as the "Musical Small- 
coals Man." 

Broadwood, John. Piano-maker; born Cockburnspath, 
Eng., Oct., 1732; died 1812. Contributed to develop the 
piano mechanism. 

Brockway, Howard A. Pianist, composer; born Brooklyn, 
N. Y., Nov. 22, 1870. Works include Sylvan Suite for 
orchestra, a symphony (MS), cantata, orchestral ballade, 
scherzo, a Cavatina and a Romance for violin and orchestra, 
and many short works for violin, piano pieces, songs, etc. 
Lives New York. 

Brodsky, Adolf. Violinist, teacher; born Taganrog, Rus., 
Mar. 21, 1751. Teacher of a number of prominent vio- 
linists in Europe and U. S. Royal College of Music, 
Manchester, Eng. 

Broekhoven (Breck-ho-ven), John A. Theorist, harmony 
teacher; born Beek, Hoi., 1852. Composed Suite Creole, 
Columbia Overture, etc. Cincinnati College of Music. 

Bronsart. (1) Hans von. Pianist, conductor; born Berlin, 
Feb. 11, 1830; died Munich, Ger., Nov. 3, 1913. (2) 
Ingeborg von. Pianist, composer; born Petrograd, Aug. 
24, 1840; died Munich, Ger., Jun. 17, 1913. Composed 
operas, concertos, sonatPS, fugues, etc. Wife of (1). 


Brown, Eddy. Violinist; born Chicago, Jul. 15, 1895. Dis- 
tinguished virtuoso. Lives New York. 

Bruch, Max. Composer; born Cologne, Ger., Jan. 6, 1838. 
Great in his violin concertos (especially No. 2, in G 
minor) and in martial cantatas, such as Odysseus, Frith- 
jof, etc., all these being inspired works of genius. Lives 

Bruckner (Brook-ner), Anton. Organist, composer; born 
Ansfelden, Aus., Sept. 4, 1824; died Vienna, Oct. 11, 
1896. Composer of famous symphonies, nine in all. 
These works, especially the last three, handle the full 
orchestra with the utmost breadth and skill, placing 
Bruckner in the first rank of composers. The last one 
is unfinished, and dedicated to God. 

Briill (Bril), Ignaz. Pianist, composer; born Prossnitz, Aus., 
Nov. 7, 1846; died Vienna, Sept. 17, 1907. Wrote The 
Golden Cross and other operas, etc. 

Bnine, Adolf Gerhard. Pianist, composer; born near 
Hanover, Ger., Jun. 21, 1870. Composed for orchestra, 
chamber music, organ;* also piano pieces and songs. 
Lives Chicago. 

Bnmeau, Alfred. Composer, writer; born Paris, Mar. 3, 

• 1857. Has written an Overture hSroique, symphonic poems 

— La belle au hois dormant , LSda and PenthisUie; operas 

Keritn, Le reve, and L'attaque du moulin, etc. Lives Paris. 

Bnmi, Antoine Barthelemy. Violinist, conductor; born 
Coni, Italy, 1759; died there, 1823. Wrote some impor- 
tant educational works in connection with the violin^ 
also the viola. 

Bucalossi, Ernest. Composer; born London, May 27, 
1867. Composed songs and dance music. 

Biichner, Emil. Composer; born Osterfeld, Ger., Dec. 25, 
1826; died Erfurt, Ger., June 9, 1908. Opera and over- 
ture composer. 

Buck. (1) Dudley. Organist, composer; born Hartford, 
Conn., Mar. 10, 1839 ; died Orange, N. J., Oct. 6, 1909. His 


works include the opera Deseret, orchestral music, organ, 
church and piano music, cantatas — King Olafs Christmas, 
Voyage of Columbus, Hymn to Music, The Light of Asia, 
The Christian Year (a cycle of five cantatas) — ^and other 
compositions. (2) Percy Carter. Organist, composer ; bom 
West Ham, Eng., Mar. 25, 1871. Composed for orchestra, 
chamber music, church service. Trinity College, Dublin. 

Buhlig (Boo'lig), Richard. Pianist; born Chicago, 1880. 

BuIL (1) John. Organist, composer; born Somersetshire, 
Eng., about 1563; died Antwerp, Bel., Mar. 13, 1628. 
One of the great English musicians of the Elizabethan 
period. (2) Ole Bomemaim. Violinist; born Bergen^ 
Nor., Feb. 5, 1810; died Lyso, Nor., Aug. 17, 1880. Com- 
posed violin works which he played at his concerts. 

Bullard, Frederick Field. Composer; borni Boston, Mass., 
Sept. 21, 1864; died there, Jun. 24, 1904. Composed 
church music, secular choruses, and songs; best known 
by Stein Song, 

Btilow, Hans Guide von. Pianist, conductor ; born Dresden, 
Ger., Jan. 8, 1830; died Cairo, Egypt, Feb. 12, 1894. Edited 
Beethoven's sonatas. Made piano arrangements, such as 
Tristan and Isolda, His orchestra at Meiningen was so 
well disciplined that once, when he was late, it played a 
piece without any leadership. 

Bungert, August. Composer; bom Muhlheim, Ger., Mar. 
14, 1846; died Leulersdorf, Ger., Oct. 26, 1915. Composed 
a comic opera, a symphonic poem, overture Tasso, etc., also 
a cycle of six operas on Greek subjects: Achilles, Clytem" 
nestra, Circe, Nausicaa, Odysseus' Return and Odysseus^ 

Bunnett, Edward. Organist, composer; born near E. Dere« 
ham, Eng., Jun. 26, 1834. Composed cantatas and church 
music Lives Mancroft, Eng. 

Bunning,. Herbert. Composer, conductor; born London, 
May 2, 1863. Composed symphonic poems, rhapsody, 
two overtures, operas, a Village Suite, scenas, songs, etc 
Lives London. 


Buths (Boots) f Julius. Pianist, conductor; born Wiesbaden, 
Ger., May 7, 1851. Composed for orchestra and chamber « 
music. Pusseldorf Conservatory. 

Butt, Clara. Contralto; born Southwick, Eng., Feb. 1, 
1873. Distinguished for the rich quality and depth of 
her lower tones. Lives London. 

Butterfield, James Austin. Composer; born HertfordshirCi 
Eng., May 18, 1837; died Chicago, Jul. 6, 1891. Composed 
songs, cantata Belshazzar, etc. 

Buxtehude (Boox-te-hoo-deh), Dietrich. Organist, com- 
poser; born Helsingor, Den., 1637; died Liibeck, Ger., 
May 9, 1707. The most famous organist of his time. 
Bach came to hear him play. 

Byrd, William. Organist, composer; born London, 1542; 
died there, Jul. 14, 1623. The "Father of Musicke." 
Celebrated for his church music and madrigals. 

Caballero (Kah^vahl'iyair''oh) , Fernandez. Composer; born 
Murcia, Spain, Mar. 14, 1835; died Madrid, Spain, 1906. 
Composed zarzuelas. 

Cabezon (Cah-be-thon) , AntoniQ de. Organist, harpsi- 
chordist; born Madrid, Spain, Mar. 30, 1510; died there. 
May 24, 1566. Was blind. Called the "Spanish Bach." 

Caccini (Cat-chee-nee) ^ Giulio. Composer; born Rome, 
about 1550; died Florence, Italy, Dec, 1618. Originated 
opera with Peri at Florence. His daughter Francesca 
was a gifted contrapuntal composer. 

Cadman, Charles Wakefield. Composer; born Johnstown, 
Pa., Dec. 24, 1881. Composed song-cycles with orchestra 
(Sayonara, Three Moods, etc.), choral works, etc.; best 
known by his settings of Indian melodies, which are very 
beautiful; but these are chiefly the composer's work, as the 
Indians have no harmony, singing in unison. Cadman has 


written an opera, Shanewis, on Indian melodies. Lives 
Los Angeles, Gal. 

Cady, Calvin B. Teacher; born Barry, 111., Jun. 21, 1851. 
Has trained many teachers for fundamental work. Lives 
Portland, Ore. 

Caffarelli, Gaetano Majorano (Ca-fa^el-lee, Gah-eh-ta-no 
Mah-yo-rah-no) . Singer; born Bari, Italy, Apr. 16, 1703; 
died Santo Dorato, Italy, Feb. 1, 1783; also given as Nov. 
30, 1783. Male soprano. 

Cagnoni {Can-yo-ni), Antonio. Composer, conductor; born 
Godiasco, Italy, 1828; died Bergamo, Italy, 1896. Com- 
posed a number of operas. 

Cahen (Kaa-en), Albert Composer; born Jan. 8, 1846; 
died Cap d'Ail, France, Mar., 1903. Pupil of C6sar 
Franck; composed operas and songs. 

Caldicott, Alfred James. Composer; born Worcester, 
Eng., Nov. 26, 1842; died Gloucester, Eng., Oct. 24, 
1897. Composed cantatas, operettas and glees. 

Calkin, J. Baptiste. Organist, composer; born London, 
Mar. 16, 1827; died there. Mar. 15, 1905. Composed 
church music. 

Callaerts, Joseph. Organist, composer; born Antwerp, 
Bel., Aug. 22, 1838; died there. Mar. 3, 1901. Composed 
an opera, a prize symphony, cantatas, etc. 

Callcott. (1) John WalL Organist, composer; born Ken- 
sington, Eng., Nov. 20, 1766; died Bristol, Eng., May 15, 
1821. A great glee writer. (2) William Hutchins. 
Composer; born Sept. 28, 1807; died Aug. 5, 1882. Com- 
posed anthems and songs. Son of (1). 

Calv€ (Cahl'Veh)f Emma. Soprano; born Aveyron, France, 
1866. Famous as "Carmen." Lives Aveyron. 

Cambert iCam-bare) , Robert. Composer; born Paris, 
1628; died London, 1677. The first writer of French 


Camp, John Spencer. Organist, composer; born Middle- 
town, Conn., Jan. 30, 1858. Composed orchestral works, 
cantatas, organ pieces, etc. Lives Hartford, Conn. 

Campagnoli (Kam-pa-nyo-lee), Bartolomeo. Violinist, com- 
poser; born Cento, Italy, Sept. 10, 1751; died Neustrelitz, 
Nov. 6, 1827. Wrote a Violin School, studies for viola, etc. 

Campanari. (1) Leandro. Violinist, teacher, conductor; 
born Rovigo, Italy, Oct. 20, 1857. Lives San Francisco. 
(2) Giuseppe. Baritone; born Venice, Italy, Nov. 17, 
1858. At first a 'cellist, then with Metropolitan Opera 
Co. as baritonie. Brother of (1). Lives New York. 

Campaninl. (1) Italo. Tenor; born Parma, Italy, Jun. 29, 

1846; died Vigatto, Italy, Nov. 22, 1896. Distinguished in 

Italian opera. (2) Cleofonte. Conductor Chicago Opera 
Co,; bori^ Parma, Italy, Sept. 1, 1860; died Dec. 19, 1919. 

Campbell-Tipton, Louis. Composer; born Chicago, 111., 
Nov. 21, 1877. Composed for piano, violin, and voice. 
Lives Paris. 

Campra, Andr6. Composer; born Aix, Ger., Dec. 4, 1660; 
died Versailles, France, Mar. 29, 1744. Early French 
opera composer. 

Capocci (Ca-pot-tchee), Filippo. Composer, organist; born 
Rome, May 11, 1840; died there, 1898. Composed organ 
works and the oratorio St, Atanasio, 

Capuzzi (Ca-poot'si) , Giuseppe Antonio. Violinist; born 
Brescia, Italy, 1753; died Bergamo, Italy, 1818. Com- 
posed operas, ballets, and chamber music. 

Caraccioli, LuigL Composer, teacher; born Andria, Italy, 
Aug. 11, 1847; died London, Aug. 22, 1887. 

Carafa {Ka-rah-fa) , Michele Enrico. Composer; born 
Naples, Italy, Nov. 17, 1787; died Paris, Aug. 26, 1862. 
Composed operas and piano pieces. 

Carey, Henry. Composer, singer; born London, 1685 
(1692); died there, Oct. 4, 1743. The first to sing "God 
Save the King," and reputed composer of it. 


Carissimi, Giacomo. Composer; born Marini, Italy, about 
1604; died Rome, Jan. 12, 1674. One of the earliest 
writers of oratorio. 

Carl, William Crane. Organist, teacher; born Bloonifield, 
N. J., Mar. 2, 1865. Head of school for organists, New 

Care, Paul. Composer; born Breslau, Ger., Oct. 25, 1859. 
Composed four symphonies, operas Hero and Leander and 
Ulfosti's Wedding, overtures, symphonic poems, string 
quartets, etc. Lives Breslau. 

Caron, Rose. Soprano; born Monerville, France, Nov. 17, 
1857. Wagnerian roles in French. Paris Conservatory. 

Carpenter, John Alden. Composer; born Park Ridge, 111., 
Feb. 28, 1876. Composed for orchestra in modern style, 
also songs, violin pieces, etc. Lives Chicago. 

Carreno, Teresa. Pianist; born Caraccas, Venezuela, Dec. 
22, 1853; died New York, Jun. 12, 1917. Distinguished 

Carrodus, John Tiplady. Violinist, teacher; bom Brath- 
waite, £ng., Jan. 20, 1836; died London, Jul. 13, 1895. 

Carse, Adam von Ahn. Composer; born Newcastle, Eng., 
May 10 (19), 1878. Composed for orchestra, chamber 
music, and voice. Royal Acadehiy of Music, London. 

Caruso, Enrico. Tenor; born Naples, Italy, Feb. 25, 1873. 
The greatest tenor of his time. Lives New York. 

Carvalho, Caroline Miolan. Soprano; born Marseilles, 
France, Dec. 31, 1827; died Puys, France, Jul. 10, 1895. 
Leading artist at the Paris Grand Opera. 

Cary, Annie Louise. Contralto; born Wayne, Me., Oct. 
22, 1842. Successful in opera, oratorio, concert. Lives 
Norwalk, Conn. 

Casals, Pablo. 'Cellist, composer; born Veudrell, Spain, 
Dec. 30, 1876. Distinguished virtuoso. Lives New York. 

Casella, Alfredo. Pianist, composer; born Turing Italy, 
Aug. 25, 1883. St. Cecilia Conservatory, Rome. 


CatalanL (1) Angelica. Soprano; born Sinigaglia, Italy, 
May 10, 1780; died Paris, Jun. 12, 1849. One of the 
most brilliant sopranos known to history. (2) Alfredo. 
Composer; born Lucca, Italy, Jun. 19, 1854; died Milan, 
Italy, Aug. 7, 1893. Composed sacred music, operas 
La Wally and Dejanire, etc 

Catel, Charles Simon. Composer, teacher; born L'Aigle, 
France, Jun.. 10, 1773; died Paris, Nov. 29,. 1830. Har- 
mony teacher at the Paris Conservatory; composed 
operas, etc. 

CavalierL (1) Emilio deL Composer; born Rome about 
1550; died Florence, Italy, Mar. 11, 1602. Composer of 
the first oratorio. (2) Lina. Soprano; born Rome, Dec. 
25, 1878. Chicago Opera Co. 

Cavalli, Francesco (really Caletti-Bruni). Composer; born 
Cremona, Italy, 1599 (1600) ; died Venice, Jan. 14, 1676. 
Pupil of Monteverde, whose works he surpassed. Cav- 
alli's best operas were Giasone, Serse, and Ercole Amante. 

Caves, Catterino. Composer; born Venice, Italy, 1776; 
died Petrograd, 1840. Wrote operas in Russian, espe- 
cially Ivan Sonsanin, the subject used later by Glinka in 
founding the native Russian school. 

Cellier, Alfred. Composer, conductor; bom London, Dec. 
1, 1844; died there, Dec. 28, 1891. Wrote very success- 
ful light operas. 

Cesti, Marco Antonio. Composer; born Florence, Italy, 
1620; died Venice, 1669. Early opera composer. 

Chabrier (Shab-ree-ay), Alexis Emmanuel. Composer; bom 
Ambert, France, Jan. 18, 1841; died Paris, Sept. 13, 1894. 
Composed operettas, operas Gwendoline, Le rot malgre 
lui, the unfinished Briseis, the lyric scene La SulamUe, 
Espana, for orchestra, Bourrie fantastique, for piano, etc. 

Chadwicl^ George Whitfield. Composer; born Lowell, 
Mass., Nov. 13, 1854. Studied in Boston, and under 
Jadassohn, Reinecke, and Rheinberger in Europe. Be- 
came teacher in the ' New England Conservatory of 


Music, also its Director. His works include the comic 
opera Tabasco, The Viking's Last Voyage, the lyric drama 
Judith, symphonies, overtures, chamber music, choral bal- 
lads, and songs. He won later successes with his Syn^ 
Pohnic Suite and the symphonic poem Aphrodite, Lives 

Chaliapine, P6dor. Bass; born Kazan, Rus., Feb. 13, 1873. 
Distinguished for dramatic power. National Opera, Mos- 

Chambonni^res (Sham-bon^ee-air) , Jacques. Claveginist, 
composer; bom about 1600; died 1670. Composer for 
clavichord in the seventeenth century. 

Chaminade, C6cile. Pianist, composer; born Paris, Aug. 
8, 1861. Composed the ballet-symphony Calirrhoe, the 
lyric symphony Les Amazones, suites, a concerto, etc., but 
is best known by her graceful and dainty songs and piano 
pieces. Lives Paris. 

Chapman, William Rogers. Organist, conductor; born 
Hanover, Mass., Aug. 4, 1855. Conductor Maine Fes- 
tival Chorus. Lives New York. 

Chappell, William. Historian; born London, Nov. 20, 
1809; died there, Aug. 20, 1888. Wrote a History of 
Music extending from the earliest records to the fall of 
the Roman Empire; also History of the Popular Music 
of the Olden Times, 

Chapuis (Shah-pwee)f Aiiguste Paul. Composer, con- 
ductor; born Dampierre-sur-Salon, France, Apr. 20, 1862. 
His operas are not very successful. Harmony teacher 
at the Paris Conservatory. 

Charpentier (Shar-pon-tyay) , Gustave. Composer; born 
Dieuze, Lorraine, Jun. 25, 186Q. Best known by opera 
Louise, a protest against the hard life of working-girls; a 
sequel, Julien, not very great. Wrote the suite Impressions 
d'ltalie, the cantata La Vie du Poite, and smaller works. 
Lives Paris. 


Chausaon (Show-song), Emeat. Composer, conductor; 
born Paris, 1855; died Limay» France, Jun. 12, 1899. 
Composed the operas HSUne and Le Rot Arthus^ the sym- 
phonic poems Viviane and Les Caprices de Marianne, a 
symphony, chamber music, incidental music to The Tempest, 
and songs. 

Cherubini, Maria LuigL Composer; born Floren<ce, Italy, 
Aug. 14, 1760; died Paris, Mar. 15, 1842. After receiving 
lessons from his father, was placed under the care of the 
celebrated Giuseppe Sarti, whose pupil he remained for 
four years. When only thirteen Cherubini wrote a 
successful mass. His first opera, Quinto Fabio, was pro- 
duced in 1780. In 1788 he settled in Paris, where he ac- 
quired a great reputation as a composer of operas and 
church music. Principal among his operas, which are real 
works of art, are Ifigenia in Aulide, Lodoiska, MSdie, Les 
deux journies, and Anacreon. He also wrote four masses, 
a requiem, string quartets, many lesser compositions, and a 
masterly work on counterpoint. From 1821 to 1841 he was 
head of the Paris Conservatory. 

Chev€ (Sheh-vay)j Emile J. M. Teacher; born Douamenez, 
France, 1804; died Paris, Aug. 26, 1864. Inventor of 
simplified system of teaching vocal music. 

Chevillard (Shev-ee-yar) , Camille. Conductor; born Paris, 
Oct. 14, 1859. Conductor of Lamoureux concerts. Has 
composed a ballade, a symphony, a symphonic poem, and 
smaller works. Paris Conservatory. 

Chickering, Jonas. Piano-maker; U. S. A., 1798-1853. 

Chipp, Edmund Thomas. Organist, composer; born Lon- 
don, Dec. 25, 1823; died Nice, France, Dec. 17, 1886. 
Composed two oratorios, much church music, organ 
pieces, etc. 

Chittenden, Kate Sara. Pianist, teacher; born Hamilton, 
Ont., Apr. 17, 1856. Director American Institute of 
Applied Music, New York. 


Chladni (Khlai-nee), Ernst Florens FriedriclL Physicist; 
born Wittenberg, Ger., Nov. 30, 1756; d?ed Breslau, Ger., 
Apr. 3, 1827. Made very profound researches into the 
subject of acoustics. 

Chopin, Frederic Frangois. Pianist, composer; born Zela- 
zowa Wola, Pol., Feb. 22, 1810; died Paris, Oct. 17, 1849. 
Made his first important public appearance in Vienna 
in 1829, where the delicate charm and expression of his 
playing excited great public attention. From 1831 until 
his death Chopin lived in Paris. Chopin is king of piano- 
forte composers. Of French and Polish parentage, he shows 
in his works the combined influences of the Slavonic and 
the Frerich spirit. There is about them the wild, dreamy 
nature of the Slav, and a dainty caprice, coupled with an 
exquisite perfection of form and manner, thoroughly 
French. • 

Chorley, Henry F. Writer; born Blockley Hurst, Eng., 
Dec. 15, 1808; died London, Feb. 16, 1872. Eminent 
musical critic. 

Chrjrsander, Friedrich. Historian; born Ltibtheen, Ger., 
Jul. 8, 1826; died Bergedorf, Ger., Apr. 13, 1901. A dis- 
tinguished writer on musical subjects. His most im- 
portant work is his monumental biography of Handel. 
On all subjects connected with Handel or his composi- 
tions, Chrysander takes unquestioned rank as the great- 
est authority. 

Chwatal (Shvah-tal), Franz X. Composer; born Rum- 
burg, Boh., Jun. 19, 1808; died Soolbad, Jun. 4, 1874. 

Cflea (Chil-a-ah), Francesco. Composer, teacher; born 
Palmi, Italy, Jul. 23, 1866. Composed operas in» modern 
realistic style, and works for orchestra. Naples Con- 

Cimarosa (Chee-tna-rO'Sa) , Domenico. Composer; born 
Aversa, Italy, Dec. 17, 1749; died Venice, Jan. 11, 1801. 
A pupil of Piccinni. Wrote an immense number of 
highly successful operas, which rapidly gained for him 


a European reputation. For three years he held a po- 
sition at the court of Catharine II of Russia. He after- 
ward went to Vienna as court conductor. In Vienna 
he produced his greatest work, the opera II Matrtmonio 

Claassen, Arthur. Conductor; born Stargard, Ger., Feb. 
19, 1859. Active in Brooklyn as conductor and com- 

Clapisson (Clah-pee-song), Antoine Louis. Violinist, com- 
poser; born Naples, Sept. 15, 1808; died Paris, Mar. 19, 

Clarke. (1) Hugh A. Composer, theorist; born Toronto, 
Can., Aug. 15, 1839. Professor of Music, University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, for many years. (2) Wil- 
liam Horatio. Organist, composer; born Newton, Mass., 
Mar. 8, 1840; died Rearfing, Mass., Dec. 11, 1913. 

ClaribeL See Barnard. 

Clark, Frederick Scotson. Organist, composer; born L.on- • 
don, Nov. 16, 1840; died there, Jul. 5, 1883. Composed 
much organ music 

Clay, Frederick. Composer; bom Paris, Aug. 3, 1840; died 
Great Marlow, Eqg., Nov. 24, 1889. Wrote a number of 
light operas — Princess Toto, etc., also many songs. 

Clement (Clay-tnahng) , Edmond. Tenor; born Paris, Mar. 
28, 1867. Sang much in U. S. Artist of distinction. Lives 

Clementi, Muzio. Pianist, composer; born Rome, 1752; died 
Evesham, Eng., Mar. 10, 1832. In his ninth year accepted 
a position as organist. At fourteen visited London, where 
his pianoforte pla3ring excited general admiration. In 1817 
produced his celebrated book of studies for the piano, 
Gradus ad Pamassutn. His compositions display great 
lucidity of construction and elegant precision, but they show 
very few traces of originality. They are, however, very 
valuable as educational works, and it is only in this ca- 
pacity that dementi's works can be said to survive. 


Cleve, Half dan. Composer; born Kongsberg, Nor., Oct. 
5, 1879. Composed piano concertos, orchestral pieces, 
piano pieces, songs. Lives Christiania, Nor. 

Cliffe, Frederick. Organist, composer; born near Brad- 
ford, Eng., May 2, 1857. Wrote for orchestra. Lives 

Clough-Leighter, Henry. Organist, composer; born Wash- 
ington, D. C, May 13, 1874. Composed many cantatas and 
effective songs. Lives Boston. 

Clutsam, George H. Pianist, composer; born Sydney, N. 
S. W., Sept. 26, 1866. Composed operas, cantatas, songs. 
Lives London. 

Cobb, Gerhard Francis. Composer; bom Netlestead, Eng., 
Oct. 15, 1838; died Cambridge, Eng., Mar. 31, 1904. 

Coenen (Coo-nen). (1) Johannes Meinardus. Conductor, 
composer; born The Hague, HoL, Jun. 28, 1824; died 
Amsterdam, HoL, Jan. 9, 1899. Composed symphonies, 
stage works, chamber music. (2) Franz. Violinist; 
born. Rotterdam, HoL, Dec. 26, 1826; died 1904. Pupil 
of Vieuxtemps. (3) Cornelius. Violinist, conductor, 

' bandmaster; born The Hague, 1838. Composed over- 

Coeme (Kern), Louis Adolphe. Composer; born Newark, 
N. J., Feb. 27, 1870. Composed the operas Zenohia and 
The Woman of Marblehead, symphonic poem Hiawatha, 
and smaller works (organ pieces, piano pieces, etc.). 
Author of the only history of orchestration in English. 
Lives Norwich, Conn. 

Cole. (1) Rossetter Gleason. Composer, teacher; born 
Clyde, Mich., Feb. 5, 1866. Composed orchestral works, 
melodramas, piano pieces and songs. Lives Chicago. 
(2) Samuel Winkley. Teacher; born Meriden, N. H., 
Dec. 24, 1848. New England Conservatory, Boston. 

Coleridge-Taylor, Samuel. Composer; born London, Aug. 
15, 1875; died Croydon, Eng., Aug. 1, 1912. Negro com- 
poser, son of a West African physician and an English 


mother. Works very passionate in style. Composed can- 
tata Hiawatha (several parts), an oratorio The Atonement, 
cantatas Endymion's Dream, A tale of Old Japan, etc.; 
ballads, a rhapsody, and a Solemn Prelude for orchestra, 
incidental music, and very effective songs, piano works, 
and violin pieces. 

Collan, Karl. Composer, writer; bom Jan. 3, 1828; died 
Helsingfors, Fin., Sept. 2, 1871. Finnish song composer. 
Translated the national epic the Kalevala, 

Colonne, Jules Jude, called Edouard. Violinist, conductor; 
born Bordeaux, France, Jul. 24, 1838; died Mar. 28, 1910. 
Conducted symphony concerts in Paris. 

Concone {Kon-ko-nei) , Giuseppe (Joseph). Composer, 
teacher; born Turin, Italy, 1810; died there, Jun. 1, 1861. 
Remembered principally for his educational workS, in con- 
nection with singing. 

Coninck. (1) Jacques-Felix de. Pianist, composer; born 
Antwerp, Bel., May 18, 1791; died there, Apr. 25, 1866. 
Composed piano pieces. (2) Josef Bernard de. Com- 
poser, critic; born Ostend, Bel., 1827. Opera composer 
at Paris. 

Conradi (Con-rah-dee), August. Organist, composer; born 
Berlin, Jun. 27, 1821; died there, May 26, 1873. 

Converse. (1) Charles Crozat. Composer; born Warren, 
Mass., Oct. 7, 1832. Chief works an American Overture, 
and some famous hymns. (2) Frederick Shepard. Com- 
poser; born Newton, Mass., Jan. 5, 1871. A leading Ameri- 
can composer; his works include a s)rmphony. The Festival 
of Pan, Endymion's Narrative, The Mystic Trumpeter, and 
La Belle Dame (ballad) for orchestra, the oratorio Job 
and two operas. The Pipe of Desire and The Sacrifice. 
Lives Westwood, near Boston. 

Cooke. (1) Benjamin. Organist, composer; born Lon- 
don, 1734; died there, Sept. 14, 1793. A celebrated glee 
writer. (2) Henry. Singer, composer; born Westmin- 
ster early in 17th century; died there, Jul. 13, 1672. 


"Master of the Children" in the Royal Chapel, time of 
Charles II. Obtained a captain's commission in the 
Royalist forces in 1642. 

Coombs, Charles Whitney. Organist, composer; born 
Bucksport, Me., Dec. 25, 1859. Composed the cantata 
The Vision of St. John, church music, and some popular 
songs. Lives New York. 

Coote, Charles. Composer; born London, 1809; died there, 
1880. Composer of an immense amount of popular 
dance music ("Coote and Tinney"). 

Coquard (Co-car), Arthur. Composer, writer; born Paris, 
May 26, 1846; died there, Aug., 1910. Works include the 
operas Uepie du roi, Le mari d'un jour, L'oiseau bleu, 
p^rt of La Jacquerie, and Jahel, also large choral works, 
songs, an orchestral suite, etc. 

Corder, Frederick. Composer, writer; born London, Jan. 
26, 1852. Composed operettas, cantatas, works for or- 
chestra, etc. Royal Academy of Music, London. 

Corelli {Ko-r el-lee), Arcangelo. Violinist, composer; born 
Fusignano, Italy, Feb. 12 (13), 1653; died Rome, Jan. 10, 
1713. The father of modern violin playing. About 1672 
visited Paris, but returned shortly after to Rome. 1680- 
1685, traveled in Germany, where his musical acquire- 
ments gained for him the favor of many princes and 
nobles, in particular that of the Elector of Bavaria, in 
whose service he remained for some time. Cor-elli wrote 
a quantity of chamber music, and his works for violin 
are of great excellence. 

Corey, Newton J. Organist, lecturer; born Hillsdale, Mich., 
Jan, 31, 1861. Manager Detroit Orchestra Association. 

Cornelius, Peter. Composer; born Mainz, Ger., Dec. 24, 
1824; died there, Oct. 26, 1874. His opera The Barber of 
Bagdad, gave Wagner ideas for Die Meister singer. 

Cornell, John Henry. Organist, theorist; born New York, 
May 8, 1828; died there. Mar. 1, 1894. 


Coronaro. (1) Gaetano. Violinist, composer; born Vi- 
cenza, Italy, Dec. 18, 1852; died Milan, Italy, Apr. 5, 
1908. Composed operas and instrumental music. (2) 
Antonio. Composer; born Vicenza, Italy, 1860. Com- 
posed operas. (3) Gellio Benvenuto. Organist, com- 
poser; born Vicenza, Nov. 30, 1863. Composed operas, 
masses, songs, organ music. 

Corri, Domenico. Composer, conductor; born Rome, Oct. 
4, 1746; died Hampstead, Eng., May 22, 1825. Com- 
posed operas, songs, etc. 

Cortot, Alfred. Pianist, conductor; born Nyon, Switz., 
Sept. 26, 1877. Teacher Paris Conservatory. 

Costa, Sir Michael. Conductor, composer; born Naples, 
Feb. 4, 1808; died Hove, Eng., Apr. 29, 1884. Of bis 
compositions, the oratorios Naaman and Eli are the most 
familiar to the present generation. 

Couperin. (1) Armand Louis. Organist; born France, 
1725; died Paris, 1789. (2) Francois. Organist, clavc- 
ginist, composer; born Paris, Nov. 10, 1668; died there, 
1733. As a composer of exquisitely constructed little 
pieces for the clavegin, or harpsichord, he may be 
reckoned one of the early fathers of modern piano 

Courvoisier {Koor-vwah-see-ay), (1) Carl. Violinist; born 
Basel, Switz., Nov. 12, 1846; died Liverpool, Eng., Apr., 
1908. Writer on violin playing; composed a symphony, 
overtures, etc. (2) Walter. Composer; born Riehen, 
Ger., Feb. 7, 1875. Composed songs and choral works 
with orchestra, etc. Lives Munich, Ger. 

Coussemaker (Koos-ma-kaire), Charles Edmond Henri de. 
Writer, historian; born Bailleul, France, Apr. 19, 1835; 
died Bourbourg, France, Jan. 10, 1876. An authority 
on the music and musicians of the Middle Ages. 

Coward, Henry. Conductor; born Liverpool, Eng., Nov. 
26, 1849. Wrote cantatas and church music. Lives 
Sheffield, Eng. 


Cowen, Sir Frederic Hymen. G)mposer; born Kingston, 
Jamaica, Jan. 29, 1852. Composed a waltz at six years of 
age, and when eight wrote an operetta entitled Garibaldi. 
Has written operas, two oratorios, The Deluge and Ruth; 
cantatas, The Rose Maiden, the Sleeping Beauty, The Cor- 
sair, etc.; symphonies, chamber music and songs. Lives 

Cramer, Johann Baptist. Pianist, composer; born Mann- 
heim, Ger., Feb. 24, 1771; died London, Apr. 16, 1858. 
A brilliant pianist, and a composer of much excellent 
music. Famous for his well-known piano etudes. 

Crescentini (Cresh^en-tee-nee) , Girolamo. Singer; born 
Urbania, Italy, Feb. 2, 1766; died Naples, Apr. 24, 1846. 
Male soprano. 

Creser, William. Organist, composer; born York, Eng., 
Sept. 9, 1844. Composed oratorios, church and organ 
music, chamber music Trinity College of Music, London. 

Crist, Bainbridge. Composer, teacher; born Feb. 13, 1883. 
Composed works for orchestra, and many songs. Lives 
Brookline, Mass. 

Cristofori, Bartolomeo di F. Inventor of the piano; born 
Padua, Italy, May 4, 1653; died Florence, Italy, Mar. 
17, 1731. 

Crivelli, Domenico. Singer, teacher of singing; born 
Brescia, Italy, 1794; died 1856. Wrote a Method for 

Croft, William. Composer; born Nether-Eatington, Eng., 
1678; died Bath, Eng., Aug. 14, 1727. Was the organist 
of Westminster Abbey and of the Chapel Royal. Wrote 
anthems, sonatas, songs, hymn-tunes, etc. 

Cross, Michael H. Organist, composer; born Philadelphia, 
Pa., Apr. 13, 1833; died there, Sept. 26, 1897. 

Crotch, William. Composer; born Norwich, Eng., Jul. 5, 
1775; died Taunton, Eng., Dec. 29, 1847. Principal of 
the Royal Academy of Music. He wrote several oratorios : 


Palestine, The Captivity of Judah, etc., anthems, glees, 
organ and piano pieces. 

Crouch, Frederick William Nicholas. 'Cellist, composer; 
born London, Jul. 31, 1808; died Baltimore, Md., Aug. 18, 
1896. Served in the Confederate army, and afterward 
taught music. He wrote popular songs, the best known of 
which is Kathleen Mavourneen. Came to the U. S. in 

Crusell, Bemhard Henrik. Clarinetist, composer; bom 
Nystadt, Fin., Oct. 17, 1775; died Stockhol^n, Swed., 
Jul., 1838. Early song composer of the Finnish school; 
clarinet virtuoso.' 

Cui (Kwee), Cesar Atitonovitch. Composer; born Vilna, 
Lithuania, Jan. 18, 1836 ; died Petrograd, Mar. 14, 1918. A 
prominent composer of the Slavonic school. Opera Angela, 

Cummings, William Hayman. Tenor, writer; born Sid- 
bury, Eng., Aug. 22, 1831; died London, June 6, 1915. 
Has written a cantata, church music, etc. Author of 
historical works. 

Curry, Arthur M. Composer, teacher; born Chelsea, Mass., 
Jan. 27, 1866. Composed symphony Atala, songs, piano 
pieces, etc. New England Conservatory, Boston 

Curschmann, Karl F. Composer; born Berlin, Jan. 21, 
1804; died Langfuhr, Ger., Aug. 24, 1841. Composed 
principally vocal pieces. 

Curwen, John. Teacher; born Heckmonidwike, Eng., Nov. 
14, 1816; died Manchester, Eng., May 26, 1880. Using 
the system introduced by Sarah Ann Glover as a basis, 
he gradually evolved the method known as the Tonic 

Cusins, Sir William George. Organist, pianist; born Lon- 
don, Oct. 14, 1833; died Remonchamps, France, Aug. 31, 
1893. Organist of the Queen's Private Chapel; master 
of the music to the Queen, conductor of the Philhar- 


monk, etc. Wrote an oratorio, Gideon, a piano concerto, 
overtures, and other works. 

Cutter, Benjamin. Violinist, composer; born Woburn, 
Mass., Sept. 6, 1857; died Boston, May 10, 1910. Com- 
posed a cantata, a mass, violin music, etc. Teacher at 
the New England Conservatory, Boston*, for many years. 

Cuzzoni (Coot-zo-nee) , Francesca. Soprano; born Parma, 
Italy, about 1700; died Bologna, Italy, 1770. 

Czemy (Chair-nee), Karl. Composer, pianist; born Vi- 
enna, Feb. 20, 1791; died there, Jul. 15, 1857. Composed 
studies which are used in the training of pianists. Pupil 
of Beethoven, teacher of Liszt. 

Czibulka {Tchee-bult-kah), Alphonse. Composer; born 
Szeges-Varallya, Hun., May 14, 1842; died Vienna, Oct. 
27, 1894. Wrote operettas, dances, salon music, etc. 


Da£Fnery Hugo. Conductor, composer; born Munich, Ger., 
Jun. 2, 1882. Composed a symphony, chamber music, 
etc Lives Berlin. 

Dalayrac, Nicholas. Composer; born Muret, France, Jun. 
13, 1753; died Paris, Nov. 27, 1809. 

D'Albert. See Albert. 

Dalcroze, Emile Jaques. Composer, teacher; born Vi- 
enna, Jul. 6, 1865. Of Swiss parentage. Composed two 
operas, a violin concerto, a string qrartet, children's 
songs, etc. Founded a school at Hellerau, Ger., to teach 
rhythmic dancing for children. Lives Geneva, Switz. 

Damoreau (Dah-mo-ro), Laure Cinthie, known as Ciniti- 
Damoureau. Soprano; born Paris, Feb. 6, 1801; died 
there, Feb. 25, 1863. 


Damrosch. (1) Frank. Conductor, teacher; born Breslau, 
Ger., Jun. 22, 1859. Conductor and organizer of various 
musical societies in New York, where he also rendered 
good service as Supervisor of Music in the public 
schools. Director Institute of Musical Art, New York. 
Son of (2). (2) Leopold. Violinist, conductor; born 
Posen, Ger., Oct. 22, 1832; died New York, Feb. IS, 
1885. Founded the Oratorio and Symphony Societies. 
Wrote a violin concerto, a festival overture, Ruth and 
Naomi, a Sacred Idyl, songs, etc. (3) Walter Johannes. 
Conductor, composer; born Breslau, Ger., Jun. 30, 1862. 
Composed Manila Te Deum, operas The Scarlet Letter, 
Cyrano, and other works. Conductor New York Symphony 
Orchestra. Son of (2). 

Dana. (1) Charles Henshaw. Organist, composer; born 
West Newton, Mass., Feb. 1, 1846; died Worcester, 
Mass., Feb. 5, 1883. Composed principally church mu- 
sic. (2) William Henry. Teacher; born Warren, O., 
Jun. 10, 1846; died there. Mar., 1913. Founded Dana's 
Musical Institute, Warren. 

Dancla (Dahnk-lah), Jean Baptiste Charles. Violinist, com- 
poser; bom Bagnieres, France, Pec. 19, 1817; died Tunis, 
Africa, Nov. 8 (9), 1907. Composed orchestral works and 
valuable technical studies for violin. 

Daniels, Mabel. Composer; born Swampscott, Mass., Nov. 
27, 1878. Composed for orchestra, chamber music, voice. 
Lives Brookline, Mass. 

Danks, Hart Pease. Composer; born New Haven, Conn., 
Apr. 6, 1834; died Philadelphia, Pa., Oct 20, 1903. Com- 
posed very popular songs and hymns. (Silver Threads 
among the Gold,) 

Dannreuther (Dan^oi-ter), Edward. Conductor, writer; 
born Strassburg, Alsace, Nov. 4, 1844; died London, 
Feb. 12, 1905. A distinguished advocate of the advanced 
school of musical art being in a special degree a champion 
of Wagner. 


Daquin (Dak-kan), Louis Claude. Organist, composer; 
born Paris, Jul. 4, 1694; died there, Jun. 15, 1772. Com- 
posed for harpsichord. 

Dargomiszki (Dar-go-nUsh-ky) , Alexander Sergevitch. Pi- 
anist, composer; born Toula, Rus., Feb. 14, 1813; died 
Petrograd, Jan. 29, 1869. Composed operas Esmeralde and 
Roussalka, songs, etc. His opera The Stone Guest, on the 
same subject as Don Giovanni, embodied Balakireff's prin- 
ciples so well that he called it "The Gospel." 

David (Dah-veed). (1) Felicien Cesar. Composer; bom 
Cadenet, France, Apr. 3, 1810; died St. Germain-en-Laye, 
France, Aug. 29, 1876. Traveled extensively in the East. 
His principal work is the remarkable symphonic ode 
Le desert, (2) Ferdinand (Dah-znd). Violinist, com- 
poser; born Hamburg, Ger., Jun. 19, 1810; died Klosters, 
Switz., Jul. 18, 1873. Teacher at Leipzig Conservatory 
when organized. Wrote concertos, caprices, etudes, varia- 
tions, etc., for the violin. 

DavidofiF (Dah-vee^dof) , Karl. 'Cellist, composer; born 
Goldingen, Rus., Mar. 17, 1838; died Moscow, Feb. 15, 
1889. At Petrograd he became solo 'cellist in the impe- 
rial orchestra, and teacher in the Conservatory, finally 
director of it. Wrote a large number of violoncello 
solos and concertos, and also some fine chamber music. 

Davies. (1) Benjamin Grey. Tenor; born Pontardawe, 
Wales, Jan. 6, 1858. Distinguished singer in opera, 
oratorio, and concert. (2) Ffrangcon. Baritone; born 
Bethesda, Wales, Dec. 11, 1860. Sung in opera, ora- 
torio, and concert. Royal Academy of Music, London. 
(3) Walford. Organist, composer; born Oswestry, Eng., 
Sept. 6, 1869. Composed in large forms for orchestra, 
chamber music, church music, a stage work Everyman. 
Organist Temple Church, London. (4) Fanny. Pianist; 
born Island of Guernsey, Eng., Jun. 27, 1861. Distin- 
guished concert artist. Lives London. 


Davison, James William. Music critic; born London, Oct. 
5, 1813; died Margate, Eng., Mar. 24, 1885. Wrote ana- 
lytical notes for the Monday concerts. 

Day, Dr. Alfred. Theorist; born London, Jan., 1810; 
died there, Feb. 11, 1849. Author of work on harmony. 

Dayas (Dt-oj), William Humphries. Pianist, organist; 
born New York, Sept. 12, 1864; died Manchester, May 
3, 1903. 

DeBoeck (De-book), Auguste. Organist, composer; born 
Merchtem, Bel., May 9, 1865. Composed operas, works 
for orchestra, chamber music, and organ. Antwerp Con- 

Debussy, Achille Claude. Composer, pianist; born Paris, 
Aug. 22, 1862; died there, Mar. 26, 1918. Wrote in. a 
very advanced harmonic style, in a set of detached chords 
and fugitive dissonances that has aptly been called "musical 
stippling." He won the Prix de Rome with a cantata. The 
Prodigal Son, a successful work in the more conservative 
vein. The Blessed Damosel was more modern in style. 
His orchestral works include "Uapres-midi d*un faune. 
La mer. Nocturnes, Iberia, Printemps, etc., all delicately 
scored, but dissonant to the conservatives. Debussy wrote 
also the opera Pelleas and Melisande^ where his shadowy 
style is suitable, and the stage scenes St, Sibastien. In his 
piano works and songs Debussy, even if using unexpected 
chords, paints inimitably successful tone-pictures — Garden 
in the Rain, Goldfish, Moonlight, etc. Debussy is a pioneer 
in what is now called modernism, which is a style of writ- 
ing in tortuous harmonies. Some say that in this school 
chords should be enjoyed separately, without the idea of 
progression or relation. 

De Haan, Willem. Composer; born Rotterdam, Hoi., 
1849. Wrote orchestral cantatas and operas. 

Dc Koven (Henry Louis), Reginald. Composer; born Mid- 
dletown, Conn., Apr. 3, 1859. His light operas Robin Hood, 


The Highwayman, The Three Dragoons, etc., display much 
skill in melody, harmony, and instrumental coloring. His 
other works include the grand opera Trilby, numerous 
songs and incidental pieces, and musical criticism. Since 
1900 has composed songs, piano pieces, and the light operas 
Maid Marian, Red Feather, Happyland, The Student King, 
The Snow Man, The Golden Butterfly, The Beauty Spot, 
The Yankee Mandarin, and The Wedding Trip. Died 
Chicago, Jan. 17, 1920. 

De Lange, SamueL Organist, composer; born Rotterdam, 
Hoi., 1840; died Stuttgart, Ger., 1911. Wrote organ and 
chamber music. 

Delamarter, Eric. Conductor, composer; born Kalamazoo, 
Mich. Assistant conductor, Chicago Symphony Orchestra, 

Deldevez {Del-de-vay) , Edouard. VioHnist, composer; born 
Paris, 1817; died there, 1897. Composed operas, ballets, 
symphonies, and church music 

Delibes (Day-leeb), Clement Philibert Leo. Composer; 
bom St. Germain-du-Val, France, Feb. 21, 1836 ; died Paris, 
Jan. 16, 1891. Entered the Paris Conservatory in 1848. A 
pupil of Adam. Wrote some exquisite ballet music — Cop- 
pilia, Sylvia, etc., and several operas, notably Laktne. 

Delius (Day-li-us), Frederick. Composer; born Bradford, 
£ng., Jan. 29, 1863. Composed the operas Koanga and A 
Village Romeo and Juliet, the orchestral works Appalachia, 
Brigg Fair, Norwegian Suite, Dance of Life, A Mass of 
Life, Sea Drift, The Song of the High Hills, etc., some 
with voices. Is modern in style, with unusual and frag- 
mentary harmonies. Lives London. 

Dell Orefice (Ohr-re-fee-che), Giuseppe. Composer; born 
Fara, Italy, 1848. Composed operas of modem character. 

Delune (Deh-leen), Louis. Conductor, composer; bom Char- 
leroiy Bel, Mar. 15, 1876. Cantata and song writer. Lives 



Del Valle de Paz, Edgardo. Pianist, composer, teacher; 
bom Alexandria, Egypt, Oct. 18 (28), 1861. Royal Insti- 
tute of Music, Florence, Italy. 

Demol, Pierre. 'Cellist, composer; born Brussels, Bel., Nov. 
7, 1825; died Alost, Bel., Jul. 2, 1899. Composed operas, 
cantatas, a mass, and chamber music 

Demunck, Ernest 'Cellist, composer; bom Brussels, Be!., 
Dec. 21, 1840. Lives London. Married Carlotta Patti. 

Denn6e (Den-nay), Charles Frederick. Pianist, composer; 
born Oswego, N. Y., Sept. 1, 1863. Composed successful 
songs and valuable piano music. New England Conserva- 
tory of Music, Boston. 

Denza (Den'tsah), Luigi. Composer; bom near Naples, 
Italy, Feb. 24, 1846. Wrote many Neapolitan songs, in- 
cluding the famous Funiculi-funicuh. Lives London. 

Deppe (Dep-peh)f Ludwig. Pianist, teacher; born Alverdis- 
sen, Ger., Nov. 7, 1828; died Pyrmont, Sept. S, 1890. 

De Reszke (Resh-keh). (1) Edouard. Bass; born War- 
saw, Pol., Dec. 23, 18SS; died near Warsaw, 1917. Pupil 
of his brother (2) and other teachers. He ranked among 
great dramatic bassos, excelling equally as singer and 
actor. (2) Jean. Tenor; born Warsaw, Pol., Jan. 14, 
1852. In Europe and America won reputation as the great- 
est dramatic tenor of his time. Lives Paris. 

Despr^ (Day-pray), Josquin. Composer; bora Hainault, 
about 1450; died Conde, France, Aug. 27, 1521. Contrapun- 
tal composer; the first to bring real musical beauty into 
counteipoint. Luther said of him, "Josquin mles the notes, 
others are ruled by them." 

Destinn, Emmy (really Kittl). Soprano; born Prague, Boh., 
Feb. 26, 1878. Metropolitan Opera Company, New York. 
Lives near Prague. 

Destouches (Day-toosh), (1) Andr€ Cardinal. Composer; 
born Paris about 1672; died there, 1749. Wrote a number 
of operas and ballets. (2) Franz Seraph. Composer; 


born Munich, Ger., Jan. 21, 1772; died there, Dec. 10, 1844. 
Composed an opera and much incidental music 

Deswert (Dehs-vair), Jules. 'Cellist, composer; born Lou- 
vain, Bel., Aug. 15, 1843; died Ostend, Bel., Feb. 24, 1891. 

Devrifent (Deh-vree-ong) , Eduard P. Baritone, author; 
born Berlin, Aug. 11, 1801; died Karlsruhe, Oct 4, 1877. 
Wrote a history of German dramatic art 

Dez^de (or JDezaides). Composer; born Lyons, Fr., abt 
1740; died Paris, 179Z Composed many operas and op- 

Diabelli {Dee-a-bel-lee), Anton. Composer; born Mattsee, 
Aus., Aug. 6, 1781 ; died Vienna, Apr. 7, 1858. Best known 
by his easy piano duets, and as the composer of a theme 
on which Beethoven wrote variations. 

Dibdin, Charles. Composer, singer; born Southampton, 
Eng. (baptized Mar. 4), 1745; died London, Jul. 25, 1814. 
Produced a number of very popular plays interspersed with 
music, such as The Padlock, The Waterman, The Quaker, 
etc In 1789, Dibdin commenced his celebrated, and at that 
time novel, "entertainments." His fame, however, rests 
upon his sea-songs, lyrics which gained for him the title 
of the "Tsrrtaeus of the British Navy." As recognition of 
the national importance of these songs, many of which were 
first heard in connection with his different plays and ^enter- 
tainments, the government, in 1802, bestowed upon him a 
pension of $500 a year. 

Dickinson, Edward. Author, historian; born Springfield, 
Mass., Oct 10, 1853. Writer on musical history. Professor 
at Oberlin University, Oberlin, O. 

Dickson, ElTen. Composer; born Woolwich, Eng., 1819; 
died Lyndhurst, Eng., Jul. 4, 1878. Song composer* 
pseudon3rm "Dolores." 

Diehl (Deal), Louis. Composer; born Mannheim, Ger«t 
1838. Song and operetta composer. 

Di6mer (Dee-ay-mair), Louis. Composer, pianist; born 
Paris, Feb. 14, 1843. Composed mostly for the piano. 
Paris Conservatory. 


Diepenbrock (Deep-en-brock), Alphonse. Composer, 
teacher; born Amsterdam, HoL, Sept. 2, 1862. Composed 
orchestral works, etc. Lives Amsterdam. 

Diet (Deet)f Edmond Marie. Composer; born Paris, Sept. 
25, 1854. Pupil of Cesar Franck. Composed operas, bal- 
lets, etc. Lives Paris. 

Dippel, Andreas. Tenor, impresario; born Kassel, Ger., 
Nov. 30, 1866. Wagnerian opera singer; member Metro- 
politan Opera Co., ' New York. 1914 organized his own 
company. Lives New York. 

Ditters (Ditters von Dittersdorf), Karl. Violinist, composer; 
born Vienna, Nov. 2, 1739; died Rothlotta, Boh., Oct. 24, 
1799. Wrote comic operas, the best of them Doktor und 
Apotheker, Also composed church music, symphonies, 
quartets, sonatas, songs, etc., and left an autobiography. 

Doehler (Day-ler), Theodor. Pianist, composer; born 
Naples, Italy, Apr. 20, 1814; died Florence, Italy, Feb. 21, 
1856. Composed salon music. 

Dohnanyi (Doh-nahn-yee), Ernst von. Pianist, composer; 
born Pressburg, Hun., Jul. 27, 1877. Composed a sym- 
phony, the pantomime Pierrette's Veil, orchestral varia* 
tions, and smaller works. Lives Berlin. 

Donati, Baldassaro. Composer; born Venice, Italy, about 
1530; died there, Jun., 1603. Composed madrigals, motets, 

Doebber (Deb-ber), Johannes. Composer; born Berlin, 
Mar. 28, 1866. Composed light operas, etc. Lives Berlin. 

Doering, Karl. Pianist, composer; born Dresden, Ger., 
Jul. 4, 1834. Best known for his valuable technical studies 
for piano. 

Doemer (Dair-ner), Armin W. Pianist, teacher; born Ma- 
rietta, O., Jun. 22, 1851. At the Cincinnati College of Music 
for a number of years. Lives Denver, Col. 

Donizetti (Don-ee-tset-tee) , Gaetano. Composer; born 
Bergamo, Italy, Nov. 29, 1797; died there, Apr. 8, 184& 


One of the bright stars of the Rossinian school of Italian 
opera. Wrote about twenty operas before he met with 
anything like real success. Anna Bolena, Lucia di Lammer- 
moor, and Belisario brought him into the front rank of 
composers, and thereafter he turned out successful operas 
with marvelous ease and rapidity. His operas are distin- 
guished by a wealth of fascinating melody and a ready 
appreciation of the picturesque. Of the seventy operas 
which he wrote, Don Pasquale, UElisir d'Amore, La fille 
du regiment and Lucrezia Borgia may be instanced as 
freshest and most original in conception and execution. 

Doppler. (1) Albert Franz. Flutist, composer; born Lem- 
beiig, Aus., Oct. 16, 1821 ; died near Vienna, Jul. 27, 1883. 
Opera composer. (2) KarL Flutist, conductor ; born Lem- 
berg, Aus., 1826 ; died Stuttgart, Ger., Mar. 10, 1900. Opera 
composer. Brother of (1). (3) Arpad. Conductor, 
composer, teacher; born Pesth, Hun., Jun. 5, 1857. Com- 
posed the opera Much Ado About Nothing, Suites, songs, 
etc Son of (2). Lives Stuttgart, Ger. 

Doret (Dohr-ray)f Gustave. Conductor, composer; born 
Aigle, Switz., Sept 20, 1866. Composed opera La Tisseuse 
d'Orties, cantatas, incidental music Lives Paris. 

Dom, Edouard. See Roeckel. 

Dom, Heinrich. Composer, pianist; born Konigsberg, Ger., 
Nov. 14, 1804; died Berlin, Jan. 10, 1892. Composed salon 

Dowland, John. Composer, lute-player; born Westminster, 
Eng., 1562; died there, 1626. Mentioned by Shakespeare in 
one of his poems. A celebrated madrigal writer. 

Draeseke {Dray-zeck-eh) , Felix August Bemhard. Com- 
poser; bom Coburg, Ger., Oct. 7, 1835; died Dresden, Ger., 
Feb. 26, 1913. His three symphonies, overtures (^Das Leben 
ein Traum) and chamber music were successful. 

Dragonetti (Drah-go-net-tee), Domenico. Double-bass 
player; bom Venice, Apr. 7, 1763; died London, Apr. 16, 
1846. Distinguished virtuoso on the double-bass. 



Drdla, Frans. Violinist, con^iposer; born Saar, Aus., Sept. 
25(28), 1868. G>mposed attractive violin pieces. Lives 

Dresel (Dreh-sel), Otto. Pianist; born Andernach, Ger., 
1826; died Beverly, Mass., Jul. 26, 1890. 

Dressier, Louis Raphael. Organist, composer; born New 
York, Dec. 8, 1861. Composed songs and anthems. Lives 
New York. 

Dreyschock iDry-shock), Alexander. Pianist, teacher; 
bom Zak, Boh., Oct. 15, 1818; died Venice, Italy, Apr. 1, 1869. 
Teacher of a number of well-known Bohemian musicians. 

Dubois {Du'bwah), C16ment Francois Th6odore. Com- 
poser; born Rosnay, France, Aug. 24, 1837. Director of 
the Paris Conservatory. Composed oratorios {Paradise 
Lost, etc.), operas (Aben Hamet, Xaviire), orchestral works 
(Frithjof overture), and many songs, piano works, and 
organ pieces. His music is rather conservative in style. 

Ducasse. See Roger-Ducasse. 

Dufay, Guillaume. Composer; born Hainault, France, 
about 1400; died Cambrai, France, Nov. 27, 1474. A leader 
among the early French contrapuntists. Said to have in- 
troduced white (outlined) notes. 

Dukas (Du-kah), PauL Composer; borni Paris, Oct. 1, 
1865. Composed Apprenti Sorcier a successful symphonic 
poem, opera Ariane et Barbe-Bleue, 2l remarkable piano 
sonata, variations for piano, and other works. Paris Con- 

Dulcken (Dool-ken), Ferdinand Q. Pianist, organist, com- 
poser; bom London, Jun. 1, 1837; died New York, 19Q2. 

Dunham, Henry Morton. Organist, teacher; born Brock- 
ton, Mass., Jul. 27, 1853. New England Conservatory, 

Dunstable, John. Famous English composer, fourteenth 
and early fifteenth century. 


DuparCy Henri. Composer; born Paris, Jan*. 21, 1848. 
Composed in large forms, but best known by his songs. 
Lives Switzerland. 

Duponty Gabriel. Composer; born Caen, France, 1878. 
Modem opera composer, La Cabrera, La Farce du Cuvier, 

Dupuis (Du-pwee). (1) Sylvain. Composer; born Liege, 
Bel., Nov. 9, 1856. Composed operas Moina, Cour d'Og- 
non, etc; also cantatas and orchestral works. Liege Con- 
servatory. (2) Albert. Composer; born Verviers, Bel., 
Mar. 1, 1877. Composed operas L'ldylle, Bilitis, etc. Di- 
rector Verviers Conservatory. 

Durante (Doo-ran-teh) , Francesco. Composer; born Frutta 
Maggiore, Italy, Mar. 15, 1684; died Naples, Italy, Aug. 
13, 1755. Composed operas in the old Italian style. 

Dussek (Doo'shek), (1) Franz. Composer. (2) Johann 
Ladislaus. Pianist, composer; born Czaslav, Bohemia, 
Feb. 9, 1761; died St. Germain-enrLaye, France, Mar. 
20, 1812. Held in high estimation as a pianist, both in 
Paris and in London. Wrote twelve concertos, quintets, 
quartets, trios, sonatas, etc (3) Sophia. Pianist, singer, 
harpist; 1775-18—. Wife of (2). 

Duvemoy (Du-vairn-wah) ^ Jean B. Pianist, composer, 
teacher; bom Paris, about 1797; died Passy, France, 1880. 
Best known by his piano studies. 

Dwight, John S. Writer; born Boston, May 13, 1813; died 
there, Sept., 1893. The most influential American music 
critic of his time. 

DvoMk {Dvor-zhak) J Antonin. Composer; born Miilh- 
hausen, Boh., Sept. 8, 1841 ; died Prague, Boh., May 1, 1904. 
Educated in the music school at Prague. One of the most 
gifted composers of the modern school. Has written sym- 
phonies, cantatas, some sacred compositions, chamber music, 
etc His Spectre's Bride, the remarkable New World sym- 
phony, and the piano quintet, Op. 81, are exceptionally fine 


Dykes, Rev. John Bacchus. Composer; born Kingston- 
upon-Hull, Eng., Mar. 10, 1823; died St. Leonards-on-Sea, 
£ng„ Feb. 22, 1876. A celebrated writer of bymn-tunes. 

EameSy Emma. , Soprano; born Shanghai, China, Aug. 13, 
1867. Voice not dramatic, but very smooth and sweet 
Lives Bath, Me. 

Eberl {Ay-herl), Anton. Pianist, composer; born Vienna, 
Jun. 13, 1766; died there. Mar. 15 (11), 1807. 

Ebert (Ay-bert), Ludwig. 'Cellist, composer; born Klad- 
rau. Boh., 1834; died Coblenz, Ger., 1908. Composed for 

ESccarius-Sieber, Arthur. Violinist; born Gotha, Ger., May 
23, 1864. Periodical writer, teacher; published piano and 
violin methods, sonatas, etc. Lives Diisseldorf, Ger. 

Eckerty Karl Anton Florian. Composer; born Potsdam, 
Ger., Dec. 7, 1820; died Berlin, Oct 17> 1879. Best known 
by his songs. 

Eddy, Hiram Clarence. Organist; born Greenfield, Mass., 
Jun. 23, 1851. Distinguished concert organist Lives Oak- 
land, Cal. 

Edwards, Julian. Composer; born Manchester, Eng., Dec. 
11, 1855; died Yonkers, N. Y., Sept 15, 1910. 

Eeden (Ay-den), Jean Baptiste van den. Composer; bom 
Ghent, Bel., Dec. 26, 1842. Works include cantatas and 
oratorios (Jacqueline de Bavitre, Brutus, Jacob van Arte- 
velde, Judith, The Lxist Judgment, De Wind), the opera 
Rhena, orchestral works, etc Conservatory of Music, Mons, 

Ehlert (Ay-lert), Louis. Composer, writer; born Konigs- 
berg, Ger., Jan. 23, 1825 ; died Wiesbaden, Ger., Jan. 4, 1884. 


Ehrlich (Air-likh), Alfred Heinrich. Pianist, composer, 
writer; born Vienna, Oct. 5, 1822; died Berlin, Dec. 29, 
1899. Best known by his editing of Tausig's Daily Studies. 

Eichberg, Julius. Violinst, composer; born Dtisseldorf, 
Ger., Jun. 13, 1824; died Boston, Jan. 18, 1893. Composer 
of operettas, violin pieces, and some pleasing songs. 

Eichbom, Hermann Ludwig. Waldhorn virtuoso, inventor, 
writer; bom Breslau, Ger., Oct. 30, 1847. Composed songs, 
comic operas, and orchestral pieces. Writer on instru- 
ments. Lives in the Tyrol, Ger. 

Eijken (Eye-ken). (1) Jan Albert van. Organist; born 
Ammersfoort, Hoi., Apr. 26, 1823; died Elberfeld, Ger., 
Sept. 24, 1868. Organ composer. (2) Gerhard Isaac. 
Organist; born May 5, 1832. Lives Utrecht, Hoi. Brother 
of (1). (3) Heinrich. Composer; born Elberfeld, Ger., 
Jul. 19, 1861; died Berlin, Aug. 28, 1908. Composed 
songs with orchestra and choruses. 

Eitncr, Robert. Writer; born Breslau, Ger., Oct. 22, 1832; 
died Templin, Ger., Jan. 22, 1905. Famous musical writer, 
and careful editor of old music. 

Elgar, Sir Edward William. Composer; born Broadheath, 
Eng., Jun. 2, 1857. The leader of the new school in Eng- 
land. Largely self-taught. Works include oratorios The 
Dream of Gerontius, The Apostles, and The Kingdom; can- 
tatas King Olaf, The Black Knight, Caractacus, etc.; over- 
tures Froissart, Cockaigne, and In the South; orchestral. 
Enigma Variations, symphonic poem Falstaff, two sym- 
phonies; also a difficult violin concerto, songs, and violin 
pieces with orchestra, and many lesser works. Elgar shows 
real inspiration, though some of his later works are a 
trifle fragmentary. Lives London. 

Ella, John. Violinist, writer; born Thirsk, Eng., Dec. 19, 
1802; died London, Oct. 2, 1888. Prepared analytical 

EUicott, Rosalind Frances. Pianist, composer; born Cam- 
bridge, Eng., Nov. 14, 1857. Has written some excellent 
compositions for orchestra. Lives London. 


Elman, Mischa. Violinst; born Talnoje, Rus., Jan. 20, 
1891. Pupil of Leopold Auer. Distinguished virtuoso. 
Lives New York. 

Elsenheimer, Nicholas J. Composer, teacher; born Wies- 
baden, Ger., Jun. 17, 1866. Teacher at Cincinnati College 
of Music for a number of years. Composed cantatas, part- 
songs, etc. Lives New York. 

EUson. (1) Louis C. Writer, historian; born Boston, Apr. 
17, 1848; died Boston, Feb. 15, 1920. Teacher of theory at 
New England Conservatory of Music. (2) Arthur. Writer ; 
born Boston, Nov. 18, 1873. Son of (1). Lives Boston. 

Elterlein (really Gottschald), Ernst. Writer; born Elter- 
lein, Ger., Oct. 19, 1826; by profession a jurist. Analyst 
of Beethoven's sonatas. 

Elvey, Sir George Job. Composer, organist; born Canter- 
bury, Eng., Mar. 27, 1816; died Windlesham, Eng., Dec. 
9, 1893. In 1835 appointed organist of St. George's, Wind- 
sor. Knighted in 1871. Retired from St George's in 
1882. Wrote principally church music. 

Emerson, Luther Orlando. Composer; born Parsonfield, 
Me., Aug. 3, 1820; died Hyde Park, Mass., Sept 29, 1915. 
Composer of sacred music; pioneer in musical work for 
the masses. 

Emery, Stephen A. Theorist, pianist, teacher; born Paris, 
Me., Oct 4, 1841; died Boston, Apr, 15, 1891. Teacher 
at the New England Conservatory of Music, Boston, for 
a number of years. 

Emmerich, Robert. Composer; born Hanau, Ger., Jul. 23, 
1836; died Baden-Baden, Ger., Jul. 17, 1891. Composed 
symphonies, a cantata, operas, etc.; choral conductor. 

Enesco, Georges. Violinist, composer; born Cordaremi, 
Roumania, Aug. 7, 1881. Composed chamber works, a 
Roumanian Rhapsody, a Roumanian Poem, etc. Lives Paris. 

Engel, Karl. Writer, historian; born Thiedenweise, Ger., 
Jul. 6, 1818; died London, Nov. 17, 1882. Eminent writer 
on music and musical instruments. 


Enna, August. Composer; born Nakskov, Den., May 13, 
1860. Self-taught composer of operas; A Village Tale, 
Areta, Aglaia, The Witch (a great success), Cleopatra, 
Lamia, Aucassin and Nicolette, lb and Christina, and other 
subjects from Hans Christian Andersen. Lives Copenhagen, 

Erard, Sebastian. Piano-maker; born Strassburg, Alsace, 
Apr. 5, 1752; died Aug. 5, 1831. Made notable improve- 
ments in the action of the harp. 

Erb {Airh), Maria Josef. Organist, composer; born Strass- 
burg, Alsace, Oct. 23, 1860. Composed piano and orches- 
tral suites, operas, a tone-poem, the ballet Der Heimweg, 
etc Lives Strassburg. 

Erben (Air-ben), Robert. Composer; born Troppau, Ger., 
Mar. 9, 1862. Composed the opera Enoch Arden, the fairy 
play Die Heimelmdnnchen, etc. Lives Berlin. 

Erdmannsddrfer, Max von. Conductor; born Nuremberg, 
Ger., 1848; died Munich, 1905. Works include the can- 
tatas Prinzessin Ilse, Seelinde, etc. 

Erkel (Air-kel), (1) Franz (Ferencz). Composer; born 
Gyula, Hun., Nov. 7, 1810; died Pesth, Hun., Jun. 15, 
1893. Founder of Hungarian national opera. Of his 

• nine works Hunyadi Lasslo and Bank Ban were great 
successes. He also wrote patriotic songs. (2) Alexander. 
Composer; born Pesth, Hun., 1846; died there, Oct. 14, 
1900. Composed opera Tempefot amd three others. Son 
of (1). 

Erlanger (Air-lat^shair) , (1) Camille. Composer; born 
Paris, May 25, 1863. Composed the dramatic legend St. 
Julien, operas Kermaria, The Polish Jew, The Son of the 
Star, Aphrodite, and Hannele, a Requiem, a symphonic 
poem, etc. Lives Paris. (2) Friedrich, Baron. Com- 
poser; born Paris, May 29, 1868. Composed chamber 
works, etc.; pseudonym F. Regnal. Lives London. (3) 
Ludwig. Composer. 

Ernst {Aimst), Heinrich Wilhelm. Violinist, composer; 
born Brtinn, Aus., May 6, 1814; died Nice, France, Oct 


14, 1865. Studied at the Vienna Conservatory; afterward 
a pupil of De Beriot. Traveled all over Europe, achiev- 
ing great success wherever he appeared. As a composer 
is most widely known by the celebrated Elegie, 

Ertel (Air-tel), Jean Paul. Pianist, composer, writer; 
born Posen, Ger., Jan. 22, 1865. Composed symphony Harald, 
symphonic poems Maria Stuart, Belshazser, Potitpeii, etc 
Lives Berlin. 

Eslava, Don Miguel Hilarion. Composer; born Burlada, 
Spain, Oct. 21, 1807; died Madrid, Spain, Sept. 23, 1878. 
Church and opera composer. 

Esposito, Michele. Pianist, composer; born near Naples, 
Sept. 29, 1855. Editor of Italian classical music. Lives 
Dublin, Ire. 

Esser, Heinrich. Composer; born Mannheim, Ger., Jul. 

15, 1818; died Salzburg, Aus., Jun. 3, 1872. Composed 
operas, orchestral and chamber works, and very popular 
quartets and songs. 

EssipofiF, Annette. Pianist; born Petrograd, Feb. 1, 1851; 
died Aug. 18, 1914. A virtuoso of immense technical re- 
sources. Toured America with great success in 1876. 

Eyken. See Eijken. 

Eymieu (Eye-myay), Henri. Composer, writer; born Sail- 
lans, France, May 7, 1860. Composed an oratorio, piano 
pieces, etc. Editor Le Menestrel, Paris. 

Faccio, Franco. Composer; born Verona, Italy, 1841; 
died Monza, Italy, 1891. Composed the successful opera 
. / Prufughi Fiamminghi and Amleto. 

Faelten, Carl. Pianist, teacher; born Ilmenau, Ger., Dec. 
21, 1846. Organized Faelten Pianoforte School, Boston. 

Fahrbach. (1) Joseph. Composer, flutist; born Vienna, 
Aug. 25, 1804; died there, Mar. 31, 1885. (2) Philipp. 


Composer, conductor; born Vienna, Oct. 25, 1815; died 
there. Mar. 31, 1885. (3) Philipp, Jr. Composer, con- 
ductor; born Vienna, 1843; died there, Feb. 15, 1894. 
Son of (2). Bandmaster, dance and march composer. 
(4) Wilhelm. Dance composer; born Vienna, 1838; died 
there, 1866. 

Fairlamb, James Remington. Organist, composer; born 
Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 23, 1837; died New York, Apr., 
1906. Composed sacred music and two operas. 

Faisst (Fyst), Immanuel Gottlob Friedrich. Organist, 
theorist; born Esslington, Ger., Oct. 13, 1823; died Stutt- 
gart, Ger., Jun. 5, 1894. Composed cantatas, motets, organ 
music, etc. 

Falcke, Henri-Oscar. Pianist; born Paris, Feb. 27, 1866. 

Fall, Leo. Composer; born Olmiitz, Aus., Feb. 2, 1873. 
Modern German light opera composer. Lives Vienna. 

Faltin, Richard Frederick. Composer, conductor; born 
Danzig, Ger., Jan. 5, 1835. Identified with the Finnish 
school as conductor at Helsingf ors ; composed songs, organ 
works, etc. Lives Helsingfors, Fin. 

Paltis, Emmanuel. Composer, conductor; born Lanzow, 
Boh., May 28, 1847; died Breslau, Ger., Aug. 14, 1900. 
Composed songs, masses and other church music. 

Famintzin, Alexander. Composer, critic; born Kalouga, 
Rus., Oct. 24, 1841; died Petrograd, Jul. 6, 1896. Com- 
posed operas Sardanapal and Uriel Acosta, a tone-poem, etc. 

Fanelli, Ernest. Composer; born Paris, Jun. 29, 1860. 
Composed tone-poem Thebes, etc. Lives Paris. 

Faning, Joseph Eaton. Composer, conductor; born Hels- 
ton, Eng., May 20, 1850. Composed a symphony, the Hol- 
iday overture, songs, part-songs, etc. Lives London. 

Farinelli, Carlo B. Singer; born Naples, Italy, Jan. 24, 
1705 ; died Bologna, Italy, Jul. 15, 1782. One of the great- ' 
est of the old Italian male sopranos. 


Farkas, Edmund. Composer teacher; born Puszta- 
Monostor, Hun., 1852. Composed orchestral works {Day- 
break, Evening, a symphony, etc.), string quartets, and 
many national Hungarian operas. Conservatory, Sieben- 
btirgen, Aus. 

Farmer. (1) John. English madrigal composer, late six- 
teenth century. (2) Henry. Violinst, composer; born 
Nottingham, Eng., May 13, 1819; died there, Jun. 25, 
1891. Composed a mass, violin concertos, etc. (3) John. 

Organist, composer; born Nottingham, Eng., Aug. 16, 1836; 
died Oxford, Eng., Jul. 17, 1901. Composed an oratorio, 
the fairy opera Cinderella, chamber music, a comic can- 
tata, etc. Nephew of (2). 

Famaby, Giles. English virginal composer, early seven- 
teenth century. 

Farrant, Richard. English composer, end of sixteenth 


Farrar, Geraldine. Soprano; born Melrose, Mass., Feb. 
28, 1882. Metropolitan Opera Co. Famous for intelligent 
acting. Lives New York. 

Farwell, Arthur. Composer, writer; born St. Paul, Minn., 
Apr. 23, 1872. Composed music on Indian themes, etc 
Director Music School Settlement, New York. 

Faulkes, William. Organist, composer; born Liverpool, 
Eng., Nov. 4, 1863. Composed organ and chamber music, 
etc. Blind. 

Faur6 (Fo-ray), Gabriel Urbain. Organist, composer; born 
Pamiers, France, May 12, 1845. Excels especially in vocal 
and chamber music, but has composed well in all forms. 
His opera Penelope a success. Director Paris Conservatory. 

Faure (Fore), Jean Baptiste. Baritone, composer; born 
Moulins, France, Jan. 15, 1830; died Paris, Nov. 9, 1914. 
After a brilliant success in opera he became professor at 
the Paris Conservatory. He composed many sacred songs, 
including Palm Branches, 


Favarger {Fah-vahr-shair) , Rene. Pianist, composer; born 

Paris, 1815; died Etretat, France, Aug. 3, 1868. Com- 
posed salon music. 

Fay, Amy. Pianist, teacher; born Bayou Goula, Miss., 
May 21, 1844. Pupil of Liszt Author of the interesting 
book Music Study in Germany. Lives 'New York. 

Fayrfax, Robert. Composer; born Bayford, Eng., 1470; 
died St Albans, Eng., Feb., 1529. 

Federlein, Gottfried H. Organist, composer; born New 
York, Dec. 31, 1883. Composed organ works, church music, 
songs. Lives New York. 

Feinhals, Fritz. Baritone, born Cologne, Ger., Dec. 14, 
1869. Royal Opera, Munich. 

Felix, Hugo. Composer; born Vienna, Nov. 19, 1866. Com- 
posed operettas. 

Fenaroli, Fedele. Composer, teacher; born Lanciano, Italy, 
Apr. 25, 1730; died Naples, Italy, Jan. 1, 1818. Teacher of 
Cimarosa, Zingarelli, Mercadante, etc. 

Fee (Fa-o), Francesco. Composer; born Naples, Italy, 
about 1685; died after 1740. Opera composer (Zenobia, 

Femandez-Caballero (Fair-nan-deth), Composer ; born Mur- 

cia, Sp., Mar. 14, 1835; died Madrid, Sp., Feb. 20, 1906. 

Composed zarzuelas. 
Ferrabosco. Name of an Italian family of contrapuntal 

composers, sixteenth century. Alfonso F. Composed 

Ayrez in London, published 1609. 

Ferrari. (1) Benedetto. Composer, poet; born Reggio, 
Italy, 1597; died Modena, Italy, 1681. Opera composer 
and theorbo player. (2) Domenico. Violinist, com- 
poser; died Paris, 1780. Wrote violin sonatas. (3) Carlo. 
'Cellist, composer; died Parma, Italy, 1789. Introduced 
in Italy the high thumb positions; composed for the 
'cello. Brother of (2). (4) Giacomo. Composer; born 
Roveredo, Italy, 1759; died London, Dec, 1842. Opera 


composer, accompanist to Marie Antoinette. (5) Sera- 
fino. Organist, opera composer. (6) Carlotta. Com- 
poser; born Lodi, Italy, Jan. 27, 1837. Operas, {Ugo, 
etc.), songs, etc. (8) Gabriella. Pianist, composer; born 
Italy, 1851. Composed operas, orchestral works, etc. 
Lives Paris. 

Ferrata, Giuseppe. Pianist, composer; born Gradoli, Italy, 
Jaij. 1, 1865. Newcomb College, Tulane University, New 
Orleanis, La. 

Ferron, Adolphe. (!^omposer; born Vienna, May 21, 1855. 
Operetta composer. 

Ferroni, Vincenzo. Composer, teacher; born Tramutola, 
Italy, Feb. 17, 1858. Royal Conservatory of Music, 
Milan, Italy. 

Fesca, Alexander Ernst. Composer; born Carlsruhe, Ger., 
May 22, 1820; died Brunswick, Ger., Feb. 22, 1849. 

Fetis (Fay-tees) f Francois Joseph. Historian theorist, 
writer; born Mons, Bel., Mar. 25, 1784; died Brussels, 
Bel., Mar. 26, 1871. Studied at Paris. In* 1818 appointed 
professor at the Conservatory. In 1827 started the Revue 
Musicale. Wrote many theoretical works, and also the 
great Biographie universelle des musiciens et bibliographie 
generate de la musique. For years was conductor and di- 
rector of the Conservatory qf Brussels. 

Fevrier (Fev-ree-ay). (1) Henri Louis. Eighteenth cen- 
tury clave<;in composer. (2) Henri. Composer; born 
Oct. 2, 1875. Composed opera Monna Vanna, etc. 

Fibich, Zdenko. Composer; born Seborschitz, Boh., Dec. 
21, 1850; died Prague, Boh., Oct. 10, 1900. Composed the 
operas Bukovin, Blanik, The Bride of Messina, The Tern- 
pest, Haidee, and the very successful Sarka; also symphonic 
poems {Othello, etc.), two symphonies, chamber music, 
piano music, songs, choruses, etc. Was much devoted to 
melodrama, or music with spoken words, setting in this 
manner the dramatic trilogy Hippodamia. 


Fiebach (Fee-bahk), Otto. Organist, composer; born 
Ohlau, Ger., Feb. 9, 1851. Opera composer (Die Lorelei, 
etc.). Professor, University Konigsberg, Ger. 

Fiedler (Feed-ler), August Max. Pianist, conductor; born 
Zittau, Ger., Dec. 31, 1859. Conductor Boston Symphony 
Orchestra, 1908-12. Composed chamber music, a symphony, 
an overture, etc. 

Field, John. Pianist, composer; born Dublin, Ire., Jul. 26, 
4782; died Moscow, Rus., Jan. 11, 1837. A pupil of dem- 
enti. Spent the greater part of his life in Russia, where 
he enjoyed a great reputation as performer and teacher. 
In his compositions, particularly in his dreamy and graceful 
nocturnes. Field may be considered the forerunner of 

Fielitz (Feel-its), Alexander von. Composer, teacher; 
born Leipzig, Ger., Dec. 28, 1860. Stern Conservatory, 

Filke (Fil'keh), Max. Composer; born near Leobschtitz, 
Ger., Oct. 5, 1855. Lives Berlin. 

Fillmore, John C. Pianist, teacher, writer; born New 
London, Conn., Feb. 4, 1843; died there, Aug. IS, 1898. In- 
vestigated Omaha Indian music. Author of a History of 
Music and a history of the piano and its music 

Filtz, Anton. 'Cellist, composer; born Bohemia, 1730; 
died Mannheim, Ger., 1760. Composed symphonies, cham- 
ber music, etc 

Finck, Henry T. Writer, music critic; born Bethel, Mo., 
Sept. 22, 1854. Graduated at Harvard in 1876. Studied 
music with J. K. Paine. Attended the first Bayreuth fes- 
tival, in 1876, and became an earnest advocate of Wagner. 
In 1881 he was made musical editor of the New York Eve- 
ning Post, His writings include Wagner and His Works, 
Paderewski and His Art, Edvard Grieg, etc. Lives New 

Findeisen, Otto. Composer, conductor; born Brunn, Aus., 
Dec; 23, 1862. Operetta composer. Lives Leipzig, Ger. 


Fioravanti (Fee-oh-rah-van-tee). (1) Valentino. Composer; 
born Rome, Sept. 11, 1764; died Capua, Italy, Jun. 16, 
1837. Composed about fifty operas {La Cantatrice Vil- 
lane, I Virtuosi Ambulanti, etc). (2) Vincenzo. 1799- 
1877. Son qf (1). 

Fiorillo (Fee-o-ril-lo) , Federigo. Violinist, composer; bom 
Brunswick, Gen, 1753; died Paris (?) after 1823. Wrote 
some very fine etudes for the violin. 

Fiqu6 (Fee-kay), Karl. Pianist, composer, teacher; born 
Bremen, Ger., Apr. 17, 1867. Lives Brooklyn. 

Fischer. (1) Johann Christian. Oboist; born Freiburg, 
Ger., 1733; died Apr. 29, 1800. Oboe composer. (2) 
Christian Wilhelm. 1789-1859; bass singer, buffo roles. 
(3) Ludwig. 1745-1825; bass singer in Mozart's works, 
etc. (4) Michael Gotthard. Organist, composer; born 
near Erfurt, Ger., Jun. 3, 1773; died there, Jan. 12, 1829. 
Organ virtuoso sacred composer. (5) Gottfried Emil. 

• 1791-1841; singing teacher, vocal composer. (6) ICarl 
Ludwig. Violinist, conductor; born Kaiserslautern, Ger., 
1816; died Hanover, Ger., Aug. 15, 1877. Composed male 
choruses, etc. (7) Adolf. Organist; born Uckermiinde, 
Ger., Jun. 23, 1827; died Dec. 8, 1893. Composed sym- 
phonies, etc. (8) Karl August. Organist, composer; 
born Ebersdorf, Ger., Jul. 25, 1828; died Dresden, Ger., 
Dec. 25, 1892. Composed organ concerto and symphonies, 
orchestral suites, opera Lorelei, etc (9) Paul. 1834-1894; 
Conductor, song collector and editor. (10) Enul. Bass; 
born Brunswick, Ger., 1840; died Hamburg, Ger., Aug. 
11, 1914. Formerly with Metropolitan Opera Co., New York. 
(11) Adolphc. 'Cellist; born Brussels, Bel., Nov. 22, 1847; 
died there. Mar. 18, 1891. 

Fischhof, Robert. Pianist, composer; born Vienna, 1858. 
Composed opera Der Bergkonig, Vienna Conservatory. 

Fisher, William Arms. Composer; born San Francisco, 
Cal., Apr. 27, 1861. Musical editor Oliver Ditson Com- 
pany, Boston. Composed principally songs. 


Fissot (FeeS'So), Alexis Henri. Pianist, composer; born 
Airanes, Fr., Oct. 24, 1843. Composed piano music. 

Fitelberg (Feet-el-bairg) , George. Violinist, composer, 

conductor; born Livonia, Rus., Oct. 18, 1879. Composed 

symphonies, symphonic poems, chamber music, etc. War- 
saw Conservatory. 

Fitzwilliam, Count Richard. Bequeathed to Cambridge 
University a valuable collection of early English virginal 

Flagler, Isaac van Vleck. Organist; born Albany, N. Y., 
May 15, 1844; died Mar. 16, 1909. Composed for organ. 

Fleischer. (1) Friedrich GotUob. Song composer; born 
Kothen, Ger., 1722; died Brunswick, Ger., 1806. (2) 
Oscar. Writer; born Zorbig, Ger., Nov. 2, 1856. His- 
torical investigator. (3) Reinhold. Organist, composer; 
born Dahsau, Ger., Apr. 12, 1842; died 1904. Composed 
organ works, songs, the cantata Holda, etc. 

Flemming, Friedrich Ferdinand. Composer; born Neu- 
hausen, Ger., Feb. 28, 1778; died Berlin, May 27, 1813. 
Physician, composed Integer Vita and other popular 

Flesch, Karl. Violinist; born Wieselburg, Hun., Oct. 29, 
1873. Editor of violin works ; distinguished virtuoso. Lives 

Flodin, KarL Composer, writer; born Wasa, Fin., Jul. 10, 
1858. Writer on Finnish music, composed the scena Helena, 
incidental music to Hauptmann's Hannele, etc. Lives Bue- 
nos Ayres, Argentina. 

Floersheim (Flairs-hime) , Otto. Composer, writer; born 
Aix, Ger., Mar. 2, 1853. Composed piano pieces and small 
orchestral works. Lives Berlin. 

Flondor, Theodor Johann von. Composer; born Rou- 
mania; died near Berlin, Jun. 24, 1908. Composed opera 
and operetta. 


Floridia, Pietro. Composer, conductor; born Modena, 
Italy, Mar. 5, 1860. Composed operas, a symphony, etc. 
Lives New York. 

FloriOy Caryl (pseudonym of William James Rob John). 
Singer, organist, composer; born Tavistock, Eng., Nov. 3, 
1843. Composed operettas, cantatas. Organist Biltmore, 
N. C. 

Flotow, Friedrich von. Composer; born Teutendorf, Ger., 
Apr. 27, 1812; died Darmstadt, Ger., Jan. 24, 1883. Com- 
poser of operas. Wrote Alessandro Stradella and Martha, 
the latter opera being that by which he is most widely 

Foerster. (1) Alban. Composer; born Reichenbach, Ger., 
Oct. 23, 1849. Composed operas, chamber music, etc 
(2) Joseph. Composer, teacher; born. Osojnitz, Boh., 
Feb. 22, 1833; died Prague, Boh., Jan. 3, 1907. Composed 
masses. (3) Adolph Martin. Composer, teacher; born 
Pittsburgh, Pa., Feb. 2, 1854. Composed a Faust over- 
ture, suites, a symphonic ode, the symphonic poem Thus- 
nelda, and smaller works. Lives Pittsburgh. 

Foley ("Signor Foli"), Allan James. Bass; born Cahir, 
Ire., Sept. 7, 1835 ; died Southport, Eng., Oct. 20, 1899. Dis- 
tinguished in opera and concert. 

Folville, Juliette. Pianist, violinist, composer; born Liege, 
Bel., Jan. 5, 1870. Composed the opera Atala, cantatas, a 
violin concerto, suites, etc Liege Conservatory. 

Foote, Arthur. Pianist, composer; born Salem, Mass., 
Mar. 5, 1853. Works include symphonic poem Francesco 
da Rimini, cantatas, etc., but he is best known by his or- 
chestral and piano suites, songs, and piano pieces. Lives 
Brookline, Mass. 

Ford, Thomas. Composer; born England, about 1580; 
died London, Nov., 1648. Composed part-songs, canons, 
rounds, instrumental music. 

Forkel, Johann N. Organist, writer, historian; born Mee- 
der, Ger., Feb. 22, 1749 ; died Gottingen, Ger., Mar. 17, 1818. 


Formes, Karl Joseph. Bass; born Muhlheim-on-the-Rhine, 
Ger., Sept 7, 1816; died San Francisco, Cal., Dec. 15, 1889. 
Distinguished operatic singer. 

Forsjrth, CeciL Composer, writer; born Greenwich, Eng., 
Nov. 30, 1870. Composed for orchestra, chamber music, 
two comic operas, songs, etc.; author of a work on instu- 
mentation. Lives New York. 

Foster. (1) Myles Birket. Organist, composer; born Lon- 
don, Nov. 29, 1851. Composed cantatas, much church 
music. Lives London. (2) Muriel. Contralto; born 
Sunderland, Eng., Nov. 22, 1877. Distinguished in ora- 
torio and concert. (3) Stephen Collins. Composer; born 
Pittsburgh, Pa., Jul. 4, 1826; died New York, Jan. 13, 
1864. Wrote words and music of many popular songs, 
among which may be mentioned Old Uncle Ned, My Old 
Kentucky Home, Old Folks at Home, and Massa's in the 
Cold, Cold Ground, 

Fourdrain, Felix. Composer; born France, 1880. Com- 
posed the opera Vercingetorix. Lives Paris. 

Fox. (1) George. Baritone, composer, born England, 

1854. Opera and cantata ' composer. (2) Felix. Pianist, 

teacher; born Breslau, Ger., May 25, 1876. Fox-Buonamici 
School, Boston. 

FrageroUe (Frashe-rol) , Georges Auguste. Composer; 
born Paris, Mar. 11, 1855. Composed operettas and pa- 
triotic songs. 

Franchetti (Frang-ket-tee) , Baron Alberto. Composer; 
born Turin, Italy, Sept. 18, 1860. Studied at Munich and 
Dresden; composed chamber music and orchestral works, 
also the operas Asrael, Crist of ore Colombo, Fior d'Alpe, 
Germania, La Figlia di Jorio, etc. Works strongly effective. 

Franchomme (Fran-shorn), Auguste. 'Cellist; born Lille, 
France, Apr. 10, 1808 ; died Paris, Jan. 22, 1884. Remarkable 
command over technical difficulties. 

Franck {Frahng), C^sar Auguste. Organist, composer, 
teacher; born Liege, Bel., Dec. 10, 1822; died Paris, Nov. 8, 



1890. Teacher of many eminent French musicians. Wrote 
a number of excellent sacred compositions — Ruth, Redemp- 
tion, Les Beatitudes, etc.; a symphony, chamber music, and 
works for piano and for organ. 

Franco. (l)Of Paris, chapel-master and composer; about 
1100. (2) Of Cologne, invented measured notes, about 

Frank (Frahnk), Ernst Organist, composer; born Munich, 
Ger., Feb. 7, 1847 ; died near Vienna, Aug. 17, 1889. Opera 
composer (Hero, etc). 

Frankenberger, Heinrich Friedrich. Violinist, composer; 
born Wiimbach, Ger., Aug. 20, 1824; died Sondershausen, 
Grer., Nov. 22, 1885. Composed operas, songs, piano pieces. 

Franz, Robert. Composer; born Halle, Ger., Jun. 28, 
1815; died there, Oct. 24, 1892. A song-writer of great 

Frauenlob (Frow-en-lobe) (Praise of Women). Name 
given to Henry of Meissen ( — 1318), for his Minnesongs 
(lyrics) in praise of womanhood. 

Frederick the Great, o£ Prussia. Flutist, patron of music, 
composer; born Berlin, 1712; died Potsdam, Ger., 1786. 
Composed an opera (// Re Pastore), an overture, music 
for flute, etc 

Fremstad, Olive. Soprano; born Stockholm, Swed., about 
1870. Distinguished opera singer. Lives New York. 

Frescobaldi, (jirolamo. Organist, composer; born Ferrara, 
Italy (baptized Sept. 9), 1583; died Rome, Mar. 2, 1644. 
Organist St Peter's, Rome. 

Freudenberg (Froy-den-bairg) , Wilhelm. Composer; bom 
near Neuwied, (Jer., Mar. 11, 1838. Composed operas, an 
overture, etc. Lives Berlin. 

Fried, Oskar. Composer; born Berlin, Aug. 10, 1871. Com- 
posed choruses Emtelied, Das Trunkene Lied, fugue for 
string orchestra, cantata, Verkldrte Nacht, women's cho- 
ruses, etc. Lives Berlin. 


Friedentfaal, Albert. Pianist; born Bromberg, Gen, Sept 
25, 1862. Made world tour. 

Friedheim (Freed-hime), Arthur. Pianist, composer, 
teacher; born Petrograd, Oct 26, 1859. Composed a piano 
concerto, the opera The Dancer, etc Pupil of Liszt Lives 
New York. 

Friedlander, Max. Writer, historian; born Brieg, Ger., 
Oct. 12, 1852. An authority on German folk-song. Lives 

Friedmann, Ignaz. Pianist, composer; born Cracow, Aus., 
Feb. 14, 1882. Composed songs and piano works. Lives 

Fries, Wulf. 'Cellist, teacher; born Garbeck, Ger., Jan. 
10, 1825; died Boston, Apr. 29, 1902. Distinguished artist 

Friml, Rudolf. Pianist, composer; born Prague, Boh., 
Dec. 7, 1881. Composed successful light operas, piano and 
violin pieces. Lives New York. 

Frischen, Josef. Conductor, composer; born Garzweiler, 
Ger., Jul. 6, 1863. Lives Hanover, Ger. 

Fritze, Wilhelm. Pianist, composer; born Bremen, Ger., 
Feb. 17, 1842; died Stuttgart, Ger., Oct 7, 1881. Composed 
oratorios, a symphony, music to Faust, concertos, etc. 

Froberger, Johann Jacob. Organist, composer; born 
Halle, Ger., 1605; died Hericourt, France, May 7, 1667. 
Distinguished as player. J. S. Bach studied his composi- 

Frontini, F. Paolo. Composer; born Catania, Italy, Aug. 
6, 1860. Director Conservatory, Catania. 

Frugatta, Giuseppe. Pianist, composer; born Bergamo, 
Italy, May 26, 1860. Composed for piano, including fine 
etudes. Milan Conservatory. 

Fry, William H. Composer; born Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 
10, 1813; died Santa Cruz, Cal., Sept 21, 1864. Opera com- 


Fuchs (Fooks). (1) Johann Nepomuk. Conductor, com- 
poser; born Frauenthal, Aus., May 5, 1842; died Vienna, 
1899. (2) Robert. Composer, teacher; born Frauen- 
thal, Aus., Feb. 15, 1847. Composed two symphonies, 
a mass, a Sea-Overture, choruses, two operas, etc. Lives 
Vienna. (3) Albert. Composer; born Basel, Switz., 
1858; died Dresden, Ger., 1^10. Composed a violin con- 
certo, a Hungarian Suite, choruses, etc. 

Ftthrer (Fear-er), Robert. Organist; born Prague, Boh., 
Jun. 2, 1807; died Vienna, Nov. 28, 1861. Composed 
masses, etc 

Fuller-Maitland, John Alexander! Writer, historian; born 
London, Apr. 7, 1856. Editor second edition Grove's Dic- 
tionary of Music. Lives London. 

Fumagalli (Foo-ma-gahl-lee), Luca. Pianist, composer; 
born Inzago, Italy, 1837; died Milan, Italy, Jun., 1908. 

Fumi (FoO'mee)f Vinceslao. Conductor, composer; born 
Montepulciano, Italy, Oct. 20, 1823; died Florence, Nov. 
20, 1880. Wrote for orchestra, and an opera. 

Fursch-Madi (Foorsh-Mah-dee), Emmy. Soprano; born 
Bayonne, France, 1847; died Warrenville, N. J., Sept 20, 
1894. Opera soprano with dramatic power. 

Fux (Fooks), Johann Joseph. Theorist; born Hirtenfeld, 
Aus., 1660; died Vienna, Feb. 13, 1741. Author of Gradus 
ad Parnassum, a text-book on counterpoint which has re- 
mained the basis for most works on the same subject since 


Gabriel (Gah-bree-el) , Richard. Organist, conauctor; born 
Zackenzin, Ger., Sept. 3, 1874. Composed for chorus. Lives 
Sagan, Ger. 

Gabrieli. (1) Andrea. Organist, composer; born Venice 
about 1510; died there, 1586. Organist St. Mark's Cathe- 


dral. A famous early Italian composer. (2) Giovanni 
Organist, composer; bom Venice, 1557; died there, Aug. 
12, 1612(1613). Organist St Mark's Cathedral. Nephew 
of (1). 

Gabrilowitsch, Ossip. Pianist, composer, conductor; born 
Petrograd, Feb. 7, 1878. Pupil of Leschetizky at Vienna. 
Conductor Detroit (Mich.) Symphony Orchestra, 1918. 
Distinguished as an interpreter. Married the singer Clara 
Clemens, daughter of Mark Twain. 

Gade (Gah-de), Niels Wilhelm. Composer; born Copen- 
hagen, Den., Feb. 22, 1817; died there, Dec. 21, 1890. Wrote 
symphonies, overtures, an opera, choral works, chamber 

music, etc. His compositions lean toward the style of 
Mendelssohn. His music displays a strongly marked Scan- 
dinavian character. 

Gadsby, Henry R. Organist, composer; born London, 
Dec. 15, 1842; died Putney, Eng., Nov. 11, 1907. Church 
music composer. 

Gadski, Johanna. Soprano; born Anclam, Ger., Jun. 15, 

1871. Eminent in Wagnerian opera. 

Gagliano {Gal-yah-no) j Marco da. Composer; born 
Gagliano, Italy, about 1575; died there, Feb. 24, 1642. 

Gail (Chile), Edmee Sophia. Composer; born Paris, Aug. 
28^ 1775; died there, Jul 24, 1819. Composed operas and 

Galin (Gahr-lang), Pierre. Theorist, teacher; born Sama- 
tan, France, 1786; died Bordeaux, France, Aug. 31, 1821. 
Devised a system of singing by numerals instead of the 
syllables do, re, mi, etc. 

Galitzin, Prince George. Composer; born Petrograd, 
1823; died Sept., 1872. Composed masses, orchestral fan- 
taisies, choral works, etc 

Galli, Amintore. Writer, music critic, composer; born 
near Rimini, Italy, Oct. 12, 1845. Composed operas, ora- 
torios, etc. Lives Milan, Italy. 


Galli-Curci (Gahl-lee'Coor'Chee), Amelita. Soprano; born 
Milan, Italy, Nov. 18, 1890. Distinguished coloratura 
singer. Lives New York. 

Gallico, Paolo. Pianist, teacher, composer; born Trieste, 
Italy, May 13, 1868. Composed piano pieces. Lives New 

Galuppi (Gah-loop-pee) , Baldassaro. Composer; born 
Burano, Italy, Oct. 18, 1706; died Venice, Italy, Jan. 3, 1785. 
Composer in Italian classical style, toccatas, etc. 

Gandolfi, Riccardo. Composer; born Voghera, Italy, Feb. 
16, 1839. Opera and orchestral composer; devoted to his- 
torical studies. Lives Florence, Italy. 

Ganne (Gahnn), Louis Gaston. Composer; born Bruxieres- 
les-Mines, France, Apr. 15, 1862. Composed light operas, 
popular piano music, songs, etc. Lives Paris. 

GSnsbacher (Gehns-bakh-er), Johann B. Composer; born 
Sterzing, Aus., May 8, 1778; died Vienna, Jul. 13, 1844. 

Gantvoort, Arnold J. Teacher; born Amsterdam, Hoi., 
Dec. 6, 1857. Director College of Music, Cincinnati, O. 

Ganz (Gahnfs). (1) Rudolph. Pianist, composer; born 
Zurich, Switz., Feb. 24, 1877. Composed songs, piano 
pieces. Distinguished virtuoso. Lives New York. (2) 
Wilhelm. Composer, pianist; born Mainz, Ger., Nov. 
6, 1833; died London, 1914. 

Garcia {Gar-thee-a). (1) Manuel. Teacher of singing; 
born Madrid, Spain, Mar. 17, 1805; died London, Jul. 1, 
1906. For many years lived at London as a teacher 
of singing. Invented the ]ar3mgoscope. (2) Manuel del 
Popolo Vincente. Singer, teacher; born Seville, Spain, 
Jan. 21, 1775; died Paris, Jun. 9, 1832. Father of (1) and 
of Viardot-Garcia. 

Garcin (Gar-sang), Jules Auguste. Violinist, conductor, 
composer; born Bourges, France, Jul. 11, 1830; died Paris, 
Oct. 10, 1896. Wrote violin music. 


Garden, Mary. Soprano; born Aberdeen, Scot., Feb. 20, 
1S77. Brought up in the United States. Famous opera 
singer. Chicago Opera Company. Lives Paris. 

Gardiner, H. Balfour. Composer; born London, Nov. 7, 
15, 1823; died Paris, 1906. Composed oratorios, overtures, 
chamber music, etc Lives London. 

Garrett, George Mursell. Organist, composer; born Win- 
chester, Eng., Jun. 8, 1834; died Cambridge, Eng., Apr. 8, 
1897. Composer of oratorios, cantatas, and church music. 

Gast (Gahst), Peter. Composer; born Annaberg, Ger., 
Jan. 10, 1854. Composed operas, a symphony, etc. 

Gastaldon, Stanislas. Composer; born Turin, Italy, Apr. 
7, 1861. Composed piano pieces, songs, etc. 

Gastinel, Leon. Composer; born Cote d'Or, France, Aug. 
15, 1823; died Paris, 1906. Composed oratorios, overtures, 
symphonies, comic operas, etc 

Gatti-Casazza, Giulio. Impresario; born Udine, Italy, Feb. 
5, 1869. Manager Metropolitan Opera Co., New York. 

Gatty. (1) Sir Alfred Scott. Composer; born Ecclesfield, 
« Eng., Apr. 25, 1847. Operetta and song composer; lives 
London. (2) Nicholas Comyn. Organist, composer, 
conductor; bom Bradfield, Eng., Sept. 13, 1874. Cdmposed 
variations, short operas, a piano concerto, etc. Lives 

Gaul, Alfred Robert. Composer, organist; born Norwich, 
Eng., Apr. 30, 1837; died Birmingham, Eng., Sept 13, 1913. 
Well known as the composer of The Holy City. 

Gavini6s (Ga-veen-^es) , Pierre. Violinist, composer; born 
Bordeaux, France, May 11, 1728; died Paris, Sept. 9, 1800. 
Wrote a number of compositions for the violin, of great 
technical difficulty, but extremely valuable to advanced stu- 

Gavronski (Gah-vron-skee) , Woitech. Conductor, com- 
poser; born near Vilna, Pol., Jun. 27, 1868. Composed a 
symphony, two operas, string quartets, piano pieces and 
songs. Lives Warsaw. 


Gaynor, Mrs. Jessie L. Composer; born St. Louis, Mo., 
Feb. 17, 1863. Composed many excellent children's songs, 
an operetta, etc. Lives Webster Groves, Mo. 

Gaztambide (Gath^tam-bee-deh) , Joaquin. Composer, 
teacher; bom Tuleda, Spain, Feb. 7, 1823; died Madrid, 
Spain, Mar. 25, 1870. Composed forty very successful 

Gear, George Frederick. Pianist, teacher, composer; born 
London, May 21, 1857. Composed chamber music, op- 
erettas, etc London Academy of Music. 

Gebhard, Heinrich. Pianist, composer; born Sobernheim, 
Ger., JuL 25, 1878. Composed piano pieces. Lives Boston. 

G6dalge (Zhay-dalzh), Andre. Teacher, composer; born 
Paris, Dec. 27, 1856. Composed symphonies, operas, an 
orchestral suite, chamber music, etc., also TraitS de la Fugue. 
Paris Conservatory. 

Geibel, Adam. Organist, composer; born Neuenheim, Ger., 
Sept. 15, 1855. Blind. Composed songs, choruses, a can- 
tata, etc. In the United States since 1862. Lives Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Geisler, Paul. Composer, conductor; born Stolp, Ger., 
Aug. 10, 1856. Composed many operas, a number of sym- 
phonic poems, etc Director of Conservatory, Posen, Ger. 

Gelink (Geh-lee-nek) , Joseph. Composer; born Selcz, 
Boh., Dec 3, 1758; died Vienna, Apr. 13, 1825. Composed 
principally variations. 

Geminiani {Jem-ee-nee-ah-nee) , Francesco. Violinist, com- 
poser; born Lucca, Italy, about 1680; died Dublin, Ire., 
Sept. 17, 1762. One of the great Italian violin virtuosi of 
the eighteenth century. Lived at London for many years. 

Gen6e (Zheh'neh)^ Richard. Composer; born Danzig, 
Ger., Feb. 7, 1823; died near Vienna, Jun. 15, 1895. Com- 
poser light operas, dance music 

Genss, Hermann. Pianist, composer; born Tilsit, Ger., 
Jan. 6r 1856. Composed orchestral, choral, and chamber 
music Lives San Francisco, Cal. 


Georges {Zhorzh)^ Alexandre. Organist, composer; born 
Arras, France, Feb. 25, 1850. Composed operas, incidental 
music, etc. Niedermeyer School, Paris. 

Gerardy (Zhay-rar-dee), Jean. 'Cellist; born Spa, Bel., 
Dec 7, 1S78. He made many concert tours, every- 
where exciting great admiration by his wonderful tone and 

Gericke (Geh-H-ke), Wilhelm. Conductor; born Graz, 
Aus., Apr. 18, 1845. For many years he led the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, which under him reached the front 
rank among such organizations. Lives Vienna. 

Gerlach, Theodor. Composer, conductor; born Dresden, 
Ger., Jun. 25, 1861. Composed an Epic Symphony, the 
opera Matteo Falcone, and many lesser works. Lives Karls- 
ruhe, Ger. 

German, J. Edward. Composer; born Whitechurch, Eng., 
Feb. 17, 1862. Has written a number of extremely effective 
orchestral and choral compositions. Lives London. 

Germer (Gair-mer), Heinrich. Pianist, teacher; born Som- 
mersdorf, Ger., Dec. 30, 1837; died Dresden* Ger., Jan. 
4, 1913. Author of valuable educational works. 

Gemsheim (Gaims-hime) , Friedrich. Pianist, composer; 
bom Worms, Ger., Jul. 17, 1839; died Berlin, Nov., 1916. 
Long director of the Rotterdam Conservatory, and later of 
the Stern Conservatory in Berlin. Has written a piano 
concerto, several quartets, the cantata Salamis, etc Com- 
posed also four symphonies and an excellent Prologue, to a 

Gerster (Gair-ster), Etelka. Soprano; born Kaschau, Hun., 
Jun. 25, 1857. Conducts school for singers, Berlin. 

Geselschap, Marie. Pianist; born Batavia, Java, 1874. 
Noted as an ensemble player. Lives Munich, Ger. 

Gevai^rt (Geh-vahrt), Fransois A. Theorist, composer; 
born Huysse, Bel., Jul. 31, 1828; died Brussels, Bel., Dec. 
24, 1908. Author of valuable text-book on harmony. 


Ghys, Joseph. Violinist, composer; born Ghent, Bel., 1801; 
died Petrograd, 1848. 

Gialdini (Zhyal-dee-nee), Gioldino. Conductor, composer; 
bom Pescia, Italy, Nov. 10, 1843. Composed buffo operas. 

Giardini (Zhyar-dee-nee), Felice de. Violinist, con- 
ductor, composer; born Turin, Italy, Apr. 12, 1716; died 
Moscow, Rus., Dec. 17, 1796. 

Gibbons. (1) Christopher. Organist; born London (bap- 
tized Aug. 22), 1615; died there Aug. 20, 1676. Son of 
(2) (2) Orlando. Organist, composer; born Cambridge, 
'Eng., 1583; died Canterbury, Eng., Jun. 5, 1625. In 1604 
appointed organist of the Royal Chapel, and in 1623 or- 
ganist of Westminster Abbey. A notable madrigal writer, 
but even more celebrated as a composer of church music 

Gibert (Zhee-bair), Francisco Xavier. Composer; born 
Granadella, Spain ; died Madrid, Sp., Feb. 27, 1848. A priest. 

Gigout (Zhee-goo), Eug6ne. Organist, composer; born 
Nancy, France, Mar. 23, 1844. Organ composer. 

Gil (Zhil)f Francisco Assis. Teacher, theorist; born 
Cadiz, Spain, 1829. Professor of harmony, Madrid Con- 

Gilbert, Henry F. Composer; born Somerville, Mass., 
Sept. 26, 1868. Composed a Comedy Overture on negro 
themes, other orchestral works, ballet. The Dance in Place 
Congo, songs, etc. Lives Cambridge, Mass. 

Gilchrist, William Wallace. Composer, teacher, con- 
ductor; bom Jersey City, N. J., Jan. 8, 1846; died Easton, 
Pa., Dec 20, 1916. Pupil of Hugh A. Clarke at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. Organist, choirmaster, teacher 
and conductor in Philadelphia. In 1882 he won the Cin- 
cinnati Festival prize with his Psalm XLVL Among his 
other compositions are the Song of Thanksgiving, for chorus 
and orchestra, a cantata. The Rose, Ode to the Sun, songs, 
part-songs, especially for women's voices, anthems. 

Gilman, Lawrence. Author, music critic; born Flushing, 
N. Y., Jul. 5, 1878. Author of a number of fine critical 


works on music Member of staff North American Review, 
New York. 

Gilmore, Patrick S. Conductor; born near Dublin, Ire., 
Dec. 25, 1829; died St Louis, Mo., Sept. 24, 1892. 

Gilson (Z heel-song) t Paul. Composer, born Brussels, Bel., 
Jun. 15, 1865. A leading Belgian composer. Works include 
the operas Alvar, Les Gens de Mer, Princess Sunshine, 
incidental music, symphonic sketches, The Sea, Nofwegian 
Suite, Scottish Rhapsody, cantatas, and many smaller works. 
Brussels Conservatory. 

Giordani (Zhyor-dah-nee) , Tomaso. Composer, teacher 
of singing; born Naples, Italy, 1744; died Ferma, Italy, Jan. 
4, 1798. 

Giordano (Zhyor^dah-no), Umberto. Composer; born 
Foggia, Italy, Aug. 26, 1867. Composed the operas Mala 
Vita, Regina Diaz, Andre Chenier, Fedora, Siberia, and 
Mme, Sans'Gene in the crudely realistic Verisimo school. 

Giorzo (Zhyor-tsa), Paolo. Composer; born Milan, Italy, 
. 1838; died Seattle, Wash., May 4, 1914. Wrote dances, 
marches, many ballets, and church music. 

Giuglini (Zhyul-yee-nee), Antonio. Tenor; born Fano, 
Italy, 1827; died Pesaro, Italy, Oct 12, 1865. 

Gladstone, Francis E. Organist, composer; born near 
Oxford, Eng., Mar. 2, 1845. Professor of harmony. Royal 
College of Music, London. 

Glareanus (Glah-reh-ah-noos) , Henricus. Teacher, theorist; 
born Glarus, Switz., Jun., 1488; died Freiburg, Ger., Mar. 
28, 1563. Author of valuable works on medieval music. 

Glazounow (Glah-soo-nof), Alexander. Composer; born 
Petrograd, Aug. 10, 1865. His works include eight sym- 
phonies, a number of symphonic poems, the ballet Ray- 
monda, chamber music, a violin concerto, piano pieces and 
songs. Lives Petrograd. 

Gleason, Frederick Grant. Composer, teacher; born Mid- 
dletown. Conn., Dec. 17, 1848; died Chicago, Dec. 6, 1903. 


Works include operas Otho VisconH, and Montezuma, can- 
tata The Culprit Fay, symphonic poems Edris and The 
Song of Life, and many shorter pieces. 

Glidre, Reinhold. Composer; born Kiev, Rus., Jan. 11, 
1875. Composed symphonies, chaniber music, piano pieces 
and songs. Kiev Conservatory. 

Glinka, Mikhail Ivanovitch. Composer; born Novospaskoi, 
Rus., Jun. 1, 1804; died Berlin, Feb. IS, 1857. He is par 
excellence Russia's most national composer. His most suc- 
cessful work was the opera Life for the Czar, produced in 
1836. Outside of Russia, Glinka is perhaps best known by 
his two concert compositions, La Jota Aragonese, and 

Glover. (1) Charles W. Composer; born London, Feb., 
1806; died there, Mar. 23, 1863. Composed popular songs 
and duets. (2) Sarah Ann. Teacher, writer; born Nor- 
wich, Eng., 1785 ; died Malvern, Eng., Oct 20, 1867. Founder 
of the tonic sol-fa system. (3) Stephen. Composer, 
born London, 1812; died there, Dec 7, 1870. (4) William H. 
Violinist, composer; bom London, 1819; died New York, 

Gluck (Glook). (1) Christoph WilUbald. Composer; 
bom Weidenwang, Ger., Jul. 2, 1714; died Vienna, Nov. 
15, 1787. Studied music in Prague, Vienna, and Milan. 
Wrote some very successful operas in the conventional 
Italian style of the period. With the composition of 
Orfeo ed Eurydice (1762) entered upon his career as a 
reformer of opera, which constitutes an important chapter 
in the history of musical development. Gluck triumphed 
in a memorable contest with Piccinni. (2) Alma (pseudo- 
nym of Reba Fierson). Soprano; born Bucharest, Rou- 
mania, May 11, 1886. Opera and concert artist Wife of 
Efrem Zimbalist, violinist. 

Gobbaerts, Jean Louis. Composer; born Antwerp, Bel., 
Sept. 28, 1835 ; died Saint-Gilles, Bel., May 5, 1886. Wrote 
much light piano music under the names of "Streabbog,** 
"Ludovic" and "Levi." 


Godard (Go-dar), Benjamin. Composer; born Paris, Aug. 
18, 1849; died Cannes, France, Jan. 10, 1895. Wrote operas : 
Pedro de Zalamea, Jocelyn, and Dante; Concerto roman- 
tique for violin; Symphonie legendaire, chamber music, 
songs, piano pieces, etc 

Goddard, Arabella. Pianist; born Saint-Servan, France, 
Jan. 12, 1836. JDistinguished English concert artist. Lives 
Tunbridge Wells, Eng. 

Godefroid (Gode-frwah) , F61ix. Harpist, composer; born 
Namur, Bel., Jul. 24, 1818; died Villers-sur-Mer, Bel., Jul. 
8, 1897. Composed for harp and piano. 

Godfrey. (1) Charles. Bandmaster; born Kingston, Eng., 
Nov. 22, 1790; died London, Dec. 12, 1863. Bandmaster 
Coldstream Guards. (2) Charles. Bandmaster; born 
London, Jan. 17, 1839. Bandmaster Royal Horse Guards. 
Royal College of Music, London. (3) Daniel. Band- 
master, composer; born Westminster, Eng., Sept. 4, 1831; 
died Beeston, Eng., Jun. 30, 1903. Famous for his military 

Godowsky, Leopold. Pianist, composer; born Vilna, Pol., 
Feb. 13, 1870. A phenomenal technician and authority on 
modern piano technic. Lives New York. 

Goepp (Gepp)f Philip H. Writer, composer; born New 
York, Jun. 23, 1864. Writer of analytical programs for 
Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra. 


Goetschius, Percy. Theorist, teacher, composer; born 
Paterson, N. J., Aug. 30, 1853. Author of valuable text- 
books on harmony, counterpoint, composition. Composed 
overtures, orchestral suites, church music, organ and piano 
works, etc. Institute of Musical Art, New York. 

Goetz (Gets) J Hermann. Composer; born Konigsberg, 
Ger., Dec. 17, 1840; died Hottmgen, Switz., Dec. 3, 1876. 
Wrote an opera on the subject of The Taming of the 
Shrew, a symphony, etc. 

Goldbeck, Robert. Pianist, composer; born Potsdam, Ger., 
Apr. 19, 1839; died St. Louis, Mo., May 16, 1908. 


Goldmark. (1) Karl. Composer; born Keszthely, Hun., 
May 18, 1830 ; died Vienna, Jan. 3, 1915. Composed operas, 
including The Queen of Sheha, Merlin, The Cricket on the 
Hearth, Briseis, and The Winter's Tale; also the Rustic 
Wedding symphony, and other orchestral works. (2) Rubin, 
composer, teacher; born New York, Aug. 15, 1872. Com- 
posed Theme and Variations for orchestra, overture Hia- 
watha, symphonic poem Samson and Delilah, a cantata, 
chamber music, etc. Nephew of (1). Lives New York. 

Goldschmidt, Otto. Conductor, composer; born Hamburg, 
Ger., Aug. 21, 1829. Husband of Jenny Lind. 

GoUmick, Adolf. Pianist, violinist, composer; born Frank- 
fort, Ger., Feb. 5, 1825; died London, Mar. 7, 1883. 

Goltennann, G. £. 'Cellist, composer; born Hanover, Ger., 
Aug. 19, 1824; died Frankfort, Ger., Dec. 29, 1898. Com- 
posed for the 'cello. 

Gomez (Go-meth), Antonio Carlos. Composer; born Cam- 
pinos, Brazil, Jul. 11, 1839; died Para, Brazil, Sept. 16, 1896. 
Composed operas of various sorts, the best being // 

Goodrich. (1) Alfred John. Theorist, author, teacher; 
born Chilo, O., May 8, 1847. Author of text-books on 
music composition. Lives California. (2) Wallace. Or- 
ganist, conductor, teacher; born Newton, Mass., May 27, 
1871. New England Conservatory, Boston. 

Goodson, Katherine. Pianist; born Watford, Eng., Jun. 
18, 1872. Pupil of Leschetizky. A leader among women 
pianists of the twentieth century. Married Arthur Hinton. 
Lives London. 

Goodwin, Amina Beatrice. Pianist, writer; born Man- 
chester, Eng., Dec. 5, 1867. Author of Hints on Technique 
and Touch of Piano Playing, Lives London. 

Goossens, Eugdne. Violinist, conductor; born London, 
May 26, 1893. Composed orchestral works and chamber 
music. Lives London. 


Goovaerts, Ali^honse Jean. Composer, historian; born 
Antwerp, Bel., May 25, 1847. Author of works on music 
and art. Lives Brussels. 

Goria, A. E. Pianist, composer; born Paris, Jan^ 21, 1823; 
died there, Jul. 6, 1860. Wrote salon music. 

Gomo, Albino. Pianist, composer; born near Cremona, 
Italy. Composed piano works, some with orchestra. Col- 
lege of Music, Cincinnati, O. 

Gorter, Albert. Composer, conductor; born Nuremberg, 
Ger., Nov. 23, 1852. Composed operas, orchestral works, 
etc Lives Mainz, Ger. 

Goss, Sir John. Organist, composer; born Fareham, Eng., 
Dec n, 1800; died London, May 10, 1880. Educated in 
Chapel Royal. In 1838 appointed organist at St. Paul's 
Cathedral. Knighted in 1872. A prominent composer of 
church music. Wrote a valuable Introduction to Harmony. 

Gossec, Francois Joseph. Composer; born Vergnies, Bel., 
Jan. 17, 1734 (33) ; died Passy, France, Feb. 16, 1829. 
Wrote many operas, symphonies, and lesser compositions, 
of repute in their day. During the Directory, G. received 
the official title, "First Composer of France." 

Gottschalk, Louis Moreau. Pianist, composer; born New 
Orleans, La., May 8, 1829; died Rio de Janiero, Brazil, 
Dec. 18, 1869. American pianist. As composer, Gottschalk 
produced music of a unique style; pieces like La Savanne, 
Banjo, and Le Bananier, echoed Southern life with rare 
charm and individuaUty. 

GStze (Get'Ze)f KarL Composer; born Weimar, Ger., 
1836; died Madgeburg, Ger., Jan. 14, 1877. Composed a 
symphonic poem, operas (Die Korsen, Gustau Wasa, etc.), 
and smaller works. 

Goudimel, Claude. Composer; born Vaison, France, about 
1505; died Lyons, France, Aug. 24, 1572. Composed church 

Gounod (Goo-no) t Charles Francois. Composer; born 
Paris, Jun. 17, 1818; died there, Oct. 17, 1893. Studied in 


the Paris Conservatory, where he obtained the first prize 
for composition. Spent some time in Rome, Vienna, and in 
England. Up to 1859 had composed many excellent works — 
Sapho, Ulysse, La nonne sanglante, Messe de Ste. Cecile, 
Le medecin tnalgre lui, etc. In 1859 Faust was performed 
for the first time and met with a tremendous success. 
Faust established Gounod's reputation, and was followed 
by La Colombe, La Reine de Saba, Mireille, Romio et 
Juliette, Cinq Mars, Polyeucte, Le Tribut de Zamora; the 
sacred compositions, La Redemption, and Mors et Vita; 
besides many lesser works, songs, etc. Faust, however, over- 
shadows them all, although, from a musician's point of 
view, Romeo et Juliette is almost finer than that popular 

Gouvy (GoO'Vee)y Th6odore. Composer; born Goffon- 
taine, France, Jul. 21, 1822; died Leipzig, Ger., Apr. 21, 

Gow. (1) Niel. Violinist; born Inver, Sc6t., Mar. 22, 
1727; died there, Mar. 1, 1807. Noted for his performance 
of Scottish dance tunes. (2) George Coleman. Organ- 
ist, author, teacher; born Ayer, Mass., Nov. 27, 1860. Au- 
thor of text-books. Professor of music at Vassar College. 

Graben-Hoffman, Gustav. Composer; born Bnini, Ger., 
Mar. 7, 1820; died Potsdam, Ger., May 20, 1900. Song 

Graedener. (1) Karl. Composer; born Rostock, Ger., 
Jan. 14, 1812; died Hamburg, Ger., Jun. 10, 1883. Composed 
symphonies, an oratorio, a concerto, and many smaller 
works. (2) Hermann. Composer, teacher; born Kiel, 
Ger., May 8, 1844. Composed an overture, a symphonietta, 
chamber music, etc. Son of (1). Lives Vienna. 

Graham, George Farquhar. Writer; born Edinburgh, 
Scot., Dec. 29, 1789; died there, Mar. 12, 1867. An author- 
ity on everything relating to Scotch music. 

Grainger, Percy. Pianist, composer; born Brighton, Vic- 
toria, Australia, Jul. 8, 1883. Pupil of Busoni. Pianist 


of distinction; composer of originality and charm. Lives 
New York. 

Grammann, Karl. Composer; born Liibeck, Ger., Mar. 3, 
1844; died Dresden, Ger., Jan. 30, 1897. Composed sym- 
phonies, a cantata, a violin concerto, and the operas Melu- 
sine, Thusnelda, Ingrid, etc. 

GranadoB y Campina, Enrique. Composer, pianist; born 
Lerida, Sp., Jul. 27, 1867; died Mar. 24, 1916, when steamer 
Sussex was torpedoed in English Channel. 

Grandval, Maria de Reiset. Composer; born Saint-Remy 
des Monts, France, Jan. 20, 1830; died Paris, Jan. 15, 1907. 
Composed operas, orchestral works, etc. 

tr, Charles Albert. Organist, pianist, teacher; 
bom Cincinnati, O., Jan. 2, 1861. College of Music, Cin- 

Grasse, Edwin. Violinist, composer; born New York, 
Aug. 13, 1884. Composed a symphony, a suite, and many 
violin works. Blind. Lives New York. 

Grau, Maurice. Intpresario; born Brunn, Aus., 1849; died 
Paris, Mar. 14, 1907. Directed Metropolitan Opera Co., 
New York. 

Graun (Groun), (1) J. G. Composer; born 1698; died 
1771. Composed symphonies, overtures, concertos for 
violin, and chamber music. Brother of (2). (2) Karl 
Heinrich. Composer; born Wahrenbriick, Ger., May 17, 
1701; died Berlin, Aug. 8, 1759. Wrote over fifty cantatas, 
and about thirty operas. His principal work is his passion 
music Der Tod Jesu, which is still sometimes performed. 

Grazziniy Reginaldo. Composer; born Florence, Italy, Oct. 
15, 1848; died Venice, 1906. Composed cantatas, masses, 
S3rmphonies, an opera, and lesser works. 

Greatorex, Thomas. Organist; born N. Wingfield, Eng., 
Oct 5, 1758; died Hampton, Eng., Jul. 18^ 1831. Wrote 
hymn tunes. 


Greene, Maurice. Organist, composer; born London, 
1695; died there, 1755. Wrote church music Projected the 
great Cathedral Music collection, afterward completed by 

Gregoir {Gre-gwahr), Edouard. Composer, writer, his- 
torian; born Turnhout, Bel., Nov. 7, 1822; died Wyneghem, 
Bel., Jun. 28, 1890. Composed an opera, etc. 

Gregorovitch, Charles. Violinist; born Petrograd, Oct. 
25, 1867. 

Grellinger, Charles. Composer; born Holland. Composed 
a number of operas produced in Holland and France. 

Gr6try {Gray-tree), Andr6 Ernest Modeste. Composer; 
born Liege, Bel., Feb. 18, 1741; died Montmorency, France, 
Sept 24, 1813. A prolific and once celebrated writer of 
France operas and other works. 

Gretschaninoff, Alexander. Composer; born Moscow, 
Rus., Oct. 25, 1864. Composed an opera, incidental music, 
chamber works, piano pieces, and songs. Lives Moscow, 

Grieg, Edvard Hagenip. Pianist, composer; born Ber- 
gen, Nor., Jun. 15, 1843; died there, Sept. 4, 1907. Studied 
at Leipzig Conservatory. In Copenhagen came under the 
influence of Gade. Wrote a piano concerto, orchestral 
works, songs, chamber music, etc., all with a pronounced 
Norwegian character. His Peer Gynt suites are perhaps 
the most widely known of his larger works. 

Griepenkerl (Gree-pen-kerl), Friedrich Conrad. Theorist; 
bom Peine, Ger., 1782; died Brunswick, Ger., Apr. 6, 1849. 

Grisar (Gree-sahr), Albert. Composer; born Antwerp, 
Bel., Dec. 26, 1808; died Asnieres, France, Jun. 15, 1869. 
Composed many operas. 

Grisi {Gree-see), Giulia. Soprano; born Milan, Italy, Jul. 
28, 1811 ; died Berlin, Nov. 29, 1869. Attained a remarkable 
success in opera, through her magnificent voice and great 
beauty. Was for fifteen years prima donna at Paris and 


Grodsky, Boleslaus. Composer; born Fetrograd, Oct. 13, 
1865. Composed piano works, etc. Lives Petrograd. 

Groningen, S. van. Piailist; born Deventer, Hoi., Jun. 23, 
1851. Composed piano music, etc. Lives Ley den, Hoi. 

Grove, Sir George. Writer; born Clapham, Eng., Aug. 
13, 1820; died Sydenham, Eng., May 28, 1900. Originally 
a civil engineer. For many years connected with the Crystal 
Palace, and in connection with the concerts there wrote a 
long series of analytical programs. In 1883 he was ap- 
pointed first principal of the Royal College of Music, and 
upon its inauguration received the honor of knighthood. 
As editor of the Dictionary of Music and Musicians he 
rendered a lasting service to the cause of musical art. 

Grovlez, Gabriel. Pianist, composer; born Lille, France, 
1879. Composed orchestral works, ballets, piano pieces, 
songs. Conductor at Paris. 

Gmenberg (Green-bairg) , Eugene. Violinist, teacher; 
born Lemberg, Aus., Oct. 30, 1854. Author of valuable 
educational works for the violin. New England Conserva- 
tory, Boston. 

Gnienberger (Green-bairg-er) , Ludwig. Composer; born 
Prague, Boh., Apr. 24, 1839; died there, Dec. 12, 1896. Com- 
posed incidental music, a Northern Suite, a one-act opera 
(Heimkehr), etc 

Gruenfeld (Green-felt), (1) Alfred. Pianist, composer; 
bom Prague, Boh., Jul. 4, 1852. Distinguished as a Mozart 
player. Lives Vienna. (2) Heinrich. 'Cellist; born 
Prague, Apr. 21, 1855. A distinguished virtuoso. Brother 
of (1). Lives Berlin. 

Grutzmacher (Greetz-macher) , Friedrich. 'Cellist; born 
IDessau, Ger., Mar. 1, 1832; died Dresden, Ger., Feb. 23, 
1903. Distinguished virtuoso. 

Giiamerius, Giuseppe (Joseph) Antonio. Violin maker; 
bom Jun. 8, 1683; died about 1742. One of the great lUl- 
ian makers. 



Gudehus {Gpo-de-hoos), Heinrich. Tenor; born Alten- 
hagen, Ger., Mar. 30, 1845; died Dresden, Ger., Oct. 9, 
1909. Eminent in Wagnerian opera roles. 

Guglielmi (Gool-yel-mee) t Pietro. Composer; born Marsa 
di Carrara, Italy, May 1727; died Rome, Nov. 19, 1804. 
Composed operas and church music. 

Guide d'Arezzo {Gwee-do dar-ret-so). Theorist, teacher; 
born Arezzo, Italy, 995 (?) ; died 1050 (?). Improved music 
notation; first used the syllables ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, for 

Guilmant (Geel-mong) , F61ix Alexandre. Organist, com- 
poser; bom Boulogne, France, Mar. 12, 1837; died Meudon, 
France, Mar. 30, 1911. Distinguished concert organist and 

Guiraud (Gee-ro), Ernest. Composer; born New Orleans, 
La., Jun. 23, 1837; died Paris, May 6, 1892. Taught har- 
mony, Paris Conservatory. 

Gumbert (Goom-bairt) , Ferdinand. Composer; born Ber- 
lin, Apr. 22, 1818; died there, Apr. 6, 1896. Composed songs 
and operettas. 

Gungl (Goongl). (1) Joseph. Composer; born Zsambek, 
Hun., Jan. 1, 1810; died Weimar, Ger., Jan. 31, 1889. 
Dance and march composer. (2) Johann. Composer; 
born Zsambek, Hun., Mar. 5, 1828; died Fiinfkirchen, Hun., 
Nov. 27, 1883. Dance composer. Nephew of (1). 

Gura. (1) Eugene. Baritone; born Pressern, Boh., Nov. 
8, 1842; died near Munich, Ger., Aug. 26, 1906. Opera 
and concert singer. (2) Hermann. Baritone; born 
Breslau, Ger., Apr. 5, 1870. Successful in opera and con- 
cert. Conducts opera in Berlin. 

Gurlitt (Goor-lit), Cornelius. Composer; born Altona, 
Ger., Feb. 10, 1820; died there, Jun, 17, 1901. Best known 
by his teaching pieces for the piano. 

Gutmann (Goot-mahn) ^ Adolphe. Pianist, composer; born 
1818; died 1882. Friend of Chopin. 


Gyrowetz {Gee-ro-vetz), Adalbert. Composer; born Bud- 
weis, Boh., Feb. 19, 1763 ; died Vienna, Mar. 19, 1850. Wrote 
symphonies, operas, music plays. 


Habeneck {Ah'nek)^ Frangois Antoine. Violinist, con- 
ductor; born Mezieres, France, Jan. 23, 1781; died Paris, 
Feb. 8, 1849. His orchestra was celebrated. 

Haberbier (Hah-hehr-heer), Ernst. Pianist, composer; 
born Konigsberg, Ger., Oct. 5, 1813; died Bergen, Nor., 
Mar. 12, 1869. Composed salon music and useful etudes. 

Habert, Johannes Evangelista. Organist, composer; born 
Oberplan, Boh., Oct. 18, 1833; died Gmunden, Ger., Sept 
1, 1896. Composer of masses, organ works, etc. 

Hackh, Otto. Composer; born Stuttgart, Ger., Sept. 30, 
1852. Composed piano pieces, songs, dance music. 

Hadley, Henry Kimball. Composer; born Somerville, 
Mass., Dec. 20, 1871. A leader among American composers. 
Works include three symphonies (1st, Youth and Life; 
2nd, The Four Seasons), three overtures, three ballet suites, 
the cantata In Music's Praise, a Symphonic Fantasia, the 
tone-poems Salome and The Culprit Fay, the lyric drama 
Merlin and Vivien, operas Safie and Bianca, chamber works, 
and many smaller pieces and songs. Lives New York. 

Haesche. See Hasche. 

Hagel (Hah-gel). (1) Karl. Conductor, violinist; born 
Voigstedt, Ger., Dec. 12, 1847. Composed orchestral 
and chamber works, etc. Lives Munich, Ger. (2) Richard. 
Conductor, violinist; born Erfurt, Ger., Jul. 7, 1872. Son 
of (1). Lives Brunswick, Ger. 

Hagemann. (1) Frangois Willem. Organist, conductor; 
born Ziitphen, Hoi., Sept. 10, 1827. Wrote piano music. 
(2) Maurits Leonard. C«mp«ser, teacher; born Ziitphen, 

Sept. 25, 1829. Composed an oratorio, a cantata, vocal- 
orchestral works, etc* Brother of (1). 


Hagen. (1) Adolf. Conductor; born Bremen, Ger., Sept. 
4, 1851. Operetta composer. Lives Dresden, Ger. (2) 
Theodor. Composer, writer; born Hamburg, Ger., Apr. 
15, 1823; died New York, Dec. 21, 1871. Composed songs 
and piano works. 

Hager, Johannes (really Hasslinger). Composer; born 
Vienna, Feb. 24, 1822; died there, Jan. 9, 1898. Pupil of 

Hagg (Hegg). (1) Jacob Adolf. Born Gothland, Nor., 
1850; died 1902. Composed a Northern Symphony, piano 
and organ works, songs, etc. (2) Gustav. Organist, 
composer; born Wisby, Swed., Nov. 28, 1867. Composed 
chamber music, organ and piano pieces. A virtuoso player. 
Lives Stockholm, Swed. 

Hahn. (1) Jacob H. Pianist, teacher; born Philadelphia, 
Pa., Dec. 1, 1847; died Detroit, Mich., 1902. Founded 
Detroit Conservatory. Composed piano works and 
songs. (2) Reynaldo. Composer; born Caracas, Vene- 
zuela, Aug. 9, 1874. Composed incidental music, a sym- 
phonic poem, attractive piano works, the opera Nauskaa, 
a ballet, etc. Lives Paris. 

Hale, Adam de la. See Adam de la Hale. 

Hale, Philip. Writer, critic; born Norwich, Vt., Mar. 5, 
1854. Wrote (with L. C. Elson) "Famous Composers, New 
Series." Writer of program books for Boston Symphony 
Orchestra. Lives Boston. 

Halevy {Ah-leh-vee) , Jacques Francois. Composer; born 
Paris, May 27, 1799 \ died Nice, France, Mar. 17, 1862. 
Opera writer of the French school. Principal work, La 

Halir {Hah-leer), Karl. Violinist; born Hojienelbe, Boh., 
Feb. 1, 1859; died Berlin, Dec. 21, 1909. Member Joachim 
String Quartet. 

Hall.' (1) Charles King. Organist, composer; born Lon- 
don, 1845; died there, Sept. 1, 1895. Composed church 
music and operettas. (2) Marie. Violinist; born New- 


castle, £ng., Apr. S, 1884. Distinguished woman violiqist 
Lives London. 

Hall6 (Hal-leh). (1) Sir Charles. Pianist, conductor; 
born Hazen, Ger., Apr. 11, 1819; died Manchester, Eng., 
Oct. 25, 1895. During his career of forty-seven years 
he rendered great service to musical art as a teacher, 
by his recitals, and by the concerts of his famous 
Manchester orchestra. (2) Lady. See Neruda. 

Hall6n, Anders. Composer; born Gothenburg, Swed., Dec. 
22, 1846. Leader of new Swedish school. Composed the 
operas Harold, Hexfallan, Waldemar's Treasure, Walborgs- 
messa, two Swedish rhapsodies, many cantatas, symphonic 
poems, a romance for violin and orchestra, and many songs. 
Stockholm, Swed., Conservatory. 

Haller, MichaeL Organist, teacher; born Neusalz, Ger., 
Jan. 31, 1840; died Ratisbon, Ger., Jan. 4, 1915. Sacred 
composer, counterpoint teacher. 

Hallstrom (Hahl-straym), Ivar. Composer; born Stock- 
holm, Swed., Jun. 5, 1826; died there, Apr. 10, 1901. Com- 
posed operas (Viking* s Trip, Nyaga, Granada's Daughter, 
etc.), cantatas, operettas, etc. 

Hallwachs (Hall-vakhs) ^ Karl. Composer, conductor; born 
Darmstadt, Ger., Sept 15, 1870. Composed songs, choruses, 
an opera. Lives Cassel, Ger. 

Halm (Hahlm), Anton. Composer; born Altenmarkt, 
Aus., Jun. 4, 1789; died Vienna, Apr., 1872. A friend of 
Beethoven; composed piano etudes, chamber music, etc. 

Hambourg, Mark. Pianist; born Gogutschar-Noronez, 
Rus., Jun. 1, 1879. A distinguished virtuoso and authorita- 
tive interpreter. 

Hamerik, Asger. Pianist, composer; born Copenhagen, 
Den., Apr. 8, 1843. Was director Peabody Conservatory, 
Baltimore, Md. ; composed six symphonies, a Poime Tra- 
gique, operas, etc. 

Hamilton, Clarence Grant. Pianist, writer, teacher; born 
Providence, R. I., Jun. 9, 1865. Associate professor of 


music, Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. Author of edu- 
cational books. 

Hanchett, Henry G. Pianist, writer, teacher; born Syra- 
cuse, N. Y., Aug. 29, 1853; died Siasconset, Mass., Aug. 19, 
1918. Author of works on piano study. 

Hand {Hahnt), Ferdinand Gotthelf. Writer; born Plauen, 
Boh., Feb. 15, 1786; died Jena, Ger., Mar. 14, 1851. Wrote 
on musical esthetics. 

Handel, George Frederick. Composer; born Halle, Ger., 
Feb. 23, 1685 ; died London, Apr. 14, 1759. Played both the 
organ and clavier when only seven years old. First opera, 
Almifa, performed at Hamburg in 1705. In 1708 went to 
Italy, and four years later settled in England. In or about 
1737 turned his attention to the oratorio, after having writ- 
ten some forty-two operas in accordance with the taste 
of the period. The approval which his first oratorios — 
Esther, Deborah, Athalia — ^had met with encouraged him to 
new efforts; and he produced in succession Saul, Israel in 
Egypt, L' Allegro, II Penseroso and The Messiah (his chief 
work, 1741 ) . The Messiah was not much appreciated at the 
first representation, but increased in reputation every year. 
In 1742 Satnson appeared, in 1746 Judas Maccabaus, in 1748 
Solomon, and in 1752 Jephthah, In 1752 Handel became 
blind, but did not lose his spirits, continuing to perform in 
public, and even to compose. He was buried in Westmin- 
ster Abbey. 

Hannsens. (1) Charles Louis (Sr.). Composer; born 
Ghent, Bel., May 4, 1777; died Brussels, Bel., May 6, 
1852. Composed operas, masses, etc. (2) Charles Louis 
(Jr.). Composer; born Ghent, Jul. 12, 1802, died Brus- 
sels, Apr. 8, 1871. Composed operas, ballets, symphonies, 
overtures. Son of (1). 

Hanon (Hah-nong), Charles Louis. Pianist; born Rem- 
sur-l'Aire, France, 1820; died Boulogne-sur-Mer, 1900 
Composed valuable studies for piano. 

Hanscom, E. W. Organist, composer; born Durham, Me., 
Dec. 28, 1848. Composed songs, choruses, etc 


Hansen, Emil Robert. 'Cellist, composer; born Copen- 
hagen, Den., Feb. 25, 1860. Chamber music and orches- 
tral composer. Lives Leipzig, Ger. 

Hanslick, Eduard. Writer; born Prague, Boh., Sept. 11, 
1825; died near Vienna, Aug. 6, 1904. Opponent of Wag- 
ner's operas. 

Harcourt, Eugene d*. Composer, writer; born Paris, 1855. 
Composed the opera Tasso, a mass, symphonies, etc . Lives 

Hardelot {Ar-de-low), Guy d' (Mrs. W. T. Rhodes). Com- 
poser; born Hardelot Castle, near Boulogne, France. Song 
composer. Lives England. 

Harper, Thomas. Trumpeter; born Worcester, Eng., May 
3, 1787; died London, Jan. 20, 1853. Famous virtuoso. 

Harris. (1) Clement Hugh Gilbert. Composer; born 
Wimbledon, Eng., Jul. 8, 1871; died Pentepigadia, Greece, 
Apr. 23, 1897. Composed for orchestra and chamber 
music, songs, etc. (2) William Victor. Composer, 
teacher of singing; born New York, Apr. 27^ 1869. Com- 
posed many songs. Lives New York. 

Harriss, Charles Albert. Organist, composer; born Lon- 
don, Dec. 15, 1862. Composed an opera, a cantata, and 
much church music. Lives Ottawa, Can. 

Hartmann. (1) Johann Peter Emil. Composer; born 
Copenhagen, Den., May 14, 1805; died there. Mar. 10, 
1900. Composed Danish operas, symphonies, overtures, 
cantatas, etc. Rather overshadowed by his son-in-law, 
Gade. (2) Emil. Composer; born Copenhagen, Feb. 
21, 1836; died there, Jul. 19, 1898. Composed operas 
{The Nixie, The Corsicans, etc.), a ballet, a cantata, sym- 
phonies, overtures, concertos, etc. Son of (1). (3) 
Arthur. Violinist, composer; born Mate Szalka, Hun., 
Jul. 23, 1881. Distinguished violinist; composed for vio- 
lin and voice. Lives New York. 

Hartog, Edouard de. Composer; born Amsterdam, Hoi., 
Aug. 15, 1828; died The Hague, Hoi., Nov. 1909. Com- 
posed works for orchestra, chamber music, and the church. 


Hartvigson. (1) Anton. Pianist; born Aarhus, Den., Oct. 
16, 1845. Lives Copenhagen, Den. (2) Frits. Pianist; 
born Grenae, Den., May 31, 1841. Royal College of Music, 

Harty, Hamilton. Pianist, composer; born Hillsborough, 
Ire., Dec. 4, 1879. Composed an Irish Symphony, a Cofnedy 
Overture, the tone-poem With the Wild Geese, the cantata 
The Mystic Trumpeter, etc. Lives London. 

Harwood, Basil. Organist, composer; born Olveston, 
Eng., Apr. 11, 1859. Composed sacred works, an organ 
concerto, etc. Lives Almondsbury, Eng. 

Hasche {Heh-sheh), William Edward. Violinist, pianist, 
composer; born New Haven, Conn., Apr. 11, 1867. Com- 
posed a s)rmphony, symphonic poems (Waldidylle, Frithjof), 
a cantata, etc. Yale University, New Haven. 

Hasse (Hahs-seh), Johann Adolph. Composer; born 
Bergedorf, Ger., (bap. Mar. 25), 1699; died Vienna, Dec 
16, 1783. Opera composer. His wife, nSe Faustina Bor- 
doni, mezzo-soprano; born Venice, Italy, 1693; died there, 
Nov. 4, 1783. Famous opera singer. 

Hassler (Hahss-ler), Hans Leo. Organist, composer; born 
Nuremberg, Ger., 1564; died Frankfort, Ger., Jun. 8, 1612. 
One of the first German musicians to go to Italy for study. 
Wrote sacred and secular works. 

Hastings. (1) Thomas. Writer, composer; born Wash- 
ington, Conn., Oct. 15, 1787; died New York, May 2, 1872. 
(2) Frank Seymour. Composer; born Mendham, N. Y., 
May 31, 1853. Composed principally songs. 

Hastreiter, Hel^ne. Contralto; born Louisville, Ky., Nov. 
14, 1858. Sung with success in U, S. and Europe. Lives 
Genoa.. Italy. 

Hatton, John Liptrot. Composer; born Liverpool, Eng., 
Oct. 12, 1809; died Margate, Eng., Sept. 20, 1886. In 1844 
produced in Vienna his opera Pascal Bruno, Afterward 
Hatton brought out a successful collection of songs. Wrote 


incidental music to many of Shakespeare's plays. Among 
his compositions are also an oratorio, Hezekiah, various 
small operas, church music, etc. 

Hattstaedt (Haht-stet), John L. Pianist, teacher; born 
Monroe, Mich., Dec. 29, 1851. Director American Con- 
servatory, Chicago, 111. 

Hauck (Howk), Minnie. Soprano; born New York, Nov. 
16, 1852. Sang in U. S. and Europe. Lives Lucerne, Switz. 

Haupt, Karl. Organist, theorist; born Kuhnau, Ger., Aug. 
25, 1810; died Berlin, Jul. 4, 1891. Director of Institute 
for Church Music, Berlin. 

Hauptmann, Moritz. Theorist; born Dresden, Ger., Oct. 
13, 1792; died Leipzig, Jan. 3, 1868. Distinguished teacher 
of harmony at Leipzig Conservatory. 

Hausegger, Siegmund von. Composer; born Graz, Aus., 
Aug. 16, 1872. Composed for orchestra the Dionysiac Fan- 
taisie, Barbarossa, and Wieland the Smith. Works richly 
melodious. Lives Hamburg, Ger. 

Hauser (How-ser), Miska. Violinist, composer; born 
Pressburg, Hun., 1822; died Vienna, Dec. 9, 1887. Wrote 
excellent pieces for violin. 

Havens, Charles Arthur. Organist, composer; born Es- 
sex, N. Y., 1842. Wrote principally church music. 

Hawkins, Sir John. Historian; born London, Mar. 30, 
1719; died there, May 21, 1789. By profession an attor- 
ney. He was an original member of the Madrigal Society, 
also a member of the Academy of Antient Music, and of 
Dr. Johnson's club. Hawkins's General History of the 
Science and Practice of Music is a monument of patient 
research, and a great storehouse of out-of-the-way informa- 

Hawley. (1) Charles Beach. Composer; born Brook- 
field, Conn., Feb. 11, 1858; died Red Bank, N. J., Dec. 
29, 1915. Successful writer of songs and church music. 
(2) Stanley. Composer; born Ilkeston, Eng., May 17, 


1867. Composed successful recitations with music. Lives 

Haydn. (1) Johann Michael. Composer; born Rohrau, 
Aus., Sept 14, 1737; died Salzburg, Aus., Aug. 10, 1806. 
Wrote church music. Brother of (2). (2) Joseph. Com- 
poser; born Rohrau, Aus., Mar, 31, 1732; died Vienna, May 
31, 1809. The son of a wheelwright who was a tenor singer 
and also a player on the small harp. Haydn was a chor- 
ister and pupil in the choir-school of the Church of St 
Stephen, at Vienna, until his seventeenth year, when he was 
dismissed. For some time he struggled on, working indus- 
triously, but always on the verge of the most utter destitu- 
tion, until, entering the service of Porpora, a renowned 
Italian composer of the period, he was enabled to prosecute 
his studies under more favorable surroundings. When 
twenty-eight years of age he was appointed kapellmeister 
to Prince Esterhazy, at Eisenstadt, Hungary, in whose 
service, and that of his successor, he remained for thirty 
years. He lived, for the greater part of the year, at the 
country-seat of the Esterhazy's, discharging the various 
duties of his position, and writing an immense quantity of 
music, including most of his symphonies, quartets, trios, 
fifteen masses, an oratorio, eighteen operas, and a great 
body of music of b, miscellaneous character. While Haydn 
remained thus, leading a life of tranquil industry, his repu- 
tation spread far and wide, and his visits to England, al- 
though undertaken somewhat unwillingly, were veritable tri- 
umphs. Seemingly inspired by Handel's example, Haydn, 
after his return to Vienna, produced the oratorios The 
Creation (1797) , and The Seasons (1801). Haydn was an 
amazingly prolific composer. Among his works are 148 
symphonies, 83 quartets, 24 trios, 19 operas, 5 oratorios, 24 
concertos, 15 masses, 44 piano sonatas, and many other 
compositions. He created the modern symphony and string 
quartet, and may be said to be the father of the instru- 
mental music of the present. 

Hayes, Catherine. Soprano; born Limerick, Ire., Oct. 25. 
. 1825; died Sydenham, Eng., Aug. 11, 1861. Created a tre- 
. mendous furore by her exquisite singing of Irish airs. 


Heap, Charles Swinnerton. Pianist, composer; born Bir- 
mingham, Eng., Apr. 10, 1849; died there, Jun. 11, 1900. 
Wrote cantatas, an oratorio (The Captivity), and various 
instrumental and vocal compositions. 

Heermann, Hugo. Violinist; born Heilbronn, Mar. 3, 
1844. Distinguished virtuoso. Stern Conservatory, Berlin. 

Hegar (Hay-gar), Friedrkh. Conductor, composer; born 
Basel, Switz., Oct. 11, 1841. Composed oratorios (Manasse, 
Ahasuerus, etc.), a violin concerto and vocal works. School 
of Music, Ziirich, Switz. 

Hegner. (1) Anton. 'Cellist; born Copenhagen, Den., 
Mar. 2, 1861; died New York, Dec. 4, 1915. (2) Otto. 
Pianist; born Basel, Switz., 1876; died Hamburg, Feb. 
22, 1907. Achieved a considerable reputation after his 
early debut in 1888. 

Heidingsfeld, Ludwig. Conductor, composer; born Jauer, 
Ger., Mar. 24, 1854. Composed orchestra pieces and op- 
erettas. Director Danzig (Ger.) Conservatory. 

Heifetz, Jascha. Violinist; born Vilna, Lithuania, 1899. 
Pupil of Leopold Auer. Lives New York. 

Heinrich, Max. Baritone, teacher; born Chemnitz, Ger., 
Jun. 14, 1853 ; died New York, Aug. 8, 1916. Eminent as a 
lieder singer. 

Heise, Peter Arnold. Composer; born Copenhagen, Den., 
Feb. 11, 1830; died there, Sept. 12, 1879. Wrote songs and 
two operas. 

Hekking, Anton. 'Cellist; born The Hague, Hoi., Sept. 
7, 1856. Distinguished as a virtuoso. 

Heller, Stephen. Pianist, composer; borni Pesth, Hun., 
May 15, 1814; died Paris, Jan. 15, 188a Wrote many 
charming fantasias, etudes, polonaises, and drawing-room 
pieces, for the piano. 

Hellmesberger, Joseph. Violinist, conductor; born Vienna, 
Apr. 9, 1855; died there, Apr. 26, 1907. One of a family 
of violinists; composed operas, ballets, etc. 


Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig. Scientist; born Potsdam, 
Gen, Aug. 31, 1821 ; died Charlottenburg, Ger., Sept 8, 1894. 
One of the greatest savants of modern times. Rendered a 
valuable service to musical art in the writing of his great 
work on sound and acoustics. The Sensations of Tone, 

Helsted. (1) Eduard. Violinist, composer; born Copen- 
hagen, Den., Dec. 8, 1816; died there, 1900. Composed 
ballets. (2) Karl Adolph. Flutist, composer; born Cop- 
enhagen, Den.., Jan. 4, 1818; died there, 1904. Composed 
for orchestra. (3) Gustaf. Composer, teacher; born 
Copenhagen, Den., Jan. 30, 1857. Composed a sym- 
phony, a suite, songs, piano works, etc. Royal Con- 
servatory, Copenhagen. 

Hempel, Frieda. Soprano; born Leipzig, Ger., Jun. 26, 
1885. Successful opera and concert singer. Metropolitan 
Opera Co., New York. 

Henderson, William J. Writer, music critic; born New- 
ark, N. J., Dec. 4, 1855. Author of valuable books (Modern 
Musical Drift, Forerunners of Italian Opera, etc.), critic 
on New York Suti, 

Henkel, Heinrich. Pianist, composer; born Fulda, Ger., 
Feb. 16, 1822; died Frankfort, Ger., Apr. 10, 1899. Com- 
posed technical exercises for piano, violin pieces, etc. 

Hennen. (1) Arnold. Pianist, composer; born Heerlen, Bel., 
Jan. 25, 1830. Composed concertos and piano pieces. 

Hennes, Aloys. Pianist, teacher; born Aix, Ger., Sept. 
8, 1827; died Berlin, Jun. 8, 1889. Wrote piano pieces and 

Henriques (Hen^ee-kes), Fini. Violinist, composer; born 
Copenhagen, Den., Dec. 20, 1867. Composed incidental 
music, piano works, etc. Lives Copenhagen. 

Henschel (Hen-shel) Georg. Baritone, conductor, com- 
poser, teacher; born Breslau, Ger., Feb. 18, 1850. In 
1881-1884 he conducted the Boston Symphony Orchestra. 
Has written operas, an oratorio, a requiem, a Stahat Mater, 
some instrumental music, and a number of fine songs, in 


which last department of composition he shows to most ad- 
vantage. Henschel has lived long in London, where he has 
a great reputation as a teacher. His wife Lilian, nie Bailey 
(1860-1901), an American soprano, shared his fame through 
the recitals, etc., in which they appeared together. 

Hensel. (1) Octavia (really Mrs. G. A. Fonda). Writer. 
(2) Fanny Cacilia. Pianist, composer; born Hamburg, 
Ger., Nov. 14, 1805 ; .died Berlin, May 14, 1847. A sister of 

Henselt, Adolph von. Pianist, composer; born Schwabach, 
Ger., May 12, 1814; died Warmbrunn, Ger., Oct. 10, 1889. 
Composed charming piano pieces and useful studies. 

Hentschel, Theodor. Conductor, composer; born Schir- 
giswalde, Ger., Mar. 28, 1838; died Hamburg, Ger., Dec. 
19, 1892. Composed operas (The King's Page, Lancelot, 
etc.), overtures, marches, etc. 

Herbeck, Johann. Conductor, composer; born Vienna, 
Dec. 25, 1831 ; died there, Oct. 28, 1877. Distinguished con- 
ductor, director of the Royal Opera. Composed symphonies, 
chamber music, songs, etc. 

Herbert, Victor. 'Cellist, conductor, composer; born Dub- 
lin, Ire., Feb. 1, 1859. Played in Metropolitan, Thomas's, 
and Seidl's orchestras. In 1898 became conductor of the 
Pittsburgh Orchestra. His works include an oratorio (The 
Captive) f comic operas, songs, etc. Besides light operas 
like Babes in Toyland, Mile, Modiste, etc., he has composed 
two 'cello concertos, a Suite Romantique, an Irish Rhapsody, 
symphonic poems, etc., for orchestra, and the opera Natoma, 
Lives New York. 

Hering, Karl Gottlieb. Teacher, composer; born Schandau, 
(^er., Oct. 25, 1765; died Zittau, Ger., Jan. 3, 1853. Wrote 
instructive material for piano, violin, and singing. 

Hcritte-Viardot (Ay-rit-Vee-ar-doe), Louise. Teacher of 
singing, composer; born Paris, Dec. 14, 1841. Composed 
operas, songs, etc. Lives Heidelberg, Ger. 


Herman, Reinhold Ludwig. Composer, conductor; born 
Prenzlau, Ger., Sept. 21, 1849. Composed operas, orches- 
tral works, songs, etc. Lives New York. 

Hermann. (1) Friedrich. Violinist, composer, teacher; 
born Frankfort, Ger., Feb. 1, 1828; died Liepzig, Ger., 
Sept. 27, 1907. Composed orchestral and chamber music. 
(2) Robert. Composer; born Berne, Switz., Apr. 29, 1869; 
died 1912. Composed a s3rmphony, an overture, a quintet, 

and smaller works. 


Hernandez (Her-nan-deth), Pablo. Organist, composer; 
born Saragossa, Spain, Jan. 25, 1834. Composed organ 
works, a sjrmphony, an overture, and zarzuelas. Lives 
Madrid, Spain. 

Hernando, Rafael. Composer; born Madrid, Spain, May 
31, 1822. Composed zarzuelas, masses, etc Lives Madrid. 

H6rold, Louis Joseph Ferdinand. Composer; bom Paris, 
Jan. 28, 1791; died there, Jan. 19, 1833. Wrote Zampa, 
Le Pri aux Clercs, and other operas. 

Hertz, Alfred. Conductor; born Frankfort, Ger., Jul. 15, 
1872. Conductor in Germany, and at Metropolitan Opera 
House, N. Y. ; San Francisco Symphony Orchestra, 1916—. 

Herv6 (Air-vay), (really Florimond Ronger). Composer, 
conductor; born near Arras, France, Jun. 30, 1825; died 
Paris, Nov. 4, 1892. Operetta composer. 

Hervey, Arthur. Composer, writer; born Paris, Jan. 26, 
1885. Composed operas, orchestral works, songs; wrote 
books on music. Lives London. 

Herz (Hairtjs), Henri Pianist, composer; born Vienna, 
Jan. 6, 1806; died Paris, Jan. 5, 1888. Teacher at Paris 

Herzogenberg, Baron Heinrich von. Pianist, composer; 
bom Graz, Aus., Jun. 10, 1843; died Wiesbaden, Ger., Oct 
9, 1900. Composed symphonies, chamber music, large vocal 
works, etc. Married the pianist Elizabeth Stockhausen. 

Hess. (1) Willy. Violinist; born Mannheim, Ger., Jul 
14, 1859. Royal High School for Music, Berlin. (2) 


Ludwig. Tenor, composer; born Marburg, Ger., Mar. 
23, 1871. Composed a symphony, the epic Ariadne, vocal 
works, etc. Lives Berlin. 

Hesse (Hes-seh), Adolf Friedrich. Organist; born Bres- 
lau, Ger., Aug. 50, 1809; died there, Aug. 5, 1863. Distin- 
guished as a player; wrote for the organ. 

Heuberger (Hoy-bair-gher), Richard. Composer, writer; 
born Graz, Aus., Jun. 18, 1850; died Vienna, Nov., 1914. 
Composed operas, cantatas, ballets, orchestral works, etc. 

Heubner (Hoyb-ner), Konrad. Composer; born Dresden, 
Ger., 1860; died Coblenz, Ger., Jun. 7, 1905. Composed for 
orchestra and chamber music. 

Heuschkel {Hoysh-kel), Johann Peter. Oboist, pianist; 
born near Eisfeld, Ger., Jan. 4, 1773; died Biebich, Ger., 
1853. Teacher of Weber. 

Hey (High), Julius. Teacher of singing; born Irmels- 
hausen, Ger., Apr. 29, 1832; died Munich, Apr. 23, 1909. 
Aimed to found a German school of singing on the de- 
mands of Wagner's music dramas. 

Heymann (High-man). (1) KarL Composer, pianist; born 
Filehne, Pol., Nov. 6, 1854. (2) Karl. Pianist; teacher; 
born Filehne, Pol., Oct. 6, 1854. Composed for the piano. 

Hildach, Eugen. Baritone, composer; born Wittenberg, 
Ger., Nov. 20, 1849. Composed successful songs and duets. 
Lives Fronkfort, Ger. 

HilL (1) Edward Burlingame. Composer; born Cam- 
bridge, Mass., Sept. 9, 1872. Composed for orchestra 
and stage. Harvard University. (2) Junius Welch. 
Pianist, teacher; born Hingham, Mass., Nov. 18, 1840. 
Professor of Music at Wellcsley College for a number 
of years. Lives Los Angeles, Cal. (3) Thomas Henry 
Weist. Violinist; born London, Jan. 23, 1828; died there, 
Dec. 25, 1891. 

Hille (Hil'le), Gustav. Violinist, composer; born Jeri- 
cho w, Ger., May 31, 1851. Composed for violin. Teacher 
in Philadelphia for a number of years. Lives Berlin. 


Hillemacher. (1) Paul. Born Paris, 1852; and (2) Lucien. 
born Paris, 1860; died there, 1909. Composers. Two 
brothers working together; composed several operas. 

Hiller. (1) Ferdinand. Composer; born Frankfort, Ger., 
Oct. 24, 1811; died Cologne, Ger., May 10, 1885. Founded 
the Conservatory at Cologne. Wrote symphonies, ora- 
torios (Destruction of Jerusalem and Saul), six operas, 
overtures, sonatas, songs, etc. (2) Johann Adam. Com- 
poser; born near Gorlitz, Ger., Dec. 25, 1728; died Leipzig, 
Ger., Jun. 16, 1804. Creator of the German comic opera. 

Himmely Friedrich Heinrich. Composer; born Treuen- 
brietzen, Ger., Nov. 20, 1765; died Berlin, Jun. 8, 1814. 

Hinckley, Allen. Bass; born Boston, Oct. 11, 1877. Sung 
in opera in Europe and U. S. Lives New York. 

Hinton, Arthur. Composer; born Beckenham, Eng., Nov. 
20, 1869. Composed for orchestra, a sjmiphony, a violin 
and a piano concerto, and Casar^s Triumph, also the opera 
Tamara, and chamber music. Lives London. 

Hobrecht (Obrecht). Composer; born Utrecht, Hoi., about 
1430; died Antwerp, Bel., 1506. Famous contrapuntal com- 
poser of masses, motets, etc. 

Hodges. (1) Edward. Organist, born Bristol, Eng., Jul. 
20, 1796; died Clifton, Eng., Sept. 1, 1867. Organist of 
Trinity Church, New York. (2) Faustina Hasse. Or- 
ganist; died New York, 1895. Daughter of (1). 

Ho£Fman. (1) Richard. Pianist, teacher; born Manches- 
ter, Eng., May 24, 1831; died New York, Aug. 17, 1909. 
Well known as a pianist and a composer of piano pieces, 
anthems, songs, etc. (2) Heinrich. Composer; born 
Berlin, Jan. 13, 1842; died Gross Tabartz, Ger., Jul. 16, 
1902. Composed operas, symphonic works, songs, etc. 

Hoffmann, E. T. A. Composer, writer; born Konigsberg, 
Ger., Jan. 24, 1776; died Berlin, Jun. 25, 1822. Celebrated 
as author. Composed operas, a ballet, a mass, a symphony, 
chamber works, etc. 


Hofmann, Josef. Pianist; born Cracow, Aus., Jan. 20, 1876. 
Like his contemporary, Otto Hegner, he was a prominent 
figure in the musical world as a "child pianist" After his 
first appearances as a prodigy he retired for study, and re- 
appeared as a virtuoso of remarkable powers. Lives Aiken, 

S. C. 


Hogarth, George. 'Cellist, writer; born Lauderdale, Scot., 
1783; died London, Feb. 12, 1870. Wrote a number of in- 
teresting books on musical subjects. His eldest daughter 
married Charles Dickens. 

Hoi, Richard. Organist, conductor; born Amsterdam, Hoi., 
Jul. 23, 1825; died Utrecht, Hoi., May 14, 1904. Composed 
symphonies, an opera, masses, etc. 

Holbrooke, Josef Charles. Composer; born Croydon, Eng., 
Jul. 6, 1878. Composed for orchestra The Raven, The 
Skeleton in Armor, Ulalume, a Poe Symphony, Queen 
Mah, and other symphonic poems ; also the opera The Chil- 
dren of Don. Lives London. 

Holden, Oliver. Composer; born Shirley, Mass., Sept. 18, 
1765; died Charlestown, Mass., Sept. 14, 1844. Hymn tune 

Hollander. (1) Alexis. Composer, conductor; born Rati- 
bor, Ger., Feb. 25, 1840. Composed songs and piano 
pieces. Lives Berlin. (2) Gustav. Violinist; born 
Leobschutz, Ger., Feb. 15, 1855; died Berlin, Dec. 6, 
1915. Director Stern Conservatory for a number of 
years. (3) Victor. Composer, conductor; born Leob- 
schtitz, Ger., Apr. 20, 1866. Successful operetta com- 
poser. Brother of (2). Lives Berlin^ 

HoUins, Alfred. Organist; born Hull, Eng., Sept. 11, 1865. 
Composed for the organ. Lives London. 

Hollmann, Joseph. 'Cellist; born Maestricht, Hoi., Oct. 
16, 1852. Distinguished virtuoso. Lives Paris. 

Holm6s (Ol-majse) (properly Holmes), Augusta Mary 
Anne. Composer; born Paris, Dec. 16, 1847; died there. 


Jan. 28, 1903. In childhood a brilliant pianist Her com- 
positions include symphonies and other orchestral works, 
two operas, and a great number of songs. 

Hoist, Gustav von. Composer; born Cheltenham, Eng., 
Sept. 21, 1874. Composed operas, cantatas, etc Lives 

Holyoke, Samuel. Teacher; born Boxford, Mass., 1771; 
died Concord, N. H., 1816. Hymn composer. 

Homer. (1) Louise. Contralto; born Pittsburgh, Pa., 
1874. Metropolitan Opera Company, New York. (2) 
Sidney. Composer; born Boston, Sept. 9, 1864. Com- 
posed remarkable songs. Lives New York. 

Hood, Helen. Composer; born Chelsea, Mass., Jun. 28, 
1863. Song and violin composer. Lives New York. 

Hopekirk, Helen. Pianist, teacher; born Edinburgh, Scot., 
May 20, 1856. Composed a concerto and other orchestral 
works, piano pieces, etc. Pupil of Leschetizky. Married 
William Wilson. Teacher in Boston. Returned to Edin- 
burgh, 1919. 

Hopkins, Edward John. Organist, composer; born West- 
minster, Eng., Jun. 30, 1818; died London, Feb. 4, 1901. 

Hopkinson, Francis. Composer; born Philadelphia, Sept. 
21, 1737; died there. May 9, 1791. A lawyer by profession. 

Homemann, Johann Die Emil. Composer; born Copen- 
hagen, Den., May 13, 1809; died there, May 29, 1870. Song 

Horsley. (1) Charles Edward. Organist, composer; born 
London, Dec. 6, 1822; died New York, Mar. 4, 1876. 
Composed orchestral and chamber music. Son of (2). 
(2) Henry William. Organist, composer; born London, 
Nov. 15, 1774; died there, Jun. 2 (Jul 12), 185a Com- 
posed sacred music. 

Horvath, Geza. Composer, pianist, teacher; born Komaron, 
Hun., May 27, 1868. Composed fine teaching music for 
piano. Lives Vienna. 


Howell, Edward. 'Cellist; born London, Feb. 5, 1846; 
died there, Jan. 30, 1898. Professor of the 'cello at the 
Royal College of Music, London. 

Hrimaly (Ri-mahl-ee) , Adalbert. Violinist, conductor, com- 
poser; born Pilsen, Boh., Jul. 30, 1842. Composed the 
opera Die verzauherte Prinz, violin works, etc. Lives Mos- 
cow, Rus. 

Hubay (Hoo-bye), Jeno. Violinist, composer; born Buda- 
Pesth, Hun., Sept. 15, 1858. Composed an opera, violin 
works, etc. Lives Buda-Pesth. 

Huber (Hoo-ber), Hans. Composer; born Schonewerd, 
Switz., Jun. 28, 1852. Works include sjrmphonies, cantatas, 
concertos, sonatas, many smaller works, also the operas 
Kudrun and Der SimpUcius, and a successful oratorio. 
Lives Basel, Switz. 

Hubermann (Hoo-ber-man), Bronislaw. Violinist; born 
Czenstochowa, Pol., Dec. 19, 1882. Famous virtuoso. Lives 

Hubert! (Hoo-bair-tee) , Gustave L6on. Composer, teacher; 
born Brussels, Bel., Apr. 14, 1843; died there, 1911. Com- 
posed oratorios, symphonies, concertos. 

Hucbald. Theorist; born Flanders about 840; died 930. 

Hike (Hwee), Georges Adolphe. Composer; born Versailles, 
France, May 6, 1858. Composed operas, orchestral works, 
songs. Lives Paris. 

Hueffer {Heef-fer), Francis. Writer; born Miinster, Ger., 
May 22, 1843; died London, Feb. 19, 1889. Was critic of 
the London Times from 1878. Wrote several books — Rich- 
ard Wagner and the Music of the Future, The Troubadours, 
Musical Studies, etc 

Hughes, Rupert. Writer; born Lancaster, Mo., Jan. 31, 

1872. Author of books on music and musicians. Lives 

New York. 
Huhn (Hune), Bruno. Organist, pianist, composer; born 

London, 1871. Composed sacred and secular songs and 

choral music. Lives New York. 


Hull, Arthur Eaglefield. Writer, teacher; born Market 
Harborough, Eng., 1876. Author of works on. musical biog- 
raphy, criticism, harmony, etc. Lives Huddersfield, Eng. 

Hullah, John Pyke. Organist, composer, teacher; born 
Worcester, Eng., Jun. 27, 18t2 ; died London, Feb. 21, 1884. 
Wrote operas, songs, etc., but is better known as a zealous 
advocate of the Wdhem method of musical instruction, 
and of music for the people. 

HiUlmandel (Heel-man-del) , Nicholas- Joseph. Pianist, com- 
poser ; bom Strassburg, Alsace, 1751 ; died London, Dec. 
19, 1823. Composed for piano. 

Hulsteyn {HooUstein), Jean C. van. Violinist; bom Am- 
sterdam, Hoi., 1869. Lives Baltimore, Md. 

Humfrey, Pelham. Composer; born London, 1647; died 
Windsor, Eng., Jul. 14, 1674. Famous English composer, 
time of Charles II. 

Hummel (Hoom-mel). (1) Johann Nepomuk. Pianist, 
composer; born Pressburg, Hun., Nov. 14, 1778; died 
Weimar, Ger., Oct. 17, 1837. A pupil of Mozart and 
Albrechtsberger. A celebrated virtuoso in his day. 
Wrote masses, operas, cantatas, chamber music, and 
much piano music. (2) Ferdinand. Pianist, composer; 
bom Berlin, Sept. 6, 1855. Composed operas, chamber 
works, etc. Lives Berlin. 

Humperdinck (Hoom-per-dink), Engelbert. Composer; 
born Siegburg, Ger., Sept. 1, 1854. Has written a Humor- 
esque for orchestra, a choral ballad, Wallfahrt nach Keve- 
laar, and the remarkable opera Hansel und Gretel, which 
has made him one of the most conspicuous composers of 
the day, besides other notable works. His Konigskinder is 
a later operatic success. Lives Berlin. 

Huneker, James Gibbon. Writer, author; born Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Jan. 1, 1860. Brilliant essayist on music, art, 
and literature. Critic on New York Times, 

Hiinten (Hin-ten), Franz. Pianist, composer; born Cob- 
blenz, Ger., Dec. 26, 1793; died there, Feb. 22, 1878. Was 


for some years professor at the Paris Conservatory. At 
one time a fashionable virtuoso and composer. 

Huss, Henry Holden. Pianist, composer; born Newark, 
N. J., Jun. 21, 1862. Composed songs with orchestra, a 
violin and a piano concerto, chamber works, etc. Lives 
New York. 

Hutcheson, Ernest Pianist; born Melbourne, Australia, 
Jul. 20, 1871. Composed the tone-poem Merlin and Vivien, 
a piano concerto, etc. Lives New York. 

Hiittenbrenner (Hit-ten^bren-ner), Anselm. Pianist; born 
Graz, Aus., Oct. 13, 1794; died near Graz, Jun. 5, 1868. 
Composed symphonies, overtures, masses, operas, chamber 
works, fugues, etc. 

Hyatt, Nathaniel Irving. Pianist, organist, composer; born 
Lansingburgh, N. Y., 1865. Composed the overture Enoch 
Arden, chamber works, piano music, songs, etc. Lives 
Albany, N. Y. 

Hyllested, August. Pianist, composer; born Stockholm, 
Swed., Jun. 17, 1858. Pupil of Liszt. Composed piano 
works, songs, orchestral works, etc Lives Copenhagen, Den. 


Igunmov (I-goom-noff), Konstantin. Pianist, teacher; bom 
Lebediana, Rus., May 1, 1873. Moscow Conservatory. 

Iliffe, Frederick. Organist, composer; born Smeeton- 
Westerby, Eng., Feb. 21, 1847. Composed an oratorio, sym- 
phony, choruses with orchestra, chamber works, etc. Ox- 
ford University, Oxford, Eng. 

Iljinsky (Il-yinski), Alexander. Composer; born Tsars- 
koe-Selo, Rus., Jan. 24, 1859. Composed orchestral suites, 
a symphony, cantatas^ incidental music, an opera, and 
smaller works. Moscow Conservatory. 


Imbert (Am^bair), Hugues. Writer; born Nievre, France, 
1842; died Paris, 1905. Well known Parisian writer on 

Incledon, Charles Benjamin. Tenor; born St. Kevern, 
Eng. (baptized Feb. 5), 1763; died Worcester, Eng., Feb. 
11, 1826. Famous for his ballad singing. In 1817 he vis- 
ited America. 

Indy (Dandy), P. M. T. Vincent d'. Pianist, composer; 
born Paris, Mar. 27, 1851. Works include the symphonic 
poems La Foret Enchantee, Saugefleurie, Istar, etc., the 
Wallenstein Trip tick, two important symphonies and the 
earlier Jean Hunyadi symphony, cantatas, the operas Fer- 
vaal (Druidic), UEtranger (symbolic), and the lighter 
Attendvu-moi- sous I'orme. Founder of Schola Cantorum, 

Ingelius, Axel Gabriel. Composer; born Sakylaska, Fin., 
Oct. 26, 1822; died Rystad, Fin., Mar. 2, 1868. Composed 
songs of a national character. 

Inzenga, Jos6. Composer; born Madrid, Sp., Jun. 4, 1828; 
died there, Jul., 1891. Composed zarzuelas. 

Iparraguirre y Balerdi, Jos6 Maria. Bass; born Villareal, 
Sp., died Zozabastro, Sp., Apr. 6, 1881. 

Ippolitov-Ivanov, Michael. Conductor, composer; bom 
Gatschina, Rus. Composed operas {Ruth, Asia, etc.), or- 
chestral works, choruses, etc Moscow Conservatory. 

Irgang (Ear-gahng), Wilhelm. Organist, teacher; born 
Hirschberg, Ger., Feb. 23, 1836. Wrote educational works. 

Isaac (Ee-sahk), Heinrich (Arrigo Tedesco). Composer; 
born about 1450; died about 1517. German contrapuntal 

Isoiiard (Ee-swar), Nicole. Composer; born Island of 
Malta, Dec. 6, 1775; died Paris, Mar. 23, 1818. Op^ra 

Istel, Edgar. Composer, author; bornf Mainz, Ger., Feb. 
23, 1880. Lives Berlin. 


Ivanoff, MichaeL Composer; born Moscow, Rus., Sept. 
23, 1849. Composed four operas, orchestral works, a ballet, 
songs, piano pieces, etc. Lives Petrograd. 

Ivry (Eev-ree), Richard, Marquis d*. Composer; born 
Beaune, France, Feb. 4, 1829; died Hyeres, France, Dec 18, 
1SH)3. Opera composer. 


Jackson, William. Organist, composer; born Exeter, Eng., 
May 28, 1730; died there, Jul. 12, 1803. Wrote church 

Jacobsohn (Yah-cob-sone) , Simon E. Violinist, teacher; 
bom Mitau, Rus., Dec. 24, 1839; died Chicago, Oct 3, 1902. 
Teacher of eminent American violinists. 

Jacoby (Yah-co-bee) , Georges. Violinist, composer; born 
Berlin, 1840; died London, 1906. Composed operas, 
ballets, etc. 

Jadassohn (Yah-das-zon) , Salomon. Pianist, teacher, theo- 
rist; born Breslau,'Ger., Aug. 13, 1831; died Leipzig, Ger., 
Feb. 1, 1902. Composed symphonies, vocal compositions, 
chamber music, etc., also valuable works on harmony and 
Other subjects. His text-books are in world-wide use. 

Jaell (Yale), Alfred. Pianist, composer; born Trieste, 
Italy, Mar. 5, 1832; died Paris, Feb. 27, 1882. Brilliant 

JafiEe (Yahf'feh), Moritz. Violinist, composer; born Posen, 
Ger., Jan. 3, 1835. Composed operas, chamber music. 
Lives Berlin. 

Jahn {Yahn), Otto. Writer; born Kiel, Ger., Jun. 16, 1813; 
died Gottingen, Ger., Sept 9, 1869. Philologist and archaeol- 
ogist, composer, and writer on music. His celebrated Life 
of Mozart is his chief contribution to musical literature. 

Janiewicz {Yah-ne-a-vitch), Felix. Violinist; born Vilna, 
Lithuania, 1762; died Edinburgh, Scot., 1848. 


Janko (Yang-ko), Paul von. Inventor; born Totis, Hun., 
Jun. 2, 1856. Inventor of a new keyboard bringing the 
keys in a smaller span than on the present keyboard, and 
enabling all scales and arpeggios to be fingered alike. 
Lives Constantinople. 

Jannequin (Zhan-neh-can), Clement. Composer; French 
contrapuntal school, sixteenth century. 

Janotha (Yah-no-ta) , Natalie. Pianist; born near Warsaw, 
Jun. 8, 1856. Lives London. 

Jansa (Yan-sa), L6opold. Violinist; born Wildenschwert, 
Boh., Mar. 23, 1795; died Vienna, Jan. 24, 1875. Wrote 
etudes for violin. 

Janssens, Jean FranQois. Composer; born Antwerp, Bel., 
1801; died there, 1835. Composed operas, symphonies, 

Jaques-Dalcroze. See Dalcroze. 

Jarecki (Yar-esk-ee), Heinrich. Conductor, composer; 
born Warsaw, Pol., Dec. 6, 1846. Composed operas, orches- 
tral works, etc. Lives Lemberg, Aus. 

Jamefelt (Yair-neh-felt), Armas. Composer; born Viborg, 
Fin., Aug., 1869. Composed overtures, suites, symphonic 
poems, etc., and smaller works. Royal Opera, Stockholm, 

Jamo {Yar-no), Georg. Composer; born Buda^Pesth, 
Hun., Jun. 3, 1868. Opera composer. Lives Vienna. 

Jarvis, Charles H. Pianist, teacher; born Philadelphia, 
Pa., Dec. 20, 1837; died there, Feb. 25, 1895. 

Jaspar, Maurice. Pianist; born Liege, Bel., Jun. 20, 1870. 
Composed piano music and songs. Liege Conservatory. 

Jehin {Zhay^ang), (1) FranQois. Violinist; born Spa, 
Bel., Apr. 18, 1839; died Montreal, France, May 29, 1899. 
(2) L6on. Conductor, composer; born Spa, Bel., Jul. 17, 
1853. Lives Monte Carlo, Italy. 


Jenkins, David. Conductor, composer; born Trecastell, 
Wales, Jan. 1, 1849. Composed oratorios, cantatas, etc. 
Lives Aberystwith, Wales* 

Jensen (Yen-sen), Adolph. Composer; born Konigsberg, 
Ger., Jan. 12, 1837; died Baden-Baden, Ger., Jan. 23, 1879. 
Notable as a song writer as well as a composer of great 
originality in many other forms. 

Jentsch {Yentsh), Max. Pianist, composer; born Ziesar, 
Ger., Aug. 5, 1855. Composed orchestral works, piano 
compositions, etc. Lives Vienna. 

Jimenez (Yi-may'-neth), Jeronimo. Composer; born Se- 
ville, Sp., Oct. 10, 1854. Zarzuela and orchestral com- 

Jiranek {Yee-rah-nek). (1) Josef. Pianist; born Ledec, 
Boh., Mar. 24, 1855. Composed valuable technical works 
for the piano. Prague, Boh., Conservatory. (2) Aloys. 
Composer, teacher; born Ledec, Boh., Sept. 3, 1858. 
Composed an opera, orchestral works, chamber music, 
etc Brother of (1). Lives Kharkov, Rus. 

Joachim (Yo-a-kheem), Joseph. Violinist; born Kittsee, 
Hun., Jun. 28, 1831; died Berlin, Aug. IS, 1907. In 1843 
went from the Vienna Conservatory to that of Leipzig. In 
1850 became orchestral leader at Weimar, and in 1854 
occupied the same position at Hanover. Later director 
Royal High School for Music, Berlin. The prince of 
modern violinists. 

Johns, Clayton. Pianist, composer; born Newcastle, Del., 
Oct 24, 1857. Composed a berceuse and scherzino for 
strings, choruses, about one hundred piano pieces, but is 
best known by his charming Songs. Lives Boston. 

Johnson, Herbert. Tenor, composer; born Middletown, 
Conn., 1861 ; died Boston, Jul. 21, 1904. Composed sacred 

Jomelli (Yo'tnel'lee), Niccolo. Composer; born Averna, 
Italy, May 10, 1714; died Naples, Italy, Aug. 25, 1774. 
Italian opera composer. 


Jonas (Ho-nas), Alberto. Pianist, teacher; born Madrid, 
Sp., Jun. 8, 1868. Distinguished teacher. Lives New 

Jonci^res {Zhon-see-ehr) , Victorin de. Composer; born 
Paris, Apr. 12, 1839; died there, Oct 26, 1903. Composed 
several operas; championed Wagner. 

Jones, Arthur Barclay. Teacher, composer; born London, 
Dec. 16, 1869. Composed a symphony, etc. Lives 

Jongen, Joseph. Organist, composer; born Liege, Bel., 
Dec. 14, 1873. Composed orchestra and chamber music, 
organ pieces, church music, etc. Lives Brussels, Bel. 

Jordan, Jules. Tenor, composer; born Willimantic, Conn., 
Nov. 10, 1850. Has composed an opera, a cantata, etc^ 
but is best known by his songs. Lives Providence, R. L 

Joseffy {Yo'Sef'fee), Rafael. Pianist, teacher; born Hun- 
faln, Hun., Jul. 3, 1853 ; died New York, Jun. 24, 1915. Dis- 
tinguished virtuoso ; pupil of Carl Tausig and of Liszt For 
many years he was a member of the faculty of the Na- 
tional Conservatory of Music in New York. His piano- 
forte compositions show much skill and his playing ex- 
celled in taste and execution. Author of valuable technical 
works for the piano. 

Josephson {Yo-sef-son), Jacob Axel. Composer, organist; 
born Stockholm, Swed., Mar. 27, 1818; died Upsala, Swed., 
Mar. 29, 1880. Composed principally vocal works. 

Josquin Despr^s. See Despr^s. 

Jouret (Zhoo-ray), L6on. Composer; born Asch, Bel., Oct 
17, 1828; died Brussels, Bel., 1905. Composed operas, can- 
tatas, etc. 

Joumet (Zhoor-nay), Marcel. Bass; born Grasse, France, 
Jul., 1870. Sung with Chicago Opera Company. Lives 

Juch (Yookh), Emma. Soprano; born Vienna, Jul. 4, 1865 
1861. Educated in U. S. Sang in Europe and U. S» 


Jiillien {Zhool-leang) , (1) Adolphe. Born Paris, Jun. 1, 
1845. Eminent musical critic. Lives Paris. (2) Louis 
Antoine. Conductor; born Sisteron, France, Apr. 23, 
1812; died Paris, Mar. 14, 1860. Gained a great reputa- 
tion as a conductor and composer of dance music, etc. 
He was noted for practical musicianship, and with his 
magnificent orchestra he secured excellent performances 
of classical works. 

Jiinck (Yoongk), Benedetto. Composer; born Turin, Italy, 
Aug. 24, 1852. Composed chamber music, songs, etc. 
Lives Milan, Italy. 

Jungmaiin (Yoong-man), Albert. Composer; born Lang- 
ensalza, Gcr., Nov. 14, 1824; died near Vienna, Nov. 7, 

Juon {ZhoO'On), Paul. Composer; born Moscow, Rus., 
Mar. 8, 1872. Composed for orchestra a symphony, a 
suite, a fantaisie, and a serenade; also piano works and 
chamber music. Lives Berlin. 

Jtittner {Yitt-ner), Paul. Organist, composer; born Grad- 
nitz, Ger., Dec. 11, 1864. Composed sacred works. Lives 

Juul {Yoo-ool), Asger. Composer, critic; born Copen- 
hagen, Den., May 9, 1874. Lives Copenhagen. 


Kaan-Albefl^ Heinrich von. Pianist; born Tarnopol, Aus., 
May 29, 1852. Succeeded Dvorak as director of the 
Prague Conservatory. Composed orchestral works, operas, 
a ballet, and smaller works. 

Kadletz, Andreas. Violinist; born Dobusch, Boh., Feb. 
18, 1859. Composed ballets, an opera, etc. 

Kaffa, J. C. Violinist; born Ratisbon, Ger., 1754; died 
Riga, Rus., Jan. 29, 1815. Composed sacred works. 


Kafka, J. N. Composer; born Neustadt, Boh., May 17, 
1819; died Vienna, Oct. 23, 1886. Wrote popular piano 

Kahn, Robert. Composer; born Mannheim, Ger., Jul. 21, 

1865. Composed chamber music, songs, etc. Lives Berlin. 

Kaiser {Ki-eer), (1) Emil. Conductor, composer; born 
Coburg, Ger., Feb. 7, 1850. Wrote operas. (2) Henri 
Alfred. Composer; born Brussels, Bel., Mar. 1, 1872. 
Composed ballets, the opera Stella Maris, etc. Lives 

Kajanus (Kah-yah-noos), Robert. Conductor, composer; 
bom Helsingfors, Fin., Dec. 2, 1856. Composed symphonic 
poems, Finnish rhapsodies, an orchestral suite, cantatas, etc. 
The University, Helsingfors. 

Kalafati, B. Composer; born Eupatoria, Rus., 1869. Com- 
posed songs, piano pieces, etc. 

Kalinnikov, Vassili. Composei*; born Voina, Rus., Jan. 13, 
1866; died Yalta, Rus., Jan. 11, 1901. Composed sym- 
phonies, symphonic poems (The Nymphs, etc.), cantatas, 
and smaller works. 

Kalisch, Paul. Tenor; born Berlin, May 6, 1855. Husband 
of Lilli Lehman. Lives Berlin. 

Kalkbrenner, Friedrich Wilhelm Michael. Pianist, com- 
poser; born near Berlin, 1788; died near Paris, Jun. 10, 
1849. Wrote an excellent School for his instrument, and 
also some fine etudes. 

Kalliwoda, Johann Wenzel. Violinist, composer; born 
Prague, Boh., Mar. 21, 1800; died Karlsruhe, Ger., Pec. 3, 

1866. Wrote a great deal of music for the violin, also 
symphonies, concert overtures, etc. 

Kamienski, Matthias. Composer; born Oedenburg, Hun., 
Oct. 13, 1734; died Warsaw, Pol, Jan. 25, 1821. Polish 
opera pioneer. 

KHmpf (Kempf), Karl. Composer; born Berlini, Aug. 31, 
1874. Composed suites, a symphonic poem, etc. Lives 


Kimpfert (Kemp-fert) , Max. Violinist, conductor; born 
Berlin, Jan. 3, 1871. Won success as conductor at 

Karasowski {Kar-a-sof-ski) , Moritz. Writer; born War- 
saw, Pol., Sept. 22, 1823; died Dresden, Ger., Apr. dO» 
1892. Polish musical historian. 

Karg-Ehlert, Sigfrid. Organist, composer; born Obem- 
dorf, Ger., Nov. 21, 1879. Composed orchestral and cham- 
ber works, but best known by his organ pieces. Lives 
Leipzig, Ger. 

Karganov, GenarL Composer; born Kvarelia, Caucasus, 
May 12, 1858; died Rostov, Rus., Apr. 12, 1890. Com- 
posed piano works. 

Karlowicz, Miecyslav. Composer; born Wiszniewo, Lith- 
uania, Dec. 11, 1876; died Zakopane, Galicia, Feb. 10, 1909. 
Composed for orchestra. 

Kasanli, NicolaL Conductor, composer; born Tiraspol, 
Rus., Dec. 17, 1869. Composed for orchestra. 

Kasatchenko, . NicolaL Conductor, composer; born Rus., 
May 3, 1858. Composed operas, an overture, a symphony, 
oriental suites, a cantata, etc. Lives Petrograd. 

Kaschkin, NicolaL Writer; born Vownesk, Rus., Dec. 9, 
1839. Russian musical writer and historian. Lives 

Kaschperov, Vladimir. Teacher of singing, composer; 
born Simbirsk, Rus., 1827; died Romanzevo, Rus., JuL 8^ 
1894. Opera composer. 

Kashin, Daniel Nikititch. Composer; born Moscow, Rus.» 
1773 ; died there, 1844. Composed operas, cantatas, patriotic 
songs; collected folk-songs. 

Kashinski, Victor. Composer; born Vilna, Lithuania, 
Dec. 30, 1812 ; died 1870. Composed operas, overtures, pieces 
for piano and for violin. 

Kaskel, Karl, Freiherr von. Composer; born Dresden^ 
Ger., Oct. 10, 1866. Opera composer. Lives Munich. 


Kastalski, Alexander. Composer; born Moscow, Rns., 
1856. Composed sacred and piano works. 

Kastner, Johann Georg. Composer; born Strassburg, Al* 
sace, Mar. 9, 1811 ; died Paris, Dec 19, 1867. Distinguished 
as theorist. 

Kate {Kah-teh), Andre ten. 'Cellist, composer; born Am- 
sterdam, Hoi., May 22, 1796; died Haarlem, Hoi., JuL 27, 
1858. Composed operas, chamber music, part-songs. 

Kau£Fmann, Fritz. Conductor, composer; born Berlin, 
Jun. 17, 1855. Composed orchestral and chamber works. 
Lives Magdeburg, Ger. 

Kaun (KoTvn), Hugo. Composer; born Berlin, Mar. 21, 
1863. Composed symphonic poems (Minnehaha, Maria Mag* 
dalene, etc.), an opera (Der Pietist), a Fatherland sym- 
phony, choral works (Nonnannen-Abschied) , etc. Taught 
for some years in Milwaukee, Wis. Lives Berlin. 

Kayser, Heinrich Ernst. Violinist, teacher; born Altona, 
Ger., Apr. 16, 1815; died Hamburg, Ger., Jan. 17, 1888. 
Wrote fine technical studies for the violin. 

Kazynski, Victor. Conductor, composer; born Vilna, Lidi- 
uania, 1812. Composed operas. 

Keiser (Ki-ser), Reinhard. Composer; born Teuchern, 
Ger. (baptized Jan. 12), 1674; died Hamburg, Ger., Sept 12, 
1739. Wrote a large number of operas (singspiele) for 
the Hamburg Opera, of which he was director. 

K^ler-Bela (Albert von K61er). Conductor, composer; 
born Bartfeld, Hun., Feb. 13, 1820; died Wiesbaden, Ger., 
Nov. 20, 1881. 

Keller, Matthias. Composer; born Ulm, Ger., Mar. 20, 

1818; died Boston, 1875. Composed the American hymn 
set to Holmes' words, Angel of Peace. 

Kelley, Edgar Stillman. Born Sparta, Wis., Apr. 14, 1857. 
Composed chamber music, songs (The Lady Picking Mul- 
berries, etc.), the light opera Puritcmia, incidental music 


to Macbeth, Ben Hur, etc., and a New England symphony. 
Teacher Cincinnati Conservatory. Lives Oxford, O. 

Kellie, Lawrence. Tenor, composer; born London, Apr. 

3, 1862. Wrote a number of songs. Lives London. 

Kellogg Clara Louise. Soprano; born Sumterville, S. C, 
Jul. 1, 1842; died New Hartford, Conn., May 13, 1916. 
Sang in Europe and U. S. 

Kempter. (1) Karl. Composer; born Limbach, Ger., 
1819; died Augsburg, Ger., Mar. 11, 1871. Oratorio 
composer. (2) Lothar. Composer; born Launingen, 
Ger., Feb. 5, 1844. Composed operas, choruses with 
orchestra, songs, violin works, etc. Lives Ztirich, Switz. 

Kennerly-Rumiord, R. H. Baritone; born London, Sept. 
2, 1870. Married Clara Butt, contralto. 

Kerl (Kairl), Johann Kaspar. Organist, composer; born 
Gaimersheim, Ger., 1628; died Munich, Ger., Feb. 13, 

Kern, Carl Wilhelm. Composer; born Schlitz, Ger., Jan. 

4, 1874. Composed songs . and piano works. Lives St 
Louis, Mo. 

Kes, Willem. Conductor, violinist; born Dordrecht, Hoi., 
Feb. 16, 1856. Lives Coblenz, Ger. 

Ketten, Henri Pianist, composer; born Baja, Hun., Mar. 
25, 1848; died Paris, Apr. 1, 1883. Composed salon music. 

Ketterer, Eugene. Pianist, composer; bom Rouen, France, 
Jul. 7, 1831 ; died Paris, Dec. 18, 1870. Composed salon 

Keurvels, Edward. Conductor, composer; born Antwerp, 
Bel., 1853. Composed operas, cantatas, etc. Lives Antwerp. 

Keussler (Koyss-ler), Gerhard von. Conductor, composer; 
born Schwanenburg, Livonia, Jul. 6, 1874. Composed sym- 
phonic poems. Lives Prague, Boh. 

Kettenus (Ket-nus), Aloys. Violinist, composer; born 
Verviers, Bel., Feb. 22, 1823; died London, Oct. 3, 1896. 
Composed operas and violin music. 


Kidson, Frank. Writer; born Leeds, Eng., Nov. 15, 1855. 
Historian and collector of folk-songs. 

Kiel (Keel), Friedrich. Composer; born Puderbach, Ger., 
Oct. 7, 1821; died Berlin, Sept. 14, 1885. 

Kienzl (Keemel), Wilhelm. Composer; born Waizenkir- 
chen, Aus., Jan. 17, 1857. Composed several operas, of 
which Der Evangelimann is best known, and Die Kuhreigen 
next. Lives Graz, Aus. 

Kiesewetter (Keeze-vet-ter), Raphael Georg. Writer; bom 
Holleschau, Aus., Aug. 29, 1773; died near Vienna, Jan. 
1. 1850. 

Kimball, Josiah. Composer; born Topsfield, Mass., Feb., 
1761; died there, Feb. 26, 1826. Composed hymn tunes. 

King, Julie Riv6. Pianist; born Cincinnati, O., Oct. 31, 
1857. Pupil of Liszt; distinguished concert pianist. Lives 

King, Oliver A. Pianist, composer; born London, 1855. 
Composed a symphony, two overtures, cantatas, etc., but 
best known by his song Israfel. Lives London. 

Kircher, Athanasius. Writer; born Geisa, Ger., May 2, 
1602; died Rome, Nov. 28, 1680. His books are filled with 
curious information on music. 

Kirchner, Theodor. Pianist, composer; born Neukirchen, 
Ger., Dec. 10, 1823; died Hamburg, Ger., Sept. 18, 1903. 
Prolific piano composer. 

Kimberger, Johann Philipp. Theorist; born Saalfeld, Ger., 
Apr. 24, 1721 ; died Berlin, Jul. 27, 1783. 

Kistler, Cirril. Composer; born Gross-Autingen, Ger., 
Mar. 12, 1848; died Kissingen, Ger., Jan. 2, 1907. Composed 
operas in a rather heavy Wagnerian style {KunihUd, 
Baldur's Death, etc.). 

Kittl, Johann Friedrich. Composer, teacher; born Vorlik, 
Boh., May 8, 1809; died Lissa, Ger., Jul. 20, 1868. Was 
director Prague Conservatory. Opera composer. 


Kitzler, Otto. 'Cellist, composer; born Dresden, Ger., 
Mar. 26, 1834. Piano and orchestra} composer. 

Kjerulf (Khyair-oolf) , Half dan. Composer; born Chris- 
tiania. Nor., Sept 15, 1815; died there, Aug. 11, 1868. 
Originally a theological student; afterward at Leipzig 
Conservatory. Wrote songs, piano pieces, etc. His best 
work is in his songs. 

Klauser (Klow-ser). (1) Karl. Editor, teacher; born Pet- 
rograd, Aug. 24, 1823 ; died Farmington, Conn., Jan. 4, 1905. 
Edited Famous Composers, (2) Julius. Teacher, writer; 
bom New York, Jul. 5, 1854; died Milwaukee, Wis., Apr. 
23, 1907. Author of works on harmony. 

Klauwell, Otto Adolf. Writer, composer; born Langensalza, 
Ger., Apr. 7, 1851. Wrote historical and critical works. 
Composed overtures, etc. 

Kleeberg (Klay-bairg) , Clotilde. Pianist; born Paris, Jun. 
27, 1866; died Brussels, Bel., Feb. 7, 1909. Made success- 
ful tours. 

Elleefeld (Klay-felt), Wilhelm. Composer, teacher; born 
Mainz, Ger., Apr. 2, 1868. Edited German editions of 
operas. Piano and song composer. 

Kleffel, Arno. Composer; born Possneck, Ger., Sept. 4, 
1840. Orchestral composer. 

Klein, Bruno Oscar. Composer, teacher; born Osnabruck, 
Ger., Jun. 6, 1858; died New York, Jun. 22, 1911. Com- 
posed songs and piano pieces. 

Kleinmichel. (1) Nicolai. Composer. (2) Richard. Pi- 
anist, composer; born Posen, Ger., Dec. 31, 1846; died 
Charlottenburg, Ger., Aug. 18, 1901. Composed operas, 
symphonies, and smaller works. 

Klenau (Klay-now), Paul von. Conductor, composer; born 
Copenhagen, Den., Feb. 11, 1883. Composer of the opera 
Sulamith, etc. Lives Freiburg, Ger. 

Klengel. (1) Paul K. Pianist, violinist, composer; born 
Leipzig, Ger., May 13, 1854. Composed for voices and 


violin. Lives Leipzig. (2) Julius. 'Cellist, composer; 
born Leipzig,'^ Sept. 24, 1859. Composed for 'cello and 
chamber music Lives Leipzig. 

Klicka, Joseph. Organist; born Klattau, Boh., Dec. 15, 
1855. Organ and orchestral composer. 

Klindworth (Klint-vort), Karl. Pianist, teacher; born 
Hanover, Ger., Sept 25, 1830; died Jul., 1916. Edited 
Chopin's works. 

Klose, Friedrich. Composer; born Karlsruhe, Ger., Nov. 
29, 1862. Composed a mass, an orchestral Festsug, the 
symphonic poem Das Lehen ein Traum, organ works, 
the opera Ilsehil, etc. Lives Munich, Ger. 

Klughardt (Kloog-harf) , August. Conductor; born Kothen, 
Ger., Nov. 30, 1847; died Dessau, Ger., Aug. 3, 1902. Com- 
posed overtures, five symphonies, suites, operas, and many 
smaller works. 

Kneisel, Franz. Violinist; born Bucharest, Rou., Jan. 26, 
1865. Founder of the famous Kneisel Quartet. Composed 
cadenzas, etudes, etc. Lives New York. 

Kniese (Knee-zeh), Julius. Conductor; born Roda, Ger., 
Dec. 21, 1848; died Dresden, Ger., Apr. 22, 1905. Composed 
songs, a. tone-poem, etc. 

Knight, Joseph Philip. Composer; born Bradford-on- 
Avon, Eng., Jul. 26, 1812; died Great Yarmouth, Eng., 
Jun. 1, 1887. Composed songs (Rocked in the Cradle of 
the Deep, etc.). 

Knorr, Ivan. Composer; borne Me we, Ger., Jan. 3, 1843; 
died 1916. Composed chamber music, an opera, etc. 

Kobbe (Kob'bay), Gustav. Writer, critic; born New York, 
Mar. 4, 1857; died New York, Jul. 27, 1918. Writer on 
Wagner's works, and various other subjects. 

Koch, Friedrich E. Composer; born Eerlin, Jul. 3, 1862. 
Composed two symphonies, other orchestral works, an ora- 
torio, two operas, etc. Lives Berlin. 


Kochetov (Kok-e-ioff), NicolBd. Composer, critic; born 
Oranienbaum, Rus., Jul. 8, 1864. Composed an opera, a 
symphony, etc. 

Kocian, Jaroalav. Violinist; born Wildenschwert, Boh., 
Feb. 22, 1884. Pupil of Sevcik at Prague, Boh. 

Koczalski (Kot-chall-sfcee), Raoul. Pianist, composer; 
born Warsaw, Pol., Jan. 3, 1885. Composed operas, etc. 

Koehler (Kay-ler), (1) Moritz. Conductor, composer; 
born Altenburg, Ger., Nov. 29, 1855. Imperial Opera, 
Petrograd, for a number of years. Composed orches- 
tral and chamber works. (2) Wilhelm. Teacher, com- 
poser; born Wumbach, Ger., May 22, 1858. Composes 
masses, motets, etc. Lives Hamburg, Ger. (3) Louis. 
Teacher, composer; born Brunswick, Ger., Sept. 5, 1820; 
died Konigsberg, Ger., Feb. 16, 1886. Best known by his 
works for instruction in piano playing. 

Koelling (Kei-ling), Carl W. P. Composer; born Ham- 
burg, Ger., Feb. 28, 1831 ; died Chicago, May 3, 1914. Com- 
posed an opera, piano pieces, etc. 

Koenen (Kay-nen), Franz. Composer; born Reinbach, 
Ger., Apr. 30, 1829 ; died Cologne, Ger., Jul. 6, 1887. Church 
composer. A priest. 

Koennemann, Arthur. Composer; born Baden-Baden, Ger., 
Mar. 12, 1861. Opera and orchestral composer. Lives 
Mahrisch-Ostrau, Aus. 

Koessler, Hans. Conductor, composer; born Waldeck, 
Ger., Jan. 1, 1853. Composed symphonic and other orches- 
tral works, chamber music, choral works, etc. Lives Buda- 
Pesth, Hun. 

Kolatchevski (Koh-laht'cheff-skee), Michael. Composer; 
born Oct. 2, 1851. Russian orchestral composer. 

Konius, George. Composer, teacher; born Moscow, Rus., 
Sept. 30, 1862. Orchestral and ballet composer. Lives 

Kontski, Antoine de. Pianist, composer; born Cracow, 
Aus., Oct. 27, 1817; died Ivanitshi, Rus., Dec 7, 1899. 


Kopeokjy Ottokar. Violinist; born Chotebor, Boh., Apr. 
29, 1850. Lives Hamburg, Ger. 

Koptiaiev (Kop-tya-yeff), Alexander. Composer, author; 
bom Petrograd, Oct. 12, 1868. Composed for orchestra 
and piano ; author of critical and biographical works. Lives 

Kopylov (Kop-ee-loff) , Alexander. Composer; born Pet- 
rograd, Jul. 14, 1854. Composed orchestral and chamber 

Korbay (Kor-bye), Francis. Tenor, composer; born Pesth, 
Hun., May 8, 1846; died London, Mar. 9, 1913. Song and 
orchestral composer. 

Korestchenko, Arseni. Composer; born Moscow, Rus., 
Dec. 18, 1870. Opera and orchestral composer. 

Komgold, Erich Wolfgang. Composer; born Brtinn, Aus., 
May 29, 1897. Boy prodigy as composer; works include 
a piano trio, piano solos, the pantomime The Snozvman, 
two piano sonatas, and a Symphonietta, His style mature 
and modern. Lives Vienna. 

Koschat (Kosh-at), Thomas. Bass, composer; born Vik- 
tring, Aus., Aug. 8, 1845 ; died Vienna, May 19, 1914. Com- 
posed Corinthian folk-songs. 

Koss, Henning von. Composer; born Lautow, Ger., Dec. 
13, 1855. Song composer and music critic in Berlin. 

Kotek, Joseph. Violinist, composer; born Kamenez-Podolsk, 
Rus., Oct. 25, 1855; died Davos, Swit., Jan. 4, 1885. Com- 
posed for violin.^ 

Kotzschmar (Kotsh^mar), Hermann. Organist, teacher; 
born Finsterwalde, Ger., Jul. 4, 1829; died Portland, Me., 
Apr. 15, 1908. 

Kotzwara (Kots-vah-^a), F. Violinist; born Prague, Boh., 
1750; died London, Sept 2, 1791. Composed The Battle 
of Prague, a descriptive piece. 


Kovafovic (Ko-^Tmr-sho-zHc), Karl. Composer; born Prague, 
Boh., Dec. 9, 1862. Successful opera composer. Lives 

Kozeluch (Kohs-e-lookh), Johann Anton. Composer; born 
Wellwam, Boh., Dec 13, 1738; died Prague, Boh., Feb. 3, 
1814. Wrote operas, oratorios, and masses. (2) Leopold. 
Composer; bom Wellwam, Boh., 1752; died Vienna, May 
7, 1818. Wrote operas and instrumental pieces. 

EIramm, Georg. Composer; born Cassel, Ger., Dec. 21, 
1856; died Diisseldorf, Ger., Oct., 1910. Composed operas 
and symphonies. 

Krebs. (1) Johann Ludwig. Organist, composer; born 
Buttelstadt, Ger., Feb. 10, 1713; died Altenburg, Ger., 
Jan., 1780. (2) Marie. Pianist; born Dresden, Ger., 
Dec. 5, 1861; died there, Jun. 27, 1900. Made concert 
tours in England, Germany, and America. (3) Karl 
August. Pianist, conducotr; born Nuremburg, Ger., Jan. 
16, 1804; died Dresden, Ger., May 16, 1880. Distin- 
guished conductor. 

Krehbiel, Henry Edward. Author, critic; born Ann Ar- 
bor, Mich., Mar. 10, 1854. Published How to Listen to 
Music, etc. Has finished Thayer's Beethoven. Music 
editor New York Tribune, 

Krehl (Krayl), Stephan. Composer, author; born Leipzig, 
Ger., May 7, 1864. Composed chamber music. Lives Leipzig. 

Kreisler, Fritz. Violinist; born Vienna, Feb. 2, 1875. 
Distinguished virtuoso. Lives New York, 

Kretschmer, Edmund. Composer; born Ostritz, Ger., Aug. 
31, 1830; died Dresden, Ger., Sept. 13, 1908. Composed 
orchestral and vocal works, but best known by his operas 
(Die Folkunger, Henry the Lion, etc.). 

Kreutzer (Kroy-tser), (1) Konradin. Composer; born 
Messkirch, Ger., Nov. 22, 1780; died Riga, Rus., Dec. 14, 
1849. Wrote many operas, songs, etc. His opera, Das 
Nachtlager von Granada, still survives in Germany. (2) 
Rodolphe. Violinist, composer; born Versailles, France, 


Nov. 16, 1766; died Geneva, Switz., Jan. 6, 1831. Pro- 
fessor at the Paris Conservatory. Court violinist to 
Napoleon and to Louis XVIII. Beethoven dedicated the 
Kreutzer sonata, Op. 47, to him. He wrote operas, violin 
concertos, duets, and other works. His Forty-two Etudes 
or Caprices are the familiar companion of every violinist 

Kroeger (Kray-gher), Ernest Richard. Pianist, composer; 
born St. Louis, Mo., Aug. 10, 1862. Composed a sym- 
phony, the symphonic poem Sardanapalus, the Hiawatha 
Overture (Indian themes), the Thanatopsis Overture, cham- 
ber music, Ten American Sketches, etc. Lives St. Louis. 

Krohn, Ilmari. Organist, composer, writer; born Hel- 
singfors, Fin., Nov. 8, 1867. Composed songs, etc Hel- 
singfors University. 

Kroyer^ Theodor. Composer, writer; born Munich, Ger., 
Sept. 9, 1873. Composed orchestral works, etc. Univer- 
sity, Munich, Ger. 

Krug (Kroog), Arnold. Composer; born Hamburg, Ger., 
Oct. 16, 1849; died there, Aug. 4, 1904. Composed sym- 
phonies, arranged opera melodies for piano, etc. 

Krug-Waldsee {Kro og-V alt-say) , Josef. Conductor, com- 
poser; born' Waldsee, Ger., Nov. 8, 1858. Composed a 
symphony, a suite, operas, choral works, etc. Lives Madge- 
burg, Ger. 

Kniis, M. H. van t'. Organist, composer; born Oude- 
water, Hoi., Mar. 8, 1861. Composed overtures, symphonies, 
and the Dutch opera De Bloem van Island. Lives Rot- 
terdam, Hoi. 

Krumpholz. (1) Johann Baptist Harpist; born near 
Prague, Boh., 1745; died Paris, Feb. 19, 1790.. Cele- 
brated virtuoso and composer for harp. (2) Wenzel. 
Violinist; born 1750; died Vienna, May 2, 1817. Friend 
of Beethoven. 

Kubelik, Jan. Violinist; born near Prague, Boh., Jul. 5, 
1880. Pupil of Sevcik. Distinguished virtuoso. Lives 
Kohn, Boh. 


Kiicken (Kick-en), Friediich WUhelm. Composer; born 
Bleckede, Ger., Nov. 16, 1810; died Schwerin, Ger., Apr. 
3, 1882. Wrote operas and many popular songs. 

Kuczsmski (Koot-chin-skee) , PauL Composer; born Ber- 
lin, Nov. 10, 1846; died there, Oct 21, 1879. Composed 
vocal works. A banker. 

Kufferath {Koof-e-raht) , Hubert Ferdinand. Pianist, com- 
poser; born Mtihlheim, Ger., Jun. 11, 1818; died Brussels, 
Bel., Jun. 23, 1896. 

Kuhe (Koo-eh), Wilhelm. Pianist, arranger; born Prague, 
Boh., Dec. 10, 1823; died London, Oct. 8, 1912. 

KuhlaUy Friedrich. Composer; born Uelzen, Ger., Sept. 11, 
1786; died Copenhagen, Den., Mar. 12, 1832. Survives as 
a writer of educational music for the piano. 

Kuhnau, Johann. Organist, composer; born Geising, Boh., 
1660; died Leipzig, Ger., Jun. 5, 1722. One of the earliest 
German sonata composers. 

Kiihner (Kee-ner). (1) Vassili. Composer; born Stuttgart, 
Ger., Apr. 1, 1840; died Vilna, Lithuania, Aug., 1911. Com- 
posed operas, symphonies, and chamber music. (2) Conrad. 
Teacher, composer; born Markt-Streufdorf, Ger., Mar. 2, 
1851. Composed piano works, etc., but best known as editor 
of music. Lives Brunswick, Ger. 

Kulenkampff (Koo-len-kamf) , Gustav. Composer; born 
Bremen, Ger., Aug. 11, 1849. Composer Der Page, and 
other operas. Lives Berlin. 

Kullak (KooUlak ) . ( 1 ) Theodor. Pianist, composer, teacher ; 
born Krotoschin, Ger., Sept. 12, 1818; died Berlin, Mar. 1, 
1882. He was intended for the legal profession, but de- 
voted himself to music Was instrumental in founding 
two conservatories in Berlin. In 1861 he received the title 
of Royal Professor. Wrote many piano compositions of 
an elegant, drawing-room kind. (2) Franz. Pianist, 
teacher; born Berlin, Apr. 12, 1844; died Dec. 9, 1913. Son 
of (1). 



Kununer (Koom-mer), Franz August. 'Cellist, composer; 
born Meiningen, Ger., Aug. 5, 1797; died Dresden, Ger., 
May 22, 1879. Pistinguished artist 

Kurth (Koort), Otto. Composer; born Triebel, Ger., Nov. 
11, 1846. Composed operas, cantatas, symphonies, etc. Lives 
Luneburg, Ger. 

Kussewitzki (Koos-seh-vit-skee ) , Sergei. Contrabass player, 
conductor; born Vyshny Volotchk, Rus., Jun. 30, 1874. 
Lives Berlin. 

Labarre {LcMfar), Theodore. Harpist, composer; born 
Paris, Mar. 5, 1805; died there. Mar. 9, 1870. 

Labitzky (La-bit-shki) , Josef. Composer, violinist; born 
Schonfeld, Boh., Jul. 4, 1802; died Carlsbad, Ger., Aug. 
18, 1881. Wrote a great deal of highly artistic dance 
music, somewhat in the fashion of Strauss and Lanner. 

Lablache (La-blash), Luigi. Bass; born Naples, Italy, 
Dec. 6, 1794; died there, Jan. 23, 1858. Achieved a world- 
wide reputation as an operatic artist, both for his acting 
and singing, in serious and buffo parts. 

Lachner (Lakh-ner), (1) Franz. Composer; born Rain, 
Ger., Apr. 2, 1803; died Munich, Ger., Jan. 20, 1890. 
Wrote much in all styles of musical composition. Best 
in his orchestral suites, showing great contrapuntal skill, 
and in his songs. (2) Ignaz. Composer, organist, con- 
ductor; born Rain, Ger., Sept. 11, 1807; died Hanover, 
Ger., Feb. 24, 1895. Brother of (1). (3) Vinccnz. Com- 
poser, conductor; born Rain, Ger., Jul. 19, 1811; died Carls- 
ruhe, Ger., Jan. 22, 1893. Brother of (1). 

Lack (Lahk), Theodore. Pianist, composer; born Quimper, 
France, Sept 13, 1846. Composed graceful piano pieces. 
Lives Paris. 


Lacombe (Lah-com). (1) Louis. Composer; born Bourges, 
France, Nov. 26, 1818; died St. Vaast-la-Hougue, France, 
Sept. 30, 1884. Composed symphonies, chamber music, 
operas, etc. (2) Paul. Composer; born Carcassonne, 
France, Jul. 11, 1837. Composed orchestral and cham- 
ber works. 

Ladmirault {Lad-mee^ow) , Paul. Composer; born Nantes, 
France, Dec. 8, 1877. Composed orchestral, choral works, 
songs, piano pieces, etc. 

La Forge, Frank. Pianist, composer; born Rockford, 111., 
1877. Composed successful songs. Lives New York. 

Lahee. (1) Henry. Organist, composer; born Chelsea, 
Eng., Apr. 11, 1826; died London, Apr. 29, 1912. Composed 
cantatas, etc. (2) Henry Charles. Writer; born London, 
Jul. 2, 1856. Author of biographical and critical works. 
Lives Boston. 

Lalo (Lah^lo), Edouard Victor Antoine. Composer; born 
Lille, France, Jan. 27, 1823 ; died Paris, Apr. 22, 1892. Wrote 
operas Namouna, Fiesque, Le rot d'Ys, suites, and two 
concertos, one of them the remarkable Symphonie espagnole. 

Laloy (Lah-lwah), Louis. Writer; born Grey, Haute- 
Saone, France, 1874. Prominent critic in Paris. 

Lambert (Lahm-bair). (1) . Lucien. Pianist, composer; 
born Paris, 1861. Opera composer. (2) Marius. Com- 
poser; born France. Composed comic operas and op- 
erettas. (3) Alexander (Lam-bert) . Pianist, teacher; 
born Warsaw, Pol., Nov. 1, 1862. Lives New York. 

Lambeth, Henry Albert. Organist, conductor; born near 
Gosport, Eng., Jan. 16, 1822; died Glasgow, Scot., Jun. 27, 
1895. Well known as director of the celebrated Lambeth's 

Lambillote (Lam-bee-yot) , Louis. Writer, composer; born 
Charleroi, France, Mar. 27, 1797; died Vaugirard, France, 
Feb. 27, 1855. Composed church music. 

Lambrino, Telemaque. Pianist; born Odessa, Rus., Oct. 
27, 1878. Pupil of Carreiio. Lives Leipzig, Ger. 


Lamond, Frederic A. Pianist; bom Glasgow, Scot, Jan. 
28, 1868. Distinguished concert artist. 

Lamoureiix (Lah-tnoo-ray) , Charles. Conductor; born 
Bordeaux, France, Sept. 21, 1834; died Paris, Dec. 21, 
1899. Conducted his own orchestra in Paris. 

Lampe (Lahm-peh), Walther. Composer; born Leipzig, 
Ger., Apr. 28, 1872. Orchestral and chamber music com- 
poser. Lives Weimar. 

Lamperti (Lam-pair-tee), Francesco. Teacher of singing; 
born Savona, Italy, Mar. 11, 1813; died Como, Italy, 
May 1, 1892. 

Lang. (1) Benjamin J. Pianist, teacher; born Salem, 
Mass., Dec. 28, 1837; died Boston, Apr. 3, 1909. (2) 
Margaret Ruthven. Composer; born Boston, Nov. 27, 
1867. Daughter of (1). Composed overtures, arias with 
orchestra, and successful songs and piano pieces. Lives 

Lange (Lang-eh), Gustav. Compo.ser; born Schwerstedt, 
Ger., Aug. 13, 1830; died Wernigerode, Ger., Sept. 19, 1889. 
Composed light piano pieces. 

Lange-Miiller (Lang-eh-Mil-ler) , Peter Erasmus. Com- 
poser; born Frederiksberg, Den., Dec. 1, 1850. Composed 
operas, a symphony, etc. Lives Copenhagen, Den. 

Langert (Lahng-airt) , Johann. Conductor, composer; born 
Coburg, Ger., Nov. 26, 1836. Opera composer (Domroschen, 
etc.). Lives Coburg, Ger. 

Langhans, Wilhelm. Writer; born Hamburg, Ger., Sept. 
21, 1832; died Berlin, Jun. 9, 1892. 

Lanner, Josef F. K. Composer; born near Vienna, Apr. 

12, 1801; died Vienna, Apr. 14, 1843. 

Laparra, Raoul. Composer; born Bordeaux, France, May 

13, 1876. French opera composer (La Habanera, etc.). 
Lives New York. 

Lara, Isidore de. Composer; born London, Aug. 9, 1858. 
Composed operas (Messalina, etc.). Lives Paris. 


Latka, Gnstav. Contrabass player, composer; born Prague, 
Boh., Aug. 23, 1847. Composed symphonies, overtures, a 
concerto, an opera, masses, and many smaller works. Lives 
Sehwerin, Gcr. 

Lassalle (Lah-sal), Jean Louis. Bass; born Lyons, France, 
Dec. 14, 1847; died Paris, Sept 7, 1910. Distinguished 
opera sing«r. 

Lassen {Lahs-sen), Eduard. Composer, conductor; born 
Copenhagen, Pen., Apr. 13, 1830; died Weimar, Ger., Jan. 
15, 1904. 

Lasso, Orlando di (Orlandus Lassus). Composer; born 
Mons, Bel, 1532 (1530?) ; died Munich, Ger., Jun. 14, 1594. 
A contrapuntal leader; best of the Netherland composers. 

La Tombelle (Lah Tom-hei), Femand. Composer; born 
Paris, Aug. 3, 1854. Composed orchestral suites, etc. 
Schola Cantorum, Paris. 

Lauber {Lou-her), Joseph. Pianist; born Ruswil, Switz., 
Dec. 25, 1860. Composed symphonies, symphonic poems, 
cantatas, and smaller vocal works. Geneva Conservatory. 

Lavallee {Lah^vah4eh) , Calixa. Pianist, composer; born 
Vercheres, Can., Dec. 28, 1842; died Boston, Jan. 21, 1891. 
Composed brilliant piano pieces. 

Lavtgnac {Lah-ve en-yak) , Albert* Writer; born Paris, 
Jan. 22, 1846; died there. May 29, 1916. Teacher at Con- 

Lavigne (Lah-veen) . Antoine Joseph. Oboist ; bom Besan^on, 
France, Apr. 23, 1816; died Manchester, Eng., Aug. 1, 1886. 
An oboe virtuoso of unusual powers. 

Lazarus, Henry. Clarinetist; born London, 1815; died 
there, 1895. Distinguished virtuoso. 

Lazzari (Lat-sahr-ree) , Silvio. Composer; born Bozen, 
Aus., 1860. Composed symphonic poems, operas, etc. 
Lives Paris. 


Lebert (Lay-bairt), Siegmund. Pianist, teacher; born Lud- 
wigsburg, Ger., Dec. 12, 1822; died Stuttgart, Ger., Dec. 8, 
1884. Joint author of Lebert and Stark Method, 

Lebome (Luh-born), Fernand. Composer; born Paris, 
Mar. 10, 1862. Opera and orchestral composer {Les Gir- 
ondins, etc.). Lives Paris. 

Lebrun (Luh-breen), Paul. Composer; born Ghent Bel., 
Apr. 21, 1861. Composed an opera, a prize symphony, etc. 
Lives Ghent. 

Le Carpentier (Le Car-pang-tee-eh), Adolphe-Clair. Com- 
poser, pianist ; born Paris, Feb. 17, 1809 ; died there, Jul. 14, 
1869. Composed technical works for piano and fantasias 
on operatic airs. 

Leclair, Jean Marie. Violinist; born Paris, May 10, 1697; 
died there, Oct. 22, 1764. Sometimes called the "French 

Lecocq (Le-kok), Alexandre Charles. Composer; born 
Paris, Jun. 3, 1832 ; died Clifton, Guernsey, Feb. IS, 1911. 
Comic opera composer. 

Lecouppey {Le -co op-pay) , F61ix. Pianist; born Paris, Apr. 
4, 1811; died there, Jul. 5, 1887. Best known for etudes. 

Le Due, Alphonse. Flutist, pianist; born 1804; died Paris, 
1868. Wrote useful piano etudes. 

Lef6bure-Wely (Le-fah-byoor-Va-lee)y Louis James AI-^ 
fred. Organist, composer; born Paris, Nov. 13, 1817; 
died there, Dec. 31, 1869. Famous for his improvisation on 
the organ. 

Lef6bvre {Luh-fay-vr) y Charles Edouard. Composer; born 
Paris, Jun. 19, 1843. Composed operas, cantatas, etc. Paris 

Lehmann {Lay-man), (1) George. Violinist; born New 
York, Jul. 31, 1865. Writer on the violin, etc. Lives 
New York. (2) Lilli. Soprano; born Wiirzburg, Ger., 
Nov. 24, 1848. Famous opera singer, particularly Wag- 
ner operas. Lives Berlins (3) Liza. Soprano, com- 


poser; born London, Jul. 11, 1862. Best known for song 
cycle In a Persian Garden, Lives London. 

Leichtentritt, Hugo. Writer; born Fleschen, Ger., Jan. 1, 
1874. Lives Berlin. 

Lekeu (Luh-kay), Guillaume. Composer; born Neusy, 
Bel., Jan. 20, 1870; died Angers, Bel., Jan. 21, 1894. Com- 
posed orchestral suites, the lyric .poem Andromeda, Angevin 
Fantaisies, a violin sonata, etc, in the Franck school. 

LenGiaire, Jean Eugene Gaston. Composer; born France, 
Sept. 9, 1854. Orchestral and ballet composer. 

Lemare (Le-tnahr), Edwin Henry. Organist, composer; 
born Ventnor, Eng., Sept. 9, 1865. City organist, San 
Francisco, Cal. 

Lemmens, Nicholas Jacques. Organist, composer; born 
Zoerle-Parwys, Bel., Jan. 3, 1823; died near Malines, Bel., 
Jan. 30, 1881. 

Lemoine, HenrL Pianist, teacher; born Paris, Oct. 21, 
1786; died, there, May 18, 1854. Composed excellent 

Lenaerts (Le-narts), Constant. Composer, conductor; born 
Antwerp, Bel., Mar. 9, 1852. Antwerp Conservatory. Com- 
posed cantatas, etc. 

Lendvai (Lend-vye), Erwin. Composer; born Buda-Pesth, 
Hun., Jun. 4, 1882. Composed a symphony, a festival 
march, etc. Hoch Conservatory, Frankfort, Ger. 

Lenepveu {Le-nep-vay) , Charles Ferdinand. Composer; 
born Rouen, France, Oct. 4, 1840; died 1910. Composed 
operas (Velleda, etc.). 

Leo (Lay-o), Leonardo. Composer; born near Naples* 
Italy, 1694; died Naples, Oct. 31, 1744. 

Leoncavallo (Lay-on-ka-val-io) ,RaggieTO, Composer; born 
Naples, Italy, Mar. 8, 1858. His first opera, Tommaso 
Chatter ton, after failing, was revived with great success. 
He produced a great trilogy, Crepusculum, a historic play 
dealing with the Italian Renaissance. In this task he was 


encouraged by Wagner, of whom he was a devoted admirer. 
His widest reputation rests on the two-act opera / Pagliacci, 
produced in 1892. His other works include La BohSme, 
La Tosca, TrUby, Zaza, etc. 

Leroux (Le-roo), Xavier. Composer; born Velletri, Italy, 
Oct 11, 1863. Composed orchestral works (overture Harald, 
etc.), but best known by his operas, such as La Reine Fiam- 
tnette, Le Chemineau, etc. Lives Paris. 

Leschen (Les-shen), Christoph Friedrich. Composer; born 
Vienna, 1816; died there, May 4, 1899. Composed operas, 
symphonies, songs. 

Leschetisky (Leh'She-tit-ski) , Theodor. * Pianist, composer, 
teacher; born Lancut, Aus., Jun. 22, 1830; died Dresden, 
Ger., Nov. 17, 1915. Perhaps the most celebrated piano- 
forte teacher of his time. 

Leslie, Henry D. Conductor; born London, Jun. 18, 1822; 
died Llansaintfraid, Wales, Feb. 4, 1896. 

Lesueur (Le-swear), Jean Francois. Composer; born 
Drucat-Plessiel, France, Feb. 15, 1760; died Paris, Oct. 6, 
1837. Taught at the Paris Conservatory, composed operas, 
masses, oratorios, etc. 

Leva (Lay-vah), Enrico di. Pianist, composer; born Na- 
ples, Italy, Jan. 19, 1867. Song and opera composer. 

Levi (Lay-vee), Hermann. Conductor; born Giessen, Ger., 
Nov. 7, 1839; died Munich, Ger., May 13, 1900. Friend of 

Levy (Lay-vee), Alexandre. Composer; born San Paulo, 
Brazil, Nov. 10, 1864; died there, Jan. 17, 1892. Composed 
for piano and chamber music 

Leybach (li-bakh), Ignace. Composer, pianist, bom Gambs- 
heim, Alsace, Jul. 17, 1817; died Toulouse, France, May 
23, 1891. Composed light piano music. 

Lh6vinne (Lay-vin), Josef. Pianist; born Moscow, D.c€. 
14, 1874. Brilliant concert artist. Lives Berlin. 


Liadov {Lya-dojf), Anatole. Composer; born Pctrograd, 
May 11, 185S; died near Novgorod, Rus., Atig. 28, 1914. 
Composed piano and orchestral works. 

Ltapounov (Lya-poo-naff), Sergei. Composer; born Jaro- 
slav, Rus., Nov. 30, 1859. Orchestral and piano composer. 
Lives Petrograd. 

Lichey (Likh-eye), Reinhold. Organist, composer; born 
near Liegnitz, Ger., Mar. 26, 1879. Brilliant organ virtuoso ; 
composed organ pieces. Lives Konigsberg, Ger. 

Lkhtenberg (Likh-ten-bairg) , Leopold. Violinist, teacher; 
born San Francisco, Cal., Nov. 22, 1861. Lives New York. 

Lie (Lee), Sigurd. Composer; born Norway, May 23, 
1871; died Christiana, Nor., Sept. 30, 1904. Wrote for or- 
chestra, piano, and voice. 

Liebling (Leeb-ling). (1) Georg. Pianist, composer; 
born Berlin, Jan., 22, 1865. Composed for orchestra, 
piano, etc. Lives Munich, Ger. (2) Emil. Pianist, 
teacher; born Pless, Ger., Apr. 12, 1851; died Chicago, 
Jan. 20, 1914. Eminent teacher in Chica:go for a number 
of years. 

Liliefors (LU-yeh-fors), Ruben. Conductor, composer; bom 
Upsala, Swed., Sept. 30, 1871. Composed pieces for piano, 
violin, orchestra, and voice. Lives Gotenburg, Swed. 

Limbert, Prank L. Conductor, teacher, composer; born 
New York, Nov. 15, 1866. Composed orchestral and cham- 
ber works, etc. Lives Hanau, Ger. 

Lrind, Jenny. Soprano; born Stockholm, Swed., Oct. 6, 
1820; died Malvern, Eng., 1887. Made many tours, every- 
where exciting enthusiasm by her operatic impersonations, 
and still more by her rendering of the simplest national 
melodies. In 1852 she married Otto Goldschmidt, in Boston. 

Lindblad, Adolf. Composer; born Lofvingsborg, Swed., 
Feb. 1, 1801; died there, Aug. 23, 1878. Composed orches- 
tral and vocal works; called the "Swedish Schubert." 


Lindegren, Johan. Composer; bom Ullared, Swed., Jan. 7, 
1842 ; died Stockholm, Swed., Jun. 8, 1908. An authority on 
church music. 

Linden, Karl van der. Composer; born Dordrecht, HoL, 
Aug. 24, 1839. Composed overtures, cantatas. Lives 

Linder, Gottfried. Composer; born Ehringen, Ger., Jun. 
22, 1842. Composed operas and chamber music. Lives 
Stuttgart, Ger. 

Lindley. (1) Robert 'Cellist; born Rotherham, Eng., 
1776; died London, 1855. (2) WiUiam. 'Cellist; born 
London, 1802; died Manchester, Eng., Aug. 12, 1869. 
Son of (1). 

Lindner, Eugen. Composer; born Leipzig, Ger., Dec. 11, 
1858. Composed operas and songs. Lives Leipzig. 

Lindpainter (Lint-pint-ner) , Peter Joseph von. Composer; 
born Coblenz, Ger., Dec. 9, 1791; di^ Lake of Constance, 
Aug. 21, 1856. Wrote operas, symphonies, church music, 
etc. His most widely known composition is the celebrated 
song The Standard Bearer. 

Liney. (1) George. Composer; born Leeds, Eng., 1798; 
died London, Sept. 10, 1865. Composed operas, and songs. 
(2) Thomas. Composer; born Wells, Eng., 1732; died 
London, Nov. 19, 1795. Composed for the stage, also 
many songs. (3) William. Composer; born London, 
1771; died there, May 6, 1835. Wrote many glees and 

Lipinski, Karl J. Violinist; born Radzyn, Pol., Oct. 30 
(Nov. 4), 1790; died near Lemberg, Aus., Dec. 16, 1861. 

Lischin (Lish-in), Gregory. Composer; born 1854; died 
Petrograd, Jun. 27, 1888. Composed operas (Don Cisar 
de Bazan), 

Lissenko, NicolaL Composer; born Grinzkky, S. Rus., 
Mar. 22, 1842; died Kiev, Rus., Nov. 11, 1912. Composed 
operas, cantatas, choruses, collected Ukrainian folk-songs. 


Llstemann, Bernhard. Violinist, teacher; t)orn Schlotheim, 
Gcr., Mar. 25, 1839; died Chicago, Feb. 11, 1917. Eminent 
teacher in Boston and Chicago. 

Liszt (List), Franz. Pianist, composer; born Raiding, 
Hun., Oct. 22, 1811; died Bayreuth, Ger., Jul. 31, 1886. At 
nine years possessed considerable skill as a pianist. Studied 
under Czerny and Salieri in Vienna, and afterward in Paris. 
In 1848 he went to Weimar as conductor of the court or- 
chestra, and by his exertions and the rare fascination of 
his artistic personality quickly made Weimar one of the vital 
musical centers of the Continent. Marvelous as a pianist. 
Liszt also distinguished himself greatly as a composer, and 
a considerable body of music in all styles bears his name. 
He was also an author of much merit, and made important 
contributions to the literature of music. As a composer he 
belonged to the modern Romantic School, although a man 
of the most catholic sympathies in art; and his music, while 
unequal, contains many flashes of inspiration, and happy 
uses of a wonderfully complete technic. 

Litolff, Henry Charles. Pianist, composer; born London, 
Feb. 6, 1818; died near Paris, Aug. 6, 1891. 

Lloyd. (1) Charles Harford. Organist, composer; born 
Thornbury, Eng., Oct. 16, 1849. Composed cantatas 
and songs. Eton College, Eton, Eng. (2) Edward. 
Tenor; born London, Mar. 7, 1845. Enunent oratorio 

Lobe (Lo-beh), Johann Christian. Theorist, writer, flutist; 
bom Weimar, Ger., May 30, 1797; died Leipzig, Ger., Jul. 
27, 1881. Author of some excellent theoretical treatises. 

Locatelli, Pietro. Violinist; born Bergamo, Italy, 1693; 
died Amsterdam, Hoi., Apr. 1, 1764. 

Loeffler {Lef-ler)y Charles Martin. Violinist, composer; 
born Muhlhausen, Alsace, Jan. 30, 1861. Composed (in 
Boston) suite for violin and orchestra. Divertimento, for 
the same, a 'cello concerto, chamber music, and the or- 
chestral works La Mort de Tintagiles, La Bonne Chanson, 


VUlanelle du Diable and A Pagan Poem. Writes in very 
advanced style. Lives Boston. 

Loeillet (Loy-ay), Jean Baptiste. Flutist; born Ghent, 
Bel.» after 1650; died London; 1728. Composed chamber 
and harpsichord works. 

Loew (Lave), Joseph. Composer, pianist; born Prague, 
Boh., Jan. 23, 1834; died there, Oct. 5, 1886. Composed 
light piano music and teaching pieces. 

Logier {Lo-jeer), Johann Bemhard. Inventor; born Kas- 
sel, Ger., Feb. 9, 1777 ; died Dublin. Ire., Jtd. 27, 1846. 

Logroscino (Log-ro-shee-no), I<Kcolo. Composer; born 
Naples, Italy, about 1700; died there, 1763. A pioneer com- 
poser in opera buffa. 

Lolli, Antonio. Violinist, composer; born Bergamo, Italy, 
about 1730; died Palermo, Italy, 1802. 

Loomis, Harvey Worthington. Composer; born Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., Feb. 5, 1865. Composed musical pantomimes, 
incidental music, songs, a children's cantata, etc. Lives 
New York. 

Lorenz, Karl Adolf. Organist, composer; bom Koslin, 
Ger., Aug. 13, 1837. Oratorio and opera composer. Lives 
Stettin, Ger. 

Lortzing, Gustav Albert. Composer; bom Berlin, Oct. 
23, 1801 ; die(t there, Jan. 21, 1851. Wrote a number of 
operas, including Die beiden Schutzen and Czar und Ztm- 
mermann, all very melodious. 

Ldachhom (Lesh-hom), Albert. Pianist, composer; born 
Berlin, Jun. 27, 1819; died there, Jun. 4, 1905. Best known 
for his us^ul piano studies. 

Lotti, Antonio. Organist, composer; born Venice about 
1667; died there, Jan. 5, 1740. Composed operas and songs. 
Famous in his time. 

Lover, Samuel. Composer; born Dublin, Ire., Feb. 24, 
1797; died St. Helicrs, Island of Jersey, Jul. 6, 1868. Wrote 
many well-known songs. 


(Lay-veh), Johann Karl Gottfried. Organist, com- 
poser; bom near Halle, Ger., Nov. 11, 1796; died Kiel, Ger., 
Apr. 20, 1869. Wrote oratorios, operas, part-songs, cham- 
ber music, and, more important than all, great ballads 
which have made his name famous. 

Lucas, Clarence. Composer, author; born Niagara, Can., 
Oct 19, 1866. Composed for stage, orchestra, vbice. Lives 

Lucca (Look'kah), Pauline. Soprano; born Vienna, Apr. 
25, 1841; died Paris, Feb. 28» 1908. Made a great reputa- 
tion in opera. 

Lugert, Josef. Violinist, teacher, composer; born Frohnau, 
Boh., Oct. 30, 1841. Composed a symphony, chamber works, 
etc. Lives Prague, Boh. 

Lulli (LooNee)f Jean Baptiste. Composer; born Florence, 
Italy, 1633; died Paris, Mar. 22, 1687. Brought to France 
as a boy. From being a scullion, rose to be chief musician 
of Louis XIV. In 1671 appointed director of the Grand 
Opera at Paris. He is regarded as the founder of the 
French opera. 

Lumbye (Loom-bee), Hans C. Composer; born Copen- 
hagen, Den., May 2, 1810; died there, Mar. 20, 1874. 

Lunn, Louisa Kirkby. Contralto; born Manchester, Eng., 
Nov. 8, 1873. Royal Opera, London. 

Lussan (Lis-sang), Z61ie de. Soprano; born New York, 
1863. Opera and concert singer. Retired 1907. 

Luther, Martin. Composer; born Eisleben, Ger., Nov. 10, 
1483; died there, Feb. 18, 1546. 

Lutkin, Peter Christian. Organist, composer, conductor; 
born Thompsonville, Wis., Mar. 27, 1858. Composed church 
music. Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. 

Lutz, Wilhelm Meyer. Composer; born Mannerstadt, Ger., 
1822; died London, Jan. 31, 1903. Well known as a com- 
poser of comic opera. 


Lux (Looks), Friedrich. Organist, composer; born Ruhla, 
Ger., Nov. 24, 1820; died Mainz, Ger., Jul. 9, 1895. 

Luzzi (Loot-si) y Luigi. Composer; born Olevano di Lo- 
mellina, Italy, Mar. 28, 1828 ; died Stradella, Italy, Feb. 23, 
1876. Composed operas, a symphony, songs, etc. 

Lyoff, Alexis. Composer; born Reval, Rus., Jun. 6, 1799; 
died near Kovno, Rus., Jan. 7, 1871. Composed operas and 
violin works, but best known as composer of the Russian 
National Hymn, 

Lyne, Felice. Soprano; born Kansas City, Mo., 1891. 
Remarkable coloratura soprano. Chicago Opera Co. 

LyneSy Frank. Organist, composer; born Cambridge, 
Mass., May 16, 1858; died Bristol, N. H., Jun. 24, 

Lyon, James. Early American hymn composer, publish- 
ing Urania, etc., from 1761 on. 

Lsrsbcrg (really Bovy), Charles Samuel. Composer; born 
Lysberg, Switz., Mar. 1, 1821; died Geneva, Switz., Feb. 
15, 1873. Composed popular piano pieces. 


Maas (Mahs), (1) Joseph. Tenor; born Dartford, Eng., 
Jan. 30, 1847; died London, Jan. 16, 1886. (2) Louis 
Philipp Otto. Pianist, teacher; born Wiesbaden, Ger., 
Jun. 21, 1852; died Boston, Sept. 18, 1889. Composed over- 
tures, suites, a concerto, a symphony (On the Prairies), 

Mabellini (Mah^bel-lee-nee) , Teodulo. Composer; born 
Pistoja, Italy, Apr. 2, 1817; died Florence, Italy, Mar. 10, 
1897. Composed operas, oratorios, and cantatas. 

Macbeth, Allan. Organist, composer; born Greenock, 
Scot, Mar. 13, 1856. Composed cantatas, chamber works, 
etc Lives Glasgow, Scot. 


MacCuim, Hamish. Composer; born Greenock, Scot, 
Mar. 22, 1868; died London, Aug. 21, 1916. Wrote several 
choral works (Kilmeny, Lord Ullin's Daughter, etc), two 
concert overtures, operas, cantatas, and many songs and in- 
strumental pieces. 

MacDougall, Hamilton C. Organist, teacher, composer; 
born Warwick, R. I., Oct 15, 18S8. Professor of Music, 
Wellesley College. 

MacDowell, Edward Alexander. Pianist, composer; born 
New York, Dec. 18, 1861 ; died there, Jan. 23, 1908. Studied 
in Paris and Germany. In 1881-1882 was head teacher of 
the piano department of the Darmstadt, Ger., Conservatory. 
From 1896 to 1904 professor of music in Columbia Uni- 
versity. He achieved a world-wide reputation as one of the 
most original and vigorous composers of his time. His 
works include symphonic poems, orchestral suites, choruses, 
piano concertos, suites, sonatas, and etudes, and fine songs. 

Macfarlane, William C. Organist, composer; born Lon- 
don, Eng., Oct 2, 1870. City organist, Portland, M^., 1912- 

Macfarren. (1) Sir George Alexander. Composer, theo- 
rist; born London, Mar. 2, 1813; died there, Oct. 31, 1887. 
Produced a great quantity of music — operas, oratorios, 
cantatas, church music, overtures, symphonies, chamber 
music, songs, etc. (2) Walter C. Pianist, teacher; born 
London, Aug. 28, 1826; died there. Sept 2, 1905. Brother 
of (1). 

M'Guckin, Barton. , Tenor; born Dublin, Ire., Jul. 28, 1853. 
Lives London. 

Machado (Mah-chah'-do), Augusto. Composer; born Lis^ 
bon, Port, Dec. 27, 1845. Lisbon Conservatory. Contem- 
porary Portuguese opera composer. 

Mackenzie, Sir Alexander Campbell. Composer; born 
Edinburgh, Scot., Aug. 22, 1847. His compositions — the 
cantatas Jason, Sayid, etc., the oratorio The Rose of Sharon, 
perhaps his best work; the poetic Dream of Jubal; his 


operas Colombo and The Troubadour, together with a great 
deal of orchestral and other music, have placed him in the 
front rank of English musicians. Director Royal Academy 
of Music, London. 

Maclean, Alick. Composer, conductor; born Eton, Eng., 
JuL 20, 1872. Composed the opera Quentin Durward, etc. 
Lives Scarborough, Eng. 

Macpherson. (1) Charles Stewart. Composer, writer; 
born Liverpool, Eng., Mar. 29, 1865. Composed a sym- 
phony, overtures, etc. Wrote valuable text-books on 
tli^oretical subjects. (2) Charles. Organist, composer; 
born Edinburgh, Scot., May 10, 1870. Orchestral and cham- 
ber music composer. Lives London. 

Macy, James Cartwright. Composer; born New York, 
Jun. 27, 1845 ; died Somerville, Mass., 1918. Composed can- 
tatas, church music, songs, piano pieces. 

Maggini (Mad-jee-nee) , Giovanni Paolo. Violin maker; 
born Botticino Marino, Italy, Aug. 25, 1580; died Brescia, 
Italy, about 1632. Work highly esteemed. 

Magnard (Man-yar), Lucien Alberic. Composer; born 
Paris, Jun. 9, 1865. Composed symphonies, a suite, et& 

Mahler, Giistav. Conductor, composer; born Kalischt, 
Boh., Jul. 7, 1860; died 1911. Known by his nine large 
symphonies, some of them with solo voices and chorus. 

Maillart (My-yar), Louis. Composer; born Montpellier, 
France, Mar. 24, 1817 ; died Moulins, France, May 26, 1871. 
Opera composer. 

Mailly (My-yee), Alphonse. Organist, composer; born 
Brussels, Bel., Nov. 27, 1833. Organ and orchestral com- 

Maitland, J. A. Fuller. Writer, historian; born London, 
Apr. 7, 1856. Editor Grove's Dictionary of Music and 
Musicians, 2nd ed. 

Major (Mah-yor), Julius J. Pianist, composer; born 
Kaschau, Hun., Dec. 13, 1859. Composed orchestral and 
chamber works. Lives Buda-Pesth, Hun. 


Ifalatchkiii, Leonid. Composer; born Russia, 1842; died 
Moscow, Feb. 11, 1902. Composed piano pieces, church 
music, and collected Ukrainian folk-songs. 

Iftalat (Mah-laht), Jan. Composer; born Alt-Bunzlau, 
Boh., Jun. 16, 1843. Contemporary Czech opera composer. 

Malcolita, Alexander. Writer; born Edinburgh, Scot., 1687; 
died after 1721. Author of A Treatise of Musick, pub- 
lished at Edinburgh in 1721. 

Malibran (Mahl-ee-brahn), Maria Felicita. Contralto; born 
Paris, Mar. 24, 1806; died Manchester, Eng., Sept 23, 1836. 
A daughter of the famous tenor Garcia, by whom she was 
trained. One of the most gifted singers of modem times. 
Achieved a phenomenal success in opera. 

Mailing. (1) J5rgen. Composer; born Copenhagen, Den., 
Oct. 31, 1836; died there, Jul., 1905. Composed songs, 
piano works, and operas. (2) Otto Waldemar. Com- 
poser ; bom Copenhagen, Jun. 1, 1848. Composed orchestral 
and chamber works, etc Brother of (1). 

Malzel {Mayl'tsel), Johann Nepomuk. Inventor; born 
Ratisbon, Ger., Aug. 15, 1772; died at sea, Jul. 21, 1838. 
Invented the metronome now in common use. 

Mancinelli {Man-chin-el-lee), Luigi. Composer, conductor; 
born Orvieto, Italy, Feb. 5, 1848. 

Mandl, Richard. Composer; born Prossnitz, Aus., May 
9, 1859. Orchestral composer (overtures, etc.). Lives 

Manen, Joan de. Violinist, composer; born Barcelona, 
Spain, Mar. 14, 1883. Composed operas, a symphony, a 
violin concerto, etc. Lives London. 

Mann» Johann Gottfried. Conductor, composer; born 
The Hague, Hoi., Jul. 15, 1858; died Coudewater, Hoi., 
Feb. 10, 1904. Composed for stage and orchestra. 

Manney, Charles Fontesm. Composer; born Brooklyn, 
N. Y., Feb. 8, 1872. Composed cantatas, songs, etc. 
Lives Boston. 


Manns, Sir August. Conductor; born Stolzenburg, Ger., 
Mar. 12, 1825; died Norwood, Eng., Mar. 1, 1907. Di- 
rected at the Crystal Palace, a post which for more than 
half a century he held with benefit to the cause of musi- 
cal art. 

Maquarre (Mah-ka/), AndrL Flutist, composer, con- 
ductor; born Molenbeck, Bel., 1875. Ffutist with Boston 
Symphony Orchestra. Composed the opera Dolores, an 
Indian Suite, the fantaisie On the Sea Cliffs, etc Lives 

Marcello (Mahr'chel'lo)^ Benedetto. Composer; born 
Venice, Italy, Aug. 8, 1686; died Brescia, Italy, Jul. 24, 
1739. His principal work was the musical setting of 
the Psalms. 

Marchant, Arthur W. Organist, composer; born London, 
Oct. 18, 1850. Composed church music, songs, etc. Lives 
Dumfries, Eng. 

Marchesi (Mahr-kay'-jsee), Mathilde de C. Teacher of 
singing; born Frankfort, Ger., Mar. 26, 1826; died London, 

Nov. 18, 1913. Famous singing teacher in Paris. 


Marchetti (Mahr-kef^tee), Filippo. Composer; born Bo- 
logna, Italy, Feb. 26, 1831; died Rome, Jan. 18, 1902. 
Opera composer. 

Marechal (Mahr-ay-shal), Henri. Composer; born Paris, 
Jan. 22, 1842. Composed operas, sacred works, etc. 
Lives Paris. 

Marenzio (Mah^en'-tsee-oh), Luca. Composer; born Coc- 
caglia, Italy, about 1556; died Rome, Aug. 22, 1599. 
Famous madrigal writer of the 16th century. 

Maretzek, Max. Impresario; born Briinn, Aus., Jun. 28, 
1821; died Staten Island, N. Y., May 14, 1897. 

Mario (Mah'-ree-o), Giuseppe. Tenor; born Cagliari, Italy, 
Oct. 17, 1808; died Rome, Dec. 11, 1883. Enjoyed a tri- 
umphant career as an operatic artist. Retired in 1867. 


Marmontel, Antoine. Pianist, composer, teacher; born 
Clermont-Ferrand, France, Jul. 18, 1816; died Paris, Jan. 
17, 1898. Teacher at Paris Conservatory. 

Marpurg (Mahr-poorkh) , Friedrich Wilhelm. Theorist; 
born near Seehausen, Ger., Nov. 21, 1718; died Berlin, 
May 22, 1795. 

Marques (Mahr-kes), MigueL Composer; bom Isle of 
Mallorca, Spain, May 20, 1843. Composer of zarzuelas. 
Lives Madrid, Spain. 

Marschalk (Mahr-schalk) , Max. Composer; born Berlin, 
Apr. 7, 1863. Composed opera Saur Beatrice, etc. Lives 

Marachner (Marsh-ner), Heinrich. Composer; born Zit- 
tau, Ger., Aug. 16, 1795; died Hanover, Ger., Dec. 14, 1861. 
Studied music in Vienna. Wrote several operas, chief of 
them being The Vampire, and Hans Heiling, Also wrote 
orchestral, choral, and pianoforte works of a high order. 

Marsick, Martin Pierre. Violinist, teacher; born near 
Lieg^ Bel., Mar. 9, 1848. Paris Conservatory. 

Marston, George W. Organist, composer; born Sandwich, 
Mass., May 23, 1840; died there, Feb. 2, 1901. Composed 
principally church music. 

Marteau (Mar-toh), Henri. Violinist; born Rheims, 
France, Mar. 31, 1874. Succeeded Joachim at Berlin. Re- 
signed Oct., 1915. 

Martini (Mar-tee-nee), Giambattista (called Padre Mar- 
tini). Composer, theorist; born Bologna, Italy, Apr. 24, 
1706; died there, Oct. 4, 1784. In his day regarded as the 
greatest living authority on musical matters. 

Martucci (Mar-toot-chee) , Giuseppe. Pianist, composer; 
born Capua, Italy, Jan. 6, 1856; died Jun. 1, 1909. 

Marty, Georges Eugene. Composer; born Paris, May 16> 
1866; died there, Oct. 11, 1908. Composed operas {Dafia, 
etc), and several orchestral works. 


Marx, Adolf BernharcL Theorist; born Halle, Ger., May 
15, 1795; died Berlin, May 17, 1866. Originally a lawyer, 
but afterward devoted himself to music. As a composer 
was not successful, but wrote many very valuable theoreti- 
cal and critical works. # 

Marzials, Th6ophile. Composer; born Brussels, Bel., Dec. 
21, 1850. Lived in England and wrote many successful 

Marzo (Mahr-tsoh), Eduardo. Composer, teacher; born 
Naples, Italy, Nov. 29, 1852. Lives New York. 

Mascagni {Mas-kahW'yee), Pietro. Composer; born Leg- 
horn, Italy, Dec. 7, 1863. Son of a baker, and intended by 
his father for the legal profession. His chief success, the 
opera Cavalleria Rusticana. One day he saw an announce- 
ment of prizes offered by Sonzogno, the Italian music pub- 
lisher, for one-act operas. He won in the competition, com- 
pleting Cavalleria Rusticana in the nick of time. Has since 
then produced other operas and smaller compositions. 
Toured America in 1902. Lives Rome. 

Mason. (1) Lowell. Teacher; born Medfield, Mass., Jan. 
8, 1792; died Orange, N. J., Aug. 11, 1872. A pioneer 
in American musical development. Founded the Bos- 
ton Academy of Music in 1832. His works include many 
collections of church music containing well-known hymn- 
tunes, collections of songs, etc. (2) Luther Whiting. 
Teacher; born Turner, Me., Apr. 31, 1828; died Buck- 
field, Me., Jul. 14, 1896. Compiler of The National Music 
Course. Settled in Boston in 1865, and till 1880 was musi- 
cal instructor in the public schools of that city. He 
worked in Japan, 1880-1883, and did much for the advance- 
ment of school music there. (3) William. Pianist, com- 
poser, teacher; born Boston, Jan. 24, 1829; died New 
York, Jul. 14, 1908. Studied at Leipzig, and afterward 
under Liszt at Weimar. After concert tours he settled 
in New York in 1855. Among his works are many com- 
positions, but he is best represented by his text-books. 
Son of (1). (4) Daniel Gregory. Writer, composer; 


born Brookline, Mass., Nov. 20, 1873. Columbia University, 
New York. Nephew of (2). 

Masse (Mahs-say), Victor (Felix Marie). Composer; bom 
L'Orient, France, Mar. 7, 1822; died Paris, Jul. 5, 1884. 
Wrote Le fils du brigadier, Les noces de Jeannette, Galathie, 
Paul et Virginie, and other operas. 

Massenet {Mas-nay), Jules femile Fr6dMc. Composer; 
born Montaud, France, May 12, 1842; died Paris, Aug. 13, 
1912. Gained the Grand Prix de Rome in 1863 with his 
cantata David Riz2io. His principal works include the 
operas Don Cesar de Bazan, Le roi di Lahore, Herodiade, 
Manon, Le Cid, Wertker, Thais, Le Jongleur de Notre- 
Dame, R^ma, Don Quixote, etc. 

Massynski (Mahs-chin-skee) ^ Peter. Composer; born War- 
saw, Pol., 1855.* Chamber music and orchestral composer. 
Lives Warsaw. 

Matema (Mah-tair-nah), Amalie. Soprano; born St 
Georgen, Aus., Jul. 10, 1845. Celebrated Wagnerian operatic 
singer. Lives Vienna. 

Mathews, William S. B. Writer, teacher; born New Lon- 
don, N. H., May 8, 1837; died Denver, Col., Apr. 1, 1912. 
A strong educational influence in American music 

Mathieu (Ma-thee-ay) , Emile. Composer; born Lille, 
France; Oct. 16, 1844. Composed operas, orchestral works, 
etc. Conservatory, Ghent, Bel. 

Mattel (Mat'tay-ee) , Tito. Composer; born Campobasso, 
Italy, May 24, 1841 ; died London, Mar. 30, 1914. Has writ- 
ten several operas, instrumental music, and many songs. 

Matthay (Mat-tay), Tobias Augustus. Pianist, teacher, 
writer; born London, Feb. 19, 1858. Composed orchestral 
and chamber works; famous as piano teacher and writer 
on piano technic. Lives London. 

Mattheson (Mat-te-son) , Johann. Composer, conductor, 
writer; born Hamburg, Ger., Sept. 28, 1681; died there, 
Apr. 17, 1764. Composed operas, oratorios, masses, can- 
tatas, etc.; famous also as writer. 


Mauke (Mow-keh)^ Wilhelm. Composer, critic; bom 
Hamburg, Ger., Feb. 25, 1867. Opera and song composer. 
Lives Munich, Ger. 

Maurel {Mo-rel), Victor. Baritone; born Marseilles, 
•France, Jun. 17, 1848. Distinguished French opera singer. 
Acquired great fame in Europe and America. Created lago 
in Verdi's Otello, and set the standard of other leading 
roles. Lives Paris. 

Maurice (Mo-reece), (1) Alphonse. Com];)oser; bom 
Hamburg, Ger., Apr. 14, 1856; died Dresden, Ger., Jan. 
26, 1905. Chorus composer. (2) Pierre. Composer; 
born Geneva, Switz., 1868. Composed an orchestral suite, 
piano works, and several operas {Mise Brun, etc.). 

lllaybrick, Michael (pseudonym Stephen Adams). Baritone, 
composer ; born Liverpool, Eng., Jan. 31, 1844 ; died Buxton, 
Eng., Aug. 25(26), 1913. Composed popular English bal- 
lads (Nancy Lee, A Warrior Bold, etc.). 

Mayer (My-er). (1) Charles. Pianist, composer; born 
Konigsberg, Ger., Mar. 21, 1799; died Dresden, Jul. 2, 
1862. Brilliant pianist. (2) Wilhelm (pseudonym M. 
Remy). Composer; born Prague, Boh., Jun. 10, 1831; 
died there, Jan. 22, 1898. Composed symphonies^ etc. 
(3) Joseph Anton. Composer, theorist; born Pfullen- 
dorf, Ger., 1855. Composed operas, an oratorio, etc 
Lives Stuttgart, Ger. 

Mayerhoff (My-er-hofe), Franz. Composer, conductor; 
born Chemnitz, Ger., Jan. 17, 1864. Composed a symphony, 
orchestral works, cantatas, songs, etc. Lives Chemnitz. 

Mayseder (My-say-der), Joseph. Violinist, composer; 
born Vienna, Oct. 26, 1789; died there, Nov. 21, 1863. 

Mazas (Mah-sas), Jacques F6r^ol. Violinist, composer; 
born Beziers, France, Sept. 23, 1782; died there, 1849. 
Wrote excellent etudes for violin. 

Mazzinghi (Mat-sin-ghee), Joseph. Composer; born Lon- 
don, Dec. 25, 1765; died Bath, Eng., Jan. 15, 1844. Com- 
posed operas, music to plays, glees, etc. 


Mead, Olive. Violinist; born Cambridge, Mass., Nov. 22, 

1874. Organized Olive Mead String Quartet Lives New 

Medtner, Nicholas. Composer, pianist; born Moscow, 
Rus., Dec. 24, 1879. Orchestral and piano composer. Lives 

Mees, Arthur. Conductor; born Columbus, O., Feb. 13, 
1850. Conductor Worcester, Mass., Festival. Lives New 

Mehlig (May'Ug)f Anna. Pianist; born Stuttgart, Ger., 
Jul. 11, 1843. Lives Antwerp, Bel. 

M6hul (May-ill), Etienne Nicholas. Composer; born 
Givet, France, Jun. 22, 1763 ; died Paris, Oct. 18, 1817. At 
eleven years of age was organist of his native place. His 
principal work is his Joseph. He also wrote, among other 
operas, Le Jeune Henri, the clever overture of which still 
figures in concert programs. 

Meinardus (My-nar-doos), Ludwig. Composer, writer; 
bom Hooksiel, Ger., Sept 17, 1827; died Bielefeld, Ger., 
Jul. 10, 1896. Oratorio composer. 

Melartin, Erik. Composer; born Kexholm, Fin., Feb. 7, 

1875. Composed sjrmphonies, chamber music, many songs, 
etc. Conservatory, Helsingfors, Fin. 

Melba (really Mitchell; name derived from Melbourne, her 
birthplace), Nellie. Soprano; born Melbourne, Aus- 
tralia, May 19, 1861 (1859). Pistinguished opera singer. 
Lives Paris. 

Melcer, Henryk. Composer; born Kalisch, Pol., Sept. 21, 
1869. Composed piano concertos, chamber works, the 
operas Maria, Laodamia, etc. Warsaw Conservatory. 

Mellon, Alfred. Violinist, conductor; born London, Apr. 
17, 1821 ; died London, Mar. 27, 1867. 

Meltzer, Charles Henry. Writer; born London, 1852. 
Music critic and dramatic writer. New York. 


Mendelssohn, Arnold. Composer; born Ratibor, Boh., 
Dec. 26, 1855. Composed the operas Elsi, Der Bdrenhduter, 
and Die Minnehurg, also many cantatas {Pandora, etc). 
Grand-nephew of Felix Mendelssohn. 

Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, F61ix. Composer; born Hamburg, 
Ger., Feb. 3, 1809; died Leipzig, Nov. 14, 1847. Son of a 
banker and grandson of the Jewish philosopher, Moses 
Mendelssohn. Early showed a great talent for music, 
which was carefully cultivated from the outset In 1833, 
already possessed of a European reputation, was appointed 
musical director at Diisseldorf. Two years later went to 
Leipzig as conductor of the Gewandhaus concerts. Be- 
tween 1835 and 1841 he produced his piano concerto in D 
minor, the iZnd and J14th Psalms, string quartet in E 
minor, overture to Ruy Bias, trio in D minor, and the 
Hymn of Praise. Between 1841 and 1847 he wrote 5"/. 
Paul, Walpurgis Night, Elijah, Christus, the C minor trio, 
and many other works. Great as are his oratorios St. Paul 
and Elijah, the characteristic genius of Mendelssohn finds 
perhaps the most perfect expression in the Midsummer 
Night's Dream music, the concert overture The Hebrides 
and the Scotch Symphony. 

Mengelberg (Meng-el-hairg), Josef Willem. Conductor; 
born Utrecht, Hoi., Mar. 28, 1871. Conductor Concert- 
gebouw Orchestra, Amsterdam, Hoi. 

Mengewein (Meng-eh-znne), KarL Composer; born Zaun- 
roda, Ger., Sept. 9, 1852 ; died near Berlin, Apr., 1908. Com- 
posed singspiele, cantatas, etc. 

Menter, Sophie. Pianist; born Munich, Ger., Jul. 29, 1846. 
Lives in the Tyrol, Aus. 

Mercadante, Francesco Saverio. Composer; born Alta- 
mura, Italy, Jul. 17, 1795 ; died Naples, Italy, Dec 17, 1870. 
Composed operas in the Rossinian style; also much church 
music, several symphonies, etc. In 1840 he succeeder^ Zin- 
garelli as director of the Royal Conservatory at Naples. 
In 1862 he became totally blind. 


Merikanto, Oskar. Organist, composer; born Helsing- 
fors, Fin., Aug. 5, 1868. Organ virtuoso. Composed the 
opera The Maid of Pohja, etc. Lives Helsingfors. 

Merkel (Mair-kel), Gustav. Organist, composer; born 
Oberoderwitz, Ger., Nov. 12, 1827; died Dresden, Ger., 
Oct 30, 1885. 

Mertens, Joseph. Composer; bom Antwerp, Bel., Feb. 17, 
1834; died Brussels, Bel., 1901. Composed several Flemish 

Merulo (MeZ-oo-lo), Claudio. Organist, composer; bom 
Correggio, Italy, Apr. 8, 1533; died Parma, Italy, May 4, 
1604. Wrote madrigals and organ pieces. 

Men (Mairts), Karl. Teacher; born Bensheim, Ger., 
Sept 10, 1836; died Wooster, O., Jan. 30, 1890. 

M^ssager (Mes-sah-eha) , Andr^. Conductor, composer; 
bom Montlugon, France, Dec 30, 1853. Conductor Paris 
Conservatoire Concerts. 

Mestdagh, Karel. Composer; born Bruges, Bel., Oct. 22, 
1850. Composed orchestral works. 

Metzdorff, Richard. Composer; born Danzig, Ger., Jun. 
28, 1844. Composed symphonies, operas, etc. Lives Berlin. 

Meyer, Leopold von. Pianist; born near Vienna, Dec. 
20, 1816; died Dresden, Ger., Mar. 5, 1883. 

Mejrerbeer, Giacomo. Composer; born Berlin, Sept 5, 
1791; died Paris, May 2, 1864. Displayed musical talent at 
a very early age, particularly as a pianist His mling am- 
bition, however, was to become a composer. A pupil of 
the Abbe Vogler he wrote a number of works which, ex- 
cellent in their way, were marred by their extreme pedan- 
try. Coming under the influence of Rossini Meyerbeer for- 
sook the methods of Vogler for the more attractive style 
of the Italians and wrote several successful operas in the 
Italian style. In later years he again changed his style 
of writing, and with Scribe as his librettist produced the 


series of grand operas Robert le Diahle, Les Huguenots, 
Le Prophete, L'Etoile du Nord, Dinorah, and VAfricaine, 
upon which his fame as a composer mainly depend. 

Meyer-Helmund, Erik. Composer; born Petrograd, Mar. 
25, 1861. Composed operas, songs, etc 

Meyer-OIbcrsleben, Max. Composer, teacher; born Ol- 
bersleben, Ger., Mar. 5, 1850. Wiirzburg, Ger., Conserva- 

Mielck (Meelk)y Ernest. Composer; born Viborg, Fin., 
Oct. 24, 1877 ; died Locarno, Italy, Oct. 22, 1899. Composed 
for orchestra. 

Mignard (Min-yar), Alexander. Composer; born War- 
saw, Pol., Aug. 13, 1852. Opera and orchestral composer. 
Lives Moscow, Rus. 

Mikorey, Franz. Composer; born Munich, Ger., Jun. 3, 
1873. Composed the opera King of Samarcand, a concerto, 
etc Lives Dessau, Ger. . 

Millard, Harrison. Composer; born Boston, Nov. 27, 1830; 
died Sept. 10, 1895. Composed church music, etc 

Millet, Luis. Conductor, composer; born Barcelona, Spain, 
, Apr. 18, 1867. Orchestral composer. Lives Barcelona. 

Milligen^ Simon van. Composer, music critic; born Rot- 
terdam, Hoi., 1849. Opera composer, Brinio, etc. Lives 
Amsterdam, Hoi. 

Mills, Sebastian B. Pianist, teacher; born Cirencester, 
Eng., Mar. 13, 1838 ; died Wiesbaden, Ger., Dec. 21, 1898. 
Active as teacher in New York for a number of years. 

Mincus, Ludwig. Violinist, composer; born Vienna, 1827. 
Ballet composer, partly with Delibes. Lived at Petrograd. 

Missa, Edmond Jean Louis. Composer; born Rheims, 
France, Jun. 12, 1861. Opera composer. Lives Paris. 

Ml3marski (Mlin-ars-ki), Emil. Conductor, composer; 
born Wirballen, Pol., Jul. 18, 1870. Composed violin works. 
Lives Kovno, Pol. 


Mohr. (1) Hermann. Composer, teacher; born. Nien- 
stadt, Ger., Oct 9, 1830; died Philadelphia, May 26, 1896. 
Composed choruses for men's voices, chamber works, etc. 
(2) Adolf. Composer; born Munich, Ger., Sept. 23, 1841. 
Composed operas. Die Lorelei, etc. 

Molique (Mo-leek), Wilhelm Bernhard. Violinist, com- 
poser; born Nuremberg, Ger., Oct. 7, 1802; died Kannstatt, 
Ger., May 10, 1869. Wrote violin concertos, string quar- 
tets, a symphony, masses, and an oratorio, Abraham. 

MoUenhauer, Emil. Violinist, conductor; born Brooklyn, 
N. Y., Sept 4, 1855. Conductor Handel and Haydn Society, 

MoUoy, James Lyman. Composer; born Cornlore, Ire., 
1837; died Wooleys, Eng., Feb. 4, 1909. A popular song 

Moniuszko, Stanislaus. Composer; born Ubil, Rus., May 
5, 1820; died Warsaw, Pol., Jun. 4, 1872. Prolific composer 
of operas, cantatas, etc. 

Monsigny {Mong-seen-ye), Pierre Alexandre. Composer; 
born Fauquembergue, France, Oct. 17, 1729 ; died Paris, Jan. 
14, 1817. Wrote operas and ballets. 

Montemezzi {Mon-te-met-zee), Italo. Composer; born 
Verona, Italy, 1875. Composed the operas Gallurese, Hel- 
lera, The Love of Three Kings, and La Princesse Lointaine. 

Monteverde {Mon-te-vair-de), Claudio. Composer; born 
Cremona, Italy (baptized May 18), 1567; died Venice, Nov. 
29, 1643. Inventor of the free style of composition and 
pioneer in the path that led to the modern opera. He was 
the first to use unprepared dissonances. His improvement 
of the orchestra gained for him the title of "the father of 
instrumentation." His innovations were successfully em- 
ployed in his operas Ariana and Orfeo and in later works. 
He wrote much sacred music the greater part of which is 
lost. His influence on other composers of his own day was 
marked and the results of his work have been lasting. 


Mo6r, Emanuel. Composer; born Hungary about 1862. 
Composed orchestral and chamber music. 

Moore, Thomas. Composer; born Dublin, Ire., May 28, 
1779; died Devizes, Eng., Feb. 25, 1852. Wrote some of 
the airs in his Irish Melodies, the Canadian Boat Song, the 
pretty little three-part glee, The Watchman, etc. 

Morales^ Olallo. Composer, conductor; born Almeria, 
Spain, Oct. 13, 1874. Composed orchestral works. Con- 
servatory, Stockholm, Swed. 

Morgan. (1) George Washboume. Organist; born 
Gloucester, Eng., Apr. 9, 1822; died Tacoma, Wash., 
Jul., 1892. Prominent in New York for many years. 
(2) John Paul. Organist; born Oberlin, O., Feb. 13, 
1841; died Oakland, CaL, Jan., 1879. Composed sacred 
works. (3) Maud. Harpist; born New York, Nov. 22, 
1864. Daughter of G. W. Lives New York. 

Morlacchi (Mor-lah-kee), Francesco. Composer; born 
Perugia, Italy, Jun. 16, 1784; died Innsbruck, Aus., Oct. 28, 
1841. Composed operas, oratorios, etc., of unusual interest 

Morley, Thomas, Composer; born London, 1557 (1558); 
died there about 1602. Did much for the development of 
vocal music in England. 

Momingtony Garret Wellesley, Lord. Composer; bom 
Dangan, Ire., July 19, 1735; died London, May 22, 1781. 
Wrote church music, glees, madrigals, etc. Father of the 
Duke of Wellington. 

Morse, Charles Henry. Organist, teacher; born Brad- 
ford, Mass., Jan. 5, 1853. Professor of Music, Dartmouth 
College, for a number of years. 

Mortelmans, Lodewik. Composer; born Antwerp, Bel., 
Feb. 5, 1868. Composed a Germania symphony, etc. 

Moscheles (Mosh-e-les) , Ignaz. Pianist, composer; born 
Prague, Boh., May 30, 1794; died Leipzig, Ger., Mar. 10, 
1870. A pupil of Albrechtsberger and Salieri. Made suc- 
cessful tours on the Continent, and from 1821 to 1846 lived 
in London where he won his greatest fame. His numerous 


compositions include a variety of instrumental works 
among which are many valuable studies. 

Mosenthal (Mo-sen-tahl), Joseph. Organist, composer; 
born Kassel, Ger., Nov. 30, 1834; died New York, Jan. 6, 
1896. Composed church music. 

Moszkowski (Mosh-kof'ski)^ Moritz. Pianist, composer; 
bom Breslau, Ger., Aug. 23, 1854. Among his works are a 
symphonic poem Jeanne d'Arc, an opera Boabdil, piano 
compositions, songs, etc. Lives Paris. 

Mottl, Felix. Conductor; born Unter-St. Veit, Aus., Aug. 
24, 1856; died Munich, Ger., Jul. 3, 1911. 

Mouton (Moo-tong), Jean. Contrapuntal composer, early 
sixteenth century. 

Mozart (Mo-tsart). (1) Leopold. Composer, violinist; 
born Augsburg, Aus., Nov. 14, 1719; died Salzburg, 
Aus., May 28, 1787. Father of Wolfgang Amadeus Mo- 
zart. Wrote church music, oratorios, and operas. He 
also wrote a Violin School which went through many 
editions in various languages. (2) Maria Anna. Pian- 
ist; born Salzburg, Aus., Jul. 30, 1751; died there, Oct. 
29, 1829. Daughter of Leopold Mozart. With her 
brother she was taken on tour through Europe as a 
musical prodigy. • (3) Wolfgang Amadeus. Composer, 
pianist; born Salzburg, Aus., Jan. 27, 1756; died Vienna, 
Dec. 5, 1791. In 1768 was commissioned by the Emperor 
Joseph II to write a comic opera, La Finta Semplice, 
Wrote Idomeneo in 1781, Die Entfiihrung aus detn Serail 
in 1782, and in 1786 Figaro, the intervening years witness- 
ing the production of many piano concertos, sonatas, quar- 
tets, etc. During the five years between 1786 and his death 
Mozart poured out a marvellous flood of masterpieces, Don 
Giovanni, Magic Flute, Cosi fan tutte, Cletne.^za di Tito; 
the three great symphonies in E flat major, G minor, and 
C major (Jupiter, the Requiem), and a great body of' music 
of all kinds. During his life of thirty-six years Mozart is 
known to have written at least 626 works, among which are 
22 masses, 17 organ sonatas, 40 offertories, 10 cantatas, 23 


. operas, 22 sonatas for the piano, 45 sonatas for the piano 
and violin, 49 symphonies, and 55 concertos, besides quar- 
tets, trios, songs, etc. All this was accomplished by a 
busy teacher and virtuoso. 

Mraczek (Mrat-chek)^ Joseph Gustav. Composer; born 

Briinn, Aus., Mar. 12, 1878. Composed the opera The 

Dream, the symphonic poem Max und Moritz, etc. Lives 

Muck (Mook)f Karl. Conductor; born Darmstadt, Ger., 
Oct. 22, 1859, Conductor Boston Symphony Orchestra for 
a number of years. 

Mugellini (Moo-jel-lee-nee), Bruno. Pianist, composer; 
bom Piacenza, Italy, Pec. 24, 1871 ; died Bologna, Italy, 
Jan. 15, 1912. Orchestral and chamber music composer. 

Miiller (Mil-ler), (1) Carl C. Composer, teacher; born 
Meiningen, Ger., Jul. 3, 1831; died New York, Jun. 4, 
1914. (2) Karl Wilhelm Ernst. Organist, composer; 
born Leipzig, Ger., Aug. 2, 1866. Composed principally 
vocal works. 

Muris, Jean de. Writer on music in early fourteenth 
century. Lived in Paris. 

Murska (Moorska), lima de. Soprano; born Croatia, Aus.» 
1836; died Munich, Ger., Jan. 16, 1889. Opera singer. 

Mussorgsky (Moussorgsky), Modest. Composer; born 
Karev, Rus., Mar. 28, 1839; died Petrograd, Mar. 28, 1881. 
Composed orchestral works, piano pieces, songs, the opera 
Boris Godunov, and Khovantschina, etc., all marked by 
crude strength. With Balakirev, Borodin, Cui, and Rimsky- 
Korsakov he helped to create a national Russian school. 

Mysliweczek (Mis-leh-veh-chek) y Josef. Composer; born 
near Prague, Boh., Mar. 9, 1737; died Rome, Feb. 4, 1781. 
Wrote orchestra and chamber music. 


Nachez, Tivadar. Composer, violinist; born Pesth, Hun., 
May 1, 1859. Lives London. 


NUgeli (Nay-gel-lee) f Johann Georg. Composer, writer; 
born near Zurich, Switz., May 27, 1773 ; died there, Dec. 26, 

Nanini {Na-nee-nee), GiovannL Composer; born Val- 
lerano, Italy, about 1540; died Rome, Mar. 11, 1607. 

Napravnik, Eduard. Composer, conductor; born Bejst, 
Boh., Aug. 24, 1839. Composed operas, overtures, chamber 
• works, etc. Lives Petrograd. 

Nardini (Nar-dee-nee), Pietro. Violinist, composer; born 
Fibiana, Italy, 1722; died Florence, Italy, May 7, 1793. 

Naumann (Nou^man), Emil. Writer, historian; born Ber- 
lin, Sept 8, 1827 ; died Dresden, Ger., Jun. 23, 1888. Wrote 
a History of Music. 

Navratil (Nazz-rah-teel) , KarL Composer; bom Prague, 
. Boll., Apr. 24, 1867 ; died Vienna, Apr. 6, 1914. Composed a 
symphony, piano and violin concertos, symphonic poems, the 
opera Salammbo, etc. 

Nebelong (Nay-be-long) ^ Johann Hendiik. Organist, 
composer; born Copenhagen, Den., Nov. 9, 1847. Virtuoso 
player. Lives Copenhagen. 

Nedbal, Oskar. Violinist, conductor, composer; born 
Tabor, Boh., Mar. 26, 1874. Composed orchestral works. 
Lives Vienna. 

Neefe (Nay-feh), Christian Gottlob. Organist; born 
Chemnitz, Ger., Feb. 5, 1748; died Dessau, Ger., Jan. 26, 
1798. Teacher of Beethoven. 

Neff, Fritz. Composer; born Durlach, Ger., Nov. 20, 1873; 
died Munich, Oct. 3, 1904. Composed for chorus and or- 

Neidlinger (Nide-ling-er) , William H. Organist, teacher 
of singing, composer; born Brooklyn, N. Y., Jul. 20, 1863. 
Composed songs, cantatas, church music. Lives East 
Orange, N. J. 

Neitzel (Nite-sel), Otto. Composer, author; born Falkcn- 
berg, Ger., July 6, 1852. Composed operas and instrumental 
pieces. Lives Cologne, Ger. 


Ncri (Nay-ree), Filippo. Composer; born Florence, Italy, 
Juf. 21, 1515; died Rome, May 26, 1595. A priest in whose 
oratory the sacred music developed into oratorio. 

Neruda, Wilma, known as Normann-Neruda. Violinist; 
born Brtinn, Aus., Mar. 29, 1839; died Berlin, Apr. 15, 1911. 
In 1864 married Ludwig Normann. In 1888 married Sir 
Charles Halle. Made many concert tours throughout 
Europe, and visited Australia and the United States (1889). 

Nessler, Victor. Composer; born Baldenheim, Alsace, 
Jan. 28, 1841 ; died Strassburg, Alsace, May 28, 1890. Among 
his operas are The Ratcatcher of Hameln, The Trumpeter 
of Sdkkingen, the latter a great favorite. 

Nestler, Julius. Composer; born Grumbach, Ger., Dec. 3, 
1851. Composed sacred works, etc. Lives Leipzig, ^Ger. 

Nesvera, Joseph. Composer; born Proskoles, Boh., Oct. 
24, 1842. Composed symphonies, suites, and many smaller 

Neuendorff (Noy-en-dorf), Adolf. Conductor; born Ham- 
burg, Ger., Jun. 13, 1843 ; died New York, Dec. 4, 1897. 

Neukomm (Noy-kom), Sigismund. Composer; born Salz- 
burg, Aus., Jun. 10, 1778; died Paris, Apr. 3, 1858. A pupil 
of Haydn. His compositions number several hundred and 
include the oratorios Mount Sinai and David. 

Neupert (Noy-pert), Edmund. Pianist, composer; born 
Christiania, Nor., Apr. 1, 1842; died New York, Jun. 22, 
1888. Wrote excellent etudes and concert pieces. 

Neuville (Nuh-vil), Valentin. Composer; born Rexpoede, 
Bel., 1863. Composed symphonies, chamber music, and sev- 
eral operas. Lives Lyons, France. 

Nevada (really Wixom), Emma. Soprano; born near 
Nevada City, Cal., 1862. Successful opera singer in U. S. 
and Europe. 

Neve (Na-veh), Paul de. Composer; born Steglitz, Ger., 
Jan. 24, 1881. Composed the operas Harold and Inge, 
Lives Berlin. 


Nevin. (1) Arthur Pmley. Composer; born Edgewater, 
Pa., Apr. 27, 1871. Composed the opera Poia, on an In- 
dian subject, suites, etc. Brother of (2). <2) Ethelbert. 
Composer; born Edge worth, Pa., Nov. 25, 1862; died 
New Haven, Conn., Feb. 17, 1901. Studied in this 
country and in Europe. His piano pieces and songs 
show much originality and fine artistic taste. (3) George 
Balch. Composer; born Shippensburg, Pa., Mar. 15, 
1859. Composed sacred and secular vocal music. Lives 
Easton, Pa. 

Newman, Ernest. Writer; born Liverpool, Eng., Nov. 
30, 1869. Lives Birmingham, Eng. 

Nicholl, Horace Wadham. Organist, composer; born Tip- 
ton, Eng., Mar. 17, 1848. Composed symphonies, a suite, 
symphonic poems, fantasias, organ music, etc. 

Nicod6 (Nee-ko-day), Jean Louis. Pianist, composer; 
born Jerczik, Ger., Aug. 12, 1853. Known by his symphonic 
poems, often with voices. 

Nicolai, Otto. Composer; born Konigsberg, Ger., Jun. 9^ 
1810; died Berlin, Apr. 11, 1849. Wrote church music and 
operas. Survives as the composer of The Merry Wives of 

Nicolau, Antonio. Conductor, composer; born' Barcelona, 
Spain, Jun. 8, 1858. Opera and orchestral composer. Bar- 
celona Conservatory. 

Nicole, Louis. Composer; born Geneva, Switz., Feb. 25, 
1863. Composed a symphonic poem, etc. Lives London. 

Nicolini (Nik-o-lee-nee) , Ernest. Tenor; born St. Malo, 
France, Feb. 23, 1834; died Pau, France, Jfan. 19, 1898. 

Niecks (Neeks), Frederick. Writer; born Dtisseldorf, 
Ger., Mar. 3, 1845. Dean of the faculty of music in Edin- 
burgh University. His works include a Dictionary of Musi" 
cal Terms, a History of Programme Music, 3Lnd. Chopin as 
Man and Musician. Lives at Edinburgh. 

Ni6dermeyer (Nee-ay-der-may-er), Louis. Composer, 
teacher; born Nyon, Switz., Apr. 27, 1802; died Paris, Mar. 
13^ 1861. Founded a school of music at Paris. 


Nielsen (N eel-sen), (1) Carl. Composer; born Norre- 
Lyndelse, Den., Jun. 9, 1864. Notable composer of 
symphonies. Lives Copenhagen, Den. (2) Ludolf. 
Composer ; born Norre-Tvede, Zealand, Jan. 29, 1876. Com- 
posed the opera Mascarade, Lives Copenhagen, Den. 

Nikisch, Arthur. Conductor; born Szent Miklos, Hun., 
Oct. 12, 1855. Lives Leipzig, Ger. 

Nilsson, Christine. Soprano; born near Wexio, Swed., 
Aug. 20, 1843. Played the violin and the flute at fairs and 
markets. Made her first appearance in opera as Violetta 
in Verdi's Traviata in 1864. Her career was highly suc- 
cessful. Lives Paris. 

Nodermann, Freshen. Composer; born Hjorring, Den., 
Jan. 11, 1867. Composed the opera King Magnus. Lives 
Lund, Swed. 

Nohl, Karl F. L. Writer; born Iserlohn, Ger., Dec. 5, 
1831; died Heidelberg, Ger., Dec. 15, 1885. Wrote a his- 
tory of music and biographical works. 

Nordica, Lillian. Soprano; born Farmington, Me., May 
12, 1859 ; died Batavia, Java, May 10, 1914. Studied at the 
New England Conservatory, Boston. For many years she 
ranked among the leading artists of the world, being espe- 
cially distinguished in Wagnerian roles. 

Nordqvist, Johann Conrad. Conductor; born Venersborg, 
Swed., Apr. 11, 1840. Orchestral composer. 

Nordraak, Rikard. Composer; born Christiania, Nor., Jun. 
12, 1842; died Berlin, Mar. 20, 1876. . Influenced Grieg to- 
ward nationalism; composed songs, incidental music, etc. 

Noren, Heinrich Gottlieb. Violinist, composer; born Graz, 
Aus., Jan. 6, 1861. Orchestral composer. Lives Berlin. 

Norris, Homer A. Organist, composer, theorist; born 
Wayne, Me., Oct. 4, 1860. Author of harmony text-books. 

Noskowski (Nos-koff-ski), Sigismund. Composer; born 
Warsaw, Pol., May 2, 1848 ; died Aug., 1909. Composed 
operas, symphonies, symphonic poems, chamber music, etc. 


Nottebohm, Martin Gustav. Writer; born Ludenscheid, 
Gen, Nov. 12, 1817 ; died Graz, Aus., Oct. 29, 1882. 

Nouguds (Noo-ghes)y Jean. Composer; born Bordeaux, 
France, 1876. Composed operas, Thamyris, Yannha, Quo 
Vadis, etc. Lives Paris. 

Nourrit (Noo-ree)^ Adolphe. Tenor; born Paris, Mar. 3, 
1802; died Naples, Mar. 8, 1839. Famous opera singer. 

Novacek {No-va-chek), Ottokar. Violinist, composer; 
born Fehertemplom, Hun., May 13, 1866 ; died New York, 
Mar. 3, 1900. Composed chamber music, orchestral works, 
etc. • 

Novak, Viteslav. Composer; born Kamenitz, Boh., Dec. 
5, 1870. Orchestral composer. Lives Prague, Boh. 

Novello. (1) Clara A. Soprano; born London, Jun. 10, 
1818; died ftome, 1908. (2) Vincent. Composer; born 
London, Sept. 16, 1781; died Nice, France, Oct. 9, 1861. 
One of the founders of the London Philharmonic Society 
and of the music publishing house of Novello & Co., Lon- 
don (1811). 

Novoviejski {No-vo-vyes-ki), Felix. Composer; born War- 
tenburg, Feb. 7, 1877. Composed symphonies, etc. Lives 
Cracow, Aus. 


Oakeley, Sir Herbert Stanley. Composer, organist; born 
Ealing, Eng., Jul. 20, 1830; died Edinburgh, Scot., Oct. 26, 
1903. Composer to Queen Victoria who knighted him in 
1876. Wrote a cathedral service, anthems, the cantata 
Jubilee Lyric, songs, piano compositions, an organ sonata, 
orchestral music, etc. 

Oberleithner (0-ber-lite-ner) , Max von. Composer; born 
Mahrisch-Schonberg, Boh., Jul. 11, 1868. Composed the 
operas Released, Gitana, Aphrodite, etc. 


Oberthiir (O-ber-teer) , Karl. Harpist; born Munich, Ger., 
Mar. 4, 1819; died London, 1905. 

O'Carolan, Turloch. Singer; born Newtown, Ire., 1670; 
died Alderford, Ire., Mar. 25, 1738. One of the last and 
greatest of the Irish bards. Composed songs, etc. 

Ochs (Ox), (1) Traugott. Pianist, composer; born Al- 
tenfeld, Ger., Oct. 19, 1854. Lives Berlin. (2) Siegfried. 
Conductor, composer; born Frankfort, Ger., Apr. 19, 1858. 
Famous choral conductor. Lives Berlin. 

Odington, Walter. Writer; born England, about 1250; 
died about 1316. Inventor of measured notes. A monk. 

Oelsner (Els-ner), Bruno. Composer; born Neudorf, 
Ger., Jul. 29, 1861. Composed operas, cantatas, songs. 
Lives Darmstadt, Ger. 

Oesten {Ays-ten), Theodor. Pianist, composer; bom Ber- 
lin, Dec 31, 1813; died there. Mar. 16, 1870.' 

Offenbach, Jacques. Composer; born Cologne, Ger., Jun. 
21, 1819; died Paris, Oct. 5, 1880. Wrote a number of ex- 
ceedingly clever comic operas. La Fille du Tambour-Major, 
Orphie aux Enfers, La Belle Helene, etc., and one fine opera 
of serious type, Les Contes d'Hoffmann, 

Okeghem, Jean dc. Composer; born Termonde, Bel., 
about 1430; died Tours, France, 1496. Contrapuntal com- 

Oldberg, Ame. Composer, pianist; born Youngstown, O., 
Jul. 12, 1874. Composed symphonies, overtures, and shorter 
works. Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. 

O'Leary, Arthur. Pianist; born Tralee, Ire., Mar. 15, 1834. 
Olitzka, Rosa. Contralto; born Berlin, Ger., Sept. 6, 1873. 
Opera singer. 

Oliver, Henry Kemble. Composer; born Beverly, Mass., 
Nov. 24, 1800; died Boston, Aug. 10, 1885. Hymn com- 

OUone, Max d*. Composer; born Besangon, France, Jun. 
13, 1875. Composed operas, chamber music, etc. 


Olsen, Ole. Composer, conductor; born Hammerfest, 
Nor., Jul. 5, 1850. Composed a symphony, symphonic poems, 
Asgardsreien, etc., the opera Stig Hvide, an oratorio, etc. 
Lives Stockholm, Swed. 

Ondricek {On-dri-^hek) , Franz. Violinist; born Prague, 
Boh., Apr. 29, 1859. Lives Vienna. 

O'Neill, Norman. Composer; born London^ Mar. 14, 
1875. Orchestral composer. Lives London. 

Onslow, George. Composer; born Clermont-Ferrand, 
France, Jul. 27, 1784; died there, Oct. 3, 1852. Wrote 
operas, symphonies, chamber music, etc. His best work is 
in the latter style. 

Opienski, Heinrich. Composer; born Cracow, Aus., Jan. 
13, 1870. Composed the opera Maria, etc. Lives Warsaw, 

Orefice. See Dell Orefice. 

Omstein, Leo. Pianist, composer; born Krementchouk, 
Rus., Dec. 11, 1895(94). Composed orchestral, chamber, 
and piano music in advanced modern style. Lives New 

Orth {On). (1) John. Pianist, composer; born near 
Annweiler, Ger., Dec. 2, 1850. Lived in U. S. since a 
child. Pupil of Liszt. Lives Boston. (2) Lizette E. 
Composer; died Boston, Aug. 14, 1913. Composed many 
teaching pieces for piano, songs, operettas for children. 
Wife of (1). 

Osborne, George Alexander. Pianist, teather; born Lim- 
erick, Ire., Sept. 24, 1806; died London, Nov. 16, 1893. 

Osgood, George L. Composer, teacher; born Chelsea, 
Mass., Apr. 3, 1844. Composed songs and part-songs. Lives 

Osterzee, Cornelia van. Composer; born Batavia, Java, 
Aug. 16, 1863. Orchestral composer. 

Ostrcil (Ostr-chil), Ottokar. Composer; born Prague, 
Boh., Feb. 25, 1879. Czech opera composer. Lives Prague. 


Otterstroem (Ot'ter-straym) , Thorvald. Composer; born 
Copenhagen, Den., Jul. 17, 1868. Composed chamber music, 
etc. Lives Chicago. 

Otto, Ernst Julius. Composer; born Konigstein, Ger., 
Sept. 1, 1804; died Dresden, Ger., Mar. 5, 1877. 

Ouseley, Sir Frederick Arthur Gore. Organist, composer, 
theorist; born London, Aug. 12, 1825; died Hereford, Eng., 
Apr. 6, 1889. Wrote a large amount of church music, two 
oratorios, Hagar and St, Polycarp, treatises on harmony, 
counterpoint and other subjects. 

Pache, Johannes. Composer; born Bischofswerda, Ger., 
Dec. 9, 1857; died Limbach, Ger., Dec. 24, 1897. Composed 
choruses for men's voices. 

Pachmann, Vladimir de. Pianist; born Odessa, Rus., Jul. 
27, 1848. Great Chopin player. Toured Europe and Amer- 
ica with great sucess. 

Pachulski (Pak-hool-ski) , Henry. Composer; born Lasa, 
Rus., Oct 16, 1859. Orchestral and piano composer. Lives 
Moscow, Rus. 

Pacini (Pah-chee-nee), Giovanni. Composer; born Catania, 
Italy, Feb. 17, 1796; died Pescia, Italy, Dec. 6, 1867. 

Pacius (Pah'che-oos) y Fredrik. Violinist, composer; born 
Hamburg, Ger., Mar. 19, 1809 ; died Helsingf ors, Fin., Jan. 9, 
1891. Composed operas, choruses, etc. 

Paderewski, Ignaz Jan. Pianist, composer; born Kuri- 
lowka, Pol., Nov. 18, 1860. One of the g^rcatest pianists 
that the world has seen. His compositions are chiefly for 
the piano, except his opera Manru and a concerto. First 
prime minister of the Polish republic. 

Paer (Pah-air), Ferdinando. Composer; born Parma, 
Italy, Jun. 1, 1771; died Paris, May 3, 1839. Composed 


forty-three operas. Was court composer to Napoleon 
(1807) and director of the Italian opera in Paris, 1812-1827. 

Paganini, Nicolo. Violinist, composer; born Genoa, Italy, 
Oct 27, 1782; died Nice, France, May 27, 1840. In 1828 
he made a concert tour through Europe everywhere cre- 
ating an unparalleled impression. His immense command 
of the resources of his instrument, combined with a very 
remarkable appearance and manner and an inherent love 
of secrecy and mystery, caused many to regard him as a 
species of goblin or demon, and books might be filled with 
the uncanny traditions which have gathered round the 
memory of this wonderful man. He left a number of com- 
positions for the violin, full of tremendous technical difir 

Page, Nathaniel ClifiFord. Composer; born San Francisco, 
Cal., Oct. 26, 1866. Composed incidental music, songs, etc. 
Lives New York. 

Paine, John Knowles. Organist, composer; born Port- 
land, Me., Jan. 9, 1839; died Cambridge, Mass., Apr. 25, 
1906. Distinguished American musician. Studied in Berlin, 
gave organ concerts there and in American citits, and was 
organist of the West Church, Boston. In 1862 he became 
teacher of music at Harvard and organist of Appleton 
Chapel there. Among his works are the oratorios St Peter, 
cantatas, a mass, two symphonies, two symphonic poems, 
overtures, music to Oedipus, chamber music, organ and 
piano pieces, and songs. 

Paisiello (Pah-ees-yello) , Giovanni Composer; born Ta- 
ranto, Italy, May 9, 1741; died Naples, Italy, Jun. 3, 1816. 
Composed operas for Naples and Petrograd. 

Paladilhe {Pal-a-dee-ye) , Emile. Composer; born Mont- 
pellier, France, Jun. 3, 1844. Composed operas and or- 
chestral works. Lives Paris. 

Palestrina (Pal-es-tree-na) , Giovanni Pierluigi da. Com- 
poser; born Palestrina, Italy, 1526; died Rome, Feb. 2, 
1594. Was a singer in the Pontifical Chapel in the time of 
Pope Julius III and afterward became composer to the 


chapel. From 1571 until his death he was chapel master 
of St. Peter's. He is held in reverence as one of the 
greatest masters in the old contrapuntal style. He has 
been called "Prince of Music." Many of his severely grand 
church compositions are still performed in Rome. 

Palmer, Horatio R. Composer, conductor; born Sher- 
burne, N. Y., Apr. 26, 1834 ; died Nov., 1907. 

Palmgren, Selim. Pianist, composer; born Bjorneborg, 
Fin., Feb. 16, 1878. Piano and song composer. Lives Hel- 
singfors. Fin. 

Pals, Leopold van der. Composer; born Petrograd, Jul. 5, 
1884. Composed for orchestra, chamber music, and violin. 

Panizza (Pah-nit-za), Ettore. Composer, conductor; born 
Buenos Ayres, Argen., Aug. 12, 1875. Opera composer, Au- 
rora, etc Lives London. 

Panofka, H. Teacher of singing, composer; born Breslau, 
Gcr., Oct. 3, 1807 ; died Florence, Italy, Nov. 18^ 1887. Com- 
posed for voice and violin. 

Panseron, A. Teacher of singing, composer; bom Paris, 
Apr. 26, 1796 ; died there, Jul. 29, 1859. Wrote vocal studies. 

Panzner, Karl. Conductor; born Teplitz, Boh., Mar. 2, 
1866. Lives Dtisseldorf, Ger. 

Papini, Guido. Violinist; born Camagiore, Italy, Aug. 1, 
1847; died London, Oct 3, 191Z 

Papperitz, Benjamin Robert. Organist, composer; born 
Pirna, Ger., Dec. 4, 1826; died Leipzig, Ger., Sept 29, 1903. 
Composed for organ and choir. 

Paque {Pahk), De8ir6. Pianist, teacher; born Liege, Bel., 
May 21, 1867. Composed symphonies, overtures, chamber 
music, the opera Vaima, etc. Lives Geneva, Switz. 

Paradis, Maria Teresa von. Composer; born Vienna, May 
15, 1759; died there, Feb. 1, 1824. Pianist and opera com- 
poser, although blind from her fifth year. 

Paradisi (Paradies), Pietro Domenico. Composer; born 
Naples, Italy, 1710; died Venice, Italy, 1792. 


Parepa-Rosa, Euphrossme. Soprano; born Edinburgh, 
Scot, May 7, 1836; died London, Jan. 21, 1874. Her voice 
was remarkable for strength and sympathetic quality. Its 
compass was two aiid one-half octaves. She married Carl 

Paiish-Alvars, Elias. Harpist, composer; born Teign- 
mouth, Eng., Feb. 28, 1810; died Vienna, Jan. 25, 1849. 

Parker. (1) Horatio. Composer; bom Auburndale, Mass., 
Sept. 15, 1863; died Dec. 18, 1919. Studied under Chad- 
wide, and afterward at Munich. In 1894 he became 
professor of music at Yale University. His works 
include the fine oratorio Hora Novissima, cantatas, 
choruses, orchestral music, anthems, songs. His opera 
Mono, on a poetic subject of early Britain, was pro- 
duced in New York. (2) James C. D. Organist, 
teacher, composer; born Boston, Jun. 2, 1828; died Brook- 
line, Mass., Nov. 27, 1916. Wrote several cantatas. 

Parlow, Kathleen. Violimst; born Calgary, Alberta, 1890. 
Pupil of Auer. Distinguished virtuoso. 

Parratty Sir Walter. Organist, composer; born Hudders- 
field, Eng., Peb. 10, 1841. Chief professor of the organ at 
the Royal College of Music, London. 

Parry. (1) Sir Charles Hubert Hastings. Composer; 
born Bournemouth, Eng., Feb. 27, 1848. His works 
include an overture, Guillcm de Cabestanh, a piano con- 
certo, the choral works Judith, Scenes from "Prometheus 
Unbound," Blest Pair of Sirens, etc.; also symphonies, 
chamber music, songs, and piano pieces. He has also 
made several important contributions to musical lit- 
erature. Evolution of the Art of Music, etc. Became di- 
rector of the Royal College of Music in 1894, and was 
knighted in 1898. Lives Worthing, Eng. (2) Joseph. 
Composer; born Merthyr-Tydvil, Wales, May 21, 1841. 
Son of a laborer. Won a distinguished place among mu- 
sicians by his compositions, operas, cantatas, overtures, etc. 

Parsons, Albert Ross. Teacher, pianist; born Sandusky, 
O., Sept. 16, 1847. Author of books on piano pbying. 
Lives New York. 


Pasch, Oskar. Organist, composer; born Frankfort, Ger., 
Mar. 28, 1844. Composed a symphony, etc. Lives Berlin. 

Pascucci (Pas-coot-chee) , Giovanni. Composer; born 
Rome, Feb. 28, 1841. Operetta composer. Lives Rome. 

Pasdeloup (Pah-de-loo), Jules Etienne. Conductor; born 
Paris, Sept. 15, 1819; died Fontainebleau, France, Aug. 13, 

Pasmore, Henry Bickford. Organist, composer, teacher; 
born Jackson, Wis., Jun. 27, 1857. Composed a march, 
overture, masses, songs, etc. Lives San Francisco, Cal. 

Pasta, Giuditta. Soprano; born Saronno, Italy, Apr. 9, 
1798; died Lake Como, Italy, Apr. 1, 1865. 

Patcy, Janet Whytock. Contralto; born London, May 1, 
1842; died Sheffield, Eng., Feb. 28, 1894. Oratorio and 
concert singer. 

Paton, Mary Anne. Soprano; born Edinburgh, Scot., Oct> 
1802; died Chapelthorpe, Eng., Jul. 21, 1864. Appeared in 
the first productions of Weber's Freischutz and Oberon. 
Married Lord William Pitt Lenox, and afterward Joseph 
Wood, a tenor. 

Patti (Pah-tee). (1) Adelina. Soprano; born Madrid, 
Spain, Feb. 10, 1843. Daughter of Salvatore Patti, an 
Italian tenor. When very young came to U. S. with 
her parents. Appeared in New York in Lucia di Lam- 
mermoor with great success, and from that time went on 
for many years steadily increasing her reputation. Lives 
Craig-y-Nos, Wales. (2) Carlotta. Soprano; born 
Florence, Italy, 1840; died Paris, June 27, 1889. Coloratura 

Pattison, John Nelson. Composer, pianist; born Niagara 
Falls, N. Y., Oct 22, 1845; died July, 1905. Composed 
Niagara symphony for orchestra and band, and many piano 

Pauer (Pom-er). (1) Ernst. Pianist, teacher, writer; born 
Vienna, Dec. 21; 1826; died Jugenheim, May 9, 1905. 


A pupil of Dirzka and W. A. Mozart, Jr., for piano, 
and of Lachner for composition. From 1852 resided in 
London.. Edited the works of classical composers, wrote 
books on musical subjects, and composed operas, piano 
pieces, etc. (2) Max. Pianist; born London, Oct. 31, 
1866. Director Stuttgart, Ger., Conservatory. 

Paur {Povdt), Emil. Conductor; born Czernowitz, Aus., 
Aug. 29, 1855. Lives Berlin. 

Peace, Albert Lister. Organist; born Huddersfield, Eng., 
Jan. 26, 1844; died Mar. 14, 1912. City organist, Liverpool, 

Pearce, Charles William. Organist, composer; born Sal- 
isbury, Eng., Dec. 5, 1856. Lives London. 

Pearsall, Robert Lucas de. Composer; born Clifton, Eng., 
Mar. 14, 1795; died Lake Constance, Aug. 5, 1856. Wrote 
a number of well-known madrigals and part-songs. 

Pease, Alfred H. Pianist, composer; born Cleveland, O., 
May 6, 1838 ; died St. Louis, Mo., Jul. 13, 1882. Wrote songs 
and piano pieces. 

Pedrelly Felipe. Composer; born Tortosa, Spain, Feb. 19, 
184L Wrote a number of historical works. Spanish opera 
and orchestral composer. Royal Conservatory, Madrid. 

Pedrotti, Carlo. Composer; born Verona, Italy, Nov. 12, 
1817; died there, Oct. 16, 1893. Opera composer. 

Pembaur. (1) Joseph. Composer; burn Innsbruck, Aus., 
May 23, 1848. Song and orchestral composer. Lives 
Innsbruck. (2) Joseph, Jr. Pianist; born Innsbruck, 
Aus., Apr. 20, 1875. Lives Leipzig, Ger. (3) Karl. 
Organist, conductor; born Innsbruck, Aus., Aug. 24, 1876. 
Composed a mass. Lives Dresden, Ger. 

Penfield, Smith Newell. Organist, teachet, composer; 
born, Oberlin, O., Apr. 4, 1837; died New York, Jan. 7, 
1920. Composed a string quintet, piano pieces, songs. 

Peppercorn, Gertrude. Pianist; born West Horsley, Eng., 
Dec. 1, 1878. Pupil of Matthay 


Pepusch, Johann Christoph. Organist, composer; born 
Berlin, 1667 ; died London, July 20, 1752. 

Perabo, Ernst. Pianist, teacher; born Wiesbaden, Ger., 
Nov. 14, 1845. Lives Boston. 

Perfall, Karl, Freiherr von. Composer; born Munich, 
Ger., Jan. 29, 1824; died there, Jan. 15, 1907. Opera com- 

Perger, Richard von. Composer; born Vienna, Jan. 10, 
1854; died there, Jan. 11, 1911. Composed operas apd cham- 
ber music. 

Pergolesi (Per-go-lay-zee), Giovanni Battista. Composer; 
bom Jesi, Italy, Jan. 3, 1710; died Pozzuoli, Italy, Mar. 16, 
1836. A student of Naples Conservatory. Wrote operas 
and church music. His best work is a Stabat MQter com- 
pleted a few days before his death. 

Peri (Pay-ree), Jacopo. Composer, singer, lutenist; born 
Florence, Italy, Aug. 20, 1561 ; died there about 1630. Of 
noble birth. Composed Dafne, the first real opera, and 
Euridice, thereby furnishing models for a new style of stage 

Perkins. (1) Charles C. Author; born Boskm, Mar. 1, 
1823; died Windsor, Vt., 1886. First president of the 
Handel and Haydn Society, Boston. (2) Henry South- 
wick. Teacher, composer; born Stockbridge, Vt., Mar. 
20, 1833; died Chicago, Jan. 20, 1914. Wrote sacred and 
secular choruses. 

Perosi (Pa-ro-see). (1) Lorenzo. Composer; born Tor- 
tona, Italy, Dec. 20, 1872. Composed many oratorios 
and the opera Romeo and Juliet Director Sistine Chapel, 
Rome. (2) Marziano. Composer; born Italy, 1875. 
Composed the opera Last Days of Pompeii Brother of (1). 

Perry, Edward Baxter. Pianist; born Haverhill, Mass., 
Feb. 14, 1855. Specializes in lecture recitals. Blind. 

Peschka-Leutner (Loit-ner), Minna. Soprano; born 
Vienna, Oct. 25, 1839; died Wiesbaden, Ger.. Jan. 12, 1890. 

Eminent in opera and concert. 


Pessard (Pes-sar), Emile Louis. Composer; born Paris, 
May 28, 1843. Composed operas, chamber music, songs. 
Lives St. Denis, France. 

Peters (Pay-ters), Guide. Pianist, composer; born Graz, 
Aus., Nov. 29, 1866. Lives Vienna. 

Petersilea (Pay-ter-sil-e-a) , Carlyle. Pianist, teacher; born 
Boston, Jan. 18, 1844; died Tropico, Cal., Jun. 11, 1903. 

Peterson-Berger (Pay-ter-son Bair-gery^ Wilhelm. Com- 
poser, conductor; born Ullangar, Swed., Feb. 27, 1867. 
Composed operas. Ran, etc. 

Petrucci (Pe-troo-chee), of Fossombrone. Invented print- 
ing music from movable type in Italy about 1500. 

Petschnikov, Alexander. Violinist; born Jeletz, Rus., Feb. 
8, 1873. Lives Munich, Ger. 

Pfeiffer (P fay-fair). (1) Georges Jean. Pianist; born 
Versailles, France, Dec. 12, 1835; died Paris, Feb. 14, 1908. 
Composed symphonies, chamber music, etc. PfeifiEer 
(Pfy-fer), (2) Theodor. Pianist, teacher; born Heidel- 
berg, Ger., Oct 20, 1853. Author of educational works. 

Pfitzner, Hans. Composer; born Moscow, May 5, 1869. 
Opera composer, Der arme Heinrich, Die Rose vom Liebes- 
garten, etc. Lives Strassburg, Alsace. 

Pfohl, Ferdinand. . Writer, composer; born Elbogen, Boh., 
Oct 12, 1863. Composed symphonic poems, etc., wrote 
opera guides. Lives Hamburg, Ger. 

Phelps, Ellsworth C. Organist, composer; born Middle- 
town, Conn., Aug. 11, 1827. Composed a Hiawatha sym- 
phony, the sacred opera David, piano pieces, songs, etc. 
Lives Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Philidor (really Danican), Frangois. Composer; born 
Dreux, France, Sept 7, 1726; died London, Aug. 31, 1795. 
Composed many operas. 

Philipp, Isidor. Pianist, teacher, composer; born Buda- 
Pcsth, Hun., Sept 2, 1863. Author of valuable technical 
studies for the piano. Paris Conservatory. 


Phillips, Adelaide. Contralto ; born Stratf ord-on-Avon, Eng^ 
1833; died Carlsbad, Ger., Oct. 3, 1882. 

Piatti, Alfredo. 'Cellist; born Bergamo, Italy, Jan. 8, 1822; 
died near there, Jul. 19, 1901. Composed for 'cello. 

Piccinni {Pit-chee-nee), Niccolo. Composer; born Bari, 
Italy, Jan. 16, 1728; died Passy, France, May 7, 1800. 
Gluck's rival in Paris. A composer of recognized talent, 
but less important on account of his operas, of which he 
wrote a great number, than by reason of the controversies 
in which he figured — especially that in which he was de- 
feated by Gluck whose methods triumphed over those of 
his Italian rival. 

Piem6 (Pyair-nay), Henri Constant Gabriel. Composer; 
born Metz, Alsace, Aug. 16, 1863. Composed the oratorios 
St, Francis of Assisi, The Children's Crusade, etc. Lives 

Pierson, Henry Hugo. Composer; born Oxford, Eng., 
Apr. 12, 1815 ; died Leipzig, Ger., Jan. 28, 1873. Settled in 
Germany. His principal work is the oratorio Jerusalem, 
produced at the Norwich, Eng., Festival of 1852. 

Pinelli, Ettore. Violinist, conductor; born Rome, Oct. 18, 
1843. Lives Rome. 

Pinsiiti, Giro. Composer, teacher of singing; born Sina- 
lunga, Italy, May 9, 1829; died Florence, Italy, Mar. 10, 
1888. Lived in London many years, and wrote popular 
songs in the ballad style. 

Pirani, Eugenic dL Pianist, composer; born Bologna, 
Italy, Sept. 18, 1852. Composed orchestral suites, an opera, 
chamber music, etc, showing German influence. Lives New 

Pitt, Percy. Composer, conductor; born London, Jan. 4, 
1870. Composed symphonic poems, incidental music, an 
Oriental Rhapsody, etc. Royal Opera, Convent Garden, 

Pittrich, George Washington. Conductor, composer; born 
Dresden, Feb. 22, 1870. Composed operas and incidental 
music. Lives Berlin. 


Pitttd, KarL Organist, composer; born Elgersburg, Ger., 
Apr. 30, 1846; died 1902. Composed organ works. 

Pi2zi (Pit-see) f Emilio. Composer; born Verona, Italy, 
Feb. 2, 1862. Composed operas, Gabriella, etc. Lives Ber- 
gamo, Italy. 

Plaidy (Pli-dy), Louis. Pianist, teacher; born Wermsdorf, 
Ger., Nov. 28, 1810; died Grimma, Ger., Mar. 3, 1874. Best 
known for his technical studies for the piano. 

Planquette (Plang-ket), Robert. Composer; born Paris, 
Jul. 31, 1848; died there, Jan. 28, 1903. Wrote a number 
of comic operas. 

Platania, Pietro. Composer; born Catania, Italy, 1828; 
died Naples, 1907. Composed symphonies, etc. 

Plcycl (Pli-el), Ignaz Joseph. Composer born Rupperts- 
^thal, near Vienna, Jun. 1, 1757; died Paris, Nov. 14, 1831. 
Wrote symphonies, chamber music, violin, studies, etc. 

Podbertsky, Theodor. Composer; born Munich, Ger., Nov. 
16, 1846; died there, Oct. 5, 1913. Composed choruses for 
men's voices, etc 

Poenitz (Pay-nits), Franz. Harpist, composer; born 
Bischofswerda, Ger., Aug. 17, 1850. Royal Opera, Berlin. 

Pohlig, Karl. Conductor, composer; born Teplitz, Boh., 
Feb. 10, 1864. Lives Brunswick, Ger. 

Poise (Pwahs), Jean Ferdinand. Composer; born Nimes, 
France, Jun. 3, 1828; died Paris, May 13, 1892. 

Polacco, Giorgio. Conductor, composer; born Venice, 
Italy, Apr. 12, 1875. Metropolitan Opera Co., New York. 

Poldini (Pol-dee-nee), Eduard. Composer; born Buda- 
Pesth, Hun., Jun. 13, 1869. Composed fairy plays, the opera 
Vagabond and Princess, and many attractive piano pieces. 

Pole, William. Writer, theorist; born Birmingham, Eng., , 
Apr. 22, 1814; died London, Dec. 3, 1900. Wrote valuable 
works of a scientific character. 

Polko, Elise. Writer; born near Dresden, Ger., Jan. 13, 
1822; died Munich, Ger., May 15, 1899. 


Polleri (Pol'lay-ree), Giovanni. Organist, composer; 
teacher; bom Genoa, Italy, 1855. Composed masses, piano 
pieces, etc Genoa Conservatory. 

Pollitzer Adolf. Violinist; born Pesth, Hun., 1832; died 
London, 1900. 

Pomasanski, Ivan. Conductor, composer; born Kiev, Rus., 
Apr. 11, 1848. Composed an overture, songs, etc. Lives 

Ponchielli (Pon-ke-el-lee), Amilcare. Composer; born near 
Cremona, Italy, Aug. 31, 1834; died Milan, Italy, Jan. 16, 
1886. Operas, La Gioconda, etc 

Poniatowski (Pon-ya-tof-ski), Prince J. M. F. Tenor, com- 
poser; born Rome, Feb. 20, 1816; died London, Jul. 4, 1873. 
Composed several Italian operas, and songs in English. 

Pontoglio (Pon-tol-yo), Cipriano. Composer; born Grum- 
ello del Piano, Italy, Dec. 25, 1831 ; died Milan, Italy, Feb. 
23, 1892. Composed a number of successful operas. 

PopofiF, Ivan. Composer; born Ekaterinodar, Rus., 1859. 
Composed a symphony, symphonic poems, etc Lives Stav- 
ropol, Rus. 

Popper, David. 'Cellist; born Prague, Boh., Jun. 18, 1846; 
died Aug. 7, 1913. In 1868 became solo 'cellist at the Court 
Opera in Vienna. After 1873 made many concert tours. 
Composed for 'cello. 

Porpora, Niccolo Antonio. Teacher, composer; born Na- 
ples, Italy, Aug. 19, 1686; died there, Feb., 1766. Eminent 
as teacher and conductor. Composed many operas. 

Porter, Frank Addison. Pianist, teacher; born Dixmont, 
Me., Sept. 13, 1859. New England Conservatory, Boston. 

Potter, Philip Cipriani. Pianist, composer; born London, 
Oct. 2, 1792; died there, Sept. 26, 1871. Became principal 
of the Royal Academy of Music in 1832. 

Pottgiesser (Pot-gee-ser) , Karl. Composer, writer; bom 
Dortmund, Ger., Aug. 8, 1861. Opera and oratorio com- 
poser. Lives Munich, Ger. 


Pougin (Poo-zhan), Arthur. Writer, violinist; born Cha- 
teauroux, France, Aug. 6, 1834. Wrote critical, biographical, 
and historical works. Lives Paris. 

Powell. (1) John. Composer, pianist; born Richmond, 
Va., Sept. 6, 1882. Composed for orchestra, chamber 
music, piano. Lives Richmond. (2) Maud. Violinist; 
born Peru, III, Aug. 22, 1868; died Jan. 8, 1920. One of 
the foremost women violinists of her time. Married God- 
frey Turner. 

Praetorius, Michael. Writer; born Kreuzberg, Ger,, Feb. 
15, 1571 ; died Wolfenbuttel, Feb. 15, 1621. Wrote the Syn- 
tagma Musicum, 

Prager (Pray ger), Ferdinand. Teacher; born Leipzig, Ger., 
Jan. 22, 1815; died London, Sept. 1, 1891. 

Pratt. (1) Silas Gamaliel. Pianist, composer; born Addi- 
son, Vt., Aug. 4, 1846; died Pittsburgh, Pa., Dec, 1916. 
Composed symphonies, cantatas, suites, etc., and the 
opera Zenobia, (2) Waldo Selden. Organist, writer; 
born Philadelphia, Nov. 10, 1857. American musical his- 
torian. Author of a History of Music, Hartford, Conn., 
Theological Seminary. 

Prescott, Oliveria Louisa. Composer, writer; born Lon- 
don, Sept. 3, 1842. Lives London. 

Pribik, Joseph. Conductor, composer; born Bohemia, 1853. 
Composed suites, etc. Lives Odessa, Russia. 

Proch (Prokh), Heinrich. Teacher of singing, composer; 
born Bohmisch-Leipa, Boh., Jul. 22, 1809; died Vienna, 
Dec. 18, 1878. Composed effective songs. 

Prochazka, Rudolf Fr.ciherr von. Composer; born Prague, 
Boh., Feb. 23, 1864. Composed operas, songs, chamber 
music, etc. Lives Prague. 

Proksch, Josef. Composer; born Reichenberg, Boh., 1794; 
died Prague, 1864. 

Prout, Ebenezer. Composer, theorist; born. Oundle, Eng., 
Mar. 1, 1835; died London, Dec. 5, 1909. Composed much 


chamber music, an organ concerto, dramatic cantatas, etc., 
but best known by his books on harmony, orchestration, etc. 

Prudent (Proo-dong), Emile. Pianist, composer; born 
Angouleme, France, Apr. 3, 1817; died Paris, May 13, 1863. 
Composed brilliant salon pieces. 

Prume, Francois Hubert. Violinist, composer; born Stave- 
lot, Bel., Jun. 3, 1816; died Liege, Bel., Jul. 14, 1849. 

Puccini {Poot'chee-ne), Giacomo. Composer; born Lucca, 
Italy, Jun. 22, 1858. Has made many successes in Italian 
opera. His operas include Le Villi, Edgar, Manon Lescaut, 
La Boheme, Tosca, Madama Butterfly, and The Girl of the 
Golden West, Lives Torre del Lago, Italy. 

Puchalski (Pu-khal-ski) , Vladimir. Composer; born Minsk, 
Rus., Apr. 2, 1848. Orchestral composer. Kiev, Rus., Con- 

Puchat (Poo-kat), Max. Composer; born Breslau, Ger., 
Jan. 8, 1859. Composed symphonic poems. Breslau, Ger., 

Pugnani (Poon-ya-nee), Gaetano. Violinist, composer; bom 
Turin, Italy, Nov. 27, 1731 ; died there, Jun. 15, 1798. Pupil 
of Tartini. Wrote operas, violin pieces. 

Pugni (Poon-yee), Cesare. Composer; born Milan, Italy, 
1805; died Petrograd, Jan. 26, 1870. Ballet composer. 

Pugno (Poon-yo), Raoul. Pianist, composer; born Mon- 
trouge, France, Jun. 23, 1852; died Moscow, Rus., Jan. 
3, 1914. 

Purcell, Henry. Organist, composer; born Westminster, 
Eng., 1658; died there, Nov. 21, 1695. One of a family 
of musicians. Educated in the Chapel Royal. Afterward 
copyist .and organist of Westminster Abbey. Wrote an- 
thems, etc., while still a choir-boy. Wrote the opera Dido 
and JEneas, the music of Dryden's King Arthur, the operas 
Dioclesian, the Fairy Queen, etc; incidental music to a 
number of plays; songs, sonatas, odes, and church music. 


Pyne. (1) James Kendrick. Tenor; born 1785; died 1857. 
(2) John Kendrick. Organist; born London, Aug. 2U 
1810; died there. Mar. 2(4),. 1893. Son of (1). (3) 
James Kendrick. Organist; born Bath, Eng., Feb. 5, 
1852. Eminent recital organist. (4) Louisa Fanny. 
Soprano^ born London, Aug. 27, 1832; died there, Mar. 
20, 1904. 


Quadflieg, Gerhard. Organist; born near Aix, Ger., Sept. 
27, 1854. Composed masses, motets, etc. Lives Elber- 
feld, Ger. 

Quantz, Johann Joachim. Flutist, composer; born Ober- 
scheden, Ger., Jan. 30, 1697; died Potsdam, Ger., Jul. 12, 
1773. Teacher of Frederick the Great. 

QuUter, Roger. Composer; born Brighton, Eng., Nov. 1, 
1877. Composed an orchestral serenade and many poetic 
songs. Lives London. 


Rabaud {RaH-ho), Henri. Conductor, composer; born 
Paris, Oct. 10, 1873. Contemporary French opera com- 
poser. Conductor Boston Symphony Orchestra, 1918. 

Rachmaninoff, Sergei. Pianist, conductor, composer; born 
Novgorod, Rus., Apr. 2, 1873. As composer he has pro- 
duced some impressive piano preludes — ^the one in C-sharp 
minor best known — also piano concertos and the very strik- 
ing symphonic poem The Isle of the Dead, Lives New York. 

Radecke, Albert Martin. Composer; born Dittmansdorf, 
Ger., Oct. 31, 1830; died Wernigerode, Ger., Jun., 1911. 
Composed symphonies, chamber music, etc. 

Radeglia (Ra-del-ya), Vittorio. Composer; born Constan- 
tinople, 1863. Italian opera composer. 


Radoux (Rah-doo). (1) Jean Th6odore. Composer; born 
Li6ge, Bel., Nov. 9, 1835; died there, Mar. 20, 1911. 
Composed operas, etc. (2) Charles. Composer; born 
Liege, Bel., Jul. 30, 1877. Composed the opera Oudette, 
etc. Son of (1). Lives Liege. 

Raff, Joseph Joachim. Composer; born Lachen, Ger., May 
27, 1822; died Frankfort, Ger., Jun. 25, 1882. Was for 
some years a schoolmaster before devoting himself to 
music. Wrote five symphonies, chief among them the 
Im Walde and Lenore, operas, overtures, chamber music, 
songs, etc. His works often show great melodic beauty 
and harmonic richness. 

Raif (Rife), Oscar. Pianist, teacher; born ZwoUe, Hoi., 
Jul. 31, 1847; died Berlin, Jul. 29, 1899. Eminent teacher. 
Composed a piano concerto. 

Rameau, Jean Philippe. Theorist, composer; born Dijon., 
France, Sept. 25, 1683 ; died Paris, Sept. 12, 1764. An emi- 
nent theorist who did much for the science of modem 
harmony. He composed many operas and ballets. 

Randegger, Alberto. Teacher of singing, composer; born 
Trieste, Italy, Apr. 13, 1832; died London, Dec. 17, 1911. 

Randolph, Harold. Pianist, organist; born Richmond, 
Va., Oct. 31, 1861. Director Peabody Conservatory, 
Baltimore, Md. 

Rappoldi, Edouard. Violinist, teacher; born Vienna, Feb. 
21, 1839; died Dresden, Ger., May 16, 1903. 

Rasse (Rass), Francois. Composer; born Helchin, Bel., 
1873. Composed the opera Deidamia, etc. Lives Brussels, 

Ratez, Emile. Conductor, composer; born Besangon, 
France, Jan. 5, 1851; died Lille, France, 1905. Composed 
operas, concertos, etc. 

Rath (Raht), Felix von. Composer; born Cologne, Ger., 
Jun., 17, 1866; died Munich, Ger., Aug. 25, 1905. Com- 
posed a concerto and small piano pieces. 


Rauchenecker (Rouk-en-eck-er), Georg Wilhelm. Violin- 
ist, composer; born Munich, Ger., Mar. 8, 1844; died Jul. 
17, 1906. Composed operas (Don Quixote), symphonies, 
chamber music. 

Ravel, Maurice. Pianist, composer; born Ciboure, France, 
Mar. 7, 1875. Composed Scheherezade overture, the suite 
La Mere VOye, etc., in modern radical style. Lives Paris. 

Ravenscroft, Thomas. Composer; born London, 1593; 
died there, 1635. 

Ravina (Rah-vee-na), Jean HenrL Pianist, composer; born 
Bordeaux, France, May 20, 1818; died Paris, Sept. 30, 
1906. Wrote piano pieces of a refined musical character. 

Raway, Erasme. Composer; born Liege, Bel., 1850. Com- 
posed operas, symphonic poems, etc. Lives Brussels, 

Reber (Ray-bair), Napoleon Henri. Composer, theorist; 
bom Miihlhausen, Alsace, Oct. 21, 1807; died Paris, Nov. 
24, 1880. Composed symphonies, chamber music, operas, etc. 

Rebicek (Reb-i-chek) , Josef. Violinist, conductor, com- 
poser; born Prague, Boh., Feb. 7, 1844; died Berlin, Mar. 
24, 1904. Conductor Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. 

Rebikoff, Vladimir. Composer; born Krasnojarsk, Sib., 
Jim. 1, 1866. Composed melodramas and other music in 
modern style. 

Reed, William Henry. Conductor, violinist, teacher; born 
Frome, Eng., Jul. 29, 1877. Composed Suite Venetienne, 
Lives Croydon, Eng. 

Reeves, John Sims. Tenor; born Woolwich, Eng., Sept. 
26, 1818; died Worthing, Eng., Oct. 25, 1900. Established 
himself as a leading English vocalist, in opera, oratorio, 
and ballad. In 1896 he successfully toured South Africa. 

Reger (Ray-ger), Max. Composer; born Brand, Ger., Mar. 
19, 1873; died Jena, Ger., May 11, 1916. Composed many 
organ and orchestral works, the best being his orchestral 
Variations and Fugue. Thoroughly modern and somewhat 
complex and ascetic in style. 


Rehberg (Ray-bairg), Willi. Pianist, composer; born 
Merges, Switz., Sept. 2, 1862. Hoch Conservatory, Frank- 
fort, Ger. 

Reicha, Anton Joseph. Theorist, composer; born Prague, 
Boh., Feb. 27, 1770; died Paris, May 28, 1836. 

Reichardt (Rike-hart) . (1) Alexander. Tenor, composer; 
born Packs, Hun., Apr. 17, 1825; died Boulogne, France, 
Mar. 14, 1855. (2) Johann F. Composer, writer; born 
Konigsberg, Ger., Nov. 25, 1752; died near Halle, Ger., 
Jun. 27, 1814. (3) Louise. Composer, teacher of sing- 
ing; born Berlin, 1778; died Hamburg, Ger., Nov. 17, 
1826. Composed excellent sonigs. 

Reichwein, Leopold. Conductor, composer; born Breslau, 
Ger., May 16, 1878. Composed operas and Fausttnusik. 
Royal Opera House, Vienna. 

Reinecke, Carl. Composer, conductor; born Altona, Ger., 
Jun. 23, 1824; died Leipzig, Ger., Mar. 10, 1910. In 1860 
was appointed conductor at the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, and 
teacher at the Conservatory, afterward director. 

Reinhold, Hugo. Composer; born Vienna, Mar. 3, 1854. 
Composed for orchestra, and many attractive piano pieces. 
Lives Vienna. 

Reinken, Johann Adams. Organist, composer; born Wils- 
hausen, Alsace, Apr. 27, 1623; died Hamburg, Ger., Nov. 
24, 1722. 

Reinthaler iRine-tahl-er), Carl Martin. Composer, or- 
ganist; born Erfurt, Ger., Oct 13, 1822; died Bremen, 
Ger., Feb. 13, 1896. 

Reisenauer (Rys-en-ozv-er) , Alfred. Pianist; born Kondgs- 
berg, Ger., Nov. 1, 1863; died Libau, Rus., Oct. 31, 1907. 

Reissiger, Karl Gottlieb. Composer; born near Witten- 
berg, Ger., Jan. 31, 1798; died Dresden, Ger., Nov. 7, 1859. 

Reissmann, August Writer, composer; born Franken- 
stein, Ger., Nov. 14, 1825; died Berlin, Dec. 1, 1903. Or- 
chestral composer. 


Reiter (Ry-ter), Josef. Composer; born Austrian Tyrol, 
Jan. 19, 1862. Composed symphonies, overtures, etc. 

Rellstab, Heinrich F. L. Writer; born Berlin, Apr. 13, 
1799; died there, Nov. 27, 1860. 

Remenyi, Eduard. Violinrst; born Miskolcz, Hun., Jul. 
17, 1830; died San Francisco, Cal., May IS, 1898. One 
of the most noted artists of his time. 

Renaud. (1) Albert. Composer; born Paris, 1855. Or- 
chestral and opera composer. Lives Neuilly, France. 
(2) Maurice. Baritone; born Bordeaux, France, 1862. 
Eminent in opera, and Wagner's dramas in French. 

Rendano, Alfonso. Composer; born Carolei, Italy, Apr. 
5, 1853. Composed operas and piano pieces. 

ReusB (Royse). (1) Eduard. Pianist; born New York, 
1851; died Dresden, Ger., Feb. 18, 1911. Pupil of Liszt, 
and writer about his works. (2) August Composer; 
born Liliendorf, Aus., Mar. 6, 1871. Composed songs, 
chamber music, an opera, and orchestral works, Judith, 
Der Tor und der Tod, etc. 

Reyer (Ray-er), Louis Etienne Ernest. Composer; born 
Marseilles, France, Jan. 1, 1823; died Toulon, France, Jan. 
15, 1909. His works include the operas Salammbo, etc 

Rexnicek (Rezh-ni-chek) , Emil Nikolaus yon. Composer; 
bom Vienna, May 4, 1861. Composed operas. Donna Diana, 
Till Eulenspiegel, etc., overtures, symphonies, suites, and 
the radical symphonic poem, ScMemihl; also chamber music. 
Lives Berlin. 

Rheinberger, Joseph G^ Organist, composer; born Vaduz, 
Ger., Mar. 17, 1839; died Munich, Ger., Nov. 25, 1901. 
Eminent teacher, with many famous American pupils. 

Ricci (Rit-chie). (1) Luigi. Composer; born Naples, 
Italy, Jun. 8, 1805; died Prague, Boh., Dec. 31, 1859. 
(2) Federico. Composer; born Naples, Italy, Oct. 22, 
1809; died Conegliano, Italy, Dec. 10, 1877. Two brothers 
who composed operas, separately, and together; their best 
success was Crispino e Comare, 


Richards, Brinley. Pianist, composer; born Camarthen, 
Wales, Nov. 13, 1817; died London, May 1, 1885. Com- 
posed brilliant salon music. 

Richter. (1) Ernst Friedrich Eduard. Theorist, com- 
poser; born Gross Schonau, Ger., Oct. 24, 1808; died 
Leipzig, Ger., Apr. 9, 1879. After hplding various other 
appointments was made cantor of the Thomasschule at 

Leipzig. Most widely known as a theorist. (2) Hans. 
Conductor; born Raab, Hun., Apr. 4, 1843; died Bayreuth, 
Ger., Pec. 5, 1916. Conducted the famous Richter Concerts 
in London, the Ba3rreuth Festivals, etc. 

Rider- Kelsey, Corinne. Soprano; born Leroy, N. Y., 
1882. Distinguished concert singer. Lives New York. 

Riedel (Ree-del), Furchtegott Ernst August Conductor, 
composer; born Chemnitz, Ger., May 22, 1865. Cantata 
composer. Lives Plauen, Ger. 

Riemann (Ree-tnan), Hugo. Writer, historian; born' Gross- 
mehlra, Ger., Jul. 18, 1849. Most prolific of German writers 
on music. Lives Leipzig, Ger. 

Riemenschneider, Georg. Organist, conductor, composer; 
born Stralsund, Ger., Apr. 1, 1848. Orchestral composer. 
Lived in Breslau, Ger. 

Ries (Rees), Ferdinand. Pianist, composer; born Bonn, 
Ger., Nov. 29, 1784; died Frankfort, Ger., Jan. 13, 1838. 
Pupil of Beethoven. 

Riga (Ree-ga), Francois. Composer; born Liege, BeL. 
Jan. 21, 1831 ; died near Brussels, Bel., Jan. 18, 1892. Com- 
posed music for men's voices, and other choral works. 

Righini (Re-ghee-nee), Vincenzo. Composer, conductor; 
born Bologna, Italy, Jan. 22, 1756; died there, Aug. 19, 
1812. Wrote for the voice. 

Rill6 (Ree-yay), Laurent de. Composer; born Orleans, 
France, 1828. Chorus and operetta composer. 

Rimbault, Edward Francis. Organist, writer; bom Lon- 
don, Jun. 13, 1816; died there, Sept. 26, 1876. 



Rimski-Konakov, Nicolai Andreievitch. Composer; born 
Tikhvin, Rus., May 21, 1844; died Petrograd, Jun. 21, 1908. 
Leading recent Russian composer. Famous for his operas 
The Csa/s Betrothed, The Snow Maiden, May Night, etc, 
and for his suite-symphonies Antar, Scheherezade, etc. 

Rink (Rinck), Johann C. H. Organist, composer; born 
Elgersburg, Ger., Feb. 18, 1770; died Darmstadt, Ger., Aug. 
7, 1846. Author of a famous book of instruction in organ- 

Riseley, George. Organist, conductor; born Bristol, Eng., 
Aug. 28, 1844(45). Conductor of orchestral concerts, and 
advocate of local orchestras. Organist Bristol Cathedral. 

Risler, Eduard. Pianist; born Baden-Baden, Ger., Feb. 
23, 1873. Distinguished Beethoven player. Paris Con- 

Ritter. (i) Alexander. Violinist; born Narva, Rus., Jun. 
27, 1833; died Munich, Ger., Apr. 12, 1896. Composed 
operas and symphonic poems ; influenced Richard Strauss 
toward modernism. (2) Frederic Louis. Tetacher; 
born Strassburg, Alsace, Jun. 22. 1834; died Antwerp, 
Bel., Jul. 22, 1891. Professor of Music, Vassar College. 
(3) Th6odore. Pianist; born Paris, Apr. 5, 1841; died 
there, Apr. 6, 1886. Pupil of Liszt; composed brilliant 
salon music 

Riv6-King. See King. 

Robjm, Alfred G. Organist, composer; born St Louis, 
Mo., Jun. 29, 1860. Composed light operas, songs, etc. 
Lives Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Rochlitz, Johann Friedrich.' Writer; born Leipzig, Ger., 
Feb. 12, 1769; died there, Dec. 16, 1842. 

Rockstro, William Smyth. Writer; born North Cheam, 
Eng., Jan. 5, 1823; died London, Jul. 2, 1895. Taught 
piano and singing and gave lectures. Historian; as author- 
ity on ecclesiastical music had few superiors. 

Rode, Jacques Pierre Joseph. Violinist; born Bordeaux, 
France, Feb. 16, 1774; died near Damazon, France, Nov. 
25, 1830. Known for his fine etudes for the violin. 


Roeckel, Joseph Leopold. Composer; born London, Apr. 
11, 1838; died 1908. Used pseudonym, Edward Dom. Com- 
posed songs, piano pieces. 

Rocder (Ray-der), Martm. Composer, teacher of singing; 
born Berlin, Apr. 7, 1851; died Cambridge, Mass., Jun. 10, 
1895. Composed operas, Vera, etc., symphonic poems, 
smaller works, and songs. 

Roentgen {Rent-ghen), Julias. Pianist, conductor, com- 
poser; born Leipzig, Ger., May 9, 1855. Composed a sym- 
phony, concertos, etc Amsterdam, Hoi., Conservatory. 

Roesel (Raysel), Rudolf. Violinist; born Mtinchenberns- 
dorf, Ger., Aug. 23, 1859. Composed various concertos. 
Weimar, Ger., Conservatory. 

Rogers. (1) James Hotchkiss. Organist, composer; born 
Fair Haven, Conn., Feb. 7, 1857. Composed cantatas, 
songs, organ and piano pieces. Lives Cleveland, O. 
(2) Clara Kathleen. Soprano, writer; born Cheltenham, 
Eng., Jan. 14, 1844. Author of books on the voice and 
singing. Lives Boston. 

Romaniello, LuigL Pianist; born Naples, 1860. Orches- 
tral composer. Lives Buenos Ayres, Argen. 

Romberg. (1) Andreas. Violinist, composer; bom Vechta, 
Ger., Apr. 27, 1767 ; died Gotha, Ger., Nov. 10, 1821. Wrote 
operas, symphonies, etc., and won fame by his choral and 
solo works with orchestra. (2) Bernhard. 'Cellist; born 
Dincklage, Ger., Nov. 12, 1767; died Hamburg, Ger., Aug. 
13, 1841. Composed 'cello pieces. 

Ronconi, Giorgio. Baritone; born Milan, Italy, Aug. 6, 
1810; died Madrid, Spain, Jan. 8, 1890. Eminent opera 

Root, George F. Composer, teacher; born Sheffield, Mass., 
1820; died Bailey's Island, Me., Aug. 6, 1895. Best known 
for his American Civil War songs. 

Ropartz, J. Guy. Composer, writer; born Guingamp, 
France, Jun. 15, 1864. Composed chamber and orchestral 


Rore (Ro'Te), Cipriano de. Composer; born Malines, Bel., 
.1516; died Parma, Italy, Sept, 1565. Wrote madrigals, 
motets, etc. 

Rosa, CarL Impresario; born Hamburg, Ger., Mar. 21, 
1842; died Paris, Apr. JO, 1889. Appeared in public as 
violinist when eight years old. In 1867 married Euphrosyne 
Parepa, and organized the Carl Rosa Opera Company, which 
presented English versions of foreign operas. 

Rosellen, HenrL Painist, composer; born Paris, Oct. 13, 
1811; died there. Mar. 18(20), 1876. Composed salon 

Rosenfeld, Leopold. Composer; born Copenhagen, Den., 
Jul. 21, 1850; died there, Jul. 19, 1909. Composed choral 
works, pieces for piano, violin and songs. 

Rosenhain (Ro-sen-hine) , Jacob. Pianist; born Mannheim, 
Ger., Dec. 2, 1813; died Baden-Baden, Ger., Mar. 21, 1894. 
Composed salon music. 

Rosenthal (Ro-sen-tahl) , Moritz. Pianist; born Lemberg, 
Aus., Dec. 18, 1862. Celebrated virtuoso. 

RossL (1) Carlo. Pianist, composer; born Lemberg, 
Aus., Apr. 4, 1839. Composed a symphony. Lives 
Venice- (2) Cesare. Conductor, composer; born Na- 
ples, Italy, Dec. 31, 1842. Composed operas, Nadeva, etc. 

Rossini (Ros-see-nee) , Gioachino Antonio. Composer; 
born Pesaro, Italy, Feb. 29, 1792; died near Paris, Nov. 
13, 1868. Wrote a great number of more or less suc- 
cessful operas. The production of Tancredi in 1813 marks 
the beginning of Rossini's European reputation. Between 
1813 and 1829 he wrote a succession of brilliantly suc- 
cessful operas, finishing his career as an operatic composer 
in the latter year with William Tell, his best work. After 
1829 the only composition he produced was his Stabat Mater, 

Rotoli, Augusto. Composer, teacher of singing; born 
Rome, Jan. 7, 1847; died Boston, Nov. 26, 1904. Composed 
a mass, many successful songs. 


Rouget de Lisle {Rooshay du Leel), Claude Joseph. Com- 
poser; born Lons-le-Saulnier, France, May 10, 1760; died 
Choisy-le-Roi, France, Jun. 26, 1836. An officer of en^- 
neers and composer of songs. Famous as the author of 
The Marseillaise, 

Rousseau (Roos-soh), (1) Jean Jacques. Theorist, writer; 
born Geneva, Switz., June 28, 1712; died near Paris, Sept 
3, 1778. Composed operas, songs, etc. (2) Samuel 
Alexandre. Composer; born Neuve-Maison, France, Jun. 
11, 1853; died Paris, Oct. 1, 1904. Composed operas, 
masses, psalms, etc. 

Roussel (Roos-sel), Albert. Composer, teacher; born Tur- 
coing, France, Apr. S, 1869. Composed a symphony, etc 
Schola Cantorum, Paris. 

Rowbotham, John Frederick. Writer; born Edinburgh, 
Scot, Apr. 18, 1854. Author of musical histories and 

Roze, Marie. Soprano; born Paris, Mar. 2, 1846. Made 
successful tours in Europe and America. Settled in Eng- 
land. In 1874 she married Julius Parkins, in 1877 Henry 
Mapleson. Lives Bezons, France. 

Rozkosny, Joseph Richard. Pianist, composer ; born Prague, 
Boh., Sept. 22, 1833. Composed operas, piano pieces, songs. 
Lives Prague. 

Rdzycki, Ludomir von. Conductor, teacher, composer; 
born. Warsaw, Pol., 1883. Composed operas, symphonic 
poems. Lives Lemberg, Aus. 

Rubini (Roo-bee-nee) , Giovanni Battista. Tenor; bom 
Romano, Italy, Apr. 7, 1795; died there. Mar. 2, 1854. 
Celebrated opera singer. 

Rubinstein. (1) Anton. Pianist, composer; born Wech- 
wotynecz, Rus., Nov. 28, 1829; died Petrograd, Nov. 20, 
1894. Made a number of highly successful concert tours, 
visiting the United States in 1872. Became Director of the 
Conservatory at Petrograd which he founded in 1862. As 
a pianist he can be considered as second only to Liszt He 


•wrote S3rmphonies, the Ocean and Dramatic, operas, cham- 
ber music, songs, and many piano pieces. (2) Nikolai 
Gregorovitch. Pianist; born Moscow, Rus., Jun. 2, 1835; 
died Paris, Mar. 23, 1881. Director of the Moscow Con- 
servatory. An excellent artist, but, owing to his dislike 
to concert tours, little known outside of Russia. 

Riickauf (Rick-ouf), Anton. Composer; born Prague, Boh., 
Mar. 13, 1855; died Schloss Alt-Erlaa, Aus., Sept 19, 1903. 
Composed an opera, chamber works, etc. 

RudersdorfiF, Hermine. Soprano, teacher of singing; born 
Ivanovski, Rus., Dec. 12, 1822; died Boston, Feb. 26, 1882. 

Rudnick, Wilhelm. Organist, composer; born Damerkow, 
Ger., Dec 30, 1850. Composed oratorios and organ pieces. 

Rador£F, Ernst F. Conductor, composer; born Berlin, 
Jan. 18, 1840. Composed for orchestra and piano. 

Rucfer (keef-er), Philippe. Pianist, composer; born Liege, 
Bel., Jun. 7, 1844. Orchestral composer. Lives Berlin. 

Ruegger (Ree-ger), Elsa. 'Cellist; born Lucerne, Switz., 
Pec. 6, 1881. Successful concert tours in Europe and U. S. 
Married violinist Edmund Lichtenstein. Lives San Fran- 

Rueter (Ree-ter), Hugo. Composer, teacher of singing; 
born Hamburg, Ger., Sept. 7, 1859. Lives Wandsbek, 

Ruffe (Roof-fo), Titta. Baritone; born Pisa, Italy, 1878. 
Phenomenally strong voice. 

Ruggieri (Rood-jya-ree) , John Baptist. Violin-maker; bom 
Cremona, Italy, 1700; died about 1725. 

Rutnmel (Room-mel), (1) Franz. Pianist; born London, 
Jan. 11, 1853; died Berlin, May 3, 1901. Toured America 
three times. (2) Walter Morse. Composer; born Ber- 
lin, Jul. 19, 1887. Composed piano pieces, chamber music, 
songs. Lives Paris. Son of (1). 

Runciman, John. Writer ; born England, 1866 ; died London, 
Apr. 11, 1916. English critic and writer on music. 


Rung (Roong), Frederik. Composer; born Copenhagen, 
Den., 1854; died there, 1915. Opera and orchestral com- 

Russell. (1) Ella. Soprano; born Cleveland, O., Mar. 
30, 1864. Lives London. (2) Henry. Baritone, com- 
poser; born Sheerniess, Eng., Dec. 24, 1813; died London, 
Dec. 7, 1900. Composed A Life on the Ocean Wave, 
Woodman, Spare that Tree, Old Sexton, etc. (3) Louis 
Arthur. Writer, teacher; born Newark, N. J., Feb. 24, 
1854. Author of educational works on piano playing and 
singing. Lives Newark. 

Rust (Roost), Friedrich Wilhelm. Violinist, composer; 
born near Dessau, Ger., 1739; died there, 1796. Composed 
for the violin. 

Ryan, Thomas. Clarinet-player; born Ireland, 1827; died 
New Bedford, Mass., Mar. 5, 1903. « 

Rybner (Reeb-ner), Cornelius. Pianist, composer; born 
Copenhagen, Den., Oct. 26, 1853. Composed chamber music, 
overture, symphonic poem, etc. Professor of Music, Colum- 
bia University, New York. 

Ryder, Thomas P. Organist, composer; born Cohasset, 
Mass., Juii. 29, 1836; died Somerville, Mass., Dec. 2, 1887. 
Composed drawing-room pieces. 

Ryelandt, Joseph. Composer; born Bruges, Bel., Apr. 7, 
1870. Composed orchestral and chamber music. 

Saar (Sahr), Louis Victor. Composer, teacher; bofn Rot- 
terdam, Hoi., Dec. 10, 1868. Composed for orchestra, cham- 
ber music, voice. Cincinnati College of Music; later Chi- 
cago Musical College. 

Sacchini (Sak-kee-ne) , Antonio Maria Gasparo. Composer; 
born near Naples, Italy, Jul. 23, 1734; died Paris, Oct. 
8, 1786. 


Sachs (Sakhs), Hans. Poet, composer; born Nuremberg, 
Ger., Nov. 5, 1494; died there, Jan. 19, 1576. Most famous 
of the Meistersingers. 

Sachsenhauser, Theodor. Composer; born Germany, Jul. 
27, 1866; died Munich, Ger., Feb. 25, 1904. Composed 
orchestra, chamber music, piano pieces and songs. 

Safono£F, Wassili. Pianist, conductor; born Istchery, Rus., 
Feb. 6, 1852; died Kislovodsk, Cancausus, Rus., Mar. 13, 
1918. Director of Moscow Conservatory for a number of 
years preceding the European War of 1914-18. 

Sahla, Richard. Violinist, conductor; born Graz, Aus.» 
Sept. 17, 1855. Composed violin concertos, etc. Lives 
Biickeburg, Ger. 

Sahlender, Emil. Conductor, composer; born Ibenhain, 
Ger., Mar. 12, 1864. Opera and orchestral composer. Lives 
Heidelberg, Ger. 

Sainton (San-tong), Prosper Philippe. Violinst; born Tou- 
louse, France, Jun. 5, 1813; died London, Oct. 17, 1890. 
Settled in England, and in 1845 was made professor of the 
violin at the Royal Academy of Music, London. 

Sainton-Dolby, Charlotte Helen. Contralto; born London, 
May 17, 1821; died there, Feb. 18, 1885. Celebrated as 
singer and song composer. 

Saint-Saens (San-Sah-ohs) , Charles Camille. Composer; 
born Paris, Oct. 9, 1835. Evinced promise of great musical 
talent at an early age, and rapidly acquired a reputation 
as a clever pianist and organist. Among his operas are: 
Samson and Delilah, Etienne Marcel, Henry VIII, Ascanio, 
etc. His other works include symphonies, orchestral suites, 
symphonic poems, concertos, chamber music. Since the 
death of Gounod Saint-Saens ranks as the foremost of 
French musicians in the conservative school. Lives Paris. 

Salaman, Charles. Pianist; born London, Mar. 3, 1814; 
died there, Jun. 23, 1901. 

Saldoni, Don Baltazar. Composer, teacher of singing; bom 
Barcelona, Sp., Jan. 4, 1807 ; died 1890. Composed zarzuelas. 


Sal^ca {Sa-lay-za), Luc Albert. Tenor; born Bruges, Bel., 
Oct. 18, 1867; died Paris, Nov. 26, 1916. 

Salieri (Sal-ya'-ree), Antonio. Composer; born Legnano, 
Italy, Aug. 19, 1750; died Vienna, May 7, 1825. Wrote 
operas, church music, chamber music, etc. 

Salmon, Alvah Glover. Pianist, composer; born Southold, 
N. Y., Sept. 23, 1868; died Boston, Oct., 1916. 

Sale (Sah'lo), Gasparo da. Violin-maker; born Brescia, 
Italy, 1542; died there, Apr. 14, 1609. Earliest of eminent 
Italian makers. 

Salomon, Johann Peter. Violinist; born Bonn, Ger., Jan., 
1745; died London, Nov. 25, 1815. It was Salomon who 
induced' Haydn to visit England. 

Salter. (1) Sumner. Organist; born Burlington, la., 
Jun. 24, 1856. Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. 
(2) Mary Turner. Composer; born Peoria, 111., Mar. 
15, 1856. Composed many acceptable songs. Wife of 
Sumner Salter. 

Salvayre, Gervais Bernard Gaston. Composer; born Tou- 
louse, France, Jun. 24, 1847. Opera composer. Lives 

Samara, Spiro. Composer; born Corfu, Greece, Nov. 29, 
1861. Opera composer. Flora Mirabilis, La Martyre, Mile, 
de Belle Isle, etc. Lives Paris. 

Samaroff, Olga. Pianist; born San Antonio, Tex., Aug. 8, 
1881. Distinguished concert artist. Wife of Leopold Sto- 
kovski, conductor Philadelphia Orchestra. 

Saimazeuilh (Sam-as-weeye) , Gustave. Composer; born 
Bordeaux, France, 1877. Composed for orchestra and 
chamber music. 

Sammarco, Mario. Baritone; born Palermo, Italy, Dec. 
13, 1873. Opera singer. Lives Milan, Italy. 

Samuel, Adolphe Abraham. Composer; born Liege, Bel., 
Jul. 11, 1824; died Ghent, Bel., Sept. 11, 1898. Composed 


operas, symphonies, a choral symphony, overtures, and 
smaller works. 

Sanctis, Cesare de. Composer; born Albano, Italy, 1830. 
Composed masses, fugues, etc. Lives Rome. 

Sanderson, Sibyl. Soprano; born Sacramento, Cal., Dec. 

7, 1865; died Paris, May 16, 1903. Opera singer. 

Sankey, Ira David. Composer, tenor; born Edinburgh, 
Pa., 1840; died Brooklyn, N. Y., 1908. Evangelist, long asso- 
ciated with D. L. Moody. 

Santley» Charles. Baritone; born Liverpool, Eng.^ Feb. 
28, 1834. Eminent in opera, oratorio, concert. Lives London. 

SapellnikofiF, Wassily. Pianist, composer; born Odessa, 
Rus., Nov. 2, 1868. Composed chiefly for piano. Lives 

Sarasate (Sah-ra-sah-te) , Pablo de. Violinist, composer; 
born Pamplona, Spain, Mar. 10, 1844; died Biarritz, France, 
Sept. 20, 1908. 

Sarti (Sar-tee), Giuseppe. Composer; born Faenza, Italy, 
Pec. 28, 1729; died Berlin, Jul. 28, 1802. Wrote thirty 
operas and much church music. 

Satie, Erik. Composer; born Honfleur, France, May 17, 
1866. Composed in the impressionistic style for orchestra. 
Lives Paris. 

Satter, Gustav. Composer; born Vienna, Feb. 12, 1832. 
composed an opera, overtures, symphonies, and the tone- 
picture Washington. 

Sauer (Sour), Emil. Pianist; born Hamburg, Ger., Oct. 

8, 1862. Distinguished artist ; pupil of Liszt. Lives Dres- 
den, Ger. 

Sauret (So-ray), Emile. Violinist; born Dun-le-Roi, 
France, May 22, 1852. Studied at the Paris Conservatory, 
also at Brussels, under De Beriot. One of the principal 
contemporary violin virtuosi. Lives London. 

Savart (Sav-ahr), Felix. Scientist; born Mezieres, France, 
1791; died Paris, 1841. 


Sax, Antoine. Instrument-maker; born Dinant, France, 
Nov. 6, 1814; died Paris, Feb. 4, 1894. With his father 
inventor of saxhorns, saxophones, etc. 

Sbriglia (Sbril-ya), Giovanni. Teacher of singing; born 
Naples, 1840; died Paris, Feb. 20, 1916. Prepared many 
famous singers for public work. 

Scalchi (Skahl-kee), Sofia. Contralto; born Turin, Italy, 
Nov. 29, 1850. Celebrated for the remarkable quality of 
her lower tones. 

Scaria {Scah-ree-ah) , Emil. Bass; born Graz, Aus., Sept. 
18, 1840; died Dresden, Ger., Jul. 22, 1886. Eminent in 
Wagner opera. 

Scarlatti. (1) Alessandro. Composer; born Trapani, 
Italy, 1659; died Naples, Italy, Oct. 24, 1725. A pioneer 
in Italian opera. (2) Domenico. Harpsichordist, com- 
poser; born Naples, Italy, Oct. 26, 1685; died there, 1757. 
Developed principles of piano technic. Son of (1). 

Schad, Joseph. Pianist, composer; born Steinach, Ger., 
Mar. 6, 1812; died Bordeaux, France, Jul. 4, 1879. 

Schaefer. (1) Alexander. Conductor, composer; born 
Petrograd, Sept. 11, 1866. Composed operas, sympho- 
nies, suites, chamber music, etc. Lives Petrograd. (2) 
Dirk. Composer, teacher; born Rotterdam, HoL, 1873. 
Orchestral composer. Lives Amsterdam. 

Schaliapin. See Chaliapine. 

Scharfenberg, William. Editor, teacher; born* Cassel, Ger., 
Feb. 22, 1819; died Quogue, L. I., N. Y., Aug. 8, 1895. 
Musical editor for G. Schirmer, New York. 

Scharrer, August. Conductor, composer; born Strassburg, 
Alsace, Oct. 18, 1866. Composed symphony Per AsPera ad 
Astra, etc. Lives Nuremberg, Ger. 

Scharwenka (Shar-ven-ka) . (1) Philipp. Composer; born 
Samter, Ger., Feb. 16, 1847. Founder, with his brother 
Xaver, of the Scharwenka Conservatory, Berlin. Wrote 
piano 'pieces. Lives Berlins (2) Xaver. Pianist, com- 


poser; born Samter, Ger., Jan. 6, 1850. Toured Europe and 
America. In 1891 came to New York and established con- 
servatory; returned to Germany in 1898. Lives Berlin. 

Schaub (Shoub), Hans. Composer; born Frankfort, Ger., 
Sept. 22, 1880. Orchestral composer. Lives Berlin. 

Scheel (Shale), Fritc. Conductor; born Liibeck, Ger., 
Nov. 7, 1852; died Philadelphia, Mar. 12, 1907. Conductor 
Philadelphia Orchestra. 

Scheldt (Shite), Samuel. Organist, composer; born Halle, 
Ger., 1587; died there, Mar. 14, 1654. The most celebrated 
player of his time and founder of the new organ style. 

Scheinpflug (Shine-pfloog), Paul. Conductor, composer; 
born Loschwitz, Ger., Sept. 10, 1875. Orchestral composer, 
Spring symphony, overture to a drama, etc. Lives Berlin. 

Schelling, Ernest Henry. Pianist; born Belvidere, N. J., 
Jul. 26, 1876. Composed orchestral, chamber and smaller 
works. Lives Switzerland. 

Schenk, Peter. Pianist, composer; born Petrograd, Feb. 
23, 1870. Composed operas, Actea, etc., symphonies, sym- 
phonic poems, chamber works, etc. Lives Petrograd. 

Schikaneder (Shik-a-na-der) , Emanuel. Bass; born Ratis- 
bon, Ger., 1751; died Vienna, Sept. 21, 1812. Friend of 

Schillings, Max. Composer; born Duren, Ger., Apr. 19, 
1868. Composed operas, Ingwelde, Der Pfeifertag, Moloch, 
orchestral works, incidental music, songs with orchestra, 
and smaller pieces. Lives Stuttgart, Ger. 

Schindler, Anton. Violinist; born Medl, Aus., 1796; died 
Bockenheim, Ger., Jan. 16, 1864. Biographer of Bee- 

Schjelderup (Skyel-der-oop) , Gerhard. Composer; born 
Christiania, Nor., Nov. 17, 1859. Composed music dramas, 
orchestral works, etc., in radical modern style. Lives Dres- 
den, Ger. 


Schlaeger (Shlay-ger), Hans. Conductor, composer; born 
Filskirchen, Aus., Dec. 5, 1820; died Salzburg, Aus., May 
17, 1885. Opera and orchestral composer. 

Schlesinger {Shlay-sing-er) , Sebastian B. Composer; born 
Hamburg, Ger., Sept. 24, 1837; died Nice, France, Jan. 8, 
1917. Composed songs and piano pieces. 

Schloesser (Shles-ser), Adolph. Pianist, teacher; born 
Darmstadt, Ger., Jan. 1, 1830. Teacher in London. 

Schmidy Joseph. Organist, composer; born Munich, Ger., 
Aug. 30, 1868. Lives Munich. 

Schmidt (1) Gustav. Conductor, composer; born Wei- 
mar, Ger., Sept. 1, 1816; died Darmstadt, Ger., Feb. 11, 
1882. Opera composer. (2) Friedrich. Organist; born 
Hartefeld, Ger., Mar. 5, 1840. Composed masses, mo- 
tets, etc. Lives Miinster, Ger. (3) Karl. Writer, teacher; 
born Friedberg, Ger., Jul. lo, 1869. Writer on singing. 
Lives Friedberg. (4) Aloys. Pianist, teacher; bom 
Erlenbach, Ger., Aug. 26, 1788; died Frankfort, Ger., Jul. 
25, 1866. Wrote valuable piano technical exercises and 

Schmitt, Florent. Composer; born Blamont, France, Sept. 
28, 1870. Radical French orchestral composer, Salomi, etc 
Lives Paris. 

Schnecker, Peter August. Organist, composer; born Hesse- 
JDarmstadt, Ger., Aug. 26, 1850; died New York, Oct. 3, 
1903. Composed cantatas, organ works, songs, and violin 

Schneider. (1) Edward Faber. Composer; born Omaha, 
Neb., 1872. Composed a music drama, an Autumn sym- 
phony, etc. (2) Johann Christian Friedrich. Composer; 
born Altwaltersdorf, Ger., Jan. 3, 1786; died Dessau, 
Ger., Nov. 23, 1853. Composed oratorios, cantatas, sym- 
phonies, etc. (3) Johann Gottlob. Organist, composer; 
born Altgersdorf, Ger., Oct. 28, 1789; died Dresden, Ger., 
Apr. 13, 1864. Organ virtuoso. 


Schnyder von Wartensee. Composer, teacher; born Lu- 
cerne, Switz., Apr. 16, 1786; died Frankfort, Ger., Apr. 27, 
1868. Eminent teacher. 

Schoenberg (Shain-herg) , Arnold. Composer; born Vienna, 
Sept. 13, 1874. Perhaps the most radical of modern com- 
posers. His Gurrelieder, with orchestra and voices, a large 
work but conservative. His piano pieces, however, and 
the Five Orchestral Pieces most advanced and unusual in 
style. Lives Berlin. 

Schoenefeld (Sha-ne-felt) , Henry. Pianist, composer; born- 
Milwaukee, Wis., Oct. 4, 1857. Composed a Rural sym- 
phony. In the Sunny South, with negro tunes, etc. Lives 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

Schoepf (Shepf), Franz. Composer; born Girlan, Tyrol, 
1836. Composed church music, operas, and operettas. 
Lives Bozen, Aus. 

Scholz, Bemhard E. Composer; born Mainz, Ger., Mar. 
30, 1835. Composed operas, orchestral and piano pieces. 
Lives Florence, Italy. 

Schradieck (Shrah-deek) , Henry. Violinist, teacher; born 
Hamburg, Ger., Apr. 29, 1846; died Brooklyn, N. Y., 
Mar. 25, 1918. 

Schreck, Gustav. Composer; born Zeulenroda, Ger., Sept. 
8^ 1849. Composed an oratorio, orchestral cantatas, and 
many vocal-instrumental works. Lives Leipzig, Ger. 

Schreker, Franz. Composer; born Monaco, Italy, Mar. 
23, 1878. Composed for orchestra and operatic stage. Lives 

Schroeder (Shra-der), (1) Alwin. 'Cellist; born Neuhal- 
densleben, Ger., Jun. 15, 1855. Lives Boston. (2) Karl. 
'Cellist, composer; born Quedlinburg, Ger., Dec. 18, 1848. 
Composed for 'cello and for orchestra. Lives Berlin. 

Schroeder-Devrient (Shra-der Dev-ree-ong) , Wilhelmine. 
Soprano; born Hamburg, Ger., Dec 6, 1804; died Coburg, 
Ger., Jan. 21, 1860. A great artist 


Schubert, Franz. Composer; born Vienna, Jan. 31, 1797; 
died there, Nov. 19, 1828. When eleven years old entered 
the Imperial Convict (free school) at Vienna as a choir- 
boy, and also played the violin in the school orchestra. In 
1813 he left the school and devoted himself to the study 
of music at home. Later he was for two years singing and 
piano master in the household of Count Esterhazy, and 
thereafter spent the remainder of his life principally in 
Vienna. One of the greatest and most fertile of composers. 
Wrote fifteen operas and operettas, five masses and other 
church music, nine symphonies, fifteen string quartets, be- 
sides other chamber music, piano pieces and songs. Per- 
haps the most lyrical of composers he lived almost wholly 
unappreciated and in considerable poverty. 

Schuberth (Shoo-bairt) , Karl. 'Cellist; born Wurzburg, 
Ger., Feb. 25, 1811; died Zurich, Switz., Jul. 22, 1863. Com- 
posed for 'cello and chamber music. 

Schuch (Shookh), Ernst von. Conductor; born Graz, Aus., 
Nov. 23, 1847; died Dresden, Ger., May 10, 1914. Distin- 
guished conductor. 

Schuchardt {Shookh-art) , Friedrich. Composer; born 
Gotha, Ger., 1876. Composed opera, oratorio, church music. 

Schuecker (Schoo-eck-er), (1) Edmund. Harpist; born 
Vienna, 1860. Chicago Orchestra. (2) Heinrich. Harp- 
ist; bom Vienna, 1868; died Boston, Apr. 17, 1913. Boston 
Symphony Orchestra. 

Schuett {Sheet), Eduard. Pianist, composer; born Petro- 
grad, Oct. 22, 1856. Composed orchestral works, a piano 
concerto, chamber music, and very melodious piano pieeet. 
Lives Vienna. 

Schulhoff (Shool'hof), Julius. Pianist, composer; born 
Prague, Boh., Aug. 2, 1825; died Berlin, Mar. 13, 1898. 
Composed drawing-room piano pieces. 

Schul2 (Shoolts). (1) Johann Abraham Peter. Composer; 
born Ltineburg, Ger., Mar. 31, 1747; died Schwedt, Ger., 
Jun. 10, 1800. Developed the German Lied. (2) Hcin- 


rich. Composer, teacher; born Beuthen, Ger., Juxie 19, 
1838; died Dresden, Ger., Mar. 12, 1915. Composed sym- 
phonies, overtures, an opera, etc. (3) Karl. Pianist, com- 
poser; born Schwerin, Ger., Jan. 3, 1845; died Mannheim, 
Ger., May 24, 1913. Composed orchestral and sacred works. 

Schumann. (1) Robert Alexander. Composer; born 
Zwickau, Ger., Jun. 8, 1810; died Endenich, Ger., Jul. 
29, 1856. Originally a law student but interested him- 
self solely in music, and soon adopted it as a profession. 
An injury to one of his fingers, the result of a mechan- 
ical device, obliged him to abandon the piano for com- 
position, upon which he concentrated all his energy with 
magnificent results. Instituted the Neue Zeitschrift fur 
Musik in 1834. In 1844 went to Dresden as conductor of 
the Choral Union, and in 1850 removed to Dtisseldorf. 
Here a long-standing affection of the brain became rapidly 
worse and in 1854 Schumann had to be placed in an asylum 
where he died. Schumann wrote choral works, Paradise 
and the Peri, Pilgrimage of the Rose, Faust, and the opera 
Genoveva, symphonies, chamber music, piano compositions, 
and a large number of vocal works, all marked by great 
depth and sincerity of design and a wonderful grasp of a 
wide range of expression and sentiment. (2) Clara. Pi- 
anist; born Leipzig, Ger., Sept. 13, 1819; died Frankfort, 
Ger., May 20, 1896. A pupil of her father, Friedrich 
Wieck. Made a tour as a piano virtuoso in her eleventh 
year. Later was the first to introduce Chopin's music to 
the German public. In 1840 married Robert Schumann. 
(3) Georg Alfred. Composer; born Konigstein, Ger., 
Oct. 25, 1866. Composed the oratorio Ruth and similar 
works, a symphony, a suite, overtures, etc., all earnest but 
sometimes heavy in style. Royal Academy of Music, Berlin. 

Schumann-Heink, Ernestine. Contralto; born near Prague, 
Boh., Jun. 15, 1861. Eminent in opera and concert. Lives 
Los Angeles. 

Schuppanzigh, Ignaz. Violinist; born Vienna, 1776; died 
there. Mar. 2, 1830. 


Schurig (Shoo-rig), Volkmar. Organist, composer; born 
Aur, Ger., Mar. 24, 1822; died Dresden, Ger., 1899. Com- 
posed organ works, songs, children's songs, etc. 

Schuster (Shoos-ter), Bernard. Conductor, composer; born 
Berlini, Mar. 26, 1870. Composed a symphony, choral 
works, an opera, songs, etc.; publishes and edits Die Musik, 

Schiitz (Sheets), Heinrich. Composer; born Kostritz, Ger., 
Oct. 8, 1585; died Dresden, Ger., Nov. 6, 1672. 

Schwalm (Shvalm), Robert. Conductor, composer; born 
Erfurt, Ger., Dec. 6, 1845. Composed male choruses, an 
opera, an oratorio, chamber music, etc. Lives Konigsberg, 

Schjrtte (Shee-teh), Ludwig. Composer; born Aarhut, 
Den., Apr. 28, 1848; died Berlin, Nov. 10, 1909. Composed 
excellent piano pieces and etudes. 

Scontrino (Scon-tree-no) , Antonio. Double-bass player, 
composer; born Trapani, Italy, May 17, 1850. Orchestral 
and opera composer. Royal Institute of Music, Florence, 

Scott» CjrH Meir. Composer; born Oxton, Eng., Sept. 27, 
1879. Composed a symphony, three overtures, chamber 
works, songs, piano pieces, etc. His style of blended and 
blurred harmonies is very interesting, his works being 
among the very best of the modern school. Lives London. 

Scotti, Antonio. Baritone; born Naples, Italy, Jan. 25, 
1866. Metropolitan Opera Company, New York. 

Scriabin (Skryah-been) , Alexander. Pianist, composer; bom 
Moscow, Rus., Jan. 10, 1872; died Petrograd, Apr. 14, 1915. 
Composed symphonies, the orchestral Po^me de Vexstase, 
Promitheus, etc., piano concertos, and many piano works. 
His style is novel, and the harmonies of Promitheus very 

Sebor {Say-hor), Karl. Composer; born Brandeis, Ger., 
Aug 13, 1843 ; died Prague, Boh., May 17, 1903. Opera and 
chamber music composer. 


Sechter (Sekh-ter), Simon. Organist, theorist; born Fried- 
berg, Boh., Oct 11, 1788; died Vienna, Sept. 10, 1867. Com- 
posed organ and church music; distinguished teacher of 
musical theory. 

Seeboeck (Say-beck), William C. £. Pianist, composer; 
born Vienna, 1860; died Chicago, 1907. Opera and song 

Seeling (Say-ling), Hans. Pianist, composer; born Prague, 
Boh., 1828; died there. May 26, 1862. Composed salon 
piano music. 

Seguin. (1) Arthur Edward Shelden. Bass; born London, 
Apr. 7. 1809; died New York, Dec. 9, 1852. (2) Ann 
Childe. Soprano; born London, 1814, died New York, 
Aug., 1888. Wife of (1). (3) William Henry. Bass; 
born London, 1814; died Dec. 28, 1850. Brother of (1). 

Seidl (Sy-dle), Anton. Conductor; born Pesth, Huni, May 
7, 1850; died New York, Mar. 28, 1898* Conductor Metro- 
politan Opera Co., New York. 

Seiss (Syse), Isidor. Pianist, composer; born Dresden, 
Ger., Dec. 23, 1840; died Cologne, Ger., Sept. 25, 1905. Or- 
chestral and piano composer. 

Sekles, Bemhard. Composer; born Frankfort, Ger., Jun. 
20, 1872. Composed the symphonic poem The Gardens of 
Semiramis, and many smaller works. Lives Frankfort. 

Selmer, Johann. Composer, conductor; born Christiania, 
Nor., Jan. 20, 1844; died .Venice, Italy, Jul. 22, 1910. Or- 
chestral and choral composer. 

Sembrich, Marcella. Soprano; born Wisniewczyk, Aus., 
Feb. 15, 1858. Distinguished in opera and concert. Lives 
New York. 

Semet (Seh-may), Th6ophile. Composer; born Lille, France, 

Sept. 6, 1824; died Corbeil, France, Apr. 15, 1888. Opera 

Senkrah (really Harkness), Alma Loretta. Violinist; born 

Williamson, N. Y., Jun. 16, 1864; died Weimar, Ger., Sept., 



Serov, Alexander. Composer; born Petrograd, , Jan. 23, 
1820; died there, Feb. 1, 1871. Composed the operas Judith, 
Rogneda, The Enemy's Power, and youthful works. 

Serrao (Ser-rah'-o), (1) Paolo. Composer; born Filadel- 
fia, Italy, 1830; died Naples, Mar., 1907. Composed operas. 
Martucci and Giordano were his pupils. (2) Emilio. Pi- 
anist, composer; born Vittoria, Spain, Mar. 13, 1850. Span- 
ish opera composer. 

Servais (Ser^vay). (1) Adrien Francois. 'Cellist, com- 
poser; born Hal, Bel., Jun. 6, 1807; died there, Nov. 26, 
1877. Wrote brilliant pieces for the 'cello. (2) Joseph. 
'Cellist, teacher; born Hal, Bel., Nov. 23, 1850; died there, 
Aug. 29, 1885. Son of (1). 

Sevcik (Sef-chik), Ottokar. Violinist, teacher; born Ho- 
razdowitz, Boh., Mar. 22, 1852. Composed valuable tech- 
nical system; eminent as teacher. 

Severac, D6odat de. Composer; born St Felix de Cara- 
man, France, Jul. 20^ 1873. Composed the music drama 
Le Coeur du Moulin, the symphonic poem Nymphs at Twi" 
light, etc. Lives Paris. 

Sesrfardt (Sy-fardt), Ernst Hermann. Composer; born 
Crefeld, Ger., May 6, 1858. Composed a symphony, chamber 
works, choral works, songs, etc. Lives Stuttgart, Ger. 

Seyfried (Sy-freed), J. X. Ritter von. Composer; born 
Vienna, Aug. 15, 1776; died there, Aug. 27, 1841. 

Sgambati, Giovanni Pianist, composer; born Rome, May 
18, 1843 ; died there, Dec. 15, 1914. His works include cham- 
ber and pianoforte music, symphonies, etc. 

Shakespeare, William. Teacher of singing, composer; bom 
Croydon, Eng., Jun. 16, 1849. Author of a valuable text- 
book for singers. Eminent as teacher in London. 

Shelley, Harry Rowe. Organist, composer; born New 
Haven, Conn., Jun. 8, 1858. Composed cantatas, an opera, 
songs, organ music, etc. Lives New York. 

Shepard. (1) Thomas Griffin. Organist, composer; born 
Madison, Conn., Apr. 23, 1848; died Brooklyn^ N. Y» 


1905. Composed cantatas, anthems, etc. (2) Frank 
Hartson. Organist, theorist; born Bethel, Conn., Sept. 
20, 1863; died Orange, N. J., Feb. 25, 1913. Author of 
harmony text-books. 

Shepherd, Arthur. Teacher, composer; born Paris, Idaho, 
Feb. 19, 1880. Composed an Overture Joyeuse, a cantata, 
songs, an admirable piano sonata, etc. New England Con- 
sevatory, Boston. 

Sherwood, William H. Pianist, teacher; born Lyons, N. 
Y., Jan. 31, 1854; died Chicago, Jan. 7, 1911. Pupil of 
Liszt; distinguished concert artist 

Shield, William. Composer; born Wickham, Eng., Mar. 
5, 1748; died London, Jan. 25, 1829. Composed the music 
of a number of of ballad operas once highly popular. 

Sibelius (See-bay-lee-ous) , Jean. Composer; born Tavas- 
tehus, Fin., Dec. 8, 1865. His best works are his four sym- 
phonies, the orchestral legends on Kalevala subjects, the 
suites CareliOf and King Christian IV. Lives Helsingfors, 

Siboniy Ernst Anton. Pianist, composer; born Copen- 
hagen, Den., Aug. 26, 1828; died there, Feb. 22, 1892. Or- 
chestral composer. 

Sicard (See-car) , Michael. Violinist, conductor ; born Odessa, 
Rus., 1868. Composed for orchestra and chamber music. 

Sick, Theodor Bemhard. Composer; born Copenhagen, 
Den., Nov. 7, 1827. Composed much chamber music. 

Sieber, Ferdiqand. . Teacher of singing, composer; b6rn 
Vienna, Dec. 5, 1822; died Berlin, Feb. 19, 1895. Wrote 
excellent studies for voice training. 

Sieveking (See'-ve-king), Martinus. Pianist; born Amster- 
dam, Hoi., Mar. 24, 1867. Artist of distinction. Lives New 

Silas (See-las), Eduard. Pianist, composer; born. Amster- 
dam, Hoi., Aug. 22, 1827 ; died London, Feb. 8, 1909. Com- 
posed orchestral works, a piano concerto, an oratorio, and 
many piano pieces. 


Silbennann, Gottfried. Piano-maker; born Kleinbobritzsch, 
Ger., 1683; died Aug. 4, 1753. One of the earliest German 

Silcher, Friedrich. Composer; born Schnaith, Ger., Jun. 
27, 1789; died Tubingen, Ger., Aug. 26, 1860. 

Silotiy Alexander. Pianist, conductor; born Kharkov, Rus., 
Oct. 10, 1863. Distinguished virtuoso and teacher. Lives 

Silver {Seel-vair), Charles. Composer; born Paris, Feb. 
16, 1868. Opera composer, Le Clos, etc. Lives Paris. 

Simon (See-mon), Anton. Composer; born France, 1851. 
Composed operas, ballets, orchestral and chamber works. 

Simonettiy AchiUe. Violinist, composer; born Turin, Italy, 
Jun. 12, 1859. Composed graceful piano pieces. 

Sinding, Christian. Composer; born Kongsberg, Nor., 
Jan. 11, 1856. Composed orchestral works. Episodes Cheva- 
leresques, etc., an opera, The Holy Mountain, and many 
attractive piano pieces. 

Singel6e (Sanj-lay), Jean Baptiste. Violinist, composer; 
born Brussels, Bel., Sept. 25, 1812; died Ostend, Bel., 
Sept. 29, 1875. Composed melodious violin pieces. 

Singer, Otto. Violinist; born Dresden, Ger., Sept. 14, 
1863. Transcribed orchestral works for piano, four hands. 

Sinigaglia (Sin-i-gal-ya) , Leone. Composer; born Turin, 
Italy, Aug. 14, 1868. Composed orchestral works, violin 
Romance, overture Le Baruffe Chiosotie, chamber music, 
etc. Lives Turin. 

Sitt» Hans. Violinist, conductor; born Prague, Boh., Sept. 
21, 1850. Composed for orchestra, chamber music, ^ongs, 
etc. Lives Leipzig, Ger. 

Sivori (See-vo'-ree) , Ernesto Camillo. Violinist; born 
Genoa, Italy, Oct. 25, 1815; died there, Feb. 18, 1894. A 
pupil of Pa'ganini. 

Sjogren {Shya-greW), Johann Gustav Emil. Organist, com- 
poser; born Stockholm, Swed., Jun. 16, 1853. Composed a 


cantata, orchestral ballads, chamber works, songs, Der Vogt 
von Tenneberg, etc., and piano pieces, Erotikon, Novellette, 
Auf der Wanderschaft, etc. Lives Stockholm. 

Skroup (Skroop),, Frantisek. Composer; born Vosicz, 
Boh., Jun, 3, 1801; died Rotterdam, HoL, Feb. 7, 1862. 
Pioneer in composing Bohemian national operas. 

Skohersky, Franz Zdenko. Composer, theorist; born 
Opocno, Boh., Jul. 31, 1830; died Budweis, Aug. 19, 1892. 
Opera composer. 

Slivinski, Joseph von. Pianist; born Warsaw, Pol., Dec 
15, 1865. Pupil of Leschetizky and Rubinstein. 

Sloper, Lindsay. Pianist, composer; born London, Jun. 
14, 1826; died there, JuL 3, 1887. Composed piano pleces» 
studies, songs. 

Smareglia (Stnah-rel-ya) , Antonio. Composer; borii Pola, 
Aus., May 5, 1854. Opera composer. 

Smart. (1) Sir George Thomas. Composer, conductor; 

born London, May 10, 1776; died there, Feb. 23, 1867. 

(2) Henry. Organist, composer; born London, Oct 26, 

1813; died there, Jul. 6, 1879. Composed organ music 

Brother of (1). 

Smetana {Sme'tah-nah), Friedrich. Composer; born 
Leitomischl, Boh.^ Mar. 2, 1824; died Prague, Boh., May 
12, 1884. Wrote a number of orchestral works, strongly 
reflecting the national suirit of the Bohemians; also operas. 
Die Brandenburg er in Bohmen, Dalibor, Der Kuss, and 
Die verkaufte Braut. 

Smith. (1) Alice Mary (Mrs. Meadows-White). Com- 
poser; born London, May 19, 1839; died there, Dec. 4, 
1884. Composed a symphony, overtures, chamber mu- 
sic, vocal works, etc. (2) Edward Sydney. Composer, 
pianist; born Dorchester, £ng., Jul. 14, 1839; died Lon- 
don, Mar. 3, 1889. Composed brilliant piano music. (3) 
Gerrit. Organist; born Hagerstown, Md., Dec. 11, 1859; 
died New York, July 21, 1912. Composed the cantata 
David, also songs and piano pieces. (4) Wilson George. 


Composer; born Elyria, O., Aug. 19, 1855. Composed 
piano and vocal music. Lives Cleveland, O. (5) David 
Stanley. Composer; born Toledo, O., July 6, 1877. 
Composed a symphony, the symphonic poem Darkness and 
Light, an overture, a cantata, etc. Yale University. 

Smulders {SmooUders) , Karl Anton. Composer, teacher; 
bom Maestricht, Hoi., May 8, 1863. Composed a piano con- 
certo. Liege Conservatory. 

Smyth, Ethel. Composer; born London, Apr. 23, 1858. 
Composed a mass, an overture, chamber music, and the 
operas Fantasio, The Forest, and The Wreckers, Lives 
Woking, Eng. 

Sodermann (Say-der-tnan) , August Johan. Composer; 
born Stockholm, Swed., Jul. 17, 1832; died there, Feb. 10, 

SokalskL (1) Peter. Writer, composer; born Kharkov, 
Rus., Sept. 26, 1832; died Odessa, Rus., Mar., 1887. Com- 
posed operas, Mazeppa, etc., wrote on Russian folk-music. 
(2) Vladimir. Composer; born Heidelberg, Ger., Apr. 
6, 1863. Composed for orchestra, chamber music, etc. Lives 
Kharkov, Rus. 

Sokolov {Sok'O-loff), Nikolai. Composer; born Petrograd, 
May 26, 1859. Composed chamber works, a ballet, music to 
The Winter's Tale, etc. Petrograd Conservatory. 

Solomon, Edward. Composer; born London, 1853; died 
there, 1895. Light opera composer. 

Soloviev (So-lo'vyef)f Nicolai. Composer, teacher; born 
Petrosadovsk, Rus., May 9, 1846. Opera and orchestral 
composer. Lives Petrograd. 

Soltys, Miecyslav. Composer, teacher; born Lemberg, 
Aus., Feb. 7, 1863. Composed Polish operas. Lives 

Somborn, Theodor Karl. Composer, teacher; born Bar- 
men, Ger., Nov. 16, 1851. Composed operas. Lives Munich, 


Somervell, Arthur. Compt>ser; born Windermere, Eng., 
Jun. 5, 1863. Composed orchestral works, e£Fective cantatas, 
songs, etc. Lives London. 

Sommer, Hans. Composer; born Brunswick, Ger., Jul. 
20, 1837. Composed operas Lorelei, St. Foix, Der Meerman, 
Der Waldschratt, etc., and songs. Lives Brunswick. 

Sonneck,, Oscar George. Writer; born Jersey City, N. J., 
Oct. 6, 1873. Librarian Music Section, Library of Congress, 
for a number of years. Lives New York. 

Sonnleithner (Son-light-ner) , Christoph. Composer; born 
Szegedin, Hun., May 28, 1734; died Vienna, Dec. 25, 1786. 

Sontag, Henriette. Soprano; born. Coblenz, Ger., Jan. 3, 
1806; died Mexico, Jun. 17, 1854. 

Sormann, Alfred Richard Gotthelf. Composer, pianist; 
born Danzig, Ger., May 16, 1861. Stern Conservatory, 

Sousa, John Philip. Composer; born Washington, D. C, 
Nov. 6, 1854. American bandmaster and composer of pop- 
ular marches. Lives New York. 

Spagnoletti (Span-yo-let-tee) , P. Violinist; born Cremona, 
Italy, 1768; died London, Sept. 23, 1834. 

Spalding. (1) Albert Violinist; born Chicago, Aug. 15, 
1888. Distinguished virtuoso. (2) Walter Rasrmond. 
Organist, teacher; born Northampton, Mass., May 22, 1865. 
Professor of Music, Harvard University. 

Spangenberg, Heinrich. Composer; born Darmstadt, Ger., 
May, 1861. Organ and opera composer. 

Spanuth (Spahn-oot), August. Composer, writer; born 
Hanover, Ger., Mar. 15, 1857. Composed songs and piano 
works; edits The Signale, Berlin. 

Speidel (Spy-del), WilhekxL Pianist; born Ulm, Ger., 
Sept. 3, 1826; died Stuttgart, Ger., Oct. 13, 1899. 

Spengel, Julius Heinrich. Organist, composer; born Ham- 
burg, Ger., Jun. 12, 1853. Composed a symphony, etc. Lives 


Spicker, Max. Conductor, teacher; born Konigsberg, Get., 
Aug. 16, 1858; died New York, Oct. 15, 1912, 

Spierlng, Theodore. Violinist, teacher, conductor; born 
St. Louis, Mo., Sept. 5, 1871. Composed studies for the 
violin. Lives New York. 

Splndler, Fritz. Pianist, composer; born Wtirzbach, Ger., 
Nov. 24, 1817 ; died near Dresden, Ger., Dec 26, 1906. Com- 
posed brilliant piano music. 

Spinelli, Nicolo. Composer; born Turin, Italy, Jul. 29, 
1865; died Rome, Oct. 18^ 1909. Composed operas A Basso 
Porto, ,etc. 

Spitta (Shpitta), Julius August Philipp. Historian; born 
Wechold, Ger., Dec. 27, 1841; died Berlin, April 13, 1894. 
Best known for his biography of J. S. Bach. 

Spofforth, Reginald. Composer; born Southwell, £ng.» 
1770; died London, Jun. 6, 1864. Famous for his masterly 

Spohr, Louis. Violinist, composer, conductor; bom Bruns- 
wick, Ger., Apr. 5, 1784; died Kassel, Ger., Nov. 22, 1859. 
Made many concert tours, and soon became recognized as 
the first of living violinists. After holding various other 
appointments was made court capellmeister at Kassel in 
1822. Here he wrote his best works, the opera Jessonda, 
and the oratorio The Last Judgment, Spohr wrote 8 
operas, 5 oratorios, 9 symphonies, 43 quartets, 5 quintets, 
5 double quartets, also the famous duets for two violins, 
violin concertos, many songs, etc. As a composer his work 
is lyrical, refined, and delicate. Musical art is mostly deeply 
indebted to him as the virtual founder of the modern school 
of violin playing. 

Spontini (Spon-tee-nee) , Gaspare Luigi Pacifico. Com- 
poser; born Majolati, Italy, Nov. 14, 1774; died there, Jan. 
24, 1851. Studied at Naples. Wrote operas of a grandly 
spectacular kind, modeled after those of Gluck. His best 
works are La Vestale and Ferdinand Cortes, Was for 
some time general music director at Berlin. 


Sporck, Georges. Composer; born Paris, Apr. 9, 1870. 
Composed several symphonic poems, etc. 

Stainer, Sir John. Organist, composer; born London, Jun. 
6, 1840; died Verona, Italy, Mar. 31, 1901. In 1888 he was 
knighted, and in the following year became professor of 
music at Oxford University. He wrote the sacred cantatas 
The Daughter of Jairus, and St. Mary Magdalen, anthems, 
etc., and numerous theoretical text-books and treatises. 

Stamaty {Sta-mah-tee) , Camille Marie. Pianist, composer; 
bom Rome, Mar. 23, 1811; died Paris, Mar. 19, 1870. Wrote 
excellent technical studies. 

Stamitz, Johann Wenzel Anton. Violinist; born Deutsch- 
brod, Boh., Jun. 19, 1717; died Mannheim, Ger., Mar. 27, 
1757. Composed symphonies and chamber works ; a pioneer 
in reforming the old instrumental style and using what 
became the classical orchestra. 

Stamm, Thomas Oswald. Teacher, composer; born Uthle- 
bjBn, Ger., Apr. 17, 1868. Lives Weissenfels, Ger. 

Stanford, Sir Charles Villiers. Composer; born Dublin, 
Ire., Sept. 30, 1852. Studied music under Sir Robert Stew- 
art, and Michael Quarry, at J)ublin, under Reinecke at 
Leipzig, and Kiel at Berlin. Was appointed organist of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, £ng., and conductor of Cam- 
bridge University Musical Society in 1872. In 1883 he was 
appointed professor of composition and conductor pf the 
orchestral class at the Royal College of Music, London. 
Among his works are two operas. The Veiled Prophet, and 
Savonarola, symphonies, cantatas. Battle of the Baltic, and 
The Revenge, chamber music songs, etc. Lives London. 

Stanley, Albert Augustus. Organist, composer, conductor; 
born Manville, R. I., May 25, 1851. Composed symphony. 
The Soul's Awakening, symphonic poem Atis, etc. Pro- 
fessor of music, University of Michigan. 

Stark. (1) Ludwig. Pianist, teacher; born Munich, Ger., 
Jun. 19, 1831; died Stuttgart, Ger., Mar. 22, 1884. Joint 
author Lebert and Stark Method, (2) Robert Clariniet- 


ist, composer; born Klingenthal, Ger., Sept. 19, 1847. 
Composed for clarinet and other wood-wind. Wtirzburg 

Stasny. (1) Ludwig. Composer; born Prague, Boh., Feb. 
26, 1823; died Frankfort, Ger., Oct. 30, 1883. Opera 
Composer. (2) Carl Richard. Pianist, teacher; born 
Mainz, Ger., Mar. 16, 1855. New England Conservatory, 

Statkovski, Roman. Composer; born near Kalisch, Pol., 
Jan. 5, 1860. Composed orchestral and chamber music. 
Lives Warsaw, Pol. 

Staudigl. (1) Joseph. Bass; born Mollersdorf, Aus., Apr. 
14, 1807; died near Vienna, Mar. 28, 1861. (2) Joseph, 
Jr. Baritone; born Vienna, Mar. 18, 1854. 

Stavenhagen, Bemhard. Pianist, conductor; born Greiz, 
Ger., Nov. 25, 1862; died Geneva, Switz., Dec. 26, 1914. 
Composed concertos, etc. 

Stcherbatchev (Schair-bah-chef), NicolaL Composer; born 
Russia, Aug. 24, 1853. Orchestral and piano composer. 

Steggall. (1) Charles. Organist; born London, Jun. 3, 
1826; died there, Jun. 7, 1905. Composed sacred works. 
(2) Reginald. Composer; born London, Apr. 17, 1867. 
Composed scenas, symphony, etc. Son of (1). 

Stehle (Shtay-le), Gustav Eduard. Organist, composer; 
born Steinhausen, Ger., Feb. 17, 1839. Composed sacred 
and secular cantatas with orchestra. 

Steibelt (Sty-belt), Daniel. Pianist, composer; born Ber- 
lin, 1765; died Petrograd, Sept. 20, 1823. Wrote valuable 
technical piano studies. 

Steinbach (Stine-bak). (1) Emil. Conductor; born Len- 
genrieden, Ger., Nov. 14, 1849. Composed orchestral 
and chamber works. (2) Fritz. Conductor; born Grun- 
feld, Ger., Jun. 17, 1855. Lives Munich, Ger. 

Stenhammar, Wilhelm. Composer; born Stockholm, Swed., 
Feb. 7, 1871. Composed symphonies, orchestral ballads, 
cantatas, and many smaller works. Lives Stockholm. 


Stephan, Rudolf. Composer; born Worms, Ger., Jul. 29, 
1887; died in battle in France, Sept 29, 1915. Composed 
an opera, orchestral works and chamber music. 

Stephens, Catherine. Soprano; born London, Sept. 18, 
1794; died there, Feb. 22, 1882. Celebrated in opera and 

Sterkel (Stair-kel), Johann Franz Xaver. Pianist, com- 
poser; born Wtirzburg, Ger., Dec. 3, 1750; died Mainz, Ger., 
Oct. 12, 1817. 

Sterling, Antoinette. Contralto; born Sterlingville, N. Y., 
Jan. 23, 1850; died London, Jan. 9, 1904. Popular in ora- 
torio and as a ballad singer, leading composers writing for 
her songs that have become famous. 

Sternberg, Constantin von. Pianist, composer; born Pet- 
rograd, Jul. 9, 1852. Pupil of Kullak and Liszt. Composed 
for orchestra and piano. Lives Philadelphia. 

Stewart. (l)Sir Robert Prescott. Organist, teacher; born 
Dublin, Ire., Dec. 16, 1825; died there. Mar. 24, 1894. 
Professor of Music Trinity College, Dublin. (2) Hnm- 
phrey JoHn. Organist, composer; born London, May 
22, 1856. Composed comic operas, an orchestral suite, Cali- 
fornia Scenes, etc. Lives San Diego, Cal. 

Stiehl (Steel), Heinrich. Organist, composer; born Lti- 
beck, Ger., Aug. 5, 1829; died Reval, Rus., May 1, 1886. 
Composed chambier music, piano pieces, songs, etc. 

Stierlin (Steer4in), Adolf. Bass, composer; born Adenau, 
Ger., Oct. 14, 1859. Opera composer. Miinster, Ger., Con- 

Stirling, Elizabeth. Organist, composer; born Greenwich, 
Eng., Feb. 26, 1819; died London, 1895. Composed organ 
works and songs. 

Stock, Frederick. Conductor, composer; born Jiilich, Ger., 
Nov, 11, 1872. Chicago Symphony Orchestra. 

Stockhausen, Julius. Baritone, teacher of singing; born 
Paris, Jul. 22, 1826; died Frankfort, Ger., Sept. 22, 1906. 
Eminent as an oratorio and lieder singer, and as a teacher. 


Stoeving (Stay-ving), Paul. Violinist, writer, teacher; 
born Leipzig, Ger., May 7, 1861. Wrote valuable technical 
works on the violin and violin playing. Lives New York. 

Stohr (Stair), Richard. Composer; born Vienna, Jun. 11, 
1874. Composed symphonies, concertos, chamber music, 
choruses. Lives Vienna. 

Stojowski (Sto-yof'ski) , Sigismund. Pianist, teacher, com- 
poser; bom Strelzy, Pol., May 14, 1870. Pupil of Pade- 
rewski. Composed for orchestra and piano. Lives New 

Stokowski (StO'kof'Ski), Leopold. Conductor; born Lon- 
don, Apr. 18, 1881. Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra. 

St5pel (Stay-pel), Robert August. Composer; born Ber- 
lin, 1821 ; died New York,*Oct 1, 1887. Educated in Paris. 
Composed operas. 

Storace, Stephen. Composer; born London, Jan. 4, 1763; 
died there, Mar. 19, 1796. Produced many works for the 

Stradella, Alessandro. Composer; born Naples, Italy, 
1645; died Genoa, Italy, Jun. 6(16), 1681. Opera com- 
poser of eminence in the early history of the subject. 

Stradivari (Stradivarius), Antonio. Violin-maker; bom 
Cremona, Italy, 1644; died there, Dec. 18, 1736. One of the 
great violin makers of Italy. 

Straeser (Strayser), Ewald. Composer; born Burscheid, 
Ger., Jun. 27, 1867. Composed for orchestra and chamber 
music Cologne, Ger., Conservatory. 

Strakosch (Strah-kosh). (1) Maurice. Impresario; bom 
Lemberg, Aus., 1825; died Paris, Oct. 9, 1887. Teacher 
of Adelina PattL (2) Max. Born 1834; died New York, 
Mar. 17, 1892. Managed operatic productions in U. S. 

Stransky, Josef. Conductor; born Humpoltz, Boh., Sept 
9, 1872. New York Philharmonic Society. 

Stratton, Stephen S. Writer, critic; born London, Apr. 
19, 1840. Author of biographical works. 


Straube, Karl. Organist; born Berlin, Jan. 6, 1873. Dis- 
tinguished virtuoso, Bach player, and conductor. Lives 
Leipzig, Ger. 

Straus (Strous). (1) Ludwig. Violinist; born Presburg, 
Hun., Mar. 28, 1835. Concertmaster, London Philhar- 
monic Orchestra. (2) Oskar. Composer; born Vienna, 
Apr. 6, 1870. Composed light operas, operettas, and or- 
chestra music. Lives Vienna. 

Strauss (Strous), (1) Eduard. Conductor; born Vienna, 
1835; died there, Dec. 29, 1916. Composer of dance 
music. Son of (2). (2) Johann. Composer, conductor; 
born Vienna, Mar. 14, 1804; died there, Sept. 25, 1849. 
The head of the celebrated Strauss family whose match- 
less dance music has charmed the world. (3) Johann. 
Composer, conductor; born Vienna, Oct. 25, 1825; died 
there, June 3, 1899. Son of (2). (4) Joseph. Conr 
ductor; born 1827; died Warsaw, Pol., Jul. 22, 1870. 
Son of (2). (5) Richard. Composer; born Munich, 
Ger., Jun. 11, 1864. Was conductor at Munich 1886-89; 
1895-98; Weimar, 1889-95; and Berlin, 1898-. His later 
works have aroused much discussion by their innovations. 
His operas are Guntram, Feuersnot, Salome, Elektra, and 
a light work, Der Rosenkavalier, His symphonic works, 
such as Death and Transfiguration, Till Eulenspiegel, Don 
Quixote, Ein Heldenlehen, are considered his best works. 
Lives Berlin. 

Stravinsky, Igor. Composer; born Oranienburg, Rus., 
Jun. 5, 1882. Composed radical ballets The Bird of Fire, 
Le Sacree du Printemps, etc., and orchestral works. Lives 

Streabbog. See Gobbaerts. 

Strelezki (Stre-lets-ki) , Anton (pseudonym of A. A. Bur- 
nand). Composer; born Croydon, £n>g., Dec. 5, 1859. 
Lived in U. S. for a number of years. 

Strickland, Lily. Composer; born Anderson, S. C, Jan. 
28, 1887. Song composer. Lives New York. 


Strong, George Templeton. Composer; born New York, 
185S. Composed symphonic poems, symphonies, Sintram, 
No. 2, well-received, cantata The Haunted Mill, etc Lives 
in Switzerland. 

Strube, Gustav. Violinist, conductor, composer; born 
Ballenstedt, Ger., Mar. 3, 1867. Composed modern and in- 
teresting overtures, symphonies, S3rmphonic poems, Lorelei, 
Echo et Narcisse, etc. Peabody Conservatory, Baltimore, 

Strungk (Siroongk), Nikolaus Adam. Violinist, composer; 
bom Celle, Ger,, about 1640 ; died Dresden, Ger., 1700. Early 
opera composer. 

Sudds, William F. Composer; born London, Mar. 5, 1843. 
Composed much sacred music and many piano pieces. 
Lives Gouverneur, N. Y. 

Suk (Sook), Josef. Violinist, composer; born Krecovic, 
Boh., Jan. 4, 1874. Composed overtures, chamber works, 
The Fairy Tale, suite, etc. Lives Prague, Boh. 

Sullivan, Sir Arthur Se3rmour. Composer; born London, 
May 13, 1842; died there, Nov. 22, 1900. A choir-boy at 
the Chapel Royal. When fourteen won the Mendelssohn 
Scholarship. Studied under Bennett and Goss, and after- 
ward spent three years at Leipzig. Attracted great atten- 
tion shortly after his return from Leipzig by his music to 
The Tempest Achieved a world-wide success with his 
comic operas. Also wrote the cantata Kenilworth, the 
oratorios The Prodigal Son, The Martyr of Antioch, and 
The Golden Legend; a festival Te Deum, overtures, a sym- 
phony, songs, especially the well-known The Last Chord. 

Sapp6 (SoO'pay), Franz von. Composer; born Spalato, 
Aus., Apr. 18, 1820; died Vienna, May 22, 1895. 

Surette, Thomas Whitney. Author, composer; born Con- 
cord, Mass., Sept. 7, 1862. Composed several operettas. 
Author of text-books on music study. Lives Concord, Mass. 

Siissmayer (Sees-my-er) , Franz Xaver. Composer; born 
Schwanenstedt, Aus., 1766; died Vienna, Sept. 17, 1803. 



Suter, 'Hermann. Composer; born Kaiserstuhl, Switz., 
Apr. 28, 1870. Composed for orchestra, chamber music, 
and for chorus. Lives Basel, Switz. 

Svendsen, Johann Severin. Composer, conductor; born 
Christiania, Nor., Sept. 30, 1840; died Copenhagen, Den., 
Jun. 13, 1911. Served for six years in the Norwegian army, 
meanwhile studying music. Joined a band of itinerant 
musicians as violinist. Entered Leipzig Conservatory where 
he studied composition. His works include a symphony, 
some clever chamber music, etc. 

Sweelinck (Svay-link), Jan Pietcr. Organist, composer; 
born Amsterdam, Hoi., 1562; died there, Oct. 16, 1621. The 
most distinguished organist of his time. 

Szekely (Shek-e-ly), Imr€. Pianist; born Matyfalva, Hun., 
May 8, 1825; died Pesth, Hun., Apr. 1, 1887. 

Sxumowska (Shoo-mof'ska) , Antoinette. See Adamowski, 
Mrs. Joseph. 

Tadolini, Giovanni Composer; born Bologna, Italy, 1793; 
died there, Nov. 19, 1872. Composed operas, canzon- 
ettas, etc. 

Talexy, Adrien. Pianist, composer; born 1821; died Paris, 
Feb., 1881. Composed operettas and salon music. 

Tallis, Thomas. Organist, composer; born between 1520 
and 1529; died London, Nov. 23, 1585. Composed church 

Tamagno (Ta-tnahn^yo) , Francesco. Tenor; born Turin, 
Italy, 1851; died Varese, Italy, Aug. 31, 1905. A power- 
ful dramatic voice. 

Tamberlik, Enrico. Tenor; born Rome, Mar. 16, 1820; 
died Paris, Mar. 15, 1889. Celebrated opera singer. 


Tamburini, Antonio. Bass; born Faenza, Italy, Mar. 28, 
1800; died Nice, France, Nov. 9, 1876. 

Taneiev (Tan-e-yef), Sergei. Composer; born Russia, 
Nov. 13(25), 1856; died Moscow, Rus., Jun. 19, 1915. Com- 
posed four symphonies, overtures, etc; best known by his 
dignified music to the trilogy Oresteia, 

Tansur, William. Organist, composer; born Dunchurch, 
Eng., about 1700; died St. Neots, Eng., Oct, 7, 1783. 

Tapper, Thomas. Writer; born Canton, Mass., Jan. 28, 
1864. Author of many valuable educational music works. 
Institute of Musical Art, New York. 

Tartini (Tar-tee-ne) , Giuseppe. Violinist, composer; born 
Pirano, Italy, Apr. 12, 1692 ; died Padua, Italy, Feb. 16, 1770. 
In 1728 founded his famous violin school at Padua. He 
published various treatises as well as numerous composi- 

Tasca, Baron Pier Antonio. Composer; born Noto, Italy, 
1863. Opera composer. 

Taubert (Tou-bairt), Karl Gottfried Wilhelm. Pianist, 
composer; born Berlin, Mar. 23, 1811; died there, Jan. 
7, 1891. 

Taubmann (Toub-mann) , Otto. Conductor, composer; 
bom Hamburg, Ger., Mar. 8, 1859. Orchestral and choral 
composer. Lives Berlin. 

Tausig (Tou-sig), Karl. Pianist; born Warsaw, Pol., Nov. 
4, 1841 ; died Leipzig, Ger., Jul. 17, 1871. Liszt's greatest 
pupil. Composed technical studies of great value. 

Taylor, Franklin. Pianist, writer; born Birmingham, Eng., 
Feb. 5, 1843. Author of works on piano playing. 

Telemann, Georg Philip. Organist, composer; born Madge- 
burg, Ger., Mar. 14, 1681; died Hamburg, Ger., July 25, 

Tellefsen, Thomas Dyke. Pianist, composer; born Dront- 
heim. Nor., Nov. 26, 1823; died Paris, Oct., 1874. Pupil 
of Chopin. 


Temple, Hope (Mme. Andre M^ssager). Composer; born 
Ireland. Composed a number of popular songs. Lives 

Templeton, John. Tenor; born Kilmarnock, Scot, Jul. 
30, 1802; died London, Jul. 2, 1886. Successful in opera 
and concert, especially in Scottish songs. 

Temina (Ter-nee-na) , Milka. Soprano; born Vezisce, Aus., 
Dec. 19, 1864. Eminent Wagnerian singer. 

Terschak, Adolf. Flutist, composer; born Hermannstadt, 
Aus., 1832; died Breslau, Ger., 1901. 

Tessarin, Francesco. Composer; born Venice, Dec. 3, 
1820. Opera composer; friend of Wagner. 

Tetrazzini (Tet-ra-tsee-ne-), Luisa. Soprano; born Flor- 
ence, Italy, 1874. Famous coloratura singer. 

Thalberg (Tahl-berg), Sigismund. Pianist, composer; 
born Geneva, Switz., Jan. 7, 1812; died Naples, Italy, Apr. 
27, 1871. Pupil of Hummel. Famous for his mastery of 
the singing tone and legato effects on the piano. 

Thayer. (1) Alexander Whcclock. Writer; born South 
Natick, Mass., Oct. 22, 1817; died Trieste, Italy, July 15, 
1897. Published a famous biography of Beethoven. (2) 

Arthur Wilder. Composer, conductor; born Dedham, 
Mass., Aug. 26, 1857. Composed sacred and secular 
vocal music. Lives Boston. (3) Whitney Eugene. 
Organist; born Mendon, Mass., Dec. 11, 1838; died Bur- 
lington, Vt., Jan. 27, 1889. Composed studies and pieces 
for organ. 

Theile (Ty-leh)^ Johann. Composer; born Naumberg, 
Ger., Jul. 29, 1646; died there, Jun. 24, 1724. Eminent con- 
trapuntal composer. 

Them (Tairn), Karl. Composer; born Iglo, Hun., Aug. 
18, 1817; died Vienna, Apr. 13, 1886. Composed operas, 
songs, etc. 

Thibaud (Tee-bo), Jacques. Violinist; born Bordeaux, 
France, Jul. 27, 1880. With Ysaye and Kreisler a leader 
of the world's violinists. 


Thiebaut (Tee-bo), Henri. Composer, teacher; born 
Schaerbeck, Bel., Feb. 4, 1865. Orchestral composer and 
writer. Lives Brussels. 

Thierf elder (Teer-fel-der), Albert. Composer; born Miihl- 
hausen, Alsace, Apr. 30, 1846. Opera and symphony com- 
poser. Lives Rostock, Ger. 

Thi^riot (Tee-air-yo) , Ferdinand. Conductor, composer; 
born Hamburg, Ger., Apr. 7, 1838. Orchestral and chamber 
music composer. Lives Hamburg. 

Thoma (To-mah), Rudolf. Composer, teacher; born Loh- 
sewitz, Gen, Feb. 22, 1829; died Breslau, Ger., Oct. 21, 1908. 
Oratorio and opera composer. 

Thomas {To-mah), Charles Ambroise. Composer; born 
Metz, Alsace, Aug. S, 1811 ; died Paris, Feb. 12, 1896. Stud- 
ied at the Paris Conservatoire. Wrote operas, Mignon, 
Hamlet, etc., church music, chamber music, piano pieces, 
and other works. 

Thomas. (1) Arthur Goring. Composer; born Ralton 
Park, Eng., Nov. 21, 1851; died London, Mar. 20, 1892. 
Composed operas, cantatas, songs, etc. (2) Theodore. 
Conductor; born Esens, Ger., Oct 11, 1835; died Chicago, 
Jan. 4, 1905. A strong influence in developing American 
love for orchestral music. Founded Chicago Orchestra. 

Thom6 {To-may), Francis. Composer; born Port Louis, 
Mauritius, Oct. 18, 1850; died Paris, Nov. 16, 1909. Com- 
posed attractive piano music and songs. 

Thomson, Cesar. Violinist, teacher; born Liege, Bel., 
Mar. 17, 1857. Teacher of well-known violinists. Removed 
from Brussels to Rome in 1914. 

Thuille (Too-il-leh), Ludwig. Composer; born Bozen, 
Ger., Nov. 30, 1861 ; died Munich, Ger., Feb. 5, 1907. Com- 
posed chamber music, orchestral works, Romantic over- 
ture, etc., and the operas Theuerdank, Gugeline, and Lobe- 

Thursby, Emma. Soprano; born Brooklyn, N. Y., Feb. 
21, 1857. Distinguished concert singer. Lives New York. 


Tichatschek (Tik-a-chek) , Joseph Aloys. Tenor; born 
Ober-Weckelsdorf, Boh., Jul. 11, 1807; died near Dresden, 
Ger., Jan. 18^ 1886. 

Tiersot (Tyair-so), Julien. Writer, composer; born Bourg, 
France, Jul. 5, 1857. Composed symphonic poem. Sire 
Halewyn, choral-orchestral works, wrote books and articles 
on music and musicians. Librarian Paris Conservatory. 

Tietjens (Teet-yens), Teresa. Soprano; born Hamburg, 
Ger., July 17, 1831; died London, Oct. 3, 1877. Opera 

Tllman, Alfred. Composer; born Brussels, Bel., Feb. 3, 
1848; died there, 1895. Composed cantatas, etc 

Tinctoris, Johannes. Writer; born Poperinghe, Bel., about 
1446; died Nivelles, France, 1511. 

Tinel, Edgar. Composer; born Sinay, Bel., Mar. 27, 1854; 
died Brussels, Bel., Oct 28, 1912. Composed vocal-orches- 
tral works. Best known by his oratorios, Franciscus, etc. 

Tirindelli, Pietro Adolf o. Violinist; born Conegliano, 
Italy, May 5, 1858. Opera and song composer. Cincinnati 
Conservatory of Music. 

To£Ft, Alfred. Composer; born Copenhagen, Den., Jan. 2, 
1865. Composed opera, piano and violin pieces, songs. 

Tomaschek, Wenzel. Pianist, teacher; born Skutsch, Boh., 
Apr. 17, 1774; died Prague, Boh., Apr. 3, 1850. 

Tonassi, Pietro. Composer; born Venice, Italy, Sept., 1801; 
died there, Nov. 4, 1877. Composed church music. 

Torchi (Tor-kee), Luigi. Writer, teacher; born Mordano, 
Italy, Nov. 7, 1858. Composed an overture, a symphony, 
operas. La Tempestaria, etc. Lives Bologna, Italy. 

Torrance, Rev. George William. Composer; born Rath- 
mines, Ire., 1835. Oratorio composer. Lives Australia. 

Toscanini, Arturo. Conductor; bom Parma, Italy, Mar. 25, 
1867. Metropolitan Opera Company, New York, 1908-15. 


Tosti, Francesco Paolo. Composer, teacher of singing; 
born Ortona, Italy, Apr. 9, 1846; died Rome, Pec. 2, 1916. 
Famous song composer. 

Tourj^e (Toor-jshay) , Eben. Teacher; born Warwick, R. I., 
Jun. 1, 1834; died Boston, Apr. 12, 1891. Founder of New 
England Conservatory, Boston. 

Toumemire {Toorn-mere), Charles. Organist, composer; 
born Bordeaux, France, Jan. 22, 1870. Symphony and cham- 
ber music composer. Lives Paris. 

Tours* Berthold. Violinist, composer; born Rotterdam, 
Hoi., Dec. 17, 1838; died London, Mar. 11, 1897. Wrote 
church music, piano pieces, songs, and a violin Method. 

Tourte (Toort), Francois. Violin bow-maker; born Paris, 
1747; died there, Apr., 1835. Most celebrated of bow- 

Tovey, Donald Francis. Pianist, composer; born Eton, 
Eng., Jul. 17, 1875. Composed a piano concerto, etc. 

Trebelli, Zelia. Mezzo-soprano; born Paris, Nov. 12, 1838; 
died Etretat, France, Aug. 18, 1892. Opera singer. 

Treville (Tray-vilU), Yvonne de. Soprano; born Galves- 
ton, Tex., Aug. 25, 1881. Concert soprano. Lives New 

Tmecek (Tme-chek), Hans. Composer; born Prague, 
Boh., May 16, 1858; died there. Mar. 28, 1914. Composed 
operas and works for orchestra. 

Truettc, Everett E. Organist, teacher, composer; born 
Rockland, Mass., Mar. 14, 1861. Concert organist; com- 
posed church music and organ pieces. Lives Boston. 

Tschaikowsky {Chy-kof-sky) , Peter Ilyitch. Composer; 
born Wotkinsk, Rus., May 7, 1840; died Petrograd, Nov. 6, 
1893. Studied at the Petrograd Conservatory and also in 
Germany. Was for twelve years a teacher in Moscow Con- 
servatory. Wrote famous symphonies, operas, orchestral 
music, songs, etc. 


Tscherepnin (Cher-ep-nin), NicolaL Composer; born Rus- 
sia, 1873. Orchestral and choral composer. Lives Pet- 

Tua (Too-ah), Teresina. Violinist; born Turin, Italy, May 
22, 1867. Distinguished virtuoso. Lives Rome. 

Tuckerman, Samuel Parkman. Organist; born Boston, 
Feb. 11, 1819; died Newport, R. I., June 30, 1890. 

Turner, Alfred Dudley. Pianist, teacher; born St. Albans, 
Vt., Aug. 24, 1854; died there. May 7, 1888. Teacher at 
New England Conservatory, Boston. 

Turpin, Edmund Hart. Organist, composer; born Not- 
tingham, Eng., May 4, 1835; died London, Oct. 25, 1907. 
Wrote church music. 

Tutkovski, NicolaL Pianist; born Lipowetz, Rus., Feb. 
17, 1857. Orchestral composer, symphony, etc. 

Tye, Christopher. Organist, composer; born Westminster, 
Eng., about 1508; died Mar., 15^2. Wrote church music. 

Tsmdall, John. Scientist; born near Carlow, Ire., Aug. 2, 
1820; died Dec. 4, 1893. Eminent as an acoustician and 
author of Sound. 


Udbye, Martin Andreas. Composer; born Trondhjem, 
Nor., 1820; died (?). Composed operettas, cantatas, cho- 
ruses, songs. 

Ueberlee (Ee-ber-lay), Adalbert. Organist, composer; 
born Berlin, Jun. 27, 1837 ; died there. Mar. 15, 1897. Opera 
and oratorio composer. 

Ugalde (Oo-gahl'deh), Delphine. Soprano; born Paris, 
Dec. 3, 1829; died there, Jul. 19, 1910. Opera singer; com- 
posed an opera. 


Uhl (Ool), Edmund. Composer, teacher; born Prag^ue, 
Boh., Oct. 25, 1853. Orchestral, chamber music, and opera 
composer. Lives Wiesbaden, Ger. 

Ulibishev {Oo-lih-i-sheff) , Alexander von. Writer; born 
Dresden, Ger., 1795; died Nijni-Novgorod, Rus., Jan. 24, 
1858. Wrote a biography of Mozart. 

Ulrich (Ool^k), Hugo. Composer; born Oppeln, Ger., 
Nov. 26, 1827; died Berlin, May 23, 1872. Wrote orches- 
tral and chamber music and arranged orchestral works for 
the piano. 

Upton, George Putnam. Writer, critic; born Boston, Oct. 
25, 1834. Author of valuable critical books on music. Lives 

Urban (Oor-bahn), Heinrich. Violinist, composer; born 
Berlin, Aug. 27, 1837 ; died there, Nov. 24, 1901. Orchestral 

Urso (Oor'so)f Camilla. Violinist; born Nantes, France, 
Jun. 13, 1842; died New Vork, Jan. 20, 1902. Celebrated 
concert artist. 

Urspruch (Oor-sprukh), Anton. Pianist, composer; born 
Frankfort, Ger., Feb. 17, 1850; died there, Jan. 11, 1907. 
Pupil of Liszt. Composed piano music and two operas. 

Vaccai {Vak-kah-ee) , Niccolo. Composer; born Tolentino, 
Italy, Mar. 15, 1790; died Pesaro, Italy, Aug. 5, 1848. Cele- 
brated singing teacher and composer of technical works 
for the voice. 

Valle de Paz, Edgar del. Composer; born Alexandria, 
Egypt, Oct. 18, 1861. Orchestral composer. Lives Flor- 
ence, Italy. 

Van Cleve, John Smith. Pianist, teacher; born Maysville, 
Ky., Oct 30, 1851 ; died New York, 191& 


Van der Stucken, Prank. Composer, conductor; born 
Fredericksburg, Tex^ Oct. 15, 1858. . Composed for orchestra. 
Lives New York. 

Van Dyck, Ernst Hubert. Tenor; born Antwerp, Bel., 
Apr. 2, 1861. Eminent in Wagner music dramas. Lives 
near Antwerp. 

Van Rooy, Anton. Baritone; born Rotterdam, HoL, Jan. 
12, 1870. Frankfort Opera. 

Van Zandte, Marie. Soprano; born New York, Oct. 8, 1861. 
Opera Comique, Paris, for a number of years. Lives Mos- 
cow, Rus. 

Vassilenko. See Wassilenko. 

Vavrinecz {Vav-ri-netch) , Mauritius. Composer; born 
Czegled, Hun., Jul. 18, 1858. Composed masses, an' over- 
ture, a symphony, other orchestral works, and two operas. 
Lives Buda-Pesth, Hun. 

Vccsey (Vesh-ey), Franz von. Violinist; born Buda-Pesth, 
Hun., Mar. 23, 1893. Distinguished virtuoso. Lives 

Veracini (Veh-ra-chee-nee), Francesco. Violinist; born 
Florence, Italy, about 1685; died near Pisa, Italy, 1750. 
Eminent in the Italian classical school. 

Verdi {V air-dee), Giuseppe. Composer; born Le Roncolc, 
Italy, Oct. 10, 1813 ; died Milan, Italy, Jan. 27, 1901. Studied 
at Milan. Gained a great reputation by his operas Ernani, 
Rigoletto, Trovatore, Trainata, Atda, Otello, Falstaff, etc, 
which have enjoyed an immense vogue all over the world. 
Verdi ranks as the greatest modern Italian composer, and 
one of the most prominent musicians of the last century. 

Verhey, F. H. Composer, teacher; born Rotterdam, Hoi., 
1848. Composed operas, chamber music, etc. Lives 

Vesque von Piittlingen, Johann. Composer; born Opole, 
Pol., July 23, 1803; died Vienna, Oct. 30, 1883. Com- 
posed operas and songs. 


Viadana, Lodovico. Composer; born Viadana, Italy, 1564; 
died Gualtieri, Italy, May 2, 1645. Wrote for voice and in- 

Vianesi (Vee-a-nay-jsee), Auguste Charles. Conductor; 
born Legnano, Italy, 1837; died New York, 1908. 

Viardot-Garcia, Pauline. Mezzo-soprano; born Paris, Jul. 
18^ 1821 ; died there, May 18, 1910. Studied the piano under 
Liszt, but afterward devoted herself to singing. Achieved 
a brilliant success at the Italian opera at London and Paris, 
made many tours, retired in 1863, and lived at Paris as a 

Vidal (Vee-dahl), PiEiul Antonin. Composer; born Tou- 
louse, France, Jun. 16, 1863. Opera and ballet com- 
poser. Lives Paris. 

Vierling (Veerling), Georg. Composer; born Franken- 
thal, Ger., Sept. 5, 1820; died Wiesbaden, Ger., Jun. 1, 

Vieuxtemps (Vyu-ton), Henri. Violinist; born Ver- 
viers, Bel., Feb. 20, 1820; died Mustapha, Algiers, Jun. 6, 
1881. A pupil of De Beriot. Made extensive tours. From 
1)S46 to 1852 lived at Petrograd as court violinist Made 
successful tours in Europe and America. Wrote four violin 
concertos, also a number of smaller compositions of a 
brilliant and highly effective kind. 

Vilbac, Alphonse C. R. de. Pianist, organist; born Mont- 
pellier, France, Jun. 3, 1829; died Brussels, Bel., Mar. 19, 
1884. Composed operas and piano pieces. 

Villebois (Veel-bwah), Conatantin. Composer; born Pet- 
rograd, May 17, 1817; died Warsaw, Pol., Jun. 30, 1882. 
Song and opera composer. 

Villoing, VassilL Composer, writer; born Moscow, Rus^ 
Oct. 28, 1850. Author of text-books. Lives Nijni-No¥- 
gorod, Rus. 

Vinee (Vee-nay), Anselme. Composer; born Loudun* 
France. Orchestral composer. Lives Paris. 


Viotta, Henri. Conductor, writer; born Amsterdam, Hoi., 
Jul. 16, 1848. Orchestral composer. Lives The Hague, 

Viotti, Giovanni Battista. Violinist, composer; born Fon- 
tanetto da P6, Italy, May 23, 1753; died London, Mar. 3, 
1824. The son of a blacksmith* Studied at Turin. Made 
many concert tours. Wrote twenty-nine concertos, also 
duets, quartets, sonatas, etc. Spent the latter part of his 
life at London. 

Vitali, (Hovanni. Composer; born Cremona, Italy, about 
1644; died Modena, Italy, Oct. 12, 1692. Composed sonatas 
and other instrumental works. 

Vivaldi, Antonio. Violinist, composer; born Venice, Italy, 
. about 1680; died there, 1743. Composed for the violin in- 
cluding a famous Chaconne. 

Vleeshouwer, Albert. Composer; born Antwerp, Bel., 
Jun. 8, 1863. Opera and orchestral composer. 

VogeL (1) Friedrich Wilhelm. Organist; born Havel- 
berg, Nor., Sept. 9, 1807; died Bergen, Nor. (2) Charles 
Louis Adolphe. Composer; born Lille, France, May 17, 
1808; died Paris, 1892. Opera composer. 

Vogl, Heinrich. Tenor; born Miinich, Ger., Jan. 15, 1845; 
died there, Apr. 20, 1900. Eminent Wagner opera singer. 

Vogler, Abb6 G. J. Organist, composer; born Wtirzburg, 
Ger., Jun. 15, 1749; died Darmstadt, Ger., May 6, 1814. 
Celebrated for his improvising on the organ. 

Vogrich, Max. Composer; born Hermannstadt, Aus., Jan. 
24, 1852; died New York, Jun. 10, 1916. Composed opera 
^ Buddha, etc. 

Vogty Jean. Pianist, composer; born near Liegnitz, Ger., 
Jan. 17, 1823; died Eberswalde, Ger., JuL 31, 1888. Com- 
posed piano studies and pieces. 

Volbach, Fritz. Conductor; born Wipperfiirth, Ger., Dec. 
17, 1861. Composed choral-orchestral works, a symphony, 


operas, The Art of Love, etc.» and smaller works. Lives 
Tubingen, Ger. 

Volborth, Eugen von. Composer; born Petrograd, 1854. 
Opera composer. Lives Baden-Baden, Ger. 

Volckmar, Wilhelm. Organist, composer; born Hersfeld, 
Ger., Dec. 26, 1812; died Romberg, Ger., Aug. 29, 1887. 
Organ virtuoso. 

Volkmann, Friedrich Robert. Composer; born Lom- 
matzsch, Ger., Apr. 6, 1815; died Pesth, Hun., Oct 30, 1883. 
Composed for orchestra. 

Vos, Eduard de. Conductor, composer; born Ghent, Bel., 
Jan. 19, 1833. 

Voss, Charles. Composer, pianist; born Selmarsow, Ger., 
Sept. 20, 1815; died Verona, Italy, Aug. 28, 1882. Wrote 
piano music. 

Vreuls, Victor. Composer; born Verviers, Bel., Feb. 4, 
1876. Orchestral composer, symphonies, etc. Schola 
Cantorum, Paris. 

Vuillaume (Vwee-yome), Jean Baptiste. Violin-maker; 
born Mirecourt, France, Oct. 7, 1798; died Paris, Mar. 19, 
1879. Eminent French maker and expert on old Italian 


Wachs (Vaks), Eticnnc Victor Paul. Pianist, composer; 
born Paris, Sept. 19, 1851. Composed attractive light piano 
music. Lives Paris. 

Wachtel, Thcodor. Tenor; born Hamburg, Ger., Mar. 10, 
1823; died Frankfort, Ger., Nov. 14, 1893. Celebrated 
opera tenor. 

Waelput (Vahl'poot), Hendrik. Conductor, composer; 
bom Ghent, Bel., Oct. 26, 1845; died there, JuL 8^ 1885. 
Composed symphonies, cantatas, etc. 


Waelrant, Hubert. Composer, teacher; born Tingerloo, 
Bel., about 1517; died Antwerp, Bel., Nov. 19, 1595. Emi- 
nent musician of the Netherlands contrapuntal school. 

Wagenaer {Vah-ge-nahr), Johann. Organist, composer; 
born Utrecht, Hoi., Nov. 1, 1862. Composed cantatas, cham- 
ber music, etc. Lives Utrecht 

Wagenseil (Vah-gen-sUe) , Georg Christian. Composer; 
born Vienna, Jan. 15, 1715; died there. Mar. 1, 1777. 

Waghalter, Ig;naz. Conductor, composer; born Germany. 
Composed operas, Mandragola, etc. Lives Berlin. 

Wagner (Vahg-ner), (1) Richard. Composer; bom Leip- 
zig, Ger., May 22, 1813 ; died Venice, Feb. 13, 1883. While 
studying at the University of Leipzig also worked at music. 
After producing an overture and a symphony which were 
successfully performed at the Gewandhaus, he wrote an 
opera, Die Feen. In 1836 he conducted a performance of 
his next opera. Das Liebesverbot, at Magdeburg, where he 
was musical director of the theatre. After a short time 
spent at Konigsberg and Riga Wagner went to Paris in 
the hope that he might get an opera produced there. . In 
Paris he completed Rienzt and The Flying Dutchman, Al- 
though unsuccessful in Paris he met with good fortune in 
Dresden where a performance of Rienzi, in 1842, resulted 
in his appointment as capellmeister. In 1845 he produced 
Tannhduser and also wrote Lohengrin. Becoming involved 
in the Revolution at Dresden in 1849 he was obliged to take 
refuge at Weimar and afterward at Paris whence he went 
to Zurich, in Switzerland. At Zurich he projected the great 
Nibelungen cycle of operas, and also Tristan und Isolde. 
Amnestied, and after an extensive musical tour, Wagner 
went to Munich where Tristan und Isolde and Die Meis- 
tersinger were produced in 1868. The crowning point in 
Wagner's life, however, was the performance of the Nibe- 
lungen cycle at Bayreuth, in 1876. Parsifal appeared in 
1882. No musical genius has ever achieved greater fame, 
and none, perhaps, has exerted a greater influence upon the 
development of music than Wagner. (2) Siegfried. Com- 


poser, conductor; born Triebschen, Switz., Jun. 6. 1869. 
Has composed operas. Lives Bayreuth, Ger. Son of (1). 

Waldteufel {Vahlt-toy-fel) , Emile. Composer; born Slrass- 
burg, Alsace, Pec. 9, 1837 ; died Paris, Feb. 16, 1915. Waltz 

Walker. (1) Ernest. Organist, writer; born Bombay, 
India, Jul. 15, 1870. Composed songs, etc. Lives Ox- 
ford, Eng. (2) Edyth. Contralto; born Hopewell, N. 
Y., 1870. Lives London. 

Wallace. (1) William Vincent. Composer, pianist; born 
Waterford, Ire., Jun. 1, 1814; died Chateau de Bages, 
France, Oct. 12, 1865. Traveled all over the world giving 
concerts. In 1845 returned to England and produced his 
famous opera Maritana, following it with Lurline, The 
Amber Witch, The Desert Flower, etc. (2) William. 
Composer; born Greenock, Scot., 1860. Composed a Crea- 
tion symphony, a choral symphony, six symphonic poems, 
overtures, suites, the opera Brassolis, etc. Lives London. 

Wallaschek, Richard. Writer; born Brtinn, Aus., Nov. 16, 
1860. Author of works on early music, rhythms, etc. Vienna 

Wallnoefer (Val-nay-fer), Adolf. Composer, singer; born 
Vienna, Apr. 24, 1854. Composed songs, choral works, etc 
Lives Rostock, Ger. 

Wambach, Emile Xaver. Violinist, composer; born Arlon, 
Luxembourg, Nov. 26, 1854. Composer of orchestral fan- 
tasias, choral-orchestral works, an opera, two oratorios, 
etc. Lives Antwerp, Bel. 

Ware, Harriet. Composer; born Waupun, Wis., Sept. 26, 
1877. Composed the cantata Sir Olaf, songs, etc Lives 
New York. 

Warlamov, Alexander. Composer; born Russia, 1801; died 
Moscow, Rus., 1851. Composed piano works and songs, 
including the very popular Red Sarafan, 

Wamots (Var-no), Elly. Soprano; born Liege, Bel., 1857. 
Distinguished operatic artist. 


Warren. (1) Richard Henry. Conductor, organist, com- 
poser; born Albany, N. Y., Sept. 17, 1859. Composed 
operettats, a cantata, orchestral works, a string quartet, 
etc. Lives New Haven, Conn. (2) Samuel Prowse. Or- 
ganist ; born Montreal, Can., Feb. 18, 1841 ; died New York, 
Oct. 7, 1915. Composed songs, anthems, organ music, etc. 

Wassilenko (Vas-si-len-ko) , SergeL Composer; born Mos- 
cow, Rus., 1872. Orchestral and cantata composer. Lives 

Watson, Michael William. Composer; born Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, Eng., Jul. 31, 1840; died near London, Oct. 3, 1889. 
Composed popular ballads. 

Webbe. (1) Samuel. Composer; born Minorca, 1740; 
died London, May 25, 1816. Organist in London. (2) 
Samuel. Composer, organist; born London, 1770; died 
Liverpool, 1843. Son of (1). 

Weber (Vay-ber), (1) Carl Maria von. Composer; born 
Eutin, Ger., Dec. 18, 1786; died Lo'hdon, Jun. 5, 1826. 
In 1800 his first opera. Das Waldmddchen, was performed 
at Chemnitz, Ger. In 1804 he went to Breslau where he 
commenced an opera entitled RuhezaM, the overture to 
which figures in programs as Ruler of the Spirits. After 
a very unsettled life he achieved a decided success at Leip^ 
zig as pianist and composer, and was made conductor of 
the opera at 'Prague. Later he settled in Dresden, Ger. 
Here he wrote the operas Preciosa, FreisthUtJs (1821) 
Euryanthe, and Oberon, which have made him famous. 
He also wrote church and chamber music. Shortly before 
his death he went to London to supervise the production 
of Oberon, (2) Gottfried. Theorist, writer; born Freins- 
heim, Ger., Mar. 1, 1779; died Kreuznach, Ger., Sept. 21, 
1839. Autor of text-books. 

Weckerlin (Veck-er-lan), Jean Baptiste Th6odore. Com- 
poser; born Gebweiler, Alsace, Sept (Nov.) 9, 1821; died 
Trottberg, Alsace, May 20, 1910. Composed small operas, 
choral works, etc.; authority on folk-music. 


Wegelius (Vay-gay-H-us), Martin. Composer, conductor; 
bom Helsingfors, Fin., Nov. 10, 1846; died there, Mar. 22, 
1906. Orchestral composer. 

Wehle (Vay-leh), Karl. Pianist; born Prague, Boh., Mar. 
17, 1825 ; died Paris, Jun. 3, 1883. Composed brilliant piano 

Weidig (Vy-dig), Adolf. Composer, teacher; born Ham- 
burg, Ger., Nov. 28, 1867. Orchestral composer. American 
Conservatory, Chicago. 

Wcidt (Vite)f Heinrich. Composer; born Coburg, Ger., 
1828; died Graz, Aus., Sept. 16, 19).0. Opera and operetta 

Weigl (Vy-gel), (1) Joseph. Composer; born Eisen- 
stadt, Hun., Mar. 28, 1766; died Vienna, Feb. 3, 1846. 
Composed operas, melodramas, masses. (2) Taddaus. 
composer, librarian; bom about 1774; died Vienna, Feb. 
10, 1844. 

Weil, Oscar. Pianist, composer; born Columbia Co., N. Y., 
1839. Wrote songs and piano pieces. Lives San Francisco. 

Weingartner (Vine-gart-ner) , Paul Felix. Composer, con- 
ductor ; bom Zarra, Aus., Jun. 2, 1863. A leading conductor ; 
composed symphonies, symphonic poems (King Lear, etc.), 
the operas Sakuntala, Malawikoy and Genesius, as well as 
smaller works. Lives Darmstadt, Ger. 

Weis (Vise)f Karel. Composer; born Prague, Boh., Feb. 
13, 1862. Composed operas and operettas. Lives Prague. 

Weissheimer (Vise-hime-er) ^ Wendelin. Conductor; born 
Osthofen, Ger., 1836; died Nuremberg, Jun. 16, 1910. Or- 
chestral and opera composer. 

Weitzmann (Vites-man), Karl Friedrich. Teacher, writer; 
born Berlin, Aug. 10, 1808 ; died there, Nov. 7, 1880. Wrote 
a history of the piano and piano-playing. 

Wendland, Waldemar. Composer; born Liegnitz, Ger., 
May 10, 1873. Composed (1912) the opera The Tailor of 
Malta. Lives Berlin. 


Wennerberg, Giinnar. Composer; born Lidkoping, Swed., 
Oct. 2, 1817; died Lecko, Swed., Aug. 22, 1901. Composed 
oratorios, settings of the Psalms, songs. 

Wermann (Vair-man), Friedrich Oskar. Organist, com- 
poser; born Neichen, Ger., 1849; died near Dresden, Ger., 
1906. Composed cantatas with orchestra, etc 

Wesley, Samuel Sebastian. Organist, composer; born Lon- 
don, Aug. 14, 1810; died Gloucester, Eng., Apr. 19, 1876. 
Eminent organist and Bach player. 

Westmeyer, Wilhelm. Composer; born Iburg, Ger., Feb. 
11, 1827; died Bonn, Ger., Sept. 3, 1880. Symphony and 
opera composer. 

Wetz (Vet2)f Richard. Pianist, conductor; born Gleiwitz, 
Ger., 1875. Orchestral, opera, and song composer. Lives 
Leipzig, Ger. 

Wetzler, Hermann Hans. Conductor, composer; born 
Frankfort, Ger., Sept. 8, 1870. Composed for orchestra and 
piano. Organist in New York for several years. Lives 
Ltibeck, Ger. 

Whelpley, Benjamin Lincoln. Organist, composer; born 
Eastport, Me., Oct 23, 1864. Composed songs, piano pieces, 
and violin works. Lives Boston. 

White, Maude Val6ric. Composer; born Dieppe, France, 
Jun. 23, 1855. Song composer. 

Whiting. (1) Arthur Battelle. Pianist; born Cambridge, 
Mass., Jun. 20, 1861. Composed an overture, chamber 
music, song cycles (Floriana), etc Lives New York. 
(2) George Elbridge. Organist, composer; born Hol- 
liston, Mass., Sept. 14, 1842. Known by his cantatas such as 
Henry of Navarre, The March of the Monks of Bangor, 
etc. which are very strong. Lives Boston. 

Whitney. (1) Myron William. Bass; born Ashby, Mass., 
Sept 5, 1836; died Sandwich, Mass., Sept. 19, 1910. Dis- 
tinguished opera and oratorio singer. (2) Samuel Bren- 
ton. Organist, composer; born Woodstock, Vt., Jun. 4, 


1842; died there, Aug. 3, 1914. Organist in Boston. G>ni- 
posed church music. 

Wickede {Vee-kay-deh), Friedrich von. Composer; born 
Domitz, Ger., Jul. 28, 1834; died Schwerin, Ger., Sept 11, 
1904. Orchestral, opera, and piano composer. 

Wickenhausser, Richard. Composer, conductor; born 
Briinn, Aus., Feb. 7, 1867. Composed vocal and chamber 
works. Lives Vienna. 

Wider (Vee-dor), Charles Marie. Organist, composer; 
bom Lyons, France, Feb. 21, 1844. Composed for orchestra, 
organ, and voice. Lives Paris. 

Wieck (Veek), Friedrich. Pianist, teacher; born Pretzsch, 
Ger., Aug. 18, 1785 ; died near Dresden, Ger., Oct. 6, 1873. 

Wiedermann, Karl Friedrich. Organist, composer, born 
Gocisseiffen, Ger., Dec. 25, 1856. Composed an overture, 
chamber works, songs, etc. Lives Berlin. 

Wiemann (Vee-man), Robert. Conductor, composer; 
born Frankenhausen, Ger., Nov. 4, 1870. Composed or- 
chestral, choral, and chamber works. Lives Stettin, Ger. 

Wieniawski (Vyen^yof-ski) , Henri. Violinist, composer; 
born Lublin, Pol., Jul. 10, 1835; died Moscow, Rus., Apr. 
12, 1880. Studied at the Paris Conservatory. Made fre- 
quent concert tours in Europe and America. 

Wihtol {Vee-tol), Joseph. Composer; born Wolmar, Rus., 
Jul. 26, 1863. Composed orchestral works, etc Lives Pet- 

Wild, Harrison M. Organist, conductor; born Hoboken, 

N. J., Mar. 6, 1861. Lives Chicago. 

Wilhar (Vil-har), Franz S. Conductor, composer; born 
Senoschetsche, Boh., 1852. Composed operas, masses, piano 
pieces, songs. Lives Agram, Aus. 

Wilhelmj iVil-hel-my) ^ August. Violinist; born Usingen, 
Ger., Sept. 21, 1845; died London, Jan. 22, 1908. Studied 
at Leipzig under Ferdinand J)avid. His work in the de- 
velopment of orchestral music and the management of con- 


certs entitles him to much credit His tours brought him 

Wilke (Vil'ke), Franz. Composer, conductor; born Cal- 
liesy Ger., Sept 3, 1861. Orchestral composer. Lives Greiz, 

Willaert (Vil-lart), Adrian. Composer; bom Bruges, Bel., 
about 1480; died Venice, Italy, Dec. 7, 1562. 

Willis, Richard Storrs. Composer, organist; born Bos- 
ton, Feb. 10, 1819; died Detroit, Mich., May 7, 1900. Song 

Willmers (Vil-mers), Heinrich Rudolf. Pianist, composer; 
born Berlin, Oct 31, 1821; died Vienna, Aug. 24, 1878. 
Composed brilliant piano music. 

Wilm (Vilm), Nicolai von. Composer; born Riga, Rus., 
Mar. 4, 1834; died Wiesbaden, Ger., Feb. 20, 1911. Com- 
posed chamber music and many fine teaching pieces for 

Wilson. (1) Grenville Dean. Composer, teacher; born 
Plymouth, Conn., Jan. 26, 1833; died Nyack, N. Y., 
Sept. 20, 1897. Composed light piano music. (2) Mor- 
timer. Composer, conductor; born Iowa, 1876. Amer- 
ican orchestral composer. Lives New York. 

Wiltberger, August. Composer, teacher; born Sobern- 
heim, Ger., Apr. 17, 1850. Composed oratorios, etc. 

Winderstein (Vin-der-stine) , Hans. Composer, conductor; 
born Liineburg, Ger., Oct 29, 1856. Lives Leipzig, Ger. 

Winding (Vin-ding), August Hendrik. Pianist, composer; 
bom Taars, Den., Mar. 24, 1835; died Copenhagen, Den., 
Jun. 16, 1899. Compo. 1 orchestral and chamber music, etc. 

Winkler (Vink-ler), Alexander. Pianist, composer; born 
Kharkov, Rus., Mar. 3, 1865. Lives Petrograd. 

Winter {Vin-ter)^ Peter von. Composer, conductor; born 
Mannheim, Ger., 1754; died Munich, Ger., Oct 17, 1825. 
Composed operas, operettas, oratorios, and masses. 


Winter-Hjelm (yin^ter-hyelm) , Otto. Organist, composer; 
bom Christiania, Nor., Oct. 8, 1837. Composed symphonies, 
piano works, songs. Lives Christiania. 

Wirtz (Veerts), Charles Louis. Pianist, composer; born 
The Hague, Hoi., Sept. 1, 1841. Composed a Te Deum, 
etc. Lives The Hague. 

Witek (Vit-ek), Anton. Violinist; born Saaz, Boh., Jan. 
7, 1872. Concertmaster, Boston Symphony Orchestra, 1909-. 
Lives Boston. 

Witherspoon, Herbert. Bass, teacher of singing; born 
Buffalo, N. Y., Jul. 21, 1873. Metropolitan Opera Co. 
Lives New York. 

Witkowsky (Vii-kof'sky) , Georges Martin. Composer ; born 
Montagneux, Algiers, Jan. 6, 1867. A French officer. Com- 
posed symphonies. Schola Cantorum, Lyons, France. 

Woelfl (Velfl), Joseph. Composer; bom Salzburg, Aus., 
1772; died London, May 21, 1812. Distinguished pianist; 
pupil of Leopold Mozart. 

Woikowsky-Biedau (Voi-koff-sky Bee-dow), Victor Hugo 
von. Composer; born Nieder-Amsdorf, Ger., Sept 2, 
1866. Opera and song composer. Lives Berlin. 

Wolf (Voolf), Hugo. Composer; born Windischgraz, Aus., 
Mar. 13, 1860; died Vienna, Feb. 22, 1903. Composed an 
opera Der Corregidor, the incomplete Manuel Venegas, 
chamber works, the symphonic poem Penthesilea, etc, but 
is best known by his many and remarkably artistic songs. 

Wolf-Ferrari, Ermanno. Composer; born Venice, Italy, 
Jan. 12, 1876. Composed the orchestral cantata Vita Nuova 
and the operas La Sulamite, Le Donne Curiose, Die Vier 
Grobiane, The Secret of Suzanne, The Jewels of the Ma- 
donna, and L'Amore Medico. The Jewels of the Madonna 
is a strong tragedy ; the other works are dainty light operas. 

WoUe, John Frederick. Organist, conductor; born Bethle- 
hem, Pa., Apr. 4, 1863. Organized Bach Festival, Bethle- 
hem. Lives Bethlehem. 


Wollenhaupt, H. A. Pianist, composer; born Schkeuditz, 
Ger., Sept. 27, 1827; died New York, Sept 18, 1863. Com- 
posed brilliant piano music. 

Wolstenholme, William. Organist, composer; born Black- 
burn, Eng., Feb. 24, 1865. Eminent recitalist; composed for 
organ; blind. Lives London. 

Wood. (1) Sir Henry Joseph. Conductor; born London, 
Mar. 3, 1870. Conductor Queen's Hall Concerts, London. 
(2) Mary Knight Composer; born Easthampton, Mass., 
Apr. 7, 1857. Composed attractive songs, a piano trio, etc. 
Lives New York. 

Woodman, Rajrmond Huntington. Organist, composer; 
born Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. 18^ 1861. Composed piano, or- 
gan, and vocal works. Columbia University, New York. 

Work, Henry Clay. Composer; born Middletown, Conn., 
Oct 1, 1832; died Hartford, Conn., Jun. 8, 1884. Composed 
popular and Civil War songs (Marching through Georgia, 

Wormser {Vorm-ser), Andr6 Alphonse. Composer; bom 
Paris, Nov. 1, 1851. Composed overtures, pantomimes 
{U Enfant prodigue), etc. 

Worrell, Lola Carrier. Pianist, composer; bom Michigan. 
Composed excellent songs. Lives New York. 

Wouters (Voo-tare), Francois Adolphe. Composer; bom 
Bmssels, Bel., May 28, 1849. Composed sacred works, an 
overture, etc. Lives Brussels. 

Wo3n:sch, Felix. Composer; born Troppau, Ger., Oct. 8^ 
1860. Composed a symphony, operas, cantatas, piano works, 
etc Lives Altona, Ger. 

Wranit2ky (Vran^ts-ky) , Paul. Violinist, composer; born 
Neureisch, Aus., Pec 30, 1756; died Vienna, Sept 28, 1808. 
Conductor Royal Opera Orchestra. 

Wiillner (Vil-ner). (1) Franz. Conductor, composer; bom 
Miinster, Ger., Jan. 28, 1832; died Braunfels, Ger., Sept 7, 
1902. Composed choral-orchestral works, masses, chamber 


music, etc. (2) Ludwig. Baritone; born Munster, Ger., 
Aug. 19, 1858. Famous Lieder singer. Son of (1). 

Wurm (Voorm), Marie. Pianist; born Southampton, Eng., 
May 18, 1860. Noted as improvisator; composed a con- 
certo, etc 

Wyman, Addison P. Pianist, composer ; born Cornish, N. H., 
Jun. 23, 1832; died Washington, Pa., Apr. 15, 1872. Com- 
posed popular piano pieces in salon style. 

Yaw, Ellen Beach« • Soprano; born Boston (New York), 
Sept. 18, 1868. Phenomenally high voice. Married Vere 
Goldthwaite. Lives Covina, Cal. 

Yradier {Ee-rah-di-er) , Sebastian. Composer; died Vittoria, 
Brazil, 1865. Spanish song composer (La Palotna, etc). 

Ysaye {Ee-zi-eh), Eugene. Violinist, conductor; born 
Liege, Bel., Jul. 16, 1858. His tours in Europe 
and America established his rank among the fore- 
most violinists. Conductor Cincinnati, O., Symphony 
Orchestra, 1918, 

Zach, Max. Violinist, conductor; bom Lemberg, Aus., Atig. 
31, 1864. Conductor St. Louis, Mo., Symphony Orchestra. 

Zachau (Zakh^ow), Friedrich Wilhelm. Organist, com- 
poser; born Leipzig, Ger., Nov. 19, 1663; died Halle, Ger., 
Aug. 14, 1721. Teacher of Handel. 

Zajicek (Zah-yi-chek), Julius. Composer; born Vienna, 
Nov. 2, 1877. Opera composer. 

Zandonai, Riccardo. Composer; born Sacco, Italy, May 28, 
1883. Composed the operas Conchita, Francesco and 
Melenis, a symphonic poem with voices, etc 


Zanella, Amilcare. Pianist, composer; born Monticelli 
d'Ongnia, Italy, Sept. 26, 1873. Composed a symphony, 
piano works with orchestra, chamber music, two operas, 
etc. Lives Pesaro, Italy. 

Zaremba. (1) NicolaL Theorist; born Vityebsk, Rus., 
1824; died Petrograd, Apr. 8, 1879. Director Petrograd 
Conservatory. Oratorio composer. (2) Vladislav. Teacher, 
composer; bom Podolia, Rus., Jun. 15, 1833. Composed 
piano pieces and songs. Lives Kiev, Rus. 

Zarembski, Jules de. Pianist; born Schitomir, Pol., Feb. 
28, 1854; died there, Sept. 15, 1885. Pupil of Liszt; 
teacher at Brussels Conservatory. Composed piano 

Zarlino, Giuseppe. Theorist; born Chioggia, Italy, Mar. 
22, 1517; died Venice, Italy, Feb. 14, 1590. 

Zarzycki (Tsar-fsits-ky) , Alexander. Pianist, composer; 
born Lemberg, Aus., Feb. 21, 1831; died Warsaw, Pol., 
Nov. 1, 1895. Composed songs. 

Zelenski, Ladislaus. Composer; born Gowdkowizy, Pol., 
Jul. 6, 1837. Composed operas, chamber music, masses, 
cantatas, etc. Lives Cracow, Aus. 

Zelter» Karl Friedrich. Composer, teacher; born Berlin, 
Dec. 11, 1758; died there. May 15, 1832. Teacher of 

Zemlinsky, Alexander von. Composer, conductor; born 
Vienna, Oct. 14, 1872. Composed a suite, the opera 
Zarema, etc. Lives Prague, Boh. 

Zerrahn, Carl. Conductor; born Malchow, Ger., Jul. 28, 
1826; died Milton, Mass., Dec. 29, 1909. Conductor 
Handel and Haydn Society, Boston. 

Zichy» Count Geza. Pianist; born Sztara, Hun., Jul. 23, 
1849. Composed several operas, including the Rakocsy 
Trilogy, and other works, but best known as a one-armed 
pianist owing to his having lost his right arm in a hunting 


Ziehn, Bemhard. Theorist; born Erfurt, Ger., Jan. 20, 
1845; died Chicago, Sept. 8, 1912. Author of text-books 
on harmony and composition. 

Zielinski, Jaroslav dc Pianist, coniposer; born Galicia, 
Aus., Mar. 31, 1847. Orchestral and piano composer. 
Lives Los Angeles, Cal. 

ZientarskL (1) Romualdo. Composer,; bom Plozk, Pol., 
1831; died Warsaw, Pol., 1874. Prolific orchestral and 
oratorio composer. (2) Victor. Composer; born War- 
saw, Pol., 1854. Composed piano works and songs. 

Zilcher, Hermann. Pianist, composer; born Frankfort, 
Ger., Aug. 18, 1881. Composed violin and ^iano pieces. 
Lives Munich, Ger. 

Zimbalist, Efrem. Violinist, composer; born Rostov, Rus., 
Apr. 9, 1889. Pupil of Auer. Lives New York. 

Zimmerman, Agnes. Pianist; born Cologne, Ger., Jul. 5, 
1845. Composed chamber music, piano pieces. Lives 

Zingarelli, Niccolo Antonio. Composer; bom Naples, Italy, 
Apr. 4, 1752; died near Naples, May 5, 1837. Composed 
many operas, church music, etc., and was famous as a 

Zingd, Rudolf Ewald. Conductor, composer; born Lieg- 
nitz, Ger., Sept. 15, 1876. Composed three operas. Lives 
Greifswald, Ger. 

Zodlner (Tsell-ner), Heinrich. Composer; bom Leipzig, 
Ger., Jul. 4, 1854. Composed several operas (Frith jo f, Der 
Ueberfall, Die Versunkene Glocke, etc.), choral-orchestral 
works (Die Hunnenschtacht, Columbus, and many others), 
several symphonies, and many smaller works. Lives Ant- 
werp, Bel. 

Zeis (Tso-is), Hans. Composer; born Graz, Aus., Nov. 
14. 1861. Opera and operetta composer. 

Zolotarev, Vassilly Andrcievitch. Composer; born Tagan- 
rog, Rus., Feb. 23, 1879. Composed for orchestra, cham- 
ber music, and piano. Moscow. Rus.. Conservatory. 


Zumpe, Hermann. Conductor; born Taubenheim, Ger., 
Apr. 9, 1850; died Munich, Ger., Sept. 3, 1903. Composed 
operas, operettas, a Wallenstein overture, etc 

Zumsteeg, Johann Rudolf. 'Cellist, composer; born Sach- 
senflur, Ger., Jan. 10, 1760; died Stuttgart, Ger., Jan. 27, 
1802. Composed operas, church music, and ballads. 

Zuschneid, Karl. Conductor, composer; born Oberglogau, 
Ger., May 29, 1856. Composed choruses with orchestra, 
etc. Lives Manmheim, Ger. 

Zweers (Tsz/airs), Bernard. Composer; born Amsterdam, 
Hoi., May 18, 1854. Composed symphonies, masses, 
cantatas, songs, etc, Lives Amsterdam, 

Musical Encyclopedia 


LOUIS G. ELSON. Editor-in-Chief 

"Among the best known musical personalties in the country, and one whose 
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progress into all quarters is LOUIS C. ELSON, the well-known writer and 
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