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LIbrvry Bur«au Cat. HO. 1137 



The Music 



Musical Instruments 



Soiitbcni 3^^ia anb cLbo X>cccaii. 



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'Flic i/npn'ssio/i of this 7voyk is liinitcd to joo copies 
and jO cii'fisfs proofs. 

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THE MUSIC 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 



^nutljcrn SlnMa anD ^\jc Otccan 



C. R. DAY 

Captain, Oxi-ordshire Light Infantry 

WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY 
A. J. HIPKINS, F.S.A. 

THE PLATES DRAWN 11 Y WILLIAM dlHB. 




L0:N'B0C< & C\'EIV YORK: 0\'OVELLO, EWER i^ CO. 

and 

^'D-JO^'l & CH-4RLES BL-ACK, l.OfN'DOOi. 



MDCCCXCI. 







1 . V . 

LONDON : 

NOVELI.O, EWER AND CO., 

PRINTERS. 



di:dicati:d hv permission 



LIEUTENANT-GENERAL HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS 



The Duke of Connaiight and Strathearn 

K.G., K.T., K.P. 



CONTENTS. 



PAlit 

Introduction .......----- ix 

Preface .-.-..----•-- xv 

CHAPTER I. 

Iiuliaii music — How cluuiijed in the course of years— Its decline under Mahomcdan rule— -Hindu 
ideas of music— How encouraged in the South of India — Connection with religion- 
Influence of religion upon music— Legends— Difficulty of deciphering the ancient treatises 
— How differing from European music — Most noticeable peculiarities . - - - i — 12 

CHAPTER II. 

Preservation of music in Southern India— Modern Karnatik system believed to be closely akin to the 
ancient— Sanskrit treatises— Definition of s'ruti— System of twenty-two— Formation of scales 
(grama)— Relation of major and minor modes— Deviation of intervals of system of twenty-two 
from those of just intonation -Comparison of ancient scale with European diatonic- 
Results of recent observation— Svstem of twelve hinted at in Sanskrit— Murchanas— 
Raga— How differing from mode— tala or rhythm— Time, how estimated— Ancient varieties 
of rlivthm — Ancient notation ....---- 13 29 

CHAPTER III. 

Modern theory— How differing from ancient — Notation— .Arrangement of gamut— Scales— Time, 

how signified — .Application of measure to music - - - - - - 3" — 37 

CHAPTER IV. 

Raga — How defined — Notes essential to composition of^Vadi and Samvadi notes — Modem meaning 
of Murchana — Examples of Murchana applied — Ancient and modern methods of performance 
of raga— How differing — Alapa— Madhyamakala — Gamakas — Classification of ragas— Popular 
scales for — Allied to certain passions — Peculiarities — How apportioned to seasons and hours 
— •' Kattika," or list of modern ragas ..---- 3S — 56 

CHAPTER V. 

Taste of European and Oriental nations: how differing — Reason for non-employment of harmony — 
Method of singing — Of Indian melodies — Form — Classification of— Rhythm — Employment of 
mixed times — Tonality often doubtful — Resemblance of Indian music to that of other 
countries — Examples of popular melodies — Hindustani musical system : how diftering from 
Karnatik — E.\amples of Hindustani melodies — Scales employed in the Hindustani system 57—9' 

CHAPTER VI. 

Musical entertainments — Music and the Drama^Influence of the latter upon songs of the country 
— Of the Indian orchestra — Religious music — Temple music — Employment of bells — Street 
music — The Nahabet — Nautch music — Dancing ....-- gz — 9S 

CHAPTER VII. 

Of instruments — Decoration — Materials — How susceptible of improvement — Chief defects in 
construction — Eastern origin of many European instruments — ^Descriptions of instruments 
in common use ...-.....- gg — 154 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Principal seats of music in Southern India — Famous Indian musicians of the South — Bibliography 

of Indian music — Sanskrit MSS. upon music ....-- 155 — 16S 

Appendix .......----- 169—173 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

Pi.ATK I. A BIN PLAYER 109 

Plate II. SOUTHERN INDIAN VINA. SMALL SITAR - - - in 

Plate III. SUR-S'RINGARA. LARGE SITAR 117 

Plate IV. BIN-SITAR. TAUS 123 

Plate V. SARINDA. SARANGI 125 

Plate VI. RABOB. CHIKARA. SARANGI ...... 127 

Plate VII. TAMBURI. YEKTAR. PERSIAN SITARA .... 129 

Plate VIII. SNARAMANDALA 133 

Plate IX. KINNARI 135 

Plate X. MRIDANG. TABLA AND BAHYA 137 

Plate XL NAGARA. DHOL - - 139 

Plate XII. KHANJERI. TAM TAM 141 

Plate XIII. TALA. JALRA. BUDBUDIKA 143 

Plate XIV. PUNGI. KURTAR 145 

Plate XV. PILLAGOVI. MUKAVINA. S'RUTI. NAGASARA. ALGOA 147 

Plate XVI. MOSHUQ. S'ANKHU 151 

Plate XVII. TUTURI. NAFARI. S'RINGA. KURNA ... - 153 




INTRODUCTION. 



WHETHER music as an attribute of man is as old as speech or not, 
we cannot sa)-; for present consideration it is sufficient that both 
can be intensified into poetic expression with a common power in 
affecting the emotions, notwithstanding that there is a vast and unbridgable 
distance between the precision of articulate language and the vague suggestion 
and glamour of musical sound. There is a quality in recited poetry not inaptly 
described as musical, since it has a special charm due to the choice and rhythm of 
words, assisted by the personal note of the reciter. But this rhythmic euphony is 
onlv allied to the musician's art, it cannot correctly be said to be comprehended in 
it, owing to the absence of defined musical intervals. From whatever point of view 
we overlook the human race, its history and development, we can nearly alwaj's 
trace music as having some connection, however slender, with the particular 
form of culture, or it may even be the absence of culture, under notice. Let us 
for the moment turn aside from the modern European musician's standpoint, as 
for him Harmony, although of comparatively recent origin, is indispensable, and 
we shall find melody in the succession of notes and their rhythmic movement 
possessing a beauty and exerting a charm which have endured for ages and 
comprehend the whole art of Music in the older civilisations. In Egypt; in 
Babylonia, Persia, and Arabia ; in Asia Minor, Greece, and Rome — and in India, 
modern as well as ancient, for here simple melody still reigns supreme. With 
the exception of the Drone, apparently of Indian origin, which is literally 



X INTRODUCTION. 

preserved in the Bagpipe and Hurdy Gurdy, and is a characteristic feature in our 
modern harmonic music — conspicuous as the Pedal point — the traces of any 
combination of musical intervals, out of Europe, are unimportant and need not 
be considered in a comparison of our Western music, with its elaborate system of 
harmonv, and that of the rest of the world, whether ancient or modern, where 
harmony has no place. 

Among the heterogeneous populations of India much material may be found 
that bears upon the history of melody. There is an Aryan strain probably as 
old as the Vedic Sanskrit, and a Persian which has in these latter days, and 
especially in Northern India, considerably modified the true Hindu. There are 
also echoes of an indigenous music which prevails among the hill tribes, 
remaining in the Indian music of to-day ; but yet not so clearly heard that we can 
sa}' we identify here or there a refrain of an original or pre-historic music, 
although we may unconsciously be very near it. In the present state of our 
knowledge it is impossible to affirm that a pentatonic, or system of five notes in 
the octave, is of greater antiquity than a heptatonic or seven-note system ; or 
that a chromatic or half-tone scale preceded an enharmonic composed of quarter- 
tones. All these varieties occur in our historic records, and if we argue from the 
analogies of speech, or consider the measurement of vibrating strings, it is no 
less plausible to decide for primitive narrow intervals than for primitive wide ones. 
In every province, go where we will, may be found some melodic or rhythmic habit 
or turn which it is possible to reckon as proper to it, having its peculiar scales or 
modes, its figures, rhythms, graces to mark its authenticity, but we mav yet be far 
away from its origin, even as to locality. In the native music of Africa, so far 
as is known, there is much that may be traced to Asiatic sources. 

The oldest civilisation that offers us any substantial information is Egypt. 
It begins in the earliest historic monuments with a graphic sign representing a 
fingerboard instrument of the tamboura or guitar kind, which already marks 
a summit level in instrumental construction and musical conception. We 
are not likely to learn from civilisations which may have preceded Egypt, as 
from the non-existence of any form of graphic art they cannot now divulge 
their secrets. 



INTRODUCTION. xi 

Another question that has arisen is that of the priority of instrumental or 
vocal music. There are many difficulties attending a vocal origin of what we 
understand in varied pitch and recurring rhythm hy melody. The poets' music 
already touched upon, depending upon very small vocal inflections, can no more 
be measured and retained than the notes of many song birds which yet give us 
infinite pleasure. Very small musical intervals in traditional use which delight 
Indian and other Eastern people are clearly of instrumental origin, and to be 
attributed generally to facilities afforded by strings. This tradition may be of 
very great antiquity, and such old forms of music that occur to us, it may be Vedic 
chants or Hebrew psalms, are, in comparison, conceivably modern. A striking 
instance of a purelv instrumental small interval is that of the Hindu musical unit, 
the s'ruti. The consideration of the value of this interval and of a combination 
of s'rutis to form an octave scale will be found in Captain Day's lucid exposition, 
and is as interesting as it is important. There can be no doubt about the origin 
of the s'ruti in the measurement of a stretched string. 

The object of this introduction will be gained if we, for a little while, allow 
ourselves to forget the glory and splendour of our modern harmony, in favour of 
those melodic systems which once satisfied the great nations of classical antiquity, 
and still content those hoary civilisations of the East which preserve so much that 
is really ancient in their present daily life. Captain Day shows us interesting 
resemblances between the leading modes of old Greece and Asia Minor and 
certain favourite modes of the Hindus. There is no sure evidence of an intimate 
musical connection between those countries and India, a few scattered references 
in classical writers excepted ; but the relationship of sister Aryan languages may 
have been paralleled by a relationship of musical types sufficient to justify a 
theory of descent instead of one of imitation. 

The greater freedom in musical intervals melodic systems allow must be 
reckoned as compensating in some measure for the want of those harmonic 
combinations of which our European music has such inexhaustible wealth. What 
we lose in the possession of this rich estate is that we are effectually barred from 
the use and enjoyment of a more pliant melody, free from the fetters imposed by 
consonant chords, a melody which has a great privilege in easily touching the 



xii INTRODUCTION. 

emotions. Recent scale theories, claiming to have their foundation in natural 
laws, are insufficient to account for the material which allows the pliahility of 
Eastern melody. But they are insufficient even to account lor our common 
diatonic scale, the structure of which rests upon three harmonic triads, and 
with chromatic and enharmonic systems are utterly irreconcilable. Under 
Captain Day's guidance we find that in India an ancient quarter-tone system has 
become in modern times a half-tone one — substantially our equal temperament, 
but permitting an expressive or ornamental use of smaller intervals than the 
half-tone, according to the player's feeling or fancy. Whether this ideally half- 
tone system is due to a natural transformation tending to simplicity — as we find 
the rich Sanskrit reduced in modern vernacular dialects — or to an adaptation more 
suitable for practical use than a fine-spun theory of ancient music teachers, must, 
like nearlv all the questions that have here been propounded, remain open or be 
regarded as beyond the possibility of answer. 

It must not be overlooked that the Persian and Arab musicians have also their 
enharmonic systems, and if these may be referred back to an older Babylonian, 
the delight felt in such melodic freedom may have been widespread in a remote 
antiquity. We would not, however, resign our harmony for this freedom, although 
we admit its great power to incite a poetic impression when we are in certain 
moods. What Indian music offers to mood will be found in Captain Day's pages, 
and, studied from this point of view, the information he offers cannot but be of the 
hisfhest value. He shows us the existence of a reallv intimate expressive melodic 
music, capable of the greatest refinement of treatment, and altogether outside the 
experience of the Western musician. What we learn from such inquiries is that 
the debated opinions of musical theorists, the cherished beliefs of those who devote 
themselves to the practice of the art, the deductions we evolve from historic 
studies — all have to be submitted to larger conceptions, based upon a recognition 
of humanity as evolved from the teachings of ethnology. We must forget what is 
merely European, national, or conventional, and submit the whole of the 
phenomena to a philosophical as well as a sympathetic consideration, such as, in 
this century, is conceded to language, but has not yet found its way to music. 

A. J. HIPKINS. 



PREFACE. 



OF late years so many works of importance, dealing with the subject 
of National music, have appeared that for the publication of this 
book the author feels that some apology is necessary. 

The subject of Indian music, presenting, as it does, ideas so fresh and a 
musical system so distinct from what we in Europe are accustomed to, necessarily 
offers an ever-widening field for research and study. It is curious to note that 
while so many works upon the arts or industries of India have, in recent times, 
appeared, the subject of Indian music has been generally thought devoid of all 
science and unworthy, therefore, of any serious consideration. 

Sir William Jones, at the end of the last century, endeavoured to dispel 
ideas of this nature, and his learned essay upon The Musical Modes of the 
Hindus has formed the basis of almost all Indian musical research. Some forty 
years later Captain Augustus Willard, who at that time commanded the troops 
in the service of H.H. the Nawab of Banda, published an interesting little 
Treatise upon the Music of Hindustan, a book which is now so scarce as to be 
almost unobtainable. Notwithstanding the real interest of both these works 
they are, unfortunately, of comparatively small practical use to the ordinarv 
musical enquirer, unless, indeed, he is fortunate enough to possess a consider- 
able previous knowledge of the subject. 

The work which is now published has been the result of much study and 
research during a term of foreign service while the author's regiment was in 
India. And it is hoped that the information here offered for the first time may 
prove of interest, and may assist in some small degree in supplying a want 
hitherto felt among musicians and students of National musical literature. To 
render the book of greater value, and to assist those who may make further 



xvi PREFACE. 

research, a catalogue of various works dealing with the subject has been added, 
together with a carefully prepared list of various Sanskrit authorities. Notice 
has been taken of the legendary origin of music among the Aryans, and of its 
principles as understood in Modern India ; the peculiar scales and rhythms 
employed have been described in detail ; and examples of various airs are given 
in notation. In order to show the principles of form upon which the Indian 
musicians construct their melodies an analysis of some of the examples has been 
attempted. 

The subject of Temperament, concerning which so many theories have been 
propounded, has been treated of. The thanks of the author are due to the late 
Dr. A. J. Ellis, F.R.S., for his great kindness in working out many special 
experiments concerning the temperament of the Indian scale, and for his 
permission to publish them here ; also for his exhaustive account of the S'ruti 
vina, given in the Appendix. 

The author takes this opportunity of acknowledging his thanks to his friend, 
Mr. A. J. Hipkins, F.S.A., both for his great help and sympath}', without which 
this work would never have been published ; also for his learned Introduction. 
The author begs also to thank Mr. Cecil Bendall, of the British Museum, and 
Professor T. \V. Rhys Davids, for much valuable help and information. 

The Illustrations have been confided to the hands of Mr. William Gibb, and 
form seventeen plates, all of them admirable representations of Indian musical 
instruments. The author is indebted to the kindness of Miss Edith Hipkins for 
her very beautiful drawings, which are reproduced in Plates II., III., and IV. 

Many thanks are due to H.H. the late Maharajah of Travancore and to 
H.H. the Maharajah of Mysore for their kindness in affording facilities for 
enquiry, and for allowing access to valuable manuscripts ; and to the Rajah 
Sir Sourendro Mohun Tagore for permission to quote from his various works. 
Acknowledgment is also due to Messrs. Balwant Trimback Sahasrabadhe, and 
T. M. Venkatasesha S'astri, of the Poona Gayana Samaj ; M. Narasimhayya, of 
the London Mission High School, Bangalore ; Maula Bux of Baroda ; and 
to many other native gentlemen too numerous, unfortunately, to mention by 
name. 

Army and Navy Club, 
April, i8gi. 




A SiTAR Player, 
(From a Marathi Instruction Book.) 



CHAPTER I. 

Indian music — How chani^ed in the course of years — Its decline under Mahomedan rule — Hindu 
ideas of music — How encouraged in the South of India — Connection with religion — 
Influence of religion upon music— Legends— Difficulty of deciphering the ancient treatises 
— How differing from European music — Most noticeable peculiarities. 

AMONG the many arts and industries of India gradually decaying from 
want of patronage, but which, since the accession of the British 
Government, have again been fostered and encouraged, that of music 
has hitherto found no place. To Europeans it is certainly the least known 
of all Indian arts. Almost every traveller in India comes away with the idea 
that the music of the country consists of mere noise and nasal drawling 
of the most repulsive kind, often accompanied by contortions and gestures 
of the most ludicrous description. Perhaps the traveller may have fancied that 
he has seen a nautch — he has possibly been asked to some such entertainment 
at the house of a wealthy native ; or, more likely, he has possessed a 
treasure of a "boy," who has been able to make the necessary arrangements 
with the " nautchnees " for a performance of the kind. But in certainly 
two-thirds of such cases the singing and dancing witnessed has been ot 
the commonest, and the performers of the most abandoned and depraved of 
the citv — and the traveller has therefore received a false impression, which may 
abide through life, or impede the progress of a more correct appreciation ot the real 
value of Indian music. But it is hardly fair that an art so little really understood, 
even among the natives of India themselves, should be judged by such a criterion 
and then put aside as worthless because solitary individuals have been deceived 
by parties of outcast charlatans whose object is mere gain. For that Indian music 
is an art, and a very intricate and difficult one too, can hardly be denied. But to 
appreciate it one must first put away all thought of European music, and then 
judge of it by an Indian standard, and impartially upon its own merits — of the 



2 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

ingenuity of the performer — the pecuhar rhythm of the music — the extraordinary 
scales used — the recitatives — the amount of imitation — the wonderful execution 
andmemory of the performer — and his skill in employing small intervals as grace. 
Then when we hear old" Slokes "and •' Ghuzals," songs written hundreds of years 
ago, sung with the same sweet dreamy cadences, the same wild melody, to the 
same soft beats of little hands, and the same soft tinkle of the silver cymbals, 
we shall perhaps begin to feel that music of this kind can be as welcome and 
tasteful to ears accustomed to it as the music of the West, with its exaggerated 
sonorousness, is to us ; and so our contempt will gradually give way to wonder, 
and, upon acquaintance, possibly to love. For this music, let us remember, daily 
gives pleasure to as many thousands as its more cultivated European sister gives 
to hundreds. There is hardly any festivity in India in which some part is not 
assigned to music — and for religious ceremonies its use is universal. Since the 
Vedic times it has been cultivated as an art. The hymns of the Rig and Yagur 
Vedas were set and sung to music ages ago. The Vedic chant, composed in the 
simple Sanskrit spoken three thousand years ago, and handed down from 
generation to generation for more than thirty centuries, has a thrilling effect 
upon a cultivated Hindu mind. The Vedic chant is to Hindus what plain 
song is to us. For this ancient chant — like plain song — is bound up with the 
sacred ceremonials, and is wedded to language alike sonorous and dignihed. 
And the place where it is heard, for it is only heard in the temple, is considered 
so holy, and the strain itself is so simple and devotional, that all who hear it 
cannot fail to be impressed.^ 

Indian music, like its sister art in Europe, seems to have undergone many 
changes before reaching its present stage. In remote ages the art seems to 
have been highly cultivated, and musicians were held in great esteem ; but 
under the Mussalman dynasty, and owing to the almost perpetual strife between 
petty princes, music, like other arts, through want of encouragement, fell almost 
into abeyance. There is, therefore, little information to be had concerning the 
music of those times. 

From early periods, however, many learned and elaborate treatises 
(mostly in MSS.) upon the art yet remain. The later of these show 
that even then music had passed through several stages of transition. Since 
the Sangita Parijata, which is believed to be one of the latest of these Sanskrit 



' An interesting explanation of these chants is given by Mr. A. C. Burncll. Ph.D., in his ".\rshey- 
abrahmana" [Mangalore, 1876], and reprinted in Tagore's " Hindu Music from \'arious Sources." This 
explanation will enable anyone to note the Sania Vedic chant, as printed in the Bibliothcca Indica edition, 
in ordinary notation. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN IXDIA. 3 

works, had been written bv Ahobala, two separate schools or systems of music 
have arisen and are now known bv the names of Hindustani and Karnatik. 
The Karnatik appears to have been elaborated as a distinct system subsequent 
to the advent of the Aryans to the South of India. The two svstems, although 
sprung from the same origin, have since undergone independently considerable 
changes, and are now totally distinct from each other. 

Of Hindu music in Southern India, since the fall of the Hindu Empire 
of Vijayanagur, Tanjore has been the only school, and from it those of 
Travancore and other places have doubtless been founded. Unfortunately, 
there is no record remaining of what had been done in former times in Tanjore ; 
but within the last few centuries the people there, as in Europe, have been 
aroused to a great state of musical activity, and there had sprung up a school 
of musicians, ending with Tiagyaraj, destined to eftect great changes and 
improvements in the art. There are still papers in the library of the Tanjore 
Palace which show that various attempts have been made to improve the 
existing notation, such as it is, of Indian music. With the cession of the 
Tanjore territory to the British, at the close of the last centurv, there came a 
time when arts and sciences were cultivated m peace ; under encouragement of 
the noble and wealthy, music, so long neglected, once more sprang up with 
vigour to strike out for itself a new path and to enjoy a fresh existence. History 
in parallel instances shows that such has always been the case when arts long 
neglected are revived and become rapidly popular. The earlier music of the 
Sanskrit period bears a close resemblance, as far as we can judge, to that of 
the ancient Greeks, going far to prove that music has been derived from the 
same Aryan source, which seems probable, and has been discussed freelv bv 
different writers. 

The most flourishing age of Indian music was during the period of native 
princes, a little before the Mahomedan conquest ; and with the advent of the 
Mahomedans its decline commenced ; indeed, it is wonderful that it survived 
at all. 

The Emperor Aurangzib abolished the court musicians. Mr. Blochmann, in 
his translation of the " Ain-i-akbari," - quotes a curious story from the historian 
Khan Khan as to what occurred when this order was given. The court 
musicians brought a bier in front of the window where the Emperor used to 
show himself daily to the people, and wailed so loud as to attract 



^"Ain-i-akbari. or Institutes of the Emperor Akbar." Translated from tlie original Persian by 
H. Blochmann. Vol. V. 



4 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

Auranffzib's attention. He came to the window and asked what it meant. 
They replied that melody was dead, and that they were taking him to the 
graveyard. The Emperor replied, " Very well, make the grave deep, so that 
neither voice nor echo may issue from it." 

" The more severe of the Mussalman doctors," writes Captain Willard, 
one of the few Englishmen who have studied the subject, " like the 
Puritans, even now prohibit the use of music as irreligious and profane, while 
others are somewhat indulgent and permit it with certain restrictions. A few, 
convinced of its excellence, but dreading the censure of casuists, have prudently 
preferred silence. Some have considered it as exhilarating the spirits, and 
others, perhaps with more reason, declare it to be an incentive to the bent of 
the inclination, and, consequently, possessing the property of producing both 
good and evil."" 

Opinions of the kind just quoted, held by the educated and influential, 
naturally enough have tended to lower the standing of a musician, and the art 
itself has suffered in consequence. Hence, though there are many Mahomedan 
professors who are skilled executants, they are rarely men of any social position 
or educational attainments, and their knowledge of the theory of their art is but 
slight. Of course to this there are exceptions — men such as Maula Bux of 
Baroda, or Bhande Ali of Indore, might be mentioned who have studied much and 
who love their art for its own sake. But such are few and far between. Still, 
Mahomedan music, taken as a whole, has little to recommend itself even at the 
present day. The ideas professed bv Hindus offer a curious contrast. For 
music, from a Hindu standpoint, is associated with all that is bright and sweet 
in life ; its origin, ascribed directly to Divine providence, causes it to be regarded 
as surrounded by a halo of sanctity. Almost all the religious literature of the 
Hindus breathes music. The ancient writings on Hindu music are known as 
the Gandhiirva Veda. The Gita Govinda, the Indian Song of Songs,^ is music 
itself from beginning to end. It is difficult to imagine imagery more vivid, or 
to picture scenes more charming than those in which Krishna, with his fair Gopi 
companions, on the banks of the Yamna, played and sang those witching strains 
that, like those of Orpheus, held all creation spellbound. And so music with 
Hindus is a resource to which they always fly in joy or grief, for prayer or praise. 

But still the old idea that music as a profession is a degraded employment, 
fit only for the stroller or the dancing girl, to some extent lingers on, so strong is 

^ " A Treatise on the Music of Hindustan." Capt. N. Willaid. Calcutta, 1834. 

* Sir Edwin .Arnold's charming paraphrase of this beautiful poem should be read by all earnest students 
of Oriental Music. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 5 

the influence caused by the long ordeal of Mahomedan conquest. And 
Mahomedans even now, though liking and enjoying music, often prefer to engage 
singers and instrumentalists rather than learn the art themselves ; indeed, it is 
not difficult to find Hindus who do the same, and hold very similar prejudices. 

Happily, in Southern India, ideas of this kind cannot be said to prevail 
generally; proofs to the contrary may be found in the many living musicians who 
are men of education and poets in their way. Music has almost without 
interruption flourished there from very remote ages.^ This can be accounted for 
by the country having been more under Hindu rule than other parts of India, 
and having suffered perhaps less from internal commotions. From the study of 
Sanskrit, which has been maintained amongst the musicians of the courts of 
Mysore, Tanjore, and Travancore, music has not been left, as in other parts, 
almost entirely in the hands of ignorant dancing girls and their attendants. 

It is a common idea among the Hindus that the greatest musicians should 
live like hermits, far removed from all people. This seems to have been the 
practice of some of the ancients, and as similar legends are found in the mytho- 
logies of other nations, there is reason to believe they are based upon facts. 

The higher branches of the musical profession were formerly confined to 
either Brahmins (Bhagavatas) or to men of very high caste. Music being of 
Divine origin was regarded as sacred, and it was considered impious for any but 
men of the sacred caste to wish to acquire any knowledge of its principles. It 
was and still is called the fifth Veda. Hence the ancient Brahmins of the 
country would have excommunicated any of their number who would have so far 
presumed as to betray the sacred writings to any but the elect, whose mouths only 
were esteemed sufficiently holy to utter words so sacred. Indeed, it was the 
knowledge of which they were possessed that was the chief cause of the reverence 
and adoration paid to the Brahmins of old, and which gave them the power and 
influence they prized so much. It was thus that the ancient musicians sang 
their own compositions. In later years music became a distinct trade, especially 
under Mussalman rulers, and passed into the hands of the lower orders and the 
unlearned, and to this cause operating through a long succession of years the 
differences between the Hindustani and Karnatik systems must be in a great 
measure attributed. 

= Colonel Meadows Taylor, remarkiiif; upon this, says : " Mahomedan historians of the period relate 
that when the Deccan was invaded by Allah-ood-deen Togluk in a.d. 1294, and the conquest of Southern 
India completed by the Mogul General Mullikkafoor several years afterwards, the profession of music was 
found to be in a condition so far in advance of the North that singers, male and female, and their Brahmin 
instructors, were taken with the royal armies and settled in the North." — " Proceedings, Royal Irish 
Academy." \'ol. IX., Part i. 

B 



6 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

Religion, bound up as it is with almost everything in India, naturally 
exercises a most powerful influence upon all the arts, and upon music especially. 
The earliest use of music was doubtless for religious purposes. Hindu music 
can hardly be said to have ever shaken itself free from being in some way 
or other connected with the religion of the country, traces of which are 
everywhere apparent. Almost all the books, especially the most ancient, relating 
to the art contain constant references to mythological traditions. The language 
used is at times so figurative that in many cases no one but a finished scholar 
can decipher its real purport. More importance is paid to such trifling details as 
the proper attributes — colour, caste, or wives — -of each deified melody type (raga) 
or mode (that) than to the arrangements of notes which compose it and to the 
practical directions for its performance. Each note, scale, raga, and measure is 
canonized, and long chapters are devoted to the description of the habitations, 
wives, raiment, &c., of these demigods and nymphs. Much valuable information 
can of course be gleaned from these books, but many of them contain a good 
deal of what is quite useless to the musician, though most interesting from 
an antiquarian point of view. Besides these Sanskrit works, there are few books 
upon the art existing. 

Most of the vernacular works upon music have been written by Pandits, 
who have endeavoured to adapt the principles contained in the ancient 
works to their own ideas. Many of these books consist but of a string 
of quotations — often contradictory — taken at random from Sanskrit works 
of all dates, and interlarded with comments rather worse than useless, 
unless it be to mystify the reader. The writers of such books rarely know 
anything of the modern practice of music. They still try to fetter it by hard 
and fast rules learnt from books. Rules of the sort, of course, were made at a 
time when music as an art was comparatively in its infancy, but were never 
intended to apply to modern Indian music. It would be just as absurd to 
suppose that treatises on the music of the eighth and ninth centuries, where 
progressions by chords of -Uj were not only allowed but admired,'^ would apply 
to the elaborate harmony of to-day. 

Other works in the vernaculars have been written by practical musicians who 
really do possess the knowledge they try to impart, but will not do so without 
mixing it with the absurdities of these so-called Pandits. The fear of criticism 



' Organiim was the name given to this rude harmony. An instrument called Organistrum, in use in 
the ninth century, enabled these chords to be played in succession. And the organ itself appears to have 
been so constructed, the origin in fact ot the modern mixture stops. — See Gerbert, " De cantu et musica 
sacra,'' St. Blaise, 1774. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 7 

or ridicule is one cause of this ; but it is also due to the great dislike all native 
musicians have to imparting instruction to any but a favoured few ; indeed, they 
rather prefer that the general public should continue in ignorance. This has, 
naturally enough, tended to hinder the growth of a popular taste for music until 
quite within the past few years. Societies, such as the Gayan Samaj of Poona 
and Madras, have recently sprung up and are doing much to encourage 
popular music ; with the advance of general education there has been a growing 
feeling in favour of teaching singing in the schools, and in future years it is to be 
hoped that all such idle prejudices will have been rooted out completely, and 
that the study of the national music of the country will occupy, as it should, a 
foremost place in all Indian schools. 

At the present day, however, it is absolutely impossible for anyone to gather 
an accurate knowledge of the principles of Hindu music without the aid of 
learned natives, a practical acquaintance with the capabilities of their instruments, 
and without consulting the best living performers — things that few persons have 
opportunity or leisure to attempt. 

Of the astonishing power which music is believed by the ancients to have had, 
not only over men and passions, but also over animals and inanimate things, 
Hindu legends, like those of most ancient nations, are redolent. 

" I have been assured by a credible eye-witness," says Sir William Jones, 
" that two wild antelopes used often to come to the woods to the place where a 
mere savage beast, Siraj ud Doulah, entertained himself with concerts, and that 
they listened to the strain with an appearance of pleasure till the monster, in 
whose soul there was no music, shot one of them to displav his archery ; 
secondly, a learned native of this country told me that he had frequently seen 
the most venomous and indignant snakes leave their holes upon hearing tunes 
on a flute, which he supposed gave them peculiar delight ; and thirdlv, an 
intelligent Persian, who repeated his story again and again and permitted me to 
write it down from his lips, told me that he had more than once been present 
when a celebrated lutenist, Mirza Mahomed, surnamed Bulbul, was playing to 
a large company in a grove near Shiraz, that he distinctly saw the nightingales 
trying to vie with the musician — sometimes warbling on the trees, sometimes 
fluttering from branch to branch, as if they wished to approach the instrument 
whence the melody proceeded, and at length dropping on the ground in a kind 
of timid ecstasy, from which they were soon raised, he assured me, by a change 
of the mode.'" 

' -'On the Musical Modes of the Hindus." — See " Asiatic Researches." Vol. III. Calcutta, 179.;. 



8 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

Musicians in the South of India believe that powers such as these are 
associated with the performance of the melody types or ragas called Saranga 
and Kaliani. Some legends of the influence of certain ragas over nature, that 
are handed down and still believed by many, are very curious, and remind us 
of the legends of Orpheus and Apollo. 

Sir William Ouseley relates how Mir Tansen, a wonderful musician in the 
time of the Emperor Akbar, sang one of the night ragas at mid-day. The 
powers of his music were such that it instantly became night, and the darkness 
extended in a circle round the palace as far as the sound of his voice could 
be heard. 

The ragas Nagavarali and Punagatodi are believed to have the power to 
attract serpents and to make them leave their hiding places and come where 
they hear the music. There is a story of a certain Mysore prince who wished 
to test the truth of this, so, in company with one of the Court musicians, he 
ascended a neighbouring hill known as the abode of numerous poisonous snakes. 
The musicians then began to play their strains. From all sides the serpents 
came and formed a ring around the two, erecting their heads and swaying to 
and fro, fascinated by the music. As soon as the strains ceased they glided 
rapidly away without attempting to injure the players. 

Colonel Meadows Taylor relates a somewhat similar circumstance : " One 
very large cobra which frequented my garden at Ellichpur, and of which 
ever3'one was in dread, was caught by some professional snake charmers in 
my own presence by means of the ' pungi.'^ It was played at first very softly 
before the aloe bush underneath which the snake lived in a hole, and gradually 
the performer increased the tone and time of his playing, and, as the snake 
showed his head, he retreated gently till it was fairly outside and erected itself 
in a defiant manner. At that moment another man stepped dexterouslv behind 
and, while the snake's attention was absorbed by the player before, threw a heavy 
blanket upon it, seizing it by the head under the jaws. The head was then 
pinned down by a forked stick, and the fangs and teeth extracted by strong 
pincers ; the snake was then turned loose, completely cowed and exhausted. 
There was no doubt about the identitv of the reptile, for a portion of its tail 
had been shot off in an attempt to destrov it."^ 

It is considered extremely unlucky for anyone to impart or receive instruction 
in the Varali raga. When an unwelcome pupil presents himself, a master will 



• The native name for the snake-charmer's pipe. 

9 II Proceedings, Royal Irish Academy." Vol. IX., Part i. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN IXDIA. 9 

therefore decline to teach him anything else but this raga, knowing that to be 
a sure way of ridding himself of the intruder. 

The Megharangini (or Megh-mallar, as it is elsewhere called), when played 
incessantly, was said to be productive of immediate rain. Stories of how skilful 
musicians have averted famine by drawing down rain with the strains of this 
raija are common all through the countrv. 

Of the fiery power attributed to the raga Dipaka there are many legends. 
One states that long ago the sacred lamps in the shrine of some temple in 
Mysore, said to have been lighted ages ago by some Divine agency, had been 
extinguished through the carelessness of the ministering priest, who neglected 
to supply them with fresh oil. The soothsayers foretold some great disaster to 
the surrounding country should they be rekindled by mortal hands. A famous 
musician, hearing of this, offered his services to the authorities, and, at the 
request of the Rajah, hastened to the temple. Sitting down in the " S'ri-Kovil " 
— the most holy place of all— before the shrine, he played this raga, while the 
priest made solemn supplication that success might attend his efforts. Presently 
the darkness of the shrine was broken — for a moment a faint glimmering was 
apparent, and the lamps became mysteriously lighted. Thus confidence was 
restored to the country round and dire calamities averted. 

Another favourite story is that the Emperor Akbar ordered Nayuk Gopal, 
a celebrated musician, to sing this raga. " He endeavoured to excuse himself, but 
in vain — the Emperor insisted on obedience. He therefore requested permission 
to go home and bid farewell to his family and friends. It was winter when he 
returned, after an absence of six months. Before he began to sing he placed 
himself in the waters of the Jumna till they reached his neck. As soon as he 
had performed a strain or two the river gradually became hot — at length began 
to boil — and the agonies of the unhappy musician were nearly insupportable. 
Suspending for a moment the melody thus cruelly extorted, he sued for mercy 
from the monarch, but sued in vain — Akbar wished to prove more strongly the 
power of the raga. Nayuk Gopal renewed the fatal song. Flames burst with 
violence from his body, and though immersed in the waters of the Jumna he 
was consumed to ashes." '" 

The raga Gundakrj'a is so called from its having been first performed by 
the god Hanuman, who was called upon to decide a dispute between the 
celestial musicians Narada and Tumburu. Each was jealous of the other's 



1° ".\n Essay on the Music of Hindustan," by Sir W. Ouseley.— See "Oriental Collections, illustrating 
the History, Antiquities, and Literature, &c., of Asia." London, 1797-1800. Vol. L 

C 



10 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN IXDIA. 

powers, and claimed to be most skilled. They appealed to Hanuman to settle 
their differences and award the palm to the best performer. He heard them 
both and was unable to decide, so taking the vina himself, he sat down, and 
resting the instrument against the rock, began to play. So ravishing was the 
strain that the very rock melted into tears, and the vina, dropping from the 
hands of the god, sank into the lake thus formed. The music ceasing, the rock 
once more assumed its natural form. Then the god, turning to the two who 
stood by amazed, said : " The palm is his who plays this strain." Each essayed 
the feat, but failed. Hanuman then decided that the skill of both was equal, and 
thus settled their differences amicably. This raga, then played for the first time, 
was called '• Gundakrj'a," or " that which melts rocks." 

Hanuman after this became exceedingly proud of his musical abilities, and 
used to boast of his skill continually. The demigod Rama, hearing of this, devised 
a plan to humble the god, and accomplished it in the following manner : — There 
lived in a forest near Ayodhya (Rama's capital) a certain Rishi or bard, who had 
devoted himself to music all his life with such success that he had caused the 
Septasvaras, or seven notes, to become embodied in the form of seven 
daughters. To this forest Rama took Hanuman as if upon a hunting 
excursion, and halting within hearing of the Rishi's dwelling, whose existence 
was unknown to the other, asked for some music. Hanuman accordingly took 
up his vina and began to accompany himself. Constant practice and self- 
confidence had made him careless, and it chanced that as the seven nymphs 
passed on their way to draw water for their father's house he sang a note falsely. 
Xo sooner had the nymph to whom this note belonged heard it than she 
swooned and died. Her sisters made piteous lamentations, and ran to tell their 
father. The Rishi came, and seeing Hanuman engrossed in his art and still 
singing, at once guessed the cause of his daughter's death. After listening for 
a while he heard the same note sung constantly out of tune. Then going up 
to the god he upbraided his want of care, and taking the vina from him played 
the raga truly, when the dead nymph revived and merrily joined her sisters. 

The raga Kadara is seldom heard, there being a superstition that trouble of 
various kinds always follows in the footsteps of those who sing this strain. 

It is said that those who play the raga Ahiri shall go without food for 
the rest of the day. Many have essayed to do so, but have for some unaccount- 
able reason always failed. Years ago— such is the story— there was a musician 
who was determined to discover whether or not there was any truth in the power 
attributed to this raga. After packing some food in a basket, he took his 
instrument and set out upon his travels. Very soon he came to a large tank, with 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN IXDIA. ii 

a cool and shady ,£jrove of bamboos by its side ; there he thought he would rest 
during the heat of the day. Accordingly he hung up his basket on one of the 
overhanging bamboos and began to sing. When he had sung for some hours he 
becan to feel hungrv, and so looked about for a place to cook his mid-dav meal ; 
but to his great chagrin he found that as the sun rose higher the bamboo upon 
which his basket was hung had bent upwards out of his reach. This solution of 
his difficulty did not however satisfy him, as he thought it due to his own neglect 
rather than to Divine interference. Continuing his journey, in the evening he 
arrived at a large town, the Rajah of which had built a " Chattram," or rest house, 
for the free accommodation of all poor travellers. The musician was hospitably 
received there, and food was laid before him. The Rani herself used to serve the 
guests with ghi, or clarified butter, before they commenced to eat. As she served 
the musician he was unable to restrain his glee, and exclaimed, '' At last have I 
overcome thee, Ahiri ! " Unfortunately for him, the name of the Rani happened to 
be Ahiri, and she naturally fancied that he intended some impertinence. He was 
promptly arrested and condemned to be impaled. As he was led to execution he 
implored the Rajah to grant him a hearing; his request was complied with, and he 
told the whole storv. The Rajah then commanded that he should be set at liberty, 
and dismissed him with a present, bidding him at the same time refrain from 
tempting the gods farther, as it had already so nearly cost him his life. 

Manv other such legends may be found in the works of poets and writers 
upon religious subjects, and others have been handed down orally by musicians 
and would well merit collection. 

The ancient theory of Indian music has been comparatively little studied, 
except by learned Pandits, many really good performers being ignorant of anything 
but the modern custom. This is probably because many of the ancient treatises 
that remain were purposely worded so that only Brahmins skilled in sacred lore 
could decipher their meaning. And now the improvements and alterations 
introduced from time to time by musicians of the day have come to be looked 
upon as authentic, a fact that in some degree tends to account for the differences 
that apparently exist between the ancient and modern systems. 

The theoretical part of Hindu music when compared to that of Europe is 
naturally very simple, as it treats entirely of simple melody and measure. The 
most noticeable points are the extraordinary importance which the Hindus, 
like all the ancient nations, have from the first attached to mode — the trans- 
position of the natural scales ; the peculiar rhythmical measures, frequently 
irregular ; the noisy methods of beating time ; and the almost entire absence of 
harmonv. The onlv harmonv, if it can be called so, is a continuation as a 



12 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERX IXDIA. 

pedal of the tonic or dominant, as was done in old "pastorales," and which is 
still found in Scotch or Irish bagpipe music. The use of all kinds of grace is 
common. The rules laid down for the composition of pieces in what are called 
ragas are curious, and should be noticed ; certain progressions of melody 
being forbidden, while others are lawful. Whether the ancient Greeks made 
any employment of raga is not known, but it seems extremely probable, since 
they attributed the greater part of their science of music to India," and that most 
Eastern nations still emplo}' either raga or its equiyalent.^- 

Roman music was brought to perfection by Greek musicians and their pupils, 
and Greek modes were introduced by them. The early ecclesiastical modes 
appear to haye been deriyed from those of the Greeks. Many of the older 
contrapuntal rules as to the employment of interyals had their origin in the 
imperfect scales in which the ecclesiastical modes were composed. All this 
goes far to show the possibility of the elaborate counterpoint of the present day 
haying had its prototype in the old Sanskrit raga system. 

Of the two systems practised in Southern India at the present time, the 
Hindustani is somewhat akin to that of Northern India and Bengal. It is 
practised mostly by Mussalman musicians, while the Karnatik is confined more 
to those of the Southern races. The latter, which may be called the national 
music of the South, is far more scientific and refined than the Hindustani, and 
its professors are, as a rule, men of much better education ; a fact that is not 
without influence upon their music, and seems apparent in all their melodies, 
but particularly in the renderings they give of them. 

" Strabo X. iii. 

'-The Greek practice of Melopceia appears very similar to tliat of raf;a. — I'idc Mr. Chappell's 
'• History of Music." London, 1874. See also Plutarch, T^ipi MovaiKi'n. Cap. xviii., xix. 



CHAPTKR II. 

Preservation of music in Southern India— Modern Karnatik system believed to be closely akin 
to the ancient— Sanskrit treatises— Definition of s'ruti— System of twenty-two— Formation 
of scales (grama)— Relation of major and minor modes— Deviation of intervals of system 
of twenty-two from those of just intonation — Comparison of ancient scale with European 
diatonic— Results of recent observation — System of twelve hinted at in Sanskrit — Murchanas 
— Raga — How differing from mode — Tala or rhythm— Time, how estimated — Ancient varieties 
of rhythm — Ancient notation. 

THE theory, modes, and notation in present use throughout the whole of 
India are derived from that taught originally by the earlier Sanskrit 
musicians ; but owing to the South of India having been less disturbed 
by internal commotions, and having been more subject to Hindu rule than either 
the Deccan or Northern provinces, the science of music would seem to have been 
maintained and cultivated long after the original art had been lost in the North. 

Hence Southern Indian music, or, as it is more usually called, Karnatik, 
bears, as far as we can judge, a very close resemblance to what the Sanskrit 
must have been, and in many cases we can clearly trace the development and 
refinements introduced from time to time upon the original ragas. 

One of the principal Sanskrit works upon the theory of music is the Sangita 
Ratnakera, or "Ocean of IMusic," written by Sarnga Deva at a very early date, 
probably about a.d. 200. This book, with the exception of Bharata S'astra, 
noticed hereafter, is considered to be the oldest reliable musical work extant, 
and is quoted in many subsequent treatises. The Sangita Damodara is also 
a well known and very ancient work. 

Later than this we have the Sangita Narayana, by Nariiyanadeva, in which 
the Damodara is frequently quoted. 

There are also the Raganava,^ or "Sea of Passions"; the Sangita 



1 This work, together with the Sabha Vinoda and Raga Darpaiia. is quoted b}- Mir^a Khan, but there 
seems to be no copy known at present. 



,4 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHER X INDIA. 

Ratnavali; the Sabha Vinoda,- or "Delight of AssembHes"; and the Sangita 
Darpana, or " Mirror of Music," written by Damodara Misra — all works of 
more or less value in the elucidation of the music of the ancients. 

The Raga Vivodha, or " Doctrine of Musical Modes," by Somanath, or 
Soma Raj, is one of the most valuable of the ancient treatises that have been 
handed down to us. This book was evidently written at a much later date than 
the Ratnakera, which it quotes from several times ; but it is doubtless a very 
ancient composition. The first, third, and fourth chapters explain the doctrine 
of musical sounds — their division and succession, the variation of scales by 
temperament, and the enumeration of modes. The second chapter contains a 
minute description of different vinas, with rules for playing upon them.^ The 
last chapter contains strains noted in letters. The whole work is singularly clear 
from mythological references. 

The Persian waiter, Mirza Khan, under the patronage of Aazim Shah, 
wrote a work entitled " Tohfuht-ul-Hind," which contains a chapter upon music, 
the information for which was extracted, with the assistance of Pandits, from 
various Sanskrit works. Mirza Khan describes four principal systems of music — 
viz., those of Isvara ; of Bharata ; of Hanuman, or Pavan ; and of Callanath. 
All four are mentioned also in the Raga Vivodha. 

The main principles contained in most of these ancient works are very similar. 
The differences consist mostly in the names and the constitution of the different 
modes and ragas. 

Written at a still later date than any of the former, to judge by all appearances, 
is the Sangita Parijata,^ or " Flower of Music," by the Pandit Ahobala. 

The system of music described in the Parijata differs from that of the 
Ratnakera, in that it admits of greater intervals than a tone or four s'rutis, 
and of less intervals than a semitone or two s'rutis, being, therefore, capable of 
forming numerous enharmonic scales. All the notes, except the first and fifth, 
are occasionally shifted above or below, and the fourth is never omitted in the 
scale.'' 

This work contains the key to the present Karnatik system, and many of the 
ragas contained in it are practically the same as those now in use in Southern India. 

" This work is mentioned by Sir William Jones. As far as I have been able to ascertain, there is at 
present no known copy in existence, unless, indeed, this work is identical with one called Sangita Vinoda, 
a copy of which is in the librarj- of H.H. the Maharajah of Bikanir. 

' Sir W. Jones. 

' According to the Mahabharata, Parijata is the name of the celestial tree in Indraloka. 

■'' See Preface to edition of Sangita Parijata, edited by Kalivara Vedantabagisa. Calcutta, 1S79. See 
also the list of modern Karnatik scales given upon pages 32 — 35. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



15 



The ancients divided their octave into twenty-two intervals, called s'rutis. 

The names of these s'rutis are differently given by the various authors, but 
the following list, taken from the Sangita Ratnakera, is the one which, at the 
present day, is best known : — 



Shadja 
- or 
Sa. 

] Rishaba 

or 
) Ri. 
I Gandhara 
or Ga. 



10. Vajrika 

1 1 . Prasarini 

12. Priti 

13. Majani 

14. Kshiti 

15. Rakta 

16. Sandipa 

17. Alapi 



Madhyama 

or 

Ma. 

Panchama 
or 
Pa. 



18. Madanti 
ig. Rohini 

20. Ramya 

21. Vugra 

22. Kshobini 



Dhaivata 



or 
I Dha. 
Nishada 
or Ni." 



1. Tivra 

2. Kumadvati 

3. Aland a 

4. Chandovati 

5. Dayavati 

6. Ranjani 

7. Raktika 

8. Rudri 
g. Krodha 

The exact definition of what constituted a s'ruti is difficult to determine, but 
it is thus vaguely given by the Sangita Ratnavali : — "A s'ruti is formed by the 
smallest intervals of sound, and is perceivable by the ear ; it is of twenty- 
two kinds" {i.e., as shown above); also "every distinct audible sound is a s'ruti ; 
it is a s'ruti because it is to be heard by the ear." 

The scales are formed from the s'rutis, four s'rutis being allotted to 
a major tone, three to a minor (which would appear to have been of a pitch 
somewhat flatter than the tone and sharper than the semitone ; doubts, 
however, exist as to whether the intervals of the s'rutis were equal or not), 
and two to a semitone. 

The s'rutis are differently arranged in gramas, or scales, three in number — 
viz., Shadja-grama, Madhyama-grama, and Gandhara-grama. 

The literal meaning of grama signifies "a stopping place" or "village." 
Hence the word came to be used for scale, since the s'rutis are arranged in a 
scale as mankind in villages. 

The Shadja-grama consists of two tetrachords similar to each other, and 
separated by a major tone — nearly our diatonic major scale. 

The Madhyama-grama is formed from the preceding by a transposition of the 
major tone, between Pa and Dha, and of a minor tone between Dha and Ni — 
precisely our diatonic major scale. 



' " In the arrangement of the s'rutis, modern usage is diametrical!}- opposite to the classical one : the 
latter placing them before the note to which they respectivel}' belong, while the former gives their position 
after the notes. It is difficult to determine when or by whom the alteration was effected. The arrangement 
of the frets of the vina and other stringed instruments accords with the modern acceptation of the 
principle. According to the rule laid down in the classical treatises, the disposition of the notes is reversed 
in the case of Daravi (lit., wooden — i.e., stringed) instruments, and out of this reversed arrangement, 
perhaps, the modern theory about the arrangement of the position of the s'rutis has been worked." — " The 
Musical Scales of the Hindus." S. M. Tagore. Calcutta, 1884. 



i6 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



Hence the two gramas stand in the following relation 



Sa 



Ri 



Ga Ma 



Pa 



Dha 



Ni 



Sa 



Shadja-grama 



Madhyama-grama 



3 I 4 



3l4 



Sa 



Ri 



I |2 



All 
2 I 3 



Pa 



3l4 



I|2 



Sa 



Dha Ni 

Its construction is not clearly 



Ga Ma 

The third grama is called the Gandhara-grama 
laid down, and if it ever existed in practice its use has long been discontinued. 
According to the Damodara its construction is only known in Indraloka, the 
mythical heaven of the god Indra, thus dispensing with the difficulty conveniently. 

The Sangita Parijata mentions that it merely differs from the other gramas 
in that the note Ni will have four s'rutis, and that Sa will consequently have 
only three." 

The Sangita Darpana points out three changes in the scales in forming 
the Gandhara-grama from the Madhyama-grama. 

Upon this Mr. Paterson" makes the following remarks : — 
ist. Gandiiara takes one s'ruti from Rishaba and becomes of three— /.t'., by rendering the note 
Ga flat, the interval between Ri and Ga is reduced a semitone, and that between Ga and Ma 
becomes a minor tone. 

and. Panchama loses one s'ruti to Gandhara. I am at a loss to know how this can take 
place. I rather suspect an error in the te.xt, and would propose to substitute Dha, the sixth note, 
instead of Gandhara. The three s'rutis of Panchama make the interval between the fifth and sixth; 
by losing one, it is reduced to a semitone ; but it cannot lose this one to Gandhara, which is the 
third note. There are but two methods of reducing this interval to a semitone — one by raising 
the fifth note, the other by rendering the sixth flat. But here the interval between the fourth and 
fifth remains unaltered. It must in this case be done by making Dha, the sixth note, flat ; or, in 
the language of Hindu music, by giving one of Panchama's s'rutis to Dhaivata. 

3rd. Suddhasvara gives one s'ruti to Nishada. Here Nishada is rendered one s'ruti flat. 
Suddhasvara is not the name of a note, but is explained to me to be a term applied to a note 
possessing its full complement of s'rutis. It may, therefore, in this case be applied to Dhaivata; 
for although it may give one s'ruti to Nishada, yet it gains one from Panchama, and still retains 
four complete s'rutis. If these conjectures are admitted, and we compare it with the Madhyama- 
grama, to which these changes evidently refer, it will stand thus — 







• 






I 


3 






• 






> 




- 


■ 






3 





' The disposition of the s'rutis in this case would be preceding their respective notes, otherwise Sa would 
be shifted one s'ruti, and this is not so, as has been already reinarUedwhen mentioning the Parijata first. 
» " On the Gramas or Musical Scales of the Hindus." — " Asiatic Researches." Vol. IX. Calcutta, 1S07. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



17 



That the Hindus probably by this division of the octave meant nothing more than what I 
have before supposed may appear from the following table, in which the intervals between each 
note and the note above it are taken from Mr. Malcolm's series of the octave in the two modes (as 
given by Mr. Chambers under the article " Scale "). This I have done in order to compare these 
intervals with the s'ruti of the Hindus, and to show the differences — 



Malcolm's Series of the Octave. 
843238^^ 
9 5 4 3 5 '5 2 
Major mode, or Madhyama-grama. 



Malcolm's Series of the Octave. 
853255^ 

9643892 

Minor mode, or Gandhara-grama. 



H 
nr 

n 

•-I 

n 

3 

n 
n 

a- 

ft 

n 

3 


Proportion of the intervals 

between each note and the 

note above it. 


What they ought to be if the 

scale was divided into 22 parts, 

or the whole string into 44. 


What they are as stated by 
the Hindus. 


H 

3- 
n 
a. 

? 

1 
CD 

n 
n 
0- 

n 

5 

3 


Proportion of the intervals 

between each note and the 

note above it. 


What they ought to be if the 

scale was divided into 22 parts, 

or the whole string into 44. 


3* 
U 

tr 

^- 

D 

a. u 
c « 

CI. 


i&l 


S 


4l 


4 


i&i 


1 


4f 


4 


l&t 


4 


3H 


3 


i&# 


1 


2| 


2 


*&i 


■h 


2?- 


2 


t&i 


tV 


3f 


3 


l&§ 


I 

T5 


3f 


4 


f&t 


tV 


3§ 


4 


§&f 


tV 


2if 


3 


f&f 


1 

24 


i# 


2 


l&A 


5 
T5 


2H 


4 


a s. 5 


A 


3^ 


4 


^&i 


^v 


ItV 


2 


.5 ff, 1 


tV 


2| 


3 



In a paper read to the Royal Society,^ in 1877, upon the Hindu division of 
the octave, Mr. Bosanquet shows that the fifths and thirds produced by dividing 
the octave into twenty-two equal intervals do not deviate very widely from the 
e.xact intervals which are the foundation of the diatonic scale, the fifth being only 



' " Proceedings of Royal Society." Vol. XXVI., page 372. 



i8 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



•07 or very nearly ^ of a comma^'^ sharp, and the major third "045 or nearly }, of a 
comma flat. 

He also gives the following table in order to show the deviation of the other 
intervals of the scale from those of just intonation: — 

SYSTEM OF TWENTY-TWO. 



Interval. 


Difference of 


Units. 


Interval. 


Exact 
Interval. 


Fourth 


Fifth and Octave 


9 


4-9091 


4-9805 


Major Tone ... 


Fourth and Fifth 


4 


2-i8i8 


2-0391 


Minor Tone ... 


Third and Major Tone 


3 


1-6363 


1-8240 


Major Semitone 


Third and Fourth 


2 


1-0909 


1-1174 


Minor Third ... 


Fifth and Third 


6 


3-2727 


3-1564 


Minor Semitone 


Major Tone and 
Minor Third 


I 


•5454 


-7067 



"In regarding these numbers," he observes, "we must remember that as far as European 
musicians are concerned, the deviation from equal temperament is the most important thing in a 
melodic point of view. 

" Intervals which deviate widely from equal temperament sound out of tune to the European 
ear, and as harmony is not employed, the justification which derivation from perfect concords is 
felt to give in harmony has no opportunity of asserting itself." 

This calculation of Mr. Bosanquet's was made on the assumption 
that all the s'rutis were equal. That such could not have been in realit}' 
the case, or that the employment of the system of twenty-two never entered 
practically into Indian music, would seem to be from all evidence almost 
certain." 

This will be more evident by a reference to the following comparative 
diagram of the primitive Sanskrit Shadja-grama and the European diatonic 
scale, as drawn for the Rajah Sir S. M. Tagore, and published in his work 



" Comma of |^ = -21506. 

" See also "The Twenty-two Musical S'rutis of the Hindus." S. M. Tagore. Calcutta, 18S6. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



19 



upon the " Musical Scales of the Hindus," from data supplied by the ancient 
treatises, the measurements being those of a string go inches long : — 



PRIMITIVE SANSKRIT SHADJAGRAMA. 



90 inches. 



20 


16 


9 


15 


13* 


I of 


6 


20 


16 


9 


15 12 


12 


fa 



EUROPEAN DIATONIC SCALE. 

The only difference, it will be seen, is in the fact that the sixth is in the 
European diatonic scale flatter than in the ancient one ; so that the ancient 
Sanskrit sixth had apparently the same ratio, theoretically, as the Pythagorean 
sixth of the Greeks. 

This seems probable, for the historian Strabo says that among the Greeks 
those who regard all Asia as far as India as a country sacred to Dionysius, 
" attribute to that country the invention of nearly all the science of music." ^^ 

But as concerns string measurements by the monochord, the late Mr. A. J. 
Ellis, F.R.S., in a most exhaustive paper read before the Society of Arts, '^notices 
the above table of the Rajah's and remarks : " These divisions are made 
on the supposition that the vibrations are inversely as the length of the 
strings, which all my observations and experiments show is not the case on 
any practical instrument." 

Mr. T. M. Venkatas'esha S'astri, a well-known authority upon theoretical 
music in Southern India, in a letter to the author, says that the word " s'ruti " 
appears to have undergone a great change in its meaning, and he inclines to the 
belief — but on what grounds it is difficult to say— that the suddha septa svaras, 
as understood at present in Southern India, meaning, as already explained, 
the seven notes of the scale containing their full number of s'rutis, are as 
follows : — 



This tends to account in some measure for the preference given to the scale 
Mayamalavagaula, described in another chapter. 

Mr. A. J. Ellis has given a table in the above-mentioned paper ^^ of the 



'- Strabo, book X., iii. 

i»On "The Musical Scales of Various Nations," by A. J. Ellis, F.R.S., F.S.A.. &c.— See "Journal of 
Society of Arts." 27th March, 1885, No. 1,688, Vol. XXXIII. 
'* See previous note. 



20 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

comparative differences in the chromatic scales formed hy the di\ision of 

a string into parts, according to both the ancient directions and to what 

the Rajah Sir S. M. Tagore states '° to be the modern Bengali use. The 

figures are in cents— that is to say, the hundredth parts of an equal semitone. 

He says : — 

I give the number of degrees (s'rutis) and the calculation of their value on both plans, old and new, 
with the names of the nineteen Indian notes, assuming that the pitch varies inversely- as the length of 
the string, as shown by the position of F and the octave, and that any errors thus arising have been 
corrected by ear. 

INDIAN CHROMATIC SCALES. 



Degrees 


I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


II 


Notes 


C 


D'77 


Db 




D 


Eb? 


E? 


E 


E- 


F 


— 


Old 


o 


51 


102 


153 


204 


2645 


3251 


386 


442 


498 


549 


New 


o 


•19 


99 


151 


204 


259 


316 


374 


435 


498 


543 


Degrees 


12 


13 


H 


15 


i6 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


Notes 


F5 


nt 


G 


A7\? 


A> 




A 


Br>t7 


B? 


B 


BJ 


Old 


600 


651 


702 


753 


804 


855 


906 


9663 


10271 


1088 


1 144 


New 


5«9 


637 


685 


736 


7S7 


841 


S96 


952 


lOII 


1070 


JI35 



The only values agreeing in each are C, D, F, while new E? is the just minor third — a mere 
accident. The nine degrees from C to F vary from 49 to 63 cents, and then there is a sudden 
break, after which the thirteen degrees from F to the octave vary from 45 to 65 cents. This is 
the first intelligible presentment of the Indian scale which I have been able to effect. It will be seen 
that C, D^, D, E?, E, F, FJ, G, A\>, A, Bb, B are represented pretty well by our equally tempered 
notes; but that the seven intermediate notes— Db>, Ebb, E^, r^:;:, A^b, Bbb, BJ— could only be 
tempered in the quarter-tone system used in Syria. Hence in the usual transcription these seven 
notes are identified with some of the others. . . . These comparisons necessarily injure 
the original character of the music and give it a harmonisable appearance which is entirely foreign 
to Indian music. 

Mr. Ellis also examined a vina from Southern India, now in the South 
Kensington Museum, with the following result : — 

Cents o 97 195 312 397 515 596 692 782 8S3 997 1092 1207 
Notes G At? A Bb B c d? d ebb e f f; g 

He remarks : " This is very close indeed to our scale of twelve semitones, 
and may be taken for it"; thus proving scientifically what has been found by 
e.xperiment to be invariably the case with vinas used b}' Karnatik musicians 
{vide page 31 — footnote). 

In a communication received from Mr. A. J. Hipkins, it is not acknowledged 
that there is any connection between the old Indian gramas of 22 quarter-tones, 
or s'rutis, and the modern European scales, which, with major and minor tones 



'^ "The Musical Scales of the Hindus." Calcutta, 1SS4. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



and semitones, are founded upon the knowledge and practice of harmony. 
The Indian scale intervals ought to be understood as they are explained by 
native writers — namely, as a tone,'*^ a i^-tone, and a J-tone, composed of 4, 3, 
and 2 s'rutis respectively. With this conception of intervals, and it must 
be borne in mind the ^-tone is still approved of in the East, a division of 
the octave into 24 equal quarter-tones becomes impossible. For as it was 
essential to secure an approximately perfect fourth with g s'rutis, and a 
fifth with 13, the division of the octave by 22 was the only one available. 
The error in the fourth of g equal s'rutis of a 22 division is no more than 
^-comma, in melody scarcely noticeable, but the error in a 21 or in a 23 
division could not have been easily tolerated. The s'rutis thus being a little 
wider than exactly equal quarter-tones, 54x1 cents instead of 50, the Indian 
gramas in most intervals come near to those of our just intonation scales, 
but this resemblance is accidental, as the foundation is different. It must, 
however, not be forgotten that this scale of probably equal s'rutis was 
theoretical, and has long since been superseded by another and more 
practical system, and that equal measurements of a string will not represent 
accuratelv this old Hindu conception. 

The comparison of the 22 s'ruti scale with the European one of just 
intonation is as follows. The figures are equal semitones to two places of 
decimals (or the late Mr. A. J. Ellis's cents). 



3-82 


4-91 


7-09 9-27 lo-gi 


12-00 


3-86 


4-98 


7-02 j 8-84 ) 10-88 

1 or 9*o6, with comma added i 
[ to make 5th to D. J 


I2-00 



Indian 2"i8 

European 2-04 



The following table, kindly sent me by the late Mr. Ellis, shows the results 
obtained from a most minute and careful examination made by him and by 
Mr. A. J. Hipkins of a beautiful old vina, in perfect condition, now in my 
possession. This instrument is between two and three hundred years old, and 
is from the collection in the Tanjore Palace. The results, as will be seen, 
tend to prove that the frets were purposely arranged for something like equal 
temperament. We see, therefore, that in India much the same results have 
been independently arrived at by native musicians as have been attained by 
subsequent science in Europe. 

'"■ Mr. Hipkins states : "The Pythagorean tone — i.e., the distance by which a perfect fifth overlaps a 
perfect fourth — which is here meant, is 2-04 equal semitones, and the greater tune that from the harmonic 
seventh completes the octave is 2-31. The four s'rutis amount to 2-18. '" 

F 



22 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 








Pitch or num- 








Cents in the in- 




Millimetres 


Sounding 


bers of double 


Cents in the interval 


Intervals in cents 


Intervals in 


terval from the 


Frets. 


from nut. 


lengths of string. 


vibrations. 
Nov. 18, 1887. 


from the lowest note. 


from note to note. 


cents calculated 
from column 3. 


lowest note from 
column 3. 


Nut 





555 


2107 














I 


31 


524 


222-8 


97 


97 


99 


99 


2 


59 


496 


236-6 


201 


104 


96 


195 


3 


«5 


470 


246-2 


270 


69 


93 


288 


4 


1X0 


445 


260-9 


370 


100 


94 


382 


5 


134 


421 


275-0 


461 


91 


96 


478 


6 


156 


399 


289-2 


548 


87 


93 


571 


7 


179 


376 


310-5 


671 


123 


104 


675 


8 


200 


355 


325-3 


752 


81 


99 


774 


9 


219 


336 


346-3 


860 


108 


95 


869 


lO 


236 


319 


365-6 


954 


94 


90 


959 


II 


253 


302 


385-8 


1047 


93 


95 


1054 


12 


269 


286 


421-5 


1200 


153 


94 


1148 


13 


286 


269 


447-2 


1303 


103 


106 


1254 


14 


301 


254 


472-5 


1398 


95 


99 


1353 


15 


3'4 


241 


494-1 


1476 


77 


91 


1444 


16 


327 


22S 


523-6 


1576 


100 


99 


1548 


17 


341 


214 


553-3 


1672 


96 


107 


1650 


18 


352 


203 


583-4 


1763 


91 


91 


1741 


19 
20 


363 
373 

383 


192 
182 


The rest of the 






97 
102 


1838 
1990 
3028 




The great uncertain- 


21 


172 


notes were too 
high for my 
forks. 


Auxiliary Table. 


ty in these intervals 
renders any hypo- 
thesis as to the in- 
tended nature of the 


98 


22 


392 


163 


Cents. 


Intervals. 


93 


2121 


23 
24 


401 
410 


154 
145 








scale impossible. 
Butcol. 7, in conjunc- 
tion with the auxi- 


99 
104 


2220 
2324 


The height of 
thestringabove 
the frets varied 
from I to 5 milli- 




128:135 


bridge 


553 





92 


liary table in col. 5, 

..hnu'c that thA 






or larger , me'chanicaTrule "of 






to the beginning 


From these 


metres. 


limma 


maKing iiic s.u*.».ca- 




Compared with 




of the bridge. 


lengths are caU 




« . ,C . T^ 


sive lengths as iS: ig, 




column 5, this 


100 times 
these ncm- 


but the real 
sounding length 


culated columns 
7 and 8 on the 




94 
99 


17 : 18 
84 : 89 
16 : 17 


or 17 : 18, or 16 ; 17 
was applied, and 




shows the erro- 
neous nature of 




bers give 


is as 555 milli- 


hypothesis that 




hencethat the maker 




the hvpothesis 


the cents in 
equal tem- 
perament. 


metres. 


pitch varies 
inversely as 
the sounding 


A cent is the 
hundredth part 
of an equal 


100 
105 


intended the frets to 
be arranged for 
equal temperament. 




that pilch va- 
ries as the 
sounding 






lengths 


semitone. 


112 
151 


15 : 16 
II : 12 






length on 
fretted instru- 
ments. 










155 


32:35 








Applied in column 7. 



The system by which the octave is divided into twelve semitones is clearly 
hinted at in the Sani^ita Darpana, which states that there are seven pure tones 
(Suddha or Prakrita), which appear to refer to the intervals composing the 
diatonic major scale ; and twelve impure tones (Vikrita), by which we may 
conclude that the chromatic scale is implied.'^ 



" For other information about Prakrita and Vikrita notes, see 
M. 'fagore. Calcutta, 1884. 



'The Musical Scales of the Hindus.' 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 23 

The s'rutis are arranged in their different svaras, or intervals of the scale, 
according to the " murchanas." Of what these murchanas really consisted 
is very doubtful. 

Sir William Jones states that the murchanas, of which there are seven in 
each grama, appear to be no more than "seven pieces of diapason multiplied by 
three, according to the difference of pitch in the compass of the three octaves." 

This view seems to be that taken by Kohala, an ancient musician, from 
whose pen fragments of a treatise in Sanskrit are still remaining.'^ 

Mr. Paterson, on the other hand, conjectures that they are the intervals ol 
each grama, and arranges them in the following classification : — 

Shadja-grama Sa to Ri ist znd) 

,, ,, Ga ,, 3rd - ist Tetrachord. 
,, ,, Ma ,, 4th ) 
Pa ,, Dha ,, 2nd\ 
,, ,, Ni ,, 3rd ^nd Tetrachord. 
,, ,, Sa ,, 4th) 
Sa ,, Sa ,, Octave 
Madhvama-grama ....Sa ,, Ri 2nd 

,, ,, Ga Greater third 
„ ,, Ma 4th 
,, „ Pa 5th 
,, ,, Dha Greater sixth 
„ „ Ni 7th 
,, ,, Sa Octave 
Gandhara-grama ....Sa to Ri 2nd 

,, ,, Ga Minor third 
,, ,, Ma 4th 
,, ,, Pa 5th 
,, ,, Dha Minor sixth 
„ „ Ni 7th'' 
,, ,, Sa 8th 
The seven intervals of each scale are arranged in what are called ragas. 
Sir W. Jones employs the term raga as synonymous with mode. 
Mode and raga are, however, perfectly distinct from each other — Mode 



1* The Sangita Darpana gives a totally different meaning to nuirchana, describing the murchanas 
as the permutations produced by a method somewhat like change ringing; the number of murchanas 
being the continued product of the number of notes employed. Hence, from a grama of seven tones we 
get 5,040 different murchanas. The method of producing these permutations is called " Kundameru " by 
native musicians. 

" Whether major or minor is not stated by Mr. Paterson. 



24 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERy INDIA. 

being termed t/uit, and not raga or ragini. Now that consists in determining 
the relative intervals between several sounds, which constitute an octave with 
respect to each other. A raga is formed from these, in its composition 
employing the whole or less number of the intervals of the that, and with a 
peculiar melodic style of its own ; in fact, a melody type formed upon a mode. 
This, however, is more fully explained in another chapter. 

In no two Sanskrit works do we find that the ragas agree either as to their 
names or their notation ; the modes or scales of these different ragas are not 
given, and, in most cases, it is therefore only a matter of conjecture as to how 
they were performed. In almost all these works a somewhat similar classification 
of the rags and raginis has been adopted. There are six principal ragas personified 
as demigods, each of which has a certain number of raginis (personified as the 
wives of the ragas) — sometimes five and sometimes six — appended to it. 
The following classification is that of Hanuman'-*: — 

I- — Bhairava Dha, ni, sa, ga, ma, dha. 

Madhyamadi ....Ma, pa, dha, ni, sa, ri, ga, ma. 
Bhairavi ....(i.) Ma, pa, dha, ni, sa, ri, ga, ma. (i.) Ascending.) 
(2.) Dha, ni, sa, ga, ma, pa. (2.) Descending. ) 

Vangali Sa, ga, ma, pa, ni, sa, | 

Ma, pa, dha, ni, sa, ri, ga, ma. ) 

Varati Sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa. 

Syinda\i Sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa,| 

Sa, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa. ) 

II. — ^Malavakusika Sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa. 

Todi Ma, pa, dha, ni, sa, ri, ga, ma. 

Sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa. 

Kambavati Dha, ni, sa, ri, ga, nia, dha. 

Gauri Sa, ga, ma, dha, ni, sa. 

Gunakeri Dha, ni, sa, ga, ma, pa, ni.j 

Sa, ga, ma, pa, ni, sa. 

Kakobha Dha, ni, sa, ri, na, ma, pa, dha. 

III. Hindola Sa, ga, ma, pa, ni, sa, ni, pa, ma, ga, sa. 

V'elavcli Dha, ni, sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha. 

Ramakeri Sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa.) 

Sa, ni, dha, ma, ga, ri, sa. 

Deshaks'ya Ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa, ga. 

Palamangeri ....Pa, dha, ni, sa, ri, ga, ma, pa. 

" See " Sangita Sara Sangraha," a collection of various Sanskrit authorities, edited by S. M. Tagore. 
Calcutta, 1875. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 25 

Lalita Sa, ri, (^a, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa, sa.[ 

Dha, ni, sa, ga, ma, dha, dha. j 
IV. — Dipaka Sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa. 

Kadara Ni, sa, ga, ma, pa, ni, ni. 

Kanada Ni, sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, ni. 

Deshi Ri, ga, ma, dha, ni, sa, ri. 

Kaumodi Dha, ni, sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha. 

Natika Sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa. 

V. — S'ri-Raga Ni, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa, ri. 

Vasantha Sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa. 

Mahiva Ni, sa, ga, ma, dha, ni. 

Mahiva-s'ri Sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa. 

Dunasri Sa, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa. 

Asaveri Dha, ni, sa, ma, pa, dha. 1 

Ma, dha, ni, sa, ri, ga, ma.) 
\'I. — Megharaga Dha, ni, sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha. 

Gauri Dha, ni, ri, ga, ma, dha. 

Deshakari Sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa. 

Bhupali Sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa.) 

Sa, ga, ma, pa, ni, sa. I 

Gaurjeri Ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa, ri. 

Dakha Sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa, sa. 

The Sangita Narayana shows that thirty-six " modes " or ragas are in 
general use, and the rest very rarely applied to practice. These modes are 
shown by Sir William Jones in his essay on the musical modes of the Hindus, 
and will be found in many respects similar to those described in the Sangita 
Darpana, and shown above. Thirtv-si.K modes from the Raga Vivodha, and 
thirty-six from the work of Mirza Khan, have also been described by the same 
eminent scholar, and need not, therefore, be reproduced here. 

The rhythm of the early music seems to have been very complicated, and 
the most exact directions as to the value of notes and the division into " talas " 
or rhythmical periods are given. These, again, vary in different authors. 

For example, in order to estimate the relative time value of successive 

notes, the sage Anginayya gives the following poetical directions : — 

Take one hundred petals of the lotus flower, place them then one upon the other ; and 
when pierced with a needle, the time in which the point passes through a single petal is called 
one second ; eight such seconds are called one lava ; eight lavas one koshta ; eight koshtiis one 
nimisha ; eight nimishas one kala ; four kalas one anudrutha ; two anudruthas one drutha ; 
two druthas one lagu ; two lagus one guru ; three lagus one plutha ; four lagus one kakupatha. 

G 



26 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHEKy INDIA. 



Of these, later on in his work, he employs the following, calling drutha 
a half matra, and this he takes as the limit. 

Hence we can deduce the following table : — 



Written 


Name 


Value 





Drutha 


•5 Matras 


1 


Lagu 


I Matra 


«t 


Guru 


2 Matras 


< 


Plutha 


3 Matras 


c 


Birama (or rest) 


Not stated 



The common and triple time here implied is striking, and in some 
measure tends to prove that the employment of triple time is not of such 
comparatively recent introduction as some writers endeavour to show. 

Formed upon the above basis, several hundreds of different talas or 
measures — many of them extremely complicated — are given."^ 

The rhythm of some of these ancient talas is still employed in practice, 
although the complicated system of signature is no longer in use. The following 
table, taken from the work of Anginayya, comprises some of these ancient talas, 
together with their value in modern notation. 

The sign of C or rest, although its value is not definitely stated by 
Anginayya, can be — judgingfrom the performances of modern Mridang or Tabla 
players — correctly taken to be of the same value as the note immediately 
preceding; or else it may be employed as a "dot," when placed after a note, to 
lengthen its value by one-half. 

Captain Willard, in his " Treatise upon the Music of Hindustan," has given 
another and very complete list of these ancient talas, differing in many ways 
from the following ; but, unfortunately, he does not state from what authority he 
gathered them. 

To judge by the very complicated nature of many of these talas, and the fact 
that they vary widely in almost all the authorities, it seems hardly likely that 
they were ever in very common use ; but they are, nevertheless, interesting as 
showing the great variety of rhythm that can be produced by such simple means 
as beating the two hands together — the earliest kind of rhythmical accompaniment ; 
and some slight idea of the peculiarities of modern Indian drum playing can also 
be gleaned from this table : — 



" Extracts from Anginayya's work have been given by the Rajah Sir S. M. Tagore, in " Sangita Sara 
Sangrahd," which see for further information upon this subject, p. 207 and following pages. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



27 



No. 


Name of Tala. 


Originally written. 


Value in English Notation. 


I 


Adi 


1 


J- 


2 


Dviteya . 






1 1 






^.^.^J^ 


3 


Triteya 






1 °. 






-^/n 


4 


Chaturushra 






1 . 






J'Ji 


5 


Panchama 






00. 






-%J» 


6 


Nis'ankalila 






vv«f«(i 






J. J- J J ,> 


7 


Durpana . 






V 






.%.^J r 


8 


Simhavikrama . 






*, «, 1, 1 *,= 1 ^ V 






J J J ^J-/J J r 


9 


Ratilila . 






\\i,% . . 






.^.N J 


10 


Simhalila 






1 






^^ .%.*.* 


II 


Kanderpa 






V ^ 1 • 






.*-ftJ-J J- 


12 


Virevikruma 






1 4; 






J-J^JiJ 


13 


Rangaha . 






0^. 






.ft^^.%j 


14 


S'ri-Rangaha . 






1 1 ^ 1 V ■ ■ 






J" J- J .^J r 


15 


Chachari . 






(0 0' 1 0' 1 0' 1 0' 1 
lo o'l 0' 1 


o'l 


0' 1 

• 


.%.%. .>.%.%. .V. 


16 


Pratianga 






^^*tl 1 . . 






J J J ^^ 


17 


Yetilagna 






1 






J4 % ^ 


iS 


Gajalila . 






1 1 1 1" 






-^/.^.N 


19 


Hamsalila 






II'. 






^/n 


20 


Vcrnabhina 






1 t, 






.^^^J 


21 


Tribhinha 






1 ^ V • . 






.N J ,- 


22 


Raga-chudamanni 






1 II 1 t( 






^-fe.f^.^j^.%.*,N 


23 


Rangadiotaha . 






«f ^ ^ 1 V 






J J J .^J r 


24 


Rangapradipaka 






%i,%\i,^-- 






J J J ^J J r 


25 


Rajah-chasraha 






1 1 M 






J* .^ -* -■» S" m" 


26 


Mitravernaha . 






it'' % \ if if 






J.J .5.%/J J 


27 


Simhavikridita. 






1 1 Vi*,ViV«tV< 


. c 




.'^.N.-^JJ./J.JJ.Jr 


28 


Savaha 






1 1 «, 1 1 00 






/^^J /^.*.* 


29 


Vanumali. 






1 f, 






,>.%.% .5.% J 


30 


Hamsanada 






1 V V 






.N.-%.*J r 


31 


S'imhanada 






\ifif\if . . 






^J J /J 


32 


Kiirdukaha 






00 1 1 






.ft.*-^.^ 


33 


Turangalila 






0' 






.*.* J!.% 


34 


S'arabhalila 






1 1 II . 






.■^.^ .*.*.%.*// 


35 


Chaturasraha . 






^ 1 S{ . 






J /.*-%J 


36 


Simhanandana 






«, «f 1 V 1 ^ «, «, 1 


VII 


iif ■ 


JJ/J.^JJ».*JJ.V.VJ 


37 


Tribhangihi 






Wifif . . 






> > 1 1 

0> m m m 


38 


Rangabhirnaha 






«f *( 1 1 V . ■ 






J J /.^J r 


39 


Mangikaha 






1 1 «, 1 1 1 r 






/.N Z.^.^/-, 


40 


Majaba . 






If 1 1 0' 0'. 






1 ^ N ^. % :] 


41 


Madrita-mangaha 






I( 1 1 1 1 1 I' 






J M^^.'-Vi 


42 


Vamangaha 






«, II 0' 0' . 




J/.^-'!-.'5^ 



28 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

There exist, as will be explained later on, at present in Karnatik music 
seventy-two modes or scales, all formed from seven of the twelve semitones in 
the octave differently disposed upon a tonic of equal pitch. If we are to under- 
stand that the ragas described by Sir W. Jones were simply such scales or 
modes, the only way in which it is possible to reconcile the theory to the present 
system is to imagine that for ascending the scale they employed a perfect fourth 
(or, as a Karnatik musician would say, for Arohana Suddha-madhyama), and for 
descending the augmented fourth (Prati-madhyama), or possibly the reverse, like 
the Chinese practice at the present day. 

From the earliest time the ragas seem to have been appointed to be sung at 
certain hours of the day or night, and no musician, unless specially ordered, 
would deviate from custom so far as to sing a raga out of its appointed season. 

The ragas are, however, differently distributed in the different works, and 
the modern custom differs widely from the directions of the Sanskrit. 

The notation given in all the ancient treatises is very similar to that at 

present in use, letters only being employed to express the notes. The following, 

?i facsimile of the most ancient form of notation, is from the work of Soma, and 

has been thus rendered into the European notation by Sir William Jones, who 

remarks : — 

I have noted Soma's air in the major mode-^of A, or Sa, which, from its gaiety and brilliancy, 
well expresses the general hilarity of the song ; but the sentiment, often under pain even in a 
season of delights, from the remembrance of pleasures no longer attainable, would require in our 
music a change to the minor mode ; and the air might be disposed of in the form of a rondo ending 
with the second line, or even with the third, where the sense is equally full, if it should be thought 
proper to express by another modulation that imitative melody which the poet has manifestly 
attempted : the measure is very rapid, and the air should be gay or even quick in exact proportion 
to it : — 






^^ It is rathfr difficult to understand why Sir William Jones employs this key instead of that of C, 
which seems to have been the most natural that would have suggested itself. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



29 



Translation of the above.- 




^^^^^^ 



^1 



* * 



i y~r" 



-^ ^ — ^- 



*fe 



ii 



^ This translation must, of course, be more or less hypothetical ; and as it is so entirely different in 
character and style to all modern Indian music, and airs heard now in India which are said to be very 
ancient, its correctness appears to be very doubtful. A comparison with the examples quoted later will 
show how u idely it differs. 



CHAPTER III. 



Modern theorj- — How difTering from ancient — Notation — Arrangement of gamut — Scales — Time, 
how signified — Application of measure to music. 

THE modern theory of Indian music differs widely from that described in 
the ancient Sanskrit treatises, having, as has been said, passed throuiijh 
many changes in the course of time before assuming its present form. 

The pecuhar division of the octave into twenty-two parts or s'rutis exists 
no longer in practice, and the employment of s'rutis or intervals less than 
semitones is liinitcd to grace. 

The ragas in present use in most respects differ from those previously 
mentioned, and, in fact, the whole system has undergone a complete change and 
gradual refinement, until between the ancient and modern music there exists a 
difference as clearly marked and perceivable, to even the most casual observer, as 
between the modern Anglican chant and the ancient Gregorian tones. 

The notes employed in Indian music are expressed by the following 
characters' (termed, when sounded, svaras). These characters are repeated as 
often as is necessary, should more notes be required to complete a passage. No 
stave, as in the European system, is necessary, the characters being written in 
one line onlv. 



Name 


How sung 


Signified 


Corresponding 
to European 

Do 


Shadja 


Sa 


r5 


Rishaba 


Ri 


6 


Re 


Gandhara 


Ga 


X 


Mi 


Madhyama 


Ma 


^ 


Fa 


Panchama 


Pa 


5j 


Sol 


Dhaivata 


Dha 


6 


La 


Nishada 


Ni 


a 


Si 



' The characters here represented arc Tclegu, that being the most musical language of Southern Iuiii:i. 
The corresponding letters of Tuniii, Mahrathi, Sanskrit, &c., are frequently employed in the same way. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



These seven notes correspond to those of the European diatonic major scale, 
unless the intervals are modified to those of some special scale. 

The Hindu octave, like the European, is divided into twelve semitones.- 

From these twelve semitones, seventy-two scales or modes, each consisting 
of seven notes, are formed upon a tonic of the same pitch. 

As the intervals of every scale or mode are signified by the above letters, it 
will be seen that there exists no method by which accidentals can be noted. 

The following table shows the arrangement of the twelve semitones under 
their respective significations. 

The note Pa (Sj), as will be seen, is invariably the fifth of the scale. 

The keynote Sa {Xj) may be of any pitch as may best suit the requirements 
of the performer. 



Relation. 


Sa. 

!6 


Ri. 

e 


Ga. 
X 


Ma. 


Pa. 


Dha. 
6 


Ni. 


Sa. 
!6 


C 
B 

At 
A 

Gt 
G 

F| 

F 

E 

D* 

D 

Cf 

c 




























KakeH= 














Shat-s'ruti 


Kaisika' 














Chatur-s'ruti 


Suddha 












Suddha 


























Prati 
















Suddha 














Sadharama 














Shat-s'ruti 


Antara' 














Chatur-s'ruti 


Suddha 














Suddha 






































"'1 



" This view is supported by both Sir W. Jones and Mr. Fuwke (".Asiatic Researches"). Sir W. Jones 
remarks: " I tried in vain to discover in practice any difference between the Indian scale and that of our 
own; but knowing my ear to be very insufficiently exercised, I requested a German professor of music to 
accompany on his violin a Hindu lutenist, who sang by note some popular airs on the loves of Krishna and 
Radha, and he assured me that the scales were the same; and Mr. Shore afterwards informed me that when 
the voice of a native singer was in tune with his harpsichord, he found the Hindu series of seven notes to 

^ M. Grosset gives an interesting explanation of these terms, as used by Bharata, in his Contribution a 
VHude dc la musiquc Hindoue. Paris, 1888. The terms are used in a slightly different sense, but the 
explanation should be read by those who wish to make further research. 



32 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



From the above table it may be easily understood that although every scale 
is sung to the syllables " Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni," the intervals implied 
by these syllables vary in the different scales. 

For instance, Ri may be employed to denote either D?, Di^, or DJf, as the 
case may be ; assuming, of course, that Sa corresponds with C. When the 
names of the notes vary it has been noticed in the column under each respective 
head. These names should be prefixed to those of the notes, as Suddha- 
gandhara, Antara-gandhara. 

The scales formed upon these intervals are seventy-two in number, and are 
divided into two divisions of thirty-six in each. 

Those of the first division are styled " Suddha-madhyama," from the fact 
that in their construction they employ that note, or the perfect fourth, throughout. 
Those of the second, for a similar reason, are styled " Prati-madhyama," and 
employ the augmented or tritone fourth. In theoretical works the scales are 
classified in sets or " chacrams " of six ; the construction of each chacram, as 
will be noticed, being very similar. 

The following is a list of all the scales,^ with their names and reference 
numbers, arranged by "chacrams" or sets of six precisely as given in treatises 
in the vernacular, the only difference being that European notation has been 
substituted for the Indian : — ■ 



Karnakangi. No. i. 



Suddha-Madhyama. 

Rhatnangi. No. 2. 

I 



t=F 



H b W 



2 



]v j bi 



i cJ b?or 



=^^=^ 



IZ3Z 



Ganamurti. No. 3. 



■<s>- 

Vanaspati. No. 4. 



^§ 



^^ 



i^=M 



=bS=^ 



rJ O- 



?o- 



Manavati. No. 5. 



-o- 
Tanarupi. No. 6. 



d rJ 



HsgE g^^j .1 ^m 



bJ i'bt 



ascend like ours — by a sharp third." From many experiments I am led to beHeve that a wrong idea as to 
the temperament of the Indian scale — as practically employed — has hitherto been held. I played over all 
the various scales shown later upon a pianoforte — tuned to equal temperament— in the presence of several 
well-known Hindustani and Karnatik musicians, all of whom assured me that they corresponded e.xactly to 
those of the vina. Upon comparing the two instruments this was found to be the case — as far as could be 
judged by the ear alone— in every instance. Native airs are played by the private band of H.H. the 
Maharajah of Mysore; and as far as mdody is concerned they are acknowledged to be perfectly in tune, 
according to Indian ideas, by all. Native airs are also played by the band of H.H. the Gacckwar of Baroda, 
the chief musician at whose court — " Professor" Maula Bu.x — a man of considerable attainments, took pains 
to explain to me that the tempering of the modern Indian scales differed in no whit from the European. 
In fact, in practice, as among the ancient Greeks, the old enharmonic genus would seem to have given 
place to the chromatic. 

* The scales here shown are those of the Karnatik system. Those used in the Hindustani system are 
fewer in number and are differently named They will be found upon page 91. 



Sanapati. No. 7. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

Hanumatodi. No. 8. 



33 



-t>o — ^ 



g- i^f-J 



^^ 



^gJ < ■ > 



:tJ=i 



g^^ 



-0- 

Danuka. No. 9. 



Natakaprya. No. 10. 



Kokilaprya. No. 11. 



^^^g^ 



^ 



^^ 



Rupavati. No. 12. 



^^^=^d=r^ 



$ 



^^=M=^^=^ 



=zi: 



:^H^=J-b«i^ 



^P^ 



J f J- 



Gaiakaprya. No. 13. 



i 



=^ 






Vakhulabharna. No. 14. 



i^d- 



ri Q - 



- j^ rJ t'' 



^ 



Mayamalavagaula. No. 15. 



-f3>- 
Chackravaka. No. 16. 



=^=^ 



Tl-d^^ 



Suryakanta. No. 17. 



Hatakambari. No. 18. 



^ 



^ 



^ 



^^ 



izi: 



- ^ Q - 



=sHrJ^ 



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S'ankaradvani. No. ig. 



Natabhairavi No. 20. 



i 



-^d — ^ 



^^'?=!^^^ 



-i^d <^- 



^^ ^ — J = 



Kyravani. No. 21 



Karaharaprj'a. No. 22. 



1=^=1= 



^ 



1=3=^=1^ 



3±: 



^3^ 



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Gaurimanohari. No. 23. 



^•■^ 



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Varunaprya. No. 24. 



TT'^r-p ^ 



^^ 



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Mararangini. No. 25. 



Charukali. No. 26. 



Z ^_^ 



lesi: 



r j 



::U?=t: 



Harikambogi. No. 28. 



32!= 



-iS^ C3 « 

Sarasangi. No. 27. 



^^^^^ 



J J .1 J .^:^ ^fl 



b'-j ' ^ 



Dehras'ankarabharna. No. 2g. 



-r^^^ JE 



Naganandini. No. 30. 



^^^ 



^ 



^ 



34 



Yagaprya. No. 31. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTH ERX INDIA. 

Ragavardani. No. 32. 



i 



J— ^-4- 



=tel— ^H 



^?< s > '' ^ 



^^s 



3222: 



^ 



^ 



dJ=t 



rj g * 



Gangaiabhusani. No. 33. 



Vagadesvari. No. 34. 



Shulini. No. 35. 



=^^^ 



|v^ g ^ 



:2± 



# 



ij^i: 



Chalan^ta. No. 36. 



i 



H — i- 



3£: 



S 



# 



fj o 



zsiz 



^3-t=^ 



Salanaga. No. 37. 



Prati-Madhyama. 

Salanava. No. 38. 



,J__J_lJ EgdE 



Ed=^ 



33Z 



I2S2I 



^^si=* 



yj ^ 



9?^s- 



Jalavarali. No. 39 



^-- — M 
Nivanita. No. 40 



i 



j =^=^ 



g 



itjQ 



=ri=^[^^=i 



-^' — ^ 



Pavani. No. 41. 



Ragonprja. No. 42. 



^ 



^^^^^^^^^^ 



'»==±=? d^>iHj'- £ 



=^-^?s!— $■ 



Gavambodi. No. 43. 



Bhavaprya. No. 44. 



' ^ J. ,J=i fe #^^^3^^^ 



:^ 



i^;j=t>^^=^ 



^3=PS^|-^= 



rhJ=k^ 



Sabhapantovarali. No. 45. 



S'adivedamangini. No. 46. 



I 



1 h 



i=;p* 



Suvaranangi. No. 47. 



i^3^^^ 



il=:j=2z 



=?S=|^ 



-r3 ?s- 



Davyamani. No. 48. 



I 



t: 



=?^Mr= 



^ 



q=4: 



! „ I -^- 



^s 



^^^^ 



«./ -S>- 



~?c< 



t>a — ?' 



Duvalambberi. No. 49. 



Namanagini. No. 50. 



(i 



Kamavdrdini. No. 51. 



-t=fe 



5^^^^E^ 



^i=3^ 



^ 



icbizPSi 



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Ramaprya. No. 52. 



i 



^ 



a -_^i .] >^3s| | 



^^^=3=^ 



t=2'Oz 



rj ~ 



-^=^=^^ 



GSmanas'rya. No. 53. 
n — 



^#=^=^ 



Visvambari. No. 54. 



=^=t^---^= 



^ 



Syamalangi. No. 55. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

S'anmukaprya. No. 56. 



^ 



35 



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?-?£) C>_ 



^^^E^EE^. 



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S'rimhandra. No. 57. 



Hamo-vasantha. No. 58. 



i 



j-i>.^-^ 



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-b J ^ ^ I I 



=^^^P 



iL d ? Q ?r- 



Dharmovati. No. 59. 



Nettimatti. No. 60. 



1^37^ ^ =^ ^^^^^^^ 



Kanlamani. No. 61. 



Rishavaprya. No. 62. 



I^S=35= 



i^^^ 



Tt .'J g> 



fl , ^J i>T»C' ' ' "' 



^ ^^ V 



4?ji: 



Latangi. No. 63. 



Vachaspati. No. 64. 



i 



i* 



_._ ^ ^ ^ 

Matsy^ikaliani. No. 65. 



tei: 



^^ 



■^ Q 



32: 



^ 



4=^ 



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ChintSmani. No. 66. 



i 



^^Ei 



^^^ 



^ 



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Suchantra. No. 67. 



Jotisvarupeni. No. 68. 



f=Sta 



=^ 



=*= 



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iffci: 



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Nas'icabharna. No. 70. 



Dhartov^rdani. No. 6g. 



i 



J 41,1 J 1'^=^ 



i^ 



:c3z 



let 



-f» ej g^c 



-f3 «■' 



Rasikaprya. No. 72. 



Kosala. No. 71. 



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^ 



;=£ 






4= 



In Hindu music usually three octaves only, termed Sthayis, are taken 
into consideration. 

Instruments such as the vina, kc, have, however, a compass of nearl}- four 
octaves. In order to sii^nify the octave in which a note is to be plaved, a dot or 
dots are usually placed above or below it. There is no definite rule for this; each 
musician or writer upon music apparently advocates some method of his own. 

Music is not, as with us, divided by bars of equal duration. Divisions 
styled Gitalu are in use, and are signified thus | or — ; they can be placed 
anywhere, at the composer's discretion, and denote parts or phrases so to speak. 

They are frequently marked thus || or =, when they denote the repetition 
of a part, or the conclusion of a strain. 



3*5 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERX INDIA. 



The sign of the lotus flower G?) is used by some writers for the same 
purpose. 

Time, bv which is imphed the relative values of a succession of notes, cannot 
be expressed with anv degree of accuracy without indeed so complicated an 
arrangement of signs as to be almost unintelligible. The method is described 
fully in the Sanskrit works, but from this reason it has fallen into disuse. The 
value of the note is invariably taught orally by a master, and the ear is thereby 
cultivated to a very high degree. 

The following signs (or their equivalents if the character is Devanagari) are, 
however, made use of in order to convey — approximately only — whether notes 
are to be of long or short duration :^ 

Dirgha : This sign, used in conjunction with the musical characters, 
signifies that they represent " long notes" — 

Votu : This sign in the same way represents " short notes "— 

The different degrees of time are termed Talas, of which there are seven, 
each being sub-divided into five "jatis," or kinds; so that there are in use no 
less than thirty-five distinct measures. 

By the annexed table the various talas and their respective jatis will be 
understood at a glance, the figures signifying the number of beats of equal 
duration made in a bar. 



Name of Jati. 



Name 
of J 



Tala. 





Chaturushra. 


Tishra. 


Mishra. 


Ciindha. 


Sankirna. 


Dhruva 


4. 2, 4. 4^ 


3.2,3.3 


7.2,7.7 


5.2,5.5 


9,2,9,9 


Matsya 


4. 2, 4 


3. 2,3 


7.2,7 


5.2,5 


9.2,9 


Rupaka 


4, 2 


3.2 


7-2 


5.2 


9,2 


Jhampa 


4- I. 2 


3. I. 2 


7, 1. 2 


5, 1.2 


9. I. 2 


Triputa 


4. 2, 2 


3. 2, 2 


7, 2, 2 


5. 2, 2 


9. 2, 2 


Atatala 


4,4,2,2 


3.3.2,2 


7.7.2,2 


5. 5. 2, 2 


9,9.2,2 


Ekatala 


4 


3 


7 


5 


6 



Soiiictiiiics ill practice this is jjlayed 6, 4, 4, although theoretically wrong. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



37 



Talas can be denoted by the following signatures 



denotint 



I unit of time. 

-7 



4 

8 

12 

i6 



Should 



Anudrutha u 

Drutha o 

Lagu I 

Guru 6 

Plutha 3 

Kakupatha -(- 

The jati of the tala is usually appended to the signature in words, 
nothing be appended, then the Chaturushra is generally understood. 

In order to employ these signs they should be substituted for the figures 
in the table: thus ion will denote the Chaturushra jati of Druvatala. Hence, 
when written in European notation, there is often a constant rotation cor- 
responding to the tala of bars of different time signatures. 

Each tala can be played in any order — i.e., 4244 can be played 2444, 
4424, or 4442. 

The application of the talas to an air is called Graha, and is of four 
kinds, viz. : — 

(i.) Sama" — When the first beat of the tala falls upon the first note 

of the air. 
(2.) Anagata — When the air commences after the first beat of the tala 

which therefore falls upon a rest. 
(3.) Atiyita — When the tala continues after the air is finished, the last 

beat therefore falling upon a rest. 
(4.) Vichama — Comprises anv irregularity not included in the above 
three, such as the beat of a tala falling upon the first note of a 
bar tied to the last note of the bar preceding, &c. 
The Chaturushra jati of Triputa Tala is also known by the name of 
Aditala, and is a very common time for javadis, and other love songs. 

There being practically no harmony in Hindu music, clefs, as in the European 
system, are not employed. The kevnote is always Sa, and, as already stated, is 
taken of any pitch to suit the requirements of the performer or the nature of the 
instrument. 



' This term is also used to signify the strong accent. 



CHAPTER IV. 



Ka<ja — How dtlined — Notes essential to composition of — \'adi and Samvadi notes — Modern 
meaning of Murchana — Examples of Murchana applied — Ancient and modern methods of 
performance of raga — How differing — Alapa — Madhyamakala — Gamakas — Classification of 
ragas — Popular scales for — Allied to certain passions — Peculiarities — How apportioned to 
seasons and hours — " Kattika," or list of modern ragas. 

AS raga constitutes what may be called the very foundation of Indian 
music, it merits a chapter to itself. The term raga may be best 
explained as " melody type," since it is a melodic extension of certain 
notes of a particular scale or mode (that), according to certain fixed rules called 
the murchana.' 

The literal meaning of the word raga is "that which creates passion," and 
hence, according to the Hindu idea, a raga signifies a succession of notes so 
arranged, according to prescribed rules, as to awaken a certain feeling of the 
mind and an effect differing, it may be, in the minutest particulars from that 
derivable from another raga. 

These notes can be played in any degree or movement of time without 
destroying the inherent character of the raga, though the mode or that must 
remain the same throughout. 

The notes essential to the composition of a raga are of four kinds — viz., 
vadi, samvadi, anuvadi, and vivadi. 

By the vadi is meant any note which, by reason of its continual recurrence. 



' The word Raga docs not appear to have been used in its jirosent technical sense until a date later than 
has been generally supposed. It is worthy of note that in the oldest Indian musical treatise, the Bhdrata 
Natya S'astra, the word Raga appears hardly at all; and no special adhyaya is devoted to it, as is invarial)ly 
the case in all subsequent Sanskrit treatises. The employment of raga as understood in the Sangita 
Ratnakcra and subsequently was evidently unknown at the time when Bharata wrote. But in its place 
there was a system of what are called by Bharata 7«/;s. This word, meaning literally genus, would seem to 
be of kindred meaning to the old Greek musical term yivoc. Some centuries later, when the Sangita 
Ratndkera was written, the term raga appears to have been substituted for jati. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



39 



or bv its being specially accentuated or dwelt upon, shows to the best advantage 
the characteristics of the raga. Hence the vadi is called the " Rajah " (king), 
and by Hindustani musicians the "Jan " or life and soul of the raga. 

The samvadi is usually either the fourth or fifth, the vadi being taken as the 
tonic, or both fourth and fifth when both are admissible in the raga. 

The samvadis are commonly arranged as follows : — 



Vadi. 


Samvadi. 

Madhyama and Panchama 


Shadja 


Rishaba 


Dhaivata 


Gandhara ... 


Nishada 


Madhyama.. 


Nishada and Shadja 


Panchama ... 


Shadja 


Dhaivata 


Rishaba 


Nishada 


Gandhara and Madhyama 



A list of these notes has been given because in many of the Sanskrit 
treatises directions are given to employ samvadi alternating or otherwise in 
conjunction with the vadi notes in the performance of certain ragas. In the text 
these samvadi notes are not shown ; but they are known from their respective 
vadis, in much the same way that an accompanying harmony to an air used 
to be, in European music, often merely figured. 

In modern dispositions Panchama is admitted as a samvadi to Rishaba and 
vice versa. According to the authorities, Nishada cannot be samvadi to any 
other note than Gandhara, and vice versa. Madhyama therefore can have only 
one samvadi, which will be Shadja ; though, according to the calculations, it is 
shown to have Nishada too for its samvadi ; Nishada will have Gandhara only 
for its samvadi. 

Bv the vivadi, or enemy, is meant a note which, being inadmissible, 
would therefore destroy the special characteristics of any raga. 

All other notes not comprised among the foregoing are stvled Anuvadi. 

The rules for determining the succession and style of the notes composing 
a rasfa are called the murchana of that ratra. 

By the murchana is meant not only the stvle, but also the time ; it gives 
the relative values assigned to the different notes, the accentuation, and anv 



4° 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTH ERS INDIA. 



peculiarity of expression or tempo essential to the correct execution of the raga, 
such as can only be learned by actually hearing it performed. 

In a musician's kattika, or scale book, the ascending and descending 
modes alone of a raga are given, no directions as to the value of the notes, &c., 
being assigned ; indeed, often the scale itself is not given. 

All this is implied in the murchana, and without understanding the murchana 
it is therefore impossible to play any raga. 

The murchana is never written, but is invariably taught orally ; often by 
means of songs, &c., in the same raga. 

For example, in the kattika, the te.xt of the raga " S'ri " is given thus : — 
Ascending mode — Sa, ri, ma, pa, ri, sa. 
Descending mode — Sa, ri, pa, dha, ni, pa, ma, ri, ga, ri, sa. 

These notes must follow each other in proper succession ; for instance, 
when the melody is ascending, the note Ma must follow Ri ; in descending, a 
similar method of progression must be adhered to. Hence from these notes, 
without breaking the rules, many melodies can be formed. 

But yet there is a certain style peculiar to each raga : certain notes must 
be dwelt upon, some played staccato; others with a peculiar expression, grace 
or tremor. 

If the notes of one of these melodies were written as No. i below, no two 
persons could play them alike ; each would naturally put his own interpretation 
upon them. The interpretation, therefore, is supplied by the murchana, when 
the melody appears as No. 2 : — 



No. I. S'ri Raga. 



i 



^ 



No. 2.2 



Andante. 



- ^^-^ 



. rail. . 
tr tr 



5 



a tempo. 






S 



mil. 
w 



S 



1^^ 



m^'- 



When a composition is said to be in a certain raga, it means that it employs 



' The grace here implied is more the " Bebung," or vibrato, than anything else, and cannot therefore be 
executed upon a pianoforte. In the clavichord it consists in giving to the key a certain trembling pressure 
producing a pulsation of sound without any interval of silence. In stringed instruments the effect is obtained 
by a rocking movement of the finger without raising it from the string. This peculiar grace must be 
remembered as applying specially to all Indian melodies. It should be borne in mind that Indian stringed 
instruments, owing to the great length of their strings in proportion to the thickness, are far less confined 
in their intonation than are European instniuionts, conseijucntly they are capable of producing an infinity 
of delicate grace by modification of pitch that cannot be expressed in our notation. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



41 



the same scale, melod3'-type and notes ; and, in fact, illustrates the character 
and st3le of that raga in every way. 

How widely the characters of the various ragas differ can be told by a 
glance at the following short melodies, all of which show as much as possible 
the full murchanas of their respective ragas : — 



Andante. 



S'aiikarabbarna Raj^a. 



■W VI 



-ji — w- 



~^ r r r y' 



^=^ 



^r^4^^-=^ 




Nata Raga. 




^ g^^^^fe^-^ ^i^g s^^^f 



mm 



Kombodi Raga. 



-0- 



it 



W. 



HI 



fej^fe^ 



j^pi 






^m-9- 



Mukari Raga. 



:fl^ 



1 (. ,, rT^^ 



w 



-tea 






Bhupali Raga. 



5t 



^ 



{i 



Since the early days of Indian music the essential conditions under which 
the ragas were composed and performed have altered greatly. Formerly, we 
learn, the ragas in performance were divided into four parts or movements, called 
respectively the Sthayi, (2) the Antara, (3) the Sanchari, (4) the Abhoga. The 
precise meaning attached to these terms, when applied thus,^ seems to have been 
lost in obscurity. At the present time, however, it matters little, for the modern 
theory teaches that in the performance of raga as a solo, two movements onlv 
are taken into consideration. These movements are known as the Alapa and 
the Madhyamakala, and answer approximately to the Adagio (perhaps 
rhapsody would convey a nearer meaning) and Scherzo of a sonata. 

To convey in writing an adequate idea of what an alapa consists is 
somewhat difficult ; it is not exactly a song, the music not being set to any 
particular words ; neither is it an air, for it is not confined in its rhvthm. An 
alapa may be said to be rather a kind of rhapsody, which abounds with grace 
and embellishments of all kinds, and is formed by an extension, according to the 
murchana, of the notes of the raga, in such a way that all the characteristics of 



' For the modern iuterpretation of these terms, see page S6. 



42 



THE MUSIC or SOUTHERN INDIA. 



that raga arc prominently shown, and scope is given to the performer's power of 
improvising. 

The phrases vary in length, some being slow, with quick modulations 
succeeding, and others vice versa, the beats upon the accompanying strings 
marking the time being given at the performer's fancy. 

As a rule the voice is not employed in the performance of an alapa ; but if 
used at all it is either in unison with the instrument or else accompanied by a 
simple running accompaniment upon the open strings. Occasionally the voice 
is relieved by the instruments taking up the melody, varied with soft imitations 
in the same raga. In fact, so much is left to the taste and fancy of the musician, 
that it is impossible to lay down any definite rules for the constitution of an 
alapa ; hence, as may be imagined, in movements of this sort, there is a kind of 
wild charm which seems to carry with it a plaintive refrain that lingers on in the 
mind of the listener long after the music has ceased. Perhaps the only composer 
who appears to have caught the entire spirit of these peculiar improvisations is 
Chopin ; though, as far as we know, his acquaintance with Oriental music must 
have been limited. 

Following the alapa is the madhyamakala, or second movement. This, as 
has been said before, can be compared to the Scherzo of a sonata — the music being 
very lively and catchy, while the tempo is quick and regular throughout. 

Like the alapa, the madhyamakala consists of an extension according to the 
proper rules of the raga ; in fact, a development of thanas, explained else- 
where, reduced to a definite measure. The periods are usually shorter, and the 
rhvthm regular throughout. The original subject is imitated and varied, as the 
performer's fancy may dictate, in the same raga. The whole construction of this 
movement is symmetrical. 

The madhyamakala consists usually of two parts, the second only differing 
from the first in that the tempo is more rapid. 

In the performance of a raga there is usually a short pause between the two 
movements ; also between the two parts of the madhyamakala ; but it is entirely 
optional to the plaver. 

The methods by which the different notes are varied, or follow each other, 
are styled by the Sanskrit treatises " Gamakas," and are arranged as follows : — 

1. Arohana — ascending. 

2. Avarohana — descending. 

3. Dhalu — alternating with anv given note. 

4. Sphurita — repeated ; ascending. 

5. Kampita — trembling. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 43 

6. Ahata — slurred. 

7. Pratya-ahata — repeated ; descending. 

8. Tripastya — the first and second notes thrice repeated, the third 

twice, thus : wuw | ^wvj | — v^ | or ^^ uu | wu w | wu | 
g. Andhola — the two first notes and the fourth of short duration ; the 
third long, thus : uu — w 
Racjas are fjenerallv classified as follows :— 

(i.) Sampurna — in which all seven notes of the gamut are employed, 
(ii.) Sharava — in which six notes only are employed, 
(iii.) Orava — in which five notes only are employed. 
These three classes are again sub-divided into three, viz : — 

Suddha, or pure, which show the characteristic of one raga only. 
Salanka, or mi.xed, showing the characteristics of two ragas. 
Sankirna, or mixed, showing the characteristics of more than two ragas. 
The six original ragas are the only instances of the Suddha class ; but 
opinions differ so widely as to the present names of these six ragas, and as to 
how the modern ragas have assumed their present form, that it would be nearly 
impossible to make any classification. The nomenclature of all the ragas differs 
in various parts of India; and so many and subtle are the distinctions between 
the different ragas, each of which has a character of its own, exclusive, if a mixed 
raga, of that of the ragas from which it may be derived, that to give more than a 
few examples would be an almost endless, if not impossible, task. 
Ragas in the following scales seem to be the most popular * : — 
Mayamalavagaula Harikambogi Kamavardini 

Nata-Bhairavi Dehra-S'ankarabharna Matsyakaliani 

Karaharaprya Chalanata Jalavarali 

Hanumatodi 
Some ragas are commonly supposed to create particular passions. Those 
more usuallv met with are the followinjr : — 
Bhupali — beauty 



Nata — valour 
Malava — fear 
S'ri — fjrandeur 



to' 



Mangari — kindness 
Bhairavi — anger 

Bhangala — wonder 
Ragas derived from any of the above are said to possess the same inherent 
qualities. 

* It may be interesting to notice that the Greek chromatic genus is represented by the scale 
Mayamalavagaula, and the Greek diatonic modes thus: Dorian, Hanumatodi; Phrygian, Karaharaprya: 
Lydian, Dehra-S'ankarabharna; Hypolydian, Matsyakaliani; Ionic, Harikambogi; and /Eolic, Nata-Bhairavi. 



44 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



The following ragas resemble each other so closely that they are very 
difficult to distinguish apart, and are frequently used as tests of skill by 
musicians of repute : — 



Mohanna and Regupti 
Lalita and Vasantha 
Bhaiili and Bhupali 
Todi and Deshyatodi 
Arabi and Devagandari 
Mangfi and Huseni 



Durbar and Nayuki 
Bilahari and Deshackshi 
Pantovarali and Karmavirdini 
Purvi-Kaliani and Gamanasrama 
Saranga and Bhupa-Kaliani 
Mohanna-Kaliani and Kaliani-Keseri 



In the performance of certain ragas it is usual to employ accidentals in place 
of some of the notes shown in the text. The reason for this is not evident, but 
it seems to be an almost universal custom among Hindu musicians. This might 
be accounted for as being in imitation of Northern Indian music, in which a pure 
raga is seldom played, but usually a melody composed of three or four ragas. 
It seems far more likely, however, that the use of accidentals has been employed 
from the undeniable beauty that they add to a melody, much as when a change 
of keys is made in modulation. Examples of melodies in mixed ragas will be 
found upon pages 88, 8g. 

The most important of these ragas are the following : — ■ 



Raga. 


Mode. 


Note marked. 


Note played. 


Kombodi 


Harikambogi 


Kaisika Ni, B? ... 


Kakeli Ni, Bl] 


Biag 


k) 


Suddha Ma, Ft] ... 


Prati Ma, FJ 


Athana 


)j 


Sadharama Ga, Et] 


Antara Ga.Djf 


Nn talcii rAn iJ'i 






Pa, Gtl 

Chatusruti Dha, A'^ 


Bhaiiavi 


n 

Nata-Bhairavi 


Suddha Dha, Ab.. 


Ananda-Bhairavi. . 


tt 


Kaisika Ni, A? ... 


Kakeli Ni, Bt] 


Todi 


Hanumatodi 


Anta Ga, D5 


Suddha Ga, Dlj 


Kafi 


Karaharaprja 


Kaisika Ni, B? ... 


Kakeli Ni, Bt] 


Biagada 


Dehra-S'ankarabharna 


Kakeh Ni, Btj ... 


Kaisika Ni, AJf 


Bilahari 


Matsya-Kaliani 


KakeH Ni, Bl] ... 


»» j» 


Severi ... 


Mayamalavagaula ... 


Antara Ga, E 
Kakeli Ni, B 


Sadharama Ga, DJJ i 
Kaisika Ni, AJ | 


Ananda-Bhairavi.. 


Nata-Bhairavi 


Suddha Dha, Al?... 
Sadharama Ga, Eb 


Chatusruti Dha, Ail) i 
Antara Ga, Et| ] 


Khamas 


Harikambogi 


Kaisika Ni, B:' ... 


Kakeli Ni, B 


Kedara Gaula ... 


i» 


,, », ... 


M ») 


Surati 


)> 


,, ,, • • • 


)) J» 


Janjuti 


j» 


Antara Ga, E 


Sadharama Ga, Dj 



* The Ananda-Bhairavi uf this kind is very popular iu Travancore and the adjacent parts. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN IXDIA. 45 

In the extension of some ragas a note, either above or below a particular 
note of the text, may be employed, although itself not an essential part of the 
raga. If this is done the performer will invariably take the preceding 
note of the text ai:^ain before he plays that following. For example, the 
text may show " dha sa " {i.e., " ni " omitted). If " ni " is employed, 
"dha" is repeated immediately before " sa," as "dha, ni, dha, sa," and not 
" dha, ni, sa." 

The foresoine: are some of the more important of the manv rules attached 
to the performance of ragas, and only by the strict observance of them can a 
piece be correctly executed. 

It is perhaps needless to add that in so intricate and scientific a system 
justice is seldom done except at the hands of very skilful musicians, and they are 
but rarely met with. 

In all the Sanskrit treatises a system seems to have been laid down by 
which the different ragas are apportioned to certain seasons of the year and 
hours of the day. 

In modern times this system, as far as the hour of the day is concerned, is 
still carried out, and no musician, unless specially ordered, will sing any raga 
out of the prt)per time of day apportioned for it. The reason given for this is, 
according to Willard, that musicians declare that the times and seasons 
allotted to each are those at which the divinities are at leisure to attend 
at the place where their favourite tune is sung, and to inspire the performer 
with due warmth in his execution. Superstition seems to have given birth 
to this absurd custom, and it still exercises a strong hold upon all professional 
musicians, principally from the fact that it has been handed down from time 
immemorial ; therefore it would be considered improper to make any change. 
Even in educated circles among Hindus it would be thought a display of 
ignorance to call for a particular raga, unless for some special reason, at 
an improper season. 

The modern custom which lays down this hard and fast law seems to differ 
widely from that of all the ancient authorities, the names of the ragas now 
apportioned to the different periods of the day being quite at variance with the 
directions contained in the Sanskrit ; indeed, the writer of each treatise seems to 
have had a classification of his own distinct from that of other authorities. At 
the present time musicians divide the twenty-four hours of the day into four 
periods, each of which is sub-divided into two parts. The following table shows 

M 



46 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERX INDIA. 

at a glance the hours appointed for the performance of the popular ragas 
according to the Karnatik system : — 




In Northern India, and among Hindustani musicians, a different time 
classification of the ragas is in use. 

The followinir is a list of all the ratras used in Southern Indian music, 
together with their modes and text, arranged precisely as in a native musician's 
Kattika or scale book. Notes that are specially emphasised or continually 
dwelt upon are underlined : — 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



47 



SCALE OF MAYAMALAVAGAULA. 


Name of Raga. 


Ascending Mode. 




Descending Mode. 


Matsya-Bhauli 


C D? E G A> B C . 




C B Ab G F E Db C 


Malahari 


C D7 F G A? C 




C A:^ G F E D7 C 


Bhauli . 


C U7 E G A-" C 




C B A7 G E D? C 


Sindutha-Rangini . 


C U7 E F a:? B C . 




C B G A7 F E D7 C 


Karnatika-Sarant;a 


C DP E F E G B A> F G 


Ab B C . 


C A7 F G F E Db C 


Gauri . 


C D? F G B C 




C B A7 G F E D7 C 


Saranga-Nata 


C Di> F G Ab C 




C B A? G F D? F E Db C 


Megha-Rangini 


C D7 F G A> B C . 




C Ab G F E D? C 


Purvi t 


C D> E F G A^ B G C 




C B AC G F E D7 C 


Kohkila-virdani 


C F E G A? B C . 




C B A? F E D7 C 


Nebo-Rangini 


C D? E D? F G A? B C 




C B A? F E C 


Gaula . 


C D> F G B C 




C B G F E F Db E F Db C 


Maruva f 


C D> F G B C 




C B Ab G F E F Db C 


Sudda-krya . 


C Di? F G Ab G B C 




C B A? G F Db E F D7 C 


Jagan-mohini 


C E F G B C . 




C B G F E D? C 


Gaujari. 


C D7 E F G A> C . 




C Ab G F E D? C 


Sindhu-ramakrya . 


C Di? F G A7 B A? C 




C B G F D? E D7 C 


Gundakrya t • 


C D? E Di? F G B A7 B C 


C B A7 G F E Di> E C 


Phirju . 


C F G A? F E D? E Dl? E F G a!? B C 


C B A? G F E Db C 


Ramakrya 


CDi?EFGFAi?BC . 


C B A7 G F K F C 


Purna-sadyama 


C D? E F G Ai? 




G F E Db C B Ab B C 


Sarasa-mangala . 


C E F B A7 C . 




C Ab G F E Db C 


Rama-Lalita . 


CD7EFGBGC. 




CBAbFGFEC 


Lalita . 


C F E Ai? B C . 




C B Ab F E D7 C 


Bibasu . 


C Di? E G A? C 




C Ab G E Db C 


Gaulipantu t . 


C D? F G B C . 




C B A7 G F Ab F E D7 C 


Vasantha 


C E F Ai? B C . 




C B Ab F E D7 C 


Severi . 


C D-- F G Ab C 




C B Ab G F E D7 C 


Bulangi 


C E D7 E F G Ai? G C 




C B Ab G F E D7 C 


Bogi . 


C D? F G Ab C 




1 C Ab B Ab G F D7 F E D? C 


Nada-namakrya . 


C D7 F E F G Ai? C 




C B A7 G F E D7 C 


Desya-gaula . 


C Di? C G A7 B C . 




C B A7 G Db C 


SCALE OF NATA-BHAIRAVL 


Sudda-Deshi. 


C D F G Ab Bi? C . 


C Bb Ab G F Eb D C 


Bhairavi 


C Eb D Eb F G A'' B-- C 




C B7 Ab F G F E? D C 


Riti-gaula 


C E? D E? F B? A? B7 C 




C B7 Ab F Eb F G F E7 D C 


Ananda-Bhairavif. 


C E:? D E? F G C . 




C B7 Ab G F E? D C 


Nata-Mangala 


C Ey E7 F G A? B7 C 




C Bb Ab G F D E7 D C 


Suddha-Danyashi . 


C E7 F G B? C. 




C B7 G F E.-- C 


Hindola-Vasantham 


C D F G A? B? Ab C 




C B7 A7 G F Ab F Eb D C 


Amruta-vahini 


C E? F G Ab Bb C . 




C Bb Ab F E? D C 


Jankaravani . 


C D D Eb F G Bb C 




C Bb Ab G F D C 


Abheri . 


C E7 D Eb F B7 C 




C B7 A7 G F Eb D C 


Abhogi . 


C D E? F Ab C 




C Ab F Eb D C 


Kanaka- Vasdntha . 


C D F G BP C . 




C Bb G F E7 D F Eb C 


Karyamati 


C D Eb G Ab C 




C Bb Ab G Ab F E7 D C 


Yoga-Bhairavi 


C D E7 F G A? C . 




C Bb Ab G D C 


Adi-Bhairavi 


C E? D Eb F G A? C 




C A7 G F G E7 D C 


Mangi . 


C D E7 F G B7 Ab Bb G Ab B7 C . 


C B7 Ab G F E7 F G E"" D C 


Chalana-Varali 


C D E? F Ab Bb Ab C . 


C B7 A7 F E7 D C 



NoiE.— Ragas marked f have two readings, the otlier readings are given at tlie end oi this chapter. 



48 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



SCALE OF NATA-BHAIRAVI— co;i<i««ei. 



Name of Raga. 



Ascending Mode. 



Descending Mode. 



Nava-Manohari 
Vasantha-Varali . 
W'oodya-chandrika I 
Kanara-gaula 
Mara-Rangini 
Rudraganthara 
Mukari . 
Hamakrya 
Chandrika-Bhairavi 



C U F Ab Bl? C 


C 


C E? F G At* B? . 


c 


C D E7 F G A7 B? C 


c 


C E? D E7 F G A? B> C 


c 


C D E? F G a:' B7 C 


c 


C U E? D F G F Ab B? G C . 


c 


C D F G B:? A? C . 


c 


C D E.-' F G Ab B? C 


c 


C Eb D Eb F Ab Bb C . 


c 



Bb G F D C 

Ab G E? D C 
A7 G F D C 

b:' a? g f e:* d c 

Ab G E7 D C 
Bb A? F E7 C 
Bb Ab G F E? D C 
Ab G F D E? F D C 
B? A? F Eb D C 



SCALE OF HANUMATODL 



Naga-Varali . 
Punaga-Todi . 
Danyas'i 
Todi . 
Des'ya-Todi . 
Ghambhira- 
Vasantha 
Hima-virdini 
Suddha-samantiia 
Shadola-rava 



C Bb Cb Db F G Ab 

Bb Ab Bb C Db E? F G A,'' B.-* 

C Eb F G Bb C 

C Db Ei? F Ab Bb C 

C D? E? F G Ab Bb C . 

C F Eb F Db Eb F G Bb Ab B? G C 

C Db F G Bb C 

C D? E7 F G Bb Ab C . 

C Db F G Ab C 



G F Eb Db C Bb C 

Ab G F Eb Db C Bb Ab Bb c 

C Bb A7 G F E7 D7 C 

C B7 A7 F Eb Db C 

C Bb A? Bb Ab G F Eb Db C 

C Ab G F D7 C 

C Bb A7 G F A7 F Eb D7 C 
C Ab B7 G A7 F Eb D7 C 
C Bb Ab B7 G F Eb Db C 



SCALE OF CHACRAVAKA. 



Vaga-vahini . 


CDbEFGABbAC . 


C Bb A G F E Db C 


Kalavati 


C D7 E F G A Bb G C . 


C Bb A Bb G F E D7 


Bhalati . 


C Db E F G A Bb C 


C Bb G F Db E 


Rudra-Panchama . 


C E F Bb A C 


C Bb A F E Db C 


Vasantha-lila 


C Db F G A B7 C . 


C Bb A G E D7 C 


Bhujangha . 


C D7 C F E F Bb A Bb C 


C Bb A F E Db C 



SCALE OF SURYAKANTA. 



Saurashtra 

Ahiri + . 
Sahuli . 
Sindhu . 
Ragamalini . 
Suddiia-gandirvi 



CDbFEFGABC 
CFEFGABC 
C E F G B C . 
C E Db F G A B C 
C Db E F G A C 
CDbEFGABC 



C A G F E C 
C B A G F E Db C 
C B A G E Db C 
C A G F E Db E C 
C A D7 A G F E F D7 
C A G F D7 C 



SCALE OF KARAHARAPRYA. 



Manirangu . 


C D F G Bb C 


S'riraga 


C D F G Bb C 


Madvamavati 


C D F G B7 C 


Sindlni-Danvasi . 


C D E7 F G Bb 


Thano-Vasantha . 


C Eb F G Bb C 


Karnaka-Varali 


C D F G Bb C 


Panchama . 


C D A G Bb C 







A C 



C B'' G F Eb D C 

C Bb G A B7 G F D Eb 

C Bb G F D C 

C Bb A G F Eb D C 

C Bb A G F Eb D C 

C Bb A Bb G F Eb D C 

C B7 A G F Eb D C 



DC 



Note. — Kagas marked f have two readings, the other readings arc given at the end of this chapter. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



49 



SCALE OF KAKAHAKAPRYA— coH/iHi/fif. 


Name of Riga. 


Ascending Mode. 


Descending Mode. 


Deva-krya 


' C F> D Eb F G A Bb A C 


C B> A G F E7 D C 


Syindavi 


B? A B7 C D Eb F G A B? 




B? A G F E? D C B> A B7 C 


Manohari 


C E> D E7 F G A C 




' C A G F E? D Ef C 


Suddha-Bliangala 


C D F G A C . 




C B? A G F E7 D C 


Suddha-Bhairavi 


C E? D F G B7 A B7 C . 




C B7 A G F D E7 F D C 


Kapi + . 


C D E7 F G A B? C 




C A G F D E? F D C 


Pala-Mangeri i 


C E7 F A C . 




C B7 A G F E7 D C 


Jey-Manohari 


C D E? F A C 




C B7 G F E? D C 


Nayuki . 


C D F G A B? G C . 




C B7 A G F E7 D C 


Vasani . 


C D E7 F G B.-' A Bb C . 




C Bb A F G F E? D C 


Mangeri 


C D Ei? F G B.^ C . 




C Bb A F Ej? D C 


Nadatha-Rangini 


C D F G A G B? C . 




C A Bb G A F E7 D Eb C 


Bhoga-Kanara 


C D Ei7 F A B7 C . 




C Bb A F Eb D C 


Brundavana-[ 
Saranga) 


C U F G B7 C 




C Bb G F D Eb F D C 








Aruna-chandrika . 


C E7 F G B,^ C 




C Bb G A G F E7 C 


Deva-Mukari 


C D E7 F G A B> C 




C Bb A F G F D E7 F D C 


Sama-Mukari 


C D E? F G A Bi? C 




C A Bb A F G F Eb C 


Suddhanapala 


C D Eb F G A C . 




C Bb A F Eb D Eb C 


Durbar f 


C D F G A B? C . 




C Bb A G F G A G E7 D C 


S'arnga Rama 


C D F A B> G C . 




C Bb A E7 D C 


Deva-Manohari 


j C D F G B7 A B7 C 




C Bb A G F E7 D C 




1 

SCALE OF HARIKAMBOGL 


Kambogi t • 


C D E F G A C . . . . ' C B> A G F E D C 


Kathara-gaula 


C D F G Bb C 




CB7AGFEDC 


Narayani 


C D F G A C . 




C Bb A G F D C 


Purna-Kambogi 


C D E F G B7 C . 




C A G F E D C 


Narayana-gauki 


C D F G B> A Bb C 




C Bb A G F E D C 


Chaiatha-Rangini . 


CUEDEFGABbABbC 




C Bb A Bb F E F D E D C 


Balahamsa . 


C D F G A C . 




CBbAGFDFE C 


Prathapa-Varali . 


C D F G A B? A G A B? C 




CBbAGFEDC 


Matha-kohkila f . 


C D G A B7 C 


. ! C A B7 A G D C | 


Kohkila-dvani 


' C D E F A BP A C . 




CBbAB7GFEDEFEDC 


Sarasvati 


CDEFGB7AB7C . 




C B7 G A F G D E C 


Sarasvati-Manohar 


i C D E F A C . 




CBbAB^GFEDC 


Navarasa-Kanara . 


C E F G A G C 




C Bb A F E D C 


Bhangala 


C D E FG C . 




C Bb A G F D E D C 


Ravi chandrika 


1 C D E F A B"- A C . 




C Bb A F E D C 


Janjuti f 


C Bb A C D E F G A Bi*. 


. i A G F E D C B7 A G A C 


Kanthala-Varali . 


; C F G A B? A C . 


. C B> A G F C 


Yedukula- Kambogi 


+ C D F G A C . 


.^CBbAGFEDC 


Mohanna 


i C D E G A C . 


.ICAGDEGDC 


Surati . 


C D F G B? C . 




CB7AGFEGFDC 


Malava . 


C D E F G Bb F A B7 C 




CBbABbGFEFDC 


Nata-Kurangi 


C D E F A B7 G A BP C 




C B? A F E C 


Athi\na . 


C D F G A B? C . 


! ! C B7 A G F G E D C | 


Kamachi 


CFEFGAB7C. 




C Bb A G F E F C 


Drijaranti 


C D E F G F A G Bb A Bb C 


CAGABbAGFEFEDC 



Note.— Ragas marked \ have two readings, tlie other readings are given at the end of tliis chapter. 

N 



50 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERX INDIA. 





SCALE OF HARIKAMBOGI- 


continued. 


Name of Riga. 


Ascending Mode. 


Descending Mode. 


Biagt . 


C D K F C E F G B? A B? G A B7 C 


C B.-» G A B7 A G F E D E F E C 


Nagasvaravali 


C E F G A C 


C A G F E C 


Sara-vilambi . 


C E F G B? C 


C B7 A G F E D C 


Jeyarama 


C D E F G A B> C . 


C B7 A G F E C 


Surabi-pr5a . 


C D E G B7 C 


C B7 A G F E D C 


Kalabharna . 


CDEFGABbC. 


C A G E D C 


Megha-jcyanti 


CDFEGAB7C. 


C G F E D C 


S'rangi . 


C D F G A B? C . 


CG FEDC 


Jelasheykera . 


C D E F G B7 A B!? C . 


CAGFDEDC 


Siva-Kambogi 


C D E F B7 C 


C B:* G F E D C 


Ratna-joti 


C E F G B7 C 


C B> A E D C 


Jogi-Bhairavi 


C D E F G A B? C . 


C B? A G F B? A F E D F E C 


Nilamberi t . 


CDEFCAFGB?C. 


! CBi^GAB? GFEFDEDFEC 


Regupti 


C DEG AC 


C A G E D C 


Deva-Rangini 


C D EG AC 


C A G F E D C 


Arunakantha 


C D F G F A B? C . 


C Bb A G F A F E D C 


Ben-Kambogi 


CFEDCFGAB>C. 


C B7 G B? FEDC 


SCALE OF DEHRA-S'ANKARABHARNA. 


Hari-Nata . 


CFEFGABC. 


CBGABGFEC 


Kanara . 


C E F A B C 


C A G F E F D C 


K&nada. 


CDEFGFABC 


CBABGFGEDC 


Biagada 


C E D E I- G A G C 


CBAGFEDC 


Jenkaram 


C D E F A D C 


C B A F E D C 


Suddha-Saianga . 


CDEFGABAC 


CAGFDEDC 


Vivardini 


C F G C 


CBAGFEDC 


Vedangini 


CEFGFABC. 


CBAGAFEDC 


Navaraju 


GABCDEFG. 


F E D C B A C 


Gaja-virdinam 


C E F A B C 


! C A G F E D C 


Kadaram 


C F E F G B C 


C B G F E D C 


Mahori 


CFEFDEFGABC 


C A G F D E F C 


Jana-Rangini. 


CDEFGAGBC 


C A G F D C 


KoIahaHam . 


CDEFGBABC 


CBGAFEDC 


Deshachsi 


C D F G A B C 


CBAGFEDC 


Purnodiam . 


C D F G A C 


C B G F D E D C 


Bhinnavikrama 


C D E F G A C 


C BAG DC 


Suddha-Saveri 


C D F G A C 


C A G F D C 


Purna-chandrika . 


CDEFGFABC 


CBGAGFEFDC 


Gauda-malari 


CDEFGEFGABC 


CBAGFEDC 


Parti-rava 


CFEFGABC. 


C B A G F E F E D C 


Arabi . 


C D EG A C 


CBAGFEDC 


Puruhutika . 


C F G A B C 


C B A G F C 


Nagadvani 


CEDEFEFGABAGBABGABC 


C B A B AG FAG F D E F E DEC 


Garudadvani . 


C D E F G A B C . 


C A G E D C 


Hamsadvani . 


C D E G B C 


C B G E D C 


Girvana-prya. 


C B E F A C 


C B A F E D C 


S'ankarabharna 


C D E F G A B C . 


C A G F E D C 


Kurangi 


CBCEUEFGA 


G F E D C B C 


Kandadruma. 


C E F A F B C 


CBFEDC 



Note. — Ragas marked \ have two readings, the other readings are given at the end of tliis chapter. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



51 



Name of Kaga. 



S'ahannat . 

Jogi-Vasantha 

Druthavirdana 

Gamanabhaskera 

Bilahari 

Sambhu-krya 

Girganambheri 

Virapratapa . 



SCALE OF DliHKA-S'ANKARABHARNA— co/a/HUti/. 



Ascending Mode. 



C D E 
C D E 
C D E 
C D E 
D E 
E D 
D E 



E FG 



FAB 
ABC 
AC 
AGE 
C . 
B F E 
ABC 
B . 



D F G B C . 



Descending Mode. 







CBAGFEFIvD 






ABAGFEDC 






CBAGFDEDC 






C A G F E C 






CBAGFEDC 






C B G B F E D C 






C B A G F D C 






CBAGFEDC 



SCALE OF CHALANATA. 



Woodya ravi- 
chandrika 
Ghambhirya-Nata 
Nata . 
Suddha-Nata 
Maravasimanta 



C D$ E F A$ B C . 

C E FG B C . 
C Df E F G A$ B G 
C E F G B A* B C . 
CFEFGAfGC . 



B C 



C B A$ F E D$ C 

C B G F E C 
C B G F D$ C 
C B A? G F DJ C 
C B A| G F E D| C 



SCALE OF KANAKANGL 



Kamakambiieri 
Suddha-Mukari 



C Db Ei?b F G A? C 

c Ei?b Db Ebb F G Bbb Ab c 



C B7b Ab G F Ebb Db C 

c Bbb Ab F Ebp Db c 



SCALE OF RHATNANGL 



Ghantarava . 
Asaveri t 
Penaduti 
Savakala-Mangeri 



C B7 C E.''? D7 E7? F G B7 
C D7 F G A7 C 
C D7 F G A7 Bb C 
C D7 E77 G Ab B7 C 



C B7 Ab G F E77 D7 C 
C Bb Ab G F E7b D7 C 
C Bb Ab F E^b Db C 
C B7 Ab F E77 Db C 



SCALE OF VANASPATL 



Bhanumati 
Rasavali 



C Db Ebb D7 F G C 
C Db Ebb F A Bb C 



C A G F E?7 D7 C 

C Bb A G F Ebb Db C 



SCALE OF SANAPATL 



Bhogi-chintamani 
Bhogi . 
Malini . 



C D7 F G Ab C 

C E7 F G A7 G Ab B7b C 

C D7 E7 F G C 



C B7b Ab G F E7 D7 C 

C Bbb Ab G F A7 G F E7 Db C 

C B7b A7 F E7 D7 C 



SCALE OF XATAKAPRYA. 



S'oka-Varali f 
Magada-S'riraga 



C D7 F Eb F G F A D C F G A Bb A C 
C Db Eb F G A C . 



C B7 A F E7 D7 C 
C B7 G Eb C 



Note — Ragas marked f have two readings, the other readings are given at the end of tliis chapter. 



52 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



SCALE OF KOHKILAPRYA. 



Name of Raga. 



Kohkila-rava. 

l^atnaniani . 
Chitramaiii . 



Ascending Mode. 



C Db Et? F G A C . 
C Dl? El? F G A B C 
C Db F G A B C . 



Descending Mode. 



C B A G F Eb D? C 
C B A G Eb Dl7 C 
C B A G F E> Dr C 



SCALE OF GAIAKAPRYA. 



Kaiakanti 
Kalgarda 



C Di? E F G Bbb Ab Bbb C . 
C D> F E Db E F G Ab Bbb C 



C Bbb Ab F E D? C 

C Bbb G Ab Bbb A? G F E D? C 



SCALE OF VAKULABHARNA. 



Vasantha-Mukari . 
Kamala-Manohari . 



C E Db E F G Bb Ab Bb C 
C E F G Bb C . 



C B7 A? G F D!' C 
C Bb Ab G F E C 



SCALE OF KYRAVANL 



Kiranavaii 
Sangivani 
Kaliana-Vasantha 
Madavi f 
Sarasa-vahini 
Nepala . 



C D F G Ab B C . 

C Eb D Eb F G Ab B C . 

C F Eb F G Ab B C 

C D Eb F Ab B Ab F G Ab B C 

CDEbDFGAbBC . 

C D F Eb F G B C . 



C B Ab G F E? D C 
C B Ab G F Eb D C 
C B Ab G F E? U C 
C B G E? D C 
C Ab G F Et' D C 
C B Ab G F D C 



SCALE OF SARASANGL 



Sarasanana . 

Rama-Manohari 

Bhogalila 



C D E F Ab B C 
C E FG B C . 
C D E G Ab B C 



C B Ab F E D C 
C B A? G F E C 
C B Ab F E D C 



SCALE OF YAGAPRYA. 



Kalahamsa 



C D| R F G Ab C 



C Bbb Ab G F E D# C 



SCALE OF GANGAIABHUSANL 



Anandalila 



C D| E F G B C 



C B Ab G F E D# C 



SCALE OF SHOLINL 



Trishuli 



f 



C E FG B C 



C B A G F DJ C 



SCALE OF JALAVARALL 



Kohkila-P.incliami 
Kusunia-Kangini . 
Varali . 

Bhopala-Pantliami 
Vijaya-kohkila 



C D7 Ebb G Ab B C 
C Db F$ G Ab B C 

c Ebb Db Ebb Ff G Ab b c 
C V>^ D? Ebb G F# A7 C 
c \V Eb? FtG Ab c 



C B Ab G Ff Eb? D? C 
C B Ab B G F$ E?? D? C 
C B A? G F* E?? Db C 
C G A? F$ E?? D? C 
C B Ab G F$ E?? Db C 



Note. — Ragas marked | have two readings, tlie other readings are given at the end of this chapter. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



53 



Name of Raga. 



Nabomani 
Deviamani 



SCALE OF NAVANITA. 



Ascending Mode. 



C Di? Et'b Di' Ff G C 

C D? K'^" Fi G A G B7 C 



Descending Mode. 



C B? A G F$ E:>'? dp C 
C B? A G F| EP? D? C 



SCALE OF PAVANL 



Chandrajoli 



C D7 Eff F# G A G B C 



C B G A G F# Ebb Db C 



Ghandarva 
Ghomatti 



SCALE OF REGONPRYA. 



G A| B G Db E?b Db C B G 
B C Db Ebb F|: G A# B . 



F# G A* B C B G 

G Ft EP? Db C B C 



Kalamurti 



SCALE OF BHAVAPKYA. 



C Eb Db Eb F$ G C 



C Bf Ab G F# Eb Db C 



SCALE OF SABHAPANTOVARALL 



Panto-Varali . 

Rudra-mangen 

Bhaulamuki . 

Saddaks'eri . 

Deviakanthala 

Kamarangini 

Govirdani 

Naga-Panchami 

Garudavirdani 

Latamati 



Rati . 

Vrushabha-vahini 
Mamachsheri 
Ratnamati 



C D7 
C D? 
C D? 

C Eb 
C Db 
C Db 
£■• D 
C Ei? 
C Db 
C D-i 



E? 
E? 
E? 
D? 

E? 

E? 

? E 

It 



Ft G Ab B C . 
G B Ab C 

Ft G B C 
E? F;: G A- B C 
Ft G A? C 
D7 Ft G Ab B C 
P G Ab C . 
G B C 
Ft B Ab Ft G a:' B C 
G Ft G A? G C 



C B Ab G Ft Ab Ft Eb D!^ C 

C B A7 G Ft E? D? C 

C B Ab G Ft E? Db C 

C B Ab Ft E? Db C 

C B Ab G Ft E7 D7 C 

C B Ab Ft E? Db Eb C 

C B Ab B Fi E? Db C 

C B Ab G Ft E.7 Db C 

C B G Ft Db C 

C B Ab G Ft Ab Ft Ei? Db C 



SCALE OF SUVARANANGL 



C E? D.-- E? Ft G A B C 
C d: Ff G a B C . 
C D? E7 Ft G B C . 
C E7 Ft G Ft A B C 



C B A G Ft Eb D"" C 
C H A Ft E? Db C 
C B A G Ft E." F? D-' C 
C A G Ft G Eb DP C 



SCALE OF KAMAVIRDANL 



Ramakrva 

Dipaka 

Devagiri t 

Vilambini 

Rudragandari 

Vipramandara 

Svatambodi . 

Pankaruham 

Viagranandanam 

Manmatalata 

Pushpalalita . 

Kumudaprabha 



C D7 E Fit G Ab B C 

C E Ft G A!^ G C . 

C D? Ft G AC C . 

C Ft E Ft G B Ab B C 

C D? E Ft B C 

C B? Ft G A? B C 

C Db E Ft G C 

C Ft E Ft G B Ab B C 

C D7 E G Ab C 

C B C Db E Ft G A7 B C 

C E Ft Ab B C 

C Db E Ab B C 



C B Ab G Ft Db Ft E Db 
C B Ab B C E G Fi E D? 
C B Ab G Fi E D"* C 
C B Ab B GFt E C 
C B G Ft Db C 
C Ab G Ft E D? C 
C B AP G Ft E D: 
C B G Ft E Db C 
C B Ab B Ab G Ft 
C Ab G Ft E Db C 
C Ab G Ft D? C 
C G Ft E B C 



C 

E D7 
B C 



Note. — Ragas marked f have two readings, the other readings are given at the end of this chapter. 

O 



54 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN LXDIA. 



SCALE OF GAMANAS'RYA. 



Name of Raga. 

Gamakakrya . 

Purvi-Kaliani 

Partiravam . 

Jeya-Mohannaf 

S'ri-Lalita 

Darpa-Mangeri 

Maivra-Vasantha 



Ascending Mode. 



Descending Mode. 



C D? 
C D? 
C D? 



li F# G B C . 

EFfGABGABGC 

E F| G A B C 
C E F| G A C 
C D? E D? F| G B A G C 
C E Dt» E F|: G B C 
C D? E Ff G A B C 



C B G Fit E D> C 

C B A G F| E D7 C 

C B A B G A G F;i E Ff E Db Ff C 

C B A G Ff E D? C 

C B A G F* E D? C 

C B A G Ff E C 

CBGABAGFitD> F#EDl>EC 



SCALE OF S'RIMHANDKA. 



Siimala 

Simanthini . 
Madhava-Manohari 
Suddha-raga f 
Mara-jej'antham . 



C El7 D Eb F|; G Ab B Ab C 

C D E> F| G A? B C 

C Eh D E7 F| G B A^ B C 

C D E> Ff G B C . 

C D Ff G Ab B C . 



C B Ab G FS Eb CD 
C G Ff Eb D C D C 

C B Ab Ff Eb Fit E7 D C 

C B G Ff E-- C 

C B Ab G FS E'"- D C 



Sinharavam . 
Ciiandi'arckha 
Sankaravam . 
Yeshaprta 
Sinhadvani . 
Chackoradvani 



SCALE OF HEMOVASANTHA. 



C D Ff G Bb C 

C D Et? Ff G A C . 

C E7 D Eb F| G A B7 C 

C D F$ G B? C 

C D C Eb Ff G A B.7 C . 

C D Eb Ff G A B? C 



C Bb G Ff D Eb D C 
C Bb A Ft Eb D C 
C Bb G Ff Eb D C 
C Bb A G Ff Eb D C 
C B? A G Ff E7 C 
C Bb Ft Eb D C 



Rangini 

Dumyaraga 

Arunajualita 



SCALE OF DHURMOVATL 



C D Ei? Ff A C 
C D Eb Ff G A C 
C D Eb f1 A B C 





C B A Ff Eb C D C 
C B A G Ff Eb D C 
C B A G Ff Eb D C 



SCALE OF NliTTIMATTI. 



Hamsanada 
Gaurikrj'a 



C D Ff G Af B C . 
C Eb Ff G Af B C 



C B A; 
C B A; 



B G F: 
B G F; 




Bhus'aval 
Barbara 
Sarasvati 
Vutari . 
Sunva-ma 



dhy 



SCALE OF VACHASPATL 



C D E F$ G A C . 

C E I>t D E I-f A B? 
C E F4 G a C ' 
C E I-'f G A 15,^ C . 
C D Ff G Bb AC . 



A C 



C Bb A G F# E D C 
C B-- A Ff I-: D C 
C B-" A G I'f D C 
C B? A Ff E C 
C Bb A G Ff E D C 



KoTi;. — Raj;as marked | have two readings, tlic otlicr readings arc given at the end of this chapter. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



55 





SCALE OF MATSYA-KALLANL 


Name of Raga. 


Ascending Mode. 




Descending Mode. 


Kalian i . 


C D E F$ G A B C . 




CBAGFtEGDC 


Saran.i;a |- 


CDEF;fGABC. 






C A G Ft D E Ft D C 


Kumurdaki 


C D E Fl B C 






C B Ft E D C 


Hamiro-Kaliani 


CDEF$GABGAB( 


J 




C B A G Ft E D C 


Yamuna-Kaliani 


C D E Ff G A C . 






C A G f; G E D C 


Shama-Kaliani 


C D E F|: G B C . 






C B G A G Ft E D C 


Mohiinna-Kaliani . 


C 1) E G A C . 






C B A G Ft E D C 


Bhupa-Kaliani 


C U Fi (i A C 






C B A G FS E D C 


Sarasa-Kaliani 


C D E Ff G A B C . 
C D E Ft G A C 






C B AG ri;E FtD C 


Shrar-Nava . 






C B A G F?: E C 


Bhurangini . 


C D E G A B C 






C B A Ft E D C 

C B G Ft E D C 


Shahradamati 


C D Ft G A B C . 






Nai^avagi 


C D E Ft G C 






CBAGFtEDC 


Kaliana-Keseri 


C D E G A C . 






C A — Ft G Ft E D C 


Kajah-Kaliani 


C E F4 A B C . 






C B A Ft E D C 


Shambharantakani 


C E F$ G A C 






C B A G Ft E D C 

C B A G Ft E Ffi C 


Dhirgadurslii 


cdfIgabac . 






Yogajoti 


C D F|: G B A C . 




. ! C B A G Fi E D C 


Dvimokaprya 


C E D Ft G B C . 




. ' C B A Ft E D C 
. C A G Ft E D C 


Deshakaliani 


C D E Ft G A G B C 




Chitaduti 


C D Ff G A B C 




. C B A G Ft E D C 


Mruganandana 


C D E A B C . 




. C B A Ft A E D C 


Kryabharna . 


CDEFtGBAC. 




. r 13 A I't I", n e- 


SCALE OF SUCHARITRA. 


Chato-Rangini 


C Ft E Ft G B?? C 


C Bbi? Ab Bbb G E Ft Dt C ! 


SCALE OF DHARTOVARDANL 


Devarashtra . 


CD* 
C D 


; E Fi G B C . . . . C B A? G Ft E Dt C 

; E fJ G B G C . . . C B AP G Ft Dt E Ft Dt C 


Dhato-panchami . 



Note. — Ragas marked f have two readings, the other readings are given at the end of this cliapter. 



Some MSS. give the text of the ragas marked J in the foHowing Hst as 
here shown. 

The authenticity of the others is doubtful, but they are generally accepted 
by Indian musicians. 



SUPPLEMENTARY LIST OF RAGAS. 



Name of Raga. 



'' Bhupali 
{Ahiri . 
JAsaveri . 



Ascending Mode. 



C D? Eb G A7 C 



Descendirg Mode. 



C A? G Eb D,7 C 



C F G Ab G F Eb Db C D; C El F G A^ B.? C C Bb Ab G F El Db C 



C D) EG A7 G F G Ab C 



+ S'oka-VaraIi . . I C Eb F Bb Ab G F Eb F G 



C B? Ay G F Eb Db C 
G F Eb Db F E? Db C 



Scale. 
No. 8 



This raga is sometimes called Bhauli. Another reading will be found under the scale of Mayamalavagauh 



55 



THE MUSIC or SOUTH ERX LXDTt 





SUPPLEMENTARY LIST OF RAGAS-coiitiiiufd. 




Name of RSga. 


Ascending Mode. 


Descending Mode. 


Scale. 


{Purvi . 


F G Ab B C Db E F G Ab B C . 


C B Ab G F E Db C 


No. 15 


JMaruva . 


C E F G A'i B AJ7 G C . 


CBGFAbFGFED^C 


■ . .• 


^Gundakrya 


C D? F G F E Db F G B C 


C B G Ab G F E Di? C . 


.. .. 


{Gaulipaniu 


C Ub E Db F G Ab G B C 


C B Ab G F A7 F E Db C 




Chaia-Nata . 


CDbEFGFGC 


C Bb A Bb G F Db C . 


„ 16 


JPurna-s'adyama 


C Eb D Eb F Bb C 


C Bb G F Eb D C . 


„ 20 


JAnanda-Bhairavi 


C Eb D C Eb F G Ab G B? C . 


C Bb Ab F G F Eb D C . 


.. .. 


IWoodyachandiika . 


C E? F G Bb C G Bb C . 


C Bb G F Eb C 




;Madavi . 


C F Eb F G Ab B C 


C B Ab G F G F Eb D C 


., 21 


JPala-Mangeri . 


CEbFGFAEbFAC. 


CBbAGFE?FDC . 


., 22 


jDurbar . 


CDFDGAB?C 


C B? A G F Eb D C 


.. ,. 


tKapi . 


C D Eb F G F Eb D Eb F G A B? C 


C Bb A G F Eb D C 


■. M 


Velavali 


CDEbFGAC 


CBAGFEbDC. 


■■ 23 


Kesefi . 


C D E F G F Ab G Ab C . 


C Ab Bbb Ab G F E D C 


., 25 


JKambogi 


FEFGAGAC 


B AG F E D C 


„ 28 


JMatha-kohkiU 


C D G A Bb 


A G D C 


.. .. 


JJanjiti . 


CDEFGAB? 


A G F E D C . 




JVedii'iiula-Kambogi 


CDFGABbAGAC. 


C Bb A G F E F E D C . 




JBiag . 


CDEFGABbC 


C Bb A B^G A G F E D E C . 


. „ 


JNilambtri 


CDEFGABbAC 


CBbAGFEDEC 


.. .. 


JS'ahanna 


GAGFEDCDEFGABC 


CBAGDEFGFEDC 


,. 29 


Deva-gandari . 


CDEFGABC 


CBAGFEDCDEDC 


K <• 


IJeya-Mohanna 


c d; f|: g vjj: D'y vjj^ G Ab Bb c . 


C Bb Ab Bb Ab G F^ E.-'b Db c 


.. 38 


Mandara 


C Db E Fl G Ab G Vj^ E F| G A Bb C . 


C Bb G F^i E Db C 


,. 50 


Pratapa . 


C E F$ G Ab Bi5 C 


C Bb Ab G F|: E D1 C . 


,. ,, 


Namada 


C Db E F| Db E F| Ab B; C 


C Bb Ab Fi G F|: E D? C 




JDeviiglri 


C Db Fl G fJ G fI E D? F| G C 


C B Ab G Fj E Db C 


■• 51 


Rama-Manohaii 


C Db E F|; G A Bb A C . 


C Bb A G F| E Db C 


• 52 


Gurugad a 


E7 F| G Ab Bb 


Ab G F$ Eb D 


.. 55 


Triniurti 


C D E? Ab Bb 


C Bb Ap G Eb D C 


t. 


|Suddha raga . 


C D Eb D Eb f|: G F:jj: G B C . 


C B G B G F$ Eb D E? C 


.. 57 


S'ruti-Rangini 


C D E F| G A7 G F^^ E F|; G A? H,'^.-' . 


C Bbb Ab G EC D C 


., 6r 


JSaranga 


C D E F| G A G F| E F| G A B C . 


C B A G FJ D C 


1 ,. 65 


Jotismatti 


C D| E F| G C 


c Bb Ab ~i~(i F:| c u| c . 


„ 68 



CHAPTER V. 

Taste of European and Oriental nations : how differing — Reason for non-employment of harmony — 
Method of singing — Of Indian melodies — P'orm — Classification of — Rhythm — Employment 
of mixed times — Tonality often doubtful — Resemblance of Indian music to that of other 
countries — Examples of popular melodies — Hindustani musical system : how differing from 
Karnatik — Examples of Hindustani melodies — Scales employed in the Hindustani system. 

THE wide divergence of taste in the matter of music between European 
and Asiatic nations has doubtless arisen from the fact that while 
^Vestern nations gradually discarded the employment of mode, and 
clothed the melody with harmony, the Eastern nations in this respect made 
little or no progress ; and now, in India, the employment of authentic modes 
and melody types (or ragas) is still jealously adhered to. 

Speaking of this, Willard remarks : " To expect an endless variety in the 
melody of Hindustan would be an injudicious hope, as their authentic melodv is 
limited to a certain number, said to have been composed by professors universally 
acknowledged to have possessed not only real merit, but also the original genius 
of composition, beyond the precincts of whose authority it would be criminal 
to trespass. What the more reputed of the moderns have done is that they have 
adapted them to their own purposes, and found others bv the combination of two 
or more of them. Thus far they are licensed, but they dare not proceed a step 
farther. Whatever merit an entire modern composition might possess, should 
it have no resemblance to the established melody of the country, it would be 
looked upon as spurious. It is implicitly believed that it is impossible to add to 
the number of these one single melodv of equal merit, so tenacious are the 
natives of Hindustan of the ancient practices."^ 



■ A Treatise on the Music of Hindustan." Capt. N. A. Willard. Calcutta, 1S34. 



58 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

This continued employment of mode, combined with the almost entire 
absence of harmony, has prevented Indian music from reaching anv higher 
pitch of development, such as has been attained elsewhere. It stands to reason 
also that this is the chief cause of the monotony which causes Indian music to 
be little appreciated by, if not repellent to, European ears. 

Since the early periods of Indian history, music would seem to have been 
cultivated more as a science than an art. More attention seems to have been 
paid to elaborate and tedious artistic skill than to simple and natural melody. 
Hence arose technical rules that marred the pristine sweetness of melody — the 
very life of all real music. To a great extent this must be attributed to the art 
falling into the hands of illiterate virtuosi. Their influence, which caused music 
to suffer both in purity of style and simplicity, is being felt less and less. The 
great aim of all music — " Rakti," or the power of affecting the heart — now 
asserts itself more and more, and is slowly but surely bringing about a return 
to the early type of sweet, simple melody. 

Very little of the good or classical music of India is heard b}' Europeans. 
What is usually played to them consists, as Colonel Meadows Taylor very trulv 
remarks, of modern ditties, sung by ill-instructed, screaming, dancing women, 
at crowded native durbars, marriages, and other ceremonials. And when this 
is the case, it does not cause much surprise to hear native music often 
described as abominable, and devoid of all melody. But music of great intrinsic 
beauty nevertheless exists, and only requires to be heard by an unprejudiced 
ear to be appreciated. Throughout India music and poetry go hand in hand. 
Their influence may be seen and felt in almost every phase of native life, from the 
palace of the rajah to the humble dwelling of the ryot. Music has there been 
developed to a degree far greater than has been generally recognised in Europe. 
It is there felt to be a means of passionate expression, such as is apparently 
unknown amongst nations farther East. And indeed the very soul of all Indian 
music may be said to be raga — which in its literal sense means that which creates 
passion. And that this has been fully appreciated in Europe would seem to be 
evident, for a musical reviewer writing in the A thenccii in, and contrasting the 
music of India with that of Japan and Siam, recently wrote : " In the Indian 
Peninsula we are really in another world. We exchange a music in which 
noise and dry executive skill prevail for one vibrating with sentiment and 
passion, and that combines a refined execution with the highly nervous 
organization that makes the poetic artist. Such a one was a Jeypore been 
player {been — a kind of vina), who was to be heard, but we fear was not much 
heard, at a lillle exhibition called ' India in London,' in iS86. To go from one 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN IXDIA. 59 

of the clever Siamese ranat players of the Inventions Exhibition the year before 
to this man, was to quit the atmosphere of a desert for one redolent of sweet air 
and flower scents. The Hindu chromatic scale, from which the numerous 
modes and melody types are selected, does not appear to differ from our own. 
As there is no harmony, slight differences may pass without notice. Very much 
of Hindu music impresses the European as being in the minor scale ; but 
deflections in the stringed instruments, and possible accommodations in the 
wind, introduce an enharmonic elaboration that defies notation.'"'" And here it 
might be interesting to quote the opinion of a learned native gentleman ■} " Manv 
of the Hindus themselves," he writes, " labour under a false impression 
concerning the difterence between Indian and European music, even as to 
the employment of tones and semitones. The opinions held by so many 
natives, that pieces played upon the piano or harmonium are to them 
discordant, can be easily accounted for thus : they are simply confused — being 
unaccustomed to anything but simple melody — when they hear five or six notes 
played in chords. The chief difference seems to me to be that the Hindus 
prefer melodj' simply, while to European ears melody is preferred when 
clothed, as it were, with harmony of some sort." 

Comparatively few Indian airs have found their way to Europe. Those few 
that have been published are mostly from either Bengal or Northern India, so 
that there is but small resemblance in them to the national music of the Deccan 
or the South ; for there is a marked difference between the music of the various 
parts of India, which to even the most casual observer is evident. 

The following examples of songs— though a mere handful from so vast a 
storehouse — will, it is hoped, aid in filling the vacancy, and thereby afford some 
help to those who may care to make further research. 

Many of these melodies in themselves are extremely beautiful, and their 
simplicity adds an additional charm that no words can express — the airs of 
different country districts are but a reflex of the character and feelings of the 
people to whom they belong. Some are pathetic and melodious — music that 
exactly reproduces the feelings inspired bv the words ; others are gay and bright 
— true accompaniments to the daily pursuits and occupations of life ; and in manv 
of them may be found a vein of repose, slightly tinged with melancholy, that 
offers a curious contrast to either of the former ; indeed, so much varietv mav be 



^ The Athencsum, Jan. 4, i8go. Review of " Musical Instruments and their Homes." M. E. and \V. A. 
Ill-own, New York. 

^ T. M. Venkatas'esha S'astri. 



6o THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

f'dund that it is unnecessarv to notice in detail merits that must he evident to the 
musical reader. 

But vet, though the melodies themselves are so beautiful, it is but seldom 
that we hear them well sung ; indeed, singers of the ordinary type often entirely 
ruin the effect of the music ; for native singers appear to have an idea that the 
highest form of their art consists in introducing as much grace as possible, 
whether it adds to the beauty of their songs or not ; in fact, they try to disguise 
the real melody as much as possible by embellishments of their own, and so in 
nine cases out often it is quite impossible to follow either the air or the words of a 
sone, since the sinsrer is onlv anxious to exhibit what he fondlv imagines to be his 
skill. 

Native singers rarely practise, for they think that practice, to even a 
moderate extent, ruins their voices. The treatment of the voice, too, is quite 
different to what experience in Europe has proved to obtain the best results. 

The voices of Indian singers are almost always weak and deficient in 
volume — one result doubtless of their system of training, by which a full clear 
tone is made to give way to incessant small inflections. Girls, too, are taught 
singing when much too young, so that their voices either break or become 
harsh and shrill. 

A singer rarely stands while he sings, and instead of using his proper range 
of voice, he prefers a most unnatural falsetto, which he can rarely control, and 
his endeavours to make himself heard generally cause him to make the most 
ludicrous grimaces. Singers of this kind it is who bring Indian music into 
disrepute, and cause it to be regarded with contempt by European audiences. 

But still there arc singers in India whose voices are wonderfully sweet, and 
when they sing their own songs in their simple form, no hearer can doubt that, like 
other national music, that of India possesses a charm peculiarly its ov/n. 

The various styles of Indian compositions, consisting as they do entirely oi 
melodv, do not present to the casual observer differences as clearly marked as in 
those of European music. Nevertheless these melodies are classified systemati- 
cally, and in their construction are subject to certain definite rules of composition. 
Almost all consist of a burden or refrain called Pallevi, a kind of answer to this 
refrain styled Anupallevi, and stanzas (called Charanam) of which there is usually 
an uneven number. These parts are in the several compositions arranged in 
different wavs, and bv this means the style of composition is determined. 
Rhythm is usually very marked, but differs largely from that of most European 
music from the fiict that the times are iVequently irregular. 

Between vocal and instrumental music the difference is slight, the vina, the 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 6i 

only instrument of any lart^e capability, being considered to be but an imitation 
or reproduction of the human voice ; and if an air be accompanied by that 
instrument, it is usually only played in unison with the voice. 

The different exercises, compositions, &c., are usually classified under the 
following heads : — 

Saralas Kruthis 

Gentuversis Kirthanas 

Alankaras Vernams 

Gitas S'ankavernams 

Prabhandas Pathams 

Thanas Javadis 

Svarajotas Ragamalika 

A raga, when performed by itself, contains two movements — (i.) Alapa 
and (ii.) Madhyamakala. 

Pallevi, a kind of fantasia upon some theme abounding in imitation, and 
with a well-defined rhythm. 

The rhythm existing throughout all the different styles of composition is 
worth careful notice ; and it is interesting to compare it with that employed by 
other nations. The similarity of that of the Turks and other Eastern nations 
is remarkable. 

As in European music each period is complete in itself, being clearly 
marked by the talas, which divide the different periods into regular or irregular 
sections, as the case may be, following each other in definite and regular order. 
The periods differ only from those commonly found in European music in 
that they may consist, if necessary, of an uneven number of sections or measures, 
the tala itself often being irregular, owing to the employment of mixed times. 
Hence when Indian music is written in ordinary notation there will be a 
regular rotation corresponding to the tala, of bars each of which may have a 
different time signature. A reference to the list of talas upon page 36 will 
explain this more readily than any words can. These periods or phrases are 
often extended by the addition at the commencement of a few notes leading 
up to the commencing note of the phrase, or by being terminated with a 
small cadence or codetta which may be either a repetition or imitation of 
what has gone before, or may lead up to the next phrase. 

The rhythm of the Pallevi and Anupallevi is usually a great deal more marked 
and regular than that of the stanzas, where the phrasing is frequently irregular, 
the periods being interwoven by means of, as it were, abbreviaturas, or extended 
by the prolongation and " rekhu," a species of turn or transient shake upon a 

Q 



62 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

note in the middle of a roulade with which all Hindu music abounds. This is 
especially the case in the performance of raga as a solo, which in certain cases is 
absolutely timeless. 

Hence the great difficulty of expressing such music correctly by means of 
ordinary notation. The peculiarity of the scales or modes employed in Hindu 
music often raises a difficulty in determining the real tonality of many of the 
melodies, the Hindu Sa, taken by native musicians as the " Khuruj " or keynote 
ot their scale, not necessarily corresponding to what is the real tonic of the scale. 
Indian music has been compared to that of Scotland, but the resemblance can 
be traced principally to the frequent employment by both nations of a somewhat 
similar scale of five intervals, the fourth and seventh being omitted ; and 
possibly also from the fact that a similar motive is often found in both, where the 
first note has one-fourth of the duration of the second, as — 



^^ 



In reviewing the national music of any country, we cannot help being struck 
with the wa}- in which special scales are employed, special graces worked in, all 
more or less varying in the music of different nations. In the music of India, 
owing to the multitude of scales or modes which it employs, a resemblance here 
and there can be traced to the music of nearly every country. 

The chief characteristic, for instance, of Hungarian music is that it usually 
employs a scale with two superfluous seconds, or the harmonic minor with a 
sharp fourth. This scale is in every respect similar to the Indian scale called 
S'rinhandra, and nearly similar to one much employed and called Siibhapan- 
tovarali, both of which will be found among the list of scales upon pages 32-35. 

Many of the graces and embellishments employed in the gipsy music in 
Hungarv are to be found in Indian melodies. 

Mr. Carl Engel' has drawn attention to the employment of the minor 
seventh in both Servian, VVallachian, and Scotch music. This interval is 
emploved both in Arabic and Indian music. Some idea of the plaintive and 
impressive effect of which it is productive can be gained from the song, " Seki 
yenaka thake," given upon page 80. 

Mr. J. A. Kappey, in his collection of " Songs of Eastern Europe,'"' draws 
attention to the characteristics of Turkish songs, and to the fact that they 
employ a scale having a minor third with an augmented fourth, and a minor si.xth 

' " All Introduction to the Study of National Music." Carl Engel. London, 1866. 

^ "Songs of Itastcni l'".iH(jpc." Edited by J. .\. Kappey. Lundoii, 18S1. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN IXDIA. 63 

with a major seventh. A comparison of the examples he gives with songs of 
India will be of great interest ; and the similarity of both melody and rhythm 
is striking. One of the songs quoted — a song of sorrow by Nihad Bey — might 
be from India ; it appears to be written in much the same form, and it is also to 
be noticed that it employs a mixed time of % and \, precisely the Indian 
Triputa Tala, already noticed. 

In a previous chapter attention has already been drawn to the resemblance 
that Indian music bears to that of Greece, and this is still more fully borne out 
by a careful study of modern Greek national airs. In a work not long published, 
by M. Bourgault-Ducoudray,'' the construction of the peculiar scales found 
throughout the East have been made the subject of most careful research, and 
the use of what the author terms the " chromatique oriental" is especially 
noticed. This scale is no other than the Indian Mayamalavagaula, and to 
its frequent use attention has been drawn elsewhere. M. Bourgault-Ducoudray's 
work to students of Eastern music is especially interesting, and the careful 
analysis that is given of each air renders the work most valuable. The 
resemblance between Indian songs and the examples of melodies from the 
Levant is so striking that, in many cases, it is difficult to believe that their 
origin is not identical. 

Mr. Engel calls attention to the fact that Chopin, in one of his studies for 
the black keys (Douze grandes Etudes, No. 5), has given some idea of the 
beautiful effect that may be produced by a melody which employs a limited 
number of intervals ; only in this case he notices that as the accompaniment 
employs other intervals, the pentatonic effect of the whole is somewhat marred. 
In Indian music, too, a frequent use is made of the pentatonic scale, as has been 
already remarked. Again, in Spanish national music, embellishments are of 
constant occurrence, especially in descending the diatonic scale ; the same 
predilection can be observed in Indian melodies ; indeed, a further resemblance 
can be traced in the occasional employment of endings of the following 
nature — 



^ 



iSE g=g=^=il 



XT' 

which in the common songs, such as are heard in the jungles and country 
districts of many parts of India, are not unfrequent. 

The following observations by Captain Willard are short and to the 



' Trente Melodies Populaires de Grece et d'Orient." L. A. Bourgault-Ducoiidray. Paris, 1876. 



64 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

point, and seem to apply equally well to Southern as to Northern Indian 
melodies : — 

1. The melodies are short, lengthened by repetitions and variations. 

2. They all partake of the nature of what by us is called a Rondo, the piece 
being invariably concluded with the first strain, and sometimes with the first 
bar, or at least with the first note of that bar. 

3. A bar or a measure or a certain number of measures are frequently repeated 
with slight variations, almost ad libitum. 

4. There is as much liberty allowed with respect to pauses, which may be 
lengthened at pleasure, providing the time be not disturbed. 

The times employed in Indian music are peculiar ; simple times are of most 
frequent occurrence, mixed times are largely employed ; true triple time, 
curiously enough, is of the rarest ; but there is a time, the accentuation of which 
is upon the first and second beat, which may be said to be a kind of triple time 
(although in reality a mixed time of % and C), and is much used for love songs. 

The tempo in which the various melodies are sung is sometimes irregular, and 
from being exact sometimes changes into a recitative or ad libitum in the 
middle of a song. The peculiarities in the working out of the motives are striking, 
and the employment of rests of short duration is noticeable. 

The endings are often not definite, the last few bars leading up to the 
commencement ; the reason for this is probably that it is usual to repeat the 
melodies, and when the performer wishes to end, he generally leads up to the 
note upon which he wishes to conclude, and prolongs it in this manner — 

■ g? 



m 



3 



^ ^F^ 



Indeed, it seems more natural to regard all endings of Indian melodies rather as 
different forms of Da capo than as real closes, the object in most cases being 
a return to the commencement of the song. The fact so often noticed by those 
who have endeavoured to collect Indian airs, that almost every interval of the 
scale can be found used as a close, can possibly be thus accounted for. The words 
of most of these songs, particularly those sung by the common people, such as 
lavanies and javadis and svarajotas, are generally a long ballad, so that a definite 
ending is not required after each stanza. Many singers indeed, as a variety, 
improvise their words, so that after each stanza closes on intervals of all kinds 
are found. But when the real ending is reached, the performer frequently leads 
up to the key-note, or what he regards as the key-note of the Indian scale. 
Judged from a European point of view, it appears that closes on the intervals of 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHEKX INDIA. 



6S 



the third and fifth should be regarded more as //i^// closes upon the intervals of the 
tonic chord ; those on the second and seventh as upon intervals of the dominant 
chord; whilst those on the sixth or minor third betray the relative minor; sometimes 
the third may be looked upon as the fifth to the relative minor. This view can of 
course be equally well applied to the national airs of any country, but it appears 
to be specially applicable to those of India. 

Some of the melodies in their conclusion imply a modulation into the relative 
minor, showing thereby a trace of the old pentatonic scale. Examples will be 
found among the following melodies of endings with the fifth, the si.xth, the 
seventh, the second, and (like those of the Servians) with the third. Closes on the 
fourth are rarely if ever employed. An example will nevertheless be found in the 
Khyal upon page 88. 

In the examples following an endeavour has been made to point out some of 
the chief peculiarities and characteristics of the different ragas in which the 
melodies are composed. 

The first e.xercises taught to pupils are called Saralas, they are always in the 
scale of Mayamalavagaula ; similar exercises called Gentu-versis, containing 
repeated notes, are next taught, after which Alankaras — exercises upon time — are 
learnt, several in each tala. 

The simplest melodies are called Gita, and are of two kinds — Pillarigita 
and Ganaraga-gita. The first-named are four in number and are hymns to 
the god Pillari or Ganesha. The Sangita Parijata mentions four Pillarigitas, 
and it is believed that these are the four that are still in use. The following is 
an example of one of these ancient Pillarigitas : — 

( Raga Malahari. 



Andante. 



Tala Rupacca. 




=^=^ 



^S 



-^»»*-i 






T'^ir:'* 



^TJt 



^-^^ 



r7r 



2* 



Ganaraga-gitas are very similar to the above. 

Somewhat similar to gitas are Prabhandas, only that they are usually 
longer, and are divided into two or three parts by breaks called Khandam. 
Skilful performers are fond of playing such pieces in order to exhibit their 
proficiency to an audience. 

Thanas are studies for the vina, teaching special styles and difficulties met 
with in the performance of the various ragas. They are particularlv intended as 

K 



66 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



an introduction to the difficult movement called Madhyamakala of a raga. Thanas 
are in no particular talas, the time heing taught orally, and left in a great 
measure to the performer's discretion. Great attention is bestowed upon proper 
accentuation and grace ; the tempo is usually very rapid — 



Raga Nata. 

I 



^4 -i-t ^-g J- ^|/^' V^ "^ 1-MI f? C b 



^f^-«- 



h— H 



^ L»»^ 



1%^ 



^^=1 



^^ 



/F ^ 



g^ 



4ii 



Raga Arabi. 




^ 



S 



g^#- ^ 



^ 



rr- » 



t^^ 



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Some of the most popular ballads of Southern India are called Svarajotas, 
and are sung by almost everyone. The words are usually odes to some deity or 
popular hero of the country. A song of this kind commences with a kind of 
refrain termed pallevi ; following in quick succession is the anupallevi, a kind of 
short stanza, the words of which are an addition to a comment upon those of the 
pallevi. After this the pallevi is again repeated. The stanzas, which may be 
dissimilar both in metre and melody, follow in order, each concluded by a repetition 
of the refrain. There is an almost entire absence of superfluous grace in these 
songs, and their marked rhythm renders their execution within the attainment of 
nearly all. The following examples of these melodies are interesting, and display the 
fluent and decisive nature so characteristic oi them all to the greatest advantage — 



Allegyo modcrato. 
Pallevi. 



Fine. Anupallevi. 



Raga Bilahdri. 
Tala .\di. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



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This air is one of the most popular in Southern India ; it is usually known 
only by the name of the raga in which it is composed, as the words vary in 
different parts of the country. Its origin is not known, but it is believed 
to be very old. 

The following, a song peculiar to Mysore, and in praise of the goddess 
Parvati or Chamandi, is in a raga that is very little employed — 



A llcgro. 
Pallevi. 



' Parvati Pate." 



( Raga Purna-chandrika. 
\ Tala Adi. 



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tmzii 



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Anupallevi. 



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68 




THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

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As an example of a melody confined entirely to the pentatonic scale and with 
an undefined conclusion the following is interesting. The apparent want of a 
distinctly indicated key-note is evident, and it might be harmonised equally well 
in several different keys. Some musicians would doubtless treat it as in a minor 
key, and harmonise it therefore in E minor. The Hindus, however, regard it as 
pertaining rather to the Mesolydian mode, and therefore make G — the dominant of 
the natural scale — the tonic. 

This melodv is also worthy of note as it is considered to be one of the oldest 
son<js of the kind remaining: — 



Moderato. 
Pallevi. 



' Sami dia mera." 



I 



Riga Mohanna. 
Tala Adi. 



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Anupallevi 



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THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



69 



iii. poco a poco. 



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Pallevi. 



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' Rama na mora alinchera." 

Anupallevi. 



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( Tala Ru 



amachi. 
pacca. 



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The above air displays a good example of the pecuHar effect of a rhythm 
of three measures. More than one example of what is styled " Vishama tala " 
by the Hindus may be found here, where a note at the end of a bar is tied to one 
at the commencement of the bar following. 

The two songs following are of a similar kind to the foregoing, and both are 
exceedingly popular. They are of quite recent date, and were probably composed 
by some Telugu pandit at the court of M3'Sore. I have given them precisely as 
they are sung, and without attempting to divide the parts {i.e., pallevi, &c.) 

s 



70 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



composing them. The parts can, however, be easily distinguished, and also the 
small codettas and cadenzas which separate them — 



" Suvi, Suvi, " 



Allegro. 



fRaga Behag. 
\Tala Rupacca 




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A Uegro. 



' Kamini Vinaisa." 



Raga S'ankarabhama. 




m 



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^J.i^l^g^p^^^^^_j^J5j^ =^^ 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN IN VI A. 



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Sacred songs, called Kruthis, are very popular. The airs of some of these 
hymns are very old, and have been handed down by successive generations for 
hundreds of years. Kruthis are, as a rule, in the more difficult ragas, the 
characteristics of which are made as prominent as is consistent with the melody. 
They consist of a pallevi, anupallevi, and one stanza. Some few have 
three stanzas, and this number is never exceeded. The pallevi is sung at the 
commencement, then the anupallevi, after which the pallevi is repeated with 
a slight variation at the option of the singer, followed by the stanza, and 
concluding with the pallevi again. The toiipo is rather of an Andante con 
vtoto, and the whole is sung in a dreamy way, with a great deal of expression, 
and as much grace as is wished. 

These hymns were revived by the Rajah Sarabhoji of Tanjore, and were 
greatly improved in style by the celebrated musician Tiagyaraj of that place, 
who composed a large number which are still popular. 

Other famous composers of kruthis have been Siama S'astri, Diksitalu, and 
Subbaraya S'astri. 

As will be noticed from the following example, kruthis have a curious mixture 
of pathos and hilarity, and the words are always in accordance with the emotions 
expressed by the music. The peculiarly plaintive effect imparted to these 
melodies by the employment of grace embracing intervals less than semitones, 
and its special charm so readily shown upon the vina — the usual companion 
to these hymns — no notation can be found capable of expressing — 



Andante. 
Pallevi. « 



' Upacharam Chesavaru. ' 



.\nupallevi. ^ 



J Riga Bhairavi. 
(Tala Rupacca. 




72 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 
Stanza. 




1st time. 



1 1 2tid time. 




agq^pS^PpM F^^^J^^^^-^-^ ^^g^ 



The scale of this melody is " Nata-Bhairavi," which, as can be seen, 
corresponds exactly to the ancient Hypodorian mode. The peculiarities of the 
raga Bhairavi, in which it is composed, admit of E being taken either 
as h or b at will. Hence this melody, although partaking partly of the nature 
of a minor key, should be regarded as founded upon the dominant of the major 
key ; and, therefore, if harmonised to preserve its character, WTitten in one flat 
only, and harmonised with the triad of the dominant as the principal chord. 
The vibrato upon Bb is characteristic of the raga, and is never omitted. 

The composer of this melody was Tiagyaraj. 

The composition of the next melody is attributed to Kolashekara, a former 
Maharajah of Travancore, which, perhaps, accounts in some way for its wide 
popularity. 

One great peculiarity of the compositions of the Maharajah is the copious 
insertion of what are called " Svaraksheras " in them. To make my meaning 
clear— the Hindu gamut, as has been stated, is signified by the syllables " Sa, 
ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni." The composer has adroitly introduced these syllables 
at the very place where the notes signified by them occur in the song, without 
interferine: with the sense of the words. This is the more difficult to do when 
we remember that in Hindu music the notes must follow each other in a 
particular order, according to the raga, and not exactly according to the 
composer's fancy. In the following piece the words are " 5rtrasa vSrtmamukha 
para nava7«rt," &c. The syllables Sa and Ma are introduced at the very points 
where the notes C (Sa) and F (Ma) stand in the song. The Hindus regard, in 
this song, C and not F as the key-note, though the latter is clearly the real 
tonic, and there is apparently no difference in the tonality of this and the 
melody " Smarana Sukam," in which they allow the tonic to be F. The 
other two melodies, also from Travancore, are compositions of Kolashekara 
Maharajah — 



SARA5A SaMAMUKHA. " 



Moilftlttu. 



Kamachi. 



I'.iUevi. 



^--^^iEijEga ^;i:3^: 



fRSu'a Kama 
(Tala Adi. 



«**, 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

Anupallevi. 



73 



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Stanzas. 



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p±^2n i:i \ P-^-^rf\f r I J r.jviir r.r f.-^^^ ^Sl 



Pallevi. 



Melopy from Travanxore. 



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Raga Bilahari. 



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Anupallevi. 



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Pallevi. 



Melody from Travanxore. 
Anupallevi. 



Raga Mohanna. 



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Stanzas. 



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Modi'ynto. 
Pallevi. , 



' Smarana Sukam vo Ramanam.' 



j Raga Garudadvani. 
ITala Eka. 



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74 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTJHERX INDIA. 



Anupallevi 




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An example of an irregular melody is shown below. The two first periods 
consist of nine and seven bars respectively. This frequently occurs in Indian 
music, and is probably produced simply by rests having in course of time been 
either lengthened or disregarded ; or by a bar imitated, repeated, or over- 
lapping ; so that a symmetrical period is transformed into one of an uneven 
number of bars. The effect produced is original, and often very pleasing. 
That this has been fully recognised by musicians in Europe is well known, and 
many examples might be quoted from the works of classical composers to prove 
that this has been largely appreciated as an important element of variety — 



Andante. 
Pallevi 



Nanna Gan.na Talli. 



Raga Manohari. 
Tala Eka. 



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The two melodies following are both in the scale called jMavamalava- 
gaula. The intervals of the scale are so peculiar and so manv harmonical 
combinations can be formed from them that it well deserves attention, especiallv 
when it is remembered that this is a scale largely used by the Hindus, and that 
all elementary exercises taught to pupils are invariably upon this scale, instead of. 
as would be supposed, the diatonic major, which is by us commonly regarded as 
natural. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN IXDIA. 



75 



These melodies are again irregular in construction ; the ragas in which they 
are composed, though much alike, differ, in that the third is not admitted as a 
real note in the ascending mode of the second example. A characteristic of the 
raga Purvi is shown in the " glisse " from D to G in the sixth and seventh bars 
of the first air— 



' Trii.oka mata. 



Pa'levi. 



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'• Nagadhera. 



(Raga NadirAmakrya. 
I Taia Rupacca. 



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Very similar to kruthis are Kirthanas. Thev consist, like the former, of a 
pallevi, anupallevi, and stanzas, the tala being regular throughout. The ragas in 
which they are composed are for the most part popular ones, and there is 
little grace essential to their performance. The music of kirthanas is verv 
simple, and the words, addressed to some deity, plain and easy to be remembered. 

The following are examples of popular kirthanas — 



Allegretto. 
Pallevi. 



Bala nanna chala brovava.' 



Raga Kambudi. 
Tala Adi. 



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Stanzas. 



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THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

I •* 1st time. 






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Modcrnto. 

Pallevi. p^ 



" Karunallah Varnalu." 



JRaga Biag 
(Tala Adi. 



rri: i i:i:rT/rr- f jiffj-rrr i ^i- j^ i ^JJ-^VJ i r r;^ ^ 




Modeyato. 
Pallevi. 



' Garuua gamana rara." 



JRaga Surati. 
I Tala Adi. 



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Vernams are songs very similar to svarajotas, merely differing in that the 
several parts of which they are composed are not arranged in quite the same 
manner, and that they are more difficult of execution. Vernams are, as a rule, 
much longer than svarajotas, and contain a larger amount of grace throughout. 
They are usually in the more uncommon ragas, and the time is purposely made 
as catchy as possible. Their performance is therefore seldom attempted by 
other than skilled musicians. 

A vernam consists of an introduction to which there are words, usually 
concluded by a "Sol-fa" passage. Following this are stanzas generally merely 
" sol-fahed." After each stanza there is a short refrain to which words are sung. 
The words of vernams treat mostly of the deeds of favourite heroes or warrior 
deities. 

The following is an example of one of the simplest vernams. In performance 
a musician would treat this as a kind of theme which he would expand, vary, and 
embellish according to his own taste and skill — indeed, grace is sometimes 
employed to such an extent that the original air can hardly be recognised. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERX INDIA. 



77 



This melody is the composition of some pupil of Tiagyaraj of Tanjore ; it 
displays two of the characteristics of the raga Saranga very prominently — viz., the 
^lisse from B to G and the vibrato upon D — 



Allegro. (Introduction with words.) 



Inta Modi. 



(Raga Saranga. 
\Tala Adi. 




i 



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foco acccl. (without words. 
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Pallevi (at end of each stanza). 
a tempo. 



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Stanzas, nrf lib. i. 



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ad lib. 



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The following is another well known song of this kind — 



Allegro. (Introduction with words.] 
Q «_ 



' Sarasamu delupara." 



f Raga Kamachi. 
(Tala Adi. 



:ee 



^ 



->j ' 



ij: 






u 



78 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTIIEKX INDIA. 



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Stanzas ad lib. i. 



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S'anka-vernams are somewhat similar to vernams, only that the tempo is less 
rapid. They are usually very elaborate in style, and abound with graces of all 
kinds. They are commonly sung at Nautches and are intended to give full scope 
to convey " bhavas " — the gestures and sentiments conveyed by the dancer as she 
sways to and fro to the music. 

Javadis are songs of a light and pleasing nature, such as love songs, cradle 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



79 



songs/ &c. They are much sung by both Nautch girls and all, especially women, 
of the higher classes in domestic life. They are of two kinds— ordinary ballads 
and songs of a more or less indelicate nature, sung during the performance of a 
peculiar dance called Karwar. Javadis consist usually of a pallevi, anupallevi, and 
stanzas, sung in the usual manner as described before, and are chiefly in popular 
ragas. The tempo is in accordance with the words, and not too slow, the 
favourite measure being Rupacca. Consequently, many of these songs bear a 
resemblance to a waltz, only that they are taken at a slightly slower pace. 

The words of javadis are often very beautiful ; and those upon the loves of 
Krishna and Radha are always popular. Musicians as a rule sing these songs 
more in their naked form, and with less grace than is their usual custom. Each 
stanza is sung to the same air. 

These songs are of comparatively recent introduction, being first sung by the 
Kanarese musicians of the Court of Surapuri, a petty state near the celebrated 
Humpe ruins. The popularity of songs of this kind increased rapidly, and they 
are now to be heard throughout almost the whole of Southern India, where they 
take the place of the Tappa of Hindustan. 

Among the following examples the air " Anthalona Telavari" is perhaps the 
most popular— the accompanying rhythm of the tala falls upon the first and 
second beat of each bar ; this is much noticed when it is accompanied by 
instruments, such as the small tinkling cymbals and drums, which mark the 
time strongly. This song seems to be known throughout Southern India — the 
version varies slightly in different places, but, on the whole, the air is much the 
same everywhere. 

The air " S'ri Saratha " is very popular both in Mysore and Tanjore ; the 
modulation into the relative minor is noticeable as it shows traces of a 
pentatonic scale — 



Andante. 
Pallevi. 



' YlVANA PIRDIDU." 



f Raga Biag. 
I Tala Adi. 



gs 



SI 



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» p • 



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s=«= 



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Stanzas. 




r ''^'ir ■.tiu ^ ^^^^^ s ^ 



• Kayalaga dAvana.'' 






Raga Janjuti. 
Tala Rupacca. 




' Simple cradle songs, called " Palna," are very common, and answer to the lullaby songs of Europe, 



8o 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



Pallevi. 



m 



hi^^ 



^^m 



" AnTIIALONA TKLAVARl." 

Anupallevi. 



(Raga S'ank4rabharna. 
jTala Rupacca. 



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n tempo. 
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a 



" Jenaka Vaneanatha." 



f Raga Janjuti. 
(Tala Rupacca. 



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Pallevi. 



(Raga Kapi. 
(Tala Eka. 



1st time. 



\\ 2nd time. 



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c ^ p- 



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Stanzas. 



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THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



8i 



' S'ri Saratha." 



f\\ r ^'t u- 






Ra^a Kamachi. 
Tala Rupacca. 



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Very similar to javadis are songs called Pathams ; they are exclusively love 
songs, and are sung largely both in the native drama and by Nautch girls. The 
music is very much varied, and the performers frequently leave the air and 
improvise cadences and embellishments, rejoining the melody at will. The 
tempo is slower than that of javadis, and is varied according to the expression 
the singer wishes to put into the words ; the tala is generally irregular, a mixed 
time of I and C is the commonest. 

The most popular composer of pathams was Kshattrya, whose songs are 
largely sung, and contain some of the most beautiful and poetical sentiments 
that can be found ; but, like all Oriental love poetry, they employ imagery too 
luxuriant for exact translation — 



' Valla tella vara." 



jRaga S'ankarabharna. 
jTSla Druva. 



^ 



Moderato. 



:m 



1st time. 



■2nd time. 



^ 



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It \r~i 



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THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 









^^ 



tsj— — ■-.=- 



^^ 



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I I L- 



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In the above melody the characteristics of the raga S'ankfirabharna are well 
shown. The glide to the upper C is never omitted in this raga. Another 
peculiarity of this air should be noticed : at the sign \ it will be seen that 
B is tied ; the string is hvice slightly deflected and shaken upon the fret, so 
as to sharpen the note to a degree less than a semitone, with a trembling 
effect. 

This song is very well known in the Mysore country. The pace is moderately 
quick but not hurried, and the melody is sung in a soft, dreamy manner, that, 
coupled with the gestures of the singer and the tinkling of the accompanying 
cymbals, is peculiarly fascinating, especially when heard for the first time. 

Here is another example of these songs — 



Andante. 



( Raga Mukari. 
t Taia Triputa. 



^231 



iOi^^ 



^^ 



\ « m -* • L 



=t=^ 



i 



s 



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^E 



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& 




Bg; 



jac 



EH 



fe^ 



1 



Religious hymns, called Yallapathams and Tathvams, are largely sung bv 
the lower orders. They are very lugubrious and monotonous, and are invariably 

The former are funeral dirges, the latter 



in the raga Yedukula-Kambogi 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



83 



allegorical chants sung at religious gatherings. The following example of a 
Yallapatham shows the nature of these songs — 

{I 



Antlante. 



(Raga Yedukula-Kambcgi. 
Tala Adi. 




The ordinary folk-songs of the country are called Lavanis, and will be 
familiar to everyone who has heard the coolies sing as they do their work ; the 
women nursing their children ; the bullock drivers; dhooly bearers ; or sepoys on 
the march. The airs are usually very monotonous. The words, if not impromptu, 
are a sort of historv or ballad in praise of some warrior or " burra Sahib." 
Some have a kind of chorus, each man in turn singing an improvised verse. 
There is no employment of raga. 

At the time of the Kama festival in honour of the Indian god of love, special 
lavanies called Saval are sung. The words of these are sung by two 
parties — one called Turai and the other Kalki — intended to represent the god 
Krishna and his mistress Radha. Questions of a metaphorical nature are sung 
by one party and answered by the other. These were formerly sung extempore, 
but their performance is now usually rehearsed beforehand. This species of 
entertainment is also practised in Northern India under the name of Kabi. 

The two following are examples of popular lavanies — ■ 



Allfgro vioderato, 

n No. I. 



1 



~r » * 0^ 



:^:i^ 



=^ 



^^^ 



IT-^tf^ 



^ 



No. 2. 



^E? 



^ 



BE^ 



^ 



-fs— r 



^■ 



V I 



I ^T^'""^ 



tr 



A composition called Raga-malika, or " garland of ragas," is occasionally 
heard. As the name implies, it is a song that modulates into many different 
ragas. A raga-malika consists of a pallevi or refrain, and stanzas. The pallevi 
is employed only at the beginning and at the conclusion. The stanzas are 



84 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

usually uneven in number. Each stanza employs a different raga, the name 
of which must be mentioned in the words, in order that the audience be able 
to follow and appreciate the performer's skill. The tala remains the same 
throughout. 

Somewhat similar to the above is a Pallevi. This word signifies literally 
"a creeping plant," and hence the name is given to a kind of fantasia upon some 
theme worked out in accordance with certain rules, and containing a large 
amount of grace and imitation. As this kind of composition is extremely 
popular it well merits some attention. 

A stanza or sentence of some poetical nature is sung to any air that the 
performer may improvise, and in anv raga and tala. This opening melodv is 
taken as the theme of the pallevi, and is varied, imitated, and answered sub- 
sequently according to the skill and inclination of the performer. Occasionally 
a kind of counter theme is introduced, and a skilful musician will keep the 
two parts distinct. If this is done the counter theme is, as a rule, introduced 
upon a fourth or sixth lower. But it is not intended to imply that there is any 
employment of counterpoint as understood in Europe ; for though in certain 
cases these two parts may be actually going at the same time, yet the native 
musician is guided by no contrapuntal laws, but by his ear, and the rules of rdga, 
entirely. Much greater license is given as to raga in a pallevi than in any 
other composition. 

There are usually three movements — viz., an adagio, a moderato, and an 
allegro or scherzo. 

The first movement commences with the subject being given out in any raga 
or tala that may be called for. The space of time occupied by this is termed an 
avatar, and constitutes the chief rhythmical division or period into which the 
pallevi is divided. Each succeeding avatar, though consisting of several 
short phrases, either linked together or separated by rests, must be of equal 
length to the original. Each avatar differs essentially from those preceding, 
and if the voice is employed, commences invariably with the first syllable or word 
of the original theme. 

The second movement follows with or without a short pause between. 
The measure remains the same, but the duration of the movement is less. 

The third, or concluding movement, follows ; the only difference being that 
the tempo is much increased. In this it is usual for the performer to modulate 
into different ragas (called for at the time by the audience), taking care that the 
special characteristics of each shall be made clear; each avatar is, however, ended 
in the original raga. This movement is brought to a close by a repetition of the 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



85 



original theme in the original tempo, after which a few bars in the same raga are 
given ad libitum by way of a Finale. 

In the performance of a pallevi no harsh or discordant instruments are 
employed. For marking a rhythmical accompaniment the hands are employed, 
or sometimes a Mridang or Gatha. Occasionally another performer hums 
softly a kind of accompaniment to syllables (ta, di, ti, ka, &c., as if sol-fahing) 
intended to represent the beats of a drum ; this is called konnagolu, or talavinyasa. 

Songs of salutation or hail, called Mangala, are sung at the conclusion 
of all performances. Melodies of this kind are usually in either the ragas Surati 
or Saurelshtra. The following is one of the most common Mangalas. The 
chief peculiarity in songs of this kind is evident here — the beats of the tala falling 
upon tied notes at the commencement of a bar — 



Paramana Suttu battu padara." 



I Raga Saurashtra. 
Tala Adi. 




A dngio. 



m 



l^^Tl 



::?«; 



^^^ 



iis5 



:S=^ 



> i^ 



-»-»- 



Hindustani music in some respects differs from the system previously 
described, and which is called Karnatik. It has been much copied from the 
latter, but its professors are not often men of much education ; and though 
many of them are skilled executants, their knowledge of the theory of their art 
is, as a general rule, but small. In Hindustani music more attention is paid to 
the minute distinction between the various ragas than to the actual melody itself. 
To melodic form the same importance is not attached. The nomenclature of 
Hindustani and Karnatik ragas differs, but musicians everywhere quote the 
Sangita Ratnakera as their principal authority. They also say that, apart from 
Arabian and Persian innovations, the difference between the S3'stems of music 
prevalent in the North and South of India is accounted for b}- the fact that in 
the former that of Hanuman is preferred, while the Southern music is a relic of 
the earliest system of Narada. 

In Hindustani music the elaborate arrangement of scales previously 
described is not used, but merel_y twelve ; all of which, however, are found, and 
are in common use, though under different names, in the Karnatik system. 
The talas, or measures, employed in Hindustani music are similar to those 
previously described upon page 36. As regards the form of Hindustani 
melodies, in place of what has been styled " pallevi," " anupallevi," and 

Y 



86 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

" charanam," or stanzas, all their songs consist of distinct parts. The 
pallevi is styled asthayi — the anupallevi antara — and the charanam ahhog. As the 
differences between the two systems consist mainly of technical points, which 
would be of slight interest to the reader, the following observations will, perhaps, 
be suflicient. 

The Dhrupad — perhaps the most admired of all Hindustani songs — is a 
heroic song, with a slow and dignified style, and sung almost exclusively bv men. 
It consists of three parts — i.e., asthayi, antara, and abhog. Great scope is given 
to variations upon the actual theme, and the time cadence is very complex. 
Other songs are called Tilanas and Sarigams (or svaragramas), and are in 
particular talas ; they contain onlv two parts. 

Ghuzals — songs of the same nature as Kshattrya's pathams of the Karnatik 
— are very popular; they consist of only asthayi and antara. Of a similar 
form to ghuzals are Tappa, resembling the Karnatik javadis, and consisting 
of two parts. There are also Thungri, Dadra, Hari; Gurbah, sung at the Dassera 
festival; and Palna, or cradle songs. Songs called Khyals, somewhat like the 
Karnatik kruthis, which display a great deal of grace, and have a slow time 
cadence, were introduced by Sultan Shirki of Jounpur; they consist of two 
parts only. Many Hindustani lavanis are very pretty, though most 
melancholy. 

The tuning of instruments used by Hindustani musicians differs from that 
employed by Karnatik professors, in that the interval of the fourth is always 
admitted upon the open strings ; the modulation therefore of these instruments 
is less confined ; hence frequently, though the melody itself is less pleasing, 
accompaniments to Hindustani songs are preferred to the ordinary Karnatik 
accompaniments, and music played in the Karnatik style upon instruments tuned 
thus is much liked. Hindustani musicians practise singing more than do 
Karnatik. They have better voices, and take more pains to cultivate them. 
Karnatik singers, as has been said before, appear to have an idea 
that practice is hurtful to their voices, and from attempting to sing when too 
young, before the voice is formed, they are apt to ruin their singing entirely ; 
while Hindustani singers practise much, and sing in a more manly style ; hence 
Hindustani music is much admired in Southern India, chiefly as a variety — the 
softness of the language itself, and the ease with which it lends itself to singing, 
giving it an additional charm. A careful study of the Hindustani melodies 
given below will amply repay the time given up, and their great beauty and 
inherent passion can hardly fail to enchant one. 

The following examples, gathered principally from the Deccan, Guzerat, and 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN IX D! A. 



87 



Rajasthan, display some of the chief characteristics of these melodies. The 
names of their respective ragas have, in some cases, been omitted, the names of 
Hindustani ragas being different from Karnatik. Several of them modulate 
into different ragas. Such technicalities are not of nuich general interest. 
Examples, however, may be found below. The ghuzal given is popular in 
Guzerat, and is sung quickly, but with great expression and varying tempo. 
It should be remembered that, in all cases in performance, the airs are much 
varied by grace, and rarely are sung in their naked form. All singers, both 
Hindustani and Karnatik, make great use of a slide akin to the portamento. 



Allegretto. 



Ghuzal. 



S^7^^r-\ M 



is 



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In Raga S'ankara. 



Andantf niosso 




Andante 



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Lavani. 



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88 




A ndanle. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 
Thungri. 



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a tempo. 




Khyal. 



Raga Kedara. 




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Patham. 



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Fine. 



J.71 J j J^LJ^J^ ^ 





CoH cspress 



Thungri. 



R4gas Pilu and Dcsh. 



f^- n ;;-j-uJr=r^rrT 



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THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



89 



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Raga Gauri 



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THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN IXDIA. 



Andante. 



GURBAH. 



RSga K&fi. 



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THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



91 



Kalingra (151. 



Scales used in Hindustani music and styled " Thats. 

Bhairavi (S). 



3^ 



^f= ^^^ ^^ -^ 3 



5s 



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(The numbers in brackets refer to the corresponding Karnatik scales upon pages 32-35.) 







The Nahabet. From a Native Drawing. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Musical Entertainments — Music and the Drama — Influence of the latter upon songs of the 
country — Of the Indian orchestra — Religious music — Temple music — Employment of bells — 
Street music — The Nahabet — Nautch music — Dancing. 



MUSICAL entertainments among the higher classes are very popular and 
much in vogue. Upon such occasions a company of musicians are 
hired for the evening. The Vina is the favourite instrument, and is 
generally accompanied by either a Mathala or Tabla, or else by a kind of earthen 
pot called Gatha, much like the ordinary "chatty," which, in the hands of a skilful 
performer, is beaten with wonderful dexterity. Sometimes, but rarely, two vinas 
of different sizes are employed. In this case, if the players are skilful, the effect 
is very pleasing, especially in the performance of an Alapa, a kind of rhapsody or 
fantasia impromptu, in any raga ; each instrument keeps its part distinct, and 
the theme is cleverly imitated and tossed about from one to the other much as 
is done in a modern orchestra. Such imitation is, however, purely at the fancv 
of the performers, and not contrapuntal imitation as understood in Europe. 

Throughout Southern India the native drama is exceedingly popular ; the 
actors are generally well educated and of a high caste, and a good company 
always attracts full houses. Music is largely employed upon the stage, and 
there is a kind of orchestra attached to everv native theatre. The songs sung 
at performances of the kind do not, as a rule, difler much from the ordinary music 
of the country, and of late years there has been a tendency to imitate foreign 
music, such as Arabian or Persian, and the English, Scotch, or other airs played 
by military bands at all large stations. These naturally hnd their way from the 
theatre into private houses — boys learn them and sing them in the street — 
and so their inHucnce graduallv extends and makes itself felt upon Indian music 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 93 

in general. The old melody types, or ragas, are being less jealously adhered 
to, and the better educated classes of Hindus are beginning to see that music 
is not necessarily confined to one or two particular systems, but that, like 
nearly everything else, it is capable of improvement and further development. 

A marked change for the better in the manner of singing is evident. This, 
indeed, could not fail to be the case when it is remembered that if a voice is 
intended to be heard by a large audience in a theatre or other building of the 
kind it must be thrown out to the full extent of its volume, instead of being 
contorted and its sweetness spoilt by the continued small inflections of tone and 
unnatural falsetto notes so much practised by native singers of the ordinary class. 

The native orchestra is usually made up of the following instruments, or of 
a somewhat similar combination : — 

Sarangi (string) .... .... 2 Mathala or Tabla [dnnns) i 

Tamburi (string) .... .... 1 S'ruti (drone) .... .... i 

^^lukaxina. (native oboe) .... i 

The use of the Sarangi in Southern India — except in conjunction with 
Nautches — is rapidly being discontinued, and an English fiddle tuned as a vina 
or sarangi is often substituted for it. Farther North the instrument appears likely 
to hold its place for a long time to come. A clarinet is sometimes preferred to 
the Mukavina. 

In musical performances cymbals and bells of different kinds are used, 
according to taste, and the occasional use of a harmonicon of little bells or plates 
of metal (Septaghantika), or of porcelain cups or glasses (Jalatharangini), 
is much admired. 

It is a common custom for the members of particular castes, sects, &c., to 
meet together at stated intervals for the purpose of worship, either in each other's 
houses or in temples. On these occasions music forms a prominent feature, and 
consists of hymns of different kinds, accompanied bv a variety of instruments. 
Music of this nature is called Bhazana, and its use is almost universal. 

Among the higher castes great trouble and expense is incurred in procuring 
good performers for this purpose. The songs are generallv pretty and well 
sung to the accompaniment of the vina or sitar and tamburi, with, perhaps, 
a small drum to mark the rhythm. The Bhazana of the common people is a 
great contrast to this, and in their assemblies melody is often sacrificed to mere 
noise. Each man, in order to show his devotion, sings in turn, frequently with 
no re<rard for time or tune, whilst the others beat drums or blow a kind of 
whistle called Sillu, with other instruments, just as it pleases them, and, as 
can be imagined, the effect of this is discordant in the extreme. 

2A 



94 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTIIERX INDIA. 



The instruments commonly employed in Hhazana consist of one of the 
foUowiniT combinations — 



Tamburi 

Sarangi or Fiddle 
Mathala 



Tamburi 
Sarangi .. 
Mathala .. 



2 
2 
I 

I 
I 
I 



S'ruti 

Sitar 

Tabla 



Sitar 

Tala (cymbals) 

Tabla .... 



I 

I 

I pair 

I 

I 

I pair 



Or, if the means of the worshippers be very limited, a single tambouri, with, 
perhaps, one pair of little cymbals and a common drum, or tabor such as 
Khanjeri, is found. 

The music performed for Bhazana usually consists of kirthanas, gitas, 
and kruthis. 

In temples, chiefly those of Lingayet or other Saivite sects, there is a 
peculiar kind of music in use called Karadisamela. It is so-called because a 
large conical kettle-drum called by that name is the principal instrument 
employed in it. The Karadisamela carries with it a special rhythm of its own ; 
for lively airs — j"n J~j J~j | J . J . | — ; for those of a mournful nature — J~2 ^^t- 

A system of music called Sopanam is found in Malabar, where it is 
confined to temple services. In every temple of any importance in Malabar and 
Travancore it is usual to have both instrumental and vocal music at the steps 
leading to the principal shrine during the performance of certain services. The 
word sopanam, in its literal sense, means " steps," and hence gives its name to 
this particular kind of music. The Sopanam system varies in man}- respects 
from both the Karnatik and Hindustani ; a detailed description of it would, 
however, be unnecessary, since it is much akin to the Karnatik system and 
differs only in technical points, which would be uninteresting to the reader. 

The use of the gong and bell in temples is universal. Colonel Meadows 
Taylor, in speaking of this, remarks that the gong is not used as an 
accompaniment to any but the loud crashing and generally dissonant music 
of the temple ceremonies. No ceremonv of sacrifice or oblation is ever 
performed without a preliminary tinkling of the bell, repeated at certain intervals 
according to the ritual. 

There can be no doubt that the practice of using it is as ancient as 
Hinduism itself, and the ritual liturgies and works on ceremonial observances 
define the use to be made of it.' In fact, the use of bells for religious purposes 



'• Proceedings, Royal Irish Ai-:ulciny." \'ol. I.X.. Fart i. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 95 

seems to hav'e been from the earliest times so universal amongst almost all 
nations that it is only necessary to point out that the exact counterpart of the 
Hindu Ghante is to be found at the present day in the Sanctus bell in 
use in Christian Churches, and it is perhaps worthy of note that in the great 
sculptured Trimurti or Hindu trinity at Elephanta one of the figures holds a bell. 

The Dasaris, a mendicant class of temple servers of Vaisnavite persuasion, 
usuallv employ a little side-drum, with one head only, called Dinni, not 
unlike the modern Egyptian " Tabl Shami"; other mendicants, called Andis, 
outcasts from Saivite sects, play upon a small gong called Semakkalam, which 
they beat with a stick. Both Dasaris and Andis often carry a horn as well, 
and support themselves by singing doleful ballads or hymns at street corners and 
bv begging. Work of any sort they decline. The ordinary native band of 
discordant wind instruments, drums, and cymbals found throughout Southern 
India is called Mela. The players in these bands are mostly taken from a 
caste of Telegu-speaking barbers called " Mangala-vandlu," who make this their 
special profession and provide the music, so-called, commonly heard at temple 
ceremonies, weddings, festal gatherings, and all street " tamashas." The 
composition of these bands varies greatly, the number of instruments in some 
cases being as many as thirty and in others perhaps only three or four ; generally 
one or two nagasaras — a s'ruti or drone — a drum such as the dhol — and a 
pair of cymbals (called Jhanj), about ten inches or a foot in diameter, are found. 
Sometimes a mela, consisting of a single mukavina, a flute, a flageolet, a drone, 
and a small side-drum called Dhanki is employed. ^ 

The effect of a mela can hardly be called pleasing, unless to those whose 
chief delight is discordant noise. The air, such as it is, is generally drowned by 
the clanging of cvmbals and the incessant drumming, which, added to the 
prolonged and shrill drone of the s'rutis, produce an effect considerably 
imposing. But, as Captain Willard pithily enough remarks,^ it is heard to 
advantage "from a distance." 

A peculiar institution of Indian music is known as the Nahabet,^ and is so 
called from that beinc: the name of the largfest drum associated with it. There are 
certain persons — Hindu or Mahomedan noblemen — who are privileged to have 
attached to their service bands of professional musicians, who perform at certain 
stated hours of the day or night. This privilege is sometimes extended to certain 
temples and shrines of saints, or to spiritual princes — gurus or swamies. To these 

" Preference seems to be given to instruments of European manufacture, and it is not unusual to find old 
clarinets, flutes, and fifes used in these bands. 

" " A Treatise on the Music of Hindustan." Captain N. A. Willard. Calcutta. 1S34. 
* This word is commonly pronounced " Nobut." 



g6 THE MUSIC OF SOUTH ERX INDIA. 

bands the name of Nahabet is given, and they are usually placed in balconies over 
the gateways of cities or palaces, or in other elevated places elsewhere, and these 
places are known as the Nahabet Khaneh. The music played is, of course, 
traditional, but it possesses a distinct character of its own that is entirelv different 
to anv other music heard in India, and the effect, especially among mountains 
or in the hill fortresses, such as are found in Central India or Rajputana, is very 
striking. Usuallv care is taken to retain the services of the best performers for 
the Nahabet, and when heard from a little distance upon a still Indian night, and 
the sound is subdued, there is a good deal of wild beauty about it that possesses 
a charm peculiarly its own. 

In the time of the Mogul Empire, we learn from the " Ain-i-Akbari,"^ the 
Nahabet was held in great esteem, and the Emperor Akbar himself was even a 
performer. There were then in the palace Nakkera Khaneh some eighteen large 
Nahabets, twenty smaller kettledrums (Nakkeras), four Dohl, four Kurna or 
large trumpets, nine Surnais or pipes similar to the Nagasara, and their accom- 
panying drones, two S'ring or horns, and three pairs of cymbals of large size, 
besides several Nafirs (a smaller kind of trumpet, similar to the Tuturi) ; and in 
those davs the performances of the Nahabet occupied a prominent place in the 
dailv palace routine. The general practice then was that the Nahabet played 
first at midnight and the second time at dawn. An hour before sunrise the 
musicians commenced to plav the Surnais, an hour later there was a short 
prelude, which in turn was followed by pieces introducing the Kurna, Nafir, and 
other wind instruments, with the occasional use of the largest drum of all 
(Damama or Nahabet), but which did not introduce the Nakkera. After this the 
Surnais and Nafirs were played alone ; an hour later there was a general 
crescendo, and then followed seven distinct performances, brought to a conclusion 
by the chanting of various prayers for blessings upon the Emperor, and then the 
day's service was finished by the Surnais players playing softly to a pianissimo of 
the drums. 

In the present day the large number of different instruments formerly 
found in the Nahabet Khanehs of Ibrtresses and palaces do not exist, and the 
effect of the modern Nahabet is therefore less imposing. There are, however, to 
be found in most Nahabet Khanehs one pair of large Nahabets, a couple of pairs 
of smaller kettledrums (Nakkera) and possibly other drums with a Kurna, one 
or two Tuturi, a pair or two of cymbals, one or two Nagasaras and their 
accompanying drones, with perhaps a couple of Nuy or flutes-a-bec. 

' " .\iiii-Akbari." Translated from the orif^inal version bv H. Bloclunann, M..\. Sec N'ol. I., k\n. ig. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERX IXDIA. 97 

The Kurna is not always found, for only nobles of the highest rank are 
considered able to use it ; and by Brahmins it is still held to be the most ancient 
and sacred instrument of music in existence, and they consequently give it 
a prominent place in their temple ritual. 

Nautch music is termed Taffa or Keylika and is performed exclusively bv a 
caste of Nautch people called in Southern India Melakara-jati. This is a composite 
class of dancing women and male musicians, distinguished by a marked social 
division from the higher orders of the musical profession. The dancing men and 
women of the Melakara caste, who together form a complete chorus, constitute 
what is called a Chinnamela (or smaller music), in distinction to the Peryamela 
(big music), which is a band of male musicians who play upon the Nagasara with 
drums and accompaniments differing from those of the dancers.'' The Peryamela, 
or Pathamelam as it is also called, is the ordinary native band formed by the 
Mangalavandlu caste and already described. 

At Nautches the usual arrangement of instruments is as follows : — 
Sarangis, or English fiddles tuned in the native manner .... 2 

Mridang or Tabla {drum) .... .... .... .... .... i 

S'ruti-upanga (drone) .... .... .... ... .... .... i 

Tala or jalra {cymbals) .... .... .... .... .... .... i 

The Hindu art of dancing is treated of at great length in the Sanskrit work 
" Bharata S'astra." Its origin is ascribed to the trod Brahma. The science of 
dancing is usually considered under three heads — viz., nritta, vatya, and nrittya. 
Of these nrittya is what is understood bv dancing as seen at a Nautch ; nritta 
comprises only rhythmical movements without gestures ; vatya has to do with 
stage action only. The masculine and feminine aspects of each of these three 
heads are fully treated of, and are styled Tandava and Lasyn. There are 
rules for numerous motions of the head, eye, brow, and neck, to say nothing of 
those of the bodv, arms, and feet, that have to be carefully attended to. Each 
movement or look is described with an exactness that is almost incredible. All 
these various gestures and expressions are regulated by the tala or rhythm of the 
dance, and are centred in the stamp of the feet upon the ground at intervals, or 
in the tinkling of the bells worn by the dancer. Indian dancing, like that of 
most Oriental nations, consists of gestures, slow, and more or less dignified, in 
time to the music, rather than actual dancing as understood by a ballet. To an 
Englishman a Nautch is therefore apt to be a rather disappointing entertainment, 
there being little real grace or symmetry of movement about the performance. 

^ " Manual uf the Tanjore District." T. Venkasanii Ruw. Madras, 1.SS4. 

2 B 



98 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTH ERX IXDIA. 



And like Indian music, Indian dancing should be judged entirely from an Oriental 
standpoint. A Nautch usually commences with the singing of a Mangala or 
"song of hail" (generally in the Raga Ntita), the words of which are intended to do 
honour to the principal personages present. When this is concluded, the leader 
or conductor of the troupe, who invariably plays the tala or jalra, hums or 
sings a kind of accompaniment, called Konnagolu, to this one of the girls dances, 
keeping time with the soft tinkling of the bells tied round her ankles. During this 
the other instruments are independent of the leader and are played softly and 
without time in any raga that may be chosen, the chorus, if any, being much 
subdued. And when the dance is finished, songs— such as javadis or pathams — 
follow, one voice singing the solo and the whole of the voices taking up at 
intervals a soft refrain. Dances or gestures, in character with the words of the 
song, are made by the girls performing in front of the musicians. 

Sometimes Sanskrit slokes, called " Astapathi," are sung by one voice, the 
instruments plaving a kind of soft, dreamy accompaniment without any well 
defined time, either with or alternately with the voice. 

The performance is brought to a close by the singing of a Mangala, in 
either the ragas Surati or Saurashtra. 




A MUblLAL I'AI.IV. 




chafti:k \ II. 

Of instruments — Decoration — Materials — How susceptible of improvement — Chief defects in 
construction — Eastern origin of many European instruments — Descriptions of instruments 
in common use. 

MOST of the eaflv Indian musical instruments remain still in use. 
Since the time of the Mahomedan invasion, about a thousand years 
ago, some Arabian and Persian instruments have been adopted, and 
have become almost naturalised ; but their use has never become universal, and 
is mostly confined to the North of India or to Mussulman musicians. 

The people of India have always been conservative in their tastes, and 
in nothing do we find this more evident than in their music and musical 
instruments. Descriptions of them all are found in many of the old Sanskrit 
treatises, and show that the forms of the instruments now in use have altered 
hardly at all during the last two thousand years ; old paintings and sculptures, such 
as those of Ajanta, prove this even more conclusivelv.' There are many musical 
instruments to be found among the sculptures existing upon various old temples, 
cave temples, and ancient Buddhist topes and stupas in different parts of India. 
Those at Amravati and Sanchi are especially interesting." P'^or in the Amravati 
sculptures, which were visited by the traveller, Hiouen Thsang, and called by him 
Dhanakacheka, about the vear 640 of our era, we find several representations 
of musical instruments. One of peculiar interest shows a group of eighteen 
women plaving upon drums, a shell trumpet or s'ankha, one much like a 
surnai, and two instruments, apparently quanuns, of a shape very similar to 



' Sec "The Industrial .Arts of India." Sir C. M. Birdwood. Londnn. iSSo. 

-"Tree and Serpent Worship." James Ferj^'usson, F.R.S. London, iSCS. Sec plates LXII. 
XXXVII., XXVIII. These sculptures are now in the British Museum. 



loo THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

the Assyrian liarps. But there is another instrument represented that would 
seem to have been especially popular, but which is never met with in India 
now, nor can descriptions of it be found in the Sanskrit treatises upon instruments. 
This again figures in Assyrian and Egyptian sculptures and paintings. It is some- 
what like a harp, and much like an African instrument called Sancho, and still 
used in some parts of that continent. Mr. James Fergusson notices strong Bactrian 
influences in this monument at Amravati, and is of opinion that the expression 
of the traveller Hiouen Thsang that this tope was ornamented with all the art 
of the palaces of Bactria is borne out to its fullest extent. This peculiar harp is 
again found amongst the sculptures at Sanchi ; where also is seen an instrument 
resembling the Roman tibiae pares. But the tibiae pares are there shown 
without the capistrum or cheek bandage, and it is known that this instrument 
was also used by the Greeks. It is worthy of note that a form of the tibicc 
pares is still common in Northern India, where it consists of a pair of flutes-a- 
bec. At Sanchi, too, is found a figure of a man blowing a kind of trumpet — 
the s'ringa — of much the same shape as that now employed in Bengal. 

Perhaps the most reliable proofs of the antiquity of Indian instruments can 
be found, not so much in the Sanskrit, but in the Pali works remaining. For to 
these Buddhist treatises it is an easier matter to assign dates that can be 
tolerably accurate. In the Milindha Panha,^ a Pali work, written a little after 
the Christian era, is a description of the vina, also of the shell-trumpet (s'ankha) 
and the flute (here rendered vansa — a reed). And in the Mahaparambhana Sutta, 
a still older work of about 400 B.C., we find mention of the Bheri, a word still 
used for the Nagara, or large kettle-drum, and also of the mridang (here rendered 
mutlinga ; cf. mathala, the Southern Indian name of the mridang). The same 
work contains mention of the vina and panava, the latter being a drum. And 
these same instruments, with the addition of one called dendima, are found in a 
contemporary work called Samaiifia-phale- sutta, and in the Vimana-vatthu also. 
The dendima is possibly the modern dinni, a small side-drum used by religious 
mendicants in Southern India at the present day. 

The materials of which musical instruments are made are for the most part 
those that are found readiest at hand in the country — bamboo, or some similar 
cane, and large gourds are much employed. These gourds are used for many 



' Sec Milindha Panha, Sacred books of the East, Vol. I., pafje 84. Vina is here translated mandoline ; 
also page 48. 5ff Buddhist Snttas. Oxford, 81. Translations of Mahaparambhana Sutta, paije 101 ; also 
of Samaiiiia-phale-sutta, i; 90, and of Viuiana-vattbu, § 81, 10. Two kinds of tala are mentioned in Dii;hal.. 
I, I J — i.e., metal tala and hand-tala. 'I'he word for hand-tiila is found in many Pali works. The thanks ol 
the Author are due to Professor T. W. Rhys Davids for much valuable hcl]) and information. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. loi 

purposes, and the best are trained in tlieir growth to the shape for which they 
are required. 

In the manufacture of certain instruments earthenware is employed ; the 
common countrv "blackwood" is largely used; in fact, whatever is found by the 
instrument makers, that from its natural shape, or the ease with which it can 
be worked, can be adapted with the least possible trouble to themselves, is 
readily seized upon, whether its acoustical properties are suitable or not, purity 
of tone being sacrificed to appearance. The natural consequence of this is that 
manv instruments are badlv put together in the first place ; faults in their 
construction are glossed over by outward ornamentation, and, from want of 
proper material, the tone, which should be the first consideration, is frequently 
sadly deficient in volume and quality. 

The reason why this is so appears to be that the manufacture of musical 
instruments is chiefly in the hands of ordinary carpenters, most of whom are 
totally ignorant of the most elementary principles of music, and who, even if 
they possessed the requisite knowledge, could seldom aftord either the time or 
monev to spend upon experiments tending to improve their instruments : their 
principal consideration seems to be quantity instead of quality. 

Most musicians therefore prefer to patch and mend their old instruments, 
even though it will be slightly detrimental to their tone, to procuring fresh ones 
of a quality of which they are doubtful, and which they cannot test practically 
before they make their choice. 

A musical instrument, to be of any real practical good, requires in its con- 
struction not only skilled labour, but an experimental knowledge on the part of the 
maker of the principles of acoustics; he must know of the best materials, and the 
best known methods of building up an instrument from these materials. Such 
knowledge as this can only be attained by much study and the experience of a 
regular apprenticeship to the art. All this is, of course, obtained easily enough 
in Europe, where there is a readv sale for good instruments, and instrument 
making is a trade profitable enough for a supply to be kept on hand. In 
India, where, until comparatively recent times, music has been an art almost 
neglected for some hundreds of years, it is clear that there has been little 
scope for instrument makers of any ability, the supply being always far in 
excess of the demand. 

The chief defect apparent in the construction of Indian instruments, besides 
what are mentioned above, is one which affects them all — viz., that without 
altering the tuning a change of keys is impossible. This may at first sight seem 
incongruous, for the vina is semitonic. But it must be remembered that the 

2C 



102 THE MUSIC OF SOUTIIERX IXniA. 

third and fourth strings of that instrument, though they pass over the finger-board, 
are seldom stopped, and such devices as shifts are absolutely unknown. There is 
Hkewise no method of tuning to any fixed standard of pitch. Willard, in speaking 
of this, makes the following observations : — "A drum or tabor, the sound of which 
is necessarily monotonous, is an ever attendant and inseparable companion to 
Indian songs, whether any instrument be present or not. Its sound is taken as 
tlic keynote, and all other instruments that mav be present and the voice are 
regulated by it. From this it appears that as long as the use of the drum or 
tabor is not laid aside there will be no necessity for change of keys, and 
the rhythmical nature of Indian music renders a liberal use of the drum 
more essential, in order to mark the time distinctly, than any other 
accompaniment." ^ 

Manv of our own instruments, such as are in use at the present day, have 
their prototypes still in existence in the East. 

The ancient Pali and Sanskrit treatises would appear to contain the earliest 
reliable description of any musical instruments, and from these it seems clear 
that those of most Asiatic nations were originally derived from the same source. 

The Persians still use an instrument called quanun, much like that of the 
same name found now in India — a kind of dulcimer, strung with gut or wire 
strings, and played upon by plectra fastened to the fingers of the performers. 
This is a development of the kattyayana-vina or shata-tantri {i.e., hundred- 
stringed) vina, as it was formerly called. This Persian quanun, the prototype 
of the mediaeval psaltery, afterwards became the santir, which has strings of 
wire in place of gut, and is played with two sticks, and in the West it eventually 
took the form of the dulcimer. Hence the origin of the complicated pianoforte 
of the present day can thus be traced to the Aryans. And so with many 
others. The violin, the flute, the oboe, the guitar, all have an Eastern origin. 
One of the earliest stringed instruments was called " pinaka," and had one 
string twanged by the fingers ; its invention is ascribed to the god Siva. 

The violin bow is claimed by the Hindus to have been invented by Rabana, 
King of Ceylon, who, according to tradition, lived five thousand 3-ears ago. 

The earliest instrument played with a bow was called rabanastra or 
rabanastrana. What this instrument was like is rather doubtful, but at the 
present time there exists in Ceylon a primitive instrument played with a bow, 
called "vinavah," which has two strings of different kinds: one made of a species 
of flax and the other of horsehair, which is the material also of the string of the 

' " A Treatise on the Music of Hindustan." Captain N. A. Willard. Calcutta, 1834. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERX I.XDIA. 103 

bow, which with bells attached to it is used as a fiddle-stick. The hollow part of 
this instrument is half a cocoa-nut shell polished, covered with the dried skin of a 
lizard, and perforated below. ° 

The vinavah is rarely met with except in the hands of strolling musicians, 
who support themselves by means of it. Whether this is the primitive rabanastra 
or not it is impossible to say, but it seems extremely probable that if not 
absolutely identical it bears at least a very strong resemblance to it. Another 
very ancient instrument which resembled the rabanastra was called amrita. 

Numbers of instruments still in use in India have not altered in the smallest 
particular their ancient forms. The vina, the tamburi or tamburu-vina, and the 
kinneri still remain just as they are described in the ancient books, even down to 
the very details of the carving with which they are adorned, so conservative are 
the people who use them of all connected with the art they hold to be so sacred. 
The peculiar shape of instruments of the viol and violin tribe appears to have a 
prototvpe among Indian instruments ; and this can be seen in the rabob, which is 
made with distinct upper, loicer, and middle bouts, and in a less degree in the 
sarangi, sarode, and chikara. 

The rebec, once popular in Europe, was a form of the rabob, brought to 
Spain by the Moors, who in turn had derived it from Persia and Arabia. 
Here again the Aryan origin is evident, the rabob being, according to old 
Sanskrit works, a form of vina. And it is still popular in the North of India and 
Afghanistan. 

The use of instruments of percussion of definite sonorousness, such as the 
harmonica, does not seem to have entered into Indian music at any time until 
quite of late years. 

But this is rather an open question, for the harmonicon of cups called 
Jalatharangini is by some ascribed to a very remote origin. 

Wind instruments, although perhaps of earlier invention than those with 
strings, are nevertheless looked upon as of secondary importance. Possibly this 
may have some reason in the fact that Brahmins are not allowed by their religious 
laws to use them, excepting only the flute blown by the nostrils, and one or two 
others of the horn and trumpet kind. And so men of low castes are employed 
as players of wind instruments. But all unite in ascribing to wind instruments 
a very high antiquity. The conch shell, still used in the daily temple ritual in 
almost every place in India, is said to have been first used by the god Krishna, 
and it is mentioned in the great epic of the Ramayana, where it is called 

' " An Account of the Interior of Ceylon and its Inhabitants." J. Davy, F.R.S. 



104 THE Mi'SIC OF SOUrilERX IXDIA. 

Devadata. \\'e ;ilso find it under the name of Goshringa, both in the 
Ramayana and the Mahabharata. 

The horn (s'ringa) is also said to be of Divine origin, and it is mentioned in 
the earHest writings. But the flute (murali) is still held to be peculiarly sacred, 
for this flute was the companion of the god Krishna in all his wanderings, and in 
Indian mythology this flute is looked upon with much the same veneration that 
the lyre was by the Greeks, and by Brahmins it is still used occasionally and 
blown by the nostrils. In all sculptures and pictures the god Krishna is repre- 
sented as standing cross-legged plaving the flute. 

Reed instruments, although doubtless of a very remote origin, appear to have 
been invented at a later period than instruments of the flute species, and their use 
is, as has been stated, confined to either low caste Hindus or Mahomedans. For 
the Indian reed instruments are mostlv harsh and wild, far too powerful and shrill to 
be used in concert with the delicate vina or sweet tamburi, and so their use is 
chiefly confined to out-of-door performances, where their sound is better heard 
and where they become fit adjuncts to the Nakkera Khaneh or band already 
described. 

Instruments with double reeds appear to have been originall}- brought from 
India, and the double reed is found in the primitive oboes used there as well as in 
Persia, Arabia, and Egypt. There seems to be no trace of the single beating veed 
ever having been known in India, but the single //'ft' reed is found in the bagpipe 
of the countrv. Indeed, the bagpipe would itself seem to have an Eastern origin, 
and although its use in Southern India and the Deccan is chiefly confined to a 
drone-bass, yet in the Punjab and Afghanistan pipes are sometimes found containing 
both drone and chanter. And I have heard them played with a dexterity that 
would do credit to a Highland piper. 

The pungi, now used almost entirely by snake charmers, is said to have once 
been blown by the nostrils and called " Nasajantra." 

The jew's-harp (murchang) is mentioned in most of the Sanskrit works 
upon musical instruments, and its use is common all over India. 

The use of the gong and bell are universal, and need no particular description. 
The gong — called sometimes Tala, but more generally Ghari — is found in almost 
all Hindu temples, and is used both in the daily ritual and also to note the hours 
of the day. It is usually about a foot in diameter and J-inch in thickness ; it is 
made of bell metal, and sounded by a wooden mallet. Indeed, the tone more 
nearly resembles that of a bell, and has certainly nothing in common with the 
Chinese gong. In Southern India a light instrument of this kind called Jagatay 
or Semakalam is found, which is sounded bv a curved bone striker. The small 



THE MUSIC OF SOi'THERX IXDIA. 105 

bell — called Ghante — is used in every Hindu temple, and is familiar to everyone. 
Bells of anv size are not known in India, but the antiquity of the bell in India has 
been proved bevond doubt ; specimens of curious old bells have been discovered 
in cromlechs and cairns in different parts of India.*^ And among the Todas, the 
aborigines of the Niliri Hills, the bell is still an object of especial veneration." 

The little ankle bells used by Nautch dancers are called Gllnguru or 
Gajelu, and are tied in strings round the ankles. They produce " a faint clashing 
sound as the feet move in steps, which mingles not unmusically with the dance 
music or songs which accompany the dance ; and they not only serve to mark 
the time, but to keep the dancer or singer in perfect accord with the musicians. 
These bells are the svmbols of their profession with all dancers and singers, 
and to some extent are held sacred. No dancer ties them on his or her ankles 
before performance without touching his or her forehead and eyes with them, and 
saving a short prayer or invocation to a patron saint or divinity — Hindu or 
Mahomedan. Nor is it possible, after a female singer or dancer has once been 
invested with them — a ceremonv which is very solemnlv periormed and attended 
with much cost^to abandon the professional life so adopted. He, or she, lias 
tied on the bells, is even a proverb to signify that the person alluded to has 
devoted himself or herself to a purpose from which it is impossible to recede. 
Strings of these small bells are also used for horses and tied round the 
fetlocks of prancing chargers, with gay tinsel ribbons or pieces of cloth ; also 
round the necks of lap dogs ; and some of a large size round the necks of 
favourite plough or cart bullocks. The latter are identical with sleigh bells. 
No post runner in India travels without a string of them tied on the end of 
his pole on which is slung the leather bag he carries, and on a still night 
their clashing sound, besides being heard at a great distance, serves to scare 
away wild beasts and to cheer the runner on his lonely path."" 

And here it may be well to mention two instruments sometimes met with in 
Southern India — viz., the cup-harmonica and the Gatha. 

The Jalatharangini'-' is a harmonicon of cups of porcelain or earthenware 
tuned to the particular scale required by means of pouring in more or less water. 
It is played with two thin sticks, covered with felt or tipped with cork ; and 
in company with other instruments the contrast of tone that its use effects is not 
unpleasing. The Septasvarab, called also Septaghantika, or Indian Glockenspiel, 

«" Bells of the Church." H. T. EUacombe. Exeter, 1872. 
' " A Phrenologist amongst the Todas." Colonel Marshall. London, 1S73. 
' " Proceedings of the Royal Irish ."Academy." Vol. IX., Part i. 

' This instrument is said to be mentioned in a Sanskrit work— the name of u liicli the author has bccu 
imable to ascertain — believed to have been written about a.d. 700. 

2 D 



io6 THE MUSIC OF SOUTIIERX IXDIA. 

is somewhat similar, but more musical ; it is made either of metal plates or bells, 
struck with a small fclt-covercd hammer. The employment of both instruments 
is rare. 

ihe Ciatha resembles a \iu-<^c spherical jar or "chatty" in shape, and is 
largely used by Telegu musicians as an accompaniment to the yina. It is about 
1 8 inches in height, and has a yery small aperture and short neck, which is held 
downwards when it is in use. It is beaten with the hands and wrists, much like 
the drum called mathala, of which it takes the place, and the players manage 
to produce sounds of different pitch by striking it in different places. The 
performer usually sits cross-legged, and holds the gatha between his thighs, 
striking it with his finger tips, flat of his hand, or fleshy part of his wrist. 

Players upon the gatha display great dexterity, and often yary their perform- 
ance by throwing the instrument up into the air and catching it again, beating 
it as they do so : this they keep up for almost any length of time. At the 
conclusion of the piece they let it fall into their hands (or upon the ground, so as 
to break with noise) at the exact conclusion of the measure (tala), which they 
neyer for a moment lose. 

In some performances it is not unusual for the player upon the yina to 
change the measure suddenly, as often as he wills, so that the gatha player may 
better sho\y his dexterity. 

Instruments of the trumpet kind — in which tones are produced by the lips 
yibrating within a cup-shaped mouthpiece — appear to be of yery great antiquity, 
for mention is made of them in both the great Hindu epics — the Mahambharata 
and the Ramayana. There are large curyed horns which in tone much resemble 
the Alp-horns of Switzerland. There are both straight and bent trumpets. The 
method of making an instrument of this kind more portable by being turned back, 
but without shortening its length of tubing, would seem to be yery ancient. It 
is difficult to describe any definite scale for these instruments, for they are, with 
one or two exceptions, rarel}- used by any but men of low caste, and their proper 
compass is not emplo\ed or understood. The great similarity between the shape 
of the modern trumpet and the Indian tuturi is yery striking, especially when it is 
remembered that this shape has not been copied from the European instrument, 
but has existed in India from remote a<res. 

Indeed, so many points of resemblance might be noticed, and the deyelop- 
ment through ages of so many instruments traced, that it would be inadyisable 
to enlarge this chapter by so wide a digression from the subject. 

Indian musical instruments are usually classified under the following four 
designations, just as they were by Bharata two thousand years ago : — 



THE MUSIC UF SUUTHERX IX 1)1 A. 



107 



I. Tata-yantra — Comprising all stringed instruments. 
II. Shusira-yantra — Comprising all instruments of percussion (not 
being covered with skin or parchment, such as drums), and includes 
cymbals, gongs, bells, castanets, iSrc. 
III. Ghana-yantra — Comprising all instruments covered with skins, 

such as drums, tabors, &c. 
IV. Anuddha-yantra — Comprising wind instruments of all kinds. 
In different parts of India there is of course a preference for particular 
instruments, but it is impossible to assign definite districts to them, as all kinds 
arc to be found more or less throughout the country. 

In the following pages an endeavour has been made to give as far as 
possible some mention of all these instruments, together with the names bv which 
thev are known in different parts, and descriptions of those in most common use. 

If details are given sometimes which at first sight are apparently 
unnecessary, it has been done because in similar cases of musical investigations, 
if many things which appeared to be of little moment at the time had not been 
left unnoticed, much interesting light would have been thrown upon sexxral 
c|uesti()ns of great interest which are still involved in darkness. 

In the tunings for stringed instruments given later, the position of the 
strings is as if the instrument were held upright, body nearest the ground, with 
the finger-board facing the reader. It is to be noted that in instruments of the 
vina kind the order of the strings is reversed from that of sitars and the like, 
where the first string or chanterelle is always on the right. 




A Player on the Karnatik Sitar. 



PLATE I. 



A BIX PLAYER. 

THIS plate shows the position of a player upon the Bin or Vina^" of the 
North of India. The vina of the South, described in the next plate, 
is sometimes called the Rudra vina, in distinction to the bin or Mahati 
vina. As will be seen, this is a fretted instrument, the frets being arranged at 
semitonic intervals. The tuning differs from that of the Southern vina, and two 
gourd resonators take the place of the w^ooden pear-shaped body. It is worthy of 
note that an instrument of this description was described by Mersenne in 1636." 

The average total length of the instrument is 3 feet 7 inches, in which case 
the dimensions are as follows : — 

The first gourd is fixed at 10 inches from the top, and the second about 
2 feet iij inches. 

The gourds are usually verv large, about 14 inches in diameter, and each 
has a round piece cut out of the bottom to act as a sound hole. 

The finger-board is aij} inches in length and about 3 inches wide, and upon 
it are placed the frets, exactly in the same manner as in the vina, and at the same 
semitonic intervals. 

The frets are nineteen to twenty-two in number, that nearest the nut usually 
being J -inch above the finger-board, and that at the other extremity about J-inch, 
the decrease gradual. 

'" This instrviment is very fully described as " The Indian Lyre." " Asiatic Researches." Vol. I. 

The bin has been described by Mr. Carl Engel as "the vina of the Indus"; this is, however, an 
error on his part, it being but a form, and far from the best form, of that instrument, popular chiefly 
because of its comparatively low cost. Drawings of this instrument will be found in his " Musical 
Instruments," in " Asiatic Researches " above-mentioned, and in Hipkins and Gibb's " Musical Instruments." 

" '• Harmonie Universelle." Fr. Mersenne. Paris, 1636. 

2 E 



no 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



The strings arc seven in number, four of which pass over the frets, the 
remainder being side strings, placed two on the left side and one upon the right. 
The instrument is tuned as follows : — 



i 



Left side. 



^ 



^ 



Finger-board. 



Right side. 



^a 



but a very much more common tuning is- 



i r i l u^ 



^ 



^1 



the wire X upon the right side being tuned to either Ga (E) or Dha (A), according 
to the requirement of the raga performed. 

The strings upon the left side and the two highest upon the finger-board are 
usually steel, the remainder brass or silver. 

The instrument is held over the left shoulder, the upper gourd resting upon 
it, and the lower gourd on the right knee. 

The frets are stopped with the left hand, the little finger of which is used 
occasionally to strike the side string on the left side. 

The strikes are made by the right hand in a similar way to that employed in 
the sitar, except that the tivo first fingers are armed with wire plectra. 

The notes are rapidly reiterated in the bin as well as in the sitar by the 
plectra being passed backwards and forwards across the string ; this produces a 
kind of sostcntito. 

The chief peculiarity of this instrument, as will be remarked, is the tuning, 
which employs additional intervals to that of the Southern vina, and so renders 
the instrument less confined in its modulation. The tone is rather thinner than 
and not so pleasing as that of the vina of the South, on account of the greater 
tendency of the strings to jangle. The instrument is nevertheless very 
popular, and when found in Southern India is used chiefly by Hindustani 
musicians. Instruments of this kind are sometimes made with moveable frets, 
like those of a sitar, in consequence of the greater facility with which they can be 
played by less experienced performers. 

An illustration of a bin of this latter kind is shown in Plate IV. 



PLATE II. 



SOUTHERN INDIAN VINA. SMALL SITAR. 



THE instrument to the left of the plate represents the Vina in common use m 
Southern India. Though in Northern India and the Deccan the use of the 
vina, or bin, is restricted to professional musicians or skilful performers, 
we do not find this to be the case in the South. This instrument is taught in the 
schools in many places, and is a very favourite one with amateurs of the higher 
classes. The specimen here represented is about 250 years old, and is from the 
collection at the Tanjore palace. The delicacy of the carving and the great 
wealth of decoration bestowed upon this instrument are remarkable, and prove 
it to have belonged to some very distinguished personage — probably to one ot 
the Maharajahs of Tanjore. 

The vina is a stringed instrument, with frets, played with the fingers, or 
rather finger-nails, somewhat in the same manner as a mandoline or guitar. 

Its construction, however, renders it for purposes of melody a far more perfect 
instrument than either of the latter, and although its tones are not so full and 
rich, its compass is larger, and it is, in skilled hands, capable of producing a 
much greater variety of effects. 

Its tone, judged from a European standard, is rather thin, but curiously 
soft and plaintive. It is somewhat like that of the Tyrolese zither, which, 
however, it exceeds in fulness, and it is capable of infinitely more expression. 

The vina has seven strings, four pass over the frets (twenty-four in number), 
three shorter strings are placed at the side of the finger-board, and are employed 
chiefly as a kind of accompaniment or to mark the time used by the performer. 



THE MUSIC OF SUCTHERX LXDIA. 

The four large strings are termed saranis and are named thus : — 

Sarani .... ist, thinnest .... steel. 

Panchami .... 2nd, 

Mandaram .... 3rd, .... brass or silver. 

Anumandaram 4th, thickest .... ,, ,, 

The three side strings are termed pakha-saranis and are of steel. 
The names of the various parts of the instrument are as follows : — 

(a.) Kayi or bod}', formed of thin wood and hollowed out of the solid. 
(/'.) Gvantu, a projecting ledge, often of ivory, separating the body 

from the stem. 
{c.) Langaru,'" metal fastenings which secure the strings to the attach- 
ment. These fastenings have rings sliding upon them which can 

be used in tuning to alter the pitch slightly, without turning the 

tuning pegs. 
{d.) Dhandi, neck, made hollow. 
{c.) Yeddapalaka, or belly. Small sound holes, in circles of about 2 

inches diameter, are placed on each side of the strings, about i 

inch above the bridge. 
(/.) Dhandipalaka, a piece of thin wood covering the hollow of the 

neck underneath the frets. 
(g.) Maruvapalaka, two ledges, each about ^-inch in height, projecting 

from the dhandipalaka and to which the frets are secured. 
(h.) Metlu, or frets, formed of "half-round" bars of brass or silver 

about A-inch thick. 
(/.) Cupe, a cup or socket of some metal into which the hurra or 

calabash is fastened ; these cupes are often of silver and richly 

chased. 
(/.) Burra, or calabash, a kind of hollow gourd attached to the under- 
side of the neck, near the head, to increase the volume of sound. 
(/I'.j Pallumanu, or nut, a piece of ivory over which the strings pass, 

placed between the pegs and the finger-board. 
(/.) Mogulu, small ivory pegs answering the purpose of nuts, over which 

the side strings pass. 
(;;;.) Gurram, bridge. 
(/).) Bhirtu, tuning pegs. 



strings are sometimes secured to the ;ittac-liiiicnt directly, as described for those of the taiiilniri. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



113 



The burra or calabash is secured to the neck by means of a nut and 
screw, and is detachable at will. 

The instrument is tuned in one of the three ways following: — ^^ 



i 



In " Panchama s'ruti." 



In " Madhyama s'ruti." (i) 



In " Madhyama s'ruti." (2) 



^ 



-•- -•- 



^Pi 



^ 



Side strings. Finger-board. Side strings. Finger-board. 



Side strings. 



Finger-board. 



The construction of the bridge is peculiar and deserves notice. 

A wooden arc supports a slab of wood i by 2^ inches. A resinous cement 
is poured upon this, and a piece of metal passing underneath the second, 
third, and fourth strings is laid above and manipulated until the strings 
produce a clear tone free from all buzz or twang ; a wet cloth is then 
applied, or a little cold water poured over the upper surface, so as to harden the 
cement. Under the first string a similar piece of metal, in this case of a 
superior quality- — either polished steel or bell metal — is fi.xed in the same way. 

This process is considered very important, as the least carelessness aflects 
the tone of the instrument and gives it a most unpleasant twang. 




No. I is the thin string. 
,, 2, very slightly thicker. 
,, 3, thicker again. 
,. 4, thicker again. 



No. 



The same gauge as 
No. I. 



"A native musician would say for Panchama s'ruti, "Pa, Sa, Pa, Sa"; and for Madhyama s'ruti, 
" Sa, Pa, Sa, Pa " ; hence the change of keys is shown. 

2 F 



114 THE MUSIC OF SOCTIIERX IX 1)1 A. 

The side string bridge is secured to the main bridge and the belly of the 
instrument and is made entirely of metal ; it consists of an arc of brass with a 
projecting rim upon the side nearest the attachment. 

The strings pass across the flat of the arc through three saw cuts in the 
rim. Pieces of silk or quill termed "jivalam," placed beneath the strings and 
the bridge, are occasionally employed to correct anv inclination to buzzing. 

Most instruments of this description require steel strings of a quality 
specially made for the purpose. The best strings are made at Channapatna in 
Mysore, or Bareilly in the North, where the process of manufacture is kept secret 
and is in the hands of a particular caste. 

The price giv^en for such strings is high, on an average Rs. 6 for a sir 
of twenty-four rupees weight, when sold wholesale. 

The fretting of a vina requires great care, and most musicians prefer to 
fi.\ their own frets. 

The frets are tixed to the maruvapalaka by means of small spikes, and 
additionally secured by a resinous cement poured in between them, and moulded 
neatlv as it hardens. 

When finished the finger-board resembles a ladder, there being a space 
varying from ^-inch at the head to 2 inches at the end nearest the bridge 
between the frets and the dhandipallaka, or piece of wood covering the 
hollow stem. 

The vina is held in one of the three following positions : — 

(a.) The performer sits cross-legged upon the ground, and holds the 
vina so that the calabash almost touches the left thigh, the left 
arm passing round the stem so that the fingers rest easilv upon 
the trets. The body of the instrument is upon the ground, partially 
supported by the right thigh. 

(/;.) The calabash almost touches the left thigh as before, but the right 
knee is bent upwards, the body of the instrument being in front 
and resting upon the ground, touching the right leg, which prevents 
it slipping away. 

(r.) 1 he performer sits cross-legged upon the ground as before, but 
holds the body of the instrument in his lap, the finger-board 
being vertical. 

The method ol' pla\ing upon the vina is rather different from that of other 
Indian instruments. The left hand is emploved to stop the strings on the 
frets, the right hand to strike with. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHEKX IXDIA. 115 

Strikes are called " mehtu," and are of three kinds, \i/.. : — 

Kutra-mehtu. 
Toda — mehtu. 
(jotu — mehtu. 

The right hand is employed thus : the wrist is laid almost upon the edge 
of the bellv, and the hand is slightly arched upwards ; the Hrst and second fingers 
are above, and are used to strike the large strings, all strikes being made 
with the nail doiV)iivards. Players upon the vina purposely allow the nails of 
the right hand to grow rather long, for this instrument is never played 
with plectra. The side strings are sounded by the third and fourth fingers of 
the right hand moved itpi^ards. 

The first exercise that a pupil learns is to strike one of the large strings 
(downwards) simultaneously with one of the side strings (upwards), a more 
difficult feat to accomplish than might be at first supposed. 

These simple strikes are called gotu mehtu. The kutra mehtu is 
accomplished b\- striking the same string twice — first with the forefinger and 
then with the second finger — so as to produce a repetition of the same sound. 

The toda mehtu, or etouft'e, is made by striking a string with the 
forefinger and then gently stopping the vibration with the second finger so 
as to produce a staccato sound. 

The left hand is used for all work upon the frets. 

As was the case with the lute, the melody is chiefly played upon the 
first string — the chanterelle, in fact — which is commonly stopped by the first 
and second fingers placed together. 

The fourth string is stopped by the thumb — the others, when required, by 
the middle and third fingers. 

The least difference of pressure upon the frets causes a variation in the 
pitch, of which use is made in all grace and embellishments. 

A species of transient shake stvled " rekhu " is t)f frequent occurrence ; 
it is produced bv the string when stopped being slightly pressed, and at the 
same time pulled out of the straight line. This will raise the pitch to any 
degree required, not exceeding a major third, beyond which it is found that the 
string usualh' breaks. 

The jK'rformer can thus produce graces of all kinds, embracing intervals less 
than semitones, which can be clearly distinguished by the ear. 

Another effect called " rava " is produced by the string being stopped 
upon one fret and being beaten bv a finger upon the next fret above. 



ii6 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN IXDLl. 



This, when combined with rel^hu, adds considerably to the capabiHty 
of the instrument, and it must be remembered that the string can be kept in 
a state of vibration very much longer than in the guitar, owing to its thinness 
in proportion to its length. 

The use of glisse, as with the guitar, is frequent. 

The small sitar shown on the right of the plate is of Deccan manufacture. 
It is ornamented prettilv with ivory carving, and the body of the instrument is 
formed from a cocoa-nut. Sitars of this kind are much used by native ladies, and 
their tone is singularly sweet and plaintive, though, of course, not so powerful as 
that of the larger sitars. The method of arranging the frets and of playing the 
instrument is preciselv as that described for the larger sitar in Plate III. 




.\nna liiiAKruRi: (a Sitar flayer in thi; .si;kvice of 
H.H. THE Thakore Sahib of Wadhwan). 




'1 



PLATE III. 



SUR-S'RINGARA. large SITAR. 

THE instrument shown upon the right of the plate is the Sitar." This 
specimen has been adorned with paintings, representing the avatars or 
appearances of the god Vishnu, and is the work of a Poona maker. 
The sitars commonly found are only different from this in that the bodies 
are unpainted. 

The sitar is called also vSundari, and is perhaps the commonest of all the 
stringed instruments of India, being much admired. Its use in Southern India 
is not so frequent as in the Deccan and farther North, and is chiefly confined iu 
those who practise the Hindustani in preference to the Karnatik system of 
music. 

In general appearance the sitar is not unlike the tamburi, described 
later. 

The finger-board is about three inches wide, the frets are of brass or silver, 
eighteen (sometimes sixteen) in number, and flatly elliptical ; they are secured to 
the finger-board by pieces of gut passing underneath — this arrangement admits 
of their being shifted so as to produce intervals of any particular scale (that), 
hence the capability of the instrument is naturally limited. 



" The invention of the sitar is commonly credited to Ameer Khusru, of Delhi, in the twelfth century. 

Captain Willard states that the instrument derives its name from si, a-, signifying in Persian three- 

and tar ,lj, a string, as that number was commonly used. 

2 G 



ii8 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



The body of the sitar is usually of gourd, cut in half in the direction of the 
core, with a belly of thin wood pierced with a certain number of sound holes fixed 
upon it. 

The tone of medium-sized sitars is considered preferable to that of large 
ones. 

The nut, or ledge, over which the strings pass on their way to the pegs 
from the frets is peculiar, and is made double ; that nearest the pegs having 
holes through which the strings pass, and that nearest the frets having simply 
small notches. The number of strings varies, instruments being made with from 
three to seven strings. 

They are tuned as follows — 



For three strings. For four. 



For five. 



For six. 



For seven. 



i 



£z 



I I * - 



w 



These tunings are considered to be " Panchama s'ruti." If the G strings be 
lowered a tone the sitar will be in " Madhyama s'ruti." 

The instrument is played by means of a plectrum of wire placed upon the 
forefinger, the thumb being usually pressed firmly upon the edge of the belly, 
so that the position of the right hand shall change as little as possible. 

Sitars, called Taraffedar, with sympathetic strings underaeath those played 
upon, are sometimes found. 

The sitar is fairly easy to learn, and much can be made of it by experienced 
performers ; but there is a peculiarity in its tone when played at all loud 
which greatly mars the effect, the tender charm and colouring of that of the vina 
being completely absent. To be heard with advantage a sitar should be at a 
little distance from the listener, the unpleasant jangle of its strings will not 
then be so apparent, and the melody will be more clear. 

According to the common custom, the methods of shifting the frets are five. 
The \\\'t methods, called thats, are as follows. These thats have no names, 
but are usually known from the ragas that are commonly played upon 
them : — 



THE MUSIC OF SOUrilERX IXDIA. 



119 



I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


b 






F| 










G 




a: 






A 









B? 


i 




B 






1 


1 


^ ! 1 






D? 








D 




1 






Er 




) 






]• 










1' 




i 







H 








G 








A:^ '' 




A 






1 








B 








c 










d: 






D 








Et^ 










E 


.._ 






1" 




1 



I20 THE Mr SIC OF SOUTIIEKX IXJJIA. 

Nos. I, 2, 4, 5, 6 are the arrangements of frets in different thats for an 
eighteen-fretted sitar. No. 3 is for a twenty-four fretted sitar, in which there is 
no need to alter the frets. 

The intervals given represent those upon the F string or chanterelle. 

In Taraffedar sitars the sympathetic strings are tuned to the intervals 
obtained by the F string, and the frets over their respective nuts. All 
instruments with moveable frets (other than sitars) are arranged according 
to one of the above thats. The sympathetic strings are arranged in various 
ways, but very commonly thus — G, A, B, C, d, e, f, g, a, b, some of the 
intervals being flattened or sharpened according to the raga played. 

Some sitars are so constructed that the body is almost flat, instead of pear- 
shaped. This is accomplished by cutting the gourd body in a peculiar manner, 
so that the calix shall be at the back of the instrument. To such sitars 
the name Kachwar is given. Some people give the name Kachapi-vina to them. 
A rather uncommon instrument of this description is called the Surbehar, which 
is merely a large-sized sitar or kachapi-vina, played with a steel plectrum, and 
specially used for the performance of alapas or ragas. The body is of wood, 
with a flat back, and there are usually sympathetic strings attached. The tone 
is rich and mellow like that of the vina, but the large size of the instrument 
renders its use fatiguing, while the cost is very high. It is tuned, of course, as 
the ordinary sitar. 

But besides the sitar just described, there is another form of the instrument 
to be met with in Southern India. This might be called the Karnatik-sitar, and 
it differs from the ordinary sitar in that it is confined in its intonation and is 
generally made with a much thinner and shorter neck. Its capability is, of 
course, much less. It is usually shaped somewhat like a tamburi, the body of 
the instrument being made either of gourd or of wood. The manner of stringing 
is peculiar. The first and second strings onlv pass over frets, which are about 
^-inch wide, and raised from the finger-board ; these strings are tuned in 
unison, and thev are placed verv much nearer together than the other strings. 
The third string is tuned in unison with the first, but does not pass over frets. 
The fourth string passes round a small ivory bead about half way up the 
finger-board, whence it passes obliquely under the strings to its tuning peg. 
The fifth string is placed in a similar way, the ivory peg being in this case a 
little nearer to the bridge. The sixth and seventh strings pass straight up 
the finger-board in the ordinary manner. \\'ith the exception of the seventh, 
which is of brass, the strings are of steel, and are secured either as those of 
• the tamburi or vina. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 121 

The frets are of wood, with an upper edge of metal, only about J-inch 
in width, and fixed to the finger-board ; the strings cannot therefore be pulled so 
as to produce " rekhu " without their coming off the frets. The number of 
frets is usually fourteen, placed at the intervals of the diatonic major scale ; 
occasionally there are two extra frets at semitonic intervals, placed between the 
third and fourth, and tenth and eleventh. Karnatik sitars are sometimes found 
fretted throughout in semitonic intervals, the number of frets being the same 
as in a vina. 

The instrument is tuned thus — 



i 



^ 



:i 



-*- 

In the ordinary instruments the noise made by the accompaniment frequently 
drowns the air, the strings having a strong tendency to twang. But the tone of 
these Karnatik sitars, when properly made, is solt and sweet, and, being confined 
in intonation, more nearly resembles that of the mandoline than any other Indian 
instrument. 

The Sur-s'ringara — shown upon the left of the plate — is somewhat like the 
rabob in shape, but with a wooden belly, and played with an iron plectrum. 
There are, as a rule, two frets only, the finger-board below the frets being 
generally of metal, so that the fingers may slide easily over it. The length of 
the instrument is about 4 feet, and its tone is rich and mellow, somewhat like 
that of the pizzicato notes of the violoncello. It is tuned thus, and has usually 
seven sympathetic strings tuned to the intervals of the raga in which the 
performer is playing ; the melody string is that upon the right, tuned to G : — 



i 



m-- 



2 H 




A 




m^ 




M 


jsB i 


jQ 




9 




1 


f l^rn^ 






4 


lrr<W 








•"'il/M J 






4 


•'finJ 








rlnTj 




J 


^ 


Fi f'^^l 






^> 


loti 




ie 


1 


ri-i 


^^ % 


4 


1 


ih7 


H^ 


[ 


J 


IPL^Ssiff ^ 


h3A 


' 


ra 


11 


«j 



T 



PLATE I\'. 



BIN-SITAR. TAUS. 



HE instrument to the left of this plate is the Bin-sitar, in outward appear- 
ance very similar to the bin previously described. It differs, however, in 
that the frets are moveable and are arranged precisely as given for those 
of the sitar. The strings are arranged as those of the bin, and therefore reversed 
in order from those of the sitar. The Bin-sitar is not a common instrument ; 
indeed, the few specimens that I have met with have all been in Poona and the 
neitjhbourhood. The tuning is like that of the bin. 

The instrument to the right of the plate is the Taiis or Esrar. Sometimes 
this instrument is called Mohur. It is merely a form of sitar with moveable frets. 
The Talis is not much esteemed by any but Nautch musicians, and it is rarely to 
be met with out of Upper India. As its name implies, it is usually shaped like a 
peacock. Its body is painted like that of the bird, and to the lower end a 
wooden neck and head, covered with feathers, are attached. It is sometimes 
played with a bow. 

The tuning varies slightly, but never employs other intervals than the tonic, 
fourth, and fifth, and occasionally the third. There are usually sympathetic 
strings attached, tuned to the intervals of the raga played. 




F 



PLATE V. 



sArinda. sarangi. 



THE Sarangi, or fiddle of India, shown to the rij^ht of this plate, 
is usually strung with three strings of thick gut and played with 
a bow. Sometimes a fourth string of wire called Inntj is added. 
The fingers of the left hand, in stopping the strings, do not press them 
down upon the finger-board, but press against them at the side in all the 
positions. The tone of the sarangi more nearly resembles that of the viola 
than any European instrument, and when well played there is a charm about 
the instrument that is not easily forgotten. The sarangi is frequently employed 
tt) plav a sort of obbligato to a song, particularly in theatrical performances and 
by Nautch companies. There are generally in instruments of this kind fifteen 
sympathetic strings of wire tuned chromaticall}'. The instrument is made from 
a single block of wood hollowed out, and has a parchment belly. When in use 
it is held vertically, head uppermost. Curiously enough, as was the case with the 
violin in England at one time, the instrument is considered to be rather vulgar, 
and hence musicians, though thev admire and like it much, will usually employ 
either a low caste Hindu or a Mussulman to play it. The tuning is as follows: — 




4321 

The string marked x is of brass, tuned either to E or F, according to the 

requirements of the raga played — this string is called lui'uj. 

The illustration shows the instrument as commonly found in the South of 

India and the Deccan. The resin for the bow is ingeniouslv placed in the head. 

2 1 



126 THE MUSIC OF SOVTHF.Ry fXDIA. 

The bow for the Saranj^i is tlie same as that shown in Plate IV. for the Tails. In 
Upper India and the Punjali a shtjlitly different form of the Sarangi is found, and 
is ijenerallv more highly decorated and with a differently shaped head. 

The three-stringed instrument to the left of the plate is the Sarinda, a bowed 
instrument common in Bengal. The decoration and carving are characteristic, 
although rough. The Sarinda is not a very high-class instrument, but is very 
popular with the lower classes. The tuning is like that of the chikara, and the 
strings are of cut or silk. The bow used with it is that shown. The chief 
peculiaritv of the Sarinda consists in the way that the belly, which is of 
parchment, is put on. As will be seen by the plate, it is made to cover only the 
lower part of the body, leaving the upper half quite open. 



PLATE VI. 



RABOB. CHIKARA. SARANGI, 



THE Sarangi found in Upper India differs slightly from that of the South 
and the Deccan. The head is generally carved to represent the neck of 
a swan, and the body is rounded instead of being square ; the number of 
sympathetic strings, too, is often less. The beautiful specimen shown in the 
upper part of the plate is in the possession of Mr. C. Purdon Clark, C.S.I., 
through whose kindness Mr. Gibb has been enabled to make this representation. 
The instrument is ornamented with ivory and inlaid with numbers of small 
turquoises. The tuning and the method of playing the Northern Sarangi do not 
differ from that of the instrument described under the preceding plate. 

The Chikara — shown to the right of the plate — is somewhat similar to the 
sarangi, but smaller, and is used by common people. It has three strings of gut 
or horsehair and five sympathetic strings of wire. The tuning is 



i 



xr 

3 



commonly, or else like that of the sarangi. The sympathetic strings are generally 
tuned to G, A, B, c, d ; (any of these intervals being made i? or $ as required). 

The other instrument in the plate is the Rabob, which is found in almost all 
Mahomedan countries, and in various places differs only in shape. The Indian 
Rabob is principally used in the Punjab and Upper India; its use in other parts 
is confined to Mahomedans. The instrument is made of wood, with a belly of 
parchment. In general there are four strings — three of gut and one of brass ; 
the two upper strings are sometimes doubled and tuned alike, in which case, 



I2S 



THE MUSIC OF SOrrUERX IX DLL 



of course, the instrument has six strings. Sympathetic strings of metal are 
usually attached at the side. Four or hve catgut frets at semitonic intervals are 
sometimes found. The instrument is played with a wooden plectrum, and rarely 
with a bow as a sarangi. The Rabob is a handsome instrument, and when well 
played is verv pleasing. Its tone rather resembles that of the banjo. 
It is tuned thus — 



i 



E^ 



The specimen here shown is from Afghanistan. As usually found in India, 
the Rabob is slightly different, and is made with a rather larger body, the lower 
part of which is wider in proportion than that of the illustration ; but in the 
Punjab a preference appears to be given for the Afghan form of the instrument. 



PLATE VII. 

TAMBURI. YEKTAR. PERSIAN SITARA. 

THE Tamburi shown to the left of the plate is used as a common accom- 
paniment to singing, the strings are never stopped, but are alwaj-s 
struck open by the fingers, which in this case are not armed with 
plectra. In outer form the Tamburi much resembles the vina, but is less 
complicated, having no frets or calabash affixed to the stem ; and it is employed 
for accompaniments only. 

There are four strintrs tuned thus — 



^- 



4321 

The first, second, and third are of steel, the fourth of brass ; the steel 
strings are similar to those of the vina. The Tamburi has no side strings ; the 
tuning pegs are placed differently to those of the vina ; those of the first and 
second strings being placed at the side, as in a violoncello ; and those of the 
second and third strings being placed at right angles to the centre of the head 
as in a banjo or peghead guitar. 

The bridge is moveable, and is entirely of wood or ivory, no metal being 
employed in its fitting. The tone of a Tamburi is slightly buzzing, and to 
procure this result pieces of quill or silk, termed jivnla, are placed between 
the bridge and strings, and manipulated until the desired effect is obtained. 

The nut is deeper than in the vina, the strings passing through holes 
instead of slits. In many tamburis there is a contrivance called tekkah, resembling 

2 K 



I30 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN LXDIA. 

in action the capo-tasto of a t^uitar, slidint;" on the fin<^er-board, and b}' means of 
it the pitch of tlie instrument can be immediately altered to any degree required 
by the performer. 

The strings are secured directly to the attachment, which is a narrow ledge 
fixed to the body, instead of to langarus as sometimes is the case in the vina. 
In place of langarus, and for the purpose of assisting in tuning, there are beads 
called pusalu, threaded upon the strings between the bridge and the attach- 
ment to which they are secured. These beads pushed down in the direction of 
the attachment act like a wedge between the belly and the strings, and thus 
stretching the strings serve to alter their pitch as required. This contrivance is 
found in many Indian instruments. 

The method of fastening the strings to the attachment is worthy of note, and 
is as follows. The string is bent round the attachment and passed upwards 
through one of the holes ; it is then bent round itself and passed back through 
the same hole when it is drawn tight, and the spare portion, if necessary, cut off. 




The belly of the instrument is usually slightly convex, andthere are small circles 
of sound holes cut like those of the vina. When played the Tamburi is always held 
upright, the body resting upon the ground. The tamburis of the Southern parts 
of India are generally made with wooden bodies, beautifully carved and 
ornamented with ivory, as in the illustration ; farther North they are found with 
bodies of gourd. Some of the finest instruments of this kind are made at Tanjore, 
where their manufacture has been made a subject of special study, and large 
prices are frequently paid for them. 

All instruments of this kind are called Tamburis, and many varieties may 
be found ; one kind frequently met with is made smaller and with a curved head 
like that of the vina, and is used by mendicant singers. 

Those of the kind described are used only by musicians and are styled 
" Dasiri Tamburi." 

The Yektar, or Tuntuni as it is sometimes called, shown in the centre of the 
plate, can hardly be called an instrument at all, since it has only one string 
and no frets. 



THE MUSIC OF SOi'THERN INDIA. 131 

It is made from a piece of bamboo, to the under side of which a hirge gourd 
or hollow cylinder of wood is attached, one end being closed by a piece of parch- 
ment. In the centre of the parchment there is a hole, through which the string 
is passed and tied in a knot to prevent its slipping back. 

The Yektar is often used by mendicants, and is twanged from time to time 
as an accompaniment to their monotonous chanting. In villages and country 
districts in the Deccan and Central Provinces this instrument is very popular. 
It is used in conjunction with a drum of some kind, and the performers 
keep up a sort of monotonous dialogue upon some common topic of village 
interest, which is full of witty and rather broad remarks about the principal 
personages present. 

The three-stringed instrument to the right of the plate is the Persian Sitara. 
Its use in India is very uncommon, but it is sometimes met with in large native 
cities, such as Hyderabad or Jeypur, where it is admired chiefly as a variety. The 
body of the specimen drawn is of wood, ornamented with ivory, the back of the 
instrument being left open. As can be seen, the belly is of parchment, and the 
tailpin, which serves as a foot for the instrument, is of brass, rather curiously 
worked. There are usually three gut strings, tuned like those of the sarangi, 
and played by means of a bow. 





V 



/ 



& 



PLATE VIII. 



SVARAMANDALA. 

THE Quanun, or Indian Dulcimer, is an instrument seldom met with, 
and is to be seen mostly in the hands of Punjabi musicians. 
There are usually twenty-one strings, some of brass and the rest 
of steel, and tuned to the intervals of any of the Indian scales as 
required bv the raga played. Occasionally gut or silk strings are found. 
The kind of quanun here drawn is called Svaramandala, and is generall}' 
larger and better finished than the ordinary instrument of this name. It 
is played with two wire plectra, worn upon the finger-tips of the per- 
former. The capability of the instrument is much greater than might be 
supposed at first sight. The performer holds in his left hand an iron ring 
somewhat like a quoit, which he applies to the strings, so that it acts like 
a ;//// and thus enables him to produce all sorts of grace and embellishments. 
There is, of course, only one string to a note. The tone is sweet, soft, and 
reminds one rather of that of the clavichord, though it is louder and possibh- 
more nasal in quality. The Svaramandala is rarely heard, both on account 
of its great difticulty and very high cost, and therefore good execution upon it 
IS rarely met with. 

The Santir, already mentioned as a Persian instrument, is also to be found 
occasionally. It, like the quanun, is a kind of dulcimer, but has a great many 
more strings than the former, and is generall}- played by being struck with two 
sticks covered with leather or felt. Both these instruments are to be found in 
Afghanistan, Turkey, Persia, and Egypt, as well as Arabia. The Indian Quanun 
and Santir do not differ much from the Egj-ptian and Arabian forms, drawings of 

2L 



134 '^'^^ MUSIC OF SOUTHF.RX IXDIA. 

which can be found botli in Lane's "Modern Egyptians" and Mr. Carl Engel's 
" Musical Instruments." The Svaramandala here drawn is from Cashmere. 
The tuning pins are turned by means of an iron key, and the tension of the 
strings is usually very high. The beautiful decoration and the delicacy of 
the painting with which this instrument is so profusely adorned are 
evident. 

The Hindus say that an instrument of this description was first invented by 
the rishi or sage Kattyayana ; hence it is called the Kattyayana vina — 
and sometimes Shatatantri (or hundred-stringed) vina — in the Sanskrit 
treatises. 



PLATE IX. 



KINNARI. 

THE Kinnari is a rude stringed instrument employed chiefly by the country 
people in South Kanara and M3'sore. It is somewhat singular that a 
stringed instrument of much the same name — the Kinnor^^ — should have 
been mentioned in the Bible, and this leads one to conjecture that they may both 
have been derived from the same Aryan source ; for the Kinnari is an instrument 
of great antiquitv, and takes its name from the legend that it was invented by 
Kinneri, one of the gandharvas or singers of Brahma-loka, the heaven of the 
god Brahma. 

It is formed out of a piece of bamboo or blackwood, about 2 feet 6 inches in 
length, upon which are placed frets, sometimes made from the scales of the 
pangolin or scaly ant-eater (bone or metal however is generally used), and fixed 
by means of some resinous composition. Beneath this stem are fixed three gourd 
resonators. 

The instrument possesses two strings only, made of wire. One of these 
strings passes over the frets, the other is fixed rather above the frets, and is 
tuned either a fourth or fifth below the former, according as the instrument is 
tuned in Panchama or Madhyama s'ruti. 

The frets are twelve in number, and are placed according to the intervals of 
some particular scale or scales. Hence the compass and capability of the 
Kinnari are naturally limited. The tone is weak and thin, and the twanging of 
the strings renders the instrument unpleasant to ears not accustomed to it. 

Most of the Sanskrit treatises upon musical instruments contain some 
mention of the Kinnari, or kinnari-vina as it is sometimes called. It is worthy of 
note that the tailpiece of the instrument is still invariably carved to represent the 
breast of a kite, precisely as directed in all the old treatises ; and in many of the 
old sculptures to be seen on temples and shrines in the Mysore country this 
instrument is so represented. 

^^ Sec II. Chronicles xx. 28. 



PLATE X. 



MRIDANG. TABLA AND BAHYA, 



THE Mridang, or Mathala, considered to be the most ancient of the Indian 
drums, is commonly employed by musicians in Southern India as an 
accompaniment to their songs and instrumental performances. It 
consists of a hollow shell of wood, larger at one end than the other, and upon 
which are stretched two heads of skin, fastened to wooden hoops and strained 
by leather braces interlaced and passing the length of the Mridang. Small 
pieces of wood placed between the shell and braces serve to tune the instrument. 
The two heads are tuned to the tonic and fourth or fifth, according to 
whether the music is to be in Madhyama or Panchama s'ruti. The centre of the 
smaller head of this peculiar drum is coated with a composition of resin, oil, and 
wax ; and, by way of ornament, an embroidered cloth is commonly stretched upon 
the upper side of the shell. 

The Mridang is beaten by the hands, finger-tips, and wrists in a very peculiar 
manner, drum playing being a great art among Indian performers ; indeed, years of 
study are required to ensure proficiency. The smaller head of the Mridang is 
struck by the right hand, the larger head by the left. This drum is considered 
to be the most primitive of all Indian instruments. Its origin, as described in the 
puranas, is as follows: — " When Mahadeva, elated by his victory over the invincible 
demon Tripurasura, began to dance, surrounded by Indra and other deities, Brahma 
is said to have invented the mridanga to serve as an accompaniment, and under 
his directions the god Ganesha first performed upon it. From the very import of 
the word mridanga, it appears that its body was originally made of clay. 

2 M 



138 



THE MUSIC OF SUUTJIERX ISDIA. 



The primitive classical niridangas somewhat resemble the khole and maidola 
found in use among the aboriginal hill tribes. With some the khole, even to the 
present dav, passes under the appellation of mridanga.""' 

The specimen — drawn in the upper part of the plate — is from Upper India ; 
the Mridang found in the South is usually less ornate, and the leather braces are 
thinner and more in number. 

In the Deccan and farther North preference appears to be given to the Tabla, 
which are small copper kettledrums — tenor and bass — always used together, and 
which are tuned as the two heads of the mridang. The Tabla are generallv tied 
in a cloth round the waist of the performer. Frequently a small wooden kettle- 
drum, rather longer in proportion to its diameter, called Bahya, and answering 
to the smaller head of the mridang, is employed with one of the tabla drums. 

All these drums are tuned by braces and by means of the resinous composition 
already mentioned being applied to them. Both tabla and bahva are considered 
as instruments of chamber music, and their sound is consequently soft and 
subdued, very different to that of the kettledrums employed in the Nahabet 
described elsewhere. Sometimes wooden drums, called Pakhwaj — in appearance 
similar to the bahya — are used. The name Pakhwaj is occasionally applied to 
the mridang. The drum to the left of the plate is the Tabla, that to the right 
the Bahya. 

"■ " Short Notice of Hindu Musical Instruments." S. M. Tagore. 




Taula ami Tamiiliri Playkrs. 



PLATE XL 



NAGARA DHOL 



THE Nagara (sometimes called Bheri), or Nakkera, is a large kettledrum, 
much employed in temples. 
The shells are of copper, brass, or sheet-iron, rivetted together; the 
heads, made of skin, are strained upon hoops of metal, and stretched by ropes or 
leather thongs passing round the underside of the shell. The usual size of these 
drums is from 2j to 3 feet in diameter. They are beaten with two curved sticks. 
In the Ramayana, Mahambharata, and some of the puranas, this instrument is 
called Dundubhi. 

The Maha-nagara, or Nahabet, is a very similar kettledrum, of larger size, 
employed in bands attached to the palaces of Mahomedan nobles in the Deccan 
and Upper India. These instruments are sometimes made as much as five feet 
in diameter. 

A form of nagara called Karadisamela is in use in Lingayet temples in the 
Southern Provinces ; this form only diflers from the ordinary temple drum in 
that it is larger and the shell is conical, with the apex of the cone l^attened, in 
place of being nearly semi-spherical. 

In the Deccan and Central India two smaller kettledrums are often 
associated with this instrument in periormance. 

The method of bracing drums of this kind varies slightly in different parts. 
A very common way is to cover the shell with a kind of network ot twisted 
leather thongs, to which the head is attached when wet, and then shrunk on to 
its place. This method is commonly applied to the smaller varieties ot 
kettledrums. 



140 THE MUSIC OF SUUTHERX LXDLl. 

The Dhol, drawn at the top of the plate, is a species of drum chiefly employed 
in the native bands that are usually heard at weddings and other festivities. 
The shell is of wood bored out of the solid, and usually about i8 or 20 inches in 
length, and 12 inches in diameter. The size however varies greatly. The 
thickness of the shell is from ith to ^\,th of an inch. The heads, made of skin, 
are stretched round hempen hoops, fastened to the shell and strained by means 
of thongs of leather interlaced. A band of leather passed round the shell and 
over the braces serves to tighten the instrument up to the desired pitch. The 
Dhol is played both by hand and stick. Sometimes the left side of this 
instrument is left out altogether, in which case the right side is beaten 
with two sticks. Metal rings struck by the drumsticks are sometimes attached 
as shown. 

The Dholkee is a smaller dhol, much used by women in the Deccan. 

The Dholuk and Dak are drums somewhat similar to the dhol, but are 
generally rather larger and vary slightly in shape in different parts of India. 



PLATE XII. 



KHANJERI. TAM 'lAM. 



TAMBOURINES and tabors of all kinds are found throughout India, 
but are rarely used by professional musicians. The largest instru- 
ment of this kind is called Duff, or Duffde, and is an octagon 
frame of wood about 6 inches deep and 3 feet in diameter, covered upon 
one side with skin strained by means of a network of thin leather thongs. 
The Duff is struck with the fingers of the right hand ; and a thin switch 
held perpendicularly over it by the fingers of the left is made to strike the 
instrument with the middle finsjer at certain intervals according^ to the tala. 
The Daera is circular and not more than 11 or 12 inches in diameter. 
It is played with the right hand in a similar manner to the duff. The 
thumb of the left hand is thrust into a loop in the underside of the Daera. 
This forms a sort of rest for the left hand a little above the centre of the 
instrument, so that the knuckle of the middle finger can be pressed against the 
skin when a rise in the tone is desired. In the Southern provinces a large 
circular instrument of this kind, called Thambatte, is found ; this varies from 
3 to 4 feet in diameter. The Thambatte is played in a similar manner to 
the duff, and is commonly employed by the lowest castes, and usuall}- 
associated with the Kahalay or Kombu, a horn similar to the s'ringa shown 
in Plate XVII. 

The Khanjeri, or common tambourine, shown in the plate, consists of a piece 
of vellum or skin stretched upon a wooden hoop, 8 or g inches in diameter and 
about 3 or 4 inches deep, bored out of the solid. In the hoop are placed three 
or four slits containing pieces of metal strung together, which clash when the 

2 N 



142 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

instrument is shaken. The lower edge of the hoop is sometimes bound with 
silver, chased with mythological devices, and the hoop itself is often carved in the 
same way. 

Water poured upon the skin serves for tuning. 

The Khanjeri is generally employed in Dliazana — described elsewhere — and 
by Nautch girls. 

The small kettledrum drawn in the plate is the common Tam tam used by 
beggars and the like, and which is to be found at all street corners throughout 
India. A tam tam of rather Hatter shape, called Dinni, is common in Mysore, 
and is generally carried by religious mendicants of Saivite sects. In shape it 
much resembles the modern Egyptian tabl-shami. 



PLATE XIII. 



TALA. JALRA. BUDBUDIKA. 

METAL cymbals of all kinds are used as accompaniments to nati\'e 
music. Farther North we find them chiefly in connection with 
music of a religious character, but in the South their use is 
universal. The larger kinds, called Jhanj, are much like the ordinary 
Turkish cvmbals and are used in the Nahabet, and in company with the 
Tala, or gong, in the wild temple music. The chief use made of all 
cymbals is to mark the time. The two small kinds of cymbals here drawn 
are peculiar to Indian music. The Jalra — shown uppermost in the 
plate — are made in proportion a good deal thicker than the larger cymbals, 
and they are played so as to produce a ringing sound, somewhat like 
that of a trembling electric bell ; they are usually connected by a cord passed 
through their centres. The cup-shaped cymbals to the left of the plate are called 
Tala, and are so made that their edges only are struck. 

Tala are in size similar to Jalra, but are not usually connected. 
At the back of each a tassel of silk or wood serves for a handle. Colonel 
Meadows Taylor thus describes their use : " One is held in the left palm secured 
by a cord passed round the right, and is struck by the other, which is held 
loosely in the right. Players on these C3'mbals are extremely dexterous, and 
produce a not unpleasing accompaniment to the voice or to instrumental music, 
by striking the cups together in such a manner — outside, inside, and upon the 
edges — as to form notes in accordance with the voice or the other instruments 
by which it may be accompanied. This cymbal accompaniment is played with 
more execution than may be conceived possible from the nature of the instrument. 



144 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

I have heard professors even play solos upon it, which, if not very intelligible 
as to tune, were at least curious in execution and divcrsit)- of lime, as suited 
to the various style of music." " 

The Budbudika — shown on the right of the plate — is a small hand-drum from 
three to six inches in length, used by snake charmers, mendicants, &c. In 
shape it resembles an hour-glass, and in the centre a string is attached having a 
small ]);dl of leather or cork at the end. When shaken in the hand the striker 
at the end of the string alternately touches each head. 

A drum, somewhat similar in shape, called Edaka or Dudi, is common 
in Coorg. It is of metal, and about i foot in length and 8 inches in diameter; 
one end is beaten by a soft drumstick, the other by hand, like the dhol. 

On the West Coast, and in Malabar, another drum of much the same shape 
is employed. It is usually very light and fragile, the shells being made of large 
gourds. Five or six of these drums are commonly used in religious services 
and the noise at certain seasons of the year resulting from this method of 
worship is almost incredible, and is continued for days together, by relays of 
performers, at certain festivals. 

'" " Proceedings, Royal Irish Academy." Vol. IX., Part i. 




c 



PLATE XIV. 



FUNGI. KURTAR. 



THE instrument drawn at the right of the plate is the Pungi, or Jinagovi, 
a reed pipe used exclusively by jugglers and snake charmers. The 
body and mouthpiece are formed from a bottle-shaped gourd, in which 
are inserted two pipes of cane, the interior ends of which are cut so as to form 
reeds. One of the pipes is pierced with finger-holes so that it can be played 
upon, the other being sounded in unison with the keynote as a drone. 

The Pungi is invariably constructed in the scale of Hanumatodi (see 
page ^T,), and is plaved in the Nagavarali raga, a strain supposed to be specially 
pleasing to serpents. 

The specimen shown here is beautifully painted, and is of Deccan 
manufacture, but the common pungi is of the roughest and simplest description, 
and hardlv ever in correct tune. 

Kurtar, or Chittika, are two pieces of hard wood about six inches in length, 
flat upon one side and rounded upon the other. They are held in the one hand 
and the flat surfaces beaten together by alternatel}' closing and opening the 
fingers. A ring is usually inserted at the back of each for the fingers to pass 
through, and at the ends are placed little clusters of bells, or small pieces of metal 
which jangle when the Kurtar is shaken. 

Circular wooden castanets, called Chacra, made with slightlv concave 

surfaces, are frequently met with. To these the name of Khattala is sometimes 

given, and they are played with great dexteritv. 

2 o 




A 



1^ 



PLATE XV. 

FILLACiOVI. MUKAVINA. S'RUTI 
NAGASARA. ALCiOA. 



THE three instruments in the centre of the plate belong to the same 
class, and are in general use in all parts of India. 
The Nagasara — the second from the right in the plate — is a reed 
instrument with a conical bore enlarging downwards. It is usually pierced in 
twelve holes, the upper seven of which alone are employed in fingering, the others 
being stopped or otherwise with wax at the discretion of the performer, so as to 
regulate the pitch of the instrument. The holes are bored at intervals roughly 
corresponding to those of some Indian scale, but the native players often produce 
other and additional intervals by allowing the fingers to only partially cover the 
holes. 

The reed somewhat resembles that of a bassoon, but it is very roughly 
made, and is wider in proportion to its length ; it is mounted like that of an 
oboe, on a short metal " staple." 

The instrument is usually made of a dark close-grained wood called 
chandanna, and has a metal bell. Occasionally nagasaras made entirely of 
metal are met with. 

The tone is somewhat similar to that of a bagpipe, but is more shrill, and 
should be heard at a distance. 

The Mukavina — the second from the left in the plate — bears a close 
resemblance to the nagasara, but is usually much smaller, about half the size. 

It is an instrument of the oboe family, with a conical bore enlarging 
downwards. It is pierced in seven holes corresponding to the intervals of some 



148 THE MUSIC OF SOUTIIERX INDIA. 

scale, and is capable of the same inflections of tone. Its sound is naturally 
more shrill than that of the former, and is very piercing, which renders the 
instrument very unpleasant to ears not accustomed to it. 

Both the nagasara and the mukavina when played in combination with 
other instruments are accompanied by the S'ruti, which forms a kind of drone 
bass. These drones are made in various sizes, and in outward appearance are 
very similar to the two instruments before-mentioned. The bore is conical and 
enlarging downwards, but more so in proportion to the length of the instrument 
than in either of the other two. P'our or five holes are pierced near the bell at 
the fancy of the maker ; and these holes, b}' being stopped wholly or partially 
with wax, serve to tune the s'ruti to the desired pitch. 

When played in combination with other instruments they are tuned to the 
tonic and dominant ; if only one s'ruti is employed it is tuned simply to 
the tonic. 

The appendages to these pipes are spare reeds and an ivory bodkin for 
their adjustment. 

Whether we may look to India for the origin of the drone bass is a doubtful 
point, but it is certain that the principle has existed there from very remote 
times. 

" What bagpipes are to Scotland or Ireland, these pipes are to India. 
Their sound is precisely similar to that of bagpipes, only, perhaps, more 
powerful, and in the hands of good players more melodious. Thev have seven 
and eight holes respectively, and thus would appear to have no great compass ; 
but in execution, whether from the effects of the lips and tongue upon the 
reed mouthpiece, or the manner of fingering upon the holes, combinations are 
formed which include semitones and quarter notes, and thus the expression of 
chromatic passages ad libitiuii, of which the native players are very fond, is 
given, which in reality are verv effective. From their great power of sound 
these pipes are unpleasant if the performers be near; but at a distance, in the 
open air, and specially among the mountains, the effect is much subdued, and 
often attains much wild beautv and softness. They are in fact the onh" regular 
outdoor instruments of Indian music, and are emploved on all occasions, 
whether in domestic or public religious ceremonials, processions, or festivals, 
temple music, and the like ; and the music played upon them varies with the 
occasion on which they are used. Marches and military music exceedingly like 
pibrochs in character — pieces for marriages, for rejoicings, for funerals, 
welcomings, departures — familiar ballad airs and the stated music of the 
Nahabet have all separate modes and effects. In the Mahratta ct)untry, in 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 149 

which I know them hcst, the simple melodies of the people, joyous or plaintive, 
are performed with a style of execution often surprising ; and combinations of 
musical effect are introduced which are equally curious and interesting.""^ 

These pipes are also known as Holar-cha-Surnai and Hola-cha-Sur, or simply 
Surnai. 

The flute to the left of the plate is the Pillagovi, or Murali, made of bamboo, 
and traditionally believed to have been invented by the god Krishna, who is 
usually represented as holding it or playing it. The name Bansuli is sometimes 
given to this instrument. 

The Nuv, o\- fliite-a-hcc, resembles the pillagovi, but has the embouchure at 
the end, and is bored cylindrically. The tone is low and sweet, and the 
instrument is invariably played softly ; indeed, notes of a piercing character 
could not be produced upon it. It is quite a pastoral instrument, and is much 
used by shepherds and cowherds. Many of the simple melodies of the country 
when played upon this instrument have a wonderful charm. 

The Algoa — shown on the right of the plate — is a kind of flageolet of 
bamboo, with a tone and compass like that of the pillagovi. Instruments of 
this kind are found in the Punjab and Upper India, played in pairs in a some- 
what similar manner to the tibiae pares of the Romans. 



' Col. Meadows Taylor, " Proceedings, Royal Irish Academy." Vol. IX., Part i. 



2 P 



PLATE X\I. 



MOSHUQ. S'AxXKHU. 

THE bagpipe here drawn iii the Aloshuq, or, as it is called in 
Southern India, S'ruti-upanga or Bhazana-s'ruti. It is used merely 
as a drone ; the holes in the pipe are wholly or partialh' stopped 
with wax so as to tune the instrument to the pitch desired. The bag 
is made of the skin of a kid and is inflated from the mouth bv means of 
the smaller of the two pipes shown. The drone is of cane, mounted in a 
stock of the same material, and which contains the reed. An enlarged 
drawing of the reed has been gi\'en in the plate, in order better to show its 
construction, and, as can be seen, the vibrations are controlled bv a little piece 
of wire or fine twine tied roughly round the tongue. The whole reed is in one 
piece and is generally made of small cane or of the large marsh reeds found 
almost evervwhere. Black wax is used to make the instrument wind-titrht. 

The Moshuq of Northern India does not differ much in outward appearance 
from this, but contains a chanter, with the addition sometimes of a drone. 

The conch shell shown in the lower part of the plate is the S'ankhu. It is not 
in secular use as a musical instrument, but is found in every temple and is sounded 
during religious ceremonials, in processions, and before the shrines of Hindu 
deities. In Southern India the S'ankhu is employed in the ministration of a clas.s 
of temple servers called Dassari. No tune, so to speak, can of course be played 
upon it, but still the tone is capable of much modulation by the lips, and its 
clear mellow notes are not without a certain charm. A rather striking 
effect is produced when it is used in the temple ritual as a sort of rh\thmical 
accompaniment, when it plavs the part of Koiinagohi or Talaviiiyasa, described 
elsewhere. 



PLATE XVII. 

TUTURI. NAFARI. S'RINGA. KURNA. 



THE curved brass horn in this plate is the S'ringa or S'ing, called 
in Southern India Kahalay or Kombu. It is frequentl}' found with 
a metal rod connecting both ends. This horn is " used universally 
through India for signals, watch setting processions, and the like, both 
by Mahomedans and Hindus, though the performers for the most part are 
Hindus of low caste. In every village of Central or Southern India it is 
the business of one or more of the watchmen to blow the horn at sunset, 
and again at certain hours of the night, or when the watchmen go their 
stated rounds. In large cities every uiahnlla or ward has a horn-blower 
attached to its night-watchmen or police, and there is seldom a guard or detach- 
ment of native irregular troops without one. In all processions, temple services, 
and especially at marriages and other festive occasions, this horn is indispensable, 
and wailing blasts for the dead are played upon it at the funerals of Hindus of 
the lower classes and castes, or equally so at the cremation of Hindu princes. 

" No native authority traverses the country without one, frequentlv several, in 
his train, and as town or village are approached the great man's advent is 
heralded by flourishes of the instrument blown by the performer who struts at the 
head of the cavalcade. These blasts are answered bv others from the town or 
village gate, whence the local authorities come out to meet the visitor and 
present their offerings of welcome. On these occasions the horn-blowers on 
both sides vie with each other in producing their grandest efl'ects, and the 
discordance is generallv indescribable. 

" Itinerant mendicants of many classes use this instrument, both Hindu and 
Mahomedan, and by men in charge of droves of cattle carrying grain or 
merchandise, such as Brinjaris, Comptis, and others, it is sounded at intervals 



154 THE MUSIC OF SOUTH ERS IXDIA. 

along the road to cheer up their bullocks and keep them from straggling, as well 
as at their departure from or arrival at one of their stages. 

" In playing the high notes in many of the calls, shrill wavering cadences are 
produced, which have a startling and peculiarly wild effect, as heard from the 
wall of some ancient fortress, or from village tower and gates as night falls, and 
more especially in the otherwise unbroken stillness of night.'"" 

The large trumpet with one turn is called the Tuturi. This name is usually 
applied to what might be called the tenor trumpet, as distinguished from the 
Kurna, the large straight trumpet drawn at the bottom of the plate. The tuturi — 
or turi — is made in various sizes and is used principally in religious ceremonies. 
The small straight trumpet is the Nafari. 

The Kurna — called in Southern India Buruga or Banku — is used onlv on 
solemn occasions, and possesses but a few hoarse sounds. In fact, no Indian 
trumpets are capable of producing many notes, they are invariably of the most 
primitive description, and no attempt is made to play them scientifically : indeed, 
their proper compass is not even understood. Colonel Meadows Taylor, speaking 
of the Kurna, remarks : " These instruments are almost invariably played by 
Brahmins or priests attached to Hindu temples, and by persons attached to 
the retinues of Gurus, Swamies or spiritual princes of the country, who possess 
large ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and are provided with them as a mark of high 
rank, which is not allowable in others. Occasionally also they are met with in the 
nobuts, or musical establishments attached by royal permission to nobles of 
high rank, Mahomedan as well as Hindu ; but they do not exist in all cases, for 
there are distinctions in the classes of instruments according to the rank of 
persons privileged to play the nobut, which involve the presence or otherwise 
of the kurna. The kurna, or large trumpet, is esteemed by all Brahmins to be the 
most ancient instrument of music in existence." ^° 

'" " Proceedings, Royal Irish Academy." Vol. IX., Part i. 
-" See preceding note. 




CHAPTER VI 1 1. 

Principal seats of music in Southern India — Famous Indian musicians of the South — Bibliography 

of Indian music — Sanskrit MSS. upon music. 

FROM early times Tanjore has been the chief seat of music in Southern India 
and most of the best known Karnatik musicians have either Hved there 
or have received their musical education from musicians of the Tanjore 
school. Little information can be gathered as to what extent the art flourished there 
formerly, but it is certain that several centuries ago a regular school of music was 
established and patronised by the Maharajahs. In the reigns of the Maharajahs 
Sarabhogi, Surfogi, and Sivaji music flourished greatly, and the musicians 
attached to the palace received large emoluments. The native courts of 
Travancore and Mysore have also patronised music to a great extent, and it 
is believed that the art was originally brought to them from Tanjore. Some of 
the most celebrated musicians of Southern India will be found among the 
following : — 

TiAGYA RAJ. A native of Trivadi, in the Tanjore district; a pupil of a musician called Venkatraman 
Iyer. He was a great composer of kruthis, many of which are exceedingly popular all 
through India. Tiagya paid special attention to the requirements of melod)', and his songs 
are mostly free from the monotony and intricacies of the ragas as practised by Hindustani 
musicians. He flourished from about 1820 — 1840. 

GoviNDASWAMi Iyer. A contemporary of the above. 

SiAMA s'astri. a composer of kruthis and kirtanas, about the commencement of the present 
century-. 

Sabharayva s'astri. a native of Pudukotta, a musician in the service of the Maharajah Sivaji of 
Tanjore. 

Pertabsingh of Tanjore. 

Sivaram Iyer. A composer of " pallevi " in the service of the Maharajah Sivaji. 

Sabbha rao. Son of the above. 

Diksitalu of Trivalur, in the Tanjore district. Many of his compositions are still popular. 



156 THE MUSIC OF SOUTIIERX IXDIA. 

KsHETRYA. A poet as well as a musician. He was the composer of innumerable love songs 
called Pathams, which are widely popular. The words of these pathams are olten ver\- 
beautiful, and are full of imagery most poetical, set to music equally as plaintive and 
appealing to the senses. An example of one of these pathams will be found in the song 
" Yalla tella vara,'' upon page 81. 

Paidala guru mukti s'astri. a celebrated composer of " Ganaraga-gitas." Many of his compo- 
sitions are popular at the present da}'. 

Nathiva Vadivelu. a singer of repute and composer of many Vernams, Svarajotas. He is 
believed to have introduced the use of the European violin' into Southern India. 

BiKSHANDAR KoiL SuBBAYAR. A pupil of Sabharayya of Andalur. A singer of repute. 

Varpaya. A vina player in the service of the Maharajah Sivaji of Tanjore. 

Madheo RAO. A contemporary of the above. 

Pariya Vaiti. a Malayalam musician of repute. 

CiiAL Balkrishnayya. a musician of Tanjore. 

Kalastri Iyer of Tanjore. 

NiLKANT Iyer of Chingleput. 

Sabbha Kattayya of Pudukota. 

Savyasachi of Mysore. 

Seshana of Mysore. One of the best living performers on the vina. 

Shamana of Mysore. 

The late Maharajah Kolashekara of Travancore. 

Ragavayya of Coimbatore. 

Sabbhayya of Andalur. 

Narasayya of Salem. 

Kalyana Krishna Iyer of Palghat. Now in the service of the Maharajah of Travancore ; a 
good vina player. 

SuRYANARAYAN Rao Pantulu of Sitapur. A vina player, now " Asthana Pandita " in the 
service of the Maharajah of Vizianagram. 

Venkaya of Vizigapatam. A vina player. 

Tiruvanakodik.\val Krishnan. a violin player. 

Mahadeva Iyer. Son of Parmisvara Bhagavata. A violin player in the service of the Maharajah of 
Travancore. 

Parmisvara Bhagavata. A singer in the service of the Maharajah of Travancore. 

Mahavaiddi. a singer. 



Besides these there are numerous Hindustani musicians in Southern India, 
Maharashtra, and the North, such as Maula Bux of Baroda, Bhande AH of Indore, 
Anna Gharpure of Poena, Balkoba Nataka Sahib of Bombay. But to t^ive 
a complete list of them would fill a volume. A detailed notice of many has been 
given in Panchari Banerjea's History of Hindu music, noticed brieflv here- 
after. 

' Timed and held in tlie native fashion, like a saranj;!. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 157 

The following catalogue of works relating to Indian music has no pretence to 
completeness ; it is merely a list of the names of works and passages written 
upon the subject. The names of some which contain only allusions that would 
be of no practical use to the reader have been omitted altogether. Some of the 
books in the list contain no musical notation, but are nevertheless of great 
interest to the musical enquirer. An endeavour to notice some of the various 
Sanskrit works upon music, and in some cases tables of their contents, has 
been made. It has not been thought necessary to notice each in detail, as 
for the most part thev are written upon a very similar plan, and, as far as 
arransrement of contents, differ little from each other. These Sanskrit works exist 
chiefly in manuscript, and are to be found in almost all the libraries — such 
as those of Tanjore and the Sarasvati Bhandaram of Mysore — attached to the 
palaces of native princes. Many copies are also to be found in the hands of 
Pandits and Sanskrit scholars attached to the temples and religious houses 
throughout India. There are a number of valuable MSS. in the collection of 
H.H. the Alaharajah of Bikanir. Many too can be found in the Bodleian, the 
librarv of the India office, and also in the Universitv librarv at Cambridge. 

Banerjea, Panchari. " History of Hindu Music." A lecture delivered at the Hooghl)- Institute, 

Bhowanipore, 1880. Contains a good deal of interesting information, also an elaborate 

table of ragas and raginis, with the essential notes entering into their composition. 
Broughton, Th. D. " Selections from the Popular Poetry of the Hindus." London, 1814. Svo. 
BoSANQUET, R. H. M. "On the Hindu Division of the Octave." " Proceedings, Royal Society, 

March, 1877, to December 20, 1S77." London. 
Brown, M. E. & W. A. " Musical Instruments and their Homes.'' New York, 1888. 
BuRNELL, A. C, Ph.D. "The Saman Chants from Arsheya Brlihmana.'' Contains descriptions 

of the Sama Vedic chants and examples of their notation in plain chant. Mangalore, 1S76. 
Bird, William Hamilton. The Oriental Miscellanj, Calcuna. Printed by Joseph Cooper, 1789. 
Biggs. " Twelve Hindu Airs, with English words adapted to them by Mr. Opie, and harmonised 

for one, two, or three voices, with an accompaniment for the pianoforte or harp, b}- Mr. 

Biggs." London, printed by Rt. Birchall. N.D. 
Biggs. " A Second Set of Hindu Airs, with English words adapted to them by Mr. Opie, and 

harmonised for one, two, or three voices, with an accompaniment for the pianoforte or 

harp, by Mr. Biggs." London, printed by Rt. Birchall. N.D. 
Blochmann, H. " The Naqquerakhaneh and the Imperial Musicians, from the Ain-i-Akbari." 

Translated from the original Persian. 
Campbell, A. " Notes on the Musical Instruments of the Nepalese." Journal of the Asiatic 

Society of Bengal. Vol. VI., p. 953. Calcutta, 1837. 
Von Dalberg, F.H. " Ueber die Musik der Indier. Eine Abhandlung des SirW. Jones, aus dem 

Englischen tibersetzt und mit erlauternden Anmerkungen und Zusatzen begleitet von 

F. H. von Dalberg. Nebst einer Sammlung indischer und anderer Volksgesange und 

30 Kupfern." Erfurt, 1802. 4to. 

2 R 



158 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

" Dramatic Amusements of Natives of India." Asiatic yotirnal, New Series. Vol. X.XIL, p. 27. 

London, 1837. 
DuTT, Toru. " Ancient Ballads and Legends of Hindustan." London, 1882. Contains no music, 

but some songs which for imagery and Oriental colouring are delightful. 
Engel, Carl. " An Introduction to the Study of National Music." London, 1866. 
Ellis, Alexander J., F.R.S., F.S.A. " On the Musical Scales of Various Nations." Paper read 

before the Society of Arts, March 25, 1885. See younial of Society of Arts, No. 1,688. 

Vol. XXXIII. ; also reprinted for private circulation by the author, with additions and 

corrections. April, 1885. 
FowKE, Francis. "On the Vina of the Hindus." "Asiatic Researches." Vol. I., page 295, 

Calcutta, 17S8. 
Gladwin, Francis. " Ayeen Akbery." See Vol. III., " Sungeet." Calcutta, 1783. 
Grosset, J. "Contribution a I'litude de la Musique Hindoue." Paris, published by Leroux. 

(Extrait de tome VI., de la Bibliotheque de la Faculte des Lettres de Lyons.) 1888. 
Hendlev, T. B. " Memorials of the Jeypur E.xhibition," 1883. Peckham, W. Griggs. See 

Vol. III., plates clxxv., clxxix. 
Hevmann, W. " Ueber Bharata's Natyasastram." See Nachrichten von der Kcenigl. Gesell- 

shaft der Wissenschaften und der G. A. Universitaet zu Goettingen, February 25, 1S84, 

pages 86 — 107. 
Hipkins, a. J., F.S.A., and Gibb, W. " Musical Instruments. Historic, Rare, and Unique." 

Edinburgh, 1887. Contains descriptions and very beautiful illustrations of several Indian 

instruments. 
Jones, Sir William. " On the Musical Modes of the Hindus." See "Asiatic Researches." Vol. III., 

page 55. Calcutta, 1792. Also republished in "Works of Sir W. Jones." 6 vols., and 

Supplement, 2 vols. London, 1799 and 1801 ; together, 8 vols., 410. See Vol. I., page 413. 
Mateer, Rev. L. " Native Life in Travancore." London. 
Mahillon, V. C. " Catalogue Descriptif et Analyti(iue du Musee Instrumental du Conservatoire 

Royal de Bruxelles." Gand. x88o. 
Naumann, Emil. " The History of Music." Translated by F. Praeger, and edited by Sir V. \. 

Gore Ouseley. London, 1888. 
OusELEY, Sir W. "An Essay on the Music of Hindustan." Contained in " Oriental Collections 

illustrating the History, Antiquities, Literature, &c., of Asia." London, 1797-1800. 410, 

3 vols. See Vol. I., p. 70. 
PoRTMAN, M. v., Mus. Doc. " Andamanese Music, with Notes on Oriental Music and Musical 

Instruments." See younial of Royal Asiatic Society, New series. Vol. XX., Part ii. 

London, April, 1888. 
RowBOTHAM, J. H. " The History of Music." London, 1885. 
Sahasrabadue, B. T. " Hindu Music and the Gayan Samaj." Published by the Gayana Samaj, 

Poona and Madras. Contains information respecting the recent revival of Indian music. 

Poona, 1888. 
ScHROEDER, L. von. " ludicns Literatur und Cultur." Leipzig, 1887. 
SoLVYNS (Bait of Calcutta). " The Costume of Hindustan elucidated by sixty engravings." 

London, 1804. I-'olio. Contains drawings of a number of musical instruments, chiefly 

those of Northern India and Bcnjral. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 159 

Stack, G. A. "The Songs of Ind." Calcutta, 1S72. Contains a number of verses of more or 
less interest. 

Tagore, Rajah Sir S. M. " The Six Original Ragas." 

"The Musical Scales of the Hindus." 

" Some specimens of Indian Songs." 

■ " Short Notices of Indian Musical Instruments." 

The above four all printed by I. C. Bose & Co., Calcutta, for private circulation. 

"The Eight Principal Rasas of the Hindus." Calcutta, 1879. 

"The Dramatic Sentiments of the Aryas." Calcutta; 1881. 

These two works contain much valuable information as to the sentiments conveyed by 
the various gestures (rasas, bhavas) made either upon the stage or by dancers. 

" Hindu Music from Various Sources." Calcutta. A reprint of different writings upon 

Hindu Music. A most useful collection. Contains a reprint of Sir W. Jones' essay and 
Willard's treatise. But there are some misprints that are liable to mislead. 

"The Twenty-two Musical S'rutis of the Hindus." Calcutta, 1S86. 

" /Ekatana, or the Indian Concert." Calcutta. N.D. 



Tod, Lieut. -Col. " Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan." Vol. I., p. 53S. London, 1829. 
Twelve Hindu Airs, with English words adapted to them, with an accompaniment for the 

pianoforte or harp. Printed by R. Birchall, 133, New Bond Street. These airs appear to be 

chiefly from The Oriental Miscellany. 
Trinks. " A Collection of Hindoostanee Songs." Dedicated to Mr. Bristow, by C . Trinks, organist 

of St. John's Church, Calcutta. Folio. 
Williamson. " TwelveOriginal Hindoostanee Airs." Compiled and harmonized by T. G.Williamson. 

London, 1797. Folio. 
Second collection of " Twelve Original Hindoostanee Airs." Compiled and harmoni;^ed 

by T. G. Williamson. London, 179S. Folio. 
Weber. " Ueber die Metrik der Inder." See " Beitrage fur die Kunde des Indischen Alterthums." 

Band VIII. Berlin, 1863. 8vo. 
Wilson, H. H. " Select Specimens from the Theatre of the Hindus." Translated from the original 

Sanskrit. London, 1838. 8vo, 2 vols. 
Walckiers. " A Collection of Twent3'-four Hindoostanee and otlier Airs." Arranged for the piano- 
forte by L. Walckiers. London, Clementi. 
Waterfield, W. " Indian Ballads and other Poems." London, 1868. 
WiLi.ARD, Captain N. Augustus. "A Treatise upon the Music of Hindustan, comprising a detail 

of the Ancient Theory and Modern Practice." Calcutta, 1834. 8vo. The following is the 

table of contents — 
Preface. — .\ general view of the plan and contents of the work. Introduciion. — Music;, its power on the 
human mind. That of Hindustan. The opinion of the natives with respect to their ancient musicians. How 
a knowledge of it may be acquired. Not generally liked by Europeans. Reasons assigned for this. 
Native opinion with regard to its lawfulness. Musical instruments. Relation of music to poetry 
considered. Progress of music in Hindustan. The manner of life which should be led to ensure eminence 
in this science. Causes of its depravity. Date of its decline. The similarity which the music of this 
country seems to bear to that of Egypt and Greece. How a knowledge of the music of Hindustan might 
conduce to a revival of that of those countries. Comparisons offered. Whether the natives of Greece or 
Hindustan had made greater progress in music. Comparisons decide in favour of the latter. Hindostanee 
Music. — What it is termed in the original. The treatises held in the greatest estimation. Native divisions. 
What, and how many. The arrangement adopted in this work. 0/ the Gamut. — What it is called : the 



i6o TIIK MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

derivation of the word. The sub-divisions of tones. Resenihlancc of these to theGreel< diesis. Opinions of 
Dr. Burneyand Mr. Moore on the enharmonic f;enns. Names of the seven notes. Origin of these. The 
Gamut invented by Guido and Lemaire. Dr. Pepusch. S'ruti. Of Time. — The various measures used in 
Europe. Difference between them and tliose of Hindustan. Tlieir resemblance to the rhythm of the Greeks. 
Similarity between the Greek and Sanskrit languages. The Hebrew unmusical, likewise the Arabic. 
Melody and metre considered. Tartini's objections against metre endeavoured to be controverted. The 
dignified prose in Sanskrit and tongues derived from it. Its superiority to the Oordoo. Probable origin 
of the modern musical measure. Tartini's deductions of measure from the proportions of the octave and 
its fifth opposed to the practice of Hindustan. Whether the rliythmical or the musical measure possesses 
greater advantages. Opinion hazarded thereon. Time table. Characters for expressing time. Their 
varieties. Of Harmony and Melody. — The origin of harmony in Europe. Opinions of several learned men on 
the subject of harmony with that of the author. Claims of melody. Of Oriental Melody. — Not generally 
susceptible of harmony. Limited to a certain number. Its character. Of Ruf^s and Rdginis. — The general 
acceptation of the terms supposed to be incorrect. Reasons offered why they are limited to season and time. 
Of the Ragniala. Absurdity of limiting tunes to seasons. Division of the Rags and Raginis into classes. 
Rules for determining the names of the mixed Raginis. Table of conipo\inded Rags. The Ragmala copiously 
described. Of Musical Instruments. — Their present state susceptible of much improvement. Their 
classification. Detailed description of the several instruments now in use. Of the various species of Vocal 
Compositions of Hindustan. — Twenty different species described. Of the peculiarity of Manners and Customs in 
Hindustan to K'hich allusions are made in their song. — Its characteristic nature. Reasons assigned for several 
of them which now no longer exist, and examples produced. Brief accoimt of the most celebrated musicians 
of Hindustan. Glossary of the most useful musical terms. 

The actual size of the work, notwithstanding this lengthv tahle of contents, 
is but small. The book is very interestintr, and affords much valuable information 
upon Northern Indian music. The descriptions are, however, incomplete in many 
cases, and the author's meaning is in places rather vague, and apt to be misleading 
to those who have not studied the subject. 

There are not a very large number of works relating to music in the 
vernaculars — some few are excellent, but the majority of them contain a very 
large amount of irrele\'ant matter, and are so full of inaccuracies that too great a 
reliance should not be placed upon them. Some of the most important of these 
works may be found amon</st the following : — 

'• SvAKASASTRA." An cssav or tutor for the Sitar. A. Gharpure. Poona, i8So, in Marathi. 
Contains descriptions of the various kinds of Sitars. together with instructions for making, 
tuning, and keeping tlieni in order. Contains also an elaborate system of notation invented 
by the author. 

There are also works in Marathi upon the sitar by Viswanath Kamachundra 
Kale ; and by Vastad Murabar Gonvekar. 

In Bengali the chief works are: — 

" AsuRjANiTATWAR " Oil tile Ksrar. By Kshetra Mohun Gosvami. 

•• Sangit Siksha." By Sita Nath Boshak. 

" Sangit Sara." By Kshetra Mohun Gosvami. This work contains a good deal that is most 
interesting. 

■' Katakaumodi." By Kshetra Mohun Gosvami. 

" A Treatise on the Mridanga." By S. M. Tagore. On drum playing, rhythm, ice. 

•' A Comprehensive Self-Instructor for the Setar, Esrar, violin, tlute, and harmonium." Calcutta, 

i858. An attempt to adapt Indian music to European notation. By H. D. Bancrjea. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. i6i 

There are several Telei^u and Tamil works of less interest. The only 
Telegu work that I have seen which is of any interest is a tract called " Sangita 
Kalianidhi," on the vina, with diagrams of the fingerboard. There is a Guzerathi 
work entitled " The Musical Instructor," by N. D. Apj-akhtiar, Bombay, 1870. 
This work contains a certain amount of theory apparently extracted from the 
Sangita Ratnakera, and a number of coloured illustrations which, though poor, 
are not without interest. It contains also a large number of Guzerathi 
songs. 

Of the more important of the Sanskrit treatises that are at present known to 
e.xist, some slight notice may be useful. The oldest of any is the Bharata Natya 
S'astra bv Bharata Muni. This work is being translated by M. Grosset, of 
Lvons, who has procured and carefully compared several copies of the MSS., 
one of which is the propertv of the Royal Asiatic Society of London. The 
whole work is large, and consists of a great number of lidhyayas. The theory 
of music, of dancing, of the connection between music and the drama are treated 
of fully, as are also the various kinds of instruments. The antiquity of the Ivric 
drama in India is most interesting. M. Grosset has published already the 
twentv-eighth adhyaya of this work, containing the part relating to the theory 
of music, with a prefatory essay and copious explanations and notes, the results 
of his researches — a most valuable contribution to the study of ancient Eastern 
musical literature. The date of the Bharata Natya S'astra is placed at some 
intermediate period from B.C. 200 to a.d. 100. An edition of this work has been 
printed, or partially so, at Poona recently. There is also a copy of the MSS. in 
the library of H.H. the Maharajah of Bikanir. 

Of the remaining Sanskrit treatises (excepting the work just men- 
tioned) the Sangita Ratnakera is probably the oldest and the most 
valuable. 

The work consists of seven adhyayas, according to Dr. A. C. Burnell.'- 

I. — Sv.\RAGATADHYAVA — treats of Hotcs, scalcs, &c. 
II. — Ragavivekadhyaya — of Raga. 

III. — Prakirnakadhyaya — of music in connection with the human voice. 
IV. — Prabandhadhyaya — of musical composition. 
V. — Taladhyaya — of times, pauses, measures, &c. 
VI. — Vadyadhyaya — of musical instruments. 
VII. — Nrityadhyaya — of dancing. 



- •• Classified Index to the Sanskrit MSS. in the Palace at Tanjore." Dr. A. C. Burnell. London, 1880. 

2 S 



i62 THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN IS 1)1 A. 

An edition of the first iidhyaya, with a Commentary, was pubHshed at 
Calcutta in 1S79. Its contents are as follows : — • 

Chap. I. — Benediction upon music. 

II. — Of sounds, notes, concordant and discordant relations. 
III. — Of gramas, murchanas, talas. 

IV. — Of vernams (ascending and descending successions of notes), alankaras or melodious 
successions of notes intended to impress upon beginners the idea of different 
pitches, and to cultivate a taste for pleasing combinations. 
V. — Of certain subsidiar}' scales. 
VI. — Materials and constitution of raga. 
VII. — Describes certain ancient species of song called Kapala and Kambala, and defines 
various styles of singing. 

It appears quite impossible to assign an}- reliable date to this work. The 
author of it was Sarnga Deva, son of Sotala Deva, King of Karnata, and grandson 
of Bhaskara a Kashmirian.' Possiblv, from this information, the date mav be 
discovered at some future time. 

In the Preface to the Calcutta edition of this work mention is made of only 
five adhyayas, the other two [i.e., the fourth and fifth) have apparently been 
discovered by Dr. Burnell. 

The following authors or works are cited by Sarnga Deva in this work : — 
Anginavva, Kalinatha, Chudamanni, Pratibhavilasa, Manidurpana, Raganava, 
Vinoda, Sivakinkara, Sangitanava, Sarodhara, Haribhatta. 

Perhaps next in importance to the Ratnakera is the Sangita Darpana, by 
Damodara Misra. This work, according to Aufrecht, consists of seven 
adhyayas — 

I. — SVARAGATADHYAYA. 

II. — Ragadhvava. 
III.- Prakirnakadhvaya. 
IV. — Prabandhadhyaya. 

V. — Padyadhyaya. 
VI. — Taladhyaya. 
VII. — Nrity.\dhyava. 

Damodara took the greater part of his work from the Sangita Ratnakera and 
added a little from other authors and works. Sir William Jones tells us that the 
Pandits of Bengal preferred the Damodara in his time to any of the other 
Sangitas, but that he himself had never been able to procure a good copy of it. 

'' See .Aufreclit's " Catalogus codiconim Manuscriptoruni Ribliotheca; Bodleiana; " (Oxford, 1864), and 
Rajendralala Mitra's Catalogue of the Sanskrit MSS. in the library of H.H. the Maharajah of Bikanir. 
Calcutta, 1880. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERX INDIA. 163 

Here again the question of date must remain doubtful. Tlie onlv information as 
to tlie author appears to be that he was the son of Lakshmidara. Damodara 
mentions thefolhnvint^ authors and works in addition to the Ratnakera — Anginavva, 
Kahnatha, Chudamanni, Pratibhavihisa, Manidurpana, Riiganava, Vinoda, 
Sivakinkara, Sangitanava, Sarodhara, Haribhatta. 

Later than this work is the Sangita Narayana by Xarayana Deva. 

This work eonsists of four parts : — • 

I. — Sangitanirnava. 
II.— Vadyanirnaya. 
III. — Nrityanirnaya. 

IV. — SUDDHAPRABANDHODARANAM. 

The author of this work was the son of Padmanabhai, and a pupil of 
Kaviratna Purushottama-misra. In this work Damodara is frequently quoted, 
Naravana Deva also quotes his master's work " Ramachandrodaya," as well 
as the following authors and works: — Krishnadatta, Kohala, Gitaprakasa, 
Chhandoratnakera, Narada-Sanhita or Sanhita, Panchamasarasanhita, Alam- 
mata author of " Sangitaratnamala," Laksmanabhatta Gitagovindatikavam^ 
S'riromani, Saivasavaswa, Sangitakaumodi or Kaumodi, Sangita Sara, 
Harinayatta. 

Sir William Jones, in his essay on the Musical Modes of the Hindus, 
inclines to the belief that the most \-aluable work that he had seen is the 
Ragavivodha, by Soma Raj. This is a later work than the Ratnakera, which 
is mentioned in it frequently. It consists of five chapters. 

I. — Of S'rutis, their divisions into svaras or notes— of suddha and vikrita notes— of 

octaves, definitions of notes essential to raga [i.e., vadi, samv;idi, &c.) — of gramas — 

of murchanas — how ragas constituted of five, six, or seven notes. 

II. — Of the Vina, and different kinds of vinas, measurement, and general directions for 
making. 

III. — Classification of ragas. 

IV. — The Ragmala or Hst of ragas, with descriptions of each raga personified — hours of day 

appointed for performance of each raga. 

V. — Ragas written in notation, with directions for the performance of each. 

The Sangita Parijata appears to be a very much later work than any 
previously described. The author of this work was Ahobala Pandit, and he 
seems to have been a native of Central India. The belief among pandits in 
India at the present day is that he lived not more than 250 years ago. The 

'•• On the Musical Modes of the Hindus." Sir W. Jones. "Asiatic Researches." Vol. III. Calcutta. 1792. 



i64 THE Mr SIC OF SOrTHKRX IXDIA. 

system described in the Parijata is a description of that practised at the period. 

The contents are as follows — 

I. Benediction upon music in general. 

II. Of svaras or notes. 

III. Of gramas or scales. 

IV. 

'lOf murchanas or permutations of notes, with examples. 

VI. Of methods of tuning. 

VII. Of gamakas, with a minute explanation of about sixty. 

VIII. Of Suddhasvaras (or notes comprising their full complement of s'rutisj and directions for 
tuning the vina. 

IX. Of gita or melody. 

X. Of raga and text of about 122 ragas, with directions for performance. 

An edition of this work was printed at Calcutta in 1879. 

There is a Persian work entitled Tohfuht-ul-Hind, by Mirza Khan. This 
work contains information extracted from the Sanskrit works Raganava, 
Ragadarpana, and Subhavinodha. Of the present existence of these three 
works I have never been able to discover traces ; still, it is to be hoped that 
they may eventually be brought to light. A copy of the Ragadarpana, with 
two works entitled Shams-ul-aswat and Hazar Dhrupad, was brought bv 
Sir W. Jones to England ; but these, with other MSS. that he is said to have 
deposited in the library of the Royal Asiatic Society, cannot be traced. 

The following list of Sanskrit treatises upon music has been carefully 
compiled from catalogues of various Sanskrit MSS., and from information 
supplied by Pandits in different parts of India. Where no reference is made 
under the column of authorities, the information has been obtained from Pandits 
in India and is, perhaps, not always so reliable as the other authorities. When 
copies of any of the MSS. have been printed, the places and approximate dates of 
publication have been given. 

The following abbreviations have been used in the column of authorities. 

BiK = Catalogue of the Sanskrit MSS. in the library of H.H. the Maharajah of Bikanir. 
Rajendralala Mitra. Calcutta, 1880. 

AuF = Catalogus Codicorum Manuscriptorum Bibliothec;e Bodleiana. Th. Aufrecht. 

Oxford, 1864. 

Tan = Classified Index to the Sanskrit MSS. in the Palace at Tanjore. A. C. Burnell. London, 1880. 

Ind= Catalogue of the Sanskrit MSS. in the library at the India Office. Part II. J. Eggeling. 
London, i88g. 

OFP = List of Sanskrit MSS. in Southern India. Dr. Oppert. Madras, 1885. 
Kiel = Catalogue of Sanskrit MSS. in the Central Provinces. L. Kielhorn. Nagpur, 1874. 
Rice = Catalogue of MSS. in Mysore. L. Rice. 

Ben = Catalogue of Buddhist Sanskrit MSS. in the University Library at Cambridge. Cecil 
Bendall. Cambridge, 1883. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN IX DLL 

SANSKRIT TREATISES UPON MUSIC. 



165 



Name of the Work. 


Author. 


Name of the Work. 


Autlior, 


Authority. 






Anandajivana . 

Anupa Sangita Yi- 
lasa with tika 


Eaja Mandana- 
[pala. 

Bhavabhatta 




wfViT .... 


Bik, 1090. 
Bik, 1091. 


\3 


'Sjf 71 .... 


Arj unabharatam 


Arjuna. 




^ptsi.stiniiciciKjiif . 




Ashtottarasata-tala- 
lakslianara 




Tan, p. GO, 12. 


^TTHHT^ .... 


WT^!T^ • • 


Bliaratabhasliyam . 


Nyayadeva. 






«t^gf?r . 


Bharatanatya-sas- 
tram .... 

Bharatalakshanam . 


Bharatamuni. 


Bik, 10'J2. 
Poena, circa 
18S8. 


>TT?r3TT?^ 'RTl'^tf 




Bharatasastra Saii- 
gitam. 






HTTHJITI^ 


T^T^ . . 


Bliaratasastram . 


Raghunatha. 


Tan, p. 60, '.>. 


HTq^z'NrT 


»T^^ ■ ■ . 


Dliraupaclatika . 


Bhavabhatta. 




ntiTT^oFTT: . 


^^H^tT'mrr 


Gitalankara 


Anantanarayana. 




?r?fTT1^?c5^ . 


?T^g .... 


Hastaratnavali . 


Raghava. 


Auf. 483. 


^TTOcirm . . 


^TRTTTTO^^ . . 


Hridayaprakasa 


Hridayanaraya- 
nadeva. 


Bik, 1093. 


cTSqiT^ z\^} ^¥11^ 


'WliJI'^^ 


Kalpataru with tika 
Subodhini 


Ganesadeva. 


Bik, 1094. 


HWHHTff .... 


^r^^rr ht^t . 


Matangabharatam . 


Lakshmanabhas- 




ifcSTftioinT^ajur ■ . 




Meladhikaralaksha- 
nam .... 


[kara. 




H^T^%TmTr3rci;T . . 




Muktavaliprakasika 






^Tc4lH<*l3i: . 


»TT^»T5 . . 




MuralTprakasa . 
Nadadipika . 


Bhavabhatta. 
Bhattacharya. 


Bik, 109.5. 


^e-T^fqciiT 


WgMl5 






^^>TTW 


^f^ . . 




Nandibharata . 


Nandi. 


L. Rice. 


■^TTTr'^fjiHj 


TITT!? . . 




Xaradlsiksha 


Xarada. 


Poena, circa 
1887. 


^t?lfq§^ 


^iO^ T^^ 




Nartananirnaya 


Pundarikavitthala 


Bik, 1096. 


c 


^r^t^HW . 




Nrityadhyayah 


Asokamalla. 


Bik, 1098. 


^Tr^T^oS'f . 


iTOTjfH^^-q 




Nntyaratnavali 


Ganapatidevasena 




i?^»1^T?^f?rn 


^T<.? . 




Panchamasarasam- 










hita .... 


Narada. 


See Anf 480 












2T 



1 66 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



Name of the Work. 


Author. 


Name of the Work. 

1 


1 

Author. 

1 


! 

Authority. 

1 




f^T^J . . . . 


Ragacliandrodaya . 


Tiinala. 




O'l^TTXT 




xirmiiT^TTfiT ofisiTniznq: 


1 


Eagadliyaniidika- 
tliauridhyayali 




Bik, 1099. 


TTmfiT?!n:f^q: . 


t^HIVJ-fTWunT? 


Ragadisvaranirna- 


Raghunatlia Dasa 








yali .... 


Prasada. 




TTH^TK?^ ^»HIinBT^ . 


TT*T=STI!mj 


Raga-kautuliala, 
Nntya-Praktirana 


Ramakrisbna 
bhatta. 


Bik, 1106. 


TTTrtHUlt 




Ragalakshanam 






TiRmon .... 


j??:t5fr Uz^ . . 


Ragamala . 


Pundaiikavittliala 


Bik. 1100. 


T:mjncrr^TTi*T»rp;T 


^*\d^m . 


Ragamalil or Rat- 




Auf. 481, 
lad. p. 319, 






namala 


KNiicmakarana. 


Bik. 1101. 


nnjhTT'^. 


^^"^-^ f^jcs • 


Ragamaiijari 


Pundarikavittliala 


Bik. 1102. 


TTnf?lKm!t . 


TK^ .... 


Raganirupaiiam 


Xarada. 




TinimR 




Ragaprastara . 




Tan p. CO, G. 


TTTTTRT^T 


nvittnr . . . 


Ragaratnakara . 


Gaudbarvaraja. 


Kiel. p. 96, 
Bik. 1129. 


TTmr^g^'bi 


^■^Vt^jt . 


Ragatatvaviljodha . 


Sriuiva.sa. 


Kiel. p. 96, 
liik. 1103. 






Ragaviehtii-a 
Rciga-vibodlia . 
Ragavivcka 


Srirama iiiaHa. 
Somanatba. 


Bik. 1104. 

Auf. 47.5, 
PooTia, circi 

1888. 

Kiel. p. 96. 


F??*»^ H^H^fci=iT:;rf . 




Rudradamaru-bhava 
Siitravivarana 




Bik. 1107. 


niT^TTiMffm?Tt^ 


^•I^cSUfT 


Sangitacliintiimani . 


Kamalolocbana. 


Kiel. p. 96. 


«iftH^im^T: . 


5R^fiT . . . 


° 1 
Sangltadamodara . 


Subbaukara. 


Ind. p. 318, 
Kiel. p. 96. 

Bik. 1108 et 


»in^rT5MlT 


^»ft^r 


Sangltadarpana 


Damodara. 

1 


seq., Auf. 476 
ct sei| , Poona 

circa LS87, 
Calcutta 1879. 


1 


?fT^^H . 


Sangltadarpana 


HarivaUablia. 


Bik. 1110. 


1 


fil«J>JtJT^ . 


Sangitadipika . 


Tippabbupaba. 




«^'irT<*-HrI55 ... 




Sangitakalpataru . 






. -I 


•n 


Sangltaniakarandali 


Veda. 


Bik. 1111. 


flmrmcjid^: . 


^^^TT .... 


Tan. p. GO, 2. 


»inl7rfR»nHT ... 


^«cir§J5f?R?-5- 


Sangitamimamsa . 


Kumbbakarnaiiia- 
Iiiinalic'iidra. 


Kiel. p. 96. 


^^rTTTfi .... 

c 


■iiiHcjscjri'H 


Sangltamritam . 


Kamalabjcbana. 


Kiel. p. 96. 


BTi'^im-grr^?;^ 


^'.JlTjT^ti . 


Sangltaumktavali . 


Devannacbarya. 




w )) • • 


i^J? .... 


)) >y 


Deveudra. 


Bik. 1112. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



167 



Name of the Work. 



TiirffT^TTT'mir . 






Aiitlior. 



Name of the ^Vork. 



Autliov. 












TO^T^ 



^fCHJ 



niTtTR 






Saugitanarayana 

Sangitanarayana 

Sangitaparijata 

Sangitapatlia . 

Sangitapuslipanjal 

Sangitaragliava 

Sangltaraja 

tSangitaratuakara 

Do. tika 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 

Sangitaratnakara . 
Sangitaratnamala . 
Sangitaratuavall . 
Sangitasamayasara . 

Sangitasara-san- 

gralia 
Sangitasanimrita 

Sangitasarvarthasa- 

rasangraha 
Sangitasaroddhara . 

Sangitasaravali 

Sangitasetu 

Sansitasiroinaiii 

Sangitasudlia . 

Sangitasudliakara . 

Sangitasudhakara . 

Sana'itasundara 



Purusliottama- 
uiisra- 

Narayaiiadeva. 
Paudita Aliobala. 



Authoritv. 



Vomabliupala. 

Kumbliakarna. 

Sai-ngadt'va. 

Do. 

Kallinatlia. 

Simlialjliupala 

Kumbliakarna 

nai'eudra. 
Gangarauia. 

Hamsabhupala. 

Vanaraka. 
Mammata. 
Somaraiadeva. 



TulajCudra 



Haribliatta. 



Gautiarama. 



Auf. 480. 

Calcutta I87t). 

Pooiia, circa 

1887. 

liili. U13. 



Kiel. p. W. 

Bik. 1111 et 
;eq., Auf. 171 
et sei)., lud. 
[I. 31o, Calc. 
1879, pt.l only 
Bik. 1120. 



Bik. 1121. 
See Auf. -JSO. 



Rice. 
Tan. p. 60, 4. 

0pp. p. 656. 
B.k. 1123 



Bik. 1124. 



Simliabliupala. 

Haripala. 

Sadasivadiksliita. 



T.68 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 



Nuuiu of tlie Work. 


Autliur. 


Name of the Work. 


.\uthor. 


Authority. 






Sangltasuramrita . 


Maharaja Tuliiji 
Blionsala, Raja 
of TaBJore. 


Tan. p. CO, 4. 


flTTtK l^tl'[■^ -^jffm 


TliJTq RW • • • 


Sangitartarodaya chu- 
damani . . 


Pratapa malla 


Ben. p. 150. 




«VT<*<3?( . . 


Sangita-upanishadha 
Sangitavinoda . 


Sudhakalasa. 


Bik. 1126. 
Bik. 1125. 


c 


f^JoS .... 


Sangitavrittaratna- 
kara .... 


Vittliala. 


Till), p. 60, 8. 


»i=F^jnTTnTw?Tq 




Sanklrnaragadhyaya 






«iTn-«i<;t^^ • 




Saragacliandrodaya 








^Kr[ .... 


Sarasamliita 

Sliadragachandro- 
daya .... 

Srutibliaskara . 


Nclrada. 

Punclarikavittliala 
Bhimadeva. 


Bik. 1128. 


I^TJt^t't .... 




Svaramanjari . 








^^^'i^i: . . . 


Svaramelakaliinidhl 
Talabhinayalaksha- 


Ramamatya. 


Bik. 1130. 


FTc5?3niTri?^f'q^rT 


mf^p^ 


nam .... 
Taladasapranadlpika 


Nandikesvara. 
Goviuda. 


Tan. p. 61, Ifi. 


irr^f^^iif 


' '\^'^*-^X . 


Talalakslianam . 


Nandikesvara. 


Tan. p. GO, 14. 


IfW^H^ .... 


I 


Talaprastain 








f3«t«mc5 . 


Talaprastara 
Taladipika . 


Tippabhupala. 


Tan. p. 60, 13. 
Tan. p. 60, 1.^. 


--)"l'MIMia«HH!t 




Viiiavadyalaksliaiiara : 




TftmraiH 


^W'.V 


Vlraparakrama. . 1 Viisuduva. 


1 






APPENDIX. 

DESCRIPTION OF RAJAH SIR S. M. TAGORE'S S'RUTI VINA. 



[The following minute account of the Rajah Sir S. M. Tagore's S'ruti Vina — 
intended to demonstrate the ancient system of 22 — was kindly supplied by the 

late Mr. A.J. Ellis, F.R.S.] 

AS regards the construction of the instrument, I shall first quote the Rajah 
Sir S. M. Tagore's own words. ^ " We have hit upon another method to 
L ascertain the nature and position of the s'rutis. The method is as 
follows : — Take a sitar or vina, measure the distance between Shaja (C) of the 
Madhya (middle) octave, and Shaja (D) of the next higher octave, in the C of the 
Tara octave. Divide the space between these two C's by putting a dot or line in 
the middle ; put a dot or line on either extremity ; place the note F over the dot or 
line in the middle, the note C on the other extremity of the first half portion of 
the divided space, and the note higher C on that of the second half portion ; 
sub-divide the first half poition into iiitic' equal and the second half portion into 
thirteen equal parts, and put a dot or line to mark off each sub-division. 
Excluding the line marking higher C, there will be in all twenty-two lines. 
Each of these will represent a s'ruti." 

This S'ruti Vina was, in fact, a long-necked sitar rather smaller than usual. 
It had two strings, one of brass and one of steel ; the diameter of the brass 
wire was -3 mm. (millimetres), and that of the steel wire was "24 mm. The 
brass string proved useless, as the frets made the octave quite wrong with it. 
Hence it will be disregarded henceforth. 

The string was nearly horizontal. At starting at the nut it was 12 mm. 
above the finger-board, and at the bridge 13 mm. above the belly, which had 



' "The Twenty-two Musical S'rutis of the Hindus." S. M. Tagore. Calcutta, i885. 



2 U 



170 



THE MUSIC OF SO UT HERN INDIA. 



curved upwards. But the first fret was iih mm. and the hist fret only 2 mm. 
above the finger-board. The string was therefore pressed down onlv i\ mm. 
for the first, but 12I mm. for the last ; consequent!}-, the tension greatly 
increased as we ascended the scale, so that if we had taken the octave at half 
the length of the string it would have been much too sharp. 

There were twenty-three frets to give the s'rutis for one octave, numbered 
one to twenty-three on one side of the finger-board, with letters on the other, 
thus : — 

C DBF G ABc 



I 



I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 g 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 ig 20 21 22 23 

The frets forCDEFGABc were of white metal, the others were yellow. The 
frets were flatly elliptical with hooked ends, round which a piece of gut was tied, 
and then brought about three times under the finger-board, catching the hooked 
ends each time and being firmlv fixed. Each fret was therefore tightly fastened in 
its place, and could not be moved up and down the board without much force. But 
the fret itself could be deflected to the right or left, leaving the hooked ends fixed. 
This was not easy, but was possible. 

Then again the distance by which the string had to be deflected to press it 
on to the fret varied, but not uniformly. The diameter of the frets was difterent, 
but I was unable to measure it, as I could not get my gauge in. However, I 
estimate the white frets at fully 2 mm. in diameter; the others were narrower. 
The tops were rounded and it was difficult to appreciate the middle point, 
but I have endeavoured to measure the distance iVom the middle of one fret to 
the middle of the next. 

The whole length of the string from nut to bridge was go6 mm. The 
bridge was thus shaped, a ^^b B being a ledge cut through for 

the strings, which lay on I I ^~"''--~- ^ the flat part, A B, and the 

sounding length of the ^ — -^ "^"~~' whole string was iVom the nut 

to A, but still the part A B was not firmly fixed and possibly influenced the 
pitch. The part of the string bevond B seemed to be damped by a perforated 
bead which ran on it. 

The note from the first fret was marked C, but taking the pitch of tlie string as 
it was (for we did not venture to screw it up), it made 24i'2 vib., which is not far 
from 244-23, the French pitch of B in the 4-ft. octave, " ^" — : but I adopt the 



names of the notes as marked on the instrument, tr 



In this case the 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERN INDIA. lyi 

whole string gave F in tlie 4-ft. octave, a fifth below the first C and an 
octave below No. 10 fret, marked F, at any rate precisely enough. But the 
whole length of the string was go6 mm., and to the first fret 298 mm., so that 
the sounding length of C, or 608 mm., was only a little more than j of 906 = 604 
mm., the increased tension being here slight. The sounding length for F was 
463 mm., considerably more than 453 = ^ of go6mm., because the string was 7 
mm. above the F fret, which caused an increase of tension that had to be allowed 
for. It is impossible to calculate the effect of these increments of tension which, 
however, served to alter the effect of the lengths considerably. 

The principle followed seemed to be to find the position of the frets i and 2^, 
giving the fifth of the open string and the octave of that fifth, by car only, the 
shape and heights of the frets being assumed. The height of the first fret was, of 
course, as great as possible, and the last as low as possible to avoid jars. In this 
case the fifth is good, but the octave of it, or higher C, is too sharp b\' a trifle 
of 20 cents (one cent = the hundredth of an equal semitone, so that an octave 
has 1,200 cents and a comma 22 cents). The length of string for lower C was 
608 mm., and that for higher c, 316-5 mm., which is much more than half the 
former or 304 mm., and vet the note is too sharp, so great is the distance of 
this strinir, izl mm., from the last fret. 

The distance C c was divided into half at F, and the distance C to F into nine 
equal parts, and F to c into thirteen equal parts by frets ; at least, that was the 
intention. Actually C to F contained 145 mm., of which Jth = 16J, while the 
distances between frets really varied from 15 Mo 16 J-. The distance F to C was 
146^^ mm., of which I'lth is 11 "27 mm., while the distances between the frets varied 
from 9^ to 13.^ mm. as well as I could measure. This gave very varying values 
to the s'ruti intervals. From C to F they varied from 45 to 73 cents, from F to c 
they varied from 37 to 84 cents. The intention, I presume, was to make them 
as nearlv equal as possible or 54tt cents each. 

The pitches of the notes produced were determined on May 21, 1886, by 
Mr. A. J. Hipkins, who tried to touch the frets as evenly as possible, while I 
furnished the forks from mv tuning fork tonometer, the exact pitches of which 
had been accurately determined. By this means Mr. Hipkins was able to count 
the beats between the forks and the notes due to the frets for two or three 
seconds, and then to continue counting at the same rate to complete ten 
seconds. Each pitch was thus determined by two ot my lorks, one sharper and 
one flatter, and there was never so much as half a vibration difference in the 
determinations. When anv difference existed a mean was taken. A scale was 
thus determined which satisfies modern Indian ears. As the s'rutis in it varv 



172 



THE Ml- SIC OF SOUTHERN ISDIA. 



from all the circumstances named, and apparently on no conceivable plan, it is 
evident that it" the mean of all wei'e taken — that is, if a cycle of twenty-two were 

instituted, as I have effected by a series of forks — 
Indian ears would still be satisfied. I have endeavoured 
in the following tabic to bring out all these facts. 

The width of the finger-board was 80 mm., and the 
steel wire was 40 mm. from each edge. 

A set of forks was sent by the Rajah to the Inventions 
Exhibition at the same time as the S'ruti Vina, but as 
they had been tuned by means of sliding weights, 
without any appliance to fi.x them in position, these 
forks were quite useless, for the weights had shifted on 
the journey from India, and, in fact, shifted whenever the 
forks were struck. 



5— 




Tuning pegs. 



Nut. 



Carved ivory dccoratiim. 



6. Tail-pin. 



- 6 

KlCDUCED PLAN OF S'KLTI ViNA. 



THE MUSIC OF SOUTHERX IXDIA. 



173 



Table of the Pitches of the Notes furnished by Rajah Sir S. M. Tagore's 
S'ruti Vina, as determined in 1886 by Messrs. Ellis and Hipkins. 

















Depression 


^i^tA nnmA 


Observed 


Cents from 


f pnt<! frnm 


Cents from 


Vibrations io 


Sounding lengths 


or height of 


and number. 


number of 
vibrations. 


note to 
note. 


lowest note. 


lowest in 
cycle of 22. 


cycle of 22. 
with same C. 


of strings 
in millimetres. 


string above 
fret in milli- 
metres. 


C I 


241-2 


_ 








241-2 


608 


I* 


2 


247-6 


45 


45 


55 


248-9 


592 


3 


3 


257-2 


66 


1 1 1 


log 


256-9 


576 


4 


4 


266-0 


58 


169 


163 


265-1 


559* 


5 


D 5 


274-3 


53 


222 


21S 


273-6 


543* 


5 


6 


281-5 


45 


267 


273 


282-4 


527* 


5 


7 


289-5 


49 


316 


328 


291-4 


512 


6 


E 8 


302-0 


73 


389 


382 


300-7 


495i 


6 


9 


310-3 


47 


436 


436 


310-3 


479 


7 


F 10 


323-0 


69 


505 


491 


320-3 


463 


7 


II 


330-3 


39 


544 


545 


330-5 


451* 


8 


12 


337-8 


39 


583 


600 


34I-I 


441 


8 


13 


349-2 


57 


640 


655 


352-0 


430 


9 


G14 


364-0 


72 


712 


709 


3&3-3 


4172 


10 


15 


371-8 


37 


749 


764 


374-9 


408 


lOi 


16 


384-4 


58 


807 


818 


386-9 


395? 


10^ 


17 


395-3 


48 


855 


873 


399-3 


384* 


lOi 


A 18 


409-6 


62 


917 


928 


412-1 


373 


lOi 


19 


418-5 


37 


954 


982 


425-3 


363I 


lOi 


20 


432-9 


59 


1013 


1036 


438-9 


351 


loi 


B21 


449'3 


64 


1077 


1091 


452-9 


340 


II 


22 


465-0 


59 


1136 


1146 


467-4 


330 


Hi 


C23 


488-0 


84 


1220 


1200 


482-4 


3i6i 


12* 



NOVELLO, EWER AND CO., PRINTERS, LONDON. 



2 X 




' ims®, .-"n'^'A'!*' 






V.^:^^"' 



ML ZOa . D27 

Day, Charles Russell, 1660- 
I 1900- 

The music and musical 
I ±nst.rumeri-te of sout-hern 




l.?0197