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[v\ J s \ xr^ THE 


A quarterly review of current events, literature, and 

thought among Mohammedans and the progress 

of Christian Missions in Moslem lands 



Cairo, Egypt 



London, England 








DR. CHARLES R. WATSON, Chairman MISS J. H. RIGHTER, Secretary 















All-India Moslem Ladies' Conference, The. .Mrs. H. A. Walter 169 

Another Plea for Literature in Vernacular Arabic. . .Percy Smith 351 

Arabia Today, The Politico — Religious Situation in 

C. Stanley G. Mylrea 300 

Arabian Nights to Spirit, From the Duncan B. Macdonald 336 

China, The Present Condition of Islam in A. H. Mateer 77 

Christian Literature for Malaysia Rev. W. G. Shellabear 379 

Christian Literature for Russian Moslems. .Miss Jenny de Mayer 137 

Christians — Mohammed's Controversy with Jews and 

Jospeh D. Byran, B. A. 385 

Christ Superior to Mohammed E. M. Wherry 252 

Constantinople College and the Future of the Near East 

Miss E. A. Thomson 1 56 

Correct Foundations of Religion, The Isaac Mason 268 

Crescent as Symbol of Islam, The. . H. E. E. Hayes 149 

Editorials: Anno Domini 191 9 D. B. Macdonald i 

Chasm, The S. M. Zwemer 1 1 1 

Islam in the New Age...H. U. Weibtrecht Stanton 114 

On Taking Hold of God S. M. Zwemer 221 

Supernational because Supernatural. .. .S. M. Zwemer 4 

Urgency of the Hour, The. .. .Samuel M. Zwemer 331 

Eg>'pt in 1857-1861 Lydia S. McCague 363 

Fiji, Islam in Frank L. Nunn 265 

From the Arabian Nights to Spirit Duncan B. Macdonald 336 

Future of the Near East, Constantinople College and the 

Miss E. A. Thomson 156 

Great Venture in Khorasan, The Dwight M. Donaldson 292 

If I had a Million Dollars James P. McNaughton 369 

Illiteracy Among Indian Moslems H. J. Lane-Smith 132 

Indian Sufi Hymn, An Siraj ud Din and H. A. Walter 122 

Islam in China, The Present Condition of A. H. Mateer 77 

Islam in Fiji Frank L. Nunn 265 

Islam in Siam Paul M. Hinkhousc 142 

Islam in the Philippine Islands Robt. T. McCutchen 230 

Jews and Christians — Mohammed's Controversy With 

Joseph D. Byran, B. A. 385 

Khorasan, The Great Venture in Dwight M. Donaldson 292 

Literature for Turkish Moslems. George F. Herrick 375 

Lure of the Difficult, The Edwin M. Poteat 224 

Makhail Mansur Jas. G. Hunt 19 

Malaysia, Christian Literature for Rev. W. G. Shellabear 379 

Message of Good-Will, The Marie Bashian Bedikian 349 

Mohammed's Controversy With Jews and Christians 

Jospeh D. Byran, B. A. 385 


Mohammendans in Syria During the War Wm. H. Hall 176 

Mohammed Without Camoflage W. H. T. Gairdncr 25 

Moslem Evangelization, Patience in Geo. Swan 117 

Moslem Idea of 'Ilm, The Frea J. Barny 159 

Moslem Ladies' Conference, The All-India. .Mrs. H. A. Walters 169 
Near East, The Constantinople College and the Future of the 

Miss E. A. Thomson 156 

Near East, Woman in the Basil Mathews 240 

Origin of the Moros, The .Chas. S. Lobingier 58 

Patience in Moslem Evangelization Geo. Swan 117 

Philippine Islands, Islam in Robt. T. McCutchen 230 

Politico-Religious Situation in Arabia Today 

C. Stanley G. Mylrea 300 

Prayer for the Times, A "A Veteran Missionary" 6 

Present Condition of Islam in China A. H. Mateer 77 

Reaping the Harvest Today W. T. Anderson 65 

Russian Moslems, Christian Literature for. .Miss Jenny de Mayer 137 

Saint Worship in Turkey Geo. E. White 8 

Siam, Islam in Paul M. Hinkhouse 149 

Symbol of Islam, The Crescent H. E. E. Hayes 149 

Syria During the War, Mohammedans in Wm. H. Hall 176 

Turkey, Saint Worship in Geo. E. White 8 

Turkish Lore, Evil Spirits and the Evil Eye in. .Geo. E. White 179 

Turkish Moslems, Literature for George. F. Herrick 375 

Vernacular Arabic, — Another Plea for Literature in. . Percy Smith 351 

Waning Crescent in Turkey, The Chas. T. Riggs 68 

Wanted : A More Vigorous Policy Arthur J. P. French 247 

Woman in the Near East Basil Mathews 240 


Africa, A German Appeal to Mohammedans in 188 

Aga Khan's Vision of a Greater India, The 189 

Arab Geography, Early 193 

Arabia, Exploration in Central 420 

Arabic Calligraphy 319 

Bakr-id Festival at Calcutta, The 190 

Baptism in Western China 189 

Bible at Port Said, The 423 

Bible in Sumatra, The 324 

Bolshevism — The Koran and 417 

British Red Crescent Society, The 314 

Burma, Islam in 92, 423 

Caliphate, The 326, 424 

Christianity a Failure 88 

Damascus, A Medical Missionary in 323 

Decadence of Islam, The 187 

Early Arab Geography 193 

Egypt — Literary Work in 416 

Egypt, The Strategic Value of 416 

Exploration in Central Arabia 420 

Facilitating the Pilgrimage 420 

Frank Letter and a Reply, A 429 

Future of Palestine, The 418 

Future Palestine : Jewish or Moslem? 91 

German Appeal to Mohammendans in Africa, A 188 

Gospel in Java, The 316 


Great Britian as a Mohammedan Power 325 

Hospitals for Turkey 420 

How to Pray for Moslems 319 

How to Win Back Santa Sophia 314 

How Turks Conduct an Orphanage 324 

Indian Frontier and the War, The 86 

Indian Moslems and Prohibition 323 

Islam in Burma 92, 423 

Islam in Kaifung, China 426 

Islam Not a Creed Only but a Civilization 422 

Java, The Gospel in 316 

Kansu, The Moslems of 95 

Kazan, The Moslem Center of Russia 196 

Key of Paradise" in Popular Islam, "The 417 

Koran and Bolshevism, The 417 

Largest Unevangelized Field, The 327 

Lefroy, Bishop of Calcutta, George Alfred 328 

Literary Work in Egypt 416 

Lest We Offend 316 

Manifesto by Turkish Women, A 315 

Medical Missionary in Damascus, A 323 

Method of Approach in Turkey, The 89 

Mohammedan Appeal to the British Government 321 

Moros of the Philippine Islands, The 194 

Moslem Population of the Philippine Islands 83 

Moslems of the Delta and the Bible 426 

Moslem Work in China, — Special Committee 422 

Moslems of Kansu, The 95 

Moslem Student of Hinduism, A 187 

Need of Special Literature for Chinese Moslems 90 

Neglected Arabia 191 

New Era for Arabia, A 82 

New Era for Palestine, A 84 

New Hospitals for Turkey 423 

New Movement Among Moslems in Abyssinia 92 

North Africa ? Why Pray For 93 

Occupation of Damascus 84 

Offense of the Cross, The 88 

Palestine : Jewish or Moslem ? Future 91 

Philippine Islands, Moslem Population of the 83 

Philippine Islands, The Moros of 194 

Palestine, The Future of 418 

Pilgrimage, — Facilitating the 420 

Pilgrimage to Mecca 83 

Pilgrimage to the Shrine at Najaf, Arabia 86 

Political Position of the Moslem League in India 191 

Port Said, The Bible at 423 

Raymund Lull Home, The 320 

Rebuilding Churches Destroyed by the Turk 318 

Recent Moslem Miracle, A 190 

Risk of Bibles Being Tom Up, The 325 

Russian Moslems 90 

Russia, Kazan the Moslem Centre of 196 

Sahara, War Missions to the 85 

Santa Sophia, How to Win Back 314 

Saint Sophia 425 


Should Arabic be Taught in Government Schools in Nigeria? 91 

Should the Koran be used to Prove Christian Doctrine? 317 

Social Problem, A SU 

Special Committee for Moslem Work in China 422 

Strategic Value of Egypt, The 416 

Sumatra, The Bible in 324 

Sunday Schools for Street Children in Egypt 318 

Syrian — ^American Commerical Magazine, The 422 

Touring in Kansu, China 94 

Turkey, Hospitals for 420 

Turkey, New Hospitals for 423 

Turkish Women, A Manifesto by 315 

Valiant Worker, A 320 

Value of the Vernacular 96 

War Mission to the Sahara 85 

Western China, Baptisms in 189 

Why Pray for North Africa? 93 



Achievements of Christianity, The T. K. Mozley 313 

Armenia, A Martyr Nation M. C. Gabrielian 107 

Asia Minor W. A. Hawley 212 

Aspects of Ancient Arabic Poetry, Some Chas. J. Lyall 210 

Ayeen Akberi, — Gladwins L. F. Rushbrook 435 

Bagdad Mrs. Ashley Carus- Wilson 108 

Bagdad, son chemin de fer, son importance, son evenir. .E. Auble 206 

"Book of the Dove" Bar Habraeus 433 

Beneath the Surface and Other* Stories G. W. Cornish 208 

Bijak of Kabir, The Ahmand Shah 105 

Black Stone, The Geo. Gibbs 311 

Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies: 1918 306 

Charles Chapin Tracy Chas. E. White 310 

Christian Approach to Islam, The Jas. L. Barton 208 

Cyprus Under British Rule C. W. J. Orr 203 

Devil Worship Isya Joseph 309 

Die auf Siidarabien be'ziiglichen Angaben Nashwan's im Shams 

al 'ulum gesammelt Azimuddin Ahmad 211 

Downfall of the Christian Church in North Africa. .L. E. Iselin 199 

Encyclopedia of Islam, The Vol. II. No. XXI 103 

England and Palestine Herbert Sidelbatham 310 

Examples of Various Turki Dialects G. W. Hunter 213 

From Egyptian Rubbish Heaps J. Hope Moulton 209 

Gospel of Matthew in Chinese and Arabic, The 308 

Guide to the Study of Christian Religion, A G. B. Smith 104 

History of Aryan Rule in India from the Earliest Times to the 

Death of Akbar E. B. Havell 206 

Holy Spirit: The Christian Dynamic, The. . .Rev. J. F. Edwards 436 

La Escatologia Musulmana en la Divina Comedia. . Asin Palacios 432 

Life of God in the Life of His World, The Jas. M. Whiton 210 

Life of Mohammed, The (In Chinese) Isaac Mason 437 

Little Daughter of Jerusalem Myriam Harry 440 

List of Chinese-Moslem Terms Isaac Mason 308 

Luzumiyat of Abu'l-'Ala, The Abu'l-'Ala 431 

Madman, His Parables and Poems, The Kahlfl Gibran 430 

Messiahs: Christian and Pagan Wilson D. Wallis 436 


Modern Sons of the Pharoahs S. H. Leider 216 

Mohammedan Law of Marriage and Divorce, The. Ahmed Shukri 198 

Near East From Within, The 204 

Nigeria, The Unknown 213 

Orient Mediterraneen, V A. Duboscq 206 

Primer on Islam, A Samuel M. Zwemer 437 

Qadiani Commentary on the Qu'ran, A 98 

Rage of Islam, The Y. H. Shahbaz 207 

Reconstruction in Turkey Wm. H. Hall 197 

Red Rugs of Tarsus, The H. D. Gibbons 205 

Revolt in Arabia, The Dr. C. Snouck Hurgronje 430 

Revue du Monde Musulman. .La Mission Scientique du Maroc 438 

Revue due Monde Mussulman Vol. XXXIV 313 

Riddle of Nearer Asia, The Basil Mathews 107 

Road Ahead, The Elizabeth Wilson 212 

Sex Worship and Symbolism of Primitive Races. .Sanger Brown 312 

Should America Accept Mandate for Armenia? 307 

South Eastern Europe V. R. Savic 104 

sur L'enseignement dans la Russie Musulman 439 

Switzerland in the East African War Zone J. H. Briggs 203 

Syria and the Holy Land Sir Geo. Adam Smith 208 

Trade, Politics and Christanity in Africa and the East , 

A. J. Macdonald 312 

Tradition Chevalersque des Arabes, La W. B. Ghali 307 

War and Revolution in Asiatic Russia W. Phillips Price 311 

War and the Bagdad Railway, The M. Jastrow 105 

War and the Coming Peace, The M. Jastrow 203 

Woman Under Christanity Shaikh M. H. Kidwai 435 

World Power and Evolution Ellsworth Huntington 307 


Adams 310 McCutchen, Robt. T 230 

Anderson, W. T 65 McNaughton, James P 369 

Barney, Fred J 107, 159 Macdonald, D. B... i, 211, 336 

Bedikian, Marie Bashian... 349 Mason, Isaac 268 

Blackmore, J. T. C 93 Mateer, K. H 77 

Bryan, Joseph D 385 Mathews, Basil 240 

St. John, Mrs. Burton. . 105, 307 Mayer, J. de 137 

Christ-Socin, Dr. H 199 Mylrea, C. Stanley G 300 

Donaldson, D. M 292 Nunn, Frank L 265 

E. I. M. B Poteat, Edwin M 224 

107, 108, 212, 213, 312 Riggs, Chas. T 68 

Elder, E. E 198 Sell, Edward 98 

French, A. J. P 267 Shellabear, Rev. W. G 379 

G 207 Siraj un din ^ I22 

Gairdner, W. H. T 2S Smith, Percy 351 

Hall, Wm. H 176 Stanton, H. W. Weitbrecht. . 

Hayes, H. E. E 149 114, 203 

Hcring, Hollis W 311 Swan, Geo 117 

Hcrrick, George F 375 Thomson, E. A 156 

Hinkhousc, Paul M 142 Tisdall, W. St C 213 

Hunt, Jas. G 19, 216 Walter, H. A 122 

L. S. R 104 Walter, Mrs. H. A 169 

Lane-Smith, H. J 132 Wherry, E. M 252 

Lobingcr, Chas. S 58 White, Geo. E 8, 179 

McCaguc, Lydia S 363 Zwemer, Samuel M. 4, iii, 331 


Now An Aiv)stle of Jcstts Christ 

The Moslem World 

VOL. IX JANUARY, 1919 NO. 1 


Anno Domini 19 19 

It is no empty rhetoric to say that in the past few 
months an epoch has been marked in the history of the 
Moslem East. Whether there remain any independent 
Turkey or not, the period of the Ottoman Turks has 
passed as passed those of the Fatimids, the Kurds and 
the Mongols; the Pan-Turanian dream is melting like 
morning mists. It may be that we are moving towards 
a new Arab period; but along with it, we may be cer- 
tain, the principle of nationality has come to rule. Pan- 
Islam has now no meaning but one of sentiment and 
religion. And as dreams fly so the fulfillments of 
other dreams arrive. Dreams of Crusaders, but ful- 
filled with what strange differences; dreams of European 
Ghettos but again how transformed; dreams of desert 
Arabs, now peacefully holding Damascus, for whose 
plunder they have looked for centuries; dreams of the 
Druses of the coming of their kinsfolk from England, 
but not in the red coats of tradition; dreams of' all the 
little subject peoples, living still though crushed through 
centuries, and with them of crypto-Christians, crypto- 
Jews, crypto-Pagans, nourishing their old Faiths in 
generations of secret tradition. And what scenes have 
risen, like apocalyptic figures of doom and promise 
for a new word : Australian troops riding in the lands 
of the Sons of the East and charging besides the spear- 
men of the Desert, French cavalry streaming up the 
Syrian coast past Acre before which Napoleon failed; 
Turks and Teutons driven in rout by men of England 
and India across the plain of Armageddon and down 
the passes to the fords of the Jordan, whither fled the 
army of Sisera before Deborah and Barak; the pipes 


of the Scottish clans heard in the streets of Baghdad 
and tuned by the waters of Babylon; the waters of 
the Caspian, crossed not by English merchants as in 
the days of Elizabeth, but by an English army. These 
are visions, surely, to tell, if not of a new heavens, at 
least of a new earth. For the old things have passed 

And what now of this new world? It is most eri- 
dently a world of hope, a world of life, a world of 
freedom. Ten years ago there echoed in the hearts 
of many of us the words of the Scottish poet of the 
War of Independence: — 

"Ah, freedom is a noble thing; 

Freedom makes men to have liking — " 
and it seemed before our eyes in Turkey that men 
were "having liking" again. But that quickly passed. 
Now it is for all friends of the Moslem peoples and 
of the Nearer East to see to it that it abides. That may 
not be easy. The awful object-lessons of the present 
chaos of Russia, and even of China, are before our 
eyes and are a standing warning against trust in 
formulae and quick methods. The history of Syria, 
and even of Mesopotamia, is not an encouraging one. 
Arabia has always gone its own way, or rather ways, 
and will continue to do the same. In Asia Minor and 
the Caucasus the medley of races and nationalities, 
of religions and rites, will call for the most careful 
sorting out. But there, too, the separate districts have 
an instinct of self-government and will follow and 
apply it once they are secure against the plundering 
over-lordship of a dominant race or religion. Infinite 
patience and principle of festina lente must be the 
governing thoughts for those who have actually to 
labour on these problems. 

But for us, for that world of Christian workers and 
thinkers for whom this Magazine is written there is a 
simpler yet longer task. Our part in the new life, our 
share in the new hope, our use of the new freedom 
must be to see that faith in God and in the divine 
destinies of man does not vanish in these cataclyms 


and revolutions and that the commission to the Church 
of Christ to preach the Gospel of the Kingdom of 
God is carried out in its fullness. For the task of the 
missionary is changing and becoming, if that be possi- 
ble, deeper and more necessary. Very often he has now 
not only to preach Christ but to preach God; he has 
to combat materialism and atheism and not the imper- 
fect faith of Mohammed alone. Our western civiliza- 
tion is sweeping over the East in material forms and 
with resistless force; our education is spreading cold 
theories of science and crass phases of philosophy which 
we have ourselves outgrown, the doubts and scepticisms 
of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries in 
Europe are capturing the oriental mind. The Christian 
Church, then, must accompany this material civiliza- 
tion and put a soul into it, even as it itself is the soul of 
our own life. From this there can be no turning back 
and no slackening; otherwise the last state of these lands 
will be worse than the first. 

To aid in that high endeavor — that adventure of 
the Christian Church — is the object of this Magazine. 
It exists for the Christian world which takes thought of 
the Moslem world, and it asks all in the Christian 
world to aid it with interest, with contributions — 
scholarly, practical, devotional — and with recommenda- 
tions to others that its circle may be extended and its 
influence widened. It seeks to be a clearing-house for 
missionary experiences and studies and in every way 
to make more intelligible the world of Islam. It 
believes that only by deeply sympathetic study and sound 
knowledge can we learn to do our part by that world. 
And so, with this challenge to all missionaries and 
friends of missions to Islams, it now goes to meet this 
momentous New Year. 

D. B. Macdonald, 


The War has brought many back to God and prayer. 
It has shown that neither education, culture, science, 
diplomacy or social theory can itself bring blessing to 
mankind. We are now contending for an idealism 
that is supernational because based on the supernatural. 
Only God can make His world safe for Democracy and 
only His kind of Democracy is safe for the world. 

Military victory of itself will not produce the new 
era of brotherhood for which we hope and pray. The 
War someone has said, "is a solemn protest that this 
world is not a mere aggregation of nations, but a 
compressed neighborhood of interwoven interests and 
aspirations." Unless after the War we can rise above 
mere national interests and programs to those that 
are universal because supernational, the battle of the 
allies for Democracy and the rights of smaller nations 
will have been fought in vain. It is possible that 
some of those whom we now count our enemies may 
be in the list of the weaker nations after the War. 

Christianity has always claimed to be supernational 
because it is supernatural in its origin and effect. The 
great commission as given in three of the gospel narra- 
tives is expressed in world wide terms only because 
He who gave it claimed supreme authority and super- 
natural power. We must never, therefore, give final 
consent to any measure or method which stamps the 
missionary enterprise as a mere national one. It is 
fundamentally international; it breaks through every 
race barrier, prejudice and hatred, proclaiming the 
solidarity of the race and the universality of redeeming 
Love. Paul did it on Mars Hill and we must do it 
on the smoking battle fields of Europe and Asia. This 
does not preclude loyalty, patriotism and sacrifice to 


the utmost for the cause we believe to be just; but it 
includes more. It includes the hope which the Society 
of Friends and a large number of Swiss and Swedish 
Christians expressed in a memorial: 

''In the- full assurance that we plead for Christ's Truth 
and Right we lift up our weak voice and, notwith- 
standing all that might frighten us in facing the future, 
express the following hope. That after the end of this 
war all those who will have deciding influence in the 
reorganization of affairs will acknowledge in fact and 
in principle the nonpolitical and the super-national 
character and freedom of movement and action in mis- 
sionary work as a purely Christian undertaking. A 
treaty of peace not bearing this character would fail, 
to bring about the peaceful relationship of nations in 
Christian co-operation. Consequently it would bear 
the burden of a heavy guilt, which would produce new 
evil." They go on to say that it remains with the 
Christians of all countries to watch over their personal 
attitude toward missions lest it lose the genuine founda- 
tion of faith under the stress of national sentiment, and 
to guard against this danger by repentence and prayer. 

The chasm made by the war between Christians can 
only be bridged by those who are in vital union with 
the super-national and super-natural Christ. Under 
the shadow of His cross and in the light of His 
countenance there is no East or West, no breed or 
birth, no friend or foe. To love our enemies is difficult 
because it is super-natural. It requires all the funda- 
mental graces, faith, hope and love. This fruit of the 
Spirit is exotic and grows only in the garden of 
God. This Love Divine bridged the chasm between 
Jew and Gentile; Peter and Cornelius; Stephen and 
Saul of Tarsus; Raymond Lull and the Moors; Henry 
Martyn and the mullahs of Shiraz. It will enable the 
Armenian martyr remnant to preach Christ's love to 
Turk and Kurd. Will it not enable us also to take up 
the broken-off, but not abandoned Edinburgh and Luck- 
now programs and reunite our spiritual forces for 
world conquest? 


A united front is still possible in the realm of 
Islamic scholarship, witness the Encyclopedia and many 
other books published or translated in Germany and in 
neutral countries during the war. Shall it prove im- 
possible in the realm of prayer and Christian missions? 
The Evangelization of the Moslem world is a super- 
national and super-natural task. We believe this in 
spite of all the dreadful exposures of intrigue, espion- 
age, secret diplomacy, racial hatred and proclamations 
of "Holy War'' that have been made during the last 
four years. Because we face a new era we need a 
new spirit. More than ever we need the co-operation 
of all the forces of Christianity in the conflict with 

Samuel M. Zwemer. 


By a Veteran Missionary in Turkey 

Almighty and most merciful God, our Heavenly 

We offer Thee our most humble and hearty thanks that 
Thou has invited us to call Thee Father, that Thou dost 
permit us to claim kinship with Thee. We wonder at 
this condescension. We bow before Thee in worship 
and adoration, in deep penitence but also in the boldness 
conferred by Thy word of promise. We rejoice in the 
knowledge that as Thou are the Father of all men then 
all men are brothers, members of one great family of 
which Christ is the Head. Wonderful is the patience 
and compassion Thou has ever shown to thine ignorant 
and erring children. We thank Thee for a love so deep 
and strong that Thou has given Thyself in the person of 
Jesus Christ thy well beloved to lead men back from their 
unfilial wandering into communion and fellowship with 

We thank Thee that millions of copies of the Gospel 
message, — of that Word which Thou hast declared shall 
not return unto Thee void, — have been read by Moslems 
in their own language for these many years. 


We pray that the Holy Spirit may at this time bring 
the Word of life into saving touch with the mind and 
heart of every reader. Give, we pray Thee, to every 
soul to whom the Holy Spirit has spoken the courage 
openly to confess Jesus as Saviour and Lord. 

We pray that the influence already exerted by the lives 
of Thy servants who have lived among Moslems may 
prove good seed which shall yet spring up into a harvest 
of souls saved. We pray that Thou wilt overrule all 
the events of the great world war, all the comradeship 
of Christian and Mohammedan in camps and on fields 
of battle and the witness borne among them by the great 
army of Armenian martyrs to disarm prejudice and 
remove misunderstanding and give to Moslems truer 
visions of Christ and of Christianity. 

We pray that Thou wilt greatly increase the number of 
young men and young women who shall listen to Thy call 
to serve Thee in giving their lives to the work of intelli- 
gent and sympathetic ministry to Moslems in Eastern 

May we all live, work and pray with a devotion born 
of love to Jesus and to those for whom He died so deep 
and fervent that we shall feel sure there can be no service 
in the immortal life better than that we are called to 
here of bringing our brothers of the religion of Islam to 
a true knowledge of Jesus Christ and to vital faith in 

We thank Thee, O Father, that we may have any, even 
the least share in the blessed work our Saviour came into 
the world to accomplish and has committed to those who 
love Him to proclaim, namely, the redemption and sal- 
vation of all our human race. 

Be with us all the days as Thou hast promised, O 
blessed Saviour, till this great work is fully accomplished. 


When the thought of God suggests to the mind a 
being so far away and surrounded with such a retinue 
as to be inaccessible to ordinary mortals, the human heart 
fixes its hope upon saints as intercessors. The common 
Anatolian Turk habitually offers his most earnest prayers 
in the name of some of these saints, is an unquestioning 
believer in their effective intercession, and in the stress 
of an emergency is quite as prone to worship at a sacred 
grave as in a mosque. The people have a strong sense 
of unworthiness before God and of helplessness in the 
affairs of life. True, the idea of sin emphasizes mis- 
fortune quite as much as guilt, but conscience is at work, 
penalty is recognized as deserved, and the judgment bar 
is anticipated with dread. Human life in the Orient is 
beset with hard experiences. Death is possible any hour. 
It is not uncommon to find an average of one sick person 
in every house of a village. Crop failure may be fol- 
lowed by grim hunger; delayed or scanty rains mean 
drought; accident, robbery, pestilence, war, disease 
among the cattle or other disaster, may take place any 
day, and their prevention belongs to powers beyond those 
that are human. The life of an Anatolian rustic is som- 
bre, as may be seen from the fact that for one major 
scale in C he chants his peasant songs in more than twenty 
minor scales in which G is the predominant note. 

In Oriental custom a favor is not asked directly of 
the person who alone has the right to grant it, but the 
petition is presented through some intermediary party. 
Requests come to the officials of Church and State through 
parties supposed to have such influence with the real 
authorities that their presentation of the petitions will 
ensure their success. Possibly as a heritage from some 
period of polytheism, the simple Turks of Asia Minor 
people the earth with number of beings who once were 



men, each of whom is now in his grave, has a sphere of 
influence around his tomb, takes an active interest in the 
affairs of men, especially of his retainers, and has a great 
degree of influence with the Almighty, which influence 
he can by proper means be brought to exercise on behalf 
of his suppliants. My friend, the mufti of our town, 
explained to me the intercession of a saint as similar to 
the introduction of a friend in this world. "Suppose you 
are acquainted with the governor and I am not. You 
conduct me into the presence of the great man, tell him 
that I am your friend, and request him to hear me for 
your sake, and of course your introduction will gain fav- 
orable attention to my case." 

The tomb of a reputed saint is often set off by a rough 
enclosing wall, and is sometimes covered by a building. 
The occupant is termed an evliya (plural of the Arabic 
vely or wely). The site is frequently "on a high hill" 
and "under a green tree," just as was so often the case in 
the Old Testament times and countries. Many are in 
secluded spots, but every worshipper is welcomed. In 
and near a city evliyas are abundant. One saint has the 
reputation of curing headache; another stomach-ache; 
another, tooth-ache. Some are good for weak eyes. At 
one such spot it is the prescribed custom to burn pine 
fagots and rub the eyes with the soot, while at another 
one must wash his eyes in the water of a fountain close at 
hand. One is visited by persons hard of hearing, another 
by anyone whose mouth is awry. In the latter trying 
condition the suppliant pays a small fee, and is slapped 
on the mouth by the attendant with the slipper of the 
deceased saint. Certain graves are much resorted to 
by barren women, who desire children, as Hannah visited 
Shiloh, (I Sam. 1:9-11); to others children are taken 
who cannot properly walk, or talk, or who seem deficient 
or belated in the use of some ordinary faculty. 

The ceremonies at such shrines are simple, and vary 
with local customs and with the worshipper's sense of the 
fitness of things and of the urgency of his case. There is 
of course a prayer, "uttered or unexpressed," understood 
to be offered to the Almighty through the medium of the 


saint. Sacrifice is common. Earth taken from beside a 
sacred tomb is called ^'precious," and is supposed to 
possess great efficacy. This seems to be on the principle 
of sympathetic magic. The dust having been in contact 
with or close proximity to the holy man has partaken of 
his virtues and retains his power. A little of such earth 
is mixed with water and smeared upon the person of a 
child ailing or in any way deficient, or the child is made 
to drink the muddy water. One general panacea for the 
sick is to bring earth from a sacred grave, dissolve it in 
water, and give it to the patient to drink. It is more in 
keeping, however, for the patient, if possible, to walk, 
ride, or be carried to the sacred spot, to ofifer his petition 
there in person, and to smear the "precious" earth on his 
body, or to swallow it moistened with water. To fertilize 
a field, or rid it of pests like mice, handfuls of earth are 
taken from beside the tomb of the saint, whose living 
representatives collect the farmer's religious dues, and the 
"precious" earth is sprinkled over the soil. Another way 
of approaching the being once human, but now having 
access to the superhuman realm, is especially employed 
by those who are afflicted w4th malaria, or with some of 
the other sorts of fever prevalent in a country where 
sanitary science is yet almost absent. This consists in 
tying a rag or a bit of rope or hair taken from the person 
to the fence or wall about the grave or to a tree standing 
near. Horseshoes and nails are also driven into the trees, 
constituting a visible, tangible, permanent bond between 
the suppliant and the saint. 

Men fear to steal or commit other depredation within 
or near such sacred precincts. I once climbed over the 
log enclosure around a grave to pick some Alpine violets, 
those early harbingers of spring. A friendly passer-by 
advised me to get out, lest the offended "lier" there 
should kick me out. Trees are not cut from a grove made 
sacred by the presence of an evliya, lest the wood fly back 
to its place in the night, or lest the wood-cutter's house 
burn before morning. Even sticks brought home by 
children are sometimes carried back by an old granny 
before night, lest some "stroke" overtake the dwelling or 


its inmates. This fear, however, has been very useful in 
retaining some trees on the mountains, which are fast be- 
ing deforested to the serious damage of the plains and 
valleys below. In the event of death, however, wood 
may be cut from even the most sacred grove for the pur- 
pose of making a cofEn. 

To their own people and to reverent worshippers these 
"lords many and gods many" are held to be indispensable 
protectors and kind benefactors. Immigrants from the 
province of Shirwan in Russia are unwilling to settle 
more than six hours distant from the grave of Hadji 
Hamza in Amasia, because their great hoja promised 
his intercession for all his people living within six hours 
of his burial-place when they come before the Judge 
of all the earth. Strange whims are attributed to these 
characters. For instance, a woman once related to us 
how Hadji Veli, their village patron, could not endure 
the color of red, nor the sound of a drum. As a conse- 
quence the village women forego the beauty of red 
dresses, the color they love best, and they never beat a 
drum there, even at a wedding. 

One summer day, beside a clear, cold mountain spring, 
I fell in with a man who talked familiarly, almost lov- 
ingly, of the dedes, the venerable religious characters 
entombed here and there upon the sunny mountain slopes 
about. The enclosure of one grave, he told me, was 
built by deer, who brought the material on their backs for 
the purpose. At another of the graves, miles away across 
the valley, a camel was formerly sacrificed every year. 
Then, becoming interested as I listened, he related how 
the dedes occasionally fire a cannon, and how he had 
once plainly heard them on the very spot where we then 
were sitting, the echo of the great guns booming from 
peak to peak around. On going to the city he found at 
least ten men who had heard the same cannonading, 
and all were sure that something portentious was at 
hand. My informant was then a soldier under arms, 
and in just a week came news of the Greek war of 
1896, with orders for the troops to leave for the front. 


And the men went with light hearts, for they felt that 
God and the saints were stirring in their behalf. 

On another day a party of us visited the grove and tomb 
of Chal Dede, Saint Chal — a spot to kindle the imagina- 
tion of the most prosaic. Picture to your mind's eye a 
mountain peak 1500 feet above the fertile plain unrolled 
like a map below; lower peaks separated by winding 
valleys round about; over yonder Bulak Mountain, 
crowned with the ruins of an ancient castle; the mis- 
sionary compound in sight in the city a dozen miles away, 
where 500 young people gather to attend the schools in 
term time ; the rain-clouds rolling up from the valley of 
the historic Halys river over there to the west; a pine- 
grove below our feet, with the cool breeze soughing up 
through the trees; the flattened top of the grassy hill offer- 
ing accomodation for a concourse of hundreds or even 
thousands of people; and in the center of the greens- 
ward the tomb of the Shia saint, Chal Dede. 

A substantial stone wall about forty feet square en- 
closed the little low building within which was the tomb. 
This last was perhaps three feet high by six feet long, and 
was a whitened sepulchre plastered outside. The outline 
of a neck and head of plaster at the west indicated the 
head of the saint, and a string of 99 beads was hanging 
around this neck to be run through the fingers of a wor- 
shipper while repeating the "beautiful names" of God. 
A cloth of green was thrown over the tomb, and a tur- 
ban of the same sacred color was wrapped about the 
headpiece. The walls were stained with the smoke of 
many candles burned in reverence. 

Our guide, a Sunnite Turk, at once began to pray, 
prostrating himself toward the south, the direction of 
Mecca, and intoning over such standard phrases as, "God 
is great," "There is no god but Allah," and the like. He 
wiped his eyes with the green cloth from upon the tomb, 
remarking that they were diseased, and he hoped the saint 
would help them. He tore a rag from his ragged clothes 
and added another to the many rags tied to nails in the 
wall. He took dust from the grave-side and rubbed it 
on his forehead. Then, as the rain-clouds discharged 


their contents, our Turk explained that Chal Dede is 
one of the beloved of God and is of great mercy toward 
men. The region belongs to him. No man can cut a 
tree from the grove, or carry away stones or earth with- 
out the risk of incurring his displeasure and some conse- 
quent penalty. The trespasser may die, or fall sick or 
paralytic, or his cattle be stricken with disease, or his 
crops fail. Chal Dede roams about at will, especially 
by night, visiting other dedes, his friends, and inspecting 
things generally. He sews, — and the speaker directed 
our attention to a needle and thread always kept hanging 
on the wall, — and makes presents of garments where they 
are least expected, or he repairs rents in the cloth thrown 
over his grave. 

"So," continued the Turk simply, "my dead father and 
mother revisit my house every Friday night. I cannot see 
them, but they are there, and inspect my dwelling to see 
whether there is sin there or right conduct, whether we 
quarrel or are at peace. Just so every man has a record- 
ing angel looking over his shoulder, who puts down all 
his acts and utterances, whether good or bad, and at the 
end the account is struck, and according to the balance, 
one goes to heaven or hell. Yes," he went on in response 
to a question, "we pray in the name of Jesus, for we have 
many prophets and Jesus is one of them. He was a good 

Let me relate the following incident as indicating how 
much of their real religion typical Moslems and typical 
Christians in the Orient hold in common. Much of it is 
not found in either the Bible or the Koran. On one occa- 
sion I accompanied some hospitable Armenians on their 
annual midsummer excursion to celebrate the festival of 
Vartevar on Cross Mountain. They relate that in the 
generation of our Lord one of his disciples, Andrew or 
Bartholomew, was on a preaching tour and came to the 
neighborhood of this mountain. Finding most of the 
people heathen, he prayed that a strong tree which they 
worshipped might be uprooted as a sign. This was done, 
and many believed in the evangelist and his message. 
Then he was told that a Christian hermit living on the 


mountain had died under persecution, and he went thither 
to give that early martyr a Christian buriah The hermit, 
named Pagham, which is the Armenian for Balaam, had 
possessed a splinter of the true cross, and under the agony 
of persecution, lest the holy relic should be abused, he 
had cast it from him, when, lo, on the spot where it 
struck, a beautiful spring gushed forth. 

In the natural amphitheatre, just under the highest 
ridge of Cross Mountain, there is now this spring of clear 
cold water, about which on their annual excursion the 
people encamp, while the alleged grave of the martyr 
hermit, enclosed by a rough wall of unhewn stones, is 
shown on the summit of the ridge above. On the occa- 
sion of our visit we found a large tent, with six crosses 
wrought in red upon its sides, fitted up to serve as an 
Armenian church. A priest was in attendance. A busy 
crowd was gathering for a three days' camp meeting, and 
constructing rough lodges out of stones or out of such 
substitutes for tents as they had brought. A flock of 
sheep suitable for sacrifice stood awaiting purchasers, 
and would be entirely disposed of before the ceremonies 
were done. People assemble from the towns and villages 
about on Friday, belated comers arriving on Saturday; 
they remain over Saturday; the festival reaches its height 
during the morning hours of Sunday, and toward evening 
of the same day people scatter to their homes, having 
given three days to the celebration by having given parts 
of three separate days, on the same system of reckoning 
employed in the Old and New Testament. Armenians 
might celebrate the festival of Vartever on any mountain 
in commemoration of our Lord's Transfiguration, or be- 
side any spring or stream in commemoration of the Flood 
of No^h, but they assemble on the mountain of the Cross 
because of the martyred saint buried on its highest ridge. 
Vows registered at any crisis of life all through the year 
are redeemed by prayer and sacrifice at the annual pil- 
grimage to the shrine of the saint and by dipping in the 
waters of his sacred pool. 

A venerable Greek priest and his wife, whose parish is 
not far from the tomb and monastery of St. Chrysostom, 


once called at my home, and in the course of our conver- 
sation described the sanctity ascribed by Turks as well as 
Christians to the locality where the great preacher died 
and was buried. The earth of a field near the monastery 
is of a peculiar reddish color, attributed locally to the 
stain of the holy blood supposed to have been shed there. 
Wonders are performed at the tomb. This couple had 
eight children one after another, and lost them all in 
infancy or early childhood. Then came a son whose 
legs were -weak, and when a year and a half old he was 
taken by the anxious parents to many places of ^Visita- 
tion," and many remedies were tried. Finally the mother 
took the child and rubbed him bodily on the tomb of 
Chrysostom, and he suddenly straightened up his limbs 
with new vigor. He grew strong, and since then three 
children have grown to mature years in that home. 

The inhabitants of Sinope whether Turks or Greeks, 
are a sea-faring people, in keeping with the character of 
the city since the earliest years. Turkish sailors in a 
storm call upon Noah to protect them. The whole Greek 
community honors St. Nicholas, the patron saint of sail- 
ors along the coasts of the Levant, while the Greek fisher- 
men trust in St. Andrew, who was himself a fisherman. 
Tradition holds that Andrew visited Sinope as an evan- 
gelist, that he lost a finger which was cut off by perse- 
cutors and was later kept as a relic in the metropolitan 
church "at the gate of the city." When St. Andrew's 
day comes around, the fishermen contribute to a fund 
with which wheat, sugar and flour are bought as materals 
for cakes or sweet bread. These cakes are cooked, con- 
secrated in the church, and then part is eaten by the con- 
tributing fishermen and their friends, but part is kept and 
carried to sea in the boats. Then in case of a storm when 
the sea is rough, crumbs of the cake are sprinkled on the 
waters in the name of St. Andrew with an appeal for his 
protecting care. 

As a rule, every Oriental church in our region is 
founded in the name of some saint whose name is listed 
in the calendar. The Virgin Mary has perhaps more con- 
gregations than any other one, but St. Nicholas, St. 


George, St. Nishan, St. John the Baptist and others are 
among the favorites. When the annual "day" of any 
given church is reached, its congregation prepares for a 
great celebration. A drove of sheep appears, individual 
members buy some of the animals for sacrifice, and the 
church as an institution gets enough more to ensure an 
adequate number. One and another contribute to the 
common fund, and the expense is all made up. On the 
morning of the "day" the sheep are killed with sacrificial 
rites, rice and unleavened bread are cooked as accomp- 
panying food, and the people of the community partake 
of the meal, picnic style, in the name of their saint 
Friends and neighbors for miles around watch for the 
annual celebration, and present themselves at the set 
time to satisfy their hunger from the abundant supply. 
Dishes of the food may be sent to every house of the parish 
if the quantity suffices, and by special arrangement por- 
tions are often sent to absent members of the community, 
or to those who have moved and permanently settled 
elsewhere. A present to the treasury of the church is 
usually made in return for such a favor, and thus people 
are united with each other in their worship and religious 
life through the common bond with the saint into whose 
special community they entered at birth, and who is their 
representative before God. This food is counted very 
"health-giving" because of its character as sacrificial and 
because of the prayers that are "read" over it in blessing 
before its distribution. 

So far as possible, the whole round of life is put under 
the care of guardian saints. A child born on or near the 
annual festival of some saint is given his name, and always 
regards himself as under his tutelage. One Mohamme- 
dan authority informed me that the mother of Moses was 
named Johanna, and that if in any difficulty a person 
would just speak her name, "Johanna, Johanna," it would 
make things go easier. Every dervish claims that the 
"proofs" which he offers of his acceptance with God 
and so of his freedom from ordinary laws, such as chew- 
ing live coals, lapping red-hot iron, thrusting skewers 
through the flesh, whirling, sword-play, and all without 


pain to himself, are due to the power of the "Pir," or 
Founder of his Order. The Pir lived many generations 
ago, but his virtue has been transmitted through succeed- 
ing superiors down the years, and from the higher to the 
humbler ranks of Dervish membership, until the last 
performer is reached. 

Living men may have a reputation for sanctity and 
power similar to that ascribed the dead, though usually 
it is rather less in degree. Distance lends enchantment, 
and flaws of character are forgotten as the graves grow 
mossy. The Kurds, the wild mountaineers descended 
from the Carduchoi of Xenophon and the Ten Thousand, 
call their religious head a sheikh. These people have 
many of the simple virtues of men who live an out-of- 
door, rough-and-ready sort of life, and especially they 
treat their own women with more respect than is the 
case with regular Mohammedans. When the sheikh ap- 
proaches one of his villages, two men lead before him the 
finest stallion they can command, which they allege is 
ridden by an angel forerunner. The sheikh himself rides 
a gentler and more sure-footed mule. A herald reads aloud 
proclamation before the approaching great man, who is 
escorted by almost the whole population of the place. 
On alighting, he is offered water with which to wash his 
feet, and after he has performed this ablution the people 
carefully preserve the water and mix it in their bread 
dough. His virtue should be contagious and pass with 
his blessing to his people by means of the water in which 
his person has been laved. Likewise, when he drinks, he 
is careful not to drain the cup, but having taken part of 
the liquid he hands the rest to the by-standers, who receive 
the remainder with almost sacramental reverence. Thus 
also when he partakes of food, that which is left in the 
dishes is divided and eaten by the retainers of his feudal 
brotherhood, not only as a common bond but as impart- 
ing the divine favor which belongs to their religious head. 
The heart of the ordinary Shia, quite as much as that 
of better educated Sunnis, lives and moves in his saints, 
alive or, — better, — dead, who are his daysmen with God 
Most High. One crisp fall day I went a mile or two 


from home for a picnic with some members of my family. 
The place was on the slope of Khudderluk, the peak of 
St. Elijah, where a sacred grave is shaded by a cluster of 
trees, and these in turn are watered by a clear mountain 
spring. Some woodmen had thrown down their burdens 
and were resting there as we approached. Along with 
them was another young fellow with a chicken lying on 
the ground beside him. When there was a chance for a 
chat I inquired if he was sick. He replied that there was 
sickness at home, and went on to tell how the children of 
his village were sick and dying of scarlet fever, many of 
them. It was Friday and the stricken parents had ar- 
ranged a big sacrifice at their nearest shrine, and offering 
being an ox. But he had walked fourteen miles to appeal 
to another saint of his own Shia faith with his own little 
sacrifice, as an alternative to or in reinforcement of the 
community sacrifice at home. Possibly other individuals 
had scattered out to other shrines in the country about, 
each with a similar offering. While we were lunching 
he picked up his chicken, walked about the grave, killed 
it and poured out its blood at the head of the enclosure, 
and then started off on his long walk home. Of course 
we spoke of medicine, isolation of the sick, and the serv- 
ices of the mission hospital in sight across the plain, but 
ideas connected with such topics penetrate slowly. Peo- 
ple are hard of heart and slow of understanding, even as 
in the days of the one Mediator, who meets the needs of a 
superhuman intercessor, our all-sufficient Saviour. 

George E. White. 

An Apostle of Christ 

"Princes shall come out of Egypt" Ps. 68:31 

In the death of Makhail Mansur, Egypt's most prom- 
inent convert from Islam and most able worker among 
Moslems, there passed out from our midst a man of 
princely bearing and of princely soul. His unique 
character and career have made his name familiar 
to many beyond the bounds of his own land. 

It is now a quarter of a century since Mohammed 
Mansur, as he was then known, completed a twelve 
years' course in El Azhar University in Cairo and 
returned to his home in upper Egypt. Barely more 
than twenty years of age, he had attained the rank 
of a learned sheikh and was honored by all. He had 
been a brilliant student, often surpassing his teachers. 
He had made himself master of the Arabic language 
and literature as well as the Koran. He used to tell 
with amusement that in those days he had so steeped 
himself in classical Arabic that when he asked a simple 
question of a boy in the street of his native town one 
day, the lad looked blank, and said, "I don't know 

Up till this time he had had no contact with Chris- 
tianity. A Bible had never come to his hands. Be- 
lieving that the Christians had corrupted the Scrip- 
tures beyond recognition, he felt little interest in them. 
But he chanced one day upon a single verse of Scripture, 
quoted in a scurrilous attack on Christianity, that grip- 
ped him with a strange power: "And this is eternal 
life, that they should know thee, the only true God, 
and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent." From a 
footnote he learned that these words were from the 
Gospel by John, and he became eager to see the whole 

About the same time he conceived a desire to try 



his dialectical skill with some of the Christians, con- 
fident that he could outrival them with his logic and 
learning. In searching for an opponent worthy of his 
steel, he came finally to the small evangelical meet- 
ing place in his town, and made known to the preacher 
his desire to discuss religion with him. The latter 
expressed his willingness, and a time and place of 
meeting were agreed upon. But the preacher then 
turned and said, *'If you really want light on these 
matters, you had better read the Bible and pray." He 
answered that he had never seen a Bible, and forth- 
with one was handed him with the words; "Take it 
with you." 

Being of an open mind even at this stage, the would- 
be controversalist agreed to the suggestion, hid the 
Book under his flowing robes, went home, shut himself 
in his room and began to read. In telling of it after- 
wards, he said that he never stopped reading all that 
night; that the words of the Book burned like fire in 
his soul — an effect which the Koran had never had, 
though he knew it by heart. He soon became a genuine 
and earnest seeker for the truth. He grew haggard 
while he wrestled with doubts and fears and perplex- 
ities, and worked his way through theological prob- 
lems. Like Saul of Tarsus he could see all his past 
and all his prospects falling in ruins at his feet if he 
became a Christian. But in course of time the revolu- 
tion took place, and the proud Moslem Sheikh became 
a follower of the lowly Nazarene. 

Then he sought baptism. He was timid in those 
days, as, indeed, he had reason to be, and feared to 
confess his faith in his native town. There being some 
delay or misunderstanding in arranging the matter, 
he went eventually to a Roman Catholic Church in 
another town and was there baptised, taking the name 
Makhail, in honor of the young preacher who had 
helped him to the light. For some two years he re- 
mained with the Catholics, teaching in their schools. 
During this time he was taken to Rome and introduced 
to Pope Leo XIII as a trophy from Islam. But this 


journey, instead of impressing him with the greatness 
and sanctity of Rome, opened his eyes to its weakness 
and errors. And when soon after his return, his room 
was entered in his absence and his Bible and some other 
books removed, he could stand it no longer. He re- 
turned to the Evangelical Church in which he had 
first found the light, and remained a faithful member 
in that church as long as he lived. But while thorough- 
ly evangelical in his conviction, his breadth and 
charity of spirit appeared in the fact that he always 
retained cordial and friendly relations with some of 
the Catholic leaders whom he respected; especially 
Father Lammens, the Islamic scholar. 

For some time he continued to serve as a teacher, 
in the mission schools and to young missionaries. 
Some of the latter will never forget his warm and 
genial personality, his mental alertness and swiftness 
of understanding, and his unfailing dignity and court- 
esy. It must have been dull enough work for one of 
his keen, trained mind, to sit and teach Aleph, Ba 
and the elementary rules of grammar, not to mention 
the rasping of crude pronunciation on his ears. But 
he was patient and uncomplaining. Bonds of friend- 
ship were formed in those years that were never to be 
broken; and he too was learning. On going to his 
home one day, we were struck with the kindly defer- 
ence he showed his wife; he remarked that he learned 
that in the home of Dr. W * * * , one of his first 

Before a great while had passed, there came to him 
and to others the strong conviction of a call for him to 
preach the gospel to his Moslem brothers. There was 
hesitancy at first lest his grasp of Christian truth and 
knowledge of the Bible prove insufiicient for such work. 
A small meeting was opened, however, in one of the 
school rooms. Not more than a dozen or two attended 
at first, and they were mostly Christians and his address- 
es were crude compared with those of after years. 
But he was learning and getting ready for larger things. 
After some time he began to give opportunity for ques- 


tions and discussions. This rapidly increased the size 
of the audience until the time came that no building 
was large enough to hold the crowds, almost wholly 
composed of Moslems, many of them students from 
the Azhar. 

His meetings were always opened with prayer and 
reading of the Scripture, followed by a clear, strong 
gospel message. He came to have an unusual grasp of 
the contents and meaning of the Scriptures. Indeed, 
he could truly have been called an Apollos, '^mighty 
in the Scriptures." The first and main part of the 
meeting was always an exposition of some portion of 
Scripture. Then would follow a discussion of some 
theme related to Islam, or an opportunity for questions. 
All had listened intently enough to the sermon, but now 
one could feel a new thrill of expectancy pass over 
the audience. Sometimes the Moslems had a champion 
present to speak for them, or one of his own accord 
asked the privilege. Whatever the circumstances, we 
were seldom concerned for the outcome. For Makhail 
proved a master controversalist, rarely failing to meet 
any emergency successfully. While he spoke with the 
utmost plainness, he was so unfailingly fair and frank 
and friendly that even though he did not succeed in con- 
vincing his opponent, he always won his good will. It 
was often manifest that the audience knew his reasoning 
had triumphed. 

Remembering that he was regarded by them as a 
renegade from the faith, it was remarkable the respect 
they showed him. We have seen the crowded house a 
seething mass when he entered; as he quietly took his 
seat and bowed his head in silent prayer, a hush fell 
upon all. When at times they became turbulent and 
even police officials could do nothing, a word from 
him, "My friends, I wish you to be quiet," would usu- 
ally calm them. And at the end of the meeting 
many would gather about him for friendly greeting, 
while some would accompany him down the street 
or perhaps sit down somewhere for further talk over 
their coffee cups. 


The timidity of the early days completely left him. 
His Christian friends sometimes feared for his safety, 
but he himself seemed not to know what fear was. He 
persisted in regarding all as his friends. Occasionally 
he received a threatening letter. And once he held up 
such a letter in his meeting before a dense crowd, and 
opening his coat, said, "If anyone wishes to shoot, I 
am ready, but I shall continue, by the grace of God, 
to preach Christ's gospel." 

Some series of addresses he gave in the later years on 
The Integrity of the Scriptures, The Marks of a True 
Prophet, and Incidental Evidences of the Deity of 
Christ from the Scripture, will never be forgotten by 
those who heard them. Not only from Scripture, but 
from the literature of Islam itself which he had at his 
fingers' end, he could master keen and cogent arguments 
in such an array as to be overwhelming in their con- 
vincing power. 

How many were definitely won to the truth through 
his ministry, it is not easy to say. We can name some 
who were brought to confess their faith and are fol- 
lowing in his train. One of these is his own brother, 
who shares a measure of his gifts. On his deathbed 
he charged this brother, on his return to Alexandria, 
to preach on the text he had wanted to use next: "That 
ye may be filled with all the fulness of God." The 
most manifest result of his work as yet is the opening 
of the minds of very many to the gospel message, and 
the winning of a wide hearing for that message. He 
could go even to El Azhar, as he often did, and talk 
freely with students and professors. It is some years 
since he made the statement that when he began to 
preach, but one in a thousand would willingly listen, 
but that now not one in a thousand would refuse to 
listen. For eighteen years he continued his meetings 
in Cairo, twice each week, while he was often called 
to other parts of the country to give his message. These 
meetings fluctuated in attendance from a few score to 
many hundreds. When the excitement became too 
great, controversial discussion would be dropped for a 


time and resumed when the interest lagged. But the 
witness to the divine Saviour was maintained without 
interruption. And eternity alone will reveal the extent 
of the harvest. 

He was a man of striking presence, being of large 
frame, with a fine shapely head and open face. His 
figure would have commanded attention anywhere. 
He had a quick sense of humor, a rare friendliness 
of manner and an unvarying courtesy to all with whom 
he came in contact — the servant as well as the sheikh. 
He loved books and was seldom seen without one under 
his arm. Yet he loved men still more and counted his 
friends among all classes. And he knew well how to 
turn every opportunity to account in witness for Christ. 

He was not without his weaknesses — his faults, it may 
be. And no one was more ready to acknowledge this 
than himself, as he often did, with streaming eyes, 
when we met to talk and pray about the deeper things. 
But that his heart was true to his Lord, and his life 
devoted to the Master's service, and that he is now in 
the presence of the Redeemer, no one who knew him 
well can doubt. Nor that eventually many others will 
be found in the kingdom through his life and testimony. 
When one by his deathbed told him he was praying for 
his recovery, he said, "Pray that God will do his will 
in Makhail." Why it was God's will to call him 
' away at scarcely more than middle life, we know not 
now. We do not believe that His plans have miscar- 
ried. But our friend's departure has left a large 
vacancy in our ranks and in our hearts. "A prince and 
a great man is fallen." God speed the day when many 
such "princes shall come out of Egypt." 

James G. Hunt. 

Cairo, Egypt, 

Ecce Homo Arabicus 

[To those who know the Moslem civilization and the Moslem litera- 
ture, it need not be said that this article touches only one single part of 
a large subject. Western scholars almost from the beginning, or at least 
since they ceased to write in Latin, have persistently ignored certain essen- 
tial and characteristic elements in that civilization and in these literatures. 
In part this seems to have been due to a desire to appear "broad-minded" 
and "unprejudiced" ; in part, in the case of writers in English, it was 
certainly due to the reticence and prudery of the Victorian period. The 
consequences have been that the European public, and especially the 
English reading public, have had no means of knowing Islam truly and 
as a whole. This has effected all except such very few Arabists as have 
read really deeply and broadly in the literature. And these have regularly 
avoided telling what they knew because they had difficulty in doing so in 
decent language, and even feared the stigma of prejudice and of a lack 
of historic sense. But now at last the ban of silence is being broken and 
that not only by missionaries, as here in Canon Gairdner's most able 
article, but also by scholars of the first rank who write under no 
ecclesiastical or theological banners. In this connection Professor Snouck 
Hurgronje's "Mohammedanism" (Putnam's) may with advantage be read. 

The Islamic Review — the monthly organ of the Wok- 
ing cult — leads off its 1917 volume with what it calls 
from end to end consists of panegyrics on the Founder of 
Islam from the pens of various persons, not all of them 
(apparently) within the Islamic fold, but all of them of 
one mind in attributing every excellence to Mohammed, 
and disclaiming for him every fault above a negligible 
magnitude. The Mohammedan writers further claim 
for him the position of perfect human exemplar and fin^l 
ethical standard. 

We have meditated for some time on this remarkable 
number, and the following article represents some of 
our meditations. 

First, we wish to protest with all our might against 
the way in which our Moslem friends practically force 
us into a position in which we appear to be that poor 
thing, the advocatus diaboli. If the question were noth- 

*Vol. V No. 1. \ 



ing more than the estimating of the character of a great 
historic personage, a great reformer, enthusiast, states- 
man, what you will, then we could let it go at that, and 
with the ringers ring the changes on his greatness and 
his merits, mentioning manifest blots without any par- 
ticular emphasis, as things appertaining to his times and 
environment. Nay, we have often enough done so. For, 
prate our detractors as they will, we believe and dare 
to assert that the sketches or biographies of Mohammed 
which have shown most seriousness, most sympathetic 
insight, and most concern for all aspects of the subject- 
matter, are some by Christian missionaries or missionary 
supporters. The secular Christian writers are too 
worldly, often too scornful: they miss the mark by try- 
ing to treat secularly of what was fundamentally reli- 
gious. On the other hand, the works of modern Mo- 
hammedans and Islamophils are incorrigible in their 
glozing over of plain but uncongenial facts, and they 
invariably topple over into fulsomeness. But is Muir 
wanting in either religious sympathy or truth? Who 
has convicted him of untruth, or even of inaccuracy? 
He simply reproduces the sources as they stand, and 
the grounds of his verdicts are stated with perfect clear- 
ness and candour. r 

This being so, we greatly resent being exhibited as 
mere detractors, or being forced into appearing as such. 
For two things do seem often to force us, against our 
will, into apparently taking that position: namely, the 
downright untruthfulness of things like this ^Troph- 
et's Birthday Number" — untruthfulness in the way of 
concealment and evasion; and, secondly, the fact that 
so much more is claimed for Mohammed than the right 
to be called a great and good man. No, he must be the 
best; the perfect fruit of humanity; the man par excel- 
lence: the blameless exemplar! And, per contra, the 
figure of Jesus in the Gospels must (in the politer pro- 
ductions of the Islamic press) be held up to many a deli- 
cate insinuation of inferiority^ to a patronising hardly 
concealing its real total want of sympathy; or (in the 

*Scc B. N. (i.e. "Birthday Number") pp. 9, 14-16, etc. 


writers of the lewder sort) to the grossest forms of self- 
damnatory attack. In short Ecce Homo is to be trans- 
ferred from the Nazarene to the Arabian. 

Obviously those who make these claims and set up 
these comparisons render silence impossible, and, un- 
fortunately, make the work of Mohammed-criticism, 
for mere truth's sake, inevitable. But when there is no 
option, then the work is not that of an advocatus diaboli, 
but an advocatus Dei. This reckless tampering with 
ethical values must be prevented at any cost. And the 
criticisms thus wrung from us, based directly as they 
are on facts taken straight from the Arabic authorities, 
must not and shall not be cried down as "bigotry," nor 
yet deprecated because such criticism offends the dan- 
gerous element of the Moslem public. The latter plea, 
by the way, would be particularly cowardly if it came 
from the protected serenity of a mosque-precinct in 
England, ^ 

The view we shall substantiate is, we submit, that 
"Our Prophet's Birthday Number" gives us a Moham- 
med-cum-lavender-water : that the true Mohammed was 
really an Arabian of the seventh-century, with (it may 
be) all the virtues of his time, and some in which he 
was beyond his time; also with many of the violences 
and sins of his time and environment: and that therefore 
the claims made for him (but not by him) to be hu- 
manity's beau ideal and consummate example for ever 
is a pernicious one, and in the name of the God of Truth 
must be rejected and resisted — wa la m^dkhadha ft 

The comments on the life of the Founder of Islam 
which we think are demanded by truth and right shall 
not be our own. They are drawn straight from the rec- 
ords of the Moslem chroniclers themselves. Further, 
they will not be vague generalities, still less vulgar 
abuse: they will consist of the citation of specific in- 
stances drawn from the said chronicles, and these (we 
are told in the editorial to the number under examina- 
tion) are reliable: "the record of the acts and sayings 
of the Prophet Mohammed himself is exceptionally 


complete, faithful, and correct" (p. 3). So be it. We 
hope that after this we shall have no attempt to get rid 
of embarrassing incidents by means of an absolute ar- 
bitrary "criticism." We do not want to hear now from 
these people that a traditionist like al-Bukhari, an his- 
torian like Ibn Hisham, or a favorite biographer like 
al-Halabi are "incomplete, wwfaithful or /ncorrect." As 
a matter of fact, the incidents in question are just the 
sort which a criticism of al-Bukhari, Ibn Hisham, and 
al-Halabi — and needless to say such a criticism is in- 
evitable — would leave untouched; for they occur in 
what might be called the prosaic parts of the biography; 
they are the incidents which were the most complete, 
sharply defined and easily remembered; and therefore 
likely to be most faithfully recorded and handed 
down, — the ordinary historic stuff which, in the life of 
any man, is least likely to be intentionally or uninten- 
tionally twisted. And, besides, what would it boot to 
meet us with a feeble, arbitrary, subjective criticism of 
the sources of these three books? Two (al Bukhari and 
al HalabI) are among the two most popular and uni- 
versal in the Ddr al Islam. The incidents recorded 
therein have been accepted by the general mind of bil- 
lions of Mohammedans for over a thousand years, — 
moulding their thoughts and ideals into a public opin- 
ion that is absolutely perdurable and permanent. For 
a millenium the universal conscience of Islam has ap- 
proved of the things chronicled in these books, has found 
in them nothing to censure but on the contrary every- 
thing to esteem and admire. From the viewpoint there- 
fore of "Mohammed as Moral Ideal" these incidents 
are all of equal importance, and for a Mohammedan 
to raise at this time of day the question of the historical 
actuality of this or that incident is to commit an absolute 
irrelevance. Apart from all which, as already said, the 
question cannot be raised by Mohammedans in virtue 
of any genuine critical apparatus po,«;sessed by them. The 
fact is that it can only be and only is raised a priori, by 
those who, when they find themselves among Christians 
and in a Christian atmosphere, jib at many things in the 


sira which have not caused, and which do not cause, so 
much as one qualm in a truly Mohammedan environ- 
ment. Such ^historical' scruples are therefore simply a 
convincing tribute to the moral and spiritual superior- 
ity of the Catholic-Christian ideal, and to the serious 
and felt defectiveness of the Catholic-Islamic one. We 
welcome them as a sign that truth will surely conquer; 
and we pass on.^ 


For special pleading and assumed superiority it would 
be hard to beat the following : 

"If God had to come as the 4deal representative and 
guide of humanity,' as it is said he did in the person of 
Jesus, we could have been more benefited if God had 
appeared as a king or a statesman. He could have left 
better rules for the guidance of Christian kings and 
statesmen in Europe, and the world would have been 
saved this terrible conflagration with which it has been 
thrown under ambition and self-assertiveness. Chris- 
tendom wanted a God in the person of a general and an 
emperor rather than in a Trince of peace,' to guide 
Christian nations in their recent slaughter of humanity. 
He could have taught then the morals of war^. Perhaps 
His precepts and action in this respect might have 
proved a better check in this war and all that has 
created in Europe a long and sombre procession of 
cruelty and suffering and a most deplorable and tragic 
spectacle of bloodshed and distress." 

As if the spirit of Christianity had not been steadily 
evolving an international code of decency and practicable 
humaneness in war, the deliberate scrapping of which 
by some is just what is raising up the whole world in 

* Some of the writers in this number are a little unfortunate when they 
begin to handle modern critical apparatus. Thus Mr. S. Khuda Buklish 
quotes "Bosworth, Smith," and others. Does he give us the whole con- 
sidered verdict of these (two!) gentlemen? He also refers prejudiced 
Christians to "the monumental work of Caetini (sic) in Italian." It is 
obvious he has never reaa a Hne of "Caetini." No more weigBty and 
severe judgments could be imagined than some which Caetani has passed 
on several scenes in the life of Mohammed, although his standpoint is 
purely historic and objectiv"^ 

"Italics ova» 


its defence! As if "rules for guidance" can ever avail 
where spirit and principle have been denied! As if 
either rules or principle stopped a single Ottoman con- 
queror in Hungary, or a Mahmoud or Timur in India, 
from committing slaughters and atrocities! As if, from 
the days of the fathers of Islam until now, either Koran 
or Sunna had ever eliminated the "ambition and self- 
assertiveness" which have caused the countless wars be- 
tween Mohammedans from the days of 'Uthman down 
to those of Mulai Hafiz! As if Mohammed himself, 
at all times and on every occasion, taught by his exam- 
ple the highest "morals of war" ! But to proceed. 


The passage before us, and others in the number, ap- 
pears to censure Prussian methods. But is there not a 
real analogy between the way in which Prussia has 
washed out the old European-Christian conventions and 
codes, and the resolute way in which Mohammed ig- 
nored and destroyed some of the most sacred conven- 
tions which embodied the public conscience of Arabia 
at that time, and represented the best and noblest to 
which the Arabs had been hitherto able to rise? 

Foj example, one of the holiest articles of "interna- 
tional" i.e. inter-tribal morality in Arabia was that in 
all wars and raids the date-palms should be spared. At 
the raid on the Bani Nadir, however, in A. H. 4, Mo- 
hammed "had the date-palms of the Nadirites" — their 
pride, glory, and chief means of sustenance — "burned 
or cut down." The narrative is from Ibn Ishaq, the 
oldest biographer of Mohammed,^ who continues: 
"Then they cried, O Mohammed, have you not pun- 
ished forbidden acts of destructiveness, and censured 
whoever commits such? How then can you have these 
date-palms cut down and burnt?"^ 

*lbn Hishim, sub loco; see Wiistenfeld's edition p. 653. 

"A writer in the Birthday Number (on page 25) makes his boast of 
Abu Bakr's humanity as a warrior in explicitl)^ commanding his men "to 
cut down no palms!" Sometimes the disciple is greater than his master, 


No answer is reported! What answer could there 
have been — except "military necessity"'/ 

This was not the only time where the consciences of 
his own followers caused outspoken disapproval of some- 
thing for which Mohammed gave permission {rakhkhas, 
see Muslim vol. ii, p. 22). But it was of no avail. Mus- 
lim {loc. cit.) tells us what happened on one such oc- 
casion. ''He got so angry that his anger was visible 
on his face"! and the scruples were dashed aside by the 
assertion that he was the most god-fearing of them all. 

A still holier law than the one prohibiting the destruc- 
tion of date-palms, — the one, in fact, which made social 
life possible in Arabia at that time, — ^was the Truce of 
God which forbade all fighting during the four "sacred 
months." Only an anarch or an outlaw ever dreamed of 
infringing this law. Yet in one of the earliest raids 
launched from al Madina on the Quraishites this law 
was flagrantly broken. The story can be found in any 
of the biographies in the chapter about the raid on the 
Kinana in the sacred month of Rajab. But a most in- 
teresting addition to it has been discovered in the tradi- 
tions collected by Ahmed b. Hanbal. From this it ap- 
pears that Sa'd b. Waqqas was the original leader. 
Sard's own account will be found translated in Margo- 
liouth's Life, page 243^. Not all the details are clear,— 
in fact, to leave some of them obscure was necessary. 
Also, the whole incident has formed the subject of 
controversy, and much sophistry. But no obscurity and 
no sophism can explain away the following facts: (i) 
Mohammed sent Sa'd out on a warlike operation dur- 
ing Rajab. (2) The recently Islamised Junaiha were 
scandalized. (3) Sa'd and his party themselves be- 
lieved that they were out to fight during that month, — 
not to wait till the next. (4) When nevertheless they 
returned empty-handed the Prophet was "red with rage." 
(5) He immediately appointed the unscrupulous 'Ab- 
dallah b. Jahsh, who left with sealed orders, the text of 

^The subsequent indemnification for the act in a Koran utterance is 
the reverse of impressive. 

'Translated from the Musnad of Ahmed ibn Hanbal i 178. 


which contained definite instructions to attack a party 
who were going without escort under cover of the sacred 
month, though the precise command to do so in that 
month was wanting {litera scripta manetl) (6) This 
was done, and blood was shed, during the truce. (7) 
The act was, finally, expressly justified by Mohammed, 
in the name of Allah and the scandal which it created^ 
was thus silenced. 

The manifest desire of some apologists to show that 
Mohammed did not order the Truce to be violated is 
valuable as showing their opinion of such an act. Un- 
fortunately, for them, the facts are against them, and 


So much for the violation of conventions deemed 
sacred by the conscience of that time. But there were 
also violations of laws of humanity itself. We have 
heard with shuddering of the wholesale rapes during 
the present campaign: what will the public think, and 
what will Woking say, when it is known that troops of 
the first Mohammedan saints and martyrs and com- 
manded by Mohammed in person, committed rape on 
the field on at least one occasion and under peculiarly 
shocking circumstances? The occasion was after the 
overthrow of the BanI Mu§'taliq at the wells of Marasi*, 
when many of the two hundred captured women of the 
tribe (expressly said to be free women and not slaves, 
karaim al 'Arab HalabI ii 296) were raped by Mo- 
hammed's men with his full consent!^ There can be 
no doubt about the facts; they are narrated by all the 
most reputed of the Traditionalists, and by at least two 
of the historians^: so much so that a certain point in the 

^ Arnold {Preaching of Islam p. 30) asserts Mohammed "disapproved 
of the act," on the return of the triumphing 'Abdallah. If so, on the face 
of the above, the disapproval was manifest hypocrisy. And the point 
remains, Mohammed 'did sanction the violation of the Sacred Truce. 
Arnold suppresses entirely this cardinal fact that Mohammed finally con- 
doned the act and sanctioned the practice. He also suppresses most of the 
facts of the case mentioned above. 

* The fact that means were recommended by the Prophet (in at least 
one case not successfully) to prevent conception only increases one's sense 
of disgust. 

"Halabi ii 296, 7; Waqidi (kitab al Maghazi, translated by Wellhausen 
page 179). In the hadith anthology, Mishkdt al Mas&bih, the tradition is 
marked as muttafaq *alaih, i. e. found in all the great collections. 


Shari^'a itself is settled by reference to the incident^. 
The violated wives had actually still to be bought back 
by their husbands. We refrain from translating this 
passage in full^ for the simple reason that it is really 
unprintable. The prejudiced Muir and other Christian 
historians (until ^'Caetini"!) have . . . kept silent on the 
incident! Let not their generosity however be now rep- 
resented as a silent verdict on their part that the inci- 
dent is spurious. The authority is too strong, as we 
saw. And who would have invented such things? And 
even supposing the incident is spurious, it was and is 
accepted by Islam as absolute truth, — except of course 
when Christians are in the neighborhood. 

Nor was this an isolated incident. The very fact that 
on at least two occasions, Khaybar^ and Hunain^, Mo- 
hammed had to regulate what might be done with 
women taken on the field shows this sufficiently. It was 
at Hunain that he definitely enacted, against the scruples 
of some of his followers, that capture on the field ipso 
facto dissolved previous (heathen) marriages (see 
Koran iv 22) ; and that married wives (not merely vir- 
gins and slave girls), their husbands being living and 
most likely present, might be passed to the immediate^ 
use of their conquerors, provided that certain precau- 
tions were taken against pregnancy. Are we to add these 
prescriptions to the universal "morals of war"? 


Again, wholesale deportations of defenceless people 
have lately excited the indignation of humanity. But 
this deporting was done without scruple and on a large 
scale in the wars conducted from the City of Moham- 
med. We must not judge the practice and conditions 
of that time from the standpoint of the present day? 
But we thought that the whole point of the "Birthday 

*Halabi loc. cit. 

'Hisham p. 759. Waqidi (ed. Wellhausen) p. 282. 

'Muslim in Mishkat al Masabith, Kitab an nikah, v. i. 9 ; Waqidi p. 366. 

*This is perfectly clear both from the wording of the tradition from 
Muslim and from the analogy of the Bani Mustaliq affair. The three- 
months limit (idda) was only in case conception were not artificially pre- 
vented, and did not hinder immediate violation. Indeed Waqidi makes 
this point explicit (op. cit. p. 366) ; but it is unmistakable even without this. 


Number" was to show that ''Our Prophet's" example 
and practice was to standardise morality, (and especially 
"the morals of war") for all time? 

The wealthy, prosperous Jewish tribe of the Qainuqa^ 
had to purchase dear life itself by submitting to this 
wholesale deportation. They went off in the direction 
of Syria, where they vanish from history. For aught 
we know, or any Moslem cared, they may have perished 
as the deported Armenians have. Their goods were 
confiscated. It was utterly impossible to assert that the 
special occasion justified such fearful severity, for the 
whole matter was occasioned by a private brawl. The 
real cause was the impossibility of winning over that 
Jewish tribe to the new order of things.^ 

The plea of the apologists is that Mohammed was the 
de facto ruler of Madlna and that he, in agreeing with 
the patrons of these Jewish tribes, had virtually agreed 
with the tribes, so that their opposition was treachery. 
We only remark (a) the ''Kitab" of A.H. was a rescript 
not an agreement; (b) one of the tribes definitely de- 
nied the existence of any agreement with Mohammed 
[la '^a qda bainand wa baina Muhammadin wala '^ahd 
and the two Sa'ds did not in reply appeal to the kitab 
(Hisham p. 675) ; and (c) the Qainuqa*^ had admittedly 
not got further than foolish boastings and taunts (Hish- 
am p. 545). Does the perfect human ethic approve of 
the designed slaughter of the manhood of a tribe for 

As a matter of fact, these Qainuqa*^ only owed their 
escape from wholesale massacre to the pertinacity of the 
temporiser 'Abdallah ibn Ubayy, not to the humanity 
of Mohammed. It is explicitly stated by Tabari that 
"they came down for the judgment of the Prophet: then 
they were bound, he being determined on their slaugh- 
ter"^. Then 'Abdallah intervened. But for this, their 
"700 warriors" would have shared the horrible fate that 

* Whether the account of al-Bukhari or of Ibn Hisham is considered, 
it is utterly impossible to say that anything in them justifies the sequel. 
Moreover it is to be remembered that in no single one of these cases of 
alleged oflFence is it possible audire alteram partem. 

"Vol i, 1360 "wahuwa yuridu qatlahum," 


ultimately overtook the men of the Bani Quraiza/ As 
it was, ^Abdallah's desperate persistence "made the 
Prophet wroth, so that his countenance became quite 
dark." He was furious at being obliged to spare those 
hundreds of human lives. 

In just the same way the Bani Nadir were expelled 
from their country and nearly the whole of their goods 
were plundered. The excuses for this proceeding, in- 
deed for the whole campaign against them, were of the 
flimsiest and will not stand a moment's analysis. For 
example, the charge of treachery, which ostensibly oc- 
casioned and justified the original attack was tacitly 
dropped. It is not so much as mentioned in the Koran 
(Surah 58). 

This bad business of deportation was later given up, 
because it was found to be bad economics, and the "more 
profitable practice of constituting the subject tribes as 
tribute-paying dhimmis was instituted." Thus the tribe 
of Khaybar was not deported but made tributary.^ 

A darker fate overtook the Bani Quraiza, the fate that 
the Qainuqa*^ only just avoided. These people had cer- 
tainly waged actual war with the Mohammedans and 
had helped to put Madina in great danger. But then, 
they had seen the fate of the Qainuqa*' and the Bani 
Nadir! At any rate their punishment was horrible, and 
that though they capitulated in the apparently satisfac- 
tory hope that their lives would be spared. It is per- 
fectly clear, however, that this time Mohammed had 
decided that no meddling ^Abdallah should stop the 
blood from flowing,^ though with unworthy want of can- 
dour he employed a transparent device, by which the 

Hbn Hisham p. 546 makes this perfectly clear. 

' Nevertheless, the Caliph Omar later hustldd away the remnant of 
these poor people out of the peninsula. 

"The warning of Abu Lubaba (Hisham p. 686) makes this perfectly 
clear. It is to be feared that this story also proves that Abu Lubaba had 
been sent to mislead the garrison into surrendering in order to save their 
lives, the destruction of which had nevertheless been settled on. They asked 
him if they should surrender, and he answered 'y^s': but with a signifi- 
cant gesture of hand to the throat signifying that their fate would cer- 
tainly be butchery (Ibn Hisham p. 688). The narrative goes on to say 
that an instant after Abu Lubaba "felt he had betrayed God and the 
Apostle." It is obvious he had been instructed to encourage them to 
surrender, and equally obvious that their tragic fate had nevertheless 
been decided on. It is another proof that the arbitration of Sa*d was 
a mere subterfuge. 


fatal decision should appear not to be his but that of the 
umpire who was agreed on between him and the Jews 
themselves. Between 600 and 900 men were beheaded 
over a trench in a single night! The women and chil- 
dren were treated as booty. "Our Prophet's Birthday 
Number" would have us adopt this also, we presume, 
as a sample of the perfect ethics of war, and as an ele- 
ment in the human beau-ideal. 

The umpire who gave the fatal decision (Sa^d) was 
extravagantly praised by Mohammed\ Yet his action 
was wholly and admittedly due to his lust for personal 
vengeance on a tribe which had occasioned him a pain- 
ful wound. In the agony jof its treatment he cried 
out, — "O God, let not my soul go forth ere thou has 
cooled my eye from the Ban! Quraiza"^. This was the 
arbiter to whose word the fate of that tribe was given 
over. His sentiments were well-known to Mohammed, 
who appointed him. It is perfectly clear from that that 
their slaughter had been decreed. 

What makes it clearer still is the assertion of another 
biographer^ that Mohammed had refused to treat with 
the Ban! Quraiza at, all until they had "come down to 
receive the judgment of the Apostle of God." Accord- 
ingly "they came down" ; in other words put themselves 
in his power. And only then was the arbitration of Sa^d 
proposed and accepted, — but not accepted until it had 
been forced on him by Mohammed; for Sa^d first de- 
clined and tried to make Mohammed take the respon- 
sibility, but was told ''qad amarak Alldhu an tahkuma 
flhim'* "Allah has commanded you to give sentence in 
their case"*. 

From every point of view therefore the evidence is 
simply crushing that Mohammed was the ultimate au- 
thor of this massacre. His own thin attempt to conceal 
this fact, and the neo-Moslems' attempts to shift the 
responsiblility on to Sa^d, merely prove that neither his 

*Musnad of ibn Hanbal vi 55, iii 207. 

*ih. iu. 350. 

* Sira Nabaiviyya on the margin of al-Halabi, ii p. 150. 

**. tip. 154. 


conscience nor theirs have been at rest over the dark 

The milder fate of the Khaybarites has already been 
mentioned. Yet the campaign against them was marked 
by two very shocking individual incidents. 

( I ) One of the surrendered Jews, Kinana, was believed 
to have a certain treasure which he had refrained from 
handing over. He denied its existence, but Mohammed 
asked him whether he might kill him if it was found. 
He assented. A renegade then revealed the cache where 
part of it was hidden, and then, at Mohammed's bidding, 
the wretch was tortured "till he! should give up the 
whole." He was plied with fire-brands thrust on to his 
breast, till he was near death, when Mohammed gave 
him over to Ibn Maslama who slew him for his brother 
Mahmoud\ All this, be it observed, after the entire 
surrender of the tribe had taken place ; and over a ques- 
tion of booty, pure and simple. Such was another piece 
of "frightfulness" to which the first saints of Islam were 
introduced by their leader. Are we to adopt these meth- 
ods also as an article in "the ethics of war," and also 
weave the action into our ideal for a perfect human 

(2) The wife of the man thus tortured to death, the 
beautiful Safiyya (whose father and brother had also 
perished at the hands of the Mohammed) became 
nevertheless within a few days his wedded wife! That 
she w^as willing to do this thing, (as she was), merely 
arouses astonished disgust towards her.^ But it has 
nothing to do with the verdict which the inci- 
dent calls for. The thing took place because Mo- 
hammed conceived a passion for the woman. It 
is high time that the ignorant or hypocritical state- 
ments of neo-Mohammedan writers, to the effect that 
all Mohammed's marriage and demi-marriage connec- 
tions were made for humanitarian or political (etc., 
etc.) reasons, and that the women in question were 

* Hisham p. 763, 4. 

'The historians represent that her husband had ill-used her. She is 
certainly made out as having showed no love for him alive or dead. 
See Hisham p. 763. 


elderly or otherwise unattractive, should be put a stop 
to. These statements are becoming stereotyped among 
apologist writers both of the west and the east. But 
they are false; and they are made either ignorantly or 
falsely. To take the present case only — and from it 
the cases of Raihana and Zainab may also be judged:^ 
the records make the matter perfectly plain. The 
woman's beauty was well-known, and it made an instant 
impression. When it was announced ^'Oh Apostle of 
God, there has fallen to the lot of Dahya a beautiful 
damsel," the Apostle of God immediately (we are 
told) "purchased her;"^ The marriage was hastened 
on with a speed that set at defiiance even the decent 
(and sacred) law of the 'idda^: and, finally there were 
several special circumstances that showed the extreme 
complacency of the bridegroom, — which as usual oc- 
casioned tears in the harem. In view of these facts, 
and of the case of Juwairiyya (see footnote), the re- 
marks of Mr. S. H. Leeder (in B. N. p. 31) reach the 
very nadir of ineptitude and soft untruth. 
'^Mohammed was compelled to wage wars, but 
never a sword was drawn but as a last resort to defend 

^In the case of Juwairiyya, the old historians state with the utmost 
freedom that the prophet was smitten with her beauty the moment he 
set eyes on her. See Halabi, ii p. 291, 92, where the jealous *A'isha tells 
the story: "Juwairiyya was a lovely woman (hilwa) whom men no 
sooner saw than they became smitten with her. . . . She came in, and by 
Allah I no sooner set eyes on her than I was vexed at her coming in, 
and knew that the Apostle of God would see in her just what I 
saw." The meaning is obvious, and is made explicit by the following: 
"I felt certain that if once the Apostle of God saw her he would admire 
her" ('for she knew* adds the historian, 'the influence of beauty on 
him*). "Well, then, she spoke to him, and he said to her 'Better still, 
I will pay the ransom and marry thee myself.* * See also Hisham p. 729. 
The marriage was constmimated that very day,— the day, by the way, 
when Juwairijrya's fellow tribes-women were being raped by the bride- 
groom*s comrades at the wells of Marasi** (see above). We hope we 
shall now hear no more of the neo-Moslem pretence mentioned above. 

' Musnad of Ibn Hanbal, iii p. 123. 

•That is, that before marrying a widow a man must wait at least 
three months, to make sure that she is not with child by her first husband. 
When, in the "Reproach of Islam,* I erroneously stated that Raihana 
aeain a Celebrated beauty who also had just lost her husband at 
Mohammed's hands — was taken to his embraces immediately after his 
execution, I was severely taken to task by a well-known neo-Moslem 
apologist of Cairo for gross ignorance. Did I not know that 
the law of the 'idda would itself have made such a thing impossible? 
I keenly regretted the slip. But this gentleman did not see fit to 
mention this case of Safiyyal Was this disingenuousness? Or was my 
gross ignorance balanced by his? — See also above, where it shows that, 
given certain circumstances, the law of the 'idda was irrelevant. 


human life and secure safety to it/' Thus Mr. Sadr ud 
Din in the ''Birthday Number'' p. 23. 

Is this in the least true? The biographers^ make it 
perfectly clear that the earliest object of the very first 
warlike raids planned by Mohammed was to cut off 
and capture Makkan caravans. There is not the least 
hint in these accounts of anything else, nor of the 
existence of any necessity for instituting defensive 
operations. Ibn SaM, for instance, leads off his account 
of the Wars of the Prophet {al maghdzi) with the 
words kharaga Hamza ya tarid li Hr quraish, ''Hamza 
went out to intercept the caravan of the Quraish which 
had come from Syria making for Makka."^ Ibn 
Ishaq is equally explicit. According to him ^ the first 
expedition was so militarily and strategically planned 
that it had in view not merely the Quraish but the 
perfectly neutral Ban! Damra, the position of whose 
territory vis-a-vis of Makka was strategically import- 
ant. The document promulgated by Mohammed short- 
ly after his arrival in Madina makes clear in its 20th 
article that he regarded himself and all his people as 
in a state of de facto hostility with the Quraish of 
Makka.^ The sending of cutting-out expeditions fol- 
lowed as a matter of course: and the swords of cutting- 
out expeditions do not usually abide in their sheaths. 
And so blood inevitably flowed. Later on, as success 
grew, the object of the Holy War became the right to 
worship at the Ka'ba in the way of Islam. And finally, 
of course, it became the conquest of Arabia (and 
later the whole world) for Islam. There is not 
the smallest piece of concrete evidence that the Mak- 
kans meditated hostilities on the Moslems after having 
once relieved Makka of their uncongenial presence. 
With the fullest knowledge of all the Arabic sources^ 
Caetani in a note on this subject (vol. i. p. 423) is 
crushingly conclusive: "Qui (i. e. in the first expedi- 
te, g. Hisham pp. 415-6, WaqMi p. 33; Tab. i. p. 1265. 
'op. cit. i. p. 2 and so twice on p. 3. 
"Hisham p. 415. 

* Caetani vol. i, pp. 358-9 and reff. 
"For some of them see previous note. 


tion) abbiamo vera e propria aggressione meditata: 
nessuna attenuante per necessita di difese: i Qurays 
non si davano alcun pensiero di molestare il Profeta in 

That it was Mohammed who took the offensive from 
Medina is quite frankly stated by the author of the Sira 
Nabawiyya. The noisy-mouthedness of these moderns 
would have seemed unintelligible, or perhaps somewhat 
contemptible, to him. He says: "The first thing which 
the Prophet set about was to intercept the caravans of the 
Quraish so as to capture their goods, in order that that 
might be an occasion for the opening of hostilities, and 
in order that the hearts of his companions might be in- 
ured to hostilities little by little; and in order that they 
might profit from what should accrue to them from the 
spoils which they carried off from those caravans, and 
thus get relief."^ Quid plura? The author of this sira 
merely brings out clearly what is written in not very in- 
visible ink over all these early proceedings. 

Compare these plain facts now with the windy re- 
mark of Mr. Sadr ad Din quoted above. The Neo- 
Moslems do not tell the truth : that is the trouble.- 

So much for the earliest raids; in which, it is espe- 
cially recorded (Ibn SaM i 3), the first arrow shot 
was shot by a Moslem (Sa'^d ibn Waqqas), and the first 
blood shed was shed by a Moslem (in the raid in the 
Sacred Month, see above). After this point it became 
unprofitable to pursue the enquiry as to who was pro- 

%i yakuna dhalik sababan 1 iftitah il qital wa li taqwa qulubu 
ashabihi *ala 1 qitali shai'an fa shai'an, etc. vol. I. p. 417. 

'Arnold {Preaching of Islam, p. 30) is equally untrustworthy. To 
facts he opposes theories. It is extraordinary, and a real pity, how this 
useful book is spoiled by its being a brief. We have had an example 
of this already in his treatment of the fight in the sacred month. 
Here is another example. Take the crucial point of the object of the 
first expedition against the Quraish. Arnold: — "We find mention of sev- 
eral reconnoitring parties that went out in small numbers to watch the 
movements of the Quraish" (p. 30). Now the historians: — (on the 
first raid, not accompanied by Mohammed) "to intercept the camels of the 
Quraish," Ibn Sa'd i p. 3, Hal. ii, p. 134: — (on the first expedition accom- 

?anied bv Mohammed himself, "to intercept the camels of the Quraish/* 
bn Sa**! i, p. 41 Another grossly misleading remark is found in a 
footnote to p. 30, where the raid of the Quraishite Kurz (see Muir p. 
207) is brought in with the sole point of showing that the Quraish 
practised the first hostiHties. Now in the first place there is not the 
smallest proof that this marauder had been sent by the Quraish: and 
what shall we say, further, when we learn that his raid, such as it was, 
took place after Mohammed or his officers had already some four times 
taken the field \ (Hisham p. 423, Tabari, i pp. 1269). 


voker and who provoked. When the whole of a history 
is written up by the conquerors it is easy to show the 
conquered as invariably in the wrong. Imagine khc 
history of the invasion of Serbia written by Austrian 
historians A. D. 2050, all Serbians having disappeared 
or been absorbed! Nevertheless, it is often possible to 
see that there was no provocation or that the provoca- 
tion was itself provoked, so indifferent are the Moslem 
historians to casus belli in such cases, trained as they 
were to think that the whole world was Ddr ul Harh, 
and that the non-Islamism of any state was the one real 
and sufficient casus belli. We have seen that a mere 
private brawl occasioned the expatriation, which almost 
included the decimation, of the Bani Qainuqa*; and 
that the Bani Nadir also were attacked for reasons 
which, even as stated, will not bear a moment's exam- 
ination. But in other cases, one act of violence became 
the cause, and even the justification, of the next. For 
the weak are always, and of necessity, in the wrong. 

Take for instance the affair of Khaybar. Caetani, to 
whom Mr. S. Khuda Bukhsh would have us appeal, 
states roundly and very strongly that this attack was 
utterly unmotived, and that it is an instance of the most 
purely arbitrary aggression.^ This is morally true; but 
it would be more accurate to say that it is an instance 
where an aggression was a natural and inevitable result 
of previous ones. Consider the following train of cir- 

(i) The Bani Nadir are attacked and exiled, as we 
have seen, without cause. 

(2) A party of them, under a declared rebel Abu 
RafT, settle among their kindred, the tribe of Khaybar, 
a somewhat distant settlement in the opposite direction 
from Makka. Note that the departing Nadirites had 
not been discouraged from settling there or elsewhere. 
They were perfectly free in this matter. 

(3) The presence of Abu Rafi^now "justifies" an ex- 

* Annali II pp 9, 10 ; We commend this passage to the notice of Mr. 
Bukhsh and his friends, but to spare their feelings refrain from trans- 
lating it. 


pedition under ""Ali (without notice) against the tribe of 
Khaybar, with no result. 

(4) The sudden assassination of Abu Rafi'^ is next 
procured by Mohammed. The assassin was ^Abdallah 
ibn Unais. 

(5) It is related by Waqidi that the immigrant Nadi- 
rites now began to engineer from Khaybar a league with 
the Quraish for the subversion of Islam. Supposing 
it true, it is rather naive in Waqidi not to give the small- 
est suggestion that an unprovoked campaign, and the 
assassination of a guest in the bosom of the host-tribe, 
might justifiably have something to do with the hostili- 
ty of the Khaybarites! But up to this time, it is only the 
exiled Nadirites who are as a matter of fact mentioned 
in this connection. The awakening of the Khaybarites 
came after the Quraiza massacre. 

(6) Waqidi reports,^ though here again not a single 
other historian or biographer bears him out, that the 
appalling news of the BanI Quraiza massacre reached 
Khaybar where an indescribable consternation was cre- 
ated. At a meeting of these Bani Nadirites and the 
Khaybarites it was then proposed ^^as it is certain that 
Mohammed will next attack Khaybar, to anticipate 
him/' This was agreed to.^ 

(7) The successor of Abu Rafi*^, Usair, is also sus- 
pected and his assassination is determined on, but it is 
not found to be feasable. Nevertheless he and his fol- 
lowers are subsequently destroyed, while unarmed and 
under safe-conduct, under most dubious circumstances 
(see below), and by the almost professional assassin, 
Abdallah ibn Unais. 

(8) No more is reported from Khaybar. But the 
Khaybarites are next attacked suddenly and in fullest 
strength, six months later. They are totally despoiled: 
their rich possessions are divided among the conquerors. 

We think that a candid examination of the above 

*Ed. Wcllhausen, p. 190. 

'Ed. Wellhausen, p. 224. Considering that W§qidi mentions that a 
few months later the head of the tribe wanted peace with Mohammed, 
nothing important having happened in the meantime, one need not take 
these unsupported assertions of Khaybarite plotting very seriously. 


train of circumstances, which are here brought to- 
gether for the first time, will show clearly how hope- 
less was the position of a tribe like Khaybar, which 
originally, no doubt, simply wanted to be left in peace. 
To the very end of the chapter no semblance of a 
negotiation was carried on with the Khaybarites them- 
selves. The blow fell, when it fell, like lightning, a 
surprise attack without either declaration of war or 
even remonstrance. Yet ^^never" a sword was drawn 
but ''as a last resorf\ etc., etc., (Mr. Sadr ud Din) ; 
and we are to see in all this an example of "the morals 
of war" — and we presume of diplomacy also! The 
fact is that the theory "I will destroy you because I 
fear, or pretend to fear, you will attack me," with 
which also we have been familiarised of late, is a 
ruinously dangerous one in the hands of anyone who 
from the beginning determines to be on top. And, 
observe, when the weaker begins to think of acting on 
the same theory (if Waqidi's account is to be trusted) 
his action is to be considered a piece of unqualified 
aggression, and the counterstroke becomes an act of 
merest defence! So impossible is it for the weaker 
under such circumstances ever to be right, or the 
stronger ever to be wrong. It is further to be noticed 
that the Khaybarites had not the smallest doubt as to 
Mohammed's principles and practice in these matters. 
And their plot, if there was a plot, was simply the 
result of the despair engendered by the knowledge. 
Not even Waqidi asserts that there had been any previ- 
ous ill-will.^ 

It were unprofitable to follow out any further the 
justifiability or unjustifiability of the many campaigns 
of the period, or to study them from the viewpoint of 
"the morals of war." But just to show how far the 
Moslems had got by this time from all pretence of 

*A remarkable tradition is recorded by Muslim, (ii p. 237) "The 
Prophet gave the standard to *Ali and said, 'Forward! and do not look 
back until Allah gives you the victory.* * AH went forward a few steps 
and halted, and without looking back shouted out *0 Apostle of 
Allah, to what end am I to fight the folk?' He replied, 'Fight them so 
that they may witness that there is no god save Allah and that Moham- 
mad is Allah's Apostle. If they do this they have redeemed their lives 
from you: or else they must buy their lives with the price Oif them.*' 


waiting for provocation, we might mention the expedi- 
tions against the Christians of Duma, and against Mid- 
yan, both in the far north of Arabia, distant many days 
journey. The authorities do not so much as trouble to 
mention the causes of offence. In fact there were 
none. In the case of the latter raid \ totally unpro- 
voked as we have said, many women and children were 
captured and brought away to Makka, where they were 
all sold into slavery. (The Mohammedan saints were 
going to have sold the mothers and their children 
separately, but here the prophet intervened.) Now, 
we ask, in what single respect was this proceeding 
distinguishable from a vulgar slave-raid? Are we to 
work // also into our "morals of war"? And where is 
now the man who "never drew a sword but as a last 
resort to defend human life and secure safety to it"? 
What would have been the comment of the husbands 
of these Midyanite women on this bland remark? We 
wish Woking could have heard it. 

Kipling somewhere wisely remarks, of a certain 
Ameer, that, like other heads of states, he governs not 
as he would, but as he can. By some such axiom the 
various atrocities connected with the government of Mo- 
hammed are usually justified. It is represented that there 
was no settled government in Arabia, no constitution, 
no intertribal code, no legislature and no judicature. 
A man who became powerful enough in any given dis- 

• trict was ruler de facto and therefore de jure, and it was 
henceforth the business of those about him to be sub- 
ject, or take the consequences. Hostility, even on the 
part of those who had never desired his rule, was 
high-treason, and might be punished in any way what- 

In other words, Mohammed was a son of his time 
and by his time must his actions be justified. Agreed. 
This fact, as we said at the very outset, might and 

. would make us excuse and justify an ordinary man, 
the story of whose life is being told relatively to his 

*HaL III, 206. 


times; and were Mohammedans consistent in taking 
this line, there would be the less to be said. But show 
would this be consistent with the position of the Birth- 
day Number, that the Prophet's life is all beautiful, 
not relatively but absolutely; that it is human ideal for 
all time and times; and that from it we may construct 
our ethics, not only of war, but the true ethic itself? 

It is, therefore, just when we are asked to invest this 
Makkan with a perfect human light, that his govern- 
ment by assassination appears hideous. His use of this 
method for governmental purposes ^ is clear enough — 
indeed the fact is not denied. But — government by 
assassination! When it comes to giving the method its 
name, one is permitted to regret that the human ideal 
for all time lived in Arabia. 

We pass over the first of the series, — the assassination 
of the sleeping woman ^ with a baby at her breast, and 
the Prophet's brutally contemptuous remark about the 
matter when he enthusiastically commended the assas- 
sin. We pass over also the assassination of the bride- 
groom, called by treachery, unarmed, from the pres- 
ence of his bride. And we pass by a largish number of 
other "executions." 

It is understood that legal procedure as conducted 
in Arabia was necessarily deficient, and that justice, 
disencumbered of bandage and scales, had to yield to 
one and the same man the exceptional facilities of being 
accuser, crown-counsel, judge, and (through his fol- 
lowers) executioner, at one and the same time. The 
method certainly made for despatch. But it is permis- 
sible to whisper another word to the Woking enthusi- 
asts, — Justice? 

But even so, there are some things that make one 

^It will be noticed that in deference to Moslems we drop the 
notion of personal animosity. Let these assassinations be "executions" 
conceived and executed with passionless, judicial sternness. 

" She was a poetess and a satirist, and she had satirised Mohammed. 
We do not forget that modern researches (see Goldziher's Ahhandlungen) 
have made it clearer that these hija' poets had uncanny power in those 
days, and that their satires were much more to be dreaded by govern- 
ments than those of Mr. Punch. So, let her satire be high -treason. 
Still . . . ! This by the way was the man who "made the woman sex 
almost sacred" (B. N. p. 32.) Mohammed's contempt for *the female sex* 
is notoriously proved from the traditions. 


catch one's breath. What is to be thought, for example, 
of the "execution" of Usair (see above) with all his 
thirty men, all unarmed, riding to Madina under safe- 
conduct, each behind a Mohammedan ambassador? 
These ambassadors had come under the white flag 
and under the white flag they were riding away. Their 
leader, an approved assassin, had already "executed" 
the former chief of the tribe, Ibn Rafi', yet he had 
the impudence to say that the slaughter of this whole 
unarmed band was committed because he felt Usair 
feeling stealthily for his (^Aballah's) sword as he rode 
behind him through the night. Now this is really 
rather too thin; for (l) Waqidi and Ibn SaM ^ state 
explicitly that Mohammed had just offered the man 
peace and the secure headship of the tribe, and that the 
man himself wanted peace; (2) supposing he had 
overmastered ^^Abdallah, how about the other thirty 
armed Moslems?! and (3) to crown all, Waqidi tells 
us that *^Abdallah himself said to his son, "I was mend- 
ing my bow when I came and found that my comrades 
had been ordered out against Usair, The Prophet said 
^May I never see Usair.' He meant that I should kill 

Waqidi merely makes explicit what is clearly writ 
between every two lines of this unhallowed story. And, 
in fact, the popular biography of Halabi (III pp 207, 
28) makes it absolutely patent that Mohammed was 
designing Usair's death from the start. Government 
by assassination! and if thirty others have to fall, as 
well as the assumed offender, and that under the white 
flag, what of it? As the prophet remarked, they were 
well rid — by Allah of course — "of an unrighteous peo- 
ple." ' 

Well, it may have been good enough for Arabia in 
the Seventh Century. But we were talking, we thought, 
of humanity for all time? 

And even the Arabian stomach occasionally turned 
queasy when even its low records were further lowered 

^Halabi 1:67. 

*oJ. cit. pp. 239, 240. 

•Close of Ibn Hisham's narrative p. 980 f. 


by the innovators. Many years after the event, the 
death of Ka^b was being discussed in Madina, and a 
converted Nadirite Jew-Moslem, named Benjamin, 
roundly asserted that Ka^b had been treacherously assas- 
sinated. The assassin (Mohammed b. Muslima, then a 
very old man) was present and was furious, and 
shouted, "Dost thou ascribe to the Apostle of God a 
treachery?; for only at his direct order did we compass 
his death." And he threatened the speaker so that he 
would assassinate him, and very nearly accomplished 
his threat too. This attitude of the original hero of the 
piece is what we should expect; it is the attitude of 
Benjamin that gives food for thought. Many must have 
had similar scruples which were never expressed, or 
which if expressed have not broken their way through 
into tradition. The saints were not slow to follow 
the leader's lead. One of them, finding his sister 
by the sea shore, killed — ^we suppose we must 
say "executed" — her on the spot for satire against the 
prophet. Islam, at that time at any rate, completely 
obliterated natural ties. There was sometimes, in fact, 
a bloodthirsty competition to show sincerity by the 
assassination of father ^, relative ^, or friend ^. 

But the word "executed" would have to be stretched 
to an impossible tenuity to cover the following instance. 
After the assassination of Ka'b (see above) — in fact 
the next day — Mohammed gave the astounding order 
to kill all Jews wherever found !^ (It must be remem- 
bered that these were still early days. Badr had only 
just been fought and only the first of the Jewish 
tribes, al Qainuqa^, had offended and paid the penal- 
ty.) Accordingly one of the Mohammedans slew a 
Jewish trader, actually a man with whom he had most 
friendly commercial dealings, which had been highly 
profitable to him. The motive of the deed was purely 
mercenary — to get his benefactor's goods. A blacker 
murder in short, (for God's sake let us occasionally call 
a thing its real name,) was never committed. It was 

*As in the case of the son of 'Abdallah ibn Ubayy, Hisham p. 727. 

*As here. 

'See the following incident. 

* Hisham p. 553. 


too much for the brother of the murderer (not being 
yet a Moslem). He cried shame on his brother say- 
ing: "You enemy of God, have you murdered a man 
from whose goods most of the fat in your carcase came?"^ 
It is needless to say the act was never disclaimed or 
even criticised, by Mohammed. It was in fact directly 
due to his own fatal proscription. Let Woking appeal to 
the universal conscience of humanity as to whose instinct 
was the sounder, the unconverted brother's, or the 
Moslem assassin's. The heavens would fall — ^we say, 
the very heavens would fall — if the verdict were to 
be given to the latter. 


"Love your enemy' did not pass beyond the domain of dream in Chris- 
tianity, but Mohammed — peace be on him — has shown us horn love for 
the enemy may be shown in practice." 

The Birthday Number rings the changes upon this 
theme. It is one of the great discoveries of Neo-Islam 
that poor Sayyidna ^Isa was all very well in his 
way (see the whole of p. 22), but he never had the 
chance to show real forgiveness, i. e. in an hour of 
actual triumph. This Mohammed actually did. Such 
is the theme. 

We are far from asserting that Mohammed was a 
radically inhumane or radically vindictive man, though 
he once punished some of his enemies by cutting off 
their hands and feet, blinding them, and then impaling 
the sightless trunks till life ebbed. But this was an 
isolated and exceptional incident, and the men were 
themselves murderers and mutilators and were being 
punished in kind.^ 

So far from Mohammed's being specially cruel or 
specially vindictive the contrary is the case, if we con- 
fine ourselves still to Arabia. He was magnanimous, 
and also had with his magnanimity that coolness of head 

*/or. cit. When he heard that his brother would have had as little 
hesitation in killing him, he is said to have exclaimed, "By Allah, such a 
religion is a wonderful religion," and incontinently embraced Islam. We 
wonder what is thought of this argument for Islamizing. 

'Still the very Sura which, after this horrible incident, humanely 
forbade punishment by torture or crucifixion, commanded that robbers, 
both male and female, should have their hands cut off, and their feet to 
follow, one after the other, if the crime were repeated. Are we, by the 
way, to work this also into our ideal penal code? 


which showed him clearly where and when magna- 
nimity paid; especially at the capture of Makka, when 
the tide had clearly turned, and where to have ruined 
his winning cause by acts of vindictiveness would have 
been the absurdest of blunders. And other conquerors 
have been as clear-sighted, and, let us gladly add, as 
magnanimous. But the challenge of the Birthday 
Number cannot be allowed to pass so tamely. We hare 
seen Mohammed's intense vindictiveness in regard to 
one special type of offence, satire; we have seen the 
assassinations that followed this with every circum- 
stance of horror, over which, to do him justice, and 
to put it mildly, no crocodile's tears were shed, for the 
deaths caused him the keenest pleasure. If in the 
shades Abu Lahab has access to the Birthday Number, 
these parts of it must amuse him considerably. The 
ferocious vindictiveness of the prophet in his case 
could not even be kept out of the Koran. Another 
uncle, Abu Jahl, with others of the slain at Badr, were 
pitched into a pit, to the accompaniment of opprobrious 
remarks from the prophet. One Nawfal was among 
the prisoners hacked down after Badr, and Moham- 
med's keen relish thereat is specially commented on.^ 
The look which he fastened on al Nadr was so black 
that a bystander whispered that death was in it. The 
implacable and angry pitilessness shown after the sur- 
render of the Banu Quraiza (see the case of Thabit, 
and Mohammed's comment on the judgment of Sa^d) 
we have already seen: also the soulless spirit of unmer- 
cifulness in which the sentence of mercy for the 
Qainuqa '^was extorted from him. But ''Mohammed 
was the last of the race, and all these Divine moral at- 
tributes which were still undeveloped in men found their 
proper Epiphany in him. Forgiveness being one of 
them had its own occasion as well as its use. It found 
no occasion in the life-time of Jesus; and if others had 
it, they did not utilize it. But Mohammed had the 
rare occasion, and did not fail to use it. His enemies, 
when utterly fallen, entreated him to treat them as a 

*Muir p. 227 note.- 


noble-minded person would do. The appeal was most 
opportune, and made to the right man, and was readily 
accepted. (B. N. p. 23.) 

We have seen the very considerable qualification 
which such extravagant words need. And what shall 
we say to the following as a commentary upon them? 
When ^Uqba was ordered out to be executed after 
Badr he asked why he should be treated wth such 
special rigour? "Because of your enmity to Allah and 
his prophet," answered Mohammed. And then a 
gleam of human pathos suddenly illuminates the 
gloomy record, as the condemned man cried out, 
''Who will look after the children, Mohammed?" To 
which the reply was, ^^HellF — and he was cut down.^ 
Another historian adds that the prophet went on: 
''Wretch that thou wast, and persecutor * * * I give 
thanks to the Lord that he hath slain thee, and com- 
forted mine eyes thereby." — The "Epiphany of the 
Divine moral attributes" had something to learn from 
the Sermon on the Mount, after all — nay, he had some- 
thing to learn even from the despised heathen Quraish, 
who, according to the Birthday Number, "deserved 
every imaginable punishment to be devised of human 
ingenuity!" (p. 22). For when al-Nadr (see above) 
was led out to execution — though his ransom would 
have been accepted by his captor — he said to Mus'ab, 
"Had the Quraish made thee a prisoner, they would 
never have put thee to death;" to which came a reply, 
somewhat unfortunate in this connection, "I am not 
as thou art: Islam has broken the pacts." And at this 
precise moment the command to strike off his head was 
interposed by Mohammed, who had been watching 
what had passed. And it was instantly done by 'Ali.^ 

The plain fact is that Mohammed though above 
the men of his time and place in many things, was, 
to put it mildly on their own level in others. It is not 
to later lavender-watering traditions produced by hu- 
maner Syrians and Persians, still less to milk-and- 

*Hisham p. 458. 
•Waqidi p, 68. 


watery idealisations like this Birthday Number, that one 
must look, but to records which are evidently contempo- 
rary. What the real attitude of this Arabian was in 
this matter of vengeance and forgiveness is admirably 
shown up — with naive unconsciousness moreover — by 
the contemporary poet Ka'b b. Zuhair, an Arab of the 
Arabs. That attitude thoroughly appealed to Ka^b, but 
we do not see why it should arouse the enthusiasm of 
the mild gentlemen responsible for the Birthday Num- 
ber. It was expressed by the said poet in his famous 
poem, the Banat Su^ad. We should premise that he 
also had been dabbling in the perilous game of satire, 
and that it was represented to him that the fate of the 
other Ka'b and sundry male and female members of 
the satirical profession would inevitably be his. He 
therefore made his submission in the following words: 

Slanders worked their way to Su*ad and repeated to her "Thou art 
a dead man, O Kal) !" 

And every friend in whom I hoped said to me "I will not meddle with 
thee, I have no time for thee :"^ 

Until I pledge my troth to the Man of Vengeances whose word is law. 

Verily when it was said to me 'Thou are being charged and aske'd 
after,' he was more terrible to me than a lion of the forest." 

There is a good deal of Araby, but precious little 
of Woking, in all this. 


The Birthday Number writers do not specially say 
that the slaughter of prisoners is barbarous under any 
circumstances, but it is to be imagined that they would 
say so in no unmeasured terms, especially if they had 
come across any such incident in ^'Christian" wars. 
But such deeds occurred after some of Mohamrped's 
battles. After Badr, especially, the greatest vindictive- 
ness and bloodthirstiness were manifested. Many pris- 
oners were slaughtered in cold blood, at least two of 
them at the personal instance of Mohammed who had 
a special grudge against them. The most famous 
Companions (except Abu Bakr) were then the most 
truculent. One of them was for burning the prisoners 
alive en masseP The Prophet checked these excesses. 
But the very words in which he did so, the very limits 

^To which the commentator: "They washed their hands of him in 
their despair for his life and their fear of the Prophet's anger. 
•Musnad I 383. 


set up, show clearly that defenceless prisoners might 
always be slaughtered in cold blood if they could not 
get anyone to redeem them.^ 

The Sura produced after the event (viii 68) explicit- 
ly commands the slaughter of prisoners on occasions 
when it is advisable to make an impression by ''fright- 
fulness:" on such occasions the sin would be to grow 
rich by accepting ransoms! And there is a whole 
series of traditions (quoted by Muir, Life p. 231) which 
make out that the "leniency" shown at Badr was a sin, 
that Mohammed had been against that sin, that humane 
Abu Bakr was the chief offender, and that had that 
sin been punished, only the whole-hoggers who had 
urged the slaughter of all the prisoners ('Umar and 
Sa'd) would have escaped! 

The same Sura however gives signs that Moham- 
med already saw that the Badr policy was not for uni- 
versal application. And as Islam developed, the terrible 
Badrian alternative was modified. For one thing, as 
we have already seen, the practice of selling war-cap- 
tives became common (Are we, by the way, to regulate 
our practice by this also when the Governments turn 
their attention to the prisoners after the present war?) : 
and, as the Birthday Number says, the Koran itself 
recommended the ransoming of war-captives as a form 
of charity suitable for rich Moslems. But the Badr 
alternative is always there in the background, and on 
suitable occasions may always be brought into the 
foreground. The prisoner of war is mubah damuhu: 
his life's essentially forfeit. Are we to ask the coming 
Hague convention of the new world to adopt this into 
its code of ethics for international war? 


The subject of the "execution" of prisoners of war 
leads insensibly to forced conversions, about which 
some nonsense has been written by Christians, and a 
good deal more by Moslem apologists. It is quite true 

* Loc : cit. la yanfalitanna ahadun minkum ilia bifida'in aw dar- 
bati 'unq : "Let not one escape you except he pay a ransom, or else have 
his head struck off." 


that some Christian writers have written as if the 
whole Moslem propaganda might be depicted exclu- 
sively by a Moslem standing over a non-Moslem with 
the sword in one hand and the Koran in the other. In 
regard to Christians and Jews this idea was in any case 
absurd and false, for the law from the beginning — or 
at any rate since Khaybar — has been that Christians 
and Jews (Peoples of the Book) have been free to re- 
ject Islam and hold to their own faith on condition of 
becoming tributary^ Zimmiyyun. And most of the 
best-known wars of Islam have been against peoples 
of a Book, for even the Persians were from the first in- 
cluded practically under the term. In consequence of 
which, the plea to regard Islam as an exceptionally 
tolerant religion has lately gained more and more 
recognition, and in some respects perfectly rightly so. 

But not in all. It seems to be forgotten, and we may 
be sure that the Birthday Number does not remind us 
of it, that the Arabian heathen had by law no benefit 
whatever of protection without Islamising. For them 
and for "apostates" the law from the beginning was 
Islam or death. And it was at the beginning that that 
law was most rigorously carried out. Moslems are 
very naive, and what has prevented them from seeing 
that this fact is constitutive of forced conversion is their 
idea that the deliberate preference of "conversion" to 
death is not a forced conversion! (It is notorious that 
neither Mohammed nor any who came after ever 
troubled about motives for profession; and so every 
conversion is a conversion w's saldm.) They forget 
that the very real alternative was death. True, most 
preferred to escape death; but that proves, not dis- 
proves, our point. What of those who refused? 

Sura IX is of course the locus classicus for the above 
facts. After the pilgrimage of A. H. 9 there was to 
be no quarter for heathen (in the peninsula at least,) 

*The Armenian horrors, in which the alternative of Islam or death 
was many a time horribly presented, were justly represented by Moslems 
as contrary to the law of Islam. We suspect however that very many 
Moslems justified these in their hearts on the score of these zimmis' 
loss of rights through rebellion — an excuse which can be stretched to fit 
almost any case. 


It was to be for them Islam or death. And the alterna- 
tive was forced and note that the text make the alterna- 
tive most explicit. ^When the sacred months are past 
(viz., the time of grace allowed at the Pilgrimage of 
A.H. 9), kill the polytheists wherever ye find them , . . 
but if they repent and perform the prayer and bring 
the alms, let them go their way!' None of these con- 
formists, then, were instances of "forced conversion!" 
They all, of course, "repented!" No, it will not do. 
How about their almost unanimous apostacy {rid da) 
the moment the terrible Quraishite passed from the 

We shall not go into the question whether these 
prescriptions referred only to contemporary Arabs or 
to pagans all down the centuries^, for our theme is 
Mohammed. And it would seem to be a sufficient 
answer to the following challenge to have shown that 
by the command of the Prophet many thousands were 
as a plain matter of fact converted by force. The chal- 
lenge is this: 

"If the sword was 'drawn to force these to conversion, why were 
the prisoners released at the end of each war and all allowed to go to their 
home without being converted to Islam? Can any person refer to a single 
conversion which was secured through compulsion?" (B.N. 24.) 

Most assuredly any person can. We should have 
thought that a KalD preferring Islam to the continual 
menace of the assassin's sword would have been a suffi- 
cient instance for most people. But here the apologists 
are to some extent helped by the incurable naivete of 
the Arab mind, which saw in such arguments real signs 
that so lusty a religion was from Allah — or at any rate was 
to be subscribed to: in practice the two things came 
to the same thing: only Allah knoweth the hearts. 

But the matter cannot be so lightly dismissed. 

*We suspect that the fact that the first great campaigns were against 
People of a Book — for the expression was stretched to embrace even 
the Persians — mitigated the rigour of Sura ix. The Arabs were from 
the first sensitive to humanising and civilising influences. It was noted 
as noteworthy that when India was reached the polytheists got the 
benefit of the tribute privilege, whereby they kept their heads and 
their polvtheism. Still, when Timur "turned Northern India into a 
shambles, we imagine he was able to make out a fairly good case for 


. fact, that 

Does Woking know, or merely conce'^^ gani 

any one of those "executed" hundreo^^ tsion"?" 
Quraiza Jews could have bought life bf ^^^ ^ ^on- 
One, Jabal, did so} Was his case, or wa^ ^ j,^ ^^ 
version which was secured through comp^^^. ^ ^^ey 
the remaining hundreds? Is it not a fac ti^Q^^pul- 
only escaped "conversion" by resisting the . ^ives? 
sion," and paying for their constancy with ti. ^-^^pedi- 

Similarly the picket captured in the Maras" ^^ ^X^^ 
tion. He was first questioned, but refused to m.rj^^ ^e- 
reply. Mohammed then offered him Islam. 1 ,^ off 
fused. The Prophet then ordered ^Umar to cu\(iily 
his head, which that cheerful headsman most reav ve 
did.^ If that man had preferred to Islamise and sa^^A 
his neck, it would not have been, it seems, a forcec' \ 
conversion ! \ 

It may be objected that in this instance the man was \ 
a spy, and a spy's life was forfeit, and that the offer- 
ing Islam to him was gratuitous mercy. And some- 
what similarly the Bani Quraiza. But this is beside 
the mark. Our subject is enforced conversion; and if 
the "conversion" of a man at the sword's point, what- 
ever be the circumstances, is not to be called a forced 
conversion, then words have lost their meaning. 

But all doubts are dispelled by the following incident.^ 
Another spy was captured at Khaybar, but on this 
occasion the man was induced to talk, and his life was 
secured to him on Mohammed^s express word. In con- 
sideration of this promise, Mohammed (remarks the 
historian) refrained from ordering *^Umar to cut his 
head off.^ Latter on however ^^He had him brought 
before him in Khaybar and offered him Islam, with 
the remark that if on the third time of asking he did, 
not accept it the rope should only depart from his neck 

*Isaba I 453. 

'Halabi II p. 294. 

'Waqidi, pp. 266-7. 

* *Umar seems to have been a sort of voluntary headsman to the 
court, being devoted to the argument of the sword at all times (see his 
conduct after Badr). Later responsibility seems greatly to have elevated 
and enlarged his character. 


56 Tb should hang). That worked/' 

e^ . . , i waive enquiry into the honour- 

ajter swinging^ r 1 1 9 /• 1 1 j 

•NT J u. -^ j'-^ty 01 the threaf^ after what had 
No doubt It di* ^r^, .11- I. 

abl f thf^* point IS that here we have 

J , / example of a forced conversion, 

the clearest / 

T , 'Mohammed's words to ^Ali before 

— islam or ; , .,, , . , , 

rpi / them till they witness that there is 

TTi 1 3 41ah and that Mohammed is the apostle 

p 1 /I they do this, then they will have kept 

r A 11 /& goods from you, — but only at the price 

, . i/and their reckoning is on God." We are 

r , iieve that a 'Witness" under these conditions 

,^' forced witness! 

^Apostates?" Whether their apostacy was from 

conviction, or motived, or whether it was due 

. fact that their original Islamising was a hypo- 

cal farce as it obviously often was, matters not. The 

ernative for them was to be, Islam or death. If 

.ney chose Islam, would this or would it not, be a 

forced conversion? 

And what comment is needed by the following candid 
narrative from Ibn Hisham? After the acts of fright- 
fulness against the Jews which we have already men- 
tioned, numbers of Jews '^pretended to have embraced 
Islam, They adopted it in order to escape being 

Let the facts speak for themselves. 


We must now bring this investigation to a close. 
And in closing it we would emphatically repeat what 
was said at the outset, namely that when and if ad- 
mirers of Mohammed are content to regard him histor- 
ically as a great Arabian, who had a real and strange 
sense of prophetical call, and through this and his im- 
mense natural genius, singular gifts, and many virtues, 

^Lam yakrug U hahlu min 'vngika Hi su' ii dan, Waqidi, p. 267. 
*The incident of Abu Lubaba, sent by Mohammed to parley with 
the Bani Quraiza, offers a similar instance of doubtful good-faith. 
•Muslim II 237. 
*Zaharfl bil *islain wa ttahadhUhu hannatan min al qatl. 


accomplished a stupendous life-work, then we join 
with the admirers. Who with a grain of historic sense 
and appreciation would not? The worst enemies of 
Mohammed are not his opponents, but his friends, who 
will have it that the character of this Arabian giant 
is the very type of perfected humanity; that all his 
actions apart from trifles were perfect; that no great 
wrong can be attributed to him; that his moral splen- 
dour throws that of Jesus completely in the shade; and 
that his example and precept make the best foundation 
not only for codes of conduct but for national and inter- 
national law! Worst offenders of all are the Neo- 
Moslems who have assumed the task of dishing up 
the Biography to suit the taste of the Christian West; 
omitting here, explaining away there; challenging this 
(against the sources) and glozing that. It is not our 
business to estimate the sincerity of these men, nor of 
their Christian supporters. Some of these latter have 
been inspired to "their self-appointed task through the 
indignation of an honest reaction against former exag- 
gerations, or misrepresentations, or under-estimations; 
and some are merely officious and mealy-mouthed. We 
have nothing to do with that. All we know is that these 
men one and all, are doing a disservice both to truth 
and to their idol. For they as little give the world the 
whole truth as did the old-time wholesale obloquist; 
and they simply force those who see in these assertions 
a gross offence against fact, and a definite attack on 
the perfection and universality of the Man Christ 
Jesus, to rise up and show from the sources that the 
real Mohammed, the Mohammed of the sources and of 
the Agreement of Islam, the only Mohammed who 
counts, because the Mohammed of thirteen dead cen- 
turies and three hundred million living Moslems, will 
not fit the role in virtue of which the human race is 
invited to travel from Bethlehem to Mekka, from the 
Mount of the Beatitudes to the Mount of 'Arafat. 

W. H. T. Gairdner. 
Cairo, Egypt, 


rPortion of a paper read before the Royal Asiatic Society, Shanghai, and pub- 
lished by permission of the author. — Ed.] 

Beginning with the contributions of Dr. N. M. Saleeby 
on the history and culture of the Moros of the South a 
collection of monographs has gradually appeared which 
constitutes almost the first scientific attempt to penetrate 
the mystery that shrouds the origin of the present inhabi- 
tants of the Philippines and their cultural sources. 

Among the most recent of these publications, though 
relating to the earliest period, are those compiled by 
the ingenious Professor of History in the University of 
the Philippines — Austin Craig — ^who is also known for 
his painstaking and authoritative life of Rizal,' and 
other works. His pamphlet on "Malays" is largely ex- 
tracted from a work* by General Forlong which deals 
with the origin of the Malay race and its primitive reli- 
gious ideas. Like Dr. Saleeby,' General Forlong be- 
lieves that the Malays originated on the Asiatic main- 
land (the latter holding that they entered India from the 
north) and long remained under the influence of Indian 
civilisation. This general theory finds abundant philo- 
logical evidence in its favor and in addition to that men- 
tioned by General Forlong much more might be cited 
from the Philippine languages. 

The pioneer in this interesting field appears to have 
been Dr. H. Kern (1833 — ), formerly Professor of San- 
scrit in the University of Leyden, who, in 1880 and 1881 
published the results of his observations on the presence 

> Studies in Moro Hiitory Law and Religion (Manila 1905) ; The History of Suln 
(1905); Origin of the Malayan Filipinoi (1912). 

'The Pre-Spanish Philippines, by Austin Craig; (Manila, 1914); Particulars of the 
Philippines' Pre-Spanish Past, by the same author, (Manila, 1916); Malays, by the •«&• 
author, (Manila, 1916). 

•Manila (Philippine Education Co.) 1913. 

• Short Studies in the Science of ComparatiTe Religions. 

• Origin of the Malayan Filipinos, Academy Publications I, 1, 37. 

• Otto Scheerer in Philippine Rcricw, III, 63. 



of Sanscrit words in Bisaya and Tagalog. As regards 
the latter, Dr. T. H. Pardo de Tavera, a member of the 
Philippine Academy, took ifp the same line of inves- 
tigation a few years later/ The presence of Sancrit 
words in other Philippine languages was noticed by still 
another and charter member of the Academy, recently 
chosen as its Chancellor — Dr. David P. Barrows.^ But 
it was reserved for Dr. Saleeby to carry this fascinating 
investigation to the farthest extent yet reached. Select- 
ing as his particular subject the Magindanaw language of 
the south Philippines he has not only collected an ex- 
tensive vocabulary^ of common words therein, which are 
cognate with Sanscrit, but he marshals other evidence 
in support of his conclusion that Malay speech in gen- 
eral "is an Indian tongue closely allied to, or originally 
derived from, Sanscrit — the language of Vedic worship 
and Vedic days." And he sums up the results of his re- 
searches in the following inquiry: 

"What conclusion can we then at present draw, other than that 
the ancient home of these peoples and the birth place of their fore- 
fathers was in the land where the Vedic gods were worshipped and 
an Indian language was spoken, which land can be no other country 
than that extensive continent of India — the cradle of the Malay 

Moreover, the term Malay itself, instead of being de- 
rived, as General Forlong seems to think, from the Indian 
mala (hill) , is more probably connected with the Tagalog 
malayo (far) with its allusion to the long wanderings of 
the race which General Forlong emphasizes.* 

When the Malays entered the archipelago now known 
as the Philippines^ they found there an aboriginal race, 

^ See his monographs, El Sanscrito en la lengua tagalog (Paris, 1887, 55 pp) ; Con- 
sideraciones sobre el origen del nombre re Ids numeros en tagalog (Manila, 1889, 26 pp.) 

* History of the Philippines, 92, 93. Dr. Barrows also found "a few Sanskrit or 
Indian words" in the Ilongot language of North Luzon. See his "Ilongot or Ibilaw," 
Popular Science monthly, (December, 1910) LXXVII, 537. 

' Origin of the Malayan Filipinos, Academy Publications, 1, 22-35, 

* "They have," he says, "thronged EJast Africa above 1000 years, and have even a 
colony at the Cape of Good Hope. They traded everywhere throughout Madagascar — ^their 
Malagasa and the Mala-dvipas or Maldives. They colonized 500 miles of the West 
Coast of India, still known as Mala-bar; the great island of Sumatra and adjoining main- 
land known as the Malaka Peninsular, extending over some 700 miles; all the large 
island kingdoms of Java, Celebes and their dependencies and the eponymous extensive 
Molucca group." 

* This name was not applied until long after Spanish occupation when it was given 
in honor of the reigning monarch Felipe II. Magellan, who discovered the group on 
San Lazaro's day, named it after that saint. 


dark-skinned, of short stature and curly hair, resembling, 
and probably akin to, the Papuans of New Guinea, the ab- 
original Semang of the Malay peninsula,^ the Mincopies 
of the Andaman Isla^nds^ and perhaps to the blacks of 
Australia. Long afterward this race received from the 
Spaniards the name of Negritos (little blacks). Once 
numerous and distributed throughout the islands they are 
now confined to a few provinces while their number is 
very smalP and believed to be rapidly diminishing. Yet 
it is long since active warfare between them and the 
Malay intruder has decimated the former's ranks. Their 
present decline seems rather due to a prolonged process 
of amalgamation, largely at their expense, with the in- 
coming race. Dr. Barrows long since expressed his con- 
viction that 

"Much has been made of the 'Indonesian' theory and far too much 
of pre-Spanish Chinese influence, but the result to the physical types 
found in the Philippines of the constant absorption of the Negrito 
race into the Malayan and the wide prevalence of the Negrito blood 
in all classes of islanders has been generally overlooked. . . . 

'*I shall not attempt here," he adds, "to estimate the proportion of 
Negrito blood in the Christian peoples of the Philippines — Bisaya, 
Hikol, Tagalog, Ilokano, etc. — further than to express my conviction 
that in certain regions it is very large and has greatly modified the 
primitive Malayan type." 

This mixture of blood has produced in certain parts 
of the Philippines, groups which, though not pure Ne- 
gritos, resemble them to a degree more or less consider- 
able according to the amount of Malay infusion. The 
Bataks of Palawan are practically Negritos while the 
Tagbanuas of the same island are predominently Malayan 
with a Negrito strain. 

Thus the diffusion of Malays appers to have skirted 
practically the entire inhabited coasts of Asia and to have 
left its trail stretching from South Africa to Korea. 

Of the cultural influences affecting this widely scat- 
tered race the Indian was the first and most powerful. 

• Barrows, The Negrito ad Allied Types in the Philippines, American-Anthopologist, 
(N. S.) XII, 375, citing Skeat & Blagden's Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula. 

• Reed, Negritos of Zambales (Philippine Ethnological Survey Publications, Vol. II 
pt. I) 13 et seq. 

• Dr. H. Otley Beyer in his recent work on the "Population of the Philippine 
Islands in 1916" estimates (p. 22) the Negritos at about 36,000, or leas than one-half 
of one per cent of the total population. 


But in spreading northward the Malays naturally en- 
countered the civilization which was then dominant in 
eastern Asia — the Chinese. 

Professor Craig shows how, as early as the third cen- 
tury of our era, Chinese writers mention what we know as 
the Philippines, grouping them with Formosa; and his 
chronological leaflet, issued separately from the other 
pamphlets, indicates that there has hardly been a century 
since in which reference to the Philippines fails to ap- 
pear in some Chinese work. 

Meanwhile communication between the two countries 
appears to have continued, persistently even if intermit- 
tently, until checked by unwise and ill adapted immigra- 
tion restrictions originating in Spain; and one begins 
to understand from the antiquity of this contact how it 
is that the Chinese people and their civilization have 
come to exert such an extensive and permanent, though 
withal unobtrusive, influence upon the Philippines. The 
motive of this contact seems to have been primarily com- 
mercial. The "New History of the T'ang Dynasty," 
dealing with the period from the seventh to the tenth 
centuries of our era, states that: 

"When Chinese merchants arrive there, they are entertained as 
guests in a public building and the eatables and drinkables are 
abundant and clean." ' * 

But these old writers whose work is here made acces- 
sible have something more to record than commerce. 
Social customs, religious beliefs and practices and even 
juridical conceptions find a place in their narratives 
Thus the historian of the T'ang Dynasty above quoted 
informs us that these primitive inhabitants of the Philip- 

"have no corporal punishments, all transgressions being penalized 
with fines in gold which vary according to the nature of the offence. 
Only robbers and theives are made to suffer death." 

It is the argreement of all this with what we know 
from other sources that stamps the descriptions as ac- 
curate and genuine and it is just here that the work of 
Dr. Robertson connects with that of Professor Craig. 


Formerly Chancellor of the Philippine Academy and 
Insular Librarian the former is too well known to need 
extended mention here/ 

The materials collected by these two — Professor Craig 
and Dr. Robertson — furnish us glimpses of the relations 
between Chinese and Malays down to the time when the 
latter first came under the influence of the Arab mission- 
aries of Islam. At this point the notable and illuminat- 
ing work of Dr. Saleeby commences; for while this was 
the first to appear, it covers the latest period of pre- 
Spanish, Philippine history. 

Dr. Saleeby is of the opinion that the Malays left the 
Asiatic mainland at least as early as looo B. C. As the 
first Mohammedans did not enter India much if any 
before 600 A. D. they could hardly have influenced the 
Malays there. The Moslem conquest of India began in 
1024 and Moslem influence was extended to Malaysia 
about 1300. Leaving the mainland the emissaries of 
Islam seem to have proceeded first to Sumatra and thence 
to the other islands of the Malay archipelago whose in- 
habitants are now so largely of their faith. They en- 
tered the Philippines by two routes, the first via Balabac 
and Palawan to Manila Bay and the second by way of 
Tawi-Tawi and Sulu to Magindanaw (now Cottabato). 
They appear to have reached Sulu before 1380 and when 
the Spainards arrived at the Pasig river, less than two 
centuries later, they found a Mohammedan prince — 
Rajah Soliman — reigning in Tondo, now a part of 
Manila, and Islam quite extensively established there. 

To the Spainards who had just succeeded in expelling 
the Moors from ther home peninsula it seemed a reli- 
gious duty to repeat the process as regards these coreli- 
gionists in the Philippines to whom they applied the 
same term — Moros. The process was completed in the 
northern and central Philippines where, except in the 
mountain regions of Luzon, most of the inhabitants came 
under the influence of the Spanish Friar Missonaries. 
But the Malays of the southern Philippines have re- 

» Blair and Robertson, The Philippine Islands 1493-1898— Cleveland Ohio 1903-1909 

in 55 volumes. 


mained Mohammedan to this day. And the new in- 
fluence which thus .affected them came directly and not 
indirectly from Arabia. Abu Bekr who introduced 
Islam into Sulu was a real Arab and so late as 191 1 
when I visited the Lake Lanao region of central Min- 
danao the military commandant there (Colonel Beecham) 
told me that the leading Moro of the locality was a man 
from Mecca. On the other hand among the Moros of 
to-day are not a few "hadjis" who proudly wear the green 
turban in token of a pilgrimage to the Holy Land of 

Among the most interesting monuments of this long 
domination of Islam in the southern Philippines are the 
series of legal compilations, often called codes, which 
Dr. Saleeby discovered and translated.' A detailed ex- 
amination of them would lead us too far afield and 
besides would require a separate monograph for adequate 
treatment. Sufiice it here to say that they constitute a 
curious blending of Moslem law with Malay custom and 
that, while crude and unsystematic in arrangement, they 
contain some rather advanced provisions. They were 
mainly intended for the Moro panditas (judges) who 
were unfamiliar with Arabic and therefore unable to 
read the real Mohammedan law books. But they have 
introduced not a little of the law of Islam which the 
American government in the Philippines has recognized 
by authorizing the Moro Provincial Council "to modify 
the substantive civil and criminal law ... to suit local 
conditions among the Moros" etc., "to conform . . . 
to the local custom? and usages."' 

Here, then, we have a concrete and striking example 
of an external influence which has profoundly affected 
Malayan culture in two vital features — religion and 
law — just as it had been previously affected by Indian 
influence as regards language and Chinese influence re- 
specting commerce and social customs. Thus we dis- 
cover that the external influences which affected succes- 
sively the Malayan Filipino were the three most poten- 

*Studies in Moro History, Law and Religion, Phillipine IJthnological Survey Pub- 
lications, IV, pt. I (1905). 

2 Compilation, Acts of the Philippine Commission p. 251. 


rial civilizations of Asia — the Indian, the Chinese and 
the Arabic. And operating concomitantly with these 
was an internal influence which, if less obtrusive, was even 
more effectve and real — the local contact and amalga- 
mation with the Negrito. And if there is one outstand- 
ing lesson to be drawn from a study of the Malay race 
it is the unity and continuity of history in the Far East 
and the solidarity of its culture. For it shows that the 
native races of this region are not isolated units, having 
no relation to each other, but sharers in a common civili- 
zation whose influence has been age-long and far reach- 
ing. Surely, therefore, none of the laborers in such a 
common, though extensive, field can afford to be ignor- 
ant of, or isolated from, their fellows. 

Charles Sumner Lobingier. 


The command, "Go ye into all the world and preach 
the Gospel to the whole creation" has been recognized 
by the Church and, to a limited extent, emphasized ; but 
another and equally important command, "Behold, I 
send you forth to reap," has not been so generally rec- 
ognized as binding and hence has been sadly neglected 
by most of the laymen of the Church and, I fear, by 
some of the ministry as well. 

True, the command to preach or sow comes logically 
first, but not necessarily a long time before the command 
to reap. 

Whatever the conditions may have been in the past as 
to the sowing and the reaping among Moslems, today we 
find large areas where the preaching has been done, the 
seed has been scattered into ground that is good and has 
come to full fruition. They now await the ministry of 
the skillful reaper. From many mission fields comes 
the news that these religiously zealous people are hun- 
gering and thirsting for they do not know what, but they 
realize that their faith has not saved them from this 
hunger and thirst. I myself have had men follow me 
to the third preaching place just to hear more of this 
great salvation theme. 

I find that although they deny that Christ died on the 
cross, yet there is no subject that holds them like the 
story of the Crucifixion, and when this is illustrated by 
lantern slides there is a stillness and solemnity that is 
impressive. Bishop Warne tells of the effect of the 
story of the crucifixion on a Hindu holy man. When 
the Bishop in his description got to where Jesus said, 
"Father forgive them," the man became excited and 
cried out, "Get out of India; get out of India at once. 
If you tell that story to these warm-hearted people of 
India our temples will soon become empty and our occu- 



pation gone. Get out of India, I say." Often we find 
our audiences deeply impressed and at such times we 
should seek the closer touch. The attempt should be 
made to reap or at least to protect the seed so that it may 
not be injured but helped to full fruition. There are 
those for whom the command is, doubtless, "I send you 
forth to reap," and the endeavor should be made to get 
such to decide for Christ at once. While there are 
others upon whom, were you to urge an immediate 
decision, you would not only fail to have them decide 
but would likely so estrange them from you as to en- 
danger future opportunities for conversation. One must 
be divinely led, must live in unbroken fellowship that 
He, the Holy Spirit, may be able to use us freely on any 
and every occasion. 

My own practice may help some by giving a sugges- 
tion as to method. I do bazaar and village preaching 
daily. In the station I have a reading room, to which 
all who wish further information are invited to come, 
either at the close of the talk or the next day. Both 
times should be stated, — the opportunity right after the 
preaching for those transient hearers who cannot come 
another day, and because they who do not live there are 
not afraid to come ; the later time for those who have not 
the courage to come in from the audience and wish to 
keep it secret. There is a man always in the reading 
room who will meet the inquirer and, when desired, 
arrange a meeting with me, while I of course make it 
known that I will welcome interviews in my home. 
Other programs must give way to this the greatest work 
given us, of saving souls. In the village work I arrange 
for private interviews, according to circumstances, in 
my tent or worker's house, etc. 

I do a great deal of my work on the train by riding in 
the third-class compartment. Here I use the hand-bill 
or portion of Scripture as a means of approach. From 
the Scripture portion to a heart to heart talk the way is 
very easy. Recently I have found it very helpful to use 
three small booklets which were gotten out by one of the 
evangelistic committees in India. These are graded to 


correspond with the learner's different stages of progress. 
The first simply declares, "I desire to learn more of 
Christ and will endeavor to follow Him as He gives me 
light," and is signed by the inquirer. This has a stub 
which you keep and should at once be added to your 
prayer list; the other the inquirer keeps as a reminder of 
his vow. As far as possible, these inquirers should be 
followed up, and in many cases a copy of the stub can be 
sent to the missionary in charge of the district where the 
inquirer resides. The second booklet declares, "I prom- 
ise to read and study the Bible." The third booklet 
brings the inquirer face to face with a definite decision 
in the statement, "I accept the Lord Jesus Christ as my 
Saviour." Follow up work must accompany all such 
effort. It is no easy job! You say, surely not, nor is 
the work of saving souls declared to be easy. However, 
it is worth the cost. 

It need scarcely be said again that argument is to be 
avoided. You can often avoid this by frankly requesting 
that they kindly refrain from asking questions the answer 
to which would give pain to the hearer, i. e., such ques- 
tions as this: "Is the Koran the word of God?" How- 
ever, it is of immense advantage to any personal worker 
to be able to show that he can answer such questions if 
insisted upon. They soon take one's measure and 
respect one who knows the claims of Islam. Therefore 
be a student of Islam, try to get the Moslem viewpoint, 
and by prayer and fellowship get into sympathy with 
your Moslem neighbor in his hopes and ambitions. Oh! 
the harm that has been done by the unsympathetic fault- 
finder trying to preach the Gospel of love to the 
Moslem. The war has made the Moslem more than 
ever in need of our sympathetic help, and to my mind 
there are at present no people who offer such a chal- 
lenge to the Church. May God help us to meet the 

W. T. Anderson. 

Rawal Pindi, Punjab, 


One of the first effects of Turkey's entry into the 
world war, in October of 19 14, on the Moslems of that 
country, was to intensify and speed the disintegration 
of Islam. There had already been signs of such disin- 
tegration; but many facts contributed to its further and 
deeper working. And as a result, never before has 
such an opportunity revealed itself for earnest effort 
to lead these darkened, wandering, dissatisfied hearts 
into a new light. 

The attempted Jihad was a flat failure in Turkey. 
No local enthusiasm could be roused, though prodigious 
efforts were everywhere made. One explanation of this 
was in the composite character of the Turkish army 
since 1908. Armenians, Greeks, Jews, Druzes and 
Syrians stood in the ranks next to and between the 
Moslems, and any appeal to religious fanaticism was 
confusing to officers and men alike. When the Moslem 
soldier was told he was to fight for his faith, he looked 
in amazement at his Greek and Hebrew comrades, 
and wondered what it all meant. How can any army 
which is no longer a Moslem unit, go into a "Holy 
War" without first waging a civil war against its Chris- 
tian elements? 

Furthermore, the Turkish army which was summoned 
to the Jihad was commanded by German oflScers. To 
send home Gen. Liman von Sanders, or later on Gen. 
von der Goltz and Gen. von Falkenhayn, would suit 
neither Germany's purpose in ordering Turkey to 
declare a Holy War, nor Turkey's in unfurling the 
green banner. And with the acquisition of the Goeben 
and Breslau the Ottoman navy as well passed from 
Turkish control into the hands of German naval officers. 
To be sure, these wore the fez; but no amount of false 
reasoning could convince your honest Turk that "Hadji 


Guillaume," as the Kaiser came to be known, was a 
Moslem. Then too, the Moslems were told that in 
this Jihad they were to fight against the British, — 
"why!" thought Mehmed, '^the Ingliz have always been 
our protectors against Moskoff (Russians) ; what have 
they ever done against us?" — and they were not to 
fight the Austrians, who were to be their friends. 
"Well," said perplexed Mehmed, "only yesterday we 
were boycotting the Austrians because they stole Bosnia 
and Herzegovina from us." It was very confusing. 
Fanaticism is an attribute of a narrow mind; and it 
must be put before such a simple mind as a very clear- 
cut issue. This problem of nationalities within and 
without, killed the Jihad in Turkey. 

But there were turbaned fanatics among the leaders 
who swallowed all at a gulp, and still expected the 
thing to succeed. Great was their amazement at the 
reception of the Sultan's proclamation in Egypt and 
India. Why, were not those countries seething with 
revolution under the galling British yoke? So their 
German advisers had told them. And would they not 
immediately rally to the thought of a united Islam, 
under the lead of the great Khalif? If the general 
loyalty of the Indian and Egyptian Mohammedans was 
a surprise to the British, it was no less so, and dis- 
couragingly so, to the Turkish leaders. Secret emis- 
saries were sent into those lands; political assassina- 
tions in Egypt were lauded as the holy work of 
zealots of martyr heroism; but all was useless; the 
Turkish Moslem would not become "fighting mad." 

Simultaneously there was an entirely different effort 
on the part of the better element of Moslem thinkers. 
They believed Islam was losing ground because people 
were not allowed to understand it; and they began pub- 
lishing a translation of the Koran into Turkish, hoping 
to popularize its study. After twenty or thirty pages 
had been printed and circulated in leaflet form, however 
the fanatical extremists took drastic action, and the 
whole thing was suppressed and further translation 
forbidden. Arabic was the only sacred language, and 


nobody had a right to try to translate the Koran into any 
mere human tongue. 

But the event that made the average Mohammedan 
think most uncomfortably as to the character of his 
faith, was the wonderful heroism of so many Armenians 
under the tortures to which they were subjected by 
the fiendishness of Talaat and Enver. Whenever ex- 
pedient, this movement against a harmless subject race 
was represented to the Moslem populace as a religious 
effort. The Armenians were given the choice of accept- 
ing the true faith or being butchered for obstinacy. 
But these Armenians had something in their faith that 
made them prefer death in its most revolting forms to 
this simple expedient. With a new light in their eyes, 
and often with a hymn of consecration, *'they bowed 
their necks the stroke to feel," and the simple Moslem 
said, "Mashallah! there must be something in Chris- 
tianity that I don't understand." 

There can be no doubt but that the sublime courage 
of these Armenians had a deep and lasting effect on 
many of their persecutors. For the most part the ac- 
tual butchering was done by hired hordes of the worst 
criminal classes in Turkey, and not by the average 
Moslem; but the onlooker, who had not cared to soil 
his hand with such a job, was disgusted at the link- 
ing up of this crime with the name of his religion 
This was at least one of the contributing causes for a 
growing laxity in the religious zeal of Moslems. 

Such laxity was seen in a lessening attention to the 
daily namaz, or stated prayers of each day. For a 
long time comparatively few Turks had been scrupu- 
lously faithful in their five daily prayers; but when the 
war began, this carelessness was more marked. And 
the same spirit was more noticeable with reference to 
the fast of Ramazan. This is one of the cardinal virtues 
of the Moslem and the fast is a very rigorous one. 
From the time you can distinguish a white hair from 
a black one till the sun goes down, not a drop of water, 
nor a whiff of tobacco-smoke, nor a crumb of food is 
allowed to enter his mouth. But for three or four 


years just preceding this war, things had become so lax 
in Constantinople that official warnings had to be 
printed in the Moslem dailies each year during Rama- 
zan, to the effect that if anyone were found eating or 
drinking or smoking during the fast, he would be pun- 
ished with fine and imprisonment. When, however, 
that month came, in the summer of 191 5, not only 
military officers but civilians as well openly disregarded 
the law, and the numbers seen eating at restaurants at 
midday were shocking; and no notice appeared in any 
paper to warn anybody. If the Turks will neglect the 
sacred month of fasting, is anything too sacred for them 
to cast away? 

Of course the pilgrimage to Mecca had to be sus- 
pended; for, to say nothing of the seas being blockaded 
all around, the Arabs were behaving queerly, and 
Turkish pilgrims were not welcome in Arabia. But the 
most astounding exhibition of decadence was from a 
most unexpected source. A little over two years ago, 
a prayer specially drawn up by Enver Pasha, the 
Turkish Minister of War, was ordered recited every 
night by each soldier in the Turkish army. This re- 
markable document contains no reference whatever to 
Islam, and is a deliberate attempt to turn back the 
hands of the clock to pre-Moslem times. The transla- 
tion follows: — 

"Almighty God! Grant the Turks health, and unite all the 
Brethren in the benevolence of the Sultan. That thy power may be 
glorified, grant us the favor of the White Wolf. Thou, Young 
Turan, thou beloved Fatherland, we beseech thee to show us thy 
path. Our great ancestor Abhouz calls us. Almighty God, shed 
upon the Turks the blaze of thy light, that the path of Turan may 
be plain and dwellings be illuminated in every place and corner with 
a rosy glow." 

The ^White Wolf" was the Turkish god of war while 
they were still a Tartar tribe east of the Caspian. And 
here is the redoubtable leader of the army of the most 
powerful Moslem nation on earth, deliberately trying 
to urge his troops back into heathenism! No wonder, 
then, that the newly established Kingdom of the 
Hejaz, in making its defence before the world for 
revolting against Turkey, said the Turkish leaders were 


no longer true Moslems, and had therefore forfeited all 
right to be guardians of the holy cities of Mecca and 

For it is not Enver alone who has shown his defection 
from Mohammed. The former Grand Vizier, Talaat, 
is of the so-called Deunmeh, or perverts from Judaism, 
a powerful group in Salonica who have furnished sev- 
eral chief men to the Young Turks, and of whose 
religious zeal the less said the better. Talaat is notori- 
ously an irreligious man. With the collapse of the 
pan-Islamic bubble, these leading spirits have shelved 
religion and are trying to boom pan-Turanism instead. 
And the Arabs are right; Islam is a waning crescent 
in Turkey. No longer will any Sultan of Turkey be 
recognized as Khalif of all the Faithful, or have his 
name mentioned in the daily prayers of millions all over 
the world. Constantinople will never again be the 
political capital of the Moslem world. 

What reasons have brought about this result? Doubt- 
less political factors have had some part. The power 
of these irreligious Deunmehs in the Cabinet, the failure 
of Islam in the Balkan wars and the loss of European 
Turkey, the failure of the redoubtable Senoussi in Trip- 
oli to drive out the Italians and restore Turkish power 
there, have opened the eyes of many to the vulner- 
ability of Islam. Again, the more liberal attitude of 
the Ottoman authorities as to education has helped. 
Turkey has for ten years past been sending students to 
European and American Universities; and these Mos- 
lems have some of them returned to assume a far less 
Mohammedan attitude in leading the youth of the land. 
But far greater has been the influx of Moslem pupils 
into the American and other foreign schools of Turkey 
itself. Before 1908, rare indeed was the Turkish pupil 
in a non-Moslem institution; but during 1914-1915 there 
were in our American colleges and high schools alone 
throughout Turkey over a thousand of them. Turks 
brought their sons and daughters there, not so as to 
make them Christians, but, according to their own con- 
fession because of the moral bankruptcy or worse of 


the Moslem institutions. Our schools gave them char- 
acter, while their own schools failed in this. Further, 
there has been an awakened desire for studying the 
sources. The reports of the two great Bible Societies, 
the American and the British and Foreign, show 
phenomenal sales of Scripture portions in the languages 
of the Turkish Moslems during the two years previous 
to this war. Colporteurs in Constantinople have told 
the writer most interesting stories of some of these 
sales. These Moslems were also reading other Chris- 
tian literature, for they wished to know where its great 
and undeniable strength lay. The same spirit of investi- 
gation was back of several Moslem efforts to apply 
the methods of the higher criticism to the Koran and 
Moslem tradition. As an immediate consequence of this 
was seen a feverish desire to disregard and overlook the 
facts of Mohammed's personal character, and lay stress 
instead on his teaching; also in the effort already men- 
tioned to print a translation of the Koran, suppressed 
by the Government. In connection with this awaken- 
ing desire, many were the private conversations of 
sincere seekers after truth, with those well versed in 
Moslem theology and dialectic. High tribute is due 
some of our Armenian co-laborers who with rare judg- 
ment and tact in the spirit of Christian love helped 
several such earnest souls into the light. Their names 
are written in the Book of Life. Then again, no one 
can overestimate the influence of the Christian hospital 
in undermining prejudice and exhibiting the atmo- 
sphere of love and purity. Moslem patients return 
from such havens of rest to their villages or towns, 
not merely full of praise for the wonders of western 
science, but with at least a new respect for the fol- 
lowers of 'Isa-el-Mesih. An interesting follow-up 
work wath former patients had begun shortly before the 
war in connection with at least one of our mission hos- 
pitals, in a systematic visiting in their village homes, 
which brought unexpected and surprising opportunities 
for Bible reading and personal presentation of the mes- 
sage. This work promises remarkable results. 


But one of the most potent forces without doubt in 
breaking down the stronghold of Islam in Turkey has 
been the testimony of the Armenian martyrs, sealed with 
their blood, during these awful four years. The atroci- 
tes themselves, to which these innocent people were sub- 
jected, have caused really thoughtful Moslems to shud- 
der and to question the righteousness of a religion that 
tolerated them. And the witness of those who "counted 
not their lives dear unto themselves," has certainly 
had its convincing effect. If ever the blood of martyrs 
was the seed of the church, it is to prove so in the 
case of these Armenian victims of a decadent Islam 
whose already shaken devotees will many of them 
cry out, "O Galilean thou hast conquered!" 

In a very true sense, all these elements in the new 
situation in Turkey may be summed up under one, — 
One Hundred Years of Protestant Missions. Since 
Pliny Fisk and Levi Parsons went out there in 1819, 
through the long line of polished mirrors of His 
grace, the Sun of Righteousness has been shedding 
into Moslem hearts the genial warmth and wonderful 
light of His love. Paul has planted, Apollos watered; 
and now God is about to grant the harvest. From all 
sides come testimonies that the fields are ripe unto the 
harvest. A recent writer in The Missionary Herald 
says: "The mere negative fact of the removal of gov- 
ernmental restrictions does not begin to tell the story of 
the new opportunity for missionary work among the 
Moslems of Turkey. Even should there not be religious 
liberty, the Moslems are softened and prepared for hear- 
ing the gospel as never before. No one who has not 
lived among the Moslems during the past three years 
can realize the change that has come over many of 
them during the war." * 

It is certainly high time we asked ourselves: What 
then shall we do? Such a breakdown of a hoary sys- 
tem in its grip on the hearts of men constitutes a 
challenge to every loyal servant of Christ. If the 
strategy of this war has taught us anything, it is the 

♦Feb. 1918, p. 65. ^ 


absolute necessity of watching for the least sign of 
weakening anywhere along the enemy's line, and then 
driving home the attack at the vulnerable point. 
Islam has developed a weak point. Who can estimate 
the effect on the two hundred millions of Moslems 
the world over if the Turks begin to yield to our 

And again our eyes turn towards the Armenians. 
If through this awful time a large remnant have been 
saved, "as through fire," it is that they may be the 
messengers of the grace of Christ to their Moslem 
persecutors. Already the spirit of missionary zeal has 
shown itself among them in the establishing of the 
"Home Missionary Society," for work among their 
Kurdish neighbors; this enterprise has been going 
on for several ye^rs. Such effort is now to be in- 
creased by the new spirit of consecration born of fear- 
ful suffering for the Name. The relation between 
Turk and Armenian is to be no longer that of tyrant 
and slave, but of the stricken Saul of Tarsus and 
Ananias coming and saying to him, "Brother Saul, 
receive thy sight." 

There, is however, much that American missionaries 
can also do, in cooperation with the native evangelists. 
We can show them the fruits of Christian love in med- 
ical and philanthropic work; we can put forth a con- 
structive literature, less controversial than testimonial, 
to show them the results of the love of Jesus; we can 
talk with them and answer their questions. All this 
involves deep and exhaustive study of the Koran, to 
enable one to use it for testimony, even as Paul used 
the heathen Greek poets. The Koran has much to 
say of Jesus the Messiah; we should be able to declare 
unto them Him whom they ignorantly venerate as a 
prophet but refuse to worship. They will listen in- 
tently if we can tell them personally of His still contin- 
uing life of love. 

Another possible line of approach is conditioned on 
the emergence of the country with some degree of 
freedom of speech, and a decent security of life from 


fanatical outbursts. There are strong converts from 
Islam in Egypt and India who could visit the Turks 
and testify to them of their own experience. The effect 
of such words from a turbaned ex-Moslem can hardly 
be estimated. 

All that has been said till now has applied mainly 
if not solely to the Turks. But there are large and 
almost untried opportunities as well among other Mos- 
lem populations, such as the Kurds, the Circassians 
and the Yiiriiks, where the Gospel may win still 
greater triumphs or work more speedily. The exist- 
ing missionary forces are entirely inadequate to deal 
with these possibilities; a large immediate increase in 
missionary personnel is demanded. We must help se- 
cure a native leadership among Armenians and others; 
but we must also have far more workers from abroad, 
to seize this unique opportunity to turn tired Turkish 
eyes from the waning moon of the false prophet to that 
true Light of Life. 

Charles Trowbridge Riggs, 

of Constantinople. 
Northhampton, Mass, 



It is not surprising that the Christian Church emerg- 
ing triumphant from the fearful testing of the Boxer 
uprising, set the other religions to seeking the secret of 
her success. Three external facts met their eye — edu- 
cation, church organization, and the diffusion of litera- 
ture, — especially magazines. So the leaders of the 
ancient religions are now bestirring themselves in these 
lines, even to the publication of magazines. There are 
now illustrated Buddhist and Confucianist magazines, 
and a few years ago a Mohammedan magazine was 
started in Peking. The following article is a translation 
of the leading editorial of this magazine. The pathos of 
the situation lies in the fact that this first issue of the 

periodical was also the last. 

* * * 

"Has not the day now come when the pure aims and 
glorious purpose of the leading principles of Moham- 
medanism should be diffused throughout China? If 
God will protect, and devout scholars will lend assist- 
ance, then it will not be difficult for the occult tenets of 
our religion to become luminous, and its great principles 
to be spread abroad. This is the earnest hope of your 
servant, and he thinks that other Mohammedans will 
also join with him in fervent prayers for this. But who 
would imagine how men foolishly stick in the old ruts, 
and blindly follow the ways of the world, not compre- 
hending the present condition of the Moslem world! 
Such are astonished at the issuing of such a magazine, 
considering it a work of presumption. They slander us 
by saying that we do not understand Fate. Your serv- 
ant pities their folly, and is concerned about the frivolity 
of the present generation; so he wishes in the opening 
number of this magazine, regarding the situation with 
tearful eyes, to clearly state the present condition of 



things, and also the function of this periodical, in order 
that we, with our fellow-believers, may together investi- 
gate these matters. 

"Your servant is a young, insignificant person of rash 
speech, but if his elders will not lose sight of his message 
in considering its source, and will forgive his presump- 
tion, he will indeed consider it fortunate. 

"Let us first speak of the present condition of our 
religion. During the past ten years, the critical con- 
dition of our religion has been concealed, but the dangers 
were daily becoming more pressing. From these we 
shall select a few of the greatest and most serious. 

"I. The tenets of our religion are obscure. At the 
time our religion first entered China in the T'ang 
Dynasty, it spread with miraculous quickness, like a 
mettlesome horse, by leaps and bounds, — a thousand li 
at a bound.* This of course was owing to the assistance 
of God, and to the intrepid zeal of the learned Moslem 
propagators, as well as to the pure, illuminating doctrines 
they preached, so that when men heard, they felt its influ- 
ence and followed. But now the mullahs seek only their 
own ease; the doctrine of the religion has gradually 
become obscure, and the majority of the adherents sim- 
ply say, T am a Mohammedan; I hold the Pure True 
Religion'; but as to investigating what constitutes a 
Mohammedan, and what are the true principles of the 
religion, they care nothing. The absolute blindness of 
the ordinary Mohammedan is as great as this. Those of 
other religions deride us, calumniate us, — and what 
wonder? If we examine the present state of the reli- 
gious world, we shall see that it follows the current 
trend of thought, — struggling to advance, — the progres- 
sives are the victors, the conservatives are the van- 
quished. In this age, when all religions are striving for 
the supremacy, how can those who hold an obscure doc- 
trine hope to hold their own against a progressive doc- 
trine? This is the first danger. 

* "Mohammedanism was first introduced into Chna in the T'ang Dynasty, A. D. 
629. In consequence of a dream of the Emperor, he summoned Mohammedan 
teachers and received them kindly. In on hundred years, five thousand mosques 
were built" 


"II. Learning is decadent. Examine the progress of 
civilization of the present age, — trace to its source the 
renaissance of European learning, and one sees that this 
renaissance was due to the influence of the Moslems of 
western Asia, for on the return of the Crusaders from 
the wars, the scholars of Europe, whether by direct or 
indirect contact, became imbued with the learning of 
the Moslem world, — the abstract sciences, like astron- 
omy, mathematics, philosophy, prosody, etc.; — the prac- 
tical sciences, like geography, medicine, the smelting of 
metals, the spirit lamp, etc. By degrees they flung away 
the empty dialectics of Greek philosophy, and occupied 
themselves with studying the learning of the Mohamme- 
dans, strenuously devoting themselves to the advance- 
ment of practical science; hence they have attained to 
their present state of perfection. This is not only the 
private opinion of your servant; all who are acquainted 
with the history of civilization are of the same opinion. 
The canons of our religion are rich in learning. But look 
at the present state of our religion! Not only no new 
scientific discoveries, but it cannot even hold to the old 
learning. The learning of others is always on the ad- 
vance, but our learning daily retrogrades. If, just at 
this juncture, while others progress, we simply hold on, 
it is difficult to maintain our position, much more so, if 
while others daily advance, we daily retreat. This is the 
second danger. 

"III. The Mullahs do not fulfil their duty. Look at 
the foreign religious leaders. They not only keep a firm 
grasp on religious matters, but also have a say in local 
politics. This kind of men fulfil their duty to the utmost; 
not one neglects the duties of his office. Hence the 
affairs of these churches prosper, and the church-mem- 
bers become wealthy. Chinese preachers, although they 
have no influence in local politics, yet have the affairs 
of the church entirely in their hands; their duties are 
varied and heavy, and their work is in no way inferior 
to that of the foreign pastors. But our Mullahs have 
no concern about anything but reading the services, and 
conducting religious exercises. As to the advancement 


of religion, or the economic or intellectual condition of 
their flock, they know nothing. How can such as they 
compete with the religious teachers of the present day? 
This is the third danger. 

"IV. The degraded condition of our adherents. To- 
day the greater part of our adherents cannot attain the 
golden mean. If they do not err on the side of being 
too progressive, then they are too conservative. Among 
the ordinary progressive class, there are those who hold 
no religion, and those who want to revolutionize every- 
thing. The too conservative are occupied only with 
forms and ceremonies, thinking nothing of the true 
spirit, the animating idea. If the condition of the 
adherents is as low as this, what hope is there of rival- 
ling other churches? This is the fourth danger. 

"V. tVe constantly encounter scorn. Before the time 
of the Open Door, there were only two or three reli- 
gions in China, each pursuing its own course, and there 
was no conflict. But with the introduction of steam 
traffic, Europe and America came with their ideas of 
usurpation, putting their religion in the forefront, as an 
efficient means [keen-edged tool], and disseminating 
their doctrines throughout the land. They see in our 
religion a powerful enemy, and transgressing the prin- 
ciples of right, seek opportunity to attack us. And our 
adherents, being heedless and unprepared, retire in an 
unconcerned manner. Hence Christianity gains pres- 
tige: these last few tens of years, it has been overriding 
us. It is pitiable! Of late they have still further put us 
down and exalted themselves, by the publication of all 
kinds of books, both in Chinese and Arabic, finding 
unreasonable fault with others, and praising themselves 
inordinately. The good name of our religion suffers 
accordingly. Up to the present, no one has arisen to 
refute this, or argue with them. I do not know how 
many stupid people have been deceived and led astray 
by this. If the present is thus, what will the future 
bring? This is the fifth danger. 

"VI. Economic conditions are becoming daily more 
stringent. Formerly our adherents mostly belonged to 


the higher professions, and it was easy to make money; 
hence they considered it no sacrifice to give large 
amounts to religion, and religious affairs prospered. 
But since the revolution of 191 1, their prestige is gone, 
and circumstances have changed. Formerly they consid- 
ered the places they held as very good; but now these 
offices have been almost entirely abolished, and they are 
so restrained by habit and immersed in custom, that they 
can think of no other way of making a living, — so they 
lay the blame on Fate. Those who formerly were worth 
many tens of thousands, now are so poor that they have 
hardly a basket of grain. Now when economic condi- 
tions are stringent, the source of wealth is cut off; and 
when the source of wealth is cut off, religious affairs are 
also impeded; and when religious affairs are impeded, 
then universal education is unattainable; and when uni- 
versal education is unattainable, then it is impossible to 
plan for new ways of making a livelihood. So we come 
around again to the original starting-place in an endless 
chain of interrelated cause and effect, always going on 
in the same way. As to what the final result will be, I 
cannot bear to think. This is the sixth danger." 

A. H. Mateer. 
Peking^ China, 


A New Era for Arabia 

In language that reminds of a military communique the Rev. John 
Van Ess summarizes the present situation as follows; 

**In Arabia the conflict rages around the Cross of Christ and His 
Divinity — the very citadel of our faith. Even though we could do 
nothing but hold our own and could make no sensible progress as 
men count such, we should still have to fight, for failure to fight 
would mean admission of defeat on the great issue. Even if we 
gained no converts forever our presence there would yet be a testi- 
mony to our faith and conviction. After all, to be witnesses is a big 
part of our commission. 

After many years of trench fighting, so to speak, which taught 
lessons of faith and prayer, the fighting has shifted to the open. 
Schools are cavalry, hospitals are artillery, evangelists are the infan- 
try — each branch has its function and needs the others. In each 
center of activity all arms have been engaged, but in each peculiar 
conditions have given special opportunities for one or another. 

Britain counted Mesopotamia strategic enough to employ there a 
large force even while she was already with her back to the wall in 
France and Flanders. The issue was to close the door to Germany's 
dream of Mittel Europa. Can we count of less importance the door 
there thrown open by which to enter into the land which is the key- 
stone of the new Arab Empire now being molded? Britain invites us 
to undertake a large educational enterprise; she gives in our hand the 
training of the leadership of the future who in turn will mould the 
lives of thousands. It is not only an invitation, it is a sacred 


Aristocratic Kuweit, where live the bluest of blue-blooded Arabs, in 
face and language like the very Arab prophet himself; fanatical Kuweit, 
where only a few short years ago four missionaries in turn and in 
short order were rudely expelled ; Kuweit is wide open to the Gospel. 
On Sunday mornings the church is so packed with Arabs, men and 
women, that men stand on boxes at the windows. Very recently a 
young man in direct line of descent from Mohammed, confessed Jesus 
Christ and is being educated to preach Christ. To Kuweit came the 
Viceroy of India, Lord Hardingh, and when he saw the hospital he 
gave from his personal purse a substantial gift. 


Bahrein is the Heligoland to the interior of Arabia. Last year our 
own Dr. Harrison on personal invitation from the Emir went inland 
and for twenty-five days preached with lancet and medicine and 
Scripture and tongue the riches of Christ. In Nejd is a college of 
three hundred Moslem students being trained to go as missionaries and 



teachers of Islam to all the tribes. In Nejd Islam in all its self- 
conceived purity and naked fanaticism is held and practised. Only 
the Reformed Church in America has been honored by God to enter 
Nejd. Shall we trample on God's Croix dc Guerre f 

In Bahrein the Gospel is making a deep salient in Moslem woman- 
hood. If we breach the line there we can roll up the lines of count- 
less children yet to be born and make them prisoners of hope. 


Maskat, the key to Oman, Oman a veritable Switzerland in 
Arabia, with towering mountains, fertile valleys, flowing streams. 
The people have been torn by dissension and warfare, but at heart 
they are as sociable and approachable as ever before the war. To 
reach the Woman's Hospital scores have run the blockade that cuts off 
Maskat from the interior. Shall we be as eager to reach the interior 
as they are to reach us? 

What great contribution will the Arab make to the body of Christ? 
God asks us to answer." 

Moslem Population of the Philippine Islands 

We learn from the Bureau of Non-Christian Tribes, Manila, that 
"According to the best available data there are 360,000 Moslems in 
Mindanao-Sulu. The number of Moslems in southern Palawan and 
the Island of Balabac is estimated at 3,000. These figures I consider 
maximum and including all persons who claim to be "Islam," this 
covering probably not less than 50,000 persons who are properly 
classifiable as Pagans but by reason of commercial and social relations 
with Mohammedans, habitually claim status as such in the belief that 
they are thereby securing a classification as civilized rather than 
uncivilized or as they would term it "savage" peoples. These Pagans 
are mountain people who necessarily by reason of the topography of 
the country trade with Moslems, rarely coming in contact with 
Christian communities or traders. 

"As to Luzon and Visayas there are available no accurate data, but 
I doubt if there be a total of 500 Moslems in all this territory, includ- 
ing foreigners as well as natives." 

The Pilgrimage to Mecca 

The number of pilgrims to Mecca has decreased steadily since the 
outbreak of the war. Even at that time the estimates made of the 
numbers entering Mecca were exaggerated. The article on the Hajj 
in the last fascicule of the Encyclopedia of Islam (191 8) states that 
the total number of pilgrims did not exceed 60,000 and was seldom 
more than 80,000. In the Cairo press we read that the Egyptian Gov- 
ernment has this past year (191 8) "afforded all facilities possible 
under existing conditions for the performance of this sacred duty, 
which is of primary importance to Moslems. Owing to the difficulty 
of transport, certain regulations had of necessity to be laid down for 
strict observance by intending pilgrims. The limited number provided 
for will have obtained the privilege in the order of precedence 
by application. 

"The Mahmal ceremony in Cairo will take place on August 31, 
and the procession will leave Suez on September 4. In view of the 
unusually high cost of transport, the following rates will be found 
to be very moderate: — £E20 per passenger, ist class; £Ei5, 2nd 
class; £Eio, 3rd class. These rates do not include the following 


charges: — Quarantine dues, £Ei.6o; sanitary dues at Jeddah, 190 
milliemes; insurance of provisions, £Ei^; passport fee, 125 milli- 
emes — all of which apply equally to each class. Of course the pilgrim 
will have to pay his own railway fare to Suez and back, as well as 
that of food during the sea voyage. The Government will under- 
take to provide the necessary facilities for camel transport between 
Jedda, and Mecca and Arafat, and will publish in due course the 
expenses relative thereto." 

The Occupation of Damascus 

The fall of Damascus was welcomed by the Syrian colony in New 
York with enthusiasm and redoubled the purchase of Liberty Bonds 
by all those who had formerly lived under the yoke of he Turk. 
Twenty thousand Syrians live in New York City, publish Arabic 
newspapers, gain wealth, and retain a strong love for the home land 
across the waters. At a meeting held recently the following resolu- 
tions were passed. The text of these resolutions speaks eloquently for 
the patriotic spirit of the Syrians and also for their love for America, 
largely due to the work of education. It reads: 

"Whereas, news has just come that the allied troops in Syria have 
practically cleared the despicable Turk from our beloved native land 
and that they are now in the outskirts of Damascus and Beirut. 

"Whereas, the Syrians in New York have been deeply stirred by 
these momentous events, which, after centuries of oppression and 
repression, bid fair now to rid our native land of the Turk, driving 
him therefrom, in the same condition in which he came, savage and 
naked, and 

"Whereas, we desire to express our joy in the fact that might, 
coupled with tyranny, could not triumph over right, and that a new 
era is dawning for Syria and the Syrians, we, the Syrian residents of 
New York, in public mass meeting assembled this ist day of October, 
1 91 8, hereby 


"First — ^That our deep, heartfelt gratitude be extended first and 
foremost to the leading citizen of the world, our President, Woodrow 
Wilson, for his unflinching and indormitable stand for justice and 
freedom for all, the weak and the strong. 

"Second — That our deep and heartfelt thanks be extended to the 
British and French Governments, who have taken the lead in the 
liberation of Syria, as well as all the other gallant allies, who have 
aided in this great undertaking. 

"Third — and further be it resolved. That our heartfelt thanks be 
extended to General Allenby, the leader of the allied forces in Syria, 
for the God-given wisdom which enabled him to carry to such a speedy 
and successful conclusion his wonderful campaign, and, 

"Fourth — Be it further resolved. That we Syrians pledge ourselves 
to support any and all movements that tend to grant political and 
commercial freedom to our race, so that we may be afforded an oppor- 
tunity of developing our wonderful country untrammeled and unhin- 
dered, and, 

"Fifth — Be it further resolved. That copies of this resolution be 
sent to the President of the United States and to their excellencies the 
Ambassadors of Great Britain and of France at Washington." 

A New Era for Palestine 
We learn from one of our exchanges that the occupied territory of 


Palestine is receiving the benefits of settled government. "Civil Courts 
cf Justice arc about to be established. The Court of Appeal v^^ill be 
at Jerusalem; it will also sit as a Court of Assize, and go on circuit. 
For the present there will be two Courts of First Instance — at Jerusa- 
lem and Jaffa — ^with special Courts in the districts (kazas) where 
there is no Court of First Instance. The personnel, it is announced by 
The Times from Egypt, will include a certain number of British 
ofKcers possessing legal experience and knowledge of Arabic, while the 
staff of the Courts will be reserved as much as possible for the inhab- 
itants. Local law, which will be substantially unaltered, will be 
administered, except for special provisions arising from the military 
operations and the special Turkish legislation." 

"Experts are busy investigating the agricultural situation, the fiscal 
question, the educational requirements, public security, including the 
prisons, the complicated question of judicial organization, and pious 
foundations. Slowly, but surely, an organized administration is being 
built up, despite the lack of local officers and the difficulty of obtaining 
competent men from outside. Already there is on every side abundant 
evidence of the fruits of this activity. Especially is this noticeable in 
a city like Jerusalem, where the normal life of the people has been 
entirely resumed, and where, except for the difficulty in obtaining 
domestic commodities, one would not know that a war is on. When 
we entered the city in December most of the shops were closed, and 
it had a deserted appearance. Today closed shops are more the excep- 
tion than the rule. David's Street and the Jaffa Gate have resumed 
their crowded and picturesque appearance, and the shopkeepers are 
exposing for sale goods which were thought to be unobtainable, and 
which they have unearthed from the places where they hid them from 
the Turks. 

A War Mission to the Sahara 

Scribners Magazine for September, 1918, had for its leading article 
an account of a war mission in the Sahara, by Captain Rajmiond 
Recouly, Aid-de-camp to the Governor General of Algeria. He 
describes the charm of the Sahara oases in the springtime, the daily 
life of the natives and the improvements due to French rule. 

"The Frenchman is a wonderful builder of roads. Nowhere save 
in Algeria is there such a network of roads and trails offering to the 
automobilist the most attractive, and at the same time the most varied, 
excursions. American tourists who come to Europe after the war will 
not regret taking a look-in on Algeria. 

"From Laghouat on through the desert, the military authorities who 
control the affairs of the country have constructed a road especially 
reserved for automobiles. Vehicles without rubber tires are prohib- 
ited from using it under heavy penalty of the law. Thanks to this 
regulation, the road is as smooth as a billiard-table. 

"Every thirty kilometres there is a fortified road-house where 
soldiers on the march may halt for rest. There they can obtain water 
and food. One of these caravansaries, Tilrempt, even boasts a won- 
derful native cook. El Haid, a desert Vatel, who can serve a breakfast 
which would make the chef of a "Cafe de Paris" or a "Voisin" 
restaurant jealous." 

Most remarkable is his testimony to the loyalty of the Moslems 
throughout all this region. During the first months of the war, when 
the fate of France hung in the balance, it might have seemed more 
wise and prudent to economize troops by withdrawing from some of 


her frontier posts. This was not done. Moral force and prestige 
proved to be of greater value than material strength. "Now, thanks 
to us," he says, ''practically the whole immense desert of the Sahara 
is pacified. As a rule it is a comparatively easy trip from Algiers to 
Timbuctoo — the whole length of the great desert. It is no longer a 
warlike expedition, bristling with serious risks, but just "globe-trot- 
ting," pure and simple. 

"During the three years and more of the war the security of the 
Sahara has not been seriously disturbed. At one time the Turco- 
German intrigues in Tripoli threatened to cause us some embarrass- 
ment. The Italians were obliged to evacuate the hinterland of their 
colony, the oases of the interior, Ghadames and Rhat. A Senouissist 
uprising, instigated by the Turco-German propaganda, seemed to be 
on the point of breaking out in the extreme south of Algeria, the 
Senoussists having been able to bring up a fairly strong fighting force 
which attacked our outposts. But this menace was speedily averted, 
thanks to the energetic measures taken by our military commanders 
and to the loyalty of the native chiefs. At the present time the danger 
has entirely passed." 

The Indian Frontier and the War 

Ikbal Ali Shah writing in the Asiatic Review of July, 191 8, 
describes the Indian frontier and the character of the tribesmen, with 
their crude democratic spirit, mingled with lawlessness against any 
settled government. He praises the attitude of the Amir of Afghan- 
istan who in spite of much intrigue by German agents made a holy war, 
oi* Jihad, impossible. Himself a Moslem, Ikbal Ali Shah sa)^ 
that no article of faith has wrought such mischief at the hands of 
designing men as that of a holy war. Concerning the raids into 
British territory he says: "They can safely be assigned to two main 
causes: first, and chiefly, priestly influence; secondly, the unproductive- 
ness of the country, which leaves the majority of the people without a 
settled avocation in life, and they, for mere subsistence, are lured on 
to join the gangs of raiders. Further, the natural tendencies of these 
hillsmen make them subject to fanatical obsessions, and consequently 
the Mullahs, in order to win their own ends, take advantage by 
preying on the minds of the tribesmen, and inflame them to sudden 
passion of religious wars, loosely understood as "Jihad." 

"The British Government has devised many schemes to calm this 
turbulent people; and one of them, which has most effectually met 
the case, is a generous distribution of money amongst the clans, and 
thus to a very great degree quietude has been guaranteed. But the 
pernicious effect of a widespread preaching of the Mullah will 
always remain a problem. *I have known these Mullahs,' once wrote 
Amir Abdur Rahman Khan — 'they are like the priests of the time of 
Peter the Great who created great mischief in Russia. These Mullahs 
pretend to the people that Paradise and Hell are within their power 
and authority.' " 

Pilgrimage to the Shrine at Najaf, Arabia 
Mr. Edmund Candler, the representative of the British press with 
the Expeditionary Force in Mesopotamia, writes as follows: 

"The shrines of Najaf, Kerbela, and Kazimain, the resting places 
of Ali, Hussein, and the seventh and ninth Imams, lie on the edge of 
the desert in the country we occupy. The tide oiF war has not alto- 


gether swept back the pilgrim traffic, though some of the main com- 
munications are closed. One often meets a corpse on the road packed 
in a long crate or bundle of palm leaves and slung across the back of 
an ass. The pilgrim behind is taking his relative to swell the popu- 
lation of the cities of the dead, by which these sanctuaries are 
surrounded. Of the three shrines Najaf, the tomb of Ali, is the richest 
and to some minds the most sacred. It is also the most remote. A 
thousand years ago it probably stood on the banks of the Euphrates, 
but the river has changed it course, and the golden dome and min- 
arets dominate a stretch of upland desert six miles from Kufah, which 
is the river port of the city. Najaf and Kufah, according to tradition, 
are "a piece of heaven." If you point out to the Moslem the very 
terrestrial nakedness of this plot of earth he will reply that God is 
all-powerful and will make gardens there. The mosque at Kufah, 
with the walls like a fortress, was built on the spot where Ali was 
slain. Here the Prophet Mahomet and his guide, and the Angel 
Gabriel, stayed to pray on their way to heaven; the makam in the 
mosque marks the position. 

"Najaf, like Kazimain, is approached by a horse tram. The line 
runs from the river bank at Kufah to within a few yards of the city 
walls, and ends as it begins in a very Hunnish-looking terminus with 
a sloping roof. 

"Najaf is richly endowed. Not only land, but shops and houses, 
and gardens and baths, and even boats are bequeathed as religious 
endowment (Waqf), and the inheritors pay their tithes to the church; 
and besides the offerings that are brought to the shrine or sent by the 
pious from a distance, there are charitable endowments such as the 
Oudh Bequest for Indian pilgrims, which has always been distributed 
through the British Resident at Bagdad. One of the first gifts for the 
shrines to reach Bagdad after we entered the city were four curved 
swords of gold with diamonds on the sheath and hilt — one for Kazi- 
main, one for Najaf, and two for the shrines of Hussein and Abbas 
at Kerbela. They were despatched from Constantinople to Bagdad 
when the British menace was regarded as a madman's dream, and bore 
the inscription, 'From the servant of all pious Moslems, Enver Bey.* 

"The first thing one sees when one enters the gate near the tram 
terminus is an ugly little obelisk which commemorates the birth of 
the Committee of Union and Progress. The ruined houses facing it 
were the Turkish Club and Municipal Offices. They were destroyed 
by the citizens in the spring of 1916 when the Turks fell out with the 
people of Najaf and Kerbela. Owing to heavy war taxes, compulsory 
military service, the seizure of women, and the house-searching for 
deserters, who were dragged out and shot, Najaf rebelled and arrested 
the Turkish garrison. At the same time Kerbela ejected the Turks. 
In the fight that ensued the Holy places were shelled — a sacrilege that 
will never be forgiven. The defenders of the town flooded the 
approach and the enemy' reinforcements were held back. Turkey 
had other preoccupations on the Tigris and Euphrates just then and 
Najaf and Kerbela held their own. Najaf has always been a thorn 
in the Turks' side and an asylum for deserters and political refugees. 
Owing to the subterranean windings of the vaults under the city it is 
almost impossible to unearth a man whose friends remain faithful. 

"The shrine, like those of Kazimam and Kerbela, is so built round 
that one cannot get a view of it from near by. One approaches the 
East Gate of the mosque through the covered bazaar, which is long 


and straight and at least 30 feet high. One cannot take one's eye 
from the rich mosaic of blue and green and gold which glitters at 
the end of this clear perspective. The Najafis are more fanatical than 
the people of Kazimain and Kerbela, where one may admire what may 
be seen of the interior of the gate. Here a near approach by the 
Christian is resented. So one turns aside at fifty yards, right or left, 
into the honeycombed bazaars. These are more irregular and intri- 
cate than in Bagdad, a warren of courtyards and alleys under one 
roof, and they preserve more of the ancient East. One descends steps 
into spacious quadrangles with great scales at the corners for weighing 
cotton or cloth. One may buy Persian jars and carpets and the rich 
silk abas (cloaks) for which the city is famous. But the amenities of 
life are becoming as scarce at Najaf as everywhere else. I saw a tin 
of kerosene oil, which would have cost five rupees before the war, 
sold for fifty, and I noticed that all the phials in the shop of the attar 
sellers were empty, but one. There was still a little of the henna 
left with which the Arab ladies dye the tips of their finger nails 
and hair." 

The Offence of the Cross 

"They did not kill him and they did not crucify him" — this 
teaching of the Koran expresses the belief of Moslems today. The 
cross of Christ is not only the missing link in their creed but the 
stumbling-block in their path. They do not desire the God-given 
mediator. God forgives sin by His omnipotence regardless of His 
holiness. These verses on Grace and Sin by one who signs himself 
Khwaja appear in the Islamic Review: 

"I know my life is evil full, 

But who can count Thy grace as well? 

I bask in shining rays of hope, 
Undaunted of all fear of hell. 

Thou dost not need some price for sin 

In compensation of mercy. 
In things from Thee 'no give and take*; 

Thy gifts. Thy blessings, ever free. 

But if Thy wrath is unappeased, 

And wants 'the blood' in penalty, 
Adieu, O Lordl to Thee adieu; 

What difference is in me and Thee?" 

'Without the shedding of blood there is no remission" in the Old 
or New Testament and we still glory in the Cross — it is our only 
message to Moslems. 

"Christianity a Failure" 

The "Islamic Review," Woking, England, uses the pen of Moslem 
and renegade Christian in every issue to emphasize the glory of Islam 
and the dreadful failure of the Church of Christ. According to Lord 
Headley and Marmaduke Pickthall, who write for this magazine, we 
need the Koran to adjust our civilization not only but to reveal the 
true doctrines of Jesus. In a recent number Al-Qidwai, one of the 
editorial staff, quotes from a sermon on "The Failure of Christianity" 
given at the City Temple and goes on to say: "The Christianity of 
the Church is more than a useless institution. It is positively harm- 
ful. From a religious point of view it is pernicious because it replaces 



the One God of Moses with three gods supposed to be one. Socially 
Christianity has degraded woman sex. * * * The writers of the 
New Testament did not think it worth while to see that they do not 
contradict each other. The New Testament does not contain any such 
guidance for man which would make him a useful citizen of any 
advanced State, which would teach him how to secure the best form 
of government or how to lay down such practical laws that would 
ensure the freedom, the sobriety, the purity, and the progress of 
nations. There are certainly some beautiful ethical dogmas in the 
New Testament, as there are in those other sacred books which are 
attributed to those saintly men who came centuries before Christ. 
But there is nothing in the Christianity as known to us upon which 
any democratic government can be based. Christianity as a religion 
never did anything to discourage even slavery. It never taught man 
to respect liberty. Woman, according to Christian saints, was nothing 
but a deadly evil — man and woman both miserable sinners. Chris- 
tianity has no doubt proved an utter failure, and this through no 
fault of that grand and noble soul — ^Jesus Christ, Son of Mary." 

Method of Approach in Turkey 

"While my form of service as a missionary in Turkey since 1890 has 
been chiefly in connection with Anatolia College, I have been greatly 
interested in the problem of offering a winning presentation of the 
Gospel of Christ to Moslems. At first my feelings toward Moham- 
medanism were perhaps rather hostile in the conviction that the 
Mohammedan religion must yield to Christianity, and that the two 
would naturally clash. But as a pastor in America I had found it 
impossible to win men on any basis of mutual antipathy or hostility. 
If I could first become really acquainted with a man as a friend, the 
time would come when I could influence him with my message as a 
Christian minister. And as I became acquainted with Turks, a 
feeling of human friendliness grew up that inspired a desire within 
me to get acquainted with them in order to be able to offer them 
what was of such value to me. 

I attended Mosque services, and by degrees established such rela- 
tions of mutual acquaintance and confidence with the preachers that 
we could discuss their sermons on God, and mine. I became quite at 
home in Dervish ceremonials with their dancing, howling, sword 
play, chewing hot coals, and the like. My associates authorized my 
taking so much of Fridays as I conveniently could, not only to attend 
the religious services, but often to take a ride and visit a Turkish 
village or local shrine, where my immediate aim was to meet the 
people, converse with them and establish relations of personal friend- 
ship. Many callers were welcomed in my home, and when they 
inquired of me the Christian view on any given doctrine, such as the 
Sonship of Christ, I heard after my statement the comment, "That's 
all right," and I felt that that interview was not wasted. It has 
always been my purpose in such conversations to introduce some direct 
statement or quotation from the Bible when I could do so naturally. 

But as I sought a form of expression which should present the 
heart of Christianity in such form as to win Moslem assent, I came 
at last upon the simplest plan of all, namely, to quote Christ's own 
statement of the heart of Christianity. As he put it, it is in the 
double principle of love to God and fellow men. This is always 
perfectly intelligible. It arouses no feeling of opposition, and it is 
our Lord's own expresison of the most important religious truth. 


So I had a quantity of little slips printed in Osmanli Turkish con- 
taining on one side the words in Mark 12:29-31, and on the other 
side the Beatitudes and Matthew 5:1-9. It was easy oftentimes in 
conversations so to shape the course of thought that it was natural to 
leave with the friend participating in the discussion copies of this 
simple statement. They were generally very ready to receive them, 
in some cases with the aim of passing them on the friends. Thus in 
the simplest of the teachings of Christ I found a common ground on 
which to meet with Moslem friends. Offer them the Gospel Mes- 
sage in a nut-shell, and that in a form which will compel assent, 
rather than dissent. 

G. E. W. 

Need of Special Literature for Chinese Moslems 
In other lands work for Moslems naturally develops a special 
literature, often of considerable proportions. The China Continuation 
Committee's catalogue (191 8) of Chinese Christian Literature in a 
page and a half shows by the brevity of its list of Moslem Chinese 
tracts that little specific work has been done for Chinese Moslems, and 
hence little special literature has been produced. The visit of Dr. 
Zwemer to China has aroused much interest in Moslems, and more 
definite work in their behalf means the demand of more varied books 
and tracts, partly as equipment for the Moslem worker himself, and 
partly for propaganda among the followers of the Prophet. 

At the lowest estimate we have ten million Mohammedans to 
evangelize, and literature can do much to prepare the way for the 
personal worker, and in many cases even lead men into the Truth, 
in the absence of the living witness. At present the total in the cata- 
logue makes about 200 pages of reading matter and even of this much 
is tentative and some of the tracts remain still to be tried out in 
actual work. In the West, the productions of the Christian Press are 
constantly being winnowed by the winds of actual use and not all are 
pure grain. We cannot hope to escape the same law in China, and 
this still further reduces the present pitiful list of our special books 
for Moslems. 

Happily a good list of Moslem terms is being accumulated to be 
used in the new literature. These are gathered from Chinese works 
by Moslems. Furthermore, the China missionaries on whose heart 
the preparation of this special literature is laid, have two splendid 
advantages to begin with. They have at their disposal all the exper- 
ience of Moslem workers in other lands and besides they have a con- 
siderable literature in English already prepared by the finest experts 
for reaching Moslems and meeting their difficulties. They know 
which of these have been most blessed in Moslem lands, and with 
some changes these can be rendered into Chinese. Of course, Mos- 
lem scribes must be obtained to collaborate with the missionaries, but 
it is a matter of gratitude that the Christian Literature Society for 
China (C. L. S.) has placed its experience at the service of the 
Moslem Committee, and with the needful financial backing there 
should be no difficulty in quickly augmenting the at present scanty 
library of the Moslem worker. 


Russian Moslems 
At a meeting of the Central Asian Society held last year, Mr. 
Arnold Toynbee gave a lecture on the Mohammedans of Russia, of 
which the Times gave this summary: 


Mr. Toynbee said that under Russian autocracy Islam was an 
unknown field, all free movement being crushed. The number of the 
Russian Moslems was estimated at 19,000,000, and Russia was cer- 
tainly the third largest Moslem Power. He gave a survey of their 
distribution, showing that they are widely scattered, of different 
nationalities and forms of economic life. No fewer than 16,000,000 
of them are Turkish-speaking, though of widely varying vernaculars. 
After the Revolution the various forces among them found free play 
and were awakened. The first tendency was towards unity within 
the Russian State, combined with cultural autonomy. At an All- 
Russian Moslem conference at Moscow a year ago, at which lOO of 
the 800 delegates were women, the dominant note was Islamic 
brotherhood. There was a break with the Cadets over the future of 
Constantinople, but a desire to keep within the Russian political 
system, because it held together a great Moslem group. But there 
were seen signs of a second tendency, toward federalism and political 
autonomy on a territorial basis. The government was led by the 
Azerbaijani Tartars, and it had steadily gained the day in conse- 
quence of the ascendancy of the advanced Socialists in Petrograd. 
In December last a congress was held at Ufa to appoint a com- 
mission to work out cultural autonomy, but the territorialists carried 
territorial resolutions, and appointed a committee of their own. This 
unhappy turn of policy was probably mainly a symptom of the gen- 
eral disorganization of Russia. If Russia or parts of Russia came 
together again as a federation, the idea of unity among the Moslems 
might revive. 

Future Palestine — Jewish or Moslem? 
We learn from the Morning Post!, London, that members of the 
Moslem community resident in England have submitted to Mr. Bal- 
Balfour as Secretary of State a representation of the feelings of the Mo- 
hammedan subjects of his Majesty in regard to the future of Palestine. 
They point out that through a period of 1,800 years the followers 
of Judaism have had no vestige of claim to the land "of which 
they had possessed themselves some centuries before their dispersion 
by the slaughter and despoilment of its original inhabitants." They 
submit that during the 1,300 years, excepting the short interruption 
when the Crusaders held the country, the Moslems have acted with 
justice and toleration towards other creeds and peoples; indeed, that 
the Jews have always enjoyed greater toleration, good-will, and 
respect in Moslem lands than in most Christian countries. But as 
regards Palestine, they protest against any proposal to place Jews in 
a privileged position in respect to the other communities, "the spirit 
of exploitation, for which the Jew^ish race is singularly distinguished," 
being likely to bring them into collison with their neighbours. For 
these and other reasons given the petitioners submit that "should it 
be considered necessary, under the right of self-determination, to create 
an autonomous State in Palestine, with Jerusalem as its capital, it 
should be a Moslem State, with a Council consisting of members 
representing the Jewish, Christian, and Moslem communities in 
proportion to the number of their followers, with equal rights and 
status for all its citizens and equal opportunities for free development 
without artificial political backing for any one community." 

Should Arabic be Taught in Government Schools in Nigeria? 

The writer of African notes in the Church Missionary Review calls 
attention to an address before the African Society by Mr. A. S. Tudd 


of the Sudan United Mission in which he spoke of the place Arabic 
occupies in the Government Schools of Northern Nigeria: 

"In a letter to 'West Africa/ a correspondent signing himself 
'Oyo' deprecates the teaching of Arabic in the northern province, 
and points to the system in the southern province where English is 
taught, with better results to native efficiency. The clerks employed 
in the offices of the northern province are all southern men. He 
concludes that "the education authorities, by adhering to native 
customs, teaching Arabic for English, and holding back modern 
Christian education in order to prop up an antiquated and useless 
Moslem system, are doing no kindness to the Mohammedans or the 
Hausa. They are giving the pushful Yoruba and coast native an 
advantage over him which he is not slow to take." 

In Morocco the education system includes primary Franco-Arabic 
classes for Moslems, Arabic evening classes for Europeans, and a 
college for higher Arabic tuition at Rabat. But Arabic is almost 
an indigenous language in Morrocco. In Nigeria it is an immigrant 
language of comparatively recent date." 

New Movement Among Moslems in Abyssinia 

Through the Swedish Evangelical Mission a remarkable religious 
movement is reported from the interior of Abyssinia. This has taken 
hold of the Moslem population so that in the last six years some 
10,000 have been baptized into the Christian Church. The apostle 
of this movement is an ex-Sheik, Zaccaria, who has changed his name 
to Noaye Kristos, a person of great influence in Sokoto, in the 
Amhara country where he lives. The movement has sprung from 
Scriptures distributed by the British Bible Society in Abyssinia, and 
is evangelical in character. Indeed these new Christians are so 
dissatisfied with the dead forms of the Coptic Church that they are 
organizing classes for Scripture study and have mobilized some 500 
men, who are serving as teachers. 

Islam in Burma 

According to the last census the total number of Moslems in 
Burma is 420,777 out of a total population of 12,115,217. It 
seems that the number of Moslems, especially in the large com- 
mercial centers, such as Rangoon, is steadily increasing. 

We therefore learn with interest that the work carried on by 
the late Dr. W. F. Armstrong, of the Baptist Mission, is to be 
continued. While at Moulmain Dr. Armstrong took part in a 
memorable public debate with the educated Moslems of that city, 
and while he did not appear to have won any progress he did win 
for his cause and for himself the respect and admiration of all his 
opponents and made life-long friends of the leaders on the Moslem 
side in the debate. He was able to meet all Moslems afterwards 
on a plane of friendship surpassed by no others. About two years 
before his death Dr. Armstrong received a slight shock which 
caused the loss of his eyesight. In his blindness he dictated a series 
of messages to thinking men among the Moslems which were recently 
published and have been well received. 

The Rev. F. Kurtz, of the same Mission, speaks of the number 
of Moslem hearers at the public preaching services. He says there 
are -a number of promising converts and believes that the opening 
there for work would be more favorable than in India. 


Why Pray for North Africa? 

From the Atlantic to Egypt extends the territory of the old Roman 
Barbary States and now, as of old, it is peopled by the Berbers — 
(anciently Barbares.) These are white Africans, said by some to 
be the original stock of the European races. 

Christianity owes much to the Berbers. It found in them a 
favorable soil for development in the second and third centuries at 
a time when little progress could be made elsewhere in the world. 
The reason for this was probably that the new religion, teaching 
equality and fraternity, promised the Berbers some relief from the 
iron rule of the dominating Romans. 

Before Emperor Constantine's conversion in 313 the martyrdom 
of thousands of North Africans including such as the dauntless 
Perpetua, Bishop Cyprian and others, helped to attract attention 
to Christianity. 

(i) Christians owe much to the Berbers because of the hearty 
reception given in their land to Christianity in its infancy. 

North Africa furnished the Christian Church with some of its 
finest pillars, e. g. Cyprian, Tertullian, the great Augustine, etc. 
Missionaries from the Barbary States helped to spread the religion 
of Jesus Christ in Western Europe in the fourth and fifth cen- 
turies. The light of truth has passed on from there to all lands 
and is illuminating our homes today. 

(2) The people of all civilized countries owe a great debt to 
the Berbers of North Africa for having helped to hand on the 
torch of Christian civilization. 

Eleven centuries ago Islam came to North Africa and stamped 
out Christianity. Civilization was arrested and pushed back; law 
and order disappeared and woman was abased to a position of inferi- 
ority. Recent excavations have made bare here and there broken 
stumps of marble columns standing around beautiful mosaic pave- 
ments — all that is left of the Christian religion and its 40,000 
churches. The Mohammedan workman, hired to dig away the 
earth, gloats over such proof of Moslem superiority. The newly- 
won convert stares and asks in sad amazement if Jesus Christ is 
really the Son of the Almighty God. 

(3) We owe it to the honor of our Lord to prove to the Berbers 
that the pure religion of Jesus Christ ever carries with it the almighty 
power of God. 

To-day the law of France drafts her Berber subjects for war 
service the same as her own sons. Hundreds of thousands are in the 
trenches and w^ar-factories, etc., bravely and keenly participating in 
the struggle against autocracy. Their women receive the same 
separation allowance from generous France as their European sisters. 

Close contact with the life of Europe and all the other conditions 
resulting from the war has melted down the old ideals of life in 

(4) All lovers of high ideals would desire that the character of 
the brave Berber^ now in a fluid state morally, rest into the true 
Christ-mould, rather than that of a Christian civilization divorced 
from her Lord. 

The Berber, whose home is the Atlas, is of the sturdy, independent 
and broad common-sense type that mountains breed. Islam was 
forced on him at the point of the sword but he was never a good 
Moslem. His women are not veiled in the mountains. 


The Berber is the most accessible element of the whole Moslem 
front in Africa. Once re-won to the truth he will be its . unflinch- 
ing champion before his co-religionists. 

(5) The Christian church will find in the Berber her best helper 
in winning Moslems. 

In the face then of what we owe this land and should do for 
it North Africa claims our intercession immediately and impera- 

Remembering however that the opposing forces linked in the 
great conflict represent primarily great spiritual interests the fol- 
lowing quotation is eminently to the point: — 

"You can do more than pray after you have prayed, but you 
cannot do more than pray until you have prayed." 

JosiAH T. C. Blackmore. 
Kabylia, Algeria. 

Touring in Kansu, China 

Mr. George K. Harris, of the China Inland Mission, writes as 
follows of an interesting tour he made in this part of China among 
the Moslems: 

"Early in December I left for the trip of sixteen days by cart 
for Lanchow. While at Pingliang in Eastern Kansu I had the 
privilege of seeing the new Mosque just being completed in the 
city. Mr. Tornvall at that place said that in the vicinity of Ping- 
liang there could not be less than 1,000,000 Mohammedans. The 
two principal districts are in the valley to the North and to the 
South in the vicinity of Chang-Hsin-Chuang. A large number of 
these are followers of a man named Mo-Shan-Ren. 

One of the leading Mohammedans in Pingliang is very friendly 
with the missionaries. He studied at one time to be an Ahong, but 
later gave it up and entered into business in the city. He was the 
one who took us to see the new edifice. All along the roads from 
Sian to Lanchow the best Inns and Food Shops display the sign of 
"the Pure and True faith" as they call themselves. Almost every 
city and town has its small mosque and Moslem community. At 
Lanchow I stayed about a month and a half. The Borden Mem- 
orial Hospital is located here. The Moslems of the district are 
exceedingly shy and stay away from the hospital unless an absolute 
necessity brings them. One ward is especially set aside for this 

On March 12th Mr. Learner and I started out on horseback for a 
fourteen days journey to the districts North of Sining. We visited 
distinct districts of Chinese, Aboriginal peoples, Tibetans and Moham- 
medans. To the last of these I shall confine myself. On March 
1 8th we left a small village directly North of Sining, a days journey. 
In the morning proceeding West we began to meet Mohammedans in 
numbers along the roads. About noon we passed through a village 
where there was a big fair and among the thousands of people 
gathered about there was hardly a Chinese face among them, all 
seemed to be Moslems. We could not stop as we had barely time 
to make our stage by dark. All afternoon along these valleys we 
passed many Moslem villages. Farming and stock raising seemed 
to be their principal industries. About 4.00 p. m. we came 
out into a very wide valley where a majority of the villages had a 
mosque in place of the usual Chinese temple. This immense valley 
with wide fertile lands almost entirely in the hands of the followers 


of the Prophet is only a day's journey from Sining. In the heart 
of this valley is located the city of Da-Tong-Heien, which is known 
in the vicinity by another name, Mo-Bay-Shen. This was our destina- 
tion. We found the Chinese walled city thinly populated and 
asleep compared with the busy-populous West suburb. This Moham- 
medan suburb must have twice the population of the walled city. 
We stayed at a Mohammedan Inn. 

Before daylight each morning we would see these people out in 
the Inn-yard carefully pouring water from a big jar into their hands 
and washing their feet and hands and head. Then from various 
rooms we would hear the mumble of Arabic. The same every even- 
ing. One very strange custom was this. At morning sunrise one of 
these men would always climb up to the roof top and kneeling would 
pray toward the sun. This may be an idea from Persian sun worship 
mixed with Islam here. In many Chinese villages every morning 
a gaily dressed priest mounts to a prepared temple and prays to the 
rising sun. 

The son of the Innkeeper, a young Mullah, came in on the last 
evening and obtained from us an Arabic Gospel. He seemed very 
keen to study it. In this big center there are mosques, but they 
have no one who would be rated as an Ahong. Most of their 
leaders are Mullahs, who understand very little Arabic. Of course, 
this is just on the word of certain Moslems. 

We stayed in the city for one full day. Set up our book-stall and 
sold Gospels and scripture portions. Only a few Gospels in Arabic 
were sold, but as most of these Moslems read Chinese as well, the 
vast majority of the Chinese portions sold reached Mohammedan 
homes. We sold over 5,000 cash worth of books, or what would 
amount to almost a thousand scripture portions. When selling 
Arabic Gospels one has to watch every copy. Even in spite of our 
careful watching three managed to get stolen. Perhaps this word 
of life even from stolen property may get into their hearts. 

The next day we went on up the valley past many more villages 
with Mosques. These can often be distinguished by the white marble 
with which the mosque front is faced. In construction they are 
much like a Chinese Temple. Smaller ones are often built as an 
upper story on an Inn or dwelling. Soon we started climbing and 
for seven solid hours we climbed until at an altitude of 13,500 
feet we crossed the upper pass of the Da Ban Shan. This is called 
a pass, but we went right over the ridge of the mountains. After a 
few hours more of slush and melting snow, frozen streams and 
dangerous rocky paths we came out in the valley of the Da-Tong 
River — a vast plain 10,000 feet high. In this plain the principal 
city is Bay Dai Tong where we sold Gospels the next day. There 
are about 80 Moslem families in the city and on the South bank 
of the river there are many Mohammedan villages. It was along 
these villages that we saw two new mosques just nearing completion. 
One had a beautiful arabesque front although Chinese in structure. 

The Moslems of Kansu 

We glean the following paragraphs from the last report of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society in China. The population of 
Kansu is not large, considering that the area of the province is 
about 125,000 square miles. The number of inhabitants is usually 
given as under ten and one-half millions, and of these three millions 
are said to be Moslems. There are many questions of deep interest 


concerning these people which need not be discussed here, but now 
that a fresh movement is being made to present the Gospel to them, 
the experiences of missionaries who have come into contact with 
Moslems in this province may help to an understanding of their atti- 
tude toward Christianity. 

Mr. Learner writes from Sining: — ^We have done very well in our 
sales of Gospels to Mohammedans. They too, many of them, are 
seeking the Light. All round Sining there are many thousands of 
the followers of Mohammed, and not only do they buy the Scrip- 
tures in Arabic, but also in the Chinese language, for practically all 
their scholars can read Chinese, and in this way the Word is being 
scattered amongst them. If it were not for the power of their 
Ahongs I believe there would be many more Christian Moham- 
medans. The people fear them, and many hate them like poison. 
I myself believe that there are many Nicodemus-Christians among 

At Lanchowfu Mr. George Andrew has also met with a spirit 
of opposition: — 

Not many copies of Arabic Scripture portions, he writes, have been 
sold. The Ahongs still exercise their authority and prevent, so far as 
they can, the Mohammedans from reading the Word of God. The 
leader of the *Newest Sect,' as it is called, is in prison here with a 
number of followers on a charge of rioting and murder. He claims 
that the spirit of Jesus fills him, and is styled *Er-sa.* 

Some time ago one of the helpers brought to me a copy of the 
Bible in Persian and another in Arabic, saying that a Mohammedan 
who has been away in Shanghai got them there. Here he was so 
afraid of his fellow-religionists finding them among his effects that 
he brought them to the Mission. He claimed to be a believer, but 
I am sorry to say he has not been for his books. 

The following notes from Mr. Hunter's diary, telling of his ex- 
periences among the Moslems in the Altai Region are also of deep 
interest. During the twenty weeks he travelled 2000 miles and sold 
646 Scriptures in eight different languages: 

July 1st. Gave away a Gospel to a Qazaq. This is the first one 
that has been given to them in their own language. Read a little 
to the Qazaqs from John's Gospel. July 3rd. I find the population 
of this place to be about as follows: — Qazaqs 120,000, Turki i,ooo, 
Chinese 300, Tongan-Mohammedans lOO. The Chinese are mostly 
gold-diggers and many of them leave here in the winter-time. There 
are also many Mongols in this district. July 4th. Sold a number 
of Chinese, Tibetan, and Mongolian Gospels. July nth. Came on 
through a valley called Chemuchek where there are many gold mines 
near the Kurtu river. Reached the head of the Kurtu river, sold 
quite a number of Turki and Qazaq books to some merchants. 
July 1 2th. Many visitors to-day, preached, read, and sang to 
them. Had a visit from Janam Bai, the head of this tribe of 
Qazaqs. July 19th. Started up the U-liang-shih-keo and came on 
the watershed of the upper waters of the Kran and Irtish rivers. 
The next day quite a number of Qazaqs and some Mongols came 
for books. We received as much milk and meat as we could use. 
Here the people were on the whole kind and friendly. 

The Value of the Vernacular 

In a recent article in "The African World," Sir Harry Johnston 
pays a high tribute to the linguistic studies of missionaries. "I remem- 


ber some time early in the '8o's a mission was organized in England 
to work among the North African Moslems; even I thought it a 
purely wasteful effort and even a dangerous experiment. The 
French Government grudgingly, fearing lest by some blunder in 
tact or propaganda they might provoke disturbances. But scarcely 
any trouble followed, for those who entered this mission devoted 
themselves to acquiring the vernacular; not merely a theoretic knowl- 
edge of classical Arabic but the exact dialect spoken in Egypt or 
Tripoli, Tunis, Algeria or Morocco. Thenceforth one heard no 
more of them for the simple reason that they caused us trouble. 

Far and wide they were well received by the Arabs, Berbers and 
*'Moors" (or town population of mixed origin, but Mohammedan 
faith). They may not have made many converts to Christianity in 
the doctrinal sense, but they Christianized and civilized many a 
North African family in the larger sense. They were sought after 
for their medical advice and listened to in matters of hygiene (a 
quasi branch of present-day religion). They appeased quarrels and 
made excellent suggestions for the development of native industries. 
They have lived long enough to have themselves and their mission 
warmly praised by the very French administrators or British consuls 
who in earlier days regarded their enterprise as fatuous or harmful. 
And this by acquiring a native language or dialect * * * * 

Why have Christian Missions in general had such a large develop- 
ment in negro Africa during the last lOO years, so that the mission- 
ary nearly always forged far ahead of the sportsman or mining 
pioneer? Because the missionaries acquired one or more native 
languages and spoke words that the shy, frightened, angry, truculent 
negro could understand. Livingston's, Stanley's, Joseph Thompson's 
— and may I say my own? — successes in exploration were mainly 
due to a knowledge of one or more forms of native speech * * * * 
I have had to rely far more on my tongue than on any armed escort 
or weapon. By speech, and the right kind of speech — sarcasm, chat, 
interesting stories, sympathetic inquiries, appeals, jokes, angry remon- 
strance — one could create devotion, pluck, endurance, loyalty among 
one's native followers as one could not have done with blows and 
scarcely with generosity or gifts." 


A Qadiani Commentary on The Qur*an.* 

This work is published by the Anjuman-i-Tarriqi-i-Islam, Qadian, 
Punjab, and in its contents gives clear indications that its real object 
is to support the novel claim to the Messiahship of the late Mirza 
Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian. Indeed it is published under the 
auspices of Hadrat Bashiru'd-din the second successor of the 'Promised 
Messiah'. The need for a new English translation is based on the 
alleged incompetence of previous translators, of whom it is said that 
their ignorance of Arabic is great and their religious prejudice is 
strong. The present translator, is we believe, a non-Arab and 
is therefore a foreigner, and it is now his opportunity to show 
that even a foreigner can be an Arabic scholar, and that a 
commentator, with a good stock of religious prejudice, as this com- 
mentary shows him to possess, can do impartial and scholarly work. 
If he demonstrates all this, there is no obvious reason for the 
assertion that other foreigners and commentators are incompetent. 
By his unwise depreciation of the work of eminent orientalists he 
has placed the standard very high and by it he must stand or fall. 

We do not propose to deal with the translation, for a comparison 
of the translation of the first five verses of the second Sura with that 
of the same verses made by Palmer shows a marked inferiority. In 
fact, as far as it has gone, the translation appears to be little more 
than an adaptation of previous translations, and with such helps 
could be made by any one possessed of a moderate acquaintance with 
Arabic and a good command of English. 

In the commentary an ingenious attempt is made to connect the 
opening Sura, the Suratu'l-Fatiha, with 'a little book open' of Revela- 
tion X. 2, on the ground that Fatiha means 'open', and that the 
seven thunders of Revelation x. 4 correspond to the seven verses of 
this Sura. This is pure fancy and not sober criticism, but as the 
claims of the 'Promised Messiah', Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, had to be 
brought to notice quite early in the commentary, this seemed to give 
the opportunity. So we are told that until the times of the 
'Promised Messiah' this Sura had been a sealed book, according 
to the words in Revelation x. 4: 'Seal up those things which the 
seven thunders uttered and write them not.' It is further stated that 
this Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in his comments on this Sura showed 
that 'such pearls of divine wisdom and prophecy were embodied in 
the short verses of this pithy chapter as had never been dreamt of be- 
fore.' We are told that the word 'open' in Revelation x. 2 is the He- 
brew word fatoah, but the writer seems to be ignorant of the fact that 

*Thi8 book was briefly reviewed in the "Moslem World" Vol. VI. 1916, p. 
170-174 by R. F. McNeile. We reprint this longer criticism and review 
from a pamphlet by the Christian Literature Society Madras. Everything 
that Canon Sell writes on Islam is of special value to the missionary student. 
We retain the spelling used by the C. L. S. in their publications. — Ed. 



the book of Revelation was written in Greek and not in Hebrew, 
so the bearing of his remark is not obvious. This crude attempt 
to magnify Mirza Ghulam Ahmad shows a lack of scholarship and 
judgment, qualities of the first importance in a commentator. It is 
not easy to follow this dissertation, for apparently it means that 
the Suratu'l-Fatiha has been a sealed book, which neither Imams 
nor Muj tabid in nor Musafirs nor the Fuqaha have been able hitherto 
to explain, and that the whole world of Islam has had to wait for 
the advent of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, to whom it has been given 
to open the book. This is all pure fancy and a bad beginning for 
a commentary for which so much is claimed. 

Sura ii. 5 is thus translated: 'Who believe in what hath been 
sent down to thee, and what has been sent before thee and firm 
faith have they in what is to come ;' and the comment on it calls for 
some notice. Muslim commentators rightly interpret it as referring 
to the Qur'an, the Jewish and Christian Scriptures and to belief 
in that important article of the Muslim creed, known as the 
'Last Day'. These words were uttered by the Prophet in the early 
days at Madina when the support of the Jews, at least, was earnestly 
desired, and they clearly enjoin on all concerned the study of these 
Scriptures; but we are now told that such a view is absurd. 

Why so is not apparent considering the constant reference the 
Prophet made to the Scriptures and the high position he accorded 
to them. The comment on the words 'which is to come' is curious 
and is made for a sectarian purpose. The phrase is a translation of 
one word al-Akhirat — the last or end — and usually denotes the 'Last 
Day', and is so dealt with in other parts of this commentary. A well- 
known commentator interprets the word as al-bath bad al-maut, i.e. 
resurrection after death. I do not know any Muslim commentator 
who interprets al-Akhirat as meaning some further revelation to come 
after the Qur'an. However, the Qadiani commentator says that 
al-Akhirat signifies the revelation referred to as that which is to follow, 
and that is the revelation which has come through the Promised Messiah, 
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian. If this far-fetched interpretation is 
'orrect, why must the supposed prophecy refer to him? Why not to 
'le great reformer, Muhammad ibn 'Abdu'l-Wahhab, or to Mirza 
•luhammad 'All, the Bab, or to his successor Baha'ullah the prophet 
of the Baha'is? These men founded large and important sects, 
exercised great influence and, if al-Akhirat can be forced to mean 
what this commentary says it does, they have a prior claim to the 
position of fulfillers of it. Are the writings of the Bab and of 
Baha'ullah to be passed over? 

Verse 24 reads thus: 'If ye are in doubt as to that which we 
have sent down to our servant, then produce a chapter (Sura) like 
it.' The commentator says, 'For thirteen long centuries this chal- 
lenge of the Holy Qur'an has stood unmet.' Now, it is obvious that 
the comparison was not intended to be made with books in the 
ancient classical, or in modern languages, for its challenge was to 
produce some Arabic composition. In Muslim schools the principles 
of rhetoric are drawn from the Qur'an, which is regarded as the per- 
fection of thought and expression, and so obviously a new book or 
Sura when written would not surpass its model. The challenge was 
once taken up by Nadir bin Haritha, who is referred to and con- 
demned in Surata Luqman (xxxi. 5), but he was taken prisoner at 
the battle of Badr and put to death. Naturally no further attempts 
were then made. If the comparison is considered to be with any other 


religious books, then it is maintained that no book in any language, 
ancient or modern, is equal to it. Such a comparison no Muslim for 
'thirteen long centuries' has ever made. When our commentator 
has acquainted himself with the literature of all the ancient classical 
languages and of the best modern ones, he will then, and not till 
then, be able to make the comparison. The Qur'an is a great book. 
No scholar disputes this. But to base its greatness on the supposed 
inferiority of all other books in all other languages and with which 
comparison is impossible is to damage its reputation. It needs no 
such foolish support. 

The comment on verse 41 is that just as the Mosaic dispensation saw 
its consummation in the person of Jesus of Nazareth similarly the 
Muhammedan dispensation has been consummated in the person of 
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian.' The reply may be left to Muslim 
theologians, with whom it is an article of belief that Muhammad is 
the seal of the prophets — Khatimu'n-nabiyin [Suratu'l-Ahzab (xxxiii. 
40) ] — ^whose revelation is final. 

On verse 76 the old worn-out charge of the corruption of the 
text of their Scriptures by the Jews is reiterated. The commentator 
says: 'They wilfully tampered with the text of the divine word.' 
This charge is based on the words, *Yet a class among them heard 
the word of Allah, and then perverted it after they had under- 
stood it while they knew;' but it means that they 'twisted the words,' 
i.e. gave a wrong meaning to them. Baidawi's interpretation of 
'perverting it' is that it refers to 'the description of Muhammad, or 
the verse of stoning, or the explanation thereof and they interpret 
it as they desire.' The charge of concealing the truth is made in 
verse 161 (Baidawi ed.), and according to Ibn Hisham the verse 
was revealed when certain Arabs enquired of the Jews regarding a 
certain matter in the Taurat and they concealed it from them and 
refused to give any information. Neither in verse 76 nor elsewhere 
is it explicitly stated that they wilfully tampered with the text. The 
charge is strongly asserted but no proofs are given: on the other 
hand we have a definite Qur'anic assurance: 'Verily, we have sent 
down the Taurat, wherein are guidance and light' [Suratu'l-Ma'ida 
(v. 48)]. There is a very important word Musaddiqun which occurs 
several times in connection with the verification of previous Scriptures 
by the Qur'an. In verses 90, 92, 98 and 102 the translation given 
of it is 'verifying'. A commentator should not, in his exposition, 
overlook so important a word as this, but in this commentary, which 
is to surpass all others, it is judiciously left alone. In Suratu'l- 
Ma'ida (v. 12) it also occurs with the addition of the important 
word — Muhaiminan — safeguard. Thus the Qur'an itself claims to 
be the 'safeguard' of previous Scriptures. If the text has been cor- 
rupted then the Qur'an has clearly failed in its mission of being a 

Now, assuming for the sake of argument that a few Jews in 
Madina did alter the text of the few copies of the Old Testament 
which they had in their possession, this does not prove that the 
text of all copies has been altered. To prove that it is necessary 
to show that the Jews settled in all the large cities of the then known 
world were in communication with the Jews at Madina and simul- 
taneously altered in the same manner the sacred text. Now for 
'thirteen long centuries' no one has been able to prove this. The 
obligation, therefore, still lies on all good Muslims to read those 
Scriptures which the Qur'an verifies {Musaddiqun) and of which 



it is the safeguard (Muhaiminan) . The subject has been fully dealt 
with by the late Sir Syed Ahmad Khan.^ He defines the terms 
tahrifuVlafzh as an actual change of the written words, and tahrifl- 
mdnawi, as a change in the meaning of words. Our commentator 
surely knew that the most famous Muslim commentators hold that 
the 'perverting' referred to is of the latter kind and that there has 
been no tahriful-lafzi, or alteration of the text. For his instruction 
we quote a few.^ Shah Wali Ullah, in the Faizu'l-Kabir, considers 
that 'the original text was not tampered with;' Imam Fakhru'ddin 
Razi (p. 12) says: 'How was it possible to corrupt the Old Testa- 
ment when it was so well known among the people.' In the Tafsir-i- 
Durr-i-Mauthur (p. 15) we read: 'The Taurat and Injil are in 
the same state of purity in which they were sent down from heaven 
and that no alterations have been made in them, but that the Jews 
were wont to deceive the people by unsound arguments and by wrest- 
ing the sense of scripture.' In other words there was tahrtfuU 
mdnawi, but no tahriful-lafzi. On verse 76, on which the Qadiani 
commentator bases his charge of the corruption of the text. Sir Syed 
Ahmad says: 'This verse shows that the scripture readers were in 
the habit of substituting words of their own for those of the text; 
but it does not show that there was any tampering with the 
written text itself.' After an exhaustive investigation of the subject 
Sir Syed Ahmad (p. 33) concludes thus: 'From all the foregoing 
authorities it is very evident, that according to the Muhammedan 
belief, the expression of corrupting scripture does not mean an 
actual mutilation of the text, but simply the modifying of words 
when read to another, or the concealing of passages.' In another 
work^ he says: 'I do not agree with the statement that the Jews 
and Christians in the sacred books made tahriful-lafzi/ We cannot 
do the Qadiani commentator the injustice supposing that he is 
ignorant of the difference of these two kinds of tahrif. He must 
know it perfectly well; but his reticence on this point may be in- 
tentional, for he could hardly have explained the meaning of 
tahrif ul-lafzi and at the same time have failed to notice the views of 
the great commentators whose opinions we have quoted, which are 
in direct conflict with his own dogmatic statement — a statement sup- 
ported by no proof. Thus it was clearly the politic, though un- 
scholarly, plan to pass by this important point of Qur'anic exegesis 
altogether and to say nothing about it. In the succeeding issues of 
this commentary the subject will frequently recur, and before com- 
menting on similar passages the author would be well advised to 
study carefully the Shahadut-i-Qur dni bar Kutub-i-Rabbani (Lucknow 
1863) and from it also to learn the views of the famous commen- 
tators, Jalalu'd-din and Baidawi. 

Before passing from this subject we may remark that it is not stated 
whether the Jews, who are charged with altering the text of their 
scriptures, destroyed the old copies in order to conceal their action, 

* Sir Syeid Ahmad justly remarks that if any person has made inter- 
polations in his private copy of scripture, it is a mere isolated fact quite 
unconnected with the general question. Mohamedan Commentary on 
the Holy Bible, Seventh Discourse; p. 10 (C. L. S.) 

' The Mohamedan Commentary on the Holy Bible. The chapter 
referred to has been reprinted in The Seventh Discourse of Sir Syed 
Ahmad (C. I.. S. Madras.) 

"The quotations are from The Seventh Discourse of Sir Syed 
Ahmad. (C. L. S. Madras.) 


or whether they allowed both the unaltered and the alleged altered 
copies to remain in existence. There is no such uncertainty about the 
altered copy of the Qur'an. The only guarantee of the authenticity 
of the Qur'an, as it now exists, is the testimony of Zaid ibn Thabit. 
He compiled the Qur'an first in the time of the Khalifa Abu Bakr 
and again in the days of the Khalifa 'Uthman. Then a curious thing 
happened. All the copies of the first edition were destroyed in order 
that no record of the alterations in the text might exist. ^ If this is 
not so, let the commentator who makes the charge against the Jews, 
produce Abu Bakr's Qur'an. and compare it with that of 'Uthman. 
But we notice that throughout this commentary the author is most 
reticent on the subject of Various readings'.* 

The comment on verse 107 ridicules the doctrine of abrogation. It 
says that the conclusion that some of the verses of the Qur'an have 
been abrogated is erroneous and unwarranted. The reply to this 
may safely be left to Muslim theologians. The fact that the dogma 
is accepted by them and that minute rules regarding it have been 
drawn up, with which this commentator must be acquainted, leads 
to the conclusion that his remarks are meant for English read- 
ers who presumably are unacquainted with the doctrinal system of 
Islam. The implication that the alleged error concerning the ortho- 
dox dogma of abrogation is due to translators is a very weak argu- 
ment against a well-established orthodox principle of Qur'anic interpre- 
tation. It is advisable that the commentator should read carefully 
the Tafsir-i-Baiddwi and the Itqdn of Jalau'd-din and note how many 
verses are said to have been abrogated, or if an easy reference is 
desired he will find in The Dictionary of Islam (p. 520) a list of 
the abrogated verses taken from the Itqdn. It is unlikely that 
Muslims will set aside the authority of these great commentators 
and accept the opposite view of a sectarian novice. In this con- 
nection we may ask what has become of the Ayatu'rrajm,^ the 
Verse of stoning' and the Suratu'n-Nurain.* 

Verses 126 et seq afford an opportunity for an attempt to show 
that the expected prophet must be of the House of Ishmael, but the 
laboured effort is not convincing and the author would be well ad- 
vised, before he returns to the subject, to study critically the able 
and scholarly work of Bates, known as The Claims of Ishmael 
(Lazarus and Co., Benares 1884). 

The commentator shows an astounding ignorance of the Christian 
doctrine of the Trinity in Unity. We commend to his notice the 
Miftdh al-Asrdr (C. L. S. Madras, 191 2, pp. 131, et seq). 

On the whole, the commentary is very disappointing. The plan 
adopted, that of Christian commentaries, is good and a very valuable 
book might have been prepared, but its value is much depreciated 
by its dogmatic tone, its assumption of the ignorance of its readers, 
its depreciation of the views and work of other scholars and its 
fanciful interpretation of passages which it is assumed can lend 
themselves to the support of the claims of the Qadiani sect. Thus, 

*0n the revision being completed, "Uthman ordered all the remaining 
editions to be destroyed, and it is due to this fact that at the present day 
only one authentic and uniform text is in use throughout the Muslim 
world." Mr. Justice *Abur-Rahim Muhammadan Jurisprudence, (S. P. 
C. K. Madras, 1904, Lucac & Co., London) p. 20. 

' See 'Leaves from some ancient Qu/dns possibly pre-Othmanic. Cam- 
bridge University Press, 1914. 

*^See The Verse of Stoning (C. L. S. Madras). 

*See The Rescensions of the Qur'dn (C. L. S. Madras). 


instead of a scholarly commentary, which all oriental scholars would 
have welcomed with delight, we have a sectarian book, evidently 
composed to spread and enforce the claims of a modern sect which all 
good Muslims must repudiate. 

Edward Sell. 

Transliteration of Arabic and Persian. Report of the Committee 
appointed to draw up a practical scheme for the transliteration 
into English of words and names belonging to the Languages 
of the nearer East, (From the Proceedings of the British Academy, 
Vol. VIII), London, published for the British Academy by 
Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press. Price One 
Shilling net. 1918. 

This is one of a series of "schemes" for the transliteration of 
words from Russian, other Slavonic and Eastern languages. The 
Sub-Committee dealing with Arabic and Persian included in this 
paper were: Sir Charles Lvall, F.B.A., Prof. A. A. Bevan, F.B.A., 
Prof. T. Rhys Davids, F.B.A., Prof. D. S. Margoliouth, F.B.A., 
Sir Frederick Pollock, F.B.A., and Mr. Hinks. It is perhaps the 
best scheme available and we commend it to our readers. As it is 
quite impossible to represent Arabic words without diacritical marks 
these have been used, to a considerable extent, and yet the scheme 
includes only five dotted letters. Specimen lists are given of places, 
names, and persons in which the conventional spelling of many of 
these words is retained, for example, Aden, Beyrout, Mecca, Oman. 
On the other hand, we find Muhammad, Muslim. 


The Encyclopaedia of Islam. A Dictionary of the Geography, 
Ethnography and Biography of the Muhammadan Peoples, 
edited by M. Th. Houtsma, T. W. Arnold, R. Basset and 
H. Bauer, Number 21 {Hadith-Hanafts) Leyden, Late E. J. 
Brill, Ltd. London, 'L\iz2iC & Co., 46 Great Russell St., Pub- 
lishers and Printers, pp. 193-256 of Vol. II. 

This Encyclopaedia has already received notice in our Quarterly. 
It is a welcome evidence that there can still be international coopera- 
tion in the realm of scientific research during the present conflict. 
The International Association of the Academies, under whose patron- 
age this great work is being published, may be congratulated on the 
continuation of its task in spite of the deep lines of cleavage occasioned 
by the war. The present number gives the last portion of the article 
on Hadith by Professor JuynboU, and ends with the first paragraph 
on the Hanafis. Among the leading articles we note an important 
contribution on the Hajj (here spelled Hadjdj) by Professor A. J. 
Wensinck. He describes the Islamic ritual, the origin of these 
practices and traces most of them back to pre-Islamic paganism. The 
article on Hadramaut gives the population of that vast province as 
only 150,000. We doubt whether this is correct. The article on 
Haidarabad is distinctly disappointing. Where so much space is 
rightly given to Halab (Aleppo) — more than nineteen columns — 
we expected more than a paragraph on one of the leading Moslem 
centers of India and the seat of one of its ruling dynasties. 

Among the shorter articles there is an interesting sketch of 
Moslem superstition regarding al Haiya (the snake) in which the 
serious omission occurs of any reference to serpent worship among 


Moslems in Egypt today (see The Moslem World, July 1918). 
Professor Margoliouth contributes a number of articles to this 
section of the Encyclopaedia and we note with special interest the 
illuminating although brief articles by Professor D. B. MacDonald 
on Hakika (reality), Hakk, and al Hamdala. 

We repeat an earlier criticism that the German-English system of 
spelling and the lack of any cross references make it difficult to 
find the desired subject or topic. Who, for example, would look 
for information about amulets and talismans under Hamail, or find 
the most famous Turkish encyclopaedist disguised as Hadjdji-Khalifa? 

S. M. Z. 

A Guide to the Study of the Christian Religion. Gerald B. 
Smith, editor, published by The University of Chicago Press, 
Chicago, 111., pp. 751. Price $3.(X) net. 1918. 

The missionary abroad often finds it difficult, especially during 
the present war, to keep in touch with the new theological books so 
essential for the task. Everyone who deals with the Moslem mind 
realizes that an acquaintance with present-day aspects of theological 
problems is an essential for a sympathetic contact with those Moslems 
who are using the arguments of Western Unitarianism. One may 
find in this volume as nowhere else within the same compass a 
summary of present-day thinking by those who are recognized leaders. 
Although most of them might be designated as progressive rather 
than conservative, they all accept the historical method, and the 
survey is, therefore, thoroughly modern. In twelve chapters such 
subjects as the following are treated by Drs. Faunce, Shailer Mathews, 
Burton, Foster and others; most of the writers belonging to the 
Faculty of the University of Chicago: — ^The Historical Study of 
Religion; Introduction to the Old and New Testaments; The 
Development of the Catholic Church; The Protestant Reformation; 
The Development of Modern Christianity; Systematic Theology; 
Practical Theology; Social Problems; and The Contribution of 
Critical Scholarship to Ministerial Efficiency. We do not agree 
with all the opinions set forth under these various topics, but no one 
can read the discussions without benefit. Perhaps the concluding 
paragraph of the book will indicate its scope, method and goal 
succinctly : 

"Usually the candidate for the ministry — young though he may 
sometimes be — enters the divinity school as a finished religious and 
theological product, but in consequence of his studies there he departs 
unfinished, growing aware that his personality, with its religions and 
its theology, are alike in the making. A divinity school that 
achieves such a result has fulfilled its function in the life of the 
human spirit." We have not yet learned this lesson on the mission 
field in the study of non-Christian religions! 

Each chapter is followed by a careful bibliography but the index is 
meagre; and in a guide to the study of the Christian religion one 
might surely expect a larger use of the Scriptures themselves. 
Quotations or references to the Old Testament and New Testament 
are conspicuous by their absence. 

L. S. R. 

South-Eastem Europe. The Main Problem of the Present World 
Struggle. Vladislav R. Savic. Map-276 pages. Fleming H. 
Revell Company. $1.50 net. 


"South-Eastern Europe", by Vladislav R. Savic, a Serbian author, 
is a masterly brief of the case for the Jugo-Slavs, especially for 
Serbia. The intricacies of the history and interrelation of the Balkan 
States is a subject requiring close study, and the presentation of 
innumerable facts, in order to understand the claims of the Serbo- 
Croats* and the Slovenes to an independent autonomy. 

The writer goes most carefully into Serbia's life-history, her grow- 
ing relation of servitude to Austria-Hungary, and the traitorous defec- 
tion of Bulgaria to the side of the Central Powers. He shows 
remarkable familiarity and insight into the struggles of his brave 
nation for its very existence, declaring that "though Germany's thrust 
against France and Belgium was stupendous, that the principal 
ambition of Germany lay in the East." He maintains Serbia and 
the Southern Slavs to be the "pivotal point in the sound recon- 
struction of South-Eastern Europe." 

Mr. Savic makes it clear that not only should Italy not have 
delegated to her the exclusive control of the Adriatic, as some are 
inclined to claim, but that the Southern Slavs should be united in a 
Serbo-Crotian and Slovene kingdom, taking Italy as a pattern. The 
thirteen points of organization of such a constitutional monarchy 
were determined upon at a conference held at Corfu in 191 7. 

Making the humiliating declaration that until only recently 
Western ideas of things Slavic have been obtained through a German 
medium, he states that the purpose of this volume is to give to the 
American people an acquaintance with the historical and political 
material that will help them to understand the points involved in 
the final settlement of the question of South-Eastern Europe. 

Mrs. Burton St. John. 

The Bijak of Kabir. Translated into English by the Rev. Ahmad 
Shah. Published by the author at Hamirpur, U. P., India. Pp. 

Although this book has no special reference to the Moslem problem, 
we are glad to note it in our columns because it represents a fine piece 
of scholarship by one of the noted Moslem converts of India, who has 
for many years labored not only in preaching but as translator and 
writer. He is well known as the author of a Concordance and Com- 
prehensive Glossary of the Koran in English and Urdu. The Asiatic 
Quarterly speaks in the highest terms of this translation. The con- 
tents comprise in all 2,ioo couplets and the whole subject is treated with 
sympathy and discrimination. The author gives in full the contradictory 
Moslem and Hindu traditions of the legendary life of Kabir. He 
holds that many of the thoughts in this great poem resemble those of the 
Moslem Sufis. 

The War and the Bagdad Railway: The story of Asia Minor 
and its Relation to the Present Conflict. By Morris Jastrow, 
Jr., Ph. D., L. L. D. Second edition, J. B. Lippincott Co., 
Philadelphia. Pp. 160, with illustrations. 1918. $1.50 net. 

This book, because of the preface to a second edition if for no other 
reason, is one of those few books on the war which every missionary 
in the Near East must read. The author holds with many others, that 
the Bagdad Railway project was the deciding factor which led Germany 
in July, 191 4, to take the position which brought on the War. He 
believes that in the last analysis the Bagdad railway has been at the 


core of the Eastern question and he therefore goes back not only to the 
history of modern diplomacy and the economic struggle for the ex- 
ploitation of the Euphrates Valley, but to the story of Asia Minor 
from the days of the Hittities. This part of the book does not 
particularly concern us, although it shows the importance of the highway 
between Europe and Asia and affords the author an opportunity to dis- 
close his special learning in his department. The other three chapters 
deal with the war in the East, the story of the Bagdad railway, and the 
Issue of the present conflict as well as the outlook afterward. No one 
can accuse the writer of prejudice. He himself says that in speaking 
of Germany's conduct in the war, he writes more in sorrow than in 

Nor is he blind to the fact that in the new alignment of power 
throughout the near East, especially in Arabia, England "may be 
stirring up a spirit which it will be hard for her to control, for the 
spirit of Islam is still the spirit of fanaticism that sees only the doings 
of Iblis in a world that does not acknowledge Mohammed as the Apostle 
of Allah." The book is a proof that although the decisive battlefield for 
the triumph of democracy may be in the West, the decisions that 
will affect the supremacy of European power for the future lie in the 
East. He traces the interesting story of the Bagdad railway project 
from 1888 when the first concession was made to a syndicate of 
Germans, until the outbreak of the war. A full bibliography gives the 
sources for this chapter. The effect of German control aroused a 
storm of protest against the entire project in England and France. 
"It was felt in England that if, as Napoleon is said to have remarked, 
Antwerp in the hands of a great continental power, was a pistol leveled 
at the English coast, Bagdad and the Persian Gulf in the hands of 
Germany (or any other strong power) would be a 42-centimetre gun 
pointed at India." 

England by the declaration of a protectorate over Kuweit check- 
mated Germany's efforts. Meanwhile the railway began to be built. 
In 1904 the first section from Konia to Bulgurli was opened. At the 
time of the outbreak of the war the second section as far as Adana was 
almost finished, as well as the stretch from Bagdad to Samarra. 

The Ipst chapter in the book is the least satisfactory. The author 
distinguishes the war of 191 7 from the war of 191 4. He believes that 
Germany's diplomatic case at the outbreak of the war of 191 4 was 
not bad. Yet, he grants that Germany could have prevented the war, 
even if she did not will it. He insists on a clear distinction between 
the German Government and the German people. We cannot agree 
with hi ' thnt Attic irnns have no special concern with the issues 
that brought on the war of 191 4; (Page 130). The plan of Germany 
for world domination and for using Turkey and Islam to further her 
aims at any cost goes back much earlier than 191 4. Karl Peters wrote 
in 1907 "If German policy is only bold enough, she will be able through 
Pan-Islamism to fashion the dynamite which will blow to atoms 
British and French rule from Morocco to Calcutta". 

In conclusion he speaks of the problems that confront the coming 
Peace Conference and the clash of interests which cannot be avoided. 
The fate of Persia is involved, as well as of Turkey. He hopes that 
both of these lands will be restored as Asiatic entities and have self 
Government. Let him who believes the impossible hope for it. 


The Riddle of Nearer Asia Basil Mathews, M. A., United 
Council for Missionary Education. London. 191 8. 160 pp. 


Ten British Missionary Societies have combined with the United 
Council for Missionary Education in promoting systematic study of 
the Near East with this text book as guide this winter, and we 
may hope that it will arouse interest as never before in that part 
of the world hitherto the most neglected, except perhaps South 
America, by British supporters of foreign missions. It is masterly 
in its grasp of century-long riddles in historical perspective, and local 
colour has been gained by the writer's personal visit to the Near 
East before he issued his previous book "Paul the Dauntless," which 
has had such good success. Practically all the illustrations are from 
his own photographs, and here and there one takes a seat beside 
him at some crossroad of history as he writes his impressions. Perhaps 
it is a book of impressions rather than a textbook. Nevertheless it 
has a strong, definite message and will not easily be forgotten, any 
more than the rest of Mr. Mathews' work. Chapter VI., **The 
People of the Camel," is as vivid a description of the Arab, in 
brief compass, as we have found anywhere: great possibilities lie 
concealed within the Arab race and those who have set their hand 
to support missions in Arabia should ponder much on this chapter. 
"Among all those rich powers that lie dormant in the Arab, the 
deepest and fullest is his capacity to undertake great adventure for 
God * * * The Arab has proved himself to be a natural mission- 
ary force * * * The adventurous, mobile and virile strength of the 
Arab placed at the service of Christ would certainly lead into His 
kingdom not only his own great people but an increasing army of 
others in Asia and in Africa. The Arab would also interpret to 
the world that masculine and heroic element, that sterner quality in 
Christ which the Church in the West has tended to lose." 

E. I. M. B. 

Armenia, a Martyr Nation. A Historical Sketch of the Armenian 

People from Traditional Times to the Present Day, by M. C. 

Gabrielian, with an Introduction by William Henry Roberts, 

and a map of Asia Minor. 352 pp. Published by The Fleming 

H. Revell Co. 1918. 

The author is described in the Introduction as follows "the 

Reverend M. C. Gabrielian, M. D., is a native of Armenia, was 

first trained in the American Mission at Marsovan, Asia Minor, 

came to the United States in 1881 and completed his theological 

studies at Princeton Theological Seminary at Princeton, N. J. in 

1888. He then took a course of study at Jefferson Medical College, 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and received in 1892 the degree of 

Doctor of Medicine." The book of twenty chapters divides quite 

naturally into two parts. The first ten chapters treat of the land, 

the people and their history, both secular and religious. The 

historical treatment is not only from traditional times but is also 

on traditional lines. The attention of readers of The Moslem 

World is called to the second half of the book. Chapter XI is on 

the Armenian Question, Chapter XII on 'The Gospel and the 

Koran', Chapter XIII on 'Massacres of the Christians'; the rest 

recount in detail the horrors of 1895-6, 1908 and 191 5 to the 

present. Victims of insomnia should not read these chapters before 

retiring and most readers should be prepared to raise their subscrip- 


tions to the Liberty Loan or to make a gift to the Red Cross — 
unless the reader be such that nothing will move him. Our author 
does not have the historian's instinct for marshalling his facts, 
although, in general, the main items receive mention. What he does 
accomplish is the arraignment of Islam and the Turks, Old and 
Young. To an observer of our times it sometimes seems as if 
the great German atrocities on land and sea tend, for most people, 
to put the horrible crimes of the Turks and Kurds in the shade. 
It is to be hoped that this is not really the case arid that the nations 
for w^hom President Wilson has so nobly spoken will impose a 
just retribution on them also and secure the liberation of the oppressed 
peoples of Asia Minor. The book under review should help toward 
this end. But it also has another message for an open-minded reader. 
It has long been the fashion to gloss over the real nature of Islam. 
Even in missionary circles the tendency has been to urge irenics 
rather than polemics. Dr. Gabrielian points out that the Armenian 
Question has always been and is a religious one. "Why have the 
Armenians been so cruelly persecuted, oppressed, tortured and butch- 
ered? * * * Not because they belong to a different nationality — 
though they do — but because they belong to a different religion, they 
are Christians." (p. 187) The author writes for Armenia and 
was therefore under no obligation to make mention of other peoples, 
though he does so. However, the real anti-Christian character of these 
persecutions comes out when the fact is made plain that all Chris- 
tians in Asia Minor have suffered alike, Armenians, Syrians, 
Jacobites, Nestorians, Catholics, Protestant, whatever sect or nation- 
ality they belonged to. Robbing and killing Christians are matters 
of divine command and prophetic example for the Moslem. **No 
Mohammedan can be expected to be any better than Mohammed 
himself; that he was a sensual, cruel and blood-thirsty man, and a 
relentless enemy to Christianity, * * * is manifest from the facts 
of history, his life and his teaching." 

We ofiFer a few minor criticisms. The author has a habit of 
using quotation marks without indicating the source of the quota- 
tion, e.g. on pages 62, 69, 193, etc. A number of misprints appear, 
curiously all in proper names. To indicate a few, Orhtman for 
Othman p. 89, Seljinkian for Seljukian p. 91, Armedian for Armenian 
p. 105, Jesup for Jessup p. 205 (hardly pardonable). 

F. J. Barny^ 

Baghdad. Mrs. Ashley Carus-Wilson, B. A., London: Church 

Missionary Society. 191 8. pp. 30. 6d. net. 
This small pamphlet contains an extraordinary amount of historical 
information about Baghdad as a station of the C. M. S., and one 
could only wish every important mission station were placed before 
those who support its work or are about to go out to it as recruits 
with equal care. "Three stages of civilization have been marked 
out * * ♦ Baghdad's situation carries us straight back to the first; 
its fame belongs to the second; the third, which found it fallen, now 
promises it a wonderful future" — such is the text of the booklet; 
and its appeal is that especially the British, who by the victory in the 
recent campaign find themselves responsible for the industrial and 
commercial development of the country, may follow up the brave 
beginning of their handful of missionaries and make Baghdad worthy 
of its name: "Garden of Beneficence." 

E. I. M. B. 





The Mohammedans m China. By Archimandrite Palladius, of 
the Russian Mission, Peking; translated from Russian by Miss 
C. Figouroksky and the Rev. C. L. Ogilvie. "Chinese Recorder." 
Shanghai. July, 191 8. 

An historical account written in 1866 with some mention of 
Mohammedan practices and ways of life in China. Several state- 
ments are subject to correction, e. g. that there are but four millions 
of Moslems in the country, but in general the article is welcome. 

Kazan and the Reconstruction of Russia. "The Near East" 
Aug. 9, 1 91 8. 

An estimate upon the strategic importance of Kazan, the centre of 
the Russian Moslem community, the oldest under any European gov- 
ernment. "Whoever holds Kazan commands the whole course of the 
Volga below it to its delta in the Caspian Sea." 




England and Palestine. Estelle Blyth. "The Near East." Aug. 
16, 1918. 

An appeal to the sons and daughters of Palestine on their coming 
under the protection of the British. 

Turkey and Armenia. G. Thoumaian. "Contemporary Review." 
London. Aug. 1918. 

A discussion from the Armenian point of view of Mr. Brailsford's 
scheme, whereby each religious body in the Turkish Empire should be 
reorganized as an autonomous community free to administer its own 
affairs with the fullest self-government. "The principal defect in this 
scheme is that it lacks the execution power. We ought to be con- 
cerned at this moment with the creation of this executive power 
rather than lose our time over the details of the administrative 
machinery. It must be well understood that the failure of all schemes 



tried is due to the insincerity and bad faith of the Turks and their 
unwillingness to make them a success. ♦ * * The Turk is the 
unwilling partner." 

The Situation in the Middle East. Robert Mackay. "Fortnightly 
Review." London. October, 191 8. 

A summary, well focused, of the progress of the war in the 
Middle East, especially from the taking of Baghdad to the with- 
drawal from Baku by the British. 

Mesopotamia : the Land between the Rivers. Major General 
Sir George MacMunn, K. C. B., D. S. O. "Cornhill Maga- 
zine." London. 

A general description of the country now in the possession of the 

Turkey, Islam and Pan Turanianism. Sir Edwin Pears. "Con- 
temporary Review." London. October, 191 8. 

A discussion of the proposal made by certain Turks to renounce 
the religion of Mohammed and to substitute for it that of the 
Turanians. "Were it to materialize, it would mean a relapse from 
monotheism into polytheism, or a confusion of religious conceptions 
hardly distingishable from fetishism." The conclusion is that "Tur- 
anianism is a retrograde movement which offends both educated 
Moslems and the ignorant. Ottoman statesmen, already recognize 
that such a movement, founded on common origins, customs and 
language, would conflict with Pan-Islamism. Of the two forces 
the latter is undoubtedly the most potent." 


The Present Attitude of Non-Christians in Egypt towards the 
Gospel. Rev. S. M. Zwemer,' D. D. "Blessed be Egypt." 
October, 1918. 

A paper read at the Missionary Conference at Mena House, Cairo, 
in April, 191 8. 

Christian Literature for Moslems. Canon W. H. T. Gairdner. 
"Blessed be Egypt." October, 1918. 

A summary of special kinds of literary work needed at the present 
time, more particularly in Egypt. 

Evangelism Among Moslems. Rev. W. H. Reed. "Blessed be 
Egypt." October, 191 8. 

A paper based on the opinions and experience of many Christian 
workers, missionaries and Egj^ptian Christians. 

The Moslem World 

VOL. IX APRIL, 1919 NO. 2 


The Chasm 

In a recent report by Bishop Brent on the work 
among the Moros in the Philippine Islands he says that 
"this age-long problem of Mohammedanism has been 
as baffling to governments as to religion ; it has a certain 
attractiveness just because it is so stubborn and so mys- 
terious. Neither the Christian faith nor Christian civi- 
lization has more than dented the solid unity of Moham- 
medanism." Now there is a sense in which this state- 
ment is still true although it may at first glance seem an 
over-statement in view of the evident intellectual disin- 
tegration of Islam, the collapse of its political power 
and the increasing effect of the impact of Christian misr 
sions on its social life and institutions. The problem of 
Islam stretches over thirteen centuries and includes 
many elements all of which offer scope for study and 
prayer to those who are engaged in the task of inter- 
preting Christ to Moslems. 

It is a historical problem; and no one can have real 
sympathy with Moslems or qualify as a worker among 
them who has not studied the genesis of this great world 
movement, its wide spread, its deep penetration through- 
out Asia and Africa. Whether this religion has been a 
barrier and a stumbling-block or a stepping-stone and a 
helpful influence in the progress of the race cannot be an- 
swered off-hand or categorically. The elements of the 
problem are too many and varied ; nevertheless Schlegel 
in his "Philosophy of History" summed up his conclu- 
sions by saying: "A Prophet without miracles, a religion 
without mysteries and a morality without love, which has 
always encouraged a thirst for blood and which began 
and ended in the most unbounded sensuality." Will this 



verdict stand in view of the events of the past four years 
oris it too severe? 

Islam is also a political problem. For the first time in 
history Moslem rulers and representatives have been at 
the Peace Table with representatives of Christian nations 
to plan for a league of nations and to make democracy 
safe for the world. The incongruity of all this with the 
old idea of Islam as a church-state and with the whole 
Moslem theory of political government is self evident. 
Whatever has been said to the contrary, missionaries have 
always realized the baffling character of the problem 
which colonial governments face in Moslem lands. 
Where, in their judgment, mistakes have sometimes been 
made in the readjustment of the rights of Christians 
under Moslem law, in the question of the Christian Sab- 
bath or in the protection of converts, there has been on 
their part no lack of sympathy and appreciation of the 
difficult process of bridging this chasm. 

In its social aspects the Moslem, problem involves the 
condition of childhood and womanhood, the sanctity of 
tne home, the *^compulsory ignorance'* of the masses, in- 
credible superstitions due to almost universal illiteracy, 
and the crying needs of the defectives, delinquents and 
dependents in Moslem society. The dark places of the 
Moslem world are still the habitation of cruelty. The 
cry of Moslem childhood in its utter need and neglect 
is still unheeded. The percentage of infant mortality in 
all Moslem lands for example, is incredible until we 
know the degradation and superstitions of motherhood 
in these lands. It is not in this way that Christ intended 
the little children to come unto Him. 

The religious problem of Islam is back of it all and 
is therefore fundamental. The yawning chasm between 
the devout Moslem and the devout Christian, between 
the orthodox Moslem and the orthodox Christian is a 
problem that faces every colporteur and Bible woman, 
every teacher and preacher. It is real and deep. The 
chasm cannot be bridged by rickety planks of com- 
promise. Syncretism would be equivalent to surrender; 
for Islam thrives only by its denial of the authority of 
ihe Scriptures, the Deity of our Lord, the blessedness of 


the Holy Trinity, the cruciality and significance of the 
Cross, (nay, its very historicity) and the pre-eminence of 
Jesus Christ as King and Saviour. And this denial is 
accompanied by the assertion of the authority of another 
book, the Koran, the eclipse of Christ's glory by another 
prophet, even Mohammed, and the substitution of an- 
other path to holiness and forgiveness than the way of the 
Cross. These denials and assertions are imbedded in the 
Koran and are the orthodox belief of ninety per cent of 
the people. On every one of these points the true Mos- 
lem stands arrayed in armor against the missionary and 
the Truth, of which he is the custodian and the preacher. 
In this respect the New Islam of Aligarh or of Woking 
differs little from that of Mecca and the Azhar. In fact 
the Sheikhs of the Azhar give a higher place to Jesus of 
Nazareth than does "the Moslem Review" or the anti- 
Christian propagandism of the Lahore Tract Society. 
The former have never denied the sinlessness of our 
Saviour while the latter have shown the depth of their 
own mental degradation by frantic attempts to besmirch 
His spotless character. Yet we must plan and sacrifice 
not to bombard the enemies' position but to bridge the 
chasm and win captives. At all of these points the mis- 
sionary problem is how to bridge the chasm with cour- 
age and tact, by the manifestation of the truth in love. 
The distribution of the Word of God always holds the 
first place. It has always proved its power. No less 
must we flood the world of Islam with a Christian liter- 
ature that is apologetic without being too dogmatic, and 
captivating rather than polemic. We must show that 
even the human character of Jesus as recorded in the 
Gospel and illustrated in the lives of his followers for- 
bids his classification with men. His life was in God, 
his principles are super-human. He is more than an 
Apostle. It is the conviction of many workers in Mos- 
lem lands that the right approach to the Moslem's dif- 
ficulty with the Deity of Christ is by way of His human- 
ity. The ignorance of His life and character must be 
overcome not by dogma but by demonstration. When 
they see the print of the nails and the mark of the spear 


in the lives of Christ's followers as they have witnessed 
them this past year in the noble army of Armenian mar- 
tyrs, the Moslem heart will overcome its doubts as 
Thomas did and cry out, "My Lord and My God." 

A new political situation with all the dawn and glory 
of a new economic era will not suffice us. Islam is a 
spiritual problem and can only be solved in spiritual 
terms. To the Moslem mind the unknown quantity is 
the exceeding greatness of the love of God in Jesus 
Christ, His Son, our Saviour. This is the heart of the 
problem. Prayer and pains will accomplish wonders in 
solving it. In every mission station and in every mis- 
sionary's prayer life this should be our chief petition: 
That Moslem hearts may be enlightened so that the 
glory of the invisible God whom they worship, may be 
revealed to them in the face of Jesus Christ, in whom 
dwelleth all the fullness of the God-head bodily. Then 
we shall bridge the chasm. 


In the world at large the great war has matured what 
were slow processes with a rapid rush. In the world 
of Islam two such processes especially stand out. One 
is the dissolution of the Turkish Empire which had 
linked itself with the world dominion of Germany and 
has fallen with it; the other is the rise of a new Arab 
state, regarding which ^'The Times'' has recently re- 
ported a proposal that the various Arab-speaking na- 
tionalities in Western Asia should be linked in one fed- 
erated nation. Whether the Moslem world will come 
to recognize the head of such a state as their khalifa, 
the future alone can show. By the time these lines are 
in print we may have come to know what conclusions the 
Peace Conference has arrived at in this matter. At any 
rate there is an important future in store for the power 
represented by the newly constituted Kingdom of the 
Hejaz. This revival of an ancient Moslem nationality 
is paralleled by other movements in the Moslem world 
which give evidence that the spirit of nationalism in Is- 
lam is rapidly increasing in influence. Perhaps the most 


Striking evidence of this is the action of the All-India 
Moslem League in allying its political agitation with 
that of the Indian National Congress from which it had 
previously held aloof, so that within the last few months 
Moslem agitators on the Nationalist side have gone be- 
yond their Hindu compatriots. What does this mean 
for the progress of the Gospel among the Moslem na- 

Our minds naturally go back to the early history of 
Arab culture when the Arabian language and philosophy 
and science disputed the palm with those of Christendom. 
After the destruction of the great Arab Caliphate of 
Baghdad in 1258, and still more after the fall of Con- 
stantinople in 1453, Arab culture (which was intimately 
linked with that of Greece, being in fact largely de- 
rived from it,) fell into decay. Will the coming genera- 
tion witness a revival of the political and artistic glories 
of Baghdad and Cordova? At present the Arab nation 
has much leeway to make up, but we may well believe 
that the progress, intellectual and social, of this gifted 
people will be greatly accelerated by freer contact with 
the culture and life of the modern world. The situation 
will, however, be obviously very different as compared 
with that of mediaeval history. For Christendom the 
age of the Crusader is long past and recently when a 
Holy War was proclaimed by the Ottoman Empire, un- 
der German influence, it failed to find anything like a 
general response among Moslems. Arabia and Islam of 
the new age are thrown back upon spiritual and intellec- 
tual forces for the propagation of religion. We may ex- 
pect that the teachers and leaders of Islam will more 
and more endeavour to base their presentation of religious 
truth on lines of modern thought. Of this we already 
see signs in the tendency to recur to the teaching of the 
Koran, without the accretions of tradition, the sacred 
volume being interpreted with a very wide degree of 
latitude to modernise its teaching. The Christian teacher 
will have to deal with Islam largely from this angle. 

If and when the Arab Confederation emerges we may 
presume that it will do so as a part of the League of Na- 


tions, in which mutual toleration and freedom are funda- 
mental factors. The force which will tell upon Islam 
will be that of brotherhood in religion, practically exem- 
plified in the life of Christian nations and of Christian 
society. This gives us food for thought. The Christian 
Church will have to put to herself with increased empha- 
sis the question "Have I developed the brotherhood of 
man with man among my own children as my Master 
would have it." In contact with the Moslem, we need 
preachers and teachers, but most of all we need Christian 
lives. In the recruiting campaign for the service of the 
Church in France carried on among the army the follow- 
ing poster was used. "China needs-Preachers, Schoolmas- 
ters, Bankers, Engineers and everybody who will live a 
consistent Christian life." The same applies to the Chris- 
tian campaign in the Moslem world. Not that this 
does away with the need of heralds of the good news. 
The opening is greater than ever; Moslems are reading 
the Law, the Psalms, and the Evangel, to which their 
Koran bears witness, more widely and attentively than 
before, though sometimes only with a view of combating 
them. The Christian is called upon in this fateful period 
of the world's history by a new campaign of brotherhood, 
to bring to the Moslem that which he lacks. The debt 
of the Church is great. At the rise of Islam her failure 
to adhere to the true teaching of Christ and her image 
worship repelled and estranged Mohammed. In the Cru- 
sades she disregarded the teaching of the Christ who 
has said : "My kingdom is not of this world, else would 
my servants fight." If St. Paul, thinking of imperial 
Rome, felt himself a debtor, not less are we when we 
think of what Christendom has done and neglected to do 
for Islam. A gifted young missonary, H. A. Walter of 
the Y. M. C. A., Lahore, who was giving himself with 
great perseverance, sympathy, and study to work among 
Moslems, recently passed away. We mourn the loss of 
such lives, and they call for more volunteers. His last 
word was "O Christ, I am ready." Are we? 

H. U. Weitbrecht Stanton. 

London, England, 

^'Ye have need of patience'^ Heb, 10:36. 

At the very outset it is well to notice that the Biblical 
conception of Patience differs considerable from our 
modem use of the word. Influenced, perhaps, by cen- 
turies of monasticism, we are inclined to connect the 
thought of patience with that of a quiet passivism, slow- 
ness to anger, a patient forbearance. This thought, 
with a special Greek word, has its place in the New Tes- 
tament, but it is a very small place compared to the 
word more generally translated "patience." Patience 
in the New Testament is a word full of virility. It is 
the patient endurance of the soldier that gives him the 
fruits of victory, just as it is almost beyond his grasp, 
by what has been so aptly called "stick-at-it-ness." 

Amongst a very large number of historical examples, 
perhaps the war has furnished the most startling illus- 
tration of irreparable loss through lack of this virtue. 
When the Germans in their first great drive towards 
Paris had broken down one line of resistance after an- 
other, at one vital part of the line there remained, if 
they had only known it, a thin, weak, extemporized line 
of non-combatant units, and it was at this psychological 
moment that they failed to continue their push at this 
particular sector; that their patience, in the New Tes- 
tament meaning of the word, failed. 

There can be no doubt that this virtue is the great 
need not only of missionaries to Mohammedans and 
their Home Boards, but of those that support them in 
prayer and with their substance. Compared with other 
mission fields, there is little encouragement from the vis- 
ible results of the work. It is essentially a work of faith, 
though we must not forget that faith reacts on sight, 
opening the eyes to see and understand God's wonder- 
ful workings amongst Mohammedans, and His prepara- 



tion of them for the reception of our glorious message. 

For all who seek the evangelization of the Moslem 
World, there comes the message "Ye have need of Pa- 
tience," patient, virile, courageous endurance, coupled 
with diligent faith and free from sluggishness, faint- 
hearted flinching and drawing back. A most valuable 
study with this end in view can be made of the Epistle 
to the Hebrews, taking Patience as the keyword. I do 
not propose here to enter at all fully into the teaching 
of the book along these lines, or to refer to its well- 
known primary application, but only to give a hint as to 
its value to us, hoping that those who read this article 
will turn to the Epistle and prayerfully study it for 

First let us look at some of the marks of those who 
had drawn back, of those who had gone far and then 
fell away, and who were to be a warning to those who 
were in danger of doing so. 

(i). They had been so long under instruction that 
they ought to have been teachers, yet they had become 
children in intelligence. 

(2). They had been slothful, sluggish, slack about 
inheriting the promises, not steadfastly believing them 
and making them theirs. 

(3). They had been neglecting true Christian fellow- 
ship and so failed to provoke one another to love and 
good works. 

(4). They had neglected the word of God, "spoken 
to us in a Son," and had been consequently carried 
away with divers and strange doctrines. (This is the 
great ever-recurring warning, running through the 
whole Epistle.) 

(5). They had cast away their joyful confidence with 
its great recompense of reward. 

Let us now seek to apply some of these warnings. It 
is not an easy matter to become an intelligent teacher 
of Mohammedans, understanding their mentality and 
applying the great truths of the Gospel to them in an 
effective way. Time should be ever bridging the men- 
tal gulf between the Mohammedan and the would-be 


Christian teacher. Are there not many who having 
started with confident assurance that they were called 
of God to this work, have not grown more effective in 
their power of presenting the Gospel to Mohammedans. 
They seem to have become satisfied with the routine- 
work of a missionary's life, becoming less and less 
effective as the years have gone by. This is not only a 
loss to the Mohammedans to whom God intended them 
to be the messengers, but is fraught with spiritual dan- 
ger to themselves. 

The Word of God is full of promises for the worker 
among Mohammedans, and has some especially bright 
promises for particular fields. Are missionaries laying 
hold of these promises, making them theirs, and receiv- 
ing from them a full assurance of hope. Or are they 
allowing so called modern scholarship to present them 
with a Bible that is emasculated of the revealed truth 
of God that is intended to be ^'a light that shineth in a 
dark place, until the day dawns?" Then there are 
other promises, of spiritual endowment, without which 
all the mental bridging of the gulf between Moham- 
medan and teacher will be of no avail. Are we being 
diligent in laying hold of these? And again there is 
the spirit of wisdom and revelation that enables us to 
look right past the present and to get a vision of the 
hope of our calling, to get a vista of the wonderful pur- 
poses of God in gathering to Himself a people of all 
nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues. 

Do we at all realize the importance of Christian fel- 
lowship, a real Christian fellowship, not a mere per- 
functory coming together of Christians, but a meeting 
together with purpose of heart to meet together with 
God? "I thank Thee, O Lord, that Thou hast placed 
so many lights in the upper chamber — so many and so 
varied. I thank Thee that I do not need to take my 
rule from one, that each can see his own star in Thy sky. 
And yet I thank Thee still more that I do not need to 
rest in my own star. Thou hast ordained many lights, 
not only to prepare a place for me, but to prepare for 
me many places. Thou wouldst have me, not merely 


to keep my own glow, but to get from others the color 
which in me is dim. Thou hast put Peter beside John 
that the impulsiveness of Peter may be moderated; 
Thou hast put John beside Peter that the slowness of 
John may be quickened. Illuminate me by my broth- 
er's light. Give to my love the quality in which it is 
not strong. Let me catch the impress of the opposite 
star. Let me press toward the gate by which / have 
not found Thee, but by which my brother has found 
Thee. Help me to sympathize with those who have 
entered by another door of Thy temple. Reveal to me 
that my song of praise is not complete till it blends with 
a counterpart in the great symphony. I shall know the 
meaning of the many voices when I learn the need of 
Thy manifold grace." So prayed Dr. George 
Matheson, the author of "O Love that will not let me 

Surely it is unnecessary for us here to emphasize the 
supreme importance of a continuous devotional reading 
of God's Word that we may learn to know Him who is 
the Living Word of God, the Son in whom He has 
spoken to us. If through the pressure of work we neg- 
lect this, how soon will we lose the buoyant confidence 
of a sure and stedfast hope. Yes, surely we have need 
of steady patience, so that after doing the will of God 
we may get what we have been promised. 

Whilst in many Mohammedan lands of the near East 
work amongst Mohammedans has been stopped by the 
War and in others has had to be greatly modified, God 
has been working as only He can work, but in His wis- 
dom there is some of the work that will not be done 
unless we do it. Will He find us patiently enduring, 
ready and keen for the next offensive, all alert to "go 
over the top," or will He find some who have drawn 
back, some whose hands are hanging down, whose knees 
are feeble? 

These words have been mostly directed to the mission- 
ary, but just as we have learned in these days that the 
Army on the field, the Army in preparation, the Army 
of organizers and the Army of munition workers arc 


all one, and that without the best efforts of the others 
the Army on the field is crippled, so we all at home and 
on the field need this great fighting quality of patience, 
of steady endurance, that we may win through. The 
limits, however, of a magazine article constrain me to 
leave to the reader these applications to the home end. 
Suffer a final word with regard to what I have termed 
above the Army of Preparation. From one cause and 
another during these years of war, reinforcements have 
not been coming to the field. Some who were ready to 
come have drawn back on account of the long wait 
caused by restrictions on travel. Every missionary so- 
ciety working amongst Mohammedans is on this ac- 
count faced with a grave crisis. Ranks need filling up. 
Front line troops need relief. Reinforcements need 
rapid and specialized training. These are matters that 
call for urgent prayer and faith. The present is no 
time for drawing back, no time even for letting organi- 
zations that have been started in the past to "carry on" 
with what is left them their initial momentum. 
"Ye have need of patience," the patience of a racer that 
has his eye on the goal and who makes his supreme ef- 
fort towards the end of the race. "Forgetting the 
things that are behind, pressing forward towards the 
mark." "So run that ye may obtain." 

George Swan. 


The following is a metrical translation of a 
popular Punjabi sacred lyric entitled, ''Si Harfi 
Dholla/^^ i. e. , "A lyric of 30 stanzas in praise 
of the Beloved." The original Punjabi poem was 
published at Lahore by Rai Sahib M. Gu- 
lab Singh at the Mufid-i-'Am Press in 13 17 A. H. (cor. 
responding to 1899 A. D.)^ 

The Poet's nom de plume is Talib. The name of his 
spiritual guide is Chishti. The poem is one of those 
that are often sung to the accompaniment of music, 
usually a sarangi, or fiddle. 

Unlike the pretentious writings of some world-re- 
nowned Persian or Arabic Sufi author, this poem is an 
unpretentious but thoroughly native, pure Punjabi poem 
whose popularity and wide acceptance are evidenced not 
only by its extremely low (nominal) price, but also by 
the fact that it is used as an early morning hymn by 
street singers who go about singing such songs, partly 
as religious worship and partly with the object of re- 
ceiving alms. This use of the poem by street singers 
was a great help to the present translator just before his 
acceptance of Christianity, and also in the early years 
after his baptism when he lived in the very heart of the 
city of Lahore. 

The poem may be regarded as typical of Sufi liter- 
ature in several ways: (a) Its three stages of transition 
from an all-pervading or pantheistic idea of God to His 
incarnation in the Prophet, and later in the person of 
the Spiritual Guide from whom the Sufi disciple re- 
ceives direct guidance and illumination. Usually, how- 
ever, the transition of thought is supposed to be in the 
reverse order, so that the pantheistic stage (viz, Fand- 

^"Sir Harfi" (literally "of, or pertaining to, the thirty letters of the alphabet"), is 
y song or poem consisting of thirty stanzas, each stanza beginning with one of the thirty 
letters of the alphabet "Dholla" is "the Beloved." 

' First Edition, 10,000 copies. Size, 8 small pages. Price, one pice. 


fi-llah) succeeds the stages of incarnation (viz. Fand- 
fi-sh-shaikh and Fand-fir-rasul). (b) Also, with regard 
to its language, the disciple appears as a woman, a wife, 
or a bride. The spiritual guide and the Prophet, and 
ultimately God, figure as a bridegroom or husband. 
The disciple's constant longing is for the m^'^stic union 
typified by the union of the bride and bridegroom. 
This conception prevails throughout oriental, particu- 
larly Indian, mysticism, whether Mohammedan, Sikh 
or Hindu. Compare with this the Old Testament con- 
ception of God as the husband of His people, Israel^ 
particularly in the prophets Isaiah and Hosea. Com- 
pare also the language and thought of the Song of Solo- 
mon. In the New Testament, John the Baptist called 
himself the friend of the Bridegroom, a figure which 
Jesus Himself adopted in several instances, with refer- 
ence to His mission on earth. And in the Epistles of 
St. Paul and the Book of Revelation the Church is 
called the Bride of Christ or of the Lamb. 

This poem, like many others of its kind, bears out 
the widespread and thoroughly assimilated character 
of the influence of Sufism, not only on Moslem but also 
on non-Moslem thought and religious practice in India. 
Consider, for instance, the very wide influence exercised 
by the Kaffis, or Hymns of the great Sufi poet of the 
Punjab, Bullheshah, of sacred memory, who may well 
be called "the Hafiz of the Land of Five Rivers." Or, 
since the Punjab is the heart of Moslem India, he may 
truly be regarded as "the Hafiz of Moslem India." 

We notice this same deep Sufi strain in the sayings of 
Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh religion, and of 
the great Punjabi saint, Kabir Bhagat, from whom the 
sect of Kabir Panthis takes its name.^ We hope later 
to give metrical translations of some of the best known 
of these other Hindustani hymns. 

For the Christian evangelist this hymn and others of 
the same kind will be helpful in showing the close 
affinity of Moslem Sufism to the message of the Gospel 

• See the English translations from Kabir by Rev. Ahmad Shah of the S. P. G. 
Mission, Hamirpur, and by Sir Rabindranath Tagore. 


of Jesus Christ. For instance, the present hymn may 
be taken as a good illustration of the yearning of the 
Moslem heart for the incarnate God-Man in Islam. 
The most remarkable feature of Moslem mysticism is 
that it seeks perfection of life and character, through 
passionate devotion to a holy person, imagined or ideal- 
ised/ This fact should exercise the reflex influence of 
creating and increasing a passionate devotion to the 
person of Christ in a Christian devotee who attempts to 
win souls for his Master, even such a passion as St. Paul 
possessed, which was the secret of his success in evan- 
gelistic work. 

We are fortunate that such a rare, poetical gift as that 
possessed by the one who has versified the present hymn 
is being brought to the service of Sufi hymnody, thus 
enabling the reader to get the beauty and sentiment of 
the original poetry, as far as it is possible to do so. It 
may be mentioned that owing to ambiguity of expres- 
sion or misprint the translator was obliged to give a 
more or less doubtful translation of 3 out of 120 lines 
of this poem, viz, the last lines, in each case, of the 12th, 
20th and 23rd stanzas. 

It will help the reader if he keeps in mind the four 
divisions of the poem which we suggest below. 

Part I. Stanzas i to 6. Pantheistic. 

Part II. Stanzas 7 to 15. Divine Incarnation in the 
person of the Prophet. 

Part III. Stanzas 16 to 25. Divine Incarnation in 
the person of the Spiritual Guide as representative of 
God through the Prophet. 

Part IV. Stanzas 26 to 29. A description of the 
meeting, the spiritual or mystic union, with the Beloved. 

(Stanza 30 is the concluding stanza.) 

R. S. D. 


In rendering this hymn into English verse our en- 
deavor has been to approximate the metre, as well as 

* One of the well-known doctrines of Sufism is expressed thus: "My Spiritual 
Guide may be weak like a straw, but my faith is enough." ("Pir-i-man Khasast I'tiqad-i- 
man bos ast.") 


to convey the meaning and catch the spirit, of the 
original. We have also retained the rhyming sequence 
of the Punjabi in which the same rhyme obtains 
throughout each quatrain. For purposes of comparison 
we give the transliteration and a literal translation of 
the first verse: 

Alif A Mian Dholla tere man wieh dere 
Chhaddo watan durddd, Kol wasso mere 
Apnd watan sundwen sdnun shdh ragon nere 
Akhin dissen ndhin, kahe pde jhere, 

O, come, Beloved, Thy habitation is in the soul. 

Forsake the distant home and reside near me. 

Thou sayest, "Our abode is nearer than the artery of 

the neck;" 
Yet thou art invisible to these eyes. What vexation 

hast Thou created! 

H. A. W. 




Come, Love, within the soul Thy dwellng-place doth 

Thy distant home desert, and to my fond heart fly I 
Thou sayest Thou dost bide than the neck vein more 

Yet, vexing one, Thy form is veiled before mine eye. 


O, Love, deceive no more! Thy fickle words forsake! 
Without us and within Thy dwelling Thou dost take. 
My heart, with wiles bewitched, a captive Thou dost 

Then into words of scorn Thy mocking accents break. 

Oh, Love, for all our woes no pity hast Thou shown; 

" This line embodies the well-known sentence of the Qur'an, "We (God) are 
tJoser to him (man) than his neck vein." (L,, 15, b). (_Nahnu aqrabu min hobl-il- 
warid.) Tennyson's lines in "The Higher Pantheism," echo this thought: 

"Speak to Him, Thou, for He hears, and Spirit with Spirit can meet, 
(Closer is He than breathing, and nearer than hands and feet." 


Exiled from Home, to pine in far-off realms alone,^ 
Through Thy false deed, Who once had made our souls 

Thine own. 
In this strange land, alas, no peace my heart hath known. 

Thou only art; all else is unreality. 

Why press this vain debate if one or separate we? 

Since, when Thy face is shown, my sighs Thy grief 

must be. 
And in my prayers for death, my tears are tears of 


I sleep, and at my side Love sinks in slumber deep: 
When first my eyes unclose. He rouses, too, from sleep. 
I Laugh, He shouts for joy; His tears fall when I 

weep :® 
Yet bargains He, nor cares my plighted hours to keep. 


None knows my state save Love; for no one else 'twere 

I sacrifice my all, an offering at Love's feet. 
Each moment yearns my heart its guileless Love to 

greet : 
Unless Love quickly come, this heart must cease to beat. 

PART 11. 

Divine Incarnation in the Person of the Prophet 


'Twas told that the Beloved to holy Mecca came: 
That never man should know He chose Mohammed's 

• This quartain introduces the Sufi belief in the pre-existence of the soul. Exile 
from Home represents separation from the Beloved at birth. In its new life the soul 
at this stage seems to feel, with Francis Thompson, "in no strange land." 

^ This conception of the entire oneness of the Beloved and the loved one, in the 
latter's grief, is beautifully expressed, with regard to human love only, in the closing 
lines of Mrs. Browning's sixth "Sonnet from the Portuguese": "... and when I sue 
God for myself. He hears that name of thine. 

And sees within my eyes the tears of two." 

•One is reminded of St. Paul's injunction in Romans 12-15, "Rejoice with those 
who rejoice, and weep with those who weep." 


Medina, now, His home: and Talib's^ fond lips frame 
Prayers for ''God's peace" on Him,^^ and His high serv- 
ice claim. 


A gift I crave whose sight sweet thoughts of Thee shall 

With ring from Thy dear hand, or necklace, Thou must 

In Hindustan, my home ; Thou in Medina art. 
Slain by Thy love, what sins had soiled my hapless 


9. .. 

By telling o'er Thy name each passing hour I grace. 

Leave town and vale and make my heart Thy resting- 

Love reigns the Lord of all; His, earth and sky and 

Since Thou hast made me Thine, whom else should I 


If e'er my lips, unsealed. Thy mystery reveal,^^ 

From mighty rivers' depths great flames of fire will 

Blood from God's throne will rain, the stars will earth- 
ward reel. 

Ah, Love, what streams can cool when these hot fires 
I feel?^^ 

My years of youth were spent in doleful tears and sighs. 

• "Talib," meaning "a seeker" on the Sufi's Path, is the nom de plume of the poet. 

" The words translated "God's peace," or Blessing," or "benediction," here and in 
stanzas 27, 28 and 29, stand for the Arabic phrase, "Salli 'Aid", which habitually follows 
Mohammed's name in Moslem writings. It is an abbreviation for "Sallallahu 'alaihi wa 
sallatn, of which the meaning is, "May God's blessing and peace, be upon him!" 

" From this stanza onward the disciple throughout speaks of himself as a woman, 
a bride, a wife, and uses the feminine gender for himself, and the masculine for the 
Divine Beloved. 

" This refers to the esoteric truth of the Sufis, supposed to have originated with 
Mohammed in the Qur'an, to which the Sufi's lips must ever remain sealed. 

" Compare Song of Solcmo-n 8 :7, "Many waters cannot quench love, neither can 
floods drown it." 


Now, to my aged heart, Love's winged arrow flies. 
Bring hither my Beloved, the darling of mine eyes. 
Talib's true love from heart as well as tongue doth rise. 


My artless Love goes by nor casts on me His eyes. 
Heedless, He passes by; counsel Him, O, ye wise! 
Medina, now, I seek; there my sole refuge lies. 
O, Talib, plead thy love, till from His course He hies. 


Beloved, my heart now yearns to see Medina fair,^^ 

All hidden grief and pain to lay before Thee there. 
Long years have sped since Love left me to lone despair. 
All men, O Talib, now toward Thee some malice bear.**^ 

Apart from the Beloved, no comfort can I gain. 
Should one Love's kalima}^ read, these inward fires 

might wane. 
Remembering Love my lifeless heart revives again. 
O, let Love learn, at last, my piteous cries of pain! 


Thou who my surety^^ art, O Love, stir not away. 

Summon me to Thyself, and share my grief, I pray. 
Secure my pardon. Love, for I have gone astray. 
To my dead soul give life, and sinless I shall stay. 


Divine Incarnation in the Person of the Spiritual Guide 


Mount Sinai's^** lofty height my Love hath put to shame. 

" It will be noted that the Sufi's eyes turn not to the Ka'ba at Mecca but to 
Mohammed's tomb at Medina. 

" The oriental attitude toward the lover — of either God or man — is quite the 

opposite of that represented by the Wstern proverb, "All the world loves a lover.** 

The Psalms are full of this enmity of man toward the true lover of God. See also 
SUnza 23. 

" The kalima is Mohammed's prescribed Confession of Faith, viz, "There is no (od 
but God and Mohammed is His Prophet" 

*^ The word "z&min" is equivalent to a "substitute" which resembles tke 
Christian idea of vicarious atonement. 

^The mountain-top where Moaes met God. See Exodus, chap. 19, the Qnr'an 

XXVIII, 44. and other passages. 


Mounting the throne on high, all-holy God, His name. 
To tread Medina^s streets, as the Beloved, He came; 
Now, guiding on the Path, as Chishti,^^ spreads His 

Inside and out my Love holds His high Sovereignty : 
In every place He dwells, the First and Last^^ is He. 
Save only the Beloved, none other can there be. 
I live but by His life, Love's own eternally. 

From the great Presence sought. Thy bounteous Love 

I own. 
Afar or near, O Love, I see but Thee alone. 
All from Thy light have come — no other source have 

Send pardon from Thyself, nor bid my steps begone. 

Never to know my Love were no man's mournful fate. 
To her^^ who is Love's bride my life I consecrate. 
For her whom Love hath called, with welcome all 

would wait. 
That Love mine arm would hold, my longing passionate. 

Stricken to death, I lie, crushed by Thy beauty's wave. 
In Thy love's ocean vast my soul hath found its grave. 
In every town men's tongues for Thee their tribute save. 
To Thee our lives we yield : to see Thy face we crave. 

This daily task to do, of old my destiny — 
That I His praise proclaim, whene'er Love summons 

"Tke word "Chishti" relates to a Sufi order founded by ud Din Chishti, 
India's most celebrated Mohammedan saint. He was a pupil of Abdul Qadir Jilani 
His tomb at Ajmere takes precedence over all others in India among saint- worshipping 
Moslems, and is also visited by thousands of Hindu pilgrims. Here Chishti standi 
for the name of the Poet's Spiritual Guide. 

*" Compare Revelation 22:13, "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the 
last, the beginning and the end. 

** Compare John 1 :3, "All things were made by Him, and without Him waa not 
anything made that was made." 

*» The reference is to other brides or disciples of the Master. Sec note on 
Stanza 8. 


O, friends, I am consumed; Love's form I cannot see. 
My Love hath learned to w^ork w^ith what strange 


Who, from the path of Love, my steps shall turn aside ?^* 
If Love desire, my life to Him would I confide. 
Love will not faithless be; my trust hath time defied. 
Since Love hath held mine arm, with me He must abide, 

Love, I am slain, whom men with gibes and taunts 


My heart Medina craves, for justice there to wail. 

Come, O, my Love, behold, I have removed my veil^ 

My witness thus to add to Thy dear beauty's tale. 

In the Beloved's way, friends, I am lost to sight. 
Then lest I be not found, let all in search unite! 
This very Love, the thief--0, seize His arm with mightl 
A seeker after Love, know me, by day and night. 

25. ■ 
"Negation's" medicine, ^^ Love, for mine eyes was 

And now, save only Love, I can distinguish naught. 
Love's citadel He showed, with every splendor fraught. 
Love, I am lost indeed* what magic hast Thou wrought? 


The Mystical Union with the Beloved, 


Love, I would die for Thee, most ravishing Thy grace. 

Bring news, O friends, from whence comes the Be- 
loved's face. 

My soul with joy grows faint, and faster, my heart's 

"Compare Romans 8:35 "Who shall separate us from the love of Christ?" 

*• "Nafi Isbdt." "Negation and affirmation," an expression used to describe the 
highest dhikr or repetition of the sacred "Kalima," "La Ilaka Illallah." The first part, "La 
Ilaha," "There is no (false) god," is the negation or the rejection of all false gods. 
Hence "negation" is here equivalent to complete absorption in the thought of the 


What if, this morn, should come Love's step and His 
embrace ! 

My necklace is God's praise, wherewith I am arrayed. 
My ear-rings are the prayer, "God's peace"^^ my lips 

have prayed. 
Love, on my heart, for gems, longing for God hath laid. 
The nuptial bed I mount, invoking Chishti's aid. 


The heavenly lightnings flash, and blazing fountains 

With Sinai's^^ splendor clothed, my glory shines about. 
Love, entering at last, "My follower," calls out. 
Beings of light and fire and earth,^^ "God's blessing" 


To meet Love, as He comes, with bended head I go, 
"God's benediction" ask, and at Love's feet bow low 
This hand-maid's ministry, unworthy, all must know. 
Talib, Thy slave to keep — this boon, O Love, bestow. 

How bountifully. Love, Thy gracious mercies fall. 
Ever Thy faith I own. Thy kalima^^ recall; 
Ever at Thy blest tomb, I sacrifice my all ; 
Ever on Chishti, Guide, with grateful spirit, call. 

R. SiRAj UD Din. 

H. A. Walter. 
Lahore, India, 

* See note on stanza 7. 

>* See note on stanza 16. 

•^That is, angels, jinn (genii), and men, who, Moslems Relieve, are created, 
respectively, out of light, fire and clay. See Qur'an XV, 26, 27, and LV, 13, 14. 

** See note on itanza 14. 


The test of literacy at the last census was the ability 
to write a letter to a friend and to read his reply. There 
are many who can spell out a printed book with dif- 
j&culty, and also many Moslems who can read the 
Koran without being able to write a word. The cen- 
sus takes no account of this minor form of literacy. 
Whilst of the whole population of India 59 persons 
per 1000 are literate in the above sense, among the 
Moslems only 37 per 1000 are literate. The object of 
the present paper is to enquire into the reasons for this 
low degree of literacy among the Mohammedans of 

The points which strike one most forcibly on looking 
over the tables showing the particulars of the Mussul- 
man communit}^ are (i) the general predominance of 
Moslems over other peoples in the Northwest, atid the 
scantiness of them in the South; (ii) the fact that, in the 
Northwest, Northeast and North the overwhelming ma- 
jority of them live in villages; (iii) their general il- 
literacy in the North compared with their relatively 
higher literacy in the South. I propose to examine the 
condition of the Moslem population of India, dividing 
the country into four main divisions, and with reference 
to the three facts I have pointed out above. 

/. The Northwest. 

In Kashmir, Baluchistan, the Northwest Frontier 
Province, the Panjab, and Sind, we find the population 
almost entirely composed of Moslems; in some parts 
they form 93 per cent of the total. This region is the 
gateway through which in old time the Pathan and 
Moghul invaders marched to the conquest of India. 



Less than 10 per cent of these Moslems live in the 
towns, and the caste-names, under which vast numbers 
of them are described, reveal their Hindu origin, and 
indicate that they are for the most part engaged in vil- 
lage ocupations. This, the most predominantly Mo- 
hammedan part of all India, is by far the most illiterate 
region so far as the Mohammedans themselves are con- 
cerned. In all these provinces, there are nowhere more 
than two females per 1000 who can read or write, and 
not more than about 25 males per 1000, of the Mos- 

77. The Northeast and North. 

In Assam, Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, and the United 
Provinces of Agra and Oudh, Mussulmans form a much 
smaller element in the population, except in certain 
parts, being well under 30% of the whole. In some 
parts of Assam and Bengal, however, they are very 
strong in numbers. Except in the United Provinces, 
less than 10% of these Moslems live in towns, and mul- 
titudes of them are converts from depressed and back- 
ward classes of Hindus. Nowhere are there more than 
six female Moslems in 1,000 who can read, nor as many 
as 80 males; the average being about 36 persons per 
1,000. Yet this is an advance on the more fully Mos- 
lem Northwest. 

777. The Central Zone. 

Here the Mohammedans are much fewer propor- 
tionately and actually. In Bombay and Hyderabad 
they are about 10% of the populaton, and less in the 
other provinces. In this zone, a much larger propor- 
tion of them are living in the towns, this proportion 
being about three-fourths in Bombay Presidency. The 
Bohras, Khojas, and Memons of Bombay, who are 
Mussulmans, are a commercial people, and have an 
average of 414 literate males, and 33 females, per 
1000. In Hyderabad, Central India, and the Central 
Provinces, there are large numbers of Moslems in 
Government service. These causes help to increase 
the average literacy. The average of Moslem literacy 


in this central zone is 138 males per 1000, and 13 fe- 
males. In Rajputana and Ajmere the Mussulmans are 
much less educated than those in other parts of this 

IV, The South, 

Here the Mussulman element is weaker than it is in 
any other part of India, averaging only about 6j4% 
of the population. All classes are more literate in 
South India than in other parts, and even the coolies 
in the streets speak English. Accordingly we find that 
the Moslems of the South are much better educated 
than anywhere else, and their average is 95 literate 
persons per rooo in these five districts. Special efforts 
have been made to educate the Mapillas and Labbais, 
many thousands of whom are found in these regions; 
the Labbais of Madras having 278 literate males per 
1000. Female education, too, is much further ad- 
vanced here than elsewhere, especially among the 
Mussulmans of Mysore, where we find there are 41 
females per 1000 who can read and write. The pro- 
portion of town to village dwellers among the Mussul- 
mans is not so great as we should have expected to 
find it, but this is counter-balanced by the general 
spread of education, which affords facilities to the vil- 
lagers which are denied them in other parts of India, 
which are not so well served in the matter of education. 

Burma, with its free monastic education and ab- 
sence of "purdah," heads the list with 234 Moslem 
males per 1000 who can read, and jj females. The 
native State of Baroda, with its large trading communi- 
ties, and its free and compulsory primary education, 
comes next with 232 males and 17 females. But these 
provinces have a relatively small Mohammedan popu- 
lation, and may be considered as abnormal. 

I have not ready access to the reports of the Census of 
1901, but so far as I can trace there has been some 
progress among Mussulmans in education. In some 
parts no improvement is apparent, but in others a 
great anxiety for learning is evident. Probably there 


has been on the whole some improvement, but it might 
be much greater. I myself know of several places in 
Western India where the Mussulmans have founded, 
and still maintain with the help of government grants, 
schools for their own children. I have no means of 
knowing whether they are as enterprising in other 
parts of India. 

Illiteracy is the missionary's greatest enemy, among 
Mussulmans in particular, it engenders a form of big- 
otry and prejudice which it is nearly impossible to 
overcome. It is not too much to say that the vast 
majority of Indian Moslems know absolutely nothing 
of the tenets of Islam, and in many places their ignor- 
ance of their own religion is so profound that they are 
hardly distinguishable from their pagan neighbors. 
Many village Moslems worship Hindu deities, and 
join in heathen festivals as a matter of course. This 
makes them harder to deal with than if they were 
frankly heathen, because they have the Moslem's ex- 
clusiveness and pride coupled with the debasement of 
pagan idolatry and superstition. It is nearly impossi- 
ble to enlighten them, for they can read neither their 
own nor Christian books, and cannot take in the argu- 
ments with which better educated men can be ap- 
proached and convinced. Though they can read the 
Koran, as some of them can, they cannot understand 
a word of it, and read it, as indeed even many well 
educated men and women do, as an aid to acquiring 

Of the 67 millions of Mohammedans in India, 
about 58 millons live in the villages, which means that 
about seven-eighths of the whole number are sunk in 
dense ignorance. The remainder, about eight and a 
half millions, who inhabit the 2152 towns and cities 
scattered throughout the length and breadth of this 
vast continent of India, are more or less easily accessi- 
ble, and can be reached if men and women can be 
found whose hearts are on fire with love for them, 
realizing the debt of love which the Church of Christ 
owes to these followers of the Prophet of Arabia. 


May we not cease to pray that such may be forth- 
coming when the war is over, and the youth of the 
churches are again at liberty to set forth on errands 
of mercy to the world for which Christ died! 

But the great ^^Mass Movements/' which are now 
attracting so much attention in many parts of India, 
and which are absorbing so much of the available 
missionary staff and resources, will no doubt affect the 
Moslems, as well as the Hindus, who live in the vil- 
lages, for they too, will partake of the benefits of the 
education which will be imparted, when the means 
are forthcoming to establish village schools all over 
India. Any movement, whether it emanates from mis- 
sionary societies, or from governments, or from re- 
formers among the Hindu and Moslem peoples them- 
selves, which has for its object the education and en- 
lightenment of the masses, is worthy of our admiration 
and even of our active cooperation, and calls for 
thankfulness; for such movements will surely be 
blessed by the Lord of the Harvest to the preparation 
of the ground in which the precious seed of His Word 
may be sown, and without which it seems humanly 
speaking impossible that any harvest can ever spring 
up among these ignorant Mohammedans. 

H. J. Lane-Smith. 
Aurangabad, India, 



The need of the Mohammedan World and the 
equipment required of those who approach it as com- 
missioned by God to this service, — are the same in 
Russia as elsewhere in the ^^Beit-ul-Islam." The Mo- 
hammedans are, as well as we, a "People of the Book," 
and have fully grasped from the very beginning of 
their era the unique power of the written and printed 
word. ''Maktuy — "It is written"— has with the Mo- 
hammedan a sound of authority, yea, even finality, 
[much more so, it seems to me, than with us Christians. 

The intellectually and politically most developed 
[.and religiously most fanatical Mohammedans of Rus- 
fsia — the Tartars — are wide awake to the opportunity 
presented by the increased interest of their co-religion- 
ists in world-affairs, the greater number of people who 
can read and write, and by the necessity to stimulate 
religious zeal and counteract the poison of greater 
contact with the unbeliever. And so the Tartars — of 
Kazan and Orenburg, of Baku and Suinferapel alike — 
are flooding the market for Moslems in Russia proper 
and Russian Central Asia, with literature of all kinds, 
newspapers, periodicals, and even translations of Euro- 
pean writers. In this field, the orthodox as well as 
the liberal Mohammedans are doing their best. They 
have well-stocked book stores, reading rooms and col- 
porteurs. While traveling as sister of mercy on board 
a Russian steamer, carrying thousands of pilgrims to 
and from Syria and Jeddah (the port of Mecca), we 
had with us several Tartar colporteurs, who spread 
among us their pilgrims' tracts of all kinds; and well 
do I remember my impotent grief, when I saw the 
pilgrims squatting around the Tartar, reading to them 



from his tracts — while I, at that time, had nothing to 
offer them. 

From the very beginning of my work as Bible wom- 
an, itinerating among the Mohammedans of Central 
Asia or Turkestan, I came to understand the import^ 
ance of the tract next to the Scriptures themselves. 
Yes, I would even make free to say that the tract might 
go before the Scriptures. We all know the objections 
the Mohammedan raises against the word of God, and 
some tract, answering the questions, and putting ta 
naught the prejudice with which the orthodox Moham- 
medan approaches the Scriptures, might clear the way 
for the reading of these, with a more enlightened mind 
and a more willing heart. Turkestan being a meeting- 
place of men of all sorts and conditions and languages^ 
I had need of as many as twenty-two languages in 
order to reach most of the people around me. Among 
these were from nine to eleven different Mohammedan 
languages. I had the whole Scriptures too and por- 
tions in Tartar or Nogay, Kirghize, Turkoman, Per- 
sian, Azerbedjani, Arabic, Pushtu, Kashgari, Sart, and 
two languages for the Hindustani Mohammedans, scat- 
tered among our people. I understood that the ques- 
tions which were put to me, in nearly all cases the 
same, might best be answered by good tracts, and I 
managed to get some in Arabic (Nile Mission Press), 
Persian and Azerbedjani (Tabriz). But only a few 
in number were available, and even these did not reach 
the real ^^Turkestan" man, the Sart or Usbek-Turki 
speaking Mohammedan, among whom I was labor- 
ing in particular. So I set out to translate something 
for my people, the Sarts. With the help of a Mullah 
at Tashkent — who often put down his pen in despair 
at being asked to write some "Kafir" expression, and 
who made me promise never to divulge his name, 
except to God in praying for him — we translated four 
tracts, published by the Nile Mission Press, Cairo. 
They had been translated from the original Arabic 
into English; I translated them into Russian, and from 
this into Sart. The four thousand copies, neatly writ- 


ten out by a Mirzah and lithographed, were a complete 
success; they evoked much interest, discussion and op- 
position, and also, thank God, assent from some sincere 
God-seekers. After that I started a small book, 30-40 
pages entitled ^'Who is Jesus Christ?'', which I had 
received from Constantinople; we translated it from the 
Osmanli, being guided very often only through under- f 
standing the roots of the words, which are about the 
same as in the Sart language. This booklet, presenting 
the personality and claims of our Lord, was the subject 
of special love and prayer on my side, and also proved 
a success. But before I could sell out the whole edition, 
the government stopped my itinerating through the 
country, and I turned the remnant over to the agent of 
the British and Foreign Bible Society, who is a mis- 
sionary to Moslems in heart and in deed, a Mennonite 
bred amongst the Kirghize, and very conversant with 
the Sart language. 

Being deprived of the possibility of traveling through 
the country, I settled down at Samarkand, to prepare 
seed for future work. The Lord provided me with a 
Mullah, intelligent and spiritual-minded, of the de- 
scendants of Ali, son-in-law of Mohammed, a Persian. 
For about one year we worked together at the revising 
of the editions formerly published, and at the transla- 
tion of seven new tracts — one of them a real book in- 
deed, of 134 pages, so that now 12 Mss. are waiting to 
be printed, scattered, read, discussed — believed by many 
a soul, the Lord willing. 

It was a blessed and never-to-be-forgotten time, when 
I had the opportunity of discussing every word of these 
tracts with my Mohammedan helper. Every word was 
prayed over by me, and, at least intellectually, under- 
stood by him, before it was put down. He was very 
scrupulous about translating Scripture texts as accur- 
ately as possible, and we had at our disposal the Bible 
and parts of Scripture in ten different translations to 
compare with and to choose from. The four Gospels 
only had been translated into Sart and were being cir- 
culated by the Bible Society. With Mullah Sayid Ali 


Effendi, we set out now to translate into it part of the 
Old Testament and Epistles, using freely for the latter 
ones the translation of the New Testament into Kash- 
gari, recently finished by the Rev. Awetaranian of Sofia, 
Bulgaria. When visiting at Beirut I had found at the 
American Mission Press a book in the Persian language 
containing about one thousand of the fundamental texts 
of the Old and New Testaments — grouped according 
to one leading thought, as for instance, "The Fall;" 
"Salvation;" "The Law of Sin and Death;" "The Law of 
Grace and Life;" etc. I added several pages, compil- 
ing texts from the Old and New Testaments proving 
the pre-existence of our Lord, giving the prophecies 
concerning Him and His assertions concerning His 
deity and Oneness with the Father, and so on. More 
than one thousand texts in this book "Words of Life" 
give to the Sart reader for the first time the whole plan 
of salvation and the central figure of our Lord — pre- 
sented in their own language. Claiming the Lord's 
promise that His word will not return empty but shall 
fulfill that for which it was sent out, and claiming also 
the promise that our tears, prayer and toil for Him shall 
not be fruitless, I rejoice by faith already in the re- 
sponse this book will find in the hearts of Turkestan 

I give here the list of the tracts which are ready for 
the press: 

1. The Unity of God. (Nile Mission Press) 

2. The Line of Prophecy. ( " " " ) 

3. The Noble Sacrifice. ( " " " ) 

4. The All-Sufficient Advocate ( " " " ) 

5. Who is Jesus Christ? (Constantinople) 

6. Is the Witness of Jesus Christ 

about Himself True? 

(40 pp.) (Nile Mission Press) 

7. The Three Blessed Days. 

(30 PP-) (Nile Mission Press) 

8. Annulled and the Annulling ( " " " ) 

9. The Sack of Wool 

10. The Sacrifice of Ishmael Miss Lillian Trotter 


11. The City of Salvation (Nile Mission Press.) 

12. Words of Life (134 pp.) (Beirut Mission Press.) 

In the above named tracts and books, the Mohamme- 
dan reader will find an answer to most of his questions 
and objections, given either by men who are experts in 
this kind of work, or by the Word of God itself. 

The Lord willing, I hope to return in a month or 
two to my field in Russian Central Asia, to print these 
Mss., and to take up again the humble, but blessed work 
of a ^'pedlar for Christ's sake." As every other worker 
among Mohammedans, I expect to find a great change 
in the field. The "shadow" of protection by the gov- 
ernment as formerly — not requested, but all the same 
enjoyed — ^will be gone. Mohammedans and Christians 
will meet now as equally free citizens. Opposition, 
danger, persecution, will have to be met with the 
"shield of faith" alone. But this shield has proved a 
good one, and we do not desire another. On the other 
hand, the "House of Islam" itself has been so mightily 
shaken, that windows and doors are wide open — enter 
who will, who ever dares in the name of the Lord. All 
Russian Central Asia, heretofore closed, is now open. 

Jenny de Mayer. 
Of Samarkand, Russia. 


Islam in Siam seems content to "Keep the Home 
Fires Burning." As an active missionary organization, 
it is to all appearances dormant. I have talked with 
the majority of the missionaries in the country, and am 
unable to find any trace of Moslem missionary propa- 
ganda. In searching for a reason for this absence of 
propaganda, one missonary replied, "The soil is not 
conducive to any great religious movement and the in- 
difference of the average Siamese Buddhist toward any 
other religion than his own makes the spread of Mo- 
hammedanism, as well as Christianity, a difficult task." 
A French Catholic frere suggested that the Moslems 
had seen the hopelessness of converting the Siamese, and 
added that they — the Catholics — were content to spend 
their time working among Eurasians and Chinese. One 
old Moslem sheikh gesticulated violently when I 
pressed him for his opinion of the Siamese idol-wor- 
shippers, and said that they were impossible, and were 
all bound for "Gehenna." 

To the unshaken self-satisfaction of the Siamese Bud- 
dhist, with the present state of his religious affairs^ must 
be ascribed the reason why the Moslems are content to 
make no determined effort to convert him. The Mos- 
lem is saved, the Siamese refuses to be saved, and 
therefore no effort is made. 

It is exceedingly difficult to say, how many Moham- 
medans there are in Siam, for the most of them are im- 
migrants to the country and have no fixed place of 
abode. The exact number will not be known till more 
accurate census records are kept. One "imam" in a 
Bangkok mosque said that there were "hundreds of 



thousands and then some" in the country, and in spite 
of the Oriental propensity for exaggeration, there is no 
great reason to believe that the number is far from cor- 
rect. The number of Malays (Moslems) in Siam is 
variously given as 200,000; 800,000 or even one million. 

Siam is surrounded on three sides by peoples holding 
more or less mixed Moslem beliefs. On the north are 
the Yunnanese Chinese, or, as they are popularly 
known to the Siamese, ^^Hows." Through these people 
have been severely persecuted, many of them are 
staunch supporters of the Faith. To the immediate 
west are the Burmese, but beyond them is the seething 
mass of Indian Moslems, who reside throughout all 
Burmah and who have penetrated into Siam in large 
numbers. To the south of Siam are the Malays, and 
still farther south are the Javanese. The Malay Mo- 
hammedan population has decreased in recent years, 
not through any apostasy on the part of the natives, 
but because several states with large Malay elements 
have been ceded by Siam to the Federated Malay 

It is presumed that Islam came into Siam by way 
of the south, after the Malays had been converted. 
During the 19th century and thus far in the 20th, but 
little has been heard of these Mohammedans. They 
have come to the country with their trade, and have 
lived in quietness and comparative isolation. Since the 
French first came to Siam, they have been expelled 
three times, a record that the Moslems cannot equal. 
They have remained unnoticed, chiefly because of their 
lack of propaganda. 

In the history of the country, which I might add is 
very meagre and probably quite inaccurate, there are 
many evidences that Siam came into contact with Mo- 
hammedans in times past to a considerable extent. It 
is quite interesting to read in Turpin's "History oi 
Siam," published in Paris in 1771, of the adventures of 
the Mohammedan traders, their ability in war and the 
different embassies sent to and from Persia and Siam. 
The author was a French missionary, and extracts from 


his work are interesting because they show the intrigue 
and the attempts at intercourse between the rival re- 
ligions. After recounting how, in the middle of the 
i6th century, the reigning king of Siam seemed to 
favor Christianity by building the Christians a church, 
he remarks, "This generosity seemed to indicate his 
leanings toward Christianity; but in reality he was in- 
different to all religions, and above all took delight in 
showing his contempt for the idolatrous priests (mean- 
ing Buddhist priests) whom he delighted to humiliate. 
The Mohammedans shared his favors with the Chris- 
tians, and if he had been obliged to make choice of a 
religion, it is most probable that he would have de- 
clared for the Koran. A prince surrounded by con- 
cubines would naturally vote for a religion which au- 
thorizes his predilections. 

Only one serious attempt appears to have been made 
by the Mohammedans to convert the entire country to 
Islam. In 1687, Louis XIV sent a group of Jesuit 
mathematicians to the Far East in order that their ob- 
servations might perfect the knowledge of navigation 
and geography. The Siamese had sent an embassy to 
his court some time before and he seized their visit as 
an opportunity to send out his ambassadors and mathe- 
maticians. The Siamese king received the ambassadors 
with great cordiality and became very familiar with 
them, — so familiar in fact that the ambassadors asked 
the king to become a Christian. Their first plea was 
followed by many more, for they had just learned that 
an ambassador from Persia had arrived to convert the 
king to Islam. The king was indifferent to the at- 
tempts of both Christians and Moslems to convert him, 
replying that he would be rash to embrace a religion of 
which he knew nothing. Following in the wake of the 
Moslem ambassador came the Arab, Mogul, and Per- 
sian traders. They brought to Siam fabrics, silks and 
spices, and took away a great many elephants to the 
Coromandel Coast, to Golconda, and to Persia. With 
the increase in numbers, their religious enthusiasm 
grew, and they realized what a great advantage it would 


be to them if they could convert the entire country. 
The large colony started with the supposition that the 
success which Mohammedanism had had among the 
Malays might be repeated on a large scale in Siam. 
In this supposition they were, however, mistaken; and 
their doctrines, instead of being acceptable to the peo- 
ple, gave rise to such popular commotion and antagonism 
against Islam, that "a large number of Moslems 
achieved to the sanctity of martyrdom." In one place 
we read that the Moors made an expedition to Siam, 
firing several shots at some Siamese vessels; and that 
the Siamese Army had a great many Malays and 
Macassars, who were considered as the finest troops. 

It is probably five hundred years ago that the natives 
of Malacca reached the northern part of the Malay 
peninsula and converted the indigenous population to 
Islam. They seldom brought their women, and inter- 
married with the females of the newly settled regions. 
They have produced a race which is passable as Malay. 
Before their conversion to Islam, it is supposed that 
these inhabitants of the Malay peninsula held Brahmin 
beliefs. At any rate, these Moslems are influenced by 
the Brahmin gods, who, though classed as Efrits and 
Jinns by the orthodox, remain at the head of the spirit 
world and command the respect of the population. In 
fact, these Brahmin gods hold the same position to 
Siamese Mohammedanism as they do to Siamese Bud- 

The men usually have closely shaven heads, while the 
women, in contrast to their Siamese neighbors wear long 
hair. The people are not naturally hairy, and one 
authority holds that the scanty hairs which appear on 
the chin are usually plucked out. The women expose 
their features quite openly, and at any time, in a man- 
ner that would not be tolerated in the southern part of 
the peninsula or Java. The Moslem women seem to 
have considerable freedom, far more than the women of 
Egypt. Only on occasions of festivals are they veiled 
and separated from the men. It is probable that the 
poorest type of Mohammedans are these Siamese Ma- 


lays, yet notwithstanding their apparent unorthodoxy, 
the prohibitions of alcohol and gambling are quite rigor- 
ously observed, especially by those who come in contact 
with the outside world to any extent. The Malays of 
South Siam are agriculturalists and fishermen, but in 
Bangkok, they are ''sayces," gardeners and cloth mer- 
chants. In the case of marrying a Siamese woman, the 
woman will usually retain her Buddhism. A Siamese 
princess once said, "The strength of Buddhism lies in 
its hold upon the women." An interesting case of this 
kind is found in the family of one of the Christian 
evangelists. His father was a Moslem and a most ear- 
nest and devout one; his mother clung tenaciously to 
Buddhism. At the death of the Moslem father, the 
mother, in spite of strong protests from her dead hus- 
band's relatives, took the boy and educated him for the 
Buddhist priesthood. From the priesthood he was con- 
verted to Christianity. The evangelist still recognizes 
his Moslem relatives and they have insisted that he be 
circumcised. One day in the training class, the mis- 
sionary in giving the assignment for the next day, told 
the class that as the Siamese did not practise circum- 
cision, it would be of little value to discuss the subject. 
The old evangelist disagreed, and said that to him the 
question was a vital one, as he had been urged many 
times to submit to the rite. As a result, the missionary 
with the class studied the fifth chapter of Galatians. 
While on a tour, this evangelist tried to convert an old 
Mohammedan sheikh who would have none of it, and 
who replied, "What would you do, if that Vearer of 
pants' (the missionary) wasn't here to support you?" 

In Central and North Siam, Mohammedanism is 
found only in the cities and villages. The Malays 
above Bangkok are few and far between. Bangkok is 
the center of Islam, as it is the centre of everything in 
the country. There are some twenty mosques in Bang- 
kok alone, with a sheikh from Alexandria and El Azhar 
University in charge. The dull, unornamented mosques, 
with their short minarets, form a sombre contrast to 
the elaborately ornamented and gilded Buddhist 


"wats," with their towering "prapangs" and '^prachi- 
dees." Mosques and temples are located close together, 
and very often as the muezzin is rolling out his call to 
prayer, some faithful merit maker is beating the "wat" 
bells so despised by the followers of the prophet. 

Though His Majesty the King is a strong Buddhist, 
and does every thing that he can do to strengthen his 
religion, there is a remarkable spirit of religious tolera- 
tion shown; or perhaps it is only another name for the 
religious indifference already commented upon. King 
Rama has given ground for the erection of several of the 
Bangkok mosques. All of the Malays in Bangkok are 
Shafts and most of the Indians are Hanafis. As a result 
they have their own mosques in which to worship, but 
there is a strong attachment between them. Each sect 
will aid the other in the promotion of some worthy object. 
A large number of the Moslems have been to Mecca, 
and considerable Arabic is spoken in the city. All 
wear some form of cap or headdress without a visor and 
the red "tarboush" or fez is quite popular; these are, 
however, about one-half the height of the Turkish or 
Egyptian fezes. It is a quite common sight to see them 
at prayer, and they make no attempt to "hide their light 
under a bushel." 

In North Siam the Mohammedans are either In- 
dians or Yunnanese Chinese. All are traders and they 
lead a roving life. Each year the caravans come all 
the way from Yunnan to Siam and Burmah and the In- 
dians will trade between Burmah and Siam. There 
are four mosques in the city of Chiengmai, the most 
important city in North Siam. A fifth one is now be- 
ing built by the Yunnannese with the financial aid of 
their richer Indian brothers. The hereditary princes 
of North Siam employ Moslems as grooms. The 
groom of the Chao Luang (hereditary prince) of Lam- 
pang receives a salary far in excess of the other ser- 
vants. It is because the Malays have derived a love 
of horses from their Arab co-religionists, that they are 
so much sought after. 

The missionaries in Siam have made no attempt at 


the conversion of the Mohammedans. They have set 
themselves toward a larger and every bit as difficult 
a task. The only converts that have been made from 
Mohammedanism so far as I have been able to learn 
are the evangelist, who was in reality a Buddhist, and 
a poor helpless Yunnanese leper in the Leper Asylum 
at Chiengmai. In Bangkok there are Mohammedans 
in the schools of the American and French missionaries, 
but it is very difficult to infljuence them. They are far 
less receptive to Christian teachings than are the Budd- 
hists. A Buddhist boy in explaining to his Sunday- 
school teacher, why his friend would not enter the Sun- 
day-school class said, "You see, he is a Mohammedan." 

Paul McClure Hinkhouse. 
Bangkok, Siatn, 


A reference in the MOSLEM WORLD for April, 1917, 
to the new flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz suggests a 
consideration of the Crescent, the standard of the 
Turks, as a religious symbol. Historians, when speak- 
ing of the Crusades, have frequently described them as 
conflicts between the Cross and Crescent, and the same 
figure of speech is used often to describe the campaign 
carried on by missionaries in Moslem lands. Professor 
Ridgeway points out that to speak of the Crescent as a 
symbol of Islam when Richard Coeur-de-Lion or St. 
Louis fought against the Saracens, is to be guilty of an 
anachronism, for the crescent did not appear as a Mos- 
lem symbol until after the appearance of the Osmanli 

The banner of Mohammed, like the modern standard 
of the King of the Hejaz, bore no device, and during 
the struggle which characterized the caliphate up to 
the time of the domination of the Osmanlis, the different 
banners of the various houses were simply plain colors,* 
each party possessing one distinguishing color. 

Unlike the Cross, which is full of significance to the 
Christian, the crescent has no religious significance for 
the Moslem. It is merely a symbol of the Ottoman 
domination of Islam, and yet a study of the symbol re- 
veals the fact that it has possessed a religious signifi- 
cance from very ancient times. It is an interesting co- 
incidence that the symbol of an ancient moon god, whose 
influence extended from ancient Babylonia throughout 
the whole of Africa, should eventually become the sym- 
bol of a monotheistic faith which had its origin in 

History has given us no clear record as to why the 

* Black was the color of the Abasids, white of the Ummayads, red of the Khawarii, 
and green of the Alids. ' 



Turks adopted the crescent as their standard. Some 
authorities suggest that it was accepted after their occu- 
pation of Northern Asia Minor, but others maintained 
that it was not used until after the capture of Constanti- 
nople in 1453 A. D. 

In his "Rise, Decline and Fall of the Caliphate" Sir 
William Muir says: "In the 8th century (of the He- 
gira) the Osmanlis achieved the conquest of Asia 
Minor, and eventually crossing the Bosphorus, planted 
the crescent an the walls of Byzantium," which seems to 
indicate that he believed the crescent to have been the 
standard of the Turks before the conquest of Byzantium. 
He does not however quote his authority for the view. 

One of the earliest appearances of the crescent in art 
seems to be that which is shown on a Babylonian seal 
cylinder bearing an inscription of the days of Urengur, 
king of Ur, who was reigning in 2450 B. C. 
The symbol is shown above a seated human figure, and 
indicates that the figure is a representation of the moon 
god, Sin, whose worship apparently originated in Ur, 
the early home of Abraham, and eventually spread over 
almost the whole of Arabia. Although the appearance 
of the crescent near a seated human figure in Babylon- 
ian Art almost invariably indicates that he is the moon 
god, there are some instances where this is not intended, 
and the actual significance of the symbol in such cases 
is not clear. With the eight or sixteen rayed star, and 
the sun's disc, the crescent is one of the commonest sym- 
bols found upon the ancient monuments, particularly 
upon the boundary stones; where very probably it had a 
magical significance related to the superstitious beliefs 
associated with the heaps of boundary stones in Pales- 
tine today. The frequency of the appearance of the 
crescent in the art of Babylonians may be explained by 
the fact that the worship of Sin assumed great promi- 
nence in the earliest days known to us of Babylonian 
History, and persisted through all changes in political, 
social and religious thought right down to the time of 
the disappearance of Babylonian — Assyrian civilization. 

From ancient times, down to the present day, the 


moon has been associated with magical rites and cere- 
monies, with the result that all moon gods and goddesses 
are concerned with many forms of magic. 

The Babylonians and early Arabians regarded the 
moon as masculine and "Sin," the moon god, was 
represented as an old man with a flowing beard; but 
gradually the conception changed and the moon became 
feminine. The daughter of Sin — Ishtar — not origi- 
nally a moon goddess, whose symbol was a star repre- 
senting the sky, was identified by later historians with 
the many moon goddesses who were worshipped in 
different localities and whose symbols were almost in- 
variably crescents. This relationship is recognized by 
modern anthologists, on the ground that all moon god- 
desses are associated with nature myths based upon the 
generative principle in nature, the worship of which 
usually degenerated into the grossly immoral rites so 
strongly denounced by Jewish prophets, and in later 
times associated by some Arabian writers with forms 
of black magic (Sihr). 

The prevalence of the crescent and other astrological 
symbols may be inferred from a curious legend re- 
corded by Maimonides in his commentary on the 
Mishna which declares that idolatry had its origin in 
star worship, the first image worshipped by man being 
the representation of a star. The story says that a time 
came when man could think of no other god than the 
stars and spheres of the heavens. This legend, with 
the fact that in ancient Arabia there was a strongly 
developed star worship, in which the cult of the moon 
god as masculine had precedence, would indicate that 
the people of the lands affected were familiar with the 
crescent and star as religious symbols long before Islam 
under the influence of the Osmanlis adopted the crescent 
and star as its standard. A favorite method of thought 
among the old Arabians was to regard the two chief 
aspects of the moon — waning and waxing — as two dei- 
ties, in which Asthtar, the planet Venus regarded as 
masculine, is confused with the more ancient Babylonian 
Ishtar as a symbol of the heavens. 


The obscure goddess Alillat was also associated with 
Ishtar, and also with Diana the Greek goddess whose 
symbol was a crescent. Some Arabic scholars have 
identified Alillat with Al Lat, and Robertson-Smith in 
1887 conjectured that Leto, the mother of the Greek 
Apollo and Diana, was actually the Arabian Lat who 
had been introduced into Greece by Greek merchants. 
If this conjecture is correct, it is quite possible that 
further research will show that the crescent as a divine 
symbol was introduced directly from Arabia into 

Hesychius tells us that the adoption of the crescent 
and star as the arms of Byzantium was due to the grati- 
tude of the citizens for the miraculous intervention of 
Hecate or Diana when Philip of Macedon was be- 
sieging the city in 339 B. C. It is said that Philip was 
preparing secretly by night for an attack when a brighf 
light shone out from heaven and revealed his plans to 
the besieged, with the result that they were able to fore- 
stall the attempt. The appearance of the light, which 
seems to have been caused by the cresent moon with a 
star near one of its horns, was hailed as a direct inter- 
vention of Hecate whose symbol was a blazing crescent, 
which in her honor was adopted as the civic badge, and 
was struck upon the coins for centuries. 

The adoption of the symbol by the Turks, it is gen- 
erally believed, occurred after their conquest of Con- 
stantinople in 1453 ; but there seems to be no clear his- 
torical evidence to support this. Some authorities main- 
tain that the Osmanlis adopted it as their standard after 
their occupation of Northern Asia Minor, where, as the 
badge of the Byzantine emperors, the crescent and star 
would have been well known. 

Professor Ridgeway, in a very interesting paper 
published in the Journal of the Royal Anthropological 
Institute (1908), maintains that- the adoption of the 
crescent by the Turks was largely due to their familiar- 
ity with the symbol as formed by double Boars' tusks 
worn as amulets. The paper is illustrated with photo- 
graphs of such amulets in the writer's possession, col- 


lected from many parts of the world, some of them be- 
ing ancient imitations in bronze of Boars' tusks united 
to form crescents, which seems to indicate that the cres- 
cents of Boars' tusks and their imitations in metal were 
far older than the astrological symbols used in the region 
ruled by the Byzantine emperors. 

In a letter to me Professor Ridgeway says research 
has convinced him that astrological symbols only come 
very late in all religions. Primitive man is concerned 
with what is concrete, his magic is concerned with ma- 
terial things which will aid him in getting food, or in 
overcoming his enemies; any fancied virtues in the 
moon would be of no use to him, but a pair of horns 
would be a formidable weapon. His knowledge of the 
power of the animals he may hunt leads him to the be- 
lief that possession of horns, claws or teeth will give 
him some of the power manifested. Thus today, among 
other amulets the Esquimos use when hunting, are dogs' 

Traces of such primitive ideas seem to be reflected 
in the name given to Sin, the Babylonian moon-god, 
for he is frequently known as ^^The young bullock of 
Enlil," and in the art which distinguishes a god from a 
human, by the addition of a pair of horns upon the 
head. In the Greek period, Astarte the moon-goddess, 
is sometimes figured crowned with a bull's head, and 
in a representation of the composite god of Egypt — 
Serapis — the bull's horns are shown as a well defined 
crescent. Pliny tells us that one of the identification 
marks of a sacred bull was a conspicuous white spot on 
the right side in the form of a crescent, probably be- 
cause the Apis bull of Memphis symbolized the 
moon. Khonsu, the moon-god of Egypt (sometimes 
identified with Thoth) as the new moon is likened to 
a fiery bull. As Khensu-pa-Khast, he is the beautiful 
light of the crescent moon shining upon the earth, 
through whose agency women conceive, etc. In Egyp- 
tian art the crescent almost invariably appears as a sup- 
port for the moon's disc generally shown as a head- 
dress of the god. 


It is interesting to notice, with the thought of the 
Boars' tusk crescent in our minds, that in Cyprus once 
a year wild boars are sacrificed to Aphrodite and 
Adonis and that Antiphanes tells us the boar and pig 
were especially sacred to Aphrodite or Astarte, the 
moon goddess. Lucian tells us that the pig was con- 
sidered to be a sacred animal by the Syrians, a concep- 
tion which must have been very ancient, and very pos- 
sibly related to the magical conception regarding the 

I suppose we shall never discover how it was that 
man transferred his magical conceptions from the tusk 
or horn of an animal to the loftier, if less practical, 
religious and magical conceptions of the crescent moon. 
Such a transference may represent the transition of cen- 
turies — a gradual growth from the primitive concrete 
conceptions to the abstract, as man noticing the resem- 
blance of the cresent to his powerful pair of tusks or 
horns begins to associate those ideas of power with the 
being to whom the astrological horns belong. From the 
conception of the power of the tusk to the conception 
of Sin, represents a great advance. There is evi- 
dence which shows that conceptions of a moon-god 
have been associated with wisdom, knowledge and un- 
derstanding, always, in the primitive mind, related to 
magic; it has been said of Thoth, the wisdom god 
of Egypt, who, as we have seen, is regarded in some 
aspects as a moon god, that his character is a ''lofty 
and beautiful conception and is perhaps the highest 
idea of deity ever fashioned in the Egyptian mind, 
which was somewhat prone to dwell on the material 
side of divine matters." 

One of Professor Ridgeway's illustrations is a gem of 
the third century, bearing a crescent with three eight- 
pointed stars. The ancient Babylonian ideograph for 
the word "God" was the star repeated three times, 
apparently to distinguish it from the word star which 
was denoted by the ideograph of one star. This may 
be merely a coincidence, which is more striking be- 
cause the symbol of Ishtar, as we have noticed, was 


generally an eight-pointed star. It has been suggested 
that the Byzantine emperors adopted the star as their 
symbol partly because it represents the Star of Bethle- 
hem ; for this reason it was also adopted with a crescent 
by Richard the first of England. Thus the crescent and 
star became the badge of an English king, and was 
struck on the silver pennies of Dublin in 12 10. It ap- 
pears over the stalls of the Dean and Precentor of St. 
Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. Henry III used the same 
device, so that the star and crescent have been used as 
a badge by Christian rulers, while in some places the 
crescent is seen actually combined with a cross. 

Reference is made in the Professor's paper to the 
modern cart horse pendant used in England, where 
often one of the ornaments is a crescent and star sup- 
posed to be a survival of the badges taken in a crusade. 
He shows that brass imitations of the boars' tusk cres- 
cents were used on Roman Norse trappings, and sug- 
gests that this device may also be a survival of the old 
boars' tusk amulet. The superstitious significance of 
the modern crescent-shaped horseshoe, which is sup- 
posed to bring luck to its finder, may be derived from 
the same idea. 

Concluding his convincing arguments. Professor 
Ridgeway points out that there were two main reasons 
which influenced the Turk in his adoption of the cres- 
cent as a badge. There was first his familiarity with 
the old amulet of the boars' tusk, and then the preval- 
ence of the astrological symbol in the new kingdom he 
had conquered. 

The abandonment of the Ottoman device by the King 
of the Hejaz is significant. It surely indicates that 
the domination of the Osmanlis has never been accept- 
able to the real sons of Islam. It may be that the dis- 
integration of the Turkish empire, which has been has- 
tened by the war, will lead to a new birth in Islam 
which will make it less antagonistic to the Cross, and 
will result eventually in a definite recognition of the 
claims of the Redeemer of men. 

H. E. E. Hayes. 


In these glorious days of triumph and the fulfilling 
of many dreams, none rejoice so much as the friends of 
the people of the Near East. In that part of the world, 
which has so long lain prostrate under the paralyzing 
influence of a hideous misgovernment, the day of de- 
liverance shines even more brightly than it does further 
west. Educators who for nearly a hundred years have 
worked against unreasonable obstacles, who have hoped 
against hope for a chance to progress, who have prayed 
for a cessation of the sufferings of the people to whom 
they ministered, are at last able to look with clear and 
confident eyes towards a future full of hope and peace 
and progress. That future is as yet afar off, but still 
it can be seen and the joy of working towards it has been 
increased a hundredfold. 

The hope of the Near East, of Mesopotamia, Syria, 
Asia Minor, the Balkans, lies with the women. This 
has always been true to some extent, but never more so 
than today. The men of the Ottoman Empire have 
been killed in battle or massacred. The country is 
wretchedly poor and in many regions faces starvation. 
It is full of refugees and orphans; its homes have been 
shattered; its cities have been destroyed. Redemption 
lies in the minds and hearts of its women. 

No one realizes this more fully than the Americans 
who have given their lives to the education of the young 
women of the Near East at Constantinople College. 
Situated in the ancient city of the Caesars, on the 
shores of the Bosphorus, this American college has for 
nearly fifty years been training scores of girls, Alban- 
ians, Armenians, Bulgarians, Greeks, Jews, Turks, and 
bringing enlightenment into hundreds of homes. To- 
day its hard work and indefatigable devotion seem to 



be justified indeed. This college, which is the largest 
and the most advanced American institution for women 
in Turkey is face to face with the problem of recon- 
struction and rehabilitation, for which its many years 
of quiet service have been an excellent preparation. 
During the whole period of the war, it has kept its 
doors open to all who would come in search of knowl- 
edge. It has faced the uncertainty of war conditions, 
staggering expenses, hardships of many kinds. But by 
its steadfastness it has proved to the people of the Near 
East that it believes with all its heart in education and 
in the vital importance of the training of young woman- 
hood as the key to national progress and development. 
So that wars, revolutions, massacres have failed to close 
its doors and the good work has gone on. 

Constantinople College has an interesting history. 
It started as a mission school for Armenian girls in 
1871 on the Asiatic shore of the Bosphorus in Scutari. 
Its modest buildings stood upon a hill overlooking the 
splendid panorama of Stamboul. Soon it began to in- 
clude other nationalities in the student body, and in 
1890 became a full fledged college with a charter 
from the state of Massachusetts. Its staff and student 
body grew with considerable rapidity and a Preparatory 
school was founded in connection with it which is car- 
ried on with success to this day. In 1905 a fire de- 
stroyed the main building in Scutari. Instead of re- 
building on the same campus, the President, through the 
help of generous friends in America, was able in the 
course of five years to buy a beautiful piece of prop- 
erty on the European side of the Bosphorus on the top 
of Arnaoutkeuy hill, and erect four new buildings 
which the college has occupied since April, 19 14. 

The influence that such a fine Christian institution 
exerts in so important a city as Constantinople can be 
easily imagined. This year 500 students are enrolled. 
The language of the College is English which all must 
master as soon as they enter. This is only one of the 
common bonds which link these girls of many varying 
nationalties. A love of learning, a respect for Ameri- 


can ideals of honor and justice and an acceptance of 
the Christian principles of service and sacrifice are a 
few of the many spiritual advantages shared by Bul- 
garian and Turk, Armenian and Greek. The book 
knowledge is important, but the training of character 
is much more important and it is here that the College 
aims high. Alumnae go out to become leaders in their 
several communities. They return to their homes often 
to teach their people the new lessons of a fuller life 
which they have learned from the College. 

Never before, however, in all its history has the op- 
portunity for service been so great as at this moment. 
The Ottoman Empire must be reconstructed. Its 
women must do most of that reconstructing. And Con- 
stantinople College intends to furnish those women to a 
large extent. The President and the trustees have al- 
ready turned their thoughts to the laying of new plans. 
Practical education must hare a larger place to meet 
the present needs. Courses in agriculture and village 
improvement have begun. A movement for making a 
start at medical education is under way. No one need 
be told of the necessity for nurses and doctors among the 
women of the Near East. Evils are crying out to be 
met and overcome. It is merely a matter of trying to 
choose, among many needs, which one is the greatest. 

Constantinople College is supported partly by the 
fees of students, but largely by American friends. 
These four years of war have told upon it severely. 
Funds are badly needed. Let it never be said that its 
service for suffering Near Eastern girls had to be cur- 
tailed because friends in America found it impossible 
to provide the money that was necessary. Recon- 
struction is the watch word to-day. Constantinople 
College is ready and passionately eager to take a large 
share of the responsibility in the Near East for build- 
ing up broken lives, for bringing together Jew and Gen- 
tile, Christian and Moslem into a great sisterhood of 
service for all humanity. 

Eveline A. Thomson. 

New York City, 


(Illustrated by Al Ghazali's Experience) 

Tradition reflects the importance of this subject by the 
number of references to it. A peculiarity about them is 
that many are connected with the name of Ali bin Abu 
Talib just as traditions on the subject of asceticism 
collect around the name of Jesus. (And those of great 
exaggeration about the name of Abu Huraira.) There 
is not a treatise on knowledge that does not have a sec- 
tion on its excellency. What the tone of this praise is, 
appears from the following extract from Ghazali. 
"God, Exalted, said ^God bears witness that there is no 
god but He, and the angels and the possessed of knowl- 
edge, standing up for justice' (3:16). Behold how the 
Exalted begins with Himself and then mentions the 
angels and lastly the people of knowledge. What an 
honor and excellence and glory and superiority! And 
God said ^God will raise up all you who believe, as well 
as those who are given knowledge' (58:12). Ibn Abbas, 
may God be pleased with him, said ^The learned are 
raised above believers by 700 grades and between each 
two grades there is a distance of 500 years.' * * * 
Said he upon whom be the prayers and peace of God, 
The learned are the heirs of the prophets' and it is well 
known that there is no rank above that of the prophets 
and no honor above the honor of inheriting that rank. 
* * * And he said The learned believer is better 
than a worshipper of seventy years' standing.' * * * 
It was also said ^O apostle of God, what works are the 
best? He said. The knowledge of God Exalted' (Ihya, 
p. 5). And the messenger of God said The seeking of 
knowledge is a duty' and 'Seek knowledge though it be 
in China' (!)" (Ihya, Vol. I, p. 12). 



All are agreed that knowledge is an essential duty 
{faradh 'ain) but when the question is asked what this^ 
knowledge is, there are, as Ghazali says, more than 
twenty different answers. The Scholastics say that their 
science furnishes the knowledge that is necessary, for by 
it is known the Unity and Being of God and His attri- 
butes. The lawyers urge the claims of theirs, because 
by it is know^n the religious duties and the lawful and 
the unlawful. The Commentators and Traditionalists 
say it is the knowledge of the Koran and Tradition for 
by these all knowledge is determined and finally the 
Sufis prefer their claims. Now what all these parties 
are speaking of has nothing to do with a mere acquaint- 
ance with the doctrines and practices of religion which 
enables one to confess and perform what is necessary. 
It is, of course, incumbent on the beginner to learn what 
he must confess to do, and Moslems, especially, the 
learned, must give the needful instruction in order that 
the beginner may share fully in Islam. But knowledge 
of this kind, received by 'imitation and hearing" (takltd 
wa samd^) has no virtue in it, and has no reward 
attached to it. One who remains in this condition is 
called a mukallid, imitator. Taklid is defined as "an 
expression for the following of one by another in a word 
or a deed, accepting its truth without examination or 
thought as to proof, as if this follower made the word or 
deed of the other a chain (kilada) about his neck" (Frey- 
tag Lex. s. v.). Such a one is not a knower whose 
praise is in all the books, in fact the question is very 
much discussed whether he is a Moslem at all. ''Then 
they (the Lawyers and the Scholastics) dift'er among 
themselves on two points. One is as to the nature of the 
knowledge which is the basis of faith. Some say it is 
a well-formed body of belief whether it be by imitation 
or an apprehension based on proof. The more common 
opinion is that of those who judge one who accepts his 
faith by imitation to be a Moslem. Opposed to these 
are those who hold that knowledge is only such when 
founded on the reasoning of deductive argument. The 
second point is whether knowledge (V/m), recognized 


in the definition of faith, is a knowing of what some of 
the Scholastics said, viz., a knowing of God and His 
attributes in a full and complete manner, or whether, 
according to the general belief — come into being after 
men differed greatly and had called each other infidels 
for differing — it is knowing all that is acknowledged as 
being a necessary part of the religion of Mohammed. 
In this acceptation of the term knowing, it is not a part 
of the definition of faith whether one believes that God 
is 'knowing' by knowledge or by Himself, or whether he 
is seen or not seen." (Nisaburi, Vol. p. 139.) 

Those of ordinary attainments, then, and such are the 
great mass, just barely have standing in the community 
and what they have is by the grace of the learned. One 
might say that what is taught about the ranking of men 
in the next world (and this is a large part of eschatol- 
ogy) centres around this pre-eminence of the possessors 
of knowledge. For, beginning at the trial in the grave, 
or rather with the soul's first excursion to the several 
regions between death and burial, to the last scene, when 
all have their places assigned, the learned take prece- 
dence. They are at the head of those entering the Gar- 
den, next to the prophets — and the poor mukallid comes 
a great way after them. These may enter without suf- 
fering, if they have known all the requirements of doc- 
trine and practice and have faithfully observed them. 
Practically, this is a supposition contrary to fact, when 
we listen to what the traditionalists, and then the law- 
yers and then the theologians have to say. Ghazali's 
attitude to the common believer is different from that of 
these masters of learning. He takes up their defence 
and he does it in a way that seems to give them full 
rights within the community. As his teaching here is 
the accepted belief of a large part of the Moslem world 
and especially since it is the basis of the ethico-religious 
instruction of the Sufis, we must dwell on it more fully. 
Ghazali divides the knowledge that concerns the here- 
after into two kinds, knowledge of performance {'Urn 
al mudamala) and knowledge of discovery {'Urn al mu- 
kashafa)^ or, practical knowledge and unveiling knowl- 


edge. The distinction is fundamental in the Ghazal- 
ian system and we will try to make it clear. His prac- 
tical knowledge covers all that is necessary to know for 
confession and performance. It is not practical as dis- 
tinguished from doctrinal, for doctrine too must be 
known, since a man must perform the duties of confes- 
sion of the articles of belief. But as being practical and 
not theoretical, it does not include the reasoning of 
deduction and the co-ordination of proofs. It includes, 
naturally, the knowledge of the correct performance of 
the distinctive duties of prayer, fasting, etc., and in 
addition, the knowledge of the faults and vices, which 
disfigure character, and how to uproot them, plus 
the virtues that must be cultivated. In short, this 
knowledge includes all that is necessary for correct 
living in thought and word and deed. The other is 
something quite different. Its name is derived from the 
great Sufi word kashf, meaning uncovering, unveiling, 
revealing. It is not concerned with the things of this 
world; its objects are the realities (perhaps better, 
reality) of the world of spirits, as God, the angels and 
the Preserved Tablet (in which are the eternal proto- 
types of all things). As we saw, the soul of man is so 
made as to be able to come into direct contact with 
that other world. When it does, it has attained to real- 
ity and that is kashf. It is the teaching and the hope of 
the Sufi that by means of ascetic practices and abstrac- 
tion, he may attain to this unveiling, so that he may 
know God, though it be but momentarily and once in a 
lifetime. This knowing is described by Sufis in many 
ways. It is the secret (sirr)^ the light, inward light, 
faith, light of faith. It does not come by study and 
learning, and what its contents are must not be recorded 
in books. The prophets only spoke of it darkly and 
figuratively and, as Ghazali says, since the learned are 
heirs of the prophets, they also may not spread it before 
the common crowd. These two kinds of knowledge are 
most intimately connected. The practical is the first 
and essential means of attaining to the other; this other, 
when obtained, is the rationale and the proof of the 


first. The one is the property and the duty of all, the 
other comes to him whose soul is so created as to attain 
to it and to whom God grants the mercy of attaining it. 
The one who is thus favored, knows by the soul's native 
power of spiritual insight; the other knows by a pro- 
cess of learning and by means of the regular functions 
of the mind. This latter does not look for proof, because 
it needs not if, indeed, it could. The proofs are in the 
unveilings of the mystic rapture which underwrite and 
guarantee the soundness of the knowledge of perform- 
ance. It is a wonderfully conceived system this, which 
at once supplies certainty, and assurance, and order in 
the hierarchy of believers. And yet, after all, it is only 
the old distinction of learned and imitator in another 
dress. The learned now is the Sufi with his mystical 
experience from whom the common mass humbly 
receive the crumbs of knowledge. One does not have to 
read far in the Ihya, to see that Ghazali never got 
beyond the universal attitude. The constantly recurring 
phrases are "but for those who have true insight" and 
"ye cannot bear it now." 

Because guidance is what is offered, knowledge is 
really all that it calls forth. As between it and faith, 
this latter is only the correct way of knowing. Hence 
discussions about faith naturally turn into those of 
knowledge. For the same reason, there exists this dis- 
tinction of learned and imitator and the assumed superi- 
ority of the one over the other. This claim of 
superiority on the part of the learned looks to us like 
intellectual snobbery. (There is plenty of that, to be 
sure.) But the distinction at the basis of that attitude 
is something that belongs to the very structure of the 
religion. "This people that know not the law is 
accursed," sounds harsh to us and suggests over-weaning 
pride. In Islam it expresses an actual fact, universally 
recognized. How thoroughly Ghazali apprehended 
knowledge as the fundamental Moslem virtue, is shown 
by his method in the Ihya, He wrote that book in order 
to stem the tide of immorality consequent on the skepti- 
cism of his time. He called it the "Revival of the 


Sciences of Religion" and what he offers for the ills of 
his time is — knowledge, (It is well to remember that all 
the keywords in Arabic used in connection with this sub- 
ject, such as knowledge, learning, science, instruction^ know- 
ing, etc., are different forms of the radical dUma, to 
know.) That which he offered was not the kind that he 
valued for himself, still it was knowledge and since, on 
his own showing, it did not or could not convince, he 
salted it amply with the threat of the Fire. That he 
succeeded as well as he did, was due, in part, to his own 
great personality. The other reason for his success was 
that the course which he followed was so entirely in 
accord with the teachings and the spirit of the religion. 
And finally, that he accomplished so much as he dia 
was due to the fact that, whereas, he recognized the cen- 
tral place of knowledge, he rejected the merely intellec- 
tual kinds of the Traditionalists, Lawyers, etc., and 
made the mystic experience of the Sufi the ground of 
reality in religion. In its last analysis this experience is 
also knowing^ but compared with the lifeless thing of 
the others, it had in itself at least a measure of vitality 
in that it recognized the claims of man's emotional 
nature. Ghazali went through an experience, which 
has been called conversion, before he reached this posi- 
tion. An examination of that experience may perhaps 
enable us to understand the entire subject better. 

The comparison is sometimes made between him and 
St. Augustine. We do not think this holds as to the 
character of their soul experiences, but externally the 
resemblances are striking. The lives of both marked a 
turning-point in the history of their respective faiths, 
the experiences of both are an epitome of the life which 
their religions produce, and in both cases their personal 
experiences determined the doctrinal developments of 
the succeeding centuries. When Ghazali lived (1058- 
III i) Islam had attained its full growth and the theo- 
logical sciences were completed. It was now possible for 
men to examine the whole structure. Whether such 
examination was the cause of the current skepticism 
cannot be said. At any rate, the cycle of development 


seemed about to end in an unbelief that threatened both 
religion and morality. Ghazali had been thoroughly 
educated and he was master of the theological and phil- 
osophical learning of his day. A fact as to his early 
education is to be noted, viz., that he and his brother 
were brought up by a Sufi to whom the father had en- 
trusted them. At the age of thirty-three he became the 
head of a theological school at Bagdad where he soon 
enjoyed the greatest popularity, including the favor of 
the court. But before rery long, doubt laid hold of him 
and so thorough was his skepticism that his whole theo- 
logical structure went down like a house of cards. 
According to his own statement in his Confessions, he 
lost faith in everything. "Such thoughts as these threat- 
ened to shake my reason and I sought to find an escape 
from them. But how? In order to disentangle the knot 
of this difficulty, a proof was necessary. Now a proof 
must be based on primary assumptions, and it was pre- 
cisely these of which I was in doubt. This unhappy 
state lasted about two months, during which I was not, 
it is true, explicitly or by profession, but morally and 
essentially a thorough-going skeptic." (Claud Field, 
Confessions of Al Ghazali; p. 18.) 

There is nothing said here or anywhere else, as to 
what led him to question the foundations which proved 
to be so insecure. We may say quite confidently that 
the starting-point of his struggles was not a conviction 
of sin. Nothing of such nature is suggested in the Con- 
fessions. As he himself states, his skepticism had not led 
him into either irreligion or immorality. That which 
threatened to shake his reason was not the torture of a 
guilty conscience, nor the fear of threatening doom. 
What he sought after was not the peace of mind that 
comes from the knowledge of forgiveness of sins, but the 
security of the mind that rests on primary assumptions 
of reason. Perhaps what started his doubts, was the 
increasing immorality of his day which he was unable 
to stem by means of the learning of the schools. One 
would say probably it was that, judging by his subse- 
quent efforts to win the people back to religious life. 


He himself had belonged to the extreme Scholastics 
whose claim was that they could prove everything by 
their method of logic. Ghazali declares himself free 
from them and from all dependence on knowledge 
based on reasoning. "God at last deigned to heal me of 
this mental malady : my mind recovered sanity and equi- 
librium. The primary assumptions of reason recovered 
with me all their stringency and force. I owed my 
deliverance, not to a concatenation of proofs and argu- 
ments, but to the light which God caused to penetrate 
into my heart — the light which illuminates the threshold 
of all knowledge. To suppose that certitude can be 
only based upon formal arguments is to limit the bound- 
less mercy of God." (P. 19, op. cit.) 

What was the path which he trod, the goal at which 
he arrived and the outcome of his experience, are indi- 
cated in the following extracts. "The researches to 
which I have devoted myself, the path which I had 
traversed in studying religious and speculative branches 
of knowledge, had given me a firm faith in three 
things — God, Inspiration and the Last Judgment. These 
three fundamental articles of belief were confirmed in 
me, not merely by definite arguments, but by a chain of 
causes, circumstances, and proofs which it is impossible 
to recount. I saw that one can only hope for salvation 
by devotion and the conquest of the passions, a proced- 
ure which presupposes renouncement and detachment 
from the world of falsehood, in order to turn towards 
eternity and meditation on God. I saw that the only 
condition of success was to sacrifice honor and riches 
and to sever the ties and attachments of worldly life." 
(P. 42, op. cit.) After struggling a time against the call 
of the life of a Sufi, during which time he lost interest 
in everything and he seemed to be smitten by some secret 
malady, he finally yielded. "Finally, conscious of my 
weakness and the prostration of my soul, I took refuge 
in God as a man at the end of himself and without 
resources. *He who hears the wretched when they cry' 
(K. 27:63) deigned to hear me; He made easy to me the 
sacrifice of honors, wealth and family. I gave out pub- 


licly that I intended to make the pilgrimage to Mecca, 
while I secretly resolved to go to Syria, not wishing that 
the Caliph (May God magnify him) or my friends 
should know my intention of settling in that country. I 
made all kinds of clever excuses for leaving Bagdad 
with the fixed intention of not returning thither." 

If these statements have enough autobiographical 
worth to found on them, in part, an exposition of a 
variety of religious experience, we may proceed with a 
measure of confidence. We repeat, this experience of 
Ghazali had nothing to do with a conviction of sin. 
One troubled by a burdened conscience does not crave 
for a proof of the reality of the Judgment! But the 
conviction of its reality may produce the fear of it. His 
experience began with a complete skepsis of all the pri- 
mary assumptions of religion. In epitome, Islam had, 
in him, come to its natural impasse. Islam makes knowl- 
edge the centre of the religious life, and the knowledge 
which it offers is impossible of demonstration. Whether 
Ghazali consciously recognized the fact or not, he 
came to the ultimate human experience that man by 
searching cannot find out God. When his mind ^recov- 
ered sanity' the results of his re-conviction was the truth 
of God, inspiration and the last judgment. He does not 
tell us what the process of recovery was, except, in 
general terms, that God healed his malady. He is a 
little more definite when he says that it was "not merely 
by definite arguments (for such were always needed), 
but by a chain of causes, circumstances and proofs which 
it is impossible to record." Now we would like to know 
just what those "causes, circumstances and proofs" were. 
Still we need not really be in doubt as to their nature, 
and that they are comprehended in kashf, because in the 
finished system, the higher knowledge which guarantees 
the reality of the beliefs in question is his 'ilm muka- 
shafa. How much of the kashf of the Sufi, in the way 
of the rhapsody of the dhikr, and veridical dreaming, 
and clairvoyance, was necessary to convince him, we 
need not inquire after. It is enough to know that it 
was kashf; and being of this nature Ghazali could not 


relate the details of it, for the things of "unveiling" may 
not be spread before the eyes of all. 

We have seen that Islam makes knowledge the centre 
of its religious life, and that the knowledge which it 
offers cannot satisfy the requirements of reason. Gha- 
zali had tried it all and found that it lacked reality. 

And yet knowledge he must have, or sink in the slough 
of skepticism. And here in the "revealing" of the Sufi 
it is offered! Not book-learning, or a science of this 
or that; not just a knowledge about things which them- 
selves are in need of demonstration, but the demon- 
stration itself! In truth, not so much knowledge, as a 
personal experience of God and of the spirit world! 
And so Islam is true, because, for him, it has at the 
centre of it this real knowledge. 

If the Confessions are real biography, it was from 
this point that the struggle in his soul between the call 
of the world and its pleasures and the demands of Sufi 
renouncement ensued. It was now that he began to seek 
deliverance from the vanities of life. Having regained 
certainty in knowledge of the fundamental beliefs by 
the help of the mystic "way" naturally the call of that 
life would become insistent; and because of his child- 
hood influence, that call would become imperative. Now 
if the significance of his "conversion" be sought merely 
in his denial of the world and accepting of life of renun- 
ciation and asceticism, there would be nothing more in 
his experience than in that of thousands of others who 
have followed the same call. The significance of Gha- 
zali for Islam was that he made the mystical experience 
a new centre for its life and thereby furnished the 
knowledge which it itself craves but could not supply. 
What the religious value of that experience is, is not for 
us to determine. Mysticism is a very wide term and 
covers many phenomena; Sufism is this mysticsm con- 
ditioned by Islam. 

Frederick J. Barny. 

Maskatj Arabia, 


The fifth annual conference of Indian Mohammedan 
ladies was held in Lahore, on March 3rd to 5th, 1918, 
at the house of the Maharaja of Faridkot. The entire 
building and grounds were donated to the conference 
for a week by the Maharaja Sahib. The entertainment 
of the delegates, as in past years, was in charge of Mrs. 
Mohammed Shafi Sahiba and Mrs. Shah Din Sahiba 
of Lahore, the wives of the two leading Moslem bar- 
risters in the Punjab. 

About four hundred ladies attended, representing the 
cities of Lahore, Allahabad, Lucknow, Aligarh, Buland- 
shahr, Delhi, Meerut, Bhopal, Peshawar, Ludhiana, 
Amritsar, Sialkot, Rawalpindi and Jammu. Some of 
these were accommodated in Faridkot House, and others 
stayed with relatives in the city. When one considers 
the fact that the vast majority of these delegates observe 
strict "pardah;"* one gains some conception of the dif- 
ficulties involved in undertaking such a conference. A 
number of male relatives accompanied the women to 
Faridkot House, and, while the latter were attending 
the meetings, found accommodation and refreshment 
for themselves in a large tent erected in the compound. 
The verandah, outside the large hall used for the wom- 
en's meetings, was closely screened, and all within the 
house was kept for the exclusive use of the women. 
Mohammedan books and papers of a religious and secu- 
lar nature were sold from a table on the verandah. 

Fifteen young ladies, calling themselves the Volun- 
teer Club, formed a sort of Committee of Arrange- 
ments for the Conference. They wore a distinctive 
form of native dress, remarkable for its simplicity, and 

• A word (meaning, "curtain") used in India to express the seclusion in which the 
high class of Mohammedan and Hindu ladies live. They see no men but those who 
are close relatives, and never go unveiled outside the women's quarters. 



badges bearing the star and crescent of Islam. Their 
chairman, Asghari Khanoum (Mrs. Mohammed Rafi 
of Lahore), had her office in the building, where any 
ladies could come freely at any time and present their 
needs. An upper room of the house was set aside as a 
place of prayer, and in the dressing-room the women 
found hot water, towels ,and everything necessary for 
their ablutions. When we visited this room two of the 
older women were saying the noon prayers. On the 
chairs in the meeting-hall printed programmes of the 
day's work were placed for the delegates, and, later, 
copies of the President's speech were distributed. Re- 
ports of the conference and copies of Jahanara Begam's 
two addresses on polygamy were sent, some weeks later, 
to those interested in the proceedings. 

On arriving we were warmly welcomed by a number 
of our Moslem friends and, once inside the curtains, 
we came upon a scene of the utmost animation. The 
gaily decorated assembly hall was crowded with pict- 
uresque and chattering ladies, children and nurses 
moved freely about, and the atmosphere was heavy with 
the scent used by many of the women. It was notice- 
able, however, that most of the ladies were quietly 
dressed. This was to make the poorer ladies feel quite 
at liberty to attend the conference. One of the speak- 
ers emphasised this later, urging that, for the same 
reason, the ladies who came from a distance should 
travel "intermediate" instead of "second class" on the 
trains, and that simple food should be eaten by all. 

The lack of concentration common to most oriental 
women was responsible for the unwearied patience with 
which the audience sat through the long four hour 
sessions, with their many reports, resolutions, speeches, 
poems, devotional acts and discussion. At the begin- 
ing of each session an enormous Koran was carried in. 
Often the ladies who handled it kissed it, before it was 
laid on the table, when its wrappings were removed. 
Portions from this volume were read in Arabic and then 
explained in the vernacular, the audience standing 


At the first session, after this reading, the President, 
Abru Begam of Bhopal, was asked to take the chair; 
and in a clear voice she gave her address, a lengthy one 
and a feature of the conference. The address, like all 
the proceedings of the Conference, was in Urdu. In 
her address the President drew a rather dismal picture 
of Western education and its results. She quoted an 
Egyptian's objections to modern education for women, 
saying that some results were: 

1. The women do not like housework. 

2. They become extravagant about dress. 

3. They sing and play the piano in order to fit them- 
selves to associate with cultured women of the West. 

4. They spend their time reading love-stories. 

5. They do not live economically. 

6. They wish to marry for love, money or good looks. 
Owing to the early age at which Indian girls mature, 

the President was of the opinion that education between 
the ages of 5 and 15 should be sufficient; and some 
useful occupations she suggested for women who must 
become self-supporting were writing, copying, book- 
binding, and making caps and laces. She approved of 
marriages made at about twenty years of age, for one 
reason because the children born in such marriages 
were more numerous. Towads the close of her speech 
she said : ''Ladies, do not misunderstand me. I am not 
opposed to the higher education of women. It is a 
natural tendency of all human beings, whether men or 
women, that they wish to achieve the highest education 
possible. As far as I interpret the meaning of educa- 
tion every Moslem woman should understand her reli- 
gion, should perceive her domestic duties, and should 
have a knowledge of her national legends and history. 
Women should look after the hygiene of their children 
and know housekeeping, and should possess the qualities 
of national loyalty and religious enthusiasm * * * 
Other qualifications belong to the natural state of wom- 
en. To achieve this kind of education it is necessary 
for us to have our own system." As means to this end 
she urged "that a Moslem Women's University be es- 


tablished at Aligarh, the women to raise the money 
themselves." In conclusion she said that women were 
following the men in an attitude of indifference toward 
their religion, and that this was a weak point. The life 
of Moslems was bound up with their religion. The 
women's part was to make their ideals practical by 
living them. 

During the conference many speeches were made, on 
the following subjects: The need of reform in the cus- 
toms of living, such as the necessity of education in 
domestic science and simple home hygiene, economy and 
simplicity in dress, and less extravagance at weddings 
and funerals. It was insisted that orphanages and 
schools were needed, and that as the mission schools 
teach the Gospel so the Koran must be taught in Mos- 
lem schools. Special courses of study for less educated 
women, and translations into Urdu of good English 
books were recommended. Firmer adherence to re- 
ligious beliefs, and more strict observance of fasting 
and prayer were enjoined. Some money for various 
educational and philanthropic purposes was collected, 
a method for collecting funds similar to the Christian 
missionary box being introduced. Resolutions to put 
into practice all these reforms were signed by the ladies. 
^'This is in order to convince the men that we are in 
earnest, and to prove to them that we can accomplish 
these reforms," one of my friends remarked. 

One of the most interesting features of the confer- 
ence, and one which has called forth considerable dis- 
cussion in the Lahore newspapers, was an address on 
second marriages given by Mrs. Shah Nawaz Sahiba 
of Lahore — (Jahan Ara Begam, daughter of Mr. Mo- 
hammed Shafi). This young woman is an example of 
oriental modesty and charm, plus a Western education. 
She is one of the younger and more progressive set, is 
a fine speaker and devoutly religious. She observes 
"pardah," however, feeling that the time is not ripe to 
abandon the custom. In her first address, delivered at 
the second session of the conference, she first referred 
to the prosperous days of Islam, when "the sun of Mo- 


hammedanism * * * high in the heavens was with its 
golden rays making the world a garden of heaven." 
And she declared that "the success of Mohammedanism 
was due to its godliness, truthfulness, simplicity, humil- 
ity, justice and mercy." Then she went on, in a dif- 
ferent strain; "But alas, at the present day the state of 
the followers of Mohammed is not to be compared with 
that of the past. We have forgotten the golden pre- 
cepts by acting upon which we gained honor in our 
own religion and in the eyes of the world, and we have 
to such an extent given up acting in accordance with 
these precepts that we are a shame to our holy religion. 
People who allow oppression to creep in under the 
cloak of religion receive the recompense of their wick- 
edness. One of the shameful acts of oppression in Is- 
lam is the custom of plural marriages," which, she 
affirmed, "is prevalent and increasing among the best 
educated and most influential class of young Mussul- 
mans," and she called upon the men as well as the wom- 
en of Islam to once for all, abandon this practice of 
plural marriages as fatal to national progress and con- 
trary to the principles of Islam, "a religion which is 
too holy to countenance such a pernicious custom." 
"True," she said, "the Koran allows four wives, but it 
enjoins an equal treatment of all four, and as this is 
impossible for any man, no one should marry more than 
one wife." 

There was a storm of applause at the conclusion of 
her address. Her contention was supported by a num- 
ber of other speakers, one of whom boldly suggested 
that "the Government of India be called upon to abol- 
ish polygamy as it abolished 'suttee.' "* Only one 
Persian lady spoke in favour of the custom, saying that 
she preferred to maintain her place in her husband's 
heart by affection rather than by law — and that she 
would gladly face three other wives if her master 
wished it. The President, Abru Begam, said that all 

•The practice formerly followed by the Hindu wife of burning herself alive on her 
husband's funeral pyre. This was abolished, as being "culpable homicide," by lyord 
William Bentinck in 1829. 


the things Jahan Ara Begam had said about the evils of 
polygamy were true, nothing had been exaggerated, but 
that it was woman's duty to obey the Koran, which says 
a man may have four wives. Man's ill-treatment of 
woman, not the Koran, is the cause of the trouble. In 
this matter the women were facing a serious question of 
Mohammedan law; and how could the law be set aside? 
This matter must be taken to wiser minds than theirs 
for consultation. Therefore she would take the signed 
resolution, (to the effect that the women would not give 
their daughters to men who had other wives) to the 
Begam of Bhopal, (the Mohammedan ruling princess 
of that progressive state), and leave it in her hands. 
All acquiesced in this suggestion, and while the signa- 
tures to the resolution were being taken, a hymn, in 
praise of Mohammed, was sung! 

The second address of Jahan Ara Begam on polyg- 
amy was not actually given at the Conference, but was 
written out to defend her position, after she had been 
bitterly attacked in the local papers for the speech men- 
tioned above. In this she stated that her object in 
speaking as she did at the Conference was not to curry 
favor with anyone, but that she had been moved to that 
act solely on account of her suffering Moslem sisters. 
She was willing, for their sake, to endure cursing and 
blame, to hear herself called a blasphemer and a Chris- 
tian, and to have her brothers in the faith say that this 
request to abandon polygamy came because of Christian 
missionary influence, and her modern education. In 
spite of the fact that some said that her speech was "not 
only unfit for consideration, but that it was not even 
worth looking at, and that, moreover, the paper on 
which such writings were inscribed should be torn into 
bits," she declared she would continue to cry out against 
polygamy until she was shown "five or ten examples of 
Mohammedan men in the whole of India" who were 
living in perfect equity and justice, as the Prophet lived 
with his wives. "Brothers of Islam," she said, "do not 
blame your holy and true religion for actions which 
it is far from countenancing * * * that religion, which, 


up till now, has given such privileges to women as no 
other religion has done. Don't permit such persecution 
to go on!" In the course of this second address she not 
only told the story of an abandoned wife of sixteen 
years of age, but gave an interesting list of reasons put 
forth by men as excuses for marrying a second time. 
"The first wives have been uneducated, ugly, immoral, 
some disfigured by plague, or subject to epileptic fits, 
some older than their husbands, some ignorant how to 
bring up their children, and others not sufficiently mod- 
ern in their ways." Sometimes, she said, the first wives 
and their children were left in actual want. 

At the third session of the Conference the most in- 
teresting feature was the profession of allegiance to 
Islam made by the English wife of a Moslem. This 
lady had been won to Mohammedanism at the Mosque 
in Woking, and, as all women who become followers of 
the Prophet are expected to marry Mohammedans, she 
came to Lahore as a Moslem bride. At a previous 
session she had recited some of the prescribed prayers. 
The President, in reply to her public profession of 
faith, said that "honor is due to all who become Mo- 
hammedans." The Conference report states that this 
English woman is "reading the Koran with great zeal. 
May God give her faith and power." 

May God indeed grant faith, power and wisdom, 
not only to this English girl but to all these earnest and 
awakening Moslem women of India, that they may 
come to know and serve Him who said, "I am the 
way, the truth, and the life, no man cometh to the 
Father but my Me." 

Marguerite B. Walter. 
Lahore, India, 



Our household marketing was always done at a little 
corner shop kept by a Mohammedan in Ras Beirut. 
This man, by patient industry, had prospered until he 
owned his own shop, possessed property and had money 
to lend. He was respected by his neighbors, was honest 
in business and conscientious in his religious practices. 
Whenever the Muezzin called for prayer, he was one 
of the faithful who was always found in the Mosque. 
He was also a diligent student of his Koran, a typically 
devout Mohammedan, seeking to know the teachings of 
his Prophet and trying to the best of his ability to live 
according to the light he had. 

With the coming of war his fortunes changed. Peo- 
ple could not pay their debts, the property had to be 
mortgaged, the shop was closed and at last this pros- 
perous merchant was driving a donkey before him and 
peddling from door to door. But still he remained 
faithful to his religious practices and gave expression 
to the conviction that this trouble had come upon him 
and his fellow Mohammedans because they had been 
greedy to gain wealth and had neglected the practices 
of their religion. He also felt that this great world 
calamity was the beginning of the end, as many of owr 
Church people in America have believed, and he felt 
that the final judgment was at hand. His view was 
probably typical of a great many of the devout Moham- 
medans through Syria. Like the prophets of old they 
saw the shrines forsaken, the ritual services neglected 
and the people overwhelmed because of their material 
greed and their lack of religious observances. 

Other Mohammedans met the distressing situation 
not so philosophically, but more practically. A com- 



mittee of prominent Moslems organized relief work in 
the city and carried out quite successfully a distribution 
of food to the needy. Mohammedan women organized 
an orphanage and were showing great sympathy and 
ability in the way in which they gathered the children 
and had them cared for. 

As soon as war was declared, the Turkish govern- 
ment abolished the foreign capitulations and published 
a new educational law. According to this law it was 
forbidden to require the students of one religion to at- 
tend prayers or the religious instruction of another re- 
ligion. The old requirement, therefore, that Moham- 
medan students in attendance upon mission schools 
should study the Bible and attend Chapel services, had 
to be given up. Perhaps because of this regulation, 
perhaps because of the close of other foreign schools, 
or it may be of an awakening to a greater realization of 
their need of Western education, large numbers of Mo- 
hammedan boys flocked to the American schools. At 
the American College in Beirut before the close of the 
war 51% of the more than 700 students were Mohamme- 

Throughout Syria the Mohammedan political feel- 
ing was effectually turned against the Turkish govern- 
ment because of the strictness with which the officials 
enforced the findings of their court martials and pub- 
licly hanged in the streets of Damascus and Beirut a 
score of Moslem leaders, members of the oldest and 
wealthiest and most powerful families in Syria. At 
the beginning of the war if the Syrian Moslems were 
not enthusiastic in their support of Turkish participa- 
tion, certainly their sympathies were with the Central 
Powers, and in the early days the Christian population 
were somewhat fearful as to the attitude of the Mo- 
hammedans when Turkey entered the war, especially at 
the time of the declaring of the ''Jehad." But when 
they found that the Holy War was not taken very ser- 
iously by their Moslem neighbors, they began to realize 
that Syrian Moslems were not to have their prejudices 
and fanaticisms aroused. Christian leaders also suf- 


fered with the Mohammedans and a number of them 
were hanged at the same time in the city streets. 

Then came the sufferings of famine and disease and 
all fared alike. There was no respect of persons in 
the distress which ensued and there developed a deal 
of sympathy one with another, brought on by the fel- 
lowship of suffering. 

What this will amount to when the reconstruction per- 
iod begins remains to be seen. But one cannot believe 
that the lessons of the experiences of the past four years 
will be utterly lost. From one end of the land to the 
other, the soldiers of the Allies have been looked upon 
as deliverers and when the new day dawns, the service 
which has been rendered cannot be forgotten; and it 
must be that a better understanding and greater sym- 
pathy will result between the different religions. There 
is a lamentable feeling on the part of Syrian Christians 
that the Mohammedan is beyond the pale of salvation. 
It is difficult for him to recognize the average Moslem 
as also a child of God, or to admit that it is worth while 
to extend to him the same offer of fellowship with God 
that he himself enjoys. There must be learned over 
again the lesson of the Jerusalem council in the days of 
Paul. But the common experiences of these past days 
gives us hope that there will be found a sympathetic 
approach and understanding which has never before 

Wm. H. Hall. 


Corresponding to the lore among our Turkish friends 
connected with saints is that relating to jinns or evil 
spirits and the evil eye. 

Turkish jinns of modern times differ from their 
cousins, the genii of Arabian Nights stories, in that they 
work only harm to men. Anatolians have no trouble 
with the belief in a personal devil and his demon legions 
which is the background of what we find in the Gos- 
pels on this subject. To the ordinary people of the 
country, earth and air and sky are peopled with spirits 
malign as well as benign, and to neutralize the one is 
quite as important as to utilize the other. 

An old hoja, venerable in beard and robe of fur, once 
informed me that God first created the holy angels, then 
the devilish jinns of seventy-two classes corresponding 
to the seventy-two races of men, and finally God created 
man with character and possibilities partly angelic and 
partly devilish. The nature of jinns may be under- 
stood from the fact that one day after the afternoon call 
to prayer they destroyed 80,000 prophets. This was 
before the creation of man! How there could be 
80,000 prophets before the creation of man is a question 
that perhaps never occurred to the hoja, and if one 
should put it before him it might seem like needless 
homiletic nicety. For this offense Allah wiped the 
jinns out; that is, he wiped them out of sight, and now 
they are seldom allowed to appear to human eyes. 
There is also a gruesome fear of ghosts, especially in 
case of a recent death or in the neighborhood of a ceme- 
tery. Jinns are to be expected on moors, by rushing 
streams or roaring mills, in dark corners and lonely 
places, where they lurk to work harm to the unwary. 



They bewitch people and things, and deprive men of 
their reason; they bind "spells," and pervert the ordi- 
nary operation of beneficient natural law; they cause 
sickness, deformity, lunacy, epilepsy and even death. 
Things ought to go well in this world, but they don't, 
because of the activities of these bad jinns. 

Fear of the evil eye seems to be a weakened form of 
the belief in hurtful jinns, and both are perhaps, a rem- 
nant of old-time devil worship. Indeed the Yezidees 
of eastern Asia Minor are alleged to be devil worship- 
pers now. Their theory is the negative one of trying 
to get through life without laying one's self liable to 
penalty or persecution. God will do men no harm, 
being of a benevolent disposition, and if they can only 
"square" Satan, if they can only keep the powers of 
evil inactive, they will get through the world reason- 
ably well. The chosen people of the old covenant 
"sacrificed unto demons, which were no God," (Deut 
32:17) "yea, they sacrificed their sons and their daugh- 
ters unto demons," (Ps. 106:37). In the time of Paul 
we find him saying: "The things which the Gentiles 
sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons, and not to God: and 
I would not that ye should have communion with de- 
mons. Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the 
cup of demons, ye cannot partake of the table of the 
Lord, and of the table of demons" (I Cor. 10:20, 21). 
People generally are not Yezidees, as we meet them 
now, but even the intelligent assert and believe that 
"if we say three-fourths of the dead are in their graves 
because of the evil eye, we would not be at fault." 
They are horribly afraid of the "glance" of a person 
of "short stature, blue eyes and fair hair." But wheth- 
er some dreaded "eye" is seen or not, many souls pass 
their worldly existence in bondage to this fear. 

Thus it becomes serious business to break, or better 
yet to avoid, the wiles of the jinn and the spell of the 
evil eye. One method, naturally, is to invoke the aid of 
saints and all good powers. The Moslem teacher, 
Solomon Hoja^ after relating that the earth is full of 
jinns, said that to avoid danger when one goes out at 


night he should ''read" constantly, at any rate he should 
read (that is, repeat sacred passages from memory) just 
as he leaves the house door, and particularly as 'he puts 
on his shoes. If he does so he is safe for that walk, 
especially if he also gently blows in different directions, 
for blowing the breath is very efficacious in warding off 
evil spirits, as also is spitting in any direction from 
which they may be feared. Amulets and charms are 
very powerful, and their use is all but universal. 

Piles of small stones are often seen by the roadside, 
and passersby heap them higher by adding a stone or 
two to secure "traveler's luck." One theory is that the 
pile of stones holds the evil spirits down, and pre- 
vents their doing harm to people from home. If 
by casting a small stone on a pile a wagoner may secure 
protection for a mile, it is a cheap form of insurance, 
when on any mile of the road a horse may sicken, the 
wagon break down, or robbers waylay the driver. 

Lunacy, epilepsy and other afflictions are attributed 
to possession by demons. A man who could not con- 
trol his mouth properly, probably owing to paralysis, 
told me that he attributed it to the jinns. If a person 
is believed to be possessed, one form of treatment is to 
heat an iron chain red-hot, form it into a ring, and pass 
the suffering person through the loop, on the theory 
that evil spirits cannot pass the hot chain, and so they 
are torn loose from their victim and left behind. Al- 
most every Oriental church has its room for the treat- 
ment of the insane. They are brought to the sacred 
building, placed in this room, which is usually very 
bare and often underground, and allowed to remain 
over night. Then the friends earnestly look for signs 
of returning reason, and, if they find them, take the suf- 
ferer home with cheer; if they see no sign of improve- 
ment, they prolong the detention in hope that the recov- 
ery will take place in time. 

To continue the Christian parallel, the Armenian 
monastery near our city has a hand cased in silver al- 
leged to be the dead hand of St. Andrew. In one in- 
stance an insane person was locked in the room with 


this relic over night, and pronounced quite rational in 
the morning. The office of exorcist has been of much 
importance in the eastern churches, and prayers for the 
banning or exorcism of evil spirits are in constant use. 
At the baptism of an infant the priest recites prayers 
over the w^ater to purge it of such evil presence, and 
blows toward the four points of the compass across the 
font for the same purpose. Twice a year or more the 
priests sprinkle each house of their congregation with 
holy water to drive away lurking spirits, and that pre- 
cautions may never be omitted, sacred pictures are hung 
upon the house walls. These pictures are of saints of 
the church, and are hung first for forty days in the 
church to hallow them. Then they are put upon the 
wall of a humble house, and little lamps filled with pure 
olive oil are often kept alight before them, especially at 
the sacred seasons in the calendar. 

A village woodman of Moslem faith living not far 
from my home thought his companions called him to 
rise and go as usual to the forest. Though it was night, 
he set out, and followed a phantom leader a dozen 
miles with bare and bleeding feet, until he came to a 
place known as God's valley, and there he saw a big 
meeting of jinns, — thousands of them, a veritable pan- 
demonium. A venerable person was at their head, as 
king, a sort of Beelzebub, and the sight finally over- 
came the woodman and drove him away. His phantom 
leader then brought him to a point near his home and 
left him, but after that experience the man was epilep- 
tic and dumb. His friends took him to a famous holy 
man to '^read" over him. This was done, and the dumb 
man was relieved to such an extent that he spoke and 
related his story as given here, but he continued sub- 
ject to epileptic attacks about once a month. One of my 
acquaintance, a Georgian by race, claims to be a success- 
ful exorcist, and tells me of various cases he has cured. 
His standard remedy is to write a passage from the Law 
of Moses, the Psalms, the Gospels or the Koran, and 
bind it on the neck of the patient. 

Dervishes and others are believed to call up familiar 


spirits. Compare the difficult passage concerning the 
woman of Endor, (i Sam. 28:7-25). A dervish search- 
es his sacred volumes amid the ruins of some deserted 
village or old castle, and endeavors to learn from famil- 
iar spirits where to look for buried treasure. The cus- 
tom must be very common, for every foreigner is be- 
lieved to be able to locate hidden treasure in this way. 
My Georgian friend is a professional jinnji, who claims 
to deal with familiar spirits, to wield occult powers and 
to exorcise demons. He has invited me to be present 
and witness his ceremony of exorcism at some conven- 
ient opportunity. But he has even more earnestly pro- 
posed that we should join forces, form a partnership 
and by combining our skill, endeavor to locate hidden 
treasure in certain Hittite ruins on a site with which 
we are both familiar, and with the supposition on his 
part that there is a good prospect of our locating bur- 
ied treasure of fabulous value. If a robbery has been 
committed a dervish or hoja may be summoned, who 
for a small fee will "read" over a cup of water in 
which some member of the family, preferably a child, 
may then see black jinns, and from them learn such in- 
formation as whether the thieves were male or female 
young or old, tall or short, fair or swarthy, departed to 
the east or west, and the like. Acting on this infor- 
mation the parties then endeavor to track the thieves 
and recover their property. This experiment was tried 
by a constable, whose young son saw three jinns in the 
water, — but they did not catch the thieves. Gipsies 
often have recourse to the same means, and would hard- 
ly continue it if they did not find some satisfactory re- 
ward in doing so. 

Near us is an important coast and commercial city, 
and the governor of the district is the absolute ruler of 
a quarter million people. I once called on the governor 
in company with the official inspector of agriculture, a 
Greek gentleman with a European education. As I 
walked with the inspector through the governor's vine- 
yard, my attention was attracted by a "tink, tink" sound, 
which I soon found came from a tiny windmill set up on 


a pole. Each revolution of the wheel raised a little 
tin rod which dropped and produced the tinking noise. 
What was the purpose of the wind-mill and its little 
noise? To keep the evil eye off the vineyard, by fixing 
its attention upon the unusual sight and sound of the 
little mill. 

To keep the evil eye from a child, blue beads are 
put upon it; to avert it from a field, garden, tree or 
threshing floor, a skull of some animal is erected on a 
pole; to counteract its influence on a mill, a great pla- 
card with the words "wonder of God" is nailed to the 
roof; to protect a dwelling, a bunch of garlic or a pair 
of deer's antlers is fixed in a conspicuous place; to pre- 
vent milk from souring, bits of charcoal are laid upon 
it; to protect a camel, its saddle is made of a particular 
kind of wood; and so forward ad infinitum. People's 
notions and fears of the evil eye vary with their en- 
vironment and the degree of their intelligence, but 
there is no marked difference traceable to religious con- 

I was once asked by a villager whom I had never 
seen before to tie a knot on a string he had wound 
around his wrist. It seems he had malaria, attributed 
it to some evil influence, and thought he might use me 
to bind the spell. His notion was, perhaps, not that I 
would hold an acceptable brief for him with the super- 
human powers, but that I as a Christian, would be so 
unacceptable as to attract the evil being, and release 
him. I would thus render a service similar to that per- 
formed by a skull planted on a pole in a garden, whose 
unsightliness transfixes the evil eye, and leaves the ten- 
der plants to grow without harm. 

Just as a bridal couple entered their new home I once 
observed an old woman smashing an earthen dish at 
their feet. Her idea was that as we see human life 
we may safely infer that there are superhuman and in- 
human forces at work which are likely to smash some- 
thing. It is better, therefore, to get the start of them, 
to keep them quiet by doing their work for them, and 
lose the value of a cheap dish rather than endanger the 


health or property of the new household. If such a 
superstition is not a survival of devil worship, I know 
not how to account for it. 

On the whole, the power most trusted, whether as a 
prophylactic against or as a remedy for the ill effects 
of evil spirits or evil eyes, i^ "reading," that is, reciting 
from some of the sacred books. If a sheep does not 
come in from its pasturage at nightfall, read to protect 
it. Then if a wolf pursues, it cannot catch the sheep; 
if it catches, cannot bite it; if it bites, cannot pull its 
teeth out; and the sheep will reach home dragging the 
wolf as its victim, or rather as the victim of the power- 
ful reading. If the charm does not work, — God knows 

For many people, almost the whole life is passed in 
bondage to this fear. They are especially anxious for 
young and tender plants and animals, and tell how often 
they have seen such an object helpless and beloved over- 
taken by some "stroke." A foreigner soon learns not to 
praise children, or even a driver's horses, without add- 
ing an expression like "wonder of God" to avert the 
evil eye which might be attracted by the praise. Some 
have supposed that Orientals were indifferent to chil- 
dren because they do not express appreciation of them 
in the presence of strangers and resent such expressions 
from strangers. Really Orientals love their children 
exceedingly well, but they dread the awful bewitching. 
They fear to leave a baby alone in a house, lest jinns 
get it, but a measure of protection is attributed to the 
presence of a broom. Native Christians sometimes fix 
a cross composed of sticks of wood over the chimney of 
the house to prevent witches from flying down and 
strangling the little children. A driver on the road is 
easily troubled about his horses, lest they suffer from 
some evil glance. If he tells you his trouble, you may 
recommend him to blow or spit gently toward any per- 
son he suspects, and he will probably tell you that he 
does so every time he sees any reason for suspicion, but 
the charm doesn't alway seem to work perfectly. It is 


always dangerous to whistle, for you may summon evil 
spirits by doing so. 

Some persons claim to exercise the power of the evil 
eye. One man, boasting of his accomplishment, called 
the attention of another to the third camel of a passing 
caravan, and immediately the beast stumbled and fell. 
Its saddle, however, was made of the right kind of 
wood, and the animal rose and went on its way without 
further harm. Usually one does not like such a repu- 
tation, and may have his life made miserable by possess- 
ing it. People come and cut slivers from the threshold 
of a person thus feared, to use by way of antidote, and 
I have heard of old women whose thresholds would be 
so cut away in consequence that it would be necessary to 
renew the wood several times a year. If milk from a 
cow unaccountably sours, the owner will not sell any 
more, unless perhaps he ventures to do so after tying 
a powerful writing wrapped up in leather to the horn 
of his cow. Greek miners, serfs under Turkish feudal- 
ism, sometimes quake at a vision of phantom men, tall, 
large and hairy. A miner then knows that he has found 
a rich vein of ore, and further that he has not long to 
live. And to pass from things below to things above 
earth, an eclipse of the sun or moon is habitually attri- 
buted to a jinn or dragon trying to swallow the heaven- 
ly luminary. The people then get out at once with 
guns, tin pans, and anything than can make a noise, 
and try to intimidate and frighten away the awful 
monster. The sun and moon are always saved, and 
people rejoice that their efforts have been successful. 

People seriously fear to be cursed, and probably at 
bottom the reason is that they fear curses will release 
the power of evil spirits, or will neutralize all the in- 
tercession and influence of beneficent spirits. Evil be- 
ings are too many and too strong to be treated with 
impunity. Life in the Orient is sombre. Even its mu- 
sic is in minor keys and mournful. Our fellow human 
beings pass their days in bondage unto fear. 

George E. White. 

Marsovan, Turkey, 


A Moslem Student of Hinduism 

A recent number of the Hindustan Review (Madras) gives an appre- 
ciation of Khan Abdul Aziz, M. A., of Allahabad University, who has 
passed the examinations in Sanskrit and shown a truly catholic spirit 
through his studies of a non-Islamic faith. 

"As a school boy the Khan Sahib was irresistibly drawn to the study 
of Sanskrit language and literature. Fortunately for him he had as his 
teacher of Sanskrit a Brahmin Pandit of great erudition 
and wide sympathies who not only helped him along the 
slippery places but instilled into his mind a love for San- 
skrit literature. The Khan Sahib was an apt pupil and 
made such progress in his studies that even as a school boy he was quite 
capable of holding his own against any student of the F. A. class. In 
those days students from these parts appeared in Sanskrit for the exami- 
nations of the Oriental Faculty of the Punjab University. The Khan 
Sahib whose devotion to Sanskrit amounted almost to a passion made 
up his mind, soon after passing the entrance examination, to appear 
for the Prajna (proficiency in Sanskrit language and literature) exami- 
nation. This is the more remarkable for being a Mohammedan he had 
to battle against prejudice and other difficulties such as depending, in 
the absence of a teacher, on his own unaided efforts and the notes sup- 
plied to him by a friend \^ho, being a Brahmin, enjoyed the inestimable 
advantage of being taught by Bramin Pandits. Being a diligent student 
the Khan Sahib's efforts were crowned with success, for he was placed 
second in order of merit in the Prajna examination of that year. 

"In 1896 while reading for the degree examination he obtained the 
first prize for a speech in Sanskrit delivered in connection with the 
Nagpur Oration Competition — the text of his speech being IX — 22 verse 
of the Bhagwad Gita." 

"It is pleasing to note that he has distinguished himself in a branch 
of Sanskrit learning which is beyond the powers of many a well-read 
gentleman of our country and which recalls to memory the achieve- 
ments of Abul Fazl and Faizi whose predilection for Sanskrit literature 
and philosophy earned for them the undying hatred of the orthodox 
portion of the Mohammedan community of the days of Akbar. The 
times have, however, happily changed, for the Mohammedan community 
of today feels justly proud of the distinction achieved by one of its mem- 
bers. But there is a public side to it and we fully endorse what a high 
government official says regarding the Khan Sahib's success. "Separa- 
tion between your own great community of Mohammedans and the 
Hindus can never be so great again when a Mohammedan has made 
such a bridge and shown to much appreciation of Hindu learning.'* 

The Decadence of Islam 

Mohammedans, like the Hindus, are becoming increasingly tinged 

with the pessimistic view that the golden age is past and gone. We have 

been reading a book just published, by a Moslem, on the History and 

Problems of Moslem Education in Bengal. The author tells how 



"from the numerous schools and academies of Granada, Baghdad, and 
Damascus, the Mussulmans once taught the world the gentle lessons of 
philosophy and the practical teachings of stern science. . . . To think 
of those palmy days of Islam and the present fallen condition of the 
Mussulmans in India. Arts and letters are almost dead; science and 
philosophy have taken shelter in other lands; faith has lost her grip; 
even the spirit of Islam, in which the Moslem lived and died, is fast 
waning in our midst. Nowhere has this fall been so complete as in this 
presidency. We are hopelessly fallen, and have managed to forget our 
glorious history and the lofty ideals of Islam. Our ideal has no longer 
the same charm for us. Our history does no longer animate us to the 
same spirit of world activity. If ever a people stood in need of human 
S5rmpathies and co-operation, of government aid and patronage, it is we, 
the Mussulmans of Bengal. Poor in education, lost in power, shut out 
from all legitimate and noble vocations of life by force of circumstances 
and stress of competition, and, lastly, reduced to the lowest stage of 
penury, we find ourselves hopelessly lost in the battle of life. And all 
this is due to our want of proper training and education." 

A German Appeal to Mohammedans in Africa 

According to the New York Times the following letter was written 
by Captain Falkenstein to Chief Isa, a Mohammedan teacher who has 
great influence in East Africa on the border between Lake Nyasa and 
Rhodesia. According to the newspaper the letter was written both in 
Arabic and in the native tongue of the people. The text was as 
follows : 

"First, greetings, and then I inform thee that thy letter has reached 
me here. I have received thy news. The Holy War has now spread 
over the entire world. The Holy War is being preached in Egypt, 
Tunis, Algeria, Tripoli, Afghanistan, Beluchistan, Persia, half of India, 
the Sudan, and the land of the Nubians — in fact, all over the world. 

"The Mohammedans are fighting with the Germans and Austrians 
against English, French, Italians, Serbians, and Japanese. Everjrwhere 
the enemy is being defeated. The Turks, under the Padishah of Stam- 
boul, have beaten the Russians many times. They have sunk many 
English and French ships. The French are nearly driven out of Mo- 
rocco, and in Tripoli the Italians have been soundly defeated by the 
Mohammedans Our Russian enemies and the English have been driven 
out of Persia. The English have fled from Afghanistan and Beluch- 

"Now the children of the Padishah are coming into power. There 
are soldiers of the Holy War in the Punjab and in India. Everywhere 
the Germans and the Austrians have beaten the French and the Russians. 
In fact, the Russians and the French are practically beaten to a standstill. 
The English are not yet entirely defeated, but they have lost a great 
many of their soldiers and a great many of their warships have been 
sunk. More than 500 of their steamers have been sunk. 

"Here in East Africa our soldiers have struck the English railroad in 
several places and torn up the tracks. Our Askaris have blown up three 
railroad bridges. Many railway coaches have been destroyed. Some 
Englishmen and many English Askaris have fallen. The Belgian 
Askaris have been defeated every\vhere. Many of them have fallen and 
many have surrendered. There are many German Askaris here in 
Nyasaland now. With them are many Mohammedans, and we plan to 
strike a great blow. 

"Now, every Mohammedan knows that he must die. But he also 


knows that he dies for Allah. Allah has seen the flag of the Holy War 
with his own eyes. And thou must not fail to send me news at once 
and the names of these Wangonis, as we wish to know their countersigns 
and to meet their leaders. 

"Ask them in all secrecy. Use wise men who are capable of guarding 
our secret, and thou and thy people will find favor in the eyes of the 

The Aga Khan*s Vision of a Greater India 

In his recent book entitled "India in Transition," H. H. the Aga 
Khan expresses the hope that in the near future there will be a great 
southern Asiatic federation, of which India would be the pivot and 
center. The Asiatic Review commenting on his book and quoting the 
dimensions of this federation says : 

"A vast agglomeration of States, Principalities, and Countries in Asia, 
extending from Aden to Mesopotamia — from the two shores of the 
Gulf to India proper, from India proper across Burma, and including 
the Malay Peninsula, and thence from Ceylon to the States of Bokhara, 
and from Tibet to Singapore.' This Federation would affect some four 
hundred million human beings, made up of races manifold. But in 
order that India may be prepared to occupy the proud position of pivot 
and center, certain reforms within herself are necessary, and these 
possible reforms the Aga Khan discusses in detail. 

As he justly says, "the broad aim must be to make India sufficiently 
well-equipped educationally to give her sons the general and special 
culture they seek, so that the ambitious should no longer be under the 
virtual compulsion to spend years of their normal student life abroad." 

In many parts of the book true and somber pictures are drawn of the 
social disorganization and economic backwardness from which India 
suffers, but it is urged that this constitutes no reason for denying political 
reform, and that India really wants, not only social and economic, but 
also political advancement, with which social and economic reforms can- 
not be brought to fruitful maturity. The Aga Khan accordingly insists 
that the basis of the autonomous State should be broadened, in order to 
give the people as a whole occasion for understanding and responding to 
the call of sacrifice for the Commonwealth. The claim, therefore, of 
women to share in the election of National Assemblies is an unanswer- 
able one, for it cannot be maintained that women are less capable than 
the men of realizing the need for sacrifice, and it would be wrong to 
impose on them the acceptation of responsibility to society at large with- 
out participation in the political shaping of the State. This being so, 
the Aga Khan has no hesitation in laying it down as his belief that 

"The progressive modernization which depends on co-operation 
and understanding between the rulers and the ruled w^ill be im- 
possible in India unless women are permitted to play their legiti- 
mate part in the great work of national regeneration on a basis of 
political equality." 

This is plain speaking for a Moslem, and arising out of the status of 
Indian women the Aga Khan discusses — like the Indian gentleman he 
is — British and Indian social relations, and points out that the keynote 
to improved relations is the cultivation of real affinities. 

Baptisms in Western China 
"Mr. Ridley recently reported eighteen baptisms at Sining, including 
that of the first Moslem in the district to confess Christ. This man will 
need our prayers, as he will doubtless be subjected to persecution. Mr. 


Jamieson, writing from Hingi, in Kweichow, mentions openings for 
work among Moslems in that center. The local Ahung has made 
frequent visits. Other Mohammedans have been attending the meet- 
ings, and appear to be interested in the Gospel." 

The Bakr-id Festival at Calcutta 

The following account of the festival held this year is taken from 
The Englishman and describes certain practices peculiar to India which 
will interest our readers. We give the account verbatim: 

"The Bakr-Id, one of the two great festivals of the Mohammedans, 
was celebrated in Calcutta on Tuesday and passed off quietly. 

"This is a feast held on the lOth Zil Hijjah in honour, it is said, of 
Abraham's intending to offer up Ismail, who, they aver, was chosen as 
the offering to the Almighty and not Is-hak, grounding their assertions 
on traditions which they deem conclusive evidence on the subject. The 
offering thus made is annually commemorated by the sacrifice of animals, 
such as camels, cows, sheep, goats, kids, or lambs, according to each 
person's means, which answer the double purpose of honouring the 
memory of Abraham and Ismail and as food. The followers of Mo- 
hammed believe that the entrance to paradise is guarded by a bridge, 
Pul-i-Sirat, as narrow as a scythe, affording a precarious and unstable 
footing. To enable them, therefore, to pass without danger, they be- 
lieve that the animals they have sacrificed at the Id will be present to 
lend their aid in helping them over with lightning celerity. This festival 
called by the Arabs "Id-ul-Zoha," day of sacrifice, and the "Id-ul-Fitr" 
are the two great festivals of the Mohammedans. 

"From an early hour crowds of Mohammedans, gaily attired and 
perfumed with atar, attended the various mosques throughout the city 
to say their Namaz prayers. Batch after batch of worshippers suc- 
ceeded each other, the largest attendance being at the Nakoda Mosque 
in Chitpore Road which is the biggest mosque in Calcutta. 

"In addition there were bands of devout Mohammedans who said 
their prayers on the maidan near the tank opposite Lindsay Street, and 
also at the tramway junction at Esplanade and Chowringhee. 

"The Kabulis celebrated the Bakr-Id in their own fashion. Dressed 
in clean, white, flowing garments, with bright coloured waistcoats, their 
hair well oiled and carrying their inevitable lathis, some hundreds of 
them assembled on the Maidan alongside the Ochterlony Monument in 
the early morning. After saying their prayers, facing the Holy Places, 
as all Moslems do, they indulged in dancing. At the conclusion of their 
religious rites, quite a large number of them engaged taxis and went for 
joy rides, while others visited friends. Later, in the afternoon, they met 
at their headquarters in Nebutolla Lane and sat down to a burra khana. 

"After the early morning prayers there was the usual sacrifice of 
animals at the Amratolla Mosque. 

"Various precautions were taken by the authorities. There was no 
disturbance of any kind." 

A Recent Moslem Miracle 

A young Moslem recently wrote to a Christian missionary in India 
as follows: 

"One thing I am going to ask you to know the fact. On the I2th 
June, 191 7, a fish flung itself into the boat of a fisherman fishing in the 
sea near Zanzibar. One purchased the fish, and noticed that the tail 
fin bore marks akin to writing, . . . says the Ceylon Independent, . . . 
He read the Arabic words, 'La ilaha illallah' on one side of the fish, 


and 'Shan Allah' on the other. The first are the Qur'anic words 
meaning, 'There is no deity but Allah,' and the second means 'Majesty 
of Allah.' However, the fact may not be denied, as it was taken to the 
British Residency, and was examined by experts. The markings were 
quite pronounced. Chemicals were used to test whether they were 
natural or not, and after thorough examination it was definitely establ- 
ished that the inscription on the fish was natural. The photographs of 
the fish have been taken. Now it is in safe custody. The photographs 
are being sold by thousands. The owner of the fish has refused an offer 
of Rs. 30,000. It has been placed on public exhibition. The Arabic 
lettering is perfectly plain However, I could not understand what does 
it mean. The photo of the fish can be had from H. H. Abdul Ali, 
Fourth Cross Street, Pettah, Ceylon. I have seen the photo here from a 
Mohammedan student of 4th year class." 

Neglected Arabia 

During the war the doors of inland Arabia have swung open to the 
touch of the medical missionary. Dr. Paul W. Harrison, writing in 
the missionary magazine of the Reformed Church in America says : 

"As to inland Arabia, words fail us. There has been the object of 
our hopes and prayers and the goal of our plans and endeavours for the 
past twenty-eight years. Now, as the doors swing open, who is to enter ? 
Kateef would be glad to have a resident medical missionary now. Hassa 
probably could have been entered before this if anyone had made the 
effort. Riadh itself, the key position of Arabia, and indeed, as some of 
us think, of all Islam, is opening its doors. 

"It is to men whose hearts burn with the fire of Christ's own ambition 
for His world that Arabia makes her appeal. Let Hassa serve as an 
example. Here is a city of probably thirty thousand inhabitants, sur- 
rounded by date gardens which stretch for miles. There are fifty-one 
cities and villages in this area,. many of them cities of thousands, some of 
them mere villages. The evidences of material prosperity are every- 
where. The whole district is one of date gardens, wheat fields, and 
beautiful stretches of dark green alfalfa. It is the richest district of 
Arabia and doubtless also the most densely populated. The inland 
Bedouins come here to trade from almost the entire eastern half of the 
peninsula. The Church of Christ occupies no point in Arabia com- 
parable to this in strategic importance. 

"But it is a bigoted, fanatical place, whose doors are shut to everyone 
except the Medical Missionary. What are the opportunities for medical 
work? Opportunities of the sort that break men. A mass of diseases 
to be treated, of surgery to be done, such as ten men could not overtake. 
Indeed, fifty men could not handle it properly. A sanitary situation as 
bad as hum'an ignorance and filth can make it. The worker in Hassa 
with his little hospital must undertake single-handed the fight against the 
forces of hygienic depravity of the whole eastern part of Arabia. The 
inertia of centuries, ignorance so profound that it is almost sublime, some 
of the bitterest religious prejudices of the world, will all be pitted against 
him. But an inch at a time he will forge ahead and finally win, because 
the promises of God and the laws of God are with him." 

Political Position of the Moslem League in India 

In the recently published Montagu-Chelmsford Report on Indian Con- 
stitutional Reforms, there is the following interesting summary of the 
recent changes in the political position of the Moslem League in India: 

"Throughout the troubled years 1907-10 the Mohammedans, with a 


few exceptions, held severely aloof from the revolutionary movement 
and retained their traditional attitude of sturdy loyalty, secure in the 
feeling — which the partition of Bengal and the concession of communal 
representation in the reforms of 1909 had strengthened — that their 
interests were safe in the hands of the Government. Since 191 1 their 
attitude has been growing far less acquiescent. Their first disquiet 
arose from the war which broke out between Italy and Turkey in 191 1, 
when Great Britain's neutrality engendered some bitterness of feeling. 
It seemed to our Moslems in India that in deference to the religious 
susceptibilities of her seventy million subjects Great Britain ought to 
have supported Turkey. Before this feeling had died down, the re- 
partition of Bengal was announced. This was not only a severe disap- 
pointment to the community because it deprived them of what was 
essentially a Moslem province, but to many it came also as a shock ta 
their faith in the Government which they regarded as positively pledged 
to maintain the partition. The Balkan War was a further cause of 
estrangement. This was represented as a struggle between the Cross 
and the Crescent and led to much bitterness of feeling. Indian Mos- 
lems showed their sympathy for Turkey by despatching a medical mission 
to her aid in December, 191 2, and a section of pan-Islamists began to 
teach that the first duty of Moslems is allegiance to the Khalif, and 
founded a new organization, the Anjuman-i-Khuddam-i-Kaaba, whose 
members took the oath to sacrifice life and property in defense of the 
Holy Shrine against non-Moslem aggressors. There were signs, how- 
ever, of an improvement in Moslem feeling in the latter half of 1913, 
when riots and loss of life in connection with the partial demolition of a 
Cawnpore mosque caused a temporary set-back. The Turks' recovery 
of Adrainople, the declaration of peace in the Balkans and the reaction 
from the passions aroused by the Cawnpore affair induced calmer feel- 
ings; but a fresh difficulty presented itself when Turkey entered the 
war against us in 191 4. The Germans counted certainly on being 
able to stir up disaffection in India, and lost no labor in trying to 
persuade Indian Mohammedans that Turkey was engaged in a Jihad or 
Holy War, and that it was their religious duty to take sides against 
England and her allies. These enemy attempts wholly failed to affect 
the great mass of the Moslem community. Keenly as they felt the painful 
position in which they were placed, they were admirably steadied by 
the great Mohammedan princes and nobles, and preserved an attitude 
of firm loyalty which deserves our praise and sympathy. In this they 
were greatly helped by the public assurance given by His Majesty's 
Government that the question of the Khalifate is one that must be 
decided by Moslems in India and elsewhere without interference from 
non-Moslem powers. But a small section of extremists were quick to 
seize the opportunity of making trouble and ventured on almost open 
avowals of disloyalty against which the Government had no choice but 
to take action. 

Probably few communities could have passed through so prolonged 
a period of trial without some cleavage in their ranks. The crumbling 
of Islamic kingdoms in Morocco and Persia has led Indian Mo- 
hammedans to cling more closely than ever to Turkey as the great 
surviving Moslem power in the world ; and when Turkey was 
threatened, first by Italy and then by the Balkan League, the ex- 
cited fancy of many Indian Moslems saw in these events a con- 
certed plot of the Christian Powers to make an end of Islam as a 
temporal power. The re-partition of Bengal and also the check 


to the hopes entertained of a great Mohammedan university de- 
pressed the minds of many honest Moslems with a sense of their 
inefficiency. There were those who, feeling mainly their political 
weakness compared with the Hindus, wished to have done with 
agitation and excitement, to concentrate effort on education, and 
to rely on Government for protection and fair play. Younger and 
keener minds, touched often with some fervor of pan-Jslamism, 
were no longer willing "stare super antiquas vias." The ad- 
vanced party prevailed in the counsels of the Moslem League; in 
19 1 3 it proclaimed its adoption of the cause of colonial self-gov- 
ernment of a kind suited to India and was warmly eulogised by 
the Congress for so doing. So far as pan-Islamic feeling affected 
the situation, that factor did not tend of course towards union with 
the Hindus; but at the time, stronger causes were at work to 
bring the advanced parties on both sides together. With them, at 
all events, the new nationalism produced by the War prevailed ; 
and at the meetings at Lucknow in Christmas week, 19 16, Con- 
gress and League came formally together and the conservative por- 
tion of Mohammedan opinion, which remained outside the con- 
cordant, was ignored. This agreement, however, represents the 
beginning of united action between Hindus and Mohammedans, 
which every well-wisher of India hopes will grow. 

Early Arab Geography 

It is well known that whilst geography during the Middle Ages 
was at a very low ebb among Christian nations it reached a higher 
development among the Arabs, who alone preserved the more scien- 
tific methods handed down from classical times. New light has 
lately been thrown on the history of the science as cultivated by 
the latter, by the study of the work of the Arab astronomer Mo- 
hammed bin Musa al Huwarizmi (or Hwarazmi). The fact that 
an Arabic version, or adaptation, of Ptolemy's geography was 
made for the Khalif Al Mamun in the ninth century has long been 
known from the statements of Abulfeda, and that its author was 
Mohammed bin Musa was suggested as far back as 1823 by Fraehn. 
A manuscript of the actual work (entitled Kitab surat al ardh, or 'Book 
of the Form of the Earth) was discovered at Cairo by W. Spitta in 
1878, and soon afterwards described by him, being subsequently dis- 
cussed with much acumen by C. A. Nallino in a memoir published by 
the Reale Accademia dei Lincei in 1896. The result of the studies 
of these two scholars was to show that Al Huwarizmi's work was 
not a direct translation of Ptolemy, but was written as an explana- 
tory accompaniment to a series of maps. That these too were not 
Ptolemy's was shown by the important divergencies in the data, many 
of the geographical positions being altered and many additional de- 
tails added — probably from current Arab tradition and many of them 
purely imaginary. A passage in Masudi tells us that Al Mamun 
entrusted the task of compiling an atlas of star and terrestrial maps 
to a whole commission of learned men, and it seems to have been Al 
Huwarizmi's part in the work to bring together the data of the maps 
in book form as had been done by Ptolemy, whose geography was of 
course in the hands of the savants, though these appear to have al- 
lowed themselves a surprisingly free hand in dealing with it. In 
order to gauge correctly the quality of Al Huwarizmi's work it was 
desirable that a map should be constructed on the basis of the lists of 
positions contained in it, and this has at last been done for the Afri- 


can part of it by Dr. Hans von Mzik in two memoirs published re- 
spectively by the Vienna Geographical Society and the Vienna Aca- 
demy of Sciences in 191 5 and 1916. These memoirs have not yet 
reached us by reason of the war, but the facts above brought together 
are taken from a review by Julius Ruska in the Geographische Zeits- 
chriftj 1 918, No. 2-3. This writer speaks enthusiastically of the care 
and thoroughness with which Von Mzik has carried out his examina- 
tion of the manuscript and the conversion of the data into map form; 
only declining to accept certain conclusions of Von Mzik's as to the 
use of Syrian rather than Greek models in the composition of the 
Arab work. — The Geographical Journal. 

The Moros of the Philippine Islands 

We glean the following from the report of the Governor General 
of the Philippine Islands, 1916 (Washington) : "The so-called Moro 
problem has been handled with the greatest skill and success by the 
department governor, Frank W. Carpenter, and his able staff of as- 
sistants. Inasmuch as Gov. Carpenter's report is printed herewith in 
full, only a passing mention will be made of several features of his 

The year 1916 in the department government was marked 
by the bringing under government control of at least 3,000 square 
miles of heretofore unexplored country, and an area 30 per cent 
greater throughout the departments than that of the previous year is 
now cultivated. Twent3'-two thousand people have been brought un- 
der control and settled on agricultural lands — people who were here- 
tofore semi-nomadic and living in the inaccessible mountains. Eco- 
nomically, the department is going ahead very rapidly, and a very 
notable increase in exports took place in 1916. Bureaus of the in- 
sular government now have jurisdiction over the Department of 
Mindanao and Sulu, thus carrying forward the policy of assimilation 
into the general body of Philippine peoples of the inhabitants of the 
southern islands. 

Regarding the Moslem population of this group of islands, it is 
admitted that the census of 1903 was little more than a guess. Ow- 
ing to distances, lack of communication, and unfriendliness of the 
people, the enumerators were often able to gain but a very imperfect 
idea of the exact population, and the figures reported were in many 
instances but mere surmises. Many Army officers at that time serv- 
ing in Mindanao-Sulu feel certain that large blocks of the Moham- 
medan population of Lanao and Cotabato were omitted from the 
estimates. Furthermore, quite apart from the question of omis- 
sions at the time of the enumeration, the increase of population in 
Mindanao-Sulu during the period since the census of 1903 lias been 
abnormally large, owing to the steady immigration. It is certain 
that, apart from some urban districts, no considerable territory of 
the Philippines has so rapidly increased in population as have the 
seven provinces of this department. 

During the past few years, however, the reduction to governmental 
control of vast areas of the hinterland has been systematically and 
unceasingly carried on. The organizations of villages and the settle- 
ment therein of pagans or Mohammedans formerly living a semi- 
nomadic — sometimes lawless — life in the hills, has been of frequent 


The present Mohammedan population is given as follows: By 
provinces : 

Cotobato 107,205 Sulu 120,000 

Davao 7,803 Zamboanga 45,000 

Lanao 75,960 

Total 355,968 

As the total population of all of these districts is given at 723,655, 
it is clear that the Mohammedans compose nearly one-half of the to- 
tal population. The policy of the government has been one of eco- 
nomic development and education. We read: "No effort is spared 
by the department and provisional governments in the locating of 
homeseekers and contract-released laborers, not only on first-class 
public lands, but where they will form mixed communities with Mo- 
hammedans and pagans. No other practical method seems to offer 
assurance of the rapid political as well as economic development of 
the Mohammedan and pagan territory. The government is able to 
assure fair treatment and prompt pa5^ment of wages to contracted 
laborers, and to all immigrants security of life and property, no less 
than security enjoyed in the northern Provinces. At the same time 
due precautions are taken to safeguard the property rights of Mo- 
hammedan and pagan residents and otherwise assure the continuation 
of harmonious relations between them and Christian settlers." 

In 1916 the United States Government accomplished the complete 
disarmament and submission of the people to its authority for the 
first time throughout all Mohammedan territory. Public drinking 
places were ordered closed in June, 1916, and there has been a no- 
table decline in the number of crimes. These drinking places were 
extremely distasteful to Mohammedans, who are not inclined to in- 
dulge in the habit, and whose religion forbids it. * 'There has been a 
constant and remarkable increase in the popular demand, especially 
among Mohammedans and pagans for modern medicine and surgery. 
The facilities of both hospitals and dispensaries have generally been 
taxed to the utmost of their capacities, and increases of present hospital 
facilities, especially in Lanao, are urgently needed. At both Zam- 
goanga and Davao, where the government maintains no general hos- 
pital, the private hospitals maintained by missions or other private 
philanthropy have rendered great public service and are deservedly 
popular. The general hospital facilities at Zamboanga have been in- 
creased during the year by the establishment of the Hospital del 
Pilar by the Roman Catholic bishop of Zamboanga." 

Regarding mission work among the Mohammedans the report men- 
tions not only the hospital of the Roman Catholic bishop which was 
opened February i6th, 1916, but mentions, "the Farm School, at 
Camp Indianan, in the island of Jolo, formally opened during 1916, 
under the auspices of Bishop Brent (Episcopal Church Mission), 
This school for boys is under the supervision of Mr. J. F. Fugate, 
who was formerly lieutenant governor of Siquijor, and is accom- 
plishing splendid results, having an attendance of about 35 pupils. 
This mission has continued its activities in Zamboanga by the en- 
largement and improvement of the Zamboanga Hospital, under the 
direction of an American resident physician, with a satff of several 
trained nurses, including an American nurse. This hospital is re- 
ported to be crowded to the limit of its capacity most of the time." 

"The same Episcopalian Mission maintains a "Moro Settlement 
House" under the direction of Miss Barter, where Moro women and 


children are taught weaving and lace making. There seems to be a 
good market for the articles produced by this settlement house. There 
has also been maintained by the mission the Sulu Press, which pub- 
lishes a monthly periodical in the Sulu vernacular, using a modified 
Arabic alphabet. 

The Congregational Mission has continued its activities ^in Da- 
vao and outstations in other Provinces of the department. This 
mission has improved the hospital ma-^itained at Davao under the 
supervision of an American physician and schools under an ordained 
missionary and his wife, both Americans. 

"The Christian and Missionary Alliance has continued its activi- 
ties in Zamboanga Province during the year without special incident 
to be noted. 

"There arrived during the year a few Arabs and Malays, re- 
presenting themselves to be Mohammedan missionaries, but their ef- 
forts to exploit native Mohammedans made their presence here un- 
tenable, and they were compelled by the popular attitude to leave." 

Kazan, the Moslem Center of Russia. 

In "the Near East" for Aug. 9, 1918 there is the following statement 
upon Kazan as the historical centre of Mohammedanism in Russia: 

"Kazan was converted to Mohammedanism soon after the year 
950 A. D., and has thus been a Moslem centre for nearly lOOO 
years, but it has always been a Moslem Island in a sea of Pagan, and 
latterly of Christian populations; and since the Russian conquest in 
the middle of the i6th century, it has been incorporated in a 
Christian state. The Kazan Moslems were treated more tolerantly 
by Russia than most Moslems conquered by Christian governments 
at that date. The Moors in Spain, for instance, were compelled to 
become Christians or to leave the country; but the Kazan Tartars 
were never presented with this alternative. They were allowed to 
continue in their homes as Moslems and profited by the commercial 
opportunities which their city, with its magnificent geographical 
situations, saw open to it by the extension of the Russian Empire 
towards the south and east. They took kindly to the Russian connec- 
tion and became a prosperous "bourgeois" element in Russian society. 
No Moslem community exists today which has been longer under 
European government." 


Reconstruction in Turkey. A Series of Reports compiled for the 
American Committee of Armenian and Syrian Relief; William 
H. Hall, Editor. For Private Distribution only; pp. 245. 

The papers that compose this report were prepared in October, 
191 7, to guide those friends of the Near East who desired concise 
and reliable information on present conditions, as well as on the re- 
sources and possibilities of the Turkish Empire, as it was before the 
war. Although printed for private circulation only, we express 
the hope that it may be published for general use in the near future, 
and therefore give our readers a summary of the contents. 

After an outline of the history and ethnology of the races in 
Turkey, there is a chapter on the religious conditions and on educa- 
tion, with special reference to social and economic conditions. A 
summary is given of the laws, which formerly governed private 
schools. The papers on health and sanitary conditions, transporta- 
tion, irrigation, agriculture and rug weaving are by missionary ex- 
perts, and give a graphic picture of needs and opportunities. The 
chapter on the status of women is rather brief and disappointing. 
That on finances and the public debt is excellent. Although the 
section that deals with religious conditions is not as thorough and 
scholarly as we might expect in a volume of this character, yet as 
outlined it is good, and we heartily endorse the conclusion reached: 
"This outline of the religious conditions in the empire reveals the 
complexity of the question and the difficulty of dealing with it from 
a political point of view. This difficulty does not lie in the great 
number of sects, a greater number can be found in America, but in 
the age-long antagonisms under which they have existed and their 
lack of cohesion in any political sense. The political life of the non- 
Moslem population, so far as it has had any, has been circumscribed 
by the sect to which the individuals belong; they have had no part in 
the political life of the empire. To a large extent this has been true 
of the heretical sects among the Moslems and to some degree among 
the Arab Moslems. Hence the people have never been accustomed 
to act together in political matters and it would be difficult to bring 
them to do so. There was great hope at the time of the revolution 
in 1908 that a real union of these antagonistic elements for the gen- 
eral good might be brought about, but the result was a dismal failure. 
This was due no doubt to mismanagement on the part of the Young 
Turks, who never intended to commit the control of affairs to the 
people, but had they done so, the deep seated prejudices of the sects 
and the underlying current of fanaticism still existing, even among 
the Christians, would have proved an almost insurmountable obstacle. 
It is doubtful whether the different races and religious sects can be 
molded into one body politic capable of controlling its own affairs 
without a long course of education and training." 

S. M. Z. 



Mohammedan Law of Marriage and Divorce by Ahmed Shu- 
kri LL. B., Ph. D. Contributions to Oriental History and Philol- 
ogy. No. Vn. Columbia University Press, New York. 191 7. 
pp. 126. 

The author has carefully selected the materials for his thesis from 
the vast encyclopedia of Moslem jurisprudence and has given us a 
most scholarly and unbiased work. He writes almost entirely from 
the standpoint of the compiler and rarely assumes the role of inter- 
preter of the development or transformation that is taking place in 
the marriage customs and laws of the Moslem countries now under 
European powers. One exception is a case which was before the 
highest Algerian court. A woman was granted a divorce from her 
husband on the ground of cruelty, although he had beaten her for 
blaspheming the Moslem religion (p. 124) 

The introduction contains a brief discussion of the relation of Mos- 
lem and Roman jurisprudence and a concise statement as to the rise 
of the four schools of Moslem law. The principles governing each 
school are given. As to method of presentation the author is to be 
congratulated on setting forth "the positive rules in arrangement more 
nearly corresponding to that employed in western systems of juris- 
prudence" than in following the plan of the Moslem jurists. The 
following quotation shows the manner in which he brings before his 
reader the interpretation of the different schools on a subject under 
discussion. "Marriage by Guardians. — The marriage of infants un- 
der age or of insane persons by their guardians (wali) is lawful, the 
Prophet having declared that 'marriage is committed to the parental 
kindred!' Malikites interpret this to mean that the father only may 
contract marriage for the child, while the Shafi'ites extend this power 
to the grandfather. The Hanifites, however, argue that any guar- 
dians may validly contract marriage for their wards, 'lest an oppor- 
tunity of marrying them be lost.' " 

The subject matter of the book is treated under three heads, — 
Marriage, The Matrimonial Relation, and Divorce. Marriage under 
Moslem law is said to be either a contract or a sacrament or both. 
When one reaches the end of Dr. Shukri's book, one is inclined to 
doubt if it is either. On p. I22, we find a startling statement that 
confirms such doubt. "Although the Arabic sources assert in general 
terms the right of the wife to claim a divorce if the husband fails 
to fulfill the terms of the marriage contract or to perform the obli- 
gations imposed on him by law, I have been unable to find specific 
cases in which divorce has been granted for such causes" Under 
Marriage we find the discussion of such subjects as impediments to 
the marriage bond, both perpetual and temporary, the equality of 
position, the marriage contract and the dower. Sometimes the sub- 
jects cover such minute details as to make the matter seem humorous. 
Under the question of dower it is stated that this "must, of course, 
be of realizable value; dower cannot consist of fish in the sea, birds 
in the air, or runaway slaves." 

The treatment of the subject of the Matrimonial Relation deals 
with the topics of the duties of the husband, duties of the wife, and 
marital authority. In introducing the subject of the rights of wom- 
en, we read that Mohammed put women "on a footing of equality 
with men, in so far as was practicable" (p. 66). Are we to inter- 
pret practicable by this further statement, "the Mohammedan wom- 
an is far from being the equal of her spouse (p. 87) or by this, "A 


husband is not bound to furnish his wife with stockings and em- 
briodered robe in connection with maintenance; because they are 
not necessary except when going out, and it is not necessary for the 
husband to furnish his wife with means for going out. "Kazi Khan" 

(P- 78)- 
The compilation of the laws governing divorce introduces the 

reader to subjects that seem to the Western mind either unchaste or 
ludicrous or tediously detailed As the triple divorce necessitates 
the marriage of the woman to another man and subsequent divorce 
from him before she can return to her husband, there is a great 
dissertation on the value of the word *'and." "If a woman says 
to her husband, 'Repudiate me and repudiate me and repudiate me,' 
and the husband answers: *I have repudiated thee,' this amounts to a 
triplerepudiation, whether the man so meant it or not. But if the 
wife had said, 'Repudiate me, repudiate me, repudiate me,' without 
the conjunction 'and' and the husband has answered: 'I have repu- 
diated thee' it would be open to him to explain whether he meant 
one or three repudiations." (p. lOo). However, "if a man says to 
his wife: 'As often as you repeat a good sentence you are repudiated,' 
and she says, 'Praise be to God and there is no God but God and 
God is most great,' only one repudiation takes place; but if she were 
to repeat the same sentences without the connective 'and* there 
would be a triple repudiation" (p. loi). 

The only apology for Islam that the author offers is that the cus- 
toms such as are found in the Mohammedan codes of marriage and 
divorce were prevalent among the Oriental nations of antiquity. 
Ameer Ali is quoted as upholding polygamy among primitive races. 
And when compared with some notorious mediaeval Christians the 
practice of Moslem code does not seem to him uniquely degraded. 
However, the author is far from orthodox Islam when he says, "As 
a statesman he, Mohammed, recognized polygamy as an ethnic con- 
dition, and he acted wisely in not interfering with it. Any radical 
innovation in this direction would have upset the entire fabric of 
Eastern society, and might have been fatal to Islam." Therefore 
we might conclude the Koranic passages upholding polygamy arc 
not the words of an inspired prophet, but the schemes of a mere 
opportunist. E. E. Elder. 

The Downfall of the Christian Church in North Africa. By 
Dr. L. E. Iselin. Reprint from Der. Evangelische Missions- 
Magazin 191 8, Nos. 2-4. Basel, 1918. Missionsbuchhand- 
lung 69 pp. 2.50 francs. 

The author has already published — in der Evangelisches Missions- 
Magaztn of September, 191 5 — an important historical treatise en- 
titled: "Former Christian Ethiopia" dealing with the fate of the 
former Christian Church in Nubia and Sennar. He now follows 
this with the above mentioned pamphlet in which he gives a more 
extensive account of ancient Africa from Carthage to Morocco, its 
Christian culture, its Christian churches, their decay and the causes 
of their downfall according to the ancient sources. Concerning the 
significance and the results of his work the author expresses himself 
in a preface which contains some ideas of great importance to mis- 
sion workers. In the light of the mistakes made in those days we 
realize to the fullest extent the unfortunate effects of a policy which 


tries to combine missionary and colonization projects, the interests of 
the Kingdom of God and those of the kingdoms of this world; and 
we receive the impression that the substance of our faith is not a 
matter of doctrine but of a life lived close to a living Saviour, that 
the Kingdom of God does not consist of words but of faith and 
power. We also see that the various beliefs of that time, the Nes- 
torian, Monophysite and Arian communions, were not small sects but 
creeds of as great importance as the Catholic and Protestant of our 
own day. In the light of such historical facts we will have to cease 
making foolish and dogmatic assertions about those ancient churches 
in Egypt, Abj^ssinia, Syria, etc. of which even missionary workers in 
their blind evangelical zeal were guilty. In the same category be- 
longs the favorite explanation given for the collapse of Oriental 
Christianity before the onslaught of Islam by simply calling it the 
"righteous judgment of God." 

We clearly perceive that peoples and countries, which had at one 
time been won over to Christianity and then lost again through the 
fault or complicity of Christendom, present almost insurmountable 
difficulties in the way of a second attempt at evangelization. 

We will also have to revise many pre-conceived opinions in re- 
gard to the relations between Christianity and Islam. It is histori- 
cally untenable that Islam had an inherent mania for persecution, or 
that it deliberately set out to exterminate the Christians. In the 
spread of Islam we must recognize not merely a religious movement 
but also a second migration from the East to the West. 

What Christianity lost at that time in "extensity" is enormous, for 
we have information about centers of Christian activity in the in- 
erior of China, in India and in Java, and although many of these 
districts could not be considered much more than occupied mission 
fields, still the loss is immeasurable. And, as regards the intensity of 
this lost Christianity, the author reminds us that it was just North 
Africa that had at that time the truest evangelical conception of 

The chapters in which the author develops his subject begin (Ch. 
2) with a survey of the appended — very meagre — bibliography of 
modern books; in Ch. 3 there follows the ethnological situation of 
ancient Africa wherein special emphasis is laid on the fact that we 
are mainly concerned here with the white peoples of the Berber 
tribes. Ch. 4 describes the "bridges" leading over from Southern 
Europe. Ch. 5 treats of Africa at the time of the Romans. At 
the time of St. Augustine (died 430 A. D.) Africa was a rich, civil- 
ized. Christianized country. During an occupation of four hundred 
years a thoroughly Roman Africa had arisen, with the exception of 
the remote" mountain tribes. Latin was both the official and the 
vernacular language. Chap. 6 describes Christian Africa. As early 
as the year 220 there were already seventy bishoprics in existence; the 
Latin translation of the Bible completed during the second century 
was the authority for the entire African Church; but concerning an 
evangelization of the Berbers we hear absolutely nothing. The 
Church was a State Church, under the strict government of the 
bishops. One of them, St. Augustine, became of inestimable value 
to the religious life of Christendom during medieval and Reformation 
times, since it was he who clearly and unmistakably presented again 
the soul's need of salvation and the Divine Grace coming to its 
assistance — a truth which had become more or less obscured at that 
time; of course, wc must adn it that he did contribute towards the 


imperialism of the Church by his placing of the Church as the divine 
state in juxtaposition to the worldly state. 

It is hard to form a correct estimate of African Christianity as re- 
gards its religious and moral strength. Salvian who lived at the 
time of the first Vandal invasion gives a discouraging picture of the 
moral degradation of the cities. And the writings of St. Augustine 
also reflect a certain hopelessness in regard to the Christian aspect 
of the national life. 

In Ch. 7 the internal quarrels and the external upheavals of the 
Church are discussed; the disorders of the Donatists and the invasion 
of the Vandals. Donatism was at first merely a puritanic tendency 
within the Church; soon, however, a non-conformist movement devel- 
oped therefrom and the result was an acute crisis and an open state 
of war. Then the fanatic Arian Vandals appeared on the scene as 
conquerors (439) and started a terrible persecution against the ortho- 
dox Church. This lawless state of affairs which was driving Africa 
towards her ruin lasted one hundred years until an important restora- 
tion took place during the reign of the Byzantine emperors, 533-709. 
These established strict order; new churches were built and the first 
attempt was made at united missionary effort — or at least at Chris- 
tian propaganda — among the native pagan races. This was of 
course done in the name of the Christian state as a political measure. 
Conversion in the deeper sense we can hardly assume. Gradually 
through the doctrinal quarrels between the Emperor and the African 
bishops ('monotheletic dissensions") it came to a declaration of inde- 
pendence on Africa's part. But now the usurper Gregory was killed 
in the first Arab invasion (647) and Africa was conquered (703). 
However, Christianity was not exactly exterminated by the conquer- 
ors (Ch. 9) ; it gradually died out in consequence of the new and 
unfavorable conditions and because of its lack of vital power (page 
44) — in fact the communions oppressed by the Byzantine Emperor 
Heraclios at first welcomed the Arabs as deliverers. Afterw^ards, 
however, the treatment accorded the Christians varied greatly. If 
it happened to be to the interest of the rulers to treat the conquered 
Christians kindly, then their religious observances and their organiza- 
tion were permitted with certain limitations But gradually the 
pressure became worse. In the eleventh cent ry we find only five 
sees mentioned. Emigration, apostasy and extermination all con- 
tributed towards this decay. 

The relation between Christendom and the Mohammedan world 
had undergone change in the course of the centuries. Through the 
conquest of Granada in 1492 the fanaticism of the Moslems, es- 
pecially in North Africa, was thoroughly aroused. The result was 
the predatory warfare of the Barbary States. Each side entertained 
the most peculiar notions concerning the other's religion (page 50) — 
from the belles-lettres and the travel records of those days we see 
that they looked upon each other as pagans. The subtle doctrinal 
distinctions within the African Ch .stian Church, with her fixed ritual, 
easily succumbed to the simple creed of Islam. To retract de- 
manded no real internal change. Then, as now, Mohammedan or- 
dained and lay missionaries were active. For we must 
realize that Mohammedanism is essentially a missionary relig- 
ion, a fact that is closely connected with its externality 
and its privately perfor led devotions. The ancient Chris- 
tian consciousness could iOt conceive of a Christian not con- 


nected with the Church. For lack of this connection many converts 
and whole churches went to ruin. And then too the numerous Ber- 
bers in the interior were never really Christianized, although here 
and there they were outwardly converted from heathenism, and so 
afterwards they readily succumbed to Mohammedanism which they 
interpeted according to their own desires. The author gives us an 
interesting characterization of the Berbers (page 53 f.). 

The Catholic Church spared no efforts to win back the lost terri- 
tory. Of course at first it was merely a "pastorization" of the Chris- 
tians who had settled or were captive in Africa. As a result of the 
commercial treaties between the Romans and the Moors the former 
had stipulated for their employees in the coast towns that they be 
unmolested in the practice of the Christian religion and that they be 
allowed to build churches, etc. In 1403 the Christian population of 
Tunis was estimated at 100,000 souls. All these were shepherded by 
the Franciscan and Dominican monks. And so we find the Domini- 
can Raymond de Pennaforta in 1250 in Tunis establishing an Arabic 
school in the monastery of his order and writing a handbook for 
missionaries. But the one who worked most zealously and devotedly 
for the evangelization of North Africa was the Franciscan, Raymond 
Lull, during the years from 1234 to 13 15. In Majorca he founded 
a seminary for the training of missionaries, and he himself labored 
as a missionary in Tunisia and in Algeria and died as a result of the 
ill-treatment which he suffered in Bugia because of his courageous 
but blind zeal. When, under the rule of the Turks, there com- 
menced on a large scale those pillages and slave-raids which laid waste 
Southern Europe during nine centuries, the misery and the numbers 
of the Christian slaves in Barbary grew to enormous proportions. In 
view of the powerlessness of the Christian states it was particularly 
admirable that the Christian Church attempted both to alleviate the 
lot of these Christian slaves and to ransom them. Special orders were 
established for this purpose and the number of monks who volun- 
tarily went into slavery in order thereby to ransom a slave is incal- 
culable. The Church tried by means of well regulated pastorization 
under the jurisdiction of Apostolic vicars in Algeria and Tunisia to 
prevent the slaves from going over to Islam. 

Today, of course, the external obstacles in the way of the second 
evangelization are practically overcome, but now, when it is a matter 
of winning over the soul of the people, Christianity comes up against 
the spiritual power of Islam. Conditions are much the same today 
as at the time of the Roman supremacy; Europe controls the North- 
ern coast of Africa far into the interior, exploits the land and the 
people and sends the natives as auxiliary troops to her battlefields. 
Behind the political problem of establishing a centralized government 
there looms up the religious problem. If we wish to overcome the 
might of Islam we can do so only through the power of a broad and 
tolerant faith and the impelling force of a burning love, which are 
not in the service of national politics; and through educational work 
for the young. For this work the evangelical conception of Chris- 
tianity is better suited than the Catholic, and the Berber element will 
be more receptive than the Arabic. The Catholic Church is work- 
ing among the Berbers through various agencies (page 67), and, as 
individual conversions probably seldom occur, she resorts to mass 
baptisms. Protestant missions were started in 1831, first by the Paris 
Missionary Society, and then by a newly organized North Africa 
Mission of London and by the Swedish Missionary Society. 


The essay, so rich in facts and suggestions, closes with a sincere and 
earnest wish for the speedy coming of the Kingdom of God among 
the peoples of North Africa. 

Dr. H. Christ-Socin. 

Switzerland in the East Africa War Zone. By J. H. Briggs, 
Church Missionary Society, London, 1918, pp. 88, i sh. 3d. net. 

An inspiring record of the work of the missionaries of the Church 
Missionary Society in German East Africa and their sufferings during 
the war. The fifteen short chapters are well written and the score 
of illustrations excellent. 

The War and the Coming Peace, by Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph. D., 
J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1918, pp. 144, $1.00 net. 

In our October number we reviewed "The War and the Bagdad 
Railway by the same author. This might be considered a postcript to 
that volume. Professor Jastrow, carrying out the spirit of his other 
work and applying himself to the deeper aspects of the war, the 
"undercurrents," as he puts it, shows how both the great conflict and 
the coming peace must be looked at from the angle of the moral 

This book will be found very full of suggestion and stimulating in 
its thought, illuminated by the author's wide knowledge of the great 
movements of the world, ancient and modern. 

It is written for those whose wish to pass from a consideration of 
surface events to a deeper interpretation of the great conflict; it aims 
especially to provide a basis on which a structure of eudur'mg peace 
can be erected. 

His view of the war as a moral issue does not blind him to the 
real conditions that preceded the war. "Taking even the main aim 
of Pan-Germanism," he says, "The control of the highway across 
Asia Minor, and regarding it as the means of opening up an im- 
portant region of the world that has in the past played so notable a 
part in the world's history, and we must in a just and impartial 
spirit commend not only the main project of a railway connecting two 
poles of the East, a Constantinople and Bagdad, a project of the same 
large vision as the cutting of the Suez and Panama Canals, but we 
may also recognize the great benefits of such an enterprise towards 
the resuscitation of the ancient East. An English writer has re- 
cently called the project *a great conception worthy of a scientific 
and systematic people.' But note how the project becomes a veri- 
table curse the moment that a powerful government steps behind it 
and attempts to use it, by the threat of militarism, for a political domi- 
nation of the East which necessarily could only be carried out at the 
cost of the interests of the sister nations of the world." 


Cyprus Under British Rule. By Captain C. W. J. Orr. 192 
pp. 6s. net. Robert Scott, 1918. 

The chapters of most general interest in this book are the first 
and second, which give a good description of the island and a sketch 
of its history up to the British occupation, and the. last two which 
deal with the Hellenic idea and the prospects following on the formal 


annexation by Britain in 191 4. The intervening bulk of the book 
gives an orderly, but rather ponderous, account of the political tenure 
and administration from the Convention of 1878 by which Turkey 
ceded the government of Cyprus to the British Crown till it de- 
clared war on Britain and forfeited the island finally. Captain Orr 
shows how the development of Cyprus, with its area of 3,600 square 
miles (much less than Yorkshire) and population of 275,000 was ham- 
pered by the heavy tribute of £140,000 annually payable to Turkey. 
Nevertheless it prospered greatly under British rule, despite the rather 
hidebound traditions of the Colonial Office. At the time of the 
Berlin Conference, during which the Convention was concluded, it 
had seemed as if Cyprus were a necessary outpost of empire for the 
guardianship of the Suez Canal, but the subsequent occupation of 
Egypt relegated it to a peaceful backwater of politics. Yet even here 
the spirit of home rule has developed in the form of Henosis, i. e. the 
aspiration for "union" with the Greek race as a whole. The Chris- 
tian and Greek speaking population forms about three-fourths of the 
whole. The facts that they are a mixed race, that the island is in no 
sense geographically attached to Greece, and that it has never been 
under the rule of Greece do not prevent enthusiasm for Greek 
nationality. The situation is a curious inversion of that in Ireland, 
for the quarter of the population which is of Turkish race protests 
with might and main against Hellenization ; but they are the less 
cultured and progressive section. Moreover, they have been thor- 
oughly loyal to British rule, even when war with Turkey was de- 
clared, and when permission was given at the time of annexation to 
retain Ottoman nationality, not a single Ottoman Cypriot applied for 
it. The offer of Cyprus to Greece in 1916 was refused under the 
monarch then reigning. Should it be renewed and accepted at the 
Peace Congress we trust that guarantees will be taken to ensure 
the fair treatment of the Cypriot Moslems who have been faithful 
to Britain in the hour of her danger. 

H. U. W. Stanton. 

The Near East From Within, by * * * Price $1.50. Pp. 265. 
E. P. Button & Co., New York, N. Y., 1918. 

This is a new and cheap edition of a work published in 1916^ but 
contains the full text without omissions or additions. The preface 
is not only anonymous, but dateless. We gather, however, from a 
statement on page 245 that the book was written a few months 
after the deposition of Abbas- Hilmi as Khedive of Egypt. The pub- 
lishers announce that "this astonishing book contains the revelations 
which the anonymous author, au fait with the innermost secrets of 
German diplomacy, has felt it a duty to the world to make concerning 
the vast underhand machinations of the Kaiser with regard to the 
Balkans, Turkey and Egypt during the past twenty years. The au- 
thor's account of the imperial intriguer's sinister activities throws into 
truer focus a great deal that has hitherto remained confused and 
explains much that was mysterious and obscure." And this announce- 
ment is borne out by the course of events, and as additional facts 
come to light. That the author writes with caution as well as with 
a consciousness of full knowledge, is evident. In trying to explain the 
currents and counter-currents of diplomatic intrigue, he warns his 
readers in one or two places that "it is quite possible I shall not be 
altogether accurate in my details, as some of the darker shadows of 


the intrigue are not within my personal knowledge/' On the other 
hand, he is able to assure those who read these fascinating chapters 
that "whereas they perhaps may find several matters to shock or dis- 
tress, they will not come across any that are consciously exaggerated." 
We have here, therefore, the observations of a diplomat in regard 
to the events that preceded the world-war in the Balkans, Turkey 
and Egypt. The chapters are not carefully arranged and the ma- 
terial often overlaps. We learn something of the factors by which 
Teutonic influence gained ground so rapidly in Turkey after the re- 
turn of Enver Pasha from Germany. The author tells us of the 
prodigal bribery carried on long before the war to win over the 
political and religious leaders of Egypt and Turkey. We gain new 
knowledge of affairs in Egypt preceding the outbreak of hostilities. 
If the following incident is historic there can be no doubt as to who 
was responsible for the war. "When Adrianople fell, it is public 
knowledge that the German Emperor telegraphed his regrets to the 
Sultan. What is not known outside a narrow circle of higher politi- 
cal agents is that the royal telegram also included the following as- 
tonishing sentiment: *I do not despair that within a very short time 
the ancient shrine of Islam will be again in the possession of Your 
Majesty, and Your Majesty may rest assured that I shall do all 
that lies within my power in order that it should be so.' To explain 
that the telegram was in cipher is unnecessary." The author makes 
clear the reasons for the attack on the Suez Canal and the conse- 
quent importance of German intrigue in Egypt. The purpose was to 
throttle the British Empire. "Marshal Liman von Sanders had 
been given special instructions regarding that part of the campaign 
which aimed at the Suez Canal, and a number of German staff offi- 
cers had been put at his disposal for the purpose of organizing a raid 
on Egyptian territory at the first opportune moment. Meanwhile it 
was settled that, in the case of a victorious war, the Khedive Abbas 
Hilmi was to accept a half Turkish, half-German garrison, and that 
Egypt) though nominally still under the suzerainty of the Sultan, was 
to be given a German administration and to become to all purposes 
practically a German colony." 

This volume deserves a place on the missionary shelf of war books 
that deal with the Near East, especially as the index is complete and 
the list of illustrations includes all the rulers, good, bad and indiffer- 
ent, who played their part in the struggle of war in the Near East. 


"The Red Rugs of Tarsus." By Helen Davenport Gibbons, 194- 
pp. Price $1.25 Net, The Century Co., New York. 

This personal narrative of experiences during the Armenian massacre 
at Adana and Tarsus in 1909 is not a new story, but it is told in a 
fascinating style that grips the reader. It's dedication to the memory 
of Major Doughty- Wylie who was killed in action on Gallipoli Penin- 
sula April 29th, 1 91 5, and who is also one of the heroes of the story, 
brings it up to date. 

The story is in the form of letters written to Mrs. Gibbons' mother. 
Although the maternal instinct seems emphasized to excess in every 
chapter, the letters are real and "scrappie." The baby, born when the 
streets ran red with blood and five thousand terrified Armenians took 
refuge in the mission school, is very dear to the reader as well as to 
her parents. 


Mrs. Gibbons is outspoken regarding the cause of the Armenian 
massacres; she says: "We see how heartless and synical the diplomats 
of Europe arc. They are the cause, as much as the Turks, of the 
massacres. Not the foreign policy of Russia or Germany alone. As 
far as the Near East goes, the Great Powers are equally guilty. No 
distinction can be drawn between them. In England, in Germany 
and in France, people do not care, because these horrible things are 
done so far away. They are indifferent to their own solemn treaty 
obligations. They are ignorant of the cruelty and wickedness of the 
selfish policy pursued by the men to whom they entrust their foreign 
affairs. I see blood when I think of what is called "European diplo- 
macy" — for blood is there, blood shed before your eyes." 


Bagdad son chemin de fcr, son importance, son avenir, par Emile 
Auble, ingenieur, conseiller du Commerce exterieur de la France. 
Preface de Edouard Herriot, scnateur, maire de Lyon, ministre 
des Travaux publics et du Ravitaillement = Un vol. in =: 8* 
de 1 68 pj^es. , Edition et Librairie, 40, rue de Seine, Paris. 

A complete account of Bagdad and the importance of this city as a 
future centre of trade and agriculture because of the Bagdad railway. 
Based on all the sources available before the war, but making no men- 
tion of the British occupation and the marvelous changes that have 
since taken place. Valuable for its careful statistics of population, etc 
and resume of recent Turkish history. 

L'Orient Mediterraneen. 

Impressions et essais sur quelques elements 
due probleme actuei, par Andre Duboscq. Un volume in- 16 de 
168 pages, librairie academique Perrin et Cie. Paris, 191 8. 

The author spent some time in the Orient as newspaper corres- 
pondent and deals with the old problem of races, religions and poli- 
tics, especially as this was effected by the regime of the Committee of 
Union and Progress. He thinks the only noble race "courageous, gen- 
erous and with a future" is the Arab. He favors the internationali- 
zation of Palestine and comments on the result after the war of Mos- 
lem loyalty to France in North Africa, in her future contacts with 
Asia Minor and Syria. This book was also written before the sur- 
render of Turkey and the armistice. 

The History of Aryan Rule in India from the Earliest Times 
to the Death of Akbar. By E. B. Havell. Published by G. G. 
Harrap, London, 1918, 151-PP. 5sh. 4^- 

This is a well gotten up and well printed book with many beautiful 
photographs of contemporary architecture; extending over 5CX) pages. 
It is written by one who is evidently an enthusiast on Aryan culture. 
Whether he has not suffered his own predilections to carry him away 
from what should be the impartial judicial view of a historian seems 
at times a question. 

It opens with a chapter on the Aryan as contrasted with the non- 
Aryan; in which some will see exaggeration in the description of the 
Indo-Aryan civilization as being not only hoary in its antiquity beyond 
Others, but also ideal in its democratic regime. We may be quite 


wrong, but the author has a way of assuming inferences from very 
sh'ght evidence and of drawing an ideal picture which must be reliable 
in every detail; e. g. he says that **the Aryan system was an organiza- 
tion based upon sanitary laws and inspired by high ethical and social 
ideals — not under the compulsion of an aristocrat or of a ruling caste, 
but by a clear perception of mutual advantage and a voluntary recog- 
nition of superior intellectual leadership." He again describes it as an 
"Arcadian scheme of life, delightful in its primitive simplicity." He 
admits, however, that, while the Aryans were a far more cultured 
race, yet their organization resembled in some respects that of the 
Dravidian robber-tribes. It is rather a one-sided inference to say 
that "the higher spiritual intelligence of the Aryan, with its great con- 
structive genius, gradually welded together Dravidian civilization with 
its own." May not the influence, for all we know, have come from 
the other side? 

In the following chapter, with the same underlying partiality for 
the Aryans, over all other civilization, he describes the results of the 
short-lived Alexandrian Empire, the rise and spread of Buddhism, and 
the Mauryan Empire. 

The value of the book lies chiefly in its interpretation of Indian 
Art as throwing light upon Aryan history, and therefore the first 
half is the more interesting. The second part which is devoted to 
Mohammedan dynasties and wars becomes more historical, in the ordi- 
nary sense of the term. But here also the author's predilection for 
Aryans over all others is manifest in refusing to allow any initiative 
or original genius to the Mohammedans and in making hardly any 
allusion to the more flagrantly debasing side of Aryan art. The so- 
called Pathan architecture he laughs to scorn again and again, nor will 
he give any quarter to its advocate, Mr. Fergusson. It is not till 
we reach Akbar that he seems to have fully regained his equanimity. 
His description of that wonderful ruler's character and of his tolerant 
dominion form a most fitting conclusion to this valuable book. We 
wish we were more competent to enter into the question of Art 
involved; but we cannot help feeling that Moham.medan talent is 
made to play too much a secondary and a purely imitative part in 
the supposed vastly superior and more original Art of the Aryans. 


The Rage of Islam, by Yonan H. Shahbaz. The Roger Williams 
Press, Philadelphia, 1918; 181 pp.; price $1.50 net. 

In a brief introduction by Dr. Robert Stuart MacArthur, the 
president of the Baptist World Alliance, we learn that the author 
was educated in a Persian mission school, then came to New York 
and was received and trained by the Baptists for mission work in 
Persia. He passed through trial and persecution during the period 
of the massacres of 191 4 on the Urumian plain, and this book tells the 
story of his thrilling experiences. The coming of Russia into northern 
Persia, the German propaganda, the coming storm and outburst of 
persecution are vividly portrayed and conclude with the story of his 
escape. Because of the title of the book we are the more glad to 
have his testimony that: "By no means all the Mohammedans were 
parties to the evil deeds I have enumerated. Indeed it gives me much 
satisfaction to record that thousands of our people found refuge with 
Moslems who were friendly. The number of good Samaritans is not 


small. Most of them were humble villagers, but some were of the 
highest caste." 

Mr. Shahbaz uses no literary art, but tells a plain tale that grips 
because of his sincerity of purpose. We regret there is not a stronger 
note of appeal to carry the Gospel to those who in fanatic ignorance 
persecuted the followers of Christ. 

Syria and the Holy Land, by Sir George Adam Smith, London : Hod- 
der & Stoughton, 1918. pp. 56. Two colored maps. is. net. 

A sketch of the main geographical features of Syria and its position in 
the Near East, illustrated by two valuable maps colored to show the oro- 
graphical features. In about fifty pages the author deals not only 
with the geographical facts concerning this land, but touches upon 
the past history, economic questions, colonization, and the political 
questions concerned with Palestine's future. A vast aomunt of infor- 
mation, by a recognized authority, and as timely in appearance as it is 
cheap in price. 

Beneath the Surface and Other Stories, by Gerald Warrc Cor- 
nish, London, 191 8; Grant Richard's Ltd, 6s. net. 

Of these seven mystical stories by an army officer killed in the bat- 
tle of the Somme, only the last and longest (which lends its title to 
the volume) touches the Near East. It tells of a Danish explorer, 
weird in his method and uncanny in his knowledge, who goes out as 
an agent for the German Government to Mesopotamia. There arc 
vivid pictures of the Euphrates region from Aleppo to the "Garden of 
Eden." Lund, the explorer, disappears in the marshes of Kurna, 
swallowed up or transported when in sight of the Tree of Life! It is 
all very clever and impossible and amusing. 


The Christian Approach to Islam. By James L. Barton. The 
Pils:rim Press, Boston, pp. 316. Price $1.25 net. 

The substance of this book was delivered as a course of lectures at 
the College of Missions in Indianapolis, Ind., and the book is a most 
valuable summary of all that has appeared in recent years regarding the 
relations of Islam and Christianity to the problem of evangelization. 
The title is a strange misnomer and should evidently be "The Chris- 
tian Approach to the Moslem" or "Moslems." The first part deals 
with the external history of Mohammedanism, its rise, spread, strength 
and the effect of the great War upon Pan-Islamism. The second part 
treats of Mohamedanism as a religion. One of the chapters in this 
section, namely that on the Mohammedan conception of God, is by 
Prof. George A. Barton of Bryn Mawr College. The third part is 
on Missions, and is the more valuable because the ground was not 
covered satisfactorily in any previous manual. That the book is timely, 
the author an expert on the subject, both by actual contact with Mos- 
lems and in his experience as Secretary of the American Board work 
in Turkey, and that therefore the contents are fascinating, goes without 
saying. The author quotes with approval the definition of Islam given 
by Prof. Margoliouth, page 7: "A Moslem or Mohammedan is, then, 
one who accepts the proposition that an Arab named Mohammed or 
Ahmad, son of Abdallah, of the City Meccah, in Central Arabia, who 


died A. D. 632, is the main and indeed ultimate channel whereby the 
will of the Creator of the world has been revealed to mankind.'* The 
sketch of the early attempts to Christianize Moslems and the history 
of modern efforts is admirable. Many authorities are quoted to show 
that there is a decidedly changed attitude toward Christianity and that 
many of the earlier difficulties of approach have been wholly removed. 
Dr. Barton therefore pleads for a new attitude on the part of the 
Christian messenger, lest we prejudice the minds of our hearers. He 
mentions a number of points in doctrine and life where wise missionary 
policy would lead to a change of method. Among them, for example 
is the use of fermented wine at the sacraments.. We have nowhere 
seen a more comprehensive and statesmanlike presentation of an adequate 
program for the evangelization of the whole Moslem world than is 
contained in the last two chapters. 

It is with regret that we note a number of inaccuracies, some of them 
minor, but others apt to lead the reader far astray. The best authors 
do not agree that there are 40,000,000 Moslems in Central and South 
Africa (page 11). The Sudan is not the only country where Great 
Britain has put restrictions upon missionaries in Africa (page 13). 
"Kalid" (page 35) should be *'Khalid." A number of Koran refer- 
ences on page 54 are confused. The curtains of the Kaaba are pro- 
vided annually by Egypt and not by Turkey (page 61). There is 
only one — and that incorrect — reference to the Arabian Mission of the 
Reformed Church (page 223). ''El-Moquattam" (page 189) is not a 
Moslem paper, but it is the leading Syrian semi-Government organ of 
Cairo. All these minor errors, however, are insignificant in view of 
the splendid survey of the whole field and the heroic attitude of the 
writer. He believes that a new day has dawned for the work of mis- 
sions and that we should use boldness in proclaiming our message. 
The Armenian massacres, with all their horror, are shown to be not 
without promise of blessing. "Many Christian young women," he 
writes, *'from among the Armenians young women who had been trained 
in the mission schools, strong of mind and of faith, were forcibly taken 
into Mohammedan harems. The whole world stands aghast at the 
cruelty and horror of this treatment. Undoubtedly, many of these, 
when the war is over, will be restored to their friends, but unques- 
tionably many will remain throughout their lives in a Moslem home. 
It is inevitable that into that home these women will carry the leaven 
of their Christian training, thinking and living." In this way one of 
the most terrible events in modern history may yet prove one of the 
divine means for implanting the Spirit of Christ in the strongholds of 



From Egyptian Rubbish Heaps. By James Hope Moulton, Charles 
H. Kelly, 191 8, London. 2/6 Net- 173 Pages. 

As the sub-title tells us, this little book consists of "five popular lec- 
tures on the New Testament" and a sermon. The lectures delivered 
at Northfield are packed with such information and inspiration as only 
an expert in the subject could make popular. The evidence from 
Egyptian papyri regarding the style of New Testament Greek "the 
common vernacular of daily life," is a valuable side light on the present 
day missionary problem of classical vs. vulgar Arabic. Portions of 
the book might well be translated into the leading vernaculars. There 


is great need of a popular work on "How we got our Arabic Bible." 
We commend the book. It is well worth buying and reading. 

The Life of God in the Life of His World — ^James Morris 
Whiton, Ph. D. Funk and Wagnalls Co, 1918. Pp. 69. 

This little book is admirable in that the author has the courage 
to attempt another presentation of the doctrine of the Trinity — 
the outcome, however, is not as happy as the attempt is courageous. 

To designate the accepted view as "barren," "a shibboleth," "a 
field long fallow and unfruitful," and similar discrediting terms with 
which anti-trinitarian literature is loaded is unfortunate. 

The presentation of the old doctrine is a caricature instead of a 
calm characterization when it is affirmed that "the formative idea 
of God in ancient theology views him as governing the world from a 
heavenly throne afar, and thence conducting his relation to the 
world in judgment and in mercy by intermediaries, especially by the 
second and third 'Persons* of the 'Trinity', sent by him, the first 
'Person' on a mission of grace to men — this idea of God as separate 
from his world, and acting on it from the outside, still reigns in 
Roman and Greek Catholicism, and is perpetuated in much of 
Protestant hymnody and liturgy." 

Such a statement is not in harmony with the facts of doctrinal 
history. Who would be willing to affirm that the above view was 
held by Athanasius and Augustine and the other church Fathers, 
of Anselm and Aquinas of the Middle Ages, of Luther and Calvin 
of the Reformation, of Jonathan Edwards, Philips Brooks and others 
of modern times? 

Instead of the doctrine that "There are three persons in the 
Godhead; the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; and these 
three are one God, the same in substance, equal in power and 
glory," embodied in all the creeds of Christendom, the following 
is offered: 

"The Life is one, its distinct phases are three — transcendent in its 
self-existent paternal Source; immanent in its filial universe of col- 
lective being, individualized in each separate life with its peculiar 
endowment of power for the communication of good from each to 

"These three phases of the activity of God, apparent to reflective 
thought, are as real as he is real. * * * Reflection will recognize just 
these three phases of Life, these essential three, and no more, as a 
real Trinity." 

It is evident that with such a biological treatment of the subject, 
the doctrine of the Scriptures disappears. It is not new. It is an 
old error in a new dress. With every shift of thought in science 
and philosophy it reappears. 

Is it not high time for some American theological writers and 
teachers to break with Germany where the art of emptying the 
gospel of its real content has been practiced for half a century? 

There are yet too many pro-Germans among theologians both in 
England and America. 

E. J. Blekkink. 

Some Aspects of Ancient Arabic Poetry, as illustrated by a Little- 
known Anthology, by Sir Charles J. Lyall, K.C.S.I.,D.Litt., 


London, published by Humphrey Milford, Oxford University 
Press, pp. 16. One Shilling and Sixpence net 191 8. 

This paper is of interest to the student of Islam because it describes 
one of the sources of our knowledge of conditions in early Arabia. 
The Anthology referred to by Professor Lyall is the Mufaddaliyat, 

**A1-Mufaddal, according to the concurrent testimony of Arabian 
scholars, was one of the most learned men of his time, and conspicuous 
for his scrupulous honesty in the transmission of texts and traditions. 
He lived partly under the 'Umayyad and partly under the 'Abbasid 
dynasty. The collection is drawn from those poets whose surviving 
works were not sufficiently numerous to have been, at the time when 
al-Mufaddal wrote, collected into a diwan, and therefore contains 
no pieces from the most celebrated authors whose compositions had 
already been brought together, such as Imra' al-Qais, Tarafah, 
Zuhair, Labid, 'Antarah, an-Nabighah, and al-A'sha. Notwithstand- 
ing this, it includes some very famous poems, and a few of supreme 
excellence. The total of the pieces contained in it is, as already 
mentioned, 126, the work of sixty-seven poets, of whom only six 
were born under Islam, fourteen adhered to the new faith after 
reaching maturity, and the remaining forty-seven lived and died in 
the period called by Muslims the Ignorance, that is, before the 
general acceptance of the preaching of the Prophet in Arabia. The 
great body of the collection is, therefore, a picture of the conditions 
of life in that country before the great change wrought by the 
mission of Muhammad, while of the compositions attributed to the 
converts the greater part was composed before they embraced the 
new faith. Both the few pieces by authors born Muslims and those 
of the converts which were certainly produced after they had accepted 
Islam are remarkable for the very small difference effected by 
nominal conversion. Typical cases are a long poem by 'Abd allah son or 
at-Tabib, a poet of Tamim, dated about the time of the great battle 
of al-Qadisiyah (near al-Kufah) ; in the year 15 of the Hi j rah 
(A. D. 637), some four or five years after the opet had become 
a believer, which contains a minute description of a wine-party, 
given with much zest and enjoyment." 

Die auf Sudarabien beziiglichen Angaben Nashwan's im Shams 
al 'ulum gesammelt, alphabetisch geordnet und herausgegeben von 
'Azimuddin Ahmad Ph. D., E. J. W. Gibb Memorial Series. 
Pp. xxiv, 44, 164. E. J. Brill Leyden, 191 6. 

It can only be as a pathetic survival from days when the repub- 
lic of letters and scholarship was world wide that this book; evi- 
dently the Ph. D. thesis of a British Indian Muslim in a German 
University, should have been published by an English Foundation 
two years after the war began. And we may be sure that it will 
be long before the British government will again encourage and 
subsidize such studies by native Indians. As for the subject, all who 
began their Arabic with Socin's grammar will remember the tale 
of Bilqis and of her castles and kingdom in South Arabia. It 
is of that realm of fable that the extracts here given from Nashwan's 
great Lexicon treat. A land of real history, as western explorers 
and students have proved it to be, it became a land of mysterv 
almost for the earliest Muslim generations. It is one of the strangest 
breaks in the continuity of history that so quickly the true tradition. 


should have been forgotten or inextricably confused with later 
fabrications. The ability to read the not difficult character of the 
multitudinous inscriptions was lost, and absurd and confident guesses 
took the place of decipherment. Yet, from time to time, authors of 
Himyaritic descent tried to vindicate the vanished glories of 
their native land, and this Nashwan, who died A.D. 1117, is one 
of the last of these. With him the Muslim legend has overcome 
historical tradition and his statements can be accepted only after 
verification. That can be done through the use of earlier writers 
such as the far more trustworthy Hamdani who died A. D. 945. 
The extracts given here cover historical and genealogical notices 
and all the lexicographical material that is especially Himyaritic 
— words, idioms, usages, proverbs, etc. There are 43 pp. of care- 
ful indices and 44 of highly compressed commentary. The editor 
has evidently given much labour to the construction of the text 
which is based on the excellent MS in thhe Escurial, and his book 
will undoubtedly be useful. It is curious that he, a native Indian, 
should ignore the text and translation of Nashwan's great Qasida 
published in 1879 by Major W. F. Prideaux at Lahore under the 
title, "The Lay of the Himyarites." It is not a great poem; but it 
is full of the dignified melancholy of Ecclesiastes and gives a clue 
to the so frequent compound of the native fatalism of Arab thought 
with Muslim piety. 

D. B. Macdonald. 

The Road Ahead. Elizabeth Wilson, M. A., The Woman's Press. 
New York, 191 8. $1.00. 

This is the biography of Miss Frances C. Gage, sometime Y. W. 
C. A. secretary in the states of Oregon, Washington, Idaho and 
Montana, but more widely known as a missionary of the Amer- 
ican Board at Marsovan, Asia Minor and the first travelling secre- 
tary of the Y. W. C. A. in the Turkish Empire. It is a story 
"filled with romance, while it portrays the life of a great, big 
heart balanced by a rare intelligence, in a women not physically 
strong but with the courage and consecration of the apostles of old." 
The last chapter in the book, "The last stretch" of the road is the 
best, and with a feeling of deep loss one realizes that Frances Gage 
will not be there to welcome the pioneers afresh in Turkey, whether 
of missionary, work or under the Y. W. C. A. committee. She 
laid down her life for Turkish women in June, 191 7, and now 
passes on the appeal to others of a woman in one of those cities 
of the interior: "Don't you see? Didn't you see it in our faces? 
We are hungry for something. We have had almost nothing in our 
lives but working and slaving. No one thought of anything for us 
but that. We want something worth while to do. We are only 
waiting to be led." 

E. I. M. B. 

Asia Minor. Walter A. Hawley. London : John Lane. The Bodley 
Head. 1918. pp. 330. 12/6. 

This is an attractively written and well illustrated record of a 
tour from Constantinople through the famous cities of Asia Minor. 
A brief introductory chapter concerns the physiography and history 
of the country, and then the reader is carried along in leisurely 
fashion to see things as they arc around the cities of "the Seven 


Churches of Asia." The author has an eye for detail and is 
especially interesting in his observation of the industries, that of 
making rugs in particular, the every day life and the religious 
observances of the people. He is concerned vi^ith today and to- 
morrovi^, rather than with yesterday, and his book will particularly 
interest those going to Asia Minor for the first time. The charm 
of the country is conveyed with a lingering spell and a true belief 
in the possibilities of the Turkish race. "When the hopes of the 
most enlightened of its own people shall have been realized; when 
the women are accorded the same rights as men, and the men have 
risen to a higher plane of thought, and of mechanical and intellectual 
efficiency; when just laws regulate their rights among one another 
and when a stable government insures the enforcement of those 
laws and the performance of its own obligations, Asia Minor will 
occupy a far more important place in the world's activities than 
it has enjoyed for many centuries." 

E. I. M. B. 

Nigeria, the Unknown. A Missionary Study Text Book. London: 
Church Missionary Society. 1918. 56 pp. 1/ — 

This textbook has been compiled from annual letters from C. M. S. 
missionaries and articles in "the Church Missionary Review" and 
"the Western Equatorial Africa Diocesan Magazine," and presents 
very much information in compact and attractive form which other- 
wise it is difficult to find. Chapter I., "Empire Builders in Nigeria' 
gives the story of the beginning of British rule over what is as a matter 
of fact 'with the exception of India, the largest, most populous and 
most wealthy of the tropical dominions of King George V,' its area 
equaling that of Germany, Holland and Italy combined. Chapter 
II and III describe the country and the people at home — Chapter IV 
deals with "the Coming of Islam and of Christianity" and boldly 
attacks the problem of the attraction of Islam for the natives. "There 
is no vital clement in their faith, nothing even to arouse much interest, 
hence they never think about it for themselves. They fulfil all the 
claims of their religion by simply conforming to the outward rites 
and ceremonies when necessary, and by the mechanical repetition of 
a few formal prayers at appointed times in Arabic, which to the 
Nigeria is 'an unknown tongue.' * * * Is it any wonder that 
the religion of the majority in the Northern Provinces can only 
be described as simple paganism with a veneer of Mohammedanism." 
(P. 35) In Chapter V ''the Present Opportunity" is well focussed, 
and Chapter VI gives good hopes for the future of "The Growth of 
the Church in Nigeria," if only reinforcements can be secured. 

E. I. M. B. 

"Examples of the Various Turki Dialects": Turki Text, with 
English Translation. By G. W. Hunter, China Inland Mission, 
Tihwafu Sin: 1918. Price 6/-, or i Dollar 50 Cents. Part I., 
Qazaq Turki Text & Translation: Part II., Tartar Turki Text 
with Translation etc. : 

Mr. Hunter has given us in this little volume a work which is of 
much interest to the student of the Turki dialects of which it treats. 
The widespread Turkish language in its several varieties is not only 
one of the easiest of tongues to acquire, but is also so mathematically 
constructed, so to speak, that it is of very deep interest to the philolo- 


gist apart altogether from the historian, the politician, the merchant and 
the missionary. Ottoman Turkish is, of course, the dialect most com- 
monly studied in Europe, because it alone poscssses a comparatively 
large literature in prose and verse. It is also the only dialect of the 
Turkish stock which can properly be called cultivated. But, un- 
fortunately, it is at the same time the poorest of all these dialects, 
having dropped not a few of its genuine words, and even roots, and 
replaced them with Arabic and Persian vocables, which have com- 
bined to denaturalise the tongue to a great extent, and to render it 
hybrid. The fact that most of the Arabic' words introduced into 
Ottoman Turkish are mispronounced, and that many of them are 
used in an incorrect sense, just as is the case with the Latin element 
in English, renders it far from being a genuine representative of the 
Turko-Tatar family. Even the case-terminations in Ottoman Turk- 
ish are in large measure worn away, thus making the dialect rather 
more like an Inflexional than an Agglutinative language. Though not 
entirely free from such sources of linguistic corruption, yet the dia- 
lects with which this book deals are far purer in vocabulai7 and 
more genuinely Turkish. There exist many admirable grammars 
and dictionaries of the Ottoman tongue, whereas the means of ob- 
taining an acquaintance with the other Turkish dialects are few and 
far between. Hence Mr. Hunter has deserved the gratitude of all 
true students of language by compiling the present volume. 

Mr. Hunter is evidently one of those men who define difficulties as 
"things to be overcome." He has no Turkish, or even English, type. 
Nor has he even a Lithographic Press at his disposal. Yet he ven- 
tures to produce such books as this, and another* which we reviewed 
some time ago in the Moslem World, by Mimeograph, though this 
has involved his writing out the whole text of the English version 
himself, and getting the original Turki texts copied by his Turkish 
teacher 'Abdu' ul Qadir. We cannot congratulate the latter upon 
the neatness of his calligraphy; at least it hardly equals the script 
of a Persian Khush-Navis. It is a pity that the Turki text is con- 
sequently so faint and indistinct in many places that the beginner 
will often find himself in difficulties which are quite unnecessary, and 
which would not exist were the Turki characters clear and unmis- 
takable. This detracts very seriously from the value of the book. 
The Arabic character is not well adapted to any tongue but a Semi- 
tic language, and is in particular ill suited to Turkish. The Cen- 
tral Asian dialects of this stock endeavour, with some degree of suc- 
cess, to obviate this defect by employing the weak letters as vowels, 
making little or no distinction between long and short vowel sounds. 
But when the printing is faint and many of the diacritical dots are 
indistinct or altogether invisible, the text sometimes puzzles even the 
scholar, and is almost useless to the beginner. All this would be 
avoided, at least in great measure, were some of our readers to sup- 
ply Mr. Hunter either with a small lithographic Press or a hand- 
press with Arabic (Persian nasta-liq preferably) and English type. 
Considering the trouble he has taken to assist students of the Central 
Asian dialects of Turki, he has richly deserved such encouragement, 
even from a secular and merely literary point of view. Or, if this 
cannot be done, doubtless he could get the rough iron framework of 
a lithographic press made locally as the present Reviewer did in the 
centre of Persia years ago), and would require only the proper 
lithographic stones to be sent out to him. He has proved his ability 

•"Mohammedan Narratives of the Prophets." 


to make the best possible use of them. We wish him, however, a 
better scribe in the Arabic character. 

It would greatly assist the students whom he desires to help, if 
Mr. Hunter would publish some Turki texts in both the Arabic 
alphabet and in an exact transcription. The latter is needed to en- 
able the student to pronounce the words properly. Without it, he 
cannot know the vowels, as the Turki (Arabic) character does not dis- 
tinguish from u, i from e, aiy and so on. A vocabulary might also 
be added with advantage. Many of the words that occur in these 
texts are not to be found even in Zenker's large dictionary. To the 
advanced student it is both pleasant and profitable, no doubt, to dis- 
cover for himself that in the Qazaq dialect / takes the place of Y 
(jiib) e. g. for the Ottoman Turkish yeib, "having eaten"; Q some- 
times that of KH^ and S that of SH, so that the word ydkhshi 
(good), so often used in Persian and Eastern Turki, becomes jdqsi; 
SH that of CHj as in shardgh for chardghj (lamp) ; B that of V as in 
Btrmak for Vermek (to give)^ bik for pek (very) ; and to find 
that dar, der, sometimes represents the lar, ler, of the Plural. But 
the beginner, though he may be quite familiar with such words as 
ydd (memory) vilj (year), yttrmi (twenty), ye' it (a young man, 
yoq (no), yildiz (star), de*il (not), may nevertheless fail to recog- 
nise the well-known words in the Qazaq forms jdt, jil, jirmeh, jegit, 
joq, jolduZj togulj respectively, or to perceive that jdqindar means 
yeqlnler (used in the Qazaq form for "neighbors." If the essentials 
of Qazaq Grammar were added, the beginner would find his pro- 
gress very much forwarded. 

Mr. Hunter's translation into English is in general very fairly 
correct though not in every case as exact as a beginner would per- 
haps wish for. To render musdfir by "gentleman" instead of "trav- 
eler" (p. 31, Part I.) is perhaps rather free, and iki iich jil means 
"for two or three years," not "for three years." Slight slips in the 
English, such as "village" and "lamed" (for "lambed") are of less 
importance. Some of the Stories in Part I are probably of genuine 
Turki origin, but that entitled "The Grandfather and the Grand- 
son" became first known to the present Reviewer many years ago in 
a Russian book, though it does not therefore necessarily follow that 
it is originally Russian. The same thing applies to the tale of "The 
Two Huntsmen" and perhaps to other stories in Part II, which is 
a much better known dialect (the Tatar or Eastern Turki) than the 
Qazaq Part III gives us a few specimens of the Uzbek Turki dialect, 
including a portion of an Uzbek translation of a Persian tale. Then 
comes an example of Kirghese Turki and a few idiomatic sentences 
in it. Part IV contains a passage in the Ottoman (Stambul) Turkish, 
which it was hardly worth printing here as it is so so well known. Then 
we come to a part of the Astrakhan Turkish version of St. John's 
Gospel (Ch. IV., w. 39-45), and the first ten verses of the Book 
of Genesis from the B. & F. B. Society's Azarbaijan Turki Jirans- 
lation. Unfortunately the text and translation in these concluding 
portions of Mr. Hunter's valuable book are paged somewhat con- 
fusedly. The book contains a few notes on Turki customs and 
idioms, all of which are interesting, but its main value consists in the 
comparison which it enables the student to institute between the dia- 
lects, and the encouragement it affords him to pursue his studies with 
the hope of ultimately being able to proclaim the Gospel in more 
than one of the dialects of the Turki family. 

W. St. Clair Tisdall. 


Modem Sons of the Pharaohs. A Study of the Manners and 

Customs of the Copts of Egypt. By S. H. Leeder, author of 

"Veiled Mysteries of Egypt" etc. Hodder and Stoughton. Pp. 
355. London, 1918. 

Whatever else we may think of this book, no one is likely to call 
it uninteresting. With considerable opportunity for first-hand in- 
formation and acquisitive powers of more than ordinary keenness, 
the author reproduces for us in a vivid, racy style what he has seen 
and heard. 

His graphic pictures of the country and the life of the people in 
the first part of the book make delightful reading. He has evidently 
enjoyed to the full his visits to Egypt and his contact with the people 
and writes con amorc. In the main his descriptions are accurate and 
true to life. Special mention should be made of his description of 
Oriental hospitality, for which too much can never be said. 

At times, however, he gives rather free rein to his imagination, as 
when he refers to the scents even along a country road as "a para- 
dise of delicate perfumes," the sounds from the fields giving "an 
impression of natural gladness unlike that of any other country," 
and the "constant industry," regularity and orderliness of the poorer 
foiks, and the "daintiness and self-restraint" of their table-manners. 
There is occasionally a tell-tale slip in the use of Arabic words or in 
statement of fact, as for example his remark that "today the army 
service causes no wailing," which betrays the limitations of his knowl- 
edge and observation. While he had stayed in out-of-the-way ham- 
lets, as he tells us, it is evident that he always stayed at the well- 
to-do houses, and so saw the life from the most favorable angle. 

But he has a keen appreciation of that which is best in the Egyptian 
character, and is to be commended for his efiort to discover this and 
make it known. And his frankness in dealing with certain moral and 
spiritual conditions shows that he does not mean to conceal the truth. 
His frequent comparisons of modern customs and characteristics with 
those of ancient Egypt are interesting and suggestive. 

The second half of the volume deals particularly with the Coptic 
Church — the church buildings, the worship, the fasts, the beliefs of 
the Copts and some of the leading ecclesiastics being described in 
detail. It stirs up afresh one's sense of reverence for this old 
Church with its great history, for its tenacity and patient endurance 
through centuries of suffering. Yet despite the fact of not a few 
admirable characters among the present membership of the Church 
and hopeful movements toward better things, it is painfully patent 
that ignorance, superstition, formalism, disorder, perverted beliefs and 
practices and absence of spiritual life are generally characteristic of 
the Church still. The author makes no attempt to hide these un- 
happy conditions. He speaks both of the need for reform and the 
difficulty of accomplishing it. For it is most needed among the 
clergy themselves. The higher orders are always sons of the monas- 
tery, and if any reform gains a footing, as the author well says, 
there is "an ever-recurring set-back as one desert recluse succeeds 
another as Patriach or bishop." 

But while the author shows a candor and critical discrimination m 
dealing with his subject not found in some other writers on the 
Coptic Church, he too displays occasionally a generous credulity that 
speaks more for his heart than for his head. This appears especially 
in his lengthy chapter on the Bishop of the Fayoum, though in other 


places also he seems ready to give credence to popular legends which 
plainly could never stand the light of intelligent criticism. 

He makes no effort to deal at any length with the missionary work 
that has been done among the Copts — a grave defect surely in a book 
aiming at anything like a comprehensive study of the subject. For 
as he himself says, the adherents of the Evangelical Church (he in- 
correctly says, of the Mission) are "numbered by tens of thousands," 
and include "many of the richest and most influential Copts in the 
country." Indeed, he seems to have given little attention to the 
mission work. And the few impressions he records here and there 
throughout the book show that he failed to comprehend its aim and 
significance. He does have words of praise for the general benefits 
conferred by the schools and hospitals of the American Mission. But 
he regards the aim of the work as "proselytising," the winning of the 
Copts to Presbyterianism, a form of worship which he thinks will 
never afford satisfaction to Oriental people. Had he taken pains to 
investigate the matter, he would have found that both the aim and the 
result of the mission work are other and far deeper than he thought. 
While he has no remedy to suggest for the serious ills he depicts in 
the Coptic Church, he seems ready to discard without examination 
the remedy of the missionaries. In giving a very appreciative account 
of some village preaching by "one of the daughters of a leading Cop- 
tic family" of Assiut whom he accompanied one day, and of which he 
says nothing had ever impressed him more, he seems not to be aware 
of the fact that she and her work were the fruit of mission effort. 

The last chapter, dealing with the political aspirations and rights of 
the Copts, is perhaps the most valuable section of the book. He deals 
frankly with the British distrust of the Copt and the reasons for it, 
and then attempts to state fairly the Coptic claims which he regards 
as sincere and in the main reasonable. His paragraphs on the Sab- 
bath question are especially strong and to the point, and it is to be 
hoped will have their influence in official quarters. I fear he is 
going too far when he says that "the Copts have an intense feeling 
of reverence for the Sabbath," but this does not affect the question 
of their needs and rights. He well characterizes the attitude of the 
British government in this matter as one of "callous expediency," and 
convincingly shows the fallacy of the arguments by which it is de- 

There is more or less repetition in the volume, and a certain lack 
of sequence often. The author is an impressional rather than a logical 
writer. He is better at compiling than sifting material. And his 
statements, as we have seen, are not always free from error. But he 
is never dull, and his volume is a useful contribution to an inter- 
esting and important subject. The book was written just before the 
outbreak of the war in 1914, but was not published till 191 8. It is 
illustrated with numerous attractive and well-selected pictures, in- 
cluding one of the author in Egyptian garb. There is a brief biblio- 
graphy and an excellent index. 

James G. Hunt. 



What to Read About the Near East. Charles H. Levcrmorc. 
"The World Court." New York. October, 1918. 

A select list of books and articles of recent date in English on the 
subject of the peoples of the Turkish Empire and more particularly of 
Asia Minor. (Many of the best authorities are necessarily excluded 
as their works are not published in English.) 

In the Persian Oilfields. Edmund Candler. "Cornhill Maga- 
zine." London. Jan., 1919. 

A description of Maidan-i-Naftun, "a bit of Staffordshire translated 
into the most uncompromising wifderness and all in a way solid Bakh- 
tiari, every brick and stone the product of the tableland, all power 
proceeding from the wells." 



The National Problem in Arabia. Edmond Power. S. J., D. Litt., 
"Studies." Sept., 191 8. Educational Company of Ireland. 89 
Talbot Street, Dublin. 

An interesting historical account of the different parts of Arabia, 
the conclusion of which is somewhat doubtful of the rise of any 
national power in Arabia because domestic feuds and the ambitions 
of rival chiefs will be a constant source of internal strife. They will 
probably in the future, as in the past, prevail over national solidarity 
and facilitate the entry of the foreigner. 

The Psychology of the Turk. H. Morgenthau. "Land and Wa- 
ter," Nov. 7th, 1918. 

Explanation of the psychological tendencies which produced the 
present Turkish attitude towards modern Western civilization. 



Mosque of Saiyid Ahmed of Bedawi, Tana. Miss J. S. Jameson. 
"Egypt General Mission News." London. Nov.-Dec, 191 8. 

Description of the visit of two lady visitors. 

The Future of Woman in the Near East. Mary Caroline Holmes. 
"The World Court." October, 1918. 
Urges the necessity of developing self-support. 



The Future of Women in the Near East. Basil Mathews. "The 
Women's International Quarterly." London. Jan., 1919. 

Describes "that often concealed but continuously aggressive move- 
ment of ideas and forces moving from the West into the Near East and 
especially disintegrating the life of the harem." 


The English in the Levant. Horatio F. Brown. "Quarterly Re- 
view" October, 191 8. 
The early history of the English in the Mediterranean from 1553- 
1603, based on State papers, Richard Hakluyt's "Navigations, Voy- 
ages and Discoveries of the English Nation," etc. 

Islam and the Future of Constantinople. Sir Valentine Chirol. 
"The Fortnightly Review." London. January, 1919. 

"One of the great opportunities created by the War for the better- 
ment of the world will be lost, if the Peace Conference fails to put 
an end to Turkish rule in Constantinople. If Constantinople remains 
the seat of Turkish Government, the new Turkish state that emerges 
from the Peace Conference will be fatally handicapped .... No worse 
service could be done to the simple, honest and industrious Turkish 
population of Asia Minor, who have suffered in the past no less than 
their Christian fellow subjects from Constantinople's misgovernment 
and themselves detest it." 

A much larger issue is the elimination of the pernicious influence which 
the Ottoman sovereignty has exercised over the whole world of Islam. 

America is suggested as the power to be entrusted with the task 
of preserving the freedom of Constantinople and the Straits. "No na- 
tion has worked harder for the diffusion of Western knowledge and 
Western civilization in Turkey and in the Turkish capital. America 
can lay her hands at once on men who know the country and who arc 
respected and trusted by all." 

St. Sophia. "Church Times." London. Dec. 6th, 1918. 

A plea that Constantinople "shall cease to be a Turkish city even by 
a political fiction and revert to its true character as a Greek city. It 
IS as unreasonable to withhold Constantinople from the Greeks on the 
ground of the religious sentiments of Mussulmans in India as it would 
have been to deny the Italians entry into Rome on the ground of the 
religious sentiments of Papists in North and South America. 

The New Palestine. "Manchester Guardian." Nov. 25, 26, 27, 


I. Agriculture the key to its prosperity. 2. Benefits wrought 
by the occupation 3. Setting the law on its feet By Father 

Effective Distribution of Relief Funds in Turkey. W. W. Pect. 

The American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief. 

Charles V. Vickery. 
Condition and Needs of the Refugees in the Caucasus. Thomas 

Dann Heald. 


Economic Possibilities of Rehabilitation. Wm. H. Hall. 
Rehabilitation through Education. Sam. T. Dutton. 

A series of articles in "The World Court," New York, dealing 
with the work of the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian 
Relief. October, 1918. 

The Future of Armenia. Viscount Bryce. "The Contemporary Re- 
view." London. Dec. 191 8. 

"Turkish rule over populations of a different faith must cease for 
ever to exist. Turkish government has been the very worst which has 
afflicted humanity during the last fifteen centuries. . . . That 
which we should work for is a Christian Armenian State, of course 
with full protection assured to every race and every religion." 

Reconstruction will take 15-20 years. In the meantime there must 
be a Protecting Power to undertake the functions of policing the Kurds, 
constructing lines of communication, seeing fairplay between the dif- 
ferent communities. America has often been designated as the most 
obvious power for this. It is "not only impartial but also disinterested, 
having no possible self -regarding ambitions of its own. Its missionaries 
have already won the gratitude and affection of the Christian popula- 
tion. They are the only foreigners who really know the country and 
understand the people. ... If however the American govern- 
ment and people should hesitate to make such a departure from the 
long settled lines of their policy, nothing remains except to find some 
European power or group of powers for the task." 

Armenia and the Settlement. Rev. Harold Buxton. "The East and 
the West." London. Jan. 1919. 

An account of the work of the British Armenian Relief Committees 
and an outline of future policy for the restoration of the Armenian 
nation, which follows that of Viscount Bryce. 

The New Armenia. "The Times." Dec. 31, 1918. 

An outline of Armenia's claims to be brought forward at the Peace 
Conference and given on the authority of Boghos Nubar Pasha, the 
son of the famous Nubar Pasha, Prime Minister of Egypt. He is sup- 
ported by all Armenian parties, whatever the country of their adoption. 
"Armenia asks for a mandatory — one of the Entente Powers, England, 
France or America, to stand sponsor for her while she is developing 
strength. . . . The delegation believe that in a few years the 
new Armenia will be capable of self-government and self-defense. 

What the Young Turk Government Stands For. Charles T. 

Riggs. "The World Court." New York. Oct. 1918. 

A well balanced review, written before the Armistice, of the external 
and internal policy of the Young Turk Government in so far as there 
is one. 





The Moslem World 

VOL. IX JULY, 1919 NO. 3 


On Taking Hold of God. 

This number of our Quarterly points out the glory 
of the impossible and puts the reader face to face with 
the spiritual problems of the missionary task. Whether 
at Meshed or in the Philippine Islands, whether in 
Arabia or among the Chinese Moslems, the missionary 
faces the same call of duty — to transfer allegiance from 
Mohammed to Christ. Here human wisdom and 
strength fail. We are cast back upon God. 

In spite of the tremendous changes, political, social 
and economic which will doubtless result from the 
redistribution or reconstruction of empires in the Near 
East, the intellectual and spiritual forces of Islam will 
rally and strengthen their grip on the minds and hearts 
of its followers. Any reliance on political prestige or 
racial superiority would be a costly blunder. At a 
time like this we are forcibly reminded of the words 
spoken by Jeremiah: 

''Thus saith the Lord; Cursed be the man that trusteth in man, 
and maketh flesh his arm, and whose heart departeth from the Tvord. 

"For he shall be like the heath in the desert, and shall not see 
when good cometh; but shall inhabit the parched places in the 
wilderness, in a salt land and not inhabited. 

''Blessed is the man that trusteth in the Lord, and whose hope the 
Lord is. 

"For he shall be as a tree planted by the waters, and that 
spreadeth out her roots by the river, and shall not see when heat 
cometh, but her leaf shall be green; and shall not be careful in the 
year of drought, neither shall cease from yielding fruit." 

The rivers of God do not take their rise in the desert 
of diplomacy, but flow from the throne of God and of 
the Lamb. In the spiritual conflict between Christianity 
and Islam, the true soldier of the Cross must stand in 
His strength alone. . The arm of flesh will fail 



us; we dare not trust human governments, however 
righteous be their policy and practice. When the 
capitulations have disappeared, will evangelism be 
helped or hindered? There may be need for outspoken 
testimony, but the greater need is for out-poured inter- 
cession. We must ^'take hold of God." No definition 
of prayer is so bold as that expressed in these words of 
Isaiah. Here we have at once the pathos of the sup- 
pliant, the strength of the martyrs' faith and the daring 
of Hebrew poetry. Prayer which Gladstone called 
"the highest exercise of the human intellect" is also 
the highest exercise of the affections and will. In our 
survey of the Moslem world ; its neglected areas, its new 
conditions and the ripening of the harvest — where the 
seed of the martyrs has fallen — we will make the largest 
progress on our knees. The conditions in the Moslem 
world cannot help stirring the emotions; yet the only 
place where these need never be stifled or suppressed, 
for fear of man or the censorship, is in the prayer 
closet. Here we may pour out our hearts, our tears, 
our agony. Intercessory prayer is the test of the reality 
and sincerity of our compassion. When we consider 
the history of Islam — its conditions and progress and 
the neglect of the Church, the luke-warmness of our 
love and the feebleness of our efforts, — what unoccupied 
realms there are for confession and humiliation, and of 
passion for God's glory. He who takes hold of God 
for the Moslem world starts in motion divine forces. 
Such prayer is far-reaching and achieves as much as it 
costs. The Christian on his knees is a king and priest 
unto God in His universe and the inner chamber be- 
comes a gymnasium for the soul. The effort to realize 
God's presence in His world stretches the sinews of our 
faith and hardens its muscles. We believe because it 
is impossible. Prayer invigorates the will, purifies it 
and confers decision on those that waver; energy on the 
listless, calmness to the fretful, sympathy to the selfish 
and largeness of heart on those who are narrow and 
provincial. Paul calls this part of his life "wrestling." 
It is a great spiritual conflict in an arena where the 


weapons are never carnal, but mighty through God to 
the pulling down of strongholds. Why do we not go 
over the top? 

The energies of the universe, nay, of God Himself, 
are at the disposal of those who pray — to the man who 
stirreth up himself to take hold of God. Opportunity 
is a great word; it challenges by its very hopefulness 
and sense of urgency. Yet opportunity is not the last 
word in missions nor the real measure of obligation. 
It always carries with it the temptation to opportunism 
and this is not good missionary policy. The open door 
beckons, it is true, but the closed door challenges Him 
who has a right to enter. He came when the doors 
were shut. The kingdoms and governments of this 
world may have frontiers which must not be crossed, 
but the Gospel of Jesus Christ knows no frontier. It 
never has been kept in bonds or within bounds; its mes- 
sage is expulsive and explosive. It is significant that 
the last name of Allah in Islam's rosary is '^41 Fattah" 
— the Great Opener. He opens the lips of the dumb 
to song, the eyes of the blind to sight and bursts the 
prison-house of the captive. He opens the doors of 
utterance and entrance; graves and gates; the windows 
of heaven and the bars of death. Because He holds 
the keys to every situation we must take hold of Him. 
When He opens no man can shut. Paul's experience at 
Ephesus may be that of many workers this year in 
Moslem lands. ''A great and effectual door has been 
opened unto me and there are many adversaries." God's 
grace made the door effectual and the adversaries made 
it great. The more baffling the problem seems to us, 
the easier it is to OMNIPOTENCE. This is the glory of 
the impossible. Shall we not take hold of God — and 
let go of man — for the Moslem world. 

Samuel M. Zwemer. 


History refuses to answer our ethical questions. It 
tells us what was, not what ought to have been. Why 
did Christianity turn westward from Antioch? If 
Peter went to Babylon (i Peter, 5:13), little trace of 
his work was left. North Africa by the fifth century 
(Augustine died 430 A. D.) "was a rich, civilized 
Christianized country." "As early as the year 220 there 
were already seventy bishoprics in existence, and the 
Latin translation of the Bible completed during the 
second century was the authority for the entire African 
Church."* What was left of this African Church after 
the Saracen invasion? Traces? Yes; but only traces. 
And it remains true that the course of Christianity 
which carried the vital current that made the western 
world turned north and west from Antioch. We can 
only guess at the reason ; and there can be no hazard in 
a little speculation here. 

According to its own estimate of itself Christianity is 
the universal religion, the only religion for mankind; 
not one of many religions but the final revelation of God 
to man. The finality of Jesus admits no rival claim. 
His death and resurrection accomplished an eternal 
redemption, and His enthronement in glory established 
Him as King of a universal kingdom. Now, this "sal- 
vation is of the Jews;" its star was first seen in the East. 
Oriental in its origin, in its earliest environment, in the 
cast of its teachings, it was yet meant to overspread the 
earth and to supersede all philosophies and cults what- 
soever. To have turned eastward would have been to 
take the line of least resistance, to have essayed the 
more congenial task; while to turn westward was to 
encounter the heaviest obstacles, to essay the hardest 

♦See Dr. Iselin: "The Downfall of the Christian Church in North Africa." Chaps. 
5 and 6. 



In point of fact, in the first generation of its progress, 
Christianity boldly — one would like to say deliberate- 
ly — encountered the most highly developed civilization 
on earth. And the Greek culture, the most elaborate 
known, and the Greek intellect, the best trained, af- 
forded the stoutest challenge Christianity could find in 
the whole world. And when it came into the Roman 
world proclaiming "another King, one Jesus" (Acts 
17:7), it directly disputed the most uncompromising 
political ambition hitherto conceived. Surely this 
Greaco-Roman world, with its intellectual pride and 
its towering passion for world dominion, must first be 
conquered by the Universal Religion, or Christianity 
must carry a paralyzing suspicion in its heart — a sus- 
picion that it might not at last be equal to the hardest 

Greece yielded. "Galilean, thou hast conquered." 
Rome also. And in pushing on north and west Chris- 
tianity undertook to master the peoples who had mas- 
tered Rome. The individualism of the Teutonic peo- 
ples, the hard aggressiveness of the Anglo-Saxons, the 
will to power, the will to possess, of the western nations? 
— these, one after the other, threw the lure of the in- 
creasingly difficult, like a spell, upon the preachers and 
propagandists of Christianity. And, if one may at- 
tempt a generalization in the field of guesses, from the 
fact of the westward march of our religion, one would 
say: It is of the very genius of Christianity to tackle 
the hardest tasks, to step in where all others are baffled 
and say, "Bring him to me." It is its mission to abolish 
bafflement, defeat death, to cleanse the tainted will, to 
give peace to the soul, to give light to the mind, to 
overcome the world. "Be of good cheer, I have over- 
come the world !" 

And not till the last of the western peoples, the Anglo- 
Saxons, had acknowledged themselves Christians did 
Christianity turn eastward again toward lands and peo- 
ples in a peculiar sense dominated by other-worldliness 
— peoples contented to live in huts and hovels while 
their temples towered skyward and blazed with gems 


and gold. Certain facts in the life of these peoples 
would seem to show that Christianity will find in them 
a more congenial soil than the west could afford — facts 
like the wide success of Buddhism, for example. The 
denial of the will to live, and finding the fullness of be- 
ing in Nirvana (Nothingness) probably involves in any 
fair interpretation the destructon of personality; but 
people accustomed to it through centuries will find less 
difficulty than western peoples have found in the death 
to self, the "I die daily" required by Christianity. The 
death of self and the death to self are, of course, worlds 
apart, but they are not so far apart as the self-assertion 
of the West and the total unselfishness insisted on in the 
teachings of our Lord. 

, ^ The rise and spread of Buddhism in the East is not 
the only fact which suggests a favorable presumption for 
Christian propagandism there. There is also the rise 
and spread of Mohammedanism. I am not here inti- 
mating that Mohammedanism is a step toward Chris- 
tianity, as some writers affirm. I cite the fact only as 
proving that Orientals can be converted, and that on a 
great scale, to a new religion provided only the new 
religion is aggressive enough to attack and break up 
the metaphysical calm which broods over the vast 
plains of India or to divert the strongwilled Chinese 
from his unvarnished and unashamed secularism. Mo- 
hammedanism did both these; it controls one-seventh of 
the human race, and today is the only force able to hurl 
Western Asia on the iron civilization of Europe.^ 
Speaking in particular of India, Mr. Townsend^ says 
that Islam has taken three times the time to convert a 
fifth of the people of India that Christianity took to 
convert the Roman Empire; and we may believe that, 
once Christianity adequately undertakes the task, the 
conversion of Hindu India will follow with astonish- 
ing rapidity. Here I transcribe a more extended quo- 
tation from the great journalist written after years of 
residence in India. ^ "The difficulties of Christianity to 

> Meredith Townsend: "The Great Arabian" in "Europe and Asia" p. 159. 
« Ibid p. 46. 
• Ibid p. 66. 


Christians are not difficulties to the Hindu. He is 
perfectly familiar with the idea that God can be triune; 
that God may reveal Himself to man in human form; 
that a being may be at once man and God, and both 
completely; that the Divine man may be the true exem- 
plar, though separated from man by his whole Divinity; 
and that sin may be wiped off by a supreme sacrifice. 
Those are the ideas the missionaries teach, and the 
majority of Hindus would affiirm that they were per- 
fectly reasonable and in accordance with the general 
and divinely originated scheme of things. There is 
nothing in Christian dogma which to the Hindu seems 
either ridiculous or impossible, while no miracle 
whatever, however stupendous, in the least overstrains 
the capacity of his faith. There never was a creed 
whose dogmas were in themselves so little offensive to 
a heathen people as the greater dogmas of Christianity 
are to the Hindu." The chapter from which this quo- 
tation is taken, entitled ''Christianity and Islam in In- 
dia," is full of suggestions on the whole question of the 
progress of the two faiths, a discussion somewhat aside 
from the line of the present article. 

I spoke of the possible rapid conversion of Hindu 
India. But what of Mohammedan India — the sixty- 
seven millions of India who have confessed Mohammed 
as God's apostle? What of the Moslems throughout 
the world? 

Here we come upon the most formidable antagonist 
Christianity has ever faced. It is a most striking phe- 
nomenon when you remember that Mohammedanism 
arose in Arabia and early made conquest of the lands 
and peoples who first embraced Christianity. It is as 
though Christianity, in the eagerness of its westward 
march, forgot to conserve its gains in Palestine, Egypt, 
Syria, Asia Minor; and while it swept on, still west- 
ward, back there in its remote rear a sinister rival grew 
to power, crept forward on its trail as far as the gates 
of Vienna, or around North Africa to the Pillars of 
Hercules and through Spain to the Pyrenees mountains; 
or turning eastward carried its conquests across Cen- 


tral Asia to the China sea and across India to the 
Straits Settlements and beyond, to the islands of the 
Pacific. And all the time it fed and fattened on the 
Christian tradition, the patriarchs, the prophets, the 
apostles, even confessing Jesus as God's messenger to 
man. Monotheism, the forgiveness of sins, the life 
everlasting — these and other doctrines of the Christian 
creed are included in the creed of Mohammed. It is 
precisely for this reason that Mohammedanism is the 
last stronghold of the enemy; the most formidable an- 
tagonist of Christianity. Here the Latin proverb, "Cor- 
ruptio optimi pessima," finds a perfect illustration. 
The corruption of Christianity by Mohammedanism 
has produced the worst — a conglomerate of truth and 
error; of loyalty and lies; of austerity and obscenity; 
of scrupulosity and dissoluteness; of faith and cruelty; 
and all these in the name of religion! Though Mor- 
monism in the United States presents many striking 
likenesses, it is true to say that the like of this corrupt 
religion was never seen in all history. Christianity ac- 
cording to its genius — a genius which it first displayed 
in the conquest of Greece and Rome — must now under- 
take the last enemy and the fiercest, Mohammedanism. 
The lure of the difficult is here and it calls Christians 
to an ardor of love as intense as the propagandist fury 
of the Moslem fanatic who combines all the emotions 
of religion with all the motives which impel a political 
leader and a recruiting sergeant in his passion to pro- 
selytize. Here the guage of battle is drawn, and the 
final question, the test question of the ages for all 
Christians is: Can Christianity conquer Mohammedan- 
is mF 

The answer to this question must be No if the policies 
hitherto pursued by Mission Boards are to be con- 
tinued. The editor of this Quarterly has shown that 
the '^Unoccupied Fields" are very nearly conterminous 
with Moslem lands. To neglect them is not the way 
to convert them; to pass by on the other side is not the 
way of the Good Samaritan! 

It requires an apostle to plant a Gospel; and it will 


require a zeal and a passion for truth and for souls like 
Paul's to win the Moslem heart. It is a case of wrest- 
ling not against flesh and blood but against principali- 
ties and powers, against world-rulers of this darkness; 
and only men who are panoplied in the whole armor 
of God may dare to go into the struggle. Such men 
and a great host of them must be found ; men who have 
witnessed the conquest of the impossible in their own ex- 
perience of grace and who therefore know Him to 
Whom and in Whom and through Whom all things 
are possible — such men must be found. And they can 
be found, since for every must in God's world there is 
a can, for every obligation, a corresponding ability. 

The sacrificial life is fructifying; it multiplies itself; 
the grain of wheat that dies waves in new harvests. 
And the men for the conquest of Islam will call out 
the money which is needed. Literature and the presses 
to produce it, schools, hospitals, teachers, evangelists, 
apostles — these all on a great scale will spring forth to 
meet the challenge when once the whole Church of 
Christ has been made to hear the boast of this new Go- 
liath of Gath: ^^I defy the armies of Saul this day.'' 
'^Then said David to the Philistine, Thou comest to me 
with a sword, and with a spear, and with a javelin; 
but I come to thee in the name of Jehovah of hosts whom 
thou hast defied. This day will Jehovah deliver thee 

into my hand that all this assembly may know 

that Jehovah saveth not with sword and spear; for the 
battle is Jehovah's and he will give you into our hand" 
(1 Sam. 17: 45-47). 

Edwin M. Poteat. 

Brookline, Massachusetts, 


The Moro, or "Tau Sug," as he is locally known hy 
his own people, occupies the hundred or more islands 
of the Sulu Archipelago, which forms the Southern- 
most boundary of the Philippine Islands, and represents 
the only Mohammedan people, residing under the 
American flag. 

While they are generally known to the world as a 
Mohammedan people, strictly speaking they are only a 
sort of Mohammedan, that is, the only religion they 
know is Mohammedanism of a very corrupted type. 
The Arabian trader, while on commercial visits to Sulu 
in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, left them most 
of that which they know of Islam. Their gradual con- 
tact with Western Christian civilization has so changed 
them, that today they know very little about pure Mo- 

It is true, that the period from 1380 to 1450 marks 
the establishment of Mohammedanism throughout the 
Sulu Archipelago and the rise of a Mohammedan dy- 
nasty. Previous to this date they worshipped idols and 
the spirits of the dead. They ate pig, rats and snakes. 
They were a pagan people. 

About 1380 there arrived the first missionary of Islam 
in this part of the world, one Makdum, an Arabian 
judge and scholar from Malacca. He appears to have 
come first to the Island of Simonor where he made 
many converts to his faith. He then visited many of 
the other islands, converting the inhabitants as he went, 
being especially active and successful in the South, 
where at last he is said to have died in Sibutu. He 
built the first mosque in Sulu at the town of Tubigin- 
danan. Island of Simonor, portions of which are still 
standing. It has been repaired from time to time, so 
that today all that is left of the original mosque are 



the carved posts of Ipul wood with a few pieces of 
carving. The Sulus of the Island of Tapul claim de- 
scent from him. He must have been a man of strong 
personality to have been a successful missionary to a 
warlike, savage race of pirates as the people of Sulu 
were at that time; and the fact that the Mohammedan 
religion was very largely established by preaching and 
not so much by the sword, as is popularly supposed, is 

About 1390 Raja Baginda established his Capital at 
Bwansa, a place about three miles West of the City of 
Jolo. Jolo is today the center of the Moslems of this 
region, the Capital of the Province and the residence 
or palace of Hajji Mohamad Jamalul Kiram the pres- 
ent Sultan, who is also the head of Islam among the 

Somewhere between 1450 and 1480 Abu Bakr came 
to Bwansa from Johore and became Sultan of Sulu. 
He erected mosques at Bwansa and throughout Jolo and 
divided the Island of Jolo into five sections, each admin- 
istered by a Panglima subordinate to the Sultan. This 
seems to mark the rise of the Mohammedan dynasty! 
which has continued to reign over a large majority of 
the Moro people. 

For the next few centuries there was no attempt to 
change these conditions as far as any record shows, 
until in June, 1578, when Captain Estebau Rodriguez 
de Figueroa with a large command of Spanish troops 
came to Jolo. The purpose of this expedition are cata- 
logued as follows: 

1. To reduce Sulu as an independent state. 

2. Obtain tribute in pearls. 

3. Secure the trade of Sulu for Spain. 

4. To punish the Sultan of Sulu for aiding the Sultan 
of Bruney against the Spaniards. 

5. To free the Christian slaves on Jolo. 

6. To introduce Christianity. 

Thus in 1578 the first attempt was made to introduce 
Christianity among the Sulu people, but it was not 
successful. Hostilities continued until 1737 when Sul- 


tan Alim ud Din came into power, and has left on the 
pages of history the name of being a man of peace and a 
progressive. Piracy was actually suppressed during 
his reign. He also sent emissaries to Manila and made 
a treaty with the Spaniards, which he faithfully kept. 
He is interesting as having been the grandfather of all 
the present Sulu Datus. 

In September, 1746, a special commission from Manila 
brought to Sultan Alim ud Din a letter which had been 
written him a couple of years previously (1744) by 
King Philip V of Spain, in which the latter requested 
that Jesuit missionaries be allowed to enter Jolo un- 
molested and preach the Christian religion to the Sulus. 
The Sultan held a council with his ministers and the 
request was granted. He authorized the building of a 
Church and recommended the erection of a fort for the 
protection of the Jesuits. The Jesuits entered Jolo, 
translated the catechism into the Sulu dialect and dis- 
tributed it among the people. 

This, together with the liberties the Jesuits exercised 
in their proselyting, and the marked friendship which 
the Sultan showed toward them, created a great deal 
of dissatisfaction among the people, so that an opposi- 
tion party to the Sultan was formed headed by Raja 
Bantilan. Their purpose was the expulsion of the 
missionaries and the deposing of the Sultan. Ill feel- 
ing soon ripened into hostilities and civil war became 
imminent. The life of the Sultan himself was threat- 
ened, on one occasion Bantilan throwing a spear which 
wounded him severely in the side or thigh. It became 
dangerous for the missionaries to remain in Jolo, so 
that late in 1748, one of the Sultan's ministers provided 
them with a sapit (boat) in which they escaped to 

Overpowered, the Sultan, with his family and a large 
escort, went to Manila to seek the aid of the Spanish 
Government, the indulgence in his friendship for 
which had largely been the cause of his downfall. He 
arrived there on January 2nd, 1749. Bantilan there- 
upon proclaimed himself Sultan. 


The Spaniards treated Sultan Alim ud Din exceed- 
ingly well although they were slow about attempting to 
restore him to his Sultinate. He was given a house in 
Binondo, Manila, for his escort of seventy, and trium- 
phal arches were erected across the streets which were 
lined with 2000 native soldiers. Many presents were 
given him, such as chains of gold, fine clothing and gold 
headed canes, etc. 

He seems to have responded to their kind treatment, 
for at Panike, on April 29th, 1750, we find him being 
baptized, receiving the name of "Ferdinand." This 
act has caused a number of Spanish authors to refer to 
him as 'Terdinand, First Christian Sultan of Jolo." 

Ferdinand was never able to carry Christianity to his 
people, and the Mohammedan religion which was in- 
troduced about the thirteenth century from India and 
the Malay Straits, in such a corrupted form that one 
cannot tell exactly to what Moslem sect it belongs but 
probably to the Sunnite or Turkish as distinguished 
from the Shia or Persian, has continued to the present. 
Today it is professed by a population of about 358,968. 
This is the estimated population of Mohammedans in 
the Philippines, according to the Government census of 
the Islands in January 191 8. A new census is now in 
process, but the figures will not be available for some 

The Moro today realizes the futility of attempt- 
ing to subdue his Christian brother of the North and 
thus Mohammedanism in the Philippine Islands is at a 
standstill. It is not even holding very firmly the young- 
er generation and there are no representatives from 
other lands strengthening Mohammedanism in the Phil- 
ippine Islands at the present time so far as known. 

While they read and revere the Koran, they under- 
stand but very few words, and the Koran has not been 
translated into the dialect, so that comparatively few, 
those who have had the advantage of an acquaintance 
with persons familiar with Arabic, and can explain 
the principles of their religion to them, understand 
much about Islam. Practically none of the Sulus under- 


stand Arabic. To the great majority of Sulus, Islam 
consists only in the prohibition against eating pork. 
Forbidden foods of other kinds — fish without scales, 
and bats — are constantly eaten. The religious feasts 
are fairly well observed, but except for the great fast 
of Ramadhan, which most of the people pretend to 
keep, fasts are honored more in the breach than in the 
observance. The fast of Ramadhan is really the only 
event in the Moslem year known to all the people; and 
it is only during this month that the numerous mosques 
are not deserted and neglected. There are a number 
of superstitions that still survive from the ancient pagan 
religion; and these mingled with baser superstitions of 
Mohammedanism, are brought to the surface in times 
of great calamity. It is the real religion of the Sulu 
people, and has little in common with pure Moham- 

Polygamy is allowed and practiced by all Mohamme- 
dan peoples. The economic conditions have had some- 
thing to do with its practical application in recent years 
and the American occupation of the Philippines has had 
even more to do with its cessation in the Sulu Archi- 
pelago. Today only a few of the wealthier class of 
Moros practice polygamy. As a race they are too poor 
to support more than one wife. 

In morals the Moro or the Philippine Mohamme- 
dan as he is sometimes called, on the whole compares 
favorably with many of the Christian Filipinos. They 
are more orderly in sexual relations than many of the 
Christians. A Moro woman is quoted as saying, she 
preferred to be the legal fourth wife (that is, legal in 
Mohammedan sense) of a Moro man than one of two or 
three women having informal relations with a ^'Chris- 
tian" Filipino. 

In other respects, so far as appearance is concerned, 
the Moros are not clearly distinguishable from the 
pagan tribes. A Moro and an Igorot, and even some 
of the Visayan people, if they would cut their hair 
alike and dress alike, would be found hard to distin- 
guish. They are however distinguishable from the 


pagan tribes in most of their customs and of course are 
congregated in settlements where they can be quite 
easily distinguished from the pagan tribes of the sur- 
rounding country. 

The Moro population has not increased to any 
marked extent in recent years. Thus Mohammedanism 
has not increased as there is no propaganda other than 
the individual who is often an ardent missionary. In 
fact the younger generation, as they are being educated, 
find that the parrot fashion of reading the Koran, 
which they cannot understand, is most unsatisfactory. 
These are ready to consider some form of religion 
which is intelligible to them. With this in view the 
Gospel of St. Luke has been placed in the Sulu dialect 
and is being printed, we hope to follow it with the 
entire New Testament. 

It is the custom for the Panglima and others who 
can read and write, to read to those who cannot. 
Perhaps twenty-five per cent of the MQros could be 
called literate, as we understand that term. 

There is practically no extant literature. There are 
some old manuscripts which are a medley of magic 
and quotations from the Koran. Such manuscripts are 
especially prevalent in Cotabato. The Mohammedanism 
of the Philippines seems to be strong in the magic ele- 
ment. There is no current literature either books or 
magazines. The Moro Mission of the Episcopal 
Church at Zamboanga publishes a monthly newspaper, 
the '^Surat Habar Sing Sug" in Sulu with a circulation 
of about 600 copies. It endeavors to give the news of 
the world in a form that would be interesting to the 
Moslems together with some simple Christian teaching. 
It is paving the way for the introduction of Christianity. 
Our own printing office has the only movable type in 
the world to print the Moro dialects which use an 
adapted form of Arabic character. The type was made 
to order in Beyrout, Syria. 

The changing of the Moro is being brought about 
through several agencies, in which the Moro Mission 
of the Episcopal Church is playing a very important 


part by bringing the Moro into closer contact with the 
civilized world through the medium of the various mis- 
sion enterprises which were started in August, 191 2. 

Since then a very respectable showing has been 
made which is bringing the Moro closer to Christ. 
While none have been baptized as yet, many are being 
slowly and surely prepared. Only recently in the City 
of Jolo when the Missionary was baptizing two chil- 
dren, one whose father is a Christian Chinaman and 
mother a Moro, the mother asked when could the 
Missionary return to instruct her for baptism. 

Today, a Jesuit Priest at Jolo, and the Missionary 
Priest of the Episcopal Church at Zamboanga are the 
only two clergy attempting to do any Christian work 
among the Moro people of the Philippine Islands and 
their work is largely that of living the Christian life 
among them and preparing the way for future direct 
spiritual work. The efforts of these two men cannot 
reach far when one considers that the Moro* population 
is spread over more than a hundred islands extending 
more than two hundred miles by water. 

Perhaps a brief description of the various mission 
enterprises which are attempting to introduce Chris- 
tianity among these people will be of interest. 

The Zamboanga Mission Hospital, while caring for 
the sick without discrimination as to race or religion, is 
more and more fulfilling its original purpose of caring 
for the physical side of the Moro's life. It has taken 
a great deal of patience to overcome the fear the Moro 
entertained of entering a hospital. On the whole the 
medical work of the Government as well as that of the 
Mission hospitals in this Department of the Philippines 
is progressing and the Moro is beginning to appreciate 
the efiPorts of the Christians to help him. 

Through the medium of the Moro Settlement House 
and it's staff of workers, the Moro women and ^irls of 
the vicinity are brought into contact with the civilized 
population* and are assisted in disposing of their handi- 
work in the most profitable manner. Their weaving 
and lace making are supervised while in the process 


of making and when necessary, materials provided and 
the cost deducted from the amount paid the worker 
when the work is finished. 

It seems to be contrary to the Moro custom to pro- 
vide an education for the girls beyond that of reading 
the Koran in mimic fashion. But here have been gath- 
ered a few girls who bid fair to change this custom. 
One can see the great difference between the cleanli- 
ness and the conduct of the girls who have come in 
contact with the House and those who have not. It is 
seldom that a girl who has been in attendance at the 
House, either in school, weaving or lace classes is seen 
with her teeth filed and blackened as is the custom 
among the Moro women and girls. 

At Jolo the Moro Mission of the Episcopal Church 
has established a Moro Agricultural School at the very 
center of that formerly turbulent island which is the 
center of the Mohammedan faith of these people, and 
for the past three years have been most successful. The 
idea that a school operated under Christian auspices 
would be harassed by the Mohammedans seems to 
be wrong. Today there is a large waiting list of 
Moro boys who desire to enter the school. The Sultan, 
who is the head of the Mohamedan Church, is a friend- 
ly and frequent visitor at the school. 

Any one familiar with the indolent habits of these 
natives would be surprised at the progress the school 
has been able to make in the short period of its exist- 
ence. At the beginning many of the boys left rather 
than work, but later returned and have grown from thin 
listless individuals to be stout, robust boys taking part 
and great interest in all sorts of athletics, farm work 
and even in their academic studies. 

The influence of the school with its high Christian 
ideals is being felt throughout the community in 
which it is situated. 

Such forms of education are of tremendous value and 
will have their effect on the next generation in which 
lies the hope of these people. 

The spiritual side of their lives cannot be developed 


until adequate facilities are provided for the Mission- 
ary to serve them. At present distance makes this 

All this work, however, among the Moro youth is 
preparing the way for future development; they must 
be given education and civilization in order to let 
them appreciate Christianity. 

All these agences bring the Missionary into contact 
with what has always been considered the section of the 
population of the Islands most hostile to Christianity, 
and makes possible further development and progress 
toward introducing some direct Christian teaching. 

A young Mohammedan Moro came to the Missionary 
recently to ascertain if he would solemnize his marriage 
to a Mohammedan girl. They did not want to be 
married before the Imam, or Mohammedan Priest and 
felt that God would prefer a Christian marriage to that 
of a Justice of the Peace. The man would be willing 
to be baptized and become a Christian, but the girl being 
the daughter of a high dignitary in the Mohammedan 
mosque would find it almost impossible to become a 
Christian at this time. The instance shows the ever 
growing influence of the Mission. 

While the Missionary refused to officiate, still he 
used this opportunity to talk about Christianity and 
what it was doing for the non-Christian Moro. During 
the conversation a significant reply came finally to this 
eflfect. "I am not a real Mohammedan. I select such 
customs and practices as I think are good and observe 
them, but I also select what seems good to me from 
the Christian customs and practices." 

This shows the marked change in the Moro from the 
Mohammedan of intolerance that he is supposed to 
have been for so many centuries, to the more liberal 
minded, tolerant and receptive stage into which he is 
rapidly passing. 

Progress among any Oriental people is slow as con- 
sidered in comparison with Occidental movements and 
it is too early to say what will be the result of this at- 
tempt to introduce Christianity. 


The Moros are still today the combative and ex- 
plosive people they have always been. But, if by 
kindly and tactful treatment they be kept in their pres- 
ent state of grace for a few years, until they receive 
ocular demonstration of what these conditions mean to 
the civilized peoples, and if, in addition, education (in 
farming, as well as otherwise) are at the same time 
pushed forward as rapidly as possible, it is believed the 
Moro will prove the most responsive pupil which it has 
yet been tried to develop in the world's first and 
greatest experiment among Eastern Orientals under a 
Democratic form of government. 

Robert T. McCutchen. 

Zamhoanaa, P. 7. 


The battle for control of the life of womanhood that 
is raging in Nearer Asia came home to me in a vivid 
picture at Beirut. While I was there, just a few months 
before the great war broke out, the cinema film *^Quo 
Vadis" was being shown for the second time, its earlier 
visit having been made a year before. On this second 
occasion the Moslem authorities issued an order abso- 
lutely forbidding Mohammedan women to visit the 
cinema. Their reason for issuing the edict was that 
on the previous visit the presentation of the heroically 
borne sufferings of the Christian martyrs had so moved 
the emotions of the Christian martyrs, had so aroused 
their pity for the persecuted Christians, and had stimu- 
lated such lively debates behind the curtains of the 
harems that the masculine authorities dreaded a repeti- 
tion of that influence. 

The incident flung up into vivid relief that often con- 
cealed but continuous aggressive movement of ideas and 
forces moving from the West into the Near East, forces 
that are now penetrating with a rapid disintegrating 
result into the last fortresses of Eastern life — the se- 
cluded harems of its womanhood. 

The effect of this movement in a place like Beirut is 
typical of the influence throughout Nearer Asia, but it 
is typical in quality rather than in degree. In that cos- 
mopolitan port, where you may hear spoken in one elec- 
tric tramcar Turkish, French, English, Russian, Tamil, 
and Greek, the seclusion and separatism of the past are 
breaking down more rapidly than in the interior under 
the insistent forces of the cosmopolitan and interracial 
blending of the present. These influences are neces- 
sarily at high pressure there just because the place is a 
great international centre into which the electric tram- 

(*) Reprinted from the Women's International Quarterly, Jan. 1919 by permission. 



way, the cable, the daily newspaper, the cinema, and all 
the transforming forces of Western civilization have 

The same forces, however, are visibly at work in 
every part of Western Asia. Superficially, of course, in 
a city like Tarsus, with its streets whose booths of 
leather-workers, copper and tinsmiths and tent-makers 
gives an impression of the unchanging East, it is diffi- 
cult on the surface to see that any real process of disin- 
tegration is going on in the life of woman. I will give, 
however, three examples of things seen in Tarsus, each 
apparently meagre in itself, but each quite significant 
to the observer, who can from such straws of evidence 
see which way the wind of social movement blows. 

Journeying from Tarsus past the foothills on the edge 
of the Cilician Plain into the Taurus Mountains, and 
seeing the long, swinging caravans of camels coming 
down the ancient Pass of the Cilician Gate, it was in- 
evitable that one should say, ^'Here, if anywhere in the 
world, no single thing has changed since Alexander the 
Great led his armies down the defile or Paul and Silas 
trudged up its gorges. But when I came to inquire, in 
respect of a particular string of camels, what burden 
they were bearing from the West to the East the reply 
was ^'Sewing machines." Here even through the chan- 
nel of this immemorial pass on that most ancient beast of 
burden the scientific, mechanical inventive mind of the 
West was flowing into the rooms of the women in the 
birthplace of St. Paul. 

The observations, secondly, which my wife was able 
to make in harems in Tarsus brought out in detail this 
impression. In these harems she saw, in quite ludicrous 
association, side by side with beautiful Oriental tapes- 
tries and carpets, the more tawdry and glittering type 
of European ornament, and other indications of the 
fact that fissures had been made in the walls of the old 
system of seclusion and isolation. 

The third example was more significant still. An 
Armenian Christian kindergarten had been established 
in Tarsus for the education of little Armenian girls. 


It was equipped, not lavishly, but adequately for its 
purposes, and a relatively well-trained Armenian wom- 
an-teacher had been provided for it, a step made possi- 
ble by the existence of the St. Paul's Institute, that 
efficient American educational missionary institution, 
and by the enthusiasm of Mrs. Christie, the wife of the 

The Moslem fathers in Tarsus were so thoroughly 
stimulated by the existence of this little Christian kin- 
dergarten that they actually conceived the idea of es- 
tablishing one for the education of little Moslem chil- 
dren; and their new-born passion for education for girls 
— a miraculous thing in itself — was so strong that they 
actually put their hands in their pockets to pay for, not 
only equipment, but two salaried teachers. Lack of 
training made it impossible to find a Moslem who could 
run this institution; so, when we went to see the kinder- 
garten, we discovered a Christian Armenian head teach- 
er with a veiled Moslem assistant. The varied degree 
in which new ideas have penetrated the Near East was 
illustrated by the fact that on getting across the Taurus 
Mountains to Konia (Iconium), we found that the 
missionaries there who know Asia Minor with great 
thoroughness could hardly believe that so progressive a 
step had been taken by the Moslems in Tarsus. 

Penetrating, as we were able to do by wagon, to the 
inner fastnesses of the Plateau of Asia Minor and stay- 
ing in the house of a Turk close to the ruins of Antioch- 
in-Pisidia, (a Turk who had only, come into touch with 
a handful of Europeans in his whole life), it became 
clear that in this remote place in contrast to the coast 
cities the influences of Western civilization had had 
hardly any effect. The acids that are biting into the 
old Asiatic life in Beirut and Smyrna, and are at work 
even in Tarsus and Damascus, are almost imperceptible 
in remoter Antaolia, when you get away from the Bag- 
dad railway line. 

These almost casual impressions, developed by inter- 
course running from the Jordan valley across Pales- 
tine, Syria, Cilicia and Asia Minor down to Smyrna, 


made upon me an ineffaceable impression that slowly, 
but with increasing swiftness and momentum, the whole 
fabric of the civilization of Western Asia is being 
transformed and that the process in the nature of things 
will go forward until in the remotest places and in the 
most secluded elements of society the outlook both of the 
men and of the women will undergo a thorough change. 

That revolution in the ethos — in the whole trend and 
direction of life — is unlike anything that has ever hap- 
pened in Nearer Asia since civilization was really es- 
tablished there. It has been true in earlier centuries 
that '^the legions thundered past" leaving the East un- 
changed. But the cinema, the electric tram, the cabled 
and wireless news service, the sewing machine, the fab- 
rics and utensils of western industry do not ''thunder 
past;" they enter into life at every point and penetrate 
to its innermost recesses. They are corrosive and ex- 
plosive. They make, so to speak, a positive chemical 
change not in the surface aspect, but in the inner reality 
of life. And for this reason they are making a change 
without precedent. 

The man, or for that matter the woman, who, having 
lived in the Near East, would dogmatize as to the line 
on which that future development is likely to move 
would be guilty of audacity running perilously close 
upon the heels of impertinence. 

There are, however, certain processes both of de- 
struction and reconstruction that are already quite clearly 
in evidence, and that seem in the very nature of things 
bound to continue. In relation to the life of woman 
the first of these is the gradual breaking of some of the 
shackles with which Islam has cramped the personality 
of woman. The veil, polygamy, and compulsory ignor- 
ance are three successive rows of entrenchments that are 
being ''taken" by the powerful influences of the West. 

The movement in this direction has already found 
such highly qualified leaders as Madame Ulviye Ha- 
noum, the leader of Turkish Feminism, trained, it may 
be recalled, in the Constantinople College for Girls, es- 
tablished by American missionary enterprise. Madame 


Hanoum is a leader in the society for the defence of the 
rights of women, which has a sevenfold programme. 
The aims of this society are: 

1. "To transform the outdoor costume of Turkish women. 

2. *'To ameliorate the rules of marriage according to the exig- 

encies of common sense. 

3. "To fortify woman in the home. 

4. "To render mothers capable of bringing up their children 

according to the principles of modern pedagogy. 

5. "To initiate Turkish women into life in society. 

6. "To encourage women to earn their own living by their own 

work, and to find them work in order to remedv the nr-o--,i- 

7. "To open women's schools in order to give to young Turkish 

girls an education suited to the needs of their country, and 
to improve those schools already existing." 

The Society has a weekly illustrated paper, called 

This movement mainly appeals to those in the higher 
grades of social life in what was the Turkish Empire — 
the Lydias and Pricillas of to-day; and it is significant 
of the recognition paid by Government that such a 
development should so far from being quelled, be helped 
to develop itself on regularized and orderly lines; for 
during the war the Government had set up in Beirut 
the beginnings of the organization of a great Turkish 
Women's College, Moslem in basis but committed to a 
progressive policy. 

One of the reasons why this movement is bound to 
continue and develop is that the younger men of Turkey, 
and Smyrna in particular, who have seen American or 
European life either at a university or in the cities, are 
not content that their wives should have no significance 
as comrades or in intellectual interests, in outlook on 
the wider aspects of life, in intelligent understanding 
of their ambitions or ideals. 

A similar development is certainly going on though 
in a slower way and by different processes in the lower 
grades of society. The comparatively small develop- 
ment of industry on factory lines before the war had 
already called a number of girls and younger women to 
work of that order; while by an earth-shaking con- 
cession some Turkish girls had actually been introduced 


into the Telephone Exchange in Constantinople. But 
the work of the mill, the office, the factory is quite 
certain to develop. The over-work and under-pay of 
women in industries in Turkey was gross in pre-war 
times. The effect of this evil was relatively small then, 
but with the widespread development of industry that 
will almost certainly sweep across Asia Minor, Syria 
and Palestine, and up the Tigris and the Euphrates, 
after the war, such conditions of labour as have pre- 
vailed would be calamitous if accepted; and if an at- 
tempt is made to impose them, they will almost cer- 
tainly lead to severe social and industrial dislocation. 

It seems, then, looking at the matter broadly, as 
though the womanhood of Nearer Asia was about to 
enter on a revolutionary period like that which her 
European, and especially her British and American, 
sisters went through in the industrial development of 
the nineteenth century — the period of individual libera- 
tion from conventional control in matters of manners, 
relationship with men, and self-support, and of sub- 
jection, on the other hand, to the harsh discipline of 
industrial and commercial life. Alongside of that 
similarity there is the tremendously important difference 
that in the one case there was the tradition of relative 
liberty and in the other the tradition of quite severe 
servitude. The tremendous depth and width of this 
gulf can be realized faintly if we try to imagine the pos- 
sibility of the existence in the Turkish Empire in the 
old days of a Jane Austen or Elizabeth Barrett Brown- 
ing, to say nothing of a George Eliot or a Florence 

In this seething change which faces the womanhood 
of the Near East the first of all necessities will be lead- 
ership, and the basis of all leadership is character, ex- 
pressed in particular through will and intellect. 

Islam has only begun to produce the first elements of 
such leadership under Western stimulus and on Chris- 
tian models; and indeed the essential principles of Is- 
lam, as proclaimed in the Suras of its founder and 
exemplified in his life, have in them, even giving them 


credit for every element of nobility that is there, no 
real basis for the development of the leadership among 

It is a simple statement of ultimate reality and evi- 
dent truth to say that the one foundation on which a 
true leadership of womanhood in the Near East, as in- 
deed anywhere, can be based lies in Him, Who, born 
of an eastern Mother, was the Divine Friend and 
Leader of Mary and Martha, lifted Mary of Magdala 
from corruption, gave His forgiveness and restored to 
purity the woman taken in adultery, and set up for all 
time these immortal, stern and absolute standards of 
purity on which alone the personality of men and women 
in comradeship can grow to full bloom and splendid 

To any woman to whom Christ has given these things, 
who stands on the threshold of life' looking for an ave- 
nue down which she shall walk, the vocation comes of 
leading the new girlhood and womanhood of Nearer 
Asia into the freedom that is not license and the service 
that is perfect liberty. There is, so far as I know, no 
call more insistent and urgent, nor any that will bear 
greater fruit in establishing the strength and beauty of 
the life of the world of to-morrow, than the need of 
the new womanhood of Asia. 

Basil Mathews. 
London, England, 


Marshall Foch (Generalissimo of the Allied Forces) 
has set for all time the maxim of the strategy of war. 
Let the enemy attack and waste his reserves and then, 
strike back in force all along the line at the same time, 
concentrating forces at certain salient but powerful 
points of resistance which must be attacked simultan- 
eously and penetrated or driven back so that, instead 
of being hinges of a great consolidated line of resist- 
ance, they become the weak links in a chain which give 
back and so drag the whole line in confusion after 

This is the spiritual policy of the Christian Church 
with regard to Islam. Let us pursue the metaphor. 
We are concentrated and we are moreover under the 
superhuman leadership of our Lord Jesus Christ in 
Heaven. We are in the right positions everywhere; 
we know the field thoroughly; we know the strong 
points of resistance; the enemies' materials have de- 
teriorated while ours are, as ever, efficient. (See an 
article in October, 1914 ^'The International Review of 
Missions" on "The Present Attitude of Educated Mos- 
lems towards Jesus Christ and the Scriptures" by S. M. 
Zwemer.) Our "Air Force" (the Holy Scriptures) is 
everywhere flying over enemy lines and lands and liter- 
ally "bombing" places formerly unattackable. We have 
a vast amount of material (literature) and we have in 
Hartford and the Cairo Study Centre schools of 
training of the highest value — Yes, good! but Is the 
time for this "offensive come"? and "What are the 
strong salient positions where the attack should be 

In regard to the first— "Is it the time?" Is it? The 
great all-world policy of the "League of Nations" is 
formulating. Outside of that League may lie the two 



great strongholds of Islamic rule — Germany and Tur- 
key. Eventually they too will be absorbed; not as but- 
tresses of a devasting and static Islam but as integral 
parts of a great whole, dominatingly Christian, leagued 
against the doctrine of Jihad and the policy of inde- 
pendent nations free to exterminate Christian peoples 
within their borders. Armenia and Georgia will again 
become free peoples and their Churches Missionary 
Churches; in free Jerusalem and Damascus, in Bagdad 
and Shiraz the life of the convert from Islam will be 
as free as it is today in the bazaars of Bombay; civil 
and religious liberty will prevail. There will be a fair 
field (if no favor) ; in this time, nay, within the next 
few months, if possible, before the League of Nations 
*(Deo Gratia!) is founded at the Hague, long b.efore 
this first quarter century is over, the Christian Church 
must have already occupied the positions decided on as 
centres of attack, and have established its claim to 
hold them for Christ, 

What are they? 

It is easier to say what they are not. The old Moghul 
cities in India can be ruled out, they are unproductive. 
Moreover the time has now come to advance in all 
countries inland from the Ports. General Sir Stanley 
Maude directly on arrival in Mesopotamia moved his 
headquarters (a steamer on the Tigris!) from Basrah 
up to the advanced lines and even in advance — of these 
and finally (the day after its capture) right into Bag- 
dad, an advance of 500 miles in some 100 days! The 
Frontier Missions of India must move forward into 
Afghanistan and Persia, and the Missions along the 
North African coast use the coast towns merely as 
"bases." We would, similarly, like to see Khartoum 
the Headquarters of the Nile Mission. The Malay 
Peninsula is another strategic point to be occupied — 
Singapore to be the base. The whole stretches of the 
Tigris up to Mosul from Bagdad as a centre; the Bag- 
dad Railway with Aleppo as a base and Damascus for 
Syria; Arabia is the only possible exception, but Mecca 
is 'our Mecca.' 


This article may sound, to some, too militant and too 
geographic. The justification of the former is the lan- 
guage of St Paul ; of the latter the fact that we are al- 
ways told the problem of religions is a geographical 
one. By geography aided by Ethnography can we 
alone envisage the world. Let us grasp that vision and 
the spirit of Christ will reveal to us the problems of 
evangelization which underlie the geographical picture. 
The Holy Scriptures are full of both warfare and geog- 
raphy. The delineation is geographical; the founda- 
tion of the calculus is far deeper and is based not only 
on the religious needs of Islamic peoples but also on 
the regeneration of peoples under Islam by Christian 
agencies; such as Medical and Educational Missions 
and the distribution of the Scriptures always placed at 
the right centres in each land, at strategic and economic 
points where you reach the nerve centres of a country 
and also save unnecessary journeyings. Are we mis- 
taken in picturing the founders of the League of Na- 
tions meeting in a room with great maps on the walls? 
These maps will certainly represent the ethnic prob- 
lems to be settled, racial boundaries and affinities, com- 
mercial interests, trade routes, economic relations. 
What is also essential is that they should represent re- 
ligious connotation. The League will have to take 
into account religious problems. What if it lays it 
down as axiomatic that propaganda of religion by one 
Faith in a country mainly professing another is not 
allowable? Then the two great Propagandist Faiths — 
Christianity and Islam — can continue to compete for 
the religious supremacy of the backward portions of 
Africa, but Islam cannot be propagated in China nor 
Christianity in Moslem Asia or North Africa; Mis- 
sions to Jews in the Holy Land must cease; the Soudan 
would be a closed land to Christian Missions. What 
then becomes of our campaign? Islam will be in as- 
sured possession of the lands which it already claims 
to possess and the area of Christian propaganda re- 
stricted to Central and South African tribes and to the 
Australasian Archipelago ! 


We have therefore at our Home Base to face a 
politico-religious question. Our representatives in the 
foundation of the League of Nations — I mean the rep- 
resentatives of the Allied Powers, Great Britain, 
France, Italy and America, must be informed now of 
the attitude of the Christian Church to any such ar- 
rangement. But that is not enough. We have to 
demonstrate that the protagonists of Christianity are 
the best friends of the League of Nations. In other 
v^ords we have to convince the founders of the League 
that we are out to help; to propagate peace and good- 
will amongst men, that the weapons of our warfare are 
not carnal but spiritual and mighty through God to the 
throwing down of the strongholds of unrighteousness. 
This will be by no means an easy task, rather it appears 
to be one of consummate difficulty. We have to re- 
member several factors: i. That it is an obsession of 
the British Political and Military mind that Turkey is 
our old and tried friend whose late aberration from 
friendship was a by-product. 2. That the inviolability 
of the Islamic sacred places and (by inference) of Is- 
lam itself is guaranteed by British diplomacy. 3. That 
we are now all of us Allies pledged to the Constitution 
of an Arab state ruled from Damascus. 4. That Great 
Britain, France, Italy and the Netherlands rule vast 
numbers of Mussalmans. 5. That Moslem soldiers 
assisted the Allies to win the War and fell by thousands 
in our Cause. 

We cannot, in the face of these facts, hope to con- 
vince our rulers that the character of Islam is opposed 
to civilization and progress. We have then, by the 
Grace of God, to gird ourselves to the great task of 
bringing back the leaders of Christianity today to the 
eternal truth ''Seek ye first the Kingdom of God and 
His righteousness." We can point to the fact that not 
religious propaganda but the propaganda of ''Welt 
Politik" of German materialistic Kultur has turned the 
world upside-down. That not religion, but "the will 
to power" involved twenty millions of men in a death 
struggle. Religion therefore stands absolved; the Gos- 


pel is still the Faith of the Prince of Peace." That ^Ve 
conquer but to save," and that the great redeeming and 
healing forces of the Gospel of the Christ are the leaves 
of a tree that grows ^'for the healing of the Nations." 

We have to prove to the Founders of the League of 
Nations that Islamic lands can only become vital parts 
of the League by coming into "the Christian Family" 
for (as ex-President Taft said of the Moslems of the 
Philippines) "they will never understand democracy 
until they accept Christianity." 

At this vital hour of the World's history we need not 
then labor the point that we want, in the organization 
of missions to Moslems, a more vigorous policy at 
home and abroad. It is self-evident. 

What we must lay stress on is 

1. That it needs the consummate statesmanship of 
our leaders. 

2. That it needs the pouring out of life and treasure. 

3. That it needs intense and organized intercession 
for the gift of the Divine Wisdom to religious and civil 
leaders and rulers. 

Arthur J. P. French. 

Bombay, India, 


Fourteen Reasons From the Koran 

Some time since, a missionary sent me a manuscript 
written by a Mullah who was an inquirer and a con- 
fessed believer in Jesus Christ as a Saviour. The mis- 
sionary suggested that the article might be suitable for 
publication in our weekly newspaper the Nur Afshan. 
I concluded it would be better to print it as a separate 
pamphlet for use among Moslem inquirers or those 
interested in any way in Christian teaching. I sub- 
mitted it to a Christian friend, himself once a Moslem, 
and asked him to revise and give his opinion as to wheth- 
er it might be published. He said it should be pub- 
lished, and undertook to carry it through the press for 
me. Two thousand copies were printed under the title- 
Haqaiq-i-Quran qabil-i-tawajju-i-Ahl-i-Islam. (Truths 
of the Koran deserving of the attention of the people 
of Islam). 

The tract gives fourteen reasons, drawn from the 
Koran, for believing that Jesus Christ is greater than 
Mohammed. They are in brief as follows: 

1. The miraculous surrounding the birth of Jesus; 
Gabriel's visit to Mary. But no mention is made of 
any such thing connected with Mohammed's birth. 

2. The mother of Jesus is thus addressed in the Koran 
— "Ya Maryam.. inna Allah astafaki 'ala nisai' Tala- 
min" (To Mary.... God hath chosen thee above (all) 
the women of the worlds (Suratu Al Imran iii:42). 
She is also given the title of ^Sadiqah' (A woman of 
veracity Suratu'l-Maidah, verse 78), but the mother of 
Mohammed is not so much as mentioned, while many 
Moslems do not believe she was a Mussalman. 

3. Miraculous accompaniments attending the birth 
of Jesus, e. g., the dry palm tree becoming green and 



producing fruit to sustain Mary while in travail; the 
bursting forth of a fountain to give her drink; the visit 
of angels to comfort her (Suratu-i-Maryam, 2nd. Ru- 
qu). But the Koran makes no such mention of any 
miraculous manifestations in connection with Moham- 
med's birth. 

4. Jesus' declaration in infancy, saying He was a 
prophet to whom God had given the Book, raises Hirri 
above all other prophets, but Mohammed did not claim 
to be a prophet until he was advanced in years. This 
proves Jesus' superiority to Mohammed. 

5. According to the Koran when the enemies of Jesus 
thought to kill Him, the angels caught Him out of 
their hands and carried Him up to heaven. When the 
enemies of Mohammed sought to kill him, no angel 
came to his aid, but, hiding in a cave he made his escape 
and fled to Medina, where he took refuge with the 
Ansar. Is there not the difference here as between 
heaven and earth! 

6. A somewhat lengthy statement concerning the exal- 
tation of Jesus in heaven, where He has existed in His 
humanity for two thousand years; this gives Him a place 
above Mohammed, and indeed in so far as the Koran 
teaching is concerned proves Him superior to all other 
mortals, whether prophets or otherwise. In proof of 
this the author cites the Koran (Surat-i-Ihraf, 2nd Ru- 
qu; and Surat-i-Mursalat, Ruqu i, also Suratu '1 An- 
biya, Ruqu i). 

7. The Koran admits that Jesus raised the dead and 
exercised Divine power (Surat '1 Muminin, Ruqu 5), 
saying that ^'He maketh alive and He destroyeth." This 
is the sole prerogative of God. Did Mohammed ever 
raise the dead? Is it not as clear as sunlight that 
Christ is superior to Mohammed? 

8. The Koran declares that Allah is **Lord of the 
worlds," and 'The Creator of all things." This Koran 
also declares that the Christ created birds. This 
proves that neither Mohammed nor any of the prophets, 
but only the Messiah had power to create. For this 
reason Christ is superior to Mohammed. 


9. The Koran declares that Christ healed the blind, 
gave hearing to the deaf and cleansed the lepers by 
reason of His miraculous power. If Mohammed ever 
performed such a miracle let someone prove it from 
the Koran, or else recognize Jesus as greater than Mo- 

10. The Koran declares that Christ by His omnis- 
cience could tell people what they had been doing, what 
they ate and drank in their houses. In the fact that 
Christ possessed the omniscience of God, He was su- 
perior to Mohammed. 

11. The Koran proves all the prophets, including 
Mohammed, to have been sinners, but in no place is Jesus 
Christ said to have sinned or to have repented, or to 
have been commanded to repent of sin. Mohammed's 
sins are mentioned, and he was commanded to repent 
of them. Here again Christ excels Mohammed. 

12. Thirteen hundred years ago Mohammed died 
and was buried in the ordinary manner, and his body 
has been mingled with the dust; but Christ has been 
alive for two thousand years in heaven, and, according 
to the teaching of Islam, He shall again descend for 
the guidance and instruction of men. The Koran de- 
clares that "The Living and the Dead are not equal," 
wherefore Christ is superior to Mohammed . 

13. Among the doctrines of Islam is this, that in the 
last times, when Dajjal shall appear and lead astray 
the faithful and the Faith of God be jeopardized, then 
Christ shall descend from heaven and reestablish the 
true Faith, and all men shall believe on Him (Suratu 
Nisa, Ruqu 22). If now Mohammed were the last 
oi the prophets, why should he not have been raised 
from the dead to do this service? Why should Christ 
be sent down to do work while the dust of Mohammed 
should remain unaware of all these things? Wherefore 
since the Messiah at the first was Guide and Leader, 
and is the same too at the last, while Mohammed came 
between like a whirlwind and then passed away and is 
no longer able to raise his head from the dust, who 
but the wilful unbeliever would shut his eyes to the fact 


that the Christ is a thousandfold greater than Mo- 

14. According to the Koran, Mohammed is only an 
apostle and a sinful man, while the Messiah is abso- 
lutely sinless and a divine person. 

The above arguments are so clear and true that the 
fact is established that Christ is in every possible as- 
pect of the case a thousandfold superior and more 
exalted than Mohammed. If now any one will not 
accept this clear and convincing truth, it will be be- 
cause of his self-conceit and bigotry. May the merciful 
Lord heal my Moslem brothers of this disease and 
enlighten their eyes with the true light. Amen.'' 

This little tract has fallen as a bomb in the Moslem 
camp. Letters were written to the Editor of the Paig- 
ham-i-Sullah of Lahore, urging that the learned Maul- 
vis should speedily reply to these ^^objections," because 
the faith of many of the faithful was being undermined. 
The editor very frankly says that orthodox Islam cannot 
reply to these objections, claiming that only the Qadiani 
Moslems can reply. He has been laboriously replying 
to his followers, but the end is not yet. Let us pray 
that the readers of this tract may see something more in 
the Messiah of the Koran than the most exalted of all 
prophets, and come out into the true light of the Gospel 
of the Son of God, who, being the brightness of the 
glory of God and the express image of His Person, is 
the Incarnate God and Saviour of the world. 

Four editions of this pamphlet have been published. 
Nineteen thousand copies have been issued, of which 
ten thousand have been sold. 

The tract has been called for by both Christians and 
Moslems. Orders for hundreds and by two persons one 
thousand each. This proves the interest awakened by 
this new presentation of the claims of Jesus Christ. 


Several learned Mullahs have volunteered replies to 
this tract. The readers of the MOSLEM WORLD will be 
interested in the discussion. The following is the reply 


of one of them, a Maulvi in Jessore, BengaL He 
writes as follows: 

"Praise be to God, the Lord of the Worlds. He begetteth not, 
neither is begotten, and there is not any like him." 

* 'There has recently come into our hands a scurrilous tract pub- 
lished by some Christian Padris which pretends to prove by fourteen 
"reasons" taken from the Koran, that the Prophet Isa, on whom 
be the peace and blessing of God, is greater than our Prophet Mo- 
hammed, on whom be the peace and blessing of God. The tract 
in question is composed of a compound of ignorance and bigotry 
such as is seldom met with even in the writings of these Christian, 
whose one aim is to deceive ignorant and simple minded believers. 
The writer of the tract, with the cunning of his kind, adroitly 
attempts to secure his ends by ruling out of court, the testimony 
of the traditions. These premises, however, w^e cannot admit. 
If Christians rely upon biographies of their Prophet written 
by his followers long after his death, they have no right to reject 
the testimony of Mohammed's followers with regard to the events 
of his life. The Holy Koran does not profess to be a biography of the 
Prophet. It came direct from heaven for the guidance of men. 
For this reason Allah has given to men the further revelation of the 
Hadith in which the unique supremacy of Mohammed over all other 
prophets is clearly shown. We now turn to the fourteen reasons 
of the Christian's tract. 

(i) The Padri's first point is that, according to the Koran, 
miraculous events accompanied the birth of Christ, such as the an- 
nouncement by an angel, etc., but that Mohammed's birth is not 
so much as mentioned, therefore Christ is superior to Mohammed. 

This argument affords a good illustration of the Padri's fallacious 
method of arguing from the silence of Scripture. No miraculous 
events surrounding Mohammed's birth are mentioned, therefore none 
happened. Truly wonderful logic. He might as w^U argue that 
the Prophet's birth is not mentioned in the Koran, and therefore he 
was never born. Does the Padri forget, too, that the Koran states 
that an angel came to announce the birth of John the Baptist, and 
that his own Bible states that other Prophets were announced before 
their birth? Wherein, then, lies the superiority of Christ? More- 
over, if a prophet's preeminence is to be judged by the amount of 
space given to him in the pages of the Holy Koran, than many other 
prophets, such as Abraham, Joseph and Moses are far superior to 
Christ. If the Padri will put aside his prejudices and read the Tra- 
ditions, he will see that many prodigies accompanied the birth of the 
Prophet of Islam. 

(2) The second so-called argument of the Padri is even weaker 
than the first, viz: that in the Koran the mother of Christ is men- 
tioned with approbation, whilst Mohammed's mother is not so much 
as named. Therefore Christ is superior. Does, then, we ask, a 
man's status before God depend upon his mother? The greatest 
Prophet of the Old Testament as well as of the Koran, whose 
greatness earned him the title, "Friend of God," was the son of 
idolators. On the other hand, some of the sons of the Prophet 
David were wicked men. According to the Padri's logic Amnon 
should be superior to Abraham. If the Padri will take the trouble 
to study the great commentaries of the Koran he will learn that 


the words "God hath chosen thee above all the women of the world" 
addressed to Mary the mother of Jesus, in the Koran, simply mean, 
above all the women of thy own time. 

(3) It is said that Jesus spoke in his cradle, and claimed to be 
a prophet from his infancy, Mohammed only assumed the prophetic 
office from middle age, therefore Christ is superior. 

The assumption that because a man receives his prophetic call 
late in life and therefore he is inferior to one who receives it in 
childhood is false. Was Abraham, the Friend of God inferior to 
Samuel, or Moses to Jeremiah? "Life is measured by deeds, not 
years," and our holy prophet Mohammed as the seal of the prophets, 
who came to abrogate all previous dispensations is clearly greater 
than them all. The Padri boldly declares that "Christ's speaking in 
the cradle, arid claiming prophethood from infancy afiEords clear 
proof of his superiority over all prophets." He forgets that others, 
such as Jeremiah and John the Baptist were chosen, even before their 
birth, to be the messengers of God. 

(5) It is said that God saved the prophet Isa from his enemies 
by taking him up alive to heaven. He did not intervene to save 
Mohammed, who w^as obliged to flee from Mecca, first to a cave, 
and subsequently to Medina, therefore Christ is greater than Mo- 

We first of all thank the Padri for emphasising the fact that 
Christ did not die, but was taken up alive to heaven; but we reject 
with scorn the implication that because our holy prophet Mohammed 
was not taken up to heaven in a similar manner that, therefore, he 
was inferior to Christ. Christ's work was done, or, to be more 
correct, had proved an utter failure, and so God took him ; but had 
the Prophet Mohammed been taken from Mecca to heaven his mis- 
sion of founding the final and perfect religion could not have been 
accomplished. The padri's ingenuousness and intention to deceive 
the uninformed is seen by his reference to the cave in which the prophet 
took refuge, whilst deliberately omitting to mention how God 
miraculously preserved the prophet by sending a spider to weave a 
web across the entrance in order to deceive his pursuers. Our 
prophet's life is full of instances of God's protecting care, as e. g., 
when he sent thousands of angels to assist the Moslems at the Battle 
of Bedr, and later caused a piece of poisoned meat to speak and 
warn the prophet of his danger. With such facts before him how 
dare the Padri say that God did not protect our holy prophet 

(6) Jesus was taken alive to heaven, and remained there, in his 
human body, for 2,000 years without food or drink, he is therefore 
"superior to all the sons of Adam." 

Again the Padri presumes upon the ignorance of his readers, for 
' he knows full well that other prophets, such as Moses and Elijahj 
were taken up to heaven and have lived there many centuries longer 
than Christ. If it is a question of length of stay in the celestial 
regions, then these are obviously superior to Christ. Moreover, in 
spite of the Padri's assumption to the contrary, our holy prophet 
Mohammed was also taken up to heaven and held privileged con- 
verse with his Creator. This celebrated "Night journey" of our 
prophet is a clearly established fact which only one blind with 
bigotry would dare deny. 

(7) Jesus raised the dead. Giving life to the dead is a divine 
prerogative, therefore Christ shares the divine nature. "Has Mo- 


hammed sabib or any other rasul or nabi ever raised anyone from 
the dead?" This unique power of raising the dead places Christ 
high above all the prophets. 

The Padri pursues his usual tactics of tradinjg on the assumed 
ignorance of his readers, for he knows full well that his argument 
is utterly w^orthless. Firstly because the Koran distinctly states that 
Jesus raised the dead only by the "permission of God," which means 
by the delegated power of God ; and — secondly, because in spite of 
the Padri's hypocritical challenge, many others besides Christ are said 
to have raised the dead. The Christians own Bible witnesses against 
him, and if the act of raising the dead is a proof that Jesus, Son of 
Mary, was "a sharer in the divine nature," then he must admit that 
Elijah, Peter and Paul were all divine." 

(8) Christ is stated in the Koran to have "created" birds. Crea- 
tion, like raising the dead, is the prerogative of divinity. Therefore 
Christ is divine. Neither Mohammed or any other prophet is said 
to have created, therefore Christ is superior to all. 

Again the Padri deliberately suppresses the fact that, in the Koran, 
it is definitely stated that Christ created by the "permission" of God. 
He had no powder of his own, apart from that delegated power. 
This repeated suppression of facts and statement of half-truths show 
the straits to which these Padris are put in order to bolster up the 
supposed superiority of their prophet. If the Padri's argument from 
the silence of scripture was a blunder, when dealing with the 
miraculous birth of Christ his suppression of it here is a crime. 

(9) Christ performed many miracles of healing. Mohammed per- 
formed no miracle, therefore Christ is superior. 

Again the writer omits to mention that these miracles of Christ 
were all performed by the "permission" of God. Moreover the 
Padri lies when he says that our holy prophet performed no miracles. 
He worked many miracles some of w^hich such as the splitting of the 
moon, are mentioned in the Koran. If the Padri will only read 
the Traditions he will see that the miracles of Mohammed are in no 
way inferior to those of Christ. Moreover the miracles of Christ 
were only a sign to the people of his day, but the great miracle of 
Mohammed, the incomparable eloquence of the Koran, is a standing 
miracle for all time, as potent today as when the prophet lived upon 

(10) Christ was omniscient and could tell what people were eat- 
ing and drinking in their housees. This knowledge of the unseen, 
like raising the dead, is the sole prerogative of God, therefore Jesus 
shares the divine nature. Mohammed had no such power, and so 
was, in this respect also far inferior to Christ. 

Again the astounding arrogance of the Christian is seen. He 
knows full well that it is recorded in his own scriptures that many 
prophets had this power given them by God, and could read the 
thoughts of men. Elisha's dealings with Gehazi and Peter's with 
Ananias are illustrations in point. Our own prophet, also, was 
given the power to perceive the insincerity of the hyprocites of Medina. 
He also foretold future events, such as the fall of Mecca and the defeat 
of the Persians. Will then the Padri admit that Elisha and Peter 
were also "partakers of the divine power of God." This power was, 
however, limited in the prophet Jesus, as in all others, as is seen in 
his ignorance of the resurrection day. 

(11) In the Koran the sins of all prophets, including Mohammed, 


are mentioned, but no sin of Jesus was mentioned, therefore he was 
sinless, and hence, superior to all others. 

Again the Padri resorts to his vicious argument from the silence 
of scripture to prove his point. But in his haste, he, as usual, 
proves too much, for other people are mentioned in the Koran, of 
whose sins, the Padri's assertion to the contrary notwithstanding, no 
mention is found. Is every man to be presumed blind, of whose sight 
forsooth no rrjention happens to be made? That Jesus was a sinner we 
know from his words, * Vhy callest thou me good" ? As to the Koran's 
passages in which Mohammed was told to ask pardon for his sins, 
these do not refer to actual sins committed, but the prophet was told 
to ask pardon as an example of humility to his followers. 

(12) Christ has been alive in heaven for 2,000 years, whereas 
Mohammed is dead, and his body lies rotting in the grave. The living 
is greater than the dead, therefore Christ is greater than Mohammed. 

We have already pointed out that others have been alive in heaven 
longer than Christ, therefore the Padri should on his own showing 
acknowledge them to be superior to Christ. But the Padri's boast 
of the living being greater than the dead is worthless; for in the 
very tradition which he quotes regarding Christ's return to earth, it 
is clearly stated that he will return to die. Behold then the perfidy 
of these Christian priests in their suppression of that portion of the 
tradition which tells against their argument. If the Padri's argu- 
ment is worth anything, then Elijah is superior to Christ. 

(13) Christ is to come again to destroy Dajjal, and re-establish 
the true faith. If Mohammed had been the greatest and last prophet 
he would have been chosen for that honorable service, therefore 
Christ is greater. 

Again the Padri suppresses facts, and omits to point out that the 
tradition clearly indicates that the "true faith" is Islam, which 
Christ himself must embrace before attaining final salvation. Surely 
this proves the superiority of Mohammed, and not of Christ. 

(14) Christ is sinless and divine, because God breathed into Mary 
of his Spirit. 

Again the Padri proves too much, for the Koran speaks of God 
breathing his spirit into Adam also. Was Adam also divine? 
(Na-*uzzu billahi min dhalik). In conclusion, since the Padri grants 
the authority of the Koran, I will quote one passage for his considera- 
tion. ''Whoever followeth any other religion than Islam, it shall 
not be accepted of him, and in the next life he shall be of those 
who perish." 



One wonders why any one should waste his time in 
replying to "a Compound of ignorance and bigotry." 
However this may be, it may help our Jessore friend to 
know that the author of Haqaiq-ul-Quran is not a 
Padri but a Maulvi, who has become a follower 
of Jesus Christ. Our friend has failed to see the point, 
or at least he ignores the point of almost every one of 
the Maulvies' statements. Let us look at them again. 


Please note that we must look at these questions from 
the stand-point of Orthodox Islam. We simply say 
what the Koran teaches concerning the exalted person 
of Jesus. 

1. The Maulvi first of all notes the fact that the 
Birth of Jesus was miraculous and was accompanied by 
miraculous manifestations; But the birth of Mohammed 
is not even mentioned in the Koran. The superiority 
accorded to Jesus by the Koran, is the greater honour 
in His advent. 

2. The Maulvi then notes the fact that the Koran be- 
stows great praise upon Mary the mother of Jesus. 
She is said to be ^^chosen of God above the women of 
the Worlds/' But the mother of Mohammed is not 
even mentioned in the Koran. Surely no one can fail 
to see that the son of Mary is exalted by his exalted 
mother, — exalted by Allah. Herd Jesus' exaltation 
over Mohammed is in his exalted mother. 

3. The next point of superiority, noted by the Maulvi, 
is the mention made of miraculous accompaniments 
attending the birth of Jesus, while no such signs of 
Divine favor accompanied Mohammed's birth. Our 
Jessore friend may regard this as a trifling matter, but 
he can not deny that it proves the superiority of Jesus' 
birth over that of Mohammed. 

4. The next item mentioned by the Maulvi is, the 
statement that Jesus spoke in infancy defending his 
mother Mary (chap. XIX: 28-34). ^^ was therefore 
from childhood recognized as a prophet of God but Mo- 
hammed did not claim to be a prophet until advanced 
in years. Our Jessore friend says ''Jeremiah and John 
the Baptist were chosen even before their birth" to 
which we reply, that Mohammed was not so chosen and 
is therefore inferior to Jesus, the Koran being witness. 

5. The Maulvi also made mention of another state- 
ment of the Koran, that Jesus was caught up alive to 
heaven to save him from his enemies, while no such 
interposition is mentioned in behalf of Mohammed. 
Comparing the statements of the Koran, there was here 
a very significant difference in treatment, pointing to a 


great superiority of Jesus over Mohammed. This com- 
parison is not based on Christian Scripture or belief^ 
but upon the Koran. The Christian comparison here 
would be one of comparison of their crucified and risen 
and ascended Lord, with Mohammed dead and buried. 

6. The Maulvi's next claim, is that the teaching of 
the Koran, that Jesus is alive in Heaven, where he has 
been in His humanity for 2000 years, proves Him to 
be superior to Mohammed. Our Jessore friend's re- 
ply, that Enoch and Elijah have been in Heaven much 
longer does not prove his point. He only shows that 
some other prophets are also in this respect superior to 
Mohammed. The fact remains that Jesus is alive in 
Heaven while Mohammed rests in the tomb at Medina. 

7. The Maulvi next points to the Koranic statement 
that Jesus raised the dead, while Mohammed had no 
such power. This proves Jesus superior to Mohammed. 

Here again our Jessore friend fails to reply. His 
answer is that other prophets exercised this power, but 
he does not show that Mohammed has such power. 
The true inference from his argument is, that other 
prophets also were superior to Mohammed. 

8. Here again the Maulvi points to the testimony of 
the Koran to the fact that Jesus performed miracles of 
creation, which mark him as superior to Mohammed. 
The author of the Koran says this was **by permission 
of God." Nevertheless Mohammed did no miracles 
even with the divine permission. Hence the Maulvi's 
claim remains that Jesus was superior to Mohammed. 

9. The Maulvi again points to the many miracles 
which Christ performed and challenges any one either 
to prove from the Koran, that Mohammed ever worked 
any miracle or else recognize Jesus as greater than Mo- 

Our Jessore friend again resorts to the statement of 
the Koran that Jesus wrought miracles *'by the permis- 
sion of God" and adds two miracles, of Mohammed: 
the splitting of the moon and the incomparable style of 
the Koran. Unfortunately for this argument the moon 
has not yet been split, and, if so, Mohammed did not 


split it, — and as for the style of the Koran, that was not 
his style at all, as, according to his claim, it was brought 
down- from heaven. 

10. The Maulvi again points to the omniscience of 
Christ as an indisputable proof of his supremacy and 
Divine character, establishing his contention that he was 
superior to Mohammed. The Jessore Maulvi's reply 
to this claim is, that this power was given to many 
prophets — always limited by the will of God; and also 
that Mohammed had made a prophecy foretelling the 
fall of Mecca and the defeat of the Persians. Of course 
the case is against the Arabian prophet, because such 
forecasts cannot be reckoned prophecies else we all 
must be numbered among the prophets who have fore- 
told the final defeat of the Germans and the fall of 
Turkey. The whole spirit of prophecy in the words 
of Jesus declares his superiority over Mohammed. 

11. The Maulvi claims superiority for Jesus, over 
Mohammed, on the ground of his sinlessness. Our Jes- 
sore friend says, what few Moslems would dare to say, 
That Jesus was a sinner we know from his words "Why 
callest thou me good." To meet this assertion, based 
on a wrong inference, we only need to quote another 
Statement of Jesus himself "which of you convinceth 
me of sin." (John VIII :46). The teaching of the 
Koran is clear as to the sinfulness of Mohammed but 
nowhere in the Koran is there even a hint that Jesus 
was a sinner. The sinlessness of Jesus proves his su- 

12. The Maulvi adduces still one more proof from 
the Koran, that Jesus is alive while Mohammed is dead, 
and therefore superior to him. 

Our friend in his reply, discounts this argument by 
saying that he will come again to earth to die. 

The statement of tradition that Jesus will die, is not 
true because Jesus is "alive for evermore." He will 
cOiTie to judge the world, having triumphed over death 
and the grave. The main contention of the Maulvi, 
however is, already sustained by the fact that Jesus 
lives while Mohammed is dead. 


13. The Maulvi now presents his thirteenth argument 
for the supremacy of Jesus Christ, viz: Christ is to 
come again to destroy Dajjal and re-establish the true 
faith. If Mohammed had been the greatest and last 
prophet he would have been chosen for that honorable 
service. Therefore Christ is greater. Our Jessore 
friend was staggered by this argument and could only 
say that ^'the true faith is Islam, which Christ himself 
must embrace before attaining final Salvation. This is 
news indeed. According to the Koran Jesus is a true 
prophet and has been in Heaven for 2000 years already, 
but the Jessore's Maulvi says he is not yet one of the 
faithful!. .. .If our friend cannot find anything better 
than this he should bow down and acknowledge Jesus 
as ^^the Almighty God and Saviour." 

14. It has been proved that Mohammed is only an 
apostle and a sinful man, but that Christ is absolutely 
sinless and being born of the Spirit of God possesses the 
Divine Nature, hence the Divine is now exalted over 
man and Apostle. Our Jessore friend can only turn 
to the Bible and say that God breathed into Adam also, 
and therefore he should be divine. But where is 

The statements above made prove the infinite super- 
iority of Christ over Mohammed. The only true re- 
ligion — the religion of Adam, Noah, Abraham and the 
prophets and Jesus — is the religion of the Christian. 
This is the true Islam. This little brochure will illus- 
trate mildly the kind of apology which must be, and 
continually is being made for the religion of Jesus 
Christ in its conflict with Islam. The Moslem advo- 
cate first of all seeks to disparage the ability and char- 
acter of his antagonist. His next step is to change or 
modify the issue. 

Orthodox Islam is more consistent than the Qadiani 
followers of Ghulam Ahmad ^'the 20th century Mes- 
siah." This Indian form of Babism is often very irrev- 
erent and sometimes blasphemous. They often, as in 
this instance, admit that Orthodox Islam cannot an- 
swer Christian objections because of their following 


slavishly a literal interpretation of the Koran. They 
explain away the objections by ''Spiritualizing'' the 
text of the Koran. 

It is plain that Islam is rapidly changing color under 
the influence of Western education. The prospect is 
that now, since the sword had been broken, an effort 
yvill be made to reform Islam and that various sects 
will spring up. The effect will be to side track many, 
who are already looking towards Christianity, by pro- 
viding a more liberal interpretation of the Koran re- 
quirements. Such as the abolition of the purdah (veil), 
the general adoption of monogony and the education of 

In the long run the effect will be the Evangelization 
of the Moslem peoples. The great need at this mo- 
ment is the widespread distribution of the Christian 
Scriptures and a continual holding forth of Jesus Christ 
as the Saviour of men. 

The Maulvi, in his "Truths of the Koran worthy of 
the attention of the people of Islam," rightly under- 
stands the issue in the Moslem controversy. // is Mo- 
hammed or Christ, 

E. M. Wherry. 
Ludhiana, Punjab, India. 


Islam in Fiji is the religion of some 15,000 Indian 
immigrants and their descendants. Being cut off from 
all supervision from the mother-country for some forty 
years, it has been obliged to develop along its own 
lines. Consequently this offshoot of Islam dififers con- 
siderably from the type one is accustomed to in India. 
It pays little attention to the outward performance of 
the ceremonies known as the five pillars of Islam. It 
is characterized by an ignorance for tradition and the 
requirements of Moslem law. It is almost a law unto 
itself, being influenced by the conditions of life in this 
Indian Colony. 

Islam as reflected in the family life of the people, 
is marked by an utter disregard for the sentiments and 
prejudices that characterize it elsewhere. Here the 
Moslem associates with the Hindu in social and do- 
mestic life. Inter-marriage is frequent and it is not 
unusual for a Mohammedan wife to practice her reli- 
gious customs while her Hindu husband follows his own 
traditions or vice versa. The marriage tie scarcely 
exists, for comparatively few ever legalize their mar- 
riage by registration and the unions celebrated accord- 
ing to their own religious rites are not considered m 
any way binding, either by the man or woman, who 
forsake each other according to their caprice. Polyg- 
amy is not very common in the sense of keeping more 
than one wife, but it is not unusual for a man or woman 
in the course of a few years to contract a large number 
of matrimonial unions. Such a state is fatal to true 
family life and religion. A child is a Hindu or Mo- 
hammedan at any period according to the religion of 
the man with whom his mother for the time being may 
be living. Such a condition is made possible by the 
free social intercourse of men and women consequent 



upon the non-observance of the custom of secluding 
women. Immigration to a new country has given the 
people a priceless opportunity of enjoying liberty from 
the tyranny of caste and custom that crushes their breth- 
ren in India, but the opportunity is abused and liberty 
has degenerated into license. 

One might live for months in Fiji without being 
aware that there is such an institution as a Mohamme- 
dan mosque. In the whole group there are probably 
not more than half a dozen. These are almost entirely 
neglected by worshippers. In some the Muezzin for 
weeks is the only one present for Namaz and the Azan 
or call to prayer is generally dispensed with. One sel- 
dom or never sees a Mohammedan either in mosque or 
elsewhere observing the stated times for devotions. 
The ablutions and other ceremonies connected with the 
mosque services are all performed without regard to 
strict Mohammedan usage. There is no Id-gah in the 
colony but sometimes for the celebration of festivals 
some large Government buildings are used by those who 
live in the capital. 

The Tazia of Muharram is the principal festival 
observed in Fiji which like other Mohammedan prac- 
tices is celebrated with such a license that would shock 
their orthodox fellow religionists in India. The festi- 
val is devoid almost of religious sentiment. It is a 
show performance got up for the entertainment of the 
crowd of all creeds and nationalities. It is regulated 
largely by commercial considerations, in order to profit 
the promoters of the festival and the tradesmen who 
take advantage of the opportunity to sell their wares. 
The building of the Tazias is commenced in the differ- 
ent localities at the appointed time, but the burials in 
connection with which the great gatherings are held, are 
celebrated at different times in different neighborhoods. 
For instance, if the burial should take place at Lura 
on one Sunday, the following Sunday the same cere- 
mony would take place at Rewa and on the third Sun- 
day at Navua and so on, so that the observance of this 
festival throughout the colony might occupy several 


weeks. During the war a special celebration of the 
Tazia was arranged for the purpose of raising money 
for the Red Cross funds. A few of the more enlight- 
ened Moslems repudiate these performances and do not 
identify themselves with them but they are only a 
small remnant. 

Saint worship is being established in the country. 
In spite of the fact that Fiji has not yet possessed any 
Mohammedan saints, yet several tombs have already 
become recognized as Mohammedan shrines where the 
people gather to present their offerings and make their 
petitions to the departed, 

Islam is not lacking in religious leaders. Maulvies 
and Pirs, so called, strive to maintain and propagate 
their faith, but their influence for good is marred by 
their cupidity. Islam is not progressive. Some of 
the more thoughtful, calling themselves Haqq parast 
reject Mohammed as the medium of salvation from sin, 
acknowledging that he is proved a sinner himself both 
by his own statements in the Koran and by the nature 
of his own personal conduct. Christ alone is regarded 
by them as the sinless prophet. 

With religion at such a low ebb one can imagine 
the moral condition of the people. Gambling, immor- 
ality and intemperance are very prevalent. 

Islam is decadent in Fiji. It is not the spiritual and 
moral force in the lives of the people that a living faith 
should be. The future belongs not to Mohammed but 
to Christ. Islam is not yet prepared to follow Him in 
preference to its false prophet. The hope of the fu- 
ture is in the rising generation. Free from the preju- 
dices of their fathers they will more clearly discern 
the glory of the perfection of Christ and choose to 
follow Him as the way to God. 

Frank L. Nunn. 

Ba, Fiji Islands, 


{A Translation of a Moslem tract printed at Tientsin 
in IQI6, and 'written by Li W en Lan and Chang Hsi 
Cheng, of Tientsin^ China.) 


The True Lord (God) is the Self -created, Originally- 
existent Source. What is meant by ^'Self-created, Orig- 
inally-existent Source is that God's existence is from His 
own source, self-existent, and not needing outside assist- 
ance; therefore God is the Self-created, Originally- 
existent Source. 

God has three characteristics, viz: His Essence, His 
Attributes, and His works. 

(a) The Originally-existent Essence of God is with- 
out beginning and without end. He is eternal, and not 
affected by the dual powers ''Yin" and "Yang." He is 
without peer or mate, the only One most honorable. 
He is not restricted to certain regions; there are no 
traces of His form. He cannot be said to be on high or 
below, to be near or distant. He is without likeness or 
manner; there is nothing to which He can be compared, 
and there is no pattern of Him. He can command that 
things be, or cease to exist. He is able to create all 
things, and that without depending upon means. His 
eternal life does not depend upon any decree. Such is 
the Originally-existent Essence of God. 

The Christians' recognition of God is by no means 
the same as the above. Having said that God is only 
One, they further proceed to discourse about three in 
one and one in three. In doing this, are they not far 
removed from what has been said above about God hav- 
ing no birth or death, no peer or mate, and being the 
only One most honorable? They take God and Jesus 
10 be as one, and thus rebel against the God who created 
all things. Jesus had a visible body which received 



life, and was not the Self-created, Originally-Existent 
Source. Jesus was also a created being, needing out- 
side assistance; he had beginning and end, was affected 
by 'Tin" and ''Yang"; he also had equals. Although 
he had power over life and death, yet he was put to 
death. In these things was he not as far removed from 
God as the sea is from the sky? 

(b) The Attributes of God. 

The Attributes are the motions of the Essence; the 
manifestations of the principles whereof vary. God's 
Unity is not one of several, but is the original Unity; 
He is first and last, and the only One. His existence is 
genuine, and it is also the original existence; it is there- 
fore the long existence of contentment. His life is not 
dependent on a soul or spirit, so His life is eternal. 
His knowledge is not by means of a mind, so He is 
omniscient. His power does not need any assistance, so 
He is omnipotent. His vision is not by means of an eye, 
so He is omnispective. His hearing is not by means of 
ears, so He is all-hearing. His speaking is not by 
means of a tongue, so there is nothing that He cannot 
speak. These are the attributes of God, and all others 
except God are just the opposite in all these qualities. 

The Christians say that the Spirit of God descended 
upon Jesus like a dove. But they should know that the 
life of God is not a life requiring a Spirit; if He re- 
quired a spirit in order to have life, would His life not 
be just the same as all other life? 

(c) The Works of God. 

The Works of God are of the power which God 
alone has, the marvellous principles of which, we men 
find it difficult to conjecture. Such works as creating 
men, spirits, and all things decree man's birth and 
death, and his position as honorable or mean. God 
causes men to have short life or long, to have poverty 
or plenty; He gives to men clothing and food, and sus- 
tains all life. All these things belong to the power 
which God alone has. And in creating heaven and 
earth, men, spirits and all things. He did not require 
implements, nor any patterns, nor wait for any special 


time, when He willed things to be, they came into 
existence; when He wills things to cease, they cease. 
Such are the Works of God. 

The acts of men are far removed from the works of 
God. In the case of Jesus, he also has power to heal 
the sick and call the dead to life; but you must reflect 
that apart from means he could not really perform his 
acts. The original power of God is shown in that He 
could without means cause things to exist. In this way 
there is fixed between God and Jesus the difference as 
of Master and servant. 

The Prophet* Mohammed said "In order to manifest 
His perfect power, God created heaven and earth; in 
order to manifest the movements of His Essence, He 
created primal man, Adam." 

God has been likened to a handsome man, and the 
prophets and sages of the whole world like to a mirror^ 
the world being the stand of the mirror; by 
observing the wonderful acts of the prophets and sages, 
we see a reflection of God's great power. But heresies 
and false religions are not to be regarded in the same 
way, as they have confounded the sources and gone 
counter to the original principles; they have recognized 
a natural being as God, and therefore publicly ad- 
mitted that their religion is heretical, and has gone 
astray. In the illustration used above, the handsome man 
is not part of the mirror; the mirror reflects the move- 
ments of the man, but does not itself contain the man. 
If a man calls himself equal to the king, he surely puts 
himself in opposition to the king, and can this offence 
be pardoned? How much less can be pardoned the 
claim to be equal with the God who created heaven, 
earth, men and spirits 1 

God is originally-existent; He is without beginning; 
is of universal benevolence, and of active propensity. 
By His command things exist or cease, just as He pleases. 

• The characters used for Mohammed's title mean literally "most holy." The 
character "sheng" = holy, or saint, in used in Moslem books for prophets and apostles, 
and is here usually translated prophet, the capital letter indicating the higher title given 
to Mohammed. 


Out of His abundant glory God manifested the "wu 
chi." This 'Vu chi" is the spirit of the Prophet Mo- 
hammed. God spake to the Prophet saying, ''Had it 
not been on thy account, I certainly would not have 
created the whole world." The Prophet has stated 
"The foremost thing which God created was my spirit." 
The "wu chi" is the starting place of all things, where 
they first exist in the abstract. The souls of men and 
of angels and of devils, and the natures of heaven, earth 
and all things, all these proceed from this "wu chi," and 
they come into existence on receiving the command. 
Before heaven and earth were named, all the wonders 
of the coming creation were enfolded in the "wu chi." 
This invisible world was the place of the great regu- 
lating of all spirits. 

The books of the Christians say nothing about this 
^'wu chi," so it is not discussed. 

From what remained over after producing all spirits 
and natures and all principles, there was created the 
"t'ai chi," which is the source of vitality. The "t'ai 
chi" is parent and superior of the so-called heaven and 
earth, and it enfolds all forms of material things. The 
^'t'ai chi" transformed into the dual powers "yin" and 
"yang." The interacting and transforming of "yin" 
and "yang" divided the four elements, air, water, fire 
and earth. The heavy air settled and the earth was 
formed; the light air ascended, and the heavens also 
were formed. The heavens being ethereal and revolv- 
ing, were called "yang" (male principle) ; the earth 
being gross and not moving, was called "yin" (female 
principle). You should know that the four elements 
had the beginnings of their creation in the former 
heaven. When the positions of heaven and earth were 
fixed, and days first began, there was what is called the 
tangible world, and from that time forth things belonged 
to the tangible world. 

God, on the first day, created mountains and rivers; 
on the second day He created plants and trees; on the 
third day He created diseases and calamities; on the 
fourth day He created the light of the sun and moon; 


on the fifth day He made moving creatures; on the sixth 
day, at the "shen" period, He created ancestral man, 
Adam. (According to this calculation of the days of 
creation, omitting the Mosaic Sabbath, the first day is 
the Christians' Sunday and the sixth day is the Moslems' 
'^Chu Ma" = Jum'a, Day of Assembly.) 

When God was about to create Adam, He said to the 
angels, "Verily I will make a man from clay," and forth- 
with He commanded the angels saying "Go and collect 
a layer of earth and bring it." The angels having col- 
lected the earth placed it in the wilderness between 
Mecca and Taif . God manifested His wonderful skill in 
the clay of which Adam was formed, and after 40 days 
God created Adam's material body after the likeness of 
Adam. The Prophet has said "God truly created Adam 
after his likeness," i. e. Adam's likeness. The Prophet 
said further, "Before God created all things. He first 
fixed their likeness on the immortal tablets in the seventh 
heaven, and afterwards created them." 

Christians say God created man in His own image, 
made him the same as God ; and moreover male and fe- 
male were both of the same order. Now having said 
that God has no equal, is without likeness or comparison, 
how can they say that God made man in His own like- 
ness. Furthermore, male and female are spoken of; is 
the male in the likeness of God, or is the female in the 
likeness of God? Truly, though we think this over 100 
times we cannot arrive at a satisfactory explanation of 

God commanded the angels to take the soul of Adam 
out of the supernatural world, then He blew it into the 
body of Adam. Thenceforward to the end of the ages, 
all men receive life like this. On the day on which they 
enter the tangible world, the period of their super- 
natural pre-existence has ceased. 

Christians when speaking of the heavenly kingdom, 
confound the world to come with the pre-existent super- 
natural world, counting them as one, which is unintelli- 

God said "I will blow my spirit into him," this refers 


to the spirit made from the surplus of God's glory, and 
is by no means the Holy Spirit spoken of by Christians. 
They say that God is the Holy Spirit, and the Holy 
Spirit is God, and that the Spirit entered the body of 
Jesus; and yet they call Jesus the Son of God! This is 
still more difficult to fathom. The spirits which all 
men have are all made from the surplus of the Light of 

Adam was the ancestor of all men; speaking of the 
flesh, he was the progenitor of Mohammed; speaking 
of the spirit, Mohammed was his progenitor. It may be 
said "As Mohammed's spirit was the first of all spirits, 
why did his body appear later?" The answer is that 
Mohammed's spirit was like a seed, and his body like 
the fruit. The branches and leaves come first; the fruit 


Mohammedanism is the religion of God, the great 
Doctrine which has been transmitted by all the prophets. 
One prophet received from another, right down to the 
present. The prophets were sent by God to proclaim 
the correct Doctrine, and to guide those who had lost 
the way. There are four classes of prophets, viz : Emi- 
nent prophets. Appointed prophets. Ordinary prophets, 
and the Highest prophet. The Eminent prophets are 
six in number, Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David 
and Jesus. Of the Appointed prophets there were 313, 
and of Ordinary prophets over 100,000. The Highest 
Prophet was Mohammed alone. 

God gave command to Adam to establish religion on 
His behalf. The first thing to make clear was the doc- 
trine of recognition of God. Next to firmly establish 
the moral obligations ; then religion was founded. 

The Doctrine which Adam propagated was that 
which God commanded. What are the matters apper- 
taining thereto? They are. Recognition of God, Purifi- 
cation; Fasting; Prayer and Worship; the Pilgrimage 
to Mecca; Sacrifice; Almsgiving, etc. 

Purification, After intercourse had taken place be- 


tween Adam and Eve, the archangel received the com- 
mand of God to give to Adam the order and method of 
purification. Adam subsequently taught these to Eve. 

Fasting, Three days every month. 

Prayer and Worship, When God sent Adam down 
to earth, it was dark night; Adam was afraid and wept, 
saying, "It is because of sin that I have come to this." 
When light appeared in the East, and from darkness 
there came the bright light, Adam having obtained the 
light was thankful for God's grace, so he worshipped 
with two obeisances. 

Pilgrimage. Once a year if possible. 

Sacrifice, Adam, in order to test the sincerilty of 
heart of his two sons, Cain and Abel, commanded them 
to perform sacrifice. At that time there was no fixed 
rule as to what should be sacrificed ; any offering could 
be used as a sacrifice, only it must be clean. Later, 
when Abraham took his son Ishmael to offer as a sacri- 
fice, the archangel Gabriel received the command of 
God to lead a sheep with which to redeem the son. We 
Moslems now take sheep to sacrifice, in obedience to this 
law. There are some who sacrifice a cow or a camel, 
several people joining together in this good action. 

With regard to the redeeming of a son by a sheep, it 
may be queried that as the son was a prophet, was not 
this making a sheep of more value than a prophet? In 
reply, we say that a sheep is the most docile of all ani- 
mals, and it is very fitting that a sheep should redeem a 
prophet. But the mysteries underlying the principle of 
redeeming a prophet by a sheep are not such as an ordi- 
nary man can understand. 

Tracing back from the time of Adam's coming into 
the world to the present, it is over 7000 years. After 
Adam there were appointed prophets and ordinary 
prophets in close succession, propagating the Doctrine, 
until the appearance of the eminent prophet Noah. His 
nativity was over 5000 years ago. What he propagated 
was according to the regulations of the ancestral father 
Adam. Because the multitudes of the people would not 
believe, the anger of the Lord was stirred, and He com- 


manded Noah to make a boat, and take with him into 
the boat one male and one female of every living thing 
of the whole world. Then the flood covered the whole 
earth. After the flood stopped, all the people who had 
been in the boat came out on to the dry land, and they 
divided the earth and governed the world. These were 
all people who confessed God, therefore Noah has the 
designation of the Minor Ancestor. 

Subsequently, prophets handed on God's Doctrine one 
to another, until the appearance of the eminent prophet 
Abraham. What he propagated was the Doctrine of 
Adam, only in addition, he performed circumcision, 
clipped the beard, cleansed the body of hair, etc. These 
things began with this prophet, and they are commands 
of God which must be observed, for God said to Abra- 
ham, "Verily I will make thee a leader of men." God 
also said to the people "Ye must all follow the correct 
path of Abraham." Therefore we Moslems have ob- 
served these things down to the present, and can never 
forget them. Abraham was distressed on account of 
four things, (i) on account of his wives; (2) on account 
of his children; (3) on account of enemies; (4) on ac- 
count of hell. God delivered him from these four dis- 
tresses, so at the "wei" period, in thanks for God's grace, 
he worshipped with four obeisances. 

Someone may query "Is not circumcision an altering 
of the body as originally created by God?" We answer, 
if the whole member was cut, it would be an alteration 
of the created form; but circumcision is not cutting the 
whole, but it is the same in principle as shaving the 
head or cutting the nails. 

The worship which we perform at the "shen" period 
is what was handed down from the appointed prophet 
Jonah ; he was delivered from the calamity of the fish's 
belly, therefore in thankfulness to God for His grace he 
worshipped with four obeisances. 

From this onward, prophets succeeded prophets, 
transmitting the Doctrine, on to the appearing of the 
eminent prophet Moses. He propagated the Doctrine 
of Adam and Abraham, only in fasting he abstained 


from food ten days, and the legal alms and levying of 
taxes, etc., are handed down from Moses. One night he 
was on his way fleeing from trouble, when suddenly 
thunder, rain, wind and lightning came on fiercely, the 
caravan was scattered in fear, and his family was lost. 
Then God sent bright light to show the road, the wind 
and rain stopped completely, the family was found and 
re-united, therefore in thankfulness for God's grace, he 
worshipped w^ith four obeisances. 

Subsequently prophets succeeded prophets, transmit- 
ting the Doctrine, on to the appearing of the eminent 
prophet David, who came in obedience to command. He 
also propagated the Doctrine of Adam, Abraham and 
Moses, but his method of fasting was on every alternate 
day to abstain from food for a whole day. His son 
Solomon's fasting was at the beginning, middle, and end 
of each month, three days on each occasion. Father and 
son were both prophets who had commands laid upon 
them for the building up of the religion. (David was 
an eminent prophet; Solomon was an ordinary prophet.) 
In regard to this it must be said that there can be no 
doubt about Solomon being the legitimate son of David's 
legal wife. 

Christians say that King David committed adultery 
with Bathsheeba, the wife of Uriah, and that Solomon 
was thus born. They also say that Judah, the son of 
Jacob, committed adultery with his daughter-in-law 
Tamar, and begat Pharez and Zarah, twin sons; these 
are errors. According to that, Jesus would be the de- 
scendent of a son of adultery. This truly is unprin- 
cipled talk. Do they not know that the marriage of 
David and Bathsheeba was according to the clear com- 
mand of God; and that there never was such a thing as 
adultery between Judah and his daughter-in-law? The 
wise will not be deceived into taking these disorderly 
accounts as correct. 

Afterwards the transmission continued down to Jesus, 
who was born according to command. He propagated 
the Doctrine of Adam, Abraham and Moses, but his 
fasting was for forty days, or for the whole year, not al- 


ways the same. His special praying was because cer- 
tain Jews slanderously called him the Son of God, on 
which account he feared in his own heart, so just at the 
setting of the sun he worshipped with three obeisances, 
one because he himself knew certainly that he was God's 
servant, and he thanked God; the second obeisance was 
because he knew that his mother was by no means the 
wife of God, but was also the servant of God, for which 
he thanked God; the third obeisance was because he 
knew that God is the Only Most High God, and he 
sought to escape from the false sayings. God had said 
^'The Messiah will truly not be ashamed to be the serv- 
ant of God." God further said ^'How can the Lord 
have a son? The Lord assuredly has no wife." This 
proves the truth of what our religion says about the Lord 
and His servant, and shows that what their religion says 
about Father and Son is wrong. 

As for Jesus — he was an eminent prophet, a servant 
of God, but not the Son of God. As regards his mira- 
cles, — all the prophets had miracles, only they had their 
differences. All the prophets were God's mirrors. If 
we speak about having no father, then we may say that 
Adam had neither father nor mother, and moreover God 
commanded angels to do obeisance to him. To con- 
sider him as the son of God would be very inappropriate, 
and Jesus would come next to him. 

China had the philosopher Li Peh Yang (Lao Tzu), 
whose mother was pregnant 80 years, and whose left 
side was cut to give birth to her son. There is nothing 
said about his father, as to who he was; could he be called 
the son of God? No, indeed. Inasmuch as Jesus had 
one of the canonical books (the Gospel), he was one 
of God's appointed eminent prophets. As regards his 
worshipping and praying to God, and his other acts he 
was, without doubt, just a servant of God. Jesus from 
his cradle proclaimed to all, "Verily I am God's serv- 
ant; He has given me the Holy Book, and made me an 
eminent apostle." This saying all the more demon- 
strates the errors of the Christians. 

They further say that Jesus was God's son from the 


beginning. This saying is still more mistaken. If Je- 
sus existed from the beginning, then he could be called 
God, why call him God's son? 

Again, it is said that Jesus is God's son, but not a 
materially-born son, but that he was delighted in, and 
honored, and made most nigh ; therefore he is called the 
Son of God. If this be so, then he is a spurious son, and 
not really God's son. If he is a spurious son, why must 
he be called a son at all? 

It is also said that Jesus died upon the cross, as an 
atonement for the sins of the world, and were it not for 
this, God would not forgive sins. Did Jesus atone for 
the sins of those after him, or those before him? If it 
be said he atoned for those after him, then who atones 
for the sins of those who lived in the more than 6000 
years from Adam to Jesus? Or if it be said that he 
atoned for the sins of those before him, then those who 
lived after him reap no advantage from living in the 
dispensation of Jesus, as they do not benefit by his grace. 
If it be said that he atoned for both those who lived be- 
fore, and for those who came after, then we say that 
those who lived before had not observed the conditions 
of his teaching, and of those who lived after, there have 
been many who refused allegance; thus it really seems 
that Jesus suffered vainly what he endured when on the 

Seeing that God can forgive men's sins, why should 
He not forgive them unless Jesus was killed? More- 
over, as it is said that Jesus is the Son of God, could it be 
right to slay His son to save the world? If, for example, 
the people rebel against their prince, and the prince sends 
his minister to pacify them, and the people listen to the 
minister and obey the prince, could there be such a thing 
as the prince still refusing to forgive the people unless the 
minister be put to death? 

When it is said that God divided His Being, and part 
came down to earth, seeing that the divided portion was 
on earth, would there not be an incomplete God in Heav- 
en? And again, Jesus is called the Saviour of the world, 
and seeing he has already been killed, then at present the 


world must be without a Lord. Moreover, to say that 
God came down and was born as a man, this is indeed sup- 
porting the doctrine of transmigration ; can there be any- 
such principle? 

The way in which we Moslems recognize God is that 
God is God Himself, and Jesus is Jesus himself, an emi- 
nent prophet; this is quite clear. This talk about one 
Body having three Persons, is it not quite erroneous? 

After Jesus left the world, the succession of the Doc- 
trine was not carried on, in consequence of which num- 
erous heresies arose, fishermen were exalted as the in- 
structors of heaven and men ; corrupt sayings begat quar- 
rels; a prophet was taken to be God; sorceries led on to 
deceptions, heresies and heterdoxies kept causing divi- 
sions to break out, the people were distressed thereby, and 
all under heaven were in a state of ferment. Six hun- 
dred years after Jesus, the Greatest Prophet, Mohammed, 
appeared in response to the needs of the times. This ful- 
filled the saying of Jesus, "After me, in Arabia, there 
will be born a man who rides a camel, his name is Mo- 
hammed, and he is the Greatest Prophet." 

When our Prophet reached forty years of age, he re- 
ceived the command of God to expound the correct Doc- 
trine and put a stop to false sayings, sweep away the here- 
sies, and revive again the Doctrine handed down by 
Adam and all the prophets, so he was called the Prophet 
of the great completion. Like Confucius in China, whose 
Doctrines were those handed down by the Three Emper- 
ors and the Five Kings, Yao, Shun, Duke Chou, and all 
the sages and worthies down to the time of Confucius, who 
then gathered these things together, and is therefore 
called by Confucianists the Greatest Sage. Our Prophet, 
after receiving the command, lived at Mecca ten years, 
then removed to Medina, and died there at the age of 
63. From the age of 40 onward, for 23 years, his story 
is similar to the story of Moses and Pharaoh. After go- 
ing through several tens of battles, the sheiks of the sur- 
rounding tribes submitted to him, and the affairs of the 
Faith prospered g'reatly. After Mohammed no other 
prophet appeared. 


We now submit briefly for consideration a few of the 
matters connected with our Prophet. 

1. The Rules of the Religion, The Rules of the re- 
ligion are those handed down with the Doctrine from 
of old, such as worshipping five times a day, as was done 
by Adam, Abraham, Noah, Jesus and Moses. God gave 
to us Moslems a command from heaven in respect to this 
worshipping, therefore every one should observe the com- 
mand and not change. Unless one attends to this wor- 
ship in person, it cannot be counted effectual. Chris- 
tians consider prayer as worship, which is wrong. If, 
for example, a man commanded his servant to attend at 
his side, unless that servant is personally present he can- 
not be thus in attendance. Could it be right that when a 
master commands his servant to do something, the servant 
should make a prayer suffice? 

Again, fasting is what has been handed down from 
the early prophets, but in the case of our Prophet it was 
just a little different, that is all. For the rest of the com- 
mands and prohibitions, they are all according to the 
Doctrine of the several prophets; such as the ten com- 
mandments of Moses, we Moslems count them as most 
important laws. Thus we Moslems keep to the Doctrine 
which the prophets of old have handed down, one to an- 
other, with which is not to be compared the heterodoxies 
of upstart religions. 

2. The Prophetical Sayings of earlier Prophets, Adam 
said "In two things Mohammed is my superior; (i) his 
wife could escape the wiles of Iblis (the Devil) ; my wife 
assisted his wiles. (2) The Devil, in Mohammed's case, 
when egging on to evil, had no prospect of succeeding, sc 
he submitted to the Doctrine of Mohammed ; in my case 
the Devil did not submit to me." 

Again, the prophet David said "I saw in the Book 
(Psalms) a ray of light, and when I prayed to the Lord 
saying "Lord, what is this light?" the Lord answered 
saying "This is the light of Mohammed; on his account 
I have created the present world and the world to come, 
and Adam, Eve, heaven and hell." 


Then Jesus the son of Mary said "Children of Israel, 
I am the Messenger appointed by God to you; that 
which bare witness before me, (the Torah) is true and 
not false, and it testifies that after me there will appear 
a Great Appointed One, whose name is Mohammed the 
Prophet." Limitations of space forbid us particulariz- 
ing the prophesies of other prophets. 

3. Phenomena. The phenomena attaching to our 
Prophet were many, so it would be difficult for pen to 
record them all. We here give briefly a collation of a 
few items. 

(a) His body cast no shadow on the ground; it was an 
elegant and transparent body. None of the ordinary 
prophets and worthies had this quality. Was this not a 
great phenomenon? 

(b) Once upon a time some Nazarenes came to the 
mosque of our Prophet and asked him saying, "Jesus 
could command the dead to rise; can you also?" Our 
Prophet forthwith commanded Ali to go with them to a 
Jews' burial ground and cause Joseph the son of Kaierpu 
to rise from the dead. When Joseph arose he said "I, 
Joseph am a Jew. To-day I am resurrected, and I be- 
lieve there is only one God, and Mohammed is His 
Prophet." Was not this seen with their own eyes? 

(c) Mohammed, with his finger, cleft the moon. Is 
not that the marvel of all time? 

(d) Our Prophet was taken up into the ninth heaven, 
and saw many marvellous things, and returned the same 
night. This was a great phenomenon. 

Some may ask saying. Christians say about the cleav- 
ing of the moon, why was it that people everywhere did 
not see it, but only people in Arabia saw it?" We an- 
swer :"At that time there were many people coming from 
Persia, and on the road they also saw the moon cleft. 
Moreover, if we speak about the whole world not seeing 
it, there are differences of location and time to take into 
consideration. Daytime in China is night in America; 
I o'clock p. m. in China is 8 p. m. in Germany [this 
may be a slip Trans.] The cleaving of the moon was 
an occurrence of one time, and is not to be compared with 


the ordinary. If you are still in doubt, look at the Old 
Testament of that religion, in the book of Joshua, Chap. 
X, verses 12:13; Joshua in the presence of the Israelites 
prayed to God saying, "Sun, stand thou still uponGibeon 
and thou, moon, in the valley of Ajalon. And the sun 
stood still, and the moon stayed until the people had 
avenged themselves upon their enemies. This is written 
in the book of Jasher. The sun stood still in the midst 
of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day." 
Who witnessed this event? 

Or if it be again queried, "How could Mohammed as- 
cend into heaven? Heaven is a solid substance, how 
could it be pierced?" We answer, "Have you not heard 
that earlier prophets also ascended into heaven? The 
prophet Enoch, at the age of 365 years, ascended into 
heaven. For this event see the Christians' Old Testa- 
ment, in the book of Genesis, Chap. 5 verses 23,24. Again, 
the prophet Elijah also ascended into heaven, see 2 Kings, 
Chap. 2, verse 12, saying that just as Elijah and his son 
were walking, suddenly there came a chariot and horses 
of fire, dividing the two men, and Elijah went up on a 
whirlwind. Moreover, when Jesus was being baptized 
by John, the heavens suddenly opened, and a dove came 
forth and lighted upon Jesus. Are not these proofs that 
our Prophet ascended into heaven, and that heaven was 

4. The Establishing of the Faith (Church). Our 
Prophet received the command to exhort the people by 
means of kindness, and not severity. Some who were de- 
luded and steeped in heresies, could not receive the il- 
lumination from God, but remained obstinately fixed in 
their delusions, not distinguishing between black and 
white, nor between the true and the false; they also dis- 
played barbarous conduct, so God gave command that 
they were to be admonished by the force of arms. The 
Prophet divided people into three classes; those who sub- 
mitted were to be left alone; those who would not obey, 
were to be punished. Those who after punishment still 
remained obdurate, were to be killed. The children, 
aged and women, in all cases were to be forgiven. The 


benevolence of the Prophet was unequalled; when he 
attacked and entered Mecca, and captives were made, the 
Prophet took them to the door of the Kaaba, and said to 
all: ''I now have with you the intercourse of friends as 
in bye-gone days; Joseph the son of Jacob had friendly 
intercourse with his brethren." 

The Christians say that our Prophet used force to pro- 
pagate his Faith. This was not so. But they should 
know that the religious methods of Moses were the same. 
It is said in Exodus that Moses commanded the Levites 
to kill the worshippers of the calf, and they killed 230,- 
000 people. It is further said that if one person of a 
farmstead offended against the religion, all the people 
of that home were to be killed, and also their cattle, and 
their steading was to be burned, and their possessions 
destroyed. Again, in Kings the First book, it is said 
that God bare witness that the punitive wars and other 
good deeds of David were pleasing unto God. This is 
sufficient to prove the falsity of the Christians' slander 
of our Prophet. 

5. The Family, As regards the family affairs of our 
Prophet, the people of other religions all consider the 
matter of having nine wives as being contrary to reason 
and good principle. But these folk only know one side 
of the matter, and not the other side. The nine wives 
of Mohammed were all women of excellent character, 
so they assisted in bringing out the perfect character of 
the Prophet. The case is not to be compared to one of 
inordinate lust and love of beauty. Moreover, the early 
prophet Jacob married four women; David first mar- 
ried seven, and afterwards married more than 90, this 
number being ten times more than our Prophet had. 
Solomon married 1000 women, 700 of them being prop- 
er wives, and 300 concubines; his number was 100 times 
greater than that of our Prophet; how can our Prophet, 
with nine wives, be said to have had many? Our 
Prophet begat three sons and four daughters; his sons 
all died young. When his last son Ibrahim died, the 
enemies of the Prophet vilified him as a man without 
an heir. So the Prophet prayed to God saying "Lord, 


Thou hast now taken all my sons, one by one, therefore 
mine enemies vilify me as a man without an heir; my 
heart is distressed beyond measure." God answered 
saying ^'Mohammed! thou art now the Sealed Prophet; 
after thee there shall arise no other prophet. If I had 
commanded that thy son should live until the age when 
one receives the command to be a prophet, (40 years), 
and had then extended to him the command to be a 
prophet, how could thou have been the Sealed, or Final 
Prophet? But if he had reached the age, and I had 
not given him the position of a prophet, then, in the 
world to come, when all the past and present prophets 
foregathered, and all prophets had sons who were 
prophets, except in thine own case, would not the grief 
at that be greater than thy present grief? But do not 
be distressed, I will raise up thy successor from among 
the descendants of thy daughter Fatima.'' Our Prophet 
on hearing this command, was straightway relieved. 

6. Saving the World. There are four degrees of 
Saviours. The prophets save their followers. The 
worthies save their brethren. Children under age may 
save their parents. The Prophet will save all believ- 
ers of all time. This salvation is not salvation after one 
has suffered his punishment. Our present world relig- 
ion exhorts people to believe in God and to walk in His 
ways, then they will be saved from the punishments of 
hell ; it is not the same as some others say, that one must 
suffer his penalty (in purgatory), and then afterwards 
be saved. 

The Christians say that apart from Jesus, no one else 
can save; but this self-contradictory statement is easily 
exposed. Their Bible says that when the children of 
Israel had worshipped the calf, God was angry and 
wanted to destroy them all. Moses then prayed to God 
to forgive them, and God ceased His anger and forgave 
them. Is this not an evidence of salvation through an- 
other? Our religion believes that in the work of sal- 
vation, all the prophets have saving power, how much 
more must Mohammed have it, as he is the Flighest 
Prophet, in whom is gathered the great completion? 


Christians also say that none but a descendant of Isaac 
could be the saviour of the world. Do they not know 
that Isaac and Ishmael were both sons of legal wives of 
Abraham; can they mean to say that a descendant of 
Isaac could save while a descendant of Ishmael could 
not? That is really a one-sided statement. 

Chapter 4. The Illustrious Books, 

The books which God has given number 104. To 
Adam He gave 10 books; to Seth 50 books; to Enoch 
30 books; to Abraham 10 books; to Moses one book, 
named the Torah; to David one book named the 
Psalms; to Jesus one book named the Injil,. (Gospel); 
to Mohammed one book named the Koran. 

The Books of the Canon are the mandates of God, 
and are not made by the prophets themselves. The 
written characters are the exterior, the embodied ideas 
are the interior. Before the books appeared, the inner 
meaning of them existed, and after they appeared, the 
exteriors of them were apparent. Angels saw the ex- 
teriors, and understood their inner contents, and gave 
these to the hearts of the prophets; this is what is meant 
by the books being received. All the mandates of God 
ought to be obeyed ; those who do not believe them are 
rebellious persons. All the books mentioned above 
have remained without revision or alteration. For over 
1300 years the Koran of our Faith has never been al- 
tered a single character. Christians say that the Koran 
is Mohammed's book; this is not correct. Our re- 
ligion has in it the principles of full satisfaction; this 
pamphlet will not suffice to record these in detail. 

The Bible of the Christians has been altered many 
times. If it be said "How do you know this?" we say, 
Their religion has the Old and the New Testaments. 
The Old Testament is the book before Jesus, and the 
New Testament is the book of Jesus. We will now 
give the years in which the New Testament has been 
altered, « to assist the investigation into this matter. 

In the year 325 A. D. the scholars revised the book. 
Again, in 364 A. D. they added seven books. Later, in 


397 A. D. seven books more were added. The scholars 
of those times all accepted the Canon. In 1200 A. D. 
a new Church arose, whose adherents said that the laws 
of these books should be set aside, and ought not to be 
followed. What required altering should be altered, 
and what ought to be retained should be re- 
tained; so at that time they accepted a half and 
rejected a half. But there are some conservative 
people who, to the present, accept the old 
Book. The names ^^Heavenly Lord" (Roman Catho- 
lics) and ^^Jesus" (Protestants), are known all over the 
world, but it should be understood that neither of these 
sects are the old Doctrine, and their books are not the 
old Books given by God, but are compilations of men, 
just as they pleased. 

It may be queried, "As the Canon was given by God, 
why did God cause the later messages to make to cease 
some of the earlier ones?" The answer is: '^The Canon 
is what angels, little by little, brought down of the de- 
crees of God, and was not all given at one time. At 
the time when the new religion was established, God 
gave decrees of the Law, and man could easily follow. 
Afterwards, when the foundations of the Faith were 
established, it was necessary to have strict laws for the 
governing of the Faith, so the earlier decrees, having 
fulfilled their purpose thereupon ceased." 

It may be further queried, "As the later decrees 
caused to cease the earlier decrees, could it be that God 
did not know what was to come later." We answer, 
"God is the Almighty and Omniscient Ruler, and there 
is nothing that He does not know." The laws which the 
prophets handed down were transmitted according to 
commands. For example, a master commands his serv- 
ant to manage his affairs, he tells him one thing at a 
time, but the whole plan is in the mind of the master; 
when one thing is finished, he will give instructions 
about the next. The prophets receiving commands to 
establish the Faith was on the same principles. 

Someone may say, "It is only natural that our Faith 
should respect the Koran and obey it, as the Koran is the 


Canon of the Law, and the Law should be recited to the 
living, and they be commanded to observe it. But why 
must it be recited when praying for forgiveness for 
those who are already dead? Are there some duties of 
obeying the laws which the dead also have to observe?" 
We answer. In the Book it is said, ^'Recite the words 
of the Koran over the departed; it may be that the de- 
ceased was a rustic not accustomed to seeing officials or 
generals, and perhaps he may have been very wicked. 
The avenging angels will be like officials who on hear- 
ing of the sins will want to proceed to punish; then if 
the words of the Koran be recited over the grave of the 
departed, the angels will hear the true words of God, 
which will be like hanging up the decrees of a king, 
and the angels will not dare to inquire into the sins, but 
will depart. Is this not immeasurably better than the 
prayers of men?" 

Chapter 5. PredesHnation 

Predestination means that God in a former world, 
when creating all things, predestined what they should 
be, and this cannot be altered in the least. Good or 
evil, riches or poverty, eminence or lowliness, prosper- 
ity or adversity, have all been fixed before, and men 
have nothing to do with them. 

If it be asked, "If good and evil are predetermined, 
why has God appointed heaven and hell as the re- 
spective places where the good and evil people go to?" 
We reply; "Good and evil are of God's fixing; wisdom 
and freedom are left with men. For example, when a 
king sets up a code of rewards and punishments, it is 
that the good may be rewarded, and the bad punished. 
Therefore Confucius said ^Select the good and follow it, 
and amend what is not good.' " 

When the first men of our Faith came to China, they 
selected the character "hui" in deciding the name of the 
Faith. The idea in taking the character "hui" was be- 
cause there is in the character a mouth (representing a 
person) surrounded by an enclosure. The enclosure 
indicates the boundaries fixed by predestination. 


Further, our Prophet had the figure ^P drawn as 
a sign, its meaning being that no matter how much one 
may change and transform, yet one cannot get beyond 
the determined bounds. Now-a-days there are in all 
civilized countries ambitious scholars who, whenever 
they investigate anything, must make it fit in with their 
plan or they are not happy; so at present we have talk 
about evolution. But they should know that there are 
also some things which will not fit in with their plans, 
and if they do fit in, it is because they were so foreor- 
dained, all that we do has been foreordained, and 
the great operations of God are thus manifested in the 

Christians all say that predestination should not be 
believed. They mostly when considering the relative 
positions of the countries of the modern world, say that 
Turkey is a Mohammedan country, which believes in 
predestination (Fate) as a fundamental, therefore it is 
a weak country. Please observe, in the present war in 
Europe, Belgium, Servia, England, France, Russia and 
Italy, of these countries some are great and some are 
small, but none of them have a Mohammedan govern- 
ment, and they do not think much of predestination. 
Yet among them there are some which have gone under, 
and others which cannot fight; is not this fate? 

Chapter 6. Resurrection and the Future World 
There are two future worlds, the great one and the 
small one. Men after death enter the minor future 
world; whatever good or evil they have committed 
will be inquired into in this minor future world, and 
will receive the judgment of God. But when this 
present world has passed away, then there is a great 
future world, in which all who have lived in all ages, 
will be resurrected to life, and the One who 
will wield the power of judgment is God 
alone. This talk of other sects about Jesus wielding 
the power of judgment, is a great mistake altogether, 
because Jesus also is a created being. 

Resurrection means that the original body will be 


gathered together, and have its original life resusci- 
tated, and there will be rewarding of the good, and 
punishing of the evil. The good will go into heaven; 
the bad will go into hell. 

It may be asked, "What is the original body?" We 
answer: "The original body means the members of the 
body as originally made; that is of the essences of the 
earth. The source of all things came from the "t'ai 
chi," therefore the body of ancestral man, Adam, came 
from the earth of the "t'ai chi," and his descendants 
to all generations are the same; the essence of their 
bodies has been transmitted from Adam's body, genera- 
tion after generation, the seed of the father blending 
with the blood of the mother, and so forming the bod- 
ies. So after death, the body at first returns to the 
earth, but does not perish, therefore there is a gather- 
ing together of the original life. The good and evil 
of men belong to the time when the body was living, 
therefore it is a complete man, psychic and material, 
which enters heaven or hell. 

The joys of heaven are two kinds, sensuous and in- 
sensuous. The insensuous or spiritual joys are the de- 
lights which confessors and believers of God will have 
in seeing His face. Heaven is the place where serv- 
ants see their Lord, it is not a fixed place of God. 
The sensuous delights are the delights which those 
who have served God will receive by His grace. 

It may be queried "Does God have form and like- 
ness that can be seen in the future world, if He does 
not have form and likeness how can He be seen?" We 
answer: "The recognition of God is a recognition with- 
out objective likeness, and the seeing of God 
will be a seeing without objective likeness; those 
who see God cannot tell of the appearance of God which 
they have seen. For example, when a man eats excellent 
food, he cannot describe the flavor by any concrete ob- 

The Christians say that the joys of heaven are not 
joys of sense; the resurrection is a resurrection of the 
soul, and not of the body. This is a great mistake. 


Do they not know that the soul has no death, that 
which dies is the body. Seeing the soul does not die 
how can it be said to come to life again? Those peo- 
ple do not keep the fast, or mafce the pilgrimage, or 
observe the laws; do they not thus act unreasonably? 
But when they speak of the resurrection being of the 
soul only then if one ought to enter heaven, it is under- 
standable; but if one ought to enter hell, then what 
is the right thing to be resurrected? If it be said, the 
soul, then how is that when both body and soul together 
committed sin, yet only the soul receives punishment? 
The soul by itself cannot commit sin. If they say it 
is not the soul which is resurrected, then though we 
agree as to the resurrection^ yet is not the manner of 
the resurrection different? Could there be such a 
thing as there being no joys of sense? Truly this is a 
very vulgar tenet of that religion. 

An Appendix. 

A statement as to the majesty and grandeur of the 
Mohammed religion, and the reason for writing this 

In the beginning the world was in chaotic dark- 
ness, and trackless; afterwards, like the light of the 
stars, or the gleaming of lamps, the prophets handed 
down one to another what they had received, and so 
the Way (Doctrine) was obtained. At the time of 
Mohammed, the Way was as bright as the sun, and 
the lights of the stars and the gleams of the lamps 
were absorbed in the brilliant light of the sun. The 
Doctrine, like the sun, illuminates the whole universe. 
Although there are, like clouds and fogs, strange ten- 
ets and heresies making chaos with each other, yet by 
the light and heat of the sun it is possible to dissipate 
these clouds and fogs, and to still further send forth 
the glorious light until there is nothing anywhere 
which shall not share in the illumination. Therefore 
men of vision obtain the blessings which come from 
the Faith. Ignorant people go groping along in 


blindness; they do not obtain the light, so are unable 
to distinguish between black and white. 

We Moslems consider the Doctrine as fundamental. 
We give attention to what is fundamental, and prac- 
tice the Doctrine; so long as we understand the Doc- 
trine, there is nothing else we ask for. Although at 
present there are strange tenets like rebellious winds 
raking up the dust of the whole earth, yet the true 
Doctrine is like a great rain descending, which will 
speedily put away the wind and dust of the strange 
tenets, and manifest the glory of the great Doctrine. 
The faith of the Moslems is as steadfast as the T'ai 
mountain; although wild winds tempestuously blow, 
how can we be moved by them? We have in this 
present effort selected and briefly outlined some of 
the minute principles of our religion, and offer them 
to gentlemen of intelligence who examine into re- 
ligions, so that they may also use these in their inves- 

Isaac Mason. 

Shanghai, China. 








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It was a bold undertaking for Dr. Lewis F. Esselstyn to 
attempt alone in 19,1 1 to open missionary work in Meshed, 
in the very midst of most bigoted and fanatical Moham- 
medans. The city is known as Mashad muqaddas, 
'^Meshed the Holy/' and resentment was altogether nat- 
ural against the teaching of a foreign religion in the sa- 
cred city. 

But perhaps few people understand why the city of 
Meshed is called sacred. The Imam Riza, a celebrated 
saint of Islam and the eighth lineal descendant of Mo- 
hammad, died eleven hundred years ago in Tus, the an- 
cient capital of Khorasan. He was buried sixteen miles 
outside the city and a little mud house was built over his 
tomb. Three hundred years later, the son of the Sultan 
Sanjar, a young man who had been suffering from poor 
health, was hunting nearby this tomb and the gazelle 



that he was chasing took 'refuge inside the little mud 
house. He tried to persuade his horse to advance to- 
wards it but the horse kept shying away from the tomb. 
Surmising that he was on holy ground the Prince dis- 
mounted and walked right into the little mud house. 
There at the tomb he prayed directly to the saint, the 
Imam Riza, that he might be healed of his illness. At 
once he was miraculously cured, according to the story, 
and from that time on the tomb became sacred and cele- 
brated. The Sultan Sanjar built a shrine where the 
little mud house had stood. And one hundred years later, 
when the Mongols came down from central Asia and 
utterly destroyed the city of Tus, the people who escaped 
fled up the valley of the Ravi river and took refuge in 
the shrine. There they were not molested and round- 
about the shrine they put up a village of mud houses, 
and during the last seven hundred years this village grew 
into the modern city of Meshed. Successive kings and 
governors have added to the shrine, and now it occupies 
a vast "temple area" in the center of the city. The 
hundred thousand pilgrims who come to the sacred city of 
Meshed every year, come over the hills roundabout, and 
before they start down into the fertile valley, as they get 
their first view of the city, it is to see the gold dome of 
the shrine glistening in the sunlight. 

There was certainly an element of adventure and of 
extraordinary privilege about the opportunity to carry 
the gospel of Jesus Christ into the city of the pilgrims, 
Meshed, the famous healing place of Islam. 

But bold undertakings are not always successful. When 
the scouts have reported favorably and with enthusiasm, 
then comes the command, "Go up and possess it." The 
work of scouting in Meshed and the vast unoccupied 
field that surrounds it has been done. It has taken seven 
years to do it. That it is possible to do the most effective 
kinds of missionary work throughout all that vast region 
has been repeatedly demonstrated. The question that 
faces the church, now is no longer. Can it be done, but. 
Will we do it? Is the work of the scouts to be met with 
forty years of lethargy in the desert? It the work at 


Meshed to fail on account of the complacent weakness 
and indifference of folks at home? 

The first map shows that the responsibility of other 
mission stations in Persia has extended, in theory and in 
practice, as far east as the western border of the province 
of Khorasan. Now Khorasan has about a fourth of the 
area and more than a fifth of the population of all Persia. 
But as yet only about one twenty-fifth of the missionaries 
in Persia are working in this great eastern province. The 
inequality is due in part to the newness of missionary 
work in Khorasan and does not constitute a ground for 
criticism unless it should be allowed to continue. 

If the present force of missionaries in Khorasan should 
be increased sevenfold, the grand total would still allow 
only one missionary for every 50,000 people. Five new 
missionaries a year for the next seven years, allowing for 
no deaths or resignations, would establish this quota for 
Khorasan. We realize, of course, that this is an exceed- 
ingly conservative estimate if we really "mean business" 
in Khorasan and later in the neighboring Mohammedan 
lands of Central Asia, but other parts of Persia are in 
grave need of reenf orcement also. 

The large circle on the map represents the isolation of 
Meshed from other mission stations and also its prox- 
imity to countries that have not been occupied by Christ- 
ian missions. The radius of the circle is six hundred 
miles and it will be seen to extend far into the neighbor- 
ing countries of Turkestan and Afghanistan. 

Turkestan is a great neglected region with nearly 
15,000,000 Mohammadans, of whom probably at least 
5,000,000, Tartars and Turkemans principally, live with- 
in the region included within the circle. When the 
chaotic period of the Russian revolution shall have 
passed, other American missionary societies may wish to 
help in the work in central Asia. They will find plenty 
of opportunity in Turkestan. The Trans-Caspian rail- 
road reaches many of the chief cities. The whole region 
is accessible and visitors to the mission hospital in Mes- 
hed, visitors from Turkestan, have repeatedly declared 
that if scriptures in the Persian, Arabic, Turkish, Rus- 


sian and Tartar languages could be brought to Askabad, 
Tashkend, Merv, Samarkand and other cities in Turkes- 
tan, they would be sold literally by thousands. 

The situation in Afghanistan may be modified by po- 
litical developments in the very near future. The old 
Amir of Afghanistan, recently deceased, was under treaty 
obligations with Great Britian, (see Statesmen's Year 
Book, 1916) to keep his mountainous state, which is as 
large as Texas, as a ^'buffer state" between the Indian 
and the Russian Empires, to admit no foreigners what- 
ever to his country, and in return for this favor the En- 
glish were also to stay out of Afghanistan, and the Amir 
of the Afghans was to receive an annual stipend of $600,- 
000 from the Indian Empire. During the last two years 
of the war, German, Austrian and Turkish spies, who had 
been carrying on their propaganda work in Persia, left 
Persia when the sympathizers with the Allies got the 
upper hand in the Persian government. These spies left 
Persia by the back door and took refuge in Afghanistan. 
The act of giving refuge to the spies of England's en- 
emies at the time of war could probably have been in- 
terpreted as a violation of the treaty between Afghanis- 
tan and the Indian Empire, but at the time the British 
policy seems to have been conciliatory. Precautions were 
taken, however, to have only native Afghans act as Brit- 
ish agents within Afghanistan in order to thwart the 
possible activity of the enemy refugees, some of whom 
were expelled from the country, and after crossing into 
Persia were captured as prisoners. 

There is now a new Amir of Afghanistan; under the 
pressure of war time necessity a new railroad was ex- 
tended clear through the desert land of Baluchistan to the 
south-eastern border of Persia; after the collapse of the 
Russians, British-Indian troops occupied the eastern 
border of Khorasan in order to prevent a very possible 
German advance into that part of Persia; the expansion 
towards India of the old imperial Russian government 
is no longer to be feared by the government of India; the 
Afghan people have learned more of foreign affairs and 
have taken more interest in trade with their neighbors 


during the war than ever before ; consequently, although 
a mere statement of these facts is by no means conclusive, 
they are nevertheless at least suggestive of the probability 
that it will no longer be to the political, military, or com- 
mercial interest of the government of India to keep Af- 
ghanistan closed. It is by no means unlikely that the 
new Amir of Afghanistan would be willing to continue 
to receive an annual stipend from the government of In- 
dia, not to keep his country closed to foreigners, but as 
the price of a right of way for a British railroad directly 
across Afghanistan to Meshed, thence to the Trans- 
Caspian railroad, so that India would be directly con- 
nected by rail with Europe. Certainly, when Afghanis- 
tan is opened, among the first to answer the invitation, 
'^Come over and help us," will be the missionary doctors 
and nurses, ministers and teachers, who are now working 
on the Persian and Indian borders. 

The fact that the people of Afghanistan read and speak 
the Persian language is already giving missionaries of 
Khorasan a unique advantage. Pushtu, the distinctive 
dialect of Afghanistan, has approximately the same re- 
lationship to Persian that Scotch or Gaelic has to English. 
Persian books and newspapers are read much more widely 
than one would imagine in that still closed land. From 
the American mission hospital in Meshed, in one year, 
1 79 1 copies of scripture, most of them in the Persian lan- 
guage, were sold to visiting merchants from Afghanistan, 
and by them were taken across the border and sold among 
their countrymen. 

Afghanistan has three principal cities, Herat, Kabul, 
and Kandahar. At one time, in the Meshed hospital, 
there were four hernia cases in one room. They had all 
come from the city of Herat, one hundred and seventy 
miles from Meshed. 

Six tall, vigorous young Afghans came to the Meshed 
hospital together one morning, and one of them said, ^ We 
are brothers, last year our father came here and bought a 
book which he reads back home at nights. He told us to 
come and get more of those books." The missionary 
asked, '^And where did you come from?" The answer 


was, "We are from Kabuh" Another glance at the first 
map will show the reader what that means. Kabul is 
farther from Meshed than Joseph was carried down into 
Egypt, farther than Joseph's brothers went for corn, and 
there were those six Mohammedan brothers who had 
made a longer journey at their father's request, to buy 
scriptures. May they not have carried back the very 
Bread of Life? 

And from Kandahar, three hundred miles from Mes- 
hed, there came one day a poor blind old grandmother. 
Her eyes had cataracts. When she was able to return 
however, she went back to her distant home, happily con- 
vinced that it was true that the Christian doctor could 
give sight to the blind. 

The city of Meshed is compactly built and contains 
the sacred tomb of the Iman Riza, the Moslem saint, the 
precints of whose shrine only Mohammedans are allowed 
to enter. The mission hospital was started in a rented 
Persian house, about ten minutes walk from the shrine 
area. More and more of the pilgrims that visit the shrine, 
many of them disappointed and robbed of all they had, 
are coming to the hospital both for treatment and to buy 
scriptures. Dr. Rolla E. Hoffman is treating about 15,000 
patients a year in this hospital. A second doctor will 
soon be there to help him, and a trained nurse. The first 
modern hospital building has recently been provided for, 
so that the wonderful opportunity in Meshed for medical 
mission work will be met with greatly improved facilities 
in the very near future. 

While Meshed is the first great sacred city of Islam 
in which Christian missionary work has been established, 
the opposition of fanatics has been much less noteworthy 
than the splendid appreciation that thousands of the 
people have shown. A striking example of this is the 
fact that a full two-thirds of the entire expense of the 
medical mission work so far has been paid by the Persian 

The American hospital took the lead in feeding the 
starving multitudes of Meshed during the recent famine, 
and last year, when one of the missionaries, Dr. Lewis 


F. Esselstyn, the founder of Meshed station, died of ty- 
phus fever, after he had given himself unsparingly to 
relief work, the people said of him, "He gave his life for 

The vast region in Persia that has been left to the little 
mission station at Meshed is as large as all France. There 
were never more than five missionaries in Meshed but 
they have undertaken to do extensive evangelistic and 
medical itinerating throughout the whole extent of Khor- 
asan. The dotted lines on the map of Khorasan show 
how extensive these journeys have been. Only two large 
cities. Tun and Tabbas, are still unvisited. They lie far 
to the south, across the desert, in a district that is famous 
for its dates and oranges. All of the other cities and more 
than 300 villages have been visited, many of them re- 
peatedly, and the people have bought hundreds of copies 
of scriptures. They have shown also a friendly interest 
in Christian preaching, and in many cases have urged the 
missionaries "to come and stay." In Sabzevar and in 
Nishapur, Karez, Naratabad, Neh, and Turbat substan- 
tial offers of help have been made if mission work could 
be started also in these places. About seven very prom- 
ising new stations could be started at once in Khorasan if 
the missionaries were available. 

In the meantime, while the little station at Meshed 
goes on struggling with the problems of a whole new 
mission, a very considerable advantage is now afforded 
them from the fact that the main trades routes in north- 
eastern Persia have been so improved by British-Indian 
troops that automobiles can be used. This method of 
travel will be in great contrast to the long and weari- 
some journey of eight hundred miles, on pack mules and 
running camels, which was made a year ago from Mes- 
hed to the terminus of the new English railroad. More 
rapid means of transportation will be of great help in. 
holding the Meshed sector. 

D WIGHT M. Donaldson. 
Meshed J Persia, 


It is doubtless natural for one living as a stranger in a 
strange land to resent in some measure the ignorance 
of the outside world concerning the particular corner 
where he is residing, but the civilized world is too busy 
today to assimilate all that it ought to know with refer- 
ence to countries upon which it proposes to confer some 
of its civilization. The ignorance of the average man 
upon the subject of Arabia is almost absolute. Only the 
other day in its issue of September 28th, 1918, pages 
366, 367, The Illustrated London 'News in discussing a 
photograph of the Holy Carpet Pilgrimage leaving 
Cairo said, "The Holy Carpet itself consists of a num- 
ber of pieces of tapestry to form hangings, or curtains, 
for the Kaaba, the tomb of the Prophet, at Mecca," 
Surely the veriest beginner in the study of Arabia and 
her powerful religion, Islam, knows that the Kaaba is 
not a tomb. He also knows that the Prophet was not 
buried in Mecca but in Medina, which is the reason 
why this latter city is counted second in the list of the 
sacred cities of Islam, and why in normal times pil- 
grims visit Medina after performing the Hajj. 

When Mecca passed out of the hands of the Turk in- 
to the hands of King Hussein, the fact was acclaimed 
everywhere as one more triumph of liberty over tyran- 
ny, as one more example of a small and weak people to 
whom would come as one of the results of the Great 
War the opportunity to develop the principles of "self- 
determination" in the matter of government. One 
caught the idea from the papers that Arabia had fought 
for and won her independence and that the whole coun- 
try was a unit in glorying in the downfall of their age- 
long oppressor, the Turk. We read of regiments of 
Arab soldiers brought into being by British energy, and 

* From The Christian Intelligence, New York. 



officered by the sons of Sheikhs, who in their turn are 
under the guidance of Englishmen. These Arabs are 
our whole-hearted allies — we are taught — and are ren- 
dering us invaluable and loyal service. In a word, the 
impression is wide-spread that the Arab is enthusiastic 
over the defeat of the Turk and also over the victory 
of the ''Christian" Allies. Is this impression quite cor- 

It must always be borne in mind that there is no such 
thing in Arabia as a national spirit, there is no patriot- 
ism or anything remotely resembling it; the Arab is an 
individualist. "His hand against every man and every 
man's hand against him." It is probable that most of 
the Arabs who fought against the Turks, whether under 
Hussein's banner in the Hedjaz, or under ours in Meso- 
potamia, did so because they were well paid for it or 
because they thought there was a good chance of loot. 
Hussein, in particular, pays his followers very highly. 
Some time ago, the writer was speaking to a friend of 
the fine proportions of Hussein's army, and the remark 
made in reply was, ''Go out into the cemetery beyond 
the town with plenty of dates; all the stray dogs will 
come to you, but they will only stay with you as long as 
the dates last." The Arab is not enthusiastic over the 
victory of the Allies; he is never enthusiastic over any- 
thing, least of all of the victory of the Christian over the 
Moslem. He is a Semite with an eye to the main 
chance, he is selfish to the last degree and though he has 
been praised and rightly so for his manliness of bear- 
ing, it is nevertheless true that a good deal of this same 
is the conceit of ignorance. Your true Arab, down in 
his heart, has an ineffable contempt for the Christian 
and would rather be ruled, if ruled he must be, by a 
Turk than a Christian, even though strictly both to him 
are foreigners. 

Quite recently I had a long conversation on this sub- 
ject with a prominent Kuweit merchant, a dealer in 
pearls worth many lakhs of rupees, and who would not 
be the wealthy man he is had it not been for the steadi- 
ness and security of trade due to the Pax Britannica in 


the Persian Gulf. He admitted first that the Arab had 
never been treated right by the Turk, second that the 
Arab had no real love for the Turk, third that most 
Turks were sceptics and only nominal Moslems, and 
yet in the face of all these admissions he admitted one 
more thing, namely, that he would prefer to see the Turk 
win in Iraq, or at any rate would prefer that the Turk 
should not be humiliated in defeat. "The religious tie 
is the only bond between us and the Turk, but it is the 
tie that binds" was more or less the way he summed up 
the situation. This man does not stand alone; in fact 
his attitude is probably the real inward attitude of the 
great majority of the leading men of Kuweit, from the 
Sheikh down. The Arab is, however, a fatalist and 
will gradually learn to accept the inevitable but he has 
only just begun to admit that Germany is hopelessly 
beaten, and with her, Turkey. 

The question of "self-determination" as applied to 
Arabia, will from those who know the Arab receive for 
answer only a smile. A land where the great mass of 
the men and practically all the women are illiterate, 
and where what little education there is consists in a 
knowledge of the Koran and Mohammedan tradition, 
a land where people do not want to learn, a land steeped 
in the tenets of its great but hopelessly unprogressive 
religion, a land where there is no mutual trust, surely 
such a land is an unpromising soil on which to sow the 
seeds of Government of the People, by the People, and 
for the People. Oh! but you say "King Hussein, the 
new Khalifah, is a popular ruler in the modern sense 
of the word. He is the people's choice and would be 
acclaimed by the Arabs all over the country were they 
to hold an election. An Arab of the Arabs, a native 
of Mecca, a man of Mohammed's own tribe, the Ko- 
reish; surely none will question his office." On the sur- 
face, Huessin's qualifications seem more than sufficient 
to satisfy the most ardent home-ruler, but it is an 
interesting fact that whereas in this part of Arabia the 
man in the street never questioned the authority both 
religious and political of the Sultans of Constantinople, 


the Sherif, as King Hussein is always called here, is 
by a certain section of the community spoken of with 
contempt while his claims are sneered at. "An upstart," 
they say. "Would never have been anybody had it not 
been for the British Government." It is useless to re- 
tort that the obvious course for the British Government 
was to take the man it found on the spot, a man who had 
long been the biggest Arab in Mecca. 

The people who talk against the Sherif in the above 
strain have a candidate of their own for the Khalifate. 
It is true that the Arabs have never been a unit in any- 
thing, except possibly their religion. It is also true 
that their differences are narrowing. There are in 
Arabia today only two chiefs who count. The one is 
King Hussein of the Hedjaz; the other is Abdul Aziz 
bin Saud of the Nejd. Each of these two men aspires 
to be lord of all the Arabs, and each is bending all his 
energies to that end. In the old days the fight was be- 
tween Bin Saud and Bin Rashi, and the stake was the 
supremacy of the Nejd. Now Bin Rashid is out of the 
running and reduced to impotence, though to his credit 
it must be recorded that he remained faithful to his 
ally, the Turk, to the very end. Today Bin Saud is 
master of the great interior, besides the province of 
Hassa. He is a great leader, full of religious zeal, and 
would probably love to be Khalifa if only for the joy 
of being able to bring Islam back to the austere doc- 
trines of Wahabism. He has a sprinkling of backers 
in Kuweit. 

There is a new movement just stirring in the interior, 
known as the Ikhwan movement, a sort of extreme 
development of the doctrine of the Wahabis. "The 
simple life" is their cry and their numbers are growing 
rapidly. Bin Saud is encouraging the Ikhwans, think- 
ing that there are no Arab troops likely to be able to 
cope with a host of fanatics burning with holy zeal. If 
Bin Saud had been lucky enough to take Mecca by the 
strength of his own right arm at the time that he con- 
quered Hassa, he would have been master of Arabia 
today; but now his chance has probably gone forever 


and he will have to be content to share the country with 
Hussein, king of Hejaz. It is gall and wormwood 
to his ambitious soul to realize that Hussein must of 
necessity both potentially and actually be the bigger 
man, actually because Hussein is the de facto Khalifa, 
reigning in Mecca, and backed by the British Govern- 
ment, to whom Hussein is a more important person 
politically than Bin Saud, and potentially because Hus- 
sein's adherents are probably more numerous than Bin 
Saud's. Bin Saud can count on no outside help save 
the Ikhwans; he has quarreled with the Sheikh of 
Kuweit who now sides with the Sherif, and although to 
a certain extent Bin Rashid has been defeated by Bin 
Saud, it is doubtful whether Bin Saud will gain the 
Shammar Arabs (Bin Rashid's great tribe) as his fol- 
lowers. Bin Saud would probably be more popular 
were he not so aggressively religious. The day has 
gone by when men will submit to being stoned to death 
for being lax in prayer, when men will put up with 
severe punishment because they have been casual, say, 
in keeping the fast of Ramadan. The writer is assured 
that the subjects of Bin Saud are compelled to be reli- 
gious. The Ikhwans will even shoot a man for smok- 
ing, according to popular report; in fact they say that 
by so doing they save his soul from perdition and he 
goes direct to Jenna, whereas Jehennum would most 
assurdly be his fate did he continue to live on in his 

King Hussein from the very nature of things is a man 
of broader outlook than Bin Saud, though the latter is 
the finer, simper, nobler character of the two. Hus- 
sein has mixed with the world, the flesh and possibly 
the devil, in the shape of the Turk, to an extent which 
makes him a past master in the art of intrigue. From 
all accounts he is a worldly-wise man, whereas Bin 
Saud is unsophisticated to a degree, transparent in his 
politics and hampered by his ignorance of the outer 
world, shut up as he is in the interior of Arabia. This 
year he forbade his people to go on the Hajj and has 
prohibited the export of all desert produce to the He- 


jaz. The price of butter, that indispensable ingredient 
of so many Arab dishes, is therefore very high in Mec- 
ca. It is almost unthinkable that Bin Saud will try 
to make friends with Hussein, much to be desired as 
such a consummation is. He is too proud to take sec- 
ond place, while Hussein, strong in the consciousness 
of his solid position, will probably ignore him. And so 
the wheel of fate in Arabia keeps on turning and Bin 
Saud, while having gained enormously in power and 
prestige during the past five years, remains nevertheless 
a disappointed man, in that he has not realized and 
cannot realize his great ambition. 

C. Stanley G. Mylrea. 

Kuweit. Arabia, 


Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies. Published by the School 
of Oriental Studies, London Institution. 191 8. Six shillings. 
P. 151. 

We are glad to call attention to the second Bulletin of the school 
of Oriental Studies. Articles of interest in this number to students of 
Islam are the following: Hausa Speech, its Wit and Wisdom by J. 
Withers Gill, The Russian Seizure of Barha'ah in 943 A. D. by Pro- 
fessor D. J. Margoliouth, and Swahili Poetry by Miss Alice Werner. 

In writing of the Hausa language a number of the familiar proverbs 
are given. The writer shows how animism still dominates the thought 
of the Moslem leaders. He says: **A considerable portion of the 
Mallams, educated under the old native regime, devote their talents 
to the work of doubtful utility of writing charms against all con- 
ceivable evils and misfortunes. To a people nourished on mystery who, 
in spite of their fatalistic creed, believe in genii, ghosts, goblins and 
those terrific things that 'go bump in the night,' protective charms are 
eagerly sought for. These consist sometimes of a quotation from the 
Koran, more or less appropriate; sometimes an astrological formula; 
sometimes some mjeaningless rubbish written In Arabic. You may have 
them wrapped in leather to carrry about as a permanent amulet. You 
may also have a charm written on a board. Wash of? the ink from the 
lattei" and drink the decoction, and lo! the cure is complete. Or you 
may have a love potion that will cause the object of your admiration 
to follow you like a pet dog. Or of your desires wander from self- 
protection to vengeance on someone who has wronged you, you may 
steal a portion of your victim's shirt, impregnated through the sudorif- 
erous work of Africa with your victim's soul, and the weaver of un- 
holy spells will concoct for you a medicine that will bring him untold 

Professor Margoliouth's paper is historical and critical, but none the 
less thoroughly interesting. Miss Werner shows that the Swahili lan- 
guage stands alone among the Bantu group in possessing a literature. 
This is due to the Arabs who settled on the east coast of Africa and 
brought with them their alphabet and their prosody as well as their tradi- 
tion of literary culture. The Swahili adopted the Arabic metres with 
variations due to the intonations of their language. Their verse is always 
rhymed and sL number of specimens are given of the immense body of 
verse in circulation. Some of it is popular doggerel, but other specimens 
deserve the name of poetry. "There is a poem on Joseph, of which I 
possess an incomplete copy written, to judge by the condition of the paper, 
a good many years ago. I have also a more modern version of the same 
(in nearly 8cx) stanzas) by a living and very prolific writer, Muhammad 
bin Abubakar (Muhammadi Kijuma) of Lamu, who informed me that 
he had used both the Koran and the Old Testament as his sources. I 
have not yet been able to compare it with the available portions of the 
older poem (or poems, for a detached leaf, in a different hand, while 
evidently part of a poem on Joseph, may or may not belong to the one 
above referred to), but believe it would be quite in accordance with the 
literary traditions of the East if he should prove to have borrowed 



Should America Accept Mandate for Armenia? A Pamphlet, 
pp. 32. Illustrated. Issued by the Press Bureau of the Armenian 
National Union of America. New York, 191 9. 

A strong plea in favor of America's accepting the mandate for the 
new Armenian state if created by the decisions of the Peace Conference. 
An account is given of the area, population and geographical features 
of Armenia in the larger sense of the word. According to the author 
of this pamphlet, the number of Armenians within the proposed bound- 
aries is two and one-half millions, of other Christians five hundred 
thousand, while the Moslems only number one million. The argument 
is fortified by a number of editorials from the American Press showing 
Armenia's share in winning the war and concludes with a memorandum 
presented by the President of the Delegation of the Armenian Republic 
to the President of the Peace Conference. 

The pamphlet is of special value because it gives the Christian esti- 
mate of populations both in Turkish and Russian Armenian territories. 

S. M. Z. 

World Power and Evolution. Ellsworth Huntington, Ph. D. Yale 
University Press, 191 9, pp. 297. $2.50. 

Dr. Huntington's book is well worth reading; the exhaustive chapter 
on Turkey is of particular value to those interested in Moslem lands 
and their future. 

The thesis maintains that race development is strongly influenced by 
climatic conditions. The volume is difficult to read and is less convinc- 
ing than it might be because the sequence of thought is not always 
well established. One even questions the validity of some of the argu- 
ments. For example it does not seem wise to draw sweeping conclusions 
for the United States from preliminary figures on 9,000 draft rejections 
in which it is not made clear as to whether or not a man is rejected 
for more than one cause. Nor is one fully convinced of the validity of 
conclusions in regard to health conditions taken for the state of Massa- 
chusetts, the state of Connecticut, New York City and the uncertain 
reports for the city of Chicago (doubled!) — the total being made to 
apply to "The Business Section of the U. S." The charts used for 
illustrations violate nearly every known rule of graphics. 

A missionary with experience in Turkey tells us he disagrees with the 
chapter on that country. He holds that the primary cause for the lack 
of progress in industry and education is not the climate but the philosophy 
of fatalism which numbs endeavor and striving. He asserts also that 
the climate does not take away from the energy and activity of people 
of the West who live continuously in Turkey but to the contrary the 
western man feels as well and accomplishes even more in the beautiful 
climate of Turkey than he would in his native land. 

Burton St. John. 

La Tradition Chevaleresque des Arabes. By Wacif Boutros 
Ghali. Paris. Plon-Nourrit. 4f. 70 cents. 191 9. 

Mr. Ghali in arguing his case, touches on a variety of points in the 
character and customs of the Arab, and defends the religion of Islam 
against certain of the charges brought against it. If, however, he seeks 
to prove his case by citing instances wherein Christians have fallen below 
the standard of their Moslem compeers, he, like many who be- 
little the Faith which he upholds, forgets that men are often unable 


or unwilling to do what they know to be their duty. If Islam at times 
presents an unattractive side to critics, it may be because certain Moslems 
fall short of its teachings. Christians are not alone in being unable at all 
timjes and in all places to carry out the whole of their law. The author 
refers to the origin of the veil in Moslem countries, a mark of distinction 
and freedom which is often looked upon by those unaccustomed to its 
uses and mentality of its wearers as a badge of servitude and sex- 
inferiority. The customs and practice of divorce among the Moslems 
are also discussed, and the dissolution of the marriage tie appears to be 
infinitely easier under the Sheri law than under that dispensed in Eng- 
land, if, indeed, it be really an advantage. It may be perhaps that Mr. 
Ghali at times is tempted to gild his lily a little; but his book is in- 
teresting, and he has collected an anthology of Moslem praise of 
famous deeds which does not always fit in precisely with the democratic 
point of view which he adopts in places. A sheriff is a person who 
hardly comes within the ken of modern democracy, and the kinsmen of 
the Prophet are both numerous and important among the Arabs of to- 

The London Times. 

Gospel of Matthew in Chinese and Arabic. British and Foreign 
Bible Society, Shanghai. 1919. 

This is the first Christian diglot publication in Chinese and was one 
■of the fruits of Dr. Zwemer's visit in 191 7. The union version of 
the Mandarin text and the Arabic of Beyruit voweled text are printed 
side by side. The chapter and verse divisions correspond making it 
possible for the Chinese Moslem who reads Arabic to compare the 
Chinese translation and for the missionary to point out the Arabic 
gospel message to the Moslem seekers in West China who under- 
stand the language of the Koran better than his own. 

Xrist of Chinese-Moslem Terms. Prepared by Isaac Mason. Issued 
by the Committee on Work for Moslems of the China Continuation 
Committee. Shanghai. 1919. 

This list of terms will prove exceedingly useful to all missionaries 
in China who have dealings with Moslems or who desire to study 
their literature. It consists of two parts. First a miscellaneous vo- 
cabulary of important religious terms and second, of transliterations in 
use among Moslems of the Arabic names of persons, etc., including the 
prophets and saints of the Moslem calander and the terms applied to 
God. In the preface we read that "A list of terms was published in 
'The Chinese Recorder' in 1892, and this has been revised, and is in the 
main embodied in the present list. A large number of other terms 
have been gathered from Mohammedan books and from other sources. 
Unfortunately the Moslem writers have no fixed terminology for most 
names, the varieties at times being bewildering. In this matter the 
Moslem writers are perhaps no worse than Christian writers who have 
given such a variety of renderings of names in histories and geogra- 
phies. Probably the best and most widely-accepted Moslem authority 
is Liu Chi, a Chinese scholar of Arabic descent, who used seventy 
Arabic works in his compilations. His writings have been the standard 
Moslem works for two centuries. More modern writers have used 
other terms, some of which have been affected by contact with Chris- 
tianity." The list is not complete nor altogether accurate, but it is a 


splendid piece of work for criticism and completion. On the first page 
the Chinese term as well as the Arabic for the recording angels should 
be written in the same line as the two terms following. 

S. M. Z. 

Devil Worship. By Isya Joseph, Ph. D. pp. 220. Richard Badger, 
Publisher. The Gorham Press. Boston, 191 9. 

An authoritative study of an interesting pagan Moslem sect number- 
ing no more than two hundred thousand and scattered over a belt of 
territory three hundred miles wide from Aleppo to the Caucasus. By 
reason of their mysterious religion the Yezidis or devil worshippers have 
been an object of interest since the first notice of them appeared by 
Sir Henry Leyard, in 1894. 

Dr. Joseph, a native Christian of Mespotamia, has made an exhaustive 
study of the origin and traditions of this baffling sect and also of their 
present religious ceremonies, festivals, and social system. The religion 
of the Yezids is a syncretism, to which Moslem, Christian (heretical, 
rather than orthodox), pagan, and prehaps also Persian religions have 
contributed. The author shows his acquaintance with the entire 
literature on the subject, but bases his special study on an Arabian 
manuscript recently discovered of which he gives a translation (pages 
29-82). This is followed by a critical discussion of the sacred books 
themselves and the origin of the sect ; their customs, sacraments, religious 
observances tribal divisions, etc. The book contains a full bibliography, 
but a meagre index. 

We quote the paragraph in which the author gives his conclusions 
after careful study of the subject: 

"I am of the opinion, therefore, that the Yezidis received their name 
from Yezid bin Unaisa, their founder as a kharijite subsect in the early 
period of Islam; that, attracted by Seid 'Adi's reputation, they joined 
his movement and took him for their chief religious teacher ; that in the 
early history of the sect and of 'Adi many Christians, Persians, and 
Moslems united with it; and that large survivals or absorptions of 
pagan beliefs or customs are to be found in modern Yezidism. In 
other words, the actual religion of the Yezidis is syncretism in which 
it is easy to recognize Yezidi, Christian, Moslem, especially sufism and 
pagan elements." 

In regard to their veneration of the devil he says on page 153: 

"It is not quite easy to understand the underlying idea in worshipping 
the devil. Some explain this by supposing he is so bad that he requires 
constant propitiation otherwise he will take revenge and cause great 
misery. For this reason, it is claimed, they do not worship God, because 
he is so good that He cannot but forgive. This is the usual interpreta- 
tion, and it is confirmed by the nature of the religious service rendered, 
It seems to partake much more of a propitiatory than a eucharistic 
character, not as the natural expression of love but of fear. This re- 
minds us at once of the Babylonian religion." 

The form which this veneration takes is described as follows on page 

"The Yezidis' veneration for the devil in their assemblies is paid to 
his symbol, the sanjak. It is the figure of a peacock with a swelling 
breast, diminutive head, and wipespread tail. The body is full but the 
tail is flat and fluted. This figure is fixed on the top of a candlestick 
around which two lamps are placed, one above the other, and con- 
taining seven burners. The stand has a bag, and is taken to pieces when 


carried from place to place. Close by the stand they put water jugs 
filled with water, to be drunk as a charm by the sick and afflicted. They 
set the sanjak at the end of a room and cover it with a cloth. Un- 
derneath is a plate to receive the contributions. The kaw^val (sacred 
musician) kisses the corner of the cloth when he uncovers Melek-Ta'us. 
At a given signal all arise, then each approaches the sanjak bows be- 
fore it and puts his contribution into the plate. On returning to their 
place, they bow to the image several times and strike their breasts as a 
token of their desire to propitiate the evil principle." 

The frontispiece reproduces the symbol of the devil used in the 
worship of the Yezidis. 


Charles Chapin Tracy. By Charles E. White. The Pilgrim Press, 
Boston & Chicago, pp. 79. Price $1.00. 

We welcome this brief but most interesting biography of a broad- 
minded missionary who contributed much to the awakening of the 
Ottoman Empire, and as college president left an impression of his own 
devoted personality upon hundreds of students, many of whom will 
prove to 'be leaders in the reconstruction period. Mr. Charles C. 
Tracy was born in Pennsylvania, October 31st, 1838, was graduated 
from Williams College, and Union Seminary. He then went out as 
a missionary to Marsovan, Turkey, arriving in 1867. Dr. White, the 
President of Anatolia College sketches the work of its founder in 
planting the institution, overcoming the prejudices, and meeting the 
problems of a pioneer in Turkey. We read of the days of massacre and 
the recuperation of the Armenian community, of the growth of the 
work until the outbreak of the war. In 191 5 Marsovan had a popu- 
lation of I2,0CX) Armenians, and when the deportations were com- 
pleted in the fall of that year the officials plowed the Armenian 
cemetery and sowed it to grain as their way of giving public notice 
that they did not intend to allow any more people of that race to live 
or die or be buried in that city. Eight members of the College 
Faculty, because they were Armenians and because they were Christians, 
were slain. The student body, the Girls' Schools and the Hospital 
similarly suffered; and from the Protestant community in the city, 
consisting of 950 souls, 900 were swept away. The college continued 
in session until May, 191 6, with Greek, Russian and Turkish students^ 
in attendance. No Armenian teacher was spared to the institution and 
but one student was left to represent that race. The effect of these 
events on Mr. Tracy can well be imagined. He was in America at the 
time, and as soon as the work of relief was organized threw himself 
into it with heart and soul, but the intensity of the effort proved too 
much. On April 19, 191 7, he passed to his reward. The biography 
is only one chapter in the story of missions, but it is a chapter that 
glows with light and kindles the heart to heroism. 


England and Palestine. Essays Towards the Restoration of the 
Jewish State. Herbert Sidebotham. pp. 257. With maps. Price 
6/ net. London, Constable & Company, Ltd., 1918. 

The purpose of the volume by a British military critic is indicated 
by the sub-title. The author attempts to anchor the Zionist ideal "on 
the hard and stony ground of modern politics" and especially a "com- 
munity of ideals and interests between Zionism and British policy." 


The prime interest for Great Britian in the establishment of a 
Jewish State in Palestine, the author holds, is the defence of Egypt. 
Palestine is the natural key to this defence from the north. As the 
bridgehead between Asia and Africa it has been the scene of numberless 
conflicts. Its geography and military history, reviewed in some detail, 
show the importance of Palestine to the power possessing Egypt. 

The old Britsh policy in the Near East was based upon the benevo- 
lent neutrality of Turkey, the integrity of which was stubbornly 
maintained out of fear of Russian designs and rivalry for France. 
Meanwhile Germany was developing her designs for the control of 
Turkey and in furtherance of these designs precipitated the war in 
1 91 4. The war has made necessary a new alignment of political 
forces in the Near East. British Imperial interests demand that the 
adjustments be such as render the military burden in the future as light 
as possible. 

Materials for such a settlement, the author maintains, lie to hand in a 
Jewish State in Palestine under British protection, or failing that, under 
the protection of the United States. By adjustment and friendly under- 
standing with a French Syria to the north and the new Arab State 
or states to the east, such boundaries for the new state may be established 
that her economic future may be assured. A self-supporting, self- 
governing Palestine will offer scope for the development of Jewish 
genius in politics and commerce, presents no insuperable difficulties in 
its realization, and as a mediator between the East and the West will 
exert a beneficent influence throughout all the East. 


The Black Stone. George Gibbs. $1.50. Illustrated, i2mo., cloth. 
D. Appleton & Co. , 

A brisk breezy adventure story of the same type as the author's 
previous successes. The hero is an American millionaire, the scenes 
are laid in Egypt and Arabia, and the plot revolves around the 
sacred black stone of Mecca which a German steals and uses in an 
effort to start an uprising of the fanatical Arabs of the desert. Not a 
war story but a rapid fire adventure tale. 

War and Revolution in Asiatic Russia. M. Phillips Price. Al- 
len & Unwin, Ltd., London, 1918. pp. 296. 

This book is the result of observations and studies made by the 
special correspondent of the "Manchester Guardian," and contains 
both the exellencies and faults of newspaper work. After a brief 
historical and economic sketch of Central Asia, the military campaigns 
of the Russian and Arntenian volunteers in the Caucasus during 
1 91 4-19 16 are outlined, and finally, the political situation and the 
effect of the Russian Revolution in the Caucasus are discussed. The 
growth of national and international feeling in the various races of 
this section, and the policy of Russia and Germany in attempting to 
play these off against each other is clearly shown. The Armenians 
were found to be not only progressive, but distinctly aggressive, while 
their intense and narrow nationalism was a constant source of anxiety 
to all their neighbors. The repressive policy of Russia towards the 
Tartars and Moslems of the Caucasus so far as education and travel 
were concerned, from fear of a Pan-Islamic Movement in Asiatic Russia, 


the author finds to have resulted in a tendency to unite the forces of 
all Caucasian Moslems in a national revival. This revival will take the 
form of a cultural Renaissance of Islam. One limitation of the book is 
the fact that it was written in 191 7. Events have moved rapidly since 
then, and as a result one feels a little skeptical on reading such con- 
clusions as that, in the event of an autonomous and federated Caucasus, 
"it will be in close alliance with the great Republic of Free Russia." 

The book is written in an easy style, although at times the personal 
details become a trifle wearisome. There are a few minor instances of 
careless proof-reading, but on the whole we are left hoping that the 
author may make good his promise to publish a chapter on Persia 
and her Future "After the war or when there is no Censor to be con- 

HoLLis W. Hering. 

Sex Worship and S3mibolism of Primitive Races. By Sanger 
Brown IL M.D. Richard G. Badger. Boston, 1919. $3.00 net. 
pp. 145. 

The history of the racial motive associated with the reproductive 
instincts, as expressed in sex worship is described with an account of its 
origin, development and decadence. The historical portion compiled 
from many sources, gives a description of a form of worship that pos- 
sibly had its origin in primitive man, but which has continued, 
unrecognized for the most part, through the past ages down to the 
present day. The reader interested in this phase of comparative 
religion will find possible explanation of certain animistic practices 
current among the masses and perhaps receive new light on the worship 
of the sacred palm in ancient Arabia and the ceremonies carried on at 
the Kaaba before the days of Mohammied. It is a book only for special- 


Trade, Politics and Christianity in Africa and the East. 

A. T. Macdonald, M. A. London: Longmans, Green & Co. 
1916. pp. 296. 6/ — 

This book, which was awarded the Maitland Prize at Cambridge 
in 191 5, as an essay on the thesis "Problems raised by the contact 
of the West with Africa and the East and the part that Christianity 
can play in their solution," should have received an earlier review in 
"The Moslem World." Some of it deals with questions outside 
our purview; other sections of it, however, are of closest interest 
to the student of conditions in Mohammedan regions, especially in 
Africa. Also it is a book that should be circulated widely in com- 
mercial circles, more particularly among those who departmentalize 
their business and religious concerns. It faces facts as presented by 
governments in Blue Books and Minutes of Evidence, and the result, 
as Sir Harry Johnston says in his introduction, is a "thoroughly 
practical, common sense book on the relations between Christianity, 
commerce and civilization." 

The chief problems tackled are in Africa, the Native Labour ques- 
tion and the Liquor question; in India, the Liquor trade, Self-Gov- 
crnment and Education; in China, the development of constitutional 
Government, Education and the Opium and Morphia Traffic. A 
special chapter is devoted to Interracial Marriage and a final one 


to "The Problem of Religions." — "Wherein does the solution lie? 
In Christianity, not in the disseminaton of metaphysic dogmas, nor in 
the fulmination of apocalyptic doom, but in the quiet teaching of 
Christian ethics and the inculcation of Christian practice. The 
teaching of the Cross must be kept always before the governments 
of the West * * * It must be offered to the traders and the 
administrator * * ♦ * It must be revealed to the native peoples 
themselves in order to shovs^ them the true w^ay to democracy and 
the vision of a universal brotherhood of man." 

E. I. M. B. 

The Achievements of Christianity. T. K. Mozley, B. D. Lon- 
don: S. P. C. K. 1917. pp. 86. i/6d. 

The reader of missionary literature is sometimes almost overwhelmed 
by the sense of all there is yet to be done and the urgency of the 
appeals from all sides for more recruits and better equipped institu- 
tions. To such a one this little book by a Fellow and Dean of 
Pembroke College, Cambridge, will bring real encouragement. It 
is one of a series drawn up at the instance of the Christian Evi- 
dence Society, and while it does not ignore how much ground there 
is still to be won, it bears a strong, convincing testimony to the solid 
achievements already of Christianity as a religious force, in the 
sphere of politics and society, upon the aesthetic side of life and as 
moulding individual character. We can commend it with sincere 
appreciation as a book to give to thoughtful non-Christians, honestly 
weighing our claim for the Faith as the living power unto right- 

E. I. M. B. 

Revue du Monde Mussulman. Published by La Mission Scienti- 
tifique du Maroc. 191 7-18. Volume XXXIV. Paris. Edited 
by Ernest Leroux. pp. 354. 

This magazine on account of the war has become an annual. It 
began as a monthly, then for a number of years was a quarterly and 
the present issue is the volume for the year 191 7-18. In addition 
to articles on the Moslem press in Russia during the revolution, the 
Moslem press in Persia in 191 5 and 1916 together with briefer quota- 
tions from the newspapers of Constantinople and Mecca, the following 
articles demand special note: 

"L 'Islam et Abyssinie," by Professor A. Guerinot, is a careful 
study, with full bibliography, on Islam in Abyssinia, giving a de- 
tailed account of its rise and spread from 161 5 A. H. until the 
present time. A list is given of the tribes which have become 
Moslem to a greater or less degree. In the case of many of these 
tribes the superficial character of the Arabian faith shows its recent 
adoption. In the southeast the Mohammedans are most numerous, 
but Mohammedan tribes are also found in the north. 

"Notes Sur L'Enseignement Dans La Russie Musulmane," by R. 
Majerczak, contains important notes (66 pages in length) on the 
educational program of the Russian Mohammedans before the revo- 
lution. A summary of these articles will appear in our October 
number S. M. Z. 


The British Red Crescent Society 
We gladly give a brief statement of the account issued by this society 
as published in The Times : 

A statement of accounts issued by the Right Hon. Ameer Ali, presi- 
dent of the British Red Crescent Society, shows that during the four 
years of the war, from September i, 191 4, to December 6, 191 8, the 
sum of £1,631 i6ds. 6d. was spent in relief, the principal items includ- 
£450 for the relief of Moslem sufferers in Armenia, £200 for a similar 
purpose in Russia, £100 for distressed Moslems in Baghdad, £275 
contributed to the Indian Soldiers' Fund, £350 for a motor-ambulance, 
and £185 for the relief of Moslems in Syria and Palestine and in 

A Social Problem 

The following social problem is presented by a missionary worker 
in North Africa and shows the difficulties that follow polygamy and 
divorce when the Moslem becomes a Christian. 

H. Married two waives, each of whom when he took her, was a 
divorced women, with her first husband still living. (This is per- 
mitted, according to Moslem law.) The form of marriage was the 
*Djimaa" viz: seven or eight men together witnessing to the payment 
of the price given for one wife, by the husband. 

No. I wife, taken some twenty years ago, bore two daughters — 
one elder of whom is still living, or lately married, the younger, de- 

No. 2 wife, taken about ten years ago, bore him a daughter and son, 
aged respectively at this present 6 and 3^ years. Both these women are 
still living, but the first, through some small quarrel, has gone to live, 
on her own initiate, in another neighborhood, with her married daughter 
and son-in-law. 

H. has not divorced her. 

This family has been evangelized, with the result that the second 
wife and the elder daughter accepted our gospel, and after a period of 
testing, were baptized (immersed) into the Christian Church with the 
sanction, and in the presence of the father and husband, who though at 
first he mocked Christianity yet later became interested and so willing 
for his women to take such a step as Christian baptism. 

Last 5'ear, 191 7, H. himself, confessed his belief in Christ crucified 
for his sins, and is believed by the missionaries to have "passed from 
death unto life." 

He is now requesting baptism, but the workers desire that the marital 
faults of his past life, though now forgiven, should as far as possible 
be straightened out before he is baptized. 

What course should be pursued?" 

How to Win Back Santa Sophia 

We heartily endorse the spirit of the words written by Mr. H. M. 
Walbrook in the lively discussion that has taken place in the British 



press regarding the future of the mosque, formerly the Church of Santa 
Sophia : 

"In March, 191 5, Mr. Stephen Graham, Glowing over the Russian 
defeat of the Turk and Germ'an, which he then saw immediately im- 
pending had a vision of Santa Sophia as the St. Peter's of the East. 

"Alas, Russia lies today prostrate at the feet of her own dreamers 
and sentimentalists ; and the Mohammedan priest still ascends and pulpit 
of the church of Justinian every Friday bearing a drawn sword as an 
indication that the temple originally belonged to a conquered faith. 

"Now the Bishop of London has declared, both in Athens and at 
home, that it is "necessary" that this church should be restored to 
Christian worship; and, as the Turk has undoubtedly at last been 
defeated, the cry is being taken up in other quarters. From the points 
in view of Art, History and Civilization it is one of the most dangerous 
and reckless cries of the moment. 

"We all know that for the first nine centuries of its amazing history 
this glorious structure was a Christian temple and the centre of a 
Christian Empire, and it is easy enough to conceive the emotion with 
which Christendom would hear of the hymns and incense of the 
Christian Church once more ascending to its golden dome. 

"But let us also bear in mind that for more than four and a half 
centuries it has now been the head of the Mohammedan Empire and the 
chief religious edifice of the Mohammedan world; and let us be very 
sure that its violent re-Christianization would send a fire of fury 
through the entire Mohammedan community, not in Turkey only but in 
India, Egypt, North Africa and the Hedjaz. 

"Such is Mohammedan feeling on this subject that sooner than see 
the mosque so "desecrated" they would see it levelled with the dust. 
There lies the peril! 

"There is one safe and. worthy way, and one only by which Chris- 
tianity can win back Santa Sophia, and that is by winning over those 
millions who revere its present sancities. No Bishop's sic volo sic jubeo 
can do it. No sword can do it." 

A Manifesto by Turkish Women 

There are many curious cross currents at present in Constantinople. 
Every attempt possible is being made to befog the situation and the local 
press takes advantage of the armistice by subtle propagadism and show 
that the Turks have not really been beaten. In this connection the fol- 
lowing manifesto was sent out by the Moslem women of Kadikeui, a 
town near-by over on the Asiatic side, which says, amongst other 
things: "We, the mothers, wives, sisters and daughters of the illustrious 
heroes of the defence of the Dardanelles, in the presence of the souls 
of the martyrs who sleep under the sacred earth which they defended 
address ourselves to all Turkish women and to the civilized world. A 
nation which prevailed over the tow^ers of steel (meaning warships) 
which we see in our port, and which threw into the sea half a million in- 
vading soldiers, cannot be considered as vanquished. We protest against 
the declarations of the Minister of Public Instruction spoken from the 
tribune in the name of the Government, in which he said, Ve are 
vanquished. They can do with us as they wish.' If there are no men 
to defend us and our national rights we women are here." It would be 
interesting to know by w^hat means the Turkish ladies of Kadikeui be- 
came so bombastically and politically articulate, or if indeed they ever 
heard of the manifesto proclaimed in their name. 


Lest We Offend 

Quite curious criticism, says a writer in the London World, has been 
made in India with respect to the venerable proverb, "If the mountain 
cannot go to Mahomet," etc. Well-known Moslems have been com- 
plaining that this outrages Moslem sentiment. In the first place no 
Mohammedan, they contend, can bear to hear the name of the prophet 
used at all, and, in the second place, employed in this fashion. One 
writer points out that every Moslem always, in referring to Christ, adds 
the words, "On whom be peace." The Moslem never uses the name 
of the Prophet in this fashion, and he objects also to expressions like 
"Mahomet's coffin" being in common colloquial currency. 

Writing in the Spectator, Mr. Ameer Ali objects very strongly to 
designating Islam as Prussianism in religion. His letter is interesting 
for other reasons and reads as follows: 

Sir, — ^Will you allow me to enter a strong protest against the latest 
attempt to create illwell between Christian and Mohammedans? News- 
papers of Saturday last contained an appeal from the Church Missionary 
Society for funds for massionizing purposes under the heading "Prussian- 
ism in Religion: the Crescent and the Cross." In this appeal the 
Mohammedan religion is gratuitously dragged in and held up to con- 
tumely. The religion of a hundred million of the King's subjects is 
vilified under the obnoxious designation of "Prussianism," and the 
Cross is pitted against the Crescent. Whatever may be the object of 
the authors of this extraordinary, not to say outrageous, advertisement, 
they do not seem to realize the mischievous consequences of rekindling 
the old haterd. Nor do they appear to see that it show^s a certain 
religious poverty to have to stiffen up Christianity and awaken charita- 
ble instincts by attacking another religion. The two great religions 
can live and work side by side for the elevation of humanity without 
^ rivalry or rancour. But if this constant agitation for the sowing of 
discord between the followers of the two faiths, either by means of 
attempts to rob the Moslems of their places of worship or by reviling 
their Prophet and His teachings, is allowed to continue, there can be 
no prospect of the much needed "peace and goodwill." 

The Gospel in Java 

Next to India the little island of Java lying amid the Far Eastern 
seas has the largest Moslem population of any country in the world. 
There effective evangelization is being carried on by Dutch missionaries, 
and year by year the work of the Bible Society has grown in value and 
influence. Although as a rule the people shun the missionaries and re- 
fuse to enter a Christian place of worship they are ever willing to pur- 
chase the Scriptures which appeal to them because written in their own 
language. Mr. Paulus Penninga who is stationed at Lawang, devotes 
most of his time to linguistic work. The distribution of the Scriptures 
is mainly in the hands of the Rev. W. H. Williams, who has now 
completed his twenty-first year of service for the Bible Society in Ma- 
laya. Since the end of 191 1 when he took control of the work in 
Java the annual sales in the Island have more than trebled. Such a 
result speaks volumes for his energy and organization and is a record 
of which any one might be proud. Mr. Williams says: "Although 
during the war there was difficulty in securing from Japan fresh sup- 
plies of Javanese Testaments and portions, the total sales of the year 
amounted to 75,163 — an advance of 15,416 over 1916. Last year our 
old colporteurs plodded on steadily, and if they have been unable to make 


startling sales yet they have kept up their average. Our colportage 
sales in Java last year rose to 42,696 books — an increase of 3,659 over 
the figures for 19 16. Wherever there is a chance of selling a book 
there the colporteurs go. I sometimes receive an urgent request from 
one of my men for a large number of copies of the Scriptures to be 
forwarded at once, 'for there is to be a great Mohammedan festival at 
such and such a town, and I want to be there with my books.' Or 
another will write for a fresh lot of Testaments and Gospels to be sent, 
'for the people in my district are just finishing the rice harvest, and 
money is plentiful.' We are receiving very practical proofs that the 
leaven of Christianity is entering into the lives of the people — often 
through the work of our colporteurs. We need a Bible van, drawn by a 
couple of Javanese ponies or propelled by motor, which could patrol 
all roads of the island, and visit the sugar, coffee, tea, tobacco and other 
estates w^hich at the present time are almost closed to us. I am quite 
confident had we such a vehicle it would be productive of very much 
good, would send up our sales, and be a splendid advertisement for the 

Should the Koran be used to Prove Christian Doctrine? 

This question was recently asked by a missionary in East Africa and 
the reply given by the late Mr. H. A. Walter, of Lahore, is so inter- 
esting that we give it to our readers quoting from the correspondence in 
"News and Notes." 

"Answer: i. Few today will accept the position that because the 
Koran (like all other man-made books) is not divinely inspired, as are 
the Christian Scriptures, it therefore follows that its inspiration is 
Satanic. Such a view belongs to a period when Mohamlned was looked 
upon in Europe as the great imposter, misled by the devil, if not actually 
as Anti-Christ. To the vitality and strength of the Koran in the life 
of the Moslems at the present time, many passages in The Vital Forces 
of Christianity and Islam bear witness. 

"2. The Christian worker among Moslems will naturally and wisely 
use the Koran to bring the Moslem back from the later develop- 
ments of his religion, such as the glorification of Mohammed, Ali, and 
Hussain, etc., to the primary facts of his faith, which will show him 
how few, and yet how essential, are the real differences between Moslem 
and Christian. This is, of course, a preliminary clearing of the ground. 

"3. The Christian worker will carfeully avoid seeming to use the 
Koran to prove the truth of any Christian position. From this follows 
the fact that from the very first he makes it clear that he accepts the 
Bible, only, as God's inspired Word. 

"4. The Christian worker openly accepts the fact that the Koran is 
the inspired Book of the Moslem and he can therefore legitimately seek 
to show the Moslem the implications of his own belief, such as are 
found in the testimony of the Koran to the genuineness of the Chris- 
tian scriptures and in its ascription to Jesus (Isa) of such titles as 
Word of Allah and Spirit of Allah. 

"5. This procedure has been used with great success in persuading 
Moslems to purchase and to read the Gospel, resulting not infrequently 
in their ultimate conversion to Christianity. Pleaders of the series on 
'How Christ Won My Heart' in 'News & Notes' two years ago, 
will remember how more than one of those writers traced their interest 
in Christianity to the significant references to Isa found in the Koran. 

"6. For a more extended treatment of this subject and use of this 
method, see: 


Rice— "Crusaders of the Twentieth Century, pp. 112-117, 150-152. 

MuiR— "Sweet First-fruits, pp. 31-35, 168. 

Takle— "Sirat-Ul-Mustaqim, pp. 5-7, 46-50. 

GAia)NER — "Christianity and Mohammedanism, pp. 31-57." 

Sunday Schools for Street Children in Egypt 
Miss Jeannette L. McCrory, a United Presbyterian Missionary, is 
making a great success of two Sunday-schools for street children in 
Cairo, where she is working. The report was sent by Metry Dewairy, 
Field Secretary for Egypt representing the World's Sunday School As- 
sociation. Miss McCrory goes every Sunday afternoon with her 
Egyptian teachers to the poor quarters of the town, gathers the children 
and teaches them Bible stories. Psalms and Bible texts. She gives them 
picture cards, received through the Surplus Material Department of the 
World's Sunday School Association, and prays with the children. Some 
are bootblacks, some are beggars and most of them are Moslems. They 
now use a very different language. They go into the streets singing 
"God is my Saviour" or reciting "Create in me a clean heart," etc., 
instead of their former quarrels and vile expressions. There are two 
or three places where such schools are started and more of the same 
kind will soon be opened in different centers. 

Rebuilding Churches Destroyed by the Turk 
Rev. Stephen V. Trowbridge of the World's Sunday School Associa- 
tion is Field Sceretary for Moslems Lands and writes the following 
from Aleppo: 

"The Sunday-school treasurer of Egypt has forwarded $1,400 as the 
Christmas offering from the Sunday-schools of Egypt and the Sudan for 
Syrian and Armenian Relief. This will be used in giving employment 
to hundreds of Armenian refuges in Aintab, who are now being set at 
work cutting stone and preparing other materials for the restoration of 
the four ruined churches in that city. Twenty school buildings in 
Aintab were also sacked by the Turks, and all the woodwork was torn 
out. Every bit of Sunday-school and day school equipment was stolen, 
and much of it was actually destroyed. I am sure that no work is more 
worth while than the reconstruction of these churches and school build- 
ings. It furnishes employment to more than five hundred people, and 
they in turn have families at home who are helped through their wages. 
More than a thousand houses in Aintab were entirely torn down by the 
Turks, who coveted the timber and used it for fuel or sold it in the 
markets. The people who have survived are crowded together in the 
houses not destroyed, and as fresh batches of refugees come back from 
Mesopotamia there is no shelter for them. We are applying to G. H. Q. 
for one hundred marquee tents for them and especially for orphanage 
work and for a refuge home for girls released from Moslem houses. 

"For three and a half j^ears no church services and no Sunday-schools 
have been allowed at Aintab. One of the churches the Turks had 
made into a brothel, and in another they had quartered a horde of 
Kurdish refugees. In every conceivable way the Turks had desecrated 
these buildings. In January we secured permission, through the in- 
fluence of the British authorities, for the re-opening of churches, Sunday- 
schools and day schools. The keys were handed over by the Turks to my 
brother-in-law. Dr. Merrill, and at the Gregorian Cathedral, after the 
celebration of Mass I was asked to preach the sermon. More than four 
thousand Armenians had gathered for this service. This stately church 
had been despoiled of all of its treasures. The ancient tiles had been 


ripped out with pickaxes, and the marble stones of the altar torn away. 
There was deep emotion manifest as the service proceeded, especially 
during the singing of the Te Deum in ancient Armenian." 

Viscount Bryce on Islam 

Viscount Bryce, writing in the Laymen's Bulletin, reviews at length 
"The Riddle of Nearer Asia" and says: 

"Most of those who know either India or the west Asiatic countries 
have been so struck by the grip which Islam has laid upon those who 
grow up under it as to treat it as a permanent and irreducible factor in 
Eastern life. They may be right. But let us note that the conditions 
under which the Moslem faith will henceforth have to live will be very 
different from those which have heretofore protected it. Political power 
having departed, it will no longer be the religion of the conqueror, and 
the scorn which the Moslem has felt for the Unbeliever cannot long 
survive. The scepticism that has been sapping it among the educated 
will spread faster and farther through all classes. The young Turks 
who made the massacres were not fanatics, but Prussianised politicians. 
The social institutions of the Moslems are almost as great a hindrance 
to progress as the comparative stagnation of his intellectual life. Islam 
has its good points, and has done much to raise some of the races that 
have embraced it. But, in the Nearer East, at least, it deserves to de- 
cline and nothing forbids the hope that the decline already discernible 
may ere long become more rapid." 

Arabic Calligraphy 
"A Beyrout paper, the Lissan el-Hal, reports that a certain effendi 
skilled in caligraphy once wrote on an egg the whole of the Ottoman 
Organic Law, in Arabic and in Turkish, with explanatory notes and two 
poems about the Ottoman Constitution, adding — to fill up space, one 
supposes — a map of the Ottoman Empire. Altogether the ingenious 
gentleman managed to write some 10,000 words on the egg. Now he 
has presented to the Syrian Protestant College Museum a grain of wheat 
on which he has written a poem of 107 words, all of which, we are told, 
can be read clearly through a magnifying glass, and even by a man 
with strong sight. I agree with the Lissan el-Hal that the effendi has 
given proofs of marvellous patience and skill. But we must remem- 
ber the training of the Oriental scribe. Usually he holds his paper "all 
anyhow" in one hand, making it into a kind of crumpled ball, and then 
writes on it with a split reed, using ink that consists chiefly of lumps of 
weird chemical substance. After that, writing on an egg-shell, or even 
on a grain of wheat, must be comparatively "smooth going," and a 
decent pen and readily-flowing ink must be wonderfully helpful. I am 
not sure that I do not consider the caligraphic performances of certain 
Turkish officials that I have witnessed in my travels quite as wonderful 
as the feat of the writer on the egg, and the grain of wheat. At any 
rate, I could never write anything at all in circumstances which seemed 
to present no difficulties to the Turks and Arabs referred to; while I 
could write at least a few words on an egg!" — The Near East. 

How to Pray for Moslems 

Prayer for the Moslem should be intelligent. Every need spells 

Prayer for the Moslem should be definite, that he may have a real 
sense of sin. Because of absence of the consciousness of sin he despises 
salvation offered through Christ. 


Pray that the offense of the Cross may cease to repel the Moslem. 
Pray that they may be cured of their pride and self-satisfaction. 

Pray persistently and insistently. "With all prayer and supplication, 
praying at all^seasons and watching thereunto in all perseverance and 
supplication." No superficial, half-hearted prayer will do for Moslems. 

Pray for the converts. 

Pray for the missionary to the Moslem that he may make known 
with boldness the mystery of the Gospel. F. M. 

A Valiant Worker 

News comes of the sudden death through drowning of Alexa E. 
Clerihew, a woman utterly devoted to the cause of Moslem women in 
Poona. Miss Clerihew, a brillant student with a perfect genius for 
teaching, went to India in 1892 with her widowed mother and there they 
henceforth made their home. She loved the poor Mohammedan women, 
"perishing" as she said, "for the lack of knowledge," and the quaint little 
children were her delight. She visited the women in their zenanas 
and carried on schools for the girls. The following quotation from the 
Missionary Record of the United Free Church of Scotland will show 
something of the spirit of this worker. 

"It was not all smooth sailing, indeed as years passed she must often 
have had to inure herself to disappointment. A whole school would be 
emptied at the w^ord of a Mullah. A rival school would be opened next 
door to one of hers, and her pupils allured into it. The w^omen would 
take fright when they found they were getting interested in her message, 
and, in picturesque Eastern language, would intimate that "the door 
was shut"! But when she told a story like this she would add, "It is 
always true that 'Greater is He that is for us than all that be against 
us' — I expect all the children back," and they usually came. Like many 
another zenana missionary, she had not the joy of seeing her women 
flocking into the Kingdom, as I know she expected they would when 
she began her work. One and another seemed near the Kingdom, but 
none took the final step. To her ardent soul this must have been a 
peculiar disappointment." 

During her 26 years of service she only made one brief visit to Scot- 
land and could not be prevailed upon to stay away for more than a 
month from her Indian home and her Moslem sisters. 

The Raymund Lull Home 

An interesting letter has reached us from Mr. H. E. Jones of the 
Raymund Lull Home, Tangier, which testifies, to the great need for 
reinforcements. He writes, "We shall, I expect, have to close the home 
entirely in the spring as Mr. Elson is planning to go to Canada for two 
or three months, and I am hoping to go to England to see my daughter 
whom I have not seen for seven years." He then tells of the conversion 
of a young man "who, when he came to us was quite blind, but 
through careful treatment and in answer to prayer he can now see, and 
best of all he has received his spiritual sight and sees the Lord Jesus as 
his Saviour. He is quite a help to us with the boys and declares that 
when he returns to his own country he will witness before his own 
people that 'There is one God and one Mediator between God and man, 
the Man Christ Jesus.' " 


A Mohammedan Appeal to the British Govermnent 
We reprint the following appeal from the Daily Telegraph, March 
2 1 , in order to give our readers the full text of a document which is very- 
significant at this time. \ 

To THE Editor of The Daily Telegraph : 

gir — I beg to attach copy of the supplementary memorial that has been 
submitted to his Majesty's Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, and 
solicit the hospitality of your columns for its publication. — I am yours 
faithfully, M. H. Ispahani. 

21, Mincing-lane, E. C, March 21. 

To the Right Hon. A. J. Balfour, O. M., Secretary of State for 

Foreign Affairs: 

Sir — I. Referring to our memorial of Jan. i respecting Constantin- 
ople, Thrace and the homeland of the Turkish nation, we beg to observe 
that we refrained from expressing our opinion with regard to the other 
parts bf the Turkish Empire, reserving it for a further representation 
to his Majesty's Government, as we were not acquainted at the time 
with the suggestions before the Peace Conference for their ultimate dis- 

2. We now learn from the Press that it is proposed to form them 
into self-governing States, under the protectorate of one or other of the 
Allied and Associated Powers. As there is no Mohammedan represen- 
tative on the Conference to place before it the opinions of his Majesty's 
Mussulman subjects concerning the vast problems affecting the whole 
Islamic world which form the subject of consideration by the Confer- 
ence, we venture to take the only constitutional course left to us for 
acquainting his Majesty's Government and the Allied and Associated 
Powers with our view^s — viz., to submit those views in this memorial. 

3. We welcome the proposal to create self-governing institutions in 
the occupied Provinces of Turkey and in Armenia under the guarantee 
of the League of Nations, but we most strongly deprecate the suggestion 
to sever them absolutely from the Turkish Empire. Our reasons for 
this submission are not sentimental ; they are founded on grounds of ex- 
pediency and policy which we respectively venture to think deserve the 
serious consideration of his Majesty's Government and the Allied 
and Associated Powers. The evidence as to the depth of feeling, not 
only among the vast Mussulman population of India, but also among 
the Afghans and the frontier tribes (who form the bulk of the Mussul- 
man element in the Indian Army) against the dismemberment of Tur- 
key, and in favour of the preservation of her prestige, is accumulating 
day by day. 

4. We hope that, with the disappearance of the two Empires that 
had hitherto exploited Asiatic unrest and misgovernment to their own 
advantage with a view to final political or economic absorption, the new 
peace would assure the pacific development of Western and Middle 
Asia on durable lines. We have no hesitation in expressing our convic- 
tion that Turkey, under a Government such as she has now been 
fortunate enough to obtain, with her prestige among the Mussulmans of 
the world, would be an immense source of strength to England and the 
Allied Powers who rule over large masses of Moslems. 

5. We fear, however, that the complete and absolute severance from 
the Turkish Empire of the provinces whose future status is under con- 
sideration will give rise to a rankling sense of injustice. 

S. In any event, we venture strongly to urge that these proposed new 


autonomous States should not be withdrawn from the spiritual suzer- 
ainty of the Ottoman sovereign as Caliph. Our reasons for making this 
submission are based, firstly, on our desire for the peaceable develop- 
ment of Western Asia; and, secondly, on the necessity, in our opinion, 
of an endeavour on the part of his Majesty's Government to meet, so 
far as possible, the wishes and legitimate feelings of the Mussulmans, 
who form fully one-fourth of the population of the Empire. 

7. Under the Sunni system of jurisprudence, the investiture of a new 
ruler by the Caliph, the Chief Pontiff, regularises his status in the eyes 
of his people and makes any rising against him illegal; it gives him a 
prestige in the Mussulman world, and places him in an unimpugnable 
position This was the reason that led the Mussulman sovereigns of 
India, before the rise of the Shiah Empire, which divided them from 
the Western Sunnis, to apply and obtain investiture from the Chief 
Pontiff, In our opinion, therefore, if the Peace Conference were to 
leave the Ottoman Soverign or Caliph with the prestige of conferring 
on the rulers of these proposed autonomous States on their accession to 
their respective thrones the usual investiture, it would not only con- 
ciliate Mussulman feeling, but would add to the guarantees of peace 
and pacific development amoog the peoples of those countries. To 
sever them altogether, both secularly and religiously, from the Ottoman 
State would, in our opinion, lead to constant trouble, and leave behind, 
as we have already ventured to submit, a legacy of bitterness which we 
humbly think might easily be avoided. 

8. With regard to the suggested creation of a Jewish State in Pales- 
tine, we desire to observe that if the Peace Conference were to decide 
to create that province into a self-governing State, the entire Mussul- 
man world would resent its being placed under any but a Mussulman 
ruler, whatever other form the Government may take. Not only is 
Jerusalem intimately associated with the Mussulman religion and 
Mussulman religious traditions, but in the long course of fourteen cen- 
turies the land has become covered with the memorials of the Mussul- 
man faith. To convert it into a Jewish State or to place it under a 
Jewish ruler would be most repugnant to Mussulman feelings, especially 
as only one-seventh of the population of Palestine is Jewish. History 
proves that the Jews can live in the closest amity with their Mussulman 
fellow-subjects under Moslem rulers, and enjoy exceptional privileges 
not conceded to them even now by many European nations. 

9. Finally, we venture to appeal once more to his Majesty's Govern- 
ment and the Peace Conference that, in devising the new form of 
government for Armenia, the rights and interests, together with the 
religious institutions and places of worship, of the large Mussulman 
population inhabiting that province (who in many districts form the 
majority) should be safe-guarded and that they should be protected 
from persecution, and that they should be placed on an equal footing 
with the non-Moslem population in the enjoyment of all civil rights 
and privileges. — ^We have the honour to be, Sir, your most obedient and 
humble servants. 

Shaik M H. Kidwai of Gadian. Aca Khan. 

Khwaja Kamalud Din. Ameer All 

Marmaduke Pickthall. a. a. Baig. 

S. H. Kidwai of Rampur. M H. Ispahanl 

Ibrahim S. Hajl A. A Mirza. 

A. S. M. Anik. 
(Twenty other Signatures.) 


A Medical Missionary in Damascus 

Mr. Basil Mathews in his fascinating book, "The Riddle of Nearer 
Asia" pays this tribute to Dr. Frank Mackinnon of the Scotch Mis- 

''As I traveled, again, through village after village of the plateau of 
Asia Minor with the Christian doctor who has established his hospital 
at Konia, and watched him with his colleagues at work in the district 
and in the hospital wards, I discovered that he and they had acquired 
an ascendance of influence, an authority of personality that radiated 
over wide areas where their faces had never been seen. The power of 
the scalpel of the Christian surgeon and the healing services of the 
nurse, bathed in an atmosphere of passionate devotion to the Great 
Physician and of absolute obedience to His will, had literally broken 
the powers of darkness on the Anatolian plateau. It was written over 
every Moslem face in the city or village, as I watched them when the 
Christian doctor came to them, that he had broken down with the bat- 
teries of skilled love the seemingly impregnable defences of Islamic 
arrogance and exclusiveness. 

It was again, a strange experience to climb over the roofs of booths 
in Damascus to that wonderful arch over the now closed entrance to 
the great Mosque that was once a Byzantine Christian cathedral and 
see there over the arch in great Greek capital letters the inscription : 

Thy Kingdom of Christ 

Is AN Ever Lasting Kingdom 

And Thy Dominion Endureth 

Throughout all Generations 

and then to come down and walk right through Damascus along the 
street called "Straight" without meeting a single Christain. 

Was the valiant inscription really true? 

Then I discovered little by little that in all that city of Damascus, 
the most ancient city now standing in the world, there was one man 
who has universal authority, not by official position nor by wealth, but 
by the power of service and of personality. Even the wild untamable 
Arabs of the desert would come in and lie down with complete confi- 
dence on the operating table of Dr. Frank McKinnon, saying, in the 
phrase that has become provebial about that great Scottish Christian 
surgeon through the Arab World — "He carries a blessing in his hands." 
From that hospital, established by British missionary enterprise, at the 
very pulse of the Arab world, the invisible power of a conquering leader- 
ship in service radiates all along the camel routes of Asia. 

Indian Moslems and Prohibition 

A public meeting of Mohammedans was held at Lahore in January 
last, Moulvi Sadruddin, Principal of Munshi High School presiding. 
Resolutions were passed requesting the Indian Government "(i) that a 
law similar to that in America be passed with regard to the prohibition 
of the manufacture, sale, export and import of intoxicating liquors, (2) 
congratulating President Wilson through a cablegram on acting on the 
principle which was for the first time introduced by the Holy Prophet 
of Islam, and (3) requesting all temperance societies, public bodies and 
associations to move in the matter and hold public meetings throughout 
the length and breadth of the country." 


How Turks Conduct an Orphanage 

Major Stephen Trowbridge, who is working with the American 
Red Cross Commission to Syria and Palestine gives us the following 
interesting report. We print a portion of it as it appeared in The 
Missionary Review of the World, 

"It may surprise many to know that the Turks conducted an or- 
phanage for Armenian and Kurdish children during the war. In 
the village of 'Antoura, in a beautiful valley of the Lebanon, twelve 
miles north of Beirut, an officially appointed Commission of the 
Young Turks gathered during the second and third years of the war 
nearly two thousand Armenian and Kurdish orphans. But what a 
vast difference there was between this institution and those conducted 
under Christian auspices. The commission subjected the children to 
a rigid system of training in the Turkish language, Turkish history, 
and the Mohammjedan religion. Every vestige and as far as possible 
every memory, of the children's religious and racial inheritance was 
done away with. Turkish names were assigned and the children were 
compelled to undergo the rites prescribed by Islamic law and tradition. 
The girls were being trained in "Ottoman" Kultur" in preparation for 
the harems of Turkish officers and notables. The boys were being 
trained as servants in the Army or Government. 

"Not a word of Armenian or Kurdish was allowed to be spoken by 
the children. Turkish ideas and customs were impressed upon the 
lives of the children, and they were taught the reasons contributing to 
the glory of Ottoman arms and the prestige of the Turkish race. When- 
ever a German or Turkish officer visited the orphanage the children 
must form a hollow square and shout: "Long life to our King! (the 
Sultan) Long life to Germany!" The children w^ere drilled in the 
genuflections and formulas of Moslem prayer and in the creed: "There 
is no God but Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet. " The little 
crosses which many of the Armenian children wore at their necks were 

"The building chosen by the Commission was the large Boys' School 
of the Lazarist Fathers in 'Antoura. Army officers were detailed to go 
to the concentration camps north and south of Damascus to select the 
children. Loutfi Bey was appointed director, and Khalideh Khanum 
of Constantinople, a lady of remarkable literary ability, furnished the 
teaching staff from her private school in Beirut and Djemal Pasha de- 
lighted in having their photographs taken on the steps of the orphanage, 
surrounded by the employed staff, as the leaders of Ottoman modern- 

"At the 'Antoura orphanage, on October 17th and i8th, 191 8, 
nine days after the Franco-British occupation of Beirut, nearly two 
thousand children had decreased until there were only six hundred 
and sixty-nine orphans left — 151 girls and 489 boys — Armenians 
and Kurds, beside 29 Syrians. All the rest of the two thousand had 
died during the past three years." 

The Bible in Sumatra 

From the British & Foreign Bible Society Report we learn how the 
Word of God is winning its way in Sumatra: 

"Of the Society's colporteurs working from Singapore as a centre, 
one of the most successful is Khoo Chiang Bie. He has visited both 
eastern and western coasts of Sumatra, and made three tours to dif- 
ferent parts of Johore, selling during the year 11,600 books — most of 
them Gospels. 


At Bindjee, near Deli in East Sumatra, a lantern service was held' 
in the open air, with pictures of the life of Christ. The colporteur 
interested the Malay by speaking about the Good Shepherd. After 
the lantern show they come to ask for books containing the whole story 
of this Good Shepherd, and a number of copies were sold to Malays 
and Chinese. 

At Gemas the colporteur sold his books mainly to rubber estate 
coolies, the majority of whom are Tamils from South India. A 
Moslem Tamil came up and tried to prevent his fellow-countrymen 
from purchasing the Scriptures, but the colporteur talked to him about 
Christ, so that in the end he not only bought two books for himself, 
but interpreted what the colporteur said to the Tamils, some of whom 
could not speak Malay. He also called other Tamil coolies and per- 
suaded them to purchase Gospels." 

The Risk of Bibles Being Tom Up 

In the little paper The Epiphany published by members of the 
Oxford Mission at Calcutta, there is a department devoted to letters- 
from non-Christian Indians and replies to their con^plaints and dif- 
ficulties. Recently a correspondent from Allahabad argued that the 
public sale of the Christian Scriptures in the vernacular is wrong be- 
cause some purchasers may treat the books with irreverance. In a 
vigorous rejoiner the editor of ^^The Epiphany^ writes: 

"We reply that the risk is abundantly worth while, and among others; 
for these two reasons: 

( 1 ) Truth is the inalienable right of all men, and we have to run 
risks in imparting it. 

(2) The risk in this case is negligible. Written material is not to be: 
treated as Hindus treat idols. The Truth is not in the material, but 
the Holy Spirit of God uses the material to teach the truth. He 
does not actually and locally dwell in it * * * People who are reverent 
will naturally treat with reverence even the outward form the Spirit 
uses, but to say that the fear that some will not is a sufficient reason for 
not selling Bibles is to say good-bye to reason and common sense, not tO' 
say religion." 

Great Britain as Mohammedan Power 

From the large correspondence which has appeared in the London 
Times and other papers regarding the danger of arousing religious 
fanaticism at the present juncture, we quote the following letter and 
hope that its spirit may find response among all missionary workers. 
This is not the time to demand our rights or to exhibit racial pride or 
prejudice. Love alone will conquor. The letter as it appeared in the 
London Times reads: 

"Sir, — The risk of religious antagonism between Christians and 
Mahommedans over the Allied occupation of Palestine and Constan- 
tinople is much disturbing Indian Mahommedans. The fact that there 
are more Mahonimedans than Christians in the British Empire, and that 
these Mahommedans have stood loyally by us even though one of our 
enemies was a great Mahommedan Power, should make all responsible 
Englishmen exceedingly careful in their words and actions regarding 
sacred buildings, places, and persons in Turkish and ex-Turkish ter- 
ritories. In Mesopotamia, Palestine, and other Arabic portions of the 
late Turkish Empire we shall in all probability be responsible for pre- 
serving order among some millions of Mahommedans of a highly in- 


flammable type. And the task of our soldiers and administrators will 
be rendered incalculably more difficult if the antagonisms of the Middle 
Ages are fanned into flame once more. 

On the other hand, there is now the opportunity of centuries for 
bringing about the great reconciliation between Mahommedans and 
Christians. Here, on ground sanctified by memories dear to both, 
might spring up such religion and culture as all alike might reverence. 
Differences may increase rather than diminish. But respect might con- 
tinue and conflicts need not occur if common human courtesy is dis- 
played and the Mohammedans can see that while we English deeply va- 
lue religion we are now more concerned with refining and strengthening 
the religion we adopted from the land in which grew the roots of Mo- 
hammedanism than in reviving the bitter feuds of a less cultured age. 

Your obedient servant, 

Francis Younghusband. 

London, March i8." 

The Caliphate 
"Orientalist" writes in the London Times for March 25 : 
Sir, — In the communication from Mohammedan leaders to the 
Right Hon. A. J. Balfour which you printed in yesterday's issue, and to 
which a wide publicity has otherwise been given, the following sentences 
occur, written, it would appear, in the name of Sunni Mahommedans 
in particular: — 

''Lender the Sunni system of jurisprudence the investiture of a new 
ruler by the Caliph, the Chief Pontiff, regularizes his status in the eyes 
of his people and makes any rising against him illegal. 

We venture strongly to urge that these proposed new autonomous 
States should not be withdrawn from the spiritual suzerainty of the 
Ottoman Sovereign as Caliph." 

The italics are mine, and it is to the italicized words that I wish to 
call attention, because in them lurks a serious fallacy, which, again, in- 
volves matters of very great moment. Those responsible for the hand- 
ling of these matters, whether in London, Paris, or the East, have a 
right to claim that their data at so serious a time should be free from 
all fallacies, and it is, therefore, a duty to call attention to the truth 
of all such matters. It is noticeable that some of the best-known names 
of the signatories are very far removed from being Sunnis themselves 
and the fallacy to which attention is drawn may be due to this or some 
other fact. What it is may be most easily understood from three 
quotations from a recent book by the great Dutch Islamologist, Dr. 
Snouck Hurgronje, of Leyden, which consists of four lectures on *Ma- 
hommedanism.' I will only premise that not only is Hurgronje's book- 
knowledge of Islam as great as that of any man in Europe, except 
Goldziher, but his practical knowledge of Mahommedan minds, men, 
and matters is absolutely unique. He has lived nine months at Mecca. 
He has hobnobbed all his life with Mahommedan learned men from 
all over the world. And he has lived in closest touch with the Ma- 
hommedans of the East Indies for over a decade of his life. He is, 
therefore, in real touch with the thoughts of the demos of Islam, which 
the signatories claim to, but do not, represent. In short his experience is 
unparalleled. And his meticulous love of accuracy in detail, and care- 
fulness in statement, is a commonplace among Orientalists. This, then, 
is what this indisputable authority says on the points in question ("Mo- 
hammedanism," chapter III.). 


First in regard to the view that the Sunni Caliphate is a "spiritual" 
authority, he says: 

Though this view, through the ignorance of European statesmen and 
diplomatists, may have found acceptance even by some of the Great 
Powers, it is nevertheless entirely untrue; unless by "spiritual author- 
ity'' we are to understand the empty appearance of worldly authority." 

With regard to the comparison of the Caliph with 'Pontiff' or Pope, 
we have the following: — 

"Of late years Mohammedan statesmen in their intercourse with their 
Western Colleagues are glad to take the latter's point of view; and in 
discussion, accept the comparison of the Khalifate with the Papacy, 
because they are aware that only in this form the Khalifate can be made 
acceptable to Powers which have Mohammedan subjects. But for these 
subjects the Khalif is then their true prince, who is temporarily hin- 
dered in the exercise of his Government, but whose right is acknov/1- 
edged even by their unbelieving masters." 

And finally — ^ 

"A Western State that admits any authority of a Khalif over its 
Mohammedan subjects, thus acknowledges, not the authority of a 
Pope of the Moslem Church, but in simple ignorance is feeding politi- 
cal progammes which, however vain, alwaj^s have the power of stir- 
ring Mohammedan masses to confusion and excitement." 

It is preferable to let these weighted words speak for themselves." 

The Largest Unevangelized Field 

From the Light Bearer, the organ or the Sudan United Mission, 
we take the following paragraphs. 

The Sudan contains the largest unevangelised field on the face of the 
earth. A map of the section gives its situation and some idea of its size. 
It includes such great territories as the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, the 
French Sudan, Adamawa, Northern Nigeria, and the Upper Senegal. 
It is as large as Europe minus Russian, or about 2,000,000 square miles 
in extent. It is, for Africa, a well-populated country, estimated to con- 
tain from forty to fifty millions of people. 

How far has the Gospel been proclaimed in this vast region? The 
arrows on the map give an answer to that question. Several Missionary 
Societies are working in the Northern Provinces of Nigeria, Western 
Sudan, and work is also being carried on in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 
but even in these two sections of the Sudan the ground is by no means 
covered. In the space between the arrows on the map, the stretch of 
country 1,500 miles in breadth which lies between the eastern and 
w^estern outposts of the Sudan United Mission, no one has ever wit- 
nessed for Christ. The great section west of Nigeria is also untouched. 

The Sudan United Mission has now been at work for fourteen years. 
Beginning with a small expeditionary force in Nigeria, God has so 
blessed its efforts that it has now ten central stations in the Northern 
Provinces of Nigeria and two in the Eastern Sudan. Tribe after tribe 
has been entered, until now some twelve tribes are being directly 
reached. The language difficulty, arising from the fact that almost 
every tribe speaks its own distinct tongue, has been met and mastered; 
already six languages hitherto unknown to any European have been 
reduced to writing, while others are being tackled. Gospels have been 
translated, primers and books of Bible stories, etc., complied, and are 
being read by those who have been taught in the Mission schools. Evan- 
gelists have been trained and are at work. Over two hundred children, 


freed from slavery by the Britisfi Government and handed over to the 
Mission have been brought up in a Christian atmosphere. 

Now comes the call to go forward! During the war this was not 
possible to any large extent, but the Committee of the Mission now 
propose to push into the great untouched regions bej^ond as soon as 
men and means become available. It is estimated that to cover the 
ground at least forty new stations must be opened in carefully chosen 
centres, manned by a staff of I20 new missionaries. For this purpose 
the Committee are appealing for £50,000 to send out these workers, 
build, furnish and equip the stations; and for the men, called by God 
and filled with His Spirit for His service. 

George Alfred Lefroy, Bishop of Calcutta 

By the passing of George Alfred Lefroy, Bishop of Calcutta 
and Metropolitan of India, on the ist of January, 1919, a great 
missionary to Mohammedans has been taken from among us. Dr. 
Lefroy was first a member and later the head of the Cambridge Mis- 
sion to Delhi. He soon discerned the importance of the great im- 
perial city as the religious and literary centre of Indian Islam. He 
gave himself to the work of preaching to Moslems and managed, 
amid the exacting calls of a large mission, to give time to the study 
of Moslem theology. One of his bitterest opponents in the bazaar, a 
blind hafiz, afterwards became a devoted disciple and effective helper. 
When Dr. Lefroy was appointed to the see of Lahore it was impos- 
sible for him to continue in this line of activity but he lectured to 
large audiences of Moslems in the provincial capital and his con- 
tributions to the Lucknow Conference will long be remembered. 
As Bishop of Calcutta since 191 3 he was president of the League 
of missionaries to Moslems, though failing health and heavy work 
forbade more active cooperation. The Rev. G. Hibbert Ware, for 
some years a member of the Cambridge Brotherhood, gives in The 
Mission Field the fol owing vivid description of Dr. Lefroy 's Mo- 
hammedan work at Delhi. 

"Of all kinds of missionary work which a man may undertake 
in the Master's cause, it will generally be agreed that preaching 
in the bazaars to Moslems is one of the very hardest — among other 
reasons, because of the obstruction he must meet, because of the in- 
sults he must bear, and because of the blasphemies against sacred 
things that he must hear. Many missionaries who have tried it have 
at least felt themselves obliged to abandon it; some who retain it do 
so more because it is a striking and public witness to Christianity than 
because they really hope to see conversions result from it. But all 
who have studied missionary work among Moslems in India know 
that the late Bishop Lefroy was a master in this difficult kind of 
work, and that, as he carried it on, positive fruits came from it. 

*'He began in Delhi, like others, with preaching in the bazaars, 
quite in the ordinary way; he experienced its hardships, and came up 
against its apparent futility. But in the end he found opportunities 
to lift the preaching of the Gospel to Mohammedans in that city on 
to an altogether higher level. This was largely by means of con- 
ferences in mosques and lectures in a special preaching hall. 

"The first of these opportunities came by what seemed a pure 
accident. He was preaching in the bazaar, when a Mohammedan 
controversialist alleged that there were discrepances in the Gospel 
accounts of the Crucifixion. They had to look up passages; the 


light was bad, and the Mohammedan complained that he could not 
see. Lefroy quite casually asked why they could not meet under 
better conditions. The unexpected reply to this was an invitation to 
meet in one of the mosques of Delhi. Lefroy accepted the invitation, 
and went expecting to find twenty, and found three hundred, in- 
cluding Mohammedan maulvis, with ^copies of the Koran and books of 
reference. Thus began a series of remarkable meetings, at which 
sometimes more than a thousand Moslems were present. The sub- 
ject of the conference was always chosen beforehand, and each of 
the protagonists, the Mohammedan and the Christian, was allow^ed 
a fixed time to give his presentation of his faith. 

"In the nature of things this series of conferences by invitation 
could only be temporary, and Lefroy and his fellow-missionaries 
looked about for some method of preaching to better-disposed Moslems 
that should be permanent. This was achieved at last by the building 
of the Bickersteth Hall for this express work. Here debates were 
held, somewhat in the manner in which they had been held ia the 
mosques. Friday afternoon was the time chosen, when the Mo- 
hammedan schools for theological students would be closed. A great 
crowd would gather in the hall; lectures would be given by both 
sides in turn on a subject advertised beforehand, and then a debate 
would take place, point by point. In a formal sense no conclusion was 
reached; it was Lefroy 's method to leave the final judgment to the 
tribunal of every man's conscience. 

"No doubt it was difficult at first to maintain the order of the 
proceedings. But by degrees a body of rules, though not written 
rules, grew up. The writer saw these conferences in somewhat later 
days, when the hall was used equally for debates with Mohammedans 
and with Hindus. A chairman — always a Christian was appointed, 
his principal task being to keep the speakers within their allotted 
time, which was agreed upon beforehand. Generally the Christian 
led off with a speech of half-an-hour ; his opponent followed with one 
of the same length. Then each would take a quarter of an hour; 
after that, ten minutes for each of the speakers was considered 
enough, till the close — the Christian, by right of being in a Christian 
building, always to have the last word. No one in the audience was 
allowed to interrupt, though applause would frequently break out. 
In these later times there was a considerable body of what one might 
call regular "Hall-goers" — the English word "hall" had been adopted 
into the Urdu language, and the Bickersteth Hall was always known 
as the "Hall" — some of the attendants at which would come quite a 
long distance by tram. It was evident, too, that there was a certain 
amount of pride in the orderly conduct of the controversy; and an ap- 
peal to the "Rule of the Hall," when one of the opponents thought 
the other was dealing unfairly with him, would often set things right. 

"The late Bishop Lefroy excelled in the qualities that go to make 
a successful bazaar preacher. He had a fine presence with a winning 
manner. More important were his command of the language, his 
ready wit and sense of humour, and his patience and courtesy. 

"His command of the Urdu language was wonderful. Indians 
were known to say, referring to his speech, "he is one of us." He 
was truly eloquent in Urdu. He had the very pronunciation and the 
idiom, and he seemed to have the gift of thinking like an Oriental. 

"He could be keenly alive to the humour of a situation even when 
it was most trying to him personally. Once, when, with another of 
the missionaries, he was trying to preach in the bazaar, a redoubtable 


antagonist, a blind man, tried to make preaching impossible by stand- 
ing immediately by him and pouring out blasphemies against things 
held by Christians most sacred, mingled with abuse of certain per- 
sons belonging to the Mission. To shift ground a few yards this 
way or that, which w^as what Lefroy tried at first to do, was una- 
vailing, for the Mohammedan wormed his way through the crowd 
in pursuit. The solution was found by his brother missionary inter- 
posing his larger bulk in purely passive resistance to the antagonist's 
progress from whatever direction, whereupon the late Bishop got a 

"It is a striking coincidence that, writing on the day after ther 
foregoing incident, the late Bishop said, with regard to the possibility 
of having to claim the protection of the law, that 'one feels that the 
victory will be more real if, by simple patience and continuance, one 
can put him to shame and divert him from such an unseemly prac- 
tice'; for that identical opponent has for years past carried on — so 
far as it could be carried on — the late Bishop's own work in the 
bazaar and the Bickersteth Hall as the Christian protagonist. He was 
won to Christianity, says another missionary, by 'the truthfulness and 
patience which he witnessed in Christian preachers.' 

"One incident may be given to illustrate Bishop's Lefroy's unfail- 
ing courtesy to his opponents. The scene is Lahore, not Delhi, and 
he was then Bishop of that See. He was giving a lecture to Mo- 
hammedans, of whom there were twelve hundred present. His 
subject w^as 'Zinda Rasul, the Living Messenger,' a name which is 
given in Islam to Jesus alone, from which the Bishop urged them to 
draw conclusions as to His mediatorship. 

"After a fifty-minutes' address questions were allowed, and two 
champions arose at once. They belonged to two rival sects of Mos- 
lems, the one orthodox, the other unorthodox. Each shouted against 
the other, and their followers were not silent. It was the Bishop 
who, by a strong appeal, got a hearing for them separately. And 
even then the Moslem antagonist's dependence on the Bishop's cour- 
tesy was not at an end; for he had brought a speech which he could 
only deliver by the aid of a lamp which he had fixed to the wall, and a 
member of the rival sect stole across and put out the lamp and re- 
duced the speaker to silence, till the Bishop sent him another. 

"Bishop Lefroy belonged to that order of men in whom the in- 
tellectual gifts shine out conspicuously. But greater still were his 
love, his courtesy, and his patience." 

April Number Errata 

Page 149, Line 4 from bottom, for "Africa" read "Arabia." 

Page 151, Line 14 from top — for "anthologists" read "mythologists." 

Page 154, Line 3 from top — for "are" read "were." 

Page 155, Line 18 from top — for "Norse" read "horse." 

Percy Smith. 

The Moslem World 

VOL. IX OCTOBER, 1919 NO. 4 


The Urgency of the Hour 
We are living in an age of despatch and immediacy. 
Men count time no longer with a sand-glass but with 
a stop-watch. Fractions of a second count. Over the 
desks of business men you may see in large letters, "Do 
It Now." To postpone would be to lose opportunity; 
delay would mean disaster; modern life runs on a close 

In the modern business world three words have come 
to the front, each of which represents live methods, and 
aims at definite results by enlarged business enterprise. 
The three words are publicity, cooperation, efficiency. 
It is generally agreed that the greatest of these is effi- 
ciency. Without it publicity and cooperation are 
fruitless. With the call for efficiency, and almost iden- 
tified with it, there has come a new sense of the value 
of time and opportunity. 

The missionary enterprise needs the highest standards 
of efficiency, for there is no task in the entire realm of 
business which equals that of the disciples of Jesus 
Christ in its supreme urgency. Nineteen hundred years 
ago He gave us His commission. The work that cen- 
turies might have done must now crowd the hour of 
setting sun. It is a commonplace in the survey of the 
missionary task that Moslem lands and populations 
have been the most neglected. Whatever may have 
been the reasons for this neglect in times past, they 
do not obtain now, for a new day has dawned. Regions 
that once were inaccessible because of political poli- 
cies or intrigues, or because of religious fanaticism, have 
been thrown wide open. If Christian missions were at 
hand now, with proper and sufficient resources, and a 



qualified staff of tactful agents, the approaching flood 
of a new civilization during the reconstruction period 
could, to a great extent, be turned in the direction of the 
Kingdom. The non-Christian culture from the East 
and from the West is already meeting in Central and 
Western Asia to fight the great battle for supremacy 
against the standards of the Gospel. It is not probable 
that amid all the restless movements, the upheavals and 
resettlements of the World War any Moslem land will 
longer remain dormant. A wave of unrest is passing 
over the peoples of Asia, and one of the results is likely 
to be a greater tolerance between Moslem and Christian. 
Nothing can hold back the advance of Western civili- 
zation into the very heart of every Moslem village. The 
steamship, the railway and the aeroplane are forcing 
their way through every sea or mountain pass and 
along every channel of communication with the latest 
inventions of our times. Even before the War one 
might see at Kabul and Fez motor cars, sewing ma- 
chines, cinemas, gramaphones, machine guns and smoke- 
less powder. For the management of these modern 
enterprises a staff of Western engineers and mechanics 
will doubtless be admitted into every part of the Near 
East. Why should the missionary hesitate to go before 
them or follow in their train? This is no time for 
idle dreaming or for plans laid that will mature only 
after a decade. The War has shown us how opportuni- 
ties slip away for the unalert. Shall the Soldiers of 
the Cross, because of their blindness to the vision of 
God and the unpardonable sin of dawdling, miss the 
day of victory and arrive on the battlefield of Arma- 
geddon too late? The work of foreign missions during 
the past century has itself been a preparation for the 
new internationalism. In many countries the national- 
istic movement will gain power, whether we like it or 
not, and it is the part of wisdom to relate ourselves to 
it intelligently. The decisions of the Peace Conference 
have confronted us with such fundamental questions as 
the nature, the grounds, the limitations, nay the very 
right of religious propaganda everywhere. The free- 


dom of the sea and the open door for commerce are 
questions that chiefly concern the diplomat and states- 
man, but the missionary must plead and pray that a like 
freedom may be given to the Gospel. The urgency of 
the situation admits no delay. To postpone advance 
may mean to lose the battle. 

Another reason why we should do our utmost nov^ to 
bring in the Kingdom of Christ throughout the w^orld 
is the conviction gained by the War that Christ is the 
only hope of the nations, and the only Saviour of the 
individual. We need, therefore, a large increase of 
w^orkers to enter the unoccupied fields and to thrust 
in the sickle w^here the harvest is dead-ripe. We need 
them for the sake of those w^ho are v\^aiting and have been 
waiting so long; the millions who have not yet shared 
the Father's bread, w^ho have lost their way to His 
home, and who have never rested in the greatness of His 
loving heart. We know the road; we have the light; 
vv^e experience His life. Adult Moslems may seem hard 
to reach or persuade; their minds may be wilfully 
blinded, their consciences seared, but how can we delay 
in carrying these blessings to the eighty million children 
of the Moslem world? If they stood together holding 
hands, the line would stretch twice around the globe's 
circumference. The Moslem children of India alone, 
marching with hands on each other's shoulders, would 
reach, in one unbroken procession, fifteen times the dis- 
tance from New York to Chicago. The world of chil- 
dren in Moslem lands would fill seventeen cities as 
large as London. This is the generation that we must 
reach with the Gospel message before it is too late. In- 
fant mortality, neglected childhood, corrupted adoles- 
ence and then — the same cycle over again? One genera- 
tion of these children understood as they should be, 
loved as they ask to be, and approached in the spirit of 
Jesus Christ and with His highest gift, the Gospel, 
would transform the world of Islam into the Kingdom 
of Heaven. What we do for them must be done now, 
*^We must work the works of Him that sent us while it 
is day, for the night cometh when no man can work." 


The mortality of childhood and its immortality unite to 
show the urgency of the task. When we think of the 
physical ills which they suffer, of their poor dwarfed 
bodies in so many cases of child marriage, of the too 
brief period between adolescence and the responsibilities 
of manhood and womanhood, our heart aches to help 
them. When Jesus said, ^'Suffer the little children to 
come unto me" — He spoke of the childhood of the Near 
East. Yet ever since He left us, 

**Over what cruel road 
These innocents have trod, 
What mountain-peaks of tragedy, 
What valleys of black misery, 
Their bleeding feet have passed 
Coming to Thee, at last ; 
Across what plains of hopelessness, 
Through what deep ruts of dire distress. — 
O God forbid that at our door 
Should lie the blame. 
The living shame. 
If JO there go to Thee one more !" 

Christ's glory, too, is concerned in the completion 
of the task and the occupation of all fields. Because He 
is Lord of all, the last stronghold must yield. If only 
there were the spirit of loyalty there would be a keen 
sense of immediacy. Procrastination in this case is not 
only a thief of time, but a thief of Christ's glory. In 
many Moslem lands His name is now known as "Isa the 
prophet" where once He was acknowledged and wor- 
shipped as the Divine Redeemer. "The countries of 
Central Asia, to the west and north of India, are a 
challenge and reproach to the Christian Church" said 
Dr. Pennell, "a reproach, because in the early centuries 
of the Christian era, the Gospel was carried right across 
Turkestan aod Tibet to China, and Christian churches 

flourished from Asia Minor to Mongolia In again 

proclaiming the Gospel in Turkestan, the Christian 
Church will only be re-occupying her lost territories 
where, at one time, Christian congregations gathered 
in their churches, but for centuries only the Mohamme- 
dan call to prayer has been permitted to be heard." 

Sven Hedin even found Christian medals in the ruins 


about distant Khotan, — a miniature angel of gold, 
crosses and Byzantine gold coins. "God grant" he 
writes, "that the time may come when, within those 
very ancient walls which have witnessed the successive 
supremacy of the three predominant religions of the 
world, the Cross shall supplant the Crescent even as 
Gautama's temple was formerly leveled with the 
ground before the green banner of the Prophet/' Who 
will answer this prayer of the intrepid traveler by going 
to Khotan? 

A recent book review in our Quarterly called atten- 
tion to the loss of all North Africa and the destruction 
of the ancient Christian church by Islam. South Egypt 
also was once Christian, and many ruins of these 
churches exist today in the torrid Sudan, notably at 
Magaa and Soba. For thirteen centuries, after Mo- 
hammed's successors blotted out Christianity in Nejran, 
Yemen and Socotra, Arabia did not hear the message 
of Life. In Hadramaut, there are inscriptions that tell 
of a Christ who is known no longer. In Socotra, on 
the hill Ditrerre, of the Hamar Range, "a perfect mass 
of crosses" of every possible shape, is carved, perhaps 
to mark a Christian burial-ground. Alas! neither the 
hill tribes of Yemen, nor the people of Socotra, nor the 
province of Hadramaut, have a single living witness 
for the Crucified today. 

"The evangelization of the Moslem world in this 
generation" — is the part greater than the whole, that we 
shrink from using this watchword, or does our faith 
weaken when we face the baffling difficulties? Even 
this would only emphasize the urgency of the task. 
Until Verdun be won, there can be no complete victory 
along the whole line. 

Cairo, Egypt, 


All missionaries to Muslims, like all students of more 
remote languages, literatures and civilizations, have 
probably felt the need of some absolutely candid and 
unprejudiced informant to guide them as to the v^ork- 
ings of the Muslim mind, as to its fixed ideas, its un- 
reasoned assumptions, and even as to the real meaning 
of the words of the languages in w^hich it expresses it- 
self. It is notorious that the dictionaries w^hich pro- 
fess to render these vs^ords into English are often highly 
misleading, as no one word in one language is ever 
exactly equivalent to one in another language. Every 
word has a penumbra of implications and suggestions, 
of memories and applications, which cannot be repre- 
sented by other single words. Gradually, as we learn to 
use any new language, we learn when to employ one 
word and when another in it; but there are some words, 
and those of the greatest importance, which may long 
baffle us. Further, it slowly becomes clear that in the 
Muslim mind, for example, when it uses such words 
there is a fundamental difference of attitude, a basal 
assumption, which to us the word in question itself does 
not suggest. It is then that the whole matter may be 
suddenly illumined by a usage in some trivial story 
which makes concrete and vivid that difference which 
has baffled us. 

I propose to illustrate this from a very ordinary little 
story in the Arabian Nights. I will show, too, how 
the Nights may be turned into that candid informant 
whose help we have all desired and that the diligent 
student of the Nights is in contact with the naked mind 
of Islam — and with its naked conduct as well — with a 
direct immediacy for which he, as a missionary, can 
never otherwise hope. He cannot expect, nor is it 

* This quarterly follows the spelling of Moslem (for Muslim) and Koran (for 
Q'uran), but in this article we have permitted the author's spellings to stand. — Edito*. 


indeed desirable, that actual Muslims will open their 
minds to him with the same frankness as that with 
which he will find them pictured there. The Nights 
were written for Muslims by Muslims, with perfect 
simplicity and unconscious devotion to the Real, and 
just on account of this simplicity of attitude and uncon- 
sciousness of art, they are an indefinitely truer picture 
of life than any painted by our own hyperconscious de- 
votees to a supposed realism. As I have treated this 
side of the Nights already in my article on Hikdya in 
the Leyden Encyclopedia of Islam (vol. ii, pp. 303 ff.) 
I will not develope it here. I will only say that there 
is a class of stories in the Nights which I believe to 
have arisen out of deliberate following of the Aristotel- 
ian doctrine of 'imitation" in literary art. 

The story is that of the Merchant and the Jinni, at 
the very beginning of the Nights, in which the son of 
the JinnI is killed by the merchant, who throws his 
date "shells" carelessly about. The incident has prob- 
ably puzzled us all from childhood. Most of us knew, 
even then, that dates have no shells; but, apart from 
that detail, it was a hard saying that a Genie — accept- 
edly some kind of spirit — should be killed by a little 
thing tossed right or left. The translations in which 
the "shells" occur all go back to Galland, the primary 
French translator of the Nights at the beginning of the 
xviiith century. Why he translated his Arabic as 
"ecorces" and not as "noyaux" nobody knows, but the 
English translators of his French followed with unanim- 
ity and the absurdity survived in English forms long 
after it had been corrected in the French texts.* But 
as to the second point Galland was evidently himself 
puzzled, for he interpolated that the "shell" struck the 
young Jinn! in the eye. That is not in his Arabic text. 
He had had the good fortune to happen upon the oldest, 
as yet, known ms of the Nights, and I transcribe the 
following passages from a photograph of it which I 
have and with the help of which I am preparing an 

* It is already corrected in the oldest French edition I have (dated 1790) but 
seems still to survive in all the English renderings of Galland, except that by Edward 


edition: fa-jalas *^ala-l-^ain wa-rabat dabbatahu wa-hatta 
khurjahu wa-'akhraj baMa tilka-l-qura$ az-zawada wa- 
qalil tamr wa-§iar ya' kul tamr wa-yarmi-n-nawa yaminan 
wa-shimalan hatta-ktafa * * * fa-qala-1-jinnI anta qatalta 
waladi wa-dhalik annaka lamma $irta tarmi-n-nawa 
yaminan wa-shimalan kan waladi kama masha fa- 
ja'at niwaya flh fa-qatalathu. It will be seen that this 
text is neither colloquial nor literary, though it is, if any- 
thing, more the latter than the former. It is, I think, a 
genuine specimen of the story-telling style of the end of 
the XlVth century in Egypt and I would translate this 
bit as follows: "So he alighted^ beside the spring and 
tethered his riding-beast and put down his saddlebags 
and took out some of those cakes — his provender — and 
a few dates and began to eat some dates and to cast the 
stones right and left until he was satisfied. . . . Then 
the Jinni said, *Thou didst kill my boy; because when 
thou begannest casting the date-stones right and left my 
boy was there, as it were, walking, and a stone entered 
him and killed him.' " 

This evidently means that the young Jinni was walk- 
ing, as a man would, on the ground and that the date- 
stone pierced him so that he died. It will be noticed, 
too, that the merchant does not dispute either the possi- 
bility or the probability of such a thing happening. It 
was a strange accident, but quite possible. How, then, 
can we explain it, and whither will the explanation lead 

In the preface to his English translation of Galland*s 
French Edward Foster notices this apparent absurdity 
and tells how it was explained to him by Warren Hast- 
ings. "There are accounts of people having been killed 
by date-stones, which were shot at them in a particular 
manner with both hands. Those persons, who are in 
the habit of doing this, will send the stone with such 
velocity as to give a most violent blow. And it is in this 
manner that prisoners are sometimes put to death; a 
man sits down at a little distance from the object he 
intends to destroy, and then attacks him by repeatedly 

'The context teem* to require this translation of jalasa, but it is rerj 


shooting at him with the stone of the date, thrown from 
his two forefingers; and in this way puts an end to his 

This must strike us as a very oriental method of ex- 
ecution, both in slowness and in cruelty; but Warren 
Hastings is an excellent authority. A further develop- 
ment of this same explanation was given to me by a 
former student of mine, the late R. S. Emrich of Mar- 
din, from his own experience. While riding with his 
shaykh, a Muslim of education and position, through 
some wild and broken country, he noticed that his 
shaykh alighted from his horse and gathered a number 
of small pebbles. He mounted again and they rode 
on, and the shaykh kept slinging pebbles right and left 
from the tips of his forefingers, using the spring of the 
stiffly held forefingers as propelling force. Naturally, 
Mr. Emrich asked what that mieant, but the only answer 
he could get was, "I must protect myself." It appeared, 
however, that the place was one reputed to be a haunt 
of the Jinn. This evidently means that the Jinn are 
afraid of being injured by such small rapidly flying 
missiles and will keep their distance. 

We have thus a parallel to the case of the merchant 
and his date-stones. But how can the Jinn be thus in- 
jured? For the answer to that question we must go 
back to their origin. According to the usual statement 
the angels were created of light, mankind of clay and 
the Jinn of smokeless flame. The angels and mankind 
are not our present subject, but it may be worth while 
to say that I know of no Qur'anic authority for the 
origin of the angels (but there is a tradition from ^A'isha 
to the above effect in the Lisdn, iii, p. 189) and that an 
excellent short statement of their nature will be found 
in Baidawi's commentary on Qur. ii, 28 and at greater 
length in the "Dictionary of Technical Terms," pp. 
1337 f. From these it is plain that the angels for 
orthodox Islam are specifically material, although of 
a very fine substance (ajsdm latifa) and capable of as- 

• Edward Forster's translation appeared first in 1802, I quote from an edition of 
1842, p. xxvi. 


suming different forms. The phrase describing the 
substance of the Jinn is more difficult. It occurs only 
in Qur. iv, 14, min mdrijin min ndr, "of a mdrij of 
fire," and on the meaning of mdrij the lexicographers 
and commentators are entirely at odds. The oldest 
exegetical traditions are collected in Tabari's Tafsir^ 
vol. xxvii, pp. 66 f. and the views of the lexicographers 
in the Lisdn, vol. iii, p. 189 and partly in Lane, p. 2704 c. 
The meaning of the root is very obscure — *^mix," "cause 
to flow," "be confused, spoiled" — and the principal in- 
terpretations of the phrase are, "a confused, mixed 
flame of fire," i. e. with blackness and different colours 
in it, or "a pure flame of fire," i. e. without 
smoke. One of the most picturesque para- 
phrases given in the Lisdn might be rendered, "a flash- 
ing fire-brand full of strong flame." But in Qur. xv, 
27 the Jinn are said to be formed out of "fire of the 
samum/' the hot and penetrating wind of the desert. 
In both passages the object seems to be combined with the 
ideas of fiery flame and extreme tenuity of substance. 
But, for all this, I strongly suspect that behind mdrij 
is concealed one of the foreign words of which Mu- 
hammad was so fond. 

Again the Qur'an tells (xv, 18; xxxvii, 7 ff. ; Ixxii, 
8, 9, but see especially Baidawi on xxxvii, 7 ff.) how the 
Jinn and Shaitans used to ascend to the lowest heaven 
and listen to the angels and thus gather information, and 
how they were chased away from the walls of heaven 
with shuhub, "firebrands" and rujum, "missiles." The 
traditions tell that at the birth of ^Isa they were cut 
off from a third of heaven and at that of Muhammad 
from all the rest; but still they make the attempt, 
although at deadly peril. For these meteors and shoot- 
ing stars may utterly destroy them, their greater fire 
overcoming the lesser fire of the Jinn, as Baidawi ex- 
plains, and burning them completely up. Of this there 
are several cases in the Nights. It will be remembered 
how Badr ad-Din (N. xxii) was put down asleep at the 
gate of Damascus because the ^ Ifrit was burned up by 
shuhub and the ^ Ifrlta could carry him no further. 


But it does not need the angels of Allah and shooting 
stars to destroy a Jinni or an ^frit. Men can destroy 
them too, if they only know how. My old pupiPs shaykh 
knew how, and the merchant in the Nights accepted his 
unwitting deed as perfectly intelligible. It is the belief, 
too, of the Egyptian populace that a Jinni or 'Ifrit is 
a body of fire covered with a thin skin. If the skin is 
broken in any way he flares up and all that is left is a 
small burnt mass, which they compare to an old shoe, 
perforated by fire and burned to a cinder. In Sophia 
Poole's ^'Englishwoman in Egypt" (London, 1884), a 
collection of letters written in 1842-4 by the sister 
of E. W. Lane, when living with him in Cairo, there 
is a long account of the troubles they had with a 
haunted house (vol. i, pp. 72 ff., 199 fif. ; ii, p. 9). The 
narrative is not as full and exact as modern psych- 
ical research requires; but it affords a good book- 
case of an oriental haunting with poltergeist phenomena 
added. The haunters Cdmirs) were a saint — his saint- 
hood was fixed by his drawing water from the well 
in the court, performing his tahdra and going through 
the said — and an 'Ifrit; that he was not only an 'Ifrit 
but a Shaitan was shown by his throwing dust in the 
right eye of the bawwdb. So the bawwdb destroyed 
him with a double-loaded pistol and all that was left 
was the burnt up shoe-sole described above. In J. S. 
Willmore's "Spoken Arabic of Egypt" similar stories 
are told. 

In this way, then, the son of the Jinni must have died. 
The swiftly slung date-stone was quite enough to pierce 
to his central fires; they rushed out and he burnt up. 
His demise was quite normal for the Muslim mind; 
for it there is nothing strange in the story. But what 
does all this mean for the missionary? Does it do any 
more than illustrate the, for him, essential queerness of 
that mind? I think it does, and I wish now to work 
out some of the ideas as to words and their meanings 
which it brings. 

' The best statement of the meanings of this word which I know is in the Lisan, 
vol. iii, pp. 289 ff.. The Lisan is always fuller than I<ane. 


To angels and Jinn and Shaitans alike the word ruk » 
can be applied. We, without thinking, translate that 
word "spirit." Are we right in doing so, or are we 
indolently leading ourselves astray? Or, to put the 
matter otherwise, is there (i) any other English trans- 
lation for ruh than "spirit" and (ii) is there any other 
Arabic translation of "spirit" than riih} Probably 
every missionary has been told some time or other, "We 
don^t think of spirit — or riih — as you do." This came 
out recently very forcibly in Dr. Harrison's most in- 
teresting account of his expedition to the Wahhabi 
capital, ar-Riyad. On his cart and on hand-bills he had 
what seems to us the simplest, most fundamental and 
most inoffensive statement, "God is a Spirit," Allahu 
ruh. For the Wahhabis it was the most horrible blas- 
phemy, and he had to suppress it. Evidently, for them, 
it meant that God was a material being, one of the Jinn 
family. This would be a return to the pre-Islamic 
heathenism, for the Meccans had asserted that there 
was a kinship (nasab) between the Jinn and Allah (Qur. 
xxxvii, 158) and that the Jinn were partners of Allah 
(vi, 100). 

It may, therefore, be said that, while we can, per- 
haps, safely render ruh with "spirit," if we always 
remember that it does not really mean "spirit" as op- 
posed to "matter," we cannot render "spirit" with ruh 
unless we explain that this is a new use of ruh and also 
make perfectly clear the sense in which we now use it. 
The last condition, it is safe to say, will be fulfilled 
with difficulty. Yet, it may be the only way out and we 
know the strain which was put upon Greek words by the 
early Christian usage. St. Paul could use xveDjia and 
balance xveu'^axixo? against <?uxt>^o? but was he always 
completely understood? That native Arabic-speaking 
Christians have for centuries used ruh in this sense will 
not greatly help the matter; but there are some Qur'anic 
passages which may be a bridge, and some Muslim 
theologians have made a beginning in that direction. 

It is unanimously accepted that Muhammad himself 
was not a systematic theologian. He often used tech- 


nical terms and expressions; but they were debris of 
previous systems and were used by him without clear 
understanding. One of these was our present word 
ra.h, and with regard to it Muhammad himself real- 
ized that he was out of his depth. He, therefore, shut 
down discussion with a command from Allah (Qur. 
xvii, 87) : "Say thou [O Muhammad], 'The ruh is of 
my Lord's affair,' " min amri rabbi. But contradictory 
passages enough were left in the Qur'an to puzzle later 
commentators. Thrice it speaks of "angels and the riih" 
(Ixx, 4; Ixxviii, 38; xcvii, 4). Four times there is 
mention of "the holy ruJi' (ruh al-qudus, ii, 81, 254; 
V, 109; xvi, 104). "Jesus is a ruh from Allah" (iv, 
169) and later Islam has even called Him ruhu-lldh 
and "the ru1i\ Allah made Adam symmetrical and 
breathed (nafakha) into him some of His ruK' (xv, 
29; xxxii, 8; xxxviii, 72) and similarly into Maryam 
(xxi, 91 ; Ixvii, 12). There are, besides, passages where 
ruh means, evidently, "angel" and especially the angel 
of revelation and others in which rvh is associated with 
angels or is a direct influence from Allah (xvi, 2; 
xix, 17; xxvi, 193; xl, 15; xlii, 52; Iviii, 22). In these 
last passages Muhammad's own thought is often most 
obscure, and we are left guessing between concrete 
angelic ministrations and an influence like that of the 
Holy Spirit in Christian theology. That Muhammad 
was in contact with a doctrine of the Holy Spirit of 
one kind or another can hardly be doubted. It re- 
mained, however, for him amorphous and contradictory 
because it clashed when thought out to the end with 
his fundamental antithesis between Allah and all else 
than Allah; between the creative Will and the created 
universe. And in this antithesis lies the difliculty 
which orthodox Islam finds in our antithesis between 
spiritual and material. All creation must be material 
for it is "other than Allah" and Allah alone is spiritual. 
So, while "material" can be rendered exactly by mdddl, 
there is no exact and unambiguous word for "spiritual". 
^Aqli means "belonging to the ^aql or reason," ovoG?, 
"noetic," and ma'nawi is "mental, ideal, intellectual" 


and is not at all spiritual in its atmosphere. 

But before the fact of the religious consciousness such 
a position as this could not stand. A Muslim with a 
real religious experience, however orthodox in theology 
he may be, must recognize that there is a vital relation 
between himself and Allah. He may not be willing 
to say, '^Est Deus in nobis"; but there must be in him 
something, somehow, of the Divine. It is true that he 
may leave the matter there and decline, out of fear of 
soul-destroying error, to speculate further. But if he 
is a thinking man as well as a religious man he must go 
on and bring together, by some device, his theology and 
his experience. Muhammad, with his utterly unsys- 
tematic mind, had left the two unreconciled. But the 
following generations of Muslims could not do that; 
and, however they might shrink from extreme mystical 
theories, they had to reach a possible view of the human 
soul and its relation to Allah. 

Such a view is developed by al-Ghazzali in one of 
his smaller treatises, Al-madnun of'saghtr,^ In form 
it consists of answers to questions addressed to him by 
some of his more advanced students on subjects not 
suited for public discussion. For al-Ghazzli, like 
practically all the Muslims, believed in an economy 
of teaching, and declined to go beyond a certain point 
in discussing theological questions with those who, 
he thought, might be, thereby, rather injured than ad- 
vantaged. This method was perfectly understood and 
accepted at the time, but those little, esoteric tractates 
have been sometimes misunderstood in later times and 
have led to accusations of disingenuousness, at the least. 
For myself, I do not think that he always realized the 
implications of his views and arguments; but that he was 
a conscious pantheist, concealing out of fear his true 
position, I do not believe. In this case he developed 
what is no more than a Christian view of the soul, and 
many Muslims at the present time would accept it. 
But many would not, and among these would virtually 

*I use a Cairo edition of 1303. It has been translated into Spanish by Asin in 
his "Algazal" (Zaragoza, 1901), pp. 692-733. What I give here is an outline only; 
al-Ghazzali supports all his positions with scholastic dialectic. 


be all the Hanbalites and the straiter party of the 
Ash'arites. The Wahhabites, whom Dr. Harrison met 
at ar-Riyad are Hanbalites, more immediately of the 
school of Ibn Taimiya, and to them this doctrine would 
be an abomination. 

The Qur'anic passages, xv, 29; xxxii, 8; xxxviii, 72, 
mean, says al-Ghazzali, that Allah makes the embryo a 
purified and balanced compound fit to receive and re- 
tain the ruh as a wick after bein^ soaked with oil can 
retain fire. The '^breathing" or ^^blowing" is a meta- 
phorical expression for this kindling, as it were, of 
the light of the ruh in the "wick'' of the embryo. It 
may be illustrated, on the one side, by the light of the 
sun which illuminates things whose nature it is to be 
brought out by light, i. e. the variegated things under 
the sphere of Air, and, on the other side, by the polish 
of a steel mirror which only when polished reflects what 
is in front of it. But it must not be thought that this 
outpouring of the riih means any change in Allah who 
creates it. It is not like the pouring of water from a 
vessel upon the hand, nor even of the rays of the sun, 
if these are thought of, as some erroneously think, as 
separated from the body of the sun. The light of the 
sun is the cause of the production of a thing which re- 
sembles it in quality of light although much weaker 
than it. Similarly the object reflected in the mirror 
is the cause of the reflection which resembles it; there 
is no joining nor separating but a simple causal rela- 

The ruh, again, is not something abiding in the body,, 
like water in a vessel, nor as an attribute or accident 
abides in a substance; it is a substance existing in itself, 
not in the heart or brain, nor in space at all. It is not 
a body and cannot be divided, and you cannot predicate 
spatial relationships of it any more than you can predi- 
cate knowledge or ignorance of a stone. So it is neither 
inside the body nor outside, joined to it or separated 
from it. To justify such description corporeality is. 
needed. And here al-Ghazzali attacks boldly the ques- 
tion of economy in teaching. Why was the Prophet,, 


in Qur. x\'ii, 87, forbidden by Allah to discuss the 
nature of rih? Because men are of different degrees 
of understanding. There arel the anthropomorphic 
Karramites and the Hanbalites who cannot accept such 
a conception as this, even in the case of Allah; for them 
an entity {mawjud) must be corporeal, a jism at which 
you can point. How, then, can they think of the human 
ruh as uncorporeal? With the Ash^arites and the 
Mut azilites the case is not so bad. They can conceive 
of an entity which is not in a direction; but they will 
not extend that possibility beyond Allah. This is be- 
cause they say that two different things cannot be in 
one place; otherwise the two things are the same and 
not different. And they extend this argument to two 
different things not in place at all. In that case they 
say that the two things cannot be distinguished. But 
in this they err, for distinguishing does not take place 
simply by locality but also by time and by definitions 
and essential natures. Two bodies may be distinguished 
by being in two places, and two qualities, such as the 
being black may be in one substance at two different 
times and different accidents such as color and 
taste and cold and moisture may be in one body 
at one time and yet be distinguishable by their defini- 
tions and essential natures. If, then, accidents thus dif- 
fering can be conceived, much more can be conceived 
things similarly differing apart from space. 

Similarly, they err in their objection that this is to 
make comparison (tashblh) between Allah and man- 
kind and to ascribe to the nlh of mankind the most 
individual of the qualities of Allah, the being free from 
space and direction. For many qualities of Allah are 
ascribed to mankind, as hearing, seeing and speaking, 
and being apart from space and direction is not His 
most individual quality; but, rather that is His being 
qayyum^ existing in and through His own essence. 
Every other being exists through Allah^s essence; has, 
in truth, only a borrowed, derivative existence. 

But what does Allah mean when He says that this 
ruh is His ruh, when all creation is by Him? Is it a 


part of Him poured out on the recipient, as when one 
gives alms to a beggar and says, ''I bestowed upon him 
some of my wealth?" The answer is to refer back to 
the metaphor of the sun pouring out "some of its light" 
upon the object. The resultant light upon the object 
is in a sense of the same genus as the light of the sun 
although weakened in the extreme. So with Allah; 
this human riih, being apart from space and direction, 
is similar and related to Allah, though so infinitely 
weaker, and has the power, being different from all 
corporeal things, of knowing and studying all things. 

Al-Ghazzali takes a different view of Qur. xvii, 87 
from that which I, following Zamakhshari in his 
Kashshdf, have stated above; it is a much disputed 
passage because of the different possibilities of meaning 
in the word 'amr. Ghazzali here connects it with the 
distinction between * dlam al-'amr and ^dlam al-khalq^ 
"the world of (divine) command," — and "the world of 
measure" understanding khalq here as taqdtr, "to meas- 
ure" and not in its more usual meaning, "creation." 
The spirits (arwdh), then, of men and of angels belong 
to this World of Command which is an expression for 
all entities which exist apart from sense and form, di- 
rection and space, and do not come under dimension 
and measure. But, of course, this does not mean that 
they are uncreated and existent from all eternity. There 
follows a bit of dialectic to prove that these spirits are 
created. It is more interesting in its incidentals than 
in its primary object. For example, al-Ghazzali re- 
jects any kind of panpsychism once the spirits are joined 
to their bodies; how, then, could Zaid know something 
and *Amr not know it? But this difference and person- 
ality is through their being joined to material bodies 
and not by their own nature. This difference, how- 
ever, when so gained, is permanent and they retain it 
after they are separated from their bodies. It is plain, 
too, that al-Ghazzali is very anxious to rule out any 
possible pre-existence of souls. 

Such, then, is his answer to the question of the ruh, 
and it lies very far apart from the killing of Jinn with 


date-Stones. Over the space between the two the Mus- 
lim mind still wanders. It is a space full of infinite 
possibilities, and I should be glad to hear from any 
missionaries who, on discreet inquiry, may get reactions 
to any of the ideas reproduced above. 

Duncan B. Macdonald. 
Hartford, Connecticut, 


*'Faith of our fathers! We will love 
Both friend and foe, in all our strife: 
And preach Thee, too, as love knows how, 
By kindly words and virtuous life." 

My voice has often faltered at these words and a lump 
has at times risen to my throat and almost chocked me, 
as I have tried to sing this last verse of my favorite 
hymn. But I dared not utter the words until I knew 
that I could at least falteringly say, "both friend and 
foe." No one can imagine how fierce the struggle was 
in the heart that wanted to love the foe, but found it 
unspeakably hard, for the many daggers which the foe 
had pierced into it were still there. It was the heart 
of an Armenian, and it was still bleeding painfully. 
The wounds of age-long cruelty and tyranny cannot be 
easily cured, but thank God, before the heart was cured 
the song was sung. There came a day when I was 
ready to say that, through the faith of our martyred 
fathers, we can love both friend and foe in all our strife. 

It was two years ago when I first heard the story 
from one of our missionaries who had recently returned 
from his station in Armenia. The girl students of this 
American school were deported with the rest of the 
Armenian population of the city. They had witnessed 
all that the world now calls "the worst atrocities ever 
recorded in history," and many of them not only had 
witnessed but experienced horrors worse than martyr- 
dom. This group of girls through the efforts of our 
American friends were allowed to come back home. 
The school was made into a hospital and everyone of 
the rescued girls became a nurse. They had for their 
motto "saved to serve" and I was told, to my won- 
der, that they took care of the Turkish soldiers who 
were brought to the hospital with a tenderness that was 

349 . 


I could hardly believe the story was true. It sounded 
almost superhuman. Then came back to me what I had 
always known only as a piece of objective knowledge, 
that if we are made after the image of God we must 
know how to forgive. It is true that the spirit of for- 
giveness and good-will in those of us Armenians who 
have survived the horrors will do more in bridging the 
chasm of hatred and revealing Christ to them in His 
true character than ages of Gospel preaching. And 
how I wish I could come to see Christ as He really is! 
The cry of a million martyrs is still in my ears — "How 
long shall 'the wicked, Lord, how long shall the wicked 
triumph." As long as they are kept in the darkness 
which surrounds them, the dead from under the earth 
will raise this solemn protest. And what can the heav- 
enly Father do if men are not willing to cooperate with 
Him? The world has long known that the political 
power in the hands of the Turk has been the greatest 
obstacle to his enlightenment and it has not only caused 
the indescribable suffering of the Christians under his 
power, but has also intensified the darkness of his 
heart. Will the Christian world now help relieve this 
bond for the salvation of many millions? Or will self- 
ish ends interfere again? Active prayer on the part 
of the Christian people of this happy land is an urgent 
being shaped the victorious Christian nations among all 
their many considerations may also have in view the 
SOUL of the Near East. As for us? — God help the 
Armenians to be able to preach Thee, as we desire to 
do, and as "love knows how — by kindly words and 
virtuous life." 

Marie Bashian Bedikian. 
New York City. 


In his article in the MOSLEM WORLD (July, 1918), 
entitled, 'What Style of Language For Our Literature," 
my old friend and former fellow student of Arabic, 
Mr. A. T. Upson, combats the view set forth in my 
two articles on "Literature in the Vulgar or Vernacular 
Arabic" (MOSLEM WORLD, Jan. 1914, and Oct. 1917), 
at least in so far as the application of my views might 
be made to Egypt. The general impression left upon 
me by his article is that he has set up a "bogey" for the 
pleasure of knocking it down again. His article does 
not touch my position. The "bogey" he combats is 
what he calls "slang" Arabic. I hope all who read his 
article will refer to both of mine, otherwise they would 
suppose I had advocated some low-down kind of Ara- 
bic, used only by street vagrants or Eastern hooligans, 
whereas my plea was for the use of literature in the 
Common Speech, the everyday language of both learned 
and unlearned alike. Besides, our plea was not that 
literature in this common, current Arabic should re- 
place that in the Literary or Classical Arabic, which 
would be impossible and undesirable, but rather that it 
should supplement it. In my first article I wrote: 

"I wish, first, to make my position clear with regard 
to the Literary Arabic. I have a great admiration and 
love for it and its literature, and I would not that any- 
thing in this article should be understood as depreca- 
tory in the least degree of this, the most perfect of 
Semitic tongues. I am also an advocate of its use 
up to the hilt of its possibilities, or in other words, to 
the fullest extent that the capacity and knowledge of 
those among whom we labor will permit. This last 
phrase will indicate where I part company with the 
pedant and the purist." 

But it is a long way from this position to that which 



combats and flouts all idea of literature in the Current 
Arabic spoken by learned and unlearned alike in Arabic 
countries today. Our plea is that a "place in the sun" 
and "the right to live" be accorded to versions of the 
Scripture and other literature in this living tongue. 
My first article concluded thus: "The conclusion, then, 
is not that the use of the Literary Version of the Scrip- 
tures and of literature in that form of the language is 
objected to; on the contrary the fullest possible use of 
them is advocated. But seeing that the hope of bring- 
ing up the masses to the educational level of the Liter- 
ary Arabic seems hopeless, here lies before us an un- 
limited field of hope for a literature in the Vulgar 

Arabic The two Literatures could exist side by 

side. Time w^ould decide the fate of each." 

Mr. Upson can be under no misapprehension as to 
v^hat I meant by "Vulgar Arabic." In linguistic ter- 
minology the vv^ord is used in most European languages 
to mean the "Common Speech" of a people. "Vulgar," 
pertaining to, characteristic of, or used by, the multi- 
tude or common people, common, general vernacular.' 
(British Empire Universities, Modern English Dic- 
tionary.) I used other terms as well, such as Vernacu- 
lar, Modern Speech, Modern Spoken Arabic, which 
made my meaning clear. The terms used in Algeria, 
(Kelam Jaiz; 'Arabiya Jaiya; 'Arabiya Jariya, Cur- 
rent Arabic.) "Current Arabic"; "Arabe usuel, Arabe 
dialectal, Arabe parle," could also be used. The 
natives of Algeria often say: Our speech is not the Lit- 
erary Arabic (El'arabiya ennahwia) but the Arabic of 
Barbary (El'arabiya elbarbariya). Even in his time 
Ibn Khaldoun could say of this form of Arabic that it 
was sui generis {lugha Qaima binafsiha). 

Mr. Upson says he is glad I did not call this Arabic 
"Colloquial," for, says he, "if this term be taken to de- 
note merely language 'understanded of the people,' 
then, many of us would vote solidly for it." This seems 
to me a mere verbal quibble. What I meant by Vulgar 
or Vernacular Arabic is what is also called Colloquial, 
which means however, not merely understood by the 


people, but used by them in ordinary speech. But even 
this term Colloquial is often used in a deprecatory 
sense. In fact it is not the word used that is objected 
to, it is the thing that is disliked and despised. Stretch 
the meaning of Colloquial as much as you will it cannot 
be made to include either the Literary Arabis (El^ara- 
biya en-nahwiya) or even what Mr. Upson calls 
the 'Middle Language. {El lugha El mutawassitay I 
surely understood that Egyptian Colloquial used 
''mush'' for the negative instead of the Literary ''laisa'' 
or ^^ghairy Now whether the term Colloquial, Vulgar 
or Vernacular be used, Mr. Upson tells us in almost 
as many words that ''mush'' is the hall-mark of slang. 
I hope he never uses it, for slang in the mouth of a 
missionary would be most unbecoming, or if it be not 
slang when spoken, how does it become so by being 
written? Fancy anyone being reduced to using slang to 
explain the Gospel to illiterate people! And to what 
an abyss of degradation must a people be fallen, when 
all, both learned and unlearned alike, converse in slang! 
The very supposition itself proves that this judgment, 
to say the least, is an exceeding great exaggeration. 

I am of opinion that were there no Literary Arabic, 
this same Vernacular Arabic would hold a high place 
among the languages of Africa and even of Asia. In 
the discussion of this question there is a place for Com- 
parative Philology, and especially that of the Semitic 
languages. From comparison with Hebrew, laisa is 
known to be a contracted compound as much as the 
despised ''mush" (See Muhit el Muhit) and reseach 
would doubtless find that many of the highly respect- 
able particles of the Literary Arabic had an origin 
similar to that of the corresponding despised Colloquial 

In my first article I plainly stated that I wrote chiefly 
in view of the conditions that prevail in the Barbary 
States, although stating my point of view in a general 
way. I certainly do not consider myself capable of 
judging from outside of the particular conditions that 
obtain in Egypt or Syria; but Mr. Upson says that "he 


does not deny that quite an important minority of mis- 
sionaries (and others) in Egypt and Syria hold the view 
expounded by me" in the two afore-mentioned articles. 
In them I sought to establish my case not only from 
the point of view of utility, but also from a linguistic 
standpoint, and were it not that this might become too 
technical for general readers, I would continue along 
this line. This linguistic side of the question merits 
thorough discussion. 

I hope, however, that someone representing this "im- 
portant minority" in Egypt or Syria will be led to enter 
the discussion of this question from the stand-point of 
the conditions that hold in those tvvo countries for "du 
choc des idees nait la lumiere." (From the collision of 
ideas light is born.") As far as my own remarks deal 
with the practical side of the question they refer to 
the conditions that prevail in the Barbary States and 
especially Algeria. The linguistic side of the question 
has, naturally, a more general reference. 

There are a few misconceptions or misapplications in 
Mr. Upson's article that I would point out. One of 
them is as to his use of the dictum I adduced in my 
second article: "In the matter of language it is the 
people that rule." This dictum refers to the living 
speech which in the continual evolution of language 
often sets at defiance former rules of writing and 
speech, so that errors become the rule and are then no 
longer errors. Every language affords examples of this 
truth, and the absolute rule of the people can be seen 
from the fact that in spite of their knowledge of the 
Literary Arabic, the educated, even among themselves, 
use the Common Speech, the despised ''mush'' included. 
Until those who write the Literary Arabic form the 
majority of the people and use it or some modified form 
of it in speech, this dictum cannot be invoked in their 

The question arises. What is the living language of 
the people? Is it the Literary Arabic, practically the 
same as that of a thousand years ago, or is it the Com- 
mon speech used by everyone in daily intercourse? For 


Mr. Upson their own tongue is the Literary Arabic in 
which their own books have been written, whereas my 
contention is that the living tongue is the language they 
habitually speak. Why not write in that language, there- 
fore, as well as in the Classical form of the language? 
Is there any reason why a new departure may not be 
made in Arabic as, for example, is done in Modern 
Greek and Modern Armenian? If there were a possi- 
bility of bringing back by education the spoken lan- 
guage nearer the standard of the Literary Arabic, so 
well and good; but let the learned classes make the 
attempt to use only the literary language in speech, and 
they would soon find out the truth of the dictum that 
in the matter of language it is the people that rule, not 
the grammarians and the purists. 

Unless the living speech in its best form (not slang) 
can be gradually made a Literary medium then the 
age-long cleavage must continue between the Literary 
language capable of being understood and effectively 
used only by those with a certain amount of culture and 
the spoken tongue used by all but despised and deemed 
unfit for literary culture. According to the traditional 
opinion the Literary Arabic alone is worthy of being 
written. It alone is Arabic. The Common speech is 
only a "patois," a necessary evil. (Mr. Upson's use of 
the term patois is incorrect, since this Colloquial is the 
common speech of all,) Apart from the question of 
literature this attitude will never produce sympathetic 
students and users of the popular tongue. I am afraid 
there are many who spend hours daily in the study of 
the Literary Arabic, who after their preliminary studies 
of the Colloquial, think they have nothing more to 
learn of it, and who regard the Common Speech more 
as an evil and a hindrance than as the best adapted 
instrument for reaching the Common people? 

What is the origin of this traditional opinion? It 
is a very old one. Ibn Khaldoun (14th Century) tells 
us that the learned had nothing but contempt for the 
epic songs of the Beni Hilal, the productions of the 
popular genius, because they did not observe the literary 


syntax and prosody. I will quote from a letter of a 
lamented mutual friend of Mr. Upson and myself, the 
late Mr. W. Summers Agent of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society for Spain and Portugal and the Barbary 
States, who had had several years of missionary exper- 
ience in Morocco and Egypt. I had sent him a draft 
of my first article mentioned above. He replied: 

''The considerations and the arguments which you 
set forth are, I think, unassailable. The great argu- 
ment in favor of the Classical Arabic, as far as the 
Scriptures are concerned, is that the Moslem cannot 
conceive of a book of revelation except in the correct 
style of the classical form. This is due, of course, to 
the Moslem doctrine that the style of the Koran is its 
permanent attesting miracle. It is a bold step, but, I 
certainly think, a necessary one, that we knock the bot- 
tom out of that argument, by following the Christian 
tradition of publishing the Word of God in the simple 
language of the people." ♦ 

What linguistic reason can be urged against this, 
except that this language is not the Literary Arabic? 
What moral, religious or psychological reason can be 
evoked against it? Mr. Upson's linguistic reason that 
the Common tongue is "slang" cannot be maintained. 
He would seem to adduce as a moral reason that al- 
though there exist publications in the Common speech 
of Egypt, they are (a) indecent, (b) comic in a way, 
(c) not to be obtained from any decent book-shop. I 
answer that the indecent publications can be more than 
paralleled in the Literary Arabic, without that fact 
bringing a reproach on the language itself, and cer- 
tainly moral and religious publications in the vernacu- 
lar would be neither indecent nor comic, and if Mission 
Bible depots and other Christian book-shops stocked 
them they could be found. I suppose it is possible for 
the people to treat of serious and moral questions in 
their Common Speech. Their language would not 
then be slang, nor indecent, I opine. All depends on 
the subject matter, not on the language, I was much 
struck with the remark made to me once by a native 


friend an Arab of Algeria, (not a Christian). In 
discussing with him the propriety of using a certain 
word of the Common Speech in connection with our 
Lord, which some had questioned, he said Maqdm 
cnnabi yadill 'ala-l-mana. ''The position (dignity or 
rank) of the prophet gives the clue to the meaning." 
This remark is capable of a wide application. 

Another misunderstanding of Mr. Upson's is of the 
parallel I drew (as did Renan) between the Latin and 
the Literary Arabic. No one would be so foolish as to 
suggest that the Literary Arabic should be compared 
with the present-day use of Latin. Yet this is what is 
implied by him in the following extract: 

*'It would be very intersting to hear (from those who 
imagine that Arabic and Latin are in the same condi- 
tion) how many daily newspapers were published en- 
tirely in Latin in Italy at the time of the outbreak of 
war (1914) !" 

This is entirely beside the mark. What I maintain 
is that the position of Latin as the Literary language 
of Europe during the Middle ages up to the Renais- 
sance and the Reformation, with regard to the Neo- 
Latin or Romanic tongues, presents a very close analogy 
to the position of the Literary Arabic in its relation to 
the dialects of Arabic spoken today. Some might have 
said, then, that Latin was "very much alive," but for 
all that it was the living tongue of no people at that 
time. Up to the time of the Reformation Latin only 
was deemed worthy of being the language of books and 
of the Church, at least as a general rule. The popular 
forms of speech were good enough for daily intercourse 
and for the ignorant, but were deemed unfit for, and 
incapable of, literary culture. Yet out of the Romanic 
dialects have developed the rich literatures of France, 
Italy, Spain and Portugal. Happily for civilization 
the popular tongues gained the victory. 

The analogy between the two cases is even closer. 
The decadence of the Latin culture and literature that 
followed the invasions of the Roman Empire by the 
Germanic tribes brought about a great corruption of 


the Literary Latin, a corruption which rapidly in- 
creased from the Vlth to the Vlllth centuries. In 
Gaul those who attempted still to write the Literary 
Latin were generally too ignorant to observe the gram- 
matical rules and to preserve the literary traditions: 
and since on the other hand they despised beyond meas- 
ure the popular spoken Latin, they employed a kind of 
barbarous jargon which was neither the Classical nor 
the Vulgar Latin, but in which the two elements were 
strangely amalgamated, the proportion of the latter 
increasing according to the ignorance of the writer. 
This Low-Latin was but a gross and sterile imitation of 
the Classical Latin. On the other hand the Vulgar 
Latin was the natural language of the people. * We find 
St. Prosper in the Vth Century recommending the 
priests to neglect the Classical and to use the rustic 
Latin; the monk Baudemond in the Vllth Century 
wrote in the language of the people the Life of St. 
Amand. Gregory of Tours wrote in the Preface to 
his History (Vlth C.) that very few knew the learned 
Latin, but that the masses could understand the rustic 
tongue. It is out of this rustic, vulgar Latin spoken by 
the multitude but despised by the learned, that the 
French and other Romance languages gradually devel- 
loped, (See "Origin and formation of the French lan- 
guage" by Mr. Charles Aubertin). 

"Confined to the domain of Science and of administration the Low- 
Latin revived under Charlemange and later on in the Xlth century 
by a sort of artificial resurrection, it became, or remained, the lan- 
guage of Scholasticism and its use in France was not banished from 
the Official Acts and from the Law Courts till 1539. The Renais- 
sance of the XVIth Century purified it and brought it nearer the 
Classical model" (Ibid). This clinging to an ancient literary lan- 
guage to the extent of refusing to recognize new developments is an 
illustration of the excessive conservatism of a literary minority. The 
final result of the struggle as far as the Romance languages are con- 
cerned is a striking proof of the fact that "in the matter of lan- 
guage it is the people that rule." 

Taking the mass of the Arabic-speaking peoples to- 
day, do we not find that outside the "sheikh" class and 
a very small minority of men educated in Arabic Gram- 
mar and literature, very few are able to use the Liter- 
ary Arabic correctly, and is there not, in spite of the 


contempt that is shown for the Vulgar Arabic, a strange 
mixture of Classical and Vulgar elements, the latter in- 
creasing in direct proportion to the ignorance of the 
writer? In letter-writing the opening, stereotyped for- 
mulas are more or less correct, but in the body of the 
letter, where the writer expresses himself in his own 
thoughts, the influence of the spoken tongue shows it- 
self continually, either in the use of words and parti- 
cles or in the sense given them, which may differ con- 
siderably from the Classical meaning. At least it is 
often so in Algeria. 

If we wish to reach the mass of the Arabic-speaking 
peoples, what is more natural than to use the tongue 
they speak, and also to write it? For higher and scien- 
tific education and for the use of the learned classes the 
Literary Arabic is always at hand, but for the common 
people with little or no literary culture, it seems to me 
not only the most practical, but also the most psychologi- 
cally and scientifically correct method to begin at their 
level and employ in speech and writing the language 
in daily use and which is not only their living speech 
but that of the learned themselves. This need not hin- 
der those having the ability, leisure and inclination 
from acquiring a knowledge of the Classical language. 
It would rather be the stepping-stone to such further 

I do not forget that my friend speaks for Egypt and 
in view of the conditions that hold there. If any of 
my arguments are applicable to the conditions in that 
country and in Syria, I leave it to those working there 
who are in favor of them to apply them. The applica- 
tion of them as far as I am personally concerned is 
limited to the Maghreb, especially Algeria. 

Although my old friend and I are in opposite camps 
on this question of Vernacular literature, I am never- 
theless rejoiced at his advocacy of the simple style of 
Literary Arabic and of his hopes of one day reaching 
what he calls the "Middle Language, somewhat analo- 
gous to present-day Hebrew." I do not understand 
exactly what this latter phrase means. If it means He- 


brew as written by a Jewish author today it would most 
likely be a mixture of Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic 
elements with lexical borrowings from various lan- 
guages. I have no practical knowledge of Egyptian 
^'mush-mush slang," so-called, so cannot say how far 
there is analogy between it and Hebrew, but I can give 
abundant proof that the Arabic spoken in Algeria is 
much nearer the Hebrew than is the Literary Arabic. 
However this may be, the demand for a simple style 
of literary Arabic with suggestions of grammatical and 
syntactical simplifications are steps in the right direc- 
tion, for they are all concessions to the common speech, 
and as such I heartily endorse them. These suggestions 

(a) Use of the vocabulary of every-day life; 

(b) Feminine plural of the verb to be replaced by 
common gender plural; 

(c) The case-vowels (perhaps the final nun of 
Al-Mudari') might be dropped altogether. (Hebrew, 
Aramaic and Colloquial Arabic have dropped all 

The dropping of the case-vowels would bring other 
changes in its train which need not be mentioned here. 
Mr. Upson would, however, draw the line at the "shin" 
or the particle {shi or shai) at the end of verbs as com- 
plement of the negative {ma) and there must be no 
''mush-mush," in which the ma and the shin are united. 
{Ma hu shi) . Yet this {ma. . . .shi) is no more un- 
reasonable than the ne . . . .pas or ne . . .point of French. 
Both are facts of linguistic development, and the one 
is as respectable as the other. 

But does Mr. Upson think he will escape the ire of 
purists and the reproach of corrupting the unequalled 
Arabic tongue (Lahn) if he follows out his suggestions? 
Besides, such a language would correspond to nothing 
real. It would be a conventional, artificial language, 
conforming neither to the grammatical system of the 
Literary Arabic nor to the rules observed in the popular 
speech. For ourselves we would prefer to begin with 
the spoken language, which is a natural creation of the 


Arab mind. We might some day get nearer to Mr. 
Upson's "Middle Language," and the two camps might 
meet in the distant future. 

The extract from the Nile Mission Press "Regula- 
tions" as to Mss. offered for publication, is excellent. 

As to the demand for, and sale of, portions of Collo- 
quial Scriptures our experience in Algeria is just the 
opposite of that cited by Mr. Upson with regard to the 
Egyptian Colloquial St. Luke. The following statis- 
tics will make this clear: 


[) Editions printed. 


Luke, first 






Luke, second 






St. John, first Edition (1910) of 10,000 copies 

Acts, first Edition Tunisian (1911) of 5,000 copies. 
St. Luke, first Edition Tunisian (1911) of 5,000 copies. 

(2) Circulation from January 1909 to Aug. 1914. .. .25,000 copies. 
Circulation from August, 1914 to Nov. 1918. ... 11,500 copies. 

(3) Average Annual Circulation of portions in Literary Arabic prev- 

ious to publication of vernacular portions, 1,250 copies. 
Note. These figures are only for portions in the Arabic character. 
There are various other portions in vernacular Arabic, but in Hebrew 
character, which are not comprised in the above statistics. 

One of the chief arguments for the use of literature 
in the vernacular in Algeria is the fact that there are a 
great number who have begun to study Arabic, but 
have discontinued the study before they have derived 
any real benefit from it. They know, however, suffi- 
cient to be able to read their own spoken tongue. All 
the grammatical forms employed in the vernacular 
they are acquainted with from use. There are rarely 
words or particles that they do not understand. From 
the common people who buy and read the Scriptures in 
the vernacular, one hardly ever hears criticism as to 
leaders, who themselves do nothing to educate the 
masses in the Literary Arabic unless paid. Yet it was 
one of the most competent local native scholars that 
helped me in the translation of the portions of Scripture 
published in Algerian Arabic. He did not mind doing 
it as the responsibility was not his. 


Even among those abfe to read the literary Arabic 
to some extent there are many who prefer to read a 
good colloquial as they understand it far better. Does 
not the same state of things prevail in other Arabic- 
speaking countries? Although exact statistics on such 
points are difficult to procure, it w^ould help in the 
understanding of the problem as it presents itself to 
workers in different countries and among diflferent 
classes of people, if we could learn : 

(i) What proportion of the population is utterly un- 
able to read, either the literary or the vernacular Arabic? 

(2) What proportion is able to read a little, to whom 
the vernacular would be far easier than the literary? 

(3) What proportion, now unable to read and under- 
stand the literary Arabic, are likely to be able to do so, 
say in ten years' time, as far as one can judge from the 
educational programmes of the difiPerent governments? 

(4) What proportion of the Moslem population have 
a fairly adequate knowledge of literary Arabic? 

Percy Smith, 

Constantine, Algeria, 

EGYPT IN 1 857-1861 

From the very beginning of missionary work in 
Egypt there has been the hope in the hearts of the mis- 
sionaries that the Moslems would eventually be reached 
by the Gospel, notwithstanding their deep-seated preju- 
dice against Christianity. This prejudice on the part 
of the Moslem, and hope on the part of the missionary, 
appear in letters written by our first missionaries, the 
Rev. and Mrs. Thos. McCague, in reference to their 
teacher of Arabic, a learned Moslem sheikh: 

^^Sometimes when he is reading the Bible, he will 
often appear struck with some passage, and stop and 
say 'Beautiful!' Death is the penalty which 
the Moslem law inflicts upon any apostate from their 
faith. But we hope this state of things will not long 
continue. The Moslems say and feel that their power 
is broken." And in another letter written in 1856: 
'^I must commence preaching in Arabic before long. 
One thing is a hindrance in preparation. Our teacher 
is a Moslem and if I write a discourse and wish him to 
criticise it he is unable to enter into the spirit of 
Christian language, and furthermore thinks I want to 
convert him to my faith instead of wanting criticism." 
That this prejudice was often inconvenient is shown by 
the fact, that in those days in a certain locality in Cairo, 
no Christian could walk on the same side of the street 
with a Mohammedan. And that sometimes it was 
more than merely inconvenient is shown by the follow- 
ing incident related by Mrs. McCague: ''One day we 
went to the bazaars to do a little shopping, Mr. Barnett 
going along as interpreter. I had become accustomed 
in the street to sometimes hear the children say, 'You 
Nazarene, you dog, you pig,' but this day men mut- 
tered and scowjied. Mr. Barnett said, 'It is your dress,' 
I thought I was looking very nice in my pretty green 
cashmere. I hurried home and never again wore my 



green dress in the streets of Egypt. Green is regarded 
by the Moslems as a sacred color and none but the 
descendants of Mohammed are permitted to wear it." 

Although these pioneers soon found that Mohamme- 
dans were not yet open to the Gospel, and that their 
work must be begun with the Christian Copts, concern 
for the Moslems was not lacking. It was their purpose 
"to gather in converts whose lives should be an incontro- 
vertible proof to the Moslems of the divinity of the 
Christian religion." This is seen in a report by Dr. 
Barnett (who had been transferred from Syria to Egypt) 
published in the Christian Instructor, Nov. 1857: 
"These Christians must be changed before their moral 
influence can be brought to bear upon the vast numbers 
of Mohammedans by which they are surrounded. And 
who stands responsible for this great work more than 
we do?" He refers to the missions in northern Tur- 
key and Syria which commenced among nominal Chris- 
tians and adds, "Now, Mohammedans there are listen- 
ing to a Mohammedan brother preaching Christ. Peo- 
ple at home must be patient and remember that this 
Northern work has been going on for a great number 
of years; here it has scarcely had a beginning. Revive 
these dead and formal Christians and the surrounding 
Mohammedans and Jews will take knowledge of them 
that they have been with Jesus and seeing their good 
works and their holy lives, they, too, will fall down and 
worship God." 

In an article written for the United Presbyterian, 
on Egypt Revisited, Dr. McCague says: "From the 
beginning of our mission we were privileged to carry 
on our work with but little if any open manifestation 
of opposition or trouble from the outside. Little rip- 
ples on the sea, however, were enough to show us that 
these elements were here, and only required occasion 
and a disturbing cause to raise a storm. The Jiddah 
Massacre furnished an occasion in changing the bearing 
of the Moslem population toward us and all Christians. 
It began to be whispered that, on the annual festival of 
Bairam for slaughtering animals for their poor, they 

EGYPT IN 1857-1861 365 

would instead slaughter Christians. But through the 
interest of foreign consuls and their representation of 
the danger, the Pasha assembled the sheikhs and with 
a firm hand warned them that if a Christian was 
touched their own heads would pay the penalty. This 
had the desired effect and all passed off quietly." To 
quote from a letter written at this time, "The Moslem 
excitement is all passed by." The Jiddah Consul- 
slaughter has recently been investigated thoroughly by 
the Allied Powers together with the Porte. Two of 
the highest officers of the place were executed and others 
taken prisoners to Constantinople. This will teach the 
Arabs a good lesson that Europeans are not to be pro- 
miscuously slaughtered at their will. Perhaps you may 
think it strange to hear me, a missionary, plead for 
immediate justice to be administered by the sword upon 
this poor, degraded people. But I tell you, to make 
every murder they commit a speedy example by the 
executioners is the only way to keep this people in 
peace with Christians and especially with European 
Christians." That the judgment of the missionary was 
fully justified, one knows by the record of the dreadful 
outbreak of Moslem fanaticism in Damascus the follow- 
ing year, when five to eight thousand Christians were 
massacred in Syria. 

The firm position taken by Said Pasha removed im- 
mediate danger from outbreak of fanaticism or open 
opposition, yet the laws decidedly favored Moslems and 
oppressed Christians. Government regulations required 
all difficulties between Europeans and natives to be 
settled before a native court, government employees 
were compelled to observe Friday, the Moslem Sab- 
bath, and to work on the Christian Sabbath, and evan- 
gelistic services were not allowed to be held in the 
streets. Thus the work of preaching services and mis- 
sion schools was hindered. Moslems were slow to send 
their children to mission schools; however, in a report 
of attendance at the girls' school in Alexandria about 
this time, mention is made of nine Moslem girls among 
those enrolled during two years. At this time one of 


the missionaries writes: "I am getting almost discour- 
aged about the Arabs. I get along so slowly but I 
will try to stir them up." But the strong faith of Mrs. 
McCague did not waver. She says: "We are working 
for a good and faithful Master, w^ho is ever jealous 
of His own cause, and who will assist all who labor 
for Him. The silver and gold and the hearts of all 
men are in His hands and if we are faithful He will 
help us." 

A marked feature of the people of Egypt, namely 
their disposition to read and discuss religious truths,, 
was soon recognized by the early missionaries. Accord- 
ingly stress was laid on the Book Department as the 
best means of reaching the Mohammedan population. 
From the beginning, a considerable number of Bibles 
was distributed or sold for a small sum. A reading 
room had been opened in the missionaries' house where 
natives could read and talk on religious matters. The 
following year a shop was rented on one of the principal 
streets in Cairo, with Awad Hanna, a Coptic convert, 
in charge. Bibles being obtained from the British and 
Foreign Bible Society at Malta, and books and tracts 
from the American Mission Press at Beirut, Syria. 
Here the passers-by would stop and talk and many 
Bibles were sold not only to Copts, but to Moslems as 
well. A book depot was also opened in Alexandria. 

In addition to this seed sowing in the cities, attempts 
were made in these early years to bring the whole popu- 
lation of the country within reach of evangelising in- 
fluence. A system of colportage was commenced among 
the chief towns of the Delta and later, on a more ex- 
tended scale, throughout the provinces of Upper Egypt. 
The first itinerary in the Delta was made in April, 
i860, by Rev. Thos. McCague accompanied by Mr. 
Awad Hanna. They spent three weeks at the Moslem 
festival of EsSeyyid El Bedawi in the town of Tanta and 
at the Coptic festival of the Lady Damianeh on the bor- 
ders of the "Eastern Province" the ancient "Land of 
Goshen." In a letter from Tanta, after describing their 
room which overlooked a small court containing two 

EGYPT IN 1857-1861 367 

buffaloes, a cow, a donkey, a mare and colt, turkeys 
and chickens, and telling of their host's kindness (?) 
in giving him a first portion of meat with his own 
hands, the missionary joyfully adds that they had al- 
ready sold about 1750 piastres worth of books — mostly 
Scriptures. What mattered a few discomforts? 

The extension of the work in the Nile Valley had 
become so important that the three missionaries, Messrs. 
Lansing, Hogg and McCague purchased a boat, the 
Ibis, in which to journey up and down the Nile. The 
first trip was made by Rev. and Mrs. McCague taking 
with them four native assistants and twelve boxes of 
Scriptures and other books. During their five weeks' 
trip they sold about $162.00 worth of books and estab- 
lished two stations, one at Assint, one at Luxor. In the 
former place Mr. McCague with the assistance of the 
faithful Awad, loaded a donkey with Bibles and went 
through the streets crying, '^The Holy Bible for Sale!" 
This method brought them into contact with the na- 
tives, both Copts and Moslems. In his book "Egypt's 
Princes," Dr. Gulian Lansing describes the second Ibis 
trip when about $1000 worth of books was sold. 

The dissemination of the printed Word has always 
been an important branch of the work in Egypt. Short- 
ly after the forced return of Rev. and Mrs. McCague to 
America in 1861 on account of threatened blindness of 
the wife and son due to ophthalmia, they received a 
letter from Dr. Lansing telling of his negotiations with 
the Egyptian Government for the purchase of the gov- 
ernment press at Boulak which, "we trust will put us in 
the way of supplying Egypt with a Christian literature." 
A month later he writes, "We are not to have their 
printing press. The Counsellors stepped in and said 
they could not let this press, which had been a fountain 
of Moslem learning, become Christian." In the cor- 
respondence of those years there is a very evident note 
of joy at each indication of the gathering in of a Mos- 
lem. Dr. Hogg wrote that the boys in his school at 
Alexandria "are beginning to search for themselves at 
midday, whether these things told them in the morning 


are so," and he adds, "May the Spirit lift up the veil 
and show them the loving heart of the despised Naza- 

How the prayers of these pioneers are being an- 
swered today by the great work of the Nile Mission 
Press in patiently overcoming the opposition of Islam, 
and by the gathering of Moslems into the Kingdom! 
Surely God's Word sown in the morning of the Mis- 
sion in Cairo and along the Nile Valley is not return- 
ing unto Him void. 

Lydia S. McCague. 
Omaha, Nebraska, 


If I. had a million dollars I would first of all pay 
my debts, were I indebted to anyone. This is what any 
honest man would do; it is what any honest nation 
would do. Debts are often forgotten. One of the 
functions of history is to remind us of what we owe the 
past; what contribution the past has made to the 
content of our present civilization. In paying my debts 
I must not overlook what I owe to those who have gone 
before and to their descendants. 

We all recognize more or less clearly what the coun- 
tries of our immediate ancestors have done for us. Any 
ordinarily well educated American has some intelligent 
conception of our indebtedness to England or France 
but how many of us pursue history far enough to real- 
ize what the countries of the Mediterranean have con- 
tributed to make America what she is? 

It would surprise most of us to be informed that we 
owe the nations of the Near East more than we owe all 
other nations combined. It would be difficult to men- 
tion a single one of our institutions whose roots do not 
run back through the centuries and lose themselves in 
Oriental soil. 

We never tire of praising the great qualities and 
sacrifices of the Pilgrim Fathers, and they deserve it 
all. But what did they do? They abandoned Hol- 
land and England for the bleak shores of America that 
they might enjoy the privilege of reading God^s Word 
and interpreting it in accord with the dictates of their 
own conscience. But where did they get this Book for 
which they would venture so much? Every word of 
it is from Oriental sources. 

Three great religions dominate the world, no one of 
which is indebted to Occidental thinking. The proph- 
ets, those great men of the past whose words still 
reverberate across the centuries, changed the destinies 



of peoples while our ancestors were living in savage 

Who gave us the apostles? Those men whose teach- 
ings are becoming world forces. Has any modern 
civilized nation escaped the influence of the unparalleled 
intellect and deep-souled vision of the Apostle Paul? 

What can we adequately say about Jesus Christ, that 
unique person the, Son of God, our Saviour whose life 
and death inspires every beneficent movement through- 
out the world ? 

Our greatest and best have become great and good 
in proportion as they have become dominated by the 
philosophy of the Apostle Paul and the ethics of Jesus 
Christ. But what are they compared to these masters? 
What about our philosophy? Are not all modern 
theories based upon systems that were in vogue before 
the Romans landed on the shores of England? In re- 
spect to our ethics, can we point to a single book which 
purports to interpret human conduct that does not find 
its inspiration in the Bible? What about our art? Are 
we still anything more than poor imitators of the artis- 
tic productions of men of Eastern lands? Our plastic 
art is wholly the gift of peoples who look across the 
centuries and over thousands of miles and see us strug- 
gling with the rudiments of what to them was a skilled 
science. And our architecture? We have only to 
study the great public buildings erected across our con- 
tinent, recognized as artistically meritorious, to be con- 
vinced that we are but children attempting to adapt the 
East to the conceptions of the genius of modern require- 

Is there anything in the higher reaches of our civil- 
ization that is original with us? Nothing. 

A brief survey of what has entered into the warp* 
and woof of our civilization must bring every intelli- 
gent man and woman in America under the power of 
two sentiments, humility and gratitude. 

Our debt to the East is beyond calculation. What 
have we done to liquidate it? 

We have been generous to Belgium, Poland and Ser- 


via. The instincts of humanity were obeyed in our lav- 
ish generosity; but these countries can make little ap- 
peal from the standpoint of having added anything 
original to the content of our civilization. 

But when we mention the peoples of the Near East, 
who are now in the throes of a tragedy unparalleled in 
history, we ought to be filled with a desire to make any 
reasonable sacrifice to meet their needs and thus in some 
small measure acknowledge our indebtedness and meet 
our obligations so far as that is possible. 

Under the sinister shadow of their agony a ray of 
hope pierces their gloomy outlook as they indulge the 
hope of national emancipation from a long past of 
oppression and wrong. Yet they feel helpless in the 
face of tremendous political and social problems they 
are in no way fitted to solve. The word America has 
become a synonym of disinterested altruism. In the 
past her doors were open to the oppressed of all nations, 
now like an angel of mercy she goes forth to relieve 
the oppressed in all lands, to feed the hungry, to clothe 
the naked and lend a hand in assuring just considera- 
tion of reasonable national aspirations. 

But what these new states need more than material 
blessings and national freedom is moral and spiritual 

The Christian churches in the Near East are coming 
under a responsibility they have neither sought nor 

The Christians of the Orient are much less in num- 
ber than the Moslems. New Christian states are being 
carved out of the Turkish Empire but the Turks re- 
main. What is to be done with them? 

One can easily see that in the consolidation of these 
new states most difficult problems are sure to rise. 
Social, political and administrative questions will press 
for attention that will require the most delicate hand- 

Will these young nations be able to solve these ques- 


Another, and perhaps most difficult of all, is the re- 
ligious question. 

We must not forget the feelings of the once dominant 
race as it finds itself in the position of dependence. For- 
merly the Moslems looked with contempt upon the 
subject races, especially from a religious standpoint. 
All non-Moslems were included under the opprobrious 
term ^^giaour'''' — infidel. 

I was asked to speak at the World's Sunday School 
Convention in Zurich a few years ago. The subject 
assigned to me was: ^Tslam, the Problem and Solution." 

I began my address with the following words: 

"The problem is this — the attempt to induce the 
proudest man on earth to accept what he detests from 
men he despises." I see no sufficient reason why I 
should change a word of this. The Turk is sure to 
emerge from the awful experiences of the war hum- 
bled and embittered. Humbled as he falls from the 
position of ruler to that of ruled; embittered because 
he must take his orders from giaours whom he despises. 

If he were in the minority he would find it hard 
enough, but to be in the majority and yet be ruled by 
former subject races, especially as he remembers that 
one of the "fourteen points" is the "self-determination 
of races"; — well it takes little imagination to realize 
the tremendous handicap under which the new nations 
are to work. 

It is easy to say that the league of nations will adjust 
these difficulties as they arise. No league of nations 
can control the currents of thought and sentiments, of 
religion that must prevail. To cultivate even tolera- 
tion for each other will tax the utmost patience of these 
races for years. In many cities and towns the propor- 
tions of Moslems to Christians will be as three to one.. 
It is difficult for one not living in the country to appre- 
ciate the gulf fixed between Moslem and Christian when 
the subject of religion is broached. 

There can be only one solution to this difficult ques- 
tion. It is found in the Christianization of the Moslem. 

It is rather too much to expect that the Christians 


after their awful experiences at the hands of the Mo- 
hammedans will turn around and work for their con- 
version; although some few are doing so already. 

Indeed the Oriental churches themselves are in dire 
need of conversion. There is not an intelligent Chris- 
tian in the Near East from the bishops down who will 
not admit the need of important reforms in their be- 
liefs and practices. The best elements of these churches 
are working and praying for important changes in 
their ecclesiastical machinery and a deeper spiritual life 
in their church leaders and members. If that be true 
can we expect much help from these churches in the 
conversion of the Moslems? 

Therefore it is the duty of the Christian churches of 
America to assume this responsibility. I say the 
churches in America for they, much more than those of 
any other nation, have prosecuted the missionary work 
in Turkey, and by common consent this territory is 
regarded as peculiarly belonging to Christian American 

From these remarks certain deductions follow which 
may be incorporated in the following propositions: 

The success of the experiment of erecting autonomous 
states on the ruins of the Turkish empire depends in 
very large measure upon external help. 

This help must be of various kinds. 

Repatriation. These scattered peoples must be 
brought to their new homes. 

Rehabilitation. This will require the erection and 
furnishing of numerous homes. 

Reconstruction. Family and social life so sadly 
disintegrated during the war must be rebuilt from the 
foundations up. 

Until one full harvest is garnered the people must be 
fed and clothed. 

All this will take large bodies of workers and vast 
sums of money. 

Administrative, political and financial assistance must 
be furnished by the nation to which mandatory power 
is accorded. 


The work already done by American missionaries is 
of the most important character. This work on a vaster 
scale must be planned and pushed. 

The splendid educational system resulting from a 
century of effort, so largely broken and dissipated by 
the war, must be reconstructed and broadened. 

Turkey is essentially an agricultural country. Farm- 
ing and the dairy industry are carried on according to 
the most primitive methods. The gang plow, reaping 
machines and steam threshers must be introduced. 

All the common minerals of commerce are found in 
abundance and will constitute one of the prominent 
sources of wealth. This department will require spe- 
cial attention by experts. 

Should all this be done without reference to the 
Mohammedans, and this is quite possible, a very serious 
mistake will be made. 

The most important problem facing the Christian 
Church is that of Islam. Until the Church determines 
to bring to bear upon this subject the vast powers at 
her disposal success cannot be expected. Two hundred 
million Mohammedans scattered through Asia and 
Africa menace the success of the Christian propaganda 
in these continents. This vast body has been defying 
Christendom for centuries and she dare not any longer 
neglect the call to duty without imperiling her own 
future in the Eastern Hemisphere. 

Not only is the Near East the arena in which this 
great struggle must be fought out but it is the field best 
prepared. Christian churches and Christian traditions 
have a history of two thousand years in this territory. 
Are the Christian churches now on the field equal to 
the task of converting the Moslems of the country? 
They would be the first to answer in the negative. 

What then is the solution of this question? There 
seems but one, — an earnest attempt by the Christian 
churches of America to convert the Moslem of the 
Near East to Christianity. 

James P. McNaughton. 
Constantinople, Turkey. 


One must be content with an approximate answer to 
the question of the number who, if they could read, 
would use the Osmanli Turkish. I should put the 
number before the War at ten million. This includes 
Albanians and other European Moslems and at least a 
million Christians. 

My estimate of the number of literates is higher than 
that generally given. Ten per cent I believe a moderate 
estimate. Fifty years ago, in Marsovan, Mrs. Herrick 
received calls from hundreds of Turkish women, and 
was surprised to find so many of them able to read and 
eager to receive copies of selected scripture texts printed 
in very large type on single sheets, i6x 12 inches. 

Coming to a second and most important question, viz., 
the Christian literature actually available for Mos- 
lems in Turkey, I face a real embarrassment. With the 
exception of two volumes by Dr. Pfander and one each 
by Dr. Koelle and Rev. R. H. Weakley and a scientific 
volume by Dr. H. O. Dwight the list is that of books 
prepared by me and issued between the years 1865 and 
191 1. Since the last date several little books of homi- 
lies have been issued. A larger number of my books 
in Turkish in the Armenian character have been issued 
and some of these have indirectly received the atten- 
tion of Turks. It is impossible for me to tell what has 
been done and to indicate the principles, the aims, also 
the governmental limitations under which the work has 
been done, more clearly than by giving the list of my 
books, with explanations relative to their preparation 
and issue. 

Before this is done, special attention is invited to the 
latest translation of the Bible into Turkish and the 
record of the circulation of Scripture in that language 
the last forty years. 

The work of the Committee appointed by the two 



great Bible societies to newly translate and prepare for 
circulation the Bible in Turkish, both in Osmanli and 
Armenian characters (subsequently in Greek charac- 
ters also) began in June, 1873 ^"^ ended May 28th, 
1878. Subsequent revisions in the interest of simplicity 
of language and unification of texts took three more 
3'^ears of work of the present writer, the sole survivor 
of the twelve men, seven of them natives of the country, 
who had a share, greater or less, in the translation and 

The Bible societies have printed 15,000 copies of the 
Bible in Osmanli Turkish; about three times that 
number of copies of the New Testament and at least 
100,000 copies of Bible '^portions." These portions 
have been the four Gospels, printed separately, the 
Psalms and the books of Job and Proverbs, the latter 
becoming especially popular with the Turks. A con- 
servative statement of the circulation of Scripture 
among Turks and other Turkish speaking Moslems 
based on official reports, would give an average of 
4000 volumes a year for the forty years, at least 100,000 
of the 160,000 being sold to the readers. One thing is 
certain — speaking generally and emphatically — the 
knowledge that living Moslems in Turkey have gained 
of Christian literature has been gained chiefly from 
the reading of the Christian sacred Scriptures . 

Turning now to efforts that have been made by the 
Publication Department of the American Missions in 
Turkey to form, upon the basis of the Bible, the begin- 
ning of a general Christian literature for Turks we 
give the following details. 

In the year 1865 there were issued by the Constanti- 
nople Mission Press: 

/. "A Commentary on Matthew and Mark" (of 400 
pages) which had very limited sale. The part cover- 
ing the Sermon on the Mount was circulated gratis 
somewhat widely. 

2, The same year a first book for teaching children 
was issued (63 pages), and in the course of ten years 
many editions were issued (6300 copies in all). The 


book became the model for many useful books prepared 
by Turks. 

J. In 1868 a little book of no pages on "The Belief 
and Worship of Protestants" was issued. This book 
was enlarged and issued in 1885 a book of 224 pages. 

4. A sketch of the Life of Lincoln (40 pp.) was is- 
sued in 1872 and widely circulated. 

5. A booklet '^Thoughts on Education," (32 pp.) 
was printed for me by Tewfik abd ul Zia in 1883. 

6. In 1885 "Natural Theology" (220 pp.) was 
printed and had a considerable sale. 

After 1885 until 1908 it was impossible to print 
Christian literature in Osmanli Turkish. 

7. A book on "Christian Manliness," pretty thor- 
oughly emasculated of everything distinctively Chris- 
tian and with little "manliness," passed the censors and 
was printed in 1898 over the protest of one of them that 
"the book smells of Christianity all through." 

8 6c Q. During this period (1895- 1908) a Physical 
Geography and an Astronomy were published. 

10. In 1909 the hymn book of more than 300 hymns, 
previously circulating in Turkish in the Armenian char- 
acter, was issued in Osmanli. 

// and 12. Booklets on Matthew 5, 6, 7 and on I 
Corinthians 13 were issued. 

I J. "The Dawn of Liberty" (80 pp.) was published 
in 1910. 

14. "The Unique Person of Jesus Christ and His 
Relation to Mankind" (273 pp.) was my last work 
issued in 191 1. It was an effort to present our Lord 
Jesus Christ to Moslems in a way to win their attention. 
Such a book could not have been issued before 1908. 

On the greater problem of disiderata and present ur- 
gent needs I think we should expect and prepare for 
greatly increased opportunities for direct Christian 
work for Moslems using the Osmanli Turkish in the 
very near future. The Press will have two functions 
to meet (a) To foster the great educational movement 
(b) To issue and circulate evangelistic literature in 
large volume. 


For schools and for Sunday schools a large amount 
of literature will be required and will be prepared as 
fast as men and funds are ready for the work. 

Uncontroversial evangelistic literature, translated and 
adapted, should be issued in considerable variety. Nar- 
ratives and stories should find place. One little tract 
which I translated and issued in 1 910 is a good model. 
The title of the tract was ^The Man Who Died for 
Me." Short biographical sketches will be found popu- 
lar and useful. 

There is no doubt that the door will soon be thrown 
wide open for work on this line far beyond our present 
readiness to enter it. 

George F. Herrick. 
New York City, 



Malaysia consists of the Malay Peninsula and the 
great group of islands known as the East Indies, 
the largest of which are, in order of their size — 
New Guinea, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, and Celebes. The 
total population is estimated to be slightly over forty 
millions, and out of this number there are more than 
thirty-seven million Mohammedans. 

The Malay Peninsula, the Northern part of Borneo, 
and the Eastern part of New Guinea are under British 
rule or protection. Practically all the rest of the Archi- 
pelago is under the authority of the Queen of Holland, 
and is known as the Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands 

The distribution of the Mohammedans in Malaysia 
by governments is as follows: 

Under Dutch Rule 

Java and Madura 








Banka and Dependencies 


Riau and Dependencies 




Amboina and Dependencies 


Ternate, New Guinea and Dependencies 


Timor and Dependencies 


Bali and Lombok 



Under British Rule 

Straits Settlements 


Federated Malay States 


Protected Malay States (estimate) 


British North Borneo (estimate) 


Sarawak (estimate) 



Under Siamese Rule 

Siamese Malay States (estimate) 





The distribution by languages can only be given 
approximately. The Javanese language is spoken by 
the largest number, perhaps sixteen millions, and Sunda- 
nese, the language of West Java, by ten or eleven mil- 
lions. The Malay language, however, is the language 
of Mohammedan propaganda, and is more widely 
known than any other, being the lingua franca all over 
the coast line and rivers of every island; and it is the 
mother tongue of probably more than five millions of 
the inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Riau, 
Banka, Billiton, and parts of Borneo and Java. Prob- 
ably two millions speak the Madurese language, and 
the following minor languages are each spoken by per- 
haps something less than half a million Mohamme- 
dans — Achinese, Bugis, Macassar, Battak. Many other 
languages are spoken in Malaysia, but there are no data 
to show the number of Moslems who speak them. 
These languages are distributed as follows: 


Malay Peninsula 


Smaller islands 


Dutch Borneo 

British Borneo 

Total 172 

Most of the languages of Borneo, which are given 
by Skeat and Blagden in 'Tagan Races of the Malay 
Peninsula," are spoken by the various Dayak tribes. 
Probably not more than half of the 172 languages re- 
ferred to above are spoken by Mohammedans. 


The Dutch government reports 7959 schools in the 
Dutch Indies with 696,731 pupils under instruction; 
and probably 600,000 of these pupils are Moslems. 

The British government reports 1196 Malay schools, 
with over 30,000 pupils in attendance. In the non- 
federated Malay States there are at present very few 










The proportion of literates among those who speak 
the Malay language is much higher than among those 
who speak Javanese and Sundanese. Nearly all news- 
papers are printed in the Malay language, and in the 
Dutch Indies many Malay newspapers are printed in 
the Roman character, and are read very largely by 
Chinese as well as by Moslems. 

The percentage of literates is certainly high as com- 
pared with other Moslem lands, but very few Moham- 
medan women are able to read. 


The Scriptures are available in the following lan- 
guages : 

Malay, the whole Bible. 
In Arabic Character Javanese, Gospels and Acts. 

Sundanese, Luke, John, Acts. 

Javanese, the whole Bible. 
Bugis, Gospels and Acts. 
Macasar, Gospels and Acts. 
In Native Characters Battak (Toba) New Testament. 

" (Mandailing) Mt, Lu, Jn. 
Madurese, Gospels, Acts, Phil. 

Javanese, New Testament. 
Sundanese, the whole Bible. 
In Roman Characters Battak (Toba) the whole Bible. 

" (Mandailing) New Test. 

This list shows that we have the Scriptures in only 
eight of the languages which are spoken by Moslems. 

The Bible is also available in seven other Malaysian 
languages which are spoken by Pagans, namely: Nias, 
Balinese, Rotti, Sangir, and three dialects of Dayak. 

Comparatively few Mohammedans can read those 
versions of the Scriptures mentioned in the above list 
which are printed in the Roman character, these ver- 
sions having been prepared principally for native Chris- 
tians. The versions shown as being in native charac- 
ters can be read by Moslems very generally, but some 
Mof.Jems can only read those versions which are printed 
in the Arabic character. 


Other Literature in Malay 

I. Pilgrim's Progress, translated by Keasberry 60 years ago, is now 
out of print. Two other versions exist in Romanised Malay, but 
are not suitable for Malays except in Java. 

2. History of the Jews, an adaptation of Walker's "Philosophy of the 

Plan of Salvation," (100 pages). 

3. Story of Joseph, from Genesis, (60 pages). 

4. The Witness of Christ to Himself, 32 pages, translation of the Nile 

Mission Press tract. 

5. Story of St. Paul, (26 pages). 

6. Story of an Indian Prince Who Became a Christian, (22 pages). 

7. What the Koran says of the Bible, extract from Muir's "The 

Coran," published by the S. P. C. K. 21 pages. 

8. The True Religion, (13 pages). 

9. Khutba No. i, on Prophecy. 

10. Khutba No. 17, on The Unity of God. 

Also the following leaflet tracts: 

Creation and the Beginning of Sin. 

Salvation and Holiness. 

The Death of a Christian Boy. 

Story of Naomi and Ruth. 

A Moslem Mistake (as to the Son of God). 

God's Prohibitions and Commands. 

The Ten Commandments. 

The True Way Should Be Sought, C. L. S. Madras. 

What the Koran Says of the Scriptures, C. L. S. Madras. 

The Sermon on the Mount, (In the Press). 

The Bedouin and Camel (In the Press) Nile Mission Press. 

Letter from a Far Country. (In the Press.) Nile Mission Press. 

Rashid's Robe. (In the Press.) Nile Mission Press. 

Several books and tracts have been published in Ro- 
manized Malay for the Malay-speaking Chinese of the 
British area, but most of these are in the dialect known 
as "Baba Malay," which is looked down upon by the 
Malays as a mere patois or jargon, and these books 
and tracts cannot for that reason be considered as 
available for the Moslems. It should also be said that 
although the Roman character is taught in the British 
vernacular schools, the Malays dislike it, and very much 
prefer to read their own language in the Arabic charac- 
ter. The following books and tracts are available in 
Baba Malay (Romanized) : 

Lessons in the Life of Christ for Sunday Schools. (104 lessons.) 
The Methodist Malay Hymnal, (150 hymns with music). 
The Ritual of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
The Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church (not complete). 


The Catechism of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Stories about Jesus, (42 pages). 
The Story of David, (18 pages). 
Eight Sermons on the Lord's Prayer (46 pages). 
The Pilgrim's Progress (illustrated). 
Black Beauty, the Autobiography of a Horse. 
The Story of Queen Victoria. 
The Story of Florence Nightingale. 
Jessica's First Prayer. 
The Story of Joseph. 

The Greatest Thing in the World, Drummond. 
The Victory of Mary Christopher, H. R. Calkins. 
Also 6 leaflet tracts. 

Dutch missionaries, working in Java, have published 
a number of books and tracts in what is known as the 
Dutch spelling, in which the English "u" is represented 
by "oe," the English "y" by ^^j," ^T' by "dj," "ny'' by 
*^nj," ^^ch" by '^tj,'' etc. The Natives in the British 
area find it extremely difficult to read anything in this 
spelling, and those in the Dutch area equally object to 
the English spelling. For this reason books printed 
in the Dutch Indies are not available for use in the 
British area, and vice versa. 

A few of the books in the Dutch Romanized Malay 
are in what the Dutch call '^High Malay," which is 
practically the same as the Malay of the Peninsula and 
East Sumatra, and such books could, with slight altera- 
tions, be reprinted in Arabic character, and thus be- 
come available for Malay-speaking Moslems all over 
the Archipelago. Unfortunately there does not appear 
to be any catalogue of these books accessible in this 
country. Amongst them there are two or three col- 
lections of sermons by the Rev. Mr. Tiemersma, a 
Church History by the Rev. Mr. Iken, and one or two 
other books suitable for the use of native preachers. 
There are also in the Dutch Romanized several ele- 
mentary books on science, published by the Dutch gov- 

In addition to the above the Dutch missionaries have 
published a few books and tracts in what they call 
"Low Malay," that is to say the patois spoken by the 
mixed races who speak the Malay language on the 
island of Java. Such literature is no more suitable 


than the "Baba Malay" of the British area would be 
for the use of the Mohammedan Malays, and therefore 
need hardly be considered in dealing with literature 
for Moslems. 

III. Main Desiderata and Cost of Literature. 

1. In view of the fact that the Malay language is 
the language of Moslem propaganda, and is used far 
more widely than any of the other languages of Malay- 
sia, it seems to be advisable in the first instance to 
create and publish in the Arabic character a strong 
literature suited for an aggressive campaign among the 
Malay-speaking Moslems of Malaysia. 

2. Any suitable literature which may already be 
available in the Roman character, either English or 
Dutch spelling, could be rapidly adapted by rewriting 
in such form as would be necessary for printing in 
the Arabic character. 

3. In Java there are two Literature Societies — The 
Malay Christian Union, in charge of Mr. Meeuwig, 
Meester-Cornelis, Java, and the "Paper Missionary," 
in charge of Rev. Hochendijk, Garoet, Java. The 
latter is assisted by the Netherlands Tract Society, of 
Holland. Very few of the Dutch and German mis- 
sionaries in Malaysia appear to be alive to the im- 
portance of producing and circulating literature es- 
pecially suited to the Mohammedan people, and the 
literature which they have produced and make use of 
so far has been intended chiefly for the instruction and 
edification of the native Christians. Some years ago 
a careful survey was made of the literature published 
by the Malay Christian Union at Meester-Cornelis, and 
none of their publications were found to be suitable 
for use among Moslems, even if reprinted in the Arabic 
character. The "Paper Missionary" is a more recent 
organization, and has distributed large quantities of 
leaflet tracts in Malay and Javanese, but none of these 
have ever come into the writer's hands, so he is unable 
to speak of their value for Mohammedan work. 
New York City. W. G. Shellabear. 


Mohammed in his early years, in common with the 
rest of the Meccan traders, was acquainted with tradi- 
tional lore embodying some of the doctrines taught by 
the Hebrews, — a kindred race, — in a vague and con- 
fused form. He learnt something of these on his jour- 
neys with the caravans to Syria, and on his visits to 
the literary fairs, the forerunners of the Welsh Eistedd- 
fod, held periodically at Okadh and other towns, in 
which religious subjects were publicly discussed. He 
gained more definite and deeper knowledge from the 
Hanifs, a small body of enquirers after truth, residents 
of Mecca, and earnest students of Judaism and Chris- 
tianity. He was thus led to reject idolatry, and to ac- 
cept the monotheistic formula. La ilaha ill' Allah, — 
"There is no god but God." His intense conviction 
made of him a missionary; and, naturally, he used the 
means of his own conversion as his chief weapon in his 
efforts to gain others over to his faith. Many of the 
Meccan chapters of the Koran are devoted to the story 
of the prophets, taken from Hebrew sources. 

The short twelve years of Mohammed's mission in 
Mecca was a period of preparation and growth. One 
of the most striking developments is in his conception 
of his own office. He started diffidently as a mere 
"warner" to his own relatives and immediate circle of 
friends. Encouraged by three or four conversions, he 
began to frequent the area of the temple — the Ka'aba, 
which was the meeting-place of the Meccans. There, 
at first unostentatiously to small groups, but later on 
openly and passionately, he denounced idolatry and 
threatened the city with disaster should it persist in dis- 
regarding his message. He had become a "preacher" 
and a "prophet" to his own people. 

* We have left the reference to the author's mss., as we did not have at 
hand his edition of Sale's translation of the Koran. 



The Meccans laughed at his threats, and eventually 
bitterly persecuted him. After years of labour among 
them he could count but a few score followers, most 
of them from among the poor and "the feeble in the 
land." Despairing of converting his fellow-citizens, 
he went to Ta'if, the nearest city of importance, and 
there expounded his doctrines to the native chiefs. His 
action roused the populace to fury; and Mohammed, 
barely escaping with his life, fled back to Mecca. 

Though dejected at his failure in Mecca and Ta'if, he 
never lost faith in the truth of his message, or in his 
own call to be God's messenger. He made his rejec- 
tion by his neighbors a reason for widening his appeal 
to include all Arab idolaters. During certain months 
of the year large caravans of pilgrims used to visit 
Mecca, partly for the purposes of trade, but more par- 
ticularly to pay their vows at the Ka'aba, the most 
venerated shrine in all Arabia. Mohammed saw here 
an opening to satisfy his missionary zeal. He visited 
the various camps, and, at last, obtained a favourable 
hearing amongst the pilgrims from Medina. He made 
a compact with their chiefs, who pledged themselves 
to give a home and protection for himself and those 
of his converts who chose to migrate there with him. 
This was his opportunity of escaping from the perse- 
cution of the Meccans, and, at the same time, securing 
a better soil for the propagation of his creed. From 
being a local preacher he had become an "apostle" to 
the Arab nation. 

The progressive stages in his development may be 
seen in the following verses from the Koran: 

Warn thy pople ; for thou art a warner only : thou art not empowered 
to act with authority over them. LXXXVIII. 21, 22. 

That thou mayest preach it unto the metropolis of Mecca and to those 
who are around it. VI, 93. 

It is He who hath raised up amidst the illiterate Arabians an apostle 
from among themselves. LXII, 2. 

Cf. also XXVII, 46; XII, 29: VI, 155-157 &C. 

In the Kor'anic revelations of the Meccan period 
there is no mention of opposition on the part of the 
Jews and Christians to Mohammed's ofl!ice or teaching. 


On the contrary, he looks to them, as the heirs of the 
Torah and the Gospel, to bear him out in the face of 
his enemies. He claims that they confirm the con- 
sonancy of his doctrine with that of their own Scrip- 
tures, and that they regard Islam as being the same 
religion as they had always professed. 

Say. What is your opinion? If this book (the Koran) be from 
God and ye believe not therein ; and a witness of the children of Israel 
bear witness to its consonancy with the Law and believeth therein; and 
ye proudly reject the same. XLVI 9. 

And now We have caused Our word to come unto them, that they may 
be admonished. They unto whom We have given the Scriptures be- 
lieve in the same; and when it is read unto them they say, "We 
believe therein ; it is certainly the truth from the Lord : verily we were 
Muslims before this." XXVIII, 48-53. 

If thou art in doubt concerning that which We have sent down 
unto thee, ask them who had read the book of the Law before thee. 
X, 94. Cf. VI, 20 and 114; XI, 18: XXIV, 6: XVII, 108 etc. 

In the post-Hijra chapters there comes a distinct 
change in the tone of Mohammed's references to the 
Jews and Christians. From friendly appreciation he 
passes to virulent tirade. Compare the following verses, 
revealed respectively before and after the Flight: 

We gave unto the children of Israel the book of the law and wisdom 
and prophecy; and We fed them with good things, and preferred them 
above all nations; XLV, 15. Cf. II, 46 and 122, LVII, 26, 27. 

Satan hath prevailed against them, and hath caused them to forget 
the remembrance of God. These are the party of the devil; and shall 
not the party of the devil be doomed to perdition? LVIII, 20, 21. 

The reason for this difiference in the character of the 
Koranic verses is to be found in the changed condition 
of the prophet's life. In his old home Mohammed had 
never come into close contact with the mass of Jews 
and Christians; the number of them resident in Mecca 
was insignificant. In Medina, on the other hand, there 
was a large and prosperous colony of Jews, and some 
Christians. Though, politically, these occupied a sub- 
ordinate position as clients of, or protected by, the na- 
tive pagan tribes, their wealth and their higher moral 
and religious culture gave them power and influence 
among their neighbors. When the prophet fled from 
Mecca in A. D. 622, he came to live among the "People 
of the Book" on the close terms of daily intercourse. 
It was obvious that the religious attitude of the one to 
the other had to be clearly defined. 


On his arrival in Medina Mohammed fully expected 
to be recognized by the Jews and Christians as a true 
prophet, and the Koran, as far as it was then revealed, 
accepted by them as divinely inspired equally with 
former scriptures. Some of the Jews whom he had 
met in Mecca had certainly given him grounds for this 
expectation. Had the Flight taken place some years 
earlier, Mohammed might have developed into a great 
reformer of his own people through the medium of 
Judism or Christianity; but by now he had reached 
too advanced a stage in the conception of his own 
apostleship to allow himself to become a mere proselyte, 
he claimed to be greater than a Jewish rabbi or a 
Christian bishop, he was an apostle with a distinct mis- 
sion of his own. His theology and history were based 
mainly on their literature; his ritual, as far as he 
had then established it, was modelled on their cere- 
monial. His ambition was to be accepted by them as 
one in the successive line of prophets, bringing to the 
Arabs the same divine message as had been delivered to 
those of the Hebrew race by the apostles of old. In 
Mecca, Mohammed's struggle had been against ignor- 
ant idolators; in Medina he soon found himself en- 
gaged in an intellectual contest with a far more for- 
midable foe, — with the possessors of those scriptures 
whose fundamental doctrines he professed to have ac- 
cepted and taught. 

To follow the progress of the controversy, we have to 
depend almost entirely on the references to it in the 
Koran. Fortunately, these are fairly full. We have 
no records from the Jewish or Christian side. 

Mohammed's standpoint during the first phase of the 
discussion is defined in the following verses: 

The apostle believeth in that which hath been sent down unto him 
from the Lord, and the faithful also. Every one of them believeth in 
God, and His angels, and His scriptures, and His apostles: we make 
no distinction at all between His apostles II, 285. 

We believe that which hath been sent down unto us, and that which 
hath been sent unto you. Our God and your God is one. To Him 
are we self-surrendered. XXIX, 46. 

Surely those who believe (the Moslems) and those who Judaize, 
and Christians, and Sabians — whoever believeth in God and the last 


day, and doth that which is right, they shall have their reward 
with their Lord : there shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be 
grieved. II, 61 and V, 73. 

This last verse must have been revealed at an early 
date after the Hijra; it represents the prophet at his 
most modest and tolerant period. It was probably used 
on many occasions as a kind of stock piece, and is 
repeated twice in the Koran, in both cases fitting in 
badly with the context. The Sabians are brought in to 
emphasize Mohammed's point by including the sects 
which he regarded as monotheists. Here he declares 
that belief in God, together with good works, con- 
stituted all that was necessary to salvation, (Cf. XXIX, 
6-8) ; but it was not long before he revised this judg- 
ment. This belief in all God's prophets was embodied 
at a later date in some verses which practically amount 
to a definition of Islam: 

We believe in God, and that which hath been sent down to us, and 
that which hath been sent down unto Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, 
and Jacob, and the tribes, and that which was delivered unto Moses and 
Jesus and that which was delivered unto the prophets from the Lord: 
We make no distinction between any of them; and to God are we 
resigned (II, 136). 

This confession of faith is given again in Chap. Ill, 
83, and in both cases it is followed by a declaration that 
any religion other than Islam thus defined is not accept- 
able to God. 

Though, at first, he hesitated before insisting on ac- 
ceptance of himself as a condition necessary to salva- 
tion, he yielded nothing to the "People of the Book" on 
the point of the divine authority for his office and his 
message to his own people. He sought a common 
ground where what he regarded simply as three groups 
in the same religion could, and must meet, — the ground 
of monotheism: "Your God and our God is ONE." 
The idea of a separate sect of his own was not a new 
one. Like the disciples of Jesus who desired their 
Master to teach them a form of prayer which should 
be peculiarly their own, Mohammed's earliest con- 
verts had asked for instruction in private and common 
worship, and the prophet had established a few ele- 
mentary forms of ritual before leaving Mecca. His 


sect was not in any way to be opposed to Judaism and 
Christianity, but was to exist alongside of them in per- 
fect harmony. In this spirit of conciliation, and with 
a keen desire for cooperation, he planned his mosque 
at Medina so that the worshippers stood in prayer with 
their faces towards Jerusalem; and instituted a fast for 
the Moslems in imitation of the Jewish fast of Ashura. 
Mohammed could not understand any hesitation on 
the part of the Jews and Christians in accepting him as 
a true prophet to the Arabs. Were his people to per- 
ish because no divine message of warning and direction 
had ever been sent to them? He had already definitely 
answered such a plea of ignorance set up by the idola- 
ters of Mecca : 

The book which We have now sent down is blessed ; therefore, follow 
it * * * Lest ye should say "The scriptures were sent down to 
two people only before us." * * ♦ or lest ye should say, "If a 
book of divine revelation had been sent down to us, we would surely 
have been better directed than they." Now hath a manifest declaration 
come to you from vour Lord, and a direction and a mercy, VI, 155-157. 
(Cf. VII, 174.) 

To Mohammed's mind it was unthinkable that God 
should punish any nation without first sending it in- 
struction : 

Verily God will not deal unjustly with men in any respect, but men 
deal unjustly with their own souls. X, 45. 

During the period of his mission in Mecca the 
prophet had developed the following thesis, and con- 
firmed it on his first arrival in Medina, only to modify 
it somewhat, at a later date: 

I. There is but one true religion, which was once 
universal. This appeared to him a natural complement 
of the belief in one God. It followed that the mes- 
sages sent by successive prophets were essentially the 

Men were professors of one religion only, but they dissented there- 
from. X, 20. 

Mankind was of one faith, and God sent prophets bearing good 
tidings and denouncing threats, and sent down with the scripture in 
truth. II, 212. 

He hath ordained you that which He commanded Noah, and that 
which We have revealed unto thee, and which We commanded Abra- 
ham and Moses, and Jesus, saying, "Observe this religion, and be not 
divided therein." XLII, II. 


2. Every nation hath its own prophet, God never 
punished a people without first sending an apostle to 
warn them plainly in their own language: 

Unto every nation hath an apostle been sent. X, 48. 

Every age hath its book of revelations XIII, 38. 

We did not punish any people until We had first sent an apostle to 
warn them. XVII, 16. 

We have therefore raised up in every nation an apostle. There hath 
been no nation but a preacher hath in past times been conversant v^^ith 
them. XXXV, 22. 

We have sent no apostle but with the language of his people, that he 
might declare their duty plainly to them. XIV, 4. 

We have not destroyed a city but a fixed term of repentance was 
appointed them. XV, 4. 

3, The nations would be called to account on the 
Day of Judgment for the reception they had accorded 
to these messengers. Each prophet would be raised 
on that day as a witness against his own people. Mo- 
hammed would appear against the Arabians. 

On a certain day We will raise up in every nation a witness against 
them from among themselves ; and We will bring thee, O Mohammed, 
as a witness against these Arabians. XVI, 86 and 91. 

How will it be with the unbelievers when We shall bring a witness 
out of each nation against itself, and shall bring thee a witness against 
these people ? IV, 40. 

Holding this doctrine as he did, with such firm con- 
viction, Mohammed could not possibly abandon his 
claim to apostleship without violating his sense of God's 
justice in His dealings with men. 

On political grounds, as well as from religious sym- 
pathy, the prophet sought earnestly to bring about 
friendly relationship with the People of the Book. He 
could not afford to be at variance with such an influen- 
tial section of the community at Medina. His own 
position there at the time was precarious enough, for it 
depended entirely on the good will of the pagan tribes. 
So, we find the first stage of the controversy was of a 
mild character: 

Dispute not unless in the kindliest spirit with the People of the Book. 

The famous victory over the Meccan army at Badr 
in the second year after the Flight brought about a 
great change. Mohammed became a popular military 
leader, and the number of converts to the new faith 


multiplied greatly. The prophet could now go his own 
way more independently of the Jews and Christians. 
They had to change their tone, and veil their enmity to 
him, (II, 30; III, 119). His attitude towards them 
turned from conciliation to* reltictant toleration. He 
could not ignore them, or attack them in a body. The 
Koran of this period is silent on certain acts of hostility 
which took place. The prophet was beginning to realize 
his power, and to assume an air of superiority with- 
out that deference with which he had hitherto treated 
them as heirs of the Law and the Gospel. He had not 
entirely lost hope and desire to gain the bulk of them 
over to his side. He continued to make earnest appeals 
to them to believe in God's latest revelation; he re- 
counted the multitude of God's favours to them, and 
besought them to cast out vanity with persevering 
prayer, and keep their covenant with God. 

O children of Israel, remember My favour wherewith I have 
favoured you; and perform your covenant with Me, and I will perform 
My covenant with you * * * And believe in the revelation which 
I have sent down, confirming that which is with you, and be not the first 
to believe not therein, neither exchange My signs for a small price ; and 
fear Me. Clothe not the truth with vanity, neither conceal the truth 
against your own knowledge * * * Ask help with perseverance 
and prayer; this is indeed grievous unless to the humble who think they 
shall meet their Lord, and that to Him they shall return. II 39 ic. 

"Do ye reject us," asks Mohammed, ''O ye who have 
received the Scriptures, for any other reason than be- 
cause we believe in God and that revelation which hath 
been sent down to us, and that which was formerly sent 
down, and for that the greater part of you are trans- 
gressors?" (V, 64). There was more dividing him from 
the Christians than is implied in this question. He was 
at variance with them on a matter of principle involv- 
ing the acceptance or the rejection of the divinity of 

The Koran always refers to Jesus in terms of highest 
esteem short of attributing him to divine sonship. Be- 
side the ordinary names, prophet, apostle, servant of 
God, he is called (i) Isa, (Jesus) son of Mary; (2) 
the Messiah; (3) the Word of God; (4) the Spirit of 
(or from) God; (5) the Word of Truth. There is no 


reference in the Koran to Jesus Christ as ''Saviour"; 
salvation is only by the mercy of God. 

A long account, very much in the style of apocryphal 
books, is given of the Annunciation and birth of Christ 
in Chapters III, 42-48, and XIX, 16-35. The doctrine 
of the immaculate conception is accepted: 

— Mary — who preserved her chastity, and Into whose womb We 
breathed of Our Spirit. XLVI, 12. 

— Her, who preserved her virginity, and into whom We breathed of 
Our Spirit, ordaining her and her son for a sign unto all creatures. 
XXI, 91. Cf. IV, 169 and XIX, 16. 

His mission and miracles are acknowledged : 

When the angels said, "O Mary, God sendeth thee good tidings, 
that thou shalt bear the Word proceeding from Himself: his name 
shall be Christ Jesus, the son of Mar>', honourable in this world and in 
the world to come, and one of those who approach near God: and 
he shall speak unto men in the cradle, and when he is grown up 

* * * God shall teach him the Scripture, and Wisdom, and the 
Law, and the Gospel * * * an apostle to the children of Israel. 
And he shall say, * 'Verily, I come unto you with a sign from your Lord ; 
and will make before you of clay, as it were the figure of a bird; 
then I will breathe thereon, and it shall become a bird by the permission 
of God: and I will heal him who hath been blind from his birth, and 
the leper; and I will raise the dead by permission of God." Ill, 45-48. 

We have given Jesus the son of Mary, manifest signs, and strength- 
ened him with the Holy Spirit. II, 254. 

His death and resurrection are referred to, in rather 
contradictory passages: 

God said, O Jesus, verily I will cause thee to die, and I will take thee 
up to Me. Ill, 54. 

They, {the Jews) have said, "Verily we have slain Christ Jesus, the 
son of Mary, the apostle of God." Yet they slew him not, neither 
crucified him ; but he was represented by one in his likeness * * * 
They really did not kill him, but God took him up to Himself. IV, 156, 

Then follows this enigmatical declaration: 

And there shall not be one of those who have received the Scriptures 
who shall not believe in him before his death ; and on the day.* 

The whole passage is addressed to the Jews with the 
object of convincing them that Jesus was really a proph- 
et. Mohammed was now insisting that acceptance of 
all prophets was incumbent on true believers. The 
meaning then appears to be that if all Jews as well as 

* Commentators do not agree on the meaning of this verse, some referring "his" 
to death of the individual, and others, straining the sense, referring it to the death 
of Christ after his second advent. There does not seem to be any support in the Koran 
for the theory that Mohammed believed in the second coming of Christ. The statement is 
based on the above contradictory verses, the one saying he would die, and the other 
dclaring that the Jews did not kill him, but that he was. taken up by God. The only 
other verse which can be sai'd to have anything like a reference to the Second Advent 
is Xlylll, 61, which merely states that "He (Jesue) shall be a sign of the approach of 
the last hour." 


Christians were to believe in Christ as an apostle, other- 
wise, at the Day of Judgment, they .would be held 
responsible for their unbelief, and Jesus would be pres- 
ent there as a witness against them. Of resurrection he 
shall be a witness against them. (IX. 158). 

Mohammed is here on slippery ground. He had only 
just recently begun to insist on his prophetic mission 
to the People of the Book, demanding acceptance of 
all prophets, himself included, and recognition of the 
Koran because it confirms and preserves former Scrip- 
tures and here he emphatically denies the crucifixion 
and death of Christ as narrated in the canonical Gos- 
pels. Moreover, when introducing the story of Jesus 
in Chap. Ill 42 seq * * * a counterpart of the passage 
(IV 155 seq) quoted above, he declares that this in- 
formation is by direct revelation. 

This is secret history; We reveal it unto thee. Ill, 44. 

He had advanced a similar claim on other occasions, 
(XI, 51 ic; XII, 3, 103; XXVIII, 2, ic.) when he was 
accused by his opponents of obtaining his ancient his- 
tory from certain individuals. His declaration at this 
juncture may have been in order to refute a charge of 
having taken his version of the life of Christ from 
apocryphal or heterodox Christian sources. The effect 
of his affirmation is distinctly to make the Koran 
supersede former Scriptures. It must be noted here, 
however, that we have no definite knowledge of what 
books of the New Testament Mohammed was ac- 
quainted with. The Koran always mentions the Gos- 
pel, but the phraseslogy of some verses recalls portions 
t)f the Epistles. 

The prophet in these two passages (in, 42 seq., and 
IV, 155 seq.) is making a serious effort at adjusting 
the differences dividing the Jews and Christians. Be- 
fore coming to Medina he had had occasion to rebuke 
the People of the Book for their schisms among them- 

Verily, this your reh'gion is one reh'gion, and I am your Lord ; where- 
for serve Me. But they have made schisms in the affair of their 
religion among themselves; all of them shall appear before Us. XXI, 
92, 93. 


This same dispute among them was a stumbling block 
to all young Moslem converts and enquirers, (XLII, 
13). Here Mohammed delivers his judgment between 
the two parties. The Jews were wrong when they 
mockingly boasted of having slain the Christian apostle. 
It would not have affected Christ's office as an apostle 
whether the Jews killed him or not, for they had slain 
other prophets, (IV, 154: V, 74) but the miraculous 
birth of Christ and his ascension into heaven without 
having first tasted death were such manifest signs of 
God's favour that no further proofs of his apostleship 
should be necessary to convince the Jews of their error 
of rejecting him. On the other hand, in denying the 
death of Christ, he was rejecting one of the cardinal 
factors in the history and dogma of orthodox Chris- 
tianity. There is no hint in any of these passages that 
Mohammed had in mind the Christian doctrine of 
atonement; he ignores it here as he does throughout 
the Koran. Not so with the divinity of Christ. After 
giving his proofs that Jesus was a true prophet, he turns 
round to the Christians and warns them: 

Exceed not the just bonds in your religion, neither say of God any 
other than the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, is but an 
apostle of God and His Word which he cast into Mary, and a spirit 
from Him. Believe therefore in God and his apostles, and say not 
"Three" ; forbear this, it will be better for you. God is but one God. 
Far be it from Him that He should have .a son! IV, 169. 

In several other passages also he strongly protests^ 
against the belief in the divine sonship of Christ: 

Verily the likeness of Jesus in the sight of God is as the likeness of 
Adam. He created him out of dust, and then said to him, "Be"; and 
he was. Ill, 58. 

They are surely infidels who say, "Verily God is Christ, the son of 
Mary": they are certainly infidels who say, "God is a third of three": 
for there is no god beside one God. And if they refrain not from what 
they say, a painful torment shall surely be inflicted on such of them as 
are unbelievers. V. 78. 

Christ the son of Mary is no more than an apostle. Other apostles^ 
have preceded him; and his mother was a woman of veracity. They 
both ate food. (i. e. they were subject to human appetities) . V. 79. 

It is not meet for God that He should have a son. 
God forbid! When He decreeth a thing He only 
saith unto it, *'Be" and it is. XIX, 36. As a clinching 
touch to his argument he exclaims: 


Sole maker of heaven and earth! How, when He hath no consort 
could he have a son? VI, loi. See also IH, 47: LXXH, 3. 

Mohammed went a step further, and maintained that Christ never 
made a claim to divinity, but on the contrary, repudiated the 
idea. * * * 

And when God shall say "O Jesus, Son of Mary, hast thou said 
unto men, 'Take me and my mother for two gods besides God,' he 
shall answer, * Praise be unto Thee, it is not for me to say that which 
I ought not. HI had said so, Thou wouldst surely have known 
•^ * * * J ]^^yQ pQj. spoken to them any other than what Thou 
didst command me, namely, 'Worship God, my lord and your lord.* 
V. 116. 117. 

Jesus said "I come to confirm the law which was revealed before 
iY\e * * * I come as a sign unto you from your Lord. Therefore, 
fear God, and obey me. Verily God is my Lord : therefore serve Him. 
Ill, 49. 50. 

Mohammed^s conception of the unity of God and of 
the uniqueness of His nature is best expressed in the 
words of Chap. CXII, — the very foundation of his 
faith. This chapter was revealed early in the prophet's 
career, and was directed against the Meccan idea that 
their idols were "daughters of God," (XXT, 92; XLIII, 
57-60). The original significance is now almost for- 
gotten, and the bulk of the Moslems of to-day, who 
constantly use these verses in their prayers, interpret 
them in direct opposition to Christianity: 

God is one God; the eternal God. He begetteth not, neither is He 
begotten ; and there is not any one like unto Him. CXLI. 

Thus, in his dispute with the Christians, Mohammed's 
sole aim is to disprove the divinity of Christ, a doctrine 
which he understands only in the anthropomorphic 
sense of the verse (VT, loi) quoted above. He con- 
fuses Mariolatry with the Trinity, (V, 116) and en- 
tirely ignores the Holy Ghost. The term "holy spirit" 
did not convey to him any meaning but that of an angel 
like Gabriel, bringing the message to be delivered to 

The dispute with the Jews turned more on the per- 
sonality and office of Mohammed himself. Their ob- 
jection to him was twofold. First, they declared that 
all revelation and prophecy came in the line of the 
Hebrews; they were the chosen people of God. Sec- 
ondly, the only prophet still to come was their own 
Messiah, who was to restore the kingdom to Israel. 


On both grounds they could concede nothing in favour 
of Mohammed. 

Against the latter point the prophet maintained that 
the Messiah had come in the person of Jesus Christ, 
whom he calls by this title in several verses in the 
Koran; and that ^'Unto God belongeth the kingdom of 
Heaven and of earth," to dipose of at His own good 
pleasure, (VH, 157). In answer to the former ob- 
jection he protested in some really ^ne passages against 
the idea that the grace of God should be held as the 
monopoly of any one nation: 

Verily, the true direction is the direction of God, that there may 
be given to some other a revelation like unto what hath been given unto 
you * * * Surely excellance is in the hands of God ; He giveth 
unto whom He pleaseth, God is bounteous and wise. He will confer 
peculiar mercy on whom He pleaseth, for God is endued with great 
beneficence II, 72 73. 

That those who have received the Scriptures may know that they have 
not power over any of the favors of God ; and that good is in the hands 
of God: He bestoweth the same on whom He pleaseth. LVII, 29. 

The Jews say, "The hands of God are tied up." Their hands shall 
be tied up, and they shall be cursed for that which they have said. 
Nay! His hands are both stretched forth, He bestoweth as He pleaseth. 
V. 69. 

It is not the desire of the unbelievers either those unto whom the 
Scriptures have been given, or among the idolaters that any good 
should be sent down unto you from your Lord; but God will appro- 
priate His mercy unto whom He pleaseth, for God is exceeding 
beneficent. II, 104. 

They say, **None shall enter paradise except those who are Jews 
and Christians." This is their wish. Say, "Produce your proof, if ye 
speak truth." Nay! but he who resigneth himself to God, and doth 
that which is right, he shall have his reward with his Lord: there 
shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved. II, no, iii. 

The baptism of God have we received, and who is better than God 
to baptize? Him do we w^orship. 11,138. 

If the future mansion with God be prepared peculiarly for you, 
exclusive of the rest of mankind, wish for death, if ye say truth: but 
they will never wish for it, because of that which their hands have sent 
before them. II, 93, 94. 

We have already seen that Mohammed could not 
accept this claim to exclusiveness by the Jews, without 
violating his sense of God's justice and mercy. God's 
message is universal, and His warners are sent to every- 

The prophet accused his opponents of rejecting him 
out of envy and jealousy, (II, 89-108) whereas in their 
hearts they knew him to be true, and that his coming 


had been foretold in the Jewish and Christian writings. 
To hide this they ^'perverted the Scriptures with their 
tongues, and sold the truth for a small price." 

When God accepted the covenant of the prophets, He said, "This 
verily is the Scriptures and the wisdom I have given you: hereafter 
shall an apostle come unto j^ou confirming the truth of that Scripture 
which is with you: ye shall surely believe in him and ye shall assist 
him." Ill, 80. 

I will write down good unto those who shall fear Me * * * and 
who shall follow the apostle, the illiterate prophet whom they shall 
find written down with them in the Law and the Gospel * * * 
Say, "Verily, O Men, I am the messenger of God unto you all : unto 
Him belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth. * * * Believe 
therefore in God and His apostle, the illiterate * prophet who believeth 
in God and His word, and follow him that ye may be rightly directed. 
VII, 156-159. 

And when Jesus the son of Mary, said, "O children of Israel verily 
I a7n an apostle of God sent unto you, confirming the Law which 
was delivered before me, and bringing good tidings of an apostle who 
shall come after me, and whose name shall be Ahmad." LXI, 6. 

The Christian prophecy as given here is a distinct 
reference to John XVI, 7. Moslem commentators, with 
some ingenuity, maintain that the word paraclete in the 
New Testament is an error for periclete which might 
very well be rendered in Arabic by Ahmad. 

The knowledge of these prophetical passages in the 
Scriptures came to Mohammed through the Jews and 
Christians themselves, of whom there were some con- 
verts at Medina, (III, 199 etc.) These new disciples 
would naturally lay great stress on the prophecies as 
the main element in their own conversion. Very prob- 
ably, the first suggestion came from them that the prom- 
ises referred to Mohammed, who united in his own 
person the Jewish Messiah and the Christian paraclete. 
Others of the People of the Book would use the same 
passages as an argument against Mohammed's claim to 
be the apostle foretold, the Jews saying that the Mes- 
siah, the only prophet yet to come, was to be the son 
of David, and the Christians looking forward to the 
coming of the "comforter," who was to be sent in the 
name of Christ. The bulk of the Jews and Christians 

• As Rodwell points out in loco, the word ummi, translated here by Sale as "illiterate" 
does not mean that Mohammed could no* read or write. The same term was used by 
the Jews themselves for "the heathen," (III, 74) Mohammend applies it in the sense 
of "ignorant of the Scriptures" to the Arabs, (III, 20 and LXII, 2), and also to a 
section of the Jews: — "There are illiterate men among them who know not the book 
of the Law, but only lying stories." (II, 77) Which is of the same root as Mohammed. 


depreciated the idea of giving information to Mo- 
hammed and his followers of what was contained in the 

When they are privately assembled together they say, ''Will ye ac- 
quaint them with what God hath revealed unto you, that they might 
dispute with you concerning it?" II, 75. 

This verse gives the key to the accusations brought by 
Mohammed from now on against the People of the 
Book of "hiding the truth," (II, 147) ; "concealing the 
truth against their own knowledge," (II, 41) ; "throwing 
it behind their backs, and selling it for a small price," 
(III, 188) ; "perverting" (IV, 44) and "dislocating the 
words," (V, 14). All these charges centre round the 
aversion of the orthodox Jews and Christians to dis- 
closing verses in their Scriptures which might in any 
way be interpreted as foretelling the coming of Mo- 
hammed. In only one passage is there a possible charge 
of corrupting the text of the Scriptures, then extant; 
the usual accusations are of hiding, of misquoting, or 
of wilful misinterpretation. In Chap. II, 78 we read: 

Woe unto them who transcribe corruptly the book of the Law with 
their hands, and then say, ''This is from God," that they may sell it for a 
small price. 

The prophet is dealing in that passage with some 
"illiterate" Jews, "who know not the book of the Law 
but only lying stories." Mohammed and his followers 
did not possess copies of the Scriptures, so in any dis- 
pute between him and the People of the Book, he chal- 
lenged them to produce their copy: "Bring hither the 
Pentateuch" (III, 93) for reference as authoritative. 

Undoubtedly the belief in his coming having been 
foretold in former Scriptures profoundly affected Mo- 
hammed's estimate of his own office. It led him to 
regard himself not merely as the national prophet to 
the Arabs, but also as the promised apostle to the 
Jews and Christians, and God's final messenger to man- 
kind in general. 

It is clear that Mohammed did not understand the 
Messianic hopes and expectations of the Jews, the 
"earthly kingdom of God" of the early prophets with 
its material advantages to the children of Israel, nor 


the higher conception of the ''Kingdom" in a new 
heaven and a new earth of the latter apocalyptic. The 
Christian ''comforter/' the "Spirit of truth, who dwell- 
eth within you, and shall be in you" (John XIV. 17) 
was in his sight but a human apostle like himself. 

The passages from which the verses quoted above 
are taken, (Chaps. Ill, 80 seq: VII, 156 seq: LXI, 6 
seq. All four sections are complementary to one an- 
other in thought, and contain several striking chords and 
phrases in common. 

The first step forward which Mohammed now took 
is seen in Chap. V, 13 and 22, where, after accusing the 
People of the Book of dislocating words in their Scrip- 
tures, forgetting part and concealing others, he makes 
the following declaration to them, putting the words 
in the mouth of God : 

Oh ye who have received the Scriptures now is Our apostle come 
unto you to make manifest unto you many things which ye concealed 
in your Scriptures, and to pass over mlany things. Now is a light and 
perspicuous book come unto you from God. V, 16, 17. 

Oh ye who have received the Scriptures now is Our apostle come 
unto you declaring unto you the true religion, during the cessation of 
prophets, lest ye should say ''There came unto us no bearer of good 
tiding and a warner came unto you." V, 22. 

The long period of cessation of prophets since the 
time of Christ was at an end; the promises of the Old 
and New Testaments had been long being fulfilled, but 
now the long expected apostle had come to them, bring- 
ing with him a book of revelations. 

After this we find Mohammed referring to the Jews 
and Christians as those who had received "part" of the 
Scriptures, (III, 23, 25 and others). The revelation of 
God was not complete without the Koran, nor were 
they true believers who rejected the latest prophet and 
his book (II, 37 etc). 

In Chap. VII, 159 sandwiched in between his two 
references to himself as the "illiterate prophet written 
down with them in the Law and the Gospel," he places 
this proclamation of universal apostleship: 

Verily, I am the messenger of God unto you all. 

In Chap. LXI, the reference to the paraclete is fol- 


lowed by a promise that Islam shall be victorious over, 
or exalted above, every other religion. 

It is He who hath sent down the apostle with the direction and the 
reh'gion of truth, that he may exalt the same above every religion LXI, 9. 

Further we find in Chap. Ill, 84 that Islam, which 
includes belief in all prophets from Adam to Mo- 
hammed, is the only religion acceptable of God: 

Whosoever followeth any other religion than Islam, it shall not be 
accepted of him, and in the next life, he shall be of those who perish, 
III, 84. 

The sequence of thought in these passages points 
clearly to the connection in Mohammed's mind between 
the Scriptural prophecies and the universality of his 
office. The thesis, which he had laid down during his 
Meccan period, had now to be modified; from this on 
we hear nothing of an apostle for every nation; Mo- 
hammed had become the ^^seal of the prophets," 
(XXXIII, 40) ; the Moslems themselves were the 
chosen people of God and the bearers of his message 
to the rest of mankind. 

We have sent thee an apostle unto men; and God is a sufficient 
witness thereof IV, 78. 

Verily, the true religion with God is Islam, iii, 19. 

Ye are the best nation, {or sect or people) that hath been raised up 
to mankind. Ill, no. 

He hath chosen you, and hath not imposed upon you any difficulty in 
religion, the religion of your father Abraham. He hath named you 
Muslims heretofore, and in this book ; that Our apostle may be a witness 
against you at the day of judgment, and that you may be witnesses 
against the rest of mankind. XXII, 79. Cf. IV, 40, XVI, 86, 91. 

Thus have wc placed you an intermediate nation, {or a central people) 
that you may be witnesses against the rest of mankind, and that apostle 
may be a witnes against you. II, 143. 

They seek to extinguish the light of God with their mouths but God 
willeth no other than to perfect His light, though the infidels be averse 
thereto. It is He who hath sent His apostle with the direction and the 
true religion, that He may cause it to appear superior to any other 
religion, although the idolaters be averse thereto. IX, 32, 33. 

He repeats the promise of victory to Islam in one of 
the latest chapters of the Koran: 

He hath sent His apostle with the direction and true religion that 
he may exalt the same above every religion. XLVIII, 28. 

Then immediately follows the phrase Mohammed 
rasul Allah, '^Mohammed is the prophet of God," the 
only time it occurs in the Koran. This phrase forms 
the second portion and completes the great formula of 
Islam, La ilaha ill Allah, Mohammed rasul Allah. 



It was but natural for Mohammed to believe firmly 
in the prophecies of his coming. They fitted in with 
his own desires, and confirmed to him the truth of his 
message. Mohammed was not so great in his concep- 
tion of God as he was in his conviction, and in his 
power to inspire others with the same faith. It was 
as an apostle that he led his people into battle, and 
came out again, if victorious, to the glory of God and 
the consolidation of his own office; if defeated, still 
like the apostles of old "who desponded not in their 
mind for what had befallen them in fighting for the 
religion of God, and were not weakened, neither be- 
haved themselves in an abject manner," (III, 146). As 
his temporal power increased, so did his conviction in 
his own apostleship deepen. It was as a prophet that 
he had touched the imagination of his countrymen, and 
had become a divine oracle to the pagan tribes even 
before they accepted Islam. All his decisions on mat- 
ters of daily life as well as on ceremonials were given 
in the character of the interpreter of God's will to 
men. So obsessed was he by his office that, when he 
was the leader of only a sm^ll force which had quite 
recently been in great straits defending itself against 
annihilation, he, according to Moslem tradition, sent 
embassies to the rulers of the Persian and Byzantine 
Empires, and Egypt, etc. demanding their acceptance of, 
and submission to him as the apostle of God. The 
same conviction inspired his followers to face fearful 
odds, and, in the exaltation of their faith, to sweep 
triumphantly over those empires which, a few years 
previously, had laughed the prophet's messengers to 
scorn. The second phrase equally with the first of 
their formula has entered into the soul of Islam as it 
possessed the soul of its founder. 

Mohammed charged the Jews as well as the Chris- 
tians with defying their prophets: 

The Jews say, "Ezra is the son of God," and the Christians say, 
"Christ is the son of God." This is the saying in their mouths. They 
imitate the saying of those who were unbelievers in former times. 
May God resist them ! How are they infatuated ! They take their 
priests and their monks for their lords, besides God and Christ, the 


son of Mary, although they are commanded to worship one God only. 
There is no God, but He. IX, 30-31. 

There does not seem to be any foundation for this 
charge against the Jews in general; but it is difficult 
to understand how Mohammed could have made a 
statement of this kind if he had no grounds whatsoever 
for doing so, when the accusation could be so easily and 
promptly refuted. He was on firmer ground when he 
taunted his opponents with being at enmity with each 
other, and with their disregard for the revelation which 
had been given them : 

The Jews says, **The Christians lean on naught," "on naught can the 
Jews," say the Christians. II, 112. 

The likeness of those who were charged with the observance of the 
Law, and then observed it not, is at the likeness of an ass laden with 
books. LXII, 15. 

They had much learning but no knowledge ; they had 
not the heart to understand. 

Both Jews and Christians boasted of being the true 
sons of Abraham, and the sons of God. Mohamrned 
treated this claim with scorn: 

The Jews and Christians say, "We are the children of God and His 
beloved." Answer, — "Why then doth he punish you for your sins?" 
Nay, but ye are men, of those whom he hath created. V, 21. 

Abraham was neither Jew or a Christian; but he was of the true 
religion, one resigned unto God, and was not of the number of the 
idolaters. Verily, the men who are nearest of kin unto Abraham are 
they who follow him, and this prophet and they who follow him. Ill, 39. 

Mohammed returns again and again to his original 
statement that his teaching was fundamentally the same 
as their beliefs; the divine command that he had re- 
ceived and passed on to the Arabs was the same as 
they themselves had received from their prophets: 

Come to a commandment that is common to us and to you, — that 
we worship not aught but God, and that we join no other gods with 
Him; and that we take not one another for lords besides God. Ill, 63. 

We have already commanded those unto whom the Scriptures were 
given before you, and We command you also, saying "Fear God." IV, 

During his Meccan period Mohammed had regarded 
Moses as his hero amongst the prophets; but in the 
Koran of Medina the first place is given to Abraham. 
This arose naturally from the Jewish position. Moses 


was the great law-giver and the interpreter of God's 
will to His chosen people regarding conduct and ritual; 
but they never refer to the deity as the ^^God of Moses," 
but as the ''God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob"; Abra- 
ham was their father in God as well as their father 
in the flesh. Mohammed grappled with them on the 
grounds they had selected for themselves. He ac- 
cepted Abraham as the "iman, (leader of the public 
worship), and model in religion," (HI, 66) ''the Law 
and the Gospel were not sent down until after him" 
(HI, 64). He was willing to put his doctrine to a test 
of comparison with the teaching of Abraham, and to 
abide the result. 

They saj^ ''Become Jews or Christians, that ye may be directed." 
Say, "Nay! We will follow the religion of Abraham the orthodox who 
was no idolator, (III, 135 and II, 120). 

It was useless for the Jews and Christians to taunt 
him with his failure to perform miracles. Other 
prophets had come before him with these signs, only 
to meet with their death at the hands of their own 

They say, "Surely God has commanded us that we should not give 
credit to any apostle until one should come unto us with a sacrifice 
which should be consumed by fire." Say, "Apostles have already come 
unto you before me with plain proofs, and with the miracle which ye 
mention; why therefore have ye slain them?" If they accuse thee of 
imposture, the apostles before thee have also been accounted impostors, 
who brought evident demonstrations, and the Scriptures, and the book 
which enlighteneth. iii, 184, 185. 

Rites and ceremonials were not essentials. Each sect 
had its own ritual and its laws by which its members 
had a right to be judged, provided such laws were not 
contrary to later positive revelation. As Mohammed's 
power grew in Medina, he was more and more looked 
upon as the final judge in all disputes between par- 
ties in the community. The Jews were averse to -sub- 
mitting their cases to his judgment, preferring the 
crude justice of the pagan authorities. This annoyed 
the prophet, (IV, 58 etc.). He received instructions 
how to deal with them by divine revelation. 

With all due regard and respect for former Scrip- 
tures, the final authority was to be the Koran. Mo- 
hammed could not trust the Jews to apply the "di- 


rection and light" they had received to their pagan 
adversaries who were outside the benefits of the Law, 
or to share the ^'kingdom of God" with the rest of 
mankind : 

They say, "We are not obliged to observe justice with the heathen" ; 
but they utter a lie against God knowingly. Ill, 74. 

Hast thou not considered those to whom part of the Scriptures hath 
been given? * * * Shall they have part of the kingdom since 
even then they would not bestow the smallest matter on men ? Do they 
envy other men that which God of His bounty hath given them? IV, 


Because of the iniquity of those who Judaize. We have forbidden 
them good things, which had formerly been allowed them; and because 
they shut out many from the way of God. IV, 159. 

God had given to the Jews the book of law, — "a 
perfect rule unto him who should do right, and a de- 
termination concerning all things" (VI. 154) ; but 
'^they had forgotten the admonitions which had been 
given them," (VII, 166) ; in consequence God had sub- 
jected them ''until the day of resurrection to nations 
who would afflict them with a grievous oppression," 
(VII, 168). He dispersed them ''among the nations 
of the earth, and proved them with prosperity and with 
adversity, that they might return from their disobe- 
dience" (VII, 169). In spite of God's favours to them, 
spiritual and temporal, they persistently refused to ac- 
cept His signs. The punishment of those who wilfully 
continued in their unbelief would be specially severe, 
but those of the People of the Book who accepted Islam 
would have a double reward in the next world (Surahs 
IV, 53, 54; II: 17s). 

The failure of his appeal on, the basis of prophesy 
and unity of doctrine caused Mohammed to despair of 
ever gaining his opponents over to his side. The keen- 
ness of his disappointment is reflected in bitter passages 
of reproach in the Koran of this period, particularly 
against the Jews. The prophet retained some good 
feeling towards the "followers of Jesus," "in whose 
hearts we placed compassion and mercy" (LVII, 27). 

The Jews hearken to a lie, and eat of that which is for bidden. V, 45. 

Thou shalt surely find the most violent of all men in enmity against 
the true believers to be Jews and the idolaters; and thou shalt find 
those among them to be the most inclinable to friendship for the true 
believers who say, "We are Christians." This because there are priests 


and monks among them, and because they are not elated with pride. 

The controversy went on at Medina for about four 

years, gradually becoming more and more embittered 
as his opponents, in Mohammed^s estimation, persisted 
in their sinful obstinacy, and rejected his advances. 
His attitude towards them passed through the several 
phases of conciliation, toleration and estrangement to 
open hostility. In keeping with these different phases 
we find Mohammed departing further and further from 
the ritual of the Jews which he had once in a measure 
accepted or closely imitated. There was no more de- 
sire for union or cooperation with the other mono- 

Though Mohammed never regarded ceremonials as 
of vital importance, he recognized that certain formali- 
ties may be of use to the weak in faith, and serve as a 
bond of union among believers and a distinction from 
other religions. Like his code of laws, his system of 
rites was a growth; he never set himself to elaborate a 
scheme, but decided each point as it was raised. 

On his first arrival in Medina the prophet had com- 
manded his followers to fast on the same day as the 
Jews. He now substituted for that the fast of Rama- 
dan, a whole lunar month during which Moslems are 
forbidden to eat, drink, or smoke, from two hours be- 
fore dawn to sunset each day. He regretted his choice 
of Jerusalem as his kiblah, and for some time he was 
sorely troubled in his mind to find a spot sacred enough 
to take its place. Possibly this state of indecision lasted 
for many months, during which period he tried many 
points of the compass without satisfaction. The diffi- 
culty was overcome by a direct revelation§ appointing 
the Ka'aba at Mecca as the Moslem kiblah to which the 
faithful were to turn their faces in prayer; it was to 
be to the Moslems what Solomon made the temple in 
Jerusalem to the Jews, (i Kings, VHI, the centre of 
all worship. This was not obligatory on the Jews and 

§ Moslem tradition states that the first suggestion to adopt the Kabah as their kiblar 
was made by Omar, the friend of Mohammed and afterwards second Caliph. This is 
quite probable. Mohammed was quick at taking a hint, and if the matter was importan 
enougn, a revelation would follow to give the decision a divine sanction. 

Christians; it was purely a sectarian detail: 

It is not rightousness that ye turn your faces in prayer towards the 
east or west, but righteousness is of him who believeth in God and the 
last day, and the angels, and the Scriptures, and the prophets: who 
giveth money for God's sake unto his kindred, and unto orphans, and 
the needy, and the stranger, and those who ask, and for the redemption 
of captives; who is constant at prayer, and giveth alms; and of those 
who perform their covenants when they have convenanted; and who 
behave themselves patiently in adversity, and hardship, and in times of 
violence : these are they who are true, and these are they who fear God. 
II, 177. 

The foolish say, "What hath turned them from their kiblah which 
they used ?" Say, "The East and West and God's." 

We have seen thee turn they face towards heaven with uncertainity, 
but We will cause thee to turn thyself towards a kiblah that will 
please thee. Turn therefore thy face towards the holy temple of 
Mecca) and wherever ye be turn your faces towards that place, ii, 145. 

Every sect hath a certain tract of heaven to which they turn them- 
selves in prayer. II, 149. 

When remonstrated with, probably by the Jews, for 
departing so widely from precedents, he answered, as 
usual putting the words as a divine command: 

Say, Will ye dispute with us concerning God who is our Lord and 
your Lord? We have our works, and ye have your works, and unto 
Him are we sincerely devoted. Will ye say, 'Truly Abraham and 
Ismael and Jacob and the tribes were Jews or Christians?" Say, "Are 
ye wiser, or God?" II, 139. 

Unto the professors of every religion have We appointed certain 
rites which they observe. Let them therefore not dispute with thee 
concerning this matter: but invite them unto thy Lord, for thou fol- 
lowest the right direction. XXII, 68. 

The adoption of the Ka'aba as the Moslm kiblah 
marks a definite breach with the Jews and Christians. 
From this on they were to be regarded as enemies, and 
not sought as friends: 

O true believers, take not the Jews and Christians for your friends; 
they are friends the one to the other; and whoso among you taketh 
them for his friends, he is surely one of them. V, 56. 

O true believers, take not such of those to whom the Scriptures were 
given before you, or of the infidels, for your friends, who make a 
laughing-stock and a jest of your religion. V, 62. 

When Mohammed turned his face towards Mecca, 
he turned his back forever on Jerusalem; henceforth 
it was to be war. 

Why did not the prophet fix upon the mosque ht 
himself had built as the kiblah for the Moslems? Why 
did he not proclaim Medina, his chosen home, as the 
holy city of Islam? The thought never seems to have 
struck him. We can only judge that the bent of his 


mind was towards precedent and tradition. His 
thoughts had lately dwelt on the history of Abraham; 
the trend of the debate with the Jews and Christians 
had exalted the patriarch to the position of model of 
religion and fountainhead of monotheistic teaching. 
Mohammed relied on and constantly used, the argu- 
ment based on the unity of his teaching with that of 
the ancient prophets; his position would be further 
strengthened if he could attach his religious practices 
to a place and form of worship which l]ad the prestige 
of antiquity. The Meccan tradition of the coming of 
Abraham and Hagar with their child Ishmael to the 
valley of Mecca, or Beccah as it was then called (XIV, 
38 seq.) and of the building there of the ^'house of 
God," by father and son (II, 127 seq.) supplied him 
with the desired link with the past. It did more, it 
appealed eventually to national sentiment by connect- 
ing an early divine revelation and organized worship 
with the Arabs, giving them priority over the He- 
brews who had so long and vaingloriously claimed the 
exclusive favour of God: 

Verily, the first house appointed unto men to worship in was that 
which was in Becca; blessed, and a direction to all creatures. Therein 
are manifest signs, the place where Abraham stood; and whosoever 
entereth therein shall be safe. Ill, 96, 97. 

Some European authors of high standing hold that 
this story of the connection between Abraham and Mec- 
ca is the product of Mohammed's own brain, invented 
to supply him with the means of conciliating the Mec- 
cans and of preserving their prosperity, much of which 
was derived from the pilgrims to the holy shrine; and 
appealing at the same time to the national pride of the 
Arabs. They do not quite prove their case. There is 
too much tendency to interpret Mohammed's motives 
and policy in the light of subsequent events, which he 
could not possibly have foreseen. The prophet's genius 
was not so much inventive as it was adaptive. There 
are references to the sacred character of Mecca and its 
district in chapters generally regarded as having been 
revealed before the Hijra, — XIV, 38 etc. The refer- 
ence to the ''holy temple" and the sin of keeping men 


away from it, in the prophet's apology for the affair at 
Nakhla, (II, 216) should, in our opinion, be dated be- 
tween the abandoning of Jerusalem and the adopting of 
the Ka'aba as kiblah; it was certainly revealed long 
before the prophet thought of proclaiming the pilgrim- 
age to Mecca a duty incumbent on Moslems. Even be- 
fore the time of Mohammed the Meccans believed in 
the existence of a great remote God whom they sought 
only in the times of greatest distress (XVII, 69). Like 
the nations in Samaria, (ii Kings XVII, 41) ''they 
feared the Lord, but served their own graven images." 
The prophet's task was therefore, not to convince them 
of the existence of Allah, but to prove that nothing but 
He was divine. He set himself to bring man into a 
closer relation with God; still, by laying such emphasis 
on the uniqueness of His nature, he has left Him the 
great lone God of Islam. The prevalence of this be- 
lief is used as an argument in support of the theory that 
the Meccan Arabs were descended from a monotheistic 
stock, in fact, from Ishmael whose second son, Kedar, 
was the ancestor in a direct line of the prophet Mo- 
hammed. Nowhere in the Koran itself is such a claim 
definitely advanced, nor does it state clearly that Ish- 
mael was the one offered up for sacrifices, as many 
Moslem authors maintain. Ishmael is certainly given 
a high rank among the ancient prophets. In the Chap- 
ter of Commemoration (XIX) of all the prophets men- 
tioned therein Ishmael and Moses alone are given the 
dignity of apostles; the rest, even Jesus, are mere 
prophets. It may be argued with some show of force 
that the descent from Ishmael was so universally ac- 
cepted, even by the Jews, that Mohammed never 
thought it necessary to emphasize the point by revela- 
tion. The tone of the Koran lends itself somewhat to 
such an inference. 

Though the tradition may have been current among 
the Arabs, Mohammed did not make use of it in his 
earlier years because, at that time, the Jews loomed so 
largely in his mind as the curators, and Jerusalem as 
the centre of the true religion. In this spirit, when 


referring to his night journey to heaven in Chap. XVII, 
I, he speaks of the Ka'aba as the ''sacred mosque" but 
accords a greater need of sanctity to the temple at 
Jerusalem, — "whose precinct We have blessed"; the 
road to hempen passed through Jerusalem. After a few 
years of close acquaintance with the Hebrews, he re- 
vised his estimate of them; and probably rejoiced at 
finding an opportunity of striking a blow at their na- 
tional and religious pride. 

Mohammed's whole public effort had been directed 
at destroying the idolatrous worship in Mecca. The 
fact that this city had been so long the religious capital 
of Arabia had, no doubt, great weight; the possession 
of it would mean a tremendous triumph of the ''true 
religion" over paganism; but at that time, when Mo- 
hammed adopted the Ka'aba as his kiblah, he had no 
prospects of subduing Mecca. His power was not ab- 
solute over Medina itself, and his influence extended 
only over a few tribes in the immediate vicinity. Mo- 
hammed confesses that he was not a prophet in the 
sense of foreseeing events and knowing the secrets of 
God. (VII, i88.) 

A filial hankering after the city of his birth was 
natural; but he had made a compact with the Medinites 
that their city should be his home, her people his 
people. Mecca could not therefore become his head- 
quarters. Nor was it the pressure of public opinion 
among his followers which induced him to make Mecca 
the centre of Islam. At that time the majority of his 
converts were natives of Medina and not Muhajireen 
(refugees) and their interests were in their own home. 

Further, we know from subsequent events that this 
appeal to the national pride, — if it were meant as such, 
had not much force except amongst those who had ac- 
cepted Islam. The adoption of the Ka'aba as the Mos- 
lem kiblah made no impression upon the unbelieving 
Meccans; it was Mohammed's growing military power 
that induced them, some years later, to agree to the 
prophet and his followers visiting the holy places as 
pilgrims. In his preamble to the Proclamation of Pil- 


grimage Mohammed enters a claim to the right of the 
stranger equally with that of the Meccans themselves 
to perform the rites of the Hajj. (XXII, 25). It was 
by peaceful negotiation that he hoped to secure these 
rites, and not by conquest. He looked forward to 
nothing more than being allowed to go there, just as 
every other pilgrim had been doing for centuries, and 
perform the rites appertaining to his own religion. 

The prophet could not have meant it for the sake 
of securing the prosperity of Mecca, for he recognizes 
that his success as a preacher meant a danger of loss of 
profits to the city (IX, 28). Even if he had visions 
of the tribes coming to him in troops, they came as 
Moslems; and as Moslems they would have come to 
Medina quite as readily, and accepted any rites he 
wished to impose upon them as they did the fast of 
Ramadan, the most onerous of all Moslem duties. 

If we seek, therefore, the primary motive of Mo- 
hammed's action in these circumstances, we find it in 
his desire to get away from the official religion of the 
Jews, at a time when he had just assumed the office 
of apostle to mankind in general. The Jews had made 
their religion a national and not a universal one, con- 
trary to what Mohammed believed to be the teaching 
of Abraharri, and the purpose of God; they had been 
chosen to propagate the faith, and not to reserve God's 
favours to themselves. 

There must have been something in the character and 
history of Mecca which appealed strongly to him as an 
apostle, something sacred to which he could attach his 
message. It was not filial love, hope of conquest, vi- 
sions of future success. He says it was the connection 
between Abraham and the holy temple. 

Whether this belief already existed among the Arabs, 
or was imposed upon them by ^^divine revelation," it 
became an important factor in the success of Islam after 
the conquest of Mecca, and forms an integral part of the 
faith, and a source of pride to all believers. 

Mohammed's desire to seize the stronghold of idola- 
try can readily be understood, but not so easily his tak- 


ing over the rites practised by the idolaters, and making 
them his own. There are some indications in the 
Koran that, when he first decided on the pilgrimage, 
he did not intend to adopt all the forms of ritual which 
Were customary at the temple ; some of them he referred 
to contemptuously as mere ^'whistling and clapping of 
hands," (VIII, 35). He may even have purged them 
of some of their worst features. He meant to impose 
certain ceremonials which he conceived to be more in 
accordance with the custom of the patriarch Abraham. 
The Scriptures never refer to the patriarchs, before the 
time of Solomon, as building a ''house of God"; they 
always erected an altar. This gave him ah opportunity 
of emphasizing the priority of the Ka'aba over the 
temple at Jerusalem, by stating that the first house ''ap- 
pointed by God unto men" was at Becca. This house, 
however, was not like Solomon's temple, a place for 
God "to dwell in forever," but w^as built for public 
worship. This house of God had its altar, for sacrifice 
is a "duty which God appointed to the professors of 
every religion," (XXII, 36). The Koran states dis- 
tinctly that the place for sacrificing the victims was 
the Ka'aba, "the ancient house," the same ancient 
house" as they were to compass (XXII, 31 and 35). 
Why the sacrifices are offered now at Mina, as they 
were by Mohammed himself, and not at the Ka'aba as 
definitely commanded in these verses, the Koran does 
not explain.* Even when, a few years later, he en- 
tered Mecca as a conqueror, and could have imposed 
ordinances at his pleasure, he adopted most of the pagan 
rites already in practice there. Did he find, after all, 
that it is easier to change principles than to do away 
with habits and customs of long-standing? Or was the 
apostle by now merged in the politician? His old atti- 
tude towards ritual, regarding it as not fundamental, 
may have had something to do with his decision. Some 

♦ Er Razi says: "They feared to defile Mecca with blood and sacrifice at Mina; 
but it is incumbent at Mecca, though Mina is part of Mecca." Vol. VI: p. 157. Tabari 
says: "The old house is the Ka'aba, but is also includes the whole of Mecca and its 
environs." Vol. XVII. p. 116. The commentators are not happy in their explanation. 
The Moslems do not compass" the whole of the sacred district of Mecca, including 
Mina which is miles away. The meaning of the verse is perfectly clear, but sanitary 
considerations may have led the prophet to change his first order, for the temple 
occupies the bottom of a valley, where drainage is impossible except by modern machinery. 


of the customary rites which are now taken as obliga- 
tory, he looked upon as merely harmless and per- 

Safa and Markah * * * it shall be no crime in you if ye compass 
them both. (II, 159.) 

He was, however, very careful to explain the mean- 
ing and object of sacrifice, — ''to commemorate the name 
of the Lord," ''to render thanks to Him for His bounti- 
ful gifts in the brute cattle," and "to magnify God." 
The victims slain are "the symbols of your obedience 
to God," (XXn, 38); there was no atoning value: 

Their flesh is not accepted of God, neither is their blood, but your 
piety is accepted of Him. XXII, 39. 

Mohammed probably regarded "atoning value" as a 
doctrine introduced into Judaism later than the time of 
Abraham, and contrary to his teaching. In this pas- 
sage dealing with the institution of sacrifice, there is a 
faint echo of the wording in the Old Testament. The 
phrase "to commemorate the name of the Lord" is 
repeated three times, and corresponds with the Scrip- 
tural sentence used to define the object and nature of 
the worship offered by Abraham wherever he built an 
altar in the name of the Lord," (Gen. XH and XHI). 

The closing phase of the controversy is marked by 
threats, more particularly against the Jews whom Mo- 
hammed accused of intriguing against the Moslems; 
but the prophet was cautious, and would not strike until 
he felt the enemy entirely in his power: 

Many of those unto whom the Scriptures have been given desire 
to render you again unbelievers, after ye have believed; out of envy 
from their souls, even after the truth is become manifest unto them; 
but forgive them, and avoid them, till God shall send His command. 
II, 108. 

Oh ye to whom the Scriptures have been given, believe in the 
revelation which We have sent down confirming that which is with 
you, before We deface your countenances, and render them as the 
back parts thereof ; or curse them as We cursed those who transgressed 
on the Sabbath day. IV, 45. 

And if they who have received the Scriptures had believed, it had 
surely been better for them, but the greater part of them are transgres- 
sors. They shall not hurt you except with a slight hurt; and if they 
fight against you, they shall turn their backs to you, and they shall not 
be helped. They are smitten with vileness wheresoever they are 
found; unless they obtain security by entering into a treaty with God, 
and a treaty with men and they draw on themselves indignation from 
God, and they are afflicted with poverty. This they suffer because they 


disbelieved the signs of God, and slew the prophets unjustly; this 
because they were rebellious and transgressors. Ill, 1 1 1, 112. 

To learn the fate of the People of the Book of Me- 
dina, and the final stage in the controversy, we have to 
supplement the Koranic account by a few details from 
Moslem history, without entering on an examination 
of the reasons given there for Mohammed's action. The 
prophet himself has stated in the quotations given be- 
low what were his main motives, and the only ones he 
regarded as important enough to be incorporated in 
the Koran. 

The Christians escaped lightly by submitting to pay- 
ing tribute, but a worse fate was in store for the Jews. 
Of them, there were three main branches or tribes at 
Medina, — the Banu Kainuka, the Banu Nadhir, and the 
Banu Kuraizah. These dwelt in separate fortified 
suburbs of the city, and entirely lacked cohesion amongst 
themselves. The prophet was well aware of this, (II, 
83, 84), and dealt with them by sections. The first to 
be attacked, not long after the victory at Badr, were 
the Banu Kainuka, the smallest of the tribes. After a 
short siege, they were compelled to surrender. Mo- 
hammed's own will inclined to severity and the pun- 
ishment of death, but he had to yield to the more 
merciful persuasion of some powerful pagan chiefs, and 
content himself with banishing the whole tribe to the 
confines of Syria. Two years later came the turn of 
the Banu Nadhir, who were also exiled, after having 
been plundered of much of their wealth. The Koranic 
account of this incident is as follows: 

It was He who caused those who believed not, of the people who 
received the Scriptures, to depart from their inhabitation at the first 
emigration. Ye did not think they would go forth, and they thought 
that their fortresses would protect them against God. But God came 
upon them from whence they did not expect, and He cast terror into 
their hearts. They pulled down their houses with their own hands, 
and the hands of the believers. Wherefore, take example from them, 
O ye who have eyes. And if God had not doomed them to banishment, 
He had surely punished them in this world ; and in the world to come 
they shall suffer the torment of hell fire. This, because they opposed 
God and His apostle. LIX, 2-5. 

The Banu Kuraizah suffered more. Medina had 
been besieged, unsuccessfully, but very hard pressed, 


by a confederation of tribes bent upon the destruction 
of this power which menaced the security of their cara- 
van routes. When the enemy raised the siege and drew 
off, Mohammed, who was in a bitter mood, turned his 
forces against the Banu Kuraizah, whom he suspected 
and accused of secretly assisting the enemy. When, at 
length, the Jews were compelled to surrender uncon- 
ditionally, their wealth was confiscated, the women and 
children were made slaves, and all the males above the 
age of puberty were put to death. The number of men 
thus slaughtered is variously given from six hundred 
to nine hundred. The event is thus recorded in the 
Koran : 

God hath driven back the infidels in their wrath; they obtained no 
advantage; and God was a sufficient protector unto the faithful in 
battle * * ♦ And He hath caused such of those who have received 
the Scriptures as assisted the confederates to come out of their fortresses, 
and He cast terror into their hearts. A part of them ye slew, and a part 
ye made captives. And God hath caused you to inherit their land and 
their houses and their wealth. XXXIII, 26. 

Whatever charges can be made against these Jewish 
tribes of weakness, of intrigue, and of breach of faith, 
they cannot be accused of moral cowardice. For a 
^^small price," — merely the recognition of Mohammed 
as a prophet, they could have purchased peace and 
security. The general command applied to them equal- 
ly, perhaps more readily than to the pagan folk, — ''Ye 
shall fight against them or they shall profess Islam" 
(XLVIII, 16). They chose, instead, to face and to 
suffer poverty, exile and death. They were true to 
the faith that was in them. 

This was the end of the controversy; and this was 
the end of the Jews at Medina, because ''they opposed 
God and His Apostles" (LIX, 5). 

J. Bryan. 
Alexandria, Egypt, 


The Strategic Value of Egypt 

Mr. A. Y. Steel, of the Egypt General Mission, writing from 
Shebin-el-Kanater, describes the New Egypt as follows: 

In speaking of mission work in Egypt, it is well ever to keep before 
us the important position this country has ever held in the Near 
East; and although destined, according to the Scriptures, to "be the 
basest of the kingdoms," and never to have a ruler of Egyptian extrac- 
tion (Ezek. xxix. 15 ; xxx. 13) it still holds, with ever increasing import- 
ance a most central place. On the desert, a few miles from here, we have 
the largest, or one of the largest, wireless stations in the world, where 
direct communication is kept up with England, India, and South 
Africa, and where is picked up the wireless news of all the European 
capitals. A large aeroplane base is being formed for the development 
of commercial aviation, from whence we may, ere long, hear the 
porters shouting, "Change planes for India, China, Australasia Khartum, 
Uganda, and The Cape." With the great railway developments in 
progress we may be able to come and go from the homeland, via 
Constantinople, practically dry-shod all the way. We must pray and 
trust that all these new lines of communication may become so many 
arteries for carrying the life-giving message of the Cross." 

Literary Work in Egypt 

Mr. George Swan writes as follows in the last number of the 
magazine of the Egypt General Mission: 

"The colloquial translation of Genesis is complete, and several manu- 
script copies are being tested in our village stations. I hope to glean 
useful suggestions for an improvement of the text. The Gospel of John 
is well under way. 

"The past year has seen a considerable return of our magazine, 
'Beshair-el-Salam,' to its pre-war witness of the Gospel to Mohamme- 
dans. It was hampered for so long by a strict censorship, so timorously 
afraid of hurting the susceptibilities of Mohammedans, that it allowed 
no reference to any subjects that were of particular interest to them. 
Only after we had made a vigorous protest at the deletion of a whole 
article, that was clearly a defence, and defence only, of Christianity 
from gross Mohammedan attacks, did a change take place in the at- 
titude of the censor. We have since been able to adapt our articles 
more to the needs of the Mohammedan reader. We cannot, however, 
too strongly emphasise the fact that the lodging of this successful protest 
coincided with special prayer at the homt-end for the removal of this 
crippling censorship. 

"A great cause for cheer has been the growing number of friends 
in the home-lands who are paying for magazines to be sent to selected 
Mohammedans for whom they pray. One of our Egyptian helpers, 
himself a convert from Islam, has greatly gladdened our hearts by 
spontaneously subscribing for ten — out of a mere pittance of a wage. 
Some of our friends at home write seeking to know the progress of the 
men for whom they are praying. Generally it is almost impossible for 
us to tell. But in the face of such expectant faith we must seek to find 



out means whereby we can get news of these specially prayed-for souls^ 
and where possible follow up the printed message with the warmer heart 
to heart touch of the Gospel messenger. 

"The first volume of 'What the Bible Teaches' (Torrey) has been 
issued from the Press, and has met with great appreciation. The 
second and final volume into which we have divided it should appear 
shortly. We have had to cut this book out as a monthly supplement 
to the magazine, as also the colloquial supplement, on account of the 
tremendous rise in the cost of paper, but we are steadily going on 
with its preparation." 

The Koran and Bolshevism 

It is, of course, true says. The Near East that Orientals set great 
store by tradition, but in the East generally, and more particularly in 
India, tradition is very easily made. Practically anything that has 
once been written, or for that matter said, may come to be accepted 
as traditional truth, and then it may be defended to the death. The 
importance of this principle has been recognised by the Bolshevist 
propaganda, which we are told is arranging for a pamphlet deriving 
its peculiar principles from the Koran; the idea is in itself ludicrous; 
but there is seldom any real difficulty in twisting isolated texts so as 
to support accepted conclusions, and such a pamphlet might easily 
acquire an importance which might take accurate scholars entirely by 
surprise. The manufacture of tradition is, in fact, on the way to become 
a recognised branch of industry, and the authorities cannot afford to be 
blind to its potential importance." 

"The Key of Paradise" in Popular Islam 

We are indebted to the Rev. J. Ireland Hasler, of the Baptist Mis- 
sion, Agra, for a resume of a little Moslem book with this title 
in Urdu: 

"It opens with a detailed description of the delights of Paradise 
and the torments of Hell — both alike materialistic in the extreme. 
There is no trace of the attempted spiritualizing of the teachings of 
the Koran on these points, such as is met with in the writings of the 
more educated Mohammedans. The attractions of Paradise are all 
sensuous if not sensualistic. Should a maiden die, and enter Paradise,. 
Almighty God will marry her to a man of Paradise. While the 
maiden is limited to monogamy, the faithful male however is promised 
polygamy. Wine will be available for drinking, yet no ill effects 
such as headache or intoxication will ensue. Delicious fruits and the 
tender flesh of fowls either roast or made into soup according to 
individual tastes will be served by 'khidmatgars.' The luridness of Hell 
is painted in sharp contract to the lusciousness of Paradise. Hell is 
under the charge of 19 angels, the chief of whom is Malik. So huge 
are they that it is a year's journey from one shoulder to the other, fire 
issues from their mouths, and their hands are large enough to seize on 
70,000 infidels at once and consign them to torment. It is utterly im- 
possible either to withstand them or escape from them. Seventy yards 
of chains are clamped upon each unbeliever and he is thrown into the 
flames. There is nothing to relieve hunger, and for the slaking of 
thirst there is but boiling water full of steam, which only burns the 
mouth. And the object of the writer of the book is to teach plainly 
how Paradise may be gained and Hell escaped. 

"He deals first with faith (iman) which is both the root and 


crown of all virtues. Faith is the acceptance of the Mohammedan 
creed, and in connection with it two things are essential, viz., its 
confession with the lips, and its acknowledgment by the heart as true. 
Both forms of the creed are mentioned, the abridged form (Iman 
Mujmal) and the detailed form (Iman Mufassal). 

"After faith comes prayer (namaz) — the pillar and support of religion 
(din) and the key of Paradise. The key of 'namaz' is purity (paki), 
and the absence of this purity invalidates prayer. This purity however 
ever is entirely external in its nature, viz., the cleansing from out- 
ward impurity or ceremonial defilement, such as is removed by the 
performance of the prescribed ablution (wazu,) either through bathing 
or washing in water or through the use of sand or dust where water 
is not available (tayammum). How precise are the details given not 
only in this connection but also throughout all the book can be seen 
from the folowing extract: — *In wazu, four things are obligatory, 
but in the case of a man with a thick beard five things. First, the 
face must be washed from the hair to below the chin, and from ear to 
ear. It is not, however, incumbent on a bearded man to apply water 
beneath the hair of his beard, neither is it incumbent to wet a wound, 
if water would hurt it, nor put water beneath a bandage which a 
surgeon has affixed in a case of phlebotomy, or on a broken limb, nor 
yet apply water to the eyeball. The washing of the eyelid is, however, 
obligatory. Secondly, both hands must be washed as far as the elbows, 
and, thirdly, both feet up to the ankles, and, fourthly, a fourth part 
of the head must be rubbed with the wet hand. A bearded man 
must also do the same to a quarter of his beard.' 

''Ceremonial bathing is not rightly performed unless in addition 
to washing the body the mouth and nose are also rinsed out. Instruc- 
tions are given as to the correct way of performing the ablution, and 
as to the nature of the water that must be used. A whole chapter is 
devoted to dealing with the proper method of tayammum. If socks 
are worn, they must be removed in the case of bathing (ghusl), but 
in the case of zuazu it is sufficient merely to lay the wet hand upon 
them. A similar liberty is permissible in the case of bandages. The 
chapters in the book that treat of the causes of defilement and impurity 
cannot be translated into English without the rules of ordinary decency 
being violated." 

The Future of Palestine 

In the discussion which has taken place regarding the future of 
Palestine and Turkey it is good for us to know the opinion of the Jews 
themselves. In the Jewish World for March 26, 1919, we read: 

"An influentially signed letter on the future of Turkey has been for- 
warded to Mr. Balfour, in which a strong plea is made for the preser- 
vation of the Turkish Empire and the maintenance of the prestige of the 
Ottomian Sovereign as Caliph. The main reason urged is Mussulman 
sentiment ; and the letter observes : 

'With regard to the suggested creation of a Jewish State in Palestine, 
we desire to observe that if the Peace Conference were to decide to 
create that province into a self-governing State, the entire Mussulman 
world would resent its being placed under any but a Mussulman ruler, 
whatever other form the Government may take. Not only is Jerusa- 
lem intimately associated with the Mussulman religion and Mussulman 
religious traditions, but in the long course of fourteen centuries the land 
has become covered with memorials of the Mussulman faith. To convert 


it into a Jewish State or to place it under a Jewish ruler would be most 
repugnant to Mussulman feelings, especially as only one-seventh of the 
population of Palestine is Jewish. History proves that the Jews can 
live in the closest amity with their Mussulman fellow-subjects under 
Moslem rulers, and enjoy exceptional privileges not conceded to them 
even now by many European nations.' 

We would desire to say nothing which would tend to exacerbate 
Mussulman sentiment, but we cannot forbear from remarking that it 
would surely be most unwise in the interest of the world at large to al- 
low that feeling to be the sole arbiter of international settlement. This, 
apparently, is what the signatories of the letter referred to would wish. 

This is on the assumption that the signatories of the letter addressed 
to Mr. Balfour, in fact represent Mussulman opinion in what they say. 
But, so far as Jews and Palestine are concerned, we fail to see why, 
upon the showing of the letter, MussulnrHans would have more reason- 
able cause for complaint if Palestine becomes a Jewish State than would 
Jews if it became again a Mussulman possession, or indeed than Jews 
have had cause for complaint these last twenty centuries. Palestine is 
not merely intimately associated with the Jewish religion and Jewish 
religious traditions — not only is it covered with the memorials of the 
Jewish faith — but it is the one spot on earth on which the Jew can 
regain his nationhood. So that on the score of sentiment, from all 
points of view, Palestine is much more to the Jew than to the Mussul- 

And if, as the letter rightly says, Jews, as history proves, can live in 
the closest amity with Mussulmans, the converse is true, and we have 
the authority of history for saying that Mussulmans can live in the 
closest amity with Jews. The toleration Jews have received from 
Moslem rulers is freely acknowledged." 

The Newcastle Chronicle of March 3, 1909 comments on the same 
subject as follows: 

"Inasmuch as the population of Palestine is composed of 80 per cent, 
of Moslems and Christians, it is natural that the opinion of this ma- 
jority \n regard to Zionism should be consulted. The 'Matin' has ob- 
tained the views of severat prominent persons. First there is the gal- 
lant Emir Feisul, son of the King of the Hedjaz, who has impressed so 
agreeably all who have come into contact with him in London and Paris. 
He says the Moslems are of course deeply interested in Palestine. 
Jerusalem is for them a holy city, as the Koran has taught them to 
reverence the prophets of Israel. He sees no objection to a return of 
the Jews to Palestine, but he thinks they ought to be placed under a 
Mussulman or Christian Government recognized by the League of 
Nations. A separate Jewish state with sovereign rights has in it the 
elements of conflict. In the name of Orthodox Greeks, the Archiman- 
driate Vasilakis admits the historical, but not the ethnographical claims 
of the Jews to Palestine. Their aspirations are, however, deserving of 
sympathy. The great question is whether they could prosper in Pales- 
tine which apart from some regions, is sterile, and would require in- 
tense labour to be rendered productive. Pastor Monod, a leader of the 
Protestants, looks upon the Zionistic movement as perfectly legitimate. 
He has nevertheless misgivings as to its being practical. On the side 
of the Catholics the Archbishop of Paris has refused to speak, but Canon 
Couget has ventured to remark that Palestine really belongs to the 
Syrian peoples. The Jews were only encamped there for some cen- 
turies, and their case is as if the descendants of the ancient Romans 


were to claim Gaul because their ancestors occupied it for some three 
or four hundred years." 

Hospitals for Turkey 

We quote the following from Men and Missions : 

"Turkey is all upset in the overturn of her political affairs and mis- 
sion work there has been interrupted, if not blocked for the last four 
years. One or two mission hospitals have kept going, as at Adana, 
where the Turkish soldiers were served, and Aintab, where for a time 
Dr. Hamilton, a woman physician, was able to keep up some medical 
work. In other stations, such as Marsovan, Sivas, Harpoot, Erzroom, 
Van, in fact most of the interior stations, the hospital work had to be 
abandoned either because of the enforced withdrawal of the missionaries 
from the stations or because the Turks took over the buildings for their 
own use. 

Under the auspices of the American Committee for Relief in the Near 
East a party of 30 medical men, 60 nurses, 102 technically trained relief 
workers besides missionaries, teachers and many general workers have 
gone to Turkey with full equipment for fifteen hospitals, including 
X-ray machines, ice-making machines, sterilizing outfits and all the 
appliances of a modern hospital, representing an investment of a million 
or more dollars. It is proposed to set up these hospitals at central points 
in Turkey as the way opens. The American Board has maintained 
ten hospitals there. It is quite possible that many of these locations will 
be occupied by this relief commission. The financial needs of main- 
taining these hospitals for the relief period it is hoped will be met by the 
drive now being made for thirty millions of dollars for the support of 
this relief work. 

The whole enterprise of medical missionary work in Turkey is there- 
fore in flux and will need to be re-established following the immediate 
undertakings of these relief workers who are in the field and who v/ill 
remain there it is understood, for a year." 

Facilitating the Pilgrimage 

In a despatch from Simla, India, to the London papers, we may read 
between the lines the character of the policy that is to be followed 
according to present indications. Such a bit of news makes it yet more 
important for us to pray that those who are seeking salvation by 
pilgrimage to Mecca will learn the nearer road to God through Jesus 
Christ : 

"The Government announces that it has made special arrangements 
for ample shipping to carry pilgrims to and from the Hedjaz during the 
current season at a cost not greater than before the War. 

The arrangement involved protracted negotiation and considerable 
expense, but the Government is determined that the Moslem com- 
munity, which has borne patiently the restrictions caused by the War, 
shall now be offered special facilities." 

Exploration in Central Arabia 

One of the results of the War has been the re-discovery of Central 
Arabia by missionaries and travellers. Now that the door into the 
interior is open we may expect further results. The following account 
is taken from The Near East. 

"Lecturing before the Royal Geographical Society on April 28, 
Mr. H. St. J. B. Philby described a journey he made in the southern 


part of the Nejd during May and June of last year. His journey 
was southwards from Riyadh, the capital of the Wahabi country, to 
the extremity of the country and back again by a different route. Riyadh 
itself he described as a walled city of some 12,000 to 15,000 souls, 
situated in an oasis. It was built of clay without regard to symmetry, 
and, besides its lofty embastioned walls, contained only three buildings 
of any importance. Of these one was a fort, the second a mosque, 
typical for the country — i. e., with a flat roof and short minaret — 
and the third was the palace of the ruler. Eastwards of Riyadh the 
desert sloped gradually downwards from an elevation of 2,000 ft. to 
the shores of the Persian Gulf. Westward the plateau of Tuwaiq 
extended another twenty miles, rising in a gentle slope another thousand 
feet, and ended in a steep escarpment, which fell some four hundred 
feet or more to the western plain. The Tuwaiq, flanked by sand 
deserts, presented a formidable barrier to an invader from the west. 
Through it ran the Wady Hanifa, main drainage artery of the 
country, and on its broad back were clustered the oases which gave 
the Arabs a respite from their nomad life. Travelling southwards, 
Mr. Philby reached the town of Kharj. There was, he said, a strong 
local tradition that the Wady had once been much more thickly 
populated than now, but that a double scourge of locusts and plague 
had ruined the oases. Such a theory, while it would account for the 
sorry state of some places, would not account for the survival of others ; 
and a better explanation was ready to hand. Was it not possible that the 
Wady had in times past been the scene of one of those devastating floods 
of which we had accounts from other parts of Arabia? Such a flood 
would have poured down the narrow channel mercilessly sweeping 
before it the rich settlements lying in its path, but sparing those it could 
not reach on account of their greater elevation. 

One place which Mr. Philby visited he described as an oasis covered 
with date palms, where the resident population consisted entirely of 
people of negro extraction. The absentee owners were a Bedouin trib 
who avoided the cramped life and sickly climate of the valley, and 
only visited the place once a year at the time of the date harvest to collect 
their rents. Another oasis, Qurain, was a kind of stud farm. At the 
time of Mr. Philby 's visit there were some fifty animals in the spacious 
courtyard — stallions, mares and young stock, and even an occasional 
mule and camel. Each animal was tethered to a stone manger piled 
twice a day with lucerne. The single groom in charge confessed that 
he never exercised or groomted the animals, and that the stalls were 
only cleared of refuse when this became absolutely necessary. Yet the 
animals seemed none the worse except for a curious ailment attributed to 
a germ brought in with the lucerne, and which attacked the white parts 
of their skins, but otherwise did not affect them. At Dilam, a walled 
town of 7,000 or 8,000 inhabitants, Mr. Philby witnessed a funeral. 
The local custom, he said, is to dig the grave about five feet deep for a 
man and a little more for a woman. A raised ledge is left on either 
side of the body to prevent the whole weight of the earth resting on it. 
The body is dressed in a complete suit of white, covering every part, 
except that a small aperture is left over the face of children. If the 
grave is for a man, when it is filled in a tiny stone is placed at the head 
and another at the foot. In the case of a woman a third stone is placed 
midway between the other two." 


Islam Not a Creed Only but a Civilization 
In an article contributed to The Observer. Sir Theodore Morrison 
deals with "The Future of Islam," and explains the devotion felt by all 
Moslems to their faith and their fears at present, regarding the fate 
of Turkey. These fears are based upon religious devotion akin to