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Down the Mississippi— Hotel at Vicksburg— Dinner— Public meeting 
— News of the progress of the war — Slavery and England — Jackson 
— Governor Pettus — Insecurity of life — Strong Southern enthu- 
siasm — Troops bound for the North — Approach to Memphis — 
Slaves for sale — Memphis — General Pillow 1 


Camp Randolph — Cannon practice — Volunteers — "Dixie" — Forced 
return from the South — Apathy of the North — General retrospect 
of politics — Energy and earnestness of the South — Fire-arms — 
Position of Great Britain towards the belligerents— Feeling towards 
the Old Country 22 


Heavy Bill — Railway travelling —Introductions — Assassinations — 
Tennessee— "Corinth"— "Tory"— " Humbolt " — " The Con- 
federate camp" — Return Northwards — Columbus — Cairo— The 
slavery question — Prospects of the war— Coarse journaUsm . .41 


Camp at Cairo— The North and the South in respect to Europe — 
Political reflections— Mr. Colonel Oglesby— My speech— Northern 
and Southern soldiers compared — American country-walks — Reck- 
lessness of life — Want of cavalry— Emeute in the camp— Defects of 
army medical department— Horrors of war — Bad discipline . . 63 






iBpmding b*ttl«— By railway to Cliicago— Northern enlightenments 

T. •■ is King"— Land in the States— Dead level 

;-tum into the Union— American homes — 

A-.^ lie i.ra;ii^— \\ Uite labourers— New pillager— Lake Michigan 77 


!'._; . Policy of Great Britain as regarded by the North 

—The American Press and iU comments— Priva'-y a luxury- 
Chicago— Senator Douglas and his widow— American ingratitude— 
AiMthy in volontoeriog — Colonel Turchiu's camp . . .S3 


Niagara !■ scenes in the neigh l>ourhr>od 

\ Till:i ili)stile movements on both 

rides— Ti ry school at West Point— Return to New 
York— a; , , of the city — Misery and suffering- 
Altered rtat* of public opinion as to the Union and towards Great 
Britain ^^ 


Departnrc r • \ "sc'n'.int" — The American Press on 
U»<. W • . f the Slates— Philadiljihia— RallimoR- 
— \' Lord Lyon* — Mr. Sumner — Irritation against Groat 
Brii..; iiidependenoo" day— Meeting of Congress— General 
ttaie of affiun 11'^ 




Iiitcrvio\\' with Mr. Seward — I\Ty passport— Mr. Seward's views as to 
the war — Illummation at Washiugtoa — My "servant" absents 
himself— New York journalism —The Capitol — Interior of Congress 
— The President's message— Speeches in Congress — Lord Lyons — 
General I^I'Dowell — Low standard in the army — Accident to the 
" Stars and Stripes "—A street row— Mr. Bigelow— Mr. N. P. Willis 124 


Arlington Heights and the Potomac— Washington — The Federal camp 
— Generall M'Dowell — Flying rumours — Newspaper correspondents 
— General Fremont — Silencing the Press and Telegraph. — A Loan 
Bill — Interview with Mr. Cameron — Newspaper criticism on Lord 
Lyons — Rumom-s about M'Clellan — The Northern army as reported 
and as it is — General M'Clellan 142 


Fortress IMonroe — General Butler — Hospital accommodation — 
Wounded soldiers — Aristocratic pedigrees — A great gun — New- 
port News — Fraudulent contractors — General Butler — Artillery 
practice — Contraband negroes — Confederate lines -^ Tombs of 
American loyalists — Troops and coatractors — Duryea's New York 
Zouaves — Military calculations — A voyage by steamer to Annapolis 160 


The "State House" at Annapolis —Washington — General Scott's 
quarters— Want of a staff — Rival camps — Demand for horses — 
Popular e.Kcitemcnt— Lord Lyons— General M 'Do well's movements 
—Retreat from Fairfax Court House — General Scott's quarters — 
General Mansfield -Battle of Bull's Run 186 




Skinnuh at Bull's Run— The crisis iu ToutTess— Dearth of horses- 
War prj(?« at Washington— Estimate of the effects of Bull's Run— 
Paxsword and countersign — Transatlantic view of " The Times" — 
Difficulties of a Dew6}kaper correspondent in the field . . 202 


To the Bcene of action— The Confederat? camp— Centreville — Action at 
Bull Run— Dcfmt of the Federals — Disorderly retreat to Centreville 
—My ride back to Washington 214 


A nmaway crowd at Washington — The army of the Potomac in 
n.'tr< — Mail -day — Want of order and authority — Ncwspa]>er lies 
— Alarm at W.vhin^'lon — Confe<lerate prisoners — General M'Clelhin 
— iL Mercier— BiTi-cts of the defeat on Mr. Seward and the Presi- 
dent— M'Dowell— General Patterson 250 


Attack of illncM— General M Hrielkn— Reception at the White Ilonse 

•iciw among the Volunteers — Viait from Mr. Olmsted — 

' — IntcniJC heat — M'Clellan and the Newspapers — 

J i Mr. Sewanl's — Alexandria— A storm — Sudden death 

• iiih ofBcer — The Maryland Cluh — A Prayer and Fast 

Day— Financial difficulties 2G7 


Seium to JUltiroore — Colonel Carroll - A priest's view of the abolition 
cf F\\xi.rx- Slavery in Marjland — IIari>er'B Ferry— John Brown — 



Back by train to Washington — Further accounts of Bull Run — 
American vanity — My own unpopularity for speaking the truth — 
Killing a "Nigger" no murder — Navy Department . . . 284 


A tour of inspection round the camp — A troublesome horse— M 'Dowell 
and the President — My opinion of Bull Run indorsed by American 
officers — Influence of the press — Newspaper correspondents — Dr, 
Bray — ]\Iy letters — Captain Meagher — Military adventures — Pro- 
balile duration of the war — Lord A. Vane Tempest — The American 
joui-nalist — Threats of assassination SOi 


Personal unpopularity — American naval officers— A gun levelled at me 
in fun — Increase of odium against me — Success of the Hatteras 
expedition— General Scott and M'Clellan— M'Clellan on his camp- 
bed — General Scott's pass refused — Prospect of an attack on 
Washington — Skirmishing — Anonymous letters — General Halleck 
— General ]\I'Glellan and the Sabbath — Rumoured death of Jeffer- 
son Davis — Spread of my unpopularity — An offer for my horse — 
Dinner at the Legation — Discussion on_Slavery . . . .320 


A Crimean acquaintance — Personal abuse of myself—Close firing — 
A reconnaissance — Major-Qeneral Bell — The Prince de Joinville and 
his nephews — American estimate of Louis Napoleon — Arrest of 
members of the IMaryland Legislature — Life at Washington — War 
cries — News from the Far West— Journey to the Western States — 
Along the Susquehannah and Juniata— Chicago— Sport in the prairie 



— Arresitd for tbooting on Sunday — The town of Dwigbt — Return 

to Wtuduiigtoo — Mr. Seward aud niyi>elf '^^^ 


All in awjuaintance — Summary dismissal of a newspaper 

I— Dinner at Lord Lyuas' — Review of artillery — 

:ui Corpus" — TLe Presidt-nt's duties— M'Cltllan's p«.ilicy — 

:.iun army — Soldiers and the patn.'! — Public men in America 

— Mr. Seward and Lord Lyons — A judge placed under arrest — 

Death aad funeral of Senator Baker — Discn-derly troops and officers 

— Official fibs — Duck -footing at Baltimore 30C 


General Scott's resignation — Mrs. A. Lincoln — Unofficial miBsion to 
llurne — Uneasy feeling with regard to France — Ball given by the 
I'uitc*! 6Ut4s cavalry — The United Stales army— Success at 
Biaufort— Arrests- Dinner at Mr. Seward's— News of Captain 
\Vi!k(8 and tho Trent— Messrs. M.-ison and Slidell — Discussion as 
u Willwcj* — rriuco dc Joinville — The American press on the Trent 
:4!T;iir— Abseuoc of thieves in Washington — " Thanksgiving Day" — 
Suixx^ Uiu.s far in favour of the North 392 


r nrreft — Opening of Congress — Colonel Dutassy — An 
I imod sciiator — Mr. Cameron — Ball in the officers' huts 
— i'rcseoUlion of standards at Arlington — Dinner at Lord Lyons' 
— Pajjcr currency — A i>olyglot dinner — Visit to Washington's tomb 
— Mr. Cbaxe's n.'i»ort — Colonel Scaton — Unanimity of the South — 
Tl f Potomac blockade — A Dutch-American Crimean acquaint- 
The Aracricao lawyers on the Trent aflair — Mr. Sumner — 
-'i I ■ lUii'ii army — Impresaions produced in America by the Kn^lish 
J • HI 11 the aflair of the Trunt — Mr. Sumner on the crisis — Mutual 
fi'litjgii U.twoci) the two nations — Rumours of war with Great 
Brilain 410 




News of the death of the Prince Consort — Mr. Sumner and the Trent 
affair — His dispiitch to Lord Russell — The Southern Commissioners 
given up — Effects on the friends of the South — My own unpopularity 
at New York — Attack of fever — My tour in Canada — My return to 
New York in February — Successes of the Western States — Mr. 
Stanton succeeds Mr. Cameron as Secretary of War — Reverse and 
retreat of M'Clellan — My free pass — Tlie Menimac and Monitor — 
My arrangement to. accompany Jl'Clellan's head quarters — Mr. 
Stanton refuses his sanction — National vanity wounded by my 
truthfulness — Jly retii-emeut and my i-cturn to Eiu-ope . . . 42G 



Down the Mississippi — Hotel at Vicksburg — Dinner — Public meeting — 
News of the progress of the war — Slavery and England — Jackson — 
Governor Pettus — Insecurity of life — Strong Southern enthusiasm 
— Troops bound for the North — Appi-oach to Memphis — Slaves for 
sale — Memphis — General Pillow. 

Friday, June 14//«. — Last night with my good host 
from his phmtation to the great two-storied steamer 
General Quitman, at Natchez. She was crowded with 
planters, soldiers and their families, and as the lights 
shone out of her windows, looked like a walled castle 
blazing from double lines of embrasures. 

The ]\Iississippi is assuredly the most uninteresting ^ 
river in the world, and I can only describe it here- 
about by referring to the account of its appearance 
which I have already given — not a particle of romance 
in spite of oratorical patriots and prophets, can ever 
shine from its depths, sacred to cat and buffalo fish, 
or vivify its turbid waters. 

Before noon we were in sight of Vicksburg, which 
is situated on a high bank or blutt' on the left bank of 
the river, about 400 miles above New Orleans and some 
120 miles from Natchez. 


Mr. MacMcckan, the j)roi)rictor of the " Washington/' 
declares himself to have been the pioneer of hotels in 
the far west ; but he has now built himself *this huge 
caravanserai, and rests from his Manderings. We 
entered the dining saloon, and found the tables closely 
packed with a numerous company of every condition 
in life, from generals and planters down to soldiers in 
the uniform of privates. At the end of the room there 
was a long table on which the joints and dishes were 
brought hot from the kitchen to be carved by the negro 
waiters, male and female, and as each was brought in 
the proprietor, standing in the centre of the room, 
shouted out with a loud voice, " Now, then, here is a 
splendid goose ! ladies and gentlemen, don't neglect 
the goose and apple-sauce ! Here's a piece of beef that / 
can recommend ! upon my honour you will never regret 
taking a slice of the beef. Oyster-pic ! oyster-pic ! never 
was better oyster-pie seen in A'icksburg. Hun about, 
boys, and take orders. Ladies and gentlemen, just look 
at that turkey ! who's for turkey ? " — and so on, wiping 
the perspiration from his forehead and combating with 
the Hies. 

. Altogether it was a semi-barbarous scene, but the 
host was active and attentive ; and after all, his re- 
commendations were very much like those which it 
was the habit of the tavemcrs in old London to call 
out in the streets to the passers-by when the joints 
were ready. The little negroes who ran about to 
take orders were smart, but now and then came 
into violent collision, and were cuffed incontinently. 
One mild-looking little fellow stood by my chair and 
apj)eared s>o sad that I asked him "Are you haj)j)y, mv 
boy?" He looked quite frightened. "Why dou't 


you answer me ? " " Vse afccred, sir ; I can't tell that 
to ]\Iassa." " Is not your master kind to you ? " 
"' INIassa very kind man, sir ; very good man when he 
is not angry with me/' and his eyes filled with tears to 
the brim. 

The war fever is rife in Vieksburg, and the Irish and 
German labourers, to the extent of several hundreds, 
have all gone off to the war. 

When dinner was over, the mayor and several 
gentlemen of the city were good enough to request 
that I would attend a meeting, at a room in the 
railway-station, where some of the inhabitants of the 
town had assembled. Accordingly I went to the 
terminus and found a room filled with gentlemen. 
Large china bowls, blocks of ice, bottles of wine and 
spirits, and boxes of cigars were on the table, and all 
the materials for a symposium.- 

\The company discussed recent events, some of which 
I learned for the first time. Dislike was expressed 
to the course of the authorities in demanding negro 
labour for the fortifications along the river, and uneasi- 
ness was expressed respecting a negro plot in Arkansas ; 
but theCmost interesting matter was Judge Taney's 
protest against the legality of the President's course in 
suspending the writ of habeas corpus in the case of 
Mcrrimaii> The lawyers who were present at this 
meeting were delighted with his argument, which in- 
sists that Congress alone can suspend the writ, and 
that the President, cannot legally do so. 

The news of the defeat of an expedition from Fortress 
Monroe against a Confederate post at Great Bethel, 
has caused great rejoicing. The accounts show that 
there was the grossest mismanagement on the part 



of the Federal oHicerv The Northern papers parti- 
cuhirly regret the loss of Major Winthrop, aide-de- 
eauip to Gencnd Butler, a writer of promise. At 
four o'eloek p.m. I bade the company farewell, and 
the train started for Jackson. The line runs through 
a i)oor clay country, cut up with j^ulleys and water- 
courses made by violent rain. 

There were a number of volunteer soldiers in the 
train ; and their presence no doubt attracted the jjirls 
and women who waved flags and cheered for Jeff. 
Davis and States Rights. "Will, as I travel on 
through such scenes, with a fine critical nose in 
the air, I ask myself " Is any Englishman better 
than these publicans and sinners in regard to this 
question of slavery ? " It was not on moral or re- 
ligious grounds that our ancestors abolished serfdom. 
And if tu-morrow our good farmers, deprived of mowers, 
reapers, ploughmen, hedgers and ditchers, were to find 
substitutes in certain people of a dark skin assigned 
to their use by Act of Parliament, I fear they would 
fbc almost Jis ingenious as the Rev. Dr. Seabury in 
/discovering arguments physiological, ethnological, and 
! bibliL*id for the retention of their property. And nn 
evil day woidd it be for ihem if they were so tempted ; 
for assuredly, without any derogation to tlic intellect 
of the Southern men, it may be said that a large pro- 
portion of the population is in a state of very 
moral degradation compared \\ith civilised Anglo-Saxon 

The man is more natural, and more reckless; he 
more of the qualities of the Arab than are to be reconciled 
with ci\ilihation ; and it is only among the ni)pcr elassi s 
thut the inlluences of the aristocratic condition which is 


{generated by the subjection of masses of men to their 
fcllow-nian arc to be found. 

At six o'clock the train stopped in the country at a 
railway crossing by the side of a large platform. On 
the riiiht was a common, bounded by a few dc- 
tachcd wooden houses, separated by palings from each 
other, and surrounded by rows of trees. In front 
of the station were two long wooden sheds, which, 
as the signboard indicates, were exchanges or drink- 
ing saloons; and beyond these again w^ere visible 
some rudimentary streets of straggling houses, above 
-which rose three pretentious spires and domes, resolved 
into insignificance by nearer approach. (This was 

Our host was at the station in his carriage, and drove us 
to his residence, which consisted of some detached houses 
shaded by trees in a small enclosure, and bounded by 
a kitchen garden. (He was one of the men who had 
been filled with the afflatus of 1848, and joined the 
Young Ireland party before it had seriously committed 
itself to an unfortunate outbreak ; and when all hope 
of success had vanished, he sought, like many others of 
his countrymen, a shelter under the stars and stripes, 
which, like most of the Irish settled in Southern States, 
he was now bent on tearing asunder^ He has the honour 
of being mayor of Jackson, and of enjoying a com- 
petitive examination with his medical rivals for the 
honour of attending the citizens. 

(^ In the evening I walked out with him to the ad- 
jacent city, which has no title to the name, except as 
being the State capital! The mushroom growth of 
these States, using that phrase merely as to their rapid 
development, raises hamlets in a small space to the 


dignity of cities. It is in such outlying expansion of the 
great repubhc that the influence of the foreign emi- 
gration is most forcibly displayed. It would be curious 
to inquire, for example, how many men there are in the 
city of Jackson exercising mechanical arts or engaged 
in small commerce, in skilled or manual labour, who 
are really Americans in the proper sense of the word. 
I was struck by the names over the doors of the shops, 
wliich were German, Irish, Italian, French, and by 
foreign tongues and accents in the streets ; but, on the 
other hand, it is the native-born American who obtains 
the highest political stations and arrogates to himself 
the largest share of governmental emoluments. 
-Jackson proper consists of strings of wooden houses, 
with white porticoes and pillars a world too wide for their 
shrunk rooms, and various religious and other public 
edifices, of the hydrocephalic order of architecture, 
where vidgar cupola and exaggerated steeple tower 
above little bodies far too feeble to support them. 
There are of course a monster hotel and bla/.ing bar- 
rooms—the former celebrated as the scene of many a 
serious diflUculty, out of some of which the participators 
never escaped alive. The streets consist of rows of 
houses such as I have seen at Macon, Montgomery, 
and Baton Hon;;c; and as we walked towards the 
capital or State-h');se there were many more invitations 
"to take a drink" addressed to my friend and me than 
we were able to comply witii. Our steps were bent 
to the State-house, which is a i)ile of stone, with 
open colonnades, and an air of importance at a dis- 
tance which a nearer examination of its dilapidated 
condition does not confirm. (^Tr. Pettus, the fiovernor 
of the State of Mississip[)i, was in the Cajjitol; and on 


sending in our cards, wc were introduced to his room^ 
Avhicli certainly was of more than republican simplicity. 
The apartment Avas surrounded with some common 
glass cases, containing papers and odd volumes of 
books; the furniture, a tal)le or desk, and a few 
chairs and a ragged carpet ; the glass in the windows 
cracked and broken; the walls and ceiling discoloured 
by mildew. 

The Governor is a silent man, of abrupt speech, but 
easy of access ; and, indeed, whilst we were speaking, 
strangers and soldiers walked in and out of his room, 
looked around them, and acted in all respects as if 
they were in a public-house, except in ordering drinks. 
[This grim, tall, angular man seemed to me such a 
development of public institutions in the South as 
Mr. Seward was in a higher phase in the Nortli. For 
years he hunted deer and trapped in the forest of 
the far west, and^iived in a Natty Bumpo or David 
Crocket state of life] and he was not ashamed of 
the fact Avlien taunted with it during his election 
contest, but very rightly made the most of his inde- 
pendence and his hard work. 

The pecuniary honours of his position are not very 
great as Governor of the enormous State of Missis- 
sippi. He has simply an income of £800 a year 
and a house provided for his use ;(he is not only quite 
contented with what he has but believes that the 
society in which he lives is the highest development 
of civilised life, notwithstanding the fact that there 
are more outrages on the person in his State, nay, 
more murders perpetrated in the very capital, than were 
known in the worst days of mediajval Venice or Florence} 
— indeed, as a citizen said to me, "Well, I think our 


average in Jackson is a murder a montli ; " but lie used 
a milder name fur the crime. 

The Governor conversed on the aspect of affjiirs, and 
evinced that wonderful confidence in his own people 
which, whether it arises from ignorance of the power 
of the North, or a conviction of greater resources, 
is tt) me so remarkable. " AVell, sir," said he, dropping 
a portentous plug of tobacco just outside the spittoon, 
with the air of a man who wished to show he could 
have hit the centre if he liked, "Enghuid is no 
doubt a great country, and has got fleets and the 
like of that, and may have a good deal to do in 
"Eu-rope ; but'^lhe sovereign State of Mississippi can 
do a great deal better without England than England 
ran do without lier^' Having some slight recollec- 
tion of Mississippi repudiation, in which Mr. Jcll'erson 
Davis was so actively engaged, I thought it possible 
that the Governor might be right ; and after a time 
his Excellency shook me by the liand, (and I left, 
much wondering within myself ^Yhat manner of men 
they must be in the State of Mississippi when Mr. 
Petlus is their chosen Governor); and yet, after all, he 
is honest and fierce ; and jierhaps he is so far (pialified 
as well as any other man to be Governor of the State. 
There are newspapers, electric telegraphs, and railways; 
there are many educated families, even much good 
society, 1 am told, in the State; but^he larger masses 
of the people struck me as being in a condition not 
much elevated from that of the original i)ackwoodsman> 
On my return to the DDctor's house I found some letters 
Mhieh had been forwarded to me from New Orleans had 
gone antray, and I was obliged, therefore, to make ar- 
rangements for my departure on the following evening. 


June 10///.— I was compelled to send my excuses to 
Goveruor Pcttus, and remained quietly within the 
Louse of my host, entreating him to protect me from 
visitors and especially my own coiifrereSyi\\^i I might 
secure a few houi's even in that ardent heat to write 
letters to horned,) Now, (there is some self-denial re- 
quired, if one be at all solicitous of the ])opuIaris aura, 
to offend the susceptibilities of the irritable genus in 
America. It may make all the difference between 
millions of people hearing and believing you are a 
high-toned, whole-souled gentleman or a wretched 
ignorant and prejudiced John Bull); but, nevertheless, 
the'solid pudding of self-content and the satisfaction of 
doing one's w^ork are preferable to the praise even of a 
New York newspaper editor. 

(\Yhen my work was over I walked out and sat in 
the shade with a gentleman whose talk turned upon 
the practises of the jMississippi duello* Without the 
smallest animus, and in the most natural way in the 
world, he told us talc after tale of blood, and recounted 
terrible tragedies enacted outside bars of hotels and in 
the public streets close beside us. The very air seemed 
to become purple as he spoke, the land around a veri- 
table "Aceldama." There may, indeed, be security 
for property, but there is none for the life of its owner 
in difhculties, who may be shot by a stray bullet from 
a pistol as he walks up the street. 

[1 learned many valuable facts'^ I was warned, for 
example, against the impolicy of trusting to small-bored 
pistols or to pocket six-shooters in case of a close fight, 
because suppose you hit your man mortally he may 
still run in upon you and rip you up with a bowic 
knife before he falls dead ; whereas if you drive a good 


liea\'y bullet into him, or make a hole in him with a 
"Derringer" ball, he gets faintisli and drops at ouce. 
— Manv illustrations, too, were given of the value of prac- 
tical lessons of this sort. One particularly struck me. 
If a gentleman with whom you are engaged in alterca- 
tion moves his hand towards his breeches pocket, or 
behind his back, you must smash him or shoot him at 
ouce, for he is either going to draw his six-shooter, to 
pull out a bowic knife, or to shoot you through the 
lining of his pocket. The latter practice is considered 
rather ungentlemanly, but it has somewhat been more 
honoured lately in the observance than in the breach. 
•In fact, the savage practice of walking about witii 
^ pistols, knifes, and poniards, in bar-rooms and 
gambling-saloons, with passions ungoverned, because 
there is no law to punish the deeds to which they lead, 
affords facilities for crime which an uncivilised condition 
of society leaves too often without punishment, but 
which must be put down or the country in which 
it is tolerated will become as barbarous as a jungle 
inhabited by wild beasts. 

Our host gave me an early dinner, at which I met 
some of the citizens of Jackson, and at six o'clock I pro- 
ceeded by the train for Memphis. The carriages were 
of course, full of soldiers or volunteers, bound for 
a large canip at a place called Corinth, who made 
night hideous by their song and cries, stimulated by 
enormous draughts of whiskey and a proportionate con- 
sumption of tobacco, by teeth and by fire. The lieat 
in the carriages added to the discomforts Jirising from 
these causes, and from great quantities of biting insects 
in the sleeping places. The people have all the air and 
manners of settler^. Altogether the impression pro- 


(luced on my mind was by no means agreeable, and I 
felt as if I was indeed in the land of Lynch law and 
bowie knives, where the passions of men have not yet 
been subordinated to the influence of the tribunals of 
justice) IMuch of this feeling has no doubt been pro- 
duced by the tales to Avhich I have been listening 
around me — most of which have a smack of man- 
slaughter about them. 

June nih. If it was any consolation to me that the 
very noisy and very turbulent warriors of last night 
were exceedingly sick, dejected, and crestfallen this 
morning, I had it to the full. Their cries for water 
were incessant to allay the internal fires caused by 
" 40 rod " and " 60 rod," as whiskey is called, which is 
supposed to kill people at those distance^. Their 
oflicers had no control over them — and the only autho- 
rity they seemed to respect was that of the " gentle- 
manly " conductor whom they were accustomed to fear 
individually, as he is a great man in America and has 
much authority and poAver to make himself disagreeable 
if he likes. 
—The victory at Big or Little Bethel has greatly 
elated these men, and they think they can walk all 
over the Northern States.— It was a relief to get out 
of the train for a few minutes at a station called Holly 
Springs, where the passengers breakfasted at a dirty 
table on most execrable coffee, corn bread, rancid 
butter, and very dubious meats, and the wikl soldiers 
outside made the most of their time, as they had 
recovered from their temporary depression by this time, 
and got out on the tops of the carriages, over which 
they performed tumultuous dances to the music of 
their band, and the great admiration of the surrounding 


nogrodom. -Their demeanour is very unlike that of tlie 
uuexcitable staid people of the Nortlii — 

There vere in tlie train some Tcxans who were 
groing to Richmond to offer their services to ^Ir. 
Davis. They denounced Sam Houston as a traitor, but 
admitted there were some Unionists, or as tliey termed 
them, Lineolnite skunks, in the State, frhe real o))jeet 
of their journey was, in my mind, to get assistance from 
the Southern Confederacy, to put down their enemies iu 

-In order to conceal from the minds of the people 
that the government at Washington claims to be that of 
the United States, the press politicians and speakers 
divert their attention to the names of Lincoln, Seward, 
and other black republicans, and class the whole' of the 
North together as the Abolitionists.-^ They call the 
Federal levies "Lincoln's mercenaries** and "abolition 
hordes," though their own troops are paid at the same 
rate as those of the United States. This is a common 
mode of procedure in revolutions and rebellions, and is 
not unfrcquent in wars. 

The enthusiasm for the Southern cause among all 
the people is most remarkal)lc, — the sight of the flag 
waving from the carriage windows drew all the popula- 
tion of the hamlets and the workers in the fidd, black 
and white, to the side of the carriages to cheer for 
Jeff. Dans and the Southern Confederacy, and to 
wave whatever they could lay hold of iu the air. The 
country seems very poorly cultivated, the fields full of 
htumps of trees, and the plantation houses very in- 
different. "At every station more "soldiers," as they 
arc called, got in, till the smell and heat wore suffocating.' 
•»rhesc men were as fanciful in their names and 


dress as could 1)C. In tlic truiu which preceded us 
there was a band of vohiutccrs armed with rifled pistols 
and enormous bowic knives, who called themselves 
" The Toothpick Company." They carried along with 
them a cotfin, with a plate inscribed, "Abe Lincoln, 

died ," and declared they were "bound" to bring 

his body back in it, and that they did not intend to use 
muskets or rifles, but just go in with knife and six- 
shooter, and whip the Yankees straight away. How 
astonished they will be when the first round shot flies 
into them, or a cap full of grape rattles about their 
bowie knives. 

At the station of Grand Junction, north of Holly 
Springs, which latter is 210 miles north of Jack- 
son, several hundreds of our warrior friends were 
turned out in order to take the train north-westward 
for Richmond, Virginia. The 1st Company, seventy 
rank and file, consisted of Irishmen armed with sporting 
rifles Avithout bayonets. Five-sixths of the 2nd Com- 
pany, who were armed with muskets, were of the same 
nationality. The 3rd Company were all Americans. 
The 4th Company were almost all Irish. Some were 
in green others were in grey, the Americans who were 
in blue had not yet received their arms. When the 
word fix bayonets was given by the officer, a smart 
keen-looking man, there was an astonishing hurry and 
tumult in the ranks. 

"Now then. Sweeny, whar are yes dhriven me too ? 
Is it out of the redjmint amongst the officers yer 
shovin' me ? " 

" Sullivan, don't ye hear we're to fix beenits ? " 

" Sarjent, jewel, wud yes ayse the shtrap of me 
baynit ? " 


" If ye prod me wid that agin, I'll let daylolte into 

The olVicer, reading, "No H'i, James Phelan." 

No reply. 

Oflicer again, " No. 23, James Phelan." 

Voice from the rank, " Sliure, captain, and faix 
Phelan's gone, he wint at the last depot." 

" No. 10, Miles Corrigan." 

Voice further on, " He's the worse for dlirink in the 
cars, yer hononr, and says he'll shoot ns if we touch 
him ; " and so on. 

Eut these fellows were, nevertheless, the material 
for fighting and for marching after proper drill and 
with good olliccrs, even though there was too large 
a proportion of old men and young lads in the 
ranks, -il'o judge from their dress these recruits came 
from tlie labouring and poorest classes of whites.* 
The oilicers affected a rrencli cut and bearing with in- 
different success, and in the luggage vans there were 
three foolish young women with slop-dress imitation 
clothes of the Aivandicre type, who, with dishevelled 
hair, dirty faices, and dusty hats and jackets, looked 
sad, .sorry, and absurd. Tiieir notions of jiropricty did 
not justify ihem in adopting straps, boots, and trousers, 
and the rest of the tawdry ill-made costume looked 
\ery bad indeed. 

—The train which still bore a large number of soldiers 
fur the camp of Corinth, })roceeded through dreary 
stamps, stunted forests, and clearings of the rudest 
kind at very long intervals.- "NVe had got out of the 
cotton district and were entering poorer soil, or land 
which, when clesu'ed, was devoted to wheat and corn, 
and 1 wui told that the crops ran from forty to sixty 


bushels to the acre. A more uninteresting country 
than this portion of the State of Mississippi I have 
never witnessed. Tliere was some variety of scenery 
about Holly Springs where undulating ground covered 
■with wood, diversified the aspect of the flat, but since 
that we have been travelling throngh mile after mile of 
insignificantly grown timber and swamps. 
^On approaching INIemphis the line ascends towards 
the bluff of the INIississippi; and farms of a better 
appearance come in sight on the side of the rail; but 
after all I do not envy the fate of the man who, 
surrounded by slaves and shut out from the world, has 
to pass his life in this dismal region, be the crops never 
so good. 

At a station Avh ere a stone pillar marks the limit between 
the sovereign State of Mississippi and that of Tennessee, 
there was a house two stories high, from the windows 
of which a number of negro girls and young men were 
staring on the passengers. Some of them smiled, laughed, 
and chatted, but the majority of them looked gloomy 
and sad enough. They were packed as close as they 
could, and I observed that at the door a very ruffianly 
looking fellow in a straw^ hat, long straight hair, flannel 
shirt, and slippers, was standing with his legs across 
and a heavy whip in his hand. One of the passengers 
walked over and chatted to him. They looked in and 
up at the negroes and laughed, and when the man 
came near the carriage in which I sat, a friend called 
out, " Whose are they, Sam ? '' " Ile'i a dealer at 
Jackson, Mr. Smith. They ''re as prime a lot of fine 
Virginny niggers as I've seen this long time, and he 
wants to realise, for the news looks so bad." 

It was 1.40 p.m. when the train arrived at Memphis. 


I was speedily on my way to -the Gayoso House,- 
so calltil after an old Spanish ruler of the dis- 
trict, which is situated in tlic street on the hluff, 
which runs parallel with the cuursc of the Mississippi. 
Thisjvsuscitatcd E«i:yptian a place of importance- 
and extends fur several miles alonj; the hij^'h hank of 
the river, though it dues not run very far hack. 
The streets are at right angles to the principal tho- 
roughfares, which are parallel to the stream ; and I 
bv uo ineaus expected to see the lufty stores, ware- 
houses, rows of shops, and handsome buildings on the 
broad esplanade along the river, and the extent and 
size of the edifices public and private in this city, 
which is one of the developments of trade and 
commerce created by the Mississippi. Memphis con- 
tains nearly 3U,00U inhabitants, but many of them 
arc fonigners, and there is a nomad draft into and out 
of the place, which abounds in haunts for Bohemians, 
drinking and dancing-saloons, and gaming-rooms. And 
this^trange kaleidoscope ^of negroes and whites of the 
extremes of civilisation in its American development, 
and of the semi-savage degraded by his contact with the 
white; of enormous steamers on the river, which bears 
equally the dug-out or canoe of the black lishernum; the 
rail, penetrating the inmost recesses of swamps, \\hi( li 
on either side of it remain no doubt in the same 
state as they were centuries ago; the roll of heavily- 
laden waggons through the streets; the rattle of 
omnibuses JUid all the i)henomena of active com- 
mercial life before our eyes, included in the same 
scope of vision which takes in at the other side of 
the Mississippi lands scarcely yet settled, though 
the inarch of empire Las gone thousands of miles 

states' rights again. 17 

beyond tlicm, amuses but perplexes the traveller in this 
new land. 

,- The evening was so exceedingly warm that 1 was 
glad to remain within the walls of my darkened bed- 
room.-' All the six hundred and odd guests whom the 
Gayoso House is said to accommodate were apparently 
iu the passage at one time. At present it is the head- 
quarters of -General Gideon J. Pillow, who is charged 
with the defences of the Tennessee side of the river, and 
commands a considerable body of troops around the 
city and iu the works above. The house is conse- 
quently fdled with men iu uniform, belonging to the 
General's staff or the various regiments of Tennessee 

^ The Governors and the Legislatures of the States, 
view with dislike every action on the part of Mr. 
Davis Avhich tends to form the State troops into a 
national armyi^ At first, indeed, the doctrine prevailed 
that troops could not be sent beyond the limits of the 
State in which they were raised— then it was argued that 
they ought not to be called upon to move outside their 
borders; and I have heard people in the South in- 
veighing against the sloth and want of spirit of the 
Viririnians, who allowed their State to be invaded 
without resisting the enemy. Such complaints were 
met by the remark that-all the Northern States had 
combined to pour their troops into Virginia, and 
that her sister States ought in honour to protect her.- 
rinally,-the martial enthusiasm -of the Southern regi- 
ments impelled them to press forward to the frontier, and 
by delicate management, and the perfect know ledge of his 
countrymen which j\Ii-. Jefferson Davis possesses, he 
is now enabled to amalgamate in some sort the diverse 



iiulivitlualitlcs of his regiments iuto something Hkc a 
imtiuual army. 

Oil lirariiij^ of my arrival, General Pillow sent his 
aide-de-eamj) to infurui me that lir was about start- 
ing in a steamer up the river, to make an iuspeetion 
of the works and garrison at Tort Kanclulj)li and at 
other points vhere batteries had been erected to 
command the stream, supported by large levies of Ten- 
uesseans. The aide-de-eamp eundueled me to the 
Geueral, whom I found in his bedroom, iitted up as 
an oflicc, littered with plans and papers. Before the 
^le.xiean war General Pillow was a iluuri>liing solicitor, 
conuected in business with President Polk, and com- 
manding so much inlluence that when the expedition 
was formed he received the nomination of brigadier- 
general of volunteeers. lie served with distinction ami 
Mas severely wounded at the battle of Chajjultepee 
and at the eonelusion of the campaign lie retired into 
civil life, and was engaged directing the work of his 
plantation till this great rebellion summoned him once 
more to the field. 

Of course there is, and must be, always an incli- 
nation to deride these volunteer ollieers on the part of 
regular soldiers; aud I was informed by one of the 
ofliccrs in attendance on the General that he had made 
himself luilierously celebrated in Mexico fur having 
undertaken to throw up a battery which, when com- 
pleted, was found to face the wrong way, so that the guns 
were exposed to theenemy. General Pillow is a small, com- 
pact, clear-complexioned imui, with short grey whiskers, 
cut in the Knglish fashion, a quick eye, and a pom- 
pous maniur of speech; and I had not been long in his 
company before 1 heuid of Chapultepec aud his w ouud, 


■which causes him to liin[) a little iii his uulkj and >j;\\cs 
him incouvcnicnee in the saddle. He wore a round 
black hat, plain blue frock coat, dark trousers, and 
brass spurs on his boots; but no sign of military rank. 
The General ordered carriages to the door, and we 
went to sec the batteries on the bluff' or front of the 
esplanade, which are intended to check any ship at- 
tempting to pass down the river from Cairo, where the 
Federals under General Prentiss have entrenched 
themselves, and are understood to meditate an expe- 
dition against the city. A parapet of cotton bales, 
covered with tarpaulin, has been erected close to the 
edge of the bank of earth, which rises to heights vary- 
ing from GO to 150 feet almost perpendicularly from 
the waters of the Mississippi, with zigzag roads running 
down through it to the landing-places. This parapet 
could off'er no cover against vertical fire, and is so 
placed that well-directed shell into the bank below it 
would tumble it all into the water. The zigzag roads 
are barricaded with weak planks, which would be 
shivered to pieces by boat-guns; and the assaulting 
parties could easily mount through these covered ways ; 
to the rear of the parapet, and up to the very centre 
of the esplanade. 

The blockade of the river at this point is complete ; 
not a boat is permitted to pass either up or down. At 
the extremity of the esplanade, on an angle of the 
bank, an earthen battery, mounted with six heavy guns, 
has been thrown up, which has a fine command of 
the river; and the General informed me he intends 
to mount sixteen guns in addition, on a piolougatiou of 
the face of the same work. 

The inspection over, we drove down a steep 



road to the water bcucat}i, wliere the Injioniar, a 
large river steamer, now chartered for tlic service of 
the State of Tennessee, was lyinj; to receive us. ~^he 
vessel was crowded with troops — all volunteers, of 
course — about to join those in camp. (^Great as were 
their numbers, tiie proportion of the oiiicers was 
iuordinatfly larjre, and the rank of the greater 
number preposterously higli) It seemed to me as 
if I was introduced to a battalion of colonels, and 
that I was not permitted to pierce to any lower 
strata of military rank. I counted seventeen colonels, 
and believe the number was not then exhausted. 

f General Clarke, of ^Mississippi,* who had come over 
from the camp at Corinth, was on board, and I had the 
pleasure of making his acquaintance. He spoke with 
sense and firmness of the present troubles, and dealt 
with tiie political difficulties in a tone of moderation 
which bespoke a gentleman and a man of education 
and thought. Hc^Jso had served in the Mexican war, 
and had the air and manner of a soldier. AVith nil 
his quietness of tone, there was not the smallest dispo- 
sition to be traced in his words to retire from the 
present contest, or to consent to a reunion with tlic 
I'nited States under any circumstances whatever.) 
Another general, of a very dilfereut tyi)e, was among 
our passengers — a dirty-faced, frightened-looking young 
man, of some twenty three or twenty-four years of age, 
redolent of tobacco, his chin and shirt slavered by its 
foul juices, dressed in a green cutaway coat, white jean 
trousers, strapped und(M- a pair of prunella slipj)ers, in 
which he promenaded the deck in an A gag-like manner, 
which gave rise to a suspicion (jf biniions or corns. This 
strange fi-iirf was topped by a tremendous idack felt 


sombrero, looped up at one side by a gilt eagle, in 
which was stuck a plume of ostrich feathers aud from 
the other side dangled a heavy gold tassel. This de- 
crepit young warrior's name was Ruggles or Struggles, 
who came from Arkansas, where he passed, I was 
informed, for " quite a leading citizen." 
-Our voyage as we steamed up the river afforded 
no novelty, nor any physical difference worthy of 
remark, to contrast it with the lower portions of the 
stream, except that upon our right hand side, which is, 
in effect, the left bank, there are ranges of exceedingly 
high bluffs, some parallel with and others at right 
angles to the course of the stream. The river is of the 
same pea-soup colour with the same masses of leaves, 
decaying vegetation, stumps of trees, forming small 
floating islands, or giant cotton-tree, pines, and balks 
of timber whirling down the current. Our progress 
was slow ; nor did I regret the captain's caution, as 
there must have been fully nine hundred persons on 
board ; and although there is but little danger of being 
snagged in the present condition of the river, we en- 
countered now and then a trunk of a tree, which struck 
against the bows with force enough to make the vessel 
quiver from stem to stern. I was furnished with a 
small berth, to which I retired at midnight, just as the 
Ingoinar was brought to at the Chickasaw Bluffs, 
above which lies Camp Randolph. 


CllAPTER n. 

Camp Randolph — Cannon practice — Volunteers — "Dixie " — Forced 
return from the South — Apathy of the North — General retrospect 
of politics — Euergy and earnestnesa of the South — Fire-arms — 
Position of Great Britain towarde the belligerents — Feeling towaruB 
the Old Country. 

June ISth. On looking out of my caLin window this 
morning I found the steamer fast alongside a small 
wharf, above which ruse, to the height of 150 feet, at 
an angle of 45 degrees, the rugged bluft" already men- 
tioned. TJic wharf was covered with commissariat 
stores and amnninition. Three heavy guns, which 
some men were endeavouring to sling to rude bullock- 
carts, in a manner defiant of all the laws of gravita- 
tion, seemed likely to go slap into the water at every 
moment ; but of the many great sfrapjjing fellows 
who were lounging about, not one gave a hand to the 
working party. A dusty track Mound up the hill to 
the brow, and there disappeared; and at the height of 
fifty feet or so above the level of the river two earth- 
works liad been rudely ercctiHl in an iuefl'ectivc 
position. The voltmteers who were lounging about the 
edge of the stream were dressed in different ways, and 
had no uniform. 

Already the heat of the sun compelled me to seek 
the shade; and a number of the soldiers, labouring 


under the same infatuation as that wliicli induces 
little boys to disport themselves in the Thames at 
Waterloo Bridge, under the notion that they arc 
■washing themselves, were swimming about in a back- 
Avater of the great river, regardless of cat-fish, mud, and 

General Pillow proceeded on shore after breakfast, 
and we mounted the coarse cart-horse chargers which 
were in waiting at the jetty to receive us. — It is 
scarcely worth while to transcribe from my diary a 
description of the works Avhich I sent over at the time 
to Euglandr* Certainly, a more extraordinary maze 
could not be conceived, even in the dreams of a sick 
engineer— a number of mad beavers might possibly 
construct such dams. They were so ingeniously made 
as to prevent the troops engaged in their defence from 
resisting the enemy ^s attacks, or getting away from 
them when the assailants had got inside — most difficult 
and troublesome to defend, and-still more difficult for 
the defenders to leave, the latter perhaps being their 
chief merit; 

The General ordered some practice to be made 
with round shot down the river. An old forty- 
two pound carronade was loaded with some diffi- 
culty, and pointed at a tree about 1700 yards — which 
I was told, however, was not less than 2500 yards — 
distant. The General and his staff took their posts 
on the parapet to leeward, and I ventured to say, 
"1 think, General, the smoke will prevent your seeing 
the shot.'^ To which the General replied, " No, sir," 
in a tone which indicated, "I beg you to understarid 
I have been wounded in Mexico, and know all about 
this kind of thing." " Fire/' the string was pulled, and 


out of tlie touch-hole popped a piece of metal with a 
little chirrup. " D.ini these friction tubes ! I prefer the 
linstock and mateli/' cjuoth one of the stalf, solto voce, 
" but (Jeneral Pillow will have us use friction tubes 
made at Memphis, that ar'nt worth a cuss." Tube 
No. 2, however, did explode, but where the ball went 
no one could say, as the smoke drifted right into our 

The General then moved to the other side of the 
gun.whieh Mas fired a third time, the shot falling short 
in good line, but without any ricochet. Gun No. 3 
was next fired. Off went the ball down the river, but off 
went the gun, too, and with a frantic leap it jumped, 
carriage and all, clean off the platform. Nor w as it at 
all wonderful, for the i)oor old-fashioned chamber can- 
nonade had been loaded with a charge and a solid shot 
lieavy enough to make it burst with iiuliguatiou/*" Most 
of us felt relieved when the firing was over, and, for my 
own part, I would much rather have been close to the 
target than to the battcry«». 

Slowly winding for some distance uji the steep 
road in a blazing sun, we proceeded through the 
.tents which arc scattered in small groups^or health's 
sake, fifteen and twenty together, on the wooded 
plateau above the river. The tents are of the small 
ridge-pole pattern, six men to each, many of whouj, 
from their exposure to the sun, whilst working in these 
trenches, and from the badness of the water, had 
already been laid iij) with illness. As a proof of General 
Pillow's energy, it is only fair to say he is constructing, 
on the very summit of the plateau, large cisterns, w Inch 
will ))(• filled with water from the river by steam power. 

The voliiiitci rs were mostly engaged at drill in dis- 


tinct companies, but/hy order of the General some 700 
or 800 of them were formed into line for inspection^ 
Many of these men were in their shirt sleeves, and the 
awkwardness with which they handled their arms 
showed that, however good they might be as shots, they 
were Ibad hands at manual platoon exercise); but such 
^great strapping fellows) that, as I walked down the 
ranks there were few whose shoulders were not 
above the level of my head, excepting here and there a 
weedy old man or a growing lad. They were armed 
with old pattern percussion muskets, no two clad alike, 
many very badly shod, few Avith kuai)sacks, but all 
provided with a tin water-flask and a blanket. These 
men have been only five weeks enrolled, and were called 
out by the State of Tennessee, in anticipation of the 
vote of secession. 

T could get no exact details as to the supply of food, 
but from the Quartermaster-General I heard that each 
man had from | lb. to 1| lb. of meat, and a sufficiency 
of bread, sugar, coffee, and rice daily ; however, these 
military Olivers " asked for more.'' Neither whisky nor 
tobacco was served out to them, which to such heavy con- 
sumers of both, must prove one source of dissatisfaction. 
(The officers were plain, farmerly planters, merchants, 
lawyers, and the like — energetic, determined men, but 
utterly ignorant of the most rudimentary parts of 
military science) It is this want of knowledge on the 
part of the officer which renders it so difficult to arrive 
at a tolerable condition of discipline among volunteers, 
as'the privates arc quite well aware they know as much 
of soldiering as the great majority of their officers." 

Having gone down the lines of these motley companies, 
the General addressed them in a harangue in which he 


expatiated on their patriotism, on their courage, and the 
atrocity of tlic enemy, in an odd farraf^o of military and 
political subjects. But the only matter which appeared 
to interest them much uas the auuouncen»ent that 
they would be released from work in another day or so, 
and that ncfrroes would be sent to perform all that was 
required. This announcement was received with the 
words, '• Bully for us !" and "That's good." Aud when 
General Pillow wound up a Horid peroration by 
assuring them, " "When the hour of danger comes I will 
be with you," the eilect was by no means equal to his 
expectations. The men did not seem to care much 
whether General Pillow was with them or not at that 
eventful moment; and, indeed, all dusty as he was in 
his plain clothes he did not look very imposing, 
or give one an idea that he would contribute much to 
\ the means of resistance. However, one of the oflicers 
called out, " Boys, three cheers for General Pillow." 

^Vhat they may do in the North I know not, but 
certainly the Southern soldiers cannot cheer, aud what 
passes muster for that jubilant sound is a shrill ringing 
scream with a touch of the ludian war-^^hoop in it. 
As these cries ended, a stentorian voice shouted out, 
" ^Vho cares for General Pillow? " No one answered ; 
whence I inferred the General would not be very 
popular until the niggers were actually at work in 
the trenches. 

^Ve returned to the steamer, lieaded up stream and 
proceeded onwards for more than an hour, to another 
laudiug, protected by a battery, where we disembarked, 
the Geueral being received by a guard dressed in uni- 
form, who turned out with some appearance of soldierly 
smartness. On mv niuarkiiig the dillerence to the 


General, lie told me tlic corps encamped at this 
point was composed of gentlemen planters, and 
farmers. Tiiey had all clad themselves, and consisted 
of some of the best families in the State of Tennessee. 

As we walked down the gangway to the shore, the band 
on the upper deck struck up, out of compliment to the 
English element in the party, the unaccustomed strains 
of " God save the Queen ; " and I am not quite sure 
that the loyalty which induced me to stand in the sun, 
with uncovered head, till the musicians were good 
enough to desist, was appreciated. Certainly a gentle- 
man, who asked me why I did so, looked very in- 
credulous, and said " That lie could understand it if it 
had been in a church ; but that he would not broil his 
skull in the sun, not if General Washington was 
standing just before him." The General gave orders 
to exercise the battery at this point, and a working 
party was told off to firing drill. •'Twas fully six 
minutes between the giving of the orders and the first 
gun being ready. 

On the word ''fire " being given, the gunner pulled 
the lanyard, but the tube did not explode ; a second 
tube Avas inserted, but a strong jerk pulled it out 
without exploding; a third time one of the Geueral's 
fuses was applied, which gave way to the pull, and was 
broken in two; a fourth time was more successful — the 
gun exploded, and the shot fell short and under the 
mark — in fact,^othing could be worse than the artillery 
practice which I saw here, and a fleet of vessels coming 
down the river might, in the present state of the garrisons, 
escape \uihurtJ 

There are no disparts, tangents, or elevating screws 
to the gun, which are laid by eye and wooden chocks. 


I could see no shells in the battery, but was told there 
were some in the nia^a/ine. 

(Altogether, though Randolph's Point and Fort i'illow 
afford strong positions, in the present state of the 
service, and ecjuipnient of guns and works, gunboats 
could run past them without serious loss, and, as the 
river falls, the fire of the batteries will be even less 

On returning to the boats the baud struck up "The 
>rarseillaise" and " Dixie's Land." ^'here are two expla- 
nations of the word Dixi^ — o_ne is that it is the general 
term for the Slave States, which are, of course, south of 
^lason and Dixon's line; another, that a planter named 
Dixie, died long ago, to the intense grief of his animated 
property. Whether they were ill-treated after he died, 
and thus had reason to regret his loss, or that they had 
merely a longing in tlie abstract after IIea\cn, no 
f let known to me can determine ; but certain it is that 
they long much after Dixie, in the land to which liis 
spirit was supposed by them to have departed, and 
console themselves in tlieir sorrow by clamorous wishes 
to follow their master, where probably the revered 
spirit wouUl be much surprised to find hiniself in their 
company. "The song is the work of the negro 
melodists of New York."- 

In the afternoon we returned to Memi>his. Here 
I was obliged to cut short my Soutlurn tour, tljough 
I would willingly ha\e stayed, to have seen the 
most remarkabU; social and political changes the 
world has probably ever witnesscil. The necessity of 
ray position obliged me to return northwards — unless I 
could write, there was no use in my being on the spot at 
all. 15 v this time the Federal lleets have succeeded in 


closing tlic ports, if not effectually, so far as to render 
the carriage of letters precarious, and the route must 
be at best devious and uuccrtaiu. 
-Mr. Jefferson Davis was, I was assured, prepared 
to give me every facility at llichmond to enable me to 
know and to see all that was most interesting in the 
military and political action of the New Confederacy ; 
but of what use could this knowledge be if I could not 
communicate it to the journal I served ? 

Q. had left the North when it was suffering from a 
political paralysis, and was in a state of coma in which 
it appeared conscious of the coming convulsion 
but unable to avert it^ The sole sign of life in the 
body corporate was some feeble twitching of the limbs 
at Washington, when the district militia were called 
out, whilst Mr. Seward descanted on the merits of the 
Inaugural, and believed that the anger of the South 
was a short madness, which would be cured by a mild 
application of philosophical essays. 

The politicians, who were urging in the most forcible 
manner the complete vindication of the rights of the 
Union, were engaged, when I left them arguing, that 
the Union had no rights at all as opposed to those of 
the States. Men who had heard with nods of approval 
of the ordinance of secession passed by State after 
State were now shrieking out, "Slay tlic traitors!" 
*-The printed rags which had been deriding the Pre- 
sident as the great "rail splitter," and his Cabinet as a 
collection of ignoble fanatics, were now heading the 
popular rush, and calling out to the country to support 
Mr. Lincoln and liis ]\Iinistry, and were menacing with 
war the foreign States which dared to stand ncutial in 
tlie quarrel.— The declaration of Lord John Russell 


that the Southern Confederacy should have limited 
belligerent rij^hts had at first created a thrill of exulta- 
tion in the South, because the puliticiaus believed that 
in this concession Avas contained the principle of 
recognition; Avhile it had stung to fury the jjcople of the 
Korth, to whom it seemed the first uarning of the 
coming disunion. 

!Mueh, therefore, as I desired to go to Riehmund, 
where I was lu'ged to repair by many conside- 
rations, and by the earnest appeals of those around 
me, I felt it would be impossible, notwithstanding 
the interest attaehed to the proceedings there, to 
perform my duties in a place cut off' from all connnuni- 
cation with the outer world ; and so I decided to proceed 
to Chicago, and thence to AVashington, where the 
Federals had assembled a large army, with the purpose 
of marching upon Kichmond, in obedience to the 
cry of nearly every journal of influenee in the Northern 

My resolution was mainly formed in consequence 
of the intelligence which was communicated to me at 
!Mem[ihis, and I told General Pillow tliat 1 would 
continue my journey to Caii'o, in order to get within 
the Federal lines. As the river was blockaded, the 
only means of doing so was to proceed by rail to 
Columbus, and thence to take a steamer to the Federal 
position; and so, whilst the General was continuing 
liis inspection, I rode to the telegraph office, in one of 
the camps, to order my luggage to be prepared for 
departure as soon as I arrived, and thence went on 
board the steamer, where I sat down in tlie cabin to 
write my last despatch from Dixie. 

So far I had certainly no reason to agree with Mr. 


Scwanl ill tliinking this rebellion Avas the result of ;i 
localised energetic action on the part of a fierce 
minority in the seceding States, and tliat there Avas in 
each a large, if inert, mass opposed to secession, which 
would rally round the Stars and Stripes the instant they 
were displayed in their sight. On the contrary,(l met 
everywhere with but one feeling, with exceptions which 
proved its unanimity and its force. To a man the 
people went with their States, and had but one battle 
cry, " States' rights, and death to those who make Avar 
against them ])" 

(Day after da}- I had seen this feeling intensified 
by the accounts Avhich came from the North of a 
fixed determination to maintain the war ; and day 
after day, I am bound to add, the impression on my 
mind was strengthened that "States' rights" meant 
protection to slaveiy, extension of slave territory, and 
free-trade in slave produce with the outer world J nor 
was it any argument against the conclusion that the 
popular passion gave vent to the most vehement outcries 
against Yankees, abolitionists, German mercenaries, 
and modern invasion. I was fully satisfied in my mind 
also that the population of the South, who had taken 
up arms, were^so convinced of the righteousness of 
their cause, and so competent to vindicate it, that they 
would fight witli the utmost energ}' and valour in its 
defence and successful establishment.) 

The saloon in which I was sitting afforded abundant 
evidence of the vigour with which the South arc entering 
upon the contest. QMen of every variety and condition of 
life had taken up arms against the cursed Yankee and 
the black llcpublican-^there was not a man there 
who would not have given his life for the rare pleasure 


of strikinir Mr. Liiuulu's head oft' liis slioultlers, and yet 
/fo a cold Euroijcau the scene was almost ludicrous. 

Alonj; the covered deck lay tall 'reiiiiesseans, asleep, 
whose plumed felt hats were generally the only indica- 
tions of their martial callinjr, for few indeed had any 
other signs of uniform, except the rare volunteers, 
•who wore stripes of red and yellow cloth on their 
trousers, or leaden buttons, and discoloured worsted 
braid and facings on their jackets. The afierpart of the 
saloon deck was appropriated to (jeneral Pillow, his 
stall', and ollicers. The approach to it was guarded by 
a sentry, a tall, good-looking young fellow, in a grey 
flannel shirt, grey trousers, fastened with a belt and a 
brass buckle, inscribed U.S., which came from some 
plundered Federal arsenal, and a black wide-awake 
liat, decorated with a green plunu-. His ICnlield rillc 
lay beside him on the deck, and, with great interest ex- 
pressed on his face, he leant forward in his rocking- 
chair to watch the varying features of a party squatted 
on the floor, who were employed in (he national game 
of " Kuchre.^ As he raised his eyes to examine the 
condition of the cigar he was smoking, lie caught sight 
of nie, and by the simple expedient of holding his leg 
across my chest, and calling out, "Hallo! where are 
you going to 'i " brought me to a standstill — wlulst liis 
captain, who was one of the happy euchreists, exclaimed, 
" Now, Sam, you let nobody go in there." 

1 was obliged to explain who I was, whereupon the 
sentry started to his feet, and said, " Oh ! indeed, you 
are Ku-sell that's been in that war with the Itooshians. 
AVell, I'm very much pleased to know you. 1 shall be 
off sentry in a few minutes; I'll just ask you to tell 
uic something about that lighting." lie held out his 

EUCIIllE. oo 

lumd, uiid shook mine warmly as he spoke. There was 
not the smallest intention to offend in his manner ; 
but, sitting down again, he nodded to the eaptain, 
and said, "It's all right; it's Pillow's friend— 
that's llussell of the London Times." The game 
of euchre was continued — and indeed it had been 
perhaps all night — for my last recollection on 
looking out of my cabin was of a number of people 
playing cards on the floor and on the tables all down 
the saloon, and of shouts of " Eu-kerr ! " "Ten dollars, 
you don't ! " " I'll lay twenty on this ! " and so on ; 
and with breakfast the sport seemed to be fully revived. 

There would have been much more animation in the 
game, no doubt, had the bar on board the Ingonvar 
been opened; but the intelligent gentleman who 
presided inside had been restricted by General Pillow 
in his avocations; and wdien numerous thirsty souls 
from the camps came on board, with dry tongues and 
husky voices, and asked for "mint juleps," "brandy 
smashes," or "whisky cocktails," he seemed to 
take a saturnine pleasure by saying, "The General 
won't allow no spirit on board, but I can give you a 
nice drink of Pillow's own iced Mississippi water," an 
announcement which generally caused infinite disgust 
and some unhandsome wishes respecting the General's 
future happiness. 

By and bye, a number of sick men were brought 
down on litters, and placed here and there along the 
deck. /As there was a considerable misunderstanding 
between the civilian and military doctors, it appeared 
to be understood that the best way of arranging it was 
not to attend to the sick at all) and unfortunate men 
suffering from fever and dysentery were left to roll and 

VOL. II. >> 


groan, and lie ou their stretchers, without a soul to 
liclp them. I had a medicine chest on board, and I 
ventured to use tl:e lessons of my experience in such 
matters, administered my quinine, James's Powder, 
calomel, and opium, secuudinti nwain artcm, and 
nothing could be more grateful than the poor fellows 
were for the smallest mark of attention. " Stranger, 
rememl)er, if I die," gasped one great fellow, attenuated 
to a skeleton by dysentery, " Tliat I am Robert Tallon, 
of Tishimingo county, and that I died for States' rights ; 
see, now, they put that in the jjupers, won't you ? 
Robert Tallon died for States' rights," and so he 
turned round on his blanket. 

Presently the General came on board, and the 
Ingomar proceeded on her way back to Mem})his. 
General Clarke, to whom I mentioned the great neglect 
from which the soldiers were suffering, told me he was 
afraid the men had no medical attendance in camp. 
^11 the doctors, in fact, wanted to tight, and as they 
were educated men, and generally connected with 
respectable families, or had political influence in the 
State, they aspired to be colonels at the very least, and 
to wield the sword instead of the scalpel^ 

(Next to the medical dei)artment, the commissariat 
and transport were most deficient^ but l)y constant 
courts-martial, stoppages of pay, and severe sentences, 
he hoped tiiese evils would be eventually somewhat miti- 
gated. As one who had received a regular mili- 
tary education, (iencral Clarke was probably shocked 
by volunteer irregularities; and in such matters as 
guard-mounting, reliefs, patrols, and picket-duties, he 
declared they were enough to break one's heart ; but 1 
was ^touibhcd to hear from him that the Germans 


were by far the worst of tlie live tliousiind troops uudcr 
liis conimiind, of whom they formed more than a lifthA 

Whilst we were couversiiig, the captain of the steamer 
invited us to come up into his cabin on the upper deck ; 
and as railway conductors, steamboat captains, bar- 
keepers, hotel-clerks, and telegraph oflicers are among 
the natural aristocracy of the land, we could not dis- 
obey the invitation, which led to the consumption of 
some of the captain's private stores, and many warm 
professions of political faith. 

The captain told me it was rough work abroad some- 
times with " sports ^^ and chaps of that kind; but 
" God bless you," said he, " the river now is not what 
it used to be a few' years ago, when we'd have three or 
four difficulties of an afternoon, and may-be now and 
then a regular free fight all up and down the decks, 
that would last a couple of hours, so that when we came 
to a town we would have to send for all the doctors 
twenty miles round, and may-be some of them would 
die in spite of that. It was the rowdies used to get these 
fights up ; but we^'e put them pretty well down. The 
citizens have hunted them out, and they's gone away 
west." " Well, then, captain, one^s life was not very 
safe on board sometimes." " Safe ! Lord bless you !" 
said the captain ; " if you did not meddle, just as safe 
as you are now, if the boiler dou^t collapse. You 
must, in course, know how to handle your weepins, 
and be pretty spry in taking your own part." " Ho, 
you Bill ! " to his coloured servant, " open that 
clothes-press." " Now, here," he continued, " is how^ I 
travel ; so that I am always easy in my mind in case of 
trouble on board." Putting his hand under the pillow 
of the bed close beside him, he pulled out a formidable 


looking double-barrelled pistol at half-cock, with tlie 
caps upon it. " That's as purty a pistol as Derringer 
ever made. I've got tlie brace of them— here's the 
other ;" and with that he M'hipped out pistol No. 2, in 
an equal state of forwardness, from a little shelf over 
liis bed ; and then going over to the clothes-press, he 
said, '' Here's a real old Kentuck, one of the old sort, 
as light on the trigger as gossamer, and sure as dceth — 
AA'iiy, law bless me, a child would cut a turkey's head ofl' 
with it at a hundred yards." This was a liuge lump of 
iron, about five feet long, with a small hole bored down 
the centre, fitted in a coarse German-fashioned stock. 
"But," continued he, "this is my main dependence; 
liere is a regular beauty, a first-rate, with ball or buck- 
shot, or whatever you like — made in London ; I 
cave two hundred dollars for it : and it is so short and 
handy and straight shooting, I'd just as soon part with 
my life as let it go to anybody " and, with a glow of 
pride in his face, the captain handed round again a 
very short double-barrelled gun, of some eleven or 
twelve bore, with back action locks, and an audacious 
"Joseph Manton, London," stamped on the plate. 
The manner of the man was perfectly simple and bond 
fide ; verv much as if Inspector Podger were revealing 
to a simpleton the mode by Avhich the London police 
nuinaired refractorv characters in the station-liousc. 

[From such matters as these I was diverted by the more 
serious subject of the attitude taken by England in this 
(piarrel. The concession of belligerent rights was, 1 
found, misunderstood, and was considered as an admis- 
sion that the Southern States had established their 
independence before they liad done more than declare 
♦heir intention to fight for itj 


It is not Nvithiu my power to determine whether 
the North is as unfair to Great Britain as the South ; 
but I fear the history of the people, and tlie ten- 
dency of their institutions, are adverse to any hope of 
fair-play and justice to the old country. And yet it is the 
only power in Europe for the good opinion of which they 
really seem to care', Let any French, Austrian, or 
Russian journal write what it pleases of the United 
States, it is received with indittcrcnt criticism or callous 
head-shaking. But (let a London paper speak, and 
the whole American press is delighted or furious.') 

The political sentiment quite overrides all other 
feelings ; and it is the only symptom statesmen should 
care about, as it guides the policy of the country. If a 
man can put faith in the influence for peace of common 
interests, of common origin, common intentions, with 
the spectacle of this incipient war before his eyes, he 
must be incapable of appreciating the consequences 
Avhicli follow from man being an animal. A war 
between England and the United States would be un- 
natural ; but it would not be nearly so unnatural now 
as it was when it was actually waged in 1776 between 
people who Avcre barely separated from each other by a 
single generation; or in 1812-14, when the foreign 
immigration had done comparatively little to dilute the 
Anglo-Saxon blood. The Norman of Hampshire and 
Sussex did not care much for the ties of consanguinity 
and race when he followed his lord in fee to ravage 
Guienne or Brittany. 

(The general result of my intercourse with Americans is 
to produce the notion that they consider Great Britain 
in a state of corruption and decay, and eagerly seek to 
exalt France at her expense^ Their language is the 

6 G 


sole link between England and the laiited Stater, and 
it onlv binds the England of 177(i to the American of 

(*rherc is scarcely an American on cither side of 
!Mason and Dixon's line who docs not reliijionsly 
believe that the colonies, alone and single-handed, 
encountered the whole undivided force of Great Britain 
in the revolution, and defeated it^ I moan, of course, 
the vast mass of the people; and 1 do not think there is 
an orator or a writer who would venture to tell them 
the truth on the subject. (lAgain, they firmly believe 
that their petty frigate engagements established as 
complete a naval ascendancy over Great Britain as the 
latter obtained by her great encounters with the llcets 
of France and Spaii). Their reverses, defeats, and 
headlong routs in the first war, their reverses in the 
second, are covered over by a Inii^e Buncombe plaster, 
made up of Bunker's Hill, Plattsburg, Baltimore, and 
New Orleans. 

v^heir delusions are increased and solidified by the 
extraordinary text-books of so-called historx-, and 
by the feasts, and festivals, and celebrations of their 
every-day political life, in all of which we pass through 
imajrinarv Caiuline Forks ; and thcv entertain towards 
the old coujitry at best very much the feeling which a 
high-spirited young man wouhl feel towards the guar- 
dian who, when he had come of age, and was free from 
all control, sought to restrain tiie passions of his 
early life. 

Now T could not refuse to believe that in New 
Orleans, Montgomery, Mobile, Jackson, and ^fcmphjs 
there is a reckless and violent condition of society, 
unfavourable to civilisation, and but little hopeful 


for the futurc.'j The most absolute and despotic rule, 
Tuuier which d man's life aud property are safe, is 
])etter than the larjrest measure of democratic freedom, 
whicli deprives the freeman of any security for either, 
The state of legal protection for the most serious inte- 
rests of man, considered as a civiHsed and social creature, 
which prevails in America, could not be tolerated for 
an instant, and would generate a revolution in the 
worst governed country in Europe. I would mucli ,^.,,,„ 
sooner, as the accidental victim of a generally disor- i}^^^, 
gauized police, be plundered by a chance diligence 
robber in Mexico, or have a fair fight with a Greek 
Klepht, suft'er from ItaUan banditti, or be garotted 
by a London ticket-of-leave man, than be bowic-knifcd 
or revolvered in consequence of a poHtical or personal 
difference with a man, who is certain not in the least 
desrree to suffer from an accidental success in his 

On our return to the hotel I dined with the General 
and his staff at the public table, where there was a 
large assemblage of military men, Southern ladies, their 
families, and( contractors 3 This latter race has risen up 
as if by magic, to meet the wants of the new Confede- 
racy; and fit is significant to measure the amount of 
the dependence on Northern manufacturers by the 
advertisements in the Southern journals, indicating the 
creation of new branches of workmanship, mechanical 
science, and manufacturing skill^ 
-Hitherto they have been dependent on the North 
for the very necessaries of their industrial life.— 
-These States were so intent on gathering in money 
for their produce, expending it luxuriously, and 
paying it out for Northern labour, that they found 


themselves suddenly in tlie condition of a child 
brou<,'ht up by hand, whose nurse and mother have 
left* it on the steps of the poor-house. But they 
have (certainly essayed to remedy the evil] and are cn- 
deavourinj; to make steam-engines, gunpowder, lamps, 
clothes, boots, railway carriages, steel springs, glass, 
and all the smaller articles for which even Southern 
households find a necessity. 

(hiie peculiar character of this contest developes itself 
in a manner almost incomprehensible to a stranger 
who has iK-en accustomed to regard the United States 
as a nation"_j; Here is General Pillow, for example, in 
the State of Tennessee, commanding the forces of the 
State, which, in eftect, belongs to the Southern Confe- 
deracy ; but he tells me that he cannot venture to 
move across a certain geographical line, dividing Ten- 
nessee from Kentucky, .because Xhe State of Kentucky, 
in the exercise of its sovereign powers and rights, 
which the Southern States are bound specially to 
respect, in virtue of their championship of States* 
rights, has, like the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland,! declared it will be neutral in the struggle;) 
and Beriah MagolHn, Governor of the aforesaid State, 
has warned oft' Federal and Confederate troops from 
liis territory. 

General Pillow is particularly indignant with the 
cowardice of the well-known Secessionists of Kentucky; 
liut 1 think he is rather more annoyed by the accu- 
inulation of Federal troops at Cairo, and their recent 
expedition to Columbus on the Kentucky shore, a 
little below them, where they seized a Confederate 


Heavy Bill — Railway travelling — Introductions — Assassinations — 
Tennessee — " Corinth " — " Troy "— " Humbolt "— " The Con- 
fetlerato Camp " — Return Northwards — Columbus — Cairo — The 
Slavery Question — Prospects of the War — Coarse Journalism. 

June IWi. It is probable the landlord of the G<ayoso 
House was a strong Secessionist^ and resolved, there- 
fore, to make the most out of a neutral customer 
like myself — certainly Herodotus would have been 
astonished if he were called upon to pay the little bill 
which was presented to mc in the modern ^Memphis ; 
and had the old Egyptian hostelries been conducted on 
the same principles as those of the Tennessean Memphis, 
the " Father of History " would have had to sell off a 
good many editions in order to pay his way. I had to rise 
at three o'clock a.m., to reach the train, which started 
before five. The omnibus which took us to the station 
was literally nave deep in the dust ; and of all the bad 
roads and dusty streets I have yet seen in the New 
AVorld, where both prevail. North and Soutli, those of 
Memphis are the worst. Indeed, as the citizen, of 
Hibernian birth, who presided over the luggage of 
the passengers on the roof, declared, " The streets are 
paved with waves of mud, only the mud is all dust when 
it's line weather." 

By the time I had arrived at the station my clothes 


ucre covered witli a fine alluvial deposit iu a state of 
powder; the i)hitform was crowded witli volunteers 
moving oil" for the wars, and I was obliged to take my 
place in a carriage full of Confederate officers and 
soldiers who had a large supply of whisky, which at 
that early hour they were consuming as a prophylactic 
against the influence of the morning dews, which 
hereabouts are of such a deadly character that, to be 
quite safe from their influence, it appears to be neces- 
sary, judging from the examples of my companions, to 
get as nearly drunk as possible. "Whisky, by-the-by, 
is also a sovereign specific against the bites of rattle- 
snakes. All the dews of the Mississippi and the rattle- 
snakes of the prairie might have spent their force or 
venom in vain on my companions before we had got as 
far as Union Citj'. 

I Mas evidently regarded with considerable suspicion 
by my fellow passengers, when they heard I was going 
to Cairo, until the conductor obligingly informed them 
who I V as, whereupon I was much entreated to fortify 
myself against the dews and rattlesnakes, and received 
many offers of service and kindness. 

^Vhatever may be the normal comforts of American 
railway cars, they are certainly most unpleasant con- 
veyances when the war spirit is abroad, and the heat of 
the dav, which was excessive, did not contribute to 
diminish the annoyance of foul air — the odour of 
whisky, tobjicco, and the like, combined with innumer- 
able flies. At Ilumbolt, which is eighty-two miles 
away, there was a change of cars, and an opportunity 
of ol)taining some refreshment, — the station was 
crowded by great numbers of men and women dressed 
in their best, who were making holiday in order to 


visit Union City, forty-six miles distant, where a 
force of Tcnnesscean and IMississippi regiments are 
encamped. The hidies boldly advanced into carriages 
■which were quite full, and as they looked quite prepared 
to sit down on the occupants of the scats if they did not 
move, and to destroy them Avith all-absorbing articles 
of feminine warfare, either defensive or aggressive, and 
crush them with iron-bound crinolines, they soon drove 
us out into the broiling sun. 

Whilst I was on the platform I underwent the usual 
process of American introduction, not, I fear, very 
good-humouredly. A gentleman whom you never saw 
before in your life, -walks up to you and says, " I am 
happy to see you among us, sir," and if he finds a hand 
wandering about, he shakes it cordially. " My name is 
Jones, sir, Judge Jones of Pumpkin County. Any infor- 
mation about this place or State that I can give is quite 
at your service." This is all very civil and well meant 
of Jones, but before you have made up your mind what 
to say, or on what matter to test the worth of his 
proffered information, he darts off and seizes one of the 
group who have been watching Jones''s advance, and 
comes forward with a tall man, like himself, busily en- 
gaged Avith a piece of tobacco. " Colonel, let me intro- 
duce you to my friend, Mr, Russell. This, sir, is 
one of our leading citizens. Colonel Knags." Where- 
upon the Colonel shakes hands, uses nearly the same 
formula as Judge Jones, immediately returns to his 
friends, and cuts in before Jones is back with other 
friends, whom he is hurrying up the platform, introduces 
General Cassius Mudd and Dr. Ordlando Bellows, who 
go through the same ceremony, and as each man has a 
circle of his own, my acquaintance becomes prodigiously 


extended, and my Laud considerably tortured in the 
space of a few minutes ; finally I am introduced to the 
driver of the engine and the stoker, l)ut they proved to 
be acquaintances not at all to be despised, for they gave 
me a seat on the engine, which was really a boon con- 
sidering that the train was crowded beyond endurance, 
and in a state of internal nastiness scarcely conceivable. 

AVhen I had got up on the engine a gentleman 
clambered after me in order to have a little conversa- 
tion, and he turned out to be an intelligent and clever 
man well acquainted Mith the people and the country. 
I had been much impressed by the account in the 
Memphis papers of the lawlessness and crime which 
seemed to prevail in the state of Mississippi, and of the 
brutal shootings and stabbings which disgraced it and 
other Southern States. He admitted it was true, but 
could not see any remedy. " Why not? " " AVell, sir, 
the rowdies have rusiicd in on us, and we can't master 
them ; they are too strong for the respectable people." 
" Then you admit the law is nearly powerless V " 
*' Well, you see, sir, these men have got hold of the 
people who ought to administer the law, and when they 
fail to do so they are so powerful by reason of their 
numbers, and so reckless, they have things their own 

" In eti'ect, then, yuu arc living undir a reign of 
terror, and the rule of a rulfian mol) V " " It's not 
(|uite so bad as that, perhaps, for the respectable people 
are not much alfected by it, and most of the crimes of 
which you speak arc committed by tliesc bad classes in 
their own section ; biit it is disgraceful to have such a 
state of things, and when tiiis war is over, and we have 
started the Confederacy all fair, we'll put the whole 


tliiiii; down. Wc arc quite dcterminecl to take the law 
into our own hands, and the first remedy for the con- 
dition of affairs whicli, wc all lament, will be to confine 
the suffrage to native-born Americans, and to get rid 
of the infamous, scoundrelly foreigners, who now over- 
rule us in our country/^ " But arc not many regiments 
of Irish and Germans now fighting for you ? And will 
these foreigners who have taken iip arms in your cause 
be content to receive as the result of their success an 
inferior position, politically, to that which they now 
hold?'' "Well, sir, they must; we are bound to go 
through with this thing if we would save society/' I 
had so often heard a similar determination expressed by 
men belonging to the thinking classes in the South that 
I am bound to believe the project is entertained by 
many of those engaged in this great revolt — one 
principle of which indeed, may be considered hostility 
to universal suffrage, combining with it, of course, the 
limitation of the immigrant vote. 

The portion of Tennessee through which the rail 
runs is exceedingly uninteresting, and looks unhealthy, 
the clearings occur at long intervals in the forest, 
and the unwholesome population, wdio came out of their 
low shanties, situated amidst blackened stumps of trees 
or fields of Indian corn, did not seem prosperous or 
comfortable. The twists and curves of the rail, through 
cane brakes and swamps exceeded in that respect any 
line I have ever travelled on ; but the vertical irre- 
gularities of the rail Avere still greater, and the engine 
bounded as if it were at sea. 

The names of the stations show that a savant has been 
rambling about the district. Here is Corinth, which 
consists of a wooden grog-shop and three log shanties ; 


the acropolis is represented by a grocery store, of >vhicli 
the proprietors, uo doubt, have {;oue to the wars, as 
their names were suspiciously Milesian, and the doors 
and windows were fastened ; but occasionally the names 
of the stations on the railway boards represented 
towns and villages, hidden in the wood some distance 
away, and Mummius might have something to ruin if 
he marched off the track but not otherwise. 

The city of Troy was still simpler in architecture than 
the Grecian capitol. The Dardanian towers were re- 
presented by a timber-house, in the verandah of which 
the American Helen was seated, in the shape of an old 
woman smoking a pipe, and she certainly could have 
set the Palace of Priam on fire much more readily 
than her prototype. Four sheds, three log huts, a saw- 
mill, about twenty negroes sitting on a wood-pile, and 
looking at the train, constituted the rest of the place, 
which was certainly too new for one to say, Troja fu'it, 
whilst the general "lixius" would scarcely authorise us to 
say with any confidence, Troja fucril. 

The train from Troy passed through a cypress swamp, 
over which the engine rattled, and hopped at a perilous 
rate along high trestle work, till forty-six miles from 
Ilumljolt we came to Union City, which was apparently 
formed by aggregate meetings of discontented shavings 
that had travelled out of the forest hard by. But a 
little beyond it was the Confederate camp, which so 
many citizens and cilizenesses had come out into the 
wilileruess to see ; and a general descent wjis made upon 
the place whilst the volunteers came swarming out of 
their tents to meet their friends. It was interesting to 
observe the afTcctionate greetings between the young 
soldiers, mothers, wives, and sweethearts, and as a 


ilisplay of the force and earnestness of tlie Southern 
people — the camp itself containing thousands of men, 
man}' of whom were members of the first families in 
the State — was specially significant. 

There is no appearance of military order or dis- 
cipline about the camps, though they were guarded b\' 
sentries and cannon, and implements of war and soldiers' 
accoutrements were abundant. Some of the sen- 
tinels carried their firelocks under their arms like 
umbrellas, others carried the but over the shoulder 
and the muzzle downwards, and one for his greater 
ease had stuck the bayonet of his firelock into the 
ground, and was leaning his elbow on the stock with 
his chin on his hand, whilst Sybarites less ingenious, 
had simply deposited their muskets against the trees, 
and were lying down reading newspapers. Their arms 
and uniforms were of difi'erent descriptions — sporting 
rifles, fowling pieces, flint muskets, smooth bores, long 
and short barrels, new Enfields, and the like ; but the 
men, nevertheless, were undoubtedly material for ex- 
cellent soldiers. There were some few boys, too young 
to carry arms, although the zeal and ardour of such lads 
cannot but have a good cfi'ect, if they behave well in 

The great attraction of this train lay in a vast 
supply of stores, with which several large vans were 
closely packed, and for fully two hours the train 
was delayed, whilst hampers of wine, spirits, vegetables, 
fruit, meat, groceries, and all the various articles 
acceptable to soldiers living under canvas were dis- 
gorged on the platform, and carried away by the 
expectant military. 

I was pleased to observe the perfect confidence 


tlmt was felt in the honesty of the men. The railway 
servants simply deposited each article as it came 
out on the platform — the men came up, read the 
address, and carried it away, or left it, as the case 
might be ; and only in one instance did I see a scramble, 
■which was certainly quite justifialilc, for in handinj; 
out a large basket the bottom gave way, and out 
tumbled onions, apples, and potatoes among the 
soldiery, who stufled their pockets and haversacks with 
the unexpected bounty. One young fellow, who was 
handed a large w ickcr-covered jar from the van, having 
shaken it, and gratified his car by the pleasant jingle 
inside, retired to the roadside, drew the cork, and, 
raising it slowly to his mouth, proceeded to take a 
good pull at the contents, to the envy of his comrades ; 
but the pleasant expression upon his face rapidly 
vanished, and spurting out the iluid with a hideous 

grimace, he exclamcd, "D ; why, if the old 

woman has not gone and sent me a gallon of 
syrup." Tiie matter Avas evidently considered too 
serious to joke about, for not a noul in the crowd even 
smiled ; but they walked away from the man, who, 
putting down the jar, seemed in doubt as to whether he 
would take it away or not. 

Numerous were the invitations to stop, which I 
received from the oflieers. " Why not stay with us, 
sir ; M'hat can a gentleman want to go among black 
f Kepublicans and Yankees for," It is (juite obvions 
that my return to the Northern States is regarded w ith 
some suspicion; but I am bound to say that my explana- 
tion of the necessity of the stcj) was alw:iys well received, 
and satisfied my Southern friiiuls that I had no alter- 
native. A special correspondent, whose letters cannot 


get out of the country in Avliich he is engaged, can 
scarcely fulfil the purpose of his mission ; aiul I used 
to point out, good-hunioureclly, to these gentlemen that 
until they had eitlier opened the communication uitli 
the North, or had broken the blockade, and established 
steam communication witli Europe, I must seek my 
base of operations elsewhere. 

At last Ave started from Union City ; and there came 
into the car, among other soldiers who were going 
out to Columbus, a fine specimen of the wild fili-"^ 
bustering population of the South, which furnish many 
recruits to the ranks of the Confederate army — a tall, 
brawuy-shouldered, brown-faced, black-bearded, hairy- 
handed man, with a hunter's eye, and rather a Jewish 
face, full of life, energy, and daring. I easily got into 
conversation with him, as my companion happened to be 
a freemason, and he told us he had been a planter in 
Mississippi, and once owaied 110 negroes, worth at least 
some 20,000/. ; but, as he said himself, " I was always 
patrioting it about;" and so he went off, /first with 
Lopez to Cuba, was wounded and taken prisoner by the 
Spaniards, but had the good fortune to be saved from 
the execution which was inflicted on the ringleaders of 
the expedition. When he came back he found his 
plantation all the worse, and a decrease amongst his 
negroes ; but his love of adventure and filibustering was 
stronger than his prudence or desire of gain. (lie took 
up with Walker, the " the grey eyed man of destiny," 
and accompanied him in his strange career till his 
leader received the coup de yruce in the final raid upon 

Again he was taken prisoner, and would have been 
put to death by the Nicaraguuus, but for the interven- 


tiou of Captniu Aldliani. "I don't bear any love to 
the Britishers," said lie, " but Tin bound to say, as so 
many ehargcs have been made against Caj)tain Aldham, 
that he behaved like a gentleman, and if I had been at 
New Orleans when them cussed cowardly blackguards 
ill-used him, I'd have left my mark so deep on a few of 
them, that their clothes would not cover them long." 
He told us that at present he had only five negroes left, 
" but I'm not going to let the black republicans lay 
hold of them, and I'm just going to stand up for States' 
rights as long as I can draw a trigger— so snakes and 
Abolitionists look out.'' lie was so reduced by starva- 
tion, ill-treatment, and sickness in ^Nicaragua, when 
Captain Aldham procured his release, that he weighed 
only 1 10 pounds, but at present he was over 2UU pounds, 
a splendid bete fauve, and without wishing so fine a 
looking fellow any harm, I could not but help thinking 
that it must be a benefit to American society to get rid 
of a considerable number of these class of which he is 
a representative man. And there is every probability 
that they will have a full ojiportunity of doing so. 

On the arrival of the train at Columbus, twenty- 
five miles from Union City, my friend got out, 
and a good number of men in uniform joined him, 
•which led me to conclude that tluy had some more 
scM'ious object than a mere pkasure trij) to the vi-ry 
uninteresting looking city on the banks of the Missis*- 
.sip|)i, which is asserted to be neutral territory, as it 
belongs to the sovereign state of Kentucky. 1 heard, 
aecidentally, as 1 came in the train, that a party of 
Federal soldiers from the camp at Cairo, up the river, 
liad recently descended to Columbus and torn down a 
bccesbion Hag which liad been hoisted on the river's 


bank, to the great indignation of many of tlic in- 

-In those border states the coming war promises 
to produce the greatest misery y they will be the scenes 
of hostile operations ; the population is divided in senti- 
ment ; the greatest efforts will be made by each side to 
gain the ascendancy ^ in the state, and to crush the 
opposite faction, and it is not possible to believe that 
Kentucky can maintain a neutral positiouL or that 
cither Federal or Confederates will pay the smallest 
regard to the proclamation of Governor McGofi&n, and 
to his empty menaces. 

At Columbus the steamer was waiting to convey us up 
to Cairo, and I congratulated myself on the good fortune 
of arriving in time for the last opportunity that Mill be 
afforded of proceeding northward by this route. General 
Pillow on the one hand, and General Prentiss on the 
other, have resolved to blockade the Mississippi, and as 
tlie facilities for Confederates going up to Columbus and 
obtaining information of what is happening in tlic 
Federal camps cannot readily be checked, the general 
in command of the port to which I am bound has 
intimated that the steamers must cease running. It 
was late in the day when we entered once more on the 
father of waters, which is here just as broad, as muddy, 
as deep, and as wooded as it is at Baton Rouge, or 

Columbus is situated on an elevated spur or elbow of 
land projecting into the river, and has, in commercial 
faith, one of those futures wliicli have so many rallying 
points down the centre of the great river. The steamer 
which lay at the wharf, or rather the wooden piles in 
the bank which afforded a resting place for the gang- 

E 2 


uay, carried no flajj:, ami on board j)rcsciited traces of 
better days, a list of rcfresliments uo longer attainable, 
and of bill of fare ntterly fanciful. About twenty pas- 
sengers came on board, most of whom had a distracted 
air, as if they were doubtful of their journey. The 
captain was surly, the ofiice keeper petulant, the crew 
morose, and, perhaps, only one man on board, a stout 
Englishman, who was purser or chief of the victualling 
department, seemed at :dl inclined to be communicative. 
At dinner lie asked me whether I thought there would 
be a light, but as I was oscillating between one extreme 
and the other, I considered it right to conceal my 
opinion even from the steward of the Mississippi boat ; 
and, as it happened, the expression of it would not have 
been of niuch conscqucuce one way or the other, for it 
turned out that our friend was of very stern stuff, 
"This war," he said, "is all about niggers; I've been 
sixteen years in the country, and 1 never met one of 
them yet was fit to be anything but a slave ; I know 
the two sections well, and I tell you, sir, the North 
can't whip the South, let them do their best; they may 
ruin the country, but they'll do no good." 

There were men on board who had expressed the 
strongest secession sentiments in the train, but who 
now sat and listened and acquiesced in the opinions of 
Northern nun, and by the time Cairo was in sight, 
they, no doubt, would have taken the oath of allegiance 
which every doubtful person is required to utter before 
lie is allowed to go beyond the military post. 

In about two hours or so the cajjlain pointed out to 
me a tall building and some sheds, wliich seemed to 
arise out of a wide reach in the river, "that's Oaircy," 
said he, " where the Unionists have their camp," and very 


soon tlic stars and stripes were visible, wavini^ from 
a lofty staff, at tlie angle of low land formed Ijy the 
junetion of the INIississippi and Ohio. 

For two months I had seen only the rival stars and 
bars, with the exception of the rival banner floating from 
the ships and the fort at Pickens. One of the passengers 
told me that the place was snpposed to be described by 
Mr. Dickens, in "Martin Chuzzlewit," and as the steamer 
approached the desolate embankment, which seemed 
the only barrier between the low land on which the so- 
called city was built, and the waters of the great river 
rising above it, it certainly became impossible to believe 
that sane men, even as speculators, could have fixed 
upon such a spot as the possible site of a great city, 
— an emporium of trade and commerce. A more deso- 
late woe-begone looking place, now that all trade and 
commerce had ceased cannot be conceived ; but as the 
southern terminus of the central Illinois railway, it 
displayed a very diflferent scene before the war broke 

With the exception of the large hotel, which 
rises far above the levee of the river, the public edi- 
fices are represented by a church aiul spire, and the 
rest of the town by a line of shanties and small houses, 
the rooms and upper stories of which are just visible 
above the embankment. The general impression effected 
by the place was decidedly like that which the Isle of Dogs 
produces on a despondent foreigner as he approaches 
London by the river on a drisly day in November. 
The stream, formed by the united efforts of the ]\[issis- 
sippi and the Ohio, did not appear to gain much l)rc:ultli, 
and each of the confluents looked as large as its product 
with the other. Three steamers lav alongside the 


wooden wharves projectiuj^ from the embuukraeut, 
whieh was also lined by some Ihit-boats. Sentries 
paraded the gan;;wa\ s as the steamer made fast along 
the shore, but no incjuiry Avas directed to any of the 
passengers, and I walked up the levee and proceeded 
straight to the hotel, whieh put me very much in mind 
of an effort made by speculating proprietors to create a 
watering-place on some lifeless beach. In the hall 
there were a number of ofiicers in United States' uni- 
forms, and the lower part of the hotel was, apparently, 
occupied as a military bureau; finally, I was shoved 
into a small dungeon, with a window opening out on 
the angle formed by the two rivers, which was lined 
with sheds and huts and terminated by a battery. 

These camps arc such novelties in the country, and 
there is such romance in the mere fact of a man living 
in a tent, that people come far and wide to see their 
friends under such extraordinary circumstances, and the 
hotel at Cairo was crowded by men and women who 
had come from all parts of Illinois to visit their ac- 
quaintances and relations belonging to the state troops 
encamped at this important jjoint. The salle a mam/er, 
a long and lofty room on the ground Hoor, which I 
visited at supper time, was almost untenable by reason 
of heat and Hies ; nor did I find that the free negroes, 
who acted as attendants, possessed any advantages over 
their enslaved brethren a few miles lower down the 
river ; though their freedom was obvious enough in their 
demeanour and manners. 

I was introduced to Cjeneral i'rentiss, an agrccabk; 
pcrson.w ithout anything about him to indicate the soldier. 
He gave me a number of newspapers, the articles in 
which were principally occupied with a discussion of Lord 


John Russell's speech on American affairs : Mucli as the \ 
South found fault witli the British niiuister for the \ 
views lie had expressed, the North appears much more ' 
indignant, and denounces in the press what the journa- 
lists are pleased to call "the hostility of the Foreign 
^Minister to the United States." It is admitted, how- 
ever, that the extreme irritation caused by admitting 
the Southern States to exercise limited belligerent 
rights was not quite justifiable. Soon after nightfall I 
retired to my room and battled with mosquitoes till I 
sank iuto sleep and exhaustion, and abandoned myself 
to their mercies ; perhaps, after all, there were not more 
than a hundred or so, and their united efforts could not 
absorb as much blood as would be taken out by one 
leech, but then their horrible acrimony, which leaves a 
wreck behind in the place where they have banqueted, 
inspires the utmost indignation and appears to be an 
indefensible prolongation of the outrage of the original 

June 20//«.— When I awoke this morning and, gazing 
out of my little window on the regiments parading on 
the level below me, after an arduous struggle to obtain 
cold water for a bath, sat down to consider what I 
had seen Avithin the last two months, and to arrive at 
some general results from the retrospect, I own that 
after much thought my mind wasreduced to ahazy analysis 
of the abstract principles of right and wrong, in which 
it failed to come to any very definite coudusion : the 
space of a very few miles has completely altered the 
phases of thought and the forms of language. 

I am living among " abolitionists, cut-throats, Lin- 
colnite mercenaries, foreign invaders, assassins, and plun- 
dering Dutchmen." Such, at least, the men of Columbus 


tell me the garrison at Cairo consists of, Down below 
nic are "rebels, conspirators, robbers, slave breeders, 
Avretcbes bent npon destroying the most perfect govern- 
ment <ni the face of the earth, in order to perpetuate 
an aecnrscd system, by Avhicli, however, beings are held 
in bondage and immortal souls consigned tu perdition." 

On the whole, the impression left upon ray mind by 
what I had seen in slave states is unfavourable to the 
institution of slavery, both as regards its effects on the 
slave and its influence on the master. But my ex- 
amination was necessarily superficial and hasty. I have 
reason to believe that the more deeply the institution 
is probed, the more clearly will its unsoundness and its 
radical evils be discerned. The constant appeals made 
to the physical comforts of the slaves, and their sup- 
posed contentment, have little or no effect on any 
person who acts up to a higher standard of human 
ha})i)iness than that which is applied to swine or the 
beasts of the fields " See how fat my pigs are." 

The arguments founded on a comparison of the 
condition of the slave population with the })auperiscd 
inhabitants of European states are utterly fallacious, 
inasmuch as in one point, ■which is the most important 
by far, there can be no comparison at all. In effect 
slavery can only be justified in the abstract on the 
•rrounds which slavery advocates decline to take boldlv, 
though they insinuate it now and then, that is, the 
inferiority of the negro in respect to white men, which 
removes them from the upper class of himian beings 
and places them in a condition which is as much below 
the Caucasian standard as the (juadrumanous creatures 
are beneath the negro. Slavery is a curse, with its time 
of accomplishment not quite at hand — it is a cancer, the 


ravages of which are covered by fair outward show, and 
by tlic a})i)arciit health of the sufferer. 

The shive states, of course, wouhl not support the 
Northern for a year if cotton, sugar, and tobacco became 
suddenly worthless. But, nevertheless, the slave owners 
would have strong grounds to stand upon if they were 
content to point to the difficulties in the way of eman- 
cipation, and the circiunstances under which they 
received their damnosa liercditufi from England, which 
fostered, nay forced, slavery in legislative hotbeds 
througliout the colonies. The Englishman may say 
" We abolished slavery when we saw its evils." The 
slave owner replies, " Yes, with you it was possible to 
decree the extinction — not with us.'^ 

Never did a people enter on a war so utterly^ 
destitute of any reason for waging it, or of the means 
of bringing it to a successful termination against 
internal enemies. The thirteen colonies had a large 
population of sea-f;iring and soldiering men, constantly 
engaged in military expeditions. There was a large 
infusion, compared Avith the numbers of men capable 
of commanding in the field, and their great enemy was 
separated by a space far greater than the whole circum- 
ference of the globe would be in the present time from 
the scene of operations. Most American officers who 
took part in the war of 1812-14 are now too old for 
service, or retired into private life soon after the 
campaign. The same remark applies to the senior 
officers who served in Mexico, and the experiences of 
that campaign could not be of much use to those now 
in the service, of Avhom the majority were subalterns, 
or at most, officers in command of volunteers. 

A love of military display is very diflFereut indeed from 


:i true soldierly spirit, and at the base of the volunteer 
system there lies a radical difliculty, which must be 
overcome l)efbrc real military eilicieucy can be expected. 
In the South the foreign element has contributed 
largely to swell the ranks with many docile and a few 
experienced soldiers, the number of the latter pre- 
dominating in the German levies, and the same 
remark is, I hear, true of the Northern armies. 

Tlic most active member of the stati" here is a young 
Englishman named Biumore, who was a stenographic 
writer in liondon, but has now sharpened his pencil 
into a sword, and when I went into the guard-room 
this morning I found that three-fourths of the oflicers, 
including all who had seen actual service, were foreigners. 
One, Milutzky, was an Hungarian; another, Waagner, 
was of the same nationality ; a third, Schuttner, was a 
German ; another, ^lac something, was a Scotchman ; 
another, was an Englishman, One only (Colonel 
Morgan), who had served in Mexico, was an American, 
The foreigners, of course, serve in this war as merce- 
nai ies ; that is, they enter into the conflict to gain 
something by it, cither in pay, in position, or in securing 
a status for themselves. 

The utter absence of any fixed principle deter- 
mining the side which the foreign nationalities adopt 
is proved by their going North or South vith the 
state in which they live. On the other hand, the 
effects of discipline and of the principles of military 
life on rank and fiU', are shown by the fact that the 
soldiers of the regular regiments of the United States 
and the sailors in the navy have to a man adhered 
to their colours, notwithstanding the examples and 
inducemeuts of their oflicers. 


After breakfast I went down about the works, 
which fortify the bank of mud, in the shape of a V, 
formed by the two rivers — a fleche with a ditcli, 
scarp, and counter-scarp. Some heavy pieces cover 
tlie end of the spit at the other side of tlic 
Mississippi, at Bird's Point. On the side of Missouri 
there is a field entrenchment, held by a regiment of 
Germans, Poles, and Hungarians, about lOOU strong, 
with two field batteries. The sacred soil of Kentucky, 
on the other side of the Ohio, is tabooed by Bcriah 
Magoffiuj but it is not possible for the belligerents to 
stand so close face to face without occupying either 
Columbus or Hickman. The thermometer was at 100° 
soon after breakfast, and it was not wonderful to fiud 
that the men in Camp Defiance, which is the name 
of the cantonment on the mud between the levees of 
the Ohio and Mississippi, were sufiering from diarrhoea 
and fever. 

In the evening there was a review of three regi- 
ments, forming a brigade of some 2800 men, who 
went through their drill, advancing in columns of 
company, moving en echelon, changing front, deploying 
into line on the centre company, very creditably. It 
Avas curious to see what a start ran through the 
men during the parade when a gun was fired from 
the battery close at hand, and how their heads 
turned towards the river ; but the steamer which had 
appeared round the bend hoisted the private signs, by 
wliich she was known as a friend, and tranquillity was 

I am not sure that most of these troops desire^ 
anything but a long residence at a tolerably com-; 
fortablc station, with plenty of pay and no marchinj 


Cairo, indeed, is not comfortable; the worst barrack 
that ever asphixiatidTlie British soUlier would be better 
than the best shed licre, and the Hi. s and the mosquitoes 
are beyond all conception virulent and pestiferous. I 
would give niueh to see Cairo in its normal state, but 
it is my fate to witness the most interesting scenes in 
the world through a glaze of gunpowder. It would be 
unfair to say that any marked superiority in dwelling, 
clothing, or comfort was visible between the mean 
white of Cairo or the black chattel a few miles down 
the river. Brawling, rioting, and a good deal of 
drunkenness prevailed in the miserable sheds which 
line the stream, although there was nothing to justify 
the libels on the garrison of the Coluinbus Crescent, 
editL'd by one Colonel L. G. Faxon, of the Tennessee 
Tigers, with whose writings I was made acquainted by 
General Prentiss, to whom they appeared to give more 
annoyance than he was quite wise in showing. 

This is a style of journalism which may have its 
merits, and which certainly is peculiar ; I give a 
few small pieces. "The Irish arc for us, and they 
will knock Bologna sausages out of the Dutch, and 
we will knock wooden nutmegs out of the Yankees." 
" The mosquitoes of Cairo have been sucking the 
lager-bier out of the dirty soldiers there so long, they 
are bloated and swelled up as large as spring 'pos- 
sums. An assortment of Columbus mosquitoes went 
up there the other day to suck some, but as they 
have not returned, the pn^bability is they went off 
M'ith delirium tremnus ; in fact, the blood of these 
Hessians would poison the most degraded tumble bug 
in creation." 

Our editor is particularly angry about the recent 


seizure of a Confederate lla^- at Culumbu.s l)y Colonel 
Oglesby and a party of Federals from Cairo. Speaking 
of a Hag intended for himself, lie says, " Would that its 
folds had contained 1000 asps to sting 1000 Dutchmen 
to eternity unshriven." Our fi-iend is certainly a 
genius. His paper of June the 19th opens with an 
apology for the non-appearance of the journal for 
several weeks. " Before leaving," he says, " wc en- 
gaged the services of a competent editor, and left a 
printer here to issue the paper regularly. We were 
detained several w^eks be^'ond our time, the aforesaid 
printer promised faithfully to perform his duties, but he 
left the same day we did, and consequently there was 
no one to get out the paper. Wc have the charity to 
suppose that fear and bad whisky had nothing to do 
with his evacuation of Columbus." Another elegant 
extract about the flag commences, " When the bow- 
legged, wooden slioed, sour craut stinking, Bologna 

sausage eating, hen roost robbing Dutch sons of 

had accomplished the brilliant feat of taking down the 
Secession flag on the river bank, they were pointed to 
another flag of the same sort which their guns did not 
cover, flying gloriously and defiantly, and dared yea ! 
double big black dog — dared, as w'e used to say at 
school, to take that flag down — the cowardly pups, the 
thieving sheep dogs, the sneaking skunks, dare not do 
so, because their twelve pieces of artillery were not 
bearing on it." As to the Federal commander at Cairo, 
Colonel Faxon's sentiments are unambiguous. " The 
qualifications of this man, Prentiss," he says, " for the 
command of such a squad of villains and cut-throats 
are, that he is a miserable hound, a dirty dog, a sociable 
fellow, a treacherous villain, a notorious thief, a lying 


black<;iiard, wlio lias served liis regular five years in the 
Penitentiary ami kc-ips his hide continually full of 
Cincinnati whisky, which he buys by the barrel in order 
to save his money — in him are embodied the leprous 
rascalities of the world, aud in this living score, the 
gallows is cheated of its own, Prentiss wants our 
sealp ; we propose a plan by w hicli he may get that 
valuable article. Let him select ].")() of his best fighting 
men, or 2o() of his lager-bier Dutchmen, we will select 
100, then let both parties meet where there will be no 
interruption at the scalping business, and the longest 
l)ole will knock the persimmon. If he docs not accept 
this proposal, lie is a coward. AVc think this a gentle- 
manly proposition and (juitc fair and ecjual to both 


Camp at Cairo— The North and the South in respect to Europe— Poli- 
tical reflections— Mr. Colonel Oglesby— My speech— Northern and 
Southern soldiers compared — American country-walks — Reckless- 
ness of life— Want of cavalry— Emeute in the camp— Defects of 
army medical department — Horrors of war — Bad discipline. 

June 2lst. Verily I would be sooner in the Coptic 
Cairo, narrow streeted, dark bazaared, many flied, much 
vexed by donkeys and by overland route passengers, 
than the horrid tongue of land which licks the muddy 
margin of the Ohio and the Mississippi. The ther- 
mometer at 100° in the shade before noon indicates 
nowhere else such an amount of heat and suffering, and 
yet prostrate as I was, it was my fate to argue that 
England was justified in conceding belligerent rights to 
the South, and that the attitude of neutrality we had 
assumed in 1;his terrible quarrel is not in effect an 
aggression on the United States ; and here is a difference 
to be perceived between the North and the South. 

The people of the seceding States, aware in their 
consciences that they have been most active in their 
hostility to Great Britain, and whilst they were in 
power were mainly responsible for the defiant, irritatnig, 
and insulting tone commonly used to us by American 
statesmen, are anxious at the present moment, when so 
much depends on the action of foreign countries, to 


remove all unfavourable impressious from our minds by 
dcclaratiuns of guoil will, respect, and admiration, not 
quite compatible with the langua-je of their leaders in 
times not long gone by. The North, as yet unconscious of 
the loss of power, and reared in a school of menace and 
\iolent assertion of their rights regarding themselves as 
the whole of the United States, and animated by their 
own feeling of commercial and political opposition to 
Great Britain, maintain the high tone of a people who 
have never known let or hindrance in their pjissious, 
and consider it an outrage that the whole world does not 
join iu active sympathy for a government which in its 
brief career has contrived to affront every nation in 
Europe with whicli it had any dealings. 

If the United States have astonished France by their 
ingratitude, they have certainly accustomed England to 
their petulance, and one can fancy the satisfaction with 
which the Austrian Statesmen who remeud)er Mr. 
Webstei-'s despatch to .Mr. liulsemann, contemplate the 
present condition of the L'nited States in the face of 
an insurrection of these sovereign and independent 
States which the Cabinet at AVashington stigmatises as 
an outbreak of rebels and traitors to the royalty of the 

During my short sojourn in this country 1 have never 
yet met any person who ccudd show me where the 
sovereignty of the Union resides. General Prentiss, 
liowever, and his Illinois volunteers, are quite ready to 
fight for it. 

In the afternoon the General drove me round the 
camps in company with !Mr. Washburne, Member of 
Congress, from Illinois, his staff and a party of 
officers, among whom was Mr. Oglesby, colonel of a 


regiment of State Volunteers, who struck me by his 
shrewdness, simple honesty, and zeal.* He told mc 
that he had begun life in the utmost obscurity, 
but that somehow or otlier he got into a lawyer^s 
office, and there, by hard drudgery, by mother 
■wit, and industry, notwithstaiuling a defective eduea- 
■cation, he had raised himself not only to independence 
but to such a position that 1000 men had gathered 
at his call aiul selected one Avho had never led a 
company in his life to be their colonel; in fact, he is 
an excellent orator of the western school, and made 
good homely, telling speeches to his men. 

" I'm not as good as your Frenchmen of the schools of 
Paris, nor am I equal to the Russian colonels I met at 
St. Petersburg, who sketched me out how they had 
beaten you Britishers at Scbastopol," said he ; " but I 
know I can do good straight fighting with my boys 
when I get a chance. There is a good deal in training, 
to be sure, but nature tells too. Why I believe I 
would make a good artillery officer if I was put to it. 
General, you heard how I laid one of them guns the 
other day and touched her off with my own hand and 
sent the ball right into a tree half-a-raile away." The 
Colonel evidently thought he had by that feat proved 
his fitness for the command of a field battery. One of 
the German officers who was listening to the lively old 
man's talk, whispered to me, " Dere is a good many of 
tese colonels in dis camp." 

At each station the officers came out of their tents, 
shook hands all round, and gave an unfailing invita- 
tion to get down and take a drink, and the guns on 
the General's approach fired salutes, as though it was a 

* Since died of wounds received in actioD. 

VOL. 11. K 


time of profouiulest peace. Poudcr was certainly 
more plentiful than in the Confederate camps, where 
salutes are not permitted. unless by special order on 
great occasions. 

The General remained for some time in the camp 
of the Chicago lisiht artillery, which was commanded 
by a fine young Scotchman of the Saxon genus 
Smith, who told me that the privates of his company 
represented a million and a half of dollars in property. 
Their guns, horses, carriages, and accoutrements were 
all in the most creditable order, and there was au air 
about the men and about their camp which showed 
they did not belong to the same class as the better 
disciplined Hungarians of !Milotzky close at hand. 

"Whilst we were seated in Captain Smiths tent, a 
number of the privates came forward, and sang the 
" Star-spangled banner " and a patriotic song, to the air 
of " God save the Queen,^' and the rest of the artillery- 
men, and a number of stragglers from the other camps, 
assembled and then formed line behind the singers. 
When the chorus was over there arose a great shout 
for A\'ashi)urne, and the honourable Congress man 
was fain to come forward and make a speech, in which 
lie assured his hearers of a very spCedy victory and the 
advent of liberty all over the land. Then " General 
Prentiss" was called for; and as citizen soldiers command 
their Generals on such occasions, he too was obliged to 
speak, and to tell his audience "the world had never 
seen any men more devoted, gallant, or patriotic than 
themselves." " Oglesby " was next summoned, and the 
tall, portly, good-huujoured old man stepjjed to the 
front, and with excellent tact and good sense, dished 
up in the Buncombe !;tyle, told them the time for 


making speeches liad passed, indeed it had lasted too 
long; and although it was said there was very little 
fighting when there was niucli talking, he believed too 
nmeli talking was likely to lead to a great deal more 
fighting than any one desired to see between citizens of 
the Uuited States of America, except their enemies, 
Avho, no doubt, were much better pleased to see 
Americans fighting each other than to find them 
engaged in any other employment. Great as the 
mischief of too much talking had been, too much 
writing had far more of the mischief to answer for. 
The pen was keener than the tongue, hit harder^ and 
left a more incurable wound ; but the pen was better 
than the tongue, because it was able to cure the 
mischief it had inflicted." And so by a series of 
sentences the Colonel got round to me, and to my 
consternation, remembering how I had fared with my 
speech at the little private dinner on St. Patrick's Day 
in New York, I was called upon by stentorian lungs, 
and hustled to the stump by a friendly circle, till I 
escaped by uttering a few sentences as to "mighty 
struggle," " Europe gazing," " the world anxious," 
" the virtues of discipline," " the admirable lessons of 
a soldier^s life," and the " aspiration that in a quarrel 
wherein a British subject was ordered, by an authority 
he was bound to respect, to remain neutral, God might 
preserve the right." 

Colonel, General, and all addressed the soldiers as 
" gentlemen," and their auditory did not on their part 
refrain from expressing their sentiments in the most 
unmistakeable manner. "Bully for you. General!" 
"Bravo, Washburne ! " "Tliafs so. Colonel!" and 
the like, interrupted the harangues and when the 

JF 2 


oratorical exercises were over the men crowded round 
the stair, cheered and hurrahed, and tossed up their 
caps iu tlie greatest delij^lit. 

"With the exception of the foreign officers, and some 
of the Stafl", there are very few of the colonels, majors, 
captains, or lieutenants who know anything of theii" 
business. The men do not care for them, and never think 
of saluting them. A regiment of Ciermans wjis sent 
\across from Bird's Point this evening for plundering 
and robbing the houses in the district in which they were 

It may be readily imagined that the scoundrels 
who liad to fly from every city in Europe before 
the face of the police will not stay their hands 
when they hud themselves masters of the situation in 
the so-called country of an enemy. In such matters 
the officers have little or no control, and discipline is 
exceedingly lax, and punishments but sparingly in- 
flicted, the use of the lash being forbidden altogether. 
Fine as the men are, incomparably better armed, clad — 
and doubtless better fed — than the Southern troops, 
they will scarcely meet them man to man in the field with 
any chance of success. Among the oflicers are bar-room 
keepers, persons little above the position of ])otmen in 
England, grocers' apprentices, and such like — often 
inferior socially, and in every other respect, to the men 
whom they are supposed to command. General Prentiss 
lias seen service, I believe, iu Mexico; but he appears 
to nic to be rather an ardent politician, embittered 
against slaveholders and (lie South, than a judicious or 
skilful military leader. 

The principles on which these isolated commanders 
carry on the A\ar are eminently defective. They apply 


their whole minds to petty expeditions, uliieli p;o ont 
from the oiimps, attack some Secessionist gatherinj^, 
and then return^ plundering as they go and come, 
exasperating enemies, converting neutrals into oppo- 
nents, disgusting friends, and leaving it to the Seces- 
sionists to boast that they have repulsed them. 
Instead of encouraging the men and improving their 
discipline these ill-conducted expeditions have an 
opposite result. 

June 2-2nd. An active man would soon go mad if he 
were confined in Cairo. A mudbank stretching along 
the course of a muddy river is not attractive to a 
pedestrian; and, as is the case in most of the Southern 
cities, there is no place round Caii'o where a man 
can stretch his legs, or take an lionest walk in the 
country. A walk in the country ! The Americans 
liavc not an idea of what the thing means. I speak 
now only of the inhabitants of the towns of the 
States through which I have passed, as far as I have 
seen of them. The roads are either impassible in mud 
or knee-deep in dust, Thci'e are no green shady lanes, 
no sheltering groves, no quiet paths through green 
meadows beneath umbrageous trees. Off the rail there 
is a morass — or, at best, a clearing — full of stumps. 
No temptations to take a stroll. Down away South 
the planters ride or drive ; indeed in many places the 
saunterer by the way- side would probably encounter 
an alligator, or disturb a society of rattle-snakes. 

To-day I managed to struggle along the levee 
in a kind of sirocco, and visited the works at the'i 
extremity, which were constructed by an Hungarian 
named Waagner, one of the emigres who came 
with Kossuth to the United States. I found him 


in a lint full of flics, suffering from camp diarrhoEa, 
and waited on by Mr. O'Lcarv, who was formerly petty 
olliccr in our navy, scncd in the Furious in the 
Black Sea, and in the Shannon Briii^de in India, 
now a lieutenant in the United States' army, where 
I should say he feels himself very much out of i)lacc. 
The Hungarian and the Milesian were, however, 
quite agreed about the utter incompetence of their 
military friends around them, and the great merits of 
heavy artillery. " When I tell them here the way poor 
Sir William made us rattle about them OS-pounder guns, 
the poor ignorant creatures laugh at me — not one of 
them believes it." " Tt is most astonishing,'* says the 
colonel. " how ignorant they arc ; there is not one of 
these men who can trace a regular work. Of West- 
point men I speak not, but of the people about licrc, 
and they will not learn of me — from me who knows." 
However, the works were well enough, strongly covered, 
commanded both rivers, and not to be reduced without 

The heat drove me in among the flies of the crowded 
hotel, where Brigadier Prentiss is planning one of 
those absurd expeditions against a Secessionist camp i 
at Commerce, in the State of Missouri, about two 
hours steaming uj) the river, and some twelve or 
fourteen miles inlaiul. Cairo aboiinds in Secessionists 
and spies, and it is needful to take great precautions lest 
the expedition be known; but, after all, stores must be 
got ready, and put on board the steamers, and prepara- 
tions must be made which cannot be concealed from 
the world. At dusk 700 men, sujiportcd by a six- 
poiindcr field-i)iecc, were put on board the " City of 
Alton," ou whicli they clustered like bees in a swarm. 


and as the huge engine laboured up and down ni^ainst 
the stream, and the boat swayed from side to side, I 
felt a considerable desire to see General Prentiss 
chucked into the stream for his utter recklessness in 
cramming on board one huge tinder-box, all fire and 
touchwood, so many hunnm beings, who, in event of 
an explosion, or a shot in the boiler, or of a heavy 
musketry fire on the l)anks, woidd have been converted 
into a great slaughter-house. One small boat hung 
from her stern, and although there were plenty of river 
flats and numerous steamers, even the horses belonging 
to the field piece were crammed in among the men 
along the deck. 

In my letter to Eiu'ope I made, at the time, some 
remarks by which the belligerents might have profited, 
and which at the time these pages are reproduced may 
strike them as possessing some value, illustrated as 
they have been by many events in the war. " A hand- 
ful of horsemen would have been admirable to move in 
advance, feel the covers, and make prisoners for poli- 
tical or other purposes in case of flight ; but the 
Americans persist in ignoring the use of horsemen, 
or at least in depreciating it, though they will 
at last find that they may shed much blood, and 
lose much more, before they can gain a victory 
without the aid of artillery and charges after the 
retreating enemy. From the want of cavalry, I sup- 
pose it is, the unmilitary practice of * scouting,' as it 
is called here, has arisen. It is all very well in the 
days of Indian wars for footmen to creep about in the 
bushes, and shoot or be shot by sentries and pickets ; 
but no civilised war recognises such means of annoy- 
ance as firing upon sentinels, unless in case of an 



actual advance or feigned attack on the line. No 
camp can be safe witliout cavalry videttes and pickets ; 
for the enemy can pour in impetuously after the alarm 
has been given, as fast as the outlying footmen can 
run in. In feeling the way for a column, cavalry are 
invaluable, and there can be little chance of ambus- 
cades or surprises where they are judiciously employed; 
but * scouting ' on foot, or adventurous private expe- 
ditions on horseback, to have a look at the enemy, can 
do, and will do, nothing but harm. Every day the 
papers contain accounts of 'scouts' being killed, and 
sentries being picked off. The latter is a very bar- 
barous and savage practice ; and the Russian, in his 
most angry moments, abstained from it. If any ollicer 
Irishes to obtain information as to his enemy, he has 
two ways of doing it. lie can employ spie.'*, who carry 
their lives in their hands, or he can beat up their 
quarters by a proper reconnaissance on his own respon- 
sibility, in which, however, it would be advisable not 
to trust his force to a railway train.'' 

At night there was a kind of enirute in eaiiip. The 
day, as I have said, was excessively hot, and on re- 
turning to their tents and lints from evening jjarade the 
men found the contractor who supjjlies them with 
water had not filled the barrels; so they forced the 
sentries, broke barracks after hours, mobbed their 
officers, and streamed up to the hotel, which they sur- 
rounded, calling out, "Water, water," in chorus. The 
General came out, and got up on a rail : " (ientlemen," 
said he, " it is not my fault you are without water. 
It's your odicers who are to blame; not me." ("Groans 
for the (4uarterma>tcr," from the men.) "If it is the 
fault of the contractor, I'll see that he is punished. 

A CAMP 1^:meutb. 1'6 

I'll take steps at once to sec that the matter is reme- 
died. And now, gentlemen, I hope you'll go hack to 
your quarters ;" and the gentlemen took it into their 
heads very good-humonredly to ohey the suggestion, fell 
in, and marched hack two deep to tiicir huts. 

As the General was smoking his cigar hcfore going to 
hed, I asked him why the ofliccrs had not more control 
over the men. ''Well," said he, "the officers are to 
blame for all this. The truth is, the term for which 
these volunteers enlisted is drawing to a close ; and 
they have not as yet enrolled themselves in the United 
States' army. They are merely volunteer regiments of 
the State of Illinois. If they were displeased with 
anything, therefore, they might refuse to enter the 
service or to take fresh engagements : and the officers 
would find themselves suddenly left without any men; 
they therefore curry favour with the privates, many of 
them, too, having an eye to the votes of the men when 
the elections of officers in the new regiments are to take 

The contractors have commenced plunder on a 
gigantic scale ; aiid their influence with the autho- 
rities of the State is so powerful, there is little chance 
of punishing them. Besides, it is not considered expe- 
dient to deter contractors, by too scrupulous an exacti- 
tude, in coming forward at such a trying ])eriod ; and 
the Quartermaster's department, which ought to he 
the most perfect, considering the number of per- 
sons connected with transport and carriage is in a 
most disgraceful and inefficient condition. I told the 
General that one of the Southern leaders proposed to 
hang any contractor who Avas found out in cheating 
the men, and that the press cordially approved of the 


suggestion. '•' I am afraid," said he, "if any such pro- 
posal was carried out lierc, tlicre wouUl scarcely be a 
contractor left throughout the States." Equal igno- 
rance is shown by the medical authorities of the 
requirements of an army. There is not an ambulance or 
cacolet of any kind attached to this camp ; and, as 
far as I could see, not even a litter was sent on board 
the steamer which has started with the expedition. 

Although there has scarcely been a fought field or 
anything more serious than tlic miserable skirmishes of 
Shenck and liutler, the pressure of war has already 
told upon the people. The Cairo paper makes an 
urgent appeal to the authorities to relieve the distress 
and pauperism which the sudden interruption of trade 
has brought upon so many respectable citizens. And 
when I was at Memphis the other day, I observed a 
pul)lic notice in the journals, that the magistrates of 
the city would issue orders for money to families left in 
distress by the enrolment of the male members for 
military service. AVhen General Scott, sorely against 
liis will, was urged to make preparations for an armed 
invasion of the seceded states in case it became neces- 
sary, he said it would need some hundreds of thou- 
sands of men and many millions of money to cflTcet 
that object. Mr. Seward, ]\Ir Chase, and ^^r. Lincoln 
laughed plea.sautly at this exaggeration, but they have 
begun to find by this time the old general was not 
quite so much in the wrong. 

In reference to the (liscii)line maintained in the camp, 
1 must admit that proper precautions arc used to pre- 
vent spies entering the lines. The sentries are posted 
closely and permit no one to go in without a pass in 
the (lay and a countersign at night. A conversation 


with General Prentiss in the front of tlie hotel Avas 
interrupted this evening by an Irislinian^ who van past 
us towards the camp, hotly pursued by two policemen. 
The sentry on duty at the point of the lines close to 
us brought him up by the point of the bayonet. " "Who 
goes tcre?^' "A friend, shurc your honour; I'm a 
friend." "Advance three paces and give the counter- 
sign." "I don't know it, I tell j^ou. Let me in, 
let me in." But the German was resolute, and the 
policemen now coming up in hot pursuit, seized the 
culprit, who resisted violently, till General Prentiss 
rose from his chair and ordered the guard, who had 
turned out, to make a prisoner of the soldier and hand 
him over to the civil power, for which the man seemed 
to be most deeply grateful. As the policemen were 
walking him off, he exclaimed, " Be quiet wid ye, till I 
spake a word to the Giniral," and then bowing and 
chuckling with drunken gravity, he said, " an^ indeed, 
Giniral, Tm much oblecged to ye altogither for this 
kindness. Long life to ye. We've got the better of 
that dirty German. Iloora' for Giniral Prentiss." 
He preferred a chance of more Avhisky in the police 
office and a light punishment to the Avork in camp 
and a heavy drill in the morning. An officer 
Avho was challenged by a sentr}' the other evening, 
asked him, "do you know the countersign yourself?" 
" No, sir, ifs not nine o'clock and they have not given 
it out yet." Another sentry who stopped a man be- 
cause he did not know the countersign. The fellow 
said, " I dare say you don't know it yourself." " That's 
a lie," he exclaimed, "it's Plattsburgh." " Platts])urgh 
it is, sure enough," said the other, and walked on 
without further parley. 



Tlie Americans, Irish, aiui Gcnuans, do not alvTays 
coincide in the phonetic vahie of each letter in the 
passwords, and several dillicnltics have occnrred in con- 
sequence. An incautious approach towards the posts 
at night is attended with risk ; lor the raw sentries arc 
very (piick on the trig^'cr. More fatal and serious 
injuries have been inflicted on the Federals by them- 
selves than by the enemy. " I declare to you, sir, the 
May the boys touched oil" their irons at me going home 
to my camp last night, was just like a running fight 
with the lugins. 1 was a little ' tight,' and didn't mind 
it a cuss." 


Impending battle— By railway to Cliicago— Northern enlightenment— 
Mound City— "Cotton is King"— Land in the States— Dead level 
of American society— Return into the Union- American homes 
—Across the prame— White labourers — New pillager — Lake 

June 2ord. — The latest information which I received 
to-day is of a nature to hasten ray departure for 
Washington ; it can no longer be doubted that a battle 
between the two armies assembled in the neighbourhood 
of the capital is imminent. The vague hope which from 
time to time I have entertained of being able to visit 
Richmond before I finally take up my quarters with 
the only army from which I can communicate regularly 
with Europe has now vanished. 

At four o'clock in the evening I started by the train 
on the famous Central Illinois line from Cairo to 

The carriages were tolerably well filled Avith soldiers, 
and in addition to them there were a few unfortunate wo- 
men, undergoing deportation to some less moral ucigh- 
])ourhood. Neither the look, language, nor manners of 
my fellow passengers inspired me with an exalted 
notion of the iutelhgence, comfort and respectal)ility 
of the people which are so much vaunted by ]Mr. Seward 
and American journals, and which, though truly attri- 


buted, uo doubt, to the people of the New England 
states, cannot be aflirnied with equal justice to belong 
to all the other components of the Union. 

As the Southerners say, their negroes are the happiest 
people on the caith, so the Northerners boast " We 
ai-e the most enlightened nation in the world/' The 
soldiers in the train were intelligent enough to think 
they ought not to be kept without pay, and free enough 
to say so. The soldiers abused Cairo roundly, and 
indeed it is wonderful if the people can live on 
any food but quinine. However, speculators, looking 
to its natural advantages as the point where the two 
great rivers join, bespeak for Cairo a magnificent 
and prosperous future. The present is not promising. 

Leaving the shanties, which face the levees, and some 
poor wooden houses with a short vista of cross streets 
partially flooded at right angles to them, the rail 
suddenly plunges into an unmistakeablc swamp, were 
a forest of dead trees wave their ghastly, leafless arms 
over their buried trunks, like plumes over a hearse — a 
cheerless, miserable place, sacred to the ague and fever. 
This occurs close to the cleared space on which the 
city is to stand, — when it is finished — and the rail, 
which runs on the top of the embankment or levee, 
here takes to the trestle, and is borne over the water 
on the usual timber frame work. 

''Mound City," which is the first station, is com- 
posed of a mere heap of earth, like a ruined brick- 
kiln, which rises to some height and is covered 
with fine white oaks, beneath which are a few log 
huts and hovels, giving the place its proud name. 
Tents were pitched on the mound side, from which 
wild-looking banditti sort of men, with arms, emerged 


as the train stopped. " I've been pretty well over 
Europe," said a meditative voiee beside me, " and I've 
seen the despotic armies of tlie old world, but I don't 
think they equal that set of boys." The question was 
not worth arguing— the boys were in fact very " weedy," 
"splinter-shinned chaps," as another critic insisted. 

There were some settlers in the woods around Mound 
City, and a jolly-looking, cori)ulent man, who intro- 
duced himself as one of the oflicers of the laud depart- 
ment of the Central Illonois railroad, described them 
as awful warnings to the emigrants not to stick in 
the south part of Illinois. It was suggestive to find 
that a very genuine John Bull, " located," as they say 
in the States for maiiy years, had as much aversion 
to the principles of the abolitionists as if he had been 
born a Southern planter. Another countryman of his 
and mine, steward on board the steamer to Cairo, eagerly 
asked me what I thought of the quarrel, and which 
side I would back. I declined to say more than I 
thought the Nortli possessed very great superiority of 
means if the conflict were to be fought on the same 
terms. Whereupon my Saxon friend exclaimed, *' all 
the Northern States and all the power of the world 
can't beat the South ; and why ? — because the South 
has got cotton, and cotton is king." 

The Central Illinois officer did not suggest the pro- 
priety of purchasing lots but he did intimate I would 
be doing service if I informed the world at large, they 
could get excellent land, at sums varying from ten to 
twenty-five dollars an acre. In America a man's income 
is represented by capitalizing all that he is worth, and 
whereas in England we say a man has so much a year, 
the Americans, in representing his value, observe that 

so MV UlAltV X<»1!TH AND Sol'TH. 

lie is wortli so umny dollars, by which they mcau that 
all he has in the uorlcl would realise the amount. 

It sounds very well to jin Irish tenant farmer, nu 
Kn^'lish cottier, or a cultivator in the Lothiaus, to hear 
that he can get land at the rate of from £2 to £5 per 
acre, to be his for ever, liable only to state taxes; but 
when he comes to see a paralleloj^ram marked upon the 
map as " good soil, of unfathomable richness," and finds 
in effect that he must cut down trees, eradicate 
stumps, drain off water, build a house, struggle for 
high-priced lal)oiir, and contend with imperfect roads, 
the want of many things to which he has been accus- 
tomed in the old country, the laud may not appear to 
him such a bargain. In the wooded districts he has, 
indeed a sufficiency of fuel as long as trees and stumps 
last, but they are, of course, great impediments to tillage. 
If he goes to the prairie he finds that fuel is scarce and 
water by no means wholesome. 

"When we left this swamp and forest, and came out 
after a run of many miles on the clear lands which 
abut upon the prairie, large fields of corn lay around us, 
which bore a peculiarly blighted and harassed look. 
These fields were suffering from the ravages of an 
insect called the " army worm," almost as destructive 
to corn and crops as the lueust-like hordes of ISorth 
and South, which are vying with each other in laying 
waste the fields of \ irginia. Night was falling 
as the train rattled out into the wild, fiat sea of 
waving grass, dotted by patch-like Indian corn en- 
closures; but lialts at such places as Jonesburgh and 
Cobden, enabled us to sec that these settlements in 
Illinois were neither very fiourishing nor very 


There is :i level modicmu of comfort, wliicli may 
be consistent with the greatest good of the greatest 
number^ but which makes the standard of the highest 
in point of well-being very low indeed. I own, that 
to me, it would l)c more agreeable to see a flourish- 
ing community placed on a high level in all that relates 
to the comfort and social status of all its members than 
to recognise the old types of ]^>aropeau civilisation, 
which place the castle on the hill, surround its outer 
walls with the mansion of doctor and lawyer, and drive 
the people into obscure hovels outside. But then one 
must confess that there are in the castle some elevatinsc 
tendencies which cannot be found in the uniform level 
of citizen equality. There are traditions of nobility 
and noble deeds in the fiimily ; there are paintings on 
tlic walls; the library is stored with valuable knowledge, 
and from its precincts are derived the lessons not yet 
unlearned in Europe, that though man may be equal 
the condition of men must vary as the accidents of life 
or the effects of individual character, called fortune, 
may determine. 

The towns of Jonesburgh and Cobden have their little 
teapot-looking churches and meetinghouses, their lager- 
bicr saloons, their restaurants, their small libraries, 
institutes, and reading rooms, and no doubt they have 
also their political cliques, social distinctions and 
favouritisms; but it requires, nevertheless, little sagacity 
to perceive that the highest of the bourgeois who 
leads the mass at meeting and prayer, has but little to 
distinguish him from the very lowest member of the 
same bodv politic. Cobden, for example, has no less 
than four drinking saloons, all on the line of rail, and 
no doubt the highest citizen in the place frequents 


some one or other of tliem, and meets there the 
worst rowdy in tlic place. Even though they do carry 
a vote for each adult man, "locations" licre would 
not appear very enviable in the eyes of the most miser- 
able Dorsetshire small farmer ever fcrrcttcd out by 
" S. G. ()." 

A considerable number of towns, formed by accre- 
tions of small stores and drinkinir places, called maga- 
zines, round the original shed wherein live the station 
master and his assistants, mark the course of the rail- 
way. Some are important enough to possess a bank, 
which is generally represented by a wooden hut, with a 
large board nailed in front, bearing the names of the 
president and cashier, and announcing the success and 
liberality of the management. The stores arc also 
decorated with large signs, recommending the names of 
the owners to the attention of the public, and over all 
of them is to be seen the significant announcement, 
" Cash for produce." 

At Carbondale there was no coal at all to be fotmd. 
but several miles farther to the north, at a place called 
Dugoine, a field of bituminous deposit crops out, 
which is sold at the jjifs mouth for one dollar twenty- 
five cents, or about r>.v. 2d. a-ton. Darkness and night 
fell as I was noting such meagre particulars of the new 
district as could be learned out of the window of a 
railway carriage; and finally with a delicious sensation 
of cool night air creeping in through the windows, the 
first 1 had experienced for many a long day, we made 
ourselves uj) for repose, and were borne steadily, if not 
rajjidly, through the great prairie, having halted for tea 
at the comfortable refreshment rooms of Centralia. 

There were no physical signs to mark the transition 


from the luiul of the Secessionist to Union-loving soil. 
Until the troops were quartered there, Cairo Avas for 
Secession, and Southern Illinois is supposed to be 
deeply tainted with disaftcction to Mr. Lincoln. 
Placards on Avhich Averc printed the words, "Vote for 
Lincoln and Hamlin, for Union and Freedom," and 
the old battle-cry of the last election, still cling to the 
wooden walls of the groceries often accompanied by 
bitter words or offensive additions. 

One of my friends argues that as slavery is at the base 
of Secession, it follows that States or portions of States 
will be disposed to join the Confederates or the 
Federalists just as the climate may be favourable or 
adverse to the growth of slave produce. Thus in the 
mountainous parts of the border States of Kentucky 
and Tennessee, in the north-western part of Virginia, 
vulgarly called the pan handle, and in the pine woods 
of North Carolina, where white men can work at the 
rosin and naval store manufactories, there is a decided 
feeling in favour of the Union ; in fact, it becomes a 
matter of isothermal lines. It would be very wrong 
to judge of the condition of a people from the windows 
of a railway carriage, but the external aspect of the 
settlements along the line, far superior to that of slave 
hamlets, does not equal my expectations, We all know 
the aspect of a wood in a gentleman's park which is 
submitting to the axe, and has been partially cleared, 
how raw and bleak the stumps look, and how dreary is 
the naked land not yet tnrned into arable. Take sucli 
a patch and fancy four or five houses made of pine 
planks, sometimes not painted, lighted by windows in 
which there is, or has been, glass, each gnarded by a 
paling around a piece of vegetable garden, a pig house, 

G 2 


and poultry box ; let one be a. grocery, uliicli means a 
uliisky shop, aiiotlicr the post-oflice, and a third the store 
uhcre "cash is given for produce." Multii)ly these 
groups if you desire a larger settlement, and place a wooden 
church with a Brobdit^nag spire and Lilliputian body 
out in a waste, to be approached only by a causeway of 
planks ; before each grocery let there be a gathering of 
tall men in sombre clothing, of whom the majority 
have small newspapers and all of wliom are chewing 
tobacco ; near the stores let there be some light wheeled 
carts and ragged horses, around which are knots of 
nnmistakeably German women ; then sec the deep 
tracks which lead off to similar settlements in the forest 
or prairie, and you have a notion, if your imagination 
is strong enough, of one of these civilising centres 
which the Americans assert to be the homes of the 
most cultivated and intelligent comuninities in the 

Next morning, just at dawn, I woke up and got out 
on the platform of the carriage, which is the favourite 
resort of smokers and their antithetics, those who love 
pure fresh air, notwithstanding the printed caution 
" It is dangerous to stand on the j)latform ;" and under 
the eye of early morn saw spread around a flat 
sea-like expanse not yet warmed into colour and life 
by the sun. The line was no longer guar(k'd from 
d.'iriug Secessionists by soldiers' outposts, and small 
camps had disappeared. The train sped through the 
centre of the great verdant eirclc as a ship thnjugh the 
se.a, l(;a\ing the rigid iron wake behind it tapering to a 
point at the horizon, and as the light spread over it the 
surface of the crisj)ing corn waved in broad inidulations 
beneath the breeze from east to west. Tiiis is the 


prairie indeed. Hereabouts it is covered uitli tlic 
finest crops, some already cut and stacked. Looking 
around one could see church spires rising iu the 
distance from the Avhitc patches of houses, and by 
degrees the tracks across the fertile waste became 
apparent, and tlieu carts and horses were seen toiling 
through the rich soil. 

A large species of partridge or grouse appeared 
very abundant, and rose iu flocks from the long grass 
at the side of the rail or from the rich carpet of 
flowers on the margin of the corn fields. They sat 
on the fence almost unmoved by the rushing engine, 
and literally swarmed along the line. These are 
called " prairie chickens " by the people, and afford 
excellent sport. Another bird about the size of a 
thrush, with a yellow breast and a harsh cry, I learned 
was " the sky-lark ;" and ajjropos of the unmusical 
creature, I Avas very briskly attacked by a young lady 
patriot for finding fault with the sharp noise it made. 
" Oh, my ! And you not to know that your Shelley 
loved it above all things ! Didn't he write some verses 
— quite beautiful, too, they are — to the sky-lark." 
And so " the Britislier was dried up,'' as I read in a 
paper afterwards of a similar occurrence. 

At the little stations which occur at every few miles 
— there are some forty of them, at each of which the 
train stops, in 305 miles between Cairo and Chicago — 
the Union flag floated in the air; but we had left all the 
circumstance of this inglorious war Ijchind us, and the 
train rattled boldly over the bridges across the rare 
streams, no longer in danger from Secession liatchets. 
The swamp had given place to the corn field. No 
black faces were turned up from the mowing and 

80 MY DlAltY >(»in"H AND SOUTH. 

free uhitc labour was at work, and tlie type of the 
labourers was German and Irish. 

The Yorkshircmau expatiated on the fertility of the 
land, and on the advanta<,'es it held out to the emijjjrant. 
But I observed all the lots by the side of the rail, and 
apparently as far as the eye eould reach, were occupied. 
" Some of the very best land lies beyond on each side," 
said he. " Out over there in the fat places is where 
y\c put our Eufrlishmeu." l>y digging deep enough 
good water is always to be had, and coal can be car- 
ried from the rail, where it costs only 7*. or Ss. a ton. 
AVood there is little or none in the prairies, and it was 
rarely indeed a clump of trees could be detected, or 
anything higher than some scrub brushwood. These 
little communities which we i)assed were but the 
growth of a few years, and Jis we approached the 
Northern portion of the line we could see, as it were, 
the village swelling into the town, and the town spread- 
ing out to tiie dimensions of the city. " I daresay. 
!Major," says one of the passengers, " this gentleman 
never saw anything like these cities before. I'm told 
they've nothin' like them in Europe?" " Bless you," 
rejoined tiic Major, witli a wink, "just leaving out Lon- 
don, Edinljro', Paris, and ^lanchestcr, there's nothing 
on earth to ekal them." My friend, who is a shrewd 
fellow, by way of explanation of his military title, says, 
" 1 w:us a majur ojicc, a major in the Uueen's Bays, 
but they would put troop-sergeant before it them days." 
Like many Englishmen he complains that the jealousy 
of native-born Americans eH'cctually bars tiie way to 
]>olitieal position of any naturalised citizen, and all the 
jilaces are kept by the natives. 

The scene now began to change gradually as we 

ArriioACii TO CHICAGO. 87 

approached Chicago, tlic i)rairic subsided into swampy 
land, and thick belts of trees fringed the horizon ; on 
our right glimpses of the sea could be caught through 
openings in the wood — the inland sea on which stands 
the Queen of the Lakes. ]Michigan looks broad and 
blue as the Mediterranean. Large farmhouses stud 
the country, and houses which must be the retreat of 
merchants and citizens of means ; and when the train, 
leaving the land altogether, dashes out on a pier and 
causcAva}^ built along the borders of the lake, we see 
lines of noble houses, a fine boulevard, a forest of masts, 
huge isolated piles of masonry, the famed grain eleva- 
tors by which so many have been hoisted to fortune, 
churches and public edifices, and the apparatus of a 
great city; and just at nine o'clock the train gives its 
last steam shout and comes to a standstill in the 
spacious station of the Central Illinois Company, and 
in half-an-hour more I am in comfortable quarters at 
the Richmond House, where I find letters waiting for 
me, by which it appears that the necessity for my being 
in AVashingtou in all haste, no longer exists. The 
wary General who commands the army is aware that 
the advance to Riclimond, for which so many journals 
are clamouring, would be attended with serious risk at 
present, and the politicians must be content to wait a 
little longer. 


ProgrcBB of event* — Policy of Great Britiiin as regarded by the North — 
The American Press an i its cooiiueuts — Privacy a luxury — Chi- 
cago — Senator Douglas and his widow — American ingratitude — 
Apathy in Toluutecring — Colonel Turchin's camp. 

I SMALL here briefly recapitulate what has occurred 
since the last racntion of political cveuts. 

lu the first place the South has been developing 
every day greater energy in widening the breach 
between it and the North, and preparing to fill it with 
dead ; and the North, so far as I can judge, has been 
busy in raising up the Union as a nationality, and 
making out the crime of treason from the act of JSecession. 
The South has been using conscription in Virginia, and 
is entering upon the conflict with unsurpassable deter- 
mination. The North is availing itself of its greater 
resources and its foreign vagabondage and destitution 
to swell the ranks of its volunteers, and bojists of its 
enormous armies, as if it supposed conscripts well led 
do not fight better than volunteers badly ofliccred. 
A'irginia has been iinadcd on three points, one below 
and two above Washington, and passports arc now 
issued on both sides. 

The career open to the Southern privateers is eflec- 
tually closed by the Duke of Newcastle's notification 
tli: t flic l^iitish ( I(i\( riniM nt will not ])iruiit the 


crusicrs of cither side to bi'iiig their prizes into or eoii- 
clcnm thcin ill English ports; but, strange to s:iy, the 
Northerners feel indignant against Great Britain for 
an act Avhieh deprives their enemy of an enormous 
advantage, and which nuist reduce their privateering 
to the mere work of plunder and destruction on the 
lugh seas. In the same way the North affects to consider 
the declaration of neutrality, and the concession of 
limited belligerent rights to the seceding States, as 
deeply injurious and insulting ; whereas our course has, 
in fact, removed the greatest dilTieulty from the path of 
the Washington Cabinet, and saved us from incon- 
sistencies and serious risks in our course of action. 

It is commonly said, "What would Great Britain 
liave done if we had declared ourselves neutral during the 
Canadian rebellion, or had conceded limited belligerent 
rights to the Sepoys ? '' as if Canada and Ilindostan 
have the same relation to the British Crown that the 
seceding States had to the Northern States, But if 
Canada, with its parliament, judges, courts of law, and 
its people, declared it was independent of Great Britain; 
and if the Government of Great Britain, months after 
that declaration was made and acted upon, permitted 
the new State to go free, whilst a large number of her 
Statesmen agreed that Canada was perfectly right, we 
could find little fault with the United States' Govern- 
ment for issuing a proclamation of neutrality the same 
as our own, when after a long interval of quiescence a 
war broke out between the two countries. 

Secession was an accomplished fact months before/ 
Mr. Lincoln came into oflice, but we heard no talk of 
rebels and pirates till Sumter had fallen, and the North 
was perfectly quiescent — not only that — the people of 


ueiilth in New York were calmly considering the 
results of Secession us an accomplished fact, and seeking 
to make the best of it ; nay, more, uhcn 1 arrived in 
"Washington some members of the Cabinet \Yere per- 
fectly ready to let the South go. 

One of the lirst questious put to me by -Mr. Chase in 
my lirst interview with him, was whether I thought a 
very injurious elVect would be produced to the prest'ufc 
of the Federal Government in Europe if the Northern 
States let the South have its own way, and told them 
to go in peace. "For my own part," said he," "I 
should not be averse to let them try il, for I believe 
they would soon find out their mistake." !Mr. Chase 
may be lindiug out his mistake just now. ^Vheu I left 
England the prevalent opinion, as lar as I could judge, 
was, that a family (luarrel, in which the South was in 
the wrong, had taken place, and that it would be 
better to stand by and let the Government put forth its 
strength to chastise rebellious chiklreii. lint now we 
see the house is divided against itself, and that the 
lamily are determined to set up two separate establish- 
ments. These remarks occur to me with the more 
force because I see the Kew York papers arc attacking 
me because I described a calm in a sea which was 
afterwards agitated by a storm. " AVhat a false witness 
is this," they cry, " Sec how angry and how vexed is our 
Jkrmoothes, and yet the fellow says it was quite placid." 
I have already seen so many statements respecting 
jny sayings, my doings, and ray opinions, in the 
American papers, that I have resolved to follow a 
general rule, with few exceptions indeed, which pre- 
scribes as the best course to pursue, not so much an 
indiU'erence to these remarks as a iixed purpose to 


abstain from the hopeless task of correcting:; tlieni. 
The " Quicklys " of the press are incorrigible. 
Commerce may well be proud of Chicago. 1 am 
not going to reiterate what every Crispinus from tiie 
old country has said again and again concerning this 
wonderful place — not one Avord of statistics, of corn 
elevators, of shipping, or of the piles of buildings 
raised from the foundation by ingenious applications 
of screws. Nor am I going to enlarge on the splen- 
did future of that which has so much present pros- 
perity, or on the benefits to mankind opened up by 
the Illinois Central Railway. It is enough to say 
that by the borders of this lake there has sprung up in 
thirty years a wonderful city of fine streets, luxurious 
hotels, handsome shops, magnificent stores, great ware- 
houses, extensive quays, capacious docks ; and that as 
long as corn holds its own, and the mouths of Europe 
are open, and her hands full, Chicago will acquire 
greater importance,- size, and wealth with every year. 
The only drawback, perhaps, to the comfort of the 
money-making inhabitants, and of the stranger within 
the gates, is to be found in the clouds of dust and in 
the unpavcd streets and thoroughfares, which give 
anguish to horse and man. 

I spent three days here writing my letters and repair- 
ing the wear and tear of my Southern expedition ; and 
although it Avas hot enough, the breeze from the lake 
carried health and vigour to the frame, enervated by 
the sun of Louisiana and Mississippi. No need now 
to Avipe the large drops of moisture from the languid 
brow lest they blind the eyes, nor to sit in a state of semi- 
clothing, Avorn out and exhausted, and tracing Avith moist 
hand imperfect characters on the paper. 


I could uot sjitisty myself whether there was, as I liavc 
been told, a peculiar state of fecliu}; in Chieatro, which 
induced many people to support the Governuieut of 
Mr. Lincoln because they believed it necessary for their 
own interests to ol)taiu decided advantages over the 
South in the field, whilst they were opposed /otis 
ririOus to the genius of emancipation and to the views 
of the black Kepulilicans, But the genius and elo- 
quence of the little giant have left their impress on 
the facile mould of democratic tlionght, and he who 
argued with such acuteness and abiHty last March in 
AVasiiington, in his own study, against the j)ossibility, 
or at least the constitutional legality, of using the 
national forces, and the militia and volunteers of the 
Northern States, to subjugate the Southern people, 
carried away by the great bore which rushed through the 
placid North when Sumter fell, or perceiving his inability 
to resist its force, sprung to the crest of the Mave, and 
carried to excess the violence of the Union reaction. 

^Vhilst I was in the South I had seen his name in 
Northern papers with sensation headings and descrip- 
tions of his magnificent crusade for the Union in the 
west. I had heard his name reviled by those who had 
once been his warm political allies, and his untimely 
death did not seem to satisfy their hatred. His old 
fucs in the North admired and ajjplaudeil the sudden 
apostasy of their eloijuent ojiponent, and were loud in 
lamentations over his loss. Imagine, then, how I felt 
when vihiting his grave at Chicago, seeing his bust in 
many houses, or his portrait in all the shop-windows^ 
I wjis told that the enormously wealthy community of 
which he was the idol were permitting his Avidow to 
live in a state not far removed from ])enury. 


" Senator Douglas, sir," ol)scrvc(l one of his friends 
tome, " (lied of bad \vliisJ;y. He killed himself uith 
it uhilc he was stumpini^ for the Union all over the 
country." "Well," I said, " I suppose, sir, the abstrac- 
tion called the Union, for which by your own account 
he killed himself, will give a pension to his widow." 
Virtue is its own reward, and so is patriotism, unless 
it takes the form of contracts. 

As far as all considerations of wife, children, or family 
arc concerned, let a man serve a decent despot, or 
even a constitutional country with an economising 
House of Commons, if he Avants anything more sub- 
stantial than lip-service. The history of the great 
men of America is full of instances of national 
ingratitude. Thej'^ give more praise and less pence to 
their benefactors than any nation on the face of the 
earth. Washington got little, though the plundering 
scouts Avho captured Andre Aver e well rewarded ; and 
the men who fought during the War of Independence 
were long left in neglect and poverty, sitting in sack- 
cloth and ashes at the doorsteps of the temple of 
liberty, whilst the crowd rushed inside to worship 

If a native of the British isles, of the natural igno- 
rance of his own imperfections which should characterise 
him, desires to be subjected to a series of moral shower- 
baths, douches, and shampooing with a rough glove, let 
him come to the United States. In Chicago he will be 
told that the English people are fed by the benefi- 
cence of the United States, and that all the trade 
and commerce of England are simply directed to the 
one end of obtaining gold enough to pay the western 
States for the breadstutls exported for our population. 

91. MY diai;y north and south. 

\Vp know wliat the South think of our {Icpendence on 
cotton. The peopk' of the cast think they are striking 
a great l)low at their enemy by the Morrill taritt", and 
I was told by a patriot in North Carolina, " Why, 
creation! if you let the Yankees shut up our ports, 
the whole of your darned ships will go to rot. AVhcre 
will you get your naval stores from ? Why, 1 guess in 
a year you could not scrape up enough of tarpentinc in 
the whole of your country for Uueen Victoria to paint 
her nursery-door with.^' 

Nearly one half of the various companies enrolled 
in this district are Germans, or are the descendants of 
German parents, and speak only the language of the 
old country ; two-thirds of the remainder arc Irish, or 
of immediate Irish descent; but it is said that a grand 
reserve of Americans born lies behind this at'ant narde, 
who will come into the battle shouiil there ever be 
need for their services. 

Indeed so long as the Northern people furnish the 
means of paving and equipping armies jicrfectly com- 
petent to do their work, and equal in numbers to any 
demands made for men, they may rest satisfied with 
the accomplishment of that duty, and with contributing 
from their ranks the great majority of the superior and 
even of the subaltern olliccrs ; but with the South it is 
far diHercnt. Their institutions have repelled immigra- 
tion ; the black slave has barred the door to the white 
free settler. Only on the seaboard and in the large 
cities arc German and Irish to be found, and they to a 
man have come forward to fight for the South; but 
the proportion they bear to the luitive-born Americans 
who have rushed to arms in dtfcnce of their menaced 
borders, is of course far less than it is as yet to the 


number of Americans in the Northern States who have 
volunteered to fi^ht for the Union. 

I was invited before I left to visit the eamp of a 
Colonel Turchin, who was described to mc as a Russian 
officer of great ability and experience in European war- 
fare, in command of a regiment consisting of Poles, 
Hungarians, and Germans, who were about to start for 
the seat of war; but I was only able to Avalk through 
his tents, where I was astonished at the' amalgam of 
nations that constituted his battalion ; though, on 
inspection, I am bound to say there proved to be an 
American element in the ranks which did not appear 
to have coalesced with the bulk of the rude and, I fear, 
predatory Cossacks of the Union. Many young men 
of good position have gone to the wars, although there 
was no complaint, as in Southern cities, that mer- 
chant's offices have been deserted, and great establish- 
ments left destitute of clerks and working hands. In 
warlike operations, however, Chicago, with its commu- 
nication open to the sea, its access to the head waters 
of the Mississippi, its intercourse with the marts of 
commerce and of manufacture, may be considered to 
possess greater belligerent power and strength than 
the great citv of New Orleans ; and there is much 
greater probability of Chicago sending its contingent 
to attack the Crescent City than there is of the latter 
being able to despatch a soldier within five hundred 
miles of its streets. 


Niagara— Impression of tho Falls— Battle Bccncs in the nciglihourliood 
— A village of Indians — General Scott — Hostile nioveuieiits on both 
sides — The Hudson — Military scliool at West Point — Return to 
New York -Altered appeai-ance of the city — Misery and Buffering 
— Altered state of public opinion, as to tho Union and towards 
Great Britain. 

At eight o'clock on the morning of tlic 27tli I left 
Chicago for Niagara, vhich was so temptingly near 
that I resolved to make a detour by that route to New 
York. The line from the city Mhich I took skirts 
the southern extremity of Lake ISlichigan for many 
miles, and leaving its borders at New IkiHalo, traverses 
the southern portion of the state of Michigan by 
Albion and Jackson to the town of Detroit, or the 
outflow of Lake St. Clair into Lake Eric, a dis- 
tance of S'^l miles, which was accomplished in about 
twelve hours. The most enthusiastic patriot could not 
aflirm the country was interesting. The names of the 
stations were certainly novel to a liritisher. Thus we 
had Kalumet, Pokagon, Dowagiac, Kalamazoo, Ypsi- 
lanti, among the more familiar titles of Chelsea, ^la- 
rengo, Albion, and i'arma. 

It was dusk when we reached the steam ferry-boat 
at Detroit, which took \is across to AVindsor; but 
through the dusk I could perceive the Union Jack 


waving above the unimpressive little town wliich bears 
a name so respected by British ears. The customs' 
inspections seemed very mihl; and I was not much 
imi)resf;cd by the representative of the British crown, 
who, with a brass button on his coat and a very husky 
voice, exercised his powers on behalf of Her Majesty at 
the landing-place of Windsor. The officers of the rail- 
way company, who received me as if I had been an old 
friend, and welcomed me as if I had just got out of a 
battle-field. "Well, I do wonder them Yankees have 
ever let you come out alive.^' " May I ask why ? " 
"Oh, because you have not been praising them all 
round, sir. Why even the Northern chaps get angry 
with a Britisher, as they call us, if he attempts to say a 
word against those cursed niggers.^' 

It did not appear the Americans are quite so thin- 
skinned, for whilst crossing in the steamer a passage of 
arms between the Captain, who Avas a genuine John 
Bull, and a Michigander, in the style which is 
called cluiflF or slang, diverted most of the audi- 
tors, although it was very much to the disadvantage 
of the Union cliampion. The Michigan man had 
threatened the Captain that Canada would be annexed 
as the consequence of our infamous conduct. " Wliy, 
I tell you," said the Captain, " we'd just drav/ up the 
negro chaps from our barbers^ shops, and tell them 
we'd send them to Illinois if they did not lick you ; 
and I believe every creature in Michigan, pigs and all, 
Avould run before them into Pennsylvania. We know 
what you arc up to, you and them Maine chaps ; but 
Lor' bless you, sooner than take such a lot, we'd give 
you ten dollars a head to make you stay in your own 
country ; and we know you would go to the next worst 



place before your time for lialf the money. The very 
liluenoses wouUl secede if you Mere permitted to come 
under the ohl flaj^." 

All iiij^ht we travelled. A lout: day through a 
dreary, ill-settled, i)inc-wooded, half-cleared country, 
swannin^ with mosquitoes and biting flies, and famous 
for fevers. Just about daybreak the train stopped. 

"Now, then," said an English voice; " now, then, 
who's for Clifton Hotel? All passengers leave cars for 
this side of the Falls." Consigning our baggage to the 
commissioner of the Clifton, my companion, Mr. Ward, 
and myself resolved to walk along the banks of the 
river to the hotel, which is some two miles and a half dis- 
tant, and set out whilst it was still so obscure that the 
outline of the beautiful bridge which springs so lightly 
across the chasm, filled with furious hurrying waters, 
hundreds of feet below, was visible only as is the 
tracery of some cathedral arch through the dim light of 
the cloister. 

The road follows the course of the stream, which 
whirls and gurgles in an Alpine torrent, many times 
n)agnitied, in a deep gorge like that of the Tete 
Noire. As the rude bellow of the steam-engine and the 
rattle of the train proceeding on its journey were dying 
away, the echoes seemed to swell into a sustained, rever- 
berating, hollow sound from the i)erpendieiilar banks of 
the St. Lawrence. We listened. " It is the noise of 
the Falls," said my companion ; and as we walked on 
the sound became louder, filling the air with a strange 
quavering note, which played about a tremendous 
uniform bass note, ami silencing every other. Trees 
closed in the road on the river side, but wlien we 
had walked a mile or so, the lovely light of morning 


spreadinf^ with our steps, suddenly tlirougli nu opeuiuj; 
in the branches there appeared, closing up the vista — 
white, flickering, indistinct, and shroud-like — the Falls, 
rushing into a grave of black waters, and uttering that 
tremendous cry which can never be forgotten. 

I have heard many people say they were disappointed 
with the first impression of Niagara. Let those who 
desire to see the water-leap in all its grandeur, approach 
it as I did, and I cannot conceive what their expecta- 
tions are if they do not confess the sight exceeded 
their highest ideal. I do not pretend to describe the 
sensations or to endeavour to give the effect produced on 
me by the scene or by the Falls, then or subsequently; 
but I must say words can do no more than confuse the 
writer^s own ideas of the grandeur of the sight, and 
mislead altogether those who read them. It is of no 
avail to do laborious statistics, and tell us how many 
gallons rush over in that down-flung ocean every 
second, or how wide it is, how high it is, how deep the 
earth-piercing caverns beneath. For my own part, I 
always feel the distance of the sun to be insignificant, 
when I read it is so many hundreds of thousands of 
miles away, compared with the feeling of utter inacces- 
sibility to anything human which is caused by it when 
its setting rays illuminate some purple ocean studded 
with golden islands in dreamland. 

Niagara is rolling its Avaters over the barrier. Larger 
and louder it grows upon us. 

"I hope the hotel is not full," quoth my friend. I 
confess, for the time, I forgot all about Niagara, 
and was perturbed concerning a breakfastless ramble 
and a hunt after lodgings by the borders of the great 

H 2 

irtTW^ \X\A^v>X«-«Jk 


But altliougli Cliftuu Hotel was full euougli, there 
was rooui for us, too; aud for two days a strange, 
weird-kind of life I led, alternatin<j Ijetween the roar 
of the cataract outside aud the din of jjolitics within ; 
for, be it known, that at the Canadian side of the 
Falls many Americans of the Southern States, who 
would not pollute their footsteps by contact with the 
soil of Yankee-land, were sojourninj;, and that mer- 
chants and bankers of New York and other Northern 
cities had stlected it as their suniiuer retreat, and, 
indeed, with reason ; for after excursions on both sides 
of the Falls, the comparative seclusion of the settle- 
ments on the left bank appears to me to render it 
infinitely preferable to tiie Rosherville tjcntism and 
semi-rowdyism of the large American hotels and settle- 
ments on the other side. 

It was distressing to find that Niagara was sur- 
rounded by the paraphernalia of a fixed fair. I had 
looked forward to a certain degree of solitude. It 
appeared impossible that man could cockneyfy such a 
magnificent display of force and grandeur in nature. 
But, alas! it is haunted by what poor Alljirt Sunth 
used to denominate " harpies." The hatel'ul race of 
guides infest the precincts of the hotels, waylay you 
in the lanes, and prowl al)out the nnguanied moments 
of reverie. There are misirable little peepshows and 
j)hotograplu'rs, bird stuH'c-rs, shell polishers, collectors 
of crystals, and proprietors of natural curiosity sjiops. 

There is, besides, a large village jjopulation. There is 
a watering-side air about the people who walk along the 
road worse than all their mills aud factories working 
their water privileges at Ijoth sidi-s of the stream. At 
the A UK ritan side there is a lanky, jiretenlious town, 


with big hotels, sliops of Iiuliiiu curiosities, and all the 
meagre forms of the bazaar life reduced to a niiuiinum of 
attractiveness which destroy the comfort of a travtOler 
iu Switzerhxud. I had scarcely been an hour in the 
hotel before I was asked to look at the Falls through a 
little piece of coloured glass. Next I was solicited to 
purchase a collection of muddy photographs, repre- 
senting what I could look at with my own eyes for 
nothing. Not finally by any means', I was assailed by 
a gentleman who was particularly desirous of selling 
me an enormous pair of cow's-horns and a stufi'ed 
hawk. Small booths and peepshows corrupt the very 
margin of the bank, and close by the remnant of the 
" Table llock," a Jew (who, by-the-bye, deserves infi- 
nite credit for the zeal and energy he has thrown into 
the collections for his museum), exhibits bottled rattle- 
snakes, stuffed monkeys, Egyptian mummies, series of 
coins, with a small living menagerie attached to the 
shop, in which articles of Indian manufacture are 
exposed for sale. It Avas too bad to be asked to admire 
such lusus naturcB as double-headed calves and dogs 
with three necks by the banks of Niagara. 

As I said before, I am not going to essay the 
impossible or to describe the Falls. On the English 
side there are, independently of other attractions, 
some scenes of recent historic interest, for close to 
Niagara are Lnndy's Lane and Chippewa. There are 
few persons in England aware of the exceedingly severe 
fighting which characterised the contests between the 
Americans and the English and Canadian troops during 
the campaign of 181k At Chippewa, for example, 
Major-General Riall, who, with 2UU0 men, one 
howitzer, and two 24-pounders, attacked a force of 


Americans of a similar strength, was repulsed with a 
loss of oUO killed and wounded ; and on the morning of 
the 25th of July the action of Lundy's Lane, between 
four brigades of Americans and seven field-pieces, and 
3100 men of the British and seven field-pieces, took 
place, in which the Americans were wor>ted, and 
retired with a loss of 854 men and two guns, whilst 
the liritish lost S78. On the 11th of August following 
Sir Gordon Drummond was repulsed with a loss of 
905 men out of his small force in an attack on Fort 
Erie; and on the 17th of September an American 
sortie from the place was defeated with a loss of 51 (• 
killed and wounded, the British having lost GO'J. In 
effect the American campaign was unsuccessful ; but 
their failures were redeemed by their successes on 
Lake Champlain, and in the affair of Platt.sbin-gh. 

There was more hard fighting than strategy iu these 
battles, and their results were not, ou the whole, 
creditable to the military skill of either party. They 
were sanguinary in proportion to the number of tro(>j)s 
engaged, but they were very petty skirmishes considered 
in the light of contests between two great nations for the 
purpose of obtaining specific results. As England was 
engaged iu a great war in Europe, was far removed 
from the scene of operations, was destitute of steam- 
power, whilst America was fighting, as it were, on her 
own soil, close at hand, with a full opportunity of put- 
ting forth all her strength, the complete defeat of the 
American invasion of Canada was more honourable to 
our arms than the successes which the Americans 
achieved in resisting aggressive denunistrations. 

In the great hotel of Clifton we had every day a 
little war of our own, for there were but why 


should I mention nunics ? Has not govcrnniont its 
bastiles ? Tlicrc ucrc in effect men, and women too, 
who regarded the people of the Northern States and 
the government they had selected very mnch as the 
men of ^9S looked upon the government and people of 
England ; but withal these strong Southerners were 
not very favourable to a country which they regarded 
as the natural ally of the abolitionists, simply because 
it had resolved to be neutral. 

On the Canadian side these rebels were secure. Bri- 
tish authority was embodied in a respectable old Scottish 
gentleman, whose duty it was to prevent smuggling 
across the boiling waters of the St. Lawrence, and who 
performed it with zeal and diligence worthy of a higher 
post. There was indeed a withered triumphal arch 
which stood over the spot where the young Prince of 
our royal house had passed on his way to the Table 
Hock, but beyond these signs and tokens there was 
nothing to distinguish the American from the British 
side, except the greater size and activity of the settle- 
ments upon the right bank. There is no power in 
nature, according to great engineers, which cannot be 
forced to succumb to the influence of money. The 
American papers actually announce that "Niagara 
is to be sold;" the proprietors of the land upon their 
side of the water have resolved to sell their water 
privileges ! A capitalist could render the islands the 
most beautifully attractive places in the world. 

Life at Niagara is like that at most watering-i)laces, 
though it is a desecration to apply such a term to the 
Falls, and there is no bathing there, except that 
which is confined to the precincts of the hotels and to 
the ingenious establishment on the American side, which 


permits one to enjoy tlie full rush of the current in 
covered rooms uith sides pierced, to let it come 
through with undiminished force and with perfect 
security to the bather. There are drives and picnics, 
and mild excursions to obscure places in the neighbour- 
hood, where only the roar of the Falls gives an idea of 
tiieir presence. The rambles about the islands, and 
the views of the boiling rapids above them, are delight- 
ful, but 1 am glad to hear from one of the guides that 
the great excitement of seeing a man and boat carried 
over occurs but rarely. Every year, however, hap- 
less creatures crossing from one shore to the other, 
by some error of judgment or miscalculation of strength, 
or malign influence, are swept away into the rapids, 
and then, notwithstanding the wonderful rescues effected 
by the American blacksmith and unwonted kindnesses 
of fortune, there is little chance of saving body cor- 
porate or incorporate from the headlong swoop to 

Next to the purveyors of curiosities and hotel keepers, 
the Indians, who live in a village at some distance from 
Niagara, reap the largest profit from the crowds of 
visitors who n'i)air annually to the Falls. They are a 
harndess and by no means elevated race of semi-civilised 
savages, whose energies arc expended on whiskey, 
feather fans, bark canoes, ornamental mocassins, and 
carved pipe stems. 1 had arranged for an excursion to 
see them in their wigwams one morning, when the 
news was brought to me that (Icneral Scott had ordered, 
or been forced to order the advance of the Federal 
troops encamped in front of \Vashingt()n, under the 
command of McDowell, against the Confederates, cora- 
uianded by Beauregard, who was described as occupying 


ii most formidable position, covered with entrench- 
ments and batteries in front of a ridi^e of hills, through 
which the railway passes to Kichmond. 

The New York papers represent the Federal army 
to be of some grand indefinite strcngh, varying from 
00,000 to liiO,000 men, full of fight, admirably 
equipped, well disciplined, and provided with an over- 
whelming force of artillery. General Scott, I am 
very well assured, did not feel such confidence in the 
result of an invasion of Virginia, that he would hurry 
raw'^s and a rabble of regiments to undertake a 
most arduous military operation. 

The day I was introduced to the General he was seated 
at a tal)le in the unpretending room which served as his 
boudoir in the still humbler house where he held his 
head-quarters. On the table before him were some 
plans and maps of the harbour defences of the Southern 
ports. I inferred he was about to organise a force 
for the occupation of positions along the coast. 
But when I mentioned my impression to one of his 
officers, he said, "Oh, no, the General advised that 
long ago ; but he is now convinced we are too late. All 
he can hope, now, is to be allowed time to prepare a 
force for the field, but there are hopes that some com- 
promise will yet take place." 

The probabilities of this compromise have vanished : 
few entertain them no\v. They have been hanging Se- 
cessionists in IlUnois, and the court-house itself has 
been made the scene of Lynch law murder in Ogle 
county. Petitions, prepared by citizens of New York 
to the President, for a general convention to consider a 
compromise, have been seized. The Confederates have 
raised batteries along the Yirgiuiau shore of the 


Potomac. General Banks, at Baltimore, lias deposed 
the police autliorilies " proprio vioiu," in spite of the 
protest of the board. Engajjcments have occurred 
between the Federal steamers and the Confederate 
batteries on the Potomac. On all points, wherever the 
Federal pickets have advanced in X'irginia, they have 
eneonntered opposition and have been obliged to halt 
or to retire. 


As I stood on the verandah this morning, looking for 
the last time on the Falls, which were covered with a 
grey mist, that rose from the river and towered unto 
the sky in columns which were lost in the clouds, a 
voice beside me said, *' ^fr. Russell, that is something 
like the present condition of our country, mists and 
darkness obscure it now, but we know the great waters 
are rushing behind, and will flow till eternity.^' The 
speaker was an earnest, thoughtful man, but the 
country of which he spoke was the land of the South. 
"And do you think," said I, "when the mists clear 
away the Falls will be as full and as grand as before?" 
" \Vell," he rei)lied, " they are great as it is, though a 
rock divides them ; we have merely thrown our rock 
into the waters, — they will meet all the same in the pool 
below." A coloured boy, who has waited on me at the 
hotel, hearing I was going away, entreated me to take 
him on any terms, which were, 1 found, an advance of 
nine dollars, and twenty dollars a month, and, as I 
heard a good aecouiit of him from the landlord, I 
installed the young man into my service. In the 
evening I left Niagara on my way to New York. 

./»//// iud. — At early dawn this morning, looking 
out of the sleej)ing car, I saw through the mist a 


broad, placid river on the rij^lit, and on tlie left 
high wooded bauks running sliarply into the stream, 
against the base of Avhieh tlie rails were laid. West 
Point, which is celebrated for its picturesque scenery, 
as much as for its military school, could not be 
seen through the fog, and I regretted time did not 
allow me to stop and pay a visit to the academy. I was 
obliged to content myself with the handiwork of some 
of the ex-pupils. The only camaraderie I have witnessed 
in America exists among the West Point men. It is 
to Americans what our great public schools are to young 
Englishmen. To take a high place at West Point is to 
be a first-class man, or wrangler. The academy turns 
out a kind of military aristocracy, and I have heard 
complaints that the Irish and Germans are almost com- 
pletely excluded, because the nominations to West Point 
arc obtained by political influence ; and the foreign 
element, though powerful at the ballot box, has no 
enduring strength. The Murphies and Schmidts seldom 
succeed in shoving their sons into the American insti- 
tution. North and South, I have observed, the old 
pupils refer everything military to West Point. "I 
was with Beauregard at AVest Point. He Avas three 
above me." Or, " M'Dowell and I were in the same 
class." An officer is measured by Avhat he did there, 
and if professional jealousies date from the state of 
common pupilage, so do lasting friendships. I heard 
Beauregard, Lawton, Hardee, Bragg, and others, speak 
of M'Dowell, Lyon, M'Clellan, and other men of the 
academy, as their names turned up in the Northern 
papers, evidently judging of them by the old school 
standard. The number of men who have been educated 
there greatly exceeds the modest requirements of the 


army. But tlit'ie is likelihood of their being all in full 
work very soon. 

At ahout nine a.m., the tr.iin nached New York, 
and in drivni|^' to the house of Mr. ntnican, uho 
aceunipauied me from Niagara, the tirst thing which 
struck me was the changed aspect of the streets. 
Instead of peaceful citizens, men in military uniforms 
thronged the jjuthways, and such multitudes of Ihiited 
States' Hags lloatcd from the windows and roofs of the 
houses as to convey the impression that it was a great 
lioliday festival. The appearance of New York when I 
first saw it was very diti'erent. For one day, indeed, 
after my arrival, there were men in uniform to be seen 
in the .streets, but they disappeared after St. Patrick 
had been duly honoured, and it was very rarely I 
ever saw a man in soldier's clothes during the rest 
of my stay. Now, fully a third of the people carried 
arms, and were dressed in some kind of martial 

Tiie walls are covered with placards from military 
com|)anies oflering inducements to recruits. An outburst 
of military tailors h;is taken place in the streets; shops 
are devoted to militia ecjuipmcnts ; rifles, pistols, swords, 
plumes, long boots, saddle, bridle, camp beds, canteens, 
tents, knapsacks, have usurped the place of the ordi- 
nary articles of trallic. Pictures and engravings — 
bad*, and very bad— of the "battles" of liig Bethel 
and Vienna, full of furious charges, smoke and dismem- 
bered bodies, have driven the French prints out of the 
windows. Innumerable "General Scotts" glower at 
you from every turn, making the General look wiser 
than he or any man ever was. Kllsworths in almost 
equal proportion, Grcblcs and Wiuthrops— the Uuiott 



martyrs — find Tompkins, the temporary liero of Fairfax 

The " flag^ of our country " is represented in a 
coloured eiij^raving, the original of which was not 
destitute of poetical feeling, as an angry blue sky 
through whicli meteors fly streaked by the winds, whilst 
between the red stripes the stars just shine out from 
the heavens, the flag-staft' ])eing typified by a forest 
tree bending to the force of the blast. The Americans 
like this idea — to my mind it is significant of bloodshed 
and disaster. And why not ! What would become of 
all these pseudo-Zouaves who have come out like an 
eruption over the States, and are in no respect, not 
even in their haggy breeches, like their great originals, 
if this war were not to go on ? I thought I had had 
enough of Zouaves in New Orleans, but dh aliter visum. 

They are overrunning society, and the streets here, 
and the dress which becomes the broad-chested, stumpy, 
short-legged Celt, who seems specially intended for it, 
is singularly unbecoming to the tall and slightly-built 
American. Songs "Onto glory," "Our country/' new 
versions of "Hail Columbia," which certainly cannot 
be considered by even American complacency a "iiappy 
land " when its inhabitants are preparing to cut each 
other's throats; of the "star-spangled banner," are 
displayed in booksellers' and music-shop windows, and 
patriotic sentences emblazoned on flags flout from many 
houses. The ridiculous habit of dressing up children 
and young people up to ten and twelve years of age as 
Zouaves and vivandiercs has been caught up by the 
old people, and Mars would die with laughter if he saw 
some of the al)(loniiuous, be-spectaclcd light infantry 
men who are hobbling along the pavement. 


There lias been indeed a change in New ^ ork : 
externally it is most remarkable, but I cannot at all 
admit that the abuse with which I was assailed for 
describiii'' thu indiftcrence which prevailed on mv ar- 
rival was in the least degree justified. I was desirous 
of learning how far the tone of conversation" in 
the city" had altered, and soon after breakfast I went 
down Broadway to Pine Street and Wall Street. The 
street in all its length was almost draped w ith flags — 
the warlike character of the .shops was intensified. In 
front of one shop window there was a large crowd 
gazing with interest at some object which I at last 
succeeded in feasting my eyes upon. A grey cap with 
a tinsel badge in front, and the cloth stained with blood 
was displayed, with the words, " Cap of Secession otlicer 
killed in action." On my way I observed another 
crowd of women, some with children in their arms 
standing in front of a large house and gazing up 
earnestly and angrily at the windows. I found they 
were wives, mothers, and sisters, and daughters of 
volunteers who had gone off* and left them destitute. 

The misery thus caused has been so great that the 
citizens of New York have raised a fund to provide 
food, clothes, and a little money — a poor relief, in fact, 
for them, and it was j)lain they were much needed, 
though some of the applicants did not seem to belong 
to a class accustomed to seek aid from the public. This 
already ! lint Wall Street and Pine Street are bent on 
battle. And so this day, hot from the South and im- 
pressed «ith the firm resolve of the people, and finding 
that the North has been lashing itself into fury, 1 sit 
down and write to Kngland, <jn my return from the 
city. " At present dismiss entirely the idea, no matter 


how it may originate, that there will be, or can be, 
peace, compromise, union, or secession, till war has 
determined the issue." 

As long as there was a chance that the struggle 
might not take place, the merchants of New York were 
silent, fearful of offending their Southern friends and 
connections, but inflicting infinite damage on their own 
government and misleading both sides. Their senti- 
ments, sympathies, and business bound them with the 
South; and, indeed, till "the glorious uprising" the 
South believed New York was with them, as might be 
credited from the tone of some organs in the press, and 
I remember hearing it said by Southerners in Wash- 
ington, that it was very likely New York would go out 
of the Union ! When the merchants, however, saw 
that the South was determined to quit the Union, they 
resolved to avert the permanent loss of the great profits 
derived from their connection with the South by some 
present sacrifices. They rushed to the platforms — the 
battle-cry was sounded from almost very pulpit — flag 
raisings took place in every square, like the planting of 
the tree of liberty in France in 1848, and the oath was 
taken to trample Secession under foot, and to quench 
the fire of the Southern heart for ever. 

The change in manner, in tone, in argument, is 
most remarkable. I met men to-day who last March 
argued coolly and philosophically about the right of 
Secession. They are now furious at the idea of such 
wickedness— furious with England, because she does 
not deny their own famous doctrine of the sacred riglit 
of insurrection. " We must maintain our glorious 
Union, sir." " We must have a country." " We 
cannot allow two uatious to grow up on this Couti- 


ucnt, sir." " We must possess the entire control of the 
Mississijjpi." Tliese " musts," iuul " cau'ts," and 
' won'ts," are tlie angry utterances of a spirited 
peopk> mIiu have liad their will so \oug that they at last 
helieve it is omnipotent. Assuredly, they will not 
have it over the South without a tremendous and long- 
sustained contest, in which they must \nit forth every 
exertion, and use all the resources ami superior means 
they so abundantly possess. 

It is aljMUil to assert, as do the New York j)eople, to 
give some semblance of reason to their sudden out- 
burst, that it was caused by the insult to the flag 
at Sumter. ^Vily, the flag had been fired on long 
before Sumter was attacked by the Charleston 
batteries ! It had been torn down from United States' 
arsenals and forts all over the South ; and Ijut fur the 
aeeident whieh ])laced Major Anderson in a position 
from whieh he eould not retire, there would have been 
no bombardment of the fort, and it woidd, when 
evacuated, have shared the fate of all the other Federal 
works on the Southern coast. Some of the gentlemen 
who are now so patriotic and Unionistic, were last 
March i)repared to maintain that if the President 
attem])ted to re-inforce Sumter or Pickens, he would be 
responsible for the destruction of the Union. Many 
journals in New York and out of it held the same doe- 

One word to these gentlemen. 1 am pretty well 
satisfied that if they had always sj»oke, written, and 
acted as they do now, the people of Charleston Mould 
not have attacked Sumter so readily. The abrupt 
outburst of the North and the demonstration at 
New York filled the South, first with astonishment, 


and tlicu uith something like; fear, wliicli was rapidly 
t'auncd into auger by the i)rcss and the ixjliticiaus, as 
well as by the pride iuhereut in shivciioidei's. 

1 wonder what Mr. Seward will say when I get back to 
"Washington. Before I left, he was of opinion — at all 
events, he stated — that all the States would come back, 
at the rate of one a month. The nature of the process 
was not stated ; but we are told there are :250,OUO Federal 
troops now under arms, prepared to try a new one. 

Combined with the feeling of animosity to the rebels, 
there is, I perceive, a good deal of ill-feeling towards 
Great Britain. The Southern papers are so angry with 
us for the Order in Council closing British ports 
against privateers and their prizes, that they advise 
Mr. llust and Mr. Yancey to leave Europe. We are 
in evil case between North and South. I met a 
reverend doctor, who is most bitter in his expressions 
1 owards us ; and I dare say, Bishop and General 
Leonidas Polk, down South, would not be much better 
disposed. The clergy are active on both sides; and their 
flocks approve of their holy violence. One journal tells 
with much gusto of a blasphemous chaplain, a remarkal)ly 
good rifle shot, who went into one of the skirmishes 
lately, and killed a number of rebels — the joke being in 
the fact, that each time he fired and brought down his 
man, he exclaimed, piously, " May Heaven have mercy 
on your soul ! " One Father Mooney, who performed 
the novel act for a clergyman of " christening " a big 
gun at Washington the otlier day, wound up the speech 
he made on the occasion, by declaring " the echo of 
its voice would be siveei music, inviting the children of 
Columbia to share the comforts of his father^s home." 
Can impiety and folly, and bad taste, go further? 
VOL. n. I 


Departure for Washington — A "servant" — The American Prens on the 
War — Military aspect of the States — Pliiladflphia — Hnltiinore — 
Wasliington — Lord Lyons — Mr. Suiauer — Irritation against CJreat 
Britain — '• luJepeudeuce" day — Mcctiug uf Cougreiss — General 
state of all'uire. 

July ore/. — I'p early, breakfasted at five a.m., and 
left my liospitable host's roof, on my way to AVashing- 
toii. The ferry-boat, whieh is a hjii;^ way ulf, starts 
for the train at seven o'clock; and so bad arc the 
roads, I nearly missed it. On hnrrying to secure my 
place in the train, I said to one of the railway oflieers, 
"If you see a coloured man in a cloth cap and dark 
coat with metal buttons, will you be good euough,8ir, to 
tell him I'm in this carriage." "AVhy so, sir?" "lie is 
my servant." "Servant," he repeated ; " your servant ! 
I presume you're a Britisher ; and if he's your servant, 
I think yon may as well let liiin find you." And 
so he walked away, deli^lited with his cli\erniss, his 
civility, and his rel)uke of an aristocrat. 

Nearly four months since I went by this ruad to 
AVashington. Tlie change which has since occurred is 
beyond belief. Men were then speaking of place under 
Government, of compromises between Xorth and South, 
and of peace; now they only talk of war ami battle. 
Ever since 1 came out of the Suulh, and could see the 


newspapers, I liavc been struflc by-tlic easiness of the 
American people, by their excessive credulity. Whether 
they wish it or not, they are certainly deceived. Not 
a day has passed without the announcement that the 
Federal troops were moving, and that " a great battle 
was expected" by somebody unknown, at some place 
or other. 

I could not help observing the arrogant tone with 
which writers of stupendous ignorance on military 
matters write of the operations which they think the 
Generals should undertake. They demand that an 
army, which has neither adequate transport, artillery, 
nor cavalry, shall be pushed forward to Richmond to 
crush out Secession, and at the same time their columns 
teem with accounts from the army, which prove that 
it is not only ill-disciplined, but that it is ill-provided. 
A general outcry has been raised against the war 
department and the contractors, and it is openly stated 
that ]\Ir. Cameron, the Secretary, has not clean hands. 
One journal denounces "the swindling and plunder" 
Avhich prevail under his eyes. A minister who is dis- 
posed to be corrupt can be so with facility under the 
system of the United States, because he has absolute 
control over the contracts, which are rising to an 
enormous magnitude, as the war preparations assume 
more formidable dimensions. The greater part of the 
military stores of the State are in the South — arms, 
ordnance, clothing, ammunition, ships, machinery, and 
all kinds of mattrid must be prepared in a hurry. 

The condition in which the States present themselves, 
particularly at sea, is a curious commentary on the 
oft'ensive and warlike tone of their Statesmen in their 
dealings with the first maritime power of the world. 


They cannot blockade a single port eflectually. Tlic 
Confederate steamer Sumter has escajied to sea from 
New Orleans, and ships run in and out of Charleston 
almost as they please. Coming so recently from the 
South, I can see the great dillerence which exists 
between the two races, as they may be called, exempli- 
fied in the n)tn I have seen, and those who are in the 
train going towards AVashington. These volunteers 
have none of the swash-buckler bravado, gallant-swag- 
gering air of the Southern men. They are staid, quiet 
men, and the Peunsylvanians, who are on their way to 
join their regiment in Baltimore, are very inferior in 
size and strength to the Tennesscans and Carolinians. 
The train is full of men in uniform. When I last 
went over the line, I do not believe there was a sign of 
soldiering, beyond perhaps the "conductor," who is 
always described in the papers as being " gentlemantly," 
wore his badge. And, ii jjvojjos of badges, 1 see that 
civilians have taken to wearing shields of metal on 
their coats, enamelled with the stars and strii)es, and 
that nien who are not in the army try to make it 
seem they are soldiers by affecting military caps and 

The country between ^^'asilington and Philadelphia 
is destitute of natural beauties, but it affords abundant 
evidence that it is inhabited by a prosperous, comfort- 
able, middle-class community. From every village 
church, and from many houses, the Union ll.ig was 
disidaycd. Four months ago not one was to be seen. 
\N hen we were crossing in the steam ferry-ljoat at 
IMjiladelpliia I siiw some volunteers looking u[i and 
smiling at a hatchet which was over the cabin door, and 
it was not till 1 saw it had the words ''States lli^hts' 


Fire Axe" painted along the handle I could account for 
the attraction. It would fare ill with any vessel iu 
Southern waters which displayed an axe to the citizens 
iuserihed Avith " Down with States Rights " on it. 
There is certainly less vehemence and bitterness among 
the Northerners ; but it might be erroneous to suppose 
there was less determination. 

Below Philadelphia, from Havre-de-Grjice all the way 
to Baltimore, and thence on to Washington, the 
stations on the rail were guarded by soldiers, as 
though an enemy were expected to destroy the 
bridges and to tear up the rails. Wooden bridges and 
causeways, carried over piles and embankments, are 
necessary, in consequence of the nature of the 
country ; and at each of these a small camp was 
formed for the soldiers who have to guard the ap- 
proaches. Sentinels are posted, pickets thrown out, 
and in the open field by the way-side troops are to be 
seen moving, as though a battle was close at hand. In 
one word, we are in the State of Maryland. By these 
means alone are communications maintained between 
the North and the capital. As we approach Baltimore 
the number of sentinels and camps increase, and 
earthworks have been thrown up on the high grounds 
commanding the city. The display of Federal tiags 
from the public buildings and some shipping in the 
river was so limited as to contrast strongly with those 
symbols of Union sentiments in the Northern cities. 

Since I last passed through this city the streets have 
been a scene of bloodshed. The conductor of the car 
on which we travelled from one terminus to the other, 
along the street railway, pointed out the marks of the 
bullets on the walls and in the window frames. " That's 


the way to deal with the IMug Uglics/* exchiimcd he ; a 
name given popularly to the lower classes called Rowdies 
ill New York. " Yes," said a fellow-passcnjrer quietly 
to mCj "these are the sentiments which are now uttered 
in the country which we call the land of freedom, and 
men like that desire nothing better than brute force. 
There is no city in Europe — ^'enice, Warsaw, or 
Itonie — suljjcct to such tyranny as Jialtimore at this 
moment. In this Pratt Street there have been 
murders as foul as ever soldiery committed in the 
streets of Paris." Here was evidently the judicial 
blindness of a States Rights fanatic, who con- 
siders the despatch of Federal soldiers through the 
State of Maryland without the permission of the 
authorities an outrage so flagrant as to justify the 
people in shooting them down, whilst the soldiers 
become murderers if they resist. At the corners of the 
streets strong guards of soldiers were posted, and 
patrols moved up and down the thoroughfares. The 
inhabitants looked sullen and sad. A small war is 
waged by the police recently appointed by the Federal 
authorities against the women, mIio exhibit much 
ingenuity in expressing their animosity to the stars 
and stripes — dressing the children, and even dolls, 
in the Confederate eohjurs, and wearing the same in 
ribbons and bows. The negro population alone seemed 
just the same as before. 

The Secession newspapers of iialtiinore have Ijeen 
suppressed, but the editors contrive nevertheless to 
show their sym|)athies in the selection of their extracts. 
In to-day's paper there is an account of a skirmish in 
the West, given by one of the Confederates who took 
part in it, in which it is stated that the olliccr command- 


ing tlic party "scalped " tweiity-tliree Federals. For tlie 
first time since I left the South I see those advertise- 
ments headed by the figure of a negro running Avith a 
bundle, and containing dcscrijjtions of the fugitive, 
and the reward offered for imprisoning him or her, so 
that the owner may receive his property. Among the 
insignia enumerated are scars on the back and over the 
loins. The whip is not only used by the masters and 
drivers, but by the police ; and in every report of petty 
police cases sentences of so many lashes, and severe 
floiririuirs of women of colour are recorded. 

It is about forty miles from Baltimore to Washington, 
and at every quarter of a mile for the whole distance a 
picket of soldiers guarded the rails. Camps appeared 
on both sides, larger and more closely packed together; 
and the rays of the setting sun fell on countless lines 
of tents as we approached the unfinished dome of the 
Capitol. On the Virginian side of the rivei", columns 
of smoke rising from the forest marked the site of 
Federal encampments across the stream. The fields 
around AVashington resounded with the Avords of com- 
maud and tramp of men, and flashed with wheeling 
arms. Parks of artillery studded the waste ground, 
and long trains of white-covered waggons filled up 
the open spaces in the suburbs of Washington. 

To me all this was a wonderful sight. As I 
drove up Pennyslvania Avenue I could scarce credit 
that the busy thoroughfiu-e— all red, white, and blue with 
flags, filled with dust from galloping chargers and 
commissariat carts; the side-walks thronged with 
people, of whom a large proportion carried sword or 
bayonet ; shops full of life and activity— was tlie same 
as that through which I had driveu the first morning 


of my arrival. A\ asliington now, iiidc'C'd, is the capital 
of the United States; but it is no lonjj:cr the scene of 
beneficent lej^islation and of peaceful <;overnmeut. It 
is the representative of armed force eniraged in war — 
menaced whilst in the very act of raising its arm by the 
enemy it seeks to strike. 

To avoid the tumult of ^^'illard's, I requested a 
friend to hire apartments, and drove to a house in 
Pennsylvania Avenue, close to the War Department, 
wliere he had succeeded in engaging a sitting-room 
about twelve feet square, and a bedroom to correspond, 
in a very small mansion, ue.xt door to a spirit mer- 
chant's. At the Legation I saw Lord Lyons, and 
gave him a brief account of what I had seen in the 
South. I was sorry to observe he looked rather care- 
worn and pale. 

The relations of tlie United States' Government 
with Great liritain have probably been considerably 
afl'ected by ^Ir. Seward's failure in his jjrojjhecies. 
As the Southern Confederacy developes its power, the 
Foreign Secretary assumes higher ground, and becomes 
more exacting, and defiant. Li these hot summer 
days, Lord Lyons and the members of the Lega- 
tion dine early, and enjoy the cool of the evening 
in the garden ; so after a while I took my leave, and 
proceeded to Gautier's. On my way I met Mr. Sumner, 
who asked me for Southern news very anxiously, and 
in the course of conversation witli him 1 was confirmed 
in my impressions that the feeling between the two 
countries was not as friendly as could be desired. 
Lord Lyons had better means of knowing what is 
going on in the South, by comjuunications from the 
liritish Consuls; but even he seemed unaware of facts 


which had occurred whilst I was there, and ]\Ir. Sunnier 
appeared to be as ignorant of the whole condition of 
things ])clow Mason and Dixon's line as he was of the 
politics of Timbuctoo. 

The importance of maintaining a friendly feeling 
with England appeared to me very strongly impressed 
on the Senator's mind. Mr. Seward has been fretful, 
irritable, and acrimonious ; and it is not too much to 
suppose Mr. Sumner has been useful in allaying irrita- 
tion. A certain despatch was written last June, which 
amounted to little less than a declaration of war against 
Great Britain. Most fortunately the President was 
induced to exercise his power. The despatch was 
modified, though not without opposition, and was for- 
warded to the English Minister with its teeth drawn. 
Lord Lyons, who is one of the suavest and quietest of 
diplomatists, has found it difficult, I fear, to maintain 
personal relations with Mr. Seward at times. Two 
despatches have been prepared for Lord John Russell, 
which could have had no result but to lead to a 
breach of the peace, had not some friendly inter- 
positor succeeded in averting the wrath of the 
Foreign ^linistcr. 

Mr. Sumner is more sanguine of immediate success 
than I am, from the military operations which are to 
commence when General Scott considers the army fit 
to take the field. At Gautier's I met a number of 
officers, who expressed a great diversity of views in 
reference to those operations. General ^PDowcU is 
popular with them, but they admit the great deficiencies 
of the subaltern and company officers. General Scott 
is too infirm to take the field, and the burdens of 
administration press the veteran to the earth. 


July Mil. — '• Independence Pay." Fortunate to 
escape this great national festival in the large cities 
of the I'nion where it is celebrated with many days 
before and after of surplus rejoicinjr, by fireworks and 
an incosant fusillade in the streets, 1 was, never- 
theless, subjected to the small ebullition of the 
AVashinjrton juveniles, to belUrinirint; and discharges of 
cannon and musketry. On this day Congress meets. 
Never before has any legislative l)ody assembled under 
circumstances so grave. By their action they will 
decide whether the I'nion can ever be restored, and 
will determine whether the States of the North are to 
connuenee an invasion for the purpose of subjecting 
by force of arms, and depriving of their freedom, the 
States of the South. 

Congress met to-day merely for the purpose of 
forming itself int(j a regular body, and there was no 
debate or business of j)ublic importance introduced. 
Mr. Wilson gave me to understand, however, that some 
military movements of the utmost importance might be 
expected in a few days, and that (Jeneral M'Dowell 
would ])ositively attack the rebels in front of Washing- 
ton. The Confederates occupy the whole of Northern 
\ irginia, commencing from the peninsula above 
Fortress Mcnnoe on the right or east, and extending 
along the Potomac, to the extreme verge of the State, 
bv the Baltimore and Ohio Railway. This innnensc 
line, however, is broken by gri-at intervals, and the 
army with which M'Dowtdl will have to deal may be 
consider(Ml as detached, covering the approaches to 
Richmond, whilst its left flank is protected by a corps 
of observation, stationerl ncai- Winchester, nnder 
Ocntral Jackson. A Federal corps is being prepared 


to watch tlic corps and cn<]^age it, whilst M'Dowcll 
advances on tlie main hody. To the right of this agJiin, 
or flirt iior west, another body of Federals, under 
General M'Clellau, is operating in the valleys of the 
Shenandoah and in Western Virginia ; but 1 did not 
hear any of these things from INIr. Wilson, who was, I 
am sure, in perfect ignorance of the plans, iu a military 
sense, of the general. I sat at Mr. Sumner's desk, and 
wrote the final paragraphs of a letter describing my 
impressions of the South iu a place but little disposed 
to give a favourable colour to them. 


Interview wiib 5Ir. Seward — My passport — Mr. Seward's views as to 
tho war — Illutiiiuation at WuRhington — My "servant" abscnta 
Liuifielf— New York journalism — The Capitol — Interior of Con- 
gress — Tlie Presiilent's MesKage — Speeches in Congress — Lord 
Lyons — General JI'Dowell — Low standard in the army-Accident 
to the "Stars and Stripes" — A street row — Mr. Bigelow — Mr. 
N. P. Willis. 

^A'^E^• tlic Senate had adjourned, I drove to the State 
Department and saw Mr. Seward, wlio looked nmch 
more worn and liaggard than uhen I saw him last, 
three months aj;o. He congratulated me on my safe 
return from the South in time to witness some stirring 
events. " Well, Mr. Secretary, 1 am (juite sure that, if 
all the South are of tiic same mind as those I met in 
my travels, there will be many battles before they sub- 
mit to the Federal Government." 

" It is not submission to the (Jovernment we want; I 
it is to assent to the i)rinci'ples of the Constitution. J 
AVhen you left AVashington we had a few hundred 
regulars and some hastily-levied militia to defend the 
naticjiial capital, and a battery and a half of artillery 
under the command of a traitor. The Na\y-yard waa 
in the hands of a disloyal ollieer. A\ e were surrounded 
bv treason. Kow we are supported by the loyal States 
V liieh have come forward in defence of the best Govern- 
ment on the face of the earth, and the unfortunate and 


desperate men wlio have coniincnccd this stni;.';j;l(; will 
have to yield or experience the punishment due to their 

"But, Mr. Seward, has not this great exhibition of 
strength been attended by some circumstances calcu- 
lated to inspire apprehension tiiat liberty in the free 
States may be impaired ; for instance, I hear that I 
must procure a passport in order to travel through the 
States and go into the camps in front of Washington." 
" Yes, sir ; you must send your passport here from 
Lord Lyons, with his signature. It will be no good 
till I have signed it, and then it must be sent to General 
Scott, as Commander-in-Chief of the United States 
army, who will subscribe it, after which it will be 
available for all legitimate purposes. You are not in 
any way impaired in your liberty by the process." 

" Neither is, one may say, the man who is under sur- 
veillance of the pohce in despotic countries in Europe ; 
he has only to submit to a certain formality, and he is all 
right ; in fact, it is said by some people, that the pro- 
tection afforded by a passport is worth all the trouble 
connected with having it in order." 

Mr. Seward seemed to think it was quite likely. There 
were corresponding measures taken in the Southern 
States by the rebels, and it was necessary to have 
some control over traitors and disloyal persons. " Li 
this contest," said he, "the Government will not 
shrink from using all the means which they consider 
necessary to restore the Union.'"' It was not my place 
to remark that such doctrines were exactly identical 
with all that despotic governments in Europe have 
advanced as the ground of action in cases of revolt, or 
with a view to the maintenance of their strong Govern- 


nients. " The Executive," said he, " has dcclareil in 
the iiiaui;ural that the riijhts of the Federal Ooveninient 
shall he fully viiidieatc-d. AVe are dealing with an 
insurrection within our own country, of our own 
people, and the Governuieut of (ireat Hritain have 
thouglit tit to recognise that insurrection hefore we 
were able to bring the strength of the Union to bear 
against it, by conceding to it the status of belligerent. 
Although we might justly complain of such an un- 
friendly act in a manner that might injure the friendly 
relations between tljc two countries, we do not desire 
to give any excuse for foreign interference; although 
we do not hesitate, in case of necessity, to resist it to 
the uttermost, we have less to fear fr«)m a foreign war 
than any country in the world. If any European 
Power provokes a war, we shall not shrink from it. A 
contest between Great Britain and the United JStates 
would wrap the worlil in iirc, and at the end it would 
not be the United States which woidd have to lament 
the results of the conHict." 

I could not but admire the confidence — may I say the 
coolness? — of the statesman who sat in his modest 
little room within the sound of the evening's guns, in 
a capital menaced by their forces who s[)oke so fear- 
lessly of war with a Power which could have blotted 
out the paper blockade of the Southern forts and coast 
in a few hours, and, in conjunction with the Southern 
armies, have repeated the occupation and destruction of 
the capital. 

The President sent for Mr. Seward whilst I was in 
the State Department, and I walked up Pennsylvania 
Avenue to my lodgings, through a crowd of men in 
uniform who were celebrating Independence Day in 


their own fashion — some by the h\.Y<^c iiitcnial use 
of lire-water, others by an external display of lire- 

Directly opposite my lodgings arc the head-quarters 
of General Mansfield, coniiuanding the district, whicli 
are marked by a guard at the door and a couple of 
six-poundcr guns pointing down the street. I called 
upon the General, but he was busy examining certain 
inhabitants of Alexandria and of Washington itself, 
who had been brought before him on the charge of 
being Secessionists, and I left my card, and proceeded 
to General Scott's head-quarters, which I found packed 
with officers. The General received me in a small 
room, and expressed his gratification at my return, but 
I saw he was so busy with reports, despatches, and 
maps, that I did not trespass on his time. I dined 
with Lord Lyons, and afterwards went with some 
members of the Legation to visit the camps, situated 
in the public square. 

All the population of Washington had turned out in 
their best to listen to the military bands, the nnisic of 
which was rendered nearly inaudible by the constant 
discharge of fireworks. The camp of the 12th New 
York presented a very pretty and animated scene. The 
men liberated from duty were enjoying themselves out 
and inside their tents, and the sutlers' booths were 
driving a roaring trade. I was introduced to Colonel 
Butterfield, commanding the regiment, who was a mer- 
chant of Xew York ; but notwithstanding the training of 
the counting-house, he looked very much like a soldier, 
and had got his regiment very fairly in hand. In com- 
pliance with a desire of Professor Henry, the Colonel 
had prepared a number of statistical tables in which 


the natioiKility, liciglit, weight, breadth of chest, age, 
and other particuhirs respecting the men under his 
coniniand were entered. 1 looked over the book, and 
as far as I eouhl judge, but two out of twelve of the 
soldiers were native-born Americans, the rest being 
Irish, German, English, and Knropi-an-born generally. 
According to the commanding otficer they were in 
the highest state of discipline and obedience, lie had 
given them leave to go out as they pleased for the day, 
but at tattoo only 14 men out of lUOOwere absent, and 
some of those had been accounted for by reports that 
they were incapable of locomotion owing to the hospi- 
tality of the citizens. 

\Vhen I returned to my lodgings, the coloured boy 
whom I had hired at Niagara was absent, and I was 
told he had not come in since the night before. 
" These free coloured boys," said my landlord, " are a 
bad set ; now they arc worse than ever ; the officers of 
the army are taking them all away from us ; it's just 
the life they like ; they get little work, have good pay ; 
but what they like most is robbing and plundering the 
farmers' houses over in Virginia; what with (Jirmans 
Irish, and free niggers. Lord help the poor \'irginians, 
I say ; but they'll give them a turn yet.' 

The sounds in Washington to-night might have led 
one to believe the city was carried by storm. Con- 
stant explosion of fire-arms, fireworks, shouting, and 
cries in the streets, which combined, with the heat 
and the abominable odonrs of the undrained houses and 
raos(|uitocs, to drive sleep far away. 

July hth. — As the young gentleman of colour, to 
whom I had given egregious ransom as well as an 
advance of wages, did not appear this morning, 1 was. 


after an abortive attempt to boil water for coflce and 
to f]jct a piece of toast, compelled to go iu next 
door, and avail myself of the hospitality of Captain 
Cecil Johnson, who was installed in the drawing- 
room of ]\Iadame Jost. In the forenoon, Mr. John 
i>igelow, whose acquaintance I made, much to my gra- 
tification in time gone by, on the margin of the Lake 
of Thun, found me out, and proffered his services; 
which, as the whileom editor of the Evening Post and as 
a leading Republican, he was in a position to render 
valuable and most effective ; but he could not make ;i 
Bucephalus to order, and I have been running through 
the stables of Washington iu vain, hoping to find 
something up to my weight — such flankless, screwy, 
shoulderless, cat-like creatures were never seen — four 
of them would scarcely furnish ribs and legs enough to 
carry a man, but the owners thought that each of them 
was fit for Baron Rothschild ; and then there was 
saddlery and equipments of all sorts to be got, which 
the influx of ofhcers and the badness and dearncss 
of the material put quite beyond one's reach. Mr. 
Bigelow was of opinion that the army would move 
at once; "but,"' said I, "where is the transport — 
where the cavalry and guns ?" " Oh," replied he 
" I suppose we have got everything that is required. 
1 know nothing of these things, but I am told 
cavalry are no use in the wooded country to- 
wards Richmond." I have not yet been able to go 
through the camps, but I doubt very much whether 
the material or commissariat of the grand army of the 
North is at all adequate to a campaign. 

The presumption and ignorance of the New York 
journals would be ridiculous were they not so mis- 



chievous. They describe " this horde of battaliou com- 
pauies — unoflicLrcd^chul iii all kinds ot'diHereut uuiform, 
diversely equipped, perfectly iguuraut of the principles 
of military obedience and concerted action," — for so I 
hear it described l)y United States otlieers themselves — 
as beinj^ " the greatest army tiie world ever saw ; per- 
fect iu officers and discipline ; unsurpassed in devotion 
and courage ; furnished w ith every requisite ; and 
destined on its first march to sweep into llichmond, 
and to obliterate from the Potomac to New Orleans 
every trace of rebellion."' 

The Congress met to-day to hear the President's 
Message read. Somehow or other there is not sucli 
anxiety and eagerness to hear what !Mr. Lincoln has 
to say as one could expect on such a momentous oc- 
casion. It would seem as if the forthcoming appeal 
to arms had overshadowed every other sentiment in the 
minds of tiie people. Tiiey are w;uting for deeds, and 
care not for words. The confidence of the New York 
papers, and of the citizens, soldiers, and public speakers, 
contrast with the dubious and gloomy views of the 
military men ; but of this Message itself there arc 
some incidents independent of the occasion to render 
it curious, if not interesting. The President has, it 
is said, written much of it iu his own fashion, which 
has been revised and altered by his Ministers ; but he 
lias written it again and repeated himself, and after 
many struggles a good deal of pure Lincoluism goes 
down to Congress. 

At a little after half-past eleven 1 went down 
to the Capitol. Pennsylvania Avenue was thronged 
as before, but on approach in.:: Capitol Hill, the crowd 
rather thinned away, as though thev shunned, or had no 


curiosity to hear, the President's Message. One wouUl 
have thought that, where every cue who coukl get in 
was at hbcrty to attend the galleries in both Houses, 
there would have beeu an immeuse pressure from the 
inhabitants and strangers in the city, as well as from 
the citizen soldiers, of which such multitudes were in 
the street ; but when I looked up from the floor of the 
Senate, I was astonished to see that the galleries were 
not more than three parts filled. There is always a 
ruinous look about an unfinished building when it is 
occupied and devoted to business. The Capitol is 
siluated on a hill, one face of Avhich is scarped by the 
road, and has the appearance of being formed of heaps 
of rubbish. Towards Pennsylvania Avenue the long 
fiuntage abuts on a lawn shaded by trees, through 
which walks and avenues lead to the many entrances 
under the porticoes and colonnades ; the face which 
corresponds on the other side looks out on heaps of 
brick and mortar, cut stone, and a waste of marble 
blocks lying half buried in the earth and cumbering 
the ground, which, in the magnificent ideas of the 
founders and planners of the city, was to be occupied 
by stately streets. The cleverness of certain speculators 
in land prevented the execution of the original idea, 
which was to radiate all the main avenues of the city 
from the Capitol as a centre, the intermediate streets 
being formed by circles drawn at regularly-increasing 
intervals from the Capitol, and intersected by the radii. 
The speculators purchased up the land on the side 
between the Navy-yard and the site of the Capitol ; the 
result — the land is unoccupied, except by paltry houses, 
and the capitalists are ruined. 

The Capitol would be best described by a scries of 


pliotograplis. Like the Great Republic itself, it is 
unfinished. It resembles it iu another respect : it looks 
best at a distance ; and, a^ain, it is inconfrruous in its 
parts. The passages are so dark that artificial light is 
often required to enable one to find liis way. The 
offices and bureaux of the committees are better than 
the cliambers of the Senate and the House of Repre- 
sentatives. All the encaustics and the wliite marble 
and stone staircases suffer from tobacco juice, thoujrh 
there is a liberal display of spittoons at every corner. 
The official messengers, doorkeepers, and porters wear 
no distinctive badge or dress. No policemen arc on 
duty, as in our Houses of Parliament ; no soldiery, 
gendarmerie, or sergens-de-ville in the precincts ; the 
crowd wanders about tlie passages as it pleases, nnd 
shows the utn)ost projjriety, never going where it ought 
not to intrude. There is a special gallery set apart for 
women ; the reporters are comraodiously placed iu an 
ample gallery, above the Speaker's chair ; the {lii)lo- 
matic circle have their gallery facing the reporters, 
and they are placed so low down in the sonunvlmt 
depressed Chamber, tliat every Mord can be lieard 
from speakers in the remotest parts of the house vtry 

The seats of tlie members arc disposed in a manner 
somewhat like those in the Frcncli Chambers. Instead 
of being in parallel rows to the walls, and at right 
angles to the Chairman's seat, tlic separate chairs and 
desks of the Senators arc arranged in semicircular rows. 
The space between the walls and the outer semicircle is 
called tlic fioor of the house, and it is a high compli- 
ment to a stranger to introduce him within this privi- 
leged place. There arc leather cushioned seats and 


lounges put for tlic accommodation of tliosc wlio may 
be introduced by Senators, or to wliom, as distinguislicd 
members of Congress in former days, the permission is 
given to take their seats. Senators Sumner and Wilson 
introdnced me to a chair, and made mc acquainted 
with a number of Senators before the business of tlie 
day began. 

]\[r. Sumner, as the Cliairman of the Committee on 
Foreign Relations, is supposed to be viewed with some 
jealousy by Mr. Seward, on account of the disposition 
attributed to hira to interfere in diplomatic questions; 
but if he does so, we shall have no reason to complain, 
as the Senator is most desirous of keeping the peace 
between the two countries, and of mollifying any 
little acerbities and irritations which may at present 
exist between them. Senator Wilson is a man who 
has risen from what would be considered in any country 
but a republic the lowest ranks of the people. He 
apprenticed himself to a poor shoemaker when he was 
twenty-two years of age, and when he was twenty-four 
years old he began to go to school, and devoted all his 
earnings to the improvement of education. He got on 
by degrees, till he set up as a master shoe maker and 
manufacturer, became a " major-general " of State 
militia ; finally was made Senator of the United States, 
and is now "Chairman of the Committee of the Senate 
on ^lilitary Affairs." He is a bluff man, of about fifty 
years of age, with a peculiar eye and complexion, aiul 
seems honest and vigorous. But is he not going ultra 
crepidam in such a post? At present he is much per- 
plexed Ijy tlie drunkenness which prevails among the 
troops, or rather by the desire of the men fur spirits, as 
he has a New England mania on that point. One of 


the most remarkable-looking men in the House is Mr. 
Sumner. Mr. Breckinridge and he would probably be 
the first persons to excite the curiosity of a strang:er, 
so far as to induce him to ask for their names. Save 
in hcitrht — and both are a good deal over six feet — 
there is no resemblance between the champion of 
States Rights and the orator of the Black Repub- 
licans. The massive head, the great chin and jaw, and 
the penetrating eyes of Mr. Breckinridge convey the 
idea of a man of immense determination, courage, and 
saeacitv. Mr. Sumner's features are indicative of a 
philosophical :md poetical turn of thought, and one 
might easily conceive that he would be a great advocate, 
but an indiflfi'rcnt leader of a party. 

It was a hot day ; but there was no excuse for the slop 
coats and light-coloured clothing and felt wide-awakes 
worn by so many Senators in such a place. They gave 
the meeting the aspect of a gathering of bakers or 
millers ; nor did the constant use of the spittoons beside 
their desks, their reading of newspapers and writing 
letters during the dispatch of business, or the hurrying 
to and fro of the pages of the House between the seats, 
do anything but derogate from the dignity of the 
assemblage, and, according to European notions, vio- 
late the respect due to a Senate Chamber. The pages 
alluded to are smart boys, from twelve to fifteen years 
of age, who stand below the President's table, and are 
employed to go on errands and carry official messages 
by the members. They wear no j)articular uniform, 
and are dressed as the tsvste or means of their parents 

The House of Representatives exaggerates all the 
peculiarities I have ob^ rvcd in the Senate, but the 

THE president's message. 135 

(le])ntcs arc not regarded with so luucli interest as those 
of the Upper House; indeed, they are of far less im- 
})ortance. Strong-minded statesmen and officers — Presi- 
dents or ^linisters— do not care much for the House of 
Ivepresentatives, so long as they are sure of the Senate; 
and, for the matter of that, a President like Jackson 
does not care much for Senate and House together. There 
are privileges attached to a seat in either branch of the 
Legislature, independent of the great fact that tlicy 
receive mileage and are paid for their services, which 
may add some incentive to ambition. Thus the mem- 
bers can order whole tons of stationery for their use, 
not only when they are in session, but during the 
recess. Their frank covers parcels by mail, and it is 
said that Senators without a conscience have sent 
sewing-machines to their wives and pianos to their 
daughters as little parcels by post. I had almost foi-- 
gotteu that much the same abuses were in vogue in 
England some century ago. 

Tlie galleries were by no means full, and in that re- 
served for the diplomatic body the most notable person 
was M. Mercier, the Minister of France, who, fixing his 
intelligent and eager face between both hands, watched 
with keen scrutiny the attitude and conduct of the 
Senate. None of the members of the English Lega- 
tion were present. After the lapse of an hour, Mr. 
Hay, the President's Secretary, made his appearance on 
the floor, and sent in the Message to the Clerk of the 
Senate, ]\Ir. Forney, who proceeded to read it to the 
House. It was listened to in silence, scarcely broken 
except when some Senator mui-hiured " Good, that is 
so ; " but in fact the general purport of it was already 
known to the supporters of the Ministry, and not a 


sound came from the galleries. Soon after Mr. Forney 
had rmishcd, tlie galk'rics were cleari.'d, and I returned 
up Pennsylvania Avenue, in which the crowds of soldiers 
around bar-rooms, oyster shops, and restaurants, the 
groups of men in ollicers' uniform, and the clattering 
of disorderly mounted cavaliers in the dust, increased 
ray apprehension that discipline was very little re- 
garded, and that the army over the Potomac had not a 
very strong liand to keep it within liounds. 

As I was walking over with Ca[)tain Johnson to 
dine with Lord Lyons, I met General Scott leaving his 
office and walking with great dillieulty between two 
aides-de-camp. He was dressed in a blue frock with 
gold lace shoulder straps, fastened round the waist by a 
yellow sash, and with large yellow laj)els turned back 
over the chest in the old style, and moved with great 
difficulty along the pavement. "You see I am trying 
to hobble along, but it is hard for me to overcome my 
many iniirmities. I regret I could not have the 
pleasure of granting you an interview to-day, but I 
shall cause it to be intimated to you when I may have 
the pleasure of seeing you ; meantime I shall provide 
you with a jjass and the necessary introductions to 
afford you all facilities w ith the army." 

After dinner I made a round of visits, and heard the 
diplomatists speaking of the ^Message ; few, if any of 
them, in its favour. AVith the exception perhaps of 
Baron Gerolt, the Prussian ^linister, there is not one 
member of the Legations who justifies the attempt of 
the Northern States to assert the supremacy of the 
Federal Government by the force of arms. Lord 
Lvons, indeed, in maintaining a judicious reticence 
M henever he does speak, gives utterance to sentiments 


])CConiing the representative of Great Britain at the 
court of a friendly Power, and tlic jNIinistcr of a peoi)le 
Avlio have been protagonists to slavery for many a long 

Jnhj Gi/i.—l breakfasted with IMr. Bigelow this morn- 
in". to meet General INPDowell, who commands 
the army of the Potomac, now so soon to move. 
He came in without an aide-de-camp, and on foot, from 
his quarters in the city. He is a man about forty 
years of age, square and powerfully l)uilt, but with 
rather a stout and clumsy figure and limbs, a good head 
covered with close-cut thick dark hair, small light-blue 
eyes, sliort nose, large cheeks and jaw, relieved by an 
iron-grey tuft somewhat of the Prcnch type, and affect- 
iue: in dress the style of our gallant allies. His 
manner is frank, simple, and agreeable, and he did not 
hesitate to speak with great openness of the difficulties 
he had to contend with, and the imperfection of all the 
arrangements of the array. 

As an officer of the regular army he has a thorough 
contempt for what he calls " political generals " — the 
men who use their influence with President and Con- 
gress to obtain military rank, which in time of war 
places them before the public in the front of events, 
and gives them an appearance of leading in the greatest 
of all political movements. Nor is General M'DowcU 
enamoured of volunteers, for he served in Mexico, 
and has from what he saw there formed rather an un- 
favourable opinion of their capabilities in the field. He 
is inclined, however, to hold the Southern troops in too 
little respect ; and he told me that the volunteers from 
the slave states, who entered the field full of exultation 
and boastings, did not make good their words, and that 


they suffered especially from sickness and disease, in 
consequence of their disorderly habits and dissipation. 
His roy:ard for old associations was evinced in many 
questions he asked me about Beauregard, with whom 
lie had been a student at "West Point, where the Con- 
federate commander was noted for his studious and 
reserved habits, and his excellence in feats of strength 
and athletic exercises. 

As pronf of the low standard established in his army, 
he mentioned that some officers of considerable rank 
were more than suspected of selling rations, and of il- 
licit connections with sutlers for purposes of pecuniary 
advantage. The General walked back with me as far 
as mv lodgings, and I observed that not one of the 
many soldiers he passed in the streets saluted him, 
though his rank was indicated by his velvet collar and 
cuffs, and a gold star on the shoulder strap. 

Having written some letters, I walked out with Cap- 
tain Johnson and one of the attaches of the British 
Legation, to the lawn at the back of the White House, 
and listened to the excellent band of the I'nited States 
Marines, playing on a kind of dais under the large flag 
recently hoisted by the President himself, in the garden. 
The occasion was marked by rather an ominous event. 
As the President pulled the halyards and the flag 
floated aloft, a branch of a tree caught the bunting 
and tore it, so that a number of tlie stars and stripes 
were detached and hung dangling beneath the rest 
of the flag, half detached from the staff. 

I dined at Captain Johnson's lodgings next door to 
mine. Beneath us was a wine and sjiirit store, and 
crowds of ofTicers and men flocked indiscriminately to 
make their purchases, with a good deal of tumult, which 


increased as the night came on. Later still, there was 
a great (listnrl)ancc in the city. A hod}'" of New York 
Zouaves wrecked some houses of had repute, in one of 
which a private of the regiment was murdered early 
this morning. The cavalry patrols were called out and 
charged the rioters, who were dispersed with difficulty 
after resistance in which men on both sides were 
wounded. There is no police, no provost guard. 
Soldiers wander about the streets, and beg in the 
fashion of the mendicant in "Gil Bias" for money 
to get whisky. My coloured gentleman has been led 
away by the Saturnalia and has taken to gambling in 
the camps, which are surrounded by hordes of rascally 
followers and sutlers' servants, and T find myself on 
the eve of a campaign, without servant, horse, equip- 
ment, or means of transport. 

July 7 th. — Mr. Bigelow invited me to breakfast, to 
meet i\Ir. Senator King, Mr. Olmsted, Mr. Thurlow 
Weed, a Senator from Missouri, a West Point pro- 
fessor, and others. It was indicative of the serious 
difficulties which embarrass the action of the Govern- 
ment to hear [Mr. Wilson, the Chairman of the Mili- 
tary Committee of the Senate, inveigh against the 
officers of the regular army, and attack West Point 
itself Whilst the New York papers were lauding 
General Scott and his plans to the skies, the Washing- 
ton politicians were speaking of him as obstructive, 
obstinate, and prejudiced — unfit for the times and the 

General Scott refused to accept cavalry and ar- 
tillery at the beginning of the levy, and said that 
they were not required ; now he was calling for both 
arms most urgently. The officers of the regular army 


had followed suit. Although they "vvere urgently 
pressed by the politicians to occupy Harper's Ferry 
and Manassas, they refused to do either, and the result 
is that the enemy have obtained invaluable supplies 
from the first place, and are now assembled in force 
iu a most formidable position at the second. Every- 
thing as yet accomplished has been done by political 
generals — not by the oilicers of the regular army. 
Butler and Banks saved Baltimore in spite of General 
Scott. There was an attempt made to cry up Lyon in 
Missouri ; but in fact it was Frank Blair, the brother of 
the Postmaster-General, who had been the soul and 
body of all the actions in that State. The first step 
taken by M'Clellan in "Western Virginia was atrocious — 
he talked of slaves in a public document as property. 
Butler, at Monroe, had dealt with them in a very 
tliHcrent spirit, and had used them for State purposes 
under the name of contraband. One man alone dis- 
played powers of administrative ability, and that was 
Quarter-master Meigs ; and unquestionably from all I 
heard, the praise was well bestowed. It is plain enough 
that the political leaders fear the consccpiences of delay, 
and that they are urging the military authorities to action, 
which the latter have too much professional knowledge 
to take with their jiresent means. These Northern men 
know nothing of the South, and with them it is ovmc 
iynotum pro minimo. The West Point professor listened 
to them with a (juiet smile, and exchanged glances with 
me now and then, as much as to say, " Did you ever 
hear such fools in your life ? " 

But the conviction of ultimate success is not less 
strong here than it is in tlie South. The diHerencc 
between these gentlemen and the Southerners is, that 

Mil. OLMSTED. l4l 

n tlic South the leaders of the people, soldiers and 
civilians, arc all actually under arms, and are ready to 
make good their words 1)v exposing their bodies in 

I walked home with Mr. N. P. Willis, who is at 
"Washington for the purpose of writing sketches to 
the little family journal of which he is editor, and 
giving war " anecdotes ; " and with Mr. Olmsted, who 
is acting as a member of the New York Sanitary 
Commission, here authorised by the Government to 
take measures against the reign of dirt and disease in 
the Federal camp. The Republicans are very much 
afraid tliat there is, even at the present moment, a 
conspiracy against the Union in Washington — nay, 
in Congress itself; and regard Mr. JBreckenridge, Mr. 
Bayard, Mr. Vallandigham, and others as most dan- 
gerous enemies, who should not be permitted to remain 
in the capital. I attended the Episcopal church and 
heard a very excellent discourse, free from any political 
allusion. The service differs little from our own, except 
that certain euphemisms are introduced in the Litany 
and elsewhere, and the prayers for Queen and Parlia- 
ment are offered up nomine mutafo for President and 


Arlington Heights and the Potomac — "WoishiDgton — The Federal 
camp — General M'Dowell — Flying rumoure — Newspaper corro- 
Bpoudeuta — General Fremont — Silencing the Press and Tele- 
gniph — A Loan Bill — Interview with Mr. Cameron — Newspaper 
criticii-m on Lord Lyons — Rumours about M'Clellau — The 
Northern army as reported and as it is — General M'Clellan. 

July '>th. — I hired a horse at a liver}' stable, aud 
rode out to Arlington Heights, at the other side of the 
Potoiuac, \vhere the Federal army is eucauiped, if uot 
on the sacred soil of Virginia, certainly ou the soil of 
the district of Columbia, ceded by that State to Con- 
gress for the purposes of the Federal Goverumeut. 
The Long Bridge which spans the river, here more 
than a mile broad, is au ancient wooden and brick 
structure, partly of causeway, and partly of platform, 
laid on piles and uprights, wiih drawbridges for vessels 
to pass. The Potomac, which in peaceful times is 
covered with small craft, now glides in a gentle current 
over the shallows unbroken by a solitary sail. The 
"rebels" have established batteries below !Mount 
Vernon, which partially command the river, and jilace 
the city in a state of bhjckade. 

As a conse(jucnce of the magnificent conceptions 
which were entertained by the founders regarding the 
future dimensions of their future city, Washington is 
all suburb and no city. The only difference betweeu 



tlic denser streets and the remoter village-like envi- 
rons, is that the houses are better and more frequent, and 
the roads not quite so bad iu the former. The road to 
the Long Bridge passes by a four-sided shaft of bloeks 
of white marble, contributed, with appropriate mottoes, 
by the various States, as a fitting mouumeut to Wash- 
ington. It is not yet completed, and the materials lie 
in the field around, just as the Capitol and the Treasury 
arc surrounded by the materials for their future and 
final development. Further on is the red, and rather 
fantastic, pile of the Smithsonian Institute, and then 
the road makes a dip to the bridge, past some squalid 
little cottages, and the eye reposes on the shore of 
Virginia, rising in successive folds, and richly wooded, 
up to a moderate height from the water. Through the 
green forest leaves gleams the white canvas of the tents, 
aud on the highest ridge westward rises an imposing 
structure, with a portico and colonnade in front, facing 
the river, which is called Arlington House, and belongs, 
by descent, through Mr. Custis, from the wife of George 
Washington, to General Lee, Commander-in-Chief of 
the Confederate army. It is now occupied by General 
^M'Dowell as his head-quarters, and a large United 
States' flag floats from the roof, which shames even the 
ample proportions of the many stars and stripes rising 
up from the camps in the trees. 

At the bridge there was a post of volunteer soldiers. 
The sentry on duty was sitting on a stump, with his fire- 
lock across his knees, reading a newspaper. lie held 
out his hand for my pass, which was in the form of a 
letter, written by General Scott, aud ordering all 
officers and soldiers of the army of the Potomac to 
permit me to pass freely without let or hindrance, and 


recommendinji; mc to the attention of Brigadier-General 
M'Dowell and all officers under his orders. " That'll 
do, you may i^o,' said the sentry. " What pass is that, 
Abe r" imiuircd a non-commissioned oflicer. "It's 
from General Scott, and says lie's to go wherever he 
likes." " I hope you'll go right away to Richmond, 
then, and get Jett' Davis's scalp for us," said the pa- 
triotic sergeant. 

At the other end of the bridge a weak iitc de potif, 
commanded by a road-work further on, covered the 
approach, and turning to the right I passed through 
a maze of camps, in front of which the various regi- 
ments, much better than I expected to find thera, 
broken up into small detaclnnents, were learning 
elementary drill. A considerable number of the men 
were Germans, and the officers were for the most 
part in a state of profound ignorance of company 
drill, as might be seen by their confusion and inability 
to take their places when the companies faced about, 
or moved from one flank to the other. They were by 
no means equal in size or age, and, with some splendid 
exceptions, were inferior to the Southern soldiers. The 
camps were dirty, no latrines — the tents of various 
patterns — l)ut on the whole they were well cas- 

The road to Arlington House passed through some 
of the finest woods 1 have yet seen in America, but the 
axe M-as already busy amongst them, and the trunks of 
giant oaks were prostrate on the ground. The tents 
of the General and his small stalfwere j)itehed on the 
little plateau in which stood the house, and from it a 
very striking and pirturesque view of the city, with the 
"White House, the Treasury, the Post Office, Patcut 


Office, and Capitol, was visible, and a wide spread of 
country, studded with tents also as far as the eye could 
reach, towards Maryland. There were only four small 
tents for the whole of the head-quarters of the grand 
array of the Potomac, and in front of one we found 
General jNl'Dowell, seated in a chair, examining some 
plans and maps. His personal staff, as far as I could 
judge, consisted of Mr. Clarence Brown, who came over 
with me, <and three other officers, but there were a 
few connected with the departments at work in the 
rooms of Arlington House. I made some remark 
on the subject to the General, who replied that 
there was great jealousy on the part of the civilians 
respecting the least appearance of display, and that 
as he was only a brigadier, though he was in com- 
mand of such a large army, he was obliged to be 
content with a brigadier's staff. Two untidy-looking 
orderlies, with ill-groomed horses, near the house, 
were poor substitutes for the force of troopers one 
would see in attendance on a general in Europe 
but the use of the telegraph obviates the necessity of 
employing couriers. I went over some of the camps 
with the General. The artillery is the most effi- 
cient-looking arm of the service, but the horses are too 
light, and the number of the different calibres quite 
destructive to continuous efficiency in action. Alto- 
gether I was not favourably impressed with what I 
saw, for I had been led by reiterated statements to 
believe to some extent the extravagant stories of 
the papers, and expected to find upwards of 1U0,UU0 
men in the highest state of efficiency, whereas there were 
not more than a third of the number, and those in a 
very incomplete, ill-disciplined state. Some of these 


regiments were called out under the President's pro- 
clauiation fur tlirec months only, and will soon have 
served their full time, and as it is very likely they will 
go home, now the bubbles of national enthusiasm have 
all escaped, General Scott is urtred not to lose their 
services, but to get into Richmond before they are dis- 

It would scarcely be credited, were I not told it by 
General M'Dowell, that there is no such thing pro- 
curable as a decent map of Virginia, lie knows little 
or nothing of the country before him, more than the 
general direction of the main roads, which are bad at the 
best; and he can obtain no information, inasmuch as 
the enemy are in full force all along his front, and he 
lias not a cavalry ofiiecr capable of conducting a recon- 
naissance, which would be difficult enough in the best 
hands, owing to the dense woods mIucIi rise up in front 
of his lines, screening the enemy completely. The 
Confederates Iiave thrown up very heavy batteries at 
^Manassas, about thirty miles away, where the railway 
from the West crosses the line to Uichnioud, and I do 
not think General M'Dowell much likes the look of 
tliem, but the cry for action is so strong the President 
cruinot rc>ist it. 

On my b.ick I rode thron^di the woods of 
Arlington, and came out on a (piadrangular earthwork, 
called Fort Ccjrcorau, which is garrisoned by the cntli 
Irish, and conmiands the road leading to an acjueduct 
and horse-bridge over the Potomac. The regiment is 
encamped inside the fort, which would be a slaughter- 
pen if exposed to shell-fire. The streets were neat, the 
tents protected from the sun by shades of evergreens 
and pine boughs. Oue little door, like that of an ice- 


lioiisc, half buried in the ground, was opened by one of 
tlic soldiers, who was showiuL,^ it to a friend, when my 
attention was more partieularly attracted by a sergeant, 
Avho ran i'orward in great dudgeon, exclaiming " Demj)- 
sey ! Is that you going into the ' magazine' wid ycr 
pipe lighted ? " I rode away with alacrity. 

In the course of my ride I heard occasional dropping 
shots in the camp. To my looks of inquiry, an engi- 
neer officer said quietly, " They are volunteers shooting 
themselves." The number of accidents from the care- 
lessness of the men is astonishing ; in every day's paper 
there is an account of deaths and wounds caused by 
the discharge of firearms in the tents. 

Whilst I was at Arlington House, walking through 
the camp attached to head-quarters, I observed a tall 
red-bearded officer seated on a chair in front of one of 
the tents, who bowed as I passed him, and as I turned 
to salute him, my eye was caught by the apparition of 
a row of Palmetto buttons down his coat. One of 
the officers standing by said, " Let me introduce you 
to Captain Taylor, from the other side." It appears 
that he came in with a flag of truce, bearing a despatch 
from Jefferson Davis to President Lincoln, counter- 
signed by General Beauregard at Manassas. Just as I 
left Arlington, a telegraph w^as sent from General Scott 
to send Captain Taylor, who rejoices in the name of 
Tom, over to his quarters. 

The most absurd rumours were flying about the 
staff, one of whom declared very positively that there 
was going to be a compromise, and that Jeft" Havis had 
made an overture for peace. The papers are filled with 
accounts of an action in ]Missouri, at a place called 
Carthage, between the Federals commanded by Colonel 


Sigel, consisting for the most part of Germans, and 
the Confederates under General Parsons, in wliich the 
former were obliged to retreat, although it is admitted 
the State troops were miserably armed, and had most 
ineffective artillery, whilst their opponents had every 
advantage in both respects, and were commanded by 
ofTicers of European experience. Captain Taylor had 
alluded to the news in a jocular way to me, and said, 
" I hope you will tell the people in England we intend 
to whip the Lincolnites in the same fashion wherever 
we meet them," a remark whicli did not lead me to 
believe there was any intention on the part of the Con- 
federates to surrender so easily. 

July 01 h. — Late last night the President told General 
Scott to send Captain Taylor back to the Confederate 
lines, and he was accordingly escorted to Arlington in 
a carriage, and thence returned without any answer to 
Mr. Davis's letter, the nature of w Inch has not tran- 

A swarm of newspaper correspondents has settled 
down upon Washington, and great are the glorifications 
of the high-toned paymasters, gallant doctors, and 
subalterns accomplished in the art of war, who 
furnish minute items to my American brethren, and 
provide the yeast which overflows in many columns ; l)ut 
the Government experience the inconvenience of the 
smallest movements being chronicled for the use of 
the enemy, who, by putting one thing and another 
together, are no doubt enabled to collect much valuable 
information. JOvery preparation is being made to put 
the army on a war footing, to provide them with shoes, 
ammunition waggons, and horses., 

1 had the honour of dining with General Scott, wlio 


\'ccl to ncAV quarters, near the War Department, 
General Fremont, ulio is designated, aecordinj^ 
to 1. ur, to take command of an important district 
ill the West, and to clear the riglit bank of the Missis- 
sippi and the course of the Missouri. " The Path- 
finder" is a strong Repu])lican and Abolitionist, Avhom 
the Germans delight to honour — a man with a dreamy, 
deep blue eye, a gentlemanly address, pleasant features, 
and an active frame, but without the smallest ex- 
ternal indication of extraordinary vigour, intelligence, 
or ability ; if he has military genius, it must come by 
intuition, for assuredly he has no professional acquire- 
ments or experience. Two or three members of Con- 
gress, and the General's staff, and Mr. Bigelow, com- 
pleted the company. The General has become visibly 
weaker since I first saw him. He walks down to his 
office, close at hand, with difficulty; returns a short 
time before dinner, and reposes; and when he has dis- 
missed his guests at an early hour, or even before he 
does so, stretches himself on his bed, and then before 
midnight rouses himself to look at despatches or to 
transact any necessary business. In case of an action 
it is his intention to proceed to the field in a light 
carriage, which is always ready for the purpose, with 
horses and driver ; nor is he unprepared with precedents 
of great military commanders who have successfully 
conducted engagements under similar circumstances. 

Although the discussion of military questions and of 
politics was eschewed, incidental allusions were made 
to matters going on around us, and I thought I could 
perceive that the General regarded the situation witli 
much more apprehension than the politicians, and that 
his influence extended itself to the views of his staff. 

150 MY diai:y north and >oitii. 

General Fremont's tone was raucli more confident. 
Nothing has beeome known respecting the nature of 
Mr. Davis's commuuicatiou to President Lincoln, but 
the fact of his sending it at all is looked upon as a 
piece of monstrous impertinence. The General is 
annoyed and distressed by the plundering propensities 
of the Federal troops, who have been committing ter- 
rible depredations on the people of Virginia. It is not 
to be supjjosed, however, that the Germans, who have 
entered upon this campaign as mercenaries, will desist 
from so profitable and interesting a pursuit as the 
detection of Secesh sentiments, chickens, watches, 
horses, and dollars. I mentioned that I had seen some 
farm-houses completely sacked close to the aqneduct. 
The General merely said, " It is deplorable ! " and raised 
up his hands as if in disgust. General Fremont, how- 
ever, said, " I suppose you arc familiar with similar 
scenes in Europe. I hear the allies were not very par- 
ticular with respect to private property in Russia" — a 
remark which mi fortunately could not be gainsaid. 
As I was leaving the General's quarters, Mr. Blair, 
accompanied by the President, who was looking more 
anxious than I had yet seen him, drove up, and passed 
through a crowd of soldiers, who had evidently been 
enjoying themselves. One of them called out, "Three 
cheers for General Scott ! " and I am not quite sure 
the President did not join him. 

July \()th. — To-day was spent in a lengthy excursion 
along the front of the camp in Virginia, round by the 
chain bridge which crosses the Potomac about four 
miles from Washington. 

The Government have been coerced, as they say, 
by the safety of the Republic, to destroy the liberty 


of the press, which is guaranteed by the Constitution, 
and this is not the first instance in which the Consti- 
tution of the United States will be made noiiiinis 
vnibru. The telegraph, according to General Scott's 
order, confirmed by the jNlinistcr of War, Simon 
Caincron, is to convey no despatches respecting mili- 
tary movements not permitted by the General ; and to- 
day the newspaper correspondents have agreed to yield 
ol)cdicnce to the order, reserving to themselves a certain 
freedom of detail in writing their despatches, and rely- 
ing on the Government to publish the official accounts 
of all battles very speedily. They will break this agree- 
ment if they can, and the Government will not observe 
their part of the bargain. The freedom of the press, as 
I take it, does not include the right to publish news 
hostile to the cause of the country in which it is pub- 
lished ; neither can it involve any obligation on the 
part of Government to publish despatches which may 
be injurious to the party they represent. There is a 
V. ide distinction between the publication of news which 
is known to the enemy as soon as to the friends of the 
transmitters, and the utmost freedom of expression 
concerning the acts of the Government or the conduct 
of past events ; but it will be difficult to establish any 
rule to limit or extend the boundaries to which discus- 
sion can go -without mischief, and in eff'ect the only 
solution of the difficulty in a free country seems to be 
to grant the press free licence, in consideration of the 
enormous aid it affords in warning the people of their 
danger, in animating them with the news of their suc- 
cesses, and in sustaining the Government in their efforts 
to conduct the war. 

The most important event to-day is the passage of 


the Loan l^ill, which autlioriscs Mr. Chase to borrow, 
in the next year, a sum of i50,0U0,U00, on coupons, 
with interest at 7 per cent, and irredeemable for twenty 
years — tlie interest being <ruarantc(>d on a pledge of the 
Customs duties. I just got into the House in time to 
hear Mr. Valhuidigham, who is an ultra-democrat, and 
.'cry nearly a secessionist, conclude a well-delivered 
argumentative address. He is a tall, slight man, of a 
bilious temperament, with light flashing eyes, dark 
hair and complexion, and considerable oratorical power. 
"Deem me ef I wouldn't just ride that Vallandiggaim 
on a reay-al," quoth a citizen to his friend, as the 
speaker sat down, amid a few feeble expressions of 
assent. Mr. Chase has also obtained the consent of 
the Lower House to his bill for closing the Southern 
ports by the decree of the President, but I licar some 
more substantial measures are in contemplation for 
that purpose. Whilst the House is finding the money 
the Government are preparing to spend it, and they 
have obtained the approval of the Senate to the enrol- 
ment of half a million of men, and the expenditure of 
one hundred millions of dollars to carry on the war. 

I called on Mr. Cameron, the Secretary of War. 
The small brick house of two stories, with long pas- 
sages, in which the American Mars prepares his bolts, 
was, no doubt, large enough for the 20,000 men who 
constituted the armed force on land of the great Re- 
public, but it is not sufficient to contain a tithe of the 
contractors who liaunt its precincts, fill all the lobbies 
and crowd into every room. With some risk to coat- 
tails, I squeezed through iron-masters, gun-makers, 
clothiers, shoemakcr.s, inventors, bakers, and all that 
genus which fattens on the desolation caused by an 


army in tlio field, and Avas introduced to Mr. Cameron's 
room, ulicre lie Avas seated at a desk surrounded by 
people, who were also grouped round two gentlemen 
as clerks in the same small room. " I tell you, 
Cameron, that the Avay in which the loyal men of Mis- 
souri have l)een treated is a disgrace to this Govern- 
ment," shouted out a big, black, burly man — "I tell 
you so, sir." " Well, General," responded Mr. Cameron, 
quietly, " so you have several times. Will you, once for 
all, condescend to particulars ? " " Yes, sir ; you and 
the Government have disregarded our appeals. You 
have left us to fight our own battles. You have not 

sent us a cent " "There, General, I interrupt 

you. You say we have sent you no money," said 
Mr. Cameron, very quietly. ''Mr. Jones will be good 
enough to ask Mr. Smith to step in here." Before 
Mr. Smith came in, however, the General, possibly 
thinking some member of the press was present, 
rolled his eyes in a Nicotian frenzy, and perorated : 
" The people of the State of Missouri, sir, will power- 
out every drop of the blood which only flows to Avarm 
patriotic hearts in defence of the great Union, Avhich 
offers freedom to the enslaA'ed of mankind, and a home 
to persecuted progress, and a fcAv-turc to civil-zation. 
We demand, General Cameron, in the neamc of the 

great AVestern State " Here Mr. Smith came in, 

and Mr. Cameron said, " I Avant you to tell me Avliat 
disbursements, if any, have been sent by this de- 
partment to the State of Missouri." Mr. Smith Avas 
quick at figures, and up in his accounts, for he drcAv 
out a little memorandum book, and replied (of course, 
I can't tell the exact sum), " General, there has been 
sent, as by vouchers, to Missouri, since the beginning 


of the levies, six huudred and seventy tliousaud dollar'^ 
and twenty-three eents." "The Geuend looked eivst- 
liilleu, but he was equal to the occasion, " These sums 
may have been sent, sir, but they have not been i\ - 

ceived. I declare in the face of " " Mr. Smith will 

show you the vouchers, General, and you can then take 
any steps needful against the parties who have mis- 
appropriated them.'' 

" That is only a small specimen of what we have to go 
through with our people," said the ^Minister, as the 
General went off with a lofty toss of his head, and 
then gave me a pleasant sketch of the nature of the 
applications and interviews which take up the time and 
clog the movements of au American statesman. "These 
State organisations give us a great deal of trouble." I 
could fully understand that they did so. The imme- 
diate business that I had with ^Mr. Cameron — he is 
rarely called General now that he is ^linister of War — 
was to ask him to give me authority to draw rations at 
cost price, in case the army took the field before I could 
make arrangements, and he seemed very well disposed 
to accede ; " but I must think about it, for I shall have 
all our papers down upon me if I grant you any facility 
which they do not get themselves." After 1 left the 
"War Department, I took a walk to ]Mr. Seward's, who 
was out. In passing by President's Square, I saw a 
respectably-dressed man np in one of the trees, cutting 
off pieces of the bark, which his friends beneath caught 
up eagerly. I could not help sto])ping to ask what 
was the object of the proceeding. " Why, sir, this 

is the tree Dan Sickles shot ]\Ir. under. 1 think 

it's (|uite a remarkable sj)ot." 

July Wth. — The diplomatic circle is so lotus Icres 



atque rotundus, that lew particles of dirt stick on its 
periphery IVoiu tlic road over whicli it travels. The 
radii arc worked from diirerciit centres, often far apart, 
and the tires and naves often fly out in wide divergence ; 
but for all social purposes is a circle, and a very pleasant 
one. When one sees ]M. de Stocckle speaking to M. 
Mercier, or joining in -with Baron Gerolt and M. de 
Lisboa, it is safer to infer that a little social re-union 
is at hand for a pleasant civilised discussion of ordi- 
nary topics, some music, a rubber, and a dinner, than 
to resolve with the New York Correspondent, "that 
there is reason to bcHeve that a diplomatic movement 
of no ordinary significance is on foot, and that the 
ministers of Russia, France, and Prussia have con- 
certed a plan of action with the representative of 
Brazil, which must lead to extraordinary complications, 
in view of the temporary embarrassments which dis- 
tract our beloved country. The Minister of England 
has held aloof from these reunions for a sinister 
purpose no doubt, and we have not failed to discover 
that the emissary of Austria, and the representative of 
Guatemala have abstained from taking part in these 
significant demonstrations. We tell the haughty noble- 
man who re})resents Queen Victoria, on whose son 
we so lately lavished the most liberal manifestations of 
our good will, to beware. The motives of the Court of 
Vienna, and of the republic of Guatemala, in ordering 
their representatives not to join in the reunion which 
we observed at three o'clock to-day, at the corner of 
Seventeenth Street and One, are perfectly transparent ; 
but we call on i\Ir. Seward instantly to demand of 
Lord Lyons a full and ample explanation of his conduct 
on the occasion, or the transmission of his papers. 


Tliere is no liarni in adding, that \vc have every reason 
to think our good ally of Russia, and the minister of 
the Jistute monarch, who is only watching an opportu- 
nity of leading a Franco- American army to the Tower 
of London and Dublin Castle, have already moved 
their respective Governments to act in the premises." 

That paragraph, with a good heading, Avould sell 
several thousands of the "New York Stabber'' to- 

July \\LtJi. — There are rumours that the Federals, 
under Brigadier M'Clellan, who have advanced into 
Western Virginia, have gained some successes ; but so 
far it seems to have no larger dimensions than the 
onward raid of one clan against another in the High- 
lands. And whence do rumours come? From Govern- 
ment departments, which, like so many Danaes in the 
clerks' rooms, receive the visits of the auriferous 
Jupiters of the press, who condense themselves into 
purveyors of smashes, slings, basketscif champagne, and 
dinners. ^M'Clellan is, however, considered a very 
steady and respectable professional soldier. A friend 
of his told me to-day one of the most serious com- 
plaints the Central Illinois Company had against him 
was that, during the Italian war, he seemed to forget 
their business ; and that he was busied with maps 
stretched out on the floor, whereupon he, superin- 
cumbent, penned out the points of battle and strategy 
when he ought to have been attending to passenger 
trains and traflic. That which was Hat blasphemy in 
a railwav oflice may be amazingly approved in the 

July \?)th.—l have had a long day's ride through 
the camps of the various regiments across the Potomac, 


and at this side of it, wliicli the ^vcather did not render 
very agreeable to myself or the poor liaek that I had 
hired for the day, till my American Cluartermainc gets 
me a decent mount. I wished to see with my own eyes 
what is the real condition of the armyAvliicli the North 
have sent down to the Potomac, to undertake such a 
vast task as the conquest of the South. The Northern 
papers describe it as a magnificent force, complete in 
all respects, well-disciplined, well-clad, provided with 
fine artillery, and with every requirement to make it 
eflcetive for all military operations in the field. 

In one Avord, then, they are grossly and utterly 
ignorant of what an army is or should be. In the first 
place, there are not, I should think, 30,000 men of all 
sorts available for the campaign. The papers estimate 
it at any number from 50,000 to 100,000, giving the 
preference to 75,000. In the next place, their artillery 
is miserably deficient; they have not, I should think, 
more than five complete batteries, or six batteries, 
including scratch guns, and these arc of diff'erent 
calibres, ])adly horsed, miserably equipped, and pro- 
vided with the worst set of gunners and drivers 
Avhich I, who have seen the Turkish field-guns, ever 
beheld. They have no cavalry, only a few scarecrow- 
men, wlio would dissolve partnership with their steeds 
at the first serious combined movement, mounted in 
high saddles, on wretched mouthless screws, and some 
few regulars from the frontiers, who may be good 
for Indians, but who would go over like ninepins 
at a charge from Punjaubce irregulars. Their trans- 
port is tolerably good, but inadequate ; they have no 
carriage for reserve ammunition ; the conmiissariat 
drivers are civilians, under little or no control; the 


officers are unsoldierly-looking men ; tlie caiups are 
dirty to excess ; the men are dressed in all sorts of 
uniforms; and from what I hear, I doubt if any of these 
regiments liave ever performed a brigade evolutiou 
together, or if any of the otlicers know wliat it is to 
deploy a brigade from column into line. They are mostly 
three months' men, ^Yhose time is nearly up. They 
were rejoicing to-day over the fact that it was so, and 
that they had kept the enemy from "Washing! t)u 
"without a figlit.'* And it is with this rabblemi nt 
that the Nortli propose not only to subdue the South, 
but according to some of their papers, to humiliilo 
Great Britain, and conquer Canada afterwards. 

I am o[)po}<ed to national boasting, l)ut I do iirnily 
believe that 10,00U British regulars, or 12,000 French, 
with a proper establishment of artillery and cavalry, 
would not only entirely repulse this arnn' with the 
greatest ease, under competent commanders, but that 
they could attack them and march into Washington over 
them or with theiu whenever they pleased. Not that 
Frenchman or Englishman is perfection, l)ut that the 
American of this army knows nothing of discipline, and 
what is more, eares less for it. 

Major-General M'Clellan — I beg his pardon for 
styling him Brigadier — has really been successful. IJy 
a very well-eonducted and rather rapid march, he was 
enabled to bring superior forces to bear on some raw 
levies under General Garnett (who came over with me 
in the steamer), whieh fled after a few sliots. and were 
utterly routed, when tlieir gallant comiuauder fell, 
in an abortive attempt to rally tlieui by the; banks 
of the Cheat river. In this "great battle" M'Clel- 
hui's loss is less than IJO killed aud wounded, aud 


Confederates loss is less than 100, IJut tlio dis- 

-ion of such guerilla bands has the most useful 

rt among the people of the district ; and jNPClellan 

done good service, especially as his little victory 

will lead to the discomfiture of all the Secessionists in 

the valley of the Keanawha, and in the valley of 

Western Virginia. I left Washington this afternoon, 

with the Sanitary Commissioners, for Baltimore, in 

order to visit the Federal camps at Fortress Monroe, 

to which we proceeded down the Chesapeake the same 



FortrcM Monroe — General Butler — Hospital accommodation — 
Wounded soldiers — Aristocratic pedigrees — A great gun 
— Newport News — Fraudulent contractors — General Butler 
— Artillery practice — Contraband negroes — Confederate lines — 
Tombs of American loyalists — Trooi)S and contractors — Durevy's 
New York Zouaves — Military calculations — A voyage by steamer 
to Annapolis. 

July 11///. — At six o'clock this morning the steamer 
arrived at the wliarf niuk-r tlic walls of Fortress 
Monroe, which presented a very diHerent appearance 
from the quiet of its aspect when first I saw it, some 
months ago. Camps spread around it, the parapets 
liued with sentries, guns looking out towards the land, 
lighters and steamers alongside the wharf, a strong 
guard at the cud of the pier, passes to be scrutinised 
and permits to be given. I landed with the members 
of the Sanitary Connnission, and repaired to a very 
large pile of buildings, called "The llygeia Hotel," 
for once on a time Fortress Monroe was looked upon 
as the resort of the sickly, who retpiired bracing air 
and an abundance of oysters ; it is now occupied by the 
wounded in the several actions and skirmishes wliich 
have taken place, jjarticularly at iJethel ; and it is so 
densely crowded that we had difliculty in [)rocuring 
the use of some small dirtv rooms to dress in. As the 


business of the Commission was principally directed to 
ascertain tlic state of the hospitals, they considered it 
necessary in tlie first instance to visit General Butler, 
the commander of the i)ost, who has been recom- 
mending himself to the Federal Government by his 
activity ever since he came down to Baltimore, and the 
■whole body marched to the fort, crossing the draw- 
bridge after some parley with the guard, and received 
permission, on the production of passes, to enter the 

The interior of the work covers a space of about 
seven or eight acres, as far as I could judge, and 
is laid out with some degree of taste; rows of fine 
trees border the walks through the grass plots ; the 
officers' quarters, neat and snug, are surrounded 
with little patches of flowers, and covered with 
creepers. All order and neatness, however, were fast 
disappearing beneath the tramp of mailed feet, for 
at least 1200 men had pitched their tents inside the 
place. We sent in our names to the General, who 
lives in a detached house close to the sea face of the 
fort, and sat down on a bench under the shade of some 
trees, to avoid the excessive heat of the sun until the 
commander of the place could receive the Commis- 
sioners. He was evidently in no great hurry to do so. 
In about half an hour an aide-de-camp came out to say 
that the General was getting up, and that he would see 
us after breakfast. Some of the Commissioners, from 
purely sanitary considerations, would have been much 
better pleased to have seen him at breakfast, as they 
had only partaken of a very light meal on board the 
steamer at five o'clock in the morning ; but we were 
interested meantime by the morning parade of a por- 

VOL. ir. M 


tiou of the <,':iiTison, cousistiug of 3UU regulars, a 
Massachusetts' volunteer battalion, aud the 2ud Nc>v 
York Ucgimc'ut. 

It was quite refreshing to the eye to see the 
cleanliness of the regulars — their white gloves and 
belts, and polished buttons, contrasted with the 
slovenly aspect of the volunteers ; but, as far ju> the 
material went, the volunteers had by far the best of 
the comparison. The civilians who were with me did 
not pay much attention to the rcguhirs, and evidently 
preferred the volunteers, although they could not be 
insensible to tiie magnificent drum-major Avho led the 
band of the rcgulai's. Presently General Butler came 
out of his quarters, and walked down the lines, followed 
by a i'vw ofticcrs. lie is a stout, middle-aged man, 
strongly built, with coarse limbs, his features indica- 
tive of great shrewdness and craft, his forehead higli, 
the elevation being in some degree due perhaps to the 
want of hair; with a strong obliquity of vision, which 
may perhaps have been caused by an injury, as the 
eyelid hangs with a peculiar droop over the organ. 

The General, whose manner is (juick, decided, and 
abrupt, but not at all rude or unpleasant, at once 
acceded to the wishes of the Sanitary Commis- 
sioners, and expressed his desire to make my stay 
at the fort as agreeable and useful as he could. " You 
can first visit the hospitals in company with these 
gentlemen, and then come over with me to our 
camp, where 1 w ill show you everything that is to be 
seen. I have ordered a steamer to be in readiness 
to take you to Newport News." lie speaks rapidly, 
and either affects or possesses great decision. The 
Commissioners accordingly proceeded Xo make the 


most of their time in visiting the llygeia Hotel, being 
accompanied by the medical officers of the garrison. 

The rooms, but a short time ago occupied by the 
fair ladies of Virginia, when they came down to enjoy 
the sea breezes, were now crowded with Federal 
soldiers, many of them suilering from the loss of limb 
or serious wounds, others from the worst form of 
camp disease. I enjoyed a small national triumph over 
Dr. Bellows, the chief of the Commissioners, who is of 
the " sangre azul " of Yankceism, by which I mean 
that he is a believer, not in the perfectibility, but in 
the absolute perfection, of New England nature, which 
is the only human nature that is not utterly lost and 
abandoned — Old England nature, perhaps, being the 
Avorst of all. We had been speaking to the wounded 
men in several rooms, and found most of them either 
in the listless condition consequent upon exhaustion, 
or with that anxious air which is often observable on 
the faces of the wounded when strangers approach. 
At last we came into a room in which two soldiers 
Avere sitting up, the first we had seen, reading the news- 
papers. Dr. Bellows asked where they came from; one 
was from Concord, the other from Newhaven. " You 
see, ]\Ir. Russell,^' said Dr. Bellows, "how our Y^ankee 
soldiers spend their time. I knew at once they were 
Americans when I saw them reading newspapers." One 
of them had his hand shattered by a bullet, the other 
was suffering from a gun-shot wound through the body. 
"Where were you hit ?" I inquired of the first. "Well," 
he said, "I guess my rifle went off when I was cleaning 
it in camp." "Were you wounded at Bethel?" I 
asked of the second. " No, sir,^' he replied ; " I got 
this wound from a comrade, who discharged his piece 


by accident in one of the tents jis I was standin*; out- 
side/' "So," said I, to Dr. IJcllows, "whilst the 
Britishers and Germans are engaged with the enemy, 
you An)ericans employ your time shooting each 
Other ! " 

Tlic-e men werj true mercenaries, for they were 
fighting for money — I mean the strangers. One poor 
fellow from Devonshire said, as he pointed to liis stumj), 
" 1 wish 1 had lost it for the sake of the old island, sir," 
paraphrasing Sarsfield's exclamation as he lay dying on 
the held. The Americans were fighting for the com- 
bined excellences and strength of the States of New 
England, and of the rest of the Federal power over 
the Confederates, for they eould not in their heart of 
hearts believe the Old Union could be restored by force 
of arms. Lovers may quarrel and may reunite, but if a 
blow is struck there is no redintci/ratio iimoris possible 
again. The newspapers and illustrated periodicals 
which they read were the pabulum that fed the fiames 
of patriotism incessantly. Such capacity for enormous 
lying, both in creation and absorption, the world never 
heard. Snfhcicnt for the hour is the falsehood. 

There were lady nurses in attendance on the 
patients ; vho followed — let us believe, as I do, out 
of some higher motive than the mere desire of human 
praise — the example of .Miss Nightingale. 1 loitered 
behind in the rooms, asking many questions respecting 
the nationality of the men, in ^^hich the niembeis 
of the S.-initary Connnission took no interest, and 
I was just turning into one near the corner of the 
passage when I was .stojiped by a loud snnick. A 
young Scotchman was dividing his attention between a 
basin of soup and a demure voun^r ladv from Phila- 


(Iclpliiii, Avlu) \v:is feeding him with ii spoon, liis only 
arm heini::; engaged in holding her round the waist, iu 
order to jjrcvent her being tired, 1 j)resumc. iNIiss 
Raehel, or Deborali, had a pair of very pretty bhie eyes, 
but tlicy flashed very angrily from under iier trim little 
cap at the unwitting intruder, and then she said, in 
severest tones, " Will you take your medicine, or 
not?" Sandy smiled, and pretended to be very peni- 

AVhen we returned with the doctors from our in- 
spection we walked round the parapets of the fortress, 
why so called I know not, because it is merely a fort. 
The guns and mortars are old-fasluoned and heavy, with 
the exception of some new-fashioned and very heavy 
Columbiads, which are cast-iron 8-, 10-, and 12-inch 
guns, in which I have no faith whatever. The armament 
is not sufficiently powerful to prevent its interior being 
searched out by the long range fire of ships with rifle 
guns, or mortar boats ; but it would require closer and 
harder work to breach the masses of brick and masonry 
which constitute the parapets and casemates. The guns, 
carriages, rammers, shot, were dirt}'-, rusty, and nej.- 
lected; but General Butler told me he was busy polish- 
ing up things about the fortress as fast as he could. 

Whilst we were parading these hot walls in the sun- 
shine, my com])anions were discussing the question of 
ancestry. It appears your New Englauder is very 
proud of his English descent from good blood, a.ul it is 
one of their isms in the Yaidcee States that they are 
the salt of the British people and the true aristocracy 
of blood and family, whereas we iu the isles retain but 
a paltry share of the blue blood defiled by incessant 
infiltrations of the muddy fluid of the outer world. 


This may he new to us Britishers, hut is a Q. E. D. 
If a •rcntlemau k-ft Europe 2(i<> years ago, and settled 
with l»is kin and kith, intermarrying; his chihh-en with 
their equals, and thus perpetuating an aneient family, it 
is evident he may he regarded as the founder of a 
nnieh more honourahle dynasty than tlie relative who 
remained hehind him, and lost the old family place, 
and sunk into ohscurity. A singular illustration of the 
tendency to make much of themselves may he found 
in the fact, that New England s\v:unis with genealogical 
societies and hodies of anti(juaries, who delight in 
reading papers about each other's ancestors, and tracing 
their descent from Norman or Saxon harons and earls. 
The \'irginians o])positc, who are flouting us with their 
Confederate Hag from Sewall's Point, are e(]ually given 
to the "genus et proavos.'' 

At the end of our promenade round the ramparts. 
Lieutenant Butler, the (Jeneral's nephew and aide-de- 
camp, came to tell us the boat was ready, and we met 
His Excellency in the court-yard, whence we walked 
down TO the wharf. On our way, General Butler cdled 
my attention to an enormous heap of hollow iron lying 
on the sand, which was the Tnion gun that is intended 
to throw a ^hot of some 350 l])s. weight or more, to 
astonish the Confetlcrates at Sewall's Point opposite, 
when it is mounted. This gun, if I mistake not, was 
made after the designs of Captain Hodman, of the 
United States artillery, who in a series of remarkable 
papers, the ptiblication of which has cost the country 
a large sum (jf money, has given us the results of long- 
continued investigations and experiments on the best 
method of cooling masses of iron for ordnance purposes, 
and of making powder for heavy shot. The piece must 


wcigli ubout 20 tons, but !i similar gun, mounttnl on au 
artificial island called tlic Kip Haps, in the Channel 
opposite the fortress, is said to be worked with facility. 
The Confederates have raised some of the vessels sunk 
by the United States officers when the Navy Yard at 
Gosport was destroyed, and as some of these are to be 
converted into rams, the Federals are preparing their 
lieaviest ordnance, to try the eftect of crushing Aveights 
at low velocities against their sides, should they 
attempt to play any pranks among the transport vessels. 
The General said : " It is not by these great masses 
of iron this contest is to be decided : we must bring 
sharp points of steel, directed by superior intelligence.'* 
Hitherto General Butler's attempts at Big Bethel 
have not been crowned with success in employing such 
means, but it must be admitted that, according to his 
own statement, his lieutenants were guilty of careless- 
ness and neglect of ordinary military precautions in the 
conduct of the expedition he ordered. The march of 
different columns of troops by night concentrating on 
a given point is always liable to serious interruptious, 
and frequently gives rise to hostile encounters between 
friends, in more disciplined armies than the raw levies 
of United States volunteers. 

When the General, Commissioners, and Stafi" liad 
embarked, the steamer moved across the broad estuary 
to Newport News. Among our passengers were several 
medical officers in attendance on the Sanitary Com- 
missioners, some belonging to the army, others who 
had volunteered from civil life. Their discussion of 
professional questions and of relative rank assumed 
such a personal character, that (iencral Butler had to 
interfere to quiet the disputants, Init the exertion of 


his autliuiity \Mis not altogether successful, and one of 
the aujjry gentleuieu said in n»y liearin<;, " I'm d — d 
if I submit to such treatnitnt if all the lauycrs iu 
Massachusetts with stars on their collars were to order 
nie to-morrow." 

On sirrivint,' at the low sliore of Newport Xews we 
hiuded at a wooden jetty, and jnoceedetl to visit the 
camp of the Federals, wliieh was surrounded hy a 
strong entrenchment, mounted with guns on the water 
face; and on the angles inland, a broad tract of culti- 
vated country, bounded by a belt of trees, extended 
from the river away from the encampment ; but the 
Confederates are so close at hand that frequent 
skirmishes have occurred between the foragini: parties 
of the garrison and the enemy, who have on more than 
one occasion pursued the Federals to the very verge of 
tlie woods. 

\\ hilst the Sanitarv Commissioners were •'roanin'r 
over the lieaps of iilth which abound in all camps 
where discipline is not most strictly observed, 1 walked 
round amongst the tents, w Inch, taken altogether, w ere 
in good order. The day was excessively hot, and many 
of the soldiers were laying down in the shade of arbours 
formed of branches from the neighbouring pine wood, 
but most of tiicm got up when they heard the General 
was coming round. A sentry walked up and down at 
tlie end of the street, and as the General came up to 
him he called out " Halt." The man stood still. "1 
just want to show you, sir, what scoundrels our(jovern- 
ment has to deal with. This man belongs to a regiment 
which has had new clothing recently served out to it. 
Look what it is made of." So saying the General 
Ktuek his fore-finger into the breast of the man's coat, 

COLONHL rilKLPS AND Till-: C'll 1 VAIJ; V. It)',) 

nud with a rapid scratch of his nail tore open the ch)th 
as if it was of blotting paper. " Shoddy sir. Nothing; 
but sliodd}'. I wish I had these contractors in the 
trenches here, and if hard work wouhl not make 
lioncst men of thcui, they'd have enough of it to be 
examples for the rest of their fellows." 

A vivacions prying nnui, this Uutler, full of bustling 
life, self-esteem, ^-evelling in the exercise of power. 
In the course of our rounds wc were joined by Colonel 
Phelps, who was formerly in the United States army, 
and saw service in Mexico, but retired because he did 
not approve of the manner in which promotions were 
made, and who only took command of a jMassachusetts 
regiment because he believed he might be instrnmentid 
in striking a shrewd blow or two in this great battle of 
Armageddon — a tall, saturnine, gloomy, angry-eyed, 
sallow man, soldier-like too, and one who places old 
John Brown on a level with the great mart3'rs of the 
Christian world. Indeed one, not so fierce as he, is 
blasphemous enough to place images of our Saviour 
and the hero of Harper's Ferry on the mantelpiece, 
as the two greatest beings the world has ever seen. 
"Yes, I know them well. I've seen them in the field. 
I've sat with them at meals. I've travelled through 
their country. These Southern slave-holders arc a 
false, licentious, godless people. Either we who obey 
the laws and fear God, or they who know no (Sod 
except their own will and pleasure, and know no law 
except their passions, must rule on this continent, and 
I believe that Heaven will help its own in the conflict 
they have provoked. I grant you they are Ijrave 
enough, and desperate too, but surely justice, truth, 
and religion, will strengthen a man's arm to strike 


down those who have only brute force and a bad cause 
to support them/' Ihit Colonel Philps was not quite 
iudirtereut to niatcri:d aid, and he made a pressing appeal 
to General Butler to send liim some more guns and 
harness for the field-pieces he had in position, because, 
said he, "in case of attack, please God Til follow them 
up sharp, and cover these fields with their bones." The 
General had a ditficulty about the harness, whicli made 
Colonel Phelps very grim, but General Butler had 
reason in saying he could not make harness, and so 
the Colonel mu^t be content with the results of a good 
rattling fire of round, shell, grape, and eannister, if the 
Confederates are foolish enough to attack his batteries. 
There was nothing to complain of in the camp, 
except the swarms of Hies, the very bad smells, and 
j)erhaps the shabby clothing of the men. The tents 
were good enough. The rations were ample, but 
nevertheless there was a want of order, discipline, and 
quiet in the lines which did not augur well for the 
internal economy of the regiments. AVlien we returned 
to the river face, General Butler ordered some practice 
,to be made with a Sawyer rifle gun, which appeared 
to be an ordinary east-iron piece, bored with grooves, 
on the shunt jji-ineiple, the shot being covered with a 
composition of a metallic amalgam like zinc and tin, 
and provided with flanges of the same material to fit 
the grooves. The practice was irregular and unsatis- 
factory. At an elevation of 21- degrees, tlie first shot 
struck the water at a ])<)int about 2U00 yards distant. 
Tiie piece was then further elevated, and the shot 
struck quite out of land, close to the opposite bank, 
at a distance of nearly three miles. The third shot 
rushed with a jjcculiar hurtling noise out of the piece. 


and flew up in tlic air, falling ^vitll a splasli into tlio 
water about 1500 yards away. The next shot may 
have gone lialf across the continent, for assuredly it 
never struck the water, and most probably plouj^hed its 
way iuto the soft ground at the other side of the river. 
The shell practice was still worse, and on the whole I 
wish our enemies may always fight us with Sawyer 
guns, particularly as the shells cost between £G and 17 

From the fort the General proceeded to the house of 
one of the officers, near the jetty, formerly the residence 
of a Virginian farmer, Avho has now gone to Secessia, 
where we were most hospitably treated at an excellent 
lunch, served by the slaves of the former proprietor. 
Although we boast with some reason of the easy level 
of our mess-rooms, the Americans certainly excel us in 
the art of annihilating all military distinctions on such 
occasions as these; and I am not sure the General 
would not have liked to place a young Doctor in close 
arrest, who suddenly made a dash at the liver wing of a 
fowl on which the General was bent with eye and fork, 
and carried it off to his plate. But on the whole there 
was a good deal of friendly feeling amongst all ranks 
of the volunteers, the regulars being a little stilf and 
adherent to etiquette. 

In the afternoon the boat returned to Fortress 
Monroe, and the general invited me to dinner, where I 
had the pleasure of meeting Mrs. Butler, his staff, and a 
couple of regimental officers from the neighbouring 
camp. As it was still early. General Butler proposed a 
ride to visit the interesting village of Hampton, which 
hes some six or seven miles outside the fort, and 
forms his advance post. A powerful charger, with a 


ti'cmeiulous Mexican s.-uldlc, fine liousings, blue and 
^old embroidered saddle-cloth, was brouj^ht to the 
door for your Iminble servant, and the General 
mounted another, which did equal credit to his taste 
in horseflesh; Ijut 1 own I felt rather uneasy on 
seeing: that he wore a pair (tf lar'^c brass spurs, strapped 
over white jean brodcquins. He took with him his aide- 
de-camp and a couple of orderlies. In the precincts of 
the fort outside, a population of contraband negroes has 
been collected, whom tiie (jeneral employs in various 
works about the place, military and civil ; but I f.iiled 
to ascertain that the original scheme of a debit and 
credit aecunnt between the value of their hibonr and the 
cost of their maintenance had been successfully carried 
out. The CJencral Mas proud of them, and they 
seemed proud of themselves, saluting him with a 
ludicrous mixture of awe and familiarity Jis he rode 
past. " How do, Massa liutler? How do, General r" 
accompanied by al)surd bows and scrapes. " Just to 
think," said the General, " that every one of these 
fellows represents some lOUO dollars at least out of the 
pockets of the chivalry yonder." " Nasty, idle, dirty 
beasts," says one of the staff, soito voce; "I wish to 
Heaven they were all at the bottom of the Ghesapcake. 
The General insists on it that they do work, but they 
are far more trouble than they are worth." 

The road towards Hampton traverses a sandy spit, 
w hich, however, is more fertile than would be su|)posed 
from the soil under the horscN' hoofs, though it is not 
in the least degree interesting. A broad creek or river 
interposed between us and the town, tlic bridge over 
which had been destroyed. AVorknien were busy 
repairing it, but all the i>laiilvs Imd not yet Ijeen laid 


down or nailed, and in sonic places tiic open si)acc 
between the npright rafters allowed lis to see the dark 
waters flowini^ bencatli. The Aide said, " I don't 
think, (icncral, it is safe to cross;" bnt liis chief did 
not mind him until his horse very nearly crashed 
throni^h a plank, and only rc<:;aincd its footini^ with 
unbroken legs by marvellous dexterity; whereupon we 
dismounted, and, leaving the horses to be carried over 
in the ferry boat, completed the rest of the transit, not 
without difficulty. At the other end of the bridge a 
street lined with comfortable liouscs, and bordered 
with trees, led us into the pleasant town or village of 
Hampton — pleasant once, bnt now deserted by all the 
inhabitants except some pauperised whites and a 
colony of negroes. It was in full occupation of the 
Pederal soldiers, and I observed that most of the men 
■were Germans, the garrison at Newport News being 
principally composed of Americans. The old red brick 
houses, with cornices of white stone; the narrow 
windows and high gables ; gave an aspect of antiquity 
and European comfort to the place, the like of which 
I have not yet seen in the States. Most of the shops 
were closed ; in some the shutters were still down, and 
the goods remained displayed in the windows. •' I 
have allowed no plundering/' said the General; "and 
if I find a fellow trying to do it, I will hang him as 
sure as my name is Butler. Sec here,'' and as he 
spoke lie walked into a large woollen-draper's .shop, 
where bales of cloth were still lying on the shelves, 
and many articles such as arc found in a large general 
store in a country town were disposed on the floor or 
counters ; " they shall not accuse the men under my 
command of being robbers." The boast, however, was 


not sowell justitietl in a visit to another liouse occupied 
by some soldiers. " Well,' said the General, with a 
smile, '* I daresay you know enough of camps to have 
found out that cliairs and tables are irresistible ; the 
men w ill take thciu oH' to their tents, thouj^h they may 
have to leave them next moruing." 

The principal object of our visit was the fortified 
trench which has l)cen raised outside the town towards 
the Confederate lines. The path lay through a church- 
yard lillcd with most interesting monuments. The 
sacred edilice of red brick, with a square clock tower 
rent by lightning, is rendered interesting by the fact 
that it is almost the first church built by the English 
colonists of Virginia. On the tombstones are re- 
corded the names of many subjects of his ^Majesty 
George 111., and familiar names of persons born in 
the early part of last century in English villages, who 
passed to their rest before the great rebellion of the 
Colonies had disturbed their notions of loyalty and 
respect to the Crown. ^lany a British su1)ject, too, lies 
there, whose latter days must have been troubled by the 
strange scenes of the war of independence. With what 
doubt and distrust nnist that one at wliosc tomb T 
.stand have heard that George Washington was making 
head against the troops of His Majesty King George 
III. ! How the hearts of the old men who had passed 
the best years of their existence, as these stones tell us, 
lighting for His Majesty against the French, must have 
beaten when oncemore theylu ard the roar of the Freneli- 
man's ordnance uniting with the voices of the rcl)ellious 
guns of the colonists from the plains of Yorktown against 
the entrenchments in whirli rornwallis and his deserted 
band stood at hopeless bay ! Hut rould these old eyes 


open again, ami sec Gcnorul liutler standing on the 
eastern rampart which bouuds thcii' rcsting-phice, and 
pointing to the spot whence the rebel cavaby of Virginia 
issue night and day to charge the loyal pickets of" His 
^Majesty The Union, they might take some comfort in 
the fulfilment of the vaticinations which no doubt they 
uttered, " It cannot, and it will not, come to good." 

Having inspected the works — as far as I could judge, 
too exteruled, and badly traced — vthich I say with 
all deference to the able young engineer who accom- 
panied us to point out the various objects of in- 
terest — the General returned to the bridge, where we 
remounted, and made a tour of the camps of the force 
intended to defend Hampton, falling back on Fortress 
Monroe in case of necessity. Whilst he was riding 
ventre d terre, which seems to be his favourite pace, his 
horse stumbled in the dusty road, and in his effort to 
keep his seat the General broke his stirrup leather, and 
the ponderous brass stirrup fell to the ground; but, 
albeit a lawyer, he neither lost his seat nor his sany 
froid, and calling out to his orderl^^ "to pick up his toe 
plate," the jean slippers were closely pressed, spurs and 
all, to the sides of his steed, and away we went once 
more through dust and heat so great I was by no means 
sorry when he pulled up outside a pretty villa, standing 
in a garden, which was occupied by Colonel j\Iax 
Webber, of the German Turner Regiment, once the 
property of General Tyler. The camp of the Turners, 
who are members of various gymnastic societies, was 
situated close at hand; but I had no opportunity of 
seeing them at work, as the Colonel insisted on our 
partaking of the hospitalities of his little mess, and pro- 
duced some bottles of sparkling hock and a block of 


ice, by no inciuis umvclconic after our fatiguing ride. 
His Major, whose name I have unfortunately forgotten, 
and who spoke English better than his chief, had 
served in some capacity or other in the Crimea, and 
made nniny inquiries after the oflicers of tlie (iuards 
wliom lie had known there. I took an ojjportunity of 
asking him in what state the troops were. " The 
whole thing is a robbery," lie exclaimed; "this war is 
for the contractors ; the men do not get a third of what 
the Government pay for them ; as for discipline, my 
God ! it exists not. Wc Ciermans are w ell enough, 
of course; we know our affair; but as for the 
Americans, m hat would you ? They make colonels out 
of doctors and lawyers, and captains out of fellows who 
are not tit to brush a soldier's shoe/' '' Jhit the men 
get their pay?" "Yes; that is so. At the end of 
two months, they get it, and by that time it is 
due to sutlers, who charge them lUO per cent." 

It is easy to believe these old soldiers do not put 
much confidence in General Butler, though they admit 
his energy. " Look you ; one good ollicer with 5000 
•steady troops, such as we have in Europe, shall come 
down any night and walk over us all into Fortress 
Monroe whenever he pleased, if lie knew how thisc 
troops were j)lac('d." 

On leaving the Oermau Turners, the General visited 
the camp of I)ur\(a*s New York Zouaves, who were 
turned out at evening parade, or more i)ro|)erly 
speaking, drill. I'.ut for the ridicidous elfect of their 
costume the regiment would have looked well enough; 
but riding down (Ui the rear of the ranks the dis- 
coloured naj)kins tied round their heatis, without any 
fez cap beneath, ^u that the hair sometimes stuck up 

NEW V(>i;k zouaves. 177 

tliroui^h the folds, the ill-iuiKlc jackets, the loose biigs 
of red calieo Imijging from their loins, the long gaiters 
of white cotton — instead of the real Zouave yellow and 
bhick greavc, and smart white gaiter — u\(h\ii) them 
appear sueh military searecrows, I could scarcely 
refrain from laughing outright. Nevertheless the men 
were respectably drilled, marched steadily in cohnuns 
of company, wheeled into line, and went past at quarter 
distance at the double much better than could be 
expected from the short time they had been in the 
field, and 1 could with all sincerity say to Col. Duryea, 
a smart and not unpretentious gentleman, who asked 
my opinion so pointedly that I could not refuse to give 
it, that I considered the appearance of the regiment 
very creditable. The shades of evening were now 
falling, and as I had been up before 5 o'clock in the 
morning, I was not sorry when General Butler said, 
"Now we will go home to tea, or you Avill detain the 
steamer." He had arranged before I started that the 
vessel, which in ordinary eoui'se Avould have returned to 
Baltimore at 8 o'clock, should remain till he sent down 
word to the captain to go. 

We scampered back to the fort, and judging from 
the challenges and vigilance of the sentries, and in- 
lying pickets, I am not quite so satisfied as the ]\Iajor 
that the enemy could have surprised the place. At 
the tea-table there were no additions to the General's 
family ; he therefore spoke without any reserve. Going 
over the map, he explained his views in refercnci' to 
future operations, and showed cause, with more mili- 
tary acumen than I could have expected from a gentle- 
man of the long robe, why he believed Fortress Monroe 
Mas the true base of operations against Richmond. 
VOL. n. ^' 


I liave been cuiiviuced for sonic time, that if a suf- 
ficient force coukl be left to cover ^VHshiugtoll, the 
Federals should move against Kichuioud from the 
Peninsula, where they could form their depots at 
leisure, and advance, protected bv their gunboats, on a 
very short line uhich oflers far greater facilities and 
advantages than the inland route from Alexandria to 
Kichmoud, which, difficult in itself from the nature of 
the country, is exposed to the action of a hostile popu- 
lation, and, above all. to the danger of constant attacks 
by the enemies' cavalry, tending more or less to 
destroy all communieatiuu with the base of the Federal 

The threat of seizing "Washington led to a concen- 
tration of the Union troops in front of it, which 
caused in turn the collection of the Confederates on 
the lines below lo defend Richmond. It is phiin that 
if the Federals can cover Washington, and at the same 
time asscnjble a force at .Monroe strong enough to 
march on Kiehmond. as they desire, the Confederates 
will be placed in an exceedingly hazardous position, 
scarcely possible to escape from ; and there is no reason 
why the North, with their overwhelming preponder- 
ance, should not do so, unless they be carried away by 
the fatal spirit of brag and bluster which comes from 
their press to overrate their own strength and to 
despise their enemy's. The occupation of Suflolk will 
be seen, by any one who studies the map, to afford 
a most powerful leAcrage to the Federal forces from 
.Monroe in their attempts to turn the enemy out of 
their camps of communication, and to enable them to 
menace Richmond as well as the Soutliern States most 


But wliilst the General and T are engafi^ed over 
our maps and mint JMlei)s, time flies, and at last I per- 
ceive by the clock that it is time to go. An aide 
is sent to stop the boat, but he returns ere I leave 
with the news that " She is gone." Whereupon the 
General sends for the Quartermaster Talmadge, who is 
out in the camps, and only arrives in time to receive a 
severe " wigging." It so happened that I had important 
papers to send oflF by the next mail from New York, 
and the only chance of being able to do so depended 
on my being in Baltimore next day. General Butler 
acted Avith kindness and promptitude in the matter. 
" I promised you should go by the steamer, but the 
captain has gone oft' without orders or leave, for which 
he shall answer when I see him. Meantime it is my 
business to keep my promise. Captain Talmadge, jou 
will at once go down and give orders to the most suit- 
able transport steamer or chartered vessel available, to 
get up steam at once and come up to the wharf for 
Mr. Russell." 

Whilst I was sitting in the parlour which served 
as the General's office, there came in a pale, bright- 
eyed, slim young man in a subaltern's uniform, who 
sought a private audience, and unfolded a plan he had 
formed, on certain data gained by nocturnal expe- 
ditions, to surprise a body of the enemy's cavalry 
which was in the habit of coming down every 
night and disturbing the pickets at Hampton. His 
manner was so eager, his information so precise, that 
the General could not refuse his sanction, but he gave 
it in a characteristic manner. " Well, sir, I undei*- 
stand your proposition. You intend to go out as a 
volunteer to effect this service. You ask my permission 

« 2 

IbO l\\ DlAltY NORTH AND SolTH. 

to get men for it. I eaimot {^'rant you an order to any 
of the officers in command of regiments to provide you 
with tliesc ; hut if the Colonel of your rcj^'iment wishes 
to irive leave to his men to volunteer, and thev like to 
go with you, I ^^ive you leave to take them. 1 wash 
my hands of all responsihility in the affair." The 
officer howed and retired, sayinir, "That is quite 
enough, General."* 

At lU o'clock the (Quartermaster came hack to say 
that a screw steamer called the Elizabeth was getting 
up steam for my reception, and I bade good-by to the 
General, and walked down with his aide and nephew, 
Lieutenant liutler, to the Ilygeia Hotel to get my 
light knapsack. It was a lovely moonlight uight, and 
as I was passing down an avenue of trees an officer 
stopjicd me, and exclaimed, "General Jhitler, I hear 
you have given leave to Lieutenant IJlank to take a 
party of my reiriment and go ofl' scouting to-night 
after the enemy. It is t(»o hard that — " ^\■hat more 
he was going to say I know not, for I corrected the 
mistake, and the officer walked hastily on towards the 
General's quarters. On reaching the Jiygeia Hotel 1 
was met by the correspondent of a New York paper, 
who as commissary-general, or, as they are styled in 
the States, officer of subsistence, had been charged 
to get the boat ready, and who explained to me it 
would be at least an hour before the steam was up ; 
and whilst I was waiting in the porch 1 heard many 
Virginian, and old world stories as well, the general 

• It may be stntcd here, that this expedition met with a diFaatroui 
result. If I mistake not, the officer, and with him the correspondent of a 
paj>er who accompanied him, were killed by the cavalry whom he meant to 
•nrprise, and several of the Tolunteers were also killed or wounded. 


upshot of whicli was that all the rest ot" the worUl could 
be "done" at cards, in love, in driuk, iu horscflesli, and 
in fighting, l)y the true-born American. Gen. JJutlcr 
came down after a time, and joined our little society, 
nor was he by any means the least shrewd and humor- 
ous 7'aconteur of the party. At 11 o'clock the Elizabeth 
uttered some piercing erics, which indicated she had 
her steam up ; and so I walked down to the jetty, 
accompanied by my host and his friends, and wishing 
them good bye, stepped on board the little vessel, and 
with the aid of the negro cook, steward, butler, boots, 
and servant, roused out the captain from a small 
wooden trench which he claimed as his berth, turned 
into it, and fell asleep just as the first difficult convul- 
sions of the screw aroused the steamer from her coma, 
and forced her languidly against the tide in the direc- 
tion of Baltimore. 

Julij Ibfh. — I need not speak much of the events of 
last night, which were not unimportant, perhaps, to 
some of the insects which played a leading part ia 
them. The heat was literally overpowering; for in 
addition to the hot night there was the full power of 
most irritable boilers close at hand to aggravate the 
natural dtsagremens of the situation. About an hour 
after dawn, when I turned out on deck, there was 
nothing visible but a warm grey mist; but a knotty 
old pilot on deck told me we were only going six knots 
an hour against tide and wind, and that we were 
likely to make less way as the day wore on. In fact, 
instead of being near Baltimore, we were much nearer 
Fortress JNIonroe. Need I repeat the horrors of this 
day ? Stewed, boiled, baked, and grilled on board this 
miserable Elizabeth, I wished M. ^Montalembert could 

1S2 MY PiAKY xorrrii and south. 

have experienced w'nh me what such an impassive 
nature could iutiict in misery on those around it. Tlic 
captain was a shy, silent man, much given to short 
nai)s in my temporary berth, and the mate was so wild, 
he might have swam oil' with perfect propriety to 
the woods on either side of us, and taken to a tree as 
an aborigen or chimpanzee. Two men of most 
retiring habits, the negro, a black boy, and a very fat 
ncgress who othciated as cook, filled up the "balance" 
of the crew. 

I could not write, for the vibration of the deck of 
the little craft gave a St. Vitus dance to pen and 
pencil ; reading was out of the question from the heat 
and flies ; and below stairs the fat cook banished rej)Ose 
by vapours from her dreadful caldrons, where, Medea- 
like, she was boiling some death broth. Our breakfast 
was of the simplest and — may I add? — the least enticing; 
and if the dinner could have been worse it was so; 
though it was rendered attractive by hunger, and by 
the kindness of the sailors who shared it with me. The 
old pilot hud a most wholesome hatred of the IJritishers, 
and not having the least idea till late in the d.iy that I 
belonged to the old country, favoured me with some 
very remarkable views respecting their general njis- 
chievousness and inutility. As soon as he found out 
my secret he became more reserved, and explained to 
me that he had some reason for not liking us, because 
all he had in the world, as pretty a schooner as ever 
floated and a fine cargo, had been taken and burnt by 
the English when they sailed up the Potomac to 
Wjishington. He served against us at liladensburg. 1 
did not ask him how fast he ran ; but he had a good 
rejoinder ready if 1 had done so, inasmuch jus he was 


up West under Coniinodorc Perry on the lakes ulicii 
we suffered our most serious reverses. Six knots an 
hour ! hour after hour ! And nothing to do but to 
listen to the pilot. 

On both sides a line of forest just visible above the 
low shores. Small coasting craft, schooners, pungys, 
boats laden with wood creeping along in the shallow 
water, or plying down empty before wind and tide. 

" I doubt if we'll be able to catch up them forts afore 
night,'' said the skipper. The pilot grunted, " I rather 

think yu'll not." " II and thunder ! Then we'll 

have to lie off" till daylight?" " They may let you pass, 
Captain Squires, as you've this Europe-an on board, 
but anyhow we can't fetch Baltimore till late at night 
or early in the morning." 

I heard the dialogue, and decided very quickly that 
as Annapolis lay somewhere ahead on our left, and was 
much nearer than Baltimore, it would be best to run 
for it while there Avas daylight. The captain demurred. 
He had been ordered to take his vessel to Baltimore, 
and General Butler might come down on him for not 
doing so ; but I proposed to sign a letter stating he had 
gone to Annapohs at my request, and the steamer was 
put a point or two to westward, much to the pleasure 
of the Palinurus, whose " old woman " lived in the 
town. I had an affection for this weather-beaten, 
watery-eyed, honest old fellow, who hated us as cordially 
as Jack detested his Frenchmau in the old days before 
ententes cordialcs were known to the world. He was 
thoroughly English in his belief that he belonged to 
the only sailor race in the world, and that they could 
beat all mankind in seamanship; and he spoke in tlic 
most unaffected way of the Britishers as a survivor of 


the old war might do of Johnny Crapaud — "Tliey were 
brave enough no douljt, but, Lord bless you, see them 
in a gale of wind ! or look at thi-m sending down 
top-gallant masts, or anything sailoi'-Iikc in a breeze. 
You'd soon see the differ. And, besides, they 7icver can 
stand again ns at close quarters.'' l)y-and-by the 
houses of a eonsiderable town, crowned by steeples, 
and a large Corinthian-looking building, eanie in view. 
"That's the State House. That's where George 
^Va^hington — fust in peace, first in war, and Hrst in the 
hearts of his eountrymcn — laid down his victorious 
sword without any one asking hin), and retired amid 
the ajjplause of tiie civilized world.'' This flight I am 
sure wjis the old man's treasured relic of school-boy 
days, and I'm not sure he did not give it to me three 
times over. Annapolis looks very well from the river 
side. The approach is guarded by some very poor 
eartliworks and one small fort. A dismantled sloop of 
war lay otf a sea wall, banking up a green lawn covered 
with trees, in front of an old-fasiiioned i)ile of buildings, 
which formerly, I think, and very recently indeed, was 
occupied by the cadets of the United States Naval 
School. '-'There was a lot of them Seceders. Lord 
bless you ! these young ones is all took by these 
States Rights' doctrines— just as tlie ladies is caught 
by a new fashion." 

About seven o'clock the steanur hove alongside a 
wooden pier whicli was quite deserted. Only some ten 
or twelve sailing boats, yachts, and schooners lay at 
anchor in the placid ^^att•^s of tlu- port which was once 
the capital of .Maryland, and for Mhich the early 
Kcpublieans i)ropliesied a great future. But I'altimore 
lias eclipsed Aniiajjolis into utter obscurity. 1 walked 

ANNArOLlS. 185 

to tiic only hotel in the pliict', ;uh1 found tha.t the train 
for the junetion ^vith ^^'il.shington had started, and 
that the next train left at some impossible honr in the 
morning. It is an odd Rip Van Winkle sort of 
;i place. Quaint-looking boarders came down to the 
tea-table and talked Secession, and when I was 
detected, as must ever soon be the case, owing to the 
hotel book, I was treated to some ill-favoured glances, 
as my recent letters liave been denounced in the 
strongest way for their supposed hostility to States 
Rights and the Domestic Institution. The spirit of the 
people has, however, been broken by the Federal 
occupation, and by the decision witli which Butler 
acted when he came down here with the troops to open 
commnnicatious with Washington after the Balti- 
moreans had attacked the soldiery on their way through 
the city from the north. 


The " State House '' at Annapolis — Waabington — General Scott's 
quarters — Want of a etiiff — Rival camps — Demand for horees — 
Popular excitement — Lord Lyons — General M'Dowell's move- 
ments — Retreat from Fiiirfax Court House — General Scott's 
quarters — General Mansfield — Battle of Bull's Run. 

July V.Hlt. — I l)afilecl many curious and civil citizens 
by breakfastinj; in my room, where I remained Mriting 
till late in the day. In the afternoon I walked to the 
State House. The hall door was oj)cn, but the rooms 
were closcil ; and I remained in the hall, which is 
graced by two indiiicrent hu<i;e statues of Law and 
Justice holdint; fjas lamps, and by an old rusty cannon, 
dui^ out of the river, and supposed to have belonged to 
the original British colonists, whilst an ofticer whom I 
met in the portico went to look for the jjorter and the 
keys. AVhcther he succeeded I cannot say, for after 
w.iiting some half hour I was warned Ijy my watch 
that it Mas time to i:et ready for the tnun, which 
.started at i'lT) v.y\. The country throu^di which the 
single line of rail passes is very hilly, much wooded, 
little cultivated, cut up by water-courses and ravines. 
At the junction with the A\'ashin;;tou line from 
Baltimore there is a strong jruard thrown out from the 
camj) near at hand. The oliicers, who had a mess 
in a little way.sidc inn on the line, invited me to 


rest till the train came up, and from thcra I licard that 
an advance had been actually ordered, and that if the 
"rebels" stood there would soon be a tall fight close to 
Washington. They -were very cheer}^, hospitable 
fellows, and enjoyed their new mode of life amazingly. 
The men of the regiment to which they belonged were 
Germans, almost to a man. AVhen the train came in 
I found it was full of soldiers, and I learned that three 
more heavy trains Avere to follow, in addition to four 
which had already passed laden with troops. 

On arriving at the Washington platform, the first 
person I saw was General M'Dowell alone, looking 
anxiously into the carriages. He asked where I came 
from, and when he heard from Annapolis, inquired 
eagerly if I had seen two batteries of artillery — 
Barry's and another — which he had ordered up, and 
was waiting for, but which had "gone astray." I 
was surprised to find the General engaged on such duty, 
and took leave to say so. " Well, it is quite true, 
Mr. Russell; but I am obliged to look after them 
myself, as I have so small a staff, and they are all 
engaged out with my head-quarters. You are aware I 
have advanced ? No ! Well, you have just come in 
time, and I shall be happy, indeed, to take you with 
me. I have made arrangements for the correspondents 
of our papers to take the field under certain regulations, 
and I have suggested to them they should wear a 
white uniform, to indicate the purity of their 
character.'' The General could hear nothing of his 
guns ; his carriage was waiting, and I accepted his offer 
of a seat to my lodgings. Although he spoke con- 
fidently, he did not seem in good spirits. There was 
the greatest difficulty in finding out anything about the 


enemy. Bcaun-gard Mas saiil to have advanced to 
Fairfax Court House, but he could not get any ccrtaiu 
knowledge of the fact. " Can you not order a 
reconnaissance?" "Wait till you see the country. 
But even if it were as Hat as Flanders, I have not an 
onicer on wlioni I could depend for the work. They 
woidd fall into some trap, or bring on a <^'cneral engage- 
ment when I did not seek it or desire it. 1 have no 
cavalry such as you work with in Ihirope." I think 
he was not so much disposed to undervalue the Con- 
federates as before, for lie said they had selected a \ ery 
strong position, and had made a regular Icvce vn masse 
of the ])eopk' of \ irginia, as a ])rouf of the energy and 
determinatiun with which they wcw intiring on the 

As we i)arted the (Jcncral gave me his photograpii, 
and told nie he expected to sec nie in a few days at his 
quarters, but that I would have jjlenty of time to get 
liorses and servants, and such light equipage as I 
wanted, as there would be no engagement for several 
days. On arriving at my lodgings 1 sent to the livery 
stables to inipiire after horses. None lit for the saddle 
to be had at iiiiy prici'. The siitlers, the cavalry, the 
mounted oHiecrs, had Ijccn purchasing up all the droves 
of horses which came to the markets. M'Do\\ell had 
barely extra mounts for his own use. And yet horses 
must be had ; and, even provided with them, T must 
take the lield without tent or servant, canteen or 
food — a waif to fortinic 

.////// \ltli. — 1 went lip to (icneral Scott's (juarters, 
and saw some of his stall' — young men, some of whom 
kn(.\v nothing of soldiers, not even the enforcing of 
drill — and lound them reflecting, doubtless, the shades 


wliich cross the mind of tlic old chief, who was now 
seeking repose. M'DowcU is to advance to-morrow 
from Fairfax Court House, and will march some eight 
or ten miles to Centreville, directly in front of which, 
at a place called IManassas, stands the army of the 
Southern enemy. I look around me for a staff, 
and look in vain. There arc a few plodding old 
pedants, with map and rules and compasses, who sit 
in small rooms and write memoranda ; and there are 
some ignorant and not very active young men, wno 
loiter about the head-quarters' halls, and strut up the 
street with brass spurs on their heels and kepis raked 
over their eyes as though they were soldiers, but I sec 
no system, no order, no knowledge, no dash ! 

The worst-served English general has always a young 
fellow or two about him who can fly across country, draw 
a rough sketch map, ride like a foxhuntcr, and iind 
something out about the enemy and their position, 
understand and couvc}^ orders, and obey them. I look 
about for the types of these in vain. M'Dowell can find 
out nothing about the enemy ; he has not a trustworthy 
map of the country ; no knowledge of their position, 
force, or numbers. All the people, he says, are against 
the Government. Fairfax Court House was abandoned 
as he approached, the enemy in their retreat being 
followed by the inhabitants. " Where were the Con- 
federate entrenchments ? " Only in the imagination 
of those New York newspapers ; when they want to fill 
up a column they write a full account of the enemy's 
fortifications. No one can contradict them at the 
time, and it's a good joke when it's found out to be a 
lie." Colonel Cullum went over the maps with me at 
General Scott's, and spoke with some greater con- 


fidcncc of M'Dowcll's prospects of success. There 
is a considi-rahlo force of Confederates at a place called 
"Winchester, which is connected uitli ]\Ianassas by rail, 
nnd this force could be thrown on the right of the 
Federals as they advanced, but that another corps, 
under Patterson, is in observation, with orders to 
engage them if they attempt to move eastwards. 

The batteries for which General M'Dowell was looking 
last night have arrived, and were sent on this morning. 
One is under Barry, of the United States regular 
artillery, whom I met at Fort I'iekens. The other is a 
volunteer battery. The onward movement of the army 
has been productive of a great improvement in the 
streets of AVashington, which are no longer crowded 
with turburlent and disorderly volunteers, or by 
soldiers disgracing the name, Avho accost you in the 
by-ways fur money. There are comparatively few 
to-day ; small shoals, which have escaped the meshes of 
the net, are endeavouring to make the most of their 
time before they cross the river to face the enemy. 

Still horse-hunting, but in vain — Gregson, AVroe — et 
hoc genxLS omne. Nothing to sell except at tinhcard-of 
rates; tripeds, and the like, much the worse for wear, 
and yet possessed of some occult virtues, in right of 
which the owners demanded egregious sums. Every- 
where I am offered a gig or a vehicle of some kind 
or another, as if the example of General Scott had 
rendered such a mode of campaigning the correct 
thing. I saw many officers driving over the liOg 
IJridgc with large htores of provisions, cither unable 
to procure horses or satisfied that a waggon was the 
chariot of Mars. It is not fair to ridicule either officers 
or men of this army, aud if they were not so iullated 


by a pestilent vanity, no one wonkl dream of doing so ; 
but the excessive bragginj^ and boasting in which tiie 
volunteers and the press indulge really provoke criticism 
and tax patience and forbearance overmuch. Even the 
regular officers, who have some idea of military elli- 
ciency, rather derived from education and foreign 
travels than from actual experience, bristle up and 
talk proudly of the patriotism of the army, and 
challenge the world to show such another, although in 
their hearts, and more, with their lips, they own they do 
not depend on them. The Avhite heat of patriotism has 
cooled down to a dull black ; and I am told that tlic 
gallant volunteers, who are to conquer the world when 
they " have got through with their present little job," 
are counting up the days to the end of their service, 
and openly declare they will not stay a day longer. 
This is pleasant, inasmuch as the end of the term of 
many of McDowell's, and most of Patterson's, three 
months men, is near at hand. They have been faring 
luxuriously at the expense of tlie Government — they 
have had nothing to do — they have had enormous pay — 
they knew nothing, and were worthless as to soldiering 
Avheu they were enrolled. ISTow, having gained all 
these advantages, and being likely to be of use for the 
first time, they very quietly declare they are going to 
sit under their fig-trees, crowned with civic laurels and 
myrtles, and all that sort of thing, liut who dare say 
they are not splendid fellows — full-blooded heroes', 
patriots, and warriors — men before whose majestic 
presence all Europe pales and faints away ? 

In the evening I received a message to say that 
the advance of the army would take place to-morrow 
as soon as General M'Dowell had satisfied himself bv 

]l.'~ ilY DIARY NOKTH AND .S«'fTlI. 

a reconnaissance that lie could carry out his plan of 
turninj^ the ri^ht of the enemy by passing Oecaguna 
Creek, Along Pennsylvania Avenue, along the various 
shops, hotels, and drinking-bars, groups of people 
were collected, listening to the most exaggerated ac- 
counts of desperate fighting and of the utter demo- 
ralisation of the rebels. I was rather amused by 
hearing the florid accounts whieli'wcre given in the hall 
of AViliard's by various inebriated olliccrs, who were 
drawing upon their imagination for their facts, 
knowing, as I did, that the entrenchments at Fairfax 
had been abandoned without a shot on the advance of 
the Federal troops. The New York papers came in 
with glowing descriptions of the magnitieent march of 
the grand army of the Potomac, which was stated to con- 
sist of upwards of 70,000 men ; whereas I knew not half 
that nundjcr were actually on the field. ^lultitudes of 
])eople believe General AVinfield Scott, who was now 
fast asleep in his modest bed iu Pennsylvania Avenue, is 
about to take the field in person. The horse-dealers 
are still utterly impracticable. A citizen who owned a 
dark bay, spavined and ringboncd, asked me one 
thousand dollars for the right of possession. I ven- 
tured to suggest that it was not worth the money. 
" AVell." said he, " take it or leave it. If you want to 
see this fight a thousand dollars is cheap. 1 guess 
there were chaj)s paid more than that to see Jenny 
Lind on her first night; and this b.attle is not going to 
be repeated, I can tell you. The price of horses will 
rise when the chaps out there have had themselves 
prettv well used up with bowie-knives and six-shooters." 
July iHtft. — After breakfast. Leaving head-quar- 
ters, I went across to General Mansfield's, and 


■was going upstairs, ulicii the GciKral=!= hinisclf, a 
■white-headed, grey-hcarded, and rather sohlierly- 
looking man, dashed out of his room in some excite- 
ment, and exclaimed, "Mr. Russell, I fear there 
is had news from the front." ''Are they fighting, 
General?" "Yes, sir. That fellow Tyler has been 
engaged, and ■we are whipped." Again I went off to 
the horse-dealer ; hut this time the price of the steed 
had been raised to £220; *'for," says he, "I don't 
want my animals to be ripped up by them cannon 
and them musketry, and those who wish to be guilty 
of such cruelty must pay for it." At the War Office, 
at the Department of State, at the Senate, and 
at the White House, messengers and orderlies run- 
ning in and out, military aides, and civilians with 
anxious faces, betokened the activity and perturbation 
which reigned within. I met Senator Sumner radiant 
with joy. " We have obtained a great success ; the 
rebels are falling back in all directions. General Scott 
says we ought to be in llichmond by Saturday night." 
Soon afterwards a United States officer, who had 
visited me in company with General Meigs, riding 
rapidly past, called out, " You have heard we are 
whipped; these confounded volunteers have run away." 
I drove to the Capitol, where people said one could 
actually see the smoke of the cannon; but ou arriving 
there it was evident that the fire from some burniug 
houses, and from wood cut down for cooking purposes 
had been mistaken for tokens of the fight. 

It was strange to stand outside the walls of the 
Senate whilst legislators were debating inside respecting 
the best means of punishing the rebels and traitors, and 

* Smce killed in actiou. 



to think that amidst the dim hurizon of woods which 
hounded the west towards the plains of Manassas, the 
army of tlu- United States was then coutendinj^, at 
least with douhtful fortune, against the forces of tlie 
desperate and hopeless outlaws whose fate these United 
States senators pretended to hold in the hollow of 
their hands. Nor was it unworthy of note that many 
of the tradespeople along Pennsylvania Avenue, and 
the ladies whom one saw sauntering in the streets, 
Mere exchanging significant nods and smiles, and rub- 
hing their hands with satisfaction. I entered one 
shop, where the proprietor and his wife ran forward to 
meet me. "Have you heard the news ? Beauregard 
has knocked them into a cocked hat." "Believe me," 
said the good lady, "it is the finger of the Almighty is 
in it. Didn't he curse the niggers, and why .should lie 
take their part now with these Yankee Abolitionists, 
against true white men?" "But how do you know 
this?" said I. " AVhy, it's all true enough, depend 
upon it, no matter how we know it. We've got our 
underground railway as well as the Abolitionists." 

On my way to dinner at the Legation I met the 
President crossing Pennsylvania Avenue, striding like 
a crane in a bulrush swamp among the great blocks 
of marble, dressed in an oddly cut suit of grey, with a 
felt hat on the back of his head, wiping his face with a 
red pocket-handkerchief. He was evidently in a hurry, 
on his way to the AVliite Hoiisc, where I believe a 
telegraph has been established in communication Mith 
IM'Dowcirs hcad-(piartcrs. T may mention, by-the-bye, 
in illustration of the extreme igiionmce and arrogance 
which characterise the low Yankee, that a man in the 
uniform of a Colonel said to me to-day, as I was leaving 


tlic War Depai'tmcut; "Thc}"- have just got a tclcj^raph 
from M'Dowcll. Would it not astouisli you Britishers 
to hear tliat, as our General moves on towards the 
enemy, he trails a telegraph wire behind him just to let 
them know in Washington which foot he is putting 
first ? " I Avas imprudent enough to say, " I assure you 
the use of the telegraph is not sueh a novelty in Europe 
or even in India. When Lord Clyde made his eam- 
paign the telegraph was laid in his traek as fast as he 
advanced." " Oh, well, come now/' quoth the Colonel, 
" that's pretty good, that is ; I believe you'll say next, 
your General Clyde and our Benjamin Franklin dis- 
covered lightning simultaneously." 

The calm of a Legation contrasts wonderfully in 
troubled times with the excitement and storm of the 
world outside. M. Mercier perhaps is moved to a 
vivacious interest in events. M. vStoeckl becomes 
more animated as the time approaches M'hen he sees 
the fulfilment of his prophecies at hand. M. Tassara 
cannot be indift'ercut to occurrences which bear so 
directly on the future of Spain in Western seas ; but all 
these diplomatists can discuss the most engrossing and 
portentous incidents of political and military life, with 
a sense of calm and indifference which was felt by tlic 
gentleman who resented being called out of his sleep to 
get up out of a burning house because he was only a 

There is no Minister of the European Powers in 
Washington who watches with so much interest tlie 
march of events as Lord Lyons, or who feels as much 
sympathy perhaps in tlic Federal Governnicnt as the 
constituted Executive of the countiy to A\liich lie is 
accredited ; but in virtue of his position he knows little 



or nothing ofTicially of \vliat passes around liini, and 
may be rcj^arded as a medium lor tlic communication of 
despatches to Mr. Seward, and for the discharge of a great 
deal of most causeless and unmeaning vituperation from 
the conductors of the New York press against England. 

On my return to Captain Johnson's lodgings I re- 
ceived a note from the head-quarters of the Federals, 
stating that the serious action between the two 
armies would probably be postponed for some days. 
M'Dowell's original idea was to avoid forcing the 
enemy's position directly in front, which was defended 
by movable batteries commanding the fords over a 
stream called " Bulls Run." He therefore proposed to 
make a demonstration on some point near the centre 
of their line, and at the same time throw the mass of 
his force below their extreme right, so as to turn it and 
get possession of the Manassas Railway in their rear : a 
movement >\hieh would separate him, by-tiie-bye, from 
his own communications, and enable any general worth 
his salt to make a magnificent counter by marching on 
Washington, only 27 miles away, which he could take 
with the greatest case, and leave the enemy in the rear 
to march 120 miles to Richmond, if they dared, or to 
make a hasty retreat upon the higher Potomac, and to 
<T0ss into the hostile country of Maryland. 

M'Dowell, however, has found the country on his left 
densely wooded and dillicuit. It is as new to him as it 
was to Braddock, when he cut his weary way through 
forest and swamp in this very district to reach, 
hundreds of miles away, the scene of his fatal 
repulse at l"(jrt Du (iuesne. And so, having moved 
ids whole army, M'Dowell finds himself obliged to 
form a new plan of attack, and, prudently fearful 


of pusliing Ins imdcr-tlouo and ovcr-jiraiscd levies 
into a river in face of an enemy, is endeavouring to 
ascertain with what chance of success lie can attack 
and turn their left. 

Whilst he was engaged in a reconnaissance to-dav, 
General Tyler did one of those things which must he 
expected from amhitious officers, without any fear 
of punishment, in countries where military discipline 
is scarcely known. Ordered to reconnoitre the position 
of the enemy on the left front, when the army moved 
from Fairfax to Centreville this morning, General Tyler 
thrust forward some 3000 or 1000 men of his division 
down to the very banks of " Bull's Run," which was 
said to be thickly wooded, and there brought up his men 
under a heavy fire of artillery and musketry, from which 
they retired in confusion. 

The papers from New York to-night are more than 
usually impudent and amusing. The retreat of the 
Confederate outposts from Fairfax Court House is repre- 
sented as a most extraordinary success ; at best it was 
an affair of outposts ; but one would really think that it 
was a victory of no small magnitude. I learn that the 
Federal troops behaved in a most ruffianly and lawless 
manner at Fairfax Court House. It is but a bad 
beginning of a campaign for the restoration of the 
Union, to rob, burn, and destroy the property and 
houses of the people in the State of Virginia. The 
enemy are described as running in all directions, but it 
is evident they did not intend to defend the advanced 
works, which were merely constructed to prevent sur- 
prise or cavalry inroads. 

I went to Willard's, where the news of the buttle, 
as it was called, was eagerly discussed. One little 


uiau in front of the cigar-stand declared it was all :in 
aflair of cavalry. " But how could that be among the 
piuey woods and with a river in front, major ?" " Our 
boys, sir, left their horses, crossed the water at a run, 
and went rit^ht awav throujrh them witli their swords 
and six-shooters." " I tell you what it is, ]\Ir. Russell," 
said a man who followed me out of the crowd and placed 
liis hand on my shoulder, " they were whipped like curs, 
and they ran like curs, and I know it." 'IIowV" 
" Well, I'd rather be excused telling you." 

July 19//f.— I ruse early this morning in order to 
prepare for contingencies and to see oif Captain John- 
sou, who was about to start with despatches for New 
York, containing, no douljt, the intelligence that the 
Federal troops had advanced against the enemy. 
Yesterday was so hot tliat officers and men on the field 
suflered from something like sun-stroke. To unaccus- 
tomed frames to-day the heat felt unsupportable. A 
troop of regular cavalry, riding through the street at an 
early hour, were so exhausted, horse and man, that a 
runaway cab could have bowled them over like nine pins. 

1 luutened to Cimcral Scott's quarters, which 
were besieged by civilians outside and full of order- 
lies and officers w ithin. ^Mr. Cobden would be delighted 
with the republican simplicity of the Commander-in- 
Chief's establishment, though it did not strike me 
as being very ciieap at the money on such an occasion. 
It consists, in fact, of a small three-storied brick 
house, the [)arlours on the ground floor being occupied 
by subordinates, the small front room on the first 
floor being appropriated to (leneral Scott liimself, the 
smaller back room being devoted to his staff, and two 
rooms up-htairs most probably being in ])ossession of 


waste papers and the guardians of the mansion. The 
■walls arc covered with maps of the coarsest descrip- 
tion, and with rough plans and drawings, which adord 
information and amusement to the orderlies and the 
stray aide-de-camps. "Did you ever hear anything so 
disgraceful in your life as the stories which arc going 
about of the aflair yesterday?" said Colonel Cullum. 
" I assure you it was the smallest affair possible, 
although the story goes that we have lost thousands of 
men. Our total loss is under ninety — killed, wounded, 
and missing ; and I regret to say nearly one-third of the 
whole are under the latter head." " However that may 
be. Colonel," said I, " it will be difficult to believe your 
statement after the columns of type which appear in the 
papers here." " Oh ! Who minds what they say ? " 
" You will admit, at any rate, that the retreat of these 
undisciplined troops from an encounter with the enemy 
will have a bad effect." " Well, I suppose that's likely 
enough, but it will soon be swept away in the excite- 
ment of a general advance. General Scott, having de- 
termined to attack the enemy, will not halt now, and I 
am going over to Brigadier M'Dowell to examine the 
ground and see what is best to be done." On leaving 
the room two officers came out of General Scott's apart- 
ment ; one of them said, " Why, Colonel, he's not half 
the man I thought him. Well, any way he'll be better 
there than ]\I'Dowell. If old Scott had legs he's good 
for a big thing yet." 

For hours I went horse-hunting; but llothscluld 
himself, even the hunting 13aron, could not have got a 
steed. In Pennsylvania Avenue the people were stand- 
ing in the shade under the ajlauthus trees, speculating 
on the news brought by dusty orderlies, or on the ideas 


of passing Congress men. A pai-ty of captured Con- 
federates, on their march to General ^ransfieUls 
quarters, created intense interest, and I followed them 
to the liouse, and went up to see the General, whilst the 
prisoners sat down on the pavement and steps outside. 
Notwithstanding his allectatiou of calm and self- 
possession. General Mansfield, who was charged with 
the defence of the town, was visibly iierturbed. " Tlu se 
things, sir," said he, '' happen in Europe too. If the 
capital should fall into the hands of the rebels the 
United States will be no more destroyed than they 
were when you burned it." From an expression he let 
fall, I inferred he did not very well know what to do 
with his prisoners. " Rebels taken in arms in Europe 
are generally hung or blown away from guns, I believe ; 
but we are more merciful." General ^lansfield evi- 
dently wished to be spared the embarrassment of 
dealing with prisoners. 

I dined at a restaurant kept by one Boulanger, a 
Frenchman, who utilised the swarms of flics infesting 
his premises by combining masses of them with his 
soup and made dishes. At an adjoining table were a 
lanky boy in a lieutenant's uniform, a private soldier, 
and a man in plain clothes ; and for the edification of 
the two latter the warrior youth was detailing the 
most remarkable .stories, in the Munchausen style, ear 
ever heard. "Well, sir, I tell you, when his head fell 
off on the ground, his eyes shut and opened twice, and 
his tongue came out with an expression as if he wanted 
to say something." "There were seven balls through 
my coat, and it was all .so spiled with 1)lood and 
l)Owder, I took it ofl^ and threw it in the road. When 
the bovs were burving the dead, I saw this coat on a 


cliap who had been just "smothered by the weight of 
the killed and wounded on the top of him, and I says, 
'Boys, give me that coat; it will just do for me with 
tlic same rank; and there is no use in jjutting 
good cloth on a dead body.' " " And how many do you 
suppose was killed. Lieutenant ? " " "Well, sir ! it's my 
honest belief, I tell you, there was not less than 5000 
of our boys, and it may be twice as many of the enemy, 
or more; they were all shot down just like pigeons ; 
you might walk for five rods by the side of the Run, and 
not be able to put your foot on the ground." " The dead 
was that thick ? " " No, but the dead and the Avounded 
together." No incredulity in the hearers — all swallowed : 
possibly disgorged into the note-book of a ¥/ashington 

After dinner I walked over with Lieutenant H. 
Wise, inspected a model of Steven's ram, which appears 
to me an utter impossibility in face of the iron-clad em- 
brasured fleet now coming up to view, though it is spoken 
of highly by some naval officers and by many politicians. 
For years their papers have been indulging in myste- 
rious volcanic pufis from the great centre of nothing- 
ness as to this secret and tremendous war-engine, 
which was surrounded by walls of all kinds, and only 
to be let out on the world when the Great Republic 
in its might had resolved to sweep everything off the 
seas. And lo ! it is an abortive ram ! Los Gringos 
went home, and I paid a visit to a family whose 
daughters — bright-eyed, pretty, and clever — were seated 
out on the door-steps amid the lightning flashes, one of 
them, at least, dreaming with open eyes of a young 
artillery officer then sleeping among his guns, probably, 
in front of Fairfax Court House. 


Skirmish at Bull's Run — The Crisis in Congress — Dearth of Horses - 
War Priceii at Washington — Estimate of the effects of Bull's Uuu — 
Piisswiird and Couutcreign — Trausatlautic View of " The Timob" — 
Difficulties of a Newspaper Corrcspondeut iu tho Field. 

July 'KUh. — The great battle whicli is to arrest rebel- 
lion, or to inakt' it a power in tlie laud, is no longer 
distant or doubt liil. M'Dowcll lias completed his 
reconnaissance of the eouutry iu front of the enemy, 
and General Scott anticipates that he will be in posses- 
sion of Manassas to-uiorrow night. All the state- 
ments of oHicers concur in describing the Confederates 
as strongly entrenched along the line of Bull's Hun 
covering the railroad. The Kew York papers, indeed, 
audaciously declare that the enemy have fallen back in 
disorder. In the main thoroughfares of the city there 
is still a scattered army of idle soldiers moving through 
the civil crowd, though Ikjw they couu' here no one 
knows. The ollicers clustering round the hotels, and 
running iu and out of the bar-roojus and eating-houses, 
are still more numerous. ^\ hen I iuipiircd at the 
head-quarters who these were, the answer was that the 
majority were skulkers, but that there was no power at 
such a moment to send tlu m Ijack to the ir regiments 
or jiunish them. In fact, (U-ducting the reserves, the 
rear-guards, and the scanty garrisons at the earth- 


works, M'Dowell will not have 25,000 men to undertake 
liis seven days' mareli tlirongh a hostile country to 
the Confederate capital; and yet, strange to say, in the 
pride and passion of the politicians, no doubt is per- 
mitted to rise for a moment respecting his complete 

I was desirous of seeing what impression was pro- 
duced upon the Congress of the United States by the 
crisis which was approaching, and drove down to the 
Senate at noon. There was no appearance of popular 
enthusiasm, excitement, or emotion among the people 
in the passages. They drank their iced water, ate 
cakes or lozenges, chewed and chatted, or dashed at 
their acquaintances amongst the members, as though 
nothing more important than a railway bill or a postal 
concession was being debated inside. I entered the 
Senate, and found the House engaged in not listening 
to ]Mr. Latham, the Senator for California, Avho was 
delivering an elaborate lecture on the aspect of political 
affairs from a Republican point of view. The Senators 
were, as usual, engaged in reading newspapers, writing 
letters, or in whispered conversation, whilst the Senator 
received his applause from the people in the galleries, 
Avho were scarcely restrained from stamping their feet 
at the most highly-flown passages. Whilst I was 
listening to what is by courtesy called the debate, a 
messenger from Centrcville, sent in a letter to me, stating 
that General M'Dowell would advance early in the 
morning, and expected to engage the enemy before noon. 
At the same moment a Senator who had received a 
despatch left his seat and read it to a brother legis- 
lator, and the news it contained was speedily diffused 
from one seat to another, and groups formed on the 


edge of tlie Hoor eagerly discussing the welcome iutcl- 

The President's hammer .ngain and again called them 
to order; and from out of this knot, Senator Sumner, 
his face lighted with pleasure, came to tell me the good 
news. " M'Dowcll has carried Bull's Run Avithout 
firing a shot. Seven regiments attacked it at the 
point of the bayonet, and the enemy immediateh- fled. 
General Scott only gives M'Dowell till mid-d:.y to- 
morrow to be in possession of ^ranassas." Soon after- 
wards, Mr. 1 1 ay, the President's secretary, appeared on 
the floor to communicate a message to the Senate. I 
iisked him if the news was true. " All I can tell you," 
said he, " is that the President has heard nothing at 
all about it, and that General Scott, from whom we 
have just received a lomraunication, is equally ignorai)t 
of the reported success." 

Some Senators and many Congress men have already 
gone to join M'Dowell's army, or to follow in its wake, 
in the hope of seeing the Lord deliver the Philistines 
into his hands. As I was leaving the Chamber with 
Mr. Sumner, a dust-stained, toil-worn man, caught the 
Senator by the arm, and said, " Senator, I am one of 

your constituents. I come from town, in ^las- 

sachusetts, and here arc letters from people you 
know, to certify who T am. 'My poor brother was 
killed yesterday, and 1 want to go out and get his body 
to send back to the old people ; but they won't let me 
pass without an order." And so Mr. Sumner wrote a 
note to General Seott, and another to General Mans- 
field, recommending that poor Gordon Frazer should 
be permitted to go through the Federal lines on liis 
labour of love ; and the honest Scotchman seemed as 


grateful as if lie luul already foiiiul liis brother's 

Every carriage, gig, waggon, and hack has been 
engaged by people going out to see the fight. The 
price is enhanced by mysterious communications 
respecting the horrible slaughter in the skirmishes at 
Lull's Run. The French cooks and hotel-keepers, by 
some occult process of reasoning, have arrived at the 
conclusion that they must treble the prices of their 
Avines and of the hampers of provisions which the 
"Washington people are ordering to comfort themselves 
at their bloody Derby. " There was not less than 
18,000 men, sir, killed and destroyed. I don't care 
what General Scott says to the contrarj', he was 
uot there. I saw a reliable gentleman, ten minutes 
ago, as cum straight from the place, and he swore there 
was a string of waggons three miles long with the 
wounded. While these Yankees lie so, I should uot 
be surprised to hear they said they did not lose 1000 
men in that big fight the day before yesterday." 

When the newspapers came in from New York I 
read flaming accounts of the ill-conducted recon- 
naissance against orders, which was terminated by a 
most dastardly and ignominious retreat, " due," say the 
New York papers, " to the inefficiency and cowardice 
of some of the officers." Far different was the beha- 
viour of the modest chroniclers of these scenes, who, 
as they tell ns, " stood their ground as well as any 
of them, in spite of the shot, shell, and rifle-balls that 
whizzed past them for many hours." General Tyler 
alone, perhaps, did more, for " he was exposed to the 
enemy's fire for nearly four hours;" and when we con- 
sider that this fire came from masked batteries, and 


that the Avintl of round shot is unusually destructive (in 
America), we can better ajipreciate the danj^er to 
which he w;is so gallantly indiHcrent. It is obvious that 
in tliis first encounter the Federal troops gained no 
advantage ; and as they were the assailants, their 
repulse, which cannot be kept secret from the rest of 
the army, will have a very damaj^ing effect on their 

General Johnston, who has been for some days with 
a considerable force in an entrenched position at 
"Winchester, in the valley of the Shenandoah, had 
occupied General Scott's attention, in consequence of 
the facility which he possessed to move into Maryland 
by Harper's Ferry, or to fall on the Federals by the 
Manassas Gap Railway, which was available by a long 
march from the town he occupied. General Patterson, 
with a Federal corps of equal streuirth, had accordingly 
been despatched to attack him, or, at all events, to ])rc- 
vcnt his leaving Winchester without an action ; but the 
news to-night is that Patterson, who was an oiliccr of 
some reputation, has allowed Johnston to evacuate 
Winchester, and has not pursued him ; so that it is 
impossible to [jredict where the latter will appear. 

Having failed utterly iji my attempts to get a horse, 
1 was obliged to negotiate with a livery-stable keeper, 
w\\o had a houded gig, or tilbury, left on his hands, to 
mIucIi he proposed to add a splinter-bar and pole, so as 
to make it available for two horses, on condition that I 
paid liim the assessed value of the vehicle and horses, 
in ease they were destroyed by the enemy. Of what 
particular value my executors might h.ivc regarded the 
guarantee in question, the worthy man did not incjuirc, 
nor did he stipulate for any value to be put upon the 


driver; but it struck me that, if tliesc were in miy way 
seriously damaged, the oceiipauts of the vcliicle were 
not likcdy to escape. The driver, indeed, seemed by 
no means willing to undertake the job ; and again and 
again it was proposed to me that I should drive, but I 
persistenth^ refused. 

On completing my bargain with the stable-keeper, 
in which it was arranged with ]\Ir. Wroe that I was to 
start on the following morning early, and return at 
night before twelve o'clock, or pay a double day, I 
went over to the Legation^ and found Lord Lyons in 
the garden. I went to request that he would permit 
]Mr. Warre, one of the attaches, to accompany me, as 
he had expressed a desire to that effect. His Lordship 
hesitated at first, thinking perhaps that the American 
papers would turn the circumstance to some base uses, 
if they were made aware of it; but finally he consented, 
on the distinct assurance that I was to be back the 
following night, and would not, under any event, pro- 
ceed onw^ards with General McDowell's army till after 
I had returned to Washington. On talking the matter 
over the matter with JNIr. Warre, I resolved that the 
best plan would be to start that night if possible, and 
proceed over the long bridge, so as to overtake the 
army before it advanced in the early morning. 

It was a lovely moonlight night. As we walked 
through the street to General Scott's quarters, for tlie 
purpose of procuring a pass, there was scarcely a soul 
abroad ; and the silence which reigned contraste;! 
strongly with the tumult prevailing in the day-time. 
Alight glimmered in the General's parlour; his aides 
were seated in the verandah outside smoking in silence, 
and one of them handed us the parses which he had 


promised to procure ; but ulicn I told them tliat \vc 
iutended to cross the long bridge that night, au unfore- 
seen obstacle arose. The guai'ds had been specially 
ordered to permit no person to cross between tattoo 
and daybreak who was not provided with the counter- 
bigu; and without the express order of the General, 
no subordinate officer can communicate that counter- 
sign to a stranger. "Can you not ask the General V 
" lie is lying down asleep, and I dare not venture to 
disturb him." 

As I had all along intended to start before daybreak, 
thin co/ilrc(c'>iijjs promised to be very embarrassing, «ind I 
ventured to suggest that General Scott would authorise 
the counter.sign to be given uhcn he awoke. But the 
aide-de-camp shook his head, and I began to suspect 
from his manner and from that of his comrades that 
my visit to the army was not regarded with much 
favour — a view which was confirmed by one of them, 
who, by the way, was a civilian, for in a few minutes 
he said, "In fact, I would not advise "Warre and you 
to go out there at all ; they are a lot of volunteers and 
recruits, and we can't say how they will behave. They 
may i)robably have to retreat. If I were you I would 
not be near them." Of the five or six officers who sat 
in the verandah, not one spoke confidently or with the 
briskness which is usual when there is a chance of a 
bru-ih with an enemy. 

As it was impossible to force the point, we had to 
retire, and I went once more to the horse dealer's, 
where I inspected the vehicle and the quadrupeds 
destined to draw it. I had spied in a stall a likely- 
lo(jking Kentuckian nag, nearly black, light, but strong, 
and full of lire, with au undertaker's tail and something 


of a maiic to matcli, Avliich the groom assured me T could 
not even look at, as it was bespoke by an officer ; but 
after a little strategy I prevailed on the proprietor to 
hire it to me for the day, as well as a boy, who was to 
ride it after the gig till we came to Centreville. My 
little experience in such scenes decided me to secure 
a saddle horse. I knew it would be impossible to see 
anything of the action from a gig; that the roads 
would be blocked up by commissariat waggons, ammu- 
nition reserves, and that in case of anything serious 
taking place, I should be deprived of the chance of 
participating after the manner of my vocation in the 
engagement, and of witnessing its incidents. As it Avas 
not incumbent on my companion to approach so closely 
to the scene of action, he could proceed in the vehicle 
to the most convenient point, and then walk as far as 
he liked, and return when he pleased ; but from the 
injuries I had sustained in the Indian campaign, I 
could not walk very far. It was finally settled that 
the gig, with two horses and the saddle horse ridden 
by a negro boy, should be at my door as soon after 
daybreak as we could pass the Long Bridge. 

I returned to my lodgings, laid out an old pair of 
Indian boots, cords, a Himalayan suit, an old felt hat, 
a flask, revolver, and belt. It was very late when I 
got in, and I relied on my German landlady to procure 
some commissariat stores ; but she declared the whole 
extent of her means would only furnish some slices of 
bread, with intercostal layers of stale ham and moiddy 
Bologna sausage. I was forced to be content, and got 
to bed after midnight, and slept, having first arranged 
that in case of my being very late next night a trust- 
worthy Englishman should be sent for, who would 


canv my letters from "Washiugtoii to Boston iu time 
for the muil which leaves on Wednesday, !^^y mind 
had been so much occupied with the coming event 
that I slept uuca:vily, and once or twice I started up, 
fancying I was called. The moon shone in through 
the mosquito curtains of my bed, and just ere daybreak 
I was aroused by some noise in the adjoining room, 
and looking out, in a half dreamy state, imagined I 
saw General M'Powcll standing at the table, on which 
a candle was burning low, so distinctly that I woke 
up with the words, " General, is that yon ? " Nor did 
I convince myself it was a dream till I had walked into 
the room. 

July )L\st. — The calmness and silence of the streets 
of AVashiugton this lovely morning suggested thoughts 
of the very dill'crent scenes which, in all probability, 
were taking place at a few miles' distance. One could 
fancy the hum and stir round the Federal bivouacs, as 
the troops woke up and were formed into column of 
juarch towiu-ds the enemy. I much regretted that I 
wjis not enabled to take the field with General 
-M'Dowell's army, but my position wjis surrounded 
with such dillieulties that I could not pursue the 
course open to the correspondents of the American 
newspapers. On my arrival in AVashington I addressed 
an application to >Mr. Cameron, Secretary at War, 
requesling him to sanction the issue of rations and 
forage from the Commissariat to myself, a servant, 
and a couple of horses, at the contract prices, or on 
whatever other terms he might think fit, and I had 
several interviews with -Mr. Leslie, the obliging and 
iudefatiuablc chief clerk of the Wnv Department, in 
efcrcnce to tlu matter; but as there was a want of 


precedents for sucli a course, wliicli was not at all to l)c 
■wondered at, seeing that no representative of an 
English newspaper had ever been sent to chronicle the 
progress of an American army in the field, no satisfac- 
tory result could be arrived at, though I had many 
fair words and promises. 

A great outcry had arisen in the North against the 
course and policy of England, and the journal I repre- 
sented was assailed on all sides as a Secession organ, 
favourable to the rebels and exceedingly hostile to the 
Federal government and the cause of the Union. Public 
men in America are alive to the inconveniences of 
attacks by their own press ; and as it was quite impos- 
si'ole to grant to the swarms of correspondents from 
all parts of the Union the permission to draw supplies 
from the public stores, it would have afforded a handle 
to turn the screw upon the War Department, already 
roundly abused in the most influential papers, if 
Mr. Cameron acceded to me, not merely a foreigner, 
but the correspondent of a foreign journal w^hich was 
considered the most powerful enemy of the policy of his 
government, privileges which he denied to American 
citizens, representing newspapers which were enthu- 
siastically supporting the cause for which the armies of 
the North w ere now in the field. 

To these gentlemen indeed, I must here remark, 
such privileges were of little consequence. In every 
camp they had friends who were w illing to receive them 
in their quarters, and who earned a word of praise in the 
local papers for the gratification of either their vanity 
or their laudable ambition in their own neighbourhood, 
by the ready service which they afforded to the coi're- 
spondents. They rode Government horses, had the use 


of Government wa<.'gons, and throuj;li fear, favour, or 
affection, enjoyed facilities to which I had no access. 
I could not expect persons with whom I was unac- 
quainted to be equally generous, least of all when by 
doing so they would have incurred popular obloquy and 
censure; though many officers in the army had ex- 
pressed in very ci^-il terms the ple:isure it would give 
them to sec rac at their quarters in the field. Some 
days ago I had an interview with Mr. Cameron himsilf, 
wlio was profuse enough in promising that he would do 
all in his power to further my wishes ; but he had, 
nevertheless, neglected sending me the authorisation 
for which I had applied. I could scarcely stand a 
baggage train and commissariat upon ray own account, 
nor could I well participate in the system of plunder 
and appropriation which has marked the course of the 
Federal army so far, devastating and laying waste all 
the country behind it. 

Hence, all I could do was to make a journey 
to sec the army on the field, and to retiun to 
^Vasliington to write my report of its first operation, 
knowing there would be plenty of time to overtake it 
before it could reach Richmond, when, as I hoped, 
Mr. Cameron would be prepared to accede to my 
request, or some plan had been devised by myself to 
obviate the difficulties which lay in my path. There 
was no entente rordiair exhibited towards me by the 
members of the American press; nor did they, any 
more than the generals, evince any disposition to help 
the alien correspondent of the Tinier, and my only 
( ounection with one of their body, the young designer, 
bad not, indeed, inspired mc with any great desire to 
extend my acquaintance. General M'Dowell, on giving 


mc tlic most hospitable invitation to liis (|ii;irlL'r.s, 
refrained from offering tlie assistance mIiIcIi, pcrlisips, 
it was not in his power to afford; and I confess, looking 
at the matter cahnly, I coukl scarcely expect that 
he wonld, particularly as he said, half in jest, half 
seriously, " I declare I am not quite easy at the idea of 
having your eye on me, for you have seen so much of 
European armies, you will, very naturally, think little of 
us, generals and all." 



To the scene of action— Tho Confederate camp — Centreville — Action 
at Bull Run — Defeat of tbe Fecknils — Disorderly retreat to 
Centroville — My rido back to WiisliiuL'toii. 

Pu.NCTUAL to time, our cnrria^'o aiipcared at the door, 
witli a spare horse, followed by tiie hlaek quadruped on 
•which the negro boy sat with difliculty, in consequence 
of its high spirits and excessively hard mouth. I swal- 
lowed a cup of tea and a morsel of bread, put the 
remainder of the tea into a bottle, got a flask of light 
Bordeaux, a bottle of water, a paper of sandwiches, 
and having replenished my small flask with brandy, 
stowed them all away in the bottom of the gig; but my 
friend, who is not accustomed to rise very early in 
the morning, did not make his appearance, and I was 
obliged to send several times to the legation to quicken 
liis movements. ]'ach time I was assured he would be 
over presently; but it was not till two hours had elapsed, 
and when I had just resolved to leave hira behind, 
that he appeared in person, quite unprovided witli 
ridt'inim, so that my sliuder store had now to meet tlic 
demands of two instead of one. Wc are ofl" at last. 
The amicus and self find contracted space behind the 
driver. The negro boy, grinning half with pain and 
"tli(; ]);dance" with jilcasnrc, as the Americans say, 
held on his rampant charger, which made continual 


efforts to leap into tlio gig, and tlms tliroiigli the 
deserted city we proceeded towards tlie Long IJiidgc, 
where a sentry cxaniiucd our papers, and said witli a 
grin, "You'll find plenty of Congressmen on before 
3'on." And then our driver whipped his horses through 
the embankment of Fort Runvon, and dashed off alonir 
a country road, ranch cut up with gun and cart wheels, 
towards the main turnpike. 

The promise of a lovely day, given by the early dawn, 
was likely to be realised to tlie fullest, and the placid 
beauty of the scenery as we drove through the Avoods 
below Arlington, and beheld the white buildings 
shining in the early sunlight, and the Potomac, like a 
broad silver riband dividing the picture, breathed of 
peace. The silence close to the city was unbroken. 
Prom the time we passed the guard beyond the Long 
Bridge, for several miles we did not meet a human 
being, except a few soldiers in the neighbourhood of 
the deserted camps, and when we passed beyond 
the range of tents we drove for nearly two hours 
througli a densely-wooded, undulating country ; the 
bouses, close to the road-side, sliut up and deserted, 
window-high in the crops of Indian corn, fast ripening 
for the sickle ; alternate field and forest, the latter 
generally still holding possession of the hollows, and, 
except when the road, deep and filled with loose stones, 
passed over the summit of the ridges, the eye caught 
on either side little but fir-trees and maize, and the 
deserted wooden houses, standing amidst the slave 

The residences close to the lines gave signs and 
tokens that the Federals had recently visited them. 
But at the best of times the inhabitants could not be 


very well off. Some of the farms were small, the 
houses tumbling to decay, with unpaiuted roofs and 
side walls, and windows where the want of glass 
was supplemented hy panes of wood. As we got 
further into the country the traces of the debateable 
land between the two armies vanished, and negroes 
looked out from their quarters, or sicldy-looking women 
and children were summoned forth by the rattle of the 
wheels to see who was hurrying to the war. Now and 
then a white man looked out, with an ugly scowl on his 
face, but the country seemed drained of the adult male 
population, and such of the inhabitants as we saw were 
neither as comfortably dressed nor as healthy looking as 
the shambling slaves who shuffled about the plantations. 
The road was so cut up by gun-wheels, ammunition and 
commissariat waggons, that our horses made but slow 
way against the continual draft upon the collar; but at 
last the driver, who had known the country in happier 
times, announced that we had entered the high road 
for Fairfax Court-house. I'nfortiniately my watch had 
gone down, but I guessed it was then a little before nine 
o'clock. In a few minutes afterwards I thought I 
heard, through tlie eternal clatter and jingle of the old 
gig, a sound which made me call the driver to stop. 
He pulK'd up, and wo listened. In a minute or so, the 
well-known l)oom of a gun, followed by two or tliree 
in rapid succession, but at a considerable distance, 
reached my ear. " Did you hear that ? " Tlie driver 
heard nothing, nor did my companion, but the black 
boy on the led horse, with eyes startingout of his head, 
cried, " I liear them, massa ; I hear them, sure enough, 
like de gun in de navy yard;" and as he spoke tlu; 
thudding noise, like taps with a gentle hand upon a 


muffled drum, were repeated, Avliich were heard both 
by J\Ir. Warrc and the driver. " They are at it ! We 
shall be late ! Drive ou as fast as you can ! " "Wc rattled 
ou still faster, and presently came up to a farin-housc, 
■where a man and woman, with some negroes beside them, 
were standing out by the hedge-row above us, looking up 
the road in the direction of a cloud of dust, which we 
could see rising above the tops of the trees. We halted for 
a moment. " How long have the guns been going, sir ? " 
" Well, ever since early this morning," said he ; " they've 
been having a fight. And I do reall}' believe some of 
our poor Union chaps have had enough of it alread}'. 
For here'^s some of them darned Secessionists marching 
down to go into Alexandry." The driver did not seem 
altogether content with this explanation of the dust in 
front of us, and presently, Avhen a turn of the road 
brought to view a body of armed men, stretching to an 
interminable distance, with bayonets glittering in the 
sunlight through the clouds of dust, seemed inclined to 
halt or turn back again. A nearer approach satisfied 
me the)^ were friends, and as soon as we came up with 
the head of the column I saw that they could not be 
engaged in the performance of any military duty. The 
men Avere marching without any resemblance of order, in 
twos and threes or larger troops. Some without arms, 
carrying great bundles on their backs ; others with their 
coats hung from their firelocks; many foot sore. They 
were all talking, and in haste ; many plodding along 
laughing, so I concluded that they could not belong to 
a defeated army, and imagined M'Dowell was effecting 
some flank movement. " Where are you going to, 
may I ask ? " 

"If this is the road to Alexandria, we are going there." 


"There is nn action going on in front, is there not?" 
" AVell, so Avc believe, but we have not been fighting." 
Although they were in such good spirits, they were 
not communicative, and we resumed our journey, im- 
peded by the straggling troops and ])y the country cars 
containing their baggage and chairs, and tables and 
domestic furniture, which had never belonged to a regi- 
ment in the field. Still they came pouring on. I ordered 
the driver to stop at a rivulet, w here a number of men 
were seated in the shade, drinking the water and 
bathing their hands and feet. On getting out 1 asked 
an oflicer, " May I ]}eg to know, sir, w here your regi- 
ment is going to ? " " Well, I reckon, sir, we are going 
home to Pennsylvania." " This is the Ith Pennsylvania 
Regiment, is it not, sir?" "It is so, sir; that's the 
fact." " I should think there is severe fighting going 
on behind you, judging from the firing" (for every 
moment the sound of the cannon had been growing 
more distinct and more heavy)?" " AVell, I reckon, 
sir, there is." I paused for a moment, not knowing 
what to say, and yet anxious for an explanation ; 
and the epauletted gentleman, after a few seconds* 
awkward hesitation, added, " We are going home 
Ijccausc, as you see, the men's time's up, sir, AVe 
liave had three months of this sort of work, and 
that's quite enough of it." The men who were 
listening to the conversation expressed their assent to 
the noble and patriotic utterances of the centurion, and, 
making him a low 1)ow, we resumed our journey. 

It was fully tliree and a half miles before the last of 
the regiment passed, and then the road presented a 
more animated scene, for whiti'-eovered commissariat 
waggons were visible, wending towards the front, and 


one or two liack carriages, laden with civilians, were 
hastening in the same direction. Before the doors of 
the wooden farm-houses the coloured people were assem- 
bled, listening with ontstretched necks to the repeated 
reports of the guns. At one time, as we were descending 
the wooded road, a huge blue dome, agitated by some 
internal convulsion, appeared to bar our progress, and 
it was only after infinite persuasion of rein and whip 
that the horses approached the terrific object, whicli 
Avas an inflated balloon, attached to a waggon, and 
defying the eff'orts of the men in charge to jockey it 
safely through the trees. 

It must have been about eleven o'clock when we came 
to the first traces of the Confederate camp, in front of 
Fairfax Court-house, where they had cut a few trenches 
and levelled the trees across the road, so as to form a 
rude abattis ; but the works were of a most superficial 
character, and would scarcely have given cover either 
to the guns, for which embrasures were left at tbe 
flanks to sweep the road, or to the infantry intended to 
defend them. 

The Confederate force stationed here must have 
consisted, to a considerable extent, of cavalr3\ The 
bowers of branches, which they had made to shelter their 
tents, camp tables, empty boxes, and packing-cases, in 
the debris one usually sees around an encampment, 
showed they had not been destitute of creature 

Some time before noon the driver, urged continually 
hj adjurations to get on, whipped his horses into Fairfax 
Court-house, a village which derives its name from a 
large brick building, in which the sessions of the county 
arc held. Some thirty or forty houses, for the most part 


tk'taclicd, with gurdeus or small strips of laud about them, 
form the main street. The inhabitants who remained had 
by no means an agreeable expression of eounteuauce, and 
did not seem on very good terms with the Federal soldiers, 
who were lounging up and down the streets, or standing 
in the siiade of the trees and doorways. I asked the 
sergeant of a picket in the street how long the firing had 
been going on. lie rejilied that it had commenced at half- 
past seven or eigiit, and liad been increasing ever since. 
" Some of them will lose their eyes and back teeth," he 
added, "before it is over." The driver, pulling up at a 
roadside inu in the town, here made the startling 
announcement, that both he and his horses must have 
something to eat, and although we would have been 
happy to join him, seeing that we had no breakfjist, 
we could not afl'ord the time, and were not displeased 
when a thin-faced, shrewish woman, in Ijlack, came 
ont into the verandah, and said she could not let 
us have anything unless we liked to wait till the regular 
dinner hour of the house, which was at one o'clock. 
The horses got a bucket of water, which they needed in 
that broiling sun ; and the cannonade, which by this 
time had increa>ed into a respectable tumult that gave 
evidence of a well-.sustained action, addetl vigour to the 
driver's arm, and iu a mile or two more we dashed in 
to a village of burnt houses, the charred brick chimney 
stacks standing amidst the bhickened (.inbers being all 
that remained of what unee was German Town. Tiie 
firing of this vilhige was severely censiu'cd by (Jeneral 
.M'Dowell, who probably does not appreciate tlie value 
(jf such agencies employed " by our glorious Inion 
army to develope loyal sentiments among the people of 


The driver, passing through the town, drove straight 
on, but after some time I fancied the sound of tlie 
guns seemed dying away towards our left. A big negro 
came shambling along the roadside — the driver stoj)pcd 
and asked him," is this the road to Centreville ? " " Yes, 
sir; right on, sir; good road to Centreville, massa," and 
so we proceeded, till I became satisfied from the appear- 
ance of the road that we had altogether left the track of 
the army. At the first cottage avc halted, and inquired 
of a Virginian, who came out to look at us, w-hcthcr the 
road led to Centreville. " You're going to Centreville, 
are yon ? " " Yes, by the shortest road we can.'' 
" Well, then — you're going wrong — right away ! Some 
people say there's a bend of road leading through the 
■wood a mile further on, but those who have tried it 
lately have comeback to German Town and don't think 
it leads to Centreville at all." This was very provoking, 
as the horses were much fatigued and we had driven 
several miles out of our way. The driver, who was an 
Englishman, said, "I think it would be best for us to 
go on and try the road anyhow^ There's not likely 
to be any Seceshers about there, are there, sir t" 

" What did you say, sir," inquired the Virginian, witli 
a vacant stare upon his face. 

" I merely asked whether you think we arc likely to 
meet with any Secessionists if -we go along that road 'i " 

" Secessionists ! " repeated the Virginian, slowly pro- 
nouncing each syllable as if pondering on the meaning 
of the word — " Secessionists ! Oh no, sir ; I don't 
believe there's such a thing as a Secessionist iu the 
whole of this country." 

The boldness of this assertion, in the very hearing 
of Beauregard's cannon, completely shook the faith 


of our Jc'liii ill any information from that source, 
and we retraced our uteps to German Town, and 
were directed into tlie proper road by some negroes, 
who were engaged exchanging Confederate money at 
wiy low rates for Federal copper witli a few straggling 
soldiers. Tlie faithful Muley ^Moloch, who had Ijcen 
capering in our rear so long, now complained that he 
was very much bm"ued, but on further inquiry it was 
ascertained he was merely suHering from the abrading 
of his skin against au English saddle. 

In au hour more we had gained the high road to 
Centreville, on which were many buggies, commssiariat 
carts, and waggons full of civilians, and a brisk canter 
brought us iu sight of a rising ground, over which the 
road led directly through a few houses on each side, 
and dipped out of sight, the slopes of the hill being 
covered with men, carts, and horses, and the summit 
crested with sj)ectators, with their backs turned towards 
us, and gazing on the valley beyond. "There's Centre- 
ville," says the driver, and on our poor panting horses 
were forced, passing directly through the Confederate 
bivouacs, commissariat parks, folds of oxen, and two 
German regiments, with a battery of artillery, halting 
on the rising-ground by the road-side. The heat was 
intense. Our driver complained of hunger and thirst, 
to which neither I nor my companion were insensible ; 
and so pulling up on the to[) of the hill, I sent the boy 
down to the village which we had jjassed, to sec if he 
could find shelter for the horses, and a morsel for our 
breakfastless selves. 

It was a strange scene before us. From the hill a 
densely wooded country, doited at intervals with green 
fields and clcaied lands, spread Ii\e or six miles in front, 


bounded I)}- a line of blue and purple ridges, termi- 
nating abruptly in esearpmeuts towards the left front, 
and swelling gradually towards the right into the lower 
spines of an offshoot from the Blue-Ridge Moiuitains. 
On our left the view was eireuni.scribed by a forest 
whieli clothed the side of the ridge on which wc stood, 
and covered its shoulder far down into the plain. A 
gap in the nearest chain of the hills in our front was 
pointed ont by the bystanders as the Pass of Manassas, 
by whicli the railway from the West is carried into the 
jilain, and still nearer at hand, before us, is tlic junc- 
tion of that rail with the line from Alexandria, and 
with the railway leading southwards to Richmond. 
The intervening space was not a dead level; undulating 
lines of forest marked the course of the streams which 
intersected it, and gave, by their variety of colour and 
shading, an additional charm to the landscape which, 
enclosed in a framework of blue and purple hills, softened 
into violet in the extreme distance, presented one of 
the most agreeable displays of simple pastoral woodland 
scenery that could be conceived. 

But the sounds which came upon the breeze, and the 
sights which met our eyes, were in terrible variance 
with the tranquil character of the landscape. Tiic 
woods far and near echoed to the roar of cannon, and 
thin frayed lines of blue smoke marked the spots 
whence came the muttering sound of rolling musketry; 
the white puffs of smoke burst high above the tree- 
tops, and the gunners' rings from shell and howitzer 
marked the fire of the artillery. 

Clouds of dust shifted and moved through the forest ; 
and through the wavering mists of light blue smoke, and 
the thicker masses which rose commingling from the 


feet of mon atul the mouths of cannon, I could see 
the gleam of arms and the twinkling of bayonets. 

On the hill beside me there was a crowd of civilians 
on horseback, and in all sorts of vehicles, with a few of 
the fairer, if not gentler sex. A few officers and some 
soldiers, who had straggled from the regiments in re- 
serve, moved about among the spectators, and pretended 
to explain the movements of the troops below, of which 
they were profoundly ignorant. 

The cannonade and musketry had been exaggerated 
by the distance and by the rolling echoes of the hills ; 
and sweeping the position narrowly witli my glass from 
point to point, I failed to discover any traces of close 
encounter or very severe fighting. The spectators were 
all excited, and a lady with an opera-glass who was 
near me was quite beside herself when an unusually 
heavy discharge roused the current of her blood — 
" That is splendid. Oh, my ! Is not that first-rate? I 
guess we will be in lliclnnond this time to-morrow." 
These, mingled with coarser exclamations, burst from 
the politicians who had come out to see the triumph 
of the Union arms. I was particularly irritated by 
constant applications for the loan of my glass. One 
broken-down looking soldier observing my flask, asked 
me for a driidv, and took a startling pull, which left but 
little between the bottom and utter vacuity. 

" Stranger, that's good stuff* and no mistake. I have 
not had such a drink hince I come South. I feci now 
as if I'd like to whip ten Seceshers." 

From the line of the smoke it appeared to mc 
that the action was in an obliipie line from our left, 
extending farther outwards towards the right, bisected 
by a road from Centrcvillc, which descended the hill 


close at liaiid ami ran right across the u;idulating phiiu, 
its course being marked by the white covers of the 
baggage and commissariat waggons as far as a turn of 
the road, where the trees closed in upon them. Beyond 
the right of the curling smoke clouds of dust appeared 
from time to time in the distance, as if bodies of 
cavalry were moving over a sandy plain. 

Notwitstanding all the exultation and boastings of 
the people at Ceutrevillc, I was well convinced no 
advance of any importance or any great success had 
been achieved, because the ammunition and baggage 
waggons had never moved, nor had the reserves received 
any orders to follow in the line of the army. 

The clouds of dust on the right were quite inexpli- 
cable. As we were looking, my philosophic companion 
asked me in perfect seriousness, " Are we really seeing 
a battle now ? Are they supposed to be fighting where 
all that smoke is going on ? This is rather interesting, 
you know.^^ 

Up came our black boy. "Not find a bit to eat, sir, 
in all the place." We had, however, my little paper of 
sandwiches, and descended the hill to a bye lane oil' the 
village, where, seated in the shade of the gig, Mr. "Warre 
and myself, dividing our provision with the driver, 
wound up a very scanty, but much relished, repast with 
a bottle of tea and half the bottle of Boi'deaux and 
water, the remainder being prudently reserved at my 
request for contingent remainders. Leaving orders for 
the saddle horse, which was eating his first meal, to be 
brought up the moment he was ready — I went with 
ISlv. Warre to the hill once more and observed tliat the 
line had not sensibly altered whilst we were away. 

An English gentleman, who cauie up fiushed and 



lieatcd from the plain, told us that the Federals had 
been ad\ aiicin<r steadily in spite of a stubborn resistance 
and had In-haved most gallantly. 

Loud clieers suddenly burst from the spectators, as a 
man dressed in the uniform of an officer, whom I had 
seen ridinj; violently across the plain in an open space 
below, galloped along the front, waving his cap and 
shouting at the top of liis voice. He Mas brought up 
by the press of people round his horse close to where I 
stood. " We've whipped them on all points," he cried. 
""NVe liave taken all their batteries. They are retreat- 
ing as fast as they can, and we are after them." Such 
cheers as rent the welkin ! The Congress men shook 
hands with each other, and cried out, "Bully for us. 
Hravo, didn't I tell you so." The Germans uttered 
their martial cheers and the Irish hurrahed wildly. At 
this moment my horse was brought up the hill, and I 
mounted and turned towards the road to the front, 
whilst Mr. "Warre and his companion proceeded straight 
down the hill. 

]iy the time I reached the lane, already mentioned, 
wliich was in a few minutes, the string of commissariat 
waggons was moving onwards pretty briskly, and I 
was detained until my friends appeared at the road- 
side. I told ]\lr. Warre I was going forward to the 
front as fast as I could, but that I would come back, 
under any ciretimstanees, about an hour before dusk, 
and would go straight to the spot where wc had jint up 
the gig by the road-side, in order to return to Wasli- 
ington. Then getting into the fields, I pressed my 
liorse, whicli was qtiite recovered from his twenty- 
seven mile's ride and full of spirit and mettle, as fast as 
I could, making detours here and there to get through 


the ox fences, and b}' the small steams which cut up 
tlic country. The firing did not increase but ratlicr 
diminished in volume, though it now sounded close at 

I had ridden between three and a half and four miles, 
as well as I could judge, when I was obliged to turn 
for the third and fourth time into the road by a 
considerable stream, which was spanned by a bridge, 
towards which I was threading my way, when my 
attention was attracted by loud shouts in advance, and I 
perceived several waggons coming from the direction of 
tlie battle-field, the drivers of Avhich were endeavouring 
to force their horses past the ammunition carts going in 
the contrary direction near the bridge ; a thick cloud of 
dust rose behind them, and running by the side of the 
waggons, were a number of m^n in uniform whom I 
supposed to be the guard. My first impression was that 
the M'aggons were returning for fresh supplies of ammu- 
nition. But every moment the crowd increased, drivers 
and men cried out with the most vehement gestures, 
" Turn back ! Turn back ! "We are whipped." They 
seized the heads of the horses and swore at the opposing 
drivers. Emerging from the crowd a breathless man in 
the uniform of an officer with an empty scabbard 
dangling by his side, was cut off by getting between 
ray horse and a cart for a moment. "What is the 
matter, sir ? "What is all this about ? " " ^Vhy it means 
we are pretty badly whipped, that's the truth," he 
gasped, and continued. 

By this time the confusion had been communicating 
itself through the line of waggons towards the rear, 
and the drivers endeavoured to tvu'n round their vehicles 
in the narrow road, which caused the usual amount of 



imprecations from lie meu and pluugiug and kickinj:^ 
from the horses. 

The crowd from tlic front contiuuall}' increased, the 
lieat, the uproar, and the dust were beyond description, 
and these were augmented wlien some cavah-v stiUliers, 
flourishing their sabres and preceded by an ollicer, who 
cried out, " Make way there — make way there for 
the General," attempted to force a covered waggon in 
which was seated a man with a bloody handkerchief 
round his head, through the press. 

I had succeeded in getting across the bridge with 
great difficulty before the waggon came up, and I saw 
the crowd on the road was still gathering thicker and 
thicker. Again I asked an officer, who was on foot, w ith 
his sword under his arm, " What is all this for ? " 
"AVe are whipped, sir. 'We are all in retreat. You arc 
all to go back." "Can you tell me where I can find 
General M'Dowell ? " " No I nor can any one else." 

A few shells could be heard bursting not very far oil, 
but there wa-s nothing to account for such an extra- 
ordinary scene. A third officer, liowevcr, confirmed the 
report that the whole army was in retreat, and that the 
Federals were beaten on all points, but there was 
nothing in this disorder to indicate a general rout. 
All these things took place in a few seconds. I got up 
out of the road into a corn-lield, through which men 
were hastily walking or running, their facts streaming 
with perspirjition, and generally without arms, and 
worked my way for about half a mile or so, as well as I 
could judge, against an increasing stream of fugitives, 
the ground being strewed with coats, blankets, fire- 
locks, cooking tins, c:i])s, liclts, bayonets — asking in 
vain where General M'Dowell wjuj. 


Again I was compelled by the condition of llio 
fields to come into the road ; and having passed a piece 
of wood and a regiment wliich seemed to be moving 
l)ark in cokimn of march in tolerably good order, 
I turned once more into an opening close to a white 
liouse, not far from the lane, beyond which there was a 
belt of forest. Two fiehl-pieces Tinlimbercd near 
the lionsc, Avith panting horses in the rear, were pointed 
towards the front, and along the road beside tliem there 
swept a tolerably steady column of men mingled with 
fiekl ambulances and light baggage carts, back to 
Centreville. I liad just stretched out my hand to get a 
cigar-light from a German gunner, when the dropping 
shots which had been sounding through the woods in 
front of us, suddenly swelled into an animated fire. 
In a few seconds a crowd of men rushed out of the 
wood down towards the guns, and the artillerymen near 
me seized the trail of a piece, and were wheeling it 
round to fire, when an officer or sergeant called out, 
'' Stop ! stop I They are our own men j" and in two 
or three minutes the Avhole battalion came sweeping 
past the guns at the double, and in the utmost 
disorder. Some of the artiller^^men dragged the 
horses out of the tumbrils ; and for a moment the 
confusion was so great I could not understand what 
had taken place ; but a soldier whom I stopped, said, 
" "Wc ai'e pursued by their cavalry; they have cut us 
all to pieces.^' 

INIurat himself would not have dared to move a 
squadron on such ground. However, it could not be 
doubted that something serious was taking place ; and 
at that moment a shell burst in front of the house, 
scattering the soldiers near it, which was followed by 


anotlicr that bouiulctl along tlic road ; aiul in a few 
minutes more ont lainc another regiment from the 
wood, almost as broken as the first. The scene on 
the road had now assumed an aspect which has 
not a parallel in any description I have ever read. 
Infantry soldiers on mules and draught horses, with the 
harness clinging to their heels, as much frightened 
as their riders ; negro servants on their masters'* 
charirers ; ambulances crowded with unwounded 
soldiers j waggons swarming with men who threw out 
the contents in the road to make room, grinding 
through a slumting, screaming mass of men on foot, 
who were literally yelling with rage at every halt, and 
shrieking out, "Here are the cavalry! Will you get 
on?" This portion of the force was f;vidcntly in 

There was nothing left for it but to go with the 
current one could not stem. 1 turned round my 
horse from the deserted guns, and endeavoured to 
find out \\hat liad occurred as I rode quietly back 
on the skirts of the crowd. I talked with those on 
all sides of me. Some uttered ])ro(ligious nonsense, 
describing batteries tier over tier, and ambuscades, 
and blood running knee deep. Others described 
how their boys had carried whole lines of entrench- 
ments, but were beaten back for want of reinforce- 
ments. The names of many regiments Mcre mentioned 
as being utterly destroyed. Cavalry and bayonet 
charges and masked batteries played prominent parts 
in all the narrations. Some of the oflicers seemed to 
feel the disgrace of defeat ; but the strangest thing 
was the general indin'erencc with which the event 
seemed to ))e regarded bv tho^e who collected their 


senses as soon as tlicy got out of fire, aiul who said Ihcy 
were just going as far as Ceutrevillc, and would have a 
bis fiirlit to-morrow. 

Ey this time I was unwillingly approaching Centre- 
ville in the midst of heat, dust, confusions, imprecations 
inconceivable. On arriving at the place where a small 
rivulet crossed the road, the throng inrceased still more. 
The ground over which I had passed going out was now 
covered with arms, clothing of all kinds, accoutrements 
thrown off and left to be trampled in the dust under 
the hoofs of men and horses. The runaways ran 
alongside the waggons, striving to force themselves 
in among the occupants, who resisted tooth and nail. 
The drivers spurred, and whipped, and urged the 
horses to the utmost of their bent. I felt an incli- 
nation to laugh, which was overcome by disgust, and by 
that vague sense of something extraordinary taking 
place wdiich is experienced when a man sees a number of 
people acting as if driven by some unknown terror. 
As I rode in the crowd, with men clinging to the 
stirrup-leathers, or holding on by anything the}' could 
lay hands on, so that I had some apprehension of being 
pulled off, I spoke to the men, and asked them over 
and over again not to be in such a hurry. " There's 
no enemy to pursue you. All the cavalry in the world 
could not get at you.'' But I might as \\ell have 
talked to the stones. 

For my own part, I wanted to get out of the ruck as 
fast as I could, for the heat and dust were very dis- 
tressing, particularly to a half-starved man. Many of 
the fugitives were in the last stages of exhaustion, and 
some actually sank down by the fences, at the risk of 
being trampled to death. Above the roar of the flight, 


Nvliich was like the rush of a great river, the guus burst 
forth from time to time. 

The road at hist l)ecame somewhat clearer ; for 
I liad got aliead of some of the ammunition train and 
\Taggons, and the others were dasliing up the hill 
towards Centrevillc. The men's great-coats and blankets 
had Ijecn stowed in the trains; but the fugitives had 
apparently thrown them out on the road, to make room 
for themselves. Just beyond the stream I saw a heap 
of clothing tumble out of a large covered cart, and 
cried out after the driver, "Stop! stop ! All the things 
are tumbling out of the cart." But my zeal was 
checked by a scoundrel putting his head out, and 
shouting with a curse, " If you try to stop the team, 

I'll blow your brains out." My brains advised 

me to adopt the principle of non-intervention. 

It never occurred to me that this was a grand debacle. 
All along I believed the mass of the army was not 

broken, and that all I saw around was the result of con- 

. . . • 

fusion created in a crude organisation by a forced re- 
treat ; and knowing the reserves were at C'entreville and 
beyond, I said to myself, " Let us see how this will be 
when we get to the hill." I indulged in a (juiet 
chuckle, too, at the idea of my philusopliical friend and 
his stout companion fnuling themstlvcs suddenly cn\e- 
loped in the crowd of fugitives; but knew they could 
easily have regained their original position on the hill. 
Trotting along briskly through the fields, I arrived at 
tlie foot of the slope on which Ccntrcville stands, and 
met a German regiment just deploying into line very 
well and steadily — the men in the rear companies 
laughing, smoking, singing, and jesting with the fugi- 
tives, who were llling past ; but no thought of stopping 


tlic waggons, as the orders repeated from inoutli to 
mouth were that they were to fall back beyond Ceutre- 

The air of tlie men was good. The officers were 
cliccrful, and one big German with a great pipe in his 
bearded mouthj with spectacles on uose, amused himself 
by pricking the horses with his sabre point, as he 
passed, to the sore discomfiture of the riders. Behind 
the regiment came a battery of brass field-pieces, and 
another regiment in column of march was following the 
guns. They were going to form line at the end of the 
slope, and no fairer position could well be ottered for a 
defensive attitude, although it might be turned. But 
it was getting too late for the enemy wherever they 
were to attempt such an extensive operation. Several 
times I had been asked by officers and men, "Where 
do you think we will halt ? Where are the rest of tlie 
army?" I always replied " Centreville," and I had 
heard hundreds of the fugitives say they were going to 

I rode up the road, turned into the little street which 
carries the road on the right-hand side to Fairfax Court- 
house and the hill, and went straight to the place 
where I had left the buggy in a lane on the left of the 
road beside a small house and shed, expecting to find 
Mr. Warre ready for a start, as I had faithfully pro- 
mised Lord Lyons he should be back tliut night in 
Washington. The buggy was not there. I pulled open 
the door of the shed in which the horses had been shel- 
tered out of the sun. They were gone. " Oh," said I, 
to myself, " of course ! What a stupid fellow I am. 
Warre has luxd tlie horses put in and taken the gig to 
the top of the hill, in order to see the last of it before 


wc go." And so I rode over to the ridge; but iirriving 
there, coukl see uo sign of our vehicle far or ucur. 
Tliere were two carriages of some kind or other still 
remaining on the hill, and a few sjicctators, civilians 
and military, gazing on the scene below, which was 
softened in the golden rays of the declining sun. 
The smoke wreaths had ceased to curl over the green 
sheets of billowy forest as sea foam crisping in a gentle 
breeze breaks ilic lines of the ocean, liut far and near 
yellow and dun-coloured piles of dust seamed the laud- 
scape, leaving behind ihem long trailing clouds of 
lighter vapours which were dotted now and then by 
white pulf balls from the bursting of shell. On the 
riirht these clouds were verv heavv and seemed to 
approach rapidly, and it occurred to mc they might be 
caused by an advance of the much spoken-of and little 
seen cavalry ; and remembering the cross road from 
Gernjan Town, it seemed a very fine and very feasible 
operation for the Confederates to cut right iu on the 
line of retreat and communication, in which case the 
fate of the army and of Washington could not be 
dubious. There were now few civilians on the hill, and 
these were thinning away. Some were gesticulating 
and explaining to one another the causes of the retreat, 
looking very hot and red. The confusion among the 
last portion of the carriages and fugitives on the road, 
which I had outstripped, had been renewed again, and 
the crowd there presented a remarkable and ludicrous 
aspect through the glass ; but there were two strong 
battalions in good order near the foot of the hill, a 
baitery on the slope, another on Xhc top, and a portion 
of a regiment in and about ihe houses of the village. 
A farewell look at the scene [»resenteil no new features. 


Still tlic clouds of (lust moved ouwards denser and 
liigher ; flashes of arms lighted them up at times; the 
fields were dotted by fugitives, among whom many 
mounted men were marked by their greater speed, and 
the little flocks of dust rising from the horses' feet. 

I put up ni}' glass, and turning from the hill, with 
difficulty forced my way through the crowd of vehicles 
which were making their way towards the main road in 
the direction of the lane, hoping that by some lucky 
accident I might find the gig in waiting for me. But 
I sought in vain ; a sick soldier who was on a stretcher 
in front of the house near the corner of the lane, lean- 
ing on his elbow and looking at the stream of men and 
carriages, asked me if I could tell him what they were 
in such a hurry for, and I said they were merely getting 
back to their bivouacs. A man dressed in civilian's 
clothes grinned as I spoke. " I think they'll go farther 
than that," said he ; and then added, " If you're looking 
for the waggon you came in, it's pretty well back to 
Washington by this time. I think I saw you down 
thccrc with a nigger and two men." "Yes. They're all 
off, gone more than an hour and a-half ago, I think, 
and a stout man — I thought was you at first — along 
with them." 

Nothing was left for it but to brace iip the girths 
for a ride to the Capitol, for which, hungry and fagged 
as I was, I felt very little inclination. I v»as trotting 
quietly down the hill road beyond Centreville, when 
suddenly the guns on the other side, or from a battery 
very near, opened fire, and a fresh outburst of artillery 
sounded through the woods. In an instant the 
mass of vehicles and retreating soldiers, teamsters, 
and civilians, as if agonised by an electric shock, 


(juivorcil tliroutrhout tlio tortuous line. A\'it]i drendfnl 
shouts and cursings, the drivers lashed their 
maddened horses, and leaping from the carts, left 
theiu to their fate, and ran on foot. Artillery- 
men and foot soldiers, and negroes mounted on 
gun horses, with the chain traces and loose trappings 
trailing in the dust, spurred and flogged their steeds 
down the road or by the side paths. The firing con- 
tinued and seemed to approach the hill, and at every 
report the agitated body of horsemen and waggons was 
seized, as it were, with a fresh convulsion. 

Once more the dreaded cry, "The cavalry ! cavalry are 
coming \" rang through the crowd, and looking back to 
Centrcville I perceived coming down the hill, between 
me and the sky, a number of mounted men, who might 
at a hasty glance be taken for horsemen in the act of 
sabreing the fugitives. In reality they were soldiers 
and civilians, with, I regret to say, some officers among 
them, who were whipping and striking their horses with 
sticks or whatever else they could lay hands on. I 
called out to the men who were frantic with terror be- 
side me, " They arc not cavalry at all ; they're your 
own men" — but they did not heed me. A fellow who 
was shouting out. " Run ! run !" as loud as he could 
beside me, seemed to take delight in creating alarm ; 
and as he was perfectly collected as far as I coidd judge, 
I said, 'MVhat on earth are you running for? What 
are you afraid of?"' lie was in the roadside ])elow me, 
and at once turning on me, and cxelaiining, " Vm not 
afraid of you,'" presented his piece and pulled the trigger 
so instantaneously, that had it gone off I co\dd not 
have swerved from the ball. As the scoundrel delibe- 
rately drew up to examine the nipple, I judged it best 


not to <j;ivc him another chaiiCL', aiul spurred on 
through the crowd, where any luau coukl have shot us 
niauy as he pleased without iutcrruptioii. The only 
conclusiou I came to was, that he was mad or drunken, 
"\^ hen I was passing by the line of the bivouacs a 
battalion of meu came tumbling down the bank from 
the field into the road, with fixed bayonets, and as some 
fell in the road and others tumbled on top of them, 
there must have been a few ingloriously wounded. 

I galloped on for a short distance to head the ruck, 
for I could not tell whether this body of infantry in- 
tended moving back towards Centrcville or were coming 
down the road; but the mounted men galloping furiously 
past me, with a cry of " Cavalry ! cavalry I" on their 
lips, swept on faster than I did, augmenting the alarm 
and excitement. I came up with two officers who 
were riding more leisurely ; and touching my hat, 
said, " I venture to suggest that these men should 
be stopped, sir. If not, thej^ will alarm the w^hole 
of the post and pickets on to Washington. They will 
fl}' next, and the consequences will be most disastrous." 
One of the two, looking at me for a moment, nodded 
his head without saying a word, spurred his horse to 
full speed, and dashed on in front along the road. 
Following more leisurely I observed the fugitives in 
front were suddenly checked in their speed; and as I 
turned my horse into the wood by the road-side to 
get on so as to prevent the chance of another block- 
up, I passed several private vehicles, in one of 
Avhich ]\Ir. Raymond, of the Neiv York Times, was 
seated with some friends, looking by no means happy. 
He says in his report to his paper, " About a 
mile this side of Centrevillc a stampedo took place 


amongst the teamsters and others, whicli threw every- 
thiiitr into the utmost confusion, and inflicted very 
serious injuries. ^Ir. Eaton, of Micliigan, in trying to 
arrest the flight of some of these men, was shot by one 
of tliem, the ball taking effect in his hand." He asked 
me, in some anxiety, what I thought Mould happen. I 
replied, " No doubt !M*Dowell will stand fast at Ceu- 
treville to-night. These are mere runaways, and un- 
less the enemy's cavalry succeed in getting tlirough 
at this road, there is nothing to apprehend." 

And I continued through the wood till I got a clear 
space in front on the road, along which a regiment of 
infantry was advancing towards me. They halted ere I 
came up, aiul with levelled firelocks arrested the men 
on horses and the carts and waggons galloping towards 
them, and blocked up the road to stop their progress. 
As I tried to edge by on the right of the column by 
the left of the road, a soldier presented his firelock at 
my head from the liigher ground on which he stood, 
for the road had a deep trench cut on the side by which I 
was endeavouring to pass, and sung out, " Halt ! Stop 
— or I fire !" The officers in front were waving their 
swords and shouting out, " Don't let a soul pass ! Keep 
back ! keep back !" Bowing to the oflTicer who was 
near me, 1 said, " I beg to assure you, sir, I am not 
running away. I am a civilian and a British subject. 
I have done my best as I came along to stop this 
disgraceful rout. I aui in no hurry; I merely want to 
get back to Washiugton to-night. I have been telling 
them all along there are no cavalry near us." The 
oflicer to whom I was speaking, young and somewhat 
excited kept repeatiug, "Keep back, sir! keep back! 
you must keep back." Again I said to him, " I 


assure you T am not witli tliis crowd ; my pulse is as 
cool as your own." But as he paid no attcutiou to 
what I said, I suddenly hctliouj^lit me of General 
Scott's letter, and addressing another officer, said, " I 
am a civilian going to AVasliington ; Avill you be kind 
enough to look at this pass, specially given to me b}'' 
General Scott.-" The officer looked at it, and handed 
it to a mounted man, cither adjutant or colonel, who, 
having examined it, returned it to me, saying, " Oh, 
yes ! certainly. Pass that man !" And with a cry of 
"Pass that man \" along the line, I rode down the 
trench very leisurely, and got out on the road, which 
Avas now clear, though some fugitives had stolen 
through the woods on the flanks of the column and 
were in front of me. 

A little further on there was a cart on the right hand 
side of the road, surrounded by a group of soldiers. I 
was trotting past Avhen a respectable-looking man in 
a semi-military garb, coming out from the group, said, 
in a tone of much doubt and distress — " Can you tell 
me, sir, for God's sake, where the 09th New York are? 
These men tell me they are all cut to pieces.'' " And 
so they are," exclaimed one of the fellows, Avho had 
the number of the regiment on his cap. 

"You hear what they say, sir?" exclaimed the man. 

"I do, but I really cannot tell you where the G9th are." 

" I'm in charge of these mails, and I'll deliver them 
if I die for it ; but is it safe for me to go on ? You arc 
a gentleman, and I can depend on your word." 

His assistant and himself were in the greatest i)er- 
plexity of mind, but all I could say was, " I really can't 
tell you ; I believe the army will halt at Ccntrevillc to- 
night, and I think you may go on there with the 


greatest safety, if you can get tUrougU tlic crowd." 
" Faith, theu, he cau't," exclaimed one of the soldiers. 

'' Why not V " Shure, aru't we cut to pieces. 
Didu't I hear the kuruel hiiusilf saying we was all of 
us to cut aud run, every man on his owu hook, as well 
as he could. Stup at Ciutlireville, indeed !" 

I bade the mail agent* good evening and rode on, 
but even in this short colloquy stragglers on foot and 
on horseback, who had turned the Hanks of the regi- 
ment by side paths or through the woods, came pouring 
along the road once more. 

Somewhere about this I was accosted by a stout, 
elderly man, with the air aud appearance of a respect- 
able mechanic, or small tavern-keeper, wlio introduced 

• I have sinco mot the person referred to, on EngUalimaa liviug iu 
"Washington, and well known at the Legation and elsewhere. Mr. 
Dawbon came to tell me that he had iseeu a letter iu iiu American 
journal, which was copied extensively all over the Union, iu which the 
writer stated he accouipauied me on my return to Fairfax Court-liouse, 
and that the iucideut I related in my account of Bull Uun did not 
occur, but that he was the individual referred to, aud could swear 
with his assistant that every word 1 wrote wiis true. I did not need 
any such corroboration for the satibfaction of any who know me ; and 
I was quite well aware ihiit if one CAinv from the dead to bear tebtimouy 
iu my favour before the American journals aud jiublic, the evidence 
would not countervail the slander of any characterless Bcribe who 
sought to gain a momeut's notoriety by a flat contradiction of my 
narrative. I may a<ld, that Dawson begged of me not to bring him 

before the public, " because 1 am now sutler to the th, over in 

Virgiuia, and they Would dismiss mo." "What! For certifying to 
the truth?" " Vou know, sir, it might do mo harm," Whilst on 
this subject, let me renuirk tliat home time afierwiuds I was iu Mr. 
linidy's photograiihic studio iu IVnuHylvania Avenue, Washington, when 
tho very intelligent and obliging manager introduced himself to me, 
aud said that he wished to have an opportunity of repeating to me 
personally what he had freipieiitly told perBona in tlie place, that he 
could bear the fullest testimony to the complete accuracy of my account 
of the jiauic from CcutrcvilK- down tlie road at the time 1 left, and th-it 
ho and his assistants, who wiTt- on the spot trying to get away their 
jihotogniphic van aud ajjpanilus, could certify that my description fell 
far short of tho disgraceful spectacle aud of tho excesses of the ^ght. 


liimself as having met mo at Cairo. lie poured (jut a 
flood of woes on me, how heliad lost his friend and eoni- 
panion, nearly lost his scat several times, was uuaceus- 
toined to riding, was suffering much pain from the unusual 
position and exercise, did not know the road, feared he 
would never be able to get on, dreaded he might be 
captured and ill-treated if he was known, and such 
topics as a selfish man in a good deal of pain or fear is 
likely to indulge in. 1 calmed his apprehensions as well 
as I could, by saying, " I had no doubt M'Dowell would 
halt and show fight at Centreville, and be able to 
advance from it in a day or two to renew the fight 
again ; that he couldn't miss the road ; whiskey aud 
and tallow were good for abrasions ; " and as I was 
riding very slowly, he jogged along, for he was a burr, 
and would stick, with many " Oh dears ! Oh ! dear 
me ! " for most part of the way joining me at intervals 
till I reached Fairfax Court House, A body of 
infantry were under arms in a grove near the Court 
House, on the right hand side of the road. The door and 
windows of the houses presented crowds of faces black 
and white ; and men and women stood out upon the 
porch, M'ho asked me as I passed, " Ha\ c you l)een at 
the fight ? " " What are they all running for ? " " Arc 
the rest of them coming on ? " to which I gave the 
same replies as before. 

Arrived at the little inn where I had halted in the 
morning, I perceived the sharp-faced woman in black, 
standing in the verandah with an elderly man, a taller 
and younger one dressed in black, a little girl, and a 
woman who stood in the passage of the door. I asked 
if I could get anything to eat. " Not a morsel ; there's 
not a bit left in the house, but you can get something, 



perhaps, if you like to stay till supper time." " Would 
you oblige me by telliug me where I cau get some 
water for my horse ? " " Oh, certainly," said the elder 
man, and calling to a uegro he directed him to bring 
a bucket from the well or pump, iuto which the thirsty 
brute buried its head to the eyes. Whilst the horse 
was drinking the taller or younger man, leaning over 
the verandah, asked me quietly " What ai'e all the 
peoi)lc coming hack for? — what's set them a running 
towai'ds Alexandria?" 

" Oh, it's ouly a fright the drivers of the commissariat 
waggons have had; they are id"raid of the enemy's 

" Ah," said the man, and looking at me narrow ly 
he inquired, after a pause, " are you an American ? " 

"No, I am not, thank God; I'm au Englishman." 

" "Well, then," said he, nodding his head and speak- 
ing slowly through his teeth, " There will be cavalry 
after them soon enough ; there is 20,000 of the best 
horsemen in the world in old Virginny." 

Having received full directions from the people at 
the inn for the road to the Long Bridge, which 1 was 
luost au.xious to reach instead of going to Alexandria 
or to Georgetown, I bade the Virginian good evening ; 
and seeing that my stout friend, who had also watered 
his horse by my advice at the inn, was still clinging 
alongside, I excused myself by saying I must press on 
to Washington, and galloped on for a mile, until I got 
into the cover of a wood, where I dismounted to 
examine the horse's hoofs and shift the saddle for a 
moment, wipe the sweat oil" his back, and make him 
and myself as cumforlablc as could be for our ride into 
Washington, which was si ill seventeen or eighteen 


miles before me. I piisscd groups of men, some on 
liorseback, others on foot, going at u more leisurely 
rate towards the capital ; and as I was smoking my 
last cigar by the side of the wood, I observed the 
number had rather increased, and that among the 
retreating stragglers were some men who appeared to 
be wounded. 

The sun had set, but the rising moon was adding 
every moment to the lightness of the road as I mounted 
once more and set out at a long trot for the capital. 
Presently I was overtaken by a waggon with a small 
escort of cavalry and an officer riding in front. I had 
seen the same vehicle once or twice along the road, and 
observed an officer seated in it with his head bound up 
with a handkerchief, looking very pale and ghastly. 
The mounted officer leading the escort asked mc if I 
was going into Washington and knew the road. I 
told him I had never been on it before, but thought 
T could find my way, "at any rate we'll find plenty to 
tell us." " That's Colonel Hunter inside the carriage, 
he's shot through the throat and jaw, and I want to get 
him to the doctor's in Washington as soon as I can. 
Have you been to the fight ? " 

" No, sir." 

'^ A member of Congress, I suppose, sir ? " 

"No, sir; I'm an Englishman." 

" Oh indeed, sir, then I'm glad you did not sec 
it, so mean a fight, sir, I never saw ; we whipped tlie 
cusses and drove them before us, and took their batteries 
and spiked their guns, and got right up in among all 
their dirt works and great batteries and forts, driving 
them before us like sheep, when up more of them would 
get, as if out of the ground, then our boys would drive 

u 2 


them again till wc were fairly worn ont ; tliov had 
nothing to eat since last night and nothing to drink. 
I myself liavc not tasted a morsel since two o'clock last 
night. Well, there we were waiting for reinforcements 
and expecting M'Dowell and the rest of the army, when 
Avhish ! they threw open a whole lot of masked batteries 
on us, and then came down sucli swarms of horsemen on 
black horses, all black as you never saw, and slashed 
our boys over finely. The colonel was hit, and I 
thought it best to get him oft' as well as I could, before 
it was too late; And, my God ! when they did take to 
running they did it first-rate, I can tell you," and so, the 
officer, who had evidently taken enough to afl'cct his 
empty stomach and head, cliattering aliout the fight, 
M'C trotted on in the moonlight : dipping down into 
the valleys on the road, which seemed like inky lakes 
in the shadows of the black trees, then mounting up 
again along the white road, which shone like a river in 
the moonlight — the country silent as death, though 
once as we crossed a small water-course and the noise 
of the carriage wheels ceased, I called the attention of 
my companions to a distant sound, as of a great multi- 
tude of people mingled with a faint rejjort of cannon. 
"Do you hear that?" "No, I don't. But it's our 
chaps, no doubt. They're coming .nlong finCj I can 
promise you." At last some nnles further on wc canu^ 
to a picket, or main guard, on the roadside, who ran 
forward, crying out " What's the news — anything fresh 
— are we whipped? — is it a fact?" "Well, gentle- 
men," exclaimed the Major, reining up for a moment, 

"we are knocked into a cocked hat — licked to h 1." 

" Oh, pray don't say that," I exclaimed, " It's not 
(piite so bad, it's only a draw n batth-, and the troops 


Avill uccupy Centreville to-uight, and the posts they 
started from tliis morning." 

A little further ou we met a line of eouiuiissariat 
carts, and my excited and rather injudicious military 
friend appeared to take the greatest pleasure in re- 
plying to their anxious queries for news. "We are 
"whipped ! "Whipped like h ." 

At the cross-roads now and then we were per- 
plexed, for no one knew the bearings of Washington, 
though the stars were bright enough; but good for- 
tune favoured us and kept us straight, and at a deserted 
little village, with a solitary church on the road-side, I 
increased my pace, bade good-night and good speed to 
the officer, and having kept company with two men in 
a gig for some time, got at length ou the guarded road 
leading towards the capital, and was stopped by the 
pickets, patrols, and grand rounds, making repeated 
demands for the last accounts from the field. The 
houses by the road-side were all closed up and in dark- 
ness, I knocked in vain at several for a drink of water, 
but was answered only by the angry barkings of the 
watch-dogs from the slave quarters. It was a peculiarity 
of the road that the people, and soldiers I met, at i)oints 
several miles apart, always insisted that I was twelve miles 
from Washington. Up hills, down valleys, with the 
silent, grim woods for ever by my side, the white roads 
and the black shadows of men, still I was twelve miles 
from the Long Bridge, but suddenly I came upon a grand 
guard under arms, who had quite diflcrent ideas, and 
who said I was only about four miles from the river ; they 
crowded round me. '' Well, man, and how is the fight 
going ? " I repeated my tale. " What does he say ? " 
"Oh, begorra, he says we're not bet at all; it's all lies 


they have been telling us ; we're only going back to 
the oukl lines for the greater convaniency of fighting 
to-morrow again ; that's illigaut, hooro ! " 

All by the sides of the old camps the men were 
standing, lining the road, and I was obliged to evade 
many a grasp at my bridle by shouting out " Don't stop 
me ; I've important news; it's all well ! " and still the 
good horse, refreshed by the cool night air, went 
clattering on, till from the top of the road beyond 
Arlington I caught a sight of the lights of Washington 
and the white buildings of the Capitol, and of the 
Executive Mansion, glittering like snow in the moon- 
light. At the entrance to the Long Bridge the sentry 
challenged, and asked for the countersign. " I have 
not got it, but I've a i)ass from General Scott." An 
officer advanced from the guard, and on reading the 
pass permitted me to go on without difliculty. He 
s.iid, " I have been obliged to let a good many go over 
to-night before you, Congress men and others. I suj)pose 
you did not expect to be coming 1)aek so soon. I fear it's 
a bad business." " Oh, not so bad after all ; I expected 
to have been back to-night before nine o'clock, and 
crossed over this morning without the countersign." 
" Well, I guess," said he, " we don't do such quick 
fighting as that in this country." 

As I crossed the Long liridge there was scarce a sound 
to dispute the possession of its echoes with my horse's 
hoofs. The poor bcjujt had carried me nobly and well, 
and I made up my mind to buy him, as I had no doubt he 
would answer jjcrfectly to carry me back in a day or two 
to M'DowcH's army by the time he had organised it for 
a new attack upon the eneni\'s position. Little did I 
conceive the greatness of the defeat, the magnitude of 


tlio disasters which it liad entailed upDii the T'^nited 
States or the interval that w(Mdd elapse before another 
army set ont from the banks of the Potomac onward 
to Richmond. Had I sat down that night to write 
my letter, qnite ignorant at the time of the great 
calamity which had befallen his army, in all pro- 
bability I would have stated that M'Dowell had re- 
ceived a severe repnlsc, and had fallen back upon 
Centreville, that a disgraceful panic and confusion 
had attended the retreat of a portion of his army, 
but that the appearance of the reserves would pro- 
bably prevent the enemy taking any advantage of 
the disorder; and as I would have merely been able 
to describe such incidents as fell under my own obser- 
vation, aud would have left the American journals 
to narrate the actual details, and the despatches of 
the American Generals the strategical events of the 
day, I should have led the world at home to believe, 
as, in fact, I believed myself, that McDowell's retro- 
grade movement would be arrested at some point 
between Centreville and Fairfax Court House. 

The letter that I was to write occupied my mind 
whilst I was crossing the Long Bridge, gazing at the 
lights reflected in the Potomac from the city. The 
night had become overcast, and heavy clouds rising up 
rapidly obscured the moon, forming a most phantastic 
mass of shapes in the sk3% 

At the Washington end of the bridge I was chal- 
lenged again by the men of a whole regiment, who, 
with piled arms, were halted on the chaussee, smoking, 
laughing, and singing. " Stranger, have you been to 
the fight ? " "1 have been only a little beyond Centre- 
ville." But that was quite enough. Soldiers, civilians, 


iiiul women, who sceiiicd to be out unusually late, 
crowded round the horse, and again I told luy 
stereotyped story of the uusucccssful attempt to carry 
the Confederate positiou, and tlie retreat to Centreville 
to await better luck next time. The soldiers alongside mc 
cheered, and those next them took it u]) till it ran through 
the whole line, and must have awoke the night owls. 

As I passed Willard's hotel a little further on, a 
clock — 1 think the only public clock which strikes 
the hours in Washington — tolled out the hour ; 
and I supposed, from what the sentry told mc, though 
I did not count the strokes, that it was eleven 
o'clock. All the rooms in the hotel were a blaze of 
light. The pavemeut before the door was crowded, 
and some mounted meu aud the clattering of sabres on 
the pavement led nie to infer that the escort of the 
wounded officer had arrived before me. I passed on to 
the livery-stables, where every one was alive and stirring. 
" I'm sure," said the man, "I thought I'd uever see you 
nor the horse back again. The gig and the other gentle- 
man has been back a long time. How did he carry you ? " 
" Oh, pretty well ; what's his price? " 
" AVell, now that 1 look at him, and to you, it will be 
lUU dollars less than 1 said. I'm in good heart to-night." 
" AVhy so ? A number of your horses and carriages 
have not come back yet, you tell me." 

" Oh, well, I'll get paid for them some time or 
another. Oh, such news! such news!" said he, rubbing 
his hands. " Twenty thousand of thcni killed and 
wounded 1 May-be they're not having (its in the 
White House to-night !" 

I walked to my lodgings, and just as I turned the 
key ill the door .'i flash of light made mc pause for a 


moment, in expectation of the report of a j;un ; for I 
could not help tliinking it quite possible that, 
somehow or another, the Confederate cavalry would 
try to beat up the lines, but no sound followed. 
It must have been lightning. I walked up-stairs, 
and saw a most welcome supper ready on the table — 
an enormous piece of cheese, a sausage of unknown 
components, a knuckle-bone of ham, and a bottle of a 
very light wine of France; but I would not have ex- 
changed that repast and have waited half an hour for any 
banquet that Soyer or Carcme could have prepared at 
their l)est. Then, having pulled ofi' my boots, bathed ui}' 
head, trimmed candles, and lighted a pipe, I sat down 
to write. I mode some feeble sentences, but the pen 
went flying about the paper as if the spirits were 
playing tricks with it. When I screwed up my utmost 
resolution, the " y's" would still run into long streaks, 
and the letters combine most curiously, and my eyes 
closed, and my pen slipped, and just as I was aroused 
from a nap, and settled into a stern determination to 
hold my pen straight, I was interrupted by a messenger 
from Lord Lyons, to inquire whether I had returned, 
and if so, to ask me to go up to the Legation, and get 
something to eat. I explained, with my thanks, that 
I was quite safe, and had ^eaten supper, and learned 
from the servant that Mr. Warre and his companion 
had arrived about two hours previously. I resumed 
my seat once more, haunted by the memory of tlie 
Boston mail, which would be closed in a few hours, 
and I had much to tell, although I had not seen the 
battle. Again and again I woke up, l)ut at last the 
greatest conqueror but death overcame me, and with 
my head on the blotted paper, I fell fast asleep. 


A runaway crowd at Washington — The army of the Potomac in retreat 
— Mail-day — Want of order and authority — Newspaper lies — 
Alarm at Washington — Confederate prisoners — General M'Clellan 
— M. Mercier— Effects of the defeat on Mr. Seward and the Presi- 
dent — M 'Dowell — General Patteson. 

July H/kI. — I awoke from a deep sleep this iiiorning, 
about six o'clock. The raiu was falling iu torrents and 
beat with a dull, thudding sound on the leads outside 
ray window ; but, louder than all, came a strange 
sound, as if of the tread of men, a confused tramp and 
splashing, and a murmuring of voices. I got up 
and ran to the front room, the windows of which 
looked on the street, and there, to my intense sur- 
prise, I saw a steady stream of men covered with mud, 
soaked through with rain, who were pouring irrcgnl.irly, 
without any senibhiuce of order, up Pennsylvania 
Avenue towards the Capitol. A dense stream of vapour 
rose from the nndtitudc ; but looking closely at the men, 
I perceived they belonged to ditlerent regiments, New- 
Yorkers, ^lichigandcrs, Khode Islanders, ^lassachuset- 
ters, Minncsotinu';, niingU'd i)cllmell together. Many of 
them were without knapsacks, crossljclts, and jirclocks. 
tSoiiie had neither great-coats nor shoes, others were 
covered with blaukets. Hastily putting on my clotljes, 
I ran down stairs and asked an " olHcer," who was 


l)assing by, a [)alc youn<^ man, who looked exhausted to 
death, and Avho had lost his sword, for the empty 
sheath daiigk^d at his side, where the men were coming 
from. "AVhere from? AVell, sir, I guess we're all 
coining out of Verginny as far as we can, and pretty 
well whipped too/' " What ! the whole army, sir ? " 
"That's more than I know. They may stay that like. I 
kno\v I'm going home. I've had enough of fighting to 
last my lifetime." 

The news seemed incredible. But there, before my 
eyes, were the jaded, dispirited, broken remnants of 
regiments passing onwards, where and for what I knew 
not, and it was evident enough that the mass of tlie 
grand army of the Potomac was placing that river 
between it and the enemy as rapidly as possible. " Is 
there any pursuit ? " I asked of several men. Some 
were too surly to reply ; others said, " They're coming 
as fast as they can after us." Others, " I guess they've 
stopped it now — the rain is too much for them." A 
few said they did not know, and looked as if they did 
not care. And here came one of these small crises in 
Avhich a special correspondent would give a good deal 
for the least portion of duality in mind or body. A few 
sheets of blotted paper and writing materials lying on 
the table beside the burnt-out candles, reminded me that 
the imperious post-day was running on. "The mail for 
Europe, via Boston, closes at one o'clock, Monday, July 
22nd," stuck up in large characters, warned me I had 
not a moment to lose. I knew the event would be of 
the utmost interest in England, and that it would be 
important to tell the truth as far as I kuew it, leaving 
the American papers to state their own case, that tiic 
public might form their own conclusions. 


Hut then. I felt, liuw iutere^tini: it wuuld Ijc to 
ride out and wateli the evacuation of* the sacred 
soil of Virginia, to see what the eueiuy were doiu^, 
to examine the situation of afl'airs, to hear what the men 
said, and, above all, iiud out the cause of this retreat 
aud headlong confusion, investigate the extent of the 
Federal losses and the condition of the wounded; iu 
fact, to find materials for a dozen of letters. I would 
fain, too, have seen General Scott, and heard his 
opinions, and have visited the leading senators, to get a 
notion of the way in which they looked on this cata- 
strophe. — " I do perceive here a divided duty." — But 
the more I reflected on the matter the more strongly I 
became convinced that it would not be advisable to 
postpone the letter, and that the events of the 21st 
ought to have precedence of those of the 22nd, and so I 
stuck up my usual notice on the door outside of 
" Mr. Kussell is out," and resumed my letter. 

Whilst the rain fell, the tramp of feet went steadily 
on. As I lifted my eyes now and then from the paper, 
I saw the beaten, foot-sore, sj)ongy-looking soldiers, 
officers, and all the debris of the army filing through 
mud aud rain, and forming in crowds in frout of 
the spirit stores. rnderneath my room is the 
magazine of Jost, ncgociant en vins, and he drives a 
roaring trade this morning, interrupted occasionally 
b\' loud disputes as to the score. ^Vhen the lad came 
ill with my breakfjist he seemed a degree or two lighter 
in colour than usual. " What's the matter with you?*' 
" I 'spects, massa, the Secesjiers soon be in here. Vm 
a free nigger; I must go, sar, afore de come cotch 
me." It is rather plcjusant to be neutral uniler such 


I speedily satisfied myself I could not finish niy 
Icttei' in time for post, and I therefore sent for my 
respectable Englishman to go direct to Boston l)y 
the train which leaves this at four o'clock to-morrow 
morning, so as to catch the mail steamer on Wed- 
nesday, and telegraphed to tl)e agents there to inform 
them of my intention of doing so. Visitors came 
knocking at the door, and insisted on getting in — 
military friends who wanted to give me their versions 
of the battle — the attaches of legations andot hers who 
desired to hear the news and have a little gossip ; but I 
turned a deaf ear doorwards, and they went off into 
the outer rain again. 

More draggled, more muddy, and down-hearted, and 
foot-weary and vapid, the great army of the Potomac 
still straggled by. Towards evening I seized ray hat 
and made off to the stable to inquire how the poor 
horse was. There he stood, nearly as fresh as ever, a 
little tucked up in the ribs, but eating heartily, and 
perfectly sound. A change had come over J\Ir. Wroe's 
dream of horseflesh. " They'll be going cheap now," 
thought he, and so he said aloud, " If you'd like to 
buv that horse, I'd let you have him a little under what 
I said. Dear ! dear ! it must a' been a siglit sure-ly to 
see them Yankees running ; you can scarce get through 
the Avenue with them." 

And what j\Ir. ^Y. says is quite true. The rain 
has abated a little, and the pavements are densely 
packed with men in uniform, some with, others 
without, arras, on whom the shopkeepers are looking 
with evident alarm. They seem to be in posses- 
sion of all the spirit-houses. Now and then shots 
are heard down the street or in the distance, and 


cries and slioutiug, as if a sculllc or a difliculty were 
occurring. Willard's is turned into a barrack for 
otficers, and presents such a scene in the hall as could 
only be witnessed in a city occupied by a demondised 
army. There is no provost guard, no patrol, no 
authority visible in the streets. General Scott is 
(piite overwhelmed by the afl'air, and is unable to 
stir. General !M'Dowell has not yet arrived. The 
Secretary of War knows not what to do, Mr- 
Lincoln is equally helpless, and Mr. Seward, who 
retains some calmness, is, notwithstanding his mili- 
tary rank and militia experience, \\ ithout resource or 
expedient. There are a good many troops hanging on 
about the camps and forts on the other side of the 
river, it is said ; but they are thoroughly disorganised, 
and will run away if the enemy comes in sight without 
a shot, and then the capital must fall at once. Why 
Beauregard does not come I know not, nor can I well 
guess. I have been expecting every hour since noon 
to hear his cannon. Here is a golden opportunity. If 
the Confederates do not grasp that which will never come 
again on such terms, it stamps them with mediocrity. 

The morning papers are quite ignorant of the 
defeat, or aliVct to be unaware of it, and declare 
yesterday's battle to have been in favour of the 
Federals generally, the least arrogant stating that 
IM'Dowell Mill resume his march from Centrcville im- 
mediately. The evening papers, however, seem to be 
more sensible of the real nature of the crisis : it is 
scarcely within the reach of any amount of imperti- 
nence or audacious assertion to deny what is passing 
bc-fure their very eyes. The grand army of the Potomac 
is in the streets of Washington, iustead of being on its 


■way to Richmond. Ouc paper contains a statement 
uliich would make mc uneasy about myself if I had any 
conlidcncc in these stories, for it is asserted "that ^[r. 
Russell was last seen in the thick of the fight, and has 
not yet returned. Fears arc entertained for his safety/' 

Towards dark the rain moderated and the noise in the 
streets waxed louder ; all kinds of rumours respecting 
the advance of the enemy, the annihilation of Federal 
regiments, the tremendous losses on both sides, charges 
of cavalry, stormings of great intrenchmeuts and stu- 
pendous masked batteries, and elaborate reports of 
unparalleled feats of personal valour, were circulated 
under the genial influence of excitement, and by the 
quantities of alcohol necessar}' to keep out the influence 
of the external moisture. I did not hear one expression 
of confidence, or see one cheerful face in all that vast 
crowd which but a few days before constituted an army, 
and was now nothing better than a semi-armed mob. 
I could see no cannon returning, and to my inquiries 
after them, I got generally the answer, " I suppose the 
Seceshers have got hold of them. 

"Whilst I was at table several gentlemen who have 
entree called on me, who confirmed my impressions 
respecting the magnitude of the disaster that is so 
rapidly developing its proportions. They agree in 
describing the army as disorganised. AVashington is 
rendered almost untenable, in consequence of the con- 
duct of the army, which was not only to ha\e de- 
fended it, but to have captured the rival capital. 
Some of my visitors declared it was dangerous to 
move abroad in the streets. Many think the contest 
is noM' over ; but the gentlemen of Washington have 
Southern sympathies, and I, on the contrary, am 


persuaded this prick in the great Northern balloon \vill 
let out a (juantity of poisonous gas, and rouse the people 
to a sense of the nature of the conflict on which they 
have entered. The inmates of the White House are 
in a state of the utmost trepidation, and "Sir. Lincoln, 
who sat in the telegraph operator's room with General 
Scott and Mr. Seward, listening to the dispatches as 
they arrived from the scene of action, left it in 
despair when the fatal words tripped from the needle 
and the defeat was clearly revealed to him. 

Having finally cleared my room of visitors and locked 
the door, I sat down once more to my desk, and con- 
tinued my narrative. The night wore on, and the tumult 
still reigned in the city. Once, indeed, if not twice, my 
attention was aroused by sounds like distant cannon 
and outbursts of musketry, but on reflection I was 
satisfied the Confederate general would never be rash 
enough to attack the place by night, and that, after all 
the rain which had fallen, he in all probability would 
give horses and meu a day's rest, marching them 
through the night, so as to appear before the city in ths 
course of to-morrow. Again and again I was inter- 
rupted by soldiers clamonring for drink and for money, 
attracted by the light in my windows ; one or two irrc- 
j)ressible and irresistible friends actually succeeded in 
making their way into my room — ^^jnst as on the night 
when I was engaged in writing an acconnt of the last 
attack on the Kedan my hut was stormed by visitors, 
and much of my letter was jjcnned under the aj)prc- 
hension of a sharp j»air of spnrs fixed in the heels of a 
jolly little adjutant, who, overcome by fatigue and rum- 
and-water, fell asleep in my chair, with his legs cocked 
up on my writing-table— but I saw the last of them 


about mid-niglit, and so contiinicd writiiij; till the 
monun«^ lij^^lit bc^aii to steal tliroiif;li the casement. 
Then came the trusty messenj^cr, and, at -l a.m., 
when I had handed him the parcel and looked round 
to see all my things were in readiness, lest a rjipid 
toilet might be necessary in the morning, with a sigh of 
relief I {)lunged into bed, and slept. 

Jn/ij 2'-h'd. — Tlie morning was far advanced wlien 
I awoke, and liearing the roll of waggons ia 
the street, I at first imagined the Federals were 
actually about to abandon Washington itself; but on 
going to the window, I perceived it arose from an 
irregular train of commissariat carts, country waggons, 
ambulances, and sutlers' vans, in the centre of the 
street, the paths being crowded as before with soldiers, 
or rather with men in uniform, many of whom seemed 
as if they had been rolling in the mud. Poor General 
Mansfield was running back and forwards between his 
quarters and the War Department, and in the afternoon 
some efforts were made to restore order, by appointing 
rendezvous to which the fragment of regiments shotdd 
repair, and by organising mounted patrols to clear the 
streets. In the middle of the day I went out through 
the streets, and walked down to the long bridge with 
the intention of crossing, but it was literally blocked 
up from end to end with a mass of waggons and ambu- 
lances full of wounded men, whose cries of pain echoed 
above the shouts of the drivers, so that I al)andoned the 
attempt to get across, which, indeed, would not have 
been easy with any comfort, owing to the depth ut" mud 
in the roads. To-day the aspect of Washington is 
more unseemly and disgraceful, if that were possilde, 
than yesterday afternoon. 

VOL. II. 8 


As I rctiinic'd towards idv lodjrin}^ a scene of 
jjreater disorder sind violence tlian usual attracted my 
attention. A body of Confederate prisoners, luarcliin;? 
two and two, were with ditiiculty saved by tlieir guard 
from the murderous assaults of a hooting rabble, com- 
posed of civiHans and men dressed like soldiers, who 
liurled all kinds of missiles they could lay their hands 
upon over the heads of the guard at their victims, spat- 
tering them with mud and filthy language. It was 
very gratifying to see the way in which the dastardly 
mob dispersed at the appearance of a squad of momited 
men, who charged them boldly, and escorted the pri- 
soners to (Jeneral Mansfield. They consisted of a 
picket or grand guard, which, unaware of the retreat of 
their regiment from Fairfax, marched into the Federal 
lines before the battle. Their just indignation was 
audible enough. One of them, afterwards, told CJeneral 
M'Dowcll, who hurried over as soon as he was made 
aware of the disgraceful outrages to which they had 
been exposed, " 1 would have died a hundred deaths 
before 1 fell into these wretches' hands, if 1 had known 
this. Set me free for five minutes, and let any two, or 
four, of them insult me when my hands are loose.'' 

Soon afterwards a report flew about that a crowd of 
soldiers were hanging a Secesssionist. A senator 
rushed to (jeneral M' Howell, and told him that he had 
seen the man swinging witli his own eyes. Olfwent 
the General, ventre a tcrrv, and was considerably 
relieved by finding they were hanging merely a 
dunnny or elligy of .h If. l)avis, not having sueceeded 
in getting at the original yesterday. 

Poor M'Dowcll has been swiftly punished for his 
defeat, or rather lor the unhappy termination to his 


advance. As soon as the disaster was asccrtaiiicd 
beyond doubt, tlie President teleuraphcul to (Jeneral 
M'Clellan to come and take comiuaud of his army. It 
is a commentary full of instruction on the military 
system of the Americans, that they iiave not a s(jl<licr 
who has ever handled a brij^ade in the field lit for 
service in the North. 

The new commander-in-chief is a brevet-major who has 
been in civil employ on a railway for several years. He 
went once, with two other West Point officers, commis- 
sioned by ]\Ir. Jefferson Davis, then Secrctary-of-War, 
to examine and report on the ojjcrations in the Crimea, 
who were judiciously despatched when the war was 
over, and I used to see him and his companions pokin<; 
about the ruins of the deserted trenches and batteries, 
mounted on horses furnished by the courtesy of British 
officers, just as they lived in English quarters, when 
they were snubbed and refused an audience by the 
Duke of Malakhoff in the French camp. jNIajor 
M'Clellan forgot the affront, did not even mention it, 
and showed his Christian spirit by praising the allies, 
and damning John Bull with very faint applause, sea- 
soned with lofty censure. He was very young, how- 
ever, at the time, and is so well spoken of that his 
appointment will be popular ; but all that he has done 
to gain such reputation and to earn the confidence of 
the government, is to have had some skir.nishes with 
bands of Confederates in Western Virginia, in which the 
leader, Garnett, was killed, his " forces" routed, and 
finally, to the number of a thousand, obliged to sur- 
render as prisoners of war. That success, iiowever, at 
such a time is quite enough to elevate any man to the 
highest command. M'Clellan is about thirty-six years 


of aj^e, was educated at West Point, where he was 
junior to M'Dowell, and a chiss-fellow of Bcaurejjard. 

I dined with M. Mercier, the French minister, 
who has a prettily situated house on the heights of 
Gcorjietown, al)uiit a mile and a-half from the city. 
Lord Lyons, Mr. !Monson, his i)rivate secretary, M. 
Baroche, son of the French minister, wlio has been 
exploiting the Southern states, were the only addi- 
tions to the family circle. The minister is a man 
in the prime of life, of more than moderate ability, 
with a raj)id manner .ind quickness of apprehension. 
Ever since I first met M. Mercier he has expressed 
liis conviction that the North never can succeed 
in eoncpieriu'; the South, or even restorinj; the 
Union, and that an attempt to do either by armed 
force must end in disaster, lie is the more con- 
firmed in his opinions by the result of Sunday's 
battle, but the inactivity of the Confederates gives 
rise to the belief that they suffered seriously in the 
affair. M. liaroclie has arrived at the conviction, 
without reference to the fate of the Federals in their 
march to Richmond, that the IJuiou is utterly gone — 
as dead as the Achaian league. 

Whilst Madame Mercier and her friends arc eon- 
versing on much more agreeable subjects, the men 
hold a tobacco council under the shade of the magni- 
ficent trees, and France, Russia, aiul minor powers 
talk politics, Lord Lyons alone not joining in the 
nicotian controversy. Hi-neath us flowed the Fotomac, 
and on the wooded heights at the other side, the Federal 
flag rose over Fort Corcoran and Arlington House, from 
which the grand army bad set forth a few days ago to 
crush rebi llion and liestroy its chiefs. Tliere, sad, 


anxious, and despairing, Mr. Lincoln and Mr. Seward 
were at that very moment passing through the wreck of 
the army, which, silent as ruin itself, took no notice of 
their presence. 

It had l)een rumoured that the Confederates were 
advancing, and the President and the Foreign Mi- 
nister set out in a carriage to see vvith their own eyes 
the state of the troops. What they beheld filled 
them with despair. The plateau was covered with the 
men of different regiments, driven by the patrols out of 
the city, or arrested in their flight at the bridges. In 
Fort Corcoran the men were in utter disorder, threateniu" 
to murder the officer of regulars who was essaying to 
get them into some state of efficiency to meet the 
advancing enemy. He had menaced one of the officers 
of the ()9th with death for flat disobedience to orders ; 
the men had taken the part of their caj)tain ; and the 
President drove into the work just in time to witness 
the confusion. The soldiers with loud cries demanded 
that the officer should be punished, and the President 
asked hiui why he had used such violent language 
towards his subordinate. " I told hiui, Mr. President, 
that if he refused to obey my orders I would shoot 
him on the spot; and I here repeat it, sir, that if I 
remain in command here, and he or any other man 
refuses to obey my orders, Fll shoot hiui on the spot." 

The firmness of Sherman's language and denu'anour 
in presence of the chief of the State overawed the 
mutineers, and they proceeded to put the work in some 
kind of order to resist the enemy. 

Mr. Seward was deeply impressed by the scene, and 
retired Avith the President to consult as to the best 
course to pursue, in some dejection, but they were 


rather comforted by the telegrams from all parts of tiie 
North, which proved that, thouj^h disappointed and 
sur|)rise(l, the people were not disheartened or ready to 
reliiuiuisli the contest. 

The accounts of the battle in the principal journals 
are curiously inaccurate and absurd. The writers have 
now recovered themselves. At first they yielded to the 
pressure of facts and to the accounts of their cor- 
respondents. They admitted the repulse, the losses, 
the disastrous retreat, the loss of guns, in strange 
contrast to their prophecies and wondrous hyiierbolcs 
about the hy[)erbolic grand army. Now they set them- 
selves to stem the current they have made. Let any 
one read the New York journals for the last week, if 
lie wishes to frame an indictment against such journal- 
ism as the people delight to honour in America. 

July '21th. — I rode out before breakfast in comjiany 
with Mr. Alonsou across the Long IJridge over to 
Arlington House. General M'Dowell was seated at 
a table under a tree in front of his tent, and got out 
his plans and maps to explain the scheme of battle. 

Cast down from his high estate, placed as a subordi- 
nate to his juniur, covered with oliloquy and abuse, the 
American General displayed a calm self-p(jssession and 
perfect amiability which could only proceed from a jjhilo- 
sophie temperament and a conseionsness that he would 
outlive the ealinnnies of his countrymen. He accused 
nobody ; but it was not difficult to perceive he had 
been sacrificed to the vanity, self-seeking, and disobe- 
dience of some of his ollieers, and to radical vices in 
the composition of his army. 

^Vhen M'Dowell found he could not turn the enemy's 
right as he intended, because the country by the Occo- 


quan was unfit for the movements of aitillcrv, or even 
infantry, he reconnoitred the ground towards their h-ft, 
and formed the project of tnrninj^ it by a movenuMit 
which wonkl bring the weight of his columns on their 
extreme left, and at the same time overlap it, whilst a 
strong demonstration was made on the ford at iJidl's 
Hun, where General Tyler brought ou the serious 
skirmish of the iSth. In order to carry out this plan, 
lie had to debouch his columns from a narrow point at 
Centreville, and march them round by various roads to 
points on the upper part of the Run, where it M-as 
fordable in all directions, intending to turn the eueuiy's 
batteries on the lower roads and bridges. But although 
he started them at an early hour, the troops moved 
so slowly the Confederates became aware of their design, 
and were enabled to concentrate considerable masses of 
troops on their left. 

The Federals were not only slow, but disorderly. 
The regiments in advance stopped at streams to 
drink and fill their canteens, delaying the regiments 
in the rear. They M-asted their provisions, so that 
many of them were without food at noon, when 
they were exhausted by the heat of the sun and 
by the stifling vapours of their own dense columns. 
When they at last came into action some (Hvisions 
were not in their places, so that the line of battle 
was broken ; and those which were in their proper 
position were exposed, without support, to the enemy's 
fire, A delusion of masked batteries pressed on 
their brain. To this was soon added a hallucination 
about cavalry, which might have been cured had the 
Federals possessed a few steady squadrons to mantcuvrt; 
ou theii' fiauks and in the intervals of their line. 

2(31 MV ItlAIlY NOUTH AND S )1-T1I. 

Nevertheless, they ailvaiict'd and encountered the 
enemy's tire with some spirit; but the Confederates 
were enabled to move up fresh battnlions, and to a 
certain extent to establish an e(iuality between the 
numbers of their own troops and the assailants, whilst 
they had the advantages of better cover and ground. 
An apparition of a disorderly crowd of liorsemen 
in front of the much-boasting Fire Zouaves of New 
York threw them into confusion and flight, and a 
battery which they ought to have protected was taken. 
Another battery was captured by the mistake of an 
ofiicer, wiio allowed a Confederate regiment to approach 
the guns, thinking they were Federal troops, till their 
first volley destroyed both horses and gunners. At the 
critical moment, General Juhnston, who had escaped 
from the feeble observation and untenaeions grip of 
General Patterson and his time-expired volunteers, and 
liad been hurrying down his troops from Winchester 
by train, threw his fresh battalions on the flank and 
rear of the Frdiral right. When the General onlered 
a retreat, rendcri-d necessary by the failure ofthe attack 
— disorder spread, \\hieii increased — the retreat became 
a flight which (ligenerated — if a flight can degenerate — 
into a i)anic, the moment the Confederates jjressed them 
with a i'cw cavalry and horse artillery. The efforts of 
the Generals to restore order and confidence were futile. 
I'ortunately a weak reserve was jxjstid at Centreville, 
and these were formed in line on the slope of the hill, 
whilst ]\r'l)owell and liis ollicers exerted themselves 
with indilferent success to arrest the mass ofthe armv, 
.-lud make them draw \\\t beliind the reserve, telling the 
men a bcjld front was their sole chance of safetv At 
midnight it became evident the morale of the armv 


wixs destroyed, and nothing was left but a spccdv retro- 
grade movement, with the few reginieiits and gmis 
wliieh were in a condition approaching to cllieiency, 
npou the defensive works of Washington. 

Notwithstanding the reverse of fortune, ^M'DowcU 
did not appear willing to admit his estimate of the 
Southern troops was erroneous, or to say " Change 
armies, and I'll fight the battle over again." He still 
held ]\Iississi[)pians, Alabamians, Lonisianians, very 
cheap, and did not see, or would not confess, the full 
extent of the calamity which had fallen so heavily on 
him personally. The fact of the evening's inactivity 
was conclusive in his mind that they had a dcfirly 
bought success, and he looked forward, though in a 
subordinate capacity, to a speed}'^ and glorious revenge. 

July 2bth. — The unfortunate General Patterson, who 
could not keep Johnston from getting away from "Win- 
chester, is to be dismissed the service — honourably, of 
course — that is, he is to be punished because his men 
would insist on going home in face of the enemy, as 
soon as their three months were up, and that time 
happened to arrive just as it would be desirable to 
operate against the Confederates. The latter have lost 
their chance. The Senate, the House of Representa- 
tives, the C.ibinet, the President, arc all at their case 
once more, and feel secure in Washington. Up to this 
moment the Confederates could have taken it with very 
little trouble. IMaryland could have l)een roused to 
arms, and Baltimore would have declared for them. 
The triumph of the non-aggressionists, at the head of 
whom is Mr. Davis, in resisting the deniands of the 
party which urges an actual invasion of the North as 
the best way of obtaining peace, may prove to be very 


disastrous. Final material results must have justified 
the occupation of Washiuj^ton. 

I diucd at the Legation, where were Mr. Sumner 
and some English visitors desirous of going South. 
Lord Lyons gives uo encouragement to these adven- 
turous persons, 

July 2{j(/i. — AVhether it is from curiosity to hear what 
I have to say or not, the number of my visitors is 
augmenting. Among them was a man in soldier's 
uniform, who sauntered into my room to borrow "five 
or ten dollars," ou the ground that he was a waiter at 
the Clarendon Hotel when I was stopping there, and 
wanted to go North, as his time was up. I lis anecdotes 
were stupendous. General !Meigs and Captain Macomb, 
of the United States Engineers, paid me a visit, and 
talked of the disaster very sensibly. The former is an 
able officer, and an accom[)lished man — the latter, son, 
I believe, of the American general of that name, dis- 
tinguished in the war with Great Britain. I had a long 
conversation with General M'Uowell, who bears his 
supercession with admiralde fortitude, and complains 
of nothing, except the failure of his officers to obey 
orders, and the liard fate which condemned him to lead 
an army of volunteers — Captain Wright, aide de camp 
to General Scott, Lieutenant Wise, of the Navy, and 
many others. The communications received from the 
Northern States have restored the spirits of all Union 
men, and not a few declare they are glad of the reverse, 
as the iNorth will now be obliged to j)ut forth all its 


Attack of Illness— General M'Clellan— Reception at the White Plouse— 
Druiikeuesis among the Volunteers — Visit from Mr. Olmsted — 
Georgetown — Intense Heat — M'Clellan and the Newspapers — 
Reception at Mr. Seward's — Alexandria— A Storm — Sudden Death 
of an English Officer— The Maryland Club— A Prayer and Fast 
Day — Financial Difi&culties. 

Jnhj 27 th. — So ill to-day from licat, bad smells in 
the house, and fatigue, that I sent for Dr. Miller, a 
great, fine Virginian practitioner, who ordered me 
powders to be taken in " mint juleps.'' Now mint 
juleps are made of whiskey, sugar, ice, very little water, 
and sprigs of fresh mint, to be sucked up after the 
manner of sherry cobblers, if so it be pleased, with a 

''A powder every two hours, with a mint julep. ^\ hv, 
that's six a day. Doctor. Won't that be— eh ? — won't 
that be rather into.xicating V" 

" Well, sir, that depends on the constitution. You'll 
find they will do you no harm, even if the worst takes 

Day after day, till the month was over and August 
had come, I passed in a state of powder and julep, 
which the Virginian doctor declared saved my life. 
The first time I stirred out the change which had taken 
place in the streets was at once appareut : no druukeu 


rabblemcnt of armed inen, nu beji^ging soldiers — instead 
of these vrcre patrols iu the streets, guards at the 
coruers, and a ri^'id system of passes. The Nortii begin 
to perceive their magnificent armies are mythical, but 
knowing they have the elements of making one, they 
are setting about the manufacture. Numbers of tapsters 
and serving men, and ca/iai/U- from the cities, who now 
disgrace swords and shoulder-straps, are to be dismissed. 
Kouiul the corner, with a kind of statf at his heels and 
an escort, comes Major General George li. M'Clellan, 
the young Napoleon (of Western Virginia), the con- 
queror of Garnet, the captor of Peagrim, the com- 
mander-in-chief, under the President, of the army of 
the United States. He is a very squarely-built, thick- 
throated, broad-chested man, under the middle height, 
with slightly bowed legs, a tendency to embonpoint, 
His head, covered with a closely cut crop of dark 
auburn hair, is well set on his shoulders. His features 
are regular and prepossessing — the brow small, con- 
tracted, and furrowed; the eyes deep and anxious- 
looking, A short, thick, reddish moustache conceals 
liis mouth ; the rest of his face is clean shaven. He 
has made his father-in-law, Major Marcy. chief of his 
stair, and is a good deal influenced by his opinions, 
which are entitled to some weight, as Major Marcy is 
a soldier, and has seen frontier wars, and is a great 
traveller. The task of iieking this army into shape is 
of Herculean nuignitude. Every one, however, is wil- 
ling to do as he bids: the President confides in him, 
and "(ieorges" him; the press fawn upon hiui, the 
people trust him ; he is " the little corporal" of un- 
fought fields — uninis i(/no/ns jiro niiri/iro, here. He 
looks like a stout little captain of dragoons, but for his 


American scat and saddle. Tlu" latter is adapted t(j a 
man who cannot ride: if a scpiadron so inountc^d were 
to attempt a fence or ditcli half of them wonid he rup- 
tured or spilled. The seat is a marvel to any JMuopean. 
But jNI'Clellan is nevertheless " the man on horsehack" 
just now, and the Americans must ride in his saddle, 
or in anythini:: I'C likes. 

In the eveninj^ of my first day's release from 
juleps the President held a reception or levee, and 
I went to the White House about nine o'clock, when 
the rooms were at their fullest. The company were 
arriving on foot, or crammed in hackney coaches, 
and did not affect any neatness of attire or evening 
dress. The doors were open : any one could walk 
in who chose. Private soldiers, in hodden grey and 
hob-nailed shoes, stood timorously chewing on the 
threshold of the state apartments, alarmed at the lights 
and gilding, or, haply, by the marabout feathers and 
finery of a few ladies who were in ball costume, till, 
assured by fellow-citizens there was nothine: to fear, 
they plunged into the dreadful revelry. Faces familiar 
to me in the magazines of the town were visible in the 
crowd which filled the reception-rooms and the ball- 
room, in a small room otf which a military band was 

The President, in a suit of black, stood near 
the door of one of the rooms near the hall, and 
shook hands with every one of the crowd, wiio was 
then "passed'^ on by his secretary, if the Presi- 
dent didn't wish to speak to him. Mr. Lincoln has 
recovered his s|)irits, and seemed in good humour. 
Mrs. Lincoln, who did the honours in another room, 
surrounded by a few ladies, did not appear to be quite 


so contented. All tlic ministers are present except ^Ir. 
Seward, who has jrune to his own state to ascertain the 
tnune of niiud of the people, and to judge for liiuiself 
of the sentiments they entertain respecting the war. 
After walking up and down the hot and crowiied rooms 
for an iiour, and seeing and speaking to all the cele- 
brities, I withdrew. Colonel Richardson iu his official 
report states Colonel Miles lost the battle of Bull Run 
by being drunk and disorderly at a critical moment. 
Colonel Miles, who commanded a division of three 
brigades, writes to say he was not in any such state, 
and has demanded a court of inquiry. In a Phila- 
delphia paper it is stated M'Dowell was helplessly drunk 
during the action, and sat up all tlie night before 
drinking, smoking, and playing cards. M'lJowell never 
drinks, and never has drunk, wine, spirits, malt, tea, 
or coffee, or smoked or used tobacco in any torn), nor 
does he play cards ; and that remax'k does not apply to 
many other Federal officers. 

Drunkenness is only too common among the Ameri- 
can volunteers, and (Jeneral Butler has put it oUicially in 
orders, that " the use of intoxicating liquors prevails to 
an alarming extent among tlic officers of his com- 
mand," and has ordered the seizure of their grog, which 
will onlv he allowed on medical certificate. He an- 
nounces, too, that he will not use wine or sj)irits, or 
give any to his friends, or allow any in his own quarters 
in future — a (juaint, vigorous creature, this Massachu- 
setts lawyer. 

The outcry against Patterson has not yet subsided, 
tliough he states that, out of twenty-three regiments 
composing his force, nineteen lefused to stay an hour 
over their time, which woulti have been up in a week, 


SO that he would have been left in an enemy's country 
with four regiments, lie wisely led his patriot baud 
hack, and let them disbaud themselves in their own 
borders. Verily, these are not the men to conquer tiie 

P'resh volunteers are pouring in by tens of thousands 
to take their places from all parts of the Union, and in 
three days after the battle, 80,000 men were accepted. 
Strange people ! The regiments which have returned 
to New York after disgraceful conduct at Bull llun, 
with the stigmata of cowardice impressed by their com- 
manding officers on the colours and souls of their corps, 
are actually welcomed with the utmost enthusiasm, and 
receive popular ovations ! It becomes obvious every 
day that M'Clellan does not intend to advance till he 
has got some semblance of an army : that will be a 
long time to come ; but he can get a good deal of 
fighting out of them in a few months. Meantime the 
whole of the Northern states are waiting anxiously for 
the advance which is to take place at once, according 
to promises from New York. As Washington is the 
principal scene of interest, the South l)eing tabooetl 
to me, I have resolved to stay here till the army is 
fit to move, making little excursions to points of 
interest. The details in my diary are not very inte- 
resting, and I shall make but brief extracts. 

August 2nd. — Mr. Olmsted visited me, in c()mi)any 
with a young gentleman named Ritchie, son-in-law of 
James Wadsworth, who has been serving as honorary 
aide-de-camp on M'Dowell's staff, but is now called to 
higher functions. They dined at my lodgings, and we 
talked over Bull Hun again. INIr. Ritchie did not 
leave Centreville till late in the evening, and slept at 


Fairfax Court House, where lie reuiaiued till 8.30 a.ui. 
ou the luurniu;.' of July il:iu(l, W'adswortli nut stirriui; 
for two hours later. He said the panic was "horrible, 
disgustinjr, sickening," and spoke in the harshest terras 
of the oflicers, to whom he ajjplied a variety of epithets. 
Prince Napoleon has arrived. 

Auyust '•Srd. — MClellan orders regular parades and 
drills in every regiment, and insists on all orders being 
given by bugle note. I had a long ride through the 
camps, and saw some improvement in the look of the 
men. (\)uiing home by Georgetown, met the Prince 
driving with M. Mcrcier, to pay a visit to the Presi- 
dent. I am sure that the politicians are not quite well 
pleased with this arrival, because they do nut under- 
stand it, and cannot imagine a man wuuld come so 
far wilhuut a purpose. The drunken soldiers now 
resort to (piiet lanes and courts in the suburijs. 
Georgetown was full of them. It is a much more 
respectable and old-world looking ])lace than its vulgar, 
empty, overgr()wn, mushroom neighbour, Washington. 
An ollicer who had fallen in his men to go on duty 
was walking down the line this evening when his eye 
rested on the neck of a bottle sticking out of a man's 
coat. " Thunder, '^ (juoth lie, " James, w h;it have you got 
there?" "Well, I guess, caj)taiu, it's a drop of real 
good Bourbon." "Then let us have a drink," said the 
captain ; and thereupon j)roceeded to take a long pull 
and a strong pull, till the man cried out, " That is not 
fair, Cai)tain. Von won't leave me a drop " — a remon- 
strance which had a jiropcr eO'ect, ami the cajitain 
marched down his company to the bridge. 

It was extremely hot when 1 returned, late in the 
evening. I asked the boy fur a glass of iced water. 


" Dcrc is no ice, massa," he said. "No ice? What's 
the reason of that ? " " De Scchessers, niassa, bh)ck 
up de rivcM-, and touch oft' deir <i;uns at de ice-boats." 
The Confederates on tlie rij^ht bank of the Potomac 
have now established a close bh)ckade of the river. Lieu- 
tenant Wise, of the Navy Department, admitted the 
fact, but said that the United States gunboats would 
soon sweep the rebels from the shore. 

August ith. — I had no idea that the sun could 
be powerful in Washington ; even in India the heat 
is not much more oppressive than it was here to-da3\ 
There is this extenuating circumstance, however, that 
after some hours of such very high temperature, 
thunder-storms and tornadoes cool the air. I re- 
ceived a message from General M'Clellan, that he 
■was about to ride along the lines of the army 
across tlie river, and wouhl be happy if I accom- 
[ panied him ; but as I had n ijuiy letters to write fur the / 
next mail, I was unwillingly obliged to abandon the 
chance of seeing the army under such favourable cir- 
cumstances. There are daily arrivals at Washington 
of military adventurers from all parts of the world, 
some of them with many extraordinary certificates and 
qualifications ; but, as Mr. Seward says, " It is best to 
detain them with the hope of employment on tlie 
Northern side, lest some really good man should get 
among the rebels." Garibaldians, Hungarians, Poles, 
officers of Turkisli and other contingents, the executory 
devises and remainders of European revolutions and 
wars, surround the State department, and infest 
unsu.s[)ccting politicians with illegible testimonials in 
unknown tongues. 

August bth. — The roads from the station are 



crowded with troops, coming: from the North m fast 
as the railway can carry them. It is evident, as the 
war fever spreads, that such pohticians as Mr. Crittenden, 
who resist the extreme violence of the Rcpuhlican party, 
will be stricken down. Tiie Confiscation Bill, for the 
emancipation of slaves and tlu- absorption of pro- 
perty belonging to rebels, has, indeed, been boldly 
resisted in the Ilonse of Representatives ; bnt it 
passed with some trifling amendments. The jonruals 
are still busy with the atl'air of Bull Run, and each 
seems anxious to eclipse the other in the absurdity 
of its stati'iiu'iits, A Philadeli)hia journal, for instance, 
states to-day that the real cause of the disaster was not 
a desire to retreat, but a mania to advance. In its own 
words, " the only drawback was the impetuous feeling 
to go a-head aiul fight." Because one officer is accused 
of drunkenness a great movement is on foot to prevent 
the army getting any drink at all. 

General M'Clellan invited the newspaper correspon- 
dents in Washington to meet him to-day, and with their 
assent drew up a treaty of peace and amity, whieh is a 
curiosity in its way. In the first place, the editors are 
to abstain Iroin i)rinting anything which can give aid 
or comfort to tlie enemy, and their correspondents are 
to observe e(|ual caution ; in return for which complai- 
sance, (ioverumeut is to be asked to give the press 
opportunities for obtaining and transmitting intelli- 
gence suital)le for i)ul)lication, particularly touching 
engagements with the enemy. The Confederate priva- 
teer Sumt'T has forced the blockade at New Oilcans, 
and has already been heard of destroying a nuuiber of 
Union vessels. 

Auf/ust ijtii. — Prince Napoleon, anxious to visit the 


battle-field at Bull Run, lias, to jNIr. Seward's discom- 
fiture, ajjplicd for passes, and arrangements arc being 
made to escort him as far as the Confederate lines. 
This is a recognition of the Confederates, as a belligerent 
power, which is by no means agreeable to the authori- 
ties. I drove down to the Senate, where the pro- 
ceedings were very uninteresting, although Congress 
was on the eve of adjournment, and returning visited 
jNIr. Seward, Mr. Bates, Mr. Cameron, Mr. Blair, and 
left cards for Mr. Brekinridge. The old woman who 
opened the door at the house where the latter lodged 
said, '* jNlassa Brekinridge pack up all his boxes ; I 
s'pose he not cum back here again.^' 

August 1th. — In the evening I went to INIr. Seward's, 
who gave a reception in honour of Prince Napoleon. 
The Minister's rooms were crowded and intensely hot. 
Lord Lyons and most of the diplomatic circle were 
present. The Prince wore his Order of the Bath, and 
bore the onslaughts of politicians, male and female, with 
much good humour. The contrast between the uni- 
forms of the ollicers of the United States army and 
navy and those of the French in the Prince's suit, by 
no means redounded to the credit of the military 
tailoring of the Americans, The Prince, to whom I 
was presented by ]\Ir. Seward, asked me particularly 
about the roads from Alexandria to Fairfax Court- 
house, and from there to Centrevillc and ^Manassas. 
I told him I had not got quite as far as the latter 
place, at which he laughed. He inquired with much 
interest about General Beauregard, whether he spoke 
good French, if he seemed a man of capacity, or was 
the creation of an accident and of circumstances. 
He has been to Mount Vernon, and is struck 

T 2 


■with the air of lu'glcct around the phaec. Two 
of his horses dropped dead from the heat ou tlic 
journey, and the Prince, who was perspiring profusely 
in the crowded room, asked me wliether the cUmate 
was not as had as midsummer in India. His manner 
was perfectly easy, but he gave no encouragement 
to bores, nor did he court poijularity by unusual 
nffahility, and he moved off long before the guests were 
tired of looking at him. On returning to my rooujs 
a German gentleman named Bing — who went out with 
the Federal army from Washington, was taken prisoner 
at BnlTs Run, and carried to Richmond — came to visit 
me, but his account of what he saw in the dark and 
mysterious South was not lucid or interesting. 

August ^M.— I had arranged to go with !Mr. 
Olmsted and ^Ir. Ritchie to visit th e hospitals. 1. 
the heat was so intolerable, we abandoned the idea 
till the afternoon, when we drove across the long 
bridge and proceeded to Alexandria. The town, 
which is now fully occupied by military, and is 
abandoned by the respectable inhaliitants, has an air, 
owing to the absence of women and children, which 
tells the tale of a hostile occupation. In a large 
building, which had once been a school, the wounded 
of Bull Run were lying, not uncomfortably packed, nor 
unskilfully cared for, and the arrangements were, taken 
altogether, creditable to the skill and humanity of the 
surgeons. Close at hand was the church in which 
George ^Vashi^gton was wont in latter days to pray, 
when he drove over from Mount \'ernon — further on, 
Marshal House, where Ellsworth was shot by the 
^'irginian landlord, and was so 8j)eedily avenged. A 
strange strain of thought wjis suggested, by the rapid 


grouping of incongruous ideas, arising out of the 
proximity of tlicse scenes. As one of my friends 
said, " I wonder what Washington woukl do if he 
Avcre liere now— and how lie would act if he were 
summoned from that church to jNIarshall House or to 
this hospital ? " The man Avho uttered these words M-as 
not either of my companions, but wore the shoulder- 
straps of a Union officer. "Stranger still," said I, 
"would it l)c to speculate on the thoughts and actions 
of Napoleon in this crisis, if he were to wake up and 
see a Prince of his blood escorted by Federal soldiers 
to the spot where the troops of the Southern States 
had inflicted on them a signal defeat, in a land where 
the nephew wlio now sits on the throne of France has 
been an exile." It is not quite certain that many Ame- 
ricans understand who Prince Napoleon is, for one of 
the troopers belonging to the escort wdiich took him 
out from Alexandria declared positively he had ridden 
with the Emperor. The excursion is swallowed, 
but not well-digested. In Washington the only news 
to-night is, tliat a small privateer from Charleston, mis- 
taking the St. Lawrence for a merchant vessel, fired 
into her and was at once sent to ]Mr. Davy Jones by a 
rattling broadside. Congress having adjourned, there 
is but little to render Washington less uninteresting 
than it must ])e in its normal state. 

The truculent and overbearing spirit which arises 
from the uncontroverted action of democratic majorities 
developes itself in the North, where they have taken to 
burning newspaper offices and destroying all the pro- 
perty belonging to the proprietors and editors. These 
actions arc a strange commentary on ]\Ir. Seward's 
declaration " that no volunteers are to be refused 


because tliey do not speak Eii«;lish, iimsniucli as the 
contest for the Union is a l)attle of the free men of the 
worhl for the institutions of self-i^overnnient.'" 

Auffust 11///. — On the oUl Indian principle, I rode 
out this nu»niin<i: very early, and was rewarded by a 
breath of cohl, fresh air, and by the si{i;ht of some very 
disorderly regiments just turning out to parade in the 
camps; but I was not particularly gratified by being 
nii>taken for Prince Napoleon by some Irish recruits, 
who shouted out, " Bonaparte for ever," and gradually 
subsided into requests for " something to drink your 
Royal Iliginicss's health with." As I returned I saw 
on the steps of General Mansfield's quarters, a tall, 
soldierly-looking young man, whose breast wjis covered 
witii Crimean ribbons and medals, and I recognised 
liim as one who had called upon nie a few days before, 
renewing our slight acquaintance before Sebastopol, 
where his courage was conspicuous, to ask me for 
information respecting the mode of obtaining a com- 
mission in the Federal army. 

Towards mid-day an ebony sheet of clouds swept 
over the city. I went out, regardless of the threat- 
ening storm, to avail myself of the coolness to 
make a few visits ; but soon a violent wind arose 
])earing clouds like those of an Indian dust-storm down 
the streets. Tiie black sheet overhead became agitated 
like the sea, and tossed about grey clouds, wliich ca- 
reered against each other and bm-st into lightning ; 
then suddenly, without other warning, down came 
the rain — a perfect tornado ; sheets of water Hooding 
the streets in a moment, turning the bed into water- 
courses and the channels into deep rivers. 1 waded up 
the centre of Pennsylvania Avenue, past the President's 


house, in a current which would hiivc miulc a respectable 
trout stream ; and on getting; oi)posite my own door, 
made a rush for the porch, but forgetting the deep 
channel at the side, stepped into a rivulet which was 
literally above my hips, and I was carried off my lejjjs, till 
I succeeded in catching the kcrl)stone, and escaped into 
the hall as if I had just swum across the Potomac. 

On returning from my ride next morning, I took vip 
the Baltimore paper, and saw a paragraph announcing 
the death of an English officer at the station ; it was 
the poor fellow whom I saw sitting at Genei-al Mans- 
field's steps yesterday. The consul was absent on a 
short tour rendered necessary by the failure of his 
health consequent on the discharge of his duties. 
Finding the Legation were anxious to see due care 
taken of the poor fellow's remains, I left for Bal- 
timore at a quarter to three o'clock, and proceeded 
to inquire into the circumstances connected with his 
death. He had been struck down at the station by 
some cerebral attack, brought on by the heat and 
excitement ; had been carried to the police station and 
placed upon a bench, from which he had fallen with his 
head downwards, and was found in that position, with 
life quite extinct, by a casual visitor. My astonishment 
may be conceived when I learned that not only had the 
Coroner's inquest sat and returned its verdict, but that 
the man iiad absolutely been buried the same morning, 
and so my mission was over, and I could only report 
what had occurred to Washington. Little value 
indeed has human life in this new world, to which 
the old gives vital power so lavishly, that it is re- 
garded as almost worthless. I have seen more "fuss'' 
made over an old woman killed by a cab iu London 


than tlicre is over half a dozen deatlis with suspicion 
of murder attaelud in New Orleans or New York. 

I remained in Baltimore a few days, and had an oppor- 
tunity of knowing the feelings of some of the leading men 
in the place. It may be described in one word — intense 
hatred of New England and Idack republicans, \Ahich 
Ims been increased to mania by the stringent measures 
of the military dictator of the American Warsaw, the 
searches of private houses, domiciliary visits, arbitrary 
arrests, the suppression of adverse journals, the over- 
throw of the corporate body^ — all the acts, in fact, 
which constitute the machinery and the grievances of 
a tyranny. AVhcn I spoke of the brutal indilference of 
the ])olice to the poor officer previuusly mentioned, the 
Baltimoreans told me the constables appointed by the 
Federal general were scoundrels who led the Plug 
Uglics in former days — the worst characters in a city 
not sweet or savoury in repute — but that the old 
police were men of very ditl'erent description. The 
Maryland Club, where I had spent some pleasant hours, 
was now like a secret tribunal or the haunt of conspi- 
rators. The police entered it a few days ago, searched 
every room, took up the flooring, and even turned up the 
coals in the kitchen and the wine in the cellar. iSuch 
indignities fired the blood of the menjbers, who arc, 
with one exception, opposed to the attempt to coerce 
the South by the sword. Not one of them but could 
tell of some outrage perpetrated on himself or ou soujc 
members of his family by the police and Federal 
authority. Many a dclafor umici was suspected but not 
convicted. Men sat moodily reading the papers with 
knitted brows, or whispeiing in corners, taking each 
other apart, and glancing suspiciously at their fellows. 


There is a peculiar staiuj) al)()ut tlie Baltimore men 
wliich (li.stin<;iiishes them from most Americans — a 
style of dress, frankness of manner, and a general 
appearance assimilating them closely to the upper 
classes of Englishmen. They are fond of sport and 
travel, exclusive and higli-spirited, and the iron rule of 
the Yankee is the more intolerable because they dare 
not resent it, and are unable to shake it off. 

I returned to Washington on 15th August. Nothing 
changed; skirmishes along the front; M'Clellan re- 
viewing. The loss of General Lyon, -who -was killed 
in an action with the Confederates under Ben McCul- 
lough, at Wilson's Creek, Springfield, Missouri, in 
■wliicli the Unionists were with difficulty extricated 
l)y General Sigel from a very dangerous position, 
after the death of their leader, is severely felt. 
He Mas one of the very few officers who combined 
military skill and personal bravery with political saga- 
city and moral firmness. The President has issued 
his proclamation for a day of fast and prayer, which, 
say the Baltimorcans, is a sign that the Yankees arc in 
a bad wa}', as they would never think of praying or 
fasting if their cause was prospering. The stories 
Avhich have been so sedulously spread, and which never 
will be quite discredited, of the barbarity and cruelty of 
the Confederates to all the wounded, ought to be set at 
rest by the printed statement of the eleven Union 
surgeons just released, who have come back from Rich- 
mond, where they were sent after their capture on the 
field of Bull Run, with the most distinct testimony 
that the Confederates treated their prisoners with 
humanity. Who are the miscreants who tried to 
make the evil feeling, quite strong enough as it is. 


perfectly fictulisli, by iisserting the rebels burned the 
\vouiuled in hospitals, aud bayoneted them as they hiy 
helpless ou the field ? 

The pecuniary difficulties of the Government have 
been alleviated by the bankers of New York, Phila- 
delphia, and Boston, mIio have agreed to lend them 
fifty millions of dollars, on condition that they receive 
the Treasury notes which Mr. Chase is about to issue. 
As we read the papers and hear the news, it is difficult 
to believe that the foundations of society are not melting 
away in the heat of this conflict. Thus, a Federal judge, 
named Garrison, who has issued his writ of habeas corpus 
for certain prisoners in Fort Lafayette, being quietly 
snuft'ed out by the commandant, Colonel Burke, desires 
to lead an army against the fort and have a little civil war 
of his own in New York, lie applies to the commander 
of the county militia, who informs Garrison he can't get 
into the fort as there was no artillery strong enough to 
breach the walls, and that it would require 10,00U men 
to invest it, whereas only 1100 militiamen were available. 
\Vhat a farceur Judge Garrison must be! In addition 
to the gutting and burning of newspaper olliccs, and 
the exercitation of the editors on rails, the re- 
publican grand juries have taken to indicting the 
democratic journals, and Fremont's provost marshal 
in St. Louis has, proprio motti, suppressed those which 
he considers disatliclcd. A mutiny which broke out 
in the Scot ch Keginuut T'.'ih N. V. has been fol- 
lowed by another in the 2ud Maine Ke^iiment, and a 
display of cannon and of cavalry recpiired to induce 
thera to allow the ringleaders to be arrested. The 
President wsia greatly alarmed, but M'Clellan acted 
w ith some vigour, and the refractory volunteers arc to 



be sent o(T to a pleasant station called the "Dry 
Tortngas'^ to work on the fortifications. 

]\Ir. Seward, with whom I dined and spent tlic 
evening on 16th August, lias been much reassured 
and comforted by the demonstrations of readiness 
on the part of the people to continue the contest, 
and of confidSnce in the cause among the moneyed 
men of the great cities. "All we want is time to 
develope our strength. We have been blamed for Hot 
making greater use of our navy and extending it at 
once. It was our first duty to provide for the safety 
of our capital. Besides, a man will generally pay little 
attention to agencies he does not understand. None 
of us knew anything about a navy. I doubt if the 
President ever saw anything more formidable than a 
river steamboat, and I don't think Mr. Welles, the 
Secretary of the Navy, knew the stem from the stern 
of a ship. Of the whole Cabinet, I am the only 
member who ever was fairly at sea or crossed the 
Atlantic. Some of us never even saw it. No wonder 
we did not understand the necessity for creating a navv 
at once. Soon, however, our Government will be able 
to dispose of a respectable marine, and when our army 
is ready to move, co-operating with the fleet, the days 
of the rebellion are numbered." 

" When will that be, Mr. Secretary ? " 

" Soon ; very soon, I hope. We can, however, bear 
delays. The rebels will be ruined by it." 


Return to Baltimore — Colonel Carroll — A rrie.«t's view of the Aboli- 
tion of hlavery — Siaverj' in Marjliujd— Harper's Ferry — John 
Brown — Back by train to ^Vai^bing^on — Further aecouutB of 
Bull Run — American Vanity — My own unpopularity for t<peak- 
ing the truth— Killing a " Nigger" uo murder — Navy DepartTncnt. 

On the "17th ^Vugust I returned to Baltimore on my 
V. ay to Drohoregan Manor, the scat of Colonel Carroll, 
in Maryland, where I had been invited to spend a 
few days by his son-in-law, an English gentleman 
of my acquaintance. Leaving Baltimore at 5.10 r.M., 
in company with Mr. Tucker Carroll, 1 proceeded 
by train to Ellicott's ^lills, a station fourteen miles 
on the Ohio and Baltimore railroad, from which 
our liost's residence is distant more than an hour's 
drive. The country throngh which the line pjisscs 
is pictures(jue and undulating, Mith hills and valleys 
and brawling streams, spreading in woodland and 
glade, ravine, and high uplands on either side, haunted 
by cotton factories, puisoning air and water; but it 
lias been a formidable district for the engineers to get 
tlirough, and the line aboinids in those triumphs 
of (Migineering which are generally the ruin of share- 

All these lines arc now in the hands of the 
military. At the ^Vashingt()n terminus there is a 
guard placed to sec that no unauthorised person or 


unwilling volunteer is going north ; the line is watched 
by patrols and sentries; troops are encani[)ed along its 
course. The factory chimneys are smokeless ; half the 
pleasant villas which cover the hills or dot the openings 
in the forest have a deserted look and closed windows. 
And so these great works, the Carrolton viaduct, the 
Thomas viaduct, and the high embankments and 
great cuttings in the ravine by the river side, over 
which the line passes, have almost a depressing 
effect, as if the people for whose use they were in- 
tended had all become extinct. At Ellicott's Mills, which 
is a considerable manufacturing town, more soldiers 
and Union flags. The people are Unionists, but the 
neighbouring gentry and country people are Seceshers. 

This is the case wherever there is a manufac- 
turing population in Maryland, because the workmen 
are generally foreigners, or have come from the 
Northern States, and feel little sympathy with States 
rights' doctrines, and the tendencies of the landed 
gentry to a Conservative action on the slave question. 
There was no good-will in the eyes of the mechanicals 
as they stared at our vehicle ; for the political bias of 
Colonel Carroll was well known, as well as the general 
sentiments of his family. It was dark when we reached 
the manor, which is approached by an avenue of fine trees. 
The house is old-fashioned, and has received additions 
from time to time. But for the black faces of the 
domestics, one might easily fancy he was in some old 
country house in Ireland. The family have adhered 
to their ancient faith. The founder of the Carrolls 
in Maryland came over with the Catholic colonists 
led by Lord Baltimore, or by his brother, Leonard 
Calvert, and the colonel possesses some interesting 


deeds of grant and conveyance of tlie vast estates, 
whicli have been diniinislied by lar|_'e sales year after 
year, but still spread over a eonsickraljle part of several 
counties in the State. 

Colonel Carroll is an immediate descendant tif 
one of the leaders in the revolution of 177<», and 
he pointed out to nie the room in which Carroll, 
of Carrolton, and George "Washington, were wont 
to meet when they were concocting their splendid 
treason. One of his ectnnections married the late 
Miu-([uis "Wellcsley, and the colonel takes pkaiure 
in setting forth how the daughter of the Iri^h re- 
cusant, who lied from his native country all but an 
outlaw, sat on the tlirone of the Queen of Ireland, or, 
in other words, held court in Dublin C;u>tle as wife 
of the Viceroy. Drohoregan is supposed to mean 
" Hall of the Kings," and is called after an old place 
belonging, some time or other, to the family, the early 
history of \\liicli, as set forth in the Celtic authorities 
and Iri>h anticpiarian Morks, possesses great attractions 
for the kindly, genial old man — kindly and genial to 
all but tlie Al)olitionists and black republicans; nor is 
he indifferent to the rej)utation of the State in the 
Revolutionary AVar, N\here the " Maryland line " seems 
to have difJered from many of the contingents of the 
other States in not running away so often at critical 
moments in the seri<ins actions. Colonel Carroll has 
sound arguments to prove the sovereign independence 
and right of every State in the Union, derived frouj family 
teaching and the lessons of those who founded the Con- 
stitution itself. 

On the day after my :irn\al the rain fell in torrents. 
The weather is as uncertain iu> that of our own isle. The 


torrid heats at Wasliington, the other d:iy, Averc suc- 
ceeded by bitter cokl days; now there is a dense mist, 
chilly and cheerless, seeming as a sort of strainer 
for the even down pour that falls through it con- 
tinuously. Tlie family after breakfast slipped round to 
the little chapel which forms the extremity of one 
wing of the house. The coloured people on the estate 
were already trooping across the lawn and up the 
avenue from the slave quarters, decently dressed for 
the most part, having due allowance for the extraordi- 
nary choice of colours in their gowns, bonnets, and 
ribbons, and for the unhappy imitations, on the part 
of the men, of the attire of their masters. They walked 
demurely and quietly past the house, and presently the 
priest, dressed like a French cure, trotted up, and ser- 
vice began. The negro houses were of a much better 
and more substantial character than those one sees in the 
south, though not remarkable for cleanliness and good 
order. Truth to say, they were palaces compared to 
the huts of Irish labourers, such as might be found, 
perhaps, on the estates of the colonels kinsmen at 
home. The negroes are far more independent than 
they are in the south. They are less civil, less obliging, 
and, although they do not come cringing to shake 
hands as the field hands on a Louisianian plantation, 
less servile. They inhabit a small village of brick 
and wood houses, across the road at the end of 
the avenue, and in sight of the house. The usual 
swarms of little children, poultry, pigs, enlivened 
by goats, embarrassed the steps of the visitor, and 
the old people, or those who were not finely dressed 
enough for mass, peered out at the strangers from 
the glassless windows. 


AVlun diaptl was over, the boys iiiul <;irls came up for 
catecliism, ami passed iu review before the hidies of tlie 
liouse, with Mhuiu they Mere on very jjood terms. 
The priest joined us iu the verandah when his hibours 
were over, and talked with intelligence of the terrible 
"war which has burst over the land. lie has just 
returned from a tour in the Northern Slates, and it is 
Ids belief the native Americans there will not enlist, 
))ut that they will get foreigners to fight their battles. 
He admitted that slavery was in itself an evil, nay, 
more, that it was not j)rofitable in ^Maryland. | lint 
Avhat are the landed proprietors to do ? The slaves have 
been betiueathed to them as j)roperty by their fatliers, 
■with certain obligations to be respected, and duties to 
be fulfilled. It is impossible to free them, because, at 
the moment of cuiancipation, nothiug short of the 
confiscation of all the labour and property of the 
whites would be required to maintain the negroes, who 
Mould certainly refuse to work unless they had their 
masters' land as their own. AVherc is white labour to 
be found? Its introduction must be the work of 
years, and meantime many thousands of slaves, who 
liave a right to j)r()tection, would canker the land. 

In Maryland they do not breed slaves for the purpose 
of selling them as they do in Virginia, and yet Colonel 
Carroll and other gentlemen who regarded the slaves 
they inherited almost as members of their families, liave 
l)een stigmatised by sibolition orators as slave-breeders 
and slave-dealers. It was these insults which stung the 
gentlemen of Maryland and of the other Slave States 
to the (piick, and made tliem resolve never to yield 
to the domination of a jjarty which had never ceased 
to wage war against their institutions and their repu- 
tation and hunuur. 


A little knot of friends and relations joined Colonel 
Carroll at dinner. There are iow families in this part 
of ^Maryland which have not representatives in the 
other army across the Potomac; and if Beauregard 
could but make his appearance, the women alone would 
give him welcome such as no conqueror ever received in 
liberated city. 

Xext day the rain fell incessantly. The mail was 
l)rought in by a little negro boy on horseback, and I was 
•warned by my letters that an immediate advance of 
M'Clellan's troops was probable. This is an old story. 
" Battle expected to-morrow " has been a heading in 
the papers for the last fortnight. In the afternoon I 
was driven over a part of the estate in a close carriage, 
through the windows of which, however, I caught 
glimpses of a beautiful country, wooded gloriously, and 
soft, sylvan, and well-cultivated as the best parts of 
Hampshire and Gloucestershire, the rolling lauds of 
which latter county, indeed, it much resembled in its 
large fields, heavy with crops of tobacco and corn. 
The weather was too unfavourable to admit of a close 
inspection of the fields ; but I visited one or two to- 
bacco houses, where the fragrant ]Maryland was lying 
in masses on the ground, or hanging from the rafters, 
or filled the heavy hogsheads with compressed smoke. 

Next day I took the train, at EUicott's ^Mills, 
and went to Harper's Ferry. There is no one spot, 
in the history of this extraordinary war, which 
can be well more conspicuous. Had it nothin;^ 
more to recommend it than the scenery, it might 
well command a visit from the tourist ; but as the 
scene of old John Brown's raid upon the I'ederal 
arsenal, of that first passage of arms between the 


290 yi\ diai;y nouth and south. 

^abolitionists and the slave conservatives, which has 
developed this great contest; above all, as the spot 
where important military demonstrations have been 
made on both sides, and will necessarily occur here- 
after, this plate, which prubably) derives its name 
from sonu- wretched old boatman, will be renowned for 
ever in the annals of the civil* war of IbGl. The 
Patapsco, by the bank of which the rail is carried for 
some miles, has all the character of a mountain torrent, 
rushing through gorges or carving out its way at the 
base of granite hills, or boldly cutting a path for itself 
through the sufter slate, liridges, viaducts, remarkable 
archways, and great spans of timber trestle work 
leaping froui hill to hill, enable the rail to creep 
onwards and upwards by the mountain side to the 
Potomac at Point of Rocks, whence it winds its way 
over undulating ground, by stations with eccentric 
names to the river's bank once more. We were carried 
on to the station next to Harper's Ferry on a ledge of 
the precipitous mountain range which almost overhangs 
the stream. liut few civilians were in the train. The 
greater number of passengers consisted of soldiers and 
sutlers, j)rocee(ling to their encampments along the river. 
A .strict watch was kept over the passengers, w hose passes 
were examined by ollicers at the various stations. At 
one place an oilicer who rcalh\ looked like a soldier 
entered the traiu, and on seeing my pass told me in 
broken English that he had served in the Crimea, and 
was accpiainted with me and many of my friends. 
The gentleman who accompauied me observed, " I do 
not know whether he was in tiie Crimea or not, but I 
do know that till very lately your friend the 'Slujor was 
a dancing master in New York."' A' person of a very 


lIAKl'Elt's FERllV. 291 

difTcrcut type ni:ulc his od'crs of scu'v ice, Colonel Gordon 
of the 2ud Massachusetts llegiiiicut, who caused the 
train to run on as far as Plarpcr's Ferry, in order to give 
me a siglit of the place, although in consequence of the 
evil habit of firing on the carriages in which the Con- 
federates across tlie river have been indulging, the 
locomotive generally halts at some distance below the 
bend of the river. 

Harper's Ferry lies in a gorge formed by a rush of 
the Potomac through the mountain ridges, which it 
cuts at right angles to its course at its junction with 
the river Shenandoah. So trenchant and abrupt is the 
division that litrle land is on the divided ridge to build 
upon. The precipitous hills on both sides are covered 
Avith forest, which has been cleared in patches here and 
there on the Maryland shore, to permit of the erection 
of batteries. On the Virginian side there lies a mass 
of blackened and ruined buildings, from which a street 
lined with good houses stretches up the hill. Just 
above the junction of the Shenandoah Avith the Poto- 
mac, an elevated bridge or viaduct 300 yards long 
leaps from hill side to hill side. The arches had been 
broken — the rails Avhich ran along the top torn up, 
and there is noAv a deep gulf fixed between the shores 
of ^Maryland and Virginia. The rail to Winchester 
from this point has been destroyed, and the line along 
the Potomac has also been ruined. 

]jut for the batteries Avhich cover the shoal Avater 
at the junction of the tAvo rivers below the bridge, 
there Avould be no difficulty in crossing to the 
^Maryland shore, and from that side the Avholc of ihc 
ground around Harper's Ferry is completely com- 
manded. The gorge is almost as deep as the pass of 

u 2 


Killiecnuukir. wliicli it resembles in must respects 
except ill bieaiitli :iiul the siyx' of tlie river hetween, 
and if ever a railroad Hnds its way to Blair Atliol, the 
passeng:crs will liud something to look at very like the 
scenery on the route to Harper's Ferry. The vi|.'ilance 
required to ^'uard the pass of the river above and below 
this point is incessant, Init the Federals possess the ad- 
vjintau'e on their side of a deep canal parallel to tlic 
railway and running above the level of the river, which 
would be a more formidable obstacle than the Potomac 
to infantry or guns. There is reason to believe that 
the Secessionists in Maryland cross backwards and 
forwards wlunever they please, and the Virginians 
coming down at their leisure to the opposite shore, 
inflict serious annoyance on the Federal troops by 
constant rifle practice. 

Looking up and down the river the seciu-ry is 
picturcscpie, though it is by no means entitled to the 
extraordinary jjraises which Anieriean tourists lavish 
upon it. Probably old .lohn ]irown cared little for 
the wild magic of streamlet or rill, or for the blended 
cliann of vale and woodland. AVhen he made his attack 
on the arsenal now in ruin's, lie probably thought a 
valley was as high as a hill, and that there was no 
necessitv for water innning downwards — assuredly he 
saw as little of the actual heights and depths around 
liim when he ran across the Potomac to revolutionize 
Virginia. Jle has left behind him millions either as 
clear-sighted or as blind as himself. In New England 
parlours a statuette of .lohn Brown may be found as a 
])endant to the likeness of our Saviour. In Virginia 
his name is the synonym of all that is base, bloody, 
and cruel. 


Harper's Ferry at present, loi' all practical purposes, 
may be considered as Coniederate pro[)erty. The i'cw 
Union inhabitants remain in their lionses, l)nt many 
of the (lovernnient workmen and most of the iiihal)i- 
tants have gone oil' South. For strategical purposes 
its possession would be most important to a force 
desiring to operate on Maryland from Virginia. The 
Blue Ridge range running u[) to the Shenandoah divides 
the countiy so as to permit a force debouching fiom 
Harper's Ferry to advance down the valley of the 
Shenandoah on the right, or to move to the left 
between the ]51ue Ridge and the Katoctin mountaius 
towards the Manassas railway at its discretion. After 
a false alarm that some Secesli cavalry were coming 
down to renew the skirmishing of the day before, 
I returned, and travelling to Relay House just saved the 
train to Washington, where I arrived after sunset. 
A large number of Federal troops are employed along 
these lines, which they occupy as if they were in 
a hostile country. An imperfectl}^ formed regiment 
broken up into these detachments and placed iu isolated 
posts, under ignorant ollicers, may be regarded as 
almost worthless for military operations. Hence the 
constant night alarms — the mistakes — the skirmishes 
and instances of misbehaviour which arise along these; 
extended lines. 

On the journey from Harper's Ferry,the concentration 
of masses of troops along the road, and the march of 
heavy artillery trains, caused me to think a renewal of 
the offensive movement against Richmond was imme- 
diate, but at A\'ashington I heard that all M'Clellan 
Avanted or hoped for at present, was to make ^laryland 
safe and to gain time for the formation of his army. 

29-1- -MY niAKV .M'lnil AM) .SiJl'TII. 

The Confederates appear to be movint; towards tlicir 
left, and M'Clellan is very uneasy lest they should 
make a vigorous attack before he is prepared to receive 

In the evening the New York papers came in with 
the extracts from the London ])apers containing 
my account of the battle of Bull's Run. Utterly 
forgetting tlieir own versions of the engagement, the 
Xew York editors now find it convenient to divert 
attention from the bitter truth that was in tliein. 
to the letter of the foreign newspaper correspondent, 
who, because he is a British snljj( et, will prove not only 
useful as a conductor to carry off the popular wrath 
from the American journalists themselves, but as a 
means by induction of charging the vials afresh against 
the British people, inasmuch as they have not condoled 
■with the North on the defeat of armies which they were 
assured would, if successful, be immediately led to 
effect the disruption of the British empire. At the 
outset I had foreseen this would be the case, and 
deliberately accepted the issue ; but when I found the 
Northern journals far e.vceeding in severity anything I 
could have said, and indulging in general invective 
against whole classes of American soldiery, officers, 
and statesmen, I was foolish enough to expect a little 
justice, not to say a word of the smallest generosity. 

Aufjust 21*/. — The echoes of Bull Run are coming 
back with a vengeance. This day month the miserable 
fragments of a beaten, washed out, demoralised army, 
were flooding in disorder and dismay the streets of the 
capital from which they liad issued forth to repel the 
tide of invasion. This day month and all the editors 
and journalists in the States, weeping, wailing, and 

A MONTH AGO. . 295 

gnashing tlicir tcctli, infused c>;tra gall into tlieir ink, 
and poured out inveetive, abuse, and^obloquy on their 
defeated general and their broken^hosts. The Presi- 
dent and his] ministers, stunned by the tremendous 
calamity, sat listening in iear and trembling for the 
sound of the enemy's cannon. Tiie veteran soldier, on 
"Nvhom the boasted hopes of the nation rested, heart- 
sick and beaten down, had neither counsel to give nor 
action to ofter. At any moment the Confederate 
columns might be expected in Pennsylvania Avenue 
to receive the welcome of their friends and the submis- 
sion of their helpless and disheartened enemies. 

All this is forgotten — and much more, which need 
not now be repeated. Saved from a great peril, even 
the bitterness of death, they forget the danger that 
has passed, deny that they uttered cries of distress 
and appeals for help, and swagger in all the insolence 
of recovered strength. Not only that, but they turn 
and rend those whose writing has been dug up after 
thirty days, and comes back as a rebuke to their pride. 

Conscious that they have insulted and irritated their 
own army, that they have earned the bitter hostility of 
men in power, and have for once inflicted a wound on 
the vanity to which they have given such oflcnsive 
dimensions, if not life itself, they now seek to run a 
drag scent between the public nose and their own 
unpopularity, and to create such an amount of indig- 
nation and to cast so much odium upon one who has 
had greater facilities to know, and is more willing to 
tell the truth, than any of their organs, that he will be 
unable henceforth to perform his duties in a country 
where unpopularity means simply a political and moral 
atrophy or death. In the telegraphic summary some 

2'JG y[\ in.\[:\ noktu and jsuitii. 

(lays aj^o a few phrases were picked out of ray letters, 

which were but very faint paraplirases of sonic of the 

sentences which niijjht be culled from Northern 

newspapers, but the storm has been gathering ever 

since, and 1 am no doubt to experience the truth 

if Dc Tociiueville's remark, " that a stranger who injures 

American vanity, no matter how justly, may make up 

his mind to be a martyr." 

August ilnd. — 

" The little ilogs and all, 
Tray, Blanche, and Swittlieart, 
See they bark at lue." 

The Xortli have recovered their wind, and their pipers 
arc blowing with might and main. The time given 
thera to breathe after Bull Kun has certainly been 
accompanied with a greater development of lung and 
power of blowing than could have been expected. The 
volunteer army which dispersed and returned home to 
receive the lo Pceans of the North, has l)cen replaced 
by better and more ninncrous levies, wliich have the 
strong finger and thumb of General M'Clellan on their 
windpipe, and find it is not quite so easy as it was to 
do as they pleased. The North, besides, has received 
su])plies of money, and is using its great resources, by 
land and sea, to sonir )iur[)()se, and as they w:ix fat 
they kick. 

A general officer said to ii;c, "Of course you 
uill never remain, when once all the j)rcss arc 
down upon yoti. 1 would not take a million dollars 
and lie in your place." " But is what I've written 
untrue V '' " God bless you ! do you know in this 
country if you can get enough of people to start a 
lie about aii\ man, he woidd be ruined, if the Evan- 

THE bull's eux letter. 297 

gelists canio fov.vanl to swear the story was false. There 
are thousands of people Avho this moment believe that 
M'Dowcll, uho never tasted anything stronger than a 
water melon in all his life, was helplessly drunk at. 
Bull's llun. ]\rind what I say; they'll run you into a 
mud hole as sure as you live." I was not much im- 
pressed with the danger of my position further than that 
I knew there would be a certain amount of risk fiom 
the rowdyism and vanity of what even the Americans 
admit to be the lower orders, for which I had been 
prepared from the moment I had despatched my letter; 
but I confess I was not by any means disposed to think 
that the leaders of public opinion would seek the small 
gratification of revenge, and the pett}^ popularity of 
pandering to the passions of the mob, by creating a 
popular cry against mc. I am not aware that any 
foreigner ever visited the United States who was inju- 
dicious enoiigli to write one single word derogatory to 
their claims to be the first of created beings, who 
was not assailed with the most viperous malignity and 
rancour. The man who savs he has detected a siuirle 
spot on the face of their sun should i)repare his winding 

The New York Times, I find, states "that the terrible 
epistle has been read with quite as much avidity as an 
average President's message. We scarcely exaggerate 
the fact when we say, the first and foremost thought 
on the minds of a \'ery large portion of our people 
after the repulse at Bull's Run was, what will Russell 
say ?" and then they repeat some of the absurd sayings 
attributed to mc, who declared openly from the very 
first that I had not seen the battle at all, to the effect 
" that I had never seen such fighting in all my life. 


and tliat nothing at Alma or Inkennan was equal to 
it." An analysis of the letter follows, in which it is 
admitted that " with perfect candour I purported to 
give an account of what I saw, and not of the action 
vliich I did not see," and the Avriter, who is, if I 
mistake not, the Hon. Mr. llaymond, of the Xcw York 
limes, like myself a witness of the facts I describe, 
quotes a passage in which I say, "There was no flight 
of troops, no retreat of an army, no reason for all this 
precipitation," and then declares " that my letter gives 
a very spirited and perfectly just description of the 
panic which impelled and accomj)anicd the troops from 
Centreville to "Washington. He does not, for he cannot, 
in the least exaggerate its horrible disorder, or the dis- 
graceful behaviour of the incompetent oOicers by whom 
it was aided, instead of being checked. He saw nothing 
whatever of the fighting, and therefore says nothing 
whatever of its quality. He gives a clear, fair, i)cr- 
fectly just and accurate, as it is a spirited and graphic 
account of the extraordinary scenes which passed under 
liis observation. Discreditable as those scenes were to 
our armv, we have nothins in connection with them 
whereof to accuse the reporter; he has done justice 
alike to himself, his subject, and the country." 

Ne nobis blandiar, I may add, that at least I desired to 
do so, and I can i)r()ve from Northern papers that if 
their accounts were true, I certainly much " extenuated 
and nought set down in malice" — nevertheless, Philip 
drunk is very different from Philip sober, frightened, 
and running away, and the man who altemi)ts to justify 
liis version to the inebriated polycephalous monarch is 
•sure to meet such treatment as iuel)riated despots gene- 
rallv awaril to their censors. 

liLACK AXl) M'lnTK. 209 

August 23n/.— The tonciit is swollen lo-day hy , 
anonymous letters tlireuteninj^ nie with bowie knife 
and revolver, or simply ubusive, frantie with hiite, Jiud 
full of obseiu-e warnings. Some bear the Washington, 
post-mark, others came from New York, the greater 
number — for I have had nine — are from Philadelphia. 
Perhaps they may come from the members of that 
"gallant" 4th Pennsylvania Regiment. 

August '2[t/i. — ]My servant came in this morning, to 
announce a trifling accident — he was exercising my 
horse, and at the corner of one of those charming street 
crossings, the animal fell and broke its leg. A "vef 
Mas sent for. I Avas sure that such a portent had never 
been born in those Daunian woods. A man about 
twenty-seven or twenty-eight stone weight, middle-aged 
and active, with a fine professional feeling for distressed 
horse-flesh ; and I was right in m}' conjectures that he 
was a Briton, though the vet had become Americanised, 
and was full of enthusiasm about "our war for the 
Union," which was yielding him a fine harvest. He 
complained there were a good many bad characters 
about Washington, The matter is proved beyond doubt 
by Avhat Ave see, hear, and read. To-day there is an 
account in the papers of a brute shooting a negro boy 
dead, because he asked him for a chew of tobacco. 
Will he be banged ? Not the smallest chance of it. 
The idea of hanging a Avhite man for killing a nigger ! 
It is more preposterous here than it is in India, 
where our authorities have actually executed Avhites 
for the murder of natives. 

Before dinner I Avalked down to the Washington 
navy yard. Captain Dahlgren Avas sorely perplexed 
with au intoxicated Senator, Avhose name it is not ncces- 

•'UlO MY 1>1A1:Y NolITir AND SOLTII. 

sarv to mention, and wlu) sccinoil to think lie paid nie 
a f^rcat coinplinR-nt by exprcssinj; his repeated desire 
" to have a i;ood look at" me. " I jijness yon're qnite 
notorious now. You'll exeuse nie because I've dined, 
now — and so you are the Mr, ice,, itc , kc." The 
Senator informed me that lie was "none of youv 

d d blackfaeed re])ublieans. He didn't care a 

d about nij^irers — his business was to do -^ood to 

his fellow wliite men, to hold our {glorious Union to- 
gether, and let the niggers take care of themselves." 

I was irlad when a diversion was effected by the 
arrival of Mr. Fox, Assistant-Secretary of the Navy, 
and Mr. Blair, I'ostmaster-General, to consult with 
the Captain, who is greatly looked up to by all the 
members of the Cabinet — in fact lie is rather incon- 
venienced by the perpetual visits of the President, who 
is animated l)y a most extraordinary curiosity about 
naval matters and machinery, and is attracted by the 
novelty of the whole department, so that he is con- 
tinually running down "to have a talk with Dahl- 
gren " when he is not engaged in "a ehat with 
George." The Senator opened such a smart tire on I he 
^Minister that the latter retired, and I mounted and rode 
l}aek to town. In the i-vening Major Clarence IJrown, 
Lieutenant Wise, a lively, pleasant, and amusing little 
sailor, well-known in the States as the author of" Los 
Gringos," who is now employed in the Navy Depart- 
ment, and a few of the gentlemen connected with the 
Koixign Legations came in, and we had a great inter- 
national reunion and discussion till a late hoiu-. There 
^18 a good deal of agreeal)le banter reserved for myself, 
as to the exact form of death which I am most likdy 
to meet. I was scrionslv advised bv a friend not 


to stir out uniirnicd. The <,'rc;it use of :i revolver is 
that it will preveut the iuditruity of tarriu^^ aud feather- 
iug, now pretty rife, by provokiuj^ greater violeuee. I 
also received a letter from Loudon, advising nie to aj)ply 
to Lord Lyons for protection, but that could only be 
extended to nie within the walls of the Legation. 

Auyiist 2'otli. — I visited the Navy Department, which 
is a small icd-brick building two storeys high, very 
plain and even humble. The subordinate departments 
arc conducted in rooms below stairs. The executive 
are lodged in the rooms which line both sides of the 
corridor above. The walls of the passage are lined 
w ith paintings in oil and w atcr colours, engravings and 
paintings in the Avorst style of art. To the latter con- 
siderable interest attaches, as they are authentic like- 
nesses of naval officers who gained celebrity in the wars 
with Great Britain — men like Perry, M'Donough, 
Decatiu', and Hull, who, as the Americans boast, was 
"the first man who compelled a British frigate of 
greater force than his own to strike her colours in fair 
fight.^' Paul Jones w-as not to be seen, but a drawing 
is proudly pointed to of the attack of the American 
Heet on Algiers as a proof of hatred to piracy, and 
of the ])rominent part taken by the young States in 
])utting an end to it in Europe. In one room are several 
swords, surrendered by English officers in the single 
frigate engagements, and the duplicates of medals, in 
gold and silver, voted by Congress to the victors. Li 
Lieutenant Wise's room, there are models of the pro- 
jectiles, and a series of shot and shell used iu the 
navy, or deposited by inventors. Among other relics 
Avas the flag of Captain Ward's boat just brought in 
which was completely riddled by the bullet marks 


received in the ambuscade in which tliat oflicer wsis 
killed, Avitli nearly all of his boat's crew, as they in- 
cautiously ajjproached the shore of the Potomac, to 
take oj a small craft placed there to decoy them by the 
Confederates. My business was to pave the way for a 
passage on board a steamer, in cjise of any naval ex- 
pedition starting before the army was ready to move, 
but all dilliculties were at once removed by the prompti- 
tude and courtesy of Mr. Fox, the Assistant Secretary, 
who promised to give me an order for a passage when- 
ever I required it. The extreme civility ;ind readiness 
to oblige of all American officials, high and low, from 
the gate-keepers and door porters up to the heads of 
departments, cannot be too highly praised, and it is 
ungenerous to accept the explanation oli'ered by au 
English officer to whom I remarked the circumstance 
that it is due to the fact that each man is liable to be 
turned out at the end of four years, and therefore makes 
all the friends he can. 

In the afternoon I rode out with Captain Johnson, 
through some charming woodland scenery on the out- 
skirts of Washington, by a brawling stream, in a shady 
little ravine, that put me in mind of the Dargle. Our 
ride ltd us into tlu; camps, formed on the west of George- 
town, to cover the city from the attacks of au enemy 
advancing along the left bank of the Potomac, and 
in support of .several strong forts and earthworks placed 
on the heights. One regiment consists altogether of 
Frencliuien — another is of (Je-rmans — in a third I saw 
an <illi( er with a Crimean and Indian medal on his 
breast, and several privates with similar decorations. 
Some of the regiments were on parade-, and crowds of 
civilians from Washington were enjoying the nove^ 


scene, and partaking of the hospitality of their friends. 
One ohl lady, -whom I have always seen al)()ut tlic 
camps, and who is a sort of ancient heroine of Sara- 
gossa, had an opportunity of being useful. The loth 
IMassachusetts, a fine-looking body of men, had broken 
up camp, and were marching off to the sound of their 
own voices chanting " Old John Brown," when one of 
the enormous trains of baggage Avaggons attached to 
them was carried off by the frightened mules, whicli 
probably had belonged to Virginian farmers, and one 
of the soldiers, in trying to stop it, was dashed to the 
ground and severely injured. The old lady was by his 
side in a moment, and out came her flask of strong- 
waters, bandages, and medical comforts and apparatus. 
'' It's well I'm here for this poor Union soldier; I'm 
sure I always have something to do in these camps." 
On my return late, there was a letter on my table rcr 
questing me to visit General M/Clellan, but it was then 
too far advanced to avail myself of the invitation, which 
was only delivered after I left my lodgings. 


A tour of inspection round the camp — A trouWesome liorse — M'Dowcll 
and tlie Presideut — My description of IJull's Run endorsed by 
American ofTicera — Influence of the Press— Newspaper corre<pon- 
deuts — Dr. Hray — My letters — C:i]>t. Mea^^her — Military a<lvcn- 
tiirers — Probiible duration of tlie war — Lord A. Vane Tempest — 
The American journalist — Threats of assassination. 

Aii(fust -.lOf/i. — General Van Mict called from General 
M'Ckllan to shj' that the Coniinandcr-in-Ghief would 
he happy to go round the camps with me when he next 
made an inspection, and would send round an orderly 
and charter in time to get ready before he started. 
These little excursions are not. the most agreeable 
affairs in the world ; for M'Clellan delights in working 
down stair and escort, dashing from the Chain Bridge 
to Alexandria, and visiting all the posts, riding as hard 
as he can, and not returning till past midnight, so 
that if one has u regard for his cuticle, or his mail 
days, he will not rasiily venture on such excursions. 
To-day he is to inspect M'Uowell's division. 

I set out accordingly with Captain Johnson over 
the Long Bridge, which is now very strictly guarded. 
On exhibiting my pass to the sentry at the entrance, 
he called across to the sergeant and spoke to hijn aside, 
showing him the pass at the same time. " Are you 
Russell, of the London 7V/«r.v ? " said the sergeant. 1 
replied, " If you look at the pass, you will sec who I 

"WALKKI!/ .'505 

am." lie turned it over, examined it most narrowly, 
and at last, with an expression of infinite dissatisfaction 
and anger upon his face, handed it l)ack, saying to 
tlic sentry, " I suppose you must let liim go." 

]Meautime Captain Jolinson was witching tlie worhl 
with feats of noble horsemanship, for I had lent 
iiim my celehrated horse AValker, so called because 
no earthly equestrian can induce him to do anything 
but trot violently, gallof) at full speed, or stand on 
his hind legs. Captain Johnson laid the whole fault 
of the animal's conduct to my mismanagement, affirm- 
ing tliat all it required was a light hand and 
gentleness, and so, as he could display both, I promised 
to let him have a trial to-dav. Walker on startinir. 
however, insisted on having a dance to jj^self, which 
my friend attributed to the excitement produced by 
the presence of the other horse, and I rode quietly 
along whilst the captain proceeded to establish an 
acquaintance with his steed in some quiet bye-street. 
As I was crossing the Long Bridge, the forbidden clatter 
of a horse's hoofs on the i)lanks caused me to look 
round, and on, in a cloud of dust, through the midst 
of shouting sentries, came my friend of the gentle hand 
and unruffled temper, with his hat thumped down on 
the back of his head, his eyes gleaming, his teeth 
elenchcd, his fine features slightly flushed, to say the 
least of it, sawing violently at Walker's head, and 
exclain)ing, " You brute, I'll teach you to walk," till he 
brought up by the barrier midway on the bridge. The 
guard, en masse, called the captain's attention to the 
order, "all horses to Avaik over the bridge." "Why, 
that's what I want him to do. I'll give any man 
among you one hundred dollars who can make him 
vol.. ir. X 


Avalk along tliis bridge or jmywlicrc else." The 
redoubtable steed, being pcrniitted to proceed upon its 
way, daslied swiftly tbruugb the tttr dc pout, or stood 
on iiis hind legs when inipcra1i\cly arrested by a 
barrier or abattis, and on these occasions my excellent 
friend, as he displayed his pass in one hand and 
restrained Bucephalus with the other, reminded me of 
nothing so much as the statue of Peter the Great, in 
the square on the banks of the Neva, or the noble 
equestrian monument of General Jackson, which deco- 
rates the city of Washington. The troops of M'Dowell's 
division were already drawn nj) on a rugged plain, 
close to the river's margin, in hajipicr days the scene 
of the city races. A pestilential odour rose from the 
slaughter-houses elose at hand, but regardless of odour 
or marsh, "Walker continued his violent exercise, 
evidently under the idea that he was assisting at a 
retreat of the grand army as before. 

Presently General M'Dowell and one of his aides 
cantered over, and whilst w aiting for General ]\I'Clellan, 
he talked of the fierce outbtirst directed against me in 
the press. " I confess," he said laughingly, " 1 am 
much rejoiced to find you are as much abused as I 
have been. I hope you mind it as little as I did. 
Bull's Hun was an inifortunate allair for both of us, 
for had I won it, you would have had to describe the 
pursuit of the flying enemy, and then you would have 
been the most popular writer in America, and I would 
have been lauded as the greatest of generals. See 
what measure has been nieeted to us now. I'm accused 
of drunkenness and gambling, and you Mr. Ilussell — 
well ! — I really do hojje you are not so black as you 
are painted." Presently a cloud of dust on the road 

A REVIEW. :]07 

niinounccd the arrival of the President, who came 
upon the ground in an open carriage, witli Mr. Seward 
b}' his side, accompanied by General M'Clellan and his 
staff in undress uniform, and an escort of tlic very dirtiest 
aiul most unsoldierly dragoons, Mith filthy accoutre- 
ments and ungroomed horses, I ever saw. The troops 
dressed into line and presented arms, whilst the band 
struck up the " Star-spangled Banner," as the Ameri- 
cans have got no air which cori'csponds with our 
National Anthem, or is in any way complimentary 
to the quadrennial despot who fills the President's 

General jNPDowell seems on most excellent terms 
with the present Commander-in-Chief, as he is with 
the President. Immediately after Bull's Bun, when the 
President first saw M'Dowell, he said to him, " I have 
not lost a particle of confidence in you," to Avhich the 
General replied, " I don't see why you should, Mr. 
President." But there was a curious commentary, either 
on the sincerity of Mr. Lincoln, or in his utter subser- 
viency to mob oi^inion, in the fjict that he Avho can over- 
rule Congress and act ])retty much as he pleases in time 
of war, had, without opportunity for explanation or 
demand for it, at once displaced the man in whom he 
still retained the fullest confidence, degraded him to 
command of a division of the army of which he had 
been General-in-Chief, and placed a junior officer over 
his head. 

After some ordinary movements, the march past took 
place, which satisfied me that the new levies were very 
superior to the three months' men, though far, indeed, 
from being soldiers. Finer material could not be found 
in physique. With the exception of an assemblage 

80S MY 1)1A1;V NOKTll AND SUL'TH. 

of miserable scarecrows in rags and tatters, swept np 
in New York and commanded by a Mr. Kerrigan, no 
division of the ordinary line, in any army, conld siiow 
a greater number of tall, robust men in the prime of 
life. A soldier standing near me, pointing out Ker- 
rigan's corps, said, " The boy who commands that 
pretty lot recruited them lirst for the Seceshcs in Nrw 
York, but finding he could not get them away he handed 
them over to Uncle Sam." The men were silent as 
they marched past, and did not cheer for President or 

I returned from the field to Arlington House, 
having been invited with mv friend to share the general's 
camp dinner. On our way along the road, I asked 
Major Brown why he rode over to us before the review 
commenced. " Well," said he, "my attention was called 
to you by one of our staff saying 'there are two 
Englishmen,' and the general sent me over to invite 
them, and followed when he saw who it was." "liut 
how could you tell we were iMiglish ? " " I don't 
know," said he, " there were other civilians about, but 
there was something about the look of you two which 
marked you inuncdiatcly as John Bull." 

At the general's tent we found (Jeneral Sherman, 
General Keyes, AVadsworth, and some others, ])inner 
was spread on a table covered by the flap of the tent, 
and consisted of good plain fare, and a dessert of pro- 
digious water-melons. 1 was exceedingly gratified 
to liear every ofiiccr present declare in the presence of 
the general who had commanded the army, and who 
liimsclf said no words could exaggerate the disorder of 
the route, that my narrati\e of Bull's Run was not 
only true but moderate. 


Geueral Sherman, ulium I uu't for the fu-st time, 
said, " Mr. Russell, 1 can indorse every \vord that you 
wrote ; your statements about the battle, which you say 
you did not witness, arc equally correct. All the stories 
al)out chariiing batteries and attacks with the bayonet 
are simply falsehoods, so far as my command is con- 
cerned, though some of the troops did fight well. As to 
cavah'y charges, I wish we had had a few cavalry to 
have tried one ; those Black Horse fellows seemed as if 
their horses ran away with them." General Keyes 
said, " I don't think you made it half bad enough. I 
could not get the meu to stand after they had received 
the first severe check. The enemy swept the open with 
a tremendous musketry fire. Some of our men and 
portions of regiments behaved admirably — we drove 
them easily at fii'st; the cavalry did very little indeed; 
but when they did come on I could not get the infantry 
to stand, and after a harmless volley they broke." 
These officers were brigadiers of Tyler's division. 

The conversation turned upon the influence of the 
press in America, and I observed that every soldier at 
table spoke Avith the utmost dislike and antipathy of 
the New York journals, to which they gave a metro- 
politan position, although each man had some favourite 
paper of his own which he excepted from the charge 
made against the whole body. The principal accusa- 
tions made against the pi'ess were that the conductors 
are not gentlemen, that they are calumnious and 
corru[)t, regardless of truth, honour, anything but 
circulation and advertisements. "It is the first time 
we have had a chance of dealing with these frllows, 
and we shall not lose it." 

I returned to Washington at dusk over the aqueduct 


bridge. A gentleman, who introduced himself to me 
as correspondent of one of the cheap London papers, 
sent out specially on account of his great experience to 
write from the States, under the auspices of the leaders 
of the advanced liberal party, came to ask if I had seeu 
an article in the Clticayo Trlhuiw, purporting to be 
written by a gentleman who says he was in my com- 
pany during the retreat, contradicting what I report. 
I was advised by several ofTicers — whose opinion I 
took — that it would be derogatory to me if I 
noticed the writer. I read it over carefully, and 
must say I am surprised — if anything could sur- 
prise me in American journalism-^at the impudence 
and mendacity of the man. Having first stated that 
he rode along with me from point to point at a certain 
portion of the road, he states that he did not hear or 
see ccitaiu things which I say that I saw and heard, or 
deliberately falsifies what passed, for the sake of a little 
ephemeral applause, quotations in the papers, incrcjised 
importance to himself, and some more abuse of the 
English correspondent. 

This statement made me recall the circumstance 
alluded to more particularly. I remembered well 
the flurried, plefliurie, elderly man, mounted on [a 
broken-down horse, who rode up to me in great 
trepidation, with sweat streaming over his face, and 
asked me if I w as going into AVashington. " You may 
not recollect me, sir; I wjis introduced to you at 
Cay-roe, in the hall of the hotel. I'm Dr. Bray, of the 
(7ticai/o Tribune." I certainly did not remember him, 
but 1 did recollect that a dispatch from Cairo appeared 
in the pa])er, announcing my arrival from the South, 
and stating 1 complained on landing that my letters had 

DK. lUJAY. 311 

been opened in the States, wliicli Avas ([uitc untrue and 
which I felt called ou to deny, and supijosinfjj Dr. Bray 
to be the author I was not at all inclined to cement 
our acquaintance, and continued my course with a bow. 

But the Doctor Mliip[)ed liis steed up alongside mine, 
and went on to tell me that he was in the most terrible 
bodily pain and mental anxiety. The first on account 
of desuetude of equestrian exercise; the other on 
account of the defeat of the Federals and the probable 
pursuit of the Confederates. " Oh ! it's dreadful to 
think of ! They know mc mcII, and would show me no 
mercy. Every step the horse takes I'm in agony. I'll 
never get to ^Washington. Could you stay with me, 
sir ? as you know the road." I was moved to internal 
chuckling, at any rate, by the very prostrate condition 
— for he bent well over the saddle — of poor Dr. Bray, 
and so I said to him, " Don't be uneasy, sir. There is 
no fear of your being taken. The army is not defeated, 
in spite of what you see; for there will be always run- 
aways and skulkers when a retreat is ordered. I have 
not the least doubt jNl'Dowell will stand fast at Cen- 
treville, and rally his troops to-night on the reserve, so 
as to be in a good position to resist the enemy to- 
morrow. I'll have to push on to Washington, as I 
must write my letters, and I fear they Avill stop me on 
the bridge without the countersign, particularly if these 
runaways should outstrip us. As to your skin, pour 
a little whiskey on some melted tallow and rub it 
well in, and you'll be all right to-morrow or next day 
as far as that is concerned." 

I actually, out of compassion to his suftcrings — for he 
uttered cries now and then as though Lucina were in 
request — reined up, and walked my horse, though most 


anxious to get out of the dii^t and confusion of the 
runaways, and conifortcd him about a friend wjjom he 
missed, and for whose fate ho was as uneasy as the 
concern he felt for his own woes permitted him to be ; 
sufTiiested various modes to liim of easing the jolt and 
of quickening the pace of his steed, and at hist really 
bored excessively by an uninteresting and self-absorbed 
companion, who was besides detaining me needlessly on 
the road, I turned on some pretence into a wood by 
the side and continued my way as well as I could, till 
1 got off the track, aiul being guided to the road by the 
dust and shouting, I came out on it somewhere near 
Fairfax Court, and there, to my surjjrise, dropped on 
the Doctor, who, animated by some agency more jiowcr- 
ful than the pangs of an abraded cuticle aiul taking 
advantage of the road, had got thus far a-head. We 
entered the place together, halted at the same inn to 
water our horses, and then seeing that it was getting 
on towards dusk and that the wave of the retreat was 
rolling onward in increased volume, I pushed on and 
saw no more of him. Ungrateful Jiray ! Perfidious 
Hray ! Some day, wlun I have time, I must tell the 
jjcople of Chicago how Bray got into Washington, and 
how he h'tt his horse and what hr did with it, and 
how IJray behaved on the road. 1 daic say they who 
know him can guess. 

The most signilicant aitich' I have seen for some 
time as a test of the taste, tone, and temper of the 
>.'i;w York public, judging by their most widely read 
journal, is contained in it to-night. It appeals that a 
gentleman nanied Miiir, who is described as a relative of 
Mr. Mure the consul at New Orleans, was seized on 
the point of starting for J^iropt", and that anu)ng his 

Ml;. mkac;ii?:k. .",13 

l);iper.s^ many of wliicli were of w " disloyal cliaractcr," 
Avhicli is not astonishing seeing that he came from 
(Miarlestown, was a letter written by a foreign resident 
in that eity, in whieh he stated ho had seen a letter 
from me to ]\[r. Buneh describing the flight at RulPs 
Hun, and adding that Lord Lyons lemarkcd, "when he 
lieard of it, he would ask jNIr. Seward wliether he would 
not now admit the Confederates were a belligerent 
power, whereupon Maudit calls on jMr. Seward to 
demand explanations from Lord Lyons and to turn me 
out of the country, because in my letter to the "Times " 
I made the remark that the United States would i)ro- 
bably now admit the South were a belligerent power. 

Such an original observation could never have 
occurred to two people — genius concerting with genius 
could alone have hammered it out. But Maudit is not 
satisfied with the humiliation of Lord Lyons and the 
expulsion of myself — he absolutely insists upon a 
miracle, and his moral vision being as jjerverted as his 
])hysical, he declares that I must have sent to the British 
Consul at Charleston a duplicate copy of the letter 
■which 1 furnished with so much labour and difficulty 
just in time to catch the mail by special messenger 
from Boston . ' These be thy Gods, O Israel ! ' 

My attention was also directed to a letter from certain 
officers of the disbanded G9th Regiment, who had per- 
mitted their Colonel to be dragged away a [)risoner from 
the field of BulFs Run. Without having read my letter, 
these gentlemen assumed that I had stigmatised 
Captain T. F. Meagher as one who had misconducted 
himself during the battle, whereas all 1 had said on the 
evidence of eye-witnesses was "that in the rout he 
appeared at Centrevillc running across country and 

.•{11 .MY 1»1AUV NOKTII AND SorTH. 

uttering exclamations in the hearing of my informant, 
Avhicli intlit-atcil that he at least was perfectly satisfied 
that the Confetlerates had established then- claims to be 
considered u belligerent power." These officers state 
that Captain !Meaghcr behaved extremely mcU up to a 
certain point in the engagement when they lost sight 
of him, and from which period they could say nothing 
about him. It was subsequent to that very time he 
ap[)eared at Centreville, and long before my letter re- 
turned to America giving credit to Captain Meagher 
for natural galhmtry in the field. I remarked that he 
would no doubt feel as much pained as any of his 
friends, at the ridicule cast upon liim by the statement 
that he, the Captain of a company, ""Went into action 
mounted on a magnificent charger and waving a green 
silk fhig embroidered with a golden harp in the face of 
the enemy." 

A young man wearing the Indian war medal with 
two clasps, who said his name was !Mac Ivor Ililstoek, 
came in to impure after some unknown friend of his. 
lie told me he had been in Tomb's troop of Artillery 
during the Indian mutiny, and had afterwards served 
with the French volunteers during the siege of Caprera. 
The news of tlie Civil AVar has produced such an 
immigration of military adventurers from Europe that 
the streets of AVashinj;ton are (piite filled with medals 
and riiiands. The regular ofliccrs of the American 
Army regard them with considerable dislike, the 
greater inasmuch as Mr. Seward and the politicians 
encourage them. In alluding to the cireumstancc to 
General M'Dowell, ^^h() came in to see me at a late 
dinner, I said, " A great many (Jariijaldians are in Wash- 
ington just now." " Oh," said he in his (piiet wav, "it 


will be quite enough for a man to prove that he once 
saw Garibaldi to satisfy us in Washington tiiat lie is 
quite fit for the command of a regiment. I have recom- 
mended a man because he sailed in the ship which 
Garibaldi came in over here, and I'm sure it will be 
attended to." 

Ai((/ust 27//S.— Fever and ague, which Gen. Jkl'Dowell 
attributes to water-melons, of which he, however, had 
eaten three times as much as I had. Swallowed many 
grains of quinine, and lay panting in the heat iu-doors. 
Two English visitors, Mr. Lamy and a Captain of the 
17th, called on me; and, afterwards, I had a conversa- 
tion with ]\I. JNIercier and M. Stoeekl on the aspect 
of affairs. They are inclined to look forward to a 
more speedy solution than I think the North is weak 
enough to accept. I believe that peace is possible in 
two years or so, but only by the concession to the 
South of a qualified independence. The naval ope- 
rations of the Federals Avill test the Southern mettle 
to the utmost. Having a sincere regard and liking 
for many of the Southerners whom I have met, I 
cannot say their cause, or its origin, or its aim, recom- 
mends itself to ray sympathies ; and yet I am accused 
of aiding it by every means in my power, because I 
do not re-echo the arrogant and empty boasting and 
insolent outbursts of the people in the Nortli, who 
threaten, as the first-fruits of their success, to invade 
the territories subject to the British crown, and to 
outrage and humiliate our flag. 

It is melancholy enough to sec this great republic 
tumbling to pieces; one would regret it all the more 
but for the fact that it re-echoed the voices of the 
obscene and liltln- creatures which have been driveu 


before the lash of the lictor from all the cities of 
Europe. AsMirc'dly it was a irrcat work, but all its 
^reatiu-ss and the idea of its life was of mau, not of 
God. The prim-iple of veneration, of obedienee, of 
suI)ordiMatiou, and self-eontrol did not exist within. 
AVashiu^ton-worship eould not save it. The elements 
of destruction lay equally sized, smooth, and black at 
its foundations, and a spark sulHees to blow the struc- 
ture into the air. 

Aiq/ust -.l^l/t. — llainin<:. Sundry oflieers turned in 
to intjuire of nie, who was cjuietly in bc.l at ^^'ashing- 
ton, concerning certain skirmishes reported to have 
taken place last niji;ht. Sohl one horse and bouj^ht 
another ; that is, I paid ready money in tlie latter 
transaction, and in the former, received an order iVcm 
an otticer on the paymaster of his rej,'iment, on a cer- 
tain day not yet arrived. 

To-day, Lord A. V. Tempest is added to the number 
of English arrivals; he amused me by narrating his 
reeejjtion at "WiHard's on the night of his arrival. 
A\ hen he came in with the usual ruck of passengers, 
he took his turn at the book, and wrote down Lord 
Adolphus \'ane Tempest, with possibly ^l.V. after it. 
The c-jerk, wlio was busily engageil in showing that 
lie was jicrfectly indilferent to the claims of the crowd 
who were waiting at the counter for their rooms, when 
the book was finished, counncnced looking over the 
names of the various persons, such as Leonidas Uuggs, 
Rome, X. Y. ; l)oclor Oucsiphorons ]Jowells, D.D., 
vSyracuse ; Olynthus Craggs, Palmyra, ]\Io. ; Wa>h- 
ington Whilkes, Indianopobs, writing down the num- 
bers of the rooms, and handing over the keys to the 
waiters at the same time. \\ hen he came to the name 


of the English nobleman, lie said, " Vane Tempest, 
No. 125." "But stop," cried Lord Adolplius. " Lv- 
curgus Siccles," continued tlic clerk, " No. •VS." " I 
insist upon it, sir," — ])roke iu Lord Adolphus, — " you 
really must hear me. I protest against being jjut ia 
125. I can't go np so high." " Wiiy," said tlie 
clerk, with infinite contempt, " I can put you at 
twice as high— ril give you No. 250 if I like." This 
was rather too much, and Lord Adolphus pnt his things 
into a cab, and drove about Washington until lie 
got to earth in the two-pair back of a dentist's, for 
whieh no doul)t, tout vi/, he paid as much as for an 
apartment at the Hotel Bristol. 

A gathering of American officers and others, amongst 
■whom was Mr. Olmsted, enabled him to form some idea 
of the young men's society of Washington, which is a 
strange mixture of polities and fighting, gossip, gaiety, 
and a certain apprehension of a wrath to come for their 
dear republic. Here is Olmsted prepared to lay down 
his life for free speech over a united republic, iu one 
part of which his freedom of speech would lead to 
irretrievable confusion and ruin; whilst Wise, on tlie 
other hand, seeks only to establish a union which 
shall have a large fleet, be powerful at sea, and he able 
to smash up abolitionists, newspaper people, and political 
agitators at home. 

August 29///. — It is hard to bear such a fate as 
befalls an unpopular man in the United States, be- 
cause in no other country, as De Tocquevillef remarks, 
is the press so powerful when it is unanimous. And 
yet he says, too, " The journalist of the United 
States is usually placed in a very humble position, 
+ P. 200, Spencer's American edition, New York, 1S58. 

J31S MV niAi:V .\<»KTH AND SOUTH. 

■with n scanty education and a vulgar turn of mind. 
His characteristics consist of an open and coarse 
appeal to the passions of the populace, and he habitu- 
ally abandons the principles of political science to 
assail the characters of individuals, to track them into 
private life, and disclose all their vreaknesses and 
errors. The individuals who are already in posses- 
sion of a liij;h station in the esteem of their fellow- 
citizens arc afraid to write in the newspapers, and they 
are thus deprived of the most powerful instrument 
which they can use to excite the passions of the mul- 
titude to their advantage. The personal opinions of 
the editors have no kind of weight in the eyes of the 
public. The only use of a journal is, that it imparts 
the knowledge of certain facts ; and it is only by altering 
and distorting those facts that a journalist can contri- 
bute to the support of his own views." AVhen the 
whole of the press, without any exception in so far 
as I am aware, sots deliberately to work, in order to 
calumniate, vilify, insult, and abuse a man who is at 
once a stranger, a rival, and an Englishman, he may 
expect but one result, according to De Tocqueville. 

The teeming anonymous letters I receive are filled with 
threats of assassination, tarring, feathering, and the 
like; and one of the most conspicuous of literary sbirri 
is in perfect rajjture at the notion of a new " sensation" 
heading, for which he is working as hard as he can. I 
have no intention to add to the number of his castiga- 

In the afternoon I drove to the waste grounds bcycMul 
the Capitol, in company with ^fr. Olmsted and Captain 
Haworth, to see the l^th Massachusetts Regiment, who 
had just m.'irchcd in, and were pitching their tents very 


probably for the first lime. Tliey arrived from llicir 
state with camp equipments, waggons, liorses, harness, 
commissariat stores complete, and were clad in the 
blue uniform of the United States ; for the volunteer 
fancies in greys and greens are dying out. The men 
were uncommonly stout young fellows, with an odd, 
slouching, lounging air about some of them, however, 
Avhicli I could not quite understand till I heard one 
sing out, " Hallo, sergeant, where am I to sling m}-- 
liamraock in this tent ?" Many of them, in fact, are 
fishermen and sailors from Cape Cod, New Haven, and 
similar maritime places. 


Personal uupopuliuity — Amcricaa uaval ofticers — A guii levelled at me 
iu fun — Increase of odium against me — Success of the Hatteras 
expedition— General Scott and M'Clellau — M'Clellan on bia camp- 
bed — General Scott's pass refused — Prospect of an attack <m 
Washington — Skirmi:^hing — Anonymous letters — General Halleck 
— General M'Clellau and tlie Sabl):itb— Rumoured deatb of Jcflfer- 
Bon Davis — Spread of my unpupularity — An offer for my borse — 
Dinner at the Legation — Discussion on Slavery. 

August 3l5/. — A month during wliicli I have been 
exposed to more calumny, falsehood, not to ^pcak of 
danger, tlian I ever passed througli, has been brought 
to a close. I have all the pains and penalties attached 
to the diyito niomtrari et d'tc'ier hie est, in the most 
hostile sense. On going into ^Villard's the other day, 
I said to the clerk behind the bar, " Why 1 heard, Mr. 
So-and-so, yon were gone?" " AVell, sir, I'm not. If 
I uas, you would have lost the last man who is ready 
to say a word for yon in this house, I can tell you.' 
Scowling faces on every side-women turning up their 
l)retty little noses — people turning round in the streets, 
or stopping to stare in front of me — the proprietors of 
the shops where I am known pointing me out to others ; 
the words uttered, in various tones, " So, that's JJnll- 
Kuii Russell ! " — for, oddly enough, the Americans 
.veem to think that a disgrace to their arras becomes 
diminished by fixing the name of the scene as a 


sobriquet ou one who described it — these, with cjui- 
catures, endless falsehoods, niiiiours of duels, and the 
like, form some of the little desagrenieus of one who was 
so unfortunate as to assist at the retreat, the first he 
had ever seen, of an army which it wouhl in all respects 
have suited him much better to have seen victorious. 

I dined with Lieutenant Wise, and met Captain 
Dahlj:!;ren, Captain Davis, U.S.N., Captain Footc, 
UiTNLSj, and Colonel Fletcher \Yebster^=, son of the great 
American statesman, now commanding a regiment of 
volunteers. The latter has a fine head and face; a full, 
deep eye; is quaint and dry in his conversation, and 
a poet, I should think, in heart and soul, if outward 
and visible signs may be relied on. The naval captains 
were excellent specimens of the accomplished and al)le 
jnen who belong to the United States Navy. Foote, 
who is designated to the command of the flotilla which 
is to clear the Mississippi downwards, will, I am cer- 
tain, do good service — a calm, energetic, skilful officer. 
Dahlgren, who, like all men with a system, very 
l)roperly watches everything which bears upon it, took 
occasion to call for Captain Foote's testimony to the 
fact, that he battered down a six-foot granite wall in 
China with Dahlgren shells. It will run hard against 
the Confederates when they get such men at Avork on 
the rivers .ind coasts, for they seem to understand their 
business thoroughly, and all they are not quite sure of 
is the readiness of the land forces to co-operate witii 
their expeditionary movements. Incidentally I learned 
from the conversation — and it is a curious illustration 
of the power of the President — that it was he who 
ordered the attack on Charleston harbour, or, to speak 

* Since killed in action. 


with more accuracy, tlic movement of the armed 
squadron to relieve Sumter by force, if necessary ; and 
that he came to the conchisiou it was feasible princi- 
pally from reading the account of the attack on 
Kinl)urn by the allied fleets. There was certainly an 
immense disproportion between the relative means of 
attack and defence in the two cases ; l)ut, at all events, 
the action of the Confederates prevented the attempt. 

September 1*7. — Took a ride early this mornini; over 
the Long Bridge. As I was passing out of the earth- 
work called a fort on the liill, a dirty (Jcrman soldier 
called out from the parapet, " Pull- Run Russell! you 
shall never write Pulls' Runs again," and at the same 
time cocked his piece, and levelled it at me. I imme- 
diately rode round into the fort, the fellow still pre- 
senting his firelock, and asked him what he meant, at 
the same time calling for the sergeant of the guard, 
who came at once, and, at my recjuest, arrested the 
man, who recovered arms, and said, " It was a choakc 
— I vant to frceken Pull-Run Russell." However, as 
his rifle was capped and loaded, and on full cock, 
with his finger on the trigger, I did not quite see the 
fun of it, and I accordingly liad the man marched 
to the tent of the ofiicer, who promised to investigate 
the case, and make a formal report of it to thel)rigadier, 
on my return to lay the circumstances before him. 
On reflection I resolved that it was best to let the 
matter drop ; the joke might spread, and it was quite 
unpleasant enouiih as it was to bear the insolent looks 
and scowling faces of the guards at the posts, to whom 
I was obliged to exhibit my pass whenever I went out 
to ride. 

On my return I heard of the complete success of 


the Hatteras expedition, whicli shelled out and destroyed 
some sand batteries guarding the entrance to the great 
inland sea and navigation called Pamlico Sound, in 
North Carolina, furnishing access to coasters for many 
miles into the Confederate States, and most useful to 
them in forwarding supplies and keeping up communi- 
cations throughout. The force was commanded by 
General Butler, avIio has come to "Washington -vvitli the 
news, and has already made his speech to the mob 
outside Willard's. I called down to see him, but he 
had gone over to call on the President. The people 
were jubilant, and one might have supposed Hatteras 
was the key to Richmond or Charleston, from the way 
they spoke of this unparalleled exploit. 

There is a little French gentleman here against whom 
the fates bear heavily. I have given him employment 
as an amanuensis and sccretaiy for some time back, 
and he tells me many things concerning the talk in the 
city which I do not hear myself, from which it would 
seem that there is an increase of ill feeling towards me 
every day, and that I am a convenient channel for con- 
centrating all the abuse and hatred so long cherished 
against England. I was a little tickled by an account 
he gave me of a distinguished lady, who sent for him to 
give French lessons, in order that she might become 
equal to her high position in mastering the difficulties 
of the courtly tongue. I may mentiou the fact, as it 
was radiated by the press through all the land, that 
Mrs. M. N., having once on a time " been proficient in 
the language, has forgotten it in the lapse of years, but 
has resolved to renew her studies, that she may better 
discharge the duties of her elevated station." The 
master went to the house and stated his terms to a 


lady ulioin ]u> saw there ; but as she marclianded a good 
deal over small matters of cents, he never supposed lie 
was dealing uith the j^'reat huly, and therefore made a 
small reduction in his terms, wliicli encouraged the 
enemy to renew the assault till he stood firmly on three 
shillings a lesson, at which point the lady left liim, with 
the intimation that she would consider the matter and 
let liim know. And now, the licentiate tells me, it 
has become known lie is my private secretary, lie is 
not considered eligible to do avoir and eii-e for the 
satisfaction of the good lady, who really is far better 
than her friends describe her to be. 
/ Septembei' 2»(l. — It Mould seem as if the North were 
perfectly destitute of common sense. Here they are as 
rampant because they have succeeded with an over- 
whelming fleet in shelling out the defenders of some 
jioor unfinished earthworks, on a spit of sand on the 
coast of North Carolina, as if they had already crushed 
the Southern rebellion. They affect to consider this 
achievement a counterpoise to Bull Hun. 

Surely the press cannot represent the feelings of the 
staid and thinking masses of the Northern States ! The 
success is unquestionably useful to the Federalists, but 
it no more adds to their chances of crushing the Con- 
federacy, than shooting off the end of an elephant's 
tail contributes to the hunter's capture of the animal. 

Anoflicions little person, who was buzzing about here 
as correspondent of a London newspaper, made liimself 
agreeable by coming with a caricature of my humble 
self at the battle of Hull Kun, in a laborious and most 
unsuccessful imitation of I'lmr/i^ ju wlijcli 1 ;mi repre- 
sented with rather a flattering face and figure, seated 
before a Imge telescope, surrounded by bottles of 


London stout, and lt)()king at tlic fi^ht. This is sii[)- 
poscd to be very liuraorous and amusinj^, and my good- 
natured friend was rather astonished when I eut it out 
and inserted it carefully in a scrap-book, opjiosite a 
sketch from fancy of the New York Fire Zouaves 
charging a battery and routing a regiment of cavalry, 
Avhich appeared last week in a much more imaginative 
and amusing periodical, which aspires to describe with 
pen and pencil the actual current events of the war. 

Going out for ray usual ride to-day, I saw General 
Scott, between two aides-de-camp, slowly pacing home- 
wards from the AVar Office, lie is still Commander- 
in-Chief of the army, and affects to direct movements 
and to control the disposition of the troops, but a power 
greater than his increases steadily at General jM'Clel- 
lan's head-quarters. For my owu part I confess that 
General M'Clellan does not appear to me a man of 
action, or, at least, a man who intends to act as speedily 
as the crisis demands. He should be out with his 
army across the Potomac, living among his generals, 
studying the composition of his army, investigating 
its defects, and, above all, showing himself to the men 
as soon afterwards as possible, if he cannot be with 
them at the time, in the small affairs which constantly 
occur along the front, and never permitting them to 
receive a blow without taking care that they give at 
least two in return. General Scott, jam fracia membra 
luborc, would do all the work of departments and super- 
intendence admirably well ; but, as Montesquieu taught 
long ago, faction and intrigue are the cancers which 
l)eculiarly eat into the body politic of republics, and 
M'Clellan fears, no doubt, that his absence from the 
capital, even though he went but across the river, would 
animate his enemies to undermine and supplant bini. 


I have lieard several people say lately, " I wish old 
Scott uoukl go away/' by which tlicy mean that they 
Avould be h;ippy to strike liiiu down when his back was 
turned, but feared his personal inilueuce with the Pre- 
sident and liis Cabinet. Two montlis ago and his was 
the most ]it*noured name in the States: one was sickened 
by the constant repetition of elaborate plans, in whicii the 
General was represented playing the part of an Indian 
juggler, and holiling an enormous boa constrictor of a 
Federal army in his hands, which he was preparing to 
let go as soon as he had coiled it completely round 
the frighiLued Secessionist rabbit ; '' now none so 
poor to do him reverence." Hard is the fate of those 
who serve republics. The ofiicers who met the old 
man in the street to-day passed him by Avithout a 
salute or mark of recognition, although he wore his 
uniform coat, with yelhnv lapels and yellow sash ; 
and one of a group which came out of a restaurant 
close to the General's house, exclaimed, almost in 
his hearing, "Old fuss-aud-feathcrs don't look first- 
rate to-day." 

In the evening I went with a Scotch gentleman, who 
was formerly accjuainted with (jcncral M'CleHan wheu 
he was superintendent of the Central Illinois Railway, 
to his head-quarters, which are in the house of Captain 
^Vilkes at the corner of President Square, near Mr. 
Seward's, and not iar from the spot where General 
Sickles shot down the unhappy man who had tem- 
j)orarily disturbed the peace of his domestic relations. 
The parluurs were full of olliccrs smoking, reading 
the papers, and writing, and after a short conversation 
Avith General Marcy, Chief of the Staff, Van Vliet, 
aide-de-camp of the Commander-in-Chief, led the 
way np-stairs to the tup of the house, where wc 


found General M'Clellau, just returned from a lon^ 
ride, and seated in liis shirt sleeves on the side of 
his camp-bed. lie looked better than I have yet 
seen hiuij lor his dress showed to advantage the 
powerful, compact formation of his figure, massive 
throat, well-set head, and muscular energy of his 
frame. Nothing could be more agreeable or easy than 
his manner. In his clear, dark-blue eye was no trace 
of uneasiness or hidden purpose ; but his mouth, covered 
by a short, thick moustache, rarely joins in the smile 
that overspreads his face when he is animated by 
telling or hearing some matter of interest. Telegraph 
wires ran all about the house, and as we sat round the 
General's table, despatches were repeatedly brought in 
from the Generals in the front. Sometimes M'ClcUan 
laid down his cigar and went off to study a large map 
of the position, Avhich was fixed to the wall close to the 
head of his bed ; but more frequently the contents of 
the despatches caused him to smile or to utter some 
exclamation, which gave one an idea that he did not 
attach much importance to the news, and had not great 
faith in the reports received from his subordinate officers, 
who are always under the impression that the enemy 
are coming on in force. 

It is plain the General has got no high opinion of 
volunteer officers and soldiers. In addition to un- 
steadiness in action, which arises from want of con- 
fidence in the officers as much as from any other cause, 
the men labour under the great defect of exceeding 
rashness, a contempt fur the most ordinary precautions, 
and a liability to unaccountable alarms and credulous- 
ness of false report ; but, admitting all these circum- 
stances, ISI'Clellan has a soldier's faith in (/rus uataillons 


:iiul sees no doubt of ultimate success in a niilitarv 
point of vic-w, provided tlie politicians keep quiet, and, 
channinj,' men as thev are, cease to meddle with thin«;s 
they don't understand. Althou{;h some very good 
ollicers have deserted the Initcd States army and are 
now uith the Confederates, a very considerable majority 
of AN'cst Point oliicers have adhered to the Federals. 
1 am satisfied, by an actual inspection of the lists, that 
the Northerners retain the sauu- preponderance in 
oflicers who have received a military education, as they 
possess in wealth and other means, and resources lor 
carrying on the war. 

The General consumes tobacco largely, and not only 
smokes cigars, but indulges in the more naked beauties 
of a quid. From tobacco we wandered to the Crimea, and 
thence went half round the world, till we halted before 
the A'irginian Avatch-fires, which these good volunteers 
w ill insist on lighting under the very noses of the enemy's 
pickets; nor was it till late we retired, leaving tlic 
(ieneral to his well-earned repose. 

(leneral .M'Clellan took the situation of ali'airs in 
a very easy and i)hilosophical spirit. According to 
his own map and showing, the enemy not only over- 
lapped his lines from the batteries by which they 
blockaded the Potomac on the right, to their extreme 
left on the river above "Washington, but have established 
themselves in a kind of salient angle on his front, at a 
])laee called Munson's Hill, where their Hag waved from 
entrenchments within sight of the Capitol. However, 
from an observation he made, 1 imagined that the 
General would make an eil'ort to recover his lost 
ground ; at any rate, beat tip the enemy's quarters, in 
order to sec what they were doing; and he promised to 


send an orderly round und let nic know; so, Ijcforc I 
retired, I gave orders to my groom to have " W alker " 
in readiness. 

September ord. — Notwithstanding tlic extreme licat, 
I went out early this morning to the Chain ]5ridgo, iVoiii 
which the reconnaissance hinted at last night would 
necessarily start. This bridge is about four and a half or 
iivc miles above "Washington, and crosses the river at 
a picturesque spot almost deserving the name of a 
s:0Y"c, Avith high Ijanks on both sides. It is a light 
aerial structure, and spans the river by broad arches, 
from which the view reminds one of Highland or 
Tyrolean scenery. The road from the city passes 
through a squalid settlement of European squatters, 
who in habitation, dress, appearance, and possibly 
civilisation, arc quite as bad as any negroes on any 
Southern plantation I have visited. The camps of a 
division lie just beyond, and a gawky sentry from New 
England, with whom I had some conversation, amused 
me by saying that the Colonel "was a darned deal 
more aftcerd of the Irish squatters taking off his poultry 
at night than he was of the Secessioners ; anyways, 
he puts out more sentries to guard them than he 
has to look after the others." 

From the Chain Bridge I went some distance 
towards Falls Church, until I was stopped by a picket, 
the oflicer of which refused to recognise Crcneral Scott's 
pass. "I guess the General's a dead man, sir.'' 
" Is he not Commander-in-Chief of the United States 
army?" " Well, I believe that's a fact, sir; but you 
had better argue that point with M'Clellan. He is our 
boy, and I do believe he'd like to let the London Times 
know how we Green ]\Iountain boys can light, if they 


don't know already, liut all passes are stopped any- 
Iiow, and I had to turn back a Congress-man tliis very 
ruorning, and lucky for him it was, because the 
Sechessers are just half a mile in front of us/' On my 
way back by the upper road I passed a farmer's house, 
Avhich was occupied by some Federal oflicers, and there, 
seated in the verandah, with his legs cocked over the 
railings, was !Mr. Lincoln, in a felt hat, and a loose 
grey shooting coat and long vest, " letting off," as the 
papers say, one of his jokes, to judge by his attitude 
and the laughter of the oilicers around him, utterly 
indifferent to the Confederate Hag iloating irom Mun- 
son's Hill. 

Just before midnight a considerable movement of 
troops took place through the streets, and I was about 
starting off to ascertain the cause, when I received 
information that General !M'Clellan was only sending 
off two brigades and four batteries to the Cliaiu 
Bridge to strengthen his right, which Mas menaced 
by the enemy. 1 retired to bed, in order to be 
ready for any battle which might take j)lace to- 
morrow, Imt was roused up by voices beneath my 
window, and going out on the verandah, could not help 
chuckling at the aj)j)earance of three foreign ministers 
and a banker, in the street below, who had come round 
to inquire, in some pertur))ation, tiie cause of the 
nocturnal movement of men and guns, and seemed 
little inclined to credit my assurances that nothing 
more serious than a reconnaissance was contemplated. 
The ministers were in high sjjirits at the prospect of an 
attack on ^\ iushington. Such agreeable people arc the 
governing jjarty of the L'nited States at ])resent, that 
there is only one representative of a foreign power here 


ulio would not like to sec them Hying before Soutlicru 
bayonets. The banker, perhaps, would have liked a 
little time to set his allairs in order. " When will the 
sacking begin? " cried the ministers. " We must hoist 
our flags.^^ " The Confederates respect private pro])erty, 
I suppose ? " As to flags, be it remarked that Lord 
Lyons has none to display, having lent his to Mr. Seward, 
who required it for some festive demonstration. 

September Wi. — I rode over to the Chain Jiridgc 
again Avith Captain Haworth this morning at seven 
o'clock, on the chance of there being a big fight, as 
the Americans say; but there was only some slight 
skirmishing going on; dropping shots now and then. 
Walker, excited by the reminiscences of Bull Run 
noises, peribrmed most remarkable feats, one of the 
most frequent of which was turning right round when 
at full trot or canter and then kicking violently. He 
also galloped in a most lively way down a road which 
in winter is the bed of a torrent, and jumped along 
among the boulders and stones in an agile, cat-like 
manner, to the great delectation of my companion. 

The morning was intensely hot, so I was by no means 
indisposed to get back to cover again. Nothing would 
persuade people there was not serious lighting some- 
where or other. 1 went down to tlie Long Bridge, and 
was stopped by the sentry, so I produced General 
Scott's pass, which I kept always as a denner rcssort, 
but the officer on duty here also refused it, as passes 
were suspended. I returned and referred the matter to 
Colonel Cullum, who consulted General Scott, and 
informed me that the pass must be considered as 
perfectly valid, not having been revoked by the 
General, who, as Lieuteuant-General commanding 


the United States army, was senior to every other 
officer, and could only have his pass revoked by tin- 
President himself. Now it was quite plain that it would 
do me no good to have an altercation with the sentries 
at every post in order to have the satisfaction of reporting 
the matter to General Scott. I, therefore, procured a 
letter from Colonel Cullum stating, in writing, what 
he said in words, and Mith that and the i)ass 
went to General M'Clellan's head-quarters, where I 
was told by his aides the General was engaged in a 
kind of council of war. I sent np my papers, and 
Major Hudson, of his staff, came down atter a short 
time and said, that " General M'Clellan thought it 
would be much better if (iencral Scott had given me a 
new sj)ecial pass, but as General Scott had thought fit 
to take the present course on his own responsibility. 
General MTlellan could not interfere in the matter," 
■whence it may be inferred there is no very pleasant 
feeling between head-quarters of the army of the: 
Potomac and hcad-(|uarters of the army of the United 

I went on to the Xavy yard, MJiore a look-out 
man, who can coaimand the whole of the country tci 
Munson's Hill, is stationed, and 1 heard from Cajjtaiu 
Hahlgren that there was no fighting whatever. There 
were colunms of smoke visible from Capitol Hill, wliich 
the excited sjx-ctators declared were caused i)y artillery 
and musketry, but my glass resolved them into emana- 
tions from a vast extent of hauging wood and brush 
which the Federals were burning in order to clear their 
front. However, jjcople wire so positive as to hearing 
cannonades and volleys of musketry that we went out to 
the reservoir hill at Georgetown, and gazing over the 


dcbatnblc luiul of Yirgiiiiu — wliicli, by the wav, is vcrv 
beautiful these summer sunsets — becaiuc thorou^^hlv 
satisfied of the dehision. jNIet \'au A'liet as I was 
returning, -who liad just seen tlie re[)()rts at head- 
quarters, and averred there was no fighting -whatever. 
My huuUord bad a very different story. J I is friend, 
au bospital steward, " liad seen ninety wounded men 
carried into one ward from over tlie river, and Ijelieved 
the Federals bad lost 1(M)0 killed and wounded and 
twenty- five guns." 

Sept. hth. — Raining all day. M'Clellan abandoned 
bis intention of inspecting the lines, and I remained in, 
writing. The anonymous letters still continue. Re- 
ceived one from an unmistakable Thug to-day, witb 
the deatli^s-bead, cross-bones, and coffin, in the most 
ortbodox style of national-school drawing:. 

The event of the day was the appearance of the 
President in the Avenue in a suit of black, and a parcel 
in his hand, walking umbrella-less in the rain. ]\Irs. 
Lincoln has returned, and the worthy "llxecutive " will 
no longer be obliged to go " browsing round," as he 
says, among his friends at dinner-time. He is working 
away at money matters with energy, but has been much 
disturbed in his course of studies by General Fremont's 
sudden outburst in the West, which proclaims enuuici- 
pation, and draws out the arrow which the President 
intended to discharge from his own bow. 

Sept. 6t/i.—At 3.30 p.m. General M'Clellan sent over 

an orderly to say be was going across the river, and 

would be glad of my company; but I was just finishing 

■ my le tters for En gland, and had to excuse myself for tin- 

"moment; and when I was ready, the GeneraFand stafl" 

had gone venii'e cl ierre into Virginia. After post, paid 


my respects to General Scott, who is about to retire 
from the coinmuiul on liis full-pay of about £350(> ])er 
annum, which is awarded to him on account of liis lung 
s erviccs. 

A new Major-Gcneral — Ilallcck — has Ijeen picked up 
in California, and is highly praised by General Scott 
and by Colonel Cullum, with wliom I had a long 
talk about the generals on both sides, llalleck is a 
West Point oflicer, and has puljlished some works on 
military science which are highly esteemed in the 
States. Before California became a State, he was 
secretary to the governor or ofKccr commanding the 
territory, and eventually left the service and became a 
lawyer in the district, where he has amassed a large 
fortune. lie is a man of great ability, very calm, 
practical, earnest, and cold, devoted to the Union 
— a soldier, and something more. Lee is con- 
sidered the ablest man on the Federal side, but lie is 
slow and timid. "Joe" Johnson is their best strate- 
gist. Beauregard is nobody and nothing — so think 
they at head-quarters. All of them together are not 
equal to llalleck, who is to be employed in the West. 

I dined at the Legation, where were the Russian 
[Minister, the Secretary of the French Legation, the 
representative of New Granada, and others. As I 
was anxious to explain to General M'Clcllan the 
reason of my inability to go out with him, I called at 
his quarters about eleven ©""clock, and found he had 
just returned from his ride, lie received me in liis 
shirt, in his bed-room at the top of the house, in- 
troduced me to General Burnside — a soldierly, intel- 
ligent-looking man, with a very lofty forehead, and 
uncommonly bright dark eyes; and we had some con- 


versation about matters of ordinary interest for some 
time, till General ]\l'Clcllan called mc into an ante- 
chamber, where an officer was writing; a despatch, which 
he handed to the General. "I wish to ask your 
opinion as to the wording of this order. It is a matter 
of importance. I sec that the men of this army, Mr. 
llussell, disregard the Sabbath, and neglect tiic wor- 
ship of God ; and I am resolved to put an end to such 
neglect, as far as I can. I have, therefore, directed the 
following order to be drawn up, which will be promul- 
gated to-morrow." The General spoke with much 
earnestness, and with an air which satisfied me of his 
sincerity. The officer in waiting read the order, in 
which, at the General's request, ^I suggested a few 
alterations. The General told me he had received 
" sure information that Beauregard has packed up all 
his baggage, struck his tents, and is evidently pre- 
paring for a movement, so you may be wanted at a 
moment's notice.'' General Burnside returned to my 
rooms, in company with ]Mr. Lamy, and wc sat up, 
discoursing of Bull's Run, in which his brigade 
was the first engaged in front. He spoke like a man 
of sense and a soldier of the action, and stood up 
for the conduct of some regiments, though he could not 
palliate the final disorder. Tiie papers circulate 
rumours of " Jeff". Davis's death ;" nay, accounts of his 
burial. The public does not believe, but buys all the 

Sept. 7ih.—-Yes; "Jeff. Davis must be dead." There 
are some touching lamentations in the obituary notices 
over his fate in the other world. ]\reauwhile, how- 
ever, his spirit seems quite alive ; for there is an abso- 
lute certainty that the Confederates are coming to attack 


the Capitol. Lieut. AVise and Lord A. Vane Tempest 
urj^ucd the question whether the assault wouhl be made 
by a Hank movement above or direct in front ; and 
Wise maintained the latter thesis with vigour not dis- 
proportioncd to the eneriry with which his opponent 
demonstrated that the Confederates could not be such 
madmen as to march up to the Federal batteries. 
There is actually "a battle '" rajjinj; (in the front of the 
rhiladeli)hia newspaper offices) this instant — Pupulus 
vult decipi — tlec'ipiatur. 

Sept. 8///. — Rode over to Arlington House. AVent 
round by Aqueduct Bridge, Georgetown, and out across 
Chain Bridge to Brigadier Smith's head-quarters, which 
are established in a comfortable house beloniring to a 
Secessionist farmer. The General belongs to the rc;ru- 
lar army, and, if one can judge from externals, is a good 
officer. A libation of Bourbon and water was poured 
out tu friendship, and we rode out with Captain Poe, 
of the Topographical Engineers, a hard-working, eager 
fellow, to examine the trench which the men were engaged 
in throwing up to defend the position they have just oc- 
cupied on some high knolls, now cleared of wood, and 
overlooking ravines which stretch towards Falls Church 
and Vienna. Everything about the camp looked like 
fighting: Napoleon guns jdanted on the road; Gridin's 
battery in a field near at hand ; mountain howitzers 
nnlimljcred; strong jjickcts and main-guards; the five 
thousand men all kept close to their camps, and two 
regiments, in spite of M'Clellan's order, engaged on the 
trenches, which were already mounted with field-guns. 
General Smith, like most ofliccrs, is a Democrat and 
strong anti-Abolitionist, and it is not too much to huj)- 
pose he would fight any rather than Virginians. As 

UNrorL'LAKiTV AN!) Tiic i'i; 3;i7 

■SVC were ridiiiij; about, it ^ot out aiuou^ tlio mcu 
that I was present, and I was regarded \\itli no 
small curiosity, starinti;, ami sonic angry look-^. Tlie 
men do not know what to make of it when they sec 
their officers in the company of one wlioni they are 
reading about in the papers as the most &c., Sec, the 
world ever saw. And, indeed, I know well enough, so 
great is their passion and so easily are they misled, that 
without such safeguard the men would in all probability 
carry out the suggestions of one of tlieir particular 
giiides, who has undergone so many cuffiugs that lie 
rather likes them. Am I not the cause of the disaster 
at Bull's Run ? 

Going home, I met ]\Ir. and Mrs. Lincoln in their 
new open carriage. Tlie President was not so good- 
humoured, nor ]\Irs. Lincoln so aifable, in their return 
to my salutation as usual. ^ly unpopularity is cer- 
tainly spreading upwards and downwards at the same 
time, and all because I could not turn the battle of Bull's 
Run into a Federal victory, because I would not pander to 
the vanity of the people, and, least of all, because I Mill 
not bow my knee to the degraded creatures who have 
made the very name of a free press odious to honour- 
able men. JNIany of the most foul-mouthed and rabid 
of the men Avho revile me because I have said tlie 
Union as it was never can be restored, are as fully 
satisfied of the truth of that statement as I --wu. They 
have written far severer things of their army than 
I have ever done. They have slandered their soldiers 
and their officers as I have never done. They have (cd 
the worst passions of a morbid democracy, till it can 
neither see nor hear; but they shall never have the satis- 
faction of either driving mc from my post or inducing 
VOL. ir. s 


me to deviate a hair's-breadth from the course I have 
resolved to pursue, as I liavc done before in other cases 
— greater and graver, as far as I was concerned, than 

Sept. dl/i. — This morning, as I was making the 
most of my toilet after a ride, a gentleman in the 
uniform of a United States officer came up-stairs, and 
marched into my sitting-room, saying he wished to see 
me on business. I thought it was one of my numerous 
friends coming with a message from some one who was 
going to avenge Bull's Run on me. So, going out as 
speedily as I could, I bowed to the officer, and asked his 
business. " I've come here because I'd like to trade 
with you about that chestnut horse of yours." I replied 
that 1 could only state what price I had given for him, 
and say that I would take the same, and no less. 
"What may you have given for him?" I discovered 
that my friend had been already to the stable and 
ascertained the price from the groom, who considered 
himself bound in duty to name a few dollars beyond 
the actuid sum I had given, for when I mentioned the 
price, the countenance of the man of war relaxed into 
a grim smile. "AVell, I reckon that help of yours is a 
pretty smart chap, though he does come from your side 
of the world." "When the ])reliminari('s had been 
arranged, tiie officer announced that he had come on 
behalf of another officer to offer me an order on his 
])aymastcr, payable at some future date, for the animal, 
which he desired, however, to take away upon the spot. 
The transaction was rather amusing, but I consented 
to let the horse go, much to the indignation and 
uneasiness of the Scotch servant, who regarded it as 
contrary to all the principles of morality in horse-flesh. 


Lord A. Y. Tempest and another iJritisli subject, who 
applied to INIr. Seward to-day for leave to go Soutli, 
■were curtly refused. The Foreign Secretary is not 
very well pleased with ns all just now, and there has 
been some little uneasiness between him and Lord 
Lyons, in consequence of representations respecting an 
improper excess in the United States marine on the 
lakes, contrary to treaty. The real cause, perhaps, 
of Mr. Seward's annoyance is to be found in the 
exaggerated statements of the American papers re- 
specting British reinforcements for Canada, M'hich, in 
truth, are the ordinary reliefs. These small questions 
in the present condition of afi'airs cause irritation ; but 
if the United States were not distracted by civil war, 
they would be seized eagerly as pretexts to excite the 
popular mind against Great Britain. 

The great difficulty of all, which must be settled 
some day, relates to San Juan ; and every American I 
have met is persuaded Great Britain is in the wrong, 
and must consent to a compromise or incur tlie risk of 
war. The few English in Washington, I think, were 
all present at dinner at the Legation to-day. 

September 10th. — A party of American officers passed 
the evening where I dined — all, of course, Federals, but 
holding very different views. A Massachusetts Colonel, 
named Gordon, asserted that slavery was at the root of 
every evil which aillictcd the Republic ; that it was not 
necessary in the South or anywhere else, and that the 
South maintained the institution for political as well 
as private ends. A Virginian Captain, on the con- 
trary, declared that slavery was in itself good ;' that it 
could not be dangerous, as it was essentially conser- 
vative, and desired nothing better than to be left alone ; 



but that the Northern fanatics, jealous of the superior 
political iiifluonfo and ability of Southern statesmen, 
and sordid Protectionists who uishcd to bind tlic 
South to take their «;oods exclusively, perpetrated 
all the mischief. An olHcer of the district of Columbia 
assii^ned all t'i:e misfortunes of the country to universal 
suft'rage, to foreign immigration, and to these alone. 
!Mob-la\v revolts well-educated men, and people "vvho 
priile themselves because their fathers lived in the 
country before them, will not be content to see a 
foreigner who has been but a short time on the soil 
exercising as great influence over the fate of the 
country as himself. A contest will, therefore, always 
be going on between those representing the oligarchical 
principle and the pollarehy; and the residt must be 
disruption, sooner or later, because there is no power 
in a republic to restrain the struggling factions which 
the weight of the crown compresses in monarchical 

I dined with a namesake — a major in the United 
States Marines — with whom I had become accidentally 
acquainted, in consequence of our letters frequently 
changing hands, and spent an agreeable evening in 
comi)any with nav:d and military oflicers; not the less 
so because our host had some marvellous ISIadeira, 
dating back from 1 lie Conquest — I mean of Washington. 
Several of the oflicers si)()kc in the highest terms of 
(Jeneral Banks, whom they call a most remarkable 
man ; but so jealous are the politicians that he will 
never be permitted, they think, to get a fair chance of 
distinguishing himself. 


A acquaintance — Personal abuse of myself — Close firing- 
A reconnaissance — Major-General Bell — Tlio Prince do Joiuviiio 
and liis nephews — American estimate of Lonis Napoleon — Arrest 
of members of the Marj'land Legislature — Life at Washington — 
War cries — News from the I'ar West — Journej' to the Western States 
— Along the Susquchannah and Juniata — Chicago — Si)ort in the 
prairie — Arrested for shooting on Sun<lay — The town of Dwight — 
lieturu to Washington —Mr. Seward and myself. 

September Wth. — A soft-voiced, round-faced, rather 
good-louking youug man, \\\i\\ downy moustache, came 
to my room, and introduced himself this morning as 
Mr. II. II. Scott, formerly of Her ]\Iajcsty's 57th Regi- 
ment. " Don't you remember me ? I often met you 
at Cathcart's Hill. I had a big dog, if you remember, 
which used to be about the store belonging to our 
camp." And so he rattled on, talking of old Street 
and young Jones with immense volubility, and telling 
uic how he had gone out to India with his regiment, 
had married, lost his wife, and was now travelling for 
the benefit of his health and to see the country. All 
the time I was trying to remember his face, but in 
vain. At last came the purport of his visit. lie had 
been taken ill at Raltimore, and was obliged to stop at 
an hotel, which had cost him more than he had antici- 
pated; he had just received a letter IVom his fatiicr, 
which rc(juircd his imuicdiate return, and he had tile- 


graphed to New York to secure his place in the next 
steamer. ^leantimc, lie was out of money, and required 
a small loan to enable him to go back and prepare for 
his journey, and of course he would send me the money 
the moment he arrived in New York. I wrote a 
cheque for the amount he named, with which Lieute- 
nant or Captain Scott departed; and my suspicions 
were rather aroused by seeing him beckon a remarkablv 
ill-favoured person at the other side of the wav, who 
crossed over and inspected the little slip of paper held 
out for his approbation, and then, taking his friend 
under the arm, walked off rapidly towards the bank. 

The papers still continue to abuse mefauie dc mieujc; 
there are essays written about me ; I am threatened 
with several farces ; I have been lectured upon at 
AVillard's by a professor of rhetoric; and I am a stock 
subject with the leaden penny funny journals, for 
articles and caricatures. Yesterday I was abused on 
the ground that I spoke badly of those who treated mc 
hospitably. The man who wrote the words knew they 
were false, because I have been most careful in my 
correspondence to avoid anything of the kind. A 
favourite accusation, indeed, which Americans make 
agaijist foreigners is, " that they have abused our hos- 
pitality," whicii oftentimes consists in permitting them 
to live in the country at all at their own expense, 
paying their way at hotels and elsewhere, without the 
smallest susj)icion that they were receiving any hospi- 
tality whatever. 

To-day, for instance, there comes a lively corporal 
of artillery, John Robinson, who quotes Sismondi, 
Gui7.ot,and others, to prove that I am the worst man in 
the world; but his fiercest invectives arc directed a'^ainst 


me on tlic p;i'oun(I tliat T spc:ik well of those people wlio 
give me diimcrs ; the fact being, siiiee I came to America, 
that I have given at least as many dinners to Americans 
as I have received from them. 

Just as I was sitting down to my desk for the 
remainder of the day, a sound caught ray car which, 
repeated again and again, could not be mistaken by 
accustoiued organs, and placiug my face close to the 
windows, I perceived the glass vibrate to the distant 
discharge of cannon, which, evidently, did not proceed 
from a review or a salute. Unhappy man that I am ! 
liere is Walker lame, and my other horse carried off by 
the West-country captain. However, the sounds were so 
close that in a few moments I was driving oil" towards 
the Chain Bridge, taking the upper road, as that by 
the canal lias become a sea of mnd filled with deep 

In the windows, on the house-tops, even to the ridges 
partially overlooking Virginia, people were standing in 
high excitement, watching the faint puffs of smoke 
which rose at intervals above the tree-tops, and at ever}'- 
report a murmur — exclamations of " There, do you hear 
that? " — ran through the crowd. The driver, as excited 
as any one else, urged his horses at full speed, and we 
arrived at the Chain Bridge just as General M'Call — p- 
white haired, rather military-looking old man — appearet? 
at the head of his column, hurrying down to the Chain 
Bridge from the ^Taryland side, to reinforce Smith, who 
was said to be heavily engaged with the enemy. But by 
this time the firing had ceased, and just as the artillery 
of the General's column commenced defiling through 
the mnd, into which the guns sank to the naves of the 
Avhecls, the licad of another column appeared, entering 


the bridge from the ^'iI\i^inia siiie \>ith h)iul cheers, 
whicli v.cre taken up again and again. Tlie carriage 
uas halted to allow tlie :2nd ^Visconsiu to pass; and 
a more broken-down, white-faced, sick, and weakly 
set of i)oor wretches I never beheld. The lieavv rains 
liad was-hed the very life out of them ; their clothing was 
in rags, their ^hoes were broken, and multitudes were 
foot-sore. They cheered, nevertheless, or whooped, 
and there was a ticniendous clatter of tongues in the 
ranks concerning their victory ; but, as the men's faces 
and hands were not blackened by powder, they could 
have seen little of the engagement. Captain Poc came 
along with dispatches for General !M'Clellan, and gave 
me a correct account of the affair. 

All this noise and tiring and excitement, I found, 
simply arose out of a reconnaissance made towards 
Lcwinsville, by Smith and a i)art of liis brigade, 
to beat up the enemy's position, and enable the 
topographical engineers to jjrocure some information 
respecting the country. The Confederates worked 
down upon their left ilank with artillery, which they 
got into position at an easy range without being 
observed, intending, no doubt, to cut oif their retreat 
and capture or destroy the whole force; but, fortu- 
nately for the reconnoitring party, the impatience of 
llieir enemies led the in to open iire too soon. The 
Federals got their gnus into position also, and covered 
their retreat, whilst reinforcements poured out of camj) 
to their assistance, " and I doubt not," said Poc, " but 
that they will have an encounter of a tremendous 
scalping match in all the jtapers to-morrow, althouL'h 
we have only six or seven men killed, and twelve 
wounded." As we approached AVashington the citizens, 


as tlicy avc called, M'cre waving Federal banners ont of 
the windows and rejoicing in a great victor}''; at least, 
the inhabitants of the inferior sort of houses, (.llespect- 
ability in Washington means Secession^ 

]Mr. ]\Ionson told me that my distressed yonng 
British subject, Captain ScoLt, had called on him at 
the Legation early this morning for the little pecuniary 
help Avhich had been, I fear, wisely refused there, 
and M'hich was granted by mc. The States have 
l.)ecouie, indeed, more than ever the cloacina yentium, 
and Great Britain contributes its full quota to the 

Thus time passes away in expectation of some onward 
movement, or desperate attack, or important strategical 
movements; and night comes to reassemble a few 
friends, Americans and English, at my rooms or else- 
where, to talk over the disappointed hopes of the day, 
to speculate on the future, to chide each dull delay, and 
to part with a hope that to-morrow would be more lively 
than to-day. ]\Iajor-Gcneral Bell, who commanded tiie 
Koyals in the Crimea, and who has passed some half 
century in active service, turned up in Washington, and 
has been courteously received by the American autiio- 
ritics. He joined to-night one of our small reunions, 
and was iniinitely puzzled to detect the lines which 
separated one man's country and opinions from those ot 
the other. 

September Wth. — Captain Johnson, Queen's mes- 
senger, started with despatches for Bngland from the 
Legation to-day, to the regret of our litth- jjarty. 
I observe by the papers certain wiseacres in Phila- 
delphia have got up a petition againi»t mc to Mr. 
Seward, on the ground that I have been guilty of 

3i('. MY diahy north and south. 

treasonable practices and misrepresentations in my 
Ictter dated Ausjust lOth. There is also to be a 
lecture on the 17th at Willard's, by the Professor of 
Rhetoric, to a volunteer regiment, which the President 
is invited to attend — the subject being myself. 

There is an absolute nullity of events, out of which 
the New York papers endeavour, in vain, to extract 
a caput mortuinn of sensation headings. The Prince 
of Joinville and his two nephews, the Count of Paris 
and the Duke of Chartres, have been here for some 
days, and have been received with marked attention by 
the President, Cabinet, politicians .and military. The 
Prince has come with the intention of placing his 
son at the United St.ites Naval Academy, and his 
nephews with the head- quarters of the Federal army. 
The empressement exhibited at the White House towards 
the French princes is attributed Ijy ill-naturod rinnours 
and persons to a little pique on the part of Mrs. Lincoln, 
because the Princess Clothilde did not receive her at 
New York, but considcral)le doubts are entertained 
of the Euiperor's '*' loyalty '' towards the Union. Under 
the wild extravagance of professions of attachment to 
France arc hidden suspicions that Louis Napoleon 
may be capable of treasonable practices and misrepre- 
sentations, wjiich, in time, may lead the Philadelphians 
to get up a petit iun against ^L ^Mercier. 

The news that twenty-two members of the Maryland 
Legislature have been seized by the Federal authorities 
has not produced the smallest elTect here: so easily do 
men in the midst of political troubles bend to arbitrary 
power, and so rapidly do all guarantees disappear in 
a revolution. I was speaking to one of Cleneral 
APClcUan's aides-de-camp this eveuiug respecting 


things, ;vlicn he said — " If I thought he w ouhl use his 
power a (hiy lougcr tliau was ucccssarv, I would resign 
this moment. I believe him ineafjable oi" any selfish or 
unconstitutional views, or unlawful ambition, and you 
will see that he will not disappoint our expectations." 

It is now quite plain ]\I'Clelhui has no intention of 
making a general defensive movement against Rich- 
mond, lie is aware his army is not equal to the task 
— commissariat deficient, artillery wanting, no cavalry; 
above all, ill-ofFieered, incoherent battalions. He 
hopes, no doubt, by constant reviewing and inspection, 
and by weeding out the preposterous fellows Avho 
render epaulettes ridiculous, to create an infantry 
which shall be able for a short campaign in the 
fine autumn weather ; but I am quite satisfied he does 
not intend to move now, and possibly will not do so 
till next year. I have arranged therefore to pay a short 
visit to the "West, penetrating as far as I can, without 
leaving telegraphs and railways behind, so that if an 
advance takes place, I shall be back in time at AVash- 
ington to assist at the earliest battle. These Federal 
armies do not move like the corps of the French republic, 
or Crawford's Light Division. 

In truth, Washington life is becoming exceedingly 
monotonous and uninteresting. The pleasant little 
evening parties or tertulias which once relieved the 
dulness of this dullest of capitals, take place no 
longer. Very wrong indeed would it l)e tiiat rejoicings 
and festivities should occur in the capital of a country 
menaced with destruction, where many anxious hearts 
are grieving over the lost, or tortured with fears for 
the living. 

But for the hospitality of Lord Lyons to the Englisii 


rcsidcuts, the place uould be nearly iusuflferablc, for 
at his liouse one met other friendly ministers who 
extended the eirelc of invitations, and two or three 
American families completed the list which one could 
reckon on his fingers. Then at niirht, there were 
assembla-es oi" the same men, who uttered the same 
opinions, tuld the same stories, sang the same songs, 
varied seldom by strange faces or novcd accomplish- 
ments, bnt always friendly and social enough — not 
conducive perhaps to very early rising, but innocent 
of gambling, or other excess. A ilask of Bordeaux, 
a wicker- covered demi-john of Bourbon, a jug of 
iced water and a bundle of cigars, with the latest arrival 
of newspapers, furnished the materiel of these small 
symposiums, in which Americans and Englishmen and 
a few of the members of foreign Legations, mingled 
in a friendly cosmopolitan manner. Now and then a 
star of greater nnignitudc came down u[)on ns : a 
senator or an " earnest man," or a '' live man," or 
a constitutional lawyer, or a remarkable statesman, 
coruscated, and rushing oH" into the outer world left us 
befogged, with our glinnnering lights half extinguished 
with tobacco-smoke. 

Out of doors excessive heat alternating with thunder- 
storms and tropical showers— dust beaten into mud, 
or mud sublimated into dust — eternal reviews, each 
like the other — visits to camp, where wc saw the 
same men and heard the same stories of perpetual 
abortive skirmishes — rides confined to the same roads 
and paths by lines of sentries, offered no greater attrac- 
tion than th(,' city, where one's bones were racked with 
fever and ague, and where every evening the jicsti- 
kntial vapours of the Potomac rose higher aJid spread 


furtlicr. Xo wonder lliaf. I m:is <;la(l to <^v\ awav to 
the Far "West, particularly as- 1 entertained hopes of 
Mitnessinj^ some of the operations down the Mississippi^ 
before I was summoned back to AVashington, i)v tliu 
news that the i^rand army had actually Ijroken up caiui), 
and was about once more to march a<;ainst Kiclnnond. 

Sejjiemher I2t/i. — The day passed quietly, in spite of 
rnmours of anotlier battle ; the band played in the Pre- 
sident's garden, and citizens and citi/.encsscs strolled 
about the grounds as if Secession had been annihilated. 
The President made a fitful appearance, in a <;rev 
shooting suit, with a nnml)er of despatches in his hand, 
and walked off towards the State Department quite 
Tnmoticed by the crowd. I am sure not lialf a dozen 
Ijcrsons saluted him — not one of the men I saw even 
touched liis hat. General Bell went round the works 
Avitli i\I'Clellan, and expressed liis opinion that it 
Avould be impossible to fight a great battle in the 
country Avhich lay betweeu the two armies — in fact, as 
he said, " a general could no more handle liis troops 
among the woods, than he could regulate the movements 
of i-abbits in a cover. You ought just to make a pro- 
position to Beauregard to come out on some plain and 
fight the battle fjiirly out where you can see each 

Sej)tember IGth. — It is most agreeable to he removed 
from all the circumstance without any of tlie pomp and 
glory of war. Although there is a tcndeiu-y in the 
North, and, for aught I know, in the South, to con- 
sider the contest in the same light as one w ith a foreign 
enemy, the very battle-cries on both sides indicate a 
civil war. "The Union for ever" — "States rights" — 
and "Down with the Abolitionists," cannot be con- 


sidered national. ]M'Clellaii takes no note of time 
even by its loss, which is all the more strange because 
he sets great store upon it iu his report on tlie con- 
duct of the uar in the Crimea. However, lie knows 
an army cannot be made in two months, and that 
the larger it is, tlie more time there is required to 
liarmonize its components. The news from the Far 
"West indicated a probability of some important opera- 
tions taking place, although my first love — tlie armj' 
of the Potomac — must be returned to. Any way tliere 
was the great "Western Prairie to be seen, aud the 
people who have been pouring from their plains so 
many thousands upon the Southern States to assert 
the liberties of those coloured races whom they will 
not ])crmit to cross their borders as freemen. ]\Ir. 
Lincoln, Mr. Blair, aud other Abolitionists, are ac- 
tuated by similar sentiments, and seek to emancipate 
the slave, and remove from him the protection of his 
master, in order that they may drive him from the 
continent altogether, or force him to seek refuge in 

On the Ibth of September, I left Baltimore in com- 
pany with !M;\i()r-Cieiicral Bell, C.B., and Mr. Lamy, 
who was well acquainted with the ^Vestern States : 
stopping one night at Altoona, in order that we might 
cross by daylight the line passes of the Alle^anies, which 
are traversed by bold gradients, and remarkable cut- 
tings, second only in dilliculty and extent to those of 
the railroad across the Stimincrlng. 

So far as my observation extends, no route in the 
United States can give a stranger a l)etter notion of the 
variety of scenery and of resources, the vast extent of 
territory, the diirercncc iu races, the prosperity of the 


present, and the i)rob:iblc {greatness of the future, than 
the Hue from Baltimore by Ilarrisburg aud I'ittshuru'to 
Chicago, traversing the great States of Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, and Indiana. Phiin and mountain, hill and vailev, 
river and meadow, forest and rock, wild tracts tiirough 
which the Indian roamed but a few years ago, hinds 
covered with the richest crops ; rugged passes, wliich 
Salvator wouhl have peopled with shadowy groups of 
bandits; gentle sylvan glades, such as Gainsljorough 
would have covered with waving corn ; the hum of 
mills, the silence of the desert and waste, sea-like lakes 
Avhitened by innumerable sails^ mighty rivers carving 
their way through continents, sparkling rivulets that 
lose their lives amongst giant wheels : scams and lodes 
of coal, iron, and mineral wealth, cropping out of de- 
solate mountain sides ; busy, restless manufacturers and 
traders alternating with stolid rustics, hedges clustering 
with grapes, mountains Avhitening with snow ; and be- 
yond, the great Prairie stretching away to the backbone 
of inhospitable rock, which, rising from the foundations 
of the world, bar the access of the white man aud civili- 
sation to the bleak inhospitable regions beyond, winch 
both are fain as yet to leave to the savage and wild 

Travelling along the banks of the Susquehannah, the 
visitor, however, is neither permitted to admire the 
works of nature in silence, or to express his admiration 
of the energy of man in his own way. Tlic tyranny of 
public opinion is upon him. He must admit that Ijc 
never saw anything so wonderful in his life; that there 
is nothing so beautiful anywhere else; no fields so 
green, no rivers so wide and dcej), no bridges so lofty 
and long ; and at last he is inclined to shut liimself up, 


cither in absolute j^ruiupy negation, or to indulge in 
hopeless controversy. An American gentleman is as 
little likely as any other well-bred man to force the 
opinions or interrupt the reveries of a stranger; but if 
third-class Es(|uiniaux are allowed to travel in first- 
class carriages, the hospitable creatures will be quite 
likely to insist on your swallowing train oil, eating 
bluljber, or admiring snow drifts, as the finest things 
in the world. It is infinitely to the credit of the 
American people that actual ofTence is so seldom given 
and is still more rarely intended — always save and 
except in the one particular, of chewing tobacco. Having 
seen most things that can irritate one's stomach, and 
being in company with an old soldier, I little expected 
that any excess of the sort could produce disagreeable 
etiects ; but on returning from this excursion, -\Ir. 
Lamy and myself were fairly driven out of a car- 
riage, on the Pittsburg line, in utter loathing and 
disgust, by the condition of the floor. The conductor, 
passing through, said, " You must not stand out there, 
it is against the rules ; you can go in and smoke,'* 
pointing to the carriage. "In there!" exclaimed my 
friend, "why, it is too filthy to put a ^ild beast into." 
The conductor looked in for a moment, nodded his 
head, and said, " "Well, I concede it is right bad ; the 
citizens arc going it pretty strong," and so left us. 

The scenery along the Juniata is still more pictu- 
resque than that of the valley of the Susquehannah. The 
borders of the route across the Alleganies have been 
described by many a writi-r; but notwithstanding the 
good fortune Avhich favoured us, and swejit away the 
dense veil of vapours on the lower ranges of the 
hills, the landscape scarcely produced the cficct of 

piTTsnuno. ^53 

scenery on a less extended, just as the sccnerv of 
the Ilinialavas is not so strikinj,^ as tliat of the Alps, 
bceausc it is on too vast a scale to be readily grasped. 

Pittsburg, where Ave halted next ni-^ht, on the Ohio, 
is certainly, Avitli the exception of Hinninghaui, the 
most intensely sooty, busy, squalid, foul-housed, and 
vile-snburbed city I have ever seen. Under its per- 
petual canopy of smoke, pierced by a forest of 
blackened chimneys, the ill-paved streets, swarm with 
a streaky population whose white faces are snnitehcd 
with soot streaks — the noise of vans and drays whieli 
shake the houses as tlie\' pass, the turbulent life in 
the thoroughfares, the wretched brick tenements, — 
built in waste places on squalid mounds, surrounded 
by heaps of slag and broken brick — all these gave the 
stranger the idea of some vast manufacturing city of 
the Inferno; and yet a few miles beyond, the country 
is studded with beautiful villas, and the great river, 
bearing innumerable barges and steamers on its broad 
bosom, rolls its turbid waters between banks rich with 
cultivated crops. 

The policeman at Pittsburg station — a burly English- 
man — told me that the war had been of the greatest 
service to the city. lie spoke not only from a police- 
man's point of view, Avhen he said that all the ruwdii-s, 
Irish, Germans, and others had gone oil" to the war, hut 
from the manufacturing stand-point, as he added tliat 
wages were hijifb. and that the orders from contractors 
Mere keeping all the manufacturers going. " It is 
wonderful," said he, "what a number of the citizeiis 
come back from the South, by rail, in these; new 
metallic coflSns.*' 

A long, long day, traversing the State of Indiana by 


the Fort Wayne route, followed by a longer night, just 
sutficcd to cjirry us to Chicago. The railway passes 
through a most uninteresting country, which in part 
is scarcely rescued from a h>tate of nature by the hand 
of man ; but it is wonderfid to see so much done, when 
one hears tliat the Miami Indians and otlicr tribes 
were driven out, or, as the jjhrase is, "removed," only 
twenty years ago — "conveyed, the ^ise called it" — 
to the reserves. 

From Chicago, where we descended at a hotel which 
fairly deserves to be styled magnificent, for comfort 
and completeness, Mr. Lamy and myself proceeded to 
Racine, on the shores of Lake Michigan, and thence 
took the rail for Freeport, •where I remained for 
some days, going out in tlie surrounding prairie to 
shoot in the morning, and returning at nightfall. 
The prairie chickens were rather wild. The delight of 
these days, notwithstanding bad sport, cannot be 
described, nor was it the least ingredient in it to mix 
with the fresh and vigorous race who arc raising up 
cities on these fertile wastes. Fortunately fur the 
patience of my readers, perhaps, I did not fill my diary 
with the records of each day's events, or of the contents 
of our bags ; and the note-book in which I jotted down 
some little matters whiih struck me to be of interest 
lias been mislaid ; but in my letters to England I gave 
a description of tlie general aspecf of the country, and 
of the feelings of the jicople, and arrived at the con- 
clusion that the tax-gatiicrer will liave little chance of 
returning with full note-books from his tour in these dis- 
tricts. The dogs which were lent to us were generally 
al)ominable ; but every evening we returned in com- 
jjany with great leathcr-greavcd and jcrkined-men, 


liung round with belts and hooks, from wliicli were 
suspended strings of defunct pniiric cliickfMis. TIk; 
farmers were hospitable, l)ut were suderiu^ from a 
morbid longing for a failure of crops in Europe, in 
order to give some value to tlicir corn and wlirat, wliidi 
literally cund^cred the earth. 

Freeport ! Who ever heard of it ? And yet it has its 
newspapers, more than I dare mention, and its l)ig 
hotel liglited with gas, its billiard-rooms and saloons, 
magazines, railway stations, and all the proper para- 
phernalia of local self-government, with all their fierce 
intrigues and giddy factions. 

From Freeport our party returned to Chicago, taking 
leave of our excellent friend and companion !Mr. 
George Thompson, of Racine. The authorities of tlie 
Central Illinois Railway, to whose courtesy and con- 
sideration I was infinitely indc1)tcd, placed at our dis- 
posal a magnificent sleeping carriage; and on the 
morning after our arrival, having laid in a good stock 
of supplies, and engaged an excellent sporting guide and 
dogSj Ave started^ attached to the regular train from 
Chicago, until the train stopped at a shunting place 
near the station of Dwight, in the very centre of tlie 
prairie. We reached our halting-place, were detaclied, 
and were shot up a siding in the solitude, with no 
habitation in view, except the wood shanty, in which 
lived the family of the Iris h overseer of t his portion of 
the road — a man happy in the possession of a \nccc of 
gold Avhich he received from the Prince of Wah>s, ami 
for which, he declared, he would not take the amount of 

-the Nat io nal DehL 

TKesleeping carriage proved most comfortable quar- 
ters. After breakfast in the morning, Mr. Lamy, Col. 

J , . 


Foster, Mr. , of the Central Illinois rail, the keeper, 

and myself, dcscendiuj; the steps of our moveable house, 
■walked in a few strides to the shooting grounds, whieh 
abuuuded uith quail, but were not so well peopled by 
the chickens. The quail were weak on the wing, owing 
to the lateness of the season, and my companions 
grumbled at their hard luck, though I was well content 
Avith fresh air, my small share of birds, and a few Ame- 
rican hares. Night and morning the train rushed by, 
and when darkness settled down upon the prairie, our 
lamps were lighted, dinner was served in the carriage, 
set forth with inimitable potatoes cooked by the old 
Irishwoman. From the dinner-table it was l)ut a step 
to go to bed. AVhen storm or rain rushed over the 
sea-like plain, I remained in the carriage writing, and 
after a long spell of work, it was inexpressibly pleasant 
to take a ramble through the flowering grass and the 
sweet-scented broom, and to go beating through the 
stunted under-covcr, careless of rattle-snakes, whose 
tiny prattling music I heard often enough without a 
sight of the tails that made it. 

One rainy morning, the 20th September, I think, as 
the sun began to break through drifting rain clouds, I 
saw my companions preparing their guns, the sporting 
chaperon AValker filling the shot flasks, and making 
all the usual arrangements for a day's shooting. " You 
don't mean to say you are going out shooting on a 
Sunday ! " I said. " \Vhat, on the prairies ! " exclaimed 
Colonel Foster. "Why, of course we are; there's 
nothing wrong in it here. ^Vhat nobler temple can wc 
find to worship in than lies around us? It is the cus- 
tom of the people hereabouts to shoot on Sundays, and it 
is a work of necessity ^^ ith us^ for our larder is very low." 


And so, after breiikfast, we set out, hut the rain 
came down so densely that wc were driven to the house 
of a farmer, and finally we returned to (jur sleeping 
carriage for the day. I never fired a shot nor put a ^un 
to my shoulder, nor am I sure that any of my eimi- 
panions killed a bird. 

The rain fell with violence all day, and at night 
the gusts of wind shook the carriage like a ship 
at sea. AVe Avere sitting at table after dinner, 
when the door at the end of the carriage o[)ene(l, 
and a man, in a mackintosh dripi)ing wet, advanced 
with unsteady steps along the centre of the carriage, 
between the beds, and taking oft' his liat, in the 
top of Avhicli he searched diligently, stood staring 
with lack-lustre eyes from one to the other of the 
party, till Colonel Foster exclaimed, ""Well, sir, what 
do 3'ou want V " 

"What do I want," he replied, with a slight thickness 
of speech, "which of you is the Honourable Lord 
AVilliam Russell, correspondent of the London Thnes ? 
That's what I want." 

I certified to my identity; whereupon, drawing a 
piece of paper out of his hat, he continiicd, " Then 
I arrest you, Honourable Lord "William llussell, in 
the name of the people of the Connnonwealth of 
Illinois," and thereupon handed me a document, 
declaring that one, Morgan, of Dwight, having come 
before him that day and sworn th:it I, with a com- 
pany of men and dogs, had unlawfully assembled, 
and by firing shots, and by barking and noise, had 
disturbed the peace of the State of Hlinois, lie, the 
subscriber or justice of the peace, as named and 
described, commanded the const:d)le Podgers, or what- 


ever his name was, to bring iny body before liiui to 
answer to the charge. 

Now this town of Dwight was a good many miles 
away, the road was deehircd by those wlio knew it 
to be very bad, the night was pitch dark, the raiu 
falUng in torrents, and as the constable, drawing 
out of his hat paper after paper with tlie names of 
impossible persons upon them, served subpoenas on 
all the rest of the party to appear next morning, the 
anger of Colonel Foster could scarcely be restrained, 
by kicks under tlie table and nods and becks and 
■wreathed smiles from tlie rest of the party. "This is 
infamous ! It is a political persecution ! " he exclaimed, 
whilst the keeper joined in chorus, declaring he never 
heard of such a proceeding before in all his long experi- 
ence of the prairie, and never knew there was such an 
act in existence. The Irishmen in the hut added that 
the informer himself generally went out shooting every 
Sunday. However, I could not but regret I had given 
the fellow an op[)ortunity of striking at me, and though 
I was the only one of the party w ho raised an objection 
to our going out at all, I was deservedly suftering for 
the impropriety — to call it here by no harsher name. 

The constable, a man of a licpiid eye and a cheerful 
countenance, paid particular attention meantime to 
a large bottle upon the table, and as I professed 
my readiness to go the moment he had some re- 
freshment that very wet night, the stern severity be- 
coming a minister of justice, which marked his first 

utterances, was sensiidy mollified ; and when Mr. 

proposed that he should drive back with him and see the 
prosecutor, he was good enough to accept my written 
aeknowleilguieut of the service of the writ, and i)romise 


to appear the followini; niorninij:, as an adcciuate dis- 
charge of his duty — couihiiicd with the absorption of 
soaic Bourbon whisky — and so retired. 

Mr. returned kite at ni|jjht, and very an;^ry. It 

appears that the prosceutor — who is not a man of very 
good reputation, and wlioui his neighbours were <ns mucli 
astonished to find the champion of rehgious observances 
as they wouhl have been il' he was to come forward to 
insist on the respect due to the seventh commandment 
— with the insatiable passion for notoriety, which is one 
of the worst results of American institutions, thought 
he would gain himself some little reputation by caus- 
ing annoyance to a man so unpopular as myself. lie 
and a companion having come from Dwight for the pur- 
pose, and hiding in the neighbourhood, had, therefore, 
devoted their day to lying in wait and watching our 
party ; and as they were aware in the railway carriage; 
I was with Colonel Foster, they had no difficulty in 
finding out the names of the rest of the party. The 
magistrate being his relative, granted the warrant at 
once; and the prosecutor, who was in waiting for the 
constable, was exceedingly disappointed when he found 
that I had not been dragged through the rain. 

Next morning, a special engine which had been 
ordered up by telegraph appeared alongside the car ; 
and a short run through a beautiful country brought 
us to the prairie town of Dwight. The citizens 
Avere astir — it was a great day- -and as I walked with 
Colonel Forster, all the good people seemed to be 
enjoying an unexampled treat in gazing at the stupen- 
dous' criminal. The court-house, or magistrate's office, 
was suitable to the republican simplicity of the people 
of Dwight; for the chamber of justice was on the 


first floor of a house over a store, and access was ob- 
tained to it by a bulck-r from the street to a platform, at 
the toj) of which I was ushered into the {jresence of the 
court — a jtlaiu white-washed room. I am not sure 
there was even an eui^ravinij of (Jeori^e Washin<rton on 
the walls. The magi^trate in a full suit of black, with 
liis hat on, w as seated at a small table ; behind him a few 
books, on plain deal slielves, ])rovided his fund of legal 
learning. The constable, with a severer visage than 
that of last night, stood u[)ou the right hand; three 
sides of the room were surrounded bv a wall of stout 
lionest Dwightians, among w hom I ]U"oduced a profound 
sensation, by the simple ceremony of taking oil" my hat, 
wliieh they no doubt considered a token of the degraded 
nature of the Britisher, but which moved the magis- 
trate to take oft' liis head-covering; wliereupou some 
of the nearest removed tlieirs, some putting them on 
again, and some remaining uncovered ; and tlien the 
informations were read, and on being asked what I had 
to say, I merely bowed, and said I liad no remarks to 
offer. But my friend. Colonel Foster, who had l)ecu 
churning up his wrath and forensic lore for some time, 
putting one hand under his coat tail, and elevating the 
other in the air, with modulated cadences, poured out 
a fine oratoi'ical flow which completely astonished me, 
and whipped the audience morally oft' their legs cora- 
l)letely. In touching terms he described the mission 
of an illustrious stranger, who had wandered over 
thousands of miles of land and sea to gaze upon the 
beauties of those prairies which the Great Maker of 
the Universe had expanded as the bauipieting tables 
for the famishing millions of paui)erised and despotic 
Europe. As the representative of an influence which 


the pcoj)lc of tlic ^rciit Stiilc of Illinois slujiild ni«.li to 
sec (leveloj)C(l, instciul of contnictctl, honoured instead 
of being insulted, he had conic among them to a(hnire 
the grandeur of nature, and to l)eli()hl with wonder the 
magnilieent progress of liunian liap[)iness and free 
institutions. (Some tliuni[)inL:; of sticks, and cries of 
" ]k-avo, that's so," which warmed tlic Colonel into still 
liigher Hights), I began to feel if he was as great in 
invective as he Avas in eulogy, it was well he had not 
lived to throw a smooth pebble from his sling at AVarren 
Hastings. As great indeed ! ^^ hy, when the Colonel 
had drawn a beautiful picture of me examining coal 
deposits — investigating strata — breatldng autumnal 
airs, and culling flowers in unsuspecting innocence, and 
then suddenly denounced the serpent who had dogged 
my steps, in order to strike me down with a justice's 
warrant, I protest it is doubtful, if he did not reach to 
the most elevated stage of vituperative oratory, the pro- 
gression of which was marked by increasing thumps of 
sticks, and louder murmurs of applause, to the discom- 
fiture of the wretched prosecutor. ]5ut the magistrate 
was not a man of imagination; he felt he was but elec- 
tive after all ; and so, w ith his eye fixed upon his book, 
he pronounced his decision, which was that 1 be amerced 
in something more than half the maximum fine lixed 
by the statute, some five-and-twenty shillings or so, the 
greater part to be spent in the education of the people, 
by transfer to the school fund of the State. 

As I was handing the notes to the magistrate, several 
respectable men coming forward exclaimed, " Pray 
oblige us, Mr. Kussell by letting us pay the amount 
for you; this is a shameful proceeding." liut thanking 
them heartily for their proftered kindm-ss, 1 completed 


the little pecuuiarv transaction and wished the maps- 
trate jjood moniiiitr, with the remark that I hoped the 
people of the State of Illinois would always find such 
worthy defenders of the statutes as the prosecutor, 
and never have oll'enders ai;ainst their peace and 
morals more culpable than myself. Having under- 
gone a severe scolding from an old woman at the top 
of the ladder, I walked to the train, followed by a 
number of the audience, who repeatedly expressed their 
extreme regret at the little persecution to which I had 
been subjected. The prosecutor had already made 
arrangements to send the news over the whole breadth 
of the Union, which was his only reward ; as I must do 
the American jjapers the justice to say that, Avith a few 
natural exceptions, those which noticed the occurrence 
unequivocally condemned his conduct. 

That evening, as we were planning an extension of 
, our sporting tour, the mail rattling by deposited our 
letters and papers, and we saw at the top of many 
columns the startling words, " Grand Advance Of The 
j Union Army." " M'Clellan Marching On Richmond." 
!" Capture Of Munson's Hill." " Retreat of the Enemy— 
30,000 men Seize Their Fortifications." Not a moment 
was to be lost ; if I was too late, I never would forgive 
myself. Our carriage was hooked on to the return 
train, and at 8 o'clock p.m. I started on my return to 
jAVashington, by way of Cleveland. 
* At lialf-past .T on the 1st October thu train reached 
Pittsburg, just too late to catch the train for Haiti- 
more; but I continued my journey at night, arriving 
at B.iltimore after noon, and reaching AVashington at 
T) J). 111. on the 2nd of October. 

October \}>rd. — In "\Vashin;/ton once more — all the 


world lau2;luug at the pump and the wooden };ims at I 
jNIunsou's Hill, hut angry withal hecausc M'Clclliiii ' 
should l)c so hef'oolcd as they considered it, hy the 
Confederates. The fact is ^I'ClcUan was not prepared 
to move, and therefore not disposed to hazard a general 
engagement, which he might have hrought on had tlic 
enemy heen in force ; perhaps he knew they were not, 
hut found it convenient nevertheless to act as thougli 
he helieved they had estahUshcd themselves strongly 
in his front, as half the world will give liim credit for 
knowing more than the civilian strategists who have 
already got into disgrace for urging M'Dowcll on 
to llichmond. The federal armies arc not handled 
easily. They are luxurious in the matter of baggage, 
and canteens, and private stores; and this is just the 
sort of war in which the general who moves lightly 
and rapidh', striking blows unexpectedly and deranging 
communications, will obtain great results. 

Although Beauregard's name is constantly mentioned, 
I fancy that, crafty and reticent as he is, the operations 
in front of us have been directed by an officer of larger 
capacity. As yet ^M'Clellan has certainly done nothing 
in the field to show he is like Napoleon. The value 
of his labours in camp has yet to be tested. I dined 
at the Legation, and afterwards there was a meeting' at 
my rooms, where I heard of all that had passed during 
my absence. 

October 47/i.— The new expedition, of which I have 
been hearing for some time past, is about to sad to | 
Port Royal, under the command of General Bum- 
side, in order to reduce the works erected at thc| 
entrance of the Sound, to secure a base of opera- 
tions against Charleston, and to cut in upon the com- 


niuuication between that place and Savannah. Alas, 
for poor Trescot ! his plantations, his secluded home ! 
AVhat will the good lady think of the Yankee inva- 
sion, which surely must succeed, as the naval force 
will be overwhelming? I visited the division of (lencral 
Egbert A'ielc, encamped near the Xavy-yard, which is 
bound to Annapolis, as a part of General Burnside's 
expedition. AVIien lirst I saw him, the general was 
an emeritus captain, attached to the 7th New York 
!Militia; now he is a Brigadier-General, if not some- 
thing more, commanding a corps of nearly oOOO men, 
with pay and allowances to match. His good lady 
wife, who accompanied him in the Mexican campaign, 
— whereof came a book, lively and light, as a lady's 
should be, — was about to accompany her husband in his 
assault on tiie Carolinians, and prepared for action, 
by opening a small broadside on my unhappy self, 
whom she regarded as an enemy of our glorious Union ; 
and therefore an ally of the ]'2vil Powers on both sides 
of the grave. The women, North and South, arc 
equally pitiless to their enemies ; and it was but the 
other day, a man with whom I am on very good terms 
in "Washington, made an apology for not asking me to 
liis house, becmsc his wife was a strong Union woman. 
A gentleman who had been dining with Mr. Seward 
to-night told me the Minister had complained that 
I had not been near him for nearly two months; 
the fact was, liowever, that I had called twice innne- 
diatcly after the appearance in America of my letter 
dated July 22nd, and had met Mr. Seward after- 
wards, when his manner was, or appeared to me to 
bf, cold and distant, and I had therefore abstained 
from intruding myself upon his notice; nor did his 

THE nilLADKLrillA l'I7nTI«»N'. 305 

.answer to the Philadelpliiau petition — in which Mi-. 
Seward appeared to athnit the alh'fj^atioiis macU- 
against me were true, and to consider 1 had vi()l;it<-d 
tlic hospitality accorded nie — induce nie to think that 
he did not entertain the opinion which tlicse journals 
which set themselves up to be his organs had so 
repeatedly expressed. 


Another Crimean acquaintance — Summaiy <lisiuii?sal of a newspaper 
correspondent — Dinner at Lord Lyons' — Review of artillery — 
"Habeas Corpus" — The President's duties — ll'Clellan's policy — 
The Union Army— Soldiers and the patrol — Public men in America 
— Mr. Seward and Lord Lyons — A Judge placed under arrest — 
Death and funeral of Senator Haker— Disorderly troops and officers 
— OfiBcial fibs — Duck-shooting at Baltimore. 

October hth. — A day of heat extreme. Tiiml)lc(l in 
upon mc an old familiar face and voice, once Forstcr 
of a hospita])lc Crimean liut behind Mother Seacole's, 
commanding a battalion of Land Transport Corps, to 
which he had descended or sublimated from his position 
as ex-Austrian dragoon and beau sabrnir under old 
Radetzsky in Italian wars ; now a colonel of distant 
volunteers, and a member of the Parliament of British 
Columbia. He was on his way home to Europe, and 
had travelled thus far out of liis way to see liis friend. 

After him came in a gentleman, heated, wild-eyed, 
and excited, who had been in the South, where he 
was acting as correspondent to a London newspaper, 
and on liis return to AVashington had obtained a 
pass from General Scott. According to his own story, 
he had been indulging in a habit which free-born 
Englishmen may occasionally find to be inconvenient 
in foreign countries in times of high excitement, 


nnd had been cxprcssinjij liis opinion pretty freely 
in fjivoiir of the Southern eansc in the bar-rooms 
of Pennsylvania Avenue. Iniai,'ine a Frenehuian ^'oiug 
about the taverns of Dublin during an Irish rebellion, 
exprcssiu}^ his sympathy with the rebels, and you niav 
suppose he Avouhl meet with treatment at least m 
peremptory as that Avhicli the Federal authorities gave 

Mr. D . In fine, that morning early, he liad been 

waited upon by an officer, Avho requested his attendance 
at the Provost INIarshal's office ; arrived tlicrc, a func- 
tionary, after a few queries, asked him to give up 

General Scott's pass, and when Mr. D refused io 

do so, proceeded to execute a terrible sort of proces 
verbal on a large sheet of foolscap, the initiatory 
flourislies and prolegomena of which so intimidated 

Mr. D , that he gave up his pass and was permitted 

to depart, in order that he might start for England 
by the next steamer. 

A wonderful Frenchman, who lives up a back street, 
prepared a curious banquet, at which ]\Ir. Irvine, Mr. 
Warre, Mr. Anderson, Mr. Lamy, ami Colonel Foster 
assisted; and in the evening jNIr. Lincoln's private 
secretary, a witty, shrewd, and pleasant young fellow, 
who looks little more than eighteen years of age, cnnie 
in with a friend, whose name I forget ; and by degrees 
the circle expanded, till the walls seemed to have become 
clastic, so great was the concourse of guests. 

October Gth. — A day of wandering around, and visit- 
ing, and listening to rumours all unfounded. I have 
applied for permission to accompany the liurnsidc 
expedition, but I am advised not to leave AVashington, 
as INl'Clellan will certainly advance as soon as the 
diversion has been made down South. 


OctuJicr It/i. — The lic:it to-tlay was literally iutolcr- 
ublc, and wouiul up at last in a tivnicndmis thnndcr- 
storm with viulent gusts of rain. At the Legation, 
where Lord Lyons entertained the Englisli visitors at 
dinner, tiie rooms were sliaken hy thunder claps, and 
the blinding lightning seemed at times to turn the well- 
illuminated rooms into caves of darkness. 

October ^l/i. — A review of the artillery at this side of 
the river took place to-day, which has been describeil 
in very inflatetl language by the American papers, tlie 
writers on which — never having seen a decently-equipped 
force of the kind — pronounce the sight to have been of 
unequalled splendour; whereas the appearance of horses 
and men was very far from respectable in all matters 
relating to grooming, cleanliness, and neatness. 
General Barry has done wonders in simplifying the 
force and reducing the number of calibres, which 
varied according to the fancy of each State, or n)en 
of each oflicer who raised a battery ; but there are 
still field-guns of three inches and of three inches and 
a-half. Napoleon guns, rifled 10 lb. Pari'ots, ordinary 'J- 
pounders, a variety of howitzers, 2U-lb. Parrot rifled guns, 
and a variety of didorent projectiles in the caissons. 
As the men rode past, the eye was distressed by dis- 
crepancies in dress. ^lany wore red or white worsted 
comforters round tiieir necks, few had straps to their 
trousers ; some Ijad new coats, others old ; some wore 
boots, others shoes ; not one had clean spurs, bits, 
curb-chains, or buttons. The ollicers cannot get the 
men to do what the latter regard as works of superero- 

There were 7vl guns in all ; and if the horses were 
not so light, there would be quite enough to do for 

A HLow TO liim;i:tv. 309 

the Confederates to reduce their fire, as the \nvci-> an- 
easily handled, and the nu;n like urtillcry and take to 
it natnrally, being in that respect sonicthinj,' like the 
natives of India, 

^Vhilst I was staiuling in the crowd, I heard a 
woman say, "I donbt if tliat Ri'.ssell is riding about 
liere. I should just like to see him to give him a piece 
of my mind. They say he's honest, but I call hiiu a 
poor prc-jewdiced Britisher. This sight Ml give him 
fits." I was quite delighted at my incognito. If the 
caricatures were at all like me, I siiould have what the 
Americans call a bad time of it. 

On the return of the batteries a shell exploded in a 
caisson just in front of the President's house, and, 
miraculous to state, did not fire the other projectiles. 
Had it done so, the destruction of life in the crowded 
street — blocked up with artillery, men, and horses, and 
crowds of men, women, and children — would have 
been truly frightful. Such accidents are not un- 
common — a waggon blew up the other day "out West,"' 
and killed and wounded several people; and though the 
accidents in camp from firearms are not so numerous 
as they were, there are still enough to present a hejivy 
casualty list. 

"Whilst the artillery were delighting the citizens, a 
much more important matter was taking place in an 
obscure little court house — much more ilestructivc to 
their freedom, happiness, and greatness than all the Con- 
federate guns which can ever be ranged against them. 
A brave, upright, and honest judge, as in duty bound, 
issued a writ of habeas corpus, sued out by the friends 
of a minor, who, contrary to the laws of the I'nited 
States, had been enlisted l)y an American general, and 



was detained by him in tlie ranks of his regiment. 
The officer refused to obey the writ, m hereupon the 
judge issued an attacliment against him, and the Federal 
brigadier came into court and pleaded that he took 
that course by order of the President. The court 
adjoui-ned, to consider the steps it should take. 

I have just seen a paragraph in the local paper, 
copied from a west country journal, headed " Good for 
Russell," which may explain the unusually favourable 
impression expressed by the women this morning. It 
is an account of the interview I had with the officer 
who came " to trade " for my horse, written by the 
latter to a Green Bay newspaper, in which, having 
duly censured my "John lUUlism" in not receiving 
with the utmost courtesy a stranger. Mho walked into 
his room before breakfast on business unknown, he 
relates as a proof of honesty (in such a rai-e field as 
trading in horseflesh) that, though my groom had 
sought to put ten dollars in my pocket by a mild 
exaggeration of the amount paid for the animal, which 
was the price I said I would take, I would not have it. 

October \Uh. — A cold, gloomy day. I am laid up 
with the fever and ague, which visit the banks of 
the Potomac in autumn. It annoyed me the more 
because (icncral M'Clellan is making a reconnaissance 
to-day towards Lcwinsville, with JO,OUO men. A 
gentlemau from the "War Department visited me to-day, 
and gave me scanty hopes of procuring any assistance 
from the authorities in taking the field. Civility costs 
nothing, and certainly if it did United States officials 
would require high salaries, but they often content 
themselves with fair words. 

There arc some things about our neigld)ours which 

^-EW.SrAl'EU STOltlH.S. ;J71 

we may never hope to uiKlerstiind. To-day, for 
instauee, a respeetable person, high in odiee, having; 
been good cnongli to invite nic to his honsc, 
added, " You sliall see Mrs. A., sir. She is a very 
pretty and agreeable young hidy, and will jjrove nice 
soeiety for you," meaning his wife. 

Mr. N. P. Willis was good enough to call on 
me, and in the course of conversation said, " I jiciir 
M'Clellan tells you everything. When you went 
away West I was very near going after you, as I 
suspected you heard something." ^Mr. Willis could 
have had no grounds for this remark, for very ccrtainlv 
it has no foundation in fact. Truth to tell. General 
M'Clellan seemed, the last time I saw him, a little 
alarmed by a paragraph in a New York paper, from 
the Washington correspondent, in which it was invidi- 
ously stated, " General ]\PClellan, attended by ^fr. 
Russell, correspondent of the London Tnucs, visited the 
camps to-day. All passes to civilians and others were 
revoked." There was not the smallest ground for tin- 
statement on the day in question, but I am resolved 
not to contradict anything which is said about nic, but 
the General could not well do so; and one of the 
favourite devices of the Washington correspondent to 
fill up bis columns, is to write something about me, to 
state I have been refused passes, or have got tiicm, or 
whatever else he likes to say. 

Calling on the General the other night at his usual 
time of return, I was told by the orderly, wlio was 
closing the door, " The General's gone to bed 
tired, and can see no one. He sent the same message 
to the President, who came inquiring after him ten 
minutes ago." 



This poor rrcsiilciit ! lie is to be pitied ; surrouiuled 
by such scenes, ami trviuj; with <ill his ini^'ht to uiuler- 
stand stratej:y, naval warfare, bij,' jxiius, the movenicuts 
of troops, military maps, reconnaissances, occupations, 
interior and exterior lines, and all the technical details 
of the art of slaying. He runs from one house to 
another, armed with plans, jjapers, reports, rccom- 
raendations, s(jmetimcs good humoured, never ant^rv', 
occasionally dejected, and always a little fussy. The 
other night, as I was sitting in the parlour at head- 
quarters, with an English friend who had come to see 
his old acciuaintancc the (Icneral, walked in a tall man 
with a navvy's cap, and an ill -made shooting suit, from 
the jjockcts of which protruded pajjcr and bundles. 
" Well," said he to IJrigadier ^'au "\ liet, who rose to 
receive him, " is George in? " 

"Yes, sir. He's come back, but is lying down, verv 
much fatigued. I'll send up, sir, and inform him you 
uish to see him." 

"Oh, no; I can wait. I think Til take iJupper ^Titll 
bin). Well, and what are you now,— I forget your 
name — are you a major, or a colonel, or a general?" 
" AVhatcver you like to make mc, sir." 

Seeing that General M'Clellan would be occupied, I 
walked out with my friend, who asked me when I got 
into the .street why I stood up when that tall fellow 
came into the room. ' Ik-cause it was the President." 
" The President of what ? " " Of the United States." 
"Oh! come, now you're humbugging me. Let mc 
have another look at him." He came back more in- 
credulous than ever, but uheii 1 assured him I was 
(juite serious, he exclaimed, " I give up the United 
States after this." 


Bnt for all tliat, tlicrc have l)ccn many more courtly 
presidents who, in a simihir crisis, would have dis- 
played less capacity, honesty, and plain dealing than 
Abraham Lincoln. 

October lOth. — I got hold of ^['C'lcilan's rep :)rt on 
the Crimean war, and made a few candid remarks on the 
performance, which does no: evince any capacity beyond 
the reports of our itinerant artillery ollieers who are 
sent from "Woolwich abroad for their country's good. 
I like the man, but I do not think he is eipial to his 
occasion or his jjlacc. There is one little piece of policy 
which shows he is lookinc^ ahead — cither to gain the 
good will of the army, or for some larger object. All 
his present purpose is to make himself known to the 
men personally, to familiarize them with his appear- 
ance, to gain the acquaintance of the officers; and wilh 
this object he spends nearly every day in the caui[)s^ 
riding out at nine o'clock, and not returning till long 
after nightfall, examining the various regiments as he 
goes along, and having incessant inspections and re- 
views. He is the first llepubliean general who cuvAA 
attempt to do all this without incurring censure :i:ui 
suspicion. Unfortunate ]\I'Dowell could not inspect 
his small army without receiving a hint that he must 
not assume such airs, as they were more becoming a 
military despot than a simple lieutenant of the great 

October 11///.— ^Ir. ^Mure, who has arrived here iu 
uretched health from New Orleans, after a i)rotractcd 
and verv unpleasant journey through country swarming 
with troops mixed with guerillas, tells me tinit I am 
more detested in New Orleans than I am in New York. 
This is ever the fate of the neutral, if the belligerent* 


can get him between them. TheGiroiulins and men of 
the juste viU'wu are ever fated to be j:round to powder. 
The charges against me were disposed of by ^Ir. !Mure, 
who says tliat what I wrote of in New Orleans was 
trne, and has shown it to be so in his correspondence 
with the Governor, bnt, over and beyond that, I am 
disliked, Ijecause I do not praise the pecnliar institu- 
tion. He amused me by adding that the mayor of 
Jackson, w ith whom I sojourned, had published " a 
card," denying point blank that he had ever breathed 
a word to indicate that the good citizens around him 
were not famous for the love of law, order, and life, 
and a scrupulous regard to pL'rsonal liberty. I can 
easily fancy Jackson is not a place where a mayor 
suspected by the citizens would be exempted from 
difficulties now and then; and if this disclaimer does 
ray friend any good, he is very heartily welcome to it 
and more, I have received several letters lately from 
the parents of minors, asking me to assist them in 
getting back their sons, who have enlisted illegally in 
the Federal army. !\Iy writ does not run any further 
than a Federal jud^ro's. 

October VZili. — The good jjcople of New York and 
of the other Northern cities, excited by the constant 
reports in the papers of magnificent reviews and un- 
surpassed military spectacles, begin to flock towards 
Washington in hundreds, where formerly they came in 
tens. The woman-kind are particuhu'ly anxious to 
feast their eyes on our glorious Un-ion army. It is 
natural enough that Americans should feel pride and 
take pleasure in the spectacle ; but the love of economy, 
the hatred of military despotism, and the frugal virtues 
of repul)Iican government, long since placed aside by 


the exij^cncics of the Administration, promise to vanish 
for ever. 

The feeling is well expressed in the remark of a gentle- 
man to whom I was lamenting the civil war : " Well, for 
my part, I am glad of it. "Why should yon in Europe 
have all the fighting to yourself? AVhy should we not 
have our hloody battles, and our big generals, :nul all 
the rest of it ? This will stir up the spirits of our 
people, do us all a power of good, and end by proving 
to all of you in Europe, that we arc just as good and 
first-rate in fighting as we are in ships, manufactures, 
and commerce." 

But the wealthy classes are beginning to feel rather 
anxious about the disposal of their money: they are 
paying a large insurance on the Union, and they do 
not see that anything has been done to stop the leak 
or to prevent it foundering. jNIr. Duncan has arrived ; 
to-day I drove with him to Alexandria, and I think 
he has been made happy by what he saw, and has no 
doubt ''the Union is all right." Notiiing looks so 
irresistible as your bayonet till another is seen oj)posed 
to it. 

October 13//*.— Mr. Duncan, attended by m^'sclf and 
other Britishers, made an extensive excursion tiirough 
the camps on horseback, and I led him from Arlington 
to Upton's House, up by Munson's Hill, to (Jeneral 
Wadsworth's quarters, where we lunched on camp fare 
and, from the observatory erected at the rear of the 
house in Avhich he lives, had a fine view this bright, 
cold, clear autumn day, of the wonderful expanse of 
undulating forest lands, streaked by rows of ti-nts, 
wliich at last concentrated into vast white patches in 
the distance, towards Alexandria. The country is 


desolate, but tlic camps are flourishing, and that is 
enoufjh to satisfy most patriots bent upon the sub- 
jujration of tlieir enemies. 

(Jctolnr \\tJi. — I was somewhat distraught, like a 
small Hercules twixt Vice and A'irtuc, or Garrick 
between Comedy and Tragedy, by my desire to tell 
Duncan the truth, and at the same time respect the 
feelings of a friend. Tiiere was a rabblcdom of drunken 
men in uniforms under our windows, who resisted the 
patrol clearing the streets, and one fellow drew his 
bayonet, and, with the support of some of the citizens, 
said that he would not allow any regular to put a 
finger on him. D — said he had witnessed scenes just 
as bad, and talked of lanes in garrison towns in Eng- 
land, and street rows i)etwceu soldiers and civilians; 
and I did not venture to tell him the scene we wit- 
nessed was the sign of a radical vice in the system 
of the American army, which is, I believe, incurable in 
these large masses. Few soldiers would venture to 
draw their bayonets on a patrol. If they did, their 
punislnuent would be tolerably sure and swift, but for 
all I knew this man would be permitted to go on his 
way rejoicing. There is news of two Federal 
reverses to-day. A descent was made on Santa 
llosa Island, and ^Ir. IJilly AVilson's Zouaves were 
driven under the guns of Pickens, losing in the scurry 
of the night attack— as prisoner only I am glad to say 
— poor Major ^ ogdes, of inquiring memory. Rose- 
crans, mIio utterly ignores the advantages of Shak- 
spcrian spelling, has been defeated in theAVest; but 
D — is fpiitc hajipy, and goes oflT to New York con- 

October 15///. — Sir James Ferguson and Mr. U. 

DEFUNCT ci:ij:i}i;itii:s. 377 

Bourkc, wlio liuvc been tr.ivclliiii,' in the South and 
have seen somcthin<i; of the Confederate ^'overnmeiit 
and armies, visited us this eveninj; after diniu'r. Tliey 
do not seem at all desirous of testiiii,' by eoniparisoii 
the relative eflieiency of the two armies, whieh Sir 
James, at all events, is eompetent to do. They are im- 
pressed by the energy and animosity of the South, 
which no doubt will have their eiieet on Jhij,dand also ; 
but it will be dillieult to po[)ularize a Slave Ki public 
as a new allied power in England. Two of General 
M'Clellan's aides dropped in, and the meeting abstained 
from general politics. 

October 10///. — Day follows day and resmbles its pre- 
decessor. ]\rClellan is still reviewing, and the North 
are still waiting for victories and paying money, and the 
orators are still wrangling over the best way of cooking 
the hares which they have not yet caught. I visited 
General jNI'Dowell to-day at his tent in Arlington, and 
found him in a state of divine calm with his wife and 
parvus lulus. A public man in the United States is 
very much like a great firework — he commences with 
some small scintillations which attract the eye of tiie 
public, and then he blazes up and Hares out in blue, 
purple, and orange fires, to the intense admiration of 
the multitude, and dying out suddenly is thought of no 
more, his place being taken by a fresh roman candle or 
Catherine wheel which is thought to be far finer than those 
which have just dazzled the eyes of tlie fickle spectat»)rs. 
Human nature is thus severely taxed. The Caljinet 
of State is like the museum of some cruel naturalist, 
who seizes his specimens whilst they are alive, bottles 
them up, forbids them to make as nujch as a contor- 
tion, labelling them "My last President," "My latest 


Commaudcr-in-chicf," or " My defeated General/' re- 
garding the smallest signs of life very mnch as did the 
French petit uiuUre who rebnked the contortions and 
screams of the poor ■wretch mIio was broken on the 
wheel, as contrary to bicmeance. I am glad that Sir 
James Ferguson and ^Ir. Bourke did not leave without 
making a tour of inspection through the Federal camp, 
which they did to-day, 

October Mill. — Dies non. 

October Ist/i. — To-day Lord Lyons drove out with 
Mr. Seward to inspect the Federal camps, which are 
now in such order as to be worthy of a visit. It is re- 
ported in all the papers that I am going to England, 
but I have not the smallest intention of giving my 
enemies here such a treat at present. As Monsieur de 
Beaumont of the French Legation said, " I presume vou 
are going to remain in AVashington for the rest of vour 
life, because I see it stated in the Xew York journals 
that you are leaving us in a day or two.'' 

October 10/A. — Lord Lyons and Mr. Seward were 
driving and dining together yesterday en ami. To-day, 
Mr. Seward is engaged demolishing Lord Lyons, or at all 
events the British Oovcrnment, in a despatch, wherein 
he vindicates the proceedings of the United States 
Government in certain arrests of liritish subjects which 
had been complaincMl of, and roi)udiates ihc doctrine 
that the United States (Jovernmcnt can be bound by 
the opinion of the law officers of the Crown respecting 
the spirit and letter of the American constitution. 
This is published as a set-oft' to Mr. Seward's circular 
on the scacoast defences which created so much de- 
pression and alarm in the Northern States. Mhere it 
was :it the time considered as a warniuir tli;it a forciijn 


war was imminent, and wliicli has since been {,'cncnillv 
condemned as feeble and injndieions. 

October -tOt/i.—l saw ( .M'Clellan to-day, who 
gave me to understand that some small movement 
might take place on the right. 1 rode np to the Chain 
Bridge and across it for some miles into Airginia, hut 
all was quiet. The sergeant at the post on the south 
side of the bridge had some doubts of the genuineness 
of my pass, or rather of its bearer. 

"I heard you were gone back to London, where I 
am coming to see you some fine day with tlie boys 

" No, sergeant, I am not gone yet, but when will 
your visit take place ? " 

" Oh, as soon as wc have linished Avith the gentleraeu 
across there." 

" Have you any notion when that w ill be V " 

" Just as soon as they tell us to go on and prevent 
the blackguard Germans running away." 

"But the Germans did not run awav at Bull 
Run ? " 

" Faith, because they did not get a chance — sure they 
put them in the rear, away out of the lighting." 

"And why do you not go on now ? " 

"Well, that^s the question we are asking every day." 

" And can any-one answer it ? " 

"Not one of us can tell; but my l>tlief is if wc had 
one of the old 50th among us at the head of idfairs 
we would soon be at them. I belonged to the old 
regiment once, but I got off and took np with shoe- 
making again, and faith if I stcd in it 1 mi-ht have 
been sergeant-major by this time, ouly they hated the 
poor Roman Catholics." 

ysU MV l)IAi:Y NdKTll AND SoLTH. 

" And do you tliiidc, sci-f^eant, you would get 
many of your countrymen who luul served iu tlic old 
army to flight the old familiar red jackets? "" " Well, 
sir, I tell you I hope my arm would rot before I would 
pull a tri^Tirer atjaiust the old 50th; but we would wear 
the red jacket too — we have as good a right to it as the 
others, and then it would be man against man, you 
know ; but if I saw any of them cursed Germans inter- 
fering I'd soon let daylight into them." The hazy 
dreams of this poor man's mind would form an excel- 
leiit article for a New York newspaper, which on matters 
relating to England are rarely so lucid and logical. 
Next day was devoted to writing and heavy rain, through 
both of which, notwithstanding, I was assailed by 
many visitors and some scurrilous letters, and i:i the 
evening there was a Washington gathering of Englishry, 
Irisliry, Scotchry, Yankees, and Canadians. 

October 2-2/1(1. — Rain falling in torrents. As 1 write, 
in come reports of a battle last night, some forty miles 
up the river, which by signs and tokens I am led to be- 
lieve was unfavourable to the Federals. They crossed 
the river intending to move upon Lccsl)urg — were 
attacked by overwhelming forces and rei)ulse(l, but 
maintained themselves on the right bank till General 
JJanks reinforced them and enabled them to hold their 
own. M'C'lellan has gone or is going at once to the 
scene of action. It was three o'clock before I heard 
the news, the road and country were alike unknown, nor 
had I friend or acquaintance in the army of the I'pijcr 
Potomac. My horse was l)rought round however, and 
in company with Mr. Anderson. I rode out of Wash- 
ington along the river till the falling evening warned 
us to retrace our steps, and we returned in pelting 

CoLLUnllAI. DI KFlCll/riKS. .'Jsl 

rain as wc set out, ami in pitchy darkiicss, wiilidiit. 
rncctiiip; any mcssenj^er or person witli news from tlu- 
battle-field. Late at nij,dit the ^Vhite llotisc was 
})laced ill deep grief l)y tlic intelligence that in addition 
to other losses, Brifj^adicr and Senator Baker of Cali- 
fornia was killed. The President was inconsolable, and 
walked np and down his room for hours lamenting 
the loss of his friend. j\Irs. Lincoln's grief was ('(pially 
poignant. Ikforc bed-time I told the Oerm-in land- 
lord to tell my servant I wanted my horse round at 
seven o'clock. 

October 2ord. — Up at six, waiting for horse and 
man. At eight walked down to stables. No one 
there. At nine became very angry — sent messengers 
in all directions. At ten was nearly furious, when, 
at the last stroke of the clock, James, with his inex- 
pressive countenance, perfectly calm nevertheless, and 
betraying no symj)tom of solicitude, api)eared at the 
door leading my charger. "And may I ask you 
where you have been till this time ? " " Wasn't 1 
dressing the horse, taking him out to water, and 
exercising liim.^' " Good heavens ! did 1 not tell you 
to be here at seven o'clock ?" " No, sir; Carl told nie 
you wanted me at ten o'clock, and here 1 am." " Carl, 
did I not tell you to ask James to be round licrc at 
seven o'clock.'" " Not zeveu clock, sere, but zehn 
clock. I tell him, you come at zehn clock." Thus 
at one blow was I stricken down by Gaul and Teuton, 
each of whom retired with the air of a man who had 
baffled an intended indignity, and had achieved a 
triumph over a w'rong-doer. 

The roads were in a fiightful state outside W nshing- 
ton — literally nothing but canals, in whicii cnrth and 

Sb2 Mv DiAiJY n<»i;tii and south. 

water were mixed together for depths varying from 
six inches to three feet above the surface ; but late as 
it was I pushed on. aud had got as far as the turn of 
the road to Rockville, near the great falls, some twelve 
miles beyond AVashington, when I met an officer with 
a couple of orderlies, hurrying back from General 
Banks's head-quarters, who told me the whole atfair 
was over, and that I could not possibly get to the 
scene of action on one horse till next morning, even 
supposing that I pressed on all through the night, the 
roads being utterly villanous, and the country at night 
as black as ink ; and so I returned to AVashington, 
and was stopped by citizens, who, seeing the streaming 
horse and splashed rider, imagined he was reeking 
from the fray. " As you were not there," says one, 
" I'll tell you what I know to be the case. Stone and 
Baker are killed ; Banks aud all the other generals 
are prisoners ; the Rhode Island and two other bat- 
teries are taken, and 5000 Yankees have been sent to 

H to help old John Brown to roast niggers." 

October 2U/i. — The heaviest blow which has yet been 
inflicted on the administration of justice in the United 
States, and that is saying a good deal at present, 
has been given to it in Washington. The judge of 
whom I wrote a few days ago in the habeas corpus case, 
lias been placed under military arrest and surveillance 
by the Provost-Marshal of the city, a very fit man for 
such work, one Colonel Andrew Porter. The Provost- 
Marshal imprisoned the attorney who served the writ, 
and then sent a guard to Mr. Merrick"'s house, who 
thereupon sent a minute to his brother judges the 
day before yesterday stating the circumstances, in 
order to Axow why he did not aj)pear in his ])lacc 


on the bench. The Chief Judge Dunlop and Judge 
Morsell thereupon issued their ^vrit to Au(h-t:\v I'orter 
greeting, to show cause wliy an attachment for con- 
tempt should not be issued against him for his 
treatment of Judge INIerrick. As the sliarp tongues 
of women are very troublesome, the United States 
officers have quite little harems of captives, and Mrs. 
Merrick has just been added to the number'. Siie is a 
"WickliHc of Kentucky, and has a right tu martyrdom. 
The inconsistencies of the Northern people multij)Iy ad 
infinitum as they go on. Thus at Ilatteras tliey enter 
into terms of capitulation with ofliccrs signing them- 
selves of the Confederate States Army and Confederate 
States Navy; elsewhere thc}^ exchange prisoners ; at 
New York they are going through the farce of 
trying the crew of a C. S. privateer, as pirates engaged 
in ^robbing on the high seas, on " the authority of a 
pretended letter of marque from one Jefferson Davis." 
One Jeff Davis is certainly quite enough for tlicm 
at present. 

Colonel and Senator Baker was honoured by a cere- 
monial which was intended to be a public funeral, 
rather out of compliment to jMr. Lincoln's feelings, 
perhaps, than to any great attachment for tiie man liini- 
self, who fell gallantlj' fighting near Leesburg. TJjcre 
is need for a republic to contain some elements of an 
aristocracy if it would make that display of pomj) and 
ceremony which a public funeral should have to pro- 
duce effect. At all events there should be some 
principle of reverence in the heads and hearts of 
the people, to make up for other deficieueies in it as 
a show, or a ceremony. The procession down I'enn- 
sylvania Avenue was a tawdry, shabby string of hack 


carriages, men in liirlit coats and white liats following 
the hearse, r.nd three regiments of foot soldiers, of 
which one was simply an uncleanly, nnwholesomc- 
lookiug rabble. The President, in his carriage, and 
many of the ministers and senators, attended also, and 
passed throngh nnsympathetie lines of people on the 
kerbstones, not one of whom raised his hat to the bier 
as it ])assed, or to the President, except a conple of 
Englishmen and myself who stood in the crowd, and 
that proceeding on onr part gave rise to a variety of 
remarks among the bystanders. Bnt as the band 
turned into Pennsylvania Avcnne, i)laying something 
like the iniinwt de la corn- in Dun CJiovanni, two 
officers in uniform came ritiing up in the contrary 
direction; they were smoking cigars; one of them 
let his fall on the ground, the other smoked lustily as 
the hearse passed, and reining \\\\ his horse, continued 
to putf his weed under the nose of President, ministers, 
and senators, with the air of a man who was doing a 
very soldierly correct sort of thing. 

AVhethcr the President is angry as well as grieved 
:tt the loss of his favourite or not, I cannot adirm, l)ut 
he is assuredly doing that terrible thing which is 
called putting his foot dow n on the jndges ; and he 
has instructed Andrew Porter not to mind the writ 
issued \ester(lay, and has further instructed the United 
States Marshal, who has the writ in his hands to serve 
on the said Andrew, to return it to the court with the 
information that Abraham ]jincoln had suspended the 
w_rit oi huln-as rorjm.s in cases relating to the military. 

October 2C)i/i. — More reviews. To-day rather a 
pretty sight — 12 regiments, Ki guns, and a few squads 
of men with swords and pistols on horseback, called 


cavalry, comprisiuf; Fitz-Joliii Porter's diviHion. 
]\l'(Jlcllau seemed to my eyes crcst-l'all(;ii and moodv 
to-day. Bn<,^ht eyes looked on him ; lie is -ettiiij; up 
something like a stall", anion;; which are the youn^' 
Freneh ])rinces, under the tnttla.i,'e ol" their uncle, the 
Prince of Joinville. Whilst .M'Clellau is reviewing;, our 
llomans in Washington are shivering; for the blockade 
of the Potomac by tlie Confederate batteries stops 
the fuel boats. Little care these enthusiastic young 
American i)atriots in crinoline, who have come to sec 
jM'Clellan and the soldiers, what a cord of wood costs. 
The lower orders are very angry about it however. Tlie 
nuisance and disorder arising from soldiers, drunk and 
sober, riding full gallop down the streets, and as fast 
as they can round the corners, has been stopped, bv 
jdacing mounted sentries at the principal points in all 
the thoroughfares. The " otlicers " were worse than 
the men ; the papers this week contain the account oi* 
two accidents, in one of which a colonel, in another a 
major, was killed by falls from horseback, in furious 
riding in the city. 

Forgetting all about this fact, and sjjurring home 
pretty fast along an inifrc(incnted road, leading from 
the ferry at Georgetown into the city, 1 was nearly 
spitted by a " dragoon," who rode at me from under 
cover of a house, and shouted " stop'" just as his .subre 
was Avithin a foot of my head. Fortunately his hoi -i , 
being aware that if it ran against nnne it might lii- 
injured, shied, and over went dragoon, saljre and all, 
and off went his horse, Ijut as the trooper wjuj able to 
run after it, I presume he was not the worse; and I 
went on my way rejoicing. 

M'Clellau has fallen veiy much in my oj)inion since 


the Leesburg dissister. He went to the spot, and with 
a Uttle — nay, the least — promptitude and abihty could 
have turned the check into a successful advance, in the 
blaze of which the earlier repulse would have been for- 
gotten. It is whispered tluit General Stone, who 
ordered the movement, is guilty of treason — a com- 
mon crime of unlucky «(cnerals — at all events he is 
to be displaced, and will be put under surveillance. 
The orders he gave arc certainly very strange. 

The ofHcial right to lib, 1 presume, is very mucli 
the same all over the world, but still there is more 
dash about it in the States, I think, than else- 
where. " Blockade of the Potomac ! " exclaims an 
ofHcial of the Navy Department. " AVhat are you 
talking of'r The Department has just heard that a 
few Confederates hfive been practising with a few ligiit 
field-pieces from the banks, and has issued orders to 
prevent it in future." " Defeat at Leesburg ! " cries 

little K , of M'Clcllan's staff, "nothing of the 

kind. We drove the Confederates at all points, retained 
our position on the right bank, and only left it when 
we pleased, having whipped the enemy so severely they 
never showed since." " Any news, Mr. Cash, in the 
Treasury to-day?" "Nothing, sir, except that Mr. 
Ciiasc is highly pleased with everything; he's only 
afraid of having too much money, and being troubled 
with his balances." " The State Department all right, 
.Mr. Protocol?" "My dear sir! delightful! with 
everybody, best terms. Mr. Seward and the Count 
arc managing delightfully ; most friendly assurances ; 
Guatemala particularly; yes, and France too. Yes, 1 
may say France too ; not the smallest dilHculty at 
Honduras; altogether, with the assurances of support 


■Nve arc getting, the Minister tliinks the whole utlair 
■will he settled in thirty days ; no joking,', 1 assnre yon ; 
thirty days this time positively. Say for cxactnesn on 
or ahont December 5th." The canvas-backs arc coining 
in, and I am off for a day or two to escape reviews aiid 
abuse, and to sec something ol" the famons wild-fowl 
shooting on the Chesapcfikc. 

October 'llth. — After ehurcli, I took a long walk 
round by the commissariat waggons, where there is, 
I think, as much dirt, bad language, cruelty to atjimals, 
and waste of public money, as can be conceived. Let 
xnc at once declare my opinion that the Americans, 
generally, are exceedingly kind to their cattle ; but 
there is a hybrid race of rnihanly waggoners here, 
subject to no law or discipline, and the barbarous 
treatment inflicted on the transport animals is too bad 
even for the most unruly of nudes. I mentioned the 
circumstance to General ]\I'Dowell, who told me that 
by the laws of the United States there was no power 
to enlist a man for commissariat or transport duty. 

October 2Sth. — Telegraphed to my friend at Balti- 
more that I was ready for the ducks. The Legation 
going to Mr. Kortwright's marriage at Philadelpliia. 
Started with Lamy at (5 o'clock for Jialtimore ; to Ciil- 
more House ; thence to club. Every person present said 
that in my letter on IVFaryland I had understated the 
question, as far as Southern sentimentB were concerned. 
In the club, for example, there are not six I'nion nun 
at the outside. General Ti\x has fortified Federal Hill 
very efhciently, and the heights over Fort McIIenry are 
bristling with cannons, and display formidable earth- 
works; it seems to be admitted that, but for tiie action 
of the Washington Government the Legislature would 

CO 2 


pass an onliiKincc of Secession. Gilmore House — old- 
fasliiont'd, «;ott(l bed-rooms. Scarcidy had T arrived in 
the passage, than a man ran of!" with a parairrajjh to 
the papers that Dr. Kusscll liad come for the purpose 
of duek-shootin^'; and, hearing that I was going with 
Taylor, put in that I was going to Taylor's Ducking 
Shore. It ap])ears that there are considerable numbers 
of tliese duck clubs in the neighbonrliood of lialtimore. 
The canvas-back ducks have come iu, but they will not 
be in perfection until the 10th of November; their 
peculiar flavour is derived from a water-plant called 
wild celery. This lies at the depth of several feet, 
sometimes nine or ten, and the birds dive for it. 

October )l\^//i. — At ten started for the shooting 
ground, Carroll's Island; my companion, ^Ir. Pen- 
nington, drove me in a light trap, and ^fr. Taylor and 
Lamy came with !Mr. Tucker Carroll*, along with 
guns, &c. Passed out towards the sea, a long height 
commanding a fine view of the river; near this was 
fought the battle with the English, at whieh the "Bal- 
timoredel'enders " admit they ran away. Mr. Penning- 
ton's father says lie can answer for the speed of himself 
and liis companions, but still the battle was thojight 
to be glorious. Along the posting road to Piiiladelphi;!, 
passed the Blue Ball 'J'avern ; on all sides except the 
left, great wooded lagoons visible, swarming with ducks; 
boats are forbidden to tire upon the birds, which arc 
allured by wooden decoys. Crossed the Philadeljjhia 
Railway three times ; land poor, covered with undcr- 
growths and small trees, given up to Dutch and Irish 
and free niggers. Reached the duck-club-house in two 
liours and a half; substantial farm-house, with out- 
• Sinee killed in action fighting for the South at Antietain, 


ofliccs, on a strip of l;ui(l siirrouiulcd hy water; (Juii- 
ixnvdcr liivcr, Siiltpc'tri; River, faeiiiL,' C'liesiipeako; ou 
cilhcr side lakes and tidal water; the owner, Slater, an 
Irishman, reputed very rieli, self-made. Dinner nt one 
o'clock; any number of canvas-hack ducks, plcntifid 
joints; drink whisky; company, Swan, Howard, Duval, 
-Morris, and others, also extraordinary spccinjcu 
named Smith, believed never to wash except in rain or 
by accidental sousini,^ in the river. A\'ent out for after- 
noon shooting; birds wide and high ; killed scveutceu ; 
back to supper at dusk. M'Donald and a guitar came 
over; had a negro dance; and so to bed about twelve. 
Lamy got single bed; I turned in with Taylor, as 
single beds are not permitted when the house is full. 

October 30th. — A light, a grim man, and a voice in the 
room at 4. a.m. awaken me; I am up first; breakfast; 
more duck, eggs, meat, mighty cakes, milk; to the 
gun-house, already hung with ducks, and then tramp 
to the '' blinds" with Smith, who talked of the Ingincs 
and wild sports in far Minnesota. As morning breaks, 
very red and lovely, dark visions and long streaky 
clouds appear, skimming along from bay or river. The 
men in the blinds, w hich are square enclosures of reeds 
about 4|- feet higli, call out " Bay," " River," accord- 
ing to the direction fiom which the ducks are coming. 
Down we go in blinds ; they come ; pufl's of smoke, 
a bang, a volley ; one bird falls with flop ; another by 
degrees drops, and at last smites the scri ; there arc five 
down ; in go the dogs. " ^Vho shot that ?" " I did." 
" Who killed this?" "That's Tucker's!" "A good sliot." 
' I don't know how I missed mine." Same thing again. 
The ducks Hy prodigious heights— out of all rnw^c one 
would think. It is exciting mIicu the cloud does rise 


at first. Day vottJ very bad. Thence I move home- 
ward ; talk with -Mr. Shiter till the trap is ready; and 
at twelve or so, drive over to Mr. M'Duuald; find Lamy 
and Swau there; miserable shed of two-roomed shanty 
in a marsh; rou-^h deal presses; white-washed walls; 
iiddler in attendance; dinner of ducks and steak; 
whisky, and thence proceed to a blind or marsh, amid 
wooden decoys ; but there is no use : no birds ; high 
tide tioodinj; everything; examined !M'Donald's stud; 
knocked to pieces trotting on liard ground. Rowed 
back to house with Mr. Pennington, and returned to 
the mansion ; all the party iiad but poor sport ; but 
every one had killed something. Drew Jots for bed, and 
won tliis time; Lamy, liowevcr, Avould not sleep double, 
and reposed on a hard sofa in the parlour ; indications 
favourable for ducks. It was curious, in the early morn- 
ing, to hear the incessant booming of duck-guns, along 
all the creeks and coves of the indented bays and salt- 
water marshes; and one could tell when they were fired 
at decoys, or were directed against birds in tlu.'air; 
heard a salute lired at Baltimore very distinctly. Lamy 
and Mr. M'Donald met in their voyage up the Nile, 
to kill cfniui and spend money. 

October lUst. — No, no, Mr. Smith ; it an't of no 
use. At f(jnr a.m. \\c. were invited, as usual, to rise, 
but Taylor ami I reasoned from under our respective 
quilts, that it would i)e (piite as go(j(l shooting if we got 
up at six, and I acted in accordance with that view. 
IJreakfasted as the sun was shining above the tree-tops, 
and to my blind — found there was no shooting at all - 
got one shot only, and killed a splendid canvas-back — 
on returning to home, found nearly all the j)arty on the 
move- — llU ducks hanging round the house, the reward 


of our toils, and of these 1 received cgrcfjrious hlmrr. 
Drove back with Peiminjjjton, very sleepy, fDllowcd hv 
Mr. Taylor and Lainy. 1 would have stayed loiifjer if 
sport were better. Birds don't fly when the wind in in 
certain points, but lie out in irreat " ricks," as thev are 
called, blackening the waters, tlriftiui; in the wind,orwiih 
■wings covering their heads — poor defenceless thin^n ! 
The red-head waits alongside the canvas-baek till lie 
conies vip from the depths with mouth or bill full of 
parsley and wild celery, when he makes at him and forcen 
liim to disgorge. At Baltimore at 1 .30 — dined — Lamy re- 
solved to stay — bade good-bye to Swan and .Morris. 
The man at first would not take my ducks and boots to 
register or check them — twenty-five cents did it. 1 
arrived at Washington late, because of detention of 
train by enormous transport; labelled and sent out game 
to the houses till James's fingers ached again. No- 
thing doing, except that General Scott has at last sent 
in resignation. M^Clellan is now indeed master of tlic 
situation. And so to bed, rather tired. 


General Scott'a resi^ation— Mrs. A. Lincoln — mission to 
Europe — Uneasy feeling with refold to France — Ball f;iven bj' tlie 
United States cavalry — The United States army — Success at 
Beaufort — Arrests — Dinner at ilr. Seward's — News of Ctjitaiu 
Wilkes and the Trent — Messrs. Mason and Slidell — Discussion as 
to Wilkes — Prince de Joinville — The American press on the Trent 
affair — Absence of thieves in Washington — " Thanks^giviug Day" — 
Success thus far in favour of the North. 

Xovember \st. — Again stagnation ; not the smallest 
intention of moving; General Scott's resignation, of 
wliicli I was aware long ago, is publicly known, and he 
is about to go to Europe, and end his days probably in 
France. M'Clellan takes his place, minus the large 
salary. Riding back from camp, where I had some 
trouble with a drunken soldier, my hor^;e eame down 
in a dark hole, and threw me heavily, so that my hat 
■was crushed in on my head, ami my right thumb 
sprained, but I managed to get \\\) and ride home ; for 
the brute had fallen right on his own heaii, cut a piece 
out of his forehead between the eyes, and was stunned 
too much to run away. I luimd letters waiting from 
Mr. Seward and others, thanking me for the game, if 
canvas-backs come under the title. 

Xovfiii/jtr 2/1(1. — A tremendous gale of wind and rain 
blew all day, and caused much uneaNiness, at the Navy 
Department and elsewhere, for the safety of the Hum- 

WAsiiiN(iT()N (iussii'. 39;i 

side expcilition. The Secessionists are delighted, and 
those wiu) can, say " Alllavit Dens et hostescHssipanlnr." 
There is a project to send secret non-ollicial commis- 
sioners to Enropc, to counteract the niachinalions of 
the Confederates. j\Ir. Everett, Mr. 11. Kennedy, 
Bishop Hnghes, and Bishop JM'llwaine arc desi;;nuted 
for the oUice; nuieh is expected liuni tiie expedition, 
not only at home but abroad. 

November '6rd. — For some reason or another, a cer- 
tain set of papers have lately taken to flatter Mrs. 
Lincoln in the most noisome manner, \vhilst others 
deal in dark insinuations against her loyalty, I'nioiv 
principles, and honesty. The poor laily is loyal as 
steel to her family and to Lincoln the first ; l)ut she 
is accessible to the influence of flattery, and lias i)cr- 
mitted her society to be infested by men who would 
not be received in any respectable private house in 
New York. The gentleman vho furnishes fashion- 
able paragraphs for the AVashington paper has some 
charming little pieces of gossip about "the first Lady 
in the Land " this week ; he is doubtless the same 
Avho, some weeks back, chronicled the details of a 
raid on the pigs in the streets by the police, and who 
concluded thus: " \Ve cannot but congratulate OfVicer 
Smith on the very gentlemanly maimer in which he 
performed his disagrcealile but arduous duties ; nor 
did it escape our notice, that OlKccr Washington 
Jones was likewise active and energetic m the dis- 
charge of his functions." 

The ladies in AVashington delight to liear or to 
invent small scandals connected with the AN liitc 
House; thus it is reported that the Scotch Knrdenrr 
left bv :NL\ Buchanan has Ijeen made a licutcnnut 


ill the United States Army, and lias been specially 
(letac'liL'd to do duty at the White House, where he 
superintends the cookiu^. Another person counected 
with the establishment was made Commissioner ol 
Public Buildinjrs, ])ut was dismissed because he would 
not put down the expense of a certain state dinner to 
the public account, and charge it under the head ol 
"Improvement to the Cirounds." liut many more 
better tales than these go round, and it is not sur- 
prising if a woman is now and then put midcr close 
arrest, or sent off to Fort ^I'llenry for too much esprit 
and inventiveness. 

November Uh. — General Fremont will certainly be 
recalled. There is not the smallest incident to note. 

November 5//(.^-Small banquets, very simple and 
tolerably social, are the order of the day as winter 
closes around us; the country has become too deep in 
mud for jjleasant excursions, and at times the weather 
is raw and cold. General ^M'Dowell, who dined with 
us to-day, maintains there will be no difiiculty in 
advancing during Ijad weather, because the men are 
so expert in felling trees, they can make corduroy 
roads wherever they like. I own the arguments sur- 
prised but did not convince me, and 1 think the 
General will find out his mistake when the time 
comes. !Mr. Everett, Avhom I had expected, was sum- 
moned away by the unexpected intelligence of his 
son's death, so I missed the oj)portunity of seeing one 
whom I much desired to have nict, as the great Apostle 
of Washington worship, in addition to his claims to 
higher distinction. He has admitted that the only 
bond which ean hold the I'nion together is th(> com- 
mon belief in the greatness of the departed general. 


Noveinher Glh. — Instead of ]\Ir. Everett ami Mr. 
Johnson, Mr. Tiuirlow "Weed and Bishop Iliifrhes will 
pay a visit to Europe in the Eciieral interests. Not- 
withstanding tlie aduhition of everything Freneh, from 
the Emperor down to a Zouave's gaiter, in the New 
York press there is an uneasy feeling rcspeeting the 
intentions of Erance, founded on the notion that the 
Emperor is not very friendly to the Federalists, and 
would be little disposed to expose his subjects to priva- 
tion and suffering from the scarcity of cotton and 
tobacco if, by intervention, he could avert such mis- 
fortunes. The inactivity of M'Clellan, which is not 
nuderstood by the people, has created an under-current 
of unpopularity, to which his enemies are giving every 
possible strength, and some people arc beginning to 
think the youthful Napoleon is only a Brummagem 

November 7th. — After such bad weather, the Indian 
summer, /'c(e de St. Martin, is coming gradually, lighting 
up the ruins of the autumn's foliage still clinging to the 
trees, giving us pure, bright, warm days, and sunsets 
of extraordinary loveliness. Drove out to Bladens- 
burgh with Captain llaworth, and discovered that my 
waggon was intended to go on to Richmond and never 
to turn back or round, for no roads in this part of tlie 
country arc wide enough for the purpose. Dined at 
the Legation, and in the evening went to a grand ball, 
given by the Gth United States Cavjdry in the I'oor 
House near their camp, about two miles outside the city. 

The ball took place in a series of small white-wn.shed 
rooms off long passages and corridors; many Mipper 
tables were spread ; whisky, champagne, hot ternipm 
soup, and many luxuries graced the board; aiul although 


but two or three couple could dance in each room at a 
time, by judicious arrangement of the music several 
rooms were served at once. The Duke of Chartrcs, iu 
the uniform of a United States Captain of Staff, was 
among the guests, and had to share the ordeal to 
Avhich strangers were exposed by the hospitable enter- 
tainers, of drinking with them all. Some called him 
" Chatters "—others, "Captain Chatters; " but tiiese 
were of the outside polloi, wljo cannot be kept out on 
such occasions, and wiio sliake hands and are familiar 
with everybody. 

The Duke took it all exceedingly well, and laughed 
■with the loudest in the company. Altogether the 
ball was a great success — somewhat marred indeed iu 
my own case by the bad taste of one of the oflicers 
of the regiment wliich had invited me, in adopting an 
otiensivc manner when about to be introduced to nie 
by one of his Ijrother oilicers. Colonel Emory, the 
oflicer in command of the regiment, interfered, and, 

finding that Captain A was not sober, ordered 

liim to retire. Another small contretemps was caused 
by the master of the AVurk House, who had been 
indulging at least as freely as the captain, and at last 
began to fancy that the paupers had bruken loose and 
Avere dancing about after hours below stairs. In vain 
lie was led away and incarcerated in one room after 
another; his intimatt- knowledu'e of the architectural 
diilicultics of tiu; building enabled him to set all pre- 
cautions at (iefiancc, and he might be seen at intervals 
living along the j)assiiges towards the music, pursued 
by the officers, until he was finally secured in a 
dungeon without a window, and with a bolted and 
locked door between him and the ball-rooms. 


November S///. — Colonel Miiiory made jis l:m<;|| tliin 
inoniiiii; by an aceount of our Anipliytrioii of the 
nij^^ht before, who eanic to liiin with a very red eye and 
curious expression of face to congratulate the rc;,'imfnt 
on the success of the ball. " The most beautiful \\\\w^ 
of all was/' said be, "Colonel, 1 did not see one ;,'entle. 
man or lady who had taken too mueli licjuor; there 
Mas not a drunken man in the whole eoaipany." 
I consulted my friends at the Legation with re- 
spect to our inebriated officer, on whose behalf Colonel 
Emory tendered his own apologies ; but they were 
of opinion I had done all that was right and l)ecouiing 
in the matter, and that I must take no more notice 
of it, 

November dth. — Colonel Wilmot, R. A., who has come 
down from Canada to see the army, spent the day with 
Captain Dahlgren at the Navy Yard, and returned with 
impressions favourable to the system. He agrees with 
Dahlgren, who is dead against breach-loading, but 
admits Armstrong has done the most that can be 
eflected with the system. Colonel AVilmot avers the 
English press are responsible for the Armstrong guns. 
He has been much struck by the excellence of the 
great iron -works he has visited in the States, particu- 
larly that of INIr. Sellers, in Philadelphia. 

November lOtli. — Visiting Mr. ]Mure the otlu-r day, 
who was still an invalid at Washington, I met a gentle- 
man named INIaury, Avho had come to "Washington t.j 
see after a portmanteau which had been taken from 
him on the Canadian frontier by the police. He was 
told to go to the State Department and ehiini his pro- 
perty, and on arriving there was arrested and confined 
with a number of prisoners, my liorse-dcaling friend, 
Sammy Wroe, among them. AVc walked down to in(|uirc 


liow he was; the soldier wlio was on duty j^ave a flourish- 
ing account of liim — he had i)lcnty of wliisky and food, 
and, said the man, " 1 quite feel for Maury, because he 
docs business in my State." (^ These State influences 
must be overcome, or no Union will ever hold togetherA 

Sir James Ferguson and ^Ir. Bourke were rather 
shocked when Mr. Seward opened the letters from per- 
sons in the South to friends in Europe, of which they 
had taken charge, and cut some passages out with a 
scissors ; but a ^Minister who combines the functions of 
Chicf-of-Police with those of Secretary of State must 
do such tilings now and then. 

November 11///. — The United States have now, accord- 
ing to the returns, G(M),00(t infantry, GOO pieces of 
artillery, 61,(J(J0 cavalry in the held, and yet they are 
not only unable to crush the Confederates, but they 
cannot conciuer the Secession ladies in their capital. 
The Southern people here trust in a break-down in 
the North before the screw can be turned to the 
utmost ; and assert that the South does not want corn, 
Mheat, leather, or food. Georgia makes cloth enougli 
for all — the only deficiency will be in metal and materiel 
of Mar. AVhen the North comes to discuss the (juestion 
whether the war is to be against slavery or for the 
Union leaving slavery to take care of itself, they think 
a split will be inevitable. Then the pressure of taxes 
will force on a .solution, for the State taxes already 
amount to 2 to .'J per cent., and the people will not bear 
the addition. The North has set out with the ))rincip]c 
of paying for everything, the South with the principle 
of paying for nothing; but this will be reversed in 
time. All the diplomatists, with one excejjtion, are 
of opinion the I'nion is broken for ever, and the inde- 
l)endeuce of the South virtually established. 


November }9,(h. — An irru|)ti()n of dirty little boyu in 
the streets shouting out, " (Jlorious lluion victory! 
Charleston taken ! " The story is that Hiiniside \\a% 
landed and reduced tlie Ibrts defendiu|,' Port llinal. 
I met Mr. Fox, Assistant-Secretary to the Navy, 
and Mr. Hay, Secretary to Mr. Lincoln, in the 
Avenue. The former sliowed me Uiirnside's des- 
patches from Beaufort, announcing reduction of the 
Confederate batteries by the ships and the establish- 
ment of tlie Federals on the skirts of Port Royal. 
Dined at Lord Lyons', where were Mr. Chase, Major 
Palmer, U.S.E., and his Avife, Colonel and Mrs. 
Emory, Professor Henry and his daughter, Mr. 
Kennedy and his daughter, Colonel ^Vilmot and the 
Englishry of Washington. I had a long conversation 
Avith Mr. Chase, who is still sanguine that the war 
must speedily terminate. The success at Ik-aufort has 
made bim radiant, and he told me that the Federal 
General Nelson * — who is no other than the enormous 
blustering, boasting lieutenant in the navy whom I 
met at Washington on my first arrival — has gained an 
immense victory in Kentucky, killing and capturing a 
whole army and its generals. 

A strong Government Avill be the end of the 
struggle, but befoi'e they come to it there nuist be a 
complete change of administration and internal coo- 
nomy. Indeed, the Secretary of the Treasury can- 
didly admitted tliat the expenses of the ncre enor- 
mous, and could not go on at the present rate very 
long. The men are paid too highly ; every one ia paid 
too much. The scale is adapted to a small army not 

* Since shot dead by the Federal General JtlT. C. Drl^i« >" « .lu.irnl 
at Nashville. 


very popular, in :i country whciv labour is very well 
paid, and competition is ueeessary to obtain recruits at 
all. He lias never disguised his belief tlie South 
might have been left to go at tirst, with a certainty of 
v^icir return to the Union. 

Xoi'L'ifibcr ]'M/i. — Mr. Charles (jrecn, uho was my 
host at Sarannah, and Mr. Low, of the same city, have 
been arrested and sent to Fort Warren, Dining with 
Mr. Seward, I heard accidentally that Mrs. Low jiad 
also been arrested, but was now liberated. The senti- 
ment of dislike towards England is increasing, because 
English subjects have assisted the South by smuggling 
and running the blockade. •' It is strange," said Mr. 
Seward the other day, " that this great free and 
civilized Union should be sup[)orted by (jcrmans, com- 
ing here semi-civilized or half-savage, who plunder and 
destroy as if they were living in the days of Agricola, 
whilst the English are the great smugglers who snj)port 
our enemies in their rebellion." I reminded him that 
the United States flag had covered the smugiiicrs who 
carried guns and inalcriel of war to Russia, although 
they were at peace with France and England. " Yc^ 
but then," said he, " that was a legitimate contest 
between great established powers, and I admit, though 
I lament the fact, that the jjublic sympathy in this 
country ran with Russia during that war." The British 
public ha\e a right to their symi)athies too, and the 
Government can scarcely help it if ju-ivate individual^ 
aid the South on their own responsiliility. Li future", 
British subjects will l)e indicted instead of bring sent to 
Fort La Fayette, ]\Ir. Seward feels keenly the attacks 
in the Xetr ]'ork Tribuuc on him for arbitrary arrests, 
and representations have been made to Mr. Greeley 


privately on the sul)jcct; nor is lit' iiulillercnt to similiir 
Eiiglisli criticisms. 

General M'Dowcll asserts tlicrc is no nalidu in the 
world whose censure or praise the people of the Uiiitrd 
States care about except Enj^laiul, and with respect to 
her there is a morbid sensitiveness which can neither 
be explained nor justified. 

It is admitted, indeed, by Atnerieans whose opinions 
are valuable, that the popular feelinj,' was in favour of 
Kussia during the Crimean war. Mr. Raynioud attri- 
butes the circumstance to the influence of the larf;c 
Irish element ; but I am inclined to believe it is partly 
due at least to the feeling of rivalry and dislike to 
Great Britain, in which the mass of the American 
jieople are trained by their early education, and also in 
some measure to the notion that llussia was une(pially 
matched in the contest. 

November lAth. — Rode to cavalry camp, and sat in 
front of Colonel Emory's tent with General Stone- 
man, who is chief of the cavalry, and Captain I'leasan- 
ton ; heard interesting anecdotes of the wild life 
on the frontiers, and of bushranging in California, of 
lassoing bulls and wild horses and buflaloes, and en- 
counters with grizly bears — interrupted by a one-armed 
man, who came to the Colonel for " leave to take awny 
George." He spoke of his brother who iiad died in 
camp, and for whose body he had come, metallic colHii 
and all, to carry it back to his parents in I'ennsylvania. 

I dined with Mr. Seward — Mr. Kaymoml, «>f New- 
York, and two or three gentlemen, being the only 
guests. Mr. Lincoln came in whilst we were playing a 
rubber, and told some excellent West-counlry stories. 
" Here, Mr. President, we have gut the two Junrs—of 
VOL. n. *> " 


New York aiul ot" London — if they would only do what 
is riiiht and what wc want, all will <;o well.'' " Yes," 
said Mr. Linoln, '' it" the bud Times would <;o where 
M'e want them, jrood Times woidd be sure to follow." 
Talkiui? over Bull's Run. ^Mr. Seward remarked "that 
civilians sometimes displayed more couraj^c than soldiers, 
but perhaps the courajj;e was unprofi'ssioual. When 
we were cut utf from Baltimore, and the United States 
troops at Annapolis were separated by a country swarm- 
ing M'ith malcontents, not a soldier could be found to 
undertake the journey and communicate with them. 
At last a civilian" — (I think ho mentioned the name of 
Mr. Cassius Clay) — "volunteered, and executed the 
business. So, after Bull's Run, there was only one 
otiiccr, (iencral Sherman, who was duin<r anything to 
get the troops into order when the President and ray- 
self drove over to see what wc could do on that terrible 
Tuesday cveninj^." ^Ir. Teakle ^Vallis and others, 
after the Baltimore business, told him the people 
would carry his head on their pikes; and so he 
went to Auburn to see how matters stood, and a few 
words from his old friends there made him feel his head 
was quite right on his shoulders. 

Xovcjubcr 15///. — Horse-dealers arc the same all the 
world over. To-day comes one with a beast for which 
lie asked i.'jfl. "There was a Government agent look- 
ing after this horse for one of them French princes, I 
believe, just as I was talking to the Kcntuck chaj) that 
had him. 'John,* says he, 'that's the best-looking 
hor.^(! I've seen in ^Vashington this many a day.' 
* Yes,' says I, * and you need not look at him anymore.' 
'AViiy?' says he. 'Because,"' says I, ' it's one that I 
want for Lord John Russell, of the London Times,' nay a 


I, ' and if ever there was a niiin suited .1 horse, or a that was suited for a man, they're the j)air, and 
ril give every eent I ean raise to buy my friend, Lord 
llusscll, that horse' " I couhl not do less tlmn jmr- 
chasc, at a small reduction, a very i:;<)0(l ani.nal thtm 

November }(jfh. — A cold, raw day. As I was writing, 
a small friend of mine, who ajjpoars like a stormy petrrl 
in moments of great storm, Jhittered into my room, 
and having chirped out somethingabont a" -lolly mw" 
"Seizure of Mason and SlidcU" — "liritish flagin^dted." 
and the like, vanished. Somewhat later, going down 
17th Street, I met the French Minister, ]\r. Mcrcicr, 
wrapped in his cloak, coming from the Britisii TiCgation. 
"Vous avez cntendu quelque chose de nouveau?'' " Mais 
non, excellence." And then, indeed, I learned tlicre was 
no doubt about the fact that Captain Wilkes, of the 
U. S. steamer San Jacinto, had f«)rcibly boarded tho 
Trent, British mail steamer, ott' the Bahamas, and had 
taken INIessrs. Mason, Slidell, Eustis, and M'Clernand 
from on board by armed force, in defiance of the i)ro- 
tests of the captain and naval officer in charge of the 
mails. This was indeed grave intelligence, and tlic \ 
French Minister considered the act a flagrant oiitnige, 
which could not for a moment be justified. 

I went to the Legation, and found the young diplo- 
matists in the ''Chancellerie" as demure and iiino<'cnt 
as if nothing had happened, though perhaps they were 
a trifle more lively than usual. An hour Inter, and 
the whole affair was published in full in tho evening 
papers. Extraordinary exidtation prevaib-d in the 
hotels and bar-rooms. The State Department has made 
of course no communication respecting tlic matter. 

D D U 


All tlie Eiiglisli arc satisfied tliat Mason and liis friends 
must be put on board au English mail packet from the 
San Jacinto under a salute. 

An ofliccr of the United States navy — whose name 
I shall not mention here — came in to see the bucca- 
neers, as the knot of English bachelors of AVjishingtou 
are termed, and talk over the matter. " Of course/' 
he said, " wa shall apologise and give up poor 
"NVilkes to vengeance by dismissing him, but under 
no circumstances siiall we ever give up Mason and 
Slidell. Ko, sir ; not a man dare propose such a 
humiliation to our flag." lie says that AVilkes acted 
on his own responsibilty, and that the San Jacinto 
was coming home from the African station when slic 
encountered the Trent. "Wilkes knew the rebel emis- 
saries were on board, and thought he would cut a dash 
and get up a little sensation, being a bold and daring 
sort of a fellow with a quarrelsome disposition and a 
great love of notoriety, but an excellent oflicer. 

Xovcnnbrr 17///. — For my sins I went to see a dress 
])arade of the Gth Regular Cavalry early this morning, 
and underwent a small purgatory from the cold, on a 
bare j)lain, whilst the men and olliccrs, with red checks 
and blue noses, mounted on horses with staring coats, 
marched, trotted, and cantered past. The papers contain 
joyous articles on the Trent all'air, and some have got 
up an immense amount of learning at a short notice ; 
but I am glad to say we had no discussion in camp. 
There is scarcely more than one opinion among thinking 
people in Washington respecting the legality of the act, 
and the course Great Britain must pursue. All the 
Foreign Ministers, without excej)tion, have called on 
Jjord L_\i>M» iliiv-i;i, I'liiiice, llal}', I'lusaia, l)fiiiiKirk. 

CAi'TAiN i>aiii,(;i:i:n. 105 

All an'of ncfoid. 1 :iiii nor sure wlictlur the imiiortnnt 
<li[)loni;itist w lio rcprcsciits tlic iiii^'lity iii!ci-fNtH of the 
llaiiso Towns lias noi c-ondcsccndiil to adnut Mn-laud 
lias rii;lit on lier side. 

NuvcnibiT \'6th. — There is a storm of cxMltatioii 
sweeping over the land. AVilkcs is the hero of the 
hour. I saw Mr. F. Seward at the State Department 
at ten o'clock; but as at the liritish Legation the 
orders are not to speak of the transaction, so at the 
State Department a jndicious reticence is ccpially 
observed. The lawyers are busy fnrnishing arguments 
to the newspapers. The officers who htld their tongius 
at first, astonished at the audacity of the act, aro 
delighted to find any arguments in its favour. 

I called at General iM'Clellan's new hcad-(iuarlcni 
to get a pass, and on ray way met the Duke of 
Chartres, who shook his young head very gravely, and 
regarded the occurrence with sorrow and apprehension. 
M'Clellan, I understand, advised the immediate sur- 
render of the prisoners ; but the authorities, supported 
by the sudden outburst of jjublic approval, refused to 
take that step. I saw Lord Lyons, who appeared very 
much impressed by the magnitude of the crisis. Thence 
I visited the Navy Department, where Cajjtain Dahlgrcu 
and Lieutenant Wise discussed the atlair. The former, 
usually so calm, has too much sense not to perceive the 
course England must take, and as an American oHiccr 
naturally feels regret at what appears to be the Imuuli- 
ation of his flag; but he speaks with passion, and vow» 
that if Enghmd avails herself of the temporary wcnk- 
ness of the United States to get back the rebel com- 
missioners by threats of force, every American sliouhl 
make his sons swear eternal hostility to Great iJnlain, 

406 MY diai;y Noirrii and south. 

^^Having done wron^', stick to it ! Thus men's auger 
blinds thcni, and thus come wars. 

It is obvious tliat no Power could jjcrmit political 
offenders sailing as passengers in a mail-boat under 
its flag, from one neutral port to another, to be taken 
by a belligerent, though the recognition of sucb a 
right would be, perhaps, more advantageous to England 
than to any other Power. But, notwithstanding these 
discussions, our naval friends dined and spent the 
evening with us, in company with some other oflicers. 

I paid my respects to the Prince of Joinville, Avith 
"whom I hud a long and interesting conversation, in the 
course of which he gave me to understand he thought 
the seizure an untoward and unhaiipy event, which 
could not be justified on any grounds whatever, and 
that he had so expressed himself in the highest 
quarters. There are, comparatively, many English 
here at present ; Mr. Chaplin, Sir 1'. Johnstone, Mr. 
AVeldou, ;Mr, Browne, and others, ami it may be readily 
imagined this aOair creates deep feeling and nnieh 

November Vdth. — I rarely sat down to write under a 
sense of greater respon.^ihility, for it is just possible my 
letter may contain the lirst account of the seizure of 
the Southern Comuiissioncrs which will reach England ; 
and, having heard all opinions and looked at authorities, 
as far as 1 could, it appeurs to me that the conduct of 
the American officer, now sustained by his Government, 
is without excuse. I dined at Mr. Corcoran'.s, where 
the Ministers of Prussia, Brazil, and Chili, and the 
Secretary of the French Legation, were present ; and, 
although we did not talk politics, enough was said to 
show there was no dissent from the opinion expressed 
bv intelligent and uninterested forei'rners. 


November 20M.— To-day a frraiid review, the rnont 
remarkable feature of wliieli was the ahh- disponitiou 
made by General M'Dowell to march seventy infantry 
regiments, seventeen batteries, and seven cnvalrv 
regiments, into a very contraeted space, from the 
adjoining camps. Of the display itself I wrote a hmp 
aecount, which is not worth repeating here. Among 
the 55,000 men present there were at least 2<t,<)(J(» 
Germans and 12,000 Irish. 

November 22nd. — All the American papers have 
agreed that the Trent business is ouite neeording t«) 
law, custom, and international comity, and that ICnglaiui 
can do nothing. They cry out so loudly in this one 
key there is reason to suspect they have some inward 
doubts. General ]\PClcllan in\ited all the world, 
including myself, to see a performance given by 
Hermann, the conjuror, at his quarters, wliich will be 
aggravating news to the bloody-minded, serious ])eoplc 
in New England. 

Day after day passes on, and finds our Micawbers in 
AYashington waiting for something to turn up. The 
Trent afiair, having been proved to be legal and right 
beyond yea or nay, has dropped out of the minds of 
all save those who are waiting for news from Kngland ; 
and on looking over my diary I can see nothing but 
memoranda relating to quiet rides, visits to eamp«, 
conversations with this one or the other, a tresli 
outburst of anonymous thrcatcjiiiig letters, ns if I had 
anything to do with the Trent affair, and notes of small 
social reunions at our own rooms and the \Va.shington 
houses which were open to us. 

November 2oth.—l remarked the other evening that. 
with all the disorder in Washingtmi. there are no 


tliievcs. Next nij;]it, as we were sitting in our little 
symposium, a tliir.sty soldier kuoeked at the door for a 
glass of water. lie was brought in and civilly treated. 
Under the date of the 27th, accordiu<i:ly, I find it duly 
entered that " the vagabond who came in for water must 
have had a confederate, who got into the hall whilst we 
were attending to his comrade, for yesterday there was a 
great lamentation over cloaks and great-coats missing 
from the hall, and as the day wore on the area of plunder 
was extended. Carl discovers he has been robbed of 
his best clothes, and Caroline has lost her watch and 
many petticoats." 

Thanksgiving Day on the 2sth was celebrated by 
enormous drunkenness in the army. Tiie weather 
varied between days of delicious summer — soft, bright, 
balmy, and beautiful beyond expression — and days of 
wintry storm, Avith torrents of rain. 

Some excitement was caused at the end of the 
month by the report 1 had received information from 
England that the law ofliccrs of the (^rowu had given 
it as their opinion tiiat a United States man-of-war 
would he justified by Lord Stowell's decisions in taking 
Mason and Slidell even in the ]5ritish Channel, if 
the Nashville trausfrrred them to a IJritish mail 
steanur. I his opinion was called for in conse- 
quence of the Tuscarora appearing in Southampton 
AVater; and, having heard of it, 1 repeated it in strict 
confidence to some one else, till at last IJaron de 
Stoeckl came to ask nu; if it was true. lleceiviiig 
passengers from the Nashville, however, would ha\e 
been an act (jf direct intercourse with an enemy'!i 
ship. In the ease of the 'J'reut the persons seized had 
conic on board as lawful passengers at a neutral port. 


The tide of success runs strongly in favour of iIk* 
North at present, .iltliouj^h they j^cneniUy ^ct the \»iii>; 
of it in the small !itl";urs in the front of \Vu?«l»in;:t .. 
The entrance to Savannah has heen occupied, and liy 
degrees the fleets are biting into the Confcih-rate 
lines along the coast, and estal)li.sliing positions «lii(li 
will afford bases of operations to the Federals hcrr. 
after. The President and Cabinet seem in bcltiT 
spirits, and the former indnlges in (piaint speculutions, 
which he transfers even to State papers, lie calculates, 
for instance, there arc human beings now alive who 
may ere they die behold tlie United States peopled by 
•250 millions of souls. Talking of a high mound on the 
prairie, in Illinois, he remarked, "that if all the nations 
of the earth were assembled there, a man standing on 
its top would see tlicm all, for tiiat the whole Innnau 
race would fit on a space twelve miles square, «li:cli 
was about the extent of the plain." 


A Captain under arreet — Opening of Congress — Colonel Dutasay — An 
ex-pugilist turned Seuntnr — Mr. Cameron — Bjill in the officerh' 
huts — Presentation of standards at Arlington — Dinner at Lord 
Lyons' — Paper currency — A polyglot dinner — Visit to Wa«hins- 
ton's Tomb— Mr. Cbnso's Rcport—Coloncl Seaton— t'nanimity of 
the South — The Potomac blockade — A Dutch-American Crimean 
acquaintance — The American Lawyoi-s on the Trent affair — Mr. 
Sumner— MClellan's Army — Impressions j>roiluccd in America by 
the Kuglish Press on the affair of the Trent —Mr. Sumner on the 
crisis— Mutual feelings of the two nations — Humours of war with 
Great Hritaiu. 

Deci/mhcr 1st. — A mixed party of American officers 
and English went to-day to the jiost at Great Falls, 
about sixteen or seventeen miles np the Potomac, and 
■were well repaid by the charminj; scenery, and by a 
visit to an American military station in a state of 
nature. 'J'lic captain in cominand told us over a drink 
that he was under arrest, because he had refused to do 
duty as lieutenant of the j^uard, he beinj; a captain. 
"]iut 1 have written to a^l'CIellan about it/' said he, 
" and I'm d — d if I stay nndcr arrest more than three 
days lonj^er." lie was not aware that the CJeneral's 
brother, who is a captain on liis staff, was sitting l)csi(!( 
him at the time. This worthy centurion furthci- 
informed us he had shot a man dead a short time 
before for disobeying his orders. "Tiiat he did," said 
his symiiathising and enthusiastic orderly, " and there's 
the \vcai)on that done it." The captain was a boot and 

()|'ENIN(} OF CONGKKSS. 411 

shoe maker by trade, aiul had travelled ncrosn ihc 
isthinvis before the railway was made to p-t orderH for 
his boots. A hard, determined, iieree " sutor," aHiicnrn 
savage as mij^ht l)e. 

"And what will you do, captain," asked 1, " il they 
keep you in arrest ?" 

" Fight for it, sir. I'll go straight away into I'ennsyl- 
vauia with my company, and we'll whi[) any tu<> <..m!- 
panies they can send to stop us." 

INIr. Sumner paid me a visit on my return iVuiii <»iii 
excursion, and seems to think everything is in the ljt"<t 
possible state. 

December 'Ind. — Congress opened to-day. The .Scnale 
did nothing. In the House of Heprescntativcs some 
BuQCombe resolutions were passed about Cajjtaiu 
Wilkes, who has become a hero — "a great intirpreter 
of international law,'^ and also reeonnnending that 
Messrs. Mason and Slidell be confined in felons' cells, 
in retaliation for Colonel Corcoran's treatment by the 
Confederates. M. Blondel, the Belgian minister, who 
was at the court of Greece during the Russian war, told 
me that when the French and English fleets lay in the 
Pirseus, a United States vessel, commanded, he thinks, 
by Captain Stringhan), publicly received M. Persaui, 
the Russian ambassador, on board, hoisted and saluted 
the Russian flag in the harbour, whereupon the Freneli 
Admiral, Barbier de Tinan, proposed to the Kngli-'U 
Admiral to go on board the United States vessel and 
seize the ambassador, which the British olHcer refused 
to do. 

December 3/y/.— Drove down to the Capitol, and was 
introduced to the floor of the Senate by Senator Wilvui, 
and arrived just as Mr. Forney eommcnced reading the 


President's message, uhicli uas listened to with con- 
sidcralile interest. At dinner, Colonel D'L'tassy, of 
the (iaribakli lei^iou, who <;ives a curions account of 
his career. A lluniiarian by birth, lie went over from 
the Austrian service, and served under Beni ; was 
uoundetl and taken prisoner at Temesvar, and escaped 
from Spielberg, through the kindness of Count lien- 
nigscn, making his way to Senilin, in the disguise of a 
servant, where Mr. Fonblamiuc, the British consul, 
protected him. Thenee he went to Kossuth at Shumla, 
finally proceeded to Constantinople, where he was 
engaged to instruct the Turkish cavalry ; turm-d 
up in the Ionian Islands, where he was engaged by the 
late Sir II. "Ward, as a sort of secretary and inter- 
preter, in w hich capacity he also served Sir G. Le Mar- 
chant. In the United States he was earning his live- 
lihood as a fencing, dancing, and language master ; and 
when the war broke out he exerted himself to raise a 
regiment, and succeeded in comi)leting his number in 
seventeen days, being all the time obliged to support 
himself by his lessons. I tell his tale as he told it to 

One of our friends, of a sporting turn, dropped in to- 
night, fcdlowed by a gentleman dressed in immaculate 
black, and of staid deportment, whose name I did not 
exactly eateh, but fancied it was that of a senator ul' 
some reputation. As the stranger sat next me, ami was 
rubbing his knees nervously, 1 thought I woidd com- 
luence conversation. 

" It aj)pears, sir, that allairs in the south-west are 
not 80 promising. May I ask you what is your opinion 
of the present prospects of the Federals in Missouri?" 

I was somewhat disconcerted by his reply, for rub- 

Till': I' i;i \a:> amkimca. I la 

bing his knees lianlcr tlcui ever, and iinprecatiii}; hit 
organs of vision in a very sangninary manner, he said — 

" \^'ell, (1 if 1 know what to think of them. 

'l'hey"re a b rnui lot, and they're going on in a 

(1 i-nni way. That's what I think." 

The supposed legishitor, in fact, was distinguished in 
another arena, and was no other than n cch-brated 
pugilist, who served his apprenticeship in tin* Knglisli 
ring, and has since graduated in liononrs in America. 

I dined with ^Ir. Cameron, Secretary-of-\Var, where 
I met ]Mr. Forney, Secretary of the Senate; Mr. Ilouiw, 
^Ir. AVilkeson, and others, and was exceedingly 
interested by the shrewd conversation and candid 
manner of our host. He told me he once worked as a 
printer in the city of Washington, at ten dollars a week , 
and twenty cents an hour for extra work at the case 
on Sundays, Since that time he has worked onwards 
and upwards, and amassed a large fortune by contracts 
for railways and similar great undertakings. He says 
the press rules America, and that no one can face it 
and live ; which is about the worst account of the 
chances of an honest longevity I can well conceive. 
His memory is exact, and his anecdotes, albeit he has 
never seen any but Americans, or stirred out of the 
States, very agreeable. Once there lived at Washington 
a publican's daughter, named Mary O'Ncil, heautilul. 
bold, and witty. She captivated a member of Con- 
gress, who failed to make her less than his wife ; and by 
degrees :Nrrs. Eaton— who may now be seen in the 
streets of Washington, an old woman, still bright . 
and, alas! bright-cheeked, retaining traces of her gn. 
beauty— became a leading personage \n tiic State, h\u\ 
ruled the imperious, rugged, old Andrew Jackson »o 


completely, tliiit he broke up liis Cabinet and dismissed 
liis niiiiistcrs on her aecount. In the days of iier jiower 
she had done some tritlinj^ service to Mr. Cameron, and 
lie has just repaired it by conferring some military 
appointment on her i^'randchiid. 

The dinnei', which was preceded by deputations, was 
finished by one which came from the Far West, and 
was introduced by ^Fr. Hannibal Hamlin, the Vice- 
President; -Mr. Owen Lovejoy, ^Ir. Bingham, and other 
ultra- Abolitionist members of Congress ; and then 
speeches were made, and healths were drunk, and toasts 
were pledged, till it was time for me to drive to a ball 
given by the officers of the .5th United States Cavalry, 
which was exceedingly pretty, and admiral)ly arranged 
in wooden huts, specially erected and decorated for the 
occasion. A huge bonfire in the centre of the camp, 
surrounded by soldiers, by the carriage drivers, and by 
negro servants, all'orded the most striking play of 
colour and variety of light and shade I ever beheld. 

December Atli. — To Arlington, where Senator Ira 
Harris presented flags — that is, standards — to a cavalry 
regiment called after his name; the President, Mrs. 
Lincoln, ministers, generals, and a large gathering 
present. Mr. Harris made a very long and a very 
fierce speech ; it could not be said Ira furor brevis est ; 
and Colonel Davics, in taking the standard, was earnest 
and lengthy in reply. Then a barrister presented 
colour No. 2 in a speech full of poetical quotations, to 
which ^Major Kilpatrick made an excellent answer. 
Though it was strange enough to hear a political dis- 
quisition on the causes of the rebellion from a soldier 
in full unif(irm, the jiroeeedings were highly theatrical 
and very eflVctive. "Take, then, this flag," .^c— "Defend 

I'ArKK criMir.Ncv. Dli 

it with your," &c.— " Yes, sir, we will ^Mi:inl this Hucml 
emblem with — ," &:e. The rc^'iment tlim wc-iit lhrou<;li 
some cvohitions, which were hrouj^ht to uii mitinu-lv 
end by nfeu dejij/c from the iulantry in the rear, mIiicIi 
instantly broke U[) the siiuadmiis, and >eiit them kickinf^, 
plunging, and falling over the liehl, to the great tumi»e- 
ment of the crowd. 

Dined with Lord Lyons, where was Mr, Gult, Finan- 
cial Minister of Canada ; Mr. Stewart, who j»as arrived 
to replace ]Mr. Irvine, and others, in onr rooms, 
a grand tinancial discussion took jjlaee in honour of 
Mr. Gait, between Mr. Butler Duncan and others, the 
former maintaining that a general issue of national 
paper was inevitable. A very clever American main- 
tained that the North will be split into two great par- 
ties by the result of the victory which they are certain 
to gain over the South — that the Democrats will ollVr 
the South concessions more liberal than they could ever 
dream of, and that both will unite against the Aboli- 
tionists and Black llcpublicaus. 

December Gth. — Mr. Biggs says the paper currency 
scheme , will produce money, and make every man 
richer. He is a banker, and ought to know; but to 
my ignorant eye it seems likely to prove most destruc- 
tive, and I confess, that whatever be the result of this 
■war, I have no desire for the ruin of so many hap|)y com- 
munities as have sprung up in the United States. Had 
it been possible for human beings to employ popular 
institutions without intrigue and miserable self-seek iuf;, 
and to be superior to faction and party passion, the 
condition of parts of the I'nited States must cause re- 
gret that an exemption from the usual laws which 
regulate human nature was not made in America; but 


the strength of the United States— directed by violent 
passions, by party interest, and by selfish intrijrues — was 
bccunung dangerous to tlie peace of other nations, and 
therefore there is an ntter want of synipatliy with them 
in tlieir time of trouble. 

1 dined with Mr. Gait, at Willard's, where we had a 
very pleasant party, in spite of financial dangers. 

December 7th. — A visit to the (laril)aldi Guard with 
some of the Englishry, and an excellent dinner at the 
mess, which presented a curious scene, and was graced 
by sketches from a wonderful polyglot chaplain. "What 
a company ! — the officers present were composed as fol- 
lows:— Five Spaniards, six Poles and Hungarians, 
two Frenchmen — the most soldierly-looking men at 
table — one American, four Italians, and nine Teutons 
of various States in Germany. 

December Sth. — A certain excellent Colonel who 
commands a French regiment vi>ited us to-day. AVhen 
he came to AVashington, one of the Foreign Ministers 
who had been well acquainted with him said, " ISIy 
dear Colonel, what a pity we can be no longer friends." 
" Why so, Baron ? " "Ah, we can never dine together 
a"-ain." " AVhv not? Do you forbid me your table r" 
" Xo, Colonel, but how can 1 invite a man who can 
command the services of at least 20U cooks in his own 
regiment?" "Well then, Baron, you can come and 
dine with me." ''AViiat! how do you think I could 
show myself in your camp — how could I get my hair 
dressed to sit at the table of a man who commands 300 
coiffeurs ? " I rode out to overtake a party who had 
started in carriages for Mount \'ernon to visit AVash- 
ington's tomb, but missed them in the wonderfully 
wooded country which borders the Potomac, and re- 
turned alone. 


December dth.— Spent the ihxy over Mr. C\\mi\ it- 
port, a copy of which he was ^'ootl enough to wend lue 
with <i kind note, and went out in the cvrnin}^ with 
my head in a state of wihl financial confusion, nnd a 
general inijn-ession tliat the financial system of Kngland 
is very nnsound. 

December lOM.— Paid a visit to Cclond Scnton, of 
the National L/fc/Zh/mrcr, a n)an dcsiTvcdly respected I 
and esteemed for his private character, which h:\^ j,'ivcn 
its impress to the journal lie has so lon<;: conducti-d. 
The New York papers ridicule the AVnshin^'ton orpin, 
because it does not spread false reports daily in the 
form of telegraphic "sensation" news, and indeed one 
may be pretty sure that a fact is a fact when it is found 
in the IntcUigeyiccr ; but the man, nevertheless, who is 
content with the information he gets from it, will have 
no reason to regret, in the accuracy of his knowledge or 
the soundness of his views, that he has not gone to its 
noisy and mendacious rivals. In the minds of all the 
very old men in the States, there is a feeling of gn at 
sadness and despondency respecting the present trouhles, 
and though they cling to the idea of a restoration of 
the glorious Union of their youth, it is hoping w: 
hope. "Our game is played out. It \nis tin 
wonderful and magnificent career of success the world 
ever saw, but rogues and gamblers took uj) the cards 
at last ; they quarrelled, and are found out." 

In the evening, supped at j\fr. Forney's, where there 
was a very large gathering of gentlemen connected «ill» 
the press; Mr. Cameron, Secretary of ^V;»r; Colonel 
Mulligan, a tall young man, with dark hair falling on 
his shoulders, round a Celtic impulsive Ince, and n 
hazy enthusiastic-looking eye; aud other ccKhntic*. 

VOL. II. ' ' 


Terrapin soup ami canvas-backs, speeches, orations, 
music, andsong, carried the company onwards among 
the small hours. 

December 11///. — The unanimity of the people in the 
I South is forced on the conviction of the statesmen and 
'people of the North, by the very success of their expe- 
ditions in Secession. They find the planters at Beaufort 
and elsewhere burning their cotton and crops, vil- 
lages and towns deserted at their approach, hatred in 
every eye, and curses on women's tongues. Tiiey meet 
this by a corresponding change in their own programme. 
The war which was made to develop and maintain 
Union sentiment in the South, and to enable the 
])eople to rise against a des|jerate faction which had 
eutiiralled them, is now to be made a crusade against 
slaveholders, and a war of subjugation — if need be, of 
extermination — against the whole of the Southern Stat^ 
The Democrats will, of coiu'se, resist this barbarous 
and hopeless policy. There is a deputation of Irish 
Democrats here now, to eHect a general exchange of 
prisoners, which is an operation calculated to give a 
legitimate character to the war, and is pro taiito a re- 
cognition of the Confederacy as a belligerent power. 

December 12//<.— The navy are writhing under thei, 
disgrace of the Potomac blockade, and deny it exists. 
The price of articles in Washington which used tV 
come by the river allords disagreeable proof to the 
contrary. And yet there is not a true Yankee in Penn- 
sylvania Avenue who does not believe, what he reads 
every day, that his gh)rions navy could sweep the fleets 
of France and England oil' the seas to-morrow, though 
the PotoUiac be closed, and the Confederate batteries 
throw their shot and shell into the Federal camps on the 

BRfbADIER IJoiiLI-y. 119 

other side. I dined with (iciicnil I'.uttorficld, wlumc 
camp is pitched in Vir-^inia, on ii knoll and rid^c from 
■which a splendid view can he had (jver the woudcd vnKr» 
and hills extending; from Alexandria towards MaiuKittnn, 
whitened with Federal tents and huts. (Jcneral Fitz- 
John Porter and General M'Dowell were umun;; the 
officers present. 

December Vlth. — A. l)ii,'-hearded, speetatded, mou«- 
tachioed, spnrred, and Ijooted ollieer threw hiinscdf on 
my bed this morning ere I was awake. *' Uiis>ell, my 
dear friend, here you are at last ; what afijos iiavc pHv<u-il 
since we met!" I sat up and >^\v/.vt\ at my frii-iul. 
" Bohleu ! don't you remend)er Hohh'ii, and our ride« 
in Turkey, our visit to Shnmla and Pravady, and all 
the rest of it?" Of course 1 did. I remcinhcri-d m\ 
enthusiastic soldier, willi a line guttural voice, and a 
splendid war saddle and saddle-eloth, and hrass stirrups 
and holsters, worked with eagles all over, and a uni- 
form coat and cap with more eagles flying amidst Inurcl 
leaves and U. S.'s in gold, who came out to see tl>e 
fighting in the East, and made ^^\^ his mind that tlierc 
would be none, when he arrived at Varna, aiul so Htarted 
off incontinent up the Danube, and returned to the 
Crimea when it was too late ; and a very good, kindly, 
warm-hearted fellow was the Dutch- American, who — 
once more in his war paint, this time acting Hrigadicr- 
General* — renewed the memories of some pleasant days 
far away ; and our talk was of cavasses and khan-*, and 
tchibou([ues, and pashas, till his time was up to return 
to his fiirhtiu"; Germans of Hlenker's division. 

He was not the good-natured olliccr who said the other 
day, "The next day you come down, air, if n»y regiment 

* Since killed in action in Pope's retreat the m-rtli of Kiclimood. 



happens to be on picket duty, we'll liavc a little 
skirmish with the enemy, just to show you how our 
fellows are improved/' " Perhaps you might bring ou 
a general action, Colonel." " ^VelI, sir, we're not 
afraid of that, either! Let 'em come on." It did so 
happen that some young friends of mine, of lI.M.'s 
3Uth, who had come down from Canada to see the army 
here, went out a day or two ago with an oflicer ou 
General Smith's stafi", formerly in our army, who yet 
sufters from a wound received at the Alma, to have a 
look at the enemy with a detachment of men. The 
enemy came to have a look at them, whereby it hap- 
pened that shots were exchanged, and the bold Britons 
had to ride back as hard as they could, for their men 
skedaddled, and the Secession cavalry slijjpiug after 
them, had a very pretty chase for some miles ; so the 
30th men saw more than they bargained for. 

Pined at l^aron Gerolt's, where 1 had the pleasure of 
meeting Judge Daly, who is perfectly satisl'ied the 
English lawyers have not a leg to stand upon in the 
Trent case. On the faith of old and very doulitful, 
and some purely sujjposititious, cases, the American 
lawyers have made up their minds that the seizure of 
the "rebel" ambiissadors wsis perfectly legitimate and 
normal. The Judge expn-ssed his bcliet'that if there was a 
rebellion in Ireland, and that Messrs. Smith O'Hrien and 
O'Gormau ran the blockade to France, and were going 
ou their passage from Havre to iSew York in a United 
States steamer, they would be seized by the first 
]}ritish vessel that knew the fact. "Granted; and 
what would the I nited States do?" *' I am afraid we 
should be obliged to demand that they be given uji ; 
and if \ou were strong enough at the time, I dare say 


you would fij^lit sooner than do ho." Mr. Sumner, 
with wliom I had some eouversjitioii this afternoon, 
affects to consider the question enuncntly nnitahlr for 
reference and arbitration. 

In spite of drills and para(U's, M'CU-nan has i,,; ..-..t 
an army yet. A good oiUcer, who served as hn;;a«lc- 
niajor in our service, told me the men were liltlu iihort 
of mutinous, with all their fine talk, thonj;h they could 
fight well, Sometimes they refuse to mount K^i^rt^ 
or to go on duty not to their tastes ; ollicers refum! to 
serve under others to whom they have a dislike ; men 
offer similar personal objections to officers. M'Ch-lliin 
is enforcing discipline, and really intends to execute n 
most villanous deserter this time. 

December \hth. — The first echo of tlie San Jacinto\ 
guns in England reverberated to the United Staten, 
and produced a profound sensation. The ])eople hnd 
made up their minds John Bull would acquiesce in the 
seizure, and not say a word about it; or they afTcctiii 
to think so; and the cry of anger wliich has resunniicd 
through the land, and the unmistakable tone of 
the British press, at once surprise, and irritate, and 
disappoint them. The American journals, neverthe- 
less, pretend to think it is a mere vulgar excite- 
ment, and that the press is " only indulging in ita 
habitual bluster." 

December \Qth. — I met Mr. Seward at a hall and 
cotillon party, given by ^M. de Lisbon ; .liid aa he wa» 
in very good humour, and was inclined to talk, ho 
pointed out to the Prince of Joinville, and all who were 
inclined to listen, and myself, how terrible the cffectt 
of a war would be if Great Britain forced it on the 
United States. "We will wrap the whole world in 


flames !" lie exclaimed. " No power so remote that 
she will not feel the fire of our battle and be buniL-d 
by our conflagration." It is inferred that Mr. Seward 
means to show fight. One of the guests, however, said 
to me, " That's all bugaboo talk. AVhen Seward talks 
that way, he means to break down. He is most dan- 
gerous and obstinate when he pretends to agree a good 
deal with you." The young rrench Princes, and the 
young and pretty Brazilian and American ladies, danced 
and were happy, notwithstanding the storms m ithout. 

Next day I dined at !Mr. Seward's, as the Minister 
had given carle blanche to a very lively and agreeable 
lady, who ha^ to lament over an absent husband 
in this terrible war, to ask two gentlemen to dine with 
liim, and she had been pleased to select myself and M. 
de GeoftVoy, Secretary of the French Legation, as her 
thick and her thin unil/rrr ; and the company went off" 
in the evening to the White House, where there was a 
reception, whereat I imagined I might Ijc dr trap, and 
so home. 

Mr. Seward was in the best spirits, and told one or 
two rather long, but very pleasant, stories. Now 
it is evident he must by this time know Great Britain 
lias resolved on the course to be pursued, and his good 
humour, contrasted with the irritation he displayed in 
May and June, is not intelligible. 

Tiie Russian Minister, at whose house I dined next 
day, is better al)le than any man to appreciate the use 
made of the Czar's professions of regret for the evils 
which distract the States by the Americans; but it is the 
fashion to approve of everything that France does, and 
to assume avi<jlcnt atlcction for Russia. The Ajuericans 
arc irritated by war preparations on the part of Kug- 

DiriA).\l.\TlC INTKKVIKW. t '.'i 

land, in case the GoveninicMit of \Vitsliiii;,'ton tin not 
accede to their demands; and, at the same tune, much 
annoyed that all European nations join in an outcry 
ao^ainst the famous project of (h-stroyin;,' the Soulht-rn 
liarbours by the means of the stone fhct. 

December 2()lh. — I went down to the Senntr, n* 
it was expected at the Lcj^ation and elsewhere the 
President would send a special messaj^e to the Sennti' 
on the Trent affair ; but, instead, there wan mert-ly 
a long speech from a senator, to show the Sotiih 
did not like democratic institutions. Lord Lyons 
called on Mr. Seward yesterday to read Lord HuswH's 
dispatch to him, and to give time for a reply ; but 
Mr. Seward was out, and Mr. Sumner told mc the 
Minister was down with the Committee of Fonif,'n llc- 
lations, where there is a serious business in reference 
to the State of Mexico and certain European Power* 
under discussion, when the British Minister went to 
the State Department. 

Next day Lord Lyons had two interviews with .Mr. 
Seward, read the despatch, which simply asks for sur- 
render of Mason and Slidell and reparation, without 
any specific act named, but he received no indication 
from INlr. Seward of the course he would pursue. Mr. 
Lincoln has " put down his foot " on no surrender. 
" Sir ! " exclaimed the President, to an old Tre«iury 
official the other day, " I would sooner die than jrivc 
them up." " ^[r. President," was the reply, " your 
death would be a great loss, but the destruction of tho 
United States would be a still more deplorable event." 

Mr. Seward will, however, control the t»ilu;iti..u, 
as the Cabinet will very probably support histicwi: 
and Americans will comfort themselves, in case the 


captives are surrendered, with a promise of future 
revcuj;e, and with the rcflectioa that they have avoided 
a very disagreeable intervention between their march 
of conquest and the Suutheru Confederacy. The 
general belief of the diplomatists is, that the prisoners 
will not be given up, and in that case Lord Lyons and 
the Legati<ni will retire from Washington for the time, 
proljably to Halifax, leaving Mr. Monson to wind up 
atfairs and clear out the archives. But it is understood 
that there is no ultimatum, and that Lord Lyons is not 
to indicate any course of action, should !Mr. Seward 
inform him tlie United States Government refuses to 
comi)ly with the demands of Great Britain. 

Any humiliation which may be attached to concession 
will be caused by the language of the Americans them- 
selves, who have given in their press, in public meet- 
ings, in the Lower House, in the Cabinet, and in the 
conduct of the President, a complete ratification of 
.the act of Captain Wilkes, not to speak of the opinions 
of the lawyers, and the speeches of their oratoi*s, who 
declare " they will face any alternative, but that they 
will never surrender.'^ The friendly relations which 
existed between ourselves and many excellent Ame- 
ricans are now rendered somewhat constrained by the 
prospect of a great national dillLUvnee. 

Dectmbcr (Sunday) ^.^.nd. — Lord Lyons saw Mr. 
Seward again, but it does not aj)pear that any answer 
can be expected bel'ore Wednesday. All kinds of rumours 
circulate through the city, and are repeated in an 
authoritative manner in the New York papers. 

Di'Cf'uihtr i-h'd. — There was a tremendous storm, which 
drove over the city and shook the houses to the I'ounda- 
tion. Constant interviews took place between the Presi- 


dent and niombcrs of the Cal)inct, and so ccrtnin arc 
the people that war is inevitable, that an oHict-r cuu- 
nectedwith the executive of the Navy Departim-nt cjiuie 
in to tell lue General Scott was comiii;; over from 
Europe to conduct the Canadian caiupai^ju, iw he 
had thoroughly studied the geography of the country, 
and that in a very short time he would he in 
of every strategic position on the frontier, and diaw up 
our reinforcements. Late in the evening, Mr. ( )hnitcd 
called to say he had been credilily informed Lord 
Lyons had quarrelled violently Avith Mr. Seward, had 
flown into a great passion with him, and so departed. 
The idea of Lord Lyons being quarrelsome, pa^hiouatf, 
or violent, was preposterous enough to those who 
knew him; but the American papers, by repented 
statements of the sort, have succeeded in persuading 
their public that the British ^Minister is a |)k-lhonc, 
red-faced, large-stomached man in top-boots, knee- 
breeches, yellow waistcoat, blue cut-away, brass but- 
tons, and broad-brimmed white liat, who is con- 
tinually walking to the State Departnu'nt in com- 
pany with a large bulldog, hurling defiance at Mr. 
Seward at one moment, and the next rushing home to 
receive despatches from Mr. Jefferson Davis, or to givo 
secret instructions to the British Consuls to run 
cargoes of quinine and gunpowder through the Kcdrml 
blockade. I was enabled to assure Mr. OlniHti'd 
there was not the smallest foundation for the ntory ; 
but he seemed impressed with a sense of some y^rvat 
calamity, and told me there was a geiu'ral hvVwf that 
England only wanted a pretext for a (juarrcl with the 
United States; nor could I comfort liim l)y the nMur- 
ance that there were good reasons for thinking (Jcurral 
Scott would very soon annex Canada, in c:im' of «:ir. 


News o tlio death of the Prince Consort — Mr. Sumner and the Trent 
Affair — Dispatch to Lord Russell — Tlie Si>utlicrn Commissioners 
given up — Effects on the fricude of the South — My own uu- 
jwpularity at New York — Attack of fever — My tour in Canada — 
My return to New York in February — Succes-es of the Wcbteru 
States — Mr. Stanton succeeds Mr. Cameron as Secretary of War 
— Ueverse and retreat of M'Clellan — My free pass — Tlie Merrimac 
and Monitor — My arraugemeut to accompany M'Clellan's hcatl- 
quarters — Mr. Stanton refuses his sanction — National vanity 
wounded by my truthfuluess — My retirement and return to Kurope. 

IDeccmhir 2 \th. — Thi.s evening came in a telegram 
from Europe with news wliicli cast the deepest gloom 
over all our little English circle. Prince Albert dead ! 
At first no one believed it; then it was remembered that 
private letters by the last mail had spoken despondingly 
of liis btate of health, and that the " little cold " of 
which we had heard was de.scril)ed in graver terms. 
Prince AllVcd dead ! "Oh, it jii:iy l)e Prince Alfred/' 
said some ; and sad as it would be lor the Queen and 
the public to lose the Sailor Prince, tlie loss could not 
be so great as that which we all felt to be next to the 
greatest. The preparations which we had made for a 
little festivity to welcome in Christmas morning 
were chilled by the news, aiul the eve was not of the 
joyous character which ICngHshmcn ddight to give it, 
for the sorrow which fell on all hearts in Enirland had 

^'0 SURRENDEU. 427 

spanned the Atlantic, and liade us niouin in roininou 
■with the country at lionic. 

Decoiiber 25///.— Lord Lyons, wlio liad invittd the 
English in Washington to dinner, gave u snudi (juiut 
entertainment, from whicli he retired early. 

Decoiidcr 2l'>lh.—^o answer yet. Tiierc can he but 
one. Press people, soldiers, sailors, ministers, senutoni, 
Congress men, people in the street, the voices of the 
bar-room — all are agreed. "(Jive them up? Never! 
We'll die first \" Senator Sunnier, ]\L De Beaumont, M. 
De Geofl'roy, of the French Legation, dined with nie, 
in company with General "\'an \ liet, Mr. Anderson, 
and Mr. Lamy, &c. ; and in the evening Major Anson, 
M.P., Mr. Johnson, Captain Irwin, U.S.A., Lt. Wise, 
U.S.N., joined our party, and after much eva- 
sion of the subject, the English despatch and Mr. 
Seward's decision turned up and caused some dis- 
cussion. Mr. Sumner, who is Chairman of tiie Com. 
mittee on Foreign Relations of tlie Senate, and in 
that capacity is in intimate rapport with the President, 
either is, or affects to be, incredulous respecting tlie 
nature of Lord RusselFs despatch this evening, and 
argues that, at the very utmost, the Trent affair can only 
be a matter for mediation, and not for any peremptory 
demand, as the law of nations has no exact precedent to 
bear upon the case, and that there are so many in- 
stances in which Sir W. Scott's (Lord Stowell's) deci- 
sions in principle appear to justify Captain Wilkes. All 
along he has held this language, and has nuiintuined 
that at the very worst there is plenty of time for proto- 
cols, despatches, and references, and more than once 
he has said to me, "I hope you will keep the peace; 
help us to do so," — the peace having been already 
broken by Captain Wilkes and the Government. 


December 21t/t. — This luoniiiif^ Mr. Seward sent in 
liis rej)ly to Lord Russell's despatch — " grandis et 
verbosa epistohi." The result destmys my prophecies, 
for, alter all, the Southern Commissioners or Ambassa- 
dors are to be j^iveu up. Yesterday, indeed, in an 
under-current of whispers among the desponding 
friends of the South, there vent u rumour that the 
"-^^overumeut had resolved to yield. AVhat a collapse ! 
^Vhat a bitter mortilieation I 1 had scarcely liuished 
the perusal of an article in a Washington paper, — which, 
let it be understood, is an organ of !Mr. Lincoln, 
— stating that "^lasonand Slidcll would /lot be surren- 
dered, and assuring the people they need entertain no 
apprehension of such a dishonourable concession," 
when 1 learned beyond all jiossibiiity of doubt, that 
!Mr. Seward had liamled in his despatch, placing the 
Commissioners at the disposal of the British Mini- 
ster. A copy of the despatch Avill be published in 
the National Intelliyencer to-morrow morning at an 
early hour, in time to go to Europe by the steamer 
which leaves New York. 

After dinner, those who were in the secret were 
amused by hearing the arguments which were started 
between one or two Americans and some English in 
the company, in consequence of a positive statement 
from a genileman who came in, that Mason and Slidell 
had been surrendered. 1 have resolved to go to Boston, 
Ijcing satisfied that a great popular excitement and 
iiprising will, in all probability, take ])laee on the di>- 
(;hargc of the Couunissioncrs from Fort Warren. What 
Mill njy friend, the general, say, who told me yesterday 
"he Mould snaj) his sword, and throw the pieces into 
the White House, if they were given up r" 


December 2Stk. — The Natioual Intd/ii/nicrr of this 
niorniii^ contains the (k'spatchcs of Lord Hussdl, M. 
Thouvencl, and Mr. Si-ward. The l)ul)ldc hiui burnt. 
The rage of the friends of coniproniiHC, and of tbo 
Sonth, who saw in a war with (Jrcat Hhtaiii thr 
complete sncoess of tlie Confcderaey, is di-i-p and 
burning, if not loud; but they all .say thi-y never 
expected anything better from the cowardly and 
braggart statesmen who now rule in Washiugtun. 

Lord Lyons has evinced the most moderate and con- 
ciliatory spirit, and has done everything in Ids power 
to break Mr. Seward's fall on the softest of eider d(»wn. 
Some time ago we were all prepared to hear nothin;; 
less would be accepted than Captain Wilkes takiu}; 
Messrs. Mason and Slidell on board the San Jacinto, 
and transferring them to the Trent, under a salute to 
the flag, near the scene of the outrage ; at all event.*, 
it was expected that a British man-of-war would have 
steamed into Boston, and received the prisoners under 
a salute from Fort AVarren ; but ^Mr. Seward, aj>prc- 
hensive that some outrage would be offered hy the 
populace to the prisoners and the l^rilish Flag, has 
asked Lord Lyons that the Southern Connnissionen* 
may be placed, as it were, surreptitiously, in a I'nitetl 
States boat, and carried to a small seajjort in the Stati- 
of Maine, where they are to be placed on board a 
British vessel as quietly as possible; and this exigent, 
imperious, tyrannical, insulting British Minister ha.'* 
cheerfully acceded to the request. Mr. Conway Sey- 
mour, the Queen's messenger, who brought Lonl 
Russell's despatch, was sent l)ack with instruct ionn 
for the British Admiral, to send a >essel to I'rovi- 
dence town for the purpose; and as Mr. JohuMJU, 


wlio is nciiily connected witli Mi-, l^ustis, one of tlic 
j)risoucrs, proposed ^oin^ to Boston to see liis brother- 
in-law, if jjossible, ere he started, and as there was not 
the smallest prospect of any military movement taking,' 
place, I resolved to go northwards with him ; and 
we left Washington accordingly on the morning of 
the 31st of December, and arriveil at the New York 
IJotel the same night. 

/ To my great regret and snrprise, however, I learned 
jit would be impracticable to get to Fort Warren and 
'see the prisoners before their surrender. .My unpn- 
pularity, which had lost somewhat of its intensity, w:i 
revived l)y the exasperation against everything Englisli 
occasioned by the firmness of Great Britain in demand- 
ing the Commissioners ; and on New Year's Night, :t^ 
I heard subsequently, Mr. Grinell and other member 
of the New York Clul) were exposed to annoyanci 
and insult, by some of their brother members, in cons( - 
quence of inviting me to be their guest at the club. 

The illness which had prostrated some of the strongest 
men in Washington, including General M'Clellan 
himself, developed itself as soon as I ceased to be 
sustained by the excitement, such as it was, of daily 
events at the capital, and by cxj)ectations of a move ; 
and for some time an attack of typhoid fever confineii 
me to my room, and lift me so weak that I was advised 
not to return to "Washington till I had tried change of 
air. I remained in New Y'ork till the end of Januai 
when I proceeded to make a toiir in Canada, as it w . 
quite impossible for any ojjeration to take jdace on tl 
Potomac, where deep mud, alternating with snow anil 
frost, bonnd the contending armies in winter (piarfers. 
On my return to New York, at the end of February, 


tlic North was cheered hy some .si<;ii:il siiccchhC!! nchiovc(l 
iu the West principally hy ^'imljoat!*, ojxTatin;; on th^ 
Hues of the great rivers. The greatest rfNiiltu Un\t 
been obtained in the capture of Fort Dunaldnuii nn^ 
Fort Ileury, by Coiutuodorc Foote's fh)tilhi co-oj>c- 
rating with the laud forces. ' The possession of nu 
absolute naval supremacy, of course, give* the North 
United States powerful means of annoyance nnd 
inflicting injury and destruction on the eneniy]f it 
also secures for them the means of seizing upon bn»cs 
of operatious wherever they please, of brenkin^ up 
the enemy's lines, and maintaining comnuinie;ition)« ; 
but the example of Great ]5ritain in the revolu- 
tionary Avar should prove to the I'niled States that 
such advantages do uot, by any means, enable a belli- 
gerent to subjugate a determined people resolved on 
resistance to the last. The long-threatened encountrr 
betw'een Bragg and Browne has taken place nt Pen- 
sacola, without effect, and the attempts of the FederaU 
to advance from Port Royal have been successfully 
resisted. Sporadic skirmishes have sprung up over 
every border State; but, on the whole, success hits 
inclined to the Federals in Kentucky and Tennessee. 

On the 1st ]March, I arrived in Washington once 
more, and found things very much as 1 hail left them : 
the army recovering the ettect of the winter's sieknc** 
and losses, animated by the victories of their coniradci 
in Western fields, and by the hope that ihc cvcr-coniini; 
to-morrow would sec them in the field at last, 'lu 
place of Mr. Cameron, an Ohio lawyer unnu-d Stautuii 
has been appointed Secretary of Wari He came lo 
Washington, a few years ago, to conduct some l< j^itl 
proceedings for Mr. Daniel Sickles, and by his enirp'\. 


activity, and a rapid conversion from democratic to 
repnblican principles, as well as by liis Union senti- 
ments, recommended himself to the President and his 

The month of ^Nfarch passed over witliont any re- 
markable event in the tield. ^Vhen the army started 
at last to attack the enemy — a movement which was 
precipitated by liearin^ that they were moving away — 
tlicy went out only to find the Confederates had fallen 
back by interior lines towards Richmond, and General 
M'Clellan was obliged to transport his army from 
Alexandria to the peninsnla of York Town, where his 
reverses, his sntierings, and his disastrons retreat, nie 
so well known and so recent, th:it I need only mention 
them as among the most remarkaljlc events which have 
yet occnrred in this war. 

I had looked forward for many weary months to 
participating in the movement and describing its rc- 
snlts. Immediately on my arrival in Washington, I 
was introduced to Mr. Stanton by Mr. Ashman, 
formerly member of Congress and Secretary to Mr. 
Daniel Webster, and the Secretary, without making 
anv positive pledge, used words, in ^Tr. Ashman's 
presence, which led me to believe lie would give me 
permissicm to draw rations, and undoubtedly pro- 
mised to afford me every facility in his power. Subse- 
quently lie sent me a private pass to the War Depart- 
ment to ena))le me to get through the crowd of contrac- 
tors and jobbers; but on going there to keep my 
appointment, the Assistant-Secretary of War told me 
Mr. Stanton had been summoned to a Cabinet Council 
by the President. 

We had some conversation respecting the subject 

MR. Stanton's pass. 4r}3 

matter of my upplicHtioii, which .the AsHiHtiuil-Srcrr. 
tiiry seemed to think wuiihl l)c attended with mniiy 
dilHculties, in constviuciicf of the numhpr of cor- 
respondents to the American papers wlio mijjht 
demand the same privilegjes, and he intinuiteji to mc 
that Mr. Stanton was little (lisi)oscd to (i 
them in any way whatever. Now this is nixi 
honest on Mr. Stanton's part, for he kncnvs he niijflit 
render himself popular by •^raiifin;; what they uHk ; hut 
he is excessively vain, and aspires to be coijsi(hTed n 
rude, rough, vigorous Oliver Cromwell sort of man, 
mistaking some of the disagreeable attributes and the 
accidents of the external husk of the (Ireat Protector 
for the brain and head of a statesman and a soldier. 

The American officers with whom I was intimate -rave 
me to understand that I could accompany them, iii 
case I received permission from the Government ; but 
they were obviously unwilling to encounter the ni)uie 
and calumny which would be heaped upon tluir hea<N 
by American papers, unless they could show the 
authorities did not disapprove of my presence in their 
camp. Several invitations sent to me were accompanied 
by the phrase, " You will of course get a written |Krr- 
mission from the War Department, and then there will 
be no difficulty."" On the evening of the j>rivatc thea- 
tricals by which Lord Lyons enlivened the iueirablc 
dullness of Washington, I saw Mr. Stanton at the 
Legation, and he conversed with me for some tiuje. I 
mentioned the difficulty connected with pa."»<»eH. lie 
asked me what I wanted. 1 said, "An order to p) with 
the army to Manassas.^' At his re(|Ufst I procured 
a sheet of paper, and he wrote me a pass, to«»k a rtipy 
of it, which he i)ut in his jjocket, and then handed the 

Vol. II. * f 


otlicr to mc. Ou lookinj^ at it, I perceived that it was 
a peiiiiission for me to ^o to Manassas ami back, and 
that all officers, soldiers, and others, in the United 
States service, were to give nie every assistance and 
show me every courtesy; but the hasty return of the 
army to Alexandria rendered it useless. 

The ^lerrimac and Monitor encounter produced the 
"^)rotbundest impression in "Washington, and unusual 
strictness was observed respecting passes to Fortress 

March !'.•///. — I applied at the Navy Department 
for a passage down to Fortress Monroe, as it was 
expected the Merrimac was coming out again, but I 
could not obtain leave to go in any of the vessels. 
Captain Ilardman showed me a curious sketch of what 
he called the Turtle Thor, an iron-cased machine with. 
a huge claw or grapnel, with which to secure the 
enemy whilst a steam hammer or a high iron fist, 
worked by the engine, cracks and smashes her iron 
armour. " For," says he, " the days of gunpowder are 

As soon as General M'Clcllan commenced his move- 
ment, he sent a message to me by one of the French 
princes, that he would have great jjleasure in allowing 
me to accompany his head-(piarters in the field. I 
find the following, under the head of March 22nd : — 

"Received a letter Ironi General Marcy, chief of the 
staff, asking me to call at his ollice. lie told me 
General M'Clellan directed him to say he had no 
objection whatever to my accompanying the army, ' but,' 
continued Genend Marcy, 'you know we are a sensitive 
people, and that our press is exceedingly jealous. Ge- 
neral M'Clellan has many enemies who seek Id pull him 



down, ;ui(l sfrii[)lc at no iiicjuis ol' doin- s,.. i,. .,,,,, j 
would be glad to do anytliinj^ in our powt-r to help vom, 
if you couic with us, Imt wc must Jiot cxjjom? <ni: 
needlessly to attaek. The army is to move to l\u » ... „ 
and James Rivers at onec' " 

All my arraniiemeuts were made that dav with 
General Vau Vliet, the (iuarteriiiaster-},'eii('nd of hriui- 
quarters. I was cpiite satisfied, from Mr. Staiitoirt 
promise and CJencral ^^larey's eoincrsation, that I 
should have no further dillieulty. Our partv was luiide 
up, consisting of Colonel Neville ; Lieuteuant-Colonci 
Fletcher, Scotch Fusilier Guards; Mr. Lamy, and luy- 
self; and our passage was to bejirovidcd in the (juiirtcr- 
master-generars boat. On tlie )1C,[\\ of March, I went 
to Baltimore in company witli Colonel Kowau, of the 
Royal Artillery, who had come down for n ivw duvs to 
visit Washington, intending to go on by the Htenmcr to 
Fortress Monroe, as he was desirous of - 'is 

friends on board the Rinaldo, and I wished : „• 

the great flotilla assembled tiiere and to sec I'nptam 
Hewett once more. 

On arriving at Baltimore, we learned it would be 
necessary to get a special pass from CJeneral Dix, niid od 
going to the General's head-quarters his aidc-de-cnnip 
informed us that he had received special iuf*trurtiomi 
recently from the War Uepartment to grant no pus^c* to 
Fortress Monroe, unless to ollicers and soldu-r* jioing 
on duty, or to persons in the service of the luitcd 
States. The aide-de-camp advised me to ttUi;niph lo 
Mr. Stanton for permission, which I did, but no 
answer was received, and Colonel Rowan and 1 rt-tunird 
to Washington, thinking there would be ii belter chnucc 
of securin<r the nccessarv order there. 


Next day we went to the Department of War, and 
were shown into Mr. Stanton's room— his secretary in- 
I'urniin^ ns that he was engaged in the next room with 
the President and other Ministers in a council of war, 
but that he wuukl no doubt receive a letter from me 
and send me out a reply. I accordingly addressed a 
note to Mr. Stanton, requesting he would be good 
enough to give an order to Colonel Kowan, of the 
British army, and myself, to go by the mail boat from 
Baltimore to Monroe. In a short time Mr. Stanton 
sent out a note in the following words : — " ]\Ir. Stan- 
ton informs ]\lr. Russell no passes to Fortress ^lonroe 
can be given at present, unless to officers in the United 
States service.'' We tried the Xavy l)ci)artment, but 
no vessels were going down, they said; and one of the 
officers suggested that we should ask for jjasscs to go 
down and visit H.M.S. llinaldo exclusively,which could 
not well be refused, he thought, to British subjects, 
and promised to take charge of the letter for Mr. 
Stanton and to telegraph the permission down to Balti- 
more. There we returned i)y the afternoon train and 
waited, but neither reply nor pass came for ns. 

Next day we were disappointed also, and an officer of 
the llinaldo, who liad come up on duty from the ship, 
was refused pernjission to take ns down on his return. 
I regretted these oi)structions jjrincipally on Colonel 
Rowan's account, because he would have no opportunity 
of seeing the flotilla. lie returned next day to New 
^ ork, whilst I completed my i)re|)arations for the ex- 
]iedition and went back to Washington, where I received 
my pass, .signed by General M'Clellan's chief of the 
staff, authorising me to accompany the head quarters 
of the anil}' under his couiiiiaud. So far as 1 know, 

JIl!. STANT()>'. 

Mr. Stanton sent no to my Innt Irttrr, niul 
calling with General Van \ jict at his house on h'i>i re- 
ception night, the door was o|)('nc(i by hin hrother-in- 
law, who said, ''The Seeretary was attending a ^ick child 
and conld not see any person that evening," m> I m-vt-r 
met jNfr. Stanton again. 

Stories had long i)ecn current concerning his cxccvd- 
ing animosity to General :M'Clellan, founchMl prrhapn 
on his expressed want of confidence in the (Jcncnir-i 
abilities, as mnch as on the dislike lie felt toward» a 
man who persisted in disregarding his opinions on 
matters connected with military opi-rations. Hh in- 
firmities of health and tendency to cerebral excitement 
had been increased by the pressure of l)nsiness, by the 
novelty of i)ower, and by the angry passions to «hieh 
individual antipathies and personal rancour give riso. 
No one who ever saw Mr. Stanton would ex|)ect from 
him courtesy of manner or delicacy ai' feeling; but his 
affectation of bluntness and straightforwardm-ss of pur- 
pose might have led one to suppose he was honest nnd 
direct in purpose, as the qualities I have mentioru-il jin- 
not always j)ut forward by hypocrites to cloak liui-sM- 
and sinister action. 

The rest of the story may be told in a few wordu. 
It was perfectly -well known in Washington that I Mat 
going with the army, and I presume Mr. Stnnton, 
if he had any curiosity about such a trifli::;,' nuitter, 
must have lieard it also. I am tolil he was infornii^i 
of it at the last moment, and then Ihw out into n ctmrw 
passion against General M'Clcllan because he had 
dared to invite or to take anyone without his jH-ruii*- 
sion. What did a Kepn))lican Cieneral want with 
foreign princes on his staff, or with foreign ncwspnj)cr 
correspondents to puti' him up abroad ? 


Judiring fri)in the stealtliy, secret May in wliich 

^Ir. Stiiiitoii struck at General M'Clcllan tlie instant 

he had turned liis back upon Washinj;ton, ami crippled 

liim in the field by suddenly withdrawing:: his best 

division without a word of notice, I am inclined to 

fear he gratified whatever small passion dictated his 

course on this occasion also, by waitinjj till he knew I 

was fairly on board the steamer with my friends ami 

baggage, just ready to move ofi', before he sent down a 

despatch to Van Yliet and summoiied him at once to 

the War Oilicc. When Van A'liet returned in a couple 

of hours, he made the communication to me that Mr. 

Stanton had j;iven him written orders to prevent my 

passage, though even here he acted with all the cunning 

and indirection of the village attorney, not with the 

straightforwardness of Oliver Cromwell, whom it is 

laughable to name in the same breath with his imitator. 

He did not write, " Mr. Russell is not to go," or '* The 

Times correspondent is forbidden a passage," but he 

composed two orders, with all the official formula of 

the "War Oflice, drawn np by the Quartermaster 

General of the army, by the direction and order of the 

Secretary of War. No. 1 ordered " that no person 

should be permitted to eml)ark on board any vessel in 

the United States service without an order from the 

War Department." No. 2 ordered " that Colonel 

Neville, Colonel Fletcher, and ('aptain Lamy, of the 

British army, having been invited by (Jeneral M'ClellanJ 

to aceom|)any tlie exjjedition, were authorized to era-l 

bark on board the vessel.'' 

General \'an Vliet assured me that he and (icneral 
M'Dowell had urged every argument they could think 
(»f in my favoui", particularly the fact that 1 \\ as the 


specially invited ^aiest of Cicncial M'Clcllau, iiml timt 
I was actually provided with :i pass liy hin order from 
the chief of his staff. 

Witli these orders before iiie, I had no iiltcriiiitivo. 

General M'Clellan was faraway. Mr. Stanton hiid 
waited ag;ain until lie was {^ouc. (Iciiernl Marcv wiu 
away. I laid the statement of what had ocrurn-d 
before the President, wiio at first {juvc me hojM'ii, from 
the wording of his letter, that he woidd overrule .Mr. 
Stanton^s order, but who next day iufonued nie ho 
could not take it upon himself to do so. 
i It was plain I had now but one course k-ft.^ /\\y 
mission in the United States was to describe mibtary 
events and operations, or, in defect of them, to deal 
with such subjects as mijjht be interesting; to peojde at 
homeT) In the discharge of my duty, I had vitiitrd 
the South, remaining there until the approach of actual 
operations and the establishment of the blockade, 
which cut off all communication from the Southern 
States except by routes which would dejjrive my corre- 
spondence of any value, compelled nic to return to the 
North, where I could keep up regular communication 
with Europe. Soon after my return, as uiiforiuiiatrly 
for myself as the United States, the IVdi-ral inMiji* 
were repulsed in an attempt to march ujKjn Uich- 
mond, and terminated a disorderly n-trcat by a dis- 
graceful panic. The whole incidents of what I »aw were 
fairly stated by an impartial witness, who, if anything, 
was inclined to favour a nation endeavouring' to sup- 
press a rebellion, and who was by no means nn|>n-»»e<l, 
as the results of his recent tour, with the adniimtion 
and respect for the people of the Coufedrr • ^' -rr« 
which their enormous saeriliees,cxtraordiua:. y. 

4 10 MY DIAKY Nui:Tir AND SolTII. 

ami almost unparcUeletl devotion, have lonj^ since ex- 
torted iVom liim in common with all the world. The 
letter in which that account was given came back 
to America after tiie lirst bitterness and humiliation 
of defeat had passed away, and disappointment and 
alarm liad been succeeded by such a fcjrmidable out- 
burst of popular resolve, that the North for<;ot every- 
thing in the instant anticipations of a glorious ami 
triumphant revenge. 

Every feeling of the American was hurt — above all, his 
vanity and his pride, by the manner in which the 
account of the reverse had been received in Europe; 
and men whom I scorned too deeply to reply to, dex- 
terously took occasion to direct on my head the full 
storm of popular indignation. Not, indeed, that I had 
escaped before. Ere a line from my pen reached 
America at all — ere my first letter had crossed the 
Atlantic to Ihigland — the jealousy and hatred felt for 
all things Hritish — for press or principle, or representa- 
[tive of either — had found expression in Northern 
journals; but that I was jircpared for. I knew well no 
foreigner had ever penned a line — least of all, no Eng- 
lishman — concerning the Uniied States of North 
America, their people, manners, and institutions, who 
hail n(}t been treated to the abuse «hich is supposed by 
their jtiunialists to mean criticism, no matter what the 
justness or moderation of the views expressed, the 
sincerity of purijo^e, and the truthfulness of the writer. 
In the South, the press thrcatciu'd me with tar and 
leathers, because 1 did not sec the beauties of their 
domestic institution, and wrote of it in my letters to 
England exactly as I spoke of it to every one \\ho con- 
versed with me on the subject when J was amongst 

iiv MISSION' Kxnr.n. 411 

tlieni ; and now the Nortlicni jjapcrH rocommrntir*! 
expulsion, diK-lvinj,', riding; rads, and otlu-r cofjnuto 
}uodcs of insuring a njond conviction of error ; rndrn- 
voured to intiiuidate nic hv threats of dui-U or ! 

castij^ations ; <,'ratified their malijjiiity hy . , 

stories of imaginary affronts or annoyances to which I 
never was ex|)osed; and sou;j;hl to prevent tHc autho- 
rities extending any protection towards me, and to 
intimidate otHcers from showing ine any civiliticii. 

In pursuance of my firm resolution I allowed tin- 
slanders and misrepresentations which poured Inun 
their facile sources for months to pass by unheeded, and 
trusted to the calmer sense of the i)eoi)le, and to tlic 
discrimination of those who thought over the senti- 
ments expressed in ray letters, to do me justice. 

I need not enlarge on the dangers to which I wan 
exposed. Those who arc accpuiinted with America, and 
know the life of the great cities, will best appreciate the 
position of a man who went forth daily in the canipii 
and streets holding his life in his hand. This expresjiiou 
of egotism is all I shall ask indulgence for. Nothing 
could Lave induced me to abandon my post or to rtroil 
before my assailants; but at last a power I couUl not 
resist struck me down. AVhen to the press and populace 
of the United States, the President and the (;(»vern. 
raent of AVashington added their po\wi'r, ri-'otaucc 
would be unwise and impracticable.^ In no cnmp 
could I have been received — in no place useful. 1 wcul 
to America to witness and describe the ojMTntioiw of 
the great army before Washington in the fiehl, i»nd 
Avhen 1 was forbidden i)y the proper aulhoriti. -• to do 
so, my mission ternnnated at once./ 

On the evening of April 1th, as ^oon a'* I ^a* lU 



receipt of the President's last cominunication, 1 
telegraphed to New York to engage u passage by 
the steamer which left ou the following Wednesday. 
Kc\t day was devoted to packing np and to taking 
leave of my friends — English and American — whose 
kindnesses I shall remember in my lieart of hearts, 
and the following Monday I left '\VashinL:tou, of 
which, after all, 1 shall retain many pleasant memories 
and keep souvenirs green for ever. I arrived in New 
York late on Tuesday evening, and next day I saw 
the shores receding into a dim grey fog, and ere the 
uifiht fell was tossiusr about once more on the stormv 
Atlantic, with the head of our good ship pointing, 
thauk lleavcU; towards Europe. 

THE EXl). 


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